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THE 
ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




VOLUME 25 



JANUARY DECEMBER, 1942 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET 
MONTREAL, QUE. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXV 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1942 



Page 
Abstracts of Current Literature 32, 99, 168, 243, 307, 376, 

428, 471, 517, 574, 627, 694 
Accident Prevention Methods and Results, Wills Maclachlan. 9 

Discussion 459 

Air Bombing and Structural Defence, Engineering Aspects of, 

D. C. Tennant 674 

Air-Locks, The Use of, G. O. Boulton. 563 

Air Raid Precautions as Related to Building Design, S. D. 

Lash... . 28 

Aircraft, Tactics and Unorthodox, Major Oliver Stewart. ... 13 

Alaska Highway, J. M. Wardle ' 136 

Algoma Steel Corporation, Ltd., Moving a Coal Bridge at 

the, D. C. Tennant 615 

Allcut, E. A., Producer Gas For Motor Transport 223 

Allcut, E. A., The Significance of Industrial Relations 557 

Alternative Babbitts, I. I. Sylvester 502 

Alternative Bronzes, G. E. Tait 504 

American Engineering Societies, Publications 316 

American Society of Civil Engineers, Niagara Falls Meeting 523, 635 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers 199 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-sixth 154 

Programme 36 

Papers 37 

Report of Meeting 154 

Said at the Banquet 166 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-seventh. 523, 623, 699 

Annual Reunion, University of Toronto Alumni 718 

Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 119, 199, 264 

Association of Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan 719 

As the Year Ends, Dean C. R. Young 661 

Babbitts, Alternative, 1. I. Sylvester 502 

Banks, S. R., The Lions' Gate Bridge, Part 1 210 

Part 2 282 

Part 3 347 

Part 4 414 

Barrett Chute Development, A. L. Malcolm 402 

Berry, A. E., Public Health and Conservation 667 

Binger, Walter D., Some of the Engineering Implications of 

Civilian Defence. . . 238 

Birch, L. W., Trolley Coach Overhead Materials and Design . . 231 

Book Reviews 199, 316 

Boulton, G. O., The Use of Air-Locks 563 

Branches, Membership and Financial Statements of 94 

Branches, News of — 

Border Cities 48. 257, 325, 440, 646 

Calgary 258, 390, 647, 713 

Edmonton 49, 191, 259, 531 , 713 

Halifax 49, 114, 191, 259, 391, 532, 647, 713 

Hamilton 49, 259, 326, 441, 592, 647, 714 

Kingston 441 

Lakehead 50, 191, 327, 486, 714 

London 50, 114, 192, 328, 442, 592 

Moncton 50, 260, 329, 486, 532 

Montreal 51, 114, 192, 260, 329, 391, 648, 714 

Niagara Peninsula 51, 194, 262, 330, 391, 442 

Ottawa 51, 115, 194, 262, 330, 392, 593, 649, 715 

Peterborough 52, 195, 392, 443 

Quebec 117 

Saguenay 55, 115, 195, 393, 443, 486, 534, 716 

Saint John 54, 443, 535 

St. Maurice Valley 54, 119, 330, 393, 536, 649, 716 

Saskatchewan 55, 117, 196, 263, 393, 649, 716 

Sault Ste. Marie 55, 263, 330, 394, 717 

Toronto 56, 196, 331, 717 

Vancouver 196, 394, 443, 593, 649, 717 

Victoria 119 

Winnipeg 56 

British Aeroplane, The Quality Underlying the, Lt.-Col. W. 

Lockwood Marsh 71 

Bronzes, Alternative, G E. Tait 504 

Brothers of the Bridge, A. L. Carruthers 625 

Brown, Dean Ernest, receives honorary degree 39 

Building Design, Air Raid Precautions as Related to, S. D. 

Lash 28 

Building Fund, Branch Contributions to 39 

By-pass Highway in England, Construction of, by Royal 

Canadian Engineers, Capt. J. P. Carrière 15 



Page 

Cabinet Committee on Reconstruction 105, 317, 378, 465, 632 

Can Professional Education be Liberalized? Dean C. R. Young 554 

Canadian Engineers in England 639 

Canadian Industry in the War, C. D. Howe 147 

Canadian Institute of Steel Construction 264 

Carrière, Capt. J. P., Construction of a By-pass Highway in 

England by Royal Canadian Engineers 15 

Carruthers, A. L., Brothers of the Bridge 625 

Causes and Effects of Damage to Electrical Machinery and 

Switching, C. A. Laverty 604 

Charcoal Has War-Time Use 235 

Civil Defence, Institute Committee on Engineering Features 

of 379, 478, 578, 633, 700 

Civilian Defence, Some of the Engineering Implications of, 

Walter D. Binger 238 

Civilization, We Are In It Together In The Defence of, H. J. 

Cody 686 

Clarke, K. H. J., The Metal Situation 498 

Coal Bridge at Algoma Steel Corporation, Moving a, D. C. 

Tennant 615 

Cody, H. J., We Are In It Together In The Defence of Civili- 
zation 686 

Committee on Engineering Features on Civil Defence. .379, 

478, 578, 633 

Committee on Industrial Relations 379, 479, 578 

Committee on Post- War Problems 378, 478, 632 

Committee on Reconstruction, Dominion Government 105, 378 

Committee on the Training and Welfare of the Young 

Engineer 174, 583, 638 

Conservation, Public Health and, A. E. Berry 667 

Conservation of Natural Resources With Some Reference to 

Post- War Planning 

Construction Features on the Extension of the Santurce 

Steam Plant, Puerto Rico, J. T. Farmer and E. A. 

Goodwin 

Construction Industry, Regulations Affecting the 

Construction of a By-Pass Highway in England by Royal 

Canadian Engineers, Capt. J. P. Carrière 

Contractor's Claim For Extras, A 

Discussion 

Control of Man-Power in Canada 

( 'ontrol of Technical Man-Power 

Controller of Construction, Order No. 12, Regulations Affect- 
ing the Construction Industry 

Coote, J. A., The Significance of Industrial Relations 

Correspondence 175, 317, 434, 481, 525, 583, 639 702 

Council For The Year 1941, Report of 80 

Couper, Dr. W. J., Wages Stabilization 

Coventry, A. F., The Water Situation in Southern Ontario. . 



663 



454 
571 

15 
515 
639 
624 

241 

571 
557 



406 
664 



Damage of Plant Through Enemy Action, Proneness to, Hal 

Gutteridge 559 

Davidson, A. E., Mechanical Features of 220-kv. Lines in 

Ontario, 1940 and 1941 496 

Development of Ground Water Supply, J. W. Simard 669 

Diesel Engines, Supercharging of Two-Stroke, F. Oederlin. . . 618 

Discussions — 

The Manufacture of the 25-pounder in Canada, W. F. 

Drysdale 298 

The Justification and Control of the Limit Design 

Method, F. P. Shearwood 303 

Rational Column Analysis, J. A. Van den Broek 360 

Accident Prevention Methods and Results, Wills 

Maclachlan 459 

Doherty, Robert E., Professional Development and Responsi- 
bility 469 

Drainage Areas of Ontario, Forests and, F. A. MacDougall . . 663 
Drysdale, W. F., The Manufacture of the 25-pounder in 

Canada 5 

Discussion 298 

Effect of Wet Coal on Pulverizer and Boiler Performance, 

Murray D. Stewart 609 

Elections and Transfers. . . .43, 109, 179, 253, 320, 386, 437, 

528, 586, 642, 707 

Electrical Machinery and Switching, Causes and Effects of 

Damage to, C. A. Laverty 604 

Engineer Looks at Music, An, S. T. Fisher 548 



II 



December, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



engineer, 1 ne nace 01 tne, uean o. n. i oung o»4 

Engineering as a Career 248 

Engineering Aspects of Air Bombing in Structural Defence, 

D. C. Tennant 674 

Engineering Features of Civil Defence, Committee on. . .379, 

478, 578, 633, 700 

Engineering in Canada, The Profession of 174 

Engineers' Council for Professional Development — 

Annual Report for 1941 29 

Guidance Booklet 248 

Tenth Annual Meeting 638, 689 

Vocational Guidance Manual 583 

Essential Work Regulations, 1942 241 

Farmer, J. T., Construction Features on the Extension of the 

Santurce Steam Plant, Puerto Rico 454 

Farmer, J. T., The Modernization of a Puerto Rico Steam 

Plant 342 

Fees of Members Overseas 433 

Financial Statements — 

Of the Institute 84 

Of the Branches 94 

Fisher, S. T., An Engineer Looks at Music 548 

Foreign Correspondents 104 

Forests and Drainage Areas of Ontario, F. A. MacDougall. . . 663 
Frampton, A. H., The 220,000- volt System of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario 21 

Fullerton, J. S., Substitute Solders 499 

Gaherty, G. A., Wartime National Efficiency 621 

Generators in the U.S.A., Water-Wheel Driven, C. M. Laffoon. 457 
Goodwin, E. A., Construction Features on the Extension of 

the Santurce Steam Plant, Puerto Rico 454 

Goodwin, E. A., The Modernization of a Puerto Rico Steam 

Plant 342 

Ground Water Supply, Development of, J. W. Simard 669 

Gutteridge, Hal, Proneness to Damage of Plant Through 

Enemy Action 559 

Howe, C. D., Canadian Industry in the War 147 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, the 220,000- 

volt System, A. H. Frampton and E. M. Wood 21 

Industrial Relations, Institute Committee on. . 379, 479, 578, 700 
Industrial Relations, The Significance of, E. A. Allcut and 

J. A. Coote 557 



Institute Prizes — 

Prize Awards, 1942 

For Juniors and Students 

Rules Governing Award of 

Institute Prize Winners, Biographies. 



435 

578 
587 
185 



Jacobsen, E. R., Letter from Washington 433, 480, 524, 

582, 637 

James Committee 105, 317, 378, 465, 632 

James Watt International Medal 432 

Jane. Dr. R. S., Synthetic Rubber . 274 

Jeckell, F. L., Subcontracting in Canada's Munition Industries 279 

Johnson, Howard, Shipyard Production Methods 73 

King vs. Paradis and Farley, Inc., A Contractor's Claim for 

Extras 515 

Discussion, E. P. Muntz 639 

Letters to Editor 703 

Laffoon, C. M., Water-Wheel Driven Generators in the U.S.A. 457 

Landmark Disappears 249 

Lash, S. D., Air Raid Precautions as Related to Building 

Design 28 

Laverty, C. A., Causes and Effects of Damage to Electrical 

Machinery and Switching 604 

Legget, R. F., Conservation of Natural Resources with some 

Reference to Post- War Planning 663 

Legget's Memorandum 379 

Library Notes. ... 58, 120, 199, 265, 332, 395, 444, 487, 537, 

594, 650, 720 

Lions' Gate Bridge, The, Part 1, S. R. Banks 210 

Part 2 282 

Part 3 347 

Part 4 414 

Little, E. M., National Service — A Challenge to the Engineer. 151 

MacDougall, F. A., Forests and Drainage Areas of Ontario. . 663 

Mackenzie, Dean C. J., New Year Message 3 

Mackenzie, Dean C. J., The War Activities of the National 

Research Council of Canada 141 

Maclachlan, W T ills, Accident Prevention Methods and Results. 9 

Discussion 459 

McNaughton, Lieut.-General A. G. L., A Message to Cana- 
dian Engineers 145 



iviaicoim, a. l,., Barren c nuie .Development 4Uz 

Man- Power Control in Canada 624 

Management-Employee Problem for Engineers, The, J. W. 

Parker 236 

Manufacture of the 25-pounder in Canada, W. F. Drysdale. . 5 

Discussion 298 

Marsh, Lt.-Col. W. Lockwood, The Quality Underlying The 

British Aeroplane 71 

Maude, John H., The New Oil-Hydraulic Press in Munition 

Manufacture 66 

Mechanical Features of 220-kv. Lines in Ontario, 1940 and 

1941, A. E. Davison 496 

Meetings of Council 41, 107, 175, 251, 318, 380, 482, 525, 

585, 640, 705 

Membership of Branches 94 

Message from the President, Dean C. R. Young 127 

Message to Canadian Engineers, Lieut.-General A. G. L. 

McNaughton 145 

Metal Situation, K. H. J. Clarke 498 

Modernization of a Puerto Rico Steam Plant, The, J. T. 

Farmer and E. A. Goodwin 342 

Moving a Coal Bridge at the Algoma Steel Corporation, Ltd., 

D. C. Tennant 615 

Munition Industries, Subcontracting in Canada's, F. L. 

Jeckell 279 

Munitions Manufacture, The New Oil-Hydraulic Press in, 

John H. Maude 66 

Music, An Engineer Looks at, S. T. Fisher 548 

Myers, Charles Samuel, Psychology as Applied to Engineering. 508 

National Research Council of Canada, War Activities of, 

Dean C. J. Mackenzie 141 

National Selective Service 248, 624 

National Service — A Challenge to the Engineer, E. M. Little . 151 
Natural Resources With Some Reference to Post- War Plan- 
ning, The Conservation of 663 

New Brunswick Agreement 38 

New Field and a New Emphasis, A, Dean C. R. Young 127 

New Oil-Hydraulic Press in Munitions Manufacture, The, 

John H. Maude 66 

Newly Elected Officers of The Institute, Biographies 180 

News of Other Societies 47, 119, 199, 264, 718 

Niagara Falls Joint Meeting 523, 635 

Obit uaries — 

Andrewes, Lieut.-Colonel William Edward 440 

Armstrong, Thomas Stiryaker 389 

Baltzell, Willie Harry 591 

Blanchard, Joseph Elie 47 

Bang, Claus Marius . . 711 

Boyd, William Gamble 257 

Byers, Archibald Fullarton 189 

Cregeen, Kenneth Thomas 190 

Dennis, Earle Munro 711 

Duckworth, Walter Ritchie 113 

Duncan, G. Rupert 389 

Evans, John Maurice 530 

Fuller, Royden John 190 

Hawley, George Prince 47 

Jackson, Donald Alphonse 711 

Johnson, Edward Preston 257 

Johnson, Harold Stanley 645 

Johnston, William Morrison 113 

Kester, Fred Henry 530 

Kirkpatrick, Alexander M 531 

MacDiarmid, Archibald Alexander 113 

Macphail, William Matheson 711 

Mahon, Harry Wendell 485 

McCurdy, Lyall Radcliffe 646 

McDowall, Robert 325 

Mews, John Courtenay 190 

Millidge, Edwin Reginald 531 

Morrisey, Lieut.-Colonel Henry Fairweather 485 

Murray, Robert Leslie 113 

Palmer, John 325 

Parker, Thomas Wint Weir 190 

Porter, John Earle 485 

Porter, Lawson B 591 

Reynolds, Philip 591 

Robertson, A. Ross 712 

Schlemm, Leonard Ernest 390 

Smither, William James 113 

Swingler, Russell Henry 325 

Tempest, John Sugden 190 

Townsend, Lieut.-Colonel Charles Rowlatt 646 

Webb, Harry Randall 592 

White, Squadron Leader Joseph J 712 

Oederlin, F., The Supercharging of Two-Stroke Diesel Engines. 618 

Officers of The Institute, Newly Elected, Biographies 180 

Oil-Hydraulic Press in Munitions Manufacture, The New, 

John H. Maude 66 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1942 



III 



Ontario, Forests and Drainage Areas of, F. A. MacDougall. . 
Ontario, Hydro-Electric Power Commission, The 220,000- 

Volt System, A. H. Frampton and E. M. Wood 

Ontario, The Water Situation in Southern, A. F. Coventry. . . 
Organization and Work of Research Enterprises, Ltd., Colonel 

W. E. Phillips 



663 

21 
664 

129 



The Management-Employee Problem for 



Parker, James W 

Engineers 236 

Peace Worth Fighting For, A, William E. Wickenden 408 

Personals 44, 110, 187, 254, 321, 386, 437, 483, 528, 589, 643 

Phillips, Colonel W. E., The Organization and Work of Re- 
search Enterprises Limited 129 

Place of The Engineer, The, Dean C. R. Young 684 

Polish Engineers in Canada 104 

Post-War Problems, Institute ( 'ommittee on 378, 478. 632 

Post-War Planning, The Conservation of Natural Resources 

With Some Reference to 663 

Preliminary Notice 61, 122, 204, 268, 336, 397. 448, 489, 

541,596,653, 723 

President's New Year Message 3 

President's Trip to Quebec and The Maritimes 432, 522 

President's Trip to The West . .175 

Professional Development and Responsibility, Robert E. 

Doherty 

Professional Recognition in the Services 

Prize Awards, 1942 

Prize Winners, Institute, Biographies 

Producer Gas For Motor Transport, A. E. Allcut 

Profession of Engineering in Canada, The 

Professional Recognition in The Services 

Proneness to Damage of Plant Through Enemy Action, Hal 

Gutteridge 

Psychology as Applied to Engineering, Charles Samuel Myers. 

Public Health and Conservation, A. E. Berry 

Puerto Rico, Construction Features on the Extension of the 

Santurce Steam Plant, J. T. Farmer and E. A. Goodwin. 
Puerto Rico Steam Plant, The Modernization of a, J. T. 

Farmer and E. A. Goodwin 

Pulverizer and Boiler Performance. The Effect of Wet Coal on. 

Murray D. Stewart 



312 

469 
522 
435 
185 
223 
174 
522 

559 

508 
667 

454 

342 

609 



Quality Underlying the British Aeroplane, The. Lt.-Colonel 
W. Lockwood Marsh 



71 



Recent Graduates in Engineering 435 

Reconstruction and Re-establishment 465 

Reconstruction, Cabinet Committee on 105, 317, 378, 465, 632 

Regional Meetings of Council 313. 316, 318 

Registration in The Faculties of Applied Science or Engineer- 
ing in Canadian Universities, Session 1941-1942 39 

Session 1942-1943 699 

Regulations Affecting The Construction Industry, Controller 

of Construction 571 

Report of Council for the Year 1941 80 

Reports from Branches 90 

Research Enterprises Limited, The Organization and Work of, 

Colonel W. E. Phillips 129 

Royal Canadian Engineers, Construction of a By-pass High- 
way in England by, (apt. J. P. Carrière 15 

Rubber, Synthetic, R. S. Jane 274 

Santurce Steam Plant, Puerto Rico, Construction Features on 

The Extension of the, J. T. Farmer and E. A. Goodwin. 454 

Santurce Steam Plant, Puerto Rico, The Modernization of, 

J. T. Farmer and E. A. Goodwin 342 

Shipyard Production Methods, Howard Johnson 73 

Significance of Industrial Relations, E. A. Allcut and J. A. 

Coote 557 



Page 

Simard, J. W., Development of Ground Water Supply 669 

Size and the Aeroplane, Major Oliver Stewart 412 

Solders, Substitute, J. S. Fullerton 499 

Stewart, Major Oliver. Size and 'the Aeroplane 412 

Stewart, Major Oliver, Tactics and Unorthodox Aircraft 13 

Stewart, Murray D., The Effect of Wet Coal on Pulverizer and 

Boiler Performance 609 

Structural Defence Against Bombing, A Reference Book on 

Civil Defence 578, 632 

Structural Defence, Engineering Aspects of Air Bombing and. 

D. C. Tennant 674 

Subcontracting in Canada's Munition Industries, F. L. Jeckell. 279 

Substitute Solders, J. S. Fullerton 499 

Supercharging of Two-Stroke Diesel Engines, F. Oederlin. . . . 618 

Sylvester, LI., Alternative Babbitts 502 

Synthetic Rubber, Dr. R. S. Jane 274 

Tait, G. E.. Alternative Bronzes 504 

Tactics and Unorthodox Aircraft, Major Oliver Stewart 13 

Technical Man-Power, Control of 241 

Technical Personnel Regulations, 1942 241 

Tennant, D. C, Engineering Aspects of Air Bombing and 

Structural Defence 674 

Tennant, D. C, Moving a Coal Bridge at the Algoma Steel 

Corporation, Limited 615 

Tenth Annual Meeting of E.C.P.D 689 

Tin Conservation 498 

Trolley Coach Overhead Materials and Design, L. W. Birch. . 231 

25-Pounder in Canada. Manufacture of, W. F. Drysdale 5 

Discussion 298 

220-kv. Lines in Ontario, 1940 and 1941, Mechanical Features 

of, A. E. Davison 496 

220,000-Yolt System of the Hydro-Electric Power ( 'ommission 

of Ontario, A. H. Frampton and E. M. Wood 21 

Use of Air-Locks, G. O. Boulton 563 

Vocational Guidance Manual, Engineers' Council for Pro- 
fessional Development 583 

Wartime National Efficiency, G. A. Gaherty 621 

Wages Stabilization, Dr. W. J. Couper 406 

War Activities of the National Research Council of Canada. 

Dean C. J. Mackenzie 141 

Wardle, J. M., The Alaska Highway 136 

Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. . .41, 81, 174. 249, 241, 581 

Washington Letter. E. R. Jacobsen 433. 480. 524. 582, 637, 698 

Water Situation in Southern Ontario. The. A. F. Coventry. . . 664 

Water- Wheel Driven Generators in the U.S.A.. C. M. Laffoon. 457 

We are in it Together in the Defence of Civilization, H. J. ( !ody 686 

Webster Lectures 313, 383. 478, 523 

Wet Coal on Pulverizer and Boiler Performance. The Effect 

of. Murray I). Stewart 609 

Wickenden. William E., A Peace Worth Fighting For 408 

Wood. E. M.. The 220.000-Volt System of the Hydro-Electric 

Power Commission of Ontario 21 

Work Regulations. 1942 241 

Wright, L. Austin. Man-Power Control in Canada 624 

Young, Dean C. R.. A New Field and a New Emphasis 127 

Young, Dean C.R., As the Year Ends 661 

Young, Dean ( '. P., Biography 173 

Young, Dean C. R.. Can Professional Education be Liberal- 
ized ? 554 

Young, Dean C. 11., Industrial Relations a Legitimate Field 

for Institute Activities 578 

Young, Dean C. R,, Testimonial Dinner to 314 

Young, C. R., The Place of The Engineer. 684 

Young ICngineer, The Committee on the Training and Welfare 

of the 174, 583, 638 




IV 



December. 1912 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 25 



MONTREAL. JANUARY 1942 



NUMBER 1 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e.i.c. 
Editor 



N. E. D. SHEPPARD, m.e.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c 

H. F. FINNEMORE, m.e.i.c 

T. J. LAFRENIÈRE, m.e.i.c 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
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and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at. the Post Office, Montreal, as 
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THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



MUZZLE OF 25-POUNDER BARREL Cover 

{Photo Courtesy Public Information) 

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE 3 

THE MANUFACTURE OF THE 25-POUNDER IN CANADA . . 5 
W. F. Drysdale, M.E.I.C. 

ACCIDENT PREVENTION METHODS AND RESULTS ... 9 
Wills Maclachlan, M.E.I.C. 

TACTICS AND UNORTHODOX AIRCRAFT 13 

Major Oliver Stewart 

CONSTRUCTION OF A BY-PASS HIGHWAY INJENGLAND BY ROYAL 

CANADIAN ENGINEERS 15 

Capt. J. P. Carrière, M.E.I.C. 

THE 220,000-VOLT SYSTEM OF THE HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER 

COMMISSION OF ONTARIO 21 

A. H. Frampton and E. M. Wood, M.E.I.C. 

AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS AS RELATED TO BUILDING DESIGN . . 28 
S. D. Lash, M.E.I.C. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1941 TO THE ENGINEERS' COUNCIL FOR 

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 29 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 32 

ANNUAL MEETING 36-37 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 38 

PERSONALS 44 

Visitors to Headquarters ......... 46 

Obituaries . . . . . ... . . . .47 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 48 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES . . 47 

LIBRARY NOTES 58 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 61 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 62 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 



fA. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
•McNEELY DcBOSE, Arvida, Que. 



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tA. E. BERRY, Toronto, Ont. 

•G. P. F. BOESE, Calgary, Alta. 

•I. W. BUCKLEY, Sydney, N.S. 

•J. M. CAMPBELL, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 

tD. S. ELLIS, Kingston, Ont. 

tJ. M. FLEMING, Port Arthur, Ont. 

tl. M. FRASER, Saskatoon, Sask. 

tJ. H. FREGEAU, Three Rivers, Que. 

tJ. GARRETT, Edmonton, Alta. 

tS. W. GRAY, Halifax, N.S. 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



PRESIDENT 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

«J. CLARK KEITH, Windsor, Ont. 
IdeGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal. Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

tH. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 

COUNCILLORS 

tJ. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

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*H. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 

tH. F. MORRISEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tW. H. MUNRO, Ottawa, Ont. 

*W. L. McFAUL, Hamilton, Ont. 

TREASURER 

JOHN STADLER, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tK. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 
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ÎT. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 



tC. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 

*J. H. PARKIN, Ottawa, Ont. 

*B. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 

:G. McL. PITTS, Montreal. Que. 

*J. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

tM. G. SAUNDERS. Arvida. Que. 

*H. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

*C. E. SISSON, Toronto, Ont. 

•G. E. SMITH. Moncton. N.B. 

tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

•For 1941 tFor 1941-42 JForil941-42-43 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



FINANCE 

D»G. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 

G. A. GAHERTY 

J. A. McCRORY 

F. NEWELL 

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LEGISLATION 

E. M. KREBSER, Chairman 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. J. DURLEY 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

BRIAN R. PERRY. Chairman 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE. Chairman 
deG. BEAUBIEN 
K. M. CAMERON 
McN. DuBOSE 
J. C. KEITH 
W. S. WILSON 
PUBLICATION 

C. K. McLEOD. Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

T. J. LAFRENIERE 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 

i. m. fraser 
w. e. lovell 
a. p. linton 
h. r. Mackenzie 
e. k. phillips 

PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Chairman 

h. a. lumsden 
h. r. Mackenzie 
j. o. martineau 

R. W. McCOLOUGH 
GZOWSKI MEDAL 

H. O. KEAY, Chairman 
H. V. ANDERSON 
W. H. POWELL 
H. J. VENNES 
A. O. WOLFF 

LEONARD MEDAL 

A. D. CAMPBELL, Chairman 
L. L. BOLTON 
A. E. CAMERON 
G. E. COLE 
V. DOLMAGE 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

J. T. FARMER, Chairman 
J. M. FLEMING 
R. C. FLITTON 

PLUMMER MEDAL 

J. F. HARKOM, Chairman 

F. G. GREEN 
R. E. GILMORE 
E. VIENS 

C. R. WHITTEMORE 

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

G. A. GAHERTY 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
H. W. McKIEL 

J. A. VANCE 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

MEMBERSHIP 

H. N. MACPHERSON, Chairman 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Province*) 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 

A. L. CARRUTHERS, Chairman 
J. M. CAMPBELL 
H. N. MACPHERSON 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Galbraith Prize 

K. M. CAMERON. Chairman 
W. H. MUNRO 
J. H. PARKIN 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

McN. DrjBOSE, Chairman 
C. K. McLEOD 
H. J. VENNES 

Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

deG. BEAUBIEN. Chairman 
J. H. FREGEAU 
A. LARIVIERE 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

W. S. WILSON. Chairman 
I. W. BUCKLEY 
S. W. GRAY 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

C. R. YOUNG, Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

R. W. ANGUS 

C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

0. 0. LEFEBVRE 

M. J. McHENRY 

H. H. VAUGHAN 



RADIOBROADCASTING 

G. M. PITTS, Chairman 
R. J. DURLEY 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 
G. P. F. BOESE 

A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

A GRIFFIN 

T. H. HOGG 

0. 0. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
J. M. WARDLE 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
J. BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
R. DeL. FRENCH 
C. A. D. FOWLER 
R. E. HEARTZ 
C. C. KIRBY 
R. F. LEGGET 
A. P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. McKIEL 
R. M. SMITH 
H. R. WEBB 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VOLUME 25 



JANUARY 1942 



NUMBER 1 



"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefullness of the profession to the public." 



NEW YEAR MESSAGE 



•Conventional messages of cordial greetings and good wishes for the coming 
/^/year seem out of harmony with the realities of January 1st, 1942. 
V»y We, as members of The Engineering Institute of Canada, are not ashamed 
of the part engineers have played to date in the war; it is not, however, with com- 
placency that we face the third year of the war, but with a grim determination to 
increase not only our efforts but our effectiveness as engineers, as Canadians, as 
members of an awakened alliance of free peoples joined in deadly and perilous 
conflict with the most treacherous, unscrupulous and evil forces the world has 
ever known. 

The dark hours through which we are bound to pass in 1942 will call for high 
courage; not only courage in combat but the courage which is needed to sustain 
judgement and a sense of proportion as the battle surges back and forth, presenting 
alternately disheartening defeats and encouraging victories, the courage which 
enables us to moderate emotional optimism and temper reverses, the courage which 
enables us to look squarely at our weaknesses and to recognize the strength and 
resources of our enemies. 

It is not courage but folly to dismiss the possibility that before the year is out 
actual fighting may come to our shores. It is not courage but rather lack of it that 
makes for unpreparedness. It is nothing but nonsense at this time to think in 
terms of "national defence" instead of "total war." 

We as engineers have also, I suggest, a particular responsibility in this struggle 
of machines, power and technical devices. Not only must we as a body design, 
manufacture and operate innumerable engines of war but we must see to it that 
the industrial and technical resources of the country, both human and material, 
are utilized in the most effective way. We must avoid uninformed criticism of 
delays in "getting into production" for we know how inexorable is the time factor 
when new designs have to be prepared, new factories built and tooled for new 
processes, but on the other hand we must demand that there shall be no self satis- 
faction and that every week and every month efficiency and production must be 
greater and still greater. We are now entering that phase of the conflict when we 
must insist that nothing short of the most intelligent and effective utilization of 
our total human resources can be accepted. 

We may take some satisfaction in the fact that for 1942 the lines of battle are 
clearly drawn. With the entry of the United States the world is now sharply divided 
into two camps, the time for talk is over, the issues are clear and a fight to the 
finish is on. To quote the stirring words of Churchill "Conquer we must, conquer 
we shall" for "without victory there is no survival." 



ÇVJ 7 . Vvwi-x^ 



President 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman. H.L.JOHNSTON" 

G. G. HENDERSON 

W. P. AUGUSTINE 

J. F. G. BLOWEY 

W. R. STICKNEY 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 

G. E. MEDLAR 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. DOWLER, 

754 Chilver Road, 

Walkerville, Ont. 
CALGARY 

Chairman, J. B. deHART 
Vice-Chair., H. J. McEWEN 
Executive, F. J. HEUPERMAN 

T. D. STANLEY 

J. W. YOUNG 
(Ez-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 

J. HADDIN 

.i. McMillan 

Sec.-Treas., P. F. PEELE 

248 Scarboro Avenue, 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman. J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

A. P. THEUERKAUF 
(Ez-Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Ses.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney. N.S 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, R. M. HARDY 
Vice-Chair., D. A. HANSEN 
Executive, J. A. CARRUTHERS 

C. W. CARRY 

D. HUTCHISON 

B. W. PITFIELD 

E. R. T. SKARIN 
W. F. STEVENSON 

(Ez-Officio), J. GARRETT 

E. NELSON 
Sec.-Treas., F. R. BURFIELD, 

Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



G. J. CURRIE 
J. D. FRASER 
J. A. MacKAY 



P. A. LOVETT 
A. E. CAMERON 
G. T. CLARKE 
A. E. FLYNN 
D. G. DUNBAR 

j. f. f. Mackenzie 

J. W. MacDONALD 
G. T. MEDFORTH 
S. L. fultz 
S. W. GRAY, 

The Nova Scotia Power 

Commission, 

Halifax, N.S. 

W. A. T. GILMOUR 
S. SHUPE 

C. H. HUTTON T. S. GLOVER 
H. A. COOCH A. C. MACNAB 
ALEX. LOVE W. L. McFAUL 
A. R. HANNAFORD, 

354 Herkimer Street, 
Hamilton, Gnt. 

T. A. McGINNIS 
P. ROY 
V. R. DAVIES 
K. H. McKIBBIN 
K. M. WINSLOW 

A. H. MUNRO 
G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 

D. S. ELLIS 
J. B. BATY, 

Queen's University, 

Kingston, Ont. 

B. A. CULPEPER 
MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 

E. J. DAVIES 
J. I. CARMICHAEL 
S. E. FLOOK 
S. T. McCAVOUR 
R. B. CHANDLER 
W. H. SMALL 

C. D. MACKINTOSH 
H. G. O'LEARY 
J. M. FLEMING 
W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDGE 
Chairman, C. S. DONALDSON 
Vice-Chair.,W. MELDRUM 

«i«cu(i»e, R. F. P. BOWMAN G. S. BROWN 
N. H. BRADLEY 
C. S. CLENDENING 
(Ez-Oficio) J. M. CAMPBELL 

A. J. BRANCH J. T. WATSON 

Sec.-Treas., R. B. McKENZIE, 

McKenzie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



(Ez-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



HAMILTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ez-Oficio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sse.-Treas., 



LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ez-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



E. R. EVANS 

E. B. MARTIN 

G. E. SMITH 



Vice-Chair., 
Ezecutive, 



LONDON 

Chairman, R. W. GARRETT 
Vice-Chair., F. T. JULIAN 
Executive, V. A. McKILLOP 
F. C. BALL 

F. BELL 

T. L. McMANAMNA 
R. S CHARLES 

(Ez-Officio), H . F. BENNETT 

J. A. VANCE 
Sec. Treas., H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 

London, Ont. 
MONCTON 

Chairman, F. O. CONDON 
Vice-Chair., H. J. CRUDGE 
Executive, B. E. BAYNE 

G. L. DICKSON 
T. H. DICKSON 
R. H. EMMERSON 

(Ex-Officio), H. W. McKIEL 
Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engr. Dept., C.N.R., 
Moncton, N.B. 
MONTREAL 

Chairman, R. E. HEARTZ 
, J. A. LALONDE 
E. V. GAGE 
P. E. POITRAS 
I. S. PATTERSON 
J. B. STIRLING 
J. M. CRAWFORD 
J. COMEAU 
(Ex-Officio), J. B. CHALLIES 
diG. BEAUBIEN 
J. G HALL 
W. G. HUNT 
H. MASSUE 

C. K. McLEOD 
B. R. PERRY 
G. M. PITTS 

See. Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, A. L. McPHAIL 
Vice-Chair., C. G. CLINE 

L. J. RUSSELL 

J. H. TUCK 

A. C. BLUE 

G. F. VOLLMER 

G. E. GRIFFITHS 

D. W. BRACKEN 
L. L. GISBORNE 

(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK 
Sec.-Treas., J. H. INGS, 

1870 Ferry Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 
OTTAWA 

Chairman, T. A. McELHANNEY 
Executive J. H. IRVINE 

W. G. C. GLIDDON 
A. A. SWINNERTON 
W. H. NORRISH 
R. M. PRENDERGAST 
(Ex-Officio), C. J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. PARKIN 
W. H. MUNRO 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 
PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, J. CAMERON 

Ezecutive, A. J. GIRDWOOD I. F. McRAE 

J. W. PIERCE' F. R. POPE 

(Ez-Officio),R. L. DOBBIN 
H. R. SILLS 
A. L. MALBY 
Sec.-Treas., D. J. EMERY, 

589 King Street, 

Peterborough, Ont. 
QUEBEC 
Life Hon.- 

Chair., A. R. DECARY 
Chairman L. C. DUPUIS 
Vice-Chair., RENÉ DUPUIS 
Ezecutive O. DESJARDINS 

R. SAUVAGE G. ST-JACQUES 

S. PICARD L. GAGNON 

G. W. WADDINGTON 
(Ex-Officio), A. LARIVIÈRE 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH P. MÉTHÉ 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 

Quebec, Que. 



Ezecutive, 



SAGUENAY 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Ezecutive, 



N. F. McCAGHEY 

R. H. RIMMER 

B. BAUMAN 

G. B. MOXON 

A. I. CUNNINGHAM 

W. J. THOMSON 

(Ez-Officio), McN. DuBOSE 

M. G. SAUNDERS 
J. W. WARD 

Sec.-Treas., D S. ESTABROOKS. 

Price Bros. & Co. Ltd. 
Riverbend, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, F. A. PATRIQUEN 
Vice-Chair., D. R. SMITH 
Executive, A. O. WOLFF 

H. P. LINGLEY 
W. B. AKERLEY 
(Ex-Officio), J. P. MOONEY 

H. F. MORRISEY 
Sec.-Treas., V. S. CHESNUT. 
P.O. Box 1393, 

Saint John, N.B. 
ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, A. H. HEATLEY 
Vice-Chair., H. G. TIMMIS 
Executive, A. C. ABBOTT 
R. DORION 
V. JEPSEN 
J. JOYAL 
H. O. KEAY 
(Ex-Officio), C. H. CHAMPION 

J. H. FREGEAU 
Sec.-Treas., C. G. deTONNANCOUR 
Engineering Department, 
Shawinigan Chemicals, Limited, 
Shawinigan Falls, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 



J. M. MITCHELL 
G. RINFRET 
H. J. WARD 
H. K. WYMAN 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



SAULT STE 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



R. A. McLELLAN 

a. p. linton 
r. w. jickling 
h. r. Mackenzie 

b. russell 
G. L. Mackenzie 

C. J. McGAVIN 
A. A. MURPHY 
I. M. FRASER 
STEWART YOUNG 
P. O. Box 101. 

Regina, Sask. 
MARIE 

E. M. MacQUARRIE 
L. R. BROWN 
R. A. CAMPBELL 
N. C. COWIE 
C. O. MADDOCK 

C. R. MURDOCK 
(Ez-Officio), J. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 
Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS. 

159 Upton Road. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
TORONTO 

Chairman, H. E. BRANDON 
Vice-Chair., W. S. WILSON 
Executive, F. J. BLAIR 

W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 

G. R. JACK 

D. FORGAN 
R. F. LEGGET 
S. R. FROST 

(Ex-Officio), A. E. BERRY 
N. MacNICOL 
T. H. HOGG 
C. E. SISSON 
Sec.-Treas.. J. J. SPENCE 

Engineering Building 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Ezecutive, 



(Ez-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Ezecutive, 

(Ez-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

WINNIPEG 



W. O. SCOTT 
W. N. KELLY 
H. P. ARCHIBALD 
I. C. BARLTROP 
H. C. FITZ-JAMES 
H. J. MacLEOD 
R. E. POTTER 
J. N. FINLAYSON 
T. V. BERRY 
H. N. MACPHERSON 
P. B. STROYAN 
2099 Beach Avenue, 

Vancouver, B.C. 

G. M. IRWIN 

A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 

1. H. BI.AKE 

E. DAVIS 

A. L. FORD 

P. T. O'GRADY 

E. W. IZARD 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 

K. REID, 

1053 Pentrelew Place, 

Victoria, B.C. 



Chairman, V. MICHIE 
Vice-Chair., D. M. STEPHENS 
Ezecutive, C. V. ANTENBRING 

H. B. BREHAUT 

J. T. DYMENT 

H. W. McLEOD 

T. E. STOREY 
(Ez-Officio), H. L. BRIGGS 

J. W. SANGER 
Sec.-Treas., C. P. HALTALIN, 

303 Winnipeg Electric Chambers, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE MANUFACTURE OF THE 25-POUNDER IN CANADA 



W. F. DRYSDALE, m.e.i.c. 

Director-General of Industrial Planning, Department of Munitions and Supply, Ottawa, Ont. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, at 

Montreal, Que., on February 5th, 1942. 



Among the projects with which the author has had to 
do during his services in Ottawa, one of the most interesting 
from a general and engineering point of view has been the 
production of the 25-pounder gun. 

This weapon is now being manufactured by Sorel Indus- 
tries at Sorel, Quebec, and the contents of this paper are 
based on close association with the work at Sorel for the 
past eighteen months. 

Among the major difficulties encountered in building up 
this industry were the problems of personnel, housing, and 
the working out of plans to harmonize workers of many 
different trades from many different localities. The plant is 
located in a farming area bordering on an inland port, 
where few men were skilled in the arts which were called for. 

The new 25-pdr. has replaced both the old 18-pdr. and 
the 4.5" howitzer. It was designed for use both as a field 
gun and a howitzer, and as its name implies, fires a shell 
weighing 25 lb. 

Here it may not be out of place to mention that the 25- 
pdr. is a gun with separate ammunition; that is to say, the 
shell is loaded first, followed by the insertion of a brass 
cartridge case containing the propelling charge. The object 
of this separate loading is to permit the use of different 
charges, depending on whether the gun is being used as a 
field gun or a howitzer; a field gun has a comparatively 
low elevation and long range, whilst a howitzer generally 
has a high angle of elevation with a relatively short range, 
giving the projectile a high angle of descent. 

The following brief description will give a general idea 
of the 25-pdr. gun and its accessories. Beginning at the 
ground level, the equipment comprises a firing platform, 
the axle unit and brake gear, the trail and carriage assembly, 
elevating, traversing and firing gear, the cradle and recu- 
perator, the gun body and breech mechanism (See Fig. 1). 

The firing platform is a circular fabricated ring, which, 
when the gun is in position, rests on the ground. The 




Fig. 1 — Minister of National Defence inspecting 25-pounder 
field gun at Sorel, Que. 

carriage, which is fitted with rubber-tired wheels, has a 
trail which straddles the platform. On lifting the trail, it is 
easy to rotate the whole structure and meet the enemy 
from anv direction, or prepare the gun for travelling (See 
Figs. 2 and 3). 

The carriage is provided with two rubber-tired wheels, 
connected by an axle to which in turn is fitted a fabricated 
box-type trail, roughly 8 ft. long. To the end of the trail 
is fitted a spade which, when embedded in the ground, 
counteracts the shock of recoil on firing (See Fig. 4). 

The axle passes through the lower part of a "U" fabri- 



cated top carriage; on the top of each vertical side of the 
"U" is a bearing for the trunnion, or axis about which the 
gun moves in a vertical plane. 

The top carriage carries a long, rectangular box, also 
fabricated, to the outside of which is riveted a trunnion 
band carrying a trunnion on each side. 

Inside this long, rectangular box is fitted one of the most 
intricate parts of the equipment, viz. : — the recuperator. 

The recuperator is the mechanism which absorbs the 
energy of the recoil when the gun is fired. Later in this 
paper this most important component will be further 
explained. 

The top of the recuperator is machined to receive the 




.^-. - 



Fig. 2 — Unlimbering 25-pounder gun ready for firing. 

gun body which, when fitted into place, forms an integral 
part of it. 

The gun body consists of a jacket, separate barrel, breech 
ring, breech block and breech mechanism. 

From the above brief outline of the main parts of the 
25-pdr. equipment, it will be realized that there are innumer- 
able other components not specifically mentioned. Actually 
over 700 components are assembled to make up a single 
complete equipment, to which must be added other items, 
officially known as separately demandable stores, plus 
ancillary parts, which may include anything from a leather 
strap to a hand spike or set of drag ropes, or from a bucket 
to an oil-can. 

It may be interesting to note the ways in which the 
25-pdr. differs in design from previous field guns. 

In the 18-pdr. gun of the last war the gun itself was 
built up; its inner tube was wound with high tension steel 
wire to give the necessary resistance to withstand the 
pressure of the discharge. On this inner, wire-wrapped tube 
was shrunk a cylindrical steel jacket. 

This meant that as soon as the rifling was worn, the gun 
had to be taken out of service and replaced by a new one 
whilst the old one was being returned to the factory for 
repair. 

This is where the new 25-pdr. gun has a great advantage, 
because it is made up of an inner tube or barrel and a 
separate outside jacket covering roughly half the length of 
the barrel. 

To provide for easy replacement the barrel is fitted into 
the jacket with a small clearance on the diameter, roughly 
eight thousandths of an inch, while its breech end fits into 
a seat having a very slight taper. Thanks to this arrange- 
ment it is possible to unscrew the breech ring, withdraw 
the barrel and insert a new barrel secured by the same 
breech ring in about fifteen minutes. (See Fig. 5). 

Coming now to the recuperator, formerly most field guns 
had mechanical recuperators whose springs took the recoil 
and returned the barrel to the firing position. During the 
last war the French and later the British, introduced the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 




Fig. 3 — 25-pounder gun travelling. 

hydraulic type of recuperator along the lines of which the 
25-pdr. recuperator has been developed. 

The recuperator consists of a long steel block, the surfaces 
of which have been machined to very fine limits. Three or 
four holes which control the recoil and recuperator mechan- 
ism are bored through the entire length of the block, each 
with mirror-like finish.. 

Later it may be possible to give a few more details, but 
for the time being just imagine a block of steel roughly 10 
by 5 in. cross section and 5 ft. long, bored and honed through 
its entire length to approximately 23^ in. diameter, each 
hole necessarily accurate in alignment to a thousandth of 
an inch. 

The factory at Sorel which now covers more than 14 
acres, is a joint venture between the Canadian Government 
and Messrs. Simard, who represent and own Marine Indus- 
tries Limited at Sorel. It is not necessary to recite the 
details leading up to the formation of this company, nor 
all the vicissitudes we passed through before reaching the 
present state, but it may be said that at the present time 
the plant is producing 25-pdr. equipments at the rate of 
fifty per month. Incidentally, four-inch naval guns are also 
being manufactured and will shortly come into full pro- 
duction. 

It is noteworthy that Sorel is the only factory on the 
North American continent manufacturing guns from the 
scrap metal stage to the finished article. 

The buildings, of up-to-date design, consist of a labora- 
tory, power house, steel-making plant, machine shop and 
fabricating shop. 

The steel-making plant, with rolling-mill equipment, a 
forge shop with presses and hammers ranging from 2,000 
tons downward, served by up-to-date heating furnaces, 
roughing out machinery, heat treating and annealing 
equipment and complete die-making shop, are housed 
in one building of three bays covering approximately 
250,000 sq. ft. 

Alongside this shop is a separate large machining and 
assembly shop and again adjacent is a steel plate fabricating 
establishment. It is proposed to span one of the gaps 
between two of the shops to accommodate increased pro- 
duction. 

All necessary services, including oil, electricity, steam 
and compressed air, are supplied to the various units of 
the plant by a tunnel system over 2,200 ft. long. 

Special attention has been given to that most important 
organization in any modern engineering production shop, 
the processing and planning department. Thanks to our 
good friends, the automobile manufacturers, a planning 
system has been set up along the lines used in their industry, 
i.e., the machine tools needed for each individual part to 
be machined have all been selected and placed together. 
For instance, in the machining of the recuperator block we 
have the following operations: planing, milling, slotting, 
boring, honing, rifling, threading and drilling. All the 
appropriate machines for the above operations have been 
gathered together and laid down in the sequence of the 
different operations. 

This procedure has been carried out all through the shop 
for each component part. 



One section of the planning department is responsible 
for the machining operations and design of jigs, fixtures 
and gauges, and keeps a constant record of the loading of 
each machine tool so that the work is continually fed 
through the shop in a balanced order. 

Operation sheets for each individual part have been got 
out listing the surplus material to be removed, the toler- 
ances to be observed, the appropriate tool or cutter to be 
used, the speed and feed at which the machine should be 
run and the jig, fixture or gauge to be used. Thus every 
process is systematised and all the foreman has to do is to 
supervise the work and assist his men in getting the best results . 

Another section of the planning department is responsible 
for ordering, either in the shops or from outside sources, 
the appropriate material and an efficient follow-up organi- 
zation sees to it that the required material is to hand at 
the right time. 

All this presents a very different picture from the old days 
when a mechanic having finished his job, walked down the 
shop to pick up the next of his own choosing. 

The steel foundry and rolling-mill shop is a long building, 
approximately 570 by 440 ft., which contains the three 
electric furnaces of 4, 8 and 20-tons capacity, respectively. 

From these furnaces, fed with scrap and the necessary 
raw materials, are produced monthly some 3,000 tons of 
ingots for gun barrels, jackets, breech rings, recuperator 
blocks and their components. All these parts are of the 
highest grade steel; for example the gun barrel is manu- 
factured from steel having a yield point in the neighbour- 
hood of 40 to 45 tons per sq. in. A large proportion of this 
steel is made up of nickel-chrome-molybdenum alloy, but 
many other grades are being produced. The successful pro- 
duction of these steels requires close adherence to the 
specifications. 

The laboratory being close at hand, tests are taken 
during the melting process and analysed, and the furnace 
charge adjusted according to requirements. In the log of 
each heat, careful records are kept of temperatures when 
starting and pouring, power consumption, weight of ingot 
and scrap, and other particulars, so that, should a defect 
be detected at a later stage, it can easily be traced. 

In pouring the ingots from the steel every precaution is 
taken to prevent segregation. A pouring basin is used to 
reduce the pressure in the mould to keep inclusions out of 
the steel and to carefully control the rate of rise in the 
mould. In pouring, the temperature is controlled by an 
optical pyrometer and checked by a chill test. 

From the ingots a large number of crop ends have to 
be cut. These ends are reduced to suitable sizes for rolling 
and thus the rolling mill turns what otherwise might be 
waste into steel bar of the highest quality. 

The benefit of this rolling-mill installation has been such 
that a second rolling mill is at present being installed. 




Fig. 4 — Assembling 25-pounder gun, showing arrangement of 
firing platform, trail, spade, etc. 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



- 



In the forge shop the ingots are pre-heated in oil-fired 
furnaces and then forged under the 2,000-ton hydraulic 
forging press. 

In the case of a 25-pdr. the rough gun barrel forging is 
approximately 12 ft. long and from 8 to 9 inches in diameter. 

The barrel is finish-forged on a 6-ton steam hammer, 
after which it is left to cool gradually in what is known as 
the soaking pit — really a very large bin of ashes. Through- 
out these processes great care has to be exercised and 
pyrometer control installed to govern the temperatures. 

In order to produce the various gun components and 
drop forgings there are, in all, 18 other steam and pneumatic 
hammers ranging in size from 6 tons to 400 lb. with as 
many oil-fired heating furnaces. 

The next bay of the shop houses the rough machining 
equipment and the equipment for heating and annealing 
and die making. 

The rough-machining equipment comprises 14 roughing 
out machines including heavy rough-turning lathes, rough- 
boring machines, planing machines, milling machines and 
cut-off saws. 

The heating and annealing equipment comprises three oil- 
fired furnaces, two small electric furnaces and ten vertical 
electric furnaces, all of the most modern design and fully 
equipped with the latest automatic control apparatus. 

Here the barrel is first rough-turned and bored before 
being heat treated. The furnaces employed for the final 
heat treatment of the gun are of the vertical electric type, 
4^4 ft- in diameter and 27^ ft. deep. These vertical fur- 
naces are equipped for accurate temperature control in five 
zones, making it possible to realize exact positions in heat 
treatment of the barrels. 

After normalizing, the barrels are straightened if neces- 
sary on a horizontal hydraulic press. 

Sufficient length of material is left on each end of the 
forging for the usual tensile, bending, and izod tests. 
Cylindrical slabs are sawn off from each end of the barrel 
and submitted for approval to the government inspectors. 

Once the barrel tests have been certified and approved 
the barrel is ready for finish-machining. 

Finish-machining includes two sets of operations; those 
preceding auto-frettage and those following auto-frettage. 

Auto-frettage consists of expanding the tube radially by 
applying hydraulic pressure to the bore. The pressure used 
is sufficient to exceed the elastic limit of the metal in the 
bore. This causes the inner layers of metal in the bore to 
yield plastically and take a permanent set, whereas the 
metal near the outer surface of the tube has not been 
stretched beyond its elastic limit, and therefore attempts to 
return to its original dimensions. 

The barrel is thus put into a condition of permanent 
circumferential stress, such that the inner layers are in 



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Fig. 3 — Fitting breech mechanisms to gun barrels. 



Fig. 6 — Muzzle of 25-pounder barrel showing rifling. 

compression and the outer metal in tension. This greatly 
reduces the maximum tensile stress which occurs when the 
gun is fired. 

For the auto-frettage operation the two ends of the 
barrel are counter-bored, reamed and threaded so that the 
appropriate connections can be made. One end of the barrel 
is connected to a high pressure pump whilst the other is 
connected to a specially designed valve which releases the 
liquid used (a mixture of water and glycerine) through a 
pressure pump. 

Before the gun is set up for auto-frettage a steel core bar 
is placed in the bore. This core bar is bored out for a short 
distance at both ends and at the inner end of each of these 
bores a radial hole is drilled. 

The liquid thus passes through the core, then out through 
the first radial hole to the outside diameter where it passes 
along between the barrel and the core bar and re-enters the 
second radial hole at the opposite end. Thanks to this 
arrangement the quantity of liquid required is considerably 
reduced. 

After the pipe connections have been made, indicators 
are placed at four points along the length to obtain readings 
on diameters 90 deg. apart. 

The pressure is applied in four steps with readings taken 
at 20, 24, 28 and 32 tons per sq. in. 

Before the barrel is set up for auto-frettage, it is carefully 
measured in the bore and on the outside at the four points 
previously mentioned. 

Readings are taken by precision dial gauges while the 
pressure is being applied and plotted on charts. By this 
method it is possible to ascertain the amount by which the 
elastic limit has been exceeded. 

After the 32 tons per sq. in. load, the pressure is released 
and the liquid drained out of the barrel. The barrel is then 
given a low temperature anneal in one of the vertical elec- 
tric furnaces. 

After annealing, the barrel is again returned to the auto- 
frettage set for a second test pressure, but this time the 
pressure is brought up to 32 tons per sq. in. in a single step. 

The resulting increase in diameter is twelve to twenty 
thousandths of an inch in the bore, and six to ten 
thousandths on the outside. The difference between these 
two figures indicates the permanent set of the barrel. 

Returning to the machining operations, the ends of the 
barrel, including the threaded portion, are then cut off. 

The barrel is then bored out to 3.35 in. after which it is 
finish-turned on the outside diameter and finally bored out 
to 3.44 in. It is then honed and the final chambering opera- 
tions performed. 

The outside surface is then ground for receiving the 
jacket, the barrel being given a slight taper. Then follow 
two further lathe operations, finishing the breech end, turn- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1912 



ing the front core and facing the barrel to length. Finally, 
the barrel is rifled. 

Honing and rifling are operations of importance in gun 
manufacture. 

Honing is a surface-finishing operation which has been 
introduced into gun manufacture comparatively recently. 
It employs a head on which are mounted a number of car- 
borundum strips. This head, in turn, is mounted on a 
revolving bar which has also a rapid, relative longitudinal 
traverse. 

The rifling machine is another special tool used in gun 
manufacture. It consists of a long bar on which is mounted 
a head carrying a tool in the shape of the groove to be pro- 
duced; the rifling bar is rotated by the action of rollers on 
a sine bar, thus controlling the twist of the rifling. 

Recent development has greatly improved the method of 
rifling, because the single tool cutters formerly used have 
been replaced by cutters with as many teeth as there are 
grooves to be cut. By using a set of cutters, roughly thirty 
in number, each a shade larger in diameter than the previous 
one, and by pulling these 30 cutters through the bore, not 
only is the machining time reduced to about a fifth of the 
former time required, but greater accuracy in division of 
the grooves is obtained. 

Time will not permit even a brief description of the 
different operations in the production of the other main 
components, -namely the jacket, breech ring, breech block 
and recuperator. These however are practically all machined 
on general purpose machines. 

As previously mentioned, the machine shop, covering 
roughly 500 by 245 ft. is laid out according to the flow of 
the various parts. Here we have horizontal boring machines, 
vertical boring machines, horizontal and vertical milling 
machines, piano milling machines, grinding machines, gear 
cutting machines, broaching machines, engine lathes, cap- 
stan and turret lathes, planing machines, slotting machines, 
shaping machines, plus the equipment of a very large, up- 
to-date tool room, including such special machines as jig 
borers and thread grinders. 

The fitting and assembly lines are installed next to the 
production machines and here, as in the machine shop, 




—Machining fabricated under-carriage on a giant mul- 
tiple milling machine which makes eight cuts in 
one operation. 

fitting and assembly gangs dealing with one component 
only are grouped together (See Fig. 4). 

The last building is the plate fabricating shop, in which 
the firing platform, trail, top carriage and other components, 
in which plate work is the principal feature, are produced. 

This shop is fully equipped with shears, guillotines, rollers, 
presses, pneumatic riveters, flame cutting apparatus and 
welding units. 

After the pressings have been produced they are riveted 
or welded into position and machined where necessary, 
using jigs wherever possible for location. 



In the final stage of production the work coming from 
the plate fabricating shop meets the machined components 
from the machine shop on the fitting and assembly floor. 
Here fitters, each skilled in finishing a certain part, work 
on a long assembly line of from seventy to a hundred guns. 

An interesting feature is the effort that is being made to 
spread the work among other shops by sub-contracting 
different components. An outstanding example of this is the 
production of the carrier dial sight, a component comprising 
a large number of parts, which is now being produced by a 
Montreal firm in a satisfactory and creditable manner. 

At the present time Sorel has about 80 sub-contractors 
manufacturing 700 different parts at the rate of 40,000 per 




Fig. 8 — Inspecting parts of breech mechanism. 

month. All these firms have been carefully selected accord- 
ing to the type of work for which they are best suited. It is 
common practice, when contacting a firm for a specified 
production, to extend every possible help and part of this 
scheme is to arrange for a qualified master mechanic to 
follow up on the spot any manufacturing intricacies. 

The results obtained by this sub-contracting branch are 
most gratifying and have been well worth the pains taken 
by Sorel Industries who have acted more or less as pioneers 
in this field. 

Another feature worth}' of mention is the special engineer- 
ing department which has been set up by Sorel to take care 
of suggestions to be submitted to the inspector for passing 
alternative materials or machining methods; for example, 
replacing a forged steel entirely machined handle by a die 
casting requiring no machining at all. 

Attention should be drawn to the invaluable help which 
the Chrysler Corporation have given Canada at Sorel. They 
came in at a critical time at the suggestion of the Govern- 
ment Control Committee to aid in supplying efficient man- 
agement. Right nobly they have responded. 

Praise is certainly due to the directors of Marine Indus- 
tries who, by their enterprise, made such a project possible. 
In mentioning this company the author desires to compli- 
ment the Messrs. Simard Brothers personally. He wishes 
also to pay tribute to the men of Sorel for the wonderful 
part they have taken. At the present time Sorel Industries 
employ approximately 1700 to 1800 men of which roughly 
85 per cent are French Canadians; it would be safe to say 
not more than ten per cent of this number had any mechani- 
cal training before joining the firm, which adds credit to 
their achievement. 

Such matters as trade schools, the housing of workmen, 
the provision of hostels, etc., all form part of this vast 
scheme. Sorel Industries have not forgotten Napoleon's 
dictum that an army marches on its stomach, and in to-day's 
warfare when for every man at the front eighteen are 
needed at home, the word army applies just as much to the 
men in the shops as the men in the field. 



!'. 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ACCIDENT PREVENTION METHODS AND RESULTS 

WILLS MACLACHLAN, m.e.i.c. 
Secretary-Treasurer and Engineer, Electrical Employers' Association of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Montreal, Que., on February 6th, 1942. 



SUMMARY — An outline of the accident prevention work as 
carried out during the past twenty-five years for the Electrical 
Employers Association of Ontario, giving examples of some of 
the hazards and the results of prevention or remedial work. 
Statistics are shown in graphic form. 

With the country at war it is of importance that men 
and material shall not be wasted but shall be used in the 
most effective manner. The wastage from accidents in in- 
dustry and in war industry has disproportionately in- 
creased since the speed-up began. 

The industries in Schedule 1 of the Ontario Compensa- 
tion Act do not include the railways, the Bell Telephone 
Company, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission, many 
municipal and all governmental defence operations. Ex- 
cluding these, the compensation cost of accidents in 1940 
was $8,370,000, a dead loss from our badly needed re- 
sources. This sum would have bought 14 corvettes but it 
represents only one-fifth of the loss because it has been 
proved repeatedly that " compensation payments consti- 
tute only one-fifth of the total employer accident cost." 
Where can effective ideas, methods and means be found 
to stop or reduce this loss? 

The electrical public utilities of Ontario have been car- 
rying out organized accident prevention work since 1915. 
Certain methods have been developed; certain objects 
have been achieved; a review of these may assist in solv- 
ing the general problem. 

The following notes refer chiefly to a group of public 
utilities in the province of Ontario. A large amount of 
accident prevention work has been done in other prov- 
inces and in industries other than the electrical public 
utilities, but this paper is based on facts and methods 
that have come under the author's personal observation. 

In 1914 the Legislature of the Province of Ontario 
passed a Workmen's Compensation Act; this being the 
result of study by a Royal Commission headed by Sir 
William Meredith. The fundamental basis of most Work- 
men's Compensation Acts is the same, and, quoting from 
the Ontario Act, may be stated as follows: — 

" Where in any employment . . . personal injury by ac- 
cident arising out of and in the course of employment 
is caused to a workman, his employer shall be liable 
to provide oi to pay compensation in the manner and 
to the extent hereinafter mentioned." . . . 

There are various methods by which the employer can 
provide this compensation. In Ontario there are two: 
First, under Schedule 1 of the Act, by paying an 
assessment on payroll to the Compensation Board, the 
Board assuming the responsibility for the payment of all 
costs under the Act. Second, under Schedule 2, by the em- 
ployers being individually liable for the payment of the 
said costs on direction of the Board. By far the greater 
part of employment is placed in Schedule 1. In certain 
other acts of this character provision is made for injured 
workmen's compensation by the employer taking out in- 
surance with a regular insurance company; this is a more 
expensive method than that in effect in Ontario and Que- 
bec. 

The Ontario Act provides for the formation of asso- 
ciations of employers for the prevention of accidents, it 
being better to prevent an accident than to pay compen- 
sation. Classes and groups of employers are recognized, 
and these associations, usually embracing industries of a 



like character, are managed by committees of employers 
in the respective classes. The Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board has authority to approve such an association 
if it believes that it sufficiently represents a class and in 
its assessment of the class obtains sufficient money so 
that it can make a grant to the association to carry out 
its work. Such a one is the Electrical Employers' Associ- 
ation of Ontario. It was brought into being in December, 
1914; was approved by the Board and has been carrying 
out its functions since January 1st, 1915. It deals pri- 
marily with accident prevention among employees of the 
electrical public utilities and telephone systems, placed 
by the Workmen's Compensation Board under Schedule 
1 of the Act, and now for the most part contained in 
groups 220 and 221. This Association is governed by a 
Managing Committee. Serving as presidents at different 
times have been some prominent members of the Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada, to mention but four: the late 
A. A. Dion, R. L. Dobbin, W. H. Munro and the present 
president, R. Harrison. 

The Problems 

What are the conditions in the electric public utility 
industry that increase liability to accidents? The first 
is scattered employment. In any public utility, the em- 
ployees are dispersed over a city, town or a large part 
of the countryside, working for the most part in small 
groups, often without close supervision. The next condi- 
tion is the constant hazard, particularly in the electric 
power industry, of electrical shock or electrical burns. 
There are many peculiar hazards that develop in the 
operation and maintenance of power houses and substa- 
tions, due to the necessity of installing machinery in a 
confined space and also due to the fact that much of this 
equipment is energized. The overhead system of a public 
utility develops another type of hazard. Such a system 
has to be maintained in all weathers, the butts of poles 
being subject to rot and in cities the pole tops often 
being encumbered with cross arms and equipment. Adding 
to the hazard is the fact that it is important to maintain, 
as far as possible, continuity of service and hence the ne- 
cessity at times of working close to or on either moving 
machinery or energized apparatus or lines. Analogous 
to this last mentioned hazard is the difficulty of remov- 
ing apparatus or lines from service and returning them to 
service. To enlarge slightly on this: a transmission line 
operating at 44,000 volts needs some insulators removed 
because of broken petticoats; arrangements have been 
made to make the line dead so that the men can work on 
it. The risk is ever present that the line may inadver- 
tently be put back into service prematurely. 

Men are supervising, managing and operating public 
utilities; many machines are involved, but in addi- 
tion the frailties of human nature are always present. 

How Have Some of These Problems Been Met? 

1. ENGINEERING REVISION AND DESIGN 

Consider an example. In 1915 and for some years af- 
ter, it was common practice to install a number of dis- 
connecting switches side by side on a switchboard or 
structure in a power house or substation. After the load 
was taken off a circuit by the oil switch being opened, 
the operator's problem was to open the disconnecting 
switches on each side of the oil switch or piece of appar- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



atus. With a number of disconnecting switches on the 
switchboard or structure, there were times when he 
would open two blades of the circuit that was de-ener- 
gized and then by mistake a blade in an adjacent live cir- 
cuit, drawing an arc which at times enveloped the oper- 
ator, resulting in severe burns or death. This problem was 
met first, by putting insulated baffle boards between the 
individual blades of the disconnecting switches of each 
circuit and, secondly, by clearly naming all disconnecting 
blades that constituted the disconnecting switch of the 
circuit. By this means even if the wrong blade was open- 
ed, the baffle board often prevented a short circuit arc 
from developing and the clear naming and designating 
of the switch was a constant indication to the operator 
of the blades constituting the circuit. This system of se- 
gregation, spacing and marking switches and apparatus 
and thus clearly designating them, was rapidly extended 
to the whole of the power house or substation equipment, 
including power transformers and other major equipment, 
and materially reduced accidents caused by employees 
straying into live apparatus. 

Still another example of engineering revision: In ear- 
lier designs the fly-balls of a governor rotated in the 
air. Some of these fly-balls were at elbow height and 
operators' elbows have been fractured by being hit by 
the fly-balls, so that guards were installed. Later, more 
effective design was developed by enclosing the fly-balls, 
making for constant windage, better lubrication and a 
safe design. 

Again, in the development of pole type transformer in- 
stallations, a very considerable improvement has been 
made, not only in the service to the consumer but also in 
safety for the lineman, by creating more elbow room for 
the workman, perfecting the type of cut-out, re-arrang- 
ing and improving the whole grounding system, particu- 
larly making provision for grounding of transformer 
cases, and in some later designs making it possible to en- 
tirely kill all wires and circuits below the line arm. 

In all utility property, the exposed non-current carry- 
ing metal parts, such as frames of motors, are effectively 
grounded. This is to prevent the employee who places 
his hand on the motor frame from receiving a severe 
shock if the motor has broken down between coil and 
frame. This same hazard exists in motors in the manufac- 
turing and other industries but many do not seem to 
realize the importance of grounding these frames. 

2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 

Tools and equipment, enter into many accidents in elec- 
tric public utilities. One piece of equipment may be men- 
tioned. Formerly there were many cases in which a line- 
man's belt broke, dropping the lineman, often resulting 
in serious injury and sometimes in fatal results. A study 
was carried out in connection with linemen's belts. The 
hardware had been adapted from horse harness hardware, 
but the snaps were malleable and at times had blow holes 
and broke. Drop-forged steel snaps were developed. The 
D rings in the earlier belt were sewed on the outside of 
the main body belt; if the stitching or rivets gave way, 
the man would fall. On redesigning, the body belt was 
placed through the D ring and the D rings made of drop- 
forged steel. Advice from leather manufacturers was ob- 
tained, a better grade of leather was developed and ad- 
vice given to linemen for the maintenance of the belts. 
These details were worked out and the matter placed be- 
fore a Canadian manufacturer who produced a very sat- 
isfactory belt. 

In the early days the lineman supplied his own belt, 
but since, if the belt failed, the employer paid the cost 
of the accident, the practice developed of the employer 
providing the belt. This has resulted in a better belt more 
adequately maintained. 



Since the perfected belt went into service some years 
ago, not one accident has occurred in Ontario to a line- 
man through failure of this belt. The same method of 
careful analysis of tools and equipment has been applied 
to rubber gloves, ladders, line hose, insulator caps, rub- 
ber blankets, and other items of equipment. 

3. METHODS OF WORK 

Various methods of doing work were investigated. As 
was pointed out earlier, one of the distinct hazards in 
electric public utility work arises in taking a piece of 
apparatus out of service for work and replacing it in ser- 
vice. This in the old days was guarded against by a 
clearance rule which with the more complicated systems, 
has developed into regulations filling many pages of the 
rule book. The essential features are: 

That the foreman shall obtain permission to take 
the piece of apparatus out of service. This frequently 
necessitates the approval of a senior official. At the 
time that the work is to be done, the holder of this 
permit, usually the foreman, and the operator who re- 
ceives the permit, see to it that the necessary switches 
or valves are put in such a position that the piece of 
apparatus is taken out of service and de-energized. If 
it is electrical apparatus it is thoroughly grounded and 
not until that time is it considered dead. Tags giving 
the name of the man holding the permit are placed on 
the valves or switches stating that the apparatus is 
out of service. These tags cannot be removed nor can 
the apparatus be put back into service without the 
holders' permission. In transmission line work, it is 
also necessary to place grounds on each side of the 
working space. Not until the foregoing is completed 
is work allowed to commence. 

After the work is completed, the foreman makes 
sure that all working grounds are removed, every man 
under his supervision is clear and all possibility of 
contact with the apparatus or line is prevented. Not 
until this is done does he return his permit and turn 
it over to the operator. 

Although this rule is enforced by all public utilities 
and is applicable to industry, in ammonia tanks, cranes, 
industrial substations, air lines, etc., it has not yet re- 
ceived the consideration that it should from those in 
charge of some manufacturing concerns. 

Another simple but very important rule is that some 
one person should be in definite charge of a power house 
or substation or control desk at any instant. There 
should be no divided responsibility. For example at the 
time of a change of shift, there is danger of the opera- 
tor and his relief being uncertain as to who is in charge 
of the power house. This point has been most clearly de- 
fined in rules. In one utility the relief docs not take over 
until he has read and signed the log. Every utility man 
with long experience can remember cases where the lack 
of such a rule resulted in a near accident or a fatal ac- 
cident. 

4. HUMAN FACTOR 

Up to the present we have been dealing with the cor- 
rection of machines and methods of working. Men, how- 
ever, are doing the operation and maintenance, and the 
psychological factor must not be overlooked. In certain 
kinds of work, habit training is of great value and is 
definitely indicated. This is important in connection with 
artificial respiration but it is equally applicable in many 
other phases of the work. For those who have investigat- 
ed many accidents, the possibility that an experienced 
man may do something that one would never expect him 
to do under normal circumstances, is a very considerable 
worry. One example of this is that of an experienced em- 
ployee, who while thinking of something entirely foreign 



10 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



to his work, goes in on clearly marked and designated 
live apparatus, instead of dead apparatus. Methods have 
to be developed to assist the man in keeping his mind on 
the job at critical moments and in hazardous conditions. 
One simple method has been the instruction to a lineman 
in climbing a pole to stop 4-ft. below the lowest cross- 
arm or attachment, put his belt around the pole, have a 
good look at the pole top, figure out exactly what he is 
going to do and then go ahead and do his job. 

The choice of the suitable man for each type of employ- 
ment must pot be overlooked. A man might be ideal in 
the operation of a substation but unfitted for the opera- 
tion of a power plant. A man who would make a splendid 
lineman might be out of place on a patrol beat. It is 
not only the physical make-up of the man that is to be 
taken into consideration, but also his whole personality. 
If this is important in connection with the rank and file 
of employees, what of management? Employees must be 
impressed with the sincerity of management in its en- 
deavour to prevent accidents. It is quite possible to get 
quick results for a very short period of time by publicity 
methods, but nothing will replace the mutual confidence 
between management and employee for the long pull in 
accident prevention work or for that matter in any phase 
of employment. 

5. METHODS OF CORRECTION AFTER THE ACCIDENT 

Given that an accident, has happened, the immediate 
effort becomes one to mitigate or reduce serious conse- 
quences, and secondly, an effort to prevent repetition. 

Speaking first of mitigation, detailed first aid kits in 
line with the requirements of the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board adapted for the use of public utilities have 
been recommended and training in the use of the kits 
and in simple first aid put forward. Extensive training 
in first aid has not been recommended, but that per- 
taining to the public utility field has been specified. 

Because of the fact that electrical shock is such a ma- 
jor hazard in the electrical public utility field, a very 
large amount of time and effort has been expended on 
this factor. In the early days, methods were crude, so 
with the co-operation of medical associations and the 
universities, research into the effect of the passage of 
electrical current through the body was instituted. While 
this laboratory research was being done and detailed in- 
formation of actual cases collected from the field, a care- 
ful study was made of all the engineering and medical 
literature available on this subject. As a result of this 
work, much information was gained and a practical sys- 
tem of remedial measures after electrical shock was de- 
veloped. 

As it was ciear from the studies that these measures 
must be put into effect without delay after electrical 
shock, training of all employees in artificial respiration 
was taught, so that the man closest to the injured would 
know what to do. In view of the fact that after an acci- 
dent there is a great tendency for people to lose their 
heads, constant practice in artificial respiration was re- 
quired among employees, so that by habit training, these 
men would be prepared to carry on artificial respiration 
even though very much excited. Rescue methods were 
also taught. Co-operation of doctors and nurses was ob- 
tained by giving talks and demonstrations in universities 
and hospitals and before various medical bodies and pre- 
paring papers for the medical technical press. As a result 
of this, many lives have been saved. One case of out- 
standing character may be cited. 

In 1927, about two o'clock one afternoon, a young 
lineman brought his head into contact with a high tension 
overhead wire. His feet and hands w r ere in contact with 
conductors which were grounded. He received a very sev- 
ere shock and was apparently lifeless, hanging back in 



his belt. He was removed from the pole, artificial res- 
piration was started at the foot of the pole, medical as- 
sistance called, and telephone communication establish- 
ed with headquarters. About 1^2 hours later he was re- 
moved to hospital; artificial respiration was continued 
during transportation and was continuously applied in 
the hospital. All this was done by public utility men. 
About ten o'clock that night, they had the man breathing, 
without assistance. This had required eight hours of con- 
tinuous artificial respiration after electrical shock — the 
longest case on record. 

After an accident, particularly of a serious character, 
an investigation is usually carried out, but much of the 
value of these investigations has been lost. If those 
holding an investigation would not only ascertain the 
facts but would learn what should be done to prevent 
repetition and see that such measures are put into effect, 
much of value would be obtained. Investigations merely 
to fix the blame are largely a waste of time as it will be 
found that what one is really discovering is an alibi. Real 
information has been driven under cover. If, however, 
the blame is fixed the next step usually is discipline. This 
develops fear and frequently results in more accidents. 
Nothing is gained. Time is wasted and valuable infor- 
mation that would have helped to prevent a recurrence 
is lost. 

One phase of mitigation that should be touched upon 
is that of rehabilitation. At times a lineman is injured 
in such a way that he cannot continue to be a lineman. 
How can he be rehabilitated to become a useful citizen? 
Two approaches are at present in use: first by physio- 
electro and occupational therapy the man is assisted in 
overcoming the results of the accident; the injured mus- 
cles and nerves are made well and the mental outlook 
improved. A splendid curative clinic working to this end 









































































GRAPH 


1. 




















ELECTRICAL EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATION 

COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR PERIODS 

PERIOD 1915-1919=100 

NUMBER OF UTILITIES 1 N CLASS 

AMOUNT OF PAVROLL 

YEAK9 UTILITIES PAYROLL 

i5-'3 IOO IOO 
20-24 226 296 
2S-29 A\A 281 
SO-34 1TO SOt» 
35-5» 423 ZBl 



















































SOO 
























































AOO 
























"^-UTI 


Unes 






























SOO 






































z. 


^A^ 










-9K 


rflflLL 


200 






















































IOO 






/r 
















































o 












Y E 


\n 6 


















in 




\ 




in 
d 




i 






in 

■A 





Fig. 1 — Number of utilities and amount of payrolls 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



11 



OR À P H 



ELECTRICAL EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATION 
COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR PERIODS 
PERIOD 191 5-1919 * IOO 

FREQUENCY OF A.CCIDENTS 





TOTAL 


TIMP. 


PRP. 


FATAL 


YEARS 


A.CCT 


ACCT 


ACCT 


ACCT 


15-19 


IOO 


IOO 


IOO 


IOO 


ZO-t* 


7 7 


7fc 


71 


£>£> 


252» 


85 


93 


feb 


40 


30-J4 


«2 


63 


£.1 


34 


3339 


6*> 


*V2 


15 


31 




Fig. 2 — Frequency of accidents per one million dollars payroll 

■is maintained by the Workmen's Compensation Board of 
Ontario. Secondly, by re-education and retraining in 
schools and industry, the man is prepared to take a new 
job suitable to his condition. Such rehabilitation is not 
easy to carry out but anyone assisting to forward the 
work, will be thoroughly recompensed in seeing some 
cases carried through to success. 

It must not be assumed that this account covers all 
the various applications employed. Engineering revision 
and all of the other methods are used in many other ways 
but these are examples. In addition to this, talks with 
employees and management, letters and bulletins and 
the usual forms of approach have been tried, and where 
successful, proceeded with. 

Results 

What have been the results of accident prevention in 
the Electrical Employers' Association during the twenty- 
five years 1915 to 1939? 

Records have been kept over this period. They have 
been checked by the statistical department of the Work- 
men's Compensation Board of Ontario and are in agree- 
ment with their records. 

As the experience varies from year to year, it has been 
thought wise to take five-year periods and group the 
accidents, costs of accidents, and other information with- 
in these periods. As a means of comparison, the experi- 
ence for the years 1915-1919 has been taken as a con- 
trol and assumed to be 100. 

Number of Utilities and Amount of Payroll 

Figure 1 is a graph showing the increase in the number 
of utilities in the class and the payrolls for each five- 
year period taken as a percentage of the five-year period 



12 



1915-1919. It will be seen that there was a substantial 
increase in the number of utilities in the class up to the 
five-year period 1925-1929; it then shaded off and for 
the last five-year period there is reduction from the peak. 
This has been due to a number of different causes: the 
amalgamation of different utilities into one; some utili- 
ties being removed entirely from the utility field and 
other employers placed in the class for a few years, for 
example, construction industries were removed from the 
class, as their work is foreign to that normally done by 
public utilities. The payroll showed a sharp increase until 
the period 1920-1924, then a slight increase since that 
time. This is due to the fact that some of the larger util- 
ities were bought out by those not in the class and to 
a very great extent in the latter years the utilities enter- 
ing the class have been of a smaller character. 

Frequency of Accidents 

In Fig. 2, is shown the frequency for, — 
Total lost time accidents 
Temporary disability accidents 
Permanent partial disability accidents and 
Fatal accidents 

The frequency for this graph has been taken as so many 
accidents per million dollars payroll. It has not been 
possible to use the more usual comparison of accidents 
per so many man-hours. This again is for each five-year 
period, compared with the 1915-1919 period as 100. The 
sharp increase for the period 1925-1929 in the number 
of temporary disability accidents is due to the fact that 
during this period the construction companies were in 
the class and have since been removed. It will be noted 
that for the last five-year period under consideration, 
the fatal accidents per million dollars payroll were less 



Itio 






















INCREASE! 
OU» "O INC 


COST 
ACASl 


1 70 






















— — IN DINE 


riT» 


1 fe.O 














GFti >P M 


3 










ISO 






/ 




ELECTRICAL EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATION 
COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR PERIODS 

PERIOD l<3l 5-ISI9 > IOO 

COST OF ACCIDENTS 

INCREASE» 

COST DOt TO 
ACTUAL. INCREASED COMPARABU 
VEARS COST BiNBFIT» COST 

1919 IOO IOO IOO 
20-24 102. \*>Z S3 
25-29 IOI 173 So 
30-34 61 ITS ■** 
99-39 «2 180 3 fc 




140 






/ 
/ 






1 SO 




1 
/ 


f 






120 




/ 








IIO 




/ 








IOO 


/ 


























90 


— *H 


























eo 




\ 
\ 
\ 
























70 




t 


\ 






















6o 






\ 
\ 

















N. A 
C 


CTUAI 

k>6T 




SO 












«^ 


^ 
^ 
»■ 














46 
















^ 


^-^ 










30 






















c 


IHPAR 
>S>T 


ABLE 


Eo 




























IO 




























o 












Y E 


1RS 




















6 






ejl 

i/> 
M 




o 






lii 







Fig. 3 — Cost of accidents per one hundred dollars payroll 

January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 






than one third of what they were in the period 1915-1919 
and the permanent partial disability accidents were but 15 
per cent of what they were in the earlier period. 

Cost of Accidents 
In Fig. 3, the cost of accidents has been compared on 
the basis of cost per $100.00 payroll; the solid line shows 
the actual expenditure by the Board. It will be seen 
that this actual expenditure for accidents for the period 
1920-1924 was slightly over that of 1915-1919 and in 
1925-1929 there still was a slight increase; all this seems 
contrary to what could be inferred from Fig. 2. The last 
two five-year periods show a sharp reduction. However, 
when one remembers that amendments to the Act 
brought in from time to time made the benefits to the 
injured employee (and hence costs) greater than for the 
earlier years of the Act, the trend of this actual cost line 
is explained. With the co-operation of the statistician of 
the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario, a curve 
of the increased cost of comparable accidents due to in- 
creased cost in benefits was worked out and this is shown 
in the graph. By applying this curve of increased cost 
due to increased benefits to the actual cost of accidents, 



a curve is obtained showing what the costs would have 
been had there been no increase in benefits. This latter 
curve is a true comparison of the five-year periods with 
one another and shows a very marked reduction in cost 
over each of the five-year periods. This reduction in cost, 
in part at least, can be attributed to accident prevention 
efforts. 

Conclusion 

In carrying out any accident prevention work, it is 
most important that a realistic approach be maintained. 
The prime object before anyone should be to get facts. 
If this is kept in mind, then naturally the object of any 
investigation of an accident is to learn the cause and 
provide measures to prevent a recurrence and not to find 
out who is to blame. Arising out of this, design of plant or 
equipment to be efficient must be such that it is safe to 
install, manufacture, operate and maintain. Rules and 
instructions should be simple, practical. They should be 
enforced or else removed. Even with these essentials the 
sincere leadership of management is vital to the whole 
matter. Canada needs every man on the job and not in a 
hospital bed. 



TACTICS AND UNORTHODOX AIRCRAFT 



MAJOR OLIVER STEWART 
Editor of "Aeronautics" London, Englarul. 



Unconventional aircraft designs do not often succeed 
in war. The amazing invention which appears so often in 
fiction and which — in fiction- — wins so many wars seems 
to have no counterpart in real life. In aviation especially 
it is usually the orthodox, well-developed aeroplane that 
proves the best in service. An example is the Armstrong- 
Whitworth Whitly, a bombing aeroplane of perfectly nor- 
mal conventional design built by conventional methods. 
At the outbreak of war in September, 1939, the Whitly 
was looked upon by many people as obsolescent if not 
obsolete. Yet a year later it was one of the mainstays of 
the British bombing fleet. 

The Whitly was given a fresh lease of life by being 
slightly modified and re-engined and in this form it proved 
completely successful and showed itself capable of 
operating under difficult conditions. 

Britain Was First With Power- Operated Turrets 

But although a conventional aeroplane appropriately 
developed and modified seems usually to play the leading 
part in war, there are occasions when unorthodox designs 
or constructional methods or novel equipment come into 
service with successful results. 

If the operations of the Royal Air Force are studied, 
it will be seen that they owe their successes mainly to 
steady development of aircraft and aircraft equipment, 
but also to some extent to strikingly original thinking 
and to the introduction of unorthodox features. 

The power-operated gun turret, which has been, since 
the beginning, a feature of the big British aircraft, and 
which is fitted to not only the heavy bombers but also to 
the medium bombers, is an example of a bold unconven- 
tional piece of design work. 

No other country in the world thought it possible to 
introduce a power-operated turret, but British designers 
went forward with this component, developed it both for 
electrical operation and for hydraulic operation, and fin- 
ally brought it to the stage of full efficiency. 



At first many different theories were held about the 
method of operating such turrets, and one of the early 
Boulton Paul turrets was so arranged that the entire 
working of the rotatable part was brought about simply 
by the action of the gunner in aiming his gun. Thus, by 
swinging the gun to the right, power would be clutched 
in to the turret and the turret would turn to the right. 

Our methods employed the twist grip similar to that 
found in some motor-bicycles. But all these methods 
were quickly sorted out under stress of war and the pow- 
er-operated gun turret is now incorporated in vast num- 
bers of British aircraft and has been responsible more 
than anything else for enabling Britain's biggest ma- 
chines to beat off fighter attack. 

War's Most Successful Bomber 

Here then is one example of original unconventional 
thinking brought to a highly successful conclusion in war. 
It is matched, so far as the structural side is concerned, 




Fig. 1— The Wellington MKII 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



13 




W»^*^^^lSr^ "***i^^» 



Fig. 2 — The Hurricane II armed with twelve machine guns. 

by the geodetic construction of the Vickers-Armstrong 
Wellington. This form of construction has frequently been 
described and it is not necessary to repeat the details. In 
essentials it consists of a basketwork of criss-crossing 
metal members which themselves give the aircraft not 
only its strength but also its shape. In other words, the 
geodetic construction places the strength of the machine 
where it is needed near the surfaces of the aerodynamic 
shapes. In this it contrasts with more conventional con- 
struction wherein the strength is imparted through gir- 
ders and struts which are inside the wings or fuselage and 
which do nothing to impart to them their aerodynamic 
shape. 

The Wellington has a right claim to be the most suc- 
cessful heavy bombing aircraft of the whole war. It has 
worked in many theatres and under difficult conditions. 
It has been employed on most of the very long range at- 
tacks that the Royal Air Force has made and it has invar- 
iably given the fullest satisfaction. Here is another case 
of unorthodoxy proving successful. Constructionally it is 
probably the most outstanding case of all. 

Why R.A.F. Fighters Have the Advantage 

In armament the success achieved by the Royal Air 
Force fighters must be attributed more to the unorthodox 
tactical thinking than to any special design novelties. It 
was decided some time before the war that British fight- 
ers would be given the power of hitting harder than any 
other fighters in the world. The consequence was that 
guns were packed into them to an extent never before 
thought possible. One other point is worth noting, that 
these guns were packed in such a way as to enable them 
to be used without any synchronising or interruptor gear. 
In other words, they were so disposed as to be clear of 
the disc swept by the airscrew blades. 

The Vickers-Armstrong Spitfire had eight guns mount- 
ed in its wings all fixed to fire forward in the line of 
flight and all outside the disc swept by the airscrew. Sim- 
ilarly, the Hawker Hurricane had eight guns mounted in 




its wings. The later version of the Hurricane has no fewer 
than twelve machine guns, or alternatively, four 20-mil- 
limetre cannon. 

This tremendously heavy armament for single seat 
fighters must be looked upon as unorthodox. It was not 
matched by anything in Germany or in any other coun- 
try and it gave Royal Air Force fighter pilots a notable 
and lasting advantage over the enemy. The plan has been 
pushed even farther in the Bristol Beaufighter which car- 
ries four 20-millimetre cannon, and six machine-guns. 

Work of the Lysanders 

When we turn to other classes of aircraft we find some 
notable unorthodox types, chief among them the West- 
land Lysander army co-operation machine. This aero- 
plane has had a long lease of useful life and has earned 
extremely high opinions from the pilots who have flown 
it. It has been used for innumerable different tasks, 
though most of them not of the kind that will see much 
publicity. It is still regarded as one of the best army co- 
operation aircraft in service to-day. 

Its design is a brilliant piece of specialised work. For 
army co-operation purposes an aircraft must be able to 
take off from and land in a comparatively small area. Con- 




Fig. 3 — A Lysander in flight. The rear gunner is strafing 
a convoy. 



Fig. 1 — The Bell Airacobra in flight. 

sequently the wing loading and the general wing arrange- 
ment of the Lysander is adapted to give a wide speed 
range. The aeroplane is capable of slow flying under full 
control yet it has a reasonably high top speed to enable 
it to meet all conditions under which it may be used. 
Partly this result is achieved by fitting the wings with 
Handley Page slots. These devises, by controlling the air 
flow over the wings, enable lift to be generated at lower 
speeds than would otherwise be possible. 

The Lysander is also a masterpiece of internal plan- 
ning. It packs into its fuselage a vast quantity of equip- 
ment. High wing arrangement has the obvious purpose 
of allowing the pilot to get a clear view downwards. Ly- 
sanders have been used for an enormous variety of differ- 
ent tasks including message dropping and picking up and 
the dropping of containers for revictualling troops. 

These aircraft are instances of successful departures 
from orthodox design. They have played a vital part in 
Royal Air Force operations from the start of the war and 
they show that although the scope is restricted there still 
is scope for the novelty and for unconventional feature. 
More recently the Royal Air Force has taken into ser- 
vice the United States single seat fighter of extremely un- 
orthodox design, the Bell Airacobra. This will be watched 
with especial interest, for many people believe that it may 
point the way for useful future developments. 



14 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CONSTRUCTION OF A BYPASS HIGHWAY IN ENGLAND 
BY ROYAL CANADIAN ENGINEERS 

CAPT. J. P. CARRIÈRE, m.e.i.c. 
R.C.E. Headquarters, Canadian Corps Troops, Canadian Army, Overseas.* 



General 

The military engineers' operations, outside of actual 
fighting, often lead average members of the profession to 
believe that they consist mostly of carrying out engineering 
works of a pre-planned and standard type, and that all 
designs are empirical. The author himself confesses, with- 
out shame, that he was of this opinion before being initiat- 
ed into this branch of the service. 

The purpose of this paper is twofold: — 

(a) To offset this false impression. 

(b) To bring to the fore certain interesting technical 
points and statistics of road construction practice in Eng- 
land. 

In the early fall of 1940, the General Officer Command- 
ing Canadian Corps made plans to move his Army wher- 
ever and whenever needed. The author disclaims any 
knowledge of such plans, beyond the fact that certain 
roads had to be improved and certain by-passes con- 
structed to accommodate the immense mechanical trans- 
port of this modern army. 

The construction of one of these by-passes will be the 
subject of this paper. 

In the case under consideration, the required by-pass 
had already been designed and planned in peace-time but 
its construction had been forcibly put off with the declara- 
tion of war. The problem, as regards location, consisted in 
building a road on the right-of-way of this proposed by- 
pass, and of such design as would not hinder the construc- 
tion of the complete by-pass in the future. A scheme was 
finally agreed to by the Ministry of Transport, the Coun- 
ty Council and the Canadian Corps whereby a 22-ft. con- 
crete highway would be built on the exact site of one of 
the planned carriageways, except at a few sections where 
such a procedure was impracticable and where a tar-ma- 
cadam wearing course overlying a " hard core " founda- 
tion was designed. 

Design 

(a) general — The by-pass connects two main high- 
wavs ; one is at Elevation 265 and the other at Elevation 
135. 

The by-pass is 6,500 ft. long and the topography of the 
ground between the two above mentioned highways con- 



22' 



8" CONCRETE 
CARRIAGEWAY^ 



ziro 



PRE - CAST 
CONCRETE CURBS- 



m^m^- 



ctaqii I-7IKU- rAiiDtr' y r /~*wtikji irti i c nriuc' 



STABILIZING COURSE 



CONTINUOUS BEAMS' 
IP' 



J± 



Fig. 2 — Cross-section of concrete carriage way. 

sists of a valley, with a temperamental river at the bot- 
tom and, to complete the modern pastoral scene, a main 
railroad on a 20-ft. embankment crossing at right an- 
gles. 

(b) grading — The material required for grading con- 
sisted of 145,000 cu. yds. of balanced cut and fill. The 
soil to be excavated in the first 1,800 ft. consisted of a 
typical English clay and silt of a singularly sticky 
variety. The remainder consisted of material described as 
Upper Chalk with Flints (first named by W. Whitaker in 
1865). The chalk is apparently fairly pure calcium car- 
bonate composed of very fine granular particles held to- 
gether by a weak calcarious cement which dissolves easily 
during rainy weather. This makes the handling of the 
chalk extremely difficult with consequent discomfort to all 
those engaged in the operation. The existence of flints in 
the material adds to the difficulties of handling it. These 
flints when struck by heavy road building machinery such 
as was used, break clean, presenting razor-like edges. The 
modern road building machinery employed on the job was 
naturally fitted with rubber tires which suffered consid- 
erably due to contact with broken flints. 

(c) drainage — The design of the drainage system was 
a simple operation on paper. Its construction was quite 
another thing. One portion of the road had to be cut 39 
ft. deep; the road bed in that cut has a 4 per cent grade; 
the bottom of the cut is 124 ft. wide and the 20-ft. rail- 
road embankment lies at the lower portion of the grade. 
The width of the road is controlled by an underpass 12 ft. 
wide under the railroad. The drainage system was design- 
ed so that all surface water from the road above this point, 



POSTS 6 DIA. 
AT 3'-*" C/C. 




Fig. 1 — Longitudinal elevation of road 



*In civil life Mr. Carrière is Senior Assistant Engineer in the Mont- 
real District office of the Department of Public Works of Canada. 



Fig. 3 — Cross-section of bridge. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



15 




Fig. 4 — Winter Flood. 

together with surface water from part of the surrounding 
countryside, which partially drains in this artificial basin, 
could be collected and carried in sub-surface conduits 
through the underpass and eventually to the river. The 
only difficulty was that this work had to be carried out 
during the rainy season and consequently the site was 
normally in a very wet condition. 

(d) consolidation of fill: — No special machinery was 
supplied for consolidating the fills. It was proposed to 
place the soil in thin layers and depend on the continuous 
traffic of heavy road-building machinery for consolida- 
tion. This proved to be an excellent procedure and gave 
extremely good results. 

(e) design of carriage-ways: — The most interesting 
structural feature of the road is the foundation. This con- 
sists of three continuous longitudinal concrete beams 14 
in. wide and 4 in. deep laid at 11 ft. centre to centre. Cross- 
beams of the same dimensions are built at every 80 ft. 
Where the grade is 4 per cent or more, the cross beams are 
supported on short concrete piles 2 ft., 6 in. long and 14 
in. by 14 in. in cross section. Between this maze of beams 
is poured what is locally called a stabilizing course — this 
consists of a low grade concrete continuous slab 4 in. 
thick. Over this stabilizing course lies the carriage-way 
proper 8 in. thick; the carriage-way slab is completely 
isolated from the stabilizing course by a layer of special 
tar paper to prevent bond between the two courses. Ex- 
pansion joints in the top slab are built at every 80 ft., ex- 
cept over portions of the fill where serious settlement is 
expected and where expansion joints are built at every 
20 ft. 

(f) underpass under railway: — An underpass already 
existed under the railway; it was more in the nature of 
a cattle-pass. For reasons of economy and to ensure that 
railway traffic would not be interrupted, it was decided 
to improve the existing underpass rather than build a new 
one. In order to get sufficient headroom it was necessary 
to lower the existing ground line and this necessitated un- 
derpinning the foundations of the abutments. These abut- 
ments are of brick and have been in position for over 50 
years, resting directly on a clay base, and no settlement 
has ever been recorded. The design of the underpinning 
consisted of mass concrete blocks, poured in section?. 7 
ft. high and 4 ft. wide. Bond betwen the new concrete 
foundation and the existing brick piers was achieved 
through the use of sections of steel rails acting as dowels. 

(g) bridge over river: — Borings along the banks of the 
river showed that a layer of chalk existed at a maximum 
depth of 12 ft. below bottom. This chalk layer was over- 
lain with horizons of clay and gravel (locally called bal- 
last). The location of the bridge to be built for military 
use was chosen outside the location of the eventual per- 
manent bridge, which is to consist of a single concrete 



16 



arch. The gap to be bridged was 79 ft. The controlling 
loads on the bridge were those to be applied during con- 
struction and due mostly to the moving of soil, excavated 
from one side of the river and transported to the other 
side for fill. The maximum dynamic load to be applied 
was estimated at 45 tons, consisting of a train of two ve- 
hicles. Another important factor affecting the design was 
the availability of bridging materials. The material event- 
ually employed consisted of 12-1 beams 24 by 7y 2 in. at 
90 lb., 8 of which were 24 ft. long and the remaining four, 
31 ft. long; this allowed the construction of a three-span 
bridge, but the centre span had to be limited to a maxi- 
mum of 27 ft. to keep the steel within safe working stress- 
es. It is worth noting here that the above mentioned steel 
beams were by no means new and had been used over and 
over again. In view of this condition, a working stress of 
only 16,000 lb. was used for design purposes. 

The work on the road having started in November, it 
was imperative that the bridge be erected without delay 
in order to keep the work of excavation and transporta- 
tion of the soil moving. This factor affected the choice of 
foundations as the river under consideration is 10 ft. 
deep at the bridge site and it has the unpleasant habit of 
rising at a rate sometimes reaching 8 ft. in one day, 
was actually experienced during construction. All those 
factors led to the choice of mass concrete abutments at 
each end of the bridge and two intermediate timber pile 
piers. In order to limit the centre span to 27 ft., double 
bent pile piers were designed, bents to be 4 ft. centre to 
centre, and each bent to consist of four piles 12 by 12 in. 
in cross-section. The superstructure of the pile bents was 
designed of 12 by 12 in. timbers, cap sills being laid par- 
allel to the length of the bridge and the bridge seats laid 
at right angles to the cap sills. 

The unit working stresses in the bridging material un- 
der working loads were estimated as follows: — 

Piles — Max. load on a single pile 7 tons. 

Cap Sills — Max. tensile stress 973 lb. per sq. in. 

Cap Sills — Max. shear 81 lb. per sq. in. 

Bridge seats — Max. crushing stress 163 lb. per sq. in. 

R.S.J. s (I beam) — Max. tensile stress 15,110 per sq. in. 

Construction : 

(a) earth work: — The equipment employed for cut 
and fill consisted of eight-60 hp. tractors equipped with 
carryall scrapers; each tractor could be equipped with 
angle-dozer blades when required. One trailer type heavy 
rooter was also used to loosen up the chalk before ex- 
cavating it. 

The job was started in early November 1940 and 20,000 
cu. yds. of soil were moved by December 31st, — an aver- 
age rate of 10,000 cu. yds., per month with an average 
haul of approximately 2,500 ft. From the 1st of January 




Fig. 5 — Working on wet fill. 

January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Fig. 6 — Home-made machine for testing shearing strength 
of soil. 

to the end of March 1941, 21,000 cu. yds. were moved, 
averaging only 7,000 cu. yds. per month with a haul aver- 
aging only 2,000 ft. This lower rate of progress was due 
mostly to weather conditions. The remainder of the cut 
and fill, 104,000 cu. yds., was completed between April 
1st and July 10th, 1941 — an average of 30,000 cu. yds. 
a month with an average haul of 1,600 ft. 

In all the above mentioned instances an average of six 
tractors and scrapers were being employed. These trac- 
tors and scrapers are of American design, and are a fairly 
common sight in Canada; their efficiency and all around 
usefulness is still being admired by all who have seen 
them at work on this job. It is worth mentioning that the 
sappers who operate these machines in Canadian Corps 
are the best that Canada can produce. 

No trouble was encountered in excavating the clay and 
silt in dry weather nor in using it as a fill. Unfortunately 
a few attempts were made to work this type of soil during 
wet weather to gain time. The results obtained point out 
very definitely the inadvisability of this procedure. In 
each case the machines not only ruined the already built- 
up fill, but also churned up the undisturbed soil of the 
cut to such an extent that it took days for the soil to dry 
up sufficiently for operations to be resumed. This is not 
an original observation, but only an addition to the al- 
ready established fact that it is economical in the long 
run not to disturb wet clay. 

The chalk cuts and fills were comparatively easy to deal 
with. The flints played havoc with rubber tires at times 
and were effective in wearing down scraper blades and 
tractor treads quickly. However, taking everything into 
consideration, chalk proved no match for the equipment. 
During periods of dry weather, a heavy rooter was used 
to loosen up the undisturbed chalk ahead of the scrapers. 

All material used for fill was spread in layers of a max- 
imum thickness of four inches. The normal traffic of trac- 



tors, heavy lorries, etc., was depended upon for consolida- 
tion. All chalk fill was consolidated to a consistency far 
beyond what was expected, and no settlement is likely 
to occur. Clay and silt fills, however, presented another 
picture, especially in view of the fact that they were dis- 
turbed while in a wet condition and that climatic condi- 
tions did not offer proper drying. Notwithstanding this 
condition, the road had to be pushed through over the 
fills. The critical sections of these fills were the slopes. 
The ultimate loading and the position of the loads being 
known it was decided to analyze the stability of the slopes 
before attempting to lay the carriage-way. 

In view of the lack of soil testing equipment, most tests 
were carried out by "rule of thumb" methods; but the 
approximate internal shearing strength of the soil at vari- 
ous levels had to be estimated quite closely to give any 
value to the analysis. For that purpose, a machine was 
rigged up, consisting of one cross arm fitted with hooks to 
which were attached two spring balances, each calibrated 
to 40 lb. A piece of sheet iron 12 in. wide bent to a radius 
of 3 in. and connected to each spring balance completed 
the machine. Small trenches were dug at various levels 
along the worst portions of the fill, deep enough to reach 
a part of the fill unaffected by exposure. These trenches 
were so shaped as to allow full use of the testing machine 
and " bridges '" of soil, 12 in. long and of various cross- 
sectional areas at each end, were carefully shaped in the 
undisturbed soil. The piece of sheet iron was then placed 
so as to bear evenly under each " bridge " and connect- 
ed to the spring balances hanging from the cross arm. Up- 
ward forces were then applied at each end of the cross 
arm, as evenly as possible, until the specimen or " bridge " 
sheared from the parent mass, and the magnitude of each 
force, as registered on the balances, was recorded. The 
sum of the forces was considered as one force evenly dis- 
tributed and equal to the ultimate shearing strength of 
the specimen, plus its weight. The unit weight of the soil 
was checked in place by weighing known volumes of it. 
The unit shearing strength of the soil was then arrived 
by weighing the specimens, subtracting this value from 
the total recorded force, and dividing the remaining value 
by the sum of the shearing areas, at each end of the speci- 
mens. The following values were obtained:— 

Average weight: 115 lb. per cu. ft. 

Shear strengths: Average for top 12 ft. of fill 384 lb. per 
sq. ft. 

From 12 ft. to 13.5 ft. below top of fill: 156 lb. per sq. 
ft. 

From 13.5 to 14.5 ft, below top of fill; 74 lb. per sq. ft. 

At its most critical point, the fill under consideration 
was 20 ft. high. Between elevations 16 ft., and 14 ft. be- 
low the top, a two-ft. layer of chalk was placed during 
construction as an attempt to overcome part of the dam- 




Fig. 7 — Diagram of fill showing study of stability. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



17 




Fig. 8 — Preparing to launch bridge 



ir<l< 



age done by working the clay in wet weather and to give 
a foothold to the machinery. This layer consolidated and 
formed a very stiff horizon of material, apparently not 
easily soluble in water of infiltration and which acts as 
an artificial water-table, the top four inches of this layer 
remaining very wet while the remainder is dry and solid. 
This artificial water-table apparently limits the downward 
movement of water of infiltration and causes the overlying 
mass of clay to retain moisture to degrees varying in inten- 
sity from maximum at the chalk layer to minimum at the 
top of the fill. The variation in shear strength of the clay 
at the various levels is thus plausibly explainable as the 
magnitude of this characteristic of cohesive soils is pro- 
portional to their water content. 

There is no doubt that settlement will occur in this fill; 
the extent of settlement will vary according to the height 
of the fill, and the magnitude could only be roughly es- 
timated, due to lack of proper testing equipment. Howev- 
er, for the purpose of record, the County Council engineers 
set permanent brass plugs in the concrete slab at 20 ft. in- 
tervals in the highest fills to record the settlement over 
a period of years. 

The characteristics and dimensions of the fill which 
presented the worst condition and appeared to have the 
weakest slopes, were used to make an analysis of stability 
of slopes. The soil composing the fill being plastic and 
cohesive, it was assumed (1) that failure of the slopes, 
should such occur, would take place along a cylindrical 
plane of rupture; (2) that the centre of this cylindrical 
plane would be located on the vertical projection of the 
toe of the estimated failure plane; (3) that the wedge or 
mass of fill above the plane of rupture would act as a 
solid body; (4) that this solid body would tend to break 
away from the parent mass in a circular motion; (5) that 
this tendency to motion would be resisted by internal co- 
hesion and friction within the soil mass along the plane of 
rupture; (6) that the sum of the values of cohesion and 
friction could be translated as internal shear strength; 
(7) and finally, that the toe of the plane of rupture would 
not be lower than six inches below the top of the chalk 
layer described above. 

The problem consisted therefore in finding the radius 
of a cylindrical plane to satisfy the following conditions: — 

(a) Maximum shear stress. 

(b) Minimum shear resistance. 

By the method of trial and error, conditions were final- 
ly satisfied and the following values were obtained: 

Shear stress: 7,245 lb. 

Total shear strength along plane of rupture based on 
values obtained by tests: 9,320 lb. 



The factor of safety of this slope against failure is 
therefore 1.27 and as this represents the worst condition 
on the job, all fills were assumed safe. 

An attempt was made to estimate the rate of settlement, 

as follows: — 

Plugs were driven into the fill at various points on 
which levels were to be taken at regular intervals. Time 
being the essence of this job, the road had to be pushed 
through before sufficient data had been assembled to de- 
termine the rate of settlement. The intention was to plot 
curves of settlement against time, estimate the formula 
for the average curve thus obtained, and then develop 
the curve for whatever periods of time were required. It 
remains to be proved whether such a procedure would 
have been accurate enough to be of use. However, in or- 
der to offset part of the effect of settlement on the con- 
crete carriage-ways, it was decided to build these two in- 
ches higher than planned, at the highest fills in clay; as 
the road at these portions has a grade of 4 per cent, the 
drainage and other functions were not affected. It was 
also decided to build expansion joints at every 20 ft. in 
these portions. 

(b) bridge: — Pile driving equipment — There were only 
16 piles to be driven, each being 24 ft. long and requiring 
to be driven to a penetration of 10 to 12 ft. To do this job, 
a timber pile-driving frame (of uncertain age) and a 25 
cwt. monkey, were provided. In order to drive the piles 
in a reasonably short time, it was decided to operate the 
pile-driving hammer by mechanical means. The power 
was supplied by the power take-off of one of the tractors, 
one drum being used to lift the monkey and the other for 
pitching piles. By providing a makeshift weighted trip- 
gear at the monkey, a single action, automatic, drop-ham- 
mer was obtained. 

Each pile was fitted with iron shoes and bands and was 
held in place during the driving by strong falsework. In 
most cases, there was a tendency for the piles to shift out 
of alignment and to twist about their vertical axis; this 




Fig. 9 — Side elevation of bridge. 

latter defect would have been most objectionable in this 
case and extensive precautions had to be taken to over- 
come it. This points out the advisability of using round 
timber piles for this type of work. 

All piles were driven to their full penetration. The set 
per blow on the last five blows averaged ^ in. with an 
average drop of 7 ft." This resistance to penetration ap- 
proximates quite closely the maximum bearing capacity 
required. 

The superstructure was erected by normal methods and 
presented no points of special interest. 



18 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The girders were launched by the derrick and preventer 
method, using the pile-driving frame as a derrick with a 
tractor as the power plant on one side of the river, and a 
second tractor as a preventer on the other. This proved 
a most efficient and quick method. 

As the first function of the bridge was to allow the 
transportation of 78,000 cu. yds. of fill across the river, 
and bearing in mind the damaging effect of tractor treads 
on concrete, strong timber decking was laid to take that 
traffic. Upon completion of the fill, this timber decking 
was removed and a reinforced concrete slab was then built 
for permanent decking. 

It is interesting to note that the bridge was submitted 
to greater loading and vibration before completing the 
decking than it will have to withstand under normal con- 
ditions and it is therefore reasonable to assume that no 
settlement or disturbance in the structure is likely to oc- 
cur. 

(c) underpass: — The underpinning of the abutments 
of the underpass did not present any difficulty and was 
carried out in a normal manner. The railway traffic was 
not affected by the work and the regular half hour train 
schedule was carried out by the railway authorities all 
through the operation. 

(d) drainage: — The construction of the drainage sys- 
tem did not present any engineering difficulty, although it 
did involve many physical discomforts during the rainy 
season. Various makeshift implements were tried in at- 
tempts to increase the rate of progress of ditching, two of 
which are worthy of mention: — 

The first consisted simply of a Fresno scraper rigged up 
fore and aft with steel wire ropes leading through blocks 
lashed to timber posts set solidly at each end of the pro- 
posed trench to the front and rear of a three-ton dump 
truck. Advancing and retiring the truck along a given line 
of travel actuated the scraper along the line of the trench 
causing it to dig, transport and dump soil, thereby reduc- 
ing manual labour to a minimum. 

One trench had to be excavated four to five ft. deep in 
the chalk along a distance of over 3,000 ft. A i/2 cu - yd. 
self-propelled bucket excavator was used for this purpose. 
It was placed so as to straddle the trench, heavy timbers 
being placed under and at right angles to the tracks, in 
order to guard against the possibility of failure of the sides 
of the trench, A heavy rooter was used to loosen up the 
undisturbed chalk ahead of the excavator. As the excavat- 
ed soil was being dumped along the sides of the trench, 
for back-filling, this method was found most satisfactory. 

All pipes laid were of concrete and were surrounded 
with from four to six inches of concrete. 

Some inspection chambers and catch basins consisted 
of precast concrete shapes which, once in place, functioned 
as the inner forms. They had to be surrounded with con- 
crete so as to withstand the pressures of the soil deposited 
around them. Inspection chambers were also built of brick 
and were also surrounded with concrete. 

(e) carriage-ways: 
1. Concrete: 

The three main operations in the pouring of the concrete 
carriage-ways consisted of: — 

1. Pouring longitudinal and cross-beams, including stub 
piles. 

2. Pouring stabilizing course. 

3. Pouring carriage-ways proper. 

These three operations were carried out by two groups. 
The leading group poured the beams and laid the forms 
on the beams for the carriage-way, and the second group 
poured the stabilizing course and the carriage-way. 

The first operation was the longest, requiring the plac- 




Fig. 10 — Building the drainage system. 

ing of forms for the beams, excavating and pouring con- 
crete for stub piles, removing forms after two days setting 
period and placing and securing forms on the finished lon- 
gitudinal beams; all this work had to be carried out by 
hand. 

For the second and third operations, a mechanical con- 
crete distributor and two vibrators were utilized, reducing 
manual labour to a minimum and making possible a fast 
rate of progress. One vibrator had a vibrating beam 10 ft. 
long, the other vibrator being equipped with an 11 ft. vi- 
brating beam. This necessitated quite a bit of hand finish- 
ing but did not delay operations. This special equipment 
was supplied by the County Council. 

The concrete was mixed at a central mixing plant of a 
capacity of two cu. yds. per batch. The water-cement ra- 
tio, the proportions, grading, volume and moisture con- 
tent of the aggregates were under constant supervision. 

For the carriage-way, and beams, the water-cement ra- 
tio was kept at between .44 and .50 and the mix aver- 
aged: — 

Cement 1 part 

Sand 2V 2 parts 

Stone (%" max.) 5 parts 

(measured by weight of dry aggregates). 

For the stabilizing course, water-cement ratio remain- 
ing as above, the mix averaged: — 

Cement 1 part 

Sand 2t x /% parts 

Stone 7 parts 




Fig. 11 — Inspection — showing also drainage conduit. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



19 




^CONTINUOUS CONCRETE BEAMS 

BRICK-HARDCORE FOUNDATION' 

Fig. 12 — Cross-section of tar-macadam carriage-way. 

Only graded aggregates were employed. 

The mixtures resulting from the above had no slump. 

The average rates of progress were as follows: — 

1. Beams and stub piles, 200 lin. ft. per day. 

2. Stabilizing course, 480 lin. ft. per day (10 ft. wide). 

3. Carriage-way — 320 lin. ft. (11 ft. wide) per day. 

Note that 5 days of operation No. 1 (1,000 lin. ft.) 
equals 2 days of operation No. 2 plus 3 days of operation 
No. 3. 

The average compressive strengths of concrete were as 
follows: — 

Stabilizing course — 500 to 700 lb. per sq. in. 
Carriage-ways — 4,000 lb. per sq. in. 

2. Tar-Macadam: 

As mentioned previously, some portions of the road 
which are not of a permanent nature were built of tar- 
macadam overlying a hardcore base. In order to provide 
good shoulders against which to rest the road metal and 
to provide a base for curbs, concrete beams 14 in. wide and 
9 in. deep were built along each side of the carriage-way. 

Hardcore was then placed between these beams to a 
depth of 6 in. and rolled with a seven-ton road roller to 
provide a good base. 

It is interesting to note that all the hardcore employed 
consisted of brick, concrete, and cut stone originating from 
the " ruins of London " and it might be stated here, with- 
out idle fancy, that many a relic lies buried under the tar- 
macadam. 

The tar-macadam was laid in two courses; the base 
course, three in. thick was made with graded aggregates, 
mostly limestone slag, of a maximum size of two in., while 
the wearing coat % in. thick is made with graded aggreg- 
ates up to % in. 

The tar-macadam was mixed by the County Council 
at their plant and a few experts were also supplied by the 
County Council to finish the tar-macadam according to 
specifications. 

3. Curbs: — All curbs were pre-cast in sections 30 in long. 
Along the concrete carriage-ways they were set upright 
on the projection of the concrete beams, while along the 
tar-macadam carriage-ways they were laid fiat on top of 
the beams built for that purpose. In all cases, curbs were 
grouted in with a sand-cement grout. 

4. Farm Entrances: — Accesses to a few farms along the 




Fig. 13 — Junction with existing road. 

road had to be provided. The surfacing of these farm en- 
trances consists of what is called locally " hogging " laid 
over a hardcore base. Hogging is a type of soil stabiliza- 
tion consisting of mixing clay, chalk and gravel in the 
right proportions and with the right amount of water to 
reach optimum moisture. This mixture is spread over a 
prepared base and smooth rolled. When completed, it pre- 
sents a hard surface not unlike the better type of Cana- 
dian consolidated gravel roads. 

Official Opening of Road 

The road was officially opened on August 28th, 1941, 
by the Rt. Hon. William Lyon Mackenzie King, Prime 
Minister of Canada. He named it " Young Street " to 
commemorate the name of the Officer Commanding the 
company of Royal Canadian Engineers who built it, and 
then, (in a blinding rain) , addressed the officers and men 
of the company. In his address, Mr. Mackenzie King 
brought out an interesting point, to wit: "War does not 
consist only of destruction but also of construction, often 
of a permanent nature and of general benefit to the ad- 
vancement of civilization." 

Acknowledgments 

This paper would be incomplete without the following 
acknowledgments ; 

To (censored) Chief Engineer 

Canadian Corps for permitting its publication, to (censor- 
ed) C.R.E. Canadian Corps 

Troops Engineers for posting the writer to the company 
of engineers employed on this construction, to Major E. 
J. Young, M.C., Officer Commanding the company of en- 
gineers to whom the task was allotted and to whom credit 
is due for the efficiency of the company, for allowing the 
writer free access to all records of the work and for sup- 
plying some of the photographs, and finally to the officers 
and men of the company for the efficient and exemplary 
way in which they carried out the work, and for the ac- 
curate records which they kept. 



20 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE 220,000 -VOLT SYSTEM OF THE HYDRO -ELECTRIC 
POWER COMMISSION OF ONTARIO 

A. H. FRAMPTON and E. M. WOOD, m.e.i.c. 
Respectively Assistant Electrical Engineer and Planning Engineer, The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 

Paper presented originally at the Summer Convention of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Toronto, Ont., 

June 1941, and delivered again before the Hamilton Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, on 

October 2nd, 1941, and before the Peterborough Branch, on November 6th, 1941. 



Introduction 

At the Summer Convention of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers in 1930, Mr. E. T. J. Brandon 
presented a paper under this same title 1 , describing the 
design of the initial components of this system, which 
had then been in operation approximately one and one- 
half years. At that time, one and one-half circuits, hav- 
ing a combined length of 350 miles, were in service, 
transmitting approximately 110,000 k.w. to a receiving 
terminal station in the Toronto area of 180,000 kva. cap- 
acity. At the present time, the Commission is operating 
a total of 1,000 miles of single-circuit 220,000-volt con- 
struction, with one receiving terminal of 420,000 kva. 
rated capacity and is placing into service immediately 
45 miles of double-circuit construction and a second re- 
ceiving terminal of 150,000 kva. capacity. 

This paper presents a brief history of the development 
of the system and places on record the experience gained 
in 8,400 circuit-mile-years of operation of the transmis- 
sion circuits. Data are presented regarding lightning out- 
ages and the behaviour of the circuits under sleet and 
conductor vibration. 

These data are then used to indicate the reasons for 
certain revisions made in the design of new single-cir- 
cuit construction carried out during 1940-41, and to in- 
dicate the factors that influenced the design of a new 45- 
mile double-circuit extension. The paper concludes with 
a discussion of the relay protection system and the im- 
provements now being incorporated therein. 

General System Arrangement 

The 220,000-volt system under discussion forms part 
of the Commission's 25-cycle Niagara System, Figure 1, 
which supplies a highly developed area of some 12,000 sq. 
mi. in the peninsula formed by Lakes Huron, Erie and 
Ontario. This system distributes power over approxim- 
ately 1,350 mi. of 110,000-volt lines. The total primary 
load, which equalled 710,000 kw. in December 1929, 
reached nearly 1,125,000 kw. in December 1940. 

This 220-kv. system has been the channel over which 



all growth of load in the Niagara System has been sup- 
plied since 1928, from generating sources largely in the 
neighbouring province of Quebec. An initial 60,000 kw. 
was transmitted over the first circuit in October 1928, 
increasing to 515,000 kw. transmitted over three such 
circuits in December 1940. 

Until this summer, this supply has been delivered at 
the Leaside receiving terminal, adjacent to the city of 
Toronto, which it will be noted lies at the easterly ex- 
tremity of the main 110,000-volt system. This fact has 
in itself created problems of distribution, the solution of 
which will be materially aided by the placing in service 
of the new terminal shown at Burlington. 

Development of 220,000-Volt System 
The 220,000-volt system was initially conceived as a 
two-circuit system, with a mid-point interswitching sta- 
tion, transmitting some 200,000 kw. purchased under con- 
tract from the Gatineau Power Company, from that Com- 
pany's Paugan development some 230 miles east of To- 
ronto. Later contractual undertakings and the construc- 
tion of the Chats Falls development on the Ottawa Riv- 
er, brought the total capacity, available from eastern 
sources to approximately 615,000 kw. 

The third 220-kv. circuit was constructed in 1931, 
when the Chats Falls development was first brought into 
service. The connection shown from Beauharnois to Mac- 
Laren to Chats Falls was built during the depression years, 
to deliver the power which became available from the 
former sources to Chats Falls for transmission over the 
three-circuit system. This was an expedient, adopted as 
the most economical means of effecting this delivery, fol- 
lowing an analysis of the transmission capacity of these 
three circuits in the light of the then existing knowledge 
of stability problems. This analysis indicated that, even 
without a mid-point interswitching station, the depend- 
able capacity of these circuits, given proper fault clear- 
ance times, could be increased from an earlier rating of 
330,000 kw. to approximately 450,000 kw. 

The terminal capacity at Leaside has been increased 
progressively, by the addition of four 45,000-kva. banks, 




Fig. 1 — The Niagara System of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, showing major generating and 

transformer stations and 220-kv. and 110-kv. lines. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



21 



duplicate of the two banks originally installed, and two 
75.000-kva. banks, making a total installed rating of 420,- 
000 kva. 

Until the outbreak of hostilities in September 1939, 
it was planned that this system would need to be extend- 
ed for service in the fall of 1942. The outbreak of hostil- 
ities, however, brought the expectation of rapidly accel- 
erated power demands and the construction of a fourth 
circuit from the Beauharnois development of the Beau- 
harnois Light, Heat and Power Company, in the Quebec 
section of the St. Lawrence River, was immediately un- 
dertaken. The selection of a westerly terminus for that 
line presented a problem upon which considerable time 
and study has been expended. 

The Leaside terminal, being located in the metropoli- 
tan area of the city of Toronto, in which approximately 
40 per cent of the total primary demand of the Niagara 
System occurs, provided a convenient point of distribu- 
tion for the power delivered during the building-up years. 
In later years, however, Leaside has been expanded be- 
yond the capacity originally contemplated, so as to make 
the most efficient use of the transmission system, thereby 
creating an increasing distribution problem. 

Furthermore, as is obviously desirable, the power trans- 
mitted over this system was purchased under contracts 
which require high load-factor deliveries, much higher, 
in fact, than the load factor of the demands within the 
immediate vicinity of the receiving terminal. 

For these reasons it has been necessary to distribute 
from Leaside, to gradually increasing distances, power 
and energy delivered in excess of the Toronto area de- 
mands. This distribution distance increases and decreases 
daily, with the variations of local demand, and is consid- 
erably greater in the summer than in the winter. During 
recent summer months power generated 250 miles east 
of Toronto has actually been delivered to the immediate 
vicinity of Niagara Falls. 

It had been planned that the second 220-kv. terminal 
would also be in the Toronto area, but on its westerly 
outskirts. Further study, in the light of the increased cap- 
acity of Leaside, has resulted in the new terminal being 
located at Burlington, some thirty miles west of Toronto. 
At that point the new station is adjacent to the rapidly 
expanding load area of the city of Hamilton and also is 
situated where a number of existing 110-kv. circuits in- 
tersect. 

This new terminal is supplied by diverting to it the 
shortest of the existing 220-kv. circuits, namely, one orig- 
inating at the Chats Falls development, thus holding the 



220Kv 






■•O-f-ir 



y\A -j- V;.-'-: y tyl T 



t-t-tt 



P-u 



-CH-D-r-0- JL -0- 



JL X 







IIOKv 




Fig. 2 — Burlington 220-kv. receiving terminal. Proposed ul- 
timate diagram for six-220-kv. circuits and six-75,000-kva. 
transformer hanks. Initial (1941) installation in heavy lines. 



« W 

Fig. 3 — (a) Outline of original single-circuit 220-kv. tower 

showing major dimensions and shielding angles. 

(b) Corresponding outline of revised 1940 tower. 

longer Beauharnois circuit to its minimum length by ter- 
minating it at Leaside. In addition, a 220-kv. tie-circuit 
between Burlington and Leaside is provided, intercon- 
necting the 220-kv. lines so that they operate as a four- 
circuit system. These two circuits are carried around the 
metropolitan area of Toronto and to Burlington on dou- 
ble-circuit structures, the first of such construction adopt- 
ed by the Commission. 

The Burlington transformer station is being construct- 
ed on a sixty-acre site, designed to accommodate ulti- 
mately six banks of three-25,000-kva., single-phase, 220/ 
110/13.2-kv., forced-air-cooled transformers. Two banks 
totalling 150,000 kva. are being installed initially. A sche- 
matic diagram of the proposed ultimate station is shown 
in Fig. 2, on which the initial installation is indicated in 
heavy full lines. The addition of a third bank at this sta- 
tion will complete the existing phase of development, 
providing for the delivery of some 675,000 kw. over the 
four 220-kv. circuits. Beyond that point further delivery 
at Burlington will depend upon the development of new 
power resources, as for example, upon the Ottawa or St. 
Lawrence Rivers. 

Summary of Operating Experience 

The first of these 220-kv. circuits was placed in ser- 
vice on October 1st, 1928, since when a total of 560 cir- 
cuit-miles has been added, making a total of 790 circuit- 
miles in service as of March 31st, 1941. Of this mileage 
some 85 circuit-miles are not actually operated by the 
Commission, being located in the province of Quebec, but 
are included in the following record. The whole of this 
construction in general conforms to the designs described 
in the earlier paper, the standard suspension tower being 
shown in Fig. 3 (a). 

In approximately thirteen years, 8,400 circuit-miles- 
years of operating experience has been secured and a to- 
tal of 111 faults due to all causes have been experienced. 
Of these, four were occasioned by various construction 
hazards in the early years and eight were due to miscel- 
laneous causes, chiefly external interference. Each of these 
faults involved only one wire and ground and, except in 
the period when only one circuit was in service, created 
no serious disturbance. It is of interest to discuss the 
salient features arising out of the remainder of this ex- 
tensive operating record. 

(a) Lightning 

Of the remaining 99 faults experienced in this period, 
97 are attributed to lightning, equal to an average of 1.15 
lightning outages per 100-circuit-miles per year, in a ter- 
ritory in which the thunderstorm frequency is between 



22 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



thirty-five and forty storms per year. The classification 
of these lightning faults as to single-wire-to-ground, two-, 
wire-to-ground and three-wire and as to those involving 
one, two or three circuits is given in Table I. The fre- 
quency of occurrence of such faults has varied tremen- 
dously; for example, three outages have been experienced 
within ten minutes; on another occasion, four within an 
hour and again five in one day and yet one period of 
eighteen months passed without a single outage. 

TABLE I 

Lightning Outage Record 

Classified according to the type of fault. 

Involving one wire and ground 56 — 59% 

Involving two wires and ground 25 — 26% 

Involving three wires 14 — 15% 

Total 95 —100% 

Involving one circuit only 95 — 98% 

Involving two circuits simultaneously.. 1 — 1% 
Involving three circuits simultaneously 1 — 1% 



Total outages due to lightning. 



97 _100% 



These averaged data do not give a complete picture 
of the performance of these circuits. The three Chats 
Falls-Leaside circuits are constructed over terrain varying 
from rich farm land to rocky undeveloped bush country. 
The latter section, which extends almost continuously for 
a distance of about 90 miles, is characterized by surface 
rock formations with pockets of muskeg in the rock de- 
pressions. Towers are frequently erected on the rock out- 
crops. Low footing resistances are, therefore, difficult to 
obtain. In Fig. 4 an approximate footing-resistance pro- 
file for the Chats Falls-Leaside section is given, as com- 
pared to the known location of 70 of a total of 89 outages 
in this section attributed to lightning. It will be seen that 
some 90 per cent of the located lightning outages occurred 
in the section of high footing resistance. 

In Table II is presented an attempt to co-relate the 
lightning outage record with footing resistance. The data 
are presented first for the 70 located faults in the Chats 
Falls-Leaside section and then for all 97 faults, based 
on locations for those not traced, as estimated from re- 
lay target and oscillograph records. It will be observed 
that, in the territory where footing resistances are con- 
sidered to be below 25 ohms, the actual outage record 
approximates 0.2 outages per 100-circuit-miles per year. 

Reference to Fig. 3 (a) shows that the tower design 
in these lines provides a shielding angle of 42 degrees and 
a ratio of " height of ground wire above power conductor 
to total height of ground wire " of 0.182. The experi- 
mental results of Wagner, McCann and MacLane 2 and 
the data presented by Waldorf 1 would indicate that good 
lightning performance could be expected and the record 




200 

i 

LEASiDl 



ISO 160 140 120 IOC 40 60 40 

Distance From Chats Falls- Miles 



20 

i 

Chats Falls 



• Represents One Lightning Fault In The Respective 

Four Mile Section (ï> Towers Peu Circuit Peu Mile) 

Tower Footing Resistance Figures Are Average Values 

Fob. The 60 Towtes In Each Foua Mile. Section. 

Fig. 4 — Approximate footing resistance profile of three-220-kv. 

circuits, Chats Falls to Leaside, showing grouping of 70 

located lightning outages. 



proves that, given low-footing resistances, such has been 
the case. 

Some crowfoot counterpoise work was done in the rock 
section along these three circuits during 1934-35. Short 
sections of highest footing resistance were so treated, with 
some success in lowering the measured values, but pre- 
sumably the distances the crowfoot wires were carried 
to reach good grounds were too great to secure any con- 
siderable benefit. 

TABLE II 

Lightning Outage Record 

Classified according to tower footing resistance. 

(a) For 70 located faults on the Leaside-Chats Falls 
Circuits. 



Average Tower Number of 
Footing Resist- Outages 
an ce— Ohms 


Circuit-mile- 
Years of 
Operation 


Outages per 
100 Circuit - 
mile-years 


Under 25 3 


2,150 


0.14 


25-50 6 


1,950 


0.31 


50-200 16 


2,000 


0.8 


Above 200 45 


1,100 


4.1 


70 


7,200 


0.97 


(b) For all outages due to lightning. 




Average Tower Number of 
Footing Resist- Outages 
ance — Ohms 


Circuit-mile- 

Years of 

Operation 


Outages per 
100 Circuit- 
mile -years 


Under 25 5 


2,600 


0.19 


25-50 9 


2,200 


0.41 


50-200 27 


2,500 


1.08 


Over 200 56 


1,100 


5.1 



97 



8,400 



1.15 



(b) Mechanical — Sleet and Wind 

In the southern part of the province of Ontario sleet 
storms of varying intensity may be anticipated both in 
the early and late winter seasons. December and March 
are the two worst months, though infrequently sleet may 
occur in any month from November to April. Storms 
have been experienced which have disrupted communica- 
tion circuits and taken down wood pole construction. The 
phenomenon of " galloping conductors " has been observ- 
ed, at frequent intervals, on various sizes and spans of 
conductors up to 605,000 cm., A.C.S.R. at a span of 880 
ft Consideration must therefore be given to sleet condi- 
tions for all lines designed or constructed in this ter- 
ritory. 

Two outages in the period under review are attributed 
directly to sleet, and these, incidentally, occurred within 
a few minutes of one another. Heavy sleet had formed 
on both power conductors and ground cables on certain 
hill tops, but only lightly on an intervening long valley 
span. As a result, the power conductors in the long span 
were pulled up by the unbalanced loading on the two 
sides of the adjacent suspension insulation, so that the 
ground cables, sagged to their normal loaded positions, 
appeared below the plane of the power conductors at 
mid-span. Two flashovers occurred, the second of which 
burned down a ground cable, resulting, on account of in- 
accessibility, in 27-circuit-hours of outage. In two other 
similar cases, a condition of unbalanced sleet loading was 
set-up, greatly increasing the sag of the ground cables 
without compensating sag of the power conductors, re- 
sulting in inadequate clearances. Fortunately, in these 
cases, the conductors were not disturbed by wind. 

(c) Mechanical — Vibration 

At the time of the construction of the first of these cir- 
cuits (1927-28), the then relatively recent adoption ot 
much longer spans and higher conductor tensions had 
brought the problem of conductor vibration strongly to 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



23 





Fig. 5 — la) Conductor reinforcement on first (1927-28) 

construction. 

(b) Torsional-type vibration absorber provided on one-half 

1940-41 single-circuit construction; Stockbridge damper 

provided on remainder of such construction. 
(c) Ground cable festoon used on 1940-41 construction. 

the attention of transmission engineers. Remedial or pal- 
liative measures were as yet under investigation. In the 
original design this problem was recognized by provid- 
ing, at suspension points, a reinforcement consisting of 
a 6-ft. length of the conductor fastened at its outer ex- 
tremities and supported above the main conductor in a 
double-seated suspension clamp. Fig. 5(a), In the second 
and third circuits this form of reinforcement was replaced 
by the standard armour rods. 

Each of these circuits was designed for a maximum 
conductor tension, at % in. ice, 8-11). wind and 32 deg. F., 
of 10,000 lb., conductors being 705.000 m.c.m., A.C.S.R. 
having an ultimate strength of 28,500 lb. This represents 
a maximum tension of 35 per cent of ultimate and also 
represents a tension at 60 deg. F. of 16 per cent of ultim- 
ate. These figures will be recognized as indicating a de- 
sign in which conductor fatigue due to vibration might 
be anticipated. 

Actually a considerable record of vibration has accu- 
mulated in operation, though nothing approaching a seri- 
ous condition has been observed to date. Quite early a 
loosening of tower members was experienced, but this 
was remedied by the use of locknuts or their equivalent 
at all one and two bolt positions. Careful periodic exam- 
ination of the conductors has revealed a few broken 
strands though such damage does not indicate the need 
for any further palliative measures for some years. 

Revision in Design Incorporated in the 1940-41 
Single-Circuit Construction 

The recent extensive additions to this system were nat- 
urally not undertaken without re-consideration of the var- 
ious design factors in the light of the experience enumer- 
ated above. It is of interest therefore to mention the re- 
visions that were made and to discuss the reasons asso- 
ciated therewith. The discussion is perhaps best arranged 
under the previous headings, though it is difficult to sep- 
arate those adopted for improved lightning design from 
those which aimed at improvement in the mechanical 
performance. 

(a) Lightning 

The record indicates that good lightning performance 
can be expected of the orignal single-circuit tower, so long 
as footing resistances are kept sufficiently low. Perhaps, 
therefore, no change would have been made in the tower 
design were this the only factor, but as it was decided 
to raise the ground cables primarily for sleet operation, 



this revision may also be taken as improving the expec- 
tation of good lightning performance. 

As illustrated in Fig. 3(b), the two ground cables were 
raised eight ft. above their original location, to a point 
of support 21 ft. above the point of support of the power 
conductor in the suspension tower. This has had the re- 
sult of decreasing the shielding angle to 29 deg., while 
increasing the ratio of " height of ground cable above 
power conductors to total height of ground cable " to 
0.263. 

Measurements made by the Meg-Earth tester shortly 
after tower erection indicated that, in the earth sections, 
after consolidation of the back-fill, tower footing resist- 
ances generally would not exceed 15 ohms. In these sec- 
tions, no treatment beyond the occasional crowfoot is con- 
templated. In the rock section, it was decided to lay a 
continuous counterpoise, consisting of 5/16 steel conduc- 
tors available in salvage stores. These cables are in gen- 
eral buried to an average depth of 18 in. under the outer- 
phase wires. Occasionally, however, they are taken around 
rock outcrops, when by so doing they could be buried, 
and, in isolated cases, are actually carried over the top 
of the rock. The performance of this new circuit will be 
carefully compared to that of the existing circuits as such 
performance will largely dictate whether counterpoise 
should be added to the older construction. 

(b) Mechanical — Sleet and "Wind 

Our experience would seem to indicate that, under the 
operating conditions existing, sleet is more liable to form 
on the ground cables than on the power conductors, and 
under such conditions the vertical separation provided 
between ground cables and power conductors has proved 
insufficient. Mr. A. E. Davison, Transmission Engineer 
for the Commission, has actively studied this problem 
of conductor clearances. These studies are based on Lissa- 
jous figures 4 and the locus of motion of the conductor 
under " galloping " conditions is taken as the criterion. 
The axes of this motion have been determined empirically 




5 B i. ,J, ^4- Jim- 

(o) fb) 

Fig. 6 — (a) Clearance diagram (Lissajous figures) for 1940-41 
single circuit construction. Loci based on half-loops, i.e., move- 
ment of quarter-point in suspension span. Note also mid-span 
positions of % in. ice-loaded ground cable and unloaded phase 

conductor. 
(b) Corresponding diagram for 1941 double-circuit construc- 
tion. Note full loop movement of ground wires assumed 
at 880 ft. span. 



24 



January. 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



from recorded field observations and from analyses of 
motion picture records of a number of actual occurrences. 
It is possible to at least approximately delineate the vari- 
ous loci. A tower design in which these approximate loci 
indicate adequate clearance between all conductors is con- 
sidered much more satisfactory than one in which over- 
lapping loci occur. 

However, the extent to which this method should be 
applied to heavy conductor, long-span construction is 
still somewhat of an open question, being largely based 
on the behaviour of smaller conductors and shorter span 
construction than is involved in this case. No conclusive 
data are available indicating that 795,000 cm., A.C.S.R. 
at 1,056 ft. spans will " gallop " at all, and, even if it does, 
whether it will be in one continuous loop between the 
points of support or in something of a wave motion raising 
not more than one-half the span above its normal posi- 
tion at one time (that is, in half-loops). Messrs. Oldacre 
and Wollaston\ in describing the Powerton-Crawford 
line, illustrated the use of Lissajous figures and assumed 
the movement of the conductor in one loop. 

In our case, however, a substantial mileage of towers 
was available in stock and much quicker deliveries could 
be obtained if the basic original design was not changed. 
This design was based on a longitudinal loading equival- 
ent to %in. ice and 8-lb. wind, but with the transverse 
loading increased to s /i in. and 11-lb. wind, the latter in- 
crease an added factor of safety since considered unne- 
cessary. It was decided that part of this excess strength 
could be utilized to provide greater vertical separation 
between ground cables and power conductors, though in 
designing this improvement it was considered sufficient 
to assume movement of the conductors in half-loops only. 
It will be noted in Fig. 6(a) that the re-design has re- 
moved the loci of motion of the ground cables from those 
of the phase conductors, providing adequate clearances 
under the assumed conditions. The ice-loaded mid-span 
position of the ground cable at rest, as compared to the 
corresponding position of the unloaded phase conductor, 
is also shown, indicating the maintenance of substantial 
clearances even with a % in. ice differential. 

(c) Mechanical — Vibration 

The balance of the excess strength in the original tower 
design has been utilized to increase the ruling span from 
1.056 ft. to 1,150 ft. In order to maintain the same 
ground clearance at this longer span, the higher strength 
26x7 strand, 795,000 cm., A.C.S.R. has been used, strung 
to a maximum designed tension of 12,000 lb. Based on 
an ultimate strength of 30,900 lb., the' designed maximum 
and " 60 degree " tensions therefore approximate 39 per 
cent and 17.6 per cent of ultimate strength respectively. 

The lengthening of the span in the new circuit was 
based partly upon the vibration record of the existing 
circuits and partly upon the favourable results obtained 
from an extensive laboratory and field investigation of 
damper design and performance 8 . It is felt that the de- 
velopment in this field now safely permits securing the 
economy inherent in longer spans and higher conductor 
tensions. The full possibilities in this connection were not 
realized in this case, due to the decision to retain the basic 
original tower design, but had a completely new design 
been permitted, spans as great as those encountered in 
some other recent construction would have been given 
serious consideration. 

Associated with this increased span length the applica- 
tion of vibration absorbers was decided upon, rather than 
the previously used armour rods. Approximately one-half 
the line is equipped with the Stockbridge damper and 
one-half with the torsional damper, Fig. 5(b), developed 
in the Commissioer's laboratory and described in a com- 
panion paper by Mr. G. B. Tebo . Both dampers are 



used singly, that is, two per span. Vibration of the ground 
wires is protected against by the use of festoons, Fig. 
5 (c). 

Double Circuit Construction — Leaside to Burlington 

In considering the two-circuit extension of these 220- 
kv. lines, from the existing terminal at Leaside to the 
new terminal at Burlington, a number of factors were 
brought into consideration. Single-circuit construction 
was initially considered, the Commisison not having pre- 
viously operated any double-circuit construction at 220 
kv. In fact, there had been evident in the Commission's 
engineering a tendency to avoid such construction at all 
voltages, in favour of various single-circuit configura- 
tions. However, as some twenty miles of the Burlington 
extension necessarily encircled the metropolitan area of 
Toronto, this viewpoint was brought sharply into conflict 
with the question of right-of-way costs .The final decision 
was in favour of the double-circuit construction, though 
it will be noted that a relatively conservative design has 
been adopted. 

The initial decision was to adopt a span of 880 ft., util- 
izing 795,000 cm., A.C.S.R. at a maximum designed ten- 
sion of 10.000 lb. However, a change in this decision was 




Fig. 7 — Clearance diagram for 1920 type 110 kv. double-circuit 

construction — one-half loops only. Note overlapping 

loci indicating anticipation of sleet outages. 

brought about by the exigencies of the present situation 
and the line is actually being constructed utilizing the 
type HH segmental, hollow-core, copper conductors, 500,- 
000 cm., 1.02 in. outside diameter, seven segments, hav- 
ing an ultimate strength of 21,200 lb. At the 880 ft. ruling 
span the maximum designed tension, at % in. ice, 8-lb. 
wind and 32 deg. F., is 9,500 lb., the 60 deg. tension being 
4,700 lb., equivalent to 45 per cent and 22 per cent of 
ultimate respectively. 

The tower design adopted is shown in Fig. 6(b). It will 
be noted that a single ground cable is used, located at the 
tower peak, 30 ft. above the point of support of the up- 
per phase conductor in the suspension position. A shield- 
ing angle of 29 deg. and a ratio of " height of ground 
wire above power conductors to total height of ground 
wire " of 0.236 results. Footing resistance data on this 
construction are not yet available, but the line being all 
in good agricultural land it is not anticipated any par- 
ticular treatment of the footings will be found necessary. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



25 




8(a) 




IS 




Fig. 8 — (a) Suspension clamp adopted for type HH segmental 
copper cable, 500,000 cm., 1.02 in. outside diameter. Span 880 
ft. maximum designed tension 9,500 lb. 45 per cent of ultimate 

strength. 

(b) Jointing and dead-end assemblies for type HII copper 

conductors. 

Again in the new double-circuit construction the same 
principles of design for sleet operation were used. It has 
been found more difficult to provide adequate clearances 
economically in this type of structure than in the single- 
circuit design. For example, in an earlier 110-kv. design, 
utilizing. 605,000 cm., A.C.S.R. conductors at 880 ft. spans 
and providing a 4-ft. offset of the centre phase wire, Fig. 
7, actual outages due to " galloping " have been experi- 
enced. That these outages might be anticipated, however, 
is indicated when the design is analyzed by means of Lis- 
sajous figures, though it will be seen that rather extensive 
revisions will be needed to effect full clearances. The 
clearance diagram for the 220-kv. design finally adopted 
is shown in Fig. 6(b), based on half-loop movement of 
heavy copper power conductors but full loop movement 
of the relatively light ground cable. 

No special precautions are being taken to protect this 
double-circuit construction against conductor vibration. 
The extensive studies reported by other authors are in- 
terpreted as indicating that, except perhaps in certain 
cases, no such precautions are necessary. Furthermore, it 
was decided that no particularly special provisions would 
be made in the suspension clamp, Fig. 8(a), and that cop- 
per compression joints, Fig. 8(b), would be used for both 
straight joints and dead-end assemblies. Time has not 
permitted complete investigation of this latter practice, 
which is at variance with the practice adopted in certain 
other lines utilizing this form of conductor 7 , but, as the 
full strength of the conductor is developed in these new 
joints and as the mass of all parts subject to possible vi- 
bratory stresses is reduced to a minimum, no objection- 
able operating experience is anticipated. 

A structural revision incorporated in the double-circuit 
tower consists of designing the lower panel so that all 
diagonal connections are made above grade. In earlier 
designs, including the single-circuit 220-kv. construction, 
the point of connection of the lower diagonals and the 



main legs is located below ground level. In this climate 
and particularly in clay soils, frost heaving has been 
found to occur which reacts against this below-grade 
diagonal; causing bending and in some cases actual fail- 
ure. 

Relay Protection and System Stability 

It is finally of interest to describe briefly the relay pro- 
tection provided on this 220-kv. system and to discuss the 
improvements being made, both in the existing protection 
and in the protection of the newer construction, associat- 
ing these improvements with the operating record and 
with the data obtained from Network Calculator analy- 
sis of the system. 

For " phase " faults, the earlier relaying consists of 
directional, two-stage, impedance distance type. The in- 
stantaneous range of such relays is set to cover 85 to 90 
per cent of the line length, the overlapping second range 
set to cover the remainder of the line and being given 
a definite time delay of 0.6 to 0.8 seconds. This protection 
effects simultaneous clearance of all faults in the mid- 
section of any line, but results in delayed opening of the 
distant breaker for end-zone faults. 

For "ground " faults, similar protection is used, except 
that the relays are supplied with line residual current and 
phase-to-ground voltage and the instantaneous range is 
set to cover the whole length of the line, with some mar- 
gin if the remote end is open. This results in simultane- 
ous clearance of mid-sections faults, though it also effects 
sequential clearance of faults in the end zones, that is, 
clearance without the delay associated with the timed 
second range. 

Certain of the line sections terminate in breakers of 
earlier design, which originally gave a clearance time, 
with instantaneous tripping, as high as 0.5 to 0.6 seconds. 
The more modern equipment clears within 0.2 to 0.25 sec- 
onds. Improvements have been made from time to time, 



in 

z 
o 

I 



§ 3 



< 
o 

h 
o 



IfeO 



z 

â 

< 

3 



-ee-120 

z 

Z ÔO 






40 



HO kv System &• 
Niagara Generation 

t 


h Beauhar.no IS 
H MacLaRen 

J Chats Falls 


L 










^AUCAN 


Le 


4SI DE 


y 
















B, „ 






</<• 


/ 


4— 






^ 











«3 o 

<? O 0-2 0-4- 0-6 O-ô 

Time From Onset Of Fault - Seconds 

Fig. 9 — Stability curves for three-circuit 220-kv. system at 
loadings of approximately 200,000 h.p. per circuit. 

(A) Three-phase fault at Chats Falls, cleared sequentially in 

0.2-0.5 seconds — unstable. 

(B) Three-phase fault at Chats Falls, cleared simultaneously in 

0.2 seconds — stable. 

(C) Three-phase fault 30 miles west of Chats Falls, cleared 

simultaneously in 0.25 seconds — stable. 

(D) Two-wire-to-ground fault at Chats Falls, cleared sequen- 

tiallv in 0.2-0.5 seconds — stable. 



26 



January, 1912 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



in the original relaying and in the older circuit breakers, 
so that total clearance times now vary from 4.5 to 10 
cycles, with an average of about 6 cycles (based on 25 
cycles) for all faults except those cleared by the second 
ranges. 

This protection, though admittedly below present-day 
standards, has nevertheless given adequate service dur- 
ing the building-up period on this system. Fortunately, 
all but a very few of the 39 multi-phase faults have oc- 
curred in the high-footing-resistance territory in the mid- 
section of the Chats Falls-Leaside lines, where this pro- 
tection effects simultaneous clearance. 

Improvement necessary in the protective equipment, 
when operating at the higher recent loadings, has been 
the subject of several Network Calculator studies. These 
studies bring out quite clearly the inherent stability of a 25- 
cycle system. Assuming simultaneous clearance times of 
0.2 to 0.25 seconds, as would be obtained with standard 
modern equipment, it is found that the three-phase fault 
may be adopted as the stability criterion, rather than the 
two-wire-to-ground fault usually adopted in 60-cycle sys- 
tems. 

In Fig. 9 is presented a family of curves obtained in 
such analysis, which indicate the relative severity of 
different types and locations of faults. At a loading of 
approximately 150,000 kw. per circuit, Curves A and B 
indicate that three-phase faults near the generating sour- 
ces must be cleared simultaneously in approximately 0.2 
seconds, if stability is to be maintained. If such faults 
occur away from the generating sources, Curve C indi- 
cates that the increased loading of generators thereby 
created is sufficient to maintain stability with simultane- 
ous clearance at 0.25 seconds. Curve D shows the relat- 
ively lesser severity of the two-wire-to-ground fault, 
which does not disturb the system stability with sequen- 
tial clearance as long as 0.2 and 0.5 seconds. These re- 
sults are taken to indicate that, with protective equip- 
ment effecting simultaneous clearance of all faults in 0.2 
to 0.25 seconds, loss of system stability at loadings of 
150,000 kw. to 170,000 kw. per circuit need not be antic- 
ipated. 

It is proposed to attain this aim by superimposing car- 
rier pilot control on existing and on all new two-stage im- 
pedance relaying. With the exception of the new Leaside- 
Burlington line, where standard " transfer-block " car- 
rier relaying is proposed, a system of transfer-trip car- 
rier control is being developed. The first of this equip- 
ment is being installed on the Beauharnois-MacLaren- 
Chats Falls connection and on the new Beauharnois- 



Leaside circuit. It consists of 400-watt carrier communi- 
cation transmitters, single-frequency voice-actuated, the 
speech frequency range being limited to a band of 200 to 
2,500 cycles. Tone generators will be used to transmit re- 
lay control signals, which operate to remove the time-de- 
lay feature of the distant-end second-range relays. Thus 
simultaneous clearance is obtained over the full line 
length, the speed of clearance being limited to that of 
the various terminal breaker equipments. This protection 
is as yet experimental and its performance in service will 
form an interesting study. 

Conclusions 

1. Operating experience with some 8,400 circuit-mile-years of 220-kv. 
single-circuit overhead line construction is submitted, which to a 
high degree confirms conclusions which may be drawn from the 
application to designs of published principles derived from theor- 
etical and experimental analysis. 

2. Changes made in the latest designs of towers to provide improved 
operation under sleet conditions also provide desirable improve- 
ments in design against lightning. 

3. Counterpoise on towers of high-footing-resistance which has 
largely been omitted on earlier construction is being installed on 
1940-41 lines. 

4. Standard two-stage impedance type relay protection has given 
good satisfaction on these lines. To provide the best operation 
under heavy line loadings, carrier-current features are being 
superimposed on both new and old relaying to extend high-speed 
simultaneous fault clearance to cover trie full length of each line. 

References 

© "The 220,000-Volt System of the Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion of Ontario," E.T.J. Brandon; A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 49, 
October 1930, pgs. 1400-1417. 

© "Shielding of Transmission Lines," Messrs. Wagner, McCann and 
MacLaren, Jr.; A.I.E.E. Technical Paper 40-107, presented at the 
Summer Convention 1940. 

© "Experience with Prevention Lightning Protection on Transmis- 
sion Lines," S. K. Waldorf; A.I.E.E. Technical Paper 41-36, 
presented at the Midwinter Convention 1941. 

© "Ice-Coated Electrical Conductors" — A. E. Davison; Technical 
Report No. 229, at the Conférence Internationale des Grands 
Réseaux Electriques à Haute Tension, at Paris, France, on Julv 
1, 1939. 

Note: This paper is reprinted in the Bulletin of the Hydro-Elec. 
Power Com. of Ont., Sept. 1939, pgs. 271-80. 

© "Powerton-Crawford 220-Kv. Line Design and Construction 
Features"— M. S. Oldacre and F. O. Wollaston; A.I.E.E. Tech- 
nical Paper 41-57, presented at the Midwinter Convention 1941. 

© "Measurement and Control of Conductor Vibration," G. B. Tebo; 
Hydro-Elec. Power Com. of Ont.; a paper submitted for presenta- 
tion at the A.I.E.E. Summer Convention 1941. 

© "Engineering Features of the Boulder Dam-Los Angeles Lines," 
E. F. Scattergood; A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 54, 1935, pgs. 
494-512. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



27 



AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS AS RELATED TO BUILDING DESIGN 

S. D. LASH, m.e.i.c. 
Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 



NOTE — This article %vas prepared at the request of the 
Publication Committee of The Institute. It gives a general 
outline of the information contained in one piece of literature 
issued by the British authorities. 

Introduction 

Considerable attention has been given in recent months 
to the problem of air raid precautions in Canada, particu- 
larly from the point of view of civilian defence organiza- 
tion. At the same time, many factory buildings have been 
built for use by war industries and it appears that, in its 
design of these, little or no thought has been given to the 
possibility that in the event of air raids such buildings 
will form important military targets. It is suggested 
therefore, that architects and engineers responsible for the 
design of buildings for defence industries, or 
other vital services, should consider carefully the question 
of passive protection against air attack. 

Although much is yet to be learned, it has been clearly 
established that certain precautions can be taken which 
will greatly lessen the probable damage from air attack. 
Some of these results have been presented in the Wartime 
Building Bulletins published by the Department of Sci- 
entific and Industrial Research in Great Britain. Copies 
of these bulletins are on file in The Institute library. The 
following suggestions are largely based upon information 
contained in the Wartime Building Bulletins, particularly 
No. 10 " General Principles of Wartime Building." 

Planning 

Certain buildings can be very easily detected from the 
air. This may result from the location of such buildings 
or from their design. For example, buildings should not be 
placed in close proximity to well-defined topographical 
features such as lakes or the junctions of railways or 
main roads. The film ''Target for To-Night" provided an 
illustration of these points. The layout of the buildings 
and site should be such that a regular arrangement of 
buildings and roads is avoided, and the natural surface 
of the ground is disturbed as little as possible. Distinctive 
features such as traffic circles should also be avoided; 
road surfaces should be dark in colour; and it is desirable 
that hedges be planted alongside roads. The best orienta- 
tion for buildings is with the longest side running east 
and west. 

High buildings are more easily detected from the air 
than low buildings, and any buildings having inclined roof 
glazing are particularly difficult to camouflage. Thus the 
ordinary saw-tooth roof building should be avoided and 
it is fortunate that this type has never been as popular 
in Canada as elsewhere owing to problems resulting from 
the accumulation of snow in the valleys. On the other 
hand, flat roofs should have a sufficient slope to ensure 
a rapid run-off of rain water so as to avoid reflections. 

Construction 

The precautions mentioned in the preceding paragraph 
are aimed at preventing the detection of the building from 
the air. In spite of all precautions a factory may be loc- 
ated by the enemy and bombs dropped in its vicinity. Its 
vulnerability will then depend greatly upon the construc- 
tion. 

Damage from bombs may result from a direct hit, from 
blast, or indirectly from fire. The following remarks refer 
chiefly to the effects of these on single storey factories. 

With regard to direct hits, the British authorities state ■ 
that " it is possible without extravagance to design a sin- 



gle storey factory in which extensive collapse of the roof 
is unlikely, even under a direct hit from a very heavy 
bomb." This is accomplished by building the structure 
with a considerable degree of continuity. Thus, for exam- 
ple, steel roof trusses should not rest on masonry bearing 
walls but should be strongly connected to steel columns 
so as to produce a fully framed structure. Other things 
being equal, a building with closely spaced columns may 
be more vulnerable than one in which the columns are 
further apart since two or more adjacent columns may 
be destroyed by a single bomb. Particular care should 
be taken to prevent the collapse of a whole series of roof 
trusses through the collapse of one. This can be accom- 
plished by providing suitable continuous beams or trusses 
at right angles to the planes containing the roof trusses. 
In general, design to limit damage from direct hits has 
many things in common with the design of earthquake 
resisting structures. 

It has been shown quite clearly that the effect of blast 
is greatly increased if the explosion is confined in a small 
space. Thus when a bomb explodes in a building there is 
a considerable increase in pressure for a very short period 
of time and the impulsive forces thus created will shatter 
windows and possibly push out the walls and lift the roof. 

Inclined roof glazing is bad from the point of view of 
vulnerability, as well as detection, since when the glass 
is shattered, the arrangement of temporary protection 
against weather and of blackout measures may be a mat- 
ter of some difficulty. In fact it will be considerably more 
difficult to arrange blackout precautions in the first in- 
stance. On the other hand it has been pointed out that 
vertical glazing in walls, if close to the ground, is par- 
ticularly liable to damage from near, or not so near, 
misses. Thus it is desirable that walls should have no win- 
dow openings closer than say five or six feet to the ground 
and that the walls up to this height should be of sufficient 
thickness to provide protection against splinters. Such 
walls should not be anchored to the columns since they 
can then be blown out without causing collapse of the 
whole structure. On the other hand, the roof should be 
securely anchored down. The necessity for adequate roof 
anchorage against wind loads has been generally recogniz- 
ed since the Florida and New England hurricanes and 
the use of such anchorage will assist greatly in preventing 
the displacement of roofs by blast. 

The British authorities state that the need for fire pro- 
tection has been clearly shown. It is stated that for every 
ton of steel rendered unusable by the direct action of 
bombs ten tons have been destroyed by fire. Consequent- 
ly it is strongly recommended that all steel be protected 
against fire. The amount of protection required in any 
particular case will depend upon the amount of combus- 
tible material in the building. In a great many instances, 
protection sufficient to provide a fire resistance of one 
hour, as determined by standard test, will be adequate. 
In some cases even one half-hour protection may be suffi- 
cient to prevent collapse. Many modern building codes 
include description of such protections. The British au- 
thorities refer to the use of sprayed asbestos and sprayed 
" slag wool" (rock wool and gypsum), in addition to the 
protections more commonly used; these processes would 
appear to be worth consideration in Canada. 

Limitation of damage by fire is not merely a matter of 
protection of structural members, though such protection 
will go far in preventing structural collapse; all fire pre- 
vention methods which have proved to be valuable in 



28 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the past should be carefully considered. Such methods in- 
clude the provision of adequate water supplies for fire- 
fighting, the use of automatic detecting and extinguish- 
ing systems, and the use of self-closing fire doors and 
other barriers to the spread of fire. In these matters the 
various associations of insurance underwriters can give 
expert advice. Occasionally wartime requirements differ 
from ordinary fire protection measures. Thus it has al- 
ready been pointed out that the subdivision of floor space 
into comparatively small areas is considered undesirable, 
since the effect of blast may thereby be increased. 



The protection of personnel comes under the general 
subject of civilian defence but there are one or two mat- 
ters to which the attention of architects and engineers 
may be directed. The provision of proper exit facilities is 
of great importance. Since the primary exit may be block- 
ed it is particularly important that a second exit be avail- 
able from every floor area. Low walls three or four feet 
high, subdividing floor areas, are a useful means of pro- 
tecting personnel and machinery from splinters and from 
the effects of blast. They will not confine the blast suffi- 
ciently to increase general structural damage. 



ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1941 TO THE ENGINEERS' COUNCIL 
FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

ROBERT E. DOHERTY 
Chairman of the Council 

Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Engineers' Council for Professional Development, 
at New York, U.S.A., on October 30th, 1941. 



Before reporting specifically regarding the work of the 
Council I wish to make a few general observations. In 
the first place, it has seemed clear that before E.C.P.D. 
could accelerate its progress toward the objectives stated 
in the Charter it was essential that not only the officers 
and boards but also the rank and file of the constituent 
organizations understand much more fully than they have 
in the past what these objectives are and the importance 
of their achievement to the welfare of the country. An 
astonishing number of people, including some comparat- 
ively close to the work, have felt that the most important 
activity and the only significant achievement of E.C.P.D. 
have been in connection with the accrediting program. 
Yet the Charter clearly indicates other purposes and ac- 
tivities — relating to selection and guidance, professional 
training, professional recognition — and these are also ac- 
tively pursued by standing committees. And from the 
point of view of further advancement of the profession, 
and more important still, the welfare of the country, 
these other purposes and activities are, in the long run, 
unquestionably of equal importance with accrediting. 
Good students are not less essential than good schools. 
Hence, at the beginning of the year I strongly urged an 
educational campaign among the constituent organiza- 
tions as one of the most important projects the Council 
could undertake. And I am confident that as the construc- 
tive purposes and results of the Council's work become 
clear, all constituent bodies will appraise the situation 
as it exists today, forget misunderstandings of the past, 
and see their way clear to support the Council's work. 

The chairman's views regarding this matter, after dis- 
cussion in Executive Committee meetings, were presented 
in a report to the several boards of the constituent 
groups under the heading " E.C.P.D. Should Look 
Ahead." This report has been made available to the 
membership of several of the constituent organizations by 
publication in their respective journals 1 . It urged that, 
in the interest of national welfare as well as professional 
development, the organizations cultivate more effective 
methods of co-operation than they have had in the past. 

The machinery for the cultivation of such co-operation 
exists in E.C.P.D. The projects represented by its stand- 
ing committees and by other objectives having to do with 
professional development afford a basis on which the or- 
ganizations can work together. But the effectiveness of 
this co-operation will depend, in my opinion, altogether 
upon the effectiveness of plans devised by the Council 
to make use of the machinery wisely set up by the sever- 

1 The Engineering Journal, September 1941, p. 446. 



al participating bodies when the Council was organized. 
These plans must, it seems to me, include a more active 
participation than in the past by the representatives of 
the constituent bodies; and to accomplish this, there nat- 
urally must be a definite and a constructive program in 
which they can find an active interest. It is hardly to be 
expected that each of twenty-four different delegates will, 
on his own responsibility, think out what his organization 
should do toward E.C.P.D. objectives or what E.C.P.D. 
might do to further them. Hence the officers and Commit- 
tee chairmen of the Council must work with the delegates 
to formulate plans and procedures. Fostering co-operative 
effort has thus become one of our definite plans. 

A.nd finally, I would say a general word regarding fin- 
ancial responsibility for supporting the work of the Com- 
mittee on Engineering Schools. From the beginning it 
has been the policy, and still is, that an engineering 
school should pay for the expense of the initial inspection 
to determine whether a curriculum should be accredited. 
Although all of the colleges have accepted this policy 
(some, however, under protest), there is nevertheless an- 
other side of the inspection plan on which the policy has 
not been so clear or so widely accepted. This relates to 
the question who should pay for re-inspection of curricula 
that have already been added to the accredited list. A 
number of the colleges are unalterably opposed to the 
principle that they should pay this re-inspection fee, and 
this opposition has made it extremely difficult for the 
officers of E.C.P.D. who administer the accrediting pro- 
gram. Hence this became a major question of policy. On 
the one side, such engineering colleges take the position 
that the E.C.P.D. and other accrediting agencies consti- 
tute an intolerable burden and nuisance in view of the 
combined expense in money and time of staff spent in 
preparing questionnaires and in looking after visiting 
delegations of inspection; that they were not responsible 
for the proposal to start the accrediting program in the 
first place, but rather it was the state boards and profes- 
sional societies that wanted it; and that they now make 
sizeable contributions toward the program through the 
time their faculty members and their official staff take 
from academic work in order to carry out E.C.P.D. com- 
mittee assignments in connection with inspection pro- 
grams at other institutions and the preparation of reports 
for E.C.P.D. On the other hand, the argument is proposed 
by some representatives of the constituent organizations 
that the accrediting program is valuable to the colleges 
both on account of the advice and counsel that may come 
to them as a result of the inspection and re-inspection and 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



29 



through having their names appear on the accredited list. 
This matter was a question of extended debate at two 
meetings of the Executive Committee, since a decision to 
remove the burden of re-inspection fee from the colleges 
would make an additional appropriation necessary from 
the constituent organizations. As indicated in detail under 
finances, the decision of the Committee was in favor of 
relieving the colleges of this burden, and of asking the 
constituent organizations for increased appropriations. 

New Charter for Engineering Education 

Engineering education in this country now has a char- 
ter to guide its development. In 1939 a special committee 
of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Educa- 
tion undertook the statement of an educational philoso- 
phy and the formulation of definite objectives that might 
serve as the basis for the design of programs in engineer- 
ing education. After extended work by the committee, 
representing a wide spread of points of view, the S.P.E.E. 
issued the report " Aims and Scope of Engineering Cur- 
ricula." 

In view of the fact that the recommendations of this 
report naturally had definite relationship to the question 
of accrediting, the report was submitted to the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development at the October, 
1940 meeting, at which President Donald B. Prentice of 
the S.P.E.E. made a statement regarding this relationship 
to the Council's work. The Council of course referred the 
matter to the Committee on Engineering Schools, and I 
am happy to note in the report of Chairman Potter of 
this Committee that the provisions in the S.P.E.E. docu- 
ment have been endorsed by this Committee. 

For its educational leadership and the contribution thus 
made toward professional development by the Society for 
the Promotion of Engineering Education, the E.C.P.D. 
should be most grateful, and I here express such gratitude 
on behalf of the Council. 

E.C.P.D. Activities 

The work of the several Committees is fully reported by 
the chairmen, but there are a few items that I also wish 
to mention. 

In connection with Selection and Guidance, the Council 
was very appreciative of the proposal made by President 
Cullimore of Newark College of Engineering and spon- 
sored by Dean Sackett's Committee. It related to a joint 
study of the E.C.P.D. and S.P.E.E. on " Aptitude Tests 
and Selective Devices " which have proved to be most 
effective in the selection of engineering students. The 
Council enthusiastically approved the project, which it 
was estimated would cost $4,500, and expressed its grati- 
tude to President Cullimore for his interest and his wil- 
lingness to find the funds to finance the project. 

Another item is the pamphlet " Engineering as a Ca- 
reer." After protracted study and repeated revisions, 
Chairman Sackett of the Committee on Selection and 
Guidance presented it in manuscript to the Council meet- 
ing in October, 1940. The Council expressed its gratitude 
to Dean Sackett for his untiring work in this connection 
and approved the manuscript for publication provided 
funds could be obtained for the purpose, and subject to 
review and approval by the Committee on Information. 
There was available from the sale of the old pamphlet a 
balance of approximately $2,000, which was about one- 
half of the amount required for publication of a new 
pamphlet. The Chairman of E.C.P.D. explored without 
avail every possible source of financial assistance that had 
been suggested. Hence the only recourse seemed to be a 
revision of the pamphlet which would reduce its volume 
and expense to a level that could be financed by the funds 
that were available. This problem was reviewed by the 
Committee on Information, and its proposal to undertake 
the revision was later reviewed and approved by the Ex- 



ecutive Committee, the revised manuscript subject to ap- 
proval by the Executive Committee. The revision will be 
ready for review and approval at the October, 1941 meet- 
ing of the Executive Committee. It is to be hoped that 
the new pamphlet will promptly make its appearance af- 
ter the October meeting, because there is great demand — 
about 10,000 copies per year — and the stock of the old 
pamphlet is exhausted. 

The major effort of the Committee on Engineering 
Schools has of course been in connection with the accred- 
iting program. The statesmanlike manner in which the 
numerous difficult problems of the Committee have been 
handled by Dean Potter and his colleagues has greatly 
enhanced the prestige of E.C.P.D. Dean Potter's second 
term on the Committee on Engineering Schools expires 
this year, and it is with sincere regret that the Council 
will lose his distinguished leadership. Needless to say, 
his contributions toward the work of E.C.P.D. were not 
confined alone to the activities of the Committee on En- 
gineering Schools but spread over the whole program, 
including an extremely important role in connection with 
the financial support of the Council's work. And for all of 
this, I speak the gratitude of his colleagues on the Coun- 
cil. 

The Committee on Professional Training also will lose 
the leadership of its present chairman. Mr. S. D. Kirk- 
patrick, who was vice-chairman during 1939-40 and 
chairman during the current year, will be obliged to give 
up the chairmanship next year on account of his accept- 
ing the honor and new responsibility of the presidency of 
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. During 
his first term as a member and later as vice-chairman of 
the Committee on Professional Training, he had made 
important contributions to the Council's work, and in his 
brief term as chairman of the Committee he has carried 
forward the program with the same characteristic thought 
and vigor. We are grateful to him and reluctantly give 
him up to the leadership of his own profession. 

Of all the problems with which E.C.P.D. has dealt, 
professional recognition has proved the most perplexing. 
The difficulty lies primarily and inherently in the fact 
that the profession of engineering is itself in a state of 
evolution and hence there has not yet been evolved a 
definite concept that would receive general acceptance 
as to what constitutes the profession. Without this, there 
is little promise of arriving at a consensus as to criteria of 
professional recognition. The persistent and unremitting 
work of Professor C. F. Scott, chairman of the Committee 
on Professional Recognition, is, I believe, bringing a grad- 
ual clarification of the elemental considerations that must 
be dealt with before a satisfactory solution of the problem 
can be achieved. With certain de facto forms of recogni- 
tion in different areas and with slowly crystallizing con- 
cepts of what the profession is, Professor Scott and his 
Committee aim first to secure clarification of thought and 
views, recognizing that the reconcilation or adjustment of 
fundamentally different concepts calls not for precipitous 
action but for continuing long-range study and pursuit. 
Following E.C.P.D. methods it begins with youth, con- 
centrating on the engineering student by aiming to arouse 
his interest in understanding the engineering profession 
and " Professional Recognition " — the goal he seeks. The 
Committee observes that the immediate objective of E.C. 
P.D. — " the development of the young engineer to profes- 
sional standing" — concerns the individual; but its cul- 
minating aim — " greater effectiveness in dealing with 
technical, social, and economic problems " — calls for 
group action, a profession. The young engineer is but par- 
tially developed if he lacks the capability and the attitude 
for group action in a profession. 

The work of the Committee on Ethics was inherited 
from the American Engineering Council when the latter 
dissolved. At its meeting in January, 1941, the Executive 



30 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Committee voted to take over the sponsorship of this 
work, and the Committee on Ethics under the chairman- 
ship of Professor D. C. Jackson, and with a few additional 
members appointed by the Council, has continued the 
study and preparation of a code of ethics. The Committee 
has made a progress report including a preliminary ten- 
tative draft. I strongly recommend that the Council re- 
quest the Committee to continue its study and look for- 
ward to having a final report at the Annual Meeting in 
1942. 

The educational campaign, to which I have already 
referred, is another Council activity that I wish to touch 
more specifically. There have been three lines. One was 
the Chairman's report to the Boards, " E.C.P.D. Should 
Look Ahead," which gave not only the Chairman's view 
as to the opportunities and responsibilities that lie before 
E.C.P.D. but also a brief report of the active work of the 
several committees. The second was the plan of the Com- 
mittee on Information to prepare for the press, especially 
for the publications reaching members of the engineering 
profession, informative releases regarding the work of the 
Council. And finally a plan was made to encourage ses- 
sions at meetings of the constituent organizations at 
which the work of E.C.P.D. would be presented and dis- 
cussed. There have been two such meetings and two more 
are scheduled, as reported by Professor Scott, chairman 
of the Committee on Professional Recognition, who has 
taken a leading interest in this plan. 

In this latter connection, a report from Mr. J. F. Fair- 
man, an American Institute of Electrical Engineers rep- 
resentative on the Council, includes an idea which I think 
is highly significant. It is that the way to achieve under- 
standing of and active interest in the purposes of E.C.P. 
D. by the members of the constituent organizations is to 
have the local chapters take an active hand; and that the 
way to bring this about is to have the whole matter, in- 
cluding a plan, discussed at the regular Session of Officers, 
Delegates, and Members at the A.I.E.E. annual conven- 
tion. These are the people responsible for section activi- 
ties, and if they understand the plan and are convinced, 
something will come of it when they go back home. It 
is the conclusion of Mr. Fairman and his associates that 
the most likely of the Council's problems about which the 
local Sections might become active is that of Selection and 
Guidance. Their work might be patterned along the lines 
of the procedure already developed in certain metropoli- 
tan areas in connection with the work of the Committee 
on Selection and Guidance. Once this was under way, a 
second step taken by a section might be in relation to the 
work of the Committee on Professional Training in help- 
ing young graduates to become appropriately oriented 
and active in their own professional development. And 
so on. This general point of view and plan seem to me 
most promising, and the fact that the A.I.E.E., through 
the leadership of Mr. Fairman and his associates, is pro- 
ceeding along these lines is most encouraging. 

Technical Institutes 

The relationship of technical institutes to the whole 
scheme of technological education in this country has 
been a matter of continuing concern to the Council. In 
his annual report last year Chairman Perry outlined the 
beginning of active consideration of this problem under 
the sponsorship of E.C.P.D. President Parke Rexford 
Kolbe of Drexel Institute of Technology and Dean H. P. 
Hammond of Pennsylvania State College have under- 
taken the leadership in this important and difficult mat- 
ter. President Kolbe called a meeting of officers of a num- 
ber of technical institutes, and as a result a petition was 
submitted to E.C.P.D. that it consider the problem of ac- 
crediting of technical institutes. This was referred by 



Chairman Perry to the Committee on Engineering 
Schools, but after consideration it became clear in this 
Committee that the question was too involved to allow a 
prompt decision to be reached; it was then recommended 
that a sub-committee including President Kolbe be ap- 
pointed to continue study of the problem, and this was 
done. 

Constituent Membership 

Since the organization of E.C.P.D. the question has 
arisen from time to time as to whether the constituent 
membership should be increased. As reported by Chair- 
man Perry last year, The Engineering Institute of Cana- 
da was welcomed as a new member of the Council, and 
this was done through the unanimous decision of the ex- 
isting member organizations to recognize the common 
purposes and interests of engineers of the two great coun- 
tries in connection with professional development. The 
international aspect of this move placed it in an altogeth- 
er special category as regards institutional membership. 
There have been other problems in connection with engi- 
neering organizations in the United States, but the Coun- 
cil has not yet found it possible to dispose finally of the 
question of general policy here involved. 

Finances 

E.C.P.D. is solvent, but the financial situation is cer- 
tainly not all that might be desired. As one indication of 
the limitations on its work I would mention that the 
funds available to the standing committees, excepting the 
Committee on Engineering Schools, for the important 
work they are expected to pursue, are limited in each case 
within the range of $300 to $600. One of the immediate 
problems before the Council is the provision of something 
approaching a reasonable appropriation in these cases. 

The financing of the work of the Committee on Engi- 
neering Schools has had special aspects, as I have indic- 
ated earlier in this report. The problem of policy as to 
whether engineering schools should be assessed for re-in- 
spection of curricula was determined by the Executive 
Committee at its meeting in March: the schools were not 
to be assessed. Accordingly, constituent bodies were ap- 
proached by the Chairman with the request that they in- 
crease their appropriations to the work of the Council 
in order that this policy might be carried out. I am grat- 
ified to report that the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers have 
doubled their appropriations, and that the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers will act upon our request in De- 
cember. Thus it seems clear that we shall be able to car- 
ry out the policy adopted by the Executive Committee, 
and I express the Council's gratitude to the organizations 
that are making this possible. 

I would report one further action of the Executive 
Committee. After considerable deliberation as to respon- 
sibility for the securing of funds for the Council's work, 
the Executive Committee decided for the present year to 
expand the Ways and Means Committee to include one 
representative from each of the constituent groups. In 
the absence of any action by the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee, the Chairman of E.C.P.D., with such assistance 
as he could find — and he found good assistance — has 
taken the initiative in raising funds, and he is very grate- 
ful to Messrs. Potter, Seabury, Fairman, Davies, Steven- 
son, Tyler, and Dodge. 

I close this report with an expression of my great ap- 
preciation of the co-operative attitude and interest of the 
officers, committees, and members of the Council, and I 
feel sure that their work during the year has given new 
impetus to the Council's programs at a time when, for 
the welfare of the country, this is most important. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



31 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



BRITAIN SCRAPS WHOLE RAILWAY 

From Robert Williamson, London, Eng. 

Britain is throwing a whole railway into the mobiliza- 
tion of iron and steel for the war. Although it is an old 
railway, its rails alone will add to the resources of Britain 
enough steel for no fewer than 384,000 rifles. 

Until 1937 the trains of the Welsh Highland Railway 
chugged over some of the loveliest scenery in the Princi- 
pality. But in that year it ceased to function and the 
grass began to grow along its 28 miles of permanent way. 

Now the rails, which are modern, are being taken up, 
1,200 tons of them. They will be relaid elsewhere on sid- 
ings needed for the war effort, so setting free steel-making 
capacity for armament manufacture. 

The two old locomotives are for the dismantler's yard 
and metal from the rolling stock is for the same 
destination. 

The railway is but an item in a nation-wide hunt for 
metal to turn into rifles, Tommy guns and tanks, into 
armour plate for battleships and armoured coastal de- 
fences. 

A Doomsday Book of park, street and house railings, 
of ancient steam rollers, engines and boiler-house plant is 
being prepared and already on walls bills have been 
posted proclaiming the Government's requisitioning of 
them. Among the first to respond has been the King 
himself with many tons of the railings of Buckingham 
Palace for the collection. 

ALUMINIUM AFTER THE WAR 

From Trade & Engineering (London), October, 1941. 

The cessation of hostilities will release, for more 
peaceful purposes, vast quantities of aluminium and its 
alloys. Doubt has been expressed in many quarters as to 
whether the war-time output of the metal can, without 
artificial stimulus, be absorbed in times of peace, but those 
familiar with the trends of aluminium consumption before 
the war entertain no doubt but that the demand for light- 
weight products will be sufficient to absorb even the present 
large output. 

In one field in particular, that of architecture, both 
structural and decorative, there will undoubtedly be a 
considerable increase in aluminium consumption over that 
experienced up to the outbreak of war. The experience 
which has been gained in forming or building up large 
components for the great aircraft and flying-boats now 
in use will be of direct value to architects and construc- 
tional engineers. Another factor which will contribute 
largely to the use of aluminium in building construction 
is the reduction in costs of handling and in the fatigue of 
personnel which is a result of the low weight of the 
material. 

The high coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal 
has on occasion been advanced as an argument against its 
employment in large structures, but this can be readily 
overcome, as it has been in the past, by making the neces- 
sary provisions for expansion and contraction. When ex- 
truded sections are used it is possible to accomplish this 
by means of slip joints at junctions of the members, but 
where solid lengths or cast aluminium spandrels are placed 
between masonry jambs plastic caulking material will be 
necessary at the joints. 

Many factors are likely to contribute to the extended 
use of aluminium. First must rank the fact that a sub- 
stantial reduction in price will be effected immediately 



32 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



war-time restrictions regarding price control are removed. 
This must inevitably follow as a natural consequence of 
the vast expansion of aluminium production and the 
rationalization which has occurred with regard to the 
economic use of the large supplies of high-quality scrap 
now available. 

Improvements in technique resulting from the war-time 
programme of aircraft construction will also be potent 
factors in increasing consumption of aluminium for archi- 
tectural purposes. In particular the advances made in ex- 
trusion technique, especially with regard to the production 
of bulky sections in long lengths, will prove to be of im- 
portance. Casting techniques have also been improved, 
particularly with regard to the production of gravity and 
pressure die castings. These processes are naturally of 
value in cases where large quantity production is contem- 
plated. The machining of aluminium alloys has also been 
intensively investigated, particularly in connection with 
the use of recently developed hard metal and diamond tools. 

AMERICAN WAR INDUSTRY 

From Civil Engineering and Public Works Review (London), 
November, 1941 

The rapid expansion of the American war effort in the 
factories is being reflected in the vast increase of the 
production of various component parts. The number of 
factories is being rapidly increased and the existing ones 
are being extended as rapidly as human ingenuity and 
labour can devise. 

Few branches of the war industry have shown a greater 
degree of expansion than the manufacture of aeroplanes. 
This is well seen in the rapid development of the aluminium 
production industry, particularly of one company, the 
Aluminium Company of America. This company is fast 
bringing to completion the expansions of its plants at Los 
Angeles, California, and at Lafayette, Indiana. 

In 1937, in order to serve the aeroplane industry more 
effectively, the company bought 15 acres of land in Vernon, 
Los Angeles, and erected on it a sand and permanent -mould 
foundry and forge plant. The works was completed early 
in 1938. At the start of the war, the Vernon works had a 
capacity of 100,000 lb. of aluminium alloy forgings, and 
424,000 lb. of sand and permanent-mould castings a 
month. 

In the spring of 1940, an expansion of the facilities in 
Vernon was announced. This expansion included the 
addition of an extrusion works and a rivet plant, as well as 
additions and betterments to the existing aluminium 
foundry and forge plant. To carry on this expansion, the 
company acquired an adjacent 30 acres of land. 

The buildings necessary to house the additional manufac- 
turing facilities in Los Angeles have now been completed 
and the equipment is rapidly being installed to handle the 
increased production, so that very shortly the sand and 
permanent-mould casting capacity will have been in- 
creased to 593,000 lb. a month (an increase of 40 per cent.), 
and the forging capacity to 450,000 lb. a month (an in- 
crease of 350 per cent.) ; while the new extrusion plant will 
be turning out extruded shapes at the rate of 1,019,000 lb. 
a month ; and the new rivet plant, . rivets at the rate of 
70,000 lb. a month. By March, 1942, the forging capacity 
of the Vernon works will have been increased an additional 
50,000 lb. a month. 

January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 






STRONG AS CAST IRON 

From Robert Williamson, London, Eng. 

After two years' continuous research, Great Britain is 
today able to introduce pottery into many new fields of 
British industry to take the place of metals, alloys, glass, 
rubber and wood, on the use of which restrictions have in- 
evitably been placed in war time. 

High grade chemical stoneware comparable with grey 
cast iron in mechanical strength can now be used in place 
of metal for pipe lines and also for packing purposes 
either in relatively small units or in bulk. 

These novel ceramic wares have certain advantages 
over the materials in former use. They resist rust and 
contamination; they can be turned into an almost unlim- 
ited number of shapes and sizes, and they are proof against 
all corrosive chemicals except hydrofluoric acid and hot, 
strong caustic alkalis. 

The new pottery is, moreover, prepared with such scien- 
tific thoroughness and fired in the kilns at such a high 
temperature, 1250 deg. C. or more, that, in compression 
strength it resembles metals rather than the fragile china 
or earthenware ornaments of the home. 

New applications of ceramic materials have also been 
introduced in recent months to textiles, rayon, paper- 
making, printing, soap, perfumery, cosmetics, brewing and 
food manufacture industries and to many branches of the 
chemical, metallurgical and electrical industries. 

THE AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF 
INCENDIARY BOMBS 

From Engineering (London), September 5th, 1941 

A brief reference was made in the issue oV Engineering 
for June 6 of this year, page 448, to the employment of 
the light-sensitive selenium cell, known as the Radiovisor, 
in the detection of incendiary bombs, but some data result- 
ing from a recent investigation are sufficient to justify a 
more detailed account. The investigation was made to 
determine to what extent serious fires have occurred in 
factories from undetected incendiary bombs. In nearly every 
case the fire-watching organization was efficient in the fac- 
tory concerned and was able to get every bomb in sight 
under control without difficulty, it being the undiscovered 
bombs which had fallen on roofs or in such places as closed 
yards which were responsible for the subsequent damage. 
It is stated that in over 70 per cent, of the cases investigated 
the persons responsible for the safety of the factory stated 
that their organization would have been quite capable of 
getting all the fires under control had they known their 
whereabouts precisely. This does not imply that the patrol- 
ling was not efficient; the obvious reaction to an incendiary 
bomb attack is to put out those bombs, or the fires they 
may be starting, which are in the immediate vicinity of the 
patrols. It is possible, moreover, that some of these bombs 
may fall in positions in which they will do no damage and 
may thus be left for later attention or perhaps even left to 
burn themselves out. In the meantime a bomb on, say a 
roof, may escape notice until a fire difficult to control has 
been caused. 

The primary requirement is, clearly, the indication of 
the location of every bomb and the grouping of the indi- 
cations in a central position. This enables the persons in 
charge at the central position to send fire-fighting squads 
to the exact spot at which the bomb has fallen and, Û the 
attack is heavy, to distribute these squads to the positions 
involving a heavy fire-risk; first, for example, to paint stores, 
pattern shops and woodworking shops, that is, assuming 
the personnel is not sufficient to deal with all the fires at 
once. The bombs which fall in localities involving little fire 
risk, such as yards, brick buildings containing stored metal 
and the like, should there be a shortage of personnel, may 



be dealt with subsequently. The locating of all bomb sites 
should be accompanied by means for discrimination, should 
such discrimination be necessary. The system of detection 
by the selenium cell referred to in our previous note would 
seem to meet these requirements. It has, indeed, proved 
effective in factories in which it has already been installed. 
This system has been developed, as indicated in the pre- 
vious note, by Messrs. Mortimer, Gall and Company, 
Limited, 115-117, Cannon-street, London, E.C.4. 

In practice, the selenium detectors are installed in the 
works in positions which appear to be most suitable. Each 
detector will cover an area ranging from 8,000 sq. ft. to 
10,000 sq. ft. of open workshop. Usually some are installed 
inside and some outside. A common and effective position 
for the outside detectors is on the ridges of the saw-tooth 
or north-light roof often adopted for shops of considerable 
area. A detector is not needed on every ridge, but on alter- 
nate ones only, as the valleys of the ridge without a detector 
are effectively covered by the detectors on the ridges on 
each side of it. The valleys of such roofs are particularly 
dangerous spots, since the roof purlins, when of wood, are 
easily ignited from bombs. The gutters into which a bomb 
might roll are best protected by a covering of expanded 
metal. The detectors are easily attached and on some 
sites on roofs are protected by a small canopy so that 
they will not respond to, say, a gunflash and so give a 
false alarm. 

There is a set of electrical apparatus for each selenium 
detector, the wiring between the two usually carrying cur- 
rent at 50 volts. The supply to the apparatus may be at 
100 volts, 200 volts, or 250 volts, and may be either alter- 
nating current or direct current. The terminals to which 
the detector is connected are seen at the bottom left-hand 
corner of the case. Above them is a sensitivity control knob, 
and to the right a reset switch. The other terminals are for 
the bell and indicator leads. An earthing terminal is pro- 
vided. The electrical apparatus includes transformers. The 
current for the detector has already been mentioned; that 
for the bell and indicator circuit is supplied from an inde- 
pendent battery and varies from 4 volts to 24 volts, accord- 
ing to the lay-out. The electrical cases can be arranged in 
groups of three or four in any convenient place in the shops. 
The indicator panel and alarm bell are situated in the room 
of the works A.R.P. controller. Each dial of the indicator 
is labelled in accordance with the position of the detector 
actuating it, and the panels have generally a much larger 
number of windows than the demonstration set shown. 

In the event of a number of incendiary bombs falling on 
a works, more than one of the detectors will most probably 
be actuated, when the warning bell will ring and the discs 
in the appropriate windows of the indicator will oscillate 
to show near which detector stations the bombs are lying. 
The vulnerability of the sections concerned can be imme- 
diately assessed and the fire-parties allocated accordingly. 
The allocation of men is, of course, a matter for the works 
concerned, but it may be of interest to cite an example 
in a works in which the selenium-cell detection system is 
fitted. In this works the controller is provided with a tabu- 
lated list of departments showing the minimum number of 
men that should be dispatched to that department in case 
an incendiary bomb should fall in it. The actual list is in 
the following form: pattern shop, 3 men; paint shop, 4 men; 
office block (west), 6 men; office block (east), 4 men; load- 
ing bank, 1 man, and so on. The problem of the undiscov- 
ered delayed-action incendiary bomb is also solved by the 
system above described. 

An interesting development concerns the security of 
special offices and rooms to which access is permissible in 
cases of emergency only. This consists of a box attached to 
the door of the room and having a slot into which the door 
key is dropped when the door has been locked. The key 
remains inaccessible, but when normal access is required it 
can be caused to fall out into a tray at the front of the box 
by the operation of a switch on the control room. In an 



THE ENGINEERED JOURNAL January, 1942 



33 



emergency, as when incendiary bombs fall, it is delivered 
automatically, since the actuating mechanism is connected 
with the detector system. 

GATEWAY TO MIDDLE EAST 

From Robert Williamson, London, England 

The Turkish Government have given London engineers 
a contract, worth some £200,000, to reconstruct habour 
works at Alexandretta, consisting of a jetty with screwed- 
cylinder foundation, sheds, railway lines and cranes. 

It is understood that a similar contract is pending for 
the port of Mersin across the gulf, the base of a Turkish 
army corps. Both Alexandretta and Mersin are connected 
by rail with Aleppo. The fact that they are so near this 
vital railway link between Turkey and Iraq, dominating 
North Persia and the Middle East, gives both ports con- 
siderable military importance, apart from their value at 
the moment for trade between Turkey and Great Britain. 

Alexandretta has 8,000 sq. metres of covered warehouses, 
but there are no quays or dry docks. The harbour is not 
protected by breakwaters, although it is sheltered and gives 
the safest anchorage all the year round in that part of the 
world. Ships anchored half a mile from the shore discharge 
their cargoes into lighters and other small craft for which 
there is a basin 80 ft. long. 

THE DESERT AND THE SOWN 

From Civil Engineering and Public Works Revieiv (London), 
November, 1941 

This aspect of the work of the engineer is of the greatest 
political and economic importance. Over vast regions of 
the surface of the globe there stretches desert conditions 
which render the human occupation of hundreds of thou- 
sands of square miles quite impossible. A glance at a map 
of the world shows that these arid places tend to girdle the 
earth as two zones lying just north and south of the humid 
equatorial regions. To the north and to the south lie the 
temperate zones of the earth, which have been the sites of 
human expansion and progress. 

As the growth of population has produced an expanding 
need to bring fresh land under cultivation for the growth 
of an ever-increasing demand for foodstuff, there has been 
a tendency for the peoples of the humid, well-watered areas 
to spread towards the less well-watered arid regions. The 
advance into these areas has been spasmodic and has 
fluctuated according to the needs of the time. 

No modern country illustrates to a greater degree this 
tendency than the United States. Every year sees the 
completion of one or more vast schemes for bringing the 
life-giving water to some arid area and so enabling man to 
encroach more and more into what would otherwise be 
inhospitable and uninhabitable lands. 

This modern struggle to invade and occupy the desert 
fringes is no new phenomenon. Each year brings forth 
fresh evidence of the antiquity of this struggle. 

Of ancient endeavours in this direction there is none 
more fascinating than that which took place over 2,500 
years ago in the ancient land of Sheba. 

To the layman the present-day engineering works for 
the conservation of water and its distribution to the desert 
lands seems a modern engineering triumph. Through the 
ages the engineer has played his part in the struggle for 
human expansion and betterment. Few sections of any 
community have made so great a contribution to human 
progress as the civil engineer. 

Recent exploration work in the ancient land of Sheba, 
the modern Yemen, has disclosed the great part played 
by the civil engineer, though doubtless he was not known 
by that name in those days, in the development of the 
ancient Sabaean Kingdom of South- West Arabia. 



For long it has been a matter of speculation as to how so 
virile and energetic a people maintained and supported life 
in so inhospitable a region. 

Najran, Marib and Janf were the most important centres 
of ancient Sabaean culture. Najran has been described as 
the most beautiful oasis of Arabia, situated in a great 
valley of extensive palm groves. Just above the oasis the 
valley debouches in a great basin, from which escape its 
flood waters through a narrow straits between sheer walls 
barely 20 feet wide. Here in ancient times there was a dam, 
the marks of which still survive. The dam was apparently 
only 12 feet high, and at this height channels were cut on 
either side to take the impounded water when it rose to 
that level at the dam. The dam has been calculated to have 
had a capacity of 100,000,000 gallons of water. 

Anything above this amount would have flowed out by 
the side canals. In the dry season the sluices of the dam 
could have been opened to allow the water to flow into the 
irrigation channels. 

The other areas of irrigation in this Sabaean area show 
remarkable skill in the conservation and distribution of 
water and are enduring monuments to the skill of these 
ancient engineers. 

The importance of these ancient works is shown by the 
interpretation of certain inscriptions dating back to the 
7th century B.C. These relate that on the first occasion 
when the great dam of Marib was destroyed — whether by 
seismic disturbance or the legendary rat which is supposed 
to have made a hole through it, they do not say — it was 
repaired; and for this purpose the Sabaean ruler of that 
date mobilised all the people as if they were going to war 
and by their united effort repaired the damage. The 
inscription records some interesting details with regard to 
the number of oxen and the number of loads of dates and 
honey consumed on that occasion. 

Truly man's struggle to improve his lot and increase his 
heritage goes far back into ancient history, and in that 
struggle the engineer and his skill have played their part. 

BLUEPRINTS GO WHITE 

From our London Correspondent, Robert Williamson 

The engineer's prints without which Britain could not 
produce a single battleship, tank, or aeroplane or even 
the smallest nut or bolt, are changing their colour. The 
traditional " blueprint " is gradually being replaced by 
papers giving diagrams in black, blue or brown on white 
instead of white diagrams on blue. 

The new prints, made by the dyeline process, are posi- 
tive instead of negative. They can not only be produced 
much more quickly and in a smaller space but they give 
a clearer background and a stronger line less subject to 
fading, so helping the thousands of women and other in- 
experienced recruits in war production. Moreover, the pa- 
per does not shrink, as does the " blueprint " or ferro pa- 
per, and the designs are therefore more true to scale, an- 
other advantage to the semi-skilled. A valuable feature 
is that the surface is particularly suitable for receiving 
ink lines or colour tints. 

Dyeline prints are produced by two processes. In one, 
the dry process, the developer is incorporated in the pa- 
per itself, and when this is run over a light with the orig- 
inal tracing and subjected to ammonia gas, the drawings 
appear on the blank sheet as if by magic. In the other, 
the semi-dry process, a special solution is spread, by 
means of a' simple machine, over the surface of the print. 
Here again development is instantaneous and the prints 
dry in a few seconds. 

Dyeline papers have been manufactured in Britain for 
some years past, and in one London works the chemists 
have been experimenting continuously with them for the 
past fifteen years. 



34 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



RUSSIA'S AIR FORCE 

From Robert Williamson, London, Eng. 

When the German propaganda spokesmen loudly as- 
serted at the start of the Russian campaign that the war 
would be won by 11th August on the Eastern Front, they 
gave public proof that they were guilty of several major 
miscalculations. And chief among them was their under- 
ration of Russia's Air Force. 

For years, the belief had been cleverly fostered abroad 
that the Soviet warplanes were, at best, semi-obsolete in 
type and poorly manned. But behind the veil of secrecy 
flung round the preparations for defence against the pro- 
gram so frankly outlined in " Mein Kampf " Stalin was 
building up an air force that gave the Luftwaffe the 
greatest shock it has known since the Battle of Britain. 

Russia's fighters include six different types in her first 
line strength, five being single-seat and one, the " 1 19 
(X) ", a two-seater. It is this last-named machine which 
played so notable a part in maintaining the stubborn re- 
sistance that amazed the world, for not only has the " 1 
19 (X) " great manoeuvrability allied to high speed, it is 
so heavily armed that the second member of the crew 
acts almost solely as a gun-loader. 

This machine, like all others in the " 1 " class, is of 
Russian design and is the product of the Soviets' " num- 
ber one " designer, H. N. Polikarpoff. With a ceiling of 
approximately 40,000 ft. and a reputed top speed in ex- 
cess of 400 m.p.h., it is one of the finest fighters in the 
world. Indeed, the Russians themselves think so highly 
of it that it has been in full production in dozens of State 
aircraft factories for over a year. 

A newcomer to this group is the MI.G.3, which corre- 
sponds in design and performance with Britain's Hurri- 
canes and Spitfires. In revealing the existence of this 
model, previously unknown to the German Air Staff, Lord 
Beaverbrook, broadcasting on his return from Moscow, 
has characterised it as more than a match for the Mes- 
serschmit. 

Bombers Carry 4-Ton Load 3,000 Miles 

Prominent in the news lately is a new Russian bomber, 
unknown to the world until mentioned in Lord Beaver- 
brook's broadcast. This is the Stormovik, a dive-bomber 
incorporating features of the Spitfire and ME109. It 
has proved an outstanding success in attacking troop con- 
centrations and breaking up enemy formations. 

The astute policy of hiding from the world the develop- 
ment of the Soviet Air Force was incidentally assisted by 
the fact that Russia's bombers were entirely designed by 
her own aeronautical engineers. In fact, of the ten stan- 
dard bomber and two dive-bomber types employed, only 
two have been at all influenced constructionally by for- 
eign machines. These are the " CKB 26," which is similar 
to the Martin, and the " TB3B " which is built on the 
principles of the Junkers. 



Most of Russia's bomber types are designed for close 
co-operational work with her armies, but quite early on 
in the campaign two types specifically designed for long- 
range strategical bombing did much valuable work. Two 
long-range bombers of the " L " type in particular are 
machines of outstanding capabilities. They have a range 
of as many as 3,000 miles with a bomb load of almost 
four tons. 

No nation at war will give figures of its first line 
strength, but even so, it is possible to arrive at an approx- 
imate figure based on pre-war reports. 

A Russian Air Mission official, who visited England in 
the early days of the campaign, stated that the figure 
given by Marshal Voroshilov when he reported to the 
Central Committee of the U.S.S.R. in 1939 on Russia's 
first line strength, had been more than doubled since the 
war began. In his report, the Marshal stated that the to- 
tal bomb load then carried on one flight was as high as 
6,000 tons. 

It may, therefore, be assumed that Russia entered the 
war with a 12,000-ton bomb load, which, allowing an 
average weight of two tons to every bomber, gives a figure 
of 6,000 first line bombers. Statistics derived from the 
same source gave Russia some three thousand first line 
fighters at the time of the Nazi invasion. 

Soviet's 1,100 Pilot Schools 

Russia is fortunate in that all forms of raw materials 
required for aircraft construction can be found in her 
own country. And the fact that all her main aircraft fac- 
tories were established beyond the range of Nazi bombers 
enable her to drive forward on the vital task of produc- 
ing warplanes unhindered by day or night bombing. 

Her aircraft production strength at the start of the war 
in the East is believed to have been actually higher than 
Germany's, and the Russians did all in their power to 
safeguard against any disruption. Thus, anti-aircraft 
units and day and night fighters were allotted the task of 
concentrating on the defence of her great aircraft fac- 
tories. 

Unlike many nations, Russia suffers from no bottleneck 
in the vitally important matter of output of flying per- 
sonnel. In addition to her Air Force training schools, 
Russia established more than 1,100 pilot schools which 
young workers were encouraged to visit for free instruc- 
tion. 

Here they received a training equal to the passing-out 
standard of Britain's Royal Air Force Elementary Flying 
Training Schools. But in addition to these clubs there 
had existed for some time before the war a civilian train- 
ing body known as Ossuviachim numbering more than fif- 
teen million members. 

Indeed, so thorough was the national training scheme 
that eveiy Russian pilot who went on active service when 
war started had done two hundred and fifty hours' flying. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



35 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL GENERA] 




MONTREAL 



- 



THURSDAY AND FRIDAY 



R. S. EADIE 
Chairman of the Papers 
and Meetings Committee 




GORDON D. HULME 

Chairman of the Hotel Arrangements 

and the Publicity Committee 



PROGRAMME 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 5th 
9.00 a.m. — Registration. 

10.00 a.m. — Annual Meeting and Address of 
Retiring President on the war work 
of the National Research Council. 

12.30 p.m. — Luncheon — Speaker: Hon. C. D. 
Howe, Hon. M.E.I.C., Minister of 
Munitions and Supply. 

2.30 p.m. — Professional Session. 

8.00 p.m. — Montreal Branch Annual Smoker. 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 6th 
9.30 a.m. — Professional Sessions. 

12.30 p.m. — Luncheon — Speaker: W. L. Batt, 
President, SKF Industries Inc., Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and Director of Mater- 
ials, Office of Production Manage- 
ment, Washington, D.C. 

2.30 p.m. — Professional Sessions. 

7.30 p.m. — Annual Banquet — Speaker: Leonard 
W. Brockington, K.C. 

10.30 p.m. — Dance. 






WALTER G. HUNT 
General Chairman 



LADIES' PROGRAMME 

A special programme of entertain- 
ment for the ladies is being arranged 
which includes a tea at the Montreal 
Badminton and Squash Club and a 
Bridge Party at the Engineers' Club. 
Visiting ladies will be the guests of 
the Branch at both luncheons. 




W. McG. GARDNER 
Chairman of the Reception 
and Registration Committee 



K. G. CAMERON 

Chairman of the Plant Visits and 

Transportation Committee 



W. W. TTMMINS 
Chairman of the Entertainment Committee 



Special return tickets will be supplied by the railways at the rate of one and a third of the regular on 
36 



ND PROFESSIONAL MEETING 



WINDSOR HOTEL 



BRUARY 5th AND 6th, 1942 




RALPH C. FUTTON 

General Vice-Chairman and 
îairman of the Programme Committee 



VISITS 

Visits to war plants of the Mon- 
il area are being arranged. 



PAPERS 



The Work of Research Enterprises Ltd., by Colonel 
W. E. Phillips, President, Research Enterprises 
Ltd., Toronto. 

Manufacture of 25-Pounder Guns in Canada, by 
W. F. Drysdale, M.E.I.C, Director General of 
Industrial Planning, Department of Munitions 
and Supply, Ottawa. 

The New "Oildraulic" Press in Munitions Manu- 
facture, by J. H. Maude, M.E.I.C, Chief 
Designer, Mining, Metals and Plastics Machin- 
ery Division, Dominion Engineering Co., Ltd., 
Montreal. 

Rational Column Analysis, by J. A. Van den 
Broek, Professor of Engineering Mechanics, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Accident Prevention Methods and Results, by 
Wills Maclachlan, M.E.I.C, Secretary-Treas- 
urer and Engineer, Electrical Employers 
Association of Ontario, Toronto. 

National Service — A Challenge to Engineers, by 
E. M. Little, Director, Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel, Ottawa. 

Some of the Engineering Implications of Civilian 
Defence, by Walter D. Binger, Commissioner 
of Borough Works, City of New York, and 
Chairman, National Technological Civil Pro- 
tection Committee of the United States. 




MRS. F. W. TAYLOR-BAILEY 
Convenor Ladies' Committee 




A. G. MOORE 

Treasurer and Chairman of 

Finance Committee 






I. S. PATTERSON 
hairman of the Special Arrangements 
Committee 



L. A. DUCHASTEL 
Secretary 



fare. Necessary certificates will be mailed shortly along with a programme of the entire meeting. 

37 



From Month to Month 



PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE 



A feature of each January number of The Journal is the 
New Year Message from the President. This year the 
message is more than usually significant. It should be 
read carefully by every engineer. It will be found on 
page three of this number. 

NEW BRUNSWICK AGREEMENT 

The December Journal reported a successful ballot on 
the proposal for further co-operation between the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of New Brunswick and The 
Engineering Institute of Canada. Since this, arrangements 
have been made for the ceremony of signing the agreement 
and the inauguration of its benefits. 

The ceremony will take place in Saint John on the 
evening of January 12th. This corresponds with the annual 
meeting of the Association, and the combination of im- 
portant events should draw an unusually large attendance. 
It is planned that the president and general secretary will 
sign on behalf of The Institute, and that other officers 
from Quebec and Ontario will also be present. 

This becomes the fourth province in which the provincial 
body and The Institute have devised a working arrangement 
whereby the benefits of each will become more readily 
available to the other. Not only are the privileges increased, 
but the costs are decreased. The benefits of common 
membership are apparent to all, and beyond a doubt the 
profession of engineering has taken a step forward in New 
Brunswick by this latest decision. 

The officers of The Institute look forward with great 
pleasure to this opportunity of working in close harmony 
with the officers and members of the Association, and see in 
this new agreement another and substantial step toward 
the long hoped-for complete co-operation between engineers 
throughout Canada. 

GREETINGS FROM ENGLAND 

The general secretary, under instructions of Council, 
sent the following messages of greetings to the secretaries 
of the five leading British engineering institutions: 

" The President and Council of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada have asked me to present, through 
you, the season's greetings to the President and other 
officers of your Institution. 

" We appreciate that conditions in your country are 
far from ideal for the celebration of the holiday season, 
but are confident that in spite of them you will derive 
a good measure of Christmas cheer. 

" It is our wish that the coming year will bring to 
the members of your great society strength and encour- 
agement to fight the great fight and that at an early 
date a just reward may be yours. Our thoughts and 
our sympathies are with you." 

Replies have been received in which all members of 
The Institute will be interested: 

" The President and Council of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers much appreciate Christmas and New 
Year greetings received from Engineering Institute of 
Canada which are heartily reciprocated. Celebrations 
here will be in a more cheerful atmosphere than last 
year when air raids were a nightly feature. Further- 
more present news instils a spirit of quiet optimism. 
Warm personal greetings to you from 

Graham Clark, Secretary, 
Institution of Civil Engineers." 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies. Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 



" Many thanks your cable conveying season's greet- 
ings to myself, the members of council and the 
Institution. Generally we much appreciate your kindly 
thought and heartily reciprocate your good wishes. 
With you we all hope that New Year will bring with 
it that reward of just peace for which all members of 
British Commonwealth and indeed all free peoples are 
working. 

W. A. Stadier, President, 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers." 

" President and Council much appreciate your kind 
and encouraging message. They heartily reciprocate 
your sentiments and pray that your Institute may grow 
from strength to strength. 

W. K. Brasher, Secretary, 
Institution of Electrical Engineers." 

" President and Council of Royal Aeronautical 
Society wish me to thank you for your seasons greetings 
and to reciprocate them to all the officers and members 
of The Institute. They are acutely conscious of the great 
part Canada and Canadian engineers are playing to 
bring about a world peace. They wish me to add how 
much they appreciate the close friendship between the 
two engineering institutions and to hope that the time is 
not far distant when normal contacts can be resumed. 

J. L. Pritchard, Secretary, 
The Royal Aeronautical Society." 

" The President and Council of the Institution of 
Structural Engineers desire me to express through you 
their very grateful thanks to your President and all 
officers of your institution for the kindly thought which 
prompted the despatch of Christmas greetings and 
wishes of good cheer. We are immeasurably strengthened 
by the message of sympathy and support which you 
send. My President and Council transmit to you all 
their greetings for 1942 with the hope that the relations 
of the two institutions may be further cemented and 
that they may be found working side by side for the 
benefit of all free peoples during the period of 
reconstruction. 

R. F. Maitland, Secretary, 
Institution of Structural Engineers." 

TO AVOID CONFUSION 

In the December Journal attention was called to an 
organization operating under the name " Canadian In- 
stitute of Engineering Technology," pointing out that this 
was a " spurious " organization. 

A letter has been received at Headquarters from the 
Canadian Institute of Science and Technology Limited, 
calling our attention to the similarity of names and 
requesting that we draw our readers' attention to the fact 
that they are in no way associated with the other 
organization. This we are glad to do. The Canadian In- 
stitute of Science and Technology Limited is a well 
established business operating as the Canadian Branch of 
the British Institute of Engineering Technology Limited. 
We hope that they do not suffer from the publicity which 
was necessarily given to the spurious outfit. 



38 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



REGISTRATION AT UNIVERSITIES 

Herewith is shown the registration in engineering at all 
Canadian universities. This tabulation has been an 
interesting feature of the Journal for several years. The 
1941 figures are somewhat different than previous years, 
but the variations do not seem to establish any particular 
trend. 

At British Columbia, Toronto, Queen's and Ecole 
Polytechnique, the freshman registration is substantially 
increased, but at the other universities it is smaller. On 
the whole the total is 151 more than last year. There has 
been little change in the order of specialization. Chemical 
engineering continues to be the best patronized course 
but mechanical has gained substantially on it, and 
probably will continue to do so from now on. 



University 


si 


O 
QD 

3 
O 



"3 

u 
a) 
a 

O 


o 

< 


3 

a 

£ 

< 


S 

S 
O 


et 

C to 

21 

Si! 
S° 

o ■ 


> 
O 


a 
o 


m 

"3 

Xl 

S 


u 

o 

s 


u 

09 
5 

o 
hi 


is 

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o 


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'2 

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o 
9 

S 


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S 

S 


3 
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W 

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o 


Nova Scotia 

Technical . . . 

College 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 












4 

5 

9 


10 

7 

17 








16 
11 

27 




6 
6 




36 
23* 


Total 




59 


New- 
Brunswick 

Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


4 
4 





— 


— 


— 


14 

7 
11 
6 

38 


22 
24 
13 
16 

75 




1(1 
15 
12 
12 

49 


— 


— 


— 


— 




50 
46 
36 
34* 

166 








Ecole Poly- 
technique 
de Mont- 
real 

Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 


121 

74 
48 

44 

287 


_H 





„ 


6 
6 


'7 
7 


!__ 


22 
22 














121 
74 
48 
35 
44* 

322 








McGill 
Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 


141 

73 

214 




9 

11 

3 
3 
1 

27 




18 
26 
21 

65 


11 
8 

19 


i7 

21 
38 








45 
28 

73 


10 

7 
9 

26 


12 
14 

26 




150 
112 
121 
104* 
1* 

488 








Queens 
Total . 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


200 
137 

337 








26 
26 

52 


16 
8 

24 


23 
13 

36 






1 

1 

2 


30 
26 

56 


14 
17 

31 


15 

17 

32 


3 

1 

4 


200 
137 
128 
109* 

574 


Toronto 
Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 








8 
7 
9 
8 
2 

34 


14 
3 
2 
2 

21 


101 
67 
53 
39 

260 


87 
36 
26 
19 

168 


73 
37 
47 
21 

178 






3 

1 
5 
4 

13 


97 
60 
44 
39 

240 


27 
13 
16 
21 

77 


24 
15 
21 
17 

77 


36 

22 

12 

9 

79 


470 
261 
235 
179* 
2* 

1147 


Manitoba 
Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


80 
53 

133 










18 
16 

34 


25 
15 

40 






2 
2 










80 
53 
43 
33* 

209 








Saskatche- 
wan 

Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


166 
111 

277 


4 

7 

11 




3 

2 

5 


11 
15 

26 


14 
13 

27 








è 

3 

9 


40 
36 

76 






6 

1 

7 


166 
111 

84 

77* 

438 








Alberta 
Total 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


107 
107 








35 
21 
15 

71 


14 
16 
14 

44 


30 
18 
5 

53 












13 
6 
10 

29 


i 

4 

5 


107 
92 
62 
48* 

309 








British 
Columbia 

Total 


2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 


190 
99 

289 








29 
24 

53 


4 
6 

10 


21 
12 

33 




4 
13 

17 


6 
11 

17 


30 
13 

43 


4 
3 

7 


6 
10 

16 




190 

99 
104 

92* 

485 








Grand Total 




1648 


11 


61 


26 


533 


380 


470 


22 


66 


43 


515 


141 


186 


95 


4197 



BRANCH CONTRIBUTIONS TO 
BUILDING FUND 

It is with a great deal of satisfaction that the 
following statement of contributions is distributed to the 
membership. When President Hogg and President-Elect 
Mackenzie first requested the assistance of the branches 
in meeting the costs of repairs to the Headquarters build- 
ing it was not thought that so substantial a sum would 
be realized. 

All branches have done exceedingly well; but the work 
of the Montreal Branch committee has been particularly 
productive. The chairman, R. E. Heartz, and his committee 
set a high objective and they ran well beyond it. It is 
gratifying to know that the members were willing to 
support the cause to the extent of an average of $5.00 
per member, or a total of $6,000.00. 

A special message of appreciation is going from the 
president to each branch. It is hoped that every member 
will see this statement and realize the strength that lies 
in a group of the type of those who make up The Institute 
membership. 

Border Cities Branch $ 62.00 

Calgary 125.00 

Cape Breton 25.00 

Edmonton 52.00 

Halifax 96.00 

Hamilton 147.00 

Kingston 70.00 

Lakehead 49.00 

Lethbridge 26.00 

London 75.00 

Moncton 31.00 

Montreal 6,000.00 

Niagara Peninsula 48.00 

Ottawa 394.00 

Peterborough 75.00 

Quebec 75.00 

Saguenay 61.00 

Saint John 41.85 

St. Maurice Vallev 30.00 

Sault Ste. Marie 100.00 

Toronto 201.25 

Vancouver 101.00 

Victoria 60.00 

Winnipeg 64.00 



$8,009.10 



'Indicates those graduating in the spring of 1942 — Total 746. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



DEAN BROWN RECEIVES HONORARY DEGREE 

Ernest Brown, m.e.i.c, dean of engineering at McGill 
University, was given an honorary degree of Doctor of 
Engineering by the University of Toronto at a special 
convocation held in Convocation Hall, December 15th, 
1941. Herewith is the citation read by Dr. Cody, president 
of the university, and Dean Brown's response: 

President Cody's Citation 

Engineers have largely helped in the material develop- 
ment of Canada. They are of vital importance in the 
creation, adaptation and growth of our industries in the 
mechanized war of to-day. They are among the most 
constructive and useful of our citizens. The universities 
do well to recognize their services and to honour them for 
their amazing achievements. If engineers are to be praised, 
how much more the men who teach and train them! 

In the field of engineering education in Canada, McGill 
University has for many years played a distinguished 
role. The University of Toronto with pleasure and high 
satisfaction wishes to-night to recognize this service of a 
great sister-institution, and at the same time to honour 
for his own sake, the Dean of its Faculty of Engineering. 



39 



' 



Ernest Brown, who in his time was an 1851 Exhibition 
Scholar, graduated from University College, Liverpool, 
with the degrees of Master of Science and Master of 
Engineering. Following some years of service as a 
Lecturer in Engineering at Liverpool, he came to Canada 
in 1905, to become Assistant and then Associate Professor 
in Applied Mechanics at McGill University. In 1911, he 
became Professor of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, 
a chair he still retains. 

Succeeding the late Dean H. M. MacKay, in 1931, Dean 
Brown has guided with distinction the fortunes of his 
Faculty in times that have often been difficult both for 
the engineer and for higher education. While carrying a 
heavy load of teaching and administration, he has con- 
tributed much to engineering knowledge. His investiga- 




Dean Ernest Brown, M.E.I.C. 

tions in the field of reinforced concrete are classic. He 
had an important share in the difficult special studies 
carried out in connection with the design of the Quebec 
bridge, and his experiments and researches on the strength 
of ice have added greatly to the knowledge of the engineer 
concerning the action of this troublesome substance on 
his structures and machines. Of notable importance have 
been his studies, pursued over many years, on model 
turbine runners. Through these and related engineering 
investigations, he has made an outstanding contribution 
to the economical development of the hydraulic resources 
of the Dominion. 

By his old students, Dean Brown has long been 
acclaimed as a clear and forceful teacher. It is a McGill 
tradition that those who had the privilege of sitting under 
him very soon came to regard that period of instruction 
and personal contact as one of the most fruitful experiences 
of their lives. 

I have the honour to present to you, Mr. Chancellor, 
for the degree of Doctor of Engineering, honoris causa, 
Ernest Brown, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering of 
McGill University. 

Dean Brown's Response 

Your Honour, Mr. Chancellor, President Cody, Members 
of Convocation, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

An old friend of mine, a distinguished graduate of this 
University, in referring to the lack of the gift of oratory 
characteristic of my tribe, used to say that the language 
of the engineer is a blueprint and a grunt. A lecturer on 
public speaking, seeking to engage the interest of a group 
of students in engineering, is reported to have begun his 
first talk as follows: " Some day, speaking as a contractor, 
you will want to give hell to a city council, and to do it 
in the nice way." To-night my fear is that my grunt of 
appreciation of the great honour you have paid me will 



fall far short of what it is in my heart to convey. I had 
never thought to exchange my humble overalls for the 
brilliant garb of an honorary graduate. I wish to thank 
you, Dr. Cody, for the gracious, but over-generous terms 
in which you set forth the reasons for the granting of this 
degree, and to express my deep sense of the great honour 
conferred upon me. It is a form of recognition which, to 
me, outweighs all others. I regard it not only as a tribute 
to whatever I may have been able to accomplish person- 
ally in the field of engineering education and in various 
professional activities, but also as an expression of good- 
will towards an important faculty in a sister-university. 
All engineering activity is a co-operative undertaking. 
Without the devotion and support of my colleagues I 
could have accomplished little, and I feel that much credit 
is due to them for the great honour you have paid me. 
It has also been my privilege for over 30 years to number 
among my good friends many members of this University, 
and to be associated with them not only in academic and 
professional affairs, but in fostering and controlling 
intercollegiate sport and competition. These happy mem- 
ories add greatly to my pleasure in receiving the degree 
which has been conferred on me. It has not escaped my 
notice that you have chosen a time when intercollegiate 
competition is suspended to make me one of your own, 
by admitting me into the select company of your honorary 
graduates. I am thus relieved of the severe strain which 
feelings of divided loyalty might otherwise have imposed 
on me. This I regard as showing really great consideration. 
I am profoundly conscious of the value of all good clean 
sport, and of the loyalties and abiding friendships which 
it fosters. Nowhere is the saying that all work and no 
play makes Jack a dull boy more true than in the univer- 
sities. Some clever modern cynic defined education as 
" the inculcation of the incomprehensible into the minds 
of the ignorant by the incompetent." While this is clever, 
it is not profound. Aristotle knew better when he said: 
" The purpose of education is to enable us to enjoy leisure 
beautifully." To-day fife is stern and hard, but it may 
be good for us even during our greatest trials, to reflect 
a little on the benefits of properly applied leisure. 
We exist — one cannot call it living in the true sense — 
amid a medley of restraints and controls, under ceilings, 
and in basements, and many of the worth-while things 
of life seem far away. They will, I hope, be recaptured 
when, after many grim trials, our hard discipline has 
brought us out of the deep shadows of the valleys into 
the pure sunlight of the uplands. And so, even in these 
hectic days, I like to reflect on the lasting joy and satis- 
faction derived from the many hours of freedom afforded 
by academic life, and to hope that in a re-constructed 
world the advantages of leisure as a factor in the art of 
living may be realized for all people. 

Stevenson in one of his essays — "An Apology for 
Idlers " — reminds us that idleness, so-called, does not 
consist in doing nothing, but in doing a great deal not 
recognized in the dogmatic formularies of a ruling class, 
and that it has as good a right to state its position as 
industry itself. " It is surely beyond a doubt," he says, 
" that people should be a good deal idle in youth. For 
though here and there a Lord Macaulay may escape from 
school honours with all his wits about him, most boys 
pay so dear for their medals that they never afterwards 
have a shot in their locker, and begin the world bankrupt. 
And the same holds true during all the time a lad is 
educating himself, or suffering others to educate him." 
And again he says: " Extreme busyness, whether at school 
or college, kirk or market, is a symptom of deficient 
vitality; and a faculty for idleness implies a catholic 
appetite and a strong sense of personal identity. There is 
a sort of dead-alive, hackneyed people about, who are 
scarcely conscious of living except in the exercise of some 



40 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



conventional occupation. Bring these fellows into the 
country or set them aboard ship, and you will see how 
they pine for their desk or their study. They have no 
curiosity; they cannot give themselves over to random 
provocations; they do not take pleasure in the exercise 
of their faculties for its own sake; and unless Necessity 
lays about them with a stick, they will even stand still. 
It is no good speaking to such folk: they cannot be idle, 
their nature is not generous enough; and they pass those 
hours in a sort of coma, which are not dedicated to furious 
moiling in the gold-mill." This is part of Stevenson's 
plea for a well ordered leisure, for relief from the rush and 
turmoil of mere existence. 

In looking back over our experiences, few of us older 
folk regret the full satisfaction of the hours of truantry. 
Unhappily to-day, people in every walk of life must give 
up leisure and regiment their lives, devoting all their time 
and thought to the overthrow of those whose principles 
would otherwise enslave them. May it not be good for us, 
even though we can now look forward but dimly, — some- 
times hardly daring to hope, — may it not be good for us 
to dream of happier days when as part of the reward 
of labour all men may enjoy leisure beautifully. The 
truant, says Stevenson, need not be always in the streets 
" for if he prefers he may go out by the gardened suburbs 
into the country. He may pitch on some tuft of lilies over 
a burn, and smoke innumerable pipes to the tune of the 
water on the stones. A bird will sing in the thicket. And 
there he may fall into a vein of kindly thought, and see 
things in a new perspective. Why, if this be not education, 
what is? " 

This brings me to the end of the engineer's " grunt " 
to which I referred a few minutes ago. There is no blue- 
print to accompany it. The dream I have spoken of can 
only come true in the hearts and minds of men. I wish 
to thank you, Mr. Chancellor, and Dr. Cody, for giving 
me this opportunity to say a few words at this Convoca- 
tion. Let me renew my most grateful thanks for the high 
honour vou have conferred on me. 



WARTIME BUREAU OF TECHNICAL PERSONNEL 

Monthly Bulletin 

The demand for engineers continues. The need for 
chemists is increasing. The intensive study of the Bureau 
records is disclosing a greater number of such persons who 
are not occupied wholly in war work. The Bureau is now 
closely engaged in endeavours to transfer such persons to 
new work where their services may be used to greater 
advantage. 

Such negotiations cannot be concluded quickly. It is 
necessary to consult the wishes of the individual, and to 
give proper consideration to the needs of the present 
employer. There is no form of legal compulsion that can be 
used, and consequently each case becomes a special affair in 
which the needs of the country are not always the only 
consideration. In most cases highly specialized persons are 
involved, and positions of considerable importance are at 

issue. 

***** 

The Bureau has just completed a special assignment. The 
British Ministry of Aircraft Production (M.A.P.) urgently 
needed twenty-five or more civil engineers and draughtsmen 
for civilian emergency work in England. A trans- Atlantic 
telephone call placed the inquiry with the Bureau, and 
after hurried consultations with government officials in 
Ottawa to get authorization for the "export" of these men, 
the work was taken in hand. 

Advertisements were run in ten newspapers covering 
Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal, and other names were 
selected from the Bureau records. Representatives of the 
Bureau interviewed all applicants whose written records 



indicated some degree of suitability. These interviews were 
held in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. 

Eventually about thirty-five men were selected from the 
one hundred and forty applicants. A representative of 
M.A.P. came to Canada to make the final selection in 
company of a representative of the Bureau, and accepted 
every individual previously selected by the Bureau. 

Some of the conditions laid down by M.A.P., involving 
income tax and the portion of salary that could be returned 
to Canada, reduced the number of applicants, but event- 
ually the required number were signed up and arrange- 
ments made for their transportation. 

It is likely that the changes in the international situation 
will delay the departure of some of these men, but the need 
for them in the Old Country will become more urgent than 
ever. It is hoped that the original plans will not be delayed 
seriously. 

$ % :fc $ jjc 

The Bureau proposes to have a representative at the 
annual meetings of those organizations whose membership 
includes technical personnel. It will be the representative's 
mission to explain the purposes and methods of the Bureau 
and to answer questions. A supply of questionnaires will 
also be on hand in case anyone who has been missed pre- 
viously desires to record his qualifications with the other 
members of his profession. 

Doubtless there will be other matters that can be at- 
tended to at the same time, all having a bearing on the 
Bureau's policy of giving service to the engineer and the 
employer, to the end that Canada's war effort may be 
increased. 

MEETING OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council of The Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Saturday, December 13th, 1941, at ten 
thirty a.m. 

Present: Vice-President deGaspé Beaubien in the 
chair; Past President J. B. Challies; Vice-President K. 
M. Cameron; Councillors J. H. Fregeau, W. G. Hunt, A. 
Larivière, H. Massue, C. K. McLeod and G. M. Pitts; 
Secretary Emeritus R. J. Durley, General Secretary L. 
Austin Wright and Assistant General Secretary Louis 
Trudel. 

The president-elect, Dean C. R. Young, was also pres- 
ent and Mr. Beaubien extended to him, and to Mr. Hunt, 
the newly appointed councillor for the Montreal Branch, 
a very cordial welcome to the meeting. 

It was noted that since the last meeting contributions 
had been received from six more branches, bringing the 
total up to $7,324.60. Reporting for the Quebec Branch, 
Mr. Larivière advised that they had a certain amount 
collected, but had delayed sending it in as they had 
hoped to be able to send at least $100.00 as their contribu- 
tion. He undertook to ask the branch to send in the am- 
ount already collected so that the books could be closed 
at the end of the year. 

Mr. Beaubien stated that the Finance Committee par- 
ticularly appreciated the co-operation of the branches in 
this matter, and the secretary was directed to thank 
them all for the splendid effort which has been made on 
behalf of the building fund. 

At the last meeting of Council it had been decided to 
take advantage of certain opportunities made available 
through the National Research Council and the Depart- 
ment of Public Works whereby a member of The Insti- 
tute could be sent to England to secure information re- 
garding the protection and repair of public buildings and 
utilities subject to attack by bombing or gun fire. 

The general secretary reported that he had recently 
been in touch with the president who, in view of the 
changed international situation, felt that it would be un- 
wise to send a man to England at the present time. He 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



41 



pointed out that in the library at the Research Council 
here are copies of practically everything that has been 
written on this subject, all of which could be made avail- 
able to The Institute, and in view of the added risk, and 
uncertainty regarding; transportation, he doubted whether 
The Institute would be justified in sending a representa- 
tive for such an investigation at this time. He recom- 
mended that the idea be postponed indefinitely. 

While realising the advantage of having some person 
go over and bring back first-hand information, Mr. Cam- 
eron doubted whether the desired results would be ob- 
tained under present circumstances. Mr. Doncaster, who 
had been selected to go over, would be willing to take the 
risk, but he might be stranded in England and be unable 
to return with the desired information in time for the 
Annual Meeting as planned. 

Mr. Wright stated that the president has agreed to 
have the member of his staff who is reading all the litera- 
ture on this subject, prepare a paper for the Annual Meet- 
ing. It was also hoped that it would be possible to get 
Mr. W. D. Binger, Borough Engineer of New York, to 
come to the meeting and tell about his recent visit to 
England. Mr. Binger headed a mission sent over by the 
United States to obtain similar information. 

Mr. Pitts thought that some paid official should be 
made technically responsible for centralizing the work of 
various organizations making investigations along this 
line. Mr. Beaubien suggested that since Mr. Doncaster's 
services had been made available by the Government, it 
might be possible to put him on this work. 

After further discussion it was agreed that Mr. Don- 
caster's visit to England should be postponed for the 
time being, and that the matter be left in the hands of 
the president and Vice-President Cameron for further ac- 
tion. 

Mr. Wright gave a brief description of the various pa- 
pers to be presented to the annual meeting, the general 
theme of which will be along the line of Canada's war 
effort, with particular reference to the work of the engi- 
neer and scientist. Plans were also progressing for an ex- 
hibit of war materials. 

Mr. Hunt, chairman of the Annual Meeting Committee, 
reported briefly on the general programme. All com- 
mittees are now organized and are working out the vari- 
ous detailed arrangements. For those members who are 
interested, it is hoped to arrange visits to certain plants 
on the Saturday morning. 

The report of the scrutineers appointed to open the bal- 
lots on the New Brunswick agreement was presented. 

The general secretary reported that the results of the 
ballot of members of the Association of Professional En- 
gineers of New Brunswick showed that eighty members 
had voted in favour of the agreement and seven against. 
Seventy-eight members had indicated their willingness to 
take advantage of joint membership under the terms of 
the agreement. 

These results were noted with considerable satisfaction, 
and on the motion of Mr. Massue, seconded by Mr. Mc- 
Leod, it was unanimously resolved that the president, or 
an alternate appointed by him, and the general secretary 
be duly authorized to sign the agreement between The En- 
gineering Institute of Canada and the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of the Province of New Brunswick. 
It was also unanimously resolved that the agreement be 
put into effect as soon as it is signed. 

The general secretary was directed to write to the pre- 
sident of the Association expressing Council's pleasure at 
the results and their appreciation of the splendid work 
which had been done by the engineers in New Brunswick 
in negotiating this agreement. It was left with the gen- 
eral secretary to make the necessary arrangements for 
the signing ceremony, which would probably be held early 
in January. 



Mr. Beaubien reported that the financial statement to 
the end of November had been examined and found in a 
very satisfactory condition. Expenses are a little under 
and revenue is considerably over the budget. 

The recommendation of the Finance Committee that 
The Engineering Journal be sent complimentary for the 
year 1942 to the engineers from other countries now in 
Canada on war work was unanimously approved. 

Dean Young was particularly pleased with this deci- 
sion. He stated that there are about twenty Polish en- 
gineers in Toronto who are very much interested in In- 
stitute affairs, and they will greatly appreciate this ges- 
ture on the part of Council. 

Mr. Beaubien reported that as a result of correspon- 
dence with the Director of the Wartime Bureau of Tech- 
nical Personnel it had been arranged that the Bureau 
would reimburse The Institute to the extent of $150.00 a 
month to cover part of the additional costs to which The 
Institute was subjected due to the absence of the general 
secretary in Ottawa, and activities which were under- 
taken on behalf of the Bureau. This was a great help to 
the Finance Committee, and Mr. Beaubien felt that The 
Institute should express its appreciation to the Bureau. 

The secretary presented a revised version of the by- 
laws of the Calgary Branch, which had been examined 
and found to be in agreement with The Institute by-laws. 
On the motion of Mr. Challies, seconded by Mr. Massue, 
it was unanimously resolved that the by-laws as submit- 
ted be approved. 

The general secretary read two letters from a member, 
of Hamilton, Ontario, regarding the interpretation of the 
by-laws governing the qualifications for membership in 
The Institute, with particular reference to the requirement 
for full membership of two years of professional respon- 
sibility in charge of work as principal or assistant. There 
seemed to be some diversity of opinion among members 
of The Institute with whom he had come in contact as to 
just how this particular qualification is to be interpreted. 
He suggested that immediate steps be taken to advise 
the members, and particularly branch executives, regard- 
ing their responsibility in making recommendations for 
membership, pointing out particularly the difference be- 
tween executive responsibility not involving engineering 
work, and engineering or professional responsibility. 

A full discussion followed, during which it was suggest- 
ed that the branches might be advised that representa- 
tions had been made to Council indicating that in some 
instances enough consideration had not been given to the 
question of professional responsibility. 

Mr. Cameron suggested that it should be made clear 
to the author of the letters that each application for 
membership receives individual consideration by Council, 
and that very frequently certain cases are referred back 
to the branch executive for further consideration and in- 
quiry. 

Further discussion took place, and it was decided to 
leave the matter in the hands of the general secretary to 
take whatever action seemed advisable in order to keep 
branch executives fully informed. 

The general secretary read a letter from the secretary 
of the Hamilton Branch, pointing out the desirability of 
giving students, as they join The Institute, full informa- 
tion about the advantages of membership in The Institute 
and the requirements for their eventual transfer to a 
higher class of membership. 

Mr. Challies thought this was a very important ques- 
tion. In his opinion, every student, upon entering The In- 
stitute should be given some sort of a brochure indicating 
just what The Institute stands for. This was a matter 
which might very well be referred to Mr. Bennett's Com- 
mittee on the Young Engineer. 

Mr. Cameron suggested that the general secretary, 
when notifying Students of their admission, should write 



42 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



a letter to each one encouraging them to continue their 
membership, sending a copy of the letter to the branch 
executive. Mr. Pitts thought a brochure such as had been 
suggested by Mr. Challies would be more helpful. 

Mr. Massue thought it should be the responsibility of 
branch membership committees to keep in touch with the 
Students and encourage them to transfer as soon as they 
are eligible, instead of dropping out as a great many do, 
apparently from lack of knowledge of the advantages of 
Institute membership. 

Dean Young also believed that the branches should be 
encouraged to follow up on all Student members. A gen- 
eral follow-up under the direction of Mr. Bennett's com- 
mittee, perhaps through the branches, would be very ben- 
eficial. 

It was unanimously agreed that special contact should 
be maintained with Student members to the end that they 
will transfer to a higher class of membership. It was left 
with the general secretary to discuss this with Mr. Ben- 
nett and see what could be done in addition to the policy 
already being followed. 

A number of applications were considered and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 

Admission 

Members 8 

Juniors 4 

Students 24 

Affiliate 1 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 3 

Student to Junior 2 

Student to Member 1 

Mr. Challies drew attention to the fact that Miss Car- 
oline Haslett, President of the Women's Engineering So- 
ciety of Great Britain, had been visiting the United 
States, and was spending two days in Canada. He felt 
that lier visit should be recognized in some way by The 
Institute, and it was left with the general secretary to see 
what could be done. 

Mr. Challies reported that a meeting of the executive 
of the Engineers' Council for Professional Development 
was being held in New York on December 18th. It would 
be impossible for him to attend, and as neither Dr. Fair- 
bairn nor Dr. Surveyer could go, he suggested that Coun- 
cil authorize the general secretary to attend and repre- 
sent The Institute at that meeting. This was unanimously 
approved. 

Council noted with sincere regret the death of Mr. J. 
B. Hunter, Deputy Minister of the Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa, and it was unanimously resolved that the 
following resolution be recorded in the minutes and that 
a copy be sent to Mrs. Hunter and to the Department. 
" The Council of The Engineering Institute has been 
greatly shocked to hear of the death of Mr. J. B. Hun- 
ter, Deputy Minister of the Department of Public 
Works at Ottawa, and desires to express to Mrs. Hun- 
ter some measure of the sympathy which they feel at 
her loss. 

" The Engineering Institute has had very pleasant 
relations with Mr. Hunter throughout the entire period 
of his office, and has received frequent and important 
favours from him. Among the government officials not 
many have shown a greater sympathy for the work 
and the needs of the engineer, and his loss will be felt 
by members of the profession in all parts of Canada." 
Mr. Challies commented on the large number of stu- 
dents from the Ecole Polytechnique who were joining The 
Institute, for which a great deal of credit was no doubt 
due to Mr. Trudel. 



It was left with the president and the general secre- 
tary to decide upon the date for the January meeting of 
Council. 

The Council rose at one o'clock p.m. 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on December 13th, 1941, the follow- 
ing elections and transfers were effected : 

Members 

Brekke, Hans Krishan Andreas, Civil Engr., (Prague Univ.), hy- 
draulic engr., City of Winnipeg Hydro Electric System, Winnipeg, 
Man. 

Duncan, John Martin, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), plant mgr., 
Canadian Liquid Air Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

Howse, George Wesley, district inspector, Hydro-electric Power 
Commission of Ontario, Hamilton, Ont. 

McNeil, John Newson, b.sc.(c.e.), (Univ. of Man.), engr. i/c field 
constrn., C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., Port Arthur, Ont. 

Stark, John Edward, constrn. supt., Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 

Westman, LeRoy Egerton, b.a., m.a. (Univ. of Toronto), president, 
Westman Publications Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Wingfield, Harold Ernest, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), director of 
sales, advertising & purchasing, Imperial Rattan Co. Ltd., Strat- 
ford, Ont. 

Wood, Wells Arthur, b.a.sc. (Univ. of B.C.), design engr., Harrington 
Tool & Die Company, Lachine, Que. 

Juniors 

Davis, Frederick Allan, b.sc. (Chem.), (Queen's Univ.), asst. refinery 

engr., British American Oil Co. Ltd., Montreal East, Que. 
Kennedy, Samuel McNee, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), engrg. dept., 

Defence Industries Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Mann, Neville Whitney Davis, b.sc. (ce.), (Univ. of N.B.), junior 

engr., Atlas Construction Co. Ltd., Gander, Nfld. 
Teskey, Arthur G., b.sc. (e.e.), (Univ. of Man.), sales engr., Canadian 

Westinghouse Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 

Affiliate 

Jones, Douglas, (McGill Univ.), secretary-engineer, technical section, 
Canadian Pulp & Paper Association, Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 

Nathanson, Max, b.sc. (McGill Univ.), owner and engr., Canadian 

Armature Works, Montreal, Que. 
Pope, Joseph Morley, b.sc. (McGill Univ.), Flt.-Lieut., R.C.A.F. 

(A.M.A.E. Divn.), Ottawa, Ont. 
Tuck, Joseph Howard, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.). supt., monel dept., 

International Nickel Company, Port Colborne, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 

Baggs, William Clyde, b.eng. (McGill Univ.), asst. to the mgr., 
Bathurst Power & Paper Co. Ltd., Bathurst, N.B. 

Transfe? red from the class of Student to that of Junior 

Laird, Alan Douglas Kenneth, b.a.sc. (Univ. of B.C.), material engr., 
Fraser Brace Engineering Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 

Thompson, Arthur McCall, b.sc. (Univ. of Alta.), apparatus sales 
engr., Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 

Students Admitted 

Bell, Frederick Arthur, (Univ. of Toronto), 91 St. George St., Toronto, 

Ont. 
Bradley, Whitney Lloyd, (Univ. of Toronto), 31 Welland St., Thorold, 

Ont. 
Carrothers, Percival John Godber, (Univ. of B.C.), 1549 Western 

Crescent, Vancouver, B.C. 
Chinn, Norman William, (McGill Univ.), 4639 Melrose Ave., Mont- 
real, Que. 
Cohen, Peter Zelig, (McGill Univ.), 20 Laviolette Ave., Outremont, 

Que. 
Cross, Ivor Frederick, (Univ. of Man.), 82 Rosseau Ave. W., Trans- 

cona, Man. 
Diamond, George Bernard, (McGill Univ.), 48 Joyce Ave., Outre- 

mont, Que. 
Galii, Joseph Nicholas, (Univ. of Man.), 749 Ross Ave., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Grimble, Wilf George, (Univ. of B.C.), 3806 West 35th Ave., Van- 

couver, B.C. 
Hartwig, Elmer Herman William, 11 Barons Ave. So., Hamilton, 

Ont. 
Iliil». Imk. Walter (McGill Univ.), 3 Popliger Ave., Montreal, Que. 
Joy, Richard Joseph, (McGill Univ.), 341 Metcalfe Ave., Westmount, 

Que. 
Keay, William Logan, (Univ. of Man.), 464 Bowman Ave., Winnipeg, 

Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



43 



Luscombe, William Charles Murray, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), 126 Fen- 

timan Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 
Lefebvre, Marcel, (Ecole Polytechnique), 5025 St. Urbain St., 

Montreal, Que. 
Morris, Wallace Victor, (Univ. of Man.), 688 Jubilee Ave., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Milot, Raymond, (McGill Univ.), 3539 St. Famille St., Montreal, 

Que. 
McDermott, Arthur G., (Univ. of N.B.), 242 Charlotte St., Saint 

John, N.B. 
McLaughlin, Robert Hugh Benson, (Univ. of N.B.), Beaverbrook 

Residence, Fredericton, N.B. 
McNiven, Hugh Donald, (Univ. of Toronto), Islington, Ont. 
OrlofF, Irving, (Univ. of Man.), 302 Redwood Ave., Winnipeg, Man. 
Pichette, Jacques, (McGill Univ.), 3539 St. Famille St., Montreal, 

Que. 
Prideaux, Norman Llewellyn, (Univ. of Toronto), 33 Monarch Park 

Ave., Toronto, Ont. 
Rossetti, Anthony Bruce, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 33 Cherry St., Halifax, 

N.S. 



COMING MEETINGS 

Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario — 

Annual Meeting and Dinner, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, 
Ont., on January 17th, 1942. Walter McKay, Secretary- 
Treasurer, 350 Bay Street, Toronto, Ont. 

Canadian Electrical Association, Inc. — Ninth Annual 
Winter Conference, Mount Royal Hotel, Montreal, Que., 
January 19th and 20th, 1942. B. C. Fairchild, Secretary, 
Room 804, Tramways Building, Montreal, Que. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada — Fixty-sixth 
Annual General and General Professional Meeting, Windsor 
Hotel, Montreal, Que., February 5th-6th, 1942. L. Austin 
Wright, General Secretary, 2050 Mansfield Street, Mont- 
real, Que. 



Personals 



Léo Brossard, m.e.i.c, has entered private practice in 
Montreal as a consulting engineer and land surveyor. He 
graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in civil engineering 
in 1936 and after post graduate work obtained a degree of 
Master of Science in geology from McGill University in 
1940. 

He has spent some time in the northern mining district 
of Quebec as a geologist with the Cournor Mining Company 
and has also done some work for the Department of Mines 
of the Province of Quebec. Lately he has been connected 
with dredging work for drainage purposes in the Napier- 
ville district in Quebec. Mr. Brossard is a member of the 
Corporation of Land Surveyors of the Province of 
Quebec. 

Pilot Officer L. M. Clarke, m.e.i.c, has recently com- 
pleted a course at the School of Aeronautical Engineering 
of the Royal Canadian Air Force at Montreal and has been 
posted at R.C.A.F. Headquarters, Ottawa. 

Pilot Officer S. V. Antenbring, jr.E.i.c, was also in the 
class who completed their course at the School of Areo- 
nautical Engineering of the Royal Canadian Air Force in 
Montreal, and has been posted to R.C.A.F. Headquarters 
in Ottawa. 

I. D. Mackenzie, jr.E.i.c, has been transferred from 
Shawinigan Falls to the Montreal office of Shawinigan 
Engineering Company. He graduated from Queen's Univer- 
sity in 1940. 

R. C. Robson, Jr.E.i.c, has recently accepted a position 
with Bloedel, Stewart and Welch Limited of Vancouver 
as engineer. He was previously connected with the Con- 
solidated Mining and Smelting Company at Trail, B.C. 

G. O. Sanders, Jr.E.i.c, is at present stationed at Provi- 
dence, R.I., U.S.A., as assistant inspector of Naval Ordnance 
for the British Admiralty. He graduated from Queen's 
University in 1937 and up until recently was on the staff 
of Howard Smith Paper Mills Limited at Cornwall, Ont., 
as maintenance engineer. 

W. C. Weir, jr.E.i.c, is now stationed at Brantford, Ont., 
as engineer officer with the Royal Canadian Air Force. He 
graduated from the University of Saskatchewan in 1936 
and for some time was connected with the Hudson Bay 
Mining and Smelting Company at Flin Flon, Man. 

Pierre A. Duchastel, Jr.E.i.c, has recently accepted an 
appointment with the physics and electrical engineering 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



department of the National Research Council at Ottawa. 
He graduated in electrical engineering from McGill Univer- 
sity in 1938, and since graduation has been connected with 
the Ferranti Electric Limited, Montreal. 

Squadron Leader Baxter Richer, s.e.i.c, has recently 
been appointed to command a squadron at No. 13 Service 
Flying Training School of the Royal Canadian Air Force 
at St. Hubert, Que. Squadron-Leader Richer graduated 
from the Ecole Polytechnique in 1937 and enlisted in the 
service of the R.C.A.F. in the same year. In December, 
1938, he was promoted to the rank of Flying Officer and 
was made a Flight Lieutenant in May, 1940. Lately he 
had been stationed at McLeod, Alta., and previously at 
Regina, Sask. 

Pilot Officer R. J. Doehler, s.e.i.c, has recently com- 
pleted a course at the School of Aeronautical Engineering 
of the Royal Canadian Air Force at Montreal and has 
been posted at Summerside airport, P.E.I. 

W. H. MacGowan, s.e.i.c, has accepted a commission 
in the Royal Canadian Air Force and is at present posted 
at No. 3 Wireless School, Winnipeg, Man. He graduated 
from McGill University in 1929. 

Pilot Officer Marcel Papineau, s.e.i.c, has recently 
completed his course at the School of Aeronautical Engi- 
neering of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Montreal, and 
has been posted at No. 6 Repair Depot, Trenton, Ont. He 
graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in 1940 and was 
was on the staff of the Noranda Mines Limited at Noranda 
until he joined the air force a few months ago. 

R. M. Morris, s.e.i.c, has joined the staff of the National 
Research Council in the Department of Physics and Elec- 
trical Engineering at Ottawa. He was previously on the 
staff of the Shawinigan Engineering Company at Montreal. 
He graduated from Nova Scotia Technical College in 
1940. 

Pilot Officer Bernard Lavigueur, s.e.i.c, has completed 
his course at the School of Aeronautical Engineering of 
the Royal Canadian Air Force. Montreal, and has been 
posted at No. 11 Technical Detachment, R.C.A.F., at 
Montreal. He graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in 
1941. 



44 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Richard Noonan, S.E.I.C., has joined the staff of the 
English Electric Company, transformer department, at 
St. Catharines, Ont. He was formerly connected with the 
electrical department of the Canadian National Railways 
at Montreal. 

Georges Archambault, s.e.i.c, has joined the staff of 
the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited at Arvida, 
Que. He graduated in mechanical engineering from McGill 
in 1939 and joined the staff of Minneapolis Honeywell 
Regulator Company at Montreal. Lately he had been con- 
nected with Peacock Bros. Limited, at Montreal. 

J. A. Lalonde, m.e.i.c, was elected this month chairman 
of the Montreal Branch of The Institute. He was born at 
Au Sable, Mich., U.S.A., in 1891 and was educated at the 
Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, where he graduated in 
1912. 

Upon graduation he spent a few months on railway work 
with the North Railway Company at Hudson Bay. In 1913 
he joined the staff of the City of Outremont as assistant 



Mr. Scott became connected with J. W. Thompson and 
Company of Vancouver, and in 1924 he entered the employ 
of the City of Vancouver as assistant in the water works 
survey, later becoming smoke inspector. In 1926 he went 
with Scott Foster and Company as mechanical engineer 
and later was on the staff of Canadian Utilities Limited 
at Calgary, Alta. He is at present assistant plant super- 
intendent of the Dominion Bridge Company at Vancouver, 
a firm with which he became connected in 1933. 

John M. Evans, m.e.i.c, has been appointed chairman 
of the newly created Export Control Committee of the 
Federal Government at Ottawa. Mr. Evans' duties will 
be to administer control of Canada's export trade in order 
to protect the Canadian public and manufacturers against 
serious loss of export markets and to insure that no mater- 
ials or commodities essential to the Dominion's war effort 
are manufactured or processed for export trade until the 
full requirements of the country for war purposes have 
been filled. The membership will include representatives 
from the various wartime boards. 




J. A. Lalonde, M.E.I.C. 

engineer. In 1920 he went with the City of Montreal as 
assistant superintendent of streets, a position which he left 
in 1924 to join the staff of Quinlan, Robertson and Janin, 
Montreal, as manager of the paving department. In addition 
to these duties he was chief engineer of A. Janin and Com- 
pany from 1930 to 1939. At that time he became manager 
and chief engineer of the Quebec Paving Company, Mont- 
real, and associated companies, a position which he holds 
at present. 

Mr. Lalonde has been Professor in Municipal Engineer- 
ing at Ecole Polytechnique since 1926. 

Colonel H. G. Thompson, d.f.c, m.e.i.c, is among teh 
three Canadian officers who were recently despatched to 
the middle East as observers with the British 8th and 9th 
Armies. Col. Thompson is well known to members of The 
Institute, having held for over two years the position 
of editors of indices of The Engineering Catalogue at Head- 
quarters. Since his graduation from the University of 
Toronto in 1922, he has been engaged in mechanical sales 
engineering with various firms. In 1934 he joined the staff 
of Canadian Vickers Limited and in 1935 he was appointed 
manager of the Toronto office of the Company. 

In 1940 he was in England as officer commanding No. 2 
Army Field Workshop, R.C.O.C. Upon his return to Canada 
last year, he was appointed chief ordnance mechanical en- 
gineer, Department of National Defence, at Ottawa. 

W. O. Scott, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected chairman of the 
Vancouver Branch of The Institute. He graduated from 
the University of British Columbia with the degree of 
Master of Applied Science in 1923. Following graduation, 




John M. Evans, M.E.I.C. 

Mr. Evans was born in England in 1905. He was edu- 
cated in public and commercial and technical high schools 
in Montreal and graduated from McGill University in May, 
1929, with a degree of B.Eng., in electrical engineering. He 
joined the Shawinigan Water & Power Company June 1st, 
1929, and after spending two years on system planning, 
design of pole lines, transformers, and other equipment, he 
transferred to the department of development and devoted 
his attention to industrial location studies and the develop- 
ment of new loads. He is at present assistant manager of 
the department of development of the Company. 

E. M. Proctor, m.e.i.c, is at present located at Wash- 
ington, D.C., where he is representing the Canadian Gov- 
ernment on the Bureau of Industrial Conservation, which 
is a branch of the Office of Production Management of 
the United States. Mr. Proctor is president of James, 
Proctor and Redfern Limited, Toronto. 

Sub-Lieutenant C. K. Hurst, m.e.i.c, has been posted 
to the Naval College at Halifax for training. Previous to 
his enlistment he was on the hydraulic staff of the canals 
branch of the Department of Transport, Ottawa. 

Jean P. Carrière, m.e.i.c, whose paper on "Construction 
of a By-Pass Highway in England by Royal Canadian 
Engineers" is printed in this issue of the Journal, is at 
present serving as a captain with the Royal Canadian 
Engineers in England. In civil life, Mr. Carrière is senior 
assistant engineer in the Montreal office of the Department 
of Public Works of Canada and previous to his enlistment 
he had been for some time attached to the London, Ont., 
district office. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



45 



H. A. Gibeau, m.e.i.c, has been appointed director of 
the Department of Public Works of the city of Montreal 
to succeed the late J. E. Blanchard, m.e.i.c. Mr. Gibeau, 
who has held the office of assistant director for the past 
year, was born in Montreal. He took a science course at 
the Renselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.Y., where 
his brilliant studies won him the chair of applied mechanics 
at the Villa Nova Institute in Philadelphia. 




H. A. Gibeau, M.E.I.C. 

After teaching for five years in the Philadelphia institute 
he returned to Canada and was appointed chief examiner 
of the Montreal Municipal Service Commission, in 1920. 
Two years later he joined the Public Works Department, 
and in 1937 he was appointed assistant chief engineer of 
the city. 

C. Neufeld, m.e.i.c, has been transferred to the staff of 
the Dominion Bridge Company at Calgary as designing 
engineer. He was previously connected with the Sault 
Structural Steel Company at Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Neufeld, 
who graduated from the University of Saskatchewan in 
the class of 1935, was the winner of the H. N. Ruttan prize 
of The Institute in 1938. 

Flying Officer W. Shuttleworth, m.e.i.c, has joined the 
works and buildings branch of the Royal Canadian Air 
Force and is at present stationed at Newfoundland. 




Americans Honour Canadian Engineer 

At the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers in New York, the Hon. C. D. Howe, M.E.I.C, was 
given an Honorary Membership in the Society. Here he is 
shown between two other distinguished gentlemen who re- 
ceived a similar honour on the same occasion. On the left is 
Major General Charles Macon Wesson, Chief of Ordnance of 
the United States Army, and on the right is Rear Admiral 
Samuel Murray Robinson, Chief of the Bureau of Ships. 




W. F. Drysdale Participates in Quiz 
At the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers held in New York, a special feature was a "clinic" 
devoted to questions and answers on Conservation and Recla- 
mation of Materials in Industry. On the board of experts was 
W. F. Drysdale, a Member of The Institute. The above photo- 
graph shows other experts who also assisted in answering the 

many questions. 
Back Row: left to right, D. R. Kellogg, Assistant to Manager, 
Engineering Laboratories and Standards, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric; W. W. Finlay, Manager, Cincinnati Div'n., Wright Aero- 
nautical Corp'n. 
Front Row: W. F. Drysdale, M.E.I.C, Director-General of 
Industrial Planning and Engineering, Ottawa; John C Parker, 
President A.S.M.E., Vice-President Consolidated Edison Co.; 
C E. Smith, Vice-President N.Y., N.H. & H. Railroad. 



VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

Lieut. -Colonel G. E. Cole, m.e.i.c, Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel, Ottawa, Ont., on November 27th. 
R. I. McCabe, m.e.i.c, office manager, Sherbrooke Machin- 
eries Limited, Sherbrooke, Que., on November 27th. 
G. St. Jacques, m.e.i.c, engineer, Public Service Board, 
Quebec, Que., on November 28th. 

A. C. R. Yuille, m.e.i.c, consulting engineer, Vancouver, 
B.C., on November 28th. 

T. S. McMillan, jr.E.i.c, maintenance engineer, Plastic 
Division, Canadian Industries Limited, Brownsburg, Que., 
on December 3rd. 

E. M. Nason, jr.E.i.c, No. 3 Training Command, R.C.A.F., 
Moncton, N.B., on December 4th. 

B. Gray, m.e.i.c, mechanical and resident engineer, Can- 
adian International Paper Company, Temiskaming, Que., 
on December 6th. 

R. H. Findlater, m.e.i.c, Inspection Board of the United 
Kingdom and Canada, Ottawa, Ont., on December 6th. 
M. G. Saunders, m.e.i.c, Councillor of The Institute, 
mechanical superintendent, Aluminum Company of Canada 
Limited, Arvida, Que., on December 9th. 
Roger Lord, s.e.i.c, Beauharnois Light, Heat & Power 
Company, Beauharnois, Que., on December 11th. 

Major C. B. Bate, r.c.e., m.e.i.c, St. Johns, Newfound- 
land, on December 18th. 

Sergeant Eric Grant, m.e.i.c, Department of Works and 
Buildings, R.C.A.F. Headquarters, Eastern Command, 
Halifax, N.S., on December 22nd. 

Professor R. F. Legget, m.e.i.c, Department of Civil 
Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., on 
December 24th. 

T. M. Moran, m.e.i.c, Vice-President, Stevenson and 
Kellogg Limited, Toronto, Ont., on December 29th. 
J. H. Bradley, m.e.i.c, engineer with Holcroft and Com- 
pany, Detroit, Mich., on December 31st. 
Geoffrey Stead, m.e.i.c, Saint John, N.B., on January 2nd. 



46 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

Joseph Elie Blanchard, M.E.I.C, died in the hospital at 
Montreal on December 12, 1941. He was born at Montreal 
on August 3rd, 1881. He received his early education at 
the Plateau Academy and his engineering training at the 




J. Elie Blanchard, M.E.I.C. 

Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, where he graduated 
in 1902. He worked for some time with F. C. Laberge, 
consulting engineer of Montreal, and in 1904 he was engineer 
in charge of the construction of the waterworks at St. 



Boniface, Man. In 1905 he became chief engineer of the 
City of St. Henry and when this latter was annexed to 
Montreal, he remained on the public works personnel. In 
1915 he was appointed in charge of the roads and sewers 
division of the City of Montreal. In 1918 he was made 
engineering superintendent of the roads department of the 
city, a position which he occupied until 1930 when he be- 
came director of the Department of Public Works of 
Montreal. The department underwent marked improve- 
ments under the direction of Mr. Blanchard and the recent 
reorganization had been carried out under his supervision 
and that of the Quebec Municipal Commission. 

Mr. Blanchard joined The Institute as a member in 1920. 

George Prince Hawley, m.e.i.c, died at Santa Monica, 
Cal., on November 26th, 1941. He was born at Niagara 
Falls, N.Y., on August 22nd, 1872, and was educated at 
the University of Wisconsin. After spending a few years in 
municipal and railroad work, he joined the staff of Wallace 
C. Johnson at Niagara Falls in 1900 and was engaged on 
the design and construction of hydro-electric power plants, 
particularly at Shawinigan Falls, Que. From 1905 to 1911 
he was city engineer at Depere, Wis. He returned to Canada 
in 1911 with the Shawinigan Water and Power Company 
and in 1912 he joined the staff of the Montreal Light, Heat 
and Power Consolidated as resident engineer in charge of 
the construction of the Cedar Rapids plant on the St. Law- 
rence river near Montreal. Later he was engaged on the 
construction of the Rivière-des-Prairies plant of the Mont- 
real Island Power Company, a subsidiary of the Montreal 
Light, Heat and Power Consolidated. He remained at this 
plant as resident engineer until four years ago when he 
retired. He had since visited Florida and many other states, 
finally establishing his home at Santa Monica, Cal. 
Mr. Hawley joined The Institute as a member in 1920. 



INews of Other Societies 



BRANTFORD GROUP 



Vice-President K. M. Cameron of The Institute visited 
the Brantford group of engineers on Saturday, November 
22nd. He was the guest speaker at the monthly dinner 
and told an interesting story of the work done in and 
around Brantford by the Department of Public Works. 
His knowledge of the history and geography of the locality 
doubtless was a surprise to many, and indicated that civil 
engineering is a broad calling by which one learns much 
about the country in which he works. As chief engineer 
of his Department, Mr. Cameron is never in a strange 
land in any part of Canada. 

Many questions were asked which, along with the 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 




K. M. Cameron speaks to the Brantford Group of Engineers. 

On the left is Chairman W. A. T. Gilmour of the Hamilton 

Branch of The Institute and on the right is President Frank 

Westaway of the Group. 



informal friendly style of the talk, made the whole 
evening a delightful affair. The president of the group, 
Frank Westaway, was in the chair, and had as other head 
table guests, W. A. T. Gilmour, chairman of the Hamilton 
Branch of The Institute, General Secretary L. Austin 
Wright, and a past-president of the group, E. T. Sterne, 
now of Montreal. Mr. Wright spoke briefly on the work 
of the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. 

James A. Vance was present to represent the London 
Branch of The Institute, and besides the chairman, the 
Hamilton Branch was represented by the chairman-elect, 
Stanley Shupe, of Kitchener, and the secretary-treasurer, 
A. R. Hannaford. 

PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 

The Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 
have announced that Flt.-Lieut. Henry Cotton, Padre of 
the Technical Training Centre, R.C.A.F., St. Thomas, will 
be the guest speaker at the dinner of the Association 
which is being held in the Royal York Hotel, Toronto 
on January 17th. He will speak on the subject, " The 
Battle of Brains." 

Flt.-Lieut. Cotton who was attending McGill University 
when the last war broke out, enlisted as a Private and 
finished as Captain in the old Royal Flying Corps. He 
was in dog-fights with Richthofen and Voss, the cele- 
brated German war aces. Shot down on his fortieth flight 
to Germany, he was for two years a prisoner of war. He 
was cited in the London Gazette " for gallant and dis- 
tinguished service," his copy being signed on the King's 
behalf by Winston Churchill, then Secretary of State 

lor Air. (News of Other Societies continued on page 57) 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



47 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



W. P. Augustine, m.e.i.c. 
J. B. Dowler, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The November meeting of the Border Cities Branch was 
held on Friday, November 14th, at the Prince Edward 
Hotel, Windsor. In the absence of the branch chairman, 
G. M. Medlar, the Branch was honoured by having Coun- 
cillor E. M. Krebser in the chair. After dinner, the speaker, 
Mr. Donald Ramseyer, was introduced by Mr. J. Blowey. 

Mr. Ramseyer is superintendent of the soy bean plant 
of the Ford Motor Company at Dearborn, Mich. He has 
been associated with soy bean work at the Ford Motor 
Company since its inception in 1930. The subject of his 
talk was Soy Beans in Industry. 

In order to introduce his subject, Mr. Ramseyer first 
showed a slide film entitled Farms of the Future. It has 
long been one of Mr. Henry Ford's principles that there 
must be the utmost co-operation between the American 
farmer and industry before we can obtain true prosperity 
on this continent. Industry must absorb the products of the 
farmer in order that the farmer may absorb the products of 
industry. 

With this in mind, Mr. Ford started research to find pro- 
ducts of the farm most useful to industry. Many products 
were experimented with — corn stalks, wheat straw, veget- 
ables, sunflower seeds, weeds and many others. Finally the 
soy bean was chosen as having the greatest possibilities. 
This is because of the high protein content. 

The soy bean was introduced into America about 1800, 
but very little was done with it until about 1914. Its chief 
uses were as a silage crop and the oil was used as a substitute 
for cotton seed oil. 

One of the difficulties with early methods for utilization 
of soy beans was that all the oil could not be removed from 
the meal and this was the first problem attacked by Mr. 
Ford's research laboratory. They developed a method by 
which 100 per cent of the oil can be absorbed from the 
crushed beans leaving a meal not unlike some prepared 
breakfast foods. The soy bean oil can then be recovered 
from the solvent and the solvent used over and over again. 
The meal can be dried and converted into many different 
products. 

The oil is now used in the enamels for the Ford car. The 
enamels now contain up to 50 per cent of soy bean oil. 

A new process has been the hydrogénation of the oil to 
produce glycerine and stearic acid, both very necessary 
for war-time production. 

The original product developed by Ford research labora- 
tory was the combination of the meal and bakélite to 
mould the gear shifter knob. Practically all the buttons, 
handles and ignition parts are now being moulded from 
this material. 

Soy bean water paint has been developed from the meal. 
This is a very cheap paint for factory work, excellent for 
stonework and cement, retaining its whiteness longer than 
other paints. It can be washed but is rather porous and 
therefore is not suitable for painting steel. It can be mixed 
with pigment to give different colours. 

The Ford research laboratory is also experimenting with 
gaskets made of fabric impregnated with the soy bean 
protein. This is a very severe application and large scale 
tests are now under way. The tests look very promising 
but it has not yet been applied commercially. 

The soy bean meal is also used in the Ford steel mill as a 
substitute for corn flower as a core binder. Replaceable hot 
pops for steel ingot casting is another use. 

One of the most amazing of the Ford developments is 
protein wool made from the soy meal. This wool has a 
texture and quality very similar to sheep's wool. It is equal 
in strength when dry to 80 per cent of strength when wet, 



and has 20 per cent more stretch. As a comparison it 
requires two acres of land per sheep to produce 12 lb. of 
wool, whereas two acres of land will produce 200 lb. of soy 
bean wool. This material has been used to make automobile 
upholstery of 30 per cent soy bean fibre and 70 per cent 
sheep's wool. It has been used very satisfactorily. Even 
suits have been made and felt for hats, successfully. Mr. 
Ford is now building a plant to produce this wool. 

Mr. Ramseyer was asked whether plastics would greatly 
affect the production of aeroplanes and other articles during 
the war-time rush. He stated that at the present time there 
were not nearly enough soy beans grown to meet the de- 
mand. This year production was about' 110,000,000 bushels 
of beans and next year it is expected to reach 125,000,000 
bushels. Even this would not meet the demand. However, 
after the war, he predicted, there would be huge develop- 
ments along this line. 



w w 




The Border Cities group at the dinner held in honour 
of the president. 

One other great advantage of soy beans is that the plant 
adds great quantities of nitrogen to the soil and is therefore 
of great benefit to the soil. 

A special meeting of the Border Cities Branch was held 
on Wednesday, November 26, at the Prince Edward 
Hotel, Windsor. The occasion was the visit to the branch of 
the present, Dean C. J. Mackenzie, accompanied by Vice- 
President K. M. Cameron from Ottawa. The president was 
also accompanied by Mr. J. A. Vance and Mr. H. F. 
Bennett of the London Branch. 

A dinner meeting was held with Mr. George E. Medlar 
in the chair. After the dinner, the chairman welcomed the 
president and his party on behalf of the branch, and turned 
the meeting over to Vice-President J. Clark Keith. Mr. 
Keith gave a brief review of President Mackenzie's career 
leading up to his present work as acting president of the 
National Research Council and chairman of the Federal 
Board of Inventions. 

President Mackenzie spoke of his visits to the various 
branches throughout Canada, and his appreciation of the 
opportunity to be president. He spoke of the prominent 
part being played by engineers in Canada to-day, especially 
in the Department of Munitions and Supply, and the 
increasing importance of engineering as a profession. 

President Mackenzie then reviewed the work of the 
Research Council. The work to-day is probably more 
development engineering than long term research but the 
work requires the same type of mind and in either case 
extensive training for the job. 

As an outstanding example of the value of research, it 
may be said that scientific research saved Britain in 1940 
as it gave them the Spitfire and Hurricane aeroplanes and 
their equipment. The air force was quite small but superbly 
trained and with superior equipment they saved Britain. 



48 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




President's visit to Windsor. From left to right: J. A. Vance, 

J. Clark Keith, President Mackenzie, K. M. Cameron and 

H. F. Bennett. 

Without this equipment in the air and on the sea nothing 
else could have stopped the Germans. 

The war will not be won by any spectacular or new 
weapons but will be won by careful, consistent and con- 
tinual attention to detail and constant attention to research 
and development of men and equipment. 

After President Mackenzie's address, Chairman George 
Medlar asked Councillor E. M. Krebser to introduce Vice- 
President K. M. Cameron. 

Mr. Cameron paid tribute to the speaker of the evening 
and said that it was exceedingly fortunate that Canada was 
able to call on a man of President Mackenzie's calibre to 
take over the duties at the National Research Council. 

Mr. Cameron then discussed several Institute affairs of 
great interest to the members, particularly the papers pre- 
sented for the John Galbraith prize. One of our members, 
Mr. A. H. Pask, has presented a paper for this prize. 

Councillor J. A. Vance then spoke briefly and praised the 
work of President Mackenzie and past presidents in visiting 
the different branches and bringing them more closely 
together. 

Mr. H. F. Bennett of London spoke briefly on the work 
of the Committee on the Welfare of the Young Engineer 
and spoke of the booklet which is being prepared for early 
distribution to Canadian high schools giving information 
regarding the engineering profession. 

At the close of the meeting, Mr. T. H. Jenkins, on behalf 
of all the members, moved a hearty vote of thanks to our 
president for his visit and extremely interesting address. 
Mr. J. F. Bridge seconded this motion. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 



F. R. BURFIELD, M.E.I.C. 

L. A. Thorssen, Jr. E. I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The second general meeting for the year of the Edmonton 
Branch was held in the Electrical Engineering Laboratories 
of the University of Alberta, on November 18th. A paper 
was given in connection with a visit to the new Broadcast- 
ing Station, CKUA, of the University of Alberta by Mr. 
J. W. Porteous, of the department of electrical engineering, 
who was chief engineer and designer of the new installation. 

Prior to the visit Mr. Porteous outlined the problems con- 
fronting the designer of a broadcasting station and very 
clearly showed the various steps from the source of sounds 
to the antenna into the air and finally to the radio receiver. 
These various steps were illustrated by a laboratory set-up 
in which he explained the transfer of sound into electric 
currents by the microphone, how these currents were 
stepped-up by radio tubes, then showing the combination 
of these currents and voltages, known as audio frequencies, 
with the radio frequency wave, in order to produce a wave 
that can travel out from the antenna for great distances. 
With the laboratory set-up, Mr. Porteous actually broad- 



cast various sounds showing the combination of the audio 
and radio frequencies by the use of an oscillograph. These 
sounds were picked up by an ordinary radio receiving set 
in the far end of the laboratory. 

After the paper, Mr. Porteous conducted the members 
around the transmitter and antenna tower of the new 
station, pointing out the various steps described in his 
paper. 

With an excellent turn-out of members and guests, it 
was a very interesting and enjoyable evening. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 



S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c. 
G. V. Ross, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Mr. M. Walsh, chief engineer of the Gunite and Water- 
proofing Co. Ltd., was speaker at the November 27th 
dinner meeting of the Branch. Seventy-seven members and 
guests were present. 

Mr. Walsh described the Pre-stressed Concrete 
process used by his company in the construction of water 
and oil tanks, a topic of special interest here as several 
tanks of this type are soon to be built in the vicinity of 
Halifax. Mr. Walsh spoke of the causes of failure due to 
cracking and separation of concrete from steel in tanks of 
conventional design. He then dealt with the pre-loaded 
concrete design, which overcomes these causes of failure, 
and explained the method of placing and pre-stressing the 
reinforcing steel, and illustrated his talk with a motion 
picture of tanks under construction. 

Mr. R. L. Dunsmore, of the Imperial Oil Company, 
extended an invitation to the Branch members to visit the 
site when construction gets under way. 

The tanks to be erected are 130 ft. in diameter, 42 ft. 
wall height with domes bringing the total height to 58 ft. 
and with a capacity of 100,000 barrels. 

S. L. Fultz was chairman of the meeting. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 



A. R. Hannaford, m.e.i.c. 
W. E. Brown, Ji-.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The December meeting of the Branch was held at 
McMaster University on the 16th, with an attendance of 
40. Since the meeting was to be one on tool steels, a Tool 
Steel Quiz was held prior to the meeting. This proved very 
interesting and the prize was won by a visitor, Mr. Trane. 

T. S. Glover introduced the speaker, Mr. H. B. Cham- 
bers, metallurgist of Atlas Steels Limited, of Welland, Ont. 

Mr. Chambers, in speaking on Tool Steels for Engineers 
explained that generally the engineer had a very poor con- 
ception of tool steels and their proper application. 

Basically tool steel is a mixture of iron, carbon varying 
from 0.7 to V/i per cent, silicon 34 per cent for soundness of 
steel, and manganese }/i per cent for workability. These are 
water-hardening steels and can be divided into four group- 
ings, according to a 20 point carbon range, as follows: 
1.30 to 1.50 carbon 
1.10 to 1.30 carbon 
0.90 to 1.10 carbon 
0.70 to 0.90 carbon 
The higher carbon steels have a maximum of wear resist- 
ance and the lower carbon steels a maximum of toughness 
or resistance to shock load. It must always be remembered 
that as the resistance to wear is increased, the toughness 
of the steel must be sacrificed and vice-versa. The inter- 
mediate groups give a combination of these two properties. 

But it is necessary to have tool steels which can be 
hardened without any appreciable change in section. 
Therefore, by the addition of chromium, molybdenum and 
in some cases manganese, the oil-hardening steels are 
obtained but still with same carbon range and groupings, 
so that the oil-hardening steels add four more groups. 

But in applications such as forging or high speed lathe 
work the die or tool must resist heat. Therefore, there 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



49 



arises the need for high speed tool steels or in other words, 
heat-resisting tool steels and these are obtained by the 
addition of tungsten and in some cases additional molyb- 
denum. The same carbon range is maintained and thus 
four more main groups of tool steels are added to the 
available tool steels. 

To recapitulate, we have: 

Water-hardening steels — 4 groups. 
Oil-hardening steels — 4 groups. 
Heat-resisting steels — 4 groups. 

It should be remembered that each of these three clas- 
sifications maintains the range from maximum wear 
resistance to maximum toughness. Thus the whole tool 
steel picture can be given in 12 groups. 

Mr. Chambers also pointed out the dangers of poor die 
design, showing how the use of fillets and an attempt to 
keep dies of irregular cross-section to a balanced cross- 
section will avoid the strains and resultant cracks sometimes 
experienced in the heat-treating of dies. 

Mr. Chambers went on to deal with some specific applica- 
tions of tool steels and also answered many questions. 

E. M. Coles moved the vote of thanks, expressing the 
appreciation of the meeting for the very clear picture of tool 
steels presented by the speaker. 

The meeting adjourned for the usual refreshments. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 



W. C. Byers, m.e.i.c. 
A. L. Pierce, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The regular monthly meeting of the Lakehead Branch 
was held on Wednesday, November 19th, at 8 p.m. The 
members gathered at the new Shell Plant at Fort William 
for an inspection trip. 

Later in the evening the members re-assembled at the 
New York Lunch in Fort William, where a short general 
meeting was held and lunch was served. The scheduled 
speaker of the evening, Mr. J. M. Paton, general manager 
of the Shell plant was unable to be present. In his absence, 
Mr. J. Heald, production manager of the plant, spoke a few 
words of welcome. 

Mr. Krzywoblocki, a Polish engineer now resident at the 
Lakehead, attended the meeting and was warmly welcomed 
and invited to attend all future meetings of the Branch. 

A short discussion took place during which some of the 
members expressed their pleasure upon having been given 
the opportunity of visiting the Shell plant. A vote of thanks 
from the membership was extended to Mr. J. M. Paton, 
who had made the visit possible. 

The Lakehead Branch held its monthly meeting on 
December 3rd at the New York Lunch in Fort William. 
Following dinner, the members were shown two moving 
pictures. The first of these was the Tacoma Narrows 
Bridge. Mr. P. E. Doncaster, who had previously seen the 
film, then gave a few statistics regarding the structure and a 
lively discussion followed. A film called Photo-elastic 
Stress Analysis, filmed at the University of Manitoba, 
was next shown and was followed with a great deal of 
interest by the members. Mr. J. M. Fleming led the discus- 
sion which followed. 

Both pictures were thoroughly enjoyed by the members 
and guests. Mr. G. R. Duncan was tendered an expression 
of thanks by the chairman for the use of his projector. 

B. A. Culpeper, the chairman, presided. Thirty-nine 
members and guests were present. 

LONDON BRANCH 



H. A. Stead, m.e.i.c. 

A. L. FURANNA, M.E.I.C. - 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On Wednesday, November 26th, the London Branch held 
its monthly meeting jointly with the Canadian Club to 
welcome The Engineering Institute's president, Dean C. J. 
Mackenzie. The meeting took the form of a dinner in the 
Crystal Ball Room of the Hotel London. 



Introduced by Mr. H. F. Bennett, the president spoke on 
Research and War. Dean Mackenzie in his capacity as 
acting president of the National Research Council outlined 
the purpose, functions and organization of research in 
Canada at war. 

As for the importance of research in war, he said, it need 
only be stated that it is highly endorsed by Major General 
A. G. L. McNaughton. Before the war, scientific work in 
Canada was well organized and the change-over from peace 
to war was made with high efficiency. He said that the 
purpose of research in war is to develop the equipment to 
be placed in the hands of the fighting forces. To give some 
idea of the vastness of this undertaking, it is only necessary 
to realize that one division carries power equipment totalling 
a capacity equal to that required by the city of Toronto. 

Dean Mackenzie stated that in this war of mass produc- 
tion there are four distinct phases: development, design, 
tooling-up and training. But time is the predominating 
factor throughout, and this limits what can be done in 
research. While it is impossible to design new battleships or 
even big guns, much is being done in the middle-class pro- 
jects such as small guns and improvements on aeroplane 
parts. However, most of the work is being done in the small 
appliance class including radio, medical apparatus and 
optical instruments. Thus there are three prime considera- 
tions in any problem. Is it scientifically sound ? Is it tacti- 
cally sound ? Can you make it ? 

Organized research in Canada is carried out by the 
National Research Council. The most important function 
of this body is to coordinate and supervise research across 
the country. Originally there were no laboratories ; however, 
there are now several laboratories in Ottawa. 

Research is carried on under four classifications : mechani- 
cal engineering, electrical engineering, chemistry and 
biology with associate interests in medicine, field conser- 
vation and forestry. The Council has mobilized across 
Canada so that now there are 70 projects under study in 
15 universities throughout the Dominion. 

Constant liaison is maintained with England and the 
United States, the object being not to repeat any work 
already done elsewhere nor to do anything which cannot 
be carried through. 

Finally, the president warned that we must do away with 
wishful thinking. This war will not be won by any miracle 
of science. We must be prepared to make real sacrifices 
and do away with petty criticisms. He said the reason we 
feel so futile about this war is that although we have been 
trying, we are not doing our best. Something is lacking — 
sacrifice. 

After the meeting two tours were conducted. The first 
trip was to the Ordnance Mechanics Training School at 
Queens Park and was arranged by Lt.-Col. W. M. Veitch. 

The second trip was to the Fleet Aircraft plant at Crum- 
lin, under the direction of the architect, Mr. Loreen Oxley. 

MONCTON BRANCH 



V. C. Blackett, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



Centralized Traffic Control was the subject of an 
address delivered before a branch meeting on November 
28th, by R. M. Phinney, S.B., engineer of train operation, 
General Railway Signal Co., Rochester, N.Y. The meeting 
was open to the public and in addition to branch members, 
a large number of railway men were present. F. 0. Condon, 
chairman of the branch, presided. 

Mr. Phinney's paper dealt with the despatching of 
trains. He compared the present method of written train 
orders, time-table authority and hand-operated switches, 
with the newer mechanized system whereby trains move 
under the instruction of way-side signals, which together 
with the operation of important track switches are under 
the control of a single operator located in a central office. 
Mr. Phinney's remarks were illustrated with motion 
pictures. 



50 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



A vote of thanks to the speaker was moved by T. H. 
Dickson and seconded by E. R. Evans. 

Sackville Meeting 

On November 29th, the Moncton Branch combined with 
the Engineering Society of Mount Allison to hold a meeting 
in the Science building of the University at Sackville. 
There was a large attendance of engineering students 
together with members of the branch, and also of the 
technical staffs of the Robb Engineering Company and 
the Canadian Car and Foundry Company at Amherst. 
Laine Jamieson, president of the Engineering Society, 
was in the chair. The speaker was R. M. Phinney, who gave 
an illustrated address on Centralized Traffic Control. A 
vote of thanks was extended Mr. Phinney by Dean H. W. 
McKiel. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 



L. A. DUCHASTEL, M.E.I.C. 
G. G. WaNLESS, Jr. E. I.C. 



Secretary Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Dr. R. R. Williams addressed the Montreal Branch on 
December 11th, on the subject of The Chemical Descent 
of Man. 

Dr. Williams, who is Chemical Director of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, has specialized in the field of 
vitamin chemistry. He was born in 1886 at Rampatnam, 
India, where he had ample opportunity to become ac- 
quainted with the scourge of berriberri. After receiving his 
m.sc. degree from the University of Chicago in 1908, he 
returned to the far east and began work in the Bureau of 
Science at Manila on this same problem of berriberri. 
Not until 1933 did he succeed in isolating pure vitamin Bi 
(thiamin) from rice polishings, and in proving that this was 
the specific substance whose absence from polished rice 
causes berriberri in oriental peoples. By 1936 he had 
accomplished the synthesis of thiamin. This great work was 
carried on, for the most part, in addition to his regular 
duties at the Bell Laboratories. 

Although we seldom hear of berriberri in this hemisphere, 
moderate deficiency of Bi in our diet can be responsible for 
an impairment of physical and mental efficiency. This is of 
especial interest to the armed forces. Dr. Williams has 
been awarded the Willard Gibbs medal for his brilliant 
work. 

By comparing the behaviour of certain vitamins in the 
physiology of man, animals and plants, Dr. Williams was 
able to show how closely related are their basic living 
functions. Such examples are accepted as evidence in 
support of the theory of man's evolution. It is much more 
precise evidence than physical and character resemblances 
which formed the basis of Darwin's famous book of 1870. 
Some chemical illustrations of the interdependence and 
similarities of man, animals and plants are : — 

(1) Plants synthesize carbon dioxide and water into 
starches, sugars and celluloses, which become the basic 
plant structures. Man and animals consume these pro- 
ducts, producing energy and causing a reversion of the 
process. 

(2) Exactly the same vitamins, amino-acids and other 
functional chemicals are found in man and other higher 
animals. 

(3) It is of interest to note that the physiological 
behaviour of food and drug on man can be predicted from 
laboratory tests performed on animals. 

(4) The hormones, stimulating agents of human 
endocrine glands, have the same effects on behaviour 
in other animals. 

(5) The functioning of the nervous systems in men and 
animals are known to be actuated by electrical impulses, 
which resemble chemical chain reactions. Their temper- 
ature coefficients are the same as those of wired electrical 
circuits. 

(6) All the vertebrates have similar visual systems 
which function by the reversible oxidation and reduction 



of certain carotinoid pigments in conjunction with one 
of the vitamins. The light filters of chickens' eyes contain 
the same chlorophyl and xanthophyl found in the plant 
world, and vitamin A. Lack of this same vitamin con- 
tributes to night blindness in humans. 

(7) The principal substances in the blood stream of 
man (haemoglobin) and that of the plant circulatory 
systems (chlorophyl) were shown to have comparable 
chemical space structures. 

(8) Some evidence is reported which indicates that 
both man and animals exhibit some instinctive craving 
for vitamins in which their bodies may be deficient. It is 
now suspected that all of the vitamins may prove to be 
essential chemicals in plants and animals, as are the 
hormones in man. 

Dr. Williams presented his complicated subject in clear 
and understandable terms. The broad interest of his 
engineer audience was indicated by the extensive discus- 
sion which followed. In moving the vote of thanks, Dr. 
Struthers paid tribute to the brilliant investigations of this 
world-renowned scientist. 

Dr. Williams delivered a classical lecture, and it was a 
rare opportunity to hear it. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

J. H. Ings, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
C. G. Cline, m.e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

A joint meeting of the Niagara Peninsula Branches of 
The Engineering Institute of Canada and the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers was held on November 
20th at the Welland House, St. Catharines, with an attend- 
ance of 60. Mr. A. L. McPhail, chairman of the local branch 
of The Engineering Institute, presided. Mr. Norman Franks 
introduced the speaker, Mr. J. W. Bateman, manager of 
the lighting service department of the Canadian General 
Electric Company Limited, whose subject was Some 
Interesting Applications of Light, Ultra-Violet and 
Infra-Red Radiations. Mr. Bateman had with him a 
large amount of electrical equipment with which he illus- 
trated his subject in a most interesting manner. He also 
used lantern slides to show various types of lighting installa- 
tions. The vote of thanks was proposed by Mr. George 
Morrison, chairman of the local branch of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 

R. K. Odell, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

At the noon luncheon on November 20, Commander 
H. N. Lay, R.C.N. , Director, Operations Division, Naval 
Service Headquarters, Ottawa, addressed the Branch on 
The Royal Canadian Navy. He traced briefly the history 
of the Royal Canadian Navy from its inauspicious beginning 
in 1910 to its present importance as a vital part of Canada's 
war effort. 

G. J. Desbarats, c.m.g., who was deputy minister of the 
Naval Service at the time of the Navy's inception, was at 
the head table. For this reason the Commander hesitated 
to go into details too deeply. "Mr. Desbarats would be able 
to correct me if I made a mistake" he said. 

The commencement of the Canadian Navy dates from 
1910 when the Canadian Government officially took over 
the Royal dockyards at Halifax and Esquimalt and pur- 
chased two fairly old cruisers, the Niobe and the Rainbow. 
The former was stationed in eastern waters and the latter 
in western waters. The next year the Royal Naval College 
was started at Halifax. 

During the first great war the Navy did its part and in 
1917 Halifax became the first convoy assembly point on this 
side of the Atlantic. In 1918, after the close of the war, the 
personnel was reduced from 6,000 officers and men to 1,000 
and subsequent cries for economy reduced the number in 
1923 to less than 400 officers and men with estimates at one 
time as low as two million dollars. 

In 1928 the Navy began to be built up again so that at 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



51 



the commencement of the present war there were six 
destroyers and four mine sweepers. Naval personnel 
totalled 1,700 which was soon stepped up to 20,000. This 
great increase was enlisted during the first few months of the 
war and taxed to the utmost the facilities of Halifax and 
Esquimalt. 

Discipline in the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal 
Australian Navy, stated the speaker, is patterned after 
that of the Royal Navy. Officers go to England for instruc- 
tion and there obtain "wonderful experience." 

Canadian shipyards started building and in 1940 under- 
took an extensive building programme. As convoys were 
started immediately war was declared some sort of ships 
had to be commissioned at once for anti-submarine work as 
a stop gap, such as converted yachts of 400 to 500 tons. 
Three Prince class liners were converted to auxiliary 
cruisers and have been very successful, serving and making 
captures all over the world. Canadian destroyers also 
assisted at the evacuation of Dunkerque. 

The corvettes, he characterized as "marvellous little 
ships, by far the cheapest and quickest to build for use 
against submarines." Tremendous credit must be given to 
Canadian shipyards for the facility with which they can 
now turn them out. In the short period of eleven months, 
he said, they can be laid down, completed, do their trials, 
cross the Altantic and be placed in commission against the 
enemy. Within the next month it is expected that from 30 
to 40 ships of various categories will be accepted by the 
Royal Canadian Navy. 

The Royal Canadian Navy has gone through 31 years 
of pretty doubtful existence, stated the Commander, and it 
is to be hoped that the service is firmly established. Canada 
can no longer entirely depend upon the British Government 
for protection. On account of her extensive sea-borne trade, 
as long as there are any foreign navies in existence that 
might attack this traffic, there must be a Canadian Navy, 
he declared. 

A talk on Air Co-operation was given at the noon 
luncheon of the Ottawa Branch at the Chateau Laurier on 
December 4. Squadron Leader W. W. Ross of the R.C.A.F., 
commanding the School of Army Co-operation and stationed 
at Rockcliffe, was the speaker. Chairman of the Branch, 
T. A. McElhanney presided. 

Operations in modern warfare often call for the closest 
kind of co-operation between units of the army, the navy, 
and the air force, with the last-mentioned occupying a most 
important place in that co-operation. The speaker outlined 
the manner in which such co-operation may be maintained. 
He stated that the present-day pilot, whether engaged in 
fighter, bomber, reconnaissance or army co-operation 
manoeuvres must have plenty of initiative and self con- 
fidence. Frequently they are definitely on their own when 
the success of the job in hand is entirely up to the individual. 
Squadron Leader Ross went over to England in Feb- 
ruary, 1940, with the 110 Army Co-operation Squadron, 
went through the September attack of that year and 
returned to Canada in March, 1941. "I really had a grand- 
stand seat at the biltzkrieg on London," he commented, 
referring to a visit he made to that city while on leave 
during which time enemy attacks were at their worst 

He paid tribute to the remarkable bravery exhibited 
during these attacks by the English population. "Just 
about the bravest thing that I ever saw" he stated, "was 
the manner in which two young girls drove an ambulance 
through the burning city of London one night when the 
enemy really tried to set it on fire. They rumbled over the 
rubble of the streets, picking up the casualties here and 
there whenever they heard anyone yelling for help. Before 
the night was over the cover of their ambulance was 
burned away but they thought nothing of that and simply 
took it all in their stride. I undertook to assist them and 
accompanied them for several hours although I did not 
even learn their names. I am willing to admit that all the 
time I was with them I was just about scared to death." 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



D. J. Emery, m.e.i.c. 

E. Whiteley, Jr. e. i.e. 



Secretary-T reasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The twenty-third Annual Dinner of the Peterborough 
Branch was held at the Kawartha Club on November 19th, 
and was attended by about ninety engineers. The meeting 
was addressed by four notables of the engineering world in 
the persons of Dean C. J. Mackenzie, president of The 
Institute and acting president of the National Research 
Council of Canada; K. M. Cameron, Vice-President of The 
Institute and Chief Engineer of the Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa; deGaspé Beaubien, Vice-President of The 
Institute, Joint National Chairman for War Savings, and 
Consulting Engineer, Montreal, and L. Austin .Wright, 
General Secretary of The Institute, Montreal, and Assistant 
Director of the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel, 
Ottawa. 

The theme carried throughout the addresses urged 
engineers to make plans now to avoid post-war dislocations. 
It is becoming apparent that engineers must face a two- 
fold challenge — to win the war, and to organize a plan to 
avoid its aftermath of destructive dislocation. 

The first appeal to make this a total war came from 
L. Austin Wright. He claimed it was the duty of the en- 
gineers of Canada to give leadership on the subject of 
air-raid precaution work, and, he added, with this in view, 




The Headquarters party. President Mackenzie, Vice-Presidents 
Cameron and Beaubien, and General-Secretary Wright. 

arrangements had been completed to send a competent 
engineer to Britain to study and investigate the work being 
done, that is from a structural and engineering standpoint, 
and to report back at the annual meeting to be held next 
February. The study will include defence from bombs, 
repairs from damage, restoration of public utilities, and the 
many other phases of this work. 

Mr. Wright said The Institute was in a healthy condition, 
both in membership and financially, but, he added, the war 
had brought manifold problems. 

He spoke, too, of the problems of the Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel, and explained that an attempt was 
being made to catalogue and organize the engineers of 
Canada so that they would be able to tackle every problem 
in all fields of engineering during the war. 

The second appeal to organize and avoid post-war dis- 
location and depression came from G. R. Langley, chief 
engineer at the local plant of the Canadian General Electric 
Company, Limited. 

"This is an appeal for action on a matter that vitally 
concerns everyone in Canada. No one here to-night would 
dispute that our job is to win the war. Too many of us, 
however, think of this job solely as a matter of production 
of tanks, ships and guns, the training of men and the com- 
plete defeat of Hitler and his armies. We can win that 



52 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOl KNAL 




W. E. Ross (Toronto), J. E. Girven, A. E. Berry (Toronto) and 
M. H. Smith. 



The scenic entry of the roast. From right to left: the carvers 
are G. R. Langley, S. O. Shields, A. L. Killaly, D. A. Drynan 
and V. S. Foster. Seated are R. L. Dobbin, H n 
W. E. Ross, Colonel LeR. F. Grant 



E. Brandon, 




A. L. Killaly carves the roast. 




At left: Chairman J. 
Cameron presents his re- 
port. 




The head table. From left to right: G. R. Langley, President 

C. J. Mackenzie, Chairman J. Cameron, Vice-president K. M. 

Cameron, Councillor Dr. A. E. Berry and Vice-President de 

Gaspé Beaubien. In front, J. E. Girven. 



From left to right: Miss N. Brown, Mr. A. M. McQuarrie, Misses 

J. Forest, E. Newman and E. Rabkin; Messrs. S. Barkell and 

G. R. Langley. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



53 



phase of the war and still meet defeat if we fail to adequately 
plan to avoid post war dislocations that may destroy the 
things we are really fighting for, our standards of culture, 
and living and our democratic institutions. 

"At the close of hostilities, Canada will probably have 
her wealth-producing facilities (factory building and 
machinery, transportation, power supply, mines, farms, 
forests, and trained personnel) in better shape than ever 
before in her history, most of them not merely unimpaired 
by the war effort, but actually improved. There is no theo- 
retical or practical reason why these facilities cannot be 
used to give a higher standard of living for everyone, than 
has ever been reached in the past. This happy result can 
only be achieved by adequate planning. Lacking such 
planning there is good reason to fear a business recession 
of terrific proportions." 

A stirring appeal for more support in the form of War 
Savings Certificates, coupled with the assurance that the 
citizens of Quebec are striving with all Canada for a 
national unity and an early peace through victory, was 
brought to members of the Branch by deGaspé Beaubien. 

"You need not worry about the great race I represent, 
when you think of national unity. If we can get Quebec to 
know the other provinces better, and the other provinces to 
know Quebec as she is, then everything will be better." 

"The great task ahead of us will require more production, 
and greater production requires money. More War Savings 
Certificates must be sold, and I would urge that you renew 
your effort if at all possible, and this appeal comes from 
your country." 

The guest speaker of the evening, Dean C. J. Mackenzie, 
was introduced by Hubert R. Sills of the Peterborough 
Branch. 

Dean Mackenzie spoke on the part scientific workers 
are playing in this war and he prefaced his talk with a few 
remarks to show the great difference in the World War I of 
1914-18 and the present struggle. For example, he stated 
that one division alone has 500,000 horse power, as much 
as is used in the city of Toronto. 

"Our science and technology was adequate when this 
war began, but we lacked quantity of war weapons. What 
we had was of good quality, but we had little. In 1916 the 
National Research Council had been formed and it has 
gone on ever since in a modest way. 

"To-day, this Research Council is in high gear with four 
branches, and 30 associate committees, of these latter the 
one perhaps making the greatest progress is the committee 
engaged in medical research. 

"Our job is to co-operate, cc-ordinate and stimulate the 
country's effort towards winning the war." 

Jack Cameron, president of the branch, was chairman 
during the dinner meeting, which was attended by 90 
people including engineers from Hamilton, Toronto, 
Ottawa and Montreal, and also including ten girls, grad- 
uates of different universities who are being trained as 
inspectors at the C.G.E. plant. The thanks of the gathering 
to the speakers was voiced by Stanley O. Shields, of the 
branch. Entertainment was provided by Rex Slocombe of 
Toronto, a magician and a musician. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

V. S. Chestnut, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Tresaurer 

Thirty-three members and guests attended a supper 
meeting of the Saint John Branch held in the Admiral 
Beatty Hotel on Thursday, December 11th. The Branch 
chairman, F. A. Patriquen, presided. Mr. C. C. Kirby 
reported that the professional engineers of the province 
voted strongly in favour of co-operation with The Engineer- 
ing Institute. Mr. Kirby also outlined the progress being 
made in the formation of a Demolition Committee for the 
city of Saint John and in which the Saint John Branch is 
taking such a leading part. 

Mr. G. W. Berry, Saint John manager of Ford Company 
of Canada, Ltd., the guest speaker of the evening, was 



introduced by the chairman, Mr. Patriquen. Mr. Berry 
outlined to his audience the vast strides made in Canada's 
industrial contribution to the war effort. In the last war, 
an infantry battalion unopposed by the enemy could 
travel fifteen miles per day, while to-day the same battalion 
could travel 150-200 miles in the same period. There is 
more horse power in an armoured division of to-day than in 
the whole of the maritime provinces. The motor car in- 
dustry of Canada had naturally specialized in army trucks 
and carriers of all kinds, and had supplied thousands of 
these machines to numerous battlefronts of the world. If 
necessary, Canada could supply 25,000 of these machines 
per month. 

In the field of tanks, Canada was building the light 
infantry and the medium cruiser tank. An additional 
fighting unit, the light destroyer tank, is still in the hands 
of the designers. 

At the conclusion of his address, Mr. Berry showed films 
outlining the manufacture and testing of the equipment 
manufactured at the Ford plant. From these tests it was 
apparent that any defects would be discovered before 
export to the various fields of battle and that Canada 
should be proud of the equipment she is supplying in 
"providing the tools to finish the job." 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 



C. G. DE TONNANCOUR, S.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The fall activities of the branch were resumed on Sep- 
tember 4th when the branch and the Shawinigan Chemical 
Association were invited to participate in a joint dinner 
meeting sponsored by the Canadian Club, at the Cascade 
Inn. 

The guest speaker was Sir W. Lawrence Brogg, noted 
for his work on X-ray analysis of crystal structure, and 
one of the world's leading scientists, specializing in the 
structure of metals. 

Sir Lawrence, acting in Canada as liaison officer with the 
National Research Council, spoke on Canadians are 
British Scientists in the War. 

The meeting was very well attended, and the Canadian 
Club must be thanked for the initiative in sharing their 
distinguished guest with the engineers and the chemists. 

Sir Lawrence stressed the evident preparedness of 
Germany long before the invasion of Poland and explained 
by means of examples the part played by chemists and 




Mr.^George Long speaks to the St. Maurice Valley Branch. 
Next'to him are Chairman A. H. Heatley and H. G. Timmis. 



54 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



physicists in gearing British industries to war production; 
he mentioned that their contribution was more on solving 
the problems of development and expansion of known pro- 
cesses than on last minute inventions. 

The next event was a dinner meeting at the Château de 
Blois, in Trois-Rivières, presided over by Dr. H. Heatley, 
branch chairman. Mr. George Long, historian of the Bell 
Telephone Company of Canada, spoke on Wartime Com- 
munications. Amidst an impressing array of electrical 
equipment illustrating the development of the telephone 
from A. Graham Bell to our times, Mr. Long gave his 
audience a vivid picture of the part played by the Bell 
Laboratories, the Bell network and equipment manufac- 
turers in World Wars I and II. Mr. Long was presented by 
Mr. J. M. Mitchell, and thanked by Mr. H. G. Timmis. 

On November 3rd, at the Laurentide Inn, in Grand'Mère, 
Mr. Jean Flahault, s.e.i.c, made a successful escape from 
work at Arvida to address the branch on Some Engineer- 
ing Aspects of the German Army, gathered from his 
personal experience with the Germans in France, his cap- 
ture and subsequent escape to Canada. Mr. Flahault 
submitted willingly to a bombardment of questions and 
ended by giving the World War I veterans among his audi- 
ence an eagerness to be "over there" once more, not to 
talk of the younger members' reaction. Mr. Flahault was 
introduced by Mr. Alphonse Trudel, and thanked by Mr. 
R. Dorion. 

SAGUENAY BRANCH 



D. S. EsTABROOKS, M.E.I.C. 
J. P. E.STABROOK, Jr. E. I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



A meeting of the Saguenay Branch of The Institute was 
held on Tuesday, November 25th, in the Arvida school. 

Previous to hearing the guest speaker on this occasion, 
the members were shown a film depicting the placing of 
the "obelisk," used to turn the water into the diversion 
canal of the present Chute-à-Caron power development. 
The "obelisk" was a concrete structure in the shape of a 
block 40 ft. square in cross-section and 92 ft. long made to 
fit the contour of the river bed and first supported in an 
almost upright position by a thin concrete column, placed 
to prevent it from tipping. When all was ready this thin 
column was blasted away and the massive obelisk fell into 
place in the river, leaving an eight foot gap at each end 
that was later sealed with stop logs. By means of instru- 
ments used to study the fall, it was learned that 99.6 per 
cent, of the energy had been absorbed by the water. 

The speaker, Mr. C. D. McCoy of the refining division 
of the Foster Wheeler Corp., New York City, was intro- 
duced by our chairman, Mr. N. F. McCaghey. 

Choosing as his topic, The General Principles of 
Petroleum Refining, Mr. McCoy first dwelt on the various 
products available from crude petroleum: toluene, acetone, 
alcohols, rubber, ammonia, and hydrogen, later stressing 
the part played in the war by lubricants and high octane 
gasoline. In a review of Canadian production facilities, the 
Athabaska oil shales were mentioned and also the fact that 
Canadian refineries have five times the capacity that would 
be required if they were handling only Canadian crude. 

The refining of petroleum is essentially a distillation 
process with a fractionating action enabling the operators 
to obtain the different grades of distillate at definite levels 
in the fractionating tower. 

The exact treatment depends on the type of crude being 
treated and each refinery has its own characteristic opera- 
tions. However, the general design of the equipment used 
is similar. The crude oil is preheated, enters the tubes of a 
furnace and thence goes to the bubble tower where frac- 
tionation takes place. Gasoline vapours are taken off over- 
head and naptha, kerosene and fuel oils, etc., at a lower 
level. Wax distillate is drawn off at the bottom. Other 
special equipment such as stripping columns and coke units 
enter the process. 



As gasoline is now the most useful constituent, the 
present policy is to increase this cut as much as possible. 
This is done by cracking and polymerization of the heavy 
fraction and the lighter gaseous fractions respectively. 

Catalytic hydrogénation, using an aluminum chloride 
catalyst is playing its part in this aim to produce more 
gasoline. 

In conclusion, Mr. McCoy explained the use of the octane 
rating system and the importance of high octane gasoline 
in our present day world. The keen interest aroused by the 
speaker was shown by the large number of questions that 
followed in the discussion period. 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 



Stewart Young, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



A meeting of the Saskatchewan Branch was held in the 
Kitchener Hotel, Regina, on November 21st, jointly with the 
Association of Professional Engineers and the Saskatchewan 
Section of the American Institute of Electrical Engineering. 
The attendance was 45. 

For a short period after dinner the meeting was conducted 
as a meeting of the Association of Professional Engineers 
to consider certain proposed amendments to the by-laws. 
These were put to a vote and adopted. 

Mr. H. I. Nicholl called attention to the departure for 
Bolivia in the near future of one of our members, Mr. L. M. 
Howe, active during the past several months on the papers 
and meetings committee. Mr. Howe replied in a few appro- 
priate words. 

The showing of a two-reel silent film, the Tacoma Nar- 
rows Bridge, occupied the balance of the evening and 
proved of more than usual interest. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 



O. A. Evans, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The sixth general meeting for the year 1941 was held in 
the Grill Room of the Windsor Hotel on Friday, November 
28th, 1941. Nineteen members and guests sat down to 
dinner at 6.45 p.m. 

The chairman called upon David L. Mekeel, Steel Mill 
Consultant, to address the meeting. Mr. Mekeel had for 
his topic The Steel Industry. 

The speaker dealt with the steel industry from its birth 
as small isolated furnaces to the present gigantic groupings 
in strategic centres. He also sketched briefly the rise of the 
American steel industry. The first cargo of ore that was 
shipped from the Lake Superior Mines was in the 1850's. 
Not much hope was held at that time for the iron mines of 
the lake district. The speaker held the interest of the 
audience with stories on the human side of the steel in- 
dustry, relating the personal touch that men such as 
Bessemer, Jones, Carnegie, Schwab have given to the 
industry. The speaker then gave a brief review of the steel 
industry in Canada, paying particular emphasis to the 
Algoma Steel Corporation and its possibilities. 

At the conclusion of his speech the meeting was thrown 
open for discussion. The speaker was deluged with a flood 
of questions on all phases of the industry. The discussion 
kept up for quite some time. 

A. E. Pickering moved a vote of thanks to the speaker, 
H. W. Adams seconded it. 

The annual meeting for the year 1941 was held in the 
Grill Room of the Windsor Hotel at 6.45 p.m. on Friday, 
December 12, 1941. Twenty-one members and guests sat 
down to dinner. 

The business portion of the meeting began at 8.00 p.m. 
with L. R. Brown, vice-chairman, presiding. 

The secretary presented his report. The highlights were 
a successful year as regards papers and meetings but a loss 
of membership and a financial loss of $36.27. J. L. Lang, 
m.e.i.c, and G. W. MacLeod, m.e.i.c, moved that the 
secretary's report be adopted. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



55 



The chairmen of the various committees then brought 
in their reports. They were as follows: 

N. C. Cowie, Junior Engineers' Committee; 

R. A. Campbell, Legislation and Remuneration; 

A. E. Pickering, Papers and Publicity; 

J. L. Lang, Entertainment; 

A. M. Wilson, Membership. 

A. E. Pickering paid tribute to J. S. Macleod, the chair- 
man of the Papers Committee, who was absent from the 
meeting but had done splendid work throughout the year. 
A. M. Wilson told the branch that there was a great field 
for the incoming membership committee, as many engineers 
were moving into town. 

A. H. Meldrum and N. C. Cowie were then appointed 
auditors for the year 1941 on motion of R. S. McCormick 
and C. Stenbol. 

Before accepting the chair for the year, L. R. Brown 
called for further nominations. After some time G. W. 
MacLeod and A. M. Wilson moved that nominations be 
closed. The chairman then called for co-operation for the 
year 1942. 

The chairman then called upon F. W. Fraser to give a 
short summary on the causes of the failure of the Tacoma 
Bridge, which was done in a very capable manner, G. W. 
MacLeod acted as the projectionist for the film. The rest 
of the evening was spent in a social way. 

TORONTO BRANCH 



J. J. Spence, m.e.i.c 

D. FORGAN, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On November 29th the Toronto Branch of The Engineer- 
ing Institute participated in a joint meeting with the Royal 
Canadian Institute in Convocation Hall to hear Dr. H. Ries, 
A. m. Ph.D., professor of geology, Cornell University, present 
his views on What Use the Engineer Makes of Geology. 

The branch chairman, Mr. H. E. Brandon, following the 
chairman of the R.C.I., welcomed the speaker on behalf of 
The Engineering Institute, a considerable number of our 
members attending. 

Professor Ries' lecture was profusely illustrated with 
lantern slides and motion pictures of his own taking. His 
references to the part which the geologist should play in 
the siting and design of engineering structures and the use 
which engineers have made of such available knowledge 
and experience, were provocative of considerable comment 
and given proper appreciation by those engineers fortunate 
enough to hear them. 

The regular meeting of the branch was held in the theatre 
of the Royal Ontario Museum at 8.00 p.m. on December 
4th. It had been felt that the subject for the evening was 
of sufficiently wide and popular interest to warrant the 
branch engaging this accommodation, and inviting the 
public and other interested organizations. These expecta- 
tions were fully realized, some 350 people attending the 
meeting. All expressed opinion testified to the very great 
general interest which the meeting held, and it was felt 
that the evening's programme more than maintained the 
high level which has characterized the branch meetings 
this season. It is impossible to escape the conclusion that 
even a few meetings of this type, presented where the gen- 
eral public could share in them, would do much to further 
the standing and usefulness of the engineering societies. 

The subject of the meeting was Conservation of Natural 
Resources, with Special Reference to Post-War Plan- 
ning. In his opening remarks the branch chairman, Mr. 
H. E. Brandon, pointed to the steadily mounting public 
interest in the subject, which though frequently thought 
of as being associated with tree planting, wild life, and soil 
errosion, actually is a matter which intimately affects many 
more phases of life and community activities. Many activi- 
ties of the engineer are affected and so the interest of the 
engineer in conservation is important. The chairman wel- 
comed those members of other bodies present, among 



whom were: the Ontario Federation of Naturalists; the 
Southern Ontario Section of the Canadian Society of Forest 
Engineers ; the Toronto Field Naturalists Club ; the Society 
of Biologists, Toronto Branch; the Toronto Hunters' and 
Anglers' Association; the Toronto Branch of the Canadian 
Society of Scientific Agriculturists. 

The programme was conducted by Mr. R. F. Legget, 
assistant professor of civil engineering, University of 
Toronto, to whose efforts much of the success of the meeting 
was due. Three speakers participated, each one an authority 
on his particular phase of the subject. As each took up his 
theme he was introduced by Professor Legget who briefly 
outlined the field to be covered. The first speaker was Mr. 
F. A. MacDougall, Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests 
for Ontario, who presented a comprehensive illustrated talk 
on the Forests and Drainage Areas of Ontario. The 
second speaker, Professor A. F. Coventry, department of 
biology, University of Toronto, spoke on the Water Situa- 
tion in Southern Ontario. His lecture, also illustrated, 
was most startling and effective in the information he pre- 
sented, and vividly drew attention to the effect of indis- 
criminate clearing and drainage, and the consequent serious 
results on farming operations in southern Ontario. 

Dr. A. E. Berry, chief sanitary engineer, Ontario Depart- 
ment of Health, followed. He spoke on Public Health in 
Ontario and its relation to conservation and, illustrating 
his lecture with numerous slides, forcefully brought before 
the audience the effects of floods and droughts on the 
nation's health problem. 

The fourth item on the programme was a documentary 
film entitled The River. Kindly loaned by the United States 
Soil Conservation Service, the film deals with the Mississippi 
River, what it has done and what man has done to it. It 
depicts vividly the vital part that this river has played in 
the development of the United States and shows how man, 
by abusing natural conditions, has in many cases turned 
the river from a natural blessing into an uncontrollable 
menace. It goes one step further and points out how through 
agricultural practices and engineering projects, which in 
themselves are beneficial to the country as a whole, control 
of the river can be regained. It is a conscious attempt to 
present a fundamental problem so factually and so drama- 
tically that those who see the picture will be moved to 
action. The film was a fitting climax to the three addresses, 
and left everyone in the meeting faced with the impression 
that something must be done before it is too late, if it is 
not already so, to preserve the natural resources of our 
Dominion, especially the part each one lives in. 

On Monday, December 8th, as arranged by the Institute 
of Radio Engineers, Toronto Section, a joint meeting was 
held in the Physics Building of the University of Toronto 
of the following societies: Institute of Radio Engineers 
(Toronto Section); Engineering Institute of Canada 
(Toronto Branch) ; Illuminating Engineering Society (Tor- 
onto Chapter); American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
(Toronto Section). 

The speaker, Mr. Harris Reinhardt of the Hygrade 
Sylvania Corporation of Salem, Mass., gave to the meeting 
a wealth of information on Fluorescent Lighting and 
Equipment well demonstrated by slides and apparatus. 
There was keen interest shown by all engineers in this 
well-delivered address on a comparatively new develop- 
ment in lighting practice. 

About 350 engineers were present. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH 



C. P. Haltalin, m.e.i.c. 
T. A. Lindsay, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On November 6th, one hundred and three members of 
the Winnipeg Branch visited the offices and repair base 
of Trans-Canada Air Lines at Stevenson Field. Mr. J. T. 
Dyment, Chief Engineer of T.C.A., addressed the gathering 
and outlined the functions of the various specialized shops 



56 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



which comprise the repair base. He also described the 
various aircraft used by the system and gave an interesting 
comparison of their performance characteristics. 

Trans-Canada Air Lines maintains a fleet of twenty 
Lockheed twin-engined aircraft, six of which are Lockheed 
18's. These ships have seating accommodation for 14 pas- 
sengers, and can carry a total load of 5,500 lb. The Lock- 
heed 14, of which T.C.A. has twelve in operation, carries 
ten passengers, and the same total load as the 18, but its 
maximum speed is only 244 m.p.h. as compared with 263 
m.p.h. for the larger ship. 

Mr. Dyment gave some very interesting figures on air 
system transportation. During the month of September, 
T.C.A. carried an average of 305 passengers daily, an aver- 
age distance of 499.5 miles each. In the same period 99.3 
per cent, of all scheduled flights were made. This fact alone 
speaks for the efficiency of the organization when one con- 
siders that the T.C.A. fleet flies 20,500 miles per day. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Dyment's remarks, the mem- 
bership inspected the shops and hangars of the base, under 
the guidance of T.C.A. personnel. 

The Repair Base has fourteen shops, fully equipped to 
handle all the multitudinous details connected with the 
maintenance and operation of one of the world's finest air- 
lines. Of particular interest to the members was the instru- 
ment repair shop, and the engine testing shop. 

The inspection over, members of the branch adjourned 
to the recreation room where refreshments were served 
through the courtesy of T.C.A. 

On November 20th the Winnipeg Branch met in the 
business offices of the City of Winnipeg" Hydro-Electric 
System. 

Gathering figures, printing bills and keeping accounts 
by punching holes in cards was the theme of an address 
given by Mr. F. J. Malby, Business Manager. Analysis of 



electric sales to produce the revenue in each class of busi" 
ness, the number of minimum bills, empty houses, water 
heaters of different sizes and whether in use or not, the 
electric consumption in homes of different sizes, average 
rates, etc., are just a few samples of the mass of detailed 
information obtainable from the electric tabulation of 
punched cards. These cards are also used to automatically 
print the customers bills and finally are used as a ledger 
card system. Although there are 80 columns of figures on 
the card, only approximately 15 holes have to be manually 
punched thus reducing the possibility of error to a minimum. 
All the other holes are either automatically pre-punched 
from the previous month's card, where standard information 
is transferred or from master cards which represent every 
possible bill that is sent out. The latter is based on the fact 
that all persons using the same amount of electricity under 
the same base rate will have identical bills. 

The master card is sorted into the groups with the same 
consumption and automatically reproduces the figures for 
the complete bill on all cards following. The key to the 
whole electric tabulating system is the sorting machine 
which separates the cards into their respective groups by 
electric contact through the hole punched for code purposes. 
During Mr. Malby's talk, the card punching and sorting 
machines were demonstrated, and finally the members 
present spent a considerable time watching and marvelling 
at the intricacies of the various machines. Moving picture 
films showing the same machines handling 30 million cards 
for the United States Social Security Act were exhibited. 
During his address the speaker paid tribute to the engi- 
neering profession for their contribution to the emancipa- 
tion of office workers, by removing the drudgery from 
accounting, through the scientific application of machine 
methods. A very educational and entertaining meeting was 
closed with the serving of a buffet supper. 



News of Other Societies 



{Continued from page 47) 



After the war, he graduated from Victoria University 
in Theology and the University of Toronto in Social 
Science. He had done considerable lecturing in Canada, 
United States and Germany. He is a very pleasing speaker 
and has a real message for the members of the Association. 

The General Meeting of the Association will be held at 
the Roval York Hotel, Toronto, on Saturday afternoon, 
January 17th, 1942, at 2.30 p.m. (D.S.T.) The dinner will 
be held at 7 p.m. (D.S.T.) in the Roof Garden, Royal 
York Hotel. Reception for members at 6.30 p.m. 

ANNUAL DINNER OF U. OF T. ENGINEERING 
ALUMNI 

The Annual Meeting of the Engineering Alumni of the 
University of Toronto took place on November 26th. As 
usual, the graduating class was featured, and H. E. Wing- 
field, president of the Alumni, presented the traditional 
gavel to J. P. D. Rogers, president of the class. Another 
interesting feature was the presentation of a life member- 
ship to Dr. J. L. Morris, the first graduate of the "School," 



who is now celebrating the sixtieth anniversary of his 
graduation. 

Similar "Toike Oike" nights were held in many cities 
from coast to coast, and telegraphic greetings from all of 
them were read to the meeting by M. B. Hastings, vice- 
president of the Engineering Alumni and president of the 
University of Toronto Alumni Federation. 




One side of a table of distinguished graduates. From left to 
right: Professor Treadgold, Professor Haul tain and past- 
president Dr. T. H. Hogg. 




The speaker of the evening was C. R. Young, Dean of Engineer- 
ing, and president-elect of The Engineering Institute. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



57 



The special guest and speaker of the evening was C. R. 
Young, recently appointed Dean of Engineering at Toronto. 
Dean Young reported that this year's registration in 
engineering had made a new record — 1,148 students, and 
over four hundred in the freshman year. 

Referring to the recent survey made at Toronto, the 
speaker pointed out changes in the curriculum which had 
been made, based on the recommendation of the report. 
Now 83 per cent of first year time is spent in studies common 
to all departments. Class room hours have been reduced 
to 33 a week, and instruction in English and economics has 
been doubled. 

Dean Young spoke of the decision to continue the work 
at the professional level, although because of the war, 
proposals had been made to offer courses of a technical 
type. He thought this work could be done better by the 
secondary schools. 

He also referred to the possibility of shortening courses to 
hasten graduation, in order to meet the demands of the 
active service forces and industry. The Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel, after an investigation, had advised 
that teaching should be carried on as normally as possible, 
at least for the present, and the university was following this 
course. 

He asked for the assistance of graduates in establishing 
prizes and scholarships particularly for post-graduate work, 
and in obtaining additional accommodation for the greatly 
expanded enrolment. 

H. E. Wingfield, m.e.i.c, president, was chairman. The 
speaker was introduced by Dr. Cody, president of the 
University, and was thanked by Austin Wright, m.e.i.c, 
Ross Robertson, m.e.i.c, immediate past-president, pre- 



sented the fourth year men to the chairman. An interesting 
feature was the regular news commentary of Wilson Wood- 
side, which was broadcast from the head table. Mr. Wood- 
side is a graduate of the "School." About 450 
attendance. 



were in 




President H. E. Wingfied, M.E.I.C, presents a Life Membership 
to Dr. J. L. Morris, M.E.I.C, the first graduate. 



Library Notes 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



TECHNICAL BOOKS 

Hydraulics: 

4th éd., by Horace W. King, Chester 0. 
Wisler and James G. Woodbum. N.Y., 
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1941. 6 x 9\^ 
in. $2.75. 



Hydraulics of Steady 
Channels 



Flow in Open 



By Sherman M. Woodward and Chesley J . 
Posey, N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 
1941. 6 x9\iin. $2.75. 

PROCEEDINGS 

Society for the Promotion of Engineering 
Education: 

Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting 
held in June, 1940, and papers, reports, 
discussions, etc., printed in the Journal of 
Engineering Education, Vol. 31, 1940-41. 
Office of the Secretary, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
1941. 

REPORTS 
Smithsonian Institution: 

Annual report of the Board of Regents for 
the year ending June SO, 1940. Wash., 
U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1941. $1.50 
(cloth cover). 

Canada, Bureau of Statistics: 

Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1936> 
Vol. 1 : Population and Agriculture; Vol. 2 
Occupations, unemployment, earnings and 
employment, households and families. 
Ottawa, 1938. $1.00 per Vol. 

U.S. Bureau of Standards: 

Buildings Materials and Structures — 
Report BMS76 — Effect of outdoor expo- 
sure on the water permeability of masonry 
walls. Report BMS77 — Properties and 
performance of fiber tile boards. 



U.S. Bureau of Standards: 

Handbook H26, supersedes Handbook 
Hit; Weights and Measures. Administra- 
tion 67 Ralph W. Smith. Issued A ugust 
29, 1941. Wash., U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, 1941- 75 cents. 

Canadian Government Purchasing Stan- 
dards Committee — Specifications: 

Paste floor wax, No. l-GP-18; Emergency 
specifications for paste floor wax. No. 
1-GP-lSe; Exterior varnish, No. l-GP-18; 
Varnish vehicle for aluminium paint 
(ti/pe 3 for high temperature use), No. 
l-GP-21; Aviation fuel, No. 3-GP-5. 

American Society for Testing Materials: 

Index to A.S.T.M. standards including 
tentative standards. Free on written request 
to the Society, 260 Broad St., Phil, Pa. 

Ontario, Association of Professional En- 
gineers: 

Act of incorporation; by-laws; code of 
ethics; list of members as of November, 
1941. 
Electrochemical Society — Preprint : 

X-ray studies of storage battery pastes. 
Preprint 81-1. 

American Institute of Steel Construc- 
tion: 

Annual report for the year ending Sep- 
tember, 1941. 

Quebec, La Commission des Eaux Cou- 
rants: 

Vingt-cinquième rapport, 1936. Published 
1941. 

Canada, Department of Labour: 

30th annual report on labour organization 
in Canada for the year 1940. Ottawa, 1941- 
50 cents. 

U.S. Department of the Interior — Geolo- 
gical Survey Bulletins: 



Subsurface geology and oil and gas re- 
sources of Osage County, Oklahoma 
pt. 7, 8, 9-900-G,H,I: Past lode-gold pro- 
duction from Alaska, 917-C; Geology and 
oil and coal resources of the region south 
of Cody, Park County, Wyoming, 921-B; 
7' in-bearing pegmatites of the Tinton 
District, Lawrence County, South Dakota, 
922-T; Geophysical abstracts 103, October- 
December, 1940, 925-D; Superposition in 
the interpretation of two-layer earth- 
resistivity curves, 927- A; Geophysical 
abstracts 104, January-March, 1941, 
932- A. 

U.S. Department of the Interior — Geolo- 
gical Survey Professional Papers: 

Transgressive and regressive cretaceous 
deposits in Southern San Juan Basin, 
New Mexico, 193-F; Titanium deposits of 
Nelson and Amherst Counties, Virginia, 
198. 

U.S. Department of the Interior — Geolo- 
gical Survey Water-Supply Papers: 

Geology and Ground Water resources of 
the Balmorhea Area Western Texas, 
849-C; Underground leakage from Artesian 
Wells in the Las Vegas area, Nevada, 
849-D; Geology of Dam Sites on the 
Upper tributaries of the Columbia River 
in Idaho and Montana, 866- A; Investiga- 
tions of methods and equipment used in 
stream gaging, 2 parts, 868A and B. 
Surface water supply of the United States 
1939; pt. 1 North Atlantic slope basins, 
871. 

Province of Quebec — Bureau of Mines — 
Geological Report : 

Halliwell mine map-area by G. S. Mac- 
kenzie, report No. 7; Eustis-Mine area 
Ascot township by G. Vibert Douglas 
report No. 8. 



58 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Canada, Department of Mines and Re- 
sources — Geological Survey: 

Palaezoic geology of the Brantford area, 
Ontario, by J. F. Caley, Memoir No. 226; 
Jacquet River ami Tetagouche River map- 
areas, New Brunswick by F. J. Alcock, 
Memoir No. 227; Mineral industry of the 
Northwest Territories by C. S. Lord, 
Memoir No. 230; Bousquet-Joannes area, 
Quebec, by H. C. Gunning, Memoir No. 
231; Mining industry of Yukon, 1939 and 
1940 by H. S. Bostock, Memoir No. 234. 

BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books ap- 
pear here through the courtesy of the 
Engineering Societies Library of New 
York. As yet the books are not in The 
Institute Library, but inquiries will be 
welcomed at headquarters, or may be 
sent direct to the publishers. 

AMERICAN MINERS' ASSOCIATION 

By E. A. Wieck. Russell Sage Foundation, 
New York, 1940. 330 pp., Mus., 9]/ 2 x 6Y2 
in., cloth, S2.00. 
A record of the origin of coal miners' unions 
in the United States is presented in this 
volume. The two main sections deal respect- 
ively with the origin and backgrounds and 
with the development of organization. A large 
section containing contemporary records is 
appended, and there is a bibliography. 

ANYBODY'S GOLD, the Story of Califor- 
nia's Mining Towns 

By J. H. Jackson. D. Appleton-Century 
Co., New York and London, 1941. 467 
pp., Mus., 9 x 6Y 2 in., cloth, $5.00. 
In narrative form, the author tells first of 
the California gold rush, with special em- 
phasis on the life of the usual miner, but high- 
lighted with tales of the more colorful person- 
alities. The second section of the book deals 
with the mining towns as they are to-day, 
many of which are now merely ghost towns. 
In this manner the absorbing history of the 
earlier days is continued into the present. 
The drawings of these towns as they are 
to-day, by E. H. Suydam, are most attractive. 

BUILDING INSULATION 

By P. D. Close. American Technical 
Society, Chicago, III., 1941. 228 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 8Yz x 5Y ***., 
cloth, -$3.00. 
The principles and applications of insulation 
are described as used to retard heat losses and 
heat gains, and to guard against fire, sound, 
vibration and condensation in buildings. Con- 
siderable reference data and many practical 
examples of calculation procedures are in- 
cluded. A set of review questions is appended. 

DIFFUSION IN AND THROUGH SOLIDS 

By R. M. Barrer Macmillan Co., New York; 

University Press, Cambridge, England, 

1941- 4^4 PP-, Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 

.9 x 5 Yi in., cloth, $6.50. 
This book presents a study of the per- 
meability of materials to solutes, and of the 
diffusion constants of solutes within them. 
The author's aims are: to keep a balance 
between experimental methods and their 
mathematical and physical interpretations; 
to provide lists of permeability and diffusion 
constants for ready reference; and to outline 
current theories of processes of permeation, 
solution and diffusion. 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, 
Theory and Applications 

By N. E. Gilbert, rev. ed. Macmillan Co., 

New York, 1941, 585 pp., diagrs., charts, 

tables, 8Yi x 5J4 in., cloth, $4.50. 

Fundamental principles are covered in this 

textbook for non-technical students, with 

illustrative applications to engineering and to 

appliances in common use. Not intended as an 



introduction to electrical engineering or an 
exposition of the mathematical theory of 
electricity, the book simply presents a thor- 
ough survey of the topics considered, with 
physics in the foreground. 

FIRE ENGINEERING HYDRAULICS 

By G. 0. Stephenson. Emnwtt ifc Co., Ltd., 
Manchester and London, England, 1941. 
,20 pp., Mus., charts, 7Yî x 5 in., paper, Is. 
This little pamphlet contains graphic charts 
from which can be quickly obtained the dis- 
charge from nozzles, the loss of pressure 
because of friction in hose, and the height and 
reach of jets. These charts are based on 
John R. Freeman's experiments. 

FLIGHT, Aircraft Engines, a General 
Survey of Fundamentals of Aviation 

By R. F. Kuns. American Technical 

Society, Chicago, 1942, paged in sections, 

Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., 

cloth, $3.25. 

A discussion of elementary engines precedes 

chapters on light plane engines and radial 

aircraft engines. Other chapters provide 

practical information on engine fuels and fuel 

systems, electrical equipment, lubrication, 

and valve and ignition timing. There are many 

photographs and cross sectional diagrams, and 

a section of review-questions with answers is 

included. 

FLIGHT, Meteorology and Aircraft In- 
struments, a General Survey of Fun- 
damentals of Aviation 

By B. Wright, W. E. Dyer and R. Martin. 
American Technical Society, Chicago, 
1942, paged in sections, Mus., diagrs., 
charts, maps, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, 
$3.25. 
Beginning with a general chapter on the 
atmosphere, this practical book discusses 
atmospheric circulation and weather fore- 
casting. It covers weather maps, airway 
weather service and airway marking, and 
describes aviation radio and other instru- 
ments made necessary by atmospheric con- 
ditions. There is a question and answer sec- 
tion for review purposes. 

FLUID MECHANICS AND STATISTICAL 
METHODS IN ENGINEERING (Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania Bicentennial 
Conference) 

By H. L. Dryden, T. von Kàrmàn and 
others. University of Pennsylvania Press, 
Phila., 1941. 146 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9Y x 6 in., cloth, $1.75. 
The eight papers by recognized authorities 
contained in this work are divided into two 
groups. Four of them deal with turbulence 
and related topics in the field of fluid mechan- 
ics. The other four, grouped under the head- 
ing of statistical methods in engineering, 
range from the contribution of statistics to 
purchasing specifications to the application 
of the statistical method in legislation. 

HANDBOOK OF SLEEVE BEARINGS 

By A. B. Willi. Federal-Mogul Corpora- 
tion, Detroit, Mich., 1941-, Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, {available 
only to those directly concerned with sleeve 
bearing installations). 
This practical guide for the engineer, de- 
signer and draftsman deals with the selection, 
design and application of sleeve bearings. It 
discusses, for example, the effect of design, 
materials and manufacturing methods upon 
sleeve-bearing efficiency and other special 
topics of major importance in setting up 
bearing specifications. There is a large refer- 
ence section listing many sizes and types of 
bearings for which major manufacturing tools 
are now available. 

HIGH POLYMERIC REACTIONS, Their 
Theory and Practice. (High Poly- 
mers, Vol. 3) 

By II . Mark and R. Raff, translated from 
the manuscript by L. H. Weissberger and 



I. P. Irony. Interscience Publishers, New 
York, 1941. 476 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 

9%x6 in., cloth, $6.50. 

The object of this volume is to describe the 
present state of our knowledge concerning the 
mechanism of chemical processes during which 
high polymers are formed. It is divided into 
two parts: the general part, which presents 
important general relationships in a quan- 
titative manner; and the special part, which 
collects the literature on the subject, arrang- 
ing the material according to the classifica- 
tion which is usual in organic chemistry. 

HIGHER MATHEMATICS FOR EN- 
GINEERS AND PHYSICISTS 

By I. S. Sokolnikoff and E. S. Sokolni- 

koff, 2 ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 

York and London, 1941- 587 pp., diagrs., 

charts, tables, 9Y x 6 in., cloth, $4-50. 

The purpose of this book is to give students 

of engineering and other applied sciences a 

bird's-eye view of those mathematical topics 

beyond the elementary calculus which are 

indispensable in the study of physical sciences. 

Underlying principles are emphasized, rather 

than direct application to specific problems, 

so as to provide an introduction to advanced 

mathematical treatises. The new edition has 

been considerably revised and enlarged. 

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION, 
a Scientific Approach 

By H. W. Heinrich. 2 ed. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York and London, 1941- 
448 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
8Y2 x 5Y 2 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The essential principles and basic philo- 
sophy of accident prevention are presented in 
the first two chapters. The next three are 
devoted to an explanation of the practical 
application of these principles in industry. 
Further development of various phases of the 
subject and specific illustrative examples are 
found in succeeding chapters. Historical and 
statistical data are appended. 

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTS FOR 
MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL. 

(Chemical Engineering Series) 

By T. J. Rhodes. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York and London, 1941- 573 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $6.00. 
This new text is designed to provide a 
theoretical and practical treatment of the 
measurement and control of the four fun- 
damental physical factors encountered in in- 
dustrial processing and manufacturing: tem- 
perature, pressure, fluid flow and liquid level. 
Automatically controlled continuous pro- 
cesses are thoroughly analyzed, and practical 
rules are established for the design and main- 
tenance of controlling instruments. 

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL 
STATISTICS 

By R. B. Lindsay. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York; Chapman & Hall, London, 
1941. 306 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9Y2 x 6 in., cloth, $3.75. 
This work is intended for the graduate 
student who wishes a thorough but not too 
lengthy introduction to the method of statis- 
tical physics. It calls for a background of 
theoretical physics. It presents a survey of the 
various ways in which statistical reasoning 
has been used in physics, from the classical 
applications to fluctuation phenomena, kinetic 
theory and statistical mechanics to the con- 
temporary quantum mechanical statistics. 
Emphasis has been laid on methodology and 
numerous illustrative problems are included. 

LINCOLN'S INDUSTRIAL-COMMER- 
CIAL ELECTRICAL REFERENCE, 

Edited by E. S. Lincoln. First edition. 
Electrical Modernization Bureau, 60 East 
42ndSt., New York, 1941, pagedin sections, 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 11 x 8Y2 in., 
cloth, $15.00. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



59 



The entire field of industrial electric oper- 
ations, from service entrance through utiliza- 
tion equipment, is covered in this reference 
book. The material is divided into sections 
containing tables, diagrams, illustrations and 
descriptions of typical equipment in the 
respective fields, and other practical informa- 
tion. Special sections cover electrical and 
other related associations, safety precautions 
and the National Electrical Code provisions. 

MacRAE'S BLUE BOOK, 49th Annual 
Edition, 1941-42 

MacRae's Blue Book Co., Chicago and 
New York, 1941. 3,738 pp., Mus., 11 x 8 
in., cloth, $15.00. 
The new edition of this well-known and 
useful directory follows the plan of preceding 
ones. It includes an alphabetical list of manu- 
facturers, producers and wholesalers, with the 
addresses of branch offices; a minutely clas- 
sified list of products, with an extensive 
index ; a list of towns of one thousand or more 
population; with their trade facilities and 
railroad connections; and a list of trade 



(The) MECHANISM OF THE ELECTRIC 
SPARK 

By L. B. Loeb and J. M. Meek. Stanford 
University Press, Stanford University, 
California; Humphrey Milford, Oxford 
University Press, London, 194-1 ■ 188 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., 
cloth, $3.50. 
This work analyzes the status of the theory 
of the mechanism of the electric spark in air 
at this time and, on the basis of this analysis, 
the streamer theory of spark discharge is 
developed. The three chapters deal respect- 
ively with the Townsend theory of the spark, 
with the development of the streamer 
theory, and with the calculation of breakdown 
in various types of gaps. Bibliographies are 
included. 

MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS 

By E. W. Steel. International Textbook 

Co., Scranton, Pa., 1941. 389 pp., diagrs., 

charts, tables, 814 x 5 in., cloth, $3.50. 

Intended both as a textbook for college 

students and a source of information for those 

interested in municipal affairs, this book 

covers two fields. The first section is devoted to 

the development and forms of municipal 

government and its relation to state and 

federal authority. Administrative principles 

are treated in the latter part of the book 

including discussions of departmental work 

city financing methods, etc. 

OUTLINES OF GEOLOGY 

Outlines of Physical Geology, by C. R. 

Longwell, A. Knopf and R. F. Flint, 

381 pp. 

Outlines of Historical Geology, by C. 

Schuchert and C. 0. Dunbar, 291 pp. 2. 

éd., John Wiley & Sons, New York; 

Chapman & Hall, London, 1941. Mus., 

diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 9x6 in., 

cloth, $4.00. 
Combining two well-known elementary 
texts on physical and historical geology, the 
present volume was developed to furnish a 
brief treatise covering the salient features of 
the entire subject. In the first part, the prin- 
ciples of physical geography are explained as 
a key to the reading of geologic history, and 
the relation of these principles to practical 
human affairs is emphasized. The historical 
geology section presents a concise, general 
survey of the past history of the earth. 

PHOTOMICROGRAPHY 

By R. M.- Allan. D. Van Nostrand Co., 
New York, 1941- 365 pp., Mus., diagrs. 
charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., cloth, $5.50. 
The process of photographing minute 
objects through a microscope is comprehen- 
sively covered. Essential information con- 
cerning microscopic technique is provided for 



those unfamiliar with such work, although 
the emphasis is upon photographic equip- 
ment and methods, which are described in 
detail. Excellent examples of various kinds of 
photomicrography are included, with explan- 
atory paragraphs. 

PIPING FLEXIBILITY AND STRESSES 

By S. D. Vinieratos and D. R. Zeno. 

Cornell Maritime Press, New York, 1941- 

85 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 10 x 7% in-, 

paper, $3.00. 
The grapho-analytical method of determin- 
ing flexibility and stress from an examination 
of bending-moment diagrams is presented in 
this book for the design of piping systems, 
particularly steam piping in marine service. 
The fundamentals of the method are first 
briefly described, and its application is then 
explained, working from simple cases to 
problems with pipes intersecting in space. 

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRON TUBES 

By H. J. Reich. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York and London, 1941- 398 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9% x 6 in., 
cloth, $3.50. 
Essentially an abridgment of the author's 
"Theory and application of electron tubes," 
the present volume is designed to meet the 
need for a text suitable for students not 
specializing in communication. In this 
edition some of the material has been deleted 
and the rest modified to give unity and 
coherence. New material includes a brief 
treatment of electron dynamics and an 
introductory treatment of frequency modula- 
tion. 

RAILROADIANS OF AMERICA, New 
York, Book No. 3 

Apply to W. A. Lucas, Editor and Chair- 
man, Publication Committee, Railroadians 
of America, 56 Tuxedo Ave., Hawthorne, 
New Jersey, 1941- 128 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, maps, 11 x 7}/% in., paper, 
$2.50. 
Number 3 of this series presents an illus- 
trated record of the motive power and 
growth of the Delaware and Hudson railroad. 
Originally printed in two sections by the 
Delaware and Hudson Railroad Corporation, 
additional material has been included to 
bring the information up to date. 

(The) REFERENCE LIBRARY OF THE 
WELDING RESEARCH COUNCIL, 
Section I, Classified Library Cata- 
logue, June, 1941r 

Published by Institute of Welding, 2 
Buckingham Palace Gardens, London, 
S.W.I, England. 136 pp., 8 l A x 5Y 2 in., 
paper, 2s. 
The major part of this publication is 
devoted to a catalogue of the reference 
library of the Welding Research Council, 
containing both author and subject entries 
in one alphabetical list. Additional informa- 
tion concerning the organization, staff, 
services and publications of the Institute of 
Welding is also included. 

SHOP MANAGEMENT FOR THE SHOP 
SUPERVISOR 

By R. C. Davis. Harper & Brothers, New 
York and London, 1941. 333 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 8 l A x 5Y 2 in., cloth, $2.00. 
This book is concerned with the problems 
which confront the shop supervisor in all 
phases of production control. Topics covered 
include organization, plant and equipment, 
production and quality control in various 
types of shops, motion and time study, 
materials control, stores, and labor manage- 
ment. 

THEORY OF GASEOUS CONDUCTION 
AND ELECTRONICS 

By F. A. Maxfield and R. R. Benedict. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 



London, 1941- 483 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9Y x 6 in., cloth, $4.50. 
The fundamental theory of high-vacuum 
electronic equipment is presented with a 
systematic interpretation of the underlying 
phenomena upon which the properties of all 
types of gaseous-conduction devices depend. 
The discussion covers not only high vacuum 
conduction as found in electron tubes, but 
also the theory and application of corona, 
sparking, glows and arcs. Stress is placed 
upon scientific principles rather than upon 
specific apparatus and applications. 

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND CONGES- 
TION 

By M. Halsey. John Wiley & Sons, New 

York; Chapman & Hall, London, 1941. 

408 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 

10 x 7 in., cloth, $4.00. 
This volume sets forth the principles which 
underlie the scientific methods currently being 
developed to reduce traffic accidents and 
congestion. It is an engineering approach to 
these problems as they affect the movement of 
persons and merchandise. Application of the 
principles here outlined presents a basis for 
evaluating all elements of the traffic problem. 
There is a large bibliography. 

TRUE STEEL, the Story of George Mat- 
thew Verity and His Associates. 

By C. Borth. Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indiana- 
polis and New York, 1941. 319 pp.. 
Mus., 9x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
Mainly a biography of George Matthew 
Verity, the directing genius of the American 
Rolling Mill Company, this book is also a 
history of the Company and an exposition of 
the development of the steel industry. Both 
the technological and sociological aspects 
of the man and his work are presented. 

UNIVERSITY PHYSICS, Part 3, LIGHT 

By F. C. Champion. Interscience Pub- 
lishers, New York; Blackie & Son, 
London and Glasgow, 1941- 172 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $1.50. 
One of a group of books on the several 
major divisions of physics, this particular 
volume covers the subject of light for inter- 
mediate students who have previously studied 
the elements of physics. The text is supple- 
mented by numerous clear and helpful 
diagrams, and exercises and problems are 
supplied for review purposes. 

WAVES, a Mathematical Account of the 
Common Types of Wave Motion 

By C. A. Coulson. Oliver & Boyd, London, 

England, and Edinburgh, Scotland, 1941. 

156 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 7% x 5 in., 

cloth, 5s. 
The subject of waves is usually treated in 
separate branches of applied mathematics. 
In this book, as many different kinds of wave 
motion as possible are discussed as one whole, 
in an elementary way. Starting from the 
standard equation of wave motion, the author 
investigates waves on strings, in membranes, 
bars and springs, and in liquids, sound 
waves and electric waves; concluding with a 
chapter on some general properties of waves. 

WELDING AND ITS APPLICATION 

By B. E. Rossi. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York and London, 1941- 343 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x /i x 6 in., 
cloth, $2.50. 
Welding and cutting processes, with the 
emphasis on electric-ar-c welding, are com- 
prehensively covered, with their related 
phenomena, their techniques and their 
general application in industry. The intention 
is to present fundamental facts for the begin- 
ner, give the experienced operator a wider 
understanding of the welding process, and 
provide a source of reference for draftsmen, 
designers, engineers and any others interested 
in the subject. 



60 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



December 31st, 1941. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate. - 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictlv confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described at 
the February meeting. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



*The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty -seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science or engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty -three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation ; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which caee he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference doa» 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such member*. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1942 



FOR ADMISSION 

GEDDES— ALVIN BROOKS, of Calgary, Alta. Born at Calgary, March 7th, 
1904; Educ: B.Sc, Iowa State College, 1927; 1927-28, motor test dept., 1928-29, 
correspondence dept., 1929-30, sales dept., and 1930 to date, sales engr., Canadian 
Westinghouse Company, Calgary, Alta. 

References: H. J. McEwen, W. S. Fraser, J. McMillan, H. B. LeBourveau. 

HALE— FREDERICK JOHN, of Roseau, Dominica, B.W.I. Born at Letchworth, 
Herts., England, Jan. 13th, 1891; Educ: 1929-33, articled pupil to G. T. Hill, B.Sc, 
surveyor to the Letchworth Urban District Council. Assoc. Member Exam, of the 
Inst. CE. ; 1941 ; 1933-34, engrg. asst., Letchworth U.D.C. ; 1934-36, engrg. asst. to the 
Hitchin Rural District Council; 1936-37, engrg. asst., Corpn. of the City of Peter- 
borough, England; 1937-39, senior asst. to the Borough of Guildford, reinforced 
concrete work, roadworks, sewerage scheme, etc.; 1939-41, chief engrg. asst., City 
of Winchester, roadworks, sewerage disposal, & i/c of all works; At present, Asst. 
Colonial Engr., Public Works Dept., Roseau, Dominica. (By special ruling of Council 
references from members of Inst, of the Civil Engrs. (London) have been accepted). 

References: A. C. O'Farrell, N. C. C. Barrell, W. S. Edwards, F. J. Smith, J. W 
Hipwood. 

HARISAY— VINO, of 262 Wood Ave., Westmount, Que. Born at Budapest, 
Hungary, Jan. 16th, 1882; (Naturalized British Subject, 1932). Educ: B.Sc. (Mech. 
Engrg.), Royal Hungarian Joseph Polytechnicum, 1904, 1904-23, chief engr., Royal 
Hungarian Telephones & Telegraphs (went voluntarily on pension with title "Royal 
Technical Counsellor"); 1920-26, managing own cartonnage factory; 1937-39, 
designer, Canadian Marconi Company, Montreal; 1939-40, Aluminum Company of 
Canada, Montreal; 1940-41, designer, Allied Brass Company, Montreal; 1941 to 
date, mech. designer, Dominion Engineering Works Ltd., Longueuil, Que. 

References: M. E. Hornback, A. W. Whitaker, H. M. Black, W. B. Scoular, 
E. M. G. MacGill. 

JOHNSON— HOWARD, of Midland, Ont. Born at South Shields, England, Jan. 
11th, 1903; Educ: 1918-21, Marine School, South Shields; 1921-24, Kings College, 
Durham Univ., Diploma in Naval Arch'ture, 1924; (Member, Inst. Naval Archts.); 
1918-24, ap'ticeship, J. Readhead & Sons, Engrs. & Shipbldrs.; 1924-27, on technical 
staff, Messrs. R. Thompson, Shipbldrs., and Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson; 
1927-29, asst. dry dock mgr., Wallsend Shipway & Engrg. Co., 1930-38, gen. mgr. & 
director, Burntisland Ship Co. Ltd., and 1938-40, gen. mgr. & director, Bartrams 
Ship. Co. Ltd., all in Great Britain; 1940 to date, gen. mgr., Midland Shipyards Ltd 
Midland, Ont. 

References: C. K. McLeod, G. H. Midgley, R. E. Heartz, J. E. Dion, I. J. Tait, 
J. R. Groundwater. 

JOSSLIN— JAMES ALEXANDER, of 915 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto, Ont. 
Born at Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex, England, Oct. 24th, 1893; Educ: I.C.S. Diploma in 
Struct'l Engrg., 1916. Prelim. Civil Service Exam.; 1916, gen. dfting., R. Simpson 
Co., bldg. constrn.; 1917-19, struct'l. steel detailing & checking, with various com- 
panies; 1919-31, checker & squad leader in dfting room, on struct'l. steel bldgs., 
bridges, etc., Dominion Bridge Company, Ltd., and from 1935 to date, asst. chief 
dftsman., Ontario Divn. for same company. 

References — G. P. Wilbur, D. C. Tennant, A. R. Robertson, D. E. Perriton, 
A. H. Harkness. 

MEKEEL— DAVID LANE, of Pittsburgh, Pa. Born at Westchester County, 
New York, June 30th, 1869; Educ: B.Sc, 1891, Mech. Engr., 1892, Haverford 
College, Penna.; R.P.E., State of Penna. Up to 1912, dftsman. with various com- 
panies, and from 1912 to 1940, chief engr. and consltg. engr., Jones & Laughlin Steel 
Corpn. ; At present, steel mill consultant to the Algoma Steel Corporation, Sault 
Ste. Marie, Ont. 

References: A. E. Pickering, C. Stenbol, L. R. Brown, K. G. Ross, J. L. Lang. 

PRADL— GEORGE, of 4396 Coolbrooke Ave., Montreal, Que. Born at New York, 
N.Y., April 6th, 1907; Educ: B.Sc. in Mech. Engrg., 1930, Mech. Engr., 1936, 
Cooper Union; 1924-30, dftsman., field engr. and designer on furnaces, casting equip- 
ment, etc., Nichols Copper Co., Laurel Hill, N.Y.; 1930-32, asst. engr. on design & 
constrn. of Montreal Refinery, for Canadian Copper Refiners Ltd., Montreal East; 
1932 to date, chief designing engr. for same company, with complete responsibility 
for design of various plants, misc. equipment, and preparation of estimates and 
repo rts on various projects. 
"References: C. K. McLeod, A. D. Ross, H. T. Doran, G. H. Midgley, R. H. Findlay. 

RENNIE— ROBERT, of 4410 Cypress St., Vancouver, B.C. Born at Linacre, 
Lanes., England, May 19th, 1894; Educ: 1911-14, Technical Schools, Birkenhead 
and Liverpool, England; 1910-14, ap'tice (works and drawing office), sliipbldg. and 
marine engrg., Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd., and Clover, Clayton & Co. Ltd., Birken- 
head; 1914-18, war service with Royal Engrs.; 1919-24, marine engr., F. Leyland & 
Co. Ltd., Liverpool; 1924-25, engr. inspr., National Boiler & General Insurance Co. 
Ltd., Manchester; 1925-26, lecturer in marine engrg., Central Technical School, 
Liverpool; Ship & Engineer Surveyor to Lloyd's Register of Shipping as follows: 
1926-27, London, England, 1927-30, Dunkirk, France, 1930-31, Leith, Scotland, 
1931-34, Bordeaux, France, 1934-36, Barcelona, Spain, 1936-37, London, New- 
castle, Sunderland, Grimsby, 1938-39, Liverpool. 1939, appointed Senior Surveyor 
at Vancouver, and at present in full charge of surveying duties for British Columbia 
with staff of eleven surveyors engaged in survey for classification of all cargo ships 
and steel naval shipB. 

References: J. N. Finlayson, J. Robertson, W. N. Kelly, W. 0. Scott, H. N 
Macpherson. 

ROSSEN— ALEXANDER ALLYN, of 85 Cathedral Ave., Winnipeg, Man! 
Born at Winnipeg, Dec. 1st, 1911; Educ: Senior Matric; 1927-28, supervising 
reinforced concrete work on apartment block; 1928-29, field supt., engrg. dept., 
Aronovitch & Leipsic, Winnipeg; 1929-30, tracer, detailer, designer, Hudson's Bay 
Mining & Smelting Co., Winnipeg; 1930, instr'man., etc, Carter Halls-Aldinger Co.; 
1931, went into business for self— design of houses, warehouses, etc., from 1933, 
general salvage and wrecking business, and at present, owner and manager, Rossen 
Engineering and Construction Co., Winnipeg, Man. 

References: J. H. Edgar, E. S. Kent, W. D. Hurst, K. A. Dunphy. 

SANDERS— LIONEL JOHN REDVERS, of Montreal, Que. Born at Chippen- 
ham, England, July 11th, 1900; Educ: 1919-22, Loughborough College, England; 
1926-27, Cornell Univ.; Assoc. Member (by exam.), Inst. Mech. Engrs. (London); 
R.P.E. of Ont. ; 1915-18, ap'ticeship, Westinghouse Brake Saxby Signal Co. ; 1918-19, 
Royal Naval Air Service; 1922-24, with Herbert Morris Company, Loughborough; 
1924-26, technical asst. to George Constantinescu, consltg. engr., London, England; 
1927-29, asst. to chief engr., Lake Shore Mines, Kirkland Lake, Ont.; 1929-34, with 
Aluminium Limited — asst. chief engr., Aluminum Co. of Canada, divnl. supt., 
Toronto plant, and plant engr.. Northern Aluminium Co., England; 1934-37, senior 
staff engr., George S. May, Industrial Engrs.; 1937-40, supt. of shops, Algoma Steel 
Corporation, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.; 1941 to date, manager, Quebec-St. Lawrence 
Divn., Wartime Merchant Shipping Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

References: G. O. Vogan, R. E. Heartz, G. H. Midgley, H. J. Leitch, J. R. Ground- 
water. 

SCHMELZER— HANS, of 762 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Que. Born at St. 
Ingbert, Bavarian Palatinate, April 26th, 1902 (Naturalized British subject 1933) ; 
Educ: 1921-25, Staatl. TechnischeHochschule, Karlsruhe, (Tech. Coll. of the German 
State), Mech. Engr., 1925; 1920-24, ap'ticeship during vacation periods with J. 
Dahlem Lumbermills, St. Ingbert; 1925-27, mtce. & production engr., Ligna Werke, 
G.m.b.H., Homburg, Saar; 1928-29, dftsman., Northern Electric Co., Montreal; 
1929-34, dftsman., 1934-37, designer, hydraulic dept., Dominion Engrg. WorkB Ltd.; 

(Continued on next page) 

61 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

MECHANICAL DESIGNING DRAUGHTSMAN. 
Graduate preferred, urgently needed for work in 
Arvida for specification drawings for plate work, 
elevators, conveyors, etc., equipment layouts, pipe 
layouts and details Apply to Box No. 2375-V. 

MECHANICAL GRADUATE ENGINEER with 
machine shop experience required for work in 
Mackenzie, British Guiana, on essential war work. 
Apply to Box No. 2441-V. 

ENGINEERING DRAUGHTSMAN with experience 
in machine and structural design, proficient in steel 
design calculation, and having ability for estimating. 
We require a man with at least five years' industrial 
experience, preferably in the paper mill field. Position 
is permanent' State experience and give physical 
description. Include small photograph and a sample 
of draughtsmanship. Apply to Box No. 2458-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN, experienced in 
making layouts for various installations, piping, etc., 
around a paper mill. Applicant must be a college 
graduate. State previous experience, wages expected, 
etc. Apply to Box No. 2461-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN preferably with 
pulp and paper experience. Good salary and per- 
manent position. Apply giving details of experience 
to Box No. 2480-V. 

GRADUATE MECHANICAL ENGINEER required 
for Mackenzie, B.G., immediately on work of plant 
and mining equipment maintenance. We are pre- 
pared to do necessary training which will give excep- 
tional opportunity for experience. Apply to Box 
No. 2481-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER preferred with exper- 
ience on diesels and tractors, for work in Mackenzie, 
B.G. Apply to Box No. 2482-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMEN and engineers for 
pulp and paper mill work. Experienced men pre- 
ferred. Good salary to qualified candidates. Apply 
to Box No. 2483-V. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, young French Canadian 
graduate engineer to be trained on work involving 
hydro-electric plant operation, transmission lines and 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Mreet, Montreal. 



construction, meter testing and inspection. Good 
opportunity to acquire first-hand electrical power 
experience. Apply to Box No. 2487-V. 

ENGINEER OFFICERS WANTED 

Applications are invited for Commissions in the Royal 
Canadian Ordnance Corps for service both overseas 
and in Canada as Ordnance Mechanical Engineers. 
Since it is probable that several new units will be 
organized in the near future, a number of senior 
appointments may be open, and applications from 
engineers with a good background of military ex- 
perience would be welcomed in this connection. 
Applications should be submitted on the regular 
Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps application forms, 
which can be obtained from the District Ordnance 
Officers of the respective Military Districts. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.e., in electrical en- 
gineering, McGill University, Age 24, married, 
available on two weeks notice. Undergraduate 
experience, cable testing and cathode ray oseillo- 
graphy. Since graduation, five months on construc- 
tion of large and small electrical equipment in plant 
and sub-station. One year operating electrical 
engineer in medium size central steam station 
paralleled with large Hydro system. At present 
employed, but is interested in research or teaching. 
Associate member of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. Apply to Box No. 2419-W. 

CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEER, m.e.i.c., 
R.P.E. (Ont.), Age 49. Married. Home in To- 



ronto. Experience in Britain, Africa, Canada, 
Turkey. Chief engineer reinforced concrete design 
offices, steelworks construction. Resident engineer 
design and construction munitions plants, and general 
civil engineering work. Extensive surveys, draught- 
ing, harbour and municipal work. Location im- 
material. Available now. Apply Box No. 2425-W. 

ELECTRICAL, MECHANICAL ENGINEER, age 
35. Dip. and Assoc. R.T.C., Glasgow, a.m.i.e.e., 
(Students Premium) g.i. Mech.E., m.e.i.c, Assoc. 
Am. LEE Married. Available after December 22nd. 
Seventeen years experience covering machine shop 
apprenticeship, A.C. and D.C. motors, transformers, 
steel and glass bulb arc rectifiers, design, testing and 
erection sectional electric news and fineprints paper 
machine drives, experience tap changers H.V., L.V 
and marine switehgear. Apply to Box No. 2426-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER age 55 years. Married. 
Available at once. Thirty years experience in draught- 
ing and genera! machine shop and foundry work. 
Fifteen years as works manager. Considerable 
experience in pump work, including estimating and 
inspection. Apply to Box 2427 -W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING student in third 
year, age 27, desires summer position starting in 
April, with view to permanency on graduation. Two 
summers on design of shop equipment and electrical 
apparatus. Three years experience on test and ex- 
perimental work for relays and control equipment. 
Student E.I.C., and Associate member American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. Location imma- 
terial. Apply to Box No. 2428-W. 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE (Continued from previous page) 

Montreal; 1937-41, engr. & research engr., Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd., 
Montreal; 1941 to date, mech. engr., Robert A. Rankin & Co., Industrial Engrs., 
Montreal, Que. 

References: C. E. Herd, R. J. Mattson, R. A. Rankin, W. S. Mcllquham, H. S. 
Van Patter. 

SCOTT— ROBERT GOVENLOCK, of Winnipeg, Man. Born at Listowel, Ont., 
Nov. 28th, 1911; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1934; 1931-32-34 (summers), 
on survey parties for Dept. of Public Works, Alta.; 1935-36, test course, Can. Gen. 
Elect. Co. Ltd.; 1936, distribution transformer design and lighting service dept., 
C.G.E., Toronto; 1936-41, lighting service engr., and 1941 to date, sales engr., Win- 
nipeg Electric Company, Winnipeg, Man. 

References: E. V. Caton, C. T. Eyford, C. P. Haltalin, H. J. MacLeod, W. E. 
Cornish, W. A. Trott, E. S. Braddell, H. L. Briggs. 

W SEED— CHARLES EDWARD, of 32 Westmount Ave., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Ottawa, May 22nd, 1911; Educ: Ottawa Technical School; 1929, Geodetic surveys; 
1930-39, instr'man. & inspr., sewer dept., Corpn. of Ottawa; 1939-41, with Dept. of 
Public Works, as inspr. (clerk of works) on bldgs. & sewers, roads & water, etc., also 
instr'man. laying out above. At present, asst. engr. with Angus Robertson Construc- 
tion Co., i/c of sewers & laying out of hangers & bldgs., also water & roads. 

References: W. F. M. Bryce, N. B. MacRostie, E. H. Beck. 

WAGNER— HERBERT LOUIS, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Toronto, Nov. 10th, 
1882; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto (S.P.S.) 1905; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1907-09, 
designer, McClintic Marshall Constrn. Co.; 1909-10, dftsman., Hamilton Bridge Co.; 
1910-12, checker, Canada Foundry Co., Toronto; 1912-21, chief dftsman., Toronto 
Steel Constrn. Co.; 1921 to date, asst. engr., H.E.P.C. of Ontario, supervising design 
of power house superstructures, transformer stations, operators' colonies, etc. 

References: H. E. Brandon, O. Holden, J. W. Falkner, R. C. McMordie. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

JOHNSTON— WILLIAM DAVID, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Toronto, Sept. 
21st, 1913; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1935; 1935 to date, sales engr., McGre- 
gor-McIntyre Divn., Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. (St. 1935). 

References: A. R. Robertson, D. E. Perriton, D. C. Tennant, C. R. Young, 
W. H. M. Laughlin, G. P. Wilbur, C. F. Morrison. 

I»SARCHUK— LEON A., of 296 Hampton St., St. James, Man. Born at Sokal, 
Sask., Sept. 28th, 1914; Educ: B.Eng. (Mech.), Univ. of Sask., 1940; 1940 to date, 
aircraft inspr., A.I.D., MacDonald Bros. Aircraft, Winnipeg, Man. (St. 1940). 

References: I. M. Fraser, C. J. Mackenzie, E. K. Phillips, W. E. Lovell, R. A. 
Spencer, G. M. Williams. 

WIGDOR— EDWARD IRVING, of 2183 Maplewood Ave., Montreal, Que. Born 
at Montreal, March 12th, 1913; Educ: B.Eng. (Elec), McGill Univ., 1935. M.Eng. 
(Elec), Renss. Poly. Inst., 1936; 1936-38, research asst., dept. of mech. engrg.. 
National Research Council, Ottawa; 1938-39, engr., production dept., Fairchild 
Aviation, Montreal; 1939, engr., production dept. (Aviation), Candn. Car & Foundry 
Co. Ltd.; 1939-40, aeronautical engr., R.C.A.F. Tech. Detachment No. 11; 1940 to 
date, aeronautical engr., British Air Commission, at present, resident technical 
officer, at Vultee Aircraft, Nashville, Tenn. (St. 1934). 

References: J. H. Parkin, C. M. McKergow, C. V. Christie, E. Brown, G. A. 
Wallace. 

PUBLICATIONS OF ENEMY ORIGIN 

At the request of Mr. S. J. Cook, officer in charge, 
Research Plans and Publications Section, National Re- 
search Council, we are pleased to reproduce the following 
letter addressed by the acting president of the Council to 
presidents of universities and other research organizations 
in Canada. 

In view of the restrictions on the importation of scientific 



hooks and periodicals of enemy origin into Canada since 
the outbreak of war, there has been an increasing demand 
for photostats or other reproductions of specific articles 
appearing in such publications which are known to be 
available in United States libraries. 

The National Research Council has been informed by 
t lie Department of the Secretary of State that educational 
institutions and industrial or research organizations in 
( anada are now permitted to order direct from United 
States libraries photostat copies of articles appearing in 
scientific journals which are known to be in such libraries 
but which are not in circulation in Canada. 

The Commissioner of Customs and the Postal Censors 
have been asked to place no restrictions on the importa- 
tion and safe delivery of photostats or other reproductions 
of this kind direct to university and other responsible 
scientific bodies in Canada when such importations are 
made from recognized and responsible United States 
libraries. 

It is to be noted that the foregoing procedure applies 
only to -photostats or other copies of articles from journals 
in the United States. Universities and other institutions 
that wish to secure scientific books or periodicals of enemy 
origin must still conform with the procedure authorized 
by the Secretary of State, which is briefly that — 

(i) A certificate must be furnished to the National 
Research Council stating that the publications wanted 
are essential to the conduct of scientific work in Canada 
during the war; 

(ii) A copy of the order must be filed with the National 
Research Council; 

(iii) Orders must be placed with an organization in 
a neutral or allied country; 

(iv) The shipper must be instructed to send the book 
or periodical in care of the National Research Council at 
Ottawa for Customs and Censorship clearance; 

(v) Payment for such publications must be arranged 
between the concern placing the order and the firm with 
which the order is placed, and the regulations of the 
Foreign Exchange Control Board must be observed in 
such transactions. 



62 



January, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 25 



MONTREAL. FEBRUARY 1942 



NUMBER 2 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



ON THE LOOKOUT FOR ENEMY SUBMARINES 

{Photo Courtesy Public Information, Ottawa) 



Cover 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e.i.c. 

Editor 



THE NEW OIL-HYDRAULIC PRESS IN MUNITIONS 

MANUFACTURE 

John H. Maude, M.E.I.C. 

THE QUALITY UNDERLYING THE BRITISH AEROPLANE 
ht. Col. W. Lockwood Marsh 



66 



71 



N. E. D. SHEPPARD, m.i.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, M.E.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, M.E.I.C, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c. 

H. F. FINNEMORE, m.e.i.c. 

T. J. LAFRENIÈRE, m.e.i.c 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexie*. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, aa 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



SHIPYARD PRODUCTION METHODS 73 

Homard Johnson, M.E.I.C. 

REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR 1941 80 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 99 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 104 

PERSONALS 110 

Visitors to Headquarters ......... 112 

Obituaries ............ 113 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 114 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 119 

LIBRARY NOTES 120 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 122 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 123 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 



tA. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
•McNEELY DuBOSE, Arvida, Que. 



•J. B. CHALLIES. Montreal, Que. 



tA. E. BERRY, Toronto, Ont. 

•G. P. F. BOESE, Calgary, Alta. 

•I. W. BUCKLEY, Sydney, N.S. 

•J. M. CAMPBELL, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•A. L. CARRUTHERS. Victoria, B.C. 

tD. S. ELLIS, Kingston, Ont. 

tJ. M. FLEMING, Port Arthur, Ont. 

tl. M. FRASER, Saskatoon, Sask. 

tJ. H. FREGEAU, Three Rivers, Que. 

tJ. GARRETT, Edmonton, Alta. 

tS. W. GRAY, Halifax, N.S. 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



PRESIDENT 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

*J. CLARK KEITH, Windsor, Ont. 
+DEGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

fH. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 

COUNCILLORS 

tJ. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

JW. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

tJ. R. KAYE, Halifax, N.S. 

tE. M. KREBSER, WalkerviUe, Ont. 

*J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

*A. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 

tH. N. MACPHERSON, Vancouver, B.C. 

*W. R. MANOCK. Fort Erie North, Ont. 

•H. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 

tH. F. MORRISEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tW. H. MUNRO, Ottawa, Ont. 

TREASURER 

JOHN STADLER, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tK. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 
*W. S. WILSON, Sydney, N.S. 



ÎT. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 



*W. L. McFAUL Hamilton, Ont. 

tC. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 

M. H. PARKIN, Ottawa, Ont. 

*B. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 

JG. McL. PITTS, Montreal. Que. 

*J. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

tM. G. SAUNDERS, Arvida, Que. 

*H. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

*C. E. SISSON, Toronto, Ont. 

*G. E. SMITH, Moncton, N.B. 

tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

•For 1941 tFor 1941-42 JFor 1941-42-43 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



FINANCE 

deG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 

G. A. GAHERTY 

J. A. McCRORY 

F. NEWELL 

J. STADLER, Treasurer 



LEGISLATION 

E. M. KREBSER, Chairman 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. J. DURLEY 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

BRIAN R. PERRY, Chairman 



PUBLICATION 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman 
deG. BEAUBIEN 
K. M. CAMERON 
McN. DuBOSE 
J. C. KEITH 
W. S. WILSON 



C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

T. J. LAFRENIERE 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 

i. m. fraser 
w. e. lovell 
a. p. linton 
h. r. Mackenzie 
e. k. phillips 

PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Chairman 

h. a. lumsden 
h. r. Mackenzie 
j. o. martineau 

R. W. McCOLOUGH 
GZOWSKI MEDAL 

H. O. KEAY, Chairman 
H. V. ANDERSON 
W. H. POWELL 
H. J. VENNES 
A. O. WOLFF 

LEONARD MEDAL 

A. D. CAMPBELL, Chairman 
L. L. BOLTON 
A. E. CAMERON 
G. E. COLE 
V. DOLMAGE 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

J. T. FARMER. Chairman 
J. M. FLEMING 
R. C. FLITTON 

PLUMMER MEDAL 

J. F. HARKOM, Chairman 

F. G. GREEN 
R. E. GILMORE 
E. VIENS 

C. R. WHITTEMORE 

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

G. A. GAHERTY 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
H. W. McKIEL 

J. A. VANCE 



MEMBERSHIP 

H. N. MACPHERSON, Chairman 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 

A. L. CARRUTHERS. Chairman 
J. M. CAMPBELL 
H. N. MACPHERSON 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Galbraith Prize 

K. M. CAMERON, Chairman 
W. H. MUNRO 
J. H. PARKIN 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

McN. DuBOSE, Chairman 
C. K. McLEOD 
H. J. VENNES 

Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

deG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 
J. H. FREGEAU 
A. LARIVIERE 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

W. S. WILSON, Chairman 
I. W. BUCKLEY 
S. W. GRAY 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

C. R. YOUNG, Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

R. W. ANGUS 

C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

M. J. McHENRY 

H. H. VAUGHAN 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

G. M. PITTS, Chairman 
R. J. DURLEY 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 
G. P. F. BOESE 

A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

C. CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

A GRIFFIN 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
J. M. WARDLE 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 
J. BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
R. DeL. FRENCH 
C. A. D. FOWLER 
R. E. HEARTZ 
C. C. KIRBY 
R. F. LEGGET 
A. P. LINTON 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. McKIEL 
R. M. SMITH 
H. R. WEBB 



64 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, H.L.JOHNSTON 
Vice-Chair., G. G. HENDERSON 
Executive, W. P. AUGUSTINE 
J. F. G. BLOWEY 
W. R. STICKNEY 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 

G. E. MEDLAR 
Sec.-Treas.. J. B. DOWLER, 

754 Chilver Road, 

Walkerville, Ont. 



CALGARY 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



J. B. deHART 
H. J. McEWEN 
F. J. HEUPERMAN 
T. D. STANLEY 
J. W. YOUNG 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
J. HADDIN 

.i. McMillan 

Sec.-Treas., P. F. PEELE 

248 Scarboro Avenue, 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Bxtcutive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

A. P. THEUERKAUF 
(.Ex Officio), I. W. BUCKLEY 

W. S. WILSON 
Set.-Treas.. S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney. N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, R. M. HARDY 
D. A. HANSEN 
J. A. CARRUTHERS 

C. W. CARRY 

D. HUTCHISON 
B. W. PITFIELD 

E. R. T. SKARIN 
W. F. STEVENSON 

(Ex-Officio), J. GARRETT 

E. NELSON 

F. R. BURFIELD, 
Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



Sec.-Treas., 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



HAMILTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), W 

w 

Sec.-Treas., A. 



P. A. LOVETT 

A. E. CAMERON 

G. T. CLARKE G. J. CURRIE 

A. E. FLYNN J. D. FRASER 

D. G. DUNBAR J. A. MacKAY 

j. f. f. Mackenzie 

J. W. MacDONALD 

G. T. MEDFORTH 

S. L. FULTZ J. R. KAYE 

S. W. GRAY, 

The Nova Scotia Power 

Commission, 

Halifax, N.S. 



STANLEY SHUPE 

T. S. GLOVER 

H. A. COOCH 

NORMAN EAGER 

A. C. MACNAB 
H. WINGFIELD 
J. W. REID 
A. T. GILMOUR 
R. HANNAFORD, 
354 Herkimer Street, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, T. A. McGINNIS 
Vice-Chair., P. ROY 
Executive, V. R. DAVIES 

K. H. McKIBBIN 
K. M. WINSLOW 





A. 


H. MUNRO 


(Ex-Officio) 


. G. 


G. M. CARR-HARRIS 




D 


S. ELLIS 


Sec.-Treas., 


J. 


B. BATY, 
Queen's University, 

Kingston, Ont. 


LAKEHEAD 






Chairman, 


B. 


A. CULPEPER 



Vice-Chair., MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 
Executive, E. J. DAVIEs 

J. I. CARMICHAEL 
S. E. FLOOK 
S. T. McCAVOUR 
R. B. CHANDLER 
W. H. SMALL 
C. D. MACKINTOSH 
(Ex-Officio), H. G. O'LEARY 
J. M. FLEMING 
Sec.-Treas., W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDCE 

Chairman, C. S. DONALDSON 
Vice-Chair. , W . MELDRUM 

£xeeuiit>e, R. F. P. BOWMAN G. S. BROWN 
N. H. BRADLEY 
C. S. CLENDENING 
(Ex-Officio) J. M. CAMPBELL 

A. J. BRANCH J. T. WATSON 

Sec.-Treas., R. B. McKENZIE, 

McKenzie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 




Chairman, 


R. W. GARRETT 


Vice-Chair. 


, F. T. JULIAN 


Executive, 


V. A. McKILLOP 




F. C. BALL 




F. BELL 




T. L. McMANAMNA 




R. S. CHARLES 


(Ex-Officio) 


, H. F. BENNETT 




J. A. VANCE 


Sec. Treas., 


H. G. STEAD, 




60 Alexandra Street, 




London, Ont. 


MONCTON 




Chairman, 


F. O. CONDON 


Vice-Chair. 


, H. J. CRUDGE 


Executive, 


B. E. BAYNE E. R. EVANS 




G. L. DICKSON E. B. MARTIN 




T. H. DICKSON G. E. SMITH 




R. H. EMMERSON 


(Ex-Officio) 


, H. W. McKIEL 


Sec.-Treas., 


V. C. BLACKETT, 




Engr. Dept., C.N.R., 




Moncton, N.B. 


MONTREAL 


Chairman, 


R. E. HEARTZ 


Vice-Chair. 


, J. A. LALONDE 


Executive, 


E. V. GAGE 




P. E. POITRAS 




I. S. PATTERSON 




J. B. STIRLING 




J. M. CRAWFORD 




J. COMEAU 


(Ex-Officio) 


, J. B. CHALLIES 




deG. BEAUBIEN 




J. G HALL 




W. G. HUNT 




H. MASSUE 




C. K. McLEOD 




B. R. PERRY 




G. M. PITTS 


Sec. Treas., 


L. A. DUCHASTEL 




40 Kelvin Avenue, 




Outremont, Que. 



NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, A. L. McPHAIL 
Vice-Chair., C. G. CLINE 
Executive, L. J. RUSSELL 

J. H. TUCK 

A. C. BLUE 

G. F. VOLLMER 

G. E. GRIFFITHS 

D. W. BRACKEN 

L. L. GISBORNE 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK 
Sec-Treat., J. H. INGS. 

1870 Ferry Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 



OTTAWA 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



N. B. MacROSTIE 
W. G. C. GLIDDON 
R. M. PRENDERGAST 
W. H. G. FLAY 
G. A. LINDSAY 
R. YUILL 
(Ex-Officio), K. M. CAMERON 
W. H. MUNRO 
T. A. McELHANNEY 
R. K. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 
PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, J. CAMERON 

Executive, A. J. GIRDWOOD I. F. McRAE 

J. W. PIERCE F. R. POPE 

(Ex-Officio), R. L. DOBBIN 
H. R. SILLS 
A. L. MALBY 
Sec.-Treas., D. J. EMERY, 

589 King Street, 

Peterborough, Ont. 



QUEBEC 

Life Hon.- 
Chair. 
Chairman 



A. R. DECARY 
L. C. DUPUIS 
Vice-Chair., RENÉ DUPUIS 
Executive O. DESJARDINS 

R. SAUVAGE G. ST-JACQUES 

S. PICARD L. GAGNON 

G. W. WADDINGTON 
(Ex-Officio), A. LARIVIÈRE 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH P. MÉTHÉ 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 

Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, N. F. McCAGHEY 
Vice-Chair., R. H. RIMMER 
Executive, B. BAUMAN 
G. B. MOXON 
A. I. CUNNINGHAM 
W. J. THOMSON 
(Ex-Officio), McN. DuBOSE 

M. G. SAUNDERS 
J. W. WARD 
Sec.-Treas., D S. ESTABROOKS, 

Price Bros. & Co. Ltd. 
Riverbend, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, F. A. PATRIQUEN 
Vice-Chair., D. R. SMITH 
Executive, A. O. WOLFF 

H. P. LINGLEY 
W. B. AKERLEY 
(Ex-Officio),. h P. MOONEY 

H. F. MORRISEY 
Sec.-Treas., V. S. CHESNUT, 
P.O. Box 1393, 

Saint John, N.B. 
ST. MAURICE VALLEY 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



J. M. MITCHELL 
G. RINFRET 
H. J. WARD 
H. K. WYMAN 



A. H. HEATLEY 
H. G. TIMMIS 
A. C. ABBOTT 
R. DORION 
V. JEPSEN 
J. JOYAL 
H. O. KEAY 
(Ex-Officio), C. H. CHAMPION 

J. H. FREGEAU 
Sec.-Treas., C. G. deTONNANCOUR 
Engineering Department, 
Shawinigan Chemicals, Limited, 
Shawinigan Falls, Que. 
SASKATCHEWAN 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 



SAULT STE, 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



R. A. McLELLAN 

a. p. linton 
r. w. jickling 
h. r. Mackenzie 

b. russell 

G. l. Mackenzie 

C. J. McGAVIN 
A. A. MURPHY 
I. M. FRASER 
STEWART YOUNG 
P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask. 

MARIE 

E. M. MacQUARRIE 

L. R. BROWN 

R. A. CAMPBELL 

N. C. COWIE 

C. O. MADDOCK 

C. R. MURDOCK 

J. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 

O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road, 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 

TORONTO 

Chairman, H. E. BRANDON 
Vice-Chair., W. S. WILSON 
Executive, F. J. BLAIR 

W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 

G. R. JACK 

D. FORGAN 

R. F. LEGGET 

S. R. FROST 
(Ex-Officio), A. E. BERRY 

N. MacNICOL 

T. H. HOGG 

C. E. SISSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE 

Engineering Building 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, W. O. SCOTT 
Vice-Chair., W. N. KELLY 
Executive, H. P. ARCHIBALD 

I. C. BARLTROP 

H. C. FITZ-JAMES 

H. J. MacLEOD 

R. E. POTTER 
(Ex-Officio), J. N. FINLAYSON 

T. V. BERRY 

H. N. MACPHERSON 
Sec.-Treas., P. B. STROYAN 

2099 Beach Avenue, 

Vancouver, B.C. 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
KENNETH REID 

A. L. FORD 

B. T. O'GRADY 
J. B. PARHAM 
R. BOWERING 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 
G. M. IRWIN 
E. W. IZARD 
J. H. BLAKE, 

605 Victoria Avenue, 

Victoria, B.C 

V. MICHIE 

D. M. STEPHENS 

C. V. ANTENBRING 
H. B. BREHAUT 

J. T. DYMENT 
H. W. McLEOD 
T. E. STOREY 
H. L. BRIGGS 
J. W. SANGER 
C. P. HALTALIN, 

303 Winnipeg Electric ChamberB, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



65 



THE NEW OIL-HYDRAULIC PRESS IN MUNITIONS 

MANUFACTURE 

JOHN H. MAUDE, M.E.I.C. 

Chief Designer, Mining, Metals and Plastics Machinery Department, Dominion Engineering Company Limited, Lachine, Que. 

Paper presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Montreal, Que., on February 6th, 1942. 



During the last world war, the hydraulic press was a slow, 
powerful, ponderous machine, and considered from both a 
theoretical and practical aspect it was a crude instrument 
for applying controlled severe stress to metal. It was 
affected by a multitude of maintenance troubles, caused by 
a water system with triplex pumps, weight loaded ac- 
cumulators, long downshop pipe lines and shock alleviators, 
and in consequence it did not give entire satisfaction when 
employed in modern mass production. 

Since then, however, the automobile and other allied 
industries have demanded and obtained radical improve- 
ments in machinery available for the fabrication of their 
various components, and one of the most progressive 
developments has been the design of an entirely new type of 
press, which has given much better results. 

This press employs oil as the pressure medium, and is 
entirely self-contained with a circulatory system. A high 
pressure radial piston pump is used as the power unit, 
direct coupled to its motor, and the whole with suitable 
starting equipment and oil tanks is carried on the press 
proper. Extreme rigidity is provided by side housings. The 
machine of this type manufactured by the Dominion 
Engineering Company is known as the Speed-Hy-Matic 
press; its main features are indicated in Fig. 1. The fun- 
damentals of its working are indicated diagrammatically in 



DOMINION 
PREFILL VALVE 



RADIAL PISTON PUMP 



OIL 
COOLER 



GLAND WITH 
AUTOMATIC PACKING 




- PRESTRESSED 
COLUMNS 



-INCHING LEVER 



START * RESET LEVER 



Fig. 1 — Principal features of Speed-Hy-Matic press. 



the circuit shown in Fig. 2 which particularly applies to a 
drawing press. The oil supply is carried overhead in the 
prefill tank with a filling check of special design in the 
centre of the top head. During the approach or prefill part 
of the stroke, when the ram and slide advance by gravity, 
the prefill valve opens and pump discharge at no pressure 
augments the flow into the cylinder. This prefill valve is a 
development of the filling check valve, streamlined for 
flow in both directions. As soon as the work piece is con- 
tacted, the prefill valve closes automatically, and the pumps 
take hold to develop pressure. It is essential that the filling 
of the main cylinder should occur without turbulence or 
cavitation, or there will be time lag before the pressure 
develops. With this streamlined prefill valve, approach 



Aie SAFETY VALVE 



PPEF1LLT 



PPEF1LL VALVE 



MAIN CAM 



MOVING C0OS6HEAD 



THPOTTLE CHECK VALVE 
SUCTION 



CAD1AL PISTON PUMP 



COOLEC 




SUMP TANK 
LEAK AGE PUMP 
RELIEF VALVE 
CHECK VAL^ 



WOPKING VALVE 
TO&ftLC BOX 



66 



CAM CONTBOUUEP 



Fig. 2 — Working circuit of drawing press. 

speeds of 20 inches per second are obtained without cavita- 
tion. It is seen that the pumps develop pressure imme- 
diately against the work resistance to complete the work 
stroke and this occurs at absolutely uniform speed. Devices 
are provided, such that at the end of the work stroke the 
machine is tripped automatically, either on the attainment 
of a certain predetermined adjustable pressure, or by 
distance in any portion of the stroke, and the press then 
automatically returns to its upper position. This top 
position is also adjustable at the will of the operator, so 
that the daylight* is variable as well as the length of the 
pressure stroke. When the slide or moving crosshead 
reaches the desired upper position limit, the pumps, which 
run continuously, are stroke neutralized so as to pump 
only as much fluid as will make up for the leakage content 
of the system, and also so as to develop no more pressure 
than is essential to hold up the moving mass. It is readily 
seen that a most economical work cycle is thus obtained. 

The heart of the press is the high pressure radial piston 
pump, of positive displacement type, which is direct 
coupled to the motor and supplies the oil under pressure 
to the press cylinders. This pump is shown in Fig. 3 and 

* "Daylight" means the maximum distance between the upper face 
of the bottom crosshead and the under face of the ram crosshead 
when at the top of its stoke. 

February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Fig. 3 — Working parts of radial piston pump. 

consists essentially of a cylinder assembly mounted in 
ball bearings, fitted with a number of radial plungers and 
driven by a spindle. The cylinder assembly rotates so as to 
carry the plungers with it. These plungers are ground and 
lapped in the cylinder, and have their outer ends pivotted 
in slippers, the thrust of each being taken in the floating 
ring assembly. The floating ring is moved by one of several 
devices in a lateral direction with respect to the shaft. 
The ported valve pintle in the centre is fixed to the "fluid 
end" cover. It is seen that rotation of the pump shaft and 
cylinder block will rotate the pistons also. If the axis of the 
floating ring coincides with that of the shaft, there is no 
pumping action because the pistons have not any stroke, 
but when the floating ring is moved off centre, piston 
displacement occurs, the discharge of the pump will be 
proportional to the shift of this ring, and the plunger 
stroke will be twice the ring movement. The multiplicity 
of plungers develops an overlapping discharge which is 
without noticeable pulsation, e.g., a seven cylinder pump 
rotating at 840 r.p.m. will develop 5880 small pressure 
crests per minute or 98 per second. 

The pump or pumps are equipped with a special dual 
automatic stroke control as shown in the figure. One side 
has a "stroke holding cylinder," while the other side has a 
"cam lever stroke neutralizing control." 

As previously stated, the system fluid is lubricating oil» 
approximately SAE. 45, having a viscosity approximately 
920 SUV* at 100 deg. F., and highly temperature-stable so 
as to retain a viscosity better than 340 SUV at 132 deg. F. 

The fluid medium being lubricating oil, permits the use 
of a simple balanced piston valve, with the beat lapped 
into the body. Since it is entirely submerged in oil, wear 
and maintenance are practically eliminated. 

Mention has already been made of semi-automatic oper- 
ation from a single hand lever for the start only, and a 
patented simple mechanism has been developed whereby 
all the essential automatic motions may then be obtained. 

Manual operation may also be employed, in which case 
press movement will follow the hand of the operator. Manual 
inching at creepage speeds for die setting is provided for 
by the insertion of a reduction gear. For semi-automatic 
operation, a full lever stroke will lock the toggles so that 
the valve is in the work stroke position, and either after 
pressure development or alternatively after a certain length 
of stroke, the toggles are automatically broken so as to 
reverse the valve, when the press immediately returns to 
the open position. 

An Analysis of Various Presses Employed 

In the selection of a press required to perform a pre- 
scribed duty in cartridge case manufacture, one should 
choose a machine which is designed to suit the nature of 
the work, and if possible it should be capable of handling 
another allied operation just as efficiently when another 
machine in line is temporarily shut down for adjustment or 
repair. At first sight this requirement of double duty in 

* Savbolt Universal Yiscositv. 



emergency, with maximum efficiency for both cycles, ap- 
pears to be almost impossible. An examination of the lead- 
ing characteristics of available machines indicates that this 
is not the case, and that they may be fitted into either of 
two most important classifications: 

1. The fixed stroke type with fixed daylight. 

2. The variable stroke machine with variable daylight. 

The two groups are so fundamentally different, that a 
comparison of the leading characteristics shows that the 
former lacks certain desirable features. A fixed stroke press 
may be described as a machine whose mechanism, such as 
slider crank and crank toggle, will employ a low force or 
effort over a long distance to produce a higher effort through 
a shorter distance, and thus develop mechanical advantage. 
In this kind of machine, the opening, gap, or daylight is 
a fixed dimension except for a minor essential adjustment, 
and the stroke of the machine is definitely fixed by the 
throw of crank. Once a mechanical press of this kind is 
set up for a certain operation, and the crank speed decided 
upon, the maximum drawing speed becomes fixed, and this 
is not a desirable feature. 

Experiments in a certain arsenal, where special tools and 
carboloy dies were employed, indicate a limit draw speed 
for cartridge case brass as follows in connection with 75 
MM. cases:— 



1st and 2nd draw 
3rd draw 
4th draw 



-35 feet per minute 
30 feet per minute 
25 feet per minute 



and this under favourable conditions, with a ' laboratory 
atmosphere, accurate annealing control, with trained work- 
men and first class technical supervision. 

In Canadian factories, with the new oil-hydraulic press, 
raw labour, and standard commercial high carbon steel 
tools, we regularly draw at speeds of 27 feet per minute and 
this on the 4th draw operation of the 25 pdr. case. 

A 60-ton Speed-Hy-Matic press with an adept operator 
has regularly produced 1,450 first-draw pieces per hour for 
the 25 pdr. cartridge case. 

Figure 4 shows the velocity-stroke diagrams of a crank 
press compared with the modern oil-hydraulic press, with 
the tooling employed in the 4th draw of a 25 pdr. cartridge 
case. Cyclic times for the operations are also given. 

It is axiomatic that the velocity diagram is a sine curve, 
and it is seen that the tool must strike the work with a very 
considerable impact, for at the instant of contact the speed 
is 70 feet per minute, which diminishes to 27 feet per minute 
throughout the stroke according to the law of simple 
harmonic motion. This means that as the draw punch 
proceeds, the metal is constrained to move at a speed which 
varies greatly; this is not the best practice for drawn work. 
Present evidence borne out in practice indicates that this 



CTILK. time* ran 


WHO Mf 


- M* 


r.C 




V ^r 






X£Z 


W 




W 






M 


°* 


u 


o » 


















K*r 












ToTiL 






>* 






cy«l* T.«f» fee cc»~< Pen* 


TOTAL 1BCMI J* Uol Jt U-Q 




4 W OB»* tow 
Z* CW*W 1410 




VELOCITY I» 

STROKE VELOCITY CHAPT 
^ fcO TOM SPEED HY-MÔTIC 



Fig. 4 — Velocity-stroke diagrams of crank press and Speed-Hy- 
Matic press. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



67 



rapidly changing velocity prevents full advantage being 
taken of the metal's capacity to suffer plastic deformation, 
and rupture may occur. 

Indenting and Heading Cartridge Cases 
Indenting is the operation of making the pressed depres- 
sion in the head of the case which is subsequently machined 
to take the primer. 



^4 ë& Gfe CE LE 




T0OUM6 fOi? HEADING OPERATION 

25 ppjz cartridge CASE 

Fig. 5— Tooling for heading operation on cartridge cases. 

Heading is the term used to describe the pressing opera- 
tion to increase the hardness of the head and form the 
retaining flange. Automatic variable-tonnage* heading and 
indenting is now accepted as standard practice. In both of 
these operations the press must necessarily operate against 
solid resistance in the form of a tool post. With mechanical 
presses it is essential that the tool post be set accurately as 
regards height, but a gradual reduction of tool post height 
occurs by repeated operation due to the ironing and work 
hardening of this member which must necessarily occur, 
and the effect is expressed in reduced tonnage on the work 
so that adjustments become necessray. Whenever a tool 
post is replaced due to breakage or undue wear the tonnage 
adjustment on a mechanical press must be repeated, for 
without this there is risk of mechanical failure due to 
excess tonnage developed at the end of stroke. 

* "Tonnage" means the total load in tons applied by the press to 
the work piece. 




S'-TBIM 









HEADING 1*' TAPEB ?"° TAPED FiNliMEO CASE 

Fig. 6 — Stages in manufacture of cartridge case. 

In the new oil-hydraulic press it is stressed that the 
stroke and daylight may be varied so that variation in tool 
post height does not affect either the safety or the life of 
the press or of the dies themselves. 

Figure 5 shows the typical tooling employed in either of 
these operations. In an oil-hydraulic press, overloading is 
impossible, first due to a pressure trip which is adjustable 
up to the maximum tonnage of the press, and also because 
of relief valve protection. 

Heading and indenting generally have to be done in two 
stages, and it is possible to employ two separate selected 
tonnages each as best suited for either stage of the work. 




Fig. 7 — Cupping 4-inch cartridge case on 300-ton press. 



68 



February. 1912 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Fig. 8 — Indenting 4-inch cartridge case on 800-ton press. 

In a toggle operated press there is no slowdown at work 
contact, whereas in an oil-hydraulic press this feature is 
normal design so as to eliminate the impact on the work 
piece, and in addition on work contact the pressure is 
gradually built up hydraulically against resistance until 
the desired maximum is exerted. This gradual pressure 
build-up means that in heading some cases, such as in 75 
MM. cases, double stage heading has been found un- 
necessary. 

The Manufacture of Cartridge Cases 

In order to withstand the increased charge of propellant, 
improvements in the manufacture of cartridge cases for 
fixed ammunition were found necessary. A number of 
plants are now in full production in the manufacture of 
cases of different sizes including 2 pdr., 40 MM., 75 MM., 




25 pdr., 4.5 in., 3.7 in. and 4 in. with arrangements to 
manufacture up to the 6 in. case when deemed necessary. 
Millions have already been shipped overseas and additional 
plants will soon be in operation. The brass is obtained from 
the brass manufacturer in the form of discs, as this holds 
the necessary scrap at its source of supply. 

It may be of interest to give particulars of the manufac- 
turing methods employed on two widely different examples, 
namely the 25 pdr. 3.45 in. cartridge case which is for the 
held gun replacing the old 18 pdr., and also the one neces- 
sitating the longest draw in practice to-day, namely the 
4 in. naval case. The first operation is one known as cupping, 
after which follow certain draws, indents, heading and 
tapering operations substantially in the order as stated, 
with annealing necessarily placed between certain opera- 
tions. The various stages for the 25 pdr. case are shown in 
Fig. 6. 

Operations on the 25 Pdr. 3.45 In. Cartridge Case 
In all, this requires 34 operations, as listed below: — 



1. 


Cup 


13. 


Clean 


25. 


Heading 


2. 


Anneal 


14. 


4th draw 


26. 


Wall Anneal 


3. 


Clean 


15. 


1st trim 


27. 


1st taper 


4. 


1st draw 


16. 


2nd indent 


28. 


2nd taper 


5. 


Anneal 


17. 


Anneal 


29. 


Bullard Lathes 


6. 


Clean 


18. 


Clean 


30. 


Oakite Clean 


7. 


2nd draw 


19. 


5th draw 


31. 


Stress Relieve 


8. 


1st indent 


20. 


Anneal 


32. 


Buffers 


9. 


Anneal 


21. 


Clean 


33. 


Inspection 


0. 


Clean 


22. 


6th draw 


34. 


Stamping 


1. 


3rd draw 


23. 


2nd trim 






2. 


Anneal 


24. 


Steam Heat 







In the selection of a suitable press to perform a set 
operation it is advisable to have excess tonnage available 
so that any imperfections in annealing will not cause the 
work piece to stall in the machine. 




Fig. 9 — Heading 4-inch cartridge case on 2000-ton press. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



Fig. 10 — Necking 4-inch cartridge case on 60-ton press. 



69 



4-1n. Naval Cartridge Case 

This case probably represents one of Canada's biggest 
achievements in this field of endeavour, because it requires 
the longest draws, extremely difficult hardness graduation 
over a large area, and the highest tonnage for heading. 

There are 39 separate operations required in the manu- 
facture of a 4 in. cartridge case from the brass disc. 

Operations on 4-In. Naval Cases 



1. 


Cup 


16. 


2. 


Anneal 


17. 


3. 


Pickle 


18. 


4. 


First draw 


19. 


5. 


Anneal 


20. 


6. 


Pickle 




7. 


2nd draw 




8. 


Anneal 


21. 


9. 


Pickle 


22. 


10. 


3rd draw 


23. 


11. 


Anneal 


24. 


12. 


Pickle 


25. 


13. 


4th draw 


26. 


14. 


1st trim 


27. 


15. 


1st indent 


28. 



Anneal 
Pickle 
5th draw 
2nd trim 
2nd indent 
1st operation 
2nd operation 
Anneal 
Pickle 
6th draw 
3rd trim 
25. Heading 
Wall anneal 
Pickle 



29. Wall Anneal 

30. Pickle 

31. 2nd taper 
1st operation 

32. 2nd taper 
2nd operation 
or necking 

33. Mouth anneal 

34. Base turn 

35. Drill clip holes 

36. Marking 

37. Stress relieve 

38. Buffing 

39. Inspection 



1st taper 

A number of these operations are illustrated in Figs. 7 to 
11, as follows: 

300-ton press engaged in cupping (Fig. 7). 

Indenting on 800- ton press. A two-position shuffle feed is 
employed. (Fig. 8). 

2,000-ton press engaged in heading, (Fig. 9), work going 
in and product coming out. 

Necking on a 60-ton press. Tapered cases are on the 
right; a case is in the press, and the product is held by the 
operator on the left (Fig. 10). 

Mouth annealing after necking (Fig. 11). This is done in a 
continuous furnace. 

Shell Forging Presses 

Whereas in the last war and with previous manufacturing 
methods the shell cavity was finish-machined, a finish- 
forged cavity to fine finish and tolerance is now prescribed. 

The punch and draw method was usual, and to-day we 




Fig. 11 — Mouth annealing 4-inch cartridge case after necking. 

find plants still using this same technique except that the 
draw rings are replaced by draw rollers. This process 
necessitates two machines, one punch and one draw. There 
is also a single machine on the market which is of the 
multiple progressive punch type, and as many as five or six 
separate operations must occur successively on the billet. 
In general the forging technique of the last war caused the 
metal to flow in the direction opposed to punch travel. This 
involved extrusion of the metal, resulting in rapid wear of 
both punch and die liner. It is thus seen that any forging 
process for the manufacture of shells which employs this 



i 

_l 

hi 
£ 


® 

L 



4&WHEN COLD 



A% WHEN COLD 
FROM 5" DIAM. DIE. 




MOSAIC SECTION USED 




SNGLE OPERATION NON EXTRUSION FORGING PROCESS 
FOR SHELL MANUFACTURE. 

SECTIONS TAKEN OVER FLATS OF BIXET 
AS MEASURED FROM ACTUAL FORCINGS. 



Fig. 12 — Diagram of various stages in the single operation non-extension forging process for 4 and 5-inch shell. 



70 



February, 1912 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Fig. 13 — Finish-forged cavity forgings for 25-pounder 
shell. 

extrusion method must show a relatively high tool cost if 
accurate forgings with a finish-forged cavity are to be 
produced. After an extensive study of the various shell 
forging methods an entirely new protected one-operation 
process for forging shells with finish-forged cavity was 
evolved. The press, which has a three-station turret on 
the moving crosshead, employs but a single stroke of the 
punch into the billet with a special self-opening hydraulic- 
ally cushioned die, and uses a non-extrusion process of 
forging. 

Figure 12 shows the way in which the billet for a 4.5-in. 
shell becomes a finish-forged cavity forging. See also Fig. 
13 and note. 

As was anticipated, the forging pressure required has 
proved to be about half of that required for the straight 
punch method, thus permitting the use of a refined cast 
iron punch tip instead of tips of heat-treated tool steel. 
The overall tool cost has thus been considerably re- 
duced, for cast iron die liners are also employed, and the 
average tool cost including all components works out at 
about 9}/£ c. per shell. It is seen that the metal is con- 
strained to move downwards in the same direction of 
motion as the punch, but in advance of it as illustrated in 
Fig. 12. This better metal flow gives a more desirable form 
of grain structure without any evidence of the button 



which was sojprevalent in previous processes. The principal 
advantages of this new process include substantial savings 
in material cost, base thickness is reduced to a minimum 
and eccentricity is remarkably small; more rapid produc- 
tion of forgings is permitted to closer tolerances; an extre- 
mely low tool cost which has hitherto been unattainable; 
savings in forging labour; substantial reduction in rejected 
forgings and better material as regards grain structure in 
the forging itself. 

Eccentricity in a piercing operation is one of the first 
troubles which must be overcome. It will be observed that 
in order to avoid this, a press has been designed having very 
rigid construction with side housings and prestressed 
columns and adequate guides to the moving crosshead. 
Again it was found that in the last war it was practically 
impossible to punch a hole whose length exceeded four 




Fig. 14 — Tools for 4-inch naval shell forging. 

punch diameters. With this new process we are able to 
punch a finished cavity to perfection with a six-to-one 
ratio of punch length to diameter. Another important im- 
provement embodied in the machine is the very good guide 
provided for the punch itself, which not only makes the 
punch start in the centre of the billet, but tends to hold it 
along this line of action. Again it will be noted that a billet of 
square or mosaic form is employed, and by the use of a split 
die it is positively gripped in position, because the distance 
across the corners of this billet is greater than the diameter 
of the die itself. The punch, tips, dies, and guide bushings 
for 4-in. naval shell forgings are shown in Fig. 14. 



THE QUALITY UNDERLYING THE BRITISH AEROPLANE 



LT. COL. W. LOCKWOOD MARSH 

Editor of "Aircraft Engineering " 



The ' Battle of Britain ' proved beyond all cavil the 
superiority in performance and fighting qualities of Brit- 
ish aeroplanes of the fighter class, but numerous cases of 
the safe return to their bases of bombers (flying in some 
instances, hundreds of miles in a badly shot-about con- 
dition) have, though in a less spectacular way, equally 
demonstrated the excellence of the materials incorporated 
and the high standard of workmanship used in their pro- 
duction. 

This is, in the first place, the result of years of research 
work and technical development in the gradual evolution 
of new materials. It has been estimated that it has, on 
occasion, taken fifteen years to develop, to the stage of 
being a commercial product suitable for introduction into 
some part of an aeroplane or aero-engine, a light alloy 
from the time when the first stages in the process were 
begun in the laboratory — at the Government National 



Physical Laboratory or, it may be, in the works of some 
private firm. 

It, is perhaps, interesting to examine this process and 
follow the stages by which the new material is developed 
in this way. Owing to the growing claims arising from 
rapid progress in aeroplane design, the need sooner or 
later arises, let us say, for a material which will stand 
up to more strenuous conditions of operation than those 
which have hitherto proved satisfactory. The chemist and 
the metallurgist consider the physical properties that will 
be necessary in the material to meet these fresh demands 
and investigate the precise effects that various changes 
in the composition — by the introduction of new elements, 
or variation in the quantities of existing ones — will have 
on these properties. The ' perfect ' composition may then 
be found to produce a material which is ideal for the pur- 
pose so far as one strength characteristic is concerned but 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



71 



fails to give satisfaction in other respects; owing, possibly, 
to its being too brittle, or possessing some other defect. 
This difficulty may be overcome by close study and pati- 
ent experiment in the heat treatment, or some other pro- 
cess to which the material is subjected during the various 
stages of working it up into the finished part. This may 
necessitate a long series of experiments lasting over a 
considerable period of time; until eventually, a satisfac- 
tory ' laboratory ' product is produced which fulfils the 
requirements that have originally been put before the 
research workers. Even then, however, there is still much 
to be done, because it is a commonplace in the materials 
world that something which can be produced time after 
time by the leisurely and closely-controlled methods of 
the laboratory to give the same results under tests, is not 
by any means always suitable at first for rapid turning out 
in quantity by the more rough and ready means which only 
are possible in a factory. Bars of the material are, there- 
fore, tried out and produced by ordinary commercial pro- 
cesses. This again is a matter of trial and error involving 
alteration of existing methods, tried and proved, and, fre- 
quently, the installation of new and improved machinery 
and equipment. 

All this procedure naturally takes time and requires 
much patient thought and experiment. Suppose the ma- 
terial has passed all the tests, and is shown to be satisfac- 
tory for the purpose for which it is designed, it then has 
to receive approval before it can be used in an aeroplane 
to be built for the Royal Air Force so that there is no fear 
of it lowering the standard of strength insisted on in every 
part of a machine. 

All the principal British aeroplane firms, including of 
course aero-engine firms, are scheduled by the Ministry 
of Aircraft Production as ' approved for design and con- 
struction ', which means that such a firm is authorized to 
use a new material once it is manufactured and provided 
that it conforms to the specification drawn up by the firm. 
This covers its use so far as the types of aeroplane design- 
ed by this individual firm are concerned. But it may be 
that the utility of the material is such that it is desired 
to use it more widely. In this case the specification is 
taken up by the Directorate of Technical Development 



and is issued as a draft specification. This is a prelimin- 
ary step to a still wider adoption, which will be explained 
in a moment. During this stage, the specification is cir- 
culated in the Aircraft Industry, and to the technical 
staffs of any other engineering firms concerned with the 
production of the material, for criticism and comment. 
These are examined by the Directorate of Technical De- 
velopment, amendments incorporated, and it is then issued 
as a ' D.T.D. Specification ' with a number. Even this is 
still only a preliminary stage in the journey of the new 
material on its long road to becoming a fully approved 
' British Standard '. It frequently happens that it does 
not achieve popularity, or for some reason is found only 
to have a limited application — in which case it remains a 
D.T.D. Specification throughout its career. If, however, 
it proves to be a material of widespread utility for which 
there is a considerable demand, it goes a stage further and 
becomes a ' B.S. (British Standard) Specification'. To 
achieve this final distinction, it is handed over to the 
British Standards Institution, a semi-official body sup- 
ported by all the various branches of the engineering in- 
dustry of this Country, and is exhaustively examined and 
considered anew by one of the Institution's technical com- 
mittees, which are composed of individuals, either in Gov- 
ernment establishments or firms, with special experience 
and knowledge of the particular subject concerned; who 
give up part of their busy lives entirely free and volun- 
tarily to this most important work. If the material passes 
this final scrutiny, it is issued by the Institution as a new 
' British Standard ' ; than which there can be no higher 
hall-mark. 

Even after this, however, the material itself is still sub- 
ject to constant and repeated examination and test by in- 
spectors on the staffs of the ' approved ' firms, or by A.I.D. 
(Aircraft Inspection Directorate) inspectors, all through 
its career, from its first start as a bar or billet or what- 
not until it at last takes its place as a vital part, or fitting, 
in the complete aeroplane — when it carries for all to see 
the indentation made by the final inspection stamp show- 
ing that it has passed the vigilant eyes which have care- 
fully scrutinized it at each stage in its evolution to the 
finished product. 





Comparison of Fire Power of Leading German, British and U.S. Fighters ( l ) 




Country 


Type 


Armament 


Rounds per 
Minute 


Lb. per 
Minute 


Duration 
of Fire 


British 

German 


Spitfire I 

Me. 109 E 


8 x .303 in.m.g 

2 x .308 in.m.g( 2 ) 

2 x 20 mm. cannon 


9,600 

is}».»» 
88} w» 

2 ' 400 1 3 300 
900/ d ' dUU 

14,400 

2,400 

120] 
1,500 6,420 

4,800) 


240 
300/ 360 

3} ™ 

225/ 285 

380 

600 


— 




Spitfire V 

Me. 109 F.I 


— 


British 

German 


4 x .303 in.m.g 

2 x 20 mm. cannon 

2 x .308 in.m.g.( 2 ) 

1 x 20 mm. Mauser Cannon 

12 x .303 in.m.g 

4 x 20 mm. cannon 

1 x 37 mm. cannon ( 3 ) 

2 x .50 in.m.g 

4 x .30 in.m.g 


2 x /i mins. 
30 sees. 


British 

British 

U.S 


Hurricane II B 

Hurricane II C 

.4 iracobra 


13 " 
15 sees. 






22 " 
50 " 



(') The figures are based on the following rates of fire: .303 in. machine guns, 1,200 rounds per minute, weighing 40 rounds per lb.; 20 mm. 
cannon, 600 rounds per minute, weighing 4 rounds per lb.; 20 mm. Mauser cannon, 900 rounds per minute, weighing 4 rounds per lbs.; 37 mm. 
cannon, 120 rounds per minute; .50 in. machine gun, 750 rounds per minute. The weights of the projectiles of the two latter (U.S.) guns are not 
known. 

( 2 ) Interrupted. Firing through airscrew disk. 

( 3 ) Airacobras supplied to the R.A.F. are fitted with a 20 mm., in place of the 37 mm., cannon. 



72 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SHIPYARD PRODUCTION METHODS 

HOWARD JOHNSON, m.i.n.a. (London), m.e.i.c. 
General Manager, Midland Shipyards Limited, Midland, Ont. 

Paper presented before the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, on January 8th, 1942 



SUMMARY — An outline of building operations for steel vessels, 
giving the proper sequence of erection phases in order to obtain 
a maximum output. Charts are used to illustrate the progress 
of the work and to determine and correct the causes of delay. 

Prime Minister Churchill has stated that the key to 
winning the war is ships and still more ships. 

The lay mind has little knowledge of the tremendous 
effort necessary to accomplish the building of the great 
number of vessels required. Obviously no more ships can 
be brought into service than those which can be supplied 
with the essential equipment to run them. Looking at a 
modern standard specification, such as that of a 10,000- 
ton deadweight cargo vessel, we may well reconsider our 
attitude towards the battles of the Atlantic and Pacific 
and redouble our efforts in the face of such complexity. 

Plant Layout 

The importance of shipyard layout and lifting and 
handling equipment cannot be overstressed. When it is 
considered that the general cargo vessel of, say, 10,000 
tons deadweight requires about 3,000 tons of steel to 
build the hull, the necessity of careful layout is apparent. 
As the costs of labour rise, more careful planning must 
be applied to the mechanical handling of this steel from 
the freight car, through the various operations, until it 
becomes part of the structure. Transport must be re- 
duced to a minimum from punch and welding sheds to 
erection at ship. 

To attain rapidity of erection on the berth, in recent 
years, great improvements have been made in cranage 
facilities. Formerly the old " sling pole " was the prime 
means of lifting; today, tower cranes, jib revolvers, gan- 
tries and lattice racking and slewing derricks are in use 
according to the layout of plant, type and size of ship to 
be built; economical, mechanical power supplanting man- 
power and so speeding up erection. The wood staging, 
generally shutting out the layman's view of a ship until 
she is almost ready for launching, is now largely super- 
seded by steel uprights on special bases, quickly adjust- 
able to breadths of various ships. Assuming that sup- 
plies are available to pre-fabricate large portions of the 
vessel, ample storage space near the berths is very im- 
portant so that the number and travel of lifts is a 
minimum. 

If pre-assembly work is well organized, two efficient 
cranes are capable of easily erecting the entire hull of the 
present standard cargo vessel in under 14 ordinary work- 
ing weeks whilst, at the same time, liberally serving 
adjacent berths. It is essential, too, that ample road area 
be arranged to feed the erection cranes. Experience has 
actually shown that in some yards an improved output 
can be attained by reducing the number of berths but 
arranging better access roads and lifting facilities. 

In laying out a new shipyard the method of estimating 
the amount of heavy equipment required is not difficult. 
Having surveyed the available site and decided on the 
largest type of ship to be built, the launching frontage or 
waterfront is measured and the number of berths settled. 
Given reasonably skilled labour and technique, it is mere 
arithmetic to arrive at the annual potential output for all 
complete hulls and the plant and equipment necessary to 
feed these berths. Balance between production, equipment 
and berth facilities is essential; this implies an intimate 
knowledge of the output capacity of every machine. 

In earlier shipbuilding most of the heavy, external 



transport was provided by steam locomotive cranes whilst 
the lighter materials were hauled by manual power on 
small bogies or trucks, the ground being graded but un- 
treated. To-day there is a growing tendency towards the 
use of concrete over the site and on the berths, while rub- 
ber-tired motor cranes and low trucks are in use for all 
general transport. No matter what means of transport is 
employed, the modern shipyard has adopted the factory 
principle of routing. That is to say, from receipt of steel 
from the mills until its erection in the ship, the layout 
should be such that materials pass along a straight-line 
route through the various machines to the berths. The 
best exponents of such methods have been the Dutch, 
although yards in other countries are developing along 
similar lines: the increasing use of electric welding has 
helped in this connection. 

The advance of shipbuilding has developed in three 
general stages. 

(a) Elimination of manual labour in haulage and 
erection, 

(b) Elimination of skilled labour by the extension of 
the use of moulds, and, 

(c) Elimination of unskilled labour through the use 
of improved tools and appliances. 

There is also the tendency to build specific types of 
vessels in particular yards, rather than for each firm to 
develop its plant to cope with every class of ship. The 
economical advantages of such a development are obvious, 
as a different layout, from balance-sheet considerations — 
the acid test of efficiency — is required for the building 
of passenger vessels from that needed for merchant ves- 
sels. 

Planning 

Attention can now be focussed on the processes of pro- 
duction. Under to-day's conditions, when builders need 
not haunt ship-owners' offices and when repeat orders are 
flowing fairly freely, even though in a somewhat jerky 
manner, from Government departments, every one will 




Fig. 1 — Typical 10,000-ton deadweight cargo vessel just 
launched. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



73 



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Fig. 2 — Master chart or programme. 

agree that shipbuilding can, and indeed must, be sys- 
tematically planned and intensively organized to obtain 
those results essential to the winning of our oceanic 
battles. 

The facts of the war at sea should be prominently 
displayed on every vacant space in all shipyards, supply- 
fields, and allied spheres; for only those who have, in 
some manner or other, been in direct contact with that 
war, either on the high seas or in the repair yards, have 
any real conception of its intensity. 

The author will try to sketch the procedure in planning 
and building typical 10,000-ton cargo vessels, assuming 
that all drawings are available and orders forthcoming as 
berths become vacated. A ship of this type is shown in 
Fig. 1. 

A shipyard to be capable of building such ocean-going 
vessels efficiently must have the necessary equipment to 
process materials within reasonable time. For this size 
of ship, 20 weeks on the berth, from laying of keel to the 
launch, is a fair period for building; five weeks after the 
launch she should be on trial trip, and then ready to take 
her place at the loading berth to await convoy. 

We shall assume this is a four-berth shipyard. The 
first sheet prepared is the Master Chart, shown in Fig. 2. 
commonly known as the Programme. On this is marked 
a period roughly equal to five months or 20 working 
weeks. As yet no dates are inserted: for the purchasing 
department is hard at work contacting the various sup- 
ply controllers, steel mills, and priority experts in an en- 
deavour to secure a smooth and ample supply of steel. 

It is essential that the technical staff should be familiar 
with the sequence of works operations and the time oc- 
cupied on key operations, such as frame bending, pre- 
fabricating bulkheads and other large parts of the hull 
structure. If this planned series is not understood, con- 
siderable time-lag and much disorder can arise in the 
works because these operations form the basis on which 
steel must be ordered for mass-production methods to be 
in any way effective. A chart is drawn up indicating the 
groupings of steel for various operations ensuring that 
each section shall be complete with all its attachments. 

Standard instructions must be issued to the mould loft, 
as well as to each department, indicating the entire sys- 
tem of erection, so that moulds and templates will be 
prepared in correct sequence in parallel with speed of 
production in the shops. 

As the drawings are, in the main, already available a 
large amount of the mould loft work will be completed 
ahead of steel deliveries. Should there be any prospect of 
this loft work not being in advance, overtime or other 
means should be worked to avoid the expense of slowing 
down production. 



When the date for steel deliveries is decided, the time 
required to manufacture the frames and floors over half- 
length amidships is added: this fixes the date of laying 
the keel; processing of keel, centre girder and bottom 
shell takes about the same time as the framing for the 
half length amidships. 

As regards questions of production, not finance, it is 
a waste of process time to lay the keel before sufficient 
material is prepared to ensure continuity in erection. 
Once erection starts this should be a continuous process, 
each step tying-up the preceding one in correct sequence. 

The same process by which the date of laying the keel 
was decided is repeated for each berth until the pro- 
gramme is filled and all berths occupied; dates are then 
inserted on the programme. Simply by adding 20 weeks 
to the keel dates the approximate launch dates are estab- 
lished for the first four vessels. The period of 20 weeks 
is hypothetical and will vary in relation to the layout. 
These dates might not be final, and might have to be 
modified when the erection chart is drawn up. 

Even greater co-operation will be given by the mills 
regarding deliveries of steel, when the multiplicity of 
shapes used in the vessels are grouped into as few sizes 
as possible and ordered en bloc. The same applies to steel 
plates. The erection programme, however, must not be 
forgotten in the interests of bulk tonnage delivered; se- 
quence is essential: a point regularly overlooked by the 
inexperienced. 

The purchasing department will be working at high 
pressure ordering the thousand-and-one items called for 
by the specification. Remember, we are working to a 
production schedule; every part of a ship has immediate 
relationship to some other, therefore the outfitting bears 
closely on the hull. The purchasing agent must have 
before him a complete list of items to be fitted, on which 
the required dates for delivery are clearly shown. 

As the buying market to-day is exceedingly limited, 
price is for the time being of secondary importance to 
that of delivery. It has often been a practice of purchas- 
ing agents to plan their delivery requirements on the basis 
of so many weeks after laying of keel. Modern methods 
of construction, however, leave that method open to 
question. For instance, many fittings for various piping 
systems throughout the vessel are now fitted direct to 
bulkheads during welding or riveting on the fabricating 
skids of these parts of the structure, even before the keel 
is laid. Rather than relating deliveries to one particular 
part of the hull such as the keel, it is preferable to relate 
them to the method of production. To think in terms 
that this, that, or the other will not be needed until after 
the launch is definitely wrong. There is only one time 
for fitting anything — that time is the moment the hull, 
or any portion of the hull is sufficiently far advanced to 
receive it. For instance, the steering engine cannot be 
bedded until the quadrant is fitted, but telemotor piping 
can be fitted, except for small ends, as soon as the upper 
deck is riveted or welded. The object is to have every 
department working as early as possible on the ship and 
so avoid, on the day of delivery, that all too common 
sight of profane humanity unable to extricate itself. 

Processing 
The output of every machine in the punch shed must 
be accurately determined. Before any particular job is 
commenced, all material for that job should be located 
and placed so that it can proceed without interruption 
until ready for assembly at the riveting or welding skids. 
Finished material should not be allowed to lie in the shed 
but immediately removed to the skids. Only in this way 
can the humps and hollows of labour curves be smoothed 
out. In cases where all the material for a particular job 
is not available, the job should still proceed unobstructed 
on its path to the ship. Temporary parts can be fitted to 



74 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



facilitate erection. The non-delivery- of apparently insig- 
nificant items can do more than any other factor to break- 
down erection output. 

Some parts of the structure require longer periods to 
manufacture or assemble than others, and care must be 
taken so that these are advanced and available at their 
appropriate erection time. 

It is often found that congestion arises at certain ma- 
chines, such as plate edge-planing machines, counter- 
sinkers and scarphers. There are many ways of over- 
coming this, either by working shifts or adopting alter- 
natives; but the best way is to make an independent 
programme for that particular machine and observe the 
results. It is surprising how often unnecessary work is 
applied, and how often an operator puts through material 
without any relation whatever to sequence. As a result, 
urgently required materials are buried under piles of steel 
not at present needed. Weak links in the production 
chain must be carefully nursed, but deviations from pro- 
gramme should not be countenanced without previous 
adequate discussion. 

Of great importance is the disposition of the machines 
in the shops. A brief survey of the route of materials, 
from stockyard through the shops to the skids, frequent- 
ly reveals a most erratic course; from the skids to the 
ship may be similar to going from Montreal to Vancouver 
via Cape Horn. A study of the problem and redisposi- 
tion of, perhaps, one or two machines in the first case, or 
the removal of some small obstacles from the path on 
leaving the skids in the second instance, will be found to 
pay handsome dividends by way of easier flow. 

Considering the movement, lifting and transporting of 
these 3,000 tons of steel, for every ship through all its 
processes, it will be agreed that correct routing saves 
tremendous time and expense. The ideal is to reduce rout- 
ing to a straight line path from stockyard to ship, with a 
minimum of transit pauses. 

Erection 

We have seen how the programme was drawn up with 
provisional keel-laying and launching dates inserted. 
The Erection Chart is now needed. (See Fig. 3). 




Fig. 3 — Erection chart. 

This is an elaboration of the programme chart, based 
on the assumption that the required periods for various 
operations are known, from either previous data or ex- 
perience. A midship section and perspective of the hull 
of a cargo ship is given in Fig. 4, and indicates various 
parts of the structure. 

In planning anything, there is a tendency to over- 
elaboration. It is easy to become bogged in detail. The 
erection chart has 12 key periods and in practice these 




wnwcorma 



PERSPECTIVE - VIEW AM10SHIP5. 
Fig. 4 — Midship section and perspective of hull. 

have been found to cover all the needs of erection plan- 
ning in the building of ten-thousand-tonners as well as 
almost all other types of ocean-going vessels. 

No. 1 Erect Keel to Margin Bars Riveted. This period 
covers the erection of keel, centre girders, floors, side 
girders, bottom developed shell, tank margins, outside 
and inside margin lugs and margin bars, also the amid- 
ships part of tank top. 

It is recommended that all riveting or welding work 
on margins be kept well in advance before erection of 
frames is commenced. 

No. 2 Erect Tank Top. This covers all tank top other 
than between the engine and boiler room bulkheads. 

No. S Erect Frames, Bulkheads and Forcings. By forg- 
ings is meant stem bar and stern frame whether cast, 
forged, or fabricated. Bulkheads include shaft tunnel, 
centre line, and transverse and bunker bulkheads, also 
pillars up to lower deck. Frames cover all frames 
throughout between forgings. 

No. 4 Lower Deck, Hatches and Casings. Lower deck 
covers entire deck plating, beams, hatch-end beams, 
deck girders and doubling plates. Hatches represent 
coamings, lugs, and bridles. Casings include casing 
trunk, coal shoots and saddle backs, from the lower 
deck to the casing top. 

Tween deck centre-line bulkheads and pillars are also 
within this group. 

No. 5 Shell Stern and Bulwarks embraces every shell 
plate, developed or lifted, (except bottom shell laid 
with the keel,) including stern plating and bulwarks. 

No. 6 Upper Deck, Hatches and Deck Houses covers 
beams, deck plating and doublings. Hatches includes 
all coaming around deck openings complete with stays 
and stiffeners. Deck houses covers officers', engineers' 
and other deck houses, also navigating bridges. 

No. 7 Tank Testing includes all hydraulically tested 
tanks; double bottom, deep tanks, peak tanks and 
hosing of the shell. 

No. 8 Wood Decks and Accommodation Soles. To-day, 
wood decks and soles are disappearing in favour of 
patent compositions or linos. This implies all deck 
coverings. 

No. 9 Joiners on Ship. Under this section comes the 
period from joiners commencing until accommodation 
is ready for soft furnishings. 

No. 10 Lining Up to Propeller Fitted. This covers time 
from first sighting the boss until the cone and nut are 
fitted. Sea valves and openings must be finished dur- 
ing the same period. 

No. 11 Launch Way to Launch is the period required to 
set up the launch-ways and launch the vessel. 

No. 12 Launch to Trial Trip. By this is implied hand- 
ing over the vessel. 

In shipyards where several types and sizes of vessels 
follow one another on the same berths, similar charts are 
used: but, naturally, the periods for each operation will 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



75 




Fig. 5 — Tank top showing centre strake, margin and floors. 

differ according to the amount of work involved. Under 
these conditions it then becomes necessary to draw up a 
cross-sectional chart of any one operation for all vessels. 
This is simply to a base of weeks, as in the erection 
chart, on which is laid down the period of, say, the shell 
erection for each vessel. At a glance it is seen, well in 
advance, whether a particular operation is going to be 
applied to too many ships at the same time. The yard 
may not possess the capacity for swelling plant and 
labour to meet the increased load. At once this would 
indicate the need for a spreading out of the programme 
or preparations put in hand to install equipment in time 
to forestall trouble. To cross-check is a wise precaution, 
even when the type is standardized, so that operations are 
nicely balanced. Peaks in the labour curve are thus 
avoided at times when labour is frequently difficult to 
obtain. 

The cross-sectional method should be tested on any of 
the jobs where it is felt that weakness may exist and the 
programme and erection chart immediately amended if 
real benefits of planning are to be forthcoming. 

We can now expand a few points on these twelve stages 
of the erection chart. 

Item 1. For approximately four weeks prior to laying 
the keel the punch shed and riveting skids should be hard 
at work on all double bottom steel. Centre girder, floors, 
bottom and reverse frames should be assembled and 
riveted; developed keel and bottom shell will be coming 
through together with tank margins. During this time 
the centre-line of keel will be sighted on the berth and 
keel and bilge blocks in course of preparation for the date 
of laying keel. As these items are completed, they are 
transported and placed as near to the berth as practic- 
able, ready for erection. Where it is necessary to stack 
finished and partially fabricated materials, they must be 
placed in correct sequence. Stacks should never be built 
to the height when top-weight can distort buried portions 
or when the stack is then liable to slip. 

On the planned date, work is commenced on erecting 
the keel and centre girder. It is not advisable, in multi- 
berth yards, to commence erection before fixed dates for 
keel, as this quickly puts cranage out of balance and 
foremen have the tendency to throw men on a job before 
it is absolutely necessary. This will be clearly shown 
on the labour chart, mentioned later. 

The bottom shell is next laid, and then follows the 
erection of floors, tank-end floors and girders. These floors 
are then faired up and all longitudinal girders immedi- 
ately put in place and thoroughly screwed up. The tank 
top centre strake is then fitted, tying up the floors and 
correcting them to their true distances on each side of 
the centre girder. The tank margins over the vessel's flat 
amidships are now erected and loosely bolted. All the 
amidships tank top, between the engine and boiler room 
bulkheads is then laid and tested. This is usually all de- 
veloped plating and the purpose of erecting only the 



amidships portion is to be certain of the plating meeting 
and fitting squarely across the ship from margin plate to 
margin plate. Actually this process is the first principle 
of fairing the structure. Any previous fairing is but ten- 
tative. Should discrepancies be found, such as the floors 
lying on a slightly diagonal line across the centre line of 
the vessels, and this is by no means as unusual as one 
would imagine, the work has not proceeded too far to 
render corrections costly. When it is clear that the amid- 
ship tank top plates are fitting, from bilge to bilge, 
squarely to the centre girder, they are thoroughly bolted 
up, the margins secured and run out to meet the fore and 
after peak bulkheads. The tank top (see Item 2) can now 
be laid throughout the vessel. While this is being done 
all foundation bars for centre line bulkheads, bulkheads 
and bulkhead stiffener brackets, shaft tunnel, shaft stools, 
auxiliary and boiler seats, etc., are at once laid down in 
preparation for the next stage in erection. The margin 
plates and bars are riveted or welded, commencing always 
amidships and working from this point towards the ends 
as soon as possible after the amidship tank top is squared. 
The tank margin bar, if riveted, is caulked immediately 
on the heels of the riveters and carried straight through 
to conclusion. 

Item 2. This item covers all the tank top except the 
amidship fairing belt. It should be spread and riveted or 
welded up as early as possible to prevent dirt, moisture 
and other foreign matter from accumulating on the bot- 
tom shell on which riveting has not yet commenced. Once 
the amidship belt has been faired, there is no valid ob- 
jection to riveting the bottom shell in the vicinity, even 
before or at the same time as the tank top. But in no 
case should the shell bottom be riveted before the tank 
top above it is squared, because skeleton floors, unless 
carefully watched, are at times out of alignment, causing 
bad rivet holes in either the tank top or the shell. (See 
Fig. 5.) 

Item 3. When the stacks of pre-assembled material for 
the double bottom dwindle, or sooner if ground is avail- 
able, the bulkheads and centre-line bulkheads should be 
making their appearance, pre-assembled. to be stacked 
in two piles; one pile with the after peak bulkhead at the 
bottom, covered by the after-main and engine room bulk- 
head; the other having the fore peak bulkhead at the bot- 
tom followed by the fore main and boiler room bulkheads. 
It may, however, be possible to lay each bulkhead op- 
posite its appropriate place in the ship. In between these 
stacks the side bunker bulkheads are placed. During this 
time riveters should be at work on the skids, riveting 
beam knees and frame brackets to the side frames as- 
sembled there. As soon as a reasonable number are 
riveted they are collected and laid in correct sequence 
alongside the berth, port and starboard. 

Now the gunwale staging should be up and the gun- 
wale ribband resting on it, awaiting the frames. Erection 
of the shaft tunnel can commence as soon as the founda- 
tion bars are riveted and caulked. (See Fig. 6.) 

The first frame to be erected is that forming the 
boundary bar of the boiler room bulkhead and is erected 
together with that bulkhead. Immediately following this 
is the centre line bulkhead connecting with it. This done, 
the two portions will stand rigid without additional sup- 
port. The process is repeated with the engine room bulk- 
head and its related portion of centre-line bulkhead above 
the thrust recess already erected with the tunnel. 

Side bunker bulkheads are now dropped into place and 
bolted up. These will also act as further supports to, and 
assist in, the truing up of the boiler room bulkheads. When 
this is completed the erection of the side frames com- 
mences. At this stage, tie wires are run fore and aft from 
the boiler room bulkhead frame and side shores are ap- 
plied, so that the bulkhead is trued up, plumb and square. 



76 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Fig. 6 — After end of vessel showing tank top, frames and shaft 
tunnel being erected. 

The gunwale ribband is at once attached to the bulkhead 
frame. From this point develops all subsequent fairing. 
The side frames erection proceeds, but a halt is called 
at the forward hatch, the end of the after main hatch 
and at the after beam of the cross bunker hatch. The 
reason for this will soon be evident. When these frames 
are reached, all beams and half beams over this area are 
erected together with the appropriate deck girders and 
Item No. 4 on the erection chart commences. 

Attention might be called, at this stage, to the fact 
that no operation actually stops; subsequent operations 
merely overlap their predecessors. Emphasis, however, 
must be laid on the reasons underlying each stage in the 
operations. It will be understood, too, that the execution 
of each operation so far described will be proceeding for 
both ends of the ship at the same time. A very important 
point is to be certain the next operation follows at the 
critical moment, so as to ensure fairness in the whole; 
and, furthermore, to be confident that pre-fabricated 
structures, developed in the mould loft, will fit accurately 
in their appointed places. Ships have an unfortunate 
habit of creeping and spreading, particularly in a down- 
hill direction. 

Item 4- It has been noted that the developed tank 
top is used to square the tank margins athwartships and 
to keep true relationship with the centre girder. The 
lower deck plating is now used for the same purpose in 
relation to the centre line bulkheads and the two main 
amidship transverse bulkheads. Between the two hatch- 
end beams above mentioned, the whole of the deck area is 
covered in and all casing sides and deck girders thorough- 
ly faired up and squared, casing trunks being tested by 
diagonals in case of distortion. A good precaution at this 
stage is to shore up both casing and hatch corners one 
inch high. These corners are notorious for sagging before 
they are riveted. By so shoring, a lot of heartbreaking 
later work is avoided. Before the deck and its attach- 
ments are finally bolted up for welding or riveting, Item 
No. 5 commences. 

Item 5. The developed shell plating, from lower deck 
gunwale to bottom shell, is next completely erected be- 
tween, and overlapping, the engine and boiler room bulk- 
heads. Checked and squared, this acts, in the vertical 
plane, in precisely the same manner as do the horizontal 
planes at tank top and deck. 

There is now a complete, boxlike form, like the middle 
cut of a salmon, which is true and fair in every way. 
It is now safe to proceed with the previous items to con- 
clusion as the fairing and checking act almost automatic- 
ally onwards from this stage. The great advantage of this 
amidships fairing is that both ends of the ship proceed 
simultaneously. At all stages of erection great attention 
must be paid to a thorough shoring of the vessel. The in- 
creasing weight of the top structure, during erection, tends 



to sag the frames, beams and bulkheads, until they are 
sufficiently strengthened to resist by riveting the con- 
nections. It is unpleasant to see that some lugs and 
brackets, which should have fitted, must be burned off 
and discarded because of inadequate shoring. The usual 
practice merely to put two holes in the beam knees and 
drill the remainder is not necessary if this attention to 
shoring is given. Should the material, moulded from the 
loft, fail to fit in place, some flaw is evident in the yard 
method. These faults can be eliminated. 

Item 6. A point not yet mentioned is the advantage of 
attaching the 'tween deck frames to the main frames 
before erection. This saves double cranage and further 
allows the work of erecting the upper deck to proceed as 
soon as Item 4 is sufficiently advanced to permit of it. 
Work on the upper deck follows the same pattern as laid 
down in Item 4 for the lower deck. When the centre line 
bulkheads, if fitted, are in place, the beams are dropped 
into position followed by the deck girders and deck plat- 
ing over the amidships area. 

Where no 'tween deck centre line bulkheads are fitted, 
the centre line deck runners, with their pillars, are erected. 
In this case, the beams are erected first and supported 
by longitudinal planking shored just off the centre line 
to allow for easy runner and pillar erection. After the 
amidship squaring is completed, the deck forward and 
aft is run out and hatch coamings, deck houses, and so 
on are forthwith placed. It should be noted that on both 
decks, as in the case of the tank top, foundation bars for 
all further erection should be laid immediately, from 
loft moulds, and riveted or welded together with the 
decks. It is, perhaps, difficult to establish this as standard 
practice; but the effort is worth making, if only for the 
purpose of reducing the number of odd rivets to be clean- 
ed up and, more important, to prevent men having to 
come back on unfinished jobs. The greatest advantage, 
however, is that deck house erection can immediately 
commence as soon as the amidship belt is squared. 

Item 7. Tank testing, on ships of the type under dis- 
cussion, generally commences about the time the running 
of the upper deck plating is almost completed. Under this 
system the first tank generally is that under the engine 
room. This is natural, because in this vicinity the tank 
top is part of the amidship fairing process and so will be 
first completed. Often there is some difficulty in getting 
the small work around the auxiliary seats and side bunk- 
ers cleaned up; but if a tank testing chart is prepared, 
indicating the sequence of testing, this tardiness can be 
overcome. Most firms already adopt this as standard. It 
is an advantage also, if machinists have the supplies, to 
have all fittings connected to the tank top in place before 
the test. Ballast suctions passing through tank ends 
should also, by this time, be in place. Indeed double 
bottom suctions should be inserted while the floors are 
being erected. It might seem that tank testing could begin 
much earlier than the time indicated. It is suggested that, 
if the situation is carefully surveyed, no useful purpose is 
served by an earlier start. This method of construction 
allows of one tank being caulked as the next is being filled, 
in simple progression until the ship has been fully tested. 
Furthermore a smaller number of caulkers are in continu- 
ous working attendance from start to finish. 

It is imperative that the fitters give early and adequate 
attention to the after peak tank. Frequently, accommoda- 
tion and steering gear are directly above this tank and 
delay in testing, arising from small omissions, can have 
serious results on the launch and even on final delivery. 
Another point concerning the after peak is discussed 
under Item 10. 

Item 8. As little of the joiner, electrical, piping, and 
other work around accommodation can commence before 
wood or patent decks are laid, this is the touchstone to 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



77 



releasing a great deal of work. The advantage of laying 
foundation bars for deck houses with the deck plating 
will now be observed in relation to the laying of wood 
decks. Where 6 x 3 in. foundation bars are used, it is 
frequently possible, during dry spells, to commence lay- 
ing accommodation soles before the deck houses are 
erected, for deck house plating, being of light material, is 
often delayed in delivery. 

Item 9. This item needs no further elaboration than to 
say that charting it indicates a given time in which steel- 
work, in way of accommodation, is to be well advanced 
and painted before joiners commence. Sidelights must 
also be fitted as soon as the steel is erected. 

Item 10. Experience over many ships has demonstrated 
the advantage of boring out the stern frame for fitting the 
stern tube before the boss plates are fitted. Probably 
there are many who will disagree; but the advantage lies 
in having light and access directly on both sides of the 
boss. Boring-out can commence as soon as the stern 
frame is adequately attached to the structure to prevent 
subsequent movement. The tube should, if possible, be 
fitted before the after peak test but this is not important 
if to do so delays the test. Nor is it a serious or expensive 
matter to pump up the after peak and test the tube when 
the ship is afloat. A little judgment .has to be exercised 




Fig. 7 — Ready for launching. 

at this stage in relation to the available time before 
launching. As the shipping of the rudder stock can take 
place only after the peak test, — unless the after peak is 
designed to suit — the question as to which operation, bor- 
ing out or testing, should take precedence is often debat- 
able. Only the particular circumstances can decide this. 
In any case, whatever result deliberation may bring, the 
time necessary to strip the after end staging should not 
be forgotten. 

Item 11. This period of launch-ways to launch will 
vary in most yards, but three weeks is more than ample 
to avoid overtime, except for one tide before the launch. 
Figure 7 shows the ship ready for launching. 

Item 12. From the launch to the trial trip is probably 
the worst period in the building of a ship. This is when 



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Fig. 8 — Labour chart. 

all concerned would swear that a conspiracy existed to 
prevent the ship from sailing. In the middle of cleaning 
up the thousand-and-one items the dock trial takes place, 
bringing to light various minor omissions. Just as this 
atmosphere is lifting, the crew arrives whose officers im- 
mediately demand every thing to be re-arranged. After 
each is supplied with some unspecified personal comfort, 
they accept the ship, though always retaining a feeling 
that she is not quite as good as the one just left! It is 
good policy to have a list prepared of the various jobs 
connected with dock trials, trial trips and such items as 
derrick and lifeboat tests. Attention to details can then 
be given well in advance. 

General 

Should a break down occur during erection, or delay 
arise resulting in an undue extension of any allowed 
period, the erection chart must be scrutinized and cross- 
checked to see the effect of the stoppage on the pro- 
gramme. Steps must then be taken to restore the posi- 
tion and make any necessary amendments. 

If the delay cannot be retrieved, departments concern- 
ed, and also suppliers, should be informed at once of the 
new dates. Suppliers will be grateful that a little of the 
pressure on them is relieved. By early advice, confidence 
and goodwill is established. Departments may not be 
quite so grateful but at least they know where they stand 
and are in a position, in ample time, to make amendments 
to their plans. 

Labour Chart 

This chart (shown in Fig. 8) is a fairly sound indica- 
tion of the disposition of the men employed on the vari- 
ous ships when used in conjunction with the erection 
chart. It is not uncommon in shipyards to find one vessel 
receiving more than its allotted share of attention. By 
the time this is discovered, overtime will be probably 
required on some other vessel to restore balance. The 
simplest method of establishing the contour of the curve 
is by closely following its application to a particular ves- 
sel which is known to have held smoothly to programme. 
Each yard will, of course, have its own specific contour. 
Yard facilities have great influence over it. The sketch 
shown is for only one ship; an estimated curve of labour 
required can be laid down for any ship at any time by 
lifting the dates of various operations from the erection 
chart and superimposing the outline of the labour curve 
over the new base line. 

All charts, of course, should have this weekly base 
registering the same day of the week. 

The curve for each ship is started as soon as labour is 
employed on the contract, the time office entering the 
weekly totals. Squared paper should be long enough to 



78 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



cover a two-year programme allowing comparisons to be 
made at a glance. 

It is astonishing how, immediately following launches, 
or some other psychological date, wholesale migrations 
of labour develop; they should be carefully guarded 
against and checked in good time. 

The curve shown is an actual curve of a standard ves- 
sel similar to those under discussion, built in a four-berth 
yard with all berths full. 

Riveting Chart: Progress 

As a means of measuring progress from keel to launch 
the author would strongly recommend a Riveting Chart, 
like that shown in Fig. 9. Many shipyards use it. It is 
simple and remarkably accurate for vessels the structure 
of which is largely riveted. An estimate is made of the 
total number of rivets in the ship. The cumulative total 
of rivets driven each week is then calculated as a per- 
centage of the total number to be driven and entered op- 
posite its date. 

The curve has a fairly regular contour and, once es- 
tablished for a particular ship, can be used by marking 
its dotted contour on the chart for the new vessel over 
the appropriate period of time she will be on the berth. 
As the work proceeds a full line is drawn in. Generally 
the full line should coincide with the dotted one. If un- 



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Fig. 9 — Riveting chart. 

usual circumstances arise, causing a marked deviation 
from its path, this would call for an investigation at once. 
Either totals have been miscalculated or a serious break- 
down has occurred in the plant. Steps should be taken 
by introducing overtime, double banking or otherwise to 
bring the curve back to normal. If such a deviation oc- 
curs it is useful to scrutinize the labour chart for the 
same period. On most occasions it has been found that 
some of the birds had flown south; one of those labour 
migrations had taken place. This is easily rectified. 

Supply 

In these days when the supply field stands aloof from 
the pathetic appeals of shipyards and where government 
departments control much of the manufacturing pro- 
grammes, perhaps it will be pertinent to suggest that too 
many people are guessing at what they can deliver. This 
applies equally to shipbuilders. 

Output should never be based on either guesses or 
hopes. In times like these, output estimates should be 
based, in the first instance, on the established capacity of 
the plant, after taking into consideration factors such as 




Fig. 10 — The ship leaves the ways. 

available labour, and then acting on those estimates. Pro- 
grammes of consumption based on facts project the true 
picture on which the supply field can be properly or- 
ganized; similarly if suppliers also would simply state 
the facts, consumers in their turn would know the basis 
on which to plan. 

Once it is established that a firm can and does act up 
to its promises, every assistance should be given to that 
firm, whether they are suppliers or consumers, so that 
their organization already functioning well under difficul- 
ties, can have some of those difficulties eased by way of 
encouragement. With such assistance firms can intensify 
their production at less cost to the country. Properly 
planned effort is essential to winning the war. 

Consumers who give comprehensive, detailed and ac- 
curate forecasts of their requirements immediately on 
receipt of contracts are helping the supply field to or- 
ganize. But the vicious practice of demanding deliveries 
well in advance of requirements, in the hope that they 
may mature somewhere near the mark, merely causes 
chaos. Nothing is more demoralizing to planned effort 
than to be kept dangling at the end of false promises. 

When talking of mass production of ships, we must 
think in terms of every component part; not merely of 
hulls and propelling machinery. Successful accomplish- 
ment of large scale production depends on an adequate 
survey of the supply field and an intimate knowledge of 
consumption, capacity and requirements. Programmes, 
to be real, must be based, in the first instance, on the 
worst feature of the field. Attention must then be focused 
on that feature until the bottleneck is broadened and 
removed. Although acceleration is the aim, balance must 
always be borne in mind. Wherever improvement ap- 
pears in any particular field, at once steps should be 
taken to swell all others to that same high level. 

Conclusion 

It has been necessary to omit many details of both or- 
ganization and method; the author would plead the vast- 
ness of the subject and the few leisure hours left to a 
shipbuilder to-day. The points put forward will arouse 
interest; test them out in practice. The adoption of these 
methods has served well in recent years — to-day the need 
is paramount. 

The shipbuilding resources of the Axis Powers are 
tremendous; their organization superb. Few with know- 
ledge doubt their efficiency or unity of purpose. By this 
we must measure the magnitude of our task. Shipping in 
the Pacific can now no longer await a decision in the 
Atlantic Ocean; this is a two-ocean war; the conflict is 
world wide. To imagine we are doing our best is idle and 
dangerous; efforts must be doubled, intensified. 

Effort itself is not enough. Effort applied and directed; 
that alone can bring victory. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



79 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1941 

TOGETHER WITH COMMITTEE AND BRANCH REPORTS 



Another year of war has come and gone, and through 
it all The Institute has continued to function in all its 
departments. Emphasis has been placed on certain activ- 
ities and others have been allowed to subside, but on the 
whole it has been a year of greater activity. Increases 
in membership, and a substantial financial statement in- 
dicate that even under the disturbed conditions of to-day 
the engineers still look on The Institute as a vital part of 
the life of Canada, and an integral part of the war effort. 

Members in all parts of the world are taking a leading 
part in the prosecution of the war. Information coming to 
Headquarters shows such persons in the active service 
units in Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Australia, 
Libya, and almost every part of the Empire that is men- 
tioned in the despatches, and in the countries of our allies 
as well. When the time comes that it can all be told, our 
members will be shown to have written brilliant pages in 
the book of history, adding lustre to themselves and to 
their profession. 

The participation of members in civilian war activity 
is also great. The lists of personnel in almost all those 
departments of government which are most concerned 
with the war are full of the names of members. This is 
particularly true of the Department of Munitions and 
Supply, which operates under the competent guidance of 
the Hon. C. D. Howe, hon. m.e.i.c. In private industry, as 
well, members are found in positions of executive control, 
down to the more modest but yet important places filled 
by Students and Juniors. It is certainly an engineers' war 
and surely a vital activity of The Institute. 

Branch Activities 

From the branch reports which accompany this Report 
of Council and from the information which is reported 
regularly to Headquarters it is apparent that the branches 
have carried out a programme which compares favourably 
with their activities of previous years. Some branches 
have had an influx of new members or of old members 
transferred from other branches due to war activities. 
This interchange of members has brought new interests 
and even though these members all return to their normal 
locations after the war the branches will have bene- 
fitted from the development. The experience of the Ot- 
tawa Branch is particularly noticeable. With the tre- 
mendous increase in the government staff and in the active 
service units the branch has experienced increased attend- 
ance at all meetings. There have been also many visitors 
from other countries who are members of sister societies. 

Visits to Branches 

The president visited the branches in all the zones, 
although unfortunately he could not attend meetings at 
all branches. In view of the importance of the president's 
position on the National Research Council The Institute 
is fortunate in having had him visit seventeen different 
branches, including Halifax and Vancouver. Necessarily, 
the trips have been hurried as it was not possible for him 
to be absent from his office for any great period of time. 

On all trips he was accompanied by other officers of 
The Institute. On the trip to the Maritimes he was ac- 
companied by Vice-President K. M. Cameron, Past- 
President J. B. Challies, Councillor J. A. Vance, R. L. 
Dobbin, G. A. Gaherty, and the general secretary. On 
his western trip he was accompanied part of the way by 
Vice-President Cameron and the general secretary. 

The general secretary made 16 branch visits. 



Council Meetings 

During the year Council held eleven meetings, six of 
them being regional meetings held at branches. This 
makes a new record for meetings held away from Head- 
quarters. The attendance, including guests, was as fol- 
lows: Hamilton (40) and (24), Toronto (34), Saint John 
(23), Kingston (26), Quebec (26). It is apparent that 
regional meetings contribute a great deal to the activities 
of the branches, and at the same time increase the interest 
in Council. 

Finances 

It is a pleasure to record another successful year from 
the point of view of the Finance Committee. A substantial 
increase in revenue has made it possible to meet a large 
part of the costs of repairing the Headquarters premises 
and still show a satisfactory balance. 

The steady increase in membership and the continued 
success of The Journal explain the increase in revenue. 
The Finance Committee had expected some loss of income 
by virtue of the remission of fees of members on active 
service overseas and other members resident in combatant 
areas. It is gratifying to know that even with this loss 
of income the net result is an increase. 

Once again, the amount collected for arrears of fees 
is surprisingly great. This has been an important factor 
in the year's financing. The figures are shown on the 
accompanying statement. 

Repairs to Headquarters Premises 

The necessity of underpinning the main portion of the 
Headquarters premises resulted in an extraordinary ex- 
penditure of $10,000.00. To meet this expense Past-Presi- 
dent Hogg and President Mackenzie sent out a joint 
appeal to all branches for contributions. This has re- 
sulted in the collection of over $8,000.00. The branches 
are all to be congratulated on the splendid manner in 
which they took up the appeal. It is encouraging to know 
that such excellent support can be obtained from the 
membership from coast to coast. The work of the Mont- 
real Branch should be noted particularly. Under the 
stimulus of the chairman, R. E. Heartz, the committee 
collected $6,000.00. 

Annual Meeting 

All those who attended the 1941 annual meeting at 
Hamilton carry very pleasant recollections of that func- 
tion. It is doubtful if a more enjoyable meeting has 
ever been experienced. The Hamilton Branch arranged 
everything in great detail and extended a very heartfelt 
welcome to all who came from out-of-town. There were 
some unusual social features which added much to the 
success, and the attendance at the professional sessions 
was extremely encouraging. 

The method of financing the meeting was particularly 
gratifying to Council. It is a long time since an annual 
meeting has been carried out with so little expense to 
Council. 

By-law Changes 

A new edition of the booklet describing the charter and 
by-laws was issued in June of this year. There have been 
some changes in the wording and in the arrangement of 
the by-laws but no changes in the by-laws themselves. A 
new index has also been established and several matters 
cleared up which were somewhat confusing in the previous 
edition. The preparation of the booklet and the re- 



80 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



arrangement of the contents involved a great deal of 
work. This was very ably carried out by Secretary 
Emeritus R. J. Durley. 

Co-operation 

Negotiations between the two branches of The Institute 
and the Association of Professional Engineers in New 
Brunswick resulted in an almost unanimous approval of 
the proposed co-operative agreement. As a consequence 
the agreement will come into effect at the first of January, 
1942. The preliminary canvas indicates that joint mem- 
bership will be applied for by the great majority of 
engineers. 

This makes four provinces in which The Institute has 
a co-operative agreement with the Association. In the 
three provinces where co-operation has already been in 
force, very satisfactory results have been obtained. Offi- 
cers of the associations and of the branches have reported 
themselves as well satisfied. It is expected that the same 
results will be obtained in New Brunswick, and it is hoped 
that a continuation of negotiations may result in similar 
agreements being adopted in other provinces. 

The adoption of the agreement in New Brunswick re- 
quires members of the Association to pay a much higher 
fee for the joint membership. Previously they have en- 
joyed extremely modest dues. It is gratifying to see the 
agreement accepted by such a splendid majority in spite 
of this increased financial obligation. The officers of the 
Association are to be congratulated on the splendid man- 
ner in which they have guarded the interests of their 
members and at the same time promoted the advance- 
ment of co-operation within the profession. 

The principal point of contact between The Institute 
and sister societies in Canada continues to be the Wartime 
Bureau of Technical Personnel. Such joint efforts do 
much towards pointing out the common interests and 
provide opportunities for better understanding of each 
other's problems and ambitions. The Institute is very 
pleased to work closely with these bodies and hopes for 
an ever increasing activity in such things. 

International Relations 

The splendid co-operative relationships which have 
always existed between The Institute and sister societies 
in other parts of the world have continued. There has 
been a substantial exchange of correspondence with the 
British organizations and arrangements have been com- 
pleted whereby their members who are in Canada on war 
work are given the privileges of The Engineering Institute, 
and whereby members of The Institute who are in the 
Old Country may make use of the British institutions 
without fee. 

The officers and members of the American societies 
continue to be most helpful and cordial. It is a real 
pleasure and an inspiration to know that these societies 
are interested in our progress and are willing to con- 
tribute to it in whatever manner we may require. The 
presence of officers of these organizations at our annual 
meeting is a source of great pleasure. Frequently, officers 
of The Institute attend the American societies' meetings, 
and it is through such contacts that the excellent relation- 
ships continued to expand. 

Beyond a doubt the advent of war in the United States 
will bring about a further development in the co-operative 
relationships with these American societies. Ever since 
the outbreak of war in 1939 the engineers of the United 
States have expressed sympathy and support for the ideals 
of their fellow engineers in Canada. It will be a source 
of much satisfaction and gratification to Canadian 
engineers to work side by side with their friends south 
of the border. 



Engineers' Council for Professional Development 

1941 marked the first full year of The Institute's parti- 
cipation in the activities of this Council. It has demon- 
strated the value of such affiliation and has indicated 
further channels through which The Institute may assist 
the profession. 

At the annual meeting held in New York in October 
The Institute's representatives on E.C.P.D. were in at- 
tendance in full strength. In addition, President Mac- 
kenzie and Past-President Cleveland, of Vancouver, were 
in the group. 

The plans of E.C.P.D. are comprehensive and will have 
an important bearing on the welfare of engineers both 
in Canada and in the United States. The membership of 
E.C.P.D. consists of — American Society of Civil Engin- 
eers, American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineers, The American Society of Mechanical Engin- 
eers, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, The 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, 
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, National 
Council of State Boards of Engineering Examiners, The 
Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel 

The Bureau is being operated by The Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada, The Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy, The Canadian Institute of Chemistry, and 
the eight provincial associations of professional engineers. 
The head office is at Ottawa. The object is to locate all 
technical personnel in Canada so that the war activities 
of the government and of industry may be assisted. 

Forty-eight thousand questionnaires have been circu- 
lated, and from the completed forms a very elaborate 
filing system has been established so that engineers of 
any particular classification or experience can be found 
without delay. The records indicate not only a person's 
qualifications but his availability for war work. From 
this information it has been possible to obtain for war 
work several hundreds of persons who were not previously 
so engaged. The demands upon the Bureau are increas- 
ing but with the records practically complete and the 
staff now thoroughly experienced it is possible to locate 
the required persons in a minimum of time. 

Hundreds of industries, departments of government, 
and the active service forces have used the Bureau's fac- 
ilities. The wisdom of such a system is being proven every 
day, and it is expected that the facilities of the Bureau 
will be more and more in demand for the duration. 

The Institute's interests in this development are that 
the general secretary has been loaned to the Bureau to 
act in the capacity of assistant director, and that many 
members throughout the country have used the Bureau 
either to secure engineers or to find more suitable work 
for themselves. Beyond a doubt the Bureau renders a real 
service to the entire profession and The Institute is well 
justified in supporting it. 

Band Instruments for the Royal Canadian Engineers 

During the course of the annual meeting at Hamilton, 
a collection was made to raise a sum of money as a con- 
tribution towards the purchase of band instruments for 
the Royal Canadian Engineers at Petawawa. An amount 
of $160.00 was raised and transmitted to Lieut.-Colonel 
J. P. Richards, Officer Commanding. A grateful acknowl- 
edgment has been received, accompanied by an invitation 
for members of The Institute to visit the camp any time 
that they might be in the locality. 

Christmas Cards 

On account of the additional activities brought about 
by the war, Council decided to discontinue for the year 
the practice of issuing Institute Christmas cards. In pre- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



81 



vious years these have been distributed up to a quantity 
of over two thousand. Special greetings were sent by 
mail and cable to the officers of sister societies in different 
parts of the world. 

Roll of The Institute 

The membership of all classes now totals 5,373, which 
appears to be the highest figure ever attained in The In- 
stitute's history. This number does not include new mem- 
bers who will come into The Institute at the first of 
January, 1942, by reason of the New Brunswick co- 
operative agreement. New names added to the roll for 
the year 1941 amounted to 451, but deaths, resignations 
and removals reduce the net figure to a gain of 253. This 
new figure will be very gratifying to all members of The 
Institute, particularly when it is understood that the 
number of members in arrears of fees is smaller now than 
it has been for many years. Special efforts were made to 
collect arrears, and the Finance Committee has taken a 
firm stand with those members who have failed to keep 
reasonably up to date. Consequently, the figure repre- 
senting to-day's membership is indicative of a healthy 
condition. 

During the year 1941, four hundred and thirty-nine 
candidates were elected to various grades in The Institute. 
These were classified as follows: One hundred and twenty- 
three Members; thirty -three Juniors; two hundred and 
seventy-one Students, and twelve Affiliates. The elections 
during the year 1940 totalled four hundred and thirty-six. 

Transfers from one grade to another were as follows: 
Junior to Member, twenty-eight; Student to Member, 
twenty-eight; Student to Junior, seventy-one; Affiliate to 
Junior, one, a total of one hundred and twenty-eight. 

The names of those elected or transferred are published 
in The Journal each month immediately following the 
election. 

Removals From The Roll 

There have been removed from the roll during the year 
1941, for non-payment of dues and by resignation, 
seventy-one Members; eighteen Juniors; sixty-six Stu- 
dents, and two Affiliates, a total of one hundred and fifty- 
seven. Twelve reinstatements were effected and sixteen 
Life Memberships were granted. 

Deceased Members 

During the year 1941 the deaths of forty-one members 
of The Institute have been reported as follows: 

Members 



Adams, Francis Porter 
Bishop, William Israel 
Blanchard, Joseph Elie 
Bloomfield, James Munro 
Brandon, Edgar Thomas John 
Coke-Hill, Lionel 
Cook, Archibald Sinclair 
Cross, Frederick George 
Dawson, Alexander Scott 
DuCane, Charles George 
Fripp, Frederick Bowles 
Gray, John Hamilton 
Harry, Wilmot Earl 
Hawley, George Prince 
Hill, Edgar Murray MacCheyne 
Holt, Sir Herbert Samuel 
Johnstone, William Morrison 
Kipp, Theodore 
Lamoureux, Joseph Arthur 



Lumbers, William Cooper 

Mitchell, Charles Hamilton 

Moloney, James Grant 

Morrison, John William 

Perrin, Vincent 

Philip, Patrick 

Phillips, George 

O'Reilly, Francis Joseph 

Ramsay, Robert 

Sandwell, Percy 

Silliman, Justus Mitchell 

Sinclair, Malcolm 

Stewart, William Lewis Reford 

Sullivan, William Henry 

Uniacke, Robert Fitzgerald 

Vermette, Joseph A. 

Wieir, James 

Wright, Athol Choate 



Total Membership 

The membership of The Institute as at December 31st, 
1941, totals five thousand, three hundred and seventy- 
three. The corresponding number for the year 1940 was 
five thousand, one hundred and twenty. 

1940 

Honorary Members 15 

Members 3,465 

Juniors 588 

Students 985 

Affiliates 67 

5,120 
1941 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 3,560 

Juniors 638 

Students 1,084 

Affiliates 75 



5,373 



Benny, Walter Robert 

Lalonde, A. Gaston 
MoClung, Joseph Eldon 
Murray, Robert Leslie 



Junior 

Students 



Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council, 

C. J. Mackenzie, m.e.i.c, President, 

L. Austin Wright, m.e.i.c, General Secretary. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

The President and Council: 

It gives me great satisfaction to report that in spite of 
the heavy expenditures for repairs to the Institute build- 
ing, the Financial Statement again shows an improve- 
ment over the preceding year. 

The contributions made towards the repairs undertaken 
have permitted to show an increase of $1,771.99 in the 
surplus account. 

Investments are shown at cost, which is $1,006.49 less 
than the present market value. 

In spite of this condition, it is urged that all possible 
means should be exercised to conserve the resources of 
the Institute. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John Stadler, m.e.i.c, Treasurer. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The auditors' report of the finances of The Engineering 
Institute shows that they are in sound condition. 

There is a surplus of $1,771.99, after allocating $3,120.05 
to building repairs. The repairs to the building cost $10,- 
441.63 towards which special subscriptions were raised by 
the branches, amounting to $7,321.60 (on December 31st 
last, with more coming) , leaving a balance to be made up 
from general funds of $3,120.05. 

The Finance Committee takes the opportunity of con- 
gratulating the Montreal Branch which has subscribed 
more than $6,000. to this fund. 

The report has been drawn up in the usual manner, 
with the exception that the land and buildings of the 
Institute were carried in the auditors' statement, at cost, 
which is $91,495.22. As this amount is in excess of the 
true value, the land and buildings are henceforth carried 
at their assessed value by the City of Montreal, which 
is $36,000, and the balance of the cost, or $55,495.22, is 
written off as depreciation. This will have the effect of 
very substantially decreasing the surplus account which 
stood before this change at $110,459.44. The surplus ac- 



82 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



count now stands at $54,964.22, an amount very much 
closer to its true value. 

Respectfully submitted, 

deGaspe Beaubien, m.e.i. c, Chairman. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The principal duty of your Committee is, of course, 
the supervision of the publication of the Journal, and 
while no major changes have been made in policy or in 
arrangement of it, a number of problems have been pres- 
ented to us. 

Several members have sent in suggestions for changes, 
and to them we wish to express our appreciation, as the 
criticisms have all been of a constructive nature. If we 
have not complied with their requests, it is because a can- 
vass of other members has indicated that no change, or 
an alternative change, was desirable. 

There has, at times, been a scarcity of good papers foi- 
publication, but we feel that the standard has been well 
maintained. Occasionally, papers are presented of such 
length that, if printed in the Journal, they would increase 
the cost too greatly. For this reason we have at times had 
to ask authors to abbreviate their articles, and in other 
instances have had to decline the paper. 

One large paper of outstanding merit is that by S. R. 
Banks, on the Lion's Gate Bridge, and it has been decided 
to publish it in full. Fortunately, this work divides itself 
quite readily into three sections, and it will shortly be 
published in three successive issues of the Journal. For 
this paper Mr. Banks has been awarded the Gzowski 
medal. 

One of the duties of this Committee is, in conjunction 
with the general secretary, to approve all publications is- 
sued in the Institute's name. Consequently, Mr. Bennett's 
Committee submitted the manuscript for the new book- 
let " The Profession of Engineering in Canada ", and the 
committee spent considerable time in a careful study of 
it. The Committee has felt that as this is one of the most 
important publications ever issued by the Institute par- 
ticular care should be taken in the preparation of the 
material. Mr. Bennett and his Committee have complet- 
ed a tremendous task and their work should be of con- 
siderable benefit to prospective students of engineering 
throughout Canada. The Committee hopes that its com- 
ments and suggestions have been of some assistance to 
Mr. Bennett. 

We again wish to thank those who have offered sug- 
gestions for improvement of the Journal, and we hope 
members will continue to take an active interest in this 
publication. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. McLeod, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PAPERS COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

During the year the activities of the Papers Committee 
have not been as extensive as desired. Owing to the pres- 
sure of war it has been difficult for engineers to find time 
to arrange an itinerary to visit and speak at branch meet- 
ings. However, the branch programmes have been great- 
ly assisted by the visit of the president who was often 
accompanied by past-presidents, vice-presidents, the gen- 
eral secretary and other officers of The Institute. 

The increased number of regional meetings of Council 
and the more frequent visits of officers and members at 
other branches is a good development in The Institute. 
It stimulates the branch activities and promotes greater 
co-operation among all engineers. 



Co-operation between branches is steadily improving. 
This has proved to be a benefit in arranging programmes. 
Notices of meetings indicate that where a branch has a 
particularly good meeting, the speaker is soon found 
addressing another branch. 

There is increasing evidence of the desirability of Head- 
quarters becoming a clearing house for papers and films 
to a greater extent. When a good film is secured and the 
branches advised, there is a demand for its showing at 
branch meetings. 

In this connection, the film showing the Tacoma Bridge 
Disaster has helped considerably in completing pro- 
grammes for branch meetings. The film has been routed 
from Halifax to Victoria; in several branches special 
meetings had been arranged and the showing accompanied 
by commentaries from a member specialized in bridge 
engineering. The film was also shown in most of the en- 
gineering colleges under the auspices of the local branches. 

The unanimous satisfaction expressed by those who 
have had the opportunity of seeing the Tacoma Bridge 
film indicates that it was well worth the small disburse- 
ment made for its purchase. 

Through the courtesy of the University of Manitoba 
it has been possible to borrow another film entitled, 
" Photoelastic Stress Analysis." It has already been 
shown to some of the branches and it is expected that 
the others will be given the same opportunity. 

There is a broad field for this committee in assisting 

the branches with papers and films. Some assistance can 

be given by officers and members by taking every oppor- 

tunty to attend meetings of their own and other branches. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James A. Vance, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON THE TRAINING AND WELFARE 
OF THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

The President and Council: 

Subsequent to the submission of the last annual report 
as published on pages 69 and 70 of the February, 1941, 
Journal, five members of the committee, Messrs. Heartz, 
Ellis, Macdonald, Legget and the chairman, together with 
Mr. Murray, representing Mr. R. M. Smith, met at 
Hamilton to review the work of the committee and to 
determine the future activities. 

The committee discussed pre-college training and en- 
trance requirements, student selection and guidance, 
engineering curricula, scholarships, summer employment 
for engineering students, extra-mural studies and branch 
activities for younger members. 

It was decided to ask authority of Council to proceed 
with the publication of a brochure on student guidance 
as the first extensive activity of the committee and to 
supplement this with a pamphlet on counselling for dis- 
tribution to The Institute branches. This was approved 
by Council. 

A draft of the proposed brochure was distributed to 
the committee members and to the members of Council 
in the early summer of 1941, and after much correspond- 
ence and discussion it was finally approved by Council 
and is now in the hands of the printers. It is hoped that 
distribution to all secondary schools in Canada will be 
made during February and March, 1942. 

When this brochure is distributed, each branch will be 
asked to co-operate by naming a Student Counselling 
Committee so that all secondary schools in Canada may 
have the benefit of the advice of practicing engineers in 
the matter of student guidance. 

During the year we have maintained close contact 
with the several committees of the E.C.P.D., and we value 
very highly the opportunities offered to meet with their 
members and to discuss our common problems. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1912 



83 



We have noted the increased interest in the younger 
members by our several branches, and we hope to be able 
to stimulate this interest by the distribution of information 
covering the several fields of activity of this committee. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Harry F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LIBRARY AND HOUSE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee carried on with the same membership 
as last year because of the major repairs to headquarters 
building which had been recommended and authorized. It 
was agreed by Council that a separate Library Committee 
would be appointed this year to study the requirements 
and possibilities of establishing the library on a satis- 
factory and adequate basis, in keeping with the status of 
The Institute. The unique opportunity of a fresh start 
had been presented by the elimination of a tremendous 



accumulation of obsolete files and records due to the 
building renovation. 

Unfortunately pressure of other activities has prevented 
Council from taking the necessary steps to provide the 
proper support for such a committee, and no appointment 
was made. It is the strong recommendation of your chair- 
man, voicing the opinion, previously expressed, of the 
committee, that action be taken as soon as possible. 

Tabulated below is a summary of the accessions to 
the library in the past year together with the number of 
requests for information received by the librarian: 

Accessions (for the most part Reports, etc.) 440 

Books Borrowed 234 

Bibliographies prepared (a total of 66 pages) ... 24 

Photostats furnished (a total of 70 pages) 6 

Requests for information 1 ,021 

by telephone 413 

by letter 364 

in person 244 

Books presented for review by publishers 44 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 

For the Year Ended 31st December, 1941 

Revenue Expenditure 



Membership Fees: 

Arrears 

Current 

Advance 

Entrance 



1941 

$ 3,557.00 

26,686.75 

569.44 

1,632.00 



1940 

$ 3,332.75 

26,295.10 

505.21 

2,238,00 



32,445.19 32,371.06 



Publications: 

Journal Subscriptions $ 7,698.65 $ 7,495.51 

Journal Sales 36.72 43.88 

Journal Advertising 15,723.32 13,566.35 



Building Expense: 

Propertv and Water Taxes 

Fuel 

Insurance 

Light, Gas and Power 

Caretaker's Wages and Services 

House Expense and Repairs 

Building Repairs— Cost $10,441.63 

Collected 7,321.60 



1941 

$ 1,995.48 
578.68 
154.78 
339.05 
976.00 
385.52 



1940 

$ 2,074.28 
557.28 
120.36 
329.15 
878.00 
35.74 



3,120.03 1,350.00 



$ 7,549.54 $ 5,344.81 



$23,458.69 $21,105.74 Publications: 



Income from Investments. 
Refund of Hall Expense. 
Sundry Revenue 



505.10 
450.00 
102.16 



458.93 

465.00 

66.80 



Journal Salaries and Expense . 

Provincial Sales Tax 

Sundry Printing 



$17,639.26 
357.34 
589.80 



$16,251.63 
231.84 
494.23 



$18,586.40 $16,977.70 




Office Expense: 

Office Salaries $13,825.79 

Postage, Telegraph and Excise 1,290.12 

Telephone 598.55 

Office Supplies and Stationery 1,663.48 

Audit Fees and Legal Expenses 315.00 

Messenger and Express 141.54 

Miscellaneous Expense 449.51 

Depreciation — Furniture 368.63 

$18,652.62 



$12,420.57 

1,296.72 

604.32 

1,557.36 

290.00 

89.59 

430.25 

370.87 

$17,059.68 



Total Revenue for Year 



General Expense: 

Annual and Professional Meetings 764.20 1,284.39 

Meetings of Council 292.57 612.32 

Travelling 785.83 1,693.51 

Branch Stationery 148.90 194.58 

Prizes 350.32 343.21 

Library Expense 1,079.49 999.92 

Bank Exchange 107.48 149.57 

Examinations and Certificates 7.32 8J,4'2 

Committee Expenses 558.02 255.65 

National Construction Council 100.00 50.00 

Sundry 110.07 61.00 

$ 4,289.56 $ 5,559.73 

Rebates to Branches $6,111.03 $6,304.00 

Total Expenditure for Year 55,189.15 51,245.92 

Surplus for Year 1,771.99 3,221.61 

$56,961.14 $54,467.53 



84 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The foregoing figures show that the library continues 
to be of great use to the members and proves one of the 
most valuable services provided by The Institute. 

The removal of the periodicals files in the basement, 
occasioned by the repairs made early in the year, has 
provided an opportunity for establishing a more conven- 
ient classification. This is under way and should be 
completed soon. 

The only activities of your committee during the year 
were connected with the repairs to headquarters. This 
work was fully reported in The Journal, but for purposes 
of this record the following details are repeated. 

The whole of the auditorium section was underpinned 
with concrete piers to hardpan. The work was done by 
A. F. Byers & Company, Limited, at a contract sum after 
calling for competitive bids. The total cost of the repair, 
including minor patching of plaster and redecoration, was 
$10,441.63. The front section of the building was not 
underpinned. It shows signs of post settlement but this 
was not connected with the evidence of current trouble 



in the newer auditorium section built in 1913. It was 
agreed that the front building, an old remodelled residence, 
was not of sufficient value and not of the proper layout 
to warrant the expense of underpinning. 

In studying and carrying out this work Messrs. J. A. 
McCrory and J. A. Lalonde were added to the commit- 
tee because of their experience in construction matters. 

During the year the caretakers' quarters were complete- 
ly redecorated and some repairs made to roof, skylights, 
etc. Hardwood floors were laid in most rooms. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Brian R. Perry, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LEGISLATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

During the year 1941, your committee was not pre- 
sented with any business or problems concerning Institute 
legislation. 

The committee has been ready at all times to be of 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
As at 31st December, 1941 



Assets 






Liabilities 






Current: 




1941 


1940 


Current: 


1941 


1940 


Cash on hand and in bank .... 




$ 826.24 


$ 2,043.18 


Accounts Payable 


$ 2,476.18 


$ 2,321.54 


Accounts Receivable 


$3,425.85 






Rebates to Branches 


479.39 


641.81 


Less: Reserve for Doubtful Ac- 
















126.42 


3,299.43 


2,596.43 


Special Funds: 


$ 2,955.57 


$ 2,963.35 


Arrears of Fees — Estimated .... 




2,500.00 


2,500.00 


As per Statement attached 


13,336.60 


13,682.39 
1,350.00 




Reserve for Building Maintenance 


1,350.00 






$ 6,625.67 


$ 7,139.61 


Surplus Account: 






Special Funds — Investment Account: 






Balance as at 1st January, 






Investments 


$11,760.14 






1941 108,687.45 






Cash in Savings Accounts . . . 


1,876.21 


13,636.35 


13,682.39 


Add: Excess of Revenue over 
Expenditure for the year 






Investments — At Cost: 








as per Statement attach- 






Bonds: 








ed 1,771.99 






Dominion of Canada, 














3%, 1951 


$2,500.00 






$110,459.44 






Dominion of Canada, 








Less: Write down in valuation of 






4H%, 1946 


96.50 






Land and Buildings 55,495.22 






Dominion of Canada, 










54,964.22 


108,687.45 


4H%, 1958 


180.00 












Dominion of Canada, 














4H%, 1959 


4,090.71 












Montreal Tramways, 














5%, 1941 


950.30 












Montreal Tramways, 














5%, 1955 


2,199.00 












Province of Saskatchewan, 














5%, 1959 


502.50 












Shares: 














Canada Permanent Mort- 














gage Corporation, 2 














Shares 


215.00 












Montreal Light, Heat and 














Power Cons. — 40 shares 














N.P.V 


324.50 


$11,058.51 


$ 8,558.51 














(Approximate market value — 














12,065.00). 














Advances to Branches 




100.00 
100.00 


100.00 
100.00 








Deposit — Postmaster 






Prepaid and Deferred Expenses 


275.00 


700.00 












45.00 


45.00 








Library — At cost less depreciation 


1,448.13 


1,448.13 








Furniture and Fixtures — Cost $15,421.84 












Less: Depreciation 


12,104.11 


3,317.73 


3,414.33 








Land and Buildings — Cost .... 


$91,495.22 




91,495.22 








Less: Depreciation 


55,495.22 












Assessed Valuation 




36,000.00 
$72,606.39 : 












$126,683.19 


$72,606.39 


126,683.19 



Audit Certificate 

We have audited the books and vouchers of The Engineering Institute of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1941, and have 
received all the information we required. In our opinion the above Statement of Assets and Liabilities and attached Statement of Revenue and 
Expenditure for 1941 are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the Institute's affairs as at 31st December, 1941, and of 
its operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of our information and the explanations given to us and as shown by the books. 

(Sgd.) Ritchie, Brown & Co., 
Montreal, 13th January, 1942. Chartered Accountants. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



85 



assistance if called upon,, and is very pleased to report 
that no legislative difficulties interrupted the activities of 
The Institute during this time of national emergency. 
Respectfully submitted, 

E. M. Krebser, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND EDUCATION 

The President and Council: 

Your Board of Examiners and Education for the year 
1941 has had prepared and read the following examina- 
tion papers with the results as indicated: 

Number of Number 
Candidates Passing 

I. Elementary Physics and Mechanics . . 2 1 

II. (a) Strength and Elasticity of Ma- 

terials 2 1 

V. (at General Metallurgy 1 1 

V. (b) (1) Metallurgy of Iron and Steel 1 1 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

The President and Council: 

A very comprehensive report was prepared by the 
Committee on Western Water Problems and approved by 
Council February 5, 1941, as set out in minutes 1527 to 
1539, and published in the Journal for May 1941. This 
report was formally and officially submitted to the Rt. 
Hon. W. L. Mackenzie King, Prime Minister, under date 
of April 26, 1941. 

As a result of representations made to the Dominion 
Government by various individuals and organizations, in- 
cluding members of our Committee, the Dominion Gov- 
ernment, by Order-in-Council dated February 17, 1941. 
appointed a committee to be known as The St. Mary and 
Milk River Waters Development Committee, consisting 
of Mr. Victor Meek, M.E.I.C, Controller, Dominion 
Water and Power Bureau; Mr. George Spence, Director. 
Prairie Farm Rehabilitation; and Mr. W. E. Hunter, of 
the Department of Finance. 

This committee is charged with the duty of making a 
thorough study and reporting within a year upon all 
aspects of the proposals that further storage and irriga- 
tion works be built in Canada on the St. Mary and Milk 
rivers. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, 
the committee shall consider the following matters: 

(a) The water supply in Canada's share of inter- 
national streams in Southern Alberta, the water require- 
ments of the presently constructed projects and water 
available for further irrigation development. 

(b) The most feasible plan to put these waters to 
beneficial use, including selection of lands to be irri- 
gated, estimates of cost of storage reservoirs and other 
works required for complete development. 

(c) Construction programme with annual estimated 
expenditure over the period of years required to com- 
plete full development. 

(d) The arrangements necessary with the owners of 
the present irrigation projects and the owners of the 
further lands to be irrigated. 

(e) The benefits which this water development would 
confer on Canada, the province of Alberta and the 
residents of the districts affected. 

(f) The allocation of costs and methods of financing. 

(g) The administrative control to be exercised over 
the projects after completion, including maintenance 
and operation of the works constructed and coloniza- 
tion of the irrigable lands. 

The committee shall not hold public hearings. With 
that limitation, it may invite and receive representations, 



in person or in writing or both, from interested bodies and 
individuals. 

The committee may invite the co-operation of Depart- 
ments of the Canadian Government not represented 
thereon. In particular, the committee shall invite the co- 
operation of the Department of External Affairs in deal- 
ing with international aspects of the proposals. 

The Dominion Government also invited the Govern- 
ment of the Province of Alberta to designate one or more 
persons to work with their committee. The Province com- 
plied with this request by appointing a committee, to be 
known as the Alberta Water Development Committee, 
consisting of Hon. N. E. Tanner, Minister of Lands and 
Mines; Hon. D. B. McMillan, Minister of Agriculture, 
and Mr. P. M. Sauder, M.E.I.C, Director of Water Re- 
sources. 

The two Government committees have held three hear- 
ings in western Canada, lasting from three to five days 
each, at which the western members of the E.I.C Com- 
mittee and Sub-committee, and other members of the 
Institute were present and gave whatever assistance they 
could to the Government committees. On the occasion of 
the inspection of the dam site on the St. Mary river by 
the full membership of the two Government committees, 
on September 21, 1941, the following members of the In- 
stitute Committee and Sub-committee were present: 
Messrs. G. A. Gaherty, Chairman; T. H. Hogg, Past- 
President, E.I.C; S. G. Porter, Past-President. E.I.C; 
A. Griffin; P. M. Sauder; D. W. Hays; H. J. McLean. 

Other members of the Engineering Institute of Canada 
present were: Messrs. B. Russell, Senior Consulting En- 
gineer, P.F.R.A., (Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act) ; W. 
L. Foss, District Engineer, P.F.R.A., in charge of St. 
Mary Surveys; 0. H. Hoover, Officer in Charge, Domin- 
ion Water and Power Bureau, Calgary. 

The members of the Government committee and other 
officials and individuals interested in this problem have 
expressed their appreciation of the very material assist- 
ance that has been rendered by the Institute Committee, 
both through its report and through the advice and help 
given by the individual members of the Institute Commit- 
tee. The Dominion Government Committee now has all 
the data it requires in hand, and is engaged in preparing 
its final report and recommendations to the Government. 

It is recommended that the Committee of the Institute 
be continued for another year in order that it may stand 
by and give whatever other assistance it is able to render 
to the Government Committee. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Committee on 
Western Water Problems. 

G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

The President and Council: 

During the past year an effort has been made by the 
Committee on International Relations to further wherever 
possible the contact of members of The Institute and of 
Canadian engineers generally with the engineers of other 
countries. 

The most formal and extensive of these contacts has 
been through the participation of The Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada in the deliberations of the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development. Several members 
of The Institute who have served on committees of 
E.C.P.D. have attended meetings of their committees in 
the United States, and at the annual meeting of E.C.P.D. 
held in New York City, on October 30, nine Institute 
members, including the president and four past-presidents 
took part in the deliberations. The reception that has been 
accorded the representatives from Canada on these oc- 
casions has been most gratifying and it is evident that 
much benefit in an international sense has flowed from 
their participation. 



86 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Useful international work has been done in showing 
courtesies to refugee engineers and other non-Canadian 
engineers temporarily in Canada. This has been most out- 
standing in connection with members of the Association 
of Polish Engineers in Canada and of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers. At the first meeting of the Toronto 
Branch of The Institute for the season, sixteen Polish 
engineers were the guests of the Branch and one of them 
presented an excellent paper. Thanks to the generosity of 
Council, The Engineering Journal will be sent free of 
charge for the year 1942 to engineers from other countries 
now in Canada on war work. 

Isolated cases of useful international contacts were 
found in the participation of members of The Institute 
in two important annual conventions of American engin- 
eering organizations held in Toronto during the past slim- 
mer. For the summer convention of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, Mr. M. J. McHenry, a 
member of The Institute's Committee on International 
Relations, was the chairman of the Convention Com- 
mittee and The Institute was formally represented by 
Past-President Hogg and by the general secretary. At 
the annual meeting of the American Water Works 
Association, held also in Toronto during the past summer, 
many members of The Institute took part and the chair- 
man of The Institute's Committee on International Rela- 
tions was asked to represent President Mackenzie at 
the banquet. 

Past-President Camsell, another member of the Com- 
mittee has, as a member of the Board of Directors of 
the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical En- 
gineers, been able generally to further international good- 
will and understanding and has taken pains to explain to 
his fellow directors Canada's war activities and our vital 
relationship to Great Britain and to the United States 
in the present crisis. 

On the occasion of the granting of honorary membership 
in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to the 
Honourable C. D. Howe, hon.m.e.i.c, The Institute was 
appropriately represented by Past-President Challies, 
Professor R. W. Angus, hon.m.e.i.c. and by the general 
secretary. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. R. Young, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

In these strenuous times all citizens have assumed more 
work and added duties or are ready to do so. Engineers 
are particularly in the forefront. Their services are so 
much in demand that their efforts must be organized, 
regulated and co-ordinated in order that they may be 
applied in the most effective manner. The very splendid 
part that our Institute has been able to play in this work 
brings a glow of satisfaction and pride to every member. 

With particular reference to membership, however, we 
can note that the record of service and help rendered by 
The Institute impresses other engineers who have not been 
Institute members. They should want and no doubt many 
of them do want to become members of the organization 
in which they can identify themselves with such nation- 
ally helpful activities. 

In wartime there is, of necessity, considerable shifting 
around from place to place. Membership in The Institute 
makes available the facilities of the widespread branches 
throughout Canada. If an engineer finds himself moved 
to United States or England or elsewehre, the benefits 
from Institute membership are more important. A certi- 
ficate of membership in The Institute affords opportunity 
to meet men of the same profession who are members of 
similar organizations in their own land. It is a valuable 
professional introduction. 



These points are mentioned here to remind the mem- 
bership committees of the various branches of the ex- 
pectancy of new memberships at this time. We are being 
afforded opportunities of meeting and being of service to 
many who are not Institute members. Let us point out 
to them the effective work The Institute has been able to 
perform for the war effort and emphasize what services 
The Institute has to offer them. 
Respectfully submitted, 

H. Nolan Macpherson, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON DETERIORATION OF 
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 

The President and Council: 

The Committee on the Deterioration of Concrete has 
been relatively inactive for the past year, due largely to 
the fact that its members are very busy men and under 
present conditions have not been able to devote the usual 
time to its work. Therefore, the Committee can only re- 
port that certain papers recording the success of import- 
ant repairs made to concrete structures, which it had 
hoped to have ready for publication this year, are still in 
preparation and may not become available for some time. 

The Committee is continuing to gather data as circum- 
stances permit and it hopes at a more favourable time to 
place these data before the Institute. 
Respectfully submitted, 

R. B. Young, m.e.i.c., Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

The President and Council: 

The policy of the Council in promoting closer co-opera- 
tion with the provincial professional associations is still 
achieving definite results. As a result of protracted 
negotiations, an agreement between The Institute and 
the Association of Professional Engineers of New Bruns- 
wick has been approved by both bodies. The extraordin- 
arily strong support given in the formal balloting within 
both The Institute and the Association augurs well for a 
mutually satisfactory consummation of the desire of the 
great majority of the members of both organizations resi- 
dent in New Brunswick for a simplification in engineering 
organization that will lead to greater solidarity in the pro- 
fession. This agreement is to be formally completed at the 
Annual Meeting of the Association in Saint John on 
Monday, January 12th, 1942. 

The committee is glad to report that close co-operation 
is being achieved on a mutually satisfactory basis between 
The Institute and the associations in the provinces of 
Saskatchewan, Alberta and Nova Scotia. 

There is nothing definite to report from the province 
of Manitoba apart from a renewed intimation by the 
president and the general secretary when they were in 
Winnipeg in September last that The Institute would be 
glad to discuss a co-operative agreement with the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Manitoba whenever the 
officers of the Association desire it. 

The committee feels that it should again record its 
appreciation of the sympathetic understanding that has 
always existed between The Institute and the Corporation 
of Professional Engineers of Quebec. As for the prov- 
inces of Ontario and British Columbia, the readiness of 
The Institute's committee to discuss co-operation with the 
very efficiently operated registration bodies is well known. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The President and Council: 

The work done during the year is summarized in the 
following table and the corresponding figures for 1940 are 
given for purposes of comparison: 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



87 



1940 1941 

Registered members 129 77 

Registered non-members 89 75 

Number of members advertising for positions 41 14 

Replies received from employers 21 9 

Vacant positions registered 260 229 

Vacancies advertised in The Journal 43 35 

Replies received to advertised positions 143 110 

Men's records forwarded to prospective em- 
ployers 179 302 

Men notified of vacancies 178 306 

Placements definitely known 147 71 

Registered vacancies cancelled 2 10 

Registered vacancies still open 33 31 

Early in the year, the Government established the War- 
time Bureau of Technical Personnel at Ottawa. It will be 
recalled that this Bureau is operated by The Institute and 
other engineering societies. The services of the general 
secretary have been made available by Council to the 
Bureau, in the office of assistant director. 

The activities of The Institute Employment Service 
have been affected greatly by the Bureau in that all in- 
formation relative to openings or men available has been 
sent to the Bureau and frequently subsequent placements 
have resulted from a combination of the efforts of both 
organizations. 

Originally it was hoped the Bureau might establish an 
office in Montreal in which case it was expected that all 
employment activities of The Institute would be trans- 
ferred to it in order to give a better national service to 
all engineers. This still remains a possibility in which The 
Institute will be glad to co-operate. 

The facilities of The Institute and its twenty-five 
branches across the country have been made available to 
the Bureau for the verification of qualifications in the 
case of candidates for important war positions. 

It may be interesting to record an example of close co- 
operation with the Wartime Bureau. Through one of its 
members in England, The Institute received during the 
year an urgent request from the British Ministry of Air- 
craft Production for twenty-five engineers and draughts- 
men. The Institute Employment Service communicated 
immediately with the Wartime Bureau and, with the faci- 
lities of the two organizations, many candidates were 
assembled. When the British representative came from 
England, the candidates from the district of Montreal 
were interviewed at Headquarters and our Employment 
Service files were again of great assistance. 

The figures tabulated above indicate the vacancies 
registered and the placements effected by The Institute 
Employment Service alone; they do not record the work 
done in co-operation with the Wartime Bureau. 

It can be said that no member of The Institute has 
been unemployed for any long period of time during the 
year. As might be expected the demand has been larger 
than the supply. This applies particularly to engineers with 
plant experience in mechanical, electrical and chemical 
engineering. The result is that several civil engineers 
whose previous experience had been mostly in the field 
have entered the plant and are being trained to do 
mechanical or other industrial work. 

The unusual demand from industry and from Govern- 
ment departments has resulted in several retired engineers 
resuming their activity. The Employment Service has 
been able to assist in several such instances. 

It is significant that very few from the graduating 
classes this year have found it necessary to make use of 
the Employment Service. The great majority had already 
secured positions before graduation. On the other hand 
a large number of engineering students have obtained 
summer employment through our facilities. 



The active forces have again this year resorted to our 
files and it has been possible for us to help frequently in 
recruiting technically qualified men for the various units. 

In spite of the numerous vacancies conspicuously ad- 
vertised in the press, we have again this year interviewed 
many applicants for work. These were mostly members 
of The Institute who wanted to make sure that their 
qualifications were used to the best advantage in the war 
effort. Wé have thus been able to help in the transfer of 
several engineers from non-essential industries to im- 
portant war work. Canadians who had been employed 
outside of the country for the past few years have en- 
quired whether their services could be used in the war 
effort and several have returned upon our advice and 
have been placed advantageously. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 

PAST PRESIDENTS' PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee on the Past-Presidents' Prize has 
nothing to report. No papers were received this year, 
and no meetings of the committee have been held. 

The committee awaits with interest the reaction of 
Council to the suggestions regarding a change in procedure 
which were presented by the committee two years ago. 
Respectfully submitted, 

R. DeL. French, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

GZOWSKI MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

It is the unanimous recommendation of your committee 
that the award be made to Mr. S. R. Banks, m.e.i.c, 
for his paper, " The Lion's Gate Bridge, Vancouver, B.C." 

So many excellent papers have been found eligible for 
consideration this year that your committee members 
have found it very difficult to make a choice. 

Among many other papers of outstanding interest may 
be mentioned Mr. J. A. McCrory's paper, " Construction 
of the Hydro-Electric Development at La Tuque "; — Mr. 
F. P. Shearwood's paper, " The Justification and Control 
of the Limit Design Method "; — and the paper by Messrs. 
W. Storrie and A. E. Berry, " Modern Sanitation and 
Water Supply Practice." 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. O. Keay, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

DUGGAN PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee, entrusted with the task of selecting 
and recommending papers worthy of this award, has care- 
fully reviewed the papers presented to The Institute dur- 
ing the period July 1940 to June 1941, and now begs 
to report. 

After a careful review, your committee selected five 
papers which, in its opinion, appeared to meet the condi- 
tions attached to this award. 

Of the papers considered, each could be said to be a 
contribution of distinct value, and certainly worthy of 
consideration for the award. The diversity of subjects 
covered made it rather difficult to set up a standard of 
comparison; and in any case, it was felt by the commit- 
tee that the margin between the different papers was very 
narrow. It was therefore rather gratifying to discover 
that the three members of the committee had, after due 
consideration and without previous consultation, arrived 
at the same decision. 

We recommend that the Duggan Medal and Prize be 
awarded to Mr. O. W. Ellis for his paper " The Forge- 
ability of Metals." 

Respectfully submitted, 

John T. Farmer, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



88 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PLUMMER MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee considers that the papers presented do 
not quite measure up to the standard of previous medal 
papers, and that it would be in order to omit the award 
of the Plummer Medal this year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. F. Harkom, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LEONARD MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee, consisting of Messrs. L. L. Bolton, A. 
E. Cameron, G. E. Cole and V. Dolmage, with myself 
as chairman, recommend that the Leonard Medal for this 
year be awarded to Mr. G. Reuben Yourt for his paper 
called " Ventilation and Dust Control at the Wright- 
Hargreaves Mine," published in the November 1940 issue 
of the Canadian Mining & Metallurgical Bulletin. 

The committee is pleased to give honourable mention 
to Mr. M. F. Goudge for his paper on " Magnesia from 
Canadian Brucite " published in the September 1940 issue 
of the Canadian Mining & Metallurgical Bulletin. 
Respectfully submitted, 

A. D. Campbell, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

The reports of the examiners appointed in the various 
zones to judge the papers submitted for the prizes for 
Students and Juniors of The Institute were submitted to 
Council at its meeting on January 17th, 1942, and the 
following awards were made: 

H. N. Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces). No papers 
received. 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario), to A. L. 
Malby, jr.e.i.c. for his paper " Carrier Current Control 
of Peak Loads." 



Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec— English), 
to G. N. Martin, jr.e.i.c, for his paper " Characteristics 
and Peculiarities of Some Recent Large Power Boilers in 
England." 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec — French), 
to A. T. Monti, s.e.i.c, for his paper " Vedette de 40 Pieds 
de Longueur." 

Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces). No 
papers received. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Chairman: E. P. Muntz. 

Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary F. K. Beach 

Cape Breton J. A. McLeod 

Edmonton W. R. Mount 

Halifax R. L. Dunsmore 

Hamilton A. Love 

Kingston A. Jackson 

Lakehead P. E. Doncaster 

Lethbridge J. M. Davidson 

London V. A. McKillop 

Moncton B. E. Bayne 

Montreal R. DeL. French 

Niagara Peninsula C. G. Moon 

Ottawa J. H. Parkin 

Peterborough W. M. Cruthers 

Quebec A. 0. Dufresne 

Saguenay N. D. Paine 

Saint John J. R. Freeman 

St. Maurice Valley E. B. Wardle 

Saskatchewan R. A. Spencer 

Sault Ste. Marie K. G. Ross 

Toronto W. E. Bonn 

Vancouver J. N. Finlayson 

Victoria S. H. Frame 

Winnipeg H. W. McLeod 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



89 



Abstracts of Reports from Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met eight times during the 
year for the transaction of branch business. 

Eight branch meetings were held including a special 
meeting honouring the visit of our president and the 
annual meeting. 

Information about the various meetings follows, attend- 
ance being given in brackets: 

Jan. 10 — Mr. R. K. Scales of the Ethyl Corporation, Detroit, ad- 
dressed the branch on Fuels and Engines of the Future. 
(35). 

Feb. 14 — Mr. H. Lloyd Johnson, Resident Engineer, Canadian In- 
dustries Limited, addressed the branch on the Warden 
System of Civilian Defence. (27). 

Mar. 14 — Mr. J. A. McCrory, Vice-President and Chief Engineer of 
the Shawinigan Engineering Company, addressed the 
branch on the Power Development of the St. Maurice 
River. (59). 

April 25 — Mr. Cyril Cooper, Manager of the Windsor Elementary 
Flying Training School, addressed the Branch on the 
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. (31). 

May 17 — Dr. N. W. McLeod, of the Imperial Oil Ltd., addressed the 
branch at the Sarnia Riding Club on Soil Technology as 
Applied to Modern Highway and Air port Construc- 
tion. (29). 

Nov. 14 — Mr. D. Ramseyer, Superintendent of the Ford Soy-Bean 
Plant, Dearborn, Michigan, addressed the branch on 
Soy-Beans in Industry. (53). 

Nov. 26 — Special meeting honouring Dean C. J. Mackenzie, our Pres- 
ident, accompanied by Vice-President K. M. Cameron, 
Councillor J. A. Vance and H. F. Bennett, from the 
London Branch. Dr. Mackenzie spoke on the Work of 
the National Research Council. (31). 

Dec. 12 — Annual meeting and election of officers, complimentary 
dinner to F. H. Rester. An address on Recruiting and 
Training Activities of the Air Force was given by 
Flight-Lieutenant Hugh C. Flemming, Commanding 
Officer of the Windsor recruiting station of the Royal 
Canadian Air Force. 

CALGARY BRANCH 

The following report covers the activities of the branch 
for the year 1941. Attendances are shown in brackets: 

Meetings 

16— Soil Mechanics, by Prof. R. M. Hardy. (50). 
30— Seven reels of motion pictures loaned by the U.S. Bureau of 
Mines were shown. These pictures depicted the Manufac- 
ture of Steel. (51). 
13 — Students and Juniors night. Speakers: Mr. Langston, Gun 
Perforation in Oil Wells; Mr. Stanley, Cascade Power 
Project; Mr. Sharp, Motion Picture Projectors. (47). 
Feb. 27— Explosives, by R. W. Watson. (46). 
Mar. 8 — Annual Meeting following luncheon (35). 
April 15— Organization of the R.C.A.F. Civilian Staff, by T. M. 
Moran (38). 
9 — Exploring for Oil by Geophysics, by W. H. Gibson (63). 
23 — Power Plants in Australia, by H. K. Dutcher (58). 
6 — -Aircraft Design, by Flight-Lieutenant W. Thornber (57). 
Nov. 20 — A motion picture was shown by Mr. Davidson and Mr. 
Pettinger of the Alberta Wheat Pool entitled The History 
of Power in Canada (53.) 
Dec. 4 — Business meeting to discuss the proposed new By-laws of 

the Calgary Branch (15). 
Dec. 17 — Showing of coloured scenic pictures by Dr. Pilchard and 
Mr. S. G. Coultis. This was our annual ladies night (81). 

In addition to the above regular meetings, a banquet was 
held on September 26, in honour of Dr. C. J. Mackenzie, 
president of The Institute. 

During the year, the Branch Executive Committee met 
eight times. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 

1941 saw a large increase in the membership of the 
Edmonton Branch, due to the agreement with the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers. 

During the year nine meetings in all were held. All but 
two of these were preceded by a dinner. The following 



Jan. 
Jan. 



Feb. 



Oct. 
Oct. 

Nov 



Note — For Membership and Financial 
Statements see pages 94 and 95. 

summary gives particulars. Attendances are shown in 
brackets : 

Jan. 14 — The Development of the Combustion Chamber of the 
Diesel Engine, by E. A. Hardy, Professor of Agricultural 
Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (40). 

Jan. 27 — Motion picture in seven reels showing the manufacturing 
of steel. Meeting arranged by the Engineering Students 
Society of the University of Alberta. 

Feb. 25 — Arc-welding in Industry, by C. W. Carry, Standard Iron 
Works, Edmonton (40). 

April 1 — Annual ladies night. Entertainment by the Belasco Players 
and showing of a motion picture entitled "Silvercraft" 
(52). 

April 22 — Compressed air — Its application in construction and 
effect on workers, by D. Hutchison, Mackenzie River 
Transport. This was the final meeting of the 1940-41 
session and election of branch officers took place (25). 

Oct. 2 — The visit of the president, Dr. C. J. Mackenzie, coincided 
with the banquet of the Regional Convention of the 
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 
The president of the Engineering Institute was guest- 
speaker at a banquet arranged by the C.I.M. & M. 
Eleven members of the Institute and their wives attended, 
while others were present as members of C.I.M. & M. 

Oct. 29 — The motion picture Tacoma Bridge Failure was shown. 
I. F. Morrison, Professor of Civil Engineering, University 
Of Alberta, lead an interesting discussion. Chrysler Cor- 
poration films were also shown (53). 

Nov. 18 — CKUA New Broadcasting Station, by J. W. Porteous, 
University of Alberta (47). 

Dec. 16 — St. Mary and Milk River Irrigation Development, by 

W. L. Foss, of the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Office (30). 

HALIFAX BRANCH 

The following is a resume of the activities of the branch 

for the past year. 

In spite of the increased burden placed on practically all 

members by the war, we are able to report that all meetings 

have been well attended, and would like to thank the mem- 
bers for their continued interest. 

During the year five dinner meetings were held, as 

follows: 

Feb. 20— Mr. C. D. Harvey, Provincial Archivist, spoke on The 
First Settlers of this Province and their Effect on its 
Future. Also Mr. R. L. Dunsmore gave a brief outline of 
the recent Annual Meeting of the Institute at Hamilton. 
At this meeting Mr. S. W. Gray took over the duties of 
secretary-treasurer of the branch. 

Mar. 20 — Mr. R. L. Dunsmore presented a technicolour talking pic- 
ture, Friction Fighters. At this meeting, Mr. I. P. 
MacNab presented the certificate for the Institute 
Student Prize to Wallace A. MacCallum, of Amherst, 
N.S. 

May 12 — This was the most important meeting of the year, as our 
guests included our President Dean Mackenzie, Vice- 
President K. M. Cameron, General Secretary L. Austin 
Wright, Councillor J. A. Vance, and R. L. Dobbin and 
G. A. Gaherty. The guest speaker of the evening was 
Father Burns, Professor of Philosophy at St. Mary's 
College, whose subject was Social Reconstruction 
after the War. President Mackenzie spoke briefly on the 
contribution being made by engineers to the war work, 
and the fact that their value is recognized, particularly in 
Great Britain. Mr. Wright gave a short talk on, The 
Progress and Problems of the Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel. The Institute film showing the 
collapse of the Tacoma Bridge was the final feature of 
the evening. 

Oct. 23 — Mr. Guina, Assistant General Manager of the Canadian 
Colloid Company, spoke on the subject of Boiler Feed 
Water and its Control. 

Nov. 27 — Mr. M. Walsh, Chief Engineer of the Gunite and Water- 
proofing Company, described the Method of Prestres- 
sing Concrete, and presented a film showing the con- 
struction of large storage tanks by gunite. 

May 22 — Mr. P. A. Lovett presented the Institute Student Prize to 
Harold T. Rose at the Graduation Exercises of the Nova 
Scotia Technical College. 



90 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



During the year the Executive held eleven meetings, at 
which the ordinary routine business was transacted. 

Pactically all matters in connection with the co-oper- 
ation of the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers have been cleared up. 

The membership of our branch since the agreement 
was completed, has increased by 107 members, — only four 
corporate members are not members of the Association. 

The purchase of an $80.00 War Savings Certificate was 
made during the year from monies saved by not having 
any musical entertainment at our Dinner Meetings. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

The branch has continued in the co-operation with allied 
societies by having joint meetings when possible. The 
following is a brief account of meetings and activities 
during the year, attendances being shown in brackets: 

Jan. 6 — Annual Business Meeting and Dinner held at the Rock 
Garden Lodge. Current Events was the subject chosen 
by Colonel Beauchemin, who gave an excellent address 
until being relieved of his disguise when it became evident 
that the imposter was Mr. T. S. Glover, m.e.i.c. Chairman 
Alex. Love closed his term of office and turned the affairs 
of the Branch to the incoming Chairman, W. A. T. 
Gilmour (64). 

Feb. 6 and 

Feb. 7 — The Fifty-fifth Annual General Meeting of the Institute 
re-convened at the Royal Connaught Hotel, Hamilton. 
The Hamilton Branch wishes to thank all of the branches 
for their attendance and support which helped to make 
the meeting an outstanding success. An unusual and en- 
enjoyable feature was the joint dinner (615) with the 
Niagara District Electric Club and the demonstration 
and lecture given by Mr. J. O. Perrine, Assistant Vice- 
President of the American Telegraph and Telephone 
Company. 

Mar. 10 — Aerial Surveying, by Professor K. B. Jackson, held at 
McMaster University (52.) 

Apr. 18 — Electricity in National Defence, by Mr. C. A. Powell, of 
the Westinghouse Company, Pittsburgh, held in the 
Westinghouse Auditorium. This was a joint meeting with 
the Toronto Section of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers (226). 

May 9 — Alcohol from Wheat, by Dr. H. B. Speakman, Director of 
Ontario Research Foundation, Toronto. Held at Mc- 
Master University (36). 

Oct. 2— The 220 Kv. System of the Hydro Electric Power Com- 
mission, by Mr. A. H. Frampton, of the H.E.P.C. of 
Ontario. Held in the Westinghouse Auditorium. This 
was a joint meeting with the Toronto Section of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers (168). 

Nov. 7 — War Production was exemplified during an evening visit 
to the plant of The Dominion Foundries and Steel 
Limited. The tour of inspection was conducted by guides 
under the able direction of Mr. W. D. Lamont, Chief 
Metallurgist. The light supper served in the cafeteria 
after the long tour was thoroughly appreciated by our 
party (65). 

Dec. 16 — Tool Steels for Engineers, by Mr. H. B. Chambers, 
Metallurgist, Atlas Steels Limited, Welland. Held at 
McMaster University (46). During this meeting a quiz 
of ten questions about tool steel was handed out to 
members and guests. Each one checked his neighbour's 
paper while Mr. Chambers gave the correct replies. The 
prize, a current novel, was won by a guest. 
After our meetings at McMaster, it is our general practice to 
serve coffee and sandwiches and enjoy half an hour of 
good fellowship. 

Obituary 
The Branch will miss the kind and genial presence of Mr. 

F. P. Adams, City Engineer of Brantford, who passed away 

during the year after so many years of work in the Institute. 
Publicity 
The Executive wishes to express some appreciation to 

the press, especially The Hamilton Spectator and The Daily 

Commercial News for their generous support. 

General 
The usefulness of the Branch has been greatly enlarged 

by the many courtesies and help given to us by the manage- 
ment of McMaster University and we record, here, our very 

deep appreciation for all these things. 
The Executive Committee held eight business meetings 

with an average attendance of seven. 



KINGSTON BRANCH 

The branch held the following meetings during the year: 

Jan. 30 — Dinner meeting at Queen's Students' Union. Lt.-Col. 
LeRoy F. Grant presented the award of the Institute to 
Mr. James M. Courtright, Science '41, a student at 
Queen's. Mr. M. N. Hay, of the Aluminum Co. of 
Canada Ltd., Kingston, spoke on The Aluminium In- 
dustry of the World. 

Feb. 25 — Meeting held in conjunction with a dinner at Queen's 
Student's Union. The chairman, Mr. T. A. McGinnis, 
presided. The guest speaker was Dr. A. E. Berry, Director 
of the Sanitary Engineering Division of the Ontario 
Department of Health. His subject was The Engineer 
in Public Health. 

Mar. 13 — Joint meeting was held with the Queen's University Engin- 
eering Society to enable a large number of science 
students the opportunity of hearing Mr. Otto Holden, 
Chief Hydraulic Engineer of the Hydro-electric Power 
Commission of Ontario speak on The Ogoki River and 
Long Lake Diversions. 

June 14 — Special dinner meeting was held at the Cataraqui Golf Club 
in honour of the election of Principal Wallace of Queen's 
University to honorary membership in the Institute. 
Many out of town guests were present as the Council 
had been invited to hold a meeting in Kingston to cele- 
brate the occasion. During the afternoon Chairman and 
Mrs. McGinnis entertained at tea. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

The branch held the following meetings during the year: 



Jan. 15- 



-Dinner meeting at the Royal Edward Hotel, in Fort Wil- 
liam. The chairman, Mr. H. G. O'Leary, presided. The 
speaker was Mr. J. I. Carmichael of the Canadian Car 
and Foundry who spole on Some Problems in Aircraft 
Production. 



Feb. 
Mar. 

April 
May 
Aug. 

Sept. 
Oct. 



14 — Annual ladies night was held. This year it took the form of 
a St. Valentine's supper dance in the Norman Room of 
the Royal Edward Hotel. 

20 — Meeting was held in the City Council Chambers in the 
Whalen Building, Port Arthur. The vice-chairman, Mr. 
B. A. Culpeper, presided in the absence of the chairman. 
The speaker was Mr. R. B. Chandler, Manager of the 
Port Arthur Public Utilities Commission, who spoke on 
The Ogoki and Long Lac Diversions. 

23 — Dinner meeting was held at the Royal Edward Hotel, in 
Fort William. The chairman presided. The speaker was 
Mr. R. R. Holmes of the Thunder Bay Paper Co., who 
spoke on The Treatment of Boiler Feedwater. 

21 — Annual dinner meeting was held at the Port Arthur Golf 
and Country Club. The chairman presided and presented 
his report. He welcomed the incoming officers and handed 
over the chairmanship to Mr. B. A. Culpeper. 

16 — Special meeting was called to make an inspection tour of 
Temporary Grain Storage Buildings and conveyor gal- 
leries being constructed for the bulk storage of grain. 
The storage buildings inspected were those being con- 
structed for the United Grain Growers Limited at Port 
Arthur. 

22 — Dinner meeting was held at the Royal Edward Hotel, in 
Fort William. The president, vice-president and general 
secretary were special guests. Dr. Mackenzie spoke on 
The National Research Council in Relationship to 
the War. 

15 — Dinner meeting was held at the Italian Hall, in Port Arthur. 
Five short addresses were given as follows: G. H. Bur- 
bidge, on Lakehead Winds; J. Koreen, Building of a 
Ship; S. T. McCavour, The Trials and Tribulations 
of the Pulp and Paper Industry in Wartime; R. J. 
Prett, Prefabricated Hangars, and H. P. Sisson, Build- 
ing of a Road. 



LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

The regular meetings of the branch were held in the 
Marquis Hotel, on Wednesdays, with refreshments served 
after the meetings, in accordance with the policy decided 
on in the previous year. One meeting, at which the Tacoma 
Bridge film was shown, was held in the Auditorium of the 
Collegiate Institute. 

The following is the list of the meetings held, with the 
speakers and subjects, with attendance shown in brackets: 
Jan. 15 — Mr. J. H. Ross, Director of Y.T. for Alberta, Co-ordination 
of the Youth Training Movement with the Nat- 
ional Defense Movement (29). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



91 



Feb. 5 — Preceded by corporate members meeting. Mr. John 

Dykes, The Life of Robert Burns. (14). 
Mar. 22 — Joint meeting with the Assoc, of Prof. Eng. of Alberta. 

Mayor D. H. Elton, History Repeats Itself. 
Feb. 26— Mr. L. B. George, Div. Master Mech. C.P.R., A Visit to 

an Aeroplane Plant (25). 
Nov. 5 — Subject: Films: 1. Tacoma Bridge Disaster; 2. Crude Oil 

Refining; 3. Crude Oil Production. 

The annual meeting of the branch was held on April 
2nd. 

On May 10, 1941, R. B. McKenzie, jr.E.i.c. was 
appointed secretary-treasurer, E. A. Lawrence having 
volunteered for active service. 

LONDON BRANCH 

During the year 1941, the executive held six business 

meetings. Nine regular and special meetings were held as 

follows. Attendance is given in brackets: 

Jan. 15 — Annual meeting and election of officers held at the Grange 
Tea Rooms, London. The Machinery of Law, by R. E. 
Laidlaw of the Canadian National Railways legal staff 
(56). 

Feb. 19 — Regular meeting held in the Board of Education board 
rooms, City Hall, London. The Analysis of Stresses by 
Polarized Light, by H. C. Boardman of the Chicago 
Bridge & Iron Works (56). 

Mar. 13 — Regular meeting held in the Board of Education board 
rooms, City Hall, London. Power Development on the 
St. Maurice River. J. A. McCrory, Chief Engineer of 
The Shawinigan Engineering Co. (37). 

Apr. 17 — Regular meeting held in the Board of Education board 
rooms, City Hall, London. Junior Engineers Meeting, 
A. L. Furanna, Chief Draftsman Public Utilities Com- 
mission, London, spoke on The 1940 Analysis of Lon- 
don's Low Voltage Network, A. F. Hertel, Engineer, 
Dept. of Public Works, spoke on Some Ways of Winning 
the War. H. G. Stead, Chief Engineer, E. Leonard & 
Sons, spoke on The Development of Power (28). 

May 21 — Regular meeting held in Gettas Tea Rooms, Talbot St., 
St. Thomas. Supper meeting followed by showing of the 
film The Failure of the Tacoma Bridge (40). 

Oct. 1 — Regular meeting held in the Officers' Mess of the Talbot 
St. Armouries, London. Recent Electrical Engineering 
Developments, J. M. Galillee, Assistant Advertising 
Manager of The Candian Westinghouse Co. (70). 

Oct. 29— Regular meeting held in the Drill Hall of the Talbot St. 
Armouries, London. Films depicting various scenes 
of the Present War. (150) 

Nov. 26 — Special luncheon meeting held in the Crystal Ball Room, 
Hotel London, London. Research and War. Dean C. J. 
Mackenzie, President of the Institute. Meeting was 
held in conjunction with the Canadian Club (30). 

Dec. 10 — Regular meeting held at the Hume Cronyn Memorial 
Observatory, University of Western Ontario, London. 
The Planets and Stars, by Prof. Kingston, University 
of Western Ontario. 

Average attendance of all meetings: 50. 

MONCTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held four meetings. Six 
meetings of the branch were held as follows : 

Mar. 18 — A meeting was held in the City Hall. A motion picture 
sound film entitled The Mining, Smelting and Refin- 
ing of Copper-Nickel Ores was shown. 

Apr. 22 — A combined meeting of Monction Branch, and the Engineer- 
ing Society of Mount Allison, was held in the Science 
Building of Mount Allison University, Sackville. C. S. G. 
Rogers, Bridge Engineer, Atlantic Region, Canadian 
National Railways, gave a review of the causes of the 
Tacoma Bridge collapse. Mr. Rogers' remarks were 
illustrated with moving picture film. 

May 14 — A dinner meeting was held at the Riverdale Golf Club, for 
the purpose of meeting the president of the Institute, 
Dean C. J. Mackenzie, Vice-President K. M. Cameron, 
Chairman of the Papers Committee, J. A. Vance, and 
R. L. Dobbin, member of the Legislation Committee. 

May 30 — The annual meeting was held on this date. 

Nov. 28 — A meeting was held in the City Hall. R. M. Phinney, S.B., 
Engineer of Train Operation, General Railway Signal Co., 
Rochester, N.Y., gave an illustrated address on Cen- 
tralized Traffic Control. 

Dec. 1 — A combined meeting of Moncton Branch, and the Engineer- 
ing Society of Mount Allison, was held in the Science 
Building of Mount Allison University, Sackville. R. M. 



Phinney repeated his address on Centralized Traffic 
Control. 

It is with regret that we record the passing of Robert 
Leslie Murray, s.e.i.c, whose death occurred on November 
17th. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

Notwithstanding the difficult conditions imposed by the 
war, the affairs of the branch have been conducted as usual. 
Though engineers and technical men have been unusually 
busy, the attendance has been good, and the interest and 
enthusiasm most encouraging. As in the past, members of 
all committees have given active and efficient support to all 
branch activities. 

The outstanding achievement of the year was the cam- 
paign for funds to effect repairs to the Headquarters build- 
ing of the Institute. The responsibility of contacting the 
membership of the branch was undertaken by the Executive 
Committee who were ably assisted by Past Presidents, 
Councillors and several members of the branch in carrying 
out this important assignment. The splendid result achieved 
speaks for itself, an amount of $6,000 has been collected for 
the fund. 

A special committee was organized to co-operate with the 
Royal Canadian Engineers in finding suitable candidates 
for officers and other ranks. Several meetings were held — 
the initiative now being in the hands of Lt.-Col. P. M. 
Knowles, O.C., R.C.E., Montreal. 

On February 11, through the courtesy of the Rotary 
Club of Montreal, the members were invited to a luncheon 
which was addressed by the Honourable C. D. Howe, 
Hon.M.E.i.c, Minister of Munitions and Supply, who had 
recently returned from England. 

On April 28, l'Association des Anciens Elèves de l'Ecole 
Polytechnique invited all members of the Branch to attend 
a lecture in the new auditorium of l'Ecole Polytechnique on 
The Place of Soil Technology in Modern Highway and 
Airport Construction, by Mr. N. W. McLeod, D.Sc, CE. 

Papers and Meetings Committee 
(Chairman: J. M. Crawford) 
The regular Thursday night meetings have been carried 
on as usual despite the increased tempo of activity in in- 
dustrial and engineering circles. In some cases, however, it 
has not been possible to secure what would have been most 
interesting papers due to the necessary restrictions placed 
upon the publicizing of certain phases of work directly con- 
nected with the war effort. 

Mention is here made of the visit on June 12, to the 
plant of Canadian Vickers Limited. A record crowd of 300 
taxed the well-organized preparations of Vickers, showing 
the keen interest of Institute members in such plant visits. 
Following is a list of the papers delivered during the 
calendar year of 1941, with the attendance shown in 
brackets: 

Jan. 9 — Annual Meeting of the Branch (80). 
Jan. 16 — Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy, by 

George S. Mooney (50). 
Jan. 23 — Diesel Electric Locomotives, by Prof. Louis E. Endsley 

(100). 
Jan. 30 — Annual Branch Smoker (482). 

Feb. 3 — Energy, Frequencies and Noise Relations in Line and 
Amplifiers of Coaxial Cables and Other Multi- 
Channel Telephone Systems, by Dr. J. O. Perrine (100) 
Feb. 13 — Recent Installations of Large Boilers in England, by 

Gerald N. Martin (65). 
Feb. 20 — Development of Transport Mechanization, by R. L. 

Martin (80) 
Feb. 27 — Transmission Line Fault Location, by E. W. Knapp, 

M.E.I.C. (90). 

Mar. 6— Automotive Industry's War Effort, by R. D. Kerby (77) . 
Mar. 13 — Destructive Forces, Damage and Repair, by John 

Dibblee, m.e.i.c. (68). 
Mar. 20 — Departures in Bridge Foundation Construction, by A. 

Sedgwick (125). 
Mar. 27 — Utilization of the Power Resources of the Upper St. 

Maurice River, by E. V. Leipoldt, M.E.I.C. (85). 



92 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



tpril 3 — War Time Communications, by G. L. Long and J. L. 

Clarke (60). 
tpril 17 — Improving Operations in Industrial Plants, by W. T. 

Johnson (95). 
ipril 24 — Soil-Cement Paving, by Roy A. Crysler (75). 
une 12 — Plant Visit — Canadian Vickers Ltd. (300). 
)ct. 2 — Opening meeting — Movie and Refreshments (160). 
)ct. 9 — Modern Power and Distribution Systems in Indus- 
trial Plants, by J. L. McKeever (85). 
>ct. 16 — Control of Operating Costs by Budget, by H. M. Hether- 

ington (55). 
>ct. 23 — The Aluminum Industry Related to our War Effort, 

by A. W. Whitaker, Jr. (190). 
>ct. 30 — Municipal Management and the Engineer, by J. 

Asselin (50). 
vov. 6 — Centralized Traffic Control for Railway Operation, by 

Robert M. Phinney (65). 
lov. 13— Glass in National Defense, by C. J. Phillips (120). 
lov. 20— Annual Student Night (170) 

lov. 27 — Portland-Montreal Pipeline, by W. R. Finney (225). 
)ec. 4— The Trolley Bus, by L. W. Birch (65). 
)ec. 11 — The Chemical Descent of Man, by Robert R. Williams, 

M.S.Sc.D. (125). 

Junior Section 
(Chairman: A. P. Benoit) 
The Junior Section has had another successful year, in 
pite of the fact that the war activities both in the military 
,nd industrial fields, have somewhat impeded its progress, 
^he student engineer and the young engineer are for a good 
iart doing military training in the evenings and have little 
ime to attend meetings as often as they would like. 

As in previous years, the Students' Night, which took 
dace on November 20, was the highlight of the Junior 
lection's activities. Mr. H. A. N. Holland, of McGill 
Jniversity, carried off first prize with a very original paper 
n construction and Mr. R. Quintal, of l'Ecole Polytech- 
lique was awarded second prize for a most interesting talk 
n Geophysical Prospecting. One of the main objects of 
he Junior Section is to interest students in Institute 
ffairs. It has been suggested that students should join the 
nstitute, when registering with their respective univer- 
ities each fall, and this plan will be tried out next year, 
^his year, Mr. R. E. Heartz addressed the McGill Students 
/hile Mr. L. Trudel spoke at l'Ecole Polytechnique. 

The executive of the Junior Section is at present drafting 
, circular letter which will be sent to all students, to invite 
hem to present papers and to take a more active part in 
he Institute's activities and the discussions at the meetings. 
The Junior Section was instrumental in securing a Branch 
'Tews Editor, Mr. Graham Wanless having kindly con- 
ented to assume the duties. 

The following is a list of the Junior Section meetings with 
he attendance given in brackets: 

an. 27 — Annual Meeting — Prof. R. E. Jamieson, m.e.i.c, spoke on 
the Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec 
(40). 
'eb. 10 — Experimental Research on Soil Stabilization, by 

Jacques Hurtibise, jr. e. i.e. (16). 
eb. 24 — Aspect Légal de l'Arpentage, par Gabriel Dorais, Jr. 

E.i.c. (20). 
lar. 17 — Some Aspects and Problems encountered in Television 

Broadcasting by W. B. Morrison, b.a.Sc. (39) 
ilar. 31 — A Simple Explanation of Ship Model Testing, by A. 

Monti, s.E.i.c. (20). 
)ct. 6 — Opening night. Talk by Mr. R. E. Heartz on Policy and 

the Young Engineer (90). 
>ct. 20 — Transformer Troubles, by Pierre Duchastel (21). 
Jov. 20 — Student night. Synthetic Gasoline, by R. M. Rousseau 
(Ecole Polytechnique), First Summer in Construc- 
tion, by H. A. N. Holland (McGill); Geophysical 
Prospecting, by R. Quintal (Ecole Polytechnique); 
Surveying and Mapping in Newfoundland, by M. C. 
Baker (McGill). A motion picture was shown through the 
courtesy of The Canadian General Electric Co. (170). 
)ec. 5— Synthetic Rubbers in War-Time, by J. W. Crosby (80). 
(Joint meeting with Quebec Rubber and Plastics Group 
held at the Faculty Club.) 
)ec. 15 — Engineering Services of the Montreal C.N.R. Ter- 
minal, by Richard Noonan, Jr. e.i.c. (25). 



Membership Committee 
(Chairman: P. E. Savage) 

The Membership Committee this year concentrated its 
efforts on students at McGill Uuiversity and the Ecole 
Polytechnique. This work was done mainly through the 
Junior Section, which carried it out very thoroughly, and 
with gratifying results. 

The second main effort of the Committee was directed at 
non-members who made use of the Institute Employment 
Service. Most of these men who had obtained positions in 
the past two years were canvassed by means of personal 
letters, but with very disappointing results. It was noted 
that most of the men in this group would qualify for 
Affiliate Membership. 

Obituaries 
It is with regret that we record the names of those who 
have died during the year, and we wish to extend to their 
families the most sincere sympathy of the Branch. 

Members 
William Israel Bishop Patrick Philip 

Joseph Elie Blanchard Robert Ramsay 

George Prince Hawley William Lewis Reford Stewart 

Sir Herbert Samuel Holt James Weir 
Joseph Arthur Lamoureux 

Student 
Gaston Lalonde 

Publicity Committee 
(Chairman: Gordon D. Hulme) 

In order to establish and maintain friendly relations with 
the press, representatives of the Montreal newspapers were 
invited to discuss with the Publicity Committee steps 
which should be taken to publicize the Branch's activities 
during the coming season. Three representatives from the 
Gazette, two from the Montreal Daily Star and one from 
La Presse attended a Committee meeting. 

Announcements concerning each Branch function were 
included in the city items of the various papers, at the 
request of the committee. 

On the organization of the Annual General Meeting Com- 
mittee, the Branch publicity committee was invited as a 
group to handle the publicity for that function. The invita- 
tion was accepted and the committee is now operating in 
that capacity as well as continuing the publicizing of items 
of local interest. 

Reception and Entertainment Committee 
(Chairman: W. W. Timmins) 

A smoker was held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel on Thurs- 
day evening, January 31, for which a record number of 545 
tickets were sold. The smoker was organized by Mr. W. P. 
M alone and was intended to create the atmosphere of the 
gay nineties. 

Refreshments were served at the Annual Meetings and 
the opening fall meetings of the Branch and of the Junior 
Section and also at the Student Night. Several courtesy 
dinners were given to out-of-town speakers, but due to small 
attendances the Executive Committee has decided to drop 
this function for the present. Out-of-town guests are to be 
entertained by the sponsors of the papers and any members 
wishing to join are entirely welcome to do so. 

Throughout the world, the Branch is represented in 
various units of the armed forces. We look to our fellow 
members with pride and keep them constantly in our 
thoughts. Our hope is that they may have a safe and speedy 
return. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

The Executive held four business meetings and one 
electoral meeting to conduct the affairs of the branch. 

The programme committee arranged and conducted the 
following professional meetings: 



rHE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



93 









MEMBERSHIP AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 


Branches 


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MEMBERSHIP 

Resident 

Hon. Members 


51 
9 

7 


95 
14 
12 


31 
3 

4 
2 


67 
9 

24 
1 


145 

9 

17 

1 


88 

18 

21 

1 


2 
38 
12 

24 


29 
2 
5 
5 


14 

1 

6 


31 
4 
3 


Members 


Juniors 


Students 


Affiliates 




Total . . 


67 


121 


40 


101 


172 


128 


76 


41 


21 


38 




Non -Resident 

Hon. Members 


18 
9 
4 


15 
4 
5 


24 
9 
3 
1 


7 
1 
4 


71 
4 
9 


17 
1 


8 
2 
5 


18 
4 
5 


23 
4 
9 
1 


9 

2 
1 


Members 


Juniors 


Students 


Affiliates 




Total 


31 


24 


37 


12 


84 


18 


15 


27 


37 


12 




Grand Total December 31st, 1941 

December 31st, 1940 

Branch Affiliates, December 31st, 1941. . . 


98 
97 


145 

128 
39 


77 
70 


113 

83 


256 
233 


146 

151 

17 


91 

73 


68 
64 


58 
40 


50 

54 

1 


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Balance as of December 31st, 1940 

Income 

Rebates from Institute Headquarters . . 

Payments by Professional Assns 

Branch Affiliate Dues 


189.84 
157.12 

184.70 
59.00 


205.83 

262.60 

112.00 
41.31 


241.57 
141.63 


88.61 
207.93 


249.56 

37.20 
469 . 20 

0Ï56 
17.53 

94.15 


180.34 

286.30 

39.00 

53.55 

479.00 


78.63 

109.62 

0^09 


162.87 

150.10 

F77 
390.63 


61.33 

80.30 
7.00 
0.28 

29.00 


260.67 
93.35 


Interest 

Miscellaneous 

Headquarters Building Fund Subscrip- 
tions 


Total Income 


400.82 


415.91 


141.63 


207.93 


618.64 


857.85 


109.71 


542.50 


116.58 


93.35 


Disbursements 

Printing, Notices, Postage ® 

General Meeting Expense © 

Special Meeting Expense® 

Honorarium for Secretary 


45.31 
259.64 

8.00 
59.00 

8'l5 


12.51 

154.48 
39.93 

10.00 
125 . 00 

16^15 

46.86 

113.24 


1.14 


58.29 
22.50 
53.89 
50.00 

8.60 
10.00 

0.12 


109 . 00 

98.74 

62.50 
34.65 
94.35 

60.00 

3.55 

180 . 00 


89.54 

57.64 

129.21 

50.00 
125.15 

2.80 

300 . 00 
3.30 


42.72 
7.75 
45.05 
25.00 
12.55 

15^00 


15.58 
220.43 
218.22 

10.00 

11.00 


5.00 
57.43 

26^00 
0'45 


40.98 
27.52 
15.25 


Stenographic Services 

Headquarters Building Fund 

Travelling Expenses © 

Subscriptions to other organizations . . . 
Subscriptions to The Journal 


1Ï 

2i 

9( 


L00 
L00 

L00 


i 
5^ 


)00 
L00 


Special Expenses 


Miscellaneous 

Professional Assn. Registration Fees. . . 


Total Disbursements 

Surplus or Deficit 


380.10 

20.72 

210.56 


518.17 
102.26 
103.57 


128.14 
1349 


203.40 

4.53 

93.14 


642.79 

24.15 
220.41 


757.64 
100.21 
280.55 


148 . 07 
38.36 
40.27 


475.23 

67.27 

230 . 14 


88.88 
27.70 
89.03 


142.75 
49.40 


Balance as of December 31, 1941 


2bl 


L06 


20Î 


L92 



©Includes general printing, meeting notices, postage, telegraph, telephone and stationery. 

©Includes rental of rooms, lanterns, operators, lantern slides and other expenses. 

©Includes dinners, entertainments, social functions, and so forth. ©Includes speakers, councillors or branch officers. 



94 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



F THE BRANCHES AS 


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1 




17 


780 


63 


290 


30 


82 


50 


29 


30 


98 


18 


348 


120 


44 


125 


5 


149 


15 


34 


13 


13 


16 


5 


17 


10 


5 


53 


7 


2 


13 


4 


359 


25 


38 


15 


18 


20 


8 


19 


38 


2 


78 


10 


5 


66 




16 


4 


3 




1 


3 


2 








10 


5 




3 


26 


1307 


107 


367 


58 


114 


89 


44 


66 


146 


25 


490 


142 


52 


207 


4 


47 


9 


51 


21 


18 


3 


25 


4 


71 


36 


12 


1 

46 


9 


17 


4 


19 




9 


5 


4 




7 


3 


17 


14 


9 


3 


2 


5 


7 


24 
2 


1 


15 
2 


4 
1 


4 
1 




26 


1 


24 
2 


15 


9 
1 


5 


2 


2 


15 


92 


10 


77 


31 


27 


3 


58 


8 


114 


65 


31 


55 


13 


24 


41 


1399* 


117 


444 


89 


141 


92 


102 


74 


260 


90 


521 


197 


65 


231 


41 


1350 


133 


438 


91 


139 


71 


93 


94 


220 


98 


541 


199 


57 


220 


4 


6 


10 


19 


7 












12 






1 


7 



•For voting purposes only, there should be added to Montreal Branch, an additional 309 members, 186 being resident in the United States, 98 
ritish possessions and 32 in foreign countries. 



6.39 


1,688.27 


309 . 14 


572 . 76 


166 . 59 


99.66 


279.39 


282.21 


84.63 


20.94 


392.11 


964.85 


192.93 


106.30 


214.82 


8.23 


1,960.88 


224 . 55 


630.88 


152.90 


272.33 


143.89 


132.05 


121.58 


2.35 
271.43 


147.07 


685 . 24 


315.65 


102.50 


348.45 


5.00 


73.00 


39 . 55 


54.00 


14.00 












33.00 






3.00 


35.00 


2.15 


13.85 


1.50 


45.72 


0.75 


0.96 










6.04 


1.85 


0.40 




22.50 




819.45 


81.39 
23.00 


2.96 
379.00 




385 . 55 




70.00 
40.85 


34.83 




94.00 


269 . 83 


99.15 


17.00 


40.87 
63.03 


5.38 


2,867.18 


369.99 


1,112.56 


167.65 


658.84 


143.89 


242.90 


156.41 


294.72 


280.11 


956 . 42 


415.20 


122.50 


509.85 


8.65 


817.90 


79.70 


147 . 22 


50.14 


82.04 


26.10 


51.32 


28.77 


35.26 


18.12 


130.30 


64.00 


20.00 


134.85 


0.91 


107.65 


40.30 




46.50 


173 . 50 


19.00 


5.00 


17.63 


139.28 


121.86 


190.15 


65.00 




49.02 


3.90 


1,098.36 


34.98 


217.45 


34.38 


358 . 04 


77.01 


120.50 


28.21 




39.40 


257 . 00 




9.65 


14.77 


5.00 


300 . 00 


75.00 






100.00 




25.00 




58.00 


25.00 


125.00 


50.00 


35.00 


50.00 


0.00 


120.00 


3.00 


25.00 




9.00 




10.00 


5.00 


14.00 


1.00 




20.00 


1.75 


20.00 




73.58 


23.15 


379 . 00 








40.85 






100.00 




99.00 


60.00 


64.00 




49.53 


9.75 








8.10 




23.55 


22.23 




17.20 
10.00 








8.00 


32.00 


16.30 


6.00 


6.00 












10.00 








14.00 




68.29 


100.00 


30.00 


59.50 




62.56 




26.15 






480.00 






34.68 


7.21 


100.88 




53 . 07 


3.30 


2.02 


0.85 


14.56 


0.79 


2.66 


1.00 


21.50 


26.13 


2.50 


10.00 


3.67 


2,768.19 


382.18 


857.74 


199.82 


724 . 60 


193 . 62 


267 . 23 


130.10 


271.43 


316.38 


1,231.15 


324 . 13 


128.90 


391.32 


8.29 


98.99 


12.19 


254.82 


32.17 


65.76 


49.73 


24.33 


26.31 


23.29 


36.27 


274.23 


91.07 


6.40 


118.53 


8.10 


1,787.26 


296.95 


827.58 


134.42 


33.90 


220 . 66 


257.88 


110.94 


44.23 


355.84 


690.62 


284.00 


99.90 


333.35 



E ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



95 



Jan. 24 — Dinner meeting at the Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines. The 
speaker, Professor R. W. Angus, gave an illustrated talk 
on The History of the Development of Water Tur- 
bines and Pumps. 

Mar. 21 — Dinner meeting at the Reeta Hotel, Welland. The speaker, 
Mr. H. B. Chambers, of the Atlas Steel Company, gave 
an illustrated talk on Some Fundamental Steel Char- 
acteristics of Special Interest to Engineers. 

May 16 — Joint dinner meeting with the Ontario Chapter of the 
American Society for Metals, held at the Leonard Hotel, 
St. Catharines. The speaker, Mr. 0. W. Ellis of the 
Ontario Research Foundation, talked on Forgeability 
as applied to both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 

June 16 — Annual dinner meeting held at the General Brock Hotel, 
Niagara Falls. After the dinner, the newly elected branch 
officers and executive were introduced to the membership. 
The speaker, Mr. E. L. Durkee of the Bethlehem Steel 
Company, gave a talk on The Erection of the Steel 
Superstructure of the Rainbow Bridge. This most 
interesting talk was illustrated with three reels of motion 
pictures. 

Oct. 29 — Dinner meeting held at the General Brock Hotel, Niagara 
Falls. The principal speaker was Dr. Shortridge Hardesty 
of Waddell and Hardesty, New York, who spoke on The 
Rainbow Bridge from the viewpoint of design. Mr. E. L. 
Durkee, resident engineer of the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, provided a running commentary to the Bethlehem 
Steel Company's movie on the construction of the bridge. 
The co-operation of the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission 
is appreciated for making this meeting possible, and for 
opening the work to inspection in the afternoon. 

Nov. 20 — Joint dinner meeting with the Niagara Group of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers, held at the Wel- 
land House, St. Catharines. The speaker, Mr. J. W. 
Bateman of the Canadian General Electric Company, 
gave a talk and demonstration on Some Interesting 
Applications of Light, Ultra-Violet and Infra-Red 
Radiations. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 

During the year the Managing Committee held ten 
meetings for the transaction of general business. 

It is with deep regret that we report the deaths of four of 
our members: W. M. Johnstone, m.e.i.c, J. A. Vermette, 
m.e.i.c, A. C. Wright, m.e.i.c, and J. A. Lamoureux, 
m.e.i.c, of Fort Coulonge, P.Q. 

As in previous years the Branch donated two sets of 
draughting instruments to the Ottawa Technical School for 
presentation as prizes for proficiency in draughting. A copy 
of "Technical Methods of Analysis" by Griffin was pre- 
sented to the Hull Technical School to be awarded to one 
of its students. 

The following is a list of meetings held during 1940, with 
attendance figures in brackets. Unless otherwise stated, 
these were luncheon meetings at the Chateau Laurier: 
Jan. 9 — Evening meeting, Auditorium, National Research Council 
Building. Annual meeting, Ottawa Branch, E.I.C. Ad- 
dress by Dr. C. A. Robb, Gauges for Mass Production 
(80). 
Jan. 30 — Air Raid Precautions, by Mr. Alan Hay, Consulting 

Engineer, Federal District Commission (96). 
Feb. 13 — Military Explosives, by Mr. E. T. Sterne, Allied War Sup- 
plies (122). 
Feb. 27 — Planning and Construction of Aerodromes, by Mr. 

G. L. McGee, Department of Transport (114). 
Mar. 13— Fighter Squadron, by Flying Officer H. T. Mitchell (145). 
Mar. 27 — Research and Security, by Mr. L. A. Hawkins, General 

Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y. (76). 
April 10 — Evening Meeting, Auditorium, National Research Council 
Building. Mr. A. E. Davison, Hydro Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario, spoke on Dancing Cables and 
Bridges (198). 
Aug. 17 — Visit of members of the Ottawa Branch and their friends to 
the Royal Canadian Engineering Training Centre at 
Petawawa on invitation of the Commanding Officer, 
Lieut.-Col. J. P. Richards (80). 
Oct. 23 — The Role of Research in War, by Dr. C. J. Mackenzie, 

Acting President, National Research Council (105). 
Nov. 20 — The Royal Canadian Navy 1911-1941, by Commander 

H. N. Lay, Naval Service Headquarters, Ottawa (105). 
Dec. 4 — Air Co-operation, by Squadron Leader W. W. Ross, 

R.C.A.F. Station, Rockcliffe (77). 
Dec. 18 — Construction Features of the Barrett Chute Develop- 
ment, by Mr. A. L. Malcolm, Hydro Electric power 
Commission of Ontario (81). 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 

The following meetings were held during the year 1941, 
with attendance shown in brackets: 

Jan. 16 — Power Transmission, A. E. Davidson, Electrical Engin- 
eering Dept., Hydro Electric Power Commission, To- 
ronto, Ontario (66). 

Feb. 13 — Modern Trends in Industrial Applications, L. E. 
Marion, Apparatus Sales Dept., Canadian General 
Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (33). 

Feb. 27 — -Processing of Copper, C. L. Sherman, Metallurgist, 
Phillips Electrical Works Ltd., Brockville, Ontario (51). 

Mar. 20 — Juniors and Students Night. Some Aspects of Railway 
Signalling, J. M. Mercier, Test Dept., Canadian General 
Electric Co. Ltd., Peterborough (64). 

April 24 — Carrier Current for Peak Load Control, A. L. Malby, 
Industrial Control Eng. Dept., Canadian General 
Electric Company Ltd., Peterborough (39). 

May 15 — Annual Meeting and Election of Branch Executive (36). 

Sept. 27— Joint Meeting E.I.C, Peterborough Branch and A.I.E.E., 
Toronto Section. Short Time Rating of Electrical 
Equipment. (108). 

Oct. 23 — Plastics, A. E. Byrne, Appliance and Merchandise Dept., 
Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto (30). 

Nov. 6— The 220,000 Volt System of the H.E.P.C., A. H. Framp- 
ton, Assistant Electrical Engineer, Hydro Electric 
Power Commission, Toronto, Ontario (46). 

Nov. 18 — Annual Dinner. Attended by President C. J. Mackenzie, 
Vice-Presidents de Gaspé Beaubien and K. M. Cameron 
and other guests (72). 

Dec. 11 — The causes of Accidents to Electrical Equipment, 
C. A. Laverty, Engineer and Electrical Inspector, Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Co., Montreal (24). 

The number of Branch Executive meetings held during 
year 1941-7. 

Special Committees 
Meetings and Papers Committee — A. J. Girdwood, jr.E.i.c 
Social and Entertainment Committee — R. L. Dobbin, 

M.E.I.C 

Membership and Attendance Committee — A. L. Malby, 
jr.E.i.c; J. M. Mercier, s.e.i.c 

Branch News Editor — E. W. Whiteley, jr.E.i.c 

Auditor— E. R. Shirley, m.e.i.c 

Peterboro Representative on Nominating Committee — 
W. M. Cruthers, m.e.i.c 

QUEBEC BRANCH 

Ten general branch meetings were held through the year: 
as listed below with the attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 27 — Municipal Management by an Engineer, by Robert 
Dorion, m.e.i.c, Manager of Shawinigan Falls, Quebec 
(45). 

Feb. 8 — Annual Branch Dance at Quebec Winter Club (116). 

Feb. 17 — Nickel Industry, sound films presented at Palais Mont- 
calm Theatre (200). 

Feb. 28 — Mining and its Importance in the War, by Hon. T. A. 
Crerar, at a luncheon-meeting, Château Frontenac. 
(Joint meeting with Canadian, Rotary and Kiwanis 
Clubs). 

Mar. 10 — The Engineer and Hydroelectric Development, by 
MM. Huet Massue, m.e.i.c, and Guy Rinfret, m.e.i.c, 
sponsored by Shawinigan Water & Power Co. (500). 

April 28 — Visit to the Building and Laboratories of the New Science 
Faculty, Laval University, and film presentation Tacoma 
Bridge Disaster (50). 

Sept. 15 — First Annual Golf Tournament at Royal Quebec Golf 
Club (44). 

Nov. 15 — President C J. Mackenzie visit and Institute's Regional 
Council Meeting at Chateau Frontenac (37). 

Dec. 1 — General Annual Meeting and election of Officers of the 
Quebec Branch. Film Colourful Gaspesian Tour, by 
Alex. Larivière (55). 

Dec. 15 — Technical Principles of Radio-Communication, by 
G. E. Sarault, chief engineer C.B.F. Radio-Canada and 
"Rambling Radio-Canada Stations" films in Techni- 
color, which Mr. Aurèle Séguin of C.B.C. explained (200). 

During the year six meetings of the Executive Com- 
mittee were held, at which the attendance averaged seven, or 
sixty-five per cent. 



96 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SAGUENAY BRANCH 

The branch held the following meetings during the year: 

an. 14 — Experiences of an Engineer in China, by A. T. Cairn- 
cross of the Aluminum Co. of Canada Limited. 

eb. 21 — Combustion Boiler Installations, by W. H. D. Clark, 
Chief Engineer of the Combustion Engineering Cor- 
poration. 

lar. 28 — Engineering in the Battle of France, by Jean Flahault, 
Aluminum Co. of Canada Limited. 

lay 2 — Film showing Tacoma Bridge Disaster. Also Electric 
Welding and Brazing of Copper and Aluminum, by 
H. Brayne of the Aluminum Co. of Canada Limited. 

lay 28 — Film on Fighting Oil Fires by the Water Fog Method, 
shown by the Rockwood Sprinkler Co. 

uly 4 — Annual Meeting and election of Executive Committee. 

ug. 22 — Sub-surface Engineering, by Professor R. F. Legget of 
the University of Toronto. 

let. 14 — Construction Problems, by V. G. Younghusband, Vice- 
President of the Foundation Co. of Canada. 

fov. 25 — The General Principles of Petroleum Oil Refining, by 
C. D. McCoy, Oil Refining Division of Foster Wheeler 
Corporation. 

)ec. 16 — Road Building, by J. A. E. Gohier, Chief Engineer of the 
Quebec Roads Department. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

Six meetings of the Executive Committee were held 
uring the year, and five general branch meetings were 
teld, as follows. Attendance is given in brackets: 
an. 15 — Annual joint dinner meeting with the Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers of the Province of New Brunswick. A 
paper on The LaTuque Development was presented 
by J. A. McCrory, of Shawinigan Engineering Co. (42). 
lar. 21 — Supper meeting. An International Nickel Co. four-reel 

picture The Nickel Industry was shown (16). 
ipril 18 — Evening meeting. A two-reel film The Tacoma Bridge 
Disaster was shown, followed by several coloured reels 
of New Brunswick, shown by H. P. Lingley (20). 
lay 16 — Annual dinner and election of officers of the branch. Special 
guests were Dean C. J. Mackenzie, President of the 
Institute, K. M. Cameron, Vice-President for Ontario, 
J. A. Vance and H. Massue, Councillors, L. Austin 
Wright, General Secretary, R. L. Dobbin and G. A. 
Gaherty. The president spoke on the relation of the en- 
gineer and the engineering profession to the War (43). 
)ec. 11 — Supper meeting. Address on Mechanization in War, by 
G. W. Berry, Manager of the Ford Motor of Canada at 
Saint John, illustrated by a film "Tools for the Job." (33). 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 

The following meetings were held by the Branch this year: 

A&r. 22 — Annual dinner meeting at the Cascade Inn, Shawinigan 
Falls. Retiring Chairman C. H. Champion introduced the 
newly elected chairman, Dr. A. H. Heatley, of Shawinigan 
Falls. L. Austin Wright, general secretary, spoke on 
The Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. 

Ipril 29 — Meeting was held at the Laurentide Club, Grand' Mère. The 
guest speaker was Dr. P. L. Pratley, who gave a brief 
outlook on the design of suspended bridges. The Institute 
film Tacoma Bridge Failure, was shown. 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

Twenty-four members of the Branch are on active service 
vith His Majesty's Forces, nine being overseas and all 
îolding commissions in the Navy, Army or Air Force. 

As in the past several years all meetings, except the 
innual and one special meeting, were held jointly with the 
association of Professional Engineers and the local branch 
)f the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The 
arogramme for the year was as follows : 

Ian. 24 — The Making and Shaping of Steel, a nine-reel film 

loaned by the United States Bureau of Standards. 
Feb. 21 — Annual Meeting. 
Mar. 21 — Air Gunnery and Bombing, by F/L. Geo. Thornber, 

illustrated by lantern slides. 
Sept. 25 — Special meeting to meet President C. J. Mackenzie, 
^ov. 21 — The Tacoma Bridge, a two-reel film depicting structural 

problems and failure after four months of life. 
Dec. 16 — Talk by Major T. G. Tyrer giving personal reminiscences of 

his recent military trip overseas. 



The average attendance at the meetings was 46, a 
decrease of 11 from last year, explainable in part by the 
fact that a number of the members are asbent on active 
service. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met on January 8th, 1941, and 
appointed standing committees. The committees and the 
chairman are as follows: 

Papers and Publicity J. S. Macleod, m.e.i.c. 

Entertainment J. L. Lang, m.e.i.c. 

Membership A. H. Russell, m.e.i.c. 

Legislation and Remuneration. . .F. Smallwood, m.e.i.c. 

Junior Engineers N. C. Cowie, jr. e. i.e. 

It will be noted that an additional committee, the Junior 
Engineers' Committee, was formed this year. A meeting was 
held this year under the auspices of the Junior Engineers' 
Committee. This committee also furnished the Papers Com- 
mittee with an additional speaker during the year. 

The executive met three times during the year to conduct 
and promote the activities of the Branch and Institute. 

Seven dinner meetings were held during the year. The 
average attendance was 20 members and guests. While the 
meetings were usually held on the last Friday of the month, 
this was not a rigid rule as some were arranged to suit the 
convenience of the speaker. 

Programmes of the meetings held were as follows : 

Jan. 31 — Installation and Operation of Modern Strip Mills, by 

L. F. McCaffrey. 
Feb. 28 — Kilowatts, Horse-power and Water, by N. C. Cowie, 

Jr. E.I.C. 
Mar. 21 — The Queen Elizabeth Highway, by A. L. MacDougall. 
April 22 — The St. Lawrence Deepening and Its Possibilities, by 

J. H. MacDonald. 
Sept. 26 — Blast Furnace Plant of the Algoma Steel Corporation, 

T. F. Rahilly, Jr. e.i.c. 
Nov. 28 — The Steel Industry, by David L. Mekeel. 
Dec. 12 — Annual Meeting and Tacoma Bridge Film. 

TORONTO BRANCH 

The annual meeting of the Branch was held at the Granite 
Club on Thursday, April 3rd, 1941. The meeting was pre- 
ceded by a dinner at 7 p.m., at which several represent- 
atives from the outside branches and sister societies were 
present. Among these J. A. Vance, Councillor, London 
Branch; Prof. W. G. Mcintosh, representing the A.S.M.E. ; 
Norman J. Howard, President American Waterworks As- 
sociation; Stanley R. Frost, President, Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Ontario; A. R. Hannaford, Secretary- 
Treasurer, Hamilton Branch; J. M. Thomson, representing 
the A.I.E.E. ; Wills Maclachlan, representing the Royal 
Canadian Institute and Bruce Wright representing the 
Ontario Association of Architects. 

During the past year the executive committee has held 
nine meetings with an average attendance of eight members. 

The regular meetings held during the year are listed 
below with attendance given in brackets: 

Jan. 16 — Student's Competition. Relay Protection of Transfor- 
mers, by P. B. Smith; The Co-Axial Cable in Tele- 
phone Transmission, by G. M. Nixon.. Wind Tunnel 
Testing, by D. P. MacVannell. Estimation of Aircraft 
Performance, by B. Etkin. A Modern Method of 
Placing Concrete, by W. D. Ramore. Future Trend in 
Aircraft Design, by J. W. Ames (55). 

Feb. 20 — The Helen Mine and Bénéficia ting Plant, by George W. 
MacLeod, m.e.i.c. (70). 

Mar. 8 — The Achievements of Engineering, by Professor C. R. 
Young, m.e.i.c, This was a joint meeting with the Royal 
Canadian Institute. 

Mar. 20 — Ground Line Preservation of Poles, by T. H. Chisholm. 
Measurement and Control of Conductor Vibration, 
by G. B. Tebo. Fatigue of Metals, by D. G. Watt. 
Recent Developments in Concrete Technology, by 
R. B. Young. This was a session on research development 
and given by members of the Research Laboratory of the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario (70). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



97 



Oct. 16 — Plastic Moulded Wood in Aircraft Construction, by 

Mr. J. W. Jakimiuk (100). 

Nov. 6 — Air Bombing and Structural Defence, by D. C. Ten- 
nant, m.e.i.c. (180). 

Nov. 29 — What Use the Engineer Makes of Geology, by Professor 
H. Ries. This was a joint meeting with the Royal Cana- 
dian Institute. 

Dec. 4 — Water Situation in Southern Ontario, by Prof. A. F. 
Coventry. Forestry Situation in Ontario, by Mr. F. A. 
MaeDougall. Public Health in Ontario and Conser- 
vation, by Dr. A. E. Berry, m.e.i.c. Introduction of the 
speakers and the film The River, by Professor R. F. 
Legget, m.e.i.c. (400). 

Dec. 8 — Fluorescent Lamps and Lighting Materials, by Mr. 
Harris Reinhardt. This was a joint meeting with the 
I.R.E.; I.E.S. and A.I.E.E. 

Previous to each regular meeting, dinner has been held in 
Hart House. These have been well attended and enjoyed by 
all who have availed themselves of the opportunity to 
attend. 

A Social Evening was held on Saturday evening, January 
11th, for the members and their wives at the Engineers' 
Club. The President, Dr. T. H. Hogg and Mrs. Hogg, the 
chairman of the Branch, Nicol MacNicol and Mrs. Mac- 
Nicol, received the guests. Dinner was served and was fol- 
lowed by entertainment. There were 143 present on this 
occasion. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death of the 
following members of the branch during the year: — A. S. 
Cook, H. B. Kippen, Brig.-Gen. C. H. Mitchell, Grant 
Moloney and R. F. Uniacke. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 

The following meetings were held by the Branch this year: 
Jan. 20 — Programme meeting was held at U.B.C. Dean J. N. Fin- 
layson, chairman, presided. F. O. Forward, associate 
professor of metallurgy, and W. O. Richmond, assistant 
professor of mechanical engineering, were the guest 
speakers. Their subjects were The Heat Treatment of 
Steel and The Application of Material Tests to 
Design. 

Feb. 26 — Meeting was held at the Hotel Georgia. The chairman pre- 
sided and the guest speaker was Mr. Ralph Hull, pro- 
fessor of mathematics at U.B.C, who spoke on The 
Origin, Theory and Dynamics of Tides. 

Mar. 7 — Meeting was held at U.B.C, when the speaker was Mr. 
E. C. Gosnell, chemical engineer, Lukens Steel Co. of 
America. His subject was Clad Metals, their Manufac- 
ture, Application in Industry and Anti-Corrosive 
Properties. 

Mar. 27 — Meeting was held to hear an address by A. H. Eggleton, 
manager of the Industrial X-Ray Co., Vancouver, on 
Industrial Applications of the X-ray. 

May 21 — Meeting was held in the Georgia Hotel. The vice-chairman, 
Mr. W. O. Scott, presided in the absence of the chairman. 
The speaker for the evening was Mr. W. N. Kelly, whose 
subject was Woodenwalls and Iron Clads. 

Sept. 29 — Dinner meeting was held at the Hotel Georgia in honour of 
the president, Dean Mackenzie. He gave a most interest- 
ing address on The National Research Council and 
War Work. 



Oct. 16 — Programme meeting was held in the Medical Dental build- 
ing. The speaker was Mr. Jack Cribb, superintendent of 
West Coast Shipbuilders Ltd. His subject was Some 
Marine Salvage Experiences of the Pacific Coast. 

Nov. 6 — The guest speaker at this meeting was W. O. Scott, vice- 
chairman of the branch, and assistant superintendent of 
the Dominion Bridge Co. in Vancouver. The subject of 
his address was Tool Steels — their Use from the View- 
point of the Shop. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

Five meetings of the executive committee and four gen- 
eral branch meetings were held during 1941 as follows: 
Jan. 17 — Dinner meeting. Annual meeting and election of officers. 

Motion pictures of interest to engineers by Mr. D. S. 

Scott. 
Oct. 27 — Dinner meeting. Address, Spans in Time and Space, by 

by Sir Heaton Forbes Robinson, c.g.m., m.i.c.e. 
Nov. 10 — Dinner meeting. Tacoma Bridge Films, together with 

additional pictures and explanations by Mr. A. L. 

Carruthers, m.e.i.c. 
Dec. 16 — Nomination luncheon meeting. Owing to the prevailing 

blackout in the Pacific Coast region, a general meeting of 

the branch called for early in December, at which a paper 

was to have been read, had to be postponed to a later 

date. 

The branch regrets to report the loss by death of three of 
its Life Members during the year in the persons of F. J. 
O'Reilly, J. H. Gray, and George Phillips. 

Despite the loss by death and removals to other jurisdic- 
tions, the membership of the branch has been increased by 
8 to 66, mainly through transfer of members of HisMajesty's 
Services to this branch district. Several applications for 
membership are at present under consideration. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH 

The following meetings were held by the Branch during 

the year: 

Feb. 6 — Annual meeting. The retiring chairman, H. L. Briggs gave 
his address and was thanked by Professor G. H. Herriott. 
Following the election of the new officers a sound film 
entitled There is a difference was shown. 

April 3 — Meeting in the Theatre of the University of Manitoba. 
Two coloured movies were shown through the courtesy 
of the Department of Mines and Natural Resources of 
the Province of Manitoba. Base Line Survey was pre- 
faced with remarks by Mr. H. E. Beresford, director of 
Surveys and The Summerberry Fur Rehabilitation 
Project had a running commentary by the Honourable 
J. S. McDiarmid, Minister of Mines and Natural Re- 



Sept. 24 — Luncheon meeting in the Georgian Dining Room of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. D. M. Stephens, vice-chairman, 
presided in the absence of the chairman. We were privil- 
edged to have as guests the president, vice-president and 
general secretary of the Institute. President Mackenzie 
was the principal speaker at the meeting. 

Oct. 16 — Meeting in the Broadway Building of the University of 
Manitoba. The speaker was J. C. Trueman, designini 
engineer, Dominion Bridge Co., Winnipeg. He présente 
a motion picture on The Tacoma Bridge Failure, 
introducing the picture with a short historical paper 



J 



98 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



CALCUTTA UNDERGROUND RESERVOIRS 

From Indian Engineering (Calcutta), July, 1941 

Following the sanction by the Government of Bengal 
for the construction of 130 underground reservoirs in Cal- 
cutta, work is in progress on some of them by the Cor- 
poration of Calcutta in consultation with the Chief Officer 
of the Calcutta Fire Brigade. These are being constructed 
with a view to providing an alternate source of unfiltered 
water for fighting fires that might be caused in the city 
by air raids. The reservoirs, which will each have a 
capacity of about 8,000 gallons, will cost about HV2 
lakhs of rupees. For the balance of the reservoirs, the 
Government have requested the Corporation to prepare 
a list of sites. 

GASOMETERS 

From Indian Engineering (Calcutta), July, 1941 

Many people appear to think that if a bomb explodes 
on a gasholder, it is bound to blow up. In general it has 
been proved in Europe that the gasholders commonly 
used are comparatively free from danger. What would 
happen if a bomb effects a direct hit on a gasholder is a 
troublesome question, but it does not follow that the gaso- 
meter would blow up. It is a question difficult to answer 
because it depends on many factors, viz., the type of 
holder, its age and amount of gas in store, and the type 
of bomb with which it has been struck. There are two 
main types of holders, which, between them, store ap- 
proximately 90 per cent of domestic and industrial gas 
storage. These are the guide-framed water-sealed holder, 
and the spiral-guided water-sealed holder. In one large 
undertaking in Britain a gasholder received a direct hit. 
The incendiary bomb, on contact with the holder, which 
was two-thirds filled, burst the side sheets and ignited 
the gas; two high explosive bombs following penetrated 
the same lift, burst through the tank plates, and exploded 
in the raft, causing a large hole in the tank. The effect 
of this was to release the water. Immediate attention 
averted worse damage. 

BURMA ROAD 

From Indian Engineering (Calcutta), July, 1941 

It is reported that a determined effort is being made to 
speed up the transport of vital supplies to China via the 
Burma road. As a step towards this end, all the Highway 
Administration's engineering bureaux throughout China 
which have hitherto been under various Government De- 
partments are to be placed under the centralised control of 
the Transport Control Board of the National Military 
Council. Reports are to hand that floods and landslides 
in the northern Shan States of Burma have interrupted 
traffic on the China Highway. It is hoped to replace a 
vital wrecked bridge within a few days. Transport in 
Burma has also been affected. This is unfortunate, but 
only to be expected at this time of the year with the 
Monsoon in full strength. Moreover, the road may be 
bombed again by the Japs, particularly following a recent 
message from New York to the effect that President 
Roosevelt recently issued a proclamation suspending 
" foreign discriminating duties on tonnage and imposts 
within the United States " in respect of vessels to Burma 
and their cargoes. This is apparently designed to help to 
expedite the flow of war materials to China over the 
Burma road. 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



AUSTRALIAN MUNITION INDUSTRY 

From Trade and Engineering (London), November, 1941 

"No business in the history of Australia has been ex- 
panded to such a magnitude, with such violence and under 
such pressure, as the vast munitions industry, " said Mr. 
Menzies recently. The amazing growth of new industries 
since the war, he added, had made Australia a first-class 
manufacturing country, with a great export potentiality, 
and had laid a strong foundation for a new peace-time 
order. There are now 150,000 Australians working in war 
industries, of whom over 50,000 are directly engaged in 
munition-making, and Mr. Menzies indicated that before 
the end of 1942 this latter number would be increased 
threefold. 

In the last war munition-making in Australia employed 
only 2,700 persons. To-day, in South Australia alone, 
which before the war was a minor industrial State, there 
are already more persons working on munitions than 
there were in Australia by the end of the last War. One 
of South Australia's largest industrial enterprises, Gen- 
eral Motors-Holdens, is over 90 per cent engaged in war 
production. It is already employing 20 per cent more 
hands than before the war and will soon employ more. 
Over 5,000 workers are producing in its plant anti-tank 
guns, large presses for explosives, bomb bodies, pontoons, 
folding boats and aeroplane parts. The hundredth two- 
pounder anti-tank gun produced at this factory was re- 
cently delivered. The production of the requisite tough- 
ened steel presented a problem in overcoming which Aus- 
tralian engineers devised new forging and machining 
processes. 

Over 300 3-7 in. anti-aircraft guns have now been de- 
livered, the Government ordnance factory having achieved 
an output in excess of that for which it was designed. 
Searchlight units, anti-aircraft predicators, and telephone 
and radio equipment for anti-aircraft posts are being pro- 
duced. The Bren gun is in mass production, and the uni- 
versal carrier, a development of the Bren-gun carrier, is 
being produced at the rate of more than double what was 
expected of the factory. Hundreds of firms in all parts 
of the Commonwealth are making components, and four 
shops will soon be engaged in assembling the vehicles. 

Australia is making her own lenses for optical muni- 
tions such as range-finders, telescopic gun sights and tank 
periscopes, with all the tools essential to their manufac- 
ture. Plans for the establishment in Government factories, 
in Victoria and Queensland, of annexes for building marine 
engines for the standard merchant ships which the Ship- 
building Commission has ordered are being pushed ahead. 
These annexes will carry the heavy engineering capacity 
of Australia a further stage forward. The Commission in- 
tends to foster also the making of ships' equipment such 
as compasses and chain cable. 

Aircraft Manufacture 

Working round the clock with a staff of 800, ultimately 
to be increased to 1,200, the Commonwealth Aircraft Cor- 
poration's new factory, which has cost £A1,500,000, has 
begun to build the Pratt and Whitney twin-row Wasp 
engine, the production of which will lift Australia into the 
ranks of the principal air powers. Factories elsewhere 
have long been producing Gipsy Major and single-row 
Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. With the twin-row 
engines and with duralumin, to be fabricated at the Aus- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



99 



tralian Aluminium Company's new workshops, Australia 
can build some of the speediest aeroplanes yet designed. 
These engines will be used in the Australian-built Bristol 
Beaufort bomber and in the new twin-engined fighter- 
bomber, designed by Wing Commander L. J. Wackett, 
general manager of C.A.C., and also in a new British 
twin-engined fighter which the Government hopes to pro- 
duce later. 

The completion of the works in under 20 months from 
the drafting of plans to the beginning of manufacture 
sets a remarkable standard in speedy organization. Be- 
fore the war experts declared that Australia could not 
build even motor-car engines, yet she has turned out 150 
h.p. and 600 h.p. aero engines in considerable volume, 
and now she is about to produce 1,200 h.p. aero engines. 
Scores of engineering firms in New South Wales, Victoria, 
and South Australia are making engine parts as sub-con- 
tractors. The factory is already being extended to facili- 
tate an increasing output of engines for new types of 
aircraft, and when completed it will be comparable to the 
largest aero-engine factories overseas. The magneto, car- 
burettor, and ball-bearings of the twin-row Wasp are im- 
ported but the magneto will soon be manufactured in Aus- 
tralia, and later the other parts mentioned. 

The Aircraft Commission estimates that of a total 
aeroplane production to the value of £A20i,000,000 in 
1942 exports will be valued at over £A12,000,000. The 
Commission expects to produce over 1,000 aeroplanes next 
year. From June, 1939, when C.A.C. completed its first 
Wirraway, to the end of December next, the value of the 
industry's output will be £A10,000,000, the value of this 
year's production being £A7,000.000. 

These figures give some indication of the rapid ex- 
pansion of the industry. Already Australia is producing 
far more training machines than she needs for herself, 
and elementary trainers are being exported at the rate of 
50 a month. The first Bristol Beaufort assembled in Aus- 
tralia from imported parts, with certain adaptations to 
local needs, has proved a faster machine than its oversea 
prototype. It attained an average ground speed of 270 
m.p.h. in an 850-miles flight from Melbourne to Brisbane 
— a new Australian record. Later, in a non-stop flight of 
1,500 miles from Cairns (Queensland) to Melbourne in 
7% hours it averaged nearly 200 m.p.h. against a head 
wind, easily the best combination of speed and distance 
an aeroplane has achieved in Australia. It is designed 
as a dive-bomber, as well as a high-level attack machine, 
and is expected to be exceptionally fast. Everything is 
in readiness for quantity production as soon as it has 
satisfactorily completed its tests. Many of its compon- 
ents are inter-changeable with those of the Wirraway. 

THE DEMAND FOR TECHNICIANS 

From Indian Engineering (Calcutta), July, 1941 

Some of the results of the Eastern Group Supply Con- 
ference, held at Delhi last year, are now becoming visible. 
The factories and workshops of this country are pouring 
out an ever-increasing stream of products in demand for 
the immediate needs of war. We are producing more and 
more, some of the things are a mere multiplication and 
extension of established industry, others are new to us 
from the point of view of local manufacture. In this way, 
the aim to increase this country's contribution to the para- 
mount task of victory is being achieved. All India should 
be proud of the contribution we have made already to- 
wards the great defeats of the Italian Dictator's ambi- 
tions in Africa, but it is far too early to rest on our 
laurels. A lot, a great lot more, remains to be done. We 
are comparatively still only at the beginning of our 
maximum effort, for our capacity to produce is immense. 
It is true India is looked upon mainly as an agricultural 



country, which she is, but there is also more than ample 
room for vast industrial enterprise to redress the balance 
of a one-sided national economy. In time of peace, in- 
dustrialisation was with us a very slow process. Many 
natural and artificial obstacles had to be overcome, and 
only some vital emergency provided the necessary impetus 
for more rapid strides forward. The last Great War set 
us going, and the present still greater emergency is driv- 
ing us forward at a terrific speed for the habits and hesita- 
tions of this country. Even so, when compared with the 
more industrialised countries, our rate of progress is still 
far too slow, in spite of the actual stream of production 
now flowing to supply and replenish the stores and equip- 
ment in such immense demand. There are two very 
adequate reasons to account for it : — There is first the 
lack of trained technicians, and, secondly, the difficulty 
of securing the plant and tools needed. Gradually both 
these obstacles will be overcome, but we ought not to 
allow this opportunity to pass without learning our lessons. 
None of these tremendous obstacles need have arisen had 
we taken long ago a wider view of the potentialities of 
industry in this vast country, with its immense reserve of 
raw materials. Had we given sufficient encouragement 
and taken steps to create and assemble sufficient cadres of 
trained technicians in the years gone by, industry might 
well at this time have been sufficiently ahead to largely 
resolve the difficulties of personnel and equipment now 
encountered. In this connection it is no less useful to 
consider the lack of enterprise on the part of capital and 
individuals in this country, as well as the wrong bias in 
the educational sphere. In both these spheres we have 
largely failed to appreciate the needs and requirements 
of the present age. Let us, therefore, keep carefully in 
mind the fact that the present vast expansion of industrial 
enterprise for a specific purpose is bound to have wide 
repercussions later, and to consider the remedies needed 
to repair past mistakes. We must draw the moral now 
for future guidance. 

DEVELOPMENT OF "BRISTOL" AIRCRAFT 
GUN TURRETS 

From The Engineer (London), November 21, 1941 

One of the first aeroplanes to be fitted with an enclosed 
gun turret, necessary for the protection of the gunner 
from the air flow at high speeds, was a Bristol machine, 
known as type 120, which was developed in 1930 and 1931. 
In this case the turret was mechanically operated. The 
first Bristol hydraulically operated power-driven gun 
turret was developed in 1935 and fitted in the nose of the 
Bombay bomber transport; and the first Bristol power- 
operated gun turret to be located amidships was fitted to 
the Blenheim. These turrets proved of great value from 
the very first, enabling the air gunner to aim and fire 
steadily and accurately on the beam when flying at high 
operational speeds. 

But the successful development of the power-driven 
gun turret depended in the first place on the equally im- 
portant development of the successful hydraulic system, 
which should be simple, reliable, and, above all, light in 
weight. The advantages claimed for the Bristol hydraulic 
system are greater flexibility of control, a quick yet 
smooth reversal of motion without shock, a useful " slip " 
for overloads or obstruction, an easily convenient loca- 
tion of transmission members, and the use of relief or 
control valves to safeguard against overloading. This 
hydraulic system was developed in 1935, in a research 
department specially devoted to the purpose. Unit testing 
was undertaken of such items as pumps, control valves, 
undercarriage jacks or "rams", and flap controls, etc. 
The most important development, however, resulted from 
prolonged and active research into the design of suitable 
hydraulic pumps, as the existing types suffered from the 



100 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



drawbacks of insufficient capacity and pressure to be 
suitable for the requirements of high-performance air- 
craft. The plunger type of pump suffered from violent 
fluctuation of pressure, which caused breakages; so that 
either the vane type had to be employed with its con- 
siderable limitations for high pressures, or else the gear 
pump, in which the faults were that it was difficult to get 
clearances sufficiently fine to reduce the " slip ", and when 
they were obtained there was a resulting tendency to 
seize up. The first " Bristol " pump was tested early in 
1936. It was a multi-stage gear pump, which stepped up 
the pressure very considerably. 

Realising that existing types of gear pump would only 
work satisfactorily up to a pressure of about 300 lb. per 
square inch, several such pumps were placed in series. To 
ensure a full supply of oil to each it was arranged that 
the output from each unit should be theoretically in excess 
of the requirements for the succeeding stage. To control 
the output from each section a small adjustable relief 
valve was introduced between the stages. This design has 
since been developed to the extent of producing a practical 
three-stage hydraulic pump which will give pressures of 
1,500 lb. per square inch or more, with a flow of 6 gallons 
per minute at normal engine revolutions. 

The modern pump has three stages, the main produc- 
tion version covering a range of pressures up to 1,200 lb. 
per square inch, with a delivery up to 180 gallons per 
hour. Actually this unit is known in the industry as the 
B.H. integral type, though it is built under Bristol patents. 
The first of these pumps to be type tested completed a 
hundred hours' test satisfactorily in February, 1936. It 
is claimed to have been the first successful hydraulic 
pump to meet aircraft requirements, and it is now being 
produced in very large numbers by sub-contractors. These 
hydraulic pumps form part of the back cover auxiliary 
equipment for all types of aero-engines, water-cooled and 
air-cooled radial types, British and American. 

The Bristol hydraulic system is operated as an open 
system, thus obviating the use of a " recuperator " or 
supplementary air pressure, which is necessary with a 
" closed system ", involving, as it does, the use of auxiliary 
pumps operated either by hand or by motor. 

The hydraulically operated gun turret on the Blenheim- 
was small — having only a 30" ring — and it was housed in a 
low-drag retractable cupola which was operated mechan- 
ically. The low drag of the Bristol cupola was attained 
largely by the use of a moving seat for the gunner, syn- 
chronised with the gun movement. Another feature of 
this Bristol turret was the " secondary motion " of the 
column on which the guns were mounted. It could be 
operated independently to enlarge the field of fire and to 
cover such areas as could not be reached by normal rota- 
tion. The first Blenheim turret was fitted with one Lewis 
gun and later with the Vickers G.O. or " gas-operated " 
gun. This turret was then developed for twin Browning 
guns, with which it is fitted to-day. The design was such 
that it could be manufactured with ordinary engineering 
plant without requiring unduly skilled labour. It was 
probably the only turret in the early days that could be 
sub-contracted and built straight from the drawings, 
while the hydraulic system could be serviced by the or- 
dinary R.A.F. personnel in the Service without " sending 
for the makers. " 

The fitting of a power-operated gun turret amidships in 
the fuselage involved the problem of a simple and efficient 
" fire cut-out ", as well as " gun restrictor gears " to avoid 
shooting off the tailplane, fin, wireless masts or airscrew 
discs, etc., or fouling the fuselage itself. The Bristol tur- 
ret, it is claimed, was the first to be provided with a com- 
pensator for rotational speeds on the " fire cut-out " 
mechanism. It ensures that a minimum of " cut-out 
cover " is provided for slow operational speeds of rotation, 



the cut-out cover being automatically increased in pro- 
portion to the increased speed of rotation. 

A special gun mounting incorporating a " harmonisa- 
ation gear " and a shock absorber system incorporated 
with a quick-release mechanism has been developed. The 
" harmonisation gear " is very simple and enables four 
guns to be lined up quickly and independently on the 
target. The quick release device enables the guns to be 
removed at the touch of a lever and to be as easily re- 
placed without handling anything but the gun, which be- 
comes automatically locked in position when it is pushed 
home. 

HIGH-SPEED ARC WELDING 

By S. G. P. de Lange and E. S. Waddington 

From Electrical Review, December 5, 1941 

In devising the series of experiments here described as 
to the possibility of obtaining a substantial increase in 
welding speed, it was decided that the line of research 
should be bounded by the following limitations : — ■ Ex- 
isting personnel to be used; cost of production not to be 
more; existing machines and equipment in the average 
works to be used with a minimum of additions for which 
reasonable delivery could be obtained or which could be 
fabricated in the works themselves; the process to be 
applicable to all types of firms and to shop as well as yard 
work and site fabrication. 

These limitations ruled out such methods of increasing 
production as the use of automatic welding and of very 
heavy electrodes, leaving two alternatives for investiga- 
tion. The first was the use of normal electrodes with in- 
creased currents and higher operating speeds. Prelimin- 
ary tests, however, showed that currents in excess of 
makers' normal recommendations on normal types of 
electrodes resulted in a very small increase in welding 
speed and in considerable difficulties in many cases. 

The second possibility was the use of electrodes with a 
high depositing speed due to the type of coating em- 
ployed. Preliminary investigation of theoretical deposit- 
ing speeds with such electrodes showed that probable re- 
sults would be so striking as to justify complete investi- 
gation and the obtaining of practical proof. Jigs and 
mechanical manipulators are not dealt with because they 
should be employed with either type of electrode, but the 
speed obtained by their use will be greatly increased with 
high-speed electrodes. 



Table 1 



Speed Of Deposition 



Gauge Unit of Deposit 



10 single run 
8 single run 
6 single run 



30 grams. 
54 grams. 
60 grams. 



Time per unit deposit 
in one foot of weld 

Not more than 70 sec. 
Not more than 90 sec. 
Not more than 90 sec. 



The next step was to decide the specification of high- 
speed electrodes. So as to eliminate the human element, 
since the actual amount of deposited metal varies to a 
certain extent with individual welders, the speed of a rod 
was based on a definite weight of deposit in a given time, 
and the figures in Table 1 were taken to represent the 
minimum depositing times for a high-speed electrode. 
Other deposit weights of multi-runs were based on cal- 
culations from these figures. 

A programme of experiments was then drawn up with 
the object of covering a large number of welds that would 
prove the advantages in production of the method advo- 
cated, involving the minimum of variables and eliminat- 
ing as far as possible human error. As it was essential to 
obtain tests that could be easily compared with results 
in practice without unnecessary elaboration, the theor- 
etical depositing efficiency, power consumption, efficiency 
of the welding plant, extra time, cost of electricity, weld- 
ing arc and energy in watts were not incorporated in the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



101 



tests. An efficiency test was, however, carried out on all 
the electrodes used, so that if necessary a more elaborate 
form of findings could be presented for those interested 
more in the theoretical side than the practical increase in 
production. 

The efficiency test consisted in taking three of each 
type and gauge of the electrodes employed on the speed 
tests, removing their coating and weighing the core wire. 
The total weight of the three selected electrodes was di- 
vided by three so as to give the average weight of steel 
per electrode. The electrodes were then deposited at the 
makers' recommended currents on suitable bases of steel. 
The increased weight of plate after welding was taken 
after allowance had been made for the weight and length 
of rod remaining in the holder. The weight of the weld- 
ing deposit was taken to an accuracy of half a gramme 
and the figure of the percentage yield by weight was used 
for the efficiency of the electrode in question. 

In the tests, pieces of mid-steel plate a /4, % and y%" 
thick were taken, the length of each piece being slightly 
in excess of 12". The plates were weighed to an accuracy 
of one gramme. A large number of pieces were prepared 
so that fillet and butt welds could be carried out. The 
fillet welds were made to two standards; one with a rea- 
sonable throat thickness such as is common practice in 
many works and suitable for a large number of ordinary 
production jobs, and the other with a full-throat thickness 
to comply with British Standard Specification No. 538. 
The butt- weld test pieces were vee'd to 70°. 

First the fillet weld tests were carried out, the pro- 
cedure being to deposit the selected electrode with the 
maximum speed and the highest possible current that 
could be used with satisfactory mechanical and physical 
properties. After welding, the test pieces were thoroughly 
cleaned and accurately weighed in order to ascertain the 
amount of deposited metal. Exact times were taken with 
a stop-watch of first-grade accuracy and the operating 
currents were measured by an external ammeter. 

For the butt welds a similar procedure was carried out 
and the whole of the results were brought together in a 
large number of tables from which Table 2 is quoted. 

De-slagging times were not taken into account, as these 
varied very considerably with the different makes of 
electrodes. The high-speed electrodes employed were of 
the instantaneous de-slagging types, so that a comparison 
that included these times would be even more favourable; 
also if the efficiency figures had been used in the calcula- 
tions, the result again would have been more favourable, 
as the efficiency of the high-speed electrodes varied from 
89.5 to 96 per cent, compared with 62.0 to 90.5 per cent 
for the normal electrodes. 

Table 2. — Savings In Man-Hours And Wages 
On 1 Million Feet 



Average man-hours saved 
No. of (based on average of 

Test slowest and fastest 

normal electrodes) 



Average saving Average 

(based on saving in 

slowest and wages — at 2s 

fastest times) per hour 
(per cent.) 

32.9 930 

21.2 1027 

24.1 1180 

38.7 1597 

26.1 2430 

21.1 1722 

33.1 1194 

27.0 4333 

46.0 5125 

The average number of man-hours saved in the nine 
tests was 21.712. 

Dealing with the summary of savings the following 
striking figures arc found. The average saving based on 



1 


9.305 


2 


10.278 


3 


11.805 


4 


15.972 


5 


24.306 


6 


17.222 


7 


11.945 


8 


43.333 


9 


51.250 



the slowest and fastest times is 30 per cent, and the 
highest average is 45 per cent, for the heavier plate. 

Then again in one million feet of weld the average of 
nine tests shows a saving of 21.712 man-hours with a 
maximum saving of 51.250 man-hours, again based on 
one million feet of weld, but without taking into account 
de-slagging times or electrode efficiency. 

Photographs taken of welds obtained in the tests prove 
that the high-speed welds were equal, if not superior, to 
the normal welds. 

As all the pieces were satisfactory, the findings from the 
tests can be taken as conclusive proof that these results 
can be obtained by any works which desires to increase 
welding production without having to alter existing equip- 
ment or train operators in an entirely new technique and 
methods. 

For instance, let us suppose that a general fabrication 
shop has a large contract to carry out involving 1 million 
ft. of Vi" plate and 2 million ft. of %" plate, fillet weld. 
both of normal throat thickness, and % million ft. of Vk" 
plate, butt weld, the corresponding savings would be 32.9, 
38.7 and 46 per cent. 

Assuming that the average wages for a first-class welder 
are 2s. per hour and that the overheads on labour are 150 
per cent., then the saving on the above work alone would 
represent £16.716, apart from the saving in man-hours 
and production in a far shorter time. Even this figure 
would be increased in many cases, due to taking into ac- 
count electrode efficiency. 

WOMEN WAR WELDERS 

From Robert Williamson* 

Managers of Britain's war factories are discovering that 
the women now coming into their works from shops, of- 
fices, the professions and private life, have very definite 
likes and dislikes about the kind of work they wish to do. 
Some take to turning wheels, others prefer to use hand- 
tools; some enjoy work calling for concentration, others 
would sooner have simple repetition work. 

Welding is a job that many women are turning to now, 
but even here there are two distinct camps, those who like 
the fireworks of electric arc welding and those who prefer 
fusion welding. It is often very difficult to get women 
to transfer from one method to the other. 

But in one important British factory fusion welding 
has been made much simpler and more effective by a new 
process which eliminates the usual defects. Its main fea- 
ture is the application of a controlled temperature ap- 
plied before and during either a manual or a machine 
weld. Other features prevent the formation of gas crevices 
or pockets. Formerly, in spite of X-ray examination, 
weaknesses were liable to occur, and could be finally 
detected only in mechanical tests. 

PAPER AND MUNITIONS 

From Engineering (London), November 28, 1941 

The war of 1914-18 was the first conflict, we believe, 
which really qualified for the description of a " paper 
war"; not merely on the score of the innumerable Notes 
and other diplomatic communications which passed and re- 
passed in bewildering profusion, but by reason of the quan- 
tity of " paper work " which complicated the existence of 
everyone concerned in it. There are various " establish- 
ments " laid down for the quantity of ammunition, food, 
and other consumable stores with which a warship, or a 
military unit of whatever size, from a battalion upwards, 
is required to take with it when on active service, but we 
do not recall having seen anywhere in such lists an item, 
"paper, tonnage of"; yet the account books which even 

* London Correspondent of The Engineering Journal. 



102 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



a company quartermaster-sergeant had to take with him 
to the front needed some carrying. But, in that war, paper 
had not really come into its own as a munition; war was 
still very much an affair of steel, and brass, and the more 
expensive kinds of timber. Ammunition boxes were made 
of walnut; why walnut, we have never heard explained. 
Towards the end of the war, someone in authority began 
to see reason, and cheaper timbers were used; but the 
war was hardly over before stocks of practically new 
walnut ammunition boxes were being sold for firewood. 
A North-East Coast workhouse-master bought 50 tons 
of them for his clientele to chop up. 

This is a more expensive war than the last but in a 
few ways it is being conducted more economically. Am- 
munition boxes, and many other really useful military 
stores, are now made from waste paper, as the Press of 
the country has been telling the public with unwonted 
unanimity for the past month or more. It is for this pur- 
pose, and not to relieve the shortage of paper for print- 
ing (for which, in any case, the salved waste is not suit- 
able) that Lord Beaverbrook made his appeal for an 
immediate 100,000 tons — a total which, large as it ap- 
pears, represents only about 3 per cent of the pre-war 
annual consumption of paper in Great Britain. The pro- 
gress of the various local collections suggests that a great 
part of this amount should be forthcoming from domestic 
sources, but this is a reserve which, once consumed, can- 
not be replenished while the war lasts. For the regular 
flow that will be still required, therefore, it is probable 
that increased reliance must be placed on industrial ac- 
cumulations. How extensive these are is probably not 
fully realised even yet by many firms and public-utility 
undertakings. We should not have thought it possible, 
had the question been put to us at the outbreak of war, 
before the paper problem became acute, that the offices 
of Engineering could contribute over 11 tons of paper to 
the national collection; yet this has proved to be the case. 
Admittedly, this total has been achieved only by the 
sacrifice of some files of periodicals which, in happier 
times, we should have preferred to keep for a year or two 
longer, for possible reference purposes; but the issues con- 
cerned can all be consulted in such public reference files 
as those of the Patent Office (where photographic copies 
of particular articles can still be obtained), the Science 
Library at South Kensington, and the libraries of the 
technical institutions, the value of which has not been so 
fully appreciated in the past by industry as it has been 
by research workers. 

This is one direction in which firms might look for the 
quota of waste paper that the national need requires of 
them. Like all purges, however, it should be conducted 
with discrimination; and we would suggest once again 
that, before jettisoning files of periodicals that are not 
likely to be widely preserved in this country, but which 
are of technical value, firms or individuals should inquire 



of the more important public and semi-public libraries 
whether any particular issues are needed to complete their 
own sets. This precaution is especially desirable, of 
course, in the case of Continental publications, though 
there are some British works of reference, complete files 
of which are not to be found even in the great national 
libraries. 

There are many other directions, however, in which 
engineering firms may be able to assist, one of the most 
promising being the masses of blue prints which are fre- 
quently retained as shop records of finished work, even 
though they may show no departure whatever from the 
original tracings. The preservation of such prints is very 
liable to become a habit; and, even if some copies must 
be kept as records of modifications, they usually represent 
only a fraction of the prints that are pigeon-holed away 
because it is no one's particular responsibility to decide 
their fate. Timekeepers' records, stores issue books, and 
similar papers of purely ephemeral utility are not in- 
frequently preserved for years after they have ceased to 
have any real value. Among the more technical publica- 
tions which are apt to outlive their usefulness may be 
mentioned proof copies of papers read before institutions, 
and obsolete issues of British Standard and other specifi- 
cations, long superseded by revised editions. 

While, realising the need for waste paper, we have 
been glad to do our share in striving to bring it home to 
those who may not yet appreciate its real urgency, we 
still feel that Government departments themselves might 
do much more to set a national example in avoiding the 
wasteful use of paper. The case, reported in The Times 
on November 25, of the shipmaster who collected 5 tons 
of waste paper from his holds and 'tween decks after the 
cargo had been discharged, but was forced to take it to 
sea and dump it overboard because, if landed, it would 
have been classed as an " import ", for which no author- 
ity existed, is a typical piece of official absurdity; but it 
is not so much worse than some of the waste of new paper 
that occurs when an all-powerful department decides to 
set up a publishing organisation. We have recently re- 
ceived a copy of No. 1 of The Midnight Watch, the wall- 
sheet with which apparently, the whole country is to be 
placarded in the supposed interests of the fire guards and 
other civil defence forces. As an example of the wasteful 
use of paper, it is outstanding. Other departments con- 
tinually shower upon us. and presumably on other edi- 
torial offices also, quantities of notices, memoranda and 
circulars of no conceivable interest to any engineering 
journal; in one case, at least, after we had written to re- 
quest that no further matter should be sent and had re- 
ceived the thanks of the department for doing so. When 
such official waste persists, it is not easy to persuade the 
public of the necessity for such drastic economy as is 
enforced by the Control of Paper (No. 36) Order, the full 
scope of which they have not yet begun to realise. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



103 



From Month to Month 



HALIFAX BRANCH MOVES UP 

The fourth branch in Canada to pass the two hundred 
mark in membership is Halifax. At the January meeting 
of Council, acknowledgement of the new status was made 
by approving the selection of a second councillor for the 
branch. Halifax now joins with Montreal, Toronto and 
Ottawa to make the " big four." 

The workings of the co-operative agreement have aided 
considerably in bringing about this change, but principal 
credit must go to the engineers themselves who have 
worked unceasingly towards building up the membership 
and consolidating the profession in the province. It was 
this group which worked out the agreement and saw to 
it that co-operation became more than a word. 

The membership of two hundred in a city the size of 
Halifax is something of which to be proud. It must not 
be thought that this figure has been reached by transfers 
from other branches or by other newcomers to the city. 
It was made up of the citizens in Halifax, who are show- 
ing their approval of the co-operative efforts of both 
the Association and The Institute by joining both 
organizations. 

It is interesting to note that after two years of co- 
ordinated activity ninety-six per cent of all members of 
The Institute in the province are now members of the 
Association as well. In Nova Scotia under a voluntary 
agreement, joint membership — the first step towards real 
co-operation — has become a reality. 

Congratulations to Halifax and to Nova Scotia. 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS 

Journal readers will have noticed, for some time, oc- 
casional short articles written by Robert Williamson, and 
more recently, articles by Lt. Colonel W. Lockwood 
Marsh and Major Oliver Stewart. These gentlemen write 
from London, England, and The Journal is very pleased 
to have their contributions. 

Mr. Williamson is a free-lance writer in the field of 
general engineering. He has sent us interesting accounts 
of developments in such fields as civil engineering, metal 
trades, aircraft, railways and so on. 

Lt. Colonel Marsh is editor of Aircraft Engineering, 
published in London, and frequently prepares articles on 
aircraft for the Ministry of Information. He is recognized 
as an expert in this field. His paper " Equipment and 
Armament of the Royal Air Force " in the October 
Journal was one of the most informative papers of its 
kind published on this side of the Atlantic. The present 
issue also carries an interesting article by the same author 
on the quality of the British aeroplane. 

Major Stewart is editor of Aeronautics, and is a regular 
contributor to the London Evening Standard, in addition 
to doing a regular weekly air review for the Sunday Ob- 
server. His contributions are largely restricted to the 
subject of aeronautics, a field in which he is well qualified 
to speak. His article " Tactics and Unorthodox Aircraft " 
in the January Journal has received much favourable 
comment. As would be expected, this paper had to be 
submitted to the Canadian censors, and it was only after 
a clearance had been obtained from the English censors 
that permission was given for publication in The Journal. 

It is expected that further contributions will be received 
from these " London Correspondents." The Journal counts 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies. Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 



itself fortunate to be able to secure up-to-date engineer- 
ing articles from the centre of Empire by such competent 
authors. 

POLISH ENGINEERS IN CANADA 

A short time ago, on instruction of Council, a letter was 
sent to all those newcomers to Canada who are members 
of the Association of Polish Engineers in Canada, inform- 
ing them of the Institute's desire to welcome them to this 
country, and inviting them to participate in Institute 
activities. For their convenience the communication was 
translated into Polish. 

Herewith is an acknowledgment from the president of the 
Association. For obvious reasons his name is not published. 
All of these visitors have relatives still in Poland, and every- 
thing possible must be done to protect them from the dia- 
bolical activities of the Hun invader. The letter expresses 
appreciation of the Institute's assistance, but most signi- 
ficant is the note of courage and hope. It says "our Father- 
land . . . still remains proud and unbroken." 

The story of the Hun invasion, its unspeakable cruelties, 
the courage of the Polish people and their continued defi- 
ance of their despicable enemy will some day be known to 
the world. In the meantime, in Canada we have the oppor- 
tunity of knowing some of these people who have come here 
to continue their fight against the despoilers of their homes 
and country. It is a privilege to be associated with them. 

Herewith is the president's letter. 

Association of Polish Engineers in Canada 

Montreal, Que., 
January 9th, 1942. 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, ESQ., 

GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE 

ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, MONTREAL. 

Dear Mr. Wright: 

I have been asked, as President of the Association of 
Polish Engineers in Canada, to express to you and to your 
Institute, the deep gratitude of our members for your more 
than kind letter of January 7th. 

We appreciate very much the sympathetic feelings of 
your association, so nicely expressed in your letter, written 
in our mother tongue; as well as the cordial hospitality we 
are enjoying in your noble country. 

This hospitality enables us to continue in a most effective 
manner — producing war tools in the Canadian war fac- 
tories — the task, the only task we have now, to fight the 
enemy — the common enemy — the invader of our unhappy 
Fatherland which, though oppressed, still remains proud 
and unbroken. 

I have been assured by my colleagues that they already 
love your beautiful country, as I do myself. 

After this war is over, the friendship and love between 
the Canadian and Polish peoples, in spite of the distance 
separating our countries, will be deep and sincere. 

Thanking you for the promise to send us The Engineering 
Journal, 

I am, 

Sincerely yours, 
Association of Polish Engineers in Canada. 

President. 



104 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



POST WAR RECONSTRUCTION 

Today one hears so much about post war problems that 
it would seem as if the war problems had all been solved. 
Many persons and organizations are rushing into print and 
discussions as if each thought the problem the most impor- 
tant matter on the world agenda. Doubtless it is important, 
but with victory still not fully arranged for, its sudden ap- 
pearance in the forefront of our deliberations may, to some, 
appear to be inappropriate. 

Several months ago and at frequent intervals since, pro- 
posals have been made that some attention should be paid 
to such matters by the Council of the Institute. Council did 
investigate the situation and was informed that a committee 
which appeared to be competent had been appointed by 
the Federal government to go into the problem in a national 
way. Council agreed that sectional thinking or planning 
would offer no satisfactory solution, and undertook to wait 
until the committee had had a chance to examine the situa- 
tion and prepare a solution that would include all parts 
of Canada and all occupational groups within it. It was 
Council's thought that in such a plan there must be a sec- 
tion which would be of particular interest to engineers and 
the Institute, to which it might apply its influence and 
energies. 

Insufficient publicity has been given to the creation and 
the work of the Federal "Committee on Reconstruction." 
Doubtless this has contributed to the anxiety of many 
people and led to the belief that no planning was being done. 
This in turn has caused many organizations to start some- 
thing of their own without any idea that others were al- 
ready active and that each was duplicating or complicating 
the work of the other. To the end that a better understand- 
ing of the situation and the problem may be had, the Journal 
publishes herewith a "release" which has been furnished it 
in consequence of an interview with Dr. Cyril James during 
which permission was asked to publicize the establishment 
and the work of the committee. 

Branches of the Institute may give real assistance to the 
committee by attacking specific problems that may be 
placed before them. By virtue of the national character of 
the Institute, it may be that comprehensive information 
can be assembled that will show the variation in the needs 
and desires of different parts of the country. In such things 
the Institute may find a real activity and render a real 
service. 

Council has these matters before it and is in close touch 
with the committee. As soon as specific direction is given to 
it, instructions and advice will be sent to the branches. It is 
desired to emphasize that planning to be constructive and 
effective should be done on a national co-operative basis. 
If every separate interest or group strikes out by itself, 
there will be much overlapping, many omissions and 
constant confusion. 

Committee on Reconstruction 

Dominion Government, Ottawa 

The Dominion Government gave its first attention to the 
problems of reconstruction after the war as early as Decem- 
ber, 1939, when a special Committee of the Cabinet was 
constituted (by P.C. 4O68J/2) "to procure information re- 
specting and give full consideration to and report regarding 
the problems which will arise from the demobilization and 
the discharge from time to time of members of the Forces 
during and after the conclusion of the present war, and the 
rehabilitation of such members into civil life." The Com- 
mittee, in February, 1941, advised that "the scope of its 
duties should be enlarged to include an examination and 
discussion of the general question of post-war reconstruc- 
tion, and to make recommendation as to what Government 
facilities should be established to deal with this question." 
By P.C. 1218 of February 17th, 1941, the functions of the 
Cabinet Committee were enlarged accordingly; and an 
advisory Committee on Reconstruction was set up shortly 
afterwards. 



Speaking before the Parliamentary Committee on the 
Pension Act and the War Veterans' Allowance Act (April 
4th, 1941), the Hon. Ian A. Mackenzie, Minister of Pen- 
sions and National Health referred to this as follows: 

"It has been found that all the bodies, official and un- 
official, which have been giving consideration to the 
question of rehabilitation of our ex-service men have 
become concerned about the question of post-war recon- 
struction. It must be clear that this matter of reconstruc- 
tion is much wider than that of the rehabilitation of our 
serving soldiers, sailors and airmen. So great indeed are 
the implications, so wide the variety of problems, and 
so significant for the future of our whole Dominion, that 
the study of the question should be begun now — and 
obviously it cannot be confined to any one group of men 
or Department, but must be the concern of every branch 
of the public service, and of every provincial and mun- 
icipal authority in Canada. Such being the case, the diffi- 
culty arises as to where a start can be made. The General 
Advisory Committee has at many points touched this 
problem, and as it is representative of many Departments 
of the Government, its co-operation in any study of the 
matter is essential. It seemed wise that a small Committee 
should undertake a survey of the whole field and look on 
the problem in a broad way. In consequence P.C. 1218 
amending P.C. 40683/2 empowers the special Committee 
of Cabinet to examine and discuss the general question 
of post-war reconstruction, and to make recommendation 
as to what Government facilities should be established 
to deal with this question." 

The powers and functions of the Committee on Recon- 
struction, as the advisory body set up to report to the 
Cabinet Committee on these matters, have recently been 
codified by Order-in-Council (P.C. 6874). This order auth- 
orizes the Committee to secure all necessary information 
"with regard to reconstruction policies and activities in 
Canada and abroad" and charges all departments or agen- 
cies of the government to co-operate with the Committee 
in the performance of its duties. 

The chairman of the Committee is Dr. F. Cyril James, 
Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University. Other 
members are Mr. Tom Moore, president of the Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada and former vice-chairman of 
the National Employment Commission; Mr. D. G. Mc- 
Kenzie, vice-president of United Grain Growers, Ltd., and 
former Minister of Agriculture in the Province of Manitoba; 
Mr. J. Stanley McLean, of the Canadian Chamber of Com- 
merce; Dr. R. C. Wallace, Principal of Queen's University 
and past president of the Royal Society of Canada, and Dr. 
Edouard Montpetit, K.C., Secretary-General of the Univer- 
sité de Montréal. All these members serve without remun- 
eration. Ex-officio members are Dr. W. A. Mackintosh, 
chairman of the Joint (Canadian-American) Economic 
Committee; Mr. Walter S. Woods, Associate Deputy 
Minister of Pensions and National Health; and Brig.-Gen. 
H. F. McDonald, chairman of the Advisory Committee on 
Demobilization and Rehabilitation. Dr. Leonard C. Marsh, 
formerly Director of Social Research at McGill University, 
is Research Adviser; and Mr. Robert England, formerly 
Director of the Canadian Legion Educational Services, is 
Executive Secretary. 

By P.C. 6874 it is provided that the chairman of "any 
other committee which may be appointed to consider any 
question of post-war economic reconstruction" shall attend 
meetings of the Committee on Reconstruction, and in 
other ways offer the fullest co-operation to the Committee. 

On the nature of the Committee and the formidable 
tasks before it, the Minister (in the same speech previously 
cited) has said the following: 

"It will be observed that the Cabinet Committee is 
not, under (the) additional term of reference (of P.C. 
40683^) instructed to submit a programme for post-war 
reconstruction ; it is asked to consider the whole problem, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



105 



and to make recommendation as to what facilities the 
Government should establish to deal with the question. 
It was therefore thought wise that a small group of able 
and distinguished citizens who were not already under 
pressure of Departmental war work in the public service, 
should be charged with the study of this work and asked 
to report to the Cabinet Committee. This Committee 
will assemble information from various bodies now en- 
gaged in a study of the aspects of economic, social, and 
international trends during war-time, and the probable 
direction of trade and development subsequent to the 
war. Through the Department of External Affairs, our 
High Commissioners and Legations abroad are sending 
us details of plans being made in Great Britain and the 
sister Dominions, and an effort will be made to secure as 
complete documentation as possible upon the whole 
problem. The forecast of a possible international system, 
the principles of social security which may be basic in a 
reconstruction programme, technological change, region- 
al specialization in relation to probable new methods and 
types of international trade, will have to be taken into 
account when consideration is given to planning of our 
post-war economy. This suggests at once a whole series 
of very difficult questions. What war-time controls now 
imposed upon industry and agriculture should be re- 
linquished or maintained, either partially or wholly ? 
How can transfer of war-time industry for peace-time 
purposes be achieved ? How can such transfer and new 
equipment be financed ? What will be the relation of our 
regional economies resting on raw material export to 
world trade ? Can unemployed labour be absorbed by the 
subsidizing of public works or by the use of public credit 
or funds ? What measures of physical reconstruction are 
necessary for the improvement of housing and health ? 
Questions of social policy as well as economic policy will 
be involved ..." 

The Advisory Committee has formulated a compre- 
hensive programme of inquiry to cover the wide range of 
post-war economic and social problems which constitute 
the territory of "reconstruction." A number of exploratory 
studies are now under way, all for the moment specifically 
Canadian in their area of reference, but geared to close 
co-operation with the work of similar Committees in Great 
Britain, other Dominions, and the United States. The 
special problems of demobilization of the armed forces are 
not included, as these are receiving the detailed attention 
of the Committee on Demobilization and Rehabilitation 
and its several sub-committees. The Committee on Recon- 
struction, like the Committee on Demobilization, reports 
directly to the Cabinet Committee, so that its documents 
are necessarily not public unless so authorized by the 
government. The Committee, is, however, open to receive 
suggestions from interested agencies and individuals, and 
welcomes the co-operation and interest of the citizen body 
of the Dominion. 

In addition to the above information the following ex- 
tracts from correspondence aie submitted to explain or 
illustrate the field and the work of the committee. 

Two special committees have been set up by the Dom- 
inion Government. Each of these is an advisory body 
charged with recommending on facilities and relevant 
policy, to a special Cabinet Committee set up in December, 
1940, empowered to act on all matters relating to rehabilita- 
tion and reconstruction. 

1. Demobilization and Rehabilitation 

One of these is specifically concerned with the demobiliza- 
tion of the armed forces and their re-establishment into 
civil life. This is composed of ranking civil servants, and 
is also an inter-departmental committee, so that it brings 
together all kinds of governmental personnel concerned. 
The parent committee has set up a series of sub-committees, 
all of which are busily engaged. Its activities range all the 
way from immediate demobilization techniques to admin- 



istrative procedures and provisions necessary for getting 
in the ex-service man on and across the threshold of civil 
employment. 

Undoubtedly the major product of the work of this com- 
mittee so far is that embodied in a recent Order-in-Council, 
P.C. 7633, which provides particularly for two things: the 
extension of unemployment insurance provisions to mem- 
bers of the forces; and secondly, comprehensive facilities 
for all men who wish to continue training or education 
after their period of military service. I know that the 
Demobilization Committee attaches great importance to 
this measure, and I think with good reason. 

2. Reconstruction 

The second committee is the Committee on Reconstruc- 
tion, which is charged with all phases of economic and 
social reconstruction over and above the problems of 
specific demobilization. 

This committee is of a different character, in accordance 
with the scope, and undoubtedly with the controversial 
nature of its task. It is directly linked with the Demobiliza- 
tion Committee through its joint executive secretary (Mr. 
England), and has other liaisons with governmental com- 
mittees both in Canada and elsewhere. But its primary 
members receive no remuneration and are in a position to 
give completely independent expression of their views. 

The secretariat of the committee has, among other things, 
built up as comprehensive as possible a body of information 
on the economic and social problems which must be the 
subject of reconstruction. The committee sketched out the 
general territory of reconstruction; and has undertaken a 
series of special studies relating to particular divisions of 
this territory. Since the reports and memoranda of the 
committee are the property of the Cabinet, they cannot, 
of course, be made public unless the government so desires. 
And in any case, the scope of the field is so vast that it 
would be futile to expect cut and dried plans to be drawn 
up at this stage. It is quite easy for this silence to be inter- 
preted as meaning that the committee is not doing any 
work; but I can assure you that such an impression would 
be wholly erroneous. 

But there is, of course, no secret about the territory of 
reconstruction, and the type of problems which have to 
receive consideration. They include: 

(i) The problems of re-employment and the structure 
of the post-war labour market; probably extending 
to the relations of the social services and educational 
facilities. 

(ii) The re-adaptation or re-orientation of the indus- 
trial and other economic expansion now proceeding 
at rapid pace for the prosecution of the war. It is of 
course possible to break this down into divisions of 
manufacturing industry, construction, agriculture 
and primary resources, etc. 

{Hi) The redirection and restoration of international 
trade; and allied reconstruction in the sphere of 
monetary systems and international investment. 

(iv) The redirection, abandonment, or other modifica- 
tion of the structure of legislative economic controls. 

(v) Works programmes, whether for emergency em- 
ployment provision or as part of the major tasks of 
physical and economic restoration. This of course 
may be conceived broadly as including such impor- 
tant matters as housing, and also natural resources 
conservation. 

All these topics will, of course, be the subject of much 
public discussion; there is already growing evidence of this 
interest, though it can hardly take precedence over interest 
in our first winning the war. 

I am sure there is no suggestion in the minds of any one 
connected with the Committee that this discussion of post- 
war problems and policy is the monopoly of the govern- 



106 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



merit's advisory committee. Public opinion itself is part of 
the reconstruction picture. From another angle, provincial 
and local governments are obviously concerned in present 
planning and future administration. Yet again, there is the 
vital fact that Canada's economic future is tied up inex- 
tricably with that of Britain, the Dominions and the United 
States. The Committee is well aware of these ramifications. 

MEETING OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council of The Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Saturday, January 17th, 1942, at ten 
thirty a.m. 

Present: Vice-President K. M. Cameron, in the chair; 
Past-President J. B. Challies; Vice-President de Gaspé 
Beaubien; Councillors J. H. Fregeau, J. G. Hall, W. G. 
Hunt, A. Larivière. C. K. McLeod. and G. M. Pitts; Gen- 
eral Secretary L. Austin Wright, and Assistant General 
Secretary Louis Trudel. 

Vice-President Cameron reported on the joint meeting 
of the Association of Professional Engineers and The In- 
stitute branches in New Brunswick held in Saint John on 
January 12th, at which the co-operative agreement be- 
tween The Institute and the Association had been signed. 
The president had been unable to make the trip, and had 
asked Mr. Cameron to sign on behalf of The Institute, 
an honor which he had greatly appreciated. 

A very successful meeting had been held. The Premier 
of the Province was present and gave a notable address 
on public affairs, which had been widely quoted in the 
press. Mr. Cameron remarked that this made four prov- 
inces out of eight in which there was a co-operative 
agreement between The Institute and the Provincial Pro- 
fessional Association. There is no Professional Association 
in Prince Edward Island. From general reports he be- 
lieved that the movement would gradually extend to the 
other provinces. Mr. Wright spoke of the forthcoming 
annual meeting of The Institute, and from conversations 
with the Premier and other officials it seemed to Mr. 
Cameron that there would be a good representation of 
engineers from the province of New Brunswick at the 
meeting. 

The general secretary reported briefly on the meeting of 
the executive committee of the Engineers' Council for Pro- 
fessional Development which he had attended, at Council's 
request, in place of Dr. J. B. Challies, The Institute's 
representative on the Council. Although a great deal of 
work had been done at this meeting, there was little new 
to report, the business consisting mostly of confirming the 
policies adopted at the recent annual meeting and the 
setting up of machinery necessary to carrying them out. 
Mr. Henninger, of the Committee on Information had 
submitted a dummy of the new booklet " Engineering as 
a Career." It would be distributed at a cost of ten cents 
a copy, or seven and a half cents a copy in lots of one 
hundred or more. Mr. Wright explained that Mr. H. F. 
Bennett had thought this would be a good booklet to 
distribute to heads of engineering schools and high schools, 
although it covered much of the same ground as our own 
booklet, which is also in the course of preparation. 

Mr. Beaubien, chairman of the Finance Committee, 
presented the auditors' statement for the year 1941. He 
pointed out that the report was made up in the usual way 
as far as the various items were concerned, but at the 
meeting of the Finance Committee some changes had been 
suggested. The land and buildings are carried on the 
books at actual cost, $91,495.22, which is out of propor- 
tion with their present value. In past years very little 
depreciation had been shown, and the Finance Committee 
recommended that an amount of $55,495.22 be allowed 
for depreciation, which would show the land and buildings 
at their assessed value, namely $36,000.00. 

Mr. Beaubien explained the various items on the state- 



ment, and pointed out that the financial condition of The 
Institute is better than it has been for a number of years. 

Mr. Wright reported that arrangements for the Annual 
Meeting were progressing favourably, although there was 
still some uncertainty as to whether or not two of the 
principal speakers would be able to be present. However, 
some very distinguished American engineers were ex- 
pected at the meeting, and it was hoped that it would be 
possible to arrange for substitutes should there be any 
last minute cancellations. 

Mr. Hunt, chairman of the Annual Meeting Commit- 
tee, gave a detailed report on the financing of the meet- 
ing. The desirability of asking for subscriptions from 
outside organizations was discussed, and it was agreed 
that the decision on this should be left to the annual meet- 
ing committee. In any case, Council would assume the 
responsibility for any deficit. 

The general secretary presented a report from the Pro- 
visional Committee of the Julian C. Smith Memorial 
Medal in which it was recommended that for the year 
1941 three additional awards be made which, in conjunc- 
tion with the eight made last year, would be known as 
inaugural awards. It recommended that the following 
persons receive the medal: 

Wilbert George McBride Montreal 

Professor and Head of Department of Mining En- 
gineering, McGill University. 
For outstanding academic service to a great uni- 
versity and for his contribution to the Canadian 
mining industry. 

William George Murrin Vancouver 

President, British Columbia Power Corporation, 

Limited. 
For his contribution to the development of the Prov- 
ince of British Columbia as a leading utility, banking 
and business executive. 

Ernest Walter Stedman, o.b.e. Ottawa 

Air Vice-Marshal 

For professional service of vital importance to the 
Empire as Air Member of the Air Council for Aeron- 
autical Engineering in the Royal Canadian Air Force. 

Council accepted the report unanimously, and directed 
that copies of it be submitted to all members of Council 
and to all past-presidents. It also requested that the three 
additional recipients be appropriately advised by the 
president. 

The Provisional Committee's report also made certain 
recommendations with regard to rules and regulations for 
future awards. These are to be considered at the February 
meeting of Council. 

The general secretary reported that the corporate mem- 
bership of the Halifax Branch has now passed the two- 
hundred mark, and that, in accordance with the by-laws, 
the branch is now entitled to a second councillor. On the 
recommendation of the executive, it was unanimously 
resolved that John R. Kaye, m.e.i.c., be appointed as the 
second councillor representing the Halifax Branch. 

A letter was presented from the secretary of the Tor- 
onto Branch requesting Council to hold a regional meeting 
of Council in Toronto on a Saturday early in April. The 
Council of the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Ontario holds its regular quarterly meeting about that 
time, and it was proposed that the two bodies should meet 
on the same day and devote the evening to a joint dinner 
to honour C. R. Young as the new dean of the Faculty 
of Applied Science and Engineering at the University of 
Toronto and also as president of The Institute. 

A letter from the secretary of the Association indicated 
that Saturday, April 18th, would be the most suitable date 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



107 



for the Association meeting. Accordingly, subject to the 
approval of the incoming Council, it was unanimously 
agreed that the April meeting of Council should be held 
in Toronto, on Saturday, the 18th, and that a joint dinner 
be held in the evening, at which the guest of honour would 
be Dean C. R. Young. 

The general secretary reported on the work of the War- 
time Bureau of Technical Personnel. He mentioned the 
possibility of a change in regulations whereby the Bureau 
might be given additional work to do along with addi- 
tional responsibilites. He also stated that he was endeav- 
ouring to arrange things in such a way that he would have 
to spend less time at Ottawa and therefore would have 
more time for Institute affairs. 

It was noted that the Association of Professional En- 
gineers of Ontario was holding its annual meeting on the 
evening of the Council meeting, when W. C. Miller, 
m.e.i. c, of St. Thomas, would be installed as the new 
president. The general secretary was directed to send the 
congratulations and good wishes of Council to the 
Association and to Mr. Miller. 

In view of the fact that The Institute's representative 
on the National Construction Council of Canada is now 
residing in Montreal, and as his term of office will expire 
within the next month or two, it was suggested that some 
member of The Institute in Ontario, who would be in a 
better position to take an active part in the deliberations 
of the Council, should be asked to accept this appoint- 
ment. Accordingly, it was unanimously resolved that 
Mr. D. C. Tennant, m.e.i.c, of Toronto, be appointed as 
The Institute's representative on the Council for the 
coming year. 

On the motion of Dr. Challies, seconded by Mr. Hall, 
it was unanimously resolved that Dr. P. L. Pratley, 
m.e.i.c, be renominated for a further three-year period 
as The Institute's representative on the Main Committee 
of the Canadian Engineering Standards Association. 

Letters were presented from Mr. Fraser S. Keith and 
Mr. Mudge suggesting that the gun which stands on The 
Institute's property on Mansfield Street should be turned 
over to the government for war purposes. There was an 
interesting story in connection with the gun, which Mr. 
Keith could supply, and which might be published if the 
gun were presented to the government. 

Mr. McLeod understood that all such guns were the 
property of the government. The City of Westmount had 
been informed that the government was calling for tenders 
to collect all these guns and salvage them. After discus- 
sion, it was left with the general secretary to make in- 
quiries and find out just what the situation is, and dispose 
of the gun to the best advantage of the government- 
sponsored salvage campaign. 

A resolution from the Lakehead Branch of The Insti- 
tute was presented to Council. This resolution dealt with 
post-war problems and concluded with a recommendation 
that the resolution be submitted for discussion at the next 
annual meeting, in the belief that out of such a discussion 
could be developed a policy for The Institute to follow. 
The resolution made certain specific recommendations for 
an Institute organization, and concluded with the recom- 
mendation " that planning for the post-war period be 
undertaken and continued as one of the major activities 
of The Institute until such time as normal peacetime con- 
ditions have been restored." 

A long discussion followed. It was pointed out that this 
matter had been before Council several times, and that 
at previous meetings it was decided to take no action at 
the moment in view of the fact that the Dominion gov- 
ernment had set up a non-partisan committee to examine 
the whole problem. Council's attitude had always been 
that it was undesirable to step into this very complicated 



field without first determining what had already been 
done by the main committee. In this way The Institute's 
efforts could be made to work in conjunction with the 
general plan, eliminating any possibility of hindering the 
work of the main committee. 

The general secretary reported that under instructions 
from the president he had interviewed Dr. F. Cyril James, 
principal of McGill, and chairman of the Federal Com- 
mittee on Reconstruction, in order to offer the co-opera- 
tion of The Institute and to determine the lines upon 
which any Institute activities should be developed. It was 
Dr. James' opinion that such an offer would be very help- 
ful, and he announced that a sub-committee was being 
established to investigate that portion of the problem 
which had to do with construction. He also announced 
that he had asked Mr. K. M. Cameron, chief engineer 
of the Department of Public Works, to accept the 
chairmanship. 

Mr. Cameron then outlined the situation as explained 
to him by Dr. James and by Dr. Marsh, who is the re- 
search adviser to the committee. He stated that very clear 
" terms of reference " had been given to him prescribing 
the work which his committee was to do. He also stated 
that the organization work was not yet complete and that 
very careful consideration was being given to it so that the 
persons most competent to contribute would be appointed. 

Mr. Cameron pointed out that no publicity had been 
given to the work of Dr. James' committee, and that con- 
sequently there was little likelihood at the present time 
of publicity being given to the appointment of the com- 
mittee of which he was chairman. However, he hoped 
that when details of the organization were finally drawn 
up, proper announcement could be made. In the mean- 
time he recommended that further consideration by 
Council be left in abeyance until he could report some 
more definite plans towards which Institute attention 
could be directed. 

Several councillors took part in the discussion which 
followed, and it was agreed that as the situation is still 
in a state of flux further activities on the part of The In- 
stitute should await advice from Mr. Cameron. It was 
hoped that something conclusive could be reported to the 
annual meeting of Council in February, which, in turn, 
might be announced to the annual general meeting. 

The general secretary was instructed to inform the 
Lakehead Branch that Council appreciated its interest 
and would be glad to follow up on their resolution after 
further intimation had been received from Dr. James or 
Mr. Cameron. It was also suggested that some publicity 
might be given to the fact that a national committee is 
already considering the post-war problems so that mem- 
bers would know that something was already under way, 
and that The Institute was standing-by at the request of 
Dr. James to assist as soon as clear definite lines had been 
established. 

A number of applications were considered, and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 

Admissions 

Members 12 

Juniors 1 

Students 20 

Affiliate 1 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 1 

Student to Member 2 

Student to Junior 3 

It was noted that the next meeting of Council would 
be held at Headquarters in Montreal on Wednesday, 
February 4th, 1942, at ten thirty a.m. 



108 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on January 17th, 1942, the fol- 
owing elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 

Barratt, Ernest F., b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), county engr. and 

road supt., Hamilton Suburban Roads Commission, Hamilton, Ont. 
Brown, Raymond Warrington, b.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask.), asst. 

mech. supt., Winnipeg Free Press Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 
iagnon, Paul Edouard, Chem. Engr. (Laval Univ.), d.sc. (Univ. of 

Paris), d.i.c. (Univ. of London), Ph.D. (Laval Univ.), director, 

dept. of chem. engrg., president, Graduate School, Laval Univ., 

Quebec, Que. 
7unn, George John Tait, b.sc. (Engrg.), (Heriot-Watt College), 

chief asst. engr., Trinidad Electricity Board, Port of Spain, Trini- 
dad, B.W.I. 
ielwig, Carl Everett, b.a.sc, m.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), lecturer, 

dept. of civil engrg., Univ. of Toronto, Ont. 
[rwin, Harold Stephen, b.a.sc (Univ. of Toronto), squad boss, 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., dftg. room, Toronto, Ont. 
HcRitchie, Charles Bell, (Glasgow & West of Scotland Tech. Coll.), 

partner, R. A. Rankin & Co., Montreal, Que. 
*rice, Gordon James, chief dftsman., Ont. Divn., Dominion Bridge 

Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Short, Harold William, sales engr., Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., 

Toronto, Ont. 
smith, Duncan Norman, b.s. (ce.), (Tri-State College of Engrg.), 

struct'l designer & estimator. Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Toronto, 

Ont. 
J^hitelev, Frederick Brvan, res. engr., Dept. of Transport, Belleville, 

Ont. 

Junior 

iolgate, David Crossley, B.Eng. (Civil), (McGill Univ.), dftsman., 
Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Affiliate 

ieaudoin, Hector Oswald, chief electrician, Price Bros. & Co. Ltd., 
Riverbend, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 

'aterson, Walter Howard, B.sc. (Queen's Univ.), field engr., Geolog- 
ical Dept., Tropical Oil Co., Barranca Bermeja, Colombia, S.A. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 

Sowlaii, Brete Cassius, Jr., B.Eng. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), Lieut., 
E. Section Commdr., 4th Cdn. Divn. Sigs. (A.F.), Debert Camp, 
N.S. 

faylor, James Lawrence, b.sc (Elec), (Queen's Univ.), asst. shift 
charge engr., London Power Co., London, England. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 

îrydges, Robert James, b.sc (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), wire & cable 
sales engr., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 

Smiley, Donald Charles, b.sc (Queen's Univ.), instructor, R.C.A.F., 
Radio Detachment, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 

-ii ran iia. Anthony Louis, b.sc (Queen's Univ.), asst. to chief engr., 
Public Utilities Commission, London, Ont. 

Students Admitted 
Anderson, John MacDonald, (McGill Univ.), 102 Fentiman Ave., 

Ottawa, Ont. 
^rchambault, Jean-Jacques, (Ecole Polytechnique), 6650 De Nor- 

man ville St., Montreal, Que. 
ïrett, John Edward, (McGill Univ.), 4180 Melrose Ave., Montreal, 

Que. 
"ami, John Leonard, (Univ. of Man.), 497 Craig St., Winnipeg, Man. 
Oalkin, Robert S., (McGill Univ.), 9 Willow Avenue, Westmount, 

Que. 
Dancose, Leon, (Ecole Polytechnique), 3591 Jeanne-Mance St., 

Montreal, Que. 
le Grandmont, Marcel, (McGill Univ.), 3647 Durocher St., 

Montreal, Que. 
Kriesbach, Robert Johnston, (McGill Univ.), 185 Dufferin Rd., 

Hampstead, Que. 
Hand, Dennis Herbert, (Univ. of Man.), 273 Eugenie St., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Laquerre, Maurice, (Ecole Polytechnique), 5025 Delorimier Ave., 

Montreal, Que. 
MacEachern, Clinton Whitman, (McGill Univ.), 419 Prince Arthur 

St., Montreal, Que. 
Moffatt, Allan Gray, (Univ. of Toronto), 150 Lascelles Blvd., 

Toronto, Ont. 
VlcCulloch, Urban Francis, (McGill Univ.), 127 Percival Ave., 

Montreal West, Que. 
VlcFarlane, Howard William, (Univ. of N.B.), 210 Lancaster Ave., 

West Saint John, N.B. 
Mills, John Wesley, (Queen's Univ.), 72 Craig St., Ottawa, Ont. 
Nathanson, Herzl King, (McGill Univ.), 376 Clarke Ave., West- 
mount, Que. 



Park, John Kenneth, (McGill Univ.), 177- 17th Ave., Lachine, Que. 
Pearson, Edward Bernard, (McGill Univ.), 477 Prince Arthur St. 

West, Montreal, Que. 
Petitpas, Marcel, (Ecole Polytechnique), 5509 Laurendeau St., 

Cote St. Paul, Montreal, Que. 
St-Jacques, Maurice, (École Polytechnique), 386 St. Catherine 

Road, Outremont, Que. 



R.A.F.'S AIRACOBRAS 

From Trade and Engineering (London), November, 1941 

For many months conflicting reports have been reach- 
ing this country from the United States regarding the 
performance and capabilities of the Bell Airacobra. Not 
for many years has such a controversy existed about an 
aeroplane. The strange thing about the statements on the 
Airacobra is that they ranged from the sublime to the ridic- 
ulous. Some spoke of speeds of about 500 m.p.h., others 
400 m.p.h.; still others raised doubts whether the Allison 
engine would stand up to the work required of a modern 
fighter. The reason for all this discussion and for the 
discrepancy in the reports was no doubt that few people 
had seen the Airacobra flying and not many more had 
even seen it on the ground. 

The most striking feature of the machine is that al- 
though it has a tractor airscrew the liquid-cooled engine 
is installed behind the pilot's cockpit, the airscrew being 
driven by a long shaft which passes through the pilot's 
cockpit under the seat. It is also fitted with the tricycle 
under carriage which is becoming almost a regular feature 
of all new American aircraft. It was not until the first 
Airacobras had been in this country for a week or two 
that some rational opinions could be obtained about the 
aircraft and its performance. Now the first squadron 
equipped with Airacobras has been formed as part of 
Fighter Command, and it has just become fully operation- 
al. The writer was permitted to visit the squadron recently 
to watch the machines in the air and on the ground and 
to ask the pilots what they thought about their new air- 
craft. The machines were deployed on the airfield and, 
with their tails held in the air by the tricycle undercar- 
riage near the nose of the fuselage, they presented a 
strange picture. 

The pilots of this squadron have now had their Aira- 
cobras sufficiently long to know all there is to be known 
about them. The squadron commander, a pilot of great 
experience who has flown Spitfires, Blenheims, Hurricanes, 
Beaufighters, and several other types, expressed the view 
that, up to certain heights (which may not be specified), 
the Airacobra is the finest fighter in the world — and he did 
not exclude the British Spitfires and Hurricanes. Up to 
these heights, he said the American fighter was faster. Its 
manoeuvrability was about the same as that of the Spit- 
fire and slightly less than that of the Hurricane. The 
Airacobra, he added, has limitations in altitude, but, as 
he pointed out, one cannot have everything in a single 
machine, and for the work to which it would be put he 
did not ask for a better all-round machine. 

In appearance the Airacobra is not unlike the Hurri- 
cane, though on the ground its tricycle undercarriage gives 
it a distinctive appearance. The front wheels of the un- 
dercarriage retract inwards, the outside shields of the 
wheels folding back flush with the floor of the fuselage. 
This single-seat, low-winged monoplane is powered by a 
liquid-cooled Allison 12-cylinder engine of 1,150 h.p. No 
performance figures are available in respect of the type 
used by the R.A.F. There are several versions of arma- 
ment. One consists of a 20mm. cannon, firing through the 
airscrew hub, two machine-guns located in the nose and 
firing through the airscrew, and four machine-guns in the 
wings. Another version has the 20mm. Oerlikon cannon 
in the nose, and four machine-guns in the wings — two 0.5 
and two 0.303. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



109 



Personals 



Louis O'Sullivan, m.e.i.c, has been appointed general 
executive assistant with Montreal Light, Heat and Power 
Consolidated. He has been on the staff of the company 
since 1923 and has held the positions of field engineer, 
designing engineer and transmission and right-of-way 
engineer, his duties being connected with the design and 
construction of electrical substations, transmission and dis- 




L. O'Sullivan, M.E.I.C. 

tribution lines, as well as supervision of land surveys, prop- 
erty purchases and title records. 

Mr. O'Sullivan is a graduate of McGill University where 
he obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1921. 
From 1921 to 1923 he worked for the City of Montreal on 
construction of its new aqueduct canal. 

Major-General H. F. G. Letson, M.c, m.e.i.c, has re- 
cently been appointed Adjutant General in the Department 
of National Defence Headquarters at Ottawa. Previously 
he was Canadian Military Attaché in Washington. 

Born at Vancouver, B.C., in 1896, he served in France 
with the 54th Battalion, C.E.F., in the Great War. He was 
severely wounded, and was awarded the Military Cross. 
Major-General Letson maintained his military interest after 
demobilization and had been associated with the Non- 
Permanent Active Militia. 

He received his education at the University of British 
Columbia, where he graduated with the degree of B.Sc. 
in mechanical engineering in 1919. In 1923 he was granted 
the degree of Ph.D., in engineering by the University of 
London, England, and was appointed assistant professor of 
mechanical engineering at the University of British Col- 
umbia. In 1931 he became associate professor of mechanical 
engineering, a position which he retained until 1934. At 
that time he became chief engineer and managing director 
of Letson and Burpee, Vancouver. In 1936 he was president 
of the Association of Professional Engineers of British 
Columbia. 

Major-General J. P. Mackenzie, D.s.o., m.e.i.c, of 
Vancouver, has been appointed Quartermaster-General in 
the Department of National Defence Headquarters at 
Ottawa. Until this appointment he was in command of an 
infantry brigade with the Canadian Army overseas. 

Major-General Mackenzie was born at Boissevain, Man., 
in 1884 and was educated at the University of Glasgow. 
He served overseas in the first great war with the Canadian 
Expeditionary Forces and upon his return to Canada in 
1919 he became engaged in construction work. From 1920 
to 1927 he was chief engineer of Henry and McFee at 
Seattle, Washington. In 1927-1928 he was field engineer 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



for the St. John Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company at 
St. John, N.B. He joined the staff of the Western Bridge 
Company at Vancouver as general sales manager in 1929 
and in 1932 he was made general manager, a position which 
he occupied until the outbreak of war. 

Stanley Shupe, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected chairman 
of the Hamilton Branch of the Institute. He was educated 
at the University of Toronto where he received the degree j 
of Bachelor of Applied Science in 1914. Mr. Shupe is city 
engineer of Kitchener, Ont., and has had extensive experi- 
ence in municipal engineering having been county engineer 
of Haldimand, Ont., and later town engineer of Oshawa. 
He is a past president of the Canadian Institute on Sewage ; 
and Sanitation. 




Stanley Shupe, M.E.I.C. 

J. B. Stirling, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected president of 
the Canadian Construction Association for the current year. 
He is vice-president of E. G. M. Cape and Company, con- 
tractors, Montreal. 

Born at Dundas, Ont., Mr. Stirling graduated from 
Queen's University as a Bachelor of Arts in 1909 and as a 
Bachelor of Science in 1911. In the early days of his career 
he worked on municipal construction projects. During the 
last war he served with the Canadian Expeditionary Force 
overseas, in the Royal Canadian Engineers. He has been 
associated with E. G. M. Cape and Company for the past 
twenty-six years, first as a field engineer and later as a 
supervising engineer. In 1928 he became a partner in the 
firm and a few years ago he was made vice-president in 
charge of operations. 

Mr. Stirling has been connected with construction pro- 
jects such as the Banting Institute in Toronto, docks and ; 
grain elevators at Saint John, N.B., and at Georgian Bay, I 
and the Canadian Vickers plant in Montreal. 

He is a member of the executive of the Montreal Branch | 
of the Institute. 

C. C. Lindsay, m.e.i.c, has recently been appointed by J 
the government of the province of Quebec a member of the 
Montreal Tramways Commission. Mr. Lindsay is in private 
practice at Montreal as a consulting engineer and land 
surveyor. He has been a member of the Institute for several 
years having been particularly active in the Montreal 
Branch. 

W. B. Scoular, m.e.i.c, division engineer of the Wayaga- 
mack Division of the Consolidated Paper Corporation, lias 



110 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



obtained a leave of absence to accept a position as works 
manager of the gun plant of the Dominion Bridge Company 
at Vancouver, B.C. Mr. Scoular graduated from Glasgow 
University in 1923, with the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
He came to Canada in 1929 and accepted a position on the 
staff of Dominion Bridge Company with whom he remained 
until 1936 when he went with Consolidated Paper Cor- 
poration, Laurentide Division. 

Flying Officer Walter L. Rice, m.e.i. c, has accepted a 
commission with the Royal Canadian Air Force and has 
been posted to No. 3 Training Command Headquarters. 
Works and Buildings, Montreal, where he has been em- 
ployed as senior assistant engineer since July, 1941. 

D. D. Whitson, m.e.i. c, plan examiner, Department of 
Buildings, City of Toronto, is now with the Works and 
Buildings Branch, Naval Service, Department of National 
Defence, Ottawa. 

William A. Hillman, m.e.i. a, is with the Foundation 
Company of Canada at Kenogami, Que., as superintendent 
of crushing and mining plants on the Shipshaw power 
project. 

G. W. Holder, m.e.i. a, who, at the beginning of last year 
had relinquished bis position as manager of the Sturgeon 
Falls division of the Abitibi Power and Paper Company 
Limited, has now been transferred to the engineering depart- 
ment of the Sault Ste. Marie mills of the Company. In the 
meantime, he had spent last winter as chief draughtsman 
at Iroquois Falls, and last summer his services had been 
loaned to the Government for the organization of the 
Wartime Machine Shop Board of the Canadian Pulp and 
Paper Association. 




H. Lloyd Johnston, M.E.I.C. 

H. Lloyd Johnston, m.e.i.c, has been elected chairman 
of the Border Cities Branch of the Institute. Born at 
Vancouver, B.C., he was educated at the University of 
British Columbia and at McGill University where he 
graduated in 1927. In the same year he became connected 
with the Canada Power and Paper Corporation as engineer 
in charge of building construction. In 1928 he was designing 
engineer and until 1936 was plant engineer for the same 
company at Windsor Mills, Que. He joined the staff of 
Canadian Industries Limited at Montreal in 1936 and in 
1938 he was transferred to the Windsor, Ont., plant of the 
company. 

Drummond Giles, m.e.i.c, vice-president of the Canadian 
SKF Company Ltd., has been appointed associate director- 
general of the subcontract branch of the Department of 
Munitions and Supply, Ottawa. 

Professor E. A. Allcut, m.e.i.c, professor of mechanical 
engineering at the University of Toronto, has been ap- 
pointed technical advisory editor of Manufacturing and 
Industrial Engineering, a monthly publication fromToronto. 



Jacques E. Hurtubise, jr. e. i.e., is the newly elected chair- 
man of the Junior Section of the Montreal Branch of the 
Institute. He was educated at Ecole Polytechnique where 
he received his degree in civil engineering in 1934. Upon 
graduation he joined the teaching staff of the Ecole Poly- 
technique as an instructor in the laboratory for testing 





J. E. Hurtubise, Jr.E.l.C. 

materials. In 1937 and 1938 he was reinforced concrete 
designer for Baulne and Leonard, Montreal. He is at present 
in charge of the laboratory for testing materials at 
the Ecole. 

André P. Benoit, Jr. e. i.e., has recently obtained a leave 
of absence from Dominion Rubber Company Limited, 
Montreal, to join the inspection staff of the Department of 
Munitions and Supply. A few days after he had been posted 
at the Montreal Locomotive Works Limited he suffered an 
accident when he slipped and fractured his right leg while 
testing a newly constructed tank. He is at present recov- 
ering in the hospital. Mr. Benoit was chairman of the 
Junior Section of the Montreal Branch of the Institute 
last year. His friends wish him a rapid and complete re- 
covery. 




Moran, M.E.I.C. 



T. M. Moran, m.e.i.c, vice-president of Stevenson and 
Kellogg Limited, was recently elected president of United 
Tool Engineering and Design Ltd., Toronto. 

H. A. Crombie, m.e.i.c, has been recently appointed 
administrator of plant machinery, equipment and supplies 
for the Wartime Prices and Trade Board with offices in 
Montreal. Mr. Crombie is assistant manager of the Domin- 
ion Engineering Company Limited, Montreal, having joined 
this firm in 1920. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



111 



Flight-Lieut. E. H. Jones, M.E.I. C, who was commis- 
sioned in the Royal Canadian Air Force in June, 1941, is 
now officer commanding, Works and Buildings Division, 
No. 1 Service Flying Training School, at Camp Borden, Ont. 

A. E. K. Bunnell, M.E.I.C., partner, Wilson and Bunnell, 
consulting engineers, Toronto, is serving in the office of 
Mr. James Stewart, National Administrator of Services, 
the Wartime Prices and Trade Board, Toronto. Mr. Bunnell 
is director of Public Utility services. 

Robert W. Tassie, m.e.i.c, has joined the staff of Empresa 
Electrica de Guatemala at Guatemala, C.A. Mr. Tassie, 
who is vice-president of Emprezas Electricas Brasileiras, 
has been located in South America since 1911. At one time 
he was manager of the operating department of the Latin 
American projects of the Montreal Engineering Company. 

Stanley R. Frost, m.e.i.c, has been granted leave of ab- 
sence by the North American Cyanamid Company Limited 
to take a position on the staff of the Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel at Ottawa. Mr. Frost is the immediate 
past president of the Association of Professional Engineers 
of Ontario. 



S. D. Levine, s.e.i.c, has recently been transferred from 
the inspection staff of the Republic Steel Corporation in 
Buffalo, New York, to the Crucible Steel Company, at 
Harrison, N.J., with the Inspection Board of the United 
Kingdom and Canada. He graduated from the University 
of Toronto in 1939. 

D. C. R. Miller, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position with 
Research Enterprises Limited at Leaside, Ont. Previously 
he was connected with the Duplate Safety Glass Company 
at Oshawa. 

E. R. Jacobsen, m.e.i.c, was recently appointed personal 
assistant to L. R. Macgregor, director-general of the re- 
cently formed Australian War Supplies Procurement in 
Washington, D.C. Mr. Jacobsen is on temporary leave of 
absence from the Dominion Bridge Company, Limited, 
Montreal. 

T. S. Glover, m.e.i.c, manager, industrial department, 
Russell T. Kelley, Limited, Hamilton, has obtained a leave 
of absence to join the staff of the Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel at Ottawa. He is vice-chairman of the 
Hamilton Branch of the Institute. 




Stanley R. Frost, M.E.I.C. 

Jean V. Arpin, jr. e. i.e., has recently been put in charge 
of the inert component shop at Canadian Car Munitions 
Ltd. at St. Paul L'Ermite, Que., and at the same time he 
acts as technical advisor for the shell-filling groups. After 
graduating from the Ecole Polytechnique in 1938, he took 
a post graduate course in chemical engineering at the Ecole 
and in 1939 he was with the Department of Roads of the 
Province of Quebec. In 1940 he joined the staff of Canadian 
Car Munitions Ltd., and was sent to England, from where 
he returned to help organize the production in the com- 
pany's plant. 

N. W. D. Mann, Jr. e. i.e., is stationed at Ottawa as junior 
engineer on construction of the new headquarters building 
of the Royal Canadian Air Force. He graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Science in civil engineering at the 
University of New Brunswick in the class of 1937. From 
1937 to 1940 he was with the Department of Highways of 
New Brunswick as instrumentman and junior engineer. In 
1940 he joined the works and buildings division of the 
Department of National Defence at Gander, Newfoundland. 

John T. Mazur, s.e.i.c, has accepted a position with 
Massey-Harris Aircraft at Weston, Ont., as a tool and jig 
designer. He graduated from the University of Manitoba 
in 1940 with the degree of Bachelor of Science in civil 
engineering. 




T. S. Glover, M.E.I.C. 

B. H. Geary, s.e.i.c, has recently been transferred from 
the Peterborough Works to the Davenport Works of the 
Canadian General Electric Company in Toronto. He gradu- 
ated in electrical engineering from the University of New 
Brunswick in the class of 1940. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

H. F. Lambart, m.e.i.c, Life Member, Ottawa, Ont., on 
January 9th. 

W. E. Ross, m.e.i.c, manager, apparatus sales department, 
Canadian General Electric Company, Toronto, Ont., on 
January 15th. 

Wills Maclachlan, m.e.i.c, secretary-treasurer and engi- 
neer, Electrical Employers' Association of Ontario, Toronto, 
Ont., on January 20th. 

G. H. Thurber, m.e.i.c, Department of Public Works, 
Ottawa, Ont., on January 22nd. 

J. W. MacDonald, m.e.i.c, Avon River Power Company, 

Windsor, N.S., on January 26th. 

R. W. Boyle, m.e.i.c, Director, Division of Physics and 
Electrical Engineering, National Research Council, Ottawa, 
Ont., on January 26th. 

E. B. Horton, m.e.i.c, Boston, Mass., on January 30th. 



112 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

Walter Ritchie Duckworth, m.e.i.c, died in Vancouver, 
B.C., on January 13th, 1942. He was born at Montreal on 
December 31, 1870, and was educated at the Montreal High 
School, McGill University and later at St. Paul, Minn. 
From 1890 to 1892 he worked in the office of Chas. F. 
Loweth, consulting engineer in the department of bridge 
engineering and construction of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
way Company and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 
Railway Company. In 1892 he joined the staff of Dominion 
Bridge Company at Montreal as a designing draughtsman 
on swing bridge machinery. In 1896 he was appointed chief 
inspector and in 1912 he went to Vancouver. He was for 
some time connected with the Granby Consolidated Mining 
& Smelting & Power Company at Anyox, B.C., and later 
with the Greater Vancouver Water District Board. Lately 
he had been connected with the Dominion Bridge Company 
at Vancouver as plant engineer and assistant superintendent. 
Mr. Duckworth joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1912 and became a Member in 1940. 

Robert Leslie Murray, s.e.i.c, died at Vernon, P.E.I., on 
November 17th, 1941. He was born at Vernon on November 
11th, 1913, and received his education at Mount Allison 
University and Nova Scotia Technical College. From 1937 
until 1940 he was engaged on highway construction for the 
Department of Highways of Prince Edward Island. In 1940 




William Morrison Johnstone, M.E.I.C, died at his home 
in Ottawa on December 22nd, 1941. He was born at Stam- 
ford, Ont., on October 11th, 1889, and was educated at 
Queen's University where he received his Bachelor of 
Science degree in 1913. Upon graduation he joined the 
engineering staff of the City of Toronto and after a few 
months he became resident engineer on sewer construction. 
In 1916 he joined the staff of the International Nickel 
Company at Copper Cliff, Ont., and worked for this firm 
as construction cost engineer until 1918 when he went 
overseas. In 1919, upon his return to Canada, he joined the 
staff of the City of Hamilton, where he was employed on 
sidewalk construction. Later he became in charge of sewers 
and underground construction. In 1930 he became manag- 
ing director of Stanley Contracting Limited, Hamilton, and 
in 1932 he joined the engineering staff of the City of Ottawa 
as deputy engineer. In 1934 he became assistant commis- 
sioner of works for the city, a position which he occupied 
at the time of his death. 

Mr. Johnstone joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1921. He became a Member in 1940. 

Archibald Alexander MacDiarmid, m.e.i.c, died at his 
home in Quebec city on January 7th, 1942. He was born 
at Covey Hill, Que., on May 13th, 1885, and was educated 
at McGill University, where he received the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in 1910. Upon graduation he joined 
the engineering department of the Montreal Light, Heat 
and Power Consolidated and after two years he became in 
charge of this department. 

In 1914 he was employed by the Bathurst Lumber Com- 
pany at Bathurst, N.B., as chief engineer of the Lumber, 
Pulp and Paper Division, on the design, construction and 
operation of mills. For seven months in 1916 Mr. Mac- 
Diarmid was the chief engineer of the Mattagami Pulp 
and Paper Company at Smooth Rock Falls, Ont. From 
there he transferred to the Anglo-Newfoundland Develop- 
ment Company at Grand Falls, Newfoundland, as manager. 
In 1918 he was the special representative of the Federal 
Trade Committee in the Newsprint Price Fixing Case at 
Washington, D.C. From 1919 to 1921 he was employed 
as chief engineer of the Ironsides Paper Board Company, 
Norwich, Conn. 

In 1922 he joined the staff of Price Bros. & Co. Ltd., as 
chief engineer, a position which he occupied until his death. 

Mr. MacDiarmid joined the Institute as a Student in 
1909. In 1914 he was transferred to Associate Member and 
he became a Member in 1926. 



R. L. Murray, S.E.I.C. 



he joined the Department of National Defence of Canada 
and worked on airport construction at Summerside, P.E.I. 
He was appointed assistant engineer in charge of con- 
struction in April, 1941. 

Mr. Murray joined the Institute as a Student in 1931. 

William James Smither, m.e.i.c, died at his home in 
Toronto on January 18th, 1942, after a short illness. He 
was born at St. Thomas, Ont., on November 29th, 1880, 
and received his education at the University of Toronto, 
where he graduated as a Bachelor of Applied Science in 
1905. Following his graduation he spent some years en- 
gaged in engineering work in Vancouver, B.C., San Francisco 
and Los Angeles, Cal. His work in the latter two cities was 
in connection with the installation of hydraulic plants. In 
1911 he joined the engineering staff of the University of 
Toronto as a demonstrator in structural design. In 1915 he 
became lecturer, and in 1921, assistant professor of struc- 
tural engineering. Later he became associate professor. 

Professor Smither joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1914 and he was transferred to Member in 1925. 



COMING MEETINGS 

Ontario Good Roads Association — Annual Conven- 
tion, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, February 25-26th. 
Secretary, T. J. Mahony, Box 485, Hamilton, Ont. 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy — 

Forty-sixth Annual General Meeting, Royal York Hotel, 
Toronto, March 9-1 lth. Secretary, E. J. Carlysle, 906 
Drummond Bldg., Montreal. 

American Water Works Association, Canadian 
Section — Annual Convention at the General Brock Hotel, 
Niagara Falls, Ont., April 15-17th. Secretary, Dr. A. E. 
Berry, Ontario Department of Health, Parliament Build- 
ings, Toronto. 

American Water Works Association — Sixty-second 
Annual Convention at Stevens Hotel, Chicago, 111., June 
21-25th. Executive Secretary, Harry E. Jordan, 22 East 
40th Street, New York, N.Y. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



113 



News of the Branches 



HALIFAX BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c. ----- Secretary-Treasurer 
G. V. Ross, m.e.i.c. ----- Branch News Editor 

The annual meeting of the Halifax Branch was held as 
an informal dinner at the Halifax Hotel on December 18th. 
Fifty-five members and guests were present. 

S. W. Gray, secretary-treasurer, presented his financial 
statement and report for the past year. The report of the 
scrutineers showed the following new executive members 
had been elected: Percy A. Lovett (Chairman), J. D. Fraser, 
G. T. Clarke and G. J. Currie of Halifax, G. T. Medforth, 
Amherst, and J. W. MacDonald, Windsor. 

S. L. Fultz, retiring chairman, reviewed the activities of 
the branch during 1941. Since the co-operative agreement 
between the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Nova Scotia, the membership of the branch 
has increased by 170 to a total of 256, of whom 216 are full 
members. Five dinner meetings were held during the year, 
also the joint E.I.C. and A.P.E.N.S. banquet. Branch mem- 
bers have contributed ninety-five dollars to the Head- 
quarters Building Fund and eighty dollars has been invested 
in War Savings Certificates. The latter amount is the result 
of a decision to eliminate musical entertainment from the 
monthly dinner meetings and use the money for this 
purpose. 

Mr. Lovett took over as chairman and asked the mem- 
bers to support the executive as they have in the past. He 
stated that the recent increase in membership would entitle 
the branch to representation by an additional member on 
the Council. 

It was decided to hold the joint banquet with the Asso- 
ciation of Professional Engineers in January. 

An entertainment feature of the evening was provided by 
a General Electric Company film — "Exploring With 
X-Rays." 

LONDON BRANCH 



H. G. Stead, m.e.i.c. 

A. L. FuRANNA, S.E.I.C. 



- - Secretary-Treasurer 

- - Branch News Editor 



The December meeting of the branch was held on Decem- 
ber 10th in the new Cronyn Memorial Observatory at the 
University of Western Ontario. Dr. H. R. Kingston, head 
of the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy, and 
Rev. W. G. Colgrove, a member of the university staff, 
presented a most interesting programme. 

The first part of the evening was spent in the dome of the 
observatory where Rev. Colgrove explained the principles 
of their fine telescope. This telescope has a 10-inch lens and 
is the largest of its kind to be cast and ground on this side 
of the ocean. Unfortunately, the sky was overcast and 
there was no opportunity to view the planets through 
the telescope. 

For the second part of the evening, Dr. Kingston gave a 
lecture on astronomy, in which the meeting was given some 
idea of the complicated workings of our universe and of its 
enormous size. The lecture was illustrated by many models 
made by Rev. Colgrove. 

Rev. Colgrove then demonstrated his working model of 
our sun, earth and moon. This model showed simultaneous- 
ly all the motions of the earth and moon around the sun. 
The model also illustrated the seasons, the midnight sun, 
midday night and the phases of the moon. 

At the close of the lecture demonstration, R. W. Garrett, 
the branch chairman, called upon W. C. Miller who thanked 
both Dr. Kingston and Rev. Colgrove for their very 
interesting programme. 

Following the meeting a number of members remained 
to see the observatory's prized possession, a meteor. 

Many members took advantage of the invitation ex- 
tended to their wives and lady friends. 



MONTREAL BRANCH 



L. A. DUCHASTEL, M.E.I.C. - - 

G. G. Wanless, jr.E.i.c. - - 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



On January 8th Mr. Howard Johnson, a naval architect 
and ship surveyor, general manager of Midland Shipyards 
Ltd., addressed the branch on Shipyard Production 
Methods. He has had wide experience in a number of 
shipbuilding firms in England and Scotland, and has had 
the opportunity of visiting many yards in different countries. 

The paper deals with the application of straight-line pro- 
duction methods to construction of standardized 10,000 ton 
cargo vessels, as a means of speeding up shipbuilding during 
the emergency. It is published in this issue of the Journal. 

Mr. Johnson said that it is presently possible to com- 
plete a 10,000 ton standardized cargo vessel by such means 
in 25 weeks, of which 20 weeks are in the berth. During the 
discussion, Mr. R. E. Heartz described progress in Cana- 
dian yards, along these lines. It is expected that the 6J4- 
month building period will be reduced to 43^ months in 
time. This will be a major contribution to our defence. 

The branch was privileged to have present at its Annual 
Meeting on January 15th, Dr. C. J. Mackenzie, President 
of The Institute. 

The chairman, R. E. Heartz, discussed the 24th Annual 
Report which had been mailed to all members and com- 
mented on the good and active work of all committees. All 
activities had been maintained at full level despite the 
pressure of emergency duties. The membership committee 
showed a 90 per cent increase. A broader presentation of 
the Institute to the public was ably begun by Mr. Hulme's 
Publicity Committee. The Junior Section was complimented 
on their being able to maintain attendance; one of their 
meetings drew 170 members. The chairman expressed regret 
that Mr. André Benoit, Junior Section Chairman, should 
have had an unfortunate accident at this time. 

The following officers were elected for the coming year: 
J. A. Lalonde, Chairman; R. S. Eadie, Vice-Chairman; 
L. A. Duchastel, Secretary-Treasurer; R. E. Heartz, Past- 
Chairman; J. Comeau, J. M. Crawford, J. B. Stirling, H. F. 
Finnemore, R. C. Flitton, G. D. Hulme, Councillors. 

Mr. Heartz presented to Dr. Mackenzie, as the Montreal 
Branch contribution to the Headquarters Building Fund, 
a cheque for $6,000. 

Dr. Mackenzie said that success in the building fund 
campaign had had a salutary effect in solidifying the 
national organization. The Institute is the best developed 
of such national organizations, and being such should be 
capable of playing an outstanding part in general affairs, 
which of necessity must be more collectivistic in the future. 
He spoke of the Institute, through its early beginnings in 
Montreal, as "an organization born a bit before its time, 
in an era when specialization and individualism were dom- 
inant." This had made it possible for some groups to sur- 
vive more easily than others. Now collectivism was neces- 
sary for survival, as many European countries have learned 
before now. 

The speaker mentioned the large number of key posi- 
tions now held by engineers in Army, Navy, Air Force, as 
well as Government Departments directly connected with 
the war effort. Industrial production was seen as just now 
entering its fourth stage in which quantity production 
would be shortly achieved and a shortage of manpower 
would become evident. 

In addition to creating the fighting services and equip- 
ping them, Dr. Mackenzie foresaw a third major engineer- 
ing problem — that of maintaining a price ceiling without 
reduction of quality standards. 



114 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Mr. L. O'Sullivan moved the vote of thanks to the 
speaker which was most heartily endorsed by all those 
present. 

Mr. Heartz expressed his sincere thanks to the secretary- 
treasurer and all committee chairmen for having made his 
term of office so successful. 

The new Chairman, J. A. Lalonde, was escorted to the 
chair by Past-Presidents 0. 0. Lefebvre and F. P. Shear- 
wood. Mr. Lalonde, addressing himself to Dr. Mackenzie, 
Mr. Heartz and the members of the branch, promised to 
keep us busy and pledged his energy to maintaining the 
high standard of the Montreal Branch. He spoke in English 
and in French. 

By courtesy of the St. Maurice Power Co., a most in- 
structive film was presented, which showed stages in the 
building of the La Tuque dam. 

Mr. W. G. Hunt discussed highlights of the Annual 
Meeting to be held February 5th and 6th. 

The meeting adjourned for refreshments. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



A. A. SWINNEETON, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



At the noon luncheon on December 18th, 1941, A. L. 
Malcolm, b.a.sc, senior field engineer in charge of hydro- 
electric development construction for the Ontario Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission, spoke upon some of the 
Construction Features of the Barrett Chute Develop- 
ment on the Madawaska river in Ontario, about 25 miles 
southeast of Pembroke. His talk was illustrated by coloured 
motion pictures. 

This development was begun in September, 1940, and 
is expected to be complete early in midsummer of 1942. 
It is designed to supply an additional 54,000 horsepower 
which will mean much to Ontario where a large part of 
Canada's war industries are concentrated. 

Mr. Malcolm's paper dealt in large part with the con- 
struction of the dam itself and was listened to with a great 
deal of interest by the members. It is the intention to pub- 
lish this paper in The Journal. 

The Annual Meeting of the Ottawa Branch was held on 
the evening of January 8th at the auditorium of the National 
Research Laboratories, followed by an illustrated address 
and demonstration by J. W. Bateman of Toronto on the 
"Magic of the Spectrum." 

At the Annual Meeting the usual reports were presented 
and the results of the elections to the branch were an- 
nounced. Chairman for the forthcoming year is N. B. 
MacRostie, secretary- treasurer is A. A. Swinnerton, and 
new members of the Managing Committee are W. H. G. 
Flay, G. A. Lindsay and R. Yuill. The retiring secretary- 
treasurer, R. K. Odell, was presented with a handsome 
travelling bag and a gold Engineering Institute pin. 

Mr. MacRostie presented an interim report on the work 
of the Committee on Air Raid Shelters and stated that a 
survey was being made of downtown and commercial build- 
ings and of residences and apartments in other sections of 
the city in connection with air raid shelter facilities. He said 
the libraries had secured books and pamphlets on the 
question of air raid shelters and these were available to 
the public. 

The secretary-treasurer's report showed an increase in 
branch membership of 26 during the year, the total now 
being 402 resident and 103 non-resident members. Two sets 
of drafting instruments were donated to the Ottawa Tech- 
nical School for presentation as prizes for proficiency in 
drafting and a copy of "Technical Methods of Analysis" 
by Griffin was presented to the Hull Technical School to 
be awarded to one of the students. The meeting voted 
unanimously to set aside $30 for the same purposes again 
this year. 

President C. J. Mackenzie and General Secretary L. 
Austin Wright of the Institute spoke briefly on the recon- 
struction plans of the Institute. 



The address and demonstration by J. W. Bateman re- 
quired the use of considerable apparatus and was listened 
to with rapt attention on the part of the audience. Mr. 
Bateman traced the history of artificial indoor lighting 
from the days of the general use of the candle to the ultra- 
modern methods of present-day illumination. He was 
thanked by Lieut. Commander C. P. Edwards and A. K. 
Hay. 

At the conclusion of the meeting refreshments were served. 

SAGUENAY BRANCH 



D. S. ESTABROOKS, M.E.I.C. 
J. P. ESTABROOK, jr.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



A meeting of the Saguenay Branch was held on December 
16th in the Arvida Protestant School. 

Before, being addressed by the speaker, the members were 
shown a film on "Photoelastic Stress Analysis" as it 
had been developed and investigated at the University of 
Manitoba. Transparent plastic models were used in this 
work and various engineering problems were given attention. 

Following this, the speaker, Mr. Jas. A. E. Gohier, was 
introduced by our chairman, Mr. N. F. McCaghey. As 
chief engineer of the Quebec Roads Department, Mr. 
Gohier was able to give a clear and interesting presentation 
of his subject — "Road Building in Quebec." 

Three factors must be considered in this work, namely, 
speed, density of traffic, and the size and nature of the 
vehicles to be accommodated. The severe changes experi- 
enced in these characteristics has demanded an alert and 
progressive planning of road projects during the past 
twenty-five years. An outline of the maximum and average 
traffic densities experienced on the main routes showed this 
to be the governing factor in the selection of a road type. 
In this regard, there are four important classes — two-lane, 
three-lane, four-lane divided and four-lane undivided 
highways. 

A two-lane highway can handle 3,500 cars per day with 
a percentage of trucks of from fifteen to twenty. However, 
with variations of crown and other features, the capacity 
may be reduced to 3,000. The three-lane can accommodate 
from six to ten thousand cars per day and is usually of 
concrete or asphalt construction. Although it is in a lower 
accident class, other characteristics do not usually warrant 
its use in this province. 

The four-lane undivided highway takes care of a traffic 
flow of from ten to twenty thousand cars and has the ad- 
vantage of adaptability during peak hours when traffic is 
predominantly in one direction. At such times three lanes 
may serve in one direction and one in the other. 

In the future we may expect to see our highways con- 
structed with a maximum curvature of four degrees and a 
greatly increased range of visibility. 

The speaker pointed out that accident increase was com- 
pletely out of proportion to the increase in registration of 
automobiles and mentioned the aids being provided the 
driver to induce him to be more careful. Pavement marking 
machines are in use and 874 miles of pavement have already 
been marked. The standard highway markings as used in 
the New York and Ontario road systems are to be closely 
followed. 

Films shown and explained by Mr. Gohier depicted road 
building as it has recently been carried out in the province. 
In making the pavements, an eight-inch layer of crushed 
stone is first put down as a cushion, covered with tar paper, 
and a concrete layer placed on top of this. This base is still 
abrasive and a finishing layer of pavement one and a half 
inches thick completes the road surface. Following this, 
the new concrete is covered with burlap and then with a 
special type of curing paper for five -days. Earth is no longer 
used at this stage of the work. 

Special mention was made of the construction of a traffic 
circle at Dorval and in closing Mr. Gohier stressed the 
importance of roads in times of an emergency. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



115 



HAMILTON BRANCH 



ANNUAL MEETING 




Councillor W. J. W. Reid, Col. D. A. White, 
Commandant, Army Trades School, Ham- 
ilton, and Councillor W. L. McFaul. 



Professor E. A. Allcut of Toronto, guest 

speaker, and W. A. T. Gilmour, Branch 

Chairman for 1941. 



Professor Allcut, W. A. T. Gilmour, Gen- 
eral Secretary L. Austin Wright and new 
Branch Chairman Stanley Shupe. 




F. R. Leadlay. H. A. Cooch and J. F. Crowley. 



W. E. Sprague, F. tl. Midgley, Mark Yong, E. G. Mackay 
and J. R. Dunbar. 




A. J. Turney and T. J. Boyle. 



Geo. Foot and C. H. Hutlon. 



116 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



QUEBEC BRANCH 

Paul Vincent, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
Lundi soir, le premier décembre, les membres de la sec- 
tion de Québec, tenaient leur trente-troisième Assemblée 
Générale Annuelle, dans la salle de réception de Québec 
Power à Québec. Cinquante-cinq membres y assistaient. 

Après la nomination des scrutateurs chargés de dépouiller 
le scrutin pour l'année 1941-42, le secrétaire donnait lecture 
du procès-verbal de l'Assemblée Annuelle du 25 novembre 
1940, du rapport du Conseil sur les activités de l'année 
1941 et il présentait le rapport financier pour l'année 
écoulée. 

L'assemblée procéda ensuite à la formation des divers 
comités de la Section, qui s'établissent comme suit: 

Législation: MM. 0. Desjardins, président, 

J. O. Martineau et J. G. O'Donnell. 

Recrutement: MM. Hector Cimon, président, 

E. D. Gray-Donald et Paul Vincent. 

Excursions: MM. Théo. Miville Dechêne, président, 
W. R. Caron et Yvon R. Tassé. 

Bibliothèque: MM. A. V. Dumas, président, René 
Dupuis, Théo. Miville Dechêne, J. O. 
Martineau et Burroughs Pelletier. 

Nominations: MM. Gustave St-Jacques, Jean St- 
Jacques et Théo. Miville Dechêne. 

Les scrutateurs, Yvon de Guise et Lucien Buteau, pré- 
sentèrent alors leur rapport sur le résultat des élections de 
la section de Québec pour 1941-42 et le président de l'assem- 
blée, Monsieur L. C. Dupuis, en donna lecture aux Membres 
comme suit: 

Président: L. C. Dupuis — réélu par acclamation 

Vice-Président: René Dupuis — élu " " 

Secr. -Trésorier: Paul Vincent — réélu " 
Conseillers élus pour deux ans: Stanislas Picard 

Ludger Gagnon 
G. W. Waddington. 

Trois autres conseillers ont encore un an d'office ce sont: 
MM. O. Desjardins, R. Sauvage et Gustave St-Jacques. 

Le conseil est complété par les membres ex-officio: MM. 
Hector Cimon, E. D. Gray-Donald, Alex. Larivière, R. B. 
McDunnough et Philippe Méthé, et enfin Monsieur A. R. 
Décary, président honoraire à vie de la section de Québec. 

Il avait été décidé que la coupe du premier tournoi de 
golf joué au Royal Quebec Golf Club, le 15 septembre 1941, 
serait présentée au champion avec les inscriptions de cir- 
constance gravées sur la coupe. Le président, L. C. Dupuis, 
offrit donc officiellement cette magnifique coupe, donnée 
par la Maison Geo. T. Davie & Sons, à Monsieur Ph. A. 
Dupuis, le champion pour 1941. Cette cérémonie raviva 
des souvenirs nombreux et variés et amena la discussion sur 
cet événement que tous souhaitent voir se répéter les 
années prochaines. 

L. C. Dupuis, le président réélu, termina l'assemblée en 
adressant quelques mots aux membres. Il les remercia 
d'abord de leur vote de confiance en le réélisant pour une 
seconde année, il exhorta les membres à venir en grand 
nombre à toutes nos réunions et il les félicita de s'être 
rendus aussi nombreux à l'Assemblée Annuelle. Il termina 
ces quelques mots par des tributs marques de reconnais- 
sance à l'adresse des officiers de Québec Power pour avoir 
mis leur salle à la disposition des membres de la section. 

M. Alex. Larivière nous fit ensuite apprécier durant une 
heure ses talents de cinématographe, en nous promenant 
autour de notre péninsule Gaspésienne. Ce fut un voyage 
magnifique. M. Larivière tint toute l'assistance en suspens 
par des films excitants sur la destruction de la flotte fran- 
çaise à Dakar, la chute du Pont Tacoma, et les belles 
ondines du New York World's Fair. 

La réunion se clôtura par des rafraîchissements servis aux 
membres pendant qu'ils échangeaient leurs vues sur les 
sujets d'actualité. 



Le 15 décembre 1941, la section de Québec avait une des 
réunions les plus instructives de l'année, dans la Salle des 
Comités du Château-Frontenac, à 8.15 hrs. 

Sous la présidence de Monsieur L. C. Dupuis, président 
de la section, MM. Gilles E. Sarault, ingénieur régional à 
Radio-Canada, Poste CBF, et Aurèle Séguin, commen- 
tateur de la même Société, nous entretenaient de la radio- 
diffusion. 

Les ingénieurs, accompagnés de leurs épouses ou amies, 
se rendirent au nombre de 200 pour écouter ces confé- 
renciers compétents. 

M. G. E. Sarault nous parla de "La Technique de la 
Radiodiffusion." Il commença par donner à son auditoire 
un rapide aperçu des principes fondamentaux de la radio; 
puis il passa à l'application pratique de ces principes, en 
faisant une revue de l'organisation nécessaire à une radio- 
diffusion complète. Cette conférence, brillamment illustrée 
par des projections de diagrammes et de schémas très bien 
imaginés et de nombreux appareils installés dans la salle, 
eut un vif succès dont tout le monde parle encore. 

M. Aurèle Séguin commenta ensuite un film en couleur 
préparé par la Société Radio-Canada et présenté pour la 
première fois à Québec. La Section de Québec de l'Institut 
profita de cette primeur et sût goûter la merveilleuse présen- 
tation de ces films. Chacun eut l'occasion de voir à l'écran 
ses artistes préférés de la radio dans les sketchs populaires 
"Pension Velder," "Un Homme et son Péché," "S.V.P.," 
etc. Ces films commentés par l'excellent conférencier qu'est 
Monsieur Séguin n'ont pas manqué d'intérêt pour toute 
l'assistance et ce dernier nous faisait des remarques et des 
réflexions intéressantes et très instructives, même des vers 
que nous citons ici: 

Si tu veux, faisons un rêve. 
Montons sur deux électrons; 
Tu m'emmènes, je t'enlève, 
Vois! déjà nous démarrons. 

Nous filons à toute allure 
Sans quitter notre fauteuil; 
Pas besoin d'autre monture 
Pour faire un voyage à l'oeil. 

Autrefois les pauvres types 
Qui voulaient franchir l'octroi, 
Risquant de casser leur pipe, 
Enfourchaient un palefroi. 

Pour aller chercher fortune 

Chez le Turc ou le Castillan, 

Il suffit, chose opportune, 

D'un' p'tite antenne d'appartement. 

Les conférenciers ont été ensuite remerciés: Monsieur 
Gilles Sarault par un de ses confrères de McGill, Monsieur 
Henri F. Béique, et Monsieur Aurèle Séguin par Monsieur 
Philippe Méthé. 

Monsieur Adrien Morin, l'auteur de ces films était à 
l'appareil de cinématographie et de reproduction. Ces films 
des mieux réussis furent vivement appréciés par tout 
l'auditoire. 

La soirée eu le résultat d'enthousiasmer tout le monde, 
tel qu'on pouvait s'y attendre. 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

Stewart Young, m.e.i.c. - - - Secretary-Treasurer 
The Saskatchewan Branch met in joint session with the 
Association of Professional Engineers and the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers at the Kitchener Hotel, 
Regina, on Tuesday evening, December 16th, 1941, to hear 
an address by Major T. G. Tyrer, recently returned from 
overseas. The meeting was preceded by the usual dinner, 
at which 30 members and guests were in attendance. 

Major Tyrer gave an outline of his personal experiences 
while on active service, following which there was a general 
discussion on conditions in the old land and a hearty vote 
of thanks to the speaker. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



117 



JOINT MEETING OF INSTITUTE BRANCHES IN NEW BRUNSWICK AND ASSOCI 
ATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS— for Signing of Co-operative Agreement. 




Sydney Hogg, R. Judge. C. <:. Kir by, F. A. Patriquen. W. Ganderton. 



118 



Left to right around the table, Couneillor <-. G. Murdoch, G. A. 
Vandervoort, H. W. McKiel, A. O. Wolff, A. Gray. J. P. Mooney. 

February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 



C. G. HE TONNANCODB, S.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



On December 3rd, at 8 p.m., in the Cascade Inn, Shawin- 
igan Falls, the members of the Shawinigan Chemical Insti- 
tute and the Canadian Club were guests of the St. Maurice 
Valley Branch, forming an audience of over a hundred. 

The subject under discussion was a difficult and con- 
troversial one, indeed, the St. Lawrence Deep Sea Water- 
way, but it was very well treated by our members, Messrs. 
J. R. Eastwood, of Grand 'Mère; R. H. Ferguson, of Trois- 
Rivières; and J. W. Stafford, of Shawinigan Falls; and 
illustrated by up-to-date maps and charts prepared for the 
occasion by the speakers. 

The meeting was jointly presided over by Dr. A. H. 
Heatley, Branch Chairman, and Mr. Hembly, Chairman of 
the Chemical Institute. Due to the last minute absence of 
Mr. Stafford, Dr. Heatley delivered his paper, while Mr. 
Timmis replaced Dr. Heatley in the chair. 

The evening was a success, and the credit goes to our 
speakers who must have spent considerable time and effort 
in its preparation. Their aim was to give the audience a 
clearer knowledge of the work already done, of the size and 
cost of the enterprise, and of the immediate results of its 
realization. 

The speakers were purely objective in their views. 

A general discussion followed, Messrs. E. R. Williams, 
Hembly, E. B. Wardle and A. H. Heatley being the leading 
contributors, among many others. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

J. H. Blake, m.e.i.c. - - - - Secretary-Treasurer 

The University of Manitoba film, "Photoelastic Stress 
Analysis," kindly loaned to the Victoria Branch through 
Professor A. E. Macdonald of the Department of Civil 



Engineering, was the subject of a very interesting hour 
following the annual meeting of the branch on January 16th. 

This film was taken around a series of particularly inter- 
esting experiments based on the study of internal stresses 
in plastic models of structures by means of the application 
of the principle of polarized light. Prior to the showing of 
this film, the executive of the branch arranged for a brief 
explanation of the principle of polarized light by a recent 
graduate of the University of British Columbia, Mr. Wm. 
H. Mathews, of the Provincial Department of Mines. Mr. 
Mathews' explanations greatly assisted in a more complete 
understanding of the experiments shown on this film. 

The film deals with the preparation of suitable plastics 
for the construction of models by which stresses due to 
various fixed and movable loads are studied by means of 
the passage of light being controlled by means of polariza- 
tion. By rotation of these planes the internal stresses can 
be visibly plotted and studied as by no other means, and 
pictorial records of them made. A number of various models 
are studied under actual proportionate load conditions and 
the resulting stresses, many of which are shown by coloured 
bands, can be seen under duplicated operating conditions. 
This process opens up an entirely new field for the deter- 
mination of internal stresses otherwise only obtainable by 
theoretical mathematical calculations. 

It is a long time since any engineering subject has pro- 
voked such a lengthy discussion period following presenta- 
tion as that resulting from the showing of this film, and the 
University of Manitoba and Professor Macdonald in par- 
ticular are to be complimented on the production of this 
film and for making it available to the branches of the 
Institute. 

This branch is looking forward to an active and interest- 
ing year under the direction of the new officers elected at 
this annual meeting. 



News of Other Societies 



ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 
OF ONTARIO 

Warren C. Miller, m.e.i.c, City Engineer, St. Thomas, 
has been elected president of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of the Province of Ontario and assumed office at 
the General Meeting of the Association which was held in 
the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, on January 17th. 




Warren C. Miller, M.E.I.C. 

Born in Point Edward, Ontario, he received his pre- 
liminary education at St. Thomas. After graduating from 
Queen's University in 1917, he served overseas with the 
Royal Canadian Engineers. In 1919, he went to St. Thomas 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 



as an inspector in the city engineer's department. Six 
months later he was appointed city engineer, a position 
which he has held continuously since that time. 

Major Miller has been a member of the Council of the 
Association for the past four years, and during that time 
has been chairman of the Legislation Committee. He is a 
past-president of the Canadian Institute on Sewage and 
Sanitation, a past chairman of the Canadian Section of the 
American Waterworks Association, and has served on the 
Council of The Engineering Institute of Canada. He was a 
member of the committee appointed jointly by the American 
Waterworks Association and the Municipal Finance 
Officers' Association that prepared the new waterworks 
accounting manual. He is also a member of the American 
Public Works Association. 

Most of his spare time is devoted to his job as Church- 
warden which he has held for eight years. He is also Lay 
Chairman of the Archdeaconry of Elgin and a member of 
the Executive Committee of the Synod of Huron. 

The following have been elected as members of the 
Council of the Association of Professional Engineers of the 
Province of Ontario for the year 1942: 

Vice-President: R. A. Elliott, General Manager, Deloro 
Smelting & Refining Co. Ltd., Deloro; Past-President: 
S. R. Frost, m.e.i.c, Sales Director, North American Cyan- 
amid Ltd., Toronto. 

Councillors: Civil Branch — J. Clark Keith, m.e.i.c, 
General Manager, Windsor Utilities Comm., Windsor; 
J. L. Lang, m.e.i.c, Lang & Ross, 620 Queen St., Sault Ste. 
Marie; N. D. Wilson, m.e.i.c, Wilson & Bunnell, 388 Yonge 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



119 



St., Toronto; Chemical Branch — R. M. Coleman, Smelter 
Supt., International Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd., Copper 
Cliff; E. T. Sterne, Manager, G. F. Sterne & Sons Ltd., 
Brantford; H. P. Stockwell, Chem. Engr., Ottawa Water 
Purification Plant, Ottawa; Electrical Branch — M. J. 
Aykroyd, Outside Plant Engineer, Bell Telephone Co. of 
Canada Ltd., Toronto; C. P. Edwards, m.e.i.c, Deputy 
Minister, Dept. of Transport, Ottawa; H. J. MacTavish, 
Secretary, Toronto Electric Commissioners, Toronto; 



Mechanical Branch — C. C. Cariss, m.e.i.c, Chief Engr., 
Waterous Limited, Brantford; G. Ross Lord, m.e.i.c, 
Asst. Professor of Mechanical Engrg., University of 
Toronto; K. R. Rybka, m.e.i.c, Associate, Walter J. 
Armstrong, Cons. Engr., 989 Bay St., Toronto; Mining 
Branch — J. M. Carter, Mill Supt., Mclntyre-Porcupine 
Mines Ltd., Schumacher; C. H. Hitchcock, Vice-President, 
Smith & Travers Co. Ltd., Sudbury; D. G. Sinclair, Asst. 
Deputy Minister, Ontario Dept. of Mines, Toronto. 



Library Notes 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 

Canadian Almanac, 1942: 

Edited by Horace C. Corner, Toronto, 
Copp Clark Co. Ltd., 6x9 in., $7.00. 

Canadian Engineering Publications Ltd. : 

The Engineering Catalogue, 1941. 

PROCEEDINGS, TRANSACTIONS 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers : 

Proceedings, Jan. to June, 1941. London, 
vol. 145. 

Royal Society of Canada : 

Transactions, section 2, 3rd series, vol. 35, 
meeting of May, 1941- 

American Society of Civil Engineers: 

Reprint from the Transactions vol. 106, 
1941 paper 2121, Masonry Dams, a sym- 
posium, 224 pages. 

REPORTS 

American Society of Civil Engineers — 
Manuals of Engineering: Practice 

Nos. 23, 24. 

Military roads in forward areas, July 21, 
1941- Surveys of highway engineering 
positions and salaries, July 21, 1941. 

Saskatchewan, Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers: 

Membership list, 1941 ■ 

U.S. Bureau of Standards — Building 
Materials and Structures: 

Report BMS78 — Structural, heat-trans- 
fer, and water-permeability properties of 
five earth-wall constructions. Report 
BMS79 — Water-distributing systems for 
buildings. 

Engineering Opportunities: 

General prospectus of the British Institute 
of Engineering Technology Ltd. 

Bell Telephone System — Technical Pub- 
lications: 

Magnetoshiction Young's modulus and 
damping of 68 permalloy; M aero molecular 
properties of linear polyesters; Current 
rating and life of cold-cathode lubes; 
Dilatometric study of the order-disorder 
transformation in Cu-Au alloys; Electron 
microscopes and their uses; Electron dif- 
fraction studies of thin films; Monographs 
B-1303, 1310, 1315-18. 

University of California Publications: 

Geology of the western Sierra Nevada 
between the Kings and San Joaquin Rivers, 
California, by Gordon A. MacDonald. 

Canada, Department of Mines and Re- 
sources — Mines and Geology Branch 
— Geological Survey Memoirs: 

Noranda District, Quebec, by M. E. 
Wilson, Memoir 229; Bousquet Joannes 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



Area, Québec, by H. C. Gunning, Memoir 
231 ; Mining Industry of Yukon, 1939 and 
1940, by H. S. Bostock, Memoir 234. 

Canada, Department of Mines and Re- 
sources — Mines and Geology Branch 
— Bureau of Mines: 

Pictou County Coalfield — Physical and 
chemical survey of coals from Canadian 
Collieries, No. 3. 

University of Illinois — Engineering Ex- 
periment Station Bulletins: 

Heat transfer to clouds of falling particles, 
by H. F. Johnstone, R. L. Pigford and 
J. H. Chapin, Bulletin 830; Tests of 
Cylindrical Shells, by W. M. Wilson and 
E. D. Olson, Bulletin 331; Analyses of 
skew slabs, by Vernon P. Jensen, Bulletin 



U.S. Department of the Interior — Bureau 
of Mines — Bulletins: 

Mechanical concentration of gases, No. 431 ; 
Some essential safety factors in tunneling, 
No. 439; Metal and non-metal mineacci- 
denls in the U.S., 1939 (excluding coal 
mines), No. 440. 
1 

U.S. Department of the Interior — Bureau 
of Mines — Technical Papers: 

Carbonizing properties and pétrographie 
composition of No. 1 bed coal from bell 
No. 1 mine, Sturgis, Crittenden County, 
Ky., and the effect of blending this coal 
with Pocahontas No. 3 and No. 4 bed coals, 
T.P. 628; Carbonizing properties and 
pétrographie composition of Powellton-Bed 
coal from Elk Creek No. 1 mine, Emmett, 
Logan County, W.Va., and the effect of 
blending this coal with Pocahontas No. 3 
and No. 4 bed coals, T.P. 630; Coalpaleo- 
botany, T.P. 631; Theoretical calculations 
for explosives, T.P. 632. 

National Management Council of the 
U.S.A.: 

Harry Arthur Hopf, fifth Cios medalist, 
April, 1940. 

Ottawa, King's Printer: 

Dominion-provincial conference, Jan. 14 
and 15, 1941. 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers: 

Geological investigation of dam sites on the 
St. Maurice river, Quebec, by Irving 
B. Crosby. 

Revue Trimestrielle Canadienne: 

Extract from the June issue, 1941- Le 
Saint-Laurent et son aménagement, by 
Olivier Lefebvre. 32 pages. 

Portland Cement Association: 

Continuous hollow girder concrete bridges. 
89 pages. 



BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books ap- \ 
pear here through the courtesy of the | 
Engineering Societies Library of New j' 
York. As yet the books are not in the \. 
Institute Library, but inquiries will be j 
welcomed at headquarters, or may be | 
sent direct to the publishers. 

ACOUSTICS OF BUILDINGS, including 
Acoustics of Auditoriums and Sound- 
proofing of Rooms 

By F. R. Watson. 3 ed. John Wiley & 
Sons, New York; Chapman & Hall, Lon- 
don, 1941- 171 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9y 2 x6in., cloth, $3.00. 
This well-known text has been rewritten 
to take account of developments during the 
last ten years, and again offers a convenient 
account of current opinion and practice. The 
conditions for perfect acoustics, the behavior 
of sound waves in rooms, the design of audi- 
toriums and methods of sound insulation are 
discussed in detail. 

AIR BASE 

By B. T. Guyton. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 
(Whittlesey House), New York and Lon- 
don, 1941- 295 pp., illus., 8Yix5Y2in., 
cloth, $2.50. 
In narrative style the author describes the 
environment and activities of a modern air 
base from his personal experience. The train- 
ing of pilots, the how and why of cruises, and 
the human side of life in the squadrons are 
some of the topics considered in this picture 
of air base life for the layman. 

AN APPROXIMATE MEASURE OF 
EARTHQUAKE EFFECT ON 
FRAMED STRUCTURES 

By R. S. Chew. Revised June 25, 1941. 
Richard Sanders Chew, 844-a Mills Build- 
ing, San Francisco, Calif. 96 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 11x814 *«•> paper, mani- 
fold, $5.00. 
The intention of this work is to provide 
architects and engineers with a practical view- 
point and solution of the earthquake problem 
within certain denned limits. The major part 
of the book consists of a practical rather than 
mathematical attempt to indicate approxi- 
mately the effect on a structure of oscillation 
of its foundation in a horizontal direction. A 
theoretical treatment of the problem is 
appended. 

BELT CONVEYORS AND BELT ELE- 
VATORS 

By F. V. Hetzel and R. K. Albright. 3 ed. 

rev. & enl., John Wiley & Sons, New 

York: Chapman & Hall, London, 1941- 

439 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 

9Vix6in., cloth, $6.00. 

This standard work on belt conveyors and 

belt elevators explains the principles of these 

mechanisms in a comprehensive, practical 

manner. Belt manufacture is covered, driving 



120 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



and supporting equipment is discussed, par- 
ticular uses for certain types of conveyors are 
indicated, and reasons are given for the vari- 
ous technical details described. 

BOULDER CANYON PROJECT FINAL 
REPORTS. Part IV— Design and 
Construction 

Bulletin 1 — General Features. 801 pp. 
Bulletin 2 — Boulder Dam. 253 pp. 
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of 
Reclamation, Denver, Colorado, 1941- 
Illus., diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 9Y 2 x 
6 in., cloth, $2.00 each; paper, $1.50 each. 
Continuing the series on the Boulder Can- 
yon project, the present bulletins deal with 
design and construction work. Bulletin 1 pre- 
sents general descriptive information about 
the preliminary construction, the power plant 
and other appurtenances to the dam, Lake 
Mead and the All-American Canal system. 
Bulletin 2 presents detailed data and informa- 
tion regarding the design and construction 
of the dam itself. 

BRIDGES AND THEIR BUILDERS 

By D. B. Steinman and S. R. Watson. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1941- 

379 pp., illus., diagrs., woodcuts, 9x6 in., 

cloth, $3.75. 
The development of the bridge through the 
ages is told in narrative style. The bridges are 
considered not only as pieces of engineering 
construction but also as expressions of the 
periods in which they were erected, and the 
characters and achievements of the builders 
are set forth against the background of the 
conditions under which they worked. With 
respect to the more important bridges a con- 
siderable amount of technical and factual 
data has been included. 

CAREER IN ENGINEERING, Require- 
ments, Opportunities 

By L. 0. Stewart. Iowa State College Press, 
Ames, Iowa, 1941. 87 pp., illus., tables, 
9x6 in., paper ($0.75, single copies; 
$0.50 for five or more). 
The first objective of this booklet is to 
furnish information about engineering to 
young men who are considering a career in 
that field. To do this the author presents 
answers for the three standard questions: 
what does an engineer do; what are the neces- 
sary qualifications; and what are the prospects 
for the future in the field. 

CIVIL DEFENCE 

By C. W. Glover. 3 ed. revised and enlarged. 
Chemical Publishing Co., Brooklyn, New 
York, 1941. 794 PP-, illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9 x 5Yi in., cloth, $16.50. 
This practical manual presents, with work- 
ing drawings, the methods required for ade- 
quate protection against aerial attack. The 
comprehensive nature of the work is indi- 
cated by the inclusion of material on bombs 
and their effects, war gases, camouflage, 
civilian instruction, training of A.R.P. per- 
sonnel, and cost estimates (British figures), 
in addition to the large amount of space de- 
voted to the construction of all types of 
protective buildings and shelters. There is a 
bibliography. 

COLLECTIVE WAGE DETERMINATION 

By Z. C. Dickinson. Ronald Press Co., 
New York, 1941. 640 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 8Y2 x 6 in., cloth, $5.00. 
Problems and principles in bargaining, 
arbitration and legislation are discussed in 
this general treatment of the question of re- 
muneration of workers. The material is 
divided into five parts, as follows: survey of 
the field; factors commonly invoked in collec- 
tive wage adjustments; wages and industrial 
fluctuations; wage policies and practices in 
private collective bargaining; and influences 
of public policy on wages. 

ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, Vol. I 

By T. H . Carr, unth a foreword by Sir L. 
Pearce. D. Van Nostiand Co., New York, 
1941. 376 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9 x 5]/ 2 in., cloth, $7.50. 



Volume I of this work on electric power 
stations deals mainly with the mechanical 
engineering aspects. Topics treated include 
the circulating water system, cooling towers, 
coal and ash handling, the boiler plant, pipe- 
work and turbines. There is an introductory 
chapter on design fundamentals, and the con- 
struction and layout of buildings are covered. 
Many sketches and diagrams illustrate the 
text. 

ELECTRICAL WIRING SPECIFICA- 
TIONS 

Edited by E. Whitehorne. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York and London, 1941- 
181 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9 l /ix6 in., cloth, $2.50. 
This book is a simple working guide for 
those concerned with the design of wiring 
installations, laying out systems and prepar- 
ing specifications for any given job in an 
industrial, commercial or residential building. 

ENGINEERING ELECTRICITY 

By R. G. Hudson. 3 ed. John Wiley & 
Sons, New York, 1941- 284 PP-, illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 8x5 in., lea., $3.00. 
Written primarily for technical students 
not specializing in electrical engineering, this 
textbook is designed to provide a course with 
a broad objective. To this end an outline is 
presented of the fundamental principles and 
of the applications of electricity and magnet- 
ism most frequently encountered in engineer- 
ing practice. There is a large section of 
practice problems with answers. 

ENGINEERING TOOLS AND PROCES- 
SES, a Study of Production Tech- 
nique 

By H. C. Hesse. D. Van Nostrand Co., 
New York, 1941- 627 pp., illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, $4-50. 
Engineering shop processes and practices 
are covered by this comprehensive text. The 
first three chapters offer a survey of basic 
materials, elements and devices. The text 
then takes up the usual shop processes and 
machines for foundry work, wood shop and 
machine shop. Succeeding chapters discuss 
production machinery and processes not ordin- 
arily presented in college laboratories, and 
illustrates their application to the manufac- 
ture of specific parts. A large bibliography 
and a section of questions and problems are 
appended. 

GASEOUS CONDUCTORS, Theory and 
Engineering Applications. (Electrical 
Engineering Texts) 
By J. D. Cobine. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York and London, 1941- 606 pp., 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 914x6 in., 
cloth, $5.50. 
Discussion of the fundamental principles 
of physics involved in the conduction of 
electricity in gases is combined with a com- 
plete presentation of the field of application 
in engineering. The treatment is thorough and 
logical, and covers the principles essential to 
an understanding of conduction phenomena, 
such as the kinetic theory of gases, ionic 
motion, atomic structure, ionization and de- 
ionization processes, emission phenomena and 
space charge effects. 

HANDBOOK FOR CIVILIAN DEFENCE 

By H. Mayer-Dexlanden. Civilian Advis- 
ory Service, 41 Park Row, New York,194' ■ 
88 pp., illus., diagrs., 9x6 in., paper, 
$1.00. 
This elementary handbook for civilian de- 
fence workers has two objectives. First, it 
deals in a simple, concise manner with all 
phases of civilian defence training and organi- 
zation for war conditions; and second, it 
shows the value of such training for various 
peace-time emergencies and natural disasters. 

HOUSING FOR HEALTH, Papers Pre- 
sented under the Auspices of the 
Committee on the Hygiene of Hous- 
ing of the American Public Health 
Association 



Science Press Printing Co., Lancaster, Pa., 
1941. 221 pp., diagrs., charts, tables 
9x6 in., paper, $1.00. 

A variety of subjects is considered in this 
collection of papers presented under the aus- 
pices of the American Public Health Associa- 
tion. Housing codes and surveys, slum- 
clearance, health and recreational facilities in 
housing projects, noise control, house con- 
struction, and social implications are among 
the topics dealt with by various authorities 
in the field. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE OPERA- 
TIONAL CALCULUS 

By W. J. Seeley. International Textbook 
Co., Scranton, Pa., 1941- 167 pp., diagrs., 
tables, 8Y 2 x5 in., cloth, $2.00. 

The first part of this book is devoted to a 
rapid review of long established methods of 
solving linear differential equations with con- 
stant coefficients. The use of the notation 
and nomenclature of the operational calculus 
prepares the student for the development of 
the operational method which, with its appli- 
cations, mainly to circuit analysis, occupies 
the rest of the book. 

MACHINE SHOP, Theory and Practice 

By A. M. Wagener and H. O. Arthur. 
D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 1941- 
806 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 11 x 
8]/ 2 in., cloth, $2.28; paper, $1.60. 

The introductory and closing chapters of 
this textbook for beginners and apprentices 
in the machine trades describe respectively 
the commonly used precision and semi- 
precision tools found in the shop, and the 
uses of the so-called bench tools and small 
hand tools. The construction and operation 
of the various machines, from shapers to 
grinders, are dealt with in between in a prac- 
tical order and manner. Safety suggestions, 
review questions and many illustrations are 
included. 

OUTLINES OF PAINT TECHNOLOGY, 
based on Hurst's "Painters' Colours, 
Oils and Varnishes" 

By N . Heaton. 2 ed. rev. J. B. Lippincott 
Co., Phila. and New York, 1940. 413 pp., 
illus., diagrs., tables, 9 x 6 in., cloth, $12.00. 

Concise, practical information concerning 
the raw materials and manufacture of all 
types of paints and of many allied com- 
pounds is presented in this general guide for 
students of paint technology. The various 
pigments, driers, solvents, etc., are described 
and this new edition has an added chapter on 
synthetic resins. A bibliography and glossary 
of the names of pigments are appended. 

PLASTICS MOLD DESIGNING 

By G. B. Thayer. American Industrial 
Publishers, Cleveland, Ohio, 1941. 64 pp., 
illus., diagrs., tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., cloth, 

$2.50. 

The fundamentals of plastics mold design 
are discussed and applied to representative 
types of compression and injection molds. 
Some space is devoted to fixtures, mold sink- 
ing methods are described, and product design 
is discussed in relation to mold building 
methods. There is a glossary. 

PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS FOR 
SHIPFITTERS and Other Shipyard 
Workers 

By L. Q. Moss. Pitman Publishing Corp., 
New York and Chicago, 1941. 108 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 8Y1 x 5 in., cloth, 
$1.50. 
This simple presentation of mathematics is 
intended for use by organizations participat- 
ing in the current programme for training 
shipyard workers. Every problem illustrates 
an application of a mathematical process to a 
real trade situation, and the text has been 
thoroughly tested in the classroom. 
[Continued on page 123) 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



121 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



January 30th, 1942. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate. - 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described at 
the March meeting. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



*The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science or engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience q ualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference doe» 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

ALLAN— GEORGE WILLIAM, of 3814-14th Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. Born 
at Stirling, Scotland, Sept. 28th, 1889; Educ: 1909-11, Techincal College, Glasgow; 
R.P.E. of B.C.; 1905-11, ap'ticeship, 5 years all depts., 1 year, engrg. office, M irrl ess- 
Watson Co., Glasgow; 1911-12, engrg. office, B.C. Sugar Refining Co., Vancouver; 
1912-18, Allan and McKelvie, Engineers, Vancouver; 1918-26, vice-president. 1920 
to date, president, Canadian Sumner Iron Works Ltd., Vancouver. (Designing and 
manufacturing of steam engines, saw mill, pulp mill and shingle mill machy., coal 
stokers, steam marine steering engines, and Bhips equipment). 

References: W. N. Kelly, J. Robertson, J. N. Finlayson, H. N. Macpherson, W. 
O. C. Scott. 

CLARK— ANDREW TUDHOPE, of 19 Glencairn Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Glasgow, Scotland, Oct. 6th, 1886;Educ: B.Sc. (Engrg.), Glasgow Univ., 1900; 1900- 
10, ap'ticeship, as civil engr. with Babtie, Shaw and Morton, Glasgow; 1910-1 1, nsst. 
engr., Caledonian Rly., Scotland; 1911-12, res- engr., Can. Nor. Rly. ; with the City 



of Toronto Works Dept., 1913-15, water supply section, i/c surveys for Victoria 
Park Scheme, 1915-18, i/c water supply section; 1918 to date with the H.E.P.C. 
of Ontario as follows: 1918-31, asst. to the constrn. engr., constrn. dept., 1931-34, 
i/o constrn. plant, tools, etc., and supervn. of machine and other shops at Atlantic 
Ave., Toronto; 1935-38, i/c of conBtrn. plant, and equipment dept.; 1938 to date, 
i/c of section of constrn. dept., which handles all constrn. plant tools and equipment, 
also all salvage and reclamation work of the Commission. 

References: Holden, H. E. Brandon, D. Forgan, W. P. Dobson, W. E. Bonn, 
R. L. Hearn. 

EWENS— FRANK GORDON, of 4800 Cote des Neiges Road, Montreal, Que. 
Born at Owen Sound, Ont., Jan. 6th, 1897; Educ: B.A.Sc, 1932, M.A.Sc, 1940, 
Univ. of Toronto; 1932-37, demonstrator, 1938-40, instructor in thermodynamics, 
dept. of mech. engrg., and 1939-40, lecturer in air conditioning, dept. of university 
extension, University of Toronto; 5 months summer periods as follows: 1933, testing 
ore mills, Wm. Kennedy & Sons Ltd.; 1934-35, design and testing of ore mills, 
Amalgamated Mills & Mines Ltd.; 1936-37, research, Univ. of Toronto; 1937-38, 
i/c design and installn. of air conditioning systems, Canadian Air Conditioning Co. 
Ltd.; also consltg. engr., heating, ventilating and air conditioning; at present, design 
of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, Defence Industries Ltd. 

References: H. C. Karn, R. DeL. French, R. W. Angus, E. A. Allcut. 

FRECHETTE— JOSEPH ALEXIS, of 6 Dufferin Terrace, Quebec, Que. Born 
at Montreal, April 30th, 1905; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1933; 
R.P.E. of Que.; 1937-41, res. engr., highway dept., Prov. of Quebec; 1941 to date, 
chief of technical bureau, dept. of colonization, Prov. of Quebec. 

References — P. Vincent, A. Circe, J. H. A. Laplante, A. Frigon, J. A. Lefebvre. 

HAMEL— JOSEPH HENRY, of Loretteville, Que. Born at Quebec, Nov. 2nd, 
1887; Educ: B.S., St. Dunstan's Univ., P.E.I., 1905; 1906-8, complete engrg. course, 
I.C.S.; 1906-12, chainman, rodman, leveller, instr'man., C.N.R.; 1912-15 aDd 1918- 
22, asst. engr., Marine & Fisheries, Quebec; 1915-18, Lieut., C.E.F.; 1922-25, asst. 
engr., 1925-30, bridge and bldg. engr., C.N.R.; 1930-36, asst. engr., Quebec Harbour 
Commn.; 1939-40, National Defence Staff, Valcartier; 1940-41, engr., Dominion 
Arsenal, Valcartier; 1941, supt. and engr., National Defence, at Lauzon, Que.; at 
present, supt. and engr. for E. G. M. Cape & Co., of Montreal, at St. John's, Nfld. 

References: J. L. Bizier, L. Beaudry. 

HARRIS— JOHN THOMAS, of 38 Atlas Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at Wands- 
worth, London, England, March 11th, 1898; Educ: 1914-17, 1919-21, Battersea 
Polytechnic, London; 1st Class Cert., Struct'l. Steel Design, Central Tech. School, 
Toronto, 1923; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1914-16, ap'tice, W. J. Harrison, London, England; 
1916-21, improver and dftsman., Harvey Siemens Gas Furnace Co. Ltd., London; 
1923-39, McGregor Mclntyre Ltd., later Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., as struct'l. 
steel dftsman. and checker, mech. designer; 1939 to date, plant engr., munitions 
dept.. Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

References: A. R. Robertson, G. P. Wilbur, D. E. Perriton, D. C. Tenuant, C. 
H. Timm, C. R. Whittemore. 

HOLLEBONE, RALPH ALLAN, of 125 Glenora Ave., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Paris, France, Feb. 8th, 1910; Educ: I.C.S. elec engrg. course; 1926-27, student 
dftsman., arch. elec. and mech., Shorey and Ritchie, Architects, Montreal; 1927-32, 
arch., elec. and mech. design, bldg. constrn. supervr., J. A. Ewart, Architect, Ottawa; 
1932-37, compilation of data, layouts, etc., Ottawa Gas Co., Ottawa; 1937 to date, 
designer and dftsman., design and reconstrn. of elec. and gas dist. systems, new 
bldgs. and alterations, design of plant and equipment for change over of gas works 
from coke ovens to water gas, plans for alterations to power house equipment, etc, 
Ottawa Light Heat & Power Co. Ltd., Ottawa, Ont. 

References: J. A. Ewart, W. H. Munro, N. B. MacRoBtie, J. A. Dick, W. H. G. 
Flay. 

LEDUC— RENE, of 2533 Quesnel St., Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, Dec 
18th, 1915; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1939; R.P.E. of Que.; 1936 
(summer), Roads Dept., Prov. of Quebec; 1937-38 (summers), Le Contrôle Technique 
Ltee, laboratory; 1939^11, Roads Dept. Prov. of Quebec; 1941 to date, lands engrg. 
dept.. Consolidated Paper Corpn. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

References: A. Gratton, A. A. Wickenden, A. Circe, L. Trudel, A. Bolduc. 

McMILLIN, GEORGE R., of Dartmouth, N.S. Born at Barrie, Ont., July 17th, 
1909; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Chem.), Univ. of Toronto, 1933; 1933-38, asst., inspection 
dept., Sarnia refinery, 1938, asst., mfg. dept., Toronto office, Imperial Oil Ltd., 
1938-39, acting chief, inspection dept., International Petroleum Co., Talara, Peru; 
1939 to date, chief — inspection dept., and chairman, Refinery Technical Com- 
mittee, Imperial Oil Ltd., Dartmouth, N.S. 

References: R. L. Dunsmore, C Scrymgeour, I. H. Nevitt, W. P. Morrison. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR 

VERNOT— GEORGE EDWARD, of 5617 Gatineau Ave., Montreal, Que. Born 
at Montreal, Feb. 27th, 1901; Educ: B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1926; R.P.E. of Que.; 
1925-26, instr'man., E. G. M. Cape & Co.; 1926-29, asst. engr., Fraser Brace Co. 
Ltd.; 1930-39, res. engr., Montreal Sewers Commn.; 1939 to date, city assessor, City 
of Montreal. (St. 1923, Jr. 1928). 

References: H. A. Gibeau, R. E. Heartz, T. J. Lafreniere, G. R. MacLeod. 

REES— HUGH CAMPBELL, of 9 Kennedy Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at Toronto, 
Dec. 21st, 1905; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1929; 1926-27-28, summer survey 
work; 1929-37, asst. testing engr., 1937 to date, testing engr., engrg. materials lab.. 
H.E.P.C. of Ont., Toronto. Ont. (Jr. 1931). 

References: R. B. Young, W. P. Dobson, E. Viens, A. E. Nourse, G. R. Lord. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

DA VEY— ROLAND ERIC, of Shelburne, N.S. Born at Meaford, Ont., Nov. 
25th, 1913; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1935; 1935-37, Dufferin Paving Co. 
Ltd., Toronto; 1937-39, H.E.P.C. of Ont., Toronto; 1939-40, asst. on dredging 
surveys, property surveys and some constrn., Dept. of Public Works of Canada, 
London, Ont.; Jan. 1941 to date, works and bldgs. branch, Naval Service, Halifax, 
Jan. -May, in charge of surveys, and from June 1941 to date, res. engr. in charge of 
bldgs., roads, sewers, etc. (St. 1935). 

References: K. M. Cameron, H. F. Bennett, O. Holden, C. R. Young, F. Alport, 
J. M. R. Fairbairn. 

MITCHELL— WILLIAM REGINALD, of 430 Giles Blvd. West, Windsor, Ont. 
Born at Winnipeg, Man., June 15th, 1912; Educ: B.Sc. (CE.), Univ. of Man., 
1934; 1928-34 (summers), gen. constrn. experience, Clayton Co. Ltd., contractors, 
Winnipeg; 1934-35, production clerk, 1935-36, shop inspr., 1936-37, sales engr., 
Manitoba Bridge & Iron Works; 1937-39, estimator, sales and detailing, London 
Structural Steel Co. Ltd., London, Ont.; 1940, designer, Defence Industries Ltd., 
Montreal; April 1940 to date, designer and estimator, Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd., 
Walkerville, Ont. (St. 1934). 

References: P. E. Adams, G. G. Henderson, A. E. West, E. M. Krebser, A. E. 
MacDonald. 

SENTANCE— LAWRENCE CRAWLEY, of 95 Hill Crest Ave., Hamilton, Ont. 
Born at Melville, Sask., Dec. 20th, 1913; Educ: B.Eng., 1935, M.Sc, 1937, Univ. 
of Sask.; 1935 (summer), surveying, water development, etc; 1936 (summer), 
materials inspr., dftsman., Dept. of Highways, Sask.; 1935-37, instructor, mech. 
engrg. dept., Univ. of Sask.; 1937-39, engrg. ap'tice course, and 1939 to date, mech. 
engr., Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. (St. 1936). 

References: H. A. Cooeh, C. A. Price, D. W T . Callander, J. R. Dunbar, G. W 
Arnold, C J. Mackenzie, I. M. Fraser. 



122 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

MECHANICAL DESIGNING DRAUGHTSMAN. 
Graduate preferred, urgently needed for work in 
Arvida for specification drawings for plate work, 
elevators, conveyors, etc., equipment layouts, pipe 
layouts and details Apply to Box No. 2375-V. 

MECHANICAL GRADUATE ENGINEER with 
machine shop experience required for work in 
Mackenzie, British Guiana, on essential war work. 
Apply to Box No. 244 1-V. 

ENGINEERING DRAUGHTSMAN with experience 
in machine and structural design, proficient in steel 
design calculation, and having ability for estimating. 
We require a man with at least five years' industrial 
experience, preferably in the paper mill field. Position 
is permanent' State experience and give physical 
description. Include small photograph and a sample 
of draughtsmanship. Apply to Box No. 2458-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN, experienced in 
making layouts for various installations, piping, etc., 
around a paper mill. Applicant must be a college 
graduate. State previous experience, wages expected, 
etc. Apply to Box No. 2461-V. 

GRADUATE MECHANICAL ENGINEER required 
for Mackenzie, B.G., immediately on work of plant 
and mining equipment maintenance. We are pre- 
pared to do necessary training which will give excep- 
tional opportunity for experience. Apply to Box 
No. 2481-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER preferred with exper- 
ience on diesels and tractors, for work in Mackenzie, 
B.G. Apply to Box No. 2482-V. 

MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMEN and engineers for 
pulp and paper mill work. Experienced men pre- 
ferred. Good salary to qualified candidates. Apply 
to Box No. 2483-V. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, young French Canadian 
graduate engineer to be trained on work involving 
hydro-electric plant operation, transmission lines and 
construction, meter testing and inspection. Good 
opportunity to acquire first-hand electrical power 
experience. Apply to Box No. 2487 -V. 

GRADUATE DRAUGHTSMAN, for industrial plant 
design and detailing. Apply to Box 2497-V. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



MECHANICAL DRAUGHTSMAN, for piping and 
general equipment layout work. Apply to Box 
2498-V. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, 25-32 years of age, for heavy 
construction work in British Guiana. Apply to Box 
2499-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, for general mainten- 
ance work at Arvida, Que. Apply to Box 2500-V. 

ENGINEER OFFICERS WANTED 

Applications are invited for Commissions in the Royal 
Canadian Ordnance Corps for service both overseas 
and in Canada as Ordnance Mechanical Engineers. 
Since it is probable that several new units will be 
organized in the near future, a number of senior 
appointments may be open, and applications from 
engineers with a good background of military ex- 
perience would be welcomed in this connection. 
Applications should be submitted on the regular 
Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps application forms, 
which can be obtained from the District Ordnance 
Officers of the respective Military Districts. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.e., in electrical en- 
gineering, McGill University, Age 24, married, 
available on two weeks notice. Undergraduate 
experience, cable testing and cathode ray oscillo- 
graphy. Since graduation, five months on construc- 
tion of large and small electrical equipment in plant 
and sub-station. One year operating electrical 
engineer in medium size central steam station 
paralleled with large Hydro system. At present 
employed, but is interested in research or teaching. 
Associate member of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. Apply to Box No. 2419-W. 

CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEER, m.e.i.c, 
R.P.E. (Ont.), Age 49. Married. Home in To- 



ronto. Experience in Britain, Africa, Canada, 
Turkey. Chief engineer reinforced concrete design 
offices, steelworks construction. Resident engineer 
design and construction munitions plants, and general 
civil engineering work. Extensive surveys, draught- 
ing, harbour and municipal work. Location im- 
material. Available now. Apply Box No. 2425-W. 

ELECTRICAL, MECHANICAL ENGINEER, age 
35. Dip. and Assoc. R.T.C., Glasgow, am i.e. e., 
(Students Premium) o.i. Mech.E., m.e.i.c, Assoc. 
Am.I.E.E Married. Available after December 22nd. 
Seventeen years experience covering machine shop 
apprenticeship, A.C. and D.C. motors, transformers, 
steel and glass bulb arc rectifiers, design, testing and 
erection sectional electric news and fineprints paper 
machine drives, experience tap changers H.V., L.V 
and marine switchgear. Apply to Box No. 2426-W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER age 55 years. Married. 
Available at once. Thirty years experience in draught- 
ing and general machine shop and foundry work. 
Fifteen years as works manager. Considerable 
experience in pump work, including estimating and 
inspection. Apply to Box 2427-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING student in third 
year, age 27, desires summer position starting in 
April, with view to permanency on graduation. Two 
summers on design of shop equipment and electrical 
apparatus. Three years experience on test and ex- 
perimental work for relays and control equipment. 
Student E.I.C., and Associate member American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. Location imma- 
terial. Apply to Box No. 2428-W. 

ENGINEER ADMINISTRATOR, experienced in 
public utilities, shipyard construction, airplane con- 
struction, crane construction, general mechanical 
engineering and inspection work, also sales promotion. 
Open for appointment. Apply to Box 2429-W. 



LIBRARY NOTES (Continued) 

PRINCIPLES OF SEWAGE TREATMENT. 
(National Lime Association Bulletin 
212) 

By W. Rudolfs. National Lime Associa- 
tion, Washington, D.C, 1941. 128 pp., 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
paper, $0.50 
This booklet has been prepared for those 
who desire information on the subject but 
lack the time or training for an extended 
study. The sources and composition of sew- 
age are briefly noted, the microbiology of 
sewage treatment and sewage stabilization 
are discussed, methods of treatment, dis- 
posal and analysis are described, and plant 
operation is covered. 
RHOMBIC ANTENNA DESIGN 

By A. E. Harper. D. Van Nostrand Co., 
New York, 194-1- HI PP-, diagrs., charts, 
tables, HYix 8 x / 2 in., cloth, $4.00. 



This is an eminently practical discussion 
of the design and construction of rhombic 
antennas, based upon the work of the engin- 
eers of the Bell Telephone System. Much of 
this has been unpublished heretofore. An 
introduction discusses directional radio trans- 
mission. This is followed by a description of 
methods for designing horizontal rhombic 
antennas and for their construction. The data 
needed in computation are included, and 
plans of typical transmitting and receiving 
antennas are appended. 

TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING. 
(Chemical Engineering Series) 

By F. H. Rhodes. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York and London, 1941- 125 pp., 
charts, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, $1.50. 

This guide to report writing is based on 
long experience in teaching the art to engin- 
eering students and can be recommended as 



an excellent one. By confining himself to 
reports, and omitting the material on other 
technical writing usually found in texts on 
the subject, the author has been able to cover 
the subject thoroughly and practically in a 
small book. 

TRAINS IN TRANSITION 

By L. Beebe. D. Appleton-Century Co., 
New York and London, 1941- 210 pp., 
illus., tables, HY2.X8 in., cloth, $5.00. 

The third of Mr. Beebe's books on Amer- 
ican railroading offers the same attractive 
combination of readable text and excellent 
photographs that its predecessors displayed. 
In this volume, the author is concerned with 
the changes in practice and equipment which 
have taken place in recent years, especially 
the effects of the diesel-electric locomotive, 
light weight cars and air-flow design. 



JdooJz at it faun any atujie . . . 

9ti Ut UQ44S1 Gum ùiten&U ta 

"INVEST" in CANADA'S VICTORY BONDS 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1942 



123 



Industrial News 



STEAM JET EJECTORS 

Elliott Company, Jeannette, Pa., has recent- 
ly issued a 32-page booklet G-7 which, accom- 
panied by many illustrations, describes the 
company's single-stage, two-stage, three-stage, 
four-stage and five-stage ejectors and also 
contains sections dealing with the many ad- 
vantages of the steam ejector, ejector char- 
acteristics and factors affecting ejector selec- 
tion. The final section features, under several 
main classifications, the fields in which ejec- 
tors are used most extensively. A pressure- 
temperature conversion table and other data 
are also included. 

TOOLING TURRET LATHES 

A 4-page Bulletin, No. 141, published by 
Kennametal of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont., 
features the use of Kennametal steel cutting 
carbide tools for tooling turret lathes for 
small lot production. Includes turret lathe 
setups using Kennametal tools. 

WATER TREATMENT 

"Supplementary Treatment of Boiler Feed- 
water" is the title of a 12-page Bulletin, No. 
2420, made available by the Permutit Co. of 
Canada Ltd., Montreal, Que. Presents a com- 
plete discussion on the supplementary treat- 
ment of boiler feedwater by the addition of 
chemicals to the water at various points in 
the feedwater line and the methods of feeding 
these chemicals. Such treatment generally 
consists in feeding phosphate, sodium sul- 
phate, and sodium sulphite in varying 
amounts. 

PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE 

An 8-page List "B" entitled "List B For 
Facts About Monel, Rolled Nickel and In- 
conel," recently issued by The International 
Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ont., 
contains a list of current publications of the 
company with the various bulletins and book- 
lets grouped under various classifications or 
under the names of industries to which they 
are most pertinent. A number of new publica- 
tions issued since the last edition of the list 
are included. 

DRILLING MACHINES 

Canadian Blower & Forge Co. Ltd., Kitch- 
ener, Ont., has available a 16-page Bulletin, 
No. 2730-D, which describes the company's 
"Buffalo No. 16" drilling machines (No. 2 
Morse Taper). These machines are avail- 
able in 1 to 6 spindles, with 8-in., 12-in., 
and 15-in. overhang, and in sensitive type 
or power feed according to the descriptions, 
illustrations, and tables and specifications 
contained in this bulletin. Round column 
floor, bench, and pedestal types are shown. 

INDICATING INSTRUMENTS 

The company's line of "U-Type" and "Well- 
Type" manometers, draft gauges, flow meters, 
mercury pressure gauges, tank gauges and 
accessories for accurately measuring pressures, 
vacuums and flows of liquids and gases are 
described in the 8-page Catalogue, No. C-10, 
published by the Meriam Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Illustrations and descriptions of 
the equipment, suggestions for use, size 
ranges, dimensions, weights, list prices, etc., 
are also included. 

DISTRIBUTOR APPOINTED 

It is announced that the X- Pan do Corp., 
New York, have appointed LaSalle Products 
Limited, Montreal, as Canadian distributors 
for their complete line of materials. X-Pando 
is a compound which expands after setting, 
preventing all leaks and making a perfect 
tight bond. The distribution of this product 
in Canada will be under the supervision of 
E. F. Vincent, who is well-known to the 
industrial trade. 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



MECHANICAL RUBBER GOODS 

Dunlop Tire and Rubber Goods Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., has issued a 36-page Catalogue, 
No. 104, which contains descriptive and tech- 
nical data with accompanying illustrations 
covering the company's wide range of mech- 
anical rubber goods including various types 
of belts, conveyors, launder lining, agricul- 
tural supplies, hose, rubber covered rolls, 
mats, packing, tape and miscellaneous items. 

PUMPS FOR DIVERSIFIED 
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION 

Practical information concerning pump 
adaptation for a wide range of duties under 
varying conditions is the theme of a new 24- 
page Bulletin, No. 29-A107, published by the 
Pomona Pump Co., Pomona, Calif. It des- 
cribes and illustrates a variety of actual 
applications, accompanying each with an in- 
stallation drawing. The design of the Pomona 
pump is also illustrated and explained. 



INDUSTRIAL ADVERTISING 
USED TO AID WAR EFFORT 

During the past year many advertisers of 
industrial equipment have developed the 
theme of their copy along lines directed 
towards the publicizing of some branch of 
Canada's war effort. 

Some of these advertisements feature 
specific developments in war industries; others 
carry messages of the importance of sub- 
scribing to Canada's Victory Loan; while 
others have adopted more diversified themes 
intended to emphasize the great cause for 
which everyone is playing his part. Outstand- 
ing in this category is the series of inserts 
published by the Canadian SKF Company 
Limited. This issue of The Journal contains 
a number of these special advertisements, 
among which may be mentioned those of 
Northern Electric Co. Limited, Canadian 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. Limited, and Canadian 
Controllers Limited. 

Commencing with the March issue of The 
Journal, the English Electric Co. of Canada 
Limited will run the first of a special series of 
advertisements designed for reproduction as 
posters. One of these advertisements, repro- 
duced in miniature, is shown below. Copies 
of this series, in wall poster size, will be 
supplied by the company to any interested 
parties upon request. 



<m GUAM fa US 



L- 



LET US STAND BEHIND THEM 
UNTIL ¥l£TORY IS WON! 



HEATING SYSTEMS AND 
PRODUCTS 

C. A. Dunham Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont., has 
released a series of looseleaf data sheets for 
inclusion in their engineering catalogue on 
"Dunham" heating systems and products. 
There are seventeen of these sheets covering 
control equipment, convectors and unit 
heaters. 

ONTARIO REPRESENTATIVE 
APPOINTED 

The Permutit Co., New York, N.Y., has 
recently appointed S. A. McWilliams Ltd. as 
its representative in the Province of Ontario. 
The company continues to be represented in 
Montreal by C. K. McLeod and in Winnipeg 
and Calgary by Stanley Brock Ltd. 

NEW LINE ANNOUNCED 

Burlec Limited are building in Canada an 
extensive range of gasoline engine electric 
power supplies for use as emergency supplies 
of lighting or power. These are available in 
sizes up to 60 kilowatts and for all voltages 
and frequencies. The gasoline engines have 
automatic speed governors and the generators 
are controlled by voltage regulators so as to 
give a smooth, closely regulated power out- 
put. The controls provided include complete 
gasoline engine instruments such as tempera- 
ture gauge, ammeter, fuel gauge, oil pressure 
gauge and tachometer. The generator output 
is controlled by an appropriately sized switch 
which is trip free and has thermal overlead. 
Necessary meters are also supplied. 

FUSE CUTOUTS 

"A 3-Minute Story of the 'PVD' Fuse 
Cutout," the title of a 20-page booklet pub- 
lished by Canadian Line Materials Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., presents the story in a nove, 
manner by the use of an ingenious design ol 
the booklet. In order to show the action of 
the fuse, a large cutaway illustration is usedf 
with short and long pages superimposing the 
part of the illustration showing each change 
so that the complete sequence of action from 
the initial fused state to the final "blown" 
state is depicted graphically. Each action is 
described, while the simplicity of "re-fusing" 
and other important features arc explained in 
detail and illustrated. 

NEW C-G-E COLOUR MOVIE 

Canadian General Electric's latest movie 
entitled "Curves of Colour," highlights scenes 
of the experiments performed by Sir Isaac 
Newton discovering the visible spectrum and 
an explanation of why that spectrum is only 
one small part of the vast electro-magnetic 
spectrum which has since been discovered by 
modern men of science. The film explains a 
new scientific device called a recording photo- 
electric spectrophotometer which is capable 
of distinguishing accurately more than two 
million colours. This ten-minute movie is one 
of a number that the company lends, free of 
charge, to educational institutions, churches, 
social and civic groups, etc. 

NEPTUNE BUILDS NEW PLANT 

As announced by Mr. W. T. Randall, 
vice-president and general manager of Nep- 
tune Meters Ltd., Toronto, the company 
moved into its new plant on December 29th. 
The new Neptune Meter plant is located in 
Long Branch, with 400 feet frontage on Lake- 
shore Road. It occupies 10 acres and offers 
30,000 square feet of floor space. Designed by 
T. Pringle & Son, industrial engineers, the 
new Neptune Meter plant is of structural 
steel and brick construction. 



124 



February, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 25 



MONTREAL. MARCH 1942 



NUMBER 3 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e.i.c. 
Editor 



N. E. D. SHEPPARD, m.e.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c. 

H. F. FINNEMORE, m.e.i.c. 

T. J. LAFRENIÈRE, m.e.lc 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
54.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
■nd Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body ië not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



"WE HAVE TO WIN THIS WAR BY OUR WITS" .... Cover 

{General McNaughton at the Annual Banquet) 

A NEW FIELD AND A NEW EMPHASIS 127 

Dean C. R. Young, M.E.I.C. 

THE ORGANIZATION AND WORK OF RESEARCH 

ENTERPRISES LIMITED 129 

Colonel W. E. Phillips 

THE ALASKA HIGHWAY 136 

/. M. Wardle, M.E.I.C. 

THE WAR ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH 

COUNCIL OF CANADA 141 

C. J. Mackenzie, M.E.I.C. 

A MESSAGE TO CANADIAN ENGINEERS 145 

Lieut.-General A. G. L. McNaughton, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., M.E.I.C. 

CANADIAN INDUSTRY IN THE WAR 147 

C. D. Howe, Hon.M.E.I.C. 

NATIONAL SERVICE— A CHALLENGE TO THE ENGINEER . . 151 
E. M. Little 

THE FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING .... 154 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 168 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 172 

NEWLY ELECTED OFFICERS 180 

INSTITUTE PRIZE WINNERS 185 

PERSONALS 187 

Visitors to Headquarters ......... 189 

Obituaries ............ 189 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 191 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 199 

LIBRARY NOTES 199 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 204 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 205 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 206 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 



•deGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 
*K. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 



*H. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 



ÎJ. E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 
*A. E. BERRY, Toronto, Ont. 
tS. G. COULTIS, Calgary, Alta. 
tG. L. DICKSON, Moncton, N.B. 
*D. S. ELLIS, Kingston, Ont. 
*J. M. FLEMING, Port Arthur, Ont. 
•I. M. FRASER, Saskatoon, Sask. 
*J. H. FREGEAU, Three Rivers, Que. 
*J. GARRETT, Edmonton, Alta. 
tF. W. GRAY, Sydney, N.S. 
•S. W. GRAY, Halifax, N.S. 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



PRESIDENT 

C. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

*A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
tH. CIMON, Quebec, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

tT. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 

COUNCILLORS 

tE. D. GRAY-DONALD, Quebec, Que. 

tJ. HAÏMES, Lethbridge, Alta. 

*J. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

JR. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

tW. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

tE. W. IZARD, Victoria, B.C. 

tJ. R. KAYE, Halifax, N.S. 

*E. M. KREBSER, Walkerville, Ont. 

fN. MacNICOL, Toronto, Ont. 

*H. N. MACPHERSON, Vancouver, B.C. 

*H. F. MORRISEY, Saint John, N.B. 

TREASURER 

E. G. M. CAPE, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tJ. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
tG. G. MURDOCH, Saint John, N.B. 



JC. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 



*W. H. MUNRO, Ottawa, Ont. 

tT. A. McELHANNEY, Ottawa, Ont. 

*C. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 

tA. W. F. McQUEEN, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

tA. E. PICKERING, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tG. McL. PITTS, Montreal, Que. 

tW. J. W. REID, Hamilton, Ont. 

tJ. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

*M. G. SAUNDERS, Arvida, Que. 

tH. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

*J. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

*For 1942 tFor 1942-43 JFor 1942-43-44 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

deG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 

E. G. M. CAPE 
G. A. GAHERTY 
J. A. McCRORY 

F. NEWELL 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



LEGISLATION 

J. L. LANG, Chairman 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. J. DURLEY 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

W. G. HUNT, Chairman 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman 

deG. BEAUBIEN 

K. M. CAMERON 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 

H. CIMON 

J. L. LANG 

G. G. MURDOCH 



PUBLICATION 



C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

T. J. LAFRENIERE 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 



GZOWSKI MEDAL 

H. V. ANDERSON, Chairman 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

J. T. FARMER, Chairman 

PLUMMER MEDAL 

C. R. WHITTEMORE, Chairman 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

R. W. ANGUS, Chairman 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 
A. L. CARRUTHERS, Chairman 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Galbraith Prize 

J. L. LANG, Chairman 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

deG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 
Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

H. CIMON, Chairman 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

G. G. MURDOCH, Chairman 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 



DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 



MEMBERSHIP 

J. G. HALL, Chairman 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 



THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT, Chairman 






LIST OF INSTITUTE MEDALS AND PRIZES 



Duggan Medal and Prize Medal and cash to 
value of $100 . . . 



Sir John Kennedy Medal For outstanding merit or note- 
worthy contribution to sci- 
ence of engineering, or to 
benefit of the Institute. 

For paper on constructional 
engineering involving the use 
of metals for structural or 
mechanical purposes. 

.For a paper contributing to 
the literature of the profes- 
sion of civil engineering. 

Plummer Medal Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 



Gzowski Medal 



. Gold medal . 



Leonard Medal 



Students and Juniors 



University Students. 



Gold medal For a paper on a mining sub- 
ject, open to members of the 
Canadian Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy as well 
as The Engineering Institute. 

. Books to the value 

of $25 (5 prizes) . . For papers on any subject pre- 
sented by Student or Junior 
members. 
$25 in cash (11 

prizes) For the third year student in 

each college, making the best 
showing in college work 
and activities in student or 
local branch of engineering 
society. 



126 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



A NEW FIELD AND A NEW EMPHASIS 

IN the affairs of both men and institutions there are times when, after long uncertainty and 
painful orientation, the way of progress becomes clear and notable advances are made with 

comparative ease. During the pause which follows, gains are consolidated, new plans are 
developed and in due season the forward movement is resumed. 

Such has been the lot of the engineering profession in Canada. Its early years were devoted 
to laborious technological tasks, well and faithfully performed — tasks that brought to the engineer 
heightened prestige and the confidence of the public in his ability and integrity. Thus was laid the 
sure and firm foundation of trust upon which wider recognition of engineering as a learned pro- 
fession was to be reposed. 

With the outbreak of total mechanized war, governments and corporations have instinctively 
turned to the engineer as one possessing not merely the indispensable technical background but that 
decisiveness, dependability and sense of proportion everywhere sought in times of national distress. 

And so the engineering profession finds itself in the highest favour that it has ever enjoyed. 
From the Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Corps overseas down, engineers are giving 
distinguished service in the armed forces. In less stirring wartime tasks very many are occupying 
vital executive and directional posts. This is but natural. Creating, marshalling and distributing 
the equipment and commodities of war is an undertaking not different in kind from those about 
which gathers the normal practice of the engineer. In large measure wartime duties represent 
no more than another of the periodic transfers of activity to which practitioners in many branches 
of the profession have long been accustomed. 

In parallel with this resurgence in the profession, the usefulness, power and influence of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada has grown. Its membership is at a new high; its financial position 
is sound and constantly improving; it is rapidly growing in the public esteem. 

While conscientiously fulfilling its role as a forum for the dissemination of engineering know- 
ledge, The Institute has in co-operation with the 'provincial associations of professional engineers 
and in its vigorous participation in the work of the Engineers' Council for Professional Development, 
embarked upon activities that promise to be of far-reaching consequence. A new emphasis is being 
placed upon those things that represent the significant difference between a professional engineer 
and a technologist. 

It is impossible to overestimate the long-range importance of those attributes of a well- 
rounded professional man that lie beyond and above a mere knowledge of the techniques and pro- 
cedures necessary to the attainment of the physical objectives of his work. If he is to be accorded 
whole-hearted public recognition as a member of a learned profession he must earnestly seek to 
acquire and manifest these characteristics. 

To those activities that bring a development of individual professional stature in all of its 
implications The Engineering Institute of Canada may well and profitably devote increased 
attention. There could scarcely be a more attractive field of endeavour and none offering greater 
prospect of service to the profession. 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 127 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, H. L. JOHNSTON 
Vice-Chair., G. G. HENDERSON 
Executive, W. P. AUGUSTINE 
J. F. G. BLOWEY 
W. R. STICKNEY 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 

G. E. MEDLAR 
Sec.-Treas., J. B. DOWLER, 

754 Chilver Road, 

Walkerville, Ont. 



CALGARY 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



Sec.-Treas., 



J. B. deHART 
H. J. McEWEN 
F. J. HEUPERMAN 
T. D. STANLEY 
J. W. YOUNG 
(.Ex-Officio), S. G. COULTIS 
J. HADDIN 

j. McMillan 

P. F. PEELE 

248 Scarboro Avenue, 

Calgary, Alta. 
CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J.A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

(Ex-Officio), F. W. GRAY 

See.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, R. M. HARDY 
Vice-Chair., D. A. HANSEN 
Executive, J. A. CARRUTHERS 

C. W. CARRY 

D. HUTCHISON 
B. W. PITFIELD 

E. R. T. SKARIN 
W. F. STEVENSON 



-Officio) 


, J. GARRETT 




E. NELSON 


e.-Treas., 


F. R. BURFIELD, 




Water Resources Office, 




Provincial Government, 




Edmonton, Alta. 


HALIFAX 




Chairman, 


P. A. LOVETT 


Executive, 


A. E. CAMERON 




G. T. CLARKE G. J. CURRIE 




A. E. FLYNN J. D. FRASER 




D. G. DUNBAR J. A. MacKAY 




j. f. f. Mackenzie 




J. W. MacDONALD 




G. T. MEDFORTH 


(Ex-Officio) 


, S. L. fultz j. r. kaye 


Sec.-Treas., 


S. W. GRAY, 




The Nova Scotia Power 




Commission, 




Halifax, N.S. 


HAMILTON 




Chairman, 


STANLEY SHUPE 


Vice-Chair. 


, T. S. GLOVER 


Executive, 


H. A. COOCH 




NORMAN EAGER 




A. C. MACNAB 




A. H. WINGFIELD 


(Ex-Officio) 


, W. J. W. REID 




W. A. T. GILMOUR 


Sec.-Treas., 


A. R. HANNAFORD, 




354 Herkimer Street, 




Hamilton, Ont. 


KINGSTON 

Chairman, 


T. A. McGINNIS 


Vice-Chair. 


P. ROY 


Executive, 


V. R. DAVIES 




K. H. McKIBBIN 




K. M. WINSLOW 




A. H. MUNRO 


(Ex-Officio) 


, G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 




D. S. ELLIS 


Sec.-Treas., 


J. B. BATY, 




Queen's University, 




Kingston, Ont. 


LAKEHEAD 




Chairman, 


B. A. CULPEPER 


Vice-Chair. 


MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 


Executive, 


E. J. DAVIES 




J. I. CARMICHAEL 




S. E. FLOOK 




S. T. McCAVOUR 




R. B. CHANDLER 




W. H. SMALL 




C. D. MACKINTOSH 


(Ex-Officio), H 




J. M. FLEMING 


Sec.-Treas., 


W. C. BYERS, 




c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 




Port Arthur, Ont. 



LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, C. S. DONALDSON 

Vice-Chair.,Vf. MELDRUM 

Executive, R. F. P. BOWMAN G. S. BROWN 

N. H. BRADLEY 

C. S. CLENDENING 
(Ex-Officio),}. HAÏMES 

A. J. BRANCH J. T. WATSON 

Sec.-Treas., R. B. McKENZIE, 

McKemie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



MONCTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



SAINT JOHN 



F. T. JULIAN 

T. L. McMANAMNA 

F. C. BALL 

V. A. McKILLOP 

H. F. BENNETT 

A. L. FURANNA 

R. S. CHARLES 

R. W. GARRETT 

J. A. VANCE 

H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 
London, Ont. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



F. O. CONDON 
H. J. CRUDGE 
B. E. BAYNE 

G. L. DICKSON 
T. H. DICKSON 
R. H. EMMERSON 
H. W. McKIEL 

V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engr. Dept., C.N.R. 
Moncton, N.B. 



E. R. EVANS 

E. B. MARTIN 

G. E. SMITH 



J. A. LALONDE 
R. S. EADIE 
R. E. HEARTZ 
J. B. STIRLING 
J. M. CRAWFORD 
J. COMEAU 
H. F. FINNEMORE 
R. C. FLITTON 
G. D. HULME 
(Ex-Officio), deG. BEAUBIEN 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 
J. G. HALL 
W. G. HUNT 

C. K. McLEOD 
G. McL. PITTS 

Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, A. L. McPHAIL 
Vice-Chair., C. G. CLINE 
Executive, L. J. RUSSELL 

J. H. TUCK 

A. C. BLUE 

G. F. VOLLMER 

G. E. GRIFFITHS 

D. W. BRACKEN 
L. L. GISBORNE 

(Ex-Officio), A. W. F. McQUEEN 
Sec-Treat., J. H. INGS, 

1870 Ferry Street. 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 



OTTAWA 

Chairman 
Executive, 



I. F. McRAE 
F. R. POPE 



N. B. MacROSTIE 
W. G. C. GLIDDON 
R. M. PRENDERGAST 
W. H. G. FLAY 
G. A. LINDSAY 
R. YUILL 
(Ex-Officio), K. M. CAMERON 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
W. H. MUNRO 
T. A. McELHANNEY 
R. K. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 
PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, J. CAMERON 
Executive, A. J. GIRDWOOD 

J. W. PIERCE 
(Ex-Officio), R. L. DOBBIN 
H. R. SILLS 
A. L. MALBY 
Sec.-Treas., D. J. EMERY, 

589 King Street, 

Peterborough, Ont. 
QUEBEC 
Life Hon.- 

Chair., A. R. DECARY 
Chairman L. C. DUPUIS 
Vice-Chair., RENÉ DUPUIS 
Executive O. DESJARDINS 
R. SAUVAGE 
S. PICARD 

G. W. WADDINGTON 
(Ex-Officio), E. D. GRA Y-DONALD _, _. 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH P. MÉTHÉ 
H. CIMON 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 

Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, N. F. McCAGHEY 
Vice-Chair., R. H. RIMMER 
Executive, B. BAUMAN 
G. B. MOXON 
A. I. CUNNINGHAM 
W. J. THOMSON 
(Ex-Officio), M. G. SAUNDERS 

J. W. WARD 
See.-Treat., D S. ESTABROOKS, 

Price Bros. & Co. Ltd. 
Riverbend, Que. 



G. ST-JACQUES 
L. GAGNON 



Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



Sec.-Treas., 



F. A. PATRIQUEN 
D. R. SMITH 
A. O. WOLFF 
H. P. LINGLEY 
W. B. AKERLEY 

(Ex-Officio), J. P. MOONEY 

H. F. MORRISEY 

G. G. MURDOCH 
V. S. CHESNUT, 

P.O. Box 1393. 

Saint John, N.B. 
ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, A. H. HEATLEY 
Vice-Chair., H. G. TIMMIS 
Executive, A. C. ABBOTT 
R. DORION 
V. JEPSEN 
J. JOYAL 
H. O. KEAY 
(Ex-Officio), C. H. CHAMPION 

J. H. FREGEAU 
Sec.-Treas., C. G. deTONNANCOUR 
Engineering Department, 
Shawinigan Chemicals, Limited 
Shawinigan Falls, Que 
SASKATCHEWAN 



J. M. MITCHELL 
G. RINFRET 
H. J. WARD 
H. K. WYMAN 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. , 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 



a. p. linton 
a. m. macgillivray 
f. c. dempsey 
n. b. hutcheon 
j. g. schaeffer 
r. w. jickling 
h. r. Mackenzie 

15. RUSSELL 
I. M. FRASER 
STEWART YOUNG 
P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask 
SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, E. M. MacQUARRIE 
Vice-Chair., L. R. BROWN 
Executive, R. A. CAMPBELL 
N. C. COWIE 
C. O. MADDOCK 

C. R. MURDOCK 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 
Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road, 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
TORONTO 

Chairman, H. E. BRANDON 
Vice-Chair., W. S. WILSON 
Executive, F. J. BLAIR 

W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 

G. R. JACK 

D. FORGAN 
R. F. LEGGET 
S. R. FROST 

(Ex-Officio), A. E. BERRY N. MacNICOL 

T. H. HOGG C. R. YOUNG 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE 

Engineering Building 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 
VANCOUVER 

Chairman, W. O. SCOTT 
Vice-Chair., W. N. KELLY 
Executive, H. P. ARCHIBALD 
I. C. BARLTROP 
H. C. FITZ-JAMES 
H. J. MacLEOD 
R. E. POTTER 
(Ex-Officio), J. N. FINLAYSON 
T. V. BERRY 
H. N. MACPHERSON 
Sec.-Treas., P. B. STROYAN 

2099 Beach Avenue, 

Vancouver, B.C. 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
KENNETH REID 

A. L. FORD 

B. T. OGRADY 
J. B. PARHAM 
R. BOWERING 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 
G. M. IRWIN 
E. W. IZARD 
J. H. BLAKE, 

605 Victoria Avenue, 

Victoria, B.C. 

D. M. STEPHENS 
J. T. DYMENT 

C. V. ANTENBRING 
N. M. HALL 

T. H. KIRBY 

E. W. R. BUTLER 
H. B. BREHAUT 
J. W. SANGER 

V. MICHIE 
C. P. HALTALIN 
THOMAS. E. STOREY. 
55 Princess Street, 

Winnipeg, Man. 



128 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ORGANIZATION AND WORK OF RESEARCH 

ENTERPRISES LIMITED 

A government-owned company established for the production of precision instruments 

COLONEL W. E. PHILLIPS 

President, Research Enterprises Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Paper presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Montreal, Que., on February 5th, 1942 



The story of Research Enterprises is an interesting ex- 
ample of the problems associated with the establishment 
of a specialized industry in war time. 

In the early summer of 1940, new industries seemed to 
spring from the head of the new Department of Munitions 
and Supply. In some cases such as explosives or ammuni- 
tion, the facilities and experience of existing industry lent 
themselves readily to large-scale expansion. But, in other 
instances, as in the case of the precision instruments re- 
quired for fire control and other purposes, neither facilities 
nor experience in Canada were available for the task. 

In October, 1939, General McNaughton suggested to 
the War Supply Board that consideration might well be 
given to the production of optical parts in Canada, and 
indeed proposed at that time that this work should be 
commenced on a small scale at the National Research 
Council. It would appear that in the press of business 
no decision was made; the matter was only re-opened 
on the organization of the Department of Munitions and 
Supply, and was brought to their attention in connection 
with an urgent demand for binoculars. In the meantime 
the technical problems involved had received some study 
at the National Research Council Laboratories. 

It was soon found that the requirements ranged from 
binoculars to dial sights, including such highly specialized 
instruments as range-finders. 

To meet this demand, Research Enterprises Limited 
was organized in August, 1940, as a wholly-owned gov- 
ernment company operating under the Minister of Muni- 
tions. This decision recognized the clear line of demarca- 
tion between research and production. 

The need for optical glass was the immediate justifi- 
cation for the creation of the company. This was to be 
followed, as a matter of course, by the production of a 
variety of optical instruments. At the same time it was 
realized that such a company might well undertake the 
quantity production of other types of instruments which 
might be developed by the National Research Council. 

In the United Kingdom a long-established separate in- 
dustry supplied optical glass blanks in pressings to a 
number of experienced instrument firms, each of which 
was principally concerned with the production of a few 
specific types of optical instruments. 

The position in Canada was quite different. Provision 
had to be made for completely integrated operation start- 
ing with the raw materials for glass-making and ending 
with the delivery of some twenty-five types of finished 
instruments in small quantities. 

On September 3rd, 1940, a start was made in Toronto 
with two employees. Despite the race against time and 
almost complete lack of experience progress has been 
made, and by the end of January, 1942, some 3,000 optical 
instruments valued at $475,000 have been completed and 
shipped. 

In ordinary times the design of such an enterprise would 
require a detailed manufacturing knowledge of the pro- 
ducts to be produced, and information as to quantities 
and rates of delivery. Under existing circumstances only 
the most fragmentary information was available, and it 
was necessary to embark on a series of limited gambles, 



creating facilities in what looked like minimum economic 
units, expanding, altering and adjusting these as the real 
requirements became apparent. 

As things have turned out, the rapid expansion of our 
manufacturing programme has more than occupied the 
capacity provided. 

The conception of a company, totally owned by the 
government, but operating with the full freedom of a 
private enterprise, was due mainly to the late Gordon 
Scott, Mr. Henry Borden, and Mr. R. A. C. Henry, mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee of the Department. Such 
a scheme provided the conditions essential to the rapid 
development of a large-scale enterprise for which obvi- 
ously there was no adequate departmental precedent. 

In November, 1940, a demand was made for the produc- 
tion of a series of secret detection devices, of which, by 
now, some general information has reached the public 
by way of the press. Soon finding that we knew less and 
less about more and more, the task was to sort out and 
study the separate components which had to be worked 
into a going industrial concern. These are indicated in 
Table I. 

Table I. 



The Scope of the Enterprise 



l 
! Radio 1 
\ Production / 



Grinding & 
Polishing 



9 
Design 
I Engineering & 
[ Planning 



f Instrument Ï 
\ Assembly J 



Range 1 
Finders J 



Optical \ 
Glass / 



Inspection 
& Control 



10 

f Field 1 
I Station j 



11 

Cathode 

Rav 

Tubes 



12 



J Mobile 
1 Assembly 



/ Metal 
\ Working 

8 

Plant 

Engineering 

13 

I Admini- 
| stration 



Figure 1 shows the general form of the organization 
evolved, establishing the skeleton upon which the enter- 
prise has been built. 

Great importance was attached to the question of or- 
ganization, for in such a case good organization is even 
more important than good personnel. In matters of or- 
ganization it seems a natural instinct of the Anglo-Saxon 
to choose a static form of design, fixed, as it were, from 
the top downwards. In our case, it seemed important to 
plan for a more dynamic framework, sensitive and re- 
sponsive to changes perceptible at first only from the 
lower levels of the organization. In other words, it was 
more a question of " learn how " than " know how." In 
any event, compromise was the order of the day, as 
experienced personnel simply were not available. 

In the early stages, committees and groups were the rule 
rather than the exception, but as time goes on, familiarity 
with the task makes it possible to assign clearly defined 
responsibility to individuals who have proved their merit, 
and at the same time to give them complete authority 
within their own sphere. 

Personnel 

As may be easily imagined, our requirements for techni- 
cal personnel covered a wide field. The technical staff 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



129 



THÏ GENERAL FORM OF ORGANIZATION 



Minister, 
The Department of Munit loua and 3upply 

Board of Directors, 
Re6earcn jcnterpnses Limited 

President, 
Research Enterprises Limited 
Executive / \ General 

Aaslstant / \ Assistant 

DIRECTOR RADIO DIVISION COMPTROLLBR DIRECTOR OF 
INSTRUMENT DlVIStON 



DIRECTOR OPTICAL 
QLA3S DIVISION 



All administration 
all divisions 



Radio Operation 
Manager 



IE 



Plant Engl peering 
Maintenance, etc. 
all Divisions 



K 



jL 



ZL 




Plairt 
Superintendent 
All Divisions 



Field Tube 

Station Production Engineering Inspection Division 



E 



Special Mobile 
Devices Devices 



« 1 

Metal Grinding &. Instrument Rangeflnder inspection Chief 

Working Polishing Assembly Division t Control Mechanical 

Engineer 

Design 4. 

Fig. 1. Planning 



today numbers over a hundred, including 56 graduate 
engineers, 20 physicists, 3 graduates in engineering physics, 
and 5 chemists, with some 13 general technical assistants 
in miscellaneous fields. Of this total, some 84 are gradu- 
ates of Canadian universities, which should be a matter 
of general satisfaction. The total number of employees is 
3,000, of whom 700 are women. 

Training Classes 

From the beginning it was evident that training must 
be provided for many of the workers. Courses have been 
established for machine operators, drafting, radio, glass 
blowing, and in addition, a fairly extensive series of night 
classes are held for our own employees. This policy has 
been highly successful, and over 400 present employees are 
graduates from such classes. 

Optical Glass 

Optical glass is now a fundamental requirement in the 
production of fire control instruments for warfare because 
modern artillery practice is concerned almost altogether 
with indirect targets, invisible to the gunner, but whose 
positions have been accurately located on the map. Thus 
methods of instrumental aim, known as indirect fire con- 
trol, are essential. This involves the use of surveying in- 
struments in order to determine the line of sight and 
the range of the targets with reference to certain fixed 
points visible to the battery. 

The instruments used are for the most part of the 
telescopic type. Obviously, glass must be an integral part 
of the optical systems involved, and as the accuracy of 
the instrument is largely dependent upon the quality of 
the image, it follows that the glass must be of the 
very best. 

The use of glass in lenses and prisms is based on its 
property of refraction. Speaking generally, its function 
in instruments is to so bend the rays of light from any 
distant point that they will converge to a single, corre- 
sponding point in the image. 

To better understand the problems associated with the 
manufacture of optical glass, a general knowledge of the 
principles of refraction is needed. Figure 2 shows a ray of 
light, incident on a glass surface, and traces its path 
through the glass until it emerges. 



Actually, the velocity of light in glass is less than that 
in air. Thus in passing from air into glass the ray is 
deflected so that the angle between its path and the 
normal to the surface is reduced. The ratio of the sines of 
the two angles (AOB and COD in the figure) is called 
the " index of refraction," and is a number N which ex- 
presses the ratio between the velocity in air V and the 

V 

velocity V in the given medium. In fact iV=-^. 



InCiOCnt light 



NO«UAL TO SURTACt 

Crnax or unit kaows 




An&lE of INCIDENCE ■ AOB 

Ahcle or «cruACTioN» COD 
Sin AOB ■ AB 
Sin COD -CD 



\ 



n-ê8 



Fig. 2 — Measurement of index of refraction. 

It will be seen that a ray of light slows up and swerves 
when it meets a medium of greater optical density, just 
as a motor car slows up and swerves when one wheel 
leaves the concrete and gets on the softer shoulder of 
the road. 

In practice, the refractive index measured for the D 
line of sodium (A° .5893) is the value used for commer- 
cial purposes. Its symbol is N,,. 

Dispersion 

Another property of glass which is of great importance 
in determining its optical characteristics is its " dispersion." 

Radiations of the seven colours of the visible spectrum 
travel with the same velocity in a vacuum. The result to 
the eyes is white light. This is true to all intents and 
purposes in air. 

In an optically denser medium, however, such as glass, 



130 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the longest-legged colour, red, travels fastest. The shortest- 
legged colour, violet, travels the slowest. Thus, in the 
denser medium, the colours of white light are dispersed, 
producing the familiar colours of the rainbow. The effect 
of a prism is shown in Fig. 3. 

The angle of refraction evidently varies with the wave- 
length of the incident light. The difference in the refrac- 




WWITE LIGUT RAY 



RELFRACTCO RAYS 



RED 
BLUE. 



D.the deviation depends 
on A, and the refractive 
index 

d .the dispersion depends 
on A and the Abbe number 

Fig. 3 — Refraction of white light by a prism. 

tive indices of a particular glass for light of different 
wavelengths is known as its " partial dispersion " between 
those particular wavelengths. 

This phenomenon is obviously of great importance in 
the design of optical systems. 

In commercial practice, four different wavelengths of 
light, the red, blue and violet of hydrogen and the yellow 
of sodium are used as standards. 

The refractive indices for these various wavelengths are 
designated as N c , N,, N 4 , and N d respectively. 

Refraction and Dispersion 

In specifying the optical constants for the glasses in this 
list, nine spectral lines are used. Table II gives the wave- 
lengths, etc., of these nine lines. 

The "mean" index of refraction in air is given for the d 
line, and the "mean" dispersion between the C and F lines. 

From these data is obtained the reciprocal dispersive 

power (constringence) — — usually denoted by v or V. 

The partial dispersions b to C, C to d, d to e, e to F, F to 
g, and g to h are given, and the ratios these partial disper- 
sions bear to the mean dispersion (relative partial disper- 
sions). In addition, for reference, the indices of refraction 
for the sodium D line and the hydrogen G 1 line are quoted. 

The routine measurements of refractive indices of melt- 
ings are made with a Pulfrich refractometer (which has been 
standardised by reference prisms carefully measured on an 
accurate spectrometer). It will, therefore, be generally re- 
cognised that the values of the dispersions sent to customers 
with each melting of glass cannot be relied on to within less 
than .00003. 

Special care has been taken to ensure that the relative 
dispersions given in the list are accurate. In each case an 
optically worked prism has been measured on an accurate 
spectrometer. 

The value derived from these differences in refractive 



index, as between different wavelengths, is known as the 
" Abbé number," and is given by the formula 

N d - 1 



V 



N f -N c 



The reciprocal of this value is a measure of the dis- 
persive power of the glass. 

The term, which is in general use, serves to measure 
dispersion, and, together with N d the refractive index for 
the D line of sodium, is sufficient to characterize any 
optical glass. 

The fundamental task in lens design is to bring to- 
gether, to the same focus, rays of one or more colours. 
This procedure can be successful only to the degree that 
the relative dispersions in the two glasses are similar. If 
this be not the case, there is residual colour in the image 
which cannot be eliminated. (See Fig. 4.) 

By the proper combination of different types of glass 
of suitable index and dispersion, we can eliminate the 
effects of dispersion and produce an image free of colour. 

By combining lens elements of glasses of different re- 
fractive indices and dispersions, it is possible for the 
designer to obtain much more perfect images and optical 
performance than with single lenses. 

Types of Glass 

Although the fundamentals of glass-melting were known 
from the very earliest times, it was not until the end of 




Dispersions equal and opposite 

Crown Deviation 30 downward 
Flint Deviation 15 upu/ARd 
Ne1 Deviation 15 downward 

Fig. 4 — Achromatic prism combination. 

the 18th century that satisfactory optical glass became 
available. This followed the discovery by Guinand in 1790 
that, by stirring the molten glass, it was possible largely 
to free it from physical imperfections, such as stones, 
bubbles, seeds, etc. 

For many years, there were but two general types of 
glass available: the "flints" and the " crowns." The 
" flints " contained appreciable quantities of lead oxide 
and were characterized by higher refractive index and 
greater dispersive qualities than the " crowns." The rela- 
tionship between refractive index and dispersion was fixed, 
inasmuch as the dispersion always increased as the 
refractive index increased. 

The materials used in the manufacture of these glasses 
were largely the oxides of silica, sodium, potassium, lead, 
aluminium, and possibly thellium. 

It was apparent that improved performance in optical 



Table II. 





Red 


Yellow 


Green 


Blue 


Violet 


Helium 


h 


d 








Hvdrogen 


C 






F 


G 1 


Sodium 




D 








Mercury 






e 


g 


h 






Wave-lengths in tenth-metres (A) . . . 


7065 


6563 


5893 


5875 


5461 


4861 


4359 


4341 


4047 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



131 



Table III. 

Optical Characteristics of Glass Made at Research 

Enterprises Limited 







Refractive 








Index for 


N D - 1 

* XT \T 


Type 


Code 


Sodium 






Line 


N F -N C 






N D 




Borosilicate Crown 


510644 


1.5100 


64.4 




517641 


1.5170 


64.1 


Hard Crown 


519604 
540595 


1.5190 
1.5400 


60.4 


Light Barium Crown 


59.5 


Medium Barium Crown . 


572577 


1.5720 


57.7 


Light Barium Flint 


551515 


1.5510 


51.5 




575520 


1.5750 


52.0 


Light Flint 


575426 


1 . 5750 


42.6 




578407 


1.5780 


40.7 


Dense Flint 


617366 
620361 


1.6170 
1.6200 


36.6 




36.1 




623360 


1.6230 


36.0 


Extra Dense Flint 


648338 


1.6480 


33.8 




653336 


1 . 6530 


33.6 



systems depended upon the development of additional 
types of glass with a different relationship between index 
and dispersion. 

In 1890, Schott and Abbé at Jena, using many new 
materials, developed glasses which were characterized by 
a relationship between refractive index and dispersion 
quite different from that of the older types. 

The new types included borosilicate crowns, barium 
crowns, barium flints, borate flints, and opened up a 
completely new field to the optical industry. 

For many years Jena led the world in the production 
of these glasses, but long before the last war Chance 
Brothers, in England, had achieved an enviable reputa- 
tion for the quality of their optical glass. 

Following the last war, and working closely with the 
Admiralty, Chance Brothers have concentrated on the 
development of optical glass, and for many years they 
have occupied a technical position at least equal to Schott 
und Genossen at Jena. 

Chance Brothers' present catalogue lists well over a 
hundred different types of optical glass. Our instrument 
programme here requires some fifteen different types, all 
of which we have now made successfully. 

In 1917, the United States was faced with the necessity 
of establishing its own optical glass industry from the 
ground up. The situation was in many respects similar 
to the one we faced in 1940. Fortunately, a very complete 
record of their experience is available. It discloses the 
great difficulties they encountered. 

Prior to this war, there was an established optical glass 
industry in the United States. One manufacturer, Bausch & 
Lomb, in particular, had continued production and de- 
veloped a variety of types of glass designed for use in the 
manufacture of their own instruments. 

There was also a small commercial operation in the 
Bureau of Standards in Washington, the output of which 
went largely to the United States Government workshops. 

The types of glass developed by American industry 
have been generally standardized as to optical character- 
istics. These differ considerably from those in use in the 
United Kingdom, and the American types do not lend 
themselves readily for use in the optical systems of the 
British instruments which had to be copied. 

Thus after thorough study of the record of the difficul- 
ties met by the Americans in 1917 and '18, it seemed best 
to follow the successful methods of the outstanding British 
manufacturer — Chance Brothers, of Birmingham. 

Chance Brothers have been making fine glass for over 
one hundred years and were well entitled to place a very 



high value on their manufacturing knowledge. Neverthe- 
less a very satisfactory arrangement was concluded with 
them, and they have made available to us every detail in 
connection with their operations. Now that our Glass 
Division is established on a modest commercial basis, it 
must be admitted that the mere copying has taxed our 
abilities, but had this arrangement not been made with 
Chance Brothers, we might still be experimenting instead 
of producing. 

In the early stages, there was no information upon which 
to estimate the quantity of optical glass required, so it 
was decided to set up the smallest economic unit, which 
was estimated to have a capacity of 5,000 pounds of usable 
glass per month. 

The first melt was made on June 5th, 1941. The colour 
was perfect. Of course there were plenty of seeds and 
bubbles, etc., but a few thousand pounds of good quality 
glass were produced in July and August. In September, 
this increased to 4,000 pounds; in October, to 10,000; in 
November, to 12,500; and it is expected to maintain this 
rate until March, when two new furnaces will be in op- 
eration and the monthly yield should reach 20,000 pounds 
of usable glass. 

Our methods differ only in minor details from those of 
Chance Brothers. The quality of the glass produced has 
been excellent — surprising even ourselves — and, as experi- 
ence is gained, the yields of good glass, which even now 
are very satisfactory except in the more difficult barium 
glasses, will steadily improve. 

A few general observations on the process may serve to 
explain some of the operations in glass manufacture. 

Pots 

The problem of refractory pots for glass-melting is one 
of the most difficult. For many years, an old type of hand- 
built clay pot, laboriously constructed by skilled work- 
men, was the only satisfactory type available. So far as 
we were concerned, the production of old-style pots was 
quite out of the question, as no skilled workmen were 
available. We, consequently, followed the method of 
making pots by slip-casting, and received very consider- 
able assistance from the work which had been done at 
the Bureau of Standards in Washington. 

The characteristics of the pot are all important. It must 
be mechanically strong at temperatures up to 1500 degrees 
C, not only to hold approximately 2,000 pounds of melted 
glass, but to permit its being handled by mechanical 
means, and it must, above all else, be chemically resistant 
to the action of the molten glass at these high tempera- 
tures. 

Very serious problems arise with certain of the glasses, 
particularly those containing barium. Although we are 
able to maintain very high standards of purity in our 
batch chemicals, it is not so easy to obtain clays equally 
free from impurities, and it therefore becomes doubly 
important to restrict solution of pot impurities by the 
action of the molten glass. 

There is no definite scientific procedure for the control 
of pot-making. The methods are largely empirical. We 
use a mixture consisting of three types of china clay and 
two types of ball clay, together with sodium silicate and 
sodium hydroxide as deflocculants. 

Apart from close mechanical control, success depends 
largely upon the skill of the potter, the modern represen- 
tative of the oldest of the crafts. 

After many disappointments we have had extremely 
good luck, and appear to have solved the pot problem 
for even the most difficult of the glasses made. The pots, 
normally, take about three months to dry; it may prove 
necessary to adopt some mechanical means to hasten the 
drying period without impairing the qualities of the pot. 

The pot is used only once, but the remains of the burned 



132 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




«TACK DHAFT_ 
INDICATOR 



Fig. 5 — Regenerative Furnace. 

pot are carefully separated from particles of glass, then 
pulverized and screened, and used again to provide about 
half of the raw material for the making of new pots. 

Furnaces 

The furnaces are of the single pot type and may be 
either regenerative or recuperative. (See Figs. 5 and 6.) 

The pots are mostly heated by radiation from the fur- 
nace crown, and it is essential that the temperatures be 
uniform and subject to close control. 

The regenerative type of furnace (Fig. 5) is the more 
popular type in America, but more expensive to construct. 
The recuperative furnace (Fig. 6) has been found quite 
satisfactory in English practice and is simpler to build. 
Both types will be in operation in Canada. 

City gas of 490 B.T.Ù.'s is used. This is an ideal fuel 
from the point of view of cleanliness, but as the consump- 
tion, even now, is some ten million cubic feet per month, 
the question of cost becomes a serious one. Under existing 
conditions, our fuel costs are from four to five times as 
high as the corresponding costs at Chance Brothers, who 
use producer gas. Having gained sufficient confidence in 
the technique of the melting operation, oil-burning equip- 
ment is being installed for the two additional furnaces. 

Melting 

Previous to the melting operation the pots are preheated 
in the pot-arches to 1100 degrees C, and are moved 
quickly to the melting furnace. The temperature is then 
raised to above 1450 degrees, the pot is glazed by throwing 
in cullet of the same type of glass as that to be melted, 
and the batch is then " filled on." 

Chemical reaction follows quickly, resulting in the 
fusion of the constituents and the formation of various 
silicates. In the process there is an evolution of gases 
which rise to the surface, and when all these have escaped, 
the glass is said to be " fined," and the stirring process 



begins. This lasts for, roughly, five hours, with speed 
and stroke varying according to the type of glass. When 
this stirring is complete, the pot is removed. 

Annealing 

Good optical glass must be isotropic, that is to say its 
properties — such as refractive index and dispersion — must 
be the same in all directions. 

When glass is cooled, two general effects appear. First, 
a molecular effect which depends on the rate of cooling 
and which is uniform throughout the whole body of the 
glass. Under these conditions, for example, glass of similar 
composition, cooled rapidly, will have a different refrac- 
tive index, etc., from the same glass cooled slowly. This 
effect must be considered in cooling the pot after its first 
removal from the furnace. 

The second effect may be described as a mass or volume 
effect, and results from differential cooling within the 
same pot of glass. For example, if one part of the glass 
cools more rapidly than another, stress will be set up be- 
tween the two parts and strain will result. This is the 
phenomenon which causes the greatest difficulty. 

Glass which is non-uniformly strained will have one 
refractive index for light travelling parallel to the direc- 
tion of strain and a quite different refractive index, etc., 
for light travelling at right angles to it. In other words, 
it becomes doubly refractive. This is, of course, a familiar 
phenomenon, and inasmuch as the birefringence is pro- 
portional to the magnitude of the strain, the precise value 
and location of the strain may be measured by polarized 
light. 

It is clear, therefore, that the annealing of optical glass 
in its various stages of manufacture is of the greatest im- 
portance. In the early stages, the process is known as 
" rough annealing ", although it is controlled as closely 
as possible, but when the glass reaches its final shape, 
either as a slab or a pressing, it undergoes a last " fine 
annealing " operation in which the rate of cooling is very 
closely controlled. 

It is of interest to note that the actual fine annealing 
requirements involve the treatment of large amounts of 
glass at the one time. The holding temperature, ranging 
from 430 to 570 degrees C. (which represents the first 
stage in the operation) , requires the maintenance of tem- 



STACK 




FLOOR 



COOLING CHANNEL 



Fig. 6 — Recuperative Furnace. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



133 



perature within one degree, plus or minus, for periods of 
24 hours at least. 

Further the cooling temperature requirements involve the 
maintenance of rates of temperature drop as low as 5 
degrees per 24 hours. With modern equipment, we are 
able to control this operation entirely automatically. 

Minimum standards for ordinary optical components 
require that the strain shall not produce birefringence 
equivalent to more than ten millimicrons per centimetre 
of light path. In many cases, our own product shows no 
detectable strain whatever. 

Forms Of Product 
Optical glass is available in three standard forms: 

1. Chunks: as they come from the broken pot; 

2. Slabs: which are made from chunks of glass by 
softening and pressing in a mould, then grinding and 
polishing the edges; 

3. Mouldings or pressings: These latter represent the 
form in which the largest proportion of the output 
is delivered. 

The pot of glass is broken down by hand until the lumps 
are approximately of the required weight and it is then 
softened and pressed in an iron mould, which is made, 
roughly, to the shape of the finished optical component, 
sufficient allowance being made to provide for the grind- 
ing and polishing operations. 

This method has many advantages and meets the re- 
quirements for all instruments other than those of the 
highest precision. In the latter case, the optical glass must 
be cut by means of a saw from selected slabs or plates. 

Optics 

The production of finished optical glass parts appeared 
at first to be one of our most serious problems. There was 
no similar operation anywhere in Canada, nor was trained 
personnel available anywhere on this continent. 

Fortunately, Dr. Jones was secured from the National 
Research Council, and he threw himself wholeheartedly 
into the problem. Arrangements were made with Bausch 
& Lomb to take nine of our carefully selected learners and 
put them in their own plant for some four to six months. 

Tooling for this work is just as much a problem as 
tooling for machine work, and there is the further com- 
plication that the computation of optical systems is a 
highly specialized mathematical problem. Dr. Crooker, of 
the University of British Columbia, was engaged as optical 
designer. Despite the impression in the industry that 
years of practical experience were essential, Dr. Crooker 
has solved our design problem. 

By the end of June, a few polished components were 
actually being produced every week, but the rejections 
were in the neighbourhood of ninety per cent. By one 
means or another, this has been removed from our list of 
problems. In the second week of January, for example, 
over 8,000 individual, finished, polished optical compon- 
ents were turned out, and the rejections were 13.7 per 
cent. This is an encouraging record, and proves that 
much can be accomplished if the urgency is sufficiently 
great. 

The fabrication of optical parts differs from that of 
metal parts in a number of respects, perhaps the most 
conspicuous of which is the considerable amount of hand- 
work which is still found necessary even in the largest 
plants. This state of the art will almost certainly con- 
tinue in the case of the more precise parts used in small 
quantities on large, expensive instruments, while on the 
smaller parts, required in greater quantity, the traditional 
methods are considerably modified in order to produce 
more rapid results. There are two principal operations in 
the production of optical parts: 



(a) Grinding 

This is usually done with loose abrasive on a cast-iron 
tool. Whenever possible, multiple fixtures are used to 
facilitate production. A number of operations are also 
done with milling machines, using diamond charged cut- 
ters. 

(b) Polishing 

All precision polishing is done with a lap, coated with 
pitch and using an oxide, usually iron oxide, as the polish- 
ing material. 

Polishing differs from grinding operations in that it is 
necessarily a lapping operation in which the floating tool 
principle is used and the accuracy is not contingent on 
the accuracy of machine ways. The method of holding 
the work differs from machine practice in that the glass 
part is either held to an iron tool by pitch or by bedding 
in plaster of paris, or in the most accurate work, by optical 
contact with a finished optical surface on a holding fixture. 

The testing of the accuracy of the polished surface is 
based on optical interference. The familiar Newton rings 
are observed between the work and a master test plate. 
In the case of low power telescope lenses, the work is held 
to a tolerance of five rings. In the case of higher power 
instruments, the tolerance may be as little as one ring, 
or in the case of master test flats, the surfaces are worked 
so that no rings show. In this latter case, the accuracy is 
l/6th wave length or better. 

Translating these into terms of ordinary measurement, 
an interference ring is equal to % wave length and is 
equal to approximately l/100,000th of an inch. In flat 
work, the tolerances are commonly more stringent than 
in lens work, and in certain cases good performance de- 
mands a surface which is flat within 1/1,000,000 of an 
inch. 

Linear dimensions of optical parts are held to tolerances 
somewhat similar to those in the metal-working industries. 
Diameters are held to the same tolerances as lens cells, 
commonly plus or minus .0005. In some prisms extremely 
high accuracy is required in the angles; for example, we 
are turning out deflecting wedges in which the tolerance 
is five seconds of angle, plus or minus. 

Optical methods of measurement and optical contact 
blocking permit the obtaining of this accuracy with very 
few rejections. The final correcting of the angles, although 
done in a multiple fixture, is usually a hand operation. In 
fact, it is true that the high performance of all the more 
precise instruments, such as the rangefinder, heightfinder, 
etc., depends on optical components which are finally fin- 
ished by hand. 

Manufacture Of Metal Instrument Parts 

In the early stages of our planning, we quite under- 
estimated the difficulties associated with the production 
of metal instrument parts. We took it for granted that 
our real difficulties would lie in the field of glass-making 
and optics. 

Instrument-making is more than a mere extension of 
fine machine shop practice. It demands a slightly differ- 
ent point of view, which is a good reason for the special 
term " instrument-maker ". 

The design of the British instruments we are reproduc- 
ing has not been greatly influenced by considerations of 
quantity production. The standards are very high. In- 
deed, in many cases, it would seem that some lowering of 
peacetime design standards might be well justified by the 
exigencies of war-time demand for quantities. 

There appears to be a difference in instrument-making 
practice between Bausch and Lomb, for example, in the 
United States, and at least the many smaller instrument 
firms in the United Kingdom. 



134 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



In the United Kingdom, the ample supply of instru- 
ment-makers seems to justify the use of these highly skil- 
led workmen on machine tools of types we would consider 
old-fashioned. Nevertheless, in skilled hands, the quality 
of the work is up to the necessary standard. 

In American practice, on the other hand, the tendency 
is to make much greater use of turret lathes and automatic 
machines, leaving the final fitting to the relatively smaller 
number of instrument-makers. 

In our case, however, the instrument-maker simply did 
not exist, and it has been necessary to take the best type 
of tool-maker available; he has had to learn the require- 
ments of the job by hard experience. 

Practically all the drawings which have been supplied 
to us contained insufficient information on tolerances to 
permit their use in the manufacture of interchangeable 
parts. As a rule, these drawings are prepared for third 
angle projection which, in many cases, is confusing to 
men who were used to first angle projection. The wide 
use of Whitworth, BA. and B.S.A. screw thread standards 
created problems which could only be solved by time. 

•In practice, it was necessary to adopt the expedient of 
making a model instrument in every case by hand, alter- 
ing it until it came up to the established performance 
specifications, and then preparing our own manufacturing 
drawings. Under existing conditions, this has proved to 
be a tremendous task. 

The actual operations involved follow familiar lines, 
with special emphasis on the close fits required, the high 
finish necessary, and the great number of threaded com- 
ponents. Most metal part manufacturing is done on 
standard and universal type machines with suitable fix- 
tures, etc. Very few single performance machines are 
used. 

It may be of interest to note that the large majority 
of our threaded parts are more satisfactorily threaded by 
chasing rather than by cutting with a tap or die. 

Our gear-making problem is unique in that many of 
the gear trains demand extremely high accuracy, in which 
no backlash con be tolerated. Some of these gear trains 
demand special cam gears in which the teeth are cut on 
the contour of a specially calculated cam. 

Most of our gear work consists of very small units and 
extensive use is made of the standard machines as pro- 
duced by Barber-Coleman, Gleason and Fellowes, to- 
gether with a variety of checking equipment. 

Assembly of the metal parts involves a very large de- 
gree of hand-fitting. In general, it is more economical to 
manufacture the parts to a high commercial accuracy, 
and do this small amount of hand-fitting to achieve the 
necessary sensitivity, rather than to attempt to manufac- 
ture parts individually to the highest degree of gauge 
precision. 



There are, however, many instruments, such as the tank 
periscope, in which virtually no fitting whatever is re- 
quired, and the assembly is done by girls trained in a few 
weeks. 

The assembly of the optics in the metal parts is an 
operation which never has been done on any large scale 
in Canada prior to the building of Research Enterprises. 
These operations require the use of carefully constructed 
and calibrated collimators and the best of careful work- 
manship. As an indication of the care with which optical 
parts must be mounted, here are the tests to which one 
small instrument is subjected. 

It is heated to 150 degrees F., cooled to minus 40 de- 
grees F., placed in a vacuum for one-half hour, then im- 
mersed in a steam bath and finally vibrated with an am- 
plitude of 1/32 inch and frequency of 2,200 vibrations per 
minute. After these tests, the instrument must be as 
optically perfect as before the tests were made. Such 
tests obviously require that the optical parts be very 
securely mounted, very carefully sealed, and further that 
there be no strain transferred to the glass by the mount- 
ing. 

Of our activities in connection with secret devices, it is 
not permitted to speak. It might, however, be said that 
the work is in a field hitherto practically unknown on 
this continent. It is based on research and development 
work undertaken in the United Kingdom and on the ex- 
tension of this work in the laboratories of the National 
Research Council. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the whole operation may 
be gathered from the fact that we have approximately 
$100,000,000 worth of orders in this field, as against some 
$10,000,000 in the instrument field. These are astronomi- 
cal figures, and we interpret them to mean that all that 
we can make can be used as rapidly as we can produce it. 

It is obvious that any undertaking of such scope as 
that of Research Enterprises must present many defi- 
ciencies, but it appears that the technical aspect of our 
problem has practically been solved, so far as personnel 
and facilities are concerned. The immediate task is to 
complete and perfect, so far as may be possible, the 
organization for production. 

It is difficult to find an index to indicate progress to 
date but it may be interesting to learn that our billings, 
up until the end of January, amount to over $1,300,000, 
with some $5,000,000 worth of work in process nearing 
completion. 

The author wishes to take this opportunity of emphasiz- 
ing the debt owed to the countless people and institutions 
who have helped in so many ways. It is impossible to 
list them by name, but, above all else, the practical 
effective co-operation from the Department of Munitions 
and Supply should be recognized. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



135 



THE ALASKA HIGHWAY 

J. M. WARDLE, m.e.i.c. 

Member of International Fact Finding Committee 1981-88. 

Member of British Columbia-Yukon-Alaska Highway Commission, (Canada). 



EDITOR'S NOTE — Since this article'was written, a decision has 
been reached to build a highway for military purposes. A loca- 
tion following generally the air route from Edmonton to 
Alaska will be developed immediately. 

From time to time projects arise whose magnitude and 
character stir the imagination and challenge the ability of 
the engineer. Such a project is the proposed highway to 
Alaska. It involves the location and construction of 1,200 
miles of highway through unsettled and mountainous ter- 
ritory, far off the beaten track; the extension of the high- 
way systems of Canada and the United States to the 65th 
parallel of latitude, and the making accessible to the 
motor car of areas which, a few short years ago, could only 
be reached by pioneer methods of transportation. 

An overland connection between the United States and 
Alaska was first suggested forty years ago, when Mr. E. 
H. Harriman, of railroad fame, planned a railway through 
the Pacific Northwest, that would pass not only through 
British Columbia and the Yukon to Alaska, but would 
cross Bering Strait to Asia. In later years, Pan-American 
enthusiasts spoke of a highway from the southern tip of 
South America northerly through Panama, Mexico and 
the United States and Western Canada, to Alaska. Some 
investigation has already been made of a route through 
Panama and Central America, and its possibilities have 
been the subject of several articles. 

Insofar as a highway to Alaska through British Colum- 
bia and the Yukon is concerned, it seemed to take definite 
shape in 1929, when various public bodies on the Pacific 
coast began to support and encourage the project. 

These groups felt interested because, as Alaska lies to 
the north, and is west of Canada, they regarded the high- 
way as a project associated with the states, provinces, 
and territories bordering the Pacific. The inhabitants of 
Alaska itself were naturally strongly in favour of a road 
connection with the United States, and the whole Pacific 
area supported the project, with some reservations as to 
the distribution of construction costs between Canada and 
the United States. 

The claim of the people of Alaska for an overland con- 
nection with the continental United States is outlined by 
the United States Alaskan Highway Commission in its 
report of April 1940. A few quotations from this report 
follow: — 

" People generally believe this territory (Alaska) to be 
the land of ice and snow. They look upon it as a point, 
and not as an area. They do not know that Alaska alone 
covers 590,000 square miles; that it is over 1,200 miles 
from the southern point to the northern tip and 3,000 
miles to the western extremity of the Aleutian Islands, 
with all the variations of climate from that of the tem- 
perate zone to arctic conditions. In many portions the 
climate equals that of the eastern seaboard of the United 
States. Juneau, Alaska, has milder winters than Wash- 
ington, D.C." 

" The gold fields of Atlin and Dease Lake, the silver, 
lead, and zinc deposits of the Ingenika region, the rich 
gold-gravel deposits of the Omineca, and vast gold fields 
of Groundhog, in British Columbia, alone justify a road. 
Heap on the known resources of Alaska and the total 
potential dividends should so far exceed the capital in- 
vestment of an international highway as to make it 
almost folly not to proceed on the basis of the mineral 
wealth alone." 



" Furthermore, Alaska and the Canadian Northwest 
provide a natural vacation ground which, because there 
is no through highway, is inaccessible to thousands of 
motorists desiring the opportunity to drive farther north 
rather than south for their summer vacation. During the 
four months from June through October the mild northern 
climate is, for the most part, ideal. Hay fever is practi- 
cally unknown." 



******* 



" The small population of Alaska should not be used as 
an argument against the international highway, for eco- 
nomically this small population is one of the richest in 
the world. With less than 80,000 people in the Territory, 
about equally divided between whites and natives, the 
annual wealth production in the Territory is close to $100,- 
000,000. This is a world-high average of $1,250 per capita 
per year and, inasmuch as at least 75 percent of the native 
population is not in industrial competition, the figure is 
amazing. On the basis that 1 in 5 persons is gainfully em- 
ployed, which is maximum for Alaska, each Alaskan pro- 
ducer is yielding $5,000 in actual wealth. In addition to 
its own produce, Alaska imports more than $40,000,000 
worth of supplies per annum, or an average of $500 per 
capita. The exports amount to $80,000,000. These statis- 
tics show that Alaska is probably the greatest producer 
and consumer of produce per capita in the world." 



• * * • 



Even while the report quoted was being written, Alaska 
had leaped into prominence as the site of great northern 
United States air bases, and these are being developed 
with characteristic speed and vigour. 

The first official recognition of the possibility of an 
Alaska highway was given late in 1930, when the Congress 
of the United States authorized three representatives to 
meet with three representatives selected by the Canadian 
Government, and constitute an International Fact Finding 
Committee, for the purpose of investigating the proposed 
highway. The committee members at once began collect- 
ing information, the Government of British Columbia 
promptly placing at their disposal reports on reconnais- 
sance surveys by ground and air that had been underway 
on road routes northerly from Hazelton, B.C. The initial 
responsibility of the committee was to decide whether or 
not there was a feasible route to Alaska through British 
Columbia and the Yukon Territory, and at a meeting held 
late in 1931, sufficient information was found to be avail- 
able for this purpose. The view of the Fact Finding Com- 
mittee on the highway at that time was expressed as 
follows: — 

" The final conclusion was that the committee con- 
sidered the project of constructing a road as an extension 
of the Pacific Highway north from Hazelton through 
Northern British Columbia, Yukon and Alaska to Fair- 
banks as being feasible from an engineering standpoint; 
that there was not sufficient information available to de- 
termine whether the undertaking was economically sound, 
that further information is to be obtained, and that the 
committee will meet again at the call of the chairman." 

Enough information was collected on a route that seem- 
ed feasible, to arrive at a very rough estimate of cost. 
This was based on a passable road from 14 to 16 feet wide, 
with no provision for any improvements to existing roads 
leading from Blaine on the International Boundary, to 
Prince George or Hazelton, B.C. This very preliminary 
estimate is summarized herewith: — 



136 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Blaine to Hazelton, B.C 815 miles 

(Passable road) 
Hazelton to Yukon Territory, . 610 miles 

(New work) $ 7,320,000.00 

Yukon Boundary to Alaska 

Boundary, 530 miles 

(Improvements and new work) 4,575,000.00 

Alaska Boundary to Fairbanks 270 miles 

(of which 180 miles new 

work) 3,000,000.00 

Totals 2,225 miles $14,895,000.00 



Investigations in regard to probable revenue from tour- 
ist traffic, development of natural resources, and economic 
benefits to Canada and the United States were carried out 
by the Committee until 1933, and a good deal of interest- 
ing information collected. However, interest in the pro- 
ject waned during the depression, and there was no fur- 
ther activity until 1938. 

In that year, the question of the highway was again 
raised by the United States, and an inter-departmental 
committee was formed in Ottawa to review the situation 
from the Canadian standpoint. This committee, on which 
were represented the Departments of External Affairs, 
Justice, Mines and Resources, and National Defence, com- 
pleted their report in July of that year. Briefly, it ex- 
pressed the view that the Alaska Highway was feasible 
from the engineering standpoint, but that information 
available did not indicate that it was justified from the 
economic standpoint at that time. 

Further exchanges between the governments of Can- 
ada and the United States resulted in a communication 
from the United States Government, in regard to the 
desirability of providing for the construction of the high- 
way, which stated that the President of the United States 
was empowered to appoint a commission of five persons 
" to co-operate and communicate directly with any similar 
agency which may be appointed in the Dominion of Can- 
ada in a study for the survey, location, and construction 
of a highway to connect the Pacific Northwest part of 
continental United States with British Columbia and the 
Yukon Territory in the Dominion of Canada and the 
Territory of Alaska." 

On the President appointing the United States Com- 
mission of five persons, Canada did likewise by order-in- 
council. 

The wording of the United States communication con- 
fined immediate investigations to a highway through 
British Columbia and the Yukon Territory to Alaska, and 
both commissions proceeded on this basis. 

Since approximately 1,800 miles of the proposed road 
would be in Canada, and only some 225 miles in territory 
of the United States, the Canadian commission was obliged 
to assume much greater responsibilities than the United 
States commission, insofar as investigations were con- 
cerned. 

The Canadian commission undertook to collect infor- 
mation and do necessary reconnaissance survey work on 
the highway through British Columbia and the Yukon, 
while the United States Commission was to submit esti- 
mates on a route or routes from the Alaskan- Yukon boun- 
dary to Fairbanks. 

The Canadian commission was fortunate in having im- 
mediately available most useful information, obtained by 
the Province of British Columbia through exploration and 
reconnaissance surveys in northern sections of the prov- 
ince, — as well as a great deal of material collected by the 
Fact Finding Committee of 1931-33. 

This was supplemented during the course of the com- 
mission's work by aerial and ground reconnaissance sur- 
veys, by evidence taken at public hearings at such geo- 



graphic centres as Prince George, Hazelton, Atlin and 
Whitehorse; and by the examination of the large amount 
of pertinent data available in Dominion and Provincial 
Government records. 

In collecting information, engineers covered 4,000 miles 
by aerial reconnaissance, and over 3,000 miles by ground 
reconnaissance surveys. Exploration by air was not so 
much to discover new routes as to " eliminate those that 
were definitely unfavourable, thus saving the cost of 
ground investigations, and to confirm the possibility of 
routes on which favourable reports had already been re- 
ceived." It was only the great advantages of air recon- 
naissance that permitted the commission to examine, in 
the short space of three seasons, the main features of the 
large mileage involved in main and alternate routes. 
Thousands of dollars were thus saved through avoiding 
expensive ground reconnaissance over routes that on aerial 
observation proved impractical. 

The Alaska Highway presents a very interesting prob- 
lem from the standpoint of general location, and one that 
is but rarely afforded. In the first place it is not a local, 
provincial, nor national project, but an international one. 
This characteristic had to be kept in mind continually 
when possible diversions with substantial local advantages 
were under consideration. Probably no highway problem 
has required closer attention to climatic conditions, since 
these will affect construction, maintenance and operation. 
The advantages which the route selected might afford to 
air transportation were also dependent on weather con- 
ditions. Maximum elevations, always important in moun- 
tainous areas, have still greater weight at northerly lati- 
tudes. 

The location of the highway in relation to the develop- 
ment of Canada's natural resources in the north-west was 
a factor of vital interest. Any route chosen should make 
forested and mineral areas reasonably accessible, and 
should not overlook the tourist traffic possibilities of new 
recreational areas. , 

The desire of towns and smaller settlements in northern 
British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and the Alaskan 
panhandle to be on the highway or within striking dis- 
tance of it, was still another factor. 

The members of the United States commission, who 
were deeply interested in the route of the highway through 
Canadian territory, naturally hoped a feasible route could 
be found near enough to the Pacific Coast to benefit the 
Alaskan panhandle. 

The extent to which existing roads should influence the 
general location was considered, and in this respect the 
Canadian commission in its report states " that while 
existing roads below the standard of construction required 
had great value as aids to construction, they could not 
be regarded as conclusive factors in determining routes." 

Various meetings were held by the commission from 
time to time as its investigations progressed, and several 
joint meetings with the United States commission took 
place. 

The instructions of the Canadian commission made no 
reference to investigation of the highway from a military 
standpoint. This question at once arose when war broke 
out in 1939, and became increasingly important with the 
formation of the Joint Defence Board of Canada and the 
United States. On asking for advice, it was suggested to 
the commission that it continue and complete its investi- 
gations, supplying to the Canadian section of the Joint 
Defence Board such information as the latter might re- 
quire from time to time. 

In April 1940 the Canadian commission presented to 
the Dominion Government authorities a preliminary re- 
port covering its findings to that date. At about the same 
time, the United States commission issued a report, which 
used the preliminary Canadian report as a basis for its 
information on routes through Canadian territory. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



137 



:rnatin 



;hway routes 

D FOR 

IWAY TO ALASKA 




138 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The Canadian commission presented its main report in 
November 1941, and it was tabled in the House of Com- 
mons on November 13th, 1941, and in the Senate on Jan- 
uary 21st, 1942. 

In its report the Canadian commission found that north 
from the existing east and west highway connecting Prince 
George and Hazelton, two main routes through British 
Columbia and the Yukon Territory were acceptable from 
the engineering standpoint. Both these routes take ad- 
vantage of the north and south trend of drainage in Brit- 
ish Columbia, this feature being an important factor in 
keeping estimated costs to a reasonable figure. 

One of these routes, designated as " A ", leaves the exist- 
ing road system at Fort St. James and follows approxi- 
mately the centre of the province. It traverses the valleys 
of Stuart and Takla Lakes, the Driftwood River, and the 
Skeena River. Leaving the latter near its source it follows 
the Klappan River valley to the Tanzilla River east of 
Telegraph Creek. From this point the Tuya River valley 
and the country in the vicinity of Gun and Disella Lakes 
is followed to the Atlin Lake drainage basin. The east 
shore of this lake and Lake Marsh is then followed to 
Whitehorse. From the Klappan River north, the " A " 
route conforms to the route regarded as practical by the 
1931 Fact Finding Committee. 

From Whitehorse there are two possible routes, one 
striking westerly to Kluane Lake and then north-westerly 
to the Alaska boundary, and the other following approxi- 
mately the established overland route through the Yukon 
to Dawson and thence west to the Alaska boundary by 
the upper valley of Sixtymile Creek. 

The first alternative is favoured by the United States 
commission since it reports an easier location through 
Alaskan territory; the second by the Canadian commis- 
sion in view of its greater benefit to the Yukon Territory. 
Mileage of new road in Alaska is approximately the same 
by either route. 

The " A " route as described has the advantages of 
medium precipitation, scenic value, and accessibility to 
areas with natural resources in minerals and timber. It 
affords attractive new fishing and hunting districts and 
the promise of some ranching areas. Satisfactory grades 
and alignment are possible without excessive cost. 

The other route selected by the commission is well to 
the east of " A " and is known as the " B " route. It 
utilizes, north of Prince George, B.C., the Rocky Moun- 
tain Trench or its extension,- which the Canadian commis- 
sion states in its report is " a feature with great advant- 
ages from the highway or railway location standpoint." 

Leaving the existing road at Prince George, " B " route 
goes northerly via Fort McLeod, Finlay River, Sifton 
Pass, the Kechika River and the Liard to the Frances 
River. Following up this stream it skirts Frances Lake 
and reaches the Bering Divide by way of Finlayson Lake. 
North of the Divide it strikes the headwaters of the Pelly 
River and follows this stream to where, near Pelly Cross- 
ing, it joins the " A " route, following it to Dawson and 
the Alaska boundary. 

The " B " route is shorter and more direct than the "A" 
route, and would have the advantage of lower construc- 
tion and maintenance costs. 

While not as centrally located from the geographic 
standpoint as the " A " route, it would afford reasonable 
accessibility to mineral areas in central British Columbia, 
is subject to very moderate precipitation, and presents no 
difficulty in regard to grade and alignment. The topo- 
graphical features of the country lend themselves to easy 
building of pioneer or tote roads, which would facilitate 
the undertaking of main construction operations. 

Climatic conditions along " B " route are favourable 
from the standpoint of air transportation. The air route 
between Edmonton, Whitehorse, and Fairbanks, Alaska, 



crosses it at Watson Lake, and there is contact at Prince 
George with the air line from Vancouver. 

From the military standpoint, " B " route is well to the 
east of those coastal areas that might be subject to at- 
tack, and lends itself to rapid construction to any standard 
in case of emergency. The location of this route in the 
eastern part of the province also makes possible con- 
venient connections with the Peace River Block and the 
province of Alberta. 

Inspector Moodie, of the Royal North West Mounted 
Police, on his historic overland trip in 1897-98, from 
Edmonton to Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory, blazed a 
trail that from Finlay Forks north is practically the " B " 
route. Moodie's party made a westerly diversion into 
Dease Lake, following down the Dease River to Lower 
Post on the Liard River, otherwise the general route is 
the same. In his 411-day journey the inspector travelled 
1,800 miles, recording carefully the features of the coun- 
try traversed. His topographical sketch map is remark- 
ably accurate, and with his diary, would furnish ample 
guidance for anyone ambitious enough to follow in his 
footsteps. 

It is likely that a route fairly near the Pacific coast was 
in the minds of the first supporters of the Alaska High- 
way, as such a route, if feasible, would afford the possibil- 
ity of short lateral connections to Pacific coast settle- 
ments. Early in the investigations, however, it became 
evident that such a route was impracticable because of 
heavy precipitation and unfavourable topographical fea- 
tures. Climatic conditions were also unfavourable from 
the stand point of air transportation. The coast range is 
a very formidable obstacle to any east and west highway 
that might be considered north of the 55th parallel, and 
the report states that " even if expensive surveys revealed 
locations on which a road might be built, the cost of con- 
struction and maintenance, combined with a short season, 
would in no way be justified by the advantages that might 
be gained." 

In developing the two general routes finally selected, 
the commission made preliminary investigations of a large 
number of alternative locations, of lengths varying from 
5 or 6 miles to as much as 60 miles. One important alter- 
native on " A " route was only considered practical after 
winter reconnaissance had established that snow condi- 
tions were not as bad as indicated by first reports. In 
many cases, final decision as to the best general location 
must await the outcome of location surveys. In this re- 
spect, the report states that " all estimates of costs given 
. . . are based on reconnaissance surveys, and are there- 
fore necessarily only approximate. Before construction 
could begin, location surveys would be necessary to de- 
cide on the final location of the road where certain alter- 
native routes are available and to confirm and enlarge 
information already obtained." 

It was appreciated by the commission that neither the 
time nor the funds available permitted estimates of cost 
to be based on actual location surveys. The preparation 
of these estimates is thus interesting, in that the commis- 
sion believes fairly reliable figures have been secured 
through careful ground reconnaissance supported by air 
observation. In the main reconnaissance flights, planes 
flew at a constant elevation in relation to the ground, and 
the type of country was carefully noted. Information so 
obtained was supplemented by aerial photographs taken 
at numerous points. Ground reconnaissance parties travel- 
led over various sections of the same routes, and their 
findings in regard to topography, forest growth, drainage, 
and nature of soil were compared with the conclusions 
reached through aerial observation. Before investigations 
were completed, practically all of the "A" and " B " 
routes were covered by ground reconnaissance surveys, 
some sections being covered more than once and by 
different engineers. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



139 



Some eight engineers in all undertook ground and aerial 
reconnaissance, all of whom had had location or construc- 
tion experience in terrain similar to that through which 
the highway would pass. The cost estimates of these en- 
gineers were then compared and adjusted so that the re- 
sulting figures would reflect with reasonable accuracy the 
character of the country traversed. Such estimates were 
adjusted on the basis of actual cost figures that were avail- 
able in Dominion and provincial records for construction 
in similar types of country and with comparative climatic 
conditions. All estimates were based on a finished graded 
road 24 ft. in width, with gravelled surfacing 20 ft. wide. 

The commission was careful to emphasize in its report 
that the estimates were based on wage rates, and material 
and equipment costs, that prevailed in British Columbia 
and the Yukon in April 1940, and records of such figures 
were kept for further reference. Under this arrangement, 
estimates can be quickly revised to cover construction at 
any period by comparing current wages and material costs 
with those prevailing in April 1940. The latter date was 
chosen for basic costs as a good many estimates had been 
prepared by that time, and as it antedated increased costs 
and taxes arising from the war. 

A summary of estimated costs of " A " and " B " routes 
is given herewith: — 

ESTIMATED COSTS 

24-foot grade with gravelling 20 feet wide. Based on wages. 

material, and equipment costs as prevailing in April, 1940. 

"B" Route , Miles Cost 

Section 1 Vancouver to Prince George, 
B.C., via existing highways (Im- 
provement and revision) 525.5 $4,710,000 

Section 2 Prince George to Yukon boun- 
dary, via Summit Lake (New 
construction) 526 7,900,000 

Sections 3 
4 and 5 Yukon boundary to Dawson. . . . 586 8,310,000 

Section 6 Dawson to Alaska boundary, via 

routes "A" and "A-l" 68 1,880,000 

Total 122,800,000 

Engineering and contingencies 

(10% approx.) 2,200,000 

Total— Vancouver to Alaska . . . 1,705 . 5 $25,000,000 

"Central A" Route via Dawson 

Section 1 Vancouver to Fort St. James, via 
existing highways (Improvement 
and revision) 639.5 $5,760,000 

Section 2 Fort St. James to Yukon boun- 
dary (New construction) 736 12,170,000 

Sections 3 

4 and 5 Yukon boundary to Dawson. . . . 458 6,790,000 

Section 6 Dawson to Alaska boundary, via 

routes "A" and "A-l" 68 1,880,000 

Total $26,600,000 

Engineering and contingencies 

(10% approx.) 2,600,000 

Total— Vancouver to Alaska . . . 1,901 . 5 $29,200,000 



"Central A" Route via Whitehorse and Kluane Lake to Mirror 
Creek 

Section 1 Vancouver to Fort St. James, via 
existing highways (Improvement 
and revision) 639.5 $ 5,760,000 

Section 2 Fort St. James to Yukon boun- 
dary (New construction) 736 12,170,000 

Section 3 Yukon boundary to Whitehorse . 76 1,170,000 

Section 4 Whitehorse to Alaska boundary 

at Mirror Creek, via Kluane Lake 307 4,000,000 

Total $23,100,000 

Engineering and contingencies 

(10% approx.) 2,300,000 

Total— Vancouver to Alaska .. . 1,758.5 $25,400,000 



The estimates provide for the construction of from 
1,100 to 1,260 miles of new highway, depending on the 
route taken, and the improvement to the standard re- 
quired of the existing highway from Vancouver to Prince 
George or Fort St. James, as the case may be. Some fair- 
ly substantial revisions in existing roads are provided for. 

The commission's report deals only with possible routes 
through British Columbia and the Yukon. Since it was 
submitted, war with Japan has made the Alaska Highway 
a live question for defence authorities, and introduced a 
new factor, namely that of building a highway primarily 
for military purposes. This involves consideration of pos- 
sible routes through other areas in the Pacific northwest 
in the light of advantages they might afford in this par- 
ticular respect. 

Since the commission's instructions did not include ex- 
amination of routes east of the Rockies, the absence of 
information in its report on possible routes through north- 
ern Alberta does not necessarily mean these do not exist. 
The report, however, reviews at some length existing and 
possible road connections between the northern highway 
systems of Alberta and British Columbia. 

That there will be benefits to Canada from the con- 
struction of the Alaska Highway cannot be doubted. Na- 
tural resources in much of the country traversed are 
wholly undeveloped, and these will attract a great deal 
of attention after the war. With the opening up of vast 
new areas for motoring, hunting, fishing, and other recrea- 
tional purposes, the tourist traffic field offers great pos- 
sibilities. Whether or not Canada will be paying too 
much for these opportunities, will depend on what ar- 
rangements can be made to meet construction costs. 

When the highway will be built is not known at this 
time. It is a matter of international policy that will be 
governed by events. It is conceivable that the defensive 
and offensive strategy of the Allied Nations may make it 
a vital issue over night, and will also determine the route 
on which the road must be built. On the other hand, it 
may be destined to take its place as a post-war project, 
contributing to the development of a Northern Empire. 



140 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE WAR ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH 

COUNCIL OF CANADA 

C. J. MACKENZIE, m.e.i.c. 
President, The Engineering Institute cf Canada, 1941 ; Acting President, Natiortal Research Council, Ottawa 

Retiring address delivered at the Annual General Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, at Montreal, 

on Fehruary 5th, 1942 



Tradition and custom prescribe a presidential address 
at the end of a year of office but neither precedent nor 
practice restricts the form it may take. The presidency 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada is essentially an 
honour and distinction; the administrative accounting and 
history of the year's activities have been presented in 
the report of the general secretary who is the chief execu- 
tive officer of the Council. 

In the more leisurely days of peace, presidents often 
chose for discourse some question of general interest to 
the profession, treating it in a philosophical manner re- 
flecting long interest and matured thought. Other past- 
presidents have presented at length valuable technical 
contributions to the literature of our profession, arising 
out of their personal work and experiences. Neither of 
these alternatives seems appropriate in February 1942 
ivhen practically the entire world is locked in deadly con- 
flict in a fight to the finish between two diametrically op- 
posed ways of life. The issues are so grave, our perils so 
great, that it seems to me, if we are to survive, our 
thoughts must not wander far from the immediate tasks 
before our hands. Military experts know well that to 
make good soldiers they must be taught to think con- 
tinually in terms of war and, by the same token, if in 
this totalitarian struggle we are to win, most of us civilians 
must put aside for the moment strictly peacetime interests 
and speculations, and concentrate intensely on war 
activities and objectives. 

This morning, therefore, I intend to speak of the war 
activities of the National Research Council of Canada, 
but, before entering formally into my subject, I would 
like to acknowledge the great honour I have felt in being 
your president for the past year. The presidential office 
ni the Institute carries with it honourable traditions and 
every new incumbent finds his path made bright by the 
reflected glory of a line of great past-presidents, and his 
duties made light by the invaluable and freely given 
advice and guidance of his immediate predecessors. It is 
also a pleasure to pay tribute to the active vice-presidents 
whose responsibilities are real, not nominal, and all of 
whom have made my year easier by their loyalty and 
devotion to duty. It was my good fortune to visit most 
of the branches from Halifax to Vancouver and every- 
where I was impressed with the fine work branch chair- 
men, secretaries and executives are doing, and also with 
the high quality of the membership at large, their interest 
and their enthusiasm. In the four provinces where co- 
operative agreements have been reached with the local 
provincial professional associations there is a complete 
and amicable merging of professional life and to me per- 
sonally one of the most outstanding Institute events of 
the year was the signing in New Brunswick, the province 
of my birth, of an agreement between The Engineering 
Institute of Canada and the professional association. 

The committees of the Institute all deserve commenda- 
tion but I would like to pay special tribute to the chair- 
man of the Montreal Branch and his committee on their 
contribution to the Building Fund; the performance of 
the branch was magnificent and its success a personal 
tribute to R. E. Heartz, the branch chairman. 

An Institute such as ours depends for success more on 
its general secretary than on its presidents: The Engineer- 



ing Institute has been fortunate in its general secretaries, 
and Mr. L. Austin Wright is maintaining the high tra- 
dition of that office. To him goes the credit of administer- 
ing the affairs of the Institute in a most efficient, effective 
and agreeable manner; his innate courtesy, his kindliness 
coupled with enthusiasm, loyalty and energy have gained 
for him and the Institute the confidence and friendship 
of branch officers and the entire membership across 
Canada. This year without extra compensation he has 
voluntarily carried a double burden and his war service 
as assistant director of the Wartime Bureau of Technical 
Personnel has been a great credit to him personally and 
to this Institute. 

The National Research Council 

The National Research Council to-day probably 
touches as many aspects of Canada's war effort as does 
any other agency and the ramifications of its direct and 
associated activities extend to nearly every field of scien- 
tific research and development work in connection with 
our war effort both civil and military. The reason for this 
is that, while the Council operates directly extensive re- 
search laboratories, it was not designed for that particular 
purpose but was set up to -serve as the Government's 
agency for the stimulation and co-ordination of co-opera- 
tive scientific and industrial research in Canada. It carries 
no mandatory power to enforce the acceptance of any of 
its research findings; its function is to assist, advise and 
organize research projects. It does not compete but co- 
operates with universities or other private or governmental 
scientific laboratories, and the actual investigational 
work is done wherever the best facilities are available. 
That this method of co-ordinating research in a country 
of Canada's size is sound has been proved by the way the 
Research Council has been able to mobilize the nation's 
scientific resources to meet the war emergency. 

General History 

I propose to sketch briefly the origin and early history 
of the Council to indicate how, in September 1939, it was 
transformed for war service, and, within the limits of 
security restrictions which prevent the disclosure of the 
most interesting details, to present a general picture of 
the war projects underway. 

The National Research Council was established in 1916 
on the suggestion of the Imperial Government that the 
Dominions should create a scientific organization to co- 
operate with similar organizations in Britain in order to 
correlate allied war research. Brought into being in one 
war which it was too young to serve, it developed and 
matured in the intervening years of peace and was ready 
and competent when called upon for service in a second 
war in 1939. 

Until 1932 the functions of the Council were restricted 
to granting financial aid to research students and workers 
in the various universities and organizing and supporting 
co-operative research programmes of a national character 
which were carried out in laboratories across Canada. In 
1929, under the wise and experienced guidance of Presi- 
dent H. M. Tory, plans were drawn and in 1932 the Coun- 
cil's own laboratories were opened in Ottawa and these 
added facilities permitted a rapid expansion of investiga- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



141 



tional work and scientific standardization in Canada. 
From 1935 to 1939, under the able and brilliant presidency 
of Lt.-Gen. A. G. L. McNaughton, the National Research 
Council Laboratories were extended and in anticipation 
of inevitable war more attention was paid to co-operation 
with the Department of National Defence on military 
problems. When hostilities broke out in 1939 Canada 
had in the Research Council a virile, enterprising, rapidly 
growing institution with a young but highly qualified and 
experienced staff particularly suited for adaptation to the 
urgent scientific needs of war. 

Organization 

The Council's activities can be divided broadly into 
three main categories. Granting financial aid to individual 
workers in pure science and scholarships to research 
students at Canadian universities; supporting and direct- 
ing co-operative researches across Canada through the 
medium of Associate Committees, and thirdly the admin- 
istration of its own extensive laboratories in Ottawa. 

By its policy of grants in aid of research and of scholar- 
ships over a period of 20 years, pure research centres have 
been fostered and nearly 1,000 of the country's most bril- 
liant students have been assisted in their graduate work. 
A really remarkable result, which is often overlooked, is 
that in the present emergency, when scientific personnel 
is so much in demand, Canada has been able to supply all 
of its own needs, and in addition give aid to Britain. 

The organizing of co-operative researches through the 
medium of Associate Committees is one of the Council's 
most useful functions. By this governmental device many 
major research programmes of significance have been suc- 
cessfully carried out. To cite only one or two examples, 
aeronautical research in Canada has long been directed by 
an Associate Committee headed by Air Vice-Marshal E. 
W. Stedman, m.e.i.c, and composed of expert officers of 
the R.C.A.F., the Department of Transport, civil air- 
transport companies, aircraft manufacturers, the Meteoro- 
logical Service, the Department of Mines and Resources, 
universities and the National Research Council. The 
operation of the Associate Committees on medical re- 
search is another excellent example of projects adminis- 
tered in this way, where the entire research studies are 
carried out in the various medical research laboratories 
of the Dominion, and where the committees bring together 
experts from the medical schools, the profession, the armed 
forces and the many scientific branches of departments 
of the Government. 

Altogether there are over 30 Associate Committees in 
active operation in such widely diversified fields as field 
crop diseases, storage and transport of food, laundry re- 
search, coal classification, metallic magnesium, industrial 
radiology, radio, fish culture, and oceanography. 

Since war broke out many special committees have 
been set up such as those on gauge testing, wooden air- 
craft construction, gasoline substitutes, and high explosive 
testing, which deal with special and secret projects of in- 
terest to the services and the Department of Munitions 
and supply. 

In all such extensive programmes of national interest 
there is the most intimate and cordial co-operation of the 
well-equipped and competently staffed Mineralogical, 
Metallurgical and Forest Products Laboratories of the 
Department of Mines and Resources, the extensive labor- 
atories of the Department of Agriculture, the National 
Research Council Laboratories and other government, 
university and private laboratories of the Dominion. 

National Research Council Laboratories 

In the National Research Council Laboratories there 
are four research divisions — Mechanical Engineering, 
Physics and Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, and Ap- 
plied Biology, each headed by a director who carries the 



professional responsibility of directing all research in his 
division. There are also sections on Research Plans and 
Publications, and Codes and Specifications. 

Division Of Mechanical Engineering 

The Division of Mechanical Engineering under Mr. J. 
H. Parkin, m.e.i.c, is essentially an aeronautical en- 
gineering laboratory. In peacetime, this division was busy 
with aerodynamic problems relating to civil aviation, wind 
tunnel and model basin testing, studies on skiis, floats and 
a variety of special assignments. In the engine testing, 
gasoline, lubrication and fire hazard testing laboratories 
well qualified and trained staffs were engaged on civil 
work. When hostilities broke out, strictly peacetime prob- 
lems were curtailed and with little dislocation the em- 
phasis placed on problems directly related to war. The 
division has expanded, new laboratories have been built 
and the staff is busy with a growing programme of work 
covering a wide field; in addition to the study of aerody- 
namical and wind tunnel problems, a comprehensive in- 
vestigation of plastic plywood construction for aeroplanes 
is underway, calibration and repair of aeroplane instru- 
ments continues, and studies of gasolines and lubricants 
both for planes and tanks have assumed large proportions. 
With the growth of the aeroplane industry in Canada,. an 
increasing number of problems are arising and the new, 
well-equipped engine testing laboratory, where facilities 
are available for testing engines equipped with propellers, 
will soon be enlarged to permit the full scale testing of 
the largest engines now in use. 

In addition to laboratory investigations, experimental 
studies with full-scale aircraft are made in co-operation 
with the Test and Development Establishment of the 
R.C.A.F. where a wide range of special devices and de- 
velopments are tested in actual flight and many important 
and extensive programmes such as those on de-icing are 
carried out. 

The Model and Instruments Shops, as originally planned, 
were designed to serve the needs of all the divisions for 
experimental equipment and instruments, but the war has 
brought a heavy demand for the design and manufacture 
of special gun sights, a large range of secret ordnance and 
other special service equipment. Moreover, work on 
gauges for the Department of Munitions and Supply has 
been undertaken and when the extension now being built 
is finished the shop will be equipped to handle a shift of 
100 mechanics, and if, as seems probable, it is put on a 
24-hour basis it will become in essence an industrial shop 
employing several hundred highly specialized mechanics. 

Division Of Physics And Electrical Engineering 

The Division of Physics and Electrical Engineering 
under the director, Dr. R. W. Boyle, m.e.i.c, is one of 
the largest and most interesting divisions, and has grown 
rapidly during the war. In the years prior to 1939 its 
principal function was that of a Bureau of Standards. The 
sections of metrology, electrical measurements, optics, 
acoustics, heat, radiology, radio and general physics were 
responsible for setting up Government standards and 
maintaining the official units such as those of mass, length, 
and of many others in electricity, light, heat and sound. 
In addition to this high grade type of standards and ap- 
proval work, the division had started a number of investi- 
gational projects in the fields of radio, vibration, ballistics, 
aerial photography, etc., and when the war broke out was 
in the fortunate position of being well equipped and staffed 
with competent and experienced staff particularly well 
suited to meet the great demands that war has placed on 
physicists. 

It is possible to mention only a few of the major ac- 
tivities. The metrology section which is responsible for 
maintaining the standards of length undertook the task of 



142 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



etting up a gauge testing laboratory so necessary in muni- 
ions production. Early in October 1939, in anticipation of 
he demands which it was known would materialize, an 
associate Committee on Gauges was set up with repre- 
entatives from the Department of National Defence, the 
J.K. Inspection Board, the Supply Board (now the De- 
triment of Munitions and Supply), the Ontario Research 
foundation and the National Research Council. Decisions 
vere taken as to the equipment which would probably be 
îeeded, orders were placed at once to equip laboratories 
it the Ontario Research Foundation and the National Re- 
eareh Council, and arrangements made to select and train 
taffs in anticipation of future demands. This procedure 
»roved wise, and to date the gauge examination labora- 
ories operated by the Ontario Research Foundation and 
>y the National Research Council have been able to meet 
til demands. The National Research Council laboratory 
îas increased steadily and is still expanding. At present 
here is a staff of over 70, mostly women, and to date over 
2,000 different types of gauges have been measured. 

The Optics Section at the outbreak of war, in co-oper- 
ition with representatives of the Master General of the 
)rdnance and latterly with officials of the Department of 
Munitions and Supply, undertook a survey of the possibil- 
ties of the manufacture in Canada of optical glass and 
ire control instruments. Visits were made to establish- 
nents in the United States, and laboratory equipment 
or cutting, grinding and polishing glass was installed and 
xperience gained in the art. In the summer of 1940 the 
Department of Munitions and Supply decided that it 
vould be wise to undertake manufacture in Canada on a 
izeable scale, and it became apparent at about the same 
ime that in the radio field much equipment of a secret 
iature developed by the Research Council would also have 
o be manufactured in mass quantities and the Depart- 
nent of Munitions and Supply decided to set up a Gov- 
i rnment-owned company for these purposes. As a conse- 
juence, Research Enterprises Limited was established, and 
mder the energetic, competent and enterprising direction 
>f the president, Colonel W. E. Phillips, is now, in record 
ime, in production on a very large programme of optical 
;lass. fire control instruments and special equipment.* 

The Optical Section of the National Research Council 
s now working on many important secret developments 
n connection with aerial photography and the design and 
instruction of optical devices for synthetic training 
equipment and many other purposes. 

The Radio Section has been one of the most spectacular 
levelopments of the Council. Starting with only a few 
nen in 1939 it now employs nearly 300 and has already 
)roduced for the forces of Canada and the United King- 
lom many important secret devices in the field of radio 
ocation, and has developed prototypes of many equip- 
nents for reproduction by Research Enterprises Limited. 

The sections on general physics, acoustics and electrical 
:ngineering are engaged on important work for the Navy 
ind Army in connection with anti-submarine, anti-mine, 
jallistics, sound ranging, electrical plotting and many 
)ther technical and scientific aspects of warfare. In addi- 
tion to the laboratories for naval work at Ottawa, sta- 
;ions have been established at two centres on the eastern 
:oast and one on the western coast of Canada. 

Investigational and standardization work in the tech- 
lique of x-ray examination of metals carried on in co- 
deration with industrial firms has been of the greatest 
.'alue in connection with light alloy casting production 
;or the aircraft industry, and steps are now being taken 
:o work out similar procedures in the heavy metal field. 

In the Heat Laboratories investigations in connection 
vith the de-icing and defrosting problem of aviation are 

"A paper on this project by Col. W. E. Phillips appears on pages 129- 
135 of this issue. 



being actively pursued and studies have been made of 
the possible use of infra-red radiation. 

Chemistry Division 

The war work of the Chemistry Division, under Dr. E. 
W. R. Steacie, can be divided generally into three broad 
groups: chemical warfare, emergency production of ma- 
terials urgently required, and a general advisory consult- 
ing service in connection with preparation of specifications, 
testing and reporting on a wide range of materials. 

The work on chemical warfare is carried on in the 
closest co-operation with the Department of National De- 
fence, and all phases of this work are covered in a most 
comprehensive manner by the integrated effort of the two 
bodies. Active work on selected problems is being carried 
out at 13 Canadian universities and the Ontario Research 
Foundation, and large programmes are underway not only 
at the National Research Laboratories but at several 
other stations and laboratories in Canada. 

Some idea of the work done by this division in connec- 
tion with materials may be had from the fact that this 
year over 3,000 reports have been made to the Depart- 
ments of National Defence and Munitions and Supply on 
different questions referred and samples submitted. 

The textile laboratory has been particularly busy in 
testing, writing specifications for and advising on army 
uniforms and clothing, parachute fabrics, impregnating and 
gas proofing of materials. The rubber laboratory has in- 
vestigated a variety of products used for the armed forces 
and has studied a total of seventy different substitutes 
for rubber. 

In the colloid section a great deal of work has been 
done on plastics for use in plastic plywood construction 
and seA r eral special developments have been made involv- 
ing the substitution of plastics for metals in connection 
with military needs. 

The work of the paint laboratory has increased many 
fold and tests have been carried out on hundreds of dif- 
ferent special paints used by the services. 

In co-operation with a group of industrialists a process 
for the production of metallic magnesium, developed by a 
member of the Council's staff, has been carried through 
the pilot plant stage. Limited quantities of very pure 
magnesium have been sold to the Department of Muni- 
tions and Supply regularly for some months. The process 
is receiving keen attention from interested bodies and 
large scale production plants, both in Canada and the 
United States, are being designed for early construction. 

Numerous other problems are being studied, such as the 
corrosion of aluminum and steel alloys, the manufacture 
of various components of gas masks, asbestos products, 
and the development of special gas indicators. Several 
small plants have been built for the production in small 
quantities of fine chemicals and such urgently needed ma- 
terials as special fuse charcoal. 

In addition to actual laboratory work the officers of the 
Chemistry Division have spent much time, at the request 
of the Departments of National Defence and Munitions 
and Supply, in preparing Canadian equivalents of British 
material specifications to bring them into line with Can- 
adian production methods. 

Division Of Biology 

The Division of Applied Biology, under Dr. W. H. 
Cook, has been used extensively on war work, chiefly in 
connection with the handling and transportation of perish- 
able foods under the restricted shipping facilities result- 
ing from the war. A contribution of major importance has 
been made in the development of a method of low cost 
temporary refrigeration of ordinary ships holds which has 
already permitted large quantities of bacon to be shipped 
satisfactorily to England. 



fHE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



143 



The general problems of preparing, processing, packing 
and preserving foods for transport are being intensively 
studied and the shortage of refrigerating space on ocean 
vessels has made doubly urgent the studies on preserva- 
tives for bacon and shell eggs. Methods for the drying 
of eggs and meats are also being actively studied, and 
canning processing methods have been improved and 
standards worked out. 

Government Specifications 

The Special Committee on Government Purchasing 
Standards, an organization set up in peacetime to prepare 
standard specifications for commodities purchased by two 
or more Government departments, has been found very 
useful in war. While the committee has no mandatory 
power to enforce adoption of its specifications, there has 
been general acceptance by the departments concerned, 
and in 1940 over 10,000 copies of different specifications 
were distributed on request, and in 1941 this figure in- 
creased to 17,000 of which 12,000 were distributed to war 
departments of Government and outside parties interested 
in war contracts. This committee apart from its normal 
functions has placed its staff and organization at the ser- 
vice of the Department of National Defence and has given 
advice and assistance in the preparation of many special 
specifications. 

Medical Research 

Medical research has developed rapidly in Canada dur- 
ing the war and the initiative and impetus originally given 
by the late Sir Frederick Banting has been maintained by 
Dr. J. B. Collip, Colonel Duncan Graham, and Dr. C. H. 
Best as chairmen of the Main Associate Committee on 
Medical Research and the special ones on Aviation and 
Naval Medical Research. The main committee has tended 
more and more to direct its research to problems of war 
importance and valuable results have already been obtain- 
ed on shock, blood substitutes, wound infection, and 
other aspects of medicine and surgery accentuated by war. 

The Committees on Aviation and Naval Medical Re- 
search are not concerned with disease but with health; 
their interest is not with medicine as a healing art but 
with means of lessening the physiological strains under 
which aircrews and sailors must operate in order to in- 
crease their efficiency and security. Work of the greatest 
importance has already been done to overcome the natural 
handicaps of low partial oxygen pressure and low temper- 
atures encountered at high altitudes, and the effects of 
exposure to unnatural forces, noise and fatigue on both 
ships and planes. Numerous other problems in connection 
with selection, diet, and general health are being attended 
to in intimate co-operation with the medical services of 
the three armed forces. 

Liaison 

As has been indicated, all of the war work under the 
Research Council in Canada is done in the closest co- 
operation with officers of the defence departments. 
Problems and suggestions for study originate in many 
ways; most arise directly out of needs felt by the services 
but many of the important developments have originated 
in scientific laboratories or have been suggested by in- 



dividuals. But no matter where the studies originate, all 
proposed developments are thoroughly canvassed at an 
early date, not only as to their scientific soundness but as 
to their tactical usefulness, the requirements of service 
operations and what is becoming of greater importance 
daily, the possibilities of obtaining production in quantity 
in a reasonable time. This procedure ensures that Can- 
ada's limited resources will not be dissipated in investiga- 
tions of questionable use in this war. 

The scientific departments and professors of the uni- 
versities of Canada have been of the greatest service. 
While staffs have been depleted by the drafting of in- 
dividuals to many important positions, those left, in addi- 
tion to increased teaching burdens, have undertaken still 
further work and at the present time nearly every univer- 
sity in Canada is co-operating with the National Research 
Council, and over 70 different research problems, many 
of the greatest importance, are being solved in the differ- 
ent Canadian institutions. When the detailed history can 
be written it will be found that in the field of war research 
the universities of Canada have made a contribution of 
first magnitude. 

Effective liaison is also closely maintained with war re- 
search establishments in the United Kingdom and the 
United States. The British Government has maintained 
a liaison office at the National Research Council since 
early in 1940 and the chief scientific officer has always 
been a distinguished and senior scientist well informed 
on all phases of war work. The National Research Coun- 
cil maintains a permanent liaison office at Canada House 
in England and through these two offices all reports of 
work done are immediately available to workers in the 
respective countries. In addition, experts are continually 
crossing the Atlantic and, since 1940, 35 expert scientists 
and engineers from the Council have spent periods vary- 
ing from a few weeks to months in England in order to 
bring back the most up to date information from their 
laboratories and research stations. 

A similar and even more intimate liaison has existed 
between scientific stations in Canada and the United 
States ever since the summer of 1940 and experts from 
our respective countries visit freely and frequently labora- 
tories and stations across the border. On many important 
projects, co-operative action is obtained by an actual ex- 
change of personnel on committees. 

Conclusion 

As a concluding summary it can be said that war has 
greatly increased the activities of the National Research 
Council. At present over 210 different projects are being 
vigorously attacked; the staff has grown from less than 
300 to over 1,000, the yearly expenditures have increased 
four fold and the direct expenditures this year will be 
over $4,000,000. The interests and activities cover a wide 
field and touch nearly every phase of the war effort. The 
close liaison and co-operation at home with the services, 
government departments and agencies, and abroad with 
research stations in the United Kingdom and the United 
States, guarantees that the research facilities of Canada 
are being well and realistically focussed on important and 
urgent problems and it can be said that results of great 
value and significance are being obtained. 



144 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



A MESSAGE TO CANADIAN ENGINEERS 

LIEUT.-GENERAL A. G. L. McNAUGHTON, c.b., c.m.g., d.s.o., m.e.i.c. 
Officer Commanding, Canadian Army Corps, England, and President, National Research Council of Canada. 

An address delivered at the Fifty-Sixth Annual Banquet of The Engineering Institute of Canada, at Montreal, 

on Fehruary 6th, 1942. 



Lieut. -General A. 
C.B., CM. G., 



You must forgive me to-night if the 
warm welcome you have just given me 
has made it almost impossible to address 
to you any coherent message, except that 
which comes straight from the heart. 

I feel on many counts that this, for 
me, is a most memorable occasion. 1 
recall the words that have been said to 
me by the mothers and the sisters of the 
men in the Canadian Corps who stand 
on guard in the great island of Britain. 
They remind me of my responsibility for 
looking after those men and seeing that 
their lives, which have been given as 
hostages to fortune, shall be used in the 
way that they should be, in order to 
bring to an end the terrible calamity 
which now afflicts the world. 

The words of the presidents of the 
American engineering societies have 
greatly impressed me. Every one of them 
has the vision which looks beyond the trials and tribula- 
tions of the present to the great task which faces us when 
the dictator powers, with the forces of evil they have let 
loose on us, shall have been brought into subjection and 
we are free once more to resume the onward march of 
civilization. 

In the dire straits in which we stand to-day it is a great 
inspiration to receive that message of hope and that chal- 
lenge to use engineering for the purpose for which en- 
gineering should be used, the happiness of humanity. 
That purpose should be uppermost in the minds of all 
engineers. 

I feel too, in coming here tonight, that I have an op- 
portunity to acknowledge publicly the great debt of 
gratitude which I owe to the distinguished engineer who 
now occupies the chair as president of this Institute. 

Some years before the outbreak of war, it had been my 
lot to leave active military work and become president of 
the national Research Council of Canada. The work was 
of a most enthralling nature, and of a character which in- 
terested me deeply as an electrical engineer. I was sup- 
ported by a splendid staff that had been gathered there, 
which I inherited. In fact the position was one which 
should completely satisfy the aspirations of any engineer. 
The opportunities for useful service were abundant, and 
were opening day by day in front of us; we had the sym- 
pathy of the members of the Government — both the Gov- 
ernment that was then in office, and the Government that 
succeeded them. There was every possibility of doing 
something that was worth while. 

Then the shadow of war appeared on the horizon, and 
it fell to my lot, through past experience and past service, 
to be given the honour of taking our First Division over- 
seas. When I was sent for by the Prime Minister and 
heard of the obligation which was to be placed on my 
shoulders, my greatest anxiety was as to what would hap- 
pen in the Research Council. As I listened to that invita- 
tion to undertake the new task, the names of many pos- 
sible successors passed through my mind in quick review. 
It was soon clear who that man should be. 

Actually I made Dean Mackenzie's appointment one of 
two conditions that were attached to my accepting office 
as a soldier again. And all the time, through the long 




months that we have been away, he has 
been good enough to send me each month 
a running account of what was going on. 
In each of his letters one could see the 
seed of the purpose which we had held 
in our mind before in the Research 
Council growing, coming to flower and 
bearing fruit, not only in implementing 
the war effort of the Dominion of 
Canada, and contributing to the war 
effort of Great Britain and of the sister 
Dominions, but also in the constant 
thought that the organization which was 
growing would be of service in the years 
that are to come, beyond the war. 

Standing here tonight, with a very 
considerable knowledge of the situation, 
I can say that one of the happiest 
G. L. McNaughton, thoughts in my mind is the feeling that 
d.s.o., m.e.i.c. t) ie National Research Council, and 

all it stands for under Mackenzie's 
leadership, is performing that duty of scientific leadership 
and helpfulness in the way in which it is being carried 
out to-day. And it is indeed fortunate for the Dominion 
of Canada, for the Empire, and for all those associated in 
the war effort that it should be so. For, as one of the 
speakers has already said, this is an engineers' war. We 
have to do more than follow the patterns of existing wea- 
pons and implements of death. These were developed 
slowly in the years of peace — far too slowly in the demo- 
cratic countries, because we neglected our defence and 
we put our trust in the pledged word. W T e could hardly 
conceive of the villainy of people who would deliberately 
plunge the world into the agony in which we find ourselves 
at the present time. It was unbelievable, and in conse- 
quence we neglected our defence. So we started not only 
with weapons short in quantity, but with weapons and 
tools of war that were antiquated in design. Now we must 
equip our forces with new and more effective weapons. 

This is a war in which the development in the whole 
of the Axis countries of the powers of science, of engineer- 
ing and art and everything else, has been focussed by our 
enemies on one purpose only, and that is our death. To 
meet that we have to focus our own attention likewise, 
to insure that we will emerge triumphant, as Ave will. 

Now we have taken the patterns of equipment and so 
on that were available to us at the outbreak of war in 
our country and the other countries of the Empire — and 
we are happy to say, in the United States also — --and our 
industry has been converted from peace-time uses to pro- 
duce and improve those weapons and articles of war. 

But it seems to me, as I move about, that I can detect 
some little complacency as to what has been done. It has 
been a great achievement. Nobody knows that better than 
we who have had to stand on the front, awaiting the perils 
of invasion from the theatre of war on many occasions 
without weapons in our hands at all, knowing that the 
weapons were coming forward, and now seeing the supply 
arriving in abundance. But this is not enough. 

One of the primary reasons of my return to Canada at 
this time was to carry a message to Canadian industry 
and to the Canadian engineers that we want to win this 
war, not by the blood of our sons — and our daughters, 
because our daughters stand in the line as well — but by 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1912 



145 



our intelligence. We must take our wits and put them to 
work, and the engineers must not only think out newer 
weapons, and better types of weapons, but must forge 
them and design them so they can be mass-produced; in- 
dustry must give these newer and better weapons in the 
vast quantities which we shall need in order to bring this 
chaos to a satisfactory conclusion without the expendi- 
ture of more than is necessary of the precious lives that 
have been entrusted to our care. 

We have to win this war by our wits, and it is through 
our wits, and through intelligence in the production of 
newer and better weapons that we should win it. I appeal 
to The Engineering Institute of Canada, and to all those 
associated with us, to see that we never rest content, and 
that there is no complacency in this eternal struggle for 
better, more powerful, more far-reaching weapons. 

This is a mechanical war. We appeal to you for tools 
with which to multiply the power and the speed of man 
to add to the range and effectiveness of the weapons 
which are created and put in our hands, and to give us 
that equipment in quantities. 

It is true that many engineers are with the Forces over- 
seas. But we have need of many more engineers to handle 
the complex machinery we are about to use. 



At the moment the Canadian Forces are standing on 
guard in Britain. They are doing so because the best au- 
thorities in the land, including the Prime Minister of Great 
Britain, have said that that was the task we should per- 
form. The war will not be won by standing on guard. We 
have been given a period of grace while we are doing one 
task, and we have got to use that period in order to forge 
these more powerful weapons, and the organizations to 
handle them, and that is what the Canadian Corps is 
doing to-day. 

I have described its purpose more than once. It is to 
be a dagger pointed at the heart of Berlin, and that is the 
description which I think best fits the case, because the 
time will come when we can use that instrument to put 
an end to this tyranny and this menace which afflicts the 
world. 

To my many old friends here — including my old friend, 
Jack Mackenzie, Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Challies, and 
those with whom I have been privileged to be associated 
on committees of The Engineering Institute, the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Association, and other bodies — 
may I say, I thank you from the absolute bottom of my 
heart for the welcome that you have given to-night to my 
wife and myself. 




The Fifty-Sixth Annual Banquet of the Institute. 



146 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



CANADIAN INDUSTRY IN THE WAR 

C. D. HOWE, Hon.M.E.i.c. 

Minister of Munitions and Supply of Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 

A luncheon address delivered at the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Montreal, on February 5th, 1942. 



When I received an invitation to 
address you on this occasion, I was 
placed in an embarrassing position. I 
^ould not show any possible discourtesy 
;o my fellow engineers at a time like 
;his, and especially at a time when I was 
-eceiving so much assistance, freely and 
generously given, from them. 

But on the other hand, with the work 
)f my Department and the additional 
:ime required for the session of Parlia- 
ment, I felt that it would be impossible 
for me to prepare a paper. Therefore 
[ agreed to speak on the understanding 
hat 1 would not have a written docu- 
ment, and that I could speak to you 
juite informally about the work and 
policies of the Department of Munitions 
md Supply. 

The idea of civilian buying for the 
irmed services dates back to some three or four months 
Defore the war. For many years it has been the 
prerogative of the army, the air force and the navy to 
purchase their own supplies. However, while trying to 
;ool up for this war before its outbreak, we found that 
:he army was not properly organized to do the kind of 
juying that is required in modern warfare, and it was 
iecided to set up a civilian body to do that work, with the 
:itle of the Defence Purchasing Board. 

It was thought wise at the time to hedge this body 
ibout with restrictions. As yet there was no war, no 
une was in very much of a hurry, and it was felt that the 
public should be safeguarded in war buying by limitations 
>f profits in several ways. But it was well understood 
:hat in the event of actual war the restrictions would be 
x)0 onerous to permit the speed of operation necessary 
;o meet the situation. 

Therefore, after the outbreak of war, the Board was 
•enamed the War Supply Board. At the same time, 
egislation was passed setting up the Ministry of Muni- 
rons and- Supply, and charging the Minister with two 
iuties; first, to purchase all the requirements of the Army, 
the Navy and the Air Force; and second, to mobilize in- 
dustry for the maximum output of war munitions and 
war supplies. 

I think that while our legislation in that respect was 
inique, we were fortunate in having hit upon a sound 
form of organization. It is interesting to note that 
}uite recently Britain has come to our form of organiza- 
tion. The organization for buying in Britain as originally 
?et up was based on three Ministries. The Ministry 
af Supply purchased the requirements of the Army, 
the Ministry of Aircraft Production purchased those of 
the Air Force; and the Navy did its own purchasing. 

An over-riding Ministry has now been set up in Britain 
with jurisdiction over these three buying agencies, thus 
avoiding the difficulties that arose because the three ser- 
vices were competing for supplies with each other in the 
same factories. 

There has also been a movement in the United States 
to change from buying by the services themselves to buy- 
ing by a civilian agency. There seems to be a trend there 
towards the type of organization that we now have in 
Canada. 




C. D. Howe, Hon.M.E.I.C 



The early problems in the Department 
of Munitions and Supply were not the 
problems that we have to-day. You re- 
member that the Department started 
from absolute zero. We first had to find 
an office, a typewriter and desk, and a 
stenographer, and then build up a com- 
petent organization. 

Frankly, we were quite ruthless. We 
looked over the whole field of industry 
and business in Canada, and we picked 
out the men that we thought were most 
able to do a job in the new Department. 
Having practised engineering in Canada 
for a number of years, I had a very wide 
acquaintanceship among my own pro- 
fession and throughout Canadian indus- 
try, and I used that acquaintanceship 
to help me in selecting the men who 
would work with me in the job at hand. 
I am very proud of the organization that we have built 
up in Ottawa to handle munitions and supply problems. 
Its personnel now comprises over three thousand men and 
women. From the outbreak of war these men and women 
have not stinted the time or effort they have given to the 
work of the Department. You can drive by the Munitions 
buildings in Ottawa at any hour of the night and find 
lights burning and people working in a great many of the 
offices. We have been, I think, fortunate in attracting 
able people to our Department. 

Our first task was to buy personal equipment, uniforms, 
and things that had to be furnished immediately. 

Then we undertook to provide the munitions of all the 
types required by the Army and the Navy and the Air 
Force, and there we had a real problem. Canada is not 
a military country. In peace time it kept a very small 
nucleus of an army, practically no air force at all, and a 
navy which, I think, consisted of some thirteen or fourteen 
craft. 

At first we had very little designing organization, and 
we had none of the plans and specifications and informa- 
tion required to produce types of munitions which were 
needed in the war, but which were new to this country. 

In the last war we had developed the technique of 
making shells and components of finished rounds of am- 
munition, and we were able to tackle that problem fairly 
rapidly, so that our first progress was made in the field of 
ammunition. 

We had at the Quebec arsenal a plant for making small 
arms ammunition, and we started immediately to expand 
that greatly. I think at the outbreak of war Quebec 
arsenals were making three million rounds of small arms 
ammunition a year. To-day they are making more than 
three million rounds every two weeks; this will give some 
idea of the expansion that has taken place in that par- 
ticular field. 

We also had a very efficient Canadian motor industry 
with a strong designing staff. Thus we were able to start 
very quickly in the making of the mechanized equipment 
for our army, which is required in such vast quantities for 
the type of warfare that we now have to provide for. 

We have continued to expand that industry and I think 
to-day we have delivered over 216,000 motor vehicles of 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



147 



army type, cither to our own forces or overseas to the 
many theatres of warfare. 

However, we had no experience in manufacturing guns 
in this country, except the old Ross rifle, which did not 
turn out so well. Therefore we had to call on the Old 
Country for technicians and for designers to enable us to 
set up a technique for producing guns of all types. 

Just before the outbreak of war we had undertaken to 
make the Bren machine gun in this country. This project 
was under way when war began, but was the only step 
which had been taken to develop a gun industry. 

To-day, we are building almost every type of gun used 
in the war, except the very large coast defence guns. We 
are building naval guns of every calibre; naval gun- 
mountings; 25-pounder field artillery; 6-pounder tank 
guns, anti-tank guns, and several types of heavy guns. In 
the field of automatic guns the Bren gun production is 
now more than three thousand a month, and we expect 
ultimately to reach 4,500 a month. We have stepped up 
the production of Colt Browning guns up to about 2,000 a 
month. The Bofors anti-aircraft gun is coming into large 
production; we arc making the Sten sub-machine guns, 
and are producing great quantities of Lee-Enfield rifles. 

The year before the war I think we turned out 200 
aircraft. We had only a small industry working mostly 
on small planes for transport work, and one or two types 
of army planes. Today we are turning out planes at the 
rate of about 70 a week or 300 a month. We are indepen- 
dent now of outside help in furnishing planes for our great 
Air Training Plan, and we are also building several of the 
most modern types of planes that are used by the fighting 
forces. From a small nucleus we have built up a very 
strong aircraft industry. 

In the field of shipbuilding, we formerly built ships to 
some extent in Canada, but during the depression years 
that industry reached a low ebb, and its activities had 
been confined largely to repair work. Trained mechanics 
were scarce and it was necessary to start gradually in 
stepping up production. However, we commenced immedi- 
ately to build several types of naval ships. The corvette, 
which is a small edition of the destroyer, was put in hand, 
with several types of minesweepers, and also a great num- 
ber of the small craft which are necessary as auxiliaries 
of the navy. 

From some fourteen or fifteen vessels at the outbreak 
of war, our naval strength has now risen to about 330 
ships of all types, and we expect that the year 1942 will 
see another large increase. 

Then with the sinkings on the Atlantic, the Battle of 
the Atlantic was taking such a course that it was neces- 
sary to divert some of our shipbuilding capacity from 
naval work to the building of merchant ships. A pro- 
gramme has been established which for this year should 
produce almost as many new merchant ships as will be 
launched by the merchant shipbuilding industry of (In at 
Britain; this I think is rather an accomplishment. 

During the last war we built up an explosives industry, 
but, unfortunately, it was all scrapped when peace came 
and we had to start again from zero. Before making the 
explosives themselves, we had to provide for the manu- 
facture of the many components of explosives, and we 
have to-day in that field built some twenty-five new 
plants, with" an expenditure of about $125,000,000. To-day 
we have an explosives programme large enough to enable 
us to cover our own needs, supply the deficiencies of Great 
Britain, and also help our friends in the United States 
with quite a quantity of chemicals and explosives of which 
they are short at the moment. I should say something 
about the help that we have received from science, from 
the scientists of Canada, and particularly from the Na- 
tional Research Council and its staff under the direction 
of Dean Mackenzie. 



At the outset we knew very little about the many secret 
devices that have played such a great part in winning the 
Battle of Britain and fending off the attack of aircraft 
on that island. Dean Mackenzie undertook the work of 
developing that equipment and to-day I believe that Can- 
ada is not only abreast of Britain in the quality of its 
secret equipment, but at the moment possibly a step or two 
ahead. 

We established a government-owned plant, Research 
Enterprises Ltd., to manufacture this apparatus, and have 
spent a good deal of money on it, but the results to-day 
are exciting the interest of every country that is taking 
part in this war on the side of the Allies. 

I suppose Colonel W. E. Phillips has more technical 
visitors to that plant than come to any other plant we 
have. It is a revelation to see what he is doing there, for 
he has orders in hand for over $100,000,000 worth of equip- 
ment of that type. 

In addition, he has developed the manufacture of optical 
glass, so that Canada is making all the optical glass 
needed for her war instruments, such as lenses and peri- 
scopes. Here again, we are able to help out our Allies, by 
exporting certain quantities of optical glass. 

Another triumph of the staff of Dean Mackenzie is the 
development of a new process for manufacturing mag- 
nesium. Magnesium is a metal very highly valued in the 
war, both as a light weight metal of great strength, and 
as a powder in connection with pyrotechnics and incen- 
diary bombs. 

Dean Mackenzie's organization has developed a plant 
that will produce magnesium with about one-half the cap- 
ital expenditure of the old method, and that can be built 
in about one-half the time required for the chemical plants 
that have been producing magnesium up to this time. The 
new process will produce magnesium at about the same 
price as the older more elaborate method. 

The United States are now faced with a shortage of that 
metal, and you will be interested to know that their pro- 
gramme involves the construction of a number of mag- 
nesium plants of the kind and type that have been in- 
vented by our own research laboratories. And we, our- 
selves, are building plants following that process, to pro- 
duce Canada's magnesium requirements. 

It has not been possible, of course, to build up this out- 
put of munitions without greatly increasing our production 
of raw materials. I think our aluminum production has 
been expanded five fold since the war began. We are now 
producing about 4:5 per cent of all the aluminum that is 
made in North America and we are supplying Great Bri- 
tain with about 85 per cent of her aluminum requirements. 

We are producing larger amounts of zinc and copper 
and lead, and all the lesser minerals that are essential 
to the war effort. Our production of steel in this country 
has more than doubled and we are still expanding that 
industry. We have multiplied the output of the alloy steels 
used for gun production by five since the war began, and 
it is still increasing. We have also stepped up greatly the 
output of brass which, as you know, is used for cartridge 
cases and a great number of war requirements. 

We have kept abreast of the raw materials situation as 
well as we could, and have it fairly in hand, although 
we have still to depend on the United States for consider- 
able supplies of steel. 

Many problems have had to be met as we have gone 
along. One of the first of these was the method to be used 
by the government in expanding plants. Of course, in the 
early days it was not necessary to expand many plants. 
The task was rat lier to fill up the capacity that already 
existed, but very soon machine capacity had to be added 
to existing plants, and new plants had to be established. 

Our policy has been to ask private industry to expand 
where we thought that the industry was strong enough to 



148 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



be able to do the expansion at its own expense, and in 
those cases we have provided special depreciation to allow 
the war expenditure to be written off. 

We have set up a Board which assesses the post-war 
value of a privately built improvement, and sets a figure 
and a rate of depreciation for the war expenditure. 
That is a method used where the industry itself is able 
to take care of its financial requirements for expansion. 

In the matter of installing new machinery we have de- 
cided that the government would purchase the machinery 
and own it, place it in the plant, and reclaim it from the 
plant after the war period. I think we have purchased 
some $60,000,000 worth of machinery which has been 
installed in plants and of which the government has re- 
tained ownership. 

Where a new building has been required, or a new pro- 
ject required, it has been our policy that the government 
would build and own this requirement, that it be operated 
at cost, and that the management would be obtained by 
a management fee arrangement with an organization 
capable of providing that management. I think the gov- 
ernment's investment in that type of plant to-day is in 
excess of $600,000,000. 

We own the land these buildings are put on. We insist 
that the land be deeded outright to the government for a 
dollar. We own the buildings, w r e own the equipment and 
when the war is over we can turn the key of the lock, if 
we like, and take that building out of competition with 
private industry. Thus it has been our policy to take our 
depreciation at the start, rather than to write it off against 
the cost of the goods produced. We pay for the plant; we 
pay for the machinery, and we obtain our goods at cost. 

The year 1941 was not a great production year in war 
munitions, for the reason that so much of the year was 
used in building and tooling and getting under way. How- 
ever, in that year Canada did produce munitions on a very 
considerable scale. 

You know that Canada's munitions programme in the 
last war was a worth while effort. You know the story 
of Sir Joseph Flavelle and Lloyd Harris, and the success 
that they had in turning out munitions in that war. So, 
when I tell you that in the year 1941 we made more muni- 
tions in Canada than we did throughout the whole history 
of the Great War, you will realize that it was not a lost 
year by any means. 

A statistical study of the possibilities for 1942 indicates 
that we will turn out about two and one-thirds times as 
many munitions as we did in the year 1941, so that in this 
year our munitions industry will really be going. We are 
still starting new projects, and as the requirements of war- 
fare change, with the flowing tide of battle, we shall con- 
tinue to start new plants and take on new obligations. 

Now, where are these munitions going? You read in the 
papers that they are short of rifles on the west coast, or 
short of this and that in other areas. That may be per- 
fectly true. We are not attempting to hold these munitions 
of ours in Canada. We are building them to help win the 
war and we are sending them where they will do the most 
good for that purpose. Huge quantities of our munitions 
have gone to England to equip our own troops there, and 
to bring British formations up to strength in the matter 
of equipment. 

We have shipped still greater quantities to the Middle 
East. I believe the battle there has been fought very 
largely with Canadian mechanical transport and Can- 
adian Bren gun carriers, to say nothing of artillery and 
machine guns that we have been shipping there for many 
months. We had Canadian munitions and lots of them 
in the battle of Greece. We have Canadian munitions in 
the Far East, in the Netherlands East Indies, in Singa- 
pore and Java and the other battle areas. 



We have sent great quantities of raw materials and 
munitions to our sister Dominions, Australia, New Zea- 
land, South Africa, India and Burma. We have supplied 
large amounts of munitions to China. You have heard a 
good deal about North American aid to China. I can tell 
you that the first shipment of North American aid to 
China, taken in over the Burma road, consisted of a thou- 
sand Bren guns and ten million rounds of Canadian am- 
munition. 

Incidentally, one of my Christmas presents, which I 
value highly, was a photograph of Generalissimo Chiang 
Kai-Shek, sent from China and autographed in Chinese 
characters, with a message of thanks to myself. 

Our entire production of Valentine tanks has been for 
several months going to Russia and we are sending across 
three tanks every day to assist the Russians in their great 
fight against Germany. I may say that we have valued 
letters of appreciation from the Russians on the type of 
work that those tanks are doing. 

When the sudden crisis came to the United States we 
were proud to be able to offer munitions for shipment to 
Hawaii and to the Philippines; Canadian munitions are 
in the fight in both those areas. 

We are making a munitions programme to help win the 
war. If it were merely a question of equipping Canadian 
troops, only a small fraction of our present output would 
be required, but we have taken the view that until the 
Allies have a parity of munitions with the enemy in every 
battlefront, it is our job to turn out as many munitions 
as we can and to send those munitions where they are 
most needed. 

Occasionally I get a little disturbed by criticism. Re- 
cently, a complaint was made in the House of Commons 
that our troops on the west coast were using old rifles. 
Well, it is true they are using old rifles. They are perfectly 
good rifles, but still it is a very natural question: why, if 
Canada is such a great munitions making country, cannot 
the troops on the west coast have new rifles? 

I said to my friend, Colonel Ralston, " Let us stop this 
criticism. Let us take a month's production from our small 
arms plant and give our troops new rifles." 

He said, " Not at all. Those rifles are promised to 
Singapore, they are going to Singapore, and we will take 
the criticism." 

I would like to make it clear that any success we have 
had in developing an arms industry in Canada and in 
expanding our industrial capacity has been due to the 
splendid support that I have had from industry, from the 
engineering profession and particularly from the ranks 
of labour. I think that we can compare our effort in this 
country with that of any country in the world in any of 
those respects. 

I do not believe that, even in England, industry has 
been more full-out to help the government and to do 
everything asked of it in turning over its facilities for 
the manfacture of munitions. And I am sure that when 
the record of organized and of unorganized labour in this 
country has been written, it will be seen that we have 
had as much co-operation from labour as has been attain- 
ed by any of our Allies in this war. 

Lord Beaverbrook has said on two or three occasions, 
and said publicly, that on a per capita basis Canada is 
turning out more munitions of war than any one country 
in the world, including the enemy countries. This may 
well be true, as far as any statistics I can find would in- 
dicate, but, even if true, it is not a matter for complac- 
ency. It is our job to turn out everything that Canada 
can turn out. 

If anyone had told me a year ago that we could bring 
about the expansion of industry that has taken place in 
the last year, I would have said that I hardly believed it. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



149 



We have been constantly raising our sights. What is true 
of our position I think is true of industry itself. If you 
had gone into one of our large manufacturing plants a 
year and a half or two years ago and said that we want- 
ed them to expand their plant up to what they are actual- 
ly doing to-day, I think the management would have 
told us that that would be quite impossible. 

The limitations of our programme are, we find, the limi- 
tations of skilled management. We have yet to run into 
a serious shortage of manpower and womanpower — and 
womanpower is playing a part in our plans to an increas- 
ing extent every day — but we do find difficulty in de- 
veloping skilled management. We are still looking for 
firms that can take on more work, but we find that firms 
with what we believe to be the required experience have 
about all they can handle at the present time. 

Throughout the year we have greatly increased pro- 
duction by encouraging sub-contracting and expanding 



a programme that we call our bits and pieces programme. 
We have carried the work of making small bits of ord- 
nance or small bits of some other type of production into 
the very small factories. In fact, I think the smallest plant 
we have is a two-car garage with three lathes which is 
making a part of a 25-pounder gun. 

That is necessarily a slow and difficult development. It 
is not easy to get large manufacturers to break down their 
contracts into small bits and it is difficult to get the small 
bits all out to the small firms. However, a process of edu- 
cation has been going on and is achieving splendid re- 
sults. The bits and pieces system, I think, will continue 
to be an effective means of further expanding our indus- 
trial output. 

I see my time is up. May I say how glad I am that 
I did not let the lack of a paper prevent me coming here. 
I have enjoyed speaking extemporaneously, and thank 
you very much for having invited me. 



150 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



NATIONAL SERVICE — A CHALLENGE TO THE ENGINEER 

E. M. LITTLE 

Director, Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel, Ottawa, Ont. 

General Manager, Anglo-Canadian Pulp and Paper Mills, Quebec, Que. 

Address delivered at the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Montreal, Que., on February 6th, 1942 



I welcome the opportunity to speak of two matters 
which I hope you, as engineers, will find of some interest: 
first, a brief review of the activity of the Wartime Bureau 
of Technical Personnel; and, second, the necessity of plan- 
ning for the period of post-war rehabilitation and con- 
struction. Planning for the post-war period is, for the 
engineer, both an opportunity and a duty. 

Most of you are familiar with the part already played 
by the engineers and chemists of Canada, through your 
Institute, the Canadian Institute of Chemistry, The Can- 
adian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and the prov- 
incial professional engineering associations, in plans to 
mobilize the technical personnel of Canada for the war 
effort. The leadership shown by the three Institutes has 
been helpful in promoting the establishment, about a year 
ago, of the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel, under 
the Department of Labour at Ottawa. 

It is not intended to dwell at any length on the activi- 
ties of the Bureau, as these have been, and will continue 
to be, reported, from time to time, through your journals 
and other media. However, a brief summary of what 
has been accomplished and a statement of a few of our 
difficulties may be timely. 

Our first job was to find out how many engineers and 
chemists there were in Canada, where they were, what 
they were doing, what they could do, and since we were 
operating under the voluntary system, what they would 
do. All of that information was not available anywhere 
in Canada. 

For an all-out effort, which we believed necessary — 
and which we felt the technical men knew to be necessary 
— we needed that information. The result was the ques- 
tionnaire and classification list, now familiar to most of 
you. 

The Bureau now has, we believe, the most comprehen- 
sive data on technical personnel ever available in Canada. 
While the register is not yet complete, it is rapidly ap- 
proaching completion. Some have not filled in the ques- 
tionnaire, because they have not received one due to 
change of address or errors in the mailing list; while 
others have not seen fit to reply, because they do not ap- 
preciate the need for providing the information or they 
are not too anxious to risk being inconvenienced. Those 
engineers and chemists who have not yet received a ques- 
tionnaire may be assured that the Bureau is making every 
possible effort to correct this condition. As regards those 
who have not seen fit to respond, we believe suitable 
measures are being taken to the end that the information 
shall be forthcoming. On the whole, however, the response 
has been splendid, both in the promptness with which the 
information was supplied, and the willingness of nearly 
all of those answering, to be transferred to more essential 
work, including service in the armed forces. 

Our questionnaire has the weakness of all questionnaires 
— it is only up to date in some respects, as from the date 
it was filled out. Changes in address and employment and 
experience acquired since signing the questionnaire can- 
not yet be secured except by a cumbersome time-and- 
labour consuming follow-up system. We believe this dif- 
ficulty will be overcome in the very near future by a 
simple, efficient, continuing inventory of our technical 
personnel. 

The cost of operating the Bureau to the end of 1941 
has been less than half of our appropriation for the Gov- 



ernment fiscal year, ending March 31 st, 3942. However, 
the demands on the Bureau are expanding and our staff 
and cost of operation will increase accordingly. We have 
secured over five hundred engineers and chemists for es- 
sential industries and for civilian occupations in the armed 
forces. The requests for help through the Bureau are in- 
creasing so fast that we are having difficulty in locating 
and/or arranging for the transfer of the numbers required. 
With demand greater than supply, each request for help 
must be investigated carefully by the Bureau. We appeal 
to employers to search carefully within their own organ- 
izations, before they ask for outside assistance. Employers 
must expect and provide for the necessity of turning out 
more and more production with less and less men, and in 
addition must be prepared to train and release engineers 
and artisans for the armed forces. 

We have placed appreciable numbers of Polish engineers 
and skilled artisans, whose qualifications and sympathies 
have been carefully scrutinized by the proper authorities 
before being turned over to the Bureau for placement. And 
as a result of an urgent call from London, we have secured 
engineers for special work in England. 

The placement work of the Bureau cannot be likened 
to, or compared with, the function of a peacetime employ- 
ment office dealing with professional engineers. The prob- 
lem now is not to find work for the engineers; but to find 
the engineers for the work — in most cases very special 
work, and in many instances several jobs for the one 
engineer. These conditions introduce problems not ex- 
perienced by peacetime employment agencies and neces- 
sitate more effort in the handling of each individual case. 

Almost from the date of its establishment, the Bureau 
has maintained close contact with the universities. There 
is some confusion in the minds of both the university au- 
thorities and the students as to what they should do to 
make their full contribution. Should the student finish his 
course or enlist now — should the university graduate him 
early with or without a degree? The different branches 
of the armed forces suggest one thing and our Bureau 
suggests something else. We are doing everything we can 
with the authorities at Ottawa to secure greater co-opera- 
tion between ourselves and the armed forces, to the end 
that this confusion may be minimized, and so that the 
universities may better meet the combined needs of the 
armed forces and war industries. 

We are being requested by certain government depart- 
ments to assist in the adjudication of an increasing num- 
ber of cases affecting technical personnel. 

The shortage of technical personnel is becoming more 
acute. The work of the Bureau is increasing and will con- 
tinue to do so. We will centralize our activities in Ottawa 
only to the extent necessary for planning. We now propose 
to decentralize as may be necessary for the execution of 
the work. Within the next few weeks we shall start placing 
field men in the larger industrial centres so that local or 
more direct contact may be made with the employer and 
the technician. We shall need the most intelligent under- 
standing and sympathetic attitude on the part of both 
the employer and the technician in our efforts to ration 
properly the technical skill of the country. 

In our work at Ottawa, we have become impressed with 
the lack of adequate information on the manpower of 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



151 



Canada. No proper machinery has over existed to obtain 
it and to keep it up to date. The National Registration of 
1940 gave some essential basic information on the num- 
bers, sex and age groups of our people as of August, 1940, 
but it falls far short of giving all the information neces- 
sary as of February, 1942. We need a running or con- 
tinuing inventory of our manpower. We must know quick- 
ly of the improvement in the skirls of our people. We must 
know where they are to-day and what they are capable 
of doing to-day, and if three months or one year from now 
conditions require new information, we must have the 
machinery to get it and get it quickly, on such portion of 
our manpower as may be affected. How we can plan an 
all-out war effort on either a voluntary or compulsory 
system without such a running inventory, remains a 
mystery. It is not only essential to have this information 
for our war planning, but as will appear later in this talk, 
it will be equally desirable in post-war planning. It is 
satisfactory to note that considerable attention has been 
given to this matter during the past few months by officials 
in the Department of Labour and others at Ottawa, and 
I am hopeful that some suitable plan will be evolved on 
which action will be taken in the near future. 

The privilege given some of us to serve the war effort 
in a modest way through the Bureau has enabled us to 
appreciate some of the work and difficulties of government 
departments. We are particularly impressed with the need 
for each of us, as Canadians and as engineers, to do more 
toward the solution of immediate and future matters of 
national interest and import, than we have heretofore. We 
have all been critical of the government, but based on 
our experience in the Bureau, we are satisfied that the col- 
lective stupidity of Ottawa is at least equalled if not sur- 
passed by that of the public. Nor are all the prima don- 
nas, quacks and crackpots, great or small, in the govern- 
ment service. 

Too many of us turn to some heavily laden government 
department, expecting it to find a solution to our problem. 
Many of us, when a reasonable solution is found, prevent 
its adoption either through ignorance or because it appears 
to clash with our own selfish interests. On the other hand, 
some of us are prepared to give all the answers to all the 
problems of the country, past, present and future, without 
any real knowledge of such problems. As citizens we are 
grossly ignorant of, or apathetic towards, national ques- 
tions and too many of us are chronic protesters. Our na- 
tional affairs will never be properly conducted by this or 
any future government unless we wake up and cease to be 
a nation of leaners. To be effective, a government needs 
the support of an informed public. We are not an informed 
public, and the only way to become informed is to work 
and think. And, with the critical job now facing us and 
with the problems that will confront us in the post-war 
period, the time to start working to make our full contri- 
bution to the solution of national problems is now. 

No words from me are needed to give you a better ap- 
preciation of the seriousness of our present job, — winning 
the war. I am sure you realize the totality of effort in time 
which we must put forth to win, and the terrible conse- 
quences to all of us, if we should lose the struggle, or even 
if it should result in a draw. Planning for the post-war 
days means nothing but waste effort unless we win; — but 
plan we must, as failure to do so may have results almost 
as serious as those due to our lack of planning for defence 
prior to the outbreak of war. 

Each job, the winning of the war and the planning for 
the post-war period, must be given its proper weight and 
timing. 

Canada, as one of the allied nations, must go all-out in 
its effort. Every pound of essential material and every 
man-hour of labour which can be diverted to that one 
purpose will be necessary. And the more closely we ap- 



proach that all-out effort the more difficult the re-adjust- 
ment will be, unless planned. 

What are the problems that we shall face immediately 
the war is won? How shall we plan and prepare to meet 
them, where and how do we get the information on which 
to plan, and who shall do the planning? 

In my opinion, the one fundamental and all-important 
problem of the immediate post-war period, upon the solu- 
tion of which the measure of prosperity we are to ex- 
perience will largely depend, will be the finding of usejul 
employment for the men and women of Canada of working 
age, — useful employment for the men and women who, by 
the end of the war, will be in the active forces, in the fac- 
tories producing war materials, and in other directly or 
indirectly associated industries in which the employment 
level may then be abnormally high due to the war 
production boom. 

That, I believe, is the post-war problem. As one begins 
its study it becomes apparent that because of the inter- 
relationship between employment and our whole national 
economy, its solution will provide the answers for many 
other questions. To solve any problem it is first necessary 
to have a clear appreciation of its nature. To avoid 
fumbling we must know where and on what to start, for 
a job well started is half done. I suggest that we start on 
that one problem, believing that in solving it we solve 
many others. 

Before we try to visualize the size of the job of provid- 
ing useful employment to those who may be thrown out of 
work when the war ends, let us note briefly how the study 
of that problem takes us into many phases of national 
activity 

Employment prior to the war was provided principally 
by agriculture, industry, governments and professional 
services of various kinds. Our agriculture, particularly 
wheat, has been largely dependent on export markets. 
Thus the level of employment which can be provided for 
the wheat farmer depends on our success in securing a 
sufficiently large and remunerative export market, or in- 
crease in our domestic market, or both. The wheat farmer, 
and all Canadians affected by the degree of prosperity 
secured for him, have an interest in point four of the At- 
lantic Charter in which Mr. Churchill and Mr. Roosevelt 
declare: "they will endeavour, with due respect to their 
existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all states, 
great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal 
terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world 
which are needed for their economic prosperity." 

What does access on equal terms mean? 

And how are we to build up the domestic market for 
wheat and other agricultural products? Can we consume 
more with the same population, or do we need more 
people? Would immigration help? Would it lessen or add 
to employment? If we decide on immigration, who shall 
come in, what kind of people can best be assimilated into 
our social life, at what rate shall they be allowed to enter, 
and how do we attract them to Canada? Should any im- 
migration plan be short or long term, — and if long term, 
how do we ensure its continuity? 

Our industries can be divided into two principal classes, 
those depending largely on export markets, such as forest 
products (pulp and paper), and mining, and those depend- 
ing on domestic markets which include importing indus- 
tries. The exporting industries must concern themselves 
with the improvement of their export position, or reduce 
their dependence on the export markets by increasing 
their domestic markets, or both. They also, therefore, are 
concerned with point four of the Atlantic Charter. Must 
they prepare to compete with subsidized exports and de- 
preciated currencies, or does " access on equal terms " 
mean " currency equalization " or " quotas," or both? All 
our industries, exporting, domestic and importing, — must 



152 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



bo concerned with the development of our domestic 
market, if the levels of employment are to be sufficient for 
the needs. 

The measure of prosperity which we can secure for our 
agriculture and our industries will have a large bearing 
on our ability to provide useful employment after the 
war. 

For how many people must we find useful employment 
in the post-war re-adjustment period? It is conceivable 
that if the war should continue, Canada may have a mil- 
lion men and women in the active forces. It is also con- 
ceivable, if the war is prolonged, that one to two million 
men and women may be thrown out of employment when 
we *top producing war materials and as employment in 
other activities diminishes as the war production boom 
abates. We should, therefore, prepare to face the job of 
finding useful employment for two to three million men 
and women. 

If, with the luck of the devil and a fast outfield, we 
happen to experience a prosperous immediate post-war 
period our worries may be minimized, — but if we don't, 
what then? The problem of finding and/or making useful 
employment for two to three million people, in time, will 
not be easy; — indeed it will be extremely difficult. But it 
must be done, and if planned well and soon enough, if 
boldly conceived, intelligently organized and vigorously 
pursued, it can be done. 

What kind of work do we plan for those two to three 
million men and women? Is it not necessary to know not 
only how many there are, but what kind of people they 
are, their education, their training, their experience? Are 
we only to plan for numbers and waste those assets? 

How do we get this information? Up to now there has 
not existed any machinery by which this information 
could be obtained in sufficient detail, and in time. But the 
same machinery which is necessary to get information on 
our manpower in wartime can be used to secure the in- 
formation for the post-war planning. And that machinery 
must be kept working and well oiled until Canada is rid 
of unemployment. Our last period of unemployment, 
necessitating direct relief, with all its attendant evils and 
abuses, was in the opinion of many, not well handled for 
two principal reasons, — first, because we, as individuals, 
assumed little or no responsibility for it; and, second, be- 
cause it was poorly planned, due to lack of information. 
We cannot build anything unless we know what we want 
to build and what we have to work with. Full and accurate 
information on our people is a prerequisite to planning. 

Assuming we shall have available, in time, all the neces- 
sary information on those to be rehabilitated at the end 
of the war, what kind of work do we plan? As far as is 
humanly possible, we must plan useful work. It will not 
do merely to have people occupied digging post holes and 
filling them in again. The doctor, the engineer, the nurse, 
the lawyer and the mechanic should, if possible, be pro- 
vided with the work they are best qualified to do. The 
kind of work we plan must, where possible, take cog- 
nizance of the training of our people, and be consistent 
with the long-term economic development of Canada. 

If the number already stated, for whom we must find 
suitable employment, is a reasonably close estimate, we 
are facing quite some job. It is of such national import- 
ance that it needs the consideration first of the Federal 
Government. It should be their responsibility to see that 
plans are drawn up in their broader outlines; to secure, 
in time, the necessary information on the men and women 
for whom employment is to be found; to initiate, in time, 
plans for Federal Government projects; and to enlist, in 
time, the support and active assistance of all the prov- 
incial governments and of industry, large and small. 

It will not suffice to confine our work planning to gov- 



ernment undertakings. All the useful projects which gov- 
ments can undertake must be supplemented by all the 
work all our industries and enterprises can provide. The 
delaying of every job, large or small, which can be de- 
layed till war is over, the planning by industry of plant 
improvement and expansion, the study to determine how 
to convert our war plants to new peacetime use, the de- 
velopment of new industries, the conservation and de- 
velopment of our natural resources, reafforestation, neces- 
sary housing projects, slum clearance and a comprehensive 
health programme, are only a few of the many possibilities 
to which proper attention must be given soon, considering 
the time required for planning. 

Now what has all this to do with the engineer? At some 
stage in this planning, all these broad outlines, all the pro- 
jects and undertakings, any new industries, or plant re- 
habilitation, any conservation or reafforestation, must be 
worked out and translated into pounds or other quantities 
of materials; into man-hours of work for the production, 
preparation and transportation of that material; and into 
the man-hours of work for fabricating the material into 
the finished products. And then those man-hours must 
be broken down into work for the miner, the carpen- 
ter, the mechanic, the mason, the forester, the engineer, 
the architect and so on up and down the whole list. The 
engineer is so important to this part of the planning that 
I can safely say it cannot be done without him. 

But there is another function the engineer can perform 
which is important at an earlier stage in the planning. 
Many of you know from experience that some well con- 
ceived plans fail in their execution because some detail 
has been overlooked, that undertakings supposedly well 
organized missed something in the organization, that 
people who are eminently capable of planning in broad 
outline may neither have time for, nor appreciation of, the 
details necessary to carry those plans to complete fulfil- 
ment. The engineer must do his part to see that in this 
planning no detail is omitted, that in the organization of 
this vast job no step is missed. Those who are, or may be, 
charged with the planning of the broad outlines, should 
enlist the engineers' assistance as early as is desirable, or 
permissible. 

The prophecy of President Wickenden, of the Case 
School of Applied Science, in his able address delivered at 
your Hamilton meeting a year ago, is, let us hope, about to 
be realized. He said " They (the engineers) will be called 
upon to share the control of disease with physicians, the 
control of finance with bankers, the bearing of risks with 
underwriters, the organizing of distribution with mer- 
chants and purchasing agents, the supplying of food with 
packers and purveyors, the raising of food with farmers 
and the operation of the home with the housewives." 

But he also said " In few of these new fields, if any, will 
engineers be self-sufficient; — to be useful they must be 
team workers; and they must be prepared to deal with 
' men and their ways ' no less than ' things and their 
forces'." 

Planning for the post-war period will take us into an 
ocean of problems. We cannot have too many skippers, 
else they may want to chart different courses, and the ship 
will be left stranded. If the Federal Government (or its 
nominees) , must chart the course, — and in view of the 
national scope of the problem, it seems logical that this 
should be done — then let us be part of the crew, and do 
our full part. 

Though the job may be large, and the difficulties great, 
team work will do it. The opportunity for the engineer to 
render national service has never before presented itself 
on such a scale. Will the engineer meet the challenge 
without for one moment forgetting the job in hand — that 
of having a post-war period in which our plans shall 
prevail? 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



153 



THE FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

Convened at Headquarters, Montreal, on January 22nd, 1942, and adjourned to the Windsor Hotel, 

Montreal, on February 5th, 1942. 



The Fifty-Sixth Annual General Meeting of The Engin- Gzowski Medal — To S. R. Banks, m.e.i.c, Montreal, for 

eering Institute of Canada was convened at Headquarters his paper, "The Lions' Gate Bridge, Vancouver." 

on Thursday, January twenty-second, nineteen hundred Duggan Medal and Prize— To 0. W. Ellis, m.e.i.c, Tor- 

and forty-two, at eight forty-five p.m., with Councillor nto, for his paper, "Forgeability of Metals." 

Huet Massue, m.e.i.c, in the chair Leonard Medal— To G. Reuben Yourt, stud. ci.m.m., 

The assistant general secretary having read the notice Kirkland Lake) for his . -Ventilation and Dust Con- 
convening the meeting, the minutes of the fifty-fifth tro j at the Wright-Hargreaves Mine." 
annual general meeting were submitted, and, on the motion v _ r ,. „ „ .., ,, , , ,.■,,.,. , T , . , . 
of J. A Lalonde, m.e.i.c, seconded by J. M. Crawford, KJ uh 1!\ Sm%t \ ¥^ ls ( M ^ tlonBl } n f^ Ta i A ,^f d $> 
m.e.i.c, were taken as read and confirmed. For Achievement in the Development of Canada,' to W . 

G. McBnde, m.e.i.c, Montreal, W. G. Murrin, m.e.i.c, 

Appointment of Scrutineers Vancouver, and E. W. Stedman, m.e.i.c, Ottawa. 

On the motion of W. B. Korcheski, m.e.i.c, seconded students' and juniors' prizes 
by C. F. Davison, m.e.i.c, Messrs. E. V. Gage, m.e.i.c, John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario) — To A. L. 
P. E. Poitras, m.e.i.c, and J. K. Sexton, m.e.i.c, were Malby, Jr.E.i.c, Peterborough, for his paper, "Carrier Cur- 
appointed scrutineers to canvass the officers' ballot and rent Control of Peak Loads." 
report the result. Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec— English)— 

There being no other formal business, it was resolved, To q. N. Martin, jr.E.i.c, Montreal, for his paper, "Char- 
on the motion of A. S. Runciman, m.e.i.c, seconded by acteristics and Peculiarities of some Recent Large Boilers 
W. H. Moore, m.e.i.c, that the meeting do adjourn to m England " 

reconvene at the Windsor Hotel, Montreal, at ten o'clock Ermst Marcmu Pnze (Province of Quebec-French) - 

a.m. on the fifth day of February, nineteen hundred and Tq a t Mon ^ ^^ Montrea , for £ s paper «Vedette 

lorty-two. de 40 pieds de L ongueur- » 

Adjourned General Meeting at the Windsor Report of Council 

Hotel, Montreal, Que. 0n the motion of R L Du nsmore, seconded by J. G. 

The adjourned meeting convened at ten o'clock a.m. on Hall, it was RESOLVED that the report of Council for the 

Thursday, February 5th, 1942, with President C. J. year 1941, as published in the February Journal, be 

Mackenzie in the chair. accepted and approved. 

The general secretary announced the membership of the Report qf Finance Committee, Financial Statement 

Nominating Committee of the Institute for the year 1942 AND THE Treasurer - s Report 

as follows: . 

Nominating Committee— 1942 0n the motion of G. A. Walkem, seconded by P. B. 

Motley, it was RESOLVED that the report of the Finance 

Chairman: E. P. Muntz Committee, the financial statement and the Treasurer's 

Branch Representative report, as published in the February Journal, be accepted 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong and approved. 

Calgary F. K. Beach Reports of Committees 

Cape Breton J. A. McLeod On the motion of C. R. Young, seconded by K. M. 

Edmonton W. R. Mount Cameron, it was RESOLVED that the reports of the 

Halifax R. L. Dunsmore following committees be taken as read and accepted: 

Hamilton A. Love Publication ; Papers ; Training and Welfare of the Young 

Kingston A. Jackson Engineer; Library and House; Legislation; Board of Exam- 

Lakehead P. E. Doncaster iners and Education; Western Water Problems; Inter- 

Lethbridge J. M. Davidson national Relations; Membership; Deterioration of Concrete 

London V. A. McKillop Structures; Professional Interests, Employment Service. 

Moncton B. E. Bayne Branch Efforts 

Montreal R. DeL. French ^ , f * AN ™ ^ EPORTS 

Niagara Peninsula C. G. Moon a 0n , the motlon of T^ R Durley, seconded by M. G. 

Ottawa J H Parkin Saunders, it was RESOLVED that the reports of the 

Peterborough W. M. Cruthers various branches be taken as read and approved. 

Quebec A. O. Dufresne Life Memberships 

Saguenay N. D. Paine Mr p B Mo tl ev presented a memorandum outlining 

Saint John. J. R . * r eenvan Council's present method of granting Life Membership, 

St. Maurice Valley E. B. Wardle and moved that Council consider and report at the next 

Saskatchewan. R .A. Spencer annual general meeting on the desirability of amending the 

Sault Ste. Mane A. G. Ross by-laws so that Life Membership would be removed from 

1 oronto VV . E. Bonn ^ e sec ti n dealing with exemptions from the payment of 

Vancouver J . JN . t mlayson annual fees, and placed in a section similar to that dealing 

Vj? 10 ! 1 * 1 jiw iu me ^k Honorar y Membership, and that such Life Member- 
Winnipeg H. W. McLeod gn -p De g ran ted automatically and as an honour, without 

Aavards of Medals and Prizes application from the member. 

_. . . j, , . Al Mr. Motley's motion was seconded by Mr. S. Blumental, 

The general secretary announced the awards of the and after some discuss i n, was carried, 
various medals and prizes ot the Institute as follows, 

stating that the formal presentation of these distinctions Post-War Reconstruction 

would be made at the annual dinner of the Institute on The president announced that the Lakehead Branch had 

Friday evening: submitted a resolution asking Council to take definite 

■% foi- (ÏM. aJLAjSLvvud /*uL~nJL j M E, 17 htauuAXoA>»^ 

154 „ .„ ' r ^.9/za.zZ , March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ction with regard to post-war reconstruction. The resolu- 
ion had been considered by Council at two meetings, and 
iad finally been referred to the incoming Council for con- 
ideration and action. However, as Mr. P. E. Doncaster, 
rom the Lakehead Branch, was present, he would ask him 
o present the resolution to the meeting. 

Mr. Doncaster explained that he was not presenting this 
esolution for action by the annual meeting as it was 
Iready before Council. However, he did wish to let the 
neeting know of the resolution and, if possible, obtain some 
liscussion which might be helpful in pursuing the matter 
urther. He then read the resolution as follows: 

The Lakehead Branch of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada submits to the annual meeting of the Institute for 
liscussion and action the following resolution: 

WHEREAS, it is generally agreed that, immediately 
iter the cessation of the war in which this country is pres- 
ntly engaged, some millions of our citizens in the fighting 
orces or in employment in the production of war equip- 
nent and materials must be afforded opportunity for em- 
iloyment in peace-time occupation; and 

WHEREAS, it is incumbent on all citizens of this country 
rho are competent and whose time, training, and abilities 
,re not fully employed in the war effort should be engaged 
n planning for the post-war period; and 

WHEREAS, a lead in the direction and carrying out of 
he plans for the post-war period must be given and be 
ustained by competent individual organized groups and 
.uthorities acting alone in their respective fields, and also 
a co-operation with others in co-ordinating efforts; and, 
nasmuch as post-war employment will, in large measure, 
>e based on technological surveys, investigations, planning, 
lirection and supervision; and 

WHEREAS, The Engineering Institute of Canada is 
>eculiarly organized and fitted to take an active and a 
eading part in the planning herein referred; to Therefore, 

BE IT RESOLVED that this resolution be submitted 
or discussion at the 1942 annual meeting of The Institute, 
md, if endorsed: that Council be instructed to set up at 
►nee a strong "SPECIAL PLANNING FOR POST-WAR" 
ommittee, composed of a central group of four members, 
vhich wall initiate and promote enquiries, and from which 
;roup any member may be assigned by Council to represent 
rhe Institute on one or more other groups or committees 
:et up by other organizations or authorities on similar 
)lanning work; 

THAT, Council appoint one or more members from each 
>f the Institute Zones who will act with the central com- 
nittee as an advisory group, and who shall in turn arrange 
or the appointment of a chairman and two to four mem- 
)ers of each branch of The Institute to act as a local or 
jranch planning committee charged with the responsibility 
)f carrying out instructions of the central committee in 
promoting planning within the boundaries of its branch 
irea. 

In giving effect to the foregoing organization it is sug- 
gested the services of vice-presidents and councillors of 
rhe Institute be utilized to the greatest possible extent, 
consistent with their availability for the project, and 

FURTHER, that planning for the post-war period be 
undertaken and continued as one of the major activities of 
rhe Institute until such time as normal peace-time con- 
ditions have been restored. 

Mr. Doncaster then referred to the federal committee 
ivhich had been appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. 
F. Cyril James of McGill University, to investigate post- 
war conditions from coast to coast. He informed the meet- 
ing that Mr. K. M. Cameron, a vice-president of The 
Institute, has been selected by Dr. James and his com- 
mittee as chairman of the sub-committee to investigate the 
construction phases of the general problem. He expressed 
the hope that Mr. Cameron's committee would consult 
with all organizations qualified to contribute to the thinking 



on the problem, and would not confine itself to a small 
circle. He hoped that every member of The Institute, no 
matter where he resided, would be given a chance to par- 
ticipate in the deliberations. 

The president pointed out that the subject of the motion 
was not a new one. It had been before Council for many 
months, and nobody disagreed with the general principle 
that thought should be given to it. He pointed out that 
Council, at yesterday's meeting, had instructed the incom- 
ing officers to give this matter their consideration. 

Mr. K. M. Cameron then told something of the sub- 
committee of the federal committee under Dr. James. He 
assured Mr. Doncaster and the meeting that everyone 
would be given an opportunity to express his ideas. He 
emphasized that it was only natural that on such a subject 
The Institute would be vitally concerned. At the present 
time he thought that there was little that could be done 
as the organization of committees and sub-committees 
required a lot of thought in order to make certain that the 
proper persons were appointed. He recommended that 
every person attend the professional session the following 
day, at which Mr. E. M. Little was presenting a paper on 
post-war problems, in the disccussion of which Dr. Leonard 
C. Marsh, research adviser to the federal committee, would 
participate. He pointed out that in the last war post-war 
planning was left almost until the end of the war. He hoped 
things would be much better this time. Mr. Cameron 
intimated that discussion on this matter might more 
properly be made at the professional session the following 
day than at this meeting. 

Election of Officers 
The general secretary read the report of the scrutineers 

appointed to canvass the officers' ballot for the year 1942 

as follows: 

President C. R. Young 

Vice-Presidents: 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) J. L. Lang 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) H. Cimon 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) G. G. Murdoch 

Councillors: 

Victoria Branch E. W. Izard 

Lethbridge Branch . J. Haimes 

Calgary Branch S. G. Coultis 

Winnipeg Branch J. W. Sanger 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch A. E. Pickering 

Hamilton Branch W. J. W. Reid 

Niagara Peninsula Branch A. W. F. McQueen 

Ottawa Branch T. A. McElhanney 

Toronto Branch Nicol MacNicol 

Peterborough Branch H. R. Sills 

Montreal Branch J. E. Armstrong 

R. E. Heartz 
W. G. Hunt 

Quebec Branch E. D. Gray-Donald 

Moncton Branch G. L. Dickson 

Cape Breton Branch F. W. Gray 

On the motion of P. G. Gauthier, seconded by S. N. 
Tremblay, it was RESOLVED that the report of the 
scrutineers be adopted, that a vote of thanks be tendered 
to them for their services in preparing the report, and that 
the ballot papers be destroyed. 

The general secretary announced that the newly elected 
officers would be inducted at the annual dinner on the fol- 
lowing night. 

The president then delivered his retiring adress on "The 
War Activities of the National Research Council of Cana- 
da," which will be found on page 141 of this issue of the 
Journal. 

On the motion of G. F. St. Jacques, seconded by Paul 
Vincent, it was unanimously RESOLVED that a hearty 
vote of thanks be extended to the Montreal Branch in 
recognition of their hospitality and activity in connection 
with the Fifty-Sixth Annual General Meeting. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



155 



THE PRESIDENT'S DINNER 




Left to right: Past-presidents G. H. Duggan, 
A. Surveyer and F. P. Shearwood. 





Past-presidents T. H. Hogg, O. O. Lefebvre 
and G. A. Walkem. 



Below: The chairman and 
host talks to Beaudry Letnan, 



Below, left to right: N. F. McCaghey, Walter G. Hunt, 
J. H. Fregeau, L. A. Duchastel. 



Below, left to right: J. G. Hull, J. E. Armstrong, 
K. M. Cameron, J. A. Vance, M. G. Saunders and 
P. M. Sauder. C. K. McLeod in the foreground. 




156 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE LUNCHEONS 





The speaker at the Thursday 
luncheon, the Hon. C. D. Howe. 




The chairman, J. A. Lalonde. 



Mayor Adéhmar 
Raynault wel- 
comes the dele- 
gates to Mont- 
real. 



Above: deGaspé 
Bea ubien speaks 
for the Victory 
Loan. 



On the motion of T. A. McElhanney, seconded by H. A. 
Liumsden, it was unanimously RESOLVED that a hearty 
rote of thanks be accorded to the retiring president and 
nembers of Council in appreciation of the work they have 
lone for The Institute during the past year. 

There being no further business the meeting adjourned 
it eleven forty-five a.m. 

THE GENERAL PROFESSIONAL MEETING 

Professional Sessions 

The attendance at professional meetings exceeded any- 
thing recorded previously. The Prince of Wales Salon will 
seat two hundred and fifty comfortably. It was full and 
yverflowing practically for every session. At least another 
lundred were crowded in on several occasions, and all 
ludiences were well rewarded for their attendance and 
attention. 

On the afternoon of Thursday, the programme was 
jpened by Colonel W. E. Phillips, president of Research 
Enterprises Limited, who described the work of that Crown 
company in interesting detail. His talk was illustrated by 
moving pictures and "delineographs" — the latter being 



Above: The speaker at the Friday luncheon, James 
W. Parker. On his right, J. H. Maude, W. G. Hunt, 
Mrs. F. W. Taylor-Bailey, L. A. Duchastel. 



coloured photographs projected on the screen without 
benefit of film or slide. He also offered an exhibition of 
optical glass produced in record time at the plant. McNeely 
DuBose was in the chair. The paper is presented in full in 
this issue of the Journal. 

W. F. Drysdale, m.e.i.c, vice-president, Montreal Loco- 
motive Works, Limited, also Canadian Steel Tire and 
Wheel Company, Limited, Montreal; Director-General of 
Industrial Planning, Department of Munitions and Supply, 
Ottawa, presented his paper "The Manufacture of 25- 
Pounder Guns in Canada." This gun plant appears to be 
the only one in America where the continuous operations 
begin with the scrap metal. Mr. Drysdale also used movies 
and delineographs to illustrate his talk. John T. Farmer 
was chairman. This paper appeared in the January Journal. 

Friday morning three papers were presented. "Accident 
Prevention Methods and Results" by Wills Maclachlan, 
m.e.i.c, Chairman R. E. Heartz, and "Rational Column 
Analysis" by Professor J. A. Van den Broek, Chairman 
CM. Goodrich, were run simultaneously in the Prince of 
Wales Salon and the Oak Room. Both papers have appeared 
in the Journal, the former in the January number and the 
latter in the December number. Discussions of Professor 
Van den Broek's paper were so extensive that an afternoon 
session was arranged at the request of the audience. 

The third paper, "The New 'Oil-hydraulic' Press in 
Munitions Manufacture" was presented by J. H. Maude, 
m.e.i.c, with Dean Armand Circé in the chair. The author 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



157 




The American guests visited Head- 
quarters during the meeting. Front 
roic—left to right: Dr. A. H. White, 
President, Society for the Promotion of 
Engineering Education; Ernest B. 
Black, President, American Society of 
Civil Engineers; Dr. Eugene McAuliffe, 
President, American Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers; 
George T. Seabury, Secretary, Amer- 
ican Society of Civil Engineers; Dr. 
C. J. Mackenzie, Acting President, 
National Research Council of Canada. 
Standing^left to right: Dean C. R. 
Young, President, The Engineering 
Institute of Canada; A. B. Parsons, 
Secretary, American Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgical Engineers; C. E. 
Davies, Secretary, American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers; H. H. Hen- 
line, Secretary, American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers; S. L. Tyler, 
Secretary, American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers; James W. Parker, 
President, American Society of Mech- 
anical Engineers; D. C. Prince, 
President, American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers; S. D. Kirkpatrick, 
President, American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers; Professor C. F. 
Scott, Chairman, Committee on Pro- 
fessional Recognition, Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development; 
C. C. Knipmeyer, President, National 
Council of State Boards of Engineering 
Examiners; J." A. Van den Broek. 
Professor of Engineering Mechanics, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 



Right: The ladies register. In the group 
are Mrs. L. C. Jacobs, Mrs. J. A. Lalonde, 
Mrs. R. S. Eadie and Mrs. F. W. Taylor 
Bailey. 



The committee goes to work. 
Left to right: Gordon D. Hulme, 
J. A . Lalonde, A . G . Moôre, 
Walter G. Hunt and I. S. Pat- 
terson. 



The Joint Conference Com- 
mittee of the Founders Societies 
meet with Presidents and the 
Secretary of the Institute. 
Seated, from left to right: C. R. 
Young, E. B. Black, J. W. 
Parker, H. H. Heniine, Eugene 
McAulifTe, C. J. Mackenzie. 
Standing: Col. C. E. Davies, 
D. C. Prince, G. T. Seabury, 
A. B. Parsons, L. Austin Wright. 




158 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PROFESSIONAL SESSIONS 







__ (*lk 






..& mm 


■ 




V 


*1 




m 


1 






% - 


HHf 





Left: Col. W. E. Phil- 
lips, president of 
Research Enterprises 
Limited, Toronto. 



Right: Walter D. 
Singer of New York 
and Chairman H. A. 
Gibeau. 







Right: W. F. Drysdale 
speaks on the 25- 
po under gun. 




should be helpful to Government planning which is now 
underway. It appears in this number of the Journal. 

The last professional session was an address "Some of 
the Engineering Implications of Civilian Defence," by 
Walter D. Binger, commissioner of Borough Works, City 
of New York, and chairman, National Technological Civil 
Protection Committee of the United States. H. A. Gibeau 
was in the chair. Mr. Binger had visited England to obtain 
first-hand information upon which he based his talk. He 
appears to be the only civil engineer in America who has 
studied this problem on the ground from the engineering 
point of view. His comments and recommendations are 
founded on experience, not just on the written word. 
Although Mr. Binger spoke from notes only, a verbatim 



lad an interesting exhibit which showed the work 
turned out by the press, and the method of operating. 
This paper has been published in full in the February 
Tournai. 

In the afternoon the first professional session was 
pven over to "National Service — a Challenge to 
Engineers," a paper by E. M. Little, director of the 
Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel, general 
manager of the Anglo-Canadian Pulp and Paper 
Mills, Limited, and president of the Gaspesia Sulphite 
Company, Limited, Professor R. DeL. French was 
chairman. This paper dealt with post-war planning 
n relation to labour, and emphasized the need of 
seeping in mind, in all such planning, that work pro- 
vided should be useful or economically sound, and 
not just any kind of work. Mr. Little's paper 





Left: E. M. Little, dis- 
cusses the Wartime 
Bureau of Technical Per- 
sonnel and conditions 
after the war. 



Left: A portion of the 
audience. From left to 
right: W.H.M.Laugh- 
lin, D. Forgan, W. P. 
Dobson, and A. B. 
Cooper, all from Tor- 
onto. 



Right: Chairman 
Armand Circé intro- 
duces J. H. Maude. 




fHE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



159 



SPEAKERS AT THE BANQUET 




Above: S. D. Kirkpatrick, 
president, American Insti- 
tute of Chemical Engineers, 
Mrs. R. P. Vaughan, left. 



160 



March. 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



AT THE BANQUET 

Y 1 




Above: General McNaughton presents 
the Ernest Marceau Prize to T. A. 
Vïonti. 



Above: E. J. Carlyle, 
secretary-treasurer of 
the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy and Mrs. Carlyle. 



Left: Wing-Commander 
T. R. Loudon and Mrs. 
Loudon talk with Mrs. 
Walter D. Binger of New 
York. 




The receiving line. From right to 
left: Dean Mackenzie, Mrs. Mac- 
kenzie, Mrs. Young, President 
C. R. Young, Mrs. McNaughton, 
General McNaughton, Mrs. 
Lalonde, Mr. J. A. Lalonde. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



161 



THE SMOKER 





1 "J T U 


T. 1 

//l 


w ■«, . . 





Professor French enjoys the company of Dr. A. H. White of 
Ann Arbor, Mich. In the background, S. N. Tremblay and 
Martin Wolff. 




Mr. Howe aids Jules Comeau in the 
draw for War Savings Certificates. 



Left to right: Max V. Sauer, 
R. B. Young and W. A. M. Cook 
of Toronto. 




was obtained and will appear in an early number of the 
Journal. 

The President's Dinner 

It would be difficult to imagine a more pleasant affair 
than the dinner given by Dean Mackenzie on Wednesday 
evening at the University Club. The delightful custom of 
the retiring president entertaining his predecessors and 
officers of The Institute at dinner has become one of the 
most enjoyable features of an annual meeting. It is always 
an informal occasion, but this year, with such an inimitable 
chairman and host, it had added to it, a brilliancy that 
made it a most unusual occasion. 

In the company, which totalled sixty-four, there were 
nine past presidents and each one of them spoke for a few 
minutes. C. C. Knipmeyer, President of the National Coun- 
cil of State Board of Engineering Examiner was also present 
and contributed a delightful impromptu speech in which he 
explained that he came from the west and therefore was 
very much at home in such a friendly atmosphere. 

A feature of the programme was the presentation by the 
president of a Julian C. Smith medal to Mr. Beaudry 
Leman, m.e.i.c, president of the Banque Canadienne 
Nationale. This award was made last year but the present- 
ation had not taken place as Mr. Leman could not attend 
the annual meeting in Hamilton. In a short speech he 
expressed his thanks and reminded the audience of his long 
association with Mr. Smith, both in engineering and in 



business. This long enduring friendship made him more than 
ever grateful for the honour which had been done him. 
As would be expected, the chairman kept the pitch of 
the meeting at a high level. He emphasized the values that 
came from social gatherings such as this, and thought it 
might be a good idea to continue developing this day so 
that eventually it would become sufficiently attractive that 
officers and past officers without fail, would come from all 
over Canada to share in it. It would afford an opportunity 
for the development of social contacts before the business 
of the annual meeting took up the time and attention of 
the members. It might be called "President's Day." 

Social Events 

J. A. Lalonde, chairman of the Montreal Branch, pre- 
sided at the luncheon on Thursday. His Worship the Mayor, 
Adhémar Raynault, welcomed the visitors to Montreal — 
in both French and English, and Vice-President deGaspé 
Beaubien spoke on behalf of the Victory Loan. The speaker 
of the day was the Hon. C. D. Howe, Hon. m.e.i.c., Minister 
of Munitions and Supply, who gave the best talk yet heard 
on Canada's war production. Although Mr. Howe spoke 
without manuscript or notes, his address was recorded and 
appears in full in this Journal. 

R. E. Heartz, retiring chairman of the Branch, thanked 
the speaker in a manner that met the enthusiastic approval 
of the audience. 

The attendance was a tribute to the speaker. It amounted 



162 



March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



to six hundred and twenty-five — almost two hundred higher 
than any previous luncheon attendance. 

Past-Presidents' Dinner 

On Thursday evening at the St. James's Club the past- 
presidents and their ladies were dinner hosts to the out- 
going and incoming presidents, C. J. Mackenzie and Mrs. 
Mackenzie, and C. R. Young and Mrs. Young, the party 
breaking up in time to join with the others — the ladies at 
the Engineers' Club for bridge, and the men at the Windsor 
Hotel for the smoker. 

The Smoker 

The annual smoker of the Montreal Branch has been a 
successful affair for years, but when combined with the 
annual meeting of The Institute, it reached new heights. 
An attendance of eight hundred, and an excellent pro- 
gramme of entertainment provided an evening "packed" 
with fun and amusement (packed is the right word for it). 

Luncheon Friday 

This luncheon was presided over by deGaspé Beaubien, 
vice-president of The Institute. The speaker was James W. 
Parker, president of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers and vice-president and chief engineer of the 
Detroit Edison Company. His subject was "The Manage- 
ment-Employee Problem for Engineers." This was a very 
timely topic and the address can be studied with great 
advantage to labour and the profession. It is printed in 
this number of the Journal. 

The Banquet 

On Friday evening, under the chairmanship of retiring 
President C. J. Mackenzie, the annual banquet was held in 
Windsor Hall. No other Institute function has ever equalled 
this in numbers, enthusiasm or emotional attainment. 
Under the inspired direction of the chairman, a difficult 
programme was carried out in a manner that brought 
;reat pleasure to the entire assembly. 

Lieut. -General McNaughton and Mrs. McNaughton 
were the guests of honour. Other special guests included the 
presidents of the seven leading engineering societies in the 
United States, and the secretaries of six of them. The seven 
presidents spoke first — for about three minutes each. These 
were Ernest B. Black, American Society of Civil Engineers, 
Dr. Eugene McAuliffe, American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers, James W. Parker, The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, D. C. Prince, American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, Dr. A. H. White, Society 
'or the Promotion of Engineering Education, S. D. Kirk- 
Datrick, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, C. C. 
Knipmeyer, National Council of State Boards of Engineer- 
ng Examiners. Their remarks are printed elsewhere in this 
lumber of the Journal. 

When General McNaughton rose to speak a most unusual 
iemonstration developed. Applause and cheering broke out 
'roTci every person in the hall. It was sustained through a 
ong period and clearly demonstrated the place which this 
çreat man holds in the minds and hearts of the engineers 
and the Canadian people. 

He spoke of the need of more and better equipment so 
that precious lives could be spared in the battle for free- 
dom. He spoke with the emphasis that comes from knowl- 



edge and conviction. He had no notes, but his interest and 
his earnestness carried him on without pause or hesitation. 
His address in full appears in this number. 

Past-President H. W. McKiel, of Sackville, N.B., 
expressed to the American officers the appreciation of The 
Institute for their attendance at the meeting and the kindly 
greetings which they had presented. 

The retiring president introduced Dean C. R. Young and 
turned over to him the chair and gavel. Dean Young 
thanked the members for his election and spoke enthusi- 
astically of the future of The Institute. He introduced the 
new officers and members of Council, and closed the session 
with the singing of "0 Canada." 

The Reception 

After the, banquet a reception was held in the Rose 
Room. General McNaughton and Mrs. McNaughton 
graciously joined in the receiving line with Branch Chair- 
man and Mrs. J. A. Lalonde, President and Mrs. C. R. 
Young and Past-President and Mrs. C. J. Mackenzie. 

The Dance 

Until some early hour in the morning dancing held forth 
in the Rose Room. As usual this was a popular feature of 
the whole meeting, both with senior members and juniors. 

Plant Visits 

War industry afforded an unusual opportunity for inspec- 
tion tours. The Canadian Car and Foundry plant at Longue 
Pointe was visited to see the making of shell forgings by 
the new methods, followed by an inspection of the tank 
arsenal at the Montreal Locomotive Works adjacent to the 
forging plant. This was a greatly appreciated privilege, and 
the number requesting tickets exceeded the quantity that 
could be handled. Many persons were disappointed, but 
only the first three hundred to register could be accommo- 
dated, and admission was limited to members. 

Transportation by bus was excellently arranged right 
from the hotel to the plants — a convenience much appre- 
ciated by out-of-town members and local members as well. 

Social Centre 

The feature inaugurated last year at Hamilton and 
known there as "Muriel's Room" was repeated this year at 
Montreal. Such a centre conveniently located and satis- 
factorily "equipped" makes it possible for members and 
guests to meet socially under the most favourable circum- 
stances. It helps to keep the crowd together and to promote 
that spirit of friendliness and cordiality that means so much 
to the success of a meeting. 

As a tribute to the Hamilton Branch, the Montreal com- 
mittee used the same title as was developed at last year's 
meeting. Incidentally, the Hamilton room was formally 
known as the Mural Room. A slip of the tongue suddenly 
transformed it into "Muriel's Room." Perhaps it will now 
become a tradition — certainly it has much to recommend it. 

All in all, the meeting was outstanding from every point 
of view. About eleven hundred were registered. It may not 
be possible to maintain or repeat such records in the future, 
but it is a source of great pleasure and gratification to know 
that they have been reached and experienced in this year 
of grace 1942. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



163 



4bove: Dean C. R. Young talks with 
E. M. Proctor In the background, 
W. L. McFaul of Hamilton. 



Right, left to right: A. B. Parsons, 
secretary of the American Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgical Engin- 
eers and Professor W. G. McBride, 
president of the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgy and reci- 
pient of the Julian C. Smith medal. 




Above: A. II. Hannaford, secretary- 
treasurer of the Hamilton Branch, 
Georges Burdett and Léon Duchastel, 
secretary-treasurer of the Montreal 
Branch. 



Above: The Lihrary exhibit, a portion of the display of 
historic documents, pictures and books. R. F. Legget 
facing the camera. 



Below: In Muriel's room. Right to left: 
E. P. Muntz, N. S. Braden of Hamilton 
and J. Morse in the background. 



Above: J. G. Hall and Fraser S. Keith. 



Above: J. F. Brett, J. A. McCrory and G. R. McLeod. 



fHE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



165 



SAID AT THE BANQUET 

SHORT SPEECHES OF PARTICULAR INTEREST 



Greetings from American Guests 

Ernest D. Black 
President 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

It is my privilege and honour on this occasion to bear 
greetings from the American Society of Civil Engineers to 
The Engineering Institute of Canada, and to assure you 
that at this time our close neighbourly and professional 
ties, prevailing in times of peace, are strengthened and 
made more binding at this time because of our united 
stand in the war against a common enemy. 

Ten days ago, the chief of the United States Corps of 
Engineers in addressing the District of Columbia section 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers declared that 
this is an engineers' war, that for a long time to come there 
will be no engineering as usual in this country, and that 
the demands of the war effort have taken and must con- 
tinue to take precedence over everything else. 

In spite of the necessary readjustments in the personal 
work and plans of the engineer in order to meet the changed 
conditions while they are on the "no engineering as usual" 
basis, there can be no doubt that the engineers of Canada 
and the United States will meet the war situation at least 
as effectively as it has been met by the engineers of the 
other united nations. 

The engineer has and accepts a responsibility outside of 
his usual activity, and that is to do his part in helping to 
determine the route the nations of the world must follow 
in order to return all peoples to the lasting peace we must 
eventually secure. In accomplishing this as we look forward 
into a somewhat obscure future, we should not forget the 
laborious conditions of the past. We should give them new 
considerations, and keep alive the experiences on which our 
country has been so firmly built. 

We have every reason to believe in the ultimate success 
of our course if we can combine and continue the endeavours 
of the united engineers of the nations, for the purpose of 
winning this war against civilization, and it will help us to 
accomplish this end if we remember that this is an en- 
gineers' war. 

Dr. Eugene McAuliffe 
President 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGICAL 
ENGINEERS 

I want to bring you the greetings of the American Insti- 
tute of Mining and Metallurgy, including our students, some 
15,500 strong. It is a far-flung body covering a wide range 
of territory, for we have members on every continent and in 
practically all of the islands of the Seven Seas. Many are 
in Canada. 

For me it is a special pleasure to be here, for I was born 
under the Union Jack, and as a child lived in Canada. 
Unfortunately my visits have not been frequent, perhaps 
about four times in seventy years, but whenever I do come 
back here it is refreshing to meet people of my blood and 
my faith. It is a great privilege to be here tonight. 

James W. Parker 

President 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

When I had the honour of speaking at the luncheon todayj 
I felt a little on my dignity in representing The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. I brought that society's 



166 



greetings and ask you to consider that they have been 
repeated. The friendship of The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers for this sister institution in Canada 
is of long standing, and is a very firm and cordial 
relation. 

But this evening I speak for myself. It seems impossible 
that in the short space of time in which I have been in 
Montreal I could be made to feel so perfectly at home. I 
often think that we need not be at all sentimental over the 
friendship between the people of the United States and the 
people of Canada. We are peoples of many common 
heritages. We look back to the same literature, the same 
historical past, the very beginnings of freedom — those 
things that you Canadians look back to with reverence, 
we look back to with reverence, too, because they are our 
heritage as well as yours. 

As for being friends with you, these facts make it very 
natural. I remember the comment of a newspaper editor 
on a news item on his desk which reported that a boy 
had stolen a dog. The editor said, "What an impossible 
statement. A boy doesn't steal a dog. The boy looks at 
the dog and the dog looks at the boy and they go off 
together." 

Well, Ladies and Gentlemen, our friendship with Canada 
is just about as easy as that. 

D. C. Prince 

President 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS 

I feel today like one of the children saying his part of 
"The House that Jack Built." For instance, Mr. Black had 
all his notes and went along as smoothly as could be. Then 
others come along, each having thought of the nicest things 
to say. Now, my turn comes and it is my pleasure as well as 
my privilege to echo the friendly sentiments that have been 
expressed. 

But I want to put in a few words for myself and my 
group. We are by these gatherings learning how to fight the 
war together; they give us valuable opportunities to learn 
how to work together, so we may combine effectively in 
fighting for peace afterwards. 



Dr. A. H. White 

President 

SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 

You will notice that the Society for the Promotion of 
Engineering Education does not have the title of 
"American" in front of it. I am really at home here, 
and not a foreigner, because the Canadian universities 
are members of that society as institutional members. 
Indeed most of the teachers in your engineering schools 
are also members of the Society for the Promotion of 
Engineering Education, so I can speak here as a host and 
welcome you. 

We have all been made to feel at home. We have had a 
wonderful time. For me there are special memories attach- 
ing to Montreal, because fifty-two years ago I was a freshman 
in McGill University. It is true that I only stayed there one 
year and I won't say anything about that. But it is a very 
great pleasure to learn about the wonderful work the 
Canadian universities are doing, and the achievements of 
their engineers. We are in fact all working together to 
make engineers better trained, not only for war but for the 
future. 

March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



S. D. KlRKPATRICK 

President 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 

I would like to take a minute or two to bring you greet- 
gs, not from one of the great founder societies, but from a 
3re foundling, that at the beginning of the century was 
st a baby left on the doorstep of the Engineering Societies 
ulding in New York. 

When that was discovered, some rather searching ques- 
>ns about its parentage were asked. Some there were who 
sisted the father was mechanical engineering. Others 
ought that perhaps electrical, or even civil engineering, 
is the father. Whether or not this strange Institute of 
îemical Engineering had been sired by mechanical 
gineering, we all knew it had been damned by chemistry. 

You see the infant was allowed to claim the proud name 
chemical engineering, but was not welcomed into the 
aer circles of engineering. Rather, it was sent back to 
e crowded tenements of modern chemistry. They put 
emical engineering in the attic or down in the basement, 
d it came to be known as industrial chemistry. 

It was not a bad boy, but was always getting into trouble 
)wing up things with its crazy experiments, so that a sigh 
relief went up when he enlisted in the first World War, 
listed for the duration. 

In four years the youngster helped his country to build a 
3at chemical industry that supplied munitions for 
nerica and the Allies, and when peace came made a 
table contribution to the health, happiness and security 
the nation. The basis was laid, too, for what some of us 
ink is an important branch of the engineering profession. 

In our country, in most of the educational institutions 
ad I think it is the same here in Canada), chemical 
gineering is second only to mechanical in enrolment. It 
ids all others in the graduate schools. In chemical engineer- 
; one graduate in six goes on for a Master's or a Doctor's 
gree, compared with one in ten in all branches of en- 
îeering. 

One of our distinguished members, the late Dr. Arthur B. 
ttle, a great and good friend of the Dominion, worked for 
e Canadian government on a survey of the resources of 
e Dominion, and he used to like to say that chemical 
gineering was in its energetic and elastic youth, with the 
3t chapter of the Book of Genesis yet to be written. 

Mr. Tyler and I have thoroughly enjoyed your meeting, 
d the duty of representing the American Institute of 
lemical Engineers has been a pleasure. 

So, on behalf of the little foundling, I want to express deep 
preciation for the honour and the courtesies we have 
reived at your hands. 

C. C. Knipmeyer 

President 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF STATE BOARDS OF ENGINEERING 
EXAMINERS 

Before coming to this meeting of The Engineering 
stitute I knew that I would meet with many fine en- 
leers and good neighbours. I expected to make some 
ends, but did not dream that such warmth of friendship 
)uld be showered on me. My feelings have been very 
eply stirred by your welcome and I shall be proud and 



happy to report this to each member of each board of the 
forty-six Boards of Engineering Registration in the United 
States regarding my reaction to things here. They, in turn, 
will pass the word to all of the seventy thousand registered 
engineers of the United States. 

Dean Mackenzie Introduces Dean Young 

I have come to my last duty as the outgoing president 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada. It is a great 
privilege to have the very pleasant task of inducting the 
new president, Dean C. R* Young. 

Dean Young needs no introduction to Canadian or 
American engineers. Crowning his long years of service as a 
leading Canadian educationalist he has recently been 
appointed dean of the largest engineering school in the 
British Empire. 

As a consulting engineer he has had long and extensive 
practical experience; the many structures he has designed 
and built are in themselves a lasting monument to his 
ability. As an author he has to his credit several books and 
innumerable papers and withal he has been one of the most 
industrious, competent and distinguished workers in 
Institute and public affairs that Canada has produced. 
The Institute is most fortunate in its new president. 

I hand over the reins of office to you, Dean Young, with 
every confidence that in the critical year of 1942 this 
Institute could not be in better hands. 



President Young Takes the Chair 

Anyone in my present situation would, I am sure, feel as 
I do, a very great satisfaction in having been entrusted with 
the presidency of The Engineering Institute of Canada for 
the coming year. I am particularly delighted to assume 
office in the presence of this great company and, in par- 
ticular, in the presence of Canada's greatest soldier, and 
of the leaders of engineering in the United States of 
America. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada has built up for 
itself in the last fifty-five years a magnificent tradition. 
Dean Mackenzie has been preceded by a long line of dis- 
tinguished engineers — by the Keefers, whose standing cor- 
responds to that of Telford and the Stephensons in Britain; 
by Sir Casimir Gzowski, whose name is commemorated in 
one of our prizes; by Sir John Kennedy ; by that fine French- 
speaking engineer, Ernest Marceau. 

These, and many other eminent men, have in their time 
contributed to the success and the honour of this Institute. 
It is my hope that I may in my term of office be able to 
contribute some little measure of addition to that success. 

This year we have assuming office a Council which I 
think will fully maintain the reputation of the Councils 
that have been responsible for the affairs of the Institute in 
past years. As is the custom, a number of new members of 
Council are elected each year. I shall therefore call upon 
the newly-elected members, and ask them to rise so that 
the audience may see them in the flesh . . . 

Now I am going to ask you to conclude the banquet by 
the singing of that song that means so much in this part of 
Canada — "O Canada." And I am going to ask our French- 
speaking engineers to respond particularly, as they are most 
capable of doing. Please show our visiting friends from the 
United States how the French-speaking engineers sing 
"O Canada." 



HE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



167 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



UNDERGROUND PARKING AIDS TRAFFIC 
HANDLING IN BUENOS AIRES 

By F. A. Zamboni, City Engineer, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

From Engineering News-Record, October 23, 1941 

Three years ago the first two municipal underground 
parking lots in a programme contemplating a total of 
eight such traffic relief facilities were placed in service in 
Buenos Aires. These two initial units, with a capacity of 
756 cars, have proved a distinct aid in relieving traffic 
congestion, and their operation, which includes a mechan- 
ical ventilation system, has shown that such facilities can 
be made self-liquidating through a small parking fee 
(about 15 cents) and rents from sales rooms, repair shops 
and poster advertising. Because the results have been so 
satisfactory it is hoped that the entire programme, pro- 
viding accommodations for 6,770 cars, can now be com- 
pleted. 

The first two subterranean parking garages were built 
in connection with the widening of the Avenida Nueve de 
Julio for which a strip of old buildings a block wide and 
five blocks long was removed; eventually it is planned to 
extend this tree-lined boulevard completely across the 
city, but the expense will be large since the work so far 
completed, including the underground parking garages, 
cost over $6,000,000. (U.S.). 

The commercial area of Buenos Aires, where traffic 
congestion is greatest, is located on the rim of the city, 
rather than near the geographical centre, as is the case 
in many cities. Subway lines radiate in three directions 
from this commercial area, and it is on these lines near 
the limits of this area where the remainder of the parking 
facilities are to be built. The two existing parking gar- 
ages, however, are almost in the centre of the commercial 
area. 

Two parking garages are already built. Both are 200' 
wide. One is 800' long, the other 400'. Ramps, each made 
up of three 11' lanes, give access to the garages on either 
side; experience in operation has indicated that two lanes 
would have given ample capacity. The garage structure 
is of reinforced concrete, columns with flaring capitals 
carrying 18" deep flat slab panels 20' x 25' in plan. The 
ceiling height in the garages is 15'. Although these gar- 
ages are all on one level, several of two-story type are 
planned for the future programme. 

U.S. CONCRETE BARGE PROGRAM 

From Engineering News-Record, October 23, 1941 

The U. S. Maritime Commission has decided to start 
its program of building concrete barges somewhat more 
conservatively than originally intended by limiting the 
initial construction to fifteen barges — the east, west and 
gulf coasts to build five each. The commission has de- 
veloped two alternative types of contract to be used, one 
a modified form of fee contract, while the other is a lump- 
sum contract incorporating an escallator clause. Contrac- 
tors will be offered their choice between the two forms. 

The " cost-plus-a-variable-fee " contract is designed to 
give the contractor the protection of a cost-plus contract, 
but at the same time to offer him an incentive to hold the 
costs down. Under this contract an estimated unit cost 
per vessel is set up. This cost is broken down into esti- 
mated monthly payments, divided between labor and 
material expenditures. Monthly, thereafter, the estimated 
cost will be adjusted according to the fluctuation of the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics index of hourly earnings in 



168 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



durable goods manufacturing industries and the bureau's 
index of wholesale metal prices. 

As the work progresses, the contractor will be paid his 
actual costs, including overhead " incident and necessary " 
to the job. At the completion of each vessel he will receive 
a fee of 15 per cent of the adjusted estimated cost. If the 
actual cost plus the fee is greater than the adjusted esti- 
mated cost, that is that. If, however, the actual cost runs 
lower than the estimate, the contractor receives half of 
the savings. Total of cost savings allotted to the con- 
tractor plus bonuses or minus penalties is limited to seven 
per cent of the estimated cost. A time schedule will be 
written into the contracts. Liquidated damages of $50 
daily will be charged for failure to meet the schedule, and 
a like sum will be paid as a bonus if the schedule is ex- 
ceeded. 

The commission may cancel the contract upon payment 
to the contractor of his actually incurred costs plus ten 
per cent of the costs or six per cent of the estimated total 
cost times the percentage of completion achieved at the 
time of the contract's cancellation — whichever of these 
two quantities is smaller. 

The lump-sum form of contract provides for the estab- 
lishment of a unit price per vessel to be paid the contrac- 
tor. This price is to be adjusted for variations in ma- 
terial and labour costs in the same way as is the esti- 
mated cost figure in the variable-fee contract already 
described. Provision is made for liquidated damages, but 
there is no bonus for early completion. If the contract is 
cancelled by the commission, the contractor will be paid 
for work accomplished in terms of a percentage of the 
contract unit price and will also be paid any cancellation 
fees he has to pay to his suppliers and sub-contractors. 

The contractor's profit under the lump-sum contract is 
limited to ten per cent of the contract price, and any ex- 
cess must be turned back to the commission. 

ADAPTION OF MOTOR DESIGN 
TO CEMENT MAKING 

Robert Williamson* 

Cement is a dry, fine powder. It follows that dust i 
present in the cement works. Motors used in its manu- 
facture must be capable of 100 per cent efficiency in dust- 
laden atmosphere. Motors of the standard protected type, 
with self-ventilation by means of a fan, are adequate in 
dry air but in wet air motors of the totally enclosed, fan 
cooled type must be used. Nevertheless, with well built 
works, most drives can be entrusted to standard protected 
type motors. 

Torque determines the type of motor, the highest starting 
torque being necessary where considerable out-of-balance 
load has to be overcome and an appreciable mass acceler- 
ated. 

Other types of drive, where the mass to be accelerated 
is large, even without excessive friction, also demand a 
slipring motor. 

In large installations, power factor improvement is im- 
portant. This can be effected by synchronous induction 
motors for driving one or more of the larger machines. 
These give a high starting torque, and can be arranged to 
run at a loading power factor compensating for the lagging 
current taken by other units. 



London Correspondent of The Engineering Journal. 






March, 1942 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



In one Works, current is taken from 10,000-volt three- 
hase 50-cycle mains, and stepped down to 440 volts in 
ubstations at the main works and the quarry. The quarry 
ubstation gives a separate supply for a wash mill plan, 
hie 440-volt circuits being controlled by two G.E.C. in- 
ustrial pedestal switchboards. One board controls feeders 
o a chalk excavator and wash mill and to a wet tube mill 
nth its auxiliaries, while the other controls various motor 



rives. 



Wash Mills 



Raw material for cement is obtained from "low" and 
high" quarries, the first being low carbonate materials, 
be second, high carbonate materials. These are dug by 
ncket type electric excavators and conveyed in one yard 
ragons by diesel locomotives to the washing plant. 

Chalk from the "low" quarry is reduced to 4-5 in. lumps 
nd fed into the first wash mill to form "slurry" which is 
Dreed through gratings into a sump, and pumped to storage 
anks or to the second wash mill where high carbonate 
laterial is added. Material put into storage from No. 1 
rash mill is used as a standby when No. 1 is not working. 

Electrical equipment in this section comprises a 150-hp- 
•60-rpm. 440-volt G.E.C. synchronous induction motor 
with liquid starter and oil circuit breaker). 

Slurry 

The slurry from No. 1 wash mill, and chalk from the 
'high" quarry, after passing a roller mill, are next mixed 
a No. 2 wash mill, which has screens. The product of this 
aill is screened and then passes by gravity to a wet tube 
trill. 

The slurry is then pumped to the storage tanks, which 
re air-agitated by compressed air at 30 lb. per sq. in. 
•ressure by a rotary compressor direct coupled to a 50 hp. 
lipring induction motor. The storage tanks have a capacity 
if 16,000 cu. ft. 

The Kiln 

The slurry is pumped from the storage tanks into a small 
nixer agitated by a 10-hp. squirrel cage motor and thence it 
3 passed by a three throw ram pump through worm and 
pur gearing, into a calcinator feeding into the kiln. 

The 500-ton kiln is a rotary and consists of a steel tube 
ined with firebrick and fitted with four cast steel tires 
unning on pairs of rollers. The speed is from 1 rev. in 
6 seconds (minimum) to 1 rev. in 55 seconds (maximum). 
?he kiln is driven by a single 85-hp., 440-volt, 3-phase, 
i0 cycles, variable speed slipring induction motor through 
riple reduction spur gearing. 

The slurry travels slowly down the whole length of the 
iln to the "clinkering" zone, being successively dried, cal- 
ined, and sintered as the temperature increases from about 
>0 at entry to about 2,700 deg. F. at the furnace end. Here 
he clinker is discharged on to a grate cooler. It is next 
aken by a shaker conveyor and elevator to the coal and 
linker store. 

Grinding 

Next comes the grinding of the clinker (plus gypsum) 
a the clinker mill house. Preliminary grinding is carried 
tut in two rod mills, driven through gearing from line 
hafting. The discharges from the rod mills are passed to 
, large tube mill, driven through gearing by a 400-hp. 
5.E.C. synchronous induction motor for further grinding. 

Packing 

The cement is now in its final form and is discharged to 
i pneumatic conveying system and is taken to storage bins. 

The pneumatic conveying systems are supplied with air 
)y three reciprocating compressors driven by slipring 
notors, two of 45 hp. and one of 70 hp. 

Valve type bag packers fill the cement bags at the rate 
>f 35/50 tons per hour. 



Coal Handling Plant 

On arrival the coal is discharged into a receiving hopper, 
from which it is fed to a vertical elevator leading to a 
band conveyor, which takes it to the coal and clinker store. 
From storage it is taken via a magnetic separator and 
elevators to hoppers leading to an air-swept ball mill, which 
is gear driven by a 75-hp. slipring motor. 

In the coal and clinker store — 400 ft. long by 60 ft. 
wide — wet and dry coal is distributed and the clinker han- 
dled by a 5-ton overhead crane fitted with three slipring 
motors, 25 hp. for hoisting, 12 hp. for longitudinal travel- 
ling, and 43^2 hp. for cross travel. 

The works fitting shop contains a shaping machine, drill, 
screwing machine, saw, two lathes and two grinders, all of 
which are driven from line shafting by a 20-hp. motor. 

Motors and Control Gear 
With the exception of the large synchronous induction 
motors on the chalk mill and the clinker tube and the 
kiln motor, all the motors mentioned are standard 440-volt 
G.E.C. "Witton" induction machines of the protected type 
running at about 720 or 960 rpm. 

SIXTY YEARS AGO 

Submarine Artillery 
From The Engineer (London), November 21, 1941 
On November 14th, 1881, a public trial of Ericsson's 
torpedo boat, the Destroyer took place at New York. The 
trials were reported to have been in every way successful. 
The Destroyer was an armour-clad torpedo boat, 130' 
long, 11' deep and 12' wide. She had engines of about 
1,000 I.H.P. and her speed was said to be 16 knots. Her 
novel feature lay in the fact that she carried a long tube 
on her keelson, the muzzle of which was 6' below water. 
From this tube there could be discharged elongated pro- 
jectiles carrying as much as 350 lb. of dynamite. The 
projectiles were stated to be made of wood and they were 
propelled out of the submarine gun by steam pressure. 
Reports received from New York stated that during the 
trials a projectile carrying a charge of 12 lb. of powder 
had travelled 600' under water and had penetrated a tor- 
pedo net and a target representing the bottom of an iron- 
clad. In a leading article in our issue of November 18th, 
1881, we sought to show that Ericsson's invention had 
been anticipated in principle by Robert Fulton, who in 
1813 carried out experiments to discover what could be 
done with guns fired under water. He found that a ball 
fired with 12 lb. of powder from a " columbiad " with its 
muzzle 2' under water passed clean through a target 3' 
thick placed 6' from the muzzle of the gun. Following 
his experiments Fulton designed a ship fitted to discharge 
a broadside of submarine ordnance, but nothing further 
seems to have been done with the idea until 1857, when 
Whitworth made some experiments on submarine artillery. 
In one experiment carried out at Portsmouth, Whitworth 
used a 110 lb. Armstrong gun, which was fixed on a plat- 
form below high-water mark, loaded when the tide was 
out and fired when the tide was in. With a charge of 12 
lb. of powder this gun sent its projectile clean through 
a 13y 2 " baulk at a range of 25'. In 1862 Whitworth ex- 
tended his experiments by firing underwater shots' against 
the side of a wooden hulk protected by six %" boiler 
plates. With a conical shot the hulk's side was destroyed 
over a considerable area. In the same year Forbes, an 
American, carried out a number of similar experiments 
and entered into a contract with the United States Gov- 
ernment to construct a partially armoured gunboat carry- 
ing a submarine gun. The contract, however, was not 
carried out. Concluding, we referred to some experiments 
then being made by our own Government, in which a light 
iron case resembling a fish torpedo in shape was propelled 
through the water by the discharge of gas at its tail after 
the manner of a rocket. 



fHE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1942 



169 



MORALE 

Editorial from Army Ordnance, Nov.-Dec., 1941 

The popular morale of the nation — as distinguished 
from the military — is its collective mental state affected 
by such factors as zeal, confidence, spirit, and hope. Our 
popular morale as regards the all-out effort for arms pro- 
duction is not as high as it should be. Yet, unless that 
morale is of the highest, the armament production job 
will fail. We had better diagnose the malady quickly 
and adopt a remedy at once. For as popular morale goes, 
so goes everything else — the fighting forces as well as the 
human machinery of arm