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Full text of "Engineering Journal 1930"

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THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXIII 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1940 



Page 

Abstracts of Current Literature. .28, 85, 115, 178, 228, 280, 320, 

358, 395, 428, 472, 526 
Adams, E. G., The Desirability of Inventory Verification by 

Independent Engineers 215 

Address of the Retiring President, H. W. McKiel 129 

Aerodrome Construction for the British Commonwealth Air 

Training Plan, J. A. Wilson 452 

Aerodromes for Empire Air Plan, Building, Director of Public 

Information 392 

Aeroplanes, Factors affecting the Mass Production of, E. M. G. 

MacGill 306 

Agreement between the Institute and the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Alberta, Proposed 403 

Aids to Technical Education 532 

Air Conditioning Defined 184 

Aircraft Engineering in Wartime Canada (Broadcast) E. M. G. 

MacGill 470 

Air Force, Engineers for the 532 

Alaska Highway, The, Arthur Dixon 263 

Alberta Agreement, Result of Ballot on 434 

Allan, J. A., Mineral Development North of 54° 274 

Alloys during the Last Twenty Years, Some Developments in, 

(abstract) O. W. Ellis 279 

Amendments of By-Laws, Result of Ballots for 

Angus, H. H., The Power Plant of the Ontario Mental Hos- 
pital, St. Thomas, Ont 



394 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fiftv-fifth 531, 532 

118 

30 

31 

30 

118 

119 

365 

284 



Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-fourth. 

Programme 

Papers 

Chairmen of Special Committees 

Report of Meeting 

Authors of papers 

Associate Member, Engineering Institute Abolishes the. 
Associate Membership is no more . 



Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 91, 479 

Babbitt, J. D., The Optimum Thickness of Insulation for 

Canadian Homes 20 

Badges and Certificates 437 

Ballot in Alberta 402, 478 

Ballot on Nova Scotia Agreement 35 

Banff to Jasper, Canada's Highway, T. S. Mills v 509 

Basic Open Hearth Process at the Plant of the Algoma Steel 

Corpn., The, A. H. Meldrum 265 

Berry, A. E., Modern Sanitation and Water Supply Practice . . 380 
Black, W. D., Industrial Development in Canada to Meet the 

War Emergency (Broadcast) 521 

Bolivia, Hydro-Electric Construction in, J. K. Sexton 256 

Books, Old 409 

Book Reviews 100, 296, 335, 409,548 

Branches, Membership and Financial Statements of 78 

Branches, News of — 

Border Cities 38, 139, 190, 238, 291, 332, 369, 488 

Calgary 38, 190, 332, 540 

Edmonton 38, 95, 190, 239, 291, 540 

Halifax 39, 139, 191, 291, 407, 541 

Hamilton 39, 95, 140, 239, 291, 332, 488, 541 

Kingston 39, 140, 191 

Lakehead 40, 191,489 

Lethbridge 40, 96, 191, 369, 541 

London 41, 140, 240, 292, 489 

Moncton 96, 333 

Montreal 96, 141, 192, 293, 333, 490, 542 

Niagara Peninsula 141, 192, 293, 334, 542 

Ottawa 41, 97, 142, 192, 240, 294, 490, 542 

Peterborough 41, 97, 193, 240, 543 

Quebec 142, 193, 241, 295 

Saguenav 369 

Saint John 42, 142, 193, 242, 294, 490 

St. Maurice Valley 97, 194, 295 

Saskatchewan 142, 194, 242, 295, 543 

Sault Ste. Marie 143, 194, 295, 491, 543 

Toronto 42, 98, 195, 544 



Page 

Branches, News of — (Continued) 

Vancouver 42, 195, 242, 334, 491, 544 

Victoria 43, 98, 243, 546 

Brant, A., Exploration for Hematite at Steep Rock Lake 464 

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, Aerodrome Con- 
struction for the, J. A. Wilson 452 

Broadcasts, Institute (Programme and Time Schedule) 436 

Text of Broadcasts 467, 469, 470, 519, 521, 522 

Bryce, J. B., The New Hydraulic Laboratory of the National 

Research Council 317 

Buchan, John (A Canadian Elegy) 183 

By-Laws of the Institute (Rewording and Rearrangement).. . 351 

Campbell, A. D., Canadian Highway Control and Safety. . . . 109 

Canada's Highway — Banff to Jasper, T. S. Mills 509 

Canadian Highway Control and Safety, A. D. Campbell 109 

Canadian Industries in Wartime 232 

Canadian Industry, The War Potential of, R. J. Magor 219 

Canadian Mining Progress 270 

Canadians Honoured in New York 182 

Carr-Harris, G. G. M., Some Fundamental Engineering Prin- 
ciples as applied to Mechanization 

Charlewood, C. B., Steam Superheaters for Water Tube 

Boilers 

Circé, A., The Training of Engineers at the Ecole Polytechni- 
que (Broadcast) 

City Decentralization by Appropriate Distribution of Open 

Spaces, Jacques Gréber 

Coated Electrodes in Electric Arc Welding, M. S. Layton.. . . 

Concrete, Glass Reinforcement for 

Concrete, New Reinforcing Medium for 

Concrete Repair Methods, Claude Gliddon 

Conservation of Mineral Resources in a Balanced Develop- 
ment of Canada, The Exploitation and, J. J. O'Neill. . . . 
Continuous Truss of Varying Depth, Moment Distribution 

and the Analysis of a, E. R. Jacobsen 

Co-operation in Alberta 364, 434 

Corporate Membership Classification 126 

Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec 232 

Correspondence 33, 92, 182, 233, 285, 327, 365, 402, 435, 480, 534 

Council for 1939, Report of 65 

Cousineau, Aimé, Regulation of Growth of Cities and Their 

Decentralization 416 

Cover Pictures 284 

Cross, F. G., The Need of Water Conservation in Southern 
Alberta 



512 

344 

522 

421 
310 
525 
424 
217 

516 

502 



Darling, E. H., An Unusual Foundation Job 

Desirability of Inventory Verification by Independent En- 
gineers, The, E. G. Adams 

Developments in Allovs during the Last Twentv Years, Some, 
(Abstract), O. W. Ellis 

Discussions — 

Grounding Practice in Electric Systems, W. P. Dobson. . 

Limit Design, C. M. Goodrich 

Soil Mechanics at the Shand Dam, A. W. F. McQueen 
and R. C. McMordie 

The Economic Front, G. A. Gaherty 

The 18-ft. Diameter Steel Pipe Line at Outardes Falls, 

Quebec, A. W. F. McQueen and E. C. Molke 

Erratum 

The Fundamentals of Pile Foundations, I. F. Morrison . . . 

Dixon, Arthur, The Alaska Highway 

Dobson, W. P., Grounding Practice in Electric Systems 

Discussion 

Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, Annual Meeting 

of 

Duncan, W. A., Flame Hardening and its Application in 

Modern Industry 

Durley, R. J., Wildfowl and the Engineer 

Ecole Polytechnique, The Training of Engineers at the, 

(Broadcast), A. Circé 

Economic Front, The, G. A. Gaherty 

Discussion 



213 
459 
215 

279 



158 
220 

173 
271 

11 
127 

63 
263 

152 
158 

326 

15 

427 

522 

7 

271 



December, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

GRADUATES in mechanical, electrical, metallurgical 
and ELECTRICAL DRAUGHTSMEN required. 
Applications should be accompanied with photo, list 
of references and synopsis of experience, and ad- 
dressed to Personnel Dept., Aluminum Co., of 
Canada Ltd., 1010 St. Catherine Street, Montreal, 
Que. 

METALLURGICAL OR MECHANICAL GRAD- 
UATE with some knowledge of and preferably 
experience in non-ferrous metallurgy for production 
and laboratory tests, etc., location in Toronto. 
Apply Box No. 2210-V. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, fully experienced in 
design of large modern power transformers. Give full 
details of education, experience, and salary expected. 
Applications not considered from persons now em- 
ployed with firms producing war supplies or equip- 
ment. Apply to Box No. 2231-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, with thorough knowl- 
edge of manufacturing, preferably in electrical ap- 
paratus. Supply complete information, education 
and previous experience. Applications not con- 
sidered from persons now employed with firms 
producing war supplies or equipment. Apply to Box 
No. 2232-V. 

DRAUGHTSMAN required by electrical manufac- 
turer experienced in layout and detail work on 
power transformers. State experience and salary 
expected. Applications not considered from persons 
now employed with firms producing war supplies or 
equipment. Apply to Box No. 2233-V. 

ENGINEER for fabricating plant, must be experienced 
in the detail and design of structural steel. This is a 
permanent position for the man with the necessary 
qualifications. Apply to Box No. 2234-V. 

GRADUATE in metallurgical engineering required by 
large manufacturing plant in Montreal. Excellent 
opportunity for experience and promotion. Apply 
giving education, experience and salary expected to 
Box No. 2235-V. 

YOUNG MECHANICAL ENGINEER, recent gra- 
duate, required for preparation of specifications and 
performance data on steam generating equipment and 
accessories. Previous experience in this line preferred 
but not essential. Excellent opportunities for ad 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



CALLING ALL ENGINEERS ! 

Any engineers who are so situated that they can get leave of absence 
in order to participate in some phase of war industry are requested to 

communicate with Headquarters. 



vancement. Applications from persons at present 
employed in war industries will not be considered. 
Apply to Box No. 2239-V. 

GRADUATE CHEMIST with digestion sewage dis- 
posal plant experience. Applicants to etate experience, 
salary required and when at liberty. Apply Box No. 
2244-V. 

RECENT ENGINEERING GRADUATE, preferably 
mechanical, with some drafting experience. Work will 
consist of machinery and piping layouts and other 
general engineering work in a paper mill near Ottawa. 
Permanent position and excellent prospects for 
suitable man. M en now employed in war industry will 
not be considered. Apply Box No. 2245-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN, for layout of 
power plant equipment, piping systems, etc., prefer- 
ably university graduate with three or four years' 
experience. State age, experience, salary desired. 
Location Toronto. Apply to Box No. 2247-V. ■ 

ENGINEERING DRAUGHTSMAN required for 
centrally located mill. Preferably a graduate en- 
gineer with several years' experience. Applications 



from men employed in war industries will not be 
considered. Apply Box No. 2249-V. 
SALES ENGINEER for pulp and paper mill machin- 
ery, woodworking and machine tools. Salary $50 a 
month plus 1% commission, car supplied. Apply to 
Box No. 2250-V. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER, University graduate 
experienced in Power Plants, Transmission lines, 
gunite construction, etc. Available on short notice. 
Apply to Box No. 1527 -W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR— Experienced 
in general building and war plant construction. Also 
installation of mechanical equipment. Immediately 
available. Apply to Box No. 2153-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, graduate, Age 47, 
married. Experience covers draughting, construction, 
maintenance, and operation. For the last ten years 
employed as electrical superintendent in a large in- 
dustrial plant. Apply to Box No. 1718-W. 



ENGINEERS FOR THE AIR SERVICE 

The following communication is printed at the request of 
Air Marshal L. S. Breadner, Chief of Air Staff. Members of 
the Institute and other engineers are requested to give it 
careful consideration. Any persons remote from recruiting 
centres are welcome to write to Headquarters for additional 
information. 

DErARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE 
"Air Force" 
Ottawa, Canada, November 29th, 1940. 
mr. L. a. Wright, Secretary, 

ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, MONTREAL, QUE. 

Dear Sir : 

The development of the British Commonwealth Air 
Training Plan and the absorption of Technical personnel 
in war industry, has resulted in a shortage of available men 
with engineering qualifications. 

At the present time the Royal Canadian Air Force is in 
urgent need of personnel for training as Aeronautical Engineer 
Officers. There is also an immediate requirement of Technical 
Engineers with practical experience in aircraft production 
or maintenance. Qualifications required of candidates for 
appointment under these two classifications are as follows: 

(a) Technical Engineer Officers 

Candidates must be suitable in personal respects to 
hold commissioned rank and must have the following 
qualifications : 

Thorough knowledge in engineering, applicable to 
aeronautical requirements. 

Adequate experience in aircraft repair work or exten- 
sive aircraft factory experience. 

Age limit — up to 50 years (highly qualified candidates 
will be considered up to age 55). 

While graduate engineers are preferred, it may be 
necessary to accept candidates with lesser academic stand- 
ing provided they have extensive practical experience. 

(b) Potential Aeronautical Engineer Officers 

These officers will be required to undergo a very 
thorough course in aeronautical engineering before they 
are assigned to duties. 

Candidates must be of good character, suitable in a\l 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1940 



personal respects for appointment to commissioned rank 
and above average in mental alertness. 

An applied science degree in aeronautical, mining, 
mechanical, civil, chemical, or electrical engineering is 
desirable. 

A candidate having extensive practical experience but 
with a lower standard of education may be accepted. He 
must, however, have attained a standard not lower than 
senior matriculation. University graduates should have 
at least one year's practical experience along any of the 
several mechanical lines. Candidates with less than uni- 
versity graduation standing will be required to have a 
correspondingly greater practical experience. 

The preferred age for appointment in this category is 
25 to 40 years. 

It would be greatly appreciated if you would make our 
needs known to the several branches of your organization 
throughout Canada and through this medium, to the in- 
dividual members of the Institute. It is felt that an appeal 
of this nature may be instrumental in directing to the 
Royal Canadian Air Force, men who possess engineering 
qualifications which may be of value to this service. 

Prospective candidates should make application at the 
nearest R.C.A.F. Recruiting Centre, so that it may be 
ascertained whether they are physically fit and suitable in 
all respects. This action will not necessitate a severance of 
their civilian employment before they are appointed and 
will entail no obligation on their part until actually called 
for duty. 

Your co-operation in this matter is earnestly requested 
and it is hoped that if you have knowledge of any suitable 
prospective applicants you will find it possible to acquaint 
them with our urgent need and the procedure for submit- 
ting their application. Might I also ask that you forward 
their names and addresses, together with your recommenda- 
tion in each case, to the nearest R.C.A.F. Recruiting 
Centres or, if more convenient, to these Headquarters. 

Assuring you that your assistance in this matter will be 
most sincerely appreciated. 



I am, yours very truly, 
(Signed) L. s. 



BREADNER, AIR VICE MARSHAL, 

Chief of the Air Staff. 

553 



Discussions — (Continued) 

Economie Impact of the War, The, F. C. James 113 

Eighteen-foot Diameter Steel Pipe Line at Outardes Falls, 

Que., A. W. F. MacQueen and E. C. Molke — Discussion . . 11 

Erratum 127 

Elections and Transfers . 35, 92, 136, 189, 234, 287, 366, 438, 481, 535 

Electric Arc Welding, Coated Electrodes in, M. S. Layton 310 

Ellis, O. W., Some Developments in Alloys during the Last 

Twenty Years (Abstract) 279 

Engineer, Government and the, A. A. Potter 514 

Engineering in Transportation, S. W. Fairweather 61 

Engineers' Council for Professional Development, The 482 

Engineers for the Air Force 532 

Engineers in Parliament 182 

Engineers in the War (Broadcast), T. H. Hogg 467 

Errata 127, 435 

Evacuee Proposal, The 401 

Evacuees 364 

Exploitation and Conservation of Mineral Resources in a 

Balanced Development of Canada, The, J. J. O'Neill.. . . 516 

Exploration for Hematite at Steep Rock Lake, A. Brant 464 

Factors Affecting the Mass Production of Aeroplanes, E. M. G. 

MacGill 306 

Fairweather, S. W., Engineering in Transportation 61 

Fees of Members Overseas 182 

Financial Statements — ■ 

Of the Institute 67, 68 

Of the Branches 78 

Fire 479 

Flame-Hardening and its Application in Modern Industry, 

W. A. Duncan 15 

Flight Test Reporting, Practicable Forms for, E. M. G. 

MacGill 53 

Forms for Flight Test Reporting, Practicable, E. M. G. 

MacGill 53 

Foundation Job, An Unusual, E. H. Darling 459 

Frigon, A., Radio in Canada (Broadcast) 519 

Fundamental Engineering Principles as Applied to Mechan- 
ization, Some, G. G. M. Carr-Harris 512 

Fundamentals of Pile Foundations, I. F. Morrison-Discussion 63 

Gaherty, G. A., The Economic Front 7 

Discussion 271 

Glass Reinforced Concrete 424, 525 

Gliddon. Claude, Concrete Repair Methods 217 

Goodrich, C. M., Limit Design 5 

Discussion 220 

Government and the Engineer, A. A. Potter 514 

Gréber, Jacques, City Decentralization by Appropriate Dis- 
tribution of Open Spaces 421 

Grounding Practice in Electric Systems, W. P. Dobson 152 

Discussion 158 

Harkom, J. F., Preservative Treatment of Poles by End- 
Boring 315 

Helping to Win 400 

Hematite at Steep Rock Lake, Exploration for, A. Brant. . . . 464 

Highway Control and Safety, Canadian, A. D. Campbell. . . . 109 

Hogg, T. H. (Biography) 128 

Hogg, T. H., Engineers in the War (Broadcast) 467 

Hogg, T. H., Our Responsibilities 107 

Hosford, W. F., The Problems and Responsibilities of Man- 
agement 206 

Hydraulic Laboratory of the National Research Council, The 

New, J. B. Brycè and K. F. Tupper 317 

Hydro-Electric Construction in Bolivia, J. K. Sexton 256 

Industrial Development in Canada to Meet the War Emer- 
gency (Broadcast) W. D. Black 521 

Institute Prize Awards 1940 328 

Institute Prizes, Rules Governing Award of 244 

Institute Prize Winners (Biographies) 135 

Institute's Part, The 400 

Insulation for Canadian Homes, The Optimum Thickness of, 

J. D. Babbitt 20 

International Affiliation 478 

Inventory Verification by Independent Engineers, The Desir- 
ability of, E. G. Adams 215 

Jaeobsen, E. R., Moment Distribution and the Analysis of a 

Continuous Truss of Varying Depth 502 

James, F. C, The Economic Impact of the War 113 

James Watt International Medal, The 533 

Layton, M. S., Coated Electrodes in Electric Arc Welding 310 

Library Notes. .44, 99, 144, 196, 246, 297, 335, 371, 408, 443, 492, 546 

Limit Design, C. M. Goodrich 5 

Discussion 220 

Looking Ahead, H. W. McKiel 3 



MacGill, E. M. G., Aircraft Engineering in Wartime Canada 
(Broadcast) 

MacGill, E. M. G., Factors Affecting the Mass Production of 
Aeroplanes 

MacGill, E. M. G., Practicable Forms for Flight Test Report- 



ing. 



Page 

470 

306 

53 



Mackenzie, C. J., War Research — An Engineering Problem 

(Broadcast) 

Magor, R. J., The War Potential of Canadian Industry 

Management, The Problems and Responsibilities of, W. F. 

Hosford 

Manufacture of Munitions, The 

Maple Leaf Trainer II 

Mass Production of Aeroplanes, Factors Affecting the, 

E. M. G. MacGill 

McKiel, H. W., Looking Ahead 

McMordie, R. C, and A. W. F. McQueen, Soil Mechanics at 

the Shand Dam 

Discussion 

McNaughton, Lieutenant-General A. G. L 

McQueen, A. W. F. and R. C. McMordie, Soil Mechanics at 

the Shand Dam 

Discussion 

Mechanization, Some Fundamental Engineering Principles as 

Applied to, G. G. M. Carr-Harris 

Meetings of Council 34, 131, 184, 233, 286, 328, 366, 436, 533 

Meldrum, A. H., The Basic Open Hearth Process at the Plant 

of The Algoma Steel Corpn 

Membership of Branches 

Military Engineering, Modern, E. Schmidlin 

Mills, T. S., Canada's Highway — Banff to Jasper 

Mineral Development North of 54°, J. A. Allan 

Moment Distribution and the Analysis of a Continuous Truss 

of Varying Depth, E. R. Jaeobsen 

Munitions, the Manufacture of 



469 
219 

206 

533 

33 

306 
3 

161 
173 
364 

161 
173 

512 



265 

78 

25 

509 

274 

502 
533 



National Registration 364, 434 

Need of Water Conservation in Southern Alberta, The, F. G. 

Cross 213 

Newly Elected Officers of the Institute (Biographies) 133 

Nominees for Officers (List of) 437 

Obituaries — 

Allan, Robert Gage 

Baldwin , Robert Archer 

Barnum, John Baylor 

Barr, Shirley 

Bertrand, Joseph N. Têtu 

Bridges, Frederick 

Bright, David Mussen 

Carson, William Harvey 

Chambers, Edward Coulthurst Gibbons . . 

Chapman, Walter Peck 

Davis, George Sanford 

Desmeules, Sylvio Antoine 

Drewry, William Stewart 

Evans, Edward Arthur 

Gates, Archibald Bland 

Garey, John Denis 

Gordon, Air Vice-Marshal James Lindsay. 

Gzowski, Casimir Stanislaus 

Hay, Alexander Loudon 

Hodgins, Arthur Edward 

Howard, Major Stuart 

Jamieson, James A 

Johnston, John Thomas 

Lalonde, Flying Officer Jean A 

Logan, William Allison 

Macdonald, Arthur Cameron 

MacKenzie, Howard Archibald 

MacPherson, Lt.-Col. Duncan 

McColl, Samuel Ebenezer 

McCulloch, Andrew Lake 

McDonnell, Frank 

McNab, James Veitch 

McRae, John Bell 

Mitchell, Samuel Phillips . 



538 

442 

290 

237 

368 

289 

138 

488 

538 

538 

94 

35 

35 

94 

442 

488 

188 

441 

406 

35 

289 

237 

442 

368 

188 

538 

289 

95 

138 

290 

94 

331 

238 

368 

Monsarrat, Lieut. -Col. Charles 138, 188 



Naish, Major Theodore Edward. 

Ogilvie, William Morley 

Owens, Edward James 

Palmer, Robert Kendrick 

Potter, Alexander 

Routley, Herbert Thomas 

Sabourin, Alexandre Georges. . . . 
Sammett, Matthew Alexander. . . 

Seymour, Horace Llewellyn 

Shearer, George Wyman 

Smith, Frank Lawrence 

White, James Alexander Gordon . 

Wilgar, William Percy 

Woods, Joseph Edward 



188 
441 
538 
539 
331 
331 
488 
237 
238 
138 
442 
539 
406 
237 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1940 



Page 

Officers of the Institute, Newly Elected (Biographies) 133 

O'Neill, J. J., The Exploitation and Conservation of Mineral 

Resources in a Balanced Development of Canada 516 

Optimum Thickness of Insulation for Canadian Homes, The, 

J. D. Babbitt 20 

Our Responsibilities, T. H. Hogg 107 

Past Presidents' Prize 32, 478 

Personals 36, 93, 137, 185, 235, 288, 330, 367, 404, 439, 486, 536 

Pictures 182 

Poles by End-Boring, Preservative Treatment of, J. F. 

Harkom 315 

Potter, A. A., Government and the Engineer 514 

Power Plant of the Ontario Mental Hospital, The, H. H. Angus 394 

Preservative Treatment of Poles by End-Boring, J. F. Harkom. 315 

Prize Winners, Institute (Biographies) 135 

Problems and Responsibilities of Management, The, W. F. 

Hosford 206 

Publications of American Engineering Societies 185 

Radio in Canada (Broadcast), A. Frigon 519 

Recent Graduates in Engineering 328 

Regulation of Growth of Cities and Their Decentralization, 

Aimé Cousineau 416 

Reports from Branches, Abstracts of 75 

Report of Council for the year 1939 65 

Respectfully Submitted 479 

Rules Governing Award of Institute Prizes 244 

Safety, Canadian Highway Control and, A. D. Campbell. . . . 109 
Sanitation and Water Supply Practice, Modern, W. Storrie 

and A. E. Berry 380 

Schmidlin, E., Modern Military Engineering 25 

Sexton, J. K., Hydro-Electric Construction in Bolivia 256 

Shand Dam, Soil Mechanics at the, A. W. F. McQueen and 

R. C. McMordie 161 

Discussion 173 



Page 

Sirois Report, The Professions and 534 

Smith Memorial Medal, The Julian C 438 

Soil Mechanics at the Shand Dam, A. W. F. McQueen and 

R. C. McMordie 161 

Discussion 173 

Specifications, Canadian Engineering Standards Association 91, 99, 547 

Standards, List of the New and Revised British 246, 371, 547 

Steam Superheaters for Water Tube Boilers, C. B. Charlewood 344 
Steep Rock Lake, Exploration for Hematite at, A. Brant. . . . 464 
Storrie, W., Modern Sanitation and Water Supply Practice. . . 380 
Superheaters for Water Tube Boilers, Steam, C. B. Charle- 
wood 344 

Technical Education, Aids to 532 

Technical Supplements 479 

Timber of Canada 435 

Training of Engineers at the Ecole Polytechnique, The 

(Broadcast), A. Circé 522 

Transportation, Engineering in, S. W. Fairweather 61 

Tupper, K. F., The New Hydraulic Laboratory of the National 

Research Council 317 

Tweedsmuir, Lord (Photograph) 126 

Water Conservation in Southern Alberta, The Need of, F. G. 

Cross 213 

Water Supply Practice, Modern Sanitation and, W. Storrie 

and A. Ë. Berry 380 

War Potential of Canadian Industry, The, R. J. Magor 219 

War Research — An Engineering Problem (Broadcast) C. J. 

Mackenzie 469 

Watt International Medal, The James . .• 533 

Western Water Problems 400 

Erratum 435 

Wildfowl and the Engineer, R. J. Durley 427 

Wilson, J. A., Aerodrome Construction for the British Com- 
monwealth Air Training Plan 452 

Winners of Prizes, Letters from 401, 479 



111 



December, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 23 



JANUARY 1940 



NUMBER 1 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 

S050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, a.m.b.i.c. 
Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD, a.m.b.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

A. DUPERRON, m.e.i.c., Chairman 

C. K. McLEOD, a.m.b.i.c, V ice-Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, m.e.i.c. 

R. H. FINDLAY, m.e.i.c. 

O. O. LEFEBVRE, m.e.i.c. 

F. P. SHEARWOOD, m.e.i.c. 

J. E. ST. LAURENT, m.e.i.c. 

T. C. THOMPSON, a.m.b.i.c. 

H. J. VENNES, a.m.b.i.c. 

ADVISORY MEMBERS 
OF PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

L. McK. ARKLEY, m.e.i.c. 

S. R. BANKS, a.m.b.i.c. 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.b.i.c. 

F. BRIDGES, m.e.i.c. 

J. L. CLARKE, m.e.i.c. 

F. A. COMBE, m.e.i.c. 

R. L. DUNSMORE, m.e.i.c. 

J. T. FARMER, m.e.i.c. 

A. FERRIER, a.m.b.i.c. 
R. H. FIELD, a.m. e. i.e. 

J. N. FINLAYSON, m.e.i.c. 
R. C. FLITTON, m.e.i.c. 
R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c. 
R. G. GAGE, m.e.i.c. 

E. D. GRAY-DONALD, a.m.b.i.c. 

F. G. GREEN, a.m.b.i.c. 
H. S. GROVE, a.m.b.i.c. 
N. MacL. HALL, m.e.i.c. 

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R. E. HEARTZ, m.e.i.c. 
H. O. KEAY, m.e.i.c. 

D. S. LAIDLAW, a.m.b.i.c. 
ROBT. F. LEGGET, a.m.b.i.c. 

C. R. LINDSEY, a.m.b.i.c. 
H. J. MACLEOD, m.e.i.c. 
P. B. MOTLEY, m.e.i.c. 
RALPH C. PURSER, a.m.b.i.c. 
J. L. RANNIE, m.e.i.c. 

C. A. ROBB, m.e.i.c. 

D. deC. ROSS-ROSS, m.e.i.c. 
L. T. RUTLEDGE, m.e.i.c. 

E. A. RYAN, m.e.i.c. 
H. W. TATE, m.e.i.c. 
H. J. VENNES, a.m.b.i.c 

G. L. WIGGS, m.e.i.c. 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year, in Canada, 
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either for the statements made or for the 
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LOOKING AHEAD 

H. W. McKiel, M.E.I.C 3 

LIMIT DESIGN 

C. M. Goodrich, M.E.I.C 5 

THE ECONOMIC FRONT 

G. A. Gaherty, M.E.I.C 7 

DISCUSSION ON THE 18-FOOT DIAMETER STEEL PIPE LINE AT 

OUTARDES FALLS 11 

FLAME HARDENING AND ITS APPLICATION 

W. A. Duncan ........... 15 

INSULATION FOR CANADIAN HOMES 

J. D. Babbitt 20 

MODERN MILITARY ENGINEERING 

Brigadier E. Schmidlin ......... 25 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 28 

FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL GENERAL AND PROFESSIONAL 

MEETING 30-31 

EDITORIAL COMMENT 32 

Co-operation in Nova Scotia ........ 

Good Appointment .......... 

Modern History ........... 

Past-Presidents' Prize .......... 

Correspondence ........... 

Hospitality in Houston, Texas ........ 

The Maple Leaf Trainer — II ........ 

Meetings of Council .......... 

Ballot on Nova Scotia Agreement ....... 

Obituaries ............ 

Elections and Transfers ......... 

PERSONALS 36 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 38 

LIBRARY NOTES 44 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 46 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 47 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 48 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



tP. M. SAUDER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
•E. V. BUCHANAN, London, Ont. 

E. A. CLEVELAND, Vancouver, B.C. 

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tJ. L. BUSFIELD, Montreal, Que. 
•A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
tP. E. DONCASTER, Fort William, Ont. 
•A. DUPERRON, Montreal, Que. 
tR. H. FINDLAY, Montreal, Que. 
•A. B. GATES, Peterborough, Ont. 
tL. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 
J. HADDIN, Calgary, Alta. 
tS. HOGG, Saint John, N.B. 

TREASURER 

di GASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 

A. DUPERRON 

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J. A. McCRORY 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 

PRESIDENT 

H. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS 

•H. O. KEAY, Three Rivers, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

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COUNCILLORS 

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tT. H. JENKINS, Windsor, Ont. 

tA. C. JOHNSTON, Arvida, Que. 

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tA. P. LINTON, Regina, Sask. 

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tl. P. MacNAB, Halifax, N.S. 

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JH. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 

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GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tF. NEWELL, Montreal. Que. 

•R. L. DUNSMORË, Dartmouth, N.S. 

J. B. CHALLIES, Montreal, Que. 

JB. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 
tJ. ROBERTSON, Vancouver, B.C. 
tA. U. SANDERSON, Toronto, Ont. 
•A. J. TAUNTON, Winnipeg, Man. 
•A. P. THEUERKAUF, Sydney, N.S. 
tJ. A. VANCE. Woodstock. Ont. 
•H. J. VENNES, Montreal, Que. 
•E. VIENS, Ottawa, Ont. 
tE. B. WARDLE, Grand'Mere, Que. 
•J. T. WATSON. Lethbridge, Alta. 

•For 1939. tFor 1939-40. JFor 1939-40-41 

SECRETARY EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal. Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

LEGISLATION 

A. LARrVTERE, Chairman 
I. C. BARLTROP 
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PAPERS 

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W. E. ANDREWES 

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LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

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PUBLICATION 



A. DUPERRON, Chairman 

C. K. McLEOD, Vice-chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES 

R. H. FINDLAY 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

C. J. MACKENZIE. Chairman 

I. M. FRASER 

A. P. LINTON 

W. E. LOVELL 

P. C. PERRY 

E. K. PHILLIPS 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

R. W. ANGUS 

C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

M. J. McHENRY 

H. H. VAUGHAN 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

FRASER S. KEITH, Chairman 

G. J. DESBARATS 

R. J. DURLEY 

G. A. GAHERTY 

G. McL. PITTS 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT 



Sir John Kennedy Prize. Gold medal 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CATE 

A. G. FLEMING 

W. G. GLIDDON 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

J. A. McCRORY 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

J. H. McKINNEY 

R. M. SMITH 



MEMBERSHIP 

K. O. WHYTE, Chairman 
J. G. HALL 
H. MASSUE 
C. E. SISSON 
H. J. VENNES 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. B. CHALLIES 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 



F. P. SHEARWOOD 
J. E. ST. LAURENT 
T. C. THOMPSON 
H. J. VENNES 



THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
JACQUES BENOIT 

E. V. BUCHANAN 
D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
C. A. FOWLER 
R DeL . FRENCH 
R. E HEARTZ 
R F. LEGGET 
A P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. J. McLEAN 
R. M. SMITH 

F. L. WEST 



WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 

S. G. PORTER 

J. M. WARDLE 



LIST OF INSTITUTE PRIZES 



. .For outstanding merit or note- 
worthy contribution to sci- 
ence of engineering, or to 
benefit of the Institute. 

Past-Presidents' Prize. . .$100 cash For a paper on a topic selected 

by Council. 

Duggan Prize Medal and cash to 

value of $100. . . For paper on constructional 
engineering involving the use 
of metals for structural or 
mechanical purposes. 

Gzowski Prize Gold medal For a paper contributing to 

the literature of the profes- 
sion of civil engineering. 

Plummer Prize Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 



Leonard Prize. 



.Gold medal. 



Students and Juniors. 



.For a paper on a mining sub- 
ject, open to members of the 
Canadian Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy as well 
as The Engineering Institute. 



, . Books to the value 

of $25 (5 prizes) . .For papers on any subject pre- 
sented by Student or Junior 
members. 



University Students $25 in cash (11 

prizes) For the third year student in 

each college, making the best 
showing in college work 
and activities in student or 
local branch of engineering 



o. 



40 



society. 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

VOLUME 23 JANUARY 1940 NUMBER 1 

"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



LOOKING AHEAD 



Once again the Institute finds itself at the beginning of a New Year, a year which is certain to 
be one of the most momentous of all time. Canada and the Empire are again at war, engaged 
in a struggle, upon the result of which depends the continuance of that type of liberty which is 
peculiar to democracy. For many years now the Empire has done everything in its power to avoid 
open conflict, yielding time and again to the pressure of the dictators, rather than risk the chance 
of war. However, during the latter part of the year just past, conditions became such that no choice, 
but the use of force, remained. We are fighting to retain on the earth's face those ideals of civic 
and religious liberty to which Anglo-Saxons have been accustomed for many generations. Even 
more we were faced with the possible destruction of the very foundation of our liberty and the 
basis of our civilization, the search for truth, the extension of knowledge. These have long been the 
heritage of the civilized world and especially of our profession. Such a possibility was beyond any 
limit of indignity which a free people would suffer for the sake of peace. Of course, when the Empire 
went to war so did the Canadian people. Hence on the first of September it was my privilege, on 
your behalf, to pledge the support of the Institute and its members to the Canadian Government. 
In this action I know I have your approval. 

The old year brought us war. What of the new one ? It would be a rash man who at this time 
would venture any prophecy. However, we should take stock and see wherein we as engineers and 
as an Institute can be of service. We have been told again and again that this is not to be a war 
like those of the past, but that it is to be essentially mechanical and technical, that, in fact, it is to 
be an engineer's war. All evidence available at present tends to support this idea. We then must 
be prepared individually and as a body to do what is expected of us. But we are not always the best 
judge, ourselves, of the place in which our service may be of greatest value. Hence we must school 
ourselves to wait till that place is decided for us and the call comes. Since the declaration of war I 
have been privileged to meet with and talk to engineers in all provinces of Canada, other than 
Prince Edward Island. I have found all engineers anxious to serve and merely waiting till they can 
learn where and how this may be done to the best advantage. 

Also I have seen the country as a whole, looking ahead with calm confidence to the struggle, not 
as a glorious adventure but as a nasty job that must be done. I have visited the garrisons of our 
western coast defences, and a few weeks ago I stood on the decks of transports in an eastern harbour 
and talked with the men and officers just about to sail. The bearing and attitude of these men are 
typical, I believe, of our whole Canadian people. This war must be won to save civilization, which 
the ideology of the dictators threatens to destroy. The engineers of Canada to-day are united as 
never before. Like the people of the Empire they have only one purpose, one ideal, the defence 
of all we hold so dear. There is not a shadow of a doubt as to the outcome, be it swift or long drawn 
out. No nation with the spirit which animates the Canadian people or those of the Empire to-day 
can be defeated. 

Hence I can see no room for pessimism either for our nation or our profession. We must look 
forward to the New Year cheerfully, optimistically, and courageously. May I then wish you one 
and all a very Happy New Year. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, BOYD CANDLISH 
Tiee-Chair., F. J. BRIDGE 
Executive, H. L. JOHNSTON 

W. J. FLETCHER A. E. WEST 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 

T. H. JENKINS 
Sec.-Treas., GEO. E. MEDLAR, 

1548 Dougall Ave., Windsor, Ont. 

CALGARY 

Chairman, S. G. COULTIS 

Viet-Chair., JAS. McMILLAN 

Executive, J. B. deHART J. R. WOOD 

G. H. PATRICK 
(Ex-Officio), J. HADDIN H. J. McLEAN 

E. W. BOWNESS 
Sec.-Treas., F. J. HEUPERMAN, 
215-6th Ave. West, 

Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, C. M. ANSON M. F. COSSITT 

J. A. MacLEOD S. G. NAISH 

(Ex-Officio) A. P. THEUERKAUF 

M. R. CHAPPELL 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, C. E. GARNETT 
Vice-Chair., E. NELSON 
Executive, D. A. HANSEN A. M. ALLEN 

E. L. SMITH W. W. PRESTON 
J. W. PORTEOUS 
(Ex-Officio) W. R. MOUNT 

W. E. CORNISH 
Sec.-Treas., B. W. PITFIELD, 

Northwestern Utilities Limited, 

10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 

HALIFAX 

Chairman, CHARLES SCRYMGEOUR 
Executive, S. L. FULTZ G. F. BENNETT 
P. A. LOVETT F. C. WIGHTMAN 
A. B. BLANCHARD 
(Ex-Officio), I. P. MacNAB R. L. DUNSMORE 

A. D. NICKERSON 
Sec.-Treas., L. C. YOUNG, 

36.5 Morris Street Ext., 

Halifax, N.S. 

HAMILTON 

Chairman, J. R. DUNBAR 
Vice-Chair., V. S. THOMPSON 
Executive, W. A. T. GILMOUR C. H. HUTTON 
S. SHUPE N. WAGNER 

(Ex-Officio), H. A. LUMSDEN W. J. W. REID 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD, 
354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Vice-Chair., P. ROY 

Executive V. R. DAVIES M. W. HUGGINS 

,K. H. McKIBBON 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. HARKNESS 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont. 



LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 



J. M. FLEMING 
H. G. O'LEARY 

D. BOYD J. R. MATHIESON 
B. A. CULPEPER S. E. FLOOK 
H. OLSSON W. H. BIRD 

E. A. KELLY A. T. HURTER 
E. L. GOODALL 

P. E. DONCASTER 

H. OS, 

423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 



LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, A. J. BRANCH 
Vice-Chair., G. S. BROWN 
Executive J. M. CAMPBELL N. H. BRADLEY 

C. S. DONALDSON J. HAÏMES 

(Ex-Officio), R. F. P. BOWMAN 

J. T. WATSON G. S. BROWN 

Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE 

207-7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, H. A. McKAY V. A. McKILLOP 
W. C. MILLER W. H. RIEHL 

J. R. ROSTRON 
(Ex-Officio), E. V. BUCHANAN J. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., D. S. SCRYMGEOUR, 

London Structural Steel Co Ltd., 

London, Ont. 

MONCTON 

Chairman, F. O. CONDON 

Vice-Chair., J. PULLAR 

Executive, F. O. CONDON G. L. DICKSON 
R. H. EMMERSON A. S. GUNN 
C. S. G. ROGERS G. E. SMITH 

(Ex-Officio), B. E. BAYNE H. W. McKIEL 

Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, C. KIRKLAND McLEOD 

Vice-Chair., J. A. E. GOHIER 

Executive, J. A. BEAUCHEMIN 
G. J. CHENEVERT 
R. E. HEARTZ R. S. EADIE 

K. O. WHYTE G. McL. PITTS 

(Ex-Officio), A. DUPERRON H. MASSUE 

J. L. BUSFIELD F. NEWELL 

R. H. FINDLAY J. B. CHALLIES 
B. R. PERRY H. J. VENNES 

Sec.-Treas., E. R. SMALLHORN, 

P. O. Box 132, Hochelaga Station, 
Montreal, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, A. W. F. McQUEEN 

Vice-Chair., C. H. McL. BURNS 

Executive, H. G. ACRES C. G. CLINE 

M. H. JONES A. L. McPHAIL 

L. J. RUSSELL J. C. STREET 

G. F. VOLLMER 

(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK C. G. MOON 

Sec.-Treas., GEO. E. GRIFFITHS, 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, J. H. PARKIN 

Executive, N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS R. A. STRONG 
R. M. STEWART 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS E. VIENS 

W. F. M.BRYCE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, B. I BURGESS 
Executive, I. F. McRAE 

R. L. DOBBIN 
(Ex-Officio) W. T. FANJOY 

A. B. GATES 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 



J. CAMERON 
V. R. CURRIE 



QUEBEC 

Chairman, PHILIPPE MÉTHÉ 
Vice-Chair.,h. C. DUPUIS 

Executive J. G. O'DONNELL T. M. DECHENE 
M. BOURGET A. LAFRAMBOISE 
L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRÊSNE 

A. R. DÉCARY (Honorary) 
(Ex-Officio), H. CIMON R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
A. LARIVIÈRE J. ST-JACQUES 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT 

Department of Colonization, Room 
263-A Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 
Que. 

SAGUENAY 

Chairman, ADAM CUNNINGHAM 

Vice-Chair., J. W. WARD 

Executive, CHAS. MILLER G. E. LaMOTHE 

W. P. C. LEBOUTILLIER 

G. F. LAYNE 
(Ex-Officio), A. C. JOHNSTON 

M. G. SAUNDERS 
Sec.-Treas., K. A. BOOTH 

c/o Price Bros. & Co., 

Kenogami, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, H. F. MORRISEY 
Vice-Chair., J P. MOONEY 
Executive, G. G. MURDOCH 

G. N. HATFIELD D. R. SMITH 
(Ex-Officio) W. H. BLAKE 

S. HOGG F. A. PATRIQUEN 

Sec.-Treas., F. L. BLACK 

N.B. Electric Power Comm., 

P.O. Box 820, Saint John, N.B 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, F. W. BRADSHAW 
Vice-Chair., C. H. CHAMPION 
Executive, N. J. A. VERMETTE H.G.TIMMIS 
A. H. HEATLEY W. B. SCOTT 

L. B. STIRLING H. O. KEAY 

J. H. FREGEAU 
K. S. LeBARON 
(Ex-Officio), H. J. WARD E. B. WARDLE 

Sec.-Treas., V. JEPSEN, 

Cons. Paper Corp. Ltd., 

Grand'Mère, Que 
SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, I. M. FRASER 

Vice-Chair., P. C. PERRY 

Executive, R. J. FYFE R. W. ALLEN 

J.McD.PATTON S.R.MUIRHEAD 
J.W.D.FARRELL R.A.McLELLAN 
A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 

Ex-Officio, A. P. LINTON 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE 

City Hall, Regina, Sask. 

SAULT STE. MARIE 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



TORONTO 



A. E. PICKERING 
A. M. WILSON 

G. B. ANDERSON N. C. COWIE 
C. R. MURDOCK 
E. W. NEELANDS 
J. L. LANG J. S. MACLEOD 

O. A. EVANS, 
178 Albert St. E., 

Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 



Chairman, A. E. BERRY 
Vice-Chair., N. MacNICOL 
Executive, H. E. BRANDON 
W. S. WILSON 
A. O. WOLFF 
W. E. P. DUNCAN 
G. H. ROGERS 
M. BARRY WATSON 
(Ex-Officio) O. HOLDEN 

A. U. SANDERSON 
C. E. SISSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engineering Bldg., 

University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, C. E. WEBB 

Vice-Chair., W. O. SCOTT 

Executive, T. PRICE MAJOR J. R. GRANT 

W. N. KELLY P. B. STROYAN 

P. H. BUCHAN C. A. DAVIDSON 

ERNEST SMITH 

JAS. ROBERTSON 

T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, J. N. ANDERSON 
Vice-Chair., H. L. SHERWOOD 
Executive, E. W. IZARD A. L. CARRUTHERS 
R. C. FARROW G. L. STEPHENS 
(Ex-Officio), K. MOODIE 
Sec.-Treas., KENNETH REID, 

1336 Carnsew St., 

Victoria, B.C. 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, J. W. SANGER 
Vice-Chair., H. L. BRIGGS 
Executive, D. N. SHARPE 

V. MICHIE 

G. C. DAVIS 

V. H. PATRIARCHE 

J. T. ROSE 
(Ex-Officio), W. D. HURST 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. HOOGSTRATEN, 

University of Manitoba, 

Fort Garry, Man. 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



LIMIT DESIGN 



C. M. GOODRICH, m.e.i.c. 
Chief Engineer, The Canadian Bridge Company, Limited, Walkerville, Ont. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, at 

Toronto, Ontario, on February 9th, 1940. 



SUMMARY — Limit design is denned and shown to be implicit 
in various current practices and in open use abroad. It in- 
cludes the selective use of any theory or method appropriate 
and convenient, but accents the prior use of common sense 
in the selection of the best procedure. 

Introduction 

Limit design is the name given to that method of struc- 
tural analysis which seeks to determine the point of failure 
of a given structure, after which working loads are deter- 
mined by dividing the ultimate loads by a factor selected 
in accordance with the designer's judgment as to the con- 
ditions which will obtain during its useful life. 

It may also be used as a name for such procedure as 
sets arbitrary limits within which failure is practically 
certain not to occur, the object being simplification of what 
is as yet unsolved, or of avoidance of a calculation that is 
tedious and difficult. 

Our usual design method assumes a set of unit stresses, 
and so proportions the structure in hand that these stresses 
will not be exceeded, usually on the basis of various sim- 
plifying assumptions such as these: that stresses meet in a 
point; that there are no secondary stresses; that stringers 
are simple beams; that the length of truss members or of 
floor beams is the distance centre to centre of intersections, 
and the like. 

When an elastic method is used, this assumes that the 
stresses never exceed the proportional limit; that erection 
is perfect; that exterior conditions are always determinate 
and unchanging. 

It will be seen that limit design is free to use the usual 
method, and in the majority of cases it will do so, bearing 
in mind its inaccuracies, and that it is free to use any 
appropriate elastic method, but also keeping in mind the 
fact that in many instances the elastic limit may be exceed- 
ed, that erection may not attain an ideal perfection and 
that end conditions may be other than those assumed or 
may change. 

Limit design is in some measure a return to Hooke's Law 
"ut tensio, sic vis," which may be paraphrased "Watch the 
distortions to find the stresses"; current practices generally 
reverse this procedure. Up to the proportional limit there 
is appreciably a straight line relationship between stress 
and strain in many steels ; above this point this is no longer 
true, and limit design recognizes this fact and seeks to 
make intelligent use of the region above as well as of that 
below this point. 

There are two features about limit design that may en- 
title it to a name: first, its open recognition of facts; and 
second, its invitation to explore the possibilities. 

History of Development 

It has long been in current use in Holland, in Budapest, 
in Hamburg, and in other cities on the Continent. 

In America it was apparently first discussed by Professor 
Van den Broek, in lectures here and there, in his work at 
the University of Michigan, and in a paper published in 
the Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers 
for February, 1939. 

It will perhaps be of interest to cite certain cases where 
the underlying ideas of limit design are used. In any rivet 
group forming an end connection we divide the stress in 
the member by an arbitrary rivet value, and shut our eyes 
to any possibility of elastic deformations. Limit design is 
willing to recognize ductile permanent deformations in the 
end rivets, but calls attention to a resulting danger if the 
stresses are reversible, a point insufficiently investigated in 
our laboratories. 



In reinforced concrete formulae there is a curved stress- 
strain line, while in structural steel it is straight. Limit 
design is therefore used here, when a factor of the breaking 
load is really taken, although the formulae purport to give 
stresses at varying loadings. 

In welding work, ductility of welds is recognized and 
instead of a straight line from maximum tension to maxi- 
mum compression two rectangles of stress are often assumed, 
so as better to account for test results. 

The modulus of rupture is quite different from the usual 
modulus in a beam; while this is familiar to all, it would 
never occur to many that there exist cases where this fact 
may be used in design. The Considère-Engesser column 
treatment employs the fact of ductility. Professor Hardy 
Cross in his Column Analogy outlines a method of using 
the factor of ductility in rigid frames. Professor August 
Foppl in his Vorlesungen iiber Technische Mechanik (six 
volumes and nearly 3,000 pages) tells us that in a bridge 
to catch possible falling objects (as transmission lines over 
a street) we should figure, not on elastic theory, but on 
the basis of ductility, allowing the bridge to deflect a foot 
or so rather than an inch or so. 

Simplification Made Possible 

Usually, limit design leads to simplification. In his 
Materials of Construction, Professor J. B. Johnson, speak- 
ing of flat plates, says in a footnote "these proximate solu- 
tions are offered as illustrative of simple approximate 
methods which may often be applied to very complicated 
problems of this class." In this case a special application 
of limit design is used; a limit is arbitrarily set for a case 
which is mathematically hideous, a limit which eliminates 
the hard work and gets much the same result. 

Some masts or radiators are guyed at many levels. Some 
of these may be designed by first assuming them straight, 
then finding the deflection and the stress if one guy point 
alone moved due to a wind load; this second stress will 
sometimes be trifling, and it is rather a long task to calcu- 
late the action of guys and of the mast in combination, 
since the changing sag in each guy presents a tedious 
problem. 

Suppose we have a fixed beam carrying uniform vertical 
loading. The architect would perhaps say that a moment 
of ttfZ 2 /8for a simple beam ought to be all right. The 
elastic computation gives wl 2 /l2, but at the ends this time, 
with half this at the centre. Limit design says that before 
any appreciable deflection takes place the three moments 
at end and at centre will be equal, and in consequence the 
maximum moment is wl 2/ \6 instead of wl 2 /\2 or wl 2 /8- 

In a viaduct tower with plus and minus bracing the 
stresses are often made equal for tension and compression 
diagonals in the same panel. Often, however, these members 
are figured as taking tension only. We accept either of 
these solutions, since obviously the second is on the side of 
safety. But it would be difficult to persuade the conven- 
tional engineer to accept something between. He accepts 
two limits, but he recognizes nothing at all between them. 
In an earlier time it was necessary to guarantee transmission 
towers to carry agreed loads under test in order to avoid 
the condemnation of structures, with this and other novel 
features, by well-meaning engineers whose criteria came 
largely from text books and specifications. The first designs 
for towers for the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario were condemned by four eminent authorities, and 
the weakest of the two first towers, tested in 1910, carried 
a fifty per cent overload. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



Riveted railway bridges are undoubtedly stronger than 
pin structures under the same specifications. Probably mul- 
tiple intersection bridges are stronger than comparable 
single truss bridges. A chain is no stronger than its weakest 
link, but a bridge or a tower may be, and often is, stronger 
than any of its component parts. Stringers may carry a 
part of the load of the bottom chord ; laterals a part of that 
of the top chord. When a connection in a bridge is over- 
stressed, it may give a little, after which it will be self- 
adjusted for a certain secondary stress, and get less of it, 
while the material itself will have had its elastic limit 
raised. 

Important Effect of Distortions on Stress 

Modern theories as to combined stress, as those of Sandel 
and of Schleicher, which have good agreement with tests, 
are solidly based on distortions, instead of on mathematics, 
and are relatively simple to handle. In Bethlehem's last 
handbook, pages 279 to 289, there is a "Simplified Analysis 
of Torsional Stresses in Structural Beams." In the Zeit- 
schrift des Vereins deutscher Ingénieur, 1917, page 694, 
Professor Fôppl gave an approximation, according with 
tests of relatively thin open sections such as angles, chan- 
nels, zees, and I-beams, where the polar moment of inertia 
is taken as J = ]A, 2 Lt 3 , in which L is the length and t the 
thickness of the several rectangles into which the section 
may be divided. A working formula should be one with 
which it is easy to work. 

In the Second Report of the Steel Structures Research 
Committee, Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, published by H. M. Stationery Office, in London, 
page 316, under Summary and Conclusions, one finds para- 
graph (k) to read: 

"Tests on a two-bay frame, which was designed to be 
symmetrical showed that the stresses at corresponding 
sections which would have been equal had the frame been 
truly symmetrical differed by more than 50 per cent. 
Calculations showed that the unsymmetrical stress dis- 
tribution was due to variations in the rigidities of the 
beam connections of the same order as those already 
measured in the tests on the single-bay frame." 

"Since these large differences in stress were brought 
about by connections which, as far as the designer could 
tell were identical, it was considered necessary to investi- 
gate the matter further. Another two-bay frame was 
erected as it would be in practice and, on loading, serious 
lack of symmetry was again detected. Since the stresses 
were clearly affected by some slight differences in the 
connections it was thought worth while to determine the 
behaviour of a frame built up with the greatest care. In 
the third two-bay frame, therefore, new and carefully 
fitted connections were used, but in spite of these pre- 
cautions discrepancies of about 25 per cent were observed 
in the stresses." 

Common Sense in Wind Bracing Design 

The first workmanlike presentation of a wind bracing 
method the author encountered was by Dr. Robins Fleming, 
that most lucid and most practical structural engineer, to 
whom we owe so much, in Engineering News, 1913, page 
493. Here are clearly set forth three methods, that of the 
cantilever beam, the portal method, and the continuous 
portal method. 

Since that time we have had many methods presented 
here and there, some of them usable, some of them not. 
The method of slope-deflection purports to be "exact," but 
is very tedious indeed, too long to be usable. Incidentally, 
the method appears to be the end tangent method renamed, 
used in Germany by Kleinlogel and doubtless others prior 
to its appearance in America. For a so-called "exact" 
method Unold's book presents what appears to be the most 
nearly usable method, although far from attractive. The 
method of moment distribution and Goldberg's method are 
both measurably usable. In the June, 1939, Proceedings of 



the American Society of Civil Engineers, appears the sixth 
report of the Society's Wind Bracing Committee, of which 
Professor C. R. Young is chairman. Professor Francis P. 
Witmer appears to have played a large part in developing 
a method which is definitely practical and amply theoretical 
for anyone of good sense. It is the best yet, the author 
holds, by long odds. 

Now we know that our best efforts to erect mathematical 
edifices on the shifting sands of many assumptions are found 
to result in an approximation. The British Steel Structures 
report assures us of this, although it tells but a small part 
of the story. And we know also that almost any well de- 
signed and well-detailed steel skeleton in a completed build- 
ing will show good results in strong winds. The writer has 
in several cases checked designs, for high buildings in 
Detroit, by a vastly simpler method. The dimensions of 
columns in the usual cases vary but little in any one storey, 
and in consequence one may arbitrarily select contraflexure 
points, figure the wind moments in each storey, and com- 
pare the sum of the capacities of the columns provided, 
checking next the resulting moments in adjacent beams 
from those of individual columns. Of course, if the building 
is of the flatiron type or otherwise of unusual design, one 
must go farther than this on one's analysis. 

Overworking of Elastic Theory 

In a recent number of Civil Engineering the author offered 
a note as to a two-storey bent, without diagonals, carrying 
side loads. In a recent text book the problem was solved in 
five and a half pages; in a previous article in Civil Engineer- 
ing by an almost equally extensive process involving the 
antiquated method of least work; in the note in one line. 
But it would have been quite as good, from the merely 
practical standpoint, to have assumed a few points of 
contraflexure, and avoid elastic theory entirely. 

Elastic theories are interesting ; one prefers them to cross- 
word puzzles. All they can do, however, is to give an 
approximate idea of what may happen in a structure when 
built, and then only up to a point below the strength of 
the structure. It would seem a proper procedure to size up 
all the conditions, so far as possible, and to select the limits 
to which we should design any structure according to its 
expected time of use, the probable frequency of use, the 
insurance risk, the deflections permissible, the numbers of 
paths the applied loads may follow to ground, and other 
such factors. Specifications, more or less faithfully copied 
from ancestral specifications, may make this impossible. 
Rivet values may require us to put in so many rivets that 
the structure as a whole is weakened, or the appearance 
hurt by sprawling gusset plates. We may be cramped by an 
excessively complicated and highly theoretical contraption 
of a column formula, used for everything from a flagstaff 
to a short column fixed at both ends. We are almost univer- 
sally required to use the reduced column load for column 
bending, cheerfully ignoring both theory and experiment. 

This paper has been as discussive as brief. It is but an 
introduction to a subject already familiar in certain isolated 
cases, but which needs to be brought into the open and 
frankly discussed. 

There is in existence no extended treatment of limit 
design. 

One may say, perhaps, that limit design invites us to 
face all the facts we can gather together, and then throw 
away those we believe non-essential, making our structure 
accordingly, and with the least amount of design work 
which is economically consistent with the importance of 
the work in hand. The theory — if one can call it a theory 
— might be thought of as the application of common sense 
to whatever problem comes up, with a resulting determina- 
tion as to what should be done. One may call it the method 
of the open mind. We may be led through flowery paths 
of differential equations and unknowns and determinants, 
and we may be led to plain arithmetic. Let the chips fall 
where they may, and let us be sensible about it. 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ECONOMIC FRONT 



G. A. GAHERTY, m.e.i.c. 
President, Montreal Engineering Company, Limited, Montreal 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Toronto, Ontario, on February 8th, 1940 



Introduction 

Our war aim is to defeat the enemy, an objective we 
wish to attain with the minimum loss of life and the mini- 
mum of permanent impoverishment of our country. We 
should take a realistic view of the problem and not under- 
rate the task ahead. Aggressors expect to win and it would 
be safer to assume that the German Government is well 
informed and shrewd. For all we know, we face a long and 
exhausting war, one that will tax our resources to the 
limit. The outcome will largely depend upon the effective- 
ness with which we utilize our industrial facilities, our 
natural resources and our manpower. The early mobilization 
of these is imperative, but we must first have some idea of 
what the nature and scope of the requirements are, and, 
then, we must plan carefully and proceed systematically. 
This takes time. To meet the situation as it develops we 
may be forced to undertake drastic reforms that we never 
would have believed possible, and, if we plan intelligently, 
we may well emerge from the war with our national economy 
in a stronger position than ever. 

Putting Our House In Order 

The Germans no doubt are banking on the efficiency of 
their form of government, and in some important respects 
our own country suffers in comparison. Even on a peace 
time basis our governments cost us over a quarter of our 
national income, which is another way of saying each of us 
works on the average three months of the year for the 
Government. We have ten governments where Britain, 
with four times the population, gets along with one. From 
one end of the country to the other our resources are being 
sapped by needless governmental expenditure. As an 
example of their waste, several of our provinces are cur- 
rently spending thousands of dollars on valuing public 
utility property when it is anybody's guess what the value 
will be six months hence, with the price changes that are 
bound to occur under war conditions. Pressure groups load 
us up with Hudson Bay Railways and force upon the 
country wheat subsidies without much consideration of 
their soundness or fairness to other sections of the farming 
community. We allow ourselves to be bribed with our own 
money spent on extravagant public works. With our system 
of indirect taxation the cost is concealed from the lower 
income groups, the very ones who suffer most. These 
abuses cannot be corrected in a day, but if we as individuals 
will only bestir ourselves, we can make real progress through 
moulding public opinion along proper lines. 

For war purposes the totalitarian system of government 
has many advantages, but it has also its weaknesses. In 
Russia almost from the very start the deadening influence 
of bureaucracy and political intrigue made itself felt and 
industry never had a chance to become efficient, but in 
Germany industry was already highly developed and 
operating efficiently when totalitarianism was superimposed 
upon it. Notwithstanding this, the quality of German 
export goods had begun to fall off even before Munich and 
there were evidences of German industry being bogged 
down by the red tape of officialdom, excessive taxation, 
assumption of control and diversion of manpower from 
productive enterprise. However, it is perhaps too much to 
expect that the deterioration will proceed rapidly enough 
to be a factor in Germany's early defeat. On the other 
hand, Germany has apparently achieved a unity of pur- 
pose and a co-ordination of effort that we lack; with her 
strong arm methods she has put her unemployed to work 
and can draw on her best men to fill the key positions; 



and she does not have to consider sectional jealousy when 
placing her war orders or building a munition factory or 
selecting a site for an air training school. We should aim 
to achieve these advantages, but through co-operation 
rather than coercion. 

We have with us the enemy within, who is effectively 
sabotaging our war effort, often without malice afore- 
thought. We see cities or provinces bringing pressure to 
bear to get "their share" of war orders or alleging the 
superiority of their particular locality for air training pur- 
poses. These questions should be decided strictly on their 
merits. Regardless of sectional demands war orders should 
be placed where they can be filled most efficiently and the 
air schools should be established where the training can 
best be carried out all things considered. Special pleading 
is bound to prejudice the judgment of those responsible 
for the choice and so vitiate our war effort. Those guilty 
of it should be made to realize that they are doing our 
country a great disservice in time of need. Then, we must 
distinguish between constructive and destructive criticism. 
There are those who rake up the past for the purpose of 
embarrassing the Government. In a democratic country 
politicians have no alternative but to defend their actions, 
and their energies should not be diverted from the pressing 
war problems to answer captious criticism. At the same 
time we must recognize that our governments are not 
infallible and that the last war might have been lost had 
not public pressure forced the then British Government to 
organize the large scale production of munitions. 

Trade and Exchange 

This war differs from the last in several important 
respects. With the mechanization of the armies war 
materials are required in much greater volume, par- 
ticularly aeroplanes, motor vehicles, tanks and above all 
gasolene. Britain, however, was far better prepared than 
at the start of the last war and at the moment has no 
pressing need either for men or materials except perhaps 
in a few specialized lines. Through the construction of 
shadow factories she has stepped up the war potential of 
her munition industry to an amazing degree, but to operate 
it to capacity she must have raw materials in correspond- 
ingly greater volume. While many of these raw materials 
are obtainable in sufficient quantity within the British and 
French Empires, the Allies are nevertheless dependent 
upon neutrals to a considerable degree, notably in the case 
of crude oil, mercury and antimony. After the defaults 
following the last war it is no longer possible to finance 
these purchases through borrowing money from neutrals, 
nor can they be financed in sufficient volume by the liqui- 
dation of British owned American securities, should it be 
a long war. To make the resources of neutrals available 
to the Allies their exchange is indispensable, particularly 
American exchange, and this is only obtainable in sufficient 
amount through exports and the curtailing of non-essential 
imports. On account of Canada's favourable balance of 
trade with Britain and our debt to the United States, our 
non-essential imports from the United States are sure to 
be cut drastically. The sooner we all grasp this and take 
steps to meet the situation, the less we will suffer in the 
process. Our Government gets a high mark for its early 
realization of the importance of American exchange and 
for losing no time in putting into force stringent regulations 
for its acquisition and control. 

The functioning of international trade and exchange can 
best be understood by studying the development of trade 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



from its very beginning. In Bolivia the Indian from the 
lowlands in the headwaters of the Amazon transports his 
tropical fruits by llama train to La Paz, where he trades 
them with other Indians for potatoes and wool brought 
down from the Andean plateau just as in the time of the 
Inca. While their standard of living is low, it is better than 
if each practised economic self-sufficiency. In more advanced 
communities the goods are bartered for cowrie shells or 
some other prized article that can be exchanged when 
desired for other goods, thus broadening the basis of trade. 
From here it is a short step to the use of gold and silver 
currency. With the introduction of banking the trans- 
actions are accounted for without the inconvenience of 
handling large sums in metallic currency, but the trans- 
actions themselves remain ones of barter notwithstanding. 
Thus money, or, in the case of international trade, exchange, 
is nothing more than a means whereby goods and services 
can be conveniently bartered. Without money the more 
complex transactions of modern civilization would be 
impossible, but people must have confidence in the stability 
of its purchasing power for the free exchange of goods and 
services to continue. The vicious spiral of rising prices and 
wages so easily started in wartime can quickly destroy 
such confidence and the Government has acted with com- 
mendable promptness in establishing a board to prevent 
unjustified price increases. 

Capital transactions likewise are barter. When money is 
loaned or credit advanced, the lender is merely exchanging 
goods which he now has at his disposal for goods and 
services to be delivered to him in the future. Credit is only 
obtainable when the lender is satisfied that the debtor is 
both willing and able to carry out his end of the bargain. 
Repudiation strikes at the very root of our civilization. 
The Americans, however, cannot in fairness blame the 
Allies for the repudiations following the last war, since it 
was their own high tariff policy designed to protect their 
home markets that precluded the repayment in goods, the 
only means the Allies had of repayment; nevertheless, we 
need not expect the Americans to supply us again with war 
materials on credit. We should also learn from this that the 
advancing of huge credits to our allies for the purchase of 
our own goods may prove embarrassing to us when the 
time of repayment comes. Our better plan would be to take 
all the goods we can from them now, and to this end, if it 
be politically possible, remove our tariffs against them and 
so reduce the post-war dislocation of trade to a minimum. 
We would at least have more champagne while the war 
lasts. 

International trade appears complicated because of the 
multiplicity of the transactions involved, each in itself 
simple, and because we are inclined to think in terms of 
money rather than in terms of the goods and services it 
represents. The issue is further confused by the fact that 
the transactions may involve more than two parties; for 
example, A provides B with goods, B in turn supplies C 
with other goods and C completes the transaction by fur- 
nishing A with still other goods. 

We entered the war with a huge debt to the United States 
that is likely to have far-reaching effects on our war 
economy. Our industries had been extensively financed 
with American capital. Our governments had financed their 
extravagant projects on money borrowed directly in New 
York or indirectly by diverting Canadian money from our 
own industries. As a result it takes several hundred million 
dollars a year to service our American debts. Our export 
and import trade with the United States were about in 
balance, but we had a favourable balance in our trade with 
Britain large enough to service our debts to the United 
States. Thus, it was our trade with Britain that was pro- 
viding us with the wherewithal to balance our accounts 
with the United States, and Britain in turn was obtaining 
this, in part at least, from American tourists and from 
carrying American goods in her ships, sources of income 
in American funds now drastically curtailed. But Britain 



herself, with her income in American funds sadly reduced 
now, needs these in greatly increased volume to purchase 
crude oil, aeroplanes and raw materials for her munitions 
industry. She proposes paying us with Canadian securities 
for repatriation, but this does not provide us with the 
needed American exchange wherewith to meet our obliga- 
tions to the United States. Under present circumstances 
we have not a hope of getting the necessary American funds 
from Britain and we, therefore, have no alternative but to 
step up our exports where possible to the United States 
and other neutrals, to encourage American tourists to visit 
Canada while spending as little as we can on travelling in 
the United States, and to curtail drastically our imports 
from neutrals. The Americans on their ptrt should recognize 
that it is only by this means that we can honour our debts 
to them, that for every dollar by which their exports to us 
are so reduced their exports to Britain and France will 
correspondingly increase, and that every dollar they spend 
in Canada helps their own trade. 

Exchange, through its command of the resources of 
neutral countries, may well be the decisive factor in win- 
ning this war. This is borne out by the experience of other 
countries in the recent past. Bolivia, for example, failed to 
win the Chaco war largely through her inability to pur- 
chase war materials in sufficient volume, even though in 
her desperation to obtain exchange imports other than of 
war materials were restricted to a tiny fraction of normal, 
and exporters were forced to give nearly all their foreign 
exchange to the Government, all with the result that her 
currency dropped to a tenth of its former dollar value. 
Japan likewise finds herself limited in her war effort in 
China through exchange difficulties, and even Germany 
prior to the war was moving heaven and earth to get 
exchange to purchase the raw materials needed for her 
munitions industry. Through the use of her special exchange 
currency, the so-called "swindle" marks, she was able to 
manipulate the prices of her exports to meet the exigencies 
of the moment and in some instances was selling manufac- 
tured goods at little above the bare cost of the raw materials 
entering into them. This policy, while providing her with 
her pressing needs, would have been ruinous to her future 
trade. 

Canada holds a key position in regard to exchange. In 
world export trade we are already fourth. Our exports to 
neutrals can be stepped up and we can develop new markets, 
but it is in the curtailing of our imports from neutrals by 
substituting our own products and those of our allies that 
we can do our most effective work. We can improve our 
tourist facilities and so induce more Americans to spend 
their money in Canada. In this one respect the depreciation 
of the Canadian dollar works in our favour. 

When we are at peace it is good business to exchange 
the goods that we can produce efficiently for those other 
countries are better fitted to turn out, as thus we raise 
the standard of living all around and promote commercial 
activity, but when at war it is essential that we and our 
allies produce every last thing we can within our own 
boundaries, as by so doing we can purchase in correspond- 
ingly greater volume the indispensable war materials we 
ourselves cannot produce. Any additional cost so caused 
represents expenditures within our country, which are 
relatively unimportant. These are largely a matter of 
"taking in each other's washing" though they do constitute 
a drain on our man-power, a serious matter in the later 
stages of a war. Even war debts, if internal, have little 
effect on our national economy as a whole. The fact is 
countries like Japan, although apparently bankrupt, keep 
going and we need not expect an early collapse in Ger- 
many's economic structure. It also follows goods produced 
by our allies and ourselves should be used even at con- 
siderably greater cost than those imported from neutrals, 
but to avoid the evils consequent upon price increases every 
endeavour should be made to keep the price spread to a 
minimum. 



« 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Stepping Up Exports to Neutrals 

One way in which our exports to neutrals can be increased 
is by stepping up our gold production. Many of our gold 
mines have rich developed ore reserves that it is good 
mining practice to conserve, but now it will be in the best 
interest of the country to increase the gold production 
temporarily by mining the richest ore first. The mining 
companies, however, should not be penalized in excess 
profits tax for their patriotism. 

It is surprising the wide range of manufactured goods 
that are available in Canada for export. Many of our com- 
panies, particularly the smaller independent ones, are ready 
and anxious to do what they can in this direction, although 
the margin of profit is naturally small. Unfortunately there 
are a few foreign companies with Canadian subsidiaries 
that do not allow their Canadian plants to manufacture for 
export, although they do not hesitate to take full advantage 
of our protective tariff in exploiting the Canadian market. 
In developing our foreign trade we should not overlook 
the fact that too aggressive competition with local products 
may invite reprisals in the way of dumping duties that 
would do us more harm than good. 

Curtailing Our Imports from Neutrals 

Our pre-war imports from neutrals ran to half a billion 
dollars per year, of which at least a third we could either 
do without or obtain satisfactory substitutes for, either 
locally or from our allies, at little inconvenience or increase 
in cost. We spend millions of dollars on imported fruit and 
vegetables notwithstanding that those from British Colum- 
bia, the Niagara peninsula and the Annapolis valley are 
unsurpassed. We bring in lettuce that might as well be 
cotton wool, tomatoes that are tasteless and strawberries 
out of season that, except for their extreme acidity, are 
flavourless. Thanks to the subtle propaganda of the citrus 
growers we use thousands of tons of oranges, although we 
have grape juice, tomato juice and apple juice of our own. 
With the improved technique in canning and refrigeration 
it is absurd that an agricultural country like Canada should 
be importing such products. A campaign to promote the use 
of Canadian fruits and vegetables would make us realize 
the high quality and tastiness of the home grown article. 
The citrus fruits of the British West Indies are unsurpassed 
and are cheaper than those imported from neutrals. 

High up on the list of imports we find machinery and 
agricultural implements. While it would be folly under 
present circumstances, when the conservation of capital is 
so important, to equip plants to turn out highly specialized 
articles such as aeroplane engines, a great deal of the 
machinery imported could be manufactured by any well 
equipped engineering works, of which we have at least a 
dozen. The drilling and field equipment used in Turner 
valley is a case in point. Practically all of it is imported, 
although with few exceptions it could readily be manu- 
factured in Canada. The oil producers can hardly expect to 
sell their oil in eastern Canada unless they in turn are 
prepared to use Canadian equipment, and our eastern 
manufacturers should show more enterprise and seek this 
business as a public duty even if the margin of profit be 
small. A little publicity on the percentage of Canadian 
manufacture entering into the various makes of auto- 
mobiles might extend the use of Canadian manufactured 
automobile parts. The western farmers should realize that 
in buying Canadian agricultural machinery they are pro- 
viding the Government with the means of pegging wheat 
and furnishing agricultural relief. 

Utilizing Our Own Oil 

At the top of the list of our imports we find crude 
petroleum and petroleum products. The main source of these 
within our boundaries is the Turner valley field in Alberta, 
which now supplies most of the Prairie market, although 
Albertans themselves still persist in buying some of their 
gasolene from Montana. The wells are being operated under 



proration and at the moment are producing less than a 
quarter of their potential capacity. The annual production 
of the existing wells could easily be doubled, if the market 
could be extended to eastern Canada. By drilling new wells 
in the proven area the production could be stepped up still 
more, but this would be in the best interest of the country 
under present circumstances only if the pressure on ex- 
change could be relieved by having all additional equip- 
ment needed manufactured in Canada. Without endanger- 
ing its own revenue the Alberta Government could assist 
by rebating the royalties on all gasolene shipped East of, 
say, Port Arthur. If the various parties concerned could 
be brought together in just this one case, some twenty or 
thirty million dollars of exchange would be released annual- 
ly, sufficient to buy four or five hundred fighting planes. 
In mechanized warfare oil and gasolene are indispensable 
and we should do our best to relieve the pressure on other 
sources of supply. 

The utmost we can hope to do in stepping up our crude 
oil production will fall far short of supplying our domestic 
requirements. The need of exchange for- war purposes may 
make it desirable to curtail the domestic consumption of 
petroleum products as the war proceeds. Canadian coal 
might well be substituted for oil and gasolene wherever this 
is practicable. The oil burning locomotives operating 
through the mountains could be converted to coal, as also 
household oil furnaces. As we become adjusted to a war 
basis gasolene for private automobiles may have to be 
rationed as in England, and the use of busses and trucks 
may have to be stopped altogether where passengers and 
goods can be transported by rail. This all would reduce the 
pressure on the sources of supply and release tanker 
capacity for transport of oil from North and South Ameri- 
can ports to the theatre of war, and so make available 
additional supplies of oil and gasolene vital to the successful 
conduct of mechanized warfare. 

Utilizing Our Own Coal 

Coal is one of our chief imports but our own mines, which 
turn out a wide range of coal, are not being operated to 
anything like capacity. The short flame bituminous mines 
in the Rockies produce a satisfactory substitute for anthra- 
cite for use in house furnaces where blowers are installed, 
particularly if the coal is cleaned to reduce the ash content, 
but unfortunately the coal is friable and does not yield a 
large proportion of lump. Nova Scotia, Alberta and British 
Columbia all produce good steam coal and even the better 
grade lignites from the Prairie can be used satisfactorily 
for domestic purposes where the furnaces are equipped with 
fireboxes of sufficient volume. With modern heating and 
steam power plants it makes little difference what fuel is 
burned, but with household furnaces the results will be 
disappointing unless the installation is modified where 
necessary to suit the fuel being used, and even then the 
inherent conservatism of the customer must first be over- 
come. At a later stage of the war, when gasolene and oil 
may have to be rationed, coal will come into its own. We 
should always bear in mind that Welsh anthracite is the 
very best and makes an excellent return cargo for the ships 
used in our overseas trade. 

We must recognize that the more remote sections of 
Canada, the very places that produce our coal, are seriously 
handicapped by their geographical position. They are not 
populous enough to produce economically most of the 
goods they use, and heavy freight rates have the double 
disadvantage of increasing the cost of what they consume 
and shutting out their goods from the markets of Ontario 
and Quebec. The encouragement of the use of Canadian 
coal would be a step in the right direction in ironing out 
this inequality and in making for a better balanced national 
economy. 

The new exchange control board could extend the use of 
Canadian coal by withholding exchange permits for the 
purchase of American fuel, but the consumers in Ontario 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



and Quebec cannot be expected to acquiesce to a higher 
price unless they are satisfied they are being fairly dealt 
with by both the employers and the employees of the coal 
and transportation industries. Operating the coal mines at 
full time should substantially reduce the cost of production 
per ton, and this saving should be passed on to the con- 
sumer. With the coal miners it is the annual income that 
counts, and as their contribution they should be prepared 
to work full time, for a lower hourly wage but one that 
would still give them a substantial increase in their annual 
income; so also with the railway workers. The railway com- 
panies in turn should haul the coal to the central markets 
for the bare additional cost. Through co-operation between 
the diversified interests concerned it should be possible 
with exchange in our favour to lower the price of Alberta 
coal delivered in the East sufficiently that the consumers 
there would accept it in the national interests. We should 
not overlook that if under war conditions our coal is pro- 
duced, transported and marketed efficiently, there will be 
a good chance of retaining a substantial part of the market 
once the war is over, and so obtaining a better balanced 
national economy. 

The Transportation Problem 

The substitution of our own products in the case of bulky 
commodities like coal, oil and sugar is dependent upon low 
cost long distance transportation, and in the transportation 
field we find chaos. Railways are the only means whereby 
cheap long distance transportation can be provided over 
the country as a whole and are therefore indispensable to 
our national well-being. It would be only common sense to 
treat them as essential services and give them every 
opportunity to operate to best advantage so that they can 
carry long distance freight at the very minimum rates, 
but this is far from what is being done. In the short haul 
traffic they have to face the unrestricted and unregulated 
competition of busses and trucks, while they themselves 
are stringently regulated and are forced to maintain a high 
standard of service and to operate facilities not justified by 
the traffic, but they are not allowed to recoup themselves 
for the loss of the short haul traffic by raising their rates 
with respect to traffic which the busses and trucks cannot 
handle to advantage. The busses and trucks can be operated 
with one man, but the trains have a minimum of five, each 
one of whom is paid several times the hourly rate that the 
bus or truck driver gets, although the work requires no 
more skill. Whenever the railways attempt to bring their 
wages more into line, the leaders of the strongly organized 
running trades rush to parliament and, with over half the 
men in the employ of a government-owned railway, the 
answer is a foregone conclusion. The railways provide free 
transportation for members of parliament and many 
government officials. When there is a drought they are 
expected to transport supplies to the affected area free or 
at reduced rates. To make matters worse, the Government 
spends huge sums on competing facilities, such as air ser- 
vices and toll-free canals, and freight rates are forced upon 
the railways that divert traffic by favouring grain ship- 
ments through Pacific ports. Our treatment of the railways 
not only is dishonest and unfair, but is destructive to a 
service on which our national prosperity depends. 

The railways themselves are partly to blame for the 
condition in which they find themselves. The administra- 
tion of large companies is apt to become bureaucratic and 
to lose sight of the larger economic features of their busi- 
ness. Thus, we see pretentious stations and hotels built to 
attract a class of traffic that can never be other than a 
minor factor in the railways' business. 

Increasing Exports to Our Allies 

In addition to helping provide the so badly needed 
American exchange, we can supply our allies with auto- 
motive equipment and other manufactured articles that we 
are equipped to produce efficiently. Our agricultural pro- 
duction can be stepped up by further mechanization, par- 



ticularly in the West. Our wheat can be milled in Canada 
and our farm products can be shipped, processed as far as 
possible. In this way, by relieving the pressure on agricul- 
ture and industry overseas, we can make more manpower 
available there for the overtaxed munition factories and 
the armies. 

In building up our industries and our agriculture we 
should plan for the conditions we will have to meet after 
the war. If, for example, we are geared up for a high pro- 
duction of bacon and we should then lose our market, the 
result will be disastrous. To avoid this it is imperative that 
we keep down the price and keep up the quality. Our aim 
should be efficiently to produce, cure, transport and market 
the bacon, that is to say, with the minimum use of man- 
power. We are fortunate in Canada in having a Depart- 
ment of Agriculture fully alive to the possibilities of the 
situation and thoroughly competent to advise and direct 
the farmers and packers. 

We should take advantage of the markets for our farm 
products opened up by the war to advance the programme 
of placing our prairie agriculture on a sounder basis. In 
the areas suitable for mixed farming, the farmers should be 
encouraged to raise products other than wheat. Those 
areas not fertile enough or too dry for growing wheat 
commercially could be switched over to stock raising where 
feasible, particularly in conjunction with small irrigation 
projects to produce green feed. In the areas suited only to 
the growing of wheat, the size of the farm should be ex- 
panded concurrently with further mechanization of the 
farm. This would enable the wheat farmer to increase his 
production per man-hour, or, in other words, to reduce his 
cost per bushel and also to lessen his chance of crop failure 
by his possessing sufficient land to have some in summer- 
fallow. The population released could readily be absorbed 
in the irrigated areas. In this way both the quantity of 
wheat produced and the cost of production per bushel 
could be reduced, thereby lessening the need of pegged 
prices, a dangerous and costly expedient. 

In planning our war measures, we in the East should 
recognize that the West presents a problem in which we 
are all vitally concerned. The westerner claims, not with- 
out some reason, that he must sell in a world market but 
buy in a protected one. He is inclined to exaggerate the 
extra price he has to pay on this account, and to overlook 
the fact that this increase arises in the main from the heavy 
taxation on industry, for which he is in part responsible 
with the Hudson Bay Railway and similar ventures and 
with his preference for publicly-owned telephone and other 
utilities that make no contribution to the Dominion tax 
revenue. We should remember that the West provides an 
extensive market for eastern industries and contributes 
largely to the support of our financial and commercial 
institutions. The prosperity of the East is directly dependent 
upon the prosperity and the development of the West, 
and we should make it our business to study the West's 
troubles and rectify them wherever possible. We should 
establish branch industries there even at somewhat greater 
cost, so that the industrial population will provide a local 
consuming market for farm products. We should use their 
coal, oil and beet sugar and we should recognize that their 
farm products cannot be sold abroad unless we in eastern 
Canada are prepared to take imported goods in exchange. 
This of course would be restricted to our allies during the 
war but, by now adopting a liberal attitude towards im- 
ports from them, we may go far to break down economic 
nationalism after the war. 

Raising The War Potential of Our Industries 

Due to her "shadow factory" plan Britain's facilities are 
more than adequate for her present munition requirements, 
but as the war intensity increases this may no longer be 
so and we should consider stepping up the war potential of 
our own industries so as to be ready when the time comes. 
Under the "shadow factory" plan selected manufacturers 



10 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



were asked to put up munition plants adjacent to their 
own peace time factories and to man these with skeleton 
crews quite apart from their own organizations. The Gov- 
ernment reimbursed the companies for the cost and paid 
them a small commission. It then placed small trial orders 
on a cost plus basis until sufficient data had been gathered 
to enable orders to be placed on a unit pi ice basis. By this 
means the British Government combined the advantage of 
efficient private management with that of cheap govern- 
ment money, and at the same time acquired the ability to 
turn out munitions in huge quantities at short notice while 
avoiding the building up of large stocks of munitions that 
might become obsolete before they were required. We might 
follow the same plan, but we should realize that in some 
cases it will be more economical to draw on the United 
States for our peak load requirements than to build fac- 
tories to be operated for a short period only, and this makes 
it all the more important to build up a strong exchange 
position in the meantime. 

Taxation 

We should recognize in this connection that our system 
of taxation is an effective bar to industrial expansion. 
Taxes have been levied where they are easiest to collect, 



without regard to their effect on our economic structure. 
The duplication of the corporate and personal income 
taxes, both federal and provincial, offers little incentive 
to initiate and finance new industries. Furthermore, the 
exemption of interest on debt puts a premium on unsound 
financing where companies could raise money by the sale 
of preferred or common stocks instead of by bonds and 
debentures were it not for the additional income tax for 
which they would become liable. In contrast to all this, 
under the system in England income is taxed only once, 
there being no corporate income tax and the personal 
income tax being collected at the source. With more money 
than ever to be raised, there is pressing need of tax reform 
so that those who now escape will pay their just share. 
For example, the customers of privately-owned utilities 
make a large contribution to the Dominion Treasury, but 
those of publicly-owned ones do not. 

Manpower 

We cannot divert the flower of our manhood into our 
armies and the production of war supplies without serious 
dislocation of our economic life and the lowering of our 
standard of living. When the war gets into its stride, the 

(Concluded on page 24) 



DISCUSSION ON THE 18 FOOT DIAMETER STEEL PIPE LINE 

AT OUTARDES FALLS, QUEBEC 

Paper by A. W. F. MacQueen, M.E.I.C and E. C. Molke, A.M.E.I.C. 2 , published in The Engineering Journal, April, 1938 



F. Nagler 3 

The paper on the Outardes Falls Penstock by Messrs. 
A. W. F. McQueen and E. C. Molke is of a type for which 
the Institute is to be congratulated. Little of this nature 
has previously appeared in Canadian literature and not 
very much elsewhere. It covers one of the most extensive 
applications of the shell theory to large penstock design, 
that has entered into American practice. 

The writer was particularly concerned with fabrication 
methods, since the design was in such capable hands. The 
principal feature of those fabrication methods is found in 
the extensive application of welding. This is of interest as 
it constitutes probably the largest field welding job so far 
attempted in Canada. The magnitude of the work is indi- 
cated by the fact that somewhere between 15 and 20 tons 
of weld rod was used on the job, most of it being placed 
in the field. Some of the significant features of the welding 
are contained in the following figures: 

Linear feet of welding, approximately 10,000. This was 
divided equally between down welding and vertical welding. 

Weld rod spatter loss, including butts, approximately 
40 per cent. 

Weld metal deposited per man hour, 1 to \ l /2 lb. 

As many as 40 welders were used on the work. 

These figures are interesting, since the only real precedent 
for this work was the 14 ft. penstock built in 1935 for the 
High Falls plant of the James Maclaren Company. Weld 
metal deposit rates were increased by 50 per cent over 
previous work, in spite of the fact that most of the circum- 
ferential seams at Outardes were position welding, that is, 
they were made without rotating the pipe. 

1. Hydraulic Engineer, H. G. Acres and Co. Ltd., Niagara Falls, Ont. 

2. Structural Engineer, Roberts and Schaefer Co., Chicago, 111. 

3. Canadian Allis-Chalmers, Toronto, Ont. 

4. Shawinigan Engineering Company, Limited, Montreal. 



The utmost care was taken to secure progressive annealing 
of the welds, by using a large number of successive thin 
coats. The authors' mention, on page 10, of the Charpy test 
specimens is, perhaps, worthy of some elaboration. This is 
a comparatively new tool in Canadian practice and an 
extremely valuable one. As a matter of fact, it is much 
more valuable than making more elaborate test bars and 
pulling them. 

Ultimate strength tests give little or no indication as to 
the quality of a weld, nor in the opinion of the writer, does 
the x-ray. An electrical weld, made with a piece of haywire, 
by the most careless garage mechanic, may pull between 
50,000 and 60,000 pounds per square inch and almost equal 
a weld deposit by properly applied covered wire. Both may 
show equally good results under the x-ray. The haywire 
weld may even have a higher yield point than the covered 
wire weld. 

Elongation of the test specimen tells a little more of a 
true story, but the Charpy impact test covers it all. The 
bare wire weld may run from 2 to 8 ft. lb., not much better 
than a good piece of cast iron. A good weld should show 
well up between 30 and 40 ft. lb., or practically equalling 
results from the plate to which it is joined. 

The smallness of the test bar, the ease with which it is 
prepared and the quickness with which the results are ob- 
tained, make it a tool of the utmost value to engineers 
associated with welding. 

The Institute is to be congratulated on presenting to the 
engineering fraternity so complete and thorough an analysis 
of the theory behind these large diameter penstocks and so 
complete a description of the particular example in question. 

J. B. Macphail, a.m.e.i.c. 4 

The authors deserve a compliment on the clear account 
they have given of the forces represented by the rather 
difficult analysis. It is to be hoped that the further paper 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



11 



proposed by one of them will appear soon, and that it will 
continue this desirable practice. 

The first step in all practical applications of the theory 
of elasticity, namely, the finding of stresses or deflections 
as functions of loads, dimensions and elastic constants has 
received much attention, but the next step, of selecting the 
stresses to be used, so that dimensions appropriate to given 
loads may be calculated, has received less consideration. 
It would be interesting to know what stresses were found 
for the 45 ft. spans which were considered in Fig. 10a. The 
223^ ft. spans actually used, as appears by scaling Fig. 1, 
probably give quite conservative stresses, and one might 
guess that the risk of carrying such loads over sand has 
been accompanied by the prudent requirement that the line 
should be safe even if one support failed. 

The Schorer papers, and others of the same kind, all 
treat only the case of a pipe continuous over supports, and 
one wonders what modification is needed for the cantilever 
or end spans which occur at expansion joints. Any remarks 
the authors care to make on this point, and on the details 
of the expansion joints, and on the deflections observed 
during filling, will be appreciated. 

Mention might be made of another large penstock which 
has not yet reached the technical press. It was designed by 
the Chicago Bridge and Iron Works for the Anglo-New- 
foundland Development Company, and is now being in- 
stalled at Grand Falls, Newfoundland. It is 1,800 ft. long, 
203^2 ft. in dia., of 9-16 in. plate, resting in semi-circular 
saddles 8}4 ft. apart. The longitudinal joints are butt 
welded; the circumferential joints are riveted with an out- 
side strap and welded in addition, and there are no stiffeners. 
The saddles are shaped so that the horizontal diameter of 
the penstock is 2 in. more than that of the nominal circle, 
and the vertical diameter 2 in. less. Limitations of water 
level required that this penstock be in a rock cut for its 
full length, a case admirably suited for saddles with only 
a small volume of concrete. A proper comparison between 
this and the Outardes Falls penstock cannot be made with- 
out consideration of stresses, deflections and behaviour in 
operation, but that would be a useful task for the future. 

Harry C. Boardman 5 

The authors have presented a paper which is very 
interesting and instructive to the layman as well as to the 
professional engineer. Even a casual reader untrained in 
mechanics can get from it a fairly clear conception of the 
system of principal tension and compression stress tra- 
jectories which, like interwoven cables, enable the pipe 
shell to resist the internal pressures and carry the liquid 
weight to the ring supports. Such a reader can also gain an 
understanding of the fact that a pipe line precisely full of 
water could be cut lengthwise along the top element with- 
out causing failure, and of how, like a moving picture, the 
trajectory lines shift in direction and vary in stress intensity 
with changing conditions of loading. 

However, it is a bit confusing to any reader to find the 
successive statements: 

(a) "It is evident that the element B will not deform 
in a manner similar to element A, but will take a 
rhombic shape, although the forces acting on 
elements A and B are identical." 

(b) "It follows that while element A has only forces 
acting normal to its edges, there must be shearing 
forces S acting along the edges of the element B in 
addition to the assumed forces Ti and T2. These 
are required to produce the angular deformation." 

Can it be truly said of two square elements of equal area 
that one becomes rectangular and the other rhombic when 
subjected to identical forces ? 

5. Chicago Bridge and Iron Works, New York. 

6. Design of Large Pipe Lines, Herman Schorer, American Society of 
Civil Engineers, Proceedings, September, 1931. 



Designing engineers should not be misled into assuming, 
without careful analysis, that widely spaced ring girder 
supports for large steel pipe lines are invariably more 
economical than closely spaced saddle supports. The pipe 
line for the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company, 
Ltd. at Grand Falls, Newfoundland, which is partly welded 
and partly riveted, is 20 ft. 6 in. in dia. for most of its 
length, and is supported on half-circle concrete saddles — 
one under every other ring. This construction was chosen 
largely because it lends itself to easy erection. 

The authors state that for the type of support illustrated 
in Fig. 2, the approximate form of the bending moment 
diagram is shown in Fig. 19b, which gives relative moment 
values in accordance with Fig. 8 of Mr. Herman Schorer's 
first paper 6 . These values are based on the assumption 
that each post reaction is always vertical and that its line 
of action crosses the extension of the horizontal diameter of 
the pipe at a distance of 1.04 R from the center of the pipe, 
R being the ring radius and .04 R the post eccentricity. 
The authors' use of the word approximate is, therefore, 
commendable because it indicates a recognition of the fact 
that the theoretical moments of Fig. 19b could exist only 
if the short posts, at their connection to the ring, offered 
no resistance to rotation or to horizontal translation. It 
seems to the writer that, in discussions of supporting ring 
design, too much attention has been given to the theoretic- 
ally ideal but practically unattainable post eccentricity, 
and too little to the actual effect of the posts upon the 
behaviour of the rings. The entire system of shell, ring, 
posts, and foundations must be analyzed to give a correct 
result. Even though precision in regard to the eccentricity 
were possible, it would often be futile, in view of the fact 
that partial liquid loadings may produce moments and 
stresses in the supporting rings appreciably greater than 
those due to full liquid loading. 

Those who wish to delve into the niceties of the theoretical 
moment variations in the supporting rings for full liquid 
loading and different combinations of post eccentricities, 
slopes, and points of attachment to the ring, may do so by 
means of the following equations, which are believed to be 
mathematically correct : 

I. M1 T = q A cos u+sinA(u sin u)-(w-A)(l+ „( 
II. M2 T = S? B cos u-sinA(Tr-u) sin u+ A(l+ -^l 
III. Mi R = —^— 1+cosA (u sin u)+C cos u 

Z1T 



IV. M2 R = 



kQR 

2k 



1 — cos A (w-u) sin u-\-D cos u 



JuPPOHTING 




P = Any point on centre line of supporting ring. 



12 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



In these formulae : 
R = Radius to centre line of ring, in. 
0= Total load on one ring, lb. 
a = Eccentricity, in. 

A = Counterclockwise angle from a vertical radius of the ring 
to a radial line passing through the point of attachment of 
the left post. 
<t> = Angle between the centre line of the left post and the vertical- 
positive as shown in the Figure, and negative on the other 
side of the vertical. 
u = Counterclockwise angle between the vertical radius of the 
ring and a radial line passing through any point P on 
the centre line of the ring. 
K = sinA — cosAtan $. 
k = cos A -\-sinAtan <t>. 
A = (l}4+®a) sinA + (w—A) cos A 

R 
B=(l}/2+2a) sinA—A cosA 

R 
C = Y cos A — (tt-A) sin A 
D = }4cosA + A sin A ■ 

M1 T and M 1 K = Moments due to tangential and radial com- 
ponents of post loads, respectively, in the 
supporting ring, for values of ufrom to A. 
M2t and M2 R = Moments due to tangential and radial com- 
ponents of post loads, respectively, in the 
supporting ring, for values of ufrom A to ir. 

In describing the Outardes Falls pipe line, the authors 
state that "a short section of plate at each ring stiffener is 
J/g in. heavier than the corresponding plates on either side, 
in order to take care of rim bending stresses." In this con- 
nection, the writer suggests a consideration by engineers of 
the feasibility of constructing each supporting ring of a high 
pressure pipe so that its interior diameter is greater than 
the exterior diameter of the pipe shell by the amount that 
the latter will expand under the normal operating pressure 
and, by hydraulic jacks or other suitable means, expanding 
the pipe during erection so that it fits the unstressed ring, 
then welding or riveting together the pipe and ring when 
thus assembled. If this were done, the longitudinal bending 
stresses in the shell at the rings under operating conditions 
would be eliminated, and the ring would be free from pres- 
sure stresses. 

Before attempting such a procedure, the manufacturer 
would do well to think of the precision necessary to attain 
the desired result. A diameter of 13 ft. in. would increase 
only 1-16 in. under a pressure causing a circumferential 
stress of 12,000 lb. per sq. in. of gross plate section. Local 
deformations of this or greater magnitude are induced by 
normal fabricating, assembly and welding operations, and 
are quite ignored in design, without noticeably harmful 
results. It, therefore, seems open to question whether the 
rim bending stresses merit the attention commonly given to 
them. Perhaps they should be treated with no more respect 
than the so-called secondary stresses in the members of 
bridge trusses. 

It is gratifying to the American Welding Society to know 
that the welding operators for the Outardes Falls pipe line 
were qualified in accordance with the A.W.S. Rules for the 
Qualification of Welding Processes and Testing of Welding 
Operators. The writer hopes that these Rules, in their 
latest revised form, will come into such extensive use that 
buyers of welded products will specify only the desired 
quality of the welding, and leave to the manufacturer the 
selection and use of the qualified process by which the 
quality is to be attained. 

P. Stokes, a.m.e.i.c. 7 

Messrs. McQueen and Molke have done a considerable 
amount of original research and have gone to great trouble 
to render graphically the various formulae of the elastic 

7. Chief Draughtsman, Industrial Department, Canadian Vickers 
Ltd. Montreal, Que. 



membrane theory and much credit is due to them for the 
excellent paper that they have presented. The theory is so 
original and the results so startling that a graphical illus- 
tration goes a long way to enable one to convince himself 
that the formulae obtained can be used with perfect safety. 

Perhaps a point that was not sufficiently stressed in the 
paper is that in referring to Fig. 3a, the stress lines as shown 
are an infinite number of horizontal planes in a rectangular 
beam symmetrically loaded which are the resultant of the 
horizontal tensile or compression stresses and the vertical 
shearing stresses. The figure shows that the lines at the 
supports are nearly vertical because at the ends of the beam 
the B.M. and therefore the horizontal tensions are approach- 
ing zero, whereas the shearing forces are at a maximum, 
and at the centre the lines are horizontal because the stress 
is all tension and the shear zero. 

An interesting time can be spent figuring various tensile 
and shear stresses and plotting the slope of the resultants 
obtained at any point on the vertical surface of the beam. 
The lines obtained will probably not join each other but 
will give a general idea as to the slope of the stress lines, 
which are obviously an indication of the direction of pure 
tensile or compression stresses in the beam. 

In a somewhat similar manner but with much more com- 
plicated formulae the tension and shear stresses may be 
figured for any point on the surface of a cylinder supported 
at the ends by a ring or membrane preventing any deviation 
of the cylinder from a true circle and the illustrations shown 
are the stress lines obtained in this manner. 

With the above explanatory remarks the writer would 
like to elaborate a few points pertaining to the actual design 
of the Outardes penstock. 

On account of the grade and the consequent changes in 
head pressure, the thickness of the shell was gradually in- 
creased from Yi in. plate at the inlet end to z /i in. plate at 
the discharge into the surge tank tee. 

The supporting rings were approximately 22 J/^ ft- centres 
and the rings were placed centrally on the 57 in. wide rim 
plates as described in the paper. Between these were placed 
two courses of shell proper about 9 ft. wide, each in three 
sections. 

The ring stresses in the shell were figured by the Schorer 

formula and approximated very closely to a check made by 

PD 
the familiar — ^-—method, the former taking into considéra- 

tion the weight of the shell as described in the paper and 
thus being slightly greater at its maximum value. 

The longitudinal beam stress and the maximum rim bend- 
ing stresses in the rim plates were added together and tabu- 
lated for the various thicknesses, the rim being made Y in- 
thicker than the intermediate shells. A rather interesting 
point was noticed in examining these stresses, that the rim 
bending and ring stresses in the shell which have no relation 
to the distance between the supports were many times 
greater than the longitudinal beam stresses which are of 
course governed by this distance. The centres of the sup- 
ports for the Outarde pipe could have been considerably 
increased, had the pipe been running along level ground 
and had the subsoil been sufficiently stable to support the 
heavier loads involved. The ring supports, however, were 
so designed that in the event of the footings under any one 
ring subsiding, the adjacent rings were strong enough to 
take the whole load of the pipe and water between them 
without any help at all from the centre ring. 

The specifications originally called for self-lubricating 
pads of gunmetal with graphite inserts under the feet of 
the ring to take up the movement due to expansion. The 
frictional resistance between the pad and the ring feet, due 
to the heavy load, were such as to require heavy reinforce- 
ment of the brackets connecting the ring feet to the ring 
and it was found more advantageous in the long run to 
dispense with this reinforcement and place the feet on the 
standard type of bridge roller, this making a much more 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



13 



efficient job although the rollers in themselves were more 
expensive than the original pads. 

The supporting rings were made up of a ^ in. web plate 
18 in. wide with 5 by 33^ by 9-16 in. flange angles rivetted 
to the web. In quantity it was thought to be more satis- 
factory to rivet these flanges to the web than to weld them. 
The web was made thicker than usual for a built up girder 
of this type as it was extended out between the outer flanges 
to form a bracket for the ring feet. 

Being circular the web segments had to be cut from plate 
and welded together, the joints of the web being placed at 
the points of zero stress as shown on diagram No. 19B in 
the paper. The flange angles were rolled in half circles and 
the ends welded together after they had been rivetted to 
the web. These joints were also kept as close as possible to 
the zero stress points, the ends being staggered around the 
ring to allow at least two rivet pitches between any indi- 
vidual flange angle joint. 

Being under no restriction as to the centres of the feet — 

r 

was kept to .04 in order to minimize the bending stresses in 

the ring. The bending stresses due to the reaction of the 

supports, the shear stresses due to the weight of the pipe 

and water, and the stresses due to the hydraulic pressure 

were added together and tabulated for the various pressures 

and were kept at a conservative figure keeping in mind the 

possibility already mentioned of subsidence in any one ring. 

The rings were kept identical as far as possible, the depth 
of the web being 18 in. in all cases and the outer diameter 
of the outer flange angles constant. The inner angles attached 
to the rim projecting from Y% m - to % m - beyond the web 
to allow for the different outside diameters of the rim due 
to the varying thicknesses of the rim plates. 

During the filling of the pipe as illustrated with the de- 
scription of the fire hose in the paper the pipe tends to 
become oval and during this time bending stresses actually 
do occur in the shell. These stresses were figured for the 
lightest section of the shell and also the ring at the time 
the pipe would be half full and were found, however, to be 
negligible. 

There is no doubt that using the elastic membrane theory 
as a basis of design for this pipe line has saved an enormous 
amount of both weight and welding, an early consideration 
of the usual type of pipe supported on saddles showing a 
need for a slightly thicker shell plate with heavy reinforcing 
rings placed at 4 to \Yi ft. centres. 

The Authors 

The authors are grateful for the very generous discussions 
that have been presented and would like to thank each of 
the contributors for them and for having amplified and 
given additional point to several important phases of the 
subject matter. 

As pointed out by Mr. Boardman, the authors were per- 
haps unfortunate in the use of the word "identical" to 
describe the forces acting on elements A and B of Figure 
14-a. For the sake of simplicity, the forces acting on the 
large square element of Figure 14-a are assumed not to vary 
in intensity along any particular boundary of the element. 
The force field within the boundaries of this element may, 
therefore, be said to be identical at all points. The small 
square elements A and B are therefore situated in identical 
force fields, but their orientation with respect to the force 
field is different. It is this latter characteristic which causes 
the effect of the force field on the two small elements to be 
different; e.g., causes a different type of deformation. 

8. American Concrete Institute, Proceedings, May-June, 1938. 



Mr. Boardman is on sound ground in calling attention to 
the fact that the principle of design used at Outardes Falls 
may not be economically applied for every pipe line. The 
studies made for Outardes Falls proved conclusively that 
the adopted design would be the most economical. Despite 
this fact, the specifications were framed to allow the use 
' of conventional-type saddle supports. No tenders using this 
design were received, and Mr. Stokes has explained the 
reason for its non-adoption by his company. 

The effect of the support on the stresses in the supporting 
ring and adjacent portions of the shell was carefully con- 
sidered. After the contract had been let and additional 
time was available for study, it soon became apparent that 
a better provision for free translatory movement of the 
support on its base would have to be provided than that 
tentatively selected. Mr. Stokes has explained how this was 
accomplished. Another detail was also provided. This con- 
sisted of a steel "aspirin tablet" between the base plate of 
the post and the upper plate of the roller assembly. The 
upper and lower surfaces of the tablet were machined to 
form portions of spherical surfaces and corresponding sur- 
faces were machined in the two bearing plates. This pro- 
vision was made primarily to take care of slight inaccuracies 
in alignment that were bound to take place in the field 
erection of the supporting rings. At the same time, it would 
tend to minimize the effect that any rotation of the post 
might have on the free action of the rollers. As can be seen 
from Figure 7, the posts are very short and exceedingly 
stiff, and any rotation due to load must be very small 
indeed. The top of an "aspirin tablet" is just visible in 
Figure 4. 

The four equations for moment in the supporting rings 
given by Mr. Boardman are an interesting and valuable 
contribution to the subject. If = and A = 90 deg., the 
equations reduce to Schorer's equations (51) and (52). 

The stresses allowed for the constructed pipe were those 
usual for this type of structure. For the case of partly-filled 
pipe: (a) an increase of 20 per cent was allowed in all 
stresses in the supporting rings, and (b) an increase of 20 
per cent was allowed for combined bending and direct stress 
over the normal direct stress requirements. In all cases, a 
factor of safety against buckling of not less than five was 
required. 

While the nature of the foundation material was such 
that differential settlement of the footings might be antici- 
pated, it was not thought necessary to provide for the entire 
failure of one support as a design requirement within any 
specified limit of stresses. The specifications required that a 
settlement reducing the loading due to the pipe on any one 
footing to two-thirds of the theoretical value would not 
cause, in any part, stresses higher than those specified. As 
Mr. Stokes points out, the pipe was actually built much 
stronger than this requirement demanded. 

For a fuller development of the shell theory than that 
given in this paper, including the treatment of cantilevers, 
reference may be made to the paper, "Principles of Con- 
crete Shell Dome Design," by E. C. Molke and J. E. 
Kalinka. 8 

While no measurements were made on the pipe at 
Outardes Falls during filling, no noticeable deflections were 
observed. 

In the opinion of the authors, Mr. Nagler's statements 
regarding the value of the Charpy impact test are very 
much to the point. The Charpy tests described in the paper 
were carried out at his suggestion and the high values of 
the test results indicate the excellent quality of the welding 
done by the two companies associated in the work of 
fabrication and erection. 



14 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



FLAME-HARDENING AND ITS APPLICATION 
IN MODERN INDUSTRY 

W. A. DUNCAN 

Manager, Process Service, Dominion Oxygen Company, Limited, Toronto 

Paper presented before a joint meeting of the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
and The American Society for Metals on October 26, 1939 



Introduction 

The "flame-hardening" process embraces the use of the 
oxy-acetylene flame to raise the temperature of the surface 
of ferrous material above the critical transformation point 
so that subsequent quenching will produce a desired hard- 
ness and structure. 

The hardened layer varies in depth from a mere skin to 
34 hi. according to the operating practice and type of 
material being treated. This method forms a hardened 
case on the surface of the parts being treated without 
altering the chemical composition, so must not be con- 
fused with such processes as carburizing, cyaniding, or 
nitriding that require the addition or absorption of other 
elements. 

Metallurgically, the treatment is the same as furnace 
hardening, the difference being one of localized, rather than 
general, heating. Questions may arise regarding method, 
depth of hardness, degree of hardness, selection of material, 
pre-treatment, and post-treatment, but most of these have 
been answered in whole or part by laboratory or field ex- 
perience. 

Advantages of the Flame-Hardening Process 

One advantage is immediately evident. The metal can 
be heat-treated to develop desired core properties, with 
the assurance that these properties will not be destroyed 
by the subsequent flame-hardening treatment. The designer 
frequently desires the combination of a hard wear-resisting 
surface with a tough shock-resisting core, and while this 
combination has been obtainable to some degree by car- 
burizing methods, flame-hardening offers a great advantage 
because a selection may be made from a large list of steels, 
cast iron, and even malleable iron. 

The tendency to distort is minimized by the very nature 
of the process. The fact that heating is localized tends to 
maintain the surface condition intact because the cool core 
resists deformation. Generally speaking, the distortion 
produced is well within the manufacturing tolerances. 

The fact that the surface of the material is rapidly heated 
and often drastically quenched would appear to encourage 
checking or cracking. However, the effects of volume changes 
are confined to a comparatively thin section and insufficient 
tensional stresses are created to cause rupture. It has been 



found that steels sensitive to furnace hardening can be 
flame-hardened with comparative safety if care is exercised 
to avoid overheating. 

The case characteristics obtainable by the process vary 
both with regard to depth and degree of hardness. The 
depth is a function of the heating time and can be varied 
between 1-16 in. and Y± in. or more. The degree of hardness 
depends on the carbon and alloy content and the quenching 
medium. The hardness of flame-hardened articles is at least 
equal to that of furnace hardened material of the same 



600 



500 



400 



e 300 



•S 200 



100 































HARDNESS EXPLORATION 

OF FLAME HARDENED CASE ON 

SAE I045STEEL 











































































0.04 0.08 



0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 
Depth Below Surface, Inches 



0.32 0.36 



Fig. 1 



-Hardness Exploration of Flame-Hardened Case on 
S.A.E. 1045 Steel 



composition. Much assistance is given the external quench 
by the rapid conduction of heat into the mass of the metal. 
In fact, certain applications are self-quenching; that is, the 
surface is raised to the critical temperature, the flame is 
removed, and heat is extracted so rapidly by the relatively 
cool core that a hardened surface is produced. 

Suppose that in order to obtain certain core properties 
a steel is selected which is capable of being hardened to a 
Brinell hardness number of 600. If the desired surface 
hardness is 400, the quenching may be deferred until some 
time after transformation has taken place, before applying 
the coolant to avoid drawing to a lower order of hardness. 
Similar results are often obtainable through the use of a 
mild quench, but it is not always convenient to employ a 




9 \ W: 





<«)TREATED SURFACE 



^6)MI0WAY BETWEEN SUR- 
FACE AND TRANSITION ZONE 



(c) BEGINNING OF 
TRANSITION ZONE 



(rf>IN TRANSITION ZONE <c»END OF TRANSITION ZONE 

Fig. 2 — Phptomicrographs Showing Structure of Flame-Hardened S.A.E. 1045 Steel 



<dft JaBfi 

ft BASE MATERIAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



15 



quench other than water. The point is that the process is 
flexible and can be varied to produce the desired results 
or conform with local conditions. 

An additional advantage is that the tool can be brought 
to the work. Articles too large to be accommodated in 
furnaces are quite as easy to flame-harden as small articles, 
and the portability of the equipment makes it practicable 
to apply the process in the field remote from any shop or 
furnace facilities. Thus it is now possible to harden articles 
which heretofore could not be so treated. 

As has already been noted, the results obtainable may 
be varied by changing the heating time and quenching time. 
Several other factors also contribute to the final result. The 



Table 1 — Types of Steel Suitable for Flame-Hardening 




Fig. 3 — Spot Hardening of Valve Stems 

distance of the heating head from the work, the oxygen 
and acetylene pressures, and the quench pressure, the tip 
arrangement, and the condition of the material each has 
an effect. These several variables must be properly con- 
trolled in order to reproduce consistently the desired depth 
and degree of hardness. 

Materials Suitable for Flame-Hardening 

While many steels can be flame-hardened, the straight- 
carbon and low-alloy steels have been found to be most 
satisfactory. Steels containing at least 0.35 per cent carbon, 
either plain or with alloy additions, respond favourably. 
Table 1 gives particulars of a number of steels suitable for 
flame-hardening. 

High-carbon steels and tool steels are easily overheated 
and will check or crack unless extreme care is used in 
applying the process. Pearlitic cast iron, either with or 
without special alloying elements, is rather easily flame- 
hardened to produce high hardness. Malleable iron has been 
satisfactorily flame-hardened by so modifying the technique 
as to permit resolution of the carbon. Allowances must be 
made for the characteristic decarburized surface by casting 
a thicker section at those locations subsequently to be 
flame-hardened. The decarburized surface can be ground off, 
or be permitted to wear off in service. 

The flame-hardening of carburized articles offers great 
advantages in so far as distortion is concerned. Following 
carburization, the article can be finally straightened while 
hot. After cooling, it can be flame-hardened with little like- 
lihood that there will be measurable distortion. Obviously, 
it is not necessary to carburize selectively because the flame 
will be applied only to those surfaces which require hard- 
ening. 



Flame-Hardening 

Steels 


Type Analsyis 


*Case Hardness 


Sclero- 
scope 


Brinell 


S.A.E. 1035-1070.. . 
S.A.E. T1335-T1345 
S.A.E. 2340-2350. . . 
S.A.E. 4140-4150... 

S.A.E. 4640 

S.A.E. 5140-5150. . . 
S.A.E. 6135-6150.. . 

Carbon-Vanadium . . 
Cromansil 

Manganese-Molyb- 
denum 


C-.30-.80, Mn-.70 max. 
C-.30-.50, Mn-1.60-1.90 
C-.35-.55, Ni-3.25-3.75 . 
C-.35-.55, Cr-.80-1.10, 

Mo-.15-.25 

C-.35-.45, Ni-1. 65-2.00, 

Mo-.20-.30 

C-.35-.55, Cr-.80-1.10. . 
C-.30-.55, Cr-.80-1.10, 

V-.15-.20 

C-.45-.65, V-.15min.. .. 
C-.30-.45, Cr-.40-.60, 

Mn-1.00-1.30, Si-. 70- 

.90 

S.A.E. T1335 or T1340 

plus Mo-.15-.25 


50-90 
75-90 
70-80 

70-85 

70-80 
70-85 

75-85 
70-90 

75-85 
75-85 


350-700 
550-700 
500-600 

500-650 

500-600 
500-650 

550-650 
500-700 

550-650 
550-650 


*Hardness determinations on flame-hardened parts should 
preferably be made with the scleroscope. The Brinell numbers 
shown here have been converted. Hardness figures are for water- 
quenched materials. 



Metallography 

The appearance and constitution of the flame-hardened 
case may be described most easily by an examination of 
etched sections and micrographs from the surface down- 
ward to the core material. Figure 1 illustrates the variation 
of hardness with depth below surface in flame-hardened 
S.A.E. 1045 steel. The photomicrograph of the same steel 
reproduced in Fig. 2 is typical and shows clearly a fully 
hardened layer about Y% in. thick, a transition zone about 
Ys in. thick, and then, unaltered core material. The case 
thickness and transition-zone thickness can be varied by 
modifications of the heating and quenching technique. 

Methods of Flame-Hardening 
Flame-hardening is both a maintenance and production 
process. The nature of the work will indicate whether a 
simple hand blowpipe or a fully automatic machine is 
required. Surprisingly good results have been obtained by 
hand-treatment and as an introduction to the simplicity 
and effectiveness of the process it is suggested that a trial 
be made by locally hardening a small scrap piece of medium- 




Fig. 4 — Flame-Hardened Gear Tooth Showing Case Contour 

carbon steel. It is uiily necessary to heat a small area of the 
surface with a welding blowpipe or the preheating flames 
of a cutting blowpipe and then quench with water. The 
increase in hardness can be tested easily with a file. 

Possibly an article has worn in service to a point where 
it is necessary to build up worn surfaces with fresh metal. 
The deposited metal may be one responsive to heat-treat- 
ment, such as chrome-molybdenum rod, and after machining 
it can be flame-hardened. If the metal, as deposited, is too 
hard to be machined, the hardness can be reduced consid- 



16 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



erably by local annealing with the blowpipe. This process 
is known as flame-softening. 

While a considerable amount of flame-hardening has been 
satisfactorily accomplished by hand, the method is not 
conducive to consistent results from the standpoint of 
uniformity either as to depth or degree of hardness. Pro- 
duction flame-hardening requires the use of mechanical aids, 
either manually or automatically controlled. The methods 




Fig. 5— Straddle Type Gear Heads 

employed are commonly referred to as: (a) stationary, 
(b) progressive, (c) spinning and (d) combination. 

THE STATIONARY METHOD 

The stationary method refers to those operations where 
the blowpipe and work are motionless during the treatment. 
This is sometimes known as spot hardening. (See Fig. 3.) 

THE PROGRESSIVE METHOD 

The progressive method refers to those operations where 
the blowpipe and the work move with respect to each other 
and the metal is quenched as heated. Illustrative of this 
method is the flame-hardening of flat surfaces such as ways 
for machine tools. 

For flame-hardening a plane surface, the lighted blowpipe, 
with a head producing sufficient flame area to cover the 
path to be hardened, is directed along the surface at the 
maximum speed which will heat the surface zone above the 
critical point. Immediately behind the flame is a stream or 
spray of water which progressively quenches the heated 
surface. Speed is determined by operating variables such 
as flame intensity, type of steel being treated, and the 
temperature desired. It may vary from 4 to 10 in. per min. 
although the usual speed is from 6 to 8 in. per min. 

The blowpipe head should be placed so that the tips of 
the inner cones are from 1-16 to % in. from the surface 
being hardened. 

The progressive flame-hardening of a gear tooth furnishes 
an excellent example of the inherent advantages of flame- 
hardening. The designer desires a hard wear-resisting work- 
ing face supported by a tough shock-resisting core. This 
combination is readily produced by flame-hardening and 
the contour of the case is of maximum depth at the pitch 
line, precisely where the greatest strength is needed. A 
case such as shown in Fig. 4 is reproducible from tooth 
to tooth through control of heating and speed of traversing. 

Figure 5 shows the heads up for flame-hardening spur- 
wheel teeth; in Fig. 6 the whole equipment is shown. 
Experience has developed certain factors which should be 
observed in all gear hardening in order that satisfactory 
service life may be assured: 

1. Shallow cases are to be avoided as possible sources 
of spalling difficulties. It has been observed that a satis- 
factory case should equal one third of the tooth thickness, 
but not exceed 3^ in. at the pitch line. 



2. Avoid overheating, which produces the conditions 
necessary to promote checking and cracking. 

3. Do not harden the tops of gear teeth. This condition, 
if present, is usually found on the ends of the teeth and is 
caused by a failure to maintain the proper heat balance 
as the end of the tooth is approached. Typically this con- 
dition causes failure by spalling of the end of the tooth 
along the transition zone. 

4. It is important that flame-hardened gears be carefully 
aligned when placed in service. The high degree of hardness 
presents a stiff unyielding surface which will not "wear in" 
in the same manner as untreated gears. 

While a uniform case is to be preferred, experience has 
shown that this is not a necessary condition for satisfactory 
service life. Thousands of gears have been flame-hardened 
by hand with entirely satisfactory results. The variation 
in case depth and hardness attendant upon hand hardening 
does not cause differential wear and does not materially 
reduce the life of the gear. 

It has been the practice of many manufacturers to 
machine heat-treated gear blanks in order to obtain maxi- 
mum face hardness without further heat-treatment. Flame- 
hardening permits machining steel either fully annealed or 
heat-treated to produce desired core properties. The saving 
in machining costs is obvious. One plant reported a machine 
shop saving of $15,000 during the past year by virtue of 
lower machining costs and fewer gear replacements. 

It is of interest to observe that flame-hardening fits into 
the modern method of gear manufacture employing oxy- 
acetylene shape-cut steel plates welded together. 

SPINNING AND COMBINATION METHODS 

The spinning method and the combination method are 
applied to rounds. In spinning, the blowpipe is stationary 
and the work is rotated before the flames. When the entire 
area has reached hardening temperature the quench is 
applied while the work is still rotating. In the combination 
method the work is rotated before the heating head which 
gradually traverses the piece longitudinally, followed by 
the quenching nozzle. It is thus a combination of spinning 
and progression. 

The flame-hardening of bearing areas is a good example 




Fig. 6 — Hardening Large Spur Gear 

of the spinning method. Sufficient heat is supplied to 
elevate the entire bearing surface to the critical tempera- 
ture in not over 2 min. (for thin cases the time may be as 
short as 10 sec), after which it is quenched. To obtain 
maximum hardness it is essential that the quenching be 
done simultaneously with the removal of the heat source. 
(See Fig. 7.) 

ROLL OR SHAFT HARDENING BY COMBINATION METHOD 

The flame-hardening of the entire area of shafts or rolls 
is most satisfactorily accomplished by the combination 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



17 




Fig. 7 — Hardening a Crankshaft Bearing 

method. Best results are obtained when the round is rotated 
in a vertical position, care being taken to centre the piece 
carefully so that a uniform case will be produced. The 
speed of rotation is not critical and with a well-arranged 
burner need not exceed a peripheral speed of 50 ft. per min. 
A great advantage of flame-hardening in the vertical position 
is the ease with which uniform and precise quenching can 
be done. Rounds of various diameters and lengths have 
been flame-hardened and there does not appear to be any 
practical limitation to the size or length which can be 
treated. An advantage of this method is its comparative 
freedom from distortion. This is explained by the absolute 
uniformity of heating and the highly localized area heated 
at one time. 

The flame-hardening of rolls offers several attractive 
features. The absence of distortion has already been men- 
tioned. In addition, it is now entirely practical to surface 
harden large-diameter steel rolls to a depth of 3-16 or 34 m - 
with full knowledge that at some later time the roll can be 
softened by the oxy-acetylene flame, machined or repaired, 
and again flame-hardened. This is an advantage not pos- 
sessed by chilled cast iron rolls. The two progressive methods 
about to be described, while considerably simpler from an 
equipment standpoint, develop greater distortion. Figure 8 
shows the application of the process to the wobbler ends 
of a roll. 



SPIRAL AND LONGITUDINAL FLAME-HARDENING 
OF ROUNDS 

These two methods are in reality simple progressive 
hardening. In spiral hardening a single heating head follows 
a helical path from one end of the round to the other. 
Longitudinal hardening is done by a succession of passes 
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the round. The great 
disadvantage of both methods is the formation of a zone 
of lower hardness between each pass. While this zone can 
be held to a narrow width it is objectionable for many 
classes of service. Both of these methods are extremely 
simple from the standpoint of both oxy-acetylene and shop 
equipment. A single flame-hardening head and an old lathe 
are ideally adapted to spiraling. The longitudinal method 
requires only rectilinear motion and may, therefore, 
employ an oxy-acetylene cutting machine or lathe tool 
carriage. 

Circular work of large diameter such as power-shovel 
roller-path rings is most successfully hardened by heating 
and quenching during one rotation of the part. Either the 
work or the heating heads may be stationary. This is an 
application of the progressive method already described 
for rounds. 

The zone of lower hardness which will be produced at 
the start and stop points may not only be held to a narrow 
band, but in addition it may be positioned at an angle 
so that the line contact of rollers will not at any one instant 
bear entirely on the softer metal. This expedient has pro- 
duced excellent service results. 

Equipment and Applications 

Various papers on the subject which have appeared 
during the past year have illustrated the types of apparatus 
employed in the flame-hardening process. From the appar- 
atus manufacturer's standpoint the equipment divides itself 
into two groups, the first of which includes the parts which 
are used to a sufficient extent to warrant manufacture in 
quantity, and which are therefore considered as stock items; 
and the second group comprises special equipment developed 
for particular jobs. 

In addition to the gas-handling apparatus essential in 
the process, various types of machines are also required 
as motivating units. Here again, types of equipment vary 
with the nature of the work. 





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S* 5 *" •- ■ 


ç**%^*£ 






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Fig. 8— Hardening Wobbler Heads of a Roll 



18 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Post Treatment 

Quenching arrangements are attached to the heating head 
for progressive or combination hardening. This insures a 
fixed relation between heating and quenching. Many devices 
may be used ranging from a simple stream of water from a 
round nozzle to a carefully designed spray nozzle. Spinning 
operations are better controlled by quenching with a large 
volume of water under low head which simulates total 
immersion. 

Certain steels are too sensitive to be quenched in water. 
It has been found that a milder quench is obtainable by 
using soap-water solutions or a soluble cutting oil in water. 
If machine tools are used for flame-hardening, the cutting- 
oil systems can be used for quenching. Several steels respond 
to air quenching and such arrangements are easily provided. 

It has been recommended that flame-hardening should 
be immediately followed by a low-temperature draw to 
relieve quenching stresses. This need not exceed 400 deg. F. 
and can conveniently be done in an oil bath or oven. 
Few users of the process have followed this recommenda- 
tion, and further research may show that this recommenda- 
tion is unnecessary in the great majority of cases. By care- 
fully controlling the quantity and application of the quench- 
ing medium, or delaying its application, the treatment 
may be made self-drawing. Obviously, this technique is 
rather delicate if precise results are specified, but a proper 
balance of heat and quench can be established and main- 
tained on a production basis. 

Costs and Applications 

For general estimating purposes, 1 cu. ft. each of oxygen 
and acetylene will harden 4 sq. in. of surface. Shop figures 
have been presented as high as 8 sq. in. per cu. ft. of each 
gas and it is believed that the figure of 4 sq. in. will be 
found quite conservative. Labour is difficult to estimate 
because so much depends on the surfaces to be treated. 
For assistance in estimating, the usual speed in progressive 
flame-hardening is from 6 to 8 in. per min. and in roll or 
shaft hardening from 3 to 6 in. per min. Spinning operations 
are seldom longer than 1-min. heating period. 

A complete list of the articles or parts that have been 
flame-hardened would be too long to be included here. The 
following list has been selected as suggesting possible appli- 
cations : 



Machine-tool ways 
Cams and cam surfaces 
Crankshafts 
Power-shovel roller-path 

rings and track 
Car axle bearings and 

journal guides 
Rail ends and rails 
Valve stems, seats, and 

plugs 
Oil-well-tool joints 
Pulp knives and hog 

knives 



Sprockets, sheaves, and 

crane wheels 
Wobbler pads, coupler 

boxes, and mill turndown 

screws 
Piston rods, sucker rods, 

pump plungers 
Wrench jaws 
Tractor shoes 
Internal area of cylinders 
Internal area of relatively 

small holes for bearings 




Fig. 9 — Flame-Hardened Cam 

Summation 

In closing, the several inherent as well as important ad- 
vantages of the flame-hardening process seem worthy of 
summation : 

1. The equipment is ready for use instantly. 

2. Simple straight-carbon or inexpensive low-alloy steels 
can be used. 

3. The operation is rapid. 

4. Hardening is confined to the surface and can be done 
exactly where desired. 

5. Core properties are retained. 

6. The case depth can be varied easily. 

7. The degree of hardness can be varied. 

8. The size of the article is not a limiting factor. 

9. The quality is uniform. 

10. The tendency to distort is greatly minimized. 

11. A relatively small number of pieces are tied up in the 
hardening equipment. 

12. The equipment is truly portable. 

13. The process can be applied to a large list of steels, cast 
iron, malleable iron, and carburized parts. 

14. The equipment used for flame-hardening can also be 
used for flame-softening. 



ANNUAL MEETING, TORONTO, ONT., FEBRUARY 8th and 9th, 1940 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



19 



THE OPTIMUM THICKNESS OF INSULATION FOR 

CANADIAN HOMES 

J. D. BABBITT 

Physicist, Division of Physics and Electrical Engineering, National Research Laboratories, Ottawa, Ont. 



The design of any building for Canada, be it dwelling, 
school, theatre or office building, must allow for insulation 
against excessive heat loss. This is a problem of especial 
importance for Canada because the severe winters have 
meant a large national bill for fuel and the justification — 
and necessity — for insulation lie primarily in the fact that 
by means of insulation the cost of heating can be reduced. 
The heat supplied to any building by the combustion of 
fuel must eventually find its way to the exterior through 
the walls, roof, windows and doors and any method which 
can retard this movement of heat will result in decreased 
heating costs. Insulation when applied correctly to walls 
and roofs increases the resistance to heat flow. 

In the use of insulation, however, it must be borne in 
mind that the saving to be gained obeys the law of dimin- 
ishing returns. Consider the following points: (1) A house 
cannot be perfectly insulated; that is to say, it is impossible 
to eliminate completely the heat exchange between the 
inside and the outside. No matter how much insulation is 
added there will always be a temperature drop through the 
wall and while this drop may be distributed over as large 
a thickness as desired, thus making the temperature gra- 
dient small, yet there must always be some gradient and 
consequently a transfer of heat. (2) If the insulation value 
of a wall is doubled, the heat loss through that wall is 
halved. The saving made in heating, however, depends on 
the initial insulation of the wall, since the heating cost is 
computed on the basis of the number of B.T.U.'s lost. To 
take a specific example, suppose we have three walls whose 
thermal coefficients are 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 B.T.U. per hr. 
per sq. ft. per deg. F. respectively. The thermal resistance 
of the second wall is double that of the first and that of 
the third is double the second but the saving in one case is 
0.50 B.T.U. and in the other only 0.25. Since we pay for 
B.T.U. the saving in the second case is only one-half of 
what it was in the first case. Moreover, to double the insul- 
ation of the second wall required a greater amount of 
insulation than to double the first so we see that we have 
not by any means obtained a comparable saving. This fact 
may be expressed mathematically by saying that the re- 
duction in heat loss through a wall decreases geometrically 
while the cost of heating decreases arithmetically. 

The above example explains why it is that, while it pays 
to add a certain amount of insulation to a wall, it is not an 
economic propostion to go on adding insulation ad in- 
finitum. In most construction in Canada the thickness of 
insulation to be used is judged solely on an empirical basis 
without any consideration of the estimated cost of the heat 
loss through the wall. It is the intention in this paper to 
study and analyze as far as it is possible the various factors 
which contribute to the problem and to find out in what 
way they influence one another. 

The first point that is obvious in such a study is that the 



insulation requirements of any house will vary according 
to the climate of the district in which it is built. A Van- 
couver house, for instance, would require much less pro- 
tection than one built in the prairies. It is essential, there- 
fore, to include as a first consideration the climatic con- 
ditions existing in the different parts of Canada. Secondly, 
the cost of the fuel will have an influence on the amount of 
insulation that should be used. Obviously, if fuel is very 
cheap the saving to be effected by insulating the house is 
correspondingly reduced. Conversely, if insulation is cheap 
and fuel expensive it will pay to use more of the former. 
Thirdly, in insulating a building the outlay on insulation 
must be applied where its effect will be greatest. It would 
hardly be justifiable to spend money insulating walls if 
80 per cent of the heat loss was through the windows. It 
is for this reason that the first consideration of Canadian 
homes should be double windows and weatherstripping. 
Lastly, one must not overlook certain purely economical 
factors such as maintenance costs, interest on investment, 
depreciation, etc. 

In this paper the intention is to attack the problem in 
the following way: 

(1) To analyze the weather conditions in the different 
parts of the country and to compute degree-days for the 
various districts. 

2. To analyze the distribution of the heat loss from a 
typical house. 

3. To determine the amount, and cost, of the fuel re- 
quired to heat the house under different conditions. 

4. To determine the cost of insulating the house on the 
basis of equal yearly payments spread over a period of time. 

5. To combine these factors so as to find the thickness 
of insulation which is economically justifiable. 

The Weather Conditions in Different Parts 
of the Country 

As already pointed out any estimate of the amount of 
insulation to be used in a building must make allowance 
for the weather conditions prevailing where the building 
is to be built. As regards fuel consumption the important 
feature is not necessarily the minimum temperature which 
may be experienced but rather the combined effect of low 
temperature and length of heating season. The minimum 
temperature does have a direct effect on the heating arrange- 
ments in that the heating equipment must be of sufficient 
size to take care of the minimum but the consumption of 
fuel depends on the length of the heating season as well as 
on the temperature difference. 

In order that both these factors should be included in an 
estimate of fuel consumption the concept of degree-days 
has been introduced. This, as its name implies, is a unit 
based upon temperature difference and time. For any one 







TABLE 


I.— DEGREE-DAYS FOR CANADIAN CITIES 










City 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total 


Vancouver 


899 
1,829 
2,139 
2,139 
1,333 
1,674 
1,612 
1,612 
1,302 


756 
1,512 
1,876 
1,820 
1,204 
1,484 
1,428 
1,400 
1,176 


713 
1,302 
1,581 
1,581 
1,116 
1,271 
1,209 
1,209 
1,085 


510 
720 
840 
810 
720 
690 
720 
880 
780 


341 
434 
465 
403 
372 
279 
310 
434 
496 


180 

240 

180 

90 

60 

30 

150 
210 


62 

124 

31 


93 
186 
124 

62 

31 


270 
450 
420 
330 
180 
217 
180 
279 
210 


496 
713 
806 
744 
558 
589 
558 
620 
496 


660 

1,230 

1,320 

1,320 

870 

990 

960 

990 

780 


756 
1,519 
1,767 
1,829 
1,209 
1,457 
1,395 
1,426 
1,147 


5,736 


Edmonton 


10,259 


Regina 


11,541 


Winnipeg 

Toronto 


11,128 
7,622 


Ottawa 


8,681 


Montreal 


8,372 


Fredericton 


9,031 


Halifax 


7,682 







20 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



day there exist as many degree-days as there are degrees 
Fahrenheit difference in temperature between the average 
outside air temperature, taken over a 24 hour period, and 
a temperature of 65 deg. F. The choice of 65 deg. F. as 
the base temperature has been made as the result of an 
investigation carried out by the American Gas Association 
which showed that in the heating of residences the gas con- 
sumption varied directly as the difference between 65 deg. 
and the outside temperature. It has subsequently been 
found that this also holds good in the case of other fuels. 
A summation of the degree-days for each day in the year 
gives the total degree-days in the year. This forms a basis 
upon which the yearly fuel consumption can be estimated. 
In Table 1 the number of degree-days for each month is 
given for various Canadian cities; the total number of 
degree-days per year is given in the last column. These 
figures have been calculated on the basis of the mean 
monthly temperature as given in "The Canada Year Book, 
1931". For the purpose of this paper it is not essential to 
carry through the calculations for each individual city and 
it will be sufficient to classify these cities into four arbitrary 
groups according to the number of degree-days. These 
groups are as follows: 

1. Vancouver and the Pacific Coast. (Degree-days be- 
tween 5,000 and 6,000). 

2. Halifax and Toronto. (Degree-days between 7,000 and 
8,000.) 

3. Ottawa, Montreal, Fredericton and neighboring dis- 
tricts. (Degree-days between 8,000 and 9,000). 

4. The prairie cities. Winnipeg, Regina, Edmonton. 
(Degree-days between 10,000 and 11,000). 

The Distribution of Heat Losses 
from a House 

The general design of a building is of fundamental im- 
portance because such things as ratio of window area to 
wall area, the area of the roof, the number of doors and 
windows are all factors which affect the heat loss from a 
house. The method of construction is also of importance 
since it is obvious that a thick stone or masonry house will 
have different thermal properties from a light, thinly con- 
structed, frame dwelling. The workmanship and the quality 
of materials used are also factors which cannot be over- 
looked. But while these are all essential points in any cal- 
culations involving individual houses they cannot be given 
commensurable weight in a general study such as this. We 
are interested in showing, first of all, that there is a definite 
optimum thickness of insulation and secondly, in obtaining 
a rough estimate of this thickness for various parts of 
Canada. In order to carry this out it is necessary to choose 
some sort of a typical house on which to base our calcula- 
tions and to neglect variations in heating load caused by 
the factors of design and construction. One house, as 
representative as possible, may be taken, and with this as a 
model, the variation of heating costs with changing con- 
ditions may be computed. 

A house which may be regarded as typical of many 
constructed in Canada is the dwelling specified in Example 6, 
page 144 of the 1938 Guide of the American Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engineers. This is a two story, 
six room, frame house, 28 by 30 ft. foundation and has the 
following characteristics : 

Area of outside walls 1,992 sq. ft. 

Area of glass 333 sq. ft. 

Area of outside doors 54 sq. ft. 

Cracks around windows 440 ft. 

Cracks around doors 54 ft. 

Area of second floor ceiling 783 sq. ft. 

Volume, first and second floors 13,010 cu. ft. 

Ceilings 9 ft. high 

The walls are constructed of 2 by 4 in. studs with wood 
sheathing, building paper and wood siding on the outside 
and wood lath and plaster on the inside. The windows are 



single glazed, double-hung, wood frames without weather- 
strips. The second floor ceiling is metal lath and plaster, 
without an attic floor. The roof is of wood shingles on wood 
strips with rafters exposed. The area of the roof is 20 per 
cent greater than the area of the second floor ceiling. 

The following thermal transmissions have been assumed 
for the various parts of the building, based on coefficients 
published in the A.S.H.V.E. guide for 1938. 

Walls: overall transmission U = 0.25 B.T.U./hr./sq.ft./deg.F. 

Glass: " " U = 1.13 

Doors: " " U = 0.52 

Second floor ceiling: U = 0.69 " " " 

Roof : overall transmission U = . 4 6 " " " 

Roof and ceiling 

combined " U = 0.31 

Window crack: air leakage = 21.4 cu. ft. /hour/ft. 
Door crack: " =42.8 " 




2 3 4 5 6 

THICKNESS OF INSULATION 
CINCHES) 

Fig. 1 — Group I: Degree-Days 5500 

On the basis of these figures it is easy to determine the 
heat losses through the various parts of the house per day 
per deg. F. temperature difference. The various figures ob- 
tained are as follows : 

Walls =0.25 by 1,992 by 24 = 12,000 B.T.U./day/deg. F. 

Roof =0.31 by 783 by 24= 5,830 

Glass =1.13 by 333 by 24= 9,030 

Doors =0.52 by 54 by 24= 674 

*Air leakage, windows = 0.018 by 21.4 by 40 by 24 = 4,070 

*Air leakage, doors = 0.018 by 42.8 by 54 by 24 = 998. 

*Cf. A.S.H.V.E. Guide 1938, p. 127. 

By adding these figures together we obtain 32,602 B.T.U. 
as the total heat loss from the house per day for each 
degree F. temperature difference between the outside and 
the inside. If this is multiplied by the number of degree- 
days in the year the total yearly heat loss is obtained. 

The house as assumed above is completely uninsulated 
and such a house would never be used in Canada. All 
Canadian homes with few exceptions are provided, as a 
first step in the protection against cold, with double win- 
dows and in most cases the doors are weatherstripped. By 
this means, not only is the heat loss by transmission through 
the glass reduced but also the heat loss by air infiltration 
is materially lessened. The coefficient of heat transmission 
U for a double glazed window is 0.55 while the air leakage 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



21 



per foot of window and door crack under these conditions 
may be taken as 15.5 cu. ft. and 31.0 cu. ft. respectively. 
When we make these improvements in the house we find 
that the heat loss per day per degree F. is reduced from 
32,602 B.T.U. to 25,777. 

Having provided the house with double windows and 
doors it is time to insulate the house proper; in other words, 
some material or materials must be used in the construction 
of the walls and roof of such a nature and in sufficient 
thickness that the heat transmission will be appreciably re- 
duced. There are a great number of these so-called insulating 
materials on the market and they are available in various 



transmission U of the walls and roof with different thick- 
nesses of this insulation. 



2O0i 




AMORTIZED COST 
OF INSULATION 



60 



40 



20 



2 3 4 5 6 

THICKNESS OF INSULATION 
CINCHES) 

Fig. 2 — Group II : Degree-Days 7500 

forms ranging from loose fill materials such as rock wool, 
shavings, peat moss, etc., to rigid fibre boards constructed 
from wood pulp, corn stalks, wheat straw, etc. These 
materials, of course, vary not only in insulating value per 
inch thickness but also in cost. In certain cases the material 
may serve some other constructional purpose besides that 
of insulation. Thus a fibre board may be used as a plaster 
base, or even, in some cases, in place of the wood sheathing. 
In this case, however, a standard insulation should be taken, 
for example, a hypothetical material having a thermal con- 
ductivity (k-value) of 0.30 B.T.U per hr. per sq. ft. per deg. F. 
temperature difference per inch thickness. This is a fairly 
representative value as an inch of this material would be 
equivalent to 7 /s in. of rock wool or to 134 in. of fibre 
board. 

The parts of the house which must be insulated are the 
outside walls and the second floor ceiling. It is assumed that 
there is no attic floor and that the insulation is placed 
directly above the plaster of the second floor ceiling. It is 
desired to determine the effect on the heat loss resulting 
from the application of different thicknesses of the standard 
insulation to the house. In Table II is given the overall 



Table II 



Thermal Transmission U 



No additional insulation. 



V?, 


inch 


insu 


1 


a 




2 


u 




3 


u 




4 


a 




5 


tt 




6 


tt 





ation . 



Wall 


Roof 


0.25 


0.31 


0.18 


0.20 


0.14 


0.15 


0.093 


0.101 


0.071 


0.076 


0.058 


0.060 


0.048 


0.053 


0.042 


0.045 



Using these coefficients the heat loss per day per deg. F. 
can now easily be determined in a similar method to that 
used for the uninsulated house. The results are given in 
Table III. 

Table III 

Calculated heat loss from the house under various con- 
ditions : 

B.T.U./day/deg. F. 



Uninsulated house. 
Double windows . . 
ation . 



V?, 


inch 


insula 


1 


a 




2 


it 




3 


it 




4 


it 




5 


it 




6 


it 





32,602 
25,777 
20,317 
17,457 
14,127 
12,767 
11,847 
11,233 
10,803 



The product of the B.T.U. loss per day per deg. F. and 
the number of degree-days per year gives the number of 
B.T.U. which are lost from the dwelling in a year. This is 
shown in Table IV. 

This represents the number of B.T.U. which must be 
supplied to the house by the fuel that is burned during the 
winter. The next step is to relate this figure to the number 
of tons of coal, gallons of oil, cords of wood, etc., which will 
be used. Although the number of B.T.U. in a ton of coal 
can be easily determined by laboratory tests, yet these 
B.T.U.'s are not all available for heating, since no furnace 
is 100 per cent efficient. In actual furnaces part of the coal 
goes unburned and is thrown out with the ash, while some 
of the hydrocarbon gases are unburnt. In all cases heat is 
lost up the chimney with the gaseous products of combus- 
tion. Since these factors vary with different types of furnaces 
and also with individual furnaces according to whether the 
furnace is running at full capacity or is burning slowly, 
considerable uncertainty exists in any estimate of the 
number of B.T.U. in a ton of coal actually available for 
heating. It must also be borne in mind that the different 
varieties of coal have widely different B.T.U. content. 

In order to have some basis of computation it is necessary 
to select a typical method of heating which will furnish 
conditions near enough to the average. In this way the 
results will be close enough to indicate general trends. Take 
for our example a furnace burning anthracite coal. The 
B.T.U. content of anthracite coals varies but an average 
would be a coal having a heat value of 13,200 B.T.U. per 
lb. or 26,400,000 B.T.U. per ton. It may be assumed that 



TABLE IV 
B.T.U. LOSS PER YEAR 



City 
Groups 


Average 

Degree — 

Days 


Uninsulated 

House 

No Double 

Windows 


Double 
Windows 


Y 2 in. 
Insulation 


1 in. 
Insulation 


2 in. 
Insulation 


3 in. 
Insulation 


4 in. 
Insulation 


5 in. 
Insulation 


6 in. 
Insulation 


I 

II 

III 

IV 


5,500 

7,500 

8,500 

10,500 


179,400,000 
244,500,000 
277,500,000 
342,300,000 


141,800,000 
193,300,000 
219,000,000 
270,300,000 


111,700,000 
152,200,000 
172,700,000 
213,300,000 


96,000,000 
131,000,000 
148,300,000 
183,200,000 


77,600,000 
106,000,000 
120,100,000 
148,300,000 


70,100,000 

95,600,000 

108,300,000 

134,000,000 


65,100,000 

88,900,000 

100,700,000 

124,300,000 


62,700,000 

84,200,000 

95,500,000 

118,000,000 


59,400,000 

81,000,000 

92,900,000 

113,300,000 



22 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



220 




THICKNESS OF INSULATION 
(INCHES) 

Fig. 3 — Group III: Degree-Days 8500 

the heating equipment is 60 per cent efficient, i.e., that 
throughout the heating season 60 per cent of the theoretical 
B.T.U. content of the coal is made directly available for 
heating purposes. Thus each ton of coal will supply 
15,840,000 B.T.U. to the house. The cost of a ton of such 
coal will be taken as $15.00. Actually, of course, the cost 
of coal varies from year to year and from place to place, 
but this figure should, under ordinary conditions, be near 
enough to the actual cost to justify general conclusions. 

Under these assumptions Table V shows the number of 
tons of coal required to heat the model house per year in 
the different degree-day groups and with different thick- 
nesses of insulation. The corresponding cost of this coal 
at the standard price is also given in the appropriate columns. 

Yearly Cost Attributable to Insulation 

The figures given in Table V represent the money which 
must be paid out for fuel under the different conditions 
assumed. Any strict method of computing heating costs 
would, however, include in the yearly fuel bill a term repre- 
senting the increased cost of the house due to the insulation. 
This must now be taken into consideration. 

For this purpose it is necessary to fix a price for this in- 
sulation. As in the case of coal this means another arbitrary 
assumption. There are as many possible costs as possible 
varieties of insulation and moreover these costs are not 
permanent. A probable figure is 3.5 cents per sq. ft. per in. 
thickness of insulation installed. The total area of the house 
which requires insulation is 2,775 sq. ft. Under these con- 



ditions the cost of putting one inch of insulation in the 
house is $97,125. 

In order to estimate how the cost of insulation affects 
the yearly fuel bill it is necessary to distribute the initial 
cost of the insulation over the life of the building. Assum- 
ing that the insulation is paid for in 25 equal yearly instal- 
ments computed on a five per cent basis, it is found from 
annuity tables (of Accountant's Handbook: Saliers, Ronald 
Press: p. 507) that $100 may be written off in 25 years at 
five per cent by a yearly payment of $7.0953. On this 
basis $7.0953 must be added to the yearly fuel bill for 
every $100 invested in insulation. In Table VI is given the 
yearly cost of various thicknesses of insulation computed 
in this way. 

TABLE VI 



Thickness of Insulation 


Initial Cost 


Yearly Payment 


y 2 " 


$ 48.562 
97.125 
194.250 
291.375 
388.500 
485.625 
582.750 


$ 3.446 


1" 

2" 


6.891 
13.782 


3" 


20.673 


4" 


27.564 


5" 

6" 


34.455 
41.346 







Total Yearly Cost for Heating 
TABLE VII 



City 
Group 


Y 2 in. 


1 in. 


2 in. 


3 in. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


6 in. 


I 

II 
III 
IV 


$109.0 
147.6 
166.8 
205.3 


$ 97.8 
130.9 
147.5 
180.7 


$ 87.3 
114.1 
127.5 
154.3 


$ 87.0 
111.3 
123.3 
147.7 


$ 89.2 
111.7 
123.0 
145.3 


$ 93.0 
114.1 
124.9 
146.3 


$ 97.5 
117.9 
128.3 
148.4 



In order, therefore, to obtain the total cost of heating the 
house for a year the yearly cost of insulation as given in 
Table VI must be added to the cost of the fuel as determined 
in Table V. These figures are given in Table VII for the 
different conditions. It can immediately be seen that for 
each city group there is a certain thickness of insulation at 
which the cost is a minimum. These points are brought out 
more clearly by the graphs in Figs. 1 to 4. Here are plotted 
both the actual cost of the fuel as given in Table V and the 
total cost as given in Table VII. The yearly cost of the 
insulation alone is also represented on the figure but the 
scale for this has in some cases a different zero. The mini- 
mum in the curve for total yearly cost is clearly shown. 
From these graphs the following figures are taken as rep- 
resenting the conditions under which the total yearly cost 
is a minimum. 

Group I = 2Y<l inches of insulation 

Group II =3 

Group III = 3^ " 

Group IV =4 

The minima shown in these curves are very broad so 

that within wide ranges of thickness the total cost remains 

practically the same. For instance, there is only an increase 

of a few dollars per year if the insulation is changed by 



TABLE V 





Uninsulated 
House 


Double 
Windows 


Y 2 in. 
Insulation 


1 in. 
Insulation 


2 in. 
Insulation 


3 in. 

Insulation 


4 in. 
Insulation 


5 in. 
Insulation 


6 in. 
Insulation 


City 
Groups 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


No. 

of 
tons 

of 
coal 


Cost 


I 

II 
III 
IV 


11.32 
15.47 
17.52 
21.63 


$170.0 
232.0 
263.0 
325.0 


9.05 
12.21 
13.83 
17.09 


$134.2 
183.2 
207.7 
256.2 


7.04 

9.61 

10.90 

13.47 


$105.6 
144.2 
163.4 
201.9 


6.06 

8.27 

9.36 

11.58 


$90.9 
124.0 
140.6 
173.8 


4.90 
6.69 

7.57 
9.36 


$73.5 
100.3 
133.7 
140.5 


4.42 
6.04 
6.84 
8.46 


$ 66.3 

90.6 

102.6 

127.0 


4.11 
5.61 
6.36 

7.85 


$ 61.6 

84.1 

95.4 

117.8 


3.90 
5.31 
6.03 

7.45 


$ 58.5 

79.6 

90.4 

111.8 


3.75 
5.11 
5.80 
7.16 


$ 56.2 

76.6 

87.0 

107.3 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



23 



Yl in. in either direction. It should be noticed, however, that 
the increase in cost is much greater if we decrease the thick- 
ness by an appreciable amount than if we increase it. This is 
especially noticeable in the city groups which have low 
degree-days. 

For this study it has, of course, been necessary to make 
specific assumptions in order to be able to carry out the 
calculations. This somewhat limits the application of the 
results, but the results do show how the problem may be 
tackled in any particular case. At the same time the figures 
determined serve as a general guide to the thickness of 
insulation that should be used in different parts of the 
country and give, on scientific grounds, a lead towards deter- 
mining the best and most economical amount of insulation. 

It is instructive in conclusion to note the assumptions 
which have been made and the ways in which they may 
be expected to influence the results. 

1. Estimate of degree-days. This figure is obtained by 
the use of statistics of average temperatures. For the in- 
dividual cities it should, over many years, give a fairly 
reliable estimate of the weather to be expected. An error 
in degree-days would only affect the insulation results to 
a minor degree. 

2. Assumption of a specific house. This would affect the 
result in that the amount of fuel saved depends on the ratio 
of the fixed heat loss to the heat loss through the walls and 
roof which can be influenced by insulation. It would be 
uneconomical to use as thick insulation in a house with a 
large ratio of window area to wall area as in a house with 
a smaller ratio. 

3. Assumption of cost of fuel. All the assumptions with 
regard to the fuel may be summed up by the one assump- 
tion of a cost per B.T.U. Different fuels, different furnaces, 
different localities will all affect the cost per B.T.U. With 
a large B.T.U. cost the economical thickness of insulation 
will increase. With a low B.T.U. cost the economical thick- 
ness is less. 



260 




2 3 4 

THICKNESS OE 
CINCHES) 



5 6 

INSULATION 



Fig. 4 — Group IV : Degree-Days 10500 

4. Type and cost of insulation. The cost of different 
varieties of insulation should be compared by estimating 
the cost to obtain insulation value equivalent to an inch 
of material having the k-factor equal to 0.30. It is obvious 
that with a material having a cost greater than the assumed 
value the thickness used should be less and with a cheaper 
material the thickness should be increased. 



THE ECONOMIC FRONT 

(Continued from page 11) 



extent of our war effort will directly depend upon the 
effectiveness with which we can organize and conserve our 
manpower. Although we have thousands of unemployed, 
they do not represent the reserve of manpower their num- 
bers would indicate. Many are temperamentally or con- 
stitutionally unfitted for work; others are specialists whose 
services under changing conditions are less needed, 
and as a whole they are below average in intelligence and 
physique. 

As more and more men are needed for war purposes, our 
peace time construction activities, large or small, public 
or private, should be tapered off. To tide over, we should 
improvise and resort to temporary expedients. What cannot 
be deferred until after the war should be done now before 
the shortage of manpower becomes acute. New projects, 
replacements and betterments use up exchange to the 
extent that imported materials are incorporated in 
them. They deplete our manpower, and they divert 
capital indispensable for war financing. They aid the 
enemy. 

The St. Lawrence Waterway, so long as the allocation 
of cost is just and it can be shown the cost of transportation 
will be reduced, taking into account the carrying charge 
of the new works and the loss of traffic to the railways, is 
the very thing to construct after the war,^to tide over post- 
war readjustment. A spirit of co-operation with our 
neighbours is indispensable, but the Americans are a 
sensible people and will realize that now we are at war we 



are in the position of a man defending himself against a 
highway robber. 

Conclusion 

When the war starts in earnest, we may be unpleasantly 
surprised. Our war effort cannot be overdone, as better 
equipment for our armed forces means corresponding fewer 
casualties. Per capita, Britain is currently spending over 
four times our anticipated expenditure for the first year of 
the war. Even to approach the British figure, we must 
first put our own house in order. Apart from their excessive 
cost, our multiplicity of governments breed sectional 
jealousy and discontent. A better understanding between 
the various sections of our country is badly needed, and 
we should treat the French-speaking Canadians with the 
same tolerance they treat the English-speaking minority in 
Quebec. We should also continue to cultivate the friendship 
of our neighbours to the south. 

We engineers are trained in the scientific approach, and 
we deal with economic problems in our everyday work. 
We can be of real service in promoting sound ideas among 
the public, since in democracies the government can only 
move when it has public opinion solidly behind it. We can 
use our good offices in reconciling the conflicting interests 
of the consumer, the producer, and labour. Only by all 
working together, can we effectively use our manpower and 
resources in this war, and lay the foundation for a lasting 
prosperity. Our aim should be to provide our Government 
with constructive support. 



NOTE — The opinions expressed by the author are his own and do not necessarily represent the opinion of 

The Engineering Institute of Canada as a body. 



24 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



MODERN MILITARY ENGINEERING 

BRIGADIER E. SCHMIDLIN, M.C. 

Department of National Defence, Ottawa, Ont. 

Address presented before a joint meeting of the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada and 
the Military Engineers' Association of Canada on December 14, 1939 



There appears to be a rather general impression, even 
among engineers, that military engineering differs in some 
fundamental way from civil engineering (using the latter 
term in its broadest sense), and that military engineering 
contains at least some elements to which the ordinary prac- 
tices of engineering do not apply. The purpose of this talk 
is to show that the impression referred to is almost entirely 
incorrect, and to indicate briefly some of the main tasks of 
the army engineer in the field, and their close parallelism 
to the tasks of the engineer in civil life. 

In general terms, the function of the engineer in his 
civil aspect, is to provide, for the community at large: 

(a) Shelter and protection from the elements for men 
and goods. 

(b) Facilities for transportation of men and goods. 

(c) Facilities for inter-communication. 

(d) Power. 

(e) Materials, both for his own use and for non-engineer- 
ing purposes. 

(f) Water. 

(g) Disposal of wastes. 

The above headings, expanded in some cases to cover 
very large fields of endeavour, will be found capable of in- 
cluding everything which the properly designated engineer- 
ing profession comprises. With very slight modifications in 
terms they will also describe all the activities of the military 
engineer in war. 

Let us discuss each one in turn and attempt to determine 
whether this statement is true, and if it is, whether the 
military engineer uses, in carrying out his functions, any 
principles or methods which differ radically from those of 
ordinary practice. 

Shelter 

The military engineer is responsible for providing shelter 
from the elements for the community (the forces in the 
field). For the sake of brevity, we will call this community 
the army, although it may contain all three of the forces 
on sea, land and air. The only difference between the 
military and the civil engineer in this matter is that the 
former works without benefit of the architect, since the 
structures used are entirely utilitarian, and are generally 
of the simplest possible type. There is certainly nothing 
new or novel in the designs, unless we except the various 
kinds of pre-fabricated and portable buildings which have 
been produced. These are attained simply by a sacrifice 
of safety factors, comfort and durability, none of which 
have the importance which they hold in civil life. Much 
ingenuity, however, has been exercised in obtaining the 
minimum of weight with the maximum speed of erection 
and dismantling, particularly in some of the larger buildings 
such as aeroplane hangars. One very clever factory-built 
semi-portable hangar might be mentioned which uses very 
light angles throughout, with framed towers as columns for 
lateral stiffness, and with many of the parts interchange- 
able, the whole structure being field bolted. 

There is one feature of the provision of shelter for the 
army, however, which is definitely apart from anything 
met with in civil life, and that is shelter against the man- 
made destructive elements which the soldier must weather 
if he is to be kept alive. Actually, even here the boundary 
between civil and military requirements is disappearing in 
these days of air bombing, and the private citizen at home 
has to be protected against enemy activity almost as fully 



as the soldier at the front, a fact which we in this country 
have hardly yet begun to appreciate. Shelters of this char- 
acter differ radically, of course, from the buildings in which 
we live normally, although they actually have their counter- 
parts in the cyclone cellars and earthquake shelters of some 
unlucky parts of the world. They are characterized by their 
subterranean location and their very great structural 
strength, and by their restricted size in comparison with 
the numbers whom they are designed to hold. They vary 
from the small family air-raid shelters intended to be sunk 
in the ground in the back garden by the householder, to 
gigantic underground workings like the Maginot fortifica- 
tions, and huge artificial caverns used for protection of oil 
and gasoline reserves. They include also open trench systems 
for protection of troops in front line positions and those 
massive- walled hollow concrete cubes which we have come 
to know as pill-boxes. The most famous example of the 
large subterranean shelter is, of course, the Maginot Line, 
which has had almost as much publicity in recent months 
as a new movie star. The Maginot Line is a truly colossal 
work. It is difficult to get any accurate figures as to its 
total cost, but it would appear to have been in the neigh- 
bourhood of 500 or 600 million dollars, or from two to three 
million per mile of its length. It involved a tremendous 
amount of tunnelling, and a large number of vertical shafts, 
and it was probably built largely by contractors experienced 
in city subway construction. It is reasonably safe to say 
that the only parts of it which are distinctly military in 
character are the arrangements for handling gun ammuni- 
tion and the gun turrets themselves. This is not intended 
in any way to detract from the work of the French army 
engineers who planned it, but merely to point out that the 
engineering methods were those of normal civil practice, 
and that the military aspect of the work lies in the purpose 
for which it is intended, and the manner in which it was 
planned so as to fulfil its function most effectively. 

It might be well to note that the purpose of the Maginot 
works, as in all other protective works in a battle zone, is 
to protect the fighting equipment, the ammunition and 
the manning personnel against destruction by the enemy's 
long-range attack, i.e., by shelling or bombing, so that the 
garrison may be always ready to man its weapons on the 
surface when the enemy advances to drive home his attack 
by means of men and man-carried weapons, aided, perhaps, 
but not yet superseded by those small moving forts which 
we call tanks. 

It would, perhaps, be worth while to digress for a moment 
at this point to discuss the possible effect of the tank on 
warfare, since this is actually the only really new weapon 
which has emerged in modern times, so far as fighting on 
land is concerned. The tank is simply a means whereby 
destructive weapons and their manning crews can be moved 
into and through the enemy's defence organizations so as 
to attack more effectively such points of resistance as cannot 
be subdued by long-range attack or by unprotected men. 
It is a highly effective weapon against an opponent who is 
himself deficient in similar equipment, or who is not pro- 
perly armed for defence against tanks. In a war of move- 
ment it may have great tactical value. Some day we may 
see a battle between tank fleets, just like a naval battle, 
on dry land. But for the attack of well fortified defensive 
positions, the value of the tank is very doubtful. It is not 
as difficult to stop as some people imagine. A fairly large 
trench of proper shape will do the trick, and so will various 
types of surface obstacle, such as the concrete teeth which 
the Germans are using, or a chevaux-de-frise of railway 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



25 



rails firmly set in earth or concrete. The tank is an easy 
target when it has been stopped, and it cannot be armoured 
against even a small shell. Consequently, it would seem 
that the course of events is not likely to be altered very 
greatly by the presence of tanks on both sides of the present 
conflict. The new weapon, in other words, loses much of 
its superiority once it is no longer new, and once an effective 
defence against it has been devised. We have excellent 
examples of this phenomenon, by the way, in the case of 
the submarine and the bombing aeroplane. 

To return to the general matter of provision of shelter, 
and to sum up, it may be said that the outstanding feature 
of this phase of the military engineer's act is the production 
of the two great belts of fortifications on the Franco-German 
border, the French system highly developed underground 
and deliberately constructed, while the German system has 
been more hastily built, has more surface structures and is 
distributed over a wider zone. It is impossible to say which 
will prove the more effective, but there seems to be little 
doubt that the French line is much the more comfortable 
for the troops to live in. 

Transportation Facilities 

The engineer service in our army does not provide and 
operate road vehicles. It does, however, provide and operate 
everything which runs on rails, and it also provides the 
roads on which vehicles must move. It is rather a paradoxical 
fact that the introduction of mechanical transport, with its 
greater speed, which it would seem at first sight should 
reduce the number of vehicles on the roads, has had pre- 
cisely the opposite effect. This is due to several factors, such 
as the large increase in the amount of munitions to be 
provided, the large proportion of the troops who now ride 
where they used to walk, the multiplicity of new equipment 
which has to be carried on vehicles, and so on. The fact 
remains that an ordinary infantry division possesses some 
6,000 motor vehicles for transportation purposes, plus the 
machines which tow guns, tanks, machine-gun and troop 
carriers, and all the rest. The result is that the engineer's 
job of making and maintaining roads in this war is going to 
be immensely greater than it was in the last one, if the 
fighting ever becomes really active. The same will be true 
of his railway work. Nevertheless, there is no such thing in 
actual fact as a "military" road or a "military railway"; 
there are only ordinary roads and ordinary railways built 
for military purposes, and, perhaps sometimes not so well 
built when haste is the only watchword. It is true that our 
handbooks of military engineering show various methods 
of building roads and of overcoming unusually difficult 
conditions, but there is not one of these which has not been 
used in a pinch in civil practice, from corduroy to fascine 
mat. Even the special units which we have for road and 
railway building are only slightly modified construction 
crews, with the engineer, the foreman and the section boss 
provided with military ranks and titles. They will take 
the field armed with the tools and equipment familiar to 
many of you, and probably including some of the latest 
things in dirt-moving machinery. Ditching machines, by 
the way, are already in use in France, making the tank 
traps which have been mentioned before. 

Mention should not be omitted that the engineers of 
our army have a marine branch. They do not go to sea, but 
they operate wherever there are inland waterways, and did 
a lot of useful work the last time on the Belgian canals. 

The question naturally arises as to the effect which 
mechanization is likely to have on the actual speed of move- 
ment of conflicting armies during a campaign. No informa- 
tion on this point can yet be gleaned from the present war. 
The German movement into Poland hardly furnishes a 
useful example, as this was, apparently, met by very little, 
or at least very poorly organized, resistance. As a result, 
the German mechanized columns were able to penetrate 
into Poland at speeds which are extremely high, when 
compared with any similar operations in the past. What 



might have happened if the Poles had been properly equip- 
ped and organized for defence against a mechanized force 
it is still impossible to say. It is, however, reasonable to 
say that an army forced to fall back, but in good order, 
and with an energetic engineer arm, should be able to slow 
down the movement of ordinary wheeled motor transport 
to a rate of not more than one or two miles per day over 
a belt of say twenty to thirty miles in average country. As 
the general speed advance of a large force is governed largely 
by its ability to get supplies forward, the speed of move- 
ment of the fighting troops would be correspondingly slowed. 
Tanks and other tracked vehicles are more difficult to deal 
with, from the engineer's point of view, but if the retreating 
force is properly armed and handled, it should not be pos- 
sible for tanks to work very far ahead of their infantry 
and artillery. It is, therefore, quite likely that in a campaign 
such as that on the Franco-German front, rapid long-distance 
movements on either side are unlikely to occur until the 
resistance of one force or the other has been worn down 
to a point where it becomes disorganized. The only alter- 
native to this would appear to be a large-scale flanking 
movement which, if successful, would take the attacker 
around the flank and to the rear of the defender, thus giving 
a chance of disorganizing the defence and giving an oppor- 
tunity of rapid large-scale movements over the defender's 
territory. This alternative is, of course, fully recognized by 
both sides, as is evidenced by the persistent rumours of a 
German flanking movement by way of Holland or Belgium 
or Luxembourg or Switzerland, as the case may be. 

Another very interesting question is one as to the endur- 
ance of motor vehicles generally under war conditions, and 
particularly if a really vigorous war of movement were to 
occur, i.e., something similar to the earlier stages of the 
Japanese invasion of China. The evidence of that cam- 
paign tends to support the idea that continued large scale 
movement of troops will not be practicable, because of the 
exhaustion and depletion of motor-vehicles. Destruction 
of roads and wastage of equipment is likely to increase at 
such a rate, if the operations are in a fairly large territory, 
that they will slow movements practically to a halt in a 
few months. 

The net impression which the foregoing rather rambling 
discussion is intended to convey is that the engineer in 
modern wars will construct roads and railways as in pre- 
vious wars, but will use more mechanical equipment than 
heretofore. He will also have more work to do because of 
the great increase in motor vehicles. At the same time, the 
task of repairing roads and track during an advance will 
be much heavier than before, because the ability of the 
engineer to destroy has likewise been greatly improved by 
the use of mechanical aids. The destruction of roads by 
cratering, for example, can be carried out very rapidly and 
extensively, as compared with the slow and laborious 
methods of the last war. We may, therefore, expect to 
see long stretches of road made impassable as against 
the isolated cross-road craters which war veterans will 
remember. 

Facilities for Inter-communication 

While communications form a very important branch of 
engineering in the civil community, they are no longer the 
concern of the army engineer. All work of this description 
is grouped under the one comprehensive head of "signals" 
and signals is one of the many activities of the fighting 
forces which were originally children of the engineer arm, 
but which, as they grew to adult size, went off on their 
own and now (sometimes) even think that they are "bigger 
men than daddy." The story of these offspring of the 
engineers is a familiar one to most soldiers, but there may 
be no harm in repeating it briefly for the benefit of those 
who have not heard it before. 

The first, and the most obstreperous of the engineer 
children was the artillery. This child was born a long time 
ago — back in the seventeenth century or thereabouts, but 



26 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



it is a historical fact that ordnance, i.e., firearms too heavy 
to be carried by a man, was first used by the sappers of 
those early days, and quite logically, for its job was to 
break the walls of fortresses, and this was for the sappers 
to do. Later, when artillery came to be used directly against 
troops, and its use was consequently very much increased, 
it became a separate arm. The close association between 
gunners and sappers has, however, continued to this day, 
and their uniforms, their colours and their badges still 
retain many points of similarity. 

The second offshoot of the engineers was submarine 
mining. There was a time when we had special submining 
units who looked after harbour defences. Then, just about 
the beginning of the twentieth century, say 1904 or 1905, 
it was decided that this sort of work should be 
done by the navy, and the old amphibian sappers dis- 
appeared, to the great regret of many, for it was an 
interesting job. 

Next came mechanical transport. This came into being 
as a very wobbly infant about 1900, when most of the 
vehicles were steam-driven lorries. The whole business was 
an engineer stunt, and was looked on in those days with a 
certain amount of derision by the rest of the army. How- 
ever, it grew and grew, and finally, about the beginning 
of the last war, it was taken over by the Army Service 
Corps and the Army Ordnance Corps more or less both at 
the same time. Its history since then has been fairly colour- 
ful, not to say hectic in spots, but it is too long a story to 
tell here. At any rate, the engineers handed it over, because 
they were very busy bringing up two very new babies which 
appeared almost at the same time. These were the Air 
Force and the Signals. The former began as a series of 
experiments with large kites, the idea being to use them 
for observation purposes. Then the Wright brothers came 
along, and the kite enthusiasts turned their attention to 
flying machines. The sappers were mixed up in flying right 
up to the beginning of the last war, and many of the earliest 
pilots of the R.F.C. were engineers who had been in the 
experimental sections and wanted to stick to flying. Signals 
remained an engineer job right through the war, by which 
time it, in its turn, had become large enough to stand on 
its own feet, and the Royal Corps of Signals was formed. 
These people are, actually, engineers still, for their officers 
are all fully trained electrical engineers who have specialized 
in communications. 

And, finally, the latest child has just grown up and left 
the old homestead within the past year or so. For many 
years, the handling of searchlights, both on coast defences 
and for anti-aircraft work, has been the job of the engineer. 
Now, however, because these lights always work in con- 
junction with guns, it has been decided that they should 
be handled by gunners. 

In case anyone should feel that the poor old Engineer 
Corps must now be pretty well denuded of its family, it 
might be well to point out, in conclusion, that there are 
still something like two hundred separate types of engineer 
units which may be required in a big war, so that there is 
no lack of either numbers or variety in the sapper family. 
Whether any of the remaining children will, in course of 
time, again grow to the status of an independent arm or 
corps, it is hard to say. At present it does not look that way. 

Power Supply 
The army engineer will seldom, if ever, be asked to instal 
any large-scale power plants in the field, for very obvious 
reasons. Nevertheless, he will probably have in operation 
in the aggregate, a quite respectable horsepower in portable 
and semi-portable plants operated by internal combustion 
engines. In the last war, electric light in our service was a 
great luxury, enjoyed only by the chosen few, and even 
then, in many cases, only through the enterprise and in- 
genuity of some engineer officer. Now, however, electric 
power will be provided as a regular service to all higher 
formations, the plants being carried in special trucks. 



Provision of Materials 

The obtaining of materials from natural sources, and the 
manufacture of synthetic materials is, as you all know, a 
very important function, indeed, of the engineer in civil 
life. The mining engineer, the chemical engineer, the metal- 
lurgist and the forestry engineer are all key men in our 
civilization. The army engineer, on the other hand, has his 
materials fed to him, for very obvious reasons, and is con- 
cerned very little with their production. In other words, 
he depends on his colleagues at home to do this part of the 
job. There are, however, two fairly important exceptions — 
the supply of timber and the supply of road metal. The 
last war showed that the use of special army units for the 
rapid production of lumber from the forests of Great Britain 
and France, for the use of the army itself, was an excellent 
idea. It conserved a lot of shipping. So the Forestry Corps 
will probably appear again one of these days, if the war 
becomes active, and it will be surprising if we are not called 
on to furnish a lot of expert lumbermen again, as we did 
the last time. 

The other material — road metal — is one which obviously 
must be produced more or less on the job. In the last war, 
we had not realized this, and sometimes it was pretty hard 
to get, so that roads got into desperate condition. This 
time we are forewarned, and one of the many odd engineer 
units is one for quarrying and crushing rock. Its product, 
of course, will also be available for concrete making. 

Water Supply 
In his rôle as water provider, the army engineer again 
uses practically all the methods to which we are accustomed 
in civil practice. In fact, the principal development in this 
function has been that civil methods are more extensively 
applied than in the past, and more mechanical aids are 
used. We now have a special unit designed for the drilling 
of wells, for example, and portable power pumps replace 
the old-time hand pumps for taking water from lakes and 
streams. It may be noted, by the way, that the water 
supply duty of the engineer is one of the few — perhaps the 
only one — which has been lightened by the disappearance 
of the horse, since horse-watering used to be the most 
difficult part of the job, and called for the greater part of 
the supply. 

Disposal of Wastes 

Sewage disposal, naturally, cannot be a very elaborate 
or scientific affair with an army in the field. It is, never- 
theless, a real and constant responsibility for the army 
engineer, and a good deal of thought and ingenuity have 
gone into the development of field methods of sanitation, 
especially those for standing camps. 

Camouflage 

To the list of functions of the engineer in civil life, we 
may add just one which is peculiar to the military engineer, 
and has no counterpart in ordinary experience. That is, the 
art or science of camouflage. It is a little difficult to under- 
stand why this should have been laid on the doorstep of 
the engineers originally, because it is compounded of a 
great deal of art and a very small amount of engineering. 

In conclusion, it may be said, in a very general sort of 
way, that while the army engineer still has to be pretty 
much a jack of all trades, the tendency is rather towards 
narrowing his field of activity to what we are accustomed 
to think of as the functions of the civil engineer, leaving 
the mechanical and electrical sides to other specialized arms 
of the service. There is also a definite trend toward the 
use of more mechanical equipment, and to adopt equipment 
of well-tried commercial type in many cases, rather than 
to produce special military types. And, finally, the similarity 
between military and civil engineering is becoming greater 
as the army's demands, particularly in the main fields of 
shelter and transportation, become heavier, and render the 
old-time military engineering makeshifts less and less cap- 
able of meeting the requirements. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



27 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



LOW HEAD PRODUCES HIGH CAPACITY 

By George Willcock, Trollhattan, in Power, December, 1939 

Abstracted by R. C. Flitton, a.m.e.i.c. 

The newest and most notable of Sweden's hydro-electric 
plants is the Vargon Station in which two 18,000 h.p. 
Kaplan turbines operate at the extremely low head of 11.5 
to 16.5 ft. 

This plant is at the head of the Gotha River, where it 
leaves Lake Vanern, 50 miles from the City of Gothenburg. 
Below Vargôn are the Trollhattan plant, operating under 
105 ft. head and Lilla Edit with a head of 21.5 ft., all owned 
and operated by the Royal Board of Waterfalls of Sweden. 

The turbine runners at Vargon are 26.25 ft. in dia. the 
largest in the world. Were it not for the fact that a dam 
had to be constructed to control flow from Lake Vânern, 
this plant probably would not have been economical. Cost 
of putting turbines in this dam was kept low by placing 
the runners above headwater level in syphon settings, 
rendering headgates unnecessary and reducing rock excava- 
tion for draft tubes. 

Lake Vànern, Sweden's largest and Europe's third largest 
lake, with 5.5 ft. drawdown stores sufficient water to 
generate 850 millions of kw.h. which is 60 per cent of the 
power generated by the three plants on the Gotha River. 
The regulating section of the dam is controlled from 
Trollhattan plant 12 miles downstream. 

Intake openings to each unit are 62.5 ft. wide by 32 ft. 
high. The draft tubes are 59 ft. deep measured from the 
centre of the runners and their outlets are 67.5 ft. wide 
by 24.3 ft. high. Each runner has four blades of stainless 
steel, which are adjusted by a governor-operated servo- 
motor to an angle corresponding to head and the load on 
the unit. 

Crown plate and gate rings are of cast iron in segments. 
Weight from above is carried down into the foundation by 
twelve stay vanes. The draft tube is lined for 28 feet by 
steel plate, chrome-nickel being used in the top half and 
mild steel in the bottom half. Removal of runner blades is 
made possible by having a segment of liner removeable. 
The gates, twenty-four in number, are 10 ft. 6 in. high. One 
unit has vertical gates controlled by a single servomotor, 
while in the other they are at an angle and controlled by 
two servomotors. Each governor has a capacity of 440,000 
ft. lb. 

The shafts are 34.25 in. in dia. and are guided by white- 
metal bearings bolted to crown plate and having force-feed 
oil lubrication. A labyrinth water seal is provided where 
shaft passes through crown plate. 

Control at this plant is a feature. The actuators are driven 
by synchronous reaction motors receiving their current 
from a synchronous generator driven from the main shaft 
by the same gearing as that which drives the exciter, and 
the governor oil-pressure pump. Speed changes bring about 
the desired changes in gate position and blade position by 
the servomotors. The flume is filled by evacuating air from 
it by a large ejector, which requires about four hours. A 
small ejector, actuated by a contact on the float-operated 
rheostat that indicates water level in the turbine chamber, 
is designed to remove air from the top of the syphon. The 
use of this ejector has been found to be unnecessary as any 
air collecting is carried down through with the water. 

Two air valves for emptying the syphon are provided, 
being held closed by governor oil pressure and can be con- 
trolled from the turbine control panel. They are only 
opened in emergency and empty the syphon in a few 
seconds. 

A mechanism which combines movement of runner blades 
with that of the gates, known as a combinator, moves the 
runner blades to their normal position after the turbine 



Contributed abstracts of articles appear- 
ing in the current technical periodicals 



starts. Blade position is indicated on the control board by 
signal lamps. 

To stop the turbine, the gates are closed and held by a 
catch, after which the combinator motor turns the runner 
blades to the open position ready for starting. Operation 
of the combinator motor is interlocked with the catch on 
the gates to prevent incorrect operation sequence. If oil 
pressure goes below a predetermined value, the blade servo- 
motor supply is cut off and the gate servomotor operated 
to close. Oil supply for gates is ensured in emergency by 
cutting off supply to blade servomotor. If for any reason 
power to actuator motors fails, the gates are automatically 
locked for the load for which they are set. The protective 
device at fault is indicated on the main control board and 
when the fault is removed the gates are unlocked by push- 
button on the control panel. For overspeed a centrifugal 
switch energizes a magnet which causes the gates to close. 
Should this protection fail, the unit is stopped by opening 
the vacuum breaker valves, which can be relied upon to 
stop the unit in emergency, as the water ceases to flow to 
the unit. Another centrifugal switch opens the exciter field 
circuit and when the unit is closed down by any means, 
the generator circuit breaker and exciter switch open auto- 
matically. 

The generators, which are of the outdoor type, are of 
12,000 k.v.a. capacity at 11,000 volts, one being 25 cycle and 
the other 50 cycle. Their speed is 46.9 r.p.m. and therefore 
their dimensions are large, being 38 ft. in diameter. The 
thrust bearing capacity is 1,600,000 lb. 

The Vargon plant is considered part of the Trollhattan 
station and is, therefore, controlled remotely from it. Start- 
ing and synchronizing is, however, done at the plant itself. 

Control from Trollhattan includes operation and super- 
vision of the generator breaker position; also supervisory 
control of transformer-voltage-ratio regulator, two sector 
regulating gates, turbine-gate opening, governor operating 
range and voltage regulation setting for each unit. Meters at 
Trollhattan show water level in turbine flumes, head and 
tailwater levels, turbine gate opening, governor position, 
voltage, frequency, kw. load and the kw.h. generated at 
Vargon. Alarm signals are provided for low flume level, and 
high temperature windings. Control may be transferred to 
either plant. Carbon dioxide fire protection is provided in 
the generators. 

SUBMARINE WARFARE IN 1917 AND 1939 

Engineering, October 13, 1939 

In a recent issue of the French weekly periodical, Le 
Journal de la Marine Marchande, Commandant Jean de 
Fussy discussed submarine warfare at some length in an 
article appearing under the general heading of "La Défense 
des Routes Maritimes." In the belief that they will be of 
interest to our readers, we give below the substance of his 
remarks. 

Commander de Fussy observes that the torpedoing of 
the British liner Athenia, at a point some 200 miles west 
of the Hebrides, less than 24 hours after the declaration 
of war, points, on the one hand, to premeditation on the 
part of Germany, and, on the other, to her intention to 
indulge in unrestricted submarine warfare, as in 1917. As 
was emphasized by Mr. Chamberlain in the House of Com- 
mons, on September 13, it was manifestly impossible for 
submarines, having a maximum surface speed of 15 knots, 
to reach the region west of the Hebrides on September 3, 
unless they had left their bases and received orders before 
the declaration of war. Germany's intention to wage un- 



28 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



restricted submarine warfare was proved by the facts that, 
in the first place, the Athenia was a passenger liner carrying 
1,400 persons, 300 of whom were Americans; secondly, that 
she was proceeding from Europe to the United States, thus 
rendering it extremely unlikely that her cargo included any 
war material; and, thirdly, that the 1936 Convention, to 
which Germany was a party, prescribed that a submarine 
must call on a vessel to stop before proceeding to seize her. 
The sinking of the Athenia thus constituted a more serious 
crime than the torpedoing of the Lusitania, which took 
place nine months after the declaration of the war in 1914, 
when this vessel was proceeding to Great Britain. 

Commander de Fussy contended, however, that the sub- 
marine was at present infinitely less of a menace than it 
was in February, 1917. At the commencement of 1917 the 
enemy had between 150 and 175 submarines in service and 
were constructing a further 200; whereas, on May 1 of the 
present year, they possessed only seven flotillas, comprising 
52 vessels, and were building 19 further ships. Furthermore, 
he added, in her haste to reconstruct her submarine fleet 
and to train crews, Germany had sacrificed quality to 
quantity. Of the 52 vessels in service, as many as 28 were 
small 250-ton units, while 16 were of 500 tons, and eight 
of 740 tons. These last were the only ones capable of 
undertaking long cruises; the radius of action of the others 
was very limited, and, in the absence of bases or of floating 
revictualling and refuelling depots, they could do little 
more than cruise in the Baltic or North Sea. Further, the 
250-ton submarines were armed with one small-calibre anti- 
aircraft gun and three torpedo tubes only, and their maxi- 
mum speed was 13 knots, on the surface, and seven knots 
when submerged. Thus, from the point of view of endurance, 
these vessels could not compare with the large 1,400-ton 
French submarines, carrying one 100-mm. (3.9-in) gun and 
12 torpedo tubes, and capable of a surface speed of upwards 
of 20 knots. 

During the course of the war of 1914-18, the efficiency 
of the submarine as an instrument of warfare was a revela- 
tion and it was only towards the end of 1917 that the Allies 
were able to put into operation effective measures for the 
protection of shipping. On the other hand, of all war in- 
struments, the submarine had, perhaps, progressed least 
during the past 20 years. It was, perhaps, less vulnerable 
than formerly, but no sensational increase in its fighting 
power had manifested itself. Taking dimensions into ac- 
count, the speed and radius of action, on the surface and 
when submerged, had remained practically the same as 
they were during the last war. The submarine was still 
slower, when submerged, than the slowest cargo vessel. In 
striking contrast with this, the anti-submarine defence 
measures introduced in 1917 had developed continuously 
during the last 20 years, and, moreover, the increases in the 
speed of merchant ships and in the efficiency of patrolling 
aircraft had greatly augmented the difficulties of submarine 
attack. 

Admiral Lord Jellicoe* stated that, in September, 1916, 
1,749 merchant ships had been provided with defensive 
armament, and that this number had increased to 2,899 
on February 22, 1917, to 3,253 on May 15, 1917, and to 
3,656 at the end of December, 1917. During the period 
January 1 to 25, 1917, 310 armed British merchant ships 
were attacked by submarines. Of these, 236 escaped, 62 
were sunk without warning by torpedo attack, and only 12 
were sunk as the result of gun fire. During the same period, 
302 unarmed vessels were attacked; 67 escaped, 30 were 
sunk by torpedo attack without warning, and 205 were 
sunk by shell fire or by bombs. These figures indicated the 
importance of arming merchant ships; as, after sighting a 
merchantman carrying guns an enemy submarine would 

* Commander de Fussy quoted Le Péril Sous-Marin; presumably 
he referred to The Crisis of the Naval War. 



not, in the majority of cases, run the risk of trying shell 
fire and must, therefore, submerge and endeavour to carry 
out its attack by torpedo. The latter, however, was a 
capricious weapon; and a submarine, which carried shells 
sufficient to sink a hundred merchantmen, had at its dis- 
posal a maximum of 12 torpedoes to last for the entire 
cruise. 

The convoy system adopted at the end of the last war 
was another highly-effective means of combating the sub- 
marine menace. Admiral Lord Jellicoe, in the book already 
quoted, stated that the convoy system enabled 1,037,116 
men to be conveyed across the Atlantic, between January 1 
and November 30, 1918, the total loss of life amounting to 
637, or 0.061 per cent. With the introduction of satisfactory 
defence measures, the losses of enemy submarines were 
high. The Germans lost 63 submarines in 1917 and 69 in 
1918, or about a third of the average number of vessels 
in service during each year. These results were due to the 
mine barrages in the North Sea and in the Straits of Dover, 
and also to the action of patrol vessels of all types, includ- 
ing destroyers, trawlers and armed yachts. 

To combat 170 German submarines in 1917, the Allies 
had at their disposal 270 destroyers and upwards of 800 
trawlers; against the 52 German submarines now in service, 
their situation regarding patrol vessels was, in proportion, 
much superior. Moreover, aircraft patrols would be far 
more effective in combating the submarine menace than 
was the case 20 years ago. Hence, it appeared that the 
German submarine methods of warfare were bound to fail, 
even if partial successes, such as the sinking of H.M.S. 
Courageous, were sometimes secured. The submarine men- 
ace, however, should not be under-estimated, nor, on the 
other hand, should it be over-exaggerated. At the present 
time, the German Navy did not possess sufficient vessels 
to conduct an unrestricted submarine campaign. The enemy 
could, however, construct these vessels fairly rapidly, hence 
it was absolutely imperative that measures for the protec- 
tion of mercantile fleets, similar to those so successfuly 
utilized in 1917, should be adopted without delay. 

COMPULSORY APPRENTICESHIP IN FRANCE 

The Engineer, November 24, 1939 

In May, 1938, a decree was published instituting a system 
of compulsory apprenticeship which was to come into oper- 
ation on January 1st, 1940. A pre-apprenticeship period 
begins at schools where it is proposed to extend the leaving 
age by a year, during which time boys will be given oppor- 
tunities for showing their predilection and aptitude for 
particular trades by working in shops. They will then be 
apprenticed to those trades unless parents should give 
reasons for desiring that their boys should follow other oc- 
cupations. Employers are required to train a number of 
apprentices representing a certain percentage of the total 
number of the personnel employed, or else they can organize 
the training collectively in professional schools or in other 
ways. The training comprises a minimum number of hours 
for technical instruction. All this entails a vast organization 
all over the country which already exists in its main lines 
and was not entirely completed on the outbreak of war. 
Skilled workers are now needed in the metallurgical and 
engineering trades more than ever before. It is not possible 
to put the compulsory apprenticeship law into operation at 
the beginning of next year, so far as concerns the pre-ap- 
prenticeship organization, but employers in the engineering 
trades must arrange for the training of the required per- 
centage of apprentices either in their own works or collec- 
tively from the first of January next. This temporary ar- 
rangement during the war also includes the training of 
specialized women workers. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



29 



FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL GENERAL 

■ TORONTO - ROY 

^JudStixbcuf, and fyiiâcuj, 




PROGRAMME 



A. E. BERRY, 

General Chairman and Chairman of the 
Hotel Arrangements Committee 



THURSDAY, February 8th 

10.00 a.m.— Annual Meeting. 

12.30 p.m. — Luncheon. 

2.30 p.m. — Technical Session. 

4.00 p.m. — Address of Retiring Pre- 
sident. 

7.30 p.m. — Banquet. 

10.30 p.m. to 2.00 a.m.— Dance. 

Dr. F. Cyril James, Principal of McGill University, will be the guest speaker at 
the banquet on Thursday night. 



FRIDAY, February 9th 

9.30 a.m. — Technical Session. 

12.30 p.m. — Luncheon. 

2.30 p.m. — Technical Session. 

Evening — Free for social gatherings 
privately arranged. 




O. HOLDEN, 

Chairman of the Luncheons, Dinner & 
Entertainment Committee 





A. ROSS ROBERTSON, 
Chairman of the Finance Committee 



W. E. BONN, 
Chairman of the Reception Committee 



Special return tickets will be supplied by the railways at the rate of one and a third of the regular one- 



AND PROFESSIONAL MEETING 

AL YORK HOTEL ■ 

QeUuoMf, S and 9, 1940 



PAPERS 

The Economic Front by G. A. Gaherty, M.E.I.C. 

Soil Mechanics at the Shand Dam by A. W. F. McQueen, M.E.I.C. and R. C. 
McMordie, A.M.E.I.C 

Practicable Forms for Flight Test Reporting by Elizabeth MacGill, A.M.E.I.C. 

Highway Control and Safety by Angus D. Campbell, M.E.I.C. 

Limit Design by C. M. Goodrich, M.E.I.C. 

The Present Status of Grounding Practice with Particular Reference to Protection 
Against Shock by W. P. Dobson, M.E.I.C. 

Developments in Alloys During the Last Twenty Years by O. W. Ellis. 




C. R. YOUNG, 

Chairman of the Papers & Meetings 
Committee 




D. D. WHITSON, 
Chairman of the Publicity Committee 



SPECIAL EVENTS FOR 
LADIES 

Under the convenorship of Mrs. A. E. 
Berry and Mrs. J. J. Spence 

Thursday, a.m. — Registration. 

p.m. — Afternoon Tea — 

Library, Royal York 
Hotel. 

Friday, a.m. — Tour of T. Eaton Com- 
pany, Limited, Depart- 
mental Store. 

noon — Luncheon, Georgian 
Room at Eaton's. 

p.m. — Theatre Party. 




F. H. C. SEFTON, 

Chairman of the Registration & 
Information Committee 



way fare. Necessary certificates will be mailed shortly along with a programme of the entire meeting. 



^WNO IHSTrt 




Go4ftme*it... 



CO-OPERATION IN NOVA SCOTIA 

It will be good news to members of the Institute to know 
that the proposed cooperative agreement with the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia has met 
with the approval of the qualified voters, both of the 
Institute and of the Association. The agreement itself was 
published in the December Journal, and the result of the 
Institute ballot appears elsewhere in this issue. 

When a similar agreement was reached with Saskatche- 
wan, it was said that it was "the first firm step toward 
full co-operation between engineering bodies in Canada." 
Thus this becomes the second "firm step" toward that 
worthy objective. It seems only right that an early agree- 
ment should have been reached with Nova Scotia, because 
it was one of the provinces that long ago discussed the 
subject seriously with the Institute. In 1934 a provincial 
plan was underway and had made considerable progress 
before it was set to one side to await the outcome of the 
activities of the Consolidation Committee. 

Within the last two years many engineers have worked 
long and seriously over this agreement. They have seen it 
approved by all committees only to be upset by legal 
complications. They have gone on again with a determina- 
tion that would not be beaten, to finally complete a docu- 
ment that has met approval from all sides. It must be 
gratifying to them to see their work finally crowned with 
success, and comforting to know that they have had a 
hand in bringing about such an advance in the affairs of 
the profession within their province. 

The chairman of the Committee on Professional Interests 
reports that negotiations are underway in other provinces 
as well. Local committees are discussing the matter and 
doubtless will communicate with the Council committee 
when some satisfactory basis has been decided upon among 
themselves. Such negotiations are a hopeful sign for they 
indicate that the advantages of cooperation between 
engineering societies are appreciated, and are not con- 
sidered as an ideal beyond the reach of the profession. 
With Nova Scotia now joining Saskatchewan in this for- 
ward movement, it is definite that real progress is being 
made. 

"GOOD APPOINTMENT" 

Under the above heading the Lethbridge Herald makes 
editorial comment in the appointment of P. M. Sauder, 
m.e.i. c, vice-president of the Institute, to the position of 
Director of Water Resources for Alberta. The editorial 
goes on to say: 

"Mr. Sauder has been connected with irrigation and 
water development in Alberta for most of his engineering 
career, and we doubt if there is any man better qualified 
to step into the shoes of L. C. Charlesworth, who recently 

vacated the post on superannuation He has seen 

the Lethbridge Northern project grow from a dustbed 
where 75,000 acres of wheat blew out of the ground in 
June, 1920, to a garden spot where close to 1,000 farm 
families have an assured and comfortable living." 

The announcement will be well received by members of 
the Institute, particularly those in the West who are more 
familiar with the excellent work which has been done by 
Mr. Sauder on irrigation in southern Alberta. The words of 
praise and commendation appearing in all the western 
papers are no more than is due him. 



MODERN HISTORY 

Newspapers have recently given publicity to an event 
which is of unusual interest to members of the Institute, 
but only within a few days of this writing have full details 
been released. The culmination of a short six months of 
steady effort was the first flight of the new Maple Leaf 
Trainer II at Fort William on October 31, which had 
been designed by Elizabeth MacGill, a.m.e.i.c, chief aero- 
nautical engineer of one of Canada's leading manufacturers. 
The plane was also built under her supervision and the 
first flight was made with her at the instruments. This 
appears to be aviation history in the making. 

The "ship" has met and exceeded generous expectations. 
It is believed to have reached new levels of performance 
for its class, and to have brought general satisfaction to 
all who have been associated with it. It is designed as a 
primary training machine and beyond a doubt readily ful- 
fills all the requirements. 

Company officials explain that from the day Miss 
MacGill began the design until the first flight was made, 
exactly six months elapsed. This is a splendid achievement 
and reflects great credit on the engineering organization 
and on the shops as well. It appears that the men in the 
plant took an unusual interest in this machine, and by 
intensive effort were able to rush it to completion in spite 
of a heavy production schedule on other contracts. 

Miss MacGill is a graduate of Toronto in electrical en- 
gineering and insists she is a "School man." She took her 
master's degree at Michigan and had done additional study 
in aeronautics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

She will deliver a paper at the Annual Meeting of the 
Institute at Toronto in February, which no doubt will prove 
to be an outstanding feature of the programme. A photo- 
graph and a description of the plane with some performance 
figures appear on the opposite page. 

PAST PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

The committee, under the chairmanship of Professor 
R. DeL. French, has selected the topic for the 1939-1940 
competition for this prize from the subjects suggested by 
the various branches. The topic, "Engineering in National 
Defence," seems to be the one most appropriate to the 
time, and most frequently referred to under various head- 
ings in branch recommendations. 

By way of a guide as to what the committee has in 
mind, the following suggestions are made: the subject is 
intended to cover the work of the civilian engineer, although 
it is not intended to debar the military engineer from the 
competition. For example, a civil engineer might write 
upon transportation under war conditions, on the con- 
struction and maintenance of air training centres, bar- 
racks, dockyards, etc. The mechanical engineer might write 
on the production of munitions, shipbuilding, aircraft con- 
struction, etc. The electrical engineer might deal with the 
additional demands on power and communication systems 
due to wartime activities, special electrical devices such 
as searchlights used on active service, etc. The mining 
engineer might produce a survey of the mining industry 
and the changes which take place in it under wartime 
economy. 

Recently the number of papers submitted for this com- 
petition has been discouragingly small. Subjects selected 
from year to year have varied from the technical to the 
general in an endeavour to find something that would 
appeal to the greatest number, but success has not crowned 
the efforts. Last year not one paper was submitted, and 
yet the subject was thought to be of a sufficiently general 
nature to touch the work and interest of many members. 
The prize is one hundred dollars in cash which of itself 
should attract attention and justify an effort from several 
sources. The competition closes June 30th, 1940. The com- 
mittee hopes that better results will be obtained this year. 



32 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CORRESPONDENCE 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, GENERAL SECRETARY, 
E.I.C., 2050 MANSFIELD STREET, MONTREAL. 

Dear Sir: 

I trust you will forgive me the long delay in answering 
your last letter, but my change of residence, the new duties 
I have assumed, the war and future events which it is too 
early to mention yet, have prevented me from doing so. 

The conditions under which I write to you tonight arevery 
different from those of a few months ago. The most ap- 
parent differences of course, are physical: windows blacked- 
out, streets unlit, gardens dug up, a big mound at the end 
of it, concealing our "Anderson" shelter; people about with 
gas-masks slung across the shoulder, uniforms, etc. But 
there is abroad a changed atmosphere, that of a determin- 
ation, of the resoluteness of a made-up mind, the satisfac- 
tion of knowing where we stand. Conversations are pungent 
with it, and its aroma penetrates even the most trivial 
every-day act. It is a very heartening feeling, that of 
knowing a people awakened from its "laisser-faire" and it 
is the most catching disease. Nobody can help being proud 
of Britain and France, and you can believe me, there are no 
flags waving about. 

Everybody does his bit. In our profession, where it is for- 
bidden to volunteer, production is increased through longer 
hours and increased individual efficiency. I have accepted 
the direction of two large boiler contracts, and expect a 
third soon. One of these boilers is the first of the reheater 
type to be built by the company. It is also the largest output 
and highest pressure attempted; 300,000 lb. per hr. at 1500 
lb. per sq. in. The work involved is most interesting, con- 
sisting in the design of the details of fabrication and in the 
supervision of a couple dozen men. The experience certainly 
repays for the increased responsibility. 

I have also assumed the duties of a gas warden at the 
works, attending lectures, rehearsals, etc., and am now 
proud to advertise myself as qualified ARP worker. These 
duties involve evenings and week-ends on guard on the 
company's premises and consequently a scantier family 
life. 

Please accept my good wishes. Sincerely yours, 
November 10, 1939. (Sgd.) gerald martin, ji-.e.i.c. 



HOSPITALITY IN HOUSTON, TEXAS 

An excellent example of fraternalism among engineers is 
shown in the following letter. If any members visit Houston 
it is hoped they will call at the Club and extend greetings 
from the Institute. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary, 
E.I.C., 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal, Que. 

Dear Sir, 

The Houston Engineers' Club extends an invitation to 
the members of The Engineering Institute of Canada to 
make use of its Club quarters and facilities located at 2615 
Fannin Street, Houston, Texas, and to participate in the 
luncheon meetings held on alternate Tuesdays at the Rice 
Hotel. 

The Club was organized in 1918. Its membership was 
increased from 75 to approximately 700 within the period 
of eight months ending June 1, 1939. 

Quarters for the Club consist of a lounge and recreation 
room, refreshment bar, library and reading room. A full 
time secretary is in charge of the facilities which include 
limited office space for engineer members of the Club, and 
equipment for handling preparation and mailing of letters 
and notices for the Club and other technical organizations. 

The Club is making its quarters available for meetings 
of local engineering and scientific groups; and local sections 
of the national societies will be invited to make the Club 



their official headquarters. Club activities stress co-opera- 
tive effort between all branches of the profession and active 
participation of the engineer in civic affairs. A placement 
service is in process of organization. 

We will appreciate advance information concerning pros- 
pective visits to Houston of distinguished engineers so that 
proper recognition may be accorded by local engineers, the 
press, and public generally. 

Our Club quarters are open every day in the year, and 
properly identified visiting engineers will be made welcome 
in true Southern style. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Charles H. Topping, 
November 1, 1939. Secretary-Treasurer. 

THE MAPLE LEAF TRAINER II 

The Maple Leaf Trainer II, an ab-initio or primary 
trainer, was designed and built by Canadian Car & Foundry 
Company, Limited, at their Fort William plant. 

The aircraft is a two-seater, open cockpit, single engined 
biplane, fully aerobatic in accordance with British Air 
Ministry specifications — A. P. 1208. 




The Maple Leaf Trainer II at Fort William, Ont. 

A few of the many excellent features of this aircraft from 
a training point of view are its excellent visibility on the 
ground and in the air, its stability and controllability at 
take-off and on landing. The take-off run is exceptionally 
short and the initial rate of climb excellent. The stalling 
speed is low — 45 m.p.h. with a gross load of 1,865 lbs. — 
and the machine has no tendency to spin from the stall. 

Specifications 

Span 32 ft. 

Length 22 ft. 11 in. 

Engine Warner Super Scarab 145 h.p. 

at sea level. 
Gas Capacity Main tank, 25 Yi Imp. Gals. 

(30^ U.S. Gals.). 
Reserve tank, 5 Imp. Gals. 

(6 U.S. Gals.). 

Oil Capacity 2^ Imp. Gals. (3 U.S. Gals.). 

Weight (Empty) 1,278 lb. (with metal propeller). 

Weight (Gross) 1,865 lb. 

Speed (Maximum) 120 m.p.h. 

Speed (Cruising) 101 m.p.h. 

Climb At sea level at 1,865 lb. gross 

weight 840 ft. per minute. 
Stalling Speed 45 m.p.h. (1,865 lb. gross 

weight) . 

Service Ceiling 14,400 ft. 

Absolute Ceiling 16,600 ft. 

Range at Cruising Speed . . 346 miles. 

Performance figures obtained with 6.9 ft. metal propeller 
and relate to landplane (wheels) only. The aircraft can be 
fitted with either metal or wooden propeller. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



33 



MEETINGS OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council of the Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Saturday, November 25th, 1939, at nine- 
thirty a.m., with Vice-President H. 0. Keay in the chair, 
and thirteen other members of Council present. 

Mr. Larivière reported that in accordance with Council's 
instructions his committee had been investigating the 
question of allowing engineers to make income tax deductions 
for expenses and depreciation on their cars. The committee 
had learned from the Commissioner of Income Tax that 
the whole question of such exemptions was at present under 
revision, and that he would be glad to receive any sugges- 
tions from the Institute. After discussion, it was resolved 
that Mr. Larivière be empowered to act on behalf of his 
committee and submit recommendations as requested by 
the Commissioner. 

A report was submitted by Professor French, as chairman 
of the Past-Presidents' Prize Committee, in which a number 
of suggestions were made as to the desirability of changes in 
the present rules for the Past-Presidents' Prize. After con- 
siderable discussion it was decided that a further effort 
should be made to secure papers under the present rules 
before adopting alternative proposals. Council's thanks were 
accorded to Professor French and his committee in recogni- 
tion of the large amount of work involved in the report pre- 
sented. 

In presenting the monthly financial statement, which was 
satisfactory, the chairman of the Finance Committee drew 
attention to the beneficial results arising from the con- 
tinuance of visits by the President and the General Secre- 
tary to the branches of the Institute throughout Canada. 
Mr. Newell was of opinion that such visits did much to 
promote the well-being of the Institute. 

Five resignations were accepted; one reinstatement was 
effected; two Life Memberships were granted, and a number 
of special cases were dealt with. 

Council noted a resolution from the Edmonton Branch 
expressing appreciation of the General Secretary's visits to 
the western branches. 

A tentative programme for the forthcoming annual 
meeting was submitted by the Toronto Branch, providing 
for a two-day meeting on February 8th and 9th. This draft 
programme was approved. 

Council considered and approved the proposed amend- 
ments to the by-laws put forward by the Ontario branches, 
and also accepted for submission to the annual meeting 
amendments drafted by a committee in compliance with 
the directions of the annual meeting to propose the elimin- 
ation of the class of Associate Member. 

Vice-President Dunsmore expressed the appreciation of 
the Maritime branches for Council's support in the Maritime 
Professional Meeting at Pictou in September last. 

In response to a request from Dr. Tory, the head of the 
Technical Section of the Voluntary Registration Bureau, 
it was resolved that Mr. W. H. Munro be nominated as the 
Institute's representative on the Advisory Committee of 
that Bureau. 

Council noted and approved of a resolution which had 
been adopted at a joint meeting of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Alberta and the Lethbridge 
Branch of the Institute stressing the need of water con- 
servation in the southern portion of the province of Alberta, 
and recommending to the Provincial Government of Alberta 
and the Dominion Government, the immediate considera- 
tion of this question. 

Mr. Findlay reported that following the example of the 
Toronto Branch, the Montreal Branch had held a Student 
Night, at which four papers had been presented by univer- 
sity students. This was noted with approval. 

A number of applications were considered and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 



Elections 

Member 1 

Associate Member 1 

Juniors 3 

Affiliates 3 

Students admitted 57 

Transfers 

Junior to Associate Member 5 

Student to Associate Member 1 

Student to Junior 5 

The Council rose at one forty-five p.m. 



A meeting of the Council of the Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Saturday, December 16, 1939, at nine 
thirty a.m., with Vice-President E. V. Buchanan in the 
chair, and six other members of Council present. 

After considering the subjects suggested by the various 
branch executive committees, the Past-Presidents' Prize 
Committee recommended that the subject for the year 
1939-1940 should be "Engineering in National Defence." 
This recommendation was approved, with the suggestion 
that the committee add to the title a description of the 
field intended to be covered. 

The Secretary reported that Mr. Gaherty had now 
received a reply to the personal letter which he had written 
to the Hon. Mr. Howe asking for an expression of opinion as 
to whether or not the Institute could do anything towards 
assisting in the solution of the industrial problems now 
before the country. Mr. Howe's reply indicated that at the 
present time there was nothing that the Institute could do. 
He pointed out that the situation could change very 
quickly, and he thought that possibly in the spring the 
Government would welcome the formation of a committee 
as suggested by the Institute. 

Discussion took place on the recommendation of the 
Finance Committee that conditions should now be defined 
under which remission of Institute fees would be granted to 
members joining the Canadian Forces. Accordingly, it was 
resolved that a small committee be appointed to study this 
question and report to Council. 

Discussion took place on possible arrangements for a 
meeting of the Committee on the Training and Welfare of 
the Young Engineer, after which it was decided that, if 
possible, a meeting of this committee should be held in 
Toronto in February at the time of the annual general 
meeting. 

Council approved the action of the Institute's Committee 
on Professional Interests in complying with the request of the 
Nova Scotia Association of Professional Engineers to send 
out the Institute's ballots on the proposed agreement at the 
same time as those of the Association. Council also appointed 
the scrutineers to open the ballots and report the results. 
Seven resignations were accepted : one Life Membership was 
granted ; a number of special cases were considered, and the 
names of five Members, ten Associate Members, three 
Juniors, and seven Students, in arrears for three years, from 
whom no response to various communications had been 
received, were removed from the membership list. 

A number of applications were considered and the follow- 
ing elections and transfers were effected. 

Elections 

Members 2 

Associate Members 7 

Juniors 4 

Affiliate 1 

Students admitted 6 

Transfers 

Junior to Associate Member. 1 

Student to Associate Member 1 

Student to Junior 2 

The Council rose at twelve o'clock noon. 



34 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



BALLOT ON THE NOVA SCOTIA AGREEMENT 

The scrutineers appointed to canvass the ballots on the 
revised proposed agreement between the Institute and the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, have 
reported as follows: 

Ballot of Members of Council 

Total ballots received 32 

Valid ballots 30 

Invalid ballots 2 

Votes approving agreement 30 

Ballot of Corporate Members in Nova Scotia 

Total ballots received 72 

Valid ballots 69 

Invalid ballots 3 

Votes approving agreement 66 

Contrary votes 3 

(Signed) HUET MASSUE, m.e.i.c. 
E. A. RYAN, m.e.i.c. 
JOHN G. HALL, m.e.i.c. 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on December 16th, 1939, the follow- 
ing elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 
Circé, Armand, b.a.sc, ce., (Ecole Polytechnique), Dean, Ecole 

Polytechnique, 1430 St. Denis St., Montreal, Que. 
Stairs, James Alfred, (Grad. R.M.C.), "Plasco" Regd., 389 St. Paul 

St. West, Montreal, Que. 

Associate Members 
Augustine, William Percival, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), instructor 

of mechanical drafting, Windsor Walkerville Vocational School, 

Windsor, Ont. 
Charnley, James (City & Guilds of London), engr., Shawinigan 

Engineering Company Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Coté, Eugène, engr., Shawinigan Water & Power Company, Ltd., 

Montreal, Que. 
Dowler, John B., b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), ap'tice supervisor, ap- 
prentice school, Ford Motor Company of Canada, Windsor, Ont. 
Jones, Ernest Harold (Heriot-Watt College), res. engr., Dept. of 

Highways of Ontario, North Bay, Ont. 
Weaver, Ralph Crowell, B.s.(Mech-), (Tufts College), res. engr., 

Consumers Cordage Co., Dartmouth, N.S. 
Yong, Mark, b.s.e. (ce.), m. s., (Univ. of Mich.), 383 Princess St., 

Kingston, Ont. 

Juniors 
Henry, Doward Alexander, b.a.sc (Univ. of Toronto), dftsman., 

Massey Harris Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Ronson, James Kenneth, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), engrg. dept., 

Ford Motor Company of Canada, Windsor. Ont. 
Wilson, Harold Oliver, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), dftsman., Shawinigan 

Engineering Company Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Wotherspoon, Richard Bradbury, (Grad. R.M.C.), plant engr., 

Steel Company of Canada Ltd., Gananoque, Ont. 

Affiliate 
Ashton, Ernest, cost clerk, C.N.R., Winnipeg, Man. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Associate Member 
D'Aoust, Joseph Gilbert, b.a.sc. (Univ. of B.C.), junior engr., Powell 
River Co. Ltd., Powell River, B.C. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Associate Member 

McCabe, Russell I., B.sc (McGill Univ.), chief of studies dept., 
telephone divn., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Craster, James Edmund, b.a.sc. (Univ. of B.C.), junior dftsman., 

Cons. Mining & Smelting Co., Trail, B.C. 
King, Hector Irons, b.sc. (Univ. of N.B.), asst. purchasing agent, 

Bathurst Power & Paper Co. Ltd., Bathurst, N.B. 

Students Admitted 
Dodd, Geoffrey Johnstone, Jr. (McGill Univ.), 209 Carlyle Ave., Town 

of Mount Royal, Que. 
Hunt, Frederick A. (Queen's Univ.), 331 Earl St., Kingston, Ont. 
Main, Hardy Lawrence (Queen's Univ.), "Rosel," Dundas, Ont. 
Morris, Ronald William (Univ. of Man.), 20 Lipton St., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Rowan, Russell Gillespie (Queen's Univ.), 318 University Ave., 

Kingston, Ont. 
Simpson, C. Norman (Queen's Univ.), 313 University Ave., Kingston, 

Ont. 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives 
of those whose passing is recorded here. 

Sylvio Antoine Desmeules, a. m.e.i.c, died in the hospital 
at Quebec, on October 12th. He was born at Murray Bay, 
Que., on March 14th, 1878. He received his early education 
at the local public schools and from 1893 up to 1900 he 
was with his father, a land surveyor, in the North West 
Territories on surveys and on the St. Lawrence River doing 
hydrographie studies. For some years later, he was engaged 
in railway engineering on location and construction work. 
From 1916 to 1929 he was connected with the construction 
of various projects of hydro-electric developments. For the 
past ten years he had been doing some survey work and 
wharf construction. Latterly he was town manager for St. 
Joseph d'Alma, Que. 

Mr. Desmeules joined the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers as a Student in 1905 being transferred to Associate 
Member in 1909. 

William Stewart Drewry, a. m.e.i.c, died in the hospital 
at Victoria, B.C., on December 2nd. He was born at Belle- 
ville, Ont., on January 20th, 1859, and received his primary 
education at Oswego, N.Y. In his early years, he was en- 
gaged on surveys and civil engineering projects. After a 
few years spent on railway construction, he became associ- 
ated with T. O. Boger of Belleville in a private engineering 
practice. Mr. Drewry went West in 1891 when he was sent 
out by the Dominion Government to the Kootenay Lake 
district, where he introduced into British Columbia the 
system of map surveying by the use of photographs. About 
ten years later, he was in partnership with H. T. Twigg of 
Victoria, in New Denver, B.C., where they had an extensive 
mineral claim and mine-surveying practice. Afterwards, 
Mr. Drewry practised as surveyor and engineer in Nelson, 
B.C. Some time later he was controller of water rights for 
the British Columbia government and also acted for a 
period as inspector of surveys. In recent years, he had 
been in bad health. 

Mr. Drewry joined the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers in 1887. He had been made a life Member of the 
Institute in 1918. 

Arthur Edward Hodgins, m.e.i.c, died at Victoria, B.C., 
on December 18th, 1939. He was born at Toronto on 
April 15th, 1861, and was educated at the Royal Military 
College, Kingston, where he was graduated in 1882. At 
the time of his death, he was one of the oldest surviving 
graduates of the College. Upon graduation he joined the 
staff of the Canadian Pacific Railway and stayed with that 
firm in various capacities until 1892, when he went to 
Nelson, B.C., as Public Works engineer. When the Boer 
War started, he was engaged in private practice at Nelson, 
B.C., and became commanding officer of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Rangers from that West Kootenay city which joined 
the Royal Canadian Regiment for service in South Africa 
in the first contingent. He saw action at Paardeberg and 
Bloemfontein and rose to the rank of Major, later becoming 
officer in charge of construction of military railways in the 
Transvaal and Orange Free State. Returning to Canada 
after the campaign he joined the construction staff of the 
old Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, retiring in 1909. In 1915 
he organized and recruited the First Canadian Pioneer 
Battalion, First Division, and was assistant director of 
light military railways after going to France. He was 
invalided home after 14 months of service. 

Mr. Hodgins joined the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers in 1887 as an Associate Member and was trans- 
ferred to Member in 1904. He was made a Life Member 
of the Institute in 1929. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



35 



Personals 



Honourable C. D. Howe, m.e.i.c, Minister of Transport 
in the federal cabinet, has been given jurisdiction over the 
War Supply Board, which was previously under the Minister 
of Finance. This is a tribute to a prominent engineer, new 
to politics when he was elected in 1935 and who has handled 
heavy organizing tasks in the past four years, outstanding 
among them being the establishment of the Trans-Canada 
Air Lines and creation of the National Harbours Board. 

R. A. C. Henry, m.e.i.c, vice-president of the Montreal 
Light, Heat and Power Consolidated, has been appointed 
executive assistant to the Minister of Transport at Ottawa 
to help in the war effort. Mr. Henry had been connected 
with the Department of Railways and Canals and with 
the Canadian National Railways in various capacities until 
1930 when he became vice-president and general manager 
of the Beauharnois Light, Heat and Power Company. His 
work has made him familiar with transportation problems 
and he is recognized as an authority in the matter. 

Lesslie R. Thomson, m.e.i.c, has been appointed as assist- 
ant to R. A. C. Henry, m.e.i.c, in the Department of 
Transport. Mr. Thomson has been a constant student of 
Canada's great economic problems and he has made many 
contributions to the technical literature among which are: 
"The St. Lawrence Problem," and "The Canadian Railway 
Problem." 

G. H. Duggan, Hon. m.e.i.c, chairman of the board of 
directors of the Dominion Bridge Company Limited and a 
past president of the Institute, was made an honorary life 
member of the Canadian Engineering Standards Associa- 
tion, at an executive meeting held at Montreal last month. 
One such membership is bestowed each year and the honour 
was conferred on Mr. Duggan in recognition of his long 
service in the Association. 

Professor E. A. Allcut, m.sc, m.e.i.c, professor of mechan- 
ical engineering at the University of Toronto, has been 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society, with 
which is incorporated the Institute of Aeronautical Engin- 
eers. There are only four Fellows of the Society in Canada. 




Past-President Vaughan receives Honorary Membership in 

A.S.M.E. from President A. G. Christie. With him is Roy V. 

Wright, who read the citation? 

Past-President H. H. Vaughan, m.e.i.c, was honoured 
on December 6th at Philadelphia when the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers conferred an Honorary Member- 
ship upon him at the time of their Annual Meeting. Mr. 
Vaughan was Vice-President of the Society in 1910 and 
1923, and is now one of the few living Honorary Members. 
H. I. King, s.E.i.c, has accepted a position as civil engineer 
with the Saguenay Power Company at Arvida, Que. Since 
graduation in civil engineering from the University of New 
Brunswick in 1937, he had been in the purchasing depart- 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



ment of the Bathurst Power and Paper Company Limited, 
at Bathurst, N.B. 

P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c, has recently been appointed 
Director of Water Resources for Alberta, succeeding L. C. 
Charlesworth, m.e.i.c, who has retired. He also becomes a 
member of the Provincial Irrigation Council. 

In 1904 Mr. Sauder graduated from Toronto University 
with a diploma in mechanical and electrical engineering. 

In 1904 he joined the staff of the irrigation branch of 
the Dominion department of the Interior. In 1904 and 1905 
he acted as draftsman in the Regina office; 1905-06, as 
assistant engineer on contour survey in southern Alberta; 
1906-09, as inspection engineer; 1909-20, as chief hydro- 
metric engineer in charge of hydrometric surveys of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan and also acting commissioner of irriga- 
tion during the temporary absences of the commissioner. 




P. M. Sauder, M.E.I.C. 

In 1920 he joined the staff of the Lethbridge Northern 
Irrigation District, serving for three years as division en- 
gineer in charge of location, design and construction of the 
works in the eastern portion of the project. Later he was 
assistant project manager in charge of maintenance and 
repairs of the works. From 1924 until the present he has 
acted as project manager and district engineer in full charge 
of the operation and maintenance of the works of the project. 

He received a commission as a Dominion Land Surveyor 
in 1916 and passed an examination for Alberta Land Sur- 
veyor in 1917. 

Mr. Sauder joined the Institute in 1908 and has occupied 
the positions of branch chairman, councillor and vice- 
president. He has been president of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Alberta, and is now the repre- 
sentative of that organization on the Dominion Council 
of Professional Engineers. 

He also represents the Association in the Senate of the 
University of Alberta. It is expected that he will move to 
Edmonton shortly. 

Major G. S. Brown, a. m.e.i.c, a veteran of the First 
Great War, is officer commanding the 112th Field Battery, 
R.C.A., Lethbridge. 

George Sandles Brown was born in Woodmancote, Sussex, 
England, on March 12, 1892. He was educated at Brighton, 
England, where he studied engineering. Coming to Canada 
in 1910 he joined the service of the C.P.R., working on 
railway construction in Alberta and British Columbia from 



36 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



1911 to 1914. He enlisted with the Alberta University Com- 
pany of 196th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 
and served in France with the Canadian Engineers and 
railway troops from 1916-1918. 

Returning to Canada, in 1919 and 1920 he was engaged 
in construction of the Taber Irrigation District and upon 
completion was transferred to the Lethbridge district as 
assistant engineer to S. G. Porter, superintendent of opera- 
tion and maintenance of the C.P.R. irrigation system. 
From 1930 until the present he has been canal superin- 
tendent of the system. 

He was chairman of the Lethbridge branch of the Insti- 
tute during the year 1928. He acted as councillor during 
1929, 1936 and 1937. He has also been an active member 
of the Professional Engineers of Alberta and is now a 
councillor of that body. He joined the Institute in 1910. 
L. C. Charlesworth, m.e.i.c, of Edmonton, has retired 
from his position of chairman of the Irrigation Council of 
the Province of Alberta and is now manager of the Eastern 
Irrigation District. A graduate of the School of Practical 
Science of Toronto in 1893 he practised in Ontario until 
1903 when he became district engineer for the government 
of North West Territories, with headquarters at Medicine 
Hat, Alta. In 1905 he was appointed director of surveys 
for the Government of Alberta and a year later acting 
deputy minister and chief engineer of Public Works, a 
position which he retained until 1915 when he was made 
deputy minister and chief engineer of the Department. 
In 1922, he took over the office of chairman of the Irrigation 
Council of Alberta, from which he just retired. He has been 
replaced by P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c. 

C. W. Ryan, a. m.e.i.c, along with Mrs. Ryan and their 
daughter, flew up from New York to Montreal, on Novem- 
ber 3rd last, to spend the week-end with M. W. Maxwell, 
a. m.e.i.c, Commissioner of Development and Natural 
Resources for the Canadian National Railways, and to 
see the McGill-Queen's football game. Since graduation 
from McGill University in 1916, Mr. Ryan has been en- 
gaged on construction work with various firms in New 
York. He is now president of the Ryan Contracting Cor- 
poration of New York. This firm has built thirty-five 
structures at the New York World's Fair, 1939, among 
which are those of the Radio Corporation of America, the 
State of Virginia, Pullman, Coca Cola, Heineken's Aan De 
Zuiderzee and the Taffenetti's Restaurant. 
M. Jacobs, m.e.i.c, has relinquished his position as chief 
engineer of the Brown Company at Berlin, N.H., to join 
Chas. T. Main, Inc., consulting engineers, Boston, Mass., 
and take charge of a department in pulp and paper mill 
engineering. He is a graduate in civil engineering of Norwich 
University, Northfield, Vt., from the class of 1912. Upon 
graduation, he entered the pulp and paper field as a draughts- 
man with Burgess Sulphite Fibre Co., Berlin, N.H. In 1916, 
he went with H. P. Cummings Construction Company, 
Ware, Mass., as construction engineer on pulp and paper 
mill extensions and hydro-electric developments. He re- 
tained this connection until 1920, except for a period of 
ten months in 1918 when he was a lieutenant in the United 
States Army. After a few years as designing engineer on 
pulp and paper developments with Management Engineer- 
ing and Development Company, Dayton, Ohio, Mr. Jacobs 
came to Montreal in 1924 as manager and chief designing 
engineer with H. S. Taylor, consulting engineer. In this 
capacity he was associated with all the major developments 
in the pulp and paper industry in this country, until 1935 
when he became chief engineer of the Brown Company at 
Berlin, N.H. 

Richard Thorn, jr.E.i.c, has recently joined T. Pringle & 
Son, consulting engineers of Montreal. Educated at Gresham 
College, England, he served a four year apprenticeship with 
Marshall & Sons & Company Limited of Gainsboro until 
1929 when he came to Canada as a mechanical draughtsman 
with Canadian Vickers Limited. He was later connected in 
the same capacity with various firms in Montreal, including 



E. A. Ryan, consulting engineer, Canadian Industries 
Limited, McDougall and Friedman, consulting engineers 
and W. J. Armstrong, consulting engineer. 

Norman A. Eager, a. m.e.i.c, has been appointed recently 
assistant sales manager with the Burlington Steel Company, 
Limited, Hamilton, Ont. He received his education at 
McGill University where he obtained the degree of b.sc. in 
1922. He went to Cornell University and he was graduated 
in 1923 with the degree of m.c.e. Upon graduation he went 
with the Illinois State Highways as resident engineer and 
a year later he was with the Canadian Vickers Limited in 
Montreal. He then became superintendent of construction 
with Church & Ross Company, contractors of Montreal. 
In 1926 he joined the Shawinigan Water & Power Company 
and had been engaged since in structural and development 
engineering and power sales research work. 

F. M. Schwieder, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position in the 
designing department of the International Harvester Com- 
pany at Hamilton, Ont. Since graduation, in mechanical 
engineering from the University of Saskatchewan last 
spring, he had been employed with the W. C. Woods Com- 
pany in Toronto. 

L. C. Carey, Jr., s.e.i.c, is now in the transmission de- 
partment of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, at Toronto. A graduate in civil engineering from 
the Nova Scotia Technical College in the spring of last 
year, he had been employed for the past months by the 
Canadian Inspection and Testing Company Limited of 
Toronto. 

E. F. Brown, s.e.i.c, has resigned from the Dominion 
Bridge Company Limited, Montreal, to accept a position 
with the Royal Canadian Mint, at Ottawa. 
S. Davis, s.e.i.c, of St. John, N.B., has obtained his m.sc. 
degree in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. He had obtained his b.sc. degree from the 
University of New Brunswick in 1938. 
I. N. MacKay, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position with the 
Mechanical Engineering Division of the National Research 
Council, at Ottawa. A graduate in mechanical engineering 
of the class of 1935 from McGill, he had been employed 
since with the Dominion Engineering Works Limited, in 
Montreal. 

C. C. Cuthbertson, s.e.i.c, has recently been transferred 
from the Metallurgical Laboratory in Toronto to the Alkali 
Division of Canadian Industries Limited in Shawinigan 
Falls. His position is now that of works chemist. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

C. W. Ryan, a.m. e. i.e., President of the Ryan Contracting 
Corporation, from New York City, on November 4. 
Alfred Peterson, Jr.E.i.c, of the Department of Public 
Works, Rimouski, Que., on December 2. 
S. Davis, s.e.i.c, of St. John, N.B., on December 13. 
Dean E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, m.e.i.c, of the Faculty of 
Engineering and Architecture of the University of Mani- 
toba, Winnipeg, Man., on December 15. 
Vice-president E. V. Buchanan, m.e.i.c, general man- 
ager, Public Utilities Commission, London, Ont. ; E. Viens, 
m.e.i.c, director of the Testing Laboratories, Department 
of Public Works, Ottawa; E. B. Wardle, m.e.i.c, chief 
engineer, Consolidated Paper Corporation Limited, Grand'- 
Mère, Que., on December 16. 

E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, of Dundas, Ont., on December 18. 
L. P. Cousineau, a. m.e.i.c, of the National Electricity 
Syndicate, Cadillac, Que., on December 21. 
C. J. Mackenzie, m.e.i.c, Acting President of the Na- 
tional Research Council, from Ottawa, on December 22. 
Robert J. G. Schofield, s.e.i.c, of the Canadian Cottons, 
Limited, from Hamilton, Ont., on December 23. 
A. C. Davidson, jr.E.i.c, from Toronto, Ont., on Decem- 
ber 27. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



37 



News of the Branches 

Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



G. E. Medlar, a.m.e.i.c. - 
Donald S. B. Waters, s.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch Neivs Editor 



The November meeting of the Border Cities Branch was 
held in Chatham on November 18, 1939. During the after- 
noon, from 4 to 6.30 p.m., a large number of members from 
Windsor joined members from Sarnia and Chatham in an 
interesting inspection tour of the plant of the Canada and 
Dominion Sugar Co. in Chatham. Mr. A. W. Mclntyre of 
the same company was in charge of the inspection trip and 
the members observed in detail the entire process. 

Beets are floated in long concrete flumes into the factory, 
where they pass through a mechanical washer and emerge 
clean. They are sliced then into square shaped ribbons 
called cossettes. Water is then passed through a series of 
cells containing the cossettes, thus soaking out the sugar 
and gradually increasing in temperature to about 80 deg. C. 
The spent cossettes are dried in another process and sold 
as cattle feed. Impurities in the diffusion juice are removed 
by adding measured quantities of milk of lime and carbon 
dioxide, causing precipitates which are filtered from the 
liquid. Sulphur dioxide added, liberates the lime salts and 
the liquid is then concentrated by a series of low pressure 
evaporators. After further filtering and sulphur gas treat- 
ments, the sugar is boiled, which produces the sugar 
crystals, the size of which is determined by boiling con- 
ditions and the length of time of boiling. This requires the 
most skillful operators in the process. 

The rich brown "stuke" as it is called is gently agitated as 
it is fed into the centrifugal machines where the sugar 
crystals are separated and washed. After drying and cooling 
the crystals are screened and packed for shipment. Each 
ton of beets produces approximately 260 lb. of sugar, 80 
lb. of molasses and 100 lb. of cattle feed. 

At this time of the year the plant operates at full capacity, 
producing about 800,000 lb. of refined beet sugar per day 
and employing 400 men. 

At the conclusion of the tour a dinner was enjoyed in the 
Wm. Pitt Hotel, where Mr. George McCubbin acted as 
chairman, assisted by Mr. T. M. S. Kingston. Mr. Mclntyre 
delivered a paper accompanied by lantern slides, dealing 
with the history of the beet sugar industry. 

Pure sugar or sucrose as it is called by chemists, is a 
compound having the formula Ci 2 H22 On and is therefore 
the same whether extracted from beets, cane or any other 
of the many vegetables containing it. Although it is a 
compound of only three common elements, no chemist 
has ever produced synthetic sugar, he said. 

Sugar was unknown to the ancients except in India. 
Although sugar cane flourished in Arabia, Egypt and Spain, 
it did not become important until the 14th century. In 
1500, the price was $53.00 a hundred in London, and even 
at the beginning of the 19th century world sugar production 
was less than one hundred thousand tons. Beet sugar 
research was stimulated by Napoleon who was prohibiting 
the import of British goods, including cane sugar. By his 
edict of 1811, he appropriated one million francs for sugar 
beet schools. Beets of that time produced 5 per cent sugar, 
compared with 18 per cent today. By 1912, 50 per cent of 
the world sugar production was beet sugar. In Canada, the 
industry began in 1881 in Quebec and has grown to such 
an extent that today there is a greater demand than the 
available supply of beets can fulfill. 

At the conclusion of his address, Mr. Mclntyre answered 
many questions. 



CALGARY BRANCH 



F. J. Heuperman, a.m.e.i.c. 

G. W. O'Neill, a.m.e.i.c. - 



- Secretary Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



A general meeting of the Calgary Branch was held on 
November 2, 1939, at which dinner was served through the 
kindness of the Canadian Western Natural Gas Company. 
The purpose of this meeting was primarily to make new 
members feel at home, particularly the younger members 
who joined the Branch since last spring. 

The meeting was well attended, some 64 members and 
one guest being present. 

Through the courtesy of the Imperial Oil Co., Mr. 
McRae, the guest of the evening, snowed some moving 
pictures of the visit of the King and Queen to Canada and 
the United States. This was followed by a talking picture 
"Safari on wheels" depicting the adventures and tribula- 
tions of a motor caravan on its trip through Africa from 
Algiers to Nairobi. 

On November 16th, 1939, a branch general meeting was 
held in the Palliser Hotel attended by sixty-seven members 
and guests. At this meeting Mr. D. F. Kobylnyk, one of 
the younger members of our Branch presented an informa- 
tive paper on Electrical Distribution in Alberta. The 
lecture was illustrated by slides. He was followed by Mr. 
H. B. Le Bourveau, who gave a running commentary on 
colored moving pictures, made by him, during the con- 
struction of the steel power line from Ghost Dam to Cal- 
gary. The pictures told the entire story from the first pre- 
liminary surveys to the completion of the line. A hearty 
vote of thanks to both speakers was moved by Mr. T. 
Schulte, which was carried with applause. 

Our Branch General Meeting of November 30th, 1939, 
was addressed by Major F. K. Beach, who spoke on the 
timely subject Military Engineering. Mr. Beach sketched 
the history of military engineering which, he said, is as old 
as the armies. It has been a constantly changing profession 
in the sense that its actual works have changed, but a never 
changing one in so far that it has always had to invent, 
adapt and devise new defenses for the army, then invent, 
adapt and devise new methods of breaking down the 
defenses. In addition it has always had to look after com- 
munications, water supply and housing. He traced the 
development of engines of war from the bow and arrow to 
the present day flying fortresses. Peace time training of 
military engineers, Mr. Beach stated, includes training with 
the rifle and light automatic rifle; training in foot drill, and 
training in internal economy to bring about team work. 
Also training in the use of explosives and in rowing and 
handling of boats on water. 

Some slides showing the construction and use of rafts, 
and the building of bridges and trenches brought the talk 
to a close. 

Mr. J. J. Hanna moved a hearty vote of thanks to the 
speaker and after some discussion the meeting adjourned. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 



B. W. Pitfield, a.m.e.i.c. 

J. W. PORTEOUS, Jr. E. I.C. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



At the regular meeting of the Edmonton Branch held at 
the Macdonald Hotel, on December 5, the members were 
entertained by a very interesting talk on The Grand 
Coulee Dam. After supper, an intermission and a small 
amount of business, the chairman, Mr. Garnett, introduced 
Mr. H. R. Webb of the University of Alberta, who dis- 
cussed the engineering problems met with in the con- 
struction of the Grand Coulee Dam. Mr. Webb first out- 
lined the geological data in connection with the district 
and then proceeded to describe the construction work on 
the dam proper and also the equipment used. Mr. Webb 
has had an opportunity of seeing the dam at several stages 



38 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



in its construction and being a proficient amateur photog- 
rapher, he illustrated his talk well with photographs. 

In conclusion a short time was taken up with the con- 
sideration of the economic aspects of the, project. A great 
deal of interest was shown during the discussion and the 
meeting adjourned at about 10.00 p.m. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 



L. C. Young, a.m.e.i.c 
A. G. Mahon, a.m.e.i.c. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



A reception for the President of the E. I. C. and Mrs. 
H. W. McKiel was held by the Halifax Branch of the 
Institute at the Nova Scotian Hotel, Saturday evening, 
December 9th. Honoured guests for the occasion were the 
Honourable Angus L. MacDonald, Premier of the Province 
of Nova Scotia, and his Worship, Mayor Walter Mitchell, 
of the City of Halifax. Approximately eighty persons 
attended the function, including members and lady guests. 

The reception began with a short interval before dinner 
when members and guests met the President of the Institute 
and his wife. Dinner was served at 7.30 with Mr. R. L. 
Dunsmore presiding. Dean McKiel spoke regarding his 
tour, in the interest of the Institute, throughout Western 
Canada to the Pacific Coast. He outlined the activities of 
the various branches of the E. I. C. and mentioned the 
healthy conditions of the Institute throughout the Do- 
minion. Dean McKiel then related some of his experiences 
during the trip. 

Following dinner the ladies retired to the lounge and the 
annual meeting of the Branch was proceeded with. The 
retiring chairman, Allan D. Nickerson, outlined the 
activities of the Halifax Branch during the year, making 
special mention of the effort which his branch has been 
making to encourage young engineers to become interested 
in the Institute. The finance report was read by the Secre- 
tary, Mr. L. C. Young, and the other business of the meet- 
ing was carried out with dispatch. Mr. Charles Scrymgeour 
was elected chairman for the coming year, with Mr. S. L. 
Fultz, Mr. P. A. Lovett, Mr. G. F. Bennett, Mr. F. C. 
Wightman, and Mr. A. B. Blanchard, replacing the retiring 
members of the executive. 

After the meeting the members joined the ladies and the 
remainder of the evening was given over to a Casino enter- 
tainment and dancing. The Casino prizes were presented 
by Mrs. McKiel and won by Mrs. A. D. Nickerson, Mrs. 
S. W. Gray, Mr. W. W. Donnie, Mr. G. L. Colpitts, with 
Mr. W. G. Hamilton receiving the consolation prize. 

The members of the Committee who were responsible for 
this function were Mr. L. C. Young, Mr. S. W. Gray and 
Mr. A. G. Mahon, assisted by Mr. A. D. Nickerson, Mr. 
B. H. Zwicker and Mr. Jos. Sears. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

A. R. Hannafobd, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
W. E. Brown, ji-.e.i.c. - - - Branch News Editor 

On December 12, 1939, in the Lecture Theatre at 
McMaster University, Mr. E. C. Bacot, b.sc, addressed 
the Branch on a subject entitled, Why Fire Occurs in 
Industry. Mr. Bacot is resident engineer of the Factory 
Mutual Fire Insurance Companies, Toronto and Boston. 
His subject dealt with the general causes of fires and the 
most suitable methods of preventing fire and of fighting 
fires. He showed that industrial fires are in proportion to 
industrial business, losses are higher when production is 
greatest and there is perhaps less time for giving thought 
to precautionary measures. Poor maintenance of electrical 
equipment and wiring caused many fires and, on that 
account, the speaker stressed the importance of good main- 
tenance in all phases of industrial activity. 

Dust explosions in plants could be entirely eliminated 
by proper cleaning methods, said Mr. Bacot, a strong 
advocate of the use of vacuum cleaning, as he enumerated 



several ways in which precautionary steps could be put 
into practice. 

The pictures presented proved that oil and gasoline fires 
could be extinguished by water when large hose spray 
nozzles were used and at the same time the hose handlers 
were protected by a light spray of water much like mist. 

The speaker stressed the value of the sprinkler system 
and the great necessity for its proper maintenance. He said 
that the advice of the fire underwriters and the local fire 
departments should be made welcome rather than criti- 
cized. 

Mr. Bacot was introduced by John R. Dunbar and a 
vote of thanks was moved by Alec Love. 

The usual coffee and sandwiches were served in an 
adjoining room after the lecture. Attendance was sixty-two. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 



J. B. Baty ----- 
H. W. Harkness, m.e.i.c. - 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



At an appropriately arranged dinner meeting, held on 
the evening of November 22, at the Badminton Club, the 
Kingston Branch honored Colonel Alexander Macphail, 
retired Head of Civil Engineering at Queen's University, 
and welcomed Dean H. W. McKiel, President, and Mr. L. 
Austin Wright, General Secretary of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. The event was well attended by the 
local members and a large group of Queen's engineering 
students. The guest list included Dr. W. E. McNeill, Vice- 
Principal of Queen's University, and Brigadier Kenneth 
Stuart, Commandant of the Royal Military College. Out- 
of-town members in attendance were Dr. W. L. Malcolm, 
Director, School of Civil Engineering, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York, and Mr. H. Alton Wilson of Belleville, 
Ontario. 

Dean McKiel presented the framed certificates signifying 
the awards of the E.I.C. prizes for 1939 to Mr. Bruce G. 
Mclver, Science student at Queen's University, and Lt. 
G. C. Baker (in absentia), ex-cadet of the Royal Military 
College. 

Captain G. G. M. Carr-Harris, chairman of the Branch, 
welcomed the guests and proposed a toast to the engineering 
profession, introducing President McKiel. 

Dean McKiel spoke of the impression which had been 
left with him after his visit to the twenty-five branches of 
the Institute. He pointed out that the spirit of unity and 
national solidarity among the engineers of Canada is very 
marked, and the ideals and conduct of the members of the 
engineering profession are beyond reproach. 

The President paid a high tribute to Colonel Macphail 
and referred to his own college days as a student under 
him. He spoke of the feeling of affection and respect enter- 
tained by the large numbers of engineers in Canada who 
had once studied under "Sandy." In concluding he wished 
Colonel Macphail long years of happy, contented retire- 
ment, but expressed the hope that even in retirement we 
might continue to hear from him. He suggested that the 
Kingston Branch might propose that Colonel Macphail's 
name be placed on the Life Membership List of the 
Institute. 

Professor Ellis proposed the toast to Colonel Macphail. 
He said that, as a young student, he had stood in awe of 
"Sandy," in fact the word he used was "terrified." It 
appears that he has in later years overcome some of this. 
In a very apt and breezy manner Professor Ellis gave what 
he called a "worm's eye view" of Colonel Macphail's career 
at Queen's. He joined the Civil Engineering staff at Queen's 
about 35 years ago and was one of a group of McGill men 
who have done a great deal for the Faculty of Science at 
Queen's. In the early days of the School of Mines, Pro- 
fessor Macphail taught surveying, hydraulics, structural 
engineering and several other subjects, but despite this load 
he found time to enter into many other activities such as 
music, chess, the organization of a rifle team and the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



39 



formation of the Fifth Field Company in the School of 
Mining, of which he was O.C. In 1910 he was elected to 
the Provincial Parliament in Prince Edward Island. 

At the outbreak of the last war, he enlisted and went 
overseas with the First Canadian Division as Captain of 
the First Field Company. He was rapidly promoted in the 
field to O.C. of the Field Company and finally to C.R.E. 
of the First Division. In addition to the D.S.O. awarded 
for gallant work at Ypres he has the C.M.G. and the Croix 
de Guerre. During this period of rapid advancement he 
remained the warm friend of his old students. Professor 
Ellis recounted many incidents where Colonel Macphail 
trod ruthlessly over the barriers of rank to fraternize with 
his old students when he met them in France. 

Returning to Queen's after the war he took up his 
academic duties again. During the lean years he took over 
the re-organization of the O.T.C. and with his patience and 
perseverance instilled new life into it. Now again we are 
reaping the benefits of his efforts in a strong and efficient 
corps. In later years his interests have been literary and he 
has acted as editor of the Queen's Quarterly for many years. 

His work at Queen's has been characterized especially by 
the deep affection which has always been felt for him by 
his own students inspired by his own genuine qualities 
and his kindness and consideration for them. 

Colonel Macphail's reply to the toast was in reminiscent 
mood. He recalled his first experience with the great 
inventions which have appeared during his lifetime, treat- 
ing them in his inimitable manner. 

Dr. W. E. McNeill, Vice-Principal of Queen's University, 
then spoke of Colonel Macphail's contribution to Queen's 
as being not only that of an engineer but rather the con- 
tribution of a man interested in every phase of life and 
learning. His activity in the University has ranged from 
lectures to the Theological Faculty upon the English Bible 
and editorship of the Queen's Quarterly to active service 
in the militia units connected with the University. 

In speaking of his experiences with the forces in France 
during the Great War, Dr. McNeill reminded his hearers 
of the intimate friendship which had sprung up between 
Rudyard Kipling and Colonel Macphail. He had been 
referred to by Kipling as the man who built bridges with 
one hand and wrote poetry with the other. 

Mr. Wright spoke briefly in regard to Institute affairs. 

Colonel L. F. Grant, Councillor from this Branch, in a 
few words expressed the appreciation of the Branch for the 
visits of President McKeil and Mr. Wright. 

The wives of the members of the Kingston Branch 
entertained Mrs. H. W. McKiel, wife of the president of 
the Institute, and Mrs. G. McKiel, Dean McKiel's mother, 
of Guelph, at tea in the Faculty Players' Lounge at Queen's 
University in the afternoon of November 22. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 



H. OS, A.M.E.I.C. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 



The regular monthly dinner meeting was held at the 
Shuniah Club, Port Arthur on October 31. 

J. M. Fleming, chairman of the Branch, presided. He 
welcomed Mr. Dobson, a new member of this branch trans- 
ferred from Montreal, and expressed his pleasure at seeing 
present an out of town member, Mr. C. D. Macintosh of 
Kenora. He also congratulated Miss MacGill on the success 
of an aeroplane test which the General Secretary, Mr. 
Wright, and some members of the branch had witnessed 
during the afternoon. 

Mr. L. Austin Wright, General Secretary of the Institute 
and guest speaker of the evening, was introduced by S. E. 
Flook. Mr. Wright commenced his address by explaining 
in detail work of registration of engineers made by the 
Engineering Institute for the Department of Defence. He 
said that this registration was primarily undertaken for 
the use of industries when the need for additional techni- 
cally trained men would be required. Many expressions of 



impatience by engineers registered that little or no use had 
been made so far of data collected had been represented to 
the Institute. Mr. Wright explained that he had been in- 
formed that it would take at least nine months to a year 
before any definite increase in production would be accom- 
plished or before industries could be changed to wartime 
production and require more experienced men to any 
extent. One question the speaker said he was asked every- 
where was "How is Mr. Durley ?", and he was very pleased 
to inform the meeting that Mr. Durley was back from a 
holiday in England which he had enjoyed very much. Mr. 
Durley asked to be remembered to the Branch. 

The secretary discussed the contemplated change in 
Institute by-law eliminating the class of Associate Member 
as favoured by the Council. This change he contended would 
facilitate dealings with the Professional Associations. The 
fee had been an important consideration as it was feared 
that if a straight increase of $2.00 for Associate Membership 
was imposed the by-law might be defeated. It was likely 
that the fee for the new membership would be worked out 
on the basis of returning about the same revenue as at 
present, which would mean an increase of $1.00 for present 
Associate Members and a decrease of the same amount for 
present Members. 

The speaker gave details of broadcasting of features of 
engineering work to acquaint the public with the import- 
ance and extent of engineering in modern civilization. He 
also mentioned that a recent issue of the Financial Post 
had been published as an engineering feature in collabora- 
tion with the Institute. The secretary then dealt with 
problems of the Engineering Journal. 

P. E. Doncaster questioned Mr. Wright regarding the 
aims and growth of the A.T.E. organization and its con- 
nection with the Institute. Mr. Wright replied that he 
knew very little about this group excepting that it was a 
trade union movement showing little growth so far and 
stated that this organization had no connection with the 
Institute. 

Mr. J. Antonisen moved a vote of thanks to the speaker 
which Mr. Bird, Sr., seconded. Twenty-three members and 
guests attended. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

E. A. Lawrence, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The Lethbridge Branch held a joint dinner meet- 
ing with the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Alberta at the Marquis Hotel on October 28, 1939. Branch 
chairman A. J. Branch presided and the guests included 
Senator W. A. Buchanan, Mayor D. H. Elton, Alderman 
J. A. Jardine, President C. A. McMillan of the Lethbridge 
Board of Trade, Philip Baker, Chairman of the Southern 
Alberta Water Conservation Council, and City Manager 
J. T. Watson, President of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Alberta. After dinner, community singing was 
indulged in under the leadership of Bob Lawrence. Vocal 
solos by R. Standen and Geo. Brown, Jr., were heartily 
applauded, and instrumental music was rendered by George 
Brown's Instrumental Trio. 

The speaker of the evening was Major F. G. Cross, 
Superintendent of Operation and Maintenance, Irrigation 
Branch, Canadian Pacific Department of Natural Resources, 
who spoke on The Need of Water Conservation, a sub- 
ject of vital importance to southern Alberta where precipi- 
tation during the growing season is somewhat less than the 
evaporation. The speaker outlined the historical background 
of irrigation development, and listed the water sources 
available for irrigation. These streams rise in the United 
States and the apportionment of the waters in them is 
determined by the International Joint Commission. There 
is more than enough water available in the early part of 
the year but not enough for irrigation in the later part 
of the summer. The United States has constructed reser- 
voirs to conserve the spring run-off and stabilize the flow 



40 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



of irrigation water throughout the season. No such steps 
have been taken in Canada to date and there is danger 
that the American projects will soon take all the surplus 
water unless Canada constructs reservoirs to permit our 
portion of the flow to be controlled and used when required. 

At the conclusion of Major Cross's address the following 
resolution was passed unanimously: 

"Resolved: That this joint meeting of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Alberta and the Lethbridge 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada fully 
recognizes the urgent need of water conservation in the 
southern portion of the Province of Alberta, and recom- 
mends to the Provincial Government of Alberta, and the 
Dominion Government of Canada, the immediate consid- 
eration of the creation of suitable storage reservoirs so that 
the economical and agricultural stability of this area may 
be maintained for future generations, and that immediate 
and creative action be taken by the proper authorities; 
and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the 
Headquarters of The Engineering Institute of Canada for 
suitable action and to the Premier of Alberta and the 
Prime Minister of Canada for their consideration; and that 
a committee of three be appointed from the Lethbridge 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada to assist 
in all possible ways." 

A hearty vote of thanks was tendered the speaker for 
his very interesting address by Mayor D. H. Elton. 

LONDON BRANCH 



D. S. SCRYMGEOUR, A.M.E.I.C. 

John R. Rostron, a.m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



A regular meeting of the Branch was held on the 6th 
December, 1939, in the Board Room of the Public Utilities 
Commission at the City Hall. 

This meeting was devoted to a discussion on the Training 
and Welfare of the Young Engineer. 

A national committee of the Institute has been set up 
with the chairman of this branch as convenor. 

The special topics discussed were pre-college student 
guidance, engineering education, employment, and post- 
graduation activities of interest to the young engineer. 

The discussion was opened by the Branch chairman, 
H. F. Bennett, who described in some detail the formation 
of the Institute Committee and the work that they had 
done in gathering information in an attempt to determine 
the attitude of the Institute generally towards the problem. 

The replies which have been received to the questionnaire 
issued by the Committee had been very gratifying, especially 
as many of the leading engineers in Canada had given 
considerable attention to the subject and indicated by their 
replies that they were greatly interested in the young men 
entering the profession. 

It was quite definitely disclosed that the Institute should 
assist young men in determining their adaptability to the 
engineering profession prior to their undertaking a univer- 
sity course. Training of these young men prior to their 
college years should be given special attention, as it is 
very necessary that they should show marked ability in 
mathematics, the physical sciences and in both written and 
spoken English. The general opinion was that a complete 
academic training is necessary for an engineering course 
just as much as it is for the other professions. 

The United States authorities have stated that only 30 
per cent of the young men who enter the freshman year 
at engineering colleges graduate within the prescribed period. 
It has been found that this percentage in Canada varies 
from 25 to 60 per cent. Some attention has been given to 
the entrance requirements at the several universities, and 
it is the opinion of the Committee and of the Institute 
generally, that these should be standardized at a high level 
in order to provide a cultural education to the student, 
prior to his concentrating on technical subjects. 



The curricula of the universities have been studied but 
this is a matter for further discussion by the committee. 

The relationship of the Engineering Institute generally 
to the young graduate engineer should be improved, espec- 
ially in the branches where junior sections are not now 
operating. Study clubs have been suggested, where the 
needs of the young men can be met, especially on subjects 
which are not necessarily technical. This matter is receiving 
further attention by the committee. 

Considerable discussion followed Mr. Bennett's remarks, 
among those taking part being Vice-President E. V. 
Buchanan, Councillor J. A. Vance, F. G. McAllister, Vice- 
Chairman of the London Board of Education, W. A. 
McWilliams, Principal of the H. B. Beal Technical School, 
V. A. McKillop, J. P. Carrière, and others. It was evident 
from the discussion that educational authorities generally 
are interested in this work which has been undertaken by 
the Institute. They are definitely anxious that the several 
professions would assist them in advising their students as 
to their future prospects, and the move made by the 
Engineering Institute meets with their whole-hearted 
approval. 

Included at the meeting were several high school students 
who were definitely interested in the subject matter of the 
discussion, and it would appear that these young men are 
ready to accept advice before they decide on entering the 
engineering profession. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



R. K. Odell, a.m.e.i.c. - 



Secretary- Treasurer 



Problems relating to the carrying out of Canada's 
Defence were briefly outlined in a noon luncheon address 
on Thursday, December 7, by Brigadier K. Stuart, d.s.o., 
M.c., commandant Royal Military College at Kingston, 
Ontario, before the Ottawa branch of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. These were divided by the speaker 
into problems relating to direct defence or the defence of 
interests in Canada itself and those relating to indirect 
defence or the defence of Canada's outside interests. 

The possibility of "hit and run" raids upon Canada's 
coastal ports and shipping have to be taken into account 
in planning Canada's defences, stated the speaker. By way 
of example of the importance of this, altogether apart from 
the successful conduct of the war, Brigadier Stuart cited 
the fact that some two million people in the Canadian West 
primarily depend for their livelihood upon wheat shipments 
overseas, and if these are seriously interfered with these 
people will be at once affected. 

The probable forms and scales of attack in modern war- 
fare are not immutable, stated the speaker, and the un- 
expected often happens. Therefore defence operations 
cannot altogether be based upon what takes place at any 
one time but must provide for possible contingencies. At 
no time more than the present did he consider that the 
public should have a clearer understanding of this feature 
of defence policy. 

PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



A. L. Malby, Jr. e. i.e. - - 
D. R. McGregor, s.e.i.c. - 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



The Junior Section held its first discussion meeting of 
the season on November 27, in the Lecture Room at the 
Canadian General Electric Co. 

These meetings consist of a short talk by one of the 
junior members, followed by a comprehensive discussion 
of the speaker's subject by everyone present. At this meet- 
ing, two members spoke; Mr. E. Whiteley and Mr. F. P. 
Athey, both student members and both employed in the 
Engineering Department at the Canadian General Electric 
Co. 

Mr. Whitely spoke on Telephone Influence Factor. 
He outlined the history of the question of the influence of 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



41 



transmission lines and power equipment on telephones and 
telephone equipment, and discussed the present standards 
for the maximum allowable influence. He showed how 
T.I.F. — telephone influence factor — could be calculated by 
applying a weighting curve to the various harmonics in 
the voltage wave, and he described the circuits in the T.I.F. 
meter which give this meter a response curve similar to the 
weighting curve for the various harmonics. 

Mr. Athey in An Engineer Speaks outlined the develop- 
ments in the art and science of public speaking in recent 
years. He pointed out that successful public speaking has 
been reduced to a few simple formulae, which should appeal 
to engineering minds; he then outlined these formulae for 
several types of public speech. 

Both papers were followed by considerable discussion. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

F. L. Black, Jr. b. i.e. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The opening meeting for the fall season was preceded 
by a luncheon at the Admiral Beatty Hotel on Dec. 11. 
Mr. H. F. Morrisey, chairman of the Branch, asked Mr. 
Sidney Hogg to review the activities of the Maritime 
Professional Meeting held this summer at Pictou Lodge. 
Mr. Hogg, the local Councillor, gave a resume of the 
Council Meeting and the Maritime Meeting which followed. 
His remarks were especially interesting to those who had 
not had the pleasure of attending this meeting. 

The speaker for the evening was Mr. Geoffrey Stead, 
and his subject was European Trip in 1938. This subject 
was vividly presented as a travelogue. The speaker's refer- 
ences to places in Scotland, England, and Germany, which 
appear so much in the news to-day, were extremely interest- 
ing and his presentation was most entertaining. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. F. Morrisey, chairman of the 
Branch, presided at the monthly supper meeting of the 
Saint John Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
in the Admiral Beatty Hotel on December 7, 1939. There 
was a large attendance of members. 

Among those present at the meeting was Dr. Frederick 
A. Gaby, President of the Institute in 1935. Dr. Gaby was 
warmly welcomed by the Branch and expressed his deep 
appreciation at being able to attend. 

Unless we discipline ourselves, the Government must 
step in and appoint a registrar of motor vehicles with 
dictatorial powers for we shall have the worst record on 
the highway of any community in North America! This 
was the warning note sounded by Prof. E. O. Turner, 
head of the Department of Civil Engineering at the Univer- 
sity of New Brunswick, in his address to the Saint John 
Branch on Public Safety on the Highways. 

Beneficial results attained in England and some 
larger centres of the United States from the adoption 
of maximum speeds for the open road and thickly settled 
communities were cited by Prof. Turner in advocating 
enforcement of such measures in this Province. He also 
considered the scheme of compulsory insurance as another 
move in the right direction. 

Prof. Turner was extended a hearty vote of thanks at 
the close of his address by Major W. H. Blake and Mr. 
Geoffrey Stead. 

TORONTO BRANCH 



J. J. Spence, a.m.e.i.c. - - 
D. D. Whitson, a.m.e.i.c. - 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



While Diesel engines have been in use in marine and 
stationary fields for a number of decades, it is only in 
recent years that they have come to be extensively used 
in the transportation field, either in locomotives, rail cars, 
or buses and trucks, was the statement made by 
J. L. Busfield, in an address on Modern Application 
of Diesel Engines before the Toronto Branch of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada at a meeting held at Hart 
House on Thursday, Nov. 30, 1939, with Dr. A. E. Berry 
in the chair. 



Canada was stated to have been a pioneer in Diesel rail 
car development, but had fallen a long way behind other 
countries as there are still practically none but the original 
pioneer units in the country. Prior to the outbreak of war, 
there were nearly 4,000 Diesel rail cars in service in 33 
countries of the world, of which Germany had over 700, 
France nearly as many, then Italy, Argentine, Belgium, 
Roumania, in numerical order, with some hundreds each, 
the United States with only 60, Great Britain 50, and 
Canada 29. 

In the case, however, of Diesel locomotives, the United 
States was a strong supporter of this type of motive power, 
having nearly 500 units, out of a world total of over 2,000, 
and being second only to Germany with over 1,200 loco- 
motives. Great Britain had 60, and Canada 5, all but one 
being in shunting service. Diesel locomotives on the Chicago 
to the Coast run go the whole distance and return, a job 
that on steam roads requires 4 locomotives. Most of the 
Diesel locomotives are multi-engined, which makes it 
possible to do a good deal of the maintenance work on 
individual units during the run as all the engines will only 
be used together on the steeper grades. 

The development of Diesel engines, through various 
phases, from heavy stationary units to light portable power 
plants, was explained by Mr. Busfield. Attention was also 
drawn to the important part they are playing to-day in 
war activities, as they are in use under practically every 
condition where power is required, be it on land, on water, 
or in the air. Apart from such activities, the statement was 
made, the almost sole reason for using a Diesel engine was 
that of its economy of operation. In other words, it was 
almost invariably selected to do a specific piece of work 
because it would do that work cheaper than other available 
means of power. Mr. Busfield pointed out that closely the 
same efficiency was obtained from Diesel installations of 
either large or small size. While in small units the Diesel 
engine could compete with the cost of hydro-electric power, 
such was not the case when it came to large central stations. 
In installations up to 100 hp. costing $75 per hp. with 15 
per cent written off for interest and depreciation, the 
standby cost would be about $1 per hp. per month with the 
power cost from 0.9c to 1.5c per kwh. These charges are 
similar to electrical power company charges, in many cases. 

The speaker commented on the effect of propaganda on 
the general public, which in recent years had become Diesel 
conscious. Even the small boy to-day wants his toy loco- 
motive or train to be a Diesel. This has come about to a 
very great extent through the spectacular development of 
Diesel trains in the United States. 

A large number of views of actual applications of Diesel 
engines were shown, and explanations were given of the 
characteristics of the various types of mechanical and 
electric drives used in modern rail car and locomotive 
equipment. 

In connection with road transportation, the field most 
suitable for Diesel power was in heavy long distance con- 
stant service hauling which allowed the high initial cost of 
good Diesel equipment to be balanced against mileages of 
50,000 per year and upward. A Diesel truck hauling two 
trailers in this type of service could show costs of two cents 
per mile against a possible five cents for gasoline driven 
equipment. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 



T. V. Beery, a.m.e.i.c. - - 
Archie Peebles, a.m.e.i.c. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



On Monday, Dec. 4, the Vancouver Branch of the Insti- 
tute met jointly with the Vancouver Section of the A.I.E.E. 
This is an annual feature of the programmes of these two 
branches. 

The speaker was Mr. J. R. Bain, District Manager, 
Dominion Sound Equipment, Ltd., who presented an excel- 
lent paper on Architectural Acoustics. The subject was 



42 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



covered under three headings: sound conditions in various 
types of rooms, the measurement of sound, and sound cor- 
rection in auditoriums. 

The acoustical properties of any room depend principally 
on the reverberation period of sounds produced in it. This 
is the time required for sounds reflected back and forth 
from various surfaces in the room to diminish below the 
level of audibility. The shape and nature of these surfaces 
determine the average reverberation period, the length of 
which should be adjusted to the volume of the room. Some 
reverberation is desirable to give depth and quality, and to 
maintain sufficient volume for listeners remote from the 
sound source. Prolonged reverberation, however, results in 
echoes which can be distinguished from the direct sound, 
and are therefore objectionable. Curved surfaces of non- 
absorbent materials often concentrate reflected sounds at 
a focal point within the room, creating an area where 
hearing conditions are particularly bad. Many instances 
of this arise through building for appearance only, without 
any consideration of the acoustical conditions. 

Sound measurement introduces many problems, including 
units of measurement, the separation of extraneous sounds, 
reverberation, variable absorption, and the different types 
of sound incident to speech and direct or reproduced music. 
The decibel scale is commonly used to indicate sound in- 
tensity. An automatic sound level recorder was demon- 
strated to the audience, as the instrument used in evaluating 
the acoustical properties of a room. Necessary measure- 
ments also include the relative absorbency of materials 
used in construction, decoration and furnishing. 

A room can be so proportioned and built as to have 
desirable acoustical properties, and this is the practice in 
many modern theatres and broadcasting stations. Most 
buildings are designed without reference to this aspect of 
their use, and unsatisfactory conditions result. Remedial 
treatment may consist of reshaping the walls or ceiling by 
false panels which will alter the direction of reflected 
sounds, thereby changing the reverberation period. Absor- 
bent and non-absorbent materials may be proportioned and 
disposed to alter the period of reverberation while still 
maintaining quality and volume. Treatment will vary, de- 
pending on the use of the room and the type of sound 
involved. Amplifying systems cannot be placed at random, 
but must be adjusted to the sound dispersing properties 
of the room. 

The address was well illustrated by about thirty lantern 
slides showing in graphic form the many relationships inci- 
dental to sound measurement. Two excellent sound films 
were also shown, adding considerable interest and informa- 
tion to the discussion. The latter were designed for class- 
room use in the teaching of general science. 

Mr. K. Haspel of the B.C. Telephone Co. presided over 
the meeting, which was attended by about forty members 
of the two societies. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 



Kenneth Reid, jr. e. i.e. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



At a general meeting of the Victoria Branch called to 
receive nominations for the officers of the branch for the 
ensuing year, and held on December 7, 1939, a large number 
of members heard a very interesting and instructive address 
delivered by Mr. F. C. Green, Surveyor General for British 
Columbia, on the subject, The Use of Aerial Photography 
for Mapping. 

In introducing the subject Mr. Green stated that triangu- 
lation was used as a basis for all photographic mapping in 
British Columbia. The first attempts at photographic map- 
ping were made by the late Mr. W. S. Drewry in the 
Kootenay region of the province in the year 1898, Mr. 
Drewry being sent out from Ottawa for the purpose. A 
survey by means of photographic topography was conducted 
in 1912 along the C.P. Railway property and south to the 



border. Following the war the first aerial photography 
efforts in B.C. were made by A. S. G. Musgrave, but the 
costs of such surveys were excessive in those days. Mosaic 
maps from photographs were made for mining interests, 
etc., but these were not practical. 

In 1930 a combination of aerial photography and ground 
topography was used for mapping purposes with increasing 
success and this is the method in use to-day in the province — 
in fact, British Columbia was the pioneer, not only in North 
America, but in the world, in this form of aerial photog- 
raphy for mapping. 

The speaker then entered into a technical description 
of the cameras and equipment used for aerial photograph 
work, the best possible lenses being used and cameras with 
a fixed focal length being an essential necessity in order 
to obtain a definite relationship between plate positions 
and focal length. Ground photography consisted of cameras 
mounted on tripods and levelled, the position and direction 
being fixed by triangulation methods and the exact position 
of the camera determined. This appeared at first to be a 
perfect method for ground photography but ground photo- 
graphs do not take in every point on rough terrain such as 
is usually found in most of B.C., consequently many im- 
portant points cannot be obtained. It is interesting to note 
that originally the cost of ground photography in the 
Kootenay region of B.C. was around $39.50 per sq. mi. 
This cost was decreased considerably with experience and 
improved methods. 

Aerial photography was conducted from an elevation of 
15,000 feet and of the vertical type. The use of oblique 
photography was not extensive and was restricted to special 
cases only. For the most part the province of B.C. is in 
high relief. On a course traverse the course of the plane was 
plotted, photographs being taken at regular intervals with 
points overlapping and with triangulation control being 
maintained. Vertical photographs provide little means for 
determining altitude or elevation, a decided weakness in 
this method of mapping. Likewise, it is practically imposs- 
ible to keep a plane operating on a straight line due to 
drift, etc. 

In 1931 a combination of vertical and horizontal photog- 
raphy was developed, a method which provided many points 
that could be fixed as to location and elevation. With the 
use of the stereoscope as developed during the time of the 
Great War applied to aerial photographs points in relief 
could be brought out from which contours could be followed 
and extensive use of aerial photographs for mapping was 
made possible. The present cost of aerial mapping is from 
$2.00 to $6.00 per sq. mi. in B.C. and the cost of combined 
aerial and ground photographic mapping by modern methods 
is around $25.00 per sq. mile. 

Mr. Green then dealt briefly with the three proposed 
routes for Alaska highway and the possibilities for aerial 
mapping of these routes. He stated that some 150 miles of 
the Finlay Valley route had been surveyed by the above 
methods during the past year showing contours at 100 ft. 
intervals for a width of about ten miles. The 400 mile 
Finlay Fork route could be thusly surveyed at a cost of 
around $80,000 or less than one per cent of the cost of 
construction. It was not hard to convince engineers of the 
economy and savings made possible by aerial surveys for 
such undertakings. Likewise, the value of these surveys 
was very great to forestry and mining engineers and pro- 
spectors. 

As a means of illustrating the address the speaker pro- 
vided a stereoscope together with numerous photographs 
both vertical and oblique of British Columbia terrain, 
particularly of the regions mentioned in the address, and 
many members availed themselves of the opportunity to 
study the subject for themselves. 

At the conclusion of the talk, Mr. A. S. G. Musgrave 
moved a hearty vote of thanks to the speaker for his most 
instructive address. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



43 



Library Notes 



ADDITIONS TO THE 
LIBRARY 

PROCEEDINGS, TRANSACTIONS, ETC. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers: 

Proceedings, Vol. 141, 1939. 

The New Zealand Institution of Engin- 
eers: 

Proceedings, Vol. 25, 1938-39. 

TECHNICAL BOOKS, ETC. 

The Design of Propeller Pumps and Fans : 
By M. P. O'Brien and R. G. Folsom. 
University of Calif. Press, Berkeley, Calif., 
1939. 18 pp. 8]/i by 11 in. paper. 

Enjine! Enjine! 

By K. H. Dunshee. Home Insurance Com- 
pany, New York, 1939. 63 pp. Illus. 8% 
by 9 in. paper. 

Forging Handbook: 

By W. Naujoks and D. C. Fabel. The 
American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 
Ohio, 1939. 630 pp. illus. 6\i by 9\i cloth. 

Refrigerating Data Book: 

Vol. 1. Refrigerating Principles and 
Machinery. The American Society of Re- 
frigerating Engineers, New York, 1939. 
527 pp. illus. tab. charts. 6}4 by 9}4 in. 
cloth. $4.00 {in U.S.), $4.50 (elsewhere). 

REPORTS, ETC. 

American Institute of Steel Construc- 
tion: 

Annual Report, 1939. 

American Society for Testing Materials: 

Stress, Strain and Structural Damage, 
H. F. Moore (Edgar Marburg Lecture, 
1939). 

Amos Tuck School of Administration 
and Finance: 

A Reading List on Business Adminis- 
tration. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, 
N.H.). 

British Columbia, Department of Lands: 

Annual report of the Lands and Survey 
Branches. 

Canada Department of Labour: 

Investigation into an alleged combine of 
wholesalers and shippers of fruits and 
vegetables in western Canada. 1939. 

Canada Bureau of Mines: 

The Canadian Mineral Industry in 1938; 
The Mining Laws of Canada. 

Canada Mines and Geology Branch: 

Annual report of the Explosives Division 
of the Bureau of Mines for 1938; Report 
of Mines and Geology Branch for 1938. 

Connecticut Society of Civil Engineers: 

Annual Report, 1939. 

National Research Council of Canada : 

Twenty-first Annual Report, 1937-1938. 

Ontario Department of Mines : 

Annual Report, Vol. 47, pt. 9, 1938. 

Portland Cement Association: 

Continuous concrete bridges. 

The Smithsonian Institution: 

Utilizing Heat from the Sun by C. G. 
Abbot. 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



Société Française des Electriciens: 

Remise de la Médaille Mascart. 1939. 

The Society of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers: 

General Information Book, 1939. 

South East London Technical Institute: 

Foremanship by A. P. Young, 1938. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines: 

Practices and methods of preventing and 
treating crude-oil emulsions. (Bulletin 417) 

U.S. Bureau of Mines: 

Physical and chemical properties of cokes 
made or used in Washington; Carbonizing 
properties and pétrographie composition of 
sewell bed coal; Production of explosives in 
the United States. (Technical Papers 597, 
601, 606). 

U.S. Geological Survey: 

Spirit leveling in Missouri, Pt. 7, Central 
Missouri, Pt. 8, West-central Missouri, 
1896-1938; Spirit leveling in South Caro- 
lina, Part 1, Northern South Carolina, 
1896-1938; Subsurface geology and oil and 
gas resources of Osage County, Oklahoma, 
Pt. 2 and 3; The coal resources of McCone 
County, Montana (Geological Survey Bul- 
letins 890-A, 898-G, H, 900-B, C, 905). 
Geology and ground-water hydrology of the 
Mokelumne area, California; Surface 
water supply of the United States, 1937, 
Pt. 1, North Atlantic slope basins; Artesian 
water levels and interference between arte- 
sian wells in the vicinity of Lehi, Utah; 
Ground water in the United States, a sum- 
mary; Summary of records of surface 
waters of Texas, 1898-1937; Surface water 
supply of the United States 1938, Pt. 7, 
Lower Mississippi river basin; Pt. 9, 
Colorado river basin. (Water-supply Paper 
780, 821, 836-C, 836-D, 850, 857, 859). 
Foraminifera, diatoms, and mollusks from 
test wells near Elizabeth City, North Caro- 
lina; Fossil plants from the Colgate member 
of the Fox Hills sandstone and adjacent 
strata; Area! geology of Alaska (Profes- 
sional Paper, 189-G, I, 192). 

BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the Engin- 
eering Societies Library of New York. As 
yet the books are not in the Institute 
Library, but inquiries will be welcomed 
at headquarters, or may be sent direct 
to the publishers. 

ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 
and Its Applications; Bibliography 
and Abstracts, 1932 to 1938. 

By 0. J . Walker. London, England, Adam 
Hilger, Ltd., 1939. 68 pp., 10x6 in., linen, 
apply. 

A comprehensive list of references covering 
the developments and applications of absorp- 
tion spectrophotometry for the period 1932 to 
1938. In order to facilitate the task of obtain- 
ing quantitative absorption data concerning 
any particular problem, the references have 
been classified under various general headings 
and are numbered serially. There is an author 
index. 

ANNUAL REVIEWS OF PETROLEUM 
TECHNOLOGY 

Vol. 4 (covering 1938), ed. by F. H. Garner. 
London, Institute of Petroleum, 1939. 478 



pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, lis. 

This annual compilation contains reviews 
by experts of developments within 1938 in 
the whole range of petroleum technology: 
geology, geophysics, drilling and production, 
transportation and storage, refinery opera- 
tions, fuel oils, gasoline and oil engines, lubri- 
cation, road materials, analysis and testing, 
etc. In addition to chapter bibliographies 
there is a general review of petroleum litera- 
ture in 1938, and the last chapter furnishes 
production and commercial statistics. 

AUDELS NEW RADIOMAN'S GUIDE 

By E. P. Anderson. New York, Theo. 
Audel & Co., 1939. 756 pp., illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 7x5 in., cloth, $4-00. 

This practical, comprehensive work covers 
the fundamentals of sound, electricity, and 
radio principles; describes broadcasting and 
receiving equipment, including design, opera- 
tion and maintenance details; and discusses 
allied apparatus such as marine and aircraft 
communication, public address systems, the 
radio compass and beacons, automatic alarms, 
and electronic television. Underwriters' stand- 
ards, symbols, abbreviations and units are 
given, and questions or problems with answers 
are included in various chapters. 

DIE-CASTINGS 

By A. Street, London, Emmott & Co., Ltd., 
1939. 160 pp., illus., diagrs., tables, 8x5 
in., cloth, 4s. 6d. 

Intended particularly as a source of inform- 
ation for users of die-castings, this small 
volume describes briefly the methods and 
materials for die-casting work. Some technical 
problems are considered, the factors which 
make for the best results are explained, and 
a bibliography is included for those who wish 
to investigate any part of the subject in more 
detail. 

DIESEL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK, 
1939-1940, De Luxe Edition 

Edited by L. H. Morrison. New York, 
Diesel Publications, 1939. 940 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $6.00. 

This handbook, revised and enlarged, pro- 
vides a great amount of practical up-to-date 
information upon the operation and mainten- 
ance of diesel engines, valuable both to the 
owner and operator. The treatment is exhaus- 
tive and profusely illustrated from actual 
practice. Two chapters of engineering funda- 
mentals are devoted to brief description of 
useful general engineering terms and equip- 
ment. 

DRILLING AND PRODUCTION PRAC- 
TICE, 1937, 1938. Two Vols. 

Sponsored by the Central Committee on 
Drilling and Production Practice of the 
American Petroleum Institute, New York, 
1938-1939. Illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
11x8 in., cloth, 1937, 446 pp. $3.00; 
1938, 458 pp., $8.00. 

The American Petroleum Institute annually 
publishes these collections of selected papers 
on drilling and production practice presented 
at its meetings. The papers are divided into 
four groups : drilling practice, production prac- 
tice, materials, and miscellaneous. A bibliog- 
raphy of district-meeting papers, following 
the main text, contains abstracts and refer- 
ences as to where the complete papers have 
been published. 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ELEMENTARY DESIGN OF STRUC- 
TURAL STEEL AND REINFORCED 
CONCRETE 

By C. Kandall. 2 ed. New York, Federa- 
tion of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and 
Technicians, 1939. 162 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 8 l A x 5Y 2 in., cloth, $2.00. 

This book is based upon a review course in 
structural design given to students preparing 
for the New York State licensing examinations 
for Registered Architect and Professional 
Engineer. The fundamental theories of ele- 
mentary structural design, in both steel and 
concrete, are briefly reviewed and illustrated 
by the solution of problems, including prob- 
lems from previous examinations. 

FAULTS AND FAILURES IN ELEC- 
TRICAL PLANT 

By R. Spieser and others; translated by 
E. Hunking. London, Sir Isaac Pitman 
& Sons; New York, Pitman Publishing 
Corp., 1939. 408 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 8x6 in., cloth, $10.00. 

The paucity of collected information on 
electrical plant troubles has inspired the trans- 
lation from the German of this book on the 
causes, results, cure and prevention of faults 
and failures in heavy current machines, ap- 
paratus and plant. The first three parts cover 
installation an operational faults of electrical 
machines, transformers and auxiliary appar- 
atus. Part IV considers the materials em- 
ployed and the troubles directly owing to 
them. 

LES FLUCTUATIONS ECONOMIQUES 
ET L'INTERDÉPENDANCE DES 
MARCHÉS 

By B. Chait. Brussels, Belgium, R. Louis, 
Rue Borrens 37-39, 1938. 344 PP-, diagrs., 
charts, tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, 150 frs. 
belgian; paper, 135 frs. belgian. 

The author examines the subject of eco- 
nomic fluctuations, establishes certain quanti- 
tative criteria for the stability of price systems, 
and derives a general law to explain shifts in 
prices, from which he draws certain basic 
conclusions with regard to our economic 
mechanism. Numerous graphs accompany the 
text, and a glossary of terms, a list of symbols, 
and a bibliography are appended. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research. Building Research. 
Technical Paper No. 22. Studies in Rein- 
forced Concrete. V. Moment Redistribution 
in Reinforced Concrete, by W. H. Glanville ■ 
and F. G. Thomas. 52 pp., 40c. 
Technical Paper No. 24- Studies in Rein- 
forced Concrete. VII. The Strength of Long 
Reinforced Concrete Columns in Short 
Period Tests to Destruction, by F. G. 
Thomas. 29 pp., 25c. 

Technical Paper No. 26. The Solubility 
of Cements, by F. M. Lea. 17 pp., 15c. 
London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1939. Illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 10 x 6 
in., paper (obtainable from British Library 
of Information, 50 Rockfeller Plaza, New 
York). 

Technical Papers No. 22 and No. 24 are 
concerned with the effect of inelastic deforma- 
tions (creep) in reinforced concrete, and de- 
scribe investigations pursued along this line, 
listing the resulting data. No. 26 presents the 
results of a study of methods for testing the 
relative susceptibilities of various cements to 
loss of lime by leaching when soft waters per- 
colate through them. 

HUMAN-RELATIONS MANUAL FOR 
EXECUTIVES 

By C. Hey el. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 253 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 8x5 in., cloth, $2.00. 



Hundreds of ideas for selecting, developing, 
stimulating, safeguarding and guiding the 
working force are presented in the form of 
case examples of what actual companies are 
doing successfully to solve their personnel 
problems. Application check points, consisting 
of pertinent questions on the preceding 
material, accompany each chapter. 

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL 
PHYSICS 

By J. C. Slater. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 521 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $5.00. 

The purpose of this book is to provide a 
unified presentation of the subjects common 
to both physics and chemistry, aimed espec- 
ially at those who wish to obtain the maximum 
knowledge of chemical physics with the mini- 
mum of theory. 

INTRODUCTION TO MINE SURVEYING 

By W. W. Staley. Stanford University 
Press, Stanford University, Calif., 1939. 
275 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 8x5 
in., fabrikoid, $3.50. 

This first American text on mine surveying 
in twenty-five years is based on extensive cor- 
respondence with mine engineers in North 
America, as well as on the author's personal 
experience. It represents tested present-day 
practice, the illustrations and examples are 
of a practical nature, and the material is easily 
handled in the field or the classroom. 

MARINE DIESEL MANUAL 

Edited by L. R. Ford; produced and dis- 
tributed by Diesel Publications, 192 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York, 1939. 207 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 6x5 in., paper, 50c. 
This brief practical manual covers the prin- 
ciples, types and details of marine diesel en- 
gines, including fuel systems, lubrication, 
operation and maintenance instructions, aux- 
iliary equipment, and electric and gear drives. 

MATTER AND LIGHT, the New Physics 

By L. de Broglie; translated by W. H. 
Johnston. New York, W. W. Norton & 
Co., 1939. 300 pp., diagrs., tables, 9x5 
in., cloth, $3.50. 

In this volume the distinguished French 
physicist has collected a number of studies on 
contemporary physics written both from the 
general and the more metaphysical point of 
view. The subjects include: a general survey 
of contemporary physics; matter and elec- 
tricity; light and radiation; wave mechanics; 
philosophical studies on quantum physics; 
and philosophical studies on various subjects. 
Except in two chapters, the reader requires 
no mathematics. 

MODERN BLAST CLEANING AND 
VENTILATION 

By C. A. Reams. Cleveland, Ohio, Penton 
Publishing Co., 1939. 213 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9}/i x 6 in., cloth, 

$4.00. 

The whole field of blast cleaning of metallic 
surfaces is surveyed from a practical view- 
point. Both compressed air and centrifugal 
methods are considered, including equipment, 
procedures, proper conditions and protective 
devices. The use of surface blasting for in- 
creasing the fatigue resistance of metal is dis- 
cussed, and the subjects of ventilation, main- 
tenance, and selection of equipment receive 
attention. Various specific types of jobs are 
described and there is a list of uses for blast 
cleaning equipment. 

(The) RECTIFICATION OF ALTERNAT- 
ING CURRENT 

By H. Rissik. London, English Univer- 
sities Press; Hodder & Stoughton, 1938. 
219 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., cloth, 21s. 



Fundamental circuit relations and the 
general characteristics of rectifier circuits are 
discussed in Part I. Part II covers the physical 
principles underlying rectification phenomena, 
electric discharges, boundary layers, etc. In 
Part II four methods of alternating-current 
rectification are described: mechanical, elec- 
tron discharge, arc discharge, and by uni- 
polarity of boundary layers. The book is in- 
tended both for students and practising en- 
gineers and has a large bibliography. 

SPARKS, LIGHTNING, COSMIC RAYS, 
an Anecdotal History of Electricity 

By D. C. Miller. New York, Macmillan 
Co., 1939. 192 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $2.50. 

The nature of electricity, from the experi- 
ments with amber by the Greek philosophers 
to the latest phenomena of cosmic rays, is 
presented by anecdotal reference to the many 
significant experiments and discoveries made 
by the important workers in that field. The 
second section of the three comprising the 
book is devoted to that versatile investigator, 
Benjamin Franklin. The book embodies the 
Christmas lectures for young people at the 
Franklin Institute, 1937. 

STOKER HANDBOOK 

By H. D. Airesman. New York and Phila- 
delphia, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1939. 201 
pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 8x5 in., 
cloth, $3.00. 

This manual describes the installation, op- 
eration and maintenance of domestic and 
small commercial stokers in simple, practical 
fashion. Both bituminous and anthracite 
stokers are included, and the information 
covers applications to hot-water, warm-air 
and steam heating plants. 

STRATEGIC MINERAL SUPPLIES 

By G. A. Roush. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 485 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 914 x 6 in., cloth, 
$6.00. 

This book presents a concise picture, from 
both a military and general industrial view- 
point, of the status of the United States with 
respect to supplies of those materials of 
mineral origin of which the domestic supply 
is inadequate. Each of these twelve minerals, 
mostly metals, is discussed in detail as to 
uses, substitutes, ore reserves, sources of 
supply, imports, exports, stocks, tariff and 
political and commercial control, as they 
affect the domestic situation. 

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 

By D. Shoenberg. Cambridge, England, 
University Press; New York, Macmillan 
Co., 1938. Ill pp., diagrs., charts, 8% x 
5]/2. in., paper, $1.75. 

The phenomenon of superconductivity as 
exhibited by certain metals, metallic com- 
pounds, and alloys is discussed, mainly from 
the point of view of recent developments. The 
experimental results cited are for the purpose 
of making clear the essential principles in- 
volved. Each chapter has a fist of references, 
as has also the appendix of numerical data. 

TECHNOLOGY AND LABOR 

By E. D. Smith and R. C. Nyman. New 
Haven, Conn., Institute of Human Rela- 
tions, Yale University Press, 1939. 222 
pp., 10 x 6 in., cloth, $2.50. 

This "study of the human problems of labor 
saving" is based upon firsthand observations 
in Southern cotton mills where the "extended 
labor" system was being introduced. The diffi- 
culties encountered, the ways in which they 
were overcome, and the effects of the changes 
in method, both temporary and lasting, are 
discussed. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



45 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Application for Admission and for Transfer 



December 29th, 1939. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing a 
concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of 
his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
February, 1940. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



•The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least thirty-five years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in tome branch of engineering for at least twelve years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office, or a term of instruction in 
a school of engineering recognized by the Council. The term of twelve years may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years in the case of a candidate 
for election who has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. 
In every case the candidate shall have held a position in which he had responsible 
charge for at least five years as an engineer qualified to design, direct or report on 
engineering projeots. The occupancy of a chair as a professor in a faculty of applied 
science of engineering, after the candidate has attained the age of thirty years, shall 
be considered as responsible charge. 

An Associate Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have 
been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may 
include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruc- 
tion in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate 
for election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered as 
professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty. one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty -three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation ; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed ; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by suoh members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

ADLAM— ARTHUR EDWIN, of Asbestos, Que. Born at Chamberlain, Sask , 
June 22nd, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Sask., 1935; Summers: 1933, engrg 
office, dfting. and blueprinting; 1934, rodman, Dept. of Highways, Sask.; 1935, 
Dept. of Mines, Ottawa, water resources of prairie provinces; 1936, timekpr., Dept. 
of Highways, Sask.; 1937 — (4 mos.), assting. engr., Anglin-Norcross, Toronto; 
(3 mos.), sales engr. of insulating materials, Brantford Roofing Co., Brantford; 
(2 mos.), salesman for insulating materials, Laidlaw Lumber Co., Toronto; Oct.,' 
1937, to date, asst. mining engr., i/c of surveying and mapping, Canadian Johns- 
Man ville Co., Asbestos, Que. 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, R. A. Spencer, G. M. Williams, A. R. Greig, W. E 
Lovell. 

BALES— ROBERT P., of Montreal, Que. Born at Toronto, Ont. March 29th 
1915; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Chem.), Univ. of Toronto, 1938; 1933-37 (total of 3 years), 
lab. asst., Dunlop Tire Company; 1938 (May-Nov.), plastic moulding investigation, 
RCA Victor Co., Montreal; at present, chemical engr., Dominion Rubber Co., 
Montreal. 

References: T. M. Moran, R. Ford, R. E. Loudon, R. E. Smythe, E. A. Allcut. 

BEIQUE— JEAN, of 69 Courcelette St., Outremont. Que. Born at Montreal, 
Aug. 29th, 1898: Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Mass. Inst. Tech., 1921; 1922, Grad., Ecole 
de Papeterie, Grenoble, France; R.P.E. of Que.; 1917-25, surveying, estimates, 
valuation, constrn., supervision, etc., as asst. to Paul A. Beique, CE., A.M.E.I.C; 
1923-24, dfting., testing, etc, for Newfoundland Power & Paper Co. at Shawinigan 
Falls; 1925, technical adviser to Rene T. Leclerc Inc.; 1926 to date, consltg. engr. 
and surveyor, surveying, expropriations, valuations, constrn., supervision, expert 
evidence, consultations, as asst. to Paul A. Beique, CE., A.M.E.I.C, Montreal, Que 

References: P. A. Beique, J. G. Chenevert, A. Surveyer, E. Gohier. 

CARISS— CARINGTON CARYSFORT, of Brantford, Ont. Born at Liverpool, 
England, June 19th, 1880; Educ: Night classes, mach. design, thermodynamics, 
Woolwich Polytechnic; Member, Am. Soc.M.E.; Member of Council, Assn. Prof. 
Engrs. Ont., 1929-30. 1937 to date, Lieut.-Governor's representative on same Coun- 
cil; 1895-1900, ap'ticeship, Easton, Anderson & Goolden Ltd., Erith, Kent, engines, 
boilers, waterworks equipment, etc.; 1903-16, dftsman. and chief dftsman., e! 
Leonard & Sons, London, Ont.; with Waterous Ltd., Brantford, Ont., as follows: 
1916-18, gen. estimating, followed by supervision of 4.5 shell dept.; 1918-19, super- 
vision of boiler shop during constrn. large marine boilers; 1920-35, asst. chief engr., 
in charge of drawing office; 1935 to date, chief engineer. 

References: H. A. Lumsden, C. B. Hamilton, Jr., I. Leonard, E. P. Muntz R 
W. Angus, W. P. DobBon, F. P. Adams. 

CRAIK— OLIVER STANLEY, of 25 Park Avenue, Gatineau Mills, Quebec 
Born at Waterville, Que., Apr. 7th, 1894; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), McGill Univ., 1923; 
1915-19, overseas; 1922 (summer), testing, and 1923-25, apprentice course, Canadian 
Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont. ; 1925-26, i/c trunk lines between exchanges, 
Montreal divn., Bell Telephone Company; 1926 (Mar. -Nov.), dftsman. on elec 
layout, installn. of 2 paper machines, Belgo Pulp & Paper Co., Shawinigan Falls, 
Que.; 1926-27, supt. i/c of installn. of prim, substation, Gatineau Mills, Que.; for 
Canadian Comstock Co., constrn. of mill; 1927-33, asst. elect'l. supt., and 1933 to 
date, elect'l. supt., International Paper Company, Gatineau Mills, Quebec. 

References: R. M. Prendergast, J. T. Thwaites, D. W. Callander, R. C. Silver, 
C. V. Christie. 

HIGGINS— ALEXANDER, of 1106 Frontenac Ave., Calgary, Alta. Born at 
Ayr, Scotland, Oct. 31st, 1883; Educ: 1899-1905, Royal Technical College, Glas- 
gow; Member, Am. Soc.M.E.; R.P.E. of Alta.; 1899-1904, ap'ticeship, Campbell, 
Binnie & Co., Mining Engrs., Glasgow; 1904-06, night foreman, heavy naval gun 
shop, Wm. Beardmore & Co., Glasgow; 1906-08, outside foreman, E. Simpson & 
Co., Engrs., Scotland; 1909-10, chief power plant engr., Alberta Clay Products, 
Medicine Hat, Alta.; 1910-12, chief power plant engr., Ogilvie Flour Mills, Medicine 
Hat, Alta.; 1913-16, master mechanic, Chinook Coal Co., Lethbridge, Alta.; 1916-18, 
instructor in mining and steam engrg., Provincial Institute of Technology, Calgary, 
and Calgary Soldiers' Civil Re -establishment Centre; 1918-20, leased and operated, 
Yoho Coal Mine, Rosedale, Alta.; 1920-23, mine mgr., Jewel Collieries, Wayne, Alta.; 
1923-24, mine mgr., Palisade Mine, Three Hills, Alta.; 1924-26, consltg. heating engr. 
in Detroit, Mich.; 1926-29, instructor in engrg. maths., 1929-32, head of mining 
dept., 1932-36, supervisor of engrg. correspondence instruction, Provincial Institute 
of Technology Calgary ; 1936-39, consltg. mining and mech'I. engr., Examiner Bldg., 
Calgary; at present, supervisor of engrg. correspondence instruction and night cIbbs 
organization in mining centres, Provincial Institute of Technology, Calgary, Alta. 

References: F. N. Rhodes, F. M. Steel, B. L. Thorne, S. J. Davies, J. B. deHart, 
J. W. Young, L. Green, P. T. Bone. 

ROGERS— JOHN HENRY, of 49 Yates St., St. Catharines, Ont. Born at St. 
Catharines, Ont., March 23rd, 1917; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1939; 1937 
(summer), rodman, Dept. of Highways of Ont., Grimsby; 1938 (summer), instr'man., 
St. Catharines waterworks and St. Catharines works dept.; May 1939 to date, 
asst. to city engr., St. Catharines, Ont. 

' References: C. R. Young, A. L. McPhail, G. F. Hanning, M. B. Atkinson, R. W 
Angus, F. E. Sterns. 

STIRRETT— GORDON PARK, of Vancouver, B.C. Born at Forest, Ont., June 
15th, 1886; Educ: 1903-06, S.P.S., Univ. of Toronto; 1904-08, surveys, mining in 
Nor. Ontario, Sask. and California; 1908-11, dftsman., transitman, reas. engr. 
(constrn.), G.T.P. Ry.; 1911-16, res. engr. (constrn.), Can. Nor. Pac Ry.; 1916-19, 
Overseas, Can. Engrs., Can. Rly. Troops, Capt. ; 1919-20, private practice, Van- 
couver; 1920-25, asst. engr., Vancouver Harbour Commissioners; locating engr., 
C.P.R., Dept. Nat. Resources, B.C.; res. engr., B.C. Prov. Public Works Dept., 
engr., A. & L. Logging Co.; res. engr., Alouette Stave Tunnel, B.C. Electric Railway; 
1925-29, asst. engr., with W. G. Swan, M.E.I.C; 1929-39, managing director, B.C. 
Appraisal Co., Vancouver; Sept. 1939, works engr. (civilian), R.C.A.F., Western 
Air Command; at present, inspection engr. for B.C., War Supply Board. 

References: H. N. Macpherson, C. E.Webb, W. G. Swan, J. P. Mackenzie, J. 
Robertson, T. V. Berry, P. H. Buchan, W. H. Powell. 

TEASD ALE— JOSEPH EPHREM, of Church Road, St. Foy, Que. Born at 
Shawinigan Falls, Que., Sept. 8th, 1900; Educ: Royal Can. School of Military 
Engineering, studied gen. constrn., stresses, military field work, etc., 1922-23-24. 
Qualified Military Foreman of Works and Bldg. Construction Estimator; 1920-24 
(summers), practical work on bridge bldg., roadways, explosive demolition, laying 
submarine cables, boat dock constrn., gen. mil. engrg. field work, dfting.; Mil. Diet. 
No. 6, Halifax; 1925-26, res. supt., in charge of new constrn. and mtce. for Levis 
forts, camp, drill hall and all military properties. Mil. Dist. No. 5, Quebec; 1927-30, 
same as above, but on large scale in Quebec Mil. District and City; 1930-31, assisted 
Senior Eng. Officer for designing and estimating of Valcartier Arsenal, main and 
drains, in addition to duties of general foreman and estimator; 1931-36, detail 
sketches, estimating and personal supervision, incl. material traffic for total recon- 
strn. of Quebec Citadel and City Walls, fortifications, gates and stone bldgs., along 
with work already mentioned and more intensively; 1937-38-39, cont. along same 
lines, incl. mtce. of out of town mil. properties; organized supervision of small camps, 
huts, alien concentration camps for 1939 mobilization: at present, military work* 
estimator and gen. foreman. Warrant Officer in Royal Canadian Engineers, Quebec, 
Que. 

References: A. J. Kerry, W. S. Lawrence, E. D. Gray-Donald, J. B. Dunbar, 
A. D. Mann, C. R. S. Stein. 

(Continued on page 47) 



46 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND DRAFTSMEN 
— Junior, 25-40 years of age. At least two years 
experience in substation work. State qualifications, 
age, length of experience and present location. 
Apply to Box No. 1985-V. 

MAN with science degree, chemistry, engineering and 
practical knowledge of steam boiler plant operation. 
Strong personality and progressive nature are 
required to sell the technical service and product of 
this company. Apply to Box No. 2003-V. 



NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 
VACANCIES 

The National Research Council invites applications 
for positions in the Radio Laboratory, Division of 
Physics and Electrical Engineering. Applicants must 
be British subjects. Vacancies may be applied for in 
the following categories depending on the training and 
experience of the applicant. These positions are tem- 
porary, the term of employment depending on war 
requirements. Applications of unsuccessful candidates 
in any particular grade may be considered for the next 
lower grade if the candidate so requests: Senior Re- 
search Assistant, $1,680-82,040; Junior Research 
Physicist, $2,100-82,700; Assistant Research Physicist, 
$2,820-83,300; Associate Research Physicist, Gr. I., 
$3,480-$3,720; Associate Research Physicist, Gr. II., 
$3,840-$4,200. Duties — To carry out tests and mea- 
surements; to design and to supervise construction of 
apparatus and equipment; to standardize and calibrate 
apparatus; to perform the requisite field tests of ap- 
paratus and equipment. In case of the more senior 
positions the candidate must have had experience in 
directingmen. Qualifications — Graduation in Honours 
Physics, Engineering Physics, or Electrical Engineering 
from a recognized university. Post-graduate training 
and experience in radio is desirable. Experience in the 
design and operation of radio frequency equipment. 
Experience in transmitter design and construction. 
Mathematical ability in the theoretical type of cal- 
culations arising from radio work. Applications and 
credentials should be addressed to the Secretary- 
Treasurer, National Research Council, Ottawa, and 
should include a statement of name in full, age, place 
of birth, marital status, race, citizenship, period of 
residence in Canada, birthplace of parents, academic 
degrees and honours, publications, experience, possibly 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



a recent photograph, and the names and addresses of 
suitable referees. Reference may be made to previous 
applications if already on file at the National Research 
Council, but the material should be brought up to date. 
Applications should be received as early as 
possible. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

CIVIL ENGINEER, grad. '29, eleven months on 
construction, three months on road location, five 
months in draughting office, desires position on con- 
struction or would Eke to enter draughting office 
with possibilities in steel and reinforced concrete 
design. At present employed. Apply to Box No. 
352-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, m.a. (Cantab.). A.M.Inst. 
c.E., A.M.B.i.c. Age 35. Married. Experienced general 
construction, reinforced concrete, roads, hydro- 
electric design and construction, surveys. Apply 
to Box No. 751-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, b.a.bc, a.m.e.i.c. Eight 
years experience in shop practices, field erection, 
draughting, design and estimating. Advanced training 
in Industrial Management. Would like to work with 
an industrial engineering firm or act as an assistant 
to a manufacturing executive to gain further training 
in industrial leadership. Married. Age 32. Apply 
to Box No. 1543-W. 

REFINERY ENGINEER, b.sc. (e.e.), Man. '37. 
Experienced in supervising operations and mainten- 
ance of small refinery. Registered provincial 3rd 
class steam engineer. Executive background. Also 
experience in sales and road construction. Consider 
any location and reasonable offer. Available on short 
notice. Applv to Box No. 1703-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc, s.e.i.c. Married. Six 
months surveying; mill site; water supply, power 
line location, earthwork, drainage, topographic. 
Has given field instruction in surveying. Three 
months bridge maintenance, asphalt paving inspec- 
tion in two provinces. Five months draughting. 
Excellent references. Speaks some French and 



Spanish. Will go anywhere. Available on two weeks 
notice. Apply to Box No. 1860-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c. Age 37. 
Married. 1st Class B.O.T. Certif. 1st Class Ontario 
Stat. Engr's Certif. Thorough technical and practical 
training. Specialist in maintenance and general plant 
supervision, refrigeration, power plant. Available on 
short notice. Box No. 1963-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc. (Alta. '36) s.e.i.c. 
Age 25. Single. Two years experience in engineering 
sales as power apparatus specialist and in special 
products sales for leading electrical manufacturing 
firm in Canada. Experience in promotion and sale 
of power line hardware equipment as well as in 
public address and radio broadcast equipment. 
References. Location immaterial. Will go anywhere 
on short notice. Apply to Box No. 2011-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc. (Manitoba '34) 
a.m.e.i.c. Married, Canadian. Experience includes 
year and half with British electrical firm in England 
on apprenticeship course and erection work. Three 
years as sales engineer of wide range of electrical 
apparatus. Work included draughting and outsid* 
erection of diesel driven generating equipment, 
etc., also draughting and layout design. Experienced 
in office routine and correspondence and can meet 
public. References are available and will consider 
any location. Box No. 2022-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc (Tor. '34). Age 27. 
Single. Two years experience with well known 
firm of consulting engineers in surveying, water- 
works and sewer design and construction and 
municipal engineering. Three and one half years 
experience in the design of mining machinery of 
all kinds including sales engineering work in the 
mining districts of Northern Ontario and Quebec. 
Well experienced in structural and mechanical 
detailing. References. Apply to Box No. 2041-W. 

SALES ENGINEER, fifteen years experience in sales 
and sales management, oil burners, heating, indus- 
trial heavy oil burners and air conditioning equip- 
ment. McGill graduate. Apply Box No. 2046-W. 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE (Continued from page 46) 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR 

TAPLEY— DONALD GORDON, of Calgary, Alta. Born at Pointe du Chêne, 
N.B., Aug. 7th, 1911; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1934; 1929-31 (summer 
work), timekpr., checker, tracing, etc.; 1934 to date, with the Can. Gen. Elec Co. 
Ltd., as follows: 1934-35, test course, Toronto and Peterborough; 1935, contract 
service dept.; 1935-36, switchboard design; 1936, head office sales divn., training in 
air conditioning, commercial refrigeration, and electric distribution systems; Oct., 
1936, to date, designing and selling air cond. commercial refrigeration systems in 
Alberta, including industrial heating, texcope drives and gen. engrg. (St. 1934, Jr. 
1936)! 

References: R. S. Trowsdale, R. Mackay, W. P. Copp, E. C. Williams, I. F. 
McRael 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

DOUCET— JEAN, of Plessisville, Que. Born at Montreal, Feb. 10th, 1912; 
Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1936; 1936-37, topogr., 
dftsman., instr'man., C.N.R. ; 1937, bridge dept., Prov. of Quebec, figuring structure, 
slabs, estimating work; 1937 to date, designer, time study man, and since January, 
1939, supt. of the Plessisville Foundry, Plessisville, Que. (St. 1935). 

References: E. Gohier, A. Frigon, J. G. O'Donnell, S. A. Baulne, L. Trudel. 

EAGLES— NORMAN BORDEN, of 97 Dufferin St., Moncton, N.B. Born at 
Moncton, Oct. 4th, 1912; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of N.B., 1935; 1935 (summer). 
Flying Training Course, Camp Borden, Ont.; July, 1936 to date, asst. city elec'l. 
engr., Moncton, N.B. (St. 1935). 

References: A. F. Baird, J. Stephens, V. C. Blackett, T. H. Dickson, G. L. Dick- 
son, E. B. Martin. 

GUNNING— MERLE PERCY, of 40 Aberdeen St., St. Lambert, Que. Born at 
Coverdale, N.B., Sept. 23rd, 1912; Educ: B.Eng. (E.E.), McGill Univ., 1935; 
1934-35 (summers), machine shop, drawing office, pattern shop, J. & R. Weir Ltd., 
Montreal; 1935-36, demonstrator in descriptive geometry, McGill University; 
1936-37, mine work, sampling, surveying, Cons. Mining & Smelting Co., Kirkland 
Lake, Ont.; 1937-39, machine shop, inspection, Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Mont- 
real; at present, elec. engr., engrg. dept., elect'l. distribution divn., Montreal Light 
Heat & Power Cons.; (St. 1935). 

References: L. A. Kenyon, S. H. Cunha, H. Milliken, R. f N. Coke, A. B. Hunt, 
E. Brown, C. V. Christie. 

KILLAM— FRANK RICHARD, of Edmundston, N.B. Born at Sackville, N.B., 
Aug. 1st, 1912; Educ.: B.Eng. (Mech.), McGill Univ., 1937; with the Fraser Com- 
panies Limited, Edmundston, N.B., as follows: 1936 (summer), drftsman., survey- 
ing, minor supervision on constrn., 1937-39, dfting.. technical supervision on con- 
strn., and Feb. 1939 to date, asst. mech. mtce. supt. (St. 1937). 

References: F. O. White, C. M. McKergow, H. A. Thompson.'J. E. Cade, E. 
Brown. 

MacKAY— IAN NORTON, of 4375 Montrose Ave., Montreal, Que. Born at 
Montreal, June 23rd, 1912; Educ: B.Eng., McGill Univ., 1935; with the Dominion 
Engineering Works Ltd., as follows: 1935-36, mfg. dept., 1936-37, dftsman., 1937-39, 
asst. engr. and test engr., Diesel engine dept., and at present, asst. engr. (St. 1935). 

References: H. G. WelBford, J. G. Notman, C. E. Herd, J. H. Ingham, E. Brown, 
R. E. Jamieson. 



MARTIN— HENRI MILTON, of Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Born at Edmonton. 
Alta., June 24th, 1912; Educ: B.Eng. (Chem.), McGill Univ., 1937; with the 
Dominion Tar & Chemical Co. Ltd., as follows: 1931-32, asst. in research lab.; 
1933-36 (summers), lab. work; 1937 to date, aest. works mgr., 1937 at Toronto, 
and Nov., 1937 to date, at Sault Ste. Marie. (St. 1937). 

References: J. L. Lang, H. J. Leitch, E. Brown, J. B. Phillips, C. Stenbol.. 

MILLER— ERROL LESLIE, of 5849 Jeanne Mance St., Montreal, Que. Born 
at Ottawa, Ont., Feb. 7th, 1912; Educ: B.Eng. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1936; 1931, 
stockkeeper, General Aircraft Co., Montreal; 1936 (6 mos.), Geol. Survey of Canada; 
1936-39, inspr., estimator, chief sales clerk in bldg. materials dept., Canadian Johns- 
Manville Co., Montreal; at present, engr. on trunk sewer work, engrg. dept., City 
of Westmount. (St. 1936). 

References: P. G. Delgado, F. C. Woods, C. L. Stevenson, J. Weir, R. DeL. FrenchI 

MITCHELL— LAWRENCE EVERETT, of Barranca-Bermeja, Colombia, S.A. 
Born at Welchpool, Campobello, N.B., May 7th, 1909; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), N.S. 
Tech. Coll., 1932; 1930 (summer), asst. on Dom. Geol. Survey; 1931 (summer), 
engrg. salesman, E. S. Stephenson & Sons Ltd., Saint John, N.B.; 1932-35, Imperial 
Oil Limited, Halifax Refinery, 1932-33, dftsman., 1933, gen. refinery operations, 
1934 i/c constrn. of new cracking coil; 1935-38, International Petroleum Co. Ltd., 
Talara, Peru, Refinery. 1935-36, gen. engrg., 1936-38, refinery inspr.; Aug., 1938 to 
Mar., 1939, acting chief engr., and Mar., 1939 to date, chief engr., Tropical Oil 
Company, Barranca-Bermeja, Colombia. (St. 1930). 

References: R. L. Dunsmore, C. Scrymgeour, B. P. Rapley, F. L. West. 

SCHEEN— MARCEL, of 1228 St. Hubert St., Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal 
June 5th, 1912; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1937; 1933-34 
(summers), land surveying, Associated Engineers Ltd.; 1934 (Aug. -Oct.), hydro- 
graphic surveying, Quebec Streams Commission; 1935 (summer), land surveying; 
1937-39, with Lalonde & Valois, Cons. Engrs., highway surveying, location, planning, 
estimating, i/c office work; June, 1939 to date, mech. and struct'l. dftsman., R. A. 
Rankin & Company, Industrial Cons. Engrs., Montreal, Que. (St. 1937). 

References: J. G. Papineau, C. C. Lindsay, J. P. Lalonde, A. C. Rayment. 

SENKLER— EDMUND JOHN, of Sherbrooke, Que. Born at Santa Barbara, 
California, Sept. 11th, 1910; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1936; 1928-31, com- 
passman, B.C. Forest Branch; 1934-36, instrumentman, B.C. Timer Cruiser; 1933- 
34 and 1936-37, miner and surveyor, Britannia Mining & Smelting Co.; 1937, de- 
signer, Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Lachine; 1937-38, sales engr., Mason Regulator 
Company; 1938, sales engr. and designer, Farand & Delorme, Montreal; 1938 to 
date, industrial engr., Julius Kayser & Co., Sherbrooke, Que. (St. 1938). 

References: G. V. Rooney, R. M. Calvin, R. H. Findlay, C. S. Gzowski. 

WATSON— HOWARD DALTON, of 23 Standish Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Vancouver, B.C., Sept. 8th, 1907; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1931; 1925-30 
(summers), operating engr., gasoline and Diesel boats, B.C. Fishing & Packing Co.; 
with the Linde Canadian Refrigeration Co. as follows: 1931-35, design and estimat- 
ing refrigerating equipment, erection and repairs to same; 1935-39, design, estimates 
and sales of refrigerating equipment, and at present, branch manager, Toronto 
Office. (St. 1931). 

References: H. A. Babcock, A. W. Haddow, C. J. Timleck, H. F. G. Letson, 
I. S. Patterson. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1940 



47 



Industrial News 



REPORTS OF THE DOMINION RUREAU 
OF STATISTICS 

The Mining, Metallurgical and Chemical 
Branch of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Department of Trade and Commerce, has 
issued the following annual reports: 
Non-Ferrous Smelting and Refining In- 
dustry, 1938 

This report includes statistics of the indus- 
try, which, as defined by The Dominion Bu- 
reau of Statistics, "comprises firms engaged 
primarily in the smelting of non-ferrous ores 
or concentrates and the refining of metals 
recovered therefrom." 
Primary Iron and Steel Industry, 1938 

This contains statistics for the primary 
iron and steel industry including all establish- 
ments in Canada which are engaged chiefly 
in the manufacture of (a) pig iron, (b) Ferro- 
alloys, (c) steel ingots and steel castings, (d) 
hot rolled iron and steel products, (e) cold 
rolled and cold drawn steel bars, strips and 
shapes. 
Miscellaneous Metals in Canada, 1938 

Metal-bearing minerals, mined in relatively 
small quantities by a comparatively few 
operators, have been grouped by the Domin- 
ion Bureau of Statistics for consideration as 
a single industry. Included with the finally 
revised statistics relating to the Canadian 
production of these, are notes and statistical 
data pertaining to various rare or semi-rare 
metals or metalliferous ores produced in other 
countries. Metals or metal-bearing ores pro- 
duced in Canada during 1938 and classified as 
miscellaneous include — antimony, bismuth, 
cadmium, mercury, molybdenite, radium and 
uranium products, selenium, tellurium and 
titanium ore. In addition to particulars 
relating to these metals or products, the- 
bulletin contains notes of a summary nature 
on beryl and beryllium, lithium, magnesium, 
sodium, tungsten, calcium, aluminium, tin, 
iron ores, vanadium and zirconium. 
Salt Industry, 1938 

Statistics of Canadian salt production 
show that in 1938 salt was produced in 
Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta 
and that Ontario contributed 388,130 short 
tons or 88 per cent of the total output for 
the year 1938. 
Gypsum Industry, 1938 

This report is divided into two sections — 
Part 1, The Gypsum Mining Industry. Part 2, 
The Gypsum Products Industry. 
Coke and Gas Industry, 1938 

Statistics of the production of coke and 
gas in Canada during 1938 show that 30 coke 
and gas works were operated, including 8 by- 
product plants, 2 bee-hive plants and 20 
retort coal and water gas plants. 

OLD RELICS RECALL BEGINNINGS OF 
ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY 

The Smithsonian Institution recently ad- 
ded to its treasures four time-scarred veterans 
of the electric power era, fore-runners of the 
modern apparatus that harnesses electricity 
to its unnumbered chores. 

Puny and awkward by comparison with 
their streamlined counterparts of today, the 
machines were presented to the United States 
National Museum by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company as a 
permanent exhibit of the early days of the 
electrical industry. The Smithsonian des- 
cribed the antiques as a Tesla motor, Cardew 
voltmeter, a Gaulard and Gibbs transformer, 
and a Shallenberger meter. Long since retired 
from active work, these crude structures are 
representative of the first practicable achieve- 
ments in the transmission of alternating-cur- 
rent electric power over long distances from a 
central generating station and its application 
in electric lighting and industrial uses. 

The Gaulard and Gibbs transformer, no 
larger than a soap box, was utilized by George 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



Westinghouse as an important tool in devel- 
oping the alternating-current electric system 
in America. It formed the basis on which suc- 
cessive generations of engineers and inventors 
have developed the modern transformer. 

Lucien Gaulard, a French engineer, and 
John Dixon Gibbs, his English financial 
backer, devised and patented this transformer, 
which they called a secondary generator. 

Development of the Tesla motor marked 
one of the greatest advances ever made in the 
use of electric power for industrial purposes. 
It is a classic example of the joining of theory 
and application. The principles of the rotating 
magnetic field were discovered independently 
by Nikola Tesla, an Austro-Hungarian, and 
Galileo Ferrarris, an Italian, at about the same 
time, shortly before 1888. Ferraris n athemati- 
cally demonstrated the possibility of a 
rotating field by use of alternating current, 
but Tesla built an experimental model of an 
induction motor which actually worked. 

Basic patents were granted to Tesla in the 
United States May 1, 1888, and Tesla himself 
entered the employ of the Westinghouse 
Company. At that time the motor was not at 
all practical, and engineers immediately began 
to make refinements on it. 

The voltmeter, devised by Major P. Car- 
dew in 1883, was the first instrument for 
measuring the voltage on alternating current 
systems. It measured the pressure of the 
electric current by a system of pulleys and 
the expansion of about two yards of thin wire 
which was heated by the flow of current 
through it. 

A few years later an accident removed one 
of the most serious handicaps to the extension 
and use of alternating current, since it pro- 
vided for the first time an accurate means for 
measuring the power supplied to a customer. 
Oliver B. Shallenberger, an electrical en- 
gineer, saw a small spiral spring fall into the 
mechanism of an arc lamp which other 
engineers were adjusting. The spring landed 
on the discs at the end of the main magnet of 
the lamp and began rotating slowly. Shallen- 
berger reasoned that the rotation was caused 
by magnetic or electrical action and, as a 
result of the accident which happened in 
1888, within a month the engineer had in- 
vented his ampere-hour meter. 




Norman A. Eager, A.M.E.I.C. 

Newly appointed Assistant Sales Manager of 

Burlington Steel Company, Ltd., Hamilton, 

Ont. 



PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF CAN- 
ADA'S MINERAL PRODUCTION, 1939 

Canada's mineral production, valued at 
$470,179,000, reached an all-time high in 
1939, according to a report just issued by the 
Mining, Metallurgical and Chemical Branch 
of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics at 
Ottawa. This is an increase of 6 per cent over 
1938 and 3 per cent over the previous high 
record of $457,359,092 established in 1937. 

New output records were established for 
antimony, gold, copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, 
crude petroleum, natural gas, gypsum, sul- 
phur and lime. Several new gold mines 
reached the production stage and the gold 
productive field was widened. 

Iron ore was produced on a commercial 
scale for the first time in sixteen years and 
considerable prospecting and development 
work occurred in connection with the search 
for metals and ores which have not as yet 
been produced to any great extent in Canada 
but are strategic for war purposes in the 
manufacture of various alloys. These include 
such metals as molybdenite, manganese, 
mercury, and tungsten. 

Several new wells were brought into pro- 
duction in the Alberta petroleum field. In the 
output of refined copper, nickel, lead and 
zinc, Canada is now in a better position to 
assist in the successful prosecution of the 
war than at the outbreak of the World War in 
1914. In fact, since that time, large refineries 
have been established in the Dominion for 
the production of the above metals. 

WARM AIR CONDITIONER 

With increased emphasis on quiet operation, 
abundant air circulation and humidity con- 
trol, General Electric has recently placed on 
the market a new oil-fired warm air con- 
ditioner, type LB-22. A larger and slower- 
speed fan, isolated from the frame of the unit 
by rubber mountings and canvas connectors, 
contributes to noise reduction. Even the 
motor-compressor unit is spring mounted. 
Air circulation during the summer may be 
provided by running the fan without operat- 
ing the burner. The unit is constructed so that 
at any time cooling equipment may be 
installed in combination with it, providing 
complete year-round air conditioning. Im- 
proved humidity control, involving the avail- 
ability of equipment to meet the varying re- 
quirements of each installation, provides the 
correct humidity in each case. 

STEAM-JET VACUUM REFRIGERA- 
TION UNIT 

Bulletin W-207-B1, 8 pages, issued by 
Worthington Pump and Machinery Corpora- 
tion, Harrison, N.J., contains design inform- 
ation, specifications and engineering data as 
well as illustrations and descriptive drawings 
of the Worthington steam-jet vacuum re- 
frigeration unit. 

PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF 
ONTARIO ANNUAL MEETING 

W. P. Dobson, president of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Ontario, an- 
nounces that the general meeting of the 
association will be held at the Royal York 
Hotel on Saturday, January 27th. During the 
afternoon the engineers will meet to consider 
the report of the retiring executive on the 
activities of the association, and for the 
transaction of general business. 

This meeting will be followed by a banquet 
in the Roof Garden. Mr. Dobson will preside, 
and J. W. Rawlins, president-elect, will be 
inducted. Guest of honor and speaker of the 
evening will be Dr. R. C. Wallace, principal 
of Queen's University, who will discuss "The 
Engineer in Education and in Life." 



48 



January, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 23 



FEBRUARY 1940 



NUMBER 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, a.m.e.i.c 
Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD, a.m.e.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

A. DUPERRON, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

C. K. McLEOD, a.m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, m.e.i.c. 

R. H. FINDLAY, m.e.i.c. 

O. O. LEFEBVRE, m.e.i.c. 

F. P. SHEARWOOD, m.e.i.c. 

J. E. ST. LAURENT, m.e.i.c. 

T. C. THOMPSON, a.m.e.i.c. 

H. J. VENNES, a.m.e.i.c. 

ADVISORY MEMBERS 
OF PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

L. McK. ARKLEY, m.e.i.c. 

S. R. BANKS, a.m.e.i.c. 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c. 

F. BRIDGES, m.e.i.c. 

J. L. CLARKE, m.e.i.c. 

F. A. COMBE, m.e.i.c. 

R. L. DUNSMORE, m.e.i.c. 

,1. T. FARMER, m.e.i.c. 

A. FERRIER, a.m.e.i.c. 
R. H. FIELD, a.m.e.i.c 

J. N. FINLAYSON, m.e.i.c 
R. C. FLITTON, m.e.i.c. 
R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c 
R. G. GAGE, m.e.i.c 

E. D. GRAY-DONALD, a.m.e.i.c 

F. G. GREEN, a.m.e.i.c 
H. S. GROVE, a.m.e.i.c. 
N. MacL. HALL, m.e.i.c. 

B. F. C. HAANEL, m.e.i.c 
R. E. HEARTZ, m.e.i.c 

H. O. KEAY, m.e.i.c 

D. S. LAIDLAW, a.m.e.i.c 

ROBT. F. LEGGET, a.m.e.i.c 

C. R. LINDSEY, a.m.e.i.c. 
H. J. MACLEOD, m.e.i.c 
P. B. MOTLEY, m.e.i.c 
RALPH C. PURSER, a.m.e.i.c 
J. L. RANNIE, m.e.i.c. 

C. A. ROBB, m.e.i.c 

D. deC. ROSS-ROSS, m.e.i.c 
L. T. RUTLEDGE, m.e.i.c. 

E. A. RYAN, m.e.i.c. 
H. W. TATE, m.e.i.c 

H. J. VENNES, a.m.e.i.c 

G. L. WIGGS, m.e.i.c 



Price 50 cents a copy. $3.00 a year, in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



PRACTICABLE FORMS FOR FLIGHT TEST REPORTING 

Elisabeth M. G. MacGill, A.M.E.I.C 53 

ENGINEERING IN TRANSPORTATION 

S. W. Fairvceather ........... 61 

DISCUSSION ON THE FUNDAMENTALS OF PILE FOUNDATIONS . 63 
REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1939 . . . . . . 65 

Treasurer's Report ........... 

Finance Committee .......... 

Legislation Committee .......... 

Publication Committee .......... 

Library and House Committee ........ 

Papers Committee ........... 

Committee on the Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer 

Committee on Professional Interests ....... 

Membership Committee, Board of Examiners and Education . 

Committee on International Relations ...... 

Radio Broadcasting Committee ........ 

Committee on Deterioration of Concrete Structures 

Prize and Medal Committees ........ 

Employment Service .......... 

ABSTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM BRANCHES 75 

MEMBERSHIP AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE BRANCHES 78, 79 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 85 

EDITORIAL COMMENT 90 

Review ............. 

A New Era Is Inaugurated ......... 

The Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association Specifications 

Correspondence ........... 

Elections and Transfers ......... 

PERSONALS 93 

Obituaries ............ 

Visitors to Headquarters ......... 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 95 

LIBRARY NOTES 99 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 102 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 103 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



tP. M. SAUDER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
•E. V. BUCHANAN, London, Ont. 

E. A. CLEVELAND, Vancouver, B.C. 

•B. E. BAYNE, Moncton, N.B. 
tW. F. M. BRYCE, Ottawa, Ont. 
tJ. L. BUSFIELD, Montreal, Que. 
•A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
tP. E. DONCASTER, Fort William, Ont. 
•A. DUPERRON, Montreal, Que. 
tR. H. FINDLAY, Montreal, Que. 
•A. B. GATES, Peterborough, Ont. 
tL. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 
J. HADDIN, Calgary, Alta. 
tS. HOGG, Saint John, N.B. 

TREASURER 

de GASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 

A. DUPERRON 

G. A. GAHERTY 
J. A. McCRORY 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 

PRESIDENT 

H. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 
VICE- PRESIDENTS 

•H. O. KEAY, Three Rivers, Que. 

PAST- PRESIDENTS 

G. J. DESBARATS, Ottawa, Ont 
COUNCILLORS 

•O. HOLDEN, Toronto, Ont. 

fT. H. JENKINS, Windsor, Ont. 

tA. C. JOHNSTON, Arvida, Que. 

•J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

•A. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 

tA. P. LINTON, Regina, Sask. 

•H. A. LUMSDEN, Hamilton, Ont. 

tl. P. MacNAB, Halifax, N.S. 

•W. R. MANOCK, Fort Erie North, Ont. 

JH. MASSUE. Montreal, Que 

tW. R. MOUNT, Edmonton, Alta. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tF. NEWELL, Montreal. Que. 

•R. L. DUNSMORE, Dartmouth, N.S. 

J. B. CHALLIES, Montreal, Que 

JB. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 
tJ. ROBERTSON, Vancouver. B.C. 
tA. U. SANDERSON, Toronto, Ont. 
•A. J. TAUNTON, Winnipeg, Man. 
•A. P. THEUERKAUF. Sydney, N.S. 
tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 
•H. J. VENNES, Montreal, Que. 
•E. VIENS, Ottawa, Ont. 
tE. B. WARDLE, Grand'Mere, Que. 
•J. T. WATSON, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•For 1939. tFor 1939-40. JFor 1939-40-41 

SECRETARY EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

LEGISLATION 



A. LARIVIERE, Chairman 
I. C. BARLTROP 
I. P. MacNAB 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman. 

W. E. ANDREWES 

I. M. FRASER 

H. W. LEA 

I. P. MacNAB 

H. N. MACPHERSON 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

BRIAN R. PERRY, Chairman 

G. M. PITTS 

E. A. RYAN 

G. A. WALLACE 

R. A. YAPP 



PUBLICATION 



A. DUPERRON, Chairman 

C. K. McLEOD, Vice-Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES 

R. H. FINDLAY 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 



F. P. SHEARWOOD 
J. E. ST. LAURENT 
T. C. THOMPSON 
H. J. VENNES 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Chairman 

I. M. FRASER 

A. P. LINTON 

W. E. LOVELL 

P. C. PERRY 

E. K. PHILLIPS 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

R. W. ANGUS 

C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

M. J. McHENRY 

H. H. VAUGHAN 

RADIO BROADCASTING 

FRASER S. KEITH, Chairman 

G. J. DESBARATS 

R. J. DURLEY 

G. A. GAHERTY 

G. McL. PITTS 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT 



Sir John Kennedy Prize. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 

STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CATE 

A. G. FLEMING 

W. G. GLIDDON 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

J. A. McCRORY 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

J. H. McKINNEY 

R. M. SMITH 



MEMBERSHIP 

K. O. WHYTE, Chairman 
J. G. HALL 
H. MASSUE 
C. E. SISSON 
H. J. VENNES 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. B. CHALLIES 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 



THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
JACQUES BENOIT 

E. V. BUCHANAN 
D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
C. A. FOWLER 
R DeL . FRENCH 
R. E HEARTZ 
R F. LEGGET 
A P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. J. McLEAN 
R. M. SMITH 

F. L. WEST 



WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 

S. G. PORTER 

J. M. WARDLE 



LIST OF INSTITUTE PRIZES 



Gold medal For outstanding merit or note- 
worthy contribution to sci- 
ence of engineering, or to 
benefit of the Institute. 

Past-Presidents' Prize. . .$100 cash For a paper on a topic selected 

by Council. 

Duggan Prize Medal and cash to 

value of $100. . . .For paper on constructional 
engineering involving the use 
of metals for structural or 
mechanical purposes. 

Gzowski Prize Gold medal For a paper contributing to 

the literature of the profes- 
sion of civil engineering. 

I 1 1 mimer Prize Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 



Leonard Prize Gold medal . 



Students and Juniors. 



University Students. 



. .For a paper on a mining sub- 
ject, open to members of the 
Canadian Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy as well 
as The Engineering Institute. 

.Books to the value 

of $25 (5 prizes) . .For papers on any subject pre- 
sented by Student or Junior 
members. 

.$25 in cash (11 

prizes) For the third year student in 

each college, making the best 
showing in college work 
and activities in student or 
local branch of engineering 
society. 



50 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VOLUME 23 



FEBRUARY 1940 



NUMBER 2 



"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public/' 




Sherman E. Surdam, A.R.P.S., A.S.P., Scotia, N.Y. 



Vacuum Tubes 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, J. F. BRIDGE 
Viee-Chair., GEO. E. MEDLAR 
Executive, W. D. DONNELLY 

E. M. KREBSER 

F. J. POLLOCK 
(Ex-Officio), BOYD CANDLISH 

T. H. JENKINS 
Sec.-Treas., H. L. JOHNSTON 

1334 Victoria Avenue 

CALGARY 

Chairman, S. G. COULTIS 

Vice-Chair., JAS. McMILLAN 

Executive, J. B. deHART J. R. WOOD 

G H. PATRICK 
(Ex-Officio), J. HADDIN H. J. McLEAN 

E. W. BOWNESS 
Sec.-Treas., F. J. HEUPERMAN, 
215-6th Ave. West, 

Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, C. M. ANSON M. F. COSSITT 

J. A. MacLEOD S. G. NAISH 

(Ex-Officio) A. P. THEUERKAUF 

M. R. CHAPPELL 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, C. E. GARNETT 
Vice-Chair., E. NELSON 
Executive, D. A. HANSEN A. M. ALLEN 

E. L. SMITH W. W. PRESTON 
J. W. PORTEOUS 
(Ex-Officio) W. R. MOUNT 

W. E. CORNISH 
Sec.-Treas., B. W. PITFIELD. 

Northwestern Utilities Limited, 

10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 
HALIFAX 

Chairman, CHARLES SCRYMGEOUR 
Executive, S. L. FULTZ G. F. BENNETT 
P. A. LOVETT F. C. WIGHTMAN 
A. B. BLANCHARD 
(Ex-Officio), I. P. MacNAB R. L. DUNSMORE 

A. D. NICKERSON 
Sec.-Treas., L. C. YOUNG, 

365 Morris Street Ext., 

Halifax, N.S. 

HAMILTON 

Chairman, ALEXANDER LOVE 
Vice-Chair., W. A. T. GILMOUR 

T. S. GLOVER 
Executive, C. H. HUTTON N. WAGNER 

S. SHUPE W. E. BROWN 

(Ex-Officio), J. R. DUNBAR 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD 

354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 
KINGSTON 

Chairman, G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Vice-Chair., P. ROY 

Executive V. R. DAVIES M. W. HUGGINS 

K. H. McKIBBON 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. HARKNESS 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont. 



LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



J. M. FLEMING 
H. G. O'LEARY 

D. BOYD J. R. MATHIESON 
B. A. CULPEPER S. E. FLOOK 
H. OLSSON W. H. BIRD 

E. A. KELLY A. T. HURTER 
E. L. GOODALL 

P. E. DONCASTER 

H. OS, 

423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 



LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, A. J. BRANCH 
Vice-Chair., G. S. BROWN 
Executive J.M.CAMPBELL N.H.BRADLEY 

C. S. DONALDSON J. HAÏMES 

(Ex-Officio), R. F. P. BOWMAN 

J. T. WATSON G. S. BROWN 

Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE 

207-7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, F. C. BALL V. A. McKILLOP 

J. P. CARRIERE J. R. ROSTRON 
J. FERGUSON 
Sec.-Treas., D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 

London Structural Steel Co. Ltd., 
London, Ont. 

MONCTON 

Chairman, F. O. CONDON 

Vice-Chair., J. PULLAR 

Executive, F. O. CONDON G. L. DICKSON 
R. H. EMMERSON A. S. GUNN 
C. S. G. ROGERS G. E. SMITH 

(Ex-Officio), B. E. BAYNE H. W. McKIEL 

Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 

MONTREAL 

Chairman, H. J. VENNES 

Vice-Chair., R. E. HEARTZ 

Executive, G. J. CHENEVERT E. V. GAGE 
R. S. EADIE I. S. PATTERSON 
G. McL. PITTS P. E. POITRAS 

(Ex-Officio), A. DUPERRON H. MASSUE 

J. L. BUSFIELD F. NEWELL 

R. H. FINDLAY J. B. CHALLIES 
B. R. PERRY C. K. McLEOD 

E. R. SMALLHORN 

Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL 

40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 



NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, A. W. F. McQUEEN 

Vice-Chair., C. H. McL. BURNS 

Executive, H. G. ACRES C. G. CLINE 

M. H. JONES A. L. McPHAIL 

L. J. RUSSELL J. C. STREET 

G. F. VOLLMER 

(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK C. G. MOON 

Sec.-Treas., GEO. E. GRIFFITHS, 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont 



OTTAWA 

Chairman, W. H. MUNRO 

Executive, N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS J. H. IRVINE 
W. H. NORRISH 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS E. VIENS 

W. F. M. BRYCE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, B. I. BURGESS 

Executive, I. F. McRAE J. CAMERON 

R. L. DOBBIN V. R. CURRIE 

(Ex-Officio) W. T. FANJOY 

A. B. GATES 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 

QUEBEC 

Chairman, PHILIPPE MÉTHÉ 
Vice-Chair. ,L. C. DUPUIS 

Executive J. G. O'DONNELL T. M. DECHENE 
M. BOURGET A. LAFRAMBOISE 
L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRÊSNE 

A. R. DÉCARY (Honorary) 
(Ex-Officio), H. CIMON R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
A. LARIVIÈRE J. ST -JACQUES 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT 

Department of Colonization, Room 
263-A Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 
Que. 

SAGUENAY 

Chairman, ADAM CUNNINGHAM 

Vice-Chair., J. W. WARD 

Executive, CHAS. MILLER G. E. LaMOTHE 

W. P. C. LEBOUTILLIER 

G. F. LAYNE 
(Ex-Officio), A. C. JOHNSTON 

M. G. SAUNDERS 
Sec.-Treas., K. A. BOOTH 

c/o Price Bros. & Co., 

Kenogami, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, H. F. MORRISEY 
Vice-Chair., J. P. MOONEY 
Executive, G. G. MURDOCH 

G. N. HATFIELD D. R. SMITH 
(Ex-Officio) W. H. BLAKE 

S. HOGG F. A. PATRIQUEN 

Sec.-Treas., F. L. BLACK 

N.B. Electric Power Comm., 

P.O. Box 820, Saint John, N.B. 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, F. W. BRADSHAW 
Vice-Chair., C. H. CHAMPION 
Executive, N. J. A. VERMETTE H.G.TIMMIS 
A. H. HEATLEY W. B. SCOTT 

L. B. STIRLING H. O. KEAY 

J. H. FREGEAU 
K. S. LeBARON 
(Ex-Officio), H. J. WARD E. B. WARDLE 

Sec.-Treas., V. JEPSEN, 

Cons. Paper Corp. Ltd., 

Grand'Mère, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, I. M. FRASER 

Vice-Chair., P. C. PERRY 

Executive, R. J. FYFE R. W. ALLEN 

J.McD.PATTON S.R.MUIRHEAD 
J.W.D.FARRELL R.A.McLELLAN 
A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 

Ex-Officio, A. P. LINTON 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE 

City Hall, Regina, Sask. 

SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, A. E. PICKERING 
Vice-Chair., A. M. WILSON 

Executive, G. B. ANDERSON N. C. COWIE 
C. R. MURDOCK 
E. W. NEELANDS 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG J. S. MACLEOD 

Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

178 Albert St. E., 

Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 
TORONTO 

Chairman, A. E. BERRY 
Vice-Chair., N. MacNICOL 
Executive, H. E. BRANDON 
W. S. WILSON 
A. O. WOLFF 
W. E. P. DUNCAN 
G. H. ROGERS 
M. BARRY WATSON 
(Ex-Officio) O. HOLDEN 

A. U. SANDERSON 
C. E. SISSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engineering Bldg., 

University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, C. E. WEBB 
Vice-Chair., W. O. SCOTT 

Executive, T. PRICE MAJOR J. R. GRANT 
W. N. KELLY P. B. STROYAN 
P. H. BUCHAN C. A. DAVIDSON 
(Ex-Officio), ERNEST SMITH 

JAS. ROBERTSON 
Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 
VICTORIA 

Chairman, E. W. IZARD 
Vice-Chair., G. M. IRWIN 

Executive, E. DAVIS A. L. CARRUTHERS 
A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
R. C. FARROW J. N. ANDERSON 
Sec.-Treas., K. REID, 

1336 Carnsew Street, 

Victoria, B.C. 

WINNIPEG 

Chairman, J. W. SANGER 
Vice-Chair., H. L. BRIGGS 
Executive, D. N. SHARPE 

V. MICHIE 

G. C. DAVIS 

V. H. PATRIARCHE 

J. T. ROSE 
(Ex-Officio), W. D. HURST 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. HOOGSTRATEN, 

University of Manitoba, 

Fort Garry, Man. 



52 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRACTICABLE FORMS FOR FLIGHT TEST REPORTING 

ELIZABETH M. G. MacGILL, A.M.E.I.C. 
Chief Aeronautical Engineer, Canadian Car and Foundry Co., Limited, Fort William, Ont. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, at 

Toronto, Ontario, on February 9th, 1940. 



SUMMARY. A series of forms — to be used for ground and 
flight test reporting on aeroplanes, is presented, on which to 
tabulate for convenience and completeness, pertinent data 
identifying the machine and the essential test returns from 
which general design data and performance information 
(including the flight test requirements for the British Cer- 
tificate of Airworthiness) may be determined. 

Introduction 

The advantage of having properly prepared forms at 
hand, is that, they are ready for immediate use, and render 
less likely the omission of pertinent data. To this end, these 
forms for ground and flight test reporting on aeroplanes 
have been prepared. 

In the mind of the author, a complete set of forms for 
flight testing should be made up of three parts, namely, 
the description of the aeroplane, the qualitative tests, and 
the quantitative tests. 

The description should enable the aeroplane to be 
identified and should link the test data to the machine so 
that a change in performance later on, may be traced to a 
change in a component (i.e. different propeller, size of 
wheel, etc.) or conversely, a change in a component will 
call for reconsideration of the performance figures. 

The qualitative tests should determine the relative 
ease or difficulty of operating the machine on the water, or 
ground and in the air, and should provide information to 
serve as a basis either for improvement of the machine or 
of comparison between machines of a similar type and 
purpose. 

The quantitative tests should furnish figures from 
which may be determined the actual performance charac- 
teristics of the aeroplane (maximum speed, rate of climb, 
etc.), including those figures required before governmental 
approval of the aeroplane can be obtained. 

The Order of the Forms 

The order of the forms is considered important. Listing 
the components and the limitations of the aeroplane first 
(in the description) may draw attention to some deficiency 
or improper condition more easily eliminated before the 
machine is taken to the airport than afterward, and hence 
may result in saving time and money. Also, to save time 
and expense, the qualitative tests should be performed 
before the quantitative ones, for any curable shortcomings 
will probably be revealed by the former, and the consequent 
modifications must be carried out before final performance 
figures can be obtained. 

Description of Aeroplane 

The description of the aeroplane to be tested may be set 
down in Forms 1 and 2. 

Form 1 lists the components of the aeroplane. It has 
been made fairly general in order to embrace the common 
types of aeroplanes in Canada — landplanes, skiplanes, float 
seaplanes, single- and multi-engined machines, aeroplanes 
equipped with fixed pitch or controllable or constant-speed 
propellers, and those used for military, commercial or 
private purposes. 

Form 2 sets forth the limiting gross weight and centre 
of gravity positions to be used during the tests. The weight 
stated is the maximum permissible gross weight, and the 
centre of gravity positions are the normal position and the 
most extreme positions. 



Qualitative Tests 

The qualitative tests are outlined in Forms 3 and 4. 
Form 3 is applicable to all aeroplanes, and is subdivided 
as follows : 

Ground Observations. 
Flight Observations. 

1. Take-off and climb. 

2. Controllability in flight. 
Landing Observations. 

1. Approach. 

2. Landing. 

If the observations are noted carefully, a fairly clear pic- 
ture of the relative handling characteristics and suitability 
of the aeroplane for its proposed duty should emerge, and 
any equipment and control deficiencies should be apparent. 

The more extreme manoeuvres of Form 4 (Manoeuvring 
Tests) are applicable to aerobatic aircraft only, (i.e., 
trainers, military machines, etc.). If, following the handling 
tests for Form 3, the effectiveness of the controls is still in 
doubt, the manoeuvres of Form 4 should enable the pilot 
to pronounce positively upon the subject. References 1 to 
4 inclusive, and Reference 6 deal in part with qualitative 
tests. 

Quantitative Tests 

The quantitative tests are outlined in Forms 5 to 11, 
inclusive. 

The tests are : 
Form 5. Longitudinal Stability Test. 

Take off and Climb. 

Calibration of Airspeed Indicator Test. 

Level Top Speed Test. 

Stalling Speed Test. 

Partial Climbs Test. 

Take-off and Landing Runs. 



Form 6 
Form 7 
Form 8 
Form 9 
Form 10 
Form 11 



The tests outlined are considered to be the minimum 
number which will provide general performance data on 
the aeroplane. From them the speeds at any altitude, best 
rate of climb at any altitude, ceilings, distances traversed 
and time required for taking-off and landing may be de- 
termined. 

To fulfil the flight test requirements for the British Cer- 
tificate of Airworthiness the tests of Forms 6, 7, 8, 9 and 
11 must be performed and the results must satisfy Refer- 
ence 5. 

Flight Tests and the Prototype 

The order of the procedure is more important when the 
aeroplane is a prototype machine than when it is a pro- 
duction model. In the former case, the flight tests are an 
integral part of the prototype development; in the latter, 
they simply confirm that the characteristics of the pro- 
duction machine check with those of its prototype. 

The part played by flight testing in the development of a 
prototype is very important. It should be emphasized that 
the development of the prototype is not completed before 
the test flights: these flights are part of the development 
work. The real job of the test pilot is to help the designer 
perfect his machine. The test pilot should be considered a 
close collaborator with the designer, not as an independent 
checker and debunker of the designer's plans. Familiarity 
of the test pilot with the type of machine is of great ad- 
vantage in the development work, but — as in every other 
branch of experimental science — the most important single 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



53 



characteristic to be desired, is an open mind on the part 
of the experimenter. The pilot whose mind is filled with 
preconceived notions of how the aeroplane will behave, is 
more likely to misinterpret or to miss entirely the significance 
of certain reactions, than he who, having an open mind, 



looks, not for the confirmation of his own opinions, but for 
what there is to be found. Since the designer must lean 
heavily upon the test pilot and must consider his every 
opinion in the light of improvements to be made, this point 
cannot be emphasized too strongly. 



FORM 1. 

DESCRIPTION OF AEROPLANE 

Aeroplane 
Owner: 

Manufacturer: 

Type: (Two-place biplane, landplane, skiplane, etc.). 
Model: (name). 
Manufacturer's Serial No.: 
Date of Manufacture: 

Duty: (Passenger, military, training, etc.). 
Registration: 

Engine(s) 
Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Number: 

Type: (9 cylinder, radial, air-cooled, etc.). 
Model: (name and series). 
Manufacturer's Serial No(s).: 
Manufacturer's Dwg. No.: 

Power: Take off bhp., at r.p.m., at in. Hg. 
Climb maximum, r.p.m. in. Hg. 
Climb recommended, r.p.m., in. Hg. 
Cruising, blip., at r.p.m., at in. Hg. 

Normal, bhp., at r.p.m., at in. Hg. 

at feet altitude. 
Maximum Power bhp., at r.p.m., at in/Hg. 

Manufacturer's Data: Power Curve No. Date 

Fuel Required: Gasoline, specification and octane number. 

Oil Required: Specification. 

Propeller Reduction Gear Ratio: 

Direction of Rotation: (viewed from rear). 

Crankshaft: 

Propeller Shaft: 

Permissible Temperatures and Pressures: 

Authority: (Manufacturer's Engine Handbook). 

Oil Temperature: Permissible Range. 

Oil Pressure: Permissible Range. 

Cylinder Head Temperature: Permissible Range. 

Fuel Pressure: Permissible Range. 

Coolant Temperature: Permissible Range. 

Engine Equipment: 
Starter: 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: 
Model: 
Serial No.: 

Generator: 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type: 

Model: 

Serial No.: 

Fuel Pump: 
Engine Pump: 
Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: 
Serial No.: 

Hand Pump: 
Manufacturer: 
C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type: 
Serial No.: 

Cowling: 
Type: 

Carburetor Heating: 
Type: 

Tanks: 

Gasoline Tank: 

Maximum Capacity: Number: 

Service Capacity: Position: 

Oil Tank: 

Maximum Capacity: Number: 

Service Capacity: Position: 



Coolant Tank: 

Maximum Capacity: Position: 

Service Capacity: Fluid: 

Number: 

De-icing Tank: 

Maximum Capacity: Position: 

Service Capacity: Fluid: 

Number: 

3. Propeller(s) 
Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Number: 

Type: (2-setting controllable pitch, etc.). 
Material: (aluminum alloy, steel, wooden, etc.). 
Number of blades per propeller: 



Blades: 
Hub: 
Diameter: 
Pitch Setting(s) 



Type No.: 
Type No.: 



Serial No(s).: 
Serial No(s).: 



Minimum 
Maximum 
De-icing Equipment: 

Manufacturer: Serial No 

Type: Fluid: 



degrees at 42 in. radius, 
degrees at 42 in. radius. 



Wheel, Ski or Float Undercarriage 
Type: (General description). 
Shock Strut (s): 

Manufacturer: Model: 

Number: Serial No(s).: 

Type: Length (fully compressed): inches. 

Wheels (Main and Tail) : 
C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Manufacturer: Serial No(s).: 

Number: Size: 

Type: Brakes: 

Tires (Main and Tail): 
Manufacturer: 

C. A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: Serial No.: Size: ' 

Pressure: lb. per sq. in. 

Deflection: at stated pressure, inches. 

Floats: 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type: Serial No(s).: Number: 

Maximum displacement per float: 

Float setting: (deck datum at degrees to thrust line). 

Skis: 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type: Serial No(s).: 

Material : Number : 

Maximum capacity per ski: 

Trimming gear: 

Pedestal (s): 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: Serial No(s).: 

Instruments 
Engine Instruments: (list each instrument). 
Manufacturer: 
C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: Serial No.: Range: 

Flight Instruments: (list each instrument). 
Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: Serial No.: Range: 

Radio: 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type: Serial No.: Range: 

Instruments installed for Flight Testing only: (list each instru- 
ment). 
Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type: Serial No.: Range: 

Fire Extinguisher(s): 
Manufacturer: 
Type: Serial No.: Number: 



54 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Reference line: 
Reference line: 
Reference Une: 
Reference line: 
Reference line: 



6. Control Surface Data 

Ailerons : 

Type: (Balanced, Frise, etc.). 

Rigging Angle: 

Travel: Degrees Up Down 

Reference line: (from which travel measured). 

Flaps: 

Type: 

Travel: Degrees Up Down 

Reference One: 
Elevators: 

Type: Travel: 

Stabilizer : 

Type: Travel: 

Rudder: 

Type: Travel: 

Fin: 

Type: Offset: 

Tabs: 

Type: Setting: 

7. Night Flying Equipment 

Lamps : 

Manufacturer : 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Number: Power: Position 

8. Armament 

Fixed Guns and Flexible Guns: 
Manufacturer: 
C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 
Type : Number : 

Model: Position: 

Calibre: Ammunition Load: 

Bomb Equipment: 
Racks : 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type: Position: 

Model : Capacity : 

Bombs: 

Manufacturer: 

C.A. or A.T.C. or A.M. No.: 

Type : Capacity : 

9. Limiting Speeds (Design) 

Speed in terminal velocity dive: 

Speed with flaps down : 

Diving speed at maximum r.p.m. of engine: 



FORM 2 
FLYING WEIGHTS AND CENTRE OF GRAVITY POSITIONS 

Horizontal datum: (distance below thrust line). 

Vertical datum: (distance forward C.L. propeller). 

Leading Edge — Wing: (distances from H. and V. data). 
Length of M.A.C. (mean aerodynamic chord): 
L.E. of M.A.C: (distance from V. datum). 

1. Normal Gross Weight with C.G. in normal position. 

2. Normal Gross Weight with C.G. in most rearward position. 

3. Normal Gross Weight with C.G. in most forward position. 

Table I is prepared for each of the three C.G. positions. 

TABLE I 





Group 
Wt. 
lb. 


Item 
Wt. 

lb. 


Horizontal 


Vertical 


Item 


Arm, 
in. 


Mo- 
ment, 
in.-lb. 


Arm, 
in. 


Mo- 
ment, 
in.-lb. 


1. Tare Weight of 

Aeroplane 
Weight special equipt. 

2. Aircraft equipped 

for test flying 

3. Useful Load 

(a) Oil ( — Imp. gal. at 

- lb. per Imp. gal.) 

(b) Fuel ( — Imp. gal. at 

- lb. per Imp. gal.) 

(c) Pilot and para- 
chute 

(d) Observer and 
parachute 

(e) Ballast 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4. Take-off Weight 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 



Centre of Gravity Position 

Horizontal distance from L.E.— Wing. 

Vertical distance from L.E. — Wing. 

Horizontal and vertical distance in per cent of M.A.C. 



FORM 3 

PILOT'S HANDLING TESTS AND COMMENTS 

GROUND OBSERVATIONS 

1. Cockpit(s) or Cabin 

(a) Comment on aids to entrance and egress. 

Ample steps ? Handles ? Emergency exits ? Ease in case 
of emergency jump ? 

(b) Comment on cockpit(s). Size ? Comfort ? Head clearance for 

bumpy air flying ? Protection in case of nosing-over ? 

(c) Comment on seats. Comfort ? Height ? Size ? Size with win- 

ter clothing ? Adjustability ? 

(d) Comment on safety belt. Type ? Sufficient adjustment ? 

(e) Comment on projections to catch clothing, injure personnel. 

(f ) Comment on windscreens. Protection afforded ? Visibility ? 

Material ? Safety ? Distorted vision ? Reflections ? 
De-icing provision ? Anti-fogging provision ? 

(g) Comment on removable hatches. Ease of operation ? 

Possibility of jamming ? . 
(h) Comment on ventilation. Draughty ? 

Do exhaust gases enter cockpit or cabin ? 
(i) Comment on cockpit heating. Adequate ? 
(j) Can members of crew change places during flight ? 

2. Cockpit Controls 

Comment on location, operation and interference of: 

1. Ignition switch. 

2. Throttle. 

3. Mixture. 

Are throttle and mixture interconnected ? 

4. Spark. 

5. Propeller. 

6. Starter switch. 

7. Fuel cock. 

8. Manual fuel pump. 

9. Stabilizer. 

10. Tabs. Elevator. Rudder. Aileron. 

11. Carburetor heat. 

12. Radio. 

13. Stick. 

14. Flaps. Is there a position indicator ? 

15. Landing Gear. If retractable, is there a position indicator ? 

Easy of operation ? Freedom from vibration ? Does 
position indicator operate correctly ? 

16. Rudder control. Is leg length adjustable ? 

17. Brake control. Toe brakes ? Heel brakes ? Are brakes easily 

applied for all rudder positions ? 

18. Carburetor heat control. 

3. Instrument Board(s) 

(a) Comment on instrument arrangement and installation. 

(b) Comment on suitability and adequacy of instruments. 

(c) Comment on visibility for pilot. For co-pilot. 

(d) Comment on vibration of board. 

4. Instruments 

(a) Compass 

1. Does the compass check N,E,S,W ? 

2. Comment on vibration in smooth air. In bumpy air ? 

3. Is the heading affected by change in r.p.m. ? 

(b) Altimeter 

Comment on vibration. 

(c) Airspeed 

Does instrument read zero when aeroplane stationary ? 

(d) Rate of Climb 

Does instrument read correctly in a pull up ? 

(e) Does the radio operate satisfactorily ? 

5. Night Flying Equipment 

(a) State number and position of lights. 

(b) State approximate angle of light beams to ground when the 

aeroplane is in the tail-down position. 

(c) Is the instrument board lighted directly or indirectly ? 

Is the lighting adequate ? 

(d) Is the cockpit equipment lighted satisfactorily ? 

(e) Comment on glare, reflections, intensity of light. 

(f) Is sufficient control of light intensity provided ? 

(g) Can charts or maps be read easily ? 

6. Armament 

(a) Does the armament function satisfactorily ? 

1. Fixed guns. 

2. Flexible guns. 

3. Bomb racks. 

(b) Can the flexible guns be used effectively during manoeuvres ? 

(c) Comment on the field of fire of the guns. 

(d) Is heating provided for the guns ? 

7. Taxiing. (Wheels or skis) 

(a) State wind velocities. 

(b) Comment on ground condition. 

(c) Comment on visibility from cockpit (s) when in tail down 

position. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



55 



(d) Taxi at various speeds up to 30 m.p.h. and comment on: 

1. Track. 

2. Shock absorption. 

3. Main landing gear action on runway." On rough ? 

4. Braking action. Sufficient for stopping ? 
For manoeuvring ? 

5. Condition of brakes. Heat generated ? 

6. Tail wheel (skid or ski) operation. Steady ? 

Sluggish ? on runway : on rough ground. Steerable ? 

(e) Comment on rudder control for ground manoeuvring. 

(f) Comment on response to controls without brakes. 

(g) Is there a tendency to porpoise ? 

(h) Comment on ground handling of aeroplane. 

(i) Does carburetor function satisfactorily while taxiing ? 

8. Taxiing (Floats) 

(a) State winds and sea conditions. 

(b) Taxi at various speeds up to 40 m.p.h. and comment on: 

1. Wave-making of floats. 

2. Spray action. 

3. Aeroplane attitude. 

4. Weaving of float undercarriage. 

5. Freedom of propeller(s) from spray and icing. 

6. Freedom of windscreen from spray. 

7. Effectiveness of water rudders. Are they retractable ? 

8. Does tail dip in water ? 

9. Is there a tendency to porpoise ? 

10. Comment on float undercarriage action. 

11. Comment on rudder control for water manoeuvring. 

12. Does carburetor function satisfactorily while taxiing? 

13. Comment on visibility from cockpit while taxiing. 

9. Handling Facilities 

(a) Comment on ground handling facilities: 

1. Hand holds on fuselage. At wing tips. 

2. Tie-downs on fuselage. At wings. 

3. Jacking facilities. 

(b) Is lifting sling available ? 

(c) Comment on water handling facilities. 

FLIGHT OBSERVATIONS 

1. Take-off and Climb 

(a) State weight and C.G. position. 

(b) State stabilizer setting. Flap setting. 

(c) Comment on length of run: long, medium, short. 

(d) Comment on vibration of: 

1. Engine and mounting. 

2. Propeller in fine pitch; in coarse pitch. 

3. Cowling. 

4. Instrument panel and equipment. 

5. Controls. 

6. Control surfaces. 

(e) Comment on engine operation: smooth, rough. 

(f) Are engine temperatures and pressures within permissible 

range ? 

(g) Comment on fuel pressure fluctuations with varying r.p.m. 
(h) R.p.m. limits of propeller(s). 

(i) Time required to change pitch of propeller (s) from coarse to 

fine, 
(j) Does the carburetor operate satisfactorily during take-off ? 
(k) Comment on tendency of aeroplane to swing on take-off. 
(1) Comment on initial full-throttle climb with propeller in 

coarse pitch: steep, flat, normal, 
(m) Comment on speed of take-off with flaps, without flaps. 

High or low for type ? 
(n) Comment on flap operation. Ease ? How many positions ? 
(o) Comment on visibility during take-off and climb. 

2. Controllability in Flight 

(a) State aeroplane weight: normal, light. 

(b) State C.G. position: normal, forward, aft. 

(c) Comment on effectiveness and operation of controls at slow 

speeds, at high speeds: 

1. Approx. I.A.S. and altimeter readings. 

2. Ailerons: light ? heavy ? ample ? 

3. Elevators: light ? heavy ? ample ? 

4. Rudder: light ? heavy ? ample ? 

5. Stabilizer: light ? heavy ? ample ? excessive trim ? 

6. Tabs: light ? heavy ? ample ? excessive trim ? 

7. Order of effectiveness of controls. 

8. State if any control is unsatisfactory or marginal. 

9. Comment on harmonization of controls. 

(d) Comment on buffetting or burbling. 

(e) Comment on change of trim necessary with change of power. 

Does nose rise or fall when engine throttled ? 

(f) Comment on visibility during climb; during level flight. 

(g) Are engine temperatures and pressures within permissible 

range during full-throttle climb and full-throttle level 

flight? 
(h) Comment on vibration in flight, 
(i) Comment on mixture control setting for: 

1. Maximum power. 

2. Best economv. 



(j) Will the engine (s) pick up after one tank is dry ? 

(k) Comment on drop in r.p.m. when carburetor heat is on: 

1. Top speed condition. 

2. Cruising condition. 

(1) Comment generally on range of speed giving satisfactory: 

1. Lateral stability. 

2. Longitudinal stability. 

(m) Comment on tendency to hunt when light, 
(n) Comment on deflection of: 

1. Wings. 

2. Tail. 

3. Fuselage. 

(o) Comment on twisting of: 

1. Wings. 

2. Tail. 

3. Fuselage. 

(p) After the following sudden manoeuvres, if control is returned 
to neutral, does aeroplane return to normal level flight ? 

1. Roll— right and left. 

2. Yaw — right and left. 

3. Pitch — nose up and nose down. 

LANDING OBSERVATIONS 

1. Approach 

(a) Comment on glide: steep, normal, flat. 

1. Without flaps. 

2. With flaps. 

(b) Comment on speed of approach. 

(c) Comment on trimming requirements. 

(d) Comment on visibility. 

(e) Comment on change of attitude due to : 

1. Throttling engine. 

2. Lowering flaps. 

(f) Comment on controllability during approach. 

2. Landing 

(a) Comment on controllability during landing run. 

(b) Comment on visibility during landing run. 

(c) Comment on length of roll: short, medium, long. 

1. Without brakes, without flaps. 

2. With brakes, with flaps. 

(d) Comment on tendency to float; to settle. 

(e) Comment on range of stabilizer (or elevator tab) setting used 

in the sequence of take-off, climb, level flight and landing. 









FORM 4 
MANOEUVRING TESTS 

Perform the following manoeuvres and comment on them: 

1. Vertical banked level turns through 360 degrees. 

(a) Left turn. (b) Right turn. 

2. Figures of eight with vertical banked level turns. 

3. Slow rotation through 180 degrees by means of ailerons in a steep 

dive without engine followed by a pull-out. 
(a) Left. (b) Right. 

4. Short dives at various throttles, turning while pulling out. 

5. Short dives at various throttles, without turning while pulling 

out. (a) Left. (b) Right. 

6. Climbing turns through 180 degrees. 

(a) Left. (b) Right. 

7. A half slow roll, to right, to left diving out. 

8. Normal loop. 

9. Slow roll to right, to left. 

10. Half loop and roll out at top to right, to left. 

11. Sideslips, to right, to left. 

12. Terminal velocity dive. 

(a) While diving operate control surfaces and note any tendency 
toward structural oscillations. 

13. Stalls, with engine on and engine off. 

(a) Comment on aileron and rudder control up to the stall. 

(b) At stall, does nose drop gently ? 

(c) At stall, is there a tendency to drop a wing ? 

(d) Comment on aileron and rudder control after nose drops. 

14. Spins, 4-turn spins to right and left. 

(a) Describe sequence leading up to spin. 

(b) Spin flat or vertical ? 

(c) Wings level ? 

(d) Nose steady ? 

(e) Height lost in 4-turn spin to right; to left. 

(f) Describe sequence leading up to recovery. 

(g) Number of turns required before out of spin, 
(h) General comment on spin. 

(i) State C.G. positions at which aeroplane spun. 

15. During manoeuvres, are engine temperatures and pressures within 

permissible range ? 

17. In dive, is cooling excessive ? 

18. Do coolant or de-icing tanks overflow during manoeuvres? 

19. Is fuel flow satisfactory during manoeuvres ? 

20. Comment on vibration during manoeuvres. 



56 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport 

Weather 

Ground Conditions: 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 5 
LONGITUDINAL STABILITY TEST 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane. 

C.G. Position 

Flap Setting 

Propeller Setting 

Oil Cooler 






Strut 
Temp. 


Alti- 
meter 
Read- 
ing 


Stabi- 
lizer 
posi- 
tion 
at 
trim 


R.P.M. 


I.A.S. 

at 
trim 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Run 
No. 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 


Remarks 


1. 


Dive 








rated 





_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 























. 




2. 


— 


— 


— 


cruising 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




3. 








low 































1. 


Climb 






rated 






























2. 


— 


— 


— 


cruising 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




3. 








low 































This test is carried out for the normal, most forward and most rearward positions of the C.G. 
Procedure: Trim aeroplane for level flight at desired r.p.m. and altitude. 

(a) Dive until I.A.S. has increased 10 m.p.h. Release stick, take readings at noted points on curve. 

(b) Climb until I.A.S. has decreased 10 m.p.h. Release stick, take readings at noted points on curve. 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport 

Airport Altitude 

Weather 

Ground Conditions: 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity. 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 6 
TAKE OFF AND CLIMB TEST 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane . 

C.G. Position 

Maximum R.P.M. on Ground. 

Idling R.P.M 

Flap Setting 

Propeller Setting 

Stabilizer Setting 

Oil Cooler 



1 


2 3 


4 5 


6 7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Run 
No. 


Take-off 
Run 


722 ft. 


1180 ft. 


Strut 
Temp. 


Oil 
Temp. 


Oil 
Press. 


Fuel 
Press. 


Mani- 
fold 
Press. 


Carb- 
uretor 
intake 
Temp. 


Stab- 
lizer 
posi- 
tion 


Cool- 
ant 
Temp. 


Remarks 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 


I.A.S. 


Time 




1. 


— 


— 




























2. 
































3. 

































Procedure: The aeroplane is stationary, head to wind with engine idling at . . . r.p.m. The sensitive altimeter is set at zero. On the 
word from the observer the throttle is opened and the two stop watches started. One watch is stopped at the instant that the 
aeroplane leaves the ground. The other watch is stopped when the sensitive altimeter indicates 1,180 feet. A reading on the 
watch is taken as the aeroplane passes 722 feet. 

A number of runs are made and the best I.A.S. for climbing is determined for use in the Partial Climbs Test. This speed 
is recorded as . . m.p.h. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



57 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport 

Airport Altitude 

Weather 

Ground Conditions: 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity . 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 7 
CALIBRATION OF AIRSPEED INDICATOR TEST 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane . 

C.G. Position 

Flap Setting 

Propeller Setting 

Stabilizer Setting 

Oil Cooler 



Length of Speed Course 

Direction of Speed Course . 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Run 

No. 


Direction 
of run 


Alti- 
meter 
Read- 
ing 


Strut 
Temp. 


Stabi- 
lizer 
posi- 
tion 


R.P.M. 


I.A.S. 


Carb- 
uretor 
Intake 
Temp. 


Mani- 
fold 

Press- 
ure 


Oil 
Temp. 


Oil 
Press. 


Fuel 
Press. 


Hottest 

cylinder 

head 

Temp. 


Col- 
ant 
Temp. 


Elapsed 
time 


Remarks 


1. 


(East-West) 






























2. 


(West-East) 






























3. 


(etc.) 






























4. 
































5. 
































6. 
































7. 
































8. 

































Procedure: At take-off, the sensitive altimeter is set at zero. The speed and altitude are held constant for about one mile before 
entering the course. All instruments are noted as steady before entering the course. The observer sights the course markers and 
lines them up with a fixed point on the aeroplane when taking readings of elapsed time. Runs are made up and down the course 
{e.g. east-west, west-east). 

Runs are made at, at least, three different r.p.m. (or manifold pressures) to obtain three points for plotting a calibration 
curve. 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport 

Airport Altitude 

Weather 

Ground Conditions: 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity . 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 8 
LEVEL TOP SPEED TEST 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane. 
C.G. Position 

Flap Setting 

Propeller Setting 

Stabilizer Setting 

Oil Cooler 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


Run 

No. 


Alti- 
meter 
Reading 


Strut 
Temp. 


I.A.S. 
Reading 


R.P.M. 


Oil 
Temp. 


Oil 
Press. 


Mani- 
fold 
Press. 


Carb- 
uretor 
Intake 
Temp. 


Fuel 
Press. 


Hottest 
cylinder 
temp. 


Coolant 
Temp. 


Remarks 


1. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Procedure: The aeroplane is trimmed for full throttle, level flight at rated altitude and rated engine r.p.m. and manifold pressure. 
As soon as all instruments are steady, readings are taken. 

If the engine is permitted a 5-minute higher boost rating, a run is made under these conditions. 



58 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport 

Airport Altitude 

Weather 

Ground Conditions: 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity . 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 9 
STALLING SPEED TEST 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane . 

C.G. Position 

Flap Setting 

Propeller Setting 

Stabilizer Setting 

Oil Cooler 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


Run 
No. 


Altimeter 
Reading 


Strut 
Temp. 


I.A.S. 

(at 
stall) 


R.P.M. 


Oil 
Temp. 


Oil 
Press. 


Mani- 
fold 
Press. 


Carb- 
uretor 
Intake 
Temp. 


Fuel 
Press. 


Hottest 
cylinder 
Temp. 


Throttle 


Coolant 
Temp. 


Remarks 


1. 


























— 


2. 


























— 


3. 


























— 



Procedure: The aeroplane is flown level at best climbing I.A.S. with the stabilizer set at minimum incidence, the stick being moved 
backwards slowly. The speed at which the nose or a wing drops fairly rapidly is the I.A.S. for stalling. The test is carried out 
for full-throttle engine, and engine throttled back. 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport 

Airport Altitude 

Weather 

Ground Conditions: 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity . 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 10 
PARTIAL CLIMBS TEST 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane . 

C.G. Position 

Flap Setting 

Propeller Setting 

Stabilizer Setting 

Oil Cooler 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


Run 

No. 


Altimeter 
Reading 


Elapsed 
Time 


I.A.S. 


Strut 
Temp. 


R.P.M. 


Mani- 
fold 
Press. 


Oil 
Temp. 


Oil 
Press. 


Fuel 
Press. 


Carb- 
uretor 
intake 
Temp. 


Hottest 

cylinder 

Head 

Temp. 


Stabi- 
lizer 

setting 


Coolant 
Temp. 


Remarks 


1. 

2. 


(example) 
2000-3000 
2000-3000 




























3. 

4. 


5000-6000 
5000-6000 




























5. 
6. 


10000-11000 
10000-11000 





























Procedure: Three or four altitudes, including the rated altitude of the engine, are chosen at which to run the tests. 

At the desired altitude, the aeroplane is trimmed to climb at its best climbing speed and a steady climbing speed is obtained 
before reaching the starting height. The time to climb 1,000 feet between starting height and finishing height is taken by a stop 
watch. Clouds are avoided because of the air currents about them. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



59 



FLIGHT TEST RETURNS 

Date 

Airport •. 

Airport Altitude 

Weather 

Temperature 

Barometric pressure 

Wind direction and velocity 

Runway Surface 

Runway Condition 

Pilot 

Observer 



FORM 11 
TAKE-OFF AND LANDING RUNS 



Gross Weight of Aeroplane. 

C.G. Position 

Oil Cooler 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




Propeller 
setting 


Stabilizer 
setting 


Flap 
setting 


Take-off Run 


Landing Run 


Brakes 




Run 
No. 


From Start to Take-off 


From Touch-down to Stop 


Remarks 


Time 


Length 
of run 


Time 


Length 
of run 


1. 


Coarse 


— 


Without 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2. 


— 


— 


With 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3. * 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


' — 


With 


— 


4. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Without 


— 



Procedure: Take-off — The aeroplane is stationary, head to wind, with engine idling at. . . . r.p.m. The throttle is opened, and the stop 
watch started. The position of the wheel centre is noted on the ground, The aeroplane is pulled off, the run being as short as 
possible. The stop watch is stopped when the wheels leave the ground. The last point of contact of the wheels is noted. The length 
of the run is measured. 

Landing — The aeroplane is landed without the use of flaps or brakes and the landing run is measured. 

The aeroplane is landed using both brakes and flaps and the landing run is measured. 



Abbreviations 

Note: — The following abbreviations have been used in the foregoing forms: I.A.S. — Indicated Air Speed. M.A.C.- 
Chord. C. A. -Certificate of Airworthiness. A.T.C. — Approved Type Certificate. A.M. — Air Ministry. 



-Mean Aerodynamic 



List of References 



Hall, S. S., and England, T. H., Aircraft Performance 
Testing. Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., London, 
1933. 

von Baumhauer, A. G., Testing Stability and Control 
of Aeroplanes. Journal Royal Aeronautical Society, 
May, 1939. 

Millikan, Clark B., On the Results of Aerodynamic 
Research and Their Application of Aircraft Construc- 



tion. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, December, 

1936, pp. 48, 49. 

Meredith, F. W. and Cooke, P. A., Aeroplane Stability 

and the Automatic Pilot. Journal Royal Aeronautical 

Society, June, 1937. 

British Air Ministry Air Publication 1208, Design 

Leaflets F.l, F.2, F.3, April, 1937. 

British Air Ministry Aircraft Design Memoranda Nos. 

292, 293, 294, 295. 






60 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



i 



ENGINEERING IN TRANSPORTATION 

S. W. FAIRWEATHER 
Chief of Research and Development, Canadian National Railways 

Paper presented before the Vancouver Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, November 24, 1939 

(abridged) 

The part which transportation plays in our economic turned these natural resources to good account, and lastly, 

life is so important that no apology is needed for examining the railways themselves in carrying on their activities as 

briefly the relation of the art of transport to our national a transportation agency have been efficient, 
wealth production. It is remarkable that Canadian railways, although faced 

The complicated fabric of commercial and industrial re- w ith disabilities of climate and thin traffic, nevertheless 

lationships which makes our individual efforts effective supply the cheapest freight transportation of any compar- 

would be unworkable without some organized means of a ble country in the world. Railway transportation costs in 

transportation. The art of transportation, therefore, in an Canada are as low as those in the United States notwith- 

engineering sense, becomes part and parcel of our commercial standing the fact that the traffic density of the railways in 

and industrial life and cannot be segregated from it. the United States is twice as great as in Canada. Here are 

One curious fact about transportation, however, marks the figures of cost of transporting one ton one mile in the 

it as different from most of the other arts of commerce various countries of the world: 

and industry. In most instances of industrial effort, Revenue per 

there results some visual evidence of increased value, as Ton Mile 

for example when useless clay is baked into useful brick. (cents) 

In transportation no such change takes place. If the brick Canada 0.97 

is transported from the brick works to the city a place United States 0.99 

value is created. The brick at the brick works, in an Australia 2.47 

economic sense, had little more value than the clay; it is Argentina 1 .94 

only when it was transported to a place where it became Great Britain 2.34 

useful that its value became fully evident. A certain amount France 2 .30 

of wealth is consumed in the movement of the brick, and Germany 2.05 

it is the relationship between the amount of wealth so Italy 2. 13 

consumed and the place value which is created which tests The circumstances already mentioned give the railway, 

whether or not there has been a net increase in the national viewed as an implement of production, a wide margin of 

wealth. usefulness, which accounts for the existence of lines of 

From a national point of view the efficiency of our railways which do not pay in the financial sense, but are 

transportation may be judged like that of a machine. To nevertheless valuable to the commonwealth and, in fact, 

apply this test it is necessary to estimate the portion of vital to the continued development of national wealth. The 

the national wealth which is dependent upon transportation financial results of many pioneer lines of railway, lines 

and also the amount of wealth which is expended in pro- which have opened up forest, mineral or agricultural 

viding the transportation facilities and operating them, opportunity, are disappointing from the railway standpoint, 

The national capital wealth of Canada is about thirty but nevertheless, the country as a whole benefits, 
billions of dollars, and the national income is of the order The construction of pioneering railways has always proved 

of five billions of dollars per year. It may fairly be said a losing venture unless heavily subsidized, and the reason 

that nearly all of this vast wealth and income has arisen is not far to seek. The total value of pioneer activity is not 

from the ability to exploit the natural resources of the to be found in the efforts of the man who cuts down the 

country, which would be impossible without modern forest, mines the minerals, or farms the land, but in the 

transportation. Thus, much of our national wealth may towns and cities of Canada where our citizens are employed 

be considered as being place value brought about by trans- in processing and marketing the raw products of pioneers, 

portation. Thus, the marginal utility of the railway as an implement 

A study of the various agencies of transportation develops of production is great, but the marginal utility of the farm, 

the fact that the fundamental implement of transport is the forest development or the mine is, in itself, relatively 

the steam railway. The only other form of land transport small. This means that the producer of raw materials can 

that competes with the railway in amount of service is spare but a small amount of his individual productivity to 

the highway and motor truck, 'it may be shown that on pay freight rates and therefore freight rates on raw materials 

the average the cost of service by this medium, in an must be low. 

economic sense, is at least five times as great as by railway. In order to show that the marginal utility of the railway 

In order to establish the relationship between railway service is very large, viewed in relation to the wealth production 

and national development and national income it suffices of the country, one need only point out that to build, equip, 

at present to point out that the railways handle practically maintain and operate a pioneer line of railway costs of the 

all the raw products of industry and commerce which are order of four thousand dollars per mile per year, based, 

transported more than a short distance. of course, on a minimum of service, and since the average 

The capital investment in Canadian railways amounts wealth production per gainfully employed person in Canada 

to three billion dollars and the portion of the national is of the order of twelve hundred dollars, it is only necessary 

income assessable against the railways is four hundred for a pioneer railway to increase gainful employment by 

million dollars per year. Viewing these figures in relation five people per mile before it begins to yield a net surplus 

to the total capital wealth of the country and the national in the commonwealth report. Since the average number 

income, it appears that only eight per cent of our national of gainfully employed people per mile of line in Canada 

income has to be diverted to railway transport, notwith- is of the order of one hundred people, it will be seen that 

standing the fact that Canada uses more transportation per railways have a wide margin of utility. Thus, viewed 

capita than any other country in the world. from the national standpoint, it is good business to 

These facts have considerable significance; they result build a pioneer line of railway to tap known natural 

from the following chain of circumstances. First, the rail- resources. 

ways give us access to our vast natural resources scattered There are on every side evidences of Canada's impressive 

over immense areas; second, the nation's industry has national wealth. We see cities and towns of which any 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



61 



country might well be proud; schools, colleges, universities, 
hospitals, homes, all brought into being by an industrious 
people, busily engaged in developing the country's natural 
resources. This has been made possible by the construction 
of the railways, which tap natural resources on a con- 
tinental scale. 

There are those who believe that the highway and motor 
vehicle have wrought a veritable revolution in land transport 
similar to that which took place when the steam railway 
was developed a little over a century ago. There are those 
who believe that highway transport has rung the knell 
of the railway. A little study will show that this view is 
not justified. The transport of freight by motor vehicle on 
the highway is at least five times as expensive as by railway. 
It is estimated that if we undertook to handle by highway 
all of the traffic now moving by railway, our freight trans- 
port bill, instead of being two hundred and seventy million 
dollars as it was last year, would be of the order of one 
billion three hundred and fifty million dollars. In fact, if 
all freight were moved by truck on the highway, it is 
doubtful whether there would be enough able bodied men 
in Canada to operate and service the trucks which would 
be required. For these reasons it seems evident that the 
highway and motor vehicles can never displace the railway. 
It is true, however, that in a selective sense the highway 
vehicle may perform certain services more economically 
than the railway; as a result, when we have developed 
enough experience to correlate the two services on a sound 
basis, it will be possible to have a better all-round trans- 
portation system than ever before. 

This problem is easier to enunciate than to solve. In all 
countries the highway and railway are engaged in un- 
economic competition. Curiously enough, in Canada it is 
only because the railway has produced a considerable 
economic surplus that this competition has developed to 
sizeable proportions. The reasoning which leads to this 
conclusion is interesting. Canada stands second only to 
the United States in private automobiles per capita; it is 
an indication of Canada's relative wealth and one of the 
best evidences that as a nation we have done rather well 
for ourselves. Private automobiles, however, are useless 
without good highways. Therefore, we have proceeded to 
build and enjoy highways on a large scale. It may be noted 
that nearly 25 per cent of our national income is expended 
on highways and the private automobile. Putting it in 
another way, we spend each year three times as much on 
the private automobile and the highway as we spend on 
all the railways in Canada combined. This is not a bad 
feature; it simply illustrates that a country of high surplus 
has succeeded in a larger measure than many other countries 
in distributing its surplus equitably, so that there is a wider 
than ordinary enjoyment of the good things of life. Further, 
this highway development has been of great assistance in 
increasing our invisible export of goods and services in con- 
nection with the tourist business, so that from the national 
standpoint any damage which has been caused to the 
revenue of railways by the diversion of passenger travel 
from railway to highway has been more than offset by 
favourable factors. 

It is in the use of these highways for freight purposes 
that definitely pernicious influences begin to operate. This 
bad effect is due to two factors. First, the relationship 
between highway costs and the freight vehicle moving upon 
it has never been intelligently worked out. The freight truck 
moving on the highway has been an interloper. The high- 
ways were not built primarily for him; his use of the high- 
way has been viewed as incidental and the charges made 
for this use seem to have been calculated on a by-product 
basis. Therefore, the truck gets the use, on a nominal basis, 
of highways constructed for our national enjoyment. From 
this viewpoint a good deal of today's highway freight trans- 
port is parasitic on our national wealth. 

The second factor is even more important and it is that 
the freight rate structure of the railway is constructed on 



what is known as the value-of-service theory, whereas the 
freight rate structure of the truck is constructed on the 
cost-of-service theory. On the former theory the amount 
charged for handling the same tonnage of freight varies 
greatly with the value of the article transported. Railways 
transport bulky low-value products very cheaply — in some 
cases for as little as one-third of a cent per ton per mile— 
and inasmuch as the average cost of transport by railways 
is of the order of one cent per ton per mile, they must, in 
order to balance their budget, charge many times this 
average figure for the transportation of high valued com- 
modities. It is not unusual that the freight rate on high 
valued commodities may be as much as ten cents per ton 
per mile. In no case, however, is the railway freight rate 
any considerable percentage of the market value of the 
commodity, and, therefore, both low and high valued com- 
modities can move great distances to market. This type 
of rate structure obviously tends to break the barriers of 
distance, thereby equalizing opportunity, and as such it is 
admirably adapted to a country of continental extent such 
as Canada. 

In contrast, the cost-of-service theory of rate making 
ignores the value of the commodity transported. It asks no 
other question than what is the cost of transporting a 
particular commodity between two points. On applying 
that theory over any considerable range of commodities 
and distances one quickly sees its unsuitability to a policy 
of national development. If wheat grown on the western 
prairie had to be moved on a cost-of-service basis the 
prairies could never have been developed. 

The cost of service by motor truck is approximately five 
cents per ton per mile if standard wages are paid. This 
means that wherever the railway has assessed a freight rate 
in excess of this figure there is an apparent saving to the 
shipper by using the truck. However, since the cost of 
service by railway is only one cent per ton per mile, it is 
evident that the apparent saving to the shipper is pur- 
chased at a loss to the country of not less than four cents 
per ton per mile. In the last analysis this must appear as 
a depletion of our net divisible national surplus. In Canada, 
although not a very great percentage of our national 
wealth, it amounts to a very large figure in total. Its 
estimated value is one hundred million dollars per annum, 
or approximately two per cent of our national income. The 
fact that it is only a small portion of our national income 
explains why such an uneconomic development can persist 
without bringing quick retribution. The fact that it is sub- 
stantial in amount, however, indicates that the bleeding 
of high valued traffic from the railway by motor trucks, 
which operate without any sense of responsibility to national 
development, hampers railways in furnishing basic low-rate 
transportation for low-valued raw products of industry. 
This matter requires thoughtful consideration. There seems 
no ready-made cure for the situation, although a good deal 
could be accomplished if it were possible to co-ordinate 
the regulative and taxing powers of the various provinces, 
and to establish a liaison with the Board of Transport 
Commissioners for Canada. Adequate consideration could 
then be given to the feature of public convenience and 
necessity, viewed from in national sense, before a truck 
licence could be issued for either the private carriage of 
owner's goods or for contract carriage or for the so-called 
public carrier, who is never in point of fact a public carrier 
but only a pick and chooser. 

This address has been an attempt to view Canada's 
railways in the perspective of the task which they are 
performing. It is believed that Canada's railways are and 
will remain the chief implement in making available the 
natural resources of the nation. Canada has in her railway 
system the most efficient and cheapest land transport of 
any comparable country of the world, and in the future 
her railways will continue to justify their existence by the 
service they will render to industry in every part of the 
country. 



62 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



DISCUSSION ON THE FUNDAMENTALS OF PILE 

FOUNDATIONS 

Paper by I. F. Morrison, 1 published in The Engineering Journal, October, 1939 



R. F. Legget, a.m. e. i.e. 2 

Professor Morrison's paper is a most valuable addition 
to the literature of foundation engineering. It is to be hoped 
that it will be widely read alike for the clarity with which 
the author explains the action of piles as foundation units 
and as an implicit answer to the rather loose talk which 
sometimes suggests that students of soil mechanics want to 
abolish the use of bearing piles. The light which modern 
soil studies have been able to throw on the economics of 
the use of bearing piles is, perhaps, one of the principal 
features presented by Professor Morrison's paper. 

There will be general agreement with all the suggestions 
outlined in the paper. However, the last section in which 
pile driving formulae are dealt with (and very properly 
castigated) seems to call for some additional comment when 
considered in conjunction with ordinary civil engineering 
practice. It is for this reason that this note is submitted, 
in the hope that Professor Morrison will be able to endorse 
what is here suggested as a complement to his paper rather 
than a criticism of it. Two points call for mention — the use 
of test borings, and the use of pile driving formulae on small 
jobs. 

At the outset of the paper "it is assumed .... that 
suitable borings have been taken" and it is well said that 
without data as to the depth and character of the various 
sub-soil strata "the rational design of foundations is hope- 
less." At the end of the paper (p. 434) it is suggested that 
the necessary expenditure for the driving of a test pile 
"would be much better made for taking suitable borings." 
While agreeing fully with these statements, the writer feels 
that even greater emphasis should be placed — in all such 
consideration of foundation design — upon the necessary 
adequacy and accuracy of sub-surface exploration. As will 
be seen from Professor Morrison's paper, the character and 
relative position of the foundation strata determine the 
suitability of a pile foundation design. To attempt such a 
design without a clear understanding of what lies below 
the surface is, as is said in the paper, "hopeless". Equally 
hopeless is it to essay such design work when the only 
borings taken are a few wash-borings, particularly when 
put down without relation to the local geology. Yet this 
is still common practice; one of the last contributions to 
the subject 3 , in dealing with test boring went to great length 
in describing wash boring methods and even went so far 
as to state that they "give some indication of the length 
of piles to be specified." Comparison of this suggestion with 
Professor Morrison's analysis will demonstrate its ques- 
tionable character. 

This warning as to the danger of wash borings as a 
preliminary to foundation design, coupled with a reminder 
of the data now available on sub-surface exploration 4 and 
soil testing are notes which it is desired to add to Professor 
Morrison's presentation. They are of special importance in 
the east of Canada in view of the unusual properties of the 
pre-consolidated clays found in the St. Lawrence Valley. 
When once disturbed, clays of this type may lose their 
original character in consequence of which the driving of 
piles into such ground may reduce its bearing capacity 
instead of increasing it. It is to be regretted that no records 
appear to have been published of construction operations 
which have demonstrated this phenomenon. 

1. Professor of Applied Mechanics, Department of Civil and Muni- 
cipal Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. 

2. Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

3. "Probing for Bridge Foundations," N. R. Sack, Engineering 
News-Record, 12 th October, 1939, p. 69. 



In the case of large construction jobs, test boring and 
careful foundation design are procedures always to be fol- 
lowed. There are many jobs, however, the size of which 
renders the cost of preliminary exploratory and soil testing 
work prohibitive. When such work is carried out by public 
agencies with test boring equipment and laboratory facilities 
always available, normal economic considerations may 
sometimes be forgotten in a desire to achieve certainty in 
design. But for a consulting engineer or the engineer of a 
small city to attempt to justify the necessary expenditure 
for comparable work on small jobs will usually be impossible 
if only on the grounds of ordinary economy, quite apart 
from the difficulty of persuading the lay mind of the necessity 
for such work. In such instances, the use of one of the more 
rational pile driving formulae (notably the Hiley formula) 
can be justified, provided always that the limitations of 
the formulae are kept in mind. Limitations are, as suggested 
by Professor Morrison, the inability of a formula to show 
up the existence of hidden weak stratum, the diminution 
of bearing capacity of a group of friction piles as compared 
to individual pile driving results, and the difference between 
static and dynamic loading. Admitting these limitations, 
the use of a formula such as that of Hiley will still serve 
at least as a guide to the determination of the number of 
piles required and the depth to which they should be driven. 
If correlated with even one good test boring and particularly 
with a static loading test, pile driving records may still 
perform a useful function in foundation design. Reliance 
upon results so obtained is justifiable only in the case of 
small jobs; certainty of the results will always be condi- 
tioned by the limitations mentioned above. Theoretical 
design considerations must always be reviewed in the light 
of practical application and economic justification; here is 
one case where a course of action which may be theoretically 
unsound must often be followed, with suitable safeguards, 
because of practical and economic necessity. 

Jean P. Carrière, a.m. e. i.e. 5 

Professor Morrison's article interested the writer very 
much. It is a comprehensive condensation of a complicated 
branch of foundation engineering, and contains some very 
sound information and advice. 

In the final section of his article, Professor Morrison 
makes short work of all pile driving formulae by pointing 
out all their disadvantages and inaccuracies. As there are 
two sides to this question, the writer wishes to present 
some points in defence of certain pile driving formulae 
when used correctly under conditions for which they were 
developed. 

At the outset of this discussion the writer would like to 
point out the generally misleading use of the term "bearing 
power" as applied to the results obtained from pile driving 
formulae; the term "resistance to penetration" will be used 
in what follows. 

Most pile driving formulae are attempts to estimate the 
resistance to penetration of piles under static loads based 
on dynamic loads due to the kinetic energy of pile driving 
hammers while driving the piles. These estimates are quite 
accurate for single piles driven in uniform and non-cohesive 
sands and gravels. In the case of piles driven in very fine 
silts or soft clays, the dynamic resistance to penetration 
is the sum of small frictional resistance and relatively large 
point resistance, while the static resistance to penetration, 



4. For example, "Exploration of Soil Conditions and Sampling 
Operations," H. A. Mohr, Harvard University, Graduate School of 
Engineering Studies, Bulletin 208, 1936. 

5. Assistant Engineer, Department of Public Works, London, Ont. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



63 



especially after the piles have set a certain length of time, 
is the sum of full frictional resistance and small point 
resistance. 

Consequently, whereas the results given by some pile 
driving formulae for piles driven in granular non-cohesive 
soils are accurate, certain compensations must be made 
when cohesive soils are encountered, and these can be made 
by a study of the characteristics of the soil encountered. 

The Hiley Formula 6 is a comprehensive and rational 
formula because it takes into consideration such factors as 
make it suitable for practically universal application and 
its results have shown satisfactory agreement with actual 
loading tests. This formula does not attempt to recommend 
"safe loads" but gives fairly accurate values of the "resist- 
ance to penetration" of the piles static loading. 

From a mechanical point of view, the assumptions on 
which this formula is based are sound. 

Boussinesq's formula, recommended by Professor Morri- 
son's article, was developed to estimate the stresses at any 
point in "homogenous elastic solids of indefinite extent" 
due to a concentrated load applied normal to the surface. 

Soils are not homogenous, isotropic or perfectly elastic, 
and since all of these properties are assumed in deriving 
the equations we cannot expect the formula to necessarily 
give an accurate picture of how stresses vary in soils. 

Similarly with pile driving formulae of the Hiley type, 
the properties enumerated above have to be assumed and 
since both types of calculation, although different in appli- 
cation, contain assumptions of the same nature, there is 
no reason why one should be more accurate than the other. 

The Author 

The author wishes to express his appreciation of the 
interest in this paper taken by Professor Legget and Mr. 
Carrière as shown by the discussions which they have con- 
tributed. He has no hesitation in endorsing what has been 
said by Professor Legget with the exception, perhaps, of 
his remark regarding the use of a pile driving formula as 
a guide to the determination of the number of piles required. 
It would appear that the process implied here is that from 
the results of observation on the driving of one or several 
piles into the ground at the site an estimate of the safe carry- 
ing capacity of a single pile is thereby ascertained. Then the 
total weight of the structure divided by that carrying 
capacity per pile gives the number of piles required. If this 
be the process implied by Professor Leggett, the author 
takes exception to it, except in the case of bearing piles, in 



6. Structural Engineer, Vol. 8, July and August, 1930. 



which case, however, the results of a driving formula are 
of no value. For there is no relationship between the settle- 
ment of a group of floating piles and the resistance to 
penetration of a single pile. The only rational process is 
to work out the settlement due to the compression of the 
stratum below the piles. 

In connection with Mr. Carrière's discussion, the author 
is quite prepared to admit, as he has already in this paper, 
that under proper, though uncommon, conditions, the static 
resistance to penetration is roughly equal to the dynamic 
resistance to penetration and that a pile driving formula 
will give approximately the resistance to dynamic pene- 
tration in the case of a single pile. But such result is of little 
actual value in the design of pile foundations with the 
exception, perhaps, of cases where the piles are very widely 
spaced and can therefore be taken to act as individuals, 
as, for example, in the case of a pile bent in a railway 
trestle. 

The assertion that the assumptions on which the Hiley 
formula is based are sound is hardly tenable. It is based on 
a number of assumptions some of which may well be ques- 
tioned and, moreover, its derivation would not likely sur- 
vive a vigorous mathematical analysis. Terzaghi has given 
a more comprehensive formula based on the theory of 
semi-elastic impact. It is, however, not profitable to indulge 
in such elaborate mathematical analysis except from the 
point of view of academic interest. 

The author was not aware that he had recommended 
Boussinesq's formula and regrets that his remark should 
be so interpreted. It is always difficult to know what may 
be read into one's written statements. For purposes of 
illustration some formula had to be chosen. It is difficult 
to follow, however, the argument offered by Mr. Carrière 
in this connection. Merely because two entirely different 
formulae are of necessity based on simplifying assumptions 
is, of itself, no reason to suggest that the order of the 
accuracy of the one is not higher than that of the other. 

The important point in connection with pile foundations 
is not the resistance of a single pile to penetration but 
rather the amount of settlement which a group of such 
piles will suffer under a certain load in a given time interval. 
Such probable settlement can, and has been, estimated with 
sufficient accuracy by means of suitable formulae. It is 
hopeless to expect that any pile driving formula, based on 
the theory of impact, can ever yield such results. Locally 
applicable driving formulae based solely on driving experi- 
ence and subsequent loading tests can, of course, be de- 
veloped. However, very few loading tests on groups of pries 
have ever been carried out. 



64 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1939 



Council is pleased to report to the membership on a year 
that has been marked with many important events, but 
which withal has been a successful one for the Institute. 
The many reports from branches and committees which 
follow herewith largely make up the history of the year, 
and indicate the wide field in which the Institute operates. 
As the progress of the Institute is but the sum of the 
activities of the branches, it is recommended that these 
reports be read carefully. 

With the Institute as with individuals and other organ- 
izations in Canada, the declaration of war has been the 
principal event of the year. Up to the year's end it has not 
affected the affairs of the society to any great extent, but 
it is probable that within the next twelve months the 
course of Institute history will be greatly altered by it. 
Many members are taking leading parts in the war activity 
of the nation. In the active forces, in government and in- 
dustry, many of the greatest responsibilities fall on the 
shoulders of engineers whose names are familiar to us all. 
It is Council's hope that good fortune and success will 
attend them in their every effort. 

Finances 

The surplus for this year is larger than has been declared 
for some time. It is satisfactory to note that it comes from 
an increase in revenue as well as from a decrease in 
expenditure. The Treasurer's report and that of the 
Finance Committee deal with this in more detail. The fine 
work of the latter deserves special notice. A study of the 
report will be interesting as well as informative. The changes 
in the physical characteristics of the Journal, which were 
recommended by the Publication Committee and were 
inaugurated at the first of the year, have resulted in a sub- 
stantial saving in cost, and an increase in advertising space 
has brought about a nett increase in income. It appears 
from the comments that have been received that the 
changes in material and arrangement of the interior of the 
Journal have met with general satisfaction. Additional 
changes are planned for the near future which it is 
hoped will make the Journal still more attractive to the 
members. 

It is regrettable if the advent of war will interrupt the 
steady improvement in Institute affairs which has been 
evident in recent years. If it were possible to continue 
this acceleration, or even to maintain the present level for 
a few years, Council would be able to enlarge the pro- 
gramme of activities and to prosecute more successfully 
some of those already underway so that the Institute 
would more than ever fulfil its objectives. 

It is expected that enlistment in the active forces will 
reduce the numbers participating in branch activities, and 
consequently adversely affect the revenue of the Institute. 
Already Council has ruled that fees of members in over- 
seas service shall be remitted upon application, and regu- 
lations and instructions that will be appropriate are now 
being prepared for publication. 

Visits to Branches 

The President visited every branch at least once within 
the year, and throughout all his visits was enthusiastically 
received by branch officers and members. At every oppor- 
tunity he spoke at the universities to the undergraduate 
body and in this fertile field spread the gospel of good 
citizenship, professional status and the work of the Institute. 
On frequent occasions he addressed service clubs and other 
non-professional bodies, thus doing much to keep the pro- 
fession favourably in the public eye. He presided at five 
Council meetings in five different cities distributed from 
Pictou, Nova Scotia, to Calgary, Alberta. 

The General Secretary visited twenty of the branches, 
most of them in the company of the President. 



Council Meetings 
Council has continued the practice of holding meetings 
away from Headquarters when possible, and perhaps estab- 
lished a new record in the number so held within a year. 
Out of eleven meetings, five were held away from Montreal, 
at the following cities, the bracketted figures, which include 
guests, showing the number in attendance: Pictou (21), 
Ottawa (38), Toronto (45), Hamilton (37), Calgary (24). 

Voluntary Service Registration Bureau 
Headquarters, in co-operation with the Canadian Insti- 
tute of Mining and Metallurgy and the Canadian Institute 
of Chemistry, completed a very intensive effort to secure 
for the Government a record of education and experience 
for all technically trained men in Canada. Over 16,000 
questionnaires were submitted to the members of fifteen 
engineering organizations, including all provincial profes- 
sional associations. These records have been turned over 
to the Voluntary Service Registration Bureau at Ottawa, 
where, under the guidance of Dr. H. M. Tory, the register 
will be operated for the benefit of industry and govern- 
mental departments. 

Maritime Meeting 
A Maritime Professional Meeting was held at the end 
of August at Pictou, Nova Scotia. A very efficient com- 
mittee made up of representatives from all four Maritime 
branches, prepared a programme of papers and social 
events that pleased everyone. The attendance was satis- 
factory, particularly in view of the disturbed international 
situation which came to a head just at that time, and 
finally resulted in the declaration of war on the last day of 
the convention. Such a meeting in the Maritimes was 
particularly appropriate in view of the fact that a maritime 
president was in office. President McKiel was present for 
all functions and presided at the meeting of Council which 
was held on August 30th. 

By-law Changes 
As an outcome of the very complete report made last 
year by the committee on Membership and Management 
under the chairmanship of Professor R. A. Spencer, certain 
by-law changes are being sponsored by Council, and will 
be submitted to the members early in 1940. The effect is to 
eliminate the present classification of Associate Member, 
leaving only one class of corporate members i.e., Member, 
and somewhat changing the qualifications for that classi- 
fication. It is believed that such an amendment will facilitate 
negotiations towards closer co-operation between the pro- 
vincial professional bodies and the Institute. 

Provincial Professional Associations 
Substantial progress has been made in negotiations with 
provincial professional associations, as will be seen in the 
report of the Committee on Professional Interests. This 
committee has carried on most effectively the work started 
in previous years and is now able to announce the out- 
standing event of the year, the completion of a ballot on a 
proposed agreement with the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Nova Scotia. The several years of thought 
and negotiation on the part of many members of the 
Association and the Institute finally resulted in an agree- 
ment which was submitted to and approved by the "elector- 
ate" in December. The agreement is to be signed by your 
President and Secretary in Halifax on January 25th, 1940. 
The Institute representatives in other provinces report 
that conversations are underway which it is hoped will 
lead to similar agreements with the provincial bodies in 
other parts of Canada. Council is very happy to know 
that such is the case and will be glad at any time to assist 
the provincial joint committees whenever deliberations have 
proceeded so far that its active co-operation is requested. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



65 



Council is pleased to acknowledge the kindness and 
courtesies received by the Institute and by its officers, from 
officers of the various provincial associations, and wishes 
to make special acknowledgment to the officers and execu- 
tive of the British Columbia Association for the luncheon 
which they tendered the President and General Secretary 
of the Institute when they were in Vancouver. The helpful 
attitude of the officers of the Nova Scotia Association has 
been very much appreciated, and Council is delighted that 
these many meetings have resulted finally in a mutually 
satisfactory agreement. 

The Saskatchewan agreement is now in the second year 
of its operation, and it becomes possible to offer a prelim- 
inary report on its effectiveness. The principal advantages 
of all such agreements are that they establish and encourage 
a closer co-operative effort by and between engineers. It 
is difficult to properly appraise such values, although their 
existence is never in doubt, but cold figures are available 
that show the results as far as the membership lists are 
concerned. These are shown elsewhere in the report of the 
Committee on Professional Interests. 

International Relations 

One of the most active committees has been that dealing 
with international relationships. Perhaps the greatest 
effort ever made by the Institute towards international 
co-operation was worked out by this committee in the 
preparations for the British American Engineering Con- 
gress, which unfortunately had to be cancelled at the last 
minute because of the impending outbreak of war. Other 
activities of the committee are referred to in its annual 
report. 

Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer 

During the year a special committee was set up at the 
President's request, to explore the field of service for the 
young engineer. This committee has finished a year of great 
activity and has already accomplished a considerable amount 
of the work that was assigned to it. The report which fol- 
lows gives some idea of the immensity of the task and 
methods that were followed in successfully carrying it out. 

The Institute has been fortunate in all its committees, 
as a survey of the year's activities will show, and the Council 
is glad of this opportunity to express its appreciation of 
the time and effort expended by these gentlemen in the 
interest of the profession. 

Julian C. Smith 

It is with deep regret that the death of a past-president 
has to be recorded. Dr. Julian C. Smith, who was president 
in 1928, passed away on June 24th, 1939. Dr. Smith had 
never ceased to be interested in the Institute, and was 
ready at all times to give of his time to officers and coun- 
cillors who came to him over a long period of years for 
advice and counsel on Institute affairs. His death has been 
felt very seriously by all those who knew him, and with 
his going the Institute has lost one of its strongest friends 
and most helpful supporters. 

Headquarters 

During the year Mr. Louis Trudel was installed at Head- 
quarters as assistant to the secretary. Since then he has 
become familiar with the requirements of the position and 
given very valuable service. This was particularly true 
during the absence of the secretary from the office this 
summer while confined to the hospital as the result of an 
accident, at which time the burden fell almost entirely 
on Mr. Trudel's shoulders. 

For the second year Council issued Institute Christmas 
cards. Two thousand were sent out by officers, branch 
executives and Headquarters. The demand was substantially 
greater than in 1938 

The Fifty-Third Annual General Meeting was convened 



at Headquarters on January 26th, 1939, and was adjourned 
to the Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, on February 14th, 1939, 
where, under the auspices of Their Excellencies Lord and 
Lady Tweedsmuir, a most successful annual and profes- 
sional meeting was concluded. A full account of this meeting 
appeared in the March, 1939, Journal. 

Roll of the Institute 

During the year 1939, three hundred and fifty-four can- 
didates were elected to various grades in the Institute. 
These were classified as follows: twenty-eight Members; 
one hundred and two Associate Members; forty-four 
Juniors; one hundred and seventy-four Students, and six 
Affiliates. The elections during the year 1938 totalled three 
hundred and twenty. 

Transfers from one grade to another were as follows: 
Associate Member to Member, twenty; Junior to Member, 
one; Junior to Associate Member, fifty-one; Student to 
Associate Member, twelve, and Student to Junior, twenty- 
three, a total of one hundred and seven. 

The names of those elected or transferred are published 
in the Journal each month immediately following the 
election. 

Removals from the Roll 

There have been removed from the roll during the year 
1939, for non-payment of dues and by resignation, twenty- 
one Members; seventy-one Associate Members; thirteen 
Juniors; eighteen Students; three Affiliates, a total number 
of one hundred and twenty-six. Six reinstatements were 
effected, and sixteen Life Memberships were granted. 

Deceased Members 

During the year 1939 the deaths of forty members of 
the Institute have been reported as follows: 



Members 
Abell, Harry Clinton 
Dancer, Charles Henry 
Davis, George Sanford 
Dow, John 

Emra, Frederic Harcourt 
Gill, James Lester Willis 
Grant, William Roy 
Hodgins, Arthur Edward 
Japp, Sir Henry 
Kaelin, Frederick Thomas 
Macallum, Andrew Fullerton 
McDonnell, Frank 
McKenzie, Bertram Stuart 
McLean, Norman Berford 
McMaster, Alexander T. Carson 
Reid, John Garnet 
Risley, Wilfred Cary 
Ross, Donald William 
Smith, Julian Cleveland 
Spencer, Raymond A. 
Taché, Joseph Charles 
White, Thomas Henry 



Wilkie, Edward Thomson 

Associate Members 
Boast, Richard Griffith 
Bonnell, Mossom Burwell 
Boulian, Job Ivan 
Bourbonnais, Paul Emile 
Casgrain, Senator Joseph 

Philippe Baby 
Cassidy, John Francis 
Coxworth, Thomas Walker 
Cripps, Bernard Harold 
Cross, George Esplin 
Desmeules, Sylvio A. 
Drewry, William Stewart 
Evans, George Edward 
Landry, Joseph Honoré 
Nicholson, Thomas Herbert 
Stadler, John Charles 
Murray, Robert Roy 

Affiliate 
Jones, Frank Percy 



Total Membership 

The membership of the Institute as at December 31st, 
1939, totals four thousand, eight hundred and thirteen. 
The corresponding number for the year 1938 was four 
thousand, six hundred and thirty. 

1938 

Honorary Members , 16 

Members 1,053 

Associate Members 2,218 

Juniors 496 

Students 806 

Affiliates 41 

4,630 
1939 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 1,057 

Associate Members 2,287 



66 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Juniors 496 

Students 914 

Affiliates 43 

4,813 
Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council, 
H. W. McKiel, M.E.i.c, President. 
L. Austin Wright, a.m.e.i.c, General Secretary. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

The President and Council: 

The finances of the Institute show a substantial improve- 
ment over last year with a surplus of $4,210.93 which is 
gratifying. 

Unfortunately this surplus does not represent a liquid 
asset as most of it went to cover an overdraft of $3,210.94 
in the Institute's account in the bank last year. The amount 
is insufficient to reimburse the moneys borrowed from the 
special funds some time ago which loan now stands at 
$3,314.98. 

No item of expense has been included to represent the 
depreciation on the building, nor in the present condition of 
the Institute finances would anything be gained by so doing. 

Your treasurer is pleased at the improvement in the 
Institute's finances in the last few years and hopes that 
the present policy will be continued so that a useful cash 
balance may be shown in the near future. 
Respectfully submitted, 

De Gaspe Beaubien, m.e.i.c, Treasurer. 



FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The statement of revenue and expenditure which is pre- 
sented herewith reflects the healthy condition and satis- 
factory growth of the Institute during the past year. In 
the opinion of your committee, this result is largely due 
to the increase in branch activities and the greater interest 
in Institute affairs, which have followed successive visits 
of our presidents and the General Secretary to the branches 
from coast to coast. The active functioning of the branches 
is reflected in the increase in new members, current fees 
paid, and arrears collected. Expenditures have been kept 
to a minimum commensurate with the requirements of 
your membership. The decrease in these expenditures from 
last year is due in no small part to the loyal co-operation 
of the General Secretary and the Headquarters' staff. 

The surplus of revenue over expenditure has enabled your 
committee to liquidate the bank overdraft and to start the 
new year with an amount of cash on hand slightly larger 
than last year. It should be remembered, however, that the 
Institute has a very difficult year ahead. We should give to 
our members on active service, every facility to maintain 
their membership in the Institute without cost to them and 
to do this we believe we can depend upon loyal co-operation 
of every member of the Institute. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, Chair man 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 
For the Year Ending 31st December 

Expenditure 



Revenue 

Membekship Fees: 1939 

Arrears $ 3,459.52 

Current 26,581.91 

Advance 406.1 1 

Entrance 1,894.00 



1938 

$ 2,404.50 

25,766.28 

545.15 

1,438.00 



$32,341.54 $30,153.93 



Publications: 

Journal Subscriptions and Sales $ 7,390.68 

Journal Advertising 13,660.24 



$ 7,041.60 
14,710.43 



$21,050.92 $21,752.03 



Income from Investments . 
Refund of Hall Expense. 
Sundry Revenue 



457.89 

520.00 

5.60 



448.21 

485.00 

26.69 



Total Revenue $54,375.95 $52,865.86 



Building Expense: 

Property and Water Taxes 

Fuel 

Insurance 

Light, Gas and Power 

Caretaker's Wages and Services . 
Maintenance and Repairs 



1939 


1938 


$ 2,020.56 


$ 2,031.73 


492.25 


373.81 


229.67 


189.32 


311.05 


314.90 


913.00 


878.00 


766.59 


653.95 



$ 4,733.12 $ 4,441.71 



Publications: 

Journal — Salaries and Expense . 
Sundry Printing 



$15,244.69 $18,275.00 
457.40 769.61 



$15,702.09 $19,044.61 



Office Expense: 

Salaries 

Telephone, Telegrams and Postage . . . 

Office Supplies and Stationery 

Audit and Legal Fees 

Messenger and Express . . 

Miscellaneous 

Depreciation — Furniture and Fixtures. 



$12,534.07 


$11,453.64 


1,848.45 


1,736.28 


1,094.11 


1,265.29 


250.00 


315.00 


93.79 


111.67 


555.74 


808.85 


368.70 


409.66 



$16,744.86 $16,100.39 



General Expense: 

Annual and Professional Meetings $ 2,316.89 $ 1,873.77 

Meetings of Council 449.62 432.88 

Travelling 1,244.01 1,267.61 

Branch Stationery 242.06 201.23 

Students Prizes 46.35"! 69.79 

E.I.C. Prizes 286.25}- 288.45 

Gzowski Prizes 34.50J 17.25 

Library Salary 600.00 600.00 

" Expense 456.36 401.95 

Interest, Discount and Exchange 181.45 225.43 

Examinations and Certificates 22.75 11.66 

Committee Expenses 167.08 445.83 

National Construction Council 100.00 150.00 

Sundry 92.15 

$ 6,289.47 $ 5,962.53 

Rebates to Branches $ 6,695.48 $ 6,401.58 

Total Expenditure $50,165.02 $51,950.82 

Surplus for tear 4,210.93 915.04 



$54,375.95 $52,865.86 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



67 



LEGISLATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Legislation Committee begs to submit the present 
report concerning its activities in 1939: 

(a) The Committee has not been called upon to consider 
any suggestion or report concerning legislation which 
might have been made by a Branch or a provincial 
division. 

(b) In regard to legislation, either actual or proposed, which 
is likely to affect the interests of the Institute or of its 
Members, the Committee submits the following in- 
formation: 

1. In Quebec, a bill presented early in the year to the 
Provincial Legislature by the Association of Archi- 
tects of the Province of Quebec, which might have 
affected the interests of some members of the Insti- 
tute, was later withdrawn. 

2. In British Columbia, an attempt was made, at the 
recent 1939 session of the Legislature, to pass a 
bill for the licensing of contractors of all kinds. 
This bill was extensive and far reaching. On account 
of the very little time given to the interested parties 
to study the bill and of representations made to that 
effect, the proposed legislation did not receive the 
approval of the Private Bills Committee and, con- 
sequently, was not brought down in the House. It 
is very probable that a similar bill will be presented 
next year. 



3. To the knowledge of the Committee, no other at- 
tempt to pass any legislation was made in 1939 
and no other legislation is proposed for 1940, in 
any province, which is likely to affect the interests 
of the Institute or of its Members. 
(c) At the request of Council, the question of certain income 
tax concessions granted to a class of professional men 
and refused to others, among which were the engineers, 
was studied and representations were made to the 
Commissioner of Income Tax at Ottawa to the effect 
that under similar circumstances the members of all 
professions should be treated alike and further, that, 
if the difficulties which have arisen in the past with 
regard to claims for allowance of automobile expenses, 
depreciation, etc., were due to the lack of proper records 
showing the amounts actually expended for business 
purposes, the Department should supply the proper 
forms to, and enforce their use by, the interested parties 
so that it may (1) determine, as closely as possible, to 
what extent the automobiles were used for business 
purposes and for personal purposes, and (2) make the 
proper deductions or allowances on the Income Tax 
returns. 
It is too early yet to foresee what will be the decision of 
the Department of National Revenue concerning this 
matter. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alex. Larivière, m.e.i.c, Chairman 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
As at 31st December 



Assets 
Current: 

Cash on hand and in Bank .... 

Accounts Receivable $3,162.93 

Less: Reserve for Doubtful Ac- 
counts 103.17 



Arrears of Fees — estimated . 



Special Funds — Investment Account: 

Investments $7,285.14 

Cash in Savings Accounts 3,281.70 

Due by Current Funds 3,314.98 



Investments at Cost: 

$4,000 Dominion of Canada, 

4^%, 1959 $4,090.71 

200 Dominion of Canada, 

4^% 1958 180.00 

100 Dominion of Canada, 

4^% 1946 96.50 

1,000 Montreal Tramways, 

5% 1941 950.30 

2,000 Montreal Tramways, 

5% 1955 2,199.00 

500 Prov. of Saskatchewan, 

5% 1959 502.50 

2 Shares Canada Perman't 

Mortgage Corporat'n. 215.00 
40 Shares Montreal Light, 

Heat & Power, N.P.V. 324.50 



Advances to Branches 

Advance Travelling Expenses 

Deposit — Postmaster 

Prepaid and Deferred Expenses 

Gold Medal 

Library — At Cost less Depreciation 

Furniture and Fixtures — At Cost less De- 
preciation 

Land and Buildings — at Cost 



1939 



3,059.76 
2,500.00 



8,558.51 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
804.23 
45.00 

1,448.13 

3,708.75 
91,495.22 



1938 



$ 432.38 $ 115.82 



3,277.71 
2,500.00 



$ 5,992.14 $ 5,893.53 



13,881.82 12,013.62 



8,558.51 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
602.18 
45.00 

1,448.13 

3,687.02 
91,495.22 



$126,233.80 $124,043.21 



Liabilities 



Current: 

Bank Overdraft 

Accounts Payable 

Rebates due Branches 

Library Deposits ......... 

Amount due Special Funds . 



1939 



$ 2,494.13 

722.03 

5.00 

3,314.98 



1938 

3,210.94 

3,248.08 

645.68 

5.00 

3,314.98 



$ 6,536.14 $10,424.68 
Special Funds: 

As per Statement attached 13,881.82 12,013.62 

Reserve for Building Maintenance 350.00 350.00 

Surplus: 

Balance as at 1st Jan., 1939. . $101,254.91 
Add: Excess of Revenue over 
Expenditure as per 



Statement attached. 



4,210.93 



105,465.84 101,254.91 



$126,233.80 $124,043.21 



Audit Certificate 

We have audited the books and vouchers of The Engineering Institute of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1939, and have 
received all the information we required. In our opinion, the above Statement of Assets and Liabilities and the attached btatementot 
Revenue and Expenditure for 1939 are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the Institutes affairs as at dlst 
December, 1939, and of its operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of our information and the explanations given to us 

and as shewn by the books. „ , . _ _ . ~ 

(Sgd.) Ritchie, Brown & Co., 
Montreal, 23rd January, 1940. Chartered Accountants. 



68 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

During the year 1938, the Publication Committee, at 
the request of the Council, made an exhaustive study of 
matters pertaining to the publications of the Institute, 
especially the Engineering Journal. 

As a result, a report was presented to the Council, in 
which the opinion was expressed, that it was not advisable 
to make any sweeping transformation of the Journal which 
would have the effect of altering the character of this 
publication, which had been firmly established for over 
twenty years. 

The Committee, however, recognized the fact that owing 
to the comprehensive character of the Institute activities 
and the wide scope of professional interests of its members, 
it was very difficult to provide sufficient technical papers 
to meet its needs. It therefore recommended that certain 
additions be made to broaden the interest and increase the 
diversification of the material published. 

To attain this end, a section entitled "Abstracts of 
Current Literature" was added. This section was to cover 
all branches of engineering, and a number of members of 
the Institute were asked to act as advisory Members of the 
Publication Committee. Thirty-five members kindly agreed 
to act. Their functions were to consist in preparing, each 
in his own field of engineering, abstracts of articles of 
importance published in other periodicals. 

It was thought also that short papers, not as a rule 
exceeding one or two pages in length, would be of interest 
to the members. 

Several other minor changes were also made, all with 
the object of improving the general tenor of the publica- 
tion. These changes and additions came into effect in the 
January issue of 1939, and have been carried out for the 
whole year. 

The Committee met at least once a month during the 
year. All papers and matters generally connected with the 
publication of the Journal were submitted by the General 
Secretary to the Committee for approval. As far as possible, 
papers were proportionately divided amongst the various 
branches of Engineering. 

It must be noted that to achieve the results anticipated 
by the new set up of the Journal the support of the Advisory 
Members of the Publication Committee, together with that 
of all members of the Institute, must be accorded and con- 
tinued. 

With such support, we may look forward to a pub- 
lication of which the Institute will be proud. 

Respectfully submitted, 
A. Duperron, M.E.i.c, Chairman. 

LIBRARY AND HOUSE COMMITTEE 

To the President and Council, 

Your committee reports as follows: 

Meetings were held throughout the year whenever 
necessary to deal with matters other than those which are 
customarily handled as a matter of routine by the staff. 

Authorization was obtained for the re-decoration of the 
washroom early in the year; this was the only major item 
left over from the programme of last year. In addition, 
emergency repairs were necessary in the caretaker's pre- 
mises due to a break in the plumbing ; some other alterations 
were also made to improve the heating system. 

The Committee recommends that illumination be pro- 
vided for the front porch. Due to the lateness of the season, 
this recommendation is passed to next year's officers. 

Some necessary replacements were made to the furniture 
in the reading room; the accommodations were greatly 
improved thereby and favourable comment has resulted. 

In the past the reading room has been open until 9 p.m. 
daily (6 p.m. Saturdays). Due to serious inconvenience to 
the staff and negligible use by the members, Council agreed 



to our proposal to close the building at 6 p.m., except when 
meetings are to be held. This has worked out satisfactorily. 
Any member desiring to use the reading room after hours 
may do so without restriction by telephoning prior to 
regular closing time. 

It was agreed that photographs of past secretaries of the 
Institute should be obtained as a matter of record. As soon 
as all necessary pictures have been secured, they will be 
suitably framed and properly placed. 

Library and Information Service 

Your committee regrets that the Library Services are 
not used as extensively as they might be, and that the library 
accessions are limited by the small funds available. The 
statistics for the year 1938 and 1939 are as follows: — 



Requests for information 

Bibliographies compiled (number of pages) 
Photostats furnished (number of pages) . . . 
Accessions to library (largely reports, etc.). 
Books presented for review by publishers. . 



1939 


1938 


L,222 


727 


70 


56 


78 


129 


515 


464 


35 


35 



The question of how to reach and maintain the standard 
at which the Institute Library should aim has been dis- 
cussed at length, but your committee was not able to 
approach Council with a definite scheme during the past 
year. It is recommended, however, for our successors that 
a subsidiary committee be appointed with capable men in 
the various branches of engineering to review the library 
situation and make suggestions for the acquisition of 
modern current text and reference books ; and eventually that 
an application should be made to Council for an annual 
grant (of about $150.00) for the purchase of such books as 
are recommended. 

This committee with the General Secretary should also 
consider how best to obtain for the Journal reviews of the 
current technical books received from publishers. The 
library has benefited greatly from this source ; in fact it has 
provided practically all of the additions of text books for 
some time past. The difficulty of obtaining voluntary 
co-operation from the membership in this matter adds 
considerably to the work of the headquarters staff, and 
some organized scheme should be developed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Brian R. Perry, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PAPERS COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Committee begs to present the following report for 
1939. 

An attempt has been made throughout the year to en- 
courage the exchange of speakers and papers among the 
various branches, particularly the more isolated. In this 
we have not been as successful as we would like, although 
many of the Branches have had excellent programmes with 
good speakers and many papers of merit have been pre- 
sented. 

We are of the opinion that to make the work of the 
Papers Committee as effective and successful as it should 
be, a clearing house should be established where copies of 
all papers presented at Branches would be sent and names 
of speakers who address the Branches would be registered. 
In this way we would be able to offer greater assistance to 
those Branches where there is not a sufficient supply of 
speakers and papers. 

This year a sum of money was voted for travelling ex- 
penses for speakers in the Prairie Provinces. We are of the 
opinion that as much assistance as possible should be given 
to encourage good Branch programmes and activities. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James A. Vance, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



69 



COMMITTEE ON THE TRAINING AND WELFARE 
OF THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

The President and Council: 

By decision of Council at its regular meeting in Hamilton, 
Ontario, on May 27, 1939, a Committee on the Training 
and Welfare of the Young Engineer was named. 

The terms of reference contained in Minute 9653 of that 
meeting stated: — 

"It is suggested to this Committee that three phases 

of investigation be pursued for the present — 

"(a) The training of the engineer, including the period 

in high school, with a view to ascertaining if any changes 

in the Canadian system would seem to be desirable. 
"(b) The method of absorption by the profession of 

the young engineering graduate, and what can be done 

to facilitate this absorption. 

"(c) The relationship of the Institute and the young 

engineering graduate to organized engineering, and what 

The Engineering Institute can do to interest and serve 

this group. 

"If, in the course of the study above suggested, it 

would seem advisable to the Committee to pursue 

additional lines of investigation, the Council will be glad 

to receive suggestions as to the enlargement of the scope 

of the Committee's activities." 

The fact that the members of the Committee were scat- 
tered from Halifax to Vancouver precluded the possibility 
of an organization meeting without entailing considerable 
expense, either to the Institute or to the individual mem- 
bers. The Committee members were canvassed by letter 
as to the avenues we should follow in our preliminary 
investigations. The suggestions offered were indicated in a 
questionnaire which was sent by the Committee to about 
460 selected members of the Institute and to several others 
who are interested in engineering education. 

Replies were received from 23 per cent of the inquiries, 
and are still being received. It is encouraging to note that 
they have come, generally, from engineers of wide experi- 
ence and responsibility, and it is encouraging to the Com- 
mittee to have these valuable opinions on which to base 
conclusions. 

Thirteen of the twenty-two questions submitted could 
be answered, in whole or in part, by a positive or negative 
reply. The remaining questions required a statement of 
opinion or of details amplifying the direct questions. The 
replies indicated the opinions of the members in the follow- 
ing proportions. 

(a) That the Institute should undertake some form of 
vocational guidance work among high school boys — 65 per 
cent. 

(b) That the Institute should have a more direct contact 
with engineering school activities — 86 per cent. 

(c) That the Institute should devote more time to young 
engineer activities and assist him in adapting himself to 
his profession — 75 per cent. 

(d) That the entrance requirements to the several Cana- 
dian engineering schools should be standardized at a high 
level — 80 per cent. 

(e) That the present college period in engineering train- 
ing is sufficient — 80 per cent. 

(f) That the essential training of an engineer should be 
of a general character — 90 per cent. 

(g) That more attention must be given at some period 
in the engineer's education, to such cultural and economic 
subjects as are necessary to equip him for the present day 
requirements of his profession — about unanimous. 

We shall briefly summarize some of the expressed 
opinions on these several matters, and give the recom- 
mendations of the Committee as to positive action necessary 
to make these proposals effective. 

The E.I.C. and Vocational Guidance 
It is the opinion of the Committee that the Institute 
should undertake a systematic collaboration with the 



educational authorities in the assistance of students in the 
selection of their professions. It is not intended that we 
should urge young men to adopt engineering as a pro- 
fession, but it is evident that the need exists for guidance 
in the selection of a profession and conversely that the 
profession should, to some extent, select its students. 

The opinion has been expressed by many members of 
the Institute that this function should be largely advisory, 
with a carefully selected personnel of those who will be 
actively engaged in the work. 

The problem before the Committee is to propose methods 
to be adopted by the Institute to best serve the varying 
conditions in the many communities where this service 
may be required. 

We ask leave to make the following recommendations: — 

(a) That a permanent committee of the Institute shall 
be set up, or that this present committee or its successor 
be so instructed, to centralize the vocational or student 
guidance activities of the Institute, and to prepare such 
instructions, reports, pamphlets, etc., as may be required 
for the assistance of the Branch Guidance Committees 
herein proposed. 

(b) That each branch of the Institute be asked to 
appoint a vocational or student guidance committee to 
undertake personal contacts, addresses to student bodies, 
co-operation with the local educational authorities, and to 
co-operate with other related work in the several com- 
munities of the branch districts. 

(c) That following the establishment of the Central 
Committee, the educational authorities of the several pro- 
vinces shall be advised of the readiness of the Institute to 
co-operate in the student selection for engineering courses, 
and 

(d) That it will be a function of the Institute to bring to 
prospective engineering students such authoritative in- 
formation as may be necessary to give them a definite 
perspective of the educational and cultural requirements, 
the opportunities of employment, the trends in engineering 
occupation, the extent and value of the several available 
courses of study, and other related information. 

The E.I.C. and Engineering Student Activities 

The future growth of the Institute is definitely dependent 
on the interest of the young engineers in its activities. It is 
incumbent on the Institute, therefore, to offer its services 
to these students while they are attending the several 
engineering schools. How it can best accomplish this pur- 
pose is a matter which requires further discussion by the 
Committee. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics in its report "Higher 
Education in Canada 1936-38," shows that 3,677 students 
attended Canadian Schools of Applied Science and Engineer- 
ing in 1937, an increase of 1,456 in 10 years. The same year 
537 students graduated, an increase of 206 in 10 years. 

These students have their own engineering societies. The 
Engineering Institute of Canada provides annual prizes, 
and several of the Institute branches hold joint meetings 
with these student societies. Other proposals have been 
made to the Committee and these are to receive our further 
attention. 

The E.I.C. and the Young Engineer and His 

Adaptation to the Profession 
It is agreed that the training necessary for any young 
engineer cannot be acquired up to his graduation in Applied 
Science. Much more time must be given to such training 
after graduation. What The Engineering Instutute can do 
to stimulate these extra-mural studies and to provide 
direction in the many fields open for students is still 
receiving the attention of this Committee. 

We are ready, however, to propose to the Institute and 
to its branches, that more attention should be given to the 
part taken by the young engineers in branch activities. 
Where Junior Sections are not possible, these young men 
should be represented on the branch executives and on 



70 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



many of the committees. They should be encouraged to 
take part in discussions and a regular meeting each year 
should be arranged and conducted by them. 

Other worthy suggestions have been made, including 
study clubs, where a variety of subjects could be selected 
for study and discussion. These, as suggested by Dr. F. H. 
Sexton of the Nova Scotia Technical College, "would cor- 
rect the tendencies of the University training which is 
admitted to be unavoidably narrow and specialized in order 
to give the student that degree of mastery of science, 
mathematics and technical knowledge that is necessary for 
competency in the profession of engineering. 

"The study clubs would broaden the young graduate, 
and perhaps some of the older ones, to enable them to 
perform their functions in a way which would render wider 
human service. There is a common feeling abroad that the 
engineer pursues his activities with a singular efficiency, 
but without any attention to serious social and economic 
progress." 

The question of assistance to the young engineer in 
adapting himself to his profession has brought out a diver- 
sity of opinion. It is admitted that the older members could 
take a greater interest in these young men and closer con- 
tacts at branch meetings would increase the influence of 
these older men on them. At the same time the inherent 
initiative of the young man must not be hampered and he 
must, on his own, make his way among his fellows. 

Entrance Requirements to Engineering Schools 

Present examinations for entrance to Canadian engineer- 
ing schools vary from a minimum of "junior matriculation 
in English, mathematics, classics, history and geography, 
chemistry, physics and French with a pass mark of 40 per 
cent" to a four year course leading to a Bachelor of Science 
degree, to a maximum of "junior matriculation plus one 
year in Arts or Science" or "senior matriculation with a 
pass mark of 65 per cent" to a four year course leading to 
a Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Engineering degree. 

With this evidence, and the stated opinions of a majority 
of our members of the necessity, a standardization at a high 
level of the entrance requirements to engineering is 
urgently needed. This proposal may be considered drastic 
but we believe it is vital to the higher academic and cul- 
tural standard needed by the Profession if it is to assume 
its rightful place in our national life. 

The Extent and Character of the College 
Training Period in Engineering 

The opinions expressed on these subjects have been 
many and varied, with an evident unanimity on 

(a) The present college years should not be extended; 

(b) The essential training of all engineers should be of a 
general character; 

(c) Sufficient technical training is now available, — but 

(d) More attention, at some period in the training years, 
should be given to the humanities, public speaking, English, 
business administration, engineering law and economics. 

The questions of the absorption of the graduate into the 
profession and the relationship of The Engineering Institute 
to this problem have received some attention and sugges- 
tions have been offered by the Institute members. These 
will have to be discussed with the idea of evolving some- 
thing practical which can be adopted in the best interests 
of the young graduate, the profession and the Institute 
itself. 

The matters for discussion include summer vacation 
employment, extra-mural studies, increasing branch activi- 
ties among the university students, and the young gradu- 
ates, arranging contacts with the older men, extending the 
field of employment, and quite definitely employment trends 
and opportunities. 

The whole of our studies, so far, indicate the need for 
the work we have undertaken. Branches of the Institute 
have discussed the question at regular meetings, in each 



case placing emphasis on one or more phases. Local educa- 
tion authorities are interested in our activities and they 
are awaiting a definite programme of co-operation which 
will lead to a better understanding between the profession 
and the educationists, and more available information to 
the students desiring to enter the profession. 

In closing this preliminary report, we wish to express 
the appreciation of the Committee for the assistance given 
by the members of the Institute, and others, who have 
given valuable suggestions in the replies to our questionnaire, 
and to the apparent interest of the profession generally in 
the Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Harry F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, 
Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

The President and Council: 

The tangible results of the co-operative agreement 
between the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Saskatchewan and the Institute, which has now been in 
operation for a little over one year, are perhaps the best 
evidence of the benefits accruing to the engineering pro- 
fession in a province by the consummation of such an 
agreement. During the year forty-eight members of the 
Professional Association, who were not previously members 
of the Institute, joined the latter body and thirty-three 
members of the Institute became members of the Profes- 
sional Association, so that the profession in that province is 
very rapidly becoming a unified organization. In addition 
fifty-four members of the Association automatically became 
members of the Institute with the signing of the agreement 
in 1938; thus bringing the increase to date up to one 
hundred and two. 

The work of your Committee has been somewhat retarded 
during a large portion of the year by the enforced inactivity 
of your Chairman. However, in most of the provinces a 
closer co-operation between the Institute and the Profes- 
sional Association has been obtained by the excellent work 
of your provincial sub-committees and their energetic 
chairmen. The result of this work is particularly in evidence 
in Alberta, Manitoba and Nova Scotia. 

Your sub-committee in Alberta has submitted a form of 
agreement which is the result of a series of meetings 
between a committee appointed for the purpose by the 
Professional Association and the sub-committee. It has 
been approved by your Committee on Professional Interests 
and is now ready for submission to Council. Following 
approval of Council, the proposed agreement will be sub- 
mitted by the joint committee to the Council of the Asso- 
ciation and then to the members of the Association at the 
Annual Meeting in March, 1940. 

In Manitoba a great deal of work has been done by your 
provincial sub-committee, and by the accredited repre- 
sentatives of the Professional Association and while it is 
certain that the majority of the members of the profession 
in that province are in favour of an agreement, there are 
some difficulties regarding points of law which have to be 
settled before anything definite can be accomplished. 

In Nova Scotia where it was expected that Past-President 
Challies would have had the privilege, on behalf of the 
Institute, of signing an agreement in the early part of 1938, 
which agreement fell through owing to legal difficulties, 
it is now the pleasure of your Committee to report that the 
excellent work of your provincial sub-committee has 
resulted in an agreement which will be signed on January 
25th at Halifax. Your Committee on Professional Interests 
sincerely wishes the engineering profession in Nova Scotia 
every success in its new co-operative venture and trusts 
that the work which has been so well done there will also 
bear fruit in the other provinces in due time. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



71 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee on Membership has the honour of 
making the following report : — 

The Committee consisted of the following members:— 
K. O. Whyte, Chairman H. Massue 
J. G. Hall H. J. Vennes 

C. E. Sisson 

In an attempt to assist each branch of the E.I.C. to 
realize the situation regarding membership a photostat 
copy of a graph made by Mr. Massue was sent to each 
of them. The graph is reproduced below. 

Transfers 
An analysis of this graph seems to indicate that: — 

(1) University graduates, instead of immediately moving 
up into the Junior class, retain their Student member- 
ship to the age limit and then transfer to the class of 
Associate Member. This procedure is probably the 
reason for the static condition of the Junior class as 
regards numbers. 

(2) The Affiliate class could be very considerably enlarged. 

(3) a very large transfer could be made from the class of 
Associate Member to that of Member. 

New Members 

The formulation of a "new member policy" acceptable 
to all branches presented a considerable number of difficul- 
ties. Your committee has, therefore, restricted its efforts to 
bringing to the notice of each branch the urgent need of 
increased membership, each branch being then left to adopt 
the methods it has found to be best for obtaining new 
members. 



Universities 

The disquieting fact that only 22^2 per cent of all 

graduating engineering students are Students of the 

Institute is shown in the following table. 

Number of No. of Percentage 
Graduates S.E.I.C. of S.E.I.C. 

Nova Scotia Tech. College 

University of New Brunswick. . . . 

McGill University 

Ecole Polytechnique 

Queen's University 

Royal Military College 

University of Toronto 

University of Manitoba 

University of Saskatchewan 

University of Alberta 

University of British Columbia . . . 



24 


8 


33 H 


per cent 


13 


7 


50 


" ' 




65 


20 


31 


u ( 




26 
.24 


23 

13 


89 

10^2 


a t 




43 
[40 


4 
14 


10 
10 


1 1 t 

(( c 




42 


18 


43 


<< ' 




28 


13 


46 


" ' 




56 


17 


30 


St ( 




71 


6 


9 


it t 





632 



143 223^ " 



Your Committee feels that this state of affairs could be 
considerably improved if one or two professors in the 
engineering faculties were asked to act on the membership 
committee of their branch, these gentlemen would then be 
in a position to point out to each graduating class the many 
advantages to be gained by joining the E.I.C. 

Following instructions given by Council at its Hamilton 
meeting, your committee has gathered together a few facts 
regarding the E.I.C. which it thought would be useful to 
members of Branch Membership Committees. These notes 
have been printed in a small folder, six copies of which have 
been sent to the Secretary of each Branch with a request 
that they be given to the incoming membership committee. 
One of these folders is attached to this report and we trust 
that its contents will meet with your approval. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Keith O. Whyte, a.m.e.i.c, 

Chairman. 



ENGINEERING INSTITUTE of CANADA 

MEMBERSHIP 

I9IO-I939 




YEARS 



72 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND EDUCATION 

The President and Council: 

Your Board of Examiners and Education for the year 
1939 has had prepared and read the following examination 
papers with the results as indicated : 



Schedule B 



I. Elementary Physics and 
Mechanics 



II. 



Strength and Elasticity of 
Materials 



Number of Number 
Candidates Passing 



o 



Respectfully submitted, 
C. J. Mackenzie, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



upon Past President Vaughan at its annual meeting in 
Philadelphia in December last, and that a similar dis- 
tinction was awarded to Past President Fairbairn by the 
American Society of Civil Engineers at its annual meeting 
in New York, on January 17th of this year. 

A member of the Committee represented the Institute 
at the annual meeting of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers in June at San Francisco. 

The Chairman of the Committee on International Re- 
lations regrets that he was unable to accept the invitation 
of the Chairman of the Engineers' Council for Professional 
Development to attend its recent annual meeting in New 
York. The work which is being accomplished by the 
E.C.P.D. is of primary importance to engineers on both 
sides of the international boundary. 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

The President and Council: 

The principal aim of the Committee on International 
Relations is to further the traditional policy of the Institute 
in promoting cordial relations with similarly constituted 
bodies outside of the Dominion, and in particular with the 
Engineering Institutions of Great Britain and with the 
Founder Societies of the United States. It is believed that 
this very desirable purpose has been carried out during 
1939. 

An outstanding feature of the fifty-third annual meeting 
of the Institute, in Ottawa last February, was the presence, 
as special guests of the Institute, of the sitting presidents 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers, of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, together with the chairman of the 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development. The visit 
of these engineers, so distinguished in both professional 
and official capacities, was appreciated as a real expression 
of esteem and confidence. 

Early in the year, a member of the Committee, Past 
President Fairbairn, at the request of the Council of the 
Institute, journeyed to London, England, to confer with 
the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers regarding the programme for the 
British-American Engineering Congress, which was to be 
held in New York in September, with the American Society 
of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers acting as joint hosts. Almost at the last moment, 
the imminence of war in Europe made it necessary to 
abandon the Congress, causing keen disappointment on 
both sides of the Atlantic. But the preliminary planning 
for the congress, which included the preparation of many 
authoritative professional papers, fully demonstrated the 
ability of British, American and Canadian engineering 
bodies to co-operate constructively in furthering the com- 
mon interests of the engineering profession. 

Advantage was taken of the presence in England during 
July and August of the Secretary Emeritus to advance a 
worthy movement instituted by a Past President of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers looking to a joint 
arrangement that would permit members of the British 
Institutions resident in Canada to enjoy an affiliated con- 
nection with the Engineering Institute of Canada and in 
particular to have the privilege of participating in the 
activities of its branches. 

A member of the Committee, Past President H. H. 
Vaughan, represented the President and Council of the 
Institute at the seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding 
of the school of engineering of Columbia University. On 
this occasion, Mr. Vaughan presented an illuminated 
address on behalf of the Institute. 

It is a pleasure to report that the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers conferred its honorary membership 



RADIO BROADCASTING COMMITTEE 

To the President and Council: 

The Engineering Institute Radio Broadcasting Com- 
mittee, appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the 
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in an effort to make 
the Canadian public more conversant with the work of the 
engineer, was organized in April, and it was decided that 
any broadcasts should deal more with the romantic and 
significant achievements of great engineers, rather than 
with the technical side of engineering. 

Correspondence was carried on with other engineering 
societies, and their experiences in broadcasting were noted. 
All branches of the Engineering Institute were written to 
for suggested subjects. From suggestions received from 
branches and submitted by members of the committee, a 
number of subjects were selected. The work of compiling 
bibliographies of these subjects, preparatory to having the 
scripts written, was to have been done at headquarters. 
This was not found possible, and later Mr. Hazen Sise, 
particularly recommended by the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation, was engaged to compile the information and 
prepare the scripts, trial scripts having previously been 
prepared by two men, from information readily available, 
on the engineering skill involved in the construction of the 
Victoria Tubular Bridge. 

On the outbreak of war, it was decided that the broad- 
casting programme would be improved by enlarging on the 
outstanding position occupied by the engineer in war time. 
The committee was advised by the manager of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation to proceed with the two scripts 
in preparation, and on October 27th, the first broadcast 
was given from Montreal — the subject being "An Early 
Engineering Achievement — Building the Victoria Tubular 
Bridge." On November 1st, the second broadcast, "Alex- 
ander Graham Bell — The Birth of the Telephone," was 
given. The latter date was altered, as the time was required 
by the Federal Government. Time did not permit of advis- 
ing members of the Institute of the change. 

Arrangements are now under way for a series of scripts 
dealing with the engineer's place in the war, which has the 
approval of the Department of National Defence. These 
could be prepared without expense to the Institute, but if 
the broadcasts are to achieve their desired result, the 
committee should have a small grant for publicity purposes 
and for any research work it may be necessary to secure, 
outside of the headquarters organization. 

We believe that, with the spade-work done during the 
past year, the foundation has been laid for a continuous 
broadcasting programme on the part of the Institute, which 
will have the approval of the Canadian Broadcasting Cor- 
poration, whose courtesy, constant co-operation and assist- 
ance are acknowledged with appreciation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fraser S. Keith, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



73 



COMMITTEE ON DETERIORATION OF 
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 

The President and Council: 

The Committee on the Deterioration of Concrete Struc- 
tures held a meeting in Ottawa last February at the time 
of the Annual General Professional Meeting there which 
was very well attended. At that time the previous policy of 
the Committee was reaffirmed, namely, that the best 
interests of the members of the Institute would be served 
and most progress made if the Committee were to confine 
their efforts largely to studies of methods for the repair of 
concrete rather than to the causes for deterioration. This 
decision was based on the belief that other organizations 
were ably covering the latter field of work but there was a 
paucity of reliable information on the former. 

During the past year two papers have been prepared by 
members of the Committee and published in the Journal. 
The first of these "Comments on Concrete Restoration," 
by Mr. J. A. McCrory, citing his experience with various 
methods of repair used in hydraulic structures, was pub- 
lished in the July issue of the Journal; and the second, 
"Concrete Surfaces Faced with Glazed Tile," by Mr. G. 
P. F. Boese, describing the resurfacing of disintegrating 
concrete with clay tile, appeared in the August issue of 
the Journal. Both of these papers were the subject of much 
favourable comment. 

At the present time the Committee has two other short 
papers which have yet to be reviewed by them before being 
submitted for publication in the Journal. Besides these, 
one other paper is in preparation and another promised. 

The Committee thanks all those who have so generously 
given of their time to further its work and welcomes sug- 
gestions both as to sources of data or reports on repair jobs 
which might be of interest to the Institute. 
Respectfully submitted, 

R. B. Young, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

GZOWSKI MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee, in view of the merit of the papers 
named below, would recommend that, if possible, two 
Gzowski Medals should be awarded this year as follows: 
To E. A. Hodgson, m.e.i.c, for his paper on "The Structure 
of the Earth as Revealed by Seismology," and also to G. 
A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, for his paper on "Drought — A Na- 
tional Problem." 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. 0. Wolff, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

DUGGAN PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee, appointed to consider the award of 
the Duggan medal and prize for the year ending June, 1939, 
have decided that only three papers were eligible for this 
award. After careful and independent study of them, our 
opinions were divided between two able, meritorious and 
extremely useful papers. "The Island of Orleans Suspension 
Bridge, Prestressing and Erection," by D. B. Armstrong, 
a. m.e.i.c, and "Welded Steel Pipe for the City of Toronto 
Water Works Extension," by C. R. Whittemore, a. m.e.i.c 
On further consideration we have decided to advise you 
that Mr. Armstrong should be given the medal and prize. 
We also strongly recommend that Mr. Whittemore be given 
a similar prize, the funds being available from last year. 

Both of these authors omitted to state definitely their 
relations to the subject of their papers, but we have verified 
that these were quite in accord with the regulations. Mr. 
Armstrong acted as engineer for the contractors for the 
superstructure of the Isle of Orleans Bridge, and Mr. 
Whittemore was metallurgist for the contractor for the 
Toronto Pipe Line. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. P. Shearwood, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



LEONARD MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

On behalf of the Leonard Medal Committee for 1939 I 
beg to recommend that the Leonard medal be awarded for 
the paper "The Internal Shaft at Dome Mines, Limited" 
by Chas. G. Kemsley and A. D. Robinson, as published in 
the September, 1938, issue of the Canadian Mining and 
Metallurgical Bulletin. 

Mr. Chas. Kemsley, Mechanical Superintendent of the 
Dome Mines is a member of the Canadian Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgy and therefore eligible to receive the 
medal. Respectfully submitted, 

Edgar Stansfield, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PLUMMER MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee, having examined the papers submitted, 
agreed that none of them was of sufficient merit to be 
worthy of an award, and therefore recommends that no 
award be made of the Plummer Medal for the year 1938- 

1939 - Respectfully submitted, 

J. R. Donald, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

The reports of the examiners appointed in the various 
zones to judge the papers submitted for the prizes for 
Students and Juniors of the Institute were submitted to 
Council at its meeting on January 20th, 1940, and the 
following awards were made : 

H. N. Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces) — No papers 
received. 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario) to J. R. 
Dunn, s.e. i.e., for his paper "Radio Aids to Aerial Navigation." 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec — English) to 
C. B. Charlewood, Jr. e. i.e., for his paper "Steam Super- 
heaters for Water Type Boilers." 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec — French) — 
No Award. 

Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces) — to D. L. 
Mackinnon, s.e. i.e., for his paper "Soil Mechanics." 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The President and Council: 

The Employment Service Bureau is able to report a 
distinct improvement in the employment situation for 1939 
as compared with the previous year. 

This statement is supported by the following figures of 
placements effected by the Bureau during the past six years: 
1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 
70 77 110 181 61 88 

The usual seasonal demand in the spring for civil en- 
gineers developed to a point where, during the summer, it 
was difficult to find suitable men for the vacancies existing. 
Towards the end of the year, however, many names were 
replaced on the list of unemployed on account of a falling off 
in the construction field, especially on highways. 

The war has created an abnormal demand for engineers, 
especially for mechanicals and in a smaller way for electri- 
cals. As may be expected the specifications called generally 
for young graduates with a few years' experience. The 
number of vacancies registered in those fields has constantly 
increased and there is now a scarcity of available men. 

The Bureau has worked in co-operation with the various 
governmental bodies established for war purposes. Thus it 
has been possible to place several senior members of the 
Institute in important positions. 

At the outbreak of hostilities in September, it was found 
desirable to issue a questionnaire for the purpose of bring- 
ing our employment records up-to-date. The questionnaire 
was addressed to 564 persons who had, at one time or 
another, registered for employment with the Bureau and 
had not advised us that they had since found satisfactory 
positions. 



74 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The need for this enquiry was shown by the facts that 
41 per cent did not answer, indicating that they were no 
longer interested. Further, out of the 59 per cent or 332 
persons who returned the questionnaire, 18 per cent or 61 
persons stated that they wished to remain in their present 
positions. This shows that at that time 293 men on our 
active lists had obtained satisfactory employment but had 
failed to let us know. 

Of the 332 persons who answered the questionnaire at that 
time, eight per cent were unemployed, 17 per cent would 
have considered a change even to a temporary position and 
55 per cent were willing to consider a change to a per- 
manent position. 

This survey enabled the Bureau to furnish first hand 
information to many enquirers and to work efficiently in 
the national emergency. 

The records at the time of writing this report indicate 
that there are few engineers unemployed. 

The following figures show the extent of the Bureau's 
work for 1939 as compared with the preceding year. It must 
be remembered that these figures indicate the action taken 
on vacancies definitely registered with us and the placements 
effected in such cases. They do not include the results of the 
many contacts established with employers who had no 
immediate vacancies. Q „ Q _ „ 

Registered members 114 71 

Registered non-members 92 42 

Number of members advertising for positions 76 79 

Replies received from employers 31 25 

Vacant positions registered 153 112 

Vacancies advertised in the Journal 50 33 

Replies received to advertised positions 219 146 

Men's records forwarded to prospective em- 
ployers 323 345 

Men notified of vacancies 310 90 

Placements definitely known 88 61 

Vacancies cancelled 6 .... 

Vacancies still open 23 .... 



This report would not be complete without recording the 
passing, on August 28th, 1939, of Miss Ida L. MacMartin 
who had been for twenty years a valued member of the 
staff at Headquarters. Her principal work was in con- 
nection with the Employment Service. Her sterling char- 
acter and long experience enabled her to assist the members 
with great tact and to handle intelligently the inquiries from 
employers. Her death has created a serious gap which will 
be felt for a long time. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE— 1940 

Chairman: E. V. Buchanan, m.e.i.c. 
Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary R. S. Trowsdale 

Cape Breton M. F. Cossitt 

Edmonton W. E. Cornish 

Halifax H. S. Johnston 

Hamilton W. J. W. Reid 

Kingston D. S. Ellis 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge R. F. P. Bowman 

London F. C. Ball 

Moncton G. L. Dickson 

Montreal Walter Hunt 

Niagara Peninsula W. Jackson 

Ottawa E. Viens 

Peterborough W. M. Cruthers 

Quebec A. O. Dufresne 

Saguenay G. F. Layne 

Saint John G. Stead 

St. Maurice Valley A. C. Abbott 

Saskatchewan S. Young 

Sault Ste. Marie J. S. Macleod 

Toronto A. H. Harkness 

Vancouver W. H. Powell 

Victoria K. Moodie 

Winnipeg V. Michie 



Abstracts of Reports from Branches. 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met nine times during the year 
for the transaction of Branch business. 

Eight regular meetings and one special meeting were held 
during the year previous to the December 15th meeting for 
the election of Branch officers. Information on the various 
meetings follows, attendance being given in brackets. 

Jan. 20 — The Evolution and Future of the Home Radio Re- 
ceiver, by Stanley C. Polk of the firm of Jones and Polk 
and Radio Jake, Detroit (18). 

Feb. 28 — Engineering Medicinally Speaking, by Harvey M. 
Merker, Supt. of Manufacture, Parke-Davis & Co., 
Detroit. Joint meeting of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, Detroit Section and the Border 
Cities Branch. Inspection trip through Parke-Davis & 
Co. plant, Detroit and dinner meeting in the Inter- 
Collegiate Alumni Club, Detroit (70). 

Mar. 17 — The Thousand Islands International Rridge, Con- 
structing the Superstructure, Canadian Section, 
by P. E. Adams, Designing Engineer, and George V. 
Davies, Erecting Engineer of the Canadian Bridge Com- 
pany, Walkerville (41). 

April 21 — The Value of Scientific Research to Industry, by 
Arthur W. Underwood of General Motors Research 
Laboratories Division, Detroit (36). 

May 20 — The Inspection of Oil Refinery Equipment, by Andrew 
Russell of the Imperial Oil Co. This meeting was held at 
Sarnia. C. E. Carson, General Manager of Imperial Oil 
Limited, Sarnia, acted as Chairman of the meeting. (41). 

May 31 — Special Dinner meeting. President H. W. McKiel addressed 
the members on Institute Affairs, and on the Place of 
the Engineer in Industry and Government. Vice- 
President E. V. Buchanan also attended this special 
meeting (29). 



Note — For personnel of Executive Commit- 
tees see p. 52. For Membership and 
Financial Statements see pp. 78 and 79 



Sept. 22 — The Evolution of Worm Gearing Culminating in the 
Cone Design, by G. R. Scott, Gear Consultant, Michi- 
gan Tool Co., Detroit (25). 

Oct. 20 — The Task Facing Canada as a Democracy Today, by 

Paul Martin, b.a., m.a. (48). 
Nov. 18 — The Sugar Beet Industry, by A. W. Mclntyre, General 
Manager of the Sugar Company's plant. This meeting 
was held at Chatham and included an afternoon inspec- 
tion trip through the Dominion and Canada Sugar Com- 
pany's plant. Mr. George A. McCubbin, of Chatham 
acted as Chairman of the meeting (38). 

The Border Cities Branch were grieved at the very 
sudden passing of Raymond A. Spencer, m.e.i.c, 
Assistant General Manager of the Canadian Bridge Com- 
pany. Mr. Spencer had been an active member of this 
Branch for many years. 

CALGARY BRANCH 

Eleven general and special meetings of the Branch were 
held during the year. The following summary shows the 
dates, subjects, and attendances in brackets at these 
meetings: — 

Jan. 6 — The Grand Coulee Project, by H. R. Webb, Associate 
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University 
of Alberta (68). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



75 



Feb. 2 — The Best Places in the West, by H. J. McLean, a mem- 
ber of the Calgary Branch (42). 

Feb. 9— Hydraulic Oil Well Pumping, by W. R. Foster of the 
Kobe Corporation of California (72). 

Mar. 2 — The Rise of Dictators, by Max Freedman of the Edmon- 
ton Bulletin (75). 

Mar. 11 — Annual meeting, following luncheon, and election of Officers 
for the year 1939-1940 (32). 

Oct. 14 — The Engineer in War and Peace, by Dean H. W. McKiel, 
President of the Institute (36). 

Oct. 14 — Reception and dinner in honour of President McKiel, who 
spoke on The Importance of the Engineer in Civili- 
zation (83 incl. ladies). 

Nov. 2 — Dinner meeting. Safari on Wheels, sound motion picture 
(65). 

Nov. 16 — Electrical Distribution in Alberta, by D. F. Kobylnyk, 
and Construction of Steel Power Line from Ghost 
Dam to Calgary, by H. B. LeBourveau, both speakers 
are members of the Calgary Branch (67). 

Nov. 30 — Military Engineering, by Major F. K. Beach, a member 
of the Calgary Branch (50). 

Dec. 14 — A non-technical outline of The Cracking Process, by 
John Collier, President of the Calgary Chemical Club 
(69). 

During the year, the Branch Executive Committee met 
eleven times for the purpose of conducting the business of 
the Branch, and the other Committees held meetings as 
required. 

Obituary 

The Calgary Branch records with deep regret the passing 
away of J. Dow, m.e.i.c, Branch Manager of the Alberta 
Government Telephones, on August 16th, 1939. Mr. Dow 
was an active member of this Branch. He was Chairman 
in 1936 and acted as secretary-treasurer during the years 
1933 and 1934. 

CAPE BRETON BRANCH 

During the year the Branch held four meetings as fol- 
lows : — ■ 

Integral Steam Boilers, by R. E. MacAfee. 

Annual meeting and reception to the President. 

From England to South Africa by Airplane, accompanied by 

motion pictures in colour, by H. L. Logan. 
Development of the Canadian Artillery in the Last War, by 

Col. J. A. MacDonald. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held five business meetings 
during the year and two luncheon meetings, one of the 
occasion of Dean McKiel's visit and one on the occasion 
of Mr. Wright's. 

The Papers Committee, under the direction of C. E. 
Garnett, for the first part of the year, and of E. Nelson, for 
the latter part, were able to obtain an excellent list of 
speakers to address the general meetings. The following 
general dinner meetings were held during the year: 

Jan. 24 — Irrigation in Alberta by L. C. Charlesworth. 

Feb. 22 — The reading of a paper by C. W. Carry, entitled Hydraulic 

Regulating Gates. This paper was prepared by F. 

Newell, Chief Engineer of the Dominion Bridge Com- 
pany. 
Mar. 21 — Inspection of the new equipment at the City Power Plant 

and an address by R. G. Watson, on recent additions to 

the plant. 
April 18— Turner Valley Districts, 1938, by Dr. R. L. Rutherford. 
Oct. 12 — A dinner in honor of Dr. H. W. McKiel, President of The 

Engineering Institute of Canada. 
Nov. 7— The Search for Oil, by Max Ball. 
Dec. 5 — The Columbia River Reclamation Project, by H. R. 

Webb. 

The Branch regrets the loss of two members who have 
been exceedingly active in local Institute affairs for a great 
many years. L. C. Charlesworth has left Edmonton for 
Brooks, Alberta, where he has taken over his new duties 
as General Manager of the Eastern Irrigation District, and 
Dr. Charles A. Robb has gone to Ottawa to be in charge 
of the Gauge Division of the War Supply Board. 

Lieut. -Col. P. L. Debney, Lieut. C. Victor Weir, and 
Lieut. E. H. Wright, are on active service with His Majesty's 
Forces. 

F. Austin Brownie, who so ably filled the position of 
secretary-treasurer of the Branch for the past two years, 
has moved to Calgary. 



HALIFAX BRANCH 

Since the last Annual Meeting in December, 1938, the 
Halifax Branch has held the following general meetings: 

January — A combined Banquet with the Professional Association 
February — General Meeting, Speaker Mr. Weaver, Engineer in 

Charge of the Consumers Cordage Co. 
April — General Meeting addressed by President McKiel and by 

Brigadier Boak, District Officer Commanding Military 

District No. 6. 
November — Meeting with Engineer Students in Halifax at the Nova 

Scotia Technical College, at which four papers were 

presented by students of the Nova Scotia Technical 

College. 

During the summer, the Halifax Branch, in co-operation 
with the other branches in the Maritimes, arranged for a 
General Professional Meeting to be held at Pictou, N.S. 
This proved very successful, although the last session had 
to be cut short because of the outbreak of war in Europe. 
Approximately two hundred people attended this meeting. 

During the year eight Executive Meetings have been 
held. Some of these had to be called at very short notice to 
deal with urgent matters which had arisen. 

The activities of 1939 closed with a reception to President 
and Mrs. H. W. McKiel. 

Obituary 

The Branch membership deeply regrets the loss of Mr. 
R. R. Murray, who for the past ten or eleven years has 
been Secretary to this Branch. His death occurred on 
March 2nd under the most tragic circumstances, in the 
Queen Hotel fire. His counsel and friendly advice to the 
Executive and to all members of the Branch have been 
sorely missed. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held eight business meetings 

during the year with an average attendance of seven. Ten 

Branch meetings were held as follows, attendance being 

given in brackets: 

Jan. 13 — Annual Business Meeting and Banquet held at the Rock 
Garden Lodge. The Buttress of Humour, by Frank 
Dowsett, Advertising Manager, Gutta Percha and 
Rubber, Limited. Chairman W. J. W. Reid closed the 
evening by introducing the new Chairman, John R. 
Dunbar. (61). 

Feb. 13 — A Journey Through Space, by John A. Marsh, of the 
Royal Astronomical Society of Hamilton. Held at 
McMaster University (76). 

Mar. 16— The Lions Gate Bridge, by W. W. Cushing, Chief 
Draughtsman, Hamilton Bridge Company. Held at 
McMaster University (95). 

April 21 — Recent Trends in Steel Mill Electrification, by A. F. 
Kenyon, Steel mill equipment Engineer, Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh. Held in the 
Westinghouse Auditorium (235). 

May 9 — Highway Trends in Ontario, by C. A. Robbins, District 
Engineer Dept. of Highways, Toronto. This was a joint 
meeting of the Hamilton Branch and Queen's Alumni. 
Held at McMaster University (68). 

May 27 — President H. W. McKiel held a meeting of Council in the 
Royal Connaught Hotel. The Branch had the honour of 
entertaining the President and Members of the Council 
and the General Secretary at luncheon on this day. 

May 29 — Temperature and Life, by Prof. W. Harvey McNairn, 
Dean of Geology, McMaster University. Held at McMas- 
ter University. Before the meeting a dinner of welcome 
to Dr. McKiel and Mrs. McKiel and Dr. McNairn and 
Mrs. McNairn was enjoyed in the University dining 
room (104). 

Oct. 12 — Operating a Large Power System, by John Dibblee, 
Assistant Chief Engineer, Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario. This was a joint meeting of the 
Branch and the Hamilton Group of the American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers. Held in the Westinghouse 
Auditorium (192). 

Nov. 14 — City Planning and Traffic Control, by Tracey D. 
leMay, City Surveyor and Commissioner of City Plan- 
ning, City of Toronto. His Worship, Mayor William 
Morrison and the Hamilton City Council attended this 
meeting as an official visit. Held at McMaster Univer- 
sity (71). 

Dec. 12 — Why Fire Occurs in Industry, E. C. Bacot, B.Sc, Resi- 
dent Engineer, Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
panies, Toronto and Boston. Held at McMaster Univer- 
sity (62). 



76 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Publicity 

The Executive wishes to express appreciation for the 
courtesies extended to the Branch by the Press, especially 
the Hamilton Spectator and the Daily Commercial News. 

General 

At this time the Executive and members of the Branch 
wish to record their sincere appreciation of all the courtesies 
extended to us by the Management and Staff of McMaster 
University. 

The Executive Committee wishes to thank members of 
all grades of the Branch for their support in the work 
undertaken during the past year. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 

The Branch met five times during 1939. 

Jan. 19 — Dinner and lecture by Prof. J. L. McDougall on An 
Attempt to Define the Railway Problem. Prof. D. S. 
Ellis continued as Kingston branch representative on 
the Institute Nominating Committee. Messrs. L. H. 
Brown of R.M.C. and H. S. Edgar of Queen's were pre- 
sented with framed certificates in connection with the 
E.I.C. Prize for 1938. $10.00 was voted towards the 
honorarium and illuminated address presented to the 
Secretary Emeritus. 

Feb. 22 — -Lecture held in Physics Building, Sound films on Heat and 
Celite, were presented by J. C. Honey and E. V.Tidman 
representing the Canada Johns-Manville Co. 

Mar. 23 — Dinner and lecture by Prof. T. V. Lord on his experiences 
in the mining field in British Columbia. Lt.-Col. L. F. 
Grant presented an account of the meeting at Ottawa. 

Oct. 26 — Annual Meeting. Presentation of the report of the Secretary- 
Treasurer and election of officers. Col. L. F. Grant re- 
viewed the activities of the Council for the past year. 
Water Purification and Sewage Treatment, by Pro- 
fessor J. B. Baty, Department of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University. 

Nov. 22 — Dinner Meeting held in the Kingston Badminton Club to 
honour Col. Alexander Macphail, retired Head of Civil 
Engineering at Queen's University, and to welcome Dean 
H. W. McKiel, President, and L. Austin Wright, General 
Secretary of the Institute. Dean McKiel presented cer- 
tificates and prizes for 1938 to the winners from Queen's 
University and the Royal Military College. The meeting 
was well attended by local and out-of-town members 
and a large group of Queen's engineering students. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

The following meetings were held during the year 1939: 

Feb. 10 — Dance at the Shuniah Club, Port Arthur. 

Mar. 30 — Dinner Meeting at the Royal Edward Hotel, Fort William. 
Welding, by D. Boyd, Manager, Canadian Car & 
Foundry Co. 

May 4 — Dinner meeting at the Prince Arthur Hotel, Port Arthur. 
Outline of the Professional Association of Ontario, 
by W. P. Dobson, Chief Testing Engineer, Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission. 

June 29 — Annual Meeting at the Golf and Country Club, Port 
Arthur. Reports and election of officers. 

Sept. 29 — Informal luncheon at the Prince Arthur Hotel, Port Arthur, 
in honour of H. W. McKiel, President of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada. Dinner meeting at the Royal Ed- 
ward Hotel, Fort William, in honour of Mr. and Mrs. 
H. W. McKiel. Address by Dean McKiel on The En- 
gineer's Place in Modern Civilization. 

Oct. 31 — Dinner Meeting at the Shuniah Club, Port Arthur. Guest 
of honour and speaker of the evening, L. Austin Wright, 
Secretary of The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Dec. 6 — Meeting, City Council Chambers, Port Arthur. Con- 
struction of the Dawson Road, by S. E. Flook, City 
Engineer, Port Arthur. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

Since January 1, 1939, seven regular meetings with an 
average attendance of 40; two corporate members meetings 
with an average attendance of 15; and six executive meet- 
ings with an average attendance of 8 were held. 

All regular meetings have been held in the Marquis Hotel 
preceded by a dinner during which numbers were rendered 
by George Brown's Instrumental Quartette, followed by 
vocal solos interspersed with community singing. 

The list of speakers and subjects follows, attendance 
being given in brackets: 



Jan. 7 — The Grande Coulee Project, by H. R. Webb, Assistant 
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University 
of Alberta, Edmonton (39) . 

Jan. 21 — Joint Meeting with the Association of Professional En- 
gineers of Alberta. Association Affairs, by J. O. G. 
Sanderson, President of the Association (45). 

Feb. 11 — The Development of Meteorological Science, by C. 
Pickering, Meteorologist-in-Charge Weather Bureau, 
Kenyon Field, Lethbridge (30). 

Feb. 25 — Corporation Law, by R. R. Davidson, K.C. (20). 

Mar. 11 — Annual Meeting. The Development of Coal Mining and 
its Relation to Civilization, by A. G. Donaldson, 
Mine Superintendent, Standard Mine, Shaughnessy, 
Alberta. The Photo Electric Cell and Vacuum Tube, 
by J. S. Webster, Mine Electrician, Standard Mine, 
Shaughnessy, Alberta (21). 

Oct. 16 — Joint meeting with the Lethbridge Rotary Club. The 
Work of the Engineer, by Dean H. W. McKiel, Pre- 
sident of the Engineering Institute of Canada (75). With 
President McKiel on his visit to the Lethbridge Branch, 
were L. Austin Wright, General Secretary of the E.I.C, 
and Mr. G. A. Gaherty, President of Montreal Engineer- 
ing Co. and General Manager of the Calgary Power Co. 

Oct. 28 — Joint Meeting with the Association of Professional En- 
gineers of Alberta. The Need of Water Conservation, 
by Major F. G. Cross, Superintendent Operation and 
Maintenance C.P.R., D.N.R., Lethbridge (45). 

LONDON BRANCH 

During the year 1939 the following meetings were held, 

attendance being given in brackets: 

Jan. 25 — Annual Meeting and election of officers held at Glen Allen 
Restaurant, London. Diesel Engines as Applied to 
Modern Transportation, by J. L. Busfield (58). 

Feb. 22 — Regular meeting held in the Normal School, London. 
London's Bridges, Old and New — The Why and 
the Wherefore, by J. R. Rostron (31). 

Mar. 15 — Regular meeting held in the Public Utilities Commission 
Board Room, London. Preliminary Investigation of 
Pile Structures and Foundations, with Special 
Reference to Cast Piling, by Jean P. Carrière (24). 

May 12 — Regular meeting held in the Public Utilities Commission 
Board Room, London. Mechanical Equipment in 
the New Ontario Hospital, St. Thomas, by H. H. 
Angus of Toronto (24). 

May 30 — Special dinner meeting held in the Hotel London. The 
Future of the Engineer, by President H. W. McKiel 
(33). 

Oct. 18 — Regular meeting held in the Public Utilities Commission 
Board Room, London. Limestone and Lime Industry 
of the Thames River Valley, by Stanley R. Frost, of 
the North American Cyanamid Ltd. (25). 

Dec. 6 — Regular meeting held in the Public Utilities Commission 
Board Room, London. The Training and Welfare of 
the Young Engineer, by Chairman H. F. Bennett (23). 

Average attendance of all meetings — 31. 
In addition to the above, four Executive meetings were 
held with an average attendance of seven. 

MONCTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held five meetings. Five meet- 
ings of the Branch were held during the year 1939 at which 
addresses were given and business transacted as follows: 
April 14 — A meeting was held in the City Hall. Liquid Air, by D. 
G. MacGregor, m.a., Professor of Physics, Mount Allison 
University, Sackville. The address was accompanied by 
a practical demonstration. The meeting was also honoured 
by the presence of Dean H. W. McKiel, President of 
the Engineering Institute of Canada, who addressed the 
meeting on Institute Policies. 
May 1 — A joint meeting of Moncton Branch and the Mount Allison 
Engineering Society was held at Mount Allison Univer- 
sity, Sackville. An Investigation into the Causes of 
Damage to Brick Walls by Water Penetration, by 
H. J. Crudge, Building Engineer, Canadian National 
Railways. 
May 5 — A meeting was held in the City Hall. The Dial Telephone, 
by A. A. Turnbull, Plant Engineer, New Brunswick 
Telephone Co., Saint John. A demonstration set illus- 
trated the operation of the mechanism of the dial system. 
At this meeting nominations were made for branch 
officers for the year 1939-40. 
May 31 — Annual Meeting. 

Dec. 15 — A complimentary dinner was tendered Dean H. W. McKiel, 
President of the Engineering Institute of Canada. Pre- 
sident McKiel spoke on the Responsibilities and Fu- 
ture of the Engineering Profession. 

We regret to record the death of Branch Affiliate E. A. 
Cummings, which occurred on October 29, 1939. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



77 













MEMBERSHIP AND FINANCIAL 


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V 

M 

es 


tu 

12 

'u 
A 
X 
+■> 

- 


fi 



C 
O 


MEMBERSHIP 
Resident 

Hon. Members 


12 
30 

8 
8 
1 


20 
53 
12 
17 


8 
14 
3 
6 
1 


18 
26 
16 
21 


25 
53 
13 
20 
1 


33 
49 
17 
26 
2 


l 

12 

17 

3 

21 


11 

22 

2 

3 

2 


3 

17 

2 

2 




Members 


7 


Assoc. Members 


29 


Juniors 

Students 

Affiliates 


8 
9 


Total 


59 


102 


32 


81 


112 


127 


54 


40 


22 


53 


Non-Resident 

Hon. Members 

Members 

Assoc. Members 

Juniors 

Students 

Affiliates 


7 

10 
5 
9 


3 

11 

3 

4 


3 

14 

5 

6 


5 

4 


7 
16 

4 
10 


6 
13 

1 
2 


1 
6 
1 
3 


4 
9 
6 


1 

7 
2 

7 


3 

2 

2 


Total 


31 


21 


28 


9 


37 


22 


11 


19 


17 


7 






Grand Total December 31st, 1939 

December 31st, 1938 

Branch Affiliates, December 31, 1939. . . . 


90 

84 


123 

113 

13 


60 
56 


90 

89 


149 
149 


149 

142 

18 


65 

72 


59 

55 

1 


39 
36 
21 


60 

59 

1 


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Balance as of December 31, 1938 

Income 

Rebates received during calendar year . 
Affiliate Dues 


185.69 
166.83 


171.53 

207 . 70 
44.00 
39.43 


231.27 
103.38 


115.48 
147.30 


322.13 
238.51 


679.36 

274.58 
48.00 
52.99 


38.14 

109 . 58 
0.17 


166.54 

120.65 
0.45 


27.41 

100.00 

52.00 

.09 


69.68 
107.70 


Interest 








2.50 




Special Appeal 










Miscellaneous 


203.00 




29.00 




9.24 


29.75 






22.87 












Total Income 


369.83 


291 . 13 


132.38 


147.30 


250 . 25 


405.32 


109.75 


121.10 


174.96 


107.70 


Disbursements 

Printing, Notices, Postage® 


82.90 

218.35 

42.55 


73.94 
35.00 
117.45 
25.00 
10.00 

6.50 


14.05 
81.57 

13.20 


32.57 
21.48 
31.58 
50.00 
1.00 

11.80 


38.82 

80.03 
50.00 
29.54 


79.53 
192.55 

50.00 
60.00 


10.65 

7.56 

22.16 

25.00 


18.41 
100.64 

10.00 


2.53 
69.50 
12.01 
25.00 

1.60 

9.00 


23.05 


General Meeting Expense© 


9.50 


Special Meeting Expense® 


20.45 


Honorarium for Secretary 




Stenographic Services 


10.00 


5.00 


Travelling Expenses® 








Subscriptions to other organizations . . . 




©15.00 






Subscriptions to The Journal 




















Special Expenses 


21.25 


29.65 


25.03 


10.00 
0.55 


43.58 


®515.39 
42.57 


10.00 


15.00 


10.00 
7.40 




Miscellaneous 


3.00 








Total Disbursements 


375.05 

5.22 
180.47 


297.54 

6. 41 
165.12 


133.85 

1.47 
229.80 


158.98 

11.68 

103.80 


241.97 

8.28 

330.41 


940.04 

534.72 
144.41 


90.37 
19.38 
57.52 


144.05 

22.95 

143.59 


137.04 
37.92 
65.33 


61.00 


Surplus or Deficit 


46.70 


Balance as of December 31, 1939 


116.38 



©Includes general printing, meeting notices, postage, telegraph, telephone and stationery. 
©Includes rental of rooms, lanterns, operators, lantern slides and other expenses. 
©Includes dinners, entertainments, social functions, and so forth. 
©Includes speakers, councillors or branch officers. 



78 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



STATEMENTS OF THE BRANCHES 




























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be 






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es 






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a 

V 
h 

S 



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S S 
6B'3 

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4) 

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es 

en 



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a 

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S * 
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o 
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03 


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03 




— < 


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► 
S 


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G 
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> 





b0 

S 
fi 

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3 




2 




1 












1 




1 




4 


226 


18 


85 


9 


19 


5 


12 


3 


35 


9 


141 


64 


24 


31 


21 


567 


68 


198 


22 


66 


30 


17 


24 


78 


12 


228 


55 


13 


79 


2 


87 


4 


23 


10 


11 


10 


7 


16 


8 


7 


62 


9 


7 


22 


4 


313 
16 


17 


23 

2 


20 


15 


12 
3 


10 


9 


9 


4 


84 
5 


12 
1 


6 


46 

4 


31 


1212 


107 


333 


61 


112 


60 


46 


52 


130 


32 


521 


141 


51 


182 


1 


3 


1 


13 


5 


1 




7 




9 


10 


6 


1 
17 


2 


2 


6 


39 


3 


36 


16 


12 


3 


14 


5 


38 


35 


6 


31 


7 


13 


2 


13 




8 


5 


3 


1 


12 


2 


8 


11 


3 


3 


2 


4 


9 


31 


1 


13 


5 


2 


1 


14 


3 


10 


17 


7 


6 


1 


6 


18 


86 


5 


70 


31 


18 


5 


47 


10 


65 


73 


22 


58 


12 


25 


49 


1,298* 


112 


403 


92 


130 


65 


93 


66 


195 


105 


543 


199 


63 


207 


43 


1,165 


100 


404 


95 


127 


63 


98 


54 


150 


101 


489 


195 


59 


198 


5 


13 


12 


21 












4 


10 






1 


4 



*For voting purposes only there should be added to Montreal Branch, an additional 333 members, 183 being resident in the United States, 
111 in British Possessions and 39 in foreign countries. 



182.61 

92.50 
20.00 


1,220.97 

1,827.24 

50.85 

5.19 


280.89 

200.10 
14.70 


531.35 

533.73 

39.00 
43.91 


199.88 

131.83 

23.00 

0.63 


88.76 
230.50 


229.71 
124.30 


240.28 
146.95 


43.55 
115.15 


64.01 
89.17 


475.00 

163.28 

30.00 

1.02 

10.32 

89.75 


512.26 
640.18 


147.21 
343.40 


64.08 

114.45 
3.00 


52.23 

273.88 
15.00 


0.98 




0.71 








10.72 

5.00 

168.62 


0.68 


22.50 














591.73 


14.05 


500.00 


8.65 








25.00 


128000 






60.60 
















113.48 


2,466.81 


228.85 


1,116.64 


164.11 


230.50 


125.01 


146.95 


140.15 


217.17 


294.37 


824 . 52 


344.08 


117.45 


371.98 


13.65 

3.06 

33.10 

25.00 


736.45 
96.00 
681.59 
300.00 
120.00 


52.16 

38.32 

37.93 

75.00 

5.00 

25.00 


128.15 

722.05 

25.00 


69.42 
36.80 
60.90 


31.70 

4.00 

4.00 

100.00 


8.00 

1.25 

60.50 


47.44 
16.65 
11.20 
25.00 
10.00 


19.71 
22.40 
16.64 


60.50 


26.17 

117.65 

40.75 

25.00 

1.00 


215.01 

12.50 

165.90 

100.00 

40.00 

56.51 


141.09 
64.75 

50.00 
20.00 


19.68 
3.10 
9.05 

25.00 
5.10 


11.94 

137.58 
35.44 




35.00 




5.00 


85.00 




6.72 


8.25 




2.75 




















14.15 


32.00 
50.00 
95.88 


25.00 


6.00 

264 . 40 
48.05 


8,50 
28.30 












10.00 
15.00 








6.06 


10.13 
16.35 


51.70 
10.00 


15.00 
0.47 


20.00 


15.00 


55.42 


30.00 
85.00 




10.00 

7.81 


95.00 
22.98 










122.16 

8.68 

173.93 


2,091.92 

374.89 

1,595.86 


258.41 

29.56 

251.33 


1,228.65 
112.01 
419.34 


212.17 

48.06 

151.82 


201.40 

29.10 

117.86 


87.97 

37.04 

266.75 


130.29 

16.66 

256.94 


78.75 

61.40 

104.95 


200.92 
16.25 
80.26 


235.57 

58.80 

533.80 


704.92 
119.60 
631.86 


275.84 

68.24 

215.45 


79.74 

37.71 

101.79 


309.00 

62.98 

115.21 



©Chamber of Commerce. 

©Purchase of Bond. 

©From professional association. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



79 



MONTREAL BRANCH 

Papers and Meetings Committee 

The Papers and Meetings Committee of the Branch had 
the following personnel: 



I. S. Patterson, 

Chairman 



R. S. Eadie, 

Vice-Chairman 



Civil Section 
E. V. Gage J. B. Stirling 

Electrical Section 
A. M. Crawford E. R. Davis 

Mechanical Section 
A. B. Dove A. L. Huber 

Industrial and Management Section 
J. E. Dion C. A. Peachey 

Radio and Communications Section 
D. N. MacLeod W. H. Moore 

Municipal Section 
J. Comeau D. DesOrmeaux 

Transportation Section 
G. E. Shaw 



Junior Section 



P. E. Savage 

Chairman 



C. Craig 

Vice-Chairman 



The discussions following the meetings have been more 
extensive than usual and the average attendance of 106 is 
well up to that of past years. 

This year the Committee co-operated with sister societies 
by having joint meetings with such organizations as the 
Institute of Radio Engineers and the Military Engineers 
Association of Canada. 

The following is a list of the Papers delivered during the 
year, and the attendance is given in brackets: 

Jan. 5 — Exploration and Mapping of the South Nahanni 

River, N.W.T., by the Harry Snyder Expedition of 

1937, by H. F. Lambart (60). 
Jan. 12 — Annual Meeting of the Branch. Also addresses by Près. 

J. B. Challies, and Councillor Fred Newell (100). 
Jan. 19 — Fire Prevention in Montreal, by James Mclsaac (50). 
Jan. 26— Visit to Montreal's New Postal Terminal. 
Feb. 2 — Branch Smoker. 
Feb. 9 — The Early Microphone and Recent Research, by Dr. 

F. S. Goucher (175). 
Feb. 16 — Recent Developments in Urban Transportation, by 

S. B. Cooper (60). 
Feb. 23 — Moving Pictures of a Trip Through Italy, by R. E. 

Jamieson, (75). 
Mar. 2 — Design and Construction of Dome of St. Joseph's 

Shrine, by M. Cailloux (80). 
Mar. 9— Calcium Chloride in Construction, by J. A. Knight (80). 
Mar. 16 — Unit Substations, by C. G. Levy (64). 
Mar. 23 — The Cause and Remedy of Our Social-Economic Ills 

as Revealed by Engineering Research, by P. Acker- 
man (125). 
Mar. 30 — Business and Government, by W. J. Batt (75). 
April 6 — The Development of Modern Aids to Business Man- 
agement, by Wm. M. Vermilye (92). 
April 13 — Engineering Education, by R. E. Jamieson 

F. C. Mechin 
and J. E. Armstrong 
(75). 
April 20 — Discussion of Mr. Ackerman's Paper— Cause and Remedy 

of our Social-Economic Ills (75). 
Oct. 5 — Why Be Careless? — a talk and moving picture on 

Traffic Control, by Howard M. Baker (100). 
Oct. 12— Streamlining, by Dr. J. J. Green (110). 
Oct. 19 — The Network Analyzer in System Planning, by G. R. 

Hale (52). 
Oct. 26 — Flame Hardening and Its Applications in Modern 

Industry, by W. A. Duncan (86). 
Nov. 2 — Modern Radio Range Equipment, by F. A. A. Baily 

(135). 
Nov. 9 — Operations of Trans-Canada Air Lines, by Wing-Com- 

mander D. R. MacLaren (185). 
Nov. 16 — Lions Gate Bridge, by P. L. Pratley and 

D. B. Armstrong (185). 



Nov. 23 — Annual Student Night — reported in Junior Section list 

of meetings (165). 
Nov. 30 — Industrial Electronics, by J. T. Thwaites (94). 
Dec. 7 — Recent Developments in Production Management, 

by T. M. Moran (100). 
Dec. 14 — Recent Developments in Military Engineering, by 

Brigadier E. C. Schmidlin, m.c. (250). 

Industrial and Management Section 

From time to time we receive criticism that the Institute 
does not satisfactorily cover a certain branch of engineering, 
and the answer is that the fault lies with those members 
interested in that branch. The machinery is always there, 
for those who will avail themselves of it, to develop any 
particular interest. An outstanding example of this is the 
Industrial and Management Section. Organized a few years 
ago under the guidance of Mr. T. M. Moran, the Industrial 
and Management Section has been very active. In addition 
to the Chairman and Vice-Chairman, who act on the Papers 
and Meetings Committee, there are seven or eight active 
Committee men in this Section. 

Besides the regular Thursday meetings arranged to cover 
its field, this Section has. interested itself in the formation 
of the Montreal Management Council, and the Branch has 
appointed one of its members as official Branch representa- 
tive on that body. 

Reception Committee 

We feel that one of our most successful Smokers was held 
on February 2nd, under the Chairmanship of Mr. R. E. 
Heartz. The attendance was over 400, and a credit balance 
of $108.00 was shown. This year the Reception Committee 
under the Chairmanship of Mr. C. R. Lindsey is at work 
preparing a programme for the Smoker to be held February 
1st, 1940. The Reception Committee during the year has 
also provided refreshments on certain special occasions, and 
helped in organizing the Courtesy Dinners to visiting 
speakers. 

Publicity Committee 

The Publicity Committee under the Chairmanship of 
L. Jehu, Jr., worked strenuously, and with marked success, 
to obtain publicity for the Institute in general, and for the 
Thursday night meetings in particular. Considerable apathy 
on the part of the Press is at times shown, as they claim 
engineering topics generally have no news interest. By 
continued effort, it is hoped that this attitude will gradually 
change. 

Membership Committee 

The Membership Committee under the Chairmanship of 
Mr. K. O. Whyte, was well organized, and their work is to 
be highly commended. They adopted a definite plan with 
the result that the total Membership of the Branch has 
increased. 

We were very sorry to learn early last March, that Mr. 
J. B. D'Aeth was leaving Montreal, and felt that he should 
tender his resignation as one of our representatives on 
Council. On the recommendation of your Executive Com- 
mittee, Council appointed Mr. H. J. Vennes to fill the 
vacancy for the balance of Mr. D'Aeth's term, which 
expired December 31st, 1939. 

It is with sincere regret that we record the names of the 
following members deceased during the year. 

Frederic Thomas Kaelin, m.e.i.c. 

Norman Berford McLean, m.e.i.c. 

Donald William Ross, m.e.i.c. 

Julian Cleveland Smith, m.e.i.c. 

Job Ivan Boulian, a. m.e.i.c. 

Paul Emile Bourbonnais, a.m. e. i.e. 

Joseph Philippe Baby Casgrain, a.m. e. i.e. 

Bernard Harold Cripps, a.m. e. i.e. 

George Esplin Cross, a.m. e. i.e. 

Joseph Honoré Landry, a.m. e. i.e. 

Thomas Herbert Nicholson, a.m. e. i.e. 

John Charles Stadler, a.m. e. i.e. 

Frank Percy Jones, Affil. e.i.c. 



80 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Juniok Section 

The Executive Committee for the Junior Section con- 
sisted of P. E. Savage, chairman; C. Craig, vice-chairman; 
R. N. Warnock, secretary; R. Boucher, A. Benoit, H. G. 
Seybold, J. E. Hurtubise, L. Jehu, Jr., L. Trudel. 

The following is a list of the Junior Section meetings 
with the attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 9 — Annual meeting. The Art of Engineering, by F. Newell. 
Refreshments (58). 

Feb. 6 — Concerning the Cyclotron, by Dr. H. G. I. Watson (48). 

Feb. 27 — Photography in Engineering, by R. A. Frigon (33). 

Mar. 6 — -The Metallurgy and Engineering Aspects of Alumi- 
num, by Dr. Andre Hone (72). 

Mar. 20 — Telephone Traffic Engineering for the Montreal Ex- 
change, by A. J. Groleau (22). 

Oct. 18 — Opening Fall meeting. The Institute, by C. K. McLeod. 
Sound films, Prelude to Flight and Wings over the 
Atlantic. Refreshments (54). 

Oct. 30— Welding Electrodes, by J. C. Newell (27). 

Nov. 13 — Fundamentals of Lighting, by M. LaFlamme (17). 

Nov. 23— Student Night. 

Speakers:— E. M. Cantwell (McGill). 

A. Monti (Ecole Polytechnique). 
M. R. Trudeau (Ecole Polytechnique). 
W. G. Ward (McGill). 
Cash prizes were awarded to the first and second papers. 
All four competitors were given Student Memberships 
for the year 1940. 

Sound Film, The Song the Map Sings. Refreshments 
(165). 

Dec. 11 — Prestressing of Suspension Bridge Cables, by Maurice 
Dean. 

New Secretary 

Mr. E. R. Smallhorn, who has been branch Secretary 
for the past three years, asked to be relieved of his duties 
at the end of this year. He has filled the post with a great 
deal of energy and ability, and it was with sincere regret 
that his resignation was accepted. Our new Secretary, Mr. 
L. A. Duchastel de Montrouge, brings with him considerable 
experience in the administration of Branch activities. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

The Executive held seven business meetings and one 
electoral meeting to conduct the affairs of the Branch. 

The programme committee arranged the following pro- 
fessional meetings. 

Feb. 3 — Dinner meeting at the Welland Club, Welland. An illus- 
trated talk on The History of Steel Making in 
Ontario, by B. Clarke Wales, Assistant General Manager 
of Algoma Steel Corporation. 

Mar. 21 — Dinner meeting, Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, Ontario. 
An illustrated talk on The Lion's Gate Bridge, by 
Mr. Cushing, Chief Draughtsman of the Hamilton 
Bridge Co. 

April 6 — Dinner meeting, General Brock Hotel, Niagara Falls, On- 
tario. Some Problems of a Research Laboratory, by 
Dr. Saul Dushman, Assistant Director of Research 
Laboratory, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y. 

April 25 — Luncheon meeting and Ladies' Night, Welland House, St. 
Catharines, Ontario. Origin of the American Indians 
and their Constribution to Civilization, by Diamond 
Jenness, m.a., f.r.s.c, Chief, Division of Anthropology, 
National Museum of Canada. 

May 26 — Annual Dinner meeting, Welland House, St. Catharines, 
Ontario. Presentation of Gzowski Medal by President 
H. W. McKiel. The Engineer as Economist, by Pro- 
fessor C. R. Young, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univer- 
se of Toronto. 

During the summer, meetings were held leading to the 
organization of the Niagara District Technical Coun- 
cil CNDTC), which organization made possible the co- 
operation of the activities of the 

(1) Niagara District Chemical and Industrial Associa- 
tion. 

(2) The American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
Niagara District Discussion Group. 

(3) The Engineering Institute of Canada, Niagara Pen- 
insula Branch. 



The following meetings have been held, sponsored by the 
N.D.T.C. 

Oct. 12 — Dinner meeting at Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, Ontario. 
An illustrated address on Large Welded Tanks of 
Cylindrical, Spherical and Spheroidal Shapes, by 

H. C. Boardman, Research Engineer with the Chicago 
Bridge and Iron Co. 

Nov. 7 — Dinner meeting, Brock Hotel, Niagara Falls, Ontario. In- 
spection Trip conducted by Mr. Farmer to the Canadian 
Ohio Brass Company where the manufacture of high 
voltage insulators was observed and explained. 

Nov. 14 — Dinner meeting, Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, Ontario. 
Mines and Their Manufacture, by Mr. DeChaunac 
of the T. G. Bright & Co., Wine Manufactures. 

Dec. 7 — Dinner meeting at Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, Ontario. 
An illustrated talk on Building Downward, by Prof. 
R. F. Legget, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of 
Toronto. 

Dec. 12 — Dinner meeting, Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, Ontario. 
Power Development in the Niagara District, by 
Rob Roy McLeod of the Niagara Hudson Power Co. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 

During the year the Managing Committee held seven 
meetings for the transaction of general business. 

The outstanding event of the year was the adjourned 
General Annual Meeting of the Institute which was held 
in Ottawa on February 14 and 15. There was a registration 
of 541 members, 230 of these being from out of town. The 
meeting was said to be one of the most successful ever held, 
and many complimentary remarks were passed to the 
committee responsible for its organization. Mr. J. L. 
Rannie, Chairman of the Ottawa Committee with Mr. H. 
V. Anderson, Assistant Chairman, adopted the policy of 
drawing upon the younger members of the Branch to form 
the committee and this policy proved a happy one. 

It is with deep regret that we report the deaths of five 
of our members: Lt. Col. F. H. Emra, M. B. Bonnell, B. S. 
McKenzie, F. McDonnell, and G. S. Davis. 

As in previous years the Branch donated two sets of 
draughting instruments to the Ottawa Technical School 
for presentation as prizes for proficiency in draughting. A 
copy of "Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers" was 
presented to the Hull Technical School to be awarded to 
one of its students. 

The following is a list of meetings held during the year 
1939, with attendance figures in brackets. Unless otherwise 
stated meetings were luncheon meetings held at the Chateau 
Laurier. 

Jan. 12 — Evening meeting. Annual meeting Ottawa Branch, E.I.C. 
Canada's National Memorial, by Sydney March (71). 
Jan. 26 — Metallurgical Testing and Research, and its Relation 
to the Development of Our Mining Industry, by 
C. S. Parsons, Bureau of Mines, Ottawa (98). 
Mar. 2 — Soil Mechanics, a New Science, by J. W. Lucas, Depart- 
ment of Public Works, Ottawa (97). 
Mar. 16 — Aviation Lighting, by Harold Ainsworth, Department of 

Transport, Ottawa (84). 
Mar. 30 — The Aesthetic Aspect of Bridge Building, by William 

E. McHugh, Dominion Bridge Company, Ottawa (68). 
April 13 — Modern Applications of Diesel Engines, by J. L. Bus- 
field, Montreal (74). 
April 27 — Codes and Specifications, by A. F. Gill, National Re- 
search Council, Ottawa (54). 
June 15 — Experiences in the Sudan and Egypt, by Sir William 

McLean, k.b.e. (115). 
Oct. 2 — The Design and Construction of Concrete Thin Shell 
Domes of St. Joseph Basilica, Montreal, by Maxime 
Cailloux, Montreal (60). 
Nov. 2 — Defence of Trade on the High Seas, by Captain L. W. 
Murrav, r.c.n., Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff, Ot- 
tawa (126). 
Dec. 7 — Canadian Defence Policy, by Brigadier K. Stuart, 
d.s.o., M.c, Commandant, Royal Military College, 
Kingston (105). 

Aeronautical Section 

Three evening meetings were held, when technical papers 
dealing with aeronautical or related subjects were read and 
discussions held. The average attendance was sixty-three. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



81 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 

The following meetings were held during the year 1939, 
with attendance in brackets: 

Jan. 13 — Where Does the Engineer Fit into the Picture in a 
National Emergency. An open discussion meeting (53). 

Jan. 26 — Trends in Electrical Communication, by J. L. Clarke, 
Bell Telephone Co., Montreal (47). 

Feb. 9 — Lighting Protection for Transmission Systems, by 
A. M. Doyle, Canadian General Electric Co., Toronto 
(31). 

Feb. 23— Metallurgy of Metallic Arc Welding, by C. R. Whitte- 
more, Dominion Bridge Co., Montreal (32). 

Mar. 9 — Annual Junior and Student Night. Radio Fundamentals, 
by B. K. Scarlett, Canadian General Electric Co., Peter- 
borough. Radio Aids to Aerial Navigation, by J. R. 
Dunn, Canadian General Electric Co., Peterborough (29). 

Mar. 23 — Uses of Aluminum in Industry, by A. K. Jordan, 
Aluminum Company of Canada, Toronto (33). 

April 22 — Aviation, by Lt. Commander C. P. Edwards, o.b.e., 
Director, Civil Air Services, Dept. of Transport, Ottawa. 
Joint dinner meeting, Association of Professional En- 
gineers of Ontario and E.I.C. Peterborough Branch (81). 

May 3 — Annual Meeting and election of Executive (39). 

Oct. 4 — Vertical Shaft Generators, by H. R. Sills, Canadian 
General Electric Co., Peterborough (49). 

Oct. 25— Junior Night. Steel Mill Drives, by W. C. Moull, Cana- 
dian General Electric Co., Peterborough Carrier Cur- 
rent Telephony, by W. W. Rapsey, Canadian General 
Electric Co., Peterborough (31). 

Nov. 20 — Annual Dinner. Attended bv the President, Dean H. W. 
McKiel (62). 

Dec. 14 — Some Fundamental Ideas Concerning the Applica- 
tion and Heat Treatment of Tool Steels, by H. B. 
Chambers, Metallurgical Engineer, Atlas Steels Ltd. (70). 

Seven Executive Committee Meetings were held during 
year. 

Special committees: — 

Meetings and Papers Committee — I. F. McRae and A. 
R. Jones. 

Branch News Editor — D. R. McGregor. 

Social and Entertainment Committee — J. Cameron and 
O. J. Frisken. 

Membership and Attendance Committee — G. C. Tolling- 
ton. 

Auditor— E. R. Shirley. 

QUEBEC BRANCH 

Three meetings of the Branch Executive Committee were 
held during the year, three Branch meetings, as follows: — 
Mar. 15 — Luncheon meeting at Kerhulu's to meet H. W. McKiel, 

President, The Engineering Institute of Canada. 
Nov. 4 — Annual meeting and election of officers at L'Ecole Technique 

of Quebec. An oyster party concluded the meeting. 
Dec. 18 — Evening meeting at L'Ecole Technique of Quebec. Films 
of excursions through Science, Science of Seeing and 
Bumper Highway Guards. The Canadian General Elec- 
tric Co. sponsored these attractions. 

It is with deep regret that we report the death of M. 
J. F. Guay, Life Member, who passed away during the 
course of the year. 

A great honour has just reflected on the Quebec Branch 
through its Branch Honorary Member, Mgr. Alexandre 
Vachon. Former rector of Laval University, in Quebec, 
Mgr. Vachon is newly appointed Bishop Coadjutor of 
Ottawa with future succession. 

SAGUENAY BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held four meetings during the 
calendar year for the transaction of Branch business.. In 
addition to these eight general meetings were held during 
the year 1939, as follows. 

Feb. 3 — Operating Experiences with Electric Steam Genera- 
tors, by A. G. Joyce, Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd., 
Arvida; R. A. Lane, Lake St. John Power and Paper 
Co. Ltd., Dolbeau; J. W. Gathercole, Price Brothers & 
Co., Kenogami; G. N. Kirby, Price Brothers & Co. Ltd., 
Riverbend; J. Foster, Price Brothers & Co. Ltd., River- 
bend. 

Mar. 10 — Electrical Maintenance in Industrial Plants, by J. W. 
Ward, Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd., Arvida. 



May 5 — The Hydrogénation of Coal, by Dr. J. Edwards, Price 
Brothers & Company Limited, Kenogami. 

June 9 — Dinner and Annual meeting held at Arvida, Que. Dean H. 
W. McKiel, President, and F. Newell, Vice-President, were 
the guest speakers. 

June 16 — Maintenance as affecting the Electrical Fire Loss 
Record (illustrated), by G. S. Lawler, Electrical En- 
gineer of the Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance 
Companies. 

June 29 — Discussion and Demonstration of Flame Hardening 
and other Oxyacetylene Processes (illustrated), by 
Mr. Anderson of the Dominion Oxygen Company. 

Sept. 29 — The Development of Artillery (illustrated), by G. F. 
Layne, Chief Engineer, Price Brothers & Company Ltd., 
Paper Division. 

Oct. 12 — Recent Developments in Steam Generating Equip- 
ment, by R. E. MacAfee of Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie 
McCulloch Ltd. 



SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

Six meetings of the Branch and six meetings of the 

Executive Committee were held in 1939. 

Jan. 24 — Annual joint dinner with the Association of Professional 
Engineers of New Brunswick. Engineering Education, 
by Dr. John Stephens, Dean of Engineering at the 
University of New Brunswick. 

Feb. 14 — Dinner dance at Admiral Beatty Hotel on St. Valentine's 
Day. 

Mar. 2 — Supper meeting at Admiral Beatty Hotel. Marine En- 
gineering, by E. Ebdon, Chief Engineer of the Steamer 
Manchester City. 

May 4 — Annual dinner meeting and election of officers of the 
Branch. President H. W. McKiel paid his official visit 
to the Branch, presenting the Plummer Medal to H. I. 
Knowles, Chief Chemist of the Atlantic Sugar Refinery, 
for his paper Building Invisible Edifices. Following 
the President's address, J. S. Hoyt entertained the 
Branch with a programme of moving pictures. 

Nov. 16 — Supper meeting at Admiral Beatty Hotel. European Trip, 
1938, by Geoffrey Stead, District Engineer, Department 
of Public Works. 

Dec. 7 — Supper meeting at Admiral Beatty Hotel. The Engineer 
and Public Safety, by Prof. E. O. Turner, head of the 
Department of Civil Engineering, University of New 
Brunswick. Dr. F. A. Gaby, President of the Institute 
in 1935, was a guest at this meeting. 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 

Four general meetings were held during the year, three 
in Shawinigan Falls and one in Grand'Mere. Three of the 
meetings were dinner meetings and one a plant visit. A 
summary of the meetings (with the number of people 
attending given in brackets) is as follows: 
Feb. 23 — A dinner meeting at Shawinigan Falls and the Annual 
Branch meeting with installation of new officers. Also a 
talk by H. O. Keay, Vice-President of the Institute, on 
the proceedings and a discussion of the Annual General 
and General Professional Meeting of the E.I.C. held in 
Ottawa, February 14th and 15th (26). 
May 26 — At the Belgo Division of the Consolidated Paper Corpora- 
tion Limited, Shawinigan Falls. Modern Trends in 
Boiler Design, by R. E. MacAfee, and Boiler Control, 
by K. D. Sheldrick. After the meeting the party pro- 
ceeded to the newly erected Boiler Plant (50). 
June 8 — A dinner meeting at Grand'Mere to welcome President 
H. W. McKiel. The party also included the General 
Secretary, L. Austin Wright. Dean McKiel spoke on 
The Education of an Engineer and The Future of 
Engineering. Mr. Wright spoke on the advantages of 
belonging to the Institute (55). 
Dec. 14 — A dinner meeting held jointly with the Shawinigan Falls 
Chemical Society, at Shawinigan Falls. Magnesium, by 
Dr. L. M. Pidgeon of the National Research Council, 
Ottawa (85). 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

There were six regular meetings of the Branch, each being 
preceded by a dinner, at which the average attendance was 
sixty-five. In addition, a general meeting was held during 
the month of February, under the auspices of The Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers. 

The system inaugurated late in 1937 with regard to the 
monthly meetings which are now being held jointly by 
The Engineering Institute of Canada, The Association of 



82 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan and The American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers has again proved to be of 
good general interest during the past year. A common 
committee, representing the three organizations, was again 
established, being known as a Papers and Meetings Com- 
mittee. The Chairman of each Association again alternated 
monthly in charge of the meeting and all expenses were 
pooled. The identity of each organization is still retained 
with annual meetings being conducted as in the past. 

The standing Committees of the Branch are as follows: 

Papers and Library — D. D. Low, Convenor. 

Nomination — C. J. McGavin, Convenor. 

Membership — J. J. White, Convenor. 

The programme for the year was as follows: 

Jan. 20 — Babcock Integral Furnace Boilers, by W. A. Osbourne. 
Feb. 17 — Branch Members met with The Association of Professional 

Engineers of Saskatchewan in Annual Meeting. 
Mar. 24 — Annual meeting of Branch. Asphalt Technology, bv Dr. 

N. H. McLeod. 
April 21 — Stream Control in Relation to Droughts and Floods, 

by P. C. Perry. 
Oct. 7 — Address bv the President of the Institute, Dean H. W. 

McKiel.' 
Nov. 27 — Prairie Farm Rehabilitation, by George Spence. 
Dec. 18 — Devoted to general discussion by Junior Members on The 

Education, Training and Experience of the Young 

Engineer. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met on Jan. 9, 1939, and 
appointed standing committees. The Committees and the 
Chairmen are as follows: 

Papers and Publicity — Hugh J. Leitch. 

Entertainment — John L. Lang. 

Membership — Carl Stenbol. 

Legislation and Remuneration — W. S. Wilson. 

The Executive Committee met seven times during the 
year to discuss and promote the activities of the Branch 
and Institute. 

Six dinner meetings were held during the year. The 
average attendance at the meetings was twenty-six mem- 
bers and guests. The meetings were held at no set time 
during the month but were arranged for dates that suited 
the convenience of the speakers. 

The Branch was honoured during the year by visits from 
the President of the Institute, Dean H. W. McKiel, and 
the General Secretary, L. Austin Wright. Dean McKiel was 
in Sault Ste. Marie in September and Mr. Wright in Nov- 
ember. 

Programmes of the meetings held were as follows: 

Feb. 24 — Basic Open Hearth Process of the Algoma Steel Cor- 
poration, by A. H. Meldrum. Beneficiation of Iron 

Ore, by Henry U. Ross. 
Mar. 24 — Newest Refractories for the Steel Industry, by J. W. 

Craig of the Canadian Refractories Limited. 
May 25 — Highways, by Hugh MacDougall, Divisional Engineer of 

Highways for Algoma. 
Sept. 22— Visit of the President of the Institute, Dean H. W. McKiel. 
Nov. 2 — Visit of General Secretary L. Austin Wright of the In- 
stitute. 
Dec. 22— Annual Meeting for 1939. 

A feature of the current year was the Junior Night held 
on Feb. 24th under the Chairmanship of A. R. Clarkson. 
The Executive hopes that this feature will be continued. 

The Executive of the branch wish to thank the Sault 
Daily Star for the courteous treatment afforded them dur- 
ing the current year. 

The Executive regret the loss through a change of address 
of the following members: — Henry U. Ross, jr. e. i.e., M. 
W. M. Conklin, s.e.i.c, Carl G. Kauth, jr. e. i.e. We wel- 
come into our Branch A. Mendelsohn, s.e.i.c. and John 
Callum, s.e.i.c. 

Another outstanding feature of the year was the appeal 
made to the branch resident and non-resident members for 
a contribution to the Honorarium which was presented to 
Capt. R. J. Durley, Emeritus Secretary of the Institute. A 
generous response was received from the members. 



TORONTO BRANCH 

The Annual meeting of the Branch took place at the 

Canadian Military Institute on Wednesday, April 5, 1939. 
The meeting was preceded by a dinner at 7 p.m. at which 

Dean S. C. Hollister, Dean of Engineering at Cornell 

University; Dean C. H. Mitchell, Prof. C. R. Young, Prof. 

R. W r . Angus, J. R. Dunbar, Chairman of the Hamilton 

Branch; A. R. Hannaford, Secretary of the Hamilton 

Branch; C. G. Moon, Chairman of the Niagara Peninsula 

Branch; E. P. Muntz, Hamilton; J. A. Vance, Woodstock, 

were present. 

During this past year the Executive Committee has held 

eleven meetings. Average attendance — nine. 

Regular meetings held during the year are listed below 

with attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 14 — Social evening held at the Engineers Club for members and 
their wives. Preceded by dinner and followed by enter- 
tainment, music, cards and billiards (125). 

Jan. 19 — Annual Students' night. Diesel Electric Buses, by R. N. 
Boyd. Cavitation, by A. D. Smith. The Engineer in 
the Plant, by F. C. Read. Geared Turbine Drives 
for Marine Propulsion, by M. D. Stewart. Soil 
Stabilization, by W. M. Walkinshaw. Future of Pulp 
in Northern Ontario, by G. T. Perry. 

Feb. 2 — Highway Trends in Ontario, by C. E. Robbins, District 
Engineer, Ontario Department of Highways (55). 

Feb. 15 — The Forgotten Sparkplugs of Industry, by Colonel 
Willard Chevalier, Vice-President, McGraw-Hill Pub- 
lishing Company, New York. At this meeting an in- 
vitation was extended to all engineering and allied 
societies in Toronto (185). 

Mar. 2 — Aerial Transportation Developments in Canada, by 
J. A. Wilson, Controller of Civil Aviation, Department 
of Transport, Ottawa (100). 

Mar. 16 — Engineering Experiences in China, by A. T. Cairn- 
cross (75). 

April 5 — Annual Branch meeting (80). 

May 18 — Joint Dinner meeting — Affiliated Engineering and Allied 
Societies in Ontario. Recent Developments in Avia- 
tion, by Igor I. Sikorsky, Engineering Manager, Sikorsky 
Aircraft Division of United Aircraft Corporation (430). 

Oct. 12 — Mining and Smelting of Nickel and Its Engineering 
Uses, by K. H. J. Clarke, Sales Engineer, International 
Nickel Company (160). 

Nov. 2 — The Low Voltage Network System of Distribution, 
by C. E. Schwenger, Toronto Hydro-Electric System (70). 

Nov. 17 — Engineering Education and Professional Responsi- 
bility, by the President of the Institute, Dean H. W. 
McKiel. This was the occasion of the President's visit 
to the Branch (50). 

Nov. 30 — Modern Applications of Diesel Engines, bv J. L. Bus- 
field (50). 

Dec. 7 — Airport Facilities at the Island and Malton, by E. L. 
Cousins (70). 

Previous to each regular meeting, dinners have been held 
in Hart House. These have been well attended and enjoyed 
by all who have availed themselves of the opportunity to 
attend. 

The Branch Loan Fund established some seven years ago 
has a balance of $200.00. One application for a loan has 
been received during the year. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death of the 
following members of the Branch during the year; J. F. 
Cassidy, a.m.e.i.c.; G. E. Evans, m.e.i.c. ; E. T. Wilkie, 
M.E.i.c. Our sincere sympathy is extended to their families 
in their loss. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 

Another year has passed for our Branch, and although 
there has been no happening of a spectacular or very 
unusual nature, the year has been marked by a steady 
progress of routine events which have taken place in an 
ordered sequence and harmonious manner. The activities 
of the Branch were briefly as follows: 

Jan. 14 — Inspection trip of Vancouver Iron Works plant to see 
fabrication of 48 in. electrically welded steel pipe manu- 
factured by them for the Greater Vancouver Water 
District. Also inspection of 48 in. submerged section of 
48 in. concrete main being assembled before launching 
at the Indian Reserve, False Creek. 
Jan. 20 — Bullion Placer Gold Mine, bv Ray F. Sharpe, General 
Manager, Bullion Mines, Bullion, B.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



83 



Feb. 9 — Exhibition of film made by Missouri State Highway Com- 
mission. Tests on Various Highway Guard Rails, by 

A. E. Foreman, Consulting Engineer. 
Mar. 6 — New Westminster Night. The Development of the 

Fraser River Channel, by K. W. Morton, District 

Engineer, Department of Public Works (Canada), New 

Westminster, B.C. 
April 14 — An illustrated lecture, The Brothers of the Bridge, by 

A. L. Carruthers, Department of Public Works, Victoria, 

B.C. 
May 17 — Inspection of Vancouver Airport (Sea Island) by courtesy 

of the Trans-Canada Airlines, Department of Transport 

and City of Vancouver Airport authority. 
Oct. 19 — Dinner in honour of Dean H. W. McKiel, President of the 

Institute, and L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 

The Branch also sponsored a lecture at the University 
of British Columbia last spring when an illustrated address 
on Hydraulic Gates originally prepared by Mr. Newell, 
Dominion Bridge Company, was presented to the Applied 
Science students. 

The visit of our President, Dean H. W. McKiel and the 
General Secretary, Mr. L. Austin Wright, will not soon be 
forgotten by any of the members or guests who were pres- 
ent at the well attended dinner meeting on October 19th. 
The Presidential address was truly inspiring, stressing as 
it did the responsibility of the engineer, prior to the 
declaration of war, and the vitally important part he will 
take during and after the conflict. It was gratifying to 
observe the keen interest shown by our President in the 
importance of the young engineer in study and training, 
and we may rest assured that our representatives at Mont- 
real are doing everything reasonably possible for the young 
members of the Institute. 

The Chairman was invited by the General Secretary to 
attend the Regional Council meeting at Calgary on October 
14th but was unfortunately unable to attend; however, the 
Branch was most ably represented by our Councillor, Mr. 
James Robertson. 

The Executive meetings during the year were well 
attended and were marked by keen interest and the most 
friendly co-operation by all the members. We were un- 
fortunate in losing the services of Air Commodore G. 0. 
Johnston, due to the outbreak of the war. 

There is little to report in the matter of co-operation 
and co-ordination between the Institute and the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers, but we believe that ideas 
are developing into a stage of crystallization which we hope 
will take definite and mutually satisfactory form at a future 
date. 

Our Branch has maintained the best of relations with 
the University of British Columbia student body where we 
are most fortunate in having the valuable and ever-ready 
assistance of Dean Finlayson and our good friend and 
member of the Executive, Mr. Archie Peebles. 

We regret to record the death of Mr. Thos. H. White, 
m.e.i. a, of honoured memory, on March 20, 1939, who was 
until his death the oldest member of the Institute. 

The executive committee desires to express appreciation 
of the valued services of our efficient secretary, T. V. Berry, 
who has again proved his worth to the Institute in general 
and to our own Branch in particular. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

During the year three general meetings of the Branch 
were held with an average attendance of twenty-five. 

May 5 — Coast Defence, by Lieut .-Col. R. L. Fortt, Officer Com- 
manding Royal Canadian Artillery on the Pacific Coast. 

Oct. 23 — Branch received a visit from Dean H. W. McKiel, Presi- 
dent of the Institute, accompanied by Mrs. McKiel and 
L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. A very successful 
dinner meeting was held when both the President and Mr. 
Wright addressed the members on Institute affairs. 



Dec. 7 — Luncheon meeting. The Use of Aerial Photography for 
Mapping, by F. C. Green, Surveyor-General of British 
Columbia. 

Five meetings of the executive committee were held dur- 
ing the year when branch business was transacted, the 
average attendance of executive members being 70 per cent. 
Much of the business of the Branch throughout the year 
was delegated to the chairman and the secretary for atten- 
tion. 

Membership 

The year just past saw considerable activity in the 
transfer of membership to and from this Branch and other 
branches of the Institute, much more so than in former 
years. This is largely accounted for in the proximity of the 
Branch to military and naval headquarters where many of 
our members are stationed. 

In all ten transfers to the Branch were recorded and three 
new members were enrolled, two Students and one Junior. 
Five members of the Branch were transferred to other 
jurisdictions. The Branch had the misfortune to lose two 
of its Life Members by death during the year, W. S. 
Drewry, a.m.e.i.c, and Lieut. -Col. A. E. Hodgins, m.e.i.c, 
both being of advanced age at the time of their death. 

Annual Meeting 

The annual meeting of the Branch will be held early in 
the new year when the election of officers will take place. 
In conclusion this executive committee wishes to sincerely 
thank the General Secretary, and all his assistants at Head- 
quarters for the ready assistance and unfailing courtesy 
received at all times throughout the year. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH 

During the year, the Branch Executive Committee held 
fourteen business meetings. In accordance with an agree- 
ment consummated in 1938, all general meetings except the 
Annual meeting, and the meeting of Oct. 3rd, were held 
under the joint auspices of the Winnipeg Branch and the 
Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of 
Manitoba. Papers presented at these meetings are listed 
below, the attendance for each meeting being shown in 
brackets. 

-Automatic Fire Extinguishing Systems, by J. C. Davis, 

President, J. C. Davis Co. Ltd. (50). 
-Radio in Air Transportation, by S. S. Stevens, Radio 

Engineer, Trans-Canada Airlines (90). 
-Annual meeting (45). 
-Soils and Soil Conservation Problems, by Prof. Ellis, 

Department of Soils, University of Manitoba (49). 
Mar. 16 — Calcium Chloride in Engineering Construction, by 

J. A. Knight, Manager of Highway Engineering Service, 

Brunner Mond Canada Ltd. (43). 
-The Manitoba Power Commission, by J. P. Fraser, 

General Superintendent, Manitoba Power Commission 

(65). 
-Some Experiences with Residence Foundations, by C. 

V. Antenbring, Designing Engineer, Cowin & Co. Ltd. 

(158). 
-Institute Affairs, by President McKiel. 
-Foreign Exchange Control, by Prof. W. J. Waines, De- 
partment of Political Economv, University of Manitoba 

(71). 
-Visit to Engineering Laboratories, University of Manitoba 

(101). 
-Modern Trends in Primary Sewage Treatment, by 

Douglas L. McLean, Superintendent, Greater Winnipeg 

Sanitary District (71). 
Dec. 7 — Electric Boilers and their Application to Industry, 

by C. P. Haltalin, Assistant Engineer, Winnipeg Electric 

Co. (52). 



Jan. 


5 


Feb. 


2 


Feb. 


Hi 


Mar. 


2- 



April 


6- 


April 


20- 


Oct. 


3- 


Oct. 


19- 


Nov. 


2- 


Nov. 


16 



84 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



AMERICAN DIESEL PROGRESS 

Diesel Railway Traction, November 24, 1939 

Abstracted by R. G. Gage, m.e.i.c. 

The rate of progress maintained in the dieselization of 
American railways during the past two years or so shows, 
if anything, an increase within recent months, as witnessed 
by the following notes. The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad is to purchase four 2,000 b.h.p. streamlined stain- 
less steel Diesel locomotives. Six of these units will be 
operated in pairs on the Exposition Flyer and Aristocrat 
trains, and the seventh will be held as spare for these two 
trains and for the Denver Zephyr and Twin Zephyr ser- 
vices. The original three-car Zephyr train was recently 
involved in a collision with a freight locomotive. The 
Chicago & North Western Railroad has been authorized to 
purchase two triple-unit 6,000 b.h.p. electro-motive Diesel 
locomotives for hauling two 14-car streamlined trains to 
run between Chicago and California. The Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railroad has been authorized to purchase 
ten 600 b.h.p. Diesel-electric switching locomotives at a cost 
of $625,000 and ten of 300 b.h.p. at a cost of $350,000. 
The Alabama & Florida Railroad is introducing light rail- 
cars on its local services, some of the vehicles being road- 
railers. Diesel engines of International manufacture are 
being used. The Illinois Central Railroad has ordered seven 
600 b.h.p., one 1,000 b.h.p. and two 2,000 b.h.p. electric- 
motive Diesel switching and freight-transfer locomotives, 
the enquiries for which were noted in our issue of October 
27. The Minneapolis, Northfield & Southern Railroad is 
proposing to purchase three Diesel-electric locomotives at a 
cost of $175,000 and the Ford Motor Company has ordered 
three 1,000 b.h.p. switching and freight transfer locomotives 
from the General Electric Company; each is to be powered 
by two 500 b.h.p. Cooper-Bessemer engines. Together with 
such recent introduction as the new Diesel-hauled 400's on 
the Chicago & North Western and the Denver Rockets on 
the C.R.I. P., and trains being built for the Atlantic Coast 
and Florida East Coast lines, the above orders give a good 
cross-section of Diesel traction activities in the U.S.A. The 
service given by the express Diesel locomotives in the States 
has been such that Mr. C. T. Ripley, chairman of the Rail- 
road Division of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, said recently that a radical change in the design 
of the steam locomotive would be necessary to make it 
capable of fully competing with the Diesel in high-speed 
service, even when the Diesel was working over territory 
mainly worked by steam locomotives. If a complete division 
was changed to Diesel traction there would be further major 
savings in the elimination of fueling and water facilities, 
and in intermediate section points. 

THE ARTISAN CRISIS 

The Engineer, October 13, 1939 

Handicraftsmanship as understood in the higher scale of 
artisan organization, with its professional qualifications en- 
titling independent skilled workers to belong to the con- 
fraternity, has a bearing on the lighter branches of engin- 
eering production that should not be overlooked. An artisan 
of this class must be an artist in his trade and highly skilled, 
producing goods of individuality and quality, and appealing 
to buyers who are prepared to pay for goods of distinctive 
merit. He belongs to a middle class of producers between 
the big industry and the smaller artisans who are, for the 
most part, individual workers in association for relief from 
fiscal burdens that fall on industry generally. For many 
years the middle class artisan confraternity has been reor- 
ganized over most of the Continent on a social basis with 
international co-operation, and its aim has always been to 
attain the highest standard of quality of production. It is 



Contributed abstracts of articles appear- 
ing in the current technical periodicals 



this ideal that stands out as a measure of achievement in 
all industries. A handicraftsman in art metal work, for 
example, sets a standard which the mass production manu- 
facturer cannot hope to equal but is obliged to get as near 
to it as he can. The middle class artisan production can 
only find an outlet among buyers who will pay more for 
goods that are valued for professional initiative and taste, 
sound workmanship, and quality. A crisis has now arrived 
when that class of buyer has wholly disappeared. The situ- 
ation of the artisan was already becoming difficult from the 
time that the financial stagnation and lessening incomes 
favoured the lower quality goods, and when armament 
manufacture was accelerated there were complaints from 
artisan associations that master craftsmen were going into 
factories in response to the demand for skilled workers. 
Since the outbreak of war the Federation of Syndicates of 
French Artisans sought to obtain work for its members by 
a participation in orders for national defence. This would 
necessitate an organization that does not appear yet to be 
feasible. For the moment, the situation of the artisan is 
critical. The general character of the crisis is seen in arrange- 
ments that are being made by the Government of the Swiss 
Confederation for the relief of artisans, who represent the 
greater part of the industrial population and contribute 
largely to the country's export trade. Alike in Switzerland 
and in France the artisan class will experience a difficult 
time during the war and all through its after-effects until 
the world settles down to a state of confident commercial 
collaboration. There can be no suppression of handicrafts 
in individualist countries, however much big industry may 
grow, and it is all to the good that handicraftsmanship 
should grow with it. On the other hand, the existence of 
the artisan is stated to be seriously threatened in Germany 
where, nevertheless, the movement which extended over 
the greater part of the Continent first took shape and 
exacted high qualifications from master craftsmen and im- 
posed conditions of apprenticeship that were calculated to 
give increasing vitality to middle class industry. The col- 
lective system now adopted in Germany has much in com- 
mon with that of the Soviets, so far as the submerging of 
individualism is concerned. A grouping of industrial and 
commercial effort under State control tends to the sup- 
pression of the artisan and the small trader. When a country 
becomes a vast State industrial machine it loses the human 
factor that means so much for progress, and this is recog- 
nized in the other totalitarian country where the artisan 
movement is fostered as necessary to the national welfare. 

CANADA'S ECONOMY ON A WAR BASIS 

Effect on Trade 
Trade and Engineering, October 1939 

The change of Canada's economy to a war basis is being 
made rapidly and smoothly. New control boards have been 
set up which are functioning efficiently. The War Supply 
Board is being organized with powers which will extend 
considerably beyond the purchasing of supplies. The War- 
time Prices and Trade Board has almost completed its 
organization, while the Foreign Exchange Control Board 
was set up with a speed which was surprising and even 
startling. 

A ship licensing board has been created for the purpose 
of conserving and controlling shipping for essential service. 
Various measures are under consideration for ensuring 
supplies of needed materials without excessive price in- 
creases and include embargoes on exportation of some com- 
modities and reductions in import duties in respect of others. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



85 



Industrial organizations also are making the necessary- 
adjust ment s to the new conditions. 

Control of Exchange 

The Canadian regulations for control of foreign exchange 
will follow closely the British control system. They are 
designed to protect Canadian resources and prevent ex- 
portation of Canadian capital for other than necessary 
purposes. A gradual repatriation of Canadian investments 
abroad may be expected as Canadians dispose of United 
States securities, and the exchange obtained on their 
realization will be available to the foreign exchange control 
board on conversion into Canadian funds. 

While one of the purposes of the exchange control system 
is to protect the Canadian dollar against too drastic decline 
and to maintain Canada's credit and purchasing power for 
necessary uses, the requirement of licenses for importations 
and the high premium undoubtedly will have an effect of 
far-reaching importance in discouraging imports, and 
incidentally, will provide further protection for Canadian 
industry in the home market. In addition, they will reduce 
Canadian spending on pleasure trips and even on business 
trips to the United States of America. 

While many examples might be given of how the exchange 
situation will restrict imports to the advantage of Canadian 
producers, the situation as regards importations into 
Western Canada of United States crude oil for refining is 
of special interest. The increased cost in United States 
currency of Illinois crude oil provides the opportunity for a 
considerable extension throughout Western Canada from 
the Ontario-Manitoba border to the Rocky Mountains of 
sales of petrol produced from Turner Valley crude. 

Turner Valley Oil 

Although the control of imports which has been estab- 
lished by the British Government and the drop in the 
exchange value of the pound sterling will have a very 
marked effect on Canada's exports to the United Kingdom 
of products other than essential raw materials, food sup- 
plies, and munitions, the premium on United States funds 
is assisting Canadian producers to increase their sales in 
the United States. 

Moreover, the war situation has lessened greatly Euro- 
pean competition against Canadians in supplying wood 
pulp, newsprint, paper, and various other products to the 
American market. Under a provision of the trade agree- 
ment between Canada and the United States the treaty 
may be modified or terminated if the rate of exchange 
varies to such an extent as to prejudice the position of 
either country, but there is no expectation that the United 
States will avail itself of such right. 

THE CYCLOTRON 

Colvilles Magazines, September, 1939, and 
The Engineer, October 6, 1939 

We publish on this page an engraving of the mechanical 
portion of a large electro-magnet, recently constructed by 
Colvilles, Ltd., for the Department of Physics of the 
University of Birmingham, at the head of which is Professor 
M. L. Oliphant, F.R.S. When completed on the electrical 
side it will provide for the department an entirely new type 
of tool of immense power for physical and biological re- 
search, and a new means of investigating atomic structure 
which may well lead to discoveries having important and 
far-reaching results. The length over all is 15 ft. 7 in.; 
height, 12 ft. 3 in.; and breadth, 8 ft. The total overall 
weight is practically 230 tons. The base, side supports, and 
upper bridge pieces are of multiple plate construction and 
the area of 2 in. thick plates used for this purpose is sufficient 
to make a path 2 ft. wide and almost half a mile long. 

All the material used in construction, i.e., steel plates, 
pole pieces, ties, suspension bolts, etc., were produced and 
roughed to shape at Dalzell Works, Motherwell, and it 
had been intended to complete the equipment in the work- 
shop there as far as possible. However, the necessities of 



production requirements intervened so that the finished 
machining of the various pieces, together with the complete 
assembly, was undertaken at the Finnieston Works of 
Harland and Wolff, Ltd., where the photograph shown was 
taken in their workshop. 

In a precision instrument of this nature, the machining 
of the components and particularly of the pole pieces re- 
quired craftsmanship of a very high order. These pieces 
were required to have dead smooth surfaces, and also to 
be flat and parallel within a tolerance limit plus or minus 
two thousandths, and to achieve this high standard over 
areas of 6 ft. in diameter represents no mean achievement 
in precision machining and finish. Installation on site is 
now proceeding in Birmingham where elaborate precaution- 
ary measures are being taken in the accommodation pro- 
vided to reduce the risk of accident and ensure the safety 
of the experimenters. 




230-ton cyclotron. 

In the efforts to produce high-speed atomic particles, the 
Cyclotron, or magnetic resonance accelerator, has so com- 
pletely demonstrated its superiority in the matter of the 
energies which can be produced that laboratories all over 
the world are using them. Its popularity is easily understood 
in view of its effectiveness in producing the very energetic 
particles needed to disrupt the nuclei of the heavier ele- 
ments. Direct methods of acceleration have failed as yet 
to give particles with energies exceeding about 2,000,000 
volts, mainly because of the difficulty of getting an evacu- 
ated tube to stand the electrical strain of such high voltages. 
The Cyclotron, using no actual voltages above a few tens 
of thousands, has no such insulation difficulties, and so, 
relatively speaking, may be built cheaply and housed cheap- 
ly, yet it will deliver ion beams consisting of particles having 
many millions of volts energy. 

RAILWAY TRAVEL IMPROVEMENTS IN FRANCE 

The Engineer, October 13, 1939 

One month after the mobilization, the Minister of Public 
Works, Monsieur de Monzie, was able to give some idea 
of the achievement of the National Railway Company in 
maintaining a minimum service in the public interest while 
the railways were requisitioned for the abnormal require- 
ments of military transport. During the first week 1,500 
trains were run for the evacuation of populations from the 
frontier departments to the central regions of France, and 
the number of trains for public service was steadily in- 
creased until, at the beginning of October, it was possible 
to resume a limited number of express trains on all the 
main lines. From Paris there are expresses to Hendaye, 
Marseilles, Vintimille, Strasbourg, Cherbourg, and other 



86 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



important towns, as well as an acceleration of the Orient 
Express. Between Paris and Dieppe there is a daily express 
each way, the morning outward-bound train taking three 
hours 10 minutes for the journey and the evening train 
back three hours 18 minutes. Three express trains run each 
way daily between Paris and Havre, the outward time 
being three hours 37 minutes, and only two or three minutes 
more for the return. There are also three expresses each 
way between Paris and Calais which take five hours seven 
minutes for the journey, except the evening train from 
Paris, which reduces the time by seven minutes. Monsieur 
de Monzie affirms that the railway service is now about 
two-thirds of the normal, but it does not provide the same 
acceleration, and all expresses stop at some intermediate 
stations. The rapides have not been restored. Under present 
conditions the service is as good as can be expected, though 
still liable to be interfered with by military requirements. 
The public is invited to use the railways as little as possible, 
and Monsieur de Monzie complains of the way in which 
people evacuated from Paris are returning. Another inter- 
esting statement by the Minister is to the effect that the 
National Railway Company proposes to carry out certain 
reforms in the services and the trains, notably by providing 
more general comfort in travelling. Trains in France are 
still made up with three classes of coaches, but following 
upon the increases in fares, and the necessity for everyone 
to economize in view of rising prices, practically all passen- 
gers travel third class. Except for the big expresses there is 
hardly any train with more than two first and second class 
coaches, the first class generally sharing a coach with the 
second class. It may be presumed, therefore, that one of 
these classes will be suppressed, and that there will not be 
so wide a disparity in comfort between the two remaining 
classes as exists at present. Third class' coaches badly need 
improvement in this respect, and it should be possible to 
provide adequate comfort now that the greater part of the 
rolling stock will have to be renewed. 

PORTABLE SUCTION GAS PRODUCERS 

The Engineer, November 24, 1939 

The use of suction gas for road vehicles has become an 
essential factor in war time economy. There is no escaping 
the alternative of running privately-owned lorries and 
tractors on home-produced fuels or of laying them up during 
the period of hostilities. For this reason it is no longer a 
question of whether suction gas offers the same reliability, 
convenience, efficiency, and all-round economy as liquid 
fuels, but merely whether lorries can be run on it with the 
certainty that owners will be able to continue their busi- 
ness, which must be done if the country is to maintain a 
normal activity. In its present state of development the 
suction gas vehicle is doing sufficiently good work under 
favourable conditions. When there is no other source of 
energy available, apart from compressed coal gas and elec- 
tricity, lorries with suitable suction gas equipments may be 
relied upon when placed in charge of men who know how 
to handle them. The problem has been the subject of long 
and patient research. It has been solved up to a point of 
practical utility, while failing to eliminate apparently in- 
herent technical difficulties that at present stand in the 
way of a completely satisfactory realization. There has been 
a dispersal of effort in research and experiment, which may 
have been to the good in covering the ground so fully, and 
while failures are many there are practical successes and 
an accumulation of experience that now needs co-ordina- 
tion with the object of achieving the continued develop- 
ment of the suction gas vehicle. A Comité National d'En- 
tente des Carburants de Remplacement has been formed to 
effect such co-ordination so that a large war-time scheme 
can be put in hand for the equipment of lorries and other 
vehicles with producer plants. It represents all interests in 
the portable suction gas producer industry, and has ap- 
pointed four commissions, each devoted to one of those 
interests. Firstly, the production of charcoal and composite 



fuels has its own problem of standardising a quality of 
fuel and stabilizing prices. Secondly, the distribution of 
fuel supplies throughout the country has a tendency to lag 
behind demand in the early stages because the demand is 
small and irregular, and if rapid progress is to be made 
consumers must be assured of being able to obtain supplies 
everywhere, and that, too, under conditions that do not 
involve undue variations in the standard price which may 
be expected from the cost of transporting charcoal and 
composite fuels over long distances. The question of the 
quality of fuel has disturbed many suppliers who had shared 
in a general belief that charcoal from any wood or waste 
would be suitable for portable suction gas plants. It is a 
matter that must be left to the third commission which 
deals with the construction of producers. While these offer 
interesting problems that may be solved in time, the com- 
mission can hardly do more at present than select the most 
suitable types of existing producers and arrange for their 
construction in sufficient numbers. Fourthly, of equal im- 
portance is the work of the commission which covers the 
whole practise of fitting suction gas equipments to vehicles. 
In the absence of engines designed especially to run on 
suction gas, exact information will have to be prepared 
concerning alterations to be made in engine bores, com- 
pressions, speeds, and changes in gears, as well as dimensions 
of induction pipes and other details that make all the differ- 
ence in the running of suction gas lorries. This work is in- 
tended to make the best use of existing suitable plants in 
the hope of increasing the number of vehicles in use eventu- 
ally to something like 30,000. At the same time, it may be 
assumed that with the importance given to suction gas road 
traction under present abnormal conditions, the new organ- 
ization will be able to encourage a more active technical 
development in the direction of creating types of suction 
gas engines and simplifying the producer and general equip- 
ment in a manner to give some permanency to the industry. 

ROT-PROOFING OF SAND-BAG 
REVETMENTS 

Engineering, November 24, 1939 

In a memorandum issued by the Ministry of Home 
Security, it is stated that, on the basis of present informa- 
tion, two types of preservative are considered to be suitable 
for application to sand-bag revetments. They are, respec- 
tively, a creosote or tar distillate, used as a water emulsion, 
and a solution of an organic copper salt in creosote, made 
up into an emulsion. The former is more widely available 
than the latter and is suitable for the treatment of revet- 
ments in position which had already deteriorated as the 
result of exposure to the weather for some time. The latter, 
although more potent, is also more expensive, and it is 
pointed out that its use will not generally be justified unless 
the bags are in good condition. Further, it is desirable to 
take down the whole revetment, treat all the bags, and then 
re-pile them. When a water emulsion of creosote or tar dis- 
tillate is used, it should be applied in such quantity as to 
give, on the exposed portion of the bag, a coating of creosote 
not less than one-fifth of the normal dry weight of the 
fabric exposed. This is given approximately by a 25 per 
cent creosote emulsion when sprayed on the bags to give 
a thorough coating, completely satisfying the absorption 
of the fibres. The creosote should comply with British 
Standard Specification No. 144 1936, which deals with 
"Creosote for the Preservation of Timber." Any normal 
emulsifying agent may be used, and the composition below 
may be taken as a typical example. The latter three items 
constitute the emulsifying agent. 

65 parts creosote 

35 " water 
1.2 " oleic acid 



0.8 



casein 



0.36 " sodium hydroxide 
The emulsifying agent is dissolved in water and the two 
fluids are mixed in a jet similar to that of a cream-making 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



87 



machine. An emulsion prepared in this manner, it is stated, 
should be stable and capable of being transported in drums 
or kegs. Before use, it should be diluted with water to a 
suitable consistency for spraying, bearing in mind, however, 
that the creosote content does not fall below 25 per cent. 

When using the organic copper-salt emulsion, the salt 
should be dissolved in the creosote or tar distillate, the 
solution then being made up into an emulsion with water, 
by the use of a special type of emulsifying agent. The 
copper salt should be one of an organic fatty acid of high 
molecular weight, such as, for example, copper oleate. The 
organic copper salt should be added in the proportion of 
16 per cent of the weight of the creosote, and the whole 
should be emulsified with water. When sprayed on the bags, 
it should be applied as a 20 per cent emulsion. 

It is emphasized in the memorandum that the emulsion 
should be diluted with water immediately before use, as 
the diluted solutions do not keep. The emulsions should 
preferably be applied by means of a paint or horticultural 
spray, or even an A.R.P. stirrup pump, though brush appli- 
cation is permissible. Care should be taken to coat thor- 
oughly any seams visible on the face of the pile, and to 
work the emulsion well into the seams. As is the case when 
handling creosote in the ordinary way, care is needed to 
avoid fire risks during application, and naked lights should 
not be allowed in the vicinity of the work nor should the 
men smoke while spraying. The freshly-creosoted revet- 
ments will have a strong odour characteristic of creosote, 
but this will decrease to an unobjectionable amount in a 
few days. As creosote may cause permanent stains, suitable 
measures should be taken to protect the surface of buildings 
against which the bags are placed, while spraying is in 
progress. In order to obtain the best possible penetration 
into the fabric of the bags, the preservatives should not 
be applied immediately after heavy rain, and, when wet, 
the bags should be given a reasonable time to dry. It is 
desirable to repeat the treatment and this should be done 
at intervals not exceeding three months. 

HIGH-SPEED LIGHTWEIGHT PASSENGER TRAINS 

By C. T. Ripley, Chief Engineer, Wrought Steel Wheel 
Industry, Chicago, 111. 

In a paper delivered on November 21 before the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers at New York, Mr. Ripley 
stated that the streamlined high-speed, lightweight passen- 
ger train has been definitely successful on American rail- 
roads in recovery of traffic, financial return, and mechanical 
performance, and, consequently, the number of such trains 
in service should continue to increase. 

In view of the current investigation of the safety of high- 
speed, light-weight trains by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, Mr. Ripley offered the following statement: 
"Generally speaking, the new lightweight cars are being 
designed and built just as strong and safe as the older heavy 
types. Better engineering, stronger materials, and improved 
methods of fabrication make this weight reduction possible. 
New welding technique largely eliminates the human ele- 
ment and when properly applied should be preferable to the 
old riveting practice. In 1912 and 1938, specifications were 
written by the Railway Post Office Department so as to 
cover practically all types of construction with all types of 
materials. The major provisions o both the 1912 and 1938 
specifications were, first, a minimum strength of centre-sill 
construction based on 400,000 lb. buffing static load and a 
factor of safety of two, and second, a minimum strength of 
end construction to protect against telescoping action. Cars 
built to meet these specifications have rendered excellent 
service with a remarkably good record in the protection of 
passengers under wreck conditions. As a consequence when 
lightweight construction was started in about 1931 these 
specifications were used as a minimum requirement, even 
though there were no rules of the American Railway Associa- 
tion or of the Government setting such limitation. 

However, a feeling developed that because of the opera- 



tion of lightweight cars between heavy cars in trains, it was 
necessary for the Association of American Railroads to set 
up more detailed specifications to cover the construction of 
aîl passenger-train cars built in the future, giving particular 
attention to prevention of damage from telescoping. A com- 
mittee of the Association of American Railroads has re- 
cently developed these new specifications and they will 
probably govern all new construction of passenger cars. 
While these new specifications are generally based on the 
Railway Post Office specifications, they include some major 
changes. They provide for a centre-sill strength such that 
an 800,000-lb. load applied on line of draft will not produce 
any permanent deformation. The new specifications also 
include increased requirements for strength of couplers, 
carrier irons, and end construction, all of which mean some 
increase in weight, but which are apparently justified in 
view of the importance of maximum protection against 
telescoping of cars. 

Several of the early trains were built of aluminum alloys 
but in recent years the majority of them have been built 
of stainless steel or low-alloy high-tensile steel. Inasmuch as 
no exactly similar cars have been built using the different 
types of steel or aluminum, it is not possible to make accu- 
rate weight comparisons. While it is true that the full use 
of the superior physical properties of stainless steel or the 
light weight of aluminum is limited to some degree by de- 
flection requirements, it should be possible, by using these 
materials instead of low-alloy steel, to construct a lighter 
car of equal strength. A general comparison of the large 
number of cars of the various types which have been built 
indicates a weight advantage for stainless steel and alumi- 
num of at least five per cent. It would be expected that the 
construction cost of cars built of these materials would be 
somewhat higher due to the high cost per pound of such 
materials, but competition between builders has resulted in 
about equal bid prices. 

It is too early to evaluate fully the different types of 
light-weight car construction. Maintenance costs over a 
longer period and performance in accidents will ultimately 
provide the answer. It appears, however, that a weight of 
about 100,000 lb. for an 80-ft. coach is entirely practicable 
with full safety to passengers. If too much space for extra 
luxuries is provided, part of the advantage of lightweight 
construction is lost, as the important factor is the weight 
per passenger carried. 

The Diesel-electric locomotive is more commonly used 
in these new high-speed streamlined trains than is the steam 
locomotive. It is claimed by some that this is chiefly due 
to the interest of the public in a new type of power, but the 
users apparently have good engineering arguments to sup- 
port their choice. The advantages claimed for the Diesel 
are: first, high availability; second, rapid acceleration be- 
cause of high tractive power at lower speeds; third, low 
maintenance costs; fourth, low fuel cost (usually less than 
half that of steam) ; fifth, lower rail stresses. The steam loco- 
motive is less expensive, costing about $37 per hp. However, 
it is harder on track at high speeds due to the dynamic 
augment produced by overbalance in the driving wheels. It 
appears that radical change in the design of the steam loco- 
motive is necessary to make it capable of fully competing 
with the Diesel in this service." 

In conclusion, Mr. Ripley said, "Schedules faster than 
those now being made at 90 and 100 m.p.h. are possible and 
probable as soon as roadway conditions are further im- 
proved by curvature reduction and grade-crossing elim- 
ination." 

GERMAN OIL RESOURCES— POPULAR GUESSING 

GAME 

Petroleum Times, November 25th, 1939 

Abstracted by A. A. Swinnerton, a.m.e.i.c. 

That popular guessing game of the moment — what are 
German oil resources — continues apace. An article in this 
issue by B. O. Lisle (New York) suggests that the German 



88 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



supplies may be greater than generally believed, and that 
by cutting down civilian consumption the annual output — 
quite apart from any reserves that may have been built 
up — may enable her to last much longer than her production 
and consumption figures might indicate. 

Dr. A. J. V. Underwood, whose views on oil and cognate 
matters always carry the weight of sincere study, especially 
as regards German matters, comes to the same conclusion 
in an article in "The Industrial Chemist" for November. 

He puts forward strongly the view that it is the prospec- 
tive position towards the end of 1940, or early in 1941, 
that should be considered closer. In this light he arrives 
at the following table. 

Present Production 

rate of about 

production end 1940 

Tons per year 



Synthetic production 2,000,000 

Natural petroleum 700,000 

Benzole 500,000 

Producer gas from wood, 
charcoal, coke, anthra- 
cite 200,000 

Brown-coal tars 200,000 

Bituminous coal tar oils. . . 250,000 

Bottled gas 150,000 

Ethyl alcohol 200,000 

Methyl alcohol, isopropyl 
alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 
isobutyl alcohol, acetone, 

methyl ethyl ketone 100,000 

Total 4,300,000* 

(30,000,000 bbl.) 



3,000,000 

1,000,000 

600,000 



500,000 
400,000 
400,000 
250,000 
200,000 



200,000 

6,550,000* 
(45,000,000 bbl.) 

Dr Underwood believes that even after the end of 1940 
a further increase of production is, of course, possible and 
concludes his interesting survey thus: 

"It therefore appears improbable that Germany will be 
rendered unable to carry on the war owing to a shortage 
of oil unless military activity on a greatly extended scale 
results in an extremely large increase in consumption or 
unless the present sources of oil imports into Germany are 
cut off through changes in the international situation or 
inability to meet payments required for vital imports, or 
unless Germany's productive facilities are seriously reduced 
through damages resulting from military operations." 

On the other hand, in another article, C. R. Garfias and 
J. W. Ristori of the Cities Service Company are of the 
opinion that the Axis Powers are short of petroleum and 
that Roumanian oil is vital to Germany. They estimate 
that Germany with a domestic production of 25 million 
barrels as against estimated war time requirements of 90 
million barrels is short 65 million barrels per year. 

They estimate that Italy will have a production of about 
one million barrels against a war time demand of about 
40 million barrels, leaving a deficit of 39 million barrels 
per year. 

Russian production and consumption are about balanced 
at 240 million barrels per year and, even if Russia had any 
surplus for export, transportation difficulties would rule 
them out as a source of supply for Germany. 

Rumanian production is estimated at 55 million barrels 
with a consumption of 20 million, leaving a surplus for 
export of 35 million barrels per year. But to transport this 



to Germany would require about 11,000 tank cars or 300 
trains in continuous operation. Even if this feat could be 
accomplished it would still leave Germany 30 million bar- 
rels short of their requirements, as well as leaving nothing 
to take care of Italy's requirements (this may be one reason 
why Italy is staying neutral). Incidentally it should be noted 
that in peace time about 80% of Germany's imports and 
60% of Italy's came from North and South America, so 
that Italy's entrance into the war as an ally of Germany 
would increase Germany's petroleum difficulties. The 
authors consider that one of the few ways in which Germany 
could avoid or lessen the dangers of a petroleum shortage 
would be to make peace or bring the war to a successful 
conclusion before she has exhausted her stored supply of 
petroleum products. 

*(At rate of seven barrels to the ton J 

FLOOD PROTECTION IN THE LONDON TUBES 

The Engineer, October 13, 1939 

An announcement issued by the Ministry of Information 
gives a short account of the work in progress on that section 
of the Northern Line between Kennington and Strand, 
which has been closed to traffic since Thursday, August 31. 
At this point of the line the tube tunnels run under the 
river and electrically-operated flood gates, which can be 
closed across the tunnels, are being installed at Waterloo 
and Strand on the Charing Cross branch of the railway, 
in order to enable these sections of the line to be isolated 
during an air raid, so as to prevent any possibility of flood- 
ing which might arise as a result of damage to the tunnels 
under the river. On the Bakerloo line, which also runs 
under the river, flood gates have been installed at Waterloo 
and Charing Cross. As a temporary precaution while the 
work of installation is in progress on the Northern Line, 
concrete bulkheads have been constructed in the tunnels 
at Charing Cross and Waterloo. These will be removed as 
soon as the flood gates are in position, and the normal 
train service will then be restored, the gates only being 
shut when an air raid warning is received. The gates, which 
are made of built-up steel, slide horizontally into position 
within a specially constructed framework and they are de- 
signed to be operated either electrically or by hand. For 
their power operation, which is controlled by a push-button, 
alternative supplies of electric current are available. The 
gates are designed to resist a force of 200 tons, which is 
far in excess of any pressure that might have to be borne. 
They can be closed within three minutes of the order to 
close them being received. The gates on the Bakerloo line 
have been closed during each of the recent air raid warnings, 
and their closing was accomplished well within this time 
limit. An interlocking device, which ensures that the gates 
cannot be closed while there is a train on any of the sections 
of the line isolated by the closing of the gates, is provided. 
A specially-trained staff is in continuous attendance at each 
of the gates, and the closing signal is acknowledged elec- 
trically from the operators' control cabins, in which are 
illuminated diagrams indicating whether the under-river 
sections of the line are clear of trains or not. The sections 
of the northern line between Moorgate and London Bridge 
are also temporarily sealed with concrete bulkheads, and 
the London Passenger Transport Board now awaits the 
decision of the Ministry of Transport as to whether flood 
gates should be installed. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



89 




REVIEW 

A study of the annual reports from committees and 
branches of the Institute is a large undertaking, but for 
those who are not privileged to visit every branch it is the 
only way to get a grasp of the breadth of the Institute's 
interests and activities. These reports are printed in this 
number of the Journal and are presented by Council for 
the consideration of the entire membership. 

Finance 

It has become common practice to gauge success in terms 
of dollars and cents. This is not a true standard, but at 
least it is convenient and concise. A perusal of the financial 
statement will show that from this angle 1939 has been a 
successful year. The surplus is substantially larger than 
has been declared for several years, although there has 
been a steady improvement over that period of time. If 
this acceleration can be maintained it will permit the 
Institute to render a greater service to the members, and 
will make possible a widening of the field of activities that 
will be of benefit to all. 

An analysis of the figures shows that the surplus comes 
from an increase in both sources of revenue, i.e. fees and 
Journal advertising, and a general decrease in expenditures. 
The largest single decrease comes from the fact that our 
membership list was not printed in 1939, whereas in 1938 
the entire number of the December Journal was given up 
to it. This is an expenditure which has to be faced over 
short periods of time, and doubtless before long will again 
appear in the financial statement. 

The principal increase in revenue comes from the various 
membership fees. In the first place the collection of arrears 
was approximately a thousand dollars ahead of last year. 
By virtue of an increase in new memberships the income 
from admission fees is up as is also the collection of current 
fees. In all, revenue from fees is better than last year by 
almost twenty-two hundred dollars. 

Membership 

The membership roll of all grades now totals 4,813 which 
is an increase of 183 over 1938. The persistent work of 
membership committees, the interest of branch officers and 
the visits of presidents to branches, have steadily raised the 
membership figures until now it is the highest that it has 
been in fifteen years. It is gratifying to know that this 
accretion continues year after year with only occasional 
interruptions and without any modification or slackening 
in the qualifications for membership. It is proof of health 
and strength and justification of purpose. 

Expenditures 

Control of expenditures can be regulated only within 
comparatively moderate limits. Fortunately cost does not 
increase in proportion to increases in membership, which 
at least partially explains the improved showing for last 
year. Of equal significance is the fact that cost does not 
decrease proportionally with a reduction in membership — ■ 
a fact which may be forced upon our attention before long, 
because of war conditions. 

Council has already ruled that fees will be remitted upon 
request to members serving overseas. This is as it should 
be, but when it is recalled that almost a thousand members 
served in France in the last war, it becomes apparent that 
revenue is going to be affected without a corresponding 



reduction in expense. This makes more than ever necessary, 
the staunch support of members who are not on active 
service. The maintenance of membership, the prompt pay- 
ment of fees, an increase in interest in branch activities 
will permit the Institute to carry on with unabated effort 
and success in spite of the reduction in income which is 
likely to develop. Under continued war conditions, oppor- 
tunities for service will probably become greater. Only the 
genuine whole hearted support of the membership will 
make it possible for the Institute to meet these oppor- 
tunities, and fulfil the obligations which are present at a 
time like this. 

General 

A further study of reports will show substantial progress 
in the development of co-operative arrangements with pro- 
vincial professional associations; increased activity in 
international relationships; progress towards better serving 
the needs of the young engineer; plans for improving the 
library and many other items of general interest. The 
reports from branches indicate that an active year has been 
experienced and that finances are in excellent condition. 

1940 

It is encouraging to face the future with such a year of 
successful accomplishment in the immediate past. There is 
no use being blind to the possibilities of war and its adverse 
effect on Institute affairs, but neither is there anything to 
be gained by letting the black clouds of international dis- 
turbance entirely block the view of the future. The future 
will come and must be met, and in it will be found greater 
opportunities to serve that may permit the Institute to 
reach new levels of attainment, both for its members and 
for Canada. 

A NEW ERA IS INAUGURATED 

The Halifax engineers enjoy an enviable reputation for 
organizing "active" functions for the professional group. 
Certainly the dinner of January 25th came within that 
category, and as well as providing the background for the 
formal signing of the co-operative agreement between the 
Association and the Institute, afforded a happy reunion 
for two hundred members of the two organizations. 

That the signing of the agreement was appreciated as 
an event of great importance was indicated by the formal 
ceremony that accompanied it. At a table set on a stage 
where all the audience could see it, the Presidents and 
Secretaries signed on behalf of their organizations, and 
prominent engineers who had been active over years of 
negotiation signed as witnesses. The applause that greeted 
the consummation of this new basis of operation was 
encouraging evidence that it met with the approval of all 
engineers in the province. 

The agreement becomes effective from the first of the 
year. Its wording indicates that its principal objective is 
the establishment of a common membership and a common 
fee, but something of even greater significance is made 
possible, although it is not so clearly indicated in the 
phrasing of the document itself. This is that a common 
front and a common cause are now established, and that 
for the future unified efforts are available to advance the 
welfare of the profession, and for the further development 
of the interests of the public. Surely such objectives justify 
the patient efforts of those members of each society who 
have for several years given generously of their time and 
thought. This concluding ceremony in Halifax must have 
brought great satisfaction to them all. 

During the banquet the President of the Institute traced 
the history of engineering organization in the province, 
giving the names of several who were active years 
ago, and whose careers are still fresh in the minds of many 
in the audience, although most of them have long since 
departed this life. A great debt is owed by the present 
generation to those pioneers in engineering and in engineer- 
ing organization, whose efforts to establish the calling as 



90 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



a profession, and the profession as a unit, reached its 
highest peak with the signing of this co-operative agreement 
in Halifax. 

The working of the agreement requires the establishment 
of certain new procedures which are now underway. A 
change in accounting methods, collections, rebates, admin- 
istration and so on, become necessary, but they present 
no obstacles. Members will notice these changes and will 
be glad to facilitate the establishment of a new and better 
order, to the end that the profession may advance in the 
eyes of its own members as well as those of the public. 

THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL 
ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 

The election of 1940 officers and council of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Ontario was announced on 
January 27th at the general meeting of the association at 
the Royal York Hotel in Toronto. At this well attended 
gathering, the retiring President, W. P. Dobson, relinquish- 
ed office in favour of his successor, J. W. Rawlins of Toronto. 
A specialist in mining engineering, Mr. Rawlins has served 
the International Nickel Company in a variety of technical 
capacities for 34 years. 

The Vice-president is S. R. Frost, sales director of North 
American Cyanamid Limited, Toronto; the registrar, 
M. Barry Watson, consulting engineer, Toronto; and 
Walter McKay is secretary-treasurer. 

The members of council, representing the various branches 
of the profession, are as follows: 

Civil Engineers on Council: 

W. E. P. Duncan, m.e.i.c, General Superintendent, 
Toronto Transportation Commission, Toronto. 

J. Clark Keith, a. m.e.i.c, General Manager, Windsor 
Utilities Commission, Windsor. 

Warren C. Miller, m.e.i.c, City Engineer and Treasurer, 
St. Thomas. 

Chemical Engineers on Council: 

R. M. Coleman, Smelter Superintendent, International 
Nickel Co., Copper Cliff. 

R. A. Elliott, Assistant General Manager, Deloro Smelt- 
ing and Refining Co. Ltd., Deloro. 

E. T. Sterne, Manager, G. F. Sterne & Sons, Brantford. 

Electrical Engineers on Council: 

H. A. Cooch, m.e.i.c, Vice-President, Canadian West- 
inghouse Co., Hamilton. 

Commander C. P. Edwards, a. m.e.i.c, o.b.e., Chief of 
Air Services, Dept. of Transport, Ottawa. 

W. S. Ewens, Vice-President, Sangamo Co. Ltd., Toronto. 

Mechanical Engineers on Council: 

C. C. Cariss, Chief Engineer, Waterous Ltd., Brantford. 
L. T. Rutledge, m.e.i.c, Associate Professor of Mechan- 
ical Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston. 

K. R. Rybka, m.e.i.c, Associate W. J. Armstrong, Con- 
sulting Engineer, Toronto. 

Mining Engineers on Council: 

P. D. P. Hamilton, Associate Manager, General Engineer- 
ing Co. (Canada) Ltd., Toronto. 

G. A. Howes, Macassa Mines Ltd., Kirkland Lake. 

D. G. Sinclair, Ass't. Deputy Minister, Dept. of Mines, 
Ontario. 

The New Pkesident 

Active in the interests of the profession for many years, 
Mr. Rawlins has been a member of the Association since 
1923. For fourteen years he has been government repre- 
sentative on the chemical branch of the council and was 
chairman of the finance committee of the Association in 
1939. 

Born in Manchester, England, he came to Canada early 
in life and received his preliminary education in the schools 



of Perth, Ontario. At Queen's University he took the mining 
engineering course and graduated with the degree B.A. 
and B.Sc. In September, 1901, he joined the International 
Nickel Company (then the Canadian Copper Company). 

For a number of years Mr. Rawlins was chief chemist at 
Copper Cliff and afterwards served the industry in a variety 
of posts. During the war he was assistant smelter super- 
intendent and later metallurgist. In 1927 he became assist- 
ant general superintendent at the Port Colborne refinery 
and in 1931 returned to Copper Cliff as technical assistant 




J. W. Rawlins 

to the general manager, a post he retained until his retire- 
ment from active service in 1935. 

His interest in civic affairs has led him to take an active 
interest in problems of employment and when the Com- 
mittee for the Stimulation of Employment was formed at 
the instance of Dr. F. J. Conboy, he was appointed to the 
General Placement Committtee. 

CANADIAN ENGINEERING STANDARDS ASSOCIA- 
TION SPECIFICATIONS 

In connection with the war, the C.E.S. A. is acting as a 
medium for the submitting of proposals, on behalf of Cana- 
dian industry, through the British Standards Institution, 
to the British Army, Navy and Air Force, looking to the 
possible substitution of Canadian products for those speci- 
fied to British Standards, which may be difficult to obtain 
under existing conditions. 

In addition to its own Canadian Standards, the Associa- 
tion has on file the publications of all the principal national 
standardizing bodies. 

C.E.S. A. Specifications may be obtained from the Asso- 
ciation, National Research Building, Ottawa, at 50c. per 
copy (with a few exceptions for specially expensive publica- 
tions) subject to discount on large orders. 

In accordance with the regular practice of the Associa- 
tion, the following standards have been prepared with the 
co-operation and approval of producer and consumer 
interests, trade associations, educational institutions, the 
railways, insurance interests and interested departments of 
Dominion and Provincial governments. 

During their preparation the appropriate committees 
made reference to analogous publications of the British 
Standards Institution, standardizing bodies of other 
British nations, the American Society for Testing Materials, 
the American Standards Association, the National Elec- 
trical Manufacturers' Association, Underwriters' Labora- 
tories, Inc., etc. 

A list of specifications, issued, and in progress is given 
on page 99 of this Journal. It indicates the wide range of 
the Association's activities as of December 1939. Fuller 
information will be found in its quarterly Bulletins. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



91 



CORRESPONDENCE 

THE EDITOR, 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL, 

Dear Sir: 

In the very excellent paper, "The Domes of St. Joseph's 
Basilica, Montreal," by M. Cailloux, which appeared in the 
October, 1939, issue of The Engineering Journal, reference 
is made to bolted clamps which were used in splicing the 
hoop steel. Since this is an unusual method, I suggest that 
Monsieur Cailloux be requested to supply, for publication 
in the Journal, a more detailed description of these clamps 
and the tests which were made on them. 

Yours very truly, 

C. F. MORRISON, 

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, 

University of Toronto. 
21st December, 1939. 



In the main dome the quantity of clamps used was: 
796 two-bolt clamps and 1,057 one-bolt clamps. The rein- 
forcing bars used were about 60 ft. long for the % in. and 




Bolted clamps in place. 



THE EDITOR, 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL, 

Dear Sir : 

In reply to the request of Professor C. F. Morrison of 
the University of Toronto for a more detailed description 
of the clamps used in splicing the hoop steel in the domes 
of the Basilica of St. Joseph in Montreal, I am pleased to 
offer the following comments. 

In planning the erection of the hoop steel for the domes 
of the Basilica of St. Joseph in Montreal, it was found that 
welding of the reinforcing bars was impracticable, and yet 
I wanted a perfect continuity in the bar stresses. 

To obtain this I first hooked the ends of the bars and 
lapped them a sufficient distance to transfer the stress 
through the concrete, but I wanted absolute certainty that 
each hoop would work for itself and also that the bars 
would not get displaced and thus lose continuity. 

Then I thought of splicing the bars with bolted clamps 
and my choice fell on ordinary standard pole line guy 
clamps; I then asked the Steel Company of Canada to 
furnish me with samples of these clamps, but not galvan- 
ized, as I wanted a perfect bond with the concrete. 

In the Steel Company of Canada testing room, tests 
were made with different clamps on bars of different sizes 
and we obtained the following results: 



Bar size Type of guy clamps 

34 i n - round One clamp with one bolt 

Y% i n - round One clamp with one bolt 

Yi in. round One clamp with two bolts 

Y% i n - round One clamp with two bolts 



Tension at 
first slipping 

2,925 lb. 
3,440 lb. 
5,500 lb. 
6,215 lb. 



During these tests we found that for 34 m - an d % in. 
bars two-bolt guy clamps were no better than the same 
clamp sawn in two, and with only one-bolt, so we adopted 
this new clamp and had the Steel Company manufacture 
this one-bolt clamp, not usually on the market, by simply 
shearing a two-bolt clamp in two. 

As our bars ranged only in sizes from 34 in. to ^ in. 
round, we tried black clamps with one, two and three bolts 
on bars of the above sizes and came to the conclusion, after 
numerous tests, that the above arrangements were giving 
us the best results, with tightening of the bolts not a very 
critical item. Of course, the bolts had to be sufficiently 
tightened but the use of extra long wrenches, with handles 
longer than ten inches, did not give us any greater tension 
at first slipping. 

By studying the tensions at first slipping in the above 
table it was found that these tensions were greater than the 
permissible loads for the steel if stressed to 18,000 lb. per 
sq. in., so I came to the conclusion that the desired end had 
been attained. 



Yi in. bars, and about 40 ft. long for the Y% in. and 34 in. 
bars, except on the very top where bars had to be shorter 
on account of the small diameter of the hoops. 

Yours very truly, 

MAXIME CAILLOUX, CE. 

Associated Engineers Limited. 
Montreal, Que. 



January 10, 1940. 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on January 20th, 1940, the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 

Jones, Evan Stennett, district engineer, Dept. of Public Works of 
B.C., Cranbrook, B.C. 

Potter, Russell Elmer, b.sc (Civil), (Univ. of Sask.), chief engr., 
city of New Westminster, B.C. 

Wright, William James Turnbull, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), asso- 
ciate professor of engineering drawing, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Associate Members 

Baty, James Bernard, b.s. (Civil), (A. & M. Coll. of Texas"), asst. 
professor, dept. of civil engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont. 

Cape, Gordon, b.sc (Civil), (McGill Univ.), chief inspector, Do- 
minion Bridge Co. Ltd., Lachine, Que. 

Juniors 

Alton, William, b.sc (Physics), (Queen's Univ.), Lieut., R.C.C.S., 

C.A.S.F., Kingston, Ont. 
Stiles, Douglas Duncan, b.a.sc (Civil), (Univ. of Toronto), gen. asst. 

to E. A. Cross, m.e.i.c, Toronto, Ont. 

Affiliates 

Farand, Laurent Charles, Quebec land surveyor, with J. M. O. 
Lachance, Montreal, Que. 

Frederick, Stanley Edward, central office man, Maritime Telephone 
and Telegraph Co., Sydney, N.S. 

Haltrecht, Arnold, Dipl. Ing. (Technical School, Darmstadt), pro- 
prietor, Electroradio Engineering Company, Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Associate Member 

Buchanan, Edward Trevor, b.sc. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), asst. 

master mechanic, Consolidated Paper Corporation, Shawinigan 

Falls, Que. 
Reid, Kenneth, b.sc. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), asst. elect'l. engr., City 

of Victoria, B.C. 
Sandwell, Percy Ritchie, b.a.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of B.C.), asst. to 

the chief engr., paper machy. dept., Dominion Engineering Works, 

Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Associate Member 

Welsh, James Gordon, b.a.sc (Civil), (Univ. of Toronto), checking 
and design, Horton Steel Works Ltd., Fort Erie North, Ont. 

Williams, David G., Flight-Lieut., m.sc (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), 
Signals Officer, Western Air Command, R.C.A.F., Vancouver, B.C. 



92 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
McKee, Gordon Hanford Whitehead, B.Eng., (McGill Univ.), m.bus. 
adm. (Harvard Univ.), instructor in business administration, 
University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. 

Students Admitted 
Armstrong, Howard Elgin, (Queen's Univ.), 557 Johnston St., 

Kingston, Ont. 
Baker, Benjamin, (Univ. of Man.), 307 Princeton Apts., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Hughes, Gerald Francis George, (Univ. of N.B.), 7055 Bloomfield 

Avenue, Montreal, Que. 



Hunter, Douglas David, (McGill Univ.), 156 24th Ave., Lachine, 

Que. 
Lee, John Douglas, (Queen's Univ.), 45 Second Ave., Brantford, Ont. 
Madill, Joseph Tindale, b.sc (Univ. of Alta.), The Graduate House, 

Mass. Inst. Tech., Cambridge, Mass. 
Moull, William Crawford, b.a.so. (Elec), (Univ. of Toronto), 313 

Maitland Ave., Peterborough, Ont. 
Newby, William Murrav, (Queen's Univ.), 97 Light St., Woodstock, 

Ont. 
Nicolson, Robert, b.sc (Civil), (Univ. of Alta), 1211 17th Ave. W., 

Calgary, Alta. 



Personals 



J. E. Armstrong, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, was elected president of the 
Canadian Railway Club at the annual meeting held in 
Montreal last month. 

W. Taylor-Bailey, m.e.i.c, vice-president and general 
manager of the Dominion Bridge Company, Limited, is 
the new treasurer of the Montreal Board of Trade. 

Lt.-Col. M. M. Dillon, m.c, a. m.e.i.c, who had been 
since 1936, commanding officer of the Canadian Fusiliers 
(Machine Gun) of London, Ont., has recently been trans- 
ferred to the staff of the machine gun training centre for 
western Canada at Saskatoon, Sask. Lt.-Col. Dillon 
has been active in the militia since 1915 when he was 
commissioned at the age of 20 as a lieutenant in the Norfolk 
Rifles. He went overseas in 1916 and in 1917 went to 
France with the Motor Machine Gun Corps. He returned 
to Canada with the rank of captain in May, 1919, when 
he was demobilized. Some years ago when the Canadian 
Machine Gun Association was formed, Col. Dillon took 
an active part in its organization and in November of last 
year he was elected president of the Infantry and Machine 
Gun Association of Canada. 

Col. Dillon is well known as a structural engineer, having 
designed many important buildings in London, Ont., and 
outside. 

Major S. W. Archibald, m.e.i.c, has been appointed to 
replace Lt.-Col. Dillon, a. m.e.i.c, in command of the 
Canadian Fusiliers (Machine Gun), of London, Ont. Major 
Archibald has had long military experience, having first 
enlisted as a private in the 119th Battalion, Canadian 
Expeditionary Forces, in 1916 at the age of 20. He was 
wounded at Cambrai in France and upon demobilization 
in 1918 he was a lieutenant in the Algonquin Rifles. He 
has been active in the non-permanent active militia service 
and in 1936 he received the appointment of Major in 
the Canadian Fusiliers. 

Major Archibald is prominent in the municipal engineer- 
ing field. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto 
with a degree of B.A.Sc. in civil engineering, and is an 
Ontario Land Surveyor. He was a demonstrator with the 
faculty of applied science with the University of Toronto 
in 1923 and instructor in charge of engineering drawing 
and mathematics at the Sault Ste. Marie Technical School. 
He engaged in municipal engineering practice in Seaforth 
from 1925 to 1931 when he came to London to carry on a 
similar practice. 

C. A. Norris, a.m. e. i.e., has joined the staff of the Engineer- 
ing and Contract Record in Toronto. He was graduated 
from the University of Toronto in 1923 with the degree of 
B.A.Sc. He has been for many years a construction engineer 
with Bremner Norris and Company, Ltd. of Montreal. For 
some time he was with G. R. Locker Company in Montreal. 

H. J. Vennes, a.m. e. i.e., is the newly elected chairman 
of the Montreal Branch of the Institute for 1940. 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



Mr. Vennes has long been an active member of the 
Institute and on several occasions has delivered papers on 
various advanced subjects, some of which have been pub- 
lished in the Journal. Born in 1888, Mr. Vennes came from 
Norway to the United States in 1892. He graduated from 
the University of Minnesota in 1916 with a b.a. degree, 
and spent five years at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 
New York. Coming to Canada from New York in 1921, 
when the first carrier current telephone systems were being 
installed here, he remained in this country ever since, be- 




ll. J. Vennes, A. M.E.I.C. 

coming a Canadian citizen and highly regarded throughout 
the Dominion as an outstanding communications engineer. 
He has had much to do with the design and installation 
of the many carrier current telephone and telegraph systems, 
radio broadcasting stations, sound pictures and public 
address systems in this country since their introduction, 
and was largely responsible for the many allied develop- 
ments of Northern Electric in this country, including the 
famous first radio "Peanut" tube and radio receivers in 
which it was used, and also other electrical devices now 
so generally used in communication systems, motion 
picture, aviation radio devices and the Hammond electric 
organ. 

His term of office should mean a notable year for the 
Montreal Branch. 

L. A. Duchastel, a. m.e.i.c, has been elected secretary- 
treasurer of the Montreal Branch of the Institute, replacing 
E. R. Smallhorn, a. m.e.i.c, who had filled this office for 
the last three years. Upon graduation from the Ecole Poly- 
technique of Montreal, where he received the degree of 
b.a.Sc. in 1927, Mr. Duchastel joined the Shawinigan 
Water & Power Company in Montreal. He was connected 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



93 



with the preliminary study and the design of the Company's 
hydro-electric developments on the upper St. Maurice river 
in the province of Quebec, particularly with the Rapide 
Blanc development. Later, he was engaged in a cost survey 
of all the Company's power houses. He is now a power 
sales engineer in the Commercial and Distribution Depart- 
ment of the Company. Mr. Duchastel has always taken an 
active interest in the Institute affairs, especially in the 
Junior Section of the Montreal Branch, having been chair- 
man in 1936. 

Major Edward T. Renouf, a.m. e. i.e., is commanding the 
7th Medium Battery, Royal Canadian Artillery. He was 
educated at McGill University where he received the degree 
of Bachelor of Science in 1923. Upon graduation, he went 
with Chas. Walmsley Company of Canada, Limited and 
spent two years in shop work and draughting. From 1925 
to 1927, he was engineer in charge of the layout of amiesite 
on highways in the province of Quebec, with the Société 
Générale des Ponts et Chaussées, Limitée. From 1927 to 
date, Major Renouf has been production manager and 
editor of technical and scientific books with the Renouf 
Publishing Company in Montreal. 

James R. B. Milne, a.m.e.i.c., has accepted the position 
of assistant manager with the Northern Foundry and 
Machine Company, at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. After having 
served five years, designing and erecting naval machinery 
at H.M. Dockyard, Rosyth, Scotland, he joined Price 
Brothers & Co., Limited, Kenogami, Que., where he was 
for twelve years, the last four of which he was mechanical 
superintendent. His last appointment was for three years 
as mechanical superintendent at Spruce Falls Power & 
Paper Company, Kapuskasing, Ont. 

Donald Ross, a.m.e.i.c., has joined the staff of the Can- 
adian Industries Limited, in Hamilton, Ont., where he is 
engaged in the construction of a new plant. A graduate in 
civil engineering from the University of New Brunswick 
in 1937, he was for a few months assistant engineer on the 
reconstruction of the harbour of Saint John, N.B. Later 
he entered Price Brothers Limited, at Riverbend, Que., 
where he was engaged in construction work. From May, 
1938, until his recent appointment, he was engineer in 
charge of concrete and buildings on the construction of 
the Newfoundland Airport. 

E. M. MacLeod, jr.E.i.c., has accepted a position with the 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company, at La Tuque, Que. 
He was previously with the J. R. Booth Company, Limited, 
at Ottawa. 

Pilot Officer J. Lalonde, s.e.i.c., is now stationed at 
Trenton, Ont. He joined the Royal Canadian Air Force 
upon graduation from the Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal 
in the spring of 1939. 

D. P. MacNeil, Jr.E.i.c., is now in the mechanical depart- 
ment of the Steel Company of Canada Limited, in Montreal. 
Since graduation in mechanical engineering from the Nova 
Scotia Technical College in 1936, he had been with the 
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, Limited, at Glace 
Bay, N.S. 

J. L. Paré, s.e.i.c, is at present at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., doing post- 
graduate work. He was graduated in civil engineering from 
the Ecole Polytechnique in 1939 and has been since with 
the Société d'Entreprises Générales, Limitée, at Amos, Que. 

T. S. McMillan, s.e.i.c, has joined the staff of the Can- 
adian Industries Limited, at Brownsburg, Que. He is a 
graduate in civil engineering from the University of New 
Brunswick and had been, since graduation in 1937, engaged 
in road construction in New Brunswick. 

H. J. Lemieux, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position as sales 
and service engineer with the Anti-Hydro of Canada, 



Limited, in Montreal. A graduate from the Ecole Poly- 
technique in 1939, he was previously with the Provincial 
Department of Public Works in Quebec. 

E. R. Hyman, s.e.i.c, is now engaged in oil fields develop- 
ment with the Trinidad Leaseholds, Limited, in Trinidad, 
British West Indies. He was graduated as a Bachelor of 
Science from the University of Manitoba in 1934 and from 
the Royal Military College at Kingston in 1938. He obtained 
his M.ss. degree in civil engineering from the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology in 1939. 



Obituaries 



George Sanford Davis, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at his 
home in Ottawa on December 29th, 1939. He was born at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, on November 28th, 1874, and received 
his education in the local schools. He acquired his engineer- 
ing training with various companies in the United States 
and came to Canada in 1905 to join the Canadian General 
Electric Company as construction superintendent. He was 
later district engineer in Ottawa and also in Montreal. 
In 1920, he entered consulting practice as electrical en- 
gineer with J. M. Robertson of Montreal. For the past two 
years Mr. Davis had been a resident of Ottawa where he 
was employed as electrical engineer for the Department of 
National Defence. 

Mr. Davis had joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1921 and he had been transferred to Member 
in 1928. He was also a Life Member of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

Edward Arthur Evans, m.e.i.c, died in Quebec City on 
January 22nd, 1940. He was born on February 26th, 1855, 
in England and received his education at the Royal Naval 
College, Portsmouth, and at King's College, London, 
England. 

Mr. Evans began his career as an engineer in the offices 
of Joseph Phillips, civil engineer and contractor, Victoria, 
Westminster, London, in January, 1870. In 1884, after 
some years as a contractor's engineer on waterworks and 
railway construction in England he came to Canada and 
was engaged in surveys and construction of various branch 
lines now part of the Canadian Pacific Railway, in Ontario 
and Quebec. He made some of the preliminary surveys for 
the Quebec bridge and then was resident engineer in charge 
of the construction of the Quebec terminals of the Quebec 
and Lake St. John Railway, reballasting and general com- 
pletion of the Chicoutimi branch. He was in charge of the 
final surveys of the Great Northern Railway of Canada, 
now part of the Canadian National Railways and also 
made the surveys and soundings for the Hawkesbury 
bridge of the same railway. In 1895 he became chief 
engineer of the Quebec, Montmorency and Charlevoix 
Railway, and built the electric street railway system in 
the city of Quebec, and in 1897 he was made general 
manager and chief engineer of the two systems and also the 
Montmorency Electric Power Company, all now forming 
part of the Quebec Power Compnay. In 1910 he resigned 
to go into private practice as a consulting engineer, being 
responsible for the construction of many engineering works 
in different parts of the province. 

He was in active work for 68 years. In 1938 increasing 
years compelled his retirement. 

He was one of the oldest surviving members of the 
Institute, having joined it as a Member in 1887 when it 
was founded as the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 

Frank McDonnell, m.e.i.c, died at Ottawa on December 
19th, 1939. He was born at Randalstown, Ireland, on 
October 18th, 1877. He received his education at the Royal 
Institute of Ireland and at the Technical Institute of Bel- 
fast. Upon his arrival in this country, he entered the. Marine 



94 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Department of the Dominion Government as a mechanical 
engineer and six years later he became assistant to the chief 
of the steamship inspection service in the Department. 
Nine years later, he was made chairman of the Board of 
Steamship Inspection, a position which he still occupied at 
the time of his death. 

Mr. McDonnell joined the Institute as a Member in 1921. 

Lt.-Col. Duncan MacPherson, m.e.i.c, died at his home 
in Toronto on January 2nd, 1940. He was born near Bath, 
Ont., on February 2nd, 1858. He was a member of the first 
class to be graduated by the Royal Military College in 
1880. 

Upon graduation he joined the staff of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway as divisional engineer in Montreal. After 
twenty-five years there he joined the Canadian National 
Railways as assistant chief engineer at Ottawa. 

In 1916 he offered his services to the government and 
was made second in command of the 21 camps for enemy 
aliens in Canada. He held this position until 1920. At that 
time he retired from both civil and military life. 

Colonel MacPherson joined the Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers as a Member upon its foundation in 1887. 
He was made a Life Member of the Institute in 1926. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

A. Rabin, a.m. e. i.e., Resident Engineer, Quebec North 
Shore Paper Company, from Baie Comeau, Que., on 
January 2. 

Lieut. -Cmdr. W. S. E. Morrison, A.M.E.I.C., Engineering 
Officer of Barracks, from Halifax, N.S., on January 2. 

Gaston Dufour, s.E.i.c, Public Works Department of 
Canada, from Quebec, on January 3. 

Paul Vincent, Jr. e. i.e., Department of Colonization of 
the Province of Quebec, from Quebec, on January 3. 



A. G. Moore, a.m. e. i.e., Resident Engineer, Cie Immobi- 
lière de Ste-Marguerite, from Lake Masson, Que., on 
January 4. 

G. E. Booker, a. m.e.i.c., from Uxbridge, Ont., on Jan- 
uary 6. 

Donald Ross, a.m. e. i.e., from Saint John, N.B., on Jan- 
uary 8. 

H. G. Cochrane, a. m.e.i.c., from Saint John, N.B., on 

January 8. 

T. S. McMillan, s.e.i.c., from Jacquet River, N.B., on 
January 9. 

Charles Miller, a. m.e.i.c, Hydraulic Engineer, Saguenay 
Power Company, Limited, from Arvida, Que., on January 16. 

F. L. Lawton, m.e.i.c., Chief Engineer, Saguenay Power 
Company, Limited, from Arvida, Que., on January 17. 

C. E. Garrett, m.e.i.c, President, Gorman's Limited, from 
Edmonton, Alta., on January 20. 

Past-President G. J. Desbarats, C.M.G., Hon.M.E.i.c, 
from Ottawa, E. Viens, m.e.i.c, Director of the Laboratory 
for Testing Materials, Department of Public Works, from 
Ottawa, E. B. Wardle, m.e.i.c, Chief Engineer, Consoli- 
dated Paper Corporation, Limited, from Grand'Mère, Que., 
on January 20. 

W. B. Cuthbertson, s.e.i.c, from Saint John, N.B., on 
January 22. 

H. C. Fitz-James, a. m.e.i.c, Vice-President and Mgr., 
Pacific Coast Pipe Company, from Vancouver, B.C., on 
January 25. 

J. L. Paré, s.e.i.c, of the Société d'Entreprises Générales, 
Limitée, from Amos, Que., on January 25. 

J. R. Carter, a. m.e.i.c, from Kenora, Ont., on January 29. 



News of the Branches 



EDMONTON BRANCH 

B. W. Pitfield, A. m.e.i.c. - Secretary-T 'reasurer 
J. W. Porteous, Jr.E.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

Professor E. A. Hardy, of the University of Saskatchewan, 
was the speaker at the January Meeting of the Edmonton 
Branch of the E.I.C. After a dinner at the Macdonald 
Hotel, Mr. Hardy entertained the members with a delight- 
fully informal talk on The Development of the Com- 
bustion Chamber of Internal Combustion Engines. 
Using slides for illustration, the speaker traced the com- 
bustion chamber from earlier forms to those used in modern 
automobiles. Probably the most important factor in the 
design is to get away from detonation and at the same time 
to allow a high compression ratio and as much advance in 
timing as possible. The factors considered are the shape 
of the chamber and the position of the spark plug. One 
of the chief problems at the present time is to get a chamber 
which will function economically when the engine is 
throttled down to small fractions of its maximum power, 
since this is the condition under which automobile engines 
operate during a large percentage of the time. 

After a number of questions were asked and a hearty 
vote of thanks given the meeting adjourned. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

A. R. Hannaford, a. m.e.i.c, - Secretary-Treasurer 
W. E. Brown, e.i.c, - - - Branch News Editor. 

The annual business meeting and dinner of the Branch 
was held at the Rock Garden Lodge, on Friday, January 
12, 1940. There were forty-six members and guests present 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



and the visitors included Dr. A. E. Berry, Chairman of the 
Toronto Branch and A. W. F. McQueen, Chairman of the 
Niagara Peninsula Branch together with the Secretary- 
Treasurer, Mr. G. E. Griffiths. The meeting and dinner was 
presided over by John Dunbar, the retiring Chairman. 

After the reading of the annual report of the Branch the 
election of officers for the year was approved and a Branch 
Nominating Committee elected. General business was dis- 
cussed and various motions carried, of which the Institute 
will hear more later. 

Following the business session the guest speaker of the 
evening, Mr. W. A. Aiken, B.A., gave an interesting and 
instructive talk, entitled The Historians' Debt to the 
Engineer. E. G. MacKay moved a vote of thanks to the 
speaker followed by a vote of thanks to the retiring Execu- 
tive by W. Hollingworth. 

Mr. McQueen had previously, in well chosen words, 
replied to the toast to the visitors. E. P. Muntz spoke 
briefly in his usual vein of encouragement to all those trying 
to put the profession where it belongs. W. L. McFaul 
spoke to the members requesting that every effort be made 
to attend and support the Annual General meeting in 
Toronto next month. 

At this point Mr. Dunbar turned the chair over to Mr. 
Alec. Love, the new Chairman of the Branch for the year 
1940, who closed the meeting after a brief address. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



95 



LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The Lethbridge Branch held a dinner meeting on 
Saturday, January 6th, the occasion being Ladies' Night. 
During the dinner instrumental music was provided by the 
George Brown Orchestra. Mrs. Clarence Jackson sang 
Scottish songs, and a male quartette composed of Messrs 
Standen, Green, Brown and Pizzy gave a number of 
selections. Mr. Bob Lawrence led the gathering in com- 
munity singing. 

The guest speaker was Miss Hildur Sandquist, who gave 
an address on a trip she had made through Central Europe 
in the summer of 1939, just prior to the outbreak of hostil- 
ities. Miss Sandquist's trip took her from Sweden through 
the Baltic States and Poland to Danzig, where everything 
was in a ferment over the question of affiliation with 
Germany. On south, through Poland, there was little 
evidence of preparation for war, the peasantry seeming 
very unconcerned though the hotel-keepers were worried 
over the situation and tourist trade was almost at a stand- 
still. In Slovakia, Hungary and Austria the same conditions 
prevailed, though in Vienna there were signs of disturbance, 
and no motor routes were open to the north on account 
of reported civil disturbances. This necessitated returning 
through Slovakia and Poland in order to enter Germany, 
and as the Polish frontier was left, thousands of German 
mechanized units were met speeding towards the boundary 
line. The German food was found to be scarce and of poor 
quality, and the air was electric with warlike preparations, 
so the motorists travelled quickly to the Baltic coast and 
managed to get back to Sweden before hostilities broke out. 

MONCTON BRANCH 

V. C. Blackett, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

On December 15th the Moncton Branch tendered a 
complimentary dinner to Dean H. W. McKiel, president 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada. The dinner was 
held in the Palm Room of the Brunswick Hotel. F. O. 
Condon presided, and at this meeting was elected chairman 
of the branch, succeeding Lt.-Col. F. L. West, who is 
retiring on account of active service with the Canadian 
Forces. There was a large attendance, including not only 
members of the Institute but also the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of New Brunswick. After the toast to 
the King, a toast to the president was proposed by H. J. 
Crudge, past-president of the professional association. 

Speaking in reply, President McKiel said his presidential 
year had been the most enjoyable of his life. The Institute 
to-day, he stated, is a tower of strength, definitely not on 
the downward path. It is the most vigorous organization 
in Canada and compares with any engineering body in the 
United States. His recent tour of the branches had shown 
him Canadian engineers are a unit, the same type of man 
everywhere you go. The engineer is looked upon by the 
public as a man who can be trusted. His integrity is re- 
cognized by all. 

Tracing the growth in viewpoint, the speaker said the 
engineer of yesterday was concerned only with the technical 
excellence of his work. If his product was technically cor- 
rect, he was satisfied. From this acceptance of his own task, 
the engineer was inevitably judged by his fellow citizen as 
merely a tradesman, perhaps a highly educated mechanic. 
To-day the engineer realized the same undeniable demand 
for accuracy, but his narrow viewpoint has advanced. He 
now asks unconsciously "Is this project necessary? Can 
the country afford it and absorb it ?" This recognition of 
our debt to society, said the president, has accomplished 
an end that no legislation, no shifting of wage limits could 
do. Every age has been dominated by the particular group 
best fitted to assume leadership at the time. This is the 
age of technology, and one in which the engineer must play 



a leading part in the political and industrial life of the 
nation. 

At the conclusion of the address G. L. Dickson, C. S. G. 
Rogers, and J. A. Godfrey spoke in appreciation of Pre- 
sident McKiel. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

L. A. Duchastel, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The Branch held its Annual Student Night on November 
23rd, 1939, at which the following papers were presented: 
A Mine Assay Office by E. M. Cantwell, The Con- 
struction of a Six Inch Telescope by A. Monti, s.e.i.c, 
Lighting, A Social Science by W. G. Ward and The 
Fixed Point Method and Influence Lines by M. R. 
Trudeau. Mr. Trudeau and Mr. Ward were awarded first 
and second prizes respectively for their papers. These cash 
prizes were awarded upon, the decision of the judges, F. C. 
Mechin, J. A. Beauchemin and H. Massue. R. Fricker 
presided at the meeting. 

Through the courtesy of the Ford Motor Company of 
Canada, a sound picture "The Song the Map Sings" was 
shown during the evening. 

On November 30th, 1939 J. T. Thwaites, development 
engineer of the Canadian Westinghouse Company, Ham- 
ilton, Ont., presented a paper before the Branch, Industrial 
Electronics. This paper illustrated with lantern slides, 
was a most interesting one. Previous to the meeting a 
courtesy dinner was held at the Windsor Hotel. R. N. 
Coke was chairman of the meeting. 

T. M. Moran spoke to the Branch December 7th on 
Recent Developments in Production Management. 
Mr. Moran, factory manager, mechanical and sundries 
division, Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd., Montreal, is chairman 
of the Industrial and Management Section of the Branch, 
which has been active this year. J. S. Cameron presided 
at the meeting. 

On December 14th, 1939, a joint meeting with the 
Military Engineers' Association of Canada was held under 
the chairmanship of J. B. Stirling. Brigadier E. Schmidlin, 
M.c., Director of Engineering Services, Department of 
National Defence presented an interesting paper, Recent 
Developments in Military Engineering, describing the 
changes in the practice of military engineering that have 
taken place since the last war. A courtesy dinner at the 
Windsor Hotel was served prior to the meeting. 

On January 11th, 1940, the Annual Meeting of the 
Branch was held. The retiring executive presented their 
report and financial statement, and the new officers were 
installed. 

Mr. Smallhorn's resignation was accepted regretfully. 
He filled the office of secretary-treasurer admirably and 
has kindly consented to act in an ex-officio capacity on the 
executive for a year. 

Television and Its Recent Developments, a paper 
presented by W. B. Morrison of the R.C. A. -Victor Com- 
pany, Montreal, drew a large audience of Montreal Branch 
members and members of the Institute of Radio Engineers 
on January 18th, 1940. The lecture described a complete 
television system as used at present, and a demonstration 
of the system showed some of the practical problems 
involved in television transmission and reception. Mr. W. 
C. Fisher assisted Mr. Morrison in the demonstration. 

Junior Section 

On January 22nd the Junior Section met to elect officers 
for the 1940 term. Results of the ballot were: R. Boucher, 
chairman; A. P. Benoit, vice-chairman; J. Hurtubise, 
secretary; H. G. Seybold, G. Beaulieu, J. R. Johnson, 
W. W. Ingram, councillors. 

L. A. Wright, General Secretary of the Institute, spoke 
on The Young Engineer and the War in a very interesting 
manner. He explained the work that had been done for 
the Government in surveying Canada with the object of 



96 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



securing a record of the academic qualifications and the ex- 
perience of all technically trained men in the engineering 
profession so that a register could be set up at Ottawa 
for the use of industry and governmental departments. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 

R. K. Odell, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The annual meeting of the Ottawa Branch was held on 
Thursday evening, January 11, 1940, in the auditorium of 
the National Research Council Building, Sussex Street. 
Reports for the past year were presented and officers 
elected for the ensuing year. J. H. Parkin, retiring chair- 
man, presided. 

The secretary-treasurer's report, presented by R. K. 
Odell, stated that the Branch was in sound financial con- 
dition and that the membership had been increased by 
fifteen during the past year. Feeling reference was made to 
the loss suffered through the death during the year of the 
following members: Lieut. -Colonel F. H. Emra, M. B. 
Bonnell, B. S. McKenzie, G. S. Davis, and Frank McDon- 
nell. 

W. L. Saunders reported for the membership committee 
and Wing-Commander A. L. Ferrier outlined the work of 
the Aeronautical Section. The report of the Proceedings 
Committee was presented by Norman Marr. 

As a result of the elections, officers for the ensuing year 
were: Chairman, W. H. Munro; Secretary-Treasurer, R. K. 
Odell, who was re-elected ; Members of the Managing Com- 
mittee, J. H. Irvine and W. H. Norrish, newly elected to 
serve two years; and N. Marr, H. V. Anderson, and W. L. 
Saunders, who were elected at the 1939 annual meeting 
and have one remaining year to serve. 

After the business of the annual meeting proper was con- 
cluded, Dr. R. W. Boyle, Director of Physics and Electrical 
Engineering of the National Research Council, addressed 
the meeting on Some Pre- War Observations in Europe. 
Dr. Boyle spent some time in Europe last year prior to 
the outbreak of war during which he visited Scandinavia, 
touched at Gdynia, Danzig and Finland. He spent two 
weeks in Russia, saw something of Roumania, Hungary 
and Poland and was in Warsaw during the six days imme- 
diately preceding the outbreak of hostilities. 

Mr. L. Austin Wright of Montreal, General Secretary of 
the Institute, was present at the meeting and spoke briefly. 

Light refreshments were served at the close of the meet- 
ing. 

PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 

A. L. Malby, jr. e. i.e. - - Secretary-Treasurer 
D. R. McGregor, s.e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

A largely attended meeting of the Branch was held on 
December 14th, with the Chairman, Mr. D. I. Burgess, 
presiding. 

The speaker of the evening was Mr. H. B. Chambers, 
Metallurgical Engineer with Atlas Steels Ltd., of Welland. 
Mr. Chambers spoke on Fundamental Ideas Concerning 
the Application and Heat Treatment of Tool Steels. 

Mr. Chambers pointed out that there are three properties 
which all tool steels possess to a greater or lesser degree; 
these are resistance to wear, resistance to impact, and 
ability to operate at elevated temperatures. The degrees 
to which a steel possesses each of these properties deter- 
mines its application. For instance, a file requires a great 
deal of resistance to wear, but no great resistance to impact. 
At the other extreme a hammer requires a great deal of 
resistance to impact, but its resistance to wear is relatively 
unimportant, and it does not need to be capable of operating 
at any elevated temperature. 

The degree to which a tool steel possesses each of these 
properties is determined by two things; the amount of 
carbon in the steel, and the heat treatment given the steel. 
Mr. Chambers discussed this in detail. Going on from this, 
he stated that although there seemed to be a multitude of 



tool steels on the market, all these can be classified into 
twelve main types or groups, according to the carbon con- 
tent and the heat treatment given the steel; the entire 
range of tool steel applications can be covered by these 
twelve groups. 

Mr. Chambers then went on to discuss the various factors 
which make a tool wear out too soon, or chip or break in 
service; he pointed out the factors which tend to make a 
tool warp or crack, or change size in hardening. 

At the conclusion of the talk Mr. Sills moved a vote of 
thanks to the speaker which was heartily endorsed by the 
meeting. 

At a meeting held on January 11th, Mr. H. Foster, 
Chairman of the Welding Committee at the Peterborough 
Works of the Canadian General Electric Committee, gave 
an address on Fundamentals of Metallic Arc Welding. 

Mr. Foster first gave a brief history of the art of arc 
welding. The first patents on arc welding were taken out 
some fifty years ago, but industry was slow to accept this 
new tool; it is only during the last fifteen or twenty years 
that the use of welding has become widespread. Many 
important improvements in welding equipment and tech- 
nique have been made during this latter period until to-day 
arc welding is an accredited method of joining steels 
together for practically every application. 

The speaker pointed out that a comprehensive plan for 
the training of welders is something which every manufac- 
turer using welding should have. This protects both the 
manufacturer and his customer. Every welder should be 
tested at fairly frequent intervals to ensure that his 
efficiency is being maintained. 

Welds can be tested from a tensile, bending, and shock 
absorbing viewpoint. Tensile tests are made by cutting a 
test bar, and then pulling it apart. This test is of little 
value, since invariably the weld metal is stronger than the 
parent metal; fracture takes place in the parent metal, not 
in the weld. Bending tests — made by butt welding two 
pieces and then folding so that the crease occurs along the 
weld — and shock absorbing tests made by dropping a 
weight on the weld, while the bar is supported at each end 
— are of greater use, since they give an indication of the 
ability of the weld to survive under conditions which are 
more likely to be met in service. A quick test, for visual 
examination, can be made by nicking the bar at the weld 
and then breaking it. 

Arc welding is now done with both alternating current 
and with direct current and equally satisfactory welds can 
be obtained with either current, providing the correct 
electrodes are used for each. Where very heavy currents 
are involved, alternating current has the advantage that 
no magnetic blow occurs. On direct current, magnetic blow 
sometimes makes the arc very difficult to control, especially 
around the corners. 

Up until fairly recently, practically all welding was done 
using bare electrode. To-day, almost the reverse is true; 
covered electrodes have largely replaced bare electrodes. 
Mr. Foster discussed the composition of present day elec- 
trodes and the fluxes used to cover them, and he showed 
that feeding the electrode too fast or too slow resulted in a 
poor weld, due to lack of penetration, or slag inclusion. 

Mr. Foster discussed carbon arc welding and atomic 
hydrogen welding briefly, pointing out the application and 
advantages of both, particularly in the welding of non- 
ferrous metals. 

At the conclusion of the talk a vote of thanks to the 
speaker was moved by Mr. Ottewell. 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 

V. Jepsen, a.m.e.i.c, - Secretary-Treasurer 

On Thursday, December 14th, a dinner meeting was held 
in Shawinigan Falls. This meeting was held in conjunction 
with the Shawinigan Falls Chemical Society. At the close 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1910 



97 



of the dinner a humorous skit was presented by Dr. R. 
Mcintosh and then the company adjourned to the ball 
room where the guest speaker of the evening, Dr. L. M. 
Pidgeon of the National Research Council, spoke on the 
subject of Magnesium. Dr. Pidgeon is an authority on the 
production and uses of this metal. His subject was 
listened to with great interest by both the chemists and 
engineers. 

At the present time very little is known about mag- 
nesium, and it has been produced only in comparatively 
small quantities, but it threatens to become a rival to 
aluminum, when its production methods have become more 
simplified. 

Dr. Pidgeon first showed numerous slides on the uses of 
magnesium in industry wherever reduction in weight in 
any equipment is a factor of prime importance, such as in 
airplane construction. He showed numerous applications of 
the metal, such as landing wheels, wing struts and mem- 
bers; in fact airplanes have been made entirely of mag- 
nesium. This metal can be welded in very thin sections 
whereas aluminum cannot. 

The speaker then dealt with the best production methods 
and suggested new ones. In America all the magnesium at 
the present time is made by the Dow Chemical Co. at Mid- 
land, Mich., by electrolysis of the fused chloride. There are 
numerous disadvantages to this method and they undoubt- 
edly keep the cost of the metal high. Dr. Pidgeon has done 
considerable work on the straight reduction of the oxide of 
magnesium, using 95 per cent silicon as the reducing agent. 
There are numerous problems which must be worked out 
in this process also, but on the whole it should produce the 
metal much more cheaply, especially in regions with a 
plentiful power supply. 

The speaker showed that the country producing the most 
metallic magnesium is Germany. Great Britain comes next, 
followed by the United States. He also showed that the 
supply of ore necessary for making the metal is very widely 
distributed. Canada has a plentiful supply of dolomite, 
magnesite and brucite, the latter being the richest ore 
available at the present time, and occurring in the 
Ottawa Valley region in large quantities. Its production, 
however, entails the production of considerable calcium 
oxide. 

Dr. Pidgeon predicts that there will be a distinct pick-up 
in the metallic magnesium industry in the near future. 

The variety and extent of the discussion at the close of 
the paper was a tribute to its interest by all those attending 
the meeting. 

Dr. Andre Hone, president of the Shawinigan Falls 
Chemical Association, was the chairman and called upon 
Mr. A. F. G. Cadenhead to introduce the speaker and then 
upon Mr. C. H. Champion, vice-chairman of the St. 
Maurice Valley Branch, to propose the vote of thanks. 

The attendance at the dinner was 55 and at the meeting 
85. 

TORONTO BRANCH 
J. J. Spence, a.m. e. i.e., - - Secretary-Treasurer 
D. D. Whitson, a.m.e.i.c, - Branch News Editor 

On Thursday, January 18th, the Toronto Branch held 
its Annual Students' Night. Six papers were presented and 
four prizes were awarded. The judges had rather a difficult 
task on their hands to select the winners since all of the 
papers were exceptionally well presented. These winners 
will receive a year's Student Membership and a year's sub- 
scription to the Journal. 

The following are the prize papers: 

Wind Bracing, by S. J. Simons. 

The Rehabilitation of Flooded Generators, by D. R. B. 
McArthur. 

Aerodrome Construction, by D. E. Kennedy. 

Some Aspects of Depreciation, by E. E. Hart. 



VICTORIA BRANCH 

Kenneth Reid, Jr. e. i.e. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The Annual Meeting of the Victoria Branch was held 
in Spencer's Dining Room, Victoria, on January 19th, 1940, 
and was preceded by a dinner which was attended by 
twenty-six members and guests among whom were a 
number of representatives from the local headquarters of 
the military, naval and air forces stationed here. 

Following the dinner a business session was held when 
the reports for the year were received. These showed the 
branch to be in a healthy condition with a membership 
increase over the preceding year, a small financial surplus 
and a modest bank account. The election of officers for 
1940 took place. 

The feature of the evening, apart from the business of 
the annual meeting, was an address by Mr. A. L. Carruthers, 
Bridge Engineer of the Provincial Department of Public 
Works, on the subject, Brothers of the Bridge, a monastic 
Order of mediaeval engineers founded in southern France 
in the year 1154, under Pontifex Maximus as Abbot, which 
devoted its energies to the art of bridge building and other 
works of an engineering nature, and kept alive the science 
during the dark ages following the collapse of the Roman 
Empire. Many notable structures in western Europe owe 
their origin to this ancient Order, including old London 
Bridge in the City of London. The massiveness of their 
undertakings as well as the accuracy of their work and 
beauty of design is a source of wonderment to modern 
engineers. 

Mr. Carruthers led up to the origin of this remarkable 
Order by tracing the development of engineering con- 
struction, and particularly bridge construction, through 
the ages from ancient times in Babylonian, Persian, Egyp- 
tian, Chinese, Greek and Roman, and showed the 
characteristics of each civilization and the architecture 
peculiar to each period. After the fall of the great Roman 
Empire barbarism held sway for a time destroying much 
which had been accomplished, until the feudal system, the 
only one possible for those times, brought more or less 
order out of chaos. It was during this period that these 
engineering monks quietly preserved the secrets of the 
trade and finally in 1154 banded themselves together in 
the unique Order, "Brothers of the Bridge". They formed 
many branches of the Order and their services were much 
in demand throughout southern France, Germany and 
England. Illustrating his address by slides, Mr. Carruthers 
showed many pictures of structures built by these men, a 
large number of which, although now mostly in ruins, may 
still be seen to-day. 

Of particular note was old London Bridge, the same 
made famous by the well-known tune, "London Bridge is 
falling down", which was an example of the skill and 
enterprise of these engineers. The speaker traced the history 
of the old structure over a period of 300 years until it was 
finally demolished and replaced by a more modern structure 
early in the nineteenth century. 

As a fitting sequel to a most interesting evening Mr. 
R. C. Farrow, of the Provincial Water Rights Branch, 
showed two reels of motion pictures of northern British 
Columbia, the bridge builders' paradise. These pictures 
were taken by Mr. Farrow himself while on a survey trip to 
a proposed power site on the upper reaches of the Kemano 
River at the head of Gardner Canal and showed the 
methods employed for transporting equipment and supplies 
into these hard-to-get-at places. Indians with 35-foot cedar 
dug-out canoes were employed for the river work. The 
beautiful scenery and rugged terrain made most interesting- 
pictures. 

At the conclusion of the evening hearty votes of thanks 
were passed to Mr. Carruthers and to Mr. Farrow for one 
of the most interesting and instructive evenings enjoyed 
by the branch. 



98 



February, 1910 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Library Notes 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



REVISED LIST OF C.E.S.A. SPECIFICATIONS 

I — Standards Published or Ready for Issue 

During the year new C.E.S.A. standards or revisions to existing 
standards have been completed as follows: 

Section A — Civil Engineering 

*A 5 — Portland Cement (3rd edition). 

*A57 — High Early Strength Portland Cement. 

Section B — Mechanical Engineering 

B44-1938 — Safety Code for Passenger and Freight Elevators. 

B12-1939— Galvanized Steel Wire Strand (2nd edition). 

B51-1939 — Regulations for the Construction and Inspection of 

Boilers and Pressure Vessels. 
B52-1939 — Mechanical Refrigeration Code. 
B53-1939 — Code for the Identification of Piping Systems. 

Section C — Electrical Engineering 

C10-1938 — Tungsten Incandescent Lamps (2nd edition) 

C50T-1938— Insulating Oils. 

C22.2 No. 7-1938— Portable Electric Displays and Incandescent 

Lamp Signs (2nd edition). 
C22.2 No. 45-1938— Rigid Steel Conduit. 
C22.2 No. 46-1938— Electric Air Heaters. 
C22.2 No. 48-1938— Non-metallic Sheathed Cable. 
C22.2 No. 50-1938— Knife Switches. 

C22.2 No. 51-1938— Armoured Cable and Armoured Cord. 
C22.2 No. 56-1938— Flexible Steel Conduit. 



General Specifications 



C14-1939- 
♦C49- 



-Reinforced Concrete Poles (2nd edition). 
Hard Drawn Aluminum Wire, Aluminum Cable and 
Aluminum Cable (Steel Reinforced). 
C58-1939— Design of C.E.S.A. Cast Lead-pin Thread for Insulator 
Pins of 1 in. and 1% in. 

C.E. Code, Part I — Inside Wiring Rules 

C22.1-1939— Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (4th edition). 

C.E. Code, Part II — Approvals Specifications 

C22.2, No. 1(b) — 1939— Power-operated Radio Devices (Conduc- 

tively-coupled Type). 
*C22.2, No. 2- —Electric Signs (2nd edition). 
C22.2, No. 31-1939— Switchboards, Construction and Test of 
C22.2, No. 53-1939— Domestic Electric Clothes-washing Machines. 
*C22.2, No. 58- —Isolating Switches (for High-potential "Dis- 
connect" Use). 
C22.2, No. 59-1939— Fuses (Both Plug and Cartridge Type). 

C.E. Code, Part III— Outside Wiring Rules 

*C22.3, No. 1(A) — Construction of Supply and Trolley Lines Crossing 

Railways. 
*C22.3, No. 1(B) — Construction of Communication Lines Crossing 

Railways. 

Section G — Ferrous Metals 

G26 -1938 — Commereial-qualitv Hot-rolled Bar Steels (3rd edition). 

G27 -1938— Commercial Cold-finished Bar Steels and Cold-finished 
Shafting (3rd edition). 

G30 -1938 — Billet-steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars (3rd edition). 

G31 -1938 — Rail-steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars (3rd edition). 

G32 -1938 — Cold-drawn Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement 
(3rd edition). 

G45 -1938 — Fabricated Steel Bar or Rod mats for Concrete Rein- 
forcement. 

G46 -1938 — Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement. 

Section S — Steel Construction 

S 6 -1938— Steel Highway Bridges (3rd edition). 

S47T-1938 — Tentative Welding Qualification Code for Fabricators, 
Contractors, Supervisors and Welders. 

S48T-1938 — Tentative Electrode Specification for Electrode Manu- 
facturers and Structural Steel Fabricators. 
*Standards printed, but not actually published. 

II — Standards Partially Completed 

The following standards have been the subject of discussion by 
appropriate committees during the past year and such progress has 



been made that it is anticipated they will be published as new or 
revised C.E.S.A. standards during the coming year. 

Section A — Civil Engineering 

A 5-1927 — Portland Cement (Revision). 
A57- High Early Strength Portland Cement. 

A23-1929 — Concrete and Reinforced Concrete (Revision). 
A16-1930 — Steel Structures for Buildings (Revision). 

(Note — A16 will be transferred to Section S — Steel 
struction — in the new edition). 
A54- Procedure for Fire Tests for Building Construction and 

Materials. 
A55- Procedure for Tests for Fire Resistance of Roof Coverings. 

A56- Wood Piling and Pile Driving. 

Section B — Mechanical Engineering 

B51 — Canadian Regulations for the Construction and Inspection of 

Boilers and Pressure Vessels. 
B52 — Mechanical Refrigeration Code. 
B53 — Colour Identification of Piping Systems. 

Section C — Electrical Engineering 

C49- — Aluminum Cable and Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced. 
C58- — Design of C.E.S.A. Cast Lead-Pin Thread for Insulator 

Pins of Nominal Diameters of 1 in. and 1% in. 
C14-1924 — Reinforced Concrete Poles (Revision). 
C22. 1-1935— Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (Inside Wiring Rules), 

Fourth Edition (Revision). 
C22.2 — Canadian Electrical Code, Part II (Approvals Specifications). 
1(b) — Power-operated Radio Devices (Conductively-coup- 
led Type). 
31 — Switchboards. 
47 — Air-cooled Transformers. 
53 — Washing Machines. 

57 — Pull-off Plugs for Electro-thermal Appliances. 
C22.3— Canadian Electrical Code, Part III (Outside Wiring Rules). 
(a) — Regulations for Supply and Trolley Lines Crossing 

Railways, 
(b) — Regulations for Communication Lines Crossing Rail- 
ways. 

New Subjects Under Development 

Authorisation of the C.E.S.A. Executive Committee for the investi- 
gation and preparation of standards has been given for the following 
subjects. Appropriate committees, sub-committees or panels have been 
organised for the purpose. 

Section A — Civil Engineering 

Building Brick. Lime. 

Structural Hollow Tile. Gypsum Blocks. 

Vitrified Clay Sewer Pipe. Concrete Blocks. 

Section B — Mechanical Engineering 

Nominal Sizes and Standard Dimensions for Wood Screws. 
Copper and Brass Pipe. Copper Tubing. 

Cast Iron Pipe. Steel Pipe. 

Section C — Electrical Engineering 

Oil Circuit-breakers; Paper-insulated Lead-covered Cable; Regulations 
for Communication Lines Crossing Supply and Trolley Lines; and the 
following Approvals Specifications: Motors in Hazardous Locations 
(Classes I, II, III and IV); Capacitors; Motors in Non-hazardous 
Locations; Bell-ringing, Signalling and Small Power Specialty Trans- 
formers; Motor-operated Appliances (Portable Type with Fractional 
h.p. Motors); Porcelain Insulating Devices; Service-entrance Cable; 
Snap Switches; Electric Ranges; Cooking and Liquid Heating Ap- 
pliances; Solderless Wire Connectors (Pressure Type); and revisions 
to Specifications No. 3 — Electrical Equipment for Oil-burning Appa- 
ratus; No. 9 — Electric Fixtures; No. 14 — Industrial Control Equip- 
ment in Ordinary (Non-hazardous) Locations; No. 16 — Insulated 
Conductors for Power-operated Radio Devices; No. 25 — Enclosures 
(Other than Explosion-proof) for Use in Hazardous Locations; No. 
28 — Asbestos-covered Wires; No. 42 — Receptacles, Plugs and Similar 
Wiring Devices. 

Section S — Steel Construction 

Specification for Metallic Arc Welding (Bridges and Buildings). 
Specification for Protective Eye Screens for Welders. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



99 



BOOK REVIEW 

Public Works in Canada 
Under the Department of Public Works 

By K. M. Cameron, M.E.I .C, Chief Engineer, Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa. The King's Printer, 1989, 84 pp., 6Y 2 by 9% in., 
paper. 

The progress of a newly settled country is necessarily dependent 
upon the growth of its means of communication and its public works, 
particularly the provision of harbours and aids to navigation in inland 
and coastal waters, and the construction of buildings and other works 
for the government service. The present Chief Engineer of the Do- 
minion Department of Public Works has given us an admirable 
account of the way in which these and other indispensable aids to 
the country's development have been furnished in Canada. His story 
will be read with interest by all who wish to learn something of the 
origins of Canada's present system of public works and transportation, 
and of the men who have been responsible for supplying so satisfactorily 
the country's needs in these respects. 

Mr. Cameron's survey covers the period beginning in 1841, when 
the draft of vessels between Quebec and Montreal was limited to ten 
feet, and the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada had just entered 
into union. The combined population of these provinces and the 
Maritimes colonies was then about one and a half millions. Just after 
confederation, there were three and a half million people. To supply 
the needs of this rapidly growing community, whose number reached 
the ten million mark sixty years later, has been no light task. 

The public works required were of many kinds. At first slides and 
booms for the timber trade, roads and bridges for the movement of 
settlers, lighthouses, harbours and drydocks were among the chief 
undertakings. Later the development of the west established entirely 



new requirements. During the present century the growth of the 
grain export trade has led to harbour and canal construction in the 
St. Lawrence basin on an impressive scale. The utilization of Canada's 
fishing grounds, covering some two hundred thousand square miles of 
salt water and seventy thousand square miles on the Great Lakes, 
has called for extensive development of fishing harbours, often under 
very difficult local conditions and with severe limitations as to cost. 
In connection with these and other activities, important survey work 
had to be done and precise levels established. The Dominion Govern- 
ment was called upon to provide telegraph facilities around the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence and in the Northwest Territories, involving some 
eleven thousand miles of line. Add to these the many public buildings 
needed for the government services in Ottawa, and in all the principal 
cities and towns of the Dominion, and one obtains some idea of the 
responsibilities which have been carried by the officers of the Depart- 
ment of Public Works and its predecessors, the Commissioners of 
Public Works of the United Provinces. 

But Mr. Cameron does not confine himself to the statistical and 
technical aspects of his subject. He notes the achievements and 
sterling character of the many engineers who have been engaged in 
Public Works in Canada from 1779 onwards. Many of these men 
were drawn at first from the Royal Engineers, later a number of dis- 
tinguished civilians took up the work. The names of many of them 
will be found on the early lists of members of the Canadian Society 
of Civil Engineers. Such men as Colonel By, Admiral Bavfield, and 
Sir Casimir Gzowski were followed by a succession of equally devoted 
and professionally competent engineers. Canada has indeed been 
fortunate in the high professional standing of the officers of her 
government departments dealing with engineering and scientific 
matters. It is gratifying to have so eminent a public servant as Mr. 
Cameron set forth so clearly the achievements of his predecessors and 
fellow-workers. 



BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the Engin- 
eering Societies Library of New York. As 
yet the books are not in the Institute 
Library, but inquiries will be welcomed 
at headquarters, or may be sent direct 
to the publishers. 

AIRCRAFT RADIO AND 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

By H. K. Morgan. New York and Chicago, 
Pitman Publishing Corp., 1939. 374 PP-, 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $4.50. 

The fundamentals of electricity and elec- 
trical equipment are presented, present-day 
equipment is described, and the topics of 
radio waves, static, direction finding, ultra- 
high frequencies, inspection and maintenance 
are discussed. There are numerous schematic 
diagrams, questions follow each chapter, and 
the answers are grouped in an appendix. 

AMERICA'S TREASURE 

By W . M. Reed; edited by C. Croneis. New 
York, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1939. 395 
pp., illus., 9V 2 x ey 2 in., cloth, $3.00. 

The story of the mineral wealth of the 
United States is told in simple language, with 
emphasis on the geological background of the 
deposits of ir étais, petroleum and building 
stone. The later chapters deal with a variety 
of subjects: erosion, production and power 
statistics, inventions, athletic prowess, slum 
clearance, and the future of America. 

AUTOMATIC DESIGN OF CONTINU- 
OUS FRAMES IN STEEL AND RE- 
INFORCED CONCRETE 

By L. E. Grinter. New York, Macmillan 
Co., 1939. 141 PP-, illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9 x 6 in., cloth, $3.00. 

The design process explained and advocated 
is based on the method of balancing moments, 
and consists of a series of successive correc- 
tions in which the crudity or refinement of 
the analyses approximates that of the re- 
spective preliminary designs. Much of the 
author's previously published material has 
here been reorganized, together with addi- 
tional information, to enable the designer to 
apply automatic design methods to con- 
tinuous structures. 



COMBATING CORROSION IN 

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PIPING 

By L. G. Vande Bogart. Chicago, III., 
Crane Co., May, 1939. 103 pp., illus., 
charts, tables, 11 x 8 in., paper, $3.00. 
Corrosion theory is discussed, both for 
direct chemical corrosion, such as oxidation, 
and for electrochemical corrosion; the be- 
havior of common piping materials, both 
metallic and non-metallic, in contact with 
typical corrosive solutions is considered; and 
the practical problem of corrosion is treated 
under classified groups of corrosive liquids. 
There is a bibliography and a list of recom- 
mendations of materials, arranged alpha- 
betically by corrosive agents. 

CONCRETE PIPE IN AMERICAN SEW- 
ERAGE PRACTICE. Bulletin No. 17, 
prepared and edited by M. W. 
Loving. 

Chicago, American Concrete Pipe Associa- 
tion, 1938. 96 pp., also Supplements, 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
lea., apply. 
A brief history of sanitary engineering, 
technical data on sewerage systems and con- 
crete sewer-pipe, and illustrative examples of 
modern sewerage improvements are presented, 
mainly reprinted from other sources. Several 
A.S.T.M. specifications and American Con- 
crete Pipe Association bulletins are also in- 
cluded. 

THE ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERS' 
HANDBOOK 

By W. S. Ibbetson. New York, Chemical 

Pub. Co.; London, E. & F. N. Spon., 1939. 

241 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 

in., cloth, $5.00. 
Intended as a practical manual for the 
efficient control and care of all kinds of 
electrical machinery, this book presents basic 
theory, description, and directions for the 
proper operation and iraintenance of motors, 
generators, converters and rectifiers. There 
are two chapters on faults, breakdowns and 
testing. 

FOUNDATIONS AND EARTH 
PRESSURES 

By C. H. Wollaston. London, Hutchinson's 
Scientific and Technical Publications, 
1939. 295 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., cloth, 21s. 
The opening section describes subsoil classi- 



fication, soil-mechanics theory, the testing of 
subsoils, foundation types and methods, and 
shear and bond stresses. In part II earth 
pressure calculations, including cohesion and 
distribution effects, are considered, together 
with retaining walls. Practical design, with 
calculations for specific cases, appears in part 
III. 
GENERAL CARTOGRAPHY 

By E. Raisz. New York and London 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 370 pp., 
illus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 9% x 
6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
Map making in all its phases is presented, 
beginning with historical information. The 
remainder of the first section deals with 
scales and projections, representation of earth 
features, lettering, composition and drafting 
of maps. The second section discusses maps 
for special purposes, including graphical and 
statistical maps, cartograms, science maps, 
etc. Globes, models, field sketching and 
cataloging are also considered. The work is 
said to be the first American text on its sub- 
ject. 

GREAT BRITAIN. Dept. of Scientific and 
Industrial Research. Methods for the 
Detection of Toxic Gases in Indus- 
try. Leaflet No. 6. CARBON BISUL- 
PHIDE VAPOUR. 

London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1939. 8 pp., diagrs., tables, 10 x 6 in., 
paper (obtainable from British Library 
of Information, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York, $0.10). 
The properties, occurrence, poisonous ef- 
fects and first aid treatrrent are briefly men- 
tioned, in addition to the description of the 
methods and eauipn-ent for carrying out the 
test for carbon bisulphide vapor. 

LAND DRAINAGE AND RECLAMATION 

By Q. C. Ayres and D. Scoates. 2 ed. New 
York and London, McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., 1939. 496 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9}4x6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
The purpose of this text is to cover the 
problem's of drainage, reclamation and sur- 
veying that arise on the average farm and 
which the farmer himself can be expected to 
handle. After a discussion of the broad aspects 
of land reclamation, the text deals with land 
surveying, surface drainage, clearing of land, 
sub-surface drainage, and erosion control. 
Problems and references accompany some 
chapters. 



100 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



MACHINE SHOP WORK 

By F. W. Turner and O. E. Perrigo, 

revised by A. Bertrand. Chicago, American 

Technical Society, 1940. 361 pp., Mus., 

diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, 

$2.75. 

This comprehensive treatise on approved 

shop methods includes the construction and 

use of tools and machines, details of their 

efficient operation and a discussion of modern 

production methods. Descriptive illustrations 

and diagrams are used extensively and there 

is a final chapter explaining typical slide-rule 

calculations. 

THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF 
HUYGENS' PRINCIPLE 

By B. B. Baker and E. T. Copson. 
Oxford, England, Clarendon Press; New 
York, Oxford University Press, 1939. 155 
pp., diagrs., tables, 10 x 7 in., cloth, $4-25. 
This book deals with the mathematical 
theory of Huygens' principle in the propaga- 
tion of fight and of sound waves of small 
amplitude. It is concerned with the general 
theory of the solution of the partial differen- 
tial equations governing these phenomena, 
detailed application of the theory to the 
solution of special diffraction problems being 
discussed only as an illustrative example. 

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGE- 
MENT OF PRODUCTION 

By W. N. Mitchell. New York and Lon- 
don, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 417 
pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., 
cloth, $4.00. 

In this text the author presents the out- 
growth of his attempts to develop an intro- 
ductory course in production management 
for business students in colleges. The book 
deals concisely with those factors in the 
economic, technological and geographical en- 
vironment of production that determine the 
general forms of organization of production 
activities, and also covers the more important 
problems encountered by production execu- 
tives in administration work. Reference lists, 
questions and exercises are appended. 

POWER ECONOMICS FOR 

ENGINEERING STUDENTS 

By R. C. Gorham. Pittsburgh, Pa., Pitts- 
burgh Co., 1939. 310 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., cloth, $3.25. 
The necessity for engineering economy is 
stressed in part A, which presents funda- 
mental concepts and factual information, 
with general principles which are applicable 
to engineering practices for best overall 
economy. Part B furnishes the opportunity 
for the application of the preceding principles, 
largely through the use of examples from 
public utility practice. There are lists of 
references and many problems. 

PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL WIRING 

By H. P. Richter. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 503 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 814 x °~Y2 i n -, 
cloth, $3.00. 



Practical methods of electrical wiring are 
explained in plain language for the man who 
does it. All kinds of fight and power wiring 
for home, farm and factory are described, 
and the fundamental principles are clearly 
presented. All material is based on the 
National Electrical Code, and selected tables 
of data from the code are included. 

PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL 
ORGANIZATION 

By D. S. Kimball and D. S. Kimball, Jr. 
5th éd., New York and London, McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., 1939. 478 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $4-00. 
The internal organization and procedures 
of industrial enterprises are comprehensively 
covered, and industrialism is considered from 
the broader points of view of economic or- 
ganization in general. New material treating 
of the effect of recent Federal legislation upon 
industry has been included in this new edition, 
and all statistical data have been revised. 

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT 

By A. M. Simons, reviewed by H. P. 
Dutton. Chicago, American Technical 
Society, 1940. 588 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $3.50. 
The efficient control of present-day mass 
production is possible only through the 
standardization of the many procedures 
which contribute to it. The intention of this 
book is to provide a practical approach to the 
problems of plant location, factory layout, 
work routing, task fixing, office organization, 
etc., and to the many phases of hiring, train- 
ing and handling of the personnel. 

PUBLIC SPEAKING FOR 
TECHNICAL MEN 

By S. M. Tucker. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 397 pp., 
8x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The proper presentation of speeches, lec- 
tures, etc., is comprehensively covered. Vir- 
tues and defects in speaking are brought out 
through narrative treatment, and working 
principles to be drawn from these examples 
are conveniently summarized at the end of 
chapters. The subject matter covers not only 
diction, organization of material, and plat- 
form technique, but also important helps for 
the technical speaker on using charts, answer- 
ing questions, etc. 

THE RADIO AMATEUR'S HAND- 
BOOK, 17th éd., 1940. 

West Hartford, Conn., American Radio 
Relay League, 1939. 575 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 10 x 7 in., paper, 
$1.00 in U.S.A., $1.25 in foreign coun- 
tries; bound, $2.50. 
This well-known manual covers compre- 
hensively the amateur short-wave field. The 
fundamental principles and the design, con- 
struction and operation of transmitting and 
receiving apparatus are described in detail, 
including ultra-high frequency, emergency, 
and portable equipment. In addition to 
revision and new illustrations the subject 
matter in this edition has been divided into 



major sections with more extensive sub- 
division than before. 

SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND METALS 

By A. H. Wilson. Cambridge, England, 
University Press; New York, The Mac- 
millan Co., 1939. 119 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., paer, $2.00. 
The purpose of this book is to provide a 
simplified authoritative account of some of the 
main achievements of the theory of metals in 
the past ten years, and thus to form an up-to- 
date supplement to the various treatises on 
the subject. The presentation aims to make 
clear the physical principles on which the 
theory is based and to derive the results 
wherever possible by simplified arguments. 
Brief bibliographies of recent publications are 
included. 

SYMPOSIUM ON THERMAL INSULAT- 
ING MATERIALS 

Columbus Regional Meeting, March 8, 
1939. Philadelphia, American Society for 
Testing Materials, 1939. 123 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., paper, 
$1.25; cloth, $1.50. 
Four papers constitute this symposium, as 
follows: Factors influencing the thermal con- 
ductivity of non-metallic materials; Test 
methods for determining physical properties 
of thermal insulations; One consumer's prob- 
lems in selecting heat insulation; Effect of 
solar radiation on the heat transmission 
through walls. Discussion of the papers is 
included. 

TURBINES À VAPEUR 

By Pio-Oulsky; translated by R. Dem- 
chenko and E. Kisselev, preface by 
C. Monteil. Paris, Dunod, 1939. 403 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 11x8 in., 
paper, 185 frs.; bound, 210 frs. 
This text, translated from the Servian lang- 
uage, represents the course in steam turbines 
given at Belgrade University. The first section, 
after a classification by types, discusses in 
detail the products of the fifteen large Euro- 
pean manufacturers. Following this the parts 
and auxiliaries of steam turbines are discussed 
from the designers' point of view, and a 
chapter is devoted to turbine regulation. The 
final chapter discusses the problem of high- 
speed shafts and their critical speeds. The 
book is illustrated with excellent drawings. 

STATIC AND DYNAMIC 
ELECTRICITY 

By W. R. Smythe. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939. 560 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9 l /2 x # in., cloth, 
$6.00. 
This book formulates the basic laws of 
electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electro- 
magnetic theory, by concise vector methods, 
from the underlying experimental facts. It 
gives an extended treatment of the mathema- 
tical technique for applying these laws to 
specific problems. Although the theory is 
completely developed from basic expsri- 
mental facts, the emphasis is on problems, of 
which there are several hundred. References 
are given for additional study. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



101 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND DRAFTSMEN 
- — Junior, 25-40 years of age. At least two years 
experience in substation work. State qualifications, 
age, length of experience and present location. 
Apply to Box No. 1985-V. 

MAN with science degree, chemistry, engineering and 
practical knowledge of steam boiler plant operation. 
Strong personality and progressive nature are 
required to sell the technical service and product of 
this company. Apply to Box No. 2003-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, for large Canadian in- 
dustrial corporation. Sales experience in the engineer- 
ing field necessary. Age between twenty-five and 
thirty. Bilingual essential. Apply Box No. 2012-V. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER OR CHEMIST who haB 
majored in Organic Chemistry with a few years 
experience in Laboratory or Factory in connection 
with developing rubber compounds: knowledge of, 
or experience in, allied synthetics desirable, In apply- 
ing please state age, details of educational background 
and experience, salary desired and availability. Box 
No.2013-V. 



NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 
VACANCIES 

Because of losses from the staff of the Radio Labora- 
tories in the Division of Physics and Electrical Engineer- 
ing and of new war work, there are now vacancies as 
named below. All the work involved is of important 
war nature and it is essential that applicants should 
have radio experience. 

(a) 1 Professional — Assistant Research Physicist, 
$2820-3300 per annum; (b) 1 Professional — Junior Re- 
search PhysiciBt, $2100-2700 per annum; (c) 1 Sub- 
professional — Senior Laboratory Assistant (Replace- 
ment), $1440-1740 per annum; (d) 3 Subprofessional— 
Laboratory Assistant (2 New; 1 Replacement), $1140- 
1380; (e) 1 Subprofessional — Laboratory Helper (Re- 
placement), $720-1020. 

BRITISH ADMIRALTY VACANCIES 

In consequence of an offer by the Canadian Govern- 
ment to the British Admiralty of a certain number of 
technically qualified men for a special technical war 
service, the National Research Council has offered to 
assist in finding, selecting and listing of men suitably 
qualified. Therefore, the Council would be pleased to 
receive the names, addresses, and credentials concern- 
ing or relating to education, experience, and personal 
qualifications of British subjects in Canada who may be 
included in the following category and who would wish 
t0 8erve: — 

GROUP I. 

Engineer-Physicists with experience of radio fre- 
quency technique, especially of very short waves. Half 
of these men are required for Experimental Develop- 
ment work in the laboratory and half for Design, i.e. 
turning the experimental model into production. 

It is essential that all men in this group should have 
suitable practical experience and it is considered 
unlikely that anyone under the age of 25 could have 
obtained the experience necessary. All the men of this 
group are to be employed in civilian capacity in Experi- 
mental Establishments. 

Two (2) men of each sub-group here indicated may be 
placed in the Senior Experimental Officer Grade, with 
salaries £680 per annum; the remainder of each sub- 
group will be placed in the Experimental Officer Grade 
at salaries between .£350 and £550 per arnum depend- 
ing on age and experience. 

(We have no details of the possible application of the 
Income Tax Act of Great Britain to the above stipends.) 



GROUP II. 

Men of the Engineer-Physicist type for executive 
and maintenance duties in connection with a special 
war service. These men should have a good funda- 
mental training in Physics or Engineering, with special 
knowledge of radio and considerable practical ability; 
and they should be capable of being trained rapidly 
to understand, operate and control the special apparatus 
of this service. They must be medically fit, of the officer 
type, and either possess or be capable of acquiring 
rapidly the power to command. These men would be 
given commissions as Lieutenants or Sub-Lieutenants, 
R.N.V.R. (Special Branch), and would be required to 
serve either afloat or ashore. Rates of pay for these 
officers are aB follows: £463:5:0 for married officers over 
30; £435:17:6 for married officers under 30 (plus 
children allowances); £381:2:6 for single officers. 

(We have no information of a possible allowance for 
officer's uniform with the above rates of pay, nor have 
we details of the possible application of the Income 
Tax Act of Great Britain.) 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



GROUP III. 

Engineers with mechanical knowledge and good 
practical experience of high frequency electrical or of 
radio installations. It is desirable that they should have 
Engineering or equivalent degrees, but high research 
qualifications are not necessary. They must be medi- 
cally fit, of the officer type, and capable of serving on 
maintenance duty. Men in this group would be entered 
as Probationary Temporary Sub-Lieutenants, R.N.V.R. 
(Special Branch), in the first instance. Rates of pay for 
these officers are as follows: 

Married officers : £333 : 1 5 :0 per annum, plus children's 
allowance; Single officers: £279:0:0 per annum. 

(We have no information of a possible allowance for 
officer's uniform with the above rates of pay, nor have 
we details of the possible application of the Income 
Tax Act of Great Britain.) 

Applications from or suggestions concerning 
eligible men should be addressed to the Secretary- 
Treasurer, National Research Council, Ottawa. 

When applying refer to Overseas Appointment, 
Group I, II or III as the case may be. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



CIVIL ENGINEER, grad. '29, eleven months on 
construction, three months on road location, five 
months in draughting office, desires position on con- 
struction or would like to enter draughting office 
with possibilities in steel and reinforced concrete 
design. At present employed. Apply to Box No. 
352-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, m.a. (Cantab.). A.M.Inst. 
ce., A. M. E. i.e. Age 35. Married. Experienced general 
construction, reinforced concrete, roads, hydro- 
electric design and construction, surveys. Apply 
to Box No. 751-W. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.a.sc. General Elec- 
tric test course, induction motor and D.C. machine 
design. Now employed in minor executive capacity. 
Has also had experience as instrumentman on high- 
way construction. Wants opportunity to serve where 
technical training can be used to better advantage. 
Apply to Box No. 993-W. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEER, b.a.sc, a.m.e.i.c. Eight 
years experience in shop practices, field erection, 
draughting, design and estimating. Advanced training 
in Industrial Management. Would like to work with 
an industrial engineering firm or act as an assistant 
to a manufacturing executive to gain further training 
n industrial leadership. Married. Age 32. Apply 
to Box No. 1543-W. 



REFINERY ENGINEER, b.sc. (e.e.), Man. '37. 
Experienced in supervising operations and mainten- 
ance of small refinery. Registered provincal 3rd 
class steam engineer. Executive background. Also 
experience in sales and road construction. Consider 
any location and reasonable offer. Available on short 
notice. Apply to Box No. 1703-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc, s.e.i.c. Married. Six 
months surveying; mill Bite; water supply, power 
line location, earthwork, drainage, topographic. 
Has given field instruction in surveying. Three 
months bridge maintenance, asphalt paving inspec- 
tion in two provinces. Five months draughting. 
Excellent references. Speaks Borne French and 
Spanish. Will go anywhere. Available on two weeks 
notice. Apply to Box No. 1860-W. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c. Age 37. 
Married. 1st Class B.O.T. Certif. 1st Class Ontario 
Stat. Engr's Certif. Thorough technical and practical 
training. Specialist in maintenance and general plant 
supervision, refrigeration, power plant. Available on 
short notice. Box No. 1963-W. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc (Alta. '36) s.e.i.c. 
Age 25. Single. Two years experience in engineering 
sales as power apparatus specialist and in special 
products sales for leading electrical manufacturing 
firm in Canada. Experience in promotion and sale 
of power line hardware equipment as well as in 
public address and radio broadcast equipment. 
References. Location immaterial. Will go anywhere 
on short notice. Apply to Box No. 201 1-W. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc (Manitoba '34) 
a.m.e.i.c. Married, Canadian. Experience includes 
year and half with British electrical firm in England 
on apprenticeship course and erection work. Three 
years as sales engineer of wide range of electrical 
apparatus. Work included draughting and outside 
erection of diesel driven generating equipment, 
etc, also draughting and layout design. Experienced 
in office routine and correspondence and can meet 
public. References are available and will consider 
any location. Box No. 2022-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc (Tor. '34). Age 27. 
Single. Two years experience with well known 
firm of consulting engineers in surveying, water- 
works and sewer design and construction and 
municipal engineering. Three and one half years 
experience in the design of mining machinery of 
all kinds including sales engineering work in the 
mining districts of Northern Ontario and Quebec. 
Well experienced in structural and mechanical 
detailing. References. Apply to Box No. 2041-W. 



SALES ENGINEER, fifteen years experience in sales 
and sales management, oil burners, heating, indus- 
trial heavy oil burners and air conditioning equip- 
ment. McGill graduate. Apply Box No. 2046-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, graduate N.S. Tech. College 
(Civil '38) — 13 months experience with Geodetic 
Survey in field, 6 months taking inventory of elec- 
trical distribution system for utility evaluation, 2 
months office appraisal for same, 8 months hydro- 
electric design, including drafting plans for dam, 
spillway, tail race and power house of reinforced 
concrete, 4 months general maintenance work in- 
cluding drawing plans for warehouses and repair 
jobs. Would accept position anywhere in Canada. 
Age 23. Good health. Jr.E.i.c. Single, British 
Nationality. Box No. 2069-W. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc (Alta. '36), 
s.e.i.c. Canadian, age 25, single. Six months general 
surveying, including plane table, level and transit 
work. Experience in large western industrial plant 
includes six months as shift engineer, one year as 
electrician, eighteen months as assistant plant 
engineer. Work included draughting, design, estim- 
ates and specifications for plant layouts, conveying 
equipment, etc. Also some experience with produc- 
tion work. Desires permanent position with future. 
Good references available and will consider any 
location. Box No. 2071-W. 



PHYSICAL METALLURGIST, M.S., jr.E.i.c, a.s.m. 
Age 24, single, presently employed. Wide experience 
with large steel company in all types of metallo- 
graphic testing, investigation of complaints, com- 
mercial heat treatment. Familiar with steel mill 
operation and production , of automotive, alloy 
forging, rail and structural steels. Box No. 2080-W 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.e. (n.s.t.c. '36), 
s.e.i.c. Age 25. Married, no children. One year's 
experience electrical installation, operation and main- 
tenance of power house, motors, generators, alter- 
nators, transformers, switching gear, underground 
cables, airport field lighting, conduit wiring, house 
wiring and lighting at Newfoundland Airport. One 
and a half year's experience in manufacturing plant in 
responsible position including about six months in 
official capacity. References. Location immaterial. 
Available on about two weeks notice. Box No.2085-W. 



102 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Application for Admission and for Transfer 



FOR ADMISSION 

CULLEN— JOHN TAYLOR, of 200 Elgin St., Ottawa, Ont. Born at Houghton- 
le-Spring, England, June 20th, 1917; Educ: 1929 30, Sunderland Technical School. 
Private study; 1937-39, ap'tice engr., Price Bros. & Co. Ltd., Kenogami, Que.; 
Sept., 1939 to date, dftsman.. Deputy Postmaster General's Branch, Civil Service 
Commission, Ottawa. 

References: A. Cunningham, G. F. Layne, J. Shanly, N. D. Paine, W. P. C. 
LeBoutillier. 



January 27th, 1940 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing a 
concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of 
his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
March, 3940. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



•The professional requirements are as ollows: — 

A Member shall be at least thirty-five years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office, or a term of instruction in 
a school of engineering recognized by the Council. The term of twelve years may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years in the case of a candidate 
for election who has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. 
In every case the candidate shall have held a position in which he had responsible 
charge for at least five years as an engineer qualified to design, direct or report on 
engineering projects. The occupancy of a chair as a professor in a faculty of applied 
science of engineering, after the candidate has attained the age of thirty years, shall 
be considered as responsible charge. 

An Associate Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have 
been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may 
include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruc- 
tion in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate 
for election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered as 
professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case be shall not remain in the claBS of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



DONALDSON— DAVID RENNIE, of New Westminster, B.C. Born at New West- 
minster, May 2nd, 1916; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of B.C., 1939; 1937-38 (sum- 
mers), student asst., Topogl. Survey, Dept. of Mines, Ottawa; May, 1939 to date, 
inspector of aircraft, Boeing Aircraft Company, Vancouver, B.C. 

References: J. N. Finlayson, A. Peebles, E. Smith, A. S. Wootton, T. V. Berry. 

DOUGLAS— RALPH LOUIS, of Montreal, Que. Born at Morell, P.E.I., March 
29th, 1911; Educ: B.Sc (Mech.), Queen's Univ., 1937; 1936 (summer), engrg. 
dept., Enamel & Heating Products Ltd., Sackville, N.B.; Upon graduation entered 
the employ of the Trane Company of Canada Ltd.; spent five months at the Trane 
School at Lacrosse, Wis.; in Feb., 1938, was transferred to Montreal to take over 
the coil and air conditioning dept. of the Montreal Office, since then in charge of 
that dept. in the Quebec territory. 

References: L. T. Rutledge, H. W. McKiel, G. L. Wiggs, L. M. Arkley, W. W. 
Timmins. 

GILL— J. EMILE, of 5353 Monkland Ave., Montreal, Que. Born at Pierreville, 
Que., March 19th, 1885; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 
1908; R.P.E. of Que.; 1909-10, sewer and paving work; 1911-12, topog'l. work and 
surveying; 1912-17, private practice, sewers, roads and waterworks; 1918-22, tech- 
nical service, and 1922-28, road dept., City of Montreal; 1929 to date, asst. engr., 
Quebec Streams Commission. 

References: O. O. Lefebvre, S. F. Rutherford, A. Duperron, H. Massue, J. A. 
Lalonde. 

HARRINGTON— CONRAD DAWSON, of 24 Ramezay Road, Westmount, Que. 
Born at Montreal, Nov. 17th, 1884; Educ: 1902-05, R.M.C., B.Sc, McGill Univ., 
1907. R.P.E. of Que.; on graduation joined firm of Byers and Anglin as engr. in 
charge of concrete work. Spent two years in U.S. gaining experience on outside work. 
When this firm dissolved, went into new firm of Anglin's Limited as vice-president. 
When this firm took over Canadian end of Norcross Brothers, became vice-president 
and general manager of newly formed firm of Anglin-Norcross Corporation Ltd., 
and has occupied this position to the present time. Also president of Anglin-Norcross 
Quebec Ltd.. and Anglin-Norcross Ontario Ltd. 

References: J. M R. Fairbairn F P Shearwood O. O. Lefebvre, A. Surveyer, 
J. B. Challies. 

r> HILLMAN— WILLIAM ANGUS, of Kenora, Ont. Born at Clachan, Ont., Feb. 
16th, 1888; Educ: Corres. Course, A.T.S., Chicago; 1905-08, chainman, 1908-10, 
rodman, 1910-11, instr'man., 1912-13, res. engr., C.P.R.; 1915-17, res. engr., H.B. 
Rly.; 1918, res. engr. on constrn. of Winnipeg aqueduct; 1919-20, field engr., water 
supply surveys, C.P.R.; 1921-24, and 1926-27, layout engr. on bldg. constrn., Carter 
Halls Aldinger Co.; 1924-25, office manager for same company at Minneapolis; 
1927-28, res. engr., C.N.R. water service; 1928-29, supervn. of quarry layout and 
constrn. of crushing plant, and 1929-30, engr. and asst. supt., crushing plant, Gren- 
ville Crushed Rock Co.; 1931-33, layout engr. and supt. of crushing and mixing 
plant, Abitibi Canyon hydro plant constrn.; 1933-36, quarry and crushing plant 
mtce., 1936-37, engr. and asst. supt. crushing plant, Grenville Crushed Rock Co.; 
1937-39, supt. on road constrn., Rayner Construction Co. (A.M.E.I.C. 1921-29). 
References:J. W. Porter, G. Mitchell, T. C. Main, R. L. Hearn, H. E. Barnett. 

KING— CAMERON NORCOTT, of Fredericton, N.B. Born at Plaster Rock, 
N.B., March 21st, 1915; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of N.B., 1936; 1937-39, instr'- 
man., highway divn., Dept. of Public Works of New Brunswick. 

References: A. F. Baird, J. Stephens, E. O. Turner, W. J. Lawson, C. G. Grant 

MOHURY— BIPRA DAS, of Calcutta, India. Born at Darjeeling, August 16th, 
1912; Educ: Diploma in Civil Engineering, Anderson Engineering & Technical 
Institute, Calcutta; Incorporated Building Surveyor (London); Assoc. Member, 
Ins. Assn. of Architects and Surveyors (London) ; Assoc Member, Inst. Highway 
Engrs., London; 1930-31, railway probationer surveyor, Bengal Nagpur Rly.; 
1932-34, asst. res. engr., Indo Burma Engineering Syndicate, Vizag, Madras; 1935-37, 
engr. executing works in the Public Works Dept. of the Govt, of Bihar and Orissa 
(responsible for the constrn. of several bridges and bldgs.); at present, asst. district 
engr., Concrete Association of India, Calcutta District (engr. in charge of the city 
of Calcutta and other provinces — responsible for design and details and constrn. of 
reinforced concrete structures). (By special ruling of Council references from mem- 
bers of British Institutions have been accepted.) 

References: A. Stewart-Lewis, U. S. Jayaswal, S. C. Das Gupta, I. N. Ghosh, 
K. C. Gupta. 

NEILSON— JAMES EDWARD, of Montreal, Que. Born at Lyn, Ont., Feb. 3rd, 
1907; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1928. R.P.E. of Que.; 1928, shift fireman, Swifts, 
Toronto; with the Riley Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Toronto, as follows: 
1929 (1 mos.), dftsman., then joined field service and erection dept., moved to 
Montreal in charge of field service and erection for eastern territory, incl. Ottawa 
and Kingston to Maritime provinces; Sept., 1930, moved back to Toronto for course 
in furnace design, estimating and engrg. application of equipment; 1931, moved to 
Montreal, and from 1932-34, in charge of Montreal office, selling and servicing 
equipment; 1934 to date, sales engr. with Foster Wheeler Limited, who acquired 
the rights from the Riley Stoker Corporation in the United States for the manu- 
facture and sale of their equipment. Since that time selling, by engrg. application, 
in addition to above equipment, other equipment manufactured by Foster Wheeler, 
incl. cooling towers, heat exchangers, oil refinery apparatus, boilers of all types, 
superheaters, economizers, condensers, evaporators, etc. 

References: F. A. Combe, P. E. Poitras, H. C. Karn, C. K. McLeod, E. A. Ryan, 
J. T. Farmer, J. F. Plow, E. A. Goodwin, D. F. Grahame, J. B. Stirling, J. L. Bieler. 

POLLOCK — ALLAN, of Schumacher, Ont. Born at Glasgow, Scotland, May 
1st, 1910; Educ: 1930-32, Queen's Univ.: 1928-29, 1930, Shawinigan chemical plant, 
Shawinigan Falls; 1932-36, independent dfting. work; 1936 to date, with the Mclntyre 
Porcupine Mines, mining, sampling and surveying. 

References: A. Jackson, R. A. Low, H. Idsardi.. 

STAPLEY— WILFRED HENRY, of Halifax, N.S. Born at Saskatoon, Sask.; 
Nov. 30th, 1914; Educ: B.Eng. (Mech.), Univ. of Sask., 1937. 1935-36 (summers), 
attached to R.C.C.S., as 2nd Lieut.; 1937, attached to R.C.A.F. for training as a 
pilot. Qualified aB pilot, May, 1938; promoted to Flying Officer, July, 1938; at pre- 
sent, Flying Officer, No. 5 (B.R.) Squadron, Halifax, N.S. 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, I. M. Fraser, D. Ross. 

THOMPSON— JAMES IRVING, of Lynden, Ont. Born at Lynden, June 2nd, 
1918; Educ: B.A.Sc. Univ. of Toronto, 1939; 1936-37 (summers), rodman, chain- 
man, Ontario Dept. of Highways; June, 1939 to date, hydrographer (temporary), 
Hydrographie Service, Dom. Govt., Ottawa, Ont. 

References: C. R. Young, R. F. Legget, W. J. Smither, J. L. Foreman, R. E. 
Hanson. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1940 



103 



FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

ARMSTRONG— JOHN EDWIN, of Montreal, Que. Born at Peoria, 111., Sept. 
29th, 1886; Educ: CE., Cornell Univ., 1908; 1908-12, asst. on engrg. corps., Penn- 
sylvania lines west of Pittsburgh; 1912-28, asst. engr., chief engr's. office; 1928-38, 
asst. chief engr., and 1939 to date, chief engr., C.P.R., Montreal, Que. (A.M. 1917). 

References: J. M. R. Fairbairn, P. B. Motley, A. R. Ketterson, R. B. Jones, F. 
Newell, L. A. Wright. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

DESCOTEAUX— PAUL R., of Cap de la Madeleine, Que. Born at Montreal, 
Aug. 18th, 1912; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1934. R.P.E. 
of Que.; 1932-34 (summers), mining surveys; 1934 (Oct.-Dec), road survey; 1935-37, 
town engr., Rouyn, Que.; 1937-38, asst. divn. engr., and 1938 to date, divn. engr., 
Quebec Roads Department. (St. 1934). 

References: P. G. Gauthier, A. Frigon, S. A. Baulne, A. O. Dufresne, F. J. Leduc, 
E. Gohier, J. P. Chapleau. 

DUNCAN— JOHN DANIEL, of Milton, Ont. Born at Aberdeen, Scotland, 
August 20th, 1906: Educ.: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1928. R.P.E. of Ont.; 1924-25, 
electrician, Granby Cons. Mining & Smelting Co. Ltd.; 1928-29, test dept., and 
1929-39, application of engrg, motors and control, material handling equipment, 
mine hoists, etc., preparation of estimates, apparatus sales dept., Can. Gen. Elec. 
Co. Ltd., Toronto; at present Lieut., 1st Corps Signals, R. C. Signals, C.A.S.F. 
(St. 1928). 

References: W. E. Ross, D. L. McLaren, A. B. Gates, W. L. Laurie. 

ELLIOTT — JOHN COURTENAY, of Leamington, Ont. Born at Shawville, 
Que., May 18th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1934; 1934-35, junior engr., and 
1935 to date, new business representative, responsible for approval of design — sale 
and installn. of natural gas domestic heating, The Dominion Natural Gas Co. Ltd. 
(St. 1934). 

References: A. Macphail, W. P. Wilgar, R. A. Low, D. S. Ellis, L. M. Arkley. 

HAWKEY— BERTRAM JACKSON, of Fernie, B.C. Born at Calgary, Alta., 
Jan. 31st, 1906; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1936; 1926-35, electrn. with 
East Kootenay Power Co. Ltd., Fernie, B.C.; 1936-37, test course, C.G.E., Peter- 
borough and Toronto; 1937 to date, private practice as consltg. engr., work incl. 
design and constrn. of an air conditioning system for theatre in Fernie; also designed 
and remodelled the interior and front of the same theatre, incl. an up to date lighting 
system. (St. 1936). 

References: M. L. Wade, G. E. Elkington, H. J. MacLeod, W. E. CorniBh, W. M. 
Cruthers. 



HOLLAND— TREVOR, of 575 Walpole Ave., Town of Mount Royal, Que., 
Born at Montreal, Oct. 27th, 1908; Educ: B.Eng., McGill Univ., 1932; 1929-30-31 
(summers), Flying Training Course, R.C.A.F., Camp Borden; with Brandram- 
Henderson Ltd., Montreal, as follows: 1933-38, plant engr., and 1938 to date, vice- 
president in charge of all mechanical detail, plants, and operations for all divisions. 
(St. 1929). 

References: D. G. Anglin, G. M. Wynn, F. A. Combe, C. M. McKergow, R. 
DeL. French, E. Brown. 

MacGIBBON— JAMES ALEXANDER, of 3671 Jeanne Mance St., Montreal, 
Que. Born at Brownsburg, Que., Nov. 3rd, 1910; Educ: B.Eng. (Mech.), McGill 
Univ., 1937; with Canadian Industries Limited as follows: 1928-30, asst., metallur- 
gical lab., 1932-34, asst., "Bedaux" piece work rate system, 1931, 1935-36, experi- 
mental work in metallurgical and ballistic labs., June, 1937, to date, dftsman., 
engrg. dept., Montreal. (St. 1937). 

References: E. B. Jubien, H. B. Hanna, M. S. Macgillivray, I. R. Tait, A. B. 
McEwen. 

POULIOT— PAUL LOUIS, of 128 St. Ann St., Quebec, Que. Born at Artha- 
baska, Que., Oct. 2nd, 1912; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 
1937; 1938 to date, ap'tice, Shawinigan Water & Power Company, 6 mos., meter 
shop, Montreal, 1 year, Shawinigan Falls power house, 1 year, engrg. dept., Quebec 
Power Co., (St. 1936). 

References: R. B. McDunnough, E. D. Gray-Donald, R. Dupuis, J. Saint Jacques, 
G. H. Cartwright, C. B. Reid. 

ROSS— THOMAS W., of Dalhousie, N.B. Born at Hawkesbury, Ont., Mar. 2nd, 
1911; Educ: B.Eng. (Mech.), McGill Univ., 1935; 1931-32, lab. asst., G. J. Manson, 
Hawkesbury; 1932-33, lab. asst., Forest Products Labs, of Canada, Montreal; 1936 
to date, dftsman., New Brunswick International Paper Co., Dalhousie, N.B. (St. 
1935). 

References: L. Sterns, A. H. Chisholm, C. H. Champion, K. S. LeBaron, C. M. 
McKergow, A. R. Roberts. 

SCHOFIELD— ROBERT JOHN GRAHAM, of 5 Rockwood Place, Hamilton, 
Ont. Born at Winnipeg, Man., May 25th, 1912; Educ: B.Eng. (Chem.), McGill 
Univ., 1935; 1935-36, operator, Brunner Mond Canada, AmherBtburg, Ont.; 1936-38, 
chemist, Canadian Cottons Ltd., Milltown, N.B., at present, chemist and asst. 
dyer, Canadian Cottons Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. (St. 1935). 

References: W. A. T. Gilmour, A. R. Hannaford, J. R. Dunbar, H. A. Lumsden, 
A. Love. 



NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL ADAPTS ITS 
PROGRAMME TO WAR NEEDS 

The National Research Council is on a war footing. It is working in 
close co-operation with the Department of National Defence and the 
War Supply Board. During the absence of General McNaughton on 
military service, Dean C. J. Mackenzie of the University of Saskat- 
chewan is Acting President. The Council has received offers of labora- 
tory facilities and staff for war work from most of the universities and 
from several large industrial laboratories. It is the purpose of the 
Council, in the prosecution of war research referred to it, to make the 
greatest possible use of existing facilities in various centres throughout 
the Dominion and to utilize the services of organized teams of research 
workers wherever possible. 

Many investigations bearing on war problems are in progress in the 
laboratories. Tests are being made on textiles of all kinds for military 
purposes; studies are being directed towards the development of paints 
tor the detection of poison gases; gas mask equipment is being exam- 
ined; the value of proposed inventions is being appraised, and in 
practically every laboratory at least some of the work has a bearing on 
the war. 

For convenience, this review of the Council's work in 1939 is 
restricted to notes on work in the mechanical engineering and the 
physics and electrical engineering divisions. 

Division of Mechanical Engineering 

Wind tunnel tests to determine the effectiveness of wing flaps 
installed on certain aircraft have indicated that the landing speeds 
would be decreased by the use of the flaps on land planes and to a 
greater extent on seaplanes. 

With the advent in Canada of high speed military aircraft which 
may have to be operated on skis during the winter months a new ski 
has been produced which is suitable for use on all types of civil and 
military aircraft, and supersedes the earlier streamlined ski developed 
in the laboratories. 

Research on the snow performance of aircraft skis was continued at 
Sioux Lookout, Ontario, where the temperatures in winter are lower 
and the snow conditions different from those at Ottawa. From data 
obtained in these tests aircraft skis have been designed which have low 
sliding resistance, low tendency to "freeze in" and high resistance to wear. 

A model of the proposed horizontal wind tunnel for the new Aero- 
dynamic Laboratory was built and tested with a view to improvements 
in design. This model was built large enough to be of use as a small 
wind tunnel. 

Investigations into the possibility of explosions in automobile 
service stations through the ignition of oil mist produced by spring- 
spraying operations showed that the minimum concentration of 
spring-spraying oil needed to produce an explosion was much in excess 
of the maximum concentration of oil measured in the mist produced by 
actual spring-spraying operations. 

A new flume has been designed and constructed for use in hydraulic 
structure design. It is intended to contain models of dam spillways, 
sluice gates and similar structures, of a size sufficient to render the 
results free from scale effect. A new basin is being designed for ship 
model work. It will be 600 feet long, 25 feet wide and 10 feet deep and 
will have separate towing equipment for high speed work. 

Safety and regularity are the watchwords of modern air transport. 
The National Research Council maintains a laboratory for testing 
aircraft dashboard instruments. 



Division of Physics and Electrical Engineering 

In the Division of Physics and Electrical Engineering work includes 
investigations on general physics problems and in such specialized 
fields as acoustics, electrical engineering, heat, metrology, optics, 
radium and X-rays, and ultrasonics. 

Defrosting of aircraft propellers is very important when aircraft are 
flying in moist air at freezing temperatures. Experiments are in hand 
on the heating electrically of the leading edge of propeller blades. 
Equipment has also been developed to study vibrations in aircraft 
while in flight. 

Studies have been carried out in the attenuation of sound in fined 
ducts, and to check predictions based on new theories. The internal 
state of metals has been studied to determine the progress of fatigue. 

The Council has installed a one-half million volt transformer, a one- 
million volt impulse generator to simulate the effects of natural 
lightning, and a cathode ray oscillograph to study high speed tran- 
sients, such as those caused by lightning discharges. Development of a 
voltage regulator of the electronic type which would be cheaper in 
first cost than those heretofore on the market and which would give a 
closer voltage regulation has been undertaken. 

The thermal conductivity of some Canadian limestones and dolomites 
has been measured at temperatures ranging from 250° F. to 600° F. 

Some work has been done on a laboratory model to gain information 
in regard to heating of refrigerator cars by the several systems of 
piping used in connection with underslung heaters. 

An extensive series of tests has been made on heat transfer through 
fabrics worn by women indoors in order to get a comparison of these 
with those worn by men. The results indicate that wearing a dress made 
of jersey material (knitted dress) along with certain other clothing a 
woman can be just as warmly clothed as a man. A "heavy" silk stock- 
ing is found to give extremely little protection against cold and con- 
trasts severely with the trouser leg and air space which surrounds a 
man's calf. Some experiments have been made on the heat transfer 
through blankets in connection with studies of ground-sheets for troops. 

Diffusion coefficients of various types of building papers are being 
determined and shortly will be made available. 

A new projector for the transfer of data from air photographs to 
maps has been designed. An auxiliary camera has been built for use 
with the present standard aircraft instrument camera to record instru- 
ment readings on film. The new camera is quite small and can be 
placed in any convenient location in the aircraft. 

To certify gauges for checking tools, optical methods are employed. 
With the advent of the war, this work became especially valuable, 
as one of the first and most important requirements in munitions 
supply is the provision of accurate standard gauges. 

An artificial source of fight which is constant in colour and intensity 
has been developed and a small room has been equipped in the optics 
laboratory with this correct form of artificial illumination for grading 
by colour. 

Numerous castings, welds, and forgings have been inspected by 
X-ray and radium gamma ray methods. The laboratories have also 
assisted the aircraft industry by the development of uniform methods 
for the X-ray inspection of aircraft castings and in organizing such 
inspection in Canada. The equipment used for the testing of clinical 
X-ray dosemeters is being extended to meet requirements resulting 
from the recent adoption of higher electrical potentials for the opera- 
tion of therapeutic X-ray apparatus in some of the Canadian cancer 
institutions. 



104 



February, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 23 



MARCH 1940 



NUMBER 3 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, a.m.e.i.c. 
Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD, a.m.e.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, a.m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

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OF PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

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Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year, in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
•pinions expressed in the following pages. 



CONTENTS 



OUR RESPONSIBILITIES 

Dr. T. H. Hogg, M.E.I.C 107 

CANADIAN HIGHWAY CONTROL AND SAFETY 

Angus D. Campbell, M.E.I.C 109 

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE WAR 

Dr. F. Cyril James 113 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 115 

THE FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING .... 118 

Adjourned General Meeting ......... 

Awards of Medals and Prizes ........ 

Report of Finance Committee ........ 

Reports of Committees .......... 

Amendments to the By-Laws ........ 

New Business ........... 

Election of Officers ........... 

Council Meeting ........... 

Technical Sessions ........... 

The Luncheons ........... 

The Banquet ............ 

The President's Dinner .......... 

The Ladies ............ 

EDITORIAL 126 

Lord Tweedsmuir — In Memoriam ....... 

Corporate Membership Classification ....... 

Report of Committee on Western Water Problems .... 

The First Engineer in Halifax ........ 

Discussions on Annual Meeting Papers ...... 

Dr. Thomas H. Hogg (A Biography) ....... 

Address of the Retiring President ....... 

Meetings of Council .......... 

Newly Elected Officers of the Institute ...... 

Institute Prize Winners ......... 

Elections and Transfers ......... 

PERSONALS 137 

Obituaries ............ 

BRANCH NEWS 139 

LIBRARY NOTES : .... 144 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 145 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 146 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 148 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 



*P. M. SAUDER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
tJ. CLARK KEITH, Windsor, Ont. 

G. J. DESBARATS, Ottawa, Ont. 



tG. P. F. BOESE, Calgary, Alta. 
*W. F. M. BRYCE, Ottawa, Ont. 
tl. W. BUCKLEY, Sydney, N.S. 
*J. L. BUSFIELD, Montreal, Que. 
tJ. M. CAMPBELL, Lethbridge, Alta. 
tA. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
•P. E. DONCASTER, Fort William, Ont 
*R. H. FINDLAY, Montreal, Que. 
tA. B. GATES, Peterborough, Ont. 
*L. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 
ÎJ. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

TREASURER 

deGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 



PRESIDENT 

T. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS 

tMcNEELY DuBOSE, Arvida, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Montreal, Que. 
COUNCILLORS 

*S. HOGG, Saint John, N.B. 

*T. H. JENKINS, Windsor, Ont. 

*A. C. JOHNSTON, Arvida, Que. 

tJ. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tA. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 

*A. P. LINTON, Regina, Sask. 

•I. P. MACNAB, Halifax, N.S. 

fW. R. MANOCK, Fort Erie North, Ont 

tH. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 

*W. R. MOUNT, Edmonton, Alta. 

tW. L. McFAUL, Hamilton, Ont. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



*F. NEWELL, Montreal, Que 
tW S. WILSON, Sydney, N.S. 

H. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 



JC. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 
tJ. H. PARKIN, Ottawa, Ont. 
tB. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 
*J. ROBERTSON, Vancouver, B.C. 
*A. U. SANDERSON, Toronto, Ont. 
tC. E. SISSON, Toronto, Ont. 
tG. E. SMITH, Moncton, N.B. 
tA. J. TAUNTON, Winnipeg, Man. 
*J. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 
*E. B. WARDLE, Grand'Mere, Que. 
*For 1940. tFor 1940-41. JFor 1940-41-42. 

SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 
deG. BEAUBIEN 

G. A. GAHERTY 
J. A. McCRORY 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

LEGISLATION 

J. CLARK KEITH, Chairman 
I. C. BARLTROP 
I. P. MacNAB 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman. 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

BRIAN R. PERRY, Chairman 

G. M. PITTS 

E. A. RYAN 

G. A. WALLACE 

R. A. YAPP 



PUBLICATION 

C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 

J. C. DAY 

R. E. MacAFEE 

J. E. ST. LAURENT 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 
I. M. FRASER 
W. E. LOVELL 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Chairman 
J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 

S. G. PORTER 

J. M. WARDLE 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

G. McL. PITTS, Chairman 



DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CATE 

A. G. FLEMING 

W. G. GLIDDON 

O. 0. LEFEBVRE 

J. A. McCRORY 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

J. H. McKINNEY 

R. M. SMITH 



MEMBERSHIP 

K. O. WHYTE. Chairman 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

O. O. LEFEBVRE, Vice-Chairman 

G. A. GAHERTY 

H. W. McKIEL 

F. NEWELL 

C. E. SISSON 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
JACQUES BENOIT 
E. V. BUCHANAN 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
C. A. FOWLER 
R DeL. FRENCH 
R. E HEARTZ 
R F. LEGGET 
A P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. J. McLEAN 
R. M. SMITH 
F L. WEST 



LIST OF INSTITUTE PRIZES 

Sir John Kennedy Prize. . Gold medal For outstanding merit or note- Leonard Prize 

worthy contribution to sci- 
ence of engineering, or to 
benefit of the Institute. 

Past-Presidents' Prize. . .$100 caBh For a paper on a topic selected 

„, „ . by Council. Students and Juniors. . 

Duggan Prize Medal and cash to 

value of $100. .. .For paper on constructional 
engineering involving the use 
of metals for structural or . . . 

mechanical purposes. University Students... 

Gzowski Prize Gold medal For a paper contributing to 

the literature of the profes- 
sion of civil engineering. 

PI il m mer Prize Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 



.Gold medal For a paper on a mining sub- 
ject, open to members of the 
Canadian Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy as well 
as The Engineering Institute. 

.Books to the value 

of $25 (5 prizes). .For papers on any subject pre- 
sented by Student or Junior 
members. 

.$25 in cash (11 

prizes) For the third year student in 

each college, making the best 
showing m college work 
and activities in student or 
local branch of engineering 
society. 



106 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VOLUME 23 



MARCH 1940 



NUMBER 3 



"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



OUR RESPONSIBILITIES 

1am fully conscious of the magnitude of the responsibilities which fall upon me 
as President of The Engineering Institute of Canada. Some of these responsibilities 
I must carry to the best of my ability, some I can delegate to others, but the 
paramount responsibility of guiding the efforts of the Institute in making its best 
contribution towards the successful prosecution of the war, I must share with 
every member. 

Canada is facing a very critical year. Her best and unstinted contribution to 
this war for the preservation of democracy is essential. Any failure on her part 
might mean calamity. I, therefore, bespeak the fullest support from every Institute 
member — both in his individual war effort and in the co-operative effort he can 
contribute for the common good. 

Nicholas Murray Butler once said that "The future of the world is bound up 
with the hope of a true democracy that builds itself upon liberty . . . False 
democracy shouts, 'Every man down to the level of the average.' True democracy 
cries, 'All men up to the heights of their fullest capacity for service and achieve- 
ment.'" Let us all remember, therefore, that while we are fighting for democracy 
we should also endeavour to build a true democracy in this Dominion. 

Many of us, busy in our daily labours, may give little thought to our higher 
responsibilities as engineers. But we would all do well to recall the obligation we 
undertook in the ceremony of the ring — The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer: 

"MY TIME I will not refuse; MY THOUGHT I will not grudge; MY CARE 
I will not deny towards the honour, use, stability and perfection of any works to 
which I may be called to set my hand." 

Our responsibilities as engineers and subjects of a nation which is founded upon 
the principles of a true democracy, are not only technical, but moral. Our technical 
training in accuracy and logic well equips us to make a great contribution to 
society; to offer that impersonal, unprejudiced viewpoint and judgement so essential 
to-day for strengthening our democratic economic structure. Becaus^ of this 
responsibility, therefore, let us all endeavour to apply our technical training to 
our moral life — and take great care in the accuracy of our spoken and written word. 



}ytf±*Tc 



President. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



107 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, J. F. BRIDGE 
Vice-Chair., GEO. E. MEDLAR 
Executive, W. D. DONNELLY 

E. M. KREBSER 

F. J. POLLOCK 
(Ex-Officio), BOYD CANDLISH 

T. H. JENKINS 
J. CLARK KEITH 
Sec.-Treas., H. L. JOHNSTON 

1334 Victoria Avenue 

Windsor, Ont. 
CALGARY 

Chairman, S. G. COULTIS 

Vice-Chair., JAS. McMILLAN 

Executive, J. B. deHART J. R. WOOD 

G. H. PATRICK 

(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE H. J. McLEAN 

E. W. BOWNESS 
Sec.-Treas., F. J. HEUPERMAN, 
215-6th Ave. West; 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MaeLEOD 
Executive, C. M. ANSON 

S. G. NAISH 
(Ex-Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 



M. F. COSSITT 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 



C. E. GARNETT 
E. NELSON 

D. A. HANSEN A. M. ALLEN 

E. L. SMITH W. W. PRESTON 
J. W. PORl'EOUS 
W. R. MOUNT P. M.SAUDER 
W. E. CORNISH 

Sec.-Treas., B. W. PITFIELD. 

Northwestern Utilities Limited, 

10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



CHARLES SCRYMGEOUR 

S. L. FULTZ G. F. BENNETT 

P. A. LOVETT F. C. WIGHTMAN 

A. B. BLANCHARD 

I. P. MacNAB 

A. D. NICKERSON 

L. C. YOUNG, 

365 Morris Street Ext., 

Halifax, N.S. 

ALEXANDER LOVE 
W. A. T. GILMOUR 
C. H. HUTTON N. WAGNER 

S. SHUPE T. S. GLOVER 

J. R. DUNBAR 
W. L. McFAUL 
A. R. HANNAFORD 

354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 



HAMILTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Vice-Chair., P. ROY 

Executive V. R. DAVIES M. W. HUGGINS 

K. H. McKIBBON 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. HARKNESS 

L. F. GRANT 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 

M. FLEMING 
G. O'LEARY 

BOYD J. R. MATHIESON 

A. CULPEPER S. E. FLOOK 
OLSSON W. H. BIRD 

A. KELLY A. T. HURTER 

L. GOODALL 
E. DONCASTER 
OS, 
423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 

Chairman, A. J. BRANCH 
Vice-Chair., G. S. BROWN 
Executive J.M.CAMPBELL N.H.BRADLEY 

C. S. DONALDSON J. HAÏMES 

(Ex-Officio), R. F. P. BOWMAN 

G. S. BROWN 
Ste.-Trtas., E. A. LAWRENCE 

207 -7th St. S.. Lethbridge, Alta. 



Chairman, 


J. 


Vice-Chair. 


H. 


Executive, 


D. 




B. 




H. 




E. 


(Ex-Officio) 


E. 




P. 


Sec.-Treas., 


H. 


LETHBRIDGE 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, F. C. BALL V. A McKILLOP 

J. P. CARRIERE J. R. ROSTRON 
J. FERGUSON 
(Ex-Officio), J. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 

London Structural Steel Co. Ltd., 
London, Ont. 



MONCTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



F. O. CONDON 
J. PULLAR 

G. L. DICKSON 

R. H. EMMERSON A. S. GUNN 
C. S. G. ROGERS G. E. SMITH 

H. W. McKIEL 
V. C. BLACKETT 
Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, H. J. VENNES 

Vice-Chair., R. E. HEARTZ 

Executive, G. J. CHENEVERT E. V. GAGE 
R. S. EADIE I. S. PATTERSON 
G. McL. PITTS P. E. POITRAS 

(Ex-Officio), J. B. CHALLIES H. MASSUE 

J. L. BUSFIELD C. K. McLEOD 
R. H. FINDLAY F. NEWELL 

J. G. HALL B. R. PERRY 

E. R. SMALLHORN 

Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 



NIAGARA PENINSULA 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



C. G. CLINE 
L. McPHAIL 
[. C. STREET 

C. G. MOON 



a. w. f. McQueen 

C. H. McL. BURNS 

H. G. ACRES 

M. H. JONES A 

L. J. RUSSELL 

G. F. VOLLMER 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK 
Sec.-Treas., GEO. E. GRIFFITHS, 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, W. H. MUNRO 

Executive, N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS J. H. IRVINE 
W. H. NORRISH 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS J. H. PARKIN 

W. F. M. BRYCE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, B. I. BURGESS 

Executive, I. F. McRAE J. CAMERON 

R. L. DOBBIN V. R. CURRIE 

(Ex-Officio) W. T. FANJOY 

A. B. GATES 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY. 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 

QLEBEC 

Chairman, PHILIPPE MÉTHÉ 
V ice-Chair. ,L. C. DUPUIS 

Executive J. G. O'DONNELL T. M. DECHENE 
M. BOURGET A. LAFRAMBOISE 
L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRÊSNE 

A. R. DÉCARY (Honorary) 
(Ex-Officio), H. CIMON R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
A. LARIVIÈRE J. ST-JACQUES 

Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT 

Department of Colonization, Room 
263-A Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 
Que. 

SAGUENAY 

Chairman, ADAM CUNNINGHAM 

Vice-Chair., J. W. WARD 

Executive, CHAS. MILLER G. E. LaMOTHE 

W. P. C. LEBOUTILLIER 

G. F. LAYNE 
(Ex-Officio), A. C. JOHNSTON 

M. G. SAUNDERS McN. DuBOSE 
Sec.-Treas., K. A. BOOTH 

c/o Price Bros. <fe Co., 

Kenogami, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, H. F. MORRISEY 
Vice-Chair., J. P. MOONEY 
Executive. G. G. MURDOCH 

G. N. HATFIELD D. R. SMITH 
(Ex-Officio) W. H. BLAKE 

S. HOGG F. A. PATRIQUEN 

Sec.-Treas., F. L. BLACK 

N.B. Electric Power Comm., 

P.O. Box 820, Saint John, N.B. 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, F. W. BRADSHAW 
Vice-Chair., C. H. CHAMPION 
Executive, N. J. A. VERMETTE H.G.TIMMIS 



W. B. SCOTT 
H. O. KEAY 



E. B. WARDLE 



A. H. HEATLEY 
L. B. STIRLING 
J. H. FREGEAU 
K. S. LkBARON 
(Ex-Officio), H. J. WARD 
Sec.-Treas., V. JEPSEN, 

Cons. Paper Corp. Ltd., 

Grand'Mère, Que. 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, L M. FRASER 

Vice-Chair., P. C. PERRY 

Executive, R. J. FYFE R. W. ALLEN 

J.McD.PATTON S.R.MUIRHEAD 
J.W.D.FARRELL R.A.McLELLAN 
A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 

Ex-Officio, A. P. LINTON 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE 

City Hall, Regina, Sask. 

SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, H. J. LEITCH 
Vice-Chair., E. M. MacQUARRIE 
Executive, R. A. CAMPBELL N. C. COWIE 
C.O.MADDOCK E.W.NEELANDS 
(Ex-Officio), 3. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 
Sec.-Treas. O. A. EVANS, 

178 Albert St. E., 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

TORONTO 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



A. E. BERRY 
N. MacNICOL 
H. E. BRANDON 
W. S. WILSON 
A. O. WOLFF 
W. E. P. DUNCAN 
G. H. ROGERS 
M. BARRY WATSON 
(Ex-Officio), A. U. SANDERSON 

C E. SISSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engineering Bldg., 

University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, C. E. WEBB 

Vice-Chair., W. O. SCOTT 

Executive, T. PRICE MAJOR J. R. GRANT 
W. N. KELLY P. B. STROYAN 
P. H. BUCHAN C. A. DAVIDSON 

(Ex-Officio), ERNEST SMITH 
JAS. ROBERTSON 

Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, E. W. IZARD 
Vice-Chair. G. M. IRWIN 

Executive, E. DAVIS A. L. CARRUTHERS 
A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
R. C. FARROW J. N. ANDERSON 
Sec.-Treas., K. REID, 

1336 Carnsew Street, 

Victoria, B.C. 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, J. W. SANGER 
Vice-Chair., H. L. BRIGGS 
Executive, D. N. SHARPE 

V. MICHIE 

G. C. DAVIS 

V. H. PATRIARCHE 

J. T. ROSE 
(Ex-Officio), W. D. HURST 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. HOOGSTRATEN, 

University of Manitoba, 

Fort Garry, Man. 



108 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CANADIAN HIGHWAY CONTROL AND SAFETY 

ANGUS D. CAMPBELL, m.e.i.c. 
Manager, Omega Gold Mines Limited, Larder Lake, Ont., Safety Engineer, Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited, Schumacher, Ont. 

Paper presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada at Toronto, Ont., 

February 9th, 1940 



Motor vehicle accidents in Canada in 1939 killed some 
1,500 people and maimed probably 100,000 others. This is 
over twice the fatality toll of occupational accidents in 
Canada. The social and humanitarian aspects of this record 
have shocked all classes of the community. Premiers and 
cabinet ministers, various public officials, prominent citi- 
zens, the pulpit and the press, have all deplored highway 
accidents and warned against them. Despite all this, the 
slaughter and its accompanying economic loss goes on. 

Engineering Concern with Highway Safety 

Highway safety is really an engineering problem. It is 
thus a proper subject for The Engineering Institute of 
Canada. One of the proudest boasts of the engineering 
profession has been that its work is designed and executed 
for stability and safety. One of the chief claims for legal 
protection of the engineering profession is the safety of the 
public. Nevertheless, although highways and motor vehicle 
transportation are major engineering tasks, there is not 
yet safety on the highways of Canada. Somewhere and 
somehow, the engineers of Canada are falling down on this 
big job. This statement is not an indictment of provincial 
and municipal highway engineers. Each Canadian engineer 
must share some part of the responsibility since "of him 
to whom much has been given, much is expected." Every 

CANADA— MOTOR VEHICLE STATISTICS— 1938 



Province 


Acci- 
dents 


Deaths 


Re- 
ported 

In- 
juries 


Property 
Damage 


Department and 
Official Reporting 


British 
Columbia 


5,073 


102 


2,464 


$525,654.58 


The Commissioner, 
Provincial Police, 
Motor Vehicle 
Branch 


Alberta 




70 

(Esti- 
mate) 






Statistics not kept by 
Public Works 


Saskatch- 
ewan 


1,200 


45 


859 


189,875.00 


Provincial Taxation 
Commission, 

Director of Motor 
Vehicle and Gaso- 
line Revenue 


Manitoba 


2,892 


78 


1,587 


167,868.00 


Department of 
Labour, The Acci- 
dent Prevention 
Branch 


Ontario 


13,715 


640 


11,683 


1,747,875.00 


Department of High- 
ways, Motor Vehi- 
cles Branch Acci- 
dent and Statistical 
Division 


Quebec 


9,568 


402 


5,764 




Bureau of Provincial 

Revenue, 
Bureau of Statistics 


New 
Brunswick 


1,040 


55 


578 




Department of Public 
Works, 

Motor Vehicle Regis- 
trar and Gasoline 
Tax Auditor 


Nova 
Scotia 


2,204 


75 


1,088 


154,565.00 


Department of High- 
ways, Registrar of 
Motor Vehicles 


Prince Ed- 
ward Isl'd 










Royal Canadian 

Mounted Police 



Canadian engineer can help to make our highways safe, 
and the Engineering Institute can lead in this important 
work. 

Human and Money Costs of Highway Accidents 

Before considering how engineers can make Canada's 
highways safer, let us review why these highways should 
be made safer. The preceding statistics of accidents, fatali- 
ties, and personal injuries, in our various provinces for the 
year 1938 are enough to give anyone thought. 

The foregoing statistics show only the number of com- 
paratively serious injuries reported. If the same proportion 
of approximately 100 disabling injuries to one fatal holds 
good in highway accidents as in industry, then at least 
150,000 persons were injured on Canadian highways in 
1938. Even if the bald record of approximately 1,500 killed 
and 150,000 injured on our highways in one year fails to 
move us, the personal knowledge of individual highway 
accidents with the resultant deaths, the suffering, temporary 
or permanent, the shocks to the victims, as well as the 
anxiety and sorrow of relatives, dependents and friends, 
must surely convince each of us that highways should be 
operated more safely. 

If, on the other hand, the humanitarian aspects of the 
problem are disregarded, and the engineering, economic 
side alone is considered, even a brief review will convince 
any engineer or other economist that Canadian highways 
must be made safer. The full cost of highway accidents 
cannot be known. The official provincial estimates of motor 
vehicle property damage alone, are over $3,000,000 per 
year. If the money costs of the human injuries are calculated 
on the same basis as compensation for industrial accidents 
they reach a staggering sum. Under the Ontario Workmen's 
Compensation system, which is similar to that of other 
Canadian provinces, it costs $30,000 for the industrial 
accidents which occur for every fatal accident. On this 
basis, in 1938 the 1,500 Canadian motor vehicle deaths and 
their accompanying permanent and non-permanent in- 
juries, would require for medical aid and compensation, the 
sum of $45,000,000. Enormous as such compensation and 
medical costs would be, if paid, they are not the biggest 
item in accident expense, since the indirect and uninsurable 
costs are calculated 7 to be three or four times as large as 
the direct costs of compensation and medical treatment. 

Probably the greatest loss, but an incalculable one, is the 
loss of use of Canadian highways due to the real and 
justifiable fear of highway accidents. This becomes a larger 
and more definite loss as Canada makes yearly increasing 
highway expenditures, largely to attract tourists. These 
expenditures, such as the $44,000,000 spent by Ontario for 
the year ending March 31st, 1938, can only be justified by 
increased revenue from tourists. As far back as 1930 it was 
estimated 12 that United States citizens spent one billion 
dollars a year in touring on this continent. Located as 
Canada is, with Ontario as a wedge into the most populous 
States, Canadian highways are travelled by millions of 
United States tourists, and Canadian revenue from tourists 
is estimated at $300,000,000 per year. 

This year, with European travel impossible, with Canadian 
money at a discount, and with the newer cars and highways 
of the past two years revolutionizing the comfort and cost 
of highway travel, our highways should be more attractive 
than ever to United States tourists. This is fortunate, since 
never was tourist revenue so vital to the economic life of 
Canada as in her present war-effort. Now is the time to 
reach out for tourist traffic and revenue. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



109 



But until our highways are more safely controlled, the 
full amount of possible tourist revenue and its important 
accompanying international good-will cannot be obtained, 
since tourists and those Canadians who hope that their 
days may be long will continue to hesitate in making full 
use of the open roads of this Dominion. On the other hand, 
safe Canadian highways would not only bring peace of 
mind and happiness to Canadian citizens, but their adver- 
tising value would be worth millions of dollars in increased 
tourist revenue. 

The greatest present need in obtaining safe Canadian 
highways is more of engineering approach and analysis and 
direct engineering action. 

Engineers and Highway Safety 

Engineering is already doing much for highway safety 
and has been chiefly responsible for checking motor vehicle 
fatalities in Canada. Without the results of engineering 
work, the appalling rise in highway fatalities up to the 
year 1937 would not have been checked (and even reduced 
in some of the provinces) as it has been. 

Automotive engineering has made continuous improve- 
ments in motor vehicles, which now perform reliably and 
efficiently and are marvels of safety. In sound body con- 
struction, improved tires, shatter-proof glass, improved 
lighting, the elimination of projecting killing parts, and in 
the general ability of motor cars to protect their occupants, 
the automotive engineers have made wonderful contribu- 
tions to highway safety. 

In highway engineering proper, that is, in the design, 
construction, and maintenance of streets and highways, 
Canadian engineers are definitely working towards safety. 
This is in spite of having one of the most widespread high- 
way systems in the world, and our great difficulties of 
terrain and climate. 

Little has been written about this for the Institute. 
Although there are many references to highway safety in 
the published proceedings of the Canadian Good Roads 
Conventions 1 and of the Road Superintendents' and En- 
gineers' Conferences of Ontario 2 , it is found, upon enquiry, 
that the only papers on safety printed in the Engineering 
Journal in recent years are "Safety in Industry" 3 ; "En- 
gineering Efficiency into the Highways" 4 ; and "Engineering 
the Highways for Safety" 5 . 

There was, too, a striking lack of definite reference to 
safety in the Semicentennial Number of the Institute's 
Journal of June, 1937, although the reviews of Canadian 
engineering in that number do stress by inference the 
fundamental safety of Canadian engineering design and 
construction. 

One reference to highway safety in that number is note- 
worthy 6 . Professor C. R. Young says in his article on 
"Bridge Building" that by the use of splash panels on bridges 
built by the late A. B. Crealock at Belleville and Gait, it 
was possible to prevent the splashing of pedestrians and 
make it impossible for children to dart out on the roadway 
from behind the hangers. This is a tribute to the practical 
interest in safety of our departed friend, who did so much 
in so many ways for engineering in Canada. 

The theme of "Engineering the Highways for Safety" 
was followed up in a splendid paper 5 by Mr. C. A. Robbins, 
who describes the modern idea in highway construction as 
exemplified by the four-lane highway being built east and 
west from Toronto. This particular example of safety being 
built into highways is one of the best in the world. Despite 
this and smaller examples throughout Canada, we must 
conclude with the author that "irrespective of the length 
to which the engineer may go in designing the highway 
from a safety standpoint, the final factor of safety rests 
with the driver of the motor vehicle, and while engineers 
who are constructing highways are faced with many 
difficult problems, those who have the responsibility for 
motor vehicle control are perhaps faced with problems more 
difficult to solve." 



The main problem of highway safety is stated there. 
Highway design and construction for safety simply cannot 
keep up to the growth of motor traffic. A pioneer Scotch 
road-building engineer, John Loudon MacAdam, is said to 
have enunciated the theory that "roads should be built to 
suit the traffic and not traffic to suit the roads." As a 
theory it is sound, but in this large Canada of ours, the 
traffic must suit the roads for many years yet. This 
involves highway control and operating safety, but who 
has the responsibility for highway control ? 

Engineers would appear to control the operating of our 
highways. We have well organized Provincial Highway 
Engineering Departments. The completeness of these, — 
with chief engineers, assistants, specialty, district and 
division engineers covering all districts and the whole 
supplemented by road superintendents and engineers in 
our cities, towns, counties and townships — will be an agree- 
able surprise to investigating members of this Institute. 
The complete engineering personnel of these departments 
and municipalities is detailed in the February 22nd, 1939, 
issue of the "Engineering and Contract Record." These 
engineers are doing a marvellous work for Canada. 

We have, however, extremes in highway control juris- 
diction, with trans-Canada highways, provincial highways, 
county, township, town and city roads, and many roads 
that, like Topsy, have merely "growed up." Somewhere in 
the maze of jurisdiction, engineering control is lost. 

Despite the admirable work they are doing for Canada 
in highway transportation, engineers in Canada do not 
have the responsibility for the safe operating control of the 
highways which they design, construct, and maintain. This 
operating control is left chiefly to the police and the 
coroners. 

Examining the mechanics of actual highway control, we 
find that those chiefly concerned with highway operation 
of motor vehicles and highway safety are the Provincial 
Registrars, who issue driving licenses and motor vehicle 
permits, and who in some provinces are the gasoline tax 
auditors. Only in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and 
Ontario, are these officers in the Highways or Works 
Departments. Actual administration of the Highway Act, 
and by inference of road operation, is in the hands of the 
police who are under the Attorney-General's Department. 

Accidents on highways, if the cause of personal injury 
or property damage amounting to $50, must in most prov- 
inces be reported to police officers who are supposed to 
investigate and to send copies of their reports to the Pro- 
vincial Registrar of Motor Vehicles. In addition, coroners 
must send reports of inquests on highway accident victims 
to the Registrar, who can then compile accident statistics. 
The divisional or other highway engineers in most provinces 
do not learn officially of accidents on their roads until they 
are ancient history. Certainly they do not make it their 
business to investigate these accidents. Responsibility and 
authority in highway control are divided between the high- 
way and the Attorney-General's Departments and engin- 
eering seems to keep out of it. The statistical branches of 
the Registrars of motor vehicles and gasoline revenue 
collectors, and in Manitoba of an Accident Prevention 
Branch of the Department of Labour, record in their reports 
earnest attempts at highway accident prevention. For 
example, the report of the Ontario Vehicles Branch for 
1937 records: "The year 1937 saw a tragic toll recorded 
with the number of accidents and victims reaching a new 
high; a result which might have been foreseen, perhaps, in 
view of the heavy increases in traffic volume. To meet the 
alarming situation, an advertising campaign using a 'horror' 
or 'fear' approach was employed with gratifying results 
indicated during the last few months of the year." 

In the author's opinion, this kind of approach reaches 
only the habitant's warning conclusion, "You'll not get 
drowned on Lac St. Pierre so long you stay on shore." So 
you'll not get killed on the highways so long as you are 
afraid to use them. Ontario's "horror" or "fear" campaign 



110 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



was a desperate remedy for desperate circumstances. It is 
now being followed up there and in other provinces by 
other educational methods. 

We engineers appear to accept very literally what are 
called the "three E's of highway safety", namely, — engin- 
eering, education, and enforcement, and stop at a very 
narrow definition of the first "E". Such a casting off of 
responsibility can only be done at a great loss of status to 
the engineering profession and at a great loss to safety. 
The effective approach to the safety problem is, in its 
entirety, the engineering one, with engineering recogniz- 
ing the interdependence of the human and mechanical 
elements. 

Engineers, having as they do, "a responsibility and 
opportunity not given to the average man" 3 surely cannot 
subscribe to the doctrine that it is sufficient for engineers 
to do everything possible to raise the standard of highway 
design to a point where, if accidents do happen, our con- 
sciences are clear. 

We know that "the final factor of safety rests with the 
driver of the motor vehicle and that a road can be well 
designed for safety and volume and yet can be made a 
veritable death trap by the (uncontrolled) reckless or care- 
less driver." 10 . Yet we cannot get clear of the highway 
control and safety problem like the Irishman who threw 
the axe into the fight and said, "Thank God my hands 
are clear of it." 

The writer strongly advocates, then, changes in our 
remote dual control of highway operation. District, county 
and municipal engineers must be allowed and encouraged 
to get right to first-hand grips with the causes and details 
of road accidents occurring in their areas. This would 
insure : 

First — A reasoned analysis of the safety problem with 
continuous factual evaluation of the real causes of 
accidents and their remedies. 

Second — A continuous dealing with the mechanical or 
physical elements of the car and the highway, and above 
all, action — the prompt application of sound engineering 
principles to the control of the human element, since as 
Huxley so truly said, "the great end of life is not knowl- 
edge but action." 

All of the many agencies now working for highway safety 
need and would welcome the aid of engineers. This would 
be especially true of the police, who have a definite place 
in engineering highway control for safety. If the police are 
not soon given this engineering co-operation, Provincial and 
Municipal Police Engineering Departments will have to be 
set up. 

Overburdened as some Provincial Police are with all 
kinds of law enforcement, they often have to use their own 
cars on highway patrol. Of such a patrol in one province, 
a recent newspaper dispatch says: "It has been announced 
by the attorney-general that it is proposed to separate the 
Liquor Commission Police from the Provincial Police. It 
was also stated that the custom of releasing most of the 
provincial officers during the winter will be reverted to. 
Under the previous administration, provincial traffic con- 
stables were employed twelve months a year at a salary of 
$100 a month. They will likely now be employed as under 
an administration before, for eight months a year at $125 
a month." 8 

Engineers may well ask themselves how highway safety 
can be obtained under "the three E system" where 

Engineering stops at design and construction; 

Education is the function of miscellaneous agencies 
and secures its chief gains through the "fear" motive so 
successfully used in the Toronto Star articles of Decem- 
ber, 1939; 

Enforcement is the starved child of revenue depart- 
ments that begrudge salaries of even $125 per month for 
twelve months a year. 



Industrial Safety Engineering 

In industry, safety engineering has had marvellous results 
in accident prevention. Industrial management engineers, 
assisted often by engineers definitely assigned to safety, and 
often successfully by those without formal engineering 
training, have cut the number of disabling accidents and 
fatalities, and consequently have secured uninterrupted 
production and profitable operation. Some instances of this 
are: — In Canadian mining, considered a very dangerous 
occupation, the number of fatal accidents per thousand 
men employed in 1929 had been cut in half by 1939; one 
northern Ontario mine with 800 men in 1926 had 430 lost- 
time accidents, of which 200 resulted in lost-time of over 
seven days each, the compensation term; in 1938, the same 
mine, with 1,400 men employed, had only 81 lost-time 
accidents, of which just 40 were compensation cases. Last 
year 53 great DuPont factories went through the entire 
year without a lost-time accident. "A reduction in accidents 
from 65 per cent to 85 per cent when a safety programme 
is installed in a factory is not unusual" 13 . 

Highway Construction Engineering 

As in industrial accident prevention, an engineering 
approach is being made to actual safe highway operation 
and accident prevention in an important field where indus- 
try and government road operation join. That is in road 
construction. In Ontario, road contractors on this work 
pay $6 per $100 of payroll for workmen's compensation for 
accidents. This is, of course, a cost of highways. That rate, 
fixed by the actual cost of accidents on road construction, 
is three times as high as that paid in the supposedly dan- 
gerous work of mining. The members of the Ontario Road 
Builders' Association are going to do something about this, 
and have formed a Workmen's Compensation Accident 
Prevention Association in their Class 21 u . It is a reasonable 
assumption that they will cut their compensation rate by a 
third, which will still leave it twice the mining rate. This 
will save directly in compensation $150,000 a year, and 
expenditures for safety on highway construction will be 
abundantly justified. This will definitely affect safety on 
the highways. 

There appears no reason why governments and muni- 
cipalities themselves should not take up organized road 
construction and operating safety as a similar direct means 
of saving the tax-payers' money 15 . There is no question 
but that the humanitarian and social results would also 
repay in votes. 

Engineering Highway Control 

Can engineers bring highway control safety efforts, 
similar to those of industry, into the complex field of 
government and police jurisdiction, and can the engineers 
survive there ? The author believes they would thrive on 
it and suggest that each Department of Highways appoint 
one of its engineers as Director of Highway Safety under 
the chief engineer of the department. This director would 
have under him engineers assigned to safety work in each 
Highway Division, who would work in close co-operation 
with the divisional engineers. In addition, the employment 
of safety engineers by large municipalities would be stimu- 
lated. These highway safety engineers should be men 
trained, or who will take the training 11 , in operating and 
management problems rather than the type who specialize 
in "cause work," since the latter tend to emphasize the 
emotional side at the expense of sound economics. There is 
an abundant literature on highway safety available to teach 
these men 12 , and such safety engineers would earn their 
salaries from the first day in facilitating safety work 
amongst the Highway Department's, own employees, and 
would in a short time pay handsome dividends to their 
provinces in increased highway safety. 

This is not too ambitious a highway safety programme, 
yet it will not be obtained unless engineers go after it. It 
is a programme, however, which may be obtained piece- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



111 



meal. It is literally true that any municipality, county, 
provincial division or province, can to a large extent deter- 
mine its own highway accident rate. Safety is purchaseable. 
Of this the City of Toronto is becoming an example. Despite 
increasing traffic, the number of motor vehicle deaths in 
1939 shows a decided drop as compared with the past 
several years, as: 

1934 88 

1935 74 

1936 80 

1937 

1938 80 

1939 61 

These results place Toronto high in the list of safe cities 
in North America. While no one organization can take 
credit for this, it is significant that one of our fellow en- 
gineers, Mr. Tracy leMay, is in action in Toronto as traffic 
engineer in an advisory position to the Council on safe 
Traffic Control. 

If any branch of this Institute, or any group of engineers 
similar to the well-known Brantford group, will seriously 
take up highway safety in their area, even though they may 
have set-backs, good results are bound to be obtained. The 
adventure is recommended to engineers. 

Finally, engineering action for highway safety is needed 
even before the expected influx of tourists in the coming 
season. A start on it can be made through the only public 
enquiries that are held into highway accidents, that is, 
through coroners' inquests. It should be necessary for the 
municipal or provincial divisional engineers or their en- 
gineer representatives, to attend such inquests to give 
expert and explanatory evidence as to how the fatal 
accident occurred on the highway of which they had charge. 
There would then be fewer alibis offered by the public on 
the state of the road. After the first few inquests, the 
engineers-in-charge would make it their business to know 
what was happening on their highways. Arrangements 
would very quickly be made by which the engineers would 
learn at once, by wire or 'phone, of highway accidents, and 
they or their assistants would be right on the job to investi- 
gate. The engineering approach having thus been started 
with the facts for presentation at the coroners' inquests, 
engineering analysis would point the way to the needed or 
effective remedy, whether local improvement in the high- 
way, supervision of signs, the removal of an obstruction, 
or better enforcement of the Traffic Act. Very soon highway 
safety engineering would become the basis of, and dovetail 



into, all the legal enforcement and educational phases of 
highway accident prevention. 

There are few departments of human activity in which 
the engineering approach is not effective. Engineering, if 
directly applied to highway control, can solve the problem 
of highway safety. Safe Canadian highways may well 
become highways of happiness for the Canadian people and 
their friendly United States neighbours. 

Safe Canadian highways can be a large factor in solving 
Canada's war-time economic problems. 

The "Sons of Martha" are called on to make our high- 
ways "safer than the known way." 

LIST OF REFERENCES 

1 Proceedings of the Canadian Good Roads Convention, 1938. The 
Canadian Engineer, September 13th, 1938. 

2 Proceedings of the Ontario Road Superintendents' and Engineers' 
Conferences. The Canadian Engineer, February 28th, 1938. 

3 Safety in Industry, by R. B. Morley, General Manager, Industrial 
Accident Prevention Association. The Engineering Journal, Nov- 
ember, 1938. 

4 Engineering Efficiency into the Highways, by Miller McClintock, 
Ph.D., Director, Bureau for Street Traffic Research, Harvard 
University. The Engineering Journal, March, 1938. 

5 Engineering the Highways for Safety, by C. A. Robbins, B.Sc, 
District Engineer, Toronto, Department of Public Highways, 
Ontario. The Engineering Journal, March, 1938, with Discussion, 
April, 1938. 

6 Bridge Building, by C. R. Young, Professor of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto. Semicentennial Number of The Engineering 
Journal, June, 1937. 

7 Studies by Mr. H. W. Heinrich of the Travelers' Insurance Company. 

8 The Northern News, Kirkland Lake, December 21st, 1939. 

9 Modern Highway Designs. The Canadian Engineer, March 1st, 1938. 

10 Highway Design, by C. A. Robbins, District Engineer, Toronto. 
Engineering and Contract Record, February 23rd, 1938. 

11 Traffic Engineering Fellowships. The Engineering Journal, May, 
1939. 

12 Publicity as an Aid to Tourist Traffic, by Justice A. E. Arsenault, 
Supreme Court, Prince Edward Island. The Canadian Engineer, 
September 23rd, 1930. 

13 (a) The Whole Job of Safety Engineering, by D. D. Fennell, Presi- 
dent of the National Safety Council. National Safety News, Jan- 
uary, 1938. 

(b) Magazine. Public Safety. 

(c) Motor Leagues. Safety Leagues. 

14 Proceedings of the Ontario Road Builders' Association. The 
Canadian Engineer, February 28th, 1939, p. 20. 

15 Saving Money for Texas Taxpayers, by Julian Montgomery, State 
Highway Engineer, Austin, Texas. The National Safety News, 
December, 1939. 




The luncheon, Annual Meeting, on Thursday, February 8th 



112 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE WAR 

DR. F. CYRIL JAMES 

Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University 

Address delivered at the Annual Banquet of The Engineering Institute of Canada, Toronto, Ont., February 8th, 1940 



Much has been said and written regarding the economic 
impact upon the Dominion of Canada of the struggle in 
which we are now engaged, but many of the statements 
are contradictory. If you will permit me to do so, I think 
that it may be appropriate before an audience of engineers 
and technical experts to discuss in rather elementary 
fashion some of the fundamental problems that are in- 
volved. It is comparatively easy when one ascends into 
the higher realms of finance, and makes the picture still 
more complex by efforts at prognostication, to lose all 
reality in a world of nebulous imaginings. I shall not, 
therefore, apologize if I begin with facts which, although 
they are supposed to be self-evident, are none the less 
worthy of considerable emphasis. 

From the viewpoint of the economist, the most important 
aspect of any war is that it is expensive. When armies are 
mobilized, millions of men are withdrawn from industrial 
and agricultural occupations. Some of them are drafted 
for actual fighting; others are required to man adminis- 
trative offices and supply services that are essential to the 
welfare and efficiency of a modern army. But whatever 
these men may do, it is apparent that for the duration of 
the war they are no longer engaged in productive activity. 
The country is poorer because they no longer produce 
those goods and services which they might have been ex- 
pected to contribute towards the national income if they 
had been permitted to follow their normal peace-time 
activities. 

This, however, is not the only drain upon the national 
income that war imposes. Troops must be fed and clothed, 
and although the admission constitutes a sardonic com- 
mentary upon some aspects of our civilization, it is often 
true that a man is better fed and clothed as a soldier than 
he had been as a civilian. Moreover, the activities of armies 
involve considerable expenditure of munitions. Bullets and 
shells are, from the economic sense, compounded of copper, 
lead and steel that might have been used for the fabrication 
of articles of domestic convenience if there had been no 
war, while the materials out of which explosives are manu- 
factured might have provided cotton shirts and silk stock- 
ings for a substantial portion of the population. It would 
be interesting to calculate the quantity of peace-time con- 
sumer goods that might have been created out of the 
physical materials that are expended in one day's serious 
fighting! 

And, in the third place, war is expensive because it in- 
volves destruction of property. Newspaper headlines remind 
us of the bombardment of cathedrals in Finland and of 
the sinking within a few hours, or even minutes, of ships 
that it would take us months to build. There are also auto- 
mobiles and tanks which are lost in the mêlée of fighting 
and we must not forge « all of the accumulated loss that 
comes from depreciation of productive equipment, a de- 
preciation resulting from continuous use at a time when it 
is difficult or impossible to provide for adequate replacement. 

No man has calculated with any degree of accuracy the 
aggregate costs which result from the addition of these three 
elements, and I would remind you that my analysis, being 
purely economic, fails to consider the additional losses in 
terms of human life and of the intangible values that cluster 
under the names of culture and spiritual comfort. Even on 
the lowest material level, the costs of war are enormous, 
and it follows that the most serious economic tasks that a 
belligerent must face are, first to encourage, by all means 
in its power, the maximum increase in the physical volume 
of production, and, second, to obtain from that production 



quantities of goods and services that are adequate to meet 
its own war-time needs. 

Let us consider these two problems separately. Although 
we occasionally read in the newspapers extended accounts 
of the manner in which the Russian and German govern- 
ments encourage increased production by shooting a few 
of the people who do not produce enough, we have not 
resorted to such stringent methods within the democracies. 
(As a matter of fact, those of us who have given any atten- 
tion to the study of scientific management will probably 
have serious doubts as to the ultimate value of executions 
considered as an incentive.) 

Fundamentally, the government of a democracy relies 
upon that spirit which is called patriotism to inspire its 
people toward greater and more persistent effort in the 
production of essential goods and services. Kipling has 
written of the intense determination of a machinist whose 
husband had been killed at the front, and each of us re- 
members the extent to which workers in munition factories 
were willing to expend their energies during the dark days 
of that winter when 1916 passed over into 1917. Spiritual 
enthusiasm of that kind is a factor of immeasurable im- 
portance in expanding the production of those goods and 
services that are essential to modern warfare. In the long 
run, I am inclined to think it is the only factor of outstand- 
ing importance, but there are two others which must be 
mentioned for their contributory significance. 

Nothing is more apt to destroy the effect of spiritual en- 
thusiasm than petty friction and the feeling that somebody 
else is getting greater reward in return for no more sacrifice. 
To avoid both of these handicaps, co-ordination of economic 
activity is vitally essential in time of war. There must be 
sincere co-operation between employer and worker in order 
to avoid the frictions of open industrial strife and of unob- 
trusive restriction of output, a co-operation that is sincere 
and whole-hearted on both sides of the table so that there 
is no lingering suspicion on either hand that the other is 
getting the best of the bargain. There must also be full 
co-ordination of the operations of enterprises that would 
normally be competitive, a co-ordination that deliberately 
sets out to eliminate waste and to encourage maximum 
utilization of available facilities. 

Mention should also be made of monetary policies which, 
in previous wars, have provided an inflationary stimulus 
during the early uncertain days of the struggle. Nobody 
has any illusions as to the long-run effects of monetary 
policies that involve a steady inflationary rise of the general 
price level. We have seen too much of the anarchy that they 
produce. But if we consider the matter objectively, we are 
compelled to admit that, during 1914 and '15 for instance, 
rising prices provided an incentive which encouraged em- 
ployers to work as hard as possible and permitted them to 
increase the wages which they paid to their workers. 

These three, patriotism, co-ordination and mild inflation, 
constitute the trinity of forces that democratic powers have 
relied upon to expand the physical volume of production 
in time of war. It must be admitted, in the light of history, 
that they were successful forces. When we consider the 
burden of debt that comes down to us as a legacy from the 
last world war, we are apt to forget that the physical 
economic wealth of the world, its houses and factories and 
machines, actually increased during the war period. Accord- 
ing to the statistics compiled by the League of Nations, 
the physical volume of world production was six per cent 
higher at the bottom of the 1923 depression than it had 
been during the comparative prosperity of 1913. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



113 



Naturally, this figure, being an average, covers a wide 
divergence between different countries. The production of 
eastern Europe in 1923 was only 80 per cent of what it 
had been ten years earlier, while that of North America 
was 27 per cent greater. In countries like France, in which 
the devastation of war had seriously handicapped agricul- 
ture and industry, it was natural to expect a considerable 
decline in annual income, while countries like the United 
States, which felt extraordinarily little of the physical ravages 
that war entails, experienced the greatest enrichment. 

Unfortunately, I have not been able to obtain satisfactory 
statistics for the Dominion of Canada, but at the expense 
of slight repetition I should like to give you a few more 
figures which emphasize the extent to which physical pro- 
ductivity increased during the last war. You know well 
how greatly the United Kingdom suffered and what tre- 
mendous sacrifices it made during four years of hostilities, 
yet in the depressed year of 1924 its national income (after 
making all allowances for changes in prices) was two per 
cent higher than it had been in 1913. In the United States, 
the national income was fully 25 per cent greater in 1923 
than it had been a decade before, while the aggregate wealth 
of that great country was 85 per cent above the pre-war 
figure. Even after all allowance is made for the increase in 
debts, both public and private, Doane estimates the increase 
in wealth at not less than 70 per cent. These figures offer 
high testimony to the ability of great democracies to expand 
their productive capacity and their physical output during 
the years of war, and I emphasize them for the purpose 
of disproving the prophecies of those who foretell unlimited 
impoverishment . 

Turning to our second major problem, I have suggested 
that the government of a belligerent nation must find ways 
in which it can acquire quantities of goods and services 
adequate to meet its war-time needs. This is an entirely 
separate problem, a problem of administration and economic 
distribution. 

In theory there are four ways in which it can be accom- 
plished. In a completely autocratic country, where govern- 
ment controls all natural resources and directs all economic 
activity, the problem can be handled by an elaborate scheme 
of rationing. Russia tried something like this under the 
second Five Year Plan that was developed when Ossinsky 
was Chairman of the Soviet Planning Commission. Goods 
were allocated to productive or consumptive uses, to the 
armies or to the civil population by governmental edicts 
that were an integral part of a comprehensive scheme, but 
no other country has, to my knowledge, tried the experiment 
in modern times. Although there have from time to time 
been suggestions for the conscription of business on a 
national scale, we have been too conscious of the complex 
problems involved to accept any such omnipotent schemes. 
After all, omnipotence, if it is to be wisely used, implies 
as well the quality of omniscience, and we have not yet 
discovered the latter virtue in any statesman or business 
leader no matter how much we may admire him. 

If we exclude, then, this first alternative, the remaining 
three operate through the monetary system. They recognize 
the fact that men and women receive their incomes in the 
form of money, that the demand for goods and services 
is a demand expressed in money and that a government 
which wishes to acquire a larger portion of the total national 
output must increase its own buying power in terms of 
dollars and diminish the buying power of other members 
of the community. The most obvious way to do this is by 
increased taxation. The government takes an increasing 
portion of each individual's income, thus forcing the in- 
dividual to restrict his consumption and releasing a con- 
siderable quantity of goods and services which the govern- 
ment can purchase with its tax income. Great Britain, during 
the last war, made considerable use of this method and, 
during the present struggle, the level of taxation in England 
has risen to a figure that would be considered dangerously 
burdensome in any other democracy. But neither Great 



Britain or any other country has ever been able to finance 
a major war by taxation alone. Whether or not they are 
justified I do not know, but governments have always been 
reluctant to squeeze the last penny out of their complaining 
tax-payers lest high taxation should dampen the spirit of 
patriotic enthusiasm to which I have already referred. 
Moreover, it is extraordinarily difficult to develop any 
system of severe taxation which is entirely equitable as 
between one person and another. 

For both of these reasons, governments customarily bor- 
row a portion of the funds that they require. By selling 
securities to individuals with savings or buying power 
beyond immediate consumption needs, the government is 
able to mop up funds that might have been used to finance 
consumption. The demand of the population for goods and 
services is reduced by this method just as effectively as it 
would have been by higher taxation and the government is 
equally able to attain that command over industrial and 
agricultural output which the needs of war require. In this 
case, however, there remains at the end of the war a legacy 
of debt. The actual cost of the war is not postponed and 
placed on the shoulders of a later generation, since that 
cost must be borne, in terms of real goods and services, 
from day to day, but there does remain a problem of 
financial distribution of income which complicates the post- 
war reconstruction. 

All of these methods involve a conscious and deliberate 
sacrifice on the part of all people within the community 
throughout the duration of the war. For that reason, some 
governments have resorted to inflationary finance in an 
illradvised effort to anaesthetize the public. Immediate 
governmental needs are financed in this case either by the 
printing of paper money or by the selling of bonds to 
commercial banks which pay for them by newly created 
deposits. Individual incomes are not reduced in terms of 
dollars but prices rise as a result of the inflation so that a 
given income buys fewer goods and services. Once again 
private consumption is restricted and the government is 
enabled to acquire its goods and services, but, as I have 
already suggested, the ultimate results of any such attempts 
to finance a war painlessly involve a degree of economic 
anarchy that may (and in fact has) proved even more 
dangerous than the war itself. 

The Dominion of Canada, during the present war, has 
steadfastly set its face against such inflationary policies 
and is using plans that combine some of the elements of 
the first three methods suggested above. The level of taxa- 
tion has been raised to provide larger revenues and bonds 
have been sold for the purpose of absorbing a portion of 
the available savings of the community. Both of these plans 
have succeeded admirably and they have been supplemented 
by the creation of various governmental agencies which 
are designed to co-ordinate business activity in such a way 
that competition will be restrained and costs maintained 
at a reasonably low level. 

These regulatory agencies are of considerable importance. 
In the case of the Canadian Shipping Board, operating in 
conjunction with the British Ministry of Shipping, a com- 
prehensive scheme has been developed to ensure the most 
efficient utilization of the availabve pool of tonnage. Less 
thoroughgoing, but equally significant, are the activities 
of the War Supply Board which is intended "to mobilize, 
conserve and co-ordinate economic and industrial facilities," 
while the War-Time Prices and Trade Board has assumed 
responsibility for general supervision of purchasing and 
marketing. Alongside of these, the Foreign Exchange Con- 
trol Board has been charged with responsibilities which, in 
view of Canada's national economic interests, go far to 
develop a unified policy throughout the money market of 
the Dominion. 

In the few minutes that remain I shall not attempt any 
elaborate discussion of the activities of these bodies. Indeed 
I imagine that several of you are more intimately acquainted 
with the detail of their operation than I am. I should, 



114 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



however, like to emphasize their tremendous importance 
to the successful prosecution of Canada's war effort and 
to suggest that engineers and business administrators can 
render significant contributions by working with them and 
for them. 

These governmental agencies represent a thoroughgoing 
effort to attain that co-ordination of economic activity 
which I have already described as essential if we are to 
reap a full measure of benefit from the spirit of patriotism. 
They represent an attempt to dispense, for the time-being, 
with the normal activities of the market and to eliminate 
the normal effect of prices as a criterion of business opera- 
tions. In a sense, they are charged with the development 
of policies that facilitate the maximum physical utilization 
of our resources, a problem of engineering and of business 
administration. If they succeed in that task, they will have 
contributed much to the winning of the war and also to 
the reduction of the costs that war involves, but their 
success depends fundamentally on the willingness of every 
business man and every engineer to co-operate whole- 
heartedly and intelligently in the work that is being done. 



There is no such thing as partial co-operation. Either there 
must be full co-operation or none at all. 

May I add one word in conclusion, a word that is again 
addressed particularly to engineers and others responsible 
for administering the business affairs of the Dominion. If 
we wish to preserve a liberal democracy in Canada it will 
be necessary at the end of the war to provide for the orderly 
disbanding of regulatory agencies as well as for the demob- 
ilization of armies. The problems of that reconstruction 
will not be small and it is important, at this stage, that you 
should be considering the way in which business life is to 
be restored to pre-war freedom. If that reconstruction be 
handled efficiently and smoothly, Canada may, during the 
post-war years, reap the fruits of the expansion that its 
economic life has undergone during the war. If the task 
is botched, Canada will face an acute economic crisis as 
every belligerent country did in 1920. Let us hope that we 
may learn from our mistakes not only to mobilize efficiently 
for the war itself but to plan the economic framework of 
the post-war world in a fashion that will permit enduring 
peace and high prosperity. 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



THE PLANNING OF STREET LIGHTING 

By J. Bertram, B.Sc . 

Journal of The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 

November, 1939 

Introduction 

During the last decade there has been a revolution in 
street lighting all over our country. From a business which 
local councils tended to regard as a side issue, it has grown 
to one of the first order of technical and commercial 
importance. Along with its development there has grown 
a more thorough appreciation of the principles involved in 
this creation of artificial visibility, and this had led to 
more and more investigational work. 

The need for safety on the roads is focussing a critical 
public interest on the lighting of our streets and highways, 
and the final recognition of the need for development in 
this line was the appointment by the Ministry of Trans- 
port of a Departmental Committee on Street Lighting. 
Nowadays practically every borough electrical engineer 
and his assistants are finding that they have to face the 
problem of lighting their streets satisfactorily — a problem 
with many baffling complexities. 

The subject of street lighting is so vast that it can only 
be touched on in one paper. This paper, therefore, will 
give a very brief summary of the technical aspect of the 
street-lighting problem, and will collect together the various 
factors which control the planning of a good installation. 

Type of Unit 

There are prevalent to-day two main types of electric 
light source: — 

(a) Electric filament lamps. 

(b) Electric discharge lamps. 

It can be said with a considerable amount of truth that 
the arrival of the discharge lamp was the biggest incentive 
to the rise in technical importance of street-lighting prob- 
lems. 

The change in the type of unit used is probably least 
noticeable with filament lamps, although striking advances 
can be found in America, where the introduction of a 
bi-post filament lamp has brought out the Reid Channon 
stepped reflector lantern. 

Consideration of the polar distribution of a standard 
400-watt mercury discharge lamp shows that for efficient 
illumination, whether the lamp is operated horizontally 



Contributed abstracts of articles appear- 
ing in the current technical periodicals 



or vertically, more than half the light output from the 
lamp will have to be re-directed. There are only two 
effective methods of re-directing light, viz. reflection and 
refraction. Lanterns for discharge lamps employ some com- 
bination or other of these two methods. A modern design 
is shown in Fig. 1. 




Fig. 1 

With the vertical lamps the source has its greatest 
dimensions in the plane of major re-direction. For accurate 
re-direction of light the source should have the smallest 
possible dimensions, and the disadvantage of vertically- 
operated discharge lamps is evident. Accurate control can 
only be obtained by a considerable sacrifice in efficiency. 

If, however, the discharge lamp is operated horizontally, 
the smallest dimension of the source (which is the cross- 
section of the luminous arc) lies in the plane of major 
re-direction, and accurate control can therefore be obtained 
by using an optical system of normal size and shape. Also 
the horizontally burning lamp gives roughly the required 
rectangular distribution in the horizontal plane, so that 
very little re-direction will be necessary. 

The efficacy of horizontal operation, first advocated in 
1934, has now been proved by the general trend in street- 
lighting practice. 

Visibility 

This is the quality of being seen clearly by the eye. To 
fulfil its requirements it is necessary to illuminate the road 
surface so that the darkest object can be seen upon it at 
a considerable distance. This is generally obtained by 
making use of the fact that road surfaces have a high 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



115 



specular reflectivity value at glancing angles of incidence 
and, therefore, do not need to be flooded with excessive 
quantities of light. The problem is entirely different from 
that of lighting a room or a factory area. 

The whole problem was never seriously investigated 
until the Ministry of Transport set up a Departmental 
Committee to consider it. The main theme of their report 
discusses in turn each of the essential points. Their recom- 
mendations for main-road lighting have been briefly sum- 
marized as follows: 

Mounting Height. — 25 ft. 

Spacing. — 120-150 ft. with permissible maximum of 
180 ft. It is noted that at bends, road junctions", etc., this 
spacing may need to be appreciably lower. 

Overhang. — The maximum should be 6 ft. The maximum 
distance between two rows of sources should be 30 ft. 
With roads wider than 40 ft. lanterns should be kerb- 
mounted, and additional sources should be placed centrally 
at intervals not exceeding 35 ft. in length. 

Siting. — This is obtained by limiting the angle sub- 
tended at the observer by sources which appear to be 
adjacent. Angular limits will vary to some extent with the 
nature of the road surface. The Committee do not make 
any rigid rules concerning siting, but give a number of very 
useful recommendations. 

Lantern Power. — Broadly speaking, this is the output 
from the lantern. The Committee suggest 3,000 to 8,000 
lumens per 100-ft. run. With 150-ft. spacing this means a 
lantern output of 9,500 to 12,000 lumens. 




Fig. 2 

Distribution and Glare. — The Committee make no definite 
recommendations. 

At the present time there are three distinct types of dis- 
tribution in use : — ; 

(1) Non-cut-off. 

(2) Controlled cut-off. 

(3) Full cut-off. 

Controlled cut-off is a recent innovation. The con- 
centration of high candle-power near to the horizontal to 
effect high road brightness results in heavy glare from all 
the lanterns visible ahead of the observer. This glare can 
be reduced by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing 
road reflectivity by cutting down the candle-power as the 
horizontal is approached. The polar curve of such a lantern 
for 150-ft. spacings will have its maximum at 75 deg. to 80 
deg., maintaining a fairly high level up to 86 deg. and then 
rapidly decreasing towards 90 deg. Such a curve is shown 
in Fig. 2. The author feels that this controlled cut-off gives 
the vital compromise necessary between road brightness 
and glare. 



REVIVAL OF THE GAS PRODUCER 

Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, 
December, 1939 

In an interesting and topical lecturette delivered before 
the Junior Institution of Engineers at the end of last month, 
Mr. K. W. Willans, M.i.Mech.E., suggested that the cause 
of the decline of the gas producer was bad design and lack 



of systematic research, coupled with the advent of the solid 
injection oil engine supported by effective research work 
and propaganda. Reference was made to the influence of 
transport requirements on the latter type of engine, and 
also to the fact that these same influences have largely 
led to the revival and interest in the small capacity gas 
producer. 

Mr. Willans sketched three broad divisions into which 
the gas producer might be divided, as follows: 

1. Producers gasifying tar free fuels, e.g., anthracite, 
charcoal, and cokes by combustion. 

2. Producers gasifying waste vegetable matter, such as 
wood, sawdust, peat, mealie cobs, etc., by combustion. 

3. Producers gasifying vegetable matter by methods 
other than those in divisions 1 and 2. 

Dealing with the first class of producer, the lecturer 
pointed out that many of the troubles with the earlier 
designs were due to uncontrolled steam admission to the 
fire, and that by introducing a simple control of this factor, 
most of the troubles vanished. 

The lecturer dealt with the broader aspect of the fuel 
problem. He pointed out that workable coal seams must 
eventually become exhausted, and suggested that after 
making use of water to the utmost for power production 
the balance be obtained by growing fuel as a crop. He cal- 
culated, from experimental work, that 60 acres of poor 
land, planted with hazel bushes, would produce continually 
sufficient gas to generate 100 Bhp. 

This led to the waste wood gas producer, using fuels 
ranging from sawdust to peat and lignite. These fuels all 
produce tar which is very much easier to remove from gas 
than is tar from bituminous coal. Such producers are con- 
structed on up draft, down draft and cross draft plants, 
but as wood is practically free from clinker-forming ash, 
the lecturer favoured the up draft producer. The advantages 
of the down draft type in burning the tar produced, and its 
constructional simplicity, are out-weighed by the fact that 
it will not consume sawdust and small wood pieces. This 
type of fuel can be dealt with in the up draft producer, 
provided the moisture content does not exceed about 15 
per cent. 

Mr. Willans then proceeded to deal with the well-known 
producer associated with the name of Charles Whitfield, 
pointing out the early contact with the hot gas with water, 
not only for rapid cooling, but — even more important — for 
wetting both the gas and the metal surfaces so that the 
building up of tar is prevented. Dealing with centrifugal 
tar extractors, the author pointed out that to obtain the 
speed necessary for efficient tar extraction, the power ab- 
sorbed in driving this unit may be as much as 10 per cent 
of the engine output derived from the gas produced. He 
felt that research in the direction of high pressure water 
sprays would be well repaid. 

Dealing with the effluent water, and the corrosive acids 
produced, particularly when using hard woods such as elm, 
the employment of acid-resisting metals was advocated, 
and also circulation of the effluent water with steel scrap 
in the cooling tanks, to assist in neutralizing acidity. 

In summing up, the lecturer considered that the gasifica- 
tion of wood presented no fundamental difficulty and that 
the snags encountered could be overcome by the applica- 
tion of common sense. He also touched briefly upon the 
possibilities of fuel digesters producing gas by chemical 
reactions by other means than combustion. 

BENTONITE 

Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, 
December, 1939 

Bentonite is a clay material containing 75 per cent or 
more of the crystalline minerals, montmorillonite, (Mg. Ca) 



116 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



O.Al 2 3 .5Si0 2 , nH 2 0, or beidellite, Al 2 3 .3Si0 2 .nH 2 0, 
and is derived from volcanic ash. Typical bentonites carry 
only about 16 per cent Al 2 3 , more than 60 per cent Si0 2 , 
four per cent or more of MgO and CaO, and almost four 
per cent iron oxides, together with seemingly significant 
amounts (around two per cent) of alkali metal oxides, 
chiefly Na 2 0. 

Physical properties are commercially more important 
than chemical composition. Standard bentonites may swell 
to as much as 10 or 15 times their original volume when in 
contact with water, whereas type two bentonites (or "sub- 
bentonites") swell no more than ordinary plastic clays. 

The principal uses of bentonite are as a bonding agent 
in foundry moulding sands; oil-well drilling mud; for bleach- 
ing petroleum products; in the manufacture of cement pro- 
ducts, ceramic products, soaps, refractory materials, paper, 
cosmetics, water softeners, sealing agents, paints, medicinal 
emulsions, and roofing; for de-inking newsprint and clari- 
fying dry-cleaner fluids; as the core of earth-fill dams; and 
as lining for irrigation ditches. This list is not exhaustive, 
and new uses for bentonite are being found every year. The 
base price of processed bentonite at present in the U.S.A. 
is $10.50 a ton, F.O.B. Wyoming mills. 

The commercial value of a bentonite deposit depends 
upon (1) the type or class of bentonite, (2) the thickness 
of the seam, (3) dip of the seam, (4) amount of over-burden, 
and (5) transportation costs. 

ADMIRALTY CONTROL OF MERCHANT 
SHIPBUILDING 

Engineering, February 9, 1940 

The expected announcement, that the Admiralty would 
assume control of all shipbuilding for mercantile as well as 
naval account in British yards, was made by the Prime 
Minister in the House of Commons on January 31. The 
decision of the Government, Mr. Chamberlain stated, em- 
braced also the responsibility for repairs, and would come 
into force on the following day, Thursday, February 1. Sir 
James Lithgow, Bt., chairman of Messrs. The Fairfield 
Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited, of 
Messrs. Lithgows, Limited, and of Messrs. William Hamil- 
ton and Company, Limited, becomes a member of the Board 
of Admiralty, with the title of Controller of Merchant Ship- 
building and Repairs, and Sir Amos Ayre, hitherto Director 
of the Merchant Shipbuilding and Repairs Division of the 
Ministry of Shipping, is transferred to the Admiralty, where 
he will continue to exercise the same functions. In response 
to a question, Mr. Chamberlain explained that all the mer- 
chant ships built would be constructed to the order of the 
Admiralty, and when completed would be the property of 
the Government. He asked for notice of a question regarding 
the means by which the building programme would be 
financed. 

Thus does history repeat itself; though with the import- 
ant difference that, in this war, the Government is taking 
action after the expiry of only five months, which, in the 
last war, was delayed for nearly two and a half years, by 
which time more than 2,000,000 tons of British ocean-going 
shipping had been sunk as a result of enemy action. Since 
the outbreak of the present war, the gross British losses, 
including coastal shipping, amount to little more than a 
quarter of this total, and the net loss, after allowance has 
been made for captured enemy vessels and for foreign 
tonnage acquired by purchase, is very considerably less. 
The early introduction of the convoy system is largely 
responsible for this improved position; and for this reason, 
together with the greater efficacy of modern methods of 
countering submarines, mines and the operations of hostile 
aircraft, it may be expected that the relative advantage 
will be maintained. 

It is important, nevertheless, that the shipbuilding 
resources of the country should be employed to the fullest 



possible extent, if only to lessen the dependence upon 
neutral shipping. 

The possibility of some such action as the Government 
has now taken had been envisaged by those in and about 
the shipping industry who remembered the course of events 
in the last war; and, despite sundry significant differences 
between the circumstances then and now, most of the 
arguments for and against this policy, which were current 
23 years ago, are likely to be resurrected. It may be assumed 
that past experience will prevent any repetition of the 
costly and completely unproductive experiment of the 
national shipyards; there is sufficient potential building 
capacity in the redundant yards which were closed by the 
National Shipyard Security organization to absorb all the 
labour available, and more. According to the Parliamentary 
correspondent of The Times, however, a revival of the 
principle of the "standard ship" is to be anticipated in 
the near future, on a basis of five of six types. There has 
been no official hint of any intention to re-introduce the 
straight-frame type of cargo steamer which was evolved 
in 1917-18 in order that the bridge-building and struc- 
tural-engineering firms might employ their existing plant 
to supplement the output of the regular shipyards. The 
result, it will be recalled, was the addition to the British 
mercantile marine of a number of ships which, however 
serviceable in such an emergency as that of 1917-18, 
were among the most strange-looking examples of 
naval architecture that even the Great War produced. 
Indeed, it may be conjectured that the name, War 
Climax, given to the first vessel of the type, possibly 
represented the orthodox shipbuilder's instinctive reaction 
to her appearance on the stocks. In the primary purpose 
of turning out cargo tonnage rapidly with the minimum of 
material and a definite scarcity of skilled labour, however, 
the policy of standardization was not discredited by the 
results achieved, although the end of the war came before 
its full momentum was attained. 

STRATOSPHERE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT 

The Engineer, December 1, 1939 

A month after the event, under circumstances of strict 
secrecy, it was officially announced that, on the 13th of 
October, a stratosphere flight had been made from Paris 
to Rio-de-Janeiro with halts at Dakar and Natal, in Brazil. 
The application of stratosphere in this implies an altitude 
of between 7,500 m. and 9,000 m. The machine used was 
the land-plane "Camille-Flammarion" weighing about 25 
tons and belonging to Air France-Transatlantique, which 
was created by Air France and the Compagnie Générale 
Transatlantique mainly for air services across the North 
Atlantic. It was piloted by Codos and Guillaumet, accom- 
panied by a wireless operator and a mechanic. Built in 
one of the national aircraft factories the machine bears 
indications of its being a Farman design. For a long while 
the Farman works, which are not nationalized, endeavoured 
to produce a type of commercial machine that would fly 
at very high speeds in a rarefied atmosphere that, to dis- 
tinguish it from normal conditions, was called the strato- 
sphere, but when the first machine was tested it came to 
grief and nothing more was heard of commercial flights 
at high altitudes until the laconic official announcement of 
the successful journey to South America. The South Atlantic 
was crossed from Dakar to Natal, in Brazil, in twelve hours 
at an average speed of 167 m.p.h., and the flight from 
Natal to Rio-de-Janeiro was accomplished in ten hours. 
The idea of the so-called stratosphere flight for commercial 
services is to reach an altitude where atmospheric conditions 
are supposed to be constantly favourable, although there 
is still much to be learned about temperatures, humidity, 
and ice formation. A good deal of practical experience 
will have to be acquired, and complete security in 
passenger and navigation cabins ensured, before com- 
mercial air services can be undertaken in a rarefied 
atmosphere. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



117 



THE FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

Convened at Headquarters, Montreal, on January 25th, 1940, and adjourned to the 
Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, on February 8th, 1940 



The Fifty-Fourth Annual General Meeting of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada was convened at Head- 
quarters on Thursday, January twenty-fifth, nineteen 
hundred and forty, at eight-thirty p.m., with Councillor 
A. Duperron, m.e.i.c, in the chair. 

The Assistant to the General Secretary having read the 
notice convening the meeting, the minutes of the Fifty- 
Third Annual General Meeting were submitted, and on 
the motion of R. H. Findlay, m.e.i.c, seconded by C. K. 
McLeod, a. m.e.i.c, were taken as read and confirmed. 

Appointment of Scrutineers 

On motion of Huet Massue, m.e.i.c, seconded by 
E. Nenniger, a. m.e.i.c, Messrs. J. Comeau, a. m.e.i.c, 
J. M. Crawford, a. m.e.i.c, and J. B. Stirling, m.e.i.c, 
were appointed scrutineers to canvass the Officers' Ballot 
and report the result. 

There being no other formal business, it was resolved, 
on the motion of W. G. Hunt, m.e.i.c, seconded by J. G. 
Hall, m.e.i.c, that the meeting do adjourn to reconvene 
at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, at ten o'clock 
a.m., on the eighth day of February, nineteen hundred and 
forty. 

ADJOURNED GENERAL MEETING AT THE 
ROYAL YORK HOTEL, TORONTO, ONT. 

The adjourned meeting convened at ten-thirty a.m., on 
Thursday, February 8th, 1940, with President H. W. 
McKiel in the chair. 

The General Secretary announced the membership of the 
Nominating Committee of the Institute for the year 1940 
as follows: 

Nominating Committee — 1940 

Chairman: E. V. Buchanan, m.e.i.c. 
Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary R. S. Trowsdale 

Cape Breton M. F. Cossitt 

Edmonton W. E. Cornish 

Halifax H. S. Johnston 

Hamilton W. J. W. Reid 

Kingston D. S. Ellis 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge R. F. P. Bowman 

London F. C. Ball 

Moncton G. L. Dickson 

Montreal Walter Hunt 

Niagara Peninsula W. Jackson 

Ottawa E. Viens 

Peterborough W. M. Cruthers 

Quebec A. O. Dufresne 

Saguenay G. F. Layne 

Saint John G. Stead 

St. Maurice Valley A. C. Abbott 

Saskatchewan S. Young 

Sault Ste. Marie J. S. Macleod 

Toronto A. H. Harkness 

Vancouver W. H. Powell 

Victoria K. Moodie 

Winnipeg V. Michie 

Awards of Medals and Prizes 

The General Secretary announced the awards of the 
various medals and prizes of the Institute as follows, stating 
that the formal presentation of these distinctions would be 
made by His Honour the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario 
at the Annual Dinner of the Institute that evening. 

Gzowski Medal (two awards) to E. A. Hodgson, m.e.i.c, 
for his paper, "The Structure of the Earth as Revealed 
by Seismology," and to G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, for his 
paper, "Drought, a National Problem." 



Duggan Medal and Prize (two awards) to D. B. Armstrong, 
a.m. e. i.e., for his paper, "The Island of Orléans Suspen- 
sion Bridge," and to C. R. Whittemore, a. m.e.i.c, for 
his paper, "Welded Steel Pipe for the City of Toronto 
Water Works Extension." 

Leonard Medal to Charles G. Kemsley, m.ci.m.m., co-author 
of the paper, "The Internal Shaft at Dome Mines." 

Students and Juniors Prizes 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario) to J. R. Dunn, 

s.E.i.c, for his paper, "Radio Aids to Aerial Navigation." 
Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec, English) to C. B. 

Charlewood, jr.E.i.c, for his paper, "Steam Superheaters 

for Water Type Boilers." 
Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces) to D. L. Mac- 

kinnon, s.E.i.c, for his paper, "Soil Mechanics." 

Report of Council 

On the motion of Dean Ernest Brown, seconded by C. K. 
McLeod, it was Resolved that the report of Council for the 
year 1939, as published in the February, 1940, Journal, be 
taken as read and accepted. 

Treasurer's Report and Report of 
Finance Committee 

It was moved by J. A. McCrory, and seconded by 
deGaspé Beaubien, that the Treasurer's report, and the 
report of the Finance Committee, as published in the 
February, 1940, Journal, be taken as read and accepted. 

D. S. Laidlaw asked for an explanation of the reduction 
of nearly $3,000 which had been made in the expense of 
the Journal, partially offset by a decrease in Journal revenue. 
In the unavoidable absence of the chairman of the Finance 
Committee, Mr. McCrory explained that there had been 
a saving due to a reduction of about $1,500 in printing costs 
because no list of members had been published in 1939. 
Further, this year there had been a change in the method 
of stating expenditures and receipts on Journal account. 
These, in the 1939 statement, are shown as net amounts, 
thus differing from the figures of 1938, when a certain 
proportion of the expense of obtaining advertising had been 
charged direct to the Institute instead of being deducted 
from revenue. The system now adopted would be continued 
in future statements. 

On being put to the meeting the motion was carried 
unanimously. 

Reports of Committees 

On the motion of H. A. Lumsden, seconded by Fraser S. 
Keith, it was Resolved that the reports of the following 
committees be taken as read and accepted: Legislation; 
Publication; Library and House; Papers; Training and 
Welfare of the Young Engineer; Professional Interests; 
Membership; Board of Examiners and Education; Inter- 
national Relations; Radio Broadcasting; Deterioration of 
Concrete Structures; Employment Service. 

The President referred in complimentary terms to the 
work of the Committee on International Relations under 
the chairmanship of Dr. J. B. Challies, particularly in 
respect to the work which they had done in connection 
with the British- American Engineering Congress which was 
to have been held in New York in September, and which 
had to be cancelled at the last moment due to the imminence 
of war. He also commented on the work of the other com- 
mittees all of which had been carried out with a high degree 
of efficiency. 



118 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



AUTHORS OF PAPERS 






O. W. Ellis 



E. M. MacGill, A.M.E.I.C. 



C. M. Goodrich, M.E.I.C. 





International Press Ltd, 

A. D. Campbell, M.E.I.C. 




G. A. Gaherty, M.E.I.C. 



W. P. Dobson, M.E.I.C. 





R. C. McMordie, A.M.E.I.C. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



A. W. F. McQueen, M.E.I.C. 



119 






J. Spence, secretary-treasurer of the 
Toronto Branch 



Past-President Challies introduces Eliza- 
beth MacGill to her audience. 
Dean Brown presides 



P. L. Pratley and C. B. Young talk 
about "Limit Design" 






N. A. M. MacKenzie at luncheon speaks 
on International Law 



Always a welcome guest, Geo. T. 
Seabury, Secretary A.S.C.E. 



B. J. Magor was the luncheon speaker 
on the first day 




O. W. Ellis talks about alloys with 
C. B. Young 





Dr. Dugald Jackson of M.I.T. speaks at 
the president's dinner 



Whatever it is, C. E. Sisson, Col. Smythe 

and General Mitchell are certainly 

interested 




The Lieutenant-Governor presents the John Galbraith Prize A luncheon party — left to right — Wills Maclachlan, 

to J. B. Dunn B. B. Perry, W. P. Dobson, W. B. McCaffrey and Norman Eager 



120 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



_ 



Branch Reports 

On the motion of H. F. Bennett, seconded by W. R. 
Manock, it was Resolved that the reports of the various 
branches of the Institute be taken as read and accepted. 

Amendments to the By-Laws 

In accordance with Sections 74 and 75 of the By-laws, 
Council presented for the consideration of corporate mem- 
bers certain proposals for the amendment of Sections 2, 3, 
4, 7, 32, 34 and 39. These changes were prepared in order 
to give effect to a resolution passed at the Annual General 
Meeting on February 14th, 1939, approving a proposal to 
abolish the class of Associate Member. The amendments 
now proposed by Council for this purpose had been pub- 
lished in the December Journal, and were not submitted 
for discussion. 

On the motion of C. K. McLeod, seconded by R. F. 
Legget, it was unanimously Resolved that these proposed 
amendments to the by-laws be approved, and that they 
be sent out to the members for letter ballot. 

The President then introduced another group of proposed 
amendments, affecting Sections 12, 13, 64 and 67, which 
had been put forward by members of the Ontario branches 
to provide that in future those branches shall be represented 
by two vice-presidents instead of one as at present, these 
proposals having also been published in the December 
Journal, and communicated to the meeting by printed 
copies, J. R. Dunbar moved that they be approved and 
submitted to the members for letter ballot, and the motion 
was seconded by C. G. Moon. 

R. L. Dobbin asked for an explanation as to the reason 
for the change now proposed. In reply Mr. Dunbar explained 
that in Ontario there were over fifteen hundred members 
in ten branches and they were represented by only one 
vice-president, while in Quebec and the Maritime provinces 
the proportion of members to .vice-presidents was much 
lower. In view of the large membership and considerable 
number of branches in Ontario, it was felt that the Ontario 
members did not get adequate vice-presidential representa- 
tion, particularly since it is very difficult for one vice- 
president to visit all the Ontario branches. Further, with 
only one vice-president in Ontario, it was inevitable that 
there should be many branches which have never had vice- 
presidential representation. 

Mr. Dobbin felt that as this proposal would increase the 
number of councillors it was open to some objection. 
For some time the desire of the membership had been 
rather to reduce the number of councillors than to add 
to it. 

Mr. Bennett expressed satisfaction with the present ar- 
rangements. The difficulty of branch representation could 
be overcome if the larger branches would refrain from 
making nominations so as to give the smaller branches a 
chance, a policy which had been successfully carried out 
in the Maritime provinces. 

After further discussion the motion was carried. 

L. A. Duchastel had noted that while the list of sections 
to be changed to give effect to the abolition of the class of 
Associate Member had mentioned Section 39, the changed 
wording of Section 39 had not been shown on the printed 
leaflet distributed at the meeting. Should this section not 
be included in the number approved for ballot on Mr. 
McLeod's resolution ? 

The President agreed that the reference to Associate 
Members would have to be deleted from the present 
Section 39, which deals with the compounding of fees, and 
it was resolved, on the motion of F. W. Paulin, seconded 
by J. R. Dunbar, that the necessary change in the wording 
of Section 39 should be included in the amendments to be 
sent out to ballot, this to apply also to any other section 
found to require change to agree with the spirit of these 
amendments as proposed. 



New Business 

R. F. Legget offered a motion deprecating the issue of 
any announcement of a meeting of the Institute in con- 
junction with trade advertising of any kind. He was sup- 
ported by D. S. Laidlaw. 

After discussion, and an explanation given by the General 
Secretary, it was resolved, on the motion of J. R. Dunbar, 
seconded by E. V. Buchanan, that Mr. Legget's motion 
be laid on the table. 

Alex. Love, as chairman of the Hamilton Branch, wished 
to take the opportunity of inviting the Institute to hold 
the 1941 Annual General Meeting in Hamilton. This invi- 
tation was seconded by W. L. McFaul, the councillor-elect 
from the Hamilton branch. 

The President stated that this invitation had been pre- 
sented to Council at its meeting on the previous day, and 
that Council had greatly appreciated the action of the 
Hamilton Branch. It was felt, however, that the incoming 
Council would be the proper body to deal with such an 
invitation, and accordingly it had been referred to them 
for appropriate action. 

C. G. Moon observed that while the three immediate 
past-presidents had seats on the Council as honorary 
councillors, other past-presidents had no official status on 
Council. He wished to suggest that the past-presidents as 
a body should be constituted an advisory committee which 
might with advantage discuss important problems, such 
as the long term continued policy of the Institute, and 
advise Council thereon. 

The President remarked that he had found the past- 
presidents to be most active and helpful in regard to any 
Institute matters referred to them, and many of them were 
serving on committees, particularly, for example, on the 
Committee on International Relations. 

P. E. Doncaster heartily agreed with Mr. Moon, and 
thought the suggestion an excellent one, and well worth 
investigation on the part of the Council. He then moved 
that this annual meeting suggest to the incoming Council 
the advisability of considering the formation of a committee 
composed of all past-presidents to act in an advisory 
capacity on matters of policy. The motion, having been 
seconded by C. G. Moon, was put to the meeting and 
carried unanimously. 

Election of Officers 

At the request of the President, the General Secretary 
read the report of the scrutineers appointed by Council to 
canvass the officers' ballot for 1940, as follows: 

President T. H. Hogg 

Vice-Presidents : 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) . . . J. Clark Keith 
Zone C (Province of Quebec .... McNeely DuBose 
Zone D (Maritime Provinces). . . W. S. Wilson 

Councillors: 

Victoria Branch A. L. Carrtjthers 

Lethbridge Branch J. M. Campbell 

Calgary Branch . . G. P. F. Boese 

Winnipeg Branch A. J. Taunton 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch J. L. Lang 

Niagara Peninsula Branch W. R. Manock 

Hamilton Branch W. L. McFaul 

Toronto Branch C. E. Sisson 

Peterborough Branch A. B. Gates 

Ottawa Branch J. H. Parkin 

Montreal Branch J. G. Hall 

C. K. McLeod 

Quebec Branch A. Lariviére 

Moncton Branch G. E. Smith 

Cape Breton Branch I. W. Buckley 

On the motion of E. P. Muntz, seconded by O. O. 
Lefebvre, it was Resolved that the report of the scrutineers 
be adopted, that a vote of thanks be tendered to them for 
their services in preparing the report, and that the ballot 
papers be destroyed. 

The President then delivered his address on "The 
Engineer as a Citizen," which will be found on page 129 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



121 









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Dr. F. Cyril James, recently appointed vice-chancellor and 
principal of McGill University, was the guest speaker at the 

banquet 

of this issue of the Journal. At its conclusion, on behalf 
of all members of the Institute, he expressed appreciation 
of the efficient services rendered during the past year by 
the General Secretary, his assistant, and the other members 
of the Institute staff. 

On the motion of C. S. G. Rogers, seconded by P. L. 
Pratley, a hearty vote of thanks was extended to the 
Toronto Branch in recognition of their hospitality and 
activity in connection with the holding of the Fifty-Fourth 
Annual General Meeting. 

J. Clark Keith, the newly elected vice-president from 
Ontario, moved a vote of thanks to the retiring President 
and members of Council. In seconding Mr. Keith's motion, 
Dr. Challies mentioned that a resolution of thanks to the 
President had been passed at a recent Council meeting, 
which not only expressed appreciation of the President's 
work, but also congratulated him on the excellent results 
which had followed his visits to the various branches. That 
resolution also asked the President to convey to Mrs. 
McKiel the Council's appreciation of the part she had taken 
so graciously in the activities of the Institute. Dr. Challies 
felt that the members present would desire to associate 
themselves with these expressions of appreciation. The 
motion was carried by acclamation. 

As chairman of the Committee on International Relations, 
Dr. Challies reminded members that the distinction of 
honorary membership in the American Society of Civil 
Engineers had recently been conferred on Past-President 
J. M. R. Fairbairn. He also drew attention to the presence 
at the meeting of Colonel John P. Hogan, the President, 
and George T. Seabury, the Secretary of that great society. 
Members would also note that Mr. W. H. McBryde, the 
President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
had honoured the Institute by attendance at the Annual 
Meeting. There was also present Mr. B. L. Thorne, Presi- 
dent of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 
and Dr. Challies asked President McKiel to present these 
gentlemen to the members assembled. 

In doing so, President McKiel expressed the Institute's 
cordial welcome to these distinguished visitors, which they 
were good enough to acknowledge in brief and timely 
addresses. 

There being no further business the meeting adjourned 
at twelve forty-five p.m. 

Council Meeting 
In holding a Council meeting on the day before the 
Annual General Meeting, the precedent recently estab- 
lished was followed this year, and with very satisfactory 
results. As in the case of the similar event last year, the 
councillors-elect were invited, and the interest of the gath- 



ering was increased by the presence of a number of prom- 
inent guests who had accepted the invitation of the Presi- 
dent to attend and participate in the discussions. These 
visitors included the President-Elect and two vice-presi- 
dents elect, several branch chairmen and a number of former 
members of Council; a sprinkling of deans and professors 
in engineering schools; members and chairmen of several 
important Institute committees; the presidents of two of 
the great American engineering societies, the presidents of 
two of the Canadian provincial associations of professional 
engineers and the president of a sister Canadian engineering 
institute. 

This policy of inviting such a list of interested and dis- 
tinguished guests is an excellent one. With an attendance 
of fifty-five a great breadth was given to the discussions, 
and it will be helpful to Council over a long period of time 
to have the opinions of these informed people on the several 
problems that came up for consideration at this meeting, 
and which will be dealt with from time to time throughout 
the year. 

It is usual for the agenda of this meeting which closes the 
year's work to be very broad in its scope, and to include 
items of such importance that the consideration of them is 
left until this occasion. This year was no exception. Discus- 
sions of great value on the important topic of "The Training 
and Welfare of the Young Engineer" were contributed by 
guests well qualified to speak on that important subject 
The committee which has the matter in hand will be helped 
greatly by the co-operation of these educators and em- 
ployers. The meeting, which assembled at 10.00 a.m., was 
not adjourned until 5.45 p.m., except for the luncheon 
period. 

Technical Sessions 

The subject with which the first professional session 
opened on Thursday afternoon was sufficiently controver- 
sial to attract a large audience and led to very active dis- 
cussion. The chairman was R. L. Dunsmore. The author, 
G. A. Gaherty, remarked that his views on The Economic 
Front were open to argument and were subject to modi- 
fication, but he felt that if such questions were not attacked 
and discussed by bodies like the Institute, no progress 
would be made. After hearing his stimulating paper, 
speakers in discussion agreed in welcoming this definite 
attempt to put forward the engineers' point of view on vital 
economic problems, although several of them were unable 
to endorse all the author's conclusions. 

Attendance at the morning session on Friday, under the 
chairmanship of Dean Brown, was so large that it had to 
be held in the Ball Room. There was a full programme of 
important papers on three entirely different topics. 

The first, by A. W. F. McQueen and R. C. McMordie, 
dealt with the manner in which the principles of the new 
art or science of soil mechanics have been applied on the 
construction of a large earthen dam at Shand, Ontario ; 
which forms part of an extensive conservation scheme in 




The receiving line — left to right — Dr. and Mrs. Berry, 
President and Mrs. McKiel, Dr. and Mrs. Hogg 



122 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the Grand river valley. The paper and the discussion which 
followed threw light on many of the debatable points in 
soil-mechanics technique which still need elucidation, and 
on construction methods which have to be developed on the 
site in view of the results of soil tests. 

Many members besides those specially interested in 
aviation gathered to welcome the author of the next paper, 
Elizabeth MacGill, one of the small but increasing number 
of women who have achieved distinction in engineering 
design. Her paper on Flight Test Reporting was appreciated 
as a thorough and concise presentation of a difficult subject. 
As the results of flight tests necessarily depend somewhat 
upon the views of pilots, who are individualists, it is not 
always easy to assess the weight of their personal opinions. 
Miss MacGill was thanked and complimented upon her 
contribution to Canada's activities in aeroplane construc- 
tion. There was an active and very technical discussion. 

The concluding paper of the morning session, on High- 
way Control and Safety, by A. D. Campbell, gave a 
forceful account of the present situation as regards highway 
safety in Canada, with constructive suggestions for its 
improvement. The author took the point of view of an 
engineer who is deeply concerned but is not himself engaged 
in highway work. In discussion it was pointed out that in 
the United States a greater measure of highway safety has 
been attained than in Canada. It was urged that in addition 
to placing some responsibility upon the highway engineer 




G. A. Gaherty presents his paper with R. L. 
the chair 



lunsmore in 



as regards safety, education and enforcement should be 
further stressed. 

The programme at the afternoon sessions, over which 
C. S. G. Rogers presided, was as varied and informative as 
that of the morning. 

A stimulating paper by C. M. Goodrich on Limit 
Design presented the ideas of a structural engineer whose 
knowledge of the classical methods of stress-calculation has 
been widened by long experience of the behaviour of struc- 
tures as loaded in daily use. The newer procedure sketched 
by the author is an expression of the art of structural design 
which takes into consideration the ductility of the material, 
avoids some intricate mathematics, and embodies lessons 
drawn from failures under load. 

A branch of safety practice of great importance to the 
general public, as well as to electrical engineers, formed 
the topic of W. P. Dobson's paper on Grounding Prac- 
tice. Representatives of power companies and government 
departments agreed with the author as to the difficulty of 
covering all possible cases by hard and fast rules, and the 
discussion was worthy of the authoritative paper. 

The paper on Recent Developments in Alloys which 
concluded the session was an example of the assistance 
which specialists can give to engineers in branches of 
technology which are advancing from day to day. Dr. Ellis' 
resume of pertinent information was welcomed as a valuable 
compendium of data on the uses and properties of the 




The annual meeting — left to right — H. J. Vennes, 
J. A. McCrory, Dean Ernest Brown and C. K. McLeod 



newer alloys, presented by an acknowledged authority on 
the subject. 

Professor C. R. Young and his committee are certainly 
to be congratulated on the quality and interest of the papers 
and the discussions to which they gave rise. 

The following is a complete list of the papers presented: 
The Economic Front, by G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c. 
Soil Mechanics at the Shand Dam, by A. W. F. 

McQueen, m.e.i.c, and R C. McMordie, a. m.e.i.c. 
Practicable Forms for Flight Test Reporting, by 

Elizabeth MacGill, a. m.e.i.c. 
Highway Control and Safety, by Angus D. Campbell, 

M.E.I.C. 

Limit Design, by C. M. Goodrich, m.e.i.c. 

The Present Status of Grounding Practice with Par- 
ticular Reference to Protection against Shock, by 
W. P. Dobson, m.e.i.c. 

Developments in Alloys During the Last Twenty 
Years, by O. W. Ellis. 

The Luncheons 

The luncheons at the Annual Meetings are no mere 
formalities. They do much to bring together old friends 
whose paths may have been separated for years, and to aid 
in the formation of new acquaintanceships. This year they 
were exceptionally effective in these respects. 

A. E. Berry, chairman of the Toronto Branch, presided 
at the luncheon on Thursday. A civic welcome was extended 
by J. D. McNish, K.C., on behalf of the City of Toronto, and 
then Mr R. J. Magor, chairman and president of the 
National Steel Car Corporation, told the story of his pre- 
liminary investigations into "The War Potential of Cana- 
dian Industry." Having taken a leading part in the visits 
of Canadian industrialists to Britain before the war, he 
was able to describe the steps taken to ascertain the lines 
along which the efforts of Canadian industries could most 
usefully be directed in order to build up war potential. 




Montreal engineers take it seriously — from left to right- 
B. R. Perry, J. E. Armstrong, R. E. Jamieson 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



123 




C. M. Goodrich's paper on "Limit 

Design" brought forth unusually 

good discussion. C. S. G. Rogers 

was the chairman 



During these journeys a 
great deal of spade work 
was done which is now 
resulting in the effective 
mobilization of Cana- 
dian industry for war 
work. 

At the luncheon on 
the following day, re- 
tiring Vice - President 
E. V. Buchanan, the 
chairman, was in happy 
vein. His humorous in- 
troduction soon put the 
meeting in the proper 
mood to appreciate the 
remarks of the speakers. 
Following this an 
address was given by 
Prof. N. A. M. 
Mackenzie, Professor of International Law at the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. He was introduced by Professor C. R. 
Young, and spoke all too briefly on a subject which he has 
made his own — The Status of International Law in 
the Present War. The close attention of his audience 
bore witness to the importance attached by everyone 
present to the questions of international law which have 
been so prominent of late. 

The Banquet 

Always a leading feature of the annual meeting, the 
Banquet this year was noteworthy because its chairman 
was the retiring instead of the incoming President. This 
departure from the previous custom of the Institute has 
been made to permit the induction of the new President at 
the close of the dinner, thus conforming with the practice of 
nearly all leading engineering societies in having the new Presi- 
dent assume office at the close of the annual business meeting. 

President McKiel has thus had the distinction of pre- 
siding at two annual banquets of the Institute, a respon- 
sibility for which he was thoroughly qualified. 

The principal guests at the head table were His Honour 
the Lieutenan:. Governor of Ontario and Mrs. Albert 
Matthews, the former honouring the Institute by consent- 
ing to present the prizes and medals to the fortunate re- 
cipients. President McKiel, with Mrs. McKiel, was also 
supported at the head table by the speaker of the evening, 
Dr. F. Cyril James, the recently appointed principal and 
vice-chancellor of McGill University, the incoming pre- 
sident, Dr. T. H. Hogg and Mrs. Hogg, Warren H. 
McBryde, president of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, and Mrs. McBryde, of San Francisco, Colonel 
John P. Hogan, president, and George T. Seabury, secre- 
tary, of the American Society of Civil Engineers, of New 
York, B. L. Thorne, president of the Canadian Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgy, of Calgary, Dean C. J. Mackenzie. 




Dr. Frigon tells about the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 

while Professor Jamieson fills his pipe and Colonel Hogan 

explores his coffee 



president, National Research Council, and Mrs. Mackenzie, 
of Ottawa, Professor R. E. Jamieson, president, Corpora- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Quebec, Professor N. A. M. 
Mackenzie and Mrs. Mackenzie, R. J. Magor, president, 
National Steel Car Corporation, of Montreal, and Colonel 
Waters, A.D.C. to the Lieutenant Governor. 

Dr. James' address on The Economic Impact of the 
War, was a forceful presentation of the complex economic 
and sociological problems arising from the war. The 
audience was impressed, not only by his knowledge of the 
many ramifications of his subject, but also — and to a 
marked degree — by the clarity of his views and the prac- 
tical nature of the conclusions he drew. 

Prior to the dance which followed the banquet, members 
and guests were received by the President and Mrs. Hogg, 
immediate Past-President H. W. McKiel and Mrs. McKiel, 
and the chairman of the Toronto Branch, Dr. A. E. Berry 
and Mrs. Berry. 

The President's Dinner 

A delightful preliminary to the serious business of the 
meeting was provided by President McKiel who enter- 
tained councillors, officers, past officers of the Institute and 
some distinguished guests at dinner at the Engineers' Club, 
on Wednesday evening. There were sixty-eight present. 

The head table guests were Dr. Dugald Jackson, the 
speaker, Professor Emeritus of Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, President-elect T. H. Hogg, Warren H. 
McBryde of San Francisco, President, American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, Colonel John Hogan of New York, 
President, American Society of Civil Engineers, Professor 
R. E. Jamieson, President, of the Corporation of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Quebec, J. W. Rawlins, President, the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario, Dr. W. H. 
Martin, President, Canadian Institute of Chemistry, Dr. 
A. Frigon, Assistant General Manager, Canadian Broad- 
casting Corporation. 

Dr. Jackson spoke of his interest and work on engineering 
curricula with some reference to the survey which he had 
just completed at the Faculty of Applied Science and 
Engineering of the University of Toronto. 

Dr. Hogg, who was introduced by Dean Mitchell, ex- 
pressed his appreciation of the honour which had been done 
him by selecting him as the next President of the Institute. 
He asked for the co-operation of all members to the end 
that the Institute would continue to progress throughout 
him term of office. 

Colonel Hogan and Mr. McBryde also spoke. They con- 
veyed to the meeting the good wishes of their societies, and 
each expressed regret that Canada had become involved in 
war, but hoped that success would attend the allied effort 
within a short time. 

After dinner, adjournment was made to the lounge, 
where conversations were continued to a late hour. The 
success of the function was readily proved by the disin- 
clination of the guests to depart. 

The Ladies 

On Wednesday evening the wives of officers and coun- 
cillors gathered in the Toronto suite where Mrs. McKiel 
and Mrs. Hogg presided over the social activities, while the 
husbands attended the President's dinner at the Engineers' 
Club. 

On Thursday afternoon a delightful tea was held in the 
library of the hotel where fifty ladies gathered. Thursday 
night, of course, was very well occupied with the banquet 
and dance. 

Friday's programme was made up of a special tour of 
Eaton's store, with luncheon in the Georgian Room. A 
theatre party took up the afternoon, and rounded out a 
programme that provided just the right amount of 
"arranged" entertainment so that one still had time to visit 
with friends in the hotel. 

The members of the ladies committee deserve special 
mention, and the thanks of the entire out of town delegation 
is gladly accorded them. 



124 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 






R. J. Magor 



International Press Ltd. 



Dr. F. Cyril James 



Professor Norman Mackenzie 




Colonel J. P. Hogan, president, A.S.C.E., speaks at president's Dr. Hogg speaks at the president's dinner. Left to right — Pre- 
dinner, much to the amusement of Professor Jamieson sident McKiel, W. H. McBryde, president, A.S.M.E., and J. W. 

Rawlins, president, Association of Professional Engineers of 

Ontario 




T. R. Loudon discusses Miss 
MacGill's paper 




W. P. Dobson presents his paper. 

Chairman E. P. Muntz is in the 

background 




A. D. Campbell speaks on highway 
safety 




Mrs. Hogg and Mrs. McKiel lunch with ladies of the Committee 



Left to right — Professor R. W. Angus, E. V. Buchanan, 
R. L. Dunsmore and W. P. Dobson 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



125 




Hon. M.E.I.C. 



"Then said he, 'I am going to my Father's; and though with 
great difficulty I am got hither, yet now I do not repent me 
of all the trouble I have been at to arrive where I am. My 
sword I give to him that shall succeed me in my pilgrimage, 
and my courage and skill to him that can get it. My marks 
and scars I carry with me, to be a witness for me that I have 
fought His battles who now will be my rewarder.' 
"So he passed over, and all the trumpets sounded for him on 
the other side." 

The closing paragraph of John Buchan's "Mr. Standfast" 
— a quotation from "Pilgrim's Progress". 



126 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CORPORATE MEMBERSHIP CLASSIFICATION 

Shortly a ballot will be submitted to members to provide 
for one class of corporate membership, that of MEMBER — 
m.e.i.c. This ballot, which will be sponsored by Council, 
provides for a change in membership classification that was 
approved without a single dissenting vote at the annual 
general meeting held at Ottawa in 1939 and at Toronto in 
1940. If the ballot receives the necessary two-thirds affirm- 
ative vote, the present Associate Membership class will 
disappear, and all Associate Members will automatically 
become Members. 

The basic reasons for the proposed change are two-fold. 
First, a desire for clarification and simplification of the 
Institute's corporate membership designations, and second, 
a conviction that such clarification and simplification will 
permit closer co-operation with the provincial professional 
associations. 

Council believes these advantages will justify the pro- 
posal. It is hoped that a substantial and favourable ballot 
will be recorded. 

DISCUSSIONS OF ANNUAL MEETING PAPERS 

An unusual number of discussions have been received 
dealing with the papers presented at the Annual and Pro- 
fessional Meeting, which was held in Toronto on February 
8th and 9th. However, several additional members have 
indicated a desire to submit discussions and therefore 
further time is being made available. 

In order to give time to arrange and edit all these, it is 
necessary to set a closing date. Therefore all discussions 
which are received at Headquarters prior to April 1st will 
be eligible to appear in subsequent numbers of the Journal. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WESTERN 
WATER PROBLEMS 

Owing to the absence of the chairman, the report of this 
committee was not presented in time to be published with 
the other reports. It was presented to and accepted by 
Council on February 7th, 1940. 
The President and Council: 

Your Committee has been keeping closely in touch with 
all matters relating to "Western Water Problems" and is 
very much exercised over the situation developing in regard 
to the international waters of the St. Mary's and Milk 
Rivers. In the symposium of papers presented at the last 
annual meeting attention was drawn to Canada's precarious 
position but no active steps have as yet been taken to re- 
trieve it, while on the American side of the boundary works 
are nearing completion that will enable the Americans to 
put to beneficial use not only their own share of the water 
but also a substantial portion of ours. As our right to the 
water is contingent upon our putting it to beneficial use, 
we are likely to lose it forever unless prompt action is taken. 
This means that the existing irrigation users on the Canadian 
side will suffer a deficiency in water supply in perpetuity 
and that a tract of several hundred thousand acres south 
and east of Lethbridge that could be made highly productive 
under irrigation will remain permanently waste land. 

The implications of the question are such that we have 
to be sure of our ground. To this end your Committee is 
nominating a local sub-committee to prepare a detailed 
report setting out the facts insofar as they can be ascer- 
tained regarding: 

(a) The international aspects of the problem. 

(b) The portion of Canada's share of the waters of each 
stream the United States could put to beneficial use now 
or upon completion of the works under construction. 

(c) How much storage would be required to provide the 
existing Canadian users with an adequate water supply. 

(d) How much suitable land is available that it would be 
feasible to irrigate from these rivers and what water supply 
would be required. 



(e) What storage and other works would be necessary 
to make the requisite amount of water available or such 
portion of it as is economically feasible. 

(f) The engineering problems likely to be encountered in 
the design and construction of the necessary works with 
particular regard to the foundation and unwatering con- 
ditions at the sites of any major dams. 

(g) Estimates of cost, suitability of land for irrigation, 
number of families that could be supported thereon, the 
value of the crops that could be raised and any other in- 
formation bearing on the economic feasibility of the under- 
taking as a whole. 

With this report in hand, the main committee would be 
in a position to make its recommendations to Council as 
to what action, if any, the Engineering Institute should take. 
Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c. 

THE "FIRST ENGINEER" IN HALIFAX 

At noon of the same day on which Dean McKiel signed 
the co-operative agreement with the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Nova Scotia, he spoke to the mem- 
bers of the Commercial Club of Halifax at the Halifax 
Hotel. The meeting was held under the chairmanship of 
Harold S. Johnston, m.e.i.c, and in honour of the guest 
speaker, several other members of the Institute were 
invited guests. 

It was interesting to read a special dissertation on the 
Institute emblem — the beaver, which appeared on the 
printed programme. It is reprinted here in part so that 
other members, as well as those in Halifax may enjoy it. 

"The First Engineer was the beaver. He was also the 
first lumberman, hydro-electrical engineer, civil engineer, 
tunneller, and trench digger. He cut down the forest, made 
dams, storage ponds, bridges, and houses with compart- 
ments where he could conserve and preserve his food. He 
co-operated with his fellows and established the first tele- 
graphic communication system in the world. This he did 
by wagging his tail, thereby instituting for the first time 
the Wig Wag System. He also established the first co- 
operative with regard to the storage and supplying of food 
materials. For his defence he became the builder of the 
first Maginot Line, and he has preserved his identity down 
through the ages. What advances the present day engineers 
have made on the system established by this industrial 
animal you will probably hear sometime during the day. 
From him the present day generation can learn co-operation 
in the face of a common enemy. If the democratic nations 
of this world would adopt the habits and customs of the 
beaver instead of the monkey, we could wipe Hitlerism 
from the face of the earth forever." 

DISCUSSION ON THE 18-FOOT DIAMETER STEEL 
PIPE LINE AT OUTARDES FALLS, QUE. 

Erratum 

One of the contributors to this discussion, Mr. H. C. 
Boardman, of the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, 
Chicago, 111., calls our attention to a typographical error 
which occurred in the publication of his comments in the 
January, 1940, issue of the Journal, p. 12. 

The equations I, II, III and IV, p. 12, column two, are 
incomplete since in each one the entire expression following 
the first term to the right should be between brackets, as 
follows : 

M i = KQR/ 



I. 



II. M2„ 



III. Ml, 



2ir \ 



A cos u + sin A (u sin u) — (i"-A) 



«Bcosu- 

27T I 



-sin A (ir — u) sin u + A 



( 1+ r) } 



kQRf 

27T I 



1 + cos A (u sin u) + C cos u 



IV. 



M2 R =^( 1- 
R 2v I 



-cos A (tt — u) sin u -f- D cos 



'] 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



127 



DR. THOMAS H. HOGG, C.E., D.Eng., M.E.I.C. 

PRESIDENT OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, 1940 



One of the best known names in the engineering profession 
in Canada is that of the new president of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. This is due to the personality and 
accomplishments of the man himself, and to the importance 
and prominence of the position he occupies. At the annual 
banquet, on the evening of Thursday, February 8th, 
Thomas H. Hogg was conduct- 
ed to the presidential chair by 
the out-going president, Dean 
H. W. McKiel, and was receiv- 
ed with great applause by the 
audience of four hundred 
people. 

After thirty-six years of 
membership in this society 
Dr. Hogg has attained to the 
greatest honour that lies with- 
in the power of the Institute 
to give. He is a worthy succes- 
sor to the long line of dis- 
tinguished engineers who have 
headed the Institute in the 
fifty-three years of its exist- 
ence. The welfare of the or- 
ganization, as well as its tradi- 
tions are in safe hands, and 
beyond a doubt the year 1940 
will see a continuation of the 
healthy progress that has been 
so apparent over a great period 
of time. 

It is surely appropriate that 
Dr. Hogg should have been 
born at Chippawa, Ontario, 
the subsequent centre of such 
great hydro-electric activity 
and power development. It is 
almost as though the circum- 
stances of his career were born 

with him. The story of Chippawa — the story of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, and the story of 
the man who now heads that great organization, all run 
parallel. 

He was graduated from the School of Practical Science 
in 1907 and from the University of Toronto with the 
degree of B.A.Sc. in 1908. His professional degree of C.E. 
was won in 1912, and the degree D.Eng. (honoris causa) in 
1927. After a term spent as demonstrator in applied 
mechanics at the University 'of Toronto he joined the 
Ontario Power Company, Niagara Falls, in 1909, and was 
engaged in draughting, designing, surveying and con- 
struction work with this Company until 1911, when he 
became managing editor of the Canadian Engineer in 




Dr. Thomas H. Hogg, C.E., D.Eng., M.E.I.C 



Toronto. After eighteen months at the editor's desk he 
joined the staff of The Hydro-Electric Power Commission 
of Ontario as assistant hydraulic engineer in 1913, became 
chief hydraulic engineer in 1924, chief engineer Hydraulic 
and Operating in 1934, and later chief engineer. In 1937 
he was appointed to the position he now holds, namely, 

chairman and chief engineer 
of The Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario. 

Dr. Hogg has an international 
reputation as an hydraulic en- 
gineer and has been largely 
responsible for the design of 
many of the Commission's 
power plants. He has served 
also as consulting engineer 
to the governments of the 
Dominion of Canada, to the 
Provinces of Ontario and 
Manitoba, to the Nova 
Scotia Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission, and in connec- 
tion with numerous other 
power projects throughout 
Canada. He represented the 
Ontario Government in the 
preparation of the report on 
the St. Lawrence Waterways 
Project by the conference of 
Canadian Engineers and in 
the recent international nego- 
tiations in connection with 
the St. Lawrence Waterways. 
He is a member of the Lake 
of the Woods Control Board. 
He has actively participated 
in meetings of the World 
Power Conferences, and pre- 
sented a paper on "Recent 
Trends of Water Power Development in Canada" before 
the Second Conference in Berlin in 1926. At the Third 
World Power Conference at Washington in 1936 he was 
a member of the Canadian National Committee and also 
an official Canadian delegate. 

Dr. Hogg is a Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
of Great Britain, a Member of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, a Fellow of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, and a Member of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of the Province of Ontario. He 
joined The Engineering Institute of Canada (Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers) as a Student in 1904, was trans- 
ferred to Associate Member in 1912, and to Member in 
1922. 



128 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ADDRESS OF THE RETIRING PRESIDENT 

DEAN H. W. McKIEL, m.e.i.c. 

Delivered before the Fifty-Fourth Annual General Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

Toronto, Ont., February 8th, 1940 



The programme of an annual meeting usually provides 
for an address by the retiring President; in fact this par- 
ticular programme calls for a Presidential Address. That, 
however, is much too dignified a title for what I intend to 
say. 

Before beginning the topic which I have chosen, may I 
again say what a pleasure it has been to be your President 
during the past year and how greatly I appreciate the 
support accorded me by the vice-presidents and coun- 
cillors. I also wish to compliment the Treasurer, our 
Secretary, and his staff for the capable and efficient way 
in which they have performed their duties. The work of all 
committees has been most satisfactory, and the thanks of 
our membership are due their chairmen and members. I 
would especially like to refer to the improving financial 
condition of the Institute, the improvement in our head- 
quarters building and its furnishings, and the activities of 
three particular committees, whose work I believe will have 
far-reaching results. The first of these is the Committee 
on Professional Interests, which, under the chairmanship 
of Vice-President Newell, last year brought about the 
co-operative agreement in Saskatchewan, followed this year 
by a similar agreement in Nova Scotia. The second is the 
Committee on International Relations, under the chairman- 
ship of Past-President Challies, who did such effective work 
in connection with the proposed international meeting in 
New York. We all deeply regret that circumstances involv- 
ing the declaration of war compelled the cancellation of 
this meeting. The third committee to which I wish to call 
attention is that which, under the chairmanship of Mr. H. 
F. Bennett, is considering the welfare of the young en- 
gineer. This committee has already amassed a considerable 
amount of information and is well started on its work. In 
any consideration of the work of the year, the registration 
of technical men for voluntary service, in which the 
Institute participated, should certainly have a place. In 
closing this short discussion of Institute matters, may I 
refer to my tour of the branches, and to the great inspira- 
tion and increased understanding of Institute affairs which 
it brought me. I feel that this tour should be undertaken 
by every President, when possible, and that preferably it 
should be made in the early part of his term of office. 

After considerable thought I have chosen as my subject 
for this afternoon, "The Engineer as a Citizen." While 
realizing my own inadequacy to deal with such a topic, its 
importance at the present time is an ample excuse for my 
temerity in introducing it. With the outbreak of war and 
Canada's assumption of her responsibilities as a member of 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, the engineers of 
Canada have rushed to enlist, and where this privilege has 
been denied them they have insistently demanded to know 
how else they can be of service. We all realize the value 
and privileges of a democratic form of government, and 
when such is threatened from without, we also recognize 
the responsibility which democracy lays upon us indi- 
vidually. We demand the right to defend it, no matter 
what the cost. The engineer is second to none in this demand 
as the events of the last war and the present situation 
abundantly demonstrate. 

This raised the question in my mind, "Is the engineer 
equally willing to recognize his responsibility to a demo- 
cratic government in time of peace ?" If there be such a 
responsibility in ordinary times, how should it be met ? 
The strength and weaknesses of dictatorships are evident; 
they depend only on the will of one man, or at the most, 
of a small group. But the strength of a democracy depends 



on the active and earnest co-operation of many individuals 
working together for the common good. Its weakness lies 
in the failure of many of these individuals to recognize this 
condition and to assume their responsibility contingent 
upon it. Do engineers as individuals and as a profession 
recognize this obligation, except in time of stress ? 

Democracy must necessarily be served by intelligent 
citizens who are prepared to study the many questions 
confronting it and to bring to bear on these questions the 
analytical power of trained minds. Who is better qualified 
to do this than the engineer or scientist, whose whole 
training in mathematics and natural science is designed to 
develop such critical and impartial analysis ? Who is more 
accustomed to securing data, carefully weighing all evidence 
and then making a definite pronouncement, with the full 
expectation that his finding will only be accepted after it 
has been tested and proved by other independent investi- 
gations ? Who, then, but the engineer and scientist should 
be in the forefront of those dealing with the many problems 
bewildering democracy today ? This happy condition, how- 
ever, has not yet been realized, largely, I think, because 
the very habit of mind which the engineer's training and 
practice have developed makes him reluctant to deal with 
problems of the type involved. The engineering mind con- 
cerns itself only with exactness and with plans based on 
determinate and predictable factors. As a result engineers 
have as yet been little interested in the field of national 
economics, and have done very little to aid those who are 
dealing with the problems involved in this field. 

In spite of their present lack of interest, however, I 
believe that the future of democracy lies in the hands of 
men with the training of the engineer, but with a greater 
breadth of view. May I quote from an address by Henry 
A. Wallace,* United States Secretary of Agriculture, who 
has said: "There is something about engineering that tends 
to lay emphasis on logical, cold, hard, lifeless facts. Nearly 
all engineers have suffered the remorseless discipline of 
higher mathematics, physics and mechanics ... As a result 
the engineer sometimes imputes a value to precise mathe- 
matical reasoning that it does not always have. There is 
such a thing as life, and the mathematics of life is as far 
beyond the calculus as the calculus is beyond arithmetic . . . 
It seems to me that the emphasis of both engineering and 
science in the future must be shifted more and more toward 
the sympathetic understanding of the complexities of life, 
as contrasted with the simple, mathematical, mechanical, 
understanding of material production." The engineer, then, 
while retaining his habits of critical analysis and cold logic 
must adapt his reasoning to the conditions found in the 
social sciences where the number of variables is legion and 
many of the factors are but slightly predictable. He must 
lose his scorn of the sociologist and economist, and recognize 
that while his own field of investigation has the authority 
of long tradition, that of political and social science has 
had but a short fife outside the realm of philosophical 
speculation; that the methods of this field are but poorly 
developed as yet, and that the exactness of natural science 
will never be possible. In short, the engineer must recognize 
that the type of investigation most urgently needed now 
in the social field is the very type to which he has been 
accustomed, but with some modifications suitable to the 
different conditions encountered. Again quoting from 
Secretary Wallace: "I would be the last to suggest that the 
engineer abandon the precision of his thinking and his 

•An address before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, 
December 29, 1933. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



129 



honesty in facing facts. I am merely asking that the same 
qualities be brought to bear, in so far as possible, on the 
more complex situations which have to do with living 
organisms and our social life. In brief, then, we wish a 
wider and better controlled use of engineering and science." 

The engineer with the broadened attitude thus suggested 
would note the change which has come over industry in 
the past quarter century. He would see that our prosperity 
is a function of an expanding industry; that during the last 
century this expansion was largely due to an expanding 
national frontier; but that with the coming of this century 
the limit of this material type of expansion was reached, 
and that future expansion must be of a different kind. 
Professor Allan Fisher of the Royal Institute of Inter- 
national Affairs, London, in his book, "The Clash of Pro- 
gress and Security" divides industry into three parts: the 
primary industries, concerned with the production of food 
stuffs and raw materials; the secondary industries, whose 
function it is to modify the form and thus enhance the 
usefulness of these simpler physical products; and the 
tertiary industries, which cater to the whims and luxury 
desires of man, and whose output consists largely of personal 
services. He finds that industrial development has been 
successively centred in these divisions and that with the 
coming of the present century American industry entered 
the third part. This, if it be so, would mean that industrial 
expansion of the future must lie in this third field and is 
only attainable by continually raising the standard of 
living. In such a condition President Wickenden foresees 
a greater development of planned economics; not those as 
enforced by dictatorships in which past experience is dis- 
regarded, but those based on a sound understanding of 
the social structures.* Hence the engineer of the future 
will find himself in a field which requires close acquaintance 
with more than the laws of mathematics and the natural 
sciences. 

The engineer should also recognize that some of our most 
pressing problems today, if not actually due to his activities, 
are associated directly with them. For example, unemploy- 
ment, in many cases the result of technological advances, 
should receive his attention. While it is perfectly true that 
in the long run technical improvement in industrial pro- 
cesses provides more jobs than it destroys, yet this gives 
scant comfort to those thrown out of employment during 
the period of adjustment to the new conditions. Again 
many of our housing difficulties and slum conditions arise 
from centralization of industry, a process in which engineer- 
ing has played a major part. One might cite many similar 
problems with an engineering background toward the 
solution of which we might individually and collectively do 
a great deal. 

Certain national problems might well be discussed in 
engineering bodies, where an impartial but searching 
analysis could be assured. We find medical groups discuss- 
ing various phases of national health, legal men in their 
meetings dealing with types of national legislation. Why 
should not we deal with engineering questions of a national 
character ? We can find precedent for this, for an outstand- 
ing study of the Canadian railroad problem has been 
written by a member of this Institute, as have several 
analyses of the deep waterways question. We have also 
devoted at least two annual meetings to the discussion of 
problems of national importance. This practice should be 
encouraged and extended. 

Another field in which the engineer should be able to 
contribute materially to the national welfare is in regard 
to the relations between capital and labour. Himself usually 
an employee, yet by virtue of the work in which he engages 
a representative of capital, he should be able to explain 
the aims and objectives of each to the other so that many 
causes of friction would disappear. With his help and by 



wise planning, dislocations attendant upon major changes 
in industrial processes and machinery may be greatly 
reduced or even eliminated. This is not mere theory, for 
such an experiment has been recently tried in the textile 
mills of the south. Here by the introduction of multiple 
looms a considerable saving in labour was effected. An 
investigation of the results of this policy was made by 
Prof. E. D. Smith of Yale University*, who found that in 
those mills where, before the change was made, labour and 
management were brought together to discuss the probable 
results, adjustments were made which resulted in the almost 
total avoidance of friction, but where the change was simply 
put into effect without previous preparation, opposition at 
once developed. Here then is another opportunity for the 
engineer. 

Hitherto the engineer has been engrossed with his tech- 
nologic and scientific problems and has made enormous 
advances in these fields. He has paid but little attention, 
however, to the social results of this progress. He has con- 
sistently left the application of his advances to others, sure 
in his belief that they must prove of great advantage to all. 
We are told that the scientific advances of the past century 
are as nothing in comparison with those to come in the 
next, and we have today clear proof of the dislocation of 
our social and economic structure produced by the advances 
and methods of the past. Is it not time, then, that the 
engineer concerned himself more directly with the economic 
results of his labours instead of leaving that enquiry to 
others ? 

With future conditions uncertain, the complications in- 
troduced by post war adjustments will aggravate the 
situation. Those best competent to judge, believe that we 
shall see an enlargement of governmental supervision of 
business and industry rather than a reduction. Thus it 
becomes imperative that careful study be given to national 
and industrial matters if democracy is to survive. This, I 
feel, should be a challenge to the engineer, and especially 
to the young engineer, to take a broader view than he has 
in the past. When the individual engineer and the pro- 
fession recognize the responsibility of citizenship, as no 
doubt they will, then we shall have gone a long way toward 
curing the ills of our day. Furthermore I believe that such 
action will benefit for the profession as well, not only in 
the esteem in which it is held by the public, but also in a 
material way. 

Lest my attitude be misunderstood, let me make it plain 
that I do not advocate socialism, communism or any of 
the other panaceas for our ills which are being advanced 
today, nor do I support any move to adopt trade union 
policies in engineering relations. It is rather my hope that 
through a broadening of the engineer's attitude toward 
social problems, such pitfalls may be avoided, since difficul- 
ties courageously faced are already half overcome. 

There is not time for a discussion of the way in which 
this public consciousness on the part of the engineer may 
be awakened, though I think the beginning must be made 
in his period of training. This opinion is shared by President 
Roosevelt, who recently addressed an open letter to the 
engineering educators of the United States in which he 
questioned the suitability of engineering training, as pre- 
sently constituted, to meet the changing conditions of the 
present and future. Many educators, themselves, had 
already expressed doubts in this connection, so we find the 
matter under earnest consideration by many bodies on this 
continent today, including our own Committee on the 
Welfare of the Young Engineer. 

Many believe, however, that unless the engineers of the 
future, and others with similar training, give more attention 
to the social and political structure of our country, then 
democracy will experience hard and perhaps even desperate 
days. The responsibility is ours. Shall we measure up to it ? 



•The Young Engineer Facing To-Morrow — Mechanical Engineering, May, 1939. 



•Technology and Labour — E. D. Smith. 



130 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



MEETINGS OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council was held at the Royal York 
Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, on Wednesday, February 7th, 
1940, at ten o'clock a.m. 

There were present: President H. W. McKiel in the chair; 
Past-Presidents G. J. Desbarats, A. J. Grant, O. 0. Lefebvre 
and C. H. Mitchell; Vice-Presidents E. V. Buchanan (Prov- 
ince of Ontario), and R. L. Dunsmore (Maritime Prov- 
inces); Councillors B. E. Bayne (Moncton), J. L. Busfield 
(Montreal), P. E. Doncaster (Lakehead), R. H. Findlay 
(Montreal), A. B. Gates (Peterborough), O. Holden 
(Toronto), T. H. Jenkins (Border Cities), A. Larivière 
(Quebec), H. A. Lumsden (Hamilton), W. R. Manock 
(Niagara Peninsula), B. R. Perry (Montreal), A. U. Sander- 
son (Toronto), J. A. Vance (London), H. J. Vennes (Mont- 
real), and E. Viens (Ottawa) ; Treasurer deGaspe Beaubien, 
Secretary Emeritus R. J. Durley, General Secretary 
L. Austin Wright, and Louis Trudel, Assistant to the 
General Secretary; President-elect T. H. Hogg; Vice- 
Presidents Elect McNeely DuBose (Province of Quebec), 
and J. Clark Keith (Province of Ontario) ; Councillors-Elect 
J. G. Hall (Montreal), W. L. McFaul (Hamilton), C. K. 
McLeod (Montreal), J. H. Parkin (Ottawa), and C. E. 
Sisson (Toronto). The following were also present by invi- 
tation: Colonel J. P. Hogan, President, and Mr. George T. 
Seabury, Secretary, of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers; Mr. W. H. McBryde, President, American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers; Dr. W. L. Malcolm, Dean 
of Engineering, Cornell University; Ernest Brown, Dean 
of the Faculty of Engineering, McGill University; J. W. 
Rawlins, President, and W. P. Dobson, Past-President of 
the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario; 
Professor R. E. Jamieson, President of the Corporation of 
Professional Engineers of Quebec; K. M. Cameron, Chief 
Engineer, Department of Public Works of Canada ; Colonel 
R. E. Smythe, Director of the Technical Service Council; 
G. A. Gaherty, chairman of the Committee on Western 
Water Problems; H. F. Bennett, chairman, and R. E. 
Heartz and R. F. Legget, members of the Committee on 
the Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer; Fraser S. 
Keith, J. A. McCrory and Geoffrey Stead, former members 
of Council; J. J. Spence, Secretary-Treasurer of the Toronto 
Branch; and the following branch chairmen: J. R. Dunbar 
(Hamilton), A. W. F. McQueen (Niagara Peninsula), and 
A. E. Pickering (Sault Ste. Marie). All councillors and guests 
were welcomed by President McKiel. 

A report was presented from the Committee on Western 
Water Problems stating that they had appointed a local 
committee to make a study of the situation developing in 
regard to the international waters of the St. Mary's and 
Milk Rivers. This report was accepted with appreciation. 

In regard to the rearrangement and rewording of the 
Institute by-laws, the Secretary Emeritus was requested to 
complete a draft which he had prepared, embodying in it 
the results of the forthcoming ballots for amendments and 
then submit it to the Council for further consideration. 

A letter was presented from the Hamilton Branch extend- 
ing a cordial invitation to the President and Council to 
hold the 1941 Annual General Meeting of the Institute 
in the City of Hamilton. 

After some discussion, and an expression of appreciation 
of the Hamilton invitation, the Secretary was directed to 
present the invitation to the first meeting of the new 
Council following the Annual General Meeting. 

Approval was given to a proposed amendment to para- 
graph 3 of Section 5 of the Toronto Branch by-laws. 

A number of applications were considered, and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 

Elections 

Members 2 

Juniors 2 

Students Admitted 11 



Transfers 

Junior to Associate Member 1 

Student to Associate Member 4 

Student to Junior 3 

Mr. Perry drew attention to the recent incorporation, 
under Dominion charter, of a society apparently concerned 
with the activities of "engineers," and felt that some attempt 
should be made to discourage the further granting of char- 
ters to such bodies in Canada. 

Professor Jamieson pointed out that this matter was also 
of interest to the professional associations, who had taken 
steps to prevent the issuance of letters patent to such 
bodies under provincial legislatures, but the provincial 
associations could take no action on Federal applications. 
The continued issuance of such letters patent was a matter 
of importance to the Institute. Members present agreed 
with Professor Jamieson, and on the suggestion of the 
President it was decided to bring the matter up for further 
consideration at the next meeting of Council. 

The meeting adjourned at one o'clock and reconvened at 
two-thirty p.m. with President McKiel in the chair. 

In presenting the report of the Committee on the Train- 
ing and Welfare of the Young Engineer, Mr. Bennett 
stated that his committee would suggest to Council that a 
definite programme of student guidance should be under- 
taken with a view of enabling the young engineer, during 
his university course, to realise more fully his professional 
status. The committee hoped to prepare a booklet giving 
the Canadian point of view in this matter. 

President McKiel spoke of his interest in the work of 
this committee, as he had been responsible for its estab- 
lishment. In his contacts with the branches he had found 
that the membership generally was greatly concerned in 
this committee's work as being vital to the interests of the 
engineering profession. He complimented Mr. Bennett and 
his committee on the work which they had already accom- 
plished. 

Dean Brown thought that university authorities could 
benefit greatly by receiving the opinion of engineers active 
in the profession. He did not believe that a five-year 
engineering course after honour matriculation was possible. 
It had not been practicable to establish it at McGill. The 
university course should be of a fundamental nature, and 
should include, if possible, instruction in public speaking, 
English, business administration, engineering law and 
economics. Such things, however, should be introduced 
only into the latter years of the course. 

Mr. McQueen thought that there was little use of in- 
cluding such subjects as a side line. They should be made a 
regular requirement. 

Dr. Malcolm stated that the entrance requirements for 
Canadian engineering schools, so far as he knew them, were 
greatly superior to the entrance requirements of correspond- 
ing institutions in the United States, and in his opinion the 
basic training in Canadian engineering schools was better 
than that given in the United States. This was of great 
importance. Students should be thoroughly grounded in 
mathematics, physics and chemistry. 

Professor Jamieson agreed with Dr. Malcolm, but pointed 
out the difficulties in teaching fundamental subjects in a 
broad scale, and at the same time equipping the student 
to meet the specific needs of industry. To crowd all this 
into a four-year course was almost impossible. Most pro- 
fessors had considerable contact with professional practice, 
but in every instance the faculties would be glad of sug- 
gestions of a constructive nature rather than indefinite 
suggestions to the effect that the student should be given 
"more of this and more of that." The difficulties of the 
engineering schools in the apportionment of the available 
time were formidable. 

Speaking as a man who engages engineers, Mr. Parkin 
felt that unless engineering courses can be extended beyond 
four years it would seem that engineers are not prepared 
to pay the price of having their calling regarded as a pro- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



131 



fession. Possibly the same effect could be obtained if the 
length of the academic year could be increased by short- 
ening the vacation periods. The final year or years should 
be given over to post graduate study. 

Dean Mitchell explained that at Toronto the five-year 
course had been under consideration for a long time and 
had been proposed on several occasions, but had not been 
found practicable. 

Mr. Rawlins was of the opinion that if the training period 
could not be increased, more attention should be given to 
preliminary training in high schools. 

Mr. Dunsmore, as an employer of engineers, thought 
that the man with sound fundamental training was best 
suited to enter the industrial field. He preferred the graduate 
who had a broad understanding of the essentials, and was 
thus prepared to accept specialized training in the industry. 
He thought it might be possible for industry to advise the 
universities on the branches of engineering in which there 
was likely to be the most substantial demand. 

Colonel Smythe drew attention to the position of the 
young graduate in relationship to the engineering societies. 
So many organizations were available to the young man 
as to confuse him. Organizations like the Engineering Insti- 
tute should simplify the situation. Industry might well 
provide suitable work for undergraduates. Work of this 
kind had been well done by the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario. 

Dr. Lefebvre, a member of the Board of Administration 
of the Ecole Polytechnique, remarked that this school from 
the very first had adopted general courses in engineering. 
He was entirely in favour of the recommendations made by 
Mr. Bennett's committee. 

Colonel Hogan agreed with Dr. Malcolm that in the 
United States one of the greatest difficulties was the lack 
of proper preliminary training. Excellent work had been 
done by the American Society of Civil Engineers in estab- 
lishing Junior Chapters in the colleges. 

Mr. McBryde thought that a general college course was 
more applicable than a specialized one, largely because it 
is almost impossible for a student to know which branch 
of engineering he is likely to follow. 

Mr. Cameron expressed the opinion that vocational 
guidance after college years was extremely valuable. 

After further discussion it was decided to recommend 
to the incoming Council that Mr. Bennett and his com- 
mittee be asked to continue their investigations. 

Colonel Smythe, who was present by invitation, sub- 
mitted a proposal for co-ordination of the various engin- 
eering employment agencies throughout Canada. After out- 
lining the history of the Technical Service Council, he 
stated that he had communicated with the university 
authorities and with the Engineering Institute, suggesting 
the desirability of merging the considerable number of 
agencies which are at present operating such employment 
services. In his opinion a national technical employment 
service should be carried on through the universities, with 
some central organization co-ordinating and directing the 
work. He hoped that The Engineering Institute, along with 
other bodies, would aid in financing such a co-operative 
effort. 

The General Secretary remarked that he had frequently 
discussed this matter with Colonel Smythe during the past 
two years. There were many difficulties in arriving at a 
satisfactory solution, some of which he mentioned. The 
employment department of the Institute was of great value 
to its members, but anything that could be done to improve 
such service on a national basis was something in which 
the Institute should be vitally interested. Mr. Wright would 
suggest that a committee be appointed to investigate the 
matter further and to reach some definite conclusion as 
soon as possible. After further discussion it was decided to 
recommend to the incoming Council the appointment of 
such a committee to consider the situation in consultation 
with Colonel Smythe. 



President McKiel, in closing the meeting, expressed 
appreciation of the co-operation he had received from all 
members of Council throughout the year. 

The Council rose at five forty-five p.m. 

A meeting of the new Council was held at the Royal 
York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, on Friday, February 9th, 
1940, at two forty-five p.m., with President T. H. Hogg 
in the chair. There were also present: Past-Presidents 
J. B. Challies, G. J. Desbarats and H. W. McKiel; Vice- 
President McNeely DuBose; Councillors J. L. Busfield, 
P. E. Doncaster, R. H. Findlay, J. G. Hall, W. R. Manock, 
W. L. McFaul, C. K. McLeod, J. H. Parkin, A. U. Sanderson 
and J. A. Vance; Past Vice-President E. V. Buchanan; 
Past-Councillors B. E. Bayne, 0. Holden, H. J. Vennes 
and E. Viens; Messrs. G. A. Gaherty, H. F. Bennett and 
R. L. Dobbin; Secretary-Emeritus R. J. Durley, General 
Secretary L. Austin Wright, and Louis Trudel, Assistant 
to the General Secretary. 

Formal appointments were made of L. Austin Wright 
as General Secretary, and deGaspé Beaubien as Treasurer. 
The Finance Committee and the Committee on Professional 
Interests were appointed as follows: 

Finance Committee F. Newell, Chairman 

J. E. Armstrong 
deG. Beaubien 
G. A. Gaherty 
J. A. McCrory 

Professional Interests J. B. Challies, Chairman 

0. O. Lefebvre, Vice-Chairman 
G. A. Gaherty 

H. W. McKiel 
F. Newell 
C. E. Sisson 

Other committee appointments were made as follows, 
with a request that the various chairmen submit the names 
of the other members of their committees for approval at 
the next meeting of Council. 

Papers Committee J. A. Vance, Chairman 

Library and House B. R. Perry, Chairman 

Publication C. K. McLeod, Chairman 

R. DeL. French, Vice-Chairman 
Board of Examiners R. A. Spencer, Chairman 

1. M. Fraser 

W. E. Lovell, with power to add 
International Relations J. M. R. Fairbairn, Chairman 

J. B. Challies, V ice-Chairman 

Western Water Problems G. A. Gaherty, Chairman 

Deterioration of Concrete Structures. .R. B. Young, Chairman 

Membership K. 0. Whyte, Chairman 

Radio Broadcasting G. McL. Pitts, Chairman 

The Young Engineer H. F. Bennett, Chairman 

Past-Presidents' Prize R. DeL. French, Chairman 

Duggan Medal and Prize F. P. Shearwood, Chairman 

Plummer Medal F. Gordon Green, Chairman 

Representative on the Canadian 

Chamber of Commerce de Gaspé Beaubien 

An invitation from the Hamilton Branch to hold the 
1941 Annual General Meeting in Hamilton was considered, 
together with a verbal invitation from Mr. Doncaster that 
the meeting be held in Winnipeg or in that vicinity so that 
more members from that area might be able to attend. It 
was felt that it was a little early in the year to reach a 
decision, and it was decided to postpone consideration until 
a later meeting of Council. 

Past-President Challies suggested that it might be advis- 
able to review all the Institute honours and awards so their 
relative importance might be preserved, their real purposes 
properly co-ordinated, and continuity of policy be guar- 
anteed. Council favoured the suggestion, and asked that 
definite recommendation be made by Dr. Challies and other 
past-presidents. 

Past-President McKiel said he would like to take this 
opportunity to express in the form of a motion his appre- 
ciation to the Toronto Branch for the very efficient manner 
in which the Annual Meeting had been conducted. The 
motion was seconded by Mr. Findlay and carried unani- 
mously. 

The Council rose at four forty-five p.m. 



132 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



NEWLY ELECTED OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



McNeely DuBose, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected vice-presi- 
dent for the province of Quebec. Mr. DuBose was born in 
North Carolina, U.S.A., and was educated at the North 
Carolina State College, Raleigh, where he received the 
degree of Bachelor of Engineering in 1912. He was with 
various power companies in the United States and in 1919 
became superintendent of the Talassee Power Company. 
He came to Canada in 1925 as superintendent of the 
Aluminum Company of Canada, Limited. In 1926 he was 
made general superintendent of the Saguenay Power Com- 
pany Limited, at Arvida, Que. He is at present general 
manager of the company. Mr. DuBose is also president of 
the Saguenay Electric Company and director of the 
Saguenay Transmission Company, Limited, and of the 
Alma and Jonquière Railway Company. 

J. Clark Keith, a. m.e.i.c, general manager of the Windsor 
Utilities Commission is the newly elected vice-president for 
Ontario. Born at Smiths Falls, Ont., he was educated at 
the University of Toronto where he obtained his degree of 
Bachelor of Applied Sciences, with honours in 1911. From 
1912 to 1920, he was municipal engineer with the city of 
Moose Jaw, Sask. In 1920 he was appointed deputy chief 
engineer of the Essex Border Utilities Commission, Windsor, 
Ont., and the following year was made chief engineer. In 
1932, Mr. Keith became business administrator of the 
Metropolitan General Hospital in addition to his other 
duties and in 1934, he was made chief executive officer of 
the commission. In 1935, he was appointed finance comp- 
troller of the new city of Windsor which included Windsor, 
Walkerville, Sandwich and East Windsor. With the merging 
of the four municipalities, the functions of the Essex Border 
Utilities Commission were assumed by the Windsor Utilities 
Commission of which Mr. Keith is now general manager. 

W. S. Wilson, a. m.e.i.c, the newly elected vice-president 
for the Maritime Provinces, was born in Lincolnshire, 
England, and educated at Middlesborough Technical Col- 
lege. After several years engineering experience in England, 
he came to Canada in 1917 as an assistant chief draughtsman 
with the Dominion Iron and Steel Company, Limited, at 
Sydney, N.S. A year later, Mr. Wilson became technical 
engineer of the company. In 1928 he was appointed assistant 
chief engineer and in 1931 chief engineer. Since 1936, he 
has been chief engineer of the Dominion Steel and Coal 
Corporation, Limited, at Sydney, N.S. 

G. P. F. Boese, a. m.e.i.c, Department of Natural Re- 
sources, Canadian Pacific Railway, Calgary, is the newly 
elected councillor for the Calgary Branch. He was born in 
Worcestershire, England, where he was educated. Coming 



to Canada in 1907 he entered the Engineering Department 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Ottawa the same year 
and his services with the company, except for approximately 
two years during the Great War when engaged in munitions 
and military work, have been continuous. As instrumentman 
in 1909, resident engineer in 1912, he was engaged on main- 
tenance, location and construction work in Eastern Canada 
and on the Lake Superior Division. In 1917 he became 
assistant engineer in connection with the operation of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway irrigation systems in Alberta 
and has held his present position as assistant to the chief 
engineer of the Department of Natural Resources most 
of that time. He was secretary for the Western Professional 
meeting of the Institute held at Banff in 1925 and was 
chairman of Calgary Branch in 1934-35. 

I. W. Buckley, a. m.e.i.c, the newly elected councillor for 
the Cape Breton Branch, was born at Manchester, England, 
where he was educated. After several years with Messrs. 
Gallway's Limited, at Manchester in mechanical and con- 
struction work, he joined the British Westinghouse Com- 
pany and remained with them until 1907 when he came to 
Canada as a maintenance and operating engineer in steel 
rolling mills of the Dominion Iron and Steel Company, at 
Sydney, N.S. From 1922 until 1932, he was sales and 
operating engineer with the Iona Gypsum Products Limited 
at Sydney. Later he was with the Canadian Fairbanks 
Morse Company, erecting Diesel engines and pumping 
equipment. At the present time he is in charge of the oper- 
ation of the limestone dust mill of the Dominion Coal 
Company at Glace Bay, N.S. 

I. M. Campbell, a.m. e. i.e., the newly appointed councillor 
for the Lethbridge Branch, was born in Scotland where he 
was also educated. He came to Canada in 1907 and entered 
the Canadian Pacific Railway as a chainman at Souris, Man. 
In 1913, he was resident engineer at Kenora, Ont., He went 
overseas with the Canadian Railway Troops and upon his 
return to Canada in 1919 he went back with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway as roadmaster at Dryden, Ont. In 1920 he 
was appointed division engineer at Winnipeg and in 1923 
was transferred to Moose Jaw, Sask., in the same capacity. 
Since 1933, Mr. Campbell has been division engineer at 
Lethbridge, Alta. 

A. L. Carruthers, m.e.i.c, has been elected councillor for 
the Victoria Branch. He was born in Sarnia Township, Ont., 
and received his education at the University of Toronto. 
In 1904, he joined the Canadian Northern Railway and 
was employed as bridge inspector, resident engineer and 
division engineer until 1917 when he was appointed district 






McNeely DuBose, M.E.I.C. J. Clark Keith, A.M.E.I.C. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



W. S. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C. 



133 



engineer at Prince Rupert for the Department of Public 
Works of the province of British Columbia. In 1923, he 
became bridge engineer with the Department at Victoria, 
B.C., a position which he still holds. 

J. H. Hall, m.e.i. a, a newly elected councillor for the 
Montreal Branch, was born at Cornwall, Ont. Following 
graduation from McGill University in 1921 with the degree 
of B.Sc, Mr. Hall was engineer and assistant superintendent 
of the Back River Power Company until 1924 when he 
joined the staff of the Combustion Engineering Corporatoin 
as manager of the Winnipeg office which position he held 
until 1927 when he was transferred to Montreal to take 
over the appointment of vice-president and general man- 
ager of the company. In 1934, he became general manager 
and director of the same company. 

W. L. McFaul, m.e.i.c, is the newly appointed councillor 
of the Hamilton Branch. He was born at Owen Sound, Ont., 
and was educated at the University of Toronto where he 
received the degree of B.A.Sc. in 1913. After one year spent 
as assistant engineer with the city of Port Arthur, Ont., he 
became assistant city engineer with the city of Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont., in 1914. He was appointed city engineer in 
1916 and remained in that post until 1921 except for the 
period from 1917 to 1919 when he was overseas with the 
Royal Canadian Engineers. In 1921 he received the appoint- 
ment of deputy city engineer of the city of Hamilton, Ont., 
and in 1923 he became city engineer and manager of the 
water works, a position which he still holds. 

C. K. McLeod, a. m.e.i.c, a newly elected councillor for the 
Montreal Branch, was born in Montreal. He was graduated 
from McGill University with the degree of B.Sc. in chemical 
engineering in 1913, and immediately following graduation 
became plant chemist with that organization for the next 
three years. From 1916 to 1919 he was engaged on the 
inspection of explosives with the Imperial Ministry of 
Munitions. In May, 1919, Mr. McLeod was appointed 
chief chemist for the Dominion Glass Company, and a year 
later became superintendent with the Consumers Glass 
Company. In May, 1921, Mr. McLeod was with the Phoenix 
Bridge and Iron Works on design and sales of structural 
steel work. When this firm was taken over in October, 1923, 
by Canadian Vickers Limited, he occupied a similar position 
with the new organization. Since 1925 Mr. McLeod has 
represented the Permutit Company, Walter Kidde and 
Company and the American Hard Rubber Company in 



Eastern Canada, first as manager of the Chemical Engineer- 
ing Equipment Company, then as a principal of Busfield 
McLeod Limited and in 1934 he entered into business under 
his own name representing the same interests. 

Mr. McLeod is very well known to the membership of 
the Institute as a past secretary-treasurer of the Montreal 
Branch, which office he held for ten years and also as chair- 
man of the Branch. He is a son of the late C. H. McLeod 
who for twenty-five years was secretary of the Institute. 
He is an alderman for the city of Westmount, Que. 

J. H. Parkin, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor for 
the Ottawa Branch. He was born in Toronto and was 
graduated from the University of Toronto in 1912. From 
1914, he was lecturer in mechanical engineering and then 
assistant professor of mechanical engineering. In 1926 Mr. 
Parkin was appointed associate professor of mechanical 
engineering, which position he held until 1929. In addition 
to his work at the University of Toronto, he was in 1916- 
1919 assistant to the engineer in chief, British Acetones, 
Toronto; in 1917-1929 in charge of aeronautical research 
and instruction at the University of Toronto, and in 1920-29 
as consultant on machine and aeronautical questions. In 
1929 he was appointed assistant director of the department 
of physics and engineering physics in charge of aeronautical 
research with the National Research Council, Ottawa, Ont. 
Since 1937 he has been director, division of mechanical 
engineering with the National Research Council. 

C. E. Sisson, m.e.i.c, is the newly appointed councillor 
for the Toronto Branch. He was born at Cavan, Ont., and 
educated at the University of Toronto where he obtained 
his degree of B.A.Sc. in 1905. Mr. Sisson has been with the 
Canadian General Electric ever since graduation. He is at 
present works engineer at the Davenport Works of the 
company in Toronto. 

G. E. Smith, a. m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor 
for the Moncton Branch. He was born at Fredericton, N.B., 
and received his education at the University of New 
Brunswick where he was graduated in 1912. For two years 
after graduation, he was on the construction of the St. John 
and Quebec Railway and later with the Fraser Lumber 
Company. From 1916 to 1919, he was overseas in active 
service. Upon his return to Canada, he entered the Canadian 
National Railways as a draughtsman. At present he is in 
the city engineer's office at Moncton, N.B. 



ANNUAL FEES 

Members are reminded that a reduction of one dollar is allowed 
on their annual fees if paid on or before March 31st of the 
current year. The date of mailing, as shown by the postmark 
on the envelope, is taken as the date of payment. This gives 
equal opportunity to all members wherever they are residing. 



134 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INSTITUTE PRIZE WINNERS 



G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, is one of the recipients of the 
Gzowski Medal for 1939, for his paper, "Drought, a 
National Problem," presented at the Annual Meeting in 
Ottawa last year. Upon graduation from Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax, in 1909, he entered the Western Power Com- 
pany of Canada as designing engineer and remained there 
until 1914 when he joined the Canadian Garrison Artillery 
at Halifax and later went to France. Upon his return to 
Canada in 1919, he spent a year making surveys and designs 
for the Keely Silver Mines Limited. In 1920, he joined the 
Montreal Engineering Company Limited, as water power 
engineer and director. He later became chief engineer, then 
vice-president and at the present time holds the position 
of president. In 1923, he accepted the position of chief 
engineer and general manager of the Calgary Power Com- 
pany Limited, in addition to his duties in the Montreal 
Engineering Company. In 1928 he became president of the 
company. 

Ernest A. Hodgson, m.e.i.c, was also awarded the 
Gzowski Medal for 1939, for his paper entitled "The 
Structure of the Earth as Revealed by Seismology," pub- 
lished in the September, 1938, issue of the Journal. Mr. 
Hodgson was educated at the Hamilton Collegiate and at 
the University of Toronto where he obtained the degree 
of Master of Arts in 1912. He entered the Dominion 
Observatory at Ottawa as a seismologist in 1914 and in 



1918 he became chief of the Division of Seismology at the 
Observatory, a position which he still occupies. In 1932, 
he obtained the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Saint 
Louis University, Missouri. Dr. Hodgson's reputation as a 
seismologist extends far beyond Canada. 

D. B. Armstrong, a. m.e.i.c, received the Duggan Medal 
and Prize for 1939, for his paper entitled "The Island of 
Orléans Suspension Bridge — Prestressing and Erection." 
He was educated at McGill University and entered the 
Dominion Bridge Company Limited at Lachine, Que., in 

1919 as a draughtsman. He successively held the positions 
of designer, erection engineer and engineer in charge of 
special projects. In 1937, he became designing engineer of 
the company. He was closely associated with the design 
and erection of the Jacques Cartier bridge, Montreal, and 
later occupied the position of engineer in charge of the 
Island of Orléans suspension bridge. Mr. Armstrong's paper 
was published in the July, 1938, issue of the Journal. 

C. R. Whittemore, a.m.e.i.c, has also been awarded the 
Duggan Medal and Prize for 1939, for his paper, "Welded 
Steel Pipe for the City of Toronto Water Works Extension." 
He received the degree of Master of Science in Metallurgy 
in 1924. Upon graduation, he went with the McArthur 
Irwin Paint Company of Montreal as a research chemist. 
In 1925 he joined the Consolidated Mining and Smelting 





G. A. Gaherty, M.E.I.C. 



E. A. Hodgson, M.E.I.C. 






C. R. Whittemore, A.M.E.I.C. D. B. Armstrong, A.M.E.I.C. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



C. G. Kemsley 



135 



Company at Trail, B.C., where he was in charge of the 
Technical Service Department. Later he became technical 
engineer. In 1929, he returned to the McArthur Irwin Com- 
pany in Montreal. In 1931, he joined the Dominion Bridge 
Company Limited at Montreal later becoming metallurgist. 
Since June, 1939, Mr. Whittemore has been Research Metal- 
lurgist with the Deloro Smelting and Refinery Company, at 
Deloro, Ont. In 1936 he was the recipient of the Plummer 
Medal of the Institute. He is the Chairman of the Mont- 
real Chapter of the American Society for Metals. Mr. 
Whittemore's paper appeared in the July, 1939, issue of 
The Engineering Journal. 



C. G. Kemsley is the recipient of the Leonard Medal, 1939, 
for his paper written in co-operation with Mr. A. D. 
Robinson on "The Internal Shaft at Dome Mines." He 
was educated in Hobart, Tasmania. He came to Canada 
in 1907 and devoted himself for several years to prospecting 
in the Cobalt field. The mechanical phase of mining became, 
however, his forte. He served as master mechanic at the 
Hollinger mine. Finally he became mechanical superintend- 
ent for Dome Mines, Limited, which post he has now 
occupied for nearly seven years. He is the Chairman of the 
Purcupine Branch of the Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy. 






D. L. Mackinnon, S.E.I.C. 
Winner of the Martin Murphy Prize 



C. B. Charlewood, Jr.E.I.C. 
Winner of the Phelps Johnson Prize 



J. R. Dunn, S.E.I.C. 
Winner of the John Galbraith Prize 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on February 7th, 1940, the following 
elections and transfers were effected : 

Members 

Cariss, Carington C, chief engr., Waterous Limited, Brantford, Ont. 

Stirrett, Gordon P. (Univ. of Toronto), inspecting engr. for B.C. 
War Supply Board, Vancouver, B.C. 

Juniors 

Adlam, Arthur Edwin, b.sc. (Univ. of Sask.), asst. mining engr., 
Canadian Johns Manville Company, Asbestos, Que. 

Rogers, John H., b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), asst. to city engr., St. 
Catharines, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Associate Member 

Tapley, Donald Gordon, b.sc. (N.S. Tech. Coll.), sales engr., Cana- 
dian General Electric Co. Ltd., Calgary, Alta. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Associate Member 

Korcheski, William Bruno, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), C. D. 
Howe Co. Ltd., Port Arthur, Ont. 

MacKay, Ian Norton, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), asst. engr., Diesel 
engine dept., Dominion Engineering Works Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Martin, Henri Milton, Jr., B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), asst. works mgr., 
Dominion Tar & Chemical Co. Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Watson, Howard Dalton, b.a.sc. (Univ. of B.C.), branch manager, 
Linde Canadian Refrigeration Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 



Transferred from, the class of Student to that of Junior 
Eagles, Norman B., b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of N.B.), asst. city elect'l. 

engr., Moncton, N.B. 
Gunning, Merle Percy, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), elect'l. engr., Mont- 
real Light Heat & Power Cons., Montreal, Que. 
Scheen, Marcel, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 
dftsman., R. A. Rankin & Co., Montreal, Que. 

Students Admitted 
Brown, Graham Edward, (Queen's Univ.), 262 Coltrin Road, Rock- 

cliffe, Ottawa, Ont. 
Cote, Joseph Leon, b.a. (Laval Univ.), student, engrg. dept., Quebec 

Power Company, Quebec, Que. 
Deslauriers, Charles Edouard, (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 

45 Napoleon St., Quebec, Que. 
deTonnancour, L. Charles G., (McGill Univ.), 19 Sunset Ave., 

Outremont, Que. 
Geary, Bertram Harman, (Univ. of N.B.), 550 Charlotte St., Fred- 

ericton, N.B. 
Jones, Edward Donald, junior dftsman., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., 

Montreal, Que. 
Russell, Harold George, (McGill Univ.), 2358 Grand Blvd., Mont- 
real, Que. 
Taylor, Charles Gray, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), 112 William St., Arn- 

prior, Ont. 
Thomas, Jack Arthur, (Queen's Univ.), Kingston, Ont. 
Valiquette, Francis, (Ecole Polytechnique), Grand'Mere, Que. 
Venables, William Norman, (Univ. of Man.), P.O. Box 42, The Pas, 

Man. 



136 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Personals 



Denis Stairs, m.e.i.c, is serving as Director of Engineering 
Projects with the War Supply Board at Ottawa. A graduate 
from Dalhousie University in the class of 1909, Mr. Stairs 
has been connected with the construction of many large 
projects. Since 1922, he has been with Montreal Engineering 
Company Limited, of which he is now a director. He is 
also supervisor of the northern properties of the company. 

Geoffrey Stead, m.e.i.c, of Saint John is one of the most 
familiar figures at annual meetings of the Institute. On 
his way back from the Toronto meeting, he visited his 
daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Peachey, in 
Montreal, which gave him an opportunity to visit Head- 
quarters. 

Here is an example for all members of the Institute. He 
is a great believer in the value of annual meetings, and 
since 1907 has attended twenty-four such meetings of this 
society. It is doubtful if any other member can equal this 
record. Mr. Stead says that if a member wants to see the 
real value of the Institute, he should attend these annual 
professional gatherings. 

For thirty-nine years he has been employed in the 
Department of Public Works, and for thirty-five of these 
years he has been in charge of a department. He served 
under sixteen different Ministers of Public Works. He has 
surely earned the rest that has come with his retirement. 

Gordon McL. Pitts, m.e.i.c, was appointed honorary 
treasurer of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, 
at the annual meeting held in Toronto last month. Mr. 
Pitts is a member of the firm of Maxwell and Pitts, archi- 
tects, Montreal, and is the chairman of the Institute's 
Radio Broadcasting Commiltee. 

L. J. Belnap, m.e.i.c, president of the Consolidated Paper 
Corporation, Limited, has recently been elected a director 
of the Royal Trust Company, Montreal. 

Ernest Gohier, m.e.i.c, director-general of the roads 
Department of the Province of Quebec, has been appointed 
chief engineer of the same department, succeeding 
A. Paradis, who has recently resigned. 

Col. W. M. Miller, a.m. e. i.e., is now Chief Signal Officer, 
British Troops in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt. Born in Montreal in 
1 89 1 , he was graduated from the Royal Military College , King- 
ston, in 1912. During the last war, he was Officer Command- 
ing the 32nd Divisional Signal Company, Royal Engineers, 
in France. He came back to Canada, and was Senior Engin- 
eer Officer, Military District No. 1. He went back to England 
as a Captain in the Royal Corps of Signallers, stationed at 
Mansfield Park, Uckfield, Sussex, England. Col. Miller has 
also been stationed, for some time, at Trimulgherry, 
Deccan, India. In 1931, he was appointed Chief Signal 
Officer in Burma. He was then responsible for all the tele- 
graph, telephone and radio arrangements for the troops 
engaged in quelling the Burma rebellion. 

Antonio Roberge, a. m.e.i.c, has accepted the position of 
city engineer of Drummondville, Que. Upon graduation 
from the Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, in 1926, he 
went with the Canadian Celanese Limited in Drummond- 
ville. In 1929 he was with Z. Langlais, consulting engineer, 
Quebec City, and in 1932, he accepted a position with the 
City of Quebec, as resident engineer on construction of the 
Battlefield's reservoir. Later, he was appointed assistant 
waterworks engineer with the City of Quebec. 

W. F. Campbell, a.m. e. i.e., has received the temporary 
appointment of roads superintendent and county engineer 
for the County of Haldimand, Ont., during the absence, 
overseas, of Major A. L. S. Nash. Mr. Campbell had been 
assistant to Major Nash since 1934. 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



O. A. Barwick, a. m.e.i.c, has resigned from his position 
in the Engineer Services Branch of the Department of 
National Defence, Ottawa, to accept the appointment of 
metallurgist with the Dominion Bridge Company, Limited, 
Montreal. A graduate in architecture from McGill Univer- 
sity, in the class of 1914, he was engaged during the last 
war on the inspection of munitions, with particular reference 
to the testing of metals. During the last twenty years, he 
has been engaged in the design and construction of many 
architectural projects. Previous to going to Ottawa, with 
the Department of National Defence, Mr. Barwick was 
carrying on a private practice as an architect, in Montreal. 




Past-President J. M. R. Fairbairn, m.e.i.c (third from 
left), was one of the recipients of an Honorary Membership 
in the American Society of Civil Engineers, at the Annual 
Meeting in New York, on January 17th. President D. H. 
Sawyer presented the certificates. 

J. R. Hango, a. m.e.i.c, has been promoted to the position 
of su pei intendent of distribution for the Saguenay Power 
Company, Limited, and the Saguenay Transmission Com- 
pany, Limited, Arvida, Que. A graduate in electrical en- 
gineering from the University of Alberta, in 1929, he was, 
for a few months, with the Canadian Westinghouse Com- 
pany, in Hamilton, Ont. In the fall of 1929, he joined the 
Saguenay Power Company, Limited, as an engineering 
assistant. Later, he was appointed assistant electrical en- 
gineer. In 1937, he became power engineer of the company. 

M. D. Stewart, s.e.i.c, is in the engineering department 
of Babcock, Wilcox and Goldie McCulloch, Limited, at 
Gait, Ont. Mr. Stewart was graduated in mechanical en- 
gineering, last spring, from the University of Toronto. 

J. H. P. Matheson, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position in the 
engineering department of Canadian Industries Limited, 
in Montreal. A graduate from McGill University in 1930, 
he had been, since, with the Shawinigan Chemicals, Limited, 
in Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

A. R. Bonnell, jr. e. i.e., is now in charge of the roads 
section, in the Plant Construction Department of Trinidad 
Leaseholds, Limited, Pointe-à- Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. A 
graduate in civil engineering from the University of New 
Brunswick, in 1935, he had been with the Highway Divi- 
sion of the New Brunswick Department of Public Works 
until last summer, when he went to Trinidad with the 
Carib Construction Company, Limited, at Port-of-Spain. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



137 



A. A. Ferguson, a.m.e.i.c, has resigned from his position 
with Reed, Shaw and McNaught, Montreal, to become 
associated with his brother in the Pictou Foundry and 
Machine Company, Limited. He will be engaged in me- 
chanical engineering and marine repair work and will reside 
in Pictou, N.S. 



Obituaries 




Raymond Boucher, Jr.E.I.C. 

Raymond Boucher, jr. e. i.e., is the newly elected chair- 
man of the Junior Section of the Montreal Branch of the 
Institute. He was graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique 
of Montreal in 1933 with the degree of bachelor of applied 
sciences. In 1934, he received his degree of master of science 
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined 
the teaching staff of the Ecole Polytechnique and is now 
professor of hydraulics. 

G. A. Campbell, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position with 
the United British Oilfields of Trinidad, Pointe Fortin, 
B.W.I. He was graduated in civil engineering from the 
University of New Brunswick, in 1938, and was engaged, 
for some time, in survey work with the New Brunswick 
Electric Power Commission. He went to work with the 
Carib Construction Company in Trinidad, in August, 1939. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

D. L. Mackinnon, s.e.i.c, Diamond Construction Com- 
pany, Limited, from Fredericton, N.B., on February 5th. 

E. M. Nason, s.e.i.c, from Moncton, N.B., on February 
13th. 

Geoffrey Stead, m.e.i.c, from Saint John, N.B., on Feb- 
ruary 14th. 

R. L. Dunsmore, m.e.i.c, superintendent Halifax Re- 
finery, Imperial Oil Limited, from Dartmouth, N.S., on 
February 17th. 

Sir Gerald Campbell, k.c.m.g., High Commissioner for 
the United Kingdom, Ottawa, Ont., on February 20th. 

P. C. Hamilton, jr. e. i.e., from Halifax, N.S., on February 
21st. 

I. B. Crosby, Affii.E.i.c, consulting geologist, from Bos- 
ton, Mass., on February 21st. 

R. C. P. Webster, a.m.e.i.c, manager, Maitland Charts, 
from Maitland, Ont., on February 22nd. 

P. G. Gauthier, m.e.i.c, townsite engineer, Quebec North 
Shore Paper Company, from Baie Comeau, Que., on Feb- 
ruary 23rd. 

F. L. Lawton, m.e.i.c, chief engineer, Saguenay Power 
Company, Limited, from Arvida, Que., on February 23rd. 

G. T. Perry, s.e.i.c, Department of Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, National Research Council, from Ottawa, on February 
23rd. 



David Mussen Bright, a.m.e.i.c, died in the hospital at 
London, Ont., on February 8th, after a lengthy illness. He 
was born at Portadown, North Ireland, on June 18th, 1875. 
He was graduated from the Belfast Institute of Technology, 
and in 1897 joined the Royal Engineers in Chatham, Eng- 
land. He served in China at the relief of Peking, during his 
seven years with the unit. He came to Canada in 1912, as 
a resident mechanical engineer with the Middle West 
Boving Company of Canada, at Lindsay, Ont. In 1913 and 
1914, he was designing and superintending engineer with 
the Canadian British Engineering Company at Winnipeg, 
Man., on municipal power plants. He served overseas with 
the Royal Canadian Engineers from 1914 to 1919 and was 
appointed staff captain in charge of design and layout of 
workshops and on tests for light railways and aerial rope- 
ways, etc. Following the war, Major Bright returned to the 
west, where he was, for some time, mechanical engineer 
with the Manitoba Power Commission at Winnipeg. Later, 
he was mechanical engineer with the Chicago Automatic 
Electric Boiler Company. In 1928, he came to London, Ont., 
where he engaged in a consulting practice as mechanical 
engineer. At the time of his death, he was president of the 
D. M. Bright Company, consulting engineers, of London, 
Ont. 

Major Bright joined the Institute as an Associate Member 
in 1921. 

Samuel Ebenezer McColl, a.m.e.i.c, died in the hospital 
at Winnipeg, Man., on January 26th. He was born in 
Winnipeg on July 17th, 1886. and was educated at the 
University of Manitoba. He was commissioned a Manitoba 
land surveyor in 1909, a Dominion surveyor in 1911, and 
a Saskatchewan surveyor in 1920. He was in private practice 
with his brother, Gilbert B. McColl, from 1912 until 1930. 
His surveys included the right-of-way of the Greater 
Winnipeg water district line, the power transmission lines 
of the Winnipeg Electric Company, and various railway, 
road and drainage surveys. In 1930, he was appointed 
director of surveys of the province of Manitoba. Under 
Mr. McColl's direction the department of natural resources 
made surveys and prepared accurate maps which assisted 
materially in promoting mining and developing various 
resources of the province. During the last war, Mr. McColl 
served overseas as lieutenant with the Royal Canadian 
Engineers. 

Mr. McColl joined the Canadian Society of Civil Engin- 
eers as a Junior in 1916, and in 1919 he was transferred to 
Associate Member of the Institute. 

George Wyman Shearer, a.m.e.i.c, died at his home in 
Montreal, on February 7th. He was born in Montreal on 
June 12th, 1886. He received his education at McGill 
University, where he was graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, in 1907, and 
with the degree of Master of Science, in 1908. Upon gradua- 
tion, he entered the Canadian Westinghouse Company 
and was engaged in installation on various electrical works. 
In 1912, he became mechanical superintendent with Ross 
& Macfarlane, of Montreal. He went overseas in 1915 and 
returned in 1919 as a major. In 1920, he became vice- 
president of the James Shearer Company, and in 1930 he 
was president of the James Shearer Construction Company 
of Montreal. 

Mr. Shearer joined the Canadian Society of Civil Engin- 
eers, as a Student, in 1907, and he was transferred to 
Associate Member in 1912. 

Lieut. -Col. Charles Nicholas Monsarrat, M.E.I.C, of the 
firm Monsarrat and Pratley, Consulting Engineers, Mont- 
real, died on March 1st at his home. An obituary of Colonel 
Monsarrat will appear in the April issue of the Journal. 



138 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty -five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



H. L. Johnston, a.m.e.i.c. 

A. H. PaSK, Jr.E.I.C. - - 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



A joint meeting of the Border Cities Branch of the 
Engineering Institute of Canada and the Detroit section 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was held 
on January 12, 1940. 

The programme began at 3.30 p.m., when members and 
ladies were guests of Hiram Walker and Sons, Ltd., in an 
inspection tour of the Walkerville distillery. This is the 
original plant of the firm which now owns plants in other 
parts of the world, including the world's largest distillery 
at Peoria, 111. 

At 5.30 p.m., at the Prince Edward Hotel, a motion 
picture of the new Peoria plant was shown as a description 
of modern distillery practice. 

A dinner was held in the ballroom of the Prince Edward 
Hotel at 6.30 p.m. Of members and guests present, 50 were 
from the American and about 80 from the Canadian 
organization. 

Following the dinner, the chairman, Mr. J. F. Bridge 
introduced Mr. L. Austin Wright, General Secretary, of the 
Institute, who expressed his appreciation to the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers for past courtesies. 

The Vice-President for Zone B, Mr. E. V. Buchanan, 
was then introduced who welcomed the members of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers to the meeting. 

Mr. B. W. Beyer, Chairman of the Detroit Section of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, replied for 
that society and then introduced the speaker of the evening, 
Mr. Henry G. Weaver, Director of General Motors Cus- 
tomer Research Division, who spoke on Sampling Public 
Opinion. 

The speaker began by stressing the human side of cus- 
tomer research. He pointed out the growing popularity and 
interest in determining public reaction by the various polls 
now in use. He quoted a formula for business success by 
Kenneth Good, "Find what people like and do more of 
that. Find what people do not like and do less of that." 
He also questioned the truth of the old business motto, 
"The customer is always right." 

The Customer Research Division of General Motors seeks 
to determine the desires of some 4,300,000 people. Its aim 
is to be the artificial substitute for the connection between 
consumer and producer that should naturally exist in a 
small business. The information it gains is carefully com- 
piled and analysed. Often data from between the lines is 
of as great or greater importance than the other. 

In illustrating the human side of the work, the speaker 
gave several humorous examples of the replies sometimes 
received. He pointed out that the information these gave 
could not be covered by cold statistics. Various tests of 
public reaction were described such as noting the effect 
on people of a purposely placed cover design or going through 
the wastebaskets of dealers. From these and similar tests, 
general laws are sometimes found. For example, more replies 
were received from questionnaires suggesting no reply and 
not enclosing stamped envelope than from those begging 
a reply and addressed envelope. Similarly, the enclosure 
of a leaflet telling why people should not answer ques- 
tionnaires increased replies 20 per cent. 

The speaker closed with thought that we have made 
much progress in sciences but world progress would be 
much greater if the technique of science could be applied 
to human understanding. 

After a discussion period, a vote of thanks was moved 
by Mr. J. Clark Keith and seconded by Mr. Boyd Candlish. 
Coffee was then served. 



HALIFAX BRANCH 

L. C. Young, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
A. G. Mahon, a.m.e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

The Halifax Branch of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Nova Scotia, held their annual joint banquet at the Lord 
Nelson Hotel, Halifax, January 25th. Features of the even- 
ing were the signing of an agreement linking the two bodies 
together into closer co-operation, and an address by J. A. 
Hanway, K.C., on the subject, "A Lawyer Looks at the 
Engineers." 

The agreement between the two bodies, arrived at after 
some years of negotiations, was signed in a symbolic 
ceremony by Dean H. W. McKiel, president, and L. Austin 
Wright, general secretary for the national organization, and 
by S. W. Gray, president, and W. P. Morrison, secretary, 
for the provincial body. 




S. W. Gray, A.M.E.I.C. 
Retiring President of the A. P.E.N. S. 

The signatures were witnessed by Col. F. W. W. Doane, 
dean of the engineering profession in Nova Scotia, and 
R. L. Dunsmore, for the E.I.C. and by Harold Johnston 
and R. W. McColough, for the A.P.E.N.S. 

Prof. H. W. McKiel, retiring president of the E.I.C, pro- 
posed the toast to the co-operative agreement. Responding 
to the toast, S. W. Gray, the immediate past-president of 
the A.P.E.N.S., deplored the fact that trade unionism was 
gaining an entrance into the ranks of the engineering pro- 
fession, and stated that this movement could not be 
effectively combated by the individual or local organiza- 
tion, but that it is a national matter, and assured the 
national president that any steps which might be taken 
by the E.I.C. to combat this movement would receive the 
co-operation of the Nova Scotian association. 

Mr. Gray was joint chairman in the absence of R. B. 
Stewart, president-elect of the provincial organization, who 
was unable to attend on account of illness. Representing 
the Halifax Branch of the E.I.C. as joint chairman was 
Charles Scrymgeour. 

Always one of the big social events of the year, the joint 
banquet was attended by approximately two hundred 
engineers from all over the province of Nova Scotia. Guest 
speaker was J. A. Hanway, K.C., chairman of the Board 
of Commissioners of Public Utilities, who concluded a 
witty address with a note of serious advice to his listeners, 
"to always maintain the high ideals of your profession." 
Other speakers and guests at the head table were Hon. J. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



139 



H. MacQuarrie, deputy mayor W. E. Donovan, L. Austin 
Wright, Col. F. W. W. Doane, and Michael Dwyer, former 
Minister of Mines for Nova Scotia. 

Entertainment of high calibre, under the direction of 
K. L. Dawson, consisting of singing and dancing, was pre- 
sented at intervals throughout the evening. 

The members of the committee responsible for this very 
successful function are as follows: G. F. Bennett, chairman; 
J. J. Sears, Elmer Ball, B. H. Zwicker, R. W. McColough, 
L. MacC. Allison, W. H. Noonan, R. D. McKay, S. W. 
Gray, K. L. Dawson, I. P. McNab. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 



A. R. Hannafobd, a.m. e. i.e. 
W. E. Brown, jr. e. i.e. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



At the monthly professional meeting held on February 
19th, at McMaster University, Dr. A. E. Berry addressed 
Members and visitors on the subject entitled, Engineering 
in Public Health Activities. 

W. L. McFaul introduced the speaker and pointed out 
that in addition to Dr. Berry being Director, Division of 
Sanitary Engineering, Ontario Department of Health, he 
is Chairman of the Toronto Branch, E.I.C. 

The speaker set forth two objectives for engineering in 
public health; first, the control of disease and secondly the 
raising of the standard of living. Reviewing the history of 
public health we saw that sanitation is an old problem, the 
children of Moses, the Greeks and the Romans all dealt 
with this work. The Greeks raised personal hygiene to a 
standard higher than had been reached before their time 
and perhaps since. The Romans carried out vast projects 
for the supply of water and other branches of sanitation. 
A period was reached in Europe and England when all 
these matters of health were discarded and then plague 
and disease became rampant. The discovery of vaccine for 
small pox in the year 1796 and later the findings of Pasteur 
in the relation of bacteria to disease gave new impetus to 
public health work. A milestone was reached in the pub- 
lication in 1874 of the first report of the Health of Towns 
Commission, in England and the Public Health Act fol- 
lowed in 1875, which has served as a model for public 
health legislation all over the world. It is noteworthy that 
an engineer served on the first Provincial Board of Health, 
namely, Dean Galbraith of the Faculty of Applied Science, 
University of Toronto. 

Dr. Berry deplored the lack of interest taken by engineers 
in connection with the supply and control of milk, which he 
stated is very definitely an engineering matter. Since com- 
pulsory pasteurization had been in force it was a fact that 
the number of cases of typhoid fever had been reduced 
by 50 per cent. 

The field of sanitary engineering is primarily concerned 
with the control of disease, meeting the problems of water 
supply, sewage disposal, stream pollution, collection and 
disposal of refuse, recreational sanitation and the problems 
of milk control. 

Speaking of water supply the speaker said we were apt 
to refer to the "good old days" when people lived longer, 
but this was not the case, for at one time the death rate 
was 80 persons per year for one thousand persons, later 
reduced to forty, and at the present time the rate is about 
10 per 1,000. (In Hamilton the rate is actually 9.3.) Smells 
do not spread disease as often supposed and to be clean 
does not always mean sanitary; to be sanitary is to be in 
such condition that disease cannot be encouraged. 

This very instructive address was illustrated with lantern 
slides, and the meeting enjoyed the company of Mr. Bennett 
from London and Mr. Sisson, Councillor of the Toronto 
Branch, also Mr. Spence, Secretary of the Toronto Branch. 
A vote of thanks to the speaker was moved by A. R. 
Hannaford. At the close of the meeting, Chairman Alex 
Love spoke briefly on our affection for the late Lord 
Tweedsmuir and the loss that the Institute and the Dom- 
inion of Canada feels at this time. 



After the meeting the assembly adjourned for the usual 
coffee and period of mixing. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 

J. B. Baty, a.m. e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

A regular dinner meeting of the Branch was held at 
Queen's Students' Memorial Union on Thursday evening, 
January 18th. More than the usual number of members 
and student members were in attendance. The attraction 
was an illustrated lecture on Finland and International 
Politics by Dr. E. L. Bruce, Miller Memorial Research 
Professor in Geology at Queen's University and Vice- 
President of The Geological Society of America. Dr. Bruce 
spent much time in Finland last summer and spoke with 
first hand information, illustrating his splendid talk with a 
number of lantern slides of pictures which he had taken. 
In addition to the general topic of his talk, Dr. Bruce told 
many interesting things concerning the customs of the 
people in Finland, mixing in a few humorous incidents 
which he had experienced. A short account of his speech 
follows. 

Finland was a part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 
1917. During much of that time it had a large measure of 
self-government and remained a separate unit. The greater 
part of the population of Finland is Finnish. People of 
Swedish descent make up about 11 per cent. Lapps form 
a small group in the north and there are some Slavs in 
eastern Finland. 

Most of the Finns are small farmers, but the produce of 
the land is barely sufficient for the agricultural population. 
Forest products form the largest export commodity. Russia 
has no present need of additional forest resources. Mining 
has been a small industry. The Outokumpu copper mine in 
central Finland produces about twelve thousand tons of 
copper per year. The most important mineral despoits 
known in Finland are those of nickel at Petsamo. These 
should have begun to produce this year had the Russian 
invasion not occurred. The nickel deposits would aid 
materially in the Russian industrial expansion and in the 
building up of the Murmansk area. 

A second ice-free port on the Arctic would be of con- 
siderable advantage. Power developments at Imatra in 
southeastern Finland would be valuable as a source of 
energy for the Leningrad area. 

The acquisition of Finland by Russia could be of no 
material assistance to Germany in the present war. Finland 
can produce no surplus of food stuffs. It is likely that the 
plant and mines at Petsamo have been so severely damaged 
that production of nickel will be delayed for at least three 
or four years. The copper from Outokumpu has always 
gone to Germany. It seems likely that should Russia gain 
control of that area, any copper produced would be diverted 
from Germany to meet the import demands of Russia, 
which are much in excess of the Finnish production. 

A powerful factor in deciding the Russian policy may 
have been the ambition of those in power to regain all of 
the territory once part of the old empire. Successful invasion 
of Finland could be acclaimed as a great step toward the 
world revolution that the more extreme communistic group 
has urged. Stalin may. have found it expedient to take some 
action to satisfy that demand. 

LONDON BRANCH 

D. S. Scrymgeour, a.m. e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
Jno. R. Rostron, a.m. e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

The annual dinner meeting and election of officers was 
held on the 26th January, 1940, at the Grange Tea Room, 
the speaker being Mr. R. F. Legget, Assistant Professor 
of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, and his subject, 
Building Downwards. 

The chair was occupied by Mr. Harry F. Bennett who 
called on Mr. J. A. Vance for his account of the meeting 
at Ottawa. Mr. Vance said that he proposed to read a 
short synopsis of notes of the meeting, which was done. 
He was acclaimed for his record. 



140 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Mr. Bennett then called on Mr. Legget who, he said, 
was the author of a book on Geology and Engineering, 
who would, no doubt, use excerpts and lantern slides to 
illustrate his address. 

Mr. Legget said that civil engineering included some- 
thing more than merely building upward. Although founda- 
tions were seen and thought of very little they were really 
an important part of the work. He then described the 
various types of foundations to be found in some of modern 
engineering's most recent achievements including Boulder 
and Grand Coulee dams, the Panama Canal, mountain 
highways and tunnels. 

Sixty years ago French and British engineers made a 
study of the possibility of building a huge vehicular tunnel 
connecting England with Europe, he said. "From the theory 
viewpoint of engineering the task was feasible but the social 
and economic factors discouraged further investigation." 
Such a tunnel would be by far the greatest ever attempted. 
Such an engineering feat could be accomplished but experts 
did not believe it would be built for many years to come. 

In closing, Professor Legget gave a graphic description 
of the gigantic toll soil erosion is inflicting on Canada and 
the United States annually. This was an important problem 
that very little was being done about, although its control 
now meant much to the welfare of future generations. 

This was listened to by 60 engineers and friends. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

L. A. Duchastel, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

On January 25th, Mr. J. K. Sexton presented a paper 
illustrated by slides on Hydro-Electric Work in Bolivia. 
Having resided for almost three years in Bolivia, the speaker 
gave a very vivid description of the construction of hydro 
plants Under very peculiar conditions. Through the courtesy 
of Mr. Krug a motion picture taken in Bolivia was also 
shown. 

The Annual Branch Smoker was held on February 1st 
and was a pronounced success, over 400 members attending. 
The reception committee, under the chairmanship of C. R. 
Lindsey, provided a very interesting and entertaining pro- 
gramme. 

Mr. M. S. Layton spoke to the branch on February 8th 
on Welding Rods and Their Coatings, describing the 
earlier types of welding wire and its evolution, discussing 
the various types now in use, the mechanism of coatings 
and their effect. 

On February 15th the branch was fortunate in hearing 
an address by Mr. W. F. Hosford, vice-president of the 
Western Electric Co., Ltd. on Some Problems and 
Responsibilities of Industrial Management. The 
speaker referred to the modern methods of management 
adopted by his company and gave the audience food for 
thought which was amply demonstrated by the ensuing 
discussion. 

Mr. Paul Sise, president of the Northern Electric Co. 
Ltd., presided at the meeting. 

The subject of Co-axial Cable Systems was treated on 
Feb. 20th by Mr. M. E. Strieby of the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company under the chairmanship of H. J. 
Vennes. The speaker gave an illustrated talk on Co-axial 
Cables and their merits for broad band transmission, 
touching upon the problem of television transmission. Pre- 
vious to the meeting a courtesy dinner was given at the 
restaurant of the Bell Telephone Company. 
Junior Section 

Gilbert Coupienne, a student of the Ecole Polytechnique, 
presented a paper on Gravel Road Surface Stabilization 
before the Junior Section on February 5th. This paper, 
dealing with principles and practice of road surface treat- 
ment, was illustrated by moving pictures supplied by the 
Brunner Mond Canada, Ltd. 

On February 19th the Junior Section heard two addresses 
by students, Architecture in Engineering by Stuart 
McNab and Examination of Welded Structures by 



Fernand Marchand. Both of these papers were very inter- 
esting and well presented. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

Geo. E. Griffiths, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
J. G. Welsh, a.m.e.i.c. - - - Branch News Editor 

On the evening of January 31st, the Niagara Peninsula 
Branch held a dinner meeting at the General Brock Hotel, 
Niagara Falls, Ont. Following the dinner, Chairman A. W. F. 
McQueen conducted a brief business session during which 
a nominating committee for the new executive was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Mr. C. G. Moon, Mr. L. C. McMurtry, 
Mr. G. H. Wood, Mr. W. R. Manock and Mr. Paul Buss. 

Mr. H. G. Acres introduced the speaker of the evening, 
Wing Commander D. G. Joy. Mr. E. L. Cousins, General 
Manager of the Toronto Harbour Commission, was sched- 
uled to give an illustrated talk on Airports, but due to 
illness was unable to attend. However, Mr. Cousins was 
good enough to send his slides and motion pictures and 
Wing Commander D. G. Joy, District Inspector of Civil 
Aviation, delivered the address. 

Briefly outlining the problems in airport construction, 
Wing Commander Joy pointed out that by careful study 
of topographical maps suitable sites were chosen, convenient 
as possible to the municipality, and such that a minimum 
of grading would be required. After a site was definitely deter- 
mined, came the problem of grading a large soil area. The 
thin cuts or fills and large amounts of dirt to be moved 
have been a real test for contractors and designers of grading 
machinery. For drainage a very rapid run-off is required, 
and since the maximum permissible gradient is very flat, 
a great amount of underdrainage is required. At Malton 
the header drain is fifty-four inches in diameter! Then 
there is the matter of surfacing. The runways should be 
hard surfaced, the construction being similar to highway 
work, but necessarily much wider. Traction is not quite 
so important, but it must not be slippery or glossy when 
wet or dry. Above all there must be no loose material to 
be thrown around. The remaining surface of the field must 
be level and preferably sodded. Finally, there is the matter 
of lighting. Floodlights have not been found very satis- 
factory due to shadows and glare. Runway markers prove 
to be the best but those flush with the ground are difficult 
to keep clear, and those elevated are dangerous. 

With respect to Toronto, after a great deal of research 
work, and consideration of various sites, it was decided to 
have a field at the island for use in good weather, this being 
particularly convenient to the business section of the city, 
and a larger field at Malton for use in bad weather. This 
latter field is to be equipped with every known safety 
device and thus provide a safe terminal in any type of 
weather for that section of the province. It was worthy of 
note that due to low elevation and unobstructed exposed 
position of the island airport the snow does not pile up 
and melts very quickly. At Malton more trouble has been 
experienced with snow. Auxiliary runways of compacted 
snow, which have proved so satisfactory further north, 
were unsuccessful there, so efforts will be made to keep the 
runways scraped clear. 

A large number of slides were shown of the construction 
work at Malton and at the island. In both cases the run- 
ways were made one hundred and fifty feet wide, with a 
crushed stone base, a thick layer of coarse aggregate asphalt 
and a surface layer of fine aggregate asphalt. White crushed 
marble was used for the central strip and a strip on either 
side similarly treated, the latter, however, was intermittent 
so that the pilot could easily distinguish the centre of the 
runway. The runways at the Island are at present three 
thousand feet long and by filling in on the lake side these 
will soon be lengthened. The bay provides excellent facilities 
for seaplanes. 

Views of the hangars and administration buildings proved 
interesting. The administration buildings while small, are 
modernistic and attractive and will be ample for several 
years, at which time further needs will be better estimated. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



141 



Several reels of motion pictures of many of the major 
airports in the United States were very enlightening. 

The keen interest taken in this subject was indicated by 
the number of questions asked Wing Commander Joy. At 
this time he pointed out that whereas once two hours was 
all that was expected of a motor without a complete over- 
haul, now they are guaranteed up to one thousand hours. 
Also that the average pilot experiences no difficulty, and 
no undue stresses are imposed on the plane in landing at 
angles of twenty degrees or more from a line directly into 
the wind. 

Mr. C. G. Moon moved a hearty vote of thanks to 
Wing Commander Joy for his courtesy in filling in, and for 
his excellent talk. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



R. K. Odell, a.m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



At one of the most largely attended noon luncheons of 
the Ottawa branch held at the Chateau Laurier on Feb- 
ruary 1 the members and their friends listened to an account 
of progress made to date and future plans of the British 
Commonwealth Air Training Plan. W. H. Munro, newly- 
elected chairman of the branch, presided for the first time 
since his election and extended a welcome on behalf of the 
Institute to fourteen of the high ranking officers of the 
Royal Air Force now in Ottawa in connection with the 
plan, who attended the luncheon. Officers of the Royal 
Canadian Air Force were also present in considerable 
number. 

The address, Canada Spreads Her Wings, was given 
by the press liaison officer of the R.C.A.F., Flying Officer 
Fergus Grant, who traced the course of the Force since its 
creation as the C.A.F. about twenty years ago, and referred 
to the various steps leading up to the commencement of 
the air training plan. 

At the conclusion of the address Group Captain D. D. 
Banting, of the Royal Air Force party who attended, was 
called upon and expressed his appreciation on behalf of 
his brother officers of all that had been done for them by 
Canadians. The officers had previously been introduced 
individually to the gathering. 

QUEBEC BRANCH 

Paul Vincent, a.m.e.i.c. - Secrétaire-Trésorier 

A l'ouverture de la saison 1939-40 la Section de Québec 
présentait une soirée de films parlants sur des sujets techni- 
ques variés. La réunion avait lieu à l'amphithéâtre de 
l'Ecole Technique de Québec le 18 décembre, et elle fut 
bien réussie. 

Sous la rubrique Excursions in Science, les films de la 
Canadian General Electric Company renseignèrent l'audi- 
toire sur la fabrication des lampes électriques, sur l'utilisa- 
tion de la cellule photo-électrique pour le triage des ma- 
tériaux et sur différentes applications de l'électricité. 

C'est ainsi qu'il fut possible de voir comment la voix 
humaine peut actionner un train électrique, comment les 
courants électriques les plus faibles peuvent s'évaluer au 
moyen d'un tube super sensitif et comment l'épaisseur des 
couches de peinture peut se mesurer électriquement, per- 
mettant un travail plus économique et plus perfectionné. 

Science of Seeing nous a démontré la grande importance 
de nos yeux. La perte d'un membre se remplace artificielle- 
ment sans trop d'inconvénients, les fausses dents ne nous 
empêchent pas de manger, mais avec un oeil artificiel, 
l'on ne voit pas. 

On constate que 20 pour cent chez les enfants ont 
une vue défectueuse, 40 pour cent chez les adultes et 95 
pour cent chez les vieux. La moyenne générale des vues 
défectueuses est donc de 50 pour cent par suite du manque 
de bonne illumination. 

Comparativement, le soleil nous fournit 1 ,000 chandelles 
(foot-candles) à l'extérieur et 200 chandelles près d'une 
fenêtre à l'intérieur, tandis que le soir à la lumière artificielle 
d'une lampe électrique de 40 watts nous nous contentons 



de 5 chandelles seulement. C'est réellement un pauvre 
éclairage quand on constate que pour lire, l'illumination 
moyenne requise est supérieure à 100 chandelles. Suivant 
ces films, il faut assez de lumière, et éviter les contrastes et 
les reflets. Si nous désirons nous éclairer pour voir con- 
fortablement nous devons donc utiliser le nombre de lampes 
nécessaires pour conserver notre vue et non la détruire. 

Pour terminer la soirée, les membres furent mis au 
courant d'un nouveau type de garde-fous pour nos routes, 
présentés par la V. S. Tuthell Spring & Convex Steel High- 
way Guards. Il y était démontré que ces gardes ont l'avan- 
tage d'être plus durables, plus flexibles, de réparation plus 
facile et plus rapide que le bois dans une proportion de 80 
per cent. L'on pouvait voir une auto enfoncer les gardes 
en bois à une vitesse de 8 milles à l'heure, tandis que le 
système nouveau résistait à un véhicule frappant les gardes 
à une vitesse de 40 à 50 milles à l'heure sous des angles de 
10 à 35 degrés. 

On a aussi constaté que la carosserie en subit des avaries 
insignifiantes et que le conducteur ou les occupants s'en 
tirent avec de légères secousses, contrairement à ce qui 
arrive avec les gardes-fous ordinaires. Le président de la 
Section, Monsieur Méthé, présidait l'assemblée. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

F. L. Black, Jr. e. i.e., Secretary-Treasurer 

Over 60 members of the new Brunswick Association of 
Professional Engineers and the local branch of the Institute 
attended a joint dinner at the Admiral Beatty Hotel on 
January 18th, 1940. H. F. Morrisey, Chairman of the 
Saint John Branch, introduced President McKiel and 
thanked him heartily at the close of his address. Other 
speakers included John N. Flood, who proposed the toast 
to the Association of Professional Engineers; G. A. Vander- 
voort, President of the Association, who responded to this 
toast; and C. B. Crosdale, who proposed the toast to the 
Institute. Dean McKiel, who is the first Maritimer to hold 
the presidency of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
responded to the toast to the Institute. 

"We are prepared to accept the good things of democracy; 
are we as prepared to accept the responsibilities ? If not, 
I see that the democracies are in for very black days." 
This was the keynote of President McKiel's address on the 
place of the engineer in national life. 

Stressing the important part played by engineers in the 
national war effort, as well as in peace time, the speaker 
exhorted fellow engineers to recognize their responsibilities 
in the social and economic life of the country as well as in 
the material and professional spheres. 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

J. J. White, m.e.i.c, Secretary-Treasurer 

On Monday, December 18th, 1939, the Saskatchewan 
Branch held its monthly meeting in the Kitchener Hotel, 
Regina, when fifty members assembled at 6.15 p.m. for 
dinner which preceded the meeting. 

J. E. Thorn, jr. E.i.c, was the chairman of the meeting 
which was devoted to a general discussion of the Education, 
Training and Experience of the Young Engineer. 

The discussion was led by several of the younger members 
of the organization and proved to be very instructive and 
interesting. This meeting was held as a result of the in- 
spiration left by the President on his western trip, last fall. 

There was a great deal of discussion by the older mem- 
bers following the talks prepared by the younger members 
of the organization. 

On motion of Mr. H. S. Carpenter, a hearty vote of 
thanks was extended to the younger members for their 
effort in making the meeting the success it proved to be. 

The first meeting of the 1940 schedule of the Saskatche- 
wan Branch was held on Monday, January 22nd, in the 
Kitchener Hotel, Regina. The Chairman of the Papers and 
Meetings Committee, D. D. Low, had arranged a Ladies' 



142 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Night and approximately one hundred sat down to dinner, 
which preceded the meeting. 

P. E. Kirkpatrick acted as Chairman and introduced 
S. G. Bard, Field Collector and Preparator of the Provincial 
Museum, as the speaker of the evening, his subject being 
Nature Appreciation. 

Mr. Bard went on to discuss the value of birds from an 
economic and aesthetic point of view, tracing to evolution 
of birds from the toothed varieties, down to the present-day 
birds that have changed but little in the last million years. 
Migration routes were shown and examples of the various 
types of birds following these air lanes. It is interesting to 
note some of these migrants travel several thousand miles 
from their winter to summer homes. 

Motion pictures were shown of a pair of barn swallows. 
These swallows were first trapped at Regina Beach, Sas- 
katchewan, in 1937 and have come to this barn each summer 
since. To date they have raised twenty-five young and have 
travelled approximately sixty-three thousand miles. 

Changes were also noted in the migration of birds, more 
especially water birds. The colonial nesters are migrating 
when the lakes have not seriously been affected by the 
drought. The true prairies in Saskatchewan no longer house 
the great colonies of Pelicans. The few seen during the 
summer floating about like small white sailboats are non- 
breeders. The breeding colonies are re-established on islands 
in our forest areas. Ducks for the past two seasons have 
travelled south along our provincial boundaries. These areas 
have experienced unusual rains during the past few seasons. 

Sanctuaries were created years ago to help maintain our 
abundant waterfowl. The drought has seriously affected 
many of these and with co-operation of various bodies new 
ones will likely be established. Waterfowl has decreased 
through various agencies, perhaps the most serious are the 
drying up of nesting areas, lack of proper nesting cover has 
increased the damage done by predators and continued 
shooting. 

The value of hawks and owls is seldom understood. The 
shooting of our slow flying hawks is one of the most serious 
mistakes. These rodent destroyers are among the most val- 
uable agents we have. Object lessons could be learned from 
mistakes made in various parts of the world. Rodents de- 
stroy great quantities of vegetation and the gophers are 
very destructive where grain crops are concerned. It has 
been estimated our gopher eating hawks are worth ninety 
dollars to us here on the prairies. 

The camera is serving as a conservationist in the fact 
that a number of sportsmen prefer to show pictures of 
"how it got away" rather than a "bag". There is no question 
that taking a picture of birds, animals, etc., requires more 
patience and skill than does shooting. Color photography 
has opened up an entirely new and fascintaing field. 

The talk was illustrated with pictures taken by Mr. Bard 
in motion pictures, stills and color photography. 

On motion of Col. A. C. Garner a hearty vote of thanks 
was extended to the speaker of the evening for his excellent 
discourse. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 



O. A. Evans, Ji-.e.i.c. 

N. C. COWIE, Jr. E. I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The annual meeting for the year was held in the Windsor 
Hotel on Friday evening, December 22nd, 1939, when 27 
members and guests sat down to supper at 7.15 p.m. The 
branch was honoured with the presence of Wm. Meldrum 
of Lethbridge, Alta., who later in the evening along with 
his son, A. H. Meldrum, delighted the branch with some 
piano selections. The branch was also honoured by a number 
of tap dances by two members of Miss Florence Pickering's 
dancing class. The business portion of the meeting began 
shortly after eight o'clock with the reading of the minutes 
of the previous meeting, which were adopted as read. 

The accumulated bills and correspondence of the month 
were then dealt with. The preliminary business of the 
evening being over, the Chairman called for the reports of 



the year. The Secretary's report for the year 1939 was re- 
ceived and adopted. The Secretary reported a general in- 
crease both in membership and finance. W. S. Wilson and 
C. W. Holman were appointed auditors for the year 1939. 
The reports of the various committees were received. Wm. 
Seymour thanked J. L. Lang, the branch's permanent 
entertainment chairman, for his efforts on behalf of the 
branch. He also moved a vote of thanks to the entertainers 
of the evening. 

C. Neufeld reported the results of the election of officers 
for the year 1940. Chairman A. E. Pickering then gave the 
chair to the new chairman, H. J. Leitch, who remarked that 
the branch should pay more attention to the topics of 
general interest. C. Stenbol moved that the meeting be 
adjourned. Later a social evening was held where items 
of general and local interest were discussed. 

The first general meeting for the year 1940 got away to 
a flying start on Friday, January 26th, when 39 members 
and guests sat down to luncheon at 6.45 p.m. in the Windsor 
Grill Room. 

The business portion of the meeting began at 8.00 p.m. 
The minutes of previous meeting were read and adopted 
on motion of A. H. Russell and R. S. McCormick. C. Senbol 
and K. G. Ross moved that the bills be paid. W. S. Wilson 
brought in the auditor's report for the year 1939. The books 
were found correct. The members then introduced their 
respective guests. 

Chairman H. J. Leitch then introduced the speaker of 
the evening, Mr. George Ponsford, Director of the Ontario 
Provincial Air Service, who had as his topic, Modern Air- 
craft Development. 

Mr. Ponsford stated that the aeroplane as a transport 
and a military weapon had come to stay; in fact it was one 
of the greatest defensive and offensive weapons in the world 
to-day. He paid tribute to the designers who have made 
the aeroplane what it is to-day and to the pilots who have 
died in the course of aeroplane development. 

The modern aeroplane is becoming streamlined. One im- 
portant item was flush riveting. It was found that rivet 
heads made a tremendous drag on the plane. Another 
important article was the retractable undercarriage, that 
is to say, the undercarriage or landing gear could be brought 
up into the plane after taking off; thus eliminating drag 
while in flight. Another factor which had made for stability 
in aircraft design was the wind tunnel. Models could be 
tested in it under conditions which approach actualities 
and faulty designs could be discarded. There has also been 
a tremendous development in engines. New alloys have been 
found which will stand a greater strain and are lighter. 
Thus a bigger power plant can be installed in a plane of 
the same wing spread. In the engine an interesting innova- 
tion was stellite faced valves which will stand greater heat 
and higher temperatures. Other new features are better 
fuels, superchargers, etc. 

At first, he said, all planes had wooden propellers but 
it was impossible to change the pitch. Then the metal 
propeller came in with the pitch sets for the maximum r.p.m 
A further development was a propeller in which the pitch 
could be changed. It made for an easier take-off. A still 
later development was a constant speed propeller in which 
the pitch changes with the power need; however, it has a 
limited range of 16 to 17 deg. and at high diving speeds it 
acted as a brake. 

One interesting development for the comfort of air 
passengers was the supercharged cabin which enabled the 
plane to fly at altitudes of 20,000 ft. with the air in the 
cabin at pressures which corresponds to lower altitudes 
of 8,000 ft. and so. 

Mr. Ponsford illustrated his address with pictures of new 
planes and a constant speed propeller. 

K. G. Ross moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Ponsford for 
his excellent address. 

C. Stenbol moved the meeting be adjourned. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



143 



Library Notes 

ADDITIONS TO THE 
LIBRARY 



TECHNICAL BOOKS 
Elements of Steam Power Engineering: 

By J. B. 0. Sneeden. Longmans, Green and 
Co. Toronto, 1939. 255 pp.,illus.,5by7}4 
in., cloth, $1.50. 

The Physical Examination of Metals; 
Vol. I. Optical Methods: 

By Bruce Chalmers. Arnold, London, 1939. 
181 pp., 5 l A by 8% in., cloth, $4.20 

U.S. Bureau of Beclamation: 

Boulder Canyon Project: Bulletin Three, 
Model Tests of Boulder Dam; Bulletin Four, 
Stress Studies for Boulder Dam. 

REPORTS 
American Concrete Institute: 

Reinforced concrete design handbook. 
Aluminum Research Laboratories: 

Tests of 28-foot span aluminun alloy 
trusses by R. L. Templin, E. C. Hartmann, 
H. N. Hill. 

Bell Telephone System: High Definition 
Television; Improved Microtome Tech- 
nique for Soft Metals; Dielectric Measure- 
ments in the Study of Dispersions in 
Rubber; Frequency-Modulation: Theory 
of the Feedback Receiving Circuit; Sur- 
vey of Magnetic Materials and Applica- 
tions in the Telephone System; Impe- 
dance Properties of Electron Streams; 
Plastic Materials in Telephone Use; 
Room Noise at Telephone Locations; 
The Self-diffusion of Copper; Simultan- 
eous Ionosphere Observations; Cold- 
cathode Gas-filled Tubes as Circuit 
Elements; Inductive Co-ordination with 
Series Sodium Highway Lighting Cir- 
cuits; Electron Diffraction Studies of 
Thin Films; The Automatic Synthesis of 
Speech. 

Canada Department of Labour: 

Labour organization in Canada (for the 
year 1938); Report for fiscal year ending 
March 31, 1939. 

Canada Department of Mines and Re- 
sources, Bureau of Mines: 

Inverness County Coalfield {Physical and 
chemical survey of coals from Canadian 
collieries). December, 1939, Milling Plants 
in Canada. 

Canada Department of Public Works: 

Report for the year ended March 31, 1939. 

Canada Department of Trade and Com- 
merce: 

Canada, 1940, Official handbook of present 
conditions and recent progress. 25c. 

Canada Department of Transport: 

Annual report for year ended March 31, 
1939. 

Edison Electric Institute: 

Combustion, 1939 (Report of the Combus- 
tion Subcommittee of the Prime Movers 
Committee); Electric metal-melting fur- 
naces (Report of the Industrial Power and 
Heating Committee); Cable operation, 
1938 (Report of the Transmission and 
Distribution Committee). 

Engineers' Council for Professional 
Development : 

Present status and trends of engineering 
education in the United States (a report 
prepared by Dugald C. Jackson). 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



Great Britain Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research National 
Physical Laboratory: 

Notes on screw gauges, 4th éd., 1938, 4s. 6d. 

Smithsonian Institution: 

Annual report for the year ended June 30, 
1938. 

New Jersey : 

Road mileage survey. 

U.S. Department of the Interior Geolog- 
ical Survey : Geology and Fuel Resources 
of the Southern Part of the Oklahoma 
Coal Field, Pt. 4. The Howe-Wilburton 
district, Latimer and Le Flore counties; 
Gravel and Sand Deposits of Eastern 
Maryland; Geology and Coal Resources 
of the Minot Region, North Dakota; 
Geophysical Abstracts 95; October- 
December, 1938; Transit Traverse in 
Missouri, Pt. 1, Southeastern Missouri, 
1903-37; The Mineral Industry of Alaska 
in 1938. (Bulletins 874-D, 906-A, 906-B, 
909-D, 916-A, 917-A). Water Levels 
and Artesian Pressure in Observation 
Wells in the United States in 1938; Sur- 
face Water Supply of the United States, 
1938, Pt. 4, St. Lawrence River Basin; 
Pt. 10, the Great Basin, Pt. 11, Pacific 
Slope Basins in California, Pt. 13, Snake 
River Basin, Pt. 14, Pacific Slope Basins 
in Oregon and Lower Columbia River 
Basin. (Water-Supply Papers 845, 854, 
860, 861, 863, 864.) 

University of London: 

Calendar, 1938-39. 

BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the Engin- 
eering Societies Library of New York. As 
yet the books are not in the Institute 
Library, but inquiries will be welcomed 
at headquarters, or may be sent direct 
to the publishers. 

A.S.T.M. STANDARDS on ELECTRICAL 
INSULATING MATERIALS. Speci- 
fications, Methods of Testing. 

Prepared by Committee D-9. Oct., 1939, 
Philadelphia, American Society for Testing 
Materials. 309 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., paper, $2.00 (A.S.T.M. 
members, $1.50). 
In addition to the current report of the 
responsible committee, this pamphlet con- 
tains eleven standard and eighteen tentative 
methods of testing for electrical insulating 
materials, and also three specifications. In 
addition, there are ten specifications covering 
certain rubber and textile products and 
methods of testing shellac. 

CAST METAL HANDBOOK, 1940 ed. 

Chicago, III., American Foundry men' s 
Association, 1939. 532 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $5.00. 
This revision of the 1935 handbook is in- 
tended, as before, to provide designers and 
users of castings with up-to-date, correct 
information on the properties and applica- 
tions of cast metals. The first section consists 
of recommendations to designers of castings, 
the second of recommendations to buyers. 
Succeeding sections give information upon 
the properties and uses of east iron, malleable 
cast iron, cast steel, and the principal non- 
ferrous casting alloys. 



The CONSTRUCTION of ROADS and 
PAVEMENTS 

By T. R. Agg. 5 ed. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., New York and London, 1940. 483 
pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9Yi x 6 
in., cloth, $4.00. 

This text is intended to be a "concise pre- 
sentation of approved practice in the con- 
struction of roads and pavements and of the 
principles involved." Questions of adminis- 
tration, finance, plans, design and surfacing 
are covered comprehensively. The new edition 
is entirely rewritten and much new material 
introduced. 



ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION 

By A. L. Albert. 2 ed. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York, 1940. 534 PP-, Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, $5.00. 

This textbook covers the whole field of 
electrical communication by wire and wireless 
transmission of code and speech. The various 
divisions of telegraphy, telephony and radio 
are not treated as isolated subjects, but their 
interrelations in providing an adequate, 
economical communication service are pre- 
sented. This edition has been revised and en- 
larged, and the bibliographies attached to the 
chapters have been brought up to date. 

ELEMENTARY CALCULUS 

By G. W. Caunt. Clarendon Press, Oxford 
(England); Oxford University Press, New 
York, 1939. 388 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 
8 x5 in., cloth, $2.75. 

Both differential and integral calculus, with 
their geometrical applications, are covered in 
this adaptation from the author's larger 
treatise. Polar co-ordinates, centroids, curva- 
ture and Taylor's theorem are included, but 
partial differentiation and differential equa- 
tions are omitted. There are many examples 
to be worked, with the answers grouped at 
the back of the book. 



ENGINEERING DRAWING, Practice and 
Theory 

By I. N. Carter. Scranton, Pa., Inter- 
national Textbook Co., 1939. 264 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, ll\k x 8% 
in., cloth, $2.50. 

This textbook presents the subject in a 
novel way, by combining descriptive geometry 
and engineering drawing in a single course of 
study which thus covers both theory and 
practice. Considerable saving of time by 
elimination of duplication of classroom work 
is claimed. The book covers the fundamental 
principles of machine, structural and topo- 
graphic drafting, according to accepted 
drafting-room methods. 

EXCURSIONS in SCIENCE 

Edited by N. B. Reynolds and E. L. 
Manning. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Whittle- 
sey House, New York, 1939. 307 pp., 
8x6 in., cloth, $2.50. 

Thirty scientists present, in simple lan- 
guage, stories of their respective sciences, from 
organic chemistry to atomic physics, from 
archeology to astronomy. The book is based 
on a series of radio programmes sponsored by 
the General Electric Company. 



144 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 



MAN with science degree, chemistry, engineering and 
practical knowledge of steam boiler plant operation. 
Strong personality and progressive nature are 
required to sell the technical service and product of 
this company. Apply to Box No. 2003-V. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER OR CHEMIST who has 
majored in Organic Chemistry with a few years 
experience in Laboratory or Factory in connection 
with developing rubber compounds: knowledge of, 
or experience in, allied synthetics desirable, In apply- 
ing please state age, details of educational background 
and experience, salary desired and availability. Box 
No.2013-V. 

EXPERIENCED SHOPMAN with technical training 
required for general shop supervision of metal work- 
ing plant. Apply to Box No. 2038-V. 



CIVIL SERVICE VACANCY 

Competition No. 40-235. — Applications are invited 
from male residents of the Province of Nova Scotia, 
for the position of Junior Engineer, Department of 
Public Works, Halifax, N.S. 

Time Limit: Application forms, obtainable at the 
Post Offices in the cities and larger towns, the Offices 
of the Employment Service of Canada, or from the 
Civil Service Commission, Ottawa, properly filled out, 
must be filed with the Civil Service Commission, 
Ottawa, not later than March 18, 1940. 

Salary: In the event of permanent appointment, the 
initial salary of $1,800 per annum may be increased 
upon recommendation for meritorious service and in- 
creased usefulness, at the rate of $120 per annum, until 
a maximum of $2,160 has been reached. 

Duties: To inspect construction work in progress 
and lay out work according to plans ; to supervise dredg- 
ing operations and to make soundings; to make surveys; 
to calculate quantities and estimate cost of work; to 
prepare detail drawings, plans and specifications in 
accordance with instructions; and to perform other 
related work as required. 

Qualifications Required: Graduation in engineer- 
ing from a university of recognized standing, with one 
year of experience in engineering work, or graduation 
from the Royal Military College of Canada with two 
years of engineering experience; junior membership in 
The Engineering Institute of Canada or membership in 
a provincial Association of Professional Engineers, or 
professional qualifications which would permit of such 
membership; good judgment, and ability to deal with 
men. 

Age Limit: Preference will be given to qualified 
applicants who are not more than approximately 35 
years of age on the last day for the receipt of appli- 
cations. 

Nature of Examination: A rating on education and 
experience will be given from the sworn statements, 
supporting documents, and other evidence submitted 
by applicants on and with their application forms. 
Candidates must give full particulars regarding their 
technical training and experience, especially as they 
bear on the qualifications for and duties of this position. 
An oral examination may be given, if necessary in the 
opinion of the Commission. No examination fee is 
required. 

Eligible List: An eligible list, valid for a period of 
one year, for temporary and permanent appointment, 
may be established. 

Note: Future vacancies in positions of Junior 
Engineer, Department of Public Works, in the Province 
of Nova Scotia, may be filled by assignment from the 
eligible list which will be established as a result of 
this competition. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

INDUSTRIAL EXECUTIVE, technically trained, 
16 years experience in engineering, purchasing, pro- 
duction, manufacturing, technical sales, merchandise, 
general administration, and industrial relations. 
Box No. 185-W. 

ELECTRICAL AND CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc. 
Elee. '29, b.sc. Civil '33, jr.E.i.c. Age 33. Experience 
includes four months with Can. Gen. E!ec. Co., 
approximately three years in engineering office of 
large electrical manufacturing company in Montreal, 
the last six months of which were spent as com- 
mercial engineer, also experience in surveying and 
about two years highway construction Year and a 
half employed in electrical repair. Best of references. 
Apply to Box No. 693-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, u.a. (Cantab.). A.M.Inst. 
ce., a. M. e. i.e. Age 35. Married. Experienced general 
construction, reinforced concrete, roads, hydro- 
electric design and construction, surveys. Apply 
to Box No. 751-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, jr.E.i.c, Technical 
graduate, married, two children. Thirteen years 
experience design of steam boiler plants, heating, 
ventilating, air conditioning, piping layouts, esti- 
mates, specifications, alBo sales and general engineer- 
ing. Available on short notice. Box No. 850-W. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the' Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



EMPLOYERS! 



The Institute's Employment Service has on file the records of many young 
men graduating this spring in all the branches of engineering. Most of these 
graduates have had some early engineering experience during their vacations. 

In recent weeks the demand for engineers has risen to a point where a 
scarcity has developed; therefore, we strongly recommend that employers 
arrange now for any extra help that they may require permanently or for 
the summer. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.a.sc. General Elec- 
tric test course, induction motor and D.C. machine 
design. Now employed in minor executive capacity. 
Has also had experience as instrumentman on high- 
way construction. Wants opportunity to serve where 
technical training can be used to better advantage. 
Apply to Box No. 993-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, b.a.bc, a.m.b.i.c. Eight 
years experience in shop practices, field erection, 
draughting, design and estimating. Advanced training 
in Industrial Management. Would like to work with 
an industrial engineering firm or act as an assistant 
to a manufacturing executive to gain further training 
n industrial leadership. Married. Age 32. Apply 
to Box No. 1543-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc., s.e.i.c. Married. Six 
months surveying; mill site; water supply, power 
line location, earthwork, drainage, topographic. 
Has given field instruction in surveying. Three 
months bridge maintenance, asphalt paving inspec- 
tion in two provinces. Five months draughting. 
Excellent references. Speaks some French and 
Spanish. Will go anywhere. Available on two weeks 
notice. Apply to Box No. 1860-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc. '25; A.M.B.I.C. Fifteen years 
extensive general experience now desires permanent 
industrial or municipal connection. Experience in- 
cludes surveying and mapping; highway construc- 
tion; construction, operation and maintenance of 
wharves, dredged channels, water supply and sewer- 
age systems, miscellaneous plant buildings, rein- 
forced concrete structures. Executive background 
with experience at purchasing and office manage- 
ment. Available at short notice. Box No. 1919-W. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc. (Manitoba '34) 
A.M.E.i.c Married, Canadian. Experience includes 
year and half with British electrical firm in England 
on apprenticeship course and erection work. Three 
years as sales engineer of wide range of electrical 
apparatus. Work included draughting and outside 
erection of diesel driven generating equipment, 
etc., also draughting and layout design. Experienced 
in office routine and correspondence and can meet 
public. References are available and will consider 
any location. Box No. 2022-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc (Tor. '34). Age 27. 
Single. Two years experience with well known 
firm of consulting engineers in surveying, water- 
works and sewer design and construction and 
municipal engineering. Three and one half years 
experience in the design of mining machinery of 
all kinds including sales engineering work in the 
mining districts of Northern Ontario and Quebec 
Well experienced in structural and mechanical 
detailing. References. Apply to Box No. 2041-W. 



SALES ENGINEER, fifteen years experience in sales 
and sales management, oil burners, heating, indus- 
trial heavy oil burners and air conditioning equip- 
ment. McGill graduate. Apply Box No. 2046-W. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, graduate N.S. Tech. College 
(Civil '38) — 13 months experience with Geodetic 
Survey in field, 6 months taking inventory of elec- 
trical distribution system for utility evaluation, 2 
months office appraisal for same, 8 months hydro- 
electric design, including drafting plans for dam, 
spillway, tail race and power house of reinforced 
concrete, 4 months general maintenance work in- 
cluding drawing plans for warehouses and repair 
jobs. Would accept position anywhere in Canada. 
Age 23. Good health. Jr.E.i.c. Single, British 
Nationality. Box No. 2069-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc. (Alta. '36). 
s.e.i.c Canadian, age 25, single. Six months general 
surveying, including plane table, level and transit 
work. Experience in large western industrial plant 
includes six months as shift engineer, one year as 
electrician, eighteen months as assistant plant 
engineer. Work included draughting, design, estim- 
ates and specifications for plant layouts, conveying 
equipment, etc. Also some experience with produc- 
tion work. Desires permanent position with future. 
Good references available and will consider any 
location. Box No. 2071-W. 

PHYSICAL METALLURGIST, M.S., jr.E.i.c, a.s.m. 
Age 24, single, presently employed. Wide experience 
with large steel company in all types of metallo- 
graphic testing, investigation of complaints, com- 
mercial heat treatment. Familiar with steel mill 
operation and production of automotive, alloy 
forging, rail and structural steels. Box No. 2080-W 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, B.Eng. Mech., n.s.t.c 
. '35, a.m.ei.c 8 mos. hwys. constr. One year survey- 
ing anrjj mapping, one year lecturing in mathematics, 
18 mos. engr. in charge of surveys and constr. 
Writing and speaking ability. Particularly in- 
terested in specializing. Single and a* present em- 
ployed. 2083 -W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.e. (n.s.t.c '36), 
s.e.i.c. Age 25. Married, no children. One year's 
experience electrical installation, operation and main- 
tenance of power house, motors, generators, alter- 
nators, transformers, switching gear, underground 
cables, airport field lighting, conduit wiring, house 
wiring and lighting at Newfoundland Airport. One 
and a half year'sexperienceinmanufacturingplantin 
responsible position including about six months in 
official capacity. References. Location immaterial. 
Available on about two weeks notice. Box No.2085-W . 

COST ENGINEER, b.a.sc. Age 29. General experi- 
ence covers drafting, surveying, estimating and 
accounting. Special training in costing and manage- 
ment with successful experience in this work for the 
last two years Wishes to contact construction or 
manufacturing company having good opportunities 
for a technically trained cost man. Apply Box No. 
2087-Wt 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER, b.a.sc, a.m.e.i.c. 
Age 37, married. Experienced in all phases of air- 
craft design and production. Desires position of 
responsibility where training can be used to better 
advantage. Apply Box 2126-W. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



145 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Application for Admission and for Transfer 



February 29th, 1940 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing a 
concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of 
his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
April, 1940. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



'The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least thirty-five years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in lome branch of engineering for at least twelve years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office, or a term of instruction in 
a school of engineering recognized by the Council. The term of twelve years may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years in the case of a candidate 
for election who has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. 
In every caBe the candidate shall have held a position in which he had responsible 
charge for at least five years as an engineer qualified to design, direct or report on 
engineering projects. The occupancy of a chair as a professor in a faculty of applied 
science of engineering, after the candidate has attained the age of thirty years, shall 
be considered aB responsible charge. 

An Associate Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have 
been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may 
include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruc- 
tion in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate 
for election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty -seven years, shall be considered as 
professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
olass of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission aB were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

ANGUS— HARRY HOLBORN, of 1221 Bay St., Toronto, Ont. Born at London, 
Ont., December, 1881; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1904; R.P.E. of Ont., 
1904-12; dftsman & designer with Canadian ingersoll Band., Westinghouse Machine 
Company, Western Electric Co., and Bethlehem Steel Co.; 1912-15, consltg. engr., 
Toronto; 1915-17, member of firm, MacMullen, Riley & Angus, New York & Tor- 
onto; 1919 to date, consltg. engr., Toronto, specializing on mechanical, electrical, 
ventilation, plumbing, and power plants for bldgs. 

References: A. H. Harkness, M. B. WatBOn, C. S. L. Hertsberg, R. E. Smythe, 
E. A. Cross. 

BARNARD— WILLIAM ALFRED CHARLES, of 40 Beachdale Ave., Toronto 
13, Ont. Born at Strood, Kent, England, Jan. 3rd, 1905; Educ: 3 evening terms at 
Central & Danforth Technical Schools, Toronto; 1919-26, ap'ticeship with Rolph, 
Stone, Clark Ltd., lithographers, learning all forms of lithographic art reproduction, 
and 1926-27, continued with same firm in similar work as journeyman dftsman. and 
artist; 1928 to date, asst. to the chief geographer, surveys branch, Dept. of Lands & 
Forests, Ontario Provincial Government, Toronto, Ont. (Applying for admission as 
an Affiliate). 

References: J. L. Morris, W. J. Thomson, J. M. Gibson, A. Hay, R. M. Smith. 

BONENFANT— EDMOND, of Duparquet, Que. Born at St. Bruno de Kamou- 
raska, Dec. 25th, 1909; Educ: 1926-29, Quebec Technical School— Diploma in 
Mechanics; 1939, I.C.S. Diploma in Inorganic Chemistry; 1928-30, and 1932-33, 
transitman on surveying party, M. Laberge, Montreal, and R. E. Joron, Chicoutimi; 
1934 to date, asst. chemist & metallurgist, and at present, asst. metallurgist & refinery 
operator, Beattie Gold Mines Ltd., Duparquet, Que. 

References P. Methe, A. V. Dumas, J. Dumont, R. E. Joron, A. Frigon. 

BOUCHER— OMER JOSEPH ROGER, of 6572 Louis-Hebert St., Montreal, 
Que. Born at Montreal, Dec 19th, 1914; Educ: B.A.Sc, Ecole Polytechnique, 
Montreal, 1937; R.P.E. of Que. With the Provincial Govt, as follows: 1937-38, 
Dept. of Trade & Commerce, 1938-39, Roads Dept., Oct. 1939 to Jan. 1940, Public 
Works Dept. 

References: A. Circe, T. J. Lafreniere, A. Duperron, S. A. Baulne, J. A. Lalonde, 
L. Trudel. 

BREBNER— KENNETH ALEXANDER, of Riverbend, Que. Born at Kingston, 
Ont., April 21st, 1891; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1914. R.P.E. of Ont.; 1914-16, 
inspecting shells, Imperial Munitions Board; 1916-27, dftsman., with the following 
companies, Dominion Bridge, Riordon Pulp, Canadian Bridge, Hay Foundry & Iron 
Works, Newark, N.J., Harris Structural Steel, New York; 1927-28, checker, Albert 
Smith's Sons, Irvington, N.J.; 1930-31, asst. engr., Good Roads Mach. Co., New 
York; 1928-29, struct'l. engr., Magor Car Co., Passaic, N.J.; 1937, designing engr., 
Bathurst Power & Paper Co., Bathurst, N.B.; 1937-38, chief dftsman., and Nov. 

1938 to date, plant engr., Price Bros & Co. Ltd., Riverbend, Que. 

References: G. F. Layne, S. J. Fisher, N. F. McCaghey, G. H. Kirby, A. Cunning- 
ham. 

DONALDSON— ADAM GILLESPIE, of Shaughnessy, Alta. Born at Lethbridge, 
Alta., Mar. 8th, 1909; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of Alta., 1933; 1928-32 (summers), Federal 
Coal Company; 1933-35, Cadillac Coal Company, 1934-35, as mine overman; 1935 
to date, mine supt., Lethbridge Collieries Ltd., Lethbridge, Alta. 

References: C. S. Donaldson, J. M. Campbell, G. S. Brown, C. S. Clendening, 
W. Meldrum. 

FORD— JOHN NORMAN, of Calgary, Alta. Born at Calgary, May 6th, 1909; 
Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1934; 1934-35, mtce., 1935-36, local mgr., 
Prairie Power Co., Regina; 1936-40, student engr., and at present, junior engr., 
Calgary Power Co. Ltd., Calgary. 

References: H. B. Le Bourveau, H. B. Sherman, J. McMillan, H. G. Thompson, 
H. J. McLean. 

FRASER— ROBERT, of Grand Mere, Que. Born at Sydney, N.S., Sept. 26th, 
1911; Educ: B. Eng. (Mech.), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1935; 1932-33 (6 mos.), rodman, 
gen. engrg. work, City of Sydney engrg. dept.; 1935 (5 mos), road inspr. in N.S. for 
Milton Hersey Co.; 1935 to date, with the Consolidated Paper Corporation, Lauren- 
tide Divn., Grand Mere, Que., as follows: 1935-36, heating & ventilating engr., 
1936-37, gen. mtce. engrg., 1937-38, paper-mill operating, 1938-39, asst. mill engr., 

1939 to date, operating engr. in paper mill. 

References: H. O. Keay, E. B. Wardle, W. B. Scott, H. G. Timmis, V. Jepsen. 

FRISCH— JOHN, of Riverbend, Que. Born at Oslo, Norway, Sept. 8th, 1886; 
Educ: Diploma in Mech'l. Engrg., College of Horton, Norway, 1906; 1907-14, dfts- 
man. on design of pulp & paper woodworking and hydraulic machy., 1914-17, chief 
dftsman., J. & A. Jensen and Dahl, Oslo; 1917-19, with Union Paper Mills of Norway, 
in consltg. capacity on mill plans in Russia; 1920-23, chief dftsman., P. B. Yates 
Mach. Co., Beloit, Wis. and Hamilton, Ont.; 1923-29, mill mgr., John Fenderson Co. 
Ltd.; 1929-39, mill engr., mech. supt., Can. International Paper Co. in complete 
charge of mtce. & constrn. work. At present, mech. supt., Price Bros. & Co Ltd., 
Riverbend, Que. 

References: S. J. Fisher, N. F. McCaghey, G. H. Kirby, G. F. Layne, A. H. 
Chisholm, R. P. Freeman, C. Bang. 

GALE— FREDERICK TYNER, of Calgary, Alta. Born at Macleod, Alta., Feb. 
6th, 1908; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1934; 1929-33 (summers), misc. 
office & outside work on bldg. constrn.; 1934, surveying, dept. of public works; 1935 
(6 mos.), df'ing. & engrg. saleB, Wilkinson & McLean Ltd., Calgary; 1935-36, 
serviceman, Canadian Utilities Ltd., Raymond; 1936 to date, junior engr., Calgary 
Power Co. Ltd., Calgary. 

References: G. H. Thompson, H. B. LeBourveau, J. McMillan, F. A. Brownie, 
B. W. Snyder. 

GENT— WILLIAM JAMES, of Newfoundland Airport, Nfld. Born at Trinity, 
Nfld., Nov. 22nd, 1910; Educ: B. Eng. (Elec), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1935; 1935-36, 
surveying, Land Settlement Board, St. John's, Nfld.; 1936-38, field engr., Hans 
Lundberg Ltd., Toronto; 1938 to date, power plant operator, Newfoundland Airport. 

References: F. C. Jewett, R. A. Bradley, K. R. Chestnut, D. Ross, G. H. Burchill. 

GRANICH— JOSEPH EDWARD, of 529 Clifton St., Winnipeg, Man. Born at 
Winnipeg, Dec. 20th, 1905; Educ: 1918-25, special courses, I.C.S. ; 1925-30, special 
studies, telegraphy, etc.; 1918-23, clerk, 1923-25, operator, 1925-30, supervisor, mul- 
tiplex dept., C. P. Communications; 1931-34, supervisor in charge grain quotation 
ticker plant, Winnipeg Grain Exchange; 1934 (7 mos.), with Northern Electric Co., 
C.P.R. and Teletype Corpn., engrB. re installn. of high speed quotation ticker system 
for Montreal Stock Exchange, also similar work in Vancouver. Also during 1934 
i/c ticker installns. in various cities throughout Canada; 1934-37, supervisor, ticker 
plant, Winnipeg Grain Exchange. At present, supervisor, printer & ticker services, 
Western Lines, C. P. Communications. I/c of multiplex, teletype & ticker apparatus. 

References: J. D. Peart, E. S. Braddell, V. C. Jones, F. S. Fisher, C. P. Haltalin. 

GUNG— GEORGE, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Victoria, B.C., Sept. 27th, 1911; 
Educ: B.A.Sc. (Mech.), 1937; M.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto; 1935 (summer), Beatty 
Bros. Ltd.; 1937 (summer), Can. Gen. Elec. Co. Ltd., Toronto; 1937-38, part time, 
and 1938 (Oct. -Nov.), full time research aest., mech. dept., Univ. of Toronto; 1939 
(Jan. -Mar), Massey Harris Co. Ltd., Toronto. At present, junior testing engr., 
H.E.P.C. of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 

References: R. W. Angus, G. R. Lord, E. A. Allcut, W. D. Walcott, R. B. Young. 



146 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



HAND— NORMAN C, of 130 Colbeck St., Toronto, Ont. Born at Philadelphia, 
Pa., Aug. 31st, 1886; Educ: B.S., Central High School, Phila. 1906-09, Spring 
Garden Institute and Drexel Institute, Phila.; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1904-06, apprentice 
machinist, 1906-08, apprentice dftsman., 1908-10, dftsman., Dr. W. M. White, 
Milwaukee; 1910-13, turbine erector, 1913-16, asst. mech. engr., H. B. Taylor, Phila.; 
1916-22, asst. supt. shops, Wm. Cramp & Sons, Phila.; 1922-24, mech. engr., I. P. 
Morris Co., and 1924-29, mgr., I. P. Morris Co. and De La Vergne Co., Phila.; 
1929-35, mgr., and 1935 to date, vice-president & gen. mgr., S. Morgan Smith Inglis 
Co Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

References: T. H. Hogg, H. G. Acres, O. Holden, R. L. Hearn, McN. DuBose. 

HOLLI— SULO A., of 2476 Lincoln Road, Windsor, Ont. Born at Tampere, Fin- 
land, Sept. 29th, 1918; 1932-36, Windsor Vocational School— Diploma in Technical 
Dept.; 1936-39, Detroit Institute of Technology — has earned sixty credit hours 
towards Bach, degree in Mech. Engrg. Continuing studies at night; 1936 to date, 
dfting engr., engrg. dept., Canadian Industries Ltd., Windsor, Ont. 

References: J. F. Bridge, C. F. Davison, H. L. Johnston. 

KINDERSLEY— ROBERT ERSKINE GORDON, of 37 Strathearn Road, 
Toronto, Ont. Born at Exeter, Devon, England, Nov. 2nd, 1906; Educ. : 1925-27 (2 
years of three year engrg. course), Cambridge University; 1927-28, dftsman., and 
1928-34, in various capacities in refinery process work, International Petroleum Co., 
Peru; 1934-40, process work, lab. work, and sales work, Imperial Oil Ltd., Canada. 
At present, statistician, at head office, Toronto. 

References: K. D. McDonald, I. H. Nevitt, J. W. MacDonald, E. M. Salter, 
G. R. Conrod, T. Montgomery. 

LAIRD— ROBERT G., of Calgary, Alta. Born at Crystal, North Dakota, Dec. 
2nd, 1896; Educ: B.Sc. (MhVng), North Dakota Sch. of Mines, 1927; 1928-29, 
diamond drilling, Flin Flon area, Sudbury Diamond Drill Co.; 1929-30, surveying, 
diamond drill hole locations, etc., H. M. B. Inglis, and 1930, similar work with 
Frontier Development Co.; 1930-32, Imperial Oil Refineries, Calgary; 1932-38, 
Royalite Oil Company, Turner Valley; 1938 to date, i/c engrg. dept., Valley Pipe 
Line Co., Turner Valley, Alta. 

References: S. G. Coultis, G. D. Phelps, H. L. Stevens-Guille, J. W. Young, R. W. 
Dunlop. 

LEXIER— HERSCHEL LOUIS, of 19 Yale Apts., Winnipeg, Man. Born at 
Winnipeg, June 11th, 1915; Educ: Bach. Mech. Engrg., Univ. of Minnesota, 1938; 
1938-39, highway survey, for Sask. Govt.; 1939-40, asBt. to mech. supt., Swift & Co., 
St. Boniface, Man. 

References: N. M. Hall, C. P. Haltalin, J. W. Sanger, H. L. Briggs, G. L. Shanks. 

MACLACHLAN— KELLOGG SINCLAIR, of 630 Clarke Ave., Westmount, 
Que. Born at Toronto, Jan. 27th, 1892; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1913; 
1910-12 (summers), apprentice work; 1913, chemist, 1913-15, supt., Metals Chemical 
Co., Welland; 1915-16, constrn. engr., National Synthetic Co., Perth Amboy, N.J.; 
1916-18, supervisor, production & distribution of explosives, Imperial Munitions 
Board; 1918, Cadet, Can. Engrs., C.E.F.; 1919, asst. to director of technical education, 
Ontario; 1920-24, various minor positions, Lincoln Paper Mills, Ltd.; 1924-25, asst. 
to R. Home Smith, receiver and manager, Lincoln Mills, Ltd.; 1925-27, gen. mgr., 
Lincoln Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd.; 1927-30, managing director, Alliance Paper Mills 
Ltd.; 1930-32, gen. mgr., and 1932 to date, president and gen. mgr., Fraser Com- 
panies Limited; Sept. 1939 to date, Acting Deputy Minister, Dept. of National 
Defence, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: L. A. Wright, C. D. Howe, C. J. Mackenzie, W. Maclachlan, W. H- 
Munro, C. P. Edwards, A. Ferrier. 

McINTYRE— WALTER BAKER, of 173 Peter St., Port Arthur, Ont. Born at 
McCreary, Man., May 9th, 1904; Educ: 1920-24, special night classes, Kelvin Tech- 
nical School, Winnipeg; 1925-26, private tuition in engrg., as approved by Univ. of 
Man.; 1920-24, chainman, rodman, 1925-27, levelman, transitman, 1927-28, instr'man. 
Port Arthur Divn., 1920-30, res. engr. on constrn., and 1931 to date, field engr., 
Can. Nat. Rlys. Estimating, laying out and final constrn., culverts, bridges, drain- 
age, water stations, coaling plants, gen. track constrn., mtce., location surveys to 
final constrn. 

References: P. E. Doncaster, S. E. Flook, W. Walkden, H. Os, F. C. Graham, 
G. Eriksen. 

MOTT— CHARLES ALLAN, of Belleville, Ont. Born at Belleville, Nov. 2nd, 
1897; Educ: 1923-24, I.C.S. course in municipal engrg. 1925, arch'l. course (corres.), 
Chicago Technical College; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1919-29, asst. to city engr., and 1929 to 
date, city engr., bldg. inspr. and supt. of public works, City of Belleville, Ont. 

References: F. S. Lazier, W. L. Langlois, E. R. Logie, J. J. Macnab, H. L. Scher- 
merhorn, R. H. Parsons, A. E. Berry, W. Storrie. 

PITTIS— RALPH COLIN ALFRED, of 18 Balmy Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Toronto, May 20th, 1913; Educ: B A Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1938; 1935 (3 mos), 
reinforced concrete detailing: 1936 (Jan. -Aug.), air base constrn. & teaching, Frontier 
College; 1937-38, Baie Comeau development, Foundation Company; 1938 (4 mos), 
road constrn., Highway Paving Co.; 1938-39, office bldg. constrn., Foundation Com- 
pany; 1939, oil refinery constrn., Canadian Kellog Co.; Oct. 1939 to date, service 
station and plant constrn., Imperial Oil Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

References: R. E. Chadwick, L. Grime, C. R. Young, W. B. Dunbar, F. H. C* 
Sefton. 

RABB— ARTHUR H., of Kenora, Ont. Born at Perth, Ont., Feb. 8th, 1906; 
Educ: B.Sc (Civil), Queen's Univ., 1931; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1929-30 (summers), 
paving inspr., Dept. of Highways, and grading & retaining wall constrn.. City of St. 
Thomas. With Dept. of Highways of Ontario as follows: 1931-32, rodman, 1934-35, 
instr'man. i/c of grading contract, 1935-37, instr'man. i/c of constrn. of concrete 
pavements, 1937 to date, asst. i/c of paving operations and divn. mtce. 

References: E. A. Kelly, W. F. Noonan, C. K. S. Macdonell, W. L. Saunders, W. P. 
Wilgar. 

RITCHIE— CHRISTOPHER, of Calgary, Alta. Born at Edmonton, Alta., Jan ! 
5th, 1914; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1935; one year post graduate in radio 
engrg. at Univ. of Alta.; 1936-40, student engr., and at present junior engr., Calgary 
Power Co. Ltd., Calgary. 

References: G. H. Thompson, H. J. McLean, H. B. LeBourveau, H. B. Sherman, 
J. McMillan. 

SHAPCOTTE— REGINALD F., of Port Arthur, Ont. Born at Port Arthur, 
Feb. 26th, 1913; Educ: 1928-33, Port Arthur Technical School, dfting and surveying 
diploma; 1934-36, surveyor's dftsman. & instr'man., Dept. of National Defence; 
1936-37, dftsman., Thunder Bay Harbour Improvements Co.; 1937-38, cruising ;& 
mapping for Detroit Sulphite Pulp & Paper Co.; 1939, planning & supervising con- 
strn., L. Y. Mcintosh, Architect; at present, dftsman., Dept. of Public Works, Port 
Arthur, Ont. 

References: H. Os, G. H. Burbidge, P. E. Doncaster, S. E. Flook, C. J. L. San- 
derson. 



WEBSTER— JAMES S., of Shaughnessy, Alta. Born at Windygates, Fifeshire, 
Scotland, Dec. 18th, 1903; Educ: 1924-27, Heriot Watt College (did not complete 
course); 2nd class mining cert, for Alta. 1st class elect'l. ; 1918-23, ap'ticeship with 
Fife Coal Co., Scotland; 1923-29, electrn. with Wemyss Coal Co., Fife, Scotland; 
1929-31, electrn., with Roy Electric, Lethbridge, Alta.; 1931 (6 mos), electrn. with 
Can. Gen. Elec. Co., Lethbridge; 1931-35, chief electrn., Cadillac Coal Co., Leth- 
bridge, Alta.; 1935 to date, chief electrn., Lethbridge Collieries, Lethbridge, Alta. 

References: C. S. Donaldson, J. T. Watson, J. M. Campbell, G. S. Brown, C. S. 
Clendening. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

EAGER— NORMAN ALDWYN, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Montreal, July 
18th, 1900; Educ: B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1922, M.C E, Cornell Univ., 1923; R.P.E. 
of Que.; 1921, dftsman., Phoenix Bridge & Iron Works; 1922, dftsman., dept. of 
highways, Penna.; 1924, res. engr., dept. of highways, Illinois; 1924-25, designer and 
salesman, Canadian Vickers; 1925-26, bldg. supt., Church Ross Co.; 1926-40, de- 
signing engr. and power sales research engr., Shawinigan Water & Power Company, 
Montreal; at present, asst. sales mgr., Burlington Steel Company, Hamilton, Ont. 
(Jr. 1925, A.M. 1934). 

References: J. A. McCrory, C. R. Lindsey, E. Brown, R. E. Jamieson, E A Ryan. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR 

COOPER— JOHN SIDNEY, of New Liskeard, Ont. Born at Toronto, Ont., Oct. 
14th, 1912; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1934; 1930-34, contractor's asst. on 
bldg. constrn. work; 1934-35, surveyor's asst., and 1935-36, instr'man. & engr. super- 
vising constrn. of waterworks, sewers & town surveying, Sutcliffe Co. Ltd., New 
Liskeard, Ont. With the Wabi Iron Works Ltd., as follows: 1936-38, struct'l. & 
mech'l. dftsman., and 1938 to date, chief dftsman. in full charge of drawing office. 
Responsibility includes design of mine cars, man cages, ore skips, mill machy. & gen. 
castings. Part time on sales engrg. work covering mining areas of Ontario & Quebec, 
consltg. with engrs. on design of equipment for specific applications. (Jr. 1936). 

References: H. W. Sutcliffe, E. A. Beman, C. R. Young, J. M. Gilchrist, W. J. 
Smither. 

MacCARTHY— HENRY BLAIR, of 110 Lisgar St., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Ottawa, June 7th, 1906; Educ: B.Sc. (Chem.), McGill Univ., 1928; 1926-27 (sum- 
mers), steelman, Fraser Brace Co., operator, Shawinigan Chemicals; 1928-30, sur- 
veying, cost estimating, and designing for water power developments, Gatineau 
Power Company; 1936 to date, Dept. of National Defence, senior asst. engr. on 
design, estimates, and specifications for bldg. constrn., water supplies, and gen. 
military station development work. (Jr. 1930). 

References: G. G. Gale, W. E. Blue, E. G. C. Chambers, H. E. Maple, R. H. 
Cooper, R. K. Odell. 

ORR— WILLIAM WINSTON, of 683 Lake Shore Road, Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Ottawa, Ont., June 26th, 1901; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1927. With the Can. 
Gen. Elec. Co. Ltd., as follows: 1927-28, students' test course, Peterborough; 1928-29, 
distribution transformer desigti engr., and 1929 to date, power transformer design 
engr., Toronto. (St. 1928, Jr. 1930). 

References: C. E. Sisson, D. Norman, W. M. Cruthers, G. W. Painter, D. L. 
McLaren. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

GUNTER— ALLAN NELSON, of Regina, Sask. Born at Edmonton, Alta., Feb. 
25th, 1916; Educ: B.Sc (Chem), Univ. of Alta., 1938. With Prairie Farm Rehabilita- 
tion Act as follows: 1936-37 (summers), rodman & field dftsman., 1938 (summer), 
instr'man., July 1939 to date, junior engr. (St. 1939). 

References: H. R. Webb, R. M. Hardy, C. A. Robb, R. S. L. Wilson, C. M. Moore. 

HANKIN— EDMUND A., of 5590 Bradford Place, Montreal, Que. Born at 
Montreal, Apr. 29th, 1912; Educ: B. Eng., McGill Univ., 1934. 1 year at the Univ. of 
Grenoble, France. With Francis Hankin & Co. Ltd. as follows: 1931-32 (summers), 
design & estimating work; 1935-37, asst. air conditioning dept., and 1937 to date, 
engr. in charge of air conditioning dept. (St. 1934). 

References: F. A. Combe, E. A. Ryan, J. A. Kearns, W. J. Armstrong, A. P. 
Shearwood. 

HOOD— GEORGE LESLIE, of 158 Mclntyre St. W., North Bay, Ont. Born at 
Minnedosa, Man., April 17th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of Man., 1932; 1934-37, 
elect'l. mtce., Howey Gold Mine, Red Lake, Ont.; 1937-38, demonstrator, Univ. of 
Toronto: 1938 (2 mos.), dftsman., Malton Airport Lighting, Toronto; 1938 to date, 
junior asst. meter & relay engr., H.E.P.C. of Ontario, North Bay, Ont. (St. 1930). 

References: E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, N. M. Hall, R. E. Smythe, H. Robertson. 

HYMAN— ERNEST ROY, of Pointe a Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. Born at Winnipeg, 
Man., Aug. 7th, 1915; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of Man., 1934. Grad. R.M.C., 1938. S.M. 
(Civil), Mass. Inst. Tech., 1939; 1939, dftsman., Universal Oil Products Co., and 
Sargent & Lundy, Chicago; at present, asst. engr., Trinidad Leaseholds Ltd., Pointe 
a Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. (St. 1936). 

References: W.*M. Fife, R. W. Emery, L. F. Grant, H. H. Lawson, G. G. M. Carr- 
Harris. 

McGINNIS— ARTHUR DAVID, of Kingston, Ont. Born at Phillipsburg; 
Que., Aug. 14th, 1917; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1938. M.C E , Cornell Univ., 
1939; 1934-37 (summers), gen. work on highway constrn.; 1938, engr. i/c. of highway 
constrn., and 1939 to date, engr. i/c of constrn. work, etc., for McGinnis & O'Connor, 
contracting engrs., Kingston, Ont. (St. 1938). 

References— D. S. Ellis, J. B. Baty, T. A. McGinnis, R. M. Smith, R. F. Legget. 

ROGERS— CARL L., of Toronto, Ont. Born at Moncton, N.B., May 17th, 1912; 
Educ: B. Eng. (Elec), McGill Univ., 1934; 1934-36, office work & air conditioning 
layouts, 1936-37, preparing plans & specifications on industrial heating work, involv- 
ing large electric furnaces for the heat treatment of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, 
1937-38, engrg. sales of large industrial heating equipment, 1938-39, sales of general 
equipment such as transformers, panel boards, control, etc., Can. Gen. Elec. Co. 
Ltd.; 1939 to date, industrial engr., H.E.P.C. of Ontario, power surveys of industrial 
plantB, recommendations on new electric equipment, etc. (St. 1931). 

References: M. J. McHenry, E. C. Williams, J. L. Balleny. S. Hairsine, W. E. 
Ross, C. E. Sisson. 

SMYTH— WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER, of Montreal, Que. Born at North Bay, 
Ont., Jan. 25th, 1914; Educ: B. Eng. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1936. With H. J. 
O'Connell Ltd., Gen. Contractors, Montreal, as follows: 1936-37, asst. engr., 1937-39, 
engrg. supt., and at present, supt. engr., all of the above on highway work. (St. 1935). 

References: A. J. Grant, O. J. McCulloch, E. S. Miles, G. J. Dodd, E. Brown. 

THORSSEN— LeROY ALLAN, of Edmonton, Alta. Born at Grantsburg, Wis., 
Dec. 16th, 1916; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Alta., 1939; 1938-39 (summers), 
rodman, instr'man., etc.. Civil Aviation Br., Dept. of Transport. 1939 to date, lec- 
turer in civil engrg., University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. (St. 1937). 

References: H. R. Webb, A. L. H. Somerville, R. S. L. Wilson, W. E. Cornish, 
C. A. Robb, R. W. Ross. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1940 



147 



Industrial News 



READ MACHINERY CO. INC., 
YORK, PA. 

Read Machinery Co. Inc., York, Pa., have 
issued two interesting and well illustrated 
booklets, one dealing with their chemical and 
industrial equipment and the other with their 
bakery equipment. The former (bulletin No. 
39304) contains sixteen pages and describes 
Readco vibrating sifters, weighing hoppers, 
material handling equipment, various types 
of mixers, fabricated vessels, shredders, acety- 
lators, weigh tanks and meters. The bakery 
equipment bulletin (No. 39325) contains, 
within its twenty-eight pages, a number of 
reference tables in addition to descriptive and 
illustrative matter covering the company's 
flour handling equipment mixers, proofers, 
ovens and miscellaneous equipment. 

ELECTED TO CANADA STEAMSHIP 
BOARD 

Brig.-Gen. C. H. Mitchell, C.B., C.M.G., 
D.S.O., CE., and Sidney T. Smith have re- 
cently been elected directors of Canada Steam- 
ship Lines Limited. 

DOMINION RUBBER APPOINTMENTS 

George B. Rutherford's appointment as 
assistant general manager, mechanical rubber 
goods and sundries sales, is announced by 
Dominion Rubber Company Limited. Mr. 
Rutherford was formerly manager of special 
products sales, at Montreal. 

Most of Mr. Rutherford's service with the 
rubber company has been spent in its western 
division, connected with mechanical sales 
activities. Successively named assistant man- 
ager, special representative, and — in 1929 — 
manager of mechanical goods sales in this 
division, he was transferred from Winnipeg 
to Dominion Rubber Company's head office 
in 1938, where he has since managed special 
products sales. 

R. B. Marr has been appointed assistant 
general manager of manufacturing, mechan- 
ical rubber goods division, according to an 
announcement by Dominion Rubber Com- 
pany Limited. 

Mr. Marr, whose association with the rub- 
ber company extends over eighteen years, has 
for the past ten years occupied the post of 
director of development for mechanical rub- 
ber goods and footwear. He was originally 
engaged in technical and laboratory work at 
the Dominion Tire Factory at Kitchener, and 
some years later was moved to Montreal, 
where he was placed in charge of footwear 
development. 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 




SHAWINIGAN CHEMICALS APPOINT- 
MENTS 

The following appointments were recently 
announced by Shawinigan Chemicals Limited : 
James Wilson, chairman of the board; V. G. 
Bartram, president; R. A. Witherspoon, chair- 
man of the executive; W. S. Hart, first vice- 
president; H. S. Reid, vice-president; H. W. 
Matheson, vice-president; J. A. Fuller, secre- 
tary-treasurer and director. 

FREE-SWINGING GROUND WIRE 
BRACKET 

Canadian Ohio Brass have introduced, 
through the columns of "C-O-B Hi-Tension 
News" a newly designed bracket known as 
the "Swing-link" — a ground wire bracket 
which provides a flexible support and at the 
same time develops high slip strength. Details 
of this bracket are contained in the January 
issue of "Hi-Tension News." 

OUTDOOR BREAKERS 

Canadian General Electric announces the 
extension of its line of outdoor oil circuit 
breakers to include the type FKRO-255. 
These breakers are available for a-c or d-c 
electrical operation and are rated 15,000 volts 
and 600, 800, 1,200, 1,600 and 2,000 amperes 
and in rupturing capacity ratings 250,000 
and 500,000 kv-a. They utilize the arc control 
features employed in the parallel line of indoor 
breakers type FKR-255. Provision is made 
for the use of bushing current transformers 
(two per phase), and a removable tank low- 
ering device, readily attached to the rear of 
framework, is available. 




George B. Rutherford 



WAR PRODUCTION 

The register of scientific and 
technical personnel is available 
to industrial firms engaged in 
the manufacture of war 
materials who may require the 
services of scientists, engineers, 
specialists or skilled trades- 
men. Lists of names and quali- 
fications for any specified line 
of work will be furnished on 
request to the Director, Tech- 
nical Section, Voluntary Serv- 
ice Registration Bureau, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Dr. H. M. Tory, 

Director. 

Major G. H. McCallum, 
Asst. Director. 



MOORE STEAM TURBINE BECOMES 
DIVISION OF WORTHINGTON 

The Worthington Pump and Machinery 
Corporation announces that, effective Jan- 
uary 2nd, 1940, its subsidiary, the Moore 
Steam Turbine Corporation, of Wellsville, 
New York, will be conducted as the Moore 
Steam Turbine Division of the corporation. 

FLANGE-JACKS 

Garlock Packing Company of Canada, 
Limited, Montreal, have introduced a new 
tool "Flange-Jacks" for replacing gaskets in 
flanged pipe lines, which is described and 
illustrated in a four-page bulletin recently 
issued by the company. 

INDUCTION MOTORS AND CONTROL 

English Electric Company of Canada, 
Limited, St. Catharines, Ontario, have just 
issued a price-list covering polyphase pro- 
tected type squirrel cage induction motors 
and control, which can be obtained from any 
of the company's offices or representatives 
throughout Canada. 

ATLAS STEELS APPOINTMENTS 

Arthur G. Lambert, whose appointment as 
manager, export division, is announced by 
Atlas Steels Limited, Welland, Ontario, is a 
graduate of Sheffield University in Metal- 
lurgy, and of the City and Guilds Institute 
in Iron and Steel. 

Mr. Lambert spent several years with the 
Parkgate Iron and Steel Company, near 
Sheffield, England, becoming assistant to the 
manager of the Melting Department. In 1923, 
he joined the staff of the Jessop Steel Com- 
pany of Washington, Pa., becoming Produc- 
tion and Works Manager, and his present 
appointment is due to the development of 
the export division of the Atlas Steels Limited. 

John C. Dawson has been appointed assist- 
ant manager, export division, Atlas Steels 
Limited, Welland, Ontario. Mr. Dawson is a 
graduate of Sheffield University, where he 
specialized in chemistry and metallurgy, and 
his subsequent experience covers several years 
in England and India, including service with 
the British Government. He has also had 
extensive experience with the Jessop Steel 
Company and with Edgar T. Ward Sons 
Company. 




Arthur G. Lambert 



148 



March, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 23 



APRIL 1940 



NUMBER 4 



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CONTENTS 



ALTAR IN A CATHEDRAL TO POWER 
Carl D. Buehholz, Jr. 



GROUNDING PRACTICE IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS 
W. P. Dobson, M.E.I.C 



Cover 



Discussion 



. 152 
. 158 



SOIL MECHANICS AT THE SHAND DAM 

A. W. F. McQueen, M.E.I.C, and R. C. McMordie, A.M.E.I.C. . . 161 

Discussion ............ 173 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 178 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 182 

PERSONALS 185 

Visitors to Headquarters ......... 

Obituaries ............ 

BRANCH NEWS 190 

LIBRARY NOTES 196 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 199 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 201 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 202 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



*P. M. SAUDER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
tJ. CLARK KEITH, Windsor, Ont. 

G. J. DESBARATS, Ottawa, Ont. 

tG. P. F. BOESE, Calgary, Alta. 
*W. F. M. BRYCE, Ottawa, Ont. 
tl. W. BUCKLEY, Sydney, N.S. 
*j. L. BUSFIELD, Montreal, Que. 
tJ. M. CAMPBELL, Lethbridge, Alta. 
tA. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
*P. E. DONCASTER, Fort William, Ont 
*R. H. FINDLAY, Montreal, Que. 
tA. B. GATES, Peterborough, Ont. 
*L. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 
tJ. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

TREASURER 

deGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 

PRESIDENT 

T. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS 

tMcNEELY DuBOSE, Arvida, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Montreal, Que. 
COUNCILLORS 

*S. HOGG, Saint John, N.B. 

*T. H. JENKINS, Windsor, Ont. 

*A. C. JOHNSTON, Arvida, Que. 

tJ. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tA. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 

*A. P. LINTON, Regina, Sask. 

•I. P. MACNAB, Halifax, N.S. 

tW. R. MANOCK, Fort Erie North, Ont 

tH. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 

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tW. L. McFAUL, Hamilton, Ont. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



*F. NEWELL, Montreal, Que 
tW S. WILSON, Sydney, N.S. 

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*J. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 
*E. B. WARDLE, Grand'Mere, Que. 
•For 1940. tFor 1940-41. JFor 1940-41-42. 

SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 
deG. BEAUBIEN 

G. A. GAHERTY 
J. A. McCRORY 



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I. C. BARLTROP 
I. P. MacNAB 



PAPERS 

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McN. DuBOSE 
J. CLARK KEITH 
F. NEWELL 
P. M. SAUDER 
W. S. WILSON 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

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G. M. PITTS 

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G. A. WALLACE 

R. A. YAPP 



PUBLICATION 

C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 

J. C. DAY 

R. E. MacAFEE 

J. E. ST. LAURENT 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 
I. M. FRASER 
W. E. LOVELL 
A. P. LINTON 
P. C. PERRY 

E. K. PHILLIPS 

PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Chairman 

h. a. lumsden 
h. r. Mackenzie 
j. o. martineau 

R. W. McCOLOUGH 
GZOWSKI MEDAL 

A. O. WOLFF, Chairman 

LEONARD MEDAL 

A. D. CAMPBELL, Chairman 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

F. P. SHEARWOOD, Chairman 
J. T. FARMER 

J. M. FLEMING 

PLUMMER MEDAL 

F. G. GREEN, Chairman 
J. C. NUTTER 
J. F. HARKOM 
R. A. STRONG 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

R. W. ANGUS 

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O. O. LEFEBVRE 

M. J. McHENRY 

H. H. VAUGHAN 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

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H. N. Ruttan Prize 

P. M. SAUDER, Chairman 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Galbraith Prize 

J. CLARK KEITH, Chairman 
T. H. JENKINS 
J. A. VANCE 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 

Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 

Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

McN. DuBOSE, Chairman 
A. LARIVIERE 
H. MASSUE 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

W. S. WILSON, Chairman 
I. W. BUCKLEY 
I. P. MACNAB 



WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 

S. G. PORTER 

J. M. WARDLE 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

G. McL. PITTS, Chairman 



DETERIORATION OF CONCIU.TE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CATE 

A. G. FLEMING 

W. G GLIDDON 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

J. A. McCRORY 

C.J. MACKENZIE 

J. H. McKINNEY 

R. M. SMITH 



MEMBERSHIP 

K. O. WHYTE Chairman 
J. G. HALL 
H. MASSUE 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

O. O. LEFEBVRE, Vice-Chairman 

G. A. GAHERTY 

H. W. McKIEL 

F. NEWELL 

C. E. SISSON 



THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 

JACQUES BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 

C. A. FOWLER 

R DeL. FRENCH 

R. E HEARTZ 

R F. LEGGET 

A P LINTON 

A. E. MACDONALD 

H. W. McKIEL 

R. M. SMITH 



150 



April, 1940 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, J. F. BRIDGE 
Vice-Chair., GEO. E. MEDLAR 
Executive, W. D. DONNELLY 

E. M. KREBSER 

F. J. POLLOCK 
(Ex-Officio), BOYD CANDLISH 

T. H. JENKINS 
J. CLARK KEITH 
Sec.-Treas., H. L. JOHNSTON 

1334 Victoria Avenue 

Windsor, Ont. 



CALGARY 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair , 
Executive, 



j. McMillan 

, J. B. deHART 
F. K. BEACH 
H. B LeBOURVEAU 
R. MACKAY 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
S. G. COULTIS 
J. HADDIN 
F. J. HEUPERMAN 
Sec.-Treas., P. F. PEELE, 

112-8th Avenue N.W., 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, C. M. ANSON M. F. COSSITT 

S. G. NAISH 
(Ex-Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, C. E. GARNETT 

Vice-Chair., E. NELSON 

Executive, D. A. HANSEN A. M. ALLEN 

E. L. SMITH W. W. PRESTON 
J. W. PORTEOUS 
(Ex-Officio) W. R. MOUNT P. M. SAUDER 

W. E. CORNISH 
Sec.-Treas., B. W. PITFIELD. 

Northwestern Utilities Limited, 

10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 
HALIFAX 

Chairman, CHARLES SCRYMGEOUR 
Executive, S. L. FULTZ G. F. BENNETT 
P. A. LOVETT F. C. WIGHTMAN 
A. B. BLANCHARD 
I. P. MacNAB 
A. D. NICKERSON 
L. C. YOUNG, 

365 Morris Street Ext., 

Halifax, N.S. 

ALEXANDER LOVE 

W. A. T. GILMOUR 

C. H. HUTTON N. WAGNER 

S. SHUPE T. S. GLOVER 

J. R. DUNBAR 

W. L. McFAUL 

A. R. HANNAFORD 

354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

HAMILTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Vice-Chair., P. ROY 

Executive V. R. DAVIES M. W. HUGGINS 

K. H. McKIBBIN 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. HARKNESS 

L. F. GRANT 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 

M. FLEMING 
G. O'LEARY 

BOYD J. R. MATHIESON 

A. CULPEPER S. E. FLOOK 
OLSSON W. H. BIRD 

A. KELLY A. T. HURTER 

L. GOODALL 
E. DONCASTER 
OS, 
423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 

Chairman, A. J. BRANCH 
Vice-Chair., G. S. BROWN 
Executive J.M.CAMPBELL N.H.BRADLEY 

C. S. DONALDSON J. HAÏMES 

(Ex-Officio), R. F. P. BOWMAN 

G. S. BROWN 
Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE 

207-7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



Chairman, 


J. 


Vice-Chair. 


H. 


Executive, 


D. 




B. 




H. 




E. 


(Ex-Officio) 


, E. 




P. 


Sec.-Treas., 


H. 


LETHBRIDGE 



LONDON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



MONCTON 



SAINT JOHN 



H. F. BENNETT 

W. E. ANDREWES 

F. C. BALL V. A McKILLOP 

J. P. CARRIERE J. R. ROSTRON 

J. FERGUSON 

J. A. VANCE 

D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 

London Structural Steel Co. Ltd., 
London, Ont. 



Chairman, F. O. CONDON 
Vice-Chair., J. PULLAR 
Executive, G. L. DICKSON 

R. H. EMMERSON A. S. GUNN 

C. S. G. ROGERS G. E. SMITH 

(Ex-Officio), H. W. McKIEL 

B.E. BAYNE 
Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, H. J. VENNES 

Vice-Chair., R. E. HEARTZ 

Executive, G. J. CHENEVERT E. V. GAGE 
R. S. EADIE I. S. PATTERSON 
G. McL. PITTS P. E. POITRAS 

(Ex-Officio), J. B. CHALLIES H. MASSUE 

J. L. BUSFIELD C. K. McLEOD 
R. H. FINDLAY F. NEWELL 

J. G. HALL B. R. PERRY 

E. R. SMALLHORN 

Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 



NIAGARA PENINSULA 

A. W. F. McQUEEN 
C. H. McL. BURNS 
H. G. ACRES C. G. CLINE 

M. H. JONES A. L. McPHAIL 

L. J. RUSSELL J. C. STREET 

G. F. VOLLMER 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK C. G. MOON 

GEO. E. GRIFFITHS. 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



Sec.-Treas., 



OTTAWA 

Chairman, W. H. MUNRO 
Executive, N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS J. H. IRVINE 
W. H. NORRISH 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS J. H. PARKIN 

W. F. M. BRYCE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, B. I. BURGESS 
Executive, I. F. McRAE J. CAMERON 

R. L. DOBBIN V. R. CURRIE 

(Ex-Officio) W. T. FANJOY 

A. B. GATES 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 

QUEBEC 

Chairman, PHILIPPE MÉTHÉ 
Vice-Chair. ,L. C. DUPUIS 

Executive J. G. O'DONNELL T. M. DECHENE 
M. BOURGET A. LAFRAMBOISE 
L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRÊSNE 

A. R. DÉCARY (Honorary) 
H. CIMON R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
A. LARIVIÈRE J. ST-JACQUES 
PAUL VINCENT 

Department of Colonization, Room 
263-A Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 
Que. 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas. 

SAGUENAY 



Chairman, ADAM CUNNINGHAM 

Vice-Chair., J. W. WARD 

Executive, CHAS. MILLER G. E. LaMOTHE 

W. P. C. LEBOUTILLIER 

G. F. LAYNE 
(Ex-Officio), A. C. JOHNSTON 

M. G. SAUNDERS McN. DuBOSE 
Sec.-Treas., K. A. BOOTH 

c/o Price Bros. & Co., 

Kenogami, Que. 



H. F. MORRISEY 
J. P. MOONEY 
G. G. MURDOCH 
G.N.HATFIELD D. R. SMITH 
(Ex-Officio) W. H. BLAKE 

S. HOGG F. A. PATRIQUEN 

Sec.-Treas., F. L. BLACK 

N.B. Electric Power Comm., 

P.O. Box 820, Saint John, N.B. 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive. 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



V. JEPSEN 

K. S. LeBARON 

H. G. TIMMIS 

H. K. WYMAN 



Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



C. H. CHAMPION 
A. H. HEATLEY 
R. DORION 
J. H. FREGEAU 
H. O. KEAY 
G. RINFRET 
H. J. WARD 
(Ex-Officio), F. W. BRADSHAW 

E. B. WARDLE 
Sec.-Treas., G. B. BAXTER, 

Canadian International Paper Com- 
pany, Three Rivers, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, P. C. PERRY 

R. A. McLELLAN 

I. M. FRASER J. McD. PATTON 

C. J. McGAVIN R. J. FYFE 

a. m. macgillivray 
g. l. Mackenzie 
a. a. murphy 
w. e. lovell 

(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE 

P.O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask 
SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, H. J. LEITCH 
Vice-Chair., E. M. MacQUARRIE 
Executive, R. A. CAMPBELL N. C. COWIE 
C.O.MADDOCK E.W.NEELANDS 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 
Sec.-Treas. O. A. EVANS, 

178 Albert St. E., 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
TORONTO 

Chairman, A. E. BERRY 
Vice-Chair., N. MacNICOL 
Executive, H. E. BRANDON 
W. S. WILSON 
G. W. PAINTER 
W. E. P. DUNCAN 
G. H. ROGERS 
M. BARRY WATSON 
(Ex-Officio), A. U. SANDERSON 

C. E. SISSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engineering Bldg., 

University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 



VANCOUVER 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair. 

Executive, 



Sec.-Treas., 
WINNIPEG 



C. E. WEBB 

W. O. SCOTT 

T. PRICE MAJOR J. R. GRANT 

W. N. KELLY P. B. STROYAN 

P. H. BUCHAN C. A. DAVIDSON 

ERNEST SMITH 

JAS. ROBERTSON 

T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 

E. W. IZARD 

G. M. IRWIN 

E. DAVIS A. L. CARRUTHERS 

A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 

R. C. FARROW J. N. ANDERSON 

K. REID, 

1336 Carnsew Street, 

Victoria, B.C. 



Chairman, H. L. BRIGGS 
Vice-Chair., J. T. ROSE 
Executive, C. V. ANTENBRING 

J. P. FRASER 

H. W. McLEOD, 

V. MICHIE 

D. N. SHARPE 
(Ex-Officio), J. HOOGSTRATEN 

J. W. SANGER 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., C.T. HALTALIN. 

303 Winnipeg Electric Railway 
Chambers, Winnipeg, Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL April, 1940 



151 



GROUNDING PRACTICE IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS 

W. P. DOBSON, m.e.i.c. 
Chief Testing Engineer, Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 

Paper presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Toronto, Ontario, on February 9th, 1940 



Introduction 

The primary aim in grounding electric power systems is 
to prevent damage to equipment and to protect workmen 
and the public against injury from shock. Its secondary 
function is to assist in system operation. These aims some- 
times involve conflicting requirements, with the result that 
practices vary considerably depending on individual 
opinions and local conditions. There is probably no subject 
in the electrical field which has been productive of a greater 
variety of opinion and practice ; while the general principles 
have been thoroughly understood for many years, it has 
not been possible to establish general rules not subject to 
exceptions, nor to apply principles without the exercise of 
judgment based upon experience. 

A comprehensive review of practice is not possible within 
the bounds of a short discussion; consequently the scope of 
this paper will be limited largely to the status of grounding 
practice in Canada, with particular reference to protection 
from shock. 

General 

From the point of view of personal safety, current is of 
greater significance than voltage. In order to prevent 
fatalities from electric shock, it is necessary that the current 
through the human body does not exceed safe limits for a 
definite period of time. This current is fixed by the potential 
difference between the conducting parts with which two 
portions of the body may come in contact. Differences of 
potential may exist between parts of an electric circuit and 
metal objects in the vicinity or between metal objects and 
the ground, or between the circuit and the ground, and it 
is these values which constitute the lurking danger and are 
thus more important than the absolute potential of the 
circuit. 

It is important to distinguish between two conditions 
which may produce a hazard. Differences of potential may 
exist between conductors insulated from one another, the 
values of which depend upon the charges on the conductors 
and the electrostatic capacity between them. Differences 
of potential may also exist between points of an electric 
system in which current is flowing. In this case the potential 
difference is determined from the current flow and the 
impedance between the points. 

In order that an accident may occur, the following con- 
ditions must be satisfied: 

(a) Exposed metal surfaces must be raised to a danger- 
ous potential; this is usually caused by a failure in the 
insulation of the system or of equipment connected to it. 

(b) A person must touch this exposed metal surface 
and at the same time make contact with the ground or 
with some other conducting surface at ground potential. 

(c) The protective measures (fuses or circuit breakers) 
must have failed to function. 

These conditions seldom occur simultaneously, and con- 
sequently the number of fatal accidents caused by elec- 
tricity is extremely low having regard to the number of 
users of electricity. 

In order to prevent fatal accidents, it is thus necessary 
that the conditions mentioned above do not occur simul- 
taneously. To prevent this occurrence insulating materials 
on the system must be maintained in a good state of repair. 
They must be installed in such a manner that the chance 
of failure may be reduced to the minimum and the neces- 
sary protective measures must be taken to prevent the 
appearance of dangerous voltages on exposed metal sur- 



faces. As a further safeguard means must be provided, 
should such voltages occur, for reducing the possibility that 
a current of dangerous magnitude can pass through the 
body of any person who may touch such an exposed surface. 

A full discussion of the effect of electric shock on the 
human body would be impossible here for reasons of spatial 
economy alone, quite aside from the fact that it is an 
extremely hazardous field for a layman to enter. However, 
it may be of interest to quote some results obtained by 
investigators and to refer to values which have been incor- 
porated in regulations. It will emphasize the great differ- 
ences of opinion existing among authorities and illustrate 
the difficulties which face utilities in deciding upon prac- 
tice, and electrical authorities in framing regulations which 
will protect the public without working hardship by unduly 
increasing the cost of installation. 

The passage of electric current through the human body 
causes paralysis of the higher nerve centres resulting in 
cessation of breathing, preventing normal reflex response 
and causing lack of tone of the blood vessels. The heart 
may be thrown into ventricular fibrillation, which is a dis- 
ruption of normal heart action in which the heart appears 
to quiver rather than to beat. 

Many investigations have been made using both animals 
and human beings as test media, and there is a large body 
of opinion to the effect that currents 10 to 20 milliamperes 
in magnitude may be endured for short intervals (less than 
one second) by normal human beings without dangerous 
consequences. Individual opinions, however, set this value 
as low as 0.3 to 0.4 milliampere, while others estimate that 
the minimum current which can be perceived is approxi- 
mately one milliampere. Other authorities have investi- 
gated the current required to cause ventricular fibrillation 
which they hold will always cause death claiming that 
normal heart action cannot be restored if fibrillation occurs. 
The threshold of fibrillation is given by these authorities as 
about 100 milliamperes. 

The time of occurrence of shock is an important factor; 
it appears to be accepted that if this occurs during a certain 
portion of the heart cycle (occupying about 20 per cent of 
the total period) lower currents will be more dangerous 
than if contact is made at another instant in the heart cycle. 

The frequency of the shock current is also claimed to 
have an important bearing. One authority states that the 
threshold of fibrillation at 25 cycles is 25 per cent higher 
than at 60 cycles and at direct current five times as great 
as at 60 cycles. For shocks of short duration (0.1 second or 
less) the effect of frequency is less marked. 

It is important to note that the duration of the current, 
as well as its actual value, is an essential factor. This is 
recognized in the regulations of the National Electrical 
Safety Code respecting Electric Fences in which values of 
milliampere-seconds are incorporated. This Code limits the 
leakage current to eight milliamperes in fence controllers of 
the continuous type. In Germany the maximum leakage 
current permitted is 0.35 milliampere and in Switzerland 
0.4 milliampere. The Canadian Electrical Code specification 
for a.c.-d.c. radio receivers sets a limit of 1.5 milliamperes 
for the leakage current from exposed metal parts to ground. 
(All these values apply to normal operating frequency). 
The Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker rules (German) 
state tha