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Full text of "Engineering Journal 1941"

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXIV 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1941 



Page 
Abstracts of Current Literature. .23, 84, 128, 195, 250, 300, 

352, 399, 447, 492, 541, 599 

Aerodrome Construction in Saskatchewan, G. T. Chilicott. 480 
Agreement between the Institute and Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of the Province of New Brunswick, 

Proposed 549 

Aircraft Construction, Plastic Laminated Wood in, W. J. 

Jakimiuk 590 

Aircraft Manufacture, Estimating Production Costs in, 

A. T. E. Wanek 236 

Aircraft Production, Some Problems in, J. I. Carmichael.. 524 

Air Traffic Control, Ewan D. Boyd 388 

Alternatives for Aluminum Paint, John Grieve 536 

Allcut, E. A., Properties of Heat Insulating Materials 514 

Aluminum Paint, Alternatives for, John Grieve 536 

Aluminum, World's Supply of, M. N. Hay 384 

Antitank and Antiaircraft Guns, Brig -Gen. R. H. Somers.. 241 
Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-sixth 548, 603, 604 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-fifth 120 

Programme 28 

Papers 29 

Chairman of Special Committee 30 

Report of Meeting 120 

Authors of Papers 122 

Asselin, Jean, Municipal Management and the Engineer 583 

Association of Professional Engineers of Alberta 158 

Association of Professional Engineers of New Brunswick.. 549 
Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, 

Annual Meeting, 1941 158 

Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 33, 157 

Beams in Steel Frame Buildings, Design of, S. D. Lash .... 188 
Bennett, H. F., Young Engineer in To-morrow's Democracy 295 
Boilers, Characteristics and Peculiarities of Some Recent 

Large Power, in England, Gerald N. Martin 

Boiler Feedwater by Carbonaceous Zeolite Softener, Treat- 
ment of, Nicholas Fodor 

Book Reviews 214, 412 

Boyd, Ewan D., Air Traffic Control 388 

Branches, Membership and Financial Statements of 80 

Branches, News of — 

Border Cities 40, 96, 

Calgary 40, 

Edmonton 41, 96, 150, 206, 

Halifax 76, 97, 151, 207. 

Hamilton 41, 97, 207, 313, 

Kingston » 97, 

Lakehead 41, 97, 151, 208,314,371, 

Lethbridge 

London 42. 98. 152, 209,262,314, 

Moncton 152, 

Montreal 

Niagara Peninsula 154, 262, 

Ottawa 42, 98, 154, 210, 

Peterborough 99, 211, 264, 

Quebec 43, 155, 

Saguenay 44, 265, 

Saint John 100, 

St. Maurice Valley 

Saskatchewan 101 , 212, 

Sault Ste-Marie 44, 101 , 1 55, 211, 266, 

Toronto 44. 155, 212, 

Vancouver 45, 101. 156. 212, 266, 

Victoria 45, 1 01, 

Winnipeg 157, 318, 



Page 
382 
305 



435 



150, 
206, 
262, 
'262, 
370, 
208, 
458, 
.98, 
372, 
210, 
.152, 
316, 
262, 
316, 
264, 
409, 
265, 



Burma Road and Industrial Development in China, Dr. 

C. A. Middleton Smith 

Bv-Laws of the Institute 



261,312 
262,614 
312, 559 
312,614 
555, 614 
313,370 
555,616 
152, 209 

556. 616 
314, 372 
315, 372 
409,617 

458. 617 
557,617 

503. 618 
459, 557 
316, 557 
266, 317 
265,619 
318,557 
557, 619 

410. 619 
156. 620 

558. 620 

184 
305 



Carrier Current Telephony, W. W. Rapsey 

Centenary of Queen's University 

Characteristics and Peculiarities of Some Recent Large 

Power Boilers in England, G. N. Martin 

Chemical Processes — Their Place in Daily Life, Dr. I. R. 

McHaffie 

Chilicott, G. T., Aerodrome Construction in Saskatchewan. 
China, Burma Road and Industrial Development in, Dr. 

C. A. Middleton Smith 

Christ Church, Spire of, W. Griesbach 

Christie, A- G., Resume of Present Day Power Trends 

Cities — Their Role in the National Economy, G. S. 

Mooney 

Column Analysis, Rational, J. A. Van den Broek 

Columns Subject to Uniformly Distributed Transverse 

Loads — Illustrating a New Method of Column Analysis, 

J. A. Van den Broek 

Complacency in Confusion, R. E. Doherty 

Compton, Dr. K. T., Engineering and Social Progress 

Cooper, Flt.-Lieut. L. 0., Stresses in Drill Steel 

Confusion, Complacency in, R. E. Doherty 

Construction of Hydro-Electric Development at La Tuque, 

J- A. McCrory 

Construction North of 54 e , R. F. Legget 

Co-Ordination of Industry with Engineering Colleges, 

Walter Mathesius 

Co-Ordination of Liberal Arts and Engineering Education, 

W. P. Tolley 

Co-Operative Engineering Education, D. F. Miner 

Correspondence 135, 201, 255, 307, 360, 405, 452, 496, 550 

Council for 1940, Report of 66 



278 

475 
480 

184 

6 

291 

394 
570 



115 
243 
114 
534 
243 

54 
346 

439 

488 
592 



Design of Beams in Steel Frame Building, S. D. Lash. 
Design of Spread Footings, I. F. Morrison 



278 Discussions- 



Earth's Crust Resistance and Lightning, A. S. Runciman 
Engineering Training for National Defence, A. A. 

Potter 

Construction of the Hydro-Electrice Development at 

La Tuque, J. A. McCrory 

Transmission Line Fault Locating System, E. W. Knapp 
Moment Distribution and the Analysis of a Continuous 

Truss of Varying Depth, E. R. Jacobsen 

Co-Ordination of Industry with Engineering Colleges, 

W. Mathesius 

Columns Subject to Uniformly Distributed Transverse 

Loads, J. A. Van den Broek 

Gauges for Mass Production, Dr. C. A. Robb 

Doherty, R. E., Complacency in Confusion 

Drill Steel, Stresses in, Flt.-Lieut. L. O. Cooper 



Calvin W. Rice Memorial 31 

Canadian Engineers and the War. Dr. T- H. Hogg 168 

Carmichael, J. I., Some Probems in Aircraft Production.. 524 



Earth's Crust Resistance and Lightning, A. S. Runciman.. 

Education, Co-Operative Engineering, D. F. Miner 

Ecole Polytechnique, New Library and Auditorium Hall 

for the 

Education. Fundamentals of Professional, E. D. Smith 

Elections and Transfers 34, 92, 142, 203, 257, 309, 

Ellis, 0. W. Forgeability of Metals 

Engineers and the War, Canadian, Dr. T. H. Hogg 

Engineers' Council for Professional Development, The 446, 
Engineer, Municipal Management and the. Jean Asselin.. 
Engineer in To-morrow's Democracy, The Young, H. F. 

Bennett 

Engineer and the Post War Period, The, E. R. Jacobsen. . . 

Engineering Education, Co-Operative, D. F. Miner 

Engineering, Science and Art in, J. K. Finch 

Engineering and Social Progress, Dr. K. T. Compton 

Engineering Training for National Defence in the U.SA., 

A- A. Potter. . . . 

Discussion 

Equioment and Armament, of the Royal Air Force, Lieut.- 

Col. W. Lockwood Marsh 



188 
10 

177 

245 

297 
332 

337 

439 

442 
537 

243 
534 

170 
592 

31 

391 

499, 611 

466 

168 

605, 606 

.. 583 

295 
597 
592 
293 
114 

64 

245 

485 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1941 



Page 

Errata 3Ô5, 300 

Estimating Production Costs in Aircraft Manufacture, 

A. T. E. Wanek 236 

Pees. Remission oi 254 

Financial Statements — 

Of the Institute 70 

Of the Brandies 80 

Pinch. J. K., .Science and Art in Engineering 293 

Finney, \\ . R., The Portland-Montreal Pipe Line 580 

Podor. Nicholas, Treatment of Boiler Feedwater by Car- 
bonaceous Zeolite Softener 435 

Footings, Design of Spread, I. F. Morrison 10 

Forgeability ol Metals. O. W. Ellis 400 

Fundamentals of Professional Education, E. D. Smith 391 

Gaherty, G- A., Power Industry 531 

Gauges for Mass Production, C. A. Robb 180 

Discussion 537 

Griesbach, W., Spire of Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal 

Grieve, John, Alternatives for Aluminum Paint 530 

Guns, Antitank and Antiaircraft, Brig.-Gen. R. H. Somers 241 

Hay, M. N., World's Supply of Aluminum 384 

Headquarters Building, Underpinning of 349 

Helen Mine and Benenciating Plant, Geo. G W. MacLeod 431 

Heat Insulating Materials, Properties of, E. A. Allcut 514 

Hogg, Dr. T. H., Canadian Engineers and the War L68 

Honours for the President 254 

Hydro-Electric Development at La Tuque, Construction of, 

J A. McCrory 54 

Ignitron Rectifiers for War Industries, J. T. Thwaites.... 4 
Institute Medal received by Lieut.-General A. G. L. Mc- 
Naughton ' 306 

Institute Prize Awards 1941 364 

Institute Prize Winners (Biographies) 143 

Jacobsen. E. R., The Engineer and the Post War Period... 597 
Jakimiuk, W. J., Plastic Laminated Wood in Aircraft Con- 
struction 590 

Julian C. Smith Medallists 145 

Justification and Control of the Limit Design Method, F. P. 

Shearwood 284 

Erratum 360 

Knapp, E. W., Transmission Line Fault Locating System. . . 328 

Lash, S. D., Notes on Analysis and Design of Rectangular 

Reinforced Concrete Slabs Supported on Four Sides. . 422 

Lash, S- D., Design of Beams in Steel Frame Buildings.... 188 
La Tuque, Construction of the Hydro-Electric Development 

at, J. A. McCrory 54 

Legget, R. F., Construction North of 54° 340 

Library Notes.. 46, 102, 159, 214, 270, 319, 374, 412, 460, 505. 560,623 

Lightning. Earth's Crust Resistance and. A. S. Runciman.. 170 
Limit. Design Method. Justification and Control of the, 

F. P. Shearwood 284 

Erratum 300 

Little, Elliott Menzies (Biography) 133 

Correspondence 550 

Mackenzie, Dean C. J.. Message from the President 109 

Mackenzie. Dean C. J. (Biography) 134 

MacLeod. Geo. G. W., Helen Mine and Benenciaiting Plant 431 

Management a»! the Engineer, Municipal, Jean Asselin... 583 
Marsh, Lieut-Col. W- Lockwood, Equipment and Armament 

of the Royal Air Force 485 

Martin, G N., Characteristics and Peculiarities of Some 

Recent Large Power Boilers in England 278 

Mathesius, Walter, Co-Ordination of Industry with En- 
gineering Col leges 439 

McCrory. J. A., Construction of the Hydro-Electric Devel- 
opment at L:i Tuque 54 

McHaffie, Dr. I. R... Chemical Prooesses — Their Place in 

Daily Life 475 

McNaughton. Lieut.-General A. (i. L., Institute Medal 

received bv 306 

McNaughton, Lieut.-General A. G L.. Research in Canada 482 

Membership of Branches 80 

Memorial. Calvin W. Rice ■ 31 

Meetings of Council.. 32. 90, L35, 202, Su,. 308, 362. 497. 551. 604.0119 

Metals, Forgeability of. 0. W. Ellis 460 

Message from the President, Dean C. J. Mac.kenie 109 

Miner, D. F., Co-Operative Entiineoring Education 592 

Mooney, G S.. Our Cities — Their Role in the National 

Economy 39 1 

Montreal-Portland Pipe Line, W. R. Finney 586 

Morrison, I. F.. Design of Spread Footings 10 

Morrison. I. F., The Solution of Simultaneous Linear 

Equations in Structural Analysas 386 

Municipal Management and the Engineer, Jean Asselin.... 583 



the U.S-A., Engineering Training for, 



National Defence in 
A. A. Potter ... 
Discussion 

New Library and Auditorium Hall for the Ecole Poly- 
technique 

Newly Elected Officers of the Institute (Biographies) .... 

News of Other Societies 157, 267, 373, 411, 504, 

Nominees for Officers, List of 

Nol.es on Analysis and Design of Rectangular Reinforced 
Concrete Slabs Supported on Four Sides, S. D Lash.. 

Obituaries — 



Page 

64 
245 

31 
138 

548, 621 
499 

422 



Adams, Francis Porter 

Ashworth, John Kershaw 

Benny, Walter Robert 

Bishop, William Israel 

Bloomtield, James Munro 

Brandon, Edgar Thomas John . . 

Burpee, David Williams 

Cartmel, William Bell 

Coke-Hill, Lionel 

Cook, Archibald Sinclair 

Craig, W. Dixon 

Cross, Frederick George 

Davis, George Henry 

Dawson, Alexander Scott 

DuCane, Charles George 

Fripp, Frederick Bowles 

Gray, John Hamilton 

Harry, Wilmot Earl 

Hill, Edgar Murray McCheyne. 

Holt, Herbert Samuel 

Kipp, Theodore 

Lalonde, Gaston 

Lamoureux, Joseph Arthur 

Lumbers, William Cooper 

Charles Hamilton.... 

James Grant 

John William 

Francis Joseph 



Mitchell, 
Moloney, 
Morrison, 
O'Reilly, 
Phillips, George. 
Phillip, Patrick 

Ramsay. Robert 

Salter, Ernest Milton 

Sandwell, Percy 

Silliman, Justus Mitchell 

Sinclair. Malcolm 

Smart. Valentine Irving 

Sit wart, William Lewis Refonl 

Sullivan, William Henry 

Uniacke, Robert Fitzgerald 

Yermette, Joseph A 

Weir, James 

Wright. Athol Ohoate 



1 oln i- nf tin- Institute. Newly Elected, (Biographies).... 

Our Cities - Their Hoir m National Economy, (!. S. 

Moonev 



408 
37 
457 
554 
554 
149 
95 
37 
501 
408 
150 
501 
554 
501 
200 

260 

40* 

-IIIS 

149 
502 
369 

260 
41 IS 
149 
450 
200 
201 
205 
OH 
408 
109 

95 
205 
311 
014 

37 
457 
14!» 
5i)2 
554 
201 

\>:< 
138 

394 



Pask. A EL, Salt, Its Production and Uses 529 

Personal- 35, 9::. 147. 204, 258, 310, 367, 406, 454, 500, 552,612 

Pétrie, M. W., Preparation of Smooth Surfaces 15 

Pig Iron Conservation in Gray Iron Foundries 490 

Pipe Line, Montreal-Portland. W. R. Finney 586 

Plastic Laminated Wood, in Aircraft Constrtrttion, W. J. 

Jakimiuk ' 590 

Portland-Montreal Pipe Line, W. R. Finney 586 

!'<»' War Period. Tie Engineer and the. È. R. Jacobsen.. 597 
Potter, A. A., Engineering Training for National Defence in 

the P.S.A 01 

Discussion • • 215 

Power Industry, G. A- Gaherty 531 

Power Trends,' K'sume ol" Present Day, A. G Christie 291 

Prizes and Awards 90, 364 

Prize Winners, Institute (Biographies) 143 

Preliminary Notice. .47, 105, 102, 210. 273. 322. 376. 416, 461. 

508, 501.020 

Preparation of Smooth Surfaces, M. W. Pétrie 15 

President's Visit to the Maritimes ' 25 t 

President's Tour 304 

Problems in Aircraft Production. Some, J. I. Carmiohael. . 521 
Processes, Chemical. — Their Place in Daily Life. Dr. I. R. 

McHaffie 475 

Production. Some Problems in Aircraft, J. I. Oarmichaol . . 521 
Production Costs in Aircraft Manufacture. Estimating, 

A. T. E. Wanek 236 

Progress and Enginecrinsr. Social. Dr. K. T. Comnton Ill 

Properties of Ileal Insulating Material-. E V Allcut 514 

Quebec School of Minos 363 

Queen's University, Centenary of 305 



December, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Page 

Rapsey, W. W., Oarrier Current Telephony 382 

Rational Column Analysis, J. A. Van den Brock 570 

Recent. Graduates in Engineering 365 

Registration in the Faculties of Applied Science or Engineer- 
ing in Canadian Universities, Session 1940-1941 133 

Reinforced Concrete Slabs Supported on Four Sides, Notes 

on Analysis and Design of Rectangular, S. D. Lash. . . . 422 

Remission of Fees to Members 254 

Report of Council for the Year 1940 66 

Report of the Committee on Western Water Problems... . 222 

Reports from Branches 75 

Research in Canada, Lieut .-General A. G. L. MleNaughton . 482 

Resume of Present Day Power Trends, A. G. Christie 291 

Robb, C. A., Gauges for Mass Production 180 

Discussion • 537 

Royal Air Force, Equipment and Armament of the, Lieut .- 

Col. W. Lockwood Marsh 485 

Runciman, A- S., Earth's Crust Resistance and Lightning. . 170 

Salt, Its Production and Uses, A. H. Pask 529 

Saskatchewan, Aerodrome Construction in, G. T. Chilloott. 480 

Science and Art in Engineering, J. K. Finch 293 

Second Mile. The, W. E. Wiokenden Ill 

Shearwood, F. P., Justification and Control of the Limit 

Design Method 284 

Erratum •-. 360 

Slabs Supported on Four Sides, Notes on Analysis and 

Design of Rectangular, S. D. Lash 422 

Smith, Dr. C. A. Middleton, Burma Road and Industrial 

Development in China 184 

Smith. Elliott D., Fundamentals of Professional Education 391 

Smoooth Surfaces, Preparation of, M. W. Pétrie 15 

Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations in Structural 

Analysis, The. I F. Morrison 386 



Page 
Softener, Treatment of Boiler Feedwater by Carbonaceous 

Zeolite, Nicholas Fodor 435 

Some Problems in Aircraft Production, J. I. Carmichael . . . 524 

Somers, Brig.-Gen. R. H., Antitank and Antiaircraft Guns. 241 

Spire of Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, W. Griesbach. 6 

St. Lawrence Project 20 

Stresses in Drill Steel, Flt.-Lieuit. L. O. Cooper 534 

Telephony, Carrier Current, W. W, Rapsey 382 

Thwuites, Joseph T., Ignitron Rectifiers for War Industries 4 
Tolley, W. P., Go-Ordination of Liberal Arts and Engineer- 
ing Education 488 

Traffic Control, Air, E D. Boyd 388 

Transmission Line Fault Locating System, E. W. Knapp.. 328 
Treatment of Boiler Feedwater by Carbonaceous Zeolite 

Softener, Nicholas Fodor 435 

Underpinning the Headquarters Building 349 

Van den Broek, J. A., Columns Subject to Uniformly Dis- 
tributed Transverse Loads — Illustrating a New Method 

of Column Analysis 115 

Van den Brock, J. A., Rational Column Analysis (Annual 

Meeting 1942) 570 

Wanek, A. T. E., Estimating Production Cost in Aircraft 

Manufacture 236 

War, Canadian Engineers and the, Dr. T. H. Hogg 168 

Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. .132, 201, 305, 360, 

405, 453, 496, 548,609 

Wickenden, W. E., The Second Mile Ill 

Wood, in Aircraft Construction, Plastic Laminated, W. J. 

Jakimiuk 590 

World's Supply of Aluminum, M. N. Hay 384 

Young Engineer in To-morrow's Democracy, H F. Bennett 295" 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1941 



m 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL was established in 
1918, and is published monthly by The Engineering 
Institute of Canada of which it is the official organ. It 
carries with it the full prestige and support of that organ- 
ization and influences over 5,000 qualified men of the 
profession occupying important posts in every branch of 
industry and public utility service throughout Canada. It 
provides unparalleled personal contact with the technical 
men from coast to coast. The present circulation is over 
5,200 copies and an annual C.C.A.B. audit is provided. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, incorporated in 
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maintains branches in each of the following cities: Cape 
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gary, Lethbridge, Vancouver and Victoria. 

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2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal, Que. 



iv December, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 24 



MONTREAL, JANUARY 1941 



NUMBER 1 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
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CHRIST CHURCH CATHEDRAL, MONTREAL 

The New Spire under Construction 

IGNITRON RECTIFIERS FOR WAR INDUSTRIES 

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Cover 



THE SPIRE OF CHRIST CHURCH CATHEDRAL, MONTREAL 

Walter Griesbach, B.Sc., M.E.I.C 7 

THE DESIGN OF SPREAD FOOTINGS 

/. F. Morrison 10 

THE PREPARATION OF SMOOTH SURFACES 

M. W. Pétrie 15 

THE ST. LAWRENCE PROJECT 

{Contributed) ........... 2# 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 23 

ANNUAL MEETING 28-29 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 30 

PERSONALS 35 

Visitors to Headquarters ......... 

Obituaries ............ 

PHOTOS OF PRESIDENT'S TOUR 38 

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•For 1940 tFor 1940-41. JFor 1940-41-42 



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P. C. PERRY 

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PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

R. DbL. FRENCH, Chairman 

h. a. lumsden 
h. r. Mackenzie 
j. o. martineau 

R. W. McCOLOUGH 



GZOWSKI MEDAL 

A. O. WOLFF, Chairman 
H. V. ANDERSON 
W. H. POWELL 
G. STEAD 
8. YOUNG 



LEONARD MEDAL 

A. D. CAMPBELL, Chairman 
G. E. COLE 
V. DOLMAGE 
F. W. GRAY 
W. G. McBRIDE 



DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

F. P. SHEARWOOD, Chairman 
J T. FARMER 
J. M. FLEMING 



PLUMMER MEDAL 

F. G. GREEN, Chairman 
J. C. NUTTER 
J. F. HARKOM 
R. A. STRONG 
M. KATZ 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN. Chairman 
J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 
R. W. ANGUS 
C. CAMSELL 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 
M. J. McHENRY 
H. H. VAUGHAN 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 

P. M. SAUDER, Chairman 

J. ROBERTSON 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Galbraith Prize 

J. CLARK KEITH, Chairman 

T. H. JENKINS 

J. A. VANCE 
Zone C (Province of Quebec) 

Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 

R. H. FINDLAY 

C. K. McLEOD 
Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

McN. DuBOSE, Chairman 

A. LARIVIERE 

H. MASSUE 
Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

W. S. WILSON, Chairman 

I. W. BUCKLEY 

I. P. MACNAB 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
J. M. WARDLE 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

G. McL. PITTS, Chairman 
R. J. DURLEY 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 
G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CATE 
A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C.J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 

MEMBERSHIP 

K. O. WHYTE. Chairman 
J G. HALL 
H. MASSUE 

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 
O. O. LEFEBVRE, Vice-Chairman 
G. A. GAHERTY 
H. W. McKIEL 

F. NEWELL 

C. E. SISSON 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
JACQUES BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
C. A FOWLER 
R DbL. FRENCH 
R. E HEARTZ 
R F. LEGGET 
A P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. McKIEL 
R. M. SMITH 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. MEDLAR 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FLETCHER 
Executive, W. D. DONNELLY 
J. B. DOWLER 
A. H. PASK 
(Ex-Officio), 3. F. BRIDGE 
T. H. JENKINS 
J. CLARK KEITH 
Sec.-Treas., W. P. AUGUSTINE, 

1955 Oneida Court, 

Windsor, Ont. 
CALGARY 

Chairman, J. McMILLAN 
Vice-Chair., J. B. deHART 
Executive, F. K. BEACH 

H. B LkBOURVEAU 
R. MACKAY 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
S. G. COULTIS 
J. HADDIN 
F. J. HEUPERMAN 
Sec.-Treas., P. F. PEELE, 

248 Scarboro Avenue, 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman. J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

A. P. THEUERKAUF 
(Ex-Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 
EDMONTON 

Chairman, E. NELSON 
Vice-Chair., R. M. HARDY 

Executive, A. M. ALLEN H. R. WEBB 

D. HUTCHISON C. W. CARRY 
J. F. McDOUGALL 
(Ex-Officio), P. M. SAUDER W. R. MOUNT 

C. E. GARNETT 
Sec.-Treas., B. W. PITFIELD, 

Northwestern Utilities Limited, 
10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 
HALIFAX 

Chairman, CHARLES SCRYMGEOUR 
Executive, S. L. FULTZ G. F. BENNETT 
P. A. LOVETT F. C. WIGHTMAN 
A. B. BLANCHARD E. L. BAILLIE 
A. G. MAHON C. SU. WILSON 
(Ex-Officio), I. P. MacNAB 

A. D. NICKERSON 
Sec.-Treas., L. C. YOUNG, 

365 Morris Street Ext., 

Halifax, N.S. 
HAMILTON 

Chairman, ALEXANDER LOVE 
Vice-Chair., W. A. T. GILMOUR 
Executive, C. H. HUTTON N. WAGNER 

S. SHUPE T. S. GLOVER 

(Ex-Officio), J. R. DUNBAR E. P. MUNTZ 

W. L. McFAUL 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD 

354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 
KINGSTON 

Chairman, G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 

Vice-Chair.. P. ROY 

Executive V. R. DAVIES M. W. HUGGINS 

K. H. McKIBBIN 
(Ex-Officio), t H. W. HARKNESS 

L. F. GRANT 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, H. G. O'LEARY 
Vice-Chair., B. A. CULPEPER 
Executive, MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 

H. H. TRIPP W. H. BIRD 

J. I. CARMICHAEL E. J. DAVIES 

h. os c d. Mackintosh 

J. S. WILSON 
(Ex-Officio), J. M. FLEMING P. E. DONCASTER 
Sec.-Treas.. H. M. OLSSON, 

380 River Street, 

Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, WM. MELDRUM 
Executive, R. F. P. BOWMAN G. S. BROWN 
N. H. BRADLEY 
C. S. CLENDENING 
(Ex-Officio) J. M. CAMPBELL 

A. J. BRANCH J. T. WATSON 

See.-TVeos., E. A. LAWRENCE, 

207-7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, F. C. BALL V. A McKILLOP 

J. P. CARRIERE J. R. ROSTRON 
J. FERGUSON 
(Ex-Officio). J. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., H. G. STEAD 

60 Alexandra Street, 

London, Ont. 

MONCTON 

Chairman, F. O. CONDON 
Vice-Chair., C. S. G. ROGERS 
Executive, B. E. BAYNE R. H. EMMERSON 
G.L.DICKSON G.E.SMITH 

T. H. DICKSON 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. McKIEL 
Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engr. Dept., C.N.R., 

Moncton, N.B. 
MONTREAL 

Chairman, H. J. VENNES 
Vice-Chair., R. E. HEARTZ 
Executive, G. J. CHENEVERT E. V. GAGE 
R. S. EADIE I. S. PATTERSON 
G. McL. PITTS P. E. POITRAS 
(Ex-Officio), J. B. CHALLIES H. MASSUE 

J. L. BUSFIELD C. K. McLEOD 
R. H. FINDLAY F. NEWELL 

J. G. HALL B. R. PERRY 

E. R. SMALLHORN 
Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. H. McL. BURNS 
Executive, W. D. BRACKEN 

C. G. CLINE 

J. L. McDOUGALL 

L. J. RUSSELL 

J. H. TUCK 

G. F. VOLLMER 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK 

a. w. f. McQueen 

Acting-Sec., GEO. E. GRIFFITHS 

P. O. Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, W. H. MUNRO 
Executive, N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS J. H. IRVINE 
W. H. NORRISH 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS J. H. PARKIN 

W. F. M. BRYCE 
Sec.-Treas.. R. K. ODELL, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, R. L. DOBBIN 
Executive, J. CAMERON 

0. J. FRISKEN 

1. F. McRAE 
J. W. PIERCE 

(Ex-Officio), B. I. BURGESS 

H. R. SILLS 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 
QUEBEC 

Life Hon. Chair., A. R. DECARY 
Chairman, L. C. DUPU.IS 
Vice-Chair., E. D. GRAY-DONALD 
Executive, T. M. DECHÊNE R. SAUVAGE 

A. LAFRAMBOISE G. MOLLEUR 
A. O. DUFRESNE O. DESJARDINS 
(Ex-Officio) A. LARIVIÈRE 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
P. MÉTHÉ 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Department of Colonization, 
Room 263-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, J. W. WARD 
Vice-Chair., G. H. KIRBY 
Executive, W. J. THOMSON 

A. I. CUNNINGHAM 

C. MILLER 

W. P. C. LeBOUTILLIER 
(Ex-Officio), ADAM CUNNINGHAM 

McN. DuBOSE 

A. C. JOHNSTON 
Sec.-Treas., T. A. TAYLOR 

Saguenay Inn, Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, JOHN P. MOONEY 
Vice-Chair., J. T. TURNBULL 
Executive, D. R. SMITH 

F. A. PATRIQUEN A. O. WOLFF 
(Ex-Officio), H. F. MORRISEY 

S. HOGG 
Sec.-Treas., VICTOR S. CHESNUT 
P.O. Box 1393, 

Saint John, N.B. 
ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, C. H. CHAMPION 
Vice-Chair., A. H. HEATLEY 
Executive, R. DORION 

J. H. FREGEAU V. JEPSEN 

H. O. KEAY K. S. LbBARON 

G. RINFRET H. G. TIMMIS 
H. J. WARD H. K. WYMAN 

(Ex-Officio), F. W. BRADSHAW 

E. B. WARDLE 
Sec.-Treas., G. B. BAXTER, 

Canadian International Paper Com- 
pany, Three Rivers, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 
Chairman, P. C. PERRY 
Vice-Chair., R. A. McLELLAN 
Executive, I. M. FRASER J. McD. PATTON 

C. J.McGAVIN R.J.FYFE 

a. m. macgillivray 
g. l. Mackenzie 
a. a. murphy 
w. e. lovell 

(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 
Sec.-Treas., STEWART YOUNG. 
P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask. 
SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, H. J. LEITCH 
Vice-Chair., E. M. MacQUARRIE 
Executive, R. A. CAMPBELL N. C. COWIE 
C.O.MADDOCK E.W.NEELANDS 
(Ex-Officio), J L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 
Sec.-Treas. O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road, 

Sault Ste. Marie. Ont. 
TORONTO 

Chairman, NICOL MacNICOL 

Vice-Chair.,H. E. BRANDON 

Executive, W. S. WILSON G. W. PAINTER 

F. J. BLAIR G. R. JACK 
W. H. M. LAUGHLIN D. FORGAN 

(Ex-Officio) T. H. HOGG 

A. U. SANDERSON 
C E. SISSON 
A. E. BERRY 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engineering Building, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, J. N. FINLAYSON 
Vice-Chair., W. O. SCOTT 

Executive, T. E. PRICE H. C. FITZ-JAMES 
J. R. GRANT R. E. POTTER 

W. N. KELLY P. B. STROYAN 

(Ex-Officio), C. E. WEBB 

JAS. ROBERTSON 
Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007 -36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 
VICTORIA 

Chairman, E. W. IZARD 
Vice-Chair. G. M. IRWIN 

Executive, E. DAVIS A. L. CARRUTHERS 
A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
R. C. FARROW J. N. ANDERSON 
Sec.-Treas., K. REID, 

1053 Pentrelew Place, 

Victoria, B.C. 
WINNIPEG 

Chairman, H. L. BRIGGS 
Vice-Chair., J. T. ROSE 
Executive, C. V. ANTENBRING 

J. P. FRASER 

H. W. McLEOD, 

V. MICH IE 

D. N. SHARPE 
(Ex-Officio), J. HOOGSTRATEN 

J. W. SANGER 
A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., C. P. HALTALIN, 

303 Winnipeg EUctrie Railway 
Chambers, Winnipeg, Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



IGNITRON RECTIFIERS FOR WAR INDUSTRIES 

JOSEPH T. THWAITES 
Development Engineer, Special Products, Canadian Westinghouse Company, Limited, Hamilton, Ont. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of the Engineering Institute of Canada, at Hamilton, Ont., 

on February 7th, 1941. 



At the outbreak of war it was natural for engineers to 
realize that the chemical industries of the country would 
be greatly expanded but the large expansion which we have 
seen take place in the last year has been largely dependent 
on the work of the civil, mechanical and electrical engineers. 
Large development has taken place in the mechanical and 
electrical engineering field to provide the necessary plant 
equipment for war industries. 

Up to 18 months ago, all mercury-arc rectifier equipment 
was imported from Europe or United States, the larger 
portion being from central Europe. With this source of 
supply eliminated, the chemical industries looked for their 
supply of rectifier equipment, which is a necessary adjunct 
to a number of electro-chemical processes, to the Canadian 
manufacturer and at the present time there is sufficient 
capacity in Canada to produce 40,000 kw. of rectifiers a 
month if the demand requires it. 

The mercury-arc rectifier of today is a far cry from the 
equipment used in 1882 to prove that an arc between carbon 
and mercury electrodes would only pass currents in the 
direction from the carbon to the mercury, or from the 
Cooper-Hewitt rectifier of the late 90's with its large glass 
bulb, its temperamental starting equipment, and the blue 
glow which became familiar in the garages as the electric 
landau achieved popularity. The glass bulb type rectifier 
has been developed principally in England up to ratings of 
500 amperes at 500 volts and is now a very satisfactory 
piece of equipment up to such ratings. 

In 1908, Peter Cooper-Hewitt suggested the enclosure of 
the mercury-arc rectifier in a metal shell in order that it 
could have more mechanical strength to withstand the shocks 
of handling, and to withstand the physical forces in case 
the rectifier should fail in its valve action or "arc-back." 

The first commercial metalclad rectifiers were built in 
1910 by Westinghouse and followed the general shape and 
construction of the glass bulb rectifier in that the electrodes 



was adopted by 1913 and soon rectifiers capable of handling 
700 amperes at 2,400 volts were produced. By 1918 the 
ratings had been pushed to 6,000 amperes per tank. 

Theory 

The process of rectification by means of a mercury-arc 
in vacuum depends on the fact that mercury under certain 
conditions is a prolific source of electrons, while carbon is 
an extremely small source of electrons. The mercury pool 



100 



95 



$-90 



0) 85 



Uj 



80 



15 



10 



A-C.to D-C. Conversion Equipment 
Efficiency and Losses 
300 Kw. 275 Volts D-C. 
2300 or 4000 Volts, 3 Ph. 60 Cy. A-C 




Solder Seals 



Rubber Seal 



Bulbs for under 
temperature relay 
and relay lor heat 
er control 



Dome Water Jacket 
Mam Anode 



Bulb for Thermometer^ Starting Anode 
■ Porcelain 
"l/' \/ /Solenoid 



Main Anode Shield 



Three Tank 
Heaters 



Flushing Valve 
and Dram 




Exciting Anode 

Anode Plate 

Water Jacket 



Flushing 
Valve* 



Welded 
Steel Tank 



Mom Water 
Jacket 



Fig. 1 



Cathode 
Mercury — — J N — Water Jacket 

-Cross section of mercury arc rectifier. 



were placed in side arms and there was a large condensing 
dome in the centre. About the same time in Europe, a design 
was brought out by the Brown Boveri Company, which might 
be called the first commercial tank rectifier, in which the 
tank contained the electrodes and no arms projected from 
the tank. The rectifier thus took the form with which we 
are now familiar, in the multi-anode tank. Water cooling 



200 300 

Output Km 

Fig. 2 — Typical efficiency curves of the different a-c to d-c 
conversion units. The curves are for units rated 300 kw., 275 

volts. 

in the bottom of the rectifier tank proper is known as the 
cathode and the various carbon electrodes are known 
as the anodes. The mercury will not emit electrons 
until a cathode spot has been formed on the surface. 
This was done in the old Cooper-Hewitt rectifiers by 
tilting the bulb and drawing an arc from an auxiliary 
electrode which caused what we call a cathode spot or a 
source of intense ionization from which electrons are 
freely emitted under the influence of an electric field. 
If the anode is made positive at the time when there 
is a cathode spot on the surface of the mercury, elec- 
trons are drawn across to the anode, ionizing the 
mercury vapour present in the tube and providing a 
path for the passage of current. In the multi-anode tank 
or conventional rectifier, there is usually an auxiliary 
anode or anodes arranged so that there is always one 
positive anode. It is a property of mercury-carbon 
arcs that once established they will continue as long as 
there is a flow of current in the proper direction; that 
once an arc is started from the cathode to an anode, it 
is necessary either for the anode to go negative or the 
voltage to be removed by some external means in order 
to prevent current flow. In the multi-anode rectifier, the 
various anodes are so connected to a transformer so that 
one or more is always positive and the positive anode is the 
collector of the electrons. 

The process of rectification consists then of allowing the 
positive half cycles of an alternating current voltage to 
cause current flow from the anode to the cathode and from 
the cathode in turn through the external circuit back to the 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



transformer. If the transformer connection is arranged so 
that it is the centre of a number of centre-tapped trans- 
former windings arranged in various phase positions, the 
flow of direct current is continuous but not uniform. For 
instance, if only two anodes are used which are alternately 
positive, the flow of current is in a series of surges and may 
actually drop to zero under certain circumstances at the 
time of transition. If, however, the anodes are connected 
to a three-phase system, there is a slight overlapping and the 
current does not go to zero. By increasing the number of 
phases, the amount of ripples present can be reduced almost 
to zero. There are now commercial installations in Canada 
operating on the 36 phase system, and equipment in pro- 
gress is being built for use on a 60 phase system. This 60 
phase system will have less than 1/6 of one percent ripple 
which is considerably smoother than that obtained from a 
commutator type of machine. 

It can be readily seen that as the ratings of these multi- 
anode rectifiers increased, it was necessary to provide larger 



in turn brought the penalty of higher-arc-drop with resultant 
lower efficiency. 

In 1933, Dr. J. Slepian announced a new method of 
forming a cathode spot on the mercury pool, which made 




Fig. 3— Cross section of one of the larger ignitrons. 

tanks in which to contain the increased number and also 
the physically larger anodes to carry the larger current. 
This, in turn, meant that the anode circle was larger and 
the distance from the anode to the cathode had increased. As 
the voltage lost in the arc is somewhat proportional to the 
length, it can be seen that the larger machines were rela- 
tively less efficient than the small ones. This is contrary to 
usual electrical practice and although engineers studied the 
problem, it seemed as if the arc loss was going to steady 
down at 28 to 30 volts for the average large size rectifier. 

About once in a few million times, one anode would sud- 
denly lose its valve action and become a conductor in the 
reverse direction. This phenomenon was known as "arc- 
back" and was accepted in the early rectifiers as part of 
the trouble with which one had to put up. The demand 
from operators for more continuous and better service 
caused manufacturers to seek means of eliminating or re- 
ducing the arc-back frequency, various expedients in the 
form of tortuous paths, stovepipe-like shields and grids were 
inserted in front of the anode to help de-ionize the path of 
the arc immediately after conduction should cease. These 




Fig. 4 — Shop assemhly of ignitron tank ready for 
mounting in frame. 

it practical to put each anode in a single tank with its own 
cathode, strike the arc when required for conduction and 
allow the arc to go out naturally during the period when 
conduction was not required. 1 This allowed the anode to 
be placed much closer to the mercury pool and the shielding 
considerably simplified. This invention became known as 
the ignitron because it was ignited. Dr. Slepian found that 
by immersing a crystal of carborundum or other such 
material in the mercury and passing a fairly large current, 
but of very short duration, through this crystal to the 









/"_ tin I'lfmr. .;.■■■. .! 




1 F ST 1 r ! 1 


M 






^m~ 


4? 



Fig. 5 — Frame for 12 ignitrons with water and vacuum 
manifolds and small wiring in place. 

mercury, a cathode spot would be formed on the surface 
of the mercury. On account of the much simpler arc path 
and shorter arc distance, he was able to reduce the arc-drop 
from approximately 30 volts to about 15 volts, thus reducing 
the rectifier losses by half in one operation. It was quickly 

1 Transactions of The American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
June, 1933, V. 52, p. 693. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



found that the arc-back frequency of 
this type of rectifier was so good that 
the shielding previously considered neces- 
sary could be largely dispensed with. The 
ignitron has so established itself as a rectifier 
that approximately 500,000 kw. of ignitron 
rectifiers have been sold within the past 
fifteen months. 

Construction 

The ignitron rectifier consists essentially 
of a steel tank formed of mild steel plate, 
welded vacuum tight, containing a pool of 
mercury at the bottom, a carbon anode sus- 
pended from the top and an igniter rod en- 
tering through an insulated bushing at the 
side. For voltages over 500, an additional 
electrode called the grid is suspended be- 
tween the anode and the arc space. This 
electrode helps in controlling the backfires 
and it helps in establishing the arc pick-up. 
in the manufacture of all vacuum apparatus, 
the utmost cleanliness and absolute purity 
of the electrode materials are most essential. 
Foreign matter of any sort is detrimental 
to the functioning of the rectifier. The tanks 
are closed by a heavy steel plate top held 
by 14%-in. high tensile steel bolts drawing 
up against aluminum gaskets. The porcelain 
is fastened to the top by means of a flange, 
clamping the flange of the porcelain in a 
recess in the steel top and made vacuum tight by means of 
solder seals in which the porcelain is actually soldered to the 
metal. The anode head itself is made of the purest graphite ob- 
tainable as experience has shown that no other material is 
so suitable for withstanding the strains of temperature which 
occur when a rectifier is operated under intermittent loads. 
The normal operating temperature of the anode head is 
approximately 900 deg. C. and very few materials have 
less electronic emission than carbon under such temperature. 
The mercury is carefully prepared by four chemical washes 





Fig. 6 — Complete frame of 12 ignitron tanks rated 3,375 kw. 

and finally by evaporating under vacuum and recondensing. 
All metals entering into the construction of the tank are 
sand blasted just before assembly to make sure that all 
foreign matter is removed. The assembly itself is done in 
an air conditioned room by operators who wear white cotton 
smocks and white cotton gloves which are changed at the 
first sign of soil. After closure, the tank is pumped to approxi- 
mately 1/1,000,000 of an atmosphere pressure and operated 
at reduced voltage and up to three times normal current 
until no further gas can be driven off from the metal and 
carbon parts. Groups of these tanks are then assembled on 



A compact, convenient and portable arrangement of six ignitrons 
with control equipment. 



a frame to form the requisite number for the capacity re- 
quired, connected to a common manifold for pumping 
vacuum and to the necessary water inlet and outlet manifold 
and the small wiring added to make a complete 6 or 12 
phase rectifier. One recent installation in Canada consisted 
of 48 — 12-tank rectifiers, each rated at 3,375 kw. 

Ignitrons as Contactors 

The ignitron with its peculiar properties of being able to 
carry current when desired and interrupting the current 
flow at the end of the first positive half cycle after initiation 
processes have stopped has become very useful as a con- 
tactor where rapid action is required, such as in the spot- 
welding and seam welding industry. By connecting two 
ignitrons back to back, they can be arranged to pass alter- 
nating currents to the primary of a welding transformer 
and such an installation has been in service in Hamilton 
for several years on a spot-welder on critical work in which 
the record to date has been one defective spot per 468,000 
welds. The operation of the igniter control may be made 
fully automatic so as to cause the current to flow for two 
cycles on and two cycles off, for instance, or it may be 
made that it will flow for a predetermined time after the 
operator initiates the action and then stop completely until 
the operator takes control again. In the smaller sizes for 
welding control, the ignitrons are now sealed off and no 
pumping equipment is required to maintain the necessary 
vacuum. On account of the extremely large overload capacity 
available in such equipment, an ignitron rated at 225 
amperes continuous is capable of an output of 3,000 amperes 
for a short time, provided the average is not over 225 am- 
peres. This allows the use of comparatively small ignitrons 
to take the place of the extremely large contactors and to 
operate without any moving contacts or fuss. The saving 
in maintenance on contactors has caused several industries 
to go over wholly to ignitron contactors and other industries 
have said that the saving in production more than paid for 
the installation. It may be noted that the streamline trains 
made of stainless steel are all welded by the ignitron con- 
trolled welding equipment and that every Monel hot water 
tank sold in Canada has been welded on an ignitron con- 
trolled seam welder. The welding operator of a few years 
ago judged the time to make a spot- weld by the amount 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Fig. 8 — A typical portable ignitron station for installation in a mine. When this assembly is hauled into place by the mine 
locomotive it is only necessary to connect to the high voltage feeder and the direct current distribution system, and the 

d-c substation is ready for operation. 



of red that showed under the electrode of the spot- 
welder. Such a welder would have considerable trouble 
making welds on sheet lead, but with ignitron con- 
trol, such welds are entirely practical. There are 
hardly any metals which cannot be spot-welded by 
means of ignitron control, whereas manual control can 
only be used for the few metals which have a large 



temperature range during which they are weldable. 
It is felt that the ignitron is a distinct contribution to 
Canada's war effort both as a rectifier for the electro- 
chemical industries and as a control device for the metal 
fabricating industries, and the production in Canada of 
such a large quantity of new equipment has been a worth- 
while achievement. 



THE SPIRE OF CHRIST CHURCH CATHEDRAL, MONTREAL 

WALTER GRIESBACH, b.sc, m.e.i.c. 
Chief Engineer, The Foundation Company of Canada, Limited, Montreal, Que. 



The original appearance of Christ Church Cathedral, on 
St. Catherine Street West, in Montreal, has recently been 
restored by the erection of a new spire. 

Construction of the cathedral was started in July, 1856, 
and was finished in the late fall of 1859. It is built in gothic 
style of limestone rubble masonry, set in lime mortar. The 
tower forming the base of the spire is 24 feet square with 
two buttresses at each corner and it originally extended 
22 feet above the ridge of the main roof. The spire was 
octagonal in plan and was 121 feet high, the top being 226 
feet above sidewalk level. 

In the interior of the church the tower is supported by 
masonry arches and columns. The columns rest on irre- 
gularly shaped masonry piers, extending from the underside 
of the main floor to from 4 to 8 feet below basement ground 
level. The four piers are joined by inverted masonry arches 
having the intrados of the crown at the ground line. 

As determined by borings, the piers rest on a layer of 
brown sandy clay 4 to 6 feet thick which, in turn, rests on a 
bed of blue clay 10 to 13 feet thick. The upper half of this 
blue clay is of a sticky consistency while the lower half is 
very soft. Below the blue clay, and overlying bedrock, is a 
layer of hard brown clay and hardpan about 22 feet thick. 
The bedrock is of limestone and is about 40 feet below the 
bottom of the piers. 

Before the tower was completed, in 1858, it was dis- 
covered that the foundations were sinking and that the two 
south piers were sinking more than the north ones, causing 
the tower to lean south towards St. Catherine Street. When 
the spire was completed there was a maximum settlement 
of about 5 inches. This settlement disturbed and damaged 
the columns and arches adjacent to the tower to such an 
extent that it was necessary to make extensive repairs. 
While most of the settlement took place during construction, 
subsequent check measurements showed a slight progres- 
sive movement and in 1927, when the settlement was 6}4 
inches and the spire was 2 feet out of plumb, it was decided 




Fig. 1 — One of the tower arches. This view shows some of the 

damage caused by settlement before the original spire was 

completed. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



to remove the spire and about 22 feet of the tower to avoid 
a possible catastrophe. 

The total weight of the original spire, tower, piers and 
inverted arches was 4,329 tons, making an average load of 
about 7 tons per square foot on the sustaining soil. This 
excessive loading accounts for the settlement, and the 
bearing area of the south piers being a little less than that 
of the north ones accounts for the uneven settlement. By 
removing the spire and a portion of the tower the total 
load was reduced by 1,320 tons, leaving a load of 3,009 tons 
or about 5 tons per square foot on the soil. There was no 
further settlement under this reduced loading. 

In 1939 an anonymous benefactor offered to provide 
funds for the construction of a new spire on condition only 
that the original design could be reproduced. After inves- 
tigating soil conditions and alternative schemes for strength- 
ening the foundations and reconstructing the spire, it was 
decided that the tower foundations should be underpinned 
down to the hard clay or hardpan formation; that the 
tower should be extended to a height of 25 feet in light 
masonry construction to match the existing stonework, 
and that the spire should be of light construction consisting 
of a structural steel frame covered with cast aluminum 
plates, treated to produce the appearance of stone masonry. 

Considering the nature of the soil, the loads to be sup- 
ported and the weakened condition of the arches in the 
interior of the church, it was manifest that the underpin- 
ning should be carried out with the least possible distur- 
bance of the soil under the piers. To satisfy this condition 
and to confine the work to the basement only, the pipe pile 
method was adopted. 

The total weight of the spire, tower, piers and inverted 
arches is now 3,447 tons, including a net additional weight 
of 438 tons in the new construction. To take care of the 
load under the piers, 36 twelve-inch pipe piles, nine under 
each of the four piers, were jacked down to the required 
depth, to a resistance of 100 to 105 tons per pile, by means 
of hydraulic jacks. 

An examination of the old rubble masonry piers indicated 
that it would be necessary to reinforce them to take the 




Fig. 2 — The church after the old spire was removed. 

reaction of the jacks. This was effectively done by building 
a collar completely around the upper 5 feet of each pier. 
The collar consists of a vertically reinforced gunite slab 
supported by two bands of 12-inch I-beams spaced about 
3 feet apart. The beams were welded together at the ends 
and were prestressed, by wedging with steel wedges be- 
tween the beams and the masonry, before the gunite was 
applied. To provide an additional margin of safety, the 
inverted arches were also strengthened with reinforced gunite 
and the two south piers were shored, temporarily, on the south 
face, by means of 75-ton jacks placed at an angle of about 
60° to the pier, with the head of the jack in a recess in the 
masonry and the base bearing on a timber mat on the soil. 



<3W 




rrn 




Fig. 3 — Plan and section of the foundations. The reinforcing around the piers and over the 
circles show the locations of the piles and the order in which they w 



—\r rr' 

kL. J: 



inverted arches is indicated. The 
ere placed. 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



After the gunite had set, recesses were chipped out of the 
masonry from just below the collar to the bottom of the 
pier. The recesses were of sufficient depth to allow the piles 
to be placed directly under the edges of the columns resting 
on the piers. A concrete pad was then formed at the top of 
the recess to distribute the load and to provide an even 
bearing for the head of the jack. The piles were then jacked 
down, in sections, to the required resistance, as indicated 
by the gauge on the hydraulic pump. As the maximum 
extension of the jack was only 8 inches, it was necessary to 
substitute oak blocks to obtain the required clearance for a 
new section of pipe. Each pile consisted of a cast iron point 
and sections of 12-inch standard weight steel pipe 3 feet 
4 inches long, with cast iron sleeves between sections. The 
average length of pile was 18 feet 11 Yi inches. When the 
required resistance was reached the top section was care- 
fully burned off to grade near the bottom of the pier and 
filed to leave an even bearing surface. The pipe was then 
filled with concrete and, after this had set, a structural steel 




Fig. 4 — Underpinning the piers. This view shows a pile heing 

jacked down in the south east pier, which is ahout four feet 

deeper than the other. 



column was wedged in place between the top of the pile and 
the concrete pad at the top of the recess. The recess was 
then filled with gunite. Chipping and jacking were carried 
on simultaneously at all four piers, one pile at a time at 
each pier, with the chipping kept in step ahead of the 
jacking. Preliminary work started on September 26th and 
the underpinning was completed on December 9th, 1939. 

The new tower forming the base for the spire was started 
in the spring of 1940. It is 24 feet square and extends 25 
feet above the old masonry or ridge of main roof. It con- 
sists of a structural steel portal-type frame and four ma- 
sonry walls with two buttresses at each corner and a louvre 
in each face. The bottom of the steel frame is attached to a 
structural steel grillage which is embedded in the masonry 
walls and on which the new concrete roof slab is supported. 
There are two rods at each corner, anchoring the grillage 
to steel beams embedded 10 feet down in the old masonry. 
The new masonry walls consist of Montreal limestone 
facing and Indiana limestone trim, with 12 inches of 
common brick backing. The louvres are of red wood, painted 
to match the stonework, and are encased in cast stone. The 
roof slab is insulated with fibre board and sheeted with 
copper. Two drainage outlets are provided through the 
walls. 

The pyramidal steel frame for the spire is octagonal in 
cross section. It is 24 feet in diameter at the base and is 118 
feet high, the top being at the same elevation as the original 
spire, about 226 feet above sidewalk level. The base is 
attached to a structural steel grillage which forms the tran- 
sition plane between the square tower frame and the octag- 
onal spire frame. The frame consists of 8 tee-section legs 
tied together at 9 foot intervals with angle diagonals and 
struts. The tee legs have their webs turned outward to 
connect to the aluminum corner castings, while additional 
angles, on the faces of the octagon, support the inter- 
mediate castings. Horizontal brace frames, which also 
serve as landings for the interior ladder system, are provided 
every 18 feet. The structure is designed to withstand a wind 
pressure of 30 pounds per square foot of vertical projection. 

On account of the spire being situated at the centre of 
the cruciform church structure, the steel could not be 
handled in one lift from the ground to the spire. The general 
contractor's material-handling bridge from the nearby con- 
struction tower served as an intermediate landing stage, 
about 80 feet above ground level. It was raised to this level 
by means of a gin pole 90 feet long and was then wheeled 
along the bridge to the tower and hoisted into place by 
means of a small gin pole attached to the spire frame. This 
small gin pole was moved up, in turn, with the spire sections. 
The top section, with cross and finial fastened in place, was 
erected by means of a pole lashed to an outer face of the 
frame and cantilevered up to a position slightly above the 
top of the steel. Main field connections were riveted and 
other connections were bolted and provided with lock nuts. 
The steelwork was painted with metalastic black paint, the 
connections being given an additional coat. The total 
weight of steel erected was 38 tons. 

The facing on the spire consists of cast aluminum plates 
modelled and treated to produce the appearance of stone 
masonry similar to that in the original spire. The plates are 
convex in shape and are made to represent one or more 
pieces of masonry. The dimensions vary from 16 inches by 8 
inches to 16 inches by 84 inches. The plates are designed 
for their own particular location and are provided with 
lugs for bolting to the steel frame. 

To obtain the desired effect, plaster models were first 
made of the plates and these were used as patterns for 
making the castings. The edges of the rough castings were 
made true by grinding and the surfaces were cleaned by 
sandblasting. The appearance of weathered masonry was 
obtained, immediately, by dipping the plates in a solution 
consisting of black antimony sulphide, sodium cyanide and 
warm water. It is expected that the coating deposited by 
this process will, in time, become slightly bleached but the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



weathered effect will be maintained by the action of the 
elements in the same manner that stone masonry attains 
the weathered appearance. 

The contrasting effect of mortar joints, between sections 
representing stones in the plates, was produced by sub- 
jecting these joints to a special chemical treatment and, 
between the plates themselves, by leaving j^g-inch open 
joints. 

The plates were handled up to the base of the spire by 
means of the general contractor's material tower and bridge. 
They were then pulled up and erected from a platform 
attached to the outside of the spire. This procedure started 
at the top of the spire and was carried downward, the plat- 
form being moved at convenient intervals. All plates fitted 
exactly into place and all connection holes matched the 
holes provided in the structural steel, indicating the degree 
of accuracy used in manufacturing the castings and in 
fabricating and erecting the structural steel. On account of 
the inside of the spire being open to the weather, the bolts 
connecting the plates to the steel frame were given a rust 
preventative treatment and one coat of red lead paint in 
the shop, and one coat of metalastic black paint after 
erection. About 6,500 bolts were used and the total weight 
of aluminum castings erected was 16.6 tons. 

With the exception of the installation of the new clock 
and the old bell, the spire was completed in November, 
1940. It is believed that this is the first time cast aluminum 
plates have been used, in imitation of stone masonry, on a 
church spire. 

A detailed inspection of the masonry arches in the inte- 
rior of the church was made prior to the actual underpinning 
operations. All cracks and defects were carefully recorded 
and the most prominent ones were marked and photo- 
graphed. Elevation marks were also established on the 
columns and piers. Subsequent inspections and level 
readings indicate that there has been no movement since 
the start of the new work. 

Messrs. Ross and MacDonald were the architects and 
The Foundation Company of Canada Limited, the general 
contractors. The structural steel was supplied and erected 
by the Dominion Bridge Company Limited and the alumi- 
num plates were manufactured and erected by the Robert 



Mitchell Co. Limited. The cut stone was supplied by 
Quinlan Cut Stone Limited and the cast stone by Mr. E. J. 
Ambrose. 




Fig. 5 — Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, after completion 
of the new spire. 



THE DESIGN OF SPREAD FOOTINGS 

I. F. MORRISON 
Professor of Applied Mechanics, Department of Civil and Municipal Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alia. 



Foreword 

The following paper is an attempt to place the design of 
spread footings on a rational basis. It is realized that there 
are numerous short-comings and that it will be easy to 
offer destructive criticism to many points contained in it. 
The author will welcome rational discussion both favourable 
and adverse but at the same time would beg of those — and 
there will be many — who disagree to bear in mind the 
philosophy of the "Better 'Ole." 

General 

In this paper it is proposed to deal with only the simplest 
type of foundation such as is commonly found under build- 
ings. A laterally uniform soil will be assumed, the water 
content of which will be supposed to remain essentially 
constant. We shall be concerned, not with the strength of 
the footing, but merely with its size and shape in plan. 

At the outset it is obvious that the criterion which forms 
the basis on which the proportionate size of the footings 
must rest is that of equal settlement; at least, in so far as 



such is at all possible in any particular case. We shall 
examine this aspect of the subject but, before proceeding 
to do so, it is necessary to discuss in a general manner the 
phenomenon of settlement of a footing and to enquire as to 
its causes. 

Phenomenon and Causes of Settlement 

Let us conceive a footing of rectangular shape which 
supports the interior column of a building. Its sole is, let us 
say, about one-half the width of the footing below the 
basement floor level so that the footing rests in the earth 
rather than on top of it. Due to the load from the column; 
to the weight of and load on the basement floor; and to the 
weight of the fill, top block, and footing itself; an average 
vertical unit pressure, p , is applied to the soil. If this 
pressure be appreciably greater than the original pressure at 
the same level due to the weight of the soil prior to excava- 
tion — and it usually is — then settlement of the footing will 
take place. Even if it be equal to the original pressure the 
soil may swell after the excavation has been carried out and 



10 



January, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



subsequent settlement may occur. As to how much settle- 
ment will occur, that depends on a number of factors — 
among which are the physical characteristics of the soil 
strata to a considerable depth, the pressure applied by the 
footing to the soil, the size and shape of the footing, the 
depth of its sole below the surface of the surrounding 
earth, and also the pressure of other footings in the vicinity 
of it. It is by no means easy to estimate the combined in- 
fluences of all of these factors. 




Fig. 1 

The sinking of the footing into the ground is the result of 
two general effects produced by the stresses which result 
from the application of the pressure p a to the soil. These 
effects are: 1: a compression, or consolidation, of the soil 
directly below the footing; and 2: a lateral movement of 
the soil from under the footing. The settlement of the 
footing is the combined result. These items have been the 
subject of much recent discussion and investigation, and 
here it is proposed to avoid further detailed consideration. 
The consolidation of the soil is due to the normal com- 
pressive stresses which cause the expulsion of some of the 
water and compression of the air which occupies the voids 
in the soil, which results in a change in the unit volume of 
the soil. Such change of unit volume is for the most part 
of a permanent character, though there is some elastic 
deformation as well. The lateral movement is also of an 
only partially elastic character. We shall find it convenient 
to assume a direct proportionality relationship between the 
settlement and the footing pressure, corresponding to the 
assumption of Hooke's law, i.e., for sole pressures, p a , not 
too large, the settlement, s, will be directly proportional to 

In order to make this discourse clear, Fig. 1 shows the 
footing resting on a prism of soil the cross-section of which 
is given by the size and shape of the footing in plan, si is 
the settlement due to the lateral squeezing out of the soil 
prism and sz that due to the consolidation of the soil lying 
within the prism. The largest part of each of these effects 
occurs near the top of the soil prism and the total settlement 
is directly proportional to the change in volume of the soil 
lying within the prism. 

The general shape of the load settlement curve is shown 
in Fig. 2 by the curve C. The ordinates to this curve are 
the sums of the respective ordinates to the curves A and B, 
due to the lateral movement and to the consolidation re- 
spectively. From a qualitative point of view, these curves 



represent the following well known facts: for curve A, as 
the footing pressure increases, the sinking sj increases at an 
increasing rate. In the early stages, the lateral bulging of 
the soil prism is elastic in character with some lateral con- 
solidation of the soil which surrounds the soil prism; with 
increased pressure, due to the shear resistance of the soil 
being overcome by the shearing stresses, plastic flow out- 
wards and upwards around the footing sets in as indicated 
by the sudden downward trend of the curve A. For curve 
B the consolidation increases with p at a decreasing rate. 
Near the origin of co-ordinates, the curve C is approx- 
imately straight and it is this fact which forms the basis 
for the assumption stated above regarding the proportion- 
ality of settlement to footing pressure; provided the latter 
be not too large. As to how large the sole pressure may 
become without invalidating this simple relationship be- 
tween load and settlement is a question of the carrying 
capacity of the soil — a subject of importance, with which, 
however, we are not concerned at the moment. 

At first sight, it would seem that we have in this way suc- 
ceeded in putting the proportioning of footings on the same 
basis as the proportioning of, let us say, a concrete column 
or any other structure composed of materials to which we 
may feel justified in applying Hooke's law. This does not 
turn out to be the case, however, because the values of the 
ordinates to the curves A and B respectively are dependent 
not only on the properties of the soil, but are also functions 
of the size and shape of the footing itself and of the depth, 
h, of the soil layer. A mathematical analysis shows these 
functions to be extremely complicated and one does not, at 
present, feel that such refinement should be attempted in 
practice. It can be shown, however, that the total settlement 
can be represented by the formula 



s =^(kr* + Jb'r- 1 ) 
E 



(1) 



in which k and k' are parameters dependent on the shape 
and size of the footing and the depth of the soil to bedrock. 



pressure 



10 



c 

r- 



«0 




Fig. 2 

E is the modulus of compression of the soil, and r is a lateral 
dimension, such as, for example, one-half of the smallest 
side of a rectangular footing, or the width of a strip footing, 
etc. Some attempts have been made to obtain numerical 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



11 



data for k. On the other hand but little is known regarding 
k' except that it is relatively small for small footing pres- 
sures and large footings, and that it may become large and, 
therefore, predominant, for large pressures and quite small 
footings. Most footings, in practical design, are sufficiently 

V k' 
large that the term-^— may be neglected. Thus, we are 

left with the relatively simple expression s = — — (2) 

E 

for the approximate settlement, in which n has been taken 
equal to unity as it has approximately that value. 

factor K 























































































£\J» 


















\ N 










t! 














\\\ 


\\\ 



























\\ 


\\\ 


\V 












r ¥ , r ? 






11 


V 


\ 






\ 




"0 





* 


* 










\v 






\ 

\ 








"a 8 
L 




1.„r 












\\ 




\ 


\ 




















J J 






w 






\ 



Fig. 3 

Several simplified formulae have been given for k but 
here the discussion will be limited to that given by Stein- 
brenner* for the estimation of the settlement of rectangular 
footings. 

Proportioning Footings 

If, then, for two footings which are to support total loads 
Pi and P 2 we are to secure equal settlement, we shall have 

P\T\k\ P 2 r 2 ko 



E 



E 



or, assuming the sole pressure to be uniformly distributed, 
Pyiki _Pf 2 k 2 
A 1 A, 



(3) 



in which Ai and A 2 are the respective footing areas. The 
process for the design of footings on this basis may then be 
stated as follows: After the total loads on the soles of the 
footings have been determined, the smallest one is selected 
and with some allowable sole pressure the required area is 
determined by the usual process. With this data, all of the 
other footings are proportioned on the basis of equation (3) 
above. In order to do this, the values of k\ and k 2 must be 
known and these may be determined from Steinbrenner's 
diagram, Fig. 3, by a trial and error process. 

At first sight, the above process may appear to lead to 
larger footings than the older methods and therefore to 
increased cost. This is not the case, however, when it is 
realized that higher allowable soil pressures can be used 
with assurance than were advisable with the previous 
process. Also, the allowable soil pressure may be governed 
by other practical details. For example, in the design of a 
small steel frame building the exterior brickwalls rested on 
14-inch concrete basement walls. It did not seem practical 
to place beneath these walls a footing less than 28 inches 

(*) Figure 3 has been reproduced and modified from a modified 
diagram shown in Baugrund und Bauwerk by Kôgler and Scheidig, 
and originally published by Dr. Steinbrenner in Die Strasse, 1934. 



wide, though a 24-inch footing could perhaps have been 
used. From the total load per foot on these footings, the basic 
soil pressure per square foot was computed and, by using 
the process suggested above, all of the interior footings were 
proportioned. The unit sole pressure on the soil varied from 
4.8 kips per sq. ft. under the wall footings, to 3.2 kips per 
sq. ft. under the largest of the interior column footings, 
which had a design load of 220,000 lbs. The soil was a deep 
deposit of silt with a natural water content of 19 per cent. 

Distribution of Pressure under Footings 

It becomes necessary, next, to examine the conditions 
under which it is possible to attain equal settlement for the 
footings of a building. Buildings which rest on deep de- 
posits of compressible soil cause a saucer-shaped depression 
of the horizontal plane surface on which they rest. This is 
due to the fact that the distribution of stress from the 
various footings overlaps and thus, taken as a whole, there 
is more consolidation of the ground at the centre of the 
building than at its perimeter. Not much can be done about 
this aspect of settlement except to keep the settlement as a 
whole, and therefore the differential settlements, to a 
minimum. This can be done in part at least by deep exca- 
vation and by stiff foundation structures. Otherwise the 
building simply has to conform to the saucer-shape and it 
may, in certain circumstances, be expedient to choose a 
flexible type of structure for that purpose. 

In order to discuss the overlapping of the stresses, it is 
first necessary to consider the spreading out of the pressure 
beneath a footing. 

A number of formulae have been devised for the distri- 
bution of pressure beneath a spread footing and several 
useful diagrams and tables for the purpose are to be found 
in the contemporary literature. Painstaking accuracy, 

\ 



-a. 



HIIIHIIIH 



^u mjim 



iU\ 






' ' ' '[''' Ml I I I I M ll\^ll 






^H- 



~Z 



7 



Fig. 4a 




Fig. 4b 

however, in this matter is not justified at the present state 
of knowledge, so that some simplified assumption as 
regards vertical stress distribution appears to be in order 
from a practical point of view. Without going into too much 
detail, we shall assume that the angle of spread of the pres- 
sure is at 45 deg. to the vertical. Figures 4a and 4b repre- 
sent rectangular and strip footings respectively and an 
assumed vertical stress distribution at different levels is 
shown which will be adequate for practical purposes. From 
them, it will be seen that the stresses become rapidly smaller 
for horizontal planes at depths greater than the width of 



12 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the footing and that these stresses taper to zero after a 
certain point away from the centre line is reached. 

It is an easy matter to determine the minimum spacing 
between footings such that no serious overlapping of the 
stress distribution will occur. As an example, let us assume 
three equal footings each 8 by 8 ft. and that they rest on a 
compressible soil which has a depth h = 15 ft. from the foot- 
ing soles to bed-rock. What should be the centre to centre 





1. w ,1 23 ' 






1. 1*' .i i. I s ' .1 1- 


8 '.| 




P 1 ' 1 j | 






/ 

/ 


X N A AA /v 
X*X .*. X X 


^X 



Fig. 5 

distance between footings so that equal settlement may be 
expected ? Figure 5 shows the solution and additional com- 
ment seems hardly necessary. 

Obviously the theoretical centre to centre distance 
between equal rectangular footings resting on a compres- 
sible stratum of thickness h is d = h+b, in which b is the 
least lateral width. If the footings be unequal in size, such, 
for example, as a small footing lying between two equal 
large footings, the distance between centres should be 
determined by the same process. 

In case a soft stratum lies below a hard stratum in which 
the footings rest, the stresses — intensity and distribution- 
should be computed at the top and bottom of the soft 
stratum. From this information one can determine whether 
there will be unequal settlement — which is often the case— 
and an estimate of the amount can be made if the pressure- 
voids ratio curve has been obtained or if the lvalue has 
been determined by test in the field. Simple preliminary 
studies of this sort may be an important factor in the choice 
of type of superstructure as well as the general arrangement 
of column spacing. 

Total Settlement of a Structure 

A second aspect of footing design is concerned with the 
amount of settlement of the structure as a whole. Several 
methods for such computations have been given, based both 
on the pressure-voids ratio relationship and on the E- 
value. Equation (2) affords one method for such compu- 
tation and it becomes necessary to determine the E'-value 
for the stratum (or strata) lying below the footings. 
The best method is to determine this value by direct test 
but in so doing a deep boring or open pit is necessary with 
suitable samples for the purpose of determination of the 
character of the supporting soil. Soils are not usually uni- 
form for any great depth and consequently the lvalue of 
the various strata must be taken into account by means of 
separate tests at suitable levels. 

Loading Tests 

The interpretation of soil loading tests and the determina- 
tion of the i^-value from them is by no means a simple 
matter. In order to properly interpret a soil loading test it is 
necessary to bear in mind the two terms which go to make 
up the settlement as given in equation (1). For tests on 
small areas the second term becomes perhaps more im- 
portant than the first and often predominant. Figure 6 
shows the relationship between size of footing, or test area, 
and the settlement for a constant unit pressure. 

The curves A and B represent the first and second terms 
of equation (1) respectively and C the resultant of the two. 
The general shape of the curve C has been confirmed by 
numerous tests and also in theoretical analysis so that it 
appears to be well established. For areas of approximately 
1 sq. ft. the settlement is a minimum for pressures not too 

(1) Baugrund und Bauwerk, Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn. 



large. For smaller areas the settlement increases very 
rapidly and for larger areas the increase is much slower. It 
is obvious that areas larger than one square foot are neces- 
sary for bearing tests if the useful part of the C curve is to be 
obtained. Several such curves (determined for different unit 
pressures) will enable one to determine the E'-value for the 
soil immediately below the test footing. Concrete footing 
blocks having areas of 2 sq. ft. and 4 sq. ft. are suggested as 
practical sizes, though up to 10 sq. ft. would be desirable 
if the cost be not prohibitive. 

If the substratum be not uniform, then other methods 
for the determination of the EWalue at various levels must 
be employed. These, however, will not be described in this 
paper. Some attempts have been made to develop satisfac- 
tory tests on the strata in situ but much along this line still 
remains to be done. 

A rough idea of the ^-values for various kinds of soil may 
be obtained from the following table drawn from a similar 
table given by Kôgler-Scheidig ( l .) It should be used only 
as a general guide in the absence of more reliable informa- 
tion. 

Table I 

£-Value 
Soil Type (Tons per sq. ft.) 

Gravel (dense) 1000—2000 

Sand (dense) 500— 800 

Sand (loose) 100— 200 

Clay (hard) 80— 150 

Clay (medium) 40— 80 

Clay (soft) 15— 40 

Clay (very soft) 5— 30 

The E'-value for the silt on the river flats at Edmonton is 
approximately 44 tons per sq. ft. This soil is known to be 
quite compressible. 

In the determination of the ^J-value from a soil bearing 
test, Steinbrenner's diagram can be used to advantage 
provided of course the limitations as to size of bearing plate 
and magnitude of soil pressure are kept in mind. As an 
example, a bearing plate of 4 sq. ft. area showed a settle- 
ment of 1.1 in. due to a load of 4 tons per sq. ft. The soil 
was a yellow clay of considerable depth having a natural 
water content of 26 per cent. From this test the E-va\\ie is: 

_ .65 x 4 x 2 x 12 e _ , ., 

E = =60 tons per sq. ft. 

1.1 




Bearing Capacity 

In the preceding remarks it has been assumed that the 
bearing capacity of the soil has not been exceeded. The 
designers should make sure that this will not happen. The 
best way to determine the bearing capacity of a soil is by 
actual test in the field provided the test be properly inter- 
preted. Moreover, the character of the soil must be taken 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



13 







pressure Ions per ae^-ff 






\ \ 


m 




\ \ 






5tr\a II area\ ^ 


o 




A \ 


c 




\ l \ 




\ 


\ large \ 


4» 




C 




\ \ 


_QJ 




\ \ 
\ \ 


~t> 






O 




\ \ 



Fig. 7 

into account. Figure 7 shows the typical loading test graph 
(full line) for a cohesionless soil, let us say carried out on an 
area of 4 sq. ft. We shall interpret this test as indicating 
that the bearing capacity of the soil is 4 tons per sq. ft. A 
second test on a larger bearing area will give a graph accord- 
ing to the dotted line. The correct conclusion is that for 
larger areas the bearing capacity of this soil is more than 
4 tons per sq. ft., so that for such soil when we speak of the 
bearing capacity we must also have in mind the area of the 
footing. 

Figure 8 shows a similar test on a cohesive soil. Here it 
will be noted that the bearing capacity is perhaps 3.5 tons 
per sq. ft. and that it is not as sharply defined as in the case 
of the non-cohesive soil. Also, it will be noted that the 
bearing capacity of this type does not increase with an in- 
crease in size of footing but remains substantially the same 
(dashed line). Many soils in nature will lie between these 
extreme cases and it becomes necessary to use judgment not 
only in interpreting the results of a soil test but in selecting 
from it a safe value for the maximum permissible soil 
pressure in any given case. 

Failure — somewhat indefinitely defined as that point 
which is reached on the curve where for a small increment 
of load there is a large increment of settlement — is brought 
about by the lateral flow of the soil which in turn is de- 
pendent on the depth t of the sole of the footing below the 
surface of the soil which surrounds it. The bearing capacity 
increases with this depth and in fact does so quite rapidly, 
especially for cohesionless soils. 

On the basis of the field tests shown by Figs. 7 and 8 
respectively, one can safely adopt 4 or more tons per sq. ft. 
in the one case and perhaps but l}/£ tons per sq. ft. in the 
other. One must remember, however, that such field tests 
exhibit the properties of the soil only to a comparatively 
small depth and that underlying soft strata in the case of 
Fig. 7 may have an appreciable influence on the design of 
the footing but not so much from the point of view of 
failure of the soil as from that of excessive settlement. 

Loads on Footings 

An important part of correct footing design lies in a 
proper estimate of the column loads for which the footings 
should be proportioned. Clay soils compress slowly and 



loads of short duration have little effect on the amount of 
settlement over a prolonged period. Sandy soils and silts, 
which compress relatively quickly, are affected by loads of 
short duration. For example, there is no point in allowing 
for impact loads on the foundations for the piers of a rail- 
road bridge where the soil is a dense clay. 

The column and wall loads in a building depend on three 
items. These are: the dead load of the structure, which may 
be accurately estimated; the permanent superimposed 
loads, which may remain in place for long periods; and the 
intermittent superimposed loads. Of these, the first is 
always present, the others may or may not be present in 
certain cases. The author believes that the footings should 
be proportioned in general only for the first and second, 
though there are obvious exceptional cases. It is difficult to 
estimate the amount of the second item. It is seldom equiva- 
lent to the floor and column design loads. For example, in 
the case of a warehouse which may be heavily loaded on all 
floors for long periods, 100 per cent of the floor design live 
load should be taken. At the other extreme the typical steel 
frame office building should have only 10 lb. per sq. ft. 
on all working floors with nothing allowed for the corridors. 

pressure Ions per sc^.ft. 




Fig. 8 

This will be ample, though a larger allowance should be 
made for the basement floor which may be used for storage. 
No allowance need be made for snow on the roof except in 
certain localities. Such buildings as department stores, 
machine shops, etc., fall between these extreme cases. In 
any event, the determination of the footing loads should be 
given careful attention. It is indeed too often neglected. No 
proper proportioning of footings can be carried out without 
attention to an accurate estimate of the proper wall and 
column loads and this is one of the most difficult parts of 
foundation design. 



ANNUAL MEETING, HAMILTON, ONT., FEBRUARY 6th and 7th, 1941 



14 



January, 19il THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE PREPARATION OF SMOOTH SURFACES 



M. W. PETRIE 

Production Research Dinsion, Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, Michigan 

Paper presented before the Border Cities Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada at Windsor, Ont., on 

November 15th, 1940 

(abridged) 



During the past six years the author has directed the 
research on the development and application of fine metallic 
surface finish for the Chrysler Corporation. We evolved a 
revolutionary technique in the commercial preparation of 
smooth surfaces, which has solved major production and 
mechanical problems for the Corporation, and is called 
'superfinish.' We then began the study of how to explain the 
production of fine metal surfaces from a technical view- 
point, so that a more universal use could be made of this 
development. This study has made headway, but many 
discussing the problem from both a technical and practical 
aspect base their conclusions on what they see, or rely 
exclusively on measurements by some instrument such as 
the profilometer and surface analyser, failing to realize that 
the metallurgical structure of the surface is of equal im- 
portance to the geometrical development in eliminating 
wear. 

In order to discuss metallic surface finish intelligently 
from the industrial viewpoint, one should be able to answer 
the following questions: 

1. What is a defective surface, and what are the factors 
causing it ? 

2. What would be the practical industrial value of perfected 
metal surface finishes ? 

3. What would be the loss to the public if surface finishing 
problems were not solved according to commercial and 
engineering requirements ? 

4. What is the relationship of refined metal surfaces to wear 
and lubrication ? 

5. What is the difference in topography between a ground 
surface and a geometrically developed smooth surface as 
shown by metallography ? 

6. What is an unbroken oil film ? 

7. What is the metallurgy of surface finish ? 

8. What are the relative merits of the different methods of 
measuring refined metal surfaces such as : metallography, 
sound, stylus point, light wave, friction and microscopic ? 

9. What processes are involved, and what are the major 
considerations in producing a refined finish on all types 
and shapes of metal surfaces ? 

Excellent results in the development of fine metallic 
surfaces are being obtained daily on parts being produced 
for use in automobiles, aircraft motors, tractors, sewing 
machines, and in every conceivable type of mechanism. 

The Beginning of 'Superfinish' 

The story of 'superfinish' begins early in 1934,when the 
replacement of roller bearings in the front and rear axles of 
new cars was causing serious annoyance and trouble to the 
dealers and owners. The defect called, "brinelling" by 
service men, was an indentation on the bearing races, 
caused by the weight of the cars on the bearings acting 
during railroad transit to distant points. An examination 
showed that this indentation was very slight, measuring 
approximately .0001 in. in depth, yet in road driving it 
caused an obnoxious buzzing noise, making replacement 
necessary to satisfy owners. The indentations could be 
removed by lapping, indicating that they were not in the 
solid crystalline metal, but only in the "fuzz" left on the 
finished surface by the finish grinding operation. This 
started experimental work on how to remove economically 
this "fuzz" developed by the dimensional and finish grind- 
ing operation. Lapping with abrasive and oil did not 
produce a satisfactory surface from a commercial or eco- 



nomical point of view, but we developed a simple reciprocat- 
ing device using a bonded abrasive stone, that was arranged 
to give a short reciprocal stroke under light pressure while 
the work was rotating. This device quickly removed the 
grinding "fuzz" which is really fragmented, amorphous, 
non-crystalline and/or smear metal, doing so in about 
fifteen seconds of time and leaving a smooth surface which 
under the microscope appeared black with a few scratches 
below the contacting surface. 

By the use of this simple apparatus sufficient bearings 
were completed to equip, over a period of three months, 
approximately 200 cars to be shipped to distant points 
such as California. The shipments were accompanied by a 
toolmaker and service man, and none of the cars with 
properly finished bearing surfaces gave any indication of 
"brinell" or failure. This confirmed the necessity for having 
all bearings finished in such a manner as to remove the 
defective surfaces developed by the dimensional operations 
of finish grinding, and to-day more than one hundred million 
bearings have been 'superfinished' in the taper roller 
bearing factories. Experiments were made with ball bear- 
ings, for they have exactly the same defects where the 
surfaces are finished by grinders. The balls will indent 
under static loads and movement such as in railroad car 
shipping under load and pressure. 




Fig. 1 — Fragmented metal caused by severe machining 
methods. Scale: one inch = 0.040 inch. 

A "Wear-Proof" Surface 

While we were trying to perfect the production of this 
new finish it was found that after approximately fifteen to 
thirty seconds of operation, when the fragmented, non- 
crystalline metal had been removed, the action of the 
bonded abrasive entirely ceased and the operation could be 
continued for hours without removing any additional 
material. 

By further experiments with lubricants of different vis- 
cosity we found that the lubricant supported the abrasive 
stones as soon as sufficient smooth area had been developed 
on the metal surface to permit the viscosity of the oil to 
balance the pressure of the load between the abrasive and 
metallic surface just as it would in the action of a journal 
bearing. 

It then became evident that we could extend this surface 
finishing to practically all of our products, and experimental 
work continued from then to now on a wider basis. Up to 
May 1, 1940, the Chrysler Corporation had spent a total 
of $265,000 in research and study for the development of 
refined metallic surface finish, and between three and five 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



15 



million dollars has been spent by industry for 'superfinish- 
ing' machines, showing that this new method of producing 
refined metallic finish is accepted by industry as a mechan- 
ical advance. The photographs shown in Fig. 2 are evidence 
of this. 

The Application of 'Superfinish' 

After taper bearings we next used the application of 
'superfinish' methods to the finishing of crankshafts with 
equally successful results, and this has been extended until 
today we are 'superfinishing' in some degree every surface 
in our motors, such as pistons, crankshafts, tappet barrels 
and faces, valve stems, camshaft bearings and cam con- 
tours, and many other parts where the elimination of wear 
and "break-in" periods is advantageous. In addition, such 
surfaces are capable of carrying bearing loads more than 
double those formerly possible. Also, fatigue failures caused 
by surface defects are eliminated. 



r 



.000 1 90 



tf ft f\ 

fa. ,.vt , 



V' w w V W * 



S il T~ 



il I 



,4/V A 



Ont inch = .0)i inch. 



OOOII3 



"//' r* r ">v, i^F/^^>~?v*F, 




Ground Surface SurERTIKISHED 5 seconds. One inch = .03Î inch. 



p.OO»oéî 



f 



Ground Surface SUPF.RFIKISHED 10 seconds 






ich = OJJ inch. 



Ground Surface Superfinisheo 50 seconds 



I I «ll'^"|l|«'™i,V 



One inch = .01! inch 



Fig. 2 — Series of profilographs of a ground steel surface 'super- 
finished' at progressive lengths of time. Magnification: vertical 
5,000, horizontal 30. 

The highest quality cutting tools are now 'superfinished' 
in order that a cutting surface will be produced that is free 
of irregularities and any degree of annealed cutting edge 
formed by the grinding operation. 

To-day's Description of 'Superfinishing' 

The technique developed after several years of experience 
may be described as follows: 

'Superfinish' is the name given to a mechanically- 
made metal surface finish that is the final process, super- 
imposed on all other types of dimensional metal surface 
finishing methods, such as turning, honing, machine 
grinding and lap-grinding, and can be developed upon 
flat, internal, external, round, concave, convex and ir- 
regular surfaces whereby the metallic surface is metallur- 
gically changed by economical methods and mechanical 
means from a fragmented, amorphous, non-crystalline or 
smear metal condition to a geometrically smooth, 
developed crystalline surface, free or practically free of 
all surface defects and scratches. This type of metal 
finish is produced by the combined action of proper 



bonded abrasive, low abrasive speed, light abrasive 
pressure and a combination of multi and random motion, 
short abrasive stroke, variable work and abrasive speeds 
and variable abrasive pressures, all in combination with a 
lubricant of proper viscosity whereby defective frag- 
mented and non-crystalline metal is removed from the 
surface of the crystalline base metal, exposing for support 
of moving or static loads on lubricated or non-lubricated 
surfaces a geometrically smooth, developed surface of 
unworked crystalline base metal to permit of basic metal- 
lurgical conditions for the elimination of the development 
of wear and to permit greatly increased bearing pressures 
without oil film rupture or failure. 

'Superfinishing' Technique 

There are two main objectives in the production of a 
good metallic bearing surface, the one, metallurgical, is to 
remove the defective metal at the surface, previously pro- 
duced by the shaping or dimensioning operation, and 
expose the true crystals of the material actually bisected so 
as to leave an extremely fine plane surface; and the other, 
geometrical, is to remove the hills and valleys (scratches 
and/or flaws), and by the laws of physics to generate a true 
and smooth surface which will eliminate the danger of oil 
film rupture and metal-to-metal contact that only lead to 
increased friction, wear and failure. 

'Superfinish' technique differs from past practices for 
the development of smooth metallic surfaces for mass 
production in industry. The basic differences are as follows: 

1. Abrasive speeds for average 'superfinishing' are 3 to 
50 ft. per minute, with 5 to 20 ft. preferred, versus 6,000 
to 10,000 ft. per minute for finish grinding. 

2. The abrasive pressure for average 'superfinishing' for 
internal surfaces is 1 to 30 lb. per sq. in., preferably 3 to 
10 lb., versus 500 to 1,000 lb. for average honing opera- 
tions which must develop dimension and surface quali- 
ties simultaneously; (honing pressures are developed 
using 50 to 100 lb. hydraulic direct pressure, multiplied 
many times by the wedge action of expanding cones 
within the hones). 

3. The pressure on the abrasive for average 'superfinish' of 
external surfaces is 3 to 50 lb., 3 to 20 preferred, versus 
pressures of approximately 200,000 lb. per sq. in. or 
more in grinding operations with only wheel line con- 
tact. (The high abrasive pressures of honing and 
grinding develop great heat which serves to make the 
surfaces more ductile, and the severity of the operation 
develops defective non-crystalline surfaces.) 

4. True 'superfinish' technique makes extreme use, where 
mechanically possible, of multi and random motion 
together with a very short abrasive stroke performed 
with great rapidity (preferably of the vibratory order) 
by the abrasive stones. In order to take advantage of the 
geometrical laws for the generation of true surfaces, 
strokes of % to Y\ of an inch at 300 to 3,000 reversals or 
more per minute (crank motion preferred) replace the 
continuous direction motion of wheel grinding, and the 
50 to 100 reversals per minute, of much greater lengths 
of travel, of standard honing machines and honing 
methods. 

5. 'Superfinish' technique uses a light oil of proper vis- 
cosity primarily for lubrication and to stop abrasive 
action, and not for cooling purposes, as low abrasive 
speed and pressure do not generate destructive heat. 
The light oil is used to carry away the minute particles 
abraded from the metallic surface by short abrasive 
stone stroke. 

6. 'Superfinish' was developed primarily as a finishing 
operation and not a dimensional operation. On fine 
finishes in the past, such as required for the manufacture 
of gauges of all types, valves, air and liquid seals, a 
finishing operation was needed after the dimensional 
operation to eliminate metallic and surface defects 



16 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



caused by the dimensional operations. 'Superfinish' is 
only an expansion of this to commercial and mass pro- 
duction ideas using basically new mechanical theories 
for the production of such surfaces. 




Fig. 3 — The 'superfinisher' pictured here is set up for 'super- 
finishing' pistons. The stone-holder is reciprocated mechanic- 
ally and the entire stone-holder mechanism traversed longi- 
tudinally by actuating the hand wheel shown in the foreground. 
The motions, with the revolving of the piston, produce the 
random motion necessary for the production of smooth 
'superfinished' surfaces. 

7. Dimensional sizing of work is made easy by the use of 
of 'superfinish' technique by the action of a coarser 
abrasive plus additional speed and pressure which will 
give dimensional accuracy that is not attained at the 
present time and at much greater production speeds. 
After this 'superfinishing' dimensional operation is 
completed the 'superfinishing' finishing technique is 
used for developing the crystalline, non-wearing metallic 
surface. 

8. Finally, dimension and a fine, smooth, crystalline finish 
cannot be arrived at simultaneously, as the brutal action 
necessary to rupture metallic crystals to get dimension, 
destroys the contacting metallic surface, leaving it in a 
fragmented, amorphous, non-crystalline or smear con- 
dition. It is this surface, or "Beilby's Layer," that is 
removed by 'superfinishing,' used only as a finishing 
operation, that is, with low abrasive speed and pressure. 

Surface Structure 

It is now desirable to discuss the manner in which 
fragmented and smear metal is developed upon metallic 
surfaces and how it is produced by the processes of turning, 
grinding and honing. The principal methods are herewith 
outlined. 

TURNING 

1. If a turning tool is free-cutting without drag it will 
produce on the surface principally fragmented, or amor- 
phous metal, but if the turning tool is arranged not only to 
turn metal off the surface, but is arranged with what is 
known as a drag or contacting surface just behind the 
turning or cutting edge, it will cut and compress the non- 
crystalline and fragmented metal into an amorphous or 
smear condition in such a manner as to leave a fairly smooth 
and bright surface. The quality and appearance of such a 
surface may be improved if coolants of anti-welding 
characteristics, such as soda or sulphur compounds are 
used, but the heat resulting from this compression, speed 



and pressure is such that a smear metal surface is developed 
which adheres tenaciously to the crystalline metallic base. 
This type of smear metal compares to the formation of 
"smear" snow by sliding a ski over a snow surface under 
load. 

BURNISHING 

2. Exactly the same condition of smear metal is de- 
veloped on a turned or ground surface by roller burnishing. A 
smooth surface roller, forced under high pressure over a 
turned surface, crushes and compresses the fragmented 
material developed by the turning or grinding operation and 
the combination of heat and pressure results in a fairly 
smooth film of smear metal of greater uniformity, more 
smooth in appearance and which, perhaps on an average, 
adheres with somewhat greater tenacity to the crystalline 
base surface due to greater heat than that smear metal 
produced by a turning tool. This type of smear surface 
development leaves a surface that might be compared to a 
"metallic paint" and when such surfaces are developed by 
the best accepted burnishing practices they produce a 
bearing which may be satisfactory where there is low 
bearing pressure, reasonably continuous lubrication and 
slow speed as for railroad axles. This type of smear metal 
compares to formation of "smear" snow by rolling a lawn 
roller over the snow on ice under load. 

GRINDING 

3. The next and most common method of producing 
smear metal on a metallic crystalline surface is by finish 
grinding. Rough grinding with free-cutting wheels can be 
compared to turning with a tool that is not ground and 
arranged with a drag. However, finish grinding with suf- 
ficient high pressure to remove metallic material requires 
high abrasive speeds of from 6,000 to 8,000 ft. per minute 
and, with fine grit and hard bond, causes heat generated by 



I— OSCILLATION 



ROTATION 




ROTATION 
OSCILLATION 



MULTI-MOTION 



Fig. 4 — Diagram showing the method of obtaining random 

path 'superfinishing' cutting action for flat work, of size 

limited only by machine capacity. 

the lack of cutting action of such finish grinding wheels. 
This heat produces a smear metal surface in which there are 
still hills and valleys (scratches) on the surface. These 
surface irregularities are produced by the points of the 
grain abrasive under pressure and prevent the maintenance 
of thin oil films without metal-to-metal contact, which 
under ordinary conditions is the cause of initial wear 
because of the difficulty of lubrication. This type of finish- 
ground surface was the cause of the taper bearing trouble 
that was previously referred to. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



17 



SLOW WHEEL GRINDING 

4. The next type of smear metal surface is that produced 
on grinders, both centreless and centre type, with a slow 
speed abrasive wheel of approximately 300 to 1,500 surface 
feet per minute. The abrasive wheel is a combination of 
very fine abrasive grain and a very hard bond, or a bond of 
rubber, bakélite, plastic, etc. This method is usually a 
surfacing and not a dimensioning process, and produces a 
surface which has low microinch reading for surface defects, 



2.lo3Â of adsorbed d as and moist ure. 
MoôOÂ of oxides.nftrides.dust and scale. 
Nitrides and hioh concentration of oxides 
duetohjah temperatures. 
Metal attop decarbonized and 



TaQ me'nted b y heat and pressure . 
5QOO0À of highly stressed 
very brittle material. 
This layer mas at a 
i_gher temperature 
than used for heat 

t reati ng. 

Very brittle carbides 

Erecipitated ingrain 
oundaries by high 
temperatures. 



2to3/5 of ad- 
sorbed c^as 
an d moistu re. 
30to4ÛÂ slight 
oxidation, dust, 
dirt and compar- 
atively large 
pieces of trap- 
ped lapping 
ab rasive. 
15,000 à pure 
metallic cry- 
stals shouing 
evidence or 
mild cold 
uorking 




2to3 -5 of ad- 
sorbed gas 
an d moistu re. 

30 to40À of 

oxidation, dust 
a nd dirt . 

15,000 À of 
pure metollic 
crystals show- 
ing evidence 
or mild cold, 
uo rking. 

No evidence of 
heat or hi^h 
pr essure. 



FINE GROUND 



LAPPED 



SUPERFINISHED 



The Angstrom Unit (A) for sub-microscopic distances 
One  = 4/1,000,000,000 inch 

Fig. 5 — Diagram showing the structure of metal surfaces 
finished by various methods. 

but is defective from a metallurgical standpoint. The pres- 
sure of the broad, smooth, hard wheel so compresses, crushes 
and heats the surface that there is on an average a some- 
what thinner and denser smear metal surface than is pro- 
duced by other mechanical methods. On the finest of these 
surfaces one would be amazed by what is revealed by not 
more than three or four seconds of 'superfinishing,' showing 
under this surface the defects that are covered up by smear 
metal developed by the slow wheel grinding method. 

As smear metal is formed by pressure and resulting heat 
of slow wheel grinding (burnishing) operations, its physical 
structure is harder than the bulk crystalline material ; there- 
fore, after flaking off is easily crushed and rolled through 
the bearing, producing a continuous, non-stopping abrading 
action. 

HONING 

5. Honing is the usually accepted method for finishing 
internal diameters. A grinding head, of great abrasive stone 
contact area is expanded and inserted into an ordinary 
single tooled or reamed bore and by the use of high speed, 
both rotating and traversing, and with great pressure, 
usually between 500 and 1,000 lb. per sq. in., a surface of 
smear metal is produced, often beautiful in appearance 
(except for cross hatch marks) of microinch reading of 5 
to 15. Only a small amount of material is removed in the 
honing, dimensioning and finishing process, usually not 
more than .005 to .010 on the surface. This smear metal 
surface is developed because of the large abrasive contact 
area, long traversing stroke combined with speed and pres- 
sure, and a short hone. 

From the above description of the development of smear 
metal surfaces, it will be noted that smear metal is always 
developed by trying to obtain a dimension and a surface 
finish simultaneously, which is brought about by pressure, 
speed and resulting heat. 

Surfaces thus produced contain inclusions of the abrasive 



grain and only 'superfinish' or the finest of hand lapping 
eliminates this condition. 

Metallurgical Conditions of Surfaces 

In the past, surface metallurgy has not been given proper 
recognition for wear elimination and increased bearing load 
capacity. Beilby, in 1911, indicated that a surface structure 
existed on commercially finished metal surfaces that was 
different from the base metal and this has since been known 
as "Beilby 's Layer." However, this condition was not then 
suspected as the cause of wear, oil film rupture and limi- 
tation of load-carrying bearing capacity. 

Attention was first drawn to the metallurgical aspects of a 
bearing at the surface when examination of wheel bearings 
that had failed showed a distinct flaking off of a separate 
layer of metal over previous machining marks. These 
bearings had been finished by slow-wheel grinding. 

These observations started a study of the surface of 
bearings processed by all commercial machining methods. 
Studies made by plan-view photomicrography revealed 
little, but efforts to produce informative profile-photo- 
micrographs proved a success. 

Information gathered from the study of such profile 
pictures led to further study by the newest and most up-to- 
date method, electron diffraction. These investigations were 
conducted for us by the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and proved conclusively that the metal at the outer 
surface of a machined bearing is definitely different from 
that in the body of the bearing. 

There appear to be three metallurgical conditions existing 
above the crystalline base metal when the metal surface has 
been finished by turning, grinding or honing. First is the 
fragmented crystalline metal that has been ruptured from 
the main crystalline body but still retains its crystalline 
structure. The second is the so-called amorphous structure 
that, through cohesion, holds the fragmented crystals 
together. The third is the undisturbed crystalline structure, 
that is, the bulk metal structure, points of which extend into 
the defective surface. The amorphous cement acts as a 
binder and fills in the voids or space that exists between the 
free crystalline and the base crystalline metal. The heat that 
is developed in the dimensioning operation caused the 
initial cohesion of the fragmented grain, amorphous and 
base crystalline structure. 

Burnishing crushes the free fragmented grain and the 
points of crystalline base that extend into the disturbed 
surface structure, reducing all to an amorphous condition 
and leveling out of the base metal crystalline surface. 

By the use of 'superfinishing' apparatus and technique 
the fragmented metal is more rapidly removed, and the 
clean, crystalline base more readily exposed than when the 
same set-up is used on the smear metal surface. The 
resultant quality of surface finish is the same, time being the 
only difference. This fact will in time, tend toward the 
elimination of finish grinding in industry. 

Measuring 

What does industry require of refined surface finish 
measurement ? First, the method of indicating the quality 
of finish must be as simple as the inch so that there will be a 
common understanding by the physicist, engineer or shop 
mechanic. Second, the apparatus must be accurate and 
inexpensive so that it can be supplied to all mechanics in 
industry. Third, the apparatus should indicate bearing 
load-carrying capacity. Recently, an article in a trade 
journal advocated the adoption of the microinch as a basis 
of evaluating surface quality. Evidently the author of this 
article did not try to analyze the limitation of this method 
at the present time for industry as a whole. First, there are 
over 200,000 industrial plants, and perhaps 5,000,000 
mechanics, that have requirement for surface indicating 
equipment, yet there have been fewer than 150 microinch 
indicators built, and these, when delivered and ready for 
laboratory, or shop use, cost around $1,000 each. Also, it 



18 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



has been proved that this type of instrument does not give 
a comparative measurement except upon surfaces made 
under the same conditions. As an example, a fine ground 
finish of 10 microinch quality will carry only 50 per cent 
of the load of a 20 microinch ground finish that has been 
'superfinished' to a 10 microinch quality. This is, of course, 
because of 'superfinish' development of smooth surface, 
replacing the hill and valley (scratches) of the fine ground 
surface. Yet both will measure 10 microinches. 

A great and outstanding job in the field of refined surface 
measurement has been done by the manufacture of the 
profilometer, but this certainly is not the answer to ultimate 
universal requirement for industry, unless it can be pro- 
duced for less than $100 complete, and then only if a method 
is not devised that is better. 

For geometrically developed smooth surfaces as produced 
by 'superfinish' technique, the friction type, for recording 
surface quality, appears to have great possibilities; first, 
because it makes a known record of surface condition; 
second, because it has universal application; third, because 
it is reasonably cheap to build; and fourth, because, unlike 
the profilometer, it requires no trained operator. It has the 
drawback that surfaces must have smooth topography of 
10 microinches or less to have recordable friction value. 
Measurement of bearing surfaces by their load-carrying 
capacity, which automatically takes into account the bear- 
ing area available, is provided for in the Wallace surface 
finish recording dynamometer. Utilizing pendulum action, 
and either surface or line-contact to the surface being 
tested, enables the dynamometer to be used for external, 
internal, and flat surfaces. 



any clean oil, almost regardless of its lubricating qualities, 
whereas, the best oil will fail on a ground bearing surface 
of 15 to 25 microinch surface defect with all other conditions 
the same. 

Bearing Lubrication 

In our engineering department tests were made on an 
S.A.E. oil testing machine to determine the load-carrying 
capacity of surfaces of different smoothness and also a com- 
parison of surfaces that had been ground and 'super- 
finished.' In this case the viscosity was known and the test 
cups were of different finish values. The result of one such 
test is shown in Table I where the total load applied in 
pounds designate the failure point of the load-carrying 
capacity of the oil. 

We have found that an oil film has the maximum capacity 
to support great loads only if it is uniform in thickness and 
there are no projections above the supporting surface that 
destroy the structural strength of the oil film, which 
strength is due to molecular cohesion. This film strength 
increases at an inverse ratio as pressure reduces its thick- 
ness. But the projections above the supporting surface in- 
crease largely the material weakness of the film strength. 
Thus with a film thickness under load, and surface projec- 
tions of 15 microinches R.M.S. which in reality means 
projections of 50 microinches, by actual measurement will 
reduce the oil film by half of its physical thickness, and 
since the entire surface is defective there is no possibility 
of maintaining the oil film under such conditions. 

'Superfinishing' technique is the only method that will 
give the desired surface conditions from a metallurgical, as 
well as a physical standpoint, at an economical cost. 



Machine used — Standard SAE 
oil-testing machine 

R.P.M 950 

Rubbing Ratio 14.6:1 

Load increase, lb. per sec 83.5 

Oil used M.S. 782 

Viscosity of oil used: 

150 sec.'at 210°F (99°C.) 



Table I 

Microinches rms. 1 

22 to 28 Ground 62 

16 to 18 Ground 140 

12 to 14.5 Ground 116 

8 to 10 Superfinished 165 

4 to 6 Superfinished 200 

to 2 Superfinished 222 



Total Load Applied, 


Pounds 




2 


3 


Average 


65 


86 


71 


110 


100 


117 


130 


96 


114 


148 


146 


153 


160 




180 


224 


204 


217 



Enclosed in the pendulum is a clock timing device. This 
records accurately the time the pendulum is in motion. 

Lubrication of moving load-carrying bearing surfaces 
has always been an engineering problem. Until the advent 
of 'superfinish,' ground surfaces produced in mass pro- 
duction had reached a peak of quality which engineers 
could not surpass by existing methods, and the only way 
that increased loads could be carried upon bearings was to 
increase the size of the bearings. But now, through tech- 
nique which develops a true, smooth surface topography 
and exposes the crystalline base metal for load support, 
bearing surfaces are carrying more than double the loads 
they were formerly carrying under pressure lubrication. The 
smoother the bearing finish the more effective is the lubri- 
cation, but the finish of the bearing surface is far more im- 
portant than the quality of the lubrication. For instance, a 
perfectly smooth bearing would probably function in- 
definitely under a heavy load and pressure lubrication with 



Bearings of the Future 

The economical production of bearing surfaces of the 
future with equipment that industry is now using and will 
be obliged to use for many years to come for economic 
reasons, will be geometrically true, developed by a com- 
promise between so-called rough and finish grinding, 
'superfinished' to a smooth topography of crystalline 
metal and super-surfaced in use by addition of chemical 
compounds in the lubricant, or super-surfaced by shop 
operation before assembly on such parts as ball and roller 
bearings, and on units that are completed before assembly 
of a final machine or device. 

The preparation of really smooth surfaces, such as now 
required by engineers and industry, is in its youth, but 
sufficient results have been accomplished to greatly stim- 
ulate increased endeavor by physicists, engineers and 
production men, and still greater effort will be necessary to 
satisfy the engineer of the future. 



ANNUAL MEETING, HAMILTON, ONT., FEBRUARY 6th and 7th, 1941 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



19 



THE ST. LAWRENCE PROJECT 

A REVIEW OF EARLY AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 



Recently the St. Lawrence project has been brought 
to public attention again by the appearance in the press 
of statements credited to authorities in Washington and 
Ottawa to the effect that steps will be taken shortly to 
launch the undertaking. In view of the absence of any 
official statement regarding the scheme of development 
that is to be adopted in the International Rapids section, 
the news items in which reference is made to various 
schemes of development have been somewhat confusing. 
Because of the interest the engineering profession has in 
the undertaking, it was considered that the Journal might, 
with propriety, review briefly the evolution of the proposed 
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence development, in an endeavour 
to present a clearer view of the status of the project at the 
present time. — Editor. 

Though, from time to time, various power interests both 
in Canada and the United States had attempted to bring 
about partial development in the International Rapids 
section of the St. Lawrence and both countries had evinced 
an interest in a general project, it was not until 1919 that 
they finally agreed to a joint study of the problem. In that 
year the International Joint Commission was asked to in- 
vestigate what further improvements were necessary to 
make the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Lake 
Ontario navigable for deep-draft vessels and to give the 
estimated cost. The Commission was also asked to consider 
a combined development for navigation and power to 
obtain the greatest beneficial use of the river. The Commis- 
sion reported in 1921 that the development of the St. 
Lawrence for navigation and power was feasible, both 
economically and physically, and recommended a scheme 
combining navigation and power in the International 
section and a development for navigation alone in the 
National section with power development later. 

Power interests in both Canada and the United States 
had submitted schemes for the development of the Inter- 
national Rapids section, and this led the Commission in its 
report to recommend that, before embarking upon the 
undertaking, the two countries set up an international 
engineering board to study the engineering features in 
greater detail and determine a scheme of development. 

After some delay, what was known as the Joint Board of 
Engineers was formed, on which each country was repre- 
sented by three engineers. This Board submitted its report 
in November of 1926. While agreeing as to the method of 



development in the National section, the Board could not 
agree upon the method to be followed in the more import- 
ant International Rapids section. Two schemes of develop- 
ment were submitted: that presented by the American 
section of the Board was known as a Single-Stage Project, 
in which the total fall in the section was concentrated by a 
dam and power houses placed at the foot of Barnhart 
Island, navigation being carried around this obstruction by 
means of a side canal and locks on the American side; and 
that proposed by the Canadian section was a Two-Stage 
Project, with the upper dam and power houses at Ogden 
Island and the lower dam and power houses at the lower 
end of Barnhart Island. As an alternative, the Canadian 
section presented a second two-stage scheme, in which the 
upper plant was located at Crysler Island, the lower plant 
being located at Barnhart Island, as in the other scheme. 

For various reasons, considerable time elapsed before the 
report was considered jointly by the two countries, but, in 
the meantime, it was under consideration by different 
official bodies in both Canada and the United States. The 
National Advisory Committee, set up by the Dominion, 
reported in January of 1928. Its report was generally 
favourable to the scheme, with the exception that it was 
definitely recommended that development of the National 
section should first be gone on with. As the United States' 
interests were confined solely to the International section, 
this recommendation did not make for progress. 

It was not until June of 1931, due largely to changes in 
the political situation from time to time in either country, 
that negotiations were opened which ultimately resulted in 
the signing of a St. Lawrence treaty on July 12th, 1932. 

The treaty provided for a two-stage scheme of develop- 
ment in the International Rapids section, with the upper 
dam and power houses located at Crysler Island and the 
side canal and locks on the Canadian side. The lower dam 
and power houses were placed at Barnhart Island, with the 
side canal and locks on the American side. When, however, 
the treaty came before the United States Senate in March, 
1934, ratification was defeated. This marked another 
hiatus in the movement toward international action on 
the St. Lawrence development, which lasted until the 
spring of 1938. 

In May, 1938, the United States Secretary of State, Mr. 
Cordell Hull, in a note to the Canadian Government, sub- 
mitted a new draft treaty, and intimated that the United 




Fig. 1 — Map of the St. Lawrence River, showing harhours, canals, rapids and the five divisions of the project 

suggested and used hy the Joint Board. 



20 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




txtttmtFlowaçtL 






F 







V 


p/ionsto rtttiw 


r otVtRSiON 


{> 


«««. 


oy* 






MdRMSBUflG 1 


/ Can 


5 




215 8] 5t1 i-n^ •!'"" 







j .1 ff / I o 





UaUrltotlthom tout.- *>S ?« foi 
stag' corfispondiog to a 
lltctiosgc of 24T.000 t / s. 



Fig. 2 — Map showing proposed works in the International Rapids section. 



States Government was prepared to enter into further 
negotiations. It was not, however, until the end of 1939 
that any further action took place. 

It is quite evident that full development of the St. 
Lawrence for navigation or for power is dependent upon 
agreement between Canada and the United States as to 
the scheme of development to be followed in the Inter- 
national section, and it is equally evident that such agree- 
ment is necessary before Ontario can make use of the 
potential power resources in the International section of the 
river, which forms a valuable part of that province's 
natural resources. 

The cost of the whole St. Lawrence basin development 
has been the subject of much discussion, and a great many 
articles have appeared in the press from time to time criticiz- 
ing the estimates first presented by the Joint Board of 
Engineers. The fact remains, however, that in the final 
analysis these estimates represent the opinion of those who 
have given the most study to the question, and they are 
used herein. 

When considering the development of the St. Lawrence 
as a combined power and navigation project, it should be 
kept in mind that the costs of the undertaking fall into two 
main divisions: first, those which are properly part of the 
cost of developing power and producing electric power; and 
second, those which are properly chargeable to navigation. 
In the first division will be those costs assumed by the 
different authorities charged with the development and 
sale of power. It is stated that the investments in these 
undertakings would be self-liquidating and hence would not 
add to, or take from, the financial burden of the Govern- 
ment of Canada. Those costs coming under the second head- 
ing would be the obligation of the Federal Government. 

In so far as the development of the International Rapids 
section is concerned, Ontario, as the owner of one-half of 
the power in this section, would make certain payments to 
Canada in respect to power's share of the cost of the under- 
taking, and these payments, when set off against those that 



Canada would make in respect to its share of the whole 
undertaking, would materially reduce that total. 

The International agreement, which preceded the signing 
of the 1932 St. Lawrence treaty, was based upon a scheme 
known as the Two-Stage Crysler Island Project. The 
scheme was essentially that proposed by the Conference of 
Canadian Engineers, in which the upper dam, power houses 
and navigation locks were located at Crysler Island, where 
a head of twenty-four feet would be concentrated. The 
lower dam was located at the head of Barnhart Island, and 
the power houses at the foot of that island, where a head of 
sixty feet would be available. Provision was made to pass 
navigation around these works by means of side canals and 
the necessary locks. 

The estimated cost of the two-stage Crysler Island 
project was $274,742,000.00, which amount was made up as 
follows : 

Works solely for navigation $ 34,188,000.00 

Works primarily for power 132,452,000.00 

Works common to power and navigation . . 108,102,000.00 

Total $274,742,000.00 



Under the terms of the 1932 treaty, the United States 
would provide funds to construct all the works common to 
navigation and power and the substructures of the power 
houses. 

The works in the International section for which Canada 
would pay were as follows : 

Navigation works on the Canadian side. . $ 8,219,000.00 
Lands and rehabilitation works on the 

Canadian side 14,101,000.00 



Total $22,320,000.00 



According to the 1932 agreement between Canada and 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



21 



Ontario, the Province would pay the Dominion $67,202,- 
500.00, made up as follows: 

Substructures of power houses, and head- 
race and tailrace excavation $29,295,500.00 

On account of lands and rehabilitation on 
the Canadian side, works common to 
power and navigation, and channel 
improvements 37,907,000.00 

Total $67,202,500.00 



It is pertinent to note that, of this amount, the payment 
of $4,240,000.00 in respect to engineering and certain 
deferred power works was contingent upon Canada being 
able to arrange with the United States for the financing of 
these deferred works and for engineering services as and 
when required by Ontario. Actually, therefore, the sum 
guaranteed for payment by Ontario was $62,962,500.00. 

According to the public press, what was described as 
"substantial agreement" was reached on the engineering 
features of the project by the Canadian and American 
engineers in Washington last January, and it was indicated 
that a single-stage scheme formed the basis for such agree- 
ment. The actual project was not disclosed, but it is under- 
stood that the basis of this agreement was a modifiedfsingle- 
stage project in the International Rapids section" which 
resembles, in its major features, the Single-Stage Project 
that was presented in the report of the Conference of 
Canadian Engineers of 1929. 




Fig. 3 — Map showing location of the proposed power houses 
in the vicinity of Hani hart Island. 

That report considered a single-stage scheme in which the 
main dam was located at the head of Barnhart Island and 
extended from that island to the foot of Long Sault Island 
and thence to the United States shore. The power houses 
were located at the lower end of Barnhart Island at the 
mouth of Little River, and were flanked by dykes extending 
on the south to high ground on Barnhart Island, and on the 
north to the high ground north of Mille Roches. Twenty- 
seven foot navigation was to be carried around these 
obstructions by means of a canal and locks located on the 



American main shore. Provision was also made to control 
the outflow and level of Lake Ontario by structures placed at 
the head of the Canadian Galops Rapids, at the head of the 
unwatering channel through Galops Island, and between 
Adams and Galops Islands. 




Fig. 4 — Map showing the proposed control works at the 
head of Galops Rapids. 

The lands and improvements that would be affected 
were the same as in the Two-Stage Crysler Island scheme, 
from the head of the Galops Rapids downstream as far as 
Crysler Island. Below Crysler Island the areas subject to 
flooding would be increased under the proposed plan, due 
to the higher water level and because no dyking was con- 
templated to protect any of the lands lying below the flood 
contour. The total land area below the extreme emergency 
level would be 28,600 acres, of which 14,800 acres would be 
on the Canadian side and 13,800 acres on the American side. 
Provision was made in the estimates for the rehabilitation 
of Iroquois and Morrisburg. 

The cost of the Single-Stage scheme is estimated to be 
$236,418,000.00 made up as follows: 

Works solely for navigation $ 27,741,000.00 

Works primarily for power 87,481,000.00 

Works common to power and navigation. $121,196,000.00 

Total $236,418,000.00 



If Ontario contributed towards the cost of common 

works on the same basis as under the 1932 agreement, then 

the total payment would be: 

Substructure of power house and excava- 
tion $18,909,500.00 

On account of rehabilitation in Canada, 

and common works 42,418,500.00 

Total $61,328,000.00 



ANNUAL MEETING, HAMILTON, ONT., FEBRUARY 6th and 7th, 1941 



22 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



THE BOEING B.17 AND DOUGLAS B.19 
BOMBERS 

From Engineering (London) November 15, 1940 

Recent reports of the new American bombers, either 
ordered by Britain or for the United States Air Services, 
stress their size as an outstanding point. 

One type of big American bomber is the Boeing B.17, 
sometimes called the "Flying Fortress." Actually, as big 
four-motored aircraft go, it is not unusually large. Its 
general dimensions and range correspond to those of 
Britain's 20-ton, four-engined flying boat, the Short "Sun- 
derland." Its wing span of 105 ft. is 8 ft. less than that of 
the "Sunderland" and some 18 ft. less than the span of the 
Armstrong Whitworth "Ensign," Britain's biggest civil air 
liner, also a four-motored aircraft. As first produced some 
few years ago, the original "Flying Fortress" had four 1,000 
H.P. Wright "Cyclone" motors, which give it a maximum 
speed of about 250 m.p.h. The effective range claimed was 
around 3,000 miles — say, from London to Tripoli and back 
— and the service ceiling just under 6 miles. Bomb load is 
a variable factor, dependent, among other things on the 
amount of fuel carried, but it is safe to assume that the 
B.17 could carry 4 to 5 tons of bombs and ammunition on a 
round trip of 2,000 miles. A feature of the design, which 
gave the B.17 the name of "Flying Fortress," is the number 
of protective gun positions. Four of these were originally 
provided in "blisters" on the outside of the fuselage, but 
later examples show gun turrets, similar to the British prac- 
tice. Even so, the total gun power is not likely to approach 
that possessed by the latest versions of Britain's famous 
bombers, such as the turreted "Wellington." An improved 
"Flying Fortress," produced just before the war, had a 
cleaned-up external design and a special super-charging 
system for giving greater engine power at heights above 
20,000 ft. The resulting performance figures were not made 
known, but it may be assumed that the maximum speed of 
250 m.p.h. has been improved upon. 

AIRCRAFT AND THE WEATHER 

From The Engineer (London) November 15, 1940 

There would still seem to be some doubt in the public 
mind concerning the influence of the weather on aerial 
activity. On some occasions the Air Ministry has announced 
that operations by aircraft of the Bomber Command have 
had to be cancelled or restricted because of unfavourable 
weather conditions, whereas on the self-same nights enemy 
aircraft have been over this country. It is therefore asked 
why we must be idle while the Germans are active. One 
reason is that while the weather over the target area is 
important, the weather over the bases from which the air- 
craft operate is even more important. British aircraft can 
take off and fly in the worst kind of weather, just as, pre- 
sumably, the enemy's machines can, but they have to get 
back to their bases and land safely. Undoubtedly the enemy 
is more favourably situated in this respect than we are. His 
bombers on the outward journey have usually a short dis- 
tance to travel to reach their objectives, and can carry 
enough petrol to enable them to return and land at almost 
any aerodrome from Bordeaux to Norway, some one or 
more of which will probably be outside the belt of bad land- 
ing weather. British aircraft, on the other hand, are com- 
pelled to work from a much smaller area, and frequently 
have to cover long distances to reach their targets. If on 
their return they find their bases partly obscured or 
blacked-out by low cloud or fog, the gravest risk is imposed 
on the crews and the aircraft. The enemy's strategy for a 
time consisted of endeavouring to inflict as much damage 
as possible without paying great attention to the casualties 
which he suffered. It is probable that the severity of the 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



lesson administered to him has induced him to be less rash 
and that he is now paying more respect to the weather, as 
well as to the Royal Air Force, in planning his operations 
against us. 

WARTIME INVENTIONS 
From The Engineer (London) November 15, 1940 

In an address which was broadcast by Dr. D. R. Pye, 
f.r.s., the Director of Scientific Research of the Ministry of 
Aircraft Production, the question of the many inventions 
received from the general public relating to war matters 
was dealt with in a most interesting way. Dr. Pye revealed 
that since the war started well over 20,000 inventions had 
been sent to the Air Ministry and the Ministry of Aircraft 
Production. They came, he said, from all over Britain, the 
Dominions and from abroad as well. At the present time 
they were pouring in at the rate of about 3,000 a week. 
Each letter or memoradum was recorded, filed and an- 
swered. For this work there were some thirty scientists, 
engineers and technicians, together with the necessary 
clerical staff, which devoted its whole energies to sifting and 
analysing the flood of ideas. In addition, there was a dis- 
tinguished scientist and engineer of long experience, who 
acted as a referee in difficult cases. The ideas received, Dr. 
Pye said, included those of every imaginable kind. Among 
them were wild and fantastic, the sensible but already well 
known, and the interesting and unusual. The fantastic in- 
cluded the optimist who wanted to freeze the clouds and 
mount anti-aircraft guns upon them. There was also a won- 
derful helicopter, worked by a perpetual-motion engine, for 
carrying searchlights, guns and men to colossal heights. 
There were, too, many varieties of death rays. Most of those 
inventions were pious hopes, which the inventor hoped the 
technical expert would turn to practical use, of course under 
his own supervision. The most interesting group always was 
suggested by the need of the moment. A few months ago it 
was schemes for coping with the parachutist, and just now 
it was how to tackle enemy bombers after dark. In most 
cases the proposals submitted were some variant of schemes 
which had been studied and experimented with for many 
months or even years past. In such cases the most important 
thing to do was to see whether some new suggestion might 
not render a scheme practical which hitherto had not 
seemed worth while pursuing. Dr. Pye recalled that nearly 
five years before the war an Advisory Committee of Scien- 
tists was helping us to foresee what would be needed if war 
should come and to provide against it. So it was only to 
be expected perhaps that a large number of ideas now being 
put forward should have been thought of before. Any of 
those which showed promise were developed and experi- 
mented with, tests and calculations were made and full- 
scale trials were often carried out. He could not say very 
much as to the suggestions which had proved fruitful as we 
wanted them to be unplesant surprises for the enemy. In 
inviting his hearers to send in any suggestions which might 
help to win the war Dr. Pye said that there was close col- 
laboration between the Directors of Scientific Research at 
the Admiralty, the Ministry of Supply and the Ministry of 
Aircraft Production, and any suggestion received was at 
once passed to the right department for examination. 

GRANT OF ARMS TO THE INSTITUTION OF 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

From Engineering (London) November 15, 1940 

In the Annual Report of the Council of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers for the year 1939, it was stated that 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



23 



a grant of armorial bearings had been made to the institu- 
tion under Letters Patent from the College of Arms. The 
Royal Charter of Incorporation which was granted by the 
Crown in 1930 constituted the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers "one Body Corporate and Politic, with per- 
petual succession and a Common Seal with power to break, 
alter and make anew the said Seal from time to time at 
their will and pleasure." By virtue of this authority, steps 
were taken to apply for these Letters Patent, so that the 
seal, arms, crest and supporters should be devised on correct 
heraldic principles. The accompanying illustration repro- 
duces the emblazoned drawing by Mr. Cecil Thomas, who 
was commissioned by the Council to prepare the steel die 
for the seal. 




rVThe ;. symbolism adopted is briefly as follows : T On the 
shield, a device signifying the art of measurement and 
accuracy of workmanship; as the crest, controlled power 
dominating the world, typified by a heraldic horse chained 
to the globe from a coronet, which is itself a symbol of a 
chartered body; lastly, as supporters (to which the institu- 
tion is entitled as a chartered body), a representation of 
Archimedes appears on the left, to signify science, and of 
Vulcan, on the right, to signify craftsmanship. The word 
"Progress," appearing below the shield, has been used by 
the institution on various of its devices and at different 
times since it was founded. The Council state that they 
were greatly assisted in the whole undertaking by one of 
their members, the late Colonel Sir George Willis, c.i.e., 
M.v.o., Meoh.i.M.E., then Chairman of the Southern branch, 
who was an authority in heraldic matters. 

In the words of the grant, the symbolism just given is 
thus described : 

"Sable between the points of a pair of Callipers inverted 
Or a Plate and for the Crest on a Wreath of the Colours: — 
Upon a terrestrial Globe a Grey Horse forcené proper 
gorged with a Coronet composed of four Fleur-de-Lys with 
Chain reflexed over the back Or . . . : And by the Authority 
aforesaid I the said Garter King of Arms do further grant 
and assign the Supporters following that is to say: — On the 
dexter side a Figure representing Archimedes holding in his 
exterior hand a Pointer and on the sinister side a Figure 
representing Vulcan resting his exterior hand upon a Sledge 
Hammer proper . . . the whole to be borne and used for ever 
hereafter by The Institution of Mechanical Engineers on 
Seals, Shields, or otherwise according to the Laws of Arms." 

LARGE OR SMALL A.R.P. SHELTERS 

From The Engineer (London) November 15, 1940 

When this war began, as everyone knows, German air- 
craft, intent upon raiding this country, had of necessity to 
begin their flights from within German borders and thus 



had to make a journey of several hundreds of miles. It was 
expected at that time that on the outbreak of war an aerial 
blitzkreig would be directed against London and other large 
cities; that it would be maintained by thousands of aircraft, 
and that the weight of the attack would be broken within 
a few weeks. When the blitzkreig did not materialize the 
only alternative that seemed probable was a succession of 
relatively frequent, but short-time, raids kept up by a 
smaller number of aircraft operating mainly in daylight; 
for it was known that the Germans did not regard night 
bombing as effective. There can be little doubt that the 
official policy of A.R.P. works designed to meet those con- 
ditions and adopted by Sir John Anderson was the right 
one in the light of expectations. It relied upon the dispersal 
of the population in Anderson shelters, street shelters, base- 
ments, and cellars to reduce the loss of life resulting 
from the effects of any single bomb. The public shelters 
envisaged, of which many have now been constructed, 
were to provide protection against blast and splinters, but 
were not intended to give security against a direct hit. As 
against a policy of building deep bomb-proof shelters 
which was advocated long before the outbreak of war, it 
was argued, and at that time we think rightly argued, that 
there was insufficient time to construct them and, of greater 
importance, that those requiring shelter when the sirens 
wailed would not have sufficient time to travel any dis- 
tance, but must look for shelter on the spot. Since large 
shelters must be spaced out at relatively large distances, 
no expectation could be held out that their capacity for 
holding hundreds or even thousands of people would ever 
be properly used. 

When, however, first Norway, then Holland, Belgium, 
and France were overrun by the Nazis in quick succession, 
the original conditions no longer held true. Thanks to the 
magnificent efforts of the R.A.F., daylight raids remained 
of the short-lived type. But the Germans began to raid by 
night and, thanks to the proximity of their captured aero- 
dromes to our coasts, they are now able to maintain a raid 
from dusk to dawn. At night, therefore, instead of being 
forced to retire for an occasional short period to a place of 
security, as originally envisaged, the majority of the popu- 
lation, if it remains at home, has to choose between spend- 
ing the night in safety and discomfort, as represented by a 
garden shelter, or in comfort and at risk as represented by 
the house itself. It is little wonder that as the weather has 
become progressively colder and wetter more and more 
people have 4 deserted their homes each night and carried 
what comforts they can to public shelters, where warmth 
at least is usually combined with a greater sense of safety. 
They have done so in spite of the fact that those shelters 
were originally built with the intention of providing pro- 
tection only for people caught in the streets — not for the 
surrounding householders and tenants. In fact, expectations 
regarding raids have not been realized. The chief objection 
to large shelters holding thousands of people has become no 
longer valid. For where such shelters exist, as in the case of 
Aldwych tube, they are filled to capacity before the night 
raids begin. In the light of these facts the A.R.P. Co- 
ordinating Committee, an independent body which has 
doctors, architects, scientists and engineers on its member- 
ship, has recently sent a communication to Mr. Morrison 
the recently appointed Minister of Home Security, con- 
demning the policy recently announced by the Minister, 
which, so far as the provision of shelters is concerned, pro- 
vides for little modification of his predecessor's methods. 
The object of the Committee, which has been in existence 
since a date before the war began, is to encourage the 
provision of really secure shelters for the greater part of 
the population. The Committee advocates the construction 
of large and really bomb-proof shelters. They can be of the 
tunnel or "deep" shelter type or built on the surface, then 
depending, not on depth, but on concrete and steel for their 
bomb-proof qualities; additionally, as indeed already pro- 
vided for by the Government, it proposes construction of 



24 



January, 1941 THE.ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



new shafts from the tube railways. The shelters, it is argued, 
should be of large size, for several reasons, the most im- 
portant being that for a given expenditure per head the 
large shelter can be made safer than the small one. As to 
the cost, it is stated that the contract for the scheme for a 
deep shelter at Finsbury, that caused so much controversy 
in February, 1938, was actually being negotiated at that 
time for an amount which worked out at the not unreason- 
able figure of £13 per head. 

Great sympathy will be felt by everyone with the objects 
of the Committee. There can be little doubt about the 
technical possibility of building bomb-proof underground 
shelters. We may, too, reasonably suppose that the Com- 
mittee has satisfied itself, at least, regarding the possibilities 
of overcoming the technical difficulties of building really 
bomb-proof shelters above the ground. The large shelter, 
it is claimed by the Committee, has other advantages apart 
from its safety. The erection of bunks and the provision of 
ventilation, warmth and sanitary services, all necessities if 
the health of the people is to be maintained, can be very 
much reduced per capita as compared with small shelters. 
To some extent the Government has already admitted the 
need for large shelters by its decision to drive additional 
headings from the tube railways in London and by opening 
the Aldwych tube and the platforms and passages of other 
tube stations to those seeking all-night shelter. But it is 
clear that it still views with disfavour the general construc- 
tion of large bomb-proof shelters. There are, of course, many 
factors which the Government in coming to that decision 
has had to take into account, notably in relation to finance 
and the availability of materials and labour. In that con- 
nection it is stated by the Committee that out of a pre-war 
steel productive capacity of 13 million tons annually, only 
11,000 tons annually has been allocated to A.R.P. purposes. 
The whole matter, too, is obviously influenced by the pos- 
sibility, the chances of which the Government is in a better 
position than anyone else to reckon, that the answer to the 
night bomber may be imminent. But at least the arguments 
of the Committee deserve careful consideration in conjunc- 
tion with all other information available to the Govern- 
ment. It certainly must not be mere departmental inertia 
in failing to understand the altered conditions that holds 
back a change of policy, if such a change would be beneficial. 

AMERICAN AIR EFFORT 

Abstracted from Trade and Engineering (London), October, 1940 

Buffalo and Boston 

The United States is now delivering in quantity to 
the R.A.F. two useful types of aircraft — the Brewster single- 
seat fighter and the Douglas light bomber. In this country 
they will be known as the Buffalo and the Boston respec- 
tively. The Buffalo was originally developed for use by the 
United States Navy as a deck-landing fighter, but will be 
employed by the R.A.F. as a land-fighter. It is a midwing 
monoplane with a very short and deep fuselage, at first 
glance not unlike the Curtiss Hawk, which did such good 
work for the French Air Force. An undercarriage of unusual 
design, which retracts partly into the wing and partly into 
the fuselage, is a feature of the design. Generally, the air- 
craft is of orthodox stressed skin construction, with the 
exception of the movable control surfaces, for which fabric 
covering is employed. Power is provided by a Wright 
Cyclone nine-cylinder radial air-cooled engine, which drives 
a variable-pitch airscrew. It is believed that its performance 
is such as to make it an invaluable acquisition to the R.A.F. 
In size the Buffalo is similar to our Spitfire, but it can hardly 
be claimed to have such attractive lines. 

The Boston is a twin-engined light bomber of unorthodox 
design. It is of monoplane type, with sharply tapered wings 
and a fairly deep, narrow fuselage. The undercarriage is 
of the tricycle type, with the two rear wheels retracting 
into the rear of the engine nacelles, and the nose wheel 



retracting rearwards and upwards into the fuselage. When 
raised, it is covered by hinged panels. Two Wright Cyclone 
nine-cylinder radial air-cooled motors should give a reason- 
able speed, but no performance data may yet be published. 

Production Growing 

Recently the United States National Defence Advisory 
Commission published a report stating that the country's 
aeroplane production was about 1,000 a month. Early next 
year it will be 2,000, and by the end of 1941 it will be 3,000. 
The report contained no indication of what proportion of 
the figures represents bombers, fighters, and trainers. It is 
also stated that by next spring mass production of defence 
materials generally will be developing rapidly. It contra- 
dicted Mr. Knudsen's statement that motor-car factories 
would be turned over to aircraft production, pointing out 
that the country would need plenty of motor-cars and lorries 
in the defence programme and that the present factories 
were best equipped to produce them. 

Aircraft for Great Britain 

Of special interest to this country is the statement that 
it has been arranged that Britain shall receive an average 
of 700 American fighter aircraft a month over the next 
20 months. According to a usually reliable source this means 
that, counting aeroplanes which are already being manu- 
factured in the United States, Britain will be able to buy a 
total of 14,000 aircraft by April, 1942, if she wishes to do 
so. The same source states that the record of British air- 
craft purchases in the United States between the middle 
of 1938 and August 27 of this year is as follows: ordered 
by the British Government, 4,778; undelivered French 
orders 3,286. These two figures give a total of British orders 
amounting to 8,064. Exports to the British Government 
were put at 2,633, while aeroplanes delivered but not yet 
exported numbered 195, leaving an undelivered balance of 
5,236. The same report stated that the United States War 
and Navy Departments have also approved British orders 
for 1,820 additional aeroplanes, but that these have not 
yet been allocated among manufacturers. When they are 
allocated the total number of aircraft now being produced 
for the British Government in the United States will reach 
7,056 and another 7,000 will be produced, according to 
present arrangements, in the next 20 months, as orders 
for them are placed. 

Chain of Factories 

According to the American paper, Wall Street Journal, 
Great Britain is planning to build a chain of aircraft fac- 
tories in the United States, so as to produce about 1,300 
aeroplanes a month by the end of 1941. Whether this is 
so or not, a number of aircraft factories are to be built 
by the United States, with loans from the Reconstruction 
Corporation, at an estimated cost of between £37,000,000 
and £50,000,000. This scheme includes a loan to the Packard 
Motor Company for works at which Rolls-Royce aero en- 
gines will be constructed under licence. The Wright Aero- 
nautical Corporation, which is doing a great deal of im- 
portant work these days, has also accepted loans amounting 
to approximately £23,000,000 for new buildings and plant. 
As a safety measure the U.S. War Department has insisted 
on new aircraft factories being established in a special area 
which is several hundred miles inland from the Atlantic 
coast and already contains a number of blast furnaces, 
foundries, metal working shops, and machine-tool plant. 
Five well known companies — Douglas, Lockheed, Boeing, 
Vultee, and Consolidated — have also issued a joint state- 
ment announcing that without waiting to ascertain what 
legislation Congress will pass to limit their profits, they 
are going ahead with preparations to increase production. 
The Allison concern recently effected a considerable expan- 
sion of plant, with the result that a rapid increase has been 
taking place in its output of aero engines, and by the end 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



25 



of the year they should be coming out at a rate in excess 
of 500 a month. Equally big expansion has been achieved 
by the Pratt and Whitney division of the United Aircraft 
Corporation, which expects to produce between 700 and 
800 aero-engines a month from now on, while the Curtis 
Wright Corporation is believed to have exceeded 600 engines 
a month. 

Meanwhile, production is going ahead satisfactorily in 
Canada, and it was recently announced from Ottawa that 
the British Government had placed an order for 600 Hurri- 
cane fighters with the Canadian Car and Foundry Com- 
pany. They will be built at the Company's plant at Fort 
William, Ontario. 

CROMPTON'S FIRST APPRENTICE 

From Bepco Journal, March, 1940 

We give below a copy of the official apprenticeship in- 
denture of Crompton 's first apprentice, Mr. W. A. Murrell, 
who we regret to announce passed away at Chelmsford on 
May 5th, 1938. 

"This Indenture Witnesseth that William Augustus 
Murrell, Son of William Bartwell Murrell, Innkeeper of the 
Three Cups Inn, Springfield Road, Chelmsford in the 
County of Essex, with his own free will and by the consent 
of his Father doth put himself Apprentice to Rookes 
Evelyn Bell Crompton of Anchor Iron Works, Chelmsford 
in the county aforesaid, to learn his Art and with him after 
the Manner of an Apprentice to serve from the eighteenth 
day of October, one thousand eight hundred and eighty 
unto and including the eighteenth day of October, one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-five unto the full End 
and Term of Five Years from thence next following to be 
fully complete and ended. During which term the said 
Apprentice his Master faithfully shall serve his secrets 
keep his lawful commands every where gladly do. He shall 
do no damage to his said Master nor see to be done of 
others but to his Power shall tell or forthwith give warning 
to his said Master of the same. He shall not waste the Goods 
of his said Master nor lend them unlawfully to any. He 
shall not commit fornication nor contract Matrimony 
within the said Term shall not play at Cards or Dice Tables 
or any other unlawful Games whereby his said Master may 
have any loss with his own goods or others during the said 
Term without Licence of his said Master. He shall neither 
buy nor sell. He shall not haunt Taverns or Playhouses nor 
absent himself from his said Master's service day or night 
unlawfully. But in all things as a faithful Apprentice he shall 
behave himself towards his said Master and all his during 
the said Term. 

"And the said Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton his said 
Apprentice in the Art of a Light Brass Finisher and Elec- 
trician which he useth by the best means that he can shall 
teach and Instruct or cause to be taught and instructed. 
And the said Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton agrees to pay 
to the said William Bartwell Murrell for the services of the 
said apprentice during the said term except through in- 
ability to work or loss of time arising either from illness or 
otherwise, namely, during the first year the sum of three 
shillings per week during the second year the sum of four 
shillings per week during the third year the sum of five 
shillings per week during the fourth year the sum of six 
shillings per week during the fifth year the sum of eight 
shillings per week. Hours of Labour to be regulated accord- 
ing to the Factory Act. 

"And for the true performance of all and every the said 
Covenants and Agreements either of the said Parties 
bindeth himself unto the other by these Presents. In 
witness whereof the Parties above named to these In- 
dentures interchangeably have put their Hands and Seals 
in the Fourty-fourth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign 
Lady Queen Victoria by the Grace of God of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen Defender of 



the Faith and in the Year of our Lord One Thousand 
Eight Hundred and eighty-one." 



Witness : 



W. A. ROBINSON 

Chelmsford 



W. A. MURRELL 
W. B. MURRELL 
R. E. B. CROMPTON 



William Augustus Murrell the within named apprentice 
has completed the term of his apprenticeship to my entire 
satisfaction. 



R. E. CROMPTON 



Chelmsford, October 20, 1885. 



AIR-RAID DAMAGE AND MUNITIONS 
PRODUCTION 

From Engineering (London) November 15, 1940 

Broadly speaking, the strategy of the aerial warfare be- 
tween Germany and her ally, and Britain, exhibits two 
principal phases. In one of these the machines have been 
used as auxiliaries to the ground or sea forces, for recon- 
naissance purposes and as a means of transporting offensive 
weapons, which can thus be used with great freedom against 
the opposing navies, armies and even the civil population. 
The Germans have exploited this method to the full, and it 
will be admitted that, from a purely military point of view, 
its value has been proved by events in Poland, Holland and 
France. 

In the other phase, aircraft are also employed as destruc- 
tive weapons; not, however, so much against the enemy's 
own fighting forces as against his land, sea and air com- 
munications, and especially against those industrial re- 
sources upon which his supply of munitions depends. It is 
this phase that we ourselves are now employing to the full, 
selecting targets the destruction of which will impede the 
enemy's war effort. That this policy, too, has not been 
lacking in success is shown by the reports of the condition 
of Hamburg, which has now virtually ceased to be a centre 
of production. For his part, the enemy, in his attacks on 
this country, has adopted the opposite view and in so doing 
has clearly shown his ignorance of the psychology of the 
British race. The result is that while by his constant raids 
he has exposed a number of innocent people to a great deal 
of unnecessary suffering and inflicted some thousand of 
casualties on men, women and children, he has, as Mr. 
Herbert Morrison recently pointed out, failed to reduce the 
productive capacity even temporarily by more than a small 
fraction of 1 per cent. 

From a military point of view, we may, therefore, con- 
gratulate ourselves, both on adopting the more correct 
policy, and that, thanks to the efforts of the Royal Air 
Force, the enemy's contrary ideas have been proved to be 
fallacious, both in theory and practice. There is, however, 
another side to the picture. Though the damage that has 
been done to our factories and communications by indis- 
criminate bombing, considered from the material point of 
view, is small, it is not negligible. Moreover, it is by the 
nature of things more evident in London and South-Eastern 
England than in any other part of the country. How im- 
portant this is is shown by the fact that this area is in- 
habited by something like a quarter of our population, and 
includes about the same proportion of the productive capa- 
city of the industries which supply our munitions, using 
that term in its widest sense. Not only is this the case, but 
because the locality of London, as regards liability to 
bombing is so vulnerable, there are problems, among which 
transport is obviously one, which are not met with so 
acutely elsewhere. 

How best to repair the damage to our productive capacity 
that has been caused by enemy action in this area is, there- 
fore, rightly receiving the closest attention of the London 
and South Eastern Area Board. This Board, which is 



26 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



duplicated by others of the same nature in the rest of the 
country, comprises representatives, both of employers and 
of the trade unions, as well as of the Ministries concerned 
with aircraft production, naval construction and repair, and 
the needs of the army. Labour problems are looked after 
by the divisional controller of the Ministry of Labour, and 
the export trade by a representative of the Board of Trade. 
Moreover, there is liason with the Industrial Capacity Com- 
mittee, of which the Area Boards in the country are a part, 
and through this committee with the War Cabinet. Finally 
a representative of the Minister of Transport has recently 
been added, since, in the London area at least, the main- 
tenance of easy and rapid communication between the 
workers' homes and places of employment is an important 
part of the problem. 

It may also be pointed out that one of the duties of these 
Area Boards has been to examine the machine tool census 
which, as is well known, takes place at regular intervals, 
and in this way to find means of using spare capacity of 
tools and premises, to see that labour is used in the most 
productive way, and particularly to make alternative ar- 
rangements which will ensure that industrial capacity is 
commensurate with industrial requirements when premises 
become partially damaged or disabled as the result of 
enemy action, It is in this connection particularly that 
transport is important. While it may be possible, even 
relatively easy, to arrange for the work of an essential fac- 
tory to be carried on, at least temporarily, in one that is not 
so essential a few miles distant, such a transfer imposes 
disabilities on the workpeople, which are not willingly borne 
and which they can hardly be expected to bear. There is 
evidence that this is a point which employers sometimes 
tend to forget under the pressure of other work, and, if the 
Board can do anything to relieve the situation in this 
respect, they will have done much towards justifying their 
existence. The Board has also undertaken the task of 
arranging for the replacement of such precision tools as are 
the workers' personal property. 

It will not be denied that if production is to be main- 
tained under "Blitzkrieg" conditions, some organization, 
which will operate speedily and efficiently, and we had 
almost said with due disregard for rules and regulations, is 
required. It remains to be seen whether the arrangements 
which the Board has made fulfil these conditions. Actually, 
what has been done is to set up nine "clearing centres," 
seven in London and two in the South Eastern Area, to 
which those in need of help can refer and which can, in 
turn, invoke the assistance of their fellows. So far these 
clearing centres have been mainly concerned with engineer- 
ing firms, and in particular have designed rather elaborate 
machinery for classifying the machine tools available. In 
this way, it is hoped that the possibilities of idle tools or 
idle labour will be eliminated, and the best and most 
economic use of the reserves will be secured. It is proposed 
to extend their labours by organizing such reconstruction 
of damaged premises as may be necessary after the 
emergency service designed by the Ministry of Aircraft 
Production has operated. It will, it is hoped, do this 
without duplicating the work of other departments, 
though, of course, it will work in the closest conjunction 
with them. 



THE EAST-WEST AXIAL ROAD IN BERLIN AS A 
TRAFFIC ROUTE 

By H. Langer 
From Verkehrstechnik, 1939 

Abridgement of an abstract compiled by the Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research and Ministry of Transport, London 

The provision of an axial road from east to west of Berlin 
formed part of the reconstruction plan sanctioned in 1937. 
This plan involved the partial reconstruction of the Char- 
lottenburger Chaussée, Bismarckstrasse and Kaiserdamm. 
On the first of these, the new cross-section includes two 48-ft. 
carriageways each having a uniform straight crossfall and 
separated by a central strip 13}^ ft. wide. The verges are 
raised about 9 in. above the carriageways; each contains a 
4-ft. safety strip, a cycle track 63^ ft. wide and a footway 
21 ft. wide. The provision of the safety strip between the 
cycle track and carriageway obviates danger to cyclists 
from the opening of car doors, etc. Access to the carriageway 
is gained only at important junctions. Trees are planted 
outside the footways. On one short section an additional 
carriageway 20 ft. wide is provided for local traffic. On the 
Kaiserdamm, where less space is available, the widths of 
the safety strips, cycle tracks, and footways are reduced 
respectfully to 2^ ft., 5 ft., and 20 ft. and the cycle track is 
separated from the footway by a line of trees. At inter- 
sections the cycle tracks have a gradient of 1 in 15 to the 
carriageway level, the slope beginning 24 ft. from the 
junction; the footways continue at their normal level to 
the actual junction, where the standard radius of curvature 
is 23 ft. Other important works include the reconstruction 
of the Grosser Stern, where seven roads meet. Here two 
subways have been provided for pedestrians. The whole of 
the intersection has been enlarged, the present extreme 
radius being 330 ft. and that of the central space 196 ft. At 
the intersection with the north-south axial road, two 
vehicular tunnels have been provided for cross traffic, and 
a single vehicular tunnel has been constructed at the im- 
portant Knie intersection. The carriageways are surfaced 
throughout with a two-course carpet of stone-filled mastic 
2 in. thick, placed on a 12-in. concrete foundation. All 
joints in the latter are close joints containing a double 
thickness of bituminised felt. The joints are protected by 
building paper painted on the under side with bituminous 
material. A spacing of 33 ft. is adopted for transverse joints. 
The central reservation is surfaced with small granite setts 
on an 8-in. concrete foundation. The safety strip is paved 
with rough granite setts, the cycle tracks with concrete 
slabs 12 by 12 by 1.6 in., and the footways with artificial 
stone slabs 20 in. square or with yellow gravel. The road is 
lighted by lamps carried in pairs at a height of about 19 ft. 
on posts 22 ft. high erected on the footways. The direction 
in which light is emitted is varied on different sections 
according to local conditions, e.g., the presence of trees. 
The posts are placed respectively 82 ft. and 62 ft. apart on 
the eastern and western portions of the route. The lanterns 
are cylindrical. Each contains two 750-watt filament lamps, 
one placed vertically above the other. A diagrammatic 
summary shows the maximum, minimum and average in- 
tensity of illumination on different portions of the road. 
Three-colour automatic signals are provided at intersec- 
tions, one series controlling vehicular and cycle traffic and 
the other the movements of pedestrians. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



27 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL GENERAL 




H. A. COOCH 
General Chairman 



HAMILTON - ROYAL 



THURSDAY AND FRIDAY, 



PROGRAMME 




J. R. DUNBAR 
General Vice-Chairman and Chairman 
of the Hotel Arrangements Committee 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 6th 
9.00 a.m. — Registration. 

10.00 a.m. — Annual Meeting and Address 
of Retiring President. 

12.30 p.m. — Luncheon. 

2.30 p.m. — General discussion on the 
training and welfare of the 
young engineer under the 
auspices of the Institute's 
Committee of that name. 

7.00 p.m. — Joint dinner with the Niagara 
District Electric Club. 

8.00 p.m. — Joint Meeting. Lecture and 
demonstration by Dr. J. O. 
Perrine of the Research Div- 
ision of the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Com- 
pany. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 7th 
9.30 a.m. — Technical Sessions. 

12.30 p.m. — Luncheon. 
2.30 p.m. — Technical Sessions. 
7.30 p.m. — Banquet. 

10.30-2.00 a.m.— Dance. 



Dr. William Elgin Wickenden, President 
of the Case School of Applied Science of 
Cleveland, Ohio, will be the guest speaker 
at the banquet on Friday night. 






E. P. MUNTZ 

Chairman of Papers and Meetings 
Committee 



T. S. GLOVER 
Chairman of the Publicity Committee 



W. E. BROWN 

Chairman of the Registration and 

Information Committee 



Special return tickets will be supplied by the railways at the rate of one and a third of the regular one- 



AND PROFESSIONAL MEETING 



CONNAUGHT HOTEL 



FEBRUARY 6 AND 7, 1941 



PAPERS 

Training for National Defence, by Dean A. A. Potter, Chairman of the Advisory 
Committee on Engineering Training for National Defence, Washington, D.C. 

La Tuque Power Development, by I. A. McCrory, Vice-President and Chief Engineer, 
Shawinigan Engineering Company, Montreal. 

Earth's Crust Resistance and Lightning, by A. S. Runciman, Superintendent of Trans- 
mission Lines, Shawinigan Water & Power Company, Montreal. 

Canada's Highway — Banff to Jasper, by T. S. Mills, Department of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Moment Distribution and the Analysis of a Continuous Truss of Varying Depth, by E. R. 
Jacobsen, Structural Engineer, Dominion Bridge Company, Lachine, Que. 

Ignition Rectifiers for War Industries, by 
J. T. Thwaites, Canadian Westing- 
house Co. Limited, Hamilton, Ont. 




MRS. HUGH LUMSDEN 
Convener, Ladies Committee 




N. A. EAGER 
Chairman of the Finance Committee 




Estimating Production Costs in Aircraft 
Manufacture, by A. T. Wanek, British 
Air Commission, New York. 





W. L. McFAUL 
Chairman of the Visits Committee 



MAJOR H. B. STUART 

Chairman of the Reception and 

Entertainment Committee 



ray fare. Necessary certificates will be mailed shortly along with a programme of the entire meeting. 



From Month to Month 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 



g $eto iear'si Jfflestëage 

Co eberp member of the Knstitute 3 extenb 
mp Pest IHighesi for a "$7erp ©appp J^eto gear. 

Che pear 1940 totll be Ions remembereb in 
the annals of cibilijation for tt« poignant tragebp, 
as toell as for tbe mspirco Determination of tbe 
British people to fight for tbe freebom of all 
peoples anb for the enb of sclftstj national 
aggression. 

although 1941 null bring barbîfhip anb suf- 
fering anb mill teat our strength anb enburance 
to tbe utmost, rue can. 3 am dure, finb happiness 
in the fenomlebge that our contribution mill be to 
the lasting benefit of all manfeinb. 



tytfJ^jy 



Çifsibcnt 



CO-OPERATION ON THE MARCH 

Another milestone on the road to co-operation was passed 
on December the fourteenth at Calgary. President Hogg of 
the Institute, and President McLean of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Alberta, at that time signed a 
co-operative agreement between the two bodies. The occa- 
sion was marked by a dinner at the Renfrew Club, which 
set up a new record for attendance and for interest. One 
hundred and fifty engineers, from Montreal to Vancouver 
gathered to celebrate the important event and to participate 
in it. 

The same enthusiastic support that was given by ballot 
to the proposal was given also to the ceremony of signing. 
It must be a source of much satisfaction to the leaders of 
the movement in the province to know that the profession 
backs them so wholeheartedly in their actions. The dinner 
left no doubt in the matter. 

Alberta has joined the small group of provinces which, 
separately and collectively, are now taking practical steps 
towards bringing the profession together. For them, co- 
operation ceases to be a theory, a mirage or a football. It 
becomes a fact, a principle and a practice. 

Although this event brings the total of agreements to 
only three, it marks a distinct forward movement. It is still 
a long way from complete co-operation, but within each 
province co-operation will be complete. The success of the 
movement in these three proving grounds should be an 
encouragement to engineers in other places who have 
similar ideals. Discussions are underway now with other 
provinces, which it is believed will lead within a short time 
to the submission of similar proposals in those areas. 
Eventually, a genuine desire for co-operation will bring to 
pass great and beneficial changes within the profession, and 
to these three pioneering provinces will go the lion's share 
of the credit. 



THE PRESIDENT VISITS THE WEST 

The visit of a president to any branch is an event of 
importance, but it carries extra values to those branches 
in the west and the east. Therefore it has been particularly 
pleasing that President Hogg was able to take time from 
the pressing demands of his office to go to Calgary for the 
signing of the co-operative agreement. In this way he 
emulated the example of his two immediate predecessors, 
each of whom carried out a similar ceremony during his 
term of office. 

The president stopped at Winnipeg on the way west, and 
after the meetings at Calgary extended his trip to the coast. 
Splendid meetings were held at each stop, and great interest 
was shown on every hand. Thus the president rounds out a 
very active year. He visited all branches in Quebec, many 
in Ontario, and several in the west. If it were not for in- 
creased demands upon his time due to war time industrial 
expansion, he would have been able to get to the Maritimes, 
and branches elsewhere that he has been forced to pass by. 

With the president on his western tour were Past-Presi- 
dent Lefebvre, Councillors Vance of London, McLeod of 
Montreal, and the general secretary, and at Calgary Past- 
President Gaby was also present. This "entourage" was 
greeted with real western hospitality, and by its presence 
indicated the interest that is taken in far away branches 
by officers from central Canada. 

At Winnipeg the president addressed a meeting of the 
branch held at the University on the evening of December 
eleventh, and on the following day met with the executive 
and past officers of the branch at luncheon. Both functions 
were presided over by Branch-Chairman H. L. Briggs. That 
evening the President's party went by plane to Calgary. 

There were two outstanding events at Calgary. On the 
Saturday morning a regional meeting of Council was held, 
at which an attendance of forty was recorded. The presence 
of several past councillors and officers of the branch added 
materially to the interest and value of the discussions. 

That night the main event took place at the Renfrew 
Club. It was a dinner given jointly by the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Alberta and the Alberta branches 
of the Institute, presided over by P. M. Sauder, vice-presi- 
dent of the zone, to celebrate the signing of the co-operative 
agreement. The local officials certainly did justice to the 
occasion. The attendance and the enthusiasm were gratify- 
ing in the extreme. Distinguished officers of sister societies 
such as the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 
the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, and 
officers of the Institute from branches throughout the zone 
were present, and gracefully presented the greetings of the 
bodies which they represented. 

The ceremony of signing the agreement was carried out 
with a dignity and a formality that would have done justice 
to the opening of an ancient parliament. There were im- 
pressive looking documents, gold presentation pens, pages 
in uniform, and much of the paraphernalia of pomp and 
circumstance. The arrangements were perfect, and the 
Alberta committee has "shown the world" how a ceremony 
should be conducted. 

Early Sunday morning (the fifteenth), the party started 
on what was supposed to be a four hour flight, but nature 
took a hand in the proceedings, and so completely "fogged 
out" Vancouver that the plane had to go on to Patricia Bay, 
just north of Victoria. From Victoria the trip to Vancouver 
was completed by boat — substantially behind schedule. 



30 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



On Monday, the president was guest speaker at a lun- 
cheon meeting of the Vancouver Board of Trade, under the 
chairmanship of H. N. Macpherson, councillor-elect of the 
Vancouver Branch, and in the evening attended a dinner 
meeting of the branch at which Branch-Chairman Dean J. 
N. Finlayson presided. Unfortunately, at this stage, Pre- 
sident Hogg was forced to change his plans and return to 
, Toronto, without going on to Victoria. However, the bal- 
ance of the party visited the island and participated in a 
very enjoyable dinner meeting on Tuesday night, with 
Branch-Chairman E. W. Izard in the chair. 

From Victoria the group returned to Vancouver, and 
were the guests of the Council of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of British Columbia at lunch on Wed- 
nesday, under the chairmanship of Frank MacNeill, the 
recently elected president. This gesture of hospitality was 
greatly appreciated by the Institute representatives, and 
was the last event of a very crowded programme. 

Previous to going to Winnipeg, Councillor Vance and the 
general secretary visited the Lakehead Branch on Tuesday, 
the tenth, having luncheon in Fort William with the execu- 
tive, and dinner in Port Arthur with the branch, Branch- 
Chairman H. G. O'Leary presiding over both functions. An 
interesting feature of the visit was a trip through the local 
aeroplane factory under the competent guidance of Eliza- 
beth MacGill. 

It was the opinion of the president's party that the affairs 
of the Institute in the west are in excellent condition. The 
activities of most branches throughout the year were 
greater than they have been for some time. Branch officers 
expressed themselves as feeling that the Institute was 
gathering momentum, and that the future held for it even 
greater things than have been disclosed in the past. Cer- 
tainly, the enthusiasm expressed on all occasions was en- 
couraging. 

It would be a great thing if more members could become 
familiar with branches other than their own. A trip such as 
this is a revelation. It gives one a new grasp of the signi- 
ficance of the Institute, and a greater appreciation of its 
possibilities for the future. In every city the leading en- 
gineers are found guiding or supporting the affairs of the 
branch. Such interest and such loyalty are indeed sources 
of satisfaction and of inspiration to everyone. It is to be 
hoped that future presidents will be able to continue the 
well established and happy practice of visiting branches 
during their term of office. The value of such visits cannot 
be overestimated. 

Details of the functions held at the various branches during 
the presidential tour will eventually be published in the News 
of Branches section. 

NEW LIBRARY AND AUDITORIUM HALL 
FOR THE ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE 

The Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal is now completing 
another addition to its existing buildings. This new con- 
struction, five stories in height and covering a ground area 
of 5,200 sq. ft., will house a new laboratory for the chemical 
engineering course, a library of applied sciences, and an 
auditorium hall of a seating capacity of 360. The building 
is entirely fireproof, being a reinforced concrete structure 
with stone and brick walls. It was built primarily to answer 
the necessity of providing more adequate library facilities 
for the students, and the layout was conditioned by that 
fact and also by the restricted size of the plot of ground 
available. In the plan finally adopted, the laboratory 
occupies the basement floor, the library stack is arranged 
on the next three floors, with a general reading room occupy- 
ing the full height of the three floors, and the hall is on the 
top floor. This arrangement was chosen for convenience of 
access to the library by the students. It was considered that 
the hall, being intended for infrequent uses only, ground 
floor entrance was not as important a factor as for the 



library, which is in constant use by the students and the 
alumni. 

The library has now in its stack 32,000 volumes and 500 
periodicals, besides hundreds of bulletins, catalogues and 
reports of various nature, and is one of the most complete 
in engineering and applied sciences. The stack has a capacity 
of 60,000 volumes and should answer the needs of the School 
for some years to come. 

The official opening will take place as soon as the installa- 
tion of the equipment and furniture has been completed, 
which should be towards the end of January. 

CALVIN W. RICE MEMORIAL 

One of the features of the recent Annual Meeting of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers was the unveil- 
ing of a bronze tablet to commemorate the character and 
work of Calvin Rice, who for twenty-eight years was 
secretary of the Society. 

From Mechanical Engineering for January the following 
paragraphs have been extracted. 

"On Monday noon, in the lobby of the Engineering 
Societies Building, a tablet to Calvin W. Rice, former 
secretary, 1906-1934, that had been hanging in the Society 
rooms for several years, was unveiled by Secretary Davies 
and formally dedicated. Henry A. Lardner, Fellow A.S.M.E. 
and president, United Engineering Trustees, Inc., the 
agency which handles the affairs of the Engineering Socie- 
ties Library, and the Engineering Foundation, presided. 
He explained that the rules of the Trustees made it neces- 
sary for five years to elapse between the death of a person 
and the placing of a memorial to him in the public rooms 
of the building. It was most appropriate, he said, that a 
tablet to Mr. Rice should hang in the lobby of the building 
which the former secretary had been so influential in secur- 
ing as a home for the engineering societies and their com- 
bined libraries. He then introduced Charles F. Scott, mem- 
ber A.S.M.E., who had been a member with Rice of the 
building committee and who had gone with Rice to solicit 
the interest and aid of Andrew Carnegie, donor of the 
building. Mr. Scott said: It is fitting that the tablet to 
Calvin Rice should be placed here, where 'If you seek his 
monument, look about you.' Across the lobby are the 
Carnegie letter of gift and the acknowledgment of the funds 
the societies raised for the land. In both Rice played a 
leading part." 

"The building we see, but we sense something here we 
cannot see. Engineering Societies Building is more than a 
structure; the societies animate it with a professional spirit 
and vigorous life ; it is an institution with hundreds of active 
groups — technical and general — national and local. And in 
all this Rice was at the forefront; even before the building 
project he was chairman of the first committee for establish- 
ing local sections and student branches. 

"Rice became secretary of the mechanical engineers in 
1906; just before the building was dedicated. He came with 
a wide experience in industry, in engineering, and with 
men; it ranged from Lynn to Anaconda including Schenec- 
tady and Pittsburgh and New York. He saw our modern 
industrial life from many angles. He had human under- 
standing. He saw what engineering societies were doing and 
he visioned what they might do for their own members and 
for the nation, and also in world-wide co-operation. Antici- 
pating the motto now on the Society's Fifty- Year Medal, 
'What is Not Yet, May Be,' he acted. 

"An old-time member likens the Society to a narrow- 
gauge, single-track road — a technical society — until Rice 
came. He expanded it into a standard-gauge modernized 
system, covering a wide area. He pioneered lines into fields 
of industrial relations, of economics, of social welfare. He 
installed interconnections with other branches of the pro- 
fession. He visited England and Europe and South America, 
fostering intercourse and understanding among engineers. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



31 



He humanized engineering and he broadened and dignified 
its function in our modern life. 

"The great engineering capability of Calvin Rice lay in 
his understanding of the role engineers and engineering 
should play in our modern advancing civilization. A stranger 
marveled that his list of honours, many of them foreign, 
record in 'Who's Who in Engineering,' should have come 
to an engineer with no great technical achievements; his 
achievement was the adjustment and co-ordination of 
engineering to life." 

Following Mr. Scott's address, Mr. Lardner introduced 
C. E. Davies, Mr. Rice's successor as secretary of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, who unveiled 
the tablet. Mr. Lardner then read the inscription on the 
tablet. 

1868 1934 

CALVIN WINSOR RICE 

Erected in Appreciation 

of a Life devoted to 

the Advancement 

of the Profession 

of Engineering and of 

His 

Active Part in obtaining 

from Andrew Carnegie 

the gift of the 

Engineering Societies 

Building 

MEETING OF COUNCIL 

Minutes of a regional meeting of the Council of the 
Institute held at the Palliser Hotel, Calgary, Alberta, on 
Saturday, December 14th, 1940, at nine-thirty a.m. 

The president expressed the pleasure that it gave him to 
preside at a Council meeting in Calgary, and invited all 
guests to participate in the discussions. 

The general secretary read the following resolution from 
the Lakehead Branch: "Resolved that the Lakehead 
Branch regrets the action taken by the Council at the 
Montreal meeting on June 15th, 1940, in respect to the 
Unemployed Insurance Bill, and suggests that action of 
this importance should only be taken after consulting the 
general members." 

He explained that he and Mr. Vance had visited the 
Lakehead Branch on Tuesday, December 10th, and that at 
a meeting of the executive this matter had been discussed in 
detail. It was the opinion of the Lakehead executive that 
representations made to the government by business bodies 
that some time should be given to study the proposed insur- 
ance legislation was designed principally with the object of 
delaying the enactment of the legislation. The executive 
thought that Council had lent itself to a scheme to defeat 
unemployment insurance. 

After a short discussion it was unanimously agreed that 
Council was quite within its proper field in taking an 
interest in such matters as unemployment insurance, and 
that it was not thought the organizations which had asked 
for time to study the legislation had in mind anything but 
the best interests of the whole proposal. The secretary was 
instructed to inform the Lakehead Branch that while 
Council appreciated the interest they took in all matters 
involving the Institute, Council did not see that in this 
particular instance anything had been done but what could 
be thoroughly approved in the light of the full information. 

The president called for nominations for the Institute's 
two representatives on the joint finance committee to be 
established under the provisions of the Alberta co-operative 
agreement. Five names were submitted and balloted upon, 
the results showing that Messrs. B. L. Thorne, of Calgary, 
and J. T. Watson, of Lethbridge, were elected. 

The secretary read a statement of results in Nova Scotia, 
which showed that of the ninety-four members of the Asso- 
ciation who were not members of the Institute at the time 



of the signing of the agreement, seventy had since made 
application. Nine persons who had become members of the 
Association since the signing of the agreement had also 
joined the Institute. 

The secretary reported on a meeting of the joint com- 
mittee in Winnipeg which took place three days earlier, 
to which he had been invited. He explained that complete 
agreement had been reached on all clauses of a proposed 
agreement, and that it was expected the committee would 
prepare a final draft for submission to the Council of the 
Association and the Council of the Institute within a short 
time. 

Past-President Lefebvre, as a member of the Institute's 
Committee on Professional Interests, outlined the develop- 
ments in New Brunswick. He explained that a draft agree- 
ment had been drawn up and that there had been consider- 
able discussions by correspondence, but he believed that 
within a short time an arrangement would be arrived at that 
would be perfectly acceptable to both organizations. 

Past-President Lefebvre also dealt with the situation in 
Quebec, explaining that while very little action had been 
taken towards arriving at a written agreement, the very 
best of relationships existed between the Institute and 
the Corporation. 

The general secretary read a letter from the Associate 
Minister of National Defence, C. G. Power, which was 
written in reply to the Council's letter complaining that 
unfair treatment was being accorded engineers in the 
Ordnance Department. The letter acknowledged the correct- 
ness of the claim, and stated that some reorganization was 
contemplated, but would be withheld until a report was 
received from Brigadier Carr, who was now in England and 
who was to investigate the British regulations before he 
returned. The letter also expressed appreciation of the 
Institute's interest and offered assurance that the Institute 
would be kept informed of any changes that were made. It 
was agreed that the Institute should communicate with 
certain of its members now in England with the object of 
having them get in touch with Brigadier Carr in order to 
emphasize the importance of obtaining complete informa- 
tion on the British regulations. This matter was left in the 
hands of the president and the general secretary. 

A letter was read from one of the councillors in which 
attention was called to the small wages paid to engineers 
employed by the government on war work, with particular 
reference to airport construction. The general secretary 
stated that upon receipt of this communication, he had dis- 
cussed the question with certain officials of the Department 
at Ottawa, and had been informed that the classifications 
were set by the Civil Service, and the rates of pay accord- 
ingly were governed by that scale. Unfortunately, Civil 
Service rates of pay were based on the assumption that the 
employee had a permanent position leading to a pension. 
These conditions did not apply to construction men on war 
work, but nevertheless it had not been possible to get the 
Civil Service to change their regulations. 

After considerable discussion it was decided that Council 
should discuss the situation with some of the officers at 
Ottawa, to see if it would not be possible to have this work 
so arranged that it would not be controlled by Civil Service 
classifications. Finally, it was agreed that the matter be left 
with the president and the general secretary to investigate 
at Ottawa. 

The secretary read a letter from the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers stating that the James Watt Medal, 
which had been awarded to Professor Stodola, of Switzer- 
land, was to be presented in London at a special ceremony, 
and asking the Engineering Institute of Canada to name a 
representative to attend. It was agreed that either General 
McNaughton or Sir Alexander Gibb be asked to do this 
honour for the Institute. 

The Finance Committee recommended that each of the 
branches be given an opportunity to assist in meeting the 



32 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



costs of underpinning the Headquarters building. Their 
idea was that if every branch would accept a quota based 
on a rate of $1.00 for each corporate member and Junior in 
the branch it would raise a very substantial sum of money 
which would assist materially in meeting this unforeseen 
but necessary expense. The entire effort was to be on a 
voluntary basis, and the method by which the branches 
approached their members was to be left entirely to each 
individual branch. This recommendation was approved by 
Council, and the President agreed to write a letter direct to 
the chairman of each branch, outlining the proposal and 
asking for the co-operation of the branch. 

Past-President Lefebvre, a member of the Provisional 
Committee for the Julian C. Smith Medal, presented on 
behalf of the committee, the names of eight members of the 
Institute to whom the committee desired the Julian C. 
Smith Medal to be awarded. While it was intended to 
restrict awards to one or two a year, the committee thought 
it desirable to make a multiple award in the inaugural 
year. 

Dr. Lefebvre gave a short citation for each of the nom- 
inees outlining the manner in which he had rendered dis- 
tinguished service in furthering the development of Canada. 
The names will be announced publically at the Annual 
Meeting. 

It was unanimously agreed that members of the Domin- 
ion Council of Professional Engineers be invited to attend 
the annual meeting and Council meeting of the Institute to 
be held in February in Hamilton. It was also hoped that the 
Dominion Council would be able to arrange its annual 
meeting either immediately before or immediately after the 
Institute's annual meeting so that those in attendance 
would be able to participate in the Institute's activities. 
Mr. D. A. R. McCannel, president of the Dominion 
Council, thanked the president for the invitation, and said 
that he hoped it would be possible for many of the Domin- 
ion Councillors to accept. 

The general secretary outlined an exchange of corres- 
pondence which had taken place between the Commissioner 
of Income Tax and himself relative to the wording of the 
brochure issued by the government describing exemptions 
to the income tax. This brochure listed five groups, the 
first one being headed "Learned Professions," which did not 
include the engineers. 

It was explained that a change in classification would not 
in any way affect the amount of income tax, but would tend 
to wipe out some of the old-time impression that engineer- 
ing was not a skilled profession. On the motion of Mr. 
McLeod, seconded by Mr. Sauder, it was unanimously 
agreed that the secretary again communicate with the 
Commissioner of Income Tax, requesting that engineering 
be included in the learned professions. 

In accordance with established practice, it was unani- 
mously Resolved that a Student membership for one year 
together with a free subscription to the "Engineering Jour- 
nal," be awarded to the four students who had presented 
papers at the Annual Student Night of the Montreal 
Branch, held on November 21st. 

A number of applications were considered, and the 
following elections and transfers were effected: 

Elections 

Members 6 

Juniors 4 

Affiliates 1 

Students admitted 26 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 7 

Student to Member 3 

Students to Junior 17 

Councillor Robertson said that on behalf of the Van- 
couver Branch he wanted to express appreciation of 
Council's policy of holding meetings away from Montreal. 



He thought that from the point of view of local branches, 
the value of such meetings could not be over-estimated. He 
hoped that Council would continue the practice in the 
future. 

It was decided that the next meeting of Council would be 
held in Montreal on Saturday, January 18th, 1941. 

The Council rose at one o'clock p.m. 

ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 
OF ONTARIO 

1941 Council 

The Nominating Committee appointed to make nomina- 
tions for the 1941 Council of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of the Province of Ontario, made the following 
nominations. Inasmuch as there were just sufficient nom- 
inations made to fill the vacancies, and since no other 
nominations were received the following will constitute the 
Council for 1941. 




S. R. Frost, M.E.I.C. 

President: S. R. Frost, m.e.i.c, Sales Director, North 
American Cyanamid Ltd., Toronto. 

Vice-President: W. C. Miller, b.sc, m.e.i.c, City Engin- 
eer, St. Thomas. 

Past-President: J. W. Rawlins, b.a., b.sc, 27 Ava Road, 
Toronto. 

Councillors : 

Civil Branch: W. E. P. Duncan, b.sc, m.e.i.c, General 
Superintendent, Toronto Transportation Commission, To- 
ronto; J. Clark Keith, b.a.sc, m.e.i.c, General Manager, 
Windsor Utilities Commission, Windsor; J. L. Lang, b.a.sc, 
m.e.i.c, Lang & Ross, Engineers and Contractors, Sault 
Ste. Marie. 

Chemical Branch: R. M. Coleman, Smelter Superin- 
tendent, International Nickel Co., Copper Cliff; R. A. 
Elliott, b.sc, General Manager, Deloro Smelting and Refin- 
ing Co. Ltd., Deloro; E. T. Sterne, b.sc, Manager, G. F. 
Sterne & Sons, Brantford. 

Electrical Branch: H. A. Cooch, b.a.sc, m.e.i.c, Vice- 
President, Canadian Westinghouse Co., Hamilton; J. H. 
MacTavish, m.b.e., m.c, b.a.sc, Secretary, Toronto Electric 
Commissioners, Toronto; Com. C. P. Edwards, m.e.i.c, 
o.b.e., Chief of Air Services, Dept. of Transport, Ottawa. 

Mechanical Branch: C. C. Cariss, m.e.i.c, Chief-Engineer, 
Waterous Ltd., Brantford; L. T. Rutledge, b.a.sc, m.e., 
m.e.i.c, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 
Queen's University, Kingston; K. R. Rybka, m.e., d.sc, 
m.e.i.c, Associate W. J. Armstrong, Consulting Engineer, 
Toronto. 

Mining Branch: J. M. Carter, b.a.sc, Mill Superintend- 
ent, Omega Gold Mines Ltd., Larder Lake; C. H. Hitchcock, 
e.m., b.s., Vice-President, Smith & Travers Co. Ltd., 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



33 



Toronto; D. G. Sinclair, b.a.sc, Assistant Deputy Minister 
of the Department of Mines, Toronto. 

Stanley R. Frost, m.e.i.c, Sales Director of the North 
American Cyanamid Ltd., the new president of the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of the Province of Ontario, 
will assume office at the general meeting of the association, 
which is being held at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, on 
January 18th, 1941. 

Mr. Frost has taken an active interest in the affairs of 
the Association, of which he has been a member since 1923. 
He served as representative of the Mechanical Branch on 
Council for the years 1935, 1936 and 1937, during which 
time he was chairman of the Publicity Committee. For the 
past year, he has been vice-president and chairman of the 
Finance Committee. 

In his early career he was engaged in the manufacture 
of iron and steel, Portland cement and similar industries in 
Canada and United States. For the past twenty years, he 
has been on the staff of the North American Cyanamid 
Ltd., with plants in Niagara Falls and Ingersoll. 

Not only does Mr. Frost typify the engineer in industry, 
but he is an example of the engineer active in public service. 
While resident in Niagara Falls, he served on the aldermanic 
board of that city for several years and was an active mem- 
ber of the Town Planning Commission and the Chamber 
of Commerce. He was appointed to the Board of Water 
Commissioners and was chairman of the Board during the 
construction of the Niagara Falls filtration plant. On mov- 
ing to Toronto a few years ago, he became an active member 
of the Engineering Branch of the Toronto Board of Trade 
and is now branch vice-chairman. He was recently appointed 
a member of the Zoning Commission of the City of Toronto 
and when the Committee for the Stimulation of Employ- 
ment was formed at the instance of Dr. F. J. Conboy, he 
was appointed to the Farm Placement Committee. 

Mr. Frost is a member of the Canadian Society of Tech- 
nical Agriculturists, the Engineering Institute of Canada, 
and other engineering societies. 

[ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on December 14th, 1940, the follow- 
ing elections and transfers were effected : 

Members 
Blowey, John Frederick Gill, Bach. Mech. Engrg. (Detroit Inst, of 

Tech.), supervisor of trade school, Ford Motor Co. of Canada, 

Windsor, Ont. 
Kelly, Joseph John, b.a.sc (E.E.), (Univ. of Toronto), mgr., Ham- 
ilton District Office, Lincoln Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd. Hamilton, 

Ont. 
Laughton, James Alexander, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), welding 

engr., shop supt., Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
McGorman, Donald, b.a.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of Toronto), supt., 

Schultz Die Casting Co., Wallaceburg, Ont. 
Robinson, Richard Henry, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), sales engr., 

Vulcan Iron Works Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 
Simard, Joseph W., b.a.sc, CE., (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 

International Water Supply Limited, Montreal, Que. 

Juniors 
Campbell, Noel, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), engrg. dept., Ford 

Motor Co. of Canada, Windsor, Ont. 
Dugal, Fernand, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), purchasing dept., 

Canadian Associated Aircraft Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Glance, Earl Irvine, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), elec. engr., 

T. Pringle & Son, Montreal, Que. 

Affiliate 
Spall, Edward Arthur George, m^r., Penn Electric Switch Divn. 
Powerlite Device Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 
Akerley, William Burpee, Lieut., r.c.e., b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of 

N.B.), Works Officer, Dept. of National Defence, Saint John, N.B. 
Climo, Percy Lloyd, b.sc (Queen's Univ.), mech. engr., Gaspesia 

Sulphite Co. Ltd., Chandler, Que. 
Lochhead, Kenneth Young, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), bldg. supt., 

Hudson's Bay Company, Vancouver, B.C. 
Minard, Guy McRae, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), Pilot Officer, R.C.A.F., 

Aero-Engineering School, Montreal, Que. 
Patriquen, Frank Andrew, b.sc. (Elec. & Civil), (Univ. of N.B.), 

junior engr., Dept. of Public Works Canada, Fairville, N.B. 



Stratton, William Donald George, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of N.B.). 

res.engr., Civil Aviation Br., Dept. of Transport, Saint John, N.B. 
Wheatley, Eric Edmund, b.sc. (McGill Univ.), asst. to divn. engr., 

Laurentide Divn., Cons. Paper Corpn. Ltd., Grand'Mere, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 

French, Philip Bemis, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), sales engr., Canadian 

SKF Limited, Montreal, Que. 
Mayhew, Earle Chandler, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), Deputv Chief 

Inspector of Armaments (G), Department of National Difence, 

Ottawa, Ont. 
Plamondon, Sarto, b.a.sc, c.e. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 

asst. sanitary engr., Ministry of Health, Amos, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 

Brannen, Edwin Ralph, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of N.B.), chief inspr., 
Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd., Asbestos, Que. 

Cartier, Léonard, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 
lab. asst., hydraulic laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Que. 

Demcoe, John William, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), asst. divnl. 
engr., C.N.R., Toronto, Ont. 

Desjardins, Roger, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 
engr., Provincial Public Service Board, Quebec, Que. 

Ford, John Franklin, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), job engr., Russel 
Constrn. Co., Toronto, Ont. 

Gershfield, Max, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), asst. supt., Radio 
Oil Refineries, Winnipeg, Man. 

Gervais, Aimé, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 
technical secretary, Public Service Board, Montreal, Que. 

Hertel, Alfred Frederick, b.sc. (Civil), (Queen's Univ.), junior engr., 
Dept. of Public Works Canada, London, Ont. 

Hewitt, Herbert Eugene, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Alta.), engr., Sud- 
bury Hydro-Electric Commission, Sudbury, Ont. 

Hurtubise, Jacques Edouard, b.a.sc, c.e. (Ecole Polytechnique, 
Montreal), i/c testing materials lab., Ecole Polytechnique, Mont- 
real, Que. 

LeBel, Raymond, b.a.sc., ce. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal), 
engr., J. M. Eug. Guay Inc., consltg. engrs., Montreal, Que. 

MacKay, Norman Allison, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), lubrica- 
tion engr., Dominion Steel & Coal Corporation, Sydney, N.S. 

Peters, James Horsfield, b.sc. (Chem.), (Univ. of N.B.), shift super- 
visor, Defence Industries Limited, Brownsburg, Que. 

Pope, Francis Robert, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), asst. supt., 
Western Clock Co. Ltd., Peterborough, Ont. 

Sanders, George Ostrom, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), mtce. engr., Howard 
Smith Paper Mills Ltd., Cornwall, Ont. 

Sawle, Ross Tregerthen, b.sc. (Queen's) m.a.Sc. (Univ. of Toronto), 
design engr., English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd., St. Catharines, 
Ont. 

Whitehouse, Ralph John, B.Eng., (McGill Univ.), machine shop 
progress clerk, Cons. Mining & Smelting Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C. 

Students Admitted 

Archambault, Jean (Ecole Polytechnique), 289 de l'Epée St., Outre- 
mont, Que. 

Freeman, Rex Morton (McGill Univ.), 1535 St. Mark St., Montreal, 
Que. 

Freeman, Paul Ora (McGill Univ.), 131 Percival Ave., Montreal 
West, Que. 

Gauthier, Raymond Claude (Univ. of Man.), 554}^ DesMeurons 
St., St. Boniface, Man. 

Galvas, Edward Henry (Univ. of Sask.), 274 Colony St., Winnipeg, 
Man. 

Guy, Ross Thomas (Queen's Univ.), 303 University Ave., Kingston, 
Ont. 

Haun, Glen Robert, B.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Alta.), 2322 Carleton St., 
Calgary, Alta. 

Hodgson, Ronald H. (McGill Univ.), 1227 Sherbrooke St. West, 
Montreal, Que. 

Kelly, James Oswald (McGill Univ.), 4109 Northcliffe Ave., Montreal, 
Que. 

Kennedy, Lowell Keith (McGill Univ.), 3507 University St., Mont- 
real, Que. 

Keyfitz, Irving Mortimer (McGill Univ.), 3454 Addington Ave., 
Montreal, Que. 

Koropatnick, Peter, (Univ. of Man.), 75 Edmonton St., Winnipeg, 
Man. 

Lafond, R. Olier, (Ecole Polytechnique), 3646 St. Denis St., Mont- 
real, Que. 

Miller, Zavie (McGill Univ.), 673 de l'Epée Ave., Outremont Que. 

Morris, Robert McCoul, B.Eng. (Elec), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 548 
Prince Arthur St. West, Montreal. Que. 

Morse, Clifford Eric (McGill Univ.), 3437 Harvard Ave., Montreal, 
Que. 

Olafson, Harold Sigmar (Univ. of Man.), Riverton, Man. 

Parker, William Alfred, b.a.sc. (Univ. of B.C.), 516 Charlotte St., 
Peterborough, Ont. 

Russell, Gordon Douglas (McGill Univ.), 2358 Grand Blvd., Mont- 
real, Que. 

Sheinberg, Sydney (McGill Univ.), 4362 Laval Ave., Montreal, Que. 

Smith, Harold Pennell (Univ. of Toronto), Newtonbrook, Ont. 

Wilson, John Howard (McGill Univ.), Hudson Heights, Que. 



34 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Personals 



Past President E. A. Cleveland, m.e.i.c, has seen his 
term of office extended as chief commissioner of the Greater 
Vancouver Water District and chairman of the Vancouver 
and District Joint Sewage and Drainage Board, although 
the law required him to retire. Commenting on the special 
measure passed to this effect by the British Columbia Legis- 
lature, the Vancouver Daily Times writes: "The eminent 
engineer is entitiled to retirement ; and the provincial House 
decided that he is too valuable a man to exchange the 
exactions of his highly-important and responsible position 
for the serenity and satisfaction one associates with life 
on a comfortable pension; Dr. Cleveland will carry on. 
From one day long ago, when he and some Danish settlers 
almost starved to death on Vancouver Island, and on down 
the years, his life has been strenuous. To add anything 
to the act of the Legislature and what it symbolizes would 
be to gild the lily." 

A. W. Whitaker, m.e.i.c, was recently appointed general 
manager of the Aluminum Company of Canada, Limited. 
A graduate in chemical engineering from the University of 
Pennsylvania, he joined the company in July, 1913, as a 
research engineer. In 1926, he became superintendent of the 
newly built carbon plant at Arvida, Que., and in 1928 was 
made superintendent of the Arvida ore plant. In 1930, Mr. 
Whitaker became manager of the Arvida works, which post 
he held until 1939 when he was appointed chief engineer 
of the company. He will combine his new duties with those 
of chief engineer. 

R. J. Durley, m.e.i.c, secretary emeritus of the Institute, 
has been elected as a member of council of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers of Great Britain and is chairman of the 
Canadian Advisory Committee of the Institution. 

A. J. T. Taylor, m.e.i.c, chairman of British Pacific 
Securities Limited, and formerly president and chief en- 
gineer of the First Narrows Bridge Company, Vancouver, 
is now with the British Air Commission in Washington, 
D.C., as deputy to Mr. Morris Wilson, president of the 
Royal Bank of Canada, Montreal, who represents in North 
America Lord Beaverbrook, the head of the British Ministry 
of Aircraft Production. Mr. Taylor joined Mr. Wilson last 
June in New York, and has lately been transferred to 
Washington. 

Lieut.-Col. J. L. Melville, m.e.i.c, is in command of the 
Corps Troops Engineer Units, designated C.R.E. Corps 
Troops, with the Army Corps commanded by Lt.-Gen. 
A. G. L. McNaughton in England. Colonel Melville re- 
signed his position as commissioner on the War Veterans 
Allowance Board in the Federal Department of Pensions 



News of the Personal Actiyities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



and National Health last spring to command the 1st 
Canadian Pioneer Battalion, Royal Canadian Engineers, 
C.A.S.F. 

W. G. Mitchell, m.e.i.c, who has been associated during 
the past year with the Department of Munitions and Supply 
in Ottawa, has recently returned to Montreal to assume 
an executive position with Allied War Supplies Corporation 
in the same connection. Following graduation from McGill 
University (M.Sc, 1914), Mr. Mitchell spent some years 
abroad, engaged on various technical and economic investi- 
gations and, on his return to Canada in 1921 joined the 
staff of Price Brothers & Co., Limited, as assistant to the 
president. Admitted to the Institute as a Member in 1920, 
he became the first chairman of the newly established 
Saguenay Branch in 1923, serving in that capacity for two 
years. Later (1927-1931) he served for four years as Institute 
vice-president for Zone C. Terminating his connection with 
Price Brothers & Co., Limited, in 1932, he spent some three 
years engaged in private practice, principally in the southern 
United States. Returning to Canada in 1935, Mr. Mitchell 
acted for some two years as technical adviser to the Can- 
adian Pulp and Paper Association, principally in relation 
to the re-organization of policy of the Pulp and Paper 
Research Institute in Montreal. In 1937, he established 
headquarters for a consulting practice in Montreal and since 
early in the present year has been engaged in connection 
with the national defence and war procurement programme. 

W. R. Smith, m.e.i.c, who for the past sixteen years had 
been assistant county engineer of Middlesex County, Ont., 
has been appointed county engineer to succeed Charles 
Talbot, m.e.i.c, who is retiring after a long service in this 
capacity. 

A. T. Hurter, m.e.i.c, has accepted a position as project 
engineer with Defence Industries Limited in Montreal. 
Lately he was representative at Red Rock, Ont., of the 
receiver and general manager of Lake Sulphite Pulp Com- 
pany Limited. He had previously been engineer in charge 
of construction and assistant manager of the company. 

W. M. Harvey, m.e.i.c, has joined the staff of Rhokana 
Copper Corporation at Nkana, Northern Rhodesia. Mr. 
Harvey, who is a Queen's graduate in mechanical engineer- 
ing, had been for the past eight years with Noranda Mines 
Limited at Noranda, Que. He was previously connected 
with the Wabi Iron Works Limited of New Liskeard, Ont. 






W. G. Mitchell, M.E.I.C. 



A. J. T. Taylor, M.E.I.C. 



A. W. Whitaker, M.E.I.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



35 



T. W. Lazenby, m.e.i.c, is now employed as a mechanical 
draftsman with the Consolidated Mining and Smelting 
Company at Trail, B.C. 

M. L. Walker, m.e.i.c., has been commissioned with the 
rank of flying officer in the engineering branch of the 
R.C.A.F. and is now posted at Yarmouth, N.S., as technical 
officer. He was previously with the Imperial Oil Limited at 
Sarnia, Ont. 




R. W. Angus, Hon. M.E.I.C. (left), receives congratulations 
from W. H. McBryde, retiring president of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, after having heen presented 
with an honorary membership certificate at the annual meet- 
ing of the Society, last December, in New York. 

A. H. Cole, jr. e.i. c, has joined the staff of the Canadian 
Car & Foundry Company Limited at Montreal. Since his 
graduation from McGill University in 1936 he had been 
with the D. W. Ogilvie and Company Inc., in Montreal. 

A. W. Howard, s.e.i.c, has been transferred from Calgary 
to Montreal and is now employed with the Montreal 
Engineering Company Limited. Since his graduation from 
the University of Toronto in 1935 he had been with the 
Calgary Power Company, Calgary, Alta. 

A. J. Ring, s.e.i.c, is on the staff of Defence Industries 
Limited in Montreal. He was graduated in civil engineering 
from the University of New Brunswick last spring. 

G. L. Archambault, s.e.i.c, is a sales and maintenance 
engineer with the Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Com- 
pany at Montreal. He was graduated in mechanical en- 
gineering from McGill University in 1939. 

A. A. Buchanan, s.e.i.c, is now a pilot officer in the 
R.C.A.F. and is following a course at the aeronautical en- 
gineering school in Montreal. He is a graduate in mechanical 
engineering from the class of 1939 at McGill University. 

R. Eastwood, s.e.i.c, is with the Consolidated Paper Cor- 
poration at Grand'Mere, Que. He was graduated in me- 
chanical engineering from McGill in 1939. 

F. Dugal, Jr. e.i. c, is now assistant to the purchasing agent 
with Canadian Associated Aircraft Limited at Montreal. 
Upon his graduation in mechanical engineering from McGill 
University in 1939 he went with the Department of National 
Defence as aircraft inspector. He also worked for a few 
months with Defence Industries Limited in Montreal. 

D. H. Ferguson, s.e.i.c, is located at Shawinigan Falls, 
Que., with the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited. 
He was graduated in mechanical engineering from McGill 
University in 1939. 

R. N. Ferguson, s.e.i.c, is on the staff of International 
Foils Limited, Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Que., as assistant 



engineer. He is a graduate of the 1939 class in mechanical 
engineering from McGill University. 

R. H. Garrett, s.e.i.c, is training with the R.C.A.F. at 

Regina, Sask. Upon his graduation in mechanical engineer- 
ing from McGill University in 1939 he went with the 
Mackenzie River Transport Company, at Edmonton, Alta. 

R. E. Gohier, s.e.i.c, is a metallurgical engineer with Sorel 
Industries Limited at Sorel, Que. Upon graduation in 
mechanical engineering from McGill in 1939 he went with 
the International Foils Limited, at Cap-de-la-Madeleine, 
Que., a position which he left last. month to accept his new 
appointment. 

J. Hall, s.e.i.c, a graduate in chemical engineering from 
the class of 1939 at McGill, is with Shell Oil Company of 
Canada Limited at Montreal East, Que. 

J. G. Langley, s.e.i.c, is with Canadian General Electric 
Company at Peterborough, Ont. He was graduated in 
electrical engineering from McGill University in 1939. 

W. H. McGowan, s.e.i.c, an electrical engineering gradu- 
ate from the class of 1939, McGill University, is with the 
Bell Telephone Company of Canada Limited in Montreal. 

A. Mendelsohn, s.e.i.c, who was graduated in mechanical 
engineering from McGill in 1939 is now on active service 
and is located at Kingston, Ont. 

S. Nathanson, s.e.i.c, is aircraft examiner with the 
British Air Commission at Montreal. He was graduated in 
civil engineering from McGill University in 1939. 

H. C. Oatway, s.e.i.c, who was graduated in mechanical 
engineering from McGill University in 1939 is acting as 
temporary instructor at the University. 

H. F. Staniforth, s.e.i.c, has joined the Royal Canadian 
Air Force as a pilot officer and is, at present, following a 
course in aeronautical engineering at Montreal. He was 
graduated in mechanical engineering from McGill in 1939. 

Eric Tait, s.e.i.c, is with the Shawinigan Engineering 
Company Limited at Montreal. He was graduated in civil 
engineering from McGill in 1939. 

W. J. Tanner, s.e.i.c, a chemical engineering graduate 
from the class of 1939 at McGill, is now with the Aluminum 
Company of Canada Limited at Shawinigan Falls, Que. 
Upon graduation he went for a few months with General 
Foods Limited at Montreal. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

Alfredo^ Medina, contractor, from Merida, .Yucatan, 
Mexico, on November 26th. 

R. L. Dunsmore, m.e.i.c, superintendent, Halifax refinery, 
Imperial Oil Limited, from Dartmouth, N.S., on December 
3rd. 

Past President Dr. Charles Camsell, C.M.G., m.e.i.c, 
Deputy Minister, Department of Mines and Resources, 
from Ottawa, Ont., on December 6th. 

Major W. B. Redman, m.e.i.c, assistant engineer, Cana- 
dian National Railways, from Toronto, Ont., on December 
18th. 

Geoffrey Stead, m.e.i.c, from Saint John, N.B., on De- 
cember 23rd. 

Arsène Babin, m.e.i.c, resident engineer on construction, 
Quebec North Shore Paper Company, from Baie Comeau, 
Que., on December 24th. 

L. P. Cousineau, m.e.i.c, assistant resident engineer, 
Quebec Streams Commission, Rapid No. 7, Ottawa River, 
from Cadillac, Que., on December 24th. 

P. W. Greene, m.e.i.c, from New York on December 27th. 

Capt. V. R. Davies, m.e.i.c, Royal Military College, from 
Kingston, Ont., on December 28th. 



36 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

John Kershaw Ashworth, M.E.l.c, died suddenly in the 
hospital at Montreal on December 16th, 1940. He was born 
in Hebdon Bridge, Yorkshire, England, on October 18th, 
1885. He was educated at Halifax (England) Technical Col- 
lege and Manchester University. He came to Canada in 
1911 for the firm of Hans Renold Limited of Manchester, 
England. Later he was engaged with the Coventry Chain 
Company Limited. From 1914 to 1916 he was in active 
service overseas, and upon returning from France in 1916 
he became engaged in shell production with the Steel Com- 
pany of Canada at Montreal. From 1920 to 1925 he was 
designing and sales engineer with Jones & Glassco Registered 
for the Coventry Chain Company Limited of Coventry, 
England. In 1927 he became manager of the Coventry 
Company Registered at Montreal. In 1933 he was appointed 
manager of R. & M. Bearings Canada Limited in Montreal. 
Until last April he was vice-president of the Company. 

Mr. Ashworth joined the Institute as an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1925. 

William Bell Cartmel, m.e.i.c, died at Montreal, on 
December 5th, 1940, after a long illness. He was born at 
Liverpool, England, on January 4th, 1872. He received his 
Bachelor of Science degree from the Case School of Applied 
Science of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1900, and two years later he 
obtained the degree of Master of Arts from the University 
of Nebraska. During the years 1902 and 1903 he was labora- 
tory assistant in the Bureau of Standards at Washington. 
From 1903 to 1905 he was instructor in physics at Cincinnati 
University, and in 1906 to 1907 he was a Whiting Fellow- 
ship student in physics at Harvard University. From 1907 
to 1911 Mr. Cartmel was professor of physics and electrical 
engineering at the University of New Brunswick. In 1911 
he joined the Northern Electric Company at Montreal, 
and in 1915 he became in charge of the transmission division. 
In 1933 he was president of the W. B. Cartmel and Son 
Limited, electrical engineers and contractors of Montreal. 
For the past three years he had been a research associate 
at the University of Montreal. 

Mr. Cartmel joined the Institute as a Member in 
1922. 

Valentine Irving Smart, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at his 
home in Ottawa on December 2nd, 1940. He was born at 
Brockville, Ont., on February 14th, 1875, and he was edu- 
cated at Upper Canada College and Queen's University, 
Kingston, where he was graduated in 1887 as a Bachelor 
of Arts. He joined the Federal Government service in 1897 
as a surveyor. From 1902 to 1907 he served as assistant 
manager, signal engineer and engineer of maintenance of 
way with the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railway of 
Chicago. From 1907 until 1914 Colonel Smart was professor 
of railway engineering at McGill University. Later he be- 
came engaged with the General Railway Signal Company 
of Canada Limited of Montreal of which he was vice- 
president and general manager. For some time he also was 
a partner in the firm of Smart and Burnett, consulting 
engineers of Montreal. He was consulting engineer with the 
Department of Railways and Canals in connection with the 
Grand Trunk Railway arbitration from 1920 to 1923. He 
joined the Canadian National Railways in 1923 as a special 
engineer and in 1928 he became general superintendent of 
transportation for the western region. In 1930 he was 
appointed Deputy Minister of the Department of Railways 
and Canals at Ottawa. In July, 1940, when the Hon. C. D. 
Howe became Minister of Munitions and Supply with con- 
trol also over civil aviation, Col. Smart held the unique 
position of being deputy to two ministers. He continued 
his work with the Transport Department under the Hon. 



P. J. A. Cardin and also was retained by Mr. Howe, 
former Transport Minister, in the air branch of his 
department. 

Part of Col. Smart's work with the air services was under- 
taking construction of 100 aerodromes in Canada for the 
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Earlier he had 
been responsible to a large extent for detailed preliminary 
work with Trans-Canada Air Lines, planning flying fields, 
radio facilities, and similar work. 




V. I. Smart, M.E.I.C. 

Col. Smart was a member of the defence co-ordination 
committee and served as chairman of a sub-committee on 
reserved occupations which dealt with decisions on keeping 
men valuable in civilian occupations out of the armed 
forces. 

During the Royal visit in 1939 he was chairman of a 
committee in charge of transportation arrangements for 
Their Majesties and the Royal party. 

Col. Smart joined the Institute as a Member in 1917. 

COMING MEETINGS 

Association of Professional Engineers of the Pro- 
vince of Ontario — Annual general meeting, Royal York 
Hotel, Toronto, January 18th. Secretary, Walter McKay, 
350 Bay St., Toronto, Ont. 

The Dominion Council of Professional Engineers — 

Annual Meeting, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, January 20th 
and 21st. 

Canadian Electrical Association — Mid-Winter Con- 
ference, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, January 20th and 21st. 

American Road Builders' Association — Annual Con- 
vention at the Pennsylvania Hotel, New York City, Janu- 
ary 27th to 30th. Director Charles Upham, International 
Building, Washington, D.C. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers — Winter 
Convention. Philadelphia, January 27th to 31st. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada — Fifty-fifth 
Annual General and Professional Meeting to be held at 
Hamilton, Ont., on February 6th and 7th. 

American Institute of Mechanical Engineers — An- 
nual Meeting, New York, Engineering Societies Building 
and Commodore Hotel, February 17th to 20th. 

Ontario Good Roads Association — Annual Conven- 
tion, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, February 26th to 27th. 
Secretary, T. J. Mahony, Court House, Hamilton, Ont. 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy — 

Annual Meeting, Montreal, March 10th to 12th. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



37 



FLASHES OF THE PRESIDENT'S WESTERN TRIP 




AT LAKEHEAD— 1. Three veterans, Messrs. 
Duncan, Armstrong and Antonisen. 

2. Councillor Doncaster, Elizabeth MacGill, 
and Chairman O'Leary. 

AT WINNIPEG— 3. The executive enter- 
tains, left to right, Mr. Attwood, the 
President, Chairman Briggs and Past- 
Chairman Hurst. 

4. Past-President Lefebvre speaks, with 
John Porter on his right and the President 
to his left. 





AT CALGARY— 5. President Hogg signs 
the co-operative agreement with Chair- 
man Sauder on his left and B. L. Thome 
on his right. 

6. President McLean signs for the Asso- 
ciation, with Chairman Sauder looking on. 

7. D. A. R. McCannel, President of the 
Dominion Council. 

8. Past-President S. G. Porter tells the 
history of the profession in the province. 
In the background is H. R. Webb, Registrar 
of the Association. 

9. President Howard McLean of Calgary. 

10. P. Turner Bone. 



38 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 





AT VANCOUVER— 11. The head 
table with Messrs. Cleveland, 
Hogg, Finlay son, Lefebvre, Vance 
and Walkem. 

12. You can recognize Wm. 
Smaill, H. C. Fitz-James, Perce 
Buchan. 

13. Kirk McLeod brings greet- 
ings from Montreal. 

14. Dean Finlayson is chairman 
of the branch. 

15. Past-President E. A. Cleve- 
land. 



AT VICTORIA— 16. Chairman 
of the branch E. W. Izard, with 
W. A. Carrothers on his right. 

17. Secretary Kenneth Reid re- 
ports. 

18. Past-President Lefebvre 
calls on C. A. Magrath, Hon. 
M.E.I.C. 

19. James Vance brings greet- 
ings from the London branch. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



39 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



H. L. Johnston, m.e.i.c. 
A. H. Pask, Jr. E.I.C. 



Secretary-T reasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On November 15th, 1940, the monthly meeting of the 
Border Cities Branch was held in the Prince Edward Hotel 
beginning at 6.30 p.m. with a dinner. Following a short 
business meeting, Mr. T. H. Jenkins introduced the speaker 
of the evening, Mr. M. W. Pétrie of the Production Re- 
search Department of Chrysler Corporation. The subject 
of the address was Superfinish and Fluid Drive. 

Superfinish originated in the attempts to improve the life 
of bearing races by removing the grinding fuzz with lapping. 
This was very effective and a machine was devised to do 
this work. The value for other machine parts was seen and 
machines were devised for them. 

The speaker enumerated the different methods of finishing 
from turning to honing and burnishing and gave the disad- 
vantages of each. Turning has the highest speed and the 
greatest actual pressure at the working point, which may 
be equal to hundreds of tons per square inch. The pressure 
creates high temperatures which are sufficient to change the 
character of the surface metal. The temperature and pres- 
sures are true to lessening degrees for other finishing 
methods as grinding, honing and burnishing. These opera- 
tions create an amorphous non-crystalline layer of metal 
about one one-thousandth deep which is best removed by 
lapping. 

Superfinishing is a lapping operation done with very low 
unit pressures and speeds, using combined and super- 
imposed short reciprocating motions. By using three or 
more motions combined it is possible to produce a geomet- 
rically perfect surface. In practice five motions are used. 

The metal peaks left by the sizing operation, which may 
have been turning, are removed by superfinishing in a few 
seconds. As the actual unit pressure is initially low it be- 
comes very low when the peaks are worn down flat. The 
lubricant used has a definite viscosity so that when a certain 
abrasive area is reached the pressure is supported by the 
lubricant and effective work stops. Usually only .0001 or 
.0002 inches of metal are removed for this. 

The superfinish process, by removing peaks of metal 
leaves a surface much more easily lubricated as the film is 
not broken by these points, and metal to metal contact is 
avoided. Bearings finished in this way may therefore be 
initially used with a closer fit and will operate longer as 
lubrication is maintained better. 

The speaker also described fluid drives as applied to the 
modern automobile and gave its advantages in this service. 

Following an interesting question period, a vote of thanks 
was moved by Mr. J. E. Daubney. The meeting then 
adjourned on the motion of Mr. C. F. Davison. 

CALGARY BRANCH 



P. F. Peele, m.e.i.c. 
F. A. Brownie, m.e.i.c. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



The November 6 meeting of the Calgary Branch was 
featured by an address by Mr. R. E. Allen newly appointed 
chairman of the Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Con- 
servation Board who spoke on the general subject of 
Conservation . 

Conservation was defined as the "application of measures 
designed to produce the greatest oil recovery in the most 
economical way." 

Mr. Allen then proceeded to discuss the various aspects of 
conservation. One of the most important of these is of course 
reservoir pressure. Below a certain critical pressure in any 
field the gas tends to come out of solution in the oil leaving 



the oil more viscous and less capable of flowing readily 
through the sand to the well. The maintenance of pressures 
above this critical point is of course of paramount import- 
ance. That this is the case is indicated by the great interest 
and activity in the United States in repressuring projects 
which return the gas to the producing horizon after it has 
produced its oil. 

Reference was made to the varying degrees of government 
control exercised by different states. In Turner Valley 
to-day, for instance, only one well is permitted to each 40 
acres of land. In the past, in certain states, as many as three 
wells have been drilled under one derrick resulting in a 
productive life of only a few weeks. 

In recent years, the acidizing of wells to increase pro- 
duction has become an important factor displacing the more 
spectacular but less efficient method of "shooting" wells 
with nitro-glycerine. 

Mr. Allen stressed the necessity of extending the produc- 
tive area of Turner Valley by new wells and of developing 
new fields by "wildcatting" if the present production rate 
is to be maintained. Future possibilities were discussed 
briefly if oil production in Alberta can be increased by the 
discovery of new reserves. 

The lengthy discussion which followed indicated the great 
interest which Mr. Allen's subject held for Branch members. 

The meeting of November 21st was unusual in that it 
presented four speakers, three of whom were Branch 
affiliates. 

Mr. A. Baxter discussed the Design of the Coal Hand- 
ling Plant at Murray Collieries in East Coulee. By 

means of pictures and a flow sheet the course of the coal was 
followed from mine head to car. 

Mr. L. R. Brereton dealt with Some Considerations in 
the Design of Steel Castings. This paper indicated the 
benefits to be gained by having steel casting designs checked 
by an experienced foundryman from the point of view of 
such factors as ease of casting, effects of shrinkage, and 
composition of various elements of the casting. 

A rather unusual topic was presented by Mr. C. Lattman 
in his paper on Standardization of Paper Sizes in Swit- 
zerland. Under the scheme adopted all sheets of paper are 
standard sizes which, no matter how large, can be reduced 
by folding to the size and shape of the smallest standard 
sheet. The advantages of this system in filing and cutting 
of larger sheets is obvious. 

The fourth paper by the Rev. R. J. Donavan, a Branch 
Affiliate, discussed the importance of economics to the 
engineer. 

The evening of December 5th was designated as annual 
Ladies' night by the Calgary Branch. Since members' wives 
were present the programme consisted of a showing of 
natural colour slides under the title Colour in the West by 
Mr. S. R. Vallance, who also carried on a running com- 
mentary on the slides. 

The first group showed a number of very beautiful views 
in and near Victoria, B.C. These were followed by a series 
made around Banff and Lake Minnewanka. Besides showing 
some striking new views of the magnificent mountain 
scenery they illustrated a number of interesting expeditions 
by Mr. Vallance which he described. 

This programme was followed by the serving of refresh- 
ments. The meeting was held in the Palliser Hotel and 
Branch Chairman James McMillan presided. 



40 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



EDMONTON BRANCH 



B. W. PlTFIELD, M.E.I.C. 
J. F. McDotJGALL, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 

Branch News Editor 



The November dinner meeting of the Edmonton Branch 
was held in the Macdonald Hotel on November 26th. 
Thirty-six members were present for dinner. After dinner, 
thirteen additional members joined the meeting to hear 
the speakers of the evening. 

After a short business session, Chairman E. Nelson intro- 
duced the speakers, Professor W. E. Cornish of the Depart- 
ment of Electrical Engineering and Professor R. M. Hardy 
of the Department of Civil Engineering of the University 
of Alberta. 

Mr. Cornish had spent the past summer in eastern Canada 
and he described the construction of a large industrial plant 
on which he was working during his stay in the East. His 
paper was illustrated by a number of slides and he gave a 
very clear description of the plant. 

Mr. Hardy had recently returned to Edmonton after a 
year's sabbatical leave from his duties at the University. 
He spent this sabbatical year at Harvard University doing 
post graduate work in soil mechanics. He described this 
work in a paper entitled, Soil Mechanics and Founda- 
tion Engineering. 

In this paper he referred to the fundamental principles 
of soil mechanics, briefly outlined the nature of these prin- 
ciples and showed how they could be used in design of 
foundations. His topic was new to a number of the members 
and a very interesting discussion followed his paper. 

A vote of thanks to both speakers was moved by Dean 
R. S. L. Wilson. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 



A. R. Hannaford, M.E.I.C. 
W. E. Brown, Jr. e. i.e. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On December 16th, in the lecture theatre at McMaster 
University the branch held Student and Junior members' 
night. The papers presented were in competition for the 
branch prize and also became eligible for the John Galbraith 
prize. 

After opening the meeting the chairman, Alex Love, 
turned the meeting over to W. E. Brown. 

L. C. Sentance, of the Canadian Westinghouse Company, 
Hamilton, spoke on Working Stresses in Machine 
Members. 

M. D. Stewart of the Babcock-Wilcox and Goldie- 
McCullough Company, Gait, spoke on The Effect of Wet 
Coal on Pulverisers and Boiler Performance. 

Mr. Sentance gave a review of some of the factors that 
influence the behaviour of materials used in machine mem- 
bers and which consequently affect the selection of suitable 
stress limits. The paper was illustrated with slides dealing 
with various theories of failures. 

Mr. Stewart dealt with the many factors which combine 
to result in what we call boiler performance. He considered 
the matter from the storage bins up to the state of com- 
bustion. However, he stated plainly that he was mainly 
dealing with the matter from the point where pulverisation 
takes place. 

Moisture, he said, caused a heat loss in the boiler and 
an increase in moisture would add to the fuel cost. The paper 
was of a distinctly technical nature and therefore many 
points were exemplified by a number of slides showing 
various diagrams. 

Professor C. R. Young of the University of Toronto, one 
of the three judges appointed by the branch, concluded the 
meeting with an address entitled, The Engineer and the 
Technologist. 

In his opening remarks, the speaker congratulated the 
branch on having as members such able young engineers 
as the competing speakers had proved themselves to be. 
He added that the replies to the lively discussion showed 
that both Mr. Sentance and Mr. Stewart were masters of 
their respective subjects. 



Professor Young said that the work of the engineer had 
a direct effect on the lives and fortunes of the people, and 
he differed from the technician because, to be of real use 
to the world at large, the engineer must consider the human 
side of his works and not only the efficiency of his labours 
but the beneficial results to those under him and to man- 
kind in general. He stated that the bishop of Ripon had 
once suggested the engineers and scientists "lay off" for a 
period of ten years so that the peoples of the earth might 
regain their equilibrium. 

The engineer having created comfort, pleasure and 
methods of destruction had kindled a flame that he should 
beware did not consume us all. 

Alex Love moved a vote of thanks to the speakers and 
particularly to Professor Young for his most interesting 
address. The 49 members and visitors enjoyed coffee and 
light refreshments after the meeting. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH NEWS 



H. M. Olsson, M.E.I.C. 
W. C. BYERS, Jr. E.I.C. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



The Lakehead Branch held a dinner meeting at the 
Shuniah Club, Nov. 21st, commencing at 6.30 p.m., and 30 
members were present. 

Mr. H. G. O'Leary presided at the meeting and wel- 
comed Mr. David Boyd of Montreal and Mr. E. J. Soulsby 
and Mr. S. T. McCavour. 

The Chairman then introduced the speaker of the evening 
Mr. J. M. Fleming, president of C. D. Howe Company 
Limited, consulting engineers, of Port Arthur. His subject 
was The Grain Storage Situation in Canada. 

The speaker said that at the present time there is 850 
million bushels of grain in sight this crop year in Canada, 
and due to consumption and export 300 million bushels will 
be removed, leaving in July, 1941, 550 million bushels to 
be stored. The total storage capacity in Canada is 500 
million bushels including the temporary storage on farms. 
Of the regular storage capacity of 425 million bushels there 
are 5,700 country elevators with 190 million bushels capa- 
city and 160 terminal and mill elevators, totalling 235 mil- 
lion bushels. The Lakehead, with 95 million, has 40 per 
cent of terminal storage capacity of Canada. There are now 
about 3,000 of the timber storage units — commonly called 
"Balloon Annexes" — built adjacent to country elevators, 
with a total capacity of 75 million bushels. The limit of this 
storage, however, is about 110 million bushels, being 
limited by spouting distance from the country elevator. 

The storage of grain in box cars is not practicable be- 
cause of the requirements by the railways for transporting 
other materials essential to the war effort. Very little grain 
can be stored in grain boats because of the anticipated busy 
season and the inability of the grain companies to guar- 
antee removal of the grain at the opening of navigation. 

The most logical location for the storage of large quan- 
tities of grain appears to be at the Lakehead, where ter- 
minal facilities can be used for unloading, drying and clean- 
ing, and then the top grades could be placed in temporary 
timber structures. The wheat, if in a dry condition, can 
then be stored for several years, if necessary, without im- 
pairing the milling or food qualities. The other requirements 
for a development of this nature, such as railway and water 
facilities, vacant and suitably located property, and cheap 
power, are all available. 

The speaker stressed the economic aspect of the problem 
which would govern the feasibility of a development of this 
nature. There are four types of storage that could be built, 
namely: the standard concrete elevator, annexes with large 
concrete bins, rows of concrete bins enclosing a large space 
with roof and concrete slab, and the temporary timber bins 
of reinforced warehouse type equipped with belts and 
elevator legs. 

The timber structures were considered to be the best 
suited for storage of large quantities of grain over a short 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



41 



period of time, when the structures must be removed when 
emptied in about two or three years. Some guarantee per- 
haps should be given by the Wheat Board, of use of tem- 
porary storage space for a time sufficient to retire the cost 
of construction. 

Mr. Fleming thought that some measure of acreage con- 
trol could be effected. One measure might be to take the 
marginal land out of wheat production and use it for other 
crops, thus removing at least two million acres out of the 
wheat category. 

A large quantity of wheat in storage is of great value to 
the Empire's war effort, he said. The crops of the last two 
years were abnormal; two years of poor crops would reduce 
the carryover in Canada to normal, and there was sure to 
be a demand for wheat in Europe after the war. 

Mr. O'Leary thanked the speaker and opened the discus- 
sion in which several members took part. The points 
brought up added to the interest in the address. 

A dinner meeting of the Lakehead Branch was held at 
the Kakobeka Inn on Oct. 16th, commencing at 6.30 p.m. 
There were 22 members and guests present. 

Mr. N. G. O'Leary, the chairman, presided at the meeting 
and introduced the speaker of the evening, Mr. E. J. Davies, 
principal of the Port Arthur Technical School. 

Mr. Davies spoke on The Training of Young Men for 
Industries. He described the method of instruction and 
how some students became readily adapted to their work 
while others were much slower in adapting themselves. 
More time is now being spent on some of the academic 
subjects than was formerly required in the vocational 
training. Night classes have been given in welding with 
remarkable success in placing the welders in local industries. 

Mr. P. E. Doncaster extended a vote of thanks to the 
speaker. 

The address was followed by a period of discussion in 
which nearly all of the members took part. 

Mr. Bird, chief engineer of Kaministiqui Power Company, 
invited the members and guests to visit the hydro plant 
of Kakabeka before returning to the city. Most of the 
members visited the plant which is a 35,000 hp. plant oper- 
ating under 190 ft. head. 

LONDON BRANCH 



D. S. SCRYMGEOUR, M.E.I.C. 

John R. Rostron, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The regular meeting was held in the Public Utilities 
Board Room at 8 p.m. on Wednesday, November 20th, 
1940. The speaker of the evening was V. A. McKillop, 
chief engineer of the London Public Utilities Commission. 

The speaker chose as his subject, The Distribution of 
Electrical Power in the City of London. By means of 
graphical charts he followed the distribution of power from 
its source to the consumers in the several sections of the 
city, indicating the improvements which had been installed, 
the service which was being given, and the advance in 
electrical distribution in recent years. 

Following the address, many of those present took part 
in the discussion, indicating that the subject was of interest 
to engineers generally. 

The chairman announced that the secretary-treasurer, 
D. S. Scrymgeour, who has occupied that position for the 
last five years, had severed his connections with the London 
Structural Steel Company Limited, and was joining the 
staff of the Standard Steel Company Limited of W'eiland, 
Ontario, on the 1st of December. 

In recognition of the valuable services of Mr. Scrymgeour 
to the branch, Mr. W. C. Miller presented Mr. and Mrs. 
Scrymgeour with a floor lamp, to which Mr. Scrymgeour 
suitably replied, indicating the pleasure that it had been 
to work for the London Branch, and that he appreciated 
the many associations he had been able to make. He said 
that he would always remember his friends in London, and 
hoped that they would not forget him. 



Following the resignation of Mr. Scrymgeour, Harry G. 
Stead was elected secretary-treasurer for the balance of 
the present year. 

Eighteen members and guests were present. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 

R. K. Odell, m.e.i.c. - - Secretary-Treasurer 

Development of Dual Lane Highways 

The Development of Dual Lane Highways in Ontario 

was the topic for discussion at the noon luncheon of the 
Ottawa branch on November 21. C. A. Robbins, district 
engineer for southern Ontario, of the provincial Department 
of Highways, Toronto, was the speaker. W. H. Munro, 
chairman of the branch, presided and introduced the speaker. 
A motion picture was also shown of the Queen Elizabeth 
Highway, a super-highway recently opened up from Toronto 
to the Niagara peninsula. Details of construction methods 
were shown, as well as views of the completed highway in 
use, including over- and under-passes, bridges, "clover leaf" 
designs, and other notable traffic control features. 

Super-highways of the future are getting farther and 
farther away from the narrow lane idea with ditches flank- 
ing each side, stated Mr. Robbins. Occupying a right-of- 
way anywhere up to 300 feet in width, with ditches shallow 
or non-existent, with easy curves and grades reduced to a 
minimum, and with a boulevard separating the two streams 
of traffic, they may truly be characterized as "streamlined." 
Bridges will not only be utilitarian but beauty spots as 
well, small parks will be spaced along at frequent intervals 
to add their charm to the route, and hot-dog stands and 
ramshackle service stations will not be permitted. Centres 
of population will be by-passed, crossing roads and rail- 
ways will be over or under passed, and entrances and exits 
will be effected so as to cause no interruption to traffic. 

Registration of cars all over the world for 1939, stated 
Mr. Robbins, was about 44 million of which United States 
and Canada had about three-quarters of the total, with 
Canada alone accounting for about a million and a half 
vehicles. Over 80 per cent of the traffic in Ontario, accord- 
ing to a traffic census, accommodates itself to 20 per cent 
of the road mileage, and accordingly the concern of most 
road authorities today is how to divide up this 20 per cent. 
In Ontario the division is approximately: 2 per cent super- 
highways, 2 per cent express highways, and 16 per cent 
local and service roads. 

Super-highways will cross the province from east to west 
and north to south and will be of the divided type suited 
for carrying four lanes of traffic. Express roads will be 
tributary to them reaching to the outlying sections of the 
province. They will be of the two or three lane type, and 
of a higher standard than the local road, missing densely 
settled areas but with convenient entrances and exits there- 
to. The local and service roads will join towns and cities, 
will provide access to markets, speed up industry, and 
develop suburban areas. These roads we will always have, 
remarked the speaker. 

Naval Armaments 

Guest speaker at the noon luncheon on December 5th, 
1940, at the Château Laurier was Captain C. S. Miller, 
R.N., Inspector of Naval Ordnance, British Admiralty 
Technical Mission, who spoke on Naval Armaments. 
Naval guns on which a pressure of 20 tons per square inch 
is exerted at the time of firing, shells that penetrate heavy 
armour plate before they burst, star shells designed to 
silhouette the enemy vessels at night, magnetic mines that 
may wreck a whole ship's structure without blowing a hole 
in it, depth charges that can be set to explode at any depth 
from 50 feet under water to 500 feet, torpedoes, and other 
features of naval armaments were described by the speaker. 

Naval cadet at Osborne Royal Naval College, 1908, and 
midshipman before the last war, Captain Miller saw action 



42 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



at Heligoland Bight in 1914, Dogger Bank on the battle 
cruiser H. M.S. New Zealand in 1915, and was at the Battle 
of Jutland in 1916 on the battle cruiser Princess Royal in 
which he served as sub-lieutenant and lieutenant. Later 
briefly with the Royal Australian Navy he subsequently 
specialized as a gunnery officer, serving in various ships and 
gunnery schools of the Royal Navy, was assigned to arma- 
ments inspection, research and experimental duties in 1926 
and in July last to duty in Canada and the United States 
with the British Admiralty Technical Mission. 

The speaker paid a tribute to the engineering profession 
in the progress made on the part of Canadians toward 
supplying munitions not only for the Royal Navy but for 
other naval forces of the British Commonwealth as well. 

QUEBEC BRANCH 



Paul Vincent, m.e.i.c. 



Secrétaire-Trésorier 



Assemblée Annuelle 

Lundi soir, le 25 novembre, avait lieu à l'Edifice Quebec 
Power l'assemblée générale annuelle de la section de Québec. 
Une quarantaine de membres y assistaient. 

L'assemblée débutait par la nomination des scrutateurs 
pour dépouiller les bulletins d'élection pour l'année 1940-41. 
Le secrétaire lut ensuite le procès-verbal de l'assemblée 
annuelle du 4 novembre 1939. Le rapport du comité exécutif 
pour les activités de l'année écoulée et le rapport financier 
du secrétaire-trésorier furent aussi présentés aux membres. 
Après quoi, l'assemblée s'occupa de la formation des divers 
comités avec les résultats suivants: 

Comité de Législation: président, Olivier Desjardins, 
J. 0. Martineau, J. G. O'Donnell. 

Comité de Recrutement: président, Paul Vincent, Hector 
Cimon, E. D. Gray-Donald. 

Comité d'excursions: président, Théo. M. Dechêne, W. R. 
Caron, Yvon R. Tassé. 

Comité de Nominations: président, A. O. Dufresne, 
Lucien Martin, G. W. Cartwright. 

Comité de Bibliothèque: président, A. V. Dumas, René 
Dupuis, Théo. Miville Dechêne, J. 0. Martineau, Burroughs 
Pelletier. 

Les scrutateurs présentèrent alors le rapport des élections 
pour 1940-41 et le président de l'assemblée, M. Philippe 
Méthé en donna lecture aux membres comme suit: 

Président: L. C. Dupuis, élu par acclamation. 

Vice-président: E. D. Gray-Donald, élu par acclamation. 

Sec-trésorier: Paul Vincent, élu par acclamation. 

Conseillers élus pour 2 ans: Robert Sauvage, Gérald 
Molleur, Olivier Desjardins. 

Les autres conseillers, élus l'an dernier pour deux ans, 
ont encore un an d'office. Ce sont: MM. Théo. Miville 
Dechêne, Adhémar Laframboise et A. 0. Dufresne. 

Le comité est complété à l'unaminité par la nomination 
de MM. Alex. Larivière, R. B. McDunnough et Philippe 
Méthé, comme membres ex-officio et de M. A. R. Décary, 
président honoraire à vie de la section. 

Dans une brève allocution, le président sortant de charge, 
M. Philippe Méthé, remercia la Compagnie Quebec Power 
pour son hospitalité ainsi que les membres de l'Institut 
pour être venus aussi nombreux à l'assemblée. Il félicita 
les nouveaux élus et il témoigna sa reconnaissance au comité 
exécutif et à tous les membres pour leur collaboration aux 
activités de la section sous sa présidence. Il terminait en 
présentant le nouveau président, M. L. C. Dupuis, qu'il 
invita à prendre le fauteuil présidentiel. 

M. Dupuis remercia alors ses confrères de la marque 
d'estime dont il était l'objet. Il assura aussi les membres 
de ses meilleures dispositions en prenant charge de sa 
nouvelle fonction. Le nouveau président déclara en termi- 
nant qu'il s'efforcerait de suivre l'exemple de son prédé- 
cesseur, Monsieur Méthé. 

Pour marquer l'ouverture de la saison des activités de 
la section, les membres voyaient se dérouler devant eux un 



documentaire intéressant. Ce film sonore intitulé Warnings 
fut gracieusement prêté par le Comité de la Protection 
Civile. L'assistance put constater les dangers des raids 
aériens modernes pour les populations civiles. Tous les 
moyens adoptés pour la protection des citoyens à Londres 
au cours de ces raids furent très bien illustrés. 

La réunion se termina par un petit goûter, des rafraîchis- 
sements et de la tire à l'occasion de la Ste-Catherine. Les 
membres, avant de se quitter, eurent alors l'occasion 
d'échanger leurs vues sur les problèmes mondiaux et leurs 
activités professionnelles. 



Monday night, December 16th, some thirty members 
gathered in the Committee Room of the Château Frontenac 
to hear a very interesting lecture on the Britannia Mines. 
The speaker, Mr. G. W. Waddington, a graduate from 
British Columbia University, resigned his position as chief 
engineer of Britannia Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd. last 
summer to join the staff of Laval University as professor 
of mining engineering. 

Britannia mines are located 30 miles by boat from Van- 
couver, B.C., on the east side of Howe Sound. The dominant 
geological feature is the coast range batholith, which is 
exposed over a length of 1,000 miles along the west coast 
of Canada and Alaska. Ore deposits of the gold-silver and 
silver-lead type are found along the eastern flank of the 
batholith while along the western flank copper deposits 
are found. Britannia belongs to this latter type. The 
Britannia ore bodies are replacements in a shear zone seven 
miles long by two miles wide. The economic minerals are 
chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, gold and silver. 

Mr. Waddington gave a short history of the mines. 
Copper, he said, was discovered on the east side of Howe 
Sound by Dr. A. A. Forbes in 1888. Ten years later, in 
1898, Oliver Furry located five mineral claims. It is from 
these five original claims that a large portion of the mine 
production has since come. Active production started in 
1905. 

The speaker then went on to explain the present opera- 
tions of mining, transportation, milling and production. 
With very good projections illustrating his talk, Mr. Wad- 
dington stated that narrow veins were ordinarily mined 
by rill stopes or by square set stopes. The large ore bodies 
were mined by a retreating shrinkage system, frequently 
combined with powder drifts for primary breaking. The 
broken ore travels by gravity to the main haulage levels. 
Electric trolley locomotives haul this ore and dump it to 
the primary crusher located underground on the 3,900 ft. 
level. The crushed ore is then trammed on the 4,100 ft. 
level to the mill in 18-ton cars through a distance of over 
2}/2 miles. 

The process of milling used is selective flotation and the 
concentrator handles 6,000 tons of ore per day. The ratio 
of concentration is 30 to 1. The principal product is a copper 
concentrate containing copper, gold and silver. Other pro- 
ducts are pyrite concentrate and sometimes zinc concen- 
trate. The concentrates are loaded into ships by conveyor 
belts. In 1939, Mr. Waddington mentioned that Britannia 
produced 2,113,784 tons of ore, from which were recovered 
9 per cent of copper or 37,059,210 pounds, 22,238 ounces 
of gold and 203,019 ounces of silver. In addition 105,418 
tons of pyrite were marketed, and it is mainly used to 
produce sulfuric acid. Development work amounted to 
32,203 ft. or 6.1 miles in that year. During the 35 years 
that Britannia plant has operated, development work has 
totalled 86 miles. 

All ditch water flowing from the mine is passed through 
a precipitation plant, which recovers an average of 3,000 
pounds of copper daily with an efficiency of 93 per cent. 

Easily available hydro-electric power, he added, low cost 
mining methods and cheap sea transportation contribute to 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



43 



the successful mining of these relatively low grade ore 
bodies. 

The speaker then answered for about twenty minutes to 
the questions of his audience. 

Mr. L. C. Dupuis, chairman of the branch, presented 
Mr. Waddington who was thanked by René Dupuis, assist- 
ant general superintendent of the Quebec Power Company. 

SAGUENAY BRANCH 



T. A. I. C. Taylor, Jr. e.i.c. 

B. E. SURVEYER, AFFIL. E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The Saguenay Branch held its first meeting of the season 
on the 15th August at the Arvida Protestant School. The 
speaker was Mr. J. T. Thwaites of the Canadian Westing- 
house Company who was supervising the installation of 
the Ignitron Station in Arvida. His subject was Ignitrons. 
Mr. Thwaites discussed the development of mercury arc 
rectification by means of the Westinghouse ignitrons, giving 
essential differences between multiple and single tank 
rectifiers. 

The following meeting of the branch was held on 10th 
October and Mr. E. F. Hartwick, of the Aluminum Com- 
pany of Canada, Limited, gave an illustrated lecture on 
The Manufacture of Alpaste in Arvida. Mr. Hartwick 
described the different processes used in making paint 
pigment. He explained the various steps of the process 
employed in Arvida exemplifying some of the dangers 
which could be encountered and the precautions which were 
taken to minimize them. 

Water Filtration and Purification was the subject of 
an address given by Mr. Ross Watson at a meeting held 
on the 14th November. Mr. Watson is at present installing 
a filtration plant in Arvida and he gave a description of 
its equipment and its operation including the pumping, 
filtering and chemical treatment of water, and illustrated 
the different phases of the process. Following Mr. Watson's 
paper, Dr. H. G. Acres, well known hydraulic engineer, 
talked and showed some slides of the Shand Dam, at 
Fergus, on the Grand River. He discussed the engineering 
features of earth-filled dams and pointed out that a definite 
technique is now employed rather than the hit-and-miss 
method originally used. Following the presentation of these 
two highly interesting papers a meeting of the Executive 
of the Saguenay Branch was held. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 



O. A. Evans, .ir. e.i.c. 

N. C. COWIE, Jr. E.I.C. 



- Secretary -Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



The seventh general meeting for the year 1940 was held 
in the Grill Room of the Windsor Hotel when 21 members 
and guests sat down to dinner at 6.45 p.m. The business 
portion of the meeting began at 8.00 p.m. with Chairman 
E. MacQuarrie in the chair. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and adopted on motion of W. Seymour 
and G. S. MacLeod. The chairman then called upon Mr. 
Perkins, manager of the Bell Telephone Company, to intro- 
duce the speaker of the evening, G. T. Long, historian of 
the Bell Telephone Company of Canada, who had for his 
subject, War Time Communications. 

The value of the telephone in the mobilization, organiza- 
tion and direction of armed forces was recognized almost 
as soon as the invention was perfected. Alexander Graham 
Bell himself demonstrated its use at Aldershot in England 
with the assistance of the Royal Engineers in 1877. The 
first actual use of a telephone system on the field of battle 
took place in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905. The same 
tactics, only on a much larger scale, were used by both 
sides during the war of 1914-18. Telephone research workers 
produced many special inventions, including "electrical 
ears" for detecting enemy airplanes, gun emplacements, 
and submarines from afar, during that conflict. 

In the present war, telephone research has produced in- 
struments which help to promote air safety and, by 



means of teletype and telephoto, written messages and 
military maps can be transmitted over great distances 
by wire. 

Overseas telephone service, now limited to official calls, 
is also assisting in maintaining imperial communications 
during the war. The speaker pointed out that the chief 
reason why the overseas telephone did not fulfill expecta- 
tions as a peacemaker, by promoting international under- 
standing, is that it was never given a chance in Europe. 
Europeans are less telephone-minded than Canadians and 
Americans. The good relations between the latter peoples 
he attributed in part to their use of the telephone to make 
contacts between them more personal. 

In conclusion, the speaker said: "This is part of the story 
of one industry's contribution in men and materials to 
Canada's defence of principles which are dearer than life 
itself. Other industries can, no doubt, match that record. 
With resolute determination, Canada as a whole is working 
to defend the last citadel of democratic freedom. In the 
words of Prime Minister Churchill: 'Let us, therefore, brace 
ourselves to our duty, and so bear ourselves that if the 
British Commonwealth and Empire last for a thousand 
years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.' " 

At the end of the speech, G. S. MacLeod moved a vote 
of thanks to the speaker. E. MacQuarrie thanked the 
speaker on behalf of the branch. N. C. Cowie moved that 
the meeting be adjourned. 

TORONTO BRANCH 



J. J. Spence, m. e.i.c. 

D. FORGAN, M. E.I.C. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



The subject for the third meeting of the branch held in 
Hart House on November 21st was as expected most 
interesting and provocative of much thought. Unfortunately, 
as a result of the incidence of other functions on the same 
night, the attendance was not as high as the excellence of 
the programme warranted. 

The vice-chairman, Mr. H. E. Brandon, introduced the 
speaker, Mr. Chas. M. Baskin, b.sc, whose subject was 
Modern Problems in Highway Construction and which 
dealt largely with problems of subgrade and base course 
design for roads. His talk brought home to the audience the 
fundamental facts relating to this important subject and 
stressed that more study should be given to the condition 
of the ground carrying the road. Proper consideration and 
treatment of this would result in cheaper and better road 
surfaces, and would probably extend surfaced roads into 
areas where these are not at present considered to be 
economically practical. Dr. N. W. McLeod of the Imperial 
Oil Laboratory was on hand to answer many of the questions 
propounded to the lecturer and himself. Coloured moving 
pictures of highway construction in South America were 
shown, and subsequent to the technical part of the lecture 
a second reel which depicted the wonderful scenery and 
the really large fish which can be obtained "Somewhere in 
South America." 

The fourth regular meeting of the Toronto Branch of 
the E.I.C, held in Hart House, December 5th, was honoured 
by the presence of Dr. T. H. Hogg, b.sc, D.Eng., president 
of the Institute, who introduced the speaker, Mr. McNeely 
DuBose, vice-president for Quebec. The latter's subject 
was Man Power, a non-technical paper of the type which, 
if the resultant discussion is a criterion, provoked a con- 
siderable amount of thought along lines which many en- 
gineers are not likely to study in the normal course of their 
activities. It was presented by Mr. DuBose in a masterly 
fashion, and it is expected that its matter will be reproduced 
elsewhere in the Journal. Careful study of the paper can 
be recommended. 

The thanks of the meeting were ably tendered to the 
speaker by Mr. M. J. McHenry, after which refreshments 



44 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



were partaken of by most of those present and the discussion 
still carried on. This was a most successful meeting with 
an attendance of approximately 75. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 



T. V. Berry, m.e.i.c. 
Archie Peebles, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Annual Meeting 

The annual business meeting of the Vancouver Branch 
took place on Saturday, Nov. 23rd, in the customary man- 
ner of an informal dinner. Following dinner, the business 
of the meeting was transacted, including the election of 
officers and executive committee for 1941. The slate sub- 
mitted by a nominating committee was elected by accla- 
mation. 

The secretary-treasurer presented his financial report, 
and the chairman, Mr. C. E. Webb, read his report for 
the year. 

The address of the evening was given by Mr. J. G. 
Robson, president of the Timerland Lumber Co. and presi- 
dent of the B.C. Lumber and Shingle Manufacturers' 
Association. His subject was The B.C. Lumber Industry 
Marches with the Troops. In treating his subject, Mr. 
Robson described vividly the enormous expansion of the 
lumber industry to meet war requirements, in the face of 
many difficulties also occasioned by the war. Typical freight 
rates have advanced from $6 to $32, $12 to $60, and $15 
to $75. Normal export markets were upset, and replaced 
by other export markets and an abnormal internal demand. 
Canada had to supply those demands which were formerly 
met in Norway, Sweden and Russia, increased many times 
for war needs. An example of this is in furnishing pit props 
for use in the United Kingdom, which required 200 cargoes 
of these in the past year. Another difficulty arose out of 
the control of shipping, whereby cargo space was allotted 
by the British Government, and was irregular and restricted. 
The positions of ships are not available in advance, so that 
cargoes must often be made ready on three or four days' 
notice. War construction also changed the usual distribution 
of lengths and sizes, and, in some cases, the species required 
in normal trade. A much greater proportion of high grade 
structural timber in large sizes and non-standard lengths 
was required. This called for careful distribution of orders 
among the mills equipped to cut long logs, and also for 
the production of longer logs in the logging camps. The 
very great demand for Douglas fir has resulted in a surplus 
of other woods which must be cut with the fir as they occur 
in the mixed growth forest areas. Some changes have been 
made by engineers in their specifications to use up some 
of this surplus. It is altogether likely that in about ten 
years time, Douglas fir will be a relatively scarce wood, 
and much of the ordinary building lumber used in homes, 
stores, warehouses and similar structures will be cut from 
hemlock, spruce and cedar. Fir will be reserved for struc- 
tural work requiring large sizes and maximum strength. 

This war time demand for lumber came from the build- 
ing of hangars and supplementary buildings under the air 
training plan, from the new militia camps, warehouses for 
war supplies, new factories and their adjacent housing for 
personnel, from the needs of aircraft manufacture, as well 
as from a generally accelerated demand in residential and 
business construction. Mr. Robson gave some illuminating 
figures on some of these items which need not be repeated 
here. The logging industry had to step up its production 
in tune with the demand for lumber, and this had been 
done smoothly and efficiently, so that at no time was there 
any serious shortage of logs at the mills. 

Throughout the period during which these changes took 
place, there was no form of government control beyond an 
order prohibiting the export of logs to non-empire countries. 
A timber control board was set up however, under Mr. 
H. R. MacMillan, which acted to co-ordinate demand and 



supply as far as possible. Through local committees of this 
Board, orders were distributed among producers according 
to their capacity and type of product. Stocks of standard 
sizes were cut in advance whenever possible, and advance 
shipments were also made in certain cases, so that con- 
struction might proceed more rapidly, by drawing on stock 
sizes. The price of lumber had been voluntarily stabilized 
at the June, 1940, level and will remain at this unless notice- 
able increases in production costs take place. 

A vote of thanks for the above address was tendered the 
speaker by Mr. W. N. Kelly. Other guests at the head table 
were Mr. E. Redpath, president, and Mr. F. W. MacNeill, 
vice-president of the Association of Professional Engineers 
of British Columbia. The meeting concluded with the show- 
ing of an excellent film, "Alaska's Silver Millions," depicting 
the scenic beauty and the salmon fishing industry of that 
country. This was kindly loaned by Mr. Shayler of the 
American Can Co. Thirty-seven members and guests were 
present. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 



Kenneth Reid, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary- Treas urer 



On the evening of November 29th, thirty-five members 
and visitors of the Victoria Branch gathered at dinner at 
Spencer's dining room. The dinner was followed by a general 
meeting of the branch with the branch chairman, Mr. E. W. 
Izard, presiding. Among the visitors on this occasion were 
Mr. C. E. Webb, past chairman of the Vancouver branch, 
Mr. S. R. Weston, chief engineer of the B.C. Public Utilities 
Commission, and several members of His Majesty's Forces, 
who were made most welcome. On this occasion nominations 
for the officers for the year 1941 were received. 

The principal speaker of the evening was Major J. C. 
MacDonald, engineer for the Province of B.C. Public 
Utilities Commission, who spoke on the subject, Public 
Utility Regulations. Major MacDonald reviewed the 
history leading to the necessity for regulation of the con- 
sumption of natural resources due to the wasteful methods 
created by our high standard of living and our competitive 
"open market" system. He cited the two schools of thought 
one of which regarded regulation as a necessity and the 
other as "tinkering with the laws of nature." In order to 
offset waste and destruction we must have regulation. The 
United States had been striving to work out a system of 
regulation but had found its Constitution a severe handicap 
with the result that regulatory bodies were constantly in 
the courts over decisions. Finally a model act was devised 
suitable to cover all states and it was upon this act that 
the present Public Utilities Act in B.C. was drafted. 

The B.C. Water Board, of which Major MacDonald was 
previously a member, was the first body, outside of the 
Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, with regulatory powers. 
Appeals to the various regulatory bodies formed since 1914 
could only be made to the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council 
and not to the courts. The fundamental principle under- 
lying these bodies is that no public utility shall be allowed 
to exploit the public, yet shall be entitled to a reasonable 
return for service rendered. Appraisals of public utility 
holdings are essential in order to adequately set rates and 
this is often a difficult and laborious task. Major Mac- 
Donald then introduced Mr. S. R. Weston, chief engineer 
of the B.C. Public Utilities Commission who outlined the 
progress being made in this regard at present in British 
Columbia. 

At the conclusion of these addresses, Mr. A. L. Car- 
ruthers moved a very hearty vote of thanks both to Major 
MacDonald and to Mr. Weston for their informative dis- 
cussions of a most timely topic. Following the addresses, 
several reels of sound motion pictures obtained through the 
catalogues recently distributed by the Institute Papers 
Committee were shown and greatly appreciated by the 
membership, rounding out a very satisfactory evening 
programme. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



45 



Library Notes 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



STANDARDIZATION OF ANGLES, 
BEAMS AND CHANNELS 

To be rolled in Canadian Mills for the 
Structural Steel Fabricating Industry. These 
Standards are now in effect and will remain 
in effect for the duration of the war. 

Angles 



EQUAL LEGS 


UNEQUAL LEGS CHANNELS 


6x6x1* 


6x4x1 * 


3" @ 4.1 


Vs* 


%* 


4" @ 5.4 


H 


H 


5" @ 6.7 


Vs 


% 


6" @ 8.2 


y 2 


y 2 


7" @ 9.8 


Vs 


Vs 


8" @ 11.5 
9" @ 13.4 


x4x%* 


Gxzy 2 xy s 


10" @ 15.3 


y 2 


He 


12" @ 20.7 


3 A 




12" @ 25 * 


•He 


5xzy 2 xy 2 


12" @ 30 * 


H 


y 8 


15" @ 33.9 




He 


15" @ 45 * 
15" @ 55 * 


3y 2 x3y 2 xy 8 






He 


4x3x^g 




H 


He 

y 


I-Beams 


3x3x^ 




3" @ 5.7 


He 


3x2y 2 xH 6 




H 


H 


4" @ 7.7 
5" @ 10.0 


2y 2 x2y 2 xy 16 


2y 2 x2xy 1G 


6" @ 12.5 


y 


y 


8" @ 18.4 


He 


He 


10" @ 25.4 
12" @31.8 


2x2x^6 




15" @ 42.9 


M 




15" @ 50 * 


He 




15" @ 55 * 


Modified H- 


-Beams 


H-Beams 


8" @ 25.9 




6" @ 20 
6" @ 22.5 
6" @ 27.75 


Note — Sizes 


marked * are 


"Special" and 


should be used by designer only when at least 50 


tons of that size are required. 





ADDITIONS TO THE 

LIBRARY 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 

The following books have been graciously 
presented to the Institute's library by 
the Montreal Section of the Institute of 
Radio Engineers and they are gratefully 
acknowledged here: 

Theory of Thermionic Vacuum Tubes by 

E. Leon Chaffie. 
Measurements in Radio by F. E. Terman. 
Communication Engineering by W. L. 

Everitt. 
Radio Engineering by F. E. Terman. 

REPORTS 

Canada Department of Labour 

Annual report for the fiscal year ending 
March 81, 1940, Ottawa, 1940. 

Canada Department of Mines & Re- 
sources — Mines & Geology Branch — 
Geological Survey — Memoir 

Malartic area, Quebec, Memoir 222. 

Canada Department of Mines & Re- 
sources — Mines & Geology Branch — 
Geological Survey — Papers 

Wapiabi Creek, Alberta, preliminary map. 
Paper 40-13. 



Canada Department of Transport 

Annual report for the fiscal year from 
April 1, 1939, to March 81, 1940. Ottawa, 
1940. 

Canada Minister of Public Works 

Report of the Minister of Public Works on 
the works under his control for the fiscal 
year ended March 31, 1940. Ottawa, 1940. 

Canadian Engineering Standards Asso- 
ciation 

Insulated power cable C68(A)-1940; Cana- 
dian Electrical Code, part, 2, Construction 
and test of insulated conductors for power- 
operated radio devices, C22.2-No. 16- 
1940; Construction and test of pull-off 
plugs for electro-thermal appliances, C22.2 
No. 57-1940. Standard specification for 
the procedure for fire tests on building 
construction and materials, A54-1940. 

Canadian Government Purchasing Stan- 
dards Committee 

Specification for antifreeze liquids, types 1 
and 11; specification for thinner for nitro- 
cellulose finishers; specification for asphalt 
varnish; specification for bituminous paint 
(type 1, for steelwork not exposed to 
weather) specification for fluids for hy- 
draulic and shock absorber mechanisms on 
aircraft. 

Electrochemical Society — Preprin ts 

Semi-conductor photocells and rectifiers; 
the electrolytic reduction of methyl ethyl 
ketone to sec-butyl alcohol and n-butane; 
structure and grain size of electrodeposited 
copper; the irreversible phenomena of 
thallium 2. cathode potential in TI^SOa 
solution. Preprints 79-1 to 79-4- 

BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the Engin- 
eering Societies Library of New York. As 
yet the books are not in the Institute 
Library, but inquiries will be welcomed 
at headquarters, or may be sent direct 
to the publishers. 

A.S.T.M. STANDARDS on TEXTILE 
MATERIALS, prepared by Commit- 
tee D-13 on Textile Materials. Oc- 
tober, 1940 

American Society for Testing Materials, 
Philadelphia, 1940. 868 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., paper, 
$2.00 (10 to 49 copies, $1.50 each.) 
Sixty-six standards and tentative standards 
covering definitions and terms, methods of 
testing and specifications for textile and 
related materials are presented in this com- 
pilation. Additional material appearing in ap- 
pendices includes photomicrographs of textile 
fibers, tables for yarn number conversion and 
relative humidity, a glossary of textile terms, 
proposed test methods and abstracts of 
papers presented at committee meetings. 

AIRCRAFT DESIGN, 2 Vols. 

By C. H. L. Needham. Chemical Publish- 
ing Co., New York, 1939. Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9 x 5y 2 in., cloth, Vol. 1, 
215 pp., $6.00; Vol. 2, 308 pp., $6.50. 
The general principles of aircraft design are 
presented both as a textbook and as a guide 
for the practical constructor. The first volume 
outlines in simple language the principles of 
flight and stability, control devices and the 
propeller, with a special chapter on parasite 
drag. The second deals mainly with the 



mathematical treatment of design, including 
materials, seaplane construction and exper- 
imental testing. The illustrative material is 
taken from British practice. 

AIRCRAFT DIESELS 

By P. H. Wilkinson. Pitman Publishing 
Corp., New York and Chicago, 1940, 275 
pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 2 x / 2 x 6 
6 in., cloth, $6.00. 
This book is devoted exclusively to the 
Diesel engine in aviation. It outlines the basic 
principles upon which the engine functions 
and the phases and processes involved. Fuel- 
injection equipment, superchargers and acces- 
sories are described, the construction of 
different types of engines is presented in 
detail, and standardized pages of data are 
provided. The development and mass produc- 
tion of Diesels in Germany are discussed, 
their commercial utility is described, and 
suggestions are presented for the future. 

AIRCRAFT ENGINES, Vol. 1 

By A. W. Judge. D. Van Noslrand Co., 
New York, 1940. 880 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9 x 5 l y 2 in., cloth, $5.50. 
In the words of its author, "the object of 
the present book, which is the first of two 
volumes on aircraft engines, is an endeavor to 
present the principles and results of relevant 
research work upon internal combustion 
engines, for the benefit of those entering or 
already engaged in aircraft engineering work. 
It is also written to fill a gap existing in aero- 
nautical literature, between the more ad- 
vanced specialist books on theory and design 
and the elementary descriptive ones on air- 
craft engines, maintenance, etc." There is a 
bibliography. 

BAUGHMAN'S AVIATION DICTION- 
ARY and REFERENCE GUIDE, Aero- 
Thesaurus 

By H. E. Baughman. 1st éd., 2nd printing. 
Aero Publishers, Inc., 202 Security Bank 
Bldg., Glendale, Calif., 1940. 598 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9y x 6 in., 
lea. cloth, $5.00. 
This reference book contains a wide variety 
of information frequently wanted by those 
engaged in aviation. An excellent dictionary of 
aeronautical terms is given, as are the regula- 
tions of the Civil Aeronautics Authority 
which concern students. The information 
upon occupations, drafting, lofting procedure, 
shop mechanics and materials is extensive 
and practical. Flight manoeuvers are illus- 
trated by diagrams. There are tables of 
specifications and of needed mathematical 
data; directories of periodicals, house organs, 
publishers, clubs, societies, manufacturers 
and schools; as well as many other data. 

COMMISSIONING of ELECTRICAL 
PLANT and ASSOCIATED PRO- 
BLEMS (Monographs on Electrical 
Engineering, Vol. 5). 

By R. C. H . Richardson. Chapman & Hall, 
London, 1938. 363 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9 x 5 y in., cloth, 24s. 
The object of this book is to present 
general and specific information which has 
been found useful when putting into service 
both alternating and direct-current generat- 
ing, transforming, motive and converting 
equipment. The preparation, likely troubles 
and efficient testing of such equipment are 
fully described, and the last chapter outlines 
briefly several important conceptions useful 
in electrical engineering calculations. There 
is a classified selected bibliography. 

(Continued on page 48) 



46 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



December 28th, 1940 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
February, 1941. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



*The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as Bet forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty -seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

ANDERSON— HARRY CLYDE, of New Westminster, B.C. Born at Sturgis. 
Co. Dakota, U.S.A., July 13th, 1895; R.P.E. of B.C. 1926— Member of Council 1940; 
1911, asst. on installn. of municipal water works and power plant at Merritt, B.C. ; 
1912-13, transitman and levelman with A. W. McVittie, Victoria, B.C., andE. H. Ferris, 
London, England, on land surveys and irrigation work; 1915-21, asst. on govt, 
surveys and private work consisting of installn. of irrigation systems, litigation 
surveys, etc.; 1919, charge of location of logging rly. for Nicola Pine Mills, Merritt; 
1921-29, asst. district engr., Yale District, 1929-31, asst. dist. engr., and 1931 to 
date, district engr., Dept. of Public Works of B.C., New Westminster, B.C. 

References: C. E.Webb, E. Smith, A. L. Carruthers, H.N. Macpherson.T. V. Berry. 

BRIDGEWATER— ALBERT WILLIAM, of Westmount, Que. Born at Saska- 
toon, Sask., Oct. 7th, 1914; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), 1935, M.Sc. (Civil), 1936, Univ. 
of Sask.; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1936 (May-Nov.), instr'man. on constrn. of Borden Bridge 

1937 (Feb. -Oct.), dftsman., Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Winnipeg; 1937-39, rein- 
forced concrete detailer and gen. struct'l. designer, with M. M. Dillon, M.E.I.C., 
London, Ont.; 1939-40, res. engr., on constrn. of caustic finishing plant, for Canadian 
Industries Ltd., at Shawinigan Falls; March 1940 to date, with Defence Industries 
Ltd., at present, struct'l. designer. 

References: S. W. Archibald, M. M. Dillon, I. R. Tait, B. A. Evans, D. A. Killam, 
W. C. Tatham, R. A. Spencer. 

GLENN— JOHN BURGESS, of 204 Wineva Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Southampton, Ont., Sept. 18th, 1915; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), Univ. of Sask., 1938; 
1938, inspr., Rogers-Majestic Radio Corpn.; 1938 to date, production engr., Link 
Belt Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, I. M. Fraser, W. E. Lovell, N. B. Hutcheson, G. 
M. Williams. 

MURCHISON— JAMES GRAY, of Fort William, Ont. Born at Crathes, Kin- 
cardine, Scotland, Feb. 25th, 1902; Educ: 1919, Robert Gordon's College, Aberdeen. 
1921, one year Arts, Aberdeen University; 1929-30, levelman on highway constrn., 
Dept. of Nor. Development, Sudbury, Ont.; 1930-34, clerk and foreman, highway 
constrn. and installn. of water system, H. T. Routly Constrn. Co., Toronto; with 
Dept. of Highways of Ontario as follows: 1936, laying out of Nipigon bridge, 1936- 
37, instr'man., 1937-38, res. engr., 1938-39, instr'man, 1939, associate of the late 
H. L. Seymour, M.E.I.C., town planning consultant, on preparation of town planning 
data for the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur; 1939-40, dftsman. and designer, 
on elevator and mill constrn., C. D. Howe Co. Ltd.; 1940, supt. of constrn. of intern- 
ment camp, comprising all bldgs., water, sewer and lighting; at present, consultant to 
the Fort William Town Planning Commission, on the preparation of a zoning by- 
law and town planning for the City of Fort William. 

References: P. E. Doncaster, J. M. Fleming, B. A. Culpeper, C. B. Symes, S. E. 
Flook. 

RAYNER— WARREN, of 113 So. Archibald St., Fort William, Ont. Born at 
Toronto, Ont., Nov. 22nd, 1914; Educ: B.Sc (Mech.), Queen's Univ., 1939; 1939- 
40, demonstrator, mech. engrg., Queen's Univ.; 1940 to date, jig and tool designer, 
Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd., Fort William, Ont. 

References: L. T. Rutledge, W. H. G. Flay, W. L. Saunders, E. M. G. MacGill, 
D. Boyd, D. S. Ellis. 

REYNOLDS— JOHN ALFRED, of 176 West Moira St., Belleville, Ont. Born 
at Montreal, Oct. 23rd, 1903; Educ: 1917-21, Toronto Technical School. 1931-35 
(evening classes), Chrysler Institute of Technology, Detroit; 1921-26, Canada Cycle 
& Motor Co., Weston, Ont.; 1926-29, General Motor Research, Detroit, Mich.; 
1929-36, Chrysler Motor Car Co., Detroit, Mich. 1931-36 as service engr. for the 
engrg. divn. of the Dodge Truck Co.; 1936-39, Singer Motor Car Co., Birmingham, 
England, i/c plant layout, and later i/c tool and jig design; 1939-40, mech. engr., 
Canadian Marconi Co., design of transmitters, receivers and test apparatus; at 
present, aircraft inspr., Trenton Air Station, R.C.A.F., Trenton, Ont. 

References: D. C. Macpherson, R. T. Bell, H. J. Vennes. 

WINTER— JOHN EDWARD, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Kharkov, Russia, 
Jan. 3rd, 1894; Educ: 1923-24, 1st year engrg., Univ. of Alta.; 1921-24, rodman, 
chainman, leveller, topog'r., Dom. Dept. of the Interior, Reclam. Service; 1925-35, 
leveller, instr'man., asst. hydrographer, C.P.R., Dept. Natural Resources, Brooks, 
Alta. ; 1935-38, instr'man., 1938-40, junior engr., Dom. Dept. of Agriculture, P.F.R.A. ; 
1940 (July-Sept.), asBt. to engr. i/c works, Dept. of National Defence, "Air Force," 
and Sept. 1940 to date, engr. i/e works, No. 5 E.F.T.S., Lethbridge, Alta. 

References: A. Griffin, F. G. Cross, G. S. Brown, P. M. Sauder, B. Russell. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM JUNIOR 

BENTLEY— KENNETH EARL, of Dartmouth, N.S. Born at Billtown, N.S., 
Sept. 27th, 1912; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1934; from 1934 to date, 
with the Imperial Oil Limited, at the Imperoyal Refinery as follows: 1934-36, gen. 
lab. work, 1936-37, dftsman., 1937-38, engrg. estimator, 1938, mtce. engr., 1938-40, 
engrg. inspr., and at present, mtce. engr. (St. 1934, Jr. 1939). 

References: R. L. Dunsmore, C. Scrymgeour, S. Ball, A. D. Nickerson, G. W. 
Christie. 

BOUCHER— RAYMOND, of Montreal, Que. Born at Stanbridge, Que., July 
21st, 1906; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1933. M.Sc, 
Mass. Inst. Tech., 1934; 1928-31 (summers), surveying, Quebec Streams Commn.; 
1934-38, asst. professor and 1938 to date, associate professor of Hydraulics, Ecole 
Polytechnique, Montreal, Que. (St. 1932, Jr. 1934). 

References: A. Frigon, O. O. Lefebvre, A. Circé, A. Duperron, J. A. Lalonde, J. 
B. Macphail. 

BRADLEY— JOSEPH GERALD, of Mackenzie, Rio Demerara, British Guiana. 
Born at Sydney, N.S., May 13th, 1904; Educ: 1925-26, first year engrg., McGill 
Univ., not completed; 1927-28, first year. School of Commerce at McGill, com- 
pleted; 1926-27, cost accting. and mech. dfting., Fraser Brace Engrg. Co., Gatineau, 
Que.; 1928, R.C.A.F., Prov. Pilot Officer; 1928-29, supervision of 75 mile freight 
route, Island Falls, Sask., and 1929-30, inspn. of pipe and pump installn. of con- 
centrator plant. Copper Cliff, Ont., for Fraser Brace Engineering Co.; 1931-38, 
asst. supt., i/c of mtce., Sherwin Williams Co. of Canada Ltd., Red Mill, Que.; 

1938 to date, i/c machine shop and all plant repairs, Demerara Bauxite Co., Mac- 
kenzie, British Guiana. (Jr. 1938). 

References: J. H. Fregeau, J. M. Mitchell, P. H. Morgan, K. S. LeBaron, F. L. 
Lawton, A. W. Whitaker, Jr. 

COLPITTS— GORDON L., of Barranca-Bermeja, Colombia. Born at Moncton, 
N.B., Sept. 6th, 1909; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1933; 1928-30, 
instr'man. and chief of party on forest surveys, Canada Power & Paper Corpn., 
Laurentide Divn.; 1933-40, with Imperial Oil Limited, as follows: 1933-34, dftsman., 
1934-36, constrn. engr., 1936-37, metal inspr. on cracking coils, 1937-38, asst. engr. 
and metal inspr., 1938-39, acting chief engr., 1939 (June-Nov.), asst. engr., Dec, 

1939 to Oct., 1940, acting chief engr., all of above at Halifax Refinery; Nov. 1940 
to date, chief engr., Barranca-Bermeja Refinery, Tropical Oil Company, Colombia, 
S.A. (Jr. 1934). 

References: R. L. Dunsmore, C. Scrymgeour, W. B. Scott, J. S. Misener, G. W. 
Christie. 

DALE— JAMES GRAHAM, of Edmonton, Alta. Born at Cranbrook, B.C., Jan. 
7th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1934; 1926 (summer), rodman, B.C. 
land surveys; 1927-28, electrn's helper, Cons. Mining & Smelting Co. of Canada 
Ltd.; 1929 (summer), and 1930-31, Sullivan concentrator at Chapman Camp, B.C.; 
1934-36, inspr., and 1937 to date, installn. engr., Northwestern Utilities Limited, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



47 



Edmonton, Alta. I/c installn. of large gas burning equipment for commercial and 
industrial loads and in power boilers; also design and installn. of many types of 
automatic control systems for above. (Jr. 1939). 

References: J. Garrett, E. Nelson, B. W. Pitfield, W. E. Cornish, R. C. McPherson. 

TAYLOR— FRANKLIN THOMAS, of 230 Edward St., London, Ont. Born at 
Watford, Ont., Dec. 24th, 1910; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1933; R.P.E. of 
Ont.; 1930 (summer), Richards Wilcox Canadian Co., London, Ont.; 1932 (summer), 
machinist. Wells Motors, London; 193G-37, demonstrator, dfting. room, Univ. of 
Toronto; 1937 to date, dftsman., Richards Wilcox Canadian Co., London, Ont. 
(Jr. 1939). 

References: H. F. Bennett, D. S. Scrymgeour, G. F. Fry, J. J. Spence, M. B. 
Watson. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM STUDENT 

BEACH— JOHN EDWARD, of Pointe a Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. Born at Cal- 
gary, Alta., May 15th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Alta., 1935; summers, 
1928, rodman, 1934, checker, Northwestern Utilities Ltd., Edmonton; 1935-37, 
constrn. and mtce., Royalite Oil Company, Turner Valley, Alta.; 1937 (summer), 
rodman and instr'man., City of Edmonton; 1937-40, constrn. and dftsman., H.E.P.C. 
of Ont.; at present, asst. engr., Trinidad Leaseholds Ltd., Trinidad, B.W.I. (St. 1935). 

References: H. J. MacLeod, R. S. L. Wilson, S. G. Coultis, P. L. Debney, E. 
Nelson, E. B. Dustan, H. E. Brandon. 



HAMMOND— ROWLAND ERNEST, of Montreal, Que. Bornât Toronto, Ont., 
Aug. 16th, 1911; Educ: B.A.Sc, 1933, M.A.Sc, 1934, Univ. of Toronto; 1934-35, 
lab. asst., Stromberg-Carlson Co., Toronto, Ont.; with the Northern Electric Co. 
Ltd., Montreal, as follows: 1935-38, radio engr., 1938-39, purchasing agent, 1939-40, 
sales engrg. dept., 1940, production planning, and at present, order service super- 
visor. (St. 1931). 



References: 
Cameron. 



H. J. Vennes, J. J. H. Miller, W. H. Eastlake, A. B. Hunt, J. S. 



McMILLAN— COLIN BROCK, of Arvida, Que., Born at Toronto, Ont., March 
13th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Queen's Univ., 1936; 1936 (summer), instr'man. 
on survey party; 1937-38, junior engr., Aluminum Co. of Canada, Ltd.; March, 
1938 to date, civil engr. with the Saguenay Power Co., Arvida, 1939, field engr. 
and from May, 1940 to date, i/c of gen. property surveying. (St. 1936). 

References: C. Miller, F. L. Lawton, N. W. Brittain, W. L. Malcolm, R. A. Low 

SCOBIE— ALEXANDER GORDON, of 320 Tarneaud St., Sudbury, Ont. Born 
at Hamilton, Ont., July 13th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1937; 1926-33, 
analyst, Proctor & Gamble Co., Hamilton; 1935 (4 mos.), analyst, Burlington Steel 
Co., Hamilton; 1937 to date, chemist, copper refining divn., International Nickel 
Co., Copper Cliff, Ont. (St. 1934). 

References: W. F. Miller, F. A. Orange, L. F. Goodwin, L. M. Arkley, L. T. 
Rutledge. 



LIBRARY NOTES 

(Continued from page 46) 

GRAPHICAL TREATMENT of VIBRA- 
TION and AIRCRAFT ENGINE 
DAMPERS 

By C. H. Powell. Bookcraft, 135 Johnson 
St., Brooklyn, New York, 1940. 288 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, 
$7.50. 
The first part of this text presents a concise 
method of graphical solution for complex 
vibrating systems, by geometrically combining 
the more easily obtained solutions of simple 
elemental systems. Part II is a more par- 
ticular application of the methods developed 
in Part I to various forms of engine dampers 
for torsional oscillation. Optimum conditions 
for all known types of dampers, the amplitude 
of the damper and the phase relations of the 
individual vibrating members are dealt with 
in detail. There are many charts and dia- 
grams. 

Great Britain, Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research. 
BUILDING RESEARCH 

Wartime Building Bulletin No. 9, CON- 
SERVATION of CEMENT andofCLA Y 
BRICKS. His Majesty' s Stationery Office, 
London, 1940.22pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 
11 x 8]/2 in., paper, Is. (obtainable from 
British Library of Information, 50 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, New York, $.30). 
This pamphlet calls attention to ways in 
which substitutes can Le used for cetrent and 
clay brick in many cases and to ways in which 
these materials can be used most economic- 
ally where no alternative is available. Specifi- 
cations are given for tar macadam roadways, 
for economical concrete floors and for meth- 
ods of making walls. 

Great Britain. Home Office. AIR RAID 
PRECAUTIONS. SPECIFICATIONS, 
etc., in regard to PERMANENT 
LINING of TRENCHES 

H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1939. 8 
pp., diagrs., IS x 8% in., paper, (obtain- 
able from British Library of Information, 
50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, $.10). 
The composite specification and bill of 
quantities are given for precast concrete 
trench lining units, accompanied by diagram- 
matic drawings. There are also a general 
specification for the permanent lining of 
trenches and a Home Office circular letter 
giving basic information on trench con- 
struction. 

HANDBOOK of CHEMISTRY and 
PHYSICS 

Edited by C. D. Hodgman and H. N. 
Holmes. 24 ed. Chemical Rubber Publish- 
ing Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1940. 2,564 PP-< 
diagrs., tables, 7% x 5 in., cloth, $3.50. 



This valuable handbook of data frequently 
needed by physicists and chemists becomes 
more comprehensive as new editions appear. 
The present issue contains over three hun- 
dred pages more than its immediate predeces- 
sor. The principal changes include rearrange- 
ment of the table of physical constants of 
organic compounds and the inclusion of 
several hundred new ones, a thorough revision 
of the table giving the properties of commer- 
cial plastics, a tabulation of the physical 
constants of four hundred industrial organic 
compounds and a table of induced radio- 
activities. In addition, minor changes and 
additions have been made throughout the 
book. 

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT 

By R. H . Lansburgh and W . R. Spriegel. 

3 ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 

1940. 666 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, 

tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $4.50. 
General organization technique is stressed 
in this discussion of the principles, problems, 
ideals and successful methods of industrial 
management. In the several chapters on 
fundamental considerations, the plant, the 
product, personnel, wage payment, manager- 
ial controls and operating procedures, an 
effort has been made to show the relationships 
of each major portion of the business to the 
others and to outside influences. There is a 
bibliography. 

INTRODUCTION to ABSTRACT AL- 
GEBRA 

By C. C. MacDuffee. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York, 1940. 303 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
This book is planned for a full year's course, 
with problems furnishing laboratory material 
and concrete instances of the abstract con- 
cepts. The subject is developed logically from 
the system of rational integers to linear asso- 
ciative algebras. A selected body of facts 
from number theory, group theory and formal 
algebra is offered, to provide a background 
for understanding and appreciating the 
generalized facts of abstract algebra. 

PULP and PAPERMAKING Bibliography 
and United States Patents 1939. 

Compiled by C. J. West, Technical Asso- 
ciation of the Pulp and Paper Industry, 
New York, 1940. 252 pp., 9x6 in., cloth, 
$3.00. 
This comprehensive bibliography covers the 
articles upon pulp and papermaking which 
appeared during the year 1939 and the United 
States patents issued during that year which 
are of interest to the industry. Both sections 
are classified ; the articles by a subject arrange- 
ment and the patents by the Patent-office 
classification. Subject and author indexes are 
included. 



TREATISE on ADVANCED CALCULUS 

By P. Franklin. John Wiley & Sons, New 

York, 1940. 595 pp., diagrs., charts, 9x6 

in., cloth, $6.00. 

Although the reader is assumed to be 

familiar with the fundamental methods of the 

calculus, these are briefly reviewed together 

with the prerequisite parts of algebra and 

analysis. The text then continues with an 

exposition of infinitesimal calculus, including 

those parts of the theory of functions of real 

and complex variables which form the logical 

basis of the infinitesimal analysis and its 

applications to geometry and physics. A 

group of exercises accompanies each chapter. 

TURRET LATHE OPERATOR'S MAN- 
UAL 

By J. R. Longstreet and W. K. Bailey: 
published by The Operators' Service Bu- 
reau of The Warner & Swasey Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 1940. 240 pp., illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 10% x ? * n -> cloth, $2.50. 
This book, prepared by experienced en- 
gineers, provides an unusually comprehensive 
and detailed description of principles and 
practice. Tools and accessories, methods of 
working, short cuts and special problems are 
discussed with the help of over 350 excellent 
illustrations and drawings. The book is 
designed expressly for the lathe operator. 



THE MANUFACTURE 

OF 

MUNITIONS IN CANADA 

By H. H. Vaughan, m.e.i.c, 
Presidential Address, Ottawa, 
1919. Published by the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada, 
91 pages, 103 illustrations, 
diagrams, production charts 
9}i x 6 in. Obtainable from 
The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, 2050 Mansfield St., 
Montreal. Price $1.00, includ- 
ing sales tax and postage. 
Special prices in lots of ten 
or more. 



48 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

ENGINEER with pulp and paper experience to become 
Assistant Chief Engineer in a large mill. Either a 
man who can fit into the position immediately, or a 
younger man who has the training and ability to 
work into it gradually. The initial salary to be paid 
will depend upon the qualifications of the applicant. 
This position holds an interesting future for the right 
man. Send applications with full particulars to Box 
No. 2209-V. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, fully experienced in 
design of large modern power transformers. Give full 
details of education, experience, and salary expected. 
Applications not considered from persons now em- 
ployed with firms producing war supplies or equip- 
ment. Apply to Box No. 2231-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, with thorough knowl- 
edge of manufacturing, preferably in electrical ap- 
paratus. Supply complete information, education 
and previous experience. Applications not con- 
sidered from persons now employed with firms 
producing war supplies or equipment. Apply to Box 
No. 2232-V. 

DRAUGHTSMAN required by electrical manufac- 
turer experienced in layout and detail work on 
power transformers. State experience and salary 
expected. Applications not considered from persons 
now employed with firms producing war supplies or 
equipment. Apply to Box No. 2233-V. 

ENGINEER for fabricating plant, must be experienced 
in the detail and design of structural steel. This is a 
permanent position for the man with the necessary 
qualifications. Apply to Box No. 2234-V. 

GRADUATE in metallurgical engineering required by 
large manufacturing plant in Montreal. Excellent 
opportunity for experience and promotion. Apply 
giving education, experience and salary expected to 
Box No. 2235-V. 

YOUNG MECHANICAL ENGINEER, recent gra- 
duate, required for preparation of specifications and 
performance data on steam generating equipment and 
accessories. Previous experience in this line preferred 
but not essential. Excellent opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Applications from persons at present 
employed in war industries will not be considered. 
Apply to Box No. 2239-V. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men— without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month, All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



GRADUATE CHEMIST with digestion sewage dis- 
posal plant experience. Applicants to state experience, 
salary required and when at liberty. Apply Box No. 
2244-V. 

RECENT ENGINEERING GRADUATE, preferably 
mechanical, with some drafting experience. Work will 
consist of machinery and piping layouts and other 
general engineering work in a paper mill near Ottawa. 
Permanent position and excellent prospects for 
suitable man. Men now employed in war industry will 
not be considered. Apply Box No. 2245-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN, for layout of 
power plant equipment, piping systems, etc., prefer- 
ably university graduate with three or four years' 
experience. State age, experience, salary desired. 
Location Toronto. Apply to Box No. 2247-V. 

ENGINEERING DRAUGHTSMAN required for 
centrally located mill. Preferably a graduate en- 
gineer with several years' experience. Applications 
from men employed in war industries will not be 
considered. Apply Box No. 2249-V. 

REQUIRED for large gold mining organization in 
West Africa, several mill shiftmen, mill men and 
electricians. Salaries up to £40, £32 and £40 re- 
spectively per month, free living quarters. Ocean 
passage paid and three months' leave granted per 
year at half pay. Yearly renewable contracts. Defence 
regulations do not permit wives to accompany hus- 
bands at this time. Apply Box No. 2258-V. 

SENIOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEER with from five 
to eight years experience required by large industrial 
concern. Apply with full details to Box No. 2261-V. 



YOUNG CIVIL ENGINEER not more than two years 
out of college with field and office experience. Apply 
giving full particulars to Box No. 2259-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN with some ex- 
perience immediately required by a large industrial 
firm. Apply giving full particulars to Box No. 2262-V. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER, University graduate 
experienced in Power Plants, Transmission lines, 
gunite construction, etc. Available on short notice. 
Apply to Box No. 1527-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR— Experienced 
in general building and war plant construction. Also 
installation of mechanical equipment. Immediately 
available. Apply to Box No. 2153-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, graduate, Age 47, 
married. Experience covers draughting, construction, 
maintenance, and operation. For the last ten years 
employed as electrical superintendent in a large in- 
dustrial plant. Apply to Box No. 1718-W. 

ENGINEER— M.E.I.C. Age 49. DeBires change. Ex- 
perience covers all types structural steel and plate 
work, rivetted and welded construction, as estimator. 
Designing, shop drawings. Available two weeks 
notice. Apply Box No. 2208-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, Draughtsman, Speci- 
fication Writer, Supervisor, specializing in Heating, 
Ventilating, Power Plants and Plumbing, available im- 
mediately. Will go anywhere. Apply Box No. 2285-W . 



ENGINEERS FOR THE AIR SERVICE 

The following communication is printed at the request of 
Air Marshal L. S. Breadner, Chief of Air Staff. Members of 
the Institute and other engineers are requested to give it 
careful consideration. Any persons remote from recruiting 
centres are welcome to write to Headquarters for additional 
information. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE 
"Air Force" 
Ottawa, Canada, November 29th, 1940. 
mr. l. a. wright, Secretary, 

ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, MONTREAL, QUE. 

Dear Sir: 

The development of the British Commonwealth Air 
Training Plan and the absorption of Technical personnel 
in war industry, has resulted in a shortage of available men 
with engineering qualifications. 

At the present time the Royal Canadian Air Force is in 
urgent need of personnel for training as Aeronautical Engi- 
neer Officers. There is also an immediate requirement of 
Technical Engineers with practical experience in aircraft 
production or maintenance. Qualifications required of can- 
didates for appointment under these two classifications are 
as follows: 

(a) Technical Engineer Officers 

Candidates must be suitable in personal respects to 
hold commissioned rank and must have the following 
qualifications: 

Thorough knowledge in engineering, applicable to 
aeronautical requirements. 

Adequate experience in aricraft repair work or exten- 
sive aircraft factory experience. 

Age limit — up to 50 years (highly qualified candidates 
will be considered up to age 55). 

While graduate engineers are preferred, it may be 
necessary to accept candidates with lesser academic 
standing provided they have extensive practical ex- 
perience. 

(b) Potential Aeronautical Engineer Officers 

These officers will be required to undergo a very 
thorough course in aeronautical engineering before they 
are assigned to duties. 



Candidates must be of good character, suitable in all 
personal respects for appointment to commissioned rank 
and above average in mental alertness. 

An applied science degree in aeronautical, mining, 
mechanical, civil, chemical, or electrical engineering is 
desirable. 

A candidate having extensive practical experience but 
with a lower standard of education may be accepted. He 
must, however, have attained a standard not lower than 
senior matriculation. University graduates should have 
at least one year's practical experience along any of the 
several mechanical lines. Candidates with less than uni- 
versity graduation standing will be required to have a 
correspondingly greater practical experience. 

The preferred age for appointment in this category is 
25 to 40 years. 

It would be greatly appreciated if you would make our 
needs known to the several branches of your organization 
throughout Canada and through this medium, to the in- 
dividual members of the Institute. It is felt that an appeal 
of this nature may be instrumental in directing to the 
Royal Canadian Air Force, men who possess engineering 
qualifications which may be of value to this service. 

Prospective candidates should make application at the 
nearest R.C.A.F. Recruiting Centre, so that it may be 
ascertained whether they are physically fit and suitable in 
all respects. This action will not necessitate a severence of 
their civilian employment before they are appointed and 
will entail no obligation on their part until actually called 
for duty. 

Your co-operation in this matter is earnestly requested 
and it is hoped that if you have knowledge of any suitable 
prospective applicants you will find it possible to acquaint 
them with our urgent need and the procedure for submit- 
ting their application. Might I also ask that you forward 
their names and addresses, together with your recommenda- 
tion in each case, to the nearest R.C.A.F. Recruiting Centres 
or, if more convenient, to these Headquarters. 

Assuring you that your assistance in this matter will be 
most sincerely appreciated. 
I am, yours very truly, 

(Signed) l. s. breadner, air vice marshal, 
Chief of the Air Staff. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1941 



49 



Industrial News 



THREADING AND TAPPING 
EQUIPMENT 

Landis Machine Co. Inc., Waynesboro, Pa., 
have issued an interesting 116-page handbook 
entitled "Landis Handbook" which contains 
instructions covering the use of various Landis 
machines including the grinding of chasers, 
operation of threading heads and machines, 
the grinding of tap chasers and the operation 
of collapsible taps. Data covering special 
threads used in the manufacture of modern 
transportation equipment is also included. 

BALING PRESSES 

Climax Baler Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont., 
have issued a four-page folder which illus- 
trates various types of "Climax" hand and 
electric presses for baling wipers, clothing, 
fabrics, waste paper, excelsior, wool, etc. 
Special features and specifications are given in 
each case. 

CARBOLOY STANDARD TOOLS 

Carboloy Co. Inc., Detroit, Mich., repre- 
sented in Canada by Canadian General 
Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont., have 
issued a twelve-page booklet No. GT-128 in 
the form of an instruction manual (3 ins. by 
4]4 ins. in size) for operators. It contains com- 
plete information on speeds and feeds to be 
used with different materials and varying 
depth of cut; machine recommendations for 
machining steel; proper use of coolants; tool 
grinding instructions; standard tool angles; 
design and grinding of chip breakers and 
general operating hints. 

BUILDING NECESSITIES 

The 32-page Catalogue No. 40 recently 
issued by The Majestic Co., Huntington, 
Ind., covers the Company's extensive line of 
44 specialties for the modern home. Among the 
items illustrated and described are various 
types of coal chutes, fire place equipment, 
garbage receivers, incinerators, heating equip- 
ment, etc. Included with each item are speci- 
fications. 

SIRENS 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, 
Que., describe and illustrate in their four- 
page bulletin No. 22-235004 "Federal" ver- 
tical sirens for municipal fire alarm, airport 
crash alarm and air raid warning; and in- 
dustrial sirens for fire and burglar alarm and 
start and dismissal signal in industrial plants, 
mines, public buildings, warehouses, con- 
struction projects, etc. "Federal" vehicle 
sirens, compressed-air whistles and industrial 
vibratory horns are also included. 

SNOW FENCE AND POSTS 

"Stelco" snow fence and "Tee" rail snow 
fence post for use in drift prevention on 
highways, municipal roads, railways, in- 
dustrial property, airports, parade grounds, 
mines and fur farms, are featured in a two- 
page pamphlet issued by The Steel Co. of 
Canada Ltd., Montreal, Que. Full details and 
specifications are included with a description 
of the Company's "one-man" post driver. 

TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTS 

In their 32-page catalogue N-33-161, Leeds 
& Northrup Co., Philadelphia, Pa., describe 
"Micromax Temperature Instruments for 
Electric Power Equipment" for those con- 
cerned with the operation of electric power 
plant equipment, to show how knowledge of 
operating temperatures enables operators to 
act promptly, at the first sign of a rise, to 
protect units against overheating and pro- 
vide a reliable guide for maximum safe 
loading. These recorders provide automatic 
and continual temperature checks at selected 
points in power units, and sound alarms if 
temperature at any point exceeds safe limits. 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



ELECTRIC ETCHING 

Taylor, Taylor & Hobson Ltd., Leicester, 
Eng., are distributing in Canada through 
their representative, The Empire Engineering 
Co., Toronto, Ont., an 8-page bulletin entitled 
"The Javelin Etching Process," It describes 
this process of electric etching, illustrating the 
single etching unit and the multiple etcher, as 
well as the standard equipment included with 
each unit. 

VIBRATING SCREENS 

Link-Belt vibrating screens for the effective 
screening of a great variety of materials, such 
as sand, gravel, cinders, grain, clay, crushed 
stone, coke, fertilizer, feldspar, coal, ore, etc., 
are described and illustrated in a 20-page 
catalogue No. 1762 issued by Link-Belt Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont. 

TIMBER HIGHWAY BRIDGES 

The advantages of timber bridges and 12 
typical designs of timber bridges with "Teco" 
joint connectors for spans of 30 ft. to 70 ft. are 
presented in a 14-page booklet issued by 
Timber Engineering Co., Washington, D.C. 
This companv's Canadian distributor is 
V. H. Mclntyre Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

TIMBER CONNECTORS 

Timber Engineering Co., Washington, 
D.C, represented in Canada by Y. H. Mcln- 
tyre Ltd., Toronto, Ont., have issued an 
8-page bulletin entitled "Installing Teco 
Timber Connectors in Light and Heavy 
Structures." This bulletin contains detailed 
illustrated description of the Company's 
various types of timber connectors designed 
to increase the joint strength of timber 
structures. Also shows fundamental steps 
necessary for installing timber connectors. 

JOINS STAFF OF CANADIAN ENGIN- 
EERING PUBLICATIONS LIMITED 

John M. Thorn, formerly with the Montreal 
branch of the James Fisher Advertising 
Agency, has been appointed to the staff of 
Canadian Engineering Publications Limited, 
and will represent The Engineering Journal, 
the official organ of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, The Engineering Catalogue, and 
New Equipment News. Mr. Thorn will be 
located at the Company's head office in the 
Confederation Building in Montreal. 




John M. Thom 



TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 
RECORDERS 

Bulletin DMF 814 entitled "Foxboro 
Instruments for Bottlers," made available by 
The Foxboro Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que., gives 
an illustrated description of the Foxboro 
single-pen and double-pen carbonating re- 
corders featured with equipment supplied by 
the Liquid Carbonic Canadian Corp. Ltd., 
Montreal, Que. Detailed specifications and 
illustrations of a typical installation and 
charts showing actual operating records are 
included. 

GAS ANALYZER 

"The Modernized Hays Orsatomat — The 
Automatic Orsat," is the title of a 4-page 
bulletin No. 40-366 in which The Hays Corp., 
Michigan City, Ind., illustrate and describe 
the Orsat type of gas analyzer with full details 
of design, construction and method of opera- 
tion of both the single unit for furnace testing 
and the double unit for exhaust gas analysis. 

GRINDING FIXTURE 

Industrial Engineering Co. Inc., Minnea- 
polis, Minn., features in a 4-page bulletin the 
"Quick-way" grinding fixture for high speed 
power hack saw blades, and illustrates the 
fixture attached to a universal grinder. 

"LIQUID" VIBRATING SCREENS 

In a 4-page folder No. 1877, Link-Belt Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., describes a specialized adapta- 
tion of the Company's variable high-intensity 
vibrating screen for the removal of solids from 
liquids to recover products formerly wasted. 
Illustrates and describes the unit and shows 
typical installations handling fish oil, fine 
rubber, asparagus, vegetable refuse and 
phosphate rock. 

REFRIGERATION COMPRESSORS 

A sectional illustration of Worthington- 
Carbondale refrigeration compressors of the 
vertical two-cylinder type, sizes 5 ins. by 5 ins. 
and smaller, with photographs of various 
parts, spécifications and dimensional draw- 
ings is given by Carbondale Div., Worthing- 
ton Pump and Machinery Corp., Harrison, 
N.J., in their 6-page bulletin No. C-1100-B11. 

ROLLER BEARINGS 

The Shafer aircraft type self-aligning roller 
bearings are described by Shafer Bearing 
Corp., Chicago, 111., in their 6-page bulletin 
No. 531. A general description contains details 
of radial thrust capacity, integral self-align- 
ment, load ratings, materials and lubrication. 
Dimensional drawings with tabulated data 
are included. 

WELDING 

An interesting 56-page booklet entitled 
"The Lincoln Weldirectory," has been issued 
by Lincoln Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
This booklet contains carefully prepared de- 
tailed information covering the numerous 
products of this company used in arc welding 
and is well illustrated throughout. 

DRILLS AND TAPPERS 

Featured in the eight-page bulletin No. 
2963-C of Canadian Blower & Forge Co. Ltd., 
Kitchener, Ont., are the "Buffalo" No. 15 
heavy dutv production drill, the No. 15 manu- 
facturing 'type drill, the No. 15 tapping 
machine, and accessories. Completely illus- 
trated with photographs and sectional draw- 
ings, this interesting bulletin also contains 
full specifications. 



50 



January, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 24 



MONTREAL, FEBRUARY 1941 



NUMBER 2 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e.i.c. 
Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD, m.e.i.c. 

Advertising Manager 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Ckairman 

J. C. DAY, m.e.i.c. 

R. E. MacAFEE, m.e.i.c 

J. E. ST. LAURENT, m.e.i.c 



CONTENTS 



POWER HOUSE SUBSTRUCTURE, LA TUQUE, QUE. 

{Photo Shawinigan Engineering Company) 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE HYDRO-ELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT 
AT LA TUQUE 

J. A. McCrory, M.E.I.C. ........ 



Cover 



54 



ADVISORY MEMBERS 
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ENGINEERING TRAINING FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE IN U.S.A. . 

A. A. Potter 64 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR 1940 



ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 

PERSONALS 

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STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

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Phelps Johnson Prise (English) 

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R. H. FINDLAY 

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McN. DuBOSE, Chairman 

A. LARIVIERE 

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Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prise 

W. S. WILSON, Chairman 

I. W. BUCKLEY 

I. P. MACNAB 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

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O. O. LEFEBVRE 

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J M. WARDLE 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

G. McL. PITTS, Chairman 
R.J. DURLEY 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 
G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CATE 
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THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
JACQUES BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
C. A. FOWLER 
R DbL. FRENCH 
R. E HEARTZ 
R F. LEGGET 
A P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. McKIEL 
R. M. SMITH 



52 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. MEDLAR 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FLETCHER 
Executive, W. D. DONNELLY 

J. B. DOWLER 

A. H. PASK 
(Ex-Officio),}. F. BRIDGE 

T. H. JENKINS 

J. CLARK KEITH 
Sec.-Treas., W. P. AUGUSTINE, 

1955 Oneida Court, 

Windsor, Ont. 



CALGARY 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



3. McMillan 

J. B. deHART 
F. K. BEACH 
H. B LeBOURVEAU 
R. MACKAY 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
S. G. COULTIS 
J. HADDIN 
F. J. HEUPERMAN 
Sec.-Trea:, P. F. PEELE, 

248 Scarboro Avenue, 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

A. P. THEUERKAUF 
(Ex-Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 
EDMONTON 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Trea:, 

HAMILTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



H. R. WEBB 
C. W. CARRY 



W. R. MOUNT 



E. NELSON 
R. M. HARDY 

A. M. ALLEN 
D. HUTCHISON 
J. F. McDOUGALL 
P. M. SAUDER 
C. E. GARNETT 

B. W. PITFIELD, 
Northwe»tern Utilities Limited, 

10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 

CHARLES SCRYMGEOUR 

S. L. FULTZ G. F. BENNETT 

P. A. LOVETT F. C. WIGHTMAN 

A. B. BLANCHARD E. L. BAILLIE 

A. G. MAHON C. StJ. WILSON 

I. P. MacNAB 

A. D. NICKERSON 

L. C. YOUNG, 

365 Morris Street Ext., 

Halifax, N.S. 

W. A. T. GILMOUR 
S. SHUPE 

C. H. HUTTON T. S. GLOVER 
H. A. COOCH A. C. MACNAB 
ALEX. LOVE W. L. McFAUL 
A. R. HANNAFORD, 

354 Herkimer Street, 
Hamilton, Ont. 

T. A. McGINNIS 
P. ROY 
V. R. DA VIES 
K. H. McKIBBIN 
K. M. WINSLOW 
A. H. MUNRO 
(Ex-Officio), G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 

L. F. GRANT 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, 

Kingston, Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, H. G. O'LEARY 
Vice-Chair., B. A. CULPEPER 
Executive, MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 

H. H. TRIPP W. H. BIRD 

J. I. CARMICHAEL E. J. DA VIES 

h. os c. d. Mackintosh 

J. S. WILSON 
(Ex-Officio), J. M. FLEMING P. E. DONCASTER 
Sec.-Treas., H. M. OLSSON, 

380 River Street, 

Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDGE 
Chairman, WM. MELD RUM 
Executive, R. F. P. BOWMAN G. S. BROWN 
N. H. BRADLEY 
C. S. CLENDENING 
(Ex-Officio) J. M. CAMPBELL 

A. J. BRANCH J. T. WATSON 

Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE, 

207-7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, F. C. BALL V. A. McKILLOP 

J. P. CARRIERE J. R. ROSTRON 
J. FERGUSON 
(Ex-Officio), }. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., H. G. STEAD 

60 Alexandra Street, 

London, Ont. 
MONCTON 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas. 



F. O. CONDON 
C. S. G. ROGERS 

B. E. BAYNE R. H. EMMERSON 
G.L.DICKSON G.E.SMITH 

T. H. DICKSON 
H. W. McKIEL 
V. C. BLACKETT, 
Engr. Dept., C.N.R., 

Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



deG. BEAUBIEN 
B. R. PERRY 
G. McL. PITTS 
H. J. VENNES 



R. E. HEARTZ 

J. A. LALONDE 

E. V. GAGE 

I. S. PATTERSON 

P. E. POITRAS 

J. B. STIRLING 

J. M. CRAWFORD 

J. COMEAU 
(Ex-Officio), J. B. CHALLIES 

J. G. HALL 

H. MASSUE 

C. K. McLEOD 
Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 
Outremont, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. H. McL. BURNS 
Executive, W. D. BRACKEN 

C. G. CLINE 

J. L. McDOUGALL 

L. J. RUSSELL 

J. H. TUCK 

G. F. VOLLMER 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK 

A. W. F. McQUEEN 
Acting-Sec., GEO. E. GRIFFITHS 

P. O. Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 

OTTAWA 



Chairman, 
Executive, 



W. H. MUNRO 

N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS J. H. IRVINE 
W. H. NORRISH 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS J. H. PARKIN 

W. F. M. BRYCE 
Sec.-Trea:, R. K. ODELL, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 
PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, R. L. DOBBIN 
Executive, J. CAMERON 

0. J. FRISKEN 

1. F. McRAE 
J. W. PIERCE 

(Ex-Officio), B. I. BURGESS 

H. R. SILLS 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 
QUEBEC 

Life Hon. Chair., A. R. DECARY 
Chairman, L. C. DUPUIS 
Vice-Chair., E. D. GRAY-DONALD 
Executive, T. M. DECHÊNE R. SAUVAGE 

A. LAFRAMBOISE G. MOLLEUR 
A. O. DUFRESNE O. DESJARDINS 
(Ex-Officio) A. LARIVIÈRE 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
P. MÉTHÉ 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Department of Colonization, 
Room 263-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, J. W. WARD 
Vice-Chair., G. H. KIRBY 
Executive, W. J. THOMSON 

A. I. CUNNINGHAM 

C. MILLER 

W. P. C. LsBOUTILLIER 
(Ex-Officio), ADAM CUNNINGHAM 

McN. Dr/BOSE 

A. C. JOHNSTON 
See.-Treas., T. A. TAYLOR 

Saguenay Inn, Aryida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, JOHN P. MOONEY 
Vice-Chair., J. T. TURNBULL 
Executive, D. R. SMITH 

F. A. PATRIQUEN A. O. WOLFF 
(Ex-Officio), H. F. MORRISEY 

S. HOGG 
Sec.-Treas., VICTOR S. CHESNUT 
P.O. Box 1393, 

Saint John. N.B. 
ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, C. H. CHAMPION 
Vice-Chair., A. H. HEATLEY 
Executive, R. DORION 

J. H. FREGEAU V. JEPSEN 

H. O. KEAY K. S. LeBARON 

G. RINFRET H. G. TIMMIS 
H. J. WARD H. K. WYMAN 

(Ex-Officio), F. W. BRADSHAW 

E. B. WARDLE 
Sec.-Trea:, G. B. BAXTER, 

Canadian International Paper Com- 
pany, Three Rivers, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 
Chairman, P. C. PERRY 
Vice-Chair., R. A. McLELLAN 
Executive, I. M. FRASER J. McD. PATTON 
C. J. McGAVIN R. J. FYFE 

a. m. macgillivray 
g. l. Mackenzie 
a. a. murphy 
w. e. lovell 

(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 
Sec.-Treas., STEWART YOUNG, 
P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask 



SAULT STE. MARIE 




Chairman, E. M. MacQUARRIE 




Vice-Chair., L. R. BROWN 




Executive, R. A. CAMPBELL 




N. C. COWIE 




C. O. MADDOCK 




C. R. MURDOCK 




(Ex-Officio),}. L. LANG 




A. E. PICKERING 




Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS, 




159 Upton Road, 




Sault Ste. Marie 


Ont. 


TORONTO 




Chairman, NICOL MacNICOL 




Vice-Chair. ,U. E. BRANDON 




Executive, W. S. WILSON G. W. 


PAINTER 


F. J. BLAIR G 


R. JACK 


W. H. M. LAUGHLIN D. 


FORGAN 


(Ex-Officio) T. H. HOGG 




A. U. SANDER60N 




C. E. SISSON 




A. E. BERRY 




Sec.-Treas.,3. J. SPENCE, 




Engineering Building, 




University of Toronto, 




Toronto, Ont. 


VANCOUVER 





Chairman, J. N. FINLAYSON 
Vice-Chair.,W. O. SCOTT 
Executive, T. E. PRICE 

J. R. GRANT 

W. N. KELLY 
(Ex-Officio), C. E. WEBB 

JAS. ROBERTSON 
Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007 -36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 



H. C. FITZ-JAMES 

R. E. POTTER 

P. B. STROYAN 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



E. W. IZARD 
G. M. IRWIN 

E. DAVIS A. L. CARRUTHERS 
A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
R. C. FARROW J. N. ANDERSON 
Sec.-Treas., K. REID, 

1053 Pentrelew Place, 

Victoria, B.C. 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



H. L. BRIGGS 
J. T. ROSE 

C. V. ANTENBRING 
J. P. FRASER 

H. W. McLEOD, 
V. MICHIE 

D. N. SHARPE 

J. HOOGSTRATEN 
J. W. SANGER 
A. J. TAUNTON 
C. P. HALTALIN, 

303 Winnipeg Electric Railway 
Chambers, Winnipeg, Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



53 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT 

AT LA TUQUE 

J. A. McCRORY, m.e.i.c. 
Vice-President and Chief Engineer, Shawinigan Engineering Company, Montreal, Que. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Hamilton, Ont., on February 7th, 1941. 



The LaTuque development has an installed capacity of 
178,000 hp. at the point of maximum efficiency and is 
capable of delivering 192,000 hp. at full gate. It is located 
in the province of Quebec, on the St. Maurice river 104 
miles from its mouth. The river at this point flows through 
a narrow gorge three-quarters of a mile long in which it 
dropped 90 ft. between the upper and the lower pools. 
Throughout the gorge the river bed was generally less than 
350 ft. wide between high water marks and during periods 
of normal flow most of the current was confined to a deep, 
narrow channel that had been eroded in the bed of the river 
near the west bank. The dam is built near the lower end of 
this gorge, its west abutment ending in a low corewall that 
penetrates the heavy layer of overburden on the west bank, 
and its east abutment terminating against the vertical face 
of a cliff that rises more than 100 ft. above the top of the dam. 

As with many of the power sites on the St. Maurice, the 
river here occupies a different channel from that followed 
by the pre-glacial streams that drained this region. It is 
apparent that before the last glacial period the river flowed 
through a deep valley that lies beneath the plain on which 
the town of La Tuque now stands. We know that the depth 
to bed rock here is very great. As the ice receded, this valley 
was filled with glacial deposits, and the river took its new 
course through a saddle between the hills to the west of the 
buried valley and two granite knobs that protrude through 
the surrounding gneissic structure and from the eastern 
wall of the present gorge. The larger and more northerly 
of these knobs was known to the voyageurs as La Tuque. 
The river quickly cut down through the glacial drift to bed 
rock and then, over a long period of time, gradually carved 
for itself a steep, narrow channel. Glaciation and extensive 
faulting that has occurred in the rock of the gorge assisted 
the river in its work of erosion. 

The development at La Tuque is the fifth built on the 
St. Maurice since the construction of the first power house 
at Shawinigan Falls forty years ago. With its completion 
the installed capacity of the plants on the river has reached 
a total of more than a million horse power. It is hard to 
realize that in the short period of forty years the St. Maurice 
valley has developed from little more than a wilderness to 
one of the important industrial regions of the Dominion. 
In 1900, Three Rivers was a small community of few in- 
dustries, Shawinigan Falls was a construction camp where 
a group of young men was engaged in the "visionary" 
scheme of harnessing the falls and transmitting power to 
Montreal, 90 miles away, and Grand'Mère, the last out- 
post of civilization on the river, except for a few Hudson's 
Bay posts farther up, was a little pulp mill town. 

Preliminary Studies 

A partial development of the falls at La Tuque was made 
in 1909 by the Quebec & St. Maurice Industrial Company, 
predecessor of Brown Corporation. This development con- 
sisted of a wing dam at the head of the falls and a wood 
stave penstock leading to the power house at the lower end 
of the gorge. Two hydro-electric units of 3500 hp. capacity 
at 90 ft. head were installed in the power house and served 
the town and the pulp mill until 1931 when the Shawinigan 
Water & Power Company, in anticipation of the construc- 
tion of the Rapide Blanc development, built a transmission 
line from Grand'Mère. 

In 1929 Mr. Hardy S. Ferguson, m.e.i.c, reported to 



the Brown Corporation on the complete development of 
the falls. In his studies he investigated seven possible 
arrangements of the dam and power house with locations 
of the dam at various points between the head and the foot 
of the falls. His comparative estimates showed that the 
most economical arrangement would be with dam and power 
house located about 600 ft. above the foot of the falls. In- 
dependent studies carried out the following year by the 
Shawinigan Engineering Company confirmed this con- 
clusion and also that the site could be developed econo- 
mically. An agreement was entered into between the 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company and Brown Cor- 
poration for a joint development of the falls, the St. Maurice 
Power Corporation being formed for this purpose. 

Between the years 1933 and 1938, when the construction 
of the development was begun, further studies and in- 
vestigations were carried out by the Shawinigan Engineer- 
ing Company. These consisted, in general, of topographical 
surveys, preliminary designs and estimates, studies of 
methods of construction and hydraulic studies of river 
flow, capacity of units and testing of model turbine runners. 

The topographical surveys were a continuation of the 
work done in 1927 and 1928 by the Brown Corporation 
during which they made a detailed survey of the gorge, 
taking advantage of periods of low water to map exposed 
portions of the river bed. This topography was extended 
to cover all of the area above the falls that would be flooded 
by the construction of the development. It was apparent 
from a study of the data thus obtained, that the highest 
level to which the water could be raised without causing 
serious damage from flooding would be El. 498, Quebec 
Streams Commission datum. As the pool at the foot of the 
falls, at normal flow, is at El. 384, this would provide a 
head of 114 ft. 

In studying the capacity of the units to be installed 
advantage was taken of the experience gained in the opera- 
tion of the Rapide Blanc power house, thirty miles above 
La Tuque, and of some studies of river regulation made in 
1927 and 1929 by Mr. R. G. Swan, m.e.i.c, of the Water 
Resources Department of the Shawinigan Company. These 
studies indicated that a flow at La Tuque of 12,500 c.f.s. 
could be depended upon for 90 per cent of the time and that 
the corresponding flow at Rapide Blanc would be 11,000 
c.f.s. The drainage area between the two plants is 3,500 
sq. mi. A flow of 11,000 c.f.s. at Rapide Blanc corresponds 
to the full load discharge of three of the four units installed 
in that plant. Owing to the large volume of the Rapide 
Blanc pond and to the comparatively small pondage at 
La Tuque, it is evident that, for maximum economy in the 
use of the water, the discharge of the La Tuque units should 
be closely correlated with that of the units at Rapide Blanc 
and the full load discharge of the units was accordingly 
fixed at 4,200 c.f.s. making their capacity 48,000 hp. at 
114 ft. head. 

Testing of" Model Turbine Runners 

Each summer since 1929 the Shawinigan Company has 
carried out a series of tests of model turbine runners at the 
Turbine Testing Plant at Shawinigan Falls. This testing 
has been done under the direction of Prof. Ernest Brown, 
M.e.i.c, Dean of the Engineering Faculty of McGill 
University, and in co-operation with the Dominion En- 
gineering Works, of Montreal, who supplied the model 



54 



February," 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



runners. The first objective of these tests was a study of 
the serious pitting and erosion that was taking place in 
both the runners and the throats of the propellor-type 
turbines at La Gabelle plant, on the St. Maurice between 
Shawinigan Falls and Three Rivers. The results of tests 
made during the first two years were embodied in the in- 
stallation of No. 5 unit in 1931, which showed marked im- 
provements over the original units, Nos. 1 to 4, both in 
efficiency and in freedom from pitting. The knowledge 
gained from still later tests has led to the replacement of 
all of the original runners, with a resultant increase in both 
power and efficiency, and the complete elimination of the 
difficulties previously experienced. 











































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Fig. 1 — Unit power-efficiency curves, Models D-22, D-28, 
D-30, D-30A. 

The success that attended upon the search for an im- 
proved type of runner for the turbines at La Gabelle led in 
1934 to examining the possibility of developing a propellor- 
type runner for higher heads with the prospect of its being 
available for use at La Tuque. The primary advantage to 
be gained, would be the higher r.p.m. speed with consequent 
reduction in the cost of the generators and possibly also in 
that of the turbines themselves. The summer of 1934 was 
devoted to the testing of five propellor runners designated 
D-14 to D-18 inclusive. From these, D-17 was selected as 
having the best characteristics for heads up to 110 ft. The 
following year complete tests of this model and of two 
Francis-type models, D-22 and 125-B, were made. Table I 
shows some preliminary general comparisons of dimensions, 
speed and settings for models developing approximately 
39,000 hp. at peak efficiency, at a head of 114 ft. 

TABLE I. 



Model 
No. 


Approx. 

Type ' dia " of 
J * runner, 

i inches 


R.P.M. 


Elev. dis- 
charge tips 

relatively 
to tailwater 


Notes on runner 


D-22 


Francis ! 160 


109.1 


4.0' above 


Used at Chelsea, 94 ft. 
head; and at Rapide 
Blanc, 108 ft. head. 


125-B 


Francis 


134 


144 


4.0' above 


New model; higher 
powered than D-22. 
Not yet used in prac- 
tice. 


D-17 


Propellor 152.5 


180 


6.3' below 


New model; 8 blades, 
similar to but longer 
than improved blades 
at La Gabelle. 



diameter would be smaller than that of D-22 and larger than 
that of 125-B, and it would run at a much higher speed than 
either of the Francis wheels. An evaluation of the relative 
merits of the three models was made by means of compara- 
tive estimates, taking into consideration the speeds and 
diameters and the cost of additional excavation made 
necessary by the lower setting of Model D-17. These esti- 
mates showed a probable saving, over D-22, in favour of 
both of the other models, the relative saving being the 
greater in the case of Model 125-B. Because of this and in 
view of some characteristics of the propellor runners tested 
that made their use for heads of 114 ft. questionable, it was 
decided to abandon the idea of using this type, at least for 
the time being. Model 125-B, while high powered, had a 
poor cavitation characteristic and some undesirable features 
in the power-efficiency curve. The marked increase in speed, 
however, which it showed over that for D-22 led to the 
hope that a runner having a somewhat smaller increase of 
speed and more satisfactory characteristics might be evolved 
by further testing. 

The summers of 1936 and 1937 saw more intensive testing 
of models of the Francis type. During this period, tests 
were carried out on nine different models of which all but 
two were eliminated, D-22, the Rapide Blanc model, and a 
model developed by the Dominion Engineering Works for 
the Gatineau Power Company and designated D-28, a 
higher-powered runner than D-22. 

Early in the following summer two other models, modi- 
fications of D-28 designated D-30 and D-30A, were tested 
and found to have very satisfactory characteristics and the 
latter model was chosen as the basis of the La Tuque run- 
ners. A comparison of the unit power-efficiency curves of 
these four models is shown in Fig. 1. The curves show, for 
corresponding conditions, a progressive increase in unit 
power of the models from D-22 up to D-30A, and also a 
progressive increase in peak efficiency. Model D-22 is 
clearly much lower-powered than the others and its peak 
efficiency is about two per cent below that of D-30A. The 
effect of increasing the out-flow area of D-30 to give D-30A 
is shown in the increased unit power and efficiency near 
and beyond the peak. At the smaller unit powers the curves 











































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The table shows that the propellor wheel would have to 
be submerged below tailwater level, its setting being more 
than ten feet lower than that of the Francis runners. Its 



Fig. 2 — Comparison of tests of Model D-30A for = 0.88 
and various values of <r. 

are identical. These comparisons show that for a given 
rated output at a specified head, a runner based on D-30A 
will be of smaller diameter and run at a higher r.p.m. speed 
than one based on any of the other models. 

Three points are of major importance in the selection 
of a runner: 

1. The envelope of the speed-efficiency curves at different 
gate openings, which determines the speed corresponding 
to maximum efficiency. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



55 



2. The form of the power-efficiency curves at practicable 
speeds under the actual operating conditions and, in parti- 
cular, the corresponding unit powers, since unit power 
determines the diameter of a runner for a given output and 
operating head. 

3. The form of the power-efficiency curves at these 
practicable speeds in relation to the cavitation factor. 

The coefficient </>, in Fig. 1, is a speed characteristic given 
by dividing the peripheral speed of the runner, in ft. per 
sec, by V2g H, in which H is the operating head. It will 
be noted that for Model D-22 the practicable value for <j>, 
as determined by other tests, is 0.84 and that its value for 
the other models is 0.88. The factor "sigma" (a) is known 

B-S 

H 



as the cavitation factor and is given by the formula 



in which B = barometric height; S = height of runner 







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at heads of 104 ft. and 114 ft. 










































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Fig. 4 — Power-efficiency curves for runner based on D-30A 
at heads of 104 ft. and 114 ft. 

above tailwater level and H = operating head. In the 
comparison made, the setting was the same for all models. 
The actual tests of any model include complete power- 
efficiency measurements over a wide range of speeds at 
progressively decreasing cavitation factors, usually five or 
six in number. The cavitation factor is controlled by re- 
gulating the tailwater level. Figure 2 shoWs comparisons 
of such tests for D-30A at $ = 0.88. It will be noted that 
one curve of unit power-efficiency fits all experimental points 
for cavitation factors 0.33, 0.30 and 0.27 and that there is 



a characteristic break in the curve when the tailwater is 
lowered further to correspond to a factor of 0.24. This is 
accentuated when the factor is 0.18. The breaks in the 
curve indicate cavitation and such a series of curves de- 
termines the practicable setting of the runner. A difference 
of 0.03 in the cavitation factor corresponds to a difference 
of 3.4 ft. in runner elevation for a head of 114 ft. Progress- 
ive lowering of the runner increases the margin of protection 
against cavitation but it also tends to increase costs. 

A large number of additional tests were run at the Shaw- 
inigan Falls plant dealing with (a) the shape of the draft 
tube; (b) distribution of pressure in the draft tube; (c) 
effect of introducing air in the draft tube to reduce vibra- 
tion, surges of pressure and noise in operation; (d) the 
erosion of paint from painted surfaces of runners to deter- 
mine zones in which pre-welding might be desirable. In 
addition, the Dominion Engineering Works, at its testing 
plant at Lachine, Que., carried out a comprehensive series 
of tests on the effect of lengthening the draft tubes and on 
various designs for the scroll cases. 

As noted above, a runner based on Model D-30A was 
adopted. Typical results to be expected at heads of 104 ft. 
and 114 ft. from runners based on D-22 and on D-30A are 
shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 respectively. Model D-22 was 
the starting point in the testing of models of the Francis 
type. The curves are based on the Moody step-up formula 
and on information available on the performance of large 
units as compared with that of the small models on which 
they were based. It appears that a runner 158 in. dia. based 
on D-22 and operating at 105.9 r.p.m. would have an out- 
put some 3 to 4 per cent smaller than that of a runner 154 
in. dia. based on D-30A and operating at 112.5 r.p.m. For 
a frequency of 60 cycles per sec. the latter speed requires a 
64-pole generator as against a 68-pole generator at 105.9 
r.p.m. There is also the expectation that the runner based 
on D-30A will show a somewhat higher peak efficiency. 
Outstanding differences of this kind have an important 
bearing on the cost of the development. The results of such 
a series of tests, providing as they do, a large amount of 
information on problems of design and operation, are the 
justification, if any were needed, for a long term programme 
of testing such as is being carried out by the Shawinigan 
Company. 

Description of the Development 

A view of the development, taken from a point on the 
west bank below the dam, is shown in Fig. 5 and a general 
plan in Fig. 6. The dam is 1,337 ft. long from end to end. 
It consists, in general, of the west bulkhead and corewall, 
the sluice section, the intake section and power house, and 
the east bulkhead. All sections of the dam are gravity type 
concrete structures and were designed for the following 
conditions: 

1. Horizontal pressure on the upstream face due to water 
in the forebay at El. 498. 

2. Horizontal pressure due to ice, assumed to be 10,000 
lb. per lin. ft. applied at El. 497. 

3. Uplift on the base of the dam over the whole area, 
assumed to be the full head at the upstream face and de- 
creasing uniformly to zero or to tailrace pressure, if any, 
at the toe. 

4. The weight of concrete was taken at 150 lb. per cu. ft. 

5. The assumed uplift on the intake section was modified 
to two-thirds of the above and a more extensive drainage 
system was provided under the base. 

The sluice section of the dam contains five main sluices, 
two regulating sluices and a log sluice. The main sluices 
are each 50 ft. wide and have their sills at El. 467, thirty- 
one feet below normal headrace level. The two regulating 
sluices are each 21 ft. wide by 21 ft. deep. The sill of the 
log sluice is at El. 492 and it has a width of 26 ft. All of the 
sluiceways are provided with motor-operated, fixed-roller 
steel gates. The discharge capacity of the sluiceways is 
170,000 c.f.s. with fore-bay at El. 498 and more than 



56 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



200,000 c.f.s. when the water is at El. 500. Figure 8 shows a 
cross section through one of the main sluiceways. The 
paving shown at the foot of the spillway is continued down- 
stream a distance of about 600 ft. in order to protect the 
flood channels against erosion. 

A cross section of the intake section and the power house 
is shown in Fig. 9. The intakes for six turbines have been 
provided, each intake consisting of two water passages 
15 ft. wide, connected to a 22 ft. steel penstock. The pen- 
stocks are completely embedded in the concrete. The 
intakes are closed by means of steel head gates with fixed 
rollers, the head gates being operated, through line shafting, 
by two motor reduction units. By means of jaw-clutches, 
either of the motor reduction units can raise any one of the 
head gates. The lowering and the raising of the gates is 
actuated by push buttons in the gate house, with lowering 
buttons also in the control room of the power house. The 
36-ton gantry shown on the top of the intake section has 
been provided to lift the gates out of their slots for painting 
and other maintenance and also for handling the racks and 
emergency gates which are installed in slots on the upstream 
face of the dam. 

Four hydro-electric units are installed in the power house, 
with settings for two additional units for future installation. 
At 114 ft. head each unit has a rated capacity of 44,500 hp. 
at point of maximum efficiency and is capable of delivering 
48,000 hp. at full gate. The turbines are connected to 
11,000 V., 60 cycle generators rated at 40,000 kva. at 90 
per cent power factor, which were manufactured by the 
Canadian General Electric Company. The generators are 
fully enclosed and water cooled. Louvres are provided in 
the housing for the purpose of heating the power house in 
cold weather. With the louvres closed the air is circulated 
through cooling coils supplied with water from the forebay. 
Enclosing the generators is a new departure for the Com- 




Fig. 5 — General view of the development. 

pany. It was done principally for the purpose of reducing 
the accumulation of dust in the air passages around the 
generator windings and of maintaining the coils at a fairly 
uniform temperature at varying loads, but it has the added 
advantage of reducing both noise and heat in the power 
house. 

The generator leads are carried through a tunnel to the 
switch building, which is located a short distance from the 
power house, and connected to an 11,000 V. bus which is 
segregated into four sections. The bus sections are con- 
nected, through air blast circuit breakers, to the Brown 
Corporation's 11,000 V. transmission line and to the 
Shawinigan Company's transformers which step the voltage 
up to 230,000 V. for transmission to the terminal station 
at Three Rivers. Three transformers are at present in 




Fig. 6 — General plan of the development. 
THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



57 



J \f 




50/ : 0~ 









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Fig. 7 — Cross section of west bulkhead. 

service, two rated at 36,000 kva. and one at 40,000 kva., 
while a fourth, at 40,000 kva. is in course of manufacture. 
The generators and transformers are connected in parallel 
on the high voltage bus only, through motor operated dis- 
connecting switches. Provision has been made for the 
future installation of a high voltage circuit breaker for the 
line, which at present is directly connected to the high 
voltage bus. 

Figure 10 shows a single-line diagram of the main elec- 
trical connections. 

Preparation of the Foundation 

The bed-rock at the dam site consists of a granitic gneiss, 
the foliation, or apparent bedding, of which varies con- 
siderably over different parts of the foundation. In the 
vicinity of the west bulkhead and the sluice section, the 
foliation strikes diagonally across the line of the dam and 
dips toward the northeast at an angle of about 20 deg., 
while under the intake section the strike is transverse to 
the dam and the dip at a slight angle to the east. A fault 
near the western end of the intake section divides the two 
areas of different geologic structure. The strike of this fault 
is almost normal to the axis of the dam and it dips toward 
the east at an angle of 48 deg. It showed up on the surface 
as a small gorge, about ten feet deep, that had been eroded 
in the bed of the river. Near it two parallel faults were 
encountered, one to the east and the other to the west. 

The most important feature of the geologic structure in 
relation to the dam is a fault zone under the east bulkhead. 
The fault planes in the river are nearly parallel to this zone 
and are related to it. The footwall was encountered about 
50 ft. east of the end of the intake section dipping toward 
the east at an angle of about 47 deg. to the horizontal. The 
hanging wall intersects the face of the cliff at about El. 470, 
thirty feet below the top of the dam. The faulted zone, 
200 ft. wide, that lay between, was composed of thick strata 
of hard, grey rock alternating with strata of badly fractured 
red rock, some parts of which, near the surface, were so 
decomposed that they could be dug by a power shovel. 
In order to obtain rock sufficiently sound for the founda- 
tion of the east bulkhead it was necessary to carry the ex- 
cavation down along the footwall of the fault to below 
El. 380. At the inner end of the cut its depth was more than 
80 ft. below the surface. Excavation for a cutoff wall along 
the upstream face of the structure was continued to a 
further depth of about 50 ft. 

As a precaution against seepage of water along the 
horizontal joints underneath the dam, a programme of 
grouting the foundation was followed. Diamond drill holes 
were put down along the whole upstream 'face of the dam 
at intervals of about 30 ft., except at the east bulkhead 
where more extensive grouting was done. Along the intake 
section of the dam these holes were drilled to a depth of 



100 ft.; at the sluice section and west bulkhead the depth 
was 50 ft. Many of the holes were tested for tightness with 
water at a pressure of 90 lb. per sq. in. and all were grouted 
to refusal at pressures varying from 90 to 50 lb. per sq. in. 
depending on the depth at which the grouting was done. 
Where any evidence of open joints was found, sufficient 
additional holes were drilled and grouted to assure the 
complete sealing of the foundation. Very little grout was 
taken in any of the holes except in the vicinity of the fault 
planes at the junction of the intake and the sluice sections. 
Although the stratum of rock which was finally reached 
in the excavation for the east bulkhead and on which the 
structure was built was sound, it was badly broken by the 
faulting and it was considered advisable to consolidate it 
by grouting. Holes were drilled to a depth of 20 ft. on five 
foot centres each way over the whole surface and grouted 
at a pressure of 90 lb. per sq. in. In addition to this, in 
order to eliminate the possibility of percolation beneath the 
structure, a row of diamond drill holes on five foot centres, 
parallel to the upstream face, was put down into the foot- 



i 




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Fig. 8 — Cross section through sluiceway. 

wall and grouted at a pressure of 200 lb. per sq. in. after 
the concrete structure was built. The deepest of these holes, 
near the face of the cliff, penetrated the footwall at about 
El. 270. The inspection tunnel in the east bulkhead is built 
with sufficient head room to permit additional drilling and 
grouting if evidences of undue percolation should be dis- 
covered in the future. 

The excavation and preparation of the foundation for 
the east bulkhead would not have been such a serious 
matter had it not been for rock falls that began to occur 
from the face of the cliff after the work had progressed well 
into the cut. The cliff had been carefully scaled and ap- 
peared to be perfectly safe, but it is probable that the heavy 
blasting that had been carried on over the rest of the job 
for a period of almost two years had loosened some of the 
joints. The first warning came with the fall of a mass of 
rock from a point about 100 ft. up that almost buried a 
shovel working in the cut. Fortunately the shovel runner 
had swung the boom toward the open end of the cut and 
was not injured, but the shovel had to be dragged out and 
sent to the shop for major repairs. Various scaling opera- 
tions were tried in an effort to remove the hazard from this 
source but finally the whole face of the cliff, from top to 
bottom, had to be sliced off to a depth of about ten feet, 
removing 15,000 cu. yd. of solid rock in the process, before 
it was considered safe enough to resume work. The author 



58 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



has a great deal of admiration for the men who worked on 
that job. Realizing, as they did, the danger of the work, 
in spite of all the precautions taken and safeguards pro- 
vided, they carried on day after day without hesitation 
until the job was done. 

The east bulkhead, like the rest of the dam, is built in 
sections about 50 ft. long. The most westerly section rests 
on undisturbed rock. The fractured rock under the other 
sections is progressively deeper toward the east end owing 
to the slope of the footwall of the fault. For this reason the 
Company's geologist, Mr. Irving B. Crosby, m.e.i.c, in 
view of the possibility of unequal settlement between the 
sections, recommended that some form of seal should be 
provided in the vertical construction joints to prevent 
seepage through the joints should such settlement occur. 
After giving the matter some consideration it was decided 
that the type of seal provided in the other vertical joints 
throughout the dam would be adequate for this purpose. 
These seals were adapted from those used in the Chonchas 
dam in New Mexico where the possibility of unequal settle- 
ment was anticipated, and were constructed as follows: 

1. A six in. dia. vertical hole was formed in the concrete 
centered on the joint and six feet back from the upstream 
face of the dam. 

2. Twenty-ounce copper sheets were formed around the 
upstream semi-circumference of the hole and projected 
into the concrete on each side a distance of 12 in. The 
horizontal joints of the sheets were soldered together and 
the vertical edges were reinforced with two 1 by 34 in. 
steel bars. 

3. The hole was filled with a plastic asphalt compound 
that retains its plasticity at relatively low temperatures. 
Numerous tests were made on various plastic materials 
until one was found that filled the various requirements. 

To uncover the bed rock at the site of the sluice section 
and the west bulkhead and along the discharge channels, 
it was necessary to excavate 230,000 cu. yd. of overburden. 
This material was stripped by power shovels and trucked 
to spoil banks on the hillside a short distance downstream. 
Owing to the great depth of the overburden at the end of 
the west bulkhead the excavation for the corewall, which 
projects beyond the bulkhead a distance of 90 ft. was made 




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Fig. 9 — Cross section of intake and power house on 
centre line of generator. 



Fig. 10 — Single line diagram of electrical layout. 

by tunnelling. The tunnel was driven along the gradually 
rising rock to the point where the rock surface was about 
four feet above normal headrace level. The foundation of 
the corewall was prepared by barring off any loose rock 
encountered. The concrete was poured against the sides 
of the tunnel cut by removing the sheathing just ahead of 
the pouring, care being taken to fill with concrete any caves 
that had occurred in the tunnel walls. The corewall was 
brought up to the level of the top of the dam and the upper 
part of the tunnel was backfilled. 

Construction 

Probably the most important change that has taken 
place in the Company's construction procedure, during the 
past few years, has been in connection with the planning of 
the work. In the old days the head office planning was con- 
fined largely to an outline of the general construction 
methods, leaving to the field organization the task of filling 
in the details. Frequently, especially during the busy 
Twenties, the superintendent was hustled onto the work 
from another job, with little time for preparation and only 
the specification drawings and a few sketches to give him 
an idea of what he was supposed to build, and was expected 
to form an organization and make a good guess as to what 
his requirements would be for the next two or three years. 
It was a good bit to expect of a superintendent, no matter 
how experienced, and the result was that he usually grabbed 
all the construction equipment he could lay his hands on, 
in the hope that he would find it useful, and sometimes 
found, later on that he had placed some of his temporary 
structures in positions that interfered with the permanent 
works. The method was not conducive to economical con- 
struction. 

Beginning with the Toro storage dam on the Mattawin, 
in 1929, a change in procedure was initiated by laying out 
part of the construction plant in the office. This process 
was further extended in 1931 when beginning the con- 
struction of Rapide Blanc development, with such good 
results that, when the final design and detailing of the La 
Tuque development was begun in the fall of 1937, the lay- 
out of the construction plant and the scheduling of the 
various operations was begun at the same time and carried 
out in complete detail. The decision of the Corporation to 
proceed with the construction raised the problem of making 
a 1935 estimate fit 1938 conditions. In the face of an in- 
crease that had occurred, in the meantime, both in labour 
rates and in the cost of materials and equipment, this could 
not have been accomplished without the most careful 
planning of construction plant and procedure and the 
closest supervision of the work. Figure 11 shows one of the 
205 construction plant drawings. It illustrates the plant 
layout for excavating the power-house cut and the tailrace. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



59 




Fig. 11 — Plan showing layout of construction plant for excavation of power house and tailrace. 



The results of this careful planning are well illustrated by a 
brief comparison of an earlier job with the La Tuque job. 
La Gabelle development was built in 1924. It was considered 
to be a well built job and the unit costs, for the period, were 
low. However, if the unit costs for concrete and excavation 
at La Tuque had been the same as those for La Gabelle, 
these two items alone would have increased the cost of La 
Tuque project by almost $1,500,000.00. This is not entirely 
due to the advantages of more careful planning, however, 
but reflects also the improvement that has been made in con- 
struction plant and the difference in construction methods. 

The construction plant used at La Gabelle was typical of 
the period. Transportation on the job was by dump car 
and steam dinkey, with tracks, more than 11 miles of them, 
radiating from the construction yard to all parts of the job. 
Most of the mucking was done by hand. The concrete was 
carried from the central mixer plant, in hoppers on flat 
cars, to wooden concreting towers located at various points 
on the job and distributed from these to the forms by 
chutes. At La Tuque, on the other hand, transportation 
was mostly by motor truck, with a small amount of rock 
hauled by gasoline locomotive. Most of the mucking was 
by means of power shovels. The concrete was carried from 
the mixer plant by belt conveyors to hoppers located at 
various points along the dam and handled by derricks to 
the point of deposit in the forms in two-yard, bottom-dump 
buckets. The location of derricks and of the various tem- 
porary structures was very carefully studied so that they 
would be of use in as many operations as possible without 
unnecessary shifting. 

One of the first and most important steps in determining 
the type and the layout of the equipment consists in the 
preparation of the construction schedule. This is prepared 
in reverse to the order of construction. Assuming that the 
construction is to be started early in 1938 and that the date 
of completion is set for January 1, 1941,'in order that the 
fourth generator will be erected, dried out and tested by 
that date its erection should be begun by November 1, 1940. 
Six weeks allowed for each generator would place the 



beginning of erection of Generator No. 1 about June 15th. 
At this time, in order to avoid congestion in the power house 
the erection of the four turbines and the concreting inside 
the power house should be completed. An allowance of 
a month for each turbine will mean that turbine erection 
should start February 15th. This fixes the date of the 
closing in of the power house superstructure, and so on 
until the schedule is complete. After this first key schedule 
has been drawn up the sequence of operations on the various 
parts of the work is outlined in detail and finally, knowing 
from the estimate the quantities of construction materials 
to be handled in the time allotted by the schedule, the type, 
duty and location of each piece of construction equipment 
is determined and the dates fixed for the ordering and 
delivery of construction materials and of the permanent 
equipment. This planning of the construction procedure 
in co-ordination with the design of the permanent structures 
enables the field organization to concentrate on the eco- 
nomical operation of the job and on the quality of the work- 
manship, which keeps them busy enough, and at the same 
time permits modifications to be made in the arrangement 
of the permanent structures that may be conducive to more 
economical construction. 

The construction of La Tuque development was begun 
in March 1938 with the clearing of the site of the construc- 
tion plant and the erection of some of the construction 
buildings. One of the first operations was the building of 
No. 1 cofferdam for the unwatering of the diversion channel 
on the west side of the river. The swift current in the deep 
channel near the west bank presented a problem in that it 
was necessary to construct the first cofferdam across this 
channel. The first crib of the cofferdam was located in a 
comparatively quiet eddy formed by a point of rock that 
projected into the river a few hundred feet upstream from 
the line of the dam. This crib served as an anchor for the 
rest of the cofferdam and from it the cofferdam was built 
diagonally downstream across the deep channel, gradually 
crowding the current to the other side of the river bed. The 
east end of this part of the cofferdam rested on a ridge of 



60 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



rock some points of which projected above the water to 
form small, rocky islands. From these islands the coffer- 
dam was continued downstream parallel to the shore to the 
lower end of the by-pass channel, a distance of about 800 ft. 

The control works of the by-pass channel consisted of 
four water passages through the lower part of a portion of 
the sluice section. One of these passages had a clear width 
of 50 ft. and the other three were each 21 ft. wide. The rock 
excavated from the by-pass channel was crushed by two 
16 in. gyratory crushers set up temporarily on the west 
bank, and transported across the river to the mixer plant 
on a belt conveyor carried by a light steel truss bridge con- 
sisting of three 115 ft. spans supported on timber crib piers. 
In addition to the conveyor, the bridge carried a walkway. 
Concrete for the control works was brought across the river 
on the same conveyor, transported to the structure in two- 
yard bottom dump buckets on cars drawn by gasoline 
locomotives and handled into place by derricks. In order 
to prevent scour in the by-pass channel, the bottom is 
paved with concrete for a distance of 600 ft. below the dam. 
Upon completion of the control works, the upstream section 
of No. 1 cofferdam was blown up and the water diverted 
through the by-pass channel by the construction of coffer- 
dam No. 2. 

The construction programme was based on a period of 
two years and nine months beginning in March 1938 with 
completion of the project by December 31, 1940. In order 
to direct and control the work, a comprehensive schedule 
was prepared at the beginning showing the amount of work 
to be done, with the starting and completion dates for each 
item. Construction of the development may be divided 
into three main sections or periods each representing a 
definite phase. 

The primary phase includes all work from the beginning 
of construction to the diversion of the river through the 
by-pass channel in November 1938. During this period the 
site was cleared, the railway siding completed, the perma- 
nent and temporary roads and bridges finished and the 
construction of all temporary buildings, as well as provision 
for water supply, fire protection, communication power 
supply and distribution completed. To complete the in- 
stallation of derricks and shovels and of the rock crushing 
and concrete mixing plants with their conveying systems, 
storage piles and bulk cement-handling facilities in time to 
meet the excavating schedule of July 15 and the pouring 
of concrete on September 1 was a difficult and strenuous 
task but was successfully accomplished. Other work com- 
pleted in the initial stage of construction was the stripping 
and opening of the sand pit, the installation of adequate 
facilities for the handling and transportation of all material 
from the railway siding to the job, the building of wharves 





Fig. 12 — General view of construction plant. 
THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



Fig. 13 — Interior of power house. 

and scows for the transporting of construction plant and 
other necessary material to the west bank of the river, the 
construction of the light steel bridge with conveying system 
for the handling of rock from the temporary crushing plant 
on the west bank to the rock storage pile near the mixer 
plant and for the transportation of concrete to the diversion 
channel structures as well as numerous miscellaneous details 
to make this portion of the installation a well-integrated layout. 

The construction buildings consisted of an office building, 
machine shop, carpenter shop, electricians' shop, concrete 
laboratory, drill sharpening shop, stores building, dynamite 
store, which was located on the west bank half a mile from 
the dam site, and garage. The main units of construction 
plant were the mixer, the crusher and the compressor plants. 

The mixer plant housed two Smith mixers of two cu. yd. 
capacity each. Cement and aggregates were fed to the 
mixers from bins located in the upper part of the building. 
The designed proportion of the aggregates was maintained 
by means of weighing hoppers, the feed to the cement 
hopper being actuated by a photo-electric cell. Consistency 
of the mix was closely watched by inspectors under the 
direction of a concrete technician and the strength was 
checked by samples taken at regular intervals during the 
day and tested in the laboratory. 

The concrete, as has been mentioned before, was trans- 
ported from the mixer plant by a belt conveyor to hoppers 
located at various points along the line of the dam. From 
the hoppers it was handled by derricks to the point of de- 
posit in the forms, in two-yard bottom-dump buckets. The 
concrete was placed very dry and compacted by vibrators. 
Our experience with vibrators was not entirely a happy one. 
This was not due to any fault of the vibrators themselves 
but to the ease with which the foremen found they could 
move the concrete from one part of the form to another and 
their tendency on this account to have the concrete de- 
posited at one point, possibly more easy of access than 
others in the form, and to use the vibrators to make it flow 
to the corners and other less accessible places. 

The crusher plant contained a 42 by 48 in. jaw crusher 
and the two 16 in. gyratories already mentioned as having 
been installed temporarily on the west bank during the 
excavation of the by-pass channel. The first cut to be made 
after the completion of the power-house cofferdam was the 
excavation for the draft tubes. This cut was more than 
40 ft. deep. The rock was mucked by power shovels into 
skip boxes and hoisted by derricks to side-dump cars on 
a trestle along the downstream side of the cut. The cars 
were drawn by gasoline locomotives to the crusher plant 
where the rock was reduced to a maximum size of four 
inches. At the crusher plant it was screened and then carried 
to and distributed along the storage pile by belt conveyors. 
From the storage pile the rock was taken by belt conveyor, 



61 




Fig. 14 — Cross section of east bulkhead. 

operating in a tunnel underneath the pile, to bins at the top 
of the mixer plant. 

Upon completion of the draft tube cut the excavating 
equipment was moved to the tailrace and to the west bank, 
these two parts of the job being carried on simultaneously. 
The tailrace excavation was begun about 750 ft. below the 
power house and carried level at El. 374 for a distance of 
480 ft., from which point it sloped down on about a 10 per 
cent grade to meet the outlet of the draft tubes at El. 350. 
From the tailrace cut the rock was transported by trucks 
to the crusher plant or to a spoil bank a short distance 
downstream. 

The compressor plant had an installed capacity of 2,300 
cu. ft. of free air per minute when operating against a 
pressure of 100 lb. per sq. in. The two larger units (1,040 
cf. per min. each) were of the horizontal reciprocating type, 
two-stage compression with inter-coolers and after-coolers. 
Each unit was direct connected to a 200 hp. synchronous 
motor. The small compressor was of the rotary type (220 
cf. per min.) direct connected to a 50 hp., S.C. motor. The 
installation was complete with control equipment, intake 
filters and air receivers. 

Owing to the proximity of the job to the town of La 
Tuque it was not necessary to build camps for the men 
except at the peak of the work when additional accommoda- 
tion had to be provided for about two hundred. During the 
thirty months when the work was in full swing, La Tuque 
was a boom town as in that period more than $2,000,000.00 
was paid out in wages, most of which was spent in the town. 

La Tuque is on the National Transcontinental Division 
of the Canadian National Railways. A siding from this line 
was built to serve the job about one and one-quarter miles 
from the dam site and connected with the construction yard 
by a road which was surfaced for a width of 20 ft. with a 
hot-mix asphaltic-concrete pavement. Facilities were 
provided at the siding for unloading and handling of con- 
struction materials and of equipment. Cement came to the 
siding in bulk and was unloaded by a conveyor into two 
steel silos with a capacity of 350 tons. From the silos it was 
drawn to the job as needed in special tank-body semi- 
trailers. More than 1,200 car loads of miscellaneous materials 
and 1,400 car loads of cement were received at the siding 
during the course of the job. 

The provision of good sand in sufficient quantity for a job 
of this 6ize is usually a serious problem on the Upper St. 
Maurice. However the region around La Tuque is excep- 



tional in this respect, as prospection showed. Several large 
deposits of sand suitable for the concrete were found within 
reasonable trucking distance of the job, the one having the 
best grading and the most uniform quality being located 
within two miles of the site and about three-quarters of a 
mile from the siding. The sand was dug from this pit by a 
gasoline shovel and transported by trucks to the sand stor- 
age pile from which it was carried by a belt conveyor to a 
bin at the top of the mixer plant. 

The construction of cofferdams in 1938, which is des- 
ignated as auxiliary work, amounted to 35,000 cu. yd. or to 
70 per cent of the total built. The only permanent work 
done prior to the passing of water through the by-pass 
during the primary phase was the removal of 125,000 cu. yd. 
of excavation and the pouring of 39,800 cu. yd. of concrete 
equivalent to 18 per cent and 14.7 per cent respectively of 
the total quantities involved. The diversion of the river 
from its regular course into the by-pass channel on the 
scheduled date of November 29th by the removal of a 
cofferdam in one blast completed the initial phase of the 
work. 

The secondary phase involved the substantial completion 
of excavation and mass concrete work and the closing-in of 
the power-house and gate-house superstructures ready for 
the installation of equipment by the end of November 1939. 
This period is usually regarded as one of "operation" and, 
outside of the uncertainty of unwatering and the danger of 
flooding, causes no particular worry. It is the phase of mass 
production when various units of construction plant have 
an opportunity to demonstrate their efficiency and adequacy 
as an operating unit. The volume of excavation removed 
in this period amounted to 500,000 cu. yd. or 70 per cent 
of the total. The pouring of concrete could not be started 
until June 15 when unwatering of the main river sections 
following the spring flood was completed. In the following 
five months, 150,000 cu. yd. or more than 55 per cent of the 
total concrete of 270,000 cu. yd. was poured, an average 
rate of 1,200 cu. yd. per day. 

The scheduling and control of this portion of the work 
was comparatively simple as the plant installed during the 
early stages of the job was designed for a given purpose 
and no difficulty was experienced in keeping the work up to 
schedule, with the single exception of the east bulkhead 
where the extensive faulting, previously mentioned, in- 
creased the volume and difficulty of excavating the found- 
ation considerably and doubled the quantity of concrete. 
This forced the work into the first quarter of 1940. 

The final stage consisted of installing the hydraulic, 
electrical and auxiliary equipment, closing the by-pass 
channel and raising the water to normal operating level, 
the pouring of final concrete and the finishing of a host of 
details to properly complete the job. 

The various schedule dates were maintained with the 
exception of the by-pass closure which could not be started 
until after the 1940 spring flood had dropped off to 25,000 
c.f.s. While this date was based on an average of a 13-year 
record of river flow plus ten days for contingency, the flood 
was late in starting and of longer duration than previously 
experienced. 

Immediately after the spring flood, the closure of the 
50 ft. opening in the control works of the by-pass channel 
was made by means of the sluice-gate stop logs. Some doubt 
was expressed as to whether the stop logs would go down of 
their own weight through the swift current that was flowing 
through the openings to a depth of 15 ft. Several years 
before, when one of the sluice gates at La Gabelle got stuck 
in the open position, it had been found necessary to close 
the 50 ft. opening with similar stop logs and no difficulty was 
experienced. Recently published results of tests n models 
showed that, under the conditions at La Tuque, the stop logs 
would not go down without assistance and accordingly pile 
hammers were provided at each end to force them down 
if necessary. The hammers were not used. The closure of 



62 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the other three openings was made by means of special 
fixed-roller gates which were left in place after the con- 
creting of the openings was completed. The closure was 
delayed by ten days and as a result the turning over of 
No. 1 unit was nine days behind schedule. The remaining 
three units went "on the line" slightly ahead of schedule 
with the final unit producing power on November 26 against 
a scheduled date of December 1. 

The detailed schedule worked out at the beginning of the 
project was an indispensable tool in controlling and directing 
the work at all times. It was followed in detail for specify- 
ing the delivery of all material and equipment and gave 
constant warning to the drawing office of the dates on which 
drawings would be required in the field. One of its most 
valuable uses was in estimating the monthly expenditures 
in advance of requirements in order that suitable arrange- 
ments could be made for financing. 

The dismantling of construction plant and temporary 
buildings is a mournful operation for the construction forces 
for they realize that it is the beginning of the end of a project 
which has absorbed their whole attention for many months 
and in which each one has played an important part. Their 
feeling is truly genuine and when they ask "where next" 
those who planned the project can appreciate their regret 
for they too have been a part of it. 

Conclusion 

In 1937, as the time set for the construction of La Tuque 
development approached, there was considerable discussion 
as to whether it should not be postponed for a year or two. 
The rate at which the load of the Shawinigan Company 
was growing indicated that power from this development 
would not be needed before the spring of 1942 and it was 
difficult to see how very much could be absorbed before 
then. However, certain commitments that had been made 



rendered it desirable to proceed with the construction in 
1938 and it was then suggested that a four year construction 
programme be adopted instead of the three year programme 
on which the estimate was based and which, in our opinion 
would result in the most economical construction. Com- 
parative estimates showed that both in first cost and in the 
long term results of the operation of the plant the three 
year programme would be the more economical from the 
standpoint of the St. Maurice Power Corporation but that 
the other would have decided advantages for the Shawinigan 
Company on account of its contract to take certain blocks 
of power when the plant came into production. During the 
past few months, the author has often thought how fortun- 
ate it was that the directors of the Company took the 
attitude that they did and decided to proceed with the con- 
struction on the basis of the most economical first cost, that 
is on a three year construction programme. To bring 
almost 200,000 hp. of additional capacity into production 
at this time has been of vital importance to the war effort 
of the Dominion. 

Three units at La Tuque have been operating at full load 
almost continuously since the power house was put into 
service delivering 37,000 kw. each, and at times all four 
units have been in operation with a total load of 
142,000 kw. 

Associated with the Shawinigan Engineering Company 
on the work were, Mr. Hardy S. Ferguson, m.e.i.c, 
Consulting Engineer, Mr. Irving B. Crosby, m.e.i.c, 
Consulting Geologist and Mr. J. Cecil McDougall, m.e.i.c, 
Architect. The author is indebted to Dean Ernest Brown, 
m.e.i.c, of McGill University, for his assistance in the 
preparation of the section of turbine testing and to Mr. R. 
E. Heartz, m.e.i.c, Assistant Chief Engineer of Shaw- 
inigan Engineering Company, in the preparation of the 
section dealing with construction. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



63 



ENGINEERING TRAINING FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE 

IN THE U.S.A. 

A. A. POTTER 
Dean of the Schools of Engineering, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., and Consultant, U.S. Office of Education 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Hamilton, Ont., on February 6th, 1941. 



The United States of America has set out upon an arma- 
ment program which has as its objective the doubling 
of its Navy and the quintupling of its Army in addition to 
large quantities of armaments for Great Britain. All facilities 
are being mobilized to insure speed and efficiency in carry- 
ing out this program. It is realized that the production 
of modern mechanized armaments on the scale contem- 
plated requires not only millions of people who are skilled 
as mechanics but also large numbers of engineers who are 
competent in a wide variety of technical and supervisory 
services. One out of every ten employees of the aeroplane 
industry must be an engineer, as 250,000 man-hours are 
required to design a modern military plane. It takes about 
25,000 blueprints for the construction of a medium size tank, 
and a modern battleship costs five to eight million dollars 
to design and involves drawings which weigh tons. Already 
an acute shortage of technical engineering talent exists in 
certain of the industries as well as in the Army and Navy 
of the United States of America. The aeroplane industry 
reports serious shortages in engineers who can design, test 
and maintain aeroplanes. Needed also are thousands of 
additional engineers who are competent as designers of 
tools, dies, jigs, or in part analysis, shop layout and cost 
estimates of labor and materials. Additional engineering in- 
spectors are needed by industry as well as by the Army 
and Navy with knowledge of materials, physical testing, 
X-ray inspection, radiographic technique and explosives, 
and automotive and electric communication equipment. 
There is also a substantial shortage of machine designers, 
metallurgists, naval architects and marine engineers. Be- 
sides the needs for technical engineering specialists, industry 
is confronted with a shortage of industrial engineers and 
engineering supervisors to speed up the production of equip- 
ment necessary to the present armament program — en- 
gineers who are familiar with industrial organization, time 
and motion study techniques, production control, material 
handling and storage, inventory, budgetary and accounting 
control, industrial safety and industrial relations. 

During the first World War the engineering schools of 
this country were responsible for the major portion of the 
vocational training program for the U.S. Army. The 
Vocational Division of the Students' Army Training Corps 
was mainly concerned with the training of mechanics and 
little attention was given to defense training on the engin- 
eering school level. During the past twenty-three years, the 
U.S. Government has co-operated with the various states 
in the development of a nation-wide program of voca- 
tional education of less than college grade. As a result of 
this, there are available in the U.S.A. over 1,000 public 
vocational schools with a plant valued at more than one 
billion dollars. The Congress of the U.S.A. has appropriated 
to the U.S. Office of Education for the present fiscal year, 
ending June 30, 1941, a total of 66^ million dollars for a 
vocational education program of "less than college grade." 
This vocational educational program is being adminis- 
tered in every state under the State Board of Vocational 
Education and is carried on mainly in secondary schools 
and trade schools. Much of this program is concerned 
with supplementary evening courses for individuals now em- 
ployed in industry. Pre-employment full-time courses are 
also administered to increase the supply of workers essential 
in the National Defense Program. It is expected that, 
during the present fiscal year, the skills of more than 500,000 
people will be increased through this vocational educational 



program of "less than college grade." No tuition is paid 
by those receiving instruction. 

Engineering colleges realize that their greatest contribu- 
tion to our armament program will come by undertaking 
the type of training for which they are best equipped, that 
is, training on the "engineering school level," rather than 
vocational trade courses which can ordinarily be taught 
more effectively by trade and vocational schools. By college 
level is meant instruction comparable in difficulty and pre- 
requisites with courses included in engineering curricula. 
The leaders in the engineering profession as well as in the 
Army and Navy of the United States of America are in- 
insistent that the engineering schools of this country should 
maintain during the present emergency the strongest pos- 
sible programs of undergraduate and graduate instruc- 
tion and should increase their research efforts so that an ade- 
quate supply of well trained and creative engineers is 
assured. It is felt, however, that many of our engineering 
schools have special facilities which may be utilized advan- 
tageously, without interrupting their regular programs, 
in making available to our defense industries and to our 
Army and Navy additional and more competent engineering 
specialists. Congress has appropriated on October 9, 1940, 
to the U.S. Office of Education nine million dollars to be 
used in reimbursing engineering schools up to June 30, 
1941, for the administration of the following programs: 

1. In-service training programs for the purpose of up- 
grading the engineers and supervisors now employed in 
industry. More than 30,000 of the engineering and super- 
visory staffs, employed in defense industries, are now en- 
rolled, mainly outside of working hours, in classes which 
meet two or more times every week. Some of these classes 
are in the nature of refresher courses and cover subjects 
ordinarily given during the first three years of an engineering 
college curriculum. The majority, however, are enrolled in 
advanced classes in design and industrial engineering. 
Present indications are that this in-service training pro- 
gram will have to be greatly extended and enlarged dur- 
ing the next few months. Through this type of training, 
engineering schools are in a position to speed up the arma- 
ment program and to improve the product of defense 
industries without interrupting their regular collegiate en- 
gineering instruction on the campus. 

2. Intensive resident program of study are being set 
up for the benefit of commissioned officers of the Army and 
Navy and for those who are interested in preparing for the 
specialized engineering positions now open in the defense 
industries or in government employ under the regulations 
of the U.S. Civil Service Commission. These intensive cour- 
ses are about three months in length and are open to those 
who have had some formal engineering education, usually 
about three years, and considerable experience. As a con- 
crete illustration: The Air Corps of the U.S. Army has at 
present fifty cadets, in each of two engineering schools, who 
are being given an intensive three-month course in aero- 
dynamics, airplane structures, airplane power plants and 
airplane instruments. The majority of these cadets are en- 
gineering college graduates and are being prepared for com- 
missions in the Air Corps of the U.S. Army as squadron 
engineering officers. It is expected that about 600 of such 
squadron officers will be trained during the next few months. 
Due to the fact that nearly all of the engineering college 
graduates are well placed in industry, the resident intensive 



64 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



program is not developing as rapidly as is the in-service aid in formulating policies for the in-service and intensive 
program. It is expected, however, that at least 10,000 training program on the engineering school level. Con- 
will benefit by this program between now and June 30, tacts between Washington and the engineering colleges and 
1941. the defence industries are maintained by twenty-two re- 

Up to December 30, 1940, a total of 444 engineering de- gional advisers appointed by the U.S. Office of Education, 

fense training programs have been approved to be ad- Present world conditions demand that technology oper- 

ministered by 91 engineering colleges in 44 states, the Dis- ates at full speed. The engineer's initiative as well as his 

trict of Columbia and Puerto Rico. creative and managerial talents must be used most exten- 

The engineering defense training program is adminis- sively in the gigantic armament program of the U.S.A. 

tered under the Chief of the Division of Higher Education It is hoped that the in-service and pre-service intensive 

of the U.S. Office of Education, Dr. Fred J. Kelly, with program on the engineering school level described will 

Dean R. A. Seaton on leave from the Kansas State prove helpful in meeting the present acute shortage for 

College as Director of the program. An Advisory Com- engineering specialists and will also improve the compe- 

mittee on Engineering Defense Training, which is repre- tence of employed engineers and engineering supervisors 

sentative of the engineering and engineering teaching pro- so that they may be in a position to design and build better 

fession, has been set up by the U.S. Office of Education to armaments in the shortest possible time. 



APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING 
IN INDUSTRY 

The following material is sent to the Journal by the 
chairman of the Committee on Student Selection and Guid- 
ance of the Engineers Council for Professional Develop- 
ment (E.C.P.D.). Although the conditions described refer 
to the United States, the article is generally applicable to 
Canada. — Editor. 

Dr. Robert A. Milliken, president of California Institute 
of Technology, said in part in his Phi Beta Kappa address 
for 1940: 

"Let the point be emphasized as strongly as possible that 
steering students away from an attempt to enter that higher 
educational system when they do not show any capacity 
for solving analytical problems with success is not only 
the most kindly but it is also one of the highest forms of 
civic duty, since the success of our democracy depends 
upon it." 

"But someone asks, 'What is to be done with the rest ?' 
It is a most amazing thing that in the development of our 
American educational system so little attention has been 
paid to the making of any provision for the apprenticeship 
training in industry of our manual and commercial workers 
who must constitute a large fraction of our population. We 
are far behind the whole of Europe, England, Australia, 
and New Zealand in this respect. That is the reason so many 
of our skilled mechanics and other workers are imported 
from abroad. Fortunately within the past few years some 
of our educational agencies have been waking up to this 
problem so that what is probably the greatest deficiency 
in the educational development of the United States is now 
being given some attention. In consequence what to do 
with the boy who wants to become a really skilled mechanic 
is now being attacked through the industrial apprenticeship 
plan so well developed in other countries." 

The Engineers' Council for Professional Development is 
concerned with the organization of committees and en- 
gineers to counsel with high school boys as a community 
duty as well as a professional service. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 65 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1940 



General 

No organization can come through a war year such as 
1940 without having its normal activities seriously affected. 
Such a convulsion, world wide in its interest and influence, 
fraught with the greatest of consequences for all mankind, 
reaches down to the basis of civilization itself, and naturally 
touches everything man-made that has grown up out of that 
civilization. The very existence of societies such as the 
Institute — in fact of all societies — may depend upon their 
abilities to prove themselves specially useful in such na- 
tional emergencies and times of crises. 

In reporting to the membership on another year's activi- 
ties, Council has these facts seriously in mind, and is happy 
to record a twelve months period of unusual activity, 
special services and continued success. There remain many 
things to do — some of them already under way and others 
just emerging from the planning stage and doubtless others 
not yet conceived, before this Institute will be rendering 
its maximum of service to its members and to its country. 
Council acknowledges the favourable position to render 
national service, in which the Institute now finds itself; 
and is confident that with the continued and perhaps in- 
creased support of the members, much can be done that 
will be of material assistance in the conduct of the war. 

Branch Activities 

A perusal of the reports of branches which are appended 
to this report will indicate a successful year in each of the 
twenty-five separate organizations. The programme of 
papers has been excellent, and in several instances innova- 
tions have been introduced which have added materially to 
the general interest. Some branches have shown substan- 
tially increased activity both in their programmes and in 
their acquisitions of new members. It is not necessary to 
mention any branch specifically as all have set up a splendid 
record, and their activities are reported separately herein. 

Visits to Branches 

The president visited branches in all zones except the 
Maritimes. It was part of his original plan to call at branches 
from coast to coast, but the increased demands upon his 
time brought about by the great emergency and industrial 
expansion made it necessary to curtail the programme. This 
has been a disappointment to the branches that were 
omitted, but it has been an even greater disappointment to 
the president. In all, the president visited fourteen branches. 

The general secretary made thirty visits to branches in- 
cluding Halifax and Victoria. 

There was also considerable visiting of councillors and 
officers between branches, a conspicuous example of this 
being the visit of Councillors Vance of London and McLeod 
of Montreal to the western branches in the company of the 
president. Past President Lefebvre of Montreal was also a 
member of this party. The value of the exchange of speakers 
between branches and the visits between members and 
officers cannot be over-estimated. It is to be hoped that 
every member will take advantage of any such opportunity 
that is presented, as in this way the life of branches is con- 
siderably stimulated. 

Council Meetings 

Council held eleven meetings including three away from 
Headquarters. All meetings were well attended, and it was 
very gratifying to see so many out of town councillors 
present. The interest shown in the regional meetings would 
seem to justify the continuation of this practice. These 
meetings were held at the following ■branches and the 
bracketted figures show the attendances, including guests 
as well as councillors: Toronto (55), Windsor (33), Calgary 
(39). 



Co-operation 

In addition to the co-operation mentioned later under "In- 
ternational Relations" considerable progress has been made 
on "domestic" co-operation. This falls into two classifica- 
tions (a) that with provincial professional associations, and 
(b) that with other engineering institutes. 

Under "a" there are two agreements to be recorded. In 
January, President McKiel and the general secretary 
visited Halifax to participate in the ceremony of signing 
the co-operative agreement with the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Nova Scotia. This has been operative 
throughout the year, and already has gone a long way 
towards "total" co-operation for the engineers of Nova 
Scotia. 

The other agreement was signed in December, at Cal- 
gary, between the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Alberta and the Institute. President Hogg was the Insti- 
tute's senior signing officer and was also the principal 
speaker at the joint dinner which marked the occasion. 
This agreement became effective in January 1941 and is 
expected to do much for the profession in that province. 

Acknowledgment is made of the courtesies and aid 
afforded the Institute by the officers of both these provin- 
cial bodies. The consummation of the agreements is due 
entirely to the tireless and intelligent efforts of these officers 
associated with the Institute officers within the province. 
The breadth of vision and the sincerity of purpose in both 
cases is exceedingly commendable. 

Under "b" there is to be considered the relationships 
with other engineering bodies in Canada. Based on a desire 
for genuine co-operation between all engineers, every effort 
has been made to retain close relationships with other 
engineering organizations. Beyond a doubt common in- 
terests should promote common efforts, and common efforts 
should produce that community of spirit which is so desir- 
able throughout the profession. Two common interests have 
developed out of the war to produce common efforts that 
have brought all engineering bodies much closer together. 
These are the registration of technical personnel in Canada 
which was carried out with the co-operation of fifteen 
organizations, and the evacuee proposal which has been 
referred to elsewhere. It has been not only interesting but 
pleasant to work with these other societies, and it is to be 
hoped that the co-operation thus developed will find many 
more problems that will permit the continuation of this 
splendid spirit. The two Institutes which have been most 
closely associated with the Engineering Institute in these pro- 
posals are the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy and the Canadian Institute of Chemistry. 

By-Law Changes 

The abolition of the grade of Associate Member was 
accomplished with very little disturbance to the usual 
routine. The ballot authorizing the change was one of the 
most emphatic that has been recorded, and there appears 
to be no doubt but that the simplification in nomenclature 
was strongly desired by the membership. Thus the way to 
further co-operation with provincial professional associa- 
tions has been simplified. 

International Relations 

It is doubtful if the Institute ever has been more closely 
associated with engineering societies in England and the 
United States, than it is at the end of 1940. Several circum- 
stances have brought this to pass. The close relationships and 
the new contacts established through the negotiations and 
arrangements for the ill-fated British American Engineering 



66 



February, % 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Congress in the fall of 1939 were carried forward to last 
year, and were further augmented by similar negotiations 
leading up to the organization established in Canada for 
the care of children of English engineers who might desire 
to send them here for the duration. These plans, like those 
for the engineering congress, were never put to the test due 
to the heinous methods of the Hun who ruthlessly destroyed 
the children rather than permit them sanctuary in Canada. 

The one good thing that has already come out of all these 
negotiations is the closer relationship between the societies. 
The Institute in company with the other Canadian organiza- 
tions that were associated in the evacuee proposals, has 
made many friends in the Old Country, and numerous 
letters have been received testifying to the warmth of the 
new relationships and expressing the desire that they should 
be continued and extended. 

Our good neighbours to the south have continued their 
beneficial interest in our organization and have done much 
to reduce the international boundary to its mere geographic 
significance. The attendance of the chief officers of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers and the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers at our Annual Meeting in 
Toronto was greatly appreciated, as it has always been. 
The assistance received from the executive officers of these 
societies has been of great value and, in company with the 
interest of the chief officers, has promoted very close re- 
lationships between the organizations — a matter of more 
than usual importance in these days of threatened agression, 
when understanding and co-ordination are so necessary if 
we are to preserve the precious privileges of life in North 
America. 

Engineering Council for Professional Development 

Certainly one of the most significant events of the year 
was the acceptance of the Institute's application for mem- 
bership in the Engineers' Council for Professional Develop- 
ment (E.C.P.D.). This body is made up of the leading 
technical societies in the United States and has a most 
significant programme for the development of the profes- 
sional spirit in engineering, and for the guidance and assist- 
ance of young engineers. Its field of influence is increasing 
constantly and beyond a doubt the welfare of the individual 
engineer and the entire profession will be greatly and favour- 
ably affected by it in the future. The Institute is happy to 
associate itself with its sister societies in carrying out such 
a splendid work. 

Voluntary Service Registration Bureau 

One of the most far-reaching proposals with which the 
Institute has been associated is the register of technically 
trained men, which was undertaken late in 1938 at the 
request of the Department of National Defence, and in 
association with the Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy and the Canadian Institute of Chemistry. In 
1939 these records were turned over to the Voluntary Ser- 
vice Registration Bureau, and were designated the "tech- 
nical section" of that bureau. During 1940 the Joint Com- 
mittee of Secretaries made several endeavours to have more 
use made of these records but in spite of appeals to various 
officials who it was thought would be interested, no changes 
were made, and in the opinion of the committee the great 
volume of vitally important information continued to be 
neglected. 

Just at the close of the year, an approach to the Institutes 
was made and there is now the possibility that new and 
increased avenues of national service may be opened up. 
If arrangements now under discussion are completed a great 
responsibility will fall on the shoulders of these three 
national bodies, which will require the loyal and active 
support of every member. 

Radio Programme 

An innovation was added to the year's normal pro- 
rgamme, in the form of a series of six trans-Canada broad- 



casts arranged by the Radio Committee. The speakers were 
all prominent members of the Institute and, each spoke on 
a phase of engineering in which he was specially qualified. 
Reports from members and from the Canadian Broadcast- 
ing Corporation indicate that the series was well received, 
and made a real contribution to the "literature of the air" 
for 1940. 

Annual Meeting 

A review of the year's activities would not be complete 
without special comment on the conduct of the Annual 
Meeting held in Toronto. From every angle the meeting 
was a real success, and Council is particularly appreciative 
of the policy adopted by the committee whereby the cost 
to the Institute was so substantially reduced. The quality 
of the papers and discussions was excellent; the luncheon 
speakers were unusually interesting and the principal of 
McGill University as special guest at the banquet provided 
a thought provoking discussion on a timely and interesting 
topic. Toronto certainly maintained its reputation of doing 
things well. 

Finances 

It is a source of much gratification to the Finance Com- 
mittee that in spite of war conditions, the auditors state- 
ment for the year shows that both income and expenditure 
are slightly more favourable than last year. Actually the 
committee had budgetted for the reverse of this. The report 
of the committee and of the treasurer are appended and 
both refer with satisfaction to the annual statement. Great 
credit is due the Finance Committee for its conservative 
budget and its actual handling of the Institute finances. 

Headquarters 

There have been few changes in the personnel of the 
Headquarters staff. With the increase in membership and 
the assumption of additional activities, an increase in the 
volume of work has developed but this has been handled 
without any increase in staff. The entire organization has 
participated in an unusually heavy year, and has rendered 
an excellent service which is appreciated by Council. 

The general secretary and his assistant have endeavoured 
to attend branch meetings as frequently as possible. This 
has resulted in an increased number of visits, and it is hoped 
that this practice can be maintained throughout the coming 
year. 

Roll of the Institute 

The membership of all classes now totals 5,120— the 
highest figure in fifteen years. The year 1940 saw the 
addition of 436 names to the roll, although deaths, resigna- 
tions and removals reduced this to a net gain of 307. It is 
heartening to see a substantial increase in the student mem- 
bership, and to note the increased number of transfers to 
higher classifications. If this acceleration can be maintained 
for one more year, the total of membership will reach a 
a new all time "high." The details are submitted herewith. 

During the year 1940, four hundred and thirty-six candi- 
dates were elected to various grades in the Institute. These 
were classified as follows: one hundred and forty Members; 
eleven Associate Members; fifty-four Juniors; two hundred 
and five Students, and twenty-six Affiliates. The elections 
during the year 1939 totalled three hundred and fifty-four. 

Transfers from one grade to another were as follows: 
Associate Member to Member, three; Junior to Member, 
twenty-five; Student to Member, nineteen; Junior to 
Associate Member, six; Student to Associate Member, 
twelve; Student to Junior, eighty-seven, a total of one 
hundred and fifty-two. 

The names of those elected or transferred are published 
in the Journal each month immediately following the elec- 
tion. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



67 



Removals from the Roll 



TREASURER'S REPORT 



There have been removed from the roll during the year 
1940, for non-payment of dues and by resignation, forty- 
eight Members; twelve Associate Members; thirteen Juni- 
ors; twenty-two Students, and three Affiliates, a total of 
ninety-eight. Twenty reinstatements were effected, and 
sixteen Life Memberships were granted. 

Deceased Members 

During the year 1940 the deaths of fifty members of the 
Institute have been reported as follows: 

Honorary Member 
Tweedsmuir, The Right Honourable Lord 



Members 



Ashworth, John Kershaw 
Baldwin, Robert Archer 
Barnum, John Baylor 
Barr, Shirely 
Bertrand, J. N. Têtu 
Bridges, Frederick 
Burpee, David William 
Carson, William Harvey 
Cartmel, William Bell ' 
Chambers, Edward 

Coulthurst Gibbons 
Chapman, Walter Peck 
Evans, Edward Arthur 
Gates, Archibald Bland 
Gzowski, Casimir Stanislaus 
Hay, Alexander Loudon 
Howard, Stuart 
Jamieson, James A. 
Johnston, John Thomas 
Macdonald, Arthur Cameron 
Mackenzie, Howard Archibald 



MacPherson, Duncan 
McCulloch, Andrew Lake 
McNab, James Veitch 
McRae, John Bell 
Mitchell, Samuel Phillips 
Monsarrat, Charles Nicholas 
Naish, Theodore Edward 
Ogilvie, William Morley 
Owens, Edward James 
Palmer, Robert Kendrick 
Paterson, Alexander Wilson 
Potter, Alexander 
Routly, Herbert Thomas 
Sabourin, Alexandre Georges 
Salter, Ernest Milton 
Seymour, Horace Llewellyn 
Smart, Valentine Irving 
Smith, Frank Lawrence 
White, James Alexander Gordon 
Wilgar, William Percy 



Associate Members 



Bright, David Mussen 
Gordon, James Lindsay 
Logan, William Allison 
McColl, Samuel Ebenezer 



Allan, Robert Gage 



Sammett, Matthew Alexander 
Shearer, George Wyman 
Woods, Joseph Edward 



Students 

Lalonde, Jean A. 



Total Membership 



The membership of the Institute as at December 31st, 
1940, totals five thousand, one hundred and twenty. The 
corresponding number for the year 1939 was four thousand, 
eight hundred and thirteen. 

1939 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 1,057 

Associate Members 2,287 

Juniors 496 

Students 914 

Affiliates 43 

4,813 
1940 

Honorary Members 15 

Members 3,465 

Juniors 588 

Students 985 

Affiliates 67 



5,120 



Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council, 
T. H. Hogg, m.e.i.c, President. 
L. Austin Wright, m.e.i.c., General Secretary. 



The President and Council: 

It is gratifying to see that notwithstanding our war effort 
plus the losses the Institute has sustained due to war service, 
the financial statement is still better than last year. 

Care should be taken to conserve our resources through 
these favourable years, as it is possible that a prolonged war 
or a sudden cessation of hostilities may affect our financial 
position seriously. 

Unfortunately, the recent damage to our building by 
settlement will necessitate spending a sum considerably 
larger than anticipated, but I feel confident that the mem- 
bership at large will be willing to give some special help. 

Evidently the Institute should have a much larger 
amount laid aside for depreciation on the building. 

Respectfully submitted, 

deGaspé Beaubien, m.e.i.c, Treasurer. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The statement of revenue and expenditure for the past 
year, which is presented herewith, reflects a continuation of 
the healthy growth of the previous year, and of the keen 
interest being maintained by the branches in Institute 
affairs. The revenue and expenditures have been main- 
tained at practically the same level as 1939, again reflecting 
the loyal co-operation of the general secretary and the 
Headquarters staff, as well as the executive officers of the 
various branches. 

The balance of revenue over expenditures will liquidate 
the moneys borrowed some time ago from the special funds, 
so that the incoming Finance Committee will commence 
work with a clean sheet. It has also been recommended by 
your committee that the sum of $1,000.00 be placed in 
reserve for building maintenance. Recent events have 
shown this to be imperative, and it should be continued in 
the future, whenever conditions permit. 

Particular mention should be made of the policy of the 
Toronto Branch in assuming a much larger portion of the 
cost of the Annual Meeting than is ordinarily taken by a 
branch. This action has materially assisted the Finance 
Committee in rendering a favourable report for the year. 

The recognition of the Institute in public affairs and by 
our sister societies to the south during the past year is an 
indication of our outstanding position in the country, and 
it behooves us to give our full and continued financial 
support to all its activities. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

During the year your committee has made one or two 
changes in the Journal, the most important of which we 
think is the substituting of our Month-to-Month page for 
Editorial Comment. In view of the nature of our organiza- 
tion it was found difficult to maintain a sufficiently interest- 
ing editorial comment without the danger of introducing 
controversial matter. It was, therefore, considered wise to 
discontinue the practice of editorials as a regular feature 
and to substitute our Month-to-Month column, in which is 
included news of the affairs of the Institute and engineering 
matters of general interest to the membership. 

Your committee has frequently to consider papers of 
importance which are too long and too expensive to publish 
in the Journal. One of these was "Some Developments in 
Alloys During the Last Twenty Years," by O. W. Ellis, 
and your committee decided to print this as a supplement. 
This was made available to the members and published at 
a moderate charge, and at the same time was reviewed in 



68 



February, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the Journal. The immediate response to this has not been 
entirely satisfactory but it is felt that if the practice of 
publishing a few of these a year were continued that the 
membership would become acquainted with the idea and 
that it might become more popular. 

As will have been noticed we have also instituted the 
practice of using a photograph on the cover page, which we 
feel has made an improvement in the general appearance. 

Frequently we have referred papers to various members 
to obtain their opinion on the value for publication, and we 
wish to thank them for their kind co-operation. We also 
wish to acknowledge the assistance of the secretary emeritus, 
whose work on the Journal is invaluable. 
Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. McLeod, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PAPERS COMMITTEE 

The President and Council : 

The activities of the Papers Committee during the past 
year were somewhat curtailed by the fact that most of the 
members are very busy as the result of the war. It was 
finally considered advisable not to arrange meetings to 
accommodate the itinerary of speakers visiting various 
branches. However, the branches have been active with 
meetings. They have had good speakers and interesting 
and instructive papers. 

There has been a marked increase in the visits of members 
to other branches and inter-branch meetings. 

During the year, the Papers Committee, wherever pos- 
sible, has promoted more direct contacts between branches. 
It is found difficult to maintain an effective clearing house 
at Headquarters or any other point to assist with speakers, 
papers, films and branch programmes in general. A more 
direct exchange of ideas between branch secretaries and 
other branch executives is advocated. By broader exchange 
of notice-of-meeting cards, by invitations to near-by 
branches and by travelling engineers visiting other branches, 
a healthy impetus can be given to the activities of the 
Institute. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James A. Vance, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON THE TRAINING AND WELFARE 
OF THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

The President and Council: 

Subsequent to the submission of the last annual report, 
as published on pages 70 and 71 of the February, 1940, 
Journal, several members of the Committee met informally 
at the time of the 1940 Annual Meeting at Toronto. We 
agreed on the need for the continuance of our investigations 
along the lines already adopted. 

The Committee had the opportunity of presenting its 
findings to a very largely attended meeting of Council in 
Toronto, on February 7th, 1940, when constructive sugges- 
tions were offered by leading educationalists present. The 
incoming Council authorized the re-appointment of the 
Committee, and it has continued its studies. 

Branch Activities 

The Institute branches were circularized on April 9th, 
1940, to ascertain, generally, what activities were carried 
out especially for the younger members, and what sugges- 
tions could be offered. The replies received were encouraging, 
and on July 8th, a circular was issued to the branches, 
through the general secretary, urging: 

(a) More attention to the preparation of papers for the 
prizes available to Students and Juniors, and the need for 
additional prizes. 

(b) The organization of Junior Sections in the larger 
branches, and Young Engineer Committees in all other 
branches, to stimulate activities among the young men, and 



to improve the contacts with University students and 
Faculties. 

(c) The encouragement of self-development groups for 
the study of technical, cultural and economic subjects. 

(d) The necessity for maintaining the dignity, the social 
and cultural standards of the profession, as an example for 
the younger men. 

Members of the Committee have addressed the branches 
on the young engineer problem, and the discussions have 
indicated a continuing interest. 

Student Selection and Guidance 

Our attention has been directed to the preparation of a 
suitable brochure for prospective engineering students, 
their parents and teachers. We were ready to proceed with 
this, when Council decided to apply for association with 
our American friends in the Engineer's Council for Pro- 
fessional Development. 

The E.C.P.D. was then preparing a revision of its booklet 
"Engineering — A Career — A Culture." The proofs were 
forwarded to this Committee and certain changes were 
suggested to make it more suitable for Canadian distribu- 
tion. 

After the Institute was regularly admitted to membership 
in the E.C.P.D., the final proofs were edited and the new 
booklet "Engineering As A Career," will be published 
shortly. This will be available for distribution by the 
E.I.C. It is possible that this Committee may propose the 
preparation of a small pamphlet for distribution with this 
booklet, giving more information for Canadian students. 

Members of your Committee have discussed student 
guidance with educationalists, and we are definitely aware 
that the Institute can give leadership in this important 
phase of engineering education. We shall discuss this matter 
at the meeting, in February, 1941, when a definite pro- 
gramme will be adopted. 

Engineers' Council for Professional Development 

The action of the Institute in applying for membership 
in the E.C.P.D., and the formal acceptance of that applica- 
tion on October 24th last, will make available to your Com- 
mittee the information gained by that body in the study of 
similar problems in the United States. It is a pleasure to be 
permitted to associate with them in the activities of their 
several committees. 

The E.I.C. and the Adaptation of the Young 
Engineer to the Profession 

There is an indication that many of the branches of the 
Institute are extending their activities among the younger 
engineers. It is expected that evidence of these activities will 
be presented at the Annual Meeting. 

Your Committee is following, closely, the progress being 
made by the E.C.P.D. Committee on Professional Training. 
Their findings indicate that success in this field will depend 
on the skill, patience and enthusiasm of the older members 
of the profession who are willing to give their time to this 
problem. 

The Young Engineer and the War 

Some members have suggested that the work of this Com- 
mittee might be suspended during the war period. They 
base their conclusions on the fact that engineers generally 
should devote their spare time to furthering the war effort, 
and that many young engineers are in the several services. 

These conditions do exist, but it should be noted that we 
are part of a rapidly changing social order, in which the 
engineer must play a more active part. Young men are 
entering the profession each year, despite the war, and 
many others are passing from the secondary schools to the 
universities for training. 

It will be recalled that some of the branches of this 
Institute were organized during and just following the 
last war, despite the fact that many of our members were on 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



69 



active service. It is our opinion that we must be ready to 
assume a greater obligation to society after this war is over, 
as then the studies of this Committee will be increasingly 
valuable, and their conclusions more definitely necessary. 

Plenary Meeting 

Your Committee appreciates the action of Council in 
making it possible to convene a plenary meeting at the 
Annual Meeting in Hamilton. Questions which have been 
studied will be thoroughly discussed and our conclusions 
will be presented to the Annual Meeting, at the afternoon 
session, on Thursday, February 6th, 1941. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Harry F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LIBRARY AND HOUSE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee reports as follows. The Committee was 
continued with the same personnel as during the previous 
year. It met on four occasions in the last half of the year. 

Early in the summer a crack appeared in the masonry of 
the rear wall of headquarters building and this developed 
slowly. There was no danger involved, but developments 
were watched and during the fall the matter was considered. 



We reported to Council and were authorized to spend 
$150.00 to investigate conditions and bring in definite 
recommendations. 

Test pits were excavated and we recommended the under- 
pinning of the auditorium section in whole or in part. 
Council authorized the Committee to prepare detailed plans 
on the basis of using open caissons or piers. They decided 
that the general situation warranted the underpinning of 
the whole building at one time rather than face the prob- 
ability that all of the work would have to be done sooner 
or later and that there might be further cracking and 
damage to the superstructure if a part of the work was 
delayed. Council authorized the signature to a contract on 
whatever basis the House Committee and Finance Com- 
mittee might jointly agree. They also arranged for the 
Finance Committee to suggest ways and means of providing 
necessary funds. 

Tenders were called and received shortly after Christmas. 
The contract was awarded to A. F. Byers & Company 
Limited, who were the lowest bidders. The work at present 
is almost 50 per cent complete. Conditions uncovered during 
construction have confirmed the information and deductions 
provided by the test holes. 

The above item has been the only major item of work 
and as it represents a considerable expenditure for the 
Institute, other minor points have been delayed. Small 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 
For the Year Ended 31st December 



Revenue 



1940 



Membership Fees: 

Arrears $ 3,332.75 



Current . 
Advance . 
Entrance . 



26,295.10 

505.21 

2,238.00 



1939 

5 3,459.52 

26,581.91 

406.11 

1,894.00 



$32,371.06 $32,341.54 



Publications: 

Journal Subscriptions and Sales $ 7,539.39 $ 7,390.68 

Journal Advertising 13,566.35 13,660.24 



$21,105.74 $21,050.92 



Income from Investments. 
Refund of Hall Expense. 
Sundry Revenue 



$ 458.93 

465.00 

66.80 



457.89 

520.00 

5.60 



Total Revenue for Year $54,467.53 $54,375.95 



Expenditure 



Building Expense: 

Property and Water Taxes 

Fuel 

Insurance 

Light, Gas and Power 

Caretaker's Wages and Services . 
House Expense and Repairs 



1940 

2,074.28 
557.28 
120.36 
329.15 
878.00 
385.74 



1939 

2,020.56 
492.25 
229.67 
311.05 
913.00 
766.59 



$ 4,344.81 $ 4,733.12 



Publications: 

Journal Salaries and Expense . 
Sundry Printing 



$16,483.47 $15,244.69 
494.23 457.40 



$16,977.70 $15,702.09 



Office Expense: 

Salaries 

Telephone, Telegrams and Postage . . . 

Office Supplies and Stationery 

Audit and Legal Fees 

Messenger and Express 

Miscellaneous 

Depreciation — Furniture and Fixtures. 



General Expense: 

Annual and Professional Meetings . 

Meetings of Council 

Travelling 

Branch Stationery 

Students Prizes 

E.I.C. Prizes 

Gzowski Medal 

Library Salary and Expense 

Interest, Discount and Exchange. . 
Examinations and Certificates 

Committee Expenses 

National Construction Council 
Sundry 



$12,420.57 

1,901.04 

1,557.36 

290.00 

89.59 

430.25 

370.87 



$12,534.07 

1,848.45 

1,094.11 

250.00 

93.79 

555.74 

368.70 



$17,059.68 $16,744.86 



1,284.39 

612.32 

1,693.51 

194.58 

58.71 

250.00 

34.50 

999.92 

149.57 

84-4* 

255.65 

50.00 

61.00 



2,316.89 

449.62 

1,244.01 

242.06 

46.35 

286.25 

34.50 

1,056.36 

181.45 

22.75 

167.08 

100.00 

92.15 



$ 5,559.73 $ 6,289.47 



Rebates to Branches $ 6,304.00 $ 6,695.48 



Total Expenditure $51,245.92 $50,165.02 

Surplus for Year 3,221.61 4,210.93 



$54,467.53 $54,375.95 



70 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



repairs were made to the roof over the caretaker's quarters. 
There are one or two minor repairs yet to be done in this 
section of the building. It will also be necessary to repair 
the plaster and do some re-decorating in the auditorium 
during the coming year after all possible settlement due to 
shifting loads has been completed. 

The photographs of all past general secretaries of the 
Institute have been placed in the library as authorized last 
year. 

The library has been used about the same as last year. It 
it hoped that the necessary clearing out of the basement to 
permit the construction work being carried out will provide 
an opportunity to rearrange the physical set-up of the 
library accommodations to the advantage of the Institute 
and the staff. 

The Committee would like particularly to acknowledge 
the interest and support of Messrs. Jamieson, Lalonde and 
McCrory who were called in to assist in connection with 
the discussions about underpinning the building. These 
special appointments to the personnel of the House Com- 
mittee were made at the suggestion of Council when this 
work was authorized. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Bryan R. Perry, Chairman 



COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

The President and Council: 

It is the considered opinion of your committee that the 
external relations of the Institute have been strengthened 
and extended during the year. 

The entry of the Institute into constituent membership 
of the Engineers' Council for Professional Development is an 
event which should greatly increase the Institute's ability 
to render service to the engineering profession. The com- 
mittee believes that the consistent policy of the Council in 
maintaining as close and continuous a connection as pos- 
sible with the Founder Societies of the United States is in 
the best interests of Canadian engineers, and it notes with 
appreciation that opportunities have been afforded the 
general secretary to confer with the secretariat of these 
societies. 

Although the preoccupation of the engineering Institu- 
tions of Great Britain in the present crisis has hindered 
further development of fraternal relationships between 
them and the Institute, the committee believes that no 
better opportunity for serving these institutions is open to 
the Institute than the chance to look after their members' 
families who may find sanctuary in Canada. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. R. Fairbairn, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
As at 31st December 



Assets 




Current: 1940 


1939 


Cash on hand and in Bank .... $ 2,043.18 


$ 432.38 


Accounts Receivable $2,732.60 




Less: Reserve for Doubtful Ac- 




counts 136.17 2,596.43 


3,059.76 


Arrears of Fees — Estimated. . . . 2,500.00 


2,500.00 



Special Funds — Investment Account: 

Investments $9,260.14 

Cash in Savings Accounts 4,422.25 



Investments at Cost: 

$4,000 Dominion of Canada, 

4^%, 1959 $4,090.71 

200 Dominion of Canada, 

43^2%, 1958 180.00 

100 Dominion of Canada, 

4M%, 1946 96.50 

1,000 Montreal Tramwavs, 

5%, 1941 ! 950.30 

2,000 Montreal Tramways, 

5%, 1955 2,199.00 

500 Province of Saskatchewan, 

5%, 1959 502.50 

2 Shares Canada Perman't 

Mortgage Corporation 215.00 
40 Shares Montreal Light, 

Heat & Power, N.P.V. 324.50 



$ 7,139.61 $ 5,992.14 



13,682.39 13,881.82 



Advance Travelling Expenses 

Advances to Branches 

Deposit — Postmaster 

Prepaid and Deferred Expenses 

Gold Medal 

Library — At cost less depreciation 

Furniture and Fixtures — At cost less de- 
preciation 

Land and Buildings — At cost 



8,558.51 

100.00 

100.00 

700.00 

45.00 

1,448.13 

3,414.33 
91,495.22 



8,558.51 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
804.23 
45.00 

1,448.13 

3,708.75 
91,495.22 



$126,683.19 $126,233.80 



Current: 

Accounts Payable 

Rebates due Branches 

Amount due Special Funds . 
Library Deposit 



Liabilities 



1940 
2,321.54 
641.81 



1939 
2,494.13 

722.03 

3,314.98 

5.00 



Special Funds: 

As per Statement attached 

Reserve for Building Maintenance 

Surplus Account: 

Balance as at 1st Jan., 1940.. $105,465.84 
Add: Excess of Revenue over 
Expenditure as per 
Statement attached. 3,221.61 



$ 2,963.35 $ 6,536.14 



13,682.39 
1,350.00 



13,881.82 
350.00 



108,687.45 105,465.84 



$126,683.19 $126,233.80 



Audit Certificate 

We have audited the books and vouchers of The Engineering Institute of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1940, and have 
received all the information we required. In our opinion, the above Statement of Assets and Liabilities and the attached Statement of 
Revenue and Expenditure for 1940 are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the Institute's affairs as at 31st 
December, 1940, and of its operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of our information and the explanations given to us 
and as shown by the books. 

(Sgd.) Ritchie, Brown & Co., 
Montreal, 20th January, 1941. Chartered Accountants. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



71 



COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

The President and Council: 

Much progress has been made during 1940 in promoting 
the declared policy of the Institute — close co-operation with 
the provincial professional associations. At Calgary, on 
December 14th, 1940, the president and the general 
secretary signed an agreement with the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Alberta which should go a long 
way to clarify and simplify the organization of the profes- 
sion in the province of Alberta. 

Active negotiations are under way with the Association of 
Professional Engineers of the Province of New Brunswick 
which promise an early and satisfactory conclusion. 

It is expected that the discussion the committee has had 
with the officials of the Institute in the province of Manitoba 
will result in a basis for an agreement between the Institute 
and the Association of Professional Engineers of the Prov- 
ince of Manitoba that can be brought to fruition before 
long. 

The relationship between the Institute and the Corpora- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Quebec continues very 
close and friendly. No attempt has as yet been made to 
evolve a formal agreement between the two bodies. 

The results in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia indicate 
that the co-operative agreements in those provinces are 
working out in the best interests of the profession. 

Your committee notes with satisfaction that in Ontario 
and British Columbia there are many evidences of an in- 
creased interest on the part of the profession in general 
regarding the aspirations of both the Institute and the 
Associations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i. a, Chairman. 

LEGISLATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council : 

In view of the fact that no issues involving Institute 
legislation developed during the year, there remained no 
work for the committee to do. Doubtless this is a healthy 
sign, for the work of the committee is similar to the work of 
the lawyer of which the average citizen avails himself only 
when in trouble. 

The committee would have been very happy to be of 
assistance had any issue arisen, but rejoices with the rest of 
the membership in the fact that there were no legislative 
difficulties to detract from the year's operations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Clakk Keith, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

RADIO BROADCASTING COMMITTEE 

The President and Council : 

Your Committee was appointed in February last, in 
order to arrange for a series of Dominion-wide broadcasts 
indicating the contribution being made by the engineers of 
this country toward the national war effort. 

At first there was some uncertainty as to the possibility 
of giving the broadcasts, due to war conditions, but later 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation was able to allot 
six suitable fifteen-minute periods. Your Committee met 
on August 29th and drew up a tentative programme which 
was approved by the C.B.C., on September 5th. It was 
arranged that six addresses should be delivered on con- 
secutive Wednesdays at 7.45 p.m. Eastern Daylight Saving 
Time, beginning October 16th. 

Invitations were accordingly issued to the speakers on 
September 11th, and although these outstanding engineers 
were already occupied in work for the national emergency, 
all undertook this additional effort, in the interests of the 
Institute. Appreciating this fine co-operation, your Com- 



mittee would ask that Council extend to the speakers of 
this series the thanks of their fellow-members, of the 
Institute, with compliments on the fine results attained. 

The speakers and their subjects were as follows: — 
Oct. 16th — T. H. Hogg, ce., D.Eng., (Toronto), President 

of The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Engineers in the War. 
Oct. 23rd — Dean C. J. Mackenzie, m.c, m.c.e., (Ottawa), 

Chairman, National Research Council. 
War Research — An Engineering Problem. 
Oct. 30th— Miss Elizabeth M. MacGill, m.s.e., (Fort 

William), Chief Aeronautical Engineer, Canada 

Car and Foundry Co. Ltd. 

Aircraft Engineering. 
Nov. 6th — Augustin Frigon, ce., d.sc, (Montreal), Assist- 
ant General Manager, Canadian Broadcasting 

Corporation. 

Radio in Canada. 
Nov. 13th — William D. Black, b.a.sc, (Hamilton), Presi- 
dent, Otis-Fensom Elevator Co. Ltd. 

Industrial Development in Canada to 

Meet the War Emergency. 
Nov. 20th — Armand Circé, (Montreal), ce., Dean of the 

Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal. 

The Training of Engineers at the Ecole 

Polytechnique. 
The Committee is grateful to the officers and secretaries 
of the Institute branches throughout the country for their 
active and effective co-operation in connection with news- 
paper publicity and the Branch notices calling attention to 
these addresses. 

Our thanks are also due to the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation for the use of its facilities and for many helpful 
suggestions; more especially to the Manager, Mr. W. Glad- 
stone Murray, the Assistant Manager, Dr. Augustin Frigon, 
and Mr. H. W. Morrison, the Supervisor of Talks. 

We would also thank the press throughout the country, 
and especially the Canadian Press for the publicity given 
the series. 

The general appreciation accorded to these talks has 
encouraged a good friend of the Institute to provide the 
funds necessary to print the series in a brochure for cir- 
culation to interested persons. We appreciate this favour 
very much. 

In the event of the Institute contemplating a similar 
undertaking in the future, we would recommend that the 
hour for the broadcasts should not be earlier than 10 p.m., 
Eastern Daylight Saving Time, in order that a more con- 
venient opportunity may be provided our members in the 
West to enjoy the programmes. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. McL. Pitts, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON DETERIORATION OF 
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee has continued during the year just past 
the policy of confining its efforts largely to studies of 
methods for the repair of concrete rather than to the causes 
of deterioration. To this end the committee has submitted 
to the Institute a paper "Concrete Repair Methods" 
prepared by one of its members, Mr. Claude Gliddon, 
m.e.i.c, describing methods developed by the Gatineau 
Power Company of which he is chief engineer, which were 
adopted after experimenting with other procedures. The 
paper is important, therefore, as a record of practical 
experience. 

At the present time, two other papers are being reviewed 
for publication in the Journal — one on Sea Water Repairs, 
and the other on the Effect of Natural Waters on Concrete. 



72 



February, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



A third has been promised on the recently completed repair 
of an important structure. 

The Committee thanks all those who have so generously 
given of their time to further its work, and welcomes sug- 
gestions both as to sources of data or reports on repair jobs 
which may be of interest to the Institute. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. B. Young, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee on membership has to report that the 
war restricted its normal activities to a very great extent. 
This restriction was caused by longer work hours and the 
absorption of its members in war work. 

Your committee has, however, endeavoured to start a 
system of registering guests attending Institute activities, 
especially Branch meetings, the registration being made 
either by signing a guest book or filling up a guest card. 

This registration is not aimed at preventing non-members 
from attending Institute functions but rather to make more 
apparent the value of membership in the E.I.C. 

Respectfully submitted, 

K. 0. Whyte, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND EDUCATION 

The President and Council: 

Your Board of Examiners and Education for the year 
1940 has had prepared and read the following examination 
papers with the results as indicated : 

Schedule B 

Number of Number 
Candidates Passing 
I. Elementary Physics and Me- 
chanics 4 3 

II. Strength and Elasticity of Mate- 
rials 4 2 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PAST PRESIDENTS' PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council : 

Your Committee on the Past-Presidents' Prize has care- 
fully read and considered the two papers entered in this 
competition this year. 

It is the opinion of your Committee that neither of these 
papers is of sufficiently high calibre to warrant awarding 
the Past-Presidents' Prize to its author. We therefore 
unanimously recommend that this prize be not awarded 
this year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. DeL. French, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

DUGGAN PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

In the opinion of the Committee appointed to consider 
the award of the Duggan Medal and Prize for the year 
1939-40, there were only two papers eligible for the prize. 

The members of the Committee are unanimous in recom- 
mending that the award be made to Mr. M. S. Layton for 
his paper on "Electric Welding." 

Mr. Layton's paper presented material of a useful and 
timely nature which, although possibly not entirely new to 
those specializing in this subject, affords a comprehensive 
survey of its recent developments. This should be of 
especial benefit to those engaged in the study and practice 
of modern structural engineering and consequently in- 



terested in all practical methods of carrying out the various 
operations incident thereto. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. P. Shearwood, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

GZOWSKI MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee takes pleasure in recommending 
unanimously that the award be made to Miss E. M. G. 
MacGill, m.e.i.c, for her paper "Factors Affecting Mass 
Production of Aeroplanes." 

The Committee desire to express themselves as being 
impressed with the large number of meritorious papers 
which were eligible for consideration, but feel that the 
author selected is specially entitled to this recognition of 
esteem from her fellow engineers. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. O. Wolff, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PLUMMER MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee has considered the various papers 
eligible for the Plummer Medal award for the current year. 
Mr. Harkom, as author of one of the papers under con- 
sideration, preferred not to take part in the voting, but the 
remaining members have voted unanimously for the award 
to be given to Mr. O. W. Ellis for his paper "Some develop- 
ments in alloys during the last twenty years." 

One of the Committee members has summed up very 
adequately the feeling of the Committee in saying: "The 
subject has been given masterly treatment and the paper is 
well written and comprehensive in scope. It is an excellent 
contribution to the literature on the more important alloys 
and should prove of lasting value, both to the engineer and 
the metallurgist." 

It should be noted that several of the Committee mem- 
bers also thought very well of Mr. Harkom's paper, as it 
reported original work done by the author. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. G. Green, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LEONARD MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee, consisting of Mr. Victor Dolmage, 
Mr. F. W. Gray, Professor W. G. McBride, Mr. George E. 
Cole, with myself as chairman, are unanimous in the opi- 
nion that the Leonard Medal for this year should be 
awarded to Mr. R. G. K. Morrison for his paper "Points 
of View on the Rock Burst Problem," published in the 
August, 1939, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining 
and Metallurgy. 

The Committee is of opinion that the paper is well 
written and shows much originality in its treatment of a 
difficult and important problem of deep mining. In dealing 
with the fundamental principles causing rock bursts in deep 
mines, the author, in advancing the theoretical aspects of 
the problem, balances these against his practical experience. 

The Committee, therefore, has much pleasure in recom- 
mending that the Engineering Institute of Canada grant the 
Leonard Medal to Mr. Morrison. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. D. Campbell, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

The reports of the examiners appointed in the various 
zones to judge the papers submitted for the prizes for 
Students and Juniors of the Institute were submitted to 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



73 



Council at its meeting on January 18th, 1941, and the 
following awards were made: 

H. N. Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces). No papers 
received. 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario), to W. C. 
Moull, s.E.i.c, for his paper "The Electrification of a 
Modern Strip Mill." 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec — English), to 
Léo Brossard, s.E.i.c, for his paper "Geology of the Beaufor 
Mine." 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec — French), to 
Marc R. Trudeau, s.E.i.c, for his paper "Points Fixes et 
Lignes d'Influence." 

Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces). No papers 
received. 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The President and Council: 

The comparative figures of placements effected by the 
Employment Service Bureau, during the past six years, are 
evidence of the greater activity displayed during 1940 in 
this department. 

1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 



77 110 181 61 88 147 

The work done during the year is summarized in the 
following table and the corresponding figures for 1939 are 
given for purposes of comparison. 

1939 1940 

Registered members 114 129 

Registered non-members 92 89 

Number of members advertising for positions. 76 41 

Replies received from employers 31 21 

Vacant positions registered 153 260 

Vacancies advertised in the Journal 50 43 

Replies received to advertised positions 219 143 

Men's records forwarded to prospective em- 
ployers 325 179 

Men notified of vacancies 310 178 

Placements definitely known 88 147 

Registered vacancies cancelled 6 2 

Registered vacancies still open 23 33 

It will be noted that the number of men registered with 
the Bureau during the year has been fairly high. It should 
be remembered that these figures do not include the number 
of applications revived from the inactive file. This heavy 
registration has involved the handling of an unusually high 
number of records and the interviewing of several men 
every day. 

Most of the members requiring the services of the Bureau 
were actually employed but they desired either to improve 
their position or to ensure that their qualifications were 
used to the best advantage in the present emergency. It is 
appropriate to mention here the unselfishness of several 
members who were willing to accept severe reductions of 
salaries provided they could serve in some position directly 
connected with the war effort. 

Graduating classes in the universities have readily been 
integrated into the 'profession and the comparatively small 
number of graduates registered with the Bureau during the 
year indicates that the majority had secured positions 
previous to graduation. 



The number of vacancies registered reflects the large 
demand for engineers in all branches. The enquiries came 
from industry and, in a larger measure than was usual 
before, from the various government departments. Personnel 
problems affecting the entire staff of new industries have 
been placed before the Bureau. 

With the first hand information contained in our employ- 
ment files it has been possible to effect several placements 
and to cause moves from non-essential industries to war 
services. The range goes from dollar-a-year positions to 
situations with stipends in the five figures. The activity of 
the Bureau has embraced work from Halifax to Vancouver. 

The facilities of the Employment Service have also been 
used extensively by the departments of government in the 
preparation of confidential reports which have ultimately 
led to placements in important positions. In this connection, 
it should be mentioned that Headquarters have received 
valuable assistance from the branches all over the country 
in securing accurate information. 

In several instances, the Bureau has issued special calls 
from the active services. The latest of these appeals came 
from the Royal Canadian Air Force for engineer officers, and 
was published in the Journal and circularized among the 
branches. Officials from the Department at Ottawa have 
expressed their pleasure at the splendid response received. 
If it had been possible to record the enlistments which have 
resulted from these calls, the placements figure would be 
substantially increased. 

It is felt that the Employment Bureau, within its field, 
has rendered a worthwhile service to the membership and 
to the country. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Chairman: R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c 
Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary H. B. LeBourveau 

Cape Breton S. C. Mifflen 

Edmonton C. E. Garnett 

Halifax LP. Macnab 

Hamilton W. J. W. Reid 

Kingston A. Jackson 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge C. S. Donaldson 

London V. A. McKillop 

Moncton R. H. Emmerson 

Montreal A. Duperron 

Niagara Peninsula A. W. F. McQueen 

Ottawa J. G. Macphail 

Peterborough W. M. Cruthers 

Quebec A. O. Duf resne 

Saguenay M. G. Saunders 

Saint John A. A. Turnbull 

St. Maurice Valley A. C. Abbott 

Saskatchewan A. M. Macgillivray 

SaultSte. Marie J. S. Macleod 

Toronto J. M. Oxley 

Vancouver E. Smith 

Victoria K. Moodie 

Winnipeg J. W. Sanger 



74 



February, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Reports from Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met eight times during the 
year for the transaction of branch business. 

Nine branch meetings were held during the year, includ- 
ing the annual meeting and the joint meeting of the Coun- 
cils of the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Ontario. 

Information on the various meetings follows, attendance 
being given in brackets: 

Jan. 12 — Joint meeting of the Border Cities Branch and the Detroit 
Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
Mr. Henry G. Weaver, Director of General Motors Cus- 
tomer Research Division spoke on Sampling Public 
Opinion. (133). 

Feb. 19 — Streamlining Industry with Electrical Control Equip- 
ment, by Geo. Chute of the General Electric Company, 
Detroit. (26). 

Mar. 15 — The Nickel Industry, by J. H. Clark of the International 
Nickel Company. (39). 

April 12 — Junior meeting. Maintenance of Boiler Control, by J. 
A. Ferrier, and The History, Production and Uses of 

Salt, by A. H. Pask. (26). 

May 11 — Meetings of the Councils of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada and Association of Professional Engineers of 
Ontario. Separate meetings were held during the forenoon 
followed by a joint luncheon. In the afternoon inspection 
trips were made to plants of the Canadian Bridge Com- 
pany and the Ford Motor Company, followed by a 
reception and banquet. (93). 

June 1 — Meeting in Sarnia. C. M. Baskin of Imperial Oil Limited 
spoke on Field Technology, A New Approach to 
Industrial Development. (37). 

Sept. 21 — Meeting in Chatham. An inspection of the plant of Libby, 
McNeil and Libby was followed by a dinner meeting at 
the William Pitt Hotel. T. V. Proctor and C. K. Rowland 
of Libby McNeil and Libby spoke on The Canning 
Industry. (49). 

Nov. r 15— Superfinish and Fluid Drive, by M. W. Pétrie, Chief of 
Production Research Department, Chfysler Division of 
Chrysler Corporation, Detroit. (37). 

Dec. 6 — Annual meeting and election of officers. Complimentary 
dinner to J. Clark Keith, Vice-President Zone B. A his- 
tory of the Branch was given by O. Rolfson, commemorat- 
ing the twenty-first anniversary of its formation. (25). 

Branch Photograph Album 

The Branch is indebted to Geo. A. McCubbin of Chat- 
ham, Ont., for reproducing photographs of members of the 
Branch and for presenting the Branch with two indexed 
albums of the photographs. 



CALGARY BRANCH 

The Branch held twelve meetings during the year. The 
following summary gives particulars. Attendances are shown 
in brackets. 

Jan. 11 — The Development of the Combustion Chamber of the 
Internal Combustion Engine, by Prof. A. E. Hardy. 

(53). 

Feb. 1 — Development of the North West Territories, by Dr. J. 

A. Allan. (61). 

Feb. 15— Engineering Law, by E. J. Chambers, K.C.. (60). 

Feb. 29 — Review of Survevs of Storage Projects in Southern 
Alberta, by W. L. Foss; Progress of P.F.R.A. Pro- 
gramme, by J. Vallance; and P.F.R.A. motion pictures, 
by M. L. Jacobson. (78). 

Mar. 9 — Annual meeting following luncheon. (35). 

May 14 — Ceramic Engineering, by Prof. W. G. Worcester. (46). 

Oct. 10 — Power Plants in Bolivia, a paper prepared by J. K. 
Sexton, of the Montreal Engineering Company, was pre- 
sented by G. Horspool. A smoker followed. (64). 



Note — For Membership and Financial 
Statements see pages 16 and 17. 



Oct. 24 — Problems encountered in the formation and opera- 
tion of the Trans-Canada Air Lines, by W. A. 

Straith. (36). 

Nov. 6 — Conservation, by R. E. Allen, Chairman of the Alberta 
Petroleums and Natural Gas Conservation Board. (40). 

Nov. 21 — Coal handling plant at the Murray Collieries Ltd., by 
A. Baxter; Some considerations in the design of 
castings, by L. R. Brereton; Standardization of 
paper sizes in Switzerland, by C. Lattman, and The 
importance of Economics to the Engineer, by the 
Rev. R. J. Donovan. 

Dec. 5 — Annual ladies night. Illustrated talk on familiar western 
Scenery, by S. R. Vallance. (80). 

Dec. 14— Annual joint dinner of the C.I.M. & M., A.P.E. and E.I.C. 
at which function the signing of the agreement between 
the Institute and the Association of Professional En- 
gineers took place. The president, Dr. T. H. Hogg, and 
many other visitors from East and West were present. 

During the year, the Branch Executive committee met 
nine times. 

CAPE BRETON BRANCH 

During the year, the Branch held three general meetings; 
the papers presented were as listed below: — 

Jan. 9 — Oxygen — its Fabrication and Service in Modern In- 
dustry, by F. G. Kerry, Canadian Liquid Air Co., 
Montreal. 

May 14 — Some New Sidelights on Refractories for the Coal 
and Steel Industries, by J. W. Craig, Canadian Re- 
fractories Ltd., Montreal. 

June 11 — Highway Engineering, by F. A. Crawley, Dept. of High- 
ways, Sydney, accompanied by moving pictures of high- 
way machines shown by R. F. McAlpine, of Wm. Stairs, 
Son & Morrow, Halifax. 

We were also pleased to have the General Secretary with 
us for a dinner meeting with the Executive Committee in 
April. Matters of general interest to the Institute were dis- 
cussed and particularly the agreement with the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 

During the past very successful year nine meetings were 
held, each preceded by a members' dinner. 

Programmes are listed below with attendance given in 
brackets. 

Jan. 10 — The Development of the Combustion Chamber of the 
Internal Combustion Engine, by E. A. Hardy, Pro- 
fessor of Agricultural Engineering, University of Sas- 
katchewan. (48). 

Feb. 9 — Soil Corrosion and Cathodic Pipe Protection, by F. A. 
Brownie, Canadian Western Natural Gas, Light, Heat 
and Power Co. Ltd., Calgary, Alta. (36). 

Mar. 12 — Modern Communication Channels, by W. Mason, 
Assistant Transmission and Equipment Engineer, Alberta 
Government Telephones (32). 

April 16 — Arctic Adventure. A colour motion picture of northern 
Canada photographed by Chairman C. E. Garnett (30). 

May 13 — Ceramics and the Ceramic Engineer, by W. G. Wor- 
cester, Professor of Ceramic Engineering, University of 
Saskatchewan (22). 

Oct. 11 — Design and Operation of Instrument Transformers, 
by Dr. J. M. Thomson, Vice President, American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers (40). 

Oct. 25 — Some Problems in the Establishment of a Modern 
Air Transportation System, by W. A. Straith, District 
Traffic Manager, Trans-Canada Air Lines, Winnipeg, 
Man. (42). 

Nov. 26 — Construction of a Large Eastern Industrial Plant, by 
W. E. Cornish, Department of Electrical Engineering, 
University of Alberta. Soil Mechanics and Founda- 
tion Engineering, by R. M. Hardy, Department of 
Civil Engineering, University of Alberta (49). 

Dec. 10 — Some Aspects of Oil Conservation in Alberta, by R. 
E. Allen, Chairman of the Petroleum and Natural Gas 
Conservation Board of Alberta (25). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



75 



The Executive Committee held five regular meetings and 
two luncheon meetings, one to meet the General Secretary 
and one for Professor W. G. Worcester who came from 
Saskatoon to address a general meeting of the Branch. 

E. O. Greening, m.e.i.c. and W. C. Wild, Jr. e. i.e., left 
Edmonton during the year to see active service with His 
Majesty's Forces. 

The Co-operative Agreement between the Engineering 
Institute of Canada and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Alberta has met with the approval of the mem- 
bers of both organizations. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 

Since the last annual meeting which was in the nature of 
a reception in honour of Dean McKiel, then president of 
the Institute, we have had four dinner meetings as follows: 

On February 29th at the Halifax Hotel, our guest speaker 
was Dean Vincent C. McDonald of Dalhousie University, 
who spoke on The Legal Aspects of Transportation in 
the Dominion. Following Dean McDonald's address and 
the usual discussions of its major topics, the retiring vice- 
president for the Maritimes, Mr. R. L. Dunsmore, gave an 
illuminating outline of the activities of the annual meeting 
of the Institute held in Toronto. Also at this meeting it was 
our extreme pleasure to present prizes to four senior 
students of the N.S. Technical College for papers sub- 
mitted at our November 1939 meeting. 

On April 22nd, also at the Halifax Hotel, we welcomed 
to our meeting, three representatives of the Headquarters 
of the Institute, three members whom we regard as old 
friends in the persons of Past President Dr. Challies, Mr. 
G. A. Gaherty and the Secretary, Mr. L. A. Wright. 
Addresses were given by all three guests, chiefly relative 
to problems arising from the co-operation of the E.I.C. 
and the Association of Professional Engineers. 

At the third meeting of our branch, held on October 23rd, 
our guest speaker was Mr. Bernard Allen, Chief Economist 
of Canadian National Railways, whose address on a 
subject of present day importance was well received and 
afforded the members ample scope for discussion. 

The Executive Council has had a particularly busy season 
and held ten regular meetings during this past year, also in 
addition one special meeting in August was held to meet 
with Mr. Harry F. Bennett, Chairman of the Young 
Engineer Committee, who outlined the aims and objects of 
his Committee. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held six business meetings 
with an average attendance of six members. 

Ten Branch meetings were held as follows, attendance 
being noted in brackets. 

Jan. 12 — Annual business meeting and dinner held at the Rock 
Lodge. The Historians Debt to the Engineer, by \V. 
A. Aitken. Chairman J. R. Dunbar closed the evening 
by introducing the incoming chairman, Alex. Love (58). 

Feb. 19 — Engineering in Puhlie Health Activities, by Dr. A. E. 
Berry, held at McMaster University (39). 

Mar. 12 — Development of the Tin Plate Industry, by W. D. 
Lamont, Chief Metallurgist, Dominion Foundries and 
Steel Co. Held at MacMaster University (42). 

April 12 — New Lighting Tools for To-morrow's Jobs, by Samuel 
G. Hibbins, Director of Applied Lighting, Westinghouse 
Electric and Mfg. Co., Bloomfield, X..I. Joint meeting of 
the Toronto Section, Illuminating Engineers Society, the 
Toronto Section, American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers and the Hamilton Branch of the Institute; held 
at the Canadian Westinghouse Auditorium (339). 

May 14 — Gypsum Limes and their Uses, by T. B. Buckley, 
Manager, Canadian Gypsum Company Ltd. Held at 
McMaster University (57). 

May 16 — Insulation and Condensation in Buildings, by W. W. 
Cullen, Chief Engineer, II. W. Johns-Manville Co. Held 
at McMaster University. Joint meeting with the Hamil- 
ton Chapter, Ontario Association of Architects, and the 
Hamilton Branch of the Institute (39). 



Sept. 20 — Branch members joined in a visit to the Shand Dam, 
during construction. Organized by the Grand Valley 
group of the Professional Engineers of Ontario. Dinner 
in evening at the Trails End Inn, Conistoga (70). 

Oct. 8 — The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, by 

Stuart Armour, Deputy to Minister of Air, Ottawa. Held 
at McMaster University (45) . 

Nov. 7 — Electricity at Work, by Phillips Thomas, Ph.D., of the 

Research Laboratories of the Westinghouse Electric and 
Mfg. Co., held in the Ball Room of the Royal Connaught 
Hotel. This was a joint meeting of the Advertising and 
Sales Club of Hamilton, the Hamilton Group of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the 
Hamilton Branch of the Institute (795). 

Dec. 16 — Students' Night in competition for the Branch prizes. 
Working Stresses in Machine Members, by L. D. 
Sentance, and The Effect of Wet Coal on Pulverisers 
and Boiler Performance, by M. D. Stewart. After the 
papers, Professor C. R. Youn?, of Toronto University 
gave an interesting talk, entitled The Engineer and 
the Technologist. Held at McMaster University (45). 

KINGSTON BRANCH 

The Branch met three times during the year. 

Jan. 18 — Dinner meeting at Students' Union. Immediate Past Chair- 
man, H. W. Harkness presided. Twenty-three members 
and four guests were present. Report of Executive meet- 
ing on December 8, 1939, presented. Minutes of last 
meeting approved. The Secretary read a copy of a letter 
from the General Secretary of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada to Colonel Alexander Macphail, informing 
Colonel Macphail that, at the last meeting of the Council, 
he was made a Life Member of the Institute. Other cor- 
respondence read. Increase of membership noted. Dr. E. 
L. Bruce, Miller Memorial Research Professor, Depart- 
ment of Geology, Queen's University, gave a very in- 
teresting illustrated lecture on Finland and the Inter- 
national Situation. 

Feb. 21 — Dinner meeting at Students' Union. Vice-Chairman Phil 
Roy presided. Twenty-four members of the Kingston 
Branch and two guests were present. Minutes of last 
meeting approved. Report of Executive Meeting on 
February 1 i, presented. Professor W. P. Wilgar intro- 
duced Mr. L. Austin Wright, General Secretary, E.I.C, 
who addressed the Branch on activities and affairs of the 
Institute, including the Annual Meeting and the register- 
ing of technically trained men. By arrangement of the 
Kingston Branch, Mr. Wright, introduced by Dean A. 
L. Clark, addressed the Queen's University Engineering 
Society in Miller Hall, in the afternoon of February 21. 

Oct. 31 — Dinner and annual business meeting at Queen's Students' 
Union. Eighteen members and three guests were present. 
The Chairman, G. G. M. Carr-Harris presided. Report of 
the Secretary-Treasurer was presented and accepted. The 
following officers were elected: — Chairman — T. A. 
McGinnis; Vice-Chairman — P. Roy ; Secretary-Treasurer 
—J. B. Baty; Executive: V. R. Davies, K. H. McKibbin, 
K. M. W'inslow, A. H. Munro; Ex-Officio— G. G. M. 
Carr-Harris. General business and policy of the Branch 
was discussed. Major H. H Lawson paid fitting tribute 
to the memory of the late Professor W. P. Wilgar, point- 
ing out the important role he had filled in the activities 
of Queen's University and of the Institute, and recalling 
that he had served as the first secretary of the Kingston 
Branch, E.I.C. Mr. Louis Trudel, Assistant to the 
General Secretary, from Headquarters, reported upon 
the war activity of the Institute, describing the work of 
the employment bureau and its close contact with both 
industry and the departments of government. He called 
special attention to the affiliation of the Engineering 
Institute of ( anada with the Engineers' Council for Pro- 
fessional Development, and reported upon the good health 
and increased membership of the Institute. Major G. G. 
M. Carr-Harris, Mechanical Engineer, Royal Canadian 
Ordnance Corps delivered an interesting address on 
Some Fundamental Engineering Principles as ap- 
plied to Mechanization. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

The Branch held the following meetings during the year. 

Jan. 17 — Dinner meeting. The Use of Echo Sounding Devices in 
charting Water Depths in Survey of Lake Nipigon, 

by C. T. Anderson, Engineer at the Thunder Bay Paper 

Mill. 
Sept. 26— Visit to the Aeroplane Factory of the Canadian Car and 
Foundry Co. Ltd., at Fort William, Ont. Dinner and 



76 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



address on The Manufacture of Aircraft by David 

Boyd, Works Manager of the Aircraft Division of the 

Montreal Plant. 
Oct. 16 — Dinner meeting at the Kakobeka Inn. Address on The 

Training of Young Men for Industries, by E. J. 

Davies, Principal of the Port Arthur Technical School. 
Nov. 21 — Dinner meeting at the Shuniah Club. Paper by J. M. 

Fleming, President of C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., Port Arthur 

on The Grain Storage Situation in Canada. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

During the year seven regular meetings with an average 
attendance of 37; four corporate members' meetings with 
an average attendance of 10; and six executive meetings 
with an average attendance of 6 were held. 

All the regular meetings were held in the Marquis Hotel, 
preceded by a dinner during which numbers were rendered 
by George Brown's Instrumental Quartette, followed by 
vocal soli, interspersed with community singing. This fall, 
in an effort to build up attendance, the branch meetings 
have been held on Wednesday evenings at 8 p.m. with re- 
freshments served after the address. A corporate members 
meeting precedes the regular meeting at 7.30 p.m. This idea 
has resulted in a noticeable increase in attendance. 

The list of speakers and subjects follows; attendance is 
given in brackets. 

Jan. 6 — Ladies' Night. 1939 Trip Through Europe, by Miss Hildur 
Sandquist. (55). 

Feb. 17 — The Best Places in the West, by H. J. McLean, Produc- 
tion Superintendent, Calgary Power Company, Calgary. 
(16). 

April 10 — Annual Meeting (Corporate Members only). (10). 

May 15 — Joint meeting of the Branch, and the Lethbridge Board of 
Trade. Ceramics, by Professor W. G. Worcester, Uni- 
versity of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. (60). 

July 16 — Special Meeting (Corporate Members only). L. Austin 
Wright, General Secretary, spoke on Institute Affairs. 
(14). 

Oct. 23 — The Engineer as a Factor in Modern Warfare, by 
Senator W. A. Buchanan (30). 

Nov. 6 — Air Traffic Control, by Edwin D. Boyd, Officer in Charge, 
Control Tower, Kenyon Airfield, Lethbridge. (30). 

Nov. 27 — The Selection of the Correct Type of Motor for Vari- 
ous Loads, by F. N. Rhodes, Institute of Technology 
and Art, Calgary (30). 

Dec. 18 — Ladies Night. Luncheon Meeting. Motion pictures were 
shown by J. G. Maxwell, Traffic Representative, Trans- 
Canada Air Lines, entitled The Swift Family Rohin- 
son and African Skyways. (40). 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch was held on April 
10th, when the officers were elected for the 1940-1941 sea- 
son. 

LONDON BRANCH 

During the year 1940, the executive held seven business 
meetings. Six regular and special meetings were held as 
follows; attendance is given in brackets. 

Jan. 26 — Annual meeting and election of officers held at the Grange 
Tea Rooms, London. Building Downwards, by Pro- 
fessor R. F. Legget of the University of Toronto (60). 

Mar. 27 — Special meeting at Hotel London, London, held in conjunc- 
tion with the American Water Works Association Con- 
vention. Technical Social Progress, by H. E. Jordon, 
Secretary of the Association (76). 

May 1 — Regular meeting held in the Auditorium of the City Hall, 
London. Engineering Science as Applied to Soil 
Conservation, by John S. Cutler of the U.S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, Dayton, Ohio (35). 

Sept. 25 — Regular meeting held in the Board room of the Public 
Utilities Commission, City Hall, London. The Engineer 
and Public Health, by Wm. Storrie, of Gore and 
Storrie, Consulting Engineers, Toronto (26). 

Nov. 20 — Regular meeting held in the board room of the Public 
Utilities Commission, City Hall, London. The Distri- 
bution of Electricity, by V. A. McKillop of the Public 
Utilities Commission (18). 

Dec. 12 — Regular meeting held in the Board Room of the Public 
Utilities Commission, City Hall, London. Engineering 
in the Mackenzie River Basin, by Professor R. F. 
Legget of the University of Toronto (23). 

Average attendance of all meetings — 39. 



We regret to record the death of Major D. M. Bright, 
who had been an active member of the Branch for many 
years. 

MONCTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held four meetings. One tech- 
nical and two business meetings of the Branch were held, 
as follows: 

May 13 — A meeting was held for the purpose of nominating branch 
officers for the year 1940-41. 

May 31 — Annual Meeting. 

Dec. 19 — A dinner meeting was held in the Brunswick Hotel. An 
illustrated paper on Aerodrome Construction for the 
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was given 
by E. C. Percy, Assistant District Airways Engineer. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

The Branch received the official visit of Dr. T. H. Hogg, 
president of the Institute, on May 2nd. An informal dinner 
was given for Dr. Hogg at the University Club. During the 
evening, Dr. Hogg addressed the members of the Branch 
at Headquarters on Institute matters and showed slides and 
films on the construction of a power line, during winter, in 
Northern Ontario. All members present were personally in- 
troduced to the president. 

In response to an appeal made by the Honourable James 
A. Gardiner, Minister of National War Services, for volun- 
teer workers to help with the National Registration during 
August, the Branch canvassed its members and received 
190 offers of service. 

Papers and Meetings Committee 

The Papers and Meetings Committee has completed one 
of its most successful seasons under the chairmanship of 
Mr. R. S. Eadie. 

The committee has continued the policy of co-operating 
with sister societies by having joint meetings with such 
organizations as the Institute of Radio Engineers and the 
Society of Cost Accountants and Industrial Engineers. 

The following is a list of the papers delivered during the 
year and the attendance is given in brackets: — 
Jan. 11 — Annual Meeting of the Branch (75). 
Jan. 18 — Television and Its Recent Developments, by W. B. 

Morrison (300). 
Jan. 25 — Hydro Electric Work in Bolivia, by J. K. Sexton (175). 
Feb. 1 — Branch Smoker. 
Feb. 8 — Welding Rods and their Coatings, by M. S. Layton. 

(100). 
Feb. 15 — Some Problems and Responsibilities of Industrial 

Management, by W. F. Hosford (200). 
Feb. 20— Co-axial Cable Systems, by M. E. Strieby (200). 
Feb. 29 — Electricity in Railroad Maintenance, by G C. Bailey. 

(75). 
Mar. 7 — Some Phases of the Work of the National Research 
Council, by Dean C. J. Mackenzie (90). 



Mar. 14- 



Mar. 


21- 


Mar. 


2S 


April 


4- 


April 


11 


April 18 


April 25 


May 


2 


Oct. 


3 


Oct. 


10 


Oct. 


17 


Oct. 


24 


Oct. 


31 


Nov. 


7- 



-Regulating the Load Distribution on Interconnected 

Power Systems, by S. B. Morehouse (55). 
-Power System Communications, by H. W. Haberl (60). 
-The Automobile Industry in Canada, by Colonel Frank 

Chappell (100). 
-The Hotel Vancouver, by John Schofield (120). 
-The Mathematics of Management, by Paul Kellogg. 

(75). 
-Planning Quebec Highways, by Ernest Gohier (125). 
-Plant Visit to Wire Drawing Mill, Steel Company of 

Canada Limited, Montreal (120). 
-Visit to Branch of President, Dr. T. H. Hogg (160). 
-Aerodrome Construction in Canada for the British 

Commonwealth Air Training Plan, by J. A. Wilson. 

(140). 
-The Atom— Its Place in Daily Life, by I. R. McHaffie 

(80). 
-Colour Photography — An interesting and useful tool 

for Technicians, by P. J. Croft (200). 
-Work Simplification as an Aid to Defence, by Allan H. 

Morgensen (250). 
-Observations on Frequency Modulation Broadcast- 
ing, by Paul A. de Mars (130). 
-Electrical Marvels, by Dr. Phillips Thomas (440). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



77 



Nov. 14 — Montreal Citizens' Committee and the New City 
Council, by R. Percy Adams (55). 

Nov. 21— Annual Student Night (240). 

Nov. 28 — The Romance of Water, by Norman J. Howard (55). 

Dec. 5 — Metallizing, by A. Van Winson (75). 

Dec. 12 — Hydraulic Model Experiments, by Dr. Kenneth C. Rey- 
nolds (110). 

Dec. 19 — High Voltage Insulators, by J. J. Taylor (70). 

Average attendance — 137. 

Junior Section 

The Junior Section, which has carried on almost entirely 
under its own organization for the past number of years, 
has continued its good work also this year in spite of the 
fact that a large number of the younger engineers and 
students are devoting a large amount of time to military 
training. At the Annual Student Night on November 21st 
a very good attendance was noted and four excellent papers 
were presented on a competitive basis. It is very evident 
that students are interested in Institute affairs. As evidence 
of this fact it might be mentioned that the chairman had 
the honour of being invited to be present at the annual 
banquet of McGill University Engineering Undergraduates 
Society and to bring to this gathering a brief message from 
the Engineering Institute. Mr. L. Trudel, Assistant to the 
General Secretary, was also asked to bring a message from 
the Institute to a gathering of students at Ecole Poly- 
technique. 

The Executive is of the opinion that all possible encour- 
agement should be given to students. Future strength of 
the Institute is dependent largely on recruiting among the 
student bodies. 

The following is a list of the Junior Section meetings with 
the attendance given in brackets. 

-Annual Meeting. The Young Engineer and the War, by 
L. Austin Wright, General Secretary (60) . 

-Gravel Road Surface Stabilization, by Gilbert Coupi- 
enne (12). 

-Student Night. Architecture in Engineering, by Stuart 
McNab (McGill) and Examination of Welded Struc- 
tures, by Fernand Marchand (Ecole Polytechnique) (23). 

-Education Continued, by Professor J. A. Coote (19). 

-Public Ownership of Electricity in St. Hyacinthe, 
Que., by Jean Bouchard (32). 

-Network Broadcasting in Canada, by J. A. Ouimet (23). 

-Opening Fall Meeting. The Engineering Institute, by 
H. J. Vennes, Chairman, Montreal Branch. Film, The 
Rapide Blanc Hydro-Electric Development. (62). 

-Chlorine, the Germicide of a Hundred Uses, by Jacques 
Benoit (20). 

-Student Night. Speakers: V. G. Griffin (McGill); Bernard 
Beaupré (Ecole Polytechnique); W. C. Brown (McGill); 
Roger Lessard (Ecole Polytechnique). Motion picture, 
Liquid Air. (240). 

-Automatic Process Controls, Georges L. Arehambault. 
(16). 

Membership Committee 

The Chairmanship of the Membership Committee was 
again entrusted to Mr. K. 0. Whyte who reports, that 
normal activities have been restricted due to war condi- 
tions, resulting in fewer personal contacts with prospective 
new members. 

Reception Committee 

The Reception Committee, under the Chairmanship of 
Mr. Willis P. Malone reports an active year and a very 
successful one. 

The Smoker was organized by Mr. C. R. Lindsey and 
held at the Windsor Hotel on Thursday evening, February 
1st. Four hundred and thirty-six tickets were sold. 

The golf tournament was held at the Senneville Country 
Club on Tuesday, June 4th. An enthusiastic and repre- 
sentative gathering enjoyed the round of golf and the 
dinner and prize-giving that followed. Twenty-five played 
golf and thirty-two sat down to dinner. 

At five meetings during the year, refreshments were 
served. These meetings were: the annual meeting on Janu- 



Jan. 


22 


Feb. 


5 


Feb. 


19 


Mar. 


4- 


Mar. 


18 


April 


1- 


Oct. 


21 


Nov. 


4 


Nov. 


21 



Dec. 2- 



ary 11th, the occasion of the visit of the president, Dr. 
Hogg, on May 2nd, the opening meeting of the Branch on 
October 3rd, the opening meeting of the Junior Section on 
October 21st, and the Junior and Students' Night on No- 
vember 21st. 

Publicity Committee 

Mr. L. Jehu, Jr., chairman of this Committee, reports 
that through the courtesy of the headquarters staff, notices 
of the weekly meetings were sent to the Montreal Star, 
the Gazette and La Presse who published these notices in 
the "City Items." Before a meeting of unusual interest, the 
papers were telephoned and a special request for a report 
was made. This method of handling the publicity proved 
satisfactory. 

Deceased Members 

It is with regret that we record the following list of those 
members who died during the year, and wish to extend to 
their families the most sincere sympathy of the Branch. 

Life Member 
James A. Jamieson 



Members 



John Kershaw Ashworth 
John Baylor Barnum 
Shirley Barr 
Frederick Bridges 
William Bell Cartmel 
Casimir Stanislas Gzowski 



Stuart Howard 
Howard Archibald Mackenzie 
Charles Nicholas Monsarrat 
George Wyman Shearer 
Joseph Edward Woods 



Student 

Flying Officer Jean A. Lalonde 

(killed on active service) 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

During the year the Executive held seven business meet- 
ings and one electoral meeting. 

The programme committee arranged the following pro- 
fessional meetings. 

Jan. 31 — Dinner meeting at the General Brock Hotel, Niagara Falls. 
An illustrated talk on Modern Airports was given by 
Wing Commander D. G. Joy, District Inspector of Civil 
Aviation. 

Mar. 8 — Meeting with ladies and friends followed by buffet lunch 
at the Welland House, St. Catharines, Ont. An illustrated 
talk on Weather Forecasting, by John Patterson, M.A., 
F.R.S.C., Controller of the Meteorological Division of 
the Air Service Branch, Dept. of Transport. 

April 16 — Dinner meeting at the Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, Ont. 
The member societies of the Niagara District Technical 
Council listened to an interesting address and sound film 
on Plastics given by R. N. Slipp of the Plastics Depart- 
ment Technical Sales Service, E. I. du Pont, de Nemours 
& Co. Inc. 

May 20 — Annual Dinner meeting at the General Brock Hotel, Niagara 
Falls, Ont. Our President, Dr. T. H. Hogg, was chief 
guest and speaker and gave a few personal reminiscences 
of his engineering experience in this district followed by 
a short talk on the functioning and problems of several 
of the more important Institute committees. Mr. E. P. 
Muntz, vice-president for Ontario, also spoke on the 
relationship between provincial Professional Engineering 
Associations and The Institute. 

Under the chairmanship of C. H. McL. Burns, the 

1940-41 Programme Committee arranged the following two 

meetings. 

Nov. 1 — Joint dinner meeting with the Ontario Chapter of the 
American Society for Metals at the Leonard Hotel, St. 
Catharines. An illustrated lecture on Cold Drawn Steels 
and their Application to Industrial purposes was 
given by Thomas I). Taylor, Metallurgical IOngineer, 
Bliss & Laughlin Inc. 

Nov. 28 — Dinner meeting at the General Brock Hotel, Niagara Falls, 
Ont. Flame Hardening as applied to Steel and Cast 
Iron, by A. K. Seeman, Research Engineer, Linde Air 
Products, New York. W. Duncan, Toronto, of the Do- 
minion Oxygen Company, assisted Mr. Seeman. 



78 



February. 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



OTTAWA BRANCH 

During the year the Managing Committee held six meet- 
ings for the transaction of general business. 

It is with deep regret that we report the deaths of ten 
of our members: J. B. McRae, A. G. Sabourin, J. E. Woods, 
H. L. Seymour, J. T. Johnston, W. H. Carson, V. I. Smart, 
Vincent Perrin, Lt. Col. E. C. G. Chambers, and J. T. 
Lawson. 

As in previous years the Branch donated two sets of 
draughting instruments to the Ottawa Technical School for 
presentation as prizes for proficiency in draughting. A copy 
of "Machinery's Handbook" was presented to the Hull 
Technical School to be awarded to one of its students. 

The following is a list of meetings held during 1940, with 
attendance figures in brackets. Unless otherwise stated, 
these were luncheon meetings at the Chateau Laurier. 

Jan. 11 — Evening meeting, National Research Council Bldg. Annual 
meeting, Ottawa Branch, E.I.C. Some Pre-War Ob- 
servations in Europe, by Dr. R. W. Boyle, Director of 
Physics and Electrical Engineering Division, National 
Research Council (91). 

Feb. 1 — Canada Spreads Her Wings, by Flying Officer J. Fergus 
Grant, Royal Canadian Air Force (170). 

Feb. 20 — Evening joint meeting with the Ottawa Branch of the 
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, at the 
Victoria Memorial Museum. Illustrated lecture, Petro- 
leum, the Keystone of Empire Defence, by Dr. J. 
W. Broughton, National Research Laboratories, and Dr. 
George S. Hume, Geological Survey of Canada (140). 

Mar. 7 — The Engineer in a Modern Theatre of War, by Briga- 
dier E. J. C. Schmidlin, M.C., Director of Engineer Ser- 
vices, Department of National Defence, Ottawa (132). 

April 4— The Pattullo Bridge, by Major W. G. Swan, D.S.O., 
Director of Construction, War Supply Board, Ottawa. 
(87). 

April 25 — Evening meeting, National Research Council Bldg. Metal 
Spraying and Its Industrial Applications, by A. Van 
Winsen, National Research Laboratories. (150). 

May 9 — Luncheon meeting and inspection, Ottawa Technical High 
School (82). 

Oct. 17 — Evening joint meeting with the Ottawa Branch of the 
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, National 
Research Council Bldg. Illustrated lecture, Heat Treat- 
ment of Nickel Steel, by Mr. H. H. Bleakney, Metal- 
lurgist, Department of National Defence. (80). 

Nov. 7 — LaTuque Development and the St. Maurice River, by 
J. A. McCrory, Montreal, Vice-President and Chief En- 
gineer, The Shawinigan Engineering Company, Montreal. 
(100). 

Nov. 21 — Development of Dual Lane Highways, by C. A. Robbins, 
Toronto, District Engineer, Southern Ontario, Depart- 
ment of Highways of Ontario (73) . 

Dec. 5 — Naval Armaments, by Captain C. S. Miller, R.N., In- 
spector of Naval Ordnance, British Admiralty Technical 
Mission, Ottawa (114). 

Dec. 19 — Development of Mechanical Transport, by Major M. 
M. Evans, Technical Staff Officer, Directorate of Ord- 
nance Services, Department of National Defence, Ottawa. 
(61). 

PETERBOROUGH BR4NCH 

The following meetings were held during the year. 
Attendance is shown in brackets. 

Jan. 11 — Fundamentals of Metallic Arc Welding, by H. Foster, 

Welding Specialist, Canadian General Electric Company, 

Peterborough (50). 
Feb. 22 — Recent Developments in Concrete, by R. A. Crysler, 

Canada Cement Company, Toronto (26). 
Mar. 7 — Junior and Student Night. Open Discussion (33). 
April 4 — New Developments in Switchgear, by B. I. Vurgess, 

Switchgear Engineer, Canadian General Electric Co., 

Peterborough (38). 
May 1 — Annual meeting and Election of Executive Committee. 

(40). 
Oct. 19 — Joint meeting of the Peterborough Branch and the Toronto 

Section, American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

Glass Insulation. (109). 
Nov. 20 — Annual Dinner. Attended by the president, Dr. T. H. 

Hogg, and Mr. De Gaspé Beaubien (87). 
Dec. 5 — Early Surveys and Land Surveyors in Peterborough, 

by" J. W. Pierce (33). 



Jan. 


15 


Feb. 


12 


Mar. 


9 


Mar. 


18- 



QUEBEC BRANCH 

During the past year, the Executive Committee has held 
seven meetings. Eight general branch meetings were also 
held, they are listed below with the attendance at each 
given in brackets: — 

-Luncheon meeting at the Chateau Frontenac. La Radio- 
diffusion — Esquisse d'une Orientation, by Aurele 
Séguin, Manager of CBV Radio Station in Quebec (30). 

-Evening meeting at the Palais Montcalm. Films Transport 
and Communications were shown. Refreshments were 
served after the meeting (75). 

-Social Evening held at the Quebec Winter Club for mem- 
bers and their wives, preceded by a dinner and followed 
by a dance, cards and games (126). 

-Annual Junior Night at the Palais Montcalm. Illustrated 
papers, Motor Controls and Their Applications, by 
Yvon R. Tassé, Canadian General Electric Co., and 
Winter Roads Maintenance in Quebec, by Roland 
Lemieux, Highway Department of Quebec. Refreshments 
were served after the meeting (55) . 

-Evening meeting at Laval University. Sound films, Tele- 
phone Communications, sponsored by The Bell Tele- 
phone Co., and a Technicolor film, New-York World's 
Fair, presented by Roger Morin of Radio station CBV, 
were shown. The members and their wives with guests 
were invited (300) . 

-Dinner meeting at the Chateau Frontenac to welcome the 
President of the Institute, Dr. T. H. Hogg. Vice-President 
McNeely Du Bose and General Secretary L. Austin 
Wright, attended this meeting. Dr. Hogg spoke on Appeal 
to Engineers to Co-operate fully in Wartime Work. 
(45). 

-Annual meeting and election of officers, at the Reception 
Hall of the Quebec Power Co. A film, War and Warn- 
ings, followed, and refreshments were served (40). 

-Evening meeting at the Chateau Frontenac. Britannia 
Mines, their history, early development and present 
operations, by G. W. Waddington, recently appointed 
professor of mining engineering at Laval University (25). 

It is with deep regret that we record the deaths of the 
following branch members: — 

Edward Arthur Evans and Jos. Têtu Bertrand. 



SAGUENAY BRANCH 

The Branch held the following meetings during the year. 

July 4 — Annual meeting at the Saguenay Inn, Arvida. Reception 
and dinner previous to the meeting. The Branch was 
honoured by the presence of the President, T. H. Hogg, 
Vice-President E. P. Muntz and the General Secretary, 
L. A. Wright. 

Aug. 15 — Meeting at the Arvida Protestant School. Ignitrons, by 
by J. T. Thwaites of Canadian Westinghouse Company 
Limited, Hamilton, Ont. 

Oct. 10 — The Manufacture of Alpaste in Arvida, by E. F. Hart- 
wick of the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited. 

Nov. 14 — -Water Filtration and Purification, by Ross Watson. 
The Shand Dam at Fergus, Ont., by Dr. H. G. Acres. 



April 15- 

April 30- 

Nov. 25- 
Dec. 16- 



Ten 
lowing 
year: 

Jan. 18- 



SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

meetings of the Executive Committee, and the fol- 
six general Branch meetings were held during the 



Annual joint dinner meeting with the Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers of the Province of New Brunswick. An 
address on The Place of the Engineer in the National 
Life was given by President H. W. McKiel. 

— Supper meeting. The Oil Industry in Western Canada, 

by H. G. Cochrane. 

— Supper meeting. The St. Lawrence deep waterway pro- 
ject, by C. H. Wright. 

Annual dinner and election of officers of the Branch. 
Address on Achievements of Engineering in war- 
time, by T. C. Macnabb. 

Aug. 29 — Supper meeting. Address on the work of The Committee 
on the training and welfare of the Young Engineer, 

by Harry F. Bennett, its chairman. 

Supper meeting. Address on Trends and Forces behind 
the Outbreak of the War, by Norman A. M. Mac- 
kenzie, president of the University of New Brunswick. 



Feb. 15 
April 11 
May 8 



Oct. 17- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



79 



MEMBERSHIP AND FINANCIAL 



Branches 



P3U 



61) 

u 



S 

o 

- 
« 

- 

83 

U 



e 
o 
— 

c 



s 

W 






a 
ca 



be 



- 



Si) 

"0 
•m 

u 
A 
A 
— 

- 



MEMBERSHIP 

Resident 

Hon. Members 

Members 

Juniors 

Students 

Affiliates 

Total 

Non-Resident 

Hon. Members 

Members 

Juniors 

Students 

Affiliates 

Total 

Grand Total December 31st, 1940 

December 31st, 1939 

Branch Affiliates, December 31st, 1940 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Balance as of December 31st, 1939 

Income 

Rebates received during calendar year Q. 

Affiliate Dues 

Interest 

Miscellaneous 

Total Income 

Disbursemen t s 

Printing, Notices, Postage® 

General Meeting Expense © 

Special Meeting Expense 

Honorarium for Secretary 

Stenographic Services 

Travelling Expenses © 

Subscriptions to other organizations . . 

Subscriptions to The Journal 

Special Expenses 

Miscellaneous 

Total Disbursements 

Surplus or Deficit 

Balance as of December 31, 1940 



45 

10 

10 

1 



74 
14 
14 



28 
4 
6 
2 



44 
11 

20 



123 

17 

20 

1 



85 
16 

28 
1 



1 

34 

9 

22 



29 
2 
5 

4 



19 
2 
2 



66 



101 



40 



75 



161 



130 



66 



40 



23 



17 

8 
6 



15 
3 
9 



17 
6 
6 
1 



62 
2 



18 
1 
2 



17 
5 
2 



31 



27 



30 



72 



21 



24 



17 



97 

90 



128 

123 

39 



70 
60 



83 
90 



233 
149 



151 
149 

17 



73 
65 



64 

59 

2 



40 
39 
16 



166.07 
170.85 
614.40 



171.34 



194 . 52 
111.00 

39 . 78 



229.80 



59 . 20 



105.60 



155.48 



330.38 



271 . 55 

^34 
71.62 



144.41 



284 . 23 
42.03 
52.44 
40.00 



48.5: 



97.71 



143.59 



75.43 



100.00 

22.00 

.64 



785.25 



345.30 



59.20 



155.48 



343.51 



418.70 



97.71 



180.66 



122.64 



59.89 
438 . 70 
239 . 24 

10.00 



13.65 



86.01 
115.20 

78.90 
4.73 



19.60 



6.37 



12.00 
18.43 

12.00 



5.00 



52.93 
27.80 
11.45 
50.00 
1.15 

25.75 



3.39 



45.78 
144.40 
91.90 
50.00 
28.85 



65.00 
3.40 



112.67 

14.00 

118.00 

50.00 

39 35 



48.75 



14.75 
2.25 
6.05 

25.00 
4.55 



15.00 



21.03 
117.30 

10.00 



5.03 
87.66 

4.55 

25.00 

.70 



13.05 



13.80 



761.48 

23 . 77 

189.84 



310.81 

34.49 

205.83 



47.43 

11.77 

241.57 



172.47 
16.99 
88.61 



429.33 

86. S '2 

244 . 56 



382 . 77 

35.93 

180.34 



67.50 
30.11 
78.63 



161.38 
19.28 

162.87 



136.74 
14.10 
61.33 



©Some of these figures differ from those published in February, 1940, because they do not include the rebates for the last quarter of 1938. In 

one or two cases other minor adjustments have been made in order to obtain uniformity. 
©Includes general printing, meeting notices, postage, telegraph, telephone and stationery. 
©Includes rental of rooms, lanterns, operators, lantern slides and other expenses. 
©Includes dinners, entertainments, social functions, and so forth. 
©Includes speakers, councillors or branch officers. 



80 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



STATEMENTS OF THE BRANCHES 




























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* 






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85 
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85 

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CD 


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CD 


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— 

93 

CD 


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CD 




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s 



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83 

> 


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"S 



u 


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a 

"S 
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3 




1 
















1 




1 




20 


776 


92 


309 


28 


84 


39 


26 


50 


110 


22 


358 


122 


38 


113 


4 


131 


9 


12 


10 


14 


12 


6 


19 


8 


5 


67 


6 


4 


18 


2 


334 


28 


29 


19 


21 


12 


11 


13 


26 


2 


80 


8 


4 


58 




16 




2 




3 


3 


2 








10 


2 




3 


26 


1260 


129 


353 


57 


122 


66 


45 


82 


144 


29 


516 


138 


47 


192 


3 


46 


4 


56 


23 


12 


5 


23 


5 


43 


39 


13 


48 


9 


16 


4. 


19 




13 


6 


2 




7 


4 


15 


11 


4 


3 




4 


8 


25 




14 


5 


3 




18 


3 


19 


19 


7 


6 


1 


8 








2 
















1 








15 


90 


4 


85 


34 


17 


5 


48 


12 


77 


69 


25 


57 


10 , 


28 


41 


1350* 


133 


438 


91 


139 


71 


93 


94 


220 


98 


541 


195 


57 


220 


49 


1298 


112 


403 


92 


130 


65 


93 


66 


195 


105 


543 


199 


63 


207 


4 


18 


13 


19 


8 












14 








6 



*For voting purposes only, there should be added to Montreal Branch, an additional 309 members, 176 being resident in the United States, 99 
l'British possessions and 34 in foreign countries. 



165.25 


1,455.65 


251.33 


419.34 


144.32 


92.36 


266 . 75 


256.94 


76.95 


© 


353 . 30 


631.86 


215.45 


101.79 


115.22 


105.17 


1,881.47 


195.39 


573.37 


137.03 


244.60 


107.27 


132.65 


120.12 


© 


156.65 


656.11 


301.59 


109 . 70 


293.48 


15.00 


113.00 


39.85 


63.00 


22.00 










© 


24.00 






3.00 


35.00 


2.08 


5.27 




44.61 


.91 


.25 


.97 






© 


.85 


9.91 


.78 




22.50 




709 . 43 


42.05 


365.75 


4. 05 


288 . 75 




1.25 


35.00 


© 


109.00 


290.68 






45.52 


122.25 


2,709.17 


277.29 


1,046.73 


163.99 


533.60 


108 . 74 


133.90 


155.12 


© 


290.50 


956.70 


302.37 


112.70 


396.50 


7.53 


773.26 




127.33 


46.27 


61.00 


22.03 


49.23 


24.42 


© 


23.57 


213.55 


95.52 


43.67 


96.28 


26.56 


217.52 


69.04 


606 . 55 


32.00 


32.91 


71.07 


6.90 


67.81 


© 


144.92 




119.95 


.72 


54.66 




724.96 


43.35 


25.00 


40.71 


319.56 




9.31 


46.23 


© 


43.20 


169.95 




30.35 


50.90 


25.00 


300.00 


75.00 






100.00 




25.00 




© 


25.00 


100.00 


50.00 


25.00 


25.00 


10.00 


120.00 
154.92 




20.00 








7.50 


5.00 
3.00 


© 

© 

© 


1.00 


15.00 


20.00 


8.45 


20.00 


8.00 


30.00 
99.77 




6.00 
22.25 


8.00 


10.00 








© 
© 


10.00 


85^10 






11.00 
29.00 


4.02 


55.93 


15.79 


86.18 


14.74 


2.83 


3.00 


10.69 


.98 


© 


4.00 


42.11 


39.42 




10.06 


81.11 


2,476.36 


203.28 


893.31 


141.72 


526.30 


96.10 


108.63 


147.44 


© 


251.69 


625.71 


324.89 


108.19 


296.90 


41.14 


232.81 


74.01 


153.42 


22.27 


7.30 


12.64 


25.27 


7.63 


© 


38.81 


330.99 


25.52 


9.51 


99.60 


206.39 


1,688.27 


325.34 


572.76 


166.59 


99.66 


279.39 


282.31 


84.63 


© 


574.11 


959.85 


192.93 


106.30 


214.82 



©Because of recent changes in officers, due to enlistment, it was not possible to secure these figures at the time of going to press. 



PHE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



81 



SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

As in the past several years all meetings, except the 
annual meeting, were held jointly with the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan and the local sec- 
tion of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The 
programme for the year was as follows: 

Jan. 22 — Nature Appreciation, an illustrated address by S. G. 

Bard, Field Collector, Provincial Museum. 
Feb. 16 — Annual meeting held jointly with the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers. 
Mar. 15 — The Development of the Combustion Chamber of 

the Internal Combustion Engine, by Professor E. A. 

Hardy, University of Saskatchewan. 
April 15— The Middle East and the War, by M. A. MacPherson, 

K.C. 
Nov. 16 — Ceramics and Ceramic Engineering, by Professor W. 

G. Worcester, University of Saskatchewan. 
Dec. 20 — Airport Construction in Saskatchewan, by G. T. 

Chillcott, District Airway Engineer, Department of 

Transport. 

The average attendance at these meetings was fifty- 
seven. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met on January 9th, and 
appointed standing committees. The committees and the 
chairmen are as follows: — ■ 

Papers and Publicity J. S. MacLeod 

Entertainment J. L. Lang 

Membership C. Stenbol 

Legislation and Remuneration F. Smallwood 

The Executive Committee met eight times during the 
year to discuss and promote the activities of the Branch 
and Institute. 

Eight dinner meetings were held during the year. The 
average attendance was 23 members and guests. The meet- 
ings were held at no set time during the month, but were 
arranged to suit the convenience of the speakers. 

Programmes of the meetings held were as follows: — 

Jan. 26 — Modern Aircraft Development, by George Ponsford, 

Director of the Ontario Provincial Air Service. 
Feb. 23 — The Technique of Fruit Growing, by A. G. Clarkson. 
Mar. 15 — Illustrated address on the History of the Development 

of the Telephone, by G. L. Long, Historian of the Bell 

Telephone Company. 
April 26 — Mining and Beneficiation of Siderite at the Helen 

Mine, by G. W. MacLeod. 
Sept. 27 — The Manufacture of High Explosive Shells, by Carl 

Stenbol. 
Nov. 1 — The Fauna and Flora of Algoma, by Paul P. Martin, 

Chairman, Algoma Travel Bureau. 
Nov. 22— War Time Communications, by G. L. Long, Historian 

of the Bell Telephone Company. 
Dec. 20 — Annual meeting for 1940. 

The Executive Committee regrets the loss through change 
of address of a number of active members of the Branch. 
The following have moved from the Branch: H. J. Leitch, 
Chairman of the Branch, A. G. Clarkson, F. A. Masse, and 
C. W. Holman, also R. J. Merritt, s.e.i.c. 



TORONTO BRANCH 

The annual meeting of the Branch was held at the 
Granite Club on Thursday, April 18th, 1940. This change 
of meeting place evidently met with the approval of the 
110 who were present. 

The meeting was preceded by a dinner at 7 p.m. Among 
those present were Dr. T. H. Hogg, president of the In- 
stitute; E. P. Muntz, vice-president, Zone B; J. A. Vance, 
councillor, London Branch; A. R. Hannaford, secretary- 
treasurer, Hamilton Branch; Alexander Love, chairman, 
Hamilton Branch; D. G. Geiger, representing the A.I.E.E.; 
Bruce H. Wright, representing the Ontario Association of 
Architects and E. L. Cousins, speaker of the evening. 

During the past year the Executive Committee has held 
twelve meetings with an average attendance of nine. 

Regular meetings during the year are listed below with 
attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 18 — Annual Students' night. Wind Bracing, by S. J. Simons; 

The Rehabilitation of Flooded Generators, by D. 

R. B. Mc Arthur; Aerodrome Construction, by D. E. 

Kennedy; Some Aspects of Depreciation, by E. E. 

Hart; Salvage, by J. P. Stirling; Science and War, by 

B. Etkin (50). 
Feb. 1 — Intercommunication in the Army, by Lieut. Col. E. 

G. Weeks (75). 
Feb. 8-9 — Annual General and Professional meeting. 
Feb. 22 — The Limestone and Lime Industry of the Thames 

River Valley, by S. R. Frost (25). 
Mar. 7 — Modern Sanitation and Water Supply Practice, by 

William Storrie, and Dr. A. E. Berry (55). 
Mar. 21— Insulating, Heating and Air Conditioning of Build- 
ings, by Professor E. A. Allcut (50). 
April 4 — Activities of the National Research Council in Re- 
lation to the War, by C. J. Mackenzie (55). 
April 18 — Annual Branch Meeting (110). 
Oct. 17 — The Bright Path, Wiring the Wilderness, Dancing 

Conductors, films shown by courtesy of the Hydro 

Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 
Nov. 7 — Modern Boiler Equipment, by W. A. Osbourne (85) . 
Nov. 21 — Modern Problems in Highway Construction, by 

Charles M. Baskin (25). 
Dec. 5— Man Power, by McNeely DuBose (60). 

Previous to each regular meeting, dinners have been held 
in Hart House. These have been well attended and enjoyed 
by all who have availed themselves of the opportunity to 
attend. 

The highlight of the year just passed was the Annual 
General and Professional Meeting which was held in the 
Royal York Hotel on February 8-9th. The General Chair- 
man was Dr. A. E. Berry, and the Chairman of the Papers 
Committee was Prof. C. R. Young, who undertook a 
gigantic task and carried it through with the appreciation 
of all those who were fortunate enough to be present. There 
was a total registration of 489 members, 200 of these being 
from out of town. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death of the 
following members of the Branch during the year: R. A. 
Baldwin, W. P. Chapman, Lieut. Col. Duncan MacPherson, 
H. T. Routly and E. M. Salter. Sincere sympathy is ex- 
tended to their families in their loss. 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

The Branch held the following meetings during the year, 
and the attendances are shown in brackets. 

Feb. 16 — Meeting at the Cascade Inn, Shawinigan Falls. Chromium 
in Steel, by C. K. Lockwood of the Shawinigan Chemic- 
als Limited, Montreal (40). 

Mar. 5 — Annual meeting of the Branch at the Laurentide Club, 
Grand'Mère. Reception and dinner previous to the meet- 
ing. The guest speaker was the General Secretary, Mr. 
L. A. Wright, who spoke on Institute activities (22). 

May 1 — Dinner meeting at the Chateau de Blois, Three Rivers, to 
welcome the President of the Institute on his official visit. 
The President was accompanied by Councillor A. La- 
rivière and Mr. H. Cimon from Quebec and the General 
Secretary, L. A. Wright. 



VANCOUVER BRANCH 

Activities were well maintained by the Vancouver Branch 
during the year just closed. During the year twelve well 
attended meetings were held — two luncheon and ten even- 
ing functions. A particularly interesting meeting was held 
on May 27 when addresses were given by Lt. Col. L. E. 
Atkins and Capt. Arthur Trudeau of the Seattle office of 
the United States Army Engineers. 

In July the Branch was honoured with a visit from the 
General Secretary of the Institute, Mr. L. Austin Wright. 
During his stay Mr. Wright met many of the members of 
the Institute as well as the executives of branches of sister 
organizations in the province. 



82 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The members of the Vancouver Branch have answered 
loyally to the call for officers in the Canadian Active Service 
Force. Seventeen members are recorded as being on active 
service at the present time. 

An itemized list of meetings held during the year is 
appended hereto. The total membership of the Branch is 
now 192. 

Jan. 29 — Luncheon meeting. Activities of the War Supply Board, 

by Major W. G. Swan, Director of Construction, War 

Supply Board, Ottawa. 
Feb. 19 — Pressures in Earth Fills, by H. N. Macpherson. 
Mar. 11 — The Organization of the Royal Canadian Air F'orce, 

Address by Squadron Leader L. E. Wray, R.C.A.F. 

Station, Vancouver. 
Mar. 27 — The Development of Roller Chain Driving, by Stanley 

Morton, A.M.i.Mech.E., B.C. Manager, Renold Coventry 

Co. Ltd. 
April 12 — The Design and Construction of Modern Airport 

Runways, an illustrated address by Norman W. McLeod, 

of the Department of Asphalt Technology, Imperial Oil 

Ltd., Sarnia. 
May 27 — The White River Flood Control Project and the Mud 

Mountain Dam, an illustrated address by Lieut. Col. 

Layson E. Atkins, District Engineer, U.S. Army (Seattle 

District), and Captain Arthur G. Trudeau, Chief of 

Construction Division. 
Sept. 30 — Regulation of Public Utilities, by W. A. Carrothers, 

Chairman, Public Utilities Commission for the Province 

of British Columbia. 
Oct. 23 — The King George VI Highway, an address by Ernest 

Smith, Assistant District Engineer, Provincial Depart- 
ment of Public Works, New Westminster, and W. P. 

Beavan, Surfacing Engineer, Provincial Department of 

Public Works, New Westminster. 
Nov. 4 — The Growth and Structure of Wood, illustrated lecture 

by J. B. Alexander, m,sc, Chief of the Division of Timber 

Mechanics, Forest Products Laboratory, Department of 

Mines and Resources, Vancouver. 
Nov. 23 — Annual dinner meeting. The B.C. Lumber Industry 

Marches with the Troops, by J. G. Robson. 
Dec. 16 — Dinner in honour of the Institute President. The meeting 

was addressed by Dr. Hogg, Dr. Lefebvre, Mr. Vance 

and Mr. L. Austin Wright. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

During the year seven general meetings of the Branch 
were held, six of them being dinner meetings and one a 
luncheon meeting, with an average attendance of 25, which 
reflects considerable revival of interest among the member- 
ship. 

The list of meetings together with addresses and the 
speakers during the year 1940 is as follows: — 

Jan. 19 — Dinner and Annual Meeting. Brothers of the Bridge, by 

A. L. Carruthers, Bridge Engineer, Provincial Depart- 
ment of Public Works. 

April 12 — Dinner meeting. A Tour through Europe, coloured mo- 
tion pictures, by Norman Yarrow, Works Manager, 
Yarrows Ltd., Victoria, B.C. 

April 18 — Dinner meeting. Design and Construction of Modern 
Airport Runways, by Dr. Norman McLeod of the 
Asphalt Division of the Imperial Oil Co., Calgary, Alta. 

July 15 — Luncheon meeting. The General Secretary, Mr. L. Austin 
Wright, spoke to the Branch on the British Engineer's 
Children Evacuee situation. 



Oct. 22 — Dinner meeting. Fuel and Our Use of It, by Kenneth 
Moodie, Engineer, Provincial Architect's Office, Victoria. 

Nov. 29 — Dinner meeting. Public Utilities Regulations, by J. C. 

MacDonald, Engineer, and S. R. Weston, Chief En- 
gineer, B.C. Public Utilities Commission. 

Dee. 17 — Dinner meeting. Visit of Past President Dr. O. O. Lefebvre, 
J. A. Vance, and the General Secretary, on the occasion 
of the President's tour of the western branches. 

Three meetings of the executive committee were held to 
deal with business relating to the Branch and Institute 
headquarters. 

Membership 

As was the case in the previous year there were several 
transfers of branch members to and from other branches, 
and a number of members of our Branch have gone overseas. 
In all, ten transfers were made to the Branch and twelve 
transfers away. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held thirteen regular and three 
special meetings during the year. Nine general meetings 
were held under the joint auspices of the Winnipeg Branch 
and the Association of Professional Engineers of the Pro- 
vince of Manitoba, continuing an arrangement entered into 
in 1938, in which all general meetings except the annual 
meeting and any special meetings were to be held jointly. 
The annual meeting was held on February 1st. 

In addition to the above the Branch was honoured by a 
visit by Dr. Hogg on December 11th, at which time the 
Branch held a special general meeting. Dr. Hogg was 
accompanied by Councillor J. Vance of Woodstock, Ontario, 
and L. Austin Wright, the General Secretary. The next day 
Mr. 0. 0. Lefebvre, a past president, also arrived, and the 
Executive and members of past executives gave a luncheon 
in honour of Dr. Hogg and the party from Headquarters. 

The papers presented are listed below, the attendance 
for each meeting being shown in brackets. 

Jan. 25 — Modern Weather Forecasting, by Dr. Donald C. Archi- 
bald, of the Meteorological Division of the Department 
of Transport (102). 

Feb. 22 — Unlocking Canada's Treasure Trove. Sound pictures by 
courtesy of the Department of Mines and Natural Re- 
sources. Introduced by G. E. Cole (104). 

Mar. 7 — Plastics, by Prof. H. Saunderson, University of Manitoba. 
(87). 

Mar. 21 — Teletypewriter Systems and some Applications, by J. 
Granich, Printer Telegraph Supervision C.P.R. Com- 
munications (59). 

April 4 — The Design and Construction of Modern Airport 
Runways, by Dr. N. W. McLeod, Department of 
Asphalt Technology, Imperial Oil Company, Sarnia 
Ont. (145). 

April 18 — Arc Welding, its Development and Progress, by Pro- 
fessor W. F. Riddell, University of Manitoba (71). 

Oct. 17 — Gas, Coke and Allied Subjects, by A. H. Harris, Jr., 
Manager of Gas Utility, Winnipeg Electric Company (56) ■ 

Nov. 7 — Visit to the Sugar Beet Plant of the Manitoba Sugar Com- 
pany, under the auspices of Messrs. Fosness and Hrudka. 

Nov. 21 — Broadcast Networks in Canada, by V. C. Jones, District 
Engineer, Communications Department, C.P.R. (60). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



83 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



THE PERFORMANCE OF MODERN AIRCRAFT 
DIESELS 

By Paul H. Wilkinson, S.A.E. Journal, November, 1940 

Abstracled by L. M. Arkley, m.e.i.c. 

In 1939, actuated by the conflicting reports in regard to 
the status of the Diesel engine in aircraft, Paul H. Wilkinson, 
consulting engineer of New York, set out to find something 
on the subject first-hand. 

He visited Germany and investigated such plants as the 
Junkers and the B.M.W. engine factories and the Dornier 
works where Diesel-engined flying boats are built, the 
repair shops of Deutsche Lufthansa where the Diesels used 
in their airlines are serviced and he also talked with Dr. 
Schmidt in his laboratory. Besides Dr. Schmidt, he met 
(in Germany) such experts as Mr. Achterberg, Dr. Schwager 
and Mr. Lang. 

In France he met Messrs. Clerget, Coatalen, Jalbert and 
others interested in this work. 

In England he visited the Bristol and Napier engine 
factories and talked with many people interested in Diesels 
including the well known Dr. Fedden. Recently he spent 
some time at the N.A.C.A. engine laboratory at Langley 
field where a comprehensive Diesel development programme 
is under way. 

The author describes and shows photographs of many 
engines such as — 

(a) The Jumo 205, developing 880 hp., for take off and 
weighing only 1.43 lb. per hp. 

(b) The Junkers Jumo 207 equipped with turbo-super- 
charger, developing 1,000 hp. for take-off and this output is 
maintained at altitudes of 20,000 ft., weight per hp. of 
1.43 lb., including supercharger and a b.m.e.p. of 131 lb. 
per sq. in. The specific fuel consumption of these engines is 
0.35 lb. per hp. hr. at cruising speed. 

(c) The 16-cyl. water cooled Clerget, operating on the 
four stroke cycle (built in France) is equipped with four 
Râteau turbo-superchargers, and is designed to develop 
2,000 hp. at 2,200 r.p.m., altitude 16,000 ft., specific weight 
1.87 lb. per hp., with b.m.e.p. of 145 lb. per sq. in. 

The above gives an idea of the kind of information 
appearing in the paper and there are tables such as the 
following giving interesting comparisons. 

Junkers Allison Rolls- Hispano- 

Make & Model Jumo 207 V 1710 C6 Royce Suiza 12Y 

Merlin X 

Type Diesel Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline 

Cooling.. .Water {gjg™ {ggg™ Water 

Number of cylinders 12 12 12 12 

Total displacement 1014 cu. in. 1710 cu. in. 1647 cu. in. 2197 cu. in. 

Maximum horse 

power 1000 1000 1010 1200 

R.p.m 3000 2000 3000 2600 

Output, hp. per cu. 

in 0.99 58 0.61 55 

Weightof engine, lb. 1430 1280 1394 1080 

Specific wt., lb. per 

hp 1.43 1.28 1.38 90 

Fuel Consumption 
(ratio), lb. per 
hp-hr 38 0.58 66 55 

As above for cruis- 
ing 0.35 0.46(E) 53(E) 44(E) 

Bmep. lb. persq.in. 1.31 1 77 1.61 1 67 

Rated altitude .... 20,000 12.000(E) 17,500 11,500 

(E) — Estimated figures. 

Judging from the data compiled, the author believes that 
the Diesel, on the whole is better than the gasoline driven 
unit for airplane work. 

He gives the advantages of the Diesel as follows (1) 
reduced fire hazard; (2) low fuel operating cost; (3) large 
pay load and flight range possibilities; (4) reliability; (5) 
efficiency. 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



Diesel Fuel 

Commenting on the above he says that Diesel fuel is 
safer than gasoline because it does not give off inflammable 
vapours at atmospheric temperature and it has a higher 
flash point. There has yet to be recorded a fire on a Diesel- 
engined airplane where the fuel ignited and burned. 

Low Operating Cost 

According to the author combining the lower specific 
cost of the Diesel with the lower specific fuel consumption 
gives a final figure much in favour of the Diesel. 

Reliability 

Ninety long non-stop flights over the South Atlantic 
(1900 miles) and 48-2,400 mile trips over the North Atlantic 
completed by the Diesel-engined planes of the Deutsch 
Lufthansa are cited as an example of reliability. In another 
table, mileage and time of operation are given for each year 
from 1931 to 1938 as total mileage flown of 4,243,895 with 
69,967 flying hours. 

In the discussion following the presentation of the paper, 
which gives a rather rosy picture of the Diesel compared 
with the more commonly used gasoline engine, Mr. Robert 
Insley of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corporation, and 
Mr. A. L. Beall and Mr. Nutt of the Wright Aeronautical 
Corporation all pay their respects to Mr. Wilkinson; the 
general trend of their remarks tend to discredit many 
statements appearing in the paper. A few important points 
brought out in the paper are first the limiting of the fire 
hazard because the Diesel needs no electric spark for igni- 
tion and uses a fuel which will not readily take fire and burn 
under atmospheric conditions but it must be remembered 
here that the ordinary Diesel fuel oil used is not suitable for 
airplane work; it must be refined which brings its cost to 
near the gasoline figure. 

The second point noted is the comparatively low specific 
weight value for Diesels of about 1.43 lb., and along with 
this is the low specific fuel consumption of 0.38 lb. per hp. 
hr. 

On the whole the paper is a painstaking effort and is well 
worth reading. 

WAR-TIME FACTORIES 

From Trade & Engineering (London), December, 1940 

Valuable hints on the design of single-storey war-time 
factories, based on experience of the effects of bombing, are 
given in Bulletin No. C. 12, issued by the Research and 
Experiments Department of the Ministry of Home Security. 

After pointing out that the object of air attack is to para- 
lyze production, the Bulletin states that war-time designers 
can do much to make factories highly resistant to colla pse 
and difficult to fire, while damage can be localized, and the 
steadiness of the workers reinforced by giving them cover 
a1 hand. The intelligent development of the design methods 
advocated is regarded as an important counter in main- 
taining production despite air attack. 

So far more steelwork has been destroyed by fire than by 
high explosives. The simplest way of minimizing fire damage 
is to limit the combustible materials in the factory. In the 
roof timber purlins or any form of slates or tiles on boarding 
should not on any account be used. 

The tendency towards very large buildings should be 
reversed. Even in a small building, the explosions will to 
some extent be confined by the walls and roof, and adjacent 
buildings will be relatively undamaged. 



84 



February, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



By far the most common type of factory for war-time 
production is the single-story building, and the first prin- 
ciple in its design is that all loads should be carried by a 
framework of steel or reinforced concrete. Load bearing 
walls are dangerous. Where reinforced concrete is used the 
most satisfactory way of minimizing damage is to divide the 
framework into as many discontinuous units as possible, 
thus localizing any collapse that may occur. 

The second principle is that the steel frame should resist 
collapse notwithstanding the sudden removal of any one 
main member. This is not so rigorous as it sounds. Near the 
explosion, the load is generally relieved by the roof covering 
being blown away, and there have been a number of cases 
where direct hits have severed either the rafter or the main 
tie of a steel roof truss without even producing a measurable 
sag. 

The chief risk to roof steelwork arises from the violent 
displacement of a stanchion foundation, and the consequent 
shearing of the stanchion cap connection, leading to collapse 
of roof trusses. This risk is eliminated if two simple pre- 
cautions are taken. The cap connection of the stanchion to 
the roof member should be made stronger than is usual in 
order that it shall not be sheared off even if the stanchion 
base is shifted 4 or 5 inches by a near miss. This precaution 
is particularly necessary in the case of trusses or beams 
framing into external stanchions. In addition to the effects 
of ground movement such stanchions are liable to be 
subjected to a considerable horizontal blast pressure applied 
to them by whatever wall construction is adopted. Provided 
their cap connections are adequate, however, the worst 
effect of this blast will be to bow out the stanchions without 
causing any major damage or collapse. In addition, the roof 
girder or valley beam should be spliced so as to be con- 
tinuous. This will ensure that, even if a stanchion is des- 
troyed, the valley beam is adequate to carry the dead load 
only of the roof (without the sheeting) over two bays. These 
precautions will not serve if two adjacent stanchions are 
destroyed, and a stanchion spacing of at least 30 ft. each 
way is desirable to prevent this. 

The external walls of a war-time factory should be 
regarded as simply protective screens against weather and 
bomb fragments. Panels and sheeting should be so designed 
that blast damage shall not be transmitted by them to the 
framing. To ensure that the sheeting shall blow in harm- 
lessly it should be of asbestos-cement or other brittle 
material, with anti-scatter protection by means of wire or 
sisal netting, which may be of large mesh, securely fixed to 
the steel framing behind the sheeting. The use of corrugated 
steel sheeting is not recommended for walls, as although it 
will blow out harmlessly from a hit inside the building, it is 
liable to cause considerable buckling of the steelworks 
under the effects of a near miss outside the building. 

The use of lightweight internal partitions to sub-divide a 
factory should be avoided. Such partitions are particularly 
liable to blast damage and if glazed or sheeted with a brittle 
material they are a serious source of danger to personnel. 
Substantial internal partitions, however, can be designed 
to afford a considerable measure of protection. If they are 
built the full height of the shop they will provide useful 
fire stops and may limit blast damage to the roof. They 
should be framed in steel or reinforced concrete independent 
of the main structure. 

The little evidence so far available on the behaviour under 
the effects of direct hits and near misses of flat roofs incor- 
porating monitor lights and giving overhead protection by 
a 4 in. reinforced concrete slab indicates that they should 
afford considerable protection to the factory from debris 
thrown up from bomb craters. They may even give some 
protection to plant against the effects of those light bombs 
which, being instantaneously fused, explode when they 
strike the roof. Such a bomb would merely blow a hole 
about 5 ft. square in the roof with relatively little damage 
to the interior of the factory. 

The effect of a large bomb exploding inside a factory is 



however, likely to be much more serious. The reinforced 
concrete roof slabs will undoubtedly be lifted over a fairly 
wide area. It is possible that they may also be displaced 
slightly and fall back into the shop instead of upon the 
supporting steelwork. Should this occur the roof slabs 
would do even more damage than the bomb, and this event- 
uality must be guarded against at all costs. The best safe- 
guard would be to anchor the slabs to the steel framework. 
Such anchorage need not be of any great strength, but it 
should be designed to withstand an upright pressure on the 
roof of at least 100 lb. per sq. ft. Alternatively the slabs may 
be linked together. A saving of steel could be effected if the 
slabs were designed to be continuous, such continuity being 
provided by additional top reinforcement placed in position 
and grouted in after the slabs are erected. 

Roofs being less subject to external blast from a near miss 
than are walls, the objection to the use of corrugated steel 
for walls does not apply to sheeted roofs, for which it is the 
ideal covering. The area of sheeting likely to be destroyed 
by a direct hit is about fifteen times as great for asbestos 
cement as for corrugated iron. The resistance of asbestos 
cement sheeting to blast can be considerably increased by 
reinforcing it, preferably with light-gauge sheet steel. Such 
sheeting reinforced with fabric tape has a considerably 
greater resistance to impact loads than unreinforced sheet- 
ing. 

Insulating board lining under sheeted roofs should on no 
account be used. Under a direct hit such a lining does not 
save the roof sheeting and causes extensive damage to the 
roof steelwork. Unlined roof sheeting fixed in the usual way 
is capable of being blown off without damage to the steel- 
work. The presence of the lining, however, results in an 
excessive uplift being applied to the steelwork and may 
cause very extensive damage to it. 

PULLING UP TRACK AT TEN BLOCKS AN HOUR 

From Transit Journal (Albany, N.Y.) December, 1940 

Removal of rails from the abandoned tracks of the 
Lafayette Street Railway was greatly facilitated by a 
machine designed and built by R. L. Shambaugh of 
Lafayette. The work was accomplished without first taking 
up the paving, and the ties were not disturbed, so that the 
street surface could be restored with the least disturbance. 

The machine used consists of an A-shaped frame made 
up of steel beams. The channels which form the uprights 
have holes drilled at regular intervals for adjusting the 
height of the boom of a truck-mounted crane. The base, 
which is of built-up members, is attached at one end to 
the crane truck. To start the removal of a rail the paving 
is removed adjacent to a joint and the crane pulley attached 
by means of the crane tongs. As soon as the rail end has 
been lifted high enough a nickel-steel roller is inserted be- 
low it across the frame. The entire structure is then pulled 
along the street by the crane truck, a second truck being 
hitched in front to give extra traction. Since the frame is 
pressed against the pavement by the rail itself the dis- 
turbance is limited to the area immediately adjacent to 
the rail. 

The machine was used in Lafayette on streets paved 
with brick and with black-top asphalt. Some of the rails 
were set in concrete 2 by 4 in. thick. Rails and spikes were 
pulled out as the machine moved along, leaving a ribbon 
of twisted steel ready to be cut up and hauled away. On 
an asphalt paved street, nearly ten blocks were removed 
in an hour. Finally, concrete was poured into the trench 
formed and the paving completed with asphalt. 

STEAM FOR AEROPLANE PROPULSION 

From Trade and Engineering (London) December, 1940 

A London engineer visualizes the day when British air- 
craft will be powered by a new type of steam generator 
which he has invented. He may or may not live to see that 
day dawn — for he is 75 years old — but at any rate he has 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February,' 1941 



85 



produced a model which works quite efficiently and con- 
jures up all sorts of possibilities for the future of British 
aviation. 

Much remains to be done on the invention, for as yet it 
is not certain that the device can be adapted for use in 
aircraft, though the inventor, Mr. Ernest Clarkson, is con- 
vinced it can be. A steam-driven aero-engine would obvi- 
ously contain a great number of advantages, perhaps the 
most important of which is its silence. A night bomber 
equipped with such an engine would be extremely difficult 
to find. All the sound locators in the world would fail to pick 
it up, and unless there are developments which end for 
all time the problem of night interception it would be all 
Lombard Street to a China orange that it would be able 
to locate and bomb its target and return home without 
being seen by an enemy fighter. 

The new idea upon which Mr. Clarkson worked was one 
which required both an unusually small steam generator 
and a very small quantity of water. The plan was not to 
boil water in the mass in boiler tubes but to apply a com- 
bination of spraying water into the tubes and impregnating 
it with an absorbent material which was kept at such a 
heat that the moisture evaporated immediately. In his 
first simple model Mr. Clarkson derived the heat from a 
Bunsen burner. The engine worked most efficiently. Starting 
from cold, it was turning over in 20 seconds and continued 
to run with a good output of power until its small supply 
of water was finished. The energy developed by a "boiler" 
only three-quarters the capacity of the cylinder was sur- 
prising. 

Encouraged by the results obtained from this tiny model 
Mr. Clarkson constructed a bigger model, worked on rather 
different lines, but with the same basic principle. At one 
end he fixed a blow-lamp working on paraffin oil. This 
directed heat towards six straight copper tubes about 8 in. 
in length. Inside these tubes were much smaller ones, with 
tiny holes bored at intervals along the length. Between the 
two tubes he placed a lining of his secret metal substance. 
Underneath, he placed a brass tank with a water capacity 
of one quart, the water being pumped into two chambers — 
one for steam and the other for water. As soon as the outer 
copper tubes became really hot the water was sprayed 
through the holes in the inner tube upon the hot metal and 
was immediately converted into steam. The outlet of steam 
from the generator to the engine he controlled by means 
of a stop-cock or regulator. With this model he had expected 
to get a pressure of 200 lb. He not only obtained it but 
actually broke one of the 200 lb. gauges. 

Mr. Clarkson believes that if the idea were developed 
for use in aeroplanes the engine could be driven by crude 
oil. He claims that the generator will work in any position, 
and indeed, after seeing it, there seems no reason why it 
should not. If the generator was adopted for use in aircraft, 
the copper tubes could be reinforced on the outside by 
steel tubes, and the whole of the tube area could be encased 
in asbestos or other covering, thus both conserving the heat 
inside and preventing it from getting into the aircraft itself 
outside. 

NATIONAL DEFENCE SURVEY 

From Journal of the Institution of Engineers, (Australia), August, 

1940 

A survey of the engineering profession for purposes 
of national defence was conducted in 1939 and immediately 
after the receipt of the returns from individual members, 
a preliminary classification was carried out. This classifica- 
tion was on a broad basis, the returns being grouped under 
nine convenient major headings. Although this grouping 
had a specific usefulness, it did not afford a ready selection 
of, say, the members who had had experience in, or were 
engaged on any particular type of work, without examining 
a large number of returns under one or more of the major 
headings. For this reason a more detailed classification was 



86 



considered to be necessary and this has been undertaken 
by a group of members of the Sydney Division. 

The returns received as the result of the original survey, 
together with those filed subsequently, have been re-classi- 
fied, every important particular given on each return being 
indicated by a code number. Each return has been coded 
and the particulars recorded on cards punched to correspond 
with the coding of each particular return. In the event of 
a member having experience in more than one branch of 
engineering, a separate card has been made for each branch. 
By the use of a sorting machine, which has been made 
available for the use of The Institution, members with any 
particular qualifications can be determined very rapidly. 
A selection of the most suitable man can then be made by 
reference to the original returns and as the numbers of 
returns necessary to be examined has been greatly reduced, 
the survey should prove of greater use to the authorities. 

The system of classification provides for 14 main headings 
but each of these is sub-divided into a number of special 
classes, the whole scheme permitting of the most precise 
selection. Its extension to the records of other Divisions has 
been recommended. 

The classification, however, will be complete only when 
returns have been received from 100 per cent, of the member- 
ship of The Institution. This cannot be achieved without 
the personal co-operation of those concerned. The necessary 
forms will be made available on application. 

MODERNIZATION OF WATERLOO AND CITY 
RAILWAY 

From The Engineer (London) November 15, 1940 

The first stage of the modernization of the Southern Rail- 
way's line between Waterloo Station and the Bank — the 
Waterloo and City Railway — has now been completed. The 
new arrangements were brought into operation on October 
28th. 

The new rolling stock now running on the line has been 
designed to obtain the maximum amount of seating capacity 
consistent with comfort, and also allows for a very much 
greater standing space than in the old rolling stock. Twenty- 
eight new coaches are being supplied — twelve motor coaches 
and sixteen trailer coaches. They will seat 1,312 passengers 
and will be formed into five five-coach trains, each consist- 
ing of two motor coaches and three trailer coaches. The 
remaining two motor coaches and one trailer coach are 
spares for maintenance, etc. During the busy hours five- 
coach trains will be run with accommodation for 600 pas- 
sengers, and during the slack hours the service will be main- 
tained by motor coaches detached from the five-coach 
trains. The control equipment is of the most modern design 
and is similar to and largely interchangeable with the equip- 
ments used on the latest suburban and express units of the 
Southern Railway. The coaches are provided with electric- 
ally controlled, air-operated doors, so that the guard is able 
to control all the doors on a train from one position. A 
tunnel telephone hand set is carried in each driving cab for 
use in emergency, and can be clipped to bare wires run the 
length of each tunnel. The clipping of the telephone to the 
wires automatically cuts off the current in the tunnel con- 
cerned and places the motorman in communication with the 
electric supply sub-station. 

It has not been possible to introduce the new stock 
gradually as part of the improvement of this railway has 
been the moving of the conductor rail from its original 
position centrally between the running rails to the standard 
position laid down by the Ministry of Transport, i.e., 16 in. 
outside the running rail. As many as 6,445 yards of new 
conductor rail have been laid. The standard arrangement 
of conductor rails incidentally enabled the Waterloo and 
City trains to be tested on the surface lines of the Southern 
Railway. 

February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 






In order to reduce noise to a minimum, the running rails 
have been welded into 315 ft. lengths, involving 544 welded 
joints. Noise absorbing shields will also be experimented 
with after the new rolling stock has been brought into use. 
These shields will be fitted between the lower portion of the 
coaches and the tunnel walls. New lighting in the tunnels 
has been installed on a semi-automatic principle, and colour- 
light signalling has been introduced. Tickets are no longer 
issued on the trains, as four automatic ticket-issuing ma- 
chines have been provided at -each station, as well as three 
booking offices at Waterloo and one at the Bank station. 

Powers have been obtained for the construction of 
escalators at Bank Station, and a low-level subway giving 
direct access to the London Passenger Transport Board 
Central London Line ; but, owing to the war, this section of 
the work has been deferred. 

The Waterloo and City Railway is only 1 mile 46 chains 
long. The line was opened in August, 1898, and it carries an 
average of 30,000 passengers daily, most of them, of course, 
during the business rush hours. 

DISPATCHER ON THE AIR 

From Transit Journal (Albany, N.Y.) December, 1940 

Realizing that time is becoming increasingly important 
in all aspects of transit operation, the Brooklyn & Queens 
Transit division of the New York City Transit System has 
streamlined its dispatching system through the establish- 
ment of two-way radio communication. 

The Brooklyn & Queens surface system serves an area 
approximately 8 by 16 miles, using about 1,235 street cars 
and 300 buses. In addition to a headway recorder system for 
checking the passage of cars at various control points, about 
175 street supervisors are used, some being assigned to 
twenty Chevrolet radio patrol cars. 

Each car is handled by one man and carries fuses, cable, a 
10-ton jack and other equipment, enabling the patrol 
inspector to handle almost any emergency from equipment 
repair to the removal of heavy traffic obstructions. Patrol 
districts include both street car and bus routes, and are 
divided on a basis of amount of work involved. Inspectors 
are men of long experience ; they work on nine-hour shifts. 

Ten of the patrol cars are equipped with 15-watt trans- 
mitters and receiving sets, both similar to those used on 
police patrol vehicles; the other ten cars have receivers only. 
In addition, receiving sets are installed on four heavy 
emergency trucks, on two lines department automobiles 
and on two autos of the surface track department. Two- 
way installation on only half of the cruisers was intended to 
provide a test of the real need for two-way talk. Four 
months' operation indicates that the need for two-way 
equipment is vital, because when the dispatcher calls a 
one-way car he either "sits on a hot seat" until he gets a 
clearance over the telephone, or makes an additional call to 
a nearby two-way cruiser to get an immediate answer, with 
the result that two-way cruisers get two to three times 
more work to do. 

The dispatching radio equipment, furnished by Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, consists of a 
50-watt central transmitter, remote control equipment in 
the dispatcher's office and four remote receivers spaced to 
pick up talk from the 15-watt transmitters on the patrol 
cars. The central transmitter is located at emergency head- 
quarters approximately in the heart of the system. Its 
antenna is mounted on top of the building and rises 240 ft. 
above street level. Although low in power, the transmitter 
has given adequate coverage of the entire area, and system 
officials are quite satisfied with the results, though they 
had been warned it might not be sufficient to do the job. 
Experience indicates a minimum of "shadowed" area (where 
reception is difficult) and that most of these could not be 
materially reduced even with a considerably more powerful 
transmitter. 



BOMBER VS. BATTLESHIP 

From Trade & Engineering (London) December, 1940 

The Attack at Taranto 

The great success last month of the torpedo and bomb 
attack by aircarft of the Fleet Air Arm against units of the 
Italian Navy as they lay at anchor in Taranto harbour has 
revived once more the old controversy of the bomber versus 
battleship. This controversy raged for years before the war, 
and no satisfactory decision was ever arrived at. Those 
whose life had been spent in the Navy were firmly convinced 
that the battleship would always be able to hold its own; 
those who knew how devastating a bomb, delivered accur- 
ately from an aircraft, could be, were equally convinced 
that the ship would suffer severe damage if it did not sink 
altogether. 

The first year of war would appear to have shown that 
each side was right to a certain extent. There have been 
cases of capital ships being hit and suffering little damage; 
there have been others of a bomb sending the ship to the 
bottom. It is certainly clear that smaller warships, such as 
destroyers, cannot hope to be any match for a bomber. 
About the effect of a torpedo delivered from an aeroplane 
there has never been much controversy. It was obvious 
that if only the torpedo-carrier could get into position the 
torpedo would destroy its target. The only doubt was 
whether the attacking aricraft would be able to live through 
the hail of fire which would be sent up by the ships. 

Torpedoes dropped from the air are of the usual naval 
type, but slightly modified to enable them to be carried 
by a bomber. But the technique of a torpedo attack is 
entirely different from that of bombing. Bombs can be 
discharged against a ship either in a dive or in the orthodox 
manner, and from any height, although a ship is notoriously 
a most difficult target to hit if it is on the move. In this 
case the ships at Taranto were in harbour, and constituted 
an ideal objective. 

To attack an objective with a torpedo is a hazardous 
task, for, carrying this weighty and cumbersome cargo, an 
aircraft cannot adopt evasive tactics, but must fly in a 
straight line. It must also come down to a height consider- 
ably less than 100 ft. and is consequently exposed to the 
fire of the light anti-aircraft guns with which all warships 
are equipped. Once it has been "fired" from the aircraft 
the torpedo moves forward under its own power, as it does 
after being fired from a submarine or destroyer. 

The success of the Fleet Air Arm in this action has 
demonstrated the necessity of having ship-borne aircraft 
with every unit of the Fleet. Italy does not possess a single 
aircraft-carrier, and, before the war in the Mediterranean 
is over, she will no doubt have good cause to regret it. 
Had she possessed Fleet fighters, the Italians would no 
doubt have been able to minimize the effects of the raid. 
As it was, she had to rely entirely on the light guns on the 
ships, and they were able to bring down only two of the 
attackers. Aircraft-carriers are admittedly very vulnerable 
to attack from the air, but the Fleet Air Arm is now equip- 
ped with such splendid fighters that they would be able to 
give adequate protection against any force which Italy 
could muster. 

It is doubtful whether any naval air service possesses 
such a first-rate aircraft as the new Fairey Fulmar. It has 
been described in many quarters as a "large Hurricane," 
but it would be much more accurate to describe it as a 
"baby Battle" — the younger brother of the bomber made 
by the same firm. In performance the Fulmar stands high 
above the older aircraft in use with the Fleet Air Arm. 
Not only has it a useful speed in the air but it also possesses 
another necessary attribute for a ship-borne aeroplane in 
having a low landing speed. 

The success of the Fleet Air Arm in the Mediterranean 
may go a long way towards minimizing the advantage 
which the Italians enjoy in operating so near home, and 
may have far-reaching effects on the result of the war in 
the Middle East, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



87 



TEST ROAD COMPARES BASES OF VARYING 
THICKNESS 

From Engineering News Record (New York, N.Y.), January, 1941 

Highway bases of eight types, some stabilized with 
cement, some with asphalt and some untreated, are being 
tried out on a test road near Sacramento, Calif., under 
supervision of the California Division of Highways. The 
purpose is to make comparative tests of the different 
low-cost road designs and materials with a view to selecting 
the most economical base, under light traffic, both with 
regard to first cost and subsequent maintenance costs. A 
feature of this project is the placing of the road bases to 
be tested in strips 100 ft. long, varying in thickness from 
the minimum that could be considered practicable, to a 
thickness that should withstand all ordinary wear, thus 
giving an indication of how the failure progresses and at 
which thickness the several types are adequate to render 
service under the test loads that are used. 

The test road is of oval shape with two 200-ft. tangents 
whose ends are connected by semicircular arcs. Each of 
the two tangents, which are 15 ft. wide, contains four 7J4 by 
100-ft. test panels, thus putting a different base under each 
of the two wheel tracks. Subgrade for the entire test section 
was prepared by excavating a trench in underlying hardpan 
and placing therein a 6-in. layer of clean, porous sand and 
screenings with pipes for admitting water. Over the sand is 
a 12-in. cover of soil with very low bearing value (saturated 
bearing value 5 per cent or less) . 

On this foundation the base materials were placed, in- 
creasing the thickness uniformly from a 3-in. base (plus a 
2-in. surface) to an 18-in. thickness, also with a 2-in. 
surface. The point at which failure of maximum thickness 
occurs is expected to indicate the comparative strength and 
serviceability of the different types of construction, and 
direct observation should show how much benefit derives 
from the various forms of stabilization. 

The eight bases comprise : 

(1) Crusher-run base (untreated) with a minimum bear- 
ing value of 100 per cent. 

(2) Cemented gravel mixture (untreated) with a 50 per 
cent bearing value. 

(3) Same as (2) stabilized with 5 per cent emulsified 
asphalt. 

(4) Same as (2) stabilized with 6 per cent portland 
cement. 

(5) Sand-clay mixture (untreated) with a 15 per cent 
bearing value. 

(6) Same as (5) stabilized with 5 per cent emulsified 
asphalt. 

(7) Same as (5) stabilized with 6 per cent Portland 
cement. 

(8) Same as (5) stabilized with 5 per cent of a special 
cut-back asphalt. 

Over the entire test area a plant-mixed asphalt surfacing 
2-in. thick was laid to protect the surface and to insure 
uniformity of load application. Subgrade base and bitumi- 
nous wearing surface were compacted to the same extent 
as under favourable construction conditions. 

Before the test was begun, water was put into the sand 
layer until water level rose to the underside of the layer of 
low-bearing-value soil. Thereafter the water inflow was 
continued at a rate just sufficient to maintain the water at 
this level until complete saturation of the 12-in. layer of 
soil had occurred as the result of capillary attraction. 

When the subgrade saturated in this way, a loaded truck 
was started around the track, using first the legal load limit 
(17,000 lb. on the rear axle). Under this load failures in the 
thinner sections occurred too rapidly for satisfactory obser- 
vation and the rear axle loading was reduced to 12,000 lb. 
The test load is operated around the track at 15 m.p.h. 

Each failure of the road surface is repaired as it develops, 
after noting position and character of the failed area. Thus 
the surface is maintained constantly in good condition in 



order that no sound area may be prejudiced by pounding 
resultant from adjacent broken areas. 

Tests were begun in the fall and were continued for 
15,000 passes of the truck before closing down for the 
winter. During the rainy season it is expected that all bases 
and subgrades will take up a comparatively high percent- 
age of moisture (the California Division of Highways has 
found this to be the case even in arid climates like Imperial 
Valley) and thus in the spring after all materials have had 
an opportunity to absorb moisture from winter rains as 
well as by capillarity, the test will be continued to obtain 
data for final conclusions. Officials of the Division of 
Highways have stated that until the tests have been com- 
pleted, results will not be considered conclusive. 

THE INSTITUTION AND AUSTRALIA'S 
WAR EFFORT 

From Journal of the Institution of Engineers, (Australia), July, 1940 

Considerable progress has been made in connection with 
the R.A.A.F. Preliminary Training Scheme developed with- 
in The Institution to provide facilities for the preliminary 
training in educational subjects, of recruits for the Royal 
Australian Air Force. 

This scheme originated in a suggestion made by Mr. 
H. R. Halliday, b.e., a.m. i.e. Aust., to the Minister for 
Air that, to enable the period between enlistment and en- 
trance to a training camp to be employed usefully, facilities 
should be provided Air Force recruits for "brushing up" 
those subjects of which an intimate knowledge is imperative 
if the recruit is to thoroughly absorb the specialized in- 
struction he is later to receive. 

In the provision of these facilities the Sydney Division 
of The Institution offered its full co-operation. The offer 
was accepted and, in consultation with the Educational 
Officer of the R.A.A.F., representatives of the Great Public 
Schools of Sydney and members of the Institution are de- 
voting their time to the conduct of classes which all persons, 
accepted for service as air crews, are invited to attend. 

No less than 477 members of the Sydney Division have 
offered their services in this connection, and at the present 
time 45 groups each comprising from 10 to 12 recruits, 
have been organized and are attending the classes arranged. 

Both day and evening classes are held, and these are 
located throughout the various suburbs of Sydney, so that 
recruits who are still continuing their civil employment 
pending their call-up, may attend a class most conveniently 
situated to their place of residence. 

The day classes occupy four half days each week, these 
being conducted at the headquarters of various engineering 
establishments, both governmental and private. The staffs 
of the organizations concerned have been freed to give 
necessary instruction. 

The evening classes are conducted on three evenings in 
each week, each class occupying two hours, and these are 
held in the Great Public and State schools, church halls, 
various public halls, gas and electric light companies' show- 
rooms and even the apprentices' room at one of the Sydney 
race-courses. Classes are being now organized in many towns 
throughout the State. 

The subjects covered in the classes held include arithmetic 
algebra, logarithms and trigonometry, mechanics and 
physics. Each subject, or section, is subdivided into 16 
lessons with five revision lessons, and the whole course is 
designed to be covered, either by correspondence or in 
class work, in 21 weeks. The four sections of the work are 
studied concurrently. 

The scheme has been extended recently to include the 
educational training of artisans and mechanics required for 
the ground engineering staffs or in the production shops. 
In this extension the Sydney Technical College is directly 
co-operating, and is engaged in the training of ground 
staffs, i.e., fitters, air craft hands, etc. 



88 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



NEW WORKS LIGHTING INTENSITIES 
RECOMMENDED IN REPORT 

From Industrial Power and Fuel Economist (London) October 1940 

The Departmental Committee on lighting in factories has 
recommended a new standard of intensities, and many 
installations have automatically become out of date. 

The recommended minimum of lighting intensity is 
raised from 1 foot-candle at floor level to 6 foot-candles at 
3 ft. above the floor. In some situations a lower intensity 
is permissible, but for most working areas this figure is the 
minimum. 

Such an increase cannot be achieved by any haphazard 
decision as indiscriminately to fit higher power lamps. 
Existing lighting points and mounting heights should be 
used to fullest advantage, so ensuring a minimum disloca- 
tion of production and careful use of available materials, 
but a planned lighting scheme should be advised. 

For general lighting, this can usually be mostly carried 
out by an arrangement of dispersive fittings. Each instal- 
lation, however, has its peculiarities, and scientific applica- 
tion of principles by knowledgeable engineers is necessary. 

For instance, where bays are relatively narrow in relation 
to their height, the fitting of dispersive reflectors at full 
height in accordance with too general a rule would result in 
undue wastage of light on walls, particularly if they have a 
low reflection factor. The simple solution is to mount dis- 
persive reflectors at a convenient height something less 
than the maximum possible. 

Combining Overhead and Side Lighting 

In large bays where fittings need to be mounted above 
the cranes, it is advisable to fit concentrating type reflectors. 
The light distribution will then be such that illumination on 
horizontal surfaces is likely to be very much greater than 
that on a vertical plane, and so it is usually desirable to 
combine the overhead lighting with side lighting by suitable 
mounted angle reflectors. See Fig. 1. 

Besides arrangement of fittings, another major problem 
of lighting planning is the choice of a light source. High 
pressure mercury vapour electric discharge lamps, such as 
Osira lamps, suit most industrial purposes, their efficiency 
being 38-45 lumens per watt, according to the wattage. 
Their higher visual acuity compared with tungsten lamps is 
a great asset, and the almost complete absence of red rays 
is a definite advantage in many production fields such as 
steel machine work. 

Fluorescent electric discharge lamps have practically the 
same efficiency and they, or a combination of discharge 
lamps and tungsten lamps, will avoid an unpleasant facial 
appearance — sometimes a merit where female labour is 
employed. 

Local Lighting 

The need for high intensities in carrying out fine detail 
work with high accuracy has made local lighting increasingly 
popular. It cannot be emphasised too strongly, however, 
that this should always be supplementary to general 
lighting, and in no way supersede it. Brightness at the 
working level must not exceed ten times that of the sur- 
roundings or a tendency to eyestrain due to the need for 
ocular adjustment will be created. A further point to 
remember in maintenance is that the type of fitting neces- 
sary for local lighting requires very frequent cleaning, as it 
is nearly always installed near moving machinery. 

A new lamp known as the Osira 5 ft. mains voltage fluores- 
cent tubular lamp has many characteristics, especially in 



colour values, which make it worth consideration under 
this heading. The light colour is so near to day light that 
operatives find it extremely pleasant. Colour discrimination 
is very good, and fine detail easily distinguishable. The 
surface brightness is low, making it possible to utilise low 
mounting heights for high intensity local lighting. Their 
linear construction ensures heat dissipation over a wider 
area than is possible with a discharge lamp — a valuable 
factor in local lighting, because it minimises discomfort 
of the operative. 

The result of applying knowledge involving such elements 
as have been described is well summarized in the following 
table. 

Productive Value of Better Lighting 

Increase of 
Process Foot-candles Production 

Old system New system Per cent. 

Typesetting by hand.. . . 1.3 20 24 

Foundry 2.5 7 7.5 

Tile Pressing 1 3 6 

Silk Weaving 50 100 21 

Lathe Work 12 20 12 

Post Office (Sorting) .... 3 6 20 

Wire Drawing 3 9 17 

Roller Bearing Manufac- 
ture 5 20 12 . 5 

These figures are taken mainly from investigations carried 
out by the Government and show clearly how beneficial can 
be any efforts to assist the frequently overtaxed worker's 
eye. 

Mixing Day and Artificial Light 

An interesting aspect of sicentific lighting which arises 
from Black-out conditions is the manner of mixing day and 
artificial light. No matter how effective artificial lighting 
may be, there is an adverse subconscious effect upon 
workers who operate entirely under its influence during 
daylight hours. It is not feasible to exclude the psychological 
value of daylight per se, but prime requirements for welfare 
are bright or cheerful surroundings. 

The admission of daylight is naturally ideal, since it is 
distributed from the sky with equal intensity in all direc- 
tions, and provides a large upward component overhead in 
the form of reflected light off the ground. The proportion 
of daylight is not important, as the amount does not need 
to contribute measurably to actual working light. Where 
removable shutters were substituted for blackened win- 
dows after complaints by workpeople, the operatives 
troubled only to remove some of the shutters saying "just 
a little daylight makes all the difference." In this instance, 
artificial light was provided for workers during the day as 
well as at night. 

It is suggested, therefore, that where daylight can be 
introduced by the installation of sliding doorways, adjust- 
able blinds, roof ventilators, etc., this should be done. 
Should this be impossible, a cheerful lighting effect as well 
as one of high intensity should be achieved, because fatigue 
of the worker in a permanently blacked-out building is 
probably largely induced by the knowledge that daylight 
is present outside, and this induction will be the greater 
wherever lighting is notably "artificial." 

When blending artificial light with daylight, electric 
discharge lamps are better than tungsten lamps. Also, for a 
given amount of light the heat developed is about a third 
of that of the necessary tungsten lamp installation, and 
the temperature is less liable to be raised to uncomfortable 
levels. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



89 



From Month to Month 



THE PRESIDENT SUFFERS AN ACCIDENT 

The injury to Dr. Hogg, which occurred three days ago 
at Toronto on January twentieth, has turned out to be 
less serious than was at first feared. Just as the Journal 
goes to press a telegram from Toronto conveys the encour- 
aging statement: "Appears to be no real anxiety as to 
ultimate recovery." 

Although full details are lacking, it seems that the Pres- 
ident was hit by a motor truck while crossing the street at 
the Royal York Hotel, where he had attended the Empire 
Club luncheon to the Governor General. He suffered 
severe head injuries, but X-ray examinations showed there 
was no concussion. 

It is too early to foretell the length of incapacitation 
that will follow, but it is certain that he cannot be at the 
Annual Meeting. This will be a great disappointment to 
him and to all members. 

Frequently, an accident such as this gives startling proof 
of the esteem in which a person is held. No sooner was the 
news of the accident made public than inquiries began to 
pour into Headquarters. Beyond any doubt, our president 
occupies a position of unusual importance and prominence, 
both in the affairs of the country and in the hearts of those 
who know him. On behalf of the entire membership, the 
Journal extends to him sympathy and good wishes. 

PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Elsewhere in this issue are the reports of various prize 
committees announcing the awards for 1940. In addition 
to these, Council announces the award of the Sir John 
Kennedy Medal to Lieut. -General A. G. L. McNaughton, 
and the inaugural awards of the Julian C. Smith Medal to 
eight members of the Institute. 

The Sir John Kennedy Medal is awarded "as a recognition 
of outstanding merit in the profession." It is apparent that 
a more deserving selection could not be made than Lieut.- 
General A. G. L. McNaughton. It is expected that arrange- 
ments for the presentation will be made through the senior 
engineering institutions in England. 

The establishing of the Julian C. Smith medal was an- 
nounced in the October Journal. It is appropriate that the 
memory of such a staunch supporter of the Institute should 
be perpetuated within the Institute by this excellent en- 
dowed medal. It is further appropriate that the initial 
awards should include members who were associated with 
Mr. Smith in many of his interests. 

The medal is given for "achievement in the development 
of Canada," an objective which was always close to the 
heart of Mr. Smith. The inaugural announcement contains 
the names of several persons, although it is intended that 
for the future the honour shall be restricted to one award a 
year. Herewith is the list, and a brief account of the attain- 
ments which prompted the committee and Council in 
making the selection. 

W. D. Black, of Hamilton, Ont., b.a.Sc, Toronto, 1909, 
President of the Otis-Fensom Elevator Co. Ltd. President 
of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association in 1938. Mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee, Bank of Canada. Patron 
of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra. Trustee, Leonard 
Foundation. Vice-President of the Allied War Supplies 
Corporation. 

R. J. Durley, of Montreal, Que., b.sc. University Col- 
lege of London, 1887; Ma.E., McGill University, 1898. 
Secretary-Emeritus of the Engineering Institute of Canada. 
Author of "Kinematics of Machines." Professor of Mechan- 
ical Engineering at McGill University (1901-12); Secretary, 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association (1919-25); 
Secretary of Engineering Institute of Canada (1925-1938). 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 



Member of Council and Chairman of the Canadian Ad- 
visory Committee, Institution of Civil Engineers (1940). 

Augustin Frigon, of Montreal, Que., I.C., Ecole 
Polytechnique, Montreal, 1909; M.I.T. Boston, 1909-10; 
Ecole Supérieure d'Electricité, Université de Paris, E.E. 
1921 and D.Sc. 1922. Assistant Manager of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation. Author of many engineering 
reports. Member of Royal Commission on Radio Broad- 
casting (better known as Aird Commission), 1928-1929. 
Member of Electricity Commission, Province of Quebec 
(known as Lapointe Commission) 1934-35. President, 
Quebec Electricity Commission, 1935-36. President of 
Corporation de l'Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal. 

F. W. Gray, of Sydney, N.S. St. George Technical 
School, graduated in coal mining '98. hoii.ll.d., Dalhousie, 
1937. Assistant General Manager, Dominion Steel & Coal 
Corporation. Author of "Coal Fields and Coal Industry in 
Eastern Canada," and "Undersea Coal Mining." A staunch 
supporter of professional engineering bodies. President of 
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1932. 

Sir Herbert Holt, of Montreal, Quebec, d.c.l., Bishop's 
College, and ll.d. McGill. . Chairman of the Board Royal 
Bank of Canada, and Montreal Light Heat & Power Cons. 
Director in a large number of corporations. Governor 
of McGill University, and the Montreal General Hospital. 
President of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal. 
Established Herbert S. Holt Foundation in 1934. 

R. S. Lea, of Montreal, Que. b.sc 1890, Ma.E. 1893, 
McGill. Consulting engineer. Author of many important 
engineering reports. Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, 
McGill University (1893-1902). Adviser to Ontario Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission and certain federal and pro- 
vincial governmental departments in connection with river 
problems. 

Beaudry Leman, of Montreal, Quebec, b.sc. University 
of Lille, France, and McGill University. Dr.c.sc. University 
of Montreal, 1934. President and managing director of 
Banque Canadienne Nationale, and director of several im- 
portant companies. Past president of the Canadian Bank- 
ers' Association. Member, Canadian Advisory Committee 
on St. Lawrence Waterway. Member, Allied War Supplies 
Corporation. 

C. A. Magrath, of Victoria, B.C. ll.d., Toronto, 1926. 
Retired. For many years, practised as irrigation engineer 
and land surveyor in western Canada and North-West 
Territories. Member of Legislature of N.W.T., 1891-1902. 
Member of House of Commons of Canada, for Medicine 
Hat, 1908-1911. Identified in advisory and executive posi- 
tions on many governmental commissions and boards. 
Chairman of Canadian Section, International Joint Com- 
mission 1914-1935. Chairman, Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario, 1925-1931. 

It is hoped that all prize winners can attend at Hamilton 
and receive their honours before their fellow members. 

MEETING OF COUNCIL 

Minutes of a meeting of the Council of the Institute, 
held at Headquarters on Saturday, January 18th, 1941, at 
ten-thirty a.m. 

The secretary read a letter from General McNaughton 
expressing his sincere appreciation of the great honour 
which the Institute had conferred upon him in the award 
of the Sir John Kennedy Medal. The secretary was directed 



90 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



to communicate with the secretaries of the Institutions in 
London to see if arrangements could be made for the pres- 
entation to take place at some joint function in London. 

It was noted with appreciation that Lieut. -Col. C. G. 
DuCane, o.b.e., a prominent member of the Institute in 
London, had consented to represent the Institute on the 
occasion of the presentation of the James Watt Medal of 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers to Professor Stodola 
on January twenty-fourth. 

Mr. Newell, as chairman of the Finance Committee, re- 
viewed briefly the financial statement for the year 1940 as 
prepared by the auditors. The figures were very similar to 
those of last year, and showed an operating surplus of a 
little over $3,000.00, which was substantially more than 
had been anticipated in the budget. Arrears of fees and 
current fees had kept up very well; Journal advertising 
and subscriptions were practically the same as last year; 
general expenses were down about $700.00, and rebates to 
the branches were a little less than last year, due to the 
co-operative agreements with the Professional Associations. 
It was decided to appropriate an additional $1,000.00 to 
the building reserve fund. 

The satisfactory condition of the finances of the Institute 
was noted with appreciation, and on the motion of Mr. 
Wardle, seconded by Colonel Grant, it was unanimously 
resolved that the report of the Finance Committee and the 
financial statement be accepted. 

The report of Council for the year 1940, the treasurer's 
report, and the reports of the various Institute committees, 
were taken as read and accepted for presentation to the 
Annual Meeting. 

The general secretary presented a letter from Mr. 
Gaherty, chairman of the Institute's Committee on Western 
Water Problems, which accompanied the report of that 
committee. In view of the international significance of the 
report, and of the definite recommendations which are made, 
it was decided it should be printed and copies sent to all 
councillors so that a complete discussion could be held at 
the annual Council meeting in Hamilton. 

The report of the Past-Presidents' Prize Committee re- 
commended that the prize be not awarded this year. This 
report was accepted. 

The committee had also considered at some length the 
question of how best to stimulate interest in this prize, 
which up to now had been unsatisfactory. Following dis- 
cussion, it was finally decided that Past-President Challies 
be asked to discuss the matter with the other past-presi- 
dents and see if the rules governing this award could not 
be revised so as to create a greater interest. 

On the recommendation of the Duggan Medal and Prize 
Committee, it was unanimously RESOLVED that the 
Duggan Medal and Prize for the year 1940 be awarded to 
M. S. Layton, jr. e. i.e., for his paper "Coated Electrodes in 
Electric Arc Welding." 

On the recommendation of the Gzowski Medal Com- 
mittee, it was unanimously RESOLVED that the Gzowski 
Medal for the year 1940 be awarded to Elizabeth M. G. 
MacGill, M.E.i.c, for her paper, "Factors Affecting the Mass 
Production of Aeroplanes." 

On the recommendation of the Plummer Medal Commit- 
tee, it was unanimously RESOLVED that the Plummer 
Medal for the year 1940 be awarded to O. W. Ellis for his 
paper, "Some Developments in Alloys during the last 
Twenty Years." 

On the recommendation of the Leonard Medal Commit- 
tee, it was unanimously RESOLVED that the Leonard 
Medal for the year 1940 be awarded to R. G. K. Morrison, 
m.c.i.m.m., for his paper, "Points of View on the Rock 
Burst Problem." 

The reports of the examiners regarding Students' and 
Juniors' Prizes were received and approved as follows: 

John Galbraith Prize to W. C. Moull, s.e.i.c, for his 
paper "The Electrification of a Modern Strip Mill." 



Ernest Marceau Prize to Marc Trudeau, s.e.i.c, for his 
paper "Points Fixes et Lignes d'Influence." 

Phelps Johnson Prize to Léo Brossard, s.e.i.c, for his 
paper "Geology of the Beaufor Mine." 

H. N. Ruttan Prize: no papers received. 

Martin Murphy Prize: no papers received. 

The membership of the Nominating Committee of the 
Institute for the year 1941, as submitted by the various 
branches, was noted and approved. It was unanimously 
RESOLVED that Professor R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c, of 
Regina, be asked to accept the chairmanship of this com- 
mittee. 

The annual reports of the various branches were received 
for presentation to the annual meeting. 

A Striking Committee was appointed to make recom- 
mendations regarding the chairmen of the various Institute 
committees for the year 1941. 

Dr. Challies reported that he had recently attended a 
meeting of the executive committee of the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development at New York. He 
explained that at that meeting it was announced that 
E.C.P.D. had been asked to continue the work of the Com- 
mittee on Professional Ethics which had been inaugurated 
by the American Engineering Council. The executive asked 
the Institute to name a representative to this committee, 
and after consulting Dr. Surveyer, who was also in New 
York, Dr. Challies had tentatively proposed Professor C. R. 
Young. He now asked Council's approval of that recom- 
mendation, which was unanimously given. 

Mr. Perry, chairman of the House Committee, reported 
that the contract for underpinning the Headquarters build- 
ing had been awarded to A. F. Byers & Company Limited, 
the lowest tenderer. He gave a detailed description of the 
work, which was now well under way. 

Considerable time was spent discussing the proposal 
which had been made to the Department of Labour by the 
joint committee of three secretaries representing the 
Engineering Institute of Canada, the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgy and the Canadian Institute of 
Chemistry, a copy of which had been mailed to every 
councillor. It was decided unanimously that Council ap- 
proved of the principle involved and was agreeable to offer- 
ing any constructive assistance within its power. The secre- 
tary was instructed to inform the Deputy Minister to that 
effect. Council also asked the general secretary to continue 
to represent the Institute in this matter. 

The general secretary reported that during his recent 
visit to the Victoria Branch a suggestion had been made 
by the councillor and others that the branch hold a profes- 
sional meeting at Victoria. Council was quite interested 
in this proposal, but decided that it should be left to the 
consideration of the incoming Council and Finance Com- 
mittee. 

A number of applications were considered, and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 

Admissions 

Members 6 

Juniors 3 

Affiliates 1 

Students 18 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 3 

Student to Member 1 

Student to Junior 11 

Affiliate to Member after passing examina- 
tion under Schedule "C" 1 

It was noted that the next meeting of Council would be 
held in Hamilton on Tuesday, February 5th, 1941, at ten- 
thirty a.m. 

The Council rose at one-fifteen p.m. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



91 



DOMINION COUNCIL 

The Annual Meeting of the Dominion Council of Pro- 
fessional Engineers was held at the Royal York Hotel, 
Toronto, on January 20th and 21st. The president of the 
Council, D. A. R. McCannel, m.e.i.c, of Regina (represent- 
ing the Saskatchewan Association), occupied the chair. 
Others present included: Professor R. E. Jamieson, m.e.i.c, 
(Quebec) ; F. W. W. Doane, m.e.i.c, (Nova Scotia) ; C. C. 
Kirby, m.e.i.c, Honorary President, (New Brunswick); 
W. P. Dobson, m.e.i.c, (Ontario); P. Burke-Gaffney (Mani- 
toba); Professor H. R. Webb, m.e.i.c, (Alberta); F. W. 
MacNeill (British Columbia) ; and Major M. Barry Watson, 
m.e.i.c, Secretary-Treasurer of the Council. 

Mr. S. R. Frost, m.e.i.c, President of the Ontario Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers, welcomed the representatives 
of the various provinces and offered them the assistance 
and facilities of the Association. 

Among the reports presented to the Council were the 
reports of the Committees on the Admission of Foreign 
Engineers; Licensing of Engineers; the Construction Indus- 
try in Canada; National Defence and the Profession; and 
the Training of Young Engineers. 

The Council reports that there is a definite shortage al- 
ready of engineers in Canada and it is now necessary to 
allocate such engineering talents that we have. It expressed 
its willingness to assist in undertaking such distribution. 
According to the Council, insufficient guidance is being 
given to young men entering the engineering profession 
and it was resolved that the various Associations should 
offer guidance to high school students in regard to the 
duties and the necessary qualifications of an engineer, in 
order to cut down on the high percentage of failures in the 
various engineering colleges of the country. The Committee 
on the Training of the Young Engineers is co-ordinating its 
work with that of other engineering organizations. 

D. A. R. McCannel of Regina was re-elected president 
of the Council for the year 1941. The other members of 
the Executive are the vice-president, the member from 
Quebec (not yet named); and W. P. Dobson of Toronto. 
Major M. Barry Watson was re-elected as secretary- 
treasurer. 

The next meeting of the Council is to be held in St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1942. 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on January 18th, 1941, the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 

LeBel, Paul, b.a.sc, (CE.) (Ecole Polytechnique), consltg. engr., 
technical services, Imperial Oil Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Lloyd, Warren G., b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), divn. plant engr., 
western divn., Bell Telephone Company of Canada, Toronto, Ont. 

Metcalfe, Neil, b.sc. (Univ. of Wales), chief metallurgist, Burlington 
Steel Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

McCavour, Samuel Thomas, b.sc. (C.E.), (Univ. of N.B.), chief 
engr. and joint mgr., The Great Lakes Paper Co. Ltd., Fort Wil- 
liam, Ont. 

Packard, Royal Day, s.b. (Mass. Inst. Tech.), chief engr., Brown 
Corporation, La Tuque, Que. 

Saunders, Melville Sydney, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), topographic 
engr., Tropical Oil Company, Colombia, S.A. 

Juniors 

Ain, Joseph, B.Eng (Civil), (McGill Univ.), instr'man., Dept. of 

Transport, Montreal, Que. 
Crandall, Seymour Arnold, b.s. in Mining (Mich. Coll. of Mining), 

Creighton Mine, International Nickel Co. of Canada, Copper Cliff, 

Ont. 
Rahilly, Thomas Francis Jr., b.sc. (Mech.), (Queen's Univ.), master 

mechanic, blast furnace dept., Algoma Steel Corporation Ltd., 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Affiliate 

Milligan, Gordon Herald, commercial representative, Calgary Power 
Company, Edmonton, Alta. 



Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 

Lamoureux, Marcel, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), asst. engr., Dept. Public 

Works Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 
Piché, Joseph Alphonse Arthur, b.a.sc, (CE.) (Ecole Polytechnique), 

asst. engr., Dept Public Works Canada, Quebec, Que 
Pooler, Gilbert Douglas, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), asst. inspr., arms 

inspection br., Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 

Ansley, Fred G., b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), field engrg., Ford Motor Co. 
of Canada, Windsor, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 

Baird, Malcolm Francis, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of N.B.), asst. lamp 

engr., Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont. 
Boone, Harold Percival, b.sc. (Univ. of N.B.), apparatus corres- 
pondent, Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont. 
Brown, Ernest F., B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), junior mech. 

engr., Royal Canadian Mint, Dept. of Finance, Ottawa, Ont. 
Chambers, Robert, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), field engr., Shaw- 

inigan Engineering Company Ltd., Shawinigan Falls, Que. 
Clarke, Bruce Porteous, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), asst. hoist engr., 

Canadian Ingersoll Rand Co., Lennoxville, Que. 
Dufour, Gaston, b.a.sc, (CE.) (Ecole Polytechnique), engr., Alu- 

mium Co. of Canada, Arvida, Que. 
Foster, Ian McLeod, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), mech. engr., Brown 

Corporation, La Tuque, Que. 
Guénette, Joseph Antoine Paul, b.a.sc. (CE.), (Ecole Polytechnique) 

asst. res. engr., Dept. of Roads, Montreal, Que. 
Meagher, Robert Douglas, B.Eng. (Chem.), (McGill Univ.), gas plant 

operator, British American Oil Co. Ltd., Montreal East, Que. 
Miller, Alex. Matthew, b.sc. (Civil), B.Eng. (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. 

Coll.), refractory engr., Dominion Steel & Coal Corporation, Sydney, 

N.S. 
Shatford, Ralph Grant, B.Eng. (N.S. Tech. Coll.), cracking coil 

inspr., Imperial Oil Limited, Dartmouth, N.S. 

Students Admitted 

Anderson, James Douglas (McGill Univ.), 3525 University Street, 
Montreal, Que. 

Batanoff, George Boris, (Univ. of Sask.), 202 Clarence Ave. South, 
Saskatoon, Sask. 

Bogle, Roy Thomas, b.a.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of B.C.), 426 Park St., 
Peterborough, Ont. 

Borrowman, Ralph Willson, B.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), 1192 
Wolseley Ave., Winnipeg, Man. 

Carty, Desmond Geoffrey, (McGill Univ.), 160 Waverley St., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Covo y Stramba, Peter Victor, (McGill Univ.), 3653 University St., 
Montreal, Que. 

Eddy, Robert Cheyne, (Queen's Univ.), 406 Johnson St., Kingston, 
Ont. 

Fleming, John Patten, (Univ. of Toronto), 61 Foxbar Road, Toronto, 
Ont. 

Gareau, Leo Eugene Arthur, (McGill Univ.), 5509 Durocher Ave., 
Outremont, Que. 

Gordon, Abraham Isaac, (McGill Univ.), 1343 Lajoie Ave., Outre- 
mont, Que. 

Gordon, John A., (McGill Univ.), 534 Prince Arthur St. W., Mont- 
real, Que. 

Johnston, John Smyth, (Queen's Univ.), 15 Daniel St., Smiths Falls, 
Ont. 

Leduc, René, b.a.sc. (CE.), (Ecole Polytechnique), Dept. of Roads, 
Montreal, Que. 

Miller, Justin Ormond, (McGill Univ.), 3506 University St., Mont- 
real, Que. 

Simpkins, Arthur G, (McGill Univ.), First St., Sunny Brae, N.B. 

Tremblay, Gérald René, (Ecole Polytechnique), 6880 De Laroche 
St., Montreal, Que. 

Wein, Harry Garrick, (McGill Univ.), 1621 Ducharme Ave.. Outre- 
mont, Que. 

Yosipovitch, Joseph, (McGill Univ.), 661 Querbes Ave., Outremont, 
Que. 

NATIONAL DEFENCE AND U.S.A. 

To assist the national defence programme and industry in 
general in providing urgently needed engineers, Cornell 
University launched a nation-wide quest for fifty of Amer- 
ica's best qualified secondary school seniors to be trained as 
engineers. They will be awarded John McMullen Regional 
Scholarships in Engineering this spring. The scholarships 
carry variable stipends up to $400, a year throughout a four 
or five-year course in the College of Engineering. 

Dean S. C. Hollister announced recently that application 
blanks and instructions were mailed to more than 3,000 
principals and headmasters throughout the United States. 



92 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Personals 



C. D. Harrington, m.e.i.c, vice-president and general 
manager of Anglin-Norcross Corporation, has recently been 
elected president of the Montreal Board of Trade. Since his 
graduation from McGill University in 1907 he has always 
been engaged in construction work, first with the firm of 
Byers and Anglin and later with Anglin Limited. 

Wing Commander T. R. Loudon, m.e.i.c, professor of 
applied mechanics at the University of Toronto has recently 
been promoted from Squadron Leader to this rank and 
appointed chief technical officer of the Flight Research 
Establishment at Ottawa. He was previously in command 
of the School of Aeronautical Engineering established last 
year at Montreal under the British Commonwealth Air 
Training Plan. 

Douglas S. Ellis, m.e.i.c, professor of civil engineering 
at Queen's University, Kingston, Ont., was recently ap- 
pointed head of the department of civil engineering succeed- 
ing the late Professor W. P. Wilgar. 

Colonel N. C. Sherman, m.e.i.c, chief ordnance mechani- 
cal engineer, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, has 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



gineers and contractors. Mr. McGinnis is now the owner 
of the firm. 

R. E. Heartz, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected chairman of the 
Montreal Branch of the Institute. Born at Marshfield, 
P.E.I., he graduated from McGill in 1917 with the degree 
of b.sc, and immediately after graduation was employed 
by the St. Maurice Construction Company at La Loutre, 
on the construction of the Gouin dam. Later in the same 
year he enlisted with the Royal Air Force, received his 
commission early in 1918, and was appointed flying in- 
structor, being demobilized in 1919. In that year he joined 
the Fraser-Brace Engineering Company, Ltd., and was em- 
ployed on the construction of the Big Eddy dam on the 
Spanish river. Mr. Heartz became resident engineer at La 
Gabelle development on the St. Maurice river in 1922, 
having joined the staff of the Shawinigan Engineering 
Company in 1920. He was resident engineer on the St. 




C. D. Harrington, M.E.I.C. 

been appointed commandant of the R.C.O.C. Training 
Centre, Kingston, Ont. 

Past Presidents J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, and Arthur 
Surveyer, m.e.i.c, attended the Executive Meeting of the 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development held in 
New York City on January 4th, 1941. 

Major M. Barry Watson, m.e.i.c, has been appointed 
second in command of the University of Toronto contingent 
of the Canadian Officers' Training Corps. He will also con- 
tinue as chief instructor of the unit. 

T. A. McGinnis, m.e.i.c, was recently elected chairman 
of the Kingston Branch of the Institute. Born at Belleville, 
Ont., he was educated at Queen's University, Kingston, 
where he received his degree in 1909. After graduation he 
engaged for a few years in railway surveys and construction. 
In 1907, he became resident engineer at the Canada Cement 
Company plant near Belleville, Ont., later becoming oper- 
ating superintendent. From 1911 to 1914, he was construc- 
tion engineer for the same company at various plants. From 
1914 to 1918, he was managing director of Missisquoi 
Marbles Limited, Philipsburg, Que. In 1918, he became 
senior member of the firm McGinnis and O'Connor, en- 




It. E. Heartz, M.E.I.C. 

Narcisse development on the Batiscan river in 1924-1925, 
and in 1926 was transferred to Montreal for investigating 
preliminary design of hydro-electric developments. In 1927, 
Mr. Heartz was appointed resident engineer of the Paugan 
Falls development on the Gatineau river, and since the 
completion of that undertaking has been connected with 
the design and construction of different hydro-electric pro- 
jects. He is at present assistant chief engineer of the Shaw- 
inigan Engineering Company. 

R. B. Herbison, m.e.i.c, who was with the firm of Glen- 
fieJd and Kennedy Limited, Kilmarnock, Scotland, is now 
a member of the Observer Corps and a lecturer in anti-gas 
measures, high explosive and incendiary bombs with the 
defence services in Scotland. Mr. Herbison was at one time 
mechanical designer and field engineer in the mechanical 
department of the Dominion Bridge Company, Lachine, Que. 

Victor Meek, m.e.i.c, has recently been appointed con- 
troller of the Dominion Water and Power Bureau in the 
Department of Mines and Resources at Ottawa. Mr. Meek 
had been assistant controller since 1924. 

Norman Marr, m.e.i.c, chief hydraulic engineer of the 
Dominion Water and Power Bureau in the Department 
of Mines and Resources at Ottawa, has been appointed 
assistant controller, succeeding Mr. Meek. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



93 






John Morse, M.E.I.C. 



J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C. 



P. S. Gregory, M.E.I.C. 



Past-President J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C, has been appoint- 
ed, last month, vice-president and executive engineer of 
The Shawinigan Water & Power Company, Montreal. Dr. 
Challies has been with the company since 1924, when he 
resigned the position of Director of the Dominion Water 
and Power Bureau at Ottawa to accept a professional 
appointment with Shawinigan. 

P. S. Gregory, m.e.i.c, has been appointed vice-president 
in charge of sales and promotion with the Shawinigan Water 
& Power Company, Montreal. He joined the firm in 1918, 
having been previously connected with the Electrical Com- 
mission of Montreal and the Montreal Tramways Company. 

John Morse, m.e.i.c, is one of the new vice-presidents of 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company of Montreal, and is 
in charge of operation. Mr. Morse has been with the com- 
pany since 1907, having successively occupied the positions 
of superintendent of operation, general superintendent and 
assistant general manager. 

C. H. McL. Burns, m.e.i.c, chairman of the Niagara Pen- 
insula Branch of the Institute, who has been works manager 
and manager of the two Welland forging plants of the 
Canada Foundries and Forgings Ltd., for the last six and a 
half years, is at present associated with the Federal Foun- 
dries and Steel Company Ltd., in rehabilitating and bringing 
into production the old London Rolling Mills plant at 
London and the Sandwich Foundry at Windsor, recently 
acquired by this newly organized company. The Federal 
company expects to be in production within a few weeks 
and will produce S.A.E. rolled sections at London and grey 
iron and steel castings on a production basis at Windsor. 
Mr. Burns is associated in this work with the Brant Com- 
pany of Detroit, specialists in industrial engineering and 
management. 

Leslie Mackay, m.e.i.c, was appointed, last August, gen- 
eral superintendent and acting general manager of the 
Manitoba Power Commission, Winnipeg. He was graduated 
from the University of Manitoba in 1927. From 1929 to 
1931 he was assistant resident engineer on the construction 
of Slave Falls power house for the Winnipeg Hydro-Electric 
System. He joined the Manitoba Power Commission in 1932 
as secretary and assistant to the manager. 

R. F. McAlpine, m.e.i.c, has returned to the Halifax office 
of Wm. Stairs Son & Morrow Limited, after having spent 
a few years as manager of the Cape Breton branch of the 
company. Mr. McAlpine joined the firm as a sales engineer 
upon his graduation from the Nova Scotia Technical Col- 
lege in 1928. 

John Pringle, m.e.i.c, left last month for Trinidad, 
B.W.I., where he expects to stay for about a year in charge 



of work of a special nature. He was graduated from the 
University of Toronto in 1916 and, after serving in the 
last war with the Royal Engineers, he engaged in con- 
struction work in this country and in the United States. 
In this connection he supervised the erection of large 
apartment houses in New York City. In 1930, he became 
president of his own general contracting and real estate 
business in New York City. Mr. Pringle returned to Canada 
last year. 

S. Stephenson, m.e.i.c, is now overseas with the 1st Can- 
adian Pioneer Battalion, Royal Canadian Engineers. Pre- 
vious to his joining up he had been for the last few years 
connected with the Whiting Corporation in Toronto. 

P. J. Colgan, jr.E.i.c, has joined the Royal Canadian Air 
Force and is, at present, stationed at Toronto. Previous to 
enlisting he was with the Cosmos Imperial Mills at Yar- 
mouth, N.S. 

J. B. Bryce, jr.E.i.c, has left the National Research 
Council to accept a position in the hydraulic department 
of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario at 
Toronto. 

J. M. A. Crowe, jr.E.i.c, who was a demonstrator in 
hydraulics in the department of mechanical engineering in 
the University of Toronto, is now located in Colombia, 
S.A., with the Tropical Oil Company. 

John W. Wright, B.E.l.c, who was recently connected 
with Defence Industries Limited at Parry Sound, Ont., is 
now working in the aircraft division of the National Steel 
Car Corporation at Malton, Ont. 

R. E. Jess, s.E.i.c, is now training as a pilot with the 
Fleet Air Arm in England. Previous to enlisting he was a 
student in engineering at McGill University. 

E. R. Davis, s.E.i.c, is now production manager of the 
Control Apparatus Division of Railway and Power Engi- 
neering Corporation Ltd., at Toronto. He was previously 
electrical engineer with the Dominion Engineering Works, 
Montreal. 

S. D. Levine, s.E.i.c, is on the inspection staff of the 
British Purchasing Commission and is stationed at the 
Republic Steel Corporation in Buffalo, New York. He was 
graduated from the University of Toronto in 1939. 

Guy Savard, s.E.i.c, has joined the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons at St. Johns, Que., as a lieutenant. He was gradu- 
ated from Royal Military College, Kingston, in 1937 and 
after a period of post-graduate work in Paris returned to 
Canada with the Canadian Liquid Air Company at 
Montreal. 



94 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

Captain V. R. Davies, M.E.i.c, Royal Military College, 
Kingston, Ont., on December 28th. 

G. F. St-Jacques, m.e.i.c, Engineer, Provincial Public 
Utilities Board, Quebec, on December 28th. 

Jean Morency, Jr. e. i.e., Inspector, Quebec Bureau of 
Mines, from Quebec on December 31st. 

Marcel Papineau, s.E.i. c, from Noranda, on December 
28th. 

Professor H. E. T. Haultain, m.e.i.c, University of 
Toronto, from Toronto on January 3rd. 

Paul Vincent, m.e.i.c, Secretary-Treasurer of the Quebec 
Branch, from Quebec on January 6th. 

Georges Gravel, S.E.I.C, and Rosaire Saintonge, S.E.I.C., 
from Sherbrooke, Que., on January 9th. 

David Hutchison, m.e.i.c, Manager, Mackenzie River 
Transport, Hudson Bay Company, from Edmonton, Alta., 
on January 16th. 

Paul E. Russ, m.e.i.c, President, Spun Rock Wools 
Limited, from Thorold, Ont., on January 24th. 

John C. Oliver, m.e.i.c, Registrar, Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of British Columbia, from Vancouver, 
B.C., on January 24th. 

R. J. Chambers, m.e.i.c, Mechanical Engineer, Gaspesia 
Sulfite Company, Ltd., from Chandler, Que., on January 
27th. 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

David Williams Burpee, m.e.i.c, died at Fredericton, 
N.B., on November 3rd, 1939. He was born at Sheffield, 
N.B., on July 31st, 1875. His preliminary education was 
obtained in the grammar schools and his technical educa- 
tion through correspondence courses. He joined the Can- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers as an associate member in 
1904 and became a full member in 1910. He was a member 
of the American Engineering Association from 1906 to 1919. 
The greater part of his career was spent in railroading 
which he started in 1896, becoming chief engineer of the 
E.M.M.R. in 1914. Following this, he spent two years as 
a mining engineer in Newfoundland, returning to Canada 
in 1917 to join the staff of the New Brunswick Highway 
Department as a district engineer. In 1920 he resigned to 
become chief engineer of the Bangor and Aroostook Railway 
but later returned to the N.B. Highway Department, where 
he remained until 1926. From that time until 1928 he was 
with the Canada Steamships Ltd., retiring, on account of 
ill health, to his home in Fredericton, N.B., where he was 
able to do a limited amount of work at his avocation, 
cabinet making and repair, until his death. 

Ernest Milton Salter, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at his home 
at Toronto on December 12th, 1940. He was born at Auburn, 
N.Y., on November 17th, 1889, and he was educated at 
the University of Toronto where he was graduated in 1911 
in civil engineering. Upon graduation he became engaged 
in railway construction with the Canadian Northern Ontario 
Railway at Nipigon. In 1914 he joined the Greater Winnipeg 
Water District as a draughtsman and after a few months 
became resident engineer on railway construction. In 1915 
he was assistant engineer on aqueduct construction for the 
Greater Winnipeg Water District. In 1919 he joined the 
Imperial Oil Company as a mechanical engineer at Sarnia, 
Ont., and later went to British Columbia where, for some 
years, he was general superintendent of the Imperial Oil 
Refinery at loco. He resigned this post because of ill health 



in 1930 and returned to Toronto, joining the manufacturing 
department. Two years later he was appointed safety en- 
gineer at the Sarnia refinery, leaving that post in 1938. 
Mr. Salter was supervising engineer at Malton airport near 
Toronto from February to July, 1940, at which time he 
was made supervising engineer at St. Catharines airport 
which position he occupied at the time of his death. 

Mr. Salter joined the Institute as a Student in 1911 and 
was transferred to Junior in 1912. He became an Associate 
Member in 1916. 

Athol Choate Wright, m.e.i.c, died at his home at Ottawa 
on January 5th, 1941. He was born at Hull, Que., on Septem- 
ber 2nd, 1879, and was educated at Ottawa Collegiate Insti- 
tute. For a period of five years from 1899 he was engaged in 
mining and surveying in western Ontario and British Col- 
umbia. In 1903 he became connected with the construction 
of the National Transcontinental Railway, first as an instru- 
ment man. He became resident engineer in 1908 and later 
occupied the same position with the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way until 1914. From 1916 to 1919, he was overseas with 
the Royal Canadian Engineers and returned with the rank 
of captain. He then entered the Department of the Interior 
at Ottawa as an assistant hydraulic engineer. In 1933 he 
became connected with the National Parks of Canada, in 
the same department, and in 1935 he was made superin- 
intendent of Jasper National Park. He returned to Ottawa 
in 1938 and became attached to the Parks Branch of the 
Department of Mines and Resources. He had retired from 
this position last June. 

Mr. Wright joined the Institute as a Student in 1908 
and was transferred to an Associate Member in 1919. He 
became a Member in 1922. 



COMING MEETINGS 

The Engineering Institute of Canada — Fifty-fifth 
Annual General and Professional Meeting to be held at 
Hamilton, Ont., on February 6th and 7th. Secretary, 
L. Austin Wright, 2050 Mansfield St., Montreal, Quebec. 

American Institute of Mechanical Engineers — Annual 
Meeting, New York, Engineering Societies Building and 
Commodore Hotel, February 17th to 20th. Secretary, 
C. E. Davies, 29W., 39th St., New York. 

Ontario Good Roads Association — Annual Convention, 
Royal York Hotel, Toronto, February 26th to 27th. 
Secretary, T. J. Mahony, Court House, Hamilton, Ont. 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy — 

Annual Meeting, Montreal, March 10th to 12th. Secretary, 
E. J. Carlyle, Drummond Bldg., Montreal. 

Corporation of Professional Engineers of the Province 
of Quebec — Annual Meeting, Montreal, March 29th. 
Registrar, C. L. Dufort, 354 Ste-Catherine St. East, 
Montreal. 

The American Ceramic Society — 43rd Annual Meeting, 
Lord Baltimore Hotel, Baltimore, Md., March 30th to 
April 5th. 

Electrochemical Society — The 79th Annual Meeting to 
be held at the Hotel Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, April 16th 
to 19th. 

American Water Works Association — Annual Conven- 
tion, Royal York Hotel, Toronto. June 22nd to 26th. 
Secretary, Harry E. Jordan, 22 E 40th St., New York. 

Canadian Electrical Association — 51st Annual Con- 
vention, Seigniory Club, Quebec, June 25th to 26th, 
Secretary, B. C. Fairchild, 804 Tramways Building, 
Montreal. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



95 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

H. L. Johnston, m.e.i. c. - Secretary-Tieasurtr 
A. H. Pask, Jr.E.i.c. - - Branch News Editor 

The Annual Meeting of the Border Cities Branch was 
held on December 6th in the Prince Edward Hotel at 
Windsor, and began with a dinner at 6.30 p.m. Following 
this was a business meeting and the election of officers for 
1941. 

The chairman, Mr. J. F. Bridge, then gave the chair to 
Mr. T. H. Jenkins who proposed a toast to Mr. J. Clark 
Keith. Mr. Bridge presented Mr. Keith with a gold e.i.c. 
pin. Mr. Keith gave a short speech of thanks and presented 
the branch with a bronze plaque of the e.i.c. crest. This was 
received by Mr. Bridge who replied for the branch. 

Mr. Jenkins with a few words on the history behind the 
branch reminded those present that this was the 21st 
anniversary of the organization of the Border Cities Branch. 
He then introduced as historian Mr. 0. Rolfson, a charter 
member, to outline the history of the branch. 




J. B. Keith presents the Border Cities Branch with a replica of 
the Institute's crest. 



Mr. Rolfson told of the first meetings of organization 
beginning with an informal meeting held in the office of 
Mr. A. J. Stevens on January 17th, 1919. Mr. Stevens was 
elected chairman. On January 23rd formal application for 
the establishment of a branch was voted and signed by 
20 Members and Associate Members. This was approved 
on February 25th and the group authorized to form a 
branch. Final elections were held on March 28th. 

Mr. Rolfson recounted the names of many prominent and 
widely known members. He gave biographical sketches of 
several of these, many of whom have passed on. 

Following the talk Mr. Bridge was again given the chair. 
The meeting adjourned on the motion of Mr. Jenkins 
seconded by Mr. F. J. Pollock. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 



B. W. PlTFlELD, Jr.E.I.C. - 
J. F. McDoUGALL, M. E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Mr. R. E. Allen, chairman of the Petroleum and Natural 
Gas Conservation Board of Alberta, addressed the Decem- 
ber meeting of the Edmonton Branch on the evening of 
December 10th. He was introduced to the meeting by Dr. 
J. A. Allan of the Department of Geology of the University 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



of Alberta. His topic was Some Aspects of Oil Conser- 
vation in Alberta. 

He defined conservation as efficient production to prevent 
waste. As examples of conservation practised by modern 
men he mentioned forest and soil conservation. Forests are 
essentially a crop that can be replaced and soil can be remade 
and fertility returned. However, when dealing with petro- 
leum we are dealing with a material that cannot be replaced 
or at the present time substituted. Every oil field is a 
liquidating asset as soon as it is found. 

He mentioned how in 1923 many new fields were dis- 
covered in California and because of limited pipe lines 
capacity the old pumping fields were shut down. The new 
fields were depleted with horrible waste. By 1925 it was 
necessary to once again produce oil from the pumping 
fields. It was found that these old wells were in much 
better condition after their long rest. 

In 1929, more California fields were discovered, and in 
the light of previous experience were operated more effi- 
ciently and oil conservation was started on a pro-rata basis. 
It was not until 1931 that sufficient data was available to 
show that conservation meant a longer life for a field, as 
well as a longer and greater income. 

One of the principal savings due to conservation is a 
longer flowing well which in turn means cheaper overall 
production. He pointed out how it is necessary for oil wells 
to have sufficient energy in the form of gas pressure to bring 
the oil out of the producing sand and to the surface. Many 
wells have sufficient natural energy, if conservation is prac- 
tised, to bring to the surface from 93 to 94 per cent of the 
entire quantity of oil contained in the sand, Improper pro- 
duction could easily reduce this to 50 or 55 percent. 

Mr. Allen then dealt with a five-point programme for 
efficient production. He outlined these points as follows: 

1. Adoption and use of the optimum rate principle by 
which a field is operated at a rate which will permit the 
greatest production in its entire life. 

2. Reservoir pressure regulation. This is necessary for 
the conservation of the underground energy. 

3. Development of an economical drilling programme. 

4. Let a field produce only what the market can absorb 
and prevent dumping. 

5. Prevent disturbing pressures in the industry such as 
an unreasonable profit motive. 

In speaking of the Alberta situation he stated that at 
present the greatest need is for the development of more 
fields because conservation is easier to apply when the 
supply is ample. 

He also pointed out how Alberta oils are limited in their 
competition with other oils because of high transportation 
costs. The eastern limit of the Alberta market is Portage-la- 
Prairie. A reserve of 200,000,000 barrels would be necessary 
to build a pipe line to Winnipeg, and the present Turner 
Valley reserve of 85,000,000 barrels is far from sufficient. 

He stated that Alberta oils are also limited in competition 
with foreign oils because of high production costs. Most 
of the drilling equipment comes from the United States 
and high duties and unfavourable exchange at the outset 
mean a 60 per cent differential handicap. 

At the close of the paper Mr. C. E. Garnett moved a 
hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Allen. Twenty-five members 
were present at the meeting. Chairman E. Nelson presided. 



96 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



HALIFAX BRANCH 



L. C. Young, m.e.i.c. 
A. G. Mahon, m.e.i.c. 



Sea etary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The Annual Meeting of the Halifax Branch of the Insti- 
tute was held at the Nova Scotian Hotel, Friday evening, 
December 20. 

Branch Secretary L. C. Young read retiring Chairman 
Charles Scrymgeour's report of the past year's activity, 
which included the signing of the co-operative agreement 
between the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Nova Scotia. Three meetings were held during 
the year, at which guest speakers addressed the members 
of the branch. 

The secretary reported on the financial standing at the 
end of the fiscal year, and Scrutineers, H. W. Mahon and 
G. V. Ross, advised the chairman on the result of election 
of new officers for the coming year. S. L. Fultz was elected 
chairman, with J. A. MacKay, Dr. A. E. Cameron, Pro- 
fessor A. E. Flynn, D. G. Dunbar and J. F. MacKenzie 
replacing the retiring members of the executive. At this 
point in the meeting, retiring Chairman Charles Scrymgeour 
turned the chair over to S. L. Fultz. 

There was considerable discussion as to the advisability 
of holding the joint meeting of the A.P.E.N.S. and the 
Halifax Branch of the E.I.C. this year. It was decided, 
however, that this function would take place as in the 
past, with some curtailment of entertainment. 

The main feature of the evening was an address by Mr. 
Charles Scrymgeour, followed by moving pictures on the 
subject of Fire Control in the Oil Refining Industry. 
The address was exceptionally interesting and outlined the 
methods by which fire was avoided and fought in modern 
oil refining plants. The picture was provided by the Imperial 
Oil Company, and it well illustrated the speaker's remarks, 
showing actual conflagrations and the operation of oil fire 
fighting equipment. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

A. R. Hannaford, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
W. E. Brown, jï.e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

The annual business meeting was held at the Rock Gar- 
den Lodge on the evening of Monday, January 6th, 1941, 
when 63 members and guests were present. C. E. Sisson 
brought best wishes from the Toronto branch, for a success- 
ful Annual General Meeting in Hamilton in February and 
promised every support from Toronto. 

The meeting was presided over by Alex. Love, the retir- 
ing chairman. After a very enjoyable dinner, the guest 
speaker, a gentleman travelling under the name of Colonel 
Beauchemin, who had arrived too late to take dinner with 
us owing to a presumed motor accident, gave a very inter- 
esting talk on British relations with the French, but to- 
wards the end of the talk it became evident that the dis- 
guise was hiding none other than T. S. Glover, m.e.i.c. 

The business of the branch was now carried on. W. A. T. 
Gilmour was elected chairman, S. Shupe, vice-chairman, 
A. R. Hannaford, secretary-treasurer. Executive Commit- 
tee: H. A. Cooch and A. C. McNab for two years and 
T. S. Glover and C. H. Hutton remain for one year. W. E. 
Brown is re-elected as assistant secretary and branch news 
editor. 

After the business was completed Alex. Love handed the 
chair over to the new chairman, W. A. T. Gilmour. 

A very hearty vote of thanks was given to the retiring 
chairman for the excellent work carried out during his term 
of office, and in his reply he thanked the executive and all 
members for the support so willingly given to him on all 
occasions. 

In the interval between some very good musical numbers, 
door and other prizes were given out including a useless 
old electric stove and a broken down radio. However, be- 
hind this nonsense was a keen knowledge that our country 



is at war and with this in mind five partially filled in War 
Savings Certificates were given as other prizes. 

Dr. Burke of McMaster University, replying to a special 
vote of thanks from Mr. Love, said the University authori- 
ties were pleased to give the Branch facilities for its meet- 
ings, which are of such great advantage to the membership. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 

J. B. Baty, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

On October 31st, 1940, the Kingston Branch held its 
annual dinner and business meeting at the Queen's Students 
Union. Eighteen members and three guests were present. 
The chairman, Major G. G. M. Carr-Harris presided. The 
report of the secretary-treasurer was presented and ac- 
cepted. 

The following officers were elected: chairman, T. A. 
McGinnis; vice-chairman, P. Roy; secretary-treasurer, 
J. B. Baty; executive: V. R. Davies, K. H. McKibbin, 
K. M. Winslow, A. H. Munro; ex-officio: G. G. M. Carr- 
Harris. 

The general business and policy of the branch was dis- 
cussed. 

Major H. H. Lawson paid fitting tribute to the memory 
of the late Professor W. P. Wilgar, pointing out the import- 
ant role he had filled in the activities of Queen's University 
and of the Institute, and recalling that he had served as 
the first secretary of the Kingston Branch of the Institute. 

Mr. Louis Trudel, assistant to the general secretary, from 
Headquarters, reported upon the war activity of the Insti- 
tute, and described the work of the employment bureau 
and its close contact with both industry and the depart- 
ments of the government. He called special attention to the 
affiliation of The Engineering Institute of Canada with the 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development, and re- 
ported upon the good health and increased membership of 
the Institute. 

Major G. G. M. Carr-Harris, mechanical engineer, Royal 
Canadian Ordnance Corps, delivered an interesting address 
on Some Fundamental Engineering Principles as 
Applied to Mechanization. This was published in the 
December, 1940, issue of the Journal. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

H. M. Olsson, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
W. C. Byers, Jr. e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

The executive of the Lakehead Branch welcomed Mr. 
L. Austin Wright, general secretary, and Mr. J. A. Vance, 
a councillor of the Institute, on December 10th, at a 
luncheon held at the Royal Edward Hotel in Fort William. 
They were later escorted through the Canadian Car & 
Foundry Company plant and shown several points of in- 
terest at the Lakehead in company of the chairman, Mr. 
H. J. O'Leary. 

A general dinner meeting was held at 6.30 p.m., at the 
Shuniah Club, in Port Arthur, and 35 members and guests 
were present. 

The chairman called on Mr. J. A. Vance, who described 
the work of the Papers Committee and urged more exchange 
of speakers between the various branches, thus creating 
more interest at the meetings. 

Mr. Wright was then called on to speak, and told of the 
contribution being made by engineers throughout Canada 
toward the prosecution of the war and expressed the desire 
of the Institute members to extend their knowledge and 
skill in the present conflict. He stated that there are now 
over 5,100 members in Canada and abroad, and that the 
Institute can boast of a credit balance in the bank. Mr. 
Wright also told of the large number of important war 
posts that are held by members of the Institute. He told 
of the work being done to improve the status of the en- 
gineers. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



97 



Mr. R. B. Chandler tendered a vote of thanks to the 
speakers and Mr. P. E. Doncaster and Mr. J. Antonisen 
expressed their appreciation. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 



E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i.c. 
A. J. Branch, m.e.i.c. - 



Secretary-Ti easurer 
Branch News Editor 



The Lethbridge Branch of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada held its regular meeting on Wednesday evening, 
Nov. 6th, 1940, at the Marquis Hotel with W. Meldrum 
presiding. Routine business was first attended to, then 
members and visitors assembled to listen to the address 
of the evening. Among the visitors were A. D. McLean, 
Superintendent of Air-Ways, Civil Aviation Div., Dept. 
of Transport and Flight-Lieut. J. F. Grant, Assistant to 
Air Commodore Cowley. 

Mr. Knutson introduced the speaker, Ewan D. Boyd, 
Officer in charge of the Air Traffic Control Tower at Kenyon 
Field, who spoke on Air Traffic Control. 

At the close of his address Mr. Boyd, assisted by Mr. 
Paul Doyle of the Air Traffic Control Staff, showed on a 
screen a large number of pictures of various airports of the 
North American Continent: New York, Toronto, Winnipeg, 
Chicago, Detroit and Lethbridge. 

The number of questions asked of the speaker, after the 
address, was a good indication of the widespread interest 
in flying and all things connected therewith. 

G. S. Brown had the support of the entire meeting in 
moving that a vote of thanks be accorded Mr. Boyd. 

The meeting closed with the singing of the national 
anthem, after which refreshments were served by the staff 
of the Marquis Hotel. 

On Wednesday evening, December 18th, 1940, the Leth- 
bridge Branch of the Institute held its regular meeting in 
the Marquis Hotel. 

In conformity with custom this was Ladies' Night and 
a suitable programme had been arranged. 

In the unavoidable absence through sickness of the 
chairman of the branch, W. Meldrum, the meeting was 
presided over by J. M. Campbell. Following the singing of 
"0 Canada," about 40 members and guests sat down to an 
excellent dinner, which was further enhanced by the music 
of Mr. Geo. Brown and his orchestra. Following the dinner 
the meeting was entertained by Mrs. Cull's group of young 
ladies in a delightful rendering of Christmas carols and 
popular songs. Lethbridge may well be proud of Mrs. Cull 
and her young ladies, who have done such splendid work 
in a good cause over a period of years. The Chairman con- 
veyed to them the thanks and appreciation of the Leth- 
bridge Branch as they prepared to leave. 

After a short period of Community Singing led by Mr. 
R. S. Lawrence, and in which all joined, Mr. Chas. Daniel 
obliged with three songs which were much enjoyed. 

The Chairman tendered the thanks of the Lethbridge 
Branch to Mr. Geo. Brown and his orchestra, and to Mr. 
Daniel for their contribution to the entertainment of the 
meeting. He then proceeded to give the meeting a resume 
of the proceedings of the joint meeting of members of the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Alberta and mem- 
bers of the Engineering Institute of Canada, held in Calgary 
on Saturday, Dec. 14th, 1940, for the signing of the co- 
operative agreement. 

The chairman then called on J. T. Watson to introduce 
the speaker for the evening, J. G. Maxwell, traffic repre- 
sentative, Trans-Canada Air Lines. In introducing the 
speaker Mr. Watson paid tribute to Geo. Wakeman, general 
traffic manager, Trans-Canada Air Lines, Winnipeg, who 
had so kindly provided the films and equipment, and had 
arranged for a representative to come from Calgary to 
display them. 

Mr. Maxwell stated that Lethbridge, one of the first 
stations on the T.C.A. system, was a good business point 
for the T.C.A. To give an idea of the volume of business 



handled by T.C.A. he stated that it carries an average 
of 90,000 lb. of mail per month, and has a load average of 
70 per cent. Growth has been phenomenal and extensions 
of the service only await delivery of new planes which are 
expected in the next few months. 

In a brief explanation of the motion pictures to be shown 
the speaker said that one entitled "African Skyways" was 
released by British Overseas Airways, which despite the 
war was still maintaining its service to and across Africa; 
and that the other entitled "The Swift Family Robinson" 
was released by Trans-Canada Air Lines and was being 
shown for the first time in western Canada, both pictures 
being complete with 'sound.' 

"African Skyways" began with scenes of jungle life — 
elephants, giraffes, alligators, wart-hogs, hippopotami, and 
others, while from the 'sound' equipment came the chant- 
ing of natives, then followed scenes showing giant aircarft 
at various stages of flight across Africa from Alexandria to 
Cape Town; threshing with oxen, lifting water by hand for 
irrigation along the Nile, gold and diamond mines and 
native dances at Kimberley, how mail is delivered and col- 
lected at the "far flung outposts of Empire"; places which 
formerly could only be reached after arduous travel for 
several weeks by sea and land, now being reached by air 
travel in a few hours. The whole picture was filled with 
interesting glimpses of Africa and air travel across its vast 
distances. 

"The Swift Family Robinson" was a motion picture in 
colour depicting the flight by air of the Robinson family 
from Montreal to Vancouver. It showed many of the in- 
teresting features of such a trip as it followed the progress 
of the Robinsons across Canada, and gave those present 
a better conception of Canada's great accomplishment, 
"Trans-Canada Air Lines." 

Mr. Maxwell then expressed his willingness to answer 
questions, and the general interest in airways and flying 
was evident in the number of questions asked, all of which 
were ably dealt with by Mr. Maxwell. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Maxwell and Trans-Canada 
Air Lines was moved by C. S. Clendening, and heartily 
endorsed by all present. 

LONDON BRANCH 



Harry G. Stead, Jr. e. i.e. - 
John R. Rostron, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The regular meeting of the London Branch was held in 
the Board Room of the Public Utilities Commission, on 
Thursday evening, December 12th. The special speaker was 
Professor Robt. F. Legget, assistant professor of civil en- 
gineering at the University of Toronto, who chose as his 
subject, Engineering in the MacKenzie River Basin. 

The speaker first described the geography of the area, 
which indicated that the MacKenzie River is one of the 
eight major river systems of the world, second only in size, 
in North America, to the Mississippi. Its catchment area is 
about 682,000 sq. mi., as compared with the St. Lawrence 
basin of 498,000 sq. mi. From its source to its several mouths 
in the Arctic Ocean, the MacKenzie River is 2,525 mi. long. 
Great Slave Lake, which is the largest fresh water area in 
the region, has a surface of 12,000 sq. mi. It is the fourth 
largest great lake of the North American continent. 

Since the coming of the aeroplane in 1921, this region 
has opened up to the prospector, where formerly its ac- 
tivities were confined to the trapper and the Hudson Bay 
posts. To-day, industry has developed a salt well with 
processing plant, two water-power plants, five gold mines, 
an oil refinery, and the mine on Great Bear Lake, now not 
operating, from which radium was obtained. 

Professor Legget described the engineering features of 
these several activities, and especially referred to the diffi- 
culties in transportation from the commercial centre at 
Edmonton to the operations of these several industries. 



98 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



His address was illustrated with lantern slides, and the 
speaker was thanked by Chairman H. F. Bennett for his 
kindness in coming to London, and for the very excellent 
and informative address which he had given. 

Many of the 23 members and guests present took part 
in the discussion, and Professor Legget added much to his 
address by his informative answers. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



A. L. MALBY, Jr.E.I.C. 

E. Whiteley, s.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



R. K. Odell, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



An illustrated address on the Development of Mechani- 
cal Transport was presented at the noon luncheon of the 
branch on December 19, 1940. Major M. M. Evans, Tech- 
nical Staff Officer, Directorate of Ordnance Services, 
Department of National Defence, Ottawa, was the speaker. 

The automotive industry has been of tremendous help 
in solving the problems of design and production of mechan- 
ized units for the Canadian forces and for shipment over- 
seas, stated Major Evans. Among other things they have 
made available their personnel for this service almost to 
the point of crippling themselves. From this personnel has 
been drawn many of the present technical staff of the 
Department of National Defence that has to deal with 
mechanization. 

The work for the staff has been very heavy, particularly 
at first, with twelve-hour days the rule and Sunday also 
being utilized. However, within a year after war was de- 
clared, many thousands of vehicles manufactured in Can- 
adian plants have been shipped overseas and many more 
used in Canada for training and other purposes. 

In the first Great War, stated the speaker, there were no 
specialized vehicles for military purposes, and the com- 
mercial trucks used were not entirely satisfactory. So great 
was the need felt for special and more rugged types of 
vehicles that the British War Office, in common with other 
countries, started in to develop specialized military units, 
using the experiences of the war as a guide. In the mean- 
time, however, commercial vehicles themselves rapidly im- 
proved to such an extent that the War Office felt they 
could forgo their own investigations and use trucks and 
other vehicles right out of the factory. Then in the early 
30's they adopted the practice of specially designing the 
vehicles again but employing as many commercial parts 
as possible. 

The speaker, by the use of slides, illustrated the various 
types of vehicle equipment required, including equipment 
for the carrying of personnel, headquarters staff officers, 
wireless apparatus, machine gun units, anti-tank guns, and 
for hauling heavy artillery. In general much of the equip- 
ment has to have front wheel drive to obtain added trac- 
tion, a short wheel base, large tires to give flotation over 
soft ground, high clearance for rough ground, and every 
facility for easy manoeuverability. They should be able 
to operate in any climate and maintenance problems should 
be reduced to a minimum. 

In the manufacture of vehicles for the present war, 
special attention has been paid to the matter of standard- 
ization. The importance of this feature was stressed by the 
speaker, the idea being that the easy interchangeability of 
parts makes for rapid replacements or repairs whether in 
this country or overseas. 

Although many hurdles have had to be surmounted in 
carrying out the programme set down, stated Major Evans, 
progress has been good and, incidentally, costs have been 
kept below what would have been required for purely com- 
mercial vehicles had they been used for the purpose. Pro- 
duction is now going on in full swing with many orders 
being turned out for the British Government as well. 

W. H. Munro, chairman of the Ottawa Branch of the 
Institute, presided. 



For twenty years, the Annual Dinner has marked an 
anniversary of the founding of Peterborough Branch of the 
E.I.C. Each year has added to the tradition of the event 
until, like most birthday celebrations, it is now something 
to look forward to, and to remember. 

This year was no exception. Some 85 members and guests 
met at the Kawartha Golf and Country Club for the dinner 
on November 20th. 

Dr. Thomas H. Hogg, president of the Institute, was 
introduced to the meeting by Mr. G. R. Langley. Peter- 
borough Branch has been consistently fortunate in having 
the president at their annual dinner. Dr. Hogg outlined 
some of the present activities of the E.I.C. as a national 
organization. He mentioned the recent election of the E.I.C. 
to membership in the Engineer's Council for Professional 
Development, an important event in the life of the Institute. 
Progress was reported in the work of associating the E.I.C. 
and various provincial Associations of Professional Engi- 
neers, particularly in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Manitoba. 




Annual Dinner of the Peterborough Branch. 

These talks by the president are very helpful in bringing 
to each member a realization that the Institute is a national 
organization with activities beyond those of the local 
branches. 

Mr. De Gaspé Beaubien, treasurer of the Institute, and 
joint chairman of the National War Savings Committee 
then addressed the gathering, in the latter capacity, on 
the economic aspects of the present war savings scheme. 
A brief summary follows. 

There are very good reasons why the government issued 
War Savings Certificates as well as War Loan Bonds. The 
one appeals to classes that cannot be reached by the other. 
Also, the certificate appeals to savings in progress, the bond 
appeals to existing savings. They supplement each other. 

And there are broader economic reasons for the War 
Savings Certificate. In normal times the financial and 
economic equilibrium of the country is regulated by supply 
and demand; e.g., over production leads to lower prices 
and a slackening of production or increase in consumption 
which restores the balance. The war introduces abnormal 
factors. Quantities of new products are required and new 
industries spring up. The country's wages are increased by 
some $900,000,000 per year. At the same time old industries 
have part of their productive capacity diverted to war work; 
there are no more goods than normal to be bought, in some 
cases less. If people with enhanced purchasing power com- 
pete to buy these goods an increase in prices would be in- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



99 



evitable and the vicious spiral of rising wages and rising 
prices means inflation. This could easily paralyze industry, 
disrupt our capital structure, and lead to labour trouble, 
all of which must be avoided at a time when our factories 
must supply equipment that is as vital for victory as fight- 
ing men. 

The War Savings Certificate was designed to curtail in- 
flation by diverting present excess purchasing power. This 
can be done by taxation to a limited extent, but in a free 
country such as this one, the restraint in handling excess 
purchasing power is preferably voluntary. 

The National Committee supplies leadership, but actual 
selling and boosting of sales is done by local committees. 
Some 1,500 of these have been set up and are doing splendid 
work. All of this work, with the exception of a few full time 
workers at the Bank of Canada, is voluntary. 

Peterborough Branch is indebted to Mr. Beaubien for 
an inspiring insight into this phase of our national war 
effort. Economics can be dry, but Mr. Beaubien made this 
issue a living one for his hearers, very interesting and 
stimulating. 

There have been many annual dinners, all similar, yet 
each different. We will remember this 20th dinner for its 
association with Dr. Hogg and Mr. Beaubien, and for its 
minor but no less pleasant features — the stirring songs of 
Mr. Frank Oldfield, the reminiscing of Mr. C. E. Sisson, 
the stories of Mr. A. L. Killaly, and the notable introduction 
of Mr. Beaubien in both English and French by Mr. J. M. 
Mercier. 

"There be of them that have left a name behind them. . . " 

Those of us who live in city or district where street and 
place names are those of persons must have wondered about 
the people who are thus remembered. We wonder, but not 
often can we learn much about them. 

Just such an unusual opportunity was given to the mem- 
bers of Peterborough Branch at their meeting, December 5, 
1940. One of our members, Mr. J. W. Pierce, O.L.S., D.L.S., 
M.L.S., has spent many years as Land Surveyor in Peter- 
borough and the surrounding districts. In the course of his 
work he has fallen heir to notes and papers of the early 
surveyors of these parts and has made an interesting hobby 
of collecting them. With some of these old notes, letters, 
and maps as illustrations, Mr. Pierce addressed the branch 
on Early Surveys and Land Surveyors in Peterborough. 
It was a colourful story that everyone enjoyed a great deal. 
Though it cannot be reproduced as told, and it loses much 
if a reader is not familiar with the local background in it, 
a brief summary follows for the benefit of the historically 
minded among readers of the Journal. 

Surveys were begun in Ontario in 1783. 

The townships of Monaghan and Smith were surveyed 
in 1817 and 1818 by S. S. Wilmot. 

The town plot of Peterborough was laid out by Richard 
Birdsall in 1825. As happened in many Canadian cities, 
some streets followed the Indian portage trail, the rest 
were oriented to township lines. 

John Houston came next, a colourful figure, born in 
Ireland, 1790, and commissioned a land surveyor in 1820. 
He served as local supervisor in the settlement of Peter- 
borough district by Irish immigrants from 1825 on. He 
was a natural leader and besides being a surveyor was also 
justice of the peace, coroner, and later a major in the local 
militia. He surveyed the townships of Verulon and Methuen, 
and completed the survey of Peterborough in 1833-34. 

John Reid, born 1807 in Ireland, came to Canada in 1822 
and became a surveyor in 1837. He and his friend, Hon. T. A. 
Stewart, gave us our Reid street and Stewart street. As a 
surveyor, John Reid is remembered for his location of the 
north boundary of Peterborough in 1845 and the Burleigh 
road 1855. 

G. A. Stewart and Sandford Fleming were apprenticed to 
John Reid in his survey practice. The former moved to 
Port Hope and finally became first superintendent of Banff 
National Park. 



Sandford Fleming is well known as the engineer who gave 
us Standard Time. Mr. Pierce showed the meeting a repro- 
duction of a map of Peterborough which Sandford Fleming 
engraved and printed during one of his winters as an 
apprentice. It was a remarkable piece of draughtsmanship. 

Theodore and Mutius Clementi (whose father, Muzie 
Clementi, invented the pianoforte) were also among the 
apprentices with John Reid. They built the first of the now 
numerous summer cottages on beautiful Stony Lake. 

J. W. Fitzgerald (born 1828) became a land surveyor in 
1857 and came to Peterborough then. He did considerable 
work on the subdivision of townships around the city. 

The records show among these early surveyors also J. W. 
Junior, T. Hewson (born 1846, P.L.S. 1866, died 1898) and 
A. J. Cameron (born 1864, P.L.S. 1889, died 1912). 

No history of Peterborough would be complete without 
a mention of its famous lift lock. This was first suggested 
by a local man, Richard Birdsall Rogers (born 1857, P.L.S. 
1879), also one of the early surveyors of the district. 

During the discussion which followed Mr. Pierce's talk, 
our dependence on the landmarks left by these early sur- 
veyors was brought out, and incidentally, a project first 
sponsored by Mr. Pierce was mentioned — that of locating 
as far as possible the original marks of these early surveys 
and replacing the fast disappearing stones and trees on 
which these marks were made by more permanent concrete 
posts. The Ontario government had undertaken this worth- 
while task, but lately had allowed it to lapse. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

V. S. Chesndt - Secretary-Treasurer 

G. L. Dickson, from Moncton, was elected president of 
the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province 
of New Brunswick at the annual meeting, held January 14th 
at the Admiral Beatty Hotel, preceding the annual joint 
dinner of the association and the Saint John Branch of 
The Engineering Institute of Canada. Mr. Dickson succeeds 
G. A. Vandervoort of Saint John as president. 

Also elected to office were A. A. Turnbull, Saint John, 
as vice-president, and C. C. Kirby, Saint John, secretary- 
treasurer, while the following new councillors were elected: 
W. L. Lawson, Fredericton; A. R. Bennett, Moncton. Four 
councillors who still have another year to serve are V. C. 
Blackett, Moncton; R. K. Wills, Chatham; James T. Turn- 
bull, Saint John, and Mr. Kirby. 

J. P. Mooney, chairman of the Saint John branch of the 
Institute, presided over the dinner. The guest speaker was 
J. A. McCrory, vice-president and chief engineer of the 
Shawinigan Engineering Company, whose subject was 
The La Tuque Development in Quebec. 

Mr. McCrory gave an illustrated address on the hydro 
development project carried out on the St. Maurice river, 
a scheme which has taken on huge proportions in the last 
two years. A four-unit plant is now in operation each at 
50,000 hp. he said. Three had been in service continually 
since the plant was opened January 1st. 

The fourth unit was operating at capacity much of the 
time, as well. By the use of slides he traced the construction 
work from its start in 1938. The dam is 1,337 ft. long and 
100 ft. high. With completion of the construction con- 
tracts the entire facilities are now in the hands of the 
operators. 

About 40 years ago, said Mr. McCrory, the first develop- 
ment in this area was carried out with a delivery of about 
2,000 hp. to Montreal. With a view to bringing about the 
latest development a study was made of its possibilities 
in 1927. 

The speaker dealt extensively with the entire project 
and outlined the progress being made in La Tuque's con- 
tribution to wartime industrial needs as a result of the 
last two years' construction programme. 



100 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 



Stewart Young, m.e.i.c. 



Acting Secretary-Treasurer 



A joint meeting of the Saskatchewan Branch of the 
Institute and the Saskatchewan Association of Professional 
Engineers was held in the Kitchener Hotel, Regina, on 
Friday, December 20, 1940, with 44 members and guests 
in attendance. The speaker of the evening, G. T. Chillcott, 
District Airways Engineer, Department of Transport, gave 
a comprehensive picture of the advance made during the 
past year in Airport Construction in Saskatchewan. 
A hearty vote of thanks was tendered the speaker on 
motion of H. R. MacKenzie. P. C. Perry, Branch Chair- 
man, was in charge of the meeting. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 



O. A. Evans, Jr.E.i.c. 

N. C. COWIE, Jr.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The Sault Ste. Marie Branch of the Institute held its 
annual meeting on Friday, December 20th, in the Grill 
room of the Windsor Hotel. Twenty members and guests 
sat down to an appetizing turkey dinner at 7.30 p.m. 

The business portion of the meeting began at 8.15 p.m. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were read and adopted 
on motion of A. M. Wilson and A. E. Pickering. 

The secretary's report was then read and adopted on 
motion of L. R. Brown and A. E. Pickering. W. M. Reynolds 
then brought in the report of the Nominating and Scruti- 
neers Committee on the results of the election. The following 
were elected to office: E. M. MacQuarrie, chairman; L. R. 
Brown, vice-chairman; 0. A. Evans, secretary-treasurer; 
N. C. Cowie, resident executive; C. R. Murdock, of Kapus- 
kasing, non-resident executive. The chairmen of the various 
committees then brought in their reports. L. R. Brown and 
A. M. Wilson moved that W. M. Reynolds and N. C. 
Cowie be appointed auditors for the year 1941. F. Small- 
wood and N. C. Cowie moved that the secretary's honor- 
arium be paid. 

The society was then favoured by a short address by 
Judge MacDonald who left a few thoughts with members. 

The chairman then thanked the members for their 
co-operation during the year. C. Stenbol moved that the 
meeting be adjourned. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 



T. V. Berry, m.e.i.c. - ■ 
Archie Peebles, m.e.i.c- 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On the occasion of the visit to Vancouver of Dr. Thomas 
H. Hogg, president of the Institute, the branch held a 
dinner meeting at the Georgia Hotel on Monday, December 
16th. Forty-two members and guests attended, and bid 
welcome to Dr. Hogg and his party. Dean J. N. Finlayson, 
branch chairman, presided, and others at the head table 
included Dr. O. O. Lefebvre, Institute past president; J. A. 
Vance, chairman of Papers Committee; C. K. McLeod, 
councillor of the Institute and past chairman of the Montreal 
branch; L. Austin Wright, general secretary; Dr. E. A. 
Cleveland and Major G. A. Walkem, past presidents of 
the Institute. 

In a brief address, Dr. Hogg outlined the progress of 
negotiations towards the affiliation of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada with the various provincial Associations 
of Professional Engineers. An agreement has recently been 
concluded with the Alberta Association, which is the third 
province now having common membership arrangements 
with the Institute. 

In the opinion of the speaker, Canada will probably re- 
ceive a large influx of population from those countries of 
Europe which are now being subjected to the destructive 
agencies of war, and which will not be able to support their 
own people after the war is finished. People from countries 
which, through no desire of their own, have been over-run 
in the course of the war, will be anxious to get away from 



the scene of such destruction and the hardships which it 
will bring, and many of them will look towards Canada 
as a country offering them the opportunity to build a new 
home and enjoy it in peace. These people will bring with 
them industrial and agricultural skill, and perhaps capital, 
and will take part in a period of expansion in Canada, such 
as always takes place with an increase of population. While 
the future cannot be predicted beyond a certain period, if 
this post-war growth is based on sound principles, there is 
no reason why it should not continue for a long time. 

The engineering profession will share in this rehabilita- 
tion, and will also have to do its part in the reconstruction 
of those countries which are in the actual theatre of conflict. 

Other members of the visiting party also spoke briefly. 

Dr. Lefebvre recalled his previous visits to Vancouver 
with obvious pleasure, and pointed out that since his term 
of office as president of the Institute it had become a custom 
for that officer to visit the western branches. He also gave 
further information on the relations between the Institute 
and the provincial associations. He did not see any pertinent 
difficulties in the way of an agreement for common member- 
ship in British Columbia. In New Brunswick, those problems 
which had arisen have been satisfactorily solved, and the 
path is clear for such an agreement. A similar situation is 
progressing favourably in Manitoba. In Quebec and Ontario 
there is not yet sufficient demand for affiliation, although 
there is a large existing common membership. 

Mr. McLeod brought the greetings of the Montreal 
Branch, and hoped that a closer association of the branches 
might be brought about through the visits of members to 
other branches. 

Mr. Vance spoke of the difficulty of arranging a central 
clearing house for papers to be published in the Journal. 
He suggested that each branch should take the initiative 
in submitting worth-while papers and addresses given at 
its own regular meetings, for publication. He also stressed 
the value of communicating with headquarters and other 
branches when a member was travelling across the country. 
Engineers do a considerable amount of travelling as a group, 
and often overlook the value to be found in visiting members 
of other branches at such times. 

Mr. Wright spoke on the activities of the Council, and 
gave many examples of the problems which face it in the 
course of furthering the interests of the profession. Some 
of these difficulties are not widely known, as they are not 
discussed outside of council, but they exist, and require a 
great deal of time and effort in dealing with them. At the 
present time most of such problems have to do with the 
placing of technically trained men in the new industries 
arising out of war production. The necessity for a proper 
control of trained personnel is becoming greater every day, 
in order that war production shall not lag on account of 
inefficient placing of trained persons. Various government 
departments have control over such matters, so that it is 
necessary to secure co-operation between the government 
and the engineering profession. A great deal of work has 
already been done by the engineering societies, and it is 
felt that full and complete advantage of this has not yet 
been taken in the placing of engineers in their proper fields 
in the war effort. 

At the close of the meeting a motion was made by Mr. 
I. C. Barltrop to send the best wishes of the Vancouver 
Branch to Mr. R. J. Durley, secretary-emeritus of the 
Institute. This was unanimously carried. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

Kenneth Reid, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The presence of Dr. T. H. Hogg, president of the Insti- 
tute, and the general secretary, Mr. L. Austin Wright, at 
the ceremony of the signing of the agreement between the 
Alberta section of the Engineering Institute and the Associ- 
ation of Professional Engineers of Alberta in Calgary on 
December 14th presented the opportunity of an invitation 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



101 



being extended to the president and his party to pay a 
visit to the British Columbia branches as well, while in 
western Canada. Subsequently, arrangements were made 
for a general meeting of the Victoria Branch to be held in 
honour of President Hogg on the evening of December 
17th at the Pacific Club, Victoria. 

The meeting was preceded by a dinner at which twenty- 
six members and a few friends were present. The unfortunate 
circumstances necessitating the immediate return of Dr. 
Hogg to the East after visiting the Vancouver Branch was 
a very great disappointment to the Victoria members, 
however the presence of Past President Dr. O. 0. Lefebvre 
and Mr. J. A. Vance somewhat alleviated this keen regret. 
Mr. E. W. Izard, chairman of the Branch, presided at the 
dinner and meeting to which Dr. W. A. Carrothers, chair- 
man of the B.C. Public Utilities Commission, and Mr. H. D. 
Parizeau, Dominion hydrographer, were among the guests 
present. 

Following a few short business transactions, the chairman 
called upon Dr. O. 0. Lefebvre to address the meeting. Dr. 
Lefebvre spoke of his previous delightful experiences in his 
visits to the Coast, and the pleasure of escaping, if even 
for a short time, the cold and snow now being experienced 
on the Prairies and eastern Canada. He told of the meeting 
in Calgary and the signing of the agreement for the Alberta 
engineers, expressing the hope for an early movement of a 
similar nature in British Columbia and in certain other 
provinces of Canada. He mentioned the necessity for a 
proper classification of engineers, citing a number of abuses 
of the term which had recently come to his notice. The field 
of operations for the Institute and the Associations were 



outlined, the latter to regulate the practice of engineering 
and the Institute to promote engineering interests. 

The general secretary, Mr. L. Austin Wright, being asked 
to speak, told of the affairs of the Institute at Headquarters, 
stating that the membership had now exceeded the five 
thousand mark for the first time in fifteen years and that 
the finances were in very good condition. He expressed the 
regrets of Dr. Hogg at not being able to be present explain- 
ing the necessity of his sudden and hurried return to Ontario. 
Mr. Wright spoke of the great co-operation and assistance 
that the Institute was rendering to the Dominion govern- 
ment at Ottawa and of the many placements of highly 
qualified technical engineers in war services through this 
co-operation. He also mentioned a number of details in 
connection with the very successful meeting recently held 
in Calgary. 

The chairman next called upon Mr. J. A. Vance, who is 
at present chairman of the Institute's Papers Committee, 
to say a few words. Mr. Vance spoke of the work of his 
committee during the past year and particularly stressed 
the importance of branch visits and the exchange of speakers 
between adjacent or near branches. The value of keeping 
other branches informed of meetings and of the movements 
of engineers in their territory who might give addresses 
was stressed as an excellent means of stimulating the in- 
terest in the Institute and the branches. 

Brief addresses of welcome and expressions of thanks to 
the visiting speakers were accorded by Mr. F. C. Green, 
Mr. A. L. Carruthers, Mr. Kenneth Moodie, and Mr. H. D. 
Parizeau and thus terminated another very successful and 
interesting Victoria Branch meeting. 



Library Notes 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



LIST OF NEW AND REVISED 
BRITISH STANDARDS 

(Issued during October, 1940) 
B.S. No. 
436-1940 — Machine Cut Gears, A. Helical and Straight Spur. 
(Revision). 

This revision includes several important additions, and 
many improvements have been made in the charts in 
order to save time in calculations. 

693-1940 — Oxy-Acetylene Welding in Mild Steel. (Revision). 

This specification is now in line with the code issued by 
the London County Council with regard to the use of 
oxy-acetylene welding in London, and also includes some 
simplified tests which will be sufficient to ensure sound 
welding. 

789A-1940— Steel Tubes and Tubulars, Light-Weight and Heavy 
Weight Qualities. (Revision). 

To meet the urgent need for the utmost economy in steel 
consumption, this War Emergency British Standard has 
been prepared at the request of the Ministry of Supply 
to supersede the B.S. 789-1938. 

It provides for the replacement of the former three qual- 
ities (gas, water and steam), by two qualities designated 
respectively "light weight" and "heavy weight." 

909-1940 — Vitamins A and D in Oil for Animal Feeding Pur- 
poses. 

910-1940— Controlled Cod Liver Oil Mixture for Animal Feed- 
ing Purposes. 

The above two War Emergency Standards have been 
issued at the request of the Ministry of Food. 
Following the outbreak of war an announcement had 
been made by the Ministry of Food in regard to war time 
veterinary cod liver oil. In order to ensure an adequate 
supply of veterinary cod liver oil the Ministry, together 
with the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, had 
approved a scheme involving the dilution of stocks of 
cod liver oil of a high vitamin potency with a suitable 
marine oil to be supplied by the Ministry. 



920-1940— Naval Brass Die Castings. 

Provides for naval brass castings and specifies both the 
chemical composition of the ingots and the mechanical 
properties of the castings. 

921-1940 — Rubber Mats for Electrical Purposes 

The mats referred to are rubber insulating mats for use 
as a floor covering near electrical apparatus in circum- 
stances involving the possibility of direct contact with 
equipment of which the voltage does not exceed 3300 
volts to earth. 

922-1940 — Domestic Electrical Refrigerators 

This Specification prescribes the general constructional 
requirements, the performance and the methods of com- 
puting the capacity and food-storage area of domestic 
electrical refrigerators. 

923-1940 — Impulse-voltage Testing 

Deals with the general principles of impulse-voltage tests 
with the object of determining the effect of voltage surges 
of short duration (such as are caused by lightning dis- 
charges) on electrical installations and on their individual 
parts. 

924-1940 — Rubber Hose with Woven Fabric Reinforcement 

Provides for mandrel-built, wrap-cured rubber hoses 
internally reinforced by plies of woven fabric for air, low 
and high pressure water, chemical and brewers' maximum 
length 60 feet. 
Prices— No. 436 7/6d Net. Post free 7/10d. 

Remainder 2/- each Net. Post free 2/3d each. 

Copies of the new specifications may be obtained from Cana- 
dian Engineering Standards Association 79, Sussex Street, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 

CANADIAN ENGINEERING STANDARDS 
ASSOCIATION 

NEW AND REVISED STANDARDS 

C.E.S.A. No. 

C22.2. No. 1A 1940— Second Edition. Power-Operated Radio 
Devices. Section (A) Inductively-coupled (Trans- 
former) Type. 



102 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The Canadian Engineering Standards Association an- 
nounces the revision of Specification C22.2 No. 1 — 
Power operated Radio Devices — which was originally 
issued in March, 1932, and is now issued in two sec- 
tions, namely "Section (A) — Inductively-coupled 
(Transformer) type" and "Section (B) — Conductively- 
coupled (Transformerless) Type." Both sections are 
Approvals Specifications issued under Part 11 of the 
Canadian Electrical Code, the requirements of which 
must be met in order to obtain C.E.S. A. approval 
of the electrical equipment concerned. Section (A), 
now published, becomes effective for new produc- 
tion on the date of publication, November 30th, 1940, 
and Section (B), which is still in committee stage, 
will be published shortly. 
C22.2 No. 35 1940— Second Edition. Extra-Low Potential Con- 
trol Circuit Wires and Cables. 

The Canadian Engineering Standards Association 
announces the publication of a revised edition of 
Specification C22.2 No. 35— Extra-low Potential Con- 
trol-circuit Wires and Cables which was originally 
issued in December, 1936, and is now issued as an 
Approvals Specification under Part 11 of the Cana- 
dian Electrical Code, the requirements of which must 
be met in order to obtain C.E.S. A. approval of the 
electrical equipment concerned. This specification is 
effective as of February 15th, 1941, for new production. 
The requirements of the specification have been mod- 
ernized, particularly the section dealing with insula- 



tion which has been revised and extended to include 
rubber insulation. This rubber insulation is to be 
protected by a closely woven cotton braid covered with 
a flame-proofing compound to enable the insulation to 
withstand the flame test. The requirement relative to 
the size of conductor has been broadened so that either 
No. 18 or No. 16 B. & S. gauge copper wire can now be 
used. 

C22.2 No. 69 1940— Porcelain Cleats, Knots and Tubes 

The Canadian Engineering Standards Association 
announces the publication of a new Approvals Specific- 
ation, C22.2 No. 69-1940— Porcelain Cleats, Knobs 
and Tubes — under Part 11 of the Canadian Electrical 
Code, the requirements of which must be met in order 
to obtain C.E.S. A. approval of the electrical equipment 
concerned. This specification is effective as of March 
15th, 1941, for new production. 

The standard was prepared in collaboration with in- 
terested manufacturers and industrial associations, and 
is based on laboratory tests and record in service. Its 
requirements apply to the construction and test of 
porcelain cleats, knobs and tubes intended for the 
support of wires and cables in open-wiring and in 
knob-and-tube work. Knobs intended for over-surface 
wiring are not within the scope of this specification. 

Copies of these Standards may be obtained from the Cana- 
dian Engineering Standards Association, National Research 
Building, Ottawa, price 50 cents each. 



ADDITIONS TO THE 
LIBRARY 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 
Cofferdams 

By Lazarus White and Edmund Astley 
Prentis, New York, Columbia University 
Press, 1940. 273 pp., 9Y 2 x 6\i in., $7.50. 

Minerals Yearbook, 1940 

Published by the United States Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. 
Washington, 1940. 1511 pp., 6 by 9% in. 

The Canadian Almanac, 1941 

Edited by Horace C. Corner, Toronto, 
Copp Clark Company, Limited, 6x9 in., 
$7.00. 

TRANSACTIONS, PROCEEDINGS 
American Society of Civil Engineers 

Proceedings, Part 2, October 1940, V. 66. 

Institution of Naval Architects 

Transactions of the Institution of Naval 
Architects, 1940. 

REPORTS 
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 

Annual Report for the fiscal year ended 
March 31, 1940. Ottawa, King's Printer, 
1940. 

Canadian Engineering Standards Asso- 
ciation 

Canadian Electrical Code Part 2, Essential 
Requirements and Minimum Standards 
Covering Electrical Equipment, specifica- 
tion No. 35 Construction and test of extra 
low potential control-cii cuit wires and 
cables. 

Canadian Electrical Code Part 2, Essential 
Requirements and Minimum Standards 
Covering Electric Equipment, specification 
No. 1 Construction and test of power- 
operated radio devices. Section (A) In- 
ductively coupled (Transformer) type. 

Cornell University — Engineering Exper- 
iment Station 

Ultrasonics and Elasticity by H. F. 
Ludloff, July, 1940. 

The Engineering Foundation 

Annual Repoitfor 1939-1940. 

Institute of The Aeronautical Sciences 

Bibliography of Aeionautics; part 1, 
Transportation; part 2, Meteorology; part 
3, Insurance; part 5, Seaplanes; part 6, 



Flying Boats; part 7, Amphibians; part 8, 
Autogiros; part 9, Helicopters; part 10, 
Cyroplanes; part 11, Medicine. 

Ohio State University — Engineering Ex- 
periment Station 

A merica's Sources of Power and National 
Defence, by C. E. MacQuigg, November, 
1940. Circular No. 38. 

Portland Cement Association 

Concrete Grandstands. Chicago, Portland 
Cement Association. 

U.S. Department of Commerce — Build- 
ing Materials and Structures 

Structural Properties of a Precast Joist 
Concrete Floor Construction Sponsored by 
the Portland Cement Association, 
BMS62; Plumbing Manual, report of 
subcomittee on Plumbing, Central Housing 
committee on research, design and con- 
struction, BMS 66; Effects of wetting and 
drying on the permeability of masonry 
walls, BMS 55; A survey of Humidities 
in residences, BMS 56; Roofing in the 
United States — Results of a questionnaire, 
BMS 57; Properties of adhesives for floor 
coverings BMS 59. \ 

University of California Publications 

Phytogeny of North American Equidae, by 
R. A. Stirton, Beikley Univeisity of 
California Pi ess, 1940. 



BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the Engin- 
eering Societies Library of New York. As 
yet the books are not in the Institute 
Library, but inquiries will be welcomed 
at headquarters, or may be sent direct 
to the publishers. 

(THE) AIRCRAFT PROPELLER, Prin- 
ciples, Maintenance and Servicing. 

By R. Markey. Pitman Publishing Corp., 

New York, 1940. 155 pp., illus., diagrs., 

charts, tables, 8 x /2 x 5 in., cloth, $1.50. 

This text has been written to explain the 

workings of the aircraft propeller to student 

pilots, mechanics and laymen. Elementary 

aerodynamics and the construction and 

maintenance of propellers are dealt with, and 

separate chapters are devoted to description 

of certain types of constant-speed and varia 

able-pitch propellers. There is a list of 

definitions. 



(THE) AIRPLANE and ITS ENGINE 

By C. H. Chatfield, C. F. Taylor and S. 
Ober. 4 ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 
York, 1940. 414 PP-, illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 8)A. x 5% in., cloth $3.00. 

This book is intended "for the reader who 
desires a sound knowledge of the basic prin- 
ciples and a broad view of the present develop- 
ment of the airplane and its power plant, 
without giving to the subject the intensive 
study which is essential for the designing 
engineer or the expert mechanic." The new 
edition has been carefully revised to cover 
recent developments in all lines. 

ANNUAL REVIEWS of PETROLEUM 
TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 5, 1939. 

By F. H. Garner. Institute of Petroleum, 
c/o The University of Birmingham, 
Edgbaston, Birmingham 15, England, 
I94O. 457 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, lis. 

Reviews by experts of developments 
during 1939 are contained in this annual 
compilation covering the whole range of 
petroleum technology; geology, geophysics, 
drilling and production, transportation and 
storage, refining operations, gasoline and oil 
engines, lubrication, analysis and testing, 
etc. A new chapter on addition agents is 
included in this volume. In addition to 
chapter references there is a general review 
of petroleum literature in 1939, and the last 
chapter furnishes production and commercial 
statistics. 

CATALYSIS, Inorganic and Organic 

By S. Berkman, J. C. Morrell and G. 
Egloff. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New 
York, 1940. 1130 pp., illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, $18.00. 

This extremely comprehensive work dis- 
cusses the phenomenon of catalysis, describes 
the various catalysts and the reasons for and 
extent of their activity and, in general, gives 
a systematic presentation of the subject with 
some consideration of its historical evolution. 
Inhibitors, promoters, poisons, carriers and 
characteristic catalytic reactions in inorganic 
and organic chemistry are discussed. There is 
a 350 page classification of catalysts with 
respect to type of reaction, and a final 
chapter dealing with catalysis in the petro- 
leum industry. The work is thoroughly 
documented. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



103 



(THE) DEVELOPMENT of MATHEMA- 
TICS 

By E. T. Bell. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York and London, 1940. 583 pp., 
9)4 x 6 in., cloth, $4.50. 
The author presents a broad account of the 
part played by mathematics in the evolution 
of civilization, describing clearly the main 
principles, methods and theories of mathe- 
matics that have survived, from about 4000 
B.C. to 1940. Besides outlining the develop- 
ment of the leading ideas, the book gives the 
student a well-rounded understanding of the 
story by explaining the mathematics involved. 
Details of antiquarian interest are subor- 
dinated to a fuller exposition of things still 
alive in mathematics than is customary in 
histories. 

DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY and AC- 
CELERATION FACTORS for RECIP- 
ROCATING MOTION 
By L. B. Smith. P.O. Box 317, Hampton, 
Va., 1940. 17 pp., diagn>., tables, 9x6 in., 
papei, S.40 (3 copies, $1.00) 
The tables presented in this pamphlet are 
intended for the use by engineers and others 
who need to compute displacement, velocity 
and acceleration factors for a reciprocating 
motion controlled by a uniform angular 
motion. A worked-out example of the proced- 
ure in using the tables is given, and the 
derivation of the exact formulas from which 
the tables were computed is shown in the 
appendix. 
FESSENDEN, Builder of Tomorrows. 

By H. M. Fessenden. Coward-McCann, 

Inc., New York, 1940. 362 pp., Mus., 

tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 

The life and work of one of the well-known 

American pioneers in radio communication 

are described by his wife. His technical 

achievements, in addition to his contributions 

to this important field, include submarine 

signalling and detection, the generation and 

storage of power, and many articles on 

mathematical, physical and electrical subjects. 

There is also mention of his researches on the 

pre-deluge civilizations. A bibliography is 

appended. 

FIRE ASSAYING 

By O. C. Sheperd and W. F. Dietrich. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 
London, 1940. 277 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts., tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
Designed for the practicing assayer as well 
as for the technical student, this manual covers 
the fire assaying of gold, silver, the platinum 
metals, and certain base metals in ores, metal- 
lurgical products, bullions and solutions. The 
book also contains material on sampling 
methods, descriptions and lists of assay 
equipment and supplies and a geographical 
list of assay supply houses. 

GRAPHS, How to Make and Use Them 

By A. Arkin and R. R. Colton. rev. ed. 
Harper & Brothers, New York and Lon- 
don, 1940. 236 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts., 
tables, 9 l A x 6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
All the usual methods of graphic represen- 
tation are clearly and simply explained in this 
introductory work on the subject. The 
opening chapters present general principles 
and proper equipment for graph construction, 
and a wide variety of uses in business, 
economics, engineering and other fields is 
illustrated in the succeeding chapters. 

MACHINE DESIGN 

By L. J. Bradford and P. B. Eaton. 4th 

ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1940. 

275 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 

in., cloth, $3.00. 
The object of this text is to supply a brief 
course which can be covered in about twenty- 
five lessons, and which will provide a good 
groundwork of the fundamental facts and 
processes of machine design. The new edition 
has been revised to conform with recent 
developments, especially in bell and roller 
bearings, gears and spring design. 



MAGNETISM and VERY LOW TEMPER- 
ATURES 

By H. B. G. Casimir. University Press, 

Cambridge, England; Macmillan Co., New 

York, 1940. 93 pp., chaits, tables, 8}4 * 

5]/ 2 in., paper, $1.40. 

The material contained in this booklet, 

presented originally in a series of lectures, is a 

systematic account of the field of research 

dealing with the relation between magnetism 

and very low temperature states. Special 

attention is given to paramagnetism and 

adiabatic demagnetization. There is a list of 

references. 

MATERIALS HANDBOOK 

By G. S. Brady. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., New York and London, 1940. 

591 pp., charts, tables, 9 l /> x 6 in., lea. 

cloth, $5.00. 
The many materials used in industry are 
identified and described in this concise 
encyclopedic reference book. Information is 
given on physical and chemical properties, 
constitution and uses. The materials vary 
from such basic raw materials as mineral 
ores and woods to such products as alloy 
steels and synthetic resins. Intended primarily 
for purchasing agents and industrial execu- 
tives, its field is much wider for reference use. 
Useful tables are appended. 

MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS 

By J. P. Den Hartog. 2 ed. McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., New York and London, 1940. 

448 pp., diagis., charts, tables, 9 x /> x 6 in., 

cloth, $5.00. 
In addition to the theoretical presentation 
of the subject, this textbook presents practical 
applications to water wheels, steam turbines, 
automobiles, airplanes, Diesel engines and 
electrical machinery. The text has been 
revised in accordance with recent develop- 
ments, many new problems have been added 
and a comprehensive list of useful formulas 
has been appended. There is a bibliography. 

PORT DICTIONARY of TECHNICAL 
TERMS 

Compiled by Committee on Standardiza- 
tion and Special Research. American 
Association of Port Authorities, 2223 
Short St., New Orleans, La., 1940. 208 
pp., 9 l /2x6in., cloth, $1.50. 
An enlargement of an earlier glossary, this 
technical dictionary defines words and 
phrases pertinent to all phases of port and 
harbor work. Many of the several hundred 
definitions are of considerable length, where 
special explanation was thought necessary. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES and the NATIONAL 
POWER POLICIES 

By J. C. Bombright. Columbia University 

Press, New York, 1940. 82 pp., 9x5 l / 2 in., 

cloth, $1.25. 

This sketch of the New Deal power policies 

discusses the control of public utilities, rate 

regulation, holding companies, etc., and their 

relation to the question of public ownership. 

The electric light and power industry is used 

as an example, and the criticisms of present 

government policy are discussed. Suggestions 

are given for further reading. 

RADIO AMATEUR'S HANDBOOK, 18th 
ed., 1941 

American Radio Relay League, West 
Hartford, Conn. 552 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 10 x 6 x / 2 in., paper, $1.00, 
buckram, $2.50. 
This well-known manual covers comprehen- 
sively the amateur short-wave field. The 
fundamental principles and the design, con- 
struction and operation of transmitting and 
receiving apparatus are described in detail, 
including ultra-high frequency, emergency, 
and portable equipment. Many new illustra- 
tions and descriptions of new equipment 
have been added, and the catalog and manu- 
facturers data section has been expanded. 



(THE) RING INDEX, a List of Ring Sys- 
tems Used in Organic Chemistry. 
(American Chemical Society Mono- 
graph No. 84) . 

By A. M. Patteison and L. T. Capell. 

Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 

1940. 661 pp., diagrs., S>4 x 6 in., cloth, 

$8.00. 
The Ring Index is a collection of known 
parent ring systems, arranged in order from 
the simplest to the most complex. It is a com- 
pilation of structures, not of compounds, 
although corresponding compounds exist in 
nearly every case. Each entry presents the 
ring structure, commonly used names, even 
though not formed according to the system, 
references to original literature and to 
"Boilstein's Handbuch," and a serial number 
for future reference. There is an alphabetical 
index of names, and an appendix containing 
the proposed international rules for numbering 
ring systems. 

SALES ENGINEERING 

By B. Lester. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York, 1940. 200 pp., diagrs., 9 x 5V 2 in., 
cloth, $2.00. 
Sales engineering is defined as the art of 
selling equipment and services which require 
engineering skill in their selection, application 
and use. The author discusses the field of sales 
engineering, describes the work of the sales 
engineer under current conditions, and in- 
dicates the training and development of the 
sales engineer. 

STATISTICAL PROCEDURES and 
THEIR MATHEMATICAL BASES 

By C. C. Peters and W. R. Van Voorhis. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1940. 
516 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., 
cloth, $4.50. 

This book is designed to bridge the gap 
between elementary courses in which the 
formulas are given from a purely authorita- 
tive viewpoint, and the original monographic 
contributions which are often so highly 
mathematical. The authors bring together 
and synthesize the classical statistics and 
certain new developments, explaining mathe- 
matical derivations and their use from the 
viewpoint of students with little mathema- 
tical training. Exercises and references accom- 
pany each chapter. 

STEAM-TURBINE PRINCIPLES and 
PRACTICE 

By T. Croft, revised by S. A. Tucket, 2 ed. 
McGiaw-HM Book Co., New York, 1940. 
298 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 8 X A. 
x 6 in., cloth, $3.00. 

This book gives the operating engineer, the 
plant superintendent and the manager the 
information necessary for the successful and 
economical selection and operation of steam 
turbines. It covers installation, lubrication, 
testing and maintenance with special atten- 
tion given to the economics of steam-turbine 
operation. The new edition has been generally 
revised to conform to current practice and has 
a new chapter describing the engineering 
principles involved in turbine selection and 
heat balance. 

(THE) Story of SUPERFINISH 

By A. M. Swigert, Jr. Lynn Publishing 
Co., Detroit, Mich., 1940. 672 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, 
$5.00. 

The equipment, technique and advantages 
of the metal finishing process called "super- 
finish" are discussed at length. Other methods 
for producing machined surfaces are described 
in detail, all methods for measuring machined 
surfaces are fully treated, bearing materials 
and design are considered, and the metallurgy 
and lubrication of metal surfaces are given 
considerable attention. The book is illustrated 
by a profusion of graphs, diagrams, photo- 
graphs and photomicrographs. 






104 



February, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



January 22nd, 1941 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
March, 1941. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



♦The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

de BONDY— JOSEPH AGAPIT, of Selkirk, Man., Born at Sorel, Que., May 
1st, 1895; Educ: 1905-13, Mount St. Bernard College, incl. chemistry and physics. 
Personal study and travel; 1915-16, lab. asst., Beauchemin & Fils Ltee., Sorel, Que.; 
1916-17, lab. chemist and asst. metallurgist, and 1917-19, asst. furnace operator, 
Canadian Steel Foundries Ltd., Montreal. 1919-21, in charge Bessemer & Electric 
Steel Furnaces; 1921-41, metallurgist, in full charge of iron and steel production, 
Manitoba Steel Foundries, Ltd., Selkirk, Man. (In charge production of steels, 
synthetic irons, alloy steels and irons of all types. Laboratory, microscopy, heat- 
treating, production and quality of product). Member — Amer. Soc. for Metals, 
Amer. Soc. for Testing Materials. Has delivered papers before E.I.C., C.I.M.M. and 
other societies, and written articles for industrial and technical publications. 

References: J. W. Craig, H. L. Briggs, J. F. Cunningham. 

HOLE— WILLIAM GEORGE, of 5270 Queen Mary Road, Montreal, Que. Born 
at Edmonton, Alta., Dec. 20th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Alta., 1933. 
Post-graduate Btudy, Univ. of London, England; 1925-33, Lockerbie & Hole, plumb- 
ing and heating contractors; 1934, Darling Bros. Ltd., Montreal; 1935, Warren 
Webster & Co., Camden, N.J.; 1936^40, managing director, Warren Webster & Co. 
Ltd., London, England; At present, heating engr., T. Pringle & Sons, Montreal, Que. 

References: H. R. Webb, R. S. L. Wilson. 

HOLLAND— ALWIN, of Fort St. John, B.C. Born at Park Head, Ont., Jan. 
21st., 1882; Educ: 1911-14, articled ap'ticeship to B.C. land surveyor. Final exam, 
in math. B.C.L.S., 1919; 1914-18, overseas, C.È.F.; Followed occupation other than 
engrg. for several years; 1935-39, res. engr. in charge of constrn., B.C. Dept. of Public 
Works; 1939, surveyor and map maker for aerodrome sites, Northern B.C. and 
Southern Yukon; 1940-41, instr'man., airport constrn., Civil Aviation Divn., Dept. 
of Transport. 

References: G. T. Chillcott, F. Young, F. H. Smail, H. L. Hayne. 

LEIPOLDT— EWALD VAN NIEKERK, of Saraguay, Que. Born at Cape of 
Good Hope, South Africa, March 9th, 1890; Educ: 1912-13, Charlottenburg Tech. 
High School, Germany; 1908-11, 4 year ap'ticeship course, English Electric Co. Ltd., 
Stafford, England; 1911-12, design of D.C. generators and motors, Siemens Sch., 
Nuremberg; 1913-14, preparation tenders and technical data, power and mining 
dept., Siemens, Berlin; 1914-15, asst. to consltg. power engr., Chile Copper Co., 
N.Y.; 1915-16, dftsman., Shawinigan Water & Power Company, Montreal; 1916-20, 
same work as 1914-15, incl. work for Braden Copper, American Smelters, and Gug- 
genheim Bros.; 1920 to date, electrical engr., Shawinigan Engineering Company, 
Montreal. Supervision of electrical design of power stations, substations, and other 
electrical works for Shaw. Water & Power Co., also Gatineau Power Co. plants at 
Chelsea, Farmers and Paugan; preparation of specifications and recommendations 
for purchase of electrical equipment for above plants. 

References: J. B. Challies, J. A. McCrory, McNeely DuBose, J. Morse, H. Massue, 
C. K. McLeod, C. E. Sissons, C. V. Christie. 

MacKIMMIE— ROBERT DUNSTONE, of 507 King St., Peterborough, Ont. 
Born at Montreal, Que.; Nov. 21st, 1915; Educ: B.Eng. (Elec), McGill Univ., 
1938; 1938-40, test course, and at present asst. engr., Can. Gen. Elec. Co. Ltd., 
Peterborough, Ont. 

References: A. L. Dickieson, G. R. Langley, V. S. Foster, D. V. Canning, W. T. 
Fanjoy. 

M acQUARRIE— ARCHIBALD HENRY, of Windsor, Ont. Born at Tansley, 
Ont., March 9th, 1893; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1914; R.P.E. Ont.; 1921- 
22, lab. engr., Ford Motor Co. of Canada; With the Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd., as 
follows: 1919-21 and 1922-23, dftsman., 1923-27, squad foreman i/c tower dept. 
dfting., 1927 to date, sales engr., designing, estimating and contracting, specializing 
;n transmission towers and substation structures. 

References: F. H. Kester, P. E. Adams, J. C. Keith, A. E. Davison, H. E. Brandon, 
H. J. A. Chambers, J. E. Sproule, L. L. O'Sullivan. 

M ICHAUD— JOSEPH SYLVIO ANDRE, of 110 Concord St., Ottawa, Ont. 
Born at Sorel, Que., March 22nd, 1913; Educ: B.A.Sc, (CE.), (Ecole Polytech- 
nique), Montreal, 1934; one year training course at B. F. Sturtevant main plant and 
offices, Boston; 1934-35, sales engrg., Humidaire Company; 1935-36, training 
course, 1936-39, sales engrg., supervision of installations (incl. Royal York Hotel 
air conditioning), dfting. specifications and plans, etc., for heating ventilating and 
air conditioning; B. F. Sturtevant of Canada Ltd.; 1939-40, mining roads divn., 
Mine and Geology Branch, Ottawa, inspection of tenders, specifications, contracts, 
statements of claims, etc. ; at present asst. engr., heating divn., Directorate of Works 
and Bldgs., R.C.A.F., Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa. 

References: W. H. Norrish, C. F. Johns, H. S. Grove, A. Circe, A. Frigon, O. O. 
Lefebvre. 

PARKER— WILLIAM ERNEST BAIN, of 216 Deloraine Ave., Toronto, Ont. 
Born at Parkersville, Ont., Oct. 6th, 1912; Educ: B.A.Sc, 1935, M.A.Sc, 1936, 
Univ. of Toronto; 1937-38 (intermittent), Brobst Forestry Co., Toronto; 1937 (3^ 
mos.), asst. engr., Ont. Dept. of Health; 1938-39-40 (winters), demonstrator, Univ- 
of Toronto; 1939 (7 mos.), engrg. dept., Township of Scarborough; May, 1940, to 
date, asst. research engr., H.E.P.C. of Ontario. 

References: C. R. Young, R. W. Angus, A. E. Berry, R. B. Young, W. P. Dobson. 

RICHARDS— GEORGE HENRY, of Brantford, Ont. Born at Willington, Derby- 
shire, England, May 25th, 1898; Educ: I.C.S. Mech. Engr.; O.L.S. 1923. R.P.E. , 
Ont., 1924; 1917-19, overseas, R.N.C.V.R.; 1919-24, articled ap'tice with Lee and 
Nash, Civil Engrs. and Land Surveyors, Brantford, Ont.; 1924, instr'man. on town- 
ship surveys, plans, descriptions and surveys of mining claims, supervising constrn. 
of walks, walls, drives, etc., for landscape architect; 1921-31, first asst. and chief 
dftsman., Warner & Warner, Regd. Engrs., Detroit, Mich.; 1932-33, asst. county 
engr. of Brant; June, 1933 to date, manager, Lee & Nash, Brantford, Ont. Pro- 
fessional Engrs. and Ontario Land Surveyors. 

References: F. P. Adams, H. A. Lumsden, F. H. Midgley, S. Shupe, E. G. 
MacKay, C. C. Cariss. 

ROBINSON— CLESSON THOMAS MILLER, of Corner Brook, Nfld. Born at 
Knowlton, Que., Aug. 21st, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Queen's Univ., 1937; sum- 
mer work, tracer dftsman., electrician's helper, control man. 1937-40, asst. elec'l. 
engr., hydro-electric power station at Deer Lake, Nfld.; 1940 to date, elec, civil, 
and mech. engr. in paper mill, Nfld. Pulp & Paper Mills Ltd., Corner Brook, Nfld. 

References: C. M. Bang, D. M. Jemmett, L. T. Rutledge. 

SMITH— CLEVE A., of 125 Evelyn Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at Cairo, Ont., 
Sept. 1st, 1888; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1916; 1916-17, dfting., Ontario 
Wind Engine & Pump Co.; 1917-18, dfting., H.E.P.C. of Ontario; 1918-19, dfting., 
and acting chief dftsman., Hollinger Cons. Gold Mines; 1919-23, engr. and estimator, 
Ontario Wind Engine & Pump Co.; 1923-28, struct'l. designer, and inspr. on con- 
strn., 1928-39, chief dftsman. (transmission section, elec. engrg. dept.), and July 
1939 to date, asst. engr. (same dept), H.E.P.C. of Ontario. 

References: T. H. Hogg, H. E. Brandon, W. P. Dobson, .1. W. Falkner.D.Forgan. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR 

NESBITT— MICHAEL CULLUM, of 3701 Quadra St., Victoria, B.C. Born at 
Regina, Sask., Oct. 21st, 1908; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1931; R.P.E. of B.C., 

(Continued on page 106) 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1941 



105 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

ENGINEER with pulp and paper experience to become 
Assistant Chief Engineer in a large mill. Either a 
man who can fit into the position immediately, or a 
younger man who has the training and ability to 
work into it gradually. The initial salary to be paid 
will depend upon the qualifications of the applicant. 
This position holds an interesting future for the right 
man. Send applications with full particulars to Box 
No. 2209-V. 

ENGINEER for fabricating plant, must be experienced 
in the detail and design of structural steel. This is a 
permanent position for the man with the necessary 
qualifications. Apply to Box No. 2234-V. 

RECENT ENGINEERING GRADUATE, preferably 
mechanical, with some drafting experience. Work will 
consist of machinery and piping layouts and other 
general engineering work in a paper mill near Ottawa. 
Permanent position and excellent prospects for 
suitable man. Men now employed in war industry will 
not be considered. Apply Box No. 2245-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN, for layout of 
power plant equipment, piping systems, etc., prefer- 
ably university graduate with three or four years' 
experience. State age, experience, salary desired. 
Location Toronto. Apply to Box No. 2247-V. 

REQUIRED for large gold mining organization in 
West Africa, Beveral mill shiftmen, mill men and 
electricians. Salaries up to £40, £32 and £40 re- 
spectively per month, free living quarters. Ocean 
passage paid and three months' leave granted per 
year at half pay. Yearly renewable contracts. Defence 
regulations do not permit wives to accompany hus- 
bands at this time. Apply Box No. 2258-V. 



YOUNG CIVIL ENGINEER not more than two 
years out of college, with field and office experience, 
involving computation and engineering analysis. 
Apply giving full particulars to Box No. 2259-V. 

SENIOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEER with from five 
to eight years experience required by large industrial 
concern. Apply with full details to Box No. 2261-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN with some ex- 
perience immediately required by a large industrial 
firm. Apply giving full particulars to Box No. 2262-V. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER, University graduate 
experienced in Power Plants, Transmission lines, 
gunite construction, etc. Available on short notice. 
Apply to Box No. 1Ô27-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR— Experienced 
in general building and war plant construction. Also 
installation of mechanical equipment. Immediately 
available. Apply to Box No. 2153-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, graduate. Age 47, 
married. Experience covers draughting, construction, 
maintenance, and operation. For the last ten years 
employed as electrical superintendent in a large in- 
dustrial plant. Apply to Box No. 1718-W. 

ENGINEER— M.E.I.C. Age 49. Desires change. Ex- 
perience covers all types structural steel and plate 
work, rivetted and welded construction, as estimator. 
Designing, shop drawings. Available two weeks 
notice. Apply Box No. 2208-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, Draughtsman, Speci- 
fication Writer, Supervisor, specializing in Heating, 
Ventilating, Power Plants and Plumbing, available im- 
mediately. Will go anywhere. Apply Box No. 2285-W. 



CITY ENGINEER 

The Corporation of the City of 
Kingston requires an engineer to be 
head of the City Engineer's Depart- 
ment, minimum salary approximately 
$3,000 with annual increments. Ap- 
plicants should be under forty-five 
years of age, and should be graduates 
in civil engineering (with sanitary 
engineer qualifications) from a rec- 
ognized university or institution. 
Applicants should state age, date of 
graduation from university and de- 
gree, experience and training, present 
occupation, when available, and the 
names of two persons for confidential 
reference. Applications should be 
sent to the Clerk-Treasurer, City of 
Kingston, marked "Application for 
position of City Engineer" by March 
15, 1941. Any further information 
may be obtained from the Clerk- 
Treasurer. 



ROYAL CANADIAN AIR FORCE 
RADIO OFFICERS 

1. Vacancies exist for a new category of Officers to be 
designated as Radio Officers. 

2. These officers will be required to take command of 
special radio stations. Their duties will be secret and cannot 
be specified in detail, but the following notes will serve as a 
guide to the qualifications sought in candidates for these 
commissions. 

3. A candidate must be between the ages of twenty-one 
and forty and in good health. 

4. Appointment will be in the rank of Pilot Officer. 
Appointees will be promoted to the rank of Temporary Fly- 
ing Officer on successful completion of a course of training. 

5. These officers will require to be competent to deal with 
theoretical and technical problems at these special radio 
stations. 

6. Candidates must have the necessary education and 
personality to constitute good officers. They should prefer- 
ably have a university degree in physics or electrical engin- 
eering and a first class knowledge of radio, both on the 
theoretical and practical side. 

7. It is desirable, but not essential, that they should 
also have had some experience in short-wave transmission 
and reception. 

8. Here again it is not possible to make any hard and 



fast rule. Professional experience in radio is not essential; 
keen radio amateurs who have made a study of the theory 
of radio as well as the practice have made excellent radio 
officers, as also have patent barristers and doctors of 
medicine who have made radio their hobby. Radio design 
engineers from radio factories are specially suitable for 
commissions. 

9. On the other hand, men with these qualifications are 
rare, and electrical engineers with relatively little experience 
of radio have proved satisfactory after training. The follow- 
ing may be said to be the minimum requirements in can- 
didates for commissions to enable them to understand the 
instruction which will be given. 

A good science degree (or even a good law degree and 
subsequent experience in patent work in the radio 
field) and a thorough knowledge of alternating-current 
theory. Such men should be absolutely "sound" in 
their theory, and, in particular, in their knowledge of 
inductance, capacity, resistance, frequency, phasing and 
of acceptor and rejector circuits. In addition they must 
have a fundamental knowledge of radio transmission 
and reception. 

10. Knowledge of the Morse code is not necessary. 

11. The majority of these officers will be required for 
ground duties. 

Apply to the nearest R.C.A.F. Recruiting Centre. 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE (Continued from page 105) 

1936; 1927-28, B.C. topographical work; 1932, placer mining; 1933, bridge and crib 
constrn.; 1934, hydraulic mining, drift placer mining; 1935-36, supt., Columbia 
Development Co. Ltd., placer mining; 1937, supt., Langly Prairie Airport; 1937, 
shifter, Wingdam Mine; 1938, supt., highway constrn. for Baynes & Horie Ltd.; 
1938, foreman, paving and highway constrn.; 1939, supt., highway constrn., H. R. 
Wade, contractor; 1939, i/c grading, Patricia Bay Airport; 1940 to date, supt. engr., 
Dawson Wade & Co., Contractors. (St. 1928, Jr. 1936). 

References: H. N. Macpherson, W. H. Powell, J. C. Oliver, C. W. Gamble, K- 
Reid. 

BONNELL— ALEXANDER ROBERTSON, of Pointe-a-Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. 
Born at Sussex, N.B., April 13th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of N.B., 1935; 193.5-36 
(summers), paving inspr., Milton Hersey Co., Geol. Survey of Canada; 1937, in- 
str'man., 1937-39, asst. res. engr., N.B. Highway Divn.; 1939, surveyor, Port-of- 
Spain, Trinidad; 1939 to date, roads engr., Trinidad Leaseholds Ltd., i/c of layout, 
design, estimates and constrn. of roads of permanent and temporary nature. (St. 
1935, Jr. 1938). 

References: E. O. Turner, J. R. Scanlan, E. B. Allen, W. E. Weatherbie, R. W. 
Emery. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF- STUDENT 

CAMPBELL— DUNCAN CHESTER, of 210 Einston St., West Saint John, N.B. 
Born at Saint John, April 20th, 1913; summers, 1932, asst. District Highway Engr's 
office, Saint John. Student asst., Geol. Survey of Can.; 1935, transitman, N.B. High- 



way Dept.; 1935-36, piling and concrete inspr., Foundation Co. of Canada; 1936-37, 
asst. engr., instr'man., and engr., N.B. Highway Dept.; 1939-40, engr., Dept. of 
Transport, Civil Aviation Br., Airport surveys; 1940 to date, asst. engr. or instr'man., 
Dept. of Transport, Civil Aviation Br., Airport constrn. and surveys. (St. 1935). 

References: J. T. Turnbull. D. R. Smith, W. Griesbach, J. N. Flood, W. D. G- 
Stratton, W. J. Lawson, E. O. Turner, J. Stephens. 

FORSYTHE— MARSHALL ANTHONY, of 3514 Hutchison St., Montreal, Que. 
Born at Bankhead, Alta.. July 10th, 1912; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta.. 1937; 
summer work, 1934-35. Marcus Coal Mine, 1937, survey work; 1937 to date, elect'l. 
dftsman., Shawinigan Water & Power Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. (St. 1937). 

References: R. E. Heartz, A. B. Rogers, J. Charnley, W. E. Cornish, R. S. L. 
Wilson, C. A. Robb, E. W. Knapp. 

SPENCE— GRAYDON DILL, of St. Croix, N.S. Born at St. Croix, April 1st 
1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1932; 1928-31 (summers), rodman 
recorder, instr'man.; 1932-35, High School teacher; 1936-37, i/c of hydro-electric 
project for the Annapolis Basin Pulp & Power Co. Ltd., incl. layout of pipe line, 
power house site and tailrace; 1937, land surveying for the Minas Basin Pulp & 
Power Co. Ltd.; 1937-38, res. engr. during constrn. of Ambursen Dam for the Minas 
Basin Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd.; 1938-39, special courses in forestry at Univ. of N.B.; 
1939, land surveying; August, 1939, to date, res. engr. in the field on a water diver- 
sion development for the N.S. Power Commission. (St. 1931). 

References: H. S. Johnston, S. L. Fultz, S. W. Gray, K. E. Whitman, J. W. 
March, J. E. Clarke. 



106 



February, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 24 



MONTREAL, MARCH 1941 



NUMBER 3 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

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OF CANADA 

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TOWERS OF COMMERCE Cover 

(Photo by James E. Knutt, Toronto) 

A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 

Dean C. J. Mackenzie, M.E.I.C 109 

THE SECOND MILE 

William E. Wickenden ......... Ill 

COLUMNS SUBJECT TO UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED TRANSVERSE 
LOADS — Illustrating a New Method of Column Analysis 

J. A. Van Den Broek .115 

THE FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING .... 120 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 128 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 132 

NEWLY ELECTED OFFICERS 138 

INSTITUTE PRIZE WINNERS 143 

PERSONALS 147 

Visitors to Headquarters .......-• 

Obituaries .......••••• 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 150 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 157 

LIBRARY NOTES 159 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE I» 2 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 163 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 164 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 



tA. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 

*McNEELY DuBOSE, Arvida, Que. 



"J. B. CHALI.IES. Montreal. Que. 



tA. E. BERRY, Toronto, Ont. 

*G. P. F. BOESE, Calgary, Alta. 

•I. W. BUCKLEY, Sydney, N.S. 

*J. M. CAMPBELL, Lethbridge, Alta. 

*A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 

tD. S. ELLIS, Kingston, Ont. 

tJ. M. FLEMING, Port Arthur, Ont. 

fi. M. FRASER, Saskatoon, Sask. 

fj. H. FREGEAU, Three Rivers, Que. 

tJ. GARRETT, Edmonton, Alta. 

tS. W. GRAY, Halifax, N.S. 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



PRESIDENT 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

*J. CLARK KEITH, Windsor, Ont. 
IdeGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

tH. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 

COUNCILLORS 

fj. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

tE. M. KREBSER, Walkerville, Ont. 

*J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

*A. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 

tH. N. MACPHERSON, Vancouver, B.C. 

*W. R. MANOCK, Fort Erie North, Ont. 

*H. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 

tH. F. MORRISEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tW. H. MUNRO, Ottawa, Ont. 

*W. L. McFAUL, Hamilton, Ont. 

tC. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 

TREASURER 

JOHN STADLER, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tK. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 
*W. S. WILSON, Sydney, N.S. 



IT. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 



*J. H. PARKIN, Ottawa, Ont. 

*B. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 

ÎG. McL. Pitts, Montreal, Que. 

*J. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

tM. G. SAUNDERS, Arvida, Que. 

*H. R. SILLS, Peterborough. Ont. 

*C. E. SISSON, Toronto, Ont. 

*G. E. SMITH, Moncton, N.B. 

tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

tH. J. VENNES, Montreal, Que. 

*For 1941 tFor 1941-42 {For 1941-42-43 



ASSISTANT TO THE GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal. Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



FINANCE 

deG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 

G. A. GAHERTY 

J. A. McCRORY 

F. NEWELL 

J. STADLER, Treasurer 



LEGISLATION 

E. M. KREBSER, Chairman 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

BRIAN R. PERRY, Chairman 



PUBLICATION 

C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 

PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Chairman 

GZOWSKI MEDAL 

H. O. KEAY, Chairman 

LEONARD MEDAL 

A. D. CAMPBELL, Chairman 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

F. P. SHEARWOOD, Chairman 

PLUMMER MEDAL 

J. F. HARKOM, Chairman 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

C. R. YOUNG, Chairman 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 
Il N. Ruttun Prize 

A. L. CARRUTHERS, Chairman 
/.one R (Province of Ontario) 
John Galhraith Prize 

K. M. CAMERON, Chairman 
Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 
McN. DnBOSE, Chairman 
Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

deG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 
Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

W. S. WILSON, Chairman 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

G. McL. PITTS, Chairman 



DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

MEMBERSHIP 

H. N. MACPHERSON, Chairman 

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 



LIST OF INSTITUTE PRIZES 



Sir John Kennedy Prize .Gold medal 



. For outstanding merit or note- 
worthy contribution to sci- 
ence of engineering, or to 
benefit of the Institute. 

Past President's Prize $100 cash For a paper on a topic selected 

by Council. 

Duggan Prize Medal and cash to 

value of $100. .. .For paper on constructional 
engineering involving the use 
of metals for structural or 
mechanical purposes. 

Gzowski Prize Gold medal For a paper contributing to 

the literature of the profes- 
sion of civil engineering. 

Plummer Prize Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 



Leonard Prize. 



Students and Juniors. 



University Students. 



.Gold medal For a paper on a mining sub- 
ject, open to members of the 
Canadian Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy as well 
as The Engineering Institute. 

.Books to the value 

of $2."> (5 prizes). For papers on any subject pre- 
sented by Student or Junior 
members. 

.$25 in cash (11 

prizes) For the third year student in 

each college, making the best 
showing in college work 
and activities in student or 
local branch of engineering 
society. 



J 08 



March, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

VOLUME 24 MONTREAL, MARCH 1941 NUMBER 3 



A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 

To serve as president of the Engineering Institute is one of the greatest honours that can come to a Canadian 
engineer. It gives him the responsibility of maintaining traditions established and strengthened throughout 
the years by men whose lives were devoted to the improvement of engineering and to building up the engineering 
profession. Their high standard of service constitutes a challenge to each successive incumbent, a challenge which 
it is now my privilege to accept. It will be my earnest endeavour to fulfil worthily the obligation thus imposed. 

It has been customary in the past for an incoming president to speak of Institute policy for the ensuing year. This 
year there must be only one objective: to weld together all our resources, spiritual as well as material, into an un- 
breakable instrument for winning the war. To this task the entire membership of the Institute is dedicated. 

In the past years we have been justly proud of the service given by the engineering profession in times of national 
peril. To-day, at this most critical moment in history, the engineers' war-time role is of even greater importance 
than in former crises. Engineers are now serving in numberless ways in all the fields of battle — on land, in the air, 
or upon the high seas — and are also rendering indispensable service in non-combatant duties — many of which are 
extremely hazardous. They are busy in industry, in the designing office and the workshops, in scientific laboratories, 
in educational institutions and training centres, and in public affairs. 

But in addition to the work accomplished individually, by members, they can do much collectively as constituting 
a reputable and influential body. For example, the Institute, like a number of kindred organizations is actually in 
itself a reservoir of technically-trained man-power. Many of its members have special qualifications for particular 
positions; thus it is gratifying to learn that progress is now being made in utilizing the data regarding available 
men which exist in the professional records of the Institute and also in those obtained by other leading Canadian 
technical associations. 

In this colossal struggle no one group in Canada would claim to be of greater importance than another, but possibly 
we engineers, as a body, realize more clearly than others how much this war is one of machines, of mechanics, of 
industrial production, of scientific development, of engineering technique and organization. We are proud that 
engineers are playing so vital a part in the conflict — proud, for instance, that the commander of the Canadian 
Army Corps, Lieutenant-General McNaughton, is an eminent and active member of our Institute, that the industrial 
organization of Canada is in the capable hands of another distinguished member, the Hon. C. D. Howe, and that 
scores of other members are holding positions of great responsibility. 

Individual members of the Institute can render important service, not only in their daily war-work — whatever 
that may be — but also in promoting cool courage, quiet confidence, and unbroken morale in those with whom they 
come in contact. We, who have had an engineer's training and experience, should realize, better than laymen, the 
harm done by unguarded talk, idle gossip, and futile speculation based on imperfect or incorrect information. We 
can do much to impress upon those inclined to be careless in these respects the necessity of silence on all matters 
which may conceivably give comfort, information or assistance to the enemy. 

We should realize that although in a physical sense this is a war of machines, no conflict in our history has been 
fought so entirely for the survival of human values. Our strength to-day lies not merely in our capacity to produce 
and man planes and tanks, but also in our recognition that our way of life is very precious, worth fighting for, worth 
dying for, if need be. 

Just as we have huge arsenals for munitions, so also do we have, in a very real though intangible way, vast reserves 
of moral courage, capable of being constantly replenished by the inspirations of such deeds as the boarding of the 
Altmark, the battle for control of the "daylight air," Dunkerque, and the battle of Britain. When Captain Fogarty 
Fegen of the Jervis Bay, without a moment's hesitation, signalled that he was closing with the enemy, his contribution 
to our cause could not be measured in terms of ships and cargoes saved ; his ebbing life and those of his men became 
the strength of millions — strength given to them as if by some gigantic blood-transfusion. 

As engineers we can and will help materially in winning the war — but we must also dedicate our lives to main- 
taining that high morale without which no victory is possible. 

The shadow of the swastika has fallen over nearly all the lands of Europe, blotting out in them all hope of personal 
liberty, free speech, and equal justice. Without these things we feel, as Britain does, that civilized life is impossible, 
and barbarism reigns. 

What nobler task can there be than to fight this monstrous doctrine, to defend the last stronghold of freedom 
in Europe, and to make it impossible for Nazi methods to dominate the civilized world ? 



Ç^jJ. VvwJ^ 



President 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 109 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, GEO. E. MEDLAR 
Vice-Chair., W. J. FLETCHER 
Executive, W. D. DONNELLY 

J. B. DOWLER 

A. H. PASK 
(Ex-Officio) , 3 . F. BRIDGE 

E. M. KREBSER 
J. CLARK KEITH 

Sec.-Treas., W. P. AUGUSTINE, 

1955 Oneida Court, 

Windsor, Ont. 
CALGARY 

Chairman, 3. McMILLAN 
Vice-Chair., 3. B. deHART 
Executive, F. K. BEACH 

H. B LeBOURVEAU 
R. MACKAY 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
S. G. COULTIS 
J. HADDIN 

F. J. HEUPERMAN 
Sec.-Treas., P. F. PEELE, 

248 Scarboro Avenue, 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, 3. A. MacLEOD 

Executive. J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

A. P. THEUERKAUF 
(Ex-Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 
EDMONTON 

Chairman, E. NELSON 

R.M. HARDY 

A. M. ALLEN H. R. WEBB 
D. HUTCHISON C. W. CARRY 
J. F. McDOUGALL 

(Ex-Officio), 3. GARRETT 

C. E. GARNETT 

B. W. PITFIELD, 
Northwestern Utilities Limited, 

10124-104th Street, 

Edmonton, Alta. 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



Sec.-Treas., 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



S. L. FULTZ 
.1. A. MacKAY 
A. E. CAMERON 
A. E. FLYNN 
D. G. DUNBAR 
J. F. F. MACKENZIE 
P. A. LOVETT 
G. F. BENNETT 
(Ex-Officio), C. SCRYMGEOUR 

S. W. GRAY 
Sec.-Treas., S. W. GRAY, 

The Nova Scotia Power Commis- 
sion, Halifax, N.S. 
HAMILTON 

Chairman, W. A. T. GILMOUR 
Vice-Chair., S. SHUPE 

Executive, C. H. BUTTON T. S. GLOVER 
H. A. COOCH A. C. MACNAB 

(Ex-Officio), ALEX. LOVE W. L. McFAUL 

Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD, 
354 Herkimer Street, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



T. A. McGINNIS 

P. ROY 

V. R. DAVIES 

K. H. McKIBBIN 

K. M. WINSLOW 

A. H. MUNRO 
(Ex-Officio). G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 

D. S. ELLIS 
Sec.-Treas., 3. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, 

Kingston, Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, H. G. O'LEARY 
Vice-Chair., B. A. CULPEPER 
Executive, MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 

H. H. TRIPP W. H BIRD 

J. I. CARMICHAEL E. J. DAVIES 

h. os c d. Mackintosh 

J. S. WILSON 
(Ex-Officio), 3. M. FLEMING 
Sec.-Treas., H. M. OLSSON, 

380 River Street, 

Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, WM. MELDRUM 

Executive, R. F. P. BOWMAN G. S. BROWN 

N. H. BRADLEY 

C. S. CLENDENING 
(Ex-Officio) 3. M. CAMPBELL 

A. J. BRANCH J. T. WATSON 

Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE, 

207-7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, R. W. GARRETT 
Vice-Chair., F. T. JULIAN 
Executive, V. A. McKILLOP 

F. C. BALL 

F. BELL 

T. L. McMANAMNA 

R. S. CHARLES 
(Ex-Officio), H. F. BENNETT 

J. A. VANCE 
Sec. Treas., H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 

London, Ont. 



MONCTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



F. 0. CONDON 
, C. S. G. ROGERS 

B. E. BAYNE R. H. EMMERSON 
G.L.DICKSON G.E.SMITH 
T. H. DICKSON 

(Ex-Officio), H. W. McKIEL 
Sec.-TVea*., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engr. Dept., C.N.R., 

Moncton, N.B. 
MONTREAL 

Chairman, R. E. HEARTZ 
, J. A. LALONDE 
E. V. GAGE 
P. E. POITRAS 
I. S. PATTERSON 
J. B. STIRLING 
J. M. CRAWFORD 
J. COMEAU 
(Ex-Officio),}. B. CHALLIES 
deG. BEAUBIEN 
J. G. HALL 
H. MASSUE 

C. K. McLEOD 

B. R. PERRY 

G. M. PITTS 
H. J. VENNES 

Sec. Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 
NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. H. McL. BURNS 
Executive, W. D. BRACKEN 

C. G. CLINE 

J. L. McDOUGALL 
L. J. RUSSELL 
J. H. TUCK 
G. F. VOLLMER 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK 

A. W. F. McQUEEN 
Acting-Sec, GEO. E. GRIFFITHS 

P. O. Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 
OTTAWA 



Chairman, 
Executive, 



Executive, 



W. H. MUNRO 

N. MARR H. V. ANDERSON 

W. L. SAUNDERS J. H. IRVINE 
W. H. NORRISH 
(Ex-Officio), 3. H. PARKIN 

K. M. CAMERON 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 

Ottawa. Ont. 
PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, R. L. DOBBIN 
J. CAMERON 

0. J. FRISKEN 

1. F. McRAE 
J. W. PIERCE 

(Ex-Officio), B. I. BURGESS 

H. R. SILLS 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 
QUEBEC 

Life Hon. Chair., A. R. DECARY 
Chairman, L. C. DUPUIS 

,E. D. GRAY-DONALD 
T. M. DECHÊNE R. SAUVAGE 

A. LAFRAMBOISE G. MOLLEUR 
A. O. DUFRESNE O. DESJARDINS 
(Ex-Officio) A. LARIVIÈRE 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
P. MÉTHÉ 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Department of Colonization, 
Room 263-A, Parliament Bldgs.. 
Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, 3. W. WARD 
Vice-Chair., G. H. KIRBY 
Executive, W. J. THOMSON 

A. I. CUNNINGHAM 
C. MILLER 

W. P. C. LeBOUTILLIER 
(Ex-Officio), ADAM CUNNINGHAM 
McN. DuBOSE 
M G. SAUNDERS 
' Sec.-Treas., T. A. TAYLOR 

Saguenay Inn, Arvida, Qu«. 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, JOHN P. MOONEY 
Vice-Chair., 3. T. TURNBULL 
Executive, D. R. SMITH 

F. A. PATRIQUEN A. O. WOLFF 
(Ex-Officio), H. F. MORRISEY 

Sec.-Treas., VICTOR S. CHESNUT 
P.O. Box 1393, 

Saint John. N.B. 
ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, C. H. CHAMPION 
Vice-Chair., A. H. HEATLEY 
Executive, R. DORION 

J. H. FREGEAU V. JEPSEN 

H. O. KEAY K. S. LeBARON 

G. RINFRET H. G. TIMMIS 
H. J. WARD H. K. WYMAN 

(Ex-Officio), F. W. BRADSHAW 

J. H. FREGEAU 
Sec.-Treas., G. B. BAXTER, 

Canadian International Paper Com- 
pany, Three Rivers, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 



Chairman, 


P.C.PERRY 


Vice-Chair., 


R. A. McLELLAN 


Executive, 


I. M. FRASER J. McD. PATTON 




C. J. McGAVIN R.J.FYFE 




A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 




g. l. Mackenzie 




A. A. MURPHY 




W. E. LOVELL 


Sec.-Treas., 


STEWART YOUNG. 




P. O. Box 101, 




Regina, Sask 


SAULT STE 


MARIE 


Chairman, 


E. M. MacQUARRIE 


Vice-Chair. 


L. R. BROWN 


Executive, 


R. A. CAMPBELL 




N. C. COWIE 




C. O. MADDOCK 




C. R. MURDOCK 


(Ex-Officio) 


, J. L. LANG 




A. E. PICKERING 


Sec.-Treas., 


0. A. EVANS. 




159 Upton Road, 




Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 






TORONTO 

Chairman, NICOL MacNICOL 
Vice-Chair.,H. E. BRANDON 
Executive, W. S. WILSON G. W. PAINTER 
F. J. BLAIR G. R. JACK 

W. H. M. LAUGHLIN D. FORGAN 
(Ex-Officio) T. H. HOGG 
C. E. SISSON 
A. E. BERRY 
Sec.-Treas., 3. 3. SPENCE. 

Engineering Building, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 

VAINCOUVER 

Chairman, 3. N. FINLAYSON 

Vice-Chair., W. O. SCOTT 

Executive, T. E. PRICE H. C. FITZ-JAMES 
J. R. GRANT R. E. POTTER 

W. N. KELLY P. B. STROYAN 

(Ex-Officio), C. E. WEBB 

H. N. MACPHERSON 

Sec.-Treas.. T. V. BERRY, 

3007 -36th Ave. W.. 

Vancouver, B C. 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 

Sec.-Treas., 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas . 



G. M. IRWIN 

A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 

J. H. BI ARE 

E. DAVIS 

A. I.. FORI) 

P. T. O'GRADY 

E. W. IZARD 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 
K. REID. 

1063 Pentrelew Place, 

Victoria, B.< ' 

V. MICHIE 

D. M. STEPHENS 
C. V. ANTENBRING 
H. B. BREHAUT 
J. T. DYMENT 
H. W. McLEOD 
T. E. STOREY 
H L. BRIGGS 
.1. Vf. SANGEK 
C. P. HALTALIN, 

303 Winnipeg Electric Chambers, 
Winnipeg. Mi" 






110 



March, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE SECOND MILE 

WILLIAM E. WICKENDEN 

President, Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Address delivered al the Annual Banquet of The Engineering Institute of Canada, Hamilton, Ont., February 7th, 1941. 



"Whosoever shall compel thee to go one 
mile — go with him twain." I am not sure 
that I should dare to choose this counsel 
of perfection from the Sermon on the 
Mount as a text for a talk to engineers 
south of the border, such is the present 
state of our biblical illiteracy. The pro- 
fessor of a past generation who withered 
a classroom disturbance at Yale by ur- 
banely remarking "Young gentlemen, I 
beg you to restrain yourselves until I 
cast one more pearl," would be met to-day 
by uncomprehending stares. Some one has 
said that the trouble with us in the States 
is that we have lost three pasts; first we 
lost the classical past, next we lost the 
biblical past, and now we are losing the 
historical past. In Canada where, I be- 
lieve, you are much more deeply rooted 
in piety and sound learning, you will 
catch the meaning of my text. Every 
calling has its mile of compulsion, its daily round of tasks 
and duties, its standard of honest craftsmanship, its code 
of man-to-man relations, which one must cover if he is to 
survive. Beyond that lies the mile of voluntary effort, where 
men strive for excellence, give unrequited service to the 
common good, and seek to invest their work with a wide 
and enduring significance. It is only in this second mile 
that a calling may attain to the dignity and the distinction 
of a profession. 

A preacher who was once reproached for straying rather 
widely from his text replied "A text is like a gate, it has two 
uses; you can either swing on it, or you can open it and pass 
through." Let us pass on through. There is a school of 
thought that seems to hold that all of the problems of the 
engineering profession may be solved by giving it a legal 
status. If only we compel all who would bear the name of 
engineer to go the mile of examination and licensure, we 
shall have protection, prestige and emoluments to our 
heart's desire. They forget, perhaps, that there are many 
useful callings which have traversed this mile without find- 
ing the higher professional dignities at its end. We license 
embalmers, chiropodists, barbers and cosmetologists, but 
we do it for the protection of the public, and not to erect 
them into castes of special dignity and privilege. 

There is an illusion abroad that any calling may win 
recognition as a profession by the mere willing it so and by 
serving notice to that effect on the rest of the world. It 
helps a lot, too, if you can invent an esoteric-sounding 
name derived from the Greek. One reads, for example, of a 
group of barbers who elect to be known as "chirotonsors" in 
order to raise the prestige of their "profession." The truth 
seems to be that as soon as any word acquires a eulogistic 
character, we promptly proceed to destroy it by indiscrim- 
inate usage. When one scientist observed what the adver- 
tising fraternity has done to the word research, he remarked 
dryly that we now use that word to mean so many things 
we shall soon have to invent another word to mean research. 
The ambition to dignify honorable work is laudable, but 
there is much seizing after the form and letting the sub- 
stance escape which would be ludicrous, if it were not 
pathetic. 

A prominent English churchman once remarked face- 
tiously that there were three sorts of Anglicans — the low 
and lazy, the broad and hazy, and the high and crazy. It 
seems to be much the same among engineers in our thinking 
about our profession. We have a low church party which holds 




Dr W. E. Wickenden 



that status and titles are of little con- 
sequence; so long as the public allows us 
to claim them not much else matters if 
the engineer does an honest day's work. 
The broad church party is all for inclu- 
siveness; if business men and industria- 
lists wish to call themselves engineers, let 
us take them in and do them good, not 
forgetting the more expensive grades of 
membership. The high church party is all 
out for exclusive definitions and a strictly 
regulated legal status; in their eyes, what 
makes a man a "professional" engineer 
is not his learning, his skill, his ideals, his 
public leadership — it is his license cer- 
tificate. 

In view of these divided counsels, it 
may not be amiss to consider briefly what 
a profession is, how it came to be, why 
it exists, how its status and privileges 
are maintained and what obligations 
it entails; and finally to discuss a few of our current issues 
in the light of these backgrounds. 

Of professions there are many kinds; open professions 
like music, to which any man may aspire within the bounds 
of his talents, and closed professions like medicine which 
may be entered only through a legally prescribed process; 
individual professions like painting and group professions 
like law, whose members constitute "the bar," a special 
class in society; private professions like authorship and 
public professions like journalism; artistic professions like 
sculpture and technical professions like surgery; amelior- 
ative professions like the ministry and social work and pro- 
fessions which achieve their ends by systematic destruction 
like the army and navy. Despite all these differences of 
pattern, there are characteristic threads which run like a 
common warp beneath the varying woof of every type of 
professional life and endeavor. 

If one seeks definitions from various authorities, he finds 
three characteristic viewpoints. One authority will hold that 
it is all an attitude of mind, that any man in any honorable 
calling can make his work professional through an altruistic 
motive. A second may hold that what matters is a certain 
kind of work, the individual practice of some science or art 
on an elevated intellectual plane which has come to be 
regarded conventionally as professional. A third may say 
that it is a special order in society, a group of persons set 
apart and specially charged with a distinctive social func- 
tion involving a confidential relation between an agent and 
a client, as the bar, the bench and the clergy. Another source 
of confusion arises from the fact that some define a profes- 
sion solely in terms of ideals professed, others solely in 
terms of practices observed, and still others in terms of 
police powers exercised. All authorities recognize that some 
of the distinguishing attributes of a profession pertain to 
individuals, while others pertain to groups, but there is con- 
siderable variation in the emphasis given. Let us glance 
briefly at these two sorts of distinguishing attributes. 

What marks off the life of an individual as professional ? 
First, I think we may say that it is a type of activity which is 
marked by high individual responsibility and which deals 
with problems on a distinctly intellectual plane. Second, we 
may say that it is a motive of service, as distinct from profit. 
Third, is the motive of self-expression, which implies a joy 
and pride in one's work and a self-imposed standard of 
workmanship — one's best. And fourth, is a conscious 
recognition of social duty to be accomplished, among other 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



111 



means, by guarding the standards and ideals of one's pro- 
fession and advancing it in public understanding and 
esteem, by sharing advances in professional knowledge and 
by rendering gratuitous public service, in addition to that 
for ordinary compensation, as a return to society for special 
advantages of education and status. 

Next, what are the attributes of a group of persons which 
mark off their corporate life as professional in character ? I 
think we may place first a body of knowledge (science) and 
of art (skill), held as a common possession and to be ex- 
tended by united effort. Next we may place an educational 
process of distinctive aims and standards, in ordering which 
the professional group has a recognized responsibility. 
Third in order is a standard of qualifications, based on char- 
acter, training and competency, for admission to the profes- 
sional group. Next follows a standard of conduct based on 
courtesy, honor and ethics, to guide the practitioner in his 
relations with clients, colleagues and the public. Fifth, I 
should place a more or less formal recognition of status by 
one's colleagues or by the state, as a basis of good standing. 
And finally an organization of the professional group based 
on common interest and social duty, rather than economic 
monopoly. 

The traditional professions of law, medicine, and divinity 
had a common fountain head in the priestcraft of antiquity. 
What is professional in engineering and in certain other 
modern callings can be traced back only so far as the 
mediaeval merchant and craft guilds. These arose in the 
period when feudal society was breaking down and the 
beginnings of the modern commercial and industrial era 
were appearing. In this period of disintegration and remak- 
ing of the social order, before cities had grown strong and 
central governments powerful, police powers had not been 
largely developed or protective services created by the state. 
Men who wished to engage in far-flung commerce or in trade 
on any extensive scale found it necessary to organize for 
mutual protection, and this in turn led to monopolistic 
control. In the various crafts it was the guilds which regulated 
by ordinance the hours of labor, the observance of holidays, 
the length and character of apprenticeship and the quality 
of workmanship; and it was the guild which tested the pro- 
gress of novices, apprentices and journeymen and finally 
admitted them to the ranks of the masters. When the cities 
and the states waxed powerful, they usually confirmed the 
monopolies which the guilds had gathered to themselves and 
even incorporated them into the structure of the munici- 
pality, as in the City and Guilds of London. The church too 
lent its blessing, since the religious philosophy of the middle 
ages regarded society as a commonwealth divided into 
divinely ordained functions, and not as a mere aggregation 
of individuals — an idea which recent Papal encyclicals have 
sought to reanimate under the name of a corporative 
society. In the spirit of the times, the guilds required mem- 
bers to contribute periodically to a common fund for the 
relief of distress, to participate in certain religious observ- 
ances and to honor certain festivities and pageants. 

Many of these features are perpetuated in the modern 
professional body. The public grants it more or less tangible 
monopolies and self-governing privileges, in consideration 
of which it engages to admit to its ranks only men who have 
proved their competency, to scrutinize the quality of their 
work, to insist on the observance of ethical relations, and 
to protect the public against extortion and bungling. The 
occasion which calls for professional service is often a 
human emergency in which the legal doctrine of caveat 
emptor — let the buyer beware — breaks down. When a baby 
is about to be born or an appendix must be removed, you 
want some guarantee that the job is in competent hands. 
The layman often finds professional knowledge and skill a 
little too esoteric for his judgment. If you have a problem of 
mental hygiene in your family you want some guarantee that 
you are dealing with a qualified psychiatrist and not with a 
quack. The public wisely puts the burden of guaranteeing 
at least minimum standards of competency on the profession 



itself. It may implement this obligation through public 
examinations and licensure, or it may entrust it to a system 
of certification within the profession itself, but in the end it 
comes down to the same thing — a profession must guarantee 
to the public the competency of its practitioners. In return, 
the public protects the profession from the incompetent 
judgment of the layman by a privileged status before the 
law. 

Professional status is therefore an implied contract to 
serve society, over and beyond all duty to client or employer, 
in consideration of the privileges and protection society 
extends to the profession. The possession and practice of a 
high order of skill do not in themselves make an individual a 
professional man. Technical training pure and simple, I 
think we can agree, is vocational rather than professional 
in its character. The difference between the two is not 
merely a matter of length or one of intellectual levels — it is 
rather a matter of spirit and ideals and partly an educational 
overplus beyond the minimum required to master the daily 
job. This overplus must be sought largely through founda- 
tion studies which give a deeper insight into underlying 
principles and relations than the mere mastery of technique 
requires. For the lawyer this means the study of philosophy, 
history and social institutions; for the physician a grounding 
that is both deep and broad in biology and psychology; and 
for the engineer philosophic insights into the mathematical 
and physical sciences. This overplus, again, is partly a 
matter of knowledge of social forces and institutions which 
enables the professional man to view his work and its con- 
sequences not only as a service to a client, but also in terms 
of its implications for society. An engineer, for example, 
recommends the introduction of a labor-saving process; does 
he see in this only a saving in the immediate cost of produc- 
tion, merely assuming that this is a desirable end in itself, 
or can he perceive the sequence of effects which will be felt 
in the lives of individuals, the organization which employs 
them, the community in which it functions and the wider 
sector of society which it serves ? In the answer to this 
question there is wrapped up much of the difference be- 
tween a high-grade technician and a man of true profes- 
sional stature. 

Through all professional relations there runs a three-fold 
thread of accountability — to clients, to colleagues, and to 
the public. Is business a profession or can it be made so ? 
We sometimes hear it referred to as the oldest of trades and 
the newest of professions. It seems clear that business is 
moving away from the dog-eat-dog area to one nearer the 
fringe of professional life. This occurs when the direct mana- 
gement passes from the hands of proprietors to a distinct 
administrative caste with little immediate stake in the 
profits of trade. Business may still be far from a true profes- 
sion, but management is well within the pale. Business has 
lived traditionally from balance-sheet to balance-sheet; the 
time-span of its thinking has often been about three months; 
the profit-and-loss statement has been its only yard-stick. 
Professional managers, if assured of reasonable security of 
tenure, are better able to think and plan in terms of long- 
range prosperity and to act as responsible middle-men 
between investors, workers, customers and the public. At 
one time I worked for the Bell Telephone System, of which 
no individual owns as much as one per cent. It is the best 
example of manager-operated, as distinct from owner- 
operated, business that I know of and the one that comes 
nearest to fulfilling professional standards. 

All of us can take pride in this example, because it is so 
largely an engineer-managed enterprise. If we were to 
narrow our professional fellowship so as to include only men 
who render technical service on an individual agent-and- 
client basis and exclude all whose work is primarily admin- 
istrative, I feel that we should do an irreparable injury both 
to ourselves and to society. The engineer has been the 
pioneer in the professionalizing of industry, and his task is 
only begun. Organized labor, it seems, is intent upon gaining 
a larger voice in the councils of industry; it wants to sit in 



112 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



when policies are made and to share in planning the sche- 
dules of production. This may be its major strategy for the 
defense period ; witness the Knudsen-Hillman partnership in 
Washington and the Reuther plan for aircraft production 
by the automobile industry. If any such day is ahead, the 
middle-man of management who can reconcile the stake of 
the investor, the worker, the customer and the public is 
going to be the key man on the team. For that responsibility, 
the finger of destiny points to the engineer. This makes it 
all the more urgent that the young engineer, while seeking 
in every way to gain a discriminating and not unsym- 
pathetic knowledge of the labor movement, should avoid 
being sucked into it by the lure of a quick gain in income 
and in bargaining power. 

The ethical obligations of a profession are usually em- 
bodied in codes and enforced by police powers. The physi- 
cian and lawyer are bound by explicit obligations and woe 
betide the man who oversteps them. As engineers, our 
codes are more intangible, as our duties are less definable. 
In any case, the obligations of a profession are so largely 
matters of attitude that codes alone do not suffice to sustain 
them. Equal importance attaches to the state of mind 
known as professional spirit which results from associating 
together men of superior type and from their common 
adherence to an ideal which puts service above gain, excel- 
lence above quantity, self-expression above pecuniary in- 
centives and loyalty above individual advantage. No pro- 
fessional man can evade the duty to contribute to the 
advancement of his group. His skill he rightly holds as a 
personal possession, and when he imparts it to another he 
rightly expects a due reward in money or service. His 
knowledge, however, is to be regarded as part of a common 
fund built up over the generations, an inheritance which he 
freely shares and to which he is obligated to add ; hence the 
duty to publish the fruits of research and to share the 
advances in professional practice. If the individual lacks the 
ability to make such contributions personally, the least he 
can do to pay his debt is to join with others in creating 
common agencies to increase, disseminate and preserve 
professional knowledge and to contribute regularly to their 
support. 

There are too many engineers with a narrow and petty 
attitude on these matters; mature men who complain that 
the immediate, bread-and-butter value of the researches 
and publications of a professional society are not worth 
the membership fee, and young men who complain because 
it does not serve them as an agency of collective bargaining. 
Shame on us! Do we look with envy on the high prestige of 
medicine and of surgery ? Then let us not forget that this 
prestige has been won not merely through personal skill 
and service, but through magnificent contributions to 
human knowledge without profit to the seekers and with 
incalculable benefits for all mankind. Do we covet public 
leadership on a par with the legal profession ? Then we do 
well to remember that the overplus which differentiates a 
profession from a technical vocation calls for personal 
development and for powers of expression sufficient to fit 
a man for a place of influence in his community. 

Measured by the standards I have been seeking to outline, 
many men who call themselves engineers and who are com- 
petent in accepted technical practices can scarcely be said 
to have attained a real professional stature. These are the 
men who have let their scientific training slip away, who do 
not see beyond the immediate results of their work, who 
look on their jobs as an ordinary business relationship, who 
contribute nothing to advancement by individual or group 
effort and who have little or no influence in society. They 
have been unable to surmount routine in the early stages 
of experience and have gradually grown content with 
mediocrity. There is much in the daily work of a physician, 
a lawyer and a minister of religion which compels him to be 
a life-long student. In peace times the army officer is likely 
to spend one year in six going to school. The student habit 
is less often a mark of the engineer, which is natural per- 



haps in a man of action rather than one of reflection, but 
far too many seem to leave all growth after their college 
days to the assimilation of ordinary experience, without 
deliberate intellectual discipline of any kind. 

There is a certain school of thought which has two quick 
and ready remedies for all ills and shortcomings of the pro- 
fession. One is to keep the boys longer in college and to 
compel them to cover both the arts and the engineering 
course; the second is to compel every engineer to take out a 
public license. One need not quarrel with either the aims 
or the means ; so far as they go both are good, but they cover 
only the first mile. Registration, I believe, will always be a 
qualifying standard rather than a par standard for the 
engineering profession. It will go far toward keeping the 
wrong men out, but will serve only indirectly to get the 
right men in. Beyond it lies a second mile of growth and 
advancement for which effective stimuli, incentives and 
rewards can be provided only within the profession itself. 
The riper experience of the medical profession seems a safe 
guide. For the protection of the public, the law determines 
who may practice general medicine; but if a registered 
physician wishes to qualify as an orthopaedic surgeon, he 
submits to a training prescribed by a voluntary group of 
specialists and undergoes an examination at their hands 
rather than those of a public licensing board. Evidences of 
distinction are likewise a gift within the sphere of the 
profession's inner life, rather than the domain of law. 

The proposal to compel all engineering students to remain 
six years or more in college and to take both the arts and 
the engineering degrees is a counsel of perfection, attractive 
in theory and unworkable in practice. It has failed when 
tried principally because employment on attractive terms is 
widely available to four-year graduates, but also because the 
typical student of engineering shows an unmistakable 
craving for action toward the end of the undergraduate 
period and becomes fed up for a time with formal teaching 
and study. All our experience suggests that the further pos- 
sibilities in the mile of voluntary advancement are much 
more hopeful than those in the mile of compulsory discipline. 
Growth in voluntary postgraduate enrollments has been 
going forward at a truly surprising pace. The most recent 
summary shows that our engineering schools granted 1,326 
master's degrees and 108 doctorates in 1940 and that there 
are enrolled in the present year 4,589 candidates for the 
former degree and 623 for the latter. Equally encouraging 
are the gains in liberalizing the engineering curriculum by 
more adequate inclusion of studies in language and liter- 
ature, in history and economics and in psychology and 
social institutions — gains which are being made possible by 
the progressive transfer of specialized technical studies to the 
graduate plane. My enthusiasm is stirred by the rapid gain 
in cultural interest and activity among engineering students, 
gains in the reading of books, in attendance at the theatre, 
in hearing and producing music and in the artistic forms of 
expression. 

I am encouraged by these trends to end on a note of 
prophecy. You are fighting a technological war, and we are 
entering upon an all-out program of technological defense 
in which every man under arms must be backed by more 
than a dozen in industry and in which only one man in four 
under arms is expected to carry a rifle. This experience is 
likely to have a profound effect on education. Within a 
decade we are likely to see technological education, both 
at the secondary and the higher levels, becoming more and 
more the dominant type. 

The climax of man's effort to subdue nature, shift labour 
from muscles to machines, to make material abundance 
available for all, and to abolish poverty and disease, may 
well fall in the next fifty years. After that human interest 
may shift from work to leisure, from industry to art. Mean- 
while engineers will multiply, research will expand, and in- 
dustry will grow more scientific. Engineers will find their 
way into every field where science needs to be practically 
applied, cost counted, returns predicted and work organized 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



113 



systematically. They will be called upon to share the con- 
trol of disease with physicians, the control of finance with 
bankers, the bearing of risks with underwriters, the organ- 
izing of distribution with merchants and purchasing agents, 
the supplying of food with packers and purveyors, the rais- 
ing of food with farmers and the operation of the home with 
housewives. In few of these new fields, if any, will engineers 
be self-sufficient; to be useful they must be team- workers; 
and they must be prepared to deal with "men and their 
ways," no less than "things and their forces." 

The engineering profession will exercise a far greater in- 
fluence in civic and national affairs. It will probably never be 
able to define its boundaries precisely, nor become exclus- 
ively a legal caste, nor fix a uniform code of educational 
qualifications. Its leaders will receive higher rewards and 
wider acclaim. The rank and file will probably multiply more 
rapidly than the elite, and rise in the economic scale to only 
a moderate degree. 

Engineering education must break away from its present 
conventional uniformity. At one extreme, a part of it must 
become more profoundly scientific; at the other extreme, a 
vast development of practical technical education for 
directing production will be in demand. Engineering schools 
ought to be less alike, less standardized by imitation. The 
men who are to lead the profession will need a longer train- 
ing, and one that is both more broadly humanistic and more 
profoundly scientific. Great numbers of workers in tech- 
nology could do well with a more intensive type of training. 
For every one who should receive post-graduate training, 
possibly four would find the present course sufficient, and 
ten would find an intensive two-year course more suitable. 
The science of economy needs to be more strongly empha- 
sized at all levels. A science of human work needs to be 
created and systematically taught. 

The engineer's job will be so varied, and will change so 



fast, and his tools will so increase in variety and refinement 
with the advance of science, that no engineer can hope to get 
a once-and-for-all education in advance. We must expect to 
re-educate engineers at intervals throughout their careers. 
The most important development of all may come in after- 
college education. In the future we shall see large numbers 
of young engineers coming back to college, some for full 
time, some for half time, some in the evening, some in cor- 
respondence divisions; some to pursue higher work in 
science, some for new engineering technique, some for train- 
ing in economics and business, and not a few for broader 
cultural opportunities. This is as it should be. We should 
cease to think of education as a juvenile episode. Once these 
means of adult education are provided in ample degree, the 
engineering colleges could broaden the scientific and human- 
istic bases of their curricula, cut down on early specializa- 
tion, relieve over-crowding, inspire independent work, and 
show the world the best balanced and best integrated of all 
modern disciplines. 

We have no quarrel with liberal education, nor with the 
doctrine that it is best for many young people to lay first a 
foundation of culture and then to erect upon it a super- 
structure of competency. But we hold that there are even 
more young people who will do better to lay first a founda- 
tion of competency and to build upon it a superstructure of 
culture and of social understanding. That is precisely what 
the enlightened engineering school of to-day is undertaking 
to do. It needs freedom from rigid prescription at the hands 
of the profession if it is to succeed at all, but it needs even 
more the united guidance and support of the profession if it 
is to succeed adequately. To our colleagues of Canada, the 
heartiest of welcomes to the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development and to its goodly fellowship of the 
second mile. "Whosoever shall compel thee to go one mile — 
go with him twain." 



ENGINEERING AND SOCIAL PROGRESS 

Dr. KARL T. COMPTON 
Excerpts from a Presidential Address to the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education. 



"If the engineer is to bring his influence to bear on broad 
public questions he must approach them, not with technical 
arrogance, but with sympathetic understanding. If he is to 
counsel the people he must gain the confidence of the people, 
and this confidence is obtained by placing ministry to the 
public above all other considerations. This concept of min- 
istering to the public welfare, which is the concept underly- 
ing the professional attitude, is the remaining principle that 
needs to be fully synthesized with other elements that have 
been combined to form the engineering philosophy . . . 

"Buttress by the dignity, altruism, and social responsi- 
bility of the true professional spirit, we can proceed with 
greatest confidence and effectiveness in applying engineering 
to the solution of the present urgent problems of our 
national welfare. . . . 

"Our people are striving for an improvement in our lag- 
ging distribution system, for higher wages, shorter hours of 
labour, a higher standard of living. Engineering research 
and engineering methods are essential for the attainment of 
these goals. Our people want industrial peace, and the en- 
gineer, because he stands, by virtue of his professional status, 
in an intermediate position between capital and labour, has 
a superlative opportunity to create mutual trust between 
these two groups. . . . 

"The impact of new discoveries sometimes produces tech- 
nological unemployment even though new discoveries must 
ultimately increase employment. Improperly used, the pro- 
ducts of engineering may promote unrest, multiply hazards, 
increase congestion, and stimulate materialism corrosive to 



the human spirit. Engineering creates opportunities and 
man may use these opportunities to advantage or detriment. 

"Let us, first of all, lose no chance to stress the scientific 
method and its application by the engineer to social pur- 
poses. The conviction that Nature is orderly and under- 
standable, the spirit of disinterested curiosity, the passion 
for truth, the subjecting of hypotheses to the test of irre- 
ducible and stubborn facts — these are the elements of the 
scientific method. Along with them go an unwillingness to 
manipulate truth for the sake of doctrine, a realization that 
it is impossible to get something for nothing, and that the 
skilful use of Nature's forces is the way to produce more. . . . 

"Let us lose no chance to emphasize that our modern 
civilization owes its flourishing to the engineering philos- 
ophy, the most fruitful intellectual method and outlook in 
the world's history, and that a mis-use of it or a departure 
from it may easily plunge us into a new dark age. Let us also 
emphasize that the contributions of engineering have not 
been limited to material accomplishments, important as 
they have been. Its practical utility has been and will be 
of lesser consequence than its social and philosophical value. 
It has helped to make life itself a better thing. Through the 
moral values of its method, it has elevated our ethical 
standards. Through the effectiveness of its method, it has 
promoted confidence, giving us new comprehension, new 
respect for mind, and greater power over matter and the 
unknown with a consequent enhancement of the dignity of 
the human spirit. This dignity and self-confidence is essen- 
tial if man is not to be a puppet but a citizen, free and 
freedom-loving." 



114 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



COLUMNS SUBJECT TO UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED 

TRANSVERSE LOADS - ILLUSTRATING A NEW 

METHOD OF COLUMN ANALYSIS 

J. A. VAN DEN BROEK, 
Professor of Engineering Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



SUMMARY — This paper illustrates a new method of column 
analysis. It presents four formulae applicable to the pin-ended 
column with uniform E and 7. having at least one axis of 
symmetry and loaded transversely with a uniformly distributed 
load in a direction coincident with the axis of symmetry. Each 
of these formulae has its range of applicability. Two of them 
(III and V) are in the nature of first approximations; the other 
two (II and IV) are quite accurate, in fact, more accurate than 
are the values for E, I and e, which are inevitably involved. Of 
the two more accurate formulae (II and IV), the range of 
applicability of one lies outside the field of common engineer- 
ing experience, that of the other effectively covers the cases 
generally encountered in engineering practice. 

Although this method of analysis as here illustrated is 
applied to only one special case of column action, it is held 
that it may be successfully applied to a variety of problems 
involving stability. 

Discussion 

The column, subject to uniformly distributed transverse 
loads (Fig. la), does not, strictly speaking, present a prob- 
lem in stability. That is, instead of failing as the result of 
sudden buckling, the column will at all times suffer a 
deflection. The deflections and stresses will vary with 
changes in value in either the transverse loads kw or in the 
axial load Q. However, such variations will not be linear; 
they will not be proportional to the changes in the value 
of Q. In other words, the principle of superposition does not 
apply. In the analysis of the beam-column, even though the 
principle of superposition is inoperative, the elasticity 
equations may still be used with confidence within certain 
limits. 

If, in Fig. la, Q is finite, and kw approaches zero as a limit, 
then the elastic curve of the column will approach the sine 

curve, y = — A sin-j-, as a limiting curve. If, on the other 

hand, kw is finite and Q approaches zero as a limit, then the 
elastic curve will approach the fourth degree parabola, 

y = 3Tj- (l 3 x — 2lx z + x 4 ) as a limiting curve. 

Figure 2 shows a number of curves plotted to scale. It 
may be observed that the sine curve and the fourth degree 
parabola are so nearly alike as to be almost indistinguishable. 
The true elastic curve will be one which lies somewhere 
between these two curves. Since we know the limiting value 
of the elastic curve and since these limiting values are so 
close as to be nearly identical, we may assume the elastic 
curve to be either the fourth degree parabola or the sine 
curve without introducing an appreciable error. 

Once we accept the type of elastic curve which the beam- 
column will assume, we overcome the difficulty resulting 
from the fact that the principle of superposition is inoper- 
ative.* 

In the expression M ds 

FA = J — pj — , (Formula I) 

F (Fig. lc) represents an auxiliary load. It is of finite 
magnitude. However, if we choose we may conceive it to be 
extremely small. The letter m represents the bending moment 
induced by the auxiliary load F (Fig. Id) ; M represents the 
bending moment induced by the actual loading kw and Q, 
and their reactions; F is assumed to be fully acting while the 
moment M is being applied; FA represents the external 
work done by F as it is being displaced, the displacement 
being caused by the application of the actual load. The 

* See "Euler's Column Formulae," by J. A. Van den Broek, 
Michigan Technic, April, 1939, Vol. LVII, No. 7. 



expression 



/ 



m M ds 

~eT~ 



represents that portion of the total 



elastic energy growing out of the fact that F and its result- 
ing moment m are fully acting while the actual loadings kw 
and Q, their resulting reactions, and their bending moment 
M are being applied. The two expressions, FA and 

/VYt ill ds 
— pj — , are identical. This identity is independent of the 

principle of superposition and is merely contingent on the 
assumption that m remains constant and that the material 
is elastic. Since the bending moment M is a function of the 
elastic curve, the use of Formula I would be extremely 
involved if this elastic curve itself varied as to type as well 
as in magnitude. If, on the other hand, we assume this 
elastic curve for all values of kw and Q to be a sine curve, 
then Formula I may be easily integrated: 

nr •-> kwl kwx* 

M = Qy + — x - 



2 
QA sin -, — f- 



2 
kwlx kwx 2 



2 



2 



m = 



FA = 



fl 



m M ds 
EI 



However, due to symmetry of both m and M about the 
centre of the span, this equation can be expressed as: 

'B 



FA = 



eiJa 



m M ds 



If we here introduce the two assumptions which are com- 
monly found to be acceptable, namely I is constant and ds 
= dx, then we may write : 

I 
'B f2 

EI FA = 2 I m M ds = 2 I m M ds 



2 1 m M ds = 2 I 

Ja Jo 



and 



l_ 
f2 

'Jo 

EI A 



Fx tr . . irx kwl 



kwx"' 



) dx 



QAl 



384 



kwl* 



or 



< £/ -^> A = é M ' 



(a) 



In the case of a sine curve: 



• tx 
y = — A sin -y- 



dy 
dx 



7rA TTX 

— COST 



d 2 y w 2 A . ttx 

- = + —sin T 

The curvature, and therefore the stress in a column of 
constant E and /, is a maximum wheiu x = 1/2. The max- 
imum curvature in the column then is: 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



115 



/(W Iks, ter inth 



a — > 



w 



(8) 




Fig. 1 — (a) Column with uniformly distributed transverse 

load; (b) elastic curve of column; (c) auxiliary load; 

(d) bending moment due to auxiliary load. 



K dx 2> 



max 



7T 2 A 

p 



The expression d 2 y/dx 2 at any point may be given as f/Ec, 
in which / is stress at the extreme fibre resulting from curva- 
ture and c is distance from the neutral axis to the extreme 
fibre. The stress in the extreme fibre of the midpoint of the 
column, expressed as a function of the curvature, or as a 
function of the maximum deflection A, would then be: 

_ d 2 y Ectt 2 A „. 

J ~ Ec -JZl = — n — (b) 



dx 2 



P 



As the load Q is eccentrically applied, relative to a bent 
column, the stresses throughout the column are augmented 
by the factor Q/A. 

The expression for the controlling stress, the elastic limit 
stress /i, as a function of the curvature and of the load Q 
therefore is: 



or 



= 


w 2 


A Ec 
I 2 




Q 

A 


A 


= 


(/!- 


A> 


I 2 

TT 2 EC 



Combining equations (a) and (c) we obtain 

Q 



(EI - ®?) (/, 

IT 



A )= 884 kwl ^ Ec 



(c) 



(d) 



or 



PQ 2 - (Pf,A + Elir 2 ) Q - (~ kwlVEc - Elf,) * 2 A = 

Solving this quadratic equation we obtain : 

Q = I [f,A + P cr ± V CM - P cr ) 2 + 5.0784 kwEcA } (e) 

We select the — sign in order to obtain the minimum value 
for Q. Thus: 



1 



Formula 



Q = § |M + Per - V (fiA - P cr ) 2 + 5.0734 kwEcA j 

Q = limiting load which induces elastic limit stress 

/i = elastic limit stress 

A = cross section area 

w = weight per unit length 

A; = constant by which w is to be multiplied to arrive 

at uniformly distributed transverse load 
c = distance from neutral axis to extreme fibre. 

_ tEL 

r er - p 

At this point the accuracy of Formula H may be checked 
against the known results which we should obtain in the 



two limiting cases: either when Q is a maximum and kw is 
zero, or when kw is a maximum and Q is zero. By making 
kw = 0, in equation (e), we obtain two limiting values for 
Q, namely, Q = f,A and Q = P cr . When on the other hand 
the length is such that the elastic limit stress would be 
reached as the result of the transverse loading only, then 
Q = 0, or, from equation (d) 






kw = 



7.78 f J 
cl 2 



(f) 



In case of a simple beam subject to a uniformly distributed 
capacity load : 



M = 



kivl 2 fj . 8fJ 

-r = -j orkw = ^- 



(g) 



The discrepancy between (f) and (g) is clearly the result of 
our assumption that the elastic curve is a sine curve, 
whereas, for this limiting case, when Q = 0, it is a fourth 
degree parabola. 

In case of very slender beam-columns we may ignore the 
Q/A factor, in which case equation (d) appears as: 



or 



Q = Pc 



1.268 kwEc Formula III (for slender 
/i beam columns). 



Development of Formulae IV and V 

Had we assumed the elastic curve to be the fourth degree 
parabola instead of the sine curve, then, for M, we would 
have written: 

A/r 16 AQ n . „ 3 . ... kwlx kwx 2 
M = _ l4 (l 3 x - 2lx 3 -f- x 4 ) H — r 

and instead of equation (a) we would have obtained : 

61 5 

(EI - — QP) A = (EI - 0.10166 QP) A = —^ kwP (h) 

For the fourth degree parabola the curvature is a maximum 
when x — 1/2 and equals: 



TABLE I 

Values of Q (in lb.) computed from Formulae II, III, IV(a) and 
V. Column is 1 in. round. /, =40,000 lb. sq. in. £ = 40,000,000 lb./sq. 

in. A = % error between II and 111= — rj — x 100; B = % error be- 
tween IV(a) and V. C = % difference between II and IV(a)= II-IV (a) 
x 100;D = II-IV(a). H 



L/R 



L 


P cr 


II 


Ill 


A 


IV(a) 


V 


B 


C 


in. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


0/ 


lb. 


lb. 


% 


% 



K=l 



20 


5 


581,370 


31,410 


581,264 




31,411 


579,291 







— 1 


40 


10 


145,341 


31,387 


145,235 




31,388 


144,745 







— 1 


60 


15 


64,598 


31,316 


64,492 




31,318 


64,275 




— 01 


—2 


100 


25 


23,255 


22,866 


23.149 


—12 


22,802 


23,073 


—1.2 


+0.3 


+64 


200 


50 


5,814 


5,685 


5,708 


—0.4 


5,669 


5,691 


—0 4 


+0 3 


+ 16 


280 


70 


2,966 


2,850 


2,860 


—0.4 


2,843 


2,853 


—0 4 


+0.2 


+ 7 


360 


90 


1,794 


1,682 


1,688 


—0 3 


1.680 


1,685 


—0 3 


+0 1 


+ 2 


800 


200 


363 


257 


257 





259 


259 







—2 



A'=10 



20 


5 


581,370 


31,356 


580,312 




31,351 


578,369 







— 1 


40 


10 


145,341 


31,125 


144,283 




31,132 


143,822 




-0 02 


— i 


60 


15 


64,598 


30,443 


63,540 




30,462 


63,352 




— 06 


-19 


100 


25 


23,255 


20,272 


22,197 


-9 5 


20,282 


22,150 


—9 2 


— 05 


—10 


200 


50 


5,814 


4,576 


4,756 


—3.9 


4,593 


4,768 


—3 8 


—0 4 


—17 


280 


70 


2,966 


1,842 


1,908 


—3 6 


1,866 


1,930 


—3 4 


—1.3 


—24 


360 


90 


1,794 


711 


736 


—3 5 


738 


762 


—3 3 


—3.8 


—27 


480 


120 


1,009 























116 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



TABLE II 



TABLE III 



Values of Q (in Kips) computed from Formulae II, III, IV(a) 
and V. Column is 12" x 3" x 25 lb. channel; /i = 40,000 lb./sq. in.; 

£=40,000,000 lb./sq. in. A = % error between II and III = 



x 100; B = % error between IV (a) and V. O 

II-IV (a) 
II and I V(a) = jjp- 2 x 100 ; D = II-I V(a) 



II 

% difference between 



L R 


L 

in. 


Per 

kips 


II 

kips 


III 
kips 


A 

,0 


IV(a) 
kips 


V 

kips 


B 

% 


C 

% 


p 

kips 



Values of Q (in kips) computed from Formulae II, III, IV(a) and 
V. Column is 5%" x 9J4" x 40 lb. subway column, /, =40,000 lb./sq. 

in.; £ = 30,000,000 lb./sq. in. A = % error between II and III = - 



x 100; B = % error between IV(a) and V; C^ 
IlandlV(a) = —^— x 100; D = II-IV (a). 



II 

% difference between 



L R 



I 


P cr 


II 


III 


A 


IV(a) 


V 


B 


C 


in. 


kips 


kips 


kips 


% 


kips 


kips 


% 


% 



D 

kips 



20 


15.8 


5.418.43 


292 54 


5,413.75 




292.54 


5,395.48 










40 


31.6 


1,354.60 


291 51 


1,349.93 




291 54 


1,345.47 




— 01 


— .03 


«0 


47.4 


602 06 


288.44 


597 39 




288 53 


595 48 




— 03 


— 09 


100 


79 


216 74 


201.67 


212.05 


—5 1 


201.43 


211 45 


—5 


+0 1 


+ 24 


200 


158.0 


54.19 


48.57 


49 50 


—1.9 


48.55 


49.45 


—1.9 





+ .02 


280 


221 2 


27.64 


22 56 


22.95 


—1.7 


22.63 


23.00 


—1.6 


—0.3 


— .07 


360 


284 8 


16.72 


11 83 


12 03 


—1.7 


11 92 


12.11 


—1.6 


—0 8 


— .09 


480 


379.2 


9.40 


4.64 


4.71 


—1.5 


4.76 


4.83 


—1.5 


—2.6 


— .12 


800 


632 


3.38 

































#=10 












20 


15.8 


5,418.43 


290 14 


5,371.75 




290 20 


5,354.75 




— 0.02 


— .06 


40 


31 6 


1,354.60 


280.08 


1,307.92 




280.36 


1,304.74 




— 0.1 


— 28 


60 


47.4 


602.06 


253.58 


555.38 




254.30 


554.75 




—0.3 


— .72 


ion 


79.0 


216.74 


131.56 


169.84 


—29.1 


132.79 


170.52 


—28.4 


-0 9 


—1.23 


200 


158.0 


54.19 


6.26 


7.29 


—16.5 


7.36 


8.52 


— 15 8 


—17.6 


—1.10 



20 


48.6 


8,705.01 


469.88 


8,695.90 




469.89 


8,666.59 







— .01 


40 


97.2 


2,176.24 


467.90 


2,167.12 




467.94 


2,160.02 




-0 01 


— .04 


60 


145 8 


967.24 


461 92 


958.12 




462.09 


955.11 




-0.04 


— .17 


100 


243 


348.20 


319 74 


339.09 


—6.1 


319.48 


338.18 


—5.9 


+ 1 


+ .26 


200 


486.0 


87.05 


76.17 


77.94 


—2.3 


76.22 


77.92 


—2.2 


—0.1 


— .05 


280 


680 4 


44.41 


34.57 


35.30 


—2.1 


34 72 


35.42 


—2.0 


—0.4 


— .15 


360 


874.8 


26.86 


17.40 


17.75 


—2.0 


17.59 


17.93 


—1.9 


—1.1 


— .19 


480 


1166.4 


15.11 


5.88 


6.00 


—2.0 


6.11 


6.22 


—1.8 


—3.9 


— .23 


640 


1555 2 


8.50 























K=W 



20 


48.6 


8,705.01 


465.20 


8,613.92 




465.32 


8,587.09 




—0.03 


— .12 


40 


97.2 


2,176.24 


445.65 


2,085.14 




446.17 


2,080.52 




—0.1 


— .52 


60 


145 8 


967.24 


395.47 


876.14 




396.83 


875.61 




—0.3 


—1.36 


100 


243 


348.20 


193 39 


257.06 


—32.9 


195.70 


258.65 


—32.2 


—1.2 


—2.31 


200 


486.0 


87.05 























dx 2 



9.6 A 
P 



The curvature expressed in terms of the extreme fibre / 
gives : 

d*y J_ 

dx 2 Ec 



Therefore, 



9.6 A 



or 



P 



f = 



1 
Ec 



9.6 A Ec 
P 



(i) 



The stress which controls the strength of the column is 
the elastic limit stress /i. If we include the direct loading 
effect, we obtain: 



h 



9.6 A Ec Q 
P + A 



or 



A = (f i 



Qs l 2 

i/ 



A' 9.6 Ec 



(J) 



Combining equations (h) and (j) we obtain: 

= 0.125 kwPEc (k) 

When we solve this equation for Q we obtain : 

Q= 0)_ 

1 (, . , 9.836 EI . I 9.836 EI J 



I M+^-f— + VCM 



p 



2 i 

) + 4.918 kwEcA \ 



For the minimum value of Q we have : 

Q= . 

1\. A ,9.836 EI ,J ,, . 9.836 EL 2 

ë\fiA- — jj— - y (fiA n ) +4-918 kwEcA 

Formula IV (a) 



When w = 0, then Q = fiA, or Q = 
When Q = 0, then from equation (k) 



P 
9.836 EI 



P 



kw = 



8JJ 
cP 



(m) 



Comparing (m) with (g) we find that they are identical, 
which was to be anticipated since Formula IV (a) was derived 
on the assumption that the elastic curve is a fourth degree 
parabola, being the curve which the beam would assume 
under a transverse load kw while Q is zero. 

In case of slender beam-columns the factor Q/A may be 
ignored. Equation (k) then becomes: 

(EI - 0.101667 QP) f x = 0.125 kw P Ec 
or 

= 9.836 EI 1.2295 kw Ec Formula V 

^ p j l (for slender beam- 

columns) 
Table I shows the values of the limit load Q computed on 
the basis of Formulae II, III, I V(a) and V. These values apply 
to a beam-column consisting of a solid round steel rod of one 
inch diameter. Table II shows similar values for a 12 in. 
X 3 in. X 25 lb. standard channel, while Table III shows 
such values for a b% in. X 93^ in. X 40 lb. subway column. 




Fig. 2 — Comparison of various elastic curves. 

In Table I, Q is expressed in pounds. In Tables II and III, 
Q is given in kips. 

The values recorded in the tables have been computed 
with greater accuracy than would be justified in practice. 
However, this procedure is here justified in that it permits 
us to confirm certain theoretical conclusions. 

In comparing one with another the results obtained by 
means of Formulae II, III, IV(a) and V (as fisted in Tables I, 
II and III), it should be realized that Formulae III and V 
give values consistently too high. This is so because, in 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



117 




Fig. 3 — Limit load (Q) computed by Formula IV(a) for 
12" x 3" x 25 lb. standard channel. 

their derivation, the factor Q/A was ignored. The magnitude 
of this error is quantitatively illustrated in columns A and B 
in the tables. These results bear out our earlier contention 
to the effect that for relatively slender columns and small 
values of k the Q/A effect on the critical axial load Q is 
negligible. This conclusion, however, is only of academic 
interest since the engineering profession frowns on the use of 
slender columns and is in the habit of ignoring the trans- 
verse load effect entirely when k is of the order of magnitude 
of, say, 1 or 2. A change in this practice is not recommended 
and we conclude, therefore, that Formulae III and V are not 
to be used for design purposes. 

In comparing the results obtained by Formula II with 
those derived from Formula IV(a) we find our earlier conten- 
tion confirmed. We held that, when the axial load predom- 
inates (that is, where the values or l/r and of k are small), 
the elastic curve is most nearly a sine curve. Under these 
conditions Formula II gives the higher and, therefore, the 
more nearly correct result. (See Columns II, IV(a), C and 
D, Tables I, II and III). 

It appears that, theoretically, there might be cases in 
which Formula II must be given a slight preference over 
Formula IV(a). However, this is true only when the value of 
kc is small. When kc is of the order of magnitude of unity 
the engineering profession is in the habit of disregarding the 



Limit Load, Q, computed by Formula IV(a) 

for 

5-3/4" » 9-1/2" x 40 lb. Subway Coluran 




effect of transverse loads on columns. In the light of this 
analysis no change in this practice is advocated, except 
possibly in the case of deep columns. In conclusion, then, 
it is recommended that, of the several formulae studied, 
Formula IV(a) be adopted. 

Figures 3 and 4 show graphically the results obtained by 
Formula IV(a) as applied to the 12 in. X 3 in. X 25 lb. 
channel and to the 5% in. X 9^ in. X 40 lb. subway 
column respectively. 

Formula IV (a), when divided through by the cross sec- 
tion area of the column, appears as: 



n 1 [ 9.836 E 



1 2 



*f£)H ms^Mko 



(;) 

r Formula IV (b) 

in which w/A is weight per cubic inch of column. In this 
form it lends itself to graphical representation on one 
diagram and applies to columns of varying length, varying 
cross section dimensions and varying intensity of transverse 
loading, but is restricted to pin-ended columns with at 
least one axis of symmetry in the direction of the transverse 
load. 

Figure 5 shows the graphs of Formula IV (b) plotted for 
varying values of kc and for structural steel of elastic limit 




Fig. 4 — Limit load (Q) computed by Formula IV(a) for 
5%" x 9/^" x 40 lb. subway column. 



Fig. 5 — Average axial limit load It I computed by Formula 
IV(b) for steel of elastic limit /i = 36,000 lb. / sq. in. 

/i = 36,000 lb. per sq. in., of modulus E = 29.5 X 10 6 lb. 
per sq. in., and of unit weight w/A = 0.2833 lb. per cu. in. 

Figure 6 shows similar graphs for a steel of an elastic limit 
of 54,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Figure 7 shows similar graphs for the aluminum alloy 
24S-T, having an elastic limit stress /i = 30,000 lb. per 
sq. in., a modulus E = 10.3 X 10 6 lb. per sq. in., and a unit 
weight w/A = 0.100 lb. per cu. in. 

Figure 8 shows how the average axial limit load Q/A is 
affected by a change in the value of the elastic limit f u all 
other factors remaining constant. It also shows how the 
value of Q/A is affected by a change in the modulus of 
elasticity E. 

It is of interest that whereas the graph for Euler's for- 
mula, as we are familiar with it, shows the theoretical 
value Q/A = infinity when l/r = 0, the graph for Euler's 
formula as expressed by Formula II (for the case of k = 0) 
or the graph for Formula IV (b) (for the case of k = 0) 
appears as a limiting curve with Q/A = f\ for all values of 
l/r less than critical. 

In structural engineering the effect of transverse loading 
(the dead weight effect of a top chord of a bridge) is gen- 
erally ignored. The limit axial strength of a column appears 
to be a function of one of the absolute dimensions of the 



118 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Formula IV(b) 
K - 29,500,000 lbs. /in. 
ï - 0.2833 lbs. /in. 3 
f, - 54,000 lbs. /In. 2 




Fig. 6 — Average axial limit load I "J j computed by Formula 
IV (b) for steel of elastic limit /, =54,000 lb. / sq. in. 

column, namely, the value of c. For a pin-ended top chord, 
having a depth of 40 inches with only the dead weight 
acting (k = 1)*, c would be of the order of magnitude of 20 
inches (kc = 20). It appears from Fig. 5 that, for such a 
column of an l/r = 120, the value of Q/A is approximately 
only 60 per cent of P cr /A. For a 12 in. X 3 in. X 25 lb. 
channel in a horizontal position, with flanges upward of an 
l/r = 120, the limit axial load is 94 per cent of P„ (see 
Table II). While it appears justified to ignore the dead 
weight effect on a horizontal channel section subject to 
compression, a similar dead weight effect on a deep column 
section is of much greater significance. It would appear, 
therefore, that in the design of large-size, horizontal columns 
the dead weight effect should be taken into account. 

In aero engineering the transverse air loading on wing 
members subject to compression is generally taken into 
account. Every strut in inclined position, making an angle a 
with the normal force, is subject to transverse inertia load- 
ing of kw sin a, in which k represents the coefficient expres- 
sing the maximum accelerations encountered as a multiple 
of the accelerations of gravity. It seems that Formula IVnot 



Foimuln IV(b) 
2 - 10,300,000 lbs. /in. * 

Ï = 0.100 lbs. /in. 3 
A ' 

f 1 - 30,000 lb3./in.' 




75 90 105 120 135 ISO 165 IBO 135 210 225 UO 



<■/* 



Fig. 7 — Average axial limit loa 



-œ 



computed by Formula 



IV(b) for aluminum alloy 24S-T of elastic limit /i = 30,000 
lb. / sq. in. 



*Even without transverse loading other than the dead weight, the 
factor k should be taken larger than unity in order that it may include 
the inertia effect resulting from the vibration of the bridge. See 
Dynamic Stress Analysis of Railway Bridges, by R. K. Bernhard, 
Proceedings Am. Soc. C. E. Jan. 1941. 



only provides a means of designing members more effect- 
ively than is done by present methods, but it also offers a 
convenient way of including the inertia effect on airplane 
columns which are more or less perpendicular to the normal 
force. 

It is recognized that the perfect pin-ended column is an 
academic abstraction. The fixed-ended column, however, is 
even more fictitious. Even as Euler's formula for pin-ended 
columns, though little used, serves as a standard for other 
column formulae, so Formula IV, and the method of its 
development, may well serve as a standard for other 
formulae which take into account such factors as varying 
degrees of end fixity, variations in loading, or variations in 
cross section dimensions. 

For example, a first approximation formula for a fixed- 
ended column may be derived by the simple process of 
changing the factor / in Formula II to 1/2, which gives: 



Q 



or 



UfiA + 4Pcr - VifiA - J + P„Y + 5.0734 kw Ec a\ 



Formula VI (a) 



4tt 2 E 



A '[ ( ) 



V (/i 



-j-£ ) + ■J-V'W -j E kc 



to 



Formula VI (b) 



St 


































V 




















S . 1 [r, ♦ 
A 2 Li 




*! 


S.B30 E /,, 9.830 E, 2 4.918 WEkc 
,|)2 / ,f l jgl ''A J 


4* 














1c » constant by which the weight per unit length 
of colunn is to be multiplied to arrive at 
uniformly distributed transverse load. 

c = distance fron neutral axis to extreme fiber 
on cor.presôion siàe of column. 




— 












> v 










jo 








-5jv 


& 




\ 







2a 




, *r,„ 


\° 










■^T*- 




3 


1 % 










^ 


V v?> 




1 










\ \ 


!> V. 




i. 












\ 
















\ 


=> 




















x"* N 


^ 


■o 




"3*. 1. 1 


A 














^ 


^ 






















O IS 30 4S 60 15 SO IOS 120 135 ISO 16S 160 195 2/o 22 5 240 

— — V* - — 

(Q\ 

Fig. 8 — Average axial limit load I i I as affected by change 

in value of elastic limit (f\) or modulus E. 

This formula involves the assumption that the elastic 
curve of the fixed-ended column is a sine curve. This assump- 
tion is probably not far from the truth. A closer approxim- 
ation formula, however, may be obtained by a detailed 
study of the shape which the elastic curve of a fixed-ended 
column will assume — when such a column is subject to 
transverse loading. The author does not want to undertake 
this problem at this time because, first, he does not believe 
that fixed-ended columns occur in practice, and, second, the 
determination of the degree of end-fixity occurring in 
practice, which the engineering profession would be willing 
to accept as being on the safe side, is a matter for detailed 
and intensive separate study. 

It should be pointed out, however, that where either 
Formula II or IV, which ignore end fixity, give results that 
are on the safe side, Formula VI would not give such safe 
results. The similarity between Formulae II and VI suggests 
that, if it seems safe and desirable to include the strengthen- 
ing effect of the partial end-fixity of the column, this may 
be done by the selection of suitable coefficients in the place 
of the factor 9.836, as given in Formula IV. Or, if we are to 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



119 



allow a certain strengthening effect due to the partial fixity 
of the ends, this may be done by the simple process of using 
diagrams (Fig. 5, 6 or 7), and determining the value of 
Q/A for an l/r which has been reduced from the overall l/r 
of the columnby a certain percentage. Thus, a structural steel 
12 in. X 3 in. X 25 lb. channel, loaded transversely with a 
weight 10 times as great as its dead weight, would have a 
factor c = 2.367, and a factor kc = 23.67. From Fig. 5 it 
appears that such a channel (of an l/r = 160), if pin-ended, 
would develop an average critical load: Q/A = 4.80 kips 
per sq. in. For the same channel, having the same overall 
l/r = 160 and the same kc = 23.67, but with its ends com- 
pletely fixed, the average critical load it could carry would 
correspond to the reduced value of l/r = 80 (Fig. 5), 



namely, Q/A = 24 kips per sq. in. For the same channel, 
again having the same overall l/r and the same kc = 23.67, 
but with its ends partially fixed, the average critical load it 
could carry would correspond to a partially reduced value 
of l/r, say, l/r = 140 (Fig. 5), namely, Q/A = 7.5 kips 
per sq. in. 

Acknowledgement is expressed to Mr. CM. Goodrich, 
m.e.i. a, formerly chief engineer of the Canadian Bridge 
Company, and to Professors Lloyd H. Donnell, of Armour 
Institute of Technology, and E. W. Conlon, of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, for their helpful suggestions and criticisms; 
to Mr. A. G. Clark for his assistance in preparing tables and 
graphs; and to the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate 
Studies of the University of Michigan, for aid received. 



THE FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

Convened at Headquarters, Montreal, on January 23rd, 1941, and adjourned to the Royal Connaught Hotel, 

Hamilton, Ontario on February 6th, 1941 



The Fifty-Fifth Annual General Meeting of The Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada was convened at Headquarters 
on Thursday, January twenty-third, nineteen hundred and 
forty-one, at eight fifteen p.m., with Councillor J. L. Bus- 
field, M.E.i.c, in the chair. 

The General Secretary having read the notice convening 
the meeting, the minutes of the fifty-fourth annual general 
meeting were submitted and, on the motion of I. S. Patter- 
son, M.E.i.c, seconded by H. G. Angell, m.e.i. a, were taken 
as read and confirmed. 

Appointment of Scrutineers 

On the motion of R. H. Findlay, m.e.i. a, seconded by 
L. H. Burpee, m.e.i. a, Messrs A. H. Chisholm, M.E.i.c, 
R. S. Eadie, m.e.i. c, and I. S. Patterson, m.e.i. c, were 
appointed scrutineers to canvass the Officers' Ballot and 
report the result. 

There being no other formal business, it was resolved, 
on the motion of R. E. Heartz, M.E.i.c, seconded by J. W. 
Simard, M.E.i.c, that the meeting do adjourn to reconvene 
at the Royal Connaught Hotel, Hamilton, Ontario, at ten 
o'clock a.m., on the sixth day of February, nineteen hundred 
and forty-one. 

ADJOURNED GENERAL MEETING AT THE ROYAL 
CONNAUGHT HOTEL, HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

The adjourned meeting convened at eleven o'clock a.m., 
on Thursday, February 6th, 1941, with Vice-President 
J. Clark Keith in the chair. 

The chairman opened the meeting by asking the General 
Secretary to read a communication from Dr. Hogg, in 
which the President expressed his regret at being unable 
to attend and his wishes for a successful meeting. 

The chairman explained the President's enforced absence, 
and expressed the opinion of the entire meeting when he 
acknowledged the successful year that the Institute had 
experienced under Dr. Hogg's guidance. He referred to the 
agreements which had been reached with two of the pro- 
vincial professional associations, the series of radio broad- 
casts, the affiliation with the Engineers' Council for Pro- 
fessional Development, and the elimination of the classi- 
fication of Associate Member, all of which had been brought 
to fruition during Dr. Hogg's period of office. 

Past-President Challies, following the tradition of the 
Institute, paid a tribute to the retiring President, and con- 
cluded with a resolution, which was seconded by Past- 
President Mitchell, to the effect that the General Secretary 
should send the President a formal motion of appreciation 
for the work which he had done during his term of office. 

The General Secretary announced the membership of the 



Nominating Committee of the Institute for the year 1941 
as follows: 

Nominating Committee — 1941 
Chairman: R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c. 
Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary H. B. LeBourveau 

Cape Breton S. C. Mifflen 

Edmonton C. E. Garnett 

Halifax LP. MacNab 

Hamilton W. J. W. Reid 

Kingston A. Jackson 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge C. S. Donaldson 

London V. A. McKillop 

Moncton R. H. Emmerson 

Montreal A. Duperron 

Niagara Peninsula A. W. F. McQueen 

Ottawa J. G. Macphail 

Peterborough W. M. Cruthers 

Quebec A. O. Dufresne 

Saguenay J. R. Hango 

Saint John A. A. Turnbull 

St. Maurice Valley A. C. Abbott 

Saskatchewan A. M. Macgillivray 

Sault Ste. Marie J. S. Macleod 

Toronto J. M. Oxley 

Vancouver E. Smith 

Victoria K. Moodie 

Winnipeg C. V. Antenbring 

Awards of Medals and Prizes 

The General Secretary announced the awards of the 
various medals and prizes of the Institute as follows, stating 
that the formal presentation of these distinctions woidd be 
made at the Annual Dinner of the Institute on Friday 
evening: 

Sir John Kennedy Medal to Lieut.-General A. G. L. 
McNaughton, m.e.i.c. 

Duggan Medal and Prize to M. S. Layton, Jr. e. i.e., for 
his paper, "Coated Electrodes in Electric Arc Welding." 

Gzowski Medal to Elizabeth G. M. MacGill, m.e.i.c, 
for her paper, "Factors Affecting the Mass Production of 
Aeroplanes." 

Plummer Medal to O. W. Ellis for his paper, "Some 
Developments in Alloys during the last Twenty Years." 

Leonard Medal to R. G. K. Morrison, m.ci.m.m., for his 
paper, "Points of View on the Rock Burst Problem." 



120 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Julian C. Smith Medals (Inaugural Awards), "For 
Achievement in the Development of Canada," to W. D. 
Black, M.E.i.c, R. J. Durley, m.e.i.c, A. Frigon, m.e.i.c, 
F. W. Gray, m.e.i.c, Sir Herbert Holt, m.e.i.c, R. S. Lea, 
m.e.i.c, Beaudry Leman, m.e.i.c, C. A. Magrath, m.e.i.c 

Students' and Juniors' Prizes 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario), to W. C. 
Moull, s.e.i. c, for his paper, "Electrification of a Modern 
Strip Mill." 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec— English), to 
Léo Brossard, s.e.i.c, for his paper, "Geology of the 
Beaufor Mine." 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec — French), to 
Marc R. Trudeau, s.e.i.c, for his paper, "Points Fixes et 
Lignes d'Influence." 

Report of Council, Treasurer's Report, and Report 
of the Finance Committee 

On the motion of F. P. Shearwood, seconded by R. L. 
Dunsmore, it was resolved that the report of Council for 
the year 1940, the Treasurer's report, and the report of 
the Finance Committee, as published in the February, 1941, 
Journal, be accepted and approved. 

Reports of Committees 

On the motion of A. W. Sinnamon, seconded by A. H. 
Meldrum, it was resolved that the reports of the following 
committees be taken as read and accepted: Publications; 
Papers; Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer; 
Library and House; International Relations; Professional 
Interests; Legislation; Radio Broadcasting; Deterioration 
of Concrete Structures; Membership; Board of Examiners 
and Education; Employment Service. 

Branch Reports 

On the motion of H. J. Vennes, seconded by R. E. 
Heartz, it was resolved that the reports of the various 
branches of the Institute be taken as read and approved. 

Rewording and Rearrangement 
of the By-Laws 

Vice-President Keith reported that in accordance with 
Section 75 of the By-laws, the reworded and rearranged 
by-laws of the Institute, as published in the August, 1940, 
Journal, had been approved by a majority of members 
of Council upon letter ballot, and by the resolutions of the 
executive committees of a majority of the Institute branches, 
and were now presented for approval by this annual general 
meeting. 

Dr. Challies drew attention to the tremendous amount 
of work involved in the complete rearrangement of the 
by-laws as now presented. Most of this work had been 
done by Secretary-Emeritus Durley, who was assisted 
materially by Mr. Gordon Pitts. It was unanimously agreed 
that the thanks and appreciation of the Institute be ex- 
tended to these two members. 

On the motion of E. P. Muntz, seconded by L. F. Creigh- 
ton, it was resolved that the rewording and rearrangement 
of the Institute by-laws, as published in the August, 1940, 
Engineering Journal, be approved. 

Election of Officers 
The General Secretary read the report of the scrutineers 

appointed by Council to canvass the officers' ballot for the 

year 1941, as follows: 

President C. J. Mackenzie 

Vice-Presidents : 

Zone A (Western Provinces) A. L. Carruthers 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) K. M. Cameron 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) deGaspé Beaubien 

Councillors: 

Vancouver Branch H. N. Macpherson 

Edmonton Branch J. Garrett 



Saskatchewan Branch L M. Fraser 

Lakehead Branch J. M. Fleming 

Border Cities Branch E. M. Krebser 

London Branch J. A. Vance 

Toronto Branch A. E. Berry 

Peterborough Branch H. R. Sills 

Kingston Branch D. S. Ellis 

Ottawa Branch W. H. Munro 

Montreal Branch G. McL. Pitts 

H. J. Vennes 

Saint Maurice Valley Branch J. H. Fregeau 

Saguenay Branch M. G. Saunders 

Saint John Branch .- H. F. Morrisey 

Halifax Branch S. W. Gray 

On the motion of J. A. McCrory, seconded by H. G. 
O'Leary, it was resolved that the report of the scrutineers 
be adopted, that a vote of thanks be tendered them for their 
services in preparing the report, and that the ballot papers 
be destroyed. 

Vice-President Keith announced that the newly elected 
officers would be inducted at the Annual Dinner on the 
following night. 

On the motion of R. H. Findlay, seconded by E. S. Mat- 
tice, it was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote of thanks 
be extended to the Hamilton Branch in recognition of their 
hospitality and activity in connection with the holding of 
the fifty-fifth Annual General Meeting. 

On the motion of Past-President S. G. Porter, seconded 
by L. A. Duchastel, it was unanimously resolved that the 
sincere thanks of the Institute be extended to the retiring 
president and councillors in appreciation of the work which 
they have done for the Institute during the past year. 

The General Secretary reported that the Institute had 
been approached by the Citizens' Committee for Troops in 
Training, with a suggestion that the Institute, in company 
with certain other engineering organizations, might under- 
take to raise $760.00 for the purchase of band instruments 
for the Royal Canadian Engineers at Petewawa Camp. 

The request had been considered by Council at its meet- 
ing on the previous day, and while it was felt that the 
Institute could not officially participate in such an en- 
deavour, the Council was entirely in sympathy with the 
objective, and the suggestion was made that the money 
might be collected on a voluntary basis from the members 
attending the annual meeting. Accordingly, a collection had 
been taken up at the Council meeting, and the General 
Secretary now stated that he or his assistant would be 
glad to receive further contributions from any members 
who felt they would like to support this worthy object. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned 
at eleven thirty-five a.m. 

THE GENERAL PROFESSIONAL MEETING 

At the luncheon on Thursday, the mayor of Hamilton, 
W. E. Morrison, extended a hearty welcome to the members 
and guests. His breezy remarks contained some good-natur- 
ed references to the plight of neighbouring cities perhaps 
less bountifully endowed with natural beauty than is Ham- 
ilton. He was followed by W. D. Black, who spoke on 
Industrial Morale and its importance in the war effort. 
It is hoped to publish this thoughtful address in a later 
issue of the Journal, together with those given later during 
the meeting which dealt with similar problems of engineer- 
ing interest at this time. 

The special afternoon session, over which Vice-President 
deGaspé Beaubien presided, was devoted to a paper on 
Technical Training for National Defence, prepared by 
Dean A. A. Potter of Purdue University. This was pre- 
sented by Dr. A. A. Cullimore and was well discussed, to- 
gether with the report of H. F. Bennetts' Committee on 
the Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer. 

That report and notes of the discussions upon it will be 
published in an early issue of the Journal. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



121 



AUTHORS OF PAPERS 






Dr. J. O. Perrine 



Dr. A. R. Cullimore 



Dean A. A. Potter 






J. A. McCrory, M.E.I.C. 



A. S. Runciman, M.E.I.C. 



A. T. E. Wanek, M.E.I.C. 






T. S. Mills, M.E.I.C. 



E. R. Jacobsen, M.E.I.C. 



J. T. Thwaites, M.E.I.C. 



122 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



In reference to the paper presented by Dr. Cullimore, 
E. P. Muntz pointed out that Canada's defence activities 
would call for at least five thousand more technically trained 
men. He urged prompt action on this matter. Professor 
W. L. Malcolm, now of Cornell University, outlined the 
courses established there as an aid to industry. Dean Brown 
of McGill and Professor C. R. Young of Toronto referred 
to the difficulties already caused in our engineering schools 
by wartime exigencies. 

Friday morning's Technical programme comprised three 
papers on electrical subjects. Mr. McCrory described the 
important hydro-electric power development at La Tuque, 
and noted that the addition of almost 200,000 h.p. to the 
Dominions resources has been of great value to our war 
effort. Dean Brown gave interesting information regarding 
the studies on which the runner design for La Tuque was 
based, obtaining increased power and avoiding cavitation 
troubles. J. T. Thwaites followed with a paper on the use 
of Ignitron Rectifiers in war industries, particularly where 
electro-metallurgical processes are carried out. The paper- 
by A. S. Runciman on Earth Crust Resistance gave valu- 
able data on the protection of transmission lines from light- 
ning damage. Vice-president DuBose was in the chair during 
this Session. 

An address by Secretary George T. Seabury of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers was the principal 
feature at the luncheon on Friday when E. P. Muntz pre- 
sided. He gave to the members present an interesting ac- 
count of the organization and manifold activities of the 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development, the 
important consultative organization which the Institute has 
been privileged to join as the first member body located 
outside the United States. Mr. Seabury's remarks made it 
clear that The Engineering Institute of Canada will re- 
ceive most valuable help from this membership in dealing 
with Canadian professional problems, and that in return 
the Engineers' Council will be able to profit by experience 
gained in Canada under conditions which are necessarily 
somewhat different from those in the United States. 

Vice-president J. Clark Keith took the chair at the Friday 
afternoon session in the Starlight Room, where A. T. E. 
Wanek of the British Air Purchasing Mission, New York, 
gave a timely paper on the estimation of production costs 
of aircraft. 

Next on the programme was a series of excellent coloured 
moving pictures taken during a journey over the Banff -to- 
Jasper Highway, illustrating a paper presented by T. S. 
Mills, which was commented on by J. M. Wardle, under 
whose supervision much of this scenic road was constructed. 

Meanwhile in Dining Room "A," E. R. Jacobsen gave 
his paper on Moment Distribution and Analysis of a Con- 
tinuous Truss of Varying Depth — K. M. Cameron presid- 
ing. A five-span highway bridge truss was taken as an ex- 
ample of the application of a new method of analysis, for 
which machine calculations are not necessary, which deter- 
mines the moments directly, and requires less work than 
the conventional method of procedure. The discussion 
which followed was extensive and highly technical. 

Joint Meeting 

An unusual feature this year was the joint dinner and 
demonstration shared with the Niagara District Electric 
Club. This dinner was held in the Starlight Room and over 
six hundred were in attendance. The demonstration was 
given in the Ball Room by Mr. J. O. Perrine, assistant vice- 
president of the American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany. 

The principal feature of this remarkable performance was 
"Voder" an electrical mechanism for producing the sound 
and formations of the human voice. By means of this appar- 
atus, and the skilful young lady who controlled the key- 
board, words could be produced that contained the identical 



sounds and inflections of the human voice. "Synthesized 
speech" is a good description of it. 

The whole demonstration was unusually interesting, and 
an audience that exceeded the capacity of the room voiced 
its approval in no uncertain terms. 

Another outstanding event of the meeting was of course 
the Annual Banquet of the Institute. Everyone regretted 
that Dr. Hogg could not be in the chair, but his place was 
ably filled by Vice-President DuBose, who presented the 
various prizes and medals of the Institute. The award of 
the Gzowski Medal to Miss Elizabeth MacGill in particular 
met with the enthusiastic approval of the large audience. 




The army was well represented 

The officers and distinguished guests at the head table 
included: Chairman McNeely DuBose and Mrs. DuBose; 
Dean C. J. Mackenzie, president, The Engineering Institute 
of Canada and acting president, National Research Council, 
and Mrs. Mackenzie; Dr. Wm. E. Wickenden, president of 
the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio; 
George T. Seabury, secretary, American Society of Civil 
Engineers, and secretary, Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development; R. J. Magor, chairman of the board 
of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, and president, 
National Steel Car Corporation, Mrs. Magor and John 
Magor; W. A. T. Gilmour, chairman of the Hamilton 




A luncheon group made up of Messrs. Eadie, Brown, McCrory, 
Challies, all of Montreal, and General Mitchell (Toronto) 



Branch and Mrs. Gilmour: W. P. Dobson, representing the 
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, and Mrs. 
Dobson; Professor R. E. Jamieson, president of the Cor- 
poration of Professional Engineers of Quebec; Burwell R. 
Coon, president, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, 
and Mrs. Coon; and His Worship the mayor of Hamilton, 
W. E. Morrison. 

The principal speaker was President W. E. Wickenden 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



123 




W. D. Black (Hamilton) was the luncheon speaker 

on Thursday. McNeely DuBose and H. A. Cooch 

were among head table guests 



The "Pay-off" — next day John 
Dunbar squares off the hotel ac- 
count while Bill Brown gives his 
approval. 



George T. Seabury (New York) tells 
of the aims and purposes of E.C.P.D 
He is secretary of that body and 
also of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers. 






»-*~'^B ^ 


Evil fc^ kfl 




^PJB 




■ M 




Dr. A. R. Cullimore (Newark) presents 
Dean Potter's paper onTechnical Train- 
ing for National Defense, and adds con- 
siderable material of his own. De Caspé 
Beaubien is chairman. 



Dean Brown (Montreal) left, supple- 
ments the material given in J. A. 
McCrory's paper on the La Tuque 
Developmen t . 



An interesting "father and son" group. 
R.J.Durley and Tom Durley (Montreal). 






Past President F. P. Shear- 
wood (Montreal) discusses 
the Jacobsen paper. 



Jacobsen's paper on Mo- 
ment Distribution and the 
Analysis of a Continuous 
Truss was discussed for over 
two hours. Here is the 
author. 



Arthur Runciman (Mont- 
real) describes some new 
things that have been found 
out about "Earth's Crust 
Resistance and Lightning". 



Joe Thwaites (Hamilton) 

delivers his paper on 

Ignitrons. 









Chairman R. L. Dunsmore (Halifax) 

discusses the papers with A. T. Wanek 

(New York), left, and J. M. Wardle 

(Ottawa), rigbt. 



Between meetings — left to right, L. H. 

Robinson of Oakville and H. L. Bucke 

of Niagara Falls. 



Left to right, K. M. Cameron (Ottawa), 

Bill Bonn (Toronto) and John Stirling 

(Montreal) ask the General Secretary 

some questions. 



124 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 





Geoffrey Stead (Saint John) keeps up his 

unbroken string of 25 annual meetings, 

while Marc Trudeau (Montreal) takes 

in his first one. 



Bill Reid (Hamilton) exhibits his radio 
personality. 




Dr. W. E. Wickenden delivers his excel- 
lent address. 



of the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland. He took 
for his text a verse from the Gospel according to St. Matthew 
but his discourse was adorned with several anecdotes of 
more worldly origin. Its title was The Second Mile — a 
reference to a commandment in the Sermon on the Mount 
— which, according to Dr. Wickenden, represents that volun- 
tary effort, over and above the regular required task, which 
distinguishes the efficient and willing from the mediocre 
performer. His address was full of humour and gave food 
for much thought regarding professional status and dignity. 

At the close of the dinner the induction of the newly 
elected president took place, and Dean Mackenzie gave a 
brief message to the Institute. 

The banquet was followed by a dance. Members and 
guests were received by Dean and Mrs. C. J. Mackenzie, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. A. T. Gilmour, and Mrs. Hugh Lumsden. 

On Wednesday, previous to the general activities, there 
were two important functions, i.e., the council meeting and 
the president's dinner. 

Council Meetings 

As usual, incoming councillors were invited to this 
Council meeting, as well as past-presidents and certain other 
members whose interests and activities brought them into 
close contact with the Institute. In all, there was an attend- 
ance of forty-one. In the absence of the president, Vice- 
President Sauder presided at both the morning and the 
afternoon sessions. The details of the meeting are printed 
elsewhere in this number of the Journal. 

The new council met at two-thirty on the afternoon of 
Friday, with the new president, C. J. Mackenzie, in the 
chair. In accordance with the usual custom, chairmen of 
standing and special committees were appointed and other 
routine business attended to. The detailed report of this 
meeting is also printed elsewhere in this Journal. 

President's Dinner 

The pleasant custom of the retiring president entertain- 
ing at dinner, the officers and councillors of the Institute 
and certain other members who have assisted him in his 
term of office, was maintained this year, even though the 
host himself could not attend. It was Dr. Hogg's firm desire 
that his accident would not rob the annual meeting of a 
pleasant feature and deny him the privilege of expressing 
in this way his appreciation of the aid and assistance which 
had been given him so generously. The dinner was held at 
the Tamahaac Club outside of Hamilton. 



J. M. R. Fairbairn presided, an honour due him as the 
senior past-president present. To support him he had at 
the head table Past- Presidents Porter, Shearwood, Lefebvre 
and Challies, and President-Elect C. J. Mackenzie, Vice- 
Presidents Sauder, DuBose and Keith. Mr. N. S. Braden, 
vice-president of the Canadian Westinghouse Company, 
was a special guest. 

Mr. Fairbairn, after expressing his regret at Dr. Hogg's 
absence, asked each past-president and each new councillor 
to make a speech. In view of the fact that absolutely no 
warning had been given, the results were extremely amus- 
ing but satisfactory. The past-presidents in particular ac- 




The Committee on the Welfare and Training of the Young 

Engineer — left to right, Messrs. R. F. Legget (Toronto), R. E. 

Heartz (Montreal), Harry Bennett (London), chairman, A. E. 

Macdonald (Winnipeg). This is not the Mural Room. 



quitted themselves nobly, and indicated clearly that they 
had not lost their sense of humour. 

Dean Mackenzie spoke on the future of the Institute 
and the profession, with particular reference to wartime 
conditions. He expressed his appreciation of his election 
to the presidency, and asked the support of all councillors 
throughout what would be a trying and decisive year. 

The concluding feature of the evening was the showing 
of a sound movie depicting the collapse of the Tacoma 
Bridge. The party returned to the hotel by bus to join the 
ladies and break up the bridge session which was underway. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



125 



THE PRESIDENT'S DINNER 






Head table — Chairman J. M. R. Fair- 
bairn warns Jack Challies that he is 
going to be called on for a speech. Other 
past presidents are Sam G. Porter (Cal- 
gary), O. O. Lefebvre (Montreal), F. P. 
Shearwood (Montreal) just out of the 
camera's range. President-elect C. J. 
Mackenzie is in the foreground 



N. S. Braden (Hamilton), centre, ex- 
plains on his fingers, much to the 
amusement of McNeely DuBose (Mont- 
real) and Clark Keith (Border Cities). 



With characteristic gesture, Geoff 

Gaherty (Montreal) tells Hal Cooch 

(Hamilton) something he should know 

about transformers. 




Even without their hair you can recog- 
nize Gordon O'Leary (Lakehead) "the 
darling of the profession," Charlie 
Sisson, R. B. Young and Barry Watson, 
all of Toronto. 



Reg Findlay, at the "low" end of the 

table, tells another one to John Hall 

(left) and Harold Vennes (right), all of 

Montreal. 




The Ottawa contingent— right to left, 
Messrs. W. F. Bryce, W. H. Munro, 
J. H. Parkin with Huet Massue (Mont- 
real), Harry Bennett (London) and 
D. S. Ellis (Kingston) in the background 




Harry Bennett presents branch prizes to L. C. Sentance and 
to M. D. Stewart. 





Any paper that holds the audience like this for two hours 
must be good. 



The reception line — left to right, Mrs. Hugh Lumsden, Mrs. 

Mackenzie, The President, Mrs. Gilmour and W. A. T. Gil- 

in. .in . chairman of the branch. 






126 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




A president is installed. Dean Mackenzie takes over from chair- 
man McNeely DuBose. 

The Ladies 

A very complete programme for the ladies, taking up 
the better part of three days, was provided by the ladies' 
committee under the chairmanship of Mrs. Hugh Lumsden. 
Without having participated in it, it is impossible to de- 
scribe every function, but judging from the printed pro- 



Mies McGill (Fort William) winner of the Gzowski Medal, 

George Seabury (New York), Dr. Wickenden (Cleveland) and 

the luncheon chairman Eric Muntz. 




J. J. Mackay (Hamilton) explains a serious point. Left to right, 

J. A. Vance (Woodstock) , L. A. Fraikin (Montreal) , J. J. Mackay, 

D. L. Mackinnon (Montreal). 

gramme and from the reports of those who did take part, 
everything was very satisfactory. 

On Wednesday evening, while the councillors were at 
the Tamahaac Club, guests of the president, the ladies 
joined together for a modest bridge tournament. 




And the ladies played bridge — from left to right, Mrs. F. P. 
Shearwood (Montreal), Mrs. C. J. Mackenzie (Ottawa), Mrs. 
Louis Trudel (Montreal), Mrs. W. H. Munro (Ottawa), Mrs. 
G. Moes (Hamilton), but Mrs. Hugh Lumsden (Hamilton) 
would not face the camera. 

On Thursday afternoon it was the ladies' turn to visit 
the Tamahaac Club, where tea was served. The same night 
a special dinner was arranged for them at the Wentworth 
Arms Hotel. 

Friday morning saw several ladies embarking on a pre- 
arranged shopping tour. Others visited certain industries 
in the locality, and all returned in time for lunch at the 
hotel. All ladies were guests of the Hamilton Branch for 
both luncheons, and for tea and dinner as well — a very 
much appreciated innovation. 

The Hamilton ladies made a splendid showing in their 
part as hostesses. Mrs. Hugh Lumsden gathered together 
a competent and enthusiastic group that contributed much 
towards the success of the whole meeting. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



127 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



RAILWAYS AND THE WAR 

From The Railway Magazine, (London), December, 1940 

Twelve months have passed since we published an article 
under the title of "Railways and the War." The previous 
instalment concluded by pointing out that, as we have 
readers in all parts of the world, we are naturally sensible 
to the necessity for maintaining perspective, and bear in 
mind that the incidence of war upon railways, as upon the 
lives of individuals, is important, but not all-embracing. 
From time to time, therefore, we have made references to 
the war as it has affected railways and now propose to give 
a general review of some of the more important events of 
1940. 

In Great Britain the events of last winter may be sum- 
marized as comprising the reduction of passenger services 
and their subsequent part-restoration, the difficulties of 
travellers due to the imposition of severe blackout restric- 
tions; the giving of preference to freight traffic over pas- 
senger traffic; and the coincidence of very severe weather 
conditions with war conditions. By the early spring, shaded 
white light had been gradually restored to most passenger 
trains, and practically all are now so equipped, although 
the supply of current through the switch in the guard's 
control depends upon whether or not the passengers keep 
the blinds drawn. 

The withdrawal of the B.E.F. and large numbers of the 
French Forces from Northern France through Dunkerque, 
provided the British railways, and the Southern in par- 
ticular with an extraordinary test of organization and initia- 
tive in transporting some 320,000 from the Channel ports. 
It fell to the lot of the Southern Railway Company to 
initiate the arrangements, and all four railways contributed 
their quota of trains, of which 186 were used. A detailed 
report of this movement was given in The Railway Magazine 
for July. It will also be recalled that during the period of 
intensive B.E.F. evacuation, the British railways carried 
in addition some 20,000,000 passengers and 6,000,000 tons 
of freight. In the middle of the year the Minister of Trans- 
port decided that to conserve steel for essential war pur- 
poses, the new works of the London Passenger Transport 
Board in conjunction with the G.W.R. and the L.N.E.R. 
should be suspended. About the same time the Ministry 
of Home Security defined certain districts of the country as 
defence areas into which movement was restricted. Persons 
wishing to enter the specified areas for business purposes 
were not prevented from doing so, but holiday and pleasure 
visits were banned. Later these areas were subject to con- 
siderable extension, and roughly comprised a strip of vary- 
ing width inland from the coast from Berwick-on-Tweed 
to Weymouth. Suspension of free movement into these areas 
naturally occasioned a considerable reduction in travel on 
certain sections of lines. 

After the withdrawal of the British Forces from France 
and the subsequent movement to the French coast of the 
Germany army, the Local Defence Volunteer corps was 
formed for home defence purposes. Railway units of this 
force were formed by all the main-line companies, and these 
have done much valuable work in the general guarding of 
premises and key points on the systems. Later in the year 
the title of Local Defence Volunteer was changed to the 
more appropriate one of Home Guard. In October, the 
Ministry of Transport announced that railway station names 
which early in the war had been obliterated or greatly re- 
duced in visibility might be displayed more freely. The 
object of the removal of names had been to avoid giving 
indications of the area concerned to low-flying aircraft, or 
to parachute troops. The Minister's intimation in the 
autumn of this year was to the effect that names might be 
displayed more freely provided they could not be read from 
a highway or by low-flying aircraft. 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



In the various parts of this country and also abroad, 
derelict tunnels have been made available as air raid shel- 
ters, and with the intensification of the war in the air, have 
become of increasing value to the public. Examples of tun- 
nels put to this use are those at Southwark and King 
William Street, London, and at Dundee, Harrogate, Edin- 
burgh and Ramsgate. Abroad an outstanding example of 
tunnel shelters is provided by Malta. 

Air raids on London, which first began on an intensive 
scale on September 7, occasioned a certain amount of dis- 
organization to the transport services of all kinds. Railway 
targets naturally proved attractive to the enemy, and on 
some occasions it has been necessary to divert or suspend 
the train services, although usually the periods involved 
have been very brief. A special group of buses has been 
formed to replace train services interrupted between cer- 
tain points in the Metropolitan area. Repairs to damaged 
lines have been quickly undertaken, and services restored 
with a minimum of delay. Notwithstanding the difficult 
conditions under which operations have been conducted 
on many occasions, traffic in general has been kept moving 
with remarkable freedom. The work of the engineers indeed 
speaks well not only for the enterprise of individuals in the 
engineering departments when faced with emergencies, but 
also for the preparatory measures which had been taken 
by the railways in anticipation of troubles the exact nature 
of which, could, of course, not be foreseen. The easiest 
type of damage to repair is the straight-forward bomb crater. 
Where a bomb falls clear of the tracks, it may affect their 
alignment and level, and cover them with debris. The repair 
is then merely a matter of clearing and re-adjusting. Should 
a bomb fall upon the track it may necessitate bringing to 
the site material for filling the crater and relaying the dam- 
aged lines. Cables, both traction and signal, and conductor 
rails, not to mention telegraph wires, may have been dam- 
aged and these also have to be repaired. Traffic may, how- 
ever, be resumed under hand signalling pending the re- 
establishment of the normal controls. Delayed action bombs 
may cause but small damage immediately, but until they 
are extracted and removed, a proceeding which has proved 
possible in many instances, they inevitably cause traffic 
interruption. Station buildings have been the victims of 
aerial bombardment, but restoration has been astonishingly 
rapid and in some instances train service is only very slightly 
interrupted. 

The greatest problems both in nature and magnitude 
have, of course, been presented by damage to bridges and 
viaducts, and the ingenuity displayed in devising means 
of restoration, as well as the concentrated hard work which 
has gone to its realization, has astonished many who have 
had the opportunity of seeing what has had to be tackled. 
One instance of quick repair may be mentioned. A bomb 
fell on a brick arch viaduct supporting eight running lines 
carrying an intensive traffic. It penetrated through the brick 
arch and exploded with great violence wrecking several 
arches and shattering everything within a large radius. 
Traffic had to be suspended on all lines, and it was decided 
that the quickest method of restoration was to build re- 
taining walls at each side of the viaduct, demolish the 
worst of the wrecked masonry and fill in and consolidate 
the whole formation. Filling, consisting of quarry refuse 
which packs quickly and solidly, was brought to the site 
in trains of hopper wagons. Two of the tracks were re- 
opened to traffic within eight days, two more ten days later, 
and a further two very soon afterwards. Here and there 
fire has been a trouble, and there is an instance of an im- 
portant station carried on a steel viaduct in which the 



128 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



terminal ends of all but one platform were badly damaged 
before the conflagration could be extinguished. Trains which 
were standing at the platforms at the time were attacked 
by the flames, but all were removed before extensive damage 
had been done, except one with wooden-centred wheels 
which, when burnt, let the axles drop. These vehicles thus 
became immovable and were destroyed. The scene immedi- 
ately after this fire was one of desolation, but nevertheless 
so quickly and methodically was the wreckage handled that 
within 48 hours it was possible to work trains in and out 
of one platform. Five days later two more platforms were 
again in use providing sufficient accommodation for the 
traffic. 

MODERN PROBLEMS IN HIGHWAY 
CONSTRUCTION 

CHARLES M. BASKIN 
Asphalt Technologist, Imperial Oil Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Abstract of paper delivered before the Toronto Branch of the 
Engineering Institute of Canada, November 21st, 1940. 

Road construction to-day is more of a problem than it 
ever was in pre-modern times. The principal reason for this 
is that we are inclined to regard every road job as a stand- 
ardized task. Actually, the modern motor road is a com- 
bined social, economic and technical problem. 

Taking the railway as a basis for comparison, the speaker 
stated that the railway developed along standardized lines 
with little, if any, confusion, principally because, as a pri- 
vate enterprise, it tended towards massive unit construction 
and concentration in the most populated areas. Under these 
circumstances there was little incentive, on the part of the 
privately-owned railway, to pioneer in localities of doubtful 
return. Moreover, there is a definite minimum standard 
and, therefore, minimum cost of railway per mile, beyond 
which one cannot go. This minimum cost was still economic- 
ally impossible for low revenue areas. But there can be a 
multitude of types of roads — from the massive four-lane 
highway to the graded earth road. Yet the heaviest motor 
vehicles can negotiate the earth road during relatively dry 
periods; hence the confusion in standards and specifications 
in highway construction as contrasted with the railway. 

In a sense, roads are like a consumable commodity, where 
capacity to consume is always greater than ability to supply. 
The motorist's demand is both for mileage and for quality 
— mileage to get ever farther away from the over-concen- 
trated areas — quality in form of safety, comfort and reduc- 
tion of wear on the motor vehicle. The primary demand, 
however, is for mileage and this always outstrips the revenue 
that can be exacted from the motorist. Under such circum- 
stances, the engineer followed the most obvious procedure. 
Where traffic was low, he tried to get by with the old time 
low-cost construction methods, resulting in a road of low 
bearing capacity. Where traffic was high, he based his de- 
sign on the assumption that the pavement alone will have 
to support the total traffic load as, at certain times of the 
year, the supporting value of the subgrade may be nil. 

Demand for road mileage not only outstripped increase 
in revenue, but was considerably ahead of technological 
developments on how to build a structurally adequate road 
at a cost compatible with available funds and mileage re- 
quired. The speaker emphasized that lack of fundamental 
data on causes of road failures has driven us to massive 
construction which, in itself, is only a temporary palliative. 
It is only recently that systematic investigations have 
yielded data on behaviour of soils in presence of water. 
Effect of water has been the chief cause of most of our 
road failures. 

He then expounded the theory of design of roads as a 
composite structure of several layers, consisting of the soil 
subgrade, the base course and the wearing surface, each 
layer intended to have and to retain a certain minimum 
bearing capacity, the sum total of which is adequate to 
support the heaviest wheel loads. In this connection, he 
outlined the newly developed methods of base course con- 



struction using natural clay as binder and gravel and sand 
as aggregate. Admixture of extremely small quantities of 
bitumen makes such masses of clay cemented aggregates 
water-repellent, thereby retaining the clay bond. 

He further pointed out that such methods of base course 
construction have widened enormously the range of aggre- 
gates that can be used, thereby reducing costs and obtaining 
bases several times the structural strength of the unscien- 
tifically constructed macadam or gravel base. Add to this 
the mechanically improved road bed, and the combined 
bearing capacity of such composite structure (soil road bed 
and base) is more than adequate to support the heaviest 
traffic. This type of design obviates the necessity of massive 
pavements. A thin resilient wearing course is entirely satis- 
factory — hence the all-weather, high bearing capacity road 
at a low cost. 

He further emphasized that even with massive pavements, 
we shall have to go to more scientific methods of drainage, 
soil compaction and construction of mechanically water- 
proofed base courses, otherwise our maintenance bills will 
continue to mount. 

Our need for road mileage is increasing at a far greater 
rate than our revenues from motor vehicles. We are, in 
addition, faced with increasing weaknesses and even failure 
of both expensive and low-cost roads constructed over un- 
stable soil and poorly designed bases. It is, therefore, 
essential that we constantly keep in mind that the only 
manner in which we will ever balance our budget is to 
have the scientific theories of to-day developed and made 
into the practice of to-morrow. 

GAS 

From Aeronautics, (London), December, 1940 

Ashes to ashes and dust to dust; and gas to sewage and 
sewage to gas. Something of that kind, seems to be the 
fundamental process underlying the cycle of nature. Dr. 
Lawrie, in an important book which is reviewed in our 
book page, directs attention at the possibilities of using 
methane, or marsh gas, as a fuel for internal combustion 
engines. According to his examination of the problem we 
could find in this country a sufficient supply of methane to 
reduce markedly our imports of fuel. 

The gas is given off when sewage is being treated by the 
bacterial method. At present we secure our supplies of 
aviation spirit through the good offices of the Navy, and 
the Royal Air Force does not forget that it owes its success 
to the Navy, for without the constant stream of tankers 
reaching our ports it would not be able to take off. But any- 
thing that can reduce that burden on our shipping is of 
immediate value. 

Some might argue that the war has progressed so far 
that the introduction of new sources of fuel supply would 
come too late to be of value. But this is a false view, for if 
we can provide some of our own fuel we gain in peace as 
well as in war. Moreover the cyclic principle is gaining 
ground as the basic principle which should guide all human 
proceedings, agricultural and other. It is from the rotting 
leaf that the best fertilizer comes. Sewage undoubtedly con- 
tains material that is more valuable than gold. In the past 
the procedure was usually to throw it away. Now a wiser 
view tends to prevail and there is a better understanding 
of the cyclical processes which go to renew life and energy. 

That we should take our aviation spirit from sewage is 
in train with this application of the cyclical principle. Dr. 
Lawrie 's book deserves the closest attention from all those 
who are dealing to-day with the problems of the nation's 
supplies. 

A NEW INDUSTRY IN SWEDEN 

Abstracted by Emil Skaein, m.e.i.c. 

Producer gas, made directly from either charcoal or wood, 
is rapidly substituting gasoline as fuel for the motor vehicle 
traffic in Sweden. 

The war has necessitated this change. When hostilities 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



129 



broke out in September, 1939, Sweden had in operation 
280,000 motor vehicles of all types. The greater portion of 
these had to be laid up for lack of gasoline. There being no 
restriction on the use of wood or charcoal, many trucks 
resorted to the use of producer gas, derived from charcoal, 
as was done in the first great war. 

Charcoal is made from wood, both assiduous and dissid- 
uous wood, preferably in dry condition. In Sweden, fairly 
large quantities are produced each year, usually from slabs, 
tree tops, and waste, surrounding the lumber industry. 
When charcoal was again required as fuel for the motor 
vehicles, the supplies were soon exhausted, and no cheap, 
dry wood supply was readily available. Nothing else was 
left except plain green wood. 

The equipment used in the first great war, to facilitate 
the use of producer gas, had in the meanwhile been greatly 
improved. It was soon found that wood, cut into small 
cubes of about two inches, served almost equally as well, 
though the rate of burning was more difficult to control. 

The use of wood directly is the outstanding and rather 
startling development, there being no scarcity of wood, and, 
furthermore, useless, crooked and twisted pieces could be 
used. Already 35,000 motor vehicles, mostly trucks, have 
been equipped for use of producer gas as fuel. Many more 
are ready to become so, as soon as equipment can be got 
ready. To serve these with supplies of wood, or charcoal, 
new depots are springing up all over the country along 
the highways, and a great number of people are finding 
new and profitable employment. 

The equipment consists in the main of a pot, or retort, 
placed on a trailer behind the vehicle.The retort, somewhat 
similar to the tub of a washing machine, though larger, has 
on top a refueling lid which is kept tight. There is a slow 
draft allowed from the bottom, and the gas and smoke pro- 
duced from the burning of the wood or charcoal in the 
retort is sucked into the engine by way of a tube. Evidently 
the only change to the engine equipment is a new or altered 
carburettor. The retort has to be cleaned out once in a 
while, like any other stove or furnace must be. 

The above information is gathered from articles appear- 
ing in a Swedish road journal called "Svenska Vagforenin- 
gens Tidakrift." In one of these articles, Sten Gyllensverd, 
Civil Engineer, describes a trip by car, using charcoal as 
fuel, in which he himself took part. 

The trip was made in the summer of 1940, in an ordinary 
six-cylinder, two-door car, with three passengers and one 
dog. The journey started from Halmstad in the south, and 
contacted Trollhtâtan, Karlstad, Rattvik, Falun, Orebro, 
Jonkoping and back to Halmstad, a total distance of 1,859 
kilometers, or 1,161 miles. The fuel consumption for this 
distance was 24^ hectolitres of charcoal, or 75 kilometers 
per hectolitre of fuel. One hectolitre is 100 liters, and one 
gallon is 4.54 litres. Thus one hectolitre is about 22 gallons, 
or almost three bushels, since one bushel is eight gallons. 

The cost of charcoal was five kroner per hectolitre, or in 
Canadian money $1.25. This averaged to 6.67 ore per Kilo- 
meter, or 2.6 cents per mile. The gasoline would have cost 
at the then prevailing prices in Sweden, about 26 per cent 
more. It may be mentioned that a six-cylinder, light car, 
can be operated here in western Canada for from 2 to 2J^ 
cents per mile for gasoline, at 32 cents per gallon. 

In addition to the above data, the author of the article 
states that no discernible quantity of lubricating oil had 
been used on the trip, since a very small quantity of oil is 
required with producer gas as fuel. The retort was cleaned 
twice on the trip. Best results were obtained when the retort 
was kept well filled with fuel. Each filling required from 
one to three hectolitres, and thirteen fillings were made. 
Rough roads, with downhill slopes helped the burning of 
the fuel and thus increased the effective power of the en- 
gine. The average speed made was 46.4 kilometers per hour, 
or 29 miles. 

From the above we may conclude that very shortly other 
combustible material such as weed, brush, and perhaps 



straw, can be adopted to fuel for farm tractors and trucks 
hauling in far-off places. As indicated before, the really 
big step in the improvement of equipment, was made when 
it was possible to substitute wood for charcoal. With this 
advance made, it should be possible, with some further 
improvements, to regulate the burning of other material 
as indicated. 

BRITAIN AFTER THE WAR 

From Robert Williamson, London, Eng. 

British scientists are working hard for the day when the 
sound of the builder's hammer will succeed the thud of 
the bomb. 

'*Z At the Building Research Station, Watford, near London, 
they are looking ahead to peace time when Britain will 
multiply by many times the £200,000,000 which she used 
to spend on building in a year. Their work ranges over 
materials, for quality and suitability; over design, for light 
and warmth. They can tell, by consulting their Electric 
Man whether any given room, because of the materials of 
walls and ceiling, requires much heating or little. 

This Electric Man is a cylinder with the same surface 
as an average human body. An electric current keeps him 
at body heat and a thermostatic control keeps this tempera- 
ture constant. He is wheeled into a room and his consump- 
tion of electricity shows how much of it is needed to keep 
this constant. 

And they have a section of the universe itself set up in 
miniature in their laboratory at Watford. An artificial sun 
is slotted in a vertical column and set at the appropriate 
altitudes of the changes of the seasons. A six-inch house 
model on a disc swung on pivots is orientated to season, 
latitude, and time of day. 

So the helidon, this ingenious instrument showing the 
earth moving round the sun, tells the architect how the 
shadows will actually fall upon his finished house and 
show him where he may amend his design to get all the 
sunshine there may be. 

WATER POWER IN THE PHILIPPINES 

By Filemon C. Rodriguez, Chief Engineer, 
National Power Corporation 

From The Philippine Engineering Record (Manila) 4th Quarter 1940. 

There is nothing on record to show when water power 
was first introduced in the Philippines, but it is known that 
during the time of Spanish rule over these islands water 
power was made use of in little mills for the grinding of 
grain, for the pressing of sugar cane, for pumping water, 
and for other purposes. The remains of some of these crude, 
simple water wheels, mostly undershot and breast wheels, 
can still be seen in many parts of the Philippines, and some 
of them are still in use to this day. 

Since the American occupation, some progress has been 
made in the development of water power. A number of 
projects of small to moderate size have been built, and im- 
proved design and manufacture have been adopted not only 
in the wheels but in the plants themselves. Hydro-electric 
plants were put up and the power has been made available 
to farther places than was possible under the direct drive 
system that was used before. 

It is to be noted that only a total of 33,481.1 hp. has so 
far been developed, of which the Botocan hydro-electric 
plant of the Manila Electric Company has 22,800 hp. or 
68 per cent of the whole. It could therefore be stated that 
outside of the Botocan plant there has been no hydro-elec- 
tric development of consequence that has been undertaken. 

That hydro-electric development throughout the Philip- 
pines has been very slow can be shown by a comparison 
with the development in other countries. Assuming a popu- 
lation of 16,000,000, the developed horse power per 1,000 
population in the Philippines amounts to 2.12. The cor- 
responding figures in some of the other countries for 1934 
are as follows : 



130 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Country Hp. per 1000 Population 

Alaska 617 

Canada 727 

Mexico 27 . 2 

Newfoundland 561 

United States 131 

Brazil 15.5 

Chile 26.6 

Austria 134 

Finland 104 

France 103 

Germany 30 . 

Italy 48 

Norway 855 

Spain 48.7 

Switzerland 566 

Soviet Russia 6.5 

Japan 60 . 5 

New Zealand 100 

Tasmania 350 

The growth of hydro-electric development in the Philip- 
pines and the growth of the electric power industry have 
not fully kept pace with the growth of the other industries. 
If the Botocan plant which was financed by the Associated 
Gas and Electric System is not included, we would have 
only 10,242 hp. 

Potential Power Resources 

The estimate given in the Almanac for the potential 
water power resources of the Philippines is 1,500,000 hp. 
There has been no investigation of the potential water 
power possibilities of the country, and there is, there- 
fore, no way by which an intelligent and accurate inventory 
of the power sites in the Philippines capable of successful 
development can be made. However, it should be stated 
that certain general conditions favouring the economic 
utilization of water power are present in the Philippines, 
and a successful large scale development of our water power 
resources may be undertaken. 

The record of the Weather Bureau shows that no 
droughts of dangerous proportions have visited this country. 
At the beginning of every dry season, the ground water 
storage of our watersheds is always filled to capacity from 
the rains during the preceding rainy season so that the flow 
of the streams during the dry season, though reduced, is 
more or less constant from year to year, thus making the 
prime power available therein also practically uniform from 
year to year. 

Most of the larger islands composing the Archipelago 
have mountain areas and upland regions where the rain 
falls with greater intensity and from which the rivers orig- 
inate and flow down the mountains in varying slopes through 
winding channels down to the oceans passing through the 
lowlands and valleys on which population has been con- 
centrated. The steep slopes of these rivers as they emerge 
from the mountains into the lowlands provide a drop which 
could be utilized for power development. According to the 
data furnished by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the total 
land area of the Philippines is 296,000,000,000 sq. m. and 
the average elevation of this land area above sea level is 
about 580 meters. From a rainfall map of the Philippines 



prepared from data gathered by the Weather Bureau, the 
average total amount of rain that falls over the Philippines 
in one year is about 670,740,000 cu.m. If it is conservatively 
considered that about 40 per cent of this volume of water 
flows through our streams, the maximum estimated poten- 
tial water power available in this country can be placed 
at 342,000,000,000 kwh. a year. It is admitted that this 
figure presupposes complete regulation of all river systems 
and utilization of all available head which is beyond the 
realm of human capacity. It is merely noted here to serve 
as a limit for any guess that may be given of the power 
resources of the country. If it is assumed that the utilizable 
power of the streams is only 2 per cent, then the ultimate 
goal that might be set for hydro-electric development could 
be placed at 6,800,000,000 kwh. a year. 

VOCATIONAL INSTRUCTION DURING 
MILITARY SERVICE 

From the Journal of the Institution of Civil Engineers (London), 
December, 1940 

The Board of Education having expressed the desire of 
the Army Council for the establishment of courses for per- 
sons under training for various professions in civil life who 
wish to continue their studies while temporarily serving 
in His Majesty's Forces, the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
together with the Institutions of Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineers, is co-operating with the Board of Education 
and the Advisory Council for Education in the Forces in 
the organization of courses in engineering subjects. 

During the last war there was a break in the studies of 
a whole generation of engineers, with serious consequences 
to the profession; many on attempting to rejoin it had 
difficulty in resuming their studies and in passing exam- 
inations, and were consequently handicapped in completing 
their professional qualifications. The Council will regard it 
as an immense benefit if this experience could be avoided 
in the present war and consider that the provision of courses 
of engineering study will, should the conditions of the war 
allow a measure of study, help those whose engineering 
training has been interrupted to keep in touch with tech- 
nical knowledge, and in some cases to complete a portion 
of their engineering qualifications whilst so serving. 

It is hoped that it will be found possible to allow students 
to attend evening classes at a technical college where one 
is within convenient reach, but where the distance is too 
great it may be found possible when a sufficient number of 
students come forward in large camps, to arrange for the 
delivery of regular courses of lectures by qualified teachers. 
There must, however, remain a large number of cases, such 
as those of outlying and small stations, in which courses 
of private study, either by guided reading or a modified 
form of correspondence course, would be the only possible 
method. 

Any student of the Institution of Civil Engineers or 
approved candidate for election to Corporate Membership 
who wishes to prepare himself for Section A and B of the 
Associate Membership Examination of The Institution 
under this scheme should apply to his Commanding Officer 
or to the Unit educational officer for information as to the 
method of procedure and for copies of the curricula. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



131 



From Month to Month 



ANNUAL MEETING 



Another Annual Meeting has come and gone, and left 
behind it a splendid record of achievement. With a regis- 
tration of over five hundred and a banquet attendance of 
about the same figure, with well attended and thoroughly- 
discussed technical meetings, with speakers of the highest 
order, and an excellent spirit of friendliness over all, Council 
and the Hamilton Branch may well feel pleased and 
satisfied. 

This year's meeting was the third occasion on which the 
Hamilton Branch has acted as the host of the Institute 
members and guests for the principal gathering of the 
Institute year. The assembly which has just concluded fully 
maintained the Branch reputation for effective organization, 
unstinted hospitality, and the efficient preparatory staff 
work on which the success of such an affair depends. 

The attendance was unusually large, particularly as re- 
gards the members of the many neighbouring branches in 
south-western Ontario. The technical sessions dealt with a 
variety of matters of timely interest which led to active 
discussion. At several of the sessions, at the luncheons and 
at the banquet the speakers' addresses were devoted to 
various aspects of the great problem which now confronts 
the engineering profession in Canada, namely, how best to 
ensure that continuous and ample supply of trained en- 
gineers and technicians which is essential in the present 
war, how to develop and maintain their efficiency and 
morale, and how to bring these needs into line with the 
orderly progress of the profession as a whole. 

An unusually high note was struck by the banquet 
speaker, Dr. Wm. E. Wickenden, whose address is printed 
as the leading article in this number of the Journal. Dr. 
Wickenden's pleasant delivery and the excellence of his 
material marked the high spot of the whole programme. It 
is to be hoped that this thought provoking and inspirational 
address may come to the attention of every member of the 
profession in Canada. 

At our Annual Meetings it is always a pleasure to wel- 
come so many distinguished visitors from the United States. 
This year, in addition to Dr. Wickenden, we were happy 
to have Mr. Seabury with us again, and to receive the im- 
portant data contained in his address. Further, Dr. Culli- 
more and Dr. Perrine were able representatives of the 
educational and technological sides of present-day engin- 
eering. 

A review or a commentary on the meeting could not be 
complete without mention of the absence of the retiring 
president, Dr. Hogg. Only the good news of his excellent 
recovery made possible the pleasant and cheerful tone of 
the whole meeting. At every function he was referred to, 
and many messages of appreciation are recorded in the 
several minutes. It is regrettable that he could not be 
present to see the culmination of his successful year of 
office, and to receive in person the praise and thanks of 
the many members. 

The invitation of the Montreal Branch to hold the 1942 
meeting in Montreal was accepted by the new Council, and 
already the committee is discussing ways and means of 
maintaining the standards set by previous gatherings. The 
branch is greatly encouraged by the success of the Hamilton 
meeting, and is looking forward with pleasurable anticipa- 
tion to being host to the Institute early in 1942. 

THE SECOND MILE 

So much favourable comment has been received about 
Dr. Wm. E. Wickenden's address at the annual banquet 
that special attention is called to the fact, that it is repro- 
duced herewith in full. Members are recommended to read 
it even though they attended the banquet. It is one of 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 



those addresses that merits reading and study over and 
over again. It is one of the soundest, best reasoned and 
most thoughtful talks that have been heard in Canada for 
a long time. It is a clear, intelligent call to the highest 
things in the profession. 

Believing that messages of this kind are good for the 
whole profession, copies of Dr. Wickenden's address have 
been sent by Headquarters to many Canadian publications, 
in an endeavour to get the widest possible distribution for 
it. Reprints are in stock and can be obtained by members 
from Headquarters. 

WARTIME BUREAU OF TECHNICAL PERSONNEL 

Under this title the Minister of Labour at Ottawa re- 
cently announced the creation of an organization whose 
purpose was to find technically trained persons who could 
fill the wartime needs of industry, government and the 
active service forces. 

This announcement marked the culmination of over two 
years interest in such a proposal by the technical societies 
themselves. In December, 1938, at the request of the 
Minister of Defence, a survey was made by the Canadian 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, the Canadian Institute 
of Chemistry, and the Engineering Institute of Canada, and 
from the information gathered a file was established and 
turned over to the government. 

The present proposal goes much further than the previous 
one, due to the fact that the situation is much clearer now 
and the needs much more apparent than they were in 1939. 
The Department of Labour has estimated the needs for 
skilled and unskilled help for 1941, and from these figures 
can estimate the needs for technical help for the same 
period. It was evident that some additional assistance would 
be necessary if these requirements were to be met. Hence 
the establishment of the Bureau. 

The request for co-operation came to the three national 
institutes from the Minister of Labour. A series of meetings 
in Ottawa led to the acceptance of the responsibility by 
the institutes and within a short time this responsibility 
will be passed on, through several additional organizations, 
to engineers and chemists throughout Canada. 

The Bureau is to be operated by a Director selected by 
the societies themselves. It is a very fortunate circumstance 
that makes it possible to secure the services of E. M. Little, 
b.a.sc, who is referred to elsewhere in this issue, for this 
important task. Mr. Little will establish a Board repre- 
sentative of the various co-operating organizations, which 
will assist him on matters of policy and in direct dealing 
with the societies. The Headquarters of the Bureau will be 
at Ottawa, although it may be necessary to establish offices 
in Toronto, Montreal and elsewhere. 

It is an important matter for all engineers that the gov- 
ernment has come to the engineers themselves for this 
assistance. It is both a compliment and a challenge. To do 
this work to the satisfaction of everyone involved, and to 
the best interests of the war endeavours, is a task of no 
mean dimensions. It can be accomplished only if all engi- 
neering organizations and industry pull together as a team, 
determined that it shall be accomplished. Herein lies an 
opportunity for every member of the engineering profession 
— every chemist — to organize his profession on a national 
basis and to support his government in its endeavour to 
utilize technical man power to the utmost — and incidentally 
to prove that the greatest things are possible only by co- 
operation. 



132 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The Engineering Journal in company with the regular 
publications of the other societies, will endeavour to keep 
the profession well informed of the developments within 
the Bureau. It is felt that as this activity belongs to the 
whole profession, every effort should be made to keep the 
members in close touch with it. It is intended that every 
technical man in Canada shall be communicated with 
shortly by direct mail, and that subsequent contacts shall 
be maintained principally through the technical journals 
and the press. 

ELLIOTT MENZIES LITTLE 

Director of The Wartime Bureau of 

Technical Personnel 

The recent announcement by the Minister of Labour of 
the setting up of this Bureau brings to the forefront of 
wartime activity the name of another engineer. Mr. Little 
is one of the outstanding figures in the pulp and paper 
field, and is well known to many engineers across Canada. 




E. M. Little 

His appointment to this position was made upon the 
recommendation of the Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy, the Canadian Institute of Chemistry, and the 
Engineering Institute of Canada. The Minister's decision 
to hand over to the engineers the operation of the Bureau 
began with the appointment of a Director of their own 
choosing, authorized to set up his own organization. As all 
engineers and chemists will be hearing about and from Mr. 
Little, the Journal feels that some biographical informa- 
tion will be interesting and appropriate. 

Mr. Little was born in Beachburg, Ontario, in 1899, but 
when he was three years old his parents moved to Hailey- 
bury. It was here that he attended public and high school. 
In 1914 he began his successful career in the paper business 
with the Abitibi Power and Paper Co. Limited, at Iroquois 
Falls, where he started at the bottom as office boy. 

For about fourteen years he remained with the com- 
pany, going through every department in the business, 
including office and mill, and finishing up as assistant mill 
manager. 

His service with Abitibi was interrupted early in 1918 
when he joined the Air Force, enlisting at Montreal. After 
demobilization in 1919 he entered the Faculty of Applied 
Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto, 
and was graduated as a b.a.sc. in electrical engineering in 
1925, having been out one year because of a death in the 
family. Upon graduation he returned to the Abitibi Com- 
pany as plant electrical engineer and remained there until 
1932, at which time he joined the Anglo-Canadian Pulp 
and Paper Mills at Quebec City. In 1933 he was made 
general superintendent of this company, and in 1937 he 
became associated with the Gaspesia Sulphite Company — 
an affiliated organization. He is now general manager of 
both companies. 



Mr. Little has taken a leading part in the affairs of the 
Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, being a member of 
the Executive Committee, and vice-chairman of the joint 
administrative committee in charge of research in the in- 
dustry. He has also been chairman of the technical section 
of the Association. 

His residence is in Quebec, and his services are made 
available to the government through the generosity of the 
officers of the two companies by which he is employed. 

REGISTRATION IN THE FACULTIES OF APPLIED 

SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING IN CANADIAN 

UNIVERSITIES, SESSION 1940-1941 

By direction of Council, enquiries have been addressed 
to the engineering schools in Canada, asking for particu- 
lars of their undergraduate registration for the current year 
in the various branches of engineering. 

The following table has been compiled from the informa- 
tion furnished in reply. 



University 


3 


m 

1 
o 
O 
"3 

hi 

S 

o 


h. 

3 
■*» 

3 
o 

u 

< 


03 
U 

o 
a 

V 

13 
a 

u 

< 


o 

S 

03 

O 


|.s 

W S 
_ 4» 

.20 
O 


O 


"3 
1 

3 


>> 

S 

1 


■g à 
§.2 
>>g 
S c 

8 si 
o 


"3 
'3 

01 

8 

S 


>> 

51 

jj 
o 


M 

'S 


bi 

S) 
S 
ta 

n 


"3 


Nova Scotia 

Technical 

College. . . . 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


i 




_i_ 






7 
4 

11 


10 
6 

16 






iè 

10 
26 




2 
5 

7 




35 
26* 


Total 




l 


61 








New 
Brunswick 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 












9 
19 

7 
18 


25 

22 

20 

9 


17 
22 
14 
12 












51 
63 
11 

39* 


Total 












53 


76 


65 












194 








Ecole Poly- 
technique 
de Mont- 
real. 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 


107 
69 
40 
45 
33 


























107 
69 
40 
45 
33* 


Total 


294 


294* 








McGill 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 


142 

74 




14 
3 
3 
1 

6 

27 




30 
26 
19 

75 


11 
6 

17 


24 
12 

36 






36 
27 

63 


ii 

8 
19 


ii 

9 
26 




156 
107 
128 
82* 
6* 


Total 


216 


479 








Queens 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 

4th 


167 
164 








31 
29 

60 


8 
17 

25 


is 

16 
31 




i 

2 
3 


30 
16 

46 


17 
14 

31 


23 
29 

52 


i 

6 

7 


167 
164 
126 
129* 


Total 


331 


586 








Toronto 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 

5th 






7 
9 
9 
2 
2 

29 


4 
2 
2 

8 


95 
65 
42 
38 

240 


48 
30 
18 
22 

118 


45 
42 
24 
32 

143 


_!_ 


1 
3 

5 

7 

16 


75 
54 
39 
34 

202 


13 
21 
23 
15 

72 


20 
24 
19 
27 

90 


30 
15 
12 
9 

66 


338 
265 
193 
186* 
2* 


Total . 




984 








Manitoba 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


86 
53 












16 
12 

28 


16 
15 

31 




8 
4 
5» 

17 













94 
57 
37 
27* 


Total 


139 


215 








Saskatche- 
wan 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 

4th 


175 


8 
8 

4 

20 


— — 


5 

1 
7 

13 


16 
15 
9 

40 


24 
13 
19 

56 


— 




é 

7 
8 

18 


55 
48 
26 

129 


— — 


— 


9 
4 
6 

19 


175 
120 

96 

79* 


Total 


175 


470 








Alberta 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 

4th 


115 
72 








14 

17 

31 


14 
6 

20 


8 
11 

19 






— — 




53 
18 

71 


4 
1 

5 


115 
72 
93 
53* 


Total 


187 


333 








British 
Columbia 


2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 


176 
103 








26 
19 

45 


6 
6 

12 


15 
13 

28 


9 
4 

13 


10 
8 

18 


19 
18 

37 


3 
4 

7 


ii 

10 
24 




176 
103 
102 
82* 


Total 


279 


463 








Grand Total 




1622 


20 


56 


21 


491 


340 


380 


78 


72 


503 


129 


270 


97 


4079 



•Indicates those graduating in the spring of 1941 — Total 744. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



133 



DEAN C. J. MACKENZIE, M.C., M.C.E., M.E.I.C. 

PRESIDENT OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, 1941 



The following chronological account of the career of the 
new president will indicate immediately the outstanding 
contribution he has made to the literature and to the de- 
velopment of the profession in 
Canada. Consultant, lecturer, 
teacher, public servant and 
leader, he has been a strong 
figure in Western Canada for 
thirty years, and has given 
sympathy and aid to every 
worthwhile proposal that has 
come to him. He is a note- 
worthy example of the broad 
minded, public spirited type 
of engineer of which so much 
has been written and heard in 
recent years. 

Chalmers Jack Mackenzie 
was born in St. Stephen, N.B., 
and received his b.e. from Dal- 
housie in 1909 and his m.c.e. 
from Harvard in 1915. He be- 
gan his professional career in 
the Maritimes, but as early as 
1910 he had moved west as 
resident engineer in charge of 
the construction of three muni- 
cipal electric plants. In 1912- 
13, during the winter months, 
he inaugurated the engineering 
courses at the University of 
Saskatchewan, and was ap- 
pointed Professor of Civil En- 
gineering in 1915. 

When the war broke out he 
was also a member of the firm 
of consulting engineers of Maxwell and Mackenzie at Ed- 
monton, designing and building numerous structures such 
as waterworks and sewage systems and sewage disposal 
plants, electric power plants, etc. 

From 1916 to 1918 he was overseas with the 54th Bat- 
talion, C.E.F., and was awarded the Military Cross. 

From 1919 to 1939,he carried on a great variety of activi- 
ties, including his university work and a consulting practice. 
During this time he took charge of the design and con- 
struction of the two large reinforced concrete bridges over 
the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers at Saskatoon. 
He was also chairman of the City of Saskatoon City 
Planning Commission, and directed the work of formu- 
lating the City Planning and Zoning By-laws which were 
adopted. 




Dean C. J. Mackenzie, M.C., M.C.E., M.E.I.C. 



In 1921 he was appointed Dean of College at Saskatoon, 
and since that time has set up a remarkable record for growth 
and stability of an educational institution. In twenty years 

the attendance has gone from 
forty to almost five hundred. 
In 1935 he was appointed to 
the Advisory Council of the 
National Research Council, 
and in 1939 was made Acting 
President when Lieutenant 
General McNaughton was 
given charge of the Canadian 
Active Service Force over- 
seas. 

Besides the several accom- 
plishments which have been 
referred to, Dean Mackenzie 
has held the following offices: 
1925 Chairman of the Sas- 
katchewan Branch of 
the Institute; 
1929-30 Vice-President of the 

Institute ; 
1930 President, Associa- 
tion of Professional 
Engineers of Sas- 
katchewan ; 
1921-39 Member, Saskatche- 
wan Council of Public 
Health ; 
1929-30 Alderman, City of 

Saskatoon ; 
1930-31 Member Advisory 
Board, Royal Mili- 
tary College ; 
Member S a s - 



1931-34 

katchewan Drought Commission; 
1937-39 Chairman Board of Directors, Saskatoon City 

Hospital; 
1937 to date Director, Canadian Geographical Society. 

Dean Mackenzie has presented many papers to scientific 
and engineering societies in Canada and the United States, 
and over twenty-five have been published in the organs 
of the societies. He has already spoken to many branches 
of the Institute and to many public bodies. He is well 
known in all parts of Canada, and his elevation to the 
presidency of the Engineering Institute of Canada places 
him in a position to carry on to an even greater extent his 
activities on behalf of the profession. 

He joined the Institute as a Junior in 1911, transferred 
to Associate Member in 1914, and to Member in 1920. 



134 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CORRESPONDENCE 

The Canadian Government Trade Commissioner 

Melbourne, Australia, 
January 17th, 1941. 
L. Austin Wright, Esq., m.e.i.c, 
Editor, 

"The Engineering Journal," 
2050 Mansfield St., 
Montreal, Quebec. 

Dear Sir, 

I am sure you will be interested in the attached copy of 
a letter which I have received from Captain E. C. Johnston, 
Assistant Director-General of the Commonwealth Civil 
Aviation Department, Melbourne. Captain Johnston's letter 
refers to the article commencing on page 452 of the Novem- 
ber, 1940, issue of your Journal, which I send to him for 
perusal. 

With best wishes to The Engineering Institute of Canada 
for 1941, I am 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Frederick Palmer, m.e.i.c. 
Canadian Trade Commissioner. 

Commonwealth of Australia 
Department of Civil Aviation 

Melbourne, C.I., 

8th January, 1941. 
Dear Mr. Palmer, 

Thank you for sending me the November issue of "The 
Engineering Journal." I have read the article by Wilson 
with very much interest. Certainly your people have done 
a wonderful job on these aerodromes under the very difficult 
conditions that prevail, particularly as regards the winter 
months. I am dropping a note to Wilson to congratulate 
him on the job and on his excellent account of it. 

As the article will be of interest to several other senior 
officers of this Department, I am taking the liberty of 
passing the Journal around to them before I return it to 
you. I hope you don't mind this but I will see that it is 
returned to you within a few days. 

With all best wishes for 1941, I am 

Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) E. C. Johnston. 

MEETINGS OF COUNCIL 

Minutes of a meeting of the Council of the Institute 
held at the Royal Connaught Hotel, Hamilton, Ontario, 
on Wednesday, February 5th, 1941, at ten-thirty a.m. 
with Vice-President P. M. Sauder (Edmonton) in the chair. 
There were also present Past-President J. B. Challies 
(Montreal); Vice-Presidents McNeely DuBose (Province 
of Quebec), and J. Clark Keith (Province of Ontario); 
Councillors G. P. F. Boese (Calgary), W. F. M. Bryce 
(Ottawa), R. H. Findlay (Montreal), J. G. Hall (Montreal), 
W. R. Manock (Niagara Peninsula), H. Massue (Montreal), 
W. L. McFaul (Hamilton), C. K. McLeod (Montreal), J. H. 
Parkin (Ottawa), B. R. Perry (Montreal), H. R. Sills 
(Peterborough), C. E. Sisson (Toronto), and J. A. Vance 
(London); Treasurer deGaspé Beaubien, Secretary-Emer- 
itus R. J. Durley, General Secretary L. Austin Wright, and 
Louis Trudel, Assistant to the General Secretary; Past- 
Presidents J. M. R. Fairbairn (Montreal), O. O. Lefebvre 
(Montreal), S. G. Porter (Calgary), and F. P. Shearwood 
(Montreal); President-Elect C. J. Mackenzie; Councillors- 
Elect E. M. Krebser (Windsor), W. H. Munro (Ottawa), 
and H. J. Vennes (Montreal). 

The following were also present by invitation: S. R. 
Frost, president, and M. B. Watson, registrar, of the Associ- 
ation of Professional Engineers of Ontario; C. C. Kirby, 
honorary president of the Dominion Council of Professional 
Engineers and secretary of the Association of Professional 



Engineers of New Brunswick; G. A. Gaherty, chairman of 
the Committee on Western Water Problems; H. F. Bennett, 
chairman, and D. S. Ellis, R. E. Heartz (also chairman, 
Montreal Branch), R. F. Legget, and A. E. Macdonald, 
members of the Committee on the Training and Welfare 
of the Young Engineer, and the following branch chairmen : 
R. L. Dobbin (Peterborough), W. A. T. Gilmour (Hamil- 
ton), and H. G. O'Leary (Lakehead). 

The general secretary reported that President Hogg was 
making satisfactory progress, which was noted with much 
gratification by all present. 

On taking the chair, Mr. Sauder extended a welcome to 
all councillors and guests, and introduced each person 
present to the meeting. 

The report of the Committee on Western Water Prob- 
lems was presented and accepted by Council, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to see what further action could be 
taken. 

There was a general expression of appreciation of the 
excellent work done by the committee, which finally re- 
sulted in the unanimous approval of a motion that Council 
place itself on record as passing a vote of thanks to the 
committee and the sub-committee for the tremendous 
amount of work which they had completed and for the 
excellence of their conclusions and recommendations. 

The general secretary pointed out that in view of the 
fact that the Council's final policy had not yet been deter- 
mined the report should be kept strictly confidential. 

The general secretary reported that Professor C. R. 
Young had accepted appointment as the Institute's repre- 
sentative on the E.C.P.D. Committee on Professional 
Ethics. This was noted with satisfaction. 

The general secretary presented a letter from Squadron 
Leader A. J. Taunton advising that in view of the pressure 
of his present work he found it necessary to resign as coun- 
cillor representing the Winnipeg Branch. This resignation 
was accepted with regret, and on the recommendation of 
the Winnipeg Branch it was unanimously RESOLVED that 
J. W. Sanger, m.e.i.c, be appointed as councillor to repre- 
sent the Winnipeg Branch until the 1942 annual elections. 

The secretary read a letter from the Steel Controller 
pointing out that under the stimulus of wartime consump- 
tion by industry, Canadian steel mills are faced with the 
necessity of greatly expanding their production of rolled 
steel products while simultaneously meeting urgent 
demands for early deliveries. To meet this situation the 
mills, with the approval of the Department of Munitions 
and Supply, have embarked upon a programme of standard- 
ization of all rolled products for the duration of the war. 
Continuing the progress, and turning their attention to re- 
inforcing steel, the Department proposes to adopt as stand- 
ard those sizes concurrently established as such by the 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association. The Steel 
Controller asked for the approval of the Institute with 
regard to the adoption of these standards throughout 
Canada. 

After considering the proposals in detail, it was unani- 
mously RESOLVED that the Institute support these 
recommendations. 

The general secretary reported that the Deputy Minister 
of Labour, Dr. Bryce Stewart, had approached the three 
national Institutes, which had drawn up a register of tech- 
nically trained men in 1938 and 1939, to ask if they would 
take over the handling of this register and the placing of 
technical personnel for the duration. Subsequently, a meet- 
ing was held with the Deputy Minister at Ottawa, at which 
the presidents and secretaries of the three Institutes were 
present. The outcome of this conference was that a direct 
proposal was made to the Department. Mr. Wright now 
reported that in a telephone conversation the day previous 
to the Council meeting the Deputy Minister had informed 
him that the proposal had been accepted and that an 
Order-in-Council had been passed giving authority for the 
work and providing the necessary funds. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



135 



The Deputy Minister had recommended that the three 
Institutes select a representative who could be installed as 
director or controller and be responsible to the government 
for the conduct of the work. The general secretary explained 
that a gentleman had been agreed upon between the three 
organizations, but that final acceptance had not been re- 
ceived, although it was expected this detail would be fixed 
up within a very few days. 

It was explained that this gentleman had requested the 
Institute to make available to him the part time services 
of the general secretary in order to assist him in the opera- 
tions of the Technical Bureau. After some discussion, par- 
ticipated in by Messrs. Challies, Hall, Mackenzie and 
Vance, it was agreed that Council was prepared to co- 
operate with the Department of Labour to the full extent 
of its ability, and that the Finance Committee be authorized 
to do whatever is necessary to make Mr. Wright's services 
available to the Minister. 

The general secretary reported that President Hogg had 
intended to discuss with the Hon. Mr. Howe the desir- 
ability of appointing an engineer to fill the vacancy on the 
International Joint Commission, but had unfortunately 
been unable to do so. It was pointed out that Mr. C. A. 
Magrath, an eminent engineer, had acted as chairman of 
the Canadian Section for a great many years, and it was 
considered very desirable that an engineer should now be 
appointed to fill the present vacancy. After some discussion, 
it was unanimously agreed that Dr. Challies and Dr. 
Lefebvre be appointed a committee to make inquiries and 
appropriate representations to the government on behalf 
of the Institute. 

Mr. C. C. Kirby, representing the Dominion Council of 
Professional Engineers, explained that a resolution had been 
passed at a meeting of the Council held in Toronto on 
January 20th and 21st, with respect to the co-ordination 
of the engineering societies in Canada, and it was hoped 
that it would be favourably received by the Engineering 
Institute and the other societies. 

Following some discussion, it was unanimously RE- 
SOLVED that the resolution be referred to the Commit- 
tee on Professional Interests for consideration and report. 

The general secretary presented a letter from the Citizens' 
Committee for Troops in Training suggesting that the Insti- 
tute might contribute towards a fund for the purchase of 
band instruments for the Royal Canadian Engineers now 
training at Petawawa. 

It was pointed out that the Institute had no funds that 
could be appropriated for such a purpose, but the members 
present felt that it would be very desirable to help in this 
worthy object if at all possible. It was finally decided to 
take up a voluntary collection from members of Council 
present, and also from members attending the Annual 
General Meeting. 

Mr. Harry Bennett, chairman of the Institute's Com- 
mittee on the Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer, 
reported that his committee had been meeting all day, and 
was now prepared to report to Council. He pointed out 
the importance to the profession and to the Institute of 
the selection and guidance of engineering students and the 
training of the young engineer. It was the opinion of the 
committee that the Institute, with its many branches across 
Canada, had a splendid opportunity of assisting the educa- 
tionalists. He pointed out the good work that could be done 
by bringing to the attention of prospective students some 
of the characteristics necessary to success in the profession. 
He mentioned that this matter had been discussed at a 
meeting of the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, 
which he had been invited to attend, and that the Dominion 
Council had indicated that they were ready to assist his 
committee in this work if such co-operation could be of 
benefit. Accordingly, Mr. Bennett's committee, by resolu- 
tion, proposed that Council shall invite the Dominion 
Council to co-operate with the Institute's committee to 
the fullest extent. 



Mr. Bennett referred to the recent report of his com- 
mittee which appeared with the annual report of Council. 
He explained that this was not as complete as he would like 
to have seen it, but that it was a further step along the way. 
He dwelt on the student activities within the branches, 
and explained that after to-day's meeting his committee 
was ready to present to the branches a scheme of counsel- 
ling whereby members of the Institute would make their 
services available for the guidance of the student and the 
young engineer. 

Mr. Bennett also referred to the manuscript for the new 
booklet which is to be printed by the Engineers' Council 
for Professional Development (E.C.P.D.). His committee 
thought this booklet could be revised to a considerable ex- 
tent, but that as the material had been prepared for some 
time and was already in the hands of the printers, it would 
be difficult to make the desired changes. He pointed out 
that his committee was recommending that a smaller 
pamphlet be prepared which would be definitely Canadian, 
and which would have more direct application to the situa- 
tion in this country. He also thought that a certain number 
of copies of the more complete booklet prepared by E.C.P.D. 
should be secured for distribution to the libraries and the 
heads of educational institutions. He wanted to see a pub- 
lication in Canada that would readily indicate that the 
Institute is willing and prepared to promote and advance 
the welfare of the profession of engineering. 

He explained that the problem of what the Institute 
could do for the young man after graduation still required 
a lot of thought and attention. He believed that if pre- 
engineering guidance were available so that contacts would 
be established with the students, it would be easier to carry 
on the work after graduation. 

Mr. Bennett also touched on the question of engineering 
education, explaining that his committee had made a study 
of the recent report issued by the Society for the Promotion 
of Engineering Education. Their investigation confirmed 
the original belief that the most important element was a 
sound fundamental training and the inclusion of certain 
of the humanities or cultural subjects. He again empha- 
sized the importance of the branches keeping in touch with 
the student and the young engineer. 

A very thorough discussion followed Mr. Bennett's re- 
port, and finally, it was moved that the recommendation 
of the committee concerning the booklet be accepted, in- 
volving the revision, if possible, of the E.C.P.D. booklet 
"Engineering as a Career," and the provision of a booklet 
prepared by the Institute to cost not more than $250.00. 
This was approved unanimously. 

Council then dealt with the recommendation of the com- 
mittee that the offer of the co-operation of the Dominion 
Council be accepted. Accordingly, it was moved that the 
offer of the Dominion Council be accepted. Following this 
resolution, Mr. Bennett requested Council to add Mr. 
Kirby's name to the membership of his committee. This 
was agreed to unanimously. 

By virtue of the co-operative agreement with the Associ- 
ation of Professional Engineers of Alberta, the following 
number of members of the Association, having indicated 
their desire to become members of the Institute, have been 
admitted to the classifications indicated: 

Admissions 

Members 20 

Students 11 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 1 

Student to Member 1 

Student to Junior 1 

Student membership in the Institute for one year, in- 
cluding the Journal subscription, has been awarded to the 



136 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



six successful contestants at the Annual Students Night of 
the Toronto Branch, held on January 16th, 1941: 

A number of applications were considered, and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 

Admissions 

Member 1 

Juniors 3 

Affiliate 1 

Students 12 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 6 

Student to Member 1 

Student to Junior 5 

The Council rose at five-thirty p.m. 



Minutes of a meeting of the Council of the Institute held 
at the Royal Connaught Hotel, Hamilton, Ontario, on Fri- 
day, February 7th, 1941, at two-thirty p.m., with President 
C. J. Mackenzie in the chair. There were also present, 
Vice-Presidents deGaspé Beaubien, K. M. Cameron, and 
McNeely DuBose; Councillors G. P. F. Boese, J. G. Hall, 
E. M. Krebser, W. R. Manock, H. Massue, W. H. Munro, 
J. H. Parkin, G. McL. Pitts, H. R. Sills, C. E. Sisson, J. A. 
Vance and H. J. Vennes; Past-Vice-Presidents E. P. Muntz 
and P. M. Sauder; Past Councillors W. F. M. Bryce, P. E. 
Doncaster and O. Holden; H. G. O'Leary, chairman of the 
Lakehead Branch; Secretary-Emeritus R. J. Durley and 
General Secretary L. Austin Wright. 

On the motion of Mr. Vance, seconded by Mr. Sisson, 
it was unanimously RESOLVED that L. Austin Wright 
be reappointed general secretary of the Institute. 

On the motion of Mr. Cameron, seconded by Mr. Vennes, 
it was unanimously RESOLVED that Mr. John Stadler be 
appointed treasurer of the Institute. 

On behalf of the Striking Committee, consisting of Dean 
C. J. Mackenzie, R. J. Durley, 0. Holden and C. E. Sisson, 
appointed at the last meeting of Council to make recom- 
mendations regarding the chairmen of the various Institute 
committees for the year 1941, Mr. Holden presented the 
committee's recommendations, which were unanimously 
approved and adopted as follows: 

Chairman 

Finance Committee deGaspé Beaubien 

Library and House B. R. Perry 

Papers J. A. Vance 

Publication C. K. McLeod 

Legislation E. M. Krebser 

Board of Examiners R. A. Spencer 

Past-Presidents' Prize R. DeL. French 

Gzowski Medal H. O. Keay 

Leonard Medal A. D. Campbell 

Plummer Medal J. F. Harkom 

Duggan Medal F. P. Shearwood 

International Relations C. R. Young 

Professional Interests J. B. Challies 

Western Water Problems G. A. Gaherty 

Radio Broadcasting G. M. Pitts 

Deterioration of Concrete Structures. . . .R. B. Young 

Membership H. N. Macpherson 

The Young Engineer H. F. Bennett 

At the request of Mr. Beaubien, the members of last 
year's Finance Committee were reappointed as follows: 
deGaspé Beaubien, chairman; J. E. Armstrong, G. A. 
Gaherty, J. A. McCrory, F. Newell. 

An invitation to hold the 1942 Annual Meeting in 
Montreal was presented from the Montreal Branch. 

After some discussion, it was unanimously RESOLVED 
that the invitation of the Montreal Branch be accepted, 
and that no decision be made at the present time as to 
the detailed plans for the meeting, in view of war conditions. 



Mr. Pitts referred to the establishment of the Bureau of 
Technical Personnel by the Department of Labour, and 
suggested that the man who was appointed as director 
should be acceptable to the various co-operating organiza- 
tions. The general secretary explained that the Deputy 
Minister had asked the three Institutes to select some per- 
son acceptable to all of them whom he could appoint as 
director or controller. The gentleman who had been selected 
was known to the officers of the three societies, and to the 
Deputy Minister himself, and his suitability to the task 
was agreed to by all. Mr. Wright also explained that it 
was intended to set up a Board or Advisory Committees 
which would be representative of the various co-operating 
organizations. Mr. Pitts indicated that the architects might 
be interested in joining with the engineers in such a Bureau. 
The general secretary explained that there had already been 
some discussions with the architects, and there appeared 
to be no reason why they could not participate if they so 
desired. 

On the motion of Mr. Massue, seconded by Mr. Vennes, 
it was unanimously RESOLVED that a hearty vote of 
thanks be extended to the Hamilton Branch for their hos- 
pitality, and for the very efficient manner in which the 
annual general meeting had been conducted. 

On the motion of Mr. Boese, seconded by Mr. Vennes, 
it was unanimously RESOLVED that the thanks of Council 
be extended to the retiring President and councillors for 
their efforts during the past year; much valuable time had 
been given to committee meetings and to meetings of 
Council, all of which had been very greatly appreciated. 

It was left with the president and the general secretary 
to decide on the date for the next meeting of Council. 

The Council rose at three thirty p.m. 

COMING MEETINGS 

Canadian Region of the Illuminating Engineering 
Society, Toronto — First Annual Convention, March 19th. 

Corporation of Professional Engineers of The Province 
of Quebec — Annual Meeting, Montreal, 2050 Mansfield 
St., March 29th. Registrar C. L. Dufort, 354 Ste-Catherine 
St. East, Montreal. 

American Society of Tool Engineers — 1941 Annual 
Meeting and Machine Tool Progress Exhibition, Fort 
Shelby and Book-Cadillac Hotels, Detroit, Mich., March 
24th to 29th. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers — 1941 

Spring Meeting, Hotel Biltmore, Atlanta, Ga., March 31st 
to April 3rd. 

Midwest Power Conference — Sponsored by Illinois Insti- 
tute of Technology and seven nationally known midwest 
colleges and universities, Palmer House, Chicago, April 9th 
to 10th. Alexander Schreiber, Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology, Chicago. 

Electrochemical Society — 79th Annual Meeting to be 
held at the Hotel Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, April 16th 
to 19th. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers — Summer 
Convention, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ont., June 16th 
to 20th. National Secretary, H. H. Henline, 33 West 39th 
St., New York, N.Y. 

American Water Works Association — Annual Conven- 
tion, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ont., June 22nd to 26th. 
Secretary, Harry E. Jordan, 22 E. 40th St., New York. 

Canadian Section, American Water Works Associa- 
tion — Annual Meeting, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ont., 
June 23rd. Secretary Dr. A. E. Berry, Ontario Dept. of 
Health, Parliament Buildings, Toronto, Ont. 

Canadian Electrical Association — 51st Annual Conven- 
tion, Seigniory Club, Quebec, June 25th to 26th. Secretary, 
B. C. Fairchild, 804 Tramways Building, Montreal, Quebec. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



137 



NEWLY ELECTED OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



DeGaspé Beaubien, M.E.i.c, consulting engineer of 
DeGaspé Beaubien and Company, Montreal, is the newly 
elected vice-president for the province of Quebec. He is 
joint chairman of the National War Savings Committee, 
member of the Electrical Commission of Montreal and 
director of several industrial firms. He is president of 
the Rotary Club of Montreal, and immediate past-presi- 
dent of the Canadian Club of Montreal. He was born in 
Outremont, Que., the son of the Hon. Louis Beaubien 
of Montreal. Upon his graduation from McGill University 
in 1906 with the degree of b.sc, Mr. Beaubien became 
demonstrator at that university. In 1908 he entered the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company at 
East Pittsburgh, having obtained experience with the 
Montreal Light, Heat and Power as early as 1903. From 
1908 until 1922 he was in practice as consulting engineer 
in his own name, then under the name of Beaubien, 
Busfield and Company, from 1922 until 1929 when the 
present firm was established. 

Mr. Beaubien joined the Institute as a Student in 1903, 
becoming an Associate Member five years later, and be- 
ing elected a Member in 1921. For the last three years 
Mr. Beaubien had been treasurer of the Institute, as 



chief engineer of the department in 1918 and was 
appointed chief engineer in 1923. 

Mr. Cameron joined the Institute as a Student in 1901 
being transferred to Associate Member in 1907 and be- 
coming Member in 1920. 

A. L. Carruthers, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected vice- 
president for the western provinces. He is bridge engineer 
with the Department of Public Works of the Province 
of British Columbia at Victoria, B.C. He was born in 
Sarnia Township, Ont., and was educated at the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. In 1904 he joined the Canadian Northern 
Railway and was employed as an instrumentman, bridge 
inspector, resident engineer, and from 1911 until 1917 
as a divisional engineer. At that time he became district 
engineer for the Department of Public Works of British 
Columbia at Prince Rupert, B.C. He was appointed 
bridge engineer of the department at Victoria in 1923. 

Mr. Carruthers joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1915 and he became a Member in 1921. 

John Stadler, m.e.i.c, has been appointed treasurer of 
the Institute. Born in Bavaria, he is a graduate in en- 
gineering from the Polytechnical Institute at Munich. After 






deGaspé Beaubien, M.E.I.C. 



K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C. 



John Stadler, M.E.I.C. 



well as its representative on the executive committee of 
the Canadian Chamber of Commerce. 

K. M. Cameron, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the Depart- 
ment of Public Works of the Dominion at Ottawa, is 
the newly elected vice-president for Ontario. He was 
born in western Ontario and received his early education 
at the Strathroy Collegiate Institute and at London. 
After matriculating, Mr. Cameron went to the Royal 
Military College at Kingston, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1901 with honours and with the silver medal for 
general proficiency. In April of the following year he re- 
ceived from McGill University the degree of b.sc. in civil 
engineering. Then for two years he was office and in- 
specting engineer with the Canadian Niagara Power 
Company at Niagara Falls. From 1905 to 1906 he lec- 
tured at McGill University in surveying and geodesy. In 
1906 Mr. Cameron went to the States and was engaged 
on various engineering projects until 1908 when he re- 
turned to Canada to work for Smith, Kerry and Chace, 
consulting engineers of Toronto. Shortly after he joined 
the Department of Public Works of the Dominion, being 
first located in London, Ont., and later in Sherbrooke, 
Que. He came to Ottawa as senior assistant in the dredg- 
ing branch of the department in 1912. He became assistant 



a few years with Helios Company, of Cologne, as field 
engineer on construction of hydro-electric and industrial 
plants, he came to the United States of America in 1902. 
In 1905 he joined the staff of the Shawinigan Water and 
Power Company; he was superintendent of the Shawinigan 
Falls power house until 1906 when he joined the Belgo- 
Canadian Pulp and Paper Company, as plant engineer in 
full charge of design and construction. In 1913 he became 
assistant manager of the company, and occupied that posi- 
tion until 1924 when he went with the Newfoundland Power 
and Paper Company at Cornerbrook. In 1927 he was ap- 
pointed general manager of the Lake St. John Power and 
Paper Company. Since 1929 Mr. Stadler carries a successful 
consulting practice in Montreal, specializing in pulp, paper 
and power. Mr. Stadler is a recognized authority in the 
pulp and paper industry. 

A. E. Berry, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor rep- 
resenting the Toronto Branch. He was born at St. Mary's, 
Ont., and was educated at the University of Toronto, 
where he was graduated in civil engineering with honours 
in 1917. Four years later he received the degree of m.a.sc. 
and in 1923 he was awarded the degree of ce. in the 
University of Toronto. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in 
1926. Following his graduation in 1917 he was employed 



138 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 






A. E. Berry, M.E.I.C. 



D. S. Ellis, M.EI.C. 



J. M. Fleming, M E.I.C. 






I. M. Fraser, M.E.I.C. 



J. H. Fregeau, M.E.I.C. 



J. Garrett, M.E.I.C. 





S. W. Gray, M.E.I.C. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



E. M. Krebser, M.E.I.C. 




H. N. Macpherson, M.EJ.C. 



139 






H. F. Morrisey, M.E.I.C. 



W. H. Munro, M.E.I.C. 



G. McL. Pitts, M.E.I.C. 



with the Ontario Department of Health for a short period, 
after which he went overseas and served with the Royal 
Engineers. On his return to Canada he joined the en- 
gineering staff of the Department of Health and in Sep- 
tember, 1919, he became assistant sanitary engineer. In 
1926 Dr. Berry became director of the Sanitary Engineer- 
ing Division of the Ontario Department of Health, a 
position which he still holds. 

D. S. Ellis, M.E.i.c, is the newly elected councillor rep- 
resenting the Kingston Branch. He was born at Cobourg, 
Ont., and received his education at Queen's University 
where he was graduated in 1910. In 1911 he became em- 
ployed with the International Waterways Commission. 
During 1913 and 1914 he was engineer for the Commis- 
sion on St. Lawrence Ship Channel. During the war 1914 
to 1918 he served with the 6th Field Company, Royal 
Canadian Engineers. In 1918 he was lieutenant-colonel 
and chief instructor at the Canadian School of Military 
Engineering. Mr. Ellis was appointed assistant professor 
of civil engineering at Queen's University in 1919, later 
becoming professor. Last year he was appointed head 
of the department of civil engineering at Queen's. 

J. M. Fleming, M.E.i.c, the newly elected councillor 
for the Lakehead Branch, was born at Winnipeg, Man., 
and received his education at the University of Manitoba. 
Upon his graduation in 1921 he became a designer with 
the Manitoba Power Company on the Great Falls devel- 
opment, and in 1923 he was resident engineer on the 
construction of the Tulsa aqueduct, in Oklahoma, U.S.A. 
In 1924 he joined the staff of C. D. Howe and Company, 
consulting engineers, Port Arthur, Ont., as a structural 
designer, engaged on the construction of grain elevators, 
docks and heavy structures. In 1933 he was appointed 
chief engineer and since 1936 he is the president and 
general manager of the firm. 

I. M. Fraser, m.e.i.c, professor of mechanical engineer- 
ing at the University of Saskatchewan, is the newly elect- 
ed councillor for the Saskatchewan Branch. He was born 
at Pictou, N.S., and was educated at Dalhousie, and at 
McGill University where he received the degree of bache- 
lor of science in 1919. In 1920 he was a lecturer at McGill 
University, and the following year he worked as a 
draughtsman on the staff of the Dominion Engineering 
Works Limited at Montreal. In 1921 he was appointed 
assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the Uni- 
versity of Saskatchewan, becoming professor in 1926. He 
is, at present, head of the department at the University 
of Saskatchewan. 

J. H. Fregeau, m.e.i.c, has been elected councillor to 
represent the St. Maurice Valley Branch. He was born 
at Beebe Plain, Que., and received his education at McGill 



University. Upon his graduation in 1910 he joined the 
staff of Shawinigan Water and Power Company and has 
always remained with the firm. From 1911 to 1914 he 
was in charge of the electrical installations at various 
stations. From 1915 to 1923 he was in charge of the 
construction of transmission lines. In 1923 he was trans- 
ferred to Three Rivers as superintendent and in 1927 he 
became divisional manager, a position which he still holds. 
Since 1939 Mr. Fregeau is also manager of the St. Maurice 
Transport Company. 

Julian Garrett, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor 
for the Edmonton Branch. He was born at Hyde Park, 
Mass., U.S.A., and received his education at Harvard Col- 
lege and Lawrence Scientific School. Upon his graduation 
in 1924 he became engaged in railway engineering work in 
the States. From 1906 he was resident engineer for the 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway After a number of years, 
during which time he was not connected with engineering 
work, he became secretary-treasurer of the Northwestern 
Utilities Limited at Edmonton, Alta., in 1924. Since 1928 
he is manager of the company in charge of the operation 
of the Natural Gas System. 

S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor for 
the Halifax Branch. He was born at Westville, N.S., and 
was educated at the Nova Scotia Technical College where 
he was graduated with the degree of b.sc. in civil engineer- 
ing in 1914. From 1914 to 1916 he was engaged in railway 
work and from 1916 to 1919 he was on active service in 
Canada, England and France. After some time spent as 
industrial surveyor with the Department of Soldiers Civil 
Re-establishment at Halifax, he joined the Nova Scotia 
Power Commission in 1924, and has been with this organ- 
ization ever since. He is, at present, assistant hydraulic 
engineer. 

E. M. Krebser, m.e.i.c, has been elected councillor repre- 
senting the Border Cities Branch. He was born at Cam- 
bridge, Vermont, U.S.A., and was educated at the Univer- 
sity of Vermont where he received the degree of bachelor 
of science in 1924. In 1925 he joined the staff of the Can- 
adian Bridge Company Limited at Walkerville, Ont., as a 
draughtsman. In 1929 he was appointed assistant to the 
operating manager and in 1930 he became assistant shop 
superintendent. He is, at present, superintendent of Plant 
No. 2 of the company. 

H. N. Macpherson, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected council- 
lor representing the Vancouver Branch. He was born at 
Carleton Place, Ont., and was educated at the University 
of Toronto. Upon his graduation in 1914 he entered the 
Highways Department of Saskatchewan in the bridge 
branch. During 1915 and 1916 he was shell examiner with 
the Imperial Ministry of Munitions. In 1917 he was located 



140 



March, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 






M. G. Saunders, M.E.I.C. 



H. R. Sills, M.E.I.C. 



J. A. Vance, M.E.I.C. 



at Edmonton as chief examiner and in 1918 and 1919 he 
was assistant inspector of shells at Montreal. In 1920 he 
was chief engineer of O'Connor Bros. Ltd., road contractors, 
Montreal. From 1921 to 1923 he did contracting work on 
bridges in Saskatchewan. In 1926 he was manager in Regina 
of Regina Creosoted Products Ltd., and from 1927 to 1931 
he was engineer and sales manager with the Alberta Wood 
Preserving Company Ltd., at Calgary. Since 1931 he has 
been the general manager of Permanent Timber Products 
Ltd., at Vancouver, B.C. 

Mr. Macpherson has been a member of the executives 
of the Saskatchewan, Calgary and Vancouver Branches of 
the Institute. 

H. F. Morrisey, m.e.i.c, the newly elected councillor of 
the Saint John Branch, is district engineer with the Depart- 
ment of Transport at Saint John. He was born at Saint 
John, N.B., and was educated at the University of New 
Brunswick where he received the degree of b.sc. in 1912. 
He was awarded the m.sc. degree in 1915. From 1912 to 
1920 he was assistant engineer on the River St. Lawrence 
Ship Channel except for the time when he was overseas. 
In 1920 he became district engineer of the Marine Depart- 
ment at Saint John and was engaged in the construction 
and maintenance of wharves. He has been with the Depart- 
ment of Marine, and later the Department of Transport, 
ever since. 

W. H. Munro, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor 
representing the Ottawa Branch. He was born in Peter- 
borough, Ont., and was educated at the University of 
Toronto, where he was graduated in 1904. For two years 
after graduation he travelled in the States visiting industrial 
firms and studying shop methods. In 1907 he joined the 
staff of J. B. McRae, consulting engineer, Ottawa, and was 
engaged on the design and supervision of the construction 
of hydro-electric power plants. In 1909 and 1910 he did 
the same kind of work with Smith, Kerry and Chace, con- 
sulting engineers, Toronto. From 1910 to 1915 he was 
manager of the Peterborough Light, Power and Gas Com- 
pany. He went overseas in 1915 as a workshop officer, and 
he was later appointed officer commanding the 3rd Canadian 
Ammunitions Sub Park. Upon demobilization in 1919heheld 
the rank of Major. He stayed in England and joined the s!;aff 
ofVickers Limited, London, in the hydro-electric department 
later becoming senior hydraulic engineer and chief of the 
department. He returned to Canada in 1925 as sales man- 
ager of Canadian Vickers Ltd., at Montreal. From 1926 
to 1928 he was manager of the Nova Scotia Tramways and 
Power Company Ltd., at Halifax. In 1928 he joined the 
staff of the Montreal Engineering Company Limited and 
the following year he was appointed manager of the Bolivian 
Power Company Limited at La Paz, Bolivia. In 1933 he 
joined the Ottawa Electric Company at Ottawa. In 1935 



he became general manager of the Ottawa Electric Com- 
pany and the Ottawa Gas Company. In 1939 he was elected 
to the Board of Directors of each of these companies. 

G. McL. Pitts, m.e.i.c, one of the newly elected council- 
lors representing the Montreal Branch, is an engineer and 
architect. A native of Fredericton, N.B., Mr. Pitts was 
graduated from McGill University in 1908 with the degree 
of b.sc, and in 1909 received the degree of m.sc. In 1916 he 
received the degree of B.Arch. In 1906 Mr. Pitts was an 
engineer on construction with the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way and in 1908 was a senior draughtsman with the Trans- 
continental Railway at Ottawa, Ont. In 1909 he joined 
the staff of P. Lyall and Sons Construction Co. Ltd., as 
engineer and superintendent, and in 1912 was supervising 
engineer for the construction of the Montreal High School 
for the Protestant Board of School Commissioners. He was 
assistant to John A. Pearson, architect for the Parliament 
Buildings at Ottawa. In 1919 he joined the firm of Edward 
and W. S. Maxwell, architects of Montreal, forming the 
firm of Maxwell and Pitts in 1923, thereby maintaining 
one of the oldest architectural practices in Canada. 

Mr. Pitts is a past president of the Province of Quebec 
Association of Architects. He is, at present, honorary treas- 
urer of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and 
president of the McGill University Graduates' Society. He 
has always been very active in Institute affairs, particu- 
larly as chairman of the Committee on Consolidation and 
chairman of the Radio Broadcasting Committee. 

M. G. Saunders, m.e.i.c, has been elected the councillor 
representing the Saguenay Branch. He was born at Elgin, 
N.B., and educated at Acadia University and at the Nova 
Scotia Technical College. During the last war he served 
overseas with the Royal Canadian Engineers and with the 
Royal Air Force. From 1923 to 1926 he was instructor in 
engineering at Acadia University and in 1926 he became 
assistant professor in engineering. In 1927 he joined the 
staff of the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited, at 
Arvida, as a mechanical engineer. In 1931 he was appointed 
mechanical superintendent, a position which he holds at 
the present time. 

H. R. Sills, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor repre- 
senting the Peterborough Branch. He was born at Kingston, 
Ont., and was educated at Queen's University. Upon his 
graduation in 1921 he joined the Canadian General Electric 
Company and has remained with the firm ever since. In 
1922 he became engaged in the design of synchronous motor 
and A.C. generators and has now specialized in the design 
of such machinery. 

J. A. Vance, m.e.i.c, was re-elected councillor to represent 
the London Branch. He was born in the County of Oxford, 
Ont., and was educated at the University of Toronto. On 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 19il 



141 




Vermes, M.E.I.C. 



the death of his father in 1914 he took over the contracting 
business and became responsible for the administration, 
engineering and construction of steel and concrete highway 
bridges. From 1919 the business grew to include the design 
and construction of factory buildings, sewers, dams and 
various concrete and steel structures. Mr. Vance is, at 



present, the proprietor and engineer of the firm of J. A. 
Vance, contractor, at Woodstock, Ont. 

H. J. Vennes, m.e.i.c, has been elected councillor to 
represent the Montreal Branch. He has long been an active 
member of the Institute and on several occasions has de- 
livered papers on various advanced subjects, some of which 
have been published in the Journal. Born in Norway, Mr. 
Vennes came to the United States in 1892. He was graduated 
from the University of Minnesota in 1916 with a b.a. degree, 
and spent five years at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 
New York. Coming to Canada from New York in 1921, 
when the first carrier current telephone systems were being 
installed here, he remained in this country ever since, be- 
coming a Canadian citizen and an outstanding communi- 
cations engineer. He has had much to do with the design 
and installation of the many carrier current telephone and 
telegraph systems, radio broadcasting stations, sound pic- 
tures and public address systems in this country since their 
introduction, and was largely responsible for the many 
allied developments of Northern Electric in this country 
including the famous first radio "Peanut" tube and radio 
receivers in which it was used, and also other electrical 
devices now so generally used in communication systems, 
motion picture, aviation radio devices and the Hammond 
electric organ. He is, at present, special products engineer 
with the company in Montreal. 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on February 5th, 1941, the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 

Member 
Anderson, Harry Clyde, district engr., Dept. of Public Works, Prov. 
of B.C., New Westminster, B.C. 

Juniors 
Bridge-water, Albert William, b.sc, m.sc. (Univ. of Sask.), struct'l. 

designer, Defence Industries Limited, Montreal, Que. 
Glenn, John B., B.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask). engr., Link Belt Ltd., 

Toronto, Ont. 
Raynor, Warren, b.sc. (Mech.), (Queen's Univ.), jig and tool designer, 

Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd., Fort William, Ont. 

Affiliate 
Gung, Simon Fenwick, chief dftsman., engrg. dept., I)e Havilland 
Aircraft of Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 

Bentley, Kenneth E., B.Sp. (Civil), (N.S. Tech. ("oil.), mtce. engr., 
Imperial Oil Limited, Dartmouth, N.S. 

Booth, Keith Alexander, b.sc (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), B.Eng. 
(Mech.), (McGill Univ.), engr. i/c operating records dept., Keno- 
gami newsprint mill, Price Bros. & Co. Ltd., Kenogami, Que. 

Boucher, Raymond, b.a.Sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), M. Se. (Mass. 
Inst. Tech.), associate professor of hydraulics, Kcole Polytechnique, 
Montreal, Que. 

Colpitis, Gordon L., b.sc. (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), chief engr., 
Barranca Bermeja refinery, Tropical Oil Company, Colombia, S.A. 

Henson, George Stanley Gordon, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), asst- 
engr., real estate, taxes, insurance dept., Winnipeg Electric Com- 
pany, Winnipeg, Man. 

Wilson, Thomas Whiteside, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), Lieut., R.C.E., 
Petawawa Military Camp, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 
Moore, Robert Hugh, b.sc. (C.E. and E.E.), (Univ. of Man.), mech. 



designer and machine erector, Hudson Bav Mining & Smelting Co. 
Ltd., Flin Flon, Man. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Beach, John Edward, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), asst. engr., 

Trinidad Leaseholds Ltd., Pointe-a-Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. 
Delisle, Lucien, b.a.Sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), divn. engr., Dept- 

of Roads, Prov. of Quebec, Waterloo, Que. 
Hammond, Rowland Ernest, b.a.sc, m.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), 

engr., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Loomis, James Gordon Mann., B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), 

engrg. dftsman., Cand. International Paper Co., Gatineau Mills, 

Que. 
McMillan, Colin Brock, b.sc. (Civil), (Queen's Univ.), civil engr., 

Saguenay Power Co. Ltd., Arvida, Que. 

Students Admitted 

Cole, Robert Arnold (Univ. of N.B.), 52 Shore St., Fredericton, N.B. 

Collins, Kenneth Fawcett (Queen's Univ.), 19(5 University Ave., 
Kingston, Ont. 

Courtright, James Milton (Queen's Univ.), 44 Second Ave., Ottawa» 
Ont. 

Itou m ma it. Bernard Hugh Courtenav (Univ. of N.B.), Fredericton, 
N.B. 

Hamilton, Harry Irwin (Queen's Univ.), 47 Clergv St., Kingston, 
Ont. 

Heppner, Selwyn Alexander (Univ. of Man.), 22 The Roslyn Apts., 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Heron, Alexander de Forest (McGill Univ.), 433 Laird Blvd., Town 
of Mount Roval, Que. 

kinghom, William Wallace (Univ. of N.B.), 206 Smythe St., Fred- 
ericton, N.B. 

knights, Kenneth Ronald (Univ. of Man.), 135 Maryland St., Win- 
nipeg, Man. 

McDougall, William Allan Jr. (Univ. of N.B.), 685 Charlotte St., 
Fredericton, N.B. 

Tkacz, William (Queen's Univ.), 178 Johnson St., Kingston, Ont. 

Van Damme, Joseph (Queen's Univ.), Arvida, Que. 



ANNUAL FEES 

Members are reminded that a reduction of one dollar is 
allowed on their annual fees if paid on or before Mareh 31st 
of the current year. The date of mailing, as shown by the 
postmark on the envelope, is taken as the date of payment. 
This gives equal opportunity to all members wherever they 
are residing, . 



142 



March, I9tl THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INSTITUTE PRIZE WINNERS 



Lieutenant-General A. G. L. McNaughton, m.e.i.c, is 
the recipient of the Sir John Kennedy Medal for 1940. 
General McNaughton was born at Moosomin, Sask. He 
was educated at McGill University, receiving the degrees 
of b.sc. in 1910 and of m.sc in 1912. After a few years on 
the teaching staff in the department of electrical engineer- 
ing at the University, he entered private engineering prac- 
tice for a brief period in 1914. 

At the outbreak of the first Great War, he organized the 
4th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery, which formed part 
of the 2nd C.F.A. Brigade of the First Canadian Division. 
He was wounded at the second battle of Ypres in April, 
1915, but returning to France, commanded the 21st Howit- 
zer Battery of the Second Canadian Division. Promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel in March, 1916, he took over the 11th 
Brigade, C.F.A. , of the 3rd Canadian Division and com- 
manded it through the battles of the Somme and until 
February, 1917, when he was appointed counter-battery 
staff officer of the Canadian Corps. After recovering from 
wounds received at Soissons, General McNaughton con- 
tinued to carry out his duties until October, 1918, when he 



in the July, 1940, issue of The Engineering Journal. Miss 
MacGill was born at Vancouver, B.C. She is a bachelor 
of applied science in electrical engineering from the Univer- 
sity of Toronto, 1927, a master of science in engineering 
from the University of Michigan, and has taken two years 
post graduate study at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology leading towards a doctorate degree. She now 
occupies the position of chief aeronautical engineer of the 
Canadian Car and Foundry Company, and is located at 
Fort William, Ont. 

She is the daughter of the late J. H. MacGill, M.A., 
barrister of Vancouver. Her mother is Judge of the Juvenile 
court, holder of an Honorary LL.D. of the University of 
British Columbia, and a bachelor of Music of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. 

Miss MacGill has made previous contributions to the 
art and science of flying. Four years ago, for instance, 
before the Ottawa Branch of the Royal Aeronautical Society 
she read a paper on "Simplified Performance Calculations 
of Airplanes" which was valued for its practical applica- 
tion to a complicated subject. She has also contributed 






Lieut. -General A. G. L. McNaughton, 
M.E.I.C. 



E. M. G. MacGill, M.E.I.C. 



O. W. Ellis 



became General Officer Commanding the Canadian Corps 
heavy artillery. He was mentioned three times in dispatches, 
was awarded the D.S.O. and was made a C.M.G. Upon 
his return to Canada in May, 1919, he served with the 
Department of National Defence in numerous positions 
until 1929, when he was appointed to the highest military 
office in Canada and served four years as Chief of the 
General Staff. 

General McNaughton temporarily retired from the active 
list of the Canadian Militia to become president of the 
National Research Council on June 1st, 1935. As head of 
the Council, he was primarily responsible for building up 
an electrical engineering laboratory, especially for high 
voltage work, a subject in which he had done post-graduate 
work at McGill University. He was also directly responsible 
for development of the aeronautics laboratory and the 
cathode ray direction finder. In the summer of 1939 he 
accompanied a delegation of Canadian industrialists to 
Great Britain in connection with war supply contracts. 

At the outbreak of the present war, General McNaughton 
was appointed officer commanding the first division of the 
Canadian Active Service Force, and went overseas late in 
1939. Last summer he was promoted to the rank of Lieuten- 
ant-General, and appointed to command an army corps in 
England. 

Elizabeth M. G. MacGill, m.e.i.c, has been awarded the 
Gzowski Medal for 1940, for her paper, "Factors Affecting 
the Mass Production of Aeroplanes," which was published 



several papers before various branches of the Institute. 
Last year she delivered a paper at the Annual Meeting in 
Toronto. Miss MacGill is an Associate Fellow of the Royal 
Aeronautical Society. 

R. G. K. Morrison, m.c.i.m.m., has been awarded the 
Leonard Medal for 1940 for his paper on "Points of View 
on the Rock Burst Problem" which was published in the 
August, 1939, issue of the Canadian Mining Bulletin. Mr. 
Morrison is a graduate of the University of Toronto in 
mining engineering, from the class of 1923. For a few years 
after graduation he was engaged in surveying and mining 
construction work in central Manitoba. In 1928 he went 
to India as chief assistant surveyor with the Oorgaum Gold 
Mining Company. From May, 1923, to November, 1936, 
he was underground superintendent of the Mysore Gold 
Mining Company, and since November, 1936, to date he 
has been superintendent of the Nundydroog Mines Ltd. 
During the summer of 1940 Mr. Morrison acted in a con- 
sulting capacity to various Ontario mining companies 
deeply concerned with the problem of rock burst. These 
companies were unanimous in their appreciation of his 
services. 

Mr. Morrison resides at Oorgaum, South India. 

O. W. Ellis is the recipient of the Plummer Medal for 1940 
for his paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Insti- 
tute last year at Toronto on "Some Developments in Alloys 
during the Last Twenty Years." After serving an appren- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



143 




Léo Brossard, S.E.I.C. 





C. Moull, S.E.I.C. 



Marc R. Trudeau, S.E.I.C. 



ticeship in England he came to Canada h\ 1910 and joined 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. In 1911 he entered 
the Department of Metallurgy at the University of Birming- 
ham, England, and received his degree of B.Sc. in metallurgy 
in 1914. During the war 1914 to 1918 he worked as a metal- 
lurgist in the Royal Ordnance Factories. In 1916 he 
received the degree of M.Sc. from the University of Birming- 
ham. At the end of the war he was appointed chief metallur- 
gist at the Royal Laboratory Department of the Royal 
Ordnance Factories, and in 1920 he was called upon to re- 
organize all the metallurgical laboratories of the Factories. 
In 1921 he returned to Canada as an assistant professor of 
metallurgical engineering at the University of Toronto, a 
position which he retained until 1925. At that date he was 
appointed an Industrial Fellow at the Mellon Institute of 
Industrial Research, University of Pittsburgh, where he 
carried out work on metals for bearings. From 1926 to 1929 
he was in the research department of the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company. In 1929 he was 
appointed to his present position as Director of Metallurgi- 
cal Research at the Ontario Research Foundation, Toronto. 
Mr. Ellis is the author of numerous papers on metallurgical 
subjects, both ferrous and non-ferrous. He is a contributor 
to the National Metals Handbook. His prize winning paper 
was published by the Institute in July 1940 as a technical 
supplement to The Engineering Journal. 

M. S. Layton, jr. E.I.c, is the recipient of the Duggan 
Medal and Prize for 1940, for his paper "Coated Electrodes 
for Electric Arc Welding". He was born at Bury-St .-Ed- 
muds, England, in 1914 and was educated at McGill Uni- 
versity where he was graduated in 1935. Upon graduation 
he joined the staff of the Steel Company of Canada at 
Montreal. He resigned the position of assistant chemical 
engineer to enlist with the R.C.A.F. last October. He is at 



present located in Toronto. Mr. Layton 's paper was pub 
lished in the July 1940 issue of the Journal. 
Léo Brossard, s.E.i.c, has been awarded the Phelps John- 
son Prize for 1940, for his paper entitled "Geology of the 
Beaufor Mine". He was born at Laprairie, Que., in 1912. 
He received his early education at the Collège de Montréal, 
and in 1931 entered the Ecole Polytechnique where he 
obtained the degree of b.sc.a. in 1936. Upon graduation 
he engaged in geological surveys and prospecting in northern 
Quebec. Returning to Montreal in 1938, he became attached 
to the teaching staff at the Ecole Polytechnique. In 1939 
he was geologist with the Cournor Mining Company, 
Perron, Que. Last year, Mr. Brossard did post graduate 
work at McGill University, and received his m.sc. degree 
in geology. 

W. C. Moull, s.E.i.c, is the recipient of the John Galbraith 
Prize for 1940, for his paper "Electrification of a Modern 
Strip Mill". He was born at Seaforth, Ont., in 1916. and 
received his early education at the Collegiate Institute of 
Owen Sound, Ont. He entered the University of Toronto 
in 1935, and obtained his degree of b.a.Sc. in electrical 
engineering in 1939. Since graduation he has been with the 
Canadian General Electric Company, and is, at present, 
located in Toronto. 

Marc R. Trudeau, s.E.i.c, has been awarded the Ernest 
Marceau Prize for 1940, for his paper "Points Fixes et 
Lignes d'Influence". He was born at Montreal, Que., in 
1915, and received his early education at the Collège de 
Montréal. He entered the Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal 
in 1935, and was graduated with honours in 1940. He also 
holds the b.a. degree from the University of Montreal. 
Since graduation, Mr. Trudeau has been connected with 
the firm of Lalonde and Valois, consulting engineers of 
Montreal. 



ANNUAL FEES 

Members are reminded that a reduction of one dollar is allowed 
on their annual fees if paid on or before March 31st of the 
current year. The date of mailing, as shown by the postmark 
on the envelope, is taken as the date of payment. This gives 
equal opportunity to all members wherever they are residing. 



144 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



JULIAN C. SMITH MEDALLISTS 



WILLIAM DUNCAN BLACK 

An engineer of high standing, William Duncan Black 
throughout his career has been on the lookout for opportu- 
nities to render service to the Canadian public and to his 
fellow members of the engineering profession. After building 
up an important heavy manufacturing industry, he is now 
at the head of a Canadian company which is actively 
devoting its equipment, plant and organization to vital 
munitions work. When president of the Industrial Relations 
Committee of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, he 
was appointed employers' delegate to the International 
Labour Conference held in Geneva in 1934; later he served 
as president of that Association. 

In these and other activities he has taken effective part 
in guiding Canadian industry. As a director of the Bank of 
Canada he shares responsibility for the financial policy of 
the Dominion. 

RICHARD JOHN DURLEY 

A mechanical engineer — a Whitworth Scholar — his career 
has included service as professor of mechanical engineering 



the Mining Society of Nova Scotia, and a past councillor 
of the Engineering Institute of Canada, and a member of 
the Institution of Mining Engineers (Gt. Britain). 

After long residence in the Maritimes, he holds a consul- 
tative and advisory position in one of the most important 
industries of that region. His breadth of view, technical 
knowledge and power of expression and industrial leadership 
have gained for him an enviable reputation throughout the 
Dominion. 

SIR HERBERT SAMUEL HOLT 

A member of the Institute for fifty-three years, Sir 
Herbert Holt's long and successful experience in civil engi- 
neering, in industrial administration, and then in finance, 
has qualified him for the prominent position he has so long 
held in the industrial and banking worlds. He has played 
a principal part in the industrial and commercial develop- 
ment which has carried Canada forward so rapidly during 
the last forty years. At the head of a great public utility 
and a leading bank, he has found time for activity on the 
councils of two great hospitals and a great university. His 






W. D. Black, M.E.I.C. 



R. J. Diirley, M.E.I.C. 



A. Frigon, M.E.I.C. 



in McGill University, as consulting engineer, and in muni- 
tions inspection. He was the first secretary of the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Association. After thirteen years as 
secretary of the Engineering Institute of Canada, he now 
occupies a less onerous but more sedate position as its 
secretary-emeritus. 

A former councillor of the Institute, he has just been 
honoured by election as the Canadian member of the 
Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

AUGUSTIN FRIGON 

After obtaining scientific training and engineering expe- 
rience in France and the United States as well as in Canada, 
Augustin Frigon, at the head of the Ecole Polytechnique, 
Montreal, led in placing the engineering education of 
French-Canadian youth on a firm basis. His public services 
have also included membership in many important govern- 
ment commissions; he has served on the Council of the 
Institute. He now occupies a prominent and responsible 
position in the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, to 
whose success he has materially contributed. 

FRANCIS WILLIAM GRAY 

A Yorkshireman by birth, who is at the same time an 
author, an artist and an authority on undersea coal mining, 
Francis William Gray has long been a staunch supporter 
of professional engineering bodies. He is a past president of 
the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and of 



unobtrusive benefactions are administered by the founda- 
tion which bears his name. 

RICHARD SMITH LEA 

An educationalist and consultant who is internationally 
known as an authority in the field of hydraulic engineering, 
Richard S. Lea is a native of "The Island," which has given 
Canada so many distinguished sons. He was for some years 
assistant professor of civil engineering and lecturer in 
mathematics at McGill University. Later, in his extensive 
practice as consulting engineer, he had to deal with many 
of the different problems which have presented themselves 
during the rapid growth of Canada's urban populations. 
His ability and technical knowledge of these, and of river 
questions generally, have led to his being retained as adviser 
to federal and provincial Government departments — in- 
cluding the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
— as well as to municipalities and several of the principal 
hydro-electric companies in Canada. 

BEAUDRY LEMAN 

Seldom does an engineer engaged in hydro-electric de- 
velopments and municipal engineering become president of 
the Canadian Bankers' Association. But this has happened 
in the career of Beaudry Leman. 

Born in Montreal, he studied engineering in France and 
in Canada, graduating at McGill University in 1900. He 
has been a member of the Engineering Institute for over 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



145 






F. W. Cray, M.E.I.C. 



Sir Herbert S. Holt, M.E.I.C. 



R. S. Lea, M.E.I.C. 





Beaudry Léman, M.E.I.C. 



C. A. Magrath, M.E.I.C. 



forty years. In 1912, he transferred his activities to the art 
or science of banking. His early technical training has 
enabled him to serve on Royal Commissions such as the 
Canadian Advisory Committee on the St. Lawrence Water- 
way in 1927-28, on the Railways and Transportation Com- 
mission in 1931-32 and latterly on the Allied War Supplies 
Corporation. 

His influence and counsel have been sought in the solution 
of public and municipal financial problems as well as in the 
administration of many companies of which he is a director. 
As president of a great Canadian bank he occupies an out- 
standing position in the realm of finance. 

CHARLES ALEXANDER MAGRATH 

A pioneer in the development of the West, a surveyor 



qualified to practise in every province, and an expert in the 
conservation and use of water resources, Charles Alexander 
Magrath in the long past was a member of the Territorial 
Assembly at Regina, and later of the Dominion Parliament. 
He took an important part in the work of the International 
Joint Commission as chairman of the Canadian Section. 
He succeeded the late Sir Adam Beck as chairman of the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. During the 
last war he was Fuel Controller of Canada, and among other 
deliberative bodies on which he has served may be men- 
tioned the War Trade Board, the Patriotic Fund executive, 
and the Newfoundland Royal Commission. Throughout his 
long career he has made a special study of questions con- 
nected with Canada's growth and development, particularly 
in the western provinces. 



JANUARY JOURNALS REQUIRED 

There has been an unusual demand for extra copies of the 
January 1941 issue of the Engineering Journal and it would 
be appreciated if members who do not retain their copies 
would return them to Headquarters, at 2050 Mansfield Street, 
Montreal, Que. 



146 



March. 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Personals 



Dr. T. H. Hogg, m.e.i.c, has recovered sufficiently from 
the injuries suffered in a recent accident that he has been 
able to leave the hospital. He is now convalescing at Nassau, 
Bahamas, and is expected back at his office in Toronto 
early in April. 




Lieut. Commander C. P. Edwards, M.E.I.C. 

Lieutenant Commander C. P. Edwards, O.B.E., m.e.i.c, 
has recently been appointed Deputy Minister of the Depart- 
ment of Transport at Ottawa. The position was left vacant 
by the death of Colonel V. I. Smart, m.e.i.c, last fall. Com- 
mander Edwards is chiefly known for his work in radio and 
wireless telegraphy, and played a large part in building up 
Canada's networks of radio and wireless facilities. A Welsh- 
man, he has spent the greater part of his life in Canada. 
He first entered the field of wireless communication in 1903 
when Guglielmo Marconi erected a demonstration station 
at Chester, Eng., just over the Welsh border from Dodle- 
ston, Cmdr. Edwards's birthplace. Through his work with 
that pioneer wireless station he became a junior technical 
assistant on Marconi's staff, and in 1904 came to Canada 
to supervise the construction of stations at Camperdown, 
N.S., and on Sable Island. His appointment as radio director 
in the Marine Department came in 1909 and he took charge 
of all wireless and radio activities. Cmdr. Edwards has been 
the Dominion's representative at practically all the inter- 
national and North American radio conferences held since 
1912. He was chairman of the committee which drew up 
regulations for the compulsory equipment of ships with 
radio at the International Conference for the Safety of 
Life at Sea in 1929, and since 1936 has been chief of Can- 
adian air services. 

As Deputy Transport Minister he will have charge of 
civilian aviation under direction of Hon. C. D. Howe, 
Minister of Munitions and Supply, and in the transport 
division he will operate under the authority of the Trans- 
port Minister, the Hon. P. J. A. Cardin. 

H. E. T. Haultain, m.e.i.c, who resigned from his position 
as professor of mining engineering at the University of 
Toronto, two and a half years ago, was granted laboratory 
facilities for continuing his research work by President Cody 
and the Board of Governors. He is actively continuing his 
work not only in the University laboratories, but in co- 
operation with some of the mines. Two of his instruments 
have become well known as the Superpanner and Infrasizer. 
The Superpanner is a piece of laboratory apparatus for 
concentrating small batches of ore for testing purposes and 
makes separations according to difference of specific gravity 
of finer particles and with less differences of specific gravity 
than any other instrument. The Infrasizer is also a piece 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



of laboratory apparatus and is used for the size analysis 
of particles finer than the finest wire sieves. Professor 
Haultain has undertaken the distribution of these instru- 
ments not as a commercial proposition but under a sense 
of professional obligation to supply them to those who really 
need them. They are manufactured in Toronto for him under 
his personal supervision. There has been no advertising or 
selling campaign and yet one or both of these instruments 
have been sold to all parts of the world. Most recent orders 
for these instruments have come from Ecuador and Russia. 
Professor Haultain continues to develop the applications 
of these instruments and is also actively engaged on other 
research work on aids to the milling problems. 

W. A. Newman, m.e.i.c, was recently appointed general 
manager of Federal Aircraft Limited, a Crown company 
handling much of Canada's war-time aircraft production. 
Mr. Newman is the chief mechanical engineer of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company. He was graduated 
from Queen's University in 1911 and entered the service 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company upon graduation. 
In 1913 he became lecturer in mathematics at Queen's and 
then from 1914 to 1916 he was assistant professor in mechan- 
ical engineering. Mr. Newman returned with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway in 1916 and successively occupied the posi- 
tions of assistant mechanical engineer, engineer of locomo- 
tive construction, mechanical engineer, and since 1928, 
chief mechanical engineer. 

Major W. G. Swan, m.e.i.c, is now district engineer officer 
for M.D. No. 11 at Victoria, B.C. At the outbreak of war 
he was director of construction of the War Supply Board. 

Huet Massue, m.e.i.c, has been elected on the Council 
of the Chambre de Commerce du District de Montréal. 
Mr. Massue, who is on the staff of the Shawinigan Water 
and Power Company at Montreal is a councillor of the 
Institute. 

J. A. Baird, m.e.i.c, is now on the executive staff of the 
Union Gas Company of Canada Limited, at Chatham, Ont. 
A graduate of the University of Toronto, Mr. Baird has 
for a number of years carried a consulting practice as an 
engineer and surveyor at Sarnia, Ont. 

H. C. Beck, m.e.i.c, has relinquished his position as man- 
ager of the Substation Department of the English Electric 
Company, Stafford, England, to become personal assistant 
to the chief electrical engineer of the Southern Railway at 
Dorking, Surrey, England. 

Squadron Leader C. W. Crossland, m.e.i.c, is now locat- 
ed at Trenton, Ont., at No. 6 Repair Depot, R.C.A.F. He 
was graduated from McGill University in 1931, and after 
taking a post graduate course in aeronautical engineering 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology obtained the 
degree of m.sc. After spending a few years in England with 
aircraft manufacturing firms he returned to Canada and 
became assistant engineer in the aeronautical branch of the 
Department of National Defence at Ottawa. He joined the 
R.C.A.F. last year. In 1933, Squadron-Leader Cross was 
awarded the John Galbraith Prize of the Institute for his 
paper on "The Rationalization of Load Factors for Aero- 
plane wings." 

H. B. Dickens, m.e.i.c, has returned to Canada after hav- 
ing filled a two year appointment with the British War 
Office at Woolwich Arsenal, Woolwich, England. He is, at 
present, attached as a consultant to the General Engineering 
Company at Toronto. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1911 



147 



K. Y. Lockhead, m.e.i.c, has received an appointment in 
the aeronautical engineering branch of the R.C.A.F. He 
was previously located at Vancouver with the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 

J. B. Nelson, m.e.i.c, has been appointed sales engineer 
with the London Structural Steel Company Limited at 
London, Ont. He was lately chief engineer of Plate and 
Structural Steel Products Company, Toronto, and for- 
merly with the Hamilton Bridge Company. 

W. B. Crombie, m.e.i.c, has left the Great Lakes Power 
Company, Sault Ste. Marie, to accept a position with the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario as chief resi- 
dent engineer on the Ogoki Diversion project. He is now 
located at Ferland, Ont. 

K. A. Truman, m.e.i.c, is now located at Nelson, N.B., 
with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. He was pre- 
viously located at Regina, Sask. 

J. G. D'Aoust, m.e.i.c, has left his position with the Powell 
River Company Limited, at Powell River, B.C., and is now 
employed with Defence Industries Limited, Montreal. He 
was graduated from the University of British Columbia in 
1927 and joined the Powell River Company as a mechanical 
draughtsman in 1934. 

J. R. Carter, m.e.i.c, has been transferred from the head 
office of Canadian Industries Limited, Montreal, to the 
Nylon Division, Kingston, Ont. He was graduated from 
the University of Toronto in 1931. 

A. H. Douglas, m.e.i.c, has been appointed pilot officer in 
the aeronautical engineering branch of the R.C.A.F. He 
was previously in the Department of Highways of Sas- 
katchewan at Regina as an assistant bridge engineer. 

Paul Vincent, m.e.i.c, has been appointed chief engineer 
of works in the Department of Colonization of the Province 
of Quebec. He has been with the Department since 1937 
when he joined as district engineer for the roads and bridge 
division. Last year he had been appointed chief of the 
technical section in the Department. Mr. Vincent is the 
secretary-treasurer of the Quebec Branch of the Institute. 

C. A. Norris, m.e.i.c, has joined the staff of the Montreal 
Locomotive Works at Montreal. He was previously editor 
of the Engineering and Contract Record at Toronto, Ont. 

A. N. Gunter, jr.E.i.c, has been transferred from McMas- 
terville, Que., to the Nobel, Ont., plant of Defence Indus- 
tries Limited. He was graduated in chemical engineering 
from the University of Alberta in 1938. 

F. J. Has tie, Jr.E.i.c, is now with the East Kootenay Power 
Company at Coleman, Alta. Upon graduation in electrical 
engineering from the University of Alberta in 1936 he joined 
the Canada Packers Limited at Edmonton, Alta., as an 
assistant engineer. In 1939 he became shift engineer. 

J. R. C. Macredie, Jr.E.i.c, is now employed with the 
Department of Defence at Ottawa as structural draughts- 
man. He was graduated from the University of New Bruns- 
wick in 1931 and for several years was employed with the 
Department of Highways at New Brunswick. 

C. B. McMillan, jr.E.i.c, is now employed with the 
Canadian National Railways at Montreal. Upon gradua- 
tion in civil engineering from Queen's University in 1936 
he went with the Ontario Paper Company at Baie Comeau, 
Que. The following year he joined the staff of the Aluminum 
Company of Canada Limited, as a junior engineer at Arvida, 
Que. In 1938 he was transferred to the staff of the Saguenay 
Power Company, at Arvida, and remained in that position 
until the end of last year. 

W. E. Seely, jr.E.i.c, is now assistant engineer in the works 
and building division of the R.C.A.F. at -Montreal. He was 
graduated in civil engineering from the University of New 



Brunswick in 1930 and has since been employed on several 
construction projects. 

Squadron-Leader M. M. Hendrick, Jr.E.i.c, is now 
located at No. 3 Wireless School at Winnipeg, Man. 

J. E. Thorn, ji-.e.i.c, has joined the staff of Defence In- 
dustries Limited, in Montreal. He was previously located 
at Regina, Sask. 

F. C. Morrison, Jr.E.i.c, is sales-combustion engineer with 
the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation Ltd., at Halifax, 
N.S. Mr. Morrison joined the company upon his graduation 
in electrical engineering from Nova Scotia Technical Col- 
lege in 1936. Lately he was located with the Dominion Coal 
Company Ltd., a subsidiary, at Montreal. 




H. M. Howard, S.E.I.C. 

H. M. Howard, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position as metal- 
lurgical sales engineer with E. Long, Limited, at Orillia, 
Ont. He was graduated in mining engineering from the 
University of Toronto, in 1940 and spent several months 
with Fraser-Brace Engineering Company at Nobel, Ont. 

W. L. Garvie, s.e.i.c, has been transferred from Peter- 
borough to the Davenport electric works, Canadian General 
Electric Company Ltd., Toronto, Ont. He was graduated 
from the University of British Columbia in 1939. 

Second-Lieutenant W. J. Milhausen, s.e.i.c, has re- 
ceived a commission with the Royal Canadian Engineers 
and is stationed at the Petawawa Military Camp. He was 
graduated in civil engineering from the University of 
Manitoba in 1940. 

A. K. Cameron, s.e.i.c, is now located at Brownsburg, 
Que., with Canadian Industries Limited. He was graduated 
in mechanical engineering from McGill University in 1938. 
Lately he was connected with F. S. B. Heward & Company 
Ltd., at Toronto, Ont. 

W. F. Jarrett, s.e.i.c, has joined the staff of the Saguenay 
Power Company, as a junior engineer at Arvida, Que. 
Upon graduation from the University of Manitoba in 1939 
he joined the Manitoba Power Commission as a draughts- 
man at Winnipeg. 

ERRATUM 

In reporting the appointment of C. J. Jeffreys, m.e.i.c, 
to the staff of Allied War Supplies Corporation in Montreal, 
it was erroneously stated that Mr. Jeffreys had been, for 
the past two years, resident engineer at Powell River, B.C., 
with Powell River Company, Limited. On checking over 
the record we find that he was assistant engineer and that 
Mr. Neville Beaton, m.e.i.c, who is now the resident 
engineer has occupied that position for the past seven years. 



148 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

Past-President A. J. Grant, M.E.I. c, from St. Catharines, 
Ont., on January 28th. 

John E. Cade, m.e.i.c, assistant chief engineer, Fraser 

Companies Limited, from Edmundston, N.B., on January 

29th. 

H. B. Dickens, m.e.i.c, Royal Ordnance Factory, from 

South Wales, England, on January 29th. 

Geoffrey Stead, m.e.i.c, from Saint John, N.B., on Feb- 
ruary 5th. 

J. E. Gill, m.e.i.c, resident engineer, Rapid No. 7, Quebec 
Streams Commission, from Cadillac, Que., on February 5th. 

W. R. C. Taylor, jr. e. i.e., from Winnipeg, Man., on Feb- 
ruary 6th. 

Major G. G. M. Carr-Harris, m.e.i.c, d.o.m.e., m.d. no. 
11, from Esquimalt, B.C., on February 7th. 
W. J. Piercy, jr.E.i.c, O'Brien Gold Mines Limited, from 
Kewagama, Que., on February 13th. 
R. J. Askin, m.e.i.c, manager, Thunder Bay Paper Com- 
pany Ltd., from Port Arthur, Ont., on February 17th. 
H. B. Stuart, m.e.i.c, field engineer, Hamilton Bridge 
Co. Ltd., from Toronto, Ont., on February 17th. 
P. Codd, s.E.i.c, from Moose Jaw, Sask., on February 24th. 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

Edgar Thomas John Brandon, m.e.i.c, died at his home 
in Toronto on September 23rd. 1940. He was born at Toronto 
on December 20th, 1880, and was educated at the School 
of Practical Science of the University of Toronto, where 
he was graduated in 1902. He was then employed until 
1905 with the Ontario Power Company at Niagara Falls. 
From 1905 until 1908 he was in the States working on the 
design of power developments. In April, 1908, he joined 
the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario as a de- 
signer and rose to the position of chief electrical engineer. 




E. T. J. Brandon, M.E.I.C. 

Owing to ill health he had retired from active duties late 
in 1938. 

Mr. Brandon joined the Institute as a Student in 1904, 
transferring to Associate Member in 1911. 

Edgar Murray McCheyne Hill, m.e.i.c, died at Winni- 
peg, Man., on August 14th, 1940. He was born at Guelph, 
Ont., on October 13th, 1882. He was educated at the 
University of Toronto where he was graduated in 1904, 
from the School of Practical Science. His entire professional 



career was spent in the service of what is now the Canadian 
National Railways in the west. Upon graduation he joined 
the company as a resident engineer on the construction of 
the main line at Battleford, Sask., and at Edmonton, Alta. 
In 1907 he became in charge of location parties, west of 
Edmonton. From 1911 to 1914 he carried out reconnaisance 
and exploration work in connection with possibilities of 
railway development in northern Alberta. In 1914 he was 
divisional engineer in charge of construction of the Calgary- 
MacLeod branch. From 1914 to 1916 he carried out loca- 
tion work in Alberta. He enlisted with the Royal Canadian 
Engineers in 1916 and was transferred to the Royal Engi- 
neers in 1917 and served until 1919 attaining the rank of 
captain. Upon demobilization he returned to the Canadian 
National Railways at Winnipeg. In 1932 he was appointed 
engineer of construction and in 1935 he also took over 
the duties of regional right-of-way agent. On January 1st, 
1940, he was appointed chief engineer with Headquarters 
at Winnipeg, Man. 

Mr. Hill joined the Institute as a Student in 1907 and 
he was transferred to Member in 1919. 

William Cooper Lumbers, m.e.i.c, died on August 29th, 
1940. He was born at Toronto on March 5th, 1887. He 
was educated at Jarvis Collegiate and University of Toronto, 
graduating from the School of Practical Science in 1901. 
From 1902 to 1907 he was employed with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. From 1907 to 1912 he was employed with 
F. A. James, Toronto, and from 1912 to 1916 he was with 
Frank Barber, civil engineer, Toronto. After some time 
spent on inspection work on munitions in 1916 he returned 
with Mr. Barber, and stayed with the firm until 1923. He 
joined the staff of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission 
of Ontario in March, 1924. At the time of his death he was 
employed in the transmission section of the electrical en- 
gineering department. 

Mr. Lumbers joined the Institute as an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1921. 

William Henry Sullivan, m.e.i.c, for twenty years prin- 
cipal assistant engineer in charge of the Welland Ship Canal, 
died at his residence at St. Catharines, Ont., on January 
20th, after a brief illness. He was born at Kingston, Ont., 
on August 23rd, 1871, the son of the late Senator Michael 
Sullivan, M.D., of Kingston. He was educated at private 
schools, and at the Kingston Collegiate Institute. He en- 
tered the Royal Military College of Canada in September, 
1888, graduating in June, 1892, when he was commissioned 
as an officer in the Royal Canadian Engineers. He entered 
the Canadian Government service in September, 1892, be- 
ing first engaged on the Ontario St. Lawrence Canal, later 
being appointed assistant engineer in charge of the Corn- 
wall Canal enlargement. In September, 1900, he was trans- 
ferred to the Prince Edward Island Railway as principal 
assistant engineer in charge of construction of the Hills- 
boro bridge and Murray Harbour bridge and railway, and 
in 1904 was appointed engineer in charge of that work. In 
October, 1905, Mr. Sullivan was transferred to the position 
of assistant superintending engineer of the Welland Canal 
at St. Catharines, Ontario, and was promoted to super- 
intending engineer on January 1st, 1912. In November, 
1913, he was appointed principal assistant engineer in charge 
of the Welland Ship Canal construction, of which the late 
Mr. J. L. Weller was then engineer in charge. Mr. Sullivan 
retained this position until December 31, 1923, when he 
retired because of ill health. 

In November, 1901, Mr. Sullivan married Miss Adele 
Marion, eldest daughter of the late Sir William Sullivan, 
then Chief Justice of Prince Edward Island, who survives 
him, together with four sons: Lieutenant Michael V. Sul- 
livan, R.C.N.V.R., Halifax, N.S., Gerald F. Sullivan of 
Toronto, William W. Sullivan and Philip H. Sullivan of 
St. Catharines, and two sisters, Mrs. C. J. Crookall of 
Brooklyn, N.Y., and Miss Frances Sullivan of Kingston, Ont. 

Mr. Sullivan joined the Institute as an Associate Member 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



149 



in 1899, becoming a Member in 1920. He had been made 
a Life Member shortly after his retirement in 1924. 

W. Dixon Craig, k.c, who passed away at Edmonton, 
Alta., on January 27th, 1941, was born in Toronto, son 
of the late T. Dixon Craig, M.P., for many years member 
for East Durham. After taking a brilliant course in Arts 
and Science at the University of Toronto (class '97), he 
went to Midland, Ont., as mining geologist and metal- 
lurgist for the Canada Iron Corporation of Montreal. In 
1913 Mr. Craig left the east and made his home in Edmon- 
ton, where he began the study of law at the University of 
Alberta, graduating with distinction (Chief Justice Gold 



Medal) in 1917. He immediately joined the law firm of 
Woods, Field, Craig and Hyndman. However, Mr. Craig 
always kept a live interest in his former profession. He was 
a member of the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Alberta, member of the Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy, vice-consul of the Netherlands, member of the 
Faculty of Law, University of Alberta. He held many 
prominent offices in the Church of England, and for many 
years was Chancellor of the Diocese of Edmonton, and 
Registrar of the Diocese of Athabasca. Mr. Craig is sur- 
vived by his wife and two daughters, Mrs. F. E. L. Priestly 
of Vancouver and Mrs. Joseph Fisher of Toronto. 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



W. P. Augustine, m.e.i.c 
J. B. Dowler, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The first meeting of the Border Cities Branch in the new 
year was held in the Prince Edward Hotel on January 14th. 
The meeting was presided over by the newly-elected chair- 
man, George E. Medlar. After dinner and a short business 
meeting, J. F. Bridge introduced the speaker of the even- 
ing, Mr. R. K. Scales of the research department of the 
Ethyl Gasoline Corporation of Detroit. The subject of the 
address was Fuels and Engines of the Future. 

The future, Mr. Scales said, is a very dangerous subject; 
predictions can only be based on past performances. How- 
ever, the aviation industry may be said to be pioneering 
for the automotive industry so that some basis for predic- 
tion may be established. This is because the great expanse 
of the aviation engine allows room for the most advanced 
engineering. 

Over the past ten years the average size of the automo- 
tive engine has become relatively smaller while the horse- 
power and compression ratio have gone up. The compression 
ratio is controlled by the anti-knock qualities of the fuels 
available. The octane (anti-knock) number of fuels com- 
mercially sold today is on the average ten points higher 
than in 1940. The petroleum industry strives at all times 
to make the best fuel commercially possible. The automo- 
tive industry at the same time strives to improve engine 
design to take full advantage of improved fuels. 

Some extravagant claims have been made as to the octane 
rating of some commercial gasolines. But there are several 
methods devised by research engineers for obtaining the 
octane rating and these methods do not all agree. There- 
fore, the only fair rating is when the fuel has been tested 
by the different methods and the results averaged. Aviation 
fuels of ten years ago had an octane rating of 73. This last 
year it was 92 for airlines. For military pursuit planes, 
100 octane fuel is used. Experimental fuels have octane 
number of over 100 and up to 128. 

This matter of high octane number is very important to 
military aviation. High octane gasoline reduces the bom- 
ber's fuel load, increases the engine power and reduces the 
take-off run needed by as much as 45 per cent. 

One of the bottlenecks of German bomber operations 
would seem to be the necessity, because of long take-off 
runs, of large numbers of airfields. The longer a bomber 
must wait in the air for the squadron to assemble the less 
its final effectiveness. Thus, the lower octane rating of the 
German gasoline has cut down the number of planes which 
can take part in a raid on England at any one time. Some 
idea of the time it takes to put planes into the air may be 
obtained when it is realized that one of the largest airports 
in the United States can handle only 280 planes per day. 

A few years ago crude oils which were free of gum and so 
useful for aviation gasoline were very scarce. However, with 
recent developments in refining methods and in the use of 



blending agents, almost any crude may be used. Some 
blending agents used now are iso-octane, iso-pentane and 
neo-hexane with a small quantity of tetra-ethyl lead. Avia- 
tion gasoline may contain as high as 40 per cent blending 
agent and 60 per cent gasoline with 3 cc. per gallon of 
tetra-ethyl lead. 

Of course, advantage of high octane fuels cannot be ob- 
tained without supercharging. The whole trend seems to be 
towards more powerful, smaller engines with superchargers. 

Up to the present time the public has been satisfied with 
present day highways and speeds. However, as more super- 
highways are built, the public will demand more powerful, 
more truly streamlined cars which may call forth some of 
the developments in aviation engines and their application 
to automobiles. 

The meeting closed with a somewhat spirited discussion 
period, the subject of Mr. Scales' address being of great in- 
terest to the automotive engineers among the members. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 



B. W. PlTFIELD, Jr.E.I.C. 
J. F. McDoUGALL, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Mr. E. A. Hardy, professor of agricultural engineering 
at the University of Saskatchewan, addressed the fifth din- 
ner meeting of the 1940-41 session on the evening of Jan- 
uary 14, 1941. Professor A. R. Greig introduced the speaker. 
Mr. Hardy's topic was the Development of the Combus- 
tion Chamber of the Diesel Engine. 

In his paper, which he supplemented with slides, Mr. 
Hardy described several types of combustion chambers 
which have been used by the designers of diesel engines. 
He stressed particularly the problem these designers have 
encountered in obtaining complete combustion of a low 
grade fuel which is not volatile, and causes smoky exhaust 
as the engine operates near full load. 

An interesting and lengthy discussion period followed 
the paper, after which Mr. R. M. Dingwall moved a hearty 
vote of thanks to the speaker. 

Twenty-four were present for dinner and an additional 
sixteen heard the paper. Among the guests present was 
Squadron-Leader Berven of the Elementary Flying Train- 
ing School. 

Professor R. M. Hardy acted as chairman in the absence 
of Branch Chairman E. Nelson. 

The Engineering Students Society of the University of 
Alberta invited the Edmonton Branch of the Institute to 
be guests at their meeting on the evening of January 27th, 
1941. 

At this meeting was shown a United States Bureau of 
Mines motion picture entitled The Making and Shaping 
of Steel. The film was composed of seven reels and dealt 
very fully with the following topics: 






150 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Reel 1 — Open pit and underground mining of iron ore. 
The mining of limestone. The making of coal into coke. 
The operation of a blast furnace was shown in detail by 
means of animated drawings and the reel ended with molten 
iron being transported to another shop for refining into 
steel. 

Reel 2 — The open-hearth and Bessemer process were 
shown. The closing scenes showed the removal of moulds 
from ingots after the steel had solidified and the transfer 
of the ingots to soaking pits to attain uniform temperature 
for rolling. 

Reel 3 — Flat rolled products; Reel 4 — Bars and structural 
shapes; Reel 5 — Rails, wheels and axles; Reel 6 — Wire and 
wire products; Reel 7 — Pipe and tube manufacture. 

The entire film had excellent continuity and although it 
went into complete detail of the various phases of steel 
manufacture, it maintained the interest of the meeting 
throughout. 

Immediately after the film, E. Nelson presented Charles A. 
Stollery, winner of the 1940 Engineering Institute of Canada 
Prize for the University of Alberta, with an engrossed cer- 
tificate. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 



L. C. Young, m.e.i.c. 
G. V. Ross, m.e.i.c. - 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



On January 23rd, the members of the Halifax Branch 
of the Institute and of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Nova Scotia, and friends gathered at the 
Nova Scotian Hotel for the annual joint banquet. The at- 
tendance of 240 was an increase of 43 over last year's record 
and included many men from outside the Halifax area. 

After the toast to the King, Captain J. I. Hallett, d.s.o., 
E.N., delivered a strong straightforward talk encouraging 
Canadians to realize the dangers of the present time. 
"Britain needs your money for planes, guns and supplies. 
You are like boxers still lounging on the ropes, waiting for 
the bell. You should be up on your toes as they are in the 
Old Country." Captain Hallett was introduced by Rear 
Admirals. S. Bonham Carter, c.v.o., d.s.o., r.n., Command- 
ing 3rd Battle Squadron. 

The toast to the Services, proposed by Ira P. Macnab, 
was responded to by Brigadier General C. E. Connolly, 
d.s.o., Officer Commanding Military District No. 6. Mr. 
F. A. Bowman, senior engineer of Nova Scotia, responded 
to the toast to the engineering profession proposed by Mr. 
E. J. Cragg, commissioner of the N.S. Power Commission. 

Guests of the Institute and the Association included 
Commodore G. C. Jones, r.c.n., commanding officer, 
Atlantic Command, Air Commodore N. R. Anderson, 
officer commanding, Eastern Air Command R.C.A.F., Pre- 
mier, A. S. MacMillan, Mayor W. E. Donovan, and Ameri- 
can Consulate General Clinton E. MacEachran. The branch 
chairman, S. L. Fultz, and the Association president, 
J. Lome Allan, alternated as chairman during the evening. 

A splendid entertainment programme under the direction 
of Harry Cochrane was provided by the Canadian General 
Electric Company and the Northern Electric Company, 
K. L. Dawson, acting as master of ceremonies. 

Favours were donated to everyone present by Imperial 
Oil Company, Moloney Electric Company, Canada Cement 
Company, Canadian Westinghouse Company, N.S. Power 
Commission, N.S. Department of Highways and Mr. 
Donald C. Keddy. 

After the meeting, Mr. Ira Macnab conducted a sale of 
war savings stamps which netted about $400.00. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

H. M. Olsson, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
W. C. Byeks, jr.e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

The Lakehead Branch held a Dinner Meeting at the 
Royal Edward Hotel, in Fort William, at 7 p.m. on January 
15th. There were 37 members and guests present. The 
chairman, Mr. H. G. O'Leary, presided at the meeting. He 



mentioned how that, purely by accident, he had met the 
General Secretary Emeritus at the railroad depot and that 
he had expressed his desire to be remembered to all the 
members of the Branch. 

The chairman then called on Mr. J. I. Carmichael, of 
the Canadian Car & Foundry, who spoke on the subject: 
Some Problems in Aircraft Production. 

The basic problems to be coped with are : purchasing the 
required material ; finding a suitable supply of labour, both 
skilled and unskilled ; obtaining tools necessary for fabrica- 
tion; organizing for production; marketing and financing; 
organizing for production being the most serious problem 
to the manufacturer, the remaining problems being external. 

The policy of the designer is to obtain the highest possible 
performance. Having established the requirements, the type 
of structure is selected from among semi-monocoque, geo- 
detic, welded tubular, tube and gusset or other less popular 
types. However, the semi-monocoque is the most common 
type used today. The design must maintain interchange- 
ability of important components. The Hawker "Hurricane" 
is an example of mixed type of construction. The wings 
are of stressed skin type and the remainder bolted tube 
and gusset construction. On the "Hurricane" there are 
about 6,000 detail parts. This type of construction requires 
rigid material specification, special shapes, low manufac- 
turing tolerances, large number of detail parts and critical 
inspection. 

An embargo was placed on export of aircraft material 
from England, so supplies had to be located in America to 
meet the requirements of the British Air Commission. When 
the supplier had proved his ability to produce the material 
of the required specification he was then placed on the ap- 
proved list and went into production. 

Limitations in the rate of expansion of industry are set 
by the rate at which the necessary material can be supplied 
and the necessary labour can be absorbed. There is shortage 
of skilled labour so there is some delay while suitable labour 
is trained. Under good conditions it is possible to employ 
female labour to the extent of 30 per cent of the total staff. 

The machine tool industries in both the United States 
and Canada have been operating to capacity, thus the 
manufacturer is forced to sub-contract a large portion of 
this machine work. The manufacturer must supply the 
sub-contractor with all necessary data, supervision and 
raw material with all possible assistance to ensure deli- 
very in the required time. 

The Inspection Department sees that only proper ma- 
terials are used, standard manufacturing procedures fol- 
lowed, workmanship is good and drawing dimensions fol- 
lowed. 

The Stores Department stores finished parts and is 
supervised by the Inspection Department. 

The duties of the Shop are to maintain discipline, to 
train new men, and to assemble the aircraft after complet- 
ing competent parts. 

The Production Department sees that all necessary 
steps are taken to complete the programme on time with 
maximum efficiency. 

The Planning Department is responsible for getting the 
required parts in the correct place at the right time. It in- 
vestigates new programme feasibility. 

The Material Control Department supervises the dis- 
tribution of all material from external sources and its 
efficient operation is of vital importance. 

The duties of the Control Department are to dispatch 
and record production orders, to route parts in the Shop 
and to supervise progress and to correct if necessary. 

In the automobile industry, assembly proceeds without 
fitment with minimum skill and the assembly line opera- 
tions are in units so that a continuous operation is achieved. 
In aircraft industry the main components are built in jigs 
with a large number of parts, most of which are incomplete 
and remain to be completed on assembly, thus producing 
an intermittent operation of assembly procedure. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



151 



"Thus with present design, continuous manufacturing 
operations cannot be used except in the case of detail parts 
where a saving of only ten per cent has been anticipated. 
Therefore, with the exception of this ten per cent saving, 
mass production methods will give little assistance to air- 
craft production." 

P. E. Doncaster gave a vote of thanks to the speaker 
and mentioned how engineering had changed from railway 
construction in 1912 to aeronautical engineering in 1941. 

R. B. Chandler seconded the vote of thanks and expressed 
interest in several statements made by the speaker. 

David Boyd, Works Manager of the Aircraft Division, 
and E. J. Soulsby, Superintendent of Aircraft, both cor- 
roborated the statements made by the speaker and paid 
tribute to the work he is doing at the plant to accelerate 
the production of aircraft. 

Several aircraft inspectors from the Canadian Car & 
Foundry were present at the meeting. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 



E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i. c. 
A. J. Branch, m.e.i.c. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



On Wednesday, January 15th, 1941, the Lethbridge 
Branch of the Institute held its regular meeting in the 
Marquis Hotel. 

At 7.30 p.m. the corporate members of the branch met to 
transact the routine business and at 8 p.m. the regular 
meeting was opened by Wm. Meldrum, who called upon 
A. J. Watson, to introduce the speaker of the evening, J. H. 
Ross of Calgary, director of the Dominion-Provincial Youth 
Training for Alberta. 

The speaker described the steady expansion of the youth 
training movement from its early stages. 

The early aims of the scheme were to prepare young 
people physically, mentally and, if possible, vocationally 
for jobs. The object was to refresh minds which had been 
depressed by years of unemployment but, as the scheme 
continued trainees were fitted for work and placed in in- 
dustry. 

To train young people for industry efforts were made to 
discover inclinations of persons and then training along 
this line followed. Many were placed to learn the occupa- 
tions with employers who generally placed trainees on their 
staffs when they had learned enough to be valuable. 

At the request of the federal government the scheme 
undertook the training of mechanics in hand skills. Women 
are also being taught for jobs in war industry. 

The training scheme is now producing many valuable 
men for industry who are highly developed in performing 
work; requiring exacting precision. This is enabling fac- 
tories to continue to gear up production of war materials 
for the Dominion. 

A question period followed the address; then Lieut. -Col. 
G. S. Brown, with a few well chosen remarks moved a 
hearty vote of thanks to the speaker in which all concurred. 

The meeting closed with the singing of the National 
Anthem. Refreshments were then served. 

LONDON BRANCH 



H. G. Stead, jr. e. i.e. - 

A. L. FURANNA, S.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The annual dinner meeting of the London Branch of 
the Institute was held on Wednesday, January 15th, 1941, 
at the Grange Tea Room. 

The retiring chairman, Mr. H. F. Bennett, presided over 
a business meeting at which the auditor, Mr. F. Ball, 
presented the financial statement for 1940. Officers were 
elected for 1941. 

The guest speaker of the evening was Mr. R. E. Laidlaw, 
K.C., assistant regional counsel for the Canadian National 
Railways. His subject was The Machinery of the Law. 
Mr. Laidlaw described the functions of the various courts 
from the daily police courts to the Dominion's last Court 



of Appeal, the Privy Council of England. The intricate 
proceedings of the law were illustrated by the speaker as 
he led the meeting, step by step, through the imaginary 
case of one charged with homicide. All through the address 
it was emphasized how the seemingly slow and tedious 
ceremony of the courts was desgined for the protection and 
assurance of justice to the accused. In his concluding words, 
Mr. Laidlaw indicated the development of justice in the 
courts to its present perfection, by comparing actual cases 
of crimes and the pronounced sentences in the days of 
Bonnie Prince Charlie with those of today. However, in 
spite of this quality of justice, those present were cautioned 
against any acts or circumstances which might bring the 
law to bear upon them. 

Concluding the meeting, Mr. E. V. Buchanan proposed 
and Mr. J. A. Vance seconded a vote of thanks to Mr. 
H. F. Bennett for his services as branch chairman for the 
past two and a half years. Mr. Bennett was also congratu- 
lated on his work as chairman of the Committee on the 
Training and Welfare of the Young Engineer. 

There were fifty-six members and guests in attendance 
at dinner. 

MONCTON BRANCH 
V. C. Blackett, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

A dinner meeting of Moncton Branch was held on Decem- 
ber 19, 1940, in the Palm Room of the Brunswick Hotel. 
F. 0. Condon, chairman of the branch, presided. During 
the course of the dinner the chairman introduced E. L. 
Miles, a member who has recently come to Moncton, J. E. 
Gibault, Assistant General Manager, Canadian National 
Railways. The guest speaker of the evening was Mr. E. C. 
Percy, Assistant District Airways Engineer, who read a 
paper prepared by Mr. J. A. Wilson, Controller of Civil 
Aviation, entitled Aerodrome Construction for the 
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The paper 
was illustrated with lantern slides. The speaker was called 
upon to answer numerous questions, and a lengthy discus- 
sion followed. A vote of thanks was extended Mr. Percy 
on motion of C. S. G. Rogers, seconded by Dean H. W. 
McKiel. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

L. A. Duchastel, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

On November 21st, 1940, the Branch held its Annual 
Student Night. A good attendance (240) was noted and 
four excellent papers were presented on a competitive basis. 
The papers and speakers were as follows: Manufacture of 
Modern Refrigerators, by V. G. Griffin, (McGill); 
Utilization and Disposal of Cannery Wastes, by 
Bernard Beaupré, (Ecole Polytechnique); Construction 
of Boulder Dam, by W. C. Brown, (McGill); Nomo- 
graphy, by Roger Lessard, (Ecole Polytechnique). 

All four competitors were given student memberships for 
the year 1941 and cash prizes were awarded to Bernard 
Beaupré and V. G. Griffin for the best and second best 
papers. While the judges were arriving at a decision a 
motion picture entitled Liquid Air was shown through the 
courtesy of the Canadian General Electric Company. Re- 
freshments were served after the meeting. 

The Romance of Water was the title of a paper given 
by Mr. Norman J. Howard, F.C.I.C. on November 28th, 
1940. Mr. Howard is director of water purification for the 
City of Toronto, and president-elect of the American Water 
Works Association. The paper dealt with the progress made 
in water purification and analysis during the past century. 
The subject of taste and colour was also touched by Mr. 
Howard who is a specialist on the matter. The paper was 
illustrated with lantern slides and preceded by a courtesy 
dinner at the Windsor Hotel. 

On December 5th, Mr. A. Van Winson gave a talk on 
Metalizing which was followed by very interesting demon- 
strations showing the possibilities of metal spraying. A 
courtesy dinner was held at the Windsor Hotel before the 
meeting. 



152 



March, 1911 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Hydraulic Model Experiments was the title of an in- 
teresting talk given on December 12th by Dr. Kenneth C. 
Reynolds on the newer phases of hydraulic experimentation. 
Dr. Reynolds is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology and has made intensive studies of the flow 
of water in open channels. His paper was illustrated by a 
coloured motion picture and lantern slides and was pre- 
ceded by a courtesy dinner at the Windsor Hotel. 

On December 19th, Mr. J. J. Taylor gave a paper entitled 
High Voltage Insulators which was illustrated with slides 
and a motion picture showing dancing conductors. A cour- 
tesy dinner was held at the Windsor Hotel. 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch was held on January 
9th, 1941. The report of the retiring executive and the 
financial statement were given. The scrutineers presented 
their report and the results of the election were announced. 

After the meeting a film on the British Navy was shown 
and refreshments were served. 

On January 16th, Mr. George S. Mooney gave a paper 
entitled Our Cities — Their Role in the National 
Economy, and discussed cities as centres of industry, trade, 
transportation and culture. 

Professor Louis E. Endsley spoke, on January 23rd, on 
Diesel Electric Locomotives and included comparisons 
between the diesel electric and the steam locomotive as 
to fuel cost and repairs. A courtesy dinner was held at the 
Windsor Hotel. 

Prior to the Branch meeting, the Annual General Meeting 
of the Institute for 1941 convened for transaction of formal 
business and was adjourned to Hamilton on February 6th. 

On January 30th, the Branch held its Annual Smoker 
at the Ritz Carlton Hotel. The attendance was over 500 
and the entertainment was given in a gay 90's atmosphere, 



everyone being provided with a paper moustache. The 
Atterbury players provided a drama and members of the 
Montreal Repertory Theatre furnished several short songs 
and dances. A very enjoyable evening was enjoyed by 
everyone. 

On February 3rd, a meeting was held in the Bell Tele- 
phone Auditorium to hear Dr. J. O. Perrine speak on 
Energy, Frequencies and Noise Relations in Line and 
Amplifiers of Coaxial Cables and other Multi-channel 
Telephone Systems. Members of the Institute of Radio 
Engineers were invited to attend the meeting which was 
preceded by a courtesy dinner at the Windsor Hotel. 

Through the courtesy of J. L. Busfield the members of 
the Branch were invited to attend a luncheon of the Rotary 
Club of Montreal on February 11th, to hear the Hon. C. D. 
Howe give his first public address since his return from 
England. The Branch is indebted to Mr. Busfield for the 
opportunity afforded the membership to attend this im- 
portant luncheon. 

On February 13th, Mr. Gerald N. Martin gave a paper 
entitled Recent Installations of Large Power Boilers 
in England. The paper was a descriptive outline of recent 
trends in this field and an account of the visits made by 
the speaker to some of Britain's latest power plants. 

Junior Section 

On November 21st, the Annual Student Night was held 
as described above. 

Mr. Georges L. Archambault, s.e.i.c, gave a talk, on 
December 2nd, on Automatic Controls in Air Condi- 
tioning. 

On February 10th, Mr. Jacques Hurtubise, Jr. e. i.e., gave 
a paper on Experimental Research on Soil Stabilization. 





MONTREAL 
BRANCH 
SMOKER 



Max Sauer tells it to Lyman 
Playfair 



From left to right: Richard L. Hearn, H. C. Fitz- 

James (Vancouver), A. C. D. Blanchard, Eric P. 

Muntz, G. E. Templeman. 





Well posed by Messrs. Jamieson, Heartz, Brown and 
Laporte. 



From left to right: D. R. Eastwood, Charles Morri- 
son, Walter Griesbach, A. G. Sullivan. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



153 



NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 



Geo. E. Griffiths, m.e.i.c. 
C. G. Cline, m.e.i.c. 



Acting Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On January 24th, the Branch held a dinner meeting at 
the Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines, with an attendance of 
45. In the absence of the branch chairman, C. H. McL. 
Burns, the vice-chairman, A. L. McPhail, presided. 

The speaker of the evening was R. W. Angus, professor 
of mechanical engineering at the University of Toronto. 
He was introduced by J. B. McAndrew. The subject was 
The History of the Development of Water Turbines 
and Pumps. Professor Angus began with an interesting 
account of the pioneers in hydraulics. Archimedes (287- 
212 B.C.) developed the science of hydrostatics and also 
made use of the block and tackle, the screw and the lever. 
Vitruvius (85 B.C.) and Frontinus (35 A.D.) helped to 
build and operate the nine aqueducts at Rome and have 
left us interesting accounts of their work. Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-1519 A.D.) was a versatile genius, being at once artist, 
sculptor and engineer. In New York city there is a display 
of models made from the drawings preserved in his note- 
books, including canals, churches, double-acting pumps, 
gear wheels, guns, a flying machine, parachute, air-pump 
and saw-mill. 

This introduction was followed by a set of lantern pic- 
tures, including early examples of undershot, overshot and 
breast water wheels, with both straight and curved vanes; 
Fourneyron and Francis turbines; propeller and Kaplan 
type runners; and Pelton wheels. Also, there were views 
of a number of modern power plants in both Europe and 
North America which had been visited by the speaker. He 
showed also a shorter series of pictures illustrating in a 
similar manner the development of the pump. 

A vote of thanks to the speaker was moved by W. R. 
Manock. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 
R. K. Odell, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The annual meeting of the Ottawa Branch was held on 
Thursday evening, January 9, 1941, at the auditorium of 
the National Research Council building, Sussex Street. 
Reports for the past year were presented and officers elected 
for the forthcoming year. W. H. Munro, retiring chairman, 
presided and in his retiring address referred to the branch 
having had a most successful year. 

W. L. Saunders reported for the membership committee. 

The report of the Proceedings Committee, by W. H. 
Norrish, stated that twelve meetings, including the annual 
meeting of the branch, were held during the year. Of these, 
eight were luncheon meetings, one of which was held at 
the Ottawa Technical High School. Of the evening meet- 
ings, two were held jointly with the Ottawa Branch of the 
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. The average 
attendance for all meetings was 107 and many outside en- 
gineers temporarily stationed in Ottawa were freely wel- 
comed to the luncheons and other meetings. 

L. A. Wright of Montreal, general secretary of the 
Institute, was present at the meeting and spoke briefly. He 
referred to the steady increase in membership of the Insti- 
tute, stating it was now the highest in fifteen years. 

After the business of the annual meeting proper was 
concluded, Dr. Charles A. Robb, professor of mechanical 
engineering of the University of Alberta at the time of the 
outbreak of the present war, and now power consultant 
of the Munitions Branch, Department of Munitions and 
Supply, gave an address on Gauges for Mass Production. 

Through the courtesy of Dean C. J. Mackenzie, acting 
president of the National Research Council, the members 
inspected the gauge laboratory where some of the methods 
of testing gauges were explained. 

At the close of the meeting light refreshments were 
served. 

At the noon luncheon at the Chateau Laurier on Thurs- 
day, January 30, Alan Hay, engineer of the Ottawa Subur- 



ban Roads Commission and consulting engineer for the 
Federal District Commission, told of the organization so 
far undertaken in Ottawa and vicinity in the matter of 
Air Raid Precautions. The luncheon was under the chair- 
manship of W. H. Munro, immediate past chairman of the 
branch. 

In Canada air raid precaution work is being carried on 
through national, provincial and local committees, mostly 
on a voluntary basis so as to ensure a normal or nearly 
normal functioning of life and services in the case of emerg- 
ency. It is the aim in carrying out these precautions to 
maintain the morale of the public, to keep down panic, 
to educate the average individual how he can protect him- 
self, and to allow certain individual volunteers to take 
training to fit themselves for greater service. 

A national committee under the chairmanship of Dr. R. E. 
Wodehouse, deputy minister of the Department of Pensions 
and National Health, has been actively engaged in this 
work for the past two years, with parallel efforts undertaken 
by the Saint John Ambulance Association which has trained 
a great many people so that they may be available as in- 
structors. Actually, two or three weeks before the war, 
officials from the Department travelled from coast to coast 
in the interests of air raid precaution work, particularly 
in connection with the coast cities, so that immediately 
war was declared some of them could have readily carried 
out blackout operations. Some of these cities, stated Mr. 
Hay, have now reached a stage of preparation quite com- 
parable to that of most cities in the British Isles. 

The organization for the Ottawa district is somewhat 
different from that of some of the other cities on account 
of the individual conditions prevailing here, including 
the fact that it is the seat of the federal government and 
also lies astride an inter-provincial boundary between two 
provinces. The federal location accordingly extends on both 
sides of the Ottawa river including Britannia, Deschenes, 
Hull cement works to the Gatineau Mills, Rockcliffe air- 
port, the National Research Council location on the Mont- 
real Road, and Billings Bridge, or 55 square miles in all. A 
main committee on policy for the district includes the heads 
of the various municipalities embraced, as well as others 
prominent in municipal life, with Fred Bronson, chairman 
of the Federal District Commission, as chairman of the 
committee. Working committees under this main committee 
look after, respectively, municipal engineering, fires, police 
duties, medical health, and public utilities, with a sixth 
committee consisting of the chairman of the other five to 
prevent duplication of effort and to co-ordinate the work. 
Mr. Hay himself is chairman of this sixth committee. 

Mr. Hay detailed the duties of these various committees. 
The municipal engineering committee, for instance, is in 
charge of ordinary repair services and has to consider ways 
and means of restoring services that may be affected. Under 
the fire chief's committee, consideration is being given to 
the use of small type apparatus for the fighting of small 
fires. For instance, small fires can be fought with a pail of 
sand and a small shovel, and in England such equipment is 
practically a household necessity. Also there are pumps 
that can be carried by hand and used from any emergency 
water source, even to a bucket of water. 

Regarding the efficacy of different types of shelters Mr. 
Hay could not speak from first hand knowledge. He felt, 
however, that Canada's geographical situation, the more 
open dispersal of population in the Canadian cities, the 
backyards and front lawns, and the type of construction of 
Canadian homes rather favoured the people of this country. 
Shelters naturally fell into two types of design, (1) conceal- 
ment and (2) protection. Concealment may be effected by 
taking advantage of natural topography such as an erec- 
tion against a hillside, in the shadow of trees, or by decen- 
tralizing plants so that individual units are in out-of-the- 
way places. Another idea here in factory construction is 
the "Ribbon" principle following the production line, so 
that if one part is hit production may be detoured. Regard- 



154 



March, 19 HI THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ing protection there has been considerable controversy on 
the relative merits of large and small shelters. The large 
shelter can be built at a lower cost per individual, and keeps 
up morale in affording opportunity for community efforts 
and singsongs. But to be safe it should be 50 feet under- 
ground or have a three-feet thick roof. For economic reasons 
large shelters in most Canadian cities would be far apart 
and so small shelters would also have to be built. 

Relative danger during air raids has been worked out as 
follows: outside and standing up in the open, 100 per cent 
danger; outside and lying down in the open, 50 per cent; 
in a frame house, 30 per cent; in a protected brick house, 
12 per cent; in a reinforced basement, 5 per cent; in an 
Anderson shelter, 2 per cent; and in a heavy concrete 
shelter, no danger. 

After Mr. Hay's address was concluded, Acting Chair- 
man W. H. Munro called on Dr. R. E. Wodehouse, who was 
present, to address the meeting briefly. Dr. Wodehouse re- 
ferred to the plight of localities that had believed that 
"it can't happen here" and indicated the course of pre- 
parations in this country. Incidentally he mentioned that 
underground shelters should have zigzag entrances. "A 
direct entrance invites trouble," he stated. Also, already 
England has made over sixty million gas masks. Interest in 
gas masks over there had waned for a time but now with 
the threat of invasion and the possibility of gas being in- 
cluded, it has revived greatly. 

QUEBEC BRANCH 

Paul Vincent, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

Lundi soir, le 27 janvier, nous avions le plaisir d'entendre 
Monsieur Robert Dorion, m.e.i.c, nous parler de L'Admin- 
istration Municipale par un Ingénieur-Gérant. 

Depuis la crise économique de 1929, commença le confé- 
rencier, les principales cités et villes ouvrières de la province 
de Québec ont subi l'assaut du chômage avec un déplorable 
résultat sur leurs finances et leur administration. Après dix 
ans de ce système plus ou moins néfaste, dit-il, les corps 
publics en sont venus à se demander quel serait le meilleur 
mode d'administration permettant d'éviter et de corriger 
si possible les abus et les excès du passé. 

Monsieur Dorion nous prouva que le meilleur système 
administratif des cités et villes est bien celui de la gérance, 
surtout par un ingénieur. L'ingénieur-gérant est un officier 
exécutif; c'est lui qui fait exécuter les règlements passés au 
Conseil. Le gérant exécute et le Conseil légifère. Le gérant 
est aussi l'agent de liaison entre les membres du Conseil et 
les différents corps publics. Il s'intéresse au budget, il vérifie 
les dépenses et les revenus. 

Dans la province de Québec, 15 villes ont adopté le 
système de gérance. Ce sont: Westmount, Outremont, 
Verdun, Mont-Royal, Lachine, Montréal-Est, St-Lambert, 
Arvida, La Tuque, Grand'Mère, Shawinigan Falls, Valley- 
field, Val d'Or, Baie Comeau et Témiscamingue. 

Il est intéressant, dit le conférencier, de noter que pas 
une de ces villes ayant adopté l'administration par gérant 
ne l'a abandonnée. Aux Etats-Unis ce système de gérance 
fut inauguré en 1908; aujourd'hui on compte 516 villes 
ainsi administrées. 

L'ingénieur-gérant, dit en terminant M. Dorion, doit 
être un administrateur, non un dictateur. 

Le conférencier répondit avec plaisir aux questions que 
lui posèrent quelques-uns des membres dans l'auditoire. 

Monsieur Adhémar Laframboise avait présenté M. 
Dorion, et il fut remercié par Monsieur Lucien Trempe. 
Monsieur L. C. Dupuis, président de la Section de Québec, 
occupait le siège présidentiel. 

The successful social gathering innovated last year was 
repeated this year in a more formal way. 

The Quebec Branch held a ball at the Quebec Winter 
Club on Saturday evening, February 8th. At this Fête 
Annuelle, various forms of entertainment were provided 
throughout the evening and the guests danced to the or- 




Quehec Branch annual dance, Quebec Winter Club. 

chestra of Georges Amyot. For those who did not dance, 
there was bridge in the card room. 

Through the fine collaboration of Messrs. Alex.L ariviere, 
Léo Roy, Gerald Molleur, Roland Lemieux, Chas. H. 
Boisvert and Gustave St-Jacques, the success of this formal 
gathering exceeded that of last year. One hundred and 
seventeen people kept their gay spirit all evening and they 
went home with reluctance. 

During the buffet served in the lounge of the club, Messrs. 
L. C. Dupuis and E. D. Gray-Donald, respectively chair- 
man and vice-chairman of the branch, thanked the members 
for their fine co-operation. 

All present expressed their enchantment and their desire 
of making this kind of activity an annual affair. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 



C. A. Evans, Jr. e.i.c. 
N. C. Cowie, Jr. E.I.C. 



Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The first general meeting for the year 1941 was held in 
the Grill Room of the Windsor Hotel at 6.45 p.m. on Friday, 
January 31st, 1941, when 24 members and guests sat down 
to dinner. The business portion of the meeting began at 
8.00 p.m. with Chairman E. M. MacQuarrie occupying 
the chair. The minutes of the Annual Meeting were read 
and adopted. 

The chairman then called upon T. F. Rahilly, general 
manager of the Algoma Steel Corporation, to introduce the 
speaker of the evening, Mr. L. F. McCaffery of the Algoma 
Steel Corporation. Mr. Rahilly in a few words told of Mr. 
McCaffery's fitness to talk on the subject, The Installa- 
tion and Operation of Continuous Strip Mills, as the 
speaker had charge of some of the biggest plants in America. 
Mr. McCaffery's address was illustrated with motion 
pictures. 

At the conclusion of the showing of the films, the secre- 
tary was asked to write the United Engineering Company 
of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and thank them for their 
courtesy in supplying us with the films. 

TORONTO BRANCH 



J. J. Spence, m.e.i.c. 

D. FORGAN, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Students' Night has been a successful feature on the 
programmes of the Toronto Branch for several years past. 
This year it was held during the meeting of January 16th, 
which took place in Hart House. As has been the case in 
previous Student Nights, the meeting was principally de- 
voted to the presentation of papers by members of the 
student body. This one was no exception to the general 
run, and displayed a high level of excellence in the subject 
matter and in the presentation of the individual papers. 

About forty members of the branch assembled to hear 
the six prize-winning papers which had been selected out 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



155 



of a much larger number of contestants by the Engineering 
Society. Experience has shown that more than this number 
cannot properly be presented in the time normally available 
for a Branch meeting. 

The branch chairman, Nicol MacNicol, presided and in- 
troduced the speakers, whose subjects were: J. W. Ames — 
Future Trend in Aircraft Design; B. Etkin — Estima- 
tion of Aircraft Performance; W. D. Ramore — A Modern 
Method of Placing Concrete; P. B. Smith — Relay Pro- 
tection of Transformers; G. M. Nixon — The Co- Axial 
Cable in Telephone Transmission; D. P. MacVannell — 
Wind Tunnel Testing. 

At the conclusion of the papers and while the judges 
(Messrs. A. B. Cooper, J. Grieve, D. G. Geiger) were con- 
sidering the relative merits of the papers, moving pictures 
were shown, the principal of these being a film in techni- 
colour showing the manufacture of nylon, rayon, and sim- 
ilar products. Just previous to this the Institute prize 
awarded to the best third year man was presented by Mr. 
Smithers to the winner, B. K. Smith. 

One outstanding feature of the programme was the large 
proportion of the papers devoted to aeronautical subjects, 
an indication perhaps of present trends and of the future 
direction of much engineering practice. Another was the 
manner in which the papers were presented by their authors. 
Ease, confidence and clarity characterized the delivery of 
each contestant, and the use of notes was practically negli- 
gible. In his concluding remarks the chairman voiced the 
feeling of many of the older engineers in regard to the im- 
pressions they received, comparing the present training and 
capabilities of students along these lines to those generally 
prevailing in the days when the old timers attended uni- 
versity. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 



T. V. Berry, m.e.i.c. 
A. Peebles, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



A programme meeting of the Vancouver Branch was held 
on Monday, January 20th, at the University of British 
Columbia. Addresses were given by two members of the 
university faculty, F. A. Forward, associate professor of 
metallurgy, and W. O. Richmond, assistant professor of 
mechanical engineering. 

Professor Forward spoke on The Heat Treatment of 
Steel. He dealt chiefly with the structure of metals and 
alloys and the principles which govern heat treating tech- 
niques, rather than with the techniques themselves; point- 
ing out that an understanding of these principles is pre- 
requisite to the development of successful alloying or heat 
treating processes. 

All metals are crystalline in structure, and the nature 
of the crystals determines the physical properties which 
the metal will develop. Changes take place in the size and 
alignment of the crystals when a metal is heated or when 
it is worked by rolling, and some of these changes are stable 
while others will revert when the metal returns to normal 
temperatures. The crystal structure of irons and steels is a 
simple one, while that of most non-ferrous metals is more 
complex and in the case of alloys the structure is highly 
intricate. Some crystals are cubic in form, that is, the atoms 
are arranged in a manner which builds into a cube-shaped 
crystal, in some cases large enough to be identified through 
the microscope. The atomic arrangement varies within the 
cube in different metals but the cubic crystal remains. Other 
metals may have hexagonal crystals, or still more complex 
shapes. 

Those metals exhibiting a simple crystal form are soft 
and malleable, while those of a complex nature are hard 
and brittle. 

Alloys are of three general types, a mechanical mixture, 
metals mutually soluble in one another, or chemical com- 
pounds. The resulting crystal formation and physical prop- 
erties are determined by the type of alloy, according to 
this grouping. The grain size of a metal is also related to 



its physical properties. In general, fine-grained metals are 
hard and brittle. At high temperatures, the grains of metal 
will grow in some cases, so that grain size control is an 
important element in the treatment of steel. Rolling will 
control the grain size to a considerable extent. 

The rate of cooling of a metal from high temperatures is 
very important in hardening and tempering processes. The 
effect of the cooling rate can be modified by alloying with 
other metals, in some instances slowing the cooling changes 
down to a rate which permits certain working of the metal 
while it is in some desirable but unstable crystalline form. 

The speaker illustrated the above material with lantern 
slides showing typical eutectoid curves and photo-micro- 
graphs of iron and steel in some of their many forms. 

Professor Richmond's subject was The Application of 
Material Tests to Design.. 

There are three forms of loading which are considered 
when designing structures and structural parts. These are 
the static load, the variable load, and the impact load. In 
testing, the tensile strength test is used for static loading. 
From this a stress strain curve is obtained which serves as 
a basis for determining design stresses. In iron and steel, a 
well defined yield point is apparent, but in other metals 
the curve will be smooth with no clearly defined point be- 
yond which permanent deformation occurs. In such cases 
it is difficult to select a working stress limit. In most non- 
ferrous metals some permanent strain occurs as soon as 
load is applied, and if an unloading curve is plotted it will 
not be coincident with the loading curve but parallel to it. 
A common method of selecting the design stress is to use 
the point on the loading curve from which an unloading 
curve when projected bjick would show a permanent strain 
of 0.2 per cent of the original length of the specimen. 

In testing for variable loading, rapid cycles of a reversed 
bending stress are used. Fatigue failure results from the 
development of a small crack or fissure between the grain 
clusters in the metal, and the gradual spread of this crack 
to the point where rupture occurs. Metals do not crystal- 
lize due to reversed stresses, since they are always crystal- 
line in structure. This is an erroneous idea rather widely 
held. 

Dean J. N. Finlayson, branch chairman, presided over 
the meeting, and a vote of thanks was tendered by W. 0. 
Scott, vice-chairman. About sixty members and guests at- 
tended. Following adjournment in the lecture room, the 
party was conducted through the mining and metallurgical 
laboratories where they saw demonstrations of equipment 
used in studying the structure and properties of metals. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

Kenneth Reid, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The annual meeting of the Victoria Branch was held at 
Spencer's Dining Room, Victoria, on January 17th, 1941, 
with E. W. Izard presiding. The meeting was preceded by 
the usual dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Following the dinner the presentation of the annual 
reports and the financial statement were made by the chair- 
man and the secretary. These showed the branch to be in 
a very healthy state with a small surplus over operating 
expenditure in spite of considerable increased activity in 
the way of branch meetings during the past year. 

The election of officers for the year 1941 resulted in the 
election of G. M. Irwin, Victoria City engineer as chairman 
and A. S. G. Musgrave, engineer of the Municipality of 
Oak Bay, as vice-chairman. Kenneth Reid, engineer with 
the Victoria City Light Department, was returned as sec- 
retary-treasurer for the seventh consecutive term. Other 
members elected to the executive committee were J. H. 
Blake, Provincial Forestry Department, A. L. Ford, (re- 
tired), and B. T. O'Grady, of the Provincial Department, 
of Mines. 

Following the meeting the members of the branch were 
entertained by Mr. D. S. Scott with several reels of motion 



156 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



pictures, one on the sinking of the Graf Spee, and others 
depicting the nesting habits of wild fowl around Victoria 
and vicinity, including sea-gulls and cormorants, which 
proved most interesting. At the conclusion of the meeting 
a hearty vote of thanks was extended Mr. Scott for his 
very fine pictures. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH 

C. P. Haltalin, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The annual meeting of the Winnipeg Branch of the Insti- 
tute was held on February 6th, 1941. 

After the chairman's address the various committee re- 
ports were read and approved. 

Professor G. H. Herriott moved a hearty vote of thanks 



to the retiring chairman, Mr. H. L. Briggs, for his excellent 
work for the Branch during the year. 

The scrutineers' report showed the following branch offi- 
cers elected for the year 1941 — Immediate Past Chairman: 
H. L. Briggs; Chairman: V. Michie; Secretary-Treasurer: 
C. P. Haltalin; Executive Committee: C. V. Antenbring, 
H. B. Brehaut, J. T. Dyment, H. W. McLeod, T. E. 
Storey; Chairman of the Membership Committee: Mr. E. S. 
Braddell; Chairman of the Programme Committee: Mr. 
S. G. Harknett. 

At the conclusion of the business of the annual meeting 
a sound film entitled "There is a Difference" was shown by 
courtesy of Mr. L. A. Rodgers of the Winnipeg District 
Office of the Canadian General Electric Company. 

Refreshments were served following the adjournment. 



News of Other Societies 



ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF 
THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

The seventh general meeting of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of the Province of Ontario was held in 
the Roof Garden of the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, on 
Saturday afternoon, January 18th, 1941. The retiring presi- 
dent, Mr. J. W. Rawlins, occupied the chair. 

In a few brief remarks the chairman welcomed not only 
the members of the Association, but also the members of 
the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers who were 
present. He called upon Mr. D. A. R. McCannel of Regina, 
president of the Dominion Council, to introduce the mem- 
bers of his Council to the gathering. Mr. J. C. Oliver, 
registrar of the British Columbia Association of Professional 
Engineers, was also welcomed to the meeting. 

Mr. Rawlins briefly reviewed the activities of the Associa- 
tion during the past year, mentioning the fact that the net 
increase in membership for the year was 124, while the in- 
crease in recorded engineers-in-training was 133. He further 
stated that the Association had granted bursaries to the 
value of $100.00 each at the University of Toronto and at 
Queen's University. Detailed reports were given by the 
chairmen of the various committees of Council. 

Mr. S. R. Frost, president-elect, reported that the 
Association had, after consideration by a special committee 
of Council, offered its assistance to the Royal Society of 
Canada in making a survey of the resources of our country. 

In the absence of Dr. A. H. Harkness, chairman of the 
Committee of Consultants, his report was presented by 
E. A. Cross; after which Professor L. T. Rutledge presented 
the report of the Committee on the Recording of Engineers- 
in-T raining. He pointed out that provisions were being made 
for the recording as engineers-in-training of graduates, under- 
graduates and students serving under articles who have 
insufficient experience to be granted registration. 

Mr. S. R. Frost presented the report of the Finance Com- 
mittee which indicated the healthy financial position of the 
Association. 

The report of the Publicity Committee was presented by 
Mr. R. A. Elliott; Mr. W. C. Miller presented the report 
of the Legislation Committee; Mr. J. Clark Keith, the report 
of the Committee on By-Laws and Code of Ethics; and 
Mr. N. G. McDonald, the report of the Board of Examiners. 
Mr. D. A. R. McCannel briefly reviewed the activities of 
the Dominion Council during the past year. 

The highlight of the meeting was the report presented by 
Mr. W. P. Dobson, chairman of the special committee on 
the remuneration of salaried engineers. In this report, the 
committee requested that the Association recommend the 
principle "Job Evaluation" as a fair criterion in determin- 
ing the salaries of employees and render every assistance 
possible to corporations endeavouring to use this principle 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 



in their plants. Mr. J. 0. Arrowsmith, explained the mean- 
ing of "Job Evaluation" and used lantern slides for illus- 
tration. 

Mr. A. E. MacRae of Ottawa moved a vote of thanks 
to the 1940 Council for the excellent report which they 
gave of their activities and stated that the membership 
was indebted to them for the time they had devoted to 
the affairs of the Association. He paid particular tribute 
to Mr. Rawlins, the past-president who had been a member 
of Council since 1926. 

In closing, Mr. Rawlins introduced the 1941 Council to 
the members. 

Approximately 250 members were present at the dinner 
which immediately followed when Mr. George C. Bateman, 
president of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy and Metals Controller of Canada spoke on the sub- 
ject, The Role of the Engineer in Peace and War. 

Mr. J. W. Rawlins, retiring president, occupied the chair. 
Grace was asked by Canon H. J. Cody, president of the 
University of Toronto. A toast to the sister professions was 
proposed by Mr. D. A. R. McCannel, president of the 
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers and replied to 
by Dr. A. B. Whytock, president of the Ontario Medical 
Association. 

The speaker of the evening was introduced by the Hon. 
Charles McCrae, former Minister of Mines for Ontario. 
Others at the head table were: Mayor F. J. Conboy, repre- 
senting the City of Toronto; A. J. Hazelgrove, representing 
the Ontario Association of Architects; Peter White, K.C., 
representing the Law Society of Upper Canada; J. Clark 
Keith, representing the Engineering Institute of Canada; 
G. E. Berkeley, representing the Ontario Land Surveyors; 
F. W. MacNeill, representing the Association of Professional 
Engineers of British Columbia; C. C. Kirby, representing 
the Association of Professional Engineers of New Bruns- 
wick; Major F. S. Milligan, District Engineering Officer, 
M.D. No. 2; Professor R. E. Jamieson, representing the 
Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec; E. P. 
Muntz, representing the National Construction Council; 
R. C. Poulter, representing the Affiliated Engineering & 
Allied Societies in Ontario; S. R. Frost, president-elect; 
W. C. Miller, vice-president-elect; W. P. Dobson, a past- 
president of the Association; and Lieut. -Col. A. D. Le Pan 
also a past-president of the Association. 

Certificates were presented by the Chairman to the two 
students who had won the bursaries of the Association in 
1940: Mr. V. M. Wallingford of the University of Toronto 
and Mr. Norman Grandfield of Queen's University. 

Mr. J. W. Rawlins, the retiring president, installed into 
office Mr. Stanley R. Frost, the incoming president. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



157 




Meeting of the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers 
held at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, on January 20th and 
21st, 1941; From left to right— J. W. Rawlins, Past-President 
of the Ontario Association; Prof. II. R. Webh, representing 
the Alberta Association; P. Rurke-Gaffney, representing the 
Manitoba Association; J. C. Oliver, Registrar of the Rritish 
Columbia Association; F. W. MacNeill, representing the 
Rritish Columbia Association; M. Rarry Watson, Secretary- 
Treasurer; I). A. R. McCannel, representing the Saskatchewan 
Association; C. C. Kirby, representing the New Rrunswick 
Association; F. W. W. Doane, representing the Nova Scotia 
Association; Prof. R. E. Jamieson, representing the Quebec 
Corporation and W. P. Dobson, representing the Ontario 
Association. 

ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF 
NOVA SCOTIA 1941 ANNUAL MEETING 

The 1941 Annual Meeting of the Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Nova Scotia was held in the Mechanical 
Laboratory Building of the Nova Scotia Technical College, 
Halifax, N.S., on Thursday, January 23rd, 1941, commenc- 
ing at 2.30 p.m. 

The president, Mr. R. B. Stewart, was in the chair and 
about fifty members were present. 

The president reported that during the year past four 
meetings of the Council had been held at which the usual 
committees had been appointed, applications for member- 
ship considered and routine business discussed. 

The agreement between the two engineering bodies of 
the province, which had been consumated at the 1940 joint 
banquet had resulted in a very close co-operation of the 
two. Of our present membership of 232, some 199 are mem- 
bers of both the Institute and the Association, and some 
33, of which 12 are outside of the province and not eligible 
for membership in the Nova Scotia branches of the Insti- 
tute, are members of the Association only. 

The question of bringing the graduate engineers, who are 
not as yet eligible for membership, more closely in touch 
with the activities of the Association was given a good deal 
of attention during the year. A by-law with this in view 
drafted by a special committee and approved by Council 
was submitted to the Association by letter ballot at the 
end of the year. 

In conclusion, the president thanked the members of 
Council for their help and co-operation during the year 
and especially the past president, Mr. Gray, and President- 
Elect Allan for their valuable help on Council. 

The registrar reported a total membership of 231. 

Members of Association only in the province 18 

Members of Association outside of the province 12 

Members of Association and E.I.C 201 

231 

Of the total joint members, 14 were admitted by direct 
application to the Association and 36 were admitted by 
application through the E.I.C. branches during the year. 
79 Association members took advantage of the co-operative 
agreement. 

Professor Copp asked the opinion of the meeting regard- 
ing the appointment of a central examining board as pro- 



posed by the Dominion Council. In this connection the 
president read F. W. W. Doane's report of proceedings at 
the last Dominion Council meeting as published in the 
Association's 1939 Year Book, which showed that Mr. 
Doane did not look very favourably on the proposition. 
Considerable discussion ensued and the consensus of opinion 
expressed seemed to indicate that our Association could not 
see the necessity for the appointment of a central exam- 
ining board. 

The financial statement showed income during the year 
of $2,850.86. Expenditures amounted to $2,585.51 leaving 
a balance for the year of income over expenditure of $265.35 
which included dues paid in advance of $130.00. The balance 
carried from 1939 amounted to $994.50 making a deposit 
in the bank of $1,259.85 at December 31st, 1940. 

Assets including investments, accrued interest and 
amounts outstanding estimated collectable $6,179.00 and 
liabilities nil. 

The scrutineers reported on amendments to by-laws as 
follows: 

For the amendment, 97; against the amendment, 3; 
spoiled ballots, 1; for officers of the Association, the scru- 
tineers reported as follows: 

President, J. L. Allan; Vice-President, D. G. Dunbar; 
Councillors: Dr. A. E. Cameron, Professor W. P. Copp, 
J. R. Morrison and J. K. McKay. 

President Stewart thanked the retiring councillors for 
their support and warmly welcomed the newly elected presi- 
dent and officers of the Association. 

Mr. Allan then took the chair and expressed the hope 
that he and the newly elected officers would be able to 
carry on the business of the Association as successfully as 
the retiring president and 1940 officers had done. 

The joint banquet which followed is reported in the news 
of the branches section of this issue, under Halifax Branch. 

ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 
OF ALBERTA 

In accord with the by-laws, the Nominating Committee 
appointed following the Annual Meeting on March 30, 
1940, has nominated the following slate for the vacancies 
to be filled on Council: 

President: W. E. Cornish; Vice-Presidents: S. G. Coultis, 
L. C. Stevens; Civil Councillors: G. P. F. Boese, C. S. 
Clendening; Electrical Councillors: W. I. McFarland, R. D. 
Wagner; Mechanical Councillors: R. R. Couper, W. S. 
White; Mining Councillors: C. S. Donaldson, A. C. Dunn. 

Annual Meeting 

The Annual Meeting will be held on March 22, 1941, 
so nominations made under this clause should be in the 
hands of the Registrar on or before February 10, 1941. 

Ballot on Classification 

The Engineering Profession Act of the Province of Alberta 
divides the membership for voting purposes and for elec- 
tion of councillors, into four groups, namely : civil, electrical, 
mechanical and mining engineering. Modern engineering 
embraces so many additional branches as well as specialized 
subdivisions of these four main classifications, that many 
members felt that they were wrongly classified. A committee 
was appointed to study the question and the recommenda- 
tion was to the effect that steps be taken to have the Act 
amended to abolish all such classification of members and 
that Council should be nominated from the membership 
at large. 

On receipt of this report the 20th Annual Meeting, held 
in March, 1940, felt that it was a matter on which all 
members should express an opinion and that a ballot should 
therefore be sent out to obtain the views of all members. 

The results of the ballot, canvassed last December, show 
that 131 members voted in favour of the abolition of the 
classification and 16 were against such amendment. 



158 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Library Notes 

ADDITIONS TO THE 
LIBRARY 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 



Analytical Mechanics for Engineers: 

By Fred B. Seely and Newton E. Ensign, 
New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1941. 
450 pp., 6 x 9H in. $3.75. 

Experimental Electrical Engineering: 

By V. Karapetoff revised by Boyd C. Den- 
nison. 4th éd., New York, John Wiley & 
Sons, 1941. 814 pp., 6 x9}4 in. $7.50. 

Mastering Momentum: 

By Lewis K. Sillcox, New York, Simmons- 
Boardman Publishing Corporation, 1941. 
274 pp., 6\i x 9\i in. $2.50. 

Metallurgy of Deep Drawing and Pressing 

By J . Dudley Jevons, New York, John 
Wiley & Sons, 1940. 699 pp., 10 x 6 in., 
$10.00. 

Practical Solution of Torsional Vibration 
Problems: 

By W. Ker Wilson, New York, John Wiley 
& Sons, 1940. 731 pp., 8%x5y 2 in., $8.00. 

Simplified Design of Roof Trusses for 
Architects and Builders: 

By Harry Parker, New York, John Wiley 
& Sons, 1941. 195 pp., 5x8 in. $2.75. 

Storage Batteries: 

By George Wood Vinal, New York, John 
Wiley & Sons, 1940. 464 pp., 6 x 9\i in. 

PROCEEDINGS, TRANSACTIONS 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers: 

Proceedings, Vol. 143, 1940. 
Junior Institution of Engineers: 

Journal and Transactions, Vol. 50, 1939- 
1940. 

REPORTS 
Bell Telephone System: 

Co-ordination of Power and Communica- 
tion Circuits for Low-fi equency Induc- 
tion; Feedback Amplifier Design; Cross- 
talk between Coaxial Conductors in Cable; 
Analysis of the Ionosphere; Crosstalk in 
Coaxial Cables; Compressed Powdered 
Molybdenum Permalloy; High Accuracy 
Heterodyne Oscillators; High-gain Ampli- 
fier for 150 Megacycles; Sound Measure- 
ment Objectives and Sound Level Meter 
Performance; Helium the Superfluid; 
Rectilinear Electron Flow in Beams; Tem- 
perature Effects in Secondary emission; 
X-ray Examination of Polyisobulylene; 
The Subjective Sharpness of Simulated 
Television Images; Cross-modulation in 
Multichannel Amplifiers; Manufacture of 
Quartz Crystal Filters; The Carrier Nature 
of Speech Radio Extension Links to the 
Telephone System; Results of the World's 
Fair Hearing Tests; Equilibrium Relations 
in the Solid State of iron-cobalt System; 
Studies in Boundary Lubrication-1 ; Ultra- 
short-wave Transmission over a 39 Mile 
"Optical" Path. 

Canada Department of Mines and Re- 
sources — Mines and Geology Branch 
— Geological Survey Memoirs: 

Geology of the Southern Alberta Plains by 
L. S. Russell and R. W. Landes, Ottawa, 
1940. Memoir 221. 

Canada Department of Mines and Re- 
sources — Mines and Geology Branch 
— Geological Survey Papers: 

Preliminary Map George Creek, Alberta, 
Paper 40-1 7; Preliminary Report Natural 
Gas in Brantford Area, Ontario, Paper 
40-22. 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



Canadian Engineering Standards Associ- 
ation : 

Standard Specification for Western Red 
Cedar Poles, C 15 (B), 1940; Standard 
Specifiction for Creosote Preservative 
Treatment of Red, Jack and Lodgepole Pine 
Poles and Reinforcing Stubs by Pressure 
Process C 15 (D), 1940; Standard Speci- 
fication for Red, Jack and Lodgepole Pine 
Timber for Poles and Reinforcing Stubs 
C 15 (C), 1940. 

Electrochemical Society — Preprints : 

High Temperature Metallic Résister Fur- 
naces; The Photovoltaic Effect; The Con- 
stitution and Properties of Cyanide Plating 
Baths; Investigation of Lead Anodes in 
the Electrolysis of Zinc Sulfate Solutions; 
Preprints No. 79-5 to 79-8. 

Metropolitan Water District of Southern 
California : 

Annual Report for the Period July 1, 1938, 
to June 30, 1940. 

Montreal Light Heat & Power: 

Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1940. 
National University of Ireland: 

Calendar for the Year 1939. 

U.S. Department of Commerce — Building 
Materials and Structures: 

Structural Properties of Two Nonrein- 
forced Monolithic Concrete Wall Construc- 
tions, BMS 61. 

U.S. Department of the Interior — Geo- 
logical Survey Bulletin: 

Subsurface Geology and Oil and Gas Re- 
sources of Osage County, Oklahoma, 900-E; 
Tungsten Deposits of the Atolia District 
San Bernardino and Kern Counties, Cali- 
fornia, 922-H; Antimony Deposits of a 
Part of the Yellow Pine District Valley 
County, Idaho, 922-1; Antimony Deposits 
of the Wildrose Canyon Area, Inyo 
County, California, 922-K; Tin Deposits 
of the Black Range Catron and Sierra 
Counties, New Mexico, 922-M. 

U.S. Department of the Interior — Geo- 
logical Survey Water Supply Paper: 

Ohio River Basin, Pt. 3, Paper 853. 

BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books ap- 
pear here through the courtesy of the 
Engineering Societies Library of New 
York. As yet the books are not in the 
Institute Library, but inquiries will be 
welcomed at headquarters, or may be 
sent direct to the publishers. 

A.S.T.M. STANDARDS ON COAL AND 
COKE 

Prepared by Committee D-5 on Coal and 
Coke, December, 1940. American Society 
for Testing Materials, Phila., Pa. 126 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
paper, $1.25. 
The various A.S.T.M. methods of testing, 
definitions and specifications for coal and coke 
are brought together in convenient form, to- 
gether with the standard specifications for 
the classification of coal according to rank and 
grade. Among the thirty-four standards given 
is one covering the sieves used for testing. 

A.S.T.M. VISCOSITY INDEX TABLES. 

31 pp., 50c. 
A.S.T.M. CONVERSION TABLES FOR 
KINEMATIC AND SAYBOLT UNI- 
VERSAL VISCOSITIES. 10 pp., 25c. 

American Society for Testing Materials, 
Phila., Pa., tables, 9x6 in., paper. 



The viscosity tables, which are based on 
the tentative method for calculating the vis- 
cosity index, provide a tabulation of the index, 
calculated from basic Saybolt universal vis- 
cosity, against Saybolt at 100 seconds under 
Saybolt values at 210 degrees fahrenheit for 
40 seconds to 161 seconds. 

The conversion tables, which are based on 
the standard method for the conversion of 
kinematic viscosity to Saybolt universal vis- 
cosity, provide a quick conversion. The tables 
range from 2.00 to 330.0 centistokes by incre- 
ments of 0.01, 0.02, 0.10 and 0.20, depending 
on the range. 

The two tables are particularly of interest 
in the field of petroleum products and lubri- 
cants. 

AIRPLANE METAL WORK. Vol. 2: Air- 
plane Sheet Metal Shop Practice. 

By A. M. Robson. D. Van Nostrand Co., 
New York, 1940. 109 pp., Mus., blueprints, 
tables, 10 x 7 in., paper, $1.25. 

This book is intended for mechanics actively 
engaged in the aircraft industry and for pro- 
spective mechanics in training. Following a 
general discussion of work habits and conduct, 
the author presents practical information 
about specific job operations and shop prac- 
tices, including questions and answers. There 
is also a full list of tool and miscellaneous 
equipment and other supplies for the airplane 
sheet-metal shop. 

APPLIED CHEMISTRY FOR ENGIN- 
EERS 

By E. S. Gyngell. Edward Arnold & Co., 
London; Longmans, Green & Co., New 
York, 1940. 328 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9 x 5 l A in., cloth, $4.00. 

The chemistry of materials and processes 
used by the engineer is dealt with in a prac- 
tical manner. Major topics discussed are fuels 
and combustion, metallic corrosion, paints and 
varnishes, water treatment and sewage dis- 
posal, cements, and lubrication. Metallurgy 
is omitted because of its large scope and good 
coverage elsewhere. No details are given of 
methods of analysis or testing, but books 
covering these phases are included in the 
selected bibliographies. 

AUDEL'S SHIPFITTER'S HANDY BOOK 

By R. Newstead. Theo. Audel & Co., New 
York, 1940. 252 pp., Mus., diagts., charts, 
tables, 7x5 in., cloth, $2.00. 

This practical treatise on steel shipbuilding 
and repairing is presented in simple form for 
the benefit of the average ship worker. All 
phases of ship construction are covered, in- 
cluding production planning and modern 
welding practice. There are a glossary of 
marine and shipbuilding terms, a list of terms 
and abbreviations for marking plates and 
templates, and many helpful illustrations. 

(The) AXIAL ADJUSTMENT OF DEEP- 
WELL TURBINE PUMPS. (Univer- 
sity of California Publications in 
Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 19-26) 

By M. P. O'Brien and R. G. Folsom. 
University of California Press, Berkeley 
and Los Angeles, Calif., 1940. 25 pp., 
Mus., diagrs. k charts, tables, 11 x 18 in., 
paper, 25 cents. 

The effect of axial adjustment on deepwell 
turbine pumps is considered to depend upon 
the impeller design. Results of experimental 
investigations are presented showing the effect 
and reactions with both semi-open and closed 
impellers. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



159 



COFFERDAMS 

By L. White and E. A. Prentis. Columbia 
University Press, New York, 1940. 273 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 9% x 
6 ins., cloth, $7.50. 
Based largely on experience gained by the 
authors during several years of work along 
the Mississippi River, this practical manual 
contains the essentials of scientific cofferdam 
construction. Hydrodynamic considerations, 
erosion and earth pressures are discussed as 
well as the construction of representative 
types. The book is well illustrated and con- 
tains a brief glossary and a bibliography. 

(The) DESIGN OF HIGH PRESSURE 
PLANT AND THE PROPERTIES OF 
FLUIDS AT HIGH PRESSURES 

By D. M. Newitt. Clarendon Press, Ox- 
ford, England; Oxford University Press, 
New York, 1940. 491 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, $10.00. 
The first part of this book is devoted to 
the kinds and properties of materials used 
in the construction of high-pressure plant and 
equipment, the calculation of the stresses and 
strains which must be dealt with, practical 
design data and the measurement of high 
pressures. In part II the pressure-volume- 
temperature relationships of gases and liquids, 
the equation of state problem and the influ- 
ence of pressure upon such properties as vis- 
cosity, solubility and refractivity are dis- 
cussed. Details of experimental methods and 
procedure are given where necessary, and 
numerous illustrations and tables of data are 
included in the text and in appendixes. 

ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS AND 
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 

By E W. Golding. 3 ed. Sir Isaac Pitman 
& Sons, London; Pitman Publishing 
Corp., New York, 1940. 828 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x 5 l /2 in., cloth, 
$7.50. 
Originally designed to cover the knowledge 
required for certain British examinations, this 
textbook has been expanded to meet the re- 
quirements of electrical engineers in general. 
The theory and use of all types of electrical 
measuring instruments and methods are com- 
prehensively covered, including the mathe- 
matical derivations for wave-forms and tran- 
sient phenomena. Reference bibliographies 
appear at the ends of the chapters, and there 
is a large group of examination questions with 
answers. 

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY 

By J. A. Stratton. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 

New York and London, 1941- 615 pp., 

diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $6.00. 

In this advanced text the author places 

primary emphasis on dynamic rather than 

static field theory, postulating Maxwell's 

equations from the outset. A mathematical 

formulation of the general theory is followed 

by a comprehensive investigation of energy 

and stress relations. The properties of static 

fields are then discussed, and the rest of the 

book is devoted to the propagation of plane, 

cylindrical and spherical waves, the theory 

of radiation, and boundary-value problems. 

There are groups of illustrative problems. 

ELEMENTARY ENGINEERING THER- 
MODYNAMICS 

By V. W. Young and G. A. Young. 2 ed- 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 
London, 1941- 243 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, $2.75. 
This textbook presents the fundamental 
theoretical basis for an accompanying course 
in practical heat engineering. All important 
topics are covered in a simple, concise man- 
ner, with many illustrative examples. The new 
edition make? use of the more modern Keenan 
and Keyes steam tables, which were not avail- 
able for the first edition. 

EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS 

By J. J. Jakosky. Times-Mirror Press, 



Los Angeles, Calif., 1940. 786 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $8.00. 
The chief object of this book is to describe 
the fundamental theories, equipment and field 
techniques of the recognized exploratory geo- 
physical methods, and to illustrate their appli- 
cation to problems of economic geology. An 
early chapter presents the geologic and 
economic background, and succeeding chap- 
ters deal respectively with magnetic, gravi- 
tational, electrical, siesmic, geochemical and 
geothermal methods. Drill hole investigations 
and oil well production problems are also 
considered. In addition to literature references 
in the text there is a patent bibliography ap- 
pended to each chapter. 

EXTERIOR BALLISTICS, a reprint of 
Chapters X and XII from "Elements 
of Ordnance" 

By T. J . Hayes. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York, 1940. 98 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., paper, $1.00. 
This pamphlet contains two chapters of 
Hayes's "Elements of Ordnance", the text- 
book used by cadets at West Point. These 
chapters deal with Exterior Ballistics and 
Bombing from Airplanes, two subjects of 
direct interest in courses of study connected 
with the national defense programme. The 
reprint makes the text available at a modest 
price. 

GEAR DESIGN SIMPLIFIED 

By F. D. Jones. 2 ed. Industrial Press, 
New York, 1940. 139 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 1114x8% in., cloth, $3.00. 
The book consists of a series of charts which 
illustrate, by simple diagrams and examples, 
the solution of practical problems of gear de- 
sign. The types included are spur, straight- 
tooth and spiral-bevel, helical, herringbone 
and worm gears. Information is also provided 
upon the determination of gearing ratios and 
speeds and on the power-transmitting capacity 
of gears. This second edition also contains 
definitions, a method for checking spur gears, 
and a table of steels for industrial gearing. 

GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION 

By C. A. Heiland. Prentice-Hall, New 
York, 1940. 1,013 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, $10.00. 
This book is intended as a comprehensive 
survey of the entire field of geophysical ex- 
ploration, emphasizing the relations, differ- 
ences, common features and fundamentals of 
geophysical methods. The elementary first 
part describes working principles and geo- 
logical applications for those not directly con- 
cerned with field or laboratory operations. 
The second and major part discusses the sub- 
ject from an engineering viewpoint, presenting 
theory, field technique, laboratory procedure 
and geological interpretations for gravitational 
magnetic, seismic and electrical methods. 
Consideration is also given to minor methods 
and to geophysical well testing. 

HIGH POLYMERS. Vol. 2. PHYSICAL 
CHEMISTRY OF HIGH POLY- 
MERIC SYSTEMS 

By H. Mark. Interscience Publishers, New 
York, 1940. 345 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9\i x 6 in., cloth, $6.50. 
This book gives a survey of the physical 
and chemical methods which have proved 
necessary and effective in the preparation, 
purification, examination and elucidation of 
the structure of the high polymers. It shows 
how and with what restrictions the funda- 
mental laws of physical chemistry can be 
applied to this group of chemical compounds 
which play such an important role in science 
and industry as plastics, proteins, rubber, etc. 
The text material is well documented. 

HISTORY OF GEOMETRICAL 
METHODS 

By J . L. Coolidge. Clarendon Press, Ox- 
ford, England; Oxford University Press, 
New York, 1940. 451 pp., diagrs., tables, 
10 x 6 in., cloth, $10.00. 



The methods which men have invented 
throughout the centuries to deal with geo- 
metrical questions are considered under three 
main headings: synthetic geometry, the earli- 
est type which considers figures directly; 
algebraic geometry, including co-ordinate 
systems ; and differential geometry. The work 
of the important pioneers in each field has 
been emphasized.There is a large bibliography. 

HOISTING MACHINERY 

By W. H. Atherton. Technical Press, Lon- 
don, 1940. 314 PP-, Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, 32s. 6d. 

This practical volume deals with the design, 
construction, maintenance and uses of the 
types of material handling equipment which 
perform intermittent short-range movements: 
cranes, derricks, grabs, skip hoists, stackers, 
telphers and transporters. There are many 
helpful illustrations, and literature references 
appear both in the text and in a brief bibli- 
ography at the end. 

HOUSING FOR DEFENSE 

By M. L. Colean. Twentieth Century Fund, 
330 West 42nd St., New York, 1940. 198 
pp., diagrs., tables, charts, maps, 9% x 6 
in., paper, $1.50. 
The problems and experience with regard 
to housing during the last war are described, 
with considerable attention to the resulting 
government policies. The present situation is 
compared with the past. The relation between 
housing and the location of defense activities 
is emphasized, and community problems are 
discussed. The final chapters deal with the 
construction and financing of new housing, 
the relative parts to be played by private and 
governmental agencies, and the recommenda- 
tions of the housing committee. 

INTRODUCTION TO THE KINETIC 
THEORY OF GASES 

By Sir J. Jeans. The Macmillan Co., New 
York; University Press, Cambridge, Eng- 
land, 1940. 311 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9 x 5Y 2 in., cloth, $3.50. 
This book provides such knowledge of the 
kinetic theory as is required by the serious 
student of physics and physical chemistry. 
In the discussions of pressure in a gas, mole- 
cular collisions, viscosity, heat conduction, 
diffusion, etc., the emphasis is on the physi- 
cist's needs although the mathematical stu- 
dent will find the necessary basic material 
from which to proceed to more specialized 
study. 

LACQUER AND SYNTHETIC ENAMEL 
FINISHES 

By R. C. Martin. D. Van Nostrand Co., 
New York, 1940. 526 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $5.20. 

The subject of discussion is the cellulose 
nitrate and acetate basic lacquers and syn- 
thetic enamels as developed in the twentieth 
century. Part I deals with nitrocellulose, sol- 
vents, plasticisers, resins and synthetic com- 
pounds, and pigments. Parts II and III cover 
plant and equipment, requirements, types, 
formulation, laboratory and field tests, and 
faults and corrections. Part IV describes 
methods of application and the finishing of 
furniture and motor cars. There is a very large 
glossary of paint, varnish, lacquer and allied 
terms. 

LOCOMOTIVES ON PARADE 

By E. Hungerford. Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 
New York, 1940. 236 pp., Mus., woodcuts, 
diagrs., charts, 9 x 6% in., cloth, $2.50. 
The history of one of the very important 
mechanical contributions of the last century, 
the steam locomotive, is told in layman's 
language. The successive types that evolved 
are described, including famous individual 
representatives and the men whose insight 
and mechanical genius made them possible. 
There are many photographs and line draw- 
ings. 



160 



March, 1941 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



(THE) METER AT WORK 

By J. F. Rider. John F. Rider, Publisher, 
New York, 1940. 152 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x5 in., cloth, $1.25. 
This practical book for servicemen and 
others who employ electric meters in radio 
and allied electronic arts describes how each 
type of meter works, how each is used in the 
field, how to increase efficiency and how to 
select new meters. An unusual method of book 
construction, which places the illustrations 
above and separate from the text, makes refer- 
ence from one to the other more convenient. 

MODERN AIR CONDITIONING, HEAT- 
ING AND VENTILATING 

By W. H. Carrier, R. E. Cherne and W. A. 
Grant. Pitman Publishing Corp., New 
York and Chicago, 1940. 547 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., cloth, 
$4.50. 
The whole field of interior conditioning is 
covered in this manual, which is designed to 
apply existing theory to actual practice in 
the industry. Basic theories are explained, but 
emphasis is placed on the engineering princi- 
ples and design of equipment. Comfort and 
economic factors are also considered. Practical 
examples are presented and worked out in 
detail, and many useful tables and charts have 
been collected in an appendix. 

MODERN ROAD EMULSIONS 

By F.H. Garner, L. G. Gabriel and H. J. 
Prentice. 2 ed. Road Emulsion and Cold 
Bituminous Roads Association Ltd., 11 
Bow Church Yard, London, E.C.4, 1989. 
245 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x 
5Yi in., cloth, 10s. 
The purpose of this book is to present the 
underlying principles and properties of bitu- 
minous emulsions and their behavior on the 
road. Some historical material, methods and 
plant for the transport and application of 
emulsions, and many tests and specifications 
are also included. There is a bibliography. 

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE HAND- 
BOOK 

By A. L. Abbott. 5 ed. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., New York and London, 1940. 595 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 7% x 4Yi i n -> 
lea., $3.00. 
The provisions of the National Electrical 
Code are discussed and their practical appli- 
cation is explained. These provisions are 
grouped into six major divisions: definitions 
of terms; approved types of wiring; installa- 
tion of materials and apparatus; general re- 
quirements applying to all wiring systems; 
special cases; and construction of materials. 
The present edition is based on the 1940 Code. 

PHYSICS OF THE AIR 

ByW.J. Humphreys. 3 ed. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York, 1940. 676 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 9% % 6 *»•> 
cloth, $6.00. 
This text provides a comprehensive account 
of the facts and theories relating to the 
mechanics and thermodynamics of the atmos- 
phere, to atmospheric electricity, acoustics 
and optics, and to the factors that control 
climate. This edition has been revised to in- 
clude recent information. 

POWER IN TRANSITION 

By E. R. Abrams. Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York, 1940. 318 pp., maps, tables, 
8 Y x 5Y 2 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The development of the electrical utilities 
is briefly described up to the peak of private 
operation. In the succeeding chapters the 
growing tendency toward public control is 
considered. Some sixty major power projects 
are analyzed, their history through Congress 
is traced, engineering problems are discussed, 
and the resources, requirements and expecta- 
tions of the several regions to be served are 
carefully detailed. Probable effects of these 
developments of the national power policy are 



briefly pointed out in a final chapter. There 
are chapter bibliographies. 

PRACTICAL TUNNEL DRIVING 

By H. W. Richardson and R. S. Mayo. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 
London, 1941. 436 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $5.00. 
This practical text and reference book for 
engineers and contractors covers all phases 
of tunneling and all kinds and classes of tun- 
nels. All steps, from the engineering funda- 
mentals to completion of the project, are con- 
sidered, including full discussion of location, 
investigation and planning of the project, de- 
sign, construction and economics. Attention 
is paid to such practical details as track lay- 
out, size of cars, timbering, explosives, etc., 
and there is a brief history of tunneling. 

PRELIMINARY AIRPLANE DESIGN 

By R. C. Wilson. Pitman Publishing 
Corp., New York and Chicago, 1941. 67 
pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 8Y2 x 5 in., 
cloth, $1.00. 
This brief, simple text is based upon the 
practical procedure used as a guide for in- 
struction at the Air Corps Engineering School 
at Wright Field. All preliminary design factors 
are considered, and an appendix contains 
sample data sheets and weight control tables. 

SEWAGE-TREATMENT WORKS 

By C. E. Keefer. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York, 1940. 673 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $6.00. 
The administration and operation of sewage 
plants are discussed in a thorough, practical 
manner, with emphasis on the processes of 
treatment that are in wide use today. The 
author describes the various types of modern 
equipment, tells how they perform, outlines 
operating methods and discusses costs. The 
quantity and composition of sewage from in- 
stitutions, municipalities and industrial plants 
are also given. 

STEEL CASTINGS HANDBOOK 

Steel Founders' Society of America, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 1941- 508 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., cloth, $2.00. 
Full of diagrams, data tables and photo- 
graphs, this practical handbook covers the 
cast -steel industry from history to commercial 
applications. The physical, mechanical and 
engineering properties of carbon and low alloy 
cast steels are given in detail ; production and 
heat-treatment methods are described; design 
procedure is considered; and a glossary of 
foundry terms is included. There are chapter 
references. 

STORAGE BATTERIES 

By G. W. Vinal. 8 ed. John Wiley '& Sons, 
New York, 1940. 464 PP-1 Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $5.00. 
This standard textbook is a comprehensive 
treatise on the theory of batteries, charging 
methods and equipment, the care of batteries 
and remedies for troubles encountered. The 
physical and chemical properties of storage 
battery materials are discussed, and manu- 
facturing methods are described. There is a 
long chapter on present-day uses for storage 
batteries. The present edition has been con- 
siderably revised. 

STRESS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF 
ELEMENTARY STRUCTURES 

By J . H. Cissel. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York, 1940. 335 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9}/ 2 x6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
Fundamental and practical material which 
would generally be of value to an engineer in 
any field is presented in this textbook, which 
is primarily intended for engineering students 
other than civil. The section on stress analysis 
covers external forces and loads, graphic 
statics, beams, trusses, masonry structures 
and foundations. The elementary design sec- 
tion covers structural fastenings and connec- 
tions, timber, steel and reinforced concrete 
beams and columns. 



TEXTILE RECORDER YEAR BOOK, 1940 

Edited by W. Hubball and others. Harle- 
quin Press, Manchester, England. Illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 7x5 in., cloth, 
10s. 6d. 
Encyclopedic in scope, this annual publi- 
cation furnishes technical information upon 
the production, preparation, spinning, weav- 
ing, dyeing and finishing of all textile fibers. 
There are also sections on hosiery and knitting, 
microscopy and testing, and power trans- 
mission. Patent and trade mark information 
is given, and a classified list of recently in- 
troduced textile machines and appliances is 
included. 

THOMAS' REGISTER OF AMERICAN 
MANUFACTURERS, 31st ed., Dec, 
1940 

Thomas Publishing Co., New York, Bos- 
ton, Phila., San Francisco, Toronto, Can., 
1941. 5,000 pp., Mus., 14Y 2 x 9 in., cloth, 
$10.00 to former subscribers, $15.00 to new 
subscribers. 
This huge annual directory of American 
manufacturers has its customary three main 
sections: the classified directory of products 
(with index) in which the firms are listed, with 
capital ratings, geographically under each pro- 
duct; the alphabetical list of manufacturers, 
giving addresses, subsidiaries, branches, etc.; 
and the trade name index. The innovation, 
introduced in the previous edition, of assign- 
ing arbitrary numbers to advertisers, includ- 
ing a "key" index, has been expanded in the 
present volume. 

TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL PENSIONS 
(Industrial Relations Monograph 

No. 5) 

By M. W. Latimer and K. Tuf el. Indus- 
trial Relations Counselors, New York, 
1940. 88 pp., tables, 9Y x 6 in., paper, 
$1.00. 
The objectives of this monograph, which 
analyzes some 350 active company pension 
plans, are: first, to determine whether the 
characteristics and trends of pension systems 
have changed in the last seven years, and, 
if so, in what direction; second, to analyze 
the growth or decline and the present extent 
of the voluntary pension movement; and 
third, to consider the adaptation of private 
pension systems to governmental old age in- 
surance legislation. The numerical findings of 
the investigation appear in a group of tables. 

WELDING METALLURGY. Vols. 1 and 2 

By 0. H. Henry and G. E. Claussen. 

American Welding Society, New York, 

1940. 359 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 

8x5 in., cloth, $1.50. 
Intended to familiarize members of the 
welding industries, including fabricators and 
designers, with the metallurgical aspects of 
the welding process, this book deals with the 
structure, properties and composition of weld- 
ed materials. It shows how the steel is affected 
by varied conditions of heat and stress, ex- 
plains heat treatment procedure and points 
out the way in which metallurgy can be used 
to control the welding process. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY ON AIRPLANE 
HANGARS 

Current interest in all matters con- 
nected with aviation has prompted the 
Engineering Societies Library to prepare 
a list of references on the Design and Con- 
struction of Airplane Hangars. The list 
includes one hundred articles selected from 
those published during the years 1928- 
1940 in the leading domestic and foreign 
periodicals, and contains material on both 
steel and reinforced concrete structures. 
Copies may be obtained by sending two 
dollars to Engineering Societies Library, 
29 West 39th Street, New York. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1941 



161 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



February 25th, 1941 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
April, 1941. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



♦The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period niay be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty -three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven yearB, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

AGNEW— ELLIS A., of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Toronto, Ont., April 4th, 1900; 
Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1924; 1924-29, technical control of mfg., The 
Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y.; 1929-32, plant supt.. Lion Grinding Wheels 
Ltd., Brockville, Ont.; 1932 to date, vice-president i/c of engrg., design and mfg. 
of stokers, and ventilating and air conditioning equipment, Livingston Stoker Co. 
Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

References: W. A. T. Gilmour, W. J. W. Reid, C. H. Hutton, W. L. McFaul, 
H. S. Philips. 

BALLANTYNE— SPENCER THOMAS, of Ottawa, Ont. Rorn at New York, 
N.Y., Oct. 5th, 1914; Educ: 1934-36, Queen's Univ. (Completed first year engrg.) 
1935, rodman, Geol. Survey of Canada; 1937-38, plant design, mech. dfting, etc., 
and 1939 to date, asst. engr. and dftsman., The General Supply Co. of Canada Ltd., 
Ottawa, Ont. 

References: R. E. Hayes, R. M. Prendergast, B. G. Ballard, J. L. Rannie, N. F. 
Ballantyne. 

CRAWFORD— EARL WILLIAM, of Three Rivers, Que. Born at Port Dalhousie, 
Ont., Apr. 23rd, 191(5; Educ: B.Sc (App. Sci.), Univ. of Mich., 1936; Regd. Engr., 
State of New York, 1940; 1932-35, student engr., divn. of highways, Dept. of Public 
Works, State of New York; 1936-38, special ap'tice (junior designing engr.), Ingersoll 
Rand; 1938 to Sept. 1940, asst. plant engr., Allied Chemical & Dye Co., New York; 
Sept. 1940 to date, staff mechanic, Machine Gun Training Centre, M.D. No. 4, 
Three Rivers (Transferring to R.C.O.C. as Ordnance Mech. Engr.). 

References: R. W. Angus, T. F. Francis, H. D. Fyfe. 

DANES— CYRIL NORWOOD, of Toronto, Ont. Born at London, Ont.; May 
21st, 1886; Educ: S.P.S. Diploma, Univ. of Toronto, 1909; 1909-12. dftsman., 
Canadian Ingersoll-Rand, Sherbrooke, Que.; 1912-14, compressor and drill designer, 
Jenckes Machine Co., Sherbrooke; with the Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Co. as follows: 
1914-15, shell lathe and tool designer; 1915-17, i/c dept. mfg. shell lathes and tools, 
and triple expansion marine engines; 1917-18, asst. supt. of munitions, 1918-21, 
misc. engrg. duties; 1921-24, engr. to sales dept., Montreal; 1924-40, engr. i/c of 
compressor div., Montreal; 1940 to date, Ontario district engr., Toronto, Ont. 

References: J. B. Challies, L. A. Wright, R. W. Angus, S. R. Newton, E. Winslnw- 
Spragge, H. L. Vercoe, G. Kearney, E. T. Harbert. 

DUNCAN— WILLIAM ARCHIBALD, of 71 Jackson Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., Oct. 27th, 1900; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto. 1928. 
R.P.E. of Ont.; 1919-21, roadway dept., City of Toronto; 1921-26, Dept. of Pro- 
vincial Highways, road and bridge bldg., etc; 1926-27, highway resurfacing. Bitu- 
minous Spraying & Contracting Co. Ltd.; 1928-34, asst. service engr., 1