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Full text of "Engineering Journal 1943"

THE 
ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VOLUME 26 



JANUARY-DECEMBER, 1943 



[-1 - 



LIBRARY - 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET 
MONTREAL, QUE. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXVI 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1943 



Page 
Abstracts of Current Literature. .25, 88, 142, 211, 349, 415 

467, 519, 577, 627, 683 
Agreement between the Association of Professional Engineers 

of Manitoba and the Institute 535 

Air Transportation, J. A. Wilson 264 

Aircraft, Development of Post-War, James T. Bain 606 

Aircraft Manufacture, Ralph P. Bell 277 

Alaska Military Highway, Brigadier-General C. L. Sturdevant 117 

Correspondence 425 

Alternative Fuels for Motor Vehicles, W. A. Lang 449 

Discussion .. ' 454 

ASME-EIC Joint Meeting in Toronto 355, 422 

Tentative Programme 475 

Programme 528 

Report of Meeting 587 

Annual General and Professional Meeting. Fifty-Seventh, 

Programme 28 

Report of Meeting 136 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-Eighth 423, 687 

Appley, Lawrence A., Manpower Utilization in the United 

States 678 

Arc Welding, Electric, W. R. Stickney 62 

Arch Ties Heated to Reduce Secondary Bending Stresses, 

Frank E. Sterns 337 

Armstrong, J. E., Railway Transportation 260 

Army Regulations for Selection, Training and Rank of Tech- 
nical Personnel 470 

Association of Professional Engineers of Alberta 231 

Association of Professional Engineers of Manitoba 535 

Association of Professional Engineers of New Brunswick. ... 231 

Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 104 

Association of Professional Engineers and The Engineering 

Institute of Canada 568 

Australian War Production, E. R. Jacobsen 408 

Automotive Industry, T. R. Elliott 275 

Bailey, E. G., Steam Generation for Marine and Stationary 

Service in the United States. 1939-1943 673 

Bain, James T., Development of Post-War Aircraft 606 

Batt, William Loren, Hon. M.E.I.C 581 

Bell, Ralph P., Aircraft Manufacture 277 

Book Reviews 379, 434, 484 

Branches, Membership and Financial Statements of 82 

Branches, News of — 

Border Cities 41, 102, 168, 317, 369, 432. 595 

Calgary 168, 317, 480, 643 

Cape Breton 373 

Edmonton 369, 480, 700 

Halifax 41, 169, 226, 317, 370, 644 

Hamilton 102, 226, 317, 371. 644, 700 

Kingston 41, 102, 228, 701 

Lakehead 371, 645, 702 

Lethbridge 645 

London 42, 645 

, Moncton 42, 371, 432 

Montreal 42, 169, 227, 372, 596, 646, 703 

Niagara Peninsula 44, 171, 318, 480 

Ottawa 44, 103, 171, 228, 318, 433. 646 

Peterborough 44, 103, 172, 230, 319, 373, 433, 481, 704 

Quebec 46, 482, 647 

Saguenay 172, 319, 482, 596 

Saint John 103, 229, 374 

St. Maurice Valley 174, 229, 483 

Saskatchewan 104, 173, 230, 375. 648. 704 

Sault Ste. Marie 46, 104, 173, 230, 320, 376, 433, 706 

Toronto 47, 174, 230, 320, 376, 649 

Vancouver 175, 320. 376, 649, 706 

Victoria 707 

Winnipeg 708 

Cabinet Committee on Reconstruction 31, 186 

Cameron, J. C, Trends in Industrial Relations 671 

Cameron, Kenneth Mackenzie, Biography 149 

Campbell, M. R., A Quarter Century of Steel Production at 

Sydney 455 

Camsell, Dr. Charles, Mineral Industries 268 

Canada and the Tools of War. C. D. Howe 246 



C.N.R. Terminal Development Project in Montreal 

Canadian Surveys and Maps in Peace and War, F. H. Peters . . 

Canada's War Production, H. J. Carmichael 

Carmichael, H. J., Canada's War Production 

Carrière, Major J. P., Engineer Training in Canada 

Chabot, Arthur J., Painting Underwater Steel 

Chemical Industry, H. McLeod 

Civic Morals of Science, Clement C. Williams 

Cline, C. G., Preservation of Niagara Falls — Hydraulic Aspects 

of the Remedial Weir 

Cochrane, H. G., Post-War Pattern 

Discussion 197 

Cochrane, H. G., Victory now would find us unprepared for 



peace . 



Page 
411 
556 
609 
609 
18 
341 
270 
515 

394 
187 
336 

530 
Coes, Harold V., The Engineers' Contribution to the War 

Effort in the U.S.A 148 

Collective Bargaining for the Engineer 354, 633 

Committee on Reconstruction, Dominion Government 31, 186 

Committee on the Investigation of Long-Span Suspension 

Bridges 

Compulsory Labour Legislation and the Engineer 

Concrete Mixes, Notes on the Design of, S. D. Lash and J. 

Douglas Lee 

Conservation of Resources, The Continuing Need for the, 

Howard Coonley 

Conserving Welding Electrodes, G. R. Langley 

Construction in our National Economy, The Position of 

Manufacturing and, G. R. Langley 

Construction Industry in Post-War Economy, O. J. Firestone 
Coonley, Howard, The Continuing Need for the Conservation 

of Resources 

Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec 

Correspondence 33, 218, 307, 360, 425, 474, 530, 637 

Cotton Yarn Dyeing, Robert J. G. Sehofield 

Coventry, Professor A. F., Soil and Water Conservation 

Cross, J. G., Iron Ore Occurrences in the Lake Superior Dis- 
trict 



215 
354 

444 

616 
10 

513 
191 

616 
232 
691 
457 
194 



20 



Darwin, C. G., The Statistical Control of Quality 11 

Days Ahead, The, Dean C. R. Young 115 

DeCew Falls Development, Otto Holden 548 

de Jong, S. H., A Simple Direct Method of Deriving Stirrup 

Spacings in Reinforced Concrete Beams 343 

Desbarats, Georges J., receives honorary degree 150 

Devorss, J. W., Vibration Absorption with Structural Rubber. 509 

Discussions — 

Proceedings of the Session of the Institute Committee on 

Industrial Relations held at the Annual Meeting 133 

Proceedings of the Session of the Institute Committee on 

Post-War Problems held at the Annual Meeting 186, 336 

Fishway Problems on Quebec Rivers, Percy E. Nobbs .... 207 

The Training and Education of Engineers, S. D. Lash .... 360 

The Statistical Control of Quality 401 

Alternative Fuels for Motor Vehicles, W. A. Lang 454 

Dubue, A. E., receives honorary degree 151 

Duperron, A.. Urban Transportation 262 

Durland, I). ('., Electrical Equipment 288 

D wight, T. W., The Use of Statistical Methods in Forestry. . 400 

Discussion 401 

East, L. A. W., Telegraph Communications 251 

Education of Engineers, The Training and, S. D. Lash 199 

Elections and Transfers. .36, 96, 163, 221, 311, 363, 428, 534, 

586. 639, 695 

Electric Arc Welding, W. R. Stickney 62 

Electrical Equipment, D. C. Durland 288 

Electrodes, Conserving Welding, G. R. Langley 10 

Elliott, T. R., Automotive Industry 275 

Employee Relations, A Scientific Approach to the Problem of, 

Morris S. Viteles 126 

Discussion 133 

Engineer as Planner, Ralph E. Flanders 625 

Engineer in the ( ivil Service, Institute Committee on the. . . . 145, 580 

Engineer Training in Canada, Major J. P. Carrière 18 

Engineering Features of Civil Defence, Institute Committee. .306, 355 
Engineering Institute of Canada and the Provincial Associa- 
tions of Professional Engineers 568 



II 



December. 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Page 

Engineering Renaissance, Fraser S. Keith 303 

Engineers' Contribution to the War Effort in the U.S.A., 

Harold V. Coes 148 

Engineers' Council for Professional Development Committee 

on Professional Training 215, 582 

Annual Meeting 633 

Engineers in Ordnance : . 524 

Engineers in the Services 18, 214, 470, 471, 524, 531 

Engineers in the Construction Industry, J. B. Stirling 293 

Engineers' Wives Associations 635 

Evolution of a 1300-Ton Press, R. H. Ferguson 622 

Fabrication of Laminated Timber Members, Verne Ketchum. 
Fairfield, H. H., Statistical Analysis of Inspection Results. . . 

Farm Electrification in Manitoba 

Ferguson, R. H., Evolution of a 1300-Ton Press 

Financial Statements — 



Of the Institute •. 

Of the Branches 

Firestone, O. J., The Construction Industry in Post-War 

Economy 

Fishway Problems on Quebec Rivers, Percy E. Nobbs 

Discussion 

Flanders, Ralph E., The Engineer as Planner 

Forestry Problems in Reconstruction, John C. W. Irwin 

Forestry, The Use of Statistical Methods in, T. W. Dwight. . . 

Discussion 

Gifts to the Institute 

Gill, Sir Frank, Popular Exposition of the Application of 
Quality Control 

Glacial Drift for an Earth Dam near Fergus, Ont., An Engi- 
neering Study of, Robert F. Legget 

Gliddon, Claude, Painting Underwater Steel 

Gohier, Ernest, Highways 

Goodspeed, F. G., Public Works 

Hall, J. G., Steam Power 

Handling Large Capacity Transformers, Herbert L. Wagner. 

Heating of Dwellings, Huet Massue 

Hertzberg, Major-General C. S. L., Military Engineering. . . . 

Highways, Ernest Gohier 

Hogg, Dr. T. H., Ottawa River Power Sites Agreement 

Holden, Otto, DeCéw Falls Development 

Howe, C. D., Canada and the Tools of War 



Imperial Army, R.E.M.E 

In Retrospect 

Industrial Relations Executive in Company Management, 

The Role of the, Bryce M. Stewart 

Discussion 

Industrial Relations, Institute Committee on 

Industrial Relations, Trends in, J. C. Cameron 

Inspection Results, Statistical Analysis of, H. H. Fairfield. . . 
Institute Committee on Engineering Features of Civil Defence. 

Institute Committee on Industrial Relations 

Institute Committee on Post-War Problems 

Institute Committee on the Engineer in the Civil Service . . 

Institute Prize Winners, Biographies 

Institution of Electrical Engineers 

Iron Ore Occurrences in the Lake Superior District, J. G. Cross 
Irwin, John C. W., Forestry Probliems n Reconstruction. . . . 



58 
492 
347 
622 

72 
82 

191 
202 
207 
625 
195 
400 
401 

525 

13 

502 
341 
296 
291 

281 
210 
404 
244 
296 
334 
548 
246 

147 
298 

122 

133 

92, 122 

671 

492 

306, 355 

92, 122 

186 

144, 580 

157 

94 

20 

195 

408 



Jacobsen, E. R., Australian War Production 

Jacobsen, E. R., Letters from Washington. .33, 95, 306, 356, 

472, 527, 583, 636, 690 
Jamieson, William, Design and Construction of Scanlon Dam, 

B.C 4 

James Committee . . .• 31, 1£6 

James Watt International Medal 216 

Joint Meeting ASME-EIC 355, 422 

Tentative Programme 475 

Programme 528 

Report of Meeting 587 

Keith. Fraser S., An Engineering Renaissance 3C3 

Kellogg, Paul, Pulp and Paper 272 

Kennedy, William, Jr., Biography 93 

Ketchum, Verne, Fabrication of Laminated Timber Members 58 

Killikelly, Desmond, Steel 279 

Laidlaw, Robert Everett, Appointed to the Bench 217 

Laminated Timber Members, Fabrication of, Verne Ketchum 58 

Lang, W. A., Alternative Fuels for Motor Vehicles 449 

Discussion 454 

Langley, G. R., Conserving Welding Electrodes 10 

Langley, G. R., The Position of Manufacturing and Construc- 
tion in our National Economy 513 

Lash, S. D., Notes on the Design of Concrete Mixes 444 

Lash. S. D., The Training and Education of Engineers 199 

Discussion 360 

LeClair, W. J., Lumber Industry 294 



Page 
444 
334 

502 

708 
294 

248 



Lee, J. Douglas, Notes on the Design of Concrete Mixes. . . . 
Lefebvre, Dr. O. O., Ottawa River Power Sites Agreement. . 
Legget, Robert F., An Engineering Study of Glacial Drift for 

an Earth Dam near Fergus, Ont 

Library Notes. . . .48, 105, 176, 233, 322, 378, 434, 486, 539, 597, 

650 
Lumber Industry, W. J. LeClair 

Mackenzie, C. J., National Scientific Research 

Mackintosh, W. A., International Aspects of Post-War 

Problems 676 

MacMorland, Brig.-Gen. E. E., Weapon Maintenance in 

Battle 620 

Manitoba Electrification Enquiry Commission, Summary of 

Findings and Recommendations 347 

Manpower Utilization in the United States, Lawrence A. 

Appley 678 

Manufacture and Construction in our National Economy, 

The Position of, G. R. Langley 513 

Maps in Peace and in War, Canadian Surveys and, F. H. 

Peters 556 

Marr, Norman, Preservation of Niagara Falls, The Problem 

in General 390 

Massue, Huet, Heating of Dwellings 404 

Maxwell, Colonel R. B., Royal Electrical and Mechanical 

Engineers 464 

Mclntyre, R. B., Some Design Features of the Mosquito 

Aeroplane 658 

McLeod, H., Chemical Industry 270 

McNaughton, A. G. L., Hon. Mem. A.S.M.E 582 

Meek, Victor, Water Power Development 284 

Meetings of Council. .35, 95, 159, 218, 308, 361, 426, 532, 584, 638, 693 



Membership of Branches . 

Message from the President, K. M. Cameron 

Metallizing in Maintenance Work, R. S. Tuer 

Military Engineering, Major-General C. S. L. Hertzberg. . . .■ 

Mineral Industries, Dr. Charles Camsell 

Morrison, Carson F., Modern Timber Engineering 

Mosquito Aeroplane, Some Design Features of the, R. B. 
Mclntyre 

National Construction Council 

National Research Council Serves War Departments 

National Scientific Research, C. J. Mackenzie 

National Selective Service 

Newly Elected Officers of the Institute, Biographies 

News of Other Societies 104, 176, 231, 

Niagara Falls, Preservation of, Norman Marr and C. G. Cline 

Nobbs, Percy E., Fishway Problems on Quebec Rivers 

Discussion 

Obituaries — 

Adams, Dr. Frank Dawson 

Aggiman, Jacques Nessim 

Allison, John Logie 

Archibald, Ernest M 

Baker, James Davidson 

Buckley, Rex Elmer 

Burnett, Francis Charles Edward 

Campbell, G. J. William 

Clark, George Silas . . . . , 

Colhoun, George Andrews 

Condon, Frederick Oxley 

Cornish, Wilfred Ernest 

Crowley, Charles James 

Farquharson, Stanley 

Fetterly, Philip Austin 

Flahault, Jean 

Harkness, Dr. A. H 

Harrington, Conrad Dawson 

Harrington, John Lyle 

Hole, John 

Howse, George Wesley 

Jackson, John Herbert 

Kennedy, William 

Kugel, Emil 

Lamer, Chester Waters 

Libby, Philip N 

Livingstone, Robert 

MacKinnon, John George . . . 

Main, Daniel Todd 

Matheson, Arthur John 

McBride, W. G 

Nicholscn, John B 

Nowlan, Brete Cassius 

Ord, Lewis Redman 

Pacy, Ernest Harold 

P:iine, Nathan Deane 

Pollev, Edward Victor 

Shanly, James 

Souba, Will'am Henry 

Stead, Geoffrey 



82 
113 
345 
244 
268 
560 

658 

357 
61 
248 
30 
152 
596 
390 
202 
207 

40 

99 
225 

99 
478 

40 
166 
316 
478 
593 
166 
699 
368 
699 
478 
593 
167 
100 
225 
478 
479 

40 
167 
594 
225 
700 
368 

40 
594 
479 
539 
594 
594 
368 
479 
225 
431 
100 

41 
642 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1943 



III 



Obituaries — Continued 

Stockett, Lewis 

Sutherland, Alexander 

Symes, Cyril Barron 

Taylor, Charles 

Walton, Frederick Stanley 

Wilson, LeRoy Z 

Wingfield, Harold Ernest 

Officers of the Institute, Newly Elected, Biographies 

Olive, Gordon W., Radio Communications 

Ottawa River Power Sites Agreement 

Our Stake in the Peace, William E. Wickenden 

Owen, H. G., Telephone Communications 



Page 

100 
431 
369 
100 
41 
643 
101 
152 
255 
334 
460 
253 



Claude Gliddon and Arthur J. 



Painting Underwater Steel 

Chabot 341 

Parker, James W., The Spirit of a People 23 

Personals 38, 97, 164, 222, 313, 364, 429, 476, 537, 691, 640, 697 

Peters, F. H., Canadian Surveys and Maps in Peace and War . 556 

Post- War Aircraft, Development of, James T. Bain 606 

Post-War Pattern, H. G. Cochrane 187 

Discussion 197, 336 

Post-War Problems, Institute Committee on 186 

Post-War Problems, International Aspects of , W. A. Mackintosh 676 
Post-War Reconstruction 186 

Discussion 197, 336, 474 

Preliminary Notice. .51, 109, 177, 236, 325, 381, 438, 487, 542, 

600. 652, 710 
Preservation of Niagara Falls, Norman Marr and C. G. Cline 390 

President's Visit to Quebec Branches 363, 422 

President's Visit to the Maritimes 214, 304 

President's Visit to the West 525, 632 

Prize Awards, 1943 424 

Production Paces the War, Charles E. Wilson 613 

Professional Personnel in the Services, The Status of. . 214, 

470, 471, 524, 531 
Provincial Associations of Professional Engineers and The 

Engineering Institute of Canada 568 

Public Works, F. G. Goodspeed. 291 

Pulp and Paper, E. Howard Smith and Paul Kellogg 272 

Quality Control, Popular Exposition of the Application of, 

Sir Frank Gill 13 

Radio Communications, Gordon W. Olive 255 

Railway Transportation, J. E. Armstrong 260 

Recent Graduates in Engineering 424 

Reconstruction, Cabinet Committee on 31, 186 

Remedial Dams, St. Lawrence River Control and Remedial 

Dams — Soulanges Section, M. V. Sauer 661 

Remuneration of Engineers in Government Service 145, 580 

Report of Council for the Year 1942 67 

Reports from Branches 78 

Role of the Industrial Relations Executive in Company 

Management, Bryce M. Stewart 122 

Discussion 1 33 

Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. . 147, 358, 418, 524, 531 
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Colonel R. B. 

Maxwell 464 

St. Lawrence River Control and Remedial Dams — Soulanges 

Section, M. V. Sauer 661 

Sauer, M. W., St. Lawrence River Control and Remedial 

Dams — Soulanges Section 661 

Scanlon Dam, B.C., Design and Construction of, William 

Jamieson 4 

Schofield, Robert J. G., Cotton Yarn Dyeing 457 

Scientific Approach to the Problem of Emplovee Relations, 

Morris S. Viteles 126 

Discussion 133 

Simple Direct Method of Deriving Stirrup Spacings in Rein- 
forced Concrete Beams, S. H. de Jong 343 

Smith, E. Howard, Pulp and Paper 272 



Page 

Soil and Water Conservation, Professor A. F. Coventry 194 

Spirit of a People, James W. Parker 23 

Statistical Analysis of Inspection Results, H. H. Fairfield. . 492 

Statistical Control of Qualitv, C. G. Darwin 11 

Statistical Control of Quality, H. H. Vroom and T. W. Dwight. 398 

Discussion 401 

Statistical Inspection in the Telephone Industry, Application 

of, H. H. Vroom 398 

Discussion 401 

Statistical Methods in Forestry, The Use of, T. W. Dwight ... 400 

Discussion 401 

Steam Generation for Marine and Stationary Service in the 

United States, 1939-1943, E. G. Bailey 673 

Steam Power, J. G. Hall 281 

Steel, Desmond Killikelly 279 

Steel Production at Sydney, A Quarter Century of, M. R. 

Campbell 455 

Sterns, Frank E., Transit Shed with Concrete Roof Arches. . . 337 
Stewart, Bryce M., The Role of the Industrial Relations 

Executive in Company Management 122 

Discussion 133 

Stickney, W. R., Electric Arc Welding 62 

Stirling, J. B., Engineers in the Construction Industry 293 

Stirrup Spacings in Reinforced Concrete Beams, Simple 

Direct Method of Deriving. S. H. de Jong 343 

Sturdevant, Brig.-Gen. C. L.. The Alaska Highway 117 

Correspondence 425 

Suspension Bridges, Committee on the Investigation of Long- 
Span 215 

Telegraph Communications, L. A. W. East 251 

Telephone Communications, H. G. Owen 253 

Telephone Industry. Application of Statistical Inspection in 

the, H. H. Vroom 398 

Discussion 401 

1300-Ton Press, Evolution of a, R, H. Ferguson 622 

Timber Engineering, Modern, Carson F. Morrison 560 

Timber Members, Fabrication of Laminated, Verne Ketchum 58 

Toronto Joint Meeting of the ASME and the EIC 355, 422 

Training and Education of Engineers, S. D. Lash 199 

Discussion 360 

Transformers. Handling Large Capacity, Herbert L. Wagner. 210 

Transit Shed with Concrete Roof Arches, Frank E. Sterns. . . 337 

Tuer, R. S., Metallizing in Maintenance Work 345 

Liban Transportation, A. Duperron 262 

Vaughan, Henry Hague — a Memorial 35 

Vibration Absorption with Structural Rubber, J. W. Devorss. 5C9 
Viteles, Morris S., A Scientific Approach to the Problems of 

Employee Relations 126 

Discussion 133 

Vroom, H. H., Application of Statistical Inspection in the 

Telephone Industry 398 

Discussion 401 

Wagner, Herbert L., Handling Large Capacity Transformers. 210 

Walton. N. B., Wartime Traffic 258 

Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. .215, 473, 517, 524, 632, 689 

Wartime Traffic, N. B. Walton 258 

Washington Letter, E. R. Jacobsen . . 33. 95, 306, 356, 472, 527, 

583, 636, 690 

Water Power Development, Victor Meek 284 

Weapon Maintenance in Battle, Brig.-Gen. E. E. MacMorland 620 

Webster, Professor F., Honorary Membership 92 

Wickenden, William E., Our Stake in the Peace 460 

Williams, Clement C, The Civic Mornls of Science 515 

Wilson, Charles E., Production Paces the War 613 

Wilson, J. A., Air Transportation 264 

Wright, L. Austin, receives honorary degree 151 

Young, Dean C. R., receives honorary degree 305 

Young, Dean C. R.. The Days Ahead 115 



IV 



December, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 26 



MONTREAL, JANUARY 1943 



NUMBER 1 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.b.i.c 
Editor 



LOUIS TRUDEL, m.e.i.c 
Assistant Editor 



N. E. D. SHEPPARD, m.e.i.c. 

Advertising Manager 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c. 

H. F. FINNEMORE, m.e.i.c. 

T. J. LAFRENIÈRE. m.e.i.c 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
—Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



CONTENTS 



BRIDGING BY ROYAL CANADIAN ENGINEERS Cover 

Canadian Army Photo 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCANLON DAM, B.C 4 

William Jamieson, M.E.I.C. 

CONSERVING WELDING ELECTRODES 10 

G. R. Langley, M.E.I.C. 

WAR PRODUCTION PROBLEMS 

GENERAL INTRODUCTION 11 

C. G. Darwin 

POPULAR EXPOSITION OF THE APPLICATION OF QUALITY; 

CONTROL 13 

Sir Frank Gill 

ENGINEER TRAINING IN CANADA 18 

Major J. P. Carrière, S.C., R.C.E., M.E.I.C. 

IRON ORE OCCURRENCES IN THE LAKE SUPERIOR DISTRICT . 20 

/. G. Cross 

THE SPIRIT OF A PEOPLE 23 

James W. Parker 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 25 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 30 

PERSONALS 38 

Visitors to Headquarters 39 

Obituaries 40 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 41 

LIBRARY NOTES 48 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 51 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 53 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 54 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL - 1942 

PRESIDENT 

C. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 



•pbGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 
•K. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 



•H. W. MoKIEL, SackvUle, N.B. 



tJ- 
•A. 
fS. 

to. 

•D 
•J. 
•I. 

•J. 
•J. 
tF. 

•8. 



E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 

E. BERRY, Toronto, Ont. 
G. COULTIS, Calgary, Alta. 

L. DICKSON. Moncton, N.B. 
. S. ELLIS, Kingston, Ont. 
M. FLEMING. Port Arthur, Ont. 
M. FRASER, Saskatoon. Sask. 
H. FREGEAU, Three Rivers, Que. 
GARRETT, Edmonton, Alta. 

W. GRAY, Sydney, N.S. 

W. GRAY, Halifax, N.S. 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY. Montreal, Que. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 

•A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
tH. CIMON, Quebec, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

tT. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 

COUNCILLORS 

tE. D. GRAY-DONALD, Quebec, Que. 

tJ. HAÏMES, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•J. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

JR. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

tW. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

tE. W. IZARD, Victoria, B.C. 

tJ. R. KAYE, Halifax, N.S. 

•E. M. KREBSER, Walker ville, Ont. 

tN. MacNICOL, Toronto, Ont. 

•H. N. MACPHERSON. Vancouver. B.C. 

•W. H. MUNRO, Ottawa, Ont. 

TREASURER 

E. G. M. CAPE, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tJ. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
tG. G. MURDOCH, Saint John, N.B. 



ÎC. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 



tT. A. McELHANNEY, Ottawa, Ont. 

•C. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 

tA. W. F. McQUEEN, Niagara Falls. Ont. 

tA. E. PICKERING, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tG. McL. PITTS, Montreal, Que. 

tW. J. W. REID, Hamilton, Ont. 

tJ. W. SANGER, Winnipeg. Man. 

•M. G. SAUNDERS, Arvida, Que. 

tH. R. SILLS. Peterborough, Ont. 

•J. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

•A. O. WOLFF, Saint John. N.B. 

•For 1942 tFor 1942-43 {For 1942-43-44 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal. Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



FINANCE 

DeG. BEAUBIEN, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 

E. G. M. CAPE 
G. A. GAHERTY 
J. A. McCRORY 

F. NEWELL 



LEGISLATION 

J. L. LANG, Chairman 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. J. DURLEY 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

W. G. HUNT, Chairman 
A. T. BONE 
J. S. HEWSON 
M. S. NELSON 
G. V. RONEY 



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PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman 

deG. BEAUBIEN 

K. M. CAMERON 

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BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 

EDUCATION 

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I. M. FRASER 

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J. E. ARMSTRONG 

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THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT. Chairman 
J. BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
R. DeL. FRENCH 
R. F. LEGGET 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. McKIEL 



C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH. Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

T. J. LAFRENIERE 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

MEMBERSHIP 

J. G. HALL, Chairman 
S. R. FROST 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 

H. N. Itulton PrUe 
A. L. CARRUTHERS, Chairman 
E. W. IZARD 
H. N. MACPHERSON 
Zone B (Province of Ontario) 

John Calbraith Prise 

J. L. LANG, Chairman 
A. E. PICKERING 
J. A. VANCE 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

deGASPE BEAUBIEN. Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 
R. E. HEARTZ 

Ernest Marceau Prise (French) 

H. CIMON, Chairman 

J. H. FREGEAU 

E. D. GRAY-DONALD 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

G. G. MURDOCH, Chairman 
G. L. DICKSON 
S. W. GRAY 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

R. W. ANGUS, Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

M. J. McHENRY 

C. R. YOUNG 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 

STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 

A. G. FLEMING 

W. G. GLIDDON 

O. 0. LEFEBVRE 

X A. McCRORY 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

J. H. McKINNEY 

R. M. SMITH 



WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 
A. GRIFFIN 

D. W. HAYS 

G. N. HOUSTON 
T. H. HOGG 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
H. J. McLEAN 
F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
P. M. SAUDER 
J. M. WARDLE 

ENGINEERING FEATURES OF 
CIVIL DEFENCE 



J. E. ARMSTRONG. 

P. E. ADAMS 

J. N. ANDERSON 

S. R. BANKS 

H. F. BENNETT 

W. D. BRACKEN 

W. P. BRERETON 

J. M. DAVIDSON 

R. S. EADIE 

E. V. GAGE 

L. GAGNON 

G. A. GAHERTY 

R. J. GIBB 

A. GRAY 

J. GRIEVE 



Chairman 

J. L. LANG 
R. F. LEGGET 
I. P. MACNAB 
J. A. McCRORY 
H. J. McEWEN 
C. B. MUIR 
W. H. MUNRO 
G. McL. PITTS 
C.J.PORTER 
M. G. SAUNDERS 
W. O. SCOTT 
T. G. TYRER 
H. K. WYMAN 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

WILLS MACLACHLAN, Chairman 
E. A. ALLCUT 
J. C. CAMERON 

E. R. COMPLIN 
J. A. COOTE 

W. O. CUDWORTH 

F. W. GRAY A. M. REID 

E. G. HEWSON W. J. W. REID 



POST-WAR PROBLEMS 

W. C. MILLER, Chairman G. R. LANGLEY 



F. ALPORT 
J. S. BATES 
deGASPE BEAUBIEN 
A. L. CARRUTHERS 
J. M. FLEMING 
E. R. JACOBSEN 



H. MASSUE 

g. L. Mackenzie 

D. A. R. McCANNEL 
A. W. F. McQUEEN 
G. McL. PITT8 
D. C. TENNANT 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, G. G. HENDERSON 

Vice-Chair., J. B. DOWLER 

Executive, J. F. BLOWEY A. H. PASK 

A. H. MacQUARRIE 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 
H. L. JOHNSTON 
Sec.-Treas., W. R. STICKNEY, 

1614 Ontario Street, 
Walkerville, Ont. 



CALGARY 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



H. J. McEWEN 

J. G. MacGREÛOR 

J. N. FORD 

A. GRIFFIN 

H. B. SHERMAN 
(Ex-Officio), G . P. F. BOESE 

S. G. COULTIS 

J. B. deHART 

P. F. PEELE 
Sec.-Treas., K. W. MITCHELL, 

803— 17th Ave. N.W.. 
Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J.A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

Œx-Officio), F. W. GRAY 

See.-Treaê., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

fiO Whitney Ave., Sydney. N.S. 



EDMONTON 


! 


Chairman, 


D. HUTCHISON 


Vice-Chair., 


C. W. CARRY 


Executive, 


B. W. PITFIELD 




E. R. T. SKARIN 




J. A. ALLAN • 




E. ROBERTSON 




J. W. JUDGE 


(Ex-Officio) 


,J. GARRETT 




R. M. HARDY 


Sec.-Treas., 


F. R. BURFIELD, 




Water Resources Office, 




Provincial Government, 




Edmonton, Alta. 


HALIFAX 




Chairman, 


A. E. FLYNN 


Executive, 


G. T. CLARKE D. C. V. DUFF 




G. J. CURRIE L. E. MITCHELL 




J. D. FRASER P. A. LOVETT 




J. W. MacDONALD 




G. T. MEDFORTH 




J. E. CLARKE 




R. B. STEWART 




K. L. DAWSON 


(Ex-Officio), J. 


Sec.-Treas., 


S. W. GRAY, 




Wartime Bureau of Technical^ 




Personnel, 84 Hollis Street, 




Halifax, N.S. 


HAM 1 I/JON 




Chairman, 


STANLEY SHUPE 


Vice-Chair. 


, T. S. GLOVER 


Executive, 


H. A. COOCH 



NORMAN EAGER 
A. C. MACNAB 
A. H. WINGFIELD 
(Ex-Officio), W. J. W. REID 

W. A. T. GILMOUR 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD, 

354 Herkimer Street, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



T. 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., P. 
Executive, V. 

K. 

K. 

A. 
(Ex-Officio), G. 

D. 
Sec.-Treas., R. 



A. McGINNIS 
ROY 

R. DAVIES 
H. McKIBBIN 
M. WINSLOW 
H. MUNRO 
G. M, CARR-HARRIS 
S. ELLIS 
A. LOW, 

Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ont. 



LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 
Vice-Chair., E. J. DAVIES 
Executive, J. I. CARMICHAEL 
R. B. CHANDLER 
S. E. FLOOK 
O. J. KOREEN 
S. T. McCAVOUR 
W. H. SMALL 
E. A. KELLY 
J. S. WILSON 
(Ex-Officio), B. A. CULPEPER 

J. M. FLEMING 
Sec. Treas., W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDGE 
Chairman, J. M. DAVIDSON 
Vice-Chair. ,C. S. DONALDSON 
Executive, A. G. DONALDSON G. S. BROWN 

N. H. BRADLEY 
(Ex-Officio), J. HAÏMES 
Sec.-Treas., R. B. McKENZIE, 

McKenzie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, F. T. JULIAN 

Vice-Chair., T. L. McMANAMNA 

Executive, F. C. BALL 

V. A. McKILLOP 
H. F. BENNETT 
A. L. FURANNA 
R. S. CHARLES 

(Ex-Officio), R. W. GARRETT 
J. A. VANCE 

Sec.-Treas., H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 
London, Ont. 



MONCTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ex-Officio), 
Sec. Treas., 



H. J. CRUDGE 
J. A. GODFREY 
A. S. DONALD 

E. R. EVANS 
H. W. HOLE 

F. O. CONDON 

G. L. DICKSON 
V. C. BLACKETT 

Engrg. Dept. 



E. B. MARTIN 
G. C. TORRENS 

H. W. McKLEL 

, C.N.R., 

Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, J. A. LALONDE 
Vice-Chair., R. S. EADIE 
Executive, R. E. HEARTZ 
J. B. STIRLING 
J. M. CRAWFORD 
J. COMEAU 
H. F. FINNEMORE 
R. C. FLITTON 
G. D. HULME 
(Ex-Officio), deG. BEAUBIEN 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 
J. G. HALL 
W. G. HUNT 
C. K. McLEOD 
G. McL. PITTS 
Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 
NIAGARA PENINSULA 
Chairman, C. G. CLINE 
Vice-Chair., G. E. GRIFFITHS 
Executive, A. G. HERR 
R. T. SAWLE 
G. F. VOLLMER 
W. D. BRACKEN 
J. W. BROOKS 
J. H. TUCK 
D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 
(Ex-Officio), A. L. McPHAIL 

A. W. F. McQUEEN 
Sec.-Treas., J. H. INGS 

1870 Ferry Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 



OTTAWA 

Chairman 
Executive, 



N. B. MacROSTIE 
W. G. C. GLIDDON 
R. M. PRENDERGAST 
W. H. G. FLAY 
G. A. LINDSAY R. YUILL 
(Ex Officio), K. M. CAMERON 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
W. H. MUNRO 
T. A. McELHANNEY 
R. K. ODELL 
Sec.-Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON, 

Dept. of Mines and Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 
PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, D. J. EMERY 

Executive, C. R. WHITTEMORE F. R. POPE 
I. F. McRAE R. L. DOBBIN 

A. J. GIRDWOOD 
(Ex-Officio), J. CAMERON 

H. R. SILLS 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. JONES, 

5, Anne Street, 

Peterborough, Ont. 



QUEBEC 

Life Hon. 

Chair., 

Chairman, 



A. R. DÉCARY 
RENÉ DUPUIS 

Vice-Chair., E. D. GRAY-DONALD 
Executive, S. PICARD G. ST-JACQUES 

L. GAGNON A. E. PARÉ 

G.W.WADDINGTON Y. R. TASSÉ 
(Ex-Officio), H. CIMON 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
P. MÉTHÉ 
L. C. DUPUIS 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, R. H. RIMMER 
Vice-Chair., C. MILLER 
Executive, W. E. COOPER 
J. FRISCH 

B. BAUMAN 
G. B. MOXON 

(Ex-Officio), M. G. SAUNDERS 
N. F. McCAGHEY 
J. W. WARD 
Sec.-Treas., ALEX. T. CAIRNCROSS, 
P.O. Box 33, 

Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, D. R. SMITH 
Vice-Chair., A. O. WOLFF 
Executive, H. P. LINGLEY 

c, d, McAllister 

C. C. KIRBY 
(Ex-Officio), F. A. PATRIQUEN 
V. S. CHESNUT 
G. G. MURDOCH 
Sec.-Treas., G. W. GRIFFIN 
P.O. Box 220, 

Saint John, N.B. 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY 



Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 

Acting 

Sec.-Treas., 



VIGGO JEPSEN 

J. H. FREGEAU 

E. BUTLER R. D. PACKARD 

A. C. ABBOTT 

R. DORION 

H. J. WARD 

E. T. BUCHANAN 

J. JOYAL 

H. G. TIMMIS 

A. H. HEATLEY 

VIGGO JEPSEN, 
Consolidated Paper Corporation, 
Grand'Mère, Que. 



SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, A. P. LINTON 
Vice-Chair., A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 
Executive, F. C. DEMPSEY 

N B. HUTCHEON 
J. G. SCHAEFFER 
R. W. JICKLING 

H. R. Mackenzie 

B. RUSSELL 
(Ex-Officio), I. M. FRASER 
Sec.-Treas., STEWART YOUNG 

P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask. 

SAULT STE. MARIE . ', 

Chairman, L. R. BROWN 
Vice-Chair., R. A. CAMPBELL 
Executive, N. C. COWIE 

C. O. MADDOCK 
C. R. MURDOCK 

(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

E. M. MacQUARRIE 
;! '., A.E.PICKERING 

, Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont 



K. G. ROSS 



TORONTO 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 

Executive, 



W. S. WILSON 

W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 

D. FORGAN 
R. F. LEGGET 
S. R. FROST 
F. J. BLAIR 

E. G. HEWSON 
C. F. MORRISON 

(Ex-Officio), C. R. YOUNG 
A. E. BERRY 
H. E. BRANDON 
Sec.-Treas., S. H. deJONG 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto, 
l Toronto, Ont 



T. H. HOGG 
N. MacNICOL 
J. J. SPENCE 



VANCOUVER 

Chairman, W. N. KELLY 

, T. V. BERRY 

J. P. FRASER 



Vxce-Chair., 
Executive, 



H. Pi ARCHIBALD 
R. E. POTTER I. C. BARLTROP 
E. S. JONES H. J. MacLEOD 



(Ex-Officio), W. O. SCOTT 

■ H. N. MACPHERSON 
Sec.-Treas., P. B. STROYAN, 

2099 Beach Avenue, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 



A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
KENNETH REID 

A. L. FORD 

B. T. O'GRADY 
J. B. PARHAM 
R. BOWERING 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 
G. M. IRWIN 
E. W. IZARD 
J. H. BLAKE. 

605 Victoria Avenue, 

Victoria, B.C. 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, 



D. M. STEPHENS 
Vice-Chair., J. T. DYMENT 
Executive, C. V. ANTENBRING 

N. M. HALL 
T. H. KIRBY 

E. W. R. BUTLER 
H. B. BREHAUT 

(Ex-Officio), J. W. SANGER 
V. MICHIE 
C. P. HALTALIN 
Sec.-Treas., THOMAS. E. STOREY. 
55 Princess Street, 

Winnipeg, Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCANLON DAM, B.C. 

WILLIAM JAMIESON, m.e.i.c. 
Field Engineer, Powell River Company Limited, Powell River, B.C. 

Paper presented before the Vancouver Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
at Vancouver, B.C., on October 22nd, 1942 



This dam was recently built to supply additional power to 
the large paper and pulp manufacturing plant of the Powell 
River Company Limited, at Powell River, 80 miles up the 
coast from Vancouver, B.C., and is situated about 16 miles 
S.E. from the paper plant. 

The dam derives its name from one of the pioneer 
directors of the Powell River Company. Before proceeding 
with a description of its construction, brief reference will 
be made to the hydroelectric developments of which it 
forms a part, and the circumstances leading to its present 
construction. 

The only source of hydro power available for operation 
of the paper mills at Powell River, up to 1930, was the 
Powell lake watershed, an area estimated at approximately 
580 sq. mi., the run-off from which was utilised to the 
maximum of its economic development by a turbine plant 
capable of developing approximately 51,000 h.p. The 
power developed from this source is used partly for mechan- 
ical power which drives the grinders for making ground- 
wood pulp, and partly for conversion to electrical power 
for the operation of the paper and numerous other machines 
and tools necessary for pulp and paper manufacture. The 
hydroelectric plant consists of four generators of a total 
capacity of 21,000 kva. 

In 1929, demands for greater production made it neces- 
sary to find a further source of power, and the water 
rights for the adjoining watershed to the south draining 
into the Lois and Pasha Lakes were obtained. 

This Lois river development 13 miles by air line and 17 
miles south by road from Powell River, takes its supply 
from a chain of lakes known as the Lois or Gordon Pasha 
Chain. The three main lakes actually included in the 
reservoir are the Lois, Gordon Pasha, and Khartoum Lakes. 
North of these is a mountainous country from which they are 
fed by streams from Horseshoe, Nanton, Dodd, Lewis and 
Windsor Lakes, and from other lakes at higher levels, two 
of the higher lakes having recently been added to those 
accessible to fishermen by the construction of roads for 
logging operations. 

Studies of this potential source of power were greatly 
facilitated by surveys that had been carried out for a series 
of years by the Surveys and Engineering Branch of the 
Department of Mines and Natural Resources, and the 
Water Rights Branch, of the Provincial Lands Department, 
and the economical capacity of the development was found 
to be 27,000 h.p., continuous delivered at Powell River, or 
31,800 h.p. on a mill-day basis. 




Fig. 1 — Power house and surge tank at Scow Bay. 



The total storage capacity when the dam is finally 
completed will be about 450,000 acre-feet, and the drainage 
area is estimated at 184 sq. mi. 

The additional power required for certain extensions of 
the plant at Powell River contemplated in 1930, amounted 
to 16,000 h.p. or about half the available capacity of this 
potential development. For economic reasons it was 
decided to construct a temporary log dam across the Lois 
River, which could later serve as a coffer-dam during the 
building of a permanent concrete dam. 

In order to ensure that the site selected for the per- 
manent dam was suitable and to have its location definitely 
determined, a thorough examination of the site was made 
by stripping the overburden except for the river bed, and a 
short length near the top, and a considerable amount of 
exploration work was also done by drilling. 

Dr. Victor Dolmage, m.e.i.c., of Vancouver, was called in 
to examine the geological features, and in his report he 
described the rock as granodiorite or quartz — diorite of a 
geological formation known as the Coast Range batholith, 
and he concluded that this would prove a satisfactory 
formation for a dam structure. Later this opinion was 
confirmed when all fractured and weathered rock had been 
removed. 

With the site of the permanent dam approved, the 
location of the mile-long tunnel which with the connecting 
penstocks conveys the water to the power house could then 
be determined, and the construction of the initial develop- 
ment was started in 1930. 

This work consisted of a log crib dam which formed a 
reservoir of 72,000 acre-feet, with a head of 350 ft. above 
tail water and allowed for a continuous usage of 730 cu. ft. 
per sec. 

The water was delivered through a wood stave penstock 
10 ft. dia. and 2,726 ft. long, which extended from the log 
dam to a point a short distance behind the site selected for 
the permanent dam. From this point the water was con- 
veyed through a reinforced concrete penstock 12J/£ ft. dia. 
for a distance of 776 ft. to a tunnel 5,851 ft. in length. From 
the lower end of the tunnel a steel penstock 2,591 ft. in 
length and varying from 12 to 11 ft. in diameter, connects 
with two 1% ft. branches leading to the power house at 
tidewater on Scow Bay. (See Fig. 1). 

The log dam and wood penstock were regarded as being 
but temporary structures, but the remainder of the instal- 
lation including the power house with an 18,000 kva. 
generator, and the surge tank, perhaps one of the most 
conspicuous landmarks on the Coast were all designed and 
built as part of the permanent development. The size and 
height of the surge tank are notable. It is of the Johnson 
differential type, 30 ft. in dia. and 187 ft. high, carried by 
a pedestal 121 ft. in height. The tank was designed to 
function with the log dam whose crest is at Elev. 450 and 
later with the concrete dam, with crest at Elev. 522. 

The Johnson valve for the second generator was also 
installed and provision was made in the power house for 
this second generator but this has not yet been obtained. 

Due to the deterioration of the wooden structures, after a 
lapse of nine years, more particularly the head gate section 
of the dam and the penstock saddles which were attacked and 
badly damaged by rot and termites, the necessity of 
making replacements and repairs had to be considered. 
In view of the large expense involved, and the fact that 
the permanent dam might soon be required, it was decided 
to put the money that would have to be expended on 
repairs into permanent construction, and to build the 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



concrete dam to Elev. 502 with a spillway at Elev. 490, 40 
ft. higher than the log dam. Only the section carrying 
the headgate and headgate machinery was to be built up 
at once to the full height, Elev. 522. 

Design Features 

A comparison was made of the cost of different types of 
dams, and the variable-radius arch design was selected, this 
being found to be the most suitable and economical type 
for the site. 

In this design, radii vary with the height and the radii 
of the extrados are struck from centres different from those 
of the corresponding intrados. The object of this design is 
to produce the maximum strength with the minimum 
amount of material. When the dam is loaded and tends to 
deform, besides the axial compressive stresses, tensile 
stresses tend to develop in varying degrees at varying 
distances from the centre due to shrinkage and other 
causes, and to take care of these stresses without using 
reinforcing steel, the variable radius arch design was 
developed. It is covered by U.S. patents, and while the 
validity of some of these patents is open to question, the 
Powell River Company deemed it advisable to pay certain 
fees on this account, rather than to risk becoming involved 
in possible litigation. A plan of the dam is shown in Fig. 2. 



The limiting stress used in the design was 700 lb. per sq. 
in. 

The main dimensions of the dam are : 

Length of crest 680 ft. 

Length of thrust block 115 ft. 

Length of wing wall 187 ft. 

Total length 982 ft. 

Radial thickness at top .... 8' 0" (10' 0" over parapet 

walls) 
Radial thickness at bottom . 37' 0" 
Maximum height 205' 0" 

The concrete crest at Elev. 502 has been temporarily 
surmounted with wooden flash-boards 7 ft. in height. 

The wing wall was provided to guide the waste water to a 
point below the dam before permitting it to fall into the 
river, this being done to avoid excessive erosion of the bank 
carrying the penstock between the dam and the tunnel. 

When the dam is raised to its full height an extension in a 
radial direction from the thrust block at the west end will be 
provided with five Taintor gates 20 ft. wide and 21 ft. deep 
and one Taintor gate 10 ft. wide and 10 ft. deep to pass 
trash and small discharges. 

With a view to facilitating contraction and cooling of the 




& ■ ■ ■ » 



/> 



X\$< 




Fig. 2 — Plan of variable-radius concrete dam on Lois River 
showing layout of dam and wing wall. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



concrete the dam was divided into sections by radial lines 
approximately 40 ft. apart and as each of these sections 
formed one continuous pour, with the time between succes- 
sive pours set at 72 hours, the structure was virtually built 
up with a number of arched blocks keyed together on radial 
lines. (See Fig. 3). 

The keys on section lines are 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 

Water Stops 

Vertical copper water stops formed from 20 in. wide 
copper sheets weighing 3 lb. per ft. were located near the 
upstream face of every construction joint. The various 
sections of these stops are riveted and brazed together, 
making them continuous from top to bottom, with the 
bottom buried in the concrete, below the start of the 
construction joints. (See Fig. 4). 

Horizontal stops of H2 in. galvanized iron weighing 1.5 lb. 
per sq. ft. were set four inches in the concrete and projecting 
four inches to join with the next pour. The different sections 
of iron are riveted together and also riveted at the ends to 
the copper stops. The joints also soldered to make them 
watertight. 

To provide for the passage of water through the dam 
while the closure was being made, a 6 ft. dia. culvert was 
incorporated in the dam as seen in Fig. 3. The ends of this 
culvert were afterwards plugged, and the culvert filled and 
sealed with concrete, poured down through 8 in. dia. pipes 
that had been carried up from the soffit of the culvert for 
this purpose. 

Form' of Contract 

The form of contract decided upon provided for a fixed 
fee, covering all the work specified. 

The contractor supplied all personnel, material and 
equipment necessary for the work, subject to the approval 
of a duly appointed representative of the company. 

A fixed monthly sum for the rental of certified equipment 
was stipulated, and the payment of this rental was for a 
definitely stated period, based on the estimated time for 
completion, and regardless of whether it would be required 
for a longer or shorter time. 

The salaries of the manager and superintendent were also 
limited to a fixed time, so that there was ample incentive 
to get the work completed within the scheduled period. 

The contractors also took over the operation of the 
Company's Stillwater railway and wharf, which they used 
for bringing in supplies, and for hauling logs, freight and 
passengers in connection with logging operations on the 
lakes. 

The contract covered all phases of the work, with the 
exception of the provision of drawings for the actual dam 
structure and appurtenances, which were supplied by the 
Powell River Company. No penalties were specified, but 




Fig. 3 — General view of west side of dam showing entry gate 
section, culvert, and method of pouring successive sections. 



the company reserved the right to take over the work if not 
satisfied with the conduct of the work or the progress made 
by the contractor. 

The contract having been duly signed, a progress schedule 
was drawn up in detail, modifications being made from time 
to time as found advisable or necessary. Generally, except 
where changes were due to change of policy such as speeding 
up the work by extra night shifts, the schedules were closely 
adhered to and were of great value in planning for deliveries 
of equipment and materials. 

Setting Out 

Setting out on the ground a structure of this kind 
naturally involved a large amount of instrument work, and 
calculating machines were kept busy for many weeks to 
provide data required for the field work. 

The first thing to be done was to establish the centre line. 
On this line were located the centre of the curve for the 
elevation of the top of the dam, and the focal point of the 
radii of the construction joints. This central point, when 
determined, was marked on an iron belt set in concrete and 
duly referenced. As the work proceeded the value of being 
able to readily pick up the centres of the various curves 
became obvious and all these were marked on 10 by 10 
timbers well secured, extending down the centre line. 

On the drawings supplied for the work one common point 
for each construction joint was given with the radius and 
angle to it, measured from the centre line at Elev. 522. 
From these points all subsequent angles were calculated and 
the distances to the sides of the dam at the various eleva- 
tions. As the line of the bulkhead for each construction 
joint was the same as the downstream radius produced 
through these common or locus points, the bulkheads had 
to follow the radial line for each 10 ft. in elevation, and they 
were distorted and twisted to gain this effect, as shown in 

Fi s- 4 - 

The most practical way of establishing the locus points 
for each 10 ft. lift or difference in elevation was found to be 
by means of ordinates from parallel lines established on 
either side of the canyon, high enough up to be above the 
top of the dam, and far enough away not to be disturbed. 
Fortunately the topography of the district made this easy. 
With the locus points determined, the curves for the 
extrados and intrados could be run. This procedure in 
theory appears to be quite simple, but it often happens that 
in laying out work numerous difficulties are encountered 
which have to be dealt with as they crop up; the laying out 
of a variable arch dam is no exception. 

In order to keep track of the excavation work, cross 
sections were taken at close intervals. These levels and 
cross sections formed a grid over the entire foundation area ; 
a number of points were marked beyond this area, so that 
the grid at any point could be readily re-established. In 
laying out and re-establishing these grid lines, some 
ingenuity was needed as some of the places marked were on 
unscalable and overhanging cliffs. 

The next problem was to establish the outline of the 
foundations of the dam at each and every elevation so that 
the excavation, which was for the most part rock, could be 
taken out the correct width and no wider. 

The dust from the rock drills and the blasting made the 
use of crayon or stakes a waste of time, so lines for the front 
and back of the dam were run in and painted on the surface 
of the rock. These curves referred only to the lines of the 
dam at a particular elevation, and it was also found neces- 
sary to paint the contour lines at 5 ft. intervals on the rock 
walls of the canyon. Starting at Elev. 372 all contour lines 
at elevations ending in the figure two were painted red and 
at those ending in seven, white. 

The heights of the various contour lines were marked 
with twelve-inch figures wherever possible on the smooth 
surface of the rock, and were plainly visible from either side 
of the canyon. The painted contour lines were about 60 ft. 
in length, extending well beyond the limits of the excavation. 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



As the rock work spread out and gangs were set to work 
at different elevations, a colour scheme was also devised to 
mark out the excavation required between any two con- 
tours, and for this purpose six different paints and com- 
binations of them were used. For example between contours 
437 and 447 the limits of the excavation would be marked 
with blue paint, between 427 and 437 with yellow, etc. 
Actually these lines were continually being obliterated, but 
enough of them were usually left to enable the others to be 
readily re-established. 

The centre section or river bottom was excavated in three 
sections, and the bed-rock was found to be about 50 ft. 
below the stream bed. The true curve was staked out, and 
the timbered shafts were sunk a little wider than called 
for. The curve was then marked out on the top timber. 

This brief description of the work of setting out will serve 
to indicate the methods adopted, which, were found to be 
satisfactory. It is not necessary to enlarge on the many 
difficulties that are incidental to such work, when carried 
out among swinging derricks, rushing trains and trollies, 
and dripping cement. There were also the smoke and heat 
caused by rubbish fires and boiler settings, the infernal din 
of air driven tools and machinery, and the movements of 
some 300 men working in the confined area in which these 
operations had to be done. 

Our contractors were fortunately able to obtain for us 
the services of a very capable man for this setting out work. 

Excavation 

As previously stated the overburden had been removed 
over most of the site, and with the exception of the river 
bed practically all the excavation was rock work. A com- 
pressed air plant was installed, comprising one Worthington 
compressor, one portable Diesel and one gazoline com- 
pressor. 

Excavation work was started in May, 1940, on the west 
side, all broken and fractured rock being removed down 
to bed-rock. The work was arranged as far as possible so 
as to avoid having to work in the river bed at the time 
when flood conditions would normally be expected. 

Favourable weather conditions and some regulation of 
discharge and wastage enabled the work to proceed without 
any serious interference throughout the winter and spring 
run-off seasons. This regulation was effected by controlling 
the discharge from the Horseshoe Lake dam, by manipulat- 
ing flashboards on the log dam, and by the opening and 
closing of the second Johnson valve at the power house, 
when it became expedient to do so. 

The first section to be carried down to any depth, was the 
bank on the east side, on which the penstock rested. As it 
was necessary to keep the generator in operation, special 
precautions had to be taken to hold the penstock (a 10 ft. 
dia. wood pipe) in position, while the ground under it was 
removed. A Howe truss was built to carry this, the ends of 
the truss resting on sills at either end of the cut. Before the 
work had progressed very far, the ground at one end of this 
truss, shewed signs of giving way, and it then became 
necessary to carry down a shaft to bed-rock, and to build 
concrete reinforced piers to support the truss. These 
concrete piers were afterwards incorporated in the body of 
the dam. 

To keep the excavations dry the following pumps were 
used. One deep well pump capable of delivering 1,400 U.S. 
gal. per min., with another of 225 U.S. gal. per min., two 
hand pumps, and three No. 7 sludge pumps. There was also 
a system of well points which was moved down as the 
work progressed and proved very satisfactory. The well 
points consisted of 2 in. dia. steel pipes, drawn to a point 
at the lower end and drilled with entrance holes which 
were protected by copper mesh screens. Several of these 
points, spaced about 5 ft. or other convenient distance 
apart, were driven about 20 ft. into the gravel, and the 
upper ends were connected six-inch headers. The water was 
then drawn up by a special set of pumps supplied by the 



Moretrench Company, the manufacturers of the points. 
As the excavation became deeper, the points or another set 
were driven or worked down into the gravel ahead of the 
excavation, to bed rock in the river bed. 

For breaking up the ground to enable it to be loaded into 
skips, clay diggers operated by compressed air were found 
to be very useful. 

Concrete 

When the original estimates for the dam were being 
considered, naturally the question of the concrete mix, and 
particularly the cement content was discussed. It was 
noted that similar structures in the United States, American 
engineers had been using one American barrel (376 lb.) 
per cu. yd. 

A review of published records indicated that with proper 
control, low water-cement ratio, proper grading and the 
use of vibrators, satisfactory results could be expected if 
this same cement content were used, and the estimates were 
made on this basis. 

The grading of aggregates was also carefully considered, 
and it was decided that the maximum size of coarse aggregate 
should be 4 in., that the gravel should be segregated into 
three gradings and combined at the mixer, and that the 
fineness modulus should be very close to 3.0, with a slump 
varying from 13^ to 3 in. 

Washed sand and gravel for the concrete aggregate, came 
from Howe Sound, and was shipped by scow to Stillwater, 
where it was unloaded into hoppers. From there it was 
transported by rail to the dam site in 5 cu. yd. dump boxes 
mounted on flat cars, with four-car trains carrying 60 
cu. yd. per trip. At the dam a spur track built over the 
aggregate bins permitted dumping directly from the cars. 




Fig. 4 — Construction joint, showing water stops and distortion 
or twisting of bulkheads. 



THÉ ENGINEERINGPJOURNAL January,*1943 



Total storage capacity was 574 eu. yd. in five bins of which 
two were used for sand and one each for the gravel, in 
gradings of 4 to IK in., IK to 1 in., and 1 to 34 in. From 
these bins, the aggregate was carried on an 18-in. conveyor 
belt to bins above the mixing plant with a capacity of 400 
cu. yd. 

Cement was unloaded from the ships at Stillwater dock, 
and was transported on a 14-in belt conveyor to sheds on 
shore having a storage capacity of 16,000 sacks. From there 
it was carried in box cars to the dam site, and emptied into 
a silo, having a capacity of 2,500 sacks. From the silo it was 
conveyed by a 14-in. belt up to a 50-sack hopper built into 
the weighing house, above the mixing plant. 

Cement batches were weighed manually in a hopper on a 
platform scale and dumped when required into eight-inch 
pipes, which ran down to the charging hoppers. Here were 
three Smith tilting type mixers, one of which was IK 
cu. yd. and the other two were 1 cu. yd. capacity. The mixed 
concrete was delivered by means of three narrow-gauge 
tracks, running from the mixing plant, to points which 
could be reached with concrete buggies or derricks. These 
are shown in Fig. 5. 

The wing wall, thrust block and sections A and B of the 
arch, were placed by using buggies. The majority of the 
arch sections were placed directly with derricks, and the 
balance was placed by using derricks and then buggies. 

The buckets used were of 2 cu. yd. capacity, and designed 
as a conical hopper with a gate in the bottom 12 by 24 in. 
They discharged low slump concrete with practically no 
segregation. 

Two vibrators were used. The larger, which was the more 
satisfactory, was a Chicago Pneumatic No. 518, and the 
smaller which was used along the forms was a No. 417 of 
the same make. 

Macdonald & Macdonald, Testing Engineers, were in 
charge of concrete control. They designed the mixes and 
made all field and laboratory tests. 

The original mix for mass concrete was: 

Cement 370 lb. 

Sand.. 1,135 1b. 

Gravel 34 in. - 1 in 735 lb. 

1 in. - IK in 550 1b. 

IK in. -4 in 915 1b. 

Slump — 3 in. 

Just sufficient water was added to give a water-cement 
ratio of 0.58 to 0.60 by weight. This water-cement ratio 
was used throughout the work. 

For the first few pours some experimenting on the mix 
was done, using as low as 330 lb. (3.75 sacks) per cu. yd. 
Only a few yards were poured with this quantity of cement. 




Fig. 5 — General view of construction works showing mixing 
plant, narrow-gauge tracks, etc. 



After this field adjustment was made, the mix used until 
the end of 1940 was: — 

Cement 370 lb. 

Sand 1,226 lb. 

Gravel 34 in. - 1 in 794 lb. 

1 in. - IK in 566 1b. 

lKin.4 -in 974 1b. 

Slump — 1 in. - 2 in. 

Some difficulty was experienced at the gravel pit to get 
the aggregate in this ratio without wasting some sizes, so 
at the beginning of 1941 the mix was changed to the follow- 
ing and used for the balance of the work : 

Cement 370 lb. 

Sand . 1,226 1b. 

Gravel 34 in. 1 - in 935 in. 

IK in. - 1 700 lb. 

IK in. -4 700 1b. 

Slump — 1 in. - 2 in. 

In the river bottom, where there was considerable water 
for the first pours, the cement was increased to 570 lb. to 
the cu. yd., the 4 in. gravel was reduced and the concrete 
poured so as to flow under the water, which was kept deep 
enough to prevent currents which would wash out the 
cement. Slump of this concrete was six inches. 

The mix for the penstock encasement was: — 

Cement 480 lb. 

Sand 1,420 1b. 

Gravel ^ in. - 1 in 1,200 lb. 

1 in. - IK in 900 lb. 

Slump — 6 in. 

During the early period of the work, a great many slump 
tests were made, usually three in the forenoon and three in 
the afternoon. The tests ran as high as three inches, but 
the majority were around one inch. After the mixing routine 
had been established it was possible to control the water by 
visual examination, and these tests were made less fre- 
quently, usually at the same time that test cylinders were 
made. 

Sieve tests were made on the sand twice a week, and the 
average fineness modulus averaged 3.12. 

Test cylinders were taken quite frequently until the mix 
was established, after which time a cylinder was taken every 
600 cu. yd. of concrete poured. These were made in test 
cylinder cans and shipped to Vancouver for testing. Out 
of 77 reports examined the lowest breaking stress was 3,104 
lb. per sq. in., the highest 4,526 lb. per sq. in. and the 
average 3,578 lb. per sq. in. 

All cement was tested by the inspection engineers before 
loading at the cement plant. 

Mixing and Placing Concrete 

The batching was done by weigh batches. After all the 
aggregates were weighed in the charging hoppers,the cement 
was delivered to the hopper through a pipe from the weigh 
house, above the mixing plant. 

The mixing time was maintained at three minutes for 
charging, mixing and discharging as nearly as possible, but 
on most of the work the time required for transportation 
and placing set the governing time. 

The concrete for the wing wall, thrust block and the 
western two sections of the arch was delivered by car to a 
hopper from which it was conveyed and deposited by 
buggies into chutes. 

The balance of the concrete was dumped from the mixers 
into the buckets set on flat cars and hauled to points that 
could be reached by derricks. The derricks were then able 
to place most of the concrete directly from the buckets to 
its place in the pour. 

The concrete was poured in layers about 20 inches thick, 
there being three layers to a pour. 

After depositing from the buckets, the concrete was 
vibrated with the large vibrator. Efforts were made not to 
use the vibrator for moving the concrete into place. Only 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



enough vibration was used to bring the paste to the surface, 
and care was taken to vibrate deep enough to work the 
upper layer into the previous layer. 

A small vibrator was used along the forms to ensure a 
good appearance of the concrete when stripped. 

The surfaces of concrete pours were cleaned off by means 
of air water jets. This was done from four to twelve hours 
after the pour was completed, so as not to injure the surface 
by loosening the aggregate. 

On starting a pour, a layer of about 34 ha. of mortar was 
broomed over the surface. 

As previously stated, the time between the completion 
of one pour and the beginning of the next in the same 
section was set at 72 hours, although in a few instances this 
was reduced to a minimum of 40 hours. 

Forms were left on where possible for three weeks or more, 
except bulkheads which had to be removed for adjacent 
pours. During warm weather sprinklers were maintained 
where possible. 

Steam heated water was used when the temperature was 
below 40 deg., and the temperature of the water was raised 
110 deg. which gave the concrete at the mixer a temperature 
of 50 deg. 

Grouting 

Seams in the foundation rock were pressure grouted to 
minimize seepage. The depth of the holes drilled in the 
centre sections varied from 24 to 27 ft. The depth was 
determined by test holes drilled to 50 ft. or more if sound 
rock were not encountered. Grouting pipes were also 
inserted in cracks where it appeared that seepage might take 
place. 

The holes on the upstream side were drilled and grouted 
before those on the downstream side, and each hole was 
grouted before the adjoining hole was drilled. 

The drilling operations were conducted as follows : — 

After the excavation had been carried down to bed rock, 
2-in. dia. pipes were installed at points where grout holes 
were required and extended above river level. This allowed 
the drilling to be carried on without interfering with 
concrete pouring. 

The drills used were the coring type diamond drill. The 
diameter of the core was 0.8 in. and that of the drill hole 
slightly under V/2 in. No difficulty was experienced in 
drilling through the 2-in. dia. pipes which were approx- 
imately 50 ft. long. 

The rate of drilling varied, about 27 ft. being a good 
average for eight hours. 

Before inserting any grout, each hole was filled with 
water and the leakage was determined by finding the time 
required to empty a 2-gal. pail of water into the hole, 
keeping the hole just full of water. Leakage was found to 
vary from zero to 16 gal. per min. and for the majority of 
holes was between V/2 and 4^ gal. per min. 

Grout was mixed in an air driven mixing machine, and 
forced by air into a barrel which acted as a reservoir for 
the grout pump. An Ingersoll Rand pump (size 7 by V/2 by 7) 
was used for pumping into the drill holes. 

Grouting started with a thin grout, and if this was taken 
up freely, the next batch was thickened. This procedure 
was followed until the hole was taking grout freely at % of 
the limiting pressure. Pumping grout of this consistency was 
continued until refusal. The limiting pressure varied from 
60 to 150 lb. p.s.i. 

Thirty-seven holes were drilled into the rock and thirty- 



^NMHJH"^ 



W ' ->■»■*£. 



1 - 



. 39 of- ' 

M, Or 7- -ut. 



Fig. 6 — General view looking east, showing connection to pen- 
stock. October, 1941, completed. 

one pipes were set in cracks. The quantity of cement forced 
in this way into the seams, amounted to over 700 sacks. 

Penstock 

The wood penstock was kept in operation until the 
contractors were ready to build the headgate section. A 
closedown period of nine days was then required to install 
the 200 ft. of steel penstock from the existing concrete pipe 
to the new headgate, and to set up the gate frame, and the 
4-ft. dia. vent pipe. The new work can be seen in Fig. 6. 

With the exception of this interval and two days required 
for disconnecting the old penstock, the penstock was kept in 
continuous use throughout the construction of the dam. 

Headgate Equipment 
The electrically operated headgate is of the Broom type. 
It weighs 25 tons, and travels in girders on a roller cater- 
pillar. The gate and frame were designed by Phillips & 
Davies of Kenton, Ohio. 

The trash racks protecting the head-gate entry, are built 
of 3 by Y& in. steel bars set vertically, welded to rectangular 
girders and bolted to the beams of the concrete structure. 
The total width of the rack is 20 ft. and it runs from the 
bottom of the head-gate section to the top of the dam. 

A mechanical rake, also electrically operated, is installed 
to keep the racks clean, built to the design of the Newport 
News Shipbuilding & Drydock Company of Newport 
News, Virginia. 

Quantities 
The quantities involved in the present structure included : 
50,000 cu. yd. rock and river excavation. 
61,000 cu. yd. concrete. 
191,000 sq. yd. forms. 

Contingent work included a railway diversion and loading 
works for logging operations. 

The cost amounted to approximately $1,100,000. 

The erection of the dam was under the supervision of the 
Powell River Company's engineering department, and 
Mr. B. C. Condit, Consulting Engineer, Oakland, California, 
who not only designed the dam, but was also responsible for 
the conception of the complete development. 

Stuart Cameron & Company, Vancouver, were general 
contractors, and MacDonald and MacDonald, Vancouver, 
were inspectors of cement and aggregates. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



CONSERVING WELDING ELECTRODES 

An article based on notes kindly furnished by G. R. Langley, M.E.I.C., engineer, Canadian General Electric 

Company Limited, Peterborough, Ont. 



gelding electrodes have heretofore always been used 
wastefully. Under the urge of wartime need for conservation 
of materials, many electrode users have taken steps to cut 
down the wastage. The general manager of a large American 
factory recently issued the following notice: — 

"In view of the tremendous increase in the use of welding 
electrodes for the fabrication of war products, with the 
inability of electrode manufacturers to fill orders in spite 
of increase after increase in production, every effort must 
be made to use every piece of electrode to the fullest 
advantage. Furthermore, some of the electrode coating 
materials are on the critical list and must be conserved. 
Hereafter all stub ends must be turned in for salvage and 
any stub ends longer than 2j/£ inches will be returned to 
the operator for further use." 

This case is typical of the majority of electrode users in 
both the U.S.A. and Canada and the total wastage is above 
30,000 tons per year with a value about $5,000,000. 

The cause of this waste is found in the universal use of 
"stripped electrodes" i.e., electrodes with the flux ground 
off one inch at one end to allow insertion in electrode 
holders. The electrode cannot be burned to closer than one 
inch from the holder without danger of burning the holder. 
Several attempts have been made to avoid this waste. 
One user tried leaving a stub in the holder and welding a 



; • j 




Fig. 1 — Standard holder and separate stub. 

new electrode to it. Each electrode added an inch or so to 
the length of the stub so that it soon had to be discarded. 
The stub being the same size as the new electrode heated 
badly and the operator had to pause till it cooled sufficiently 
to permit a new rod to be welded on. The saving was not 
large and the scheme did not come into general use. Another 
plan involved an ingenious special electrode holder for use 
with "full fluxed" rods. Electrode manufacturers objected 
to making two varieties of electrodes — full fluxed for the 
new holder and stripped electrodes for standard holders, 
and this scheme also failed of adoption. 

The following plan overcomes the objections to the pre- 
vious schemes and permits elimination of all waste. 

A piece of steel rod 2 to 2^ m - long» and of a diameter 
greater than the electrode is inserted in any standard 
electrode holder as shown in Fig. 1. Full fluxed rods are 
used. With the helmet in the open position, one end of the 
electrode is firmly grounded and the stub approached close 
to the electrode as illustrated in Fig. 2. At this point the 
helmet is dropped and the stub moved the short remaining 
distance to make contact with the electrode. The stub and 
electrode do not have to centre accurately. Excellent 
results will be obtained with them well off centre. With a 
little practice operators become quite proficient. The time 
involved is not noticeably greater than required to place 




Fig. 2 — Illustrating the joining of full fluxed electrode to separ- 
ate stub. 

an old style stripped rod in the holder and since the 
standard electrode is 14 in. long, electrodes will be changed 
only 12/14 times as often. 

In addition to the wastage of stubs 2 in. or longer there 
has been considerable loss due to operators bending elec- 
trodes to facilitate reaching certain locations. Bending 
usually cracks the flux and the electrode cannot be burned 
past the cracked spot. With the proposed scheme the full 
fluxed rod can readily be welded on at any desired angle 
(see Fig. 3), thus obviating the need for bending the elec- 
trode itself. 

Hand shields are used occasionally and in rare cases the 
operator may have to work in such cramped quarters as to 
make the stubbing operation awkward. In such cases a 
number of full fluxed rods can be welded to stubs before-hand. 

It is understood that this conservation plan is already 
being used by the Canadian General Electric Company, 
Peterborough Works, Canadian Westinghouse Company, 
Steel Company of Canada and Hamilton Bridge Company, 
and is in process of adoption by a number of shipbuilding 
firms. 

The general adoption of this plan would of course result 
in a decrease in sales of electrodes not only during the 
present emergency, but after the war. The attitude of the 
electrode manufacturers that have so far been contacted 
has nevertheless been entirely unselfish, and their whole- 
hearted support be relied on. 

It is hoped that this article will result in still further 
extension of the use of the scheme described. 




Fig. 3 — Showing electrodes -welded on to stubs at various 

angles. 



10 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



WAR PRODUCTION PROBLEMS— 
THE STATISTICAL CONTROL OF QUALITY 

A subject scheduled for presentation at the Fifty-Seventh Annual Professional Meeting of the Engineering Institute 

of Canada, Toronto, 12th February, 1943. 



Introductory Note 
As will be seen from the preliminary programme for the 
impending Annual Meeting of the Institute, to be held in 
Toronto, the morning of Friday, 12th February is to be 
devoted to one general session at which war production 
problems will be discussed. The conservation of critical 
materials will be the main subject for discussion, the 
Institute being privileged to co-operate with the Depart- 
ment of Munitions and Supply in reference to this vital 
matter. In addition, it is planned to devote some time to a 
topic of very live interest in manufacturing circles — the use 
of statistics, and the theory of probability, in the control 
of quality. The importance of inspection in all manufactur- 
ing processes is widely recognized but it is only in relatively 
recent years that inspection has been subjected to mathe- 
matical analysis. There are some who think that the use 
of statistical analysis can, and should, radically change 
many inspection practices. There are others who consider 
that such "advanced mathematics" has no place in pro- 
duction control. 



The subject is therefore of lively and topical interest; it 
is hoped that varied and diverse opinions with regard to 
the matter will be aired at the Toronto Meeting. This was 
recently the case in London, England, at a remarkable 
meeting held in the Main Hall of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, jointly by the Institutions of Civil, Mechanical 
and Electrical Engineers. Attended by 720 people, including 
the Minister of Supply, the meeting lasted for several hours, 
and was wholly devoted to the subject of the statistical 
control of quality in production. The topic was introduced 
by Dr. G. C. Darwin, Director of the National Physical 
Laboratory, and a general exposition was then presented 
by Sir Frank Gill, Director and Vice-President, Inter- 
national Standard Electric Corporation. By special per- 
mission of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (in 
whose Journal appeared the record of this notable meet- 
ing) The Engineering Institute of Canada is privileged to 
present these two outstanding contributions, for the general 
information of its members and for the special guidance 
of all who are going to participate in the Toronto meeting. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

C. G. Darwin, u.c., m.a., sc.d., f.r.s. 
Director, National Physical Laboratory, London, England. 



I have long been interested in the general subject of 
tolerances, first from the point of view of pure science and 
later from the more practical point of view; but the prac- 
tical viewpoint became much accentuated when I went to 
the National Physical Laboratory, where a great deal of 
work has to be done in connexion with verifying manufac- 
turing and inspection gauges. Internal evidence furnished 
by some of the drawings and gauges led me to the con- 
clusion that certain defects must exist in the principles 
employed in assigning tolerances. I therefore tried to find 
how tolerances were fixed. For some months, whenever I 
met an engineer engaged in any branch of the industry I 
asked him how the tolerances were determined in the work 
with which he was concerned. The results were disappoint- 
ing; some could not answer at all and some gave a partial 
answer, not sufficient to satisfy my appetite. 

As a caricature of the diagnosis at which I arrived, I 
conceived that when a new machine was to be made the 
inventor or chief engineer sketched it freehand, perhaps 
marking the dimensions to the nearest inch. That sketch 
went to the senior draughtsman, who did the actual design 
work, dimensioning it all to 1/1,000 inch and then instruct- 
ing his junior assistant to mark the tolerances. Orders were 
given that the tolerances should be made as easy as possible; 
but in his inferior position the junior assistant would take 
no risks, so he took the smallest number that he knew and 
halved it. That description of the procedure would be 
recognized as a caricature and it had much of the absurdity 
of a caricature; but it had also a little of the resemblance. 
At all events, rightly or wrongly, I concluded that in the 
case of a good many engineers there was a defect in the 
habits of thought which they had been taught. I would 
not like to say that that applied only to engineers; nearly 
all education in this and many other countries had suffered 
from the same sort of thing until comparatively recently. 
People were taught to think of a dimension or quantity as 
an exact number or magnitude, whereas the proper way to 
think about every dimension was to regard it as having a 
fringe, as being a number plus or minus a little bit, and 



the magnitude of that little bit was a very important 
quality of the number. 

Without any clear idea of what could be done to improve 
matters, I was sent, a little more than a year ago, on a 
tour of duty to the United States. There I came across the 
method of statistical control of mass-production, and it was 
obvious at once that that method provided the right 
approach. A good deal of similar progress had been made 
in this country too; in particular much brilliant and suc- 
cessful work had been done by the staff of the General 
Electric Company and by a Committee of the Royal 
Statistical Society, and it was perhaps ill luck that I never 
came across it before crossing the Atlantic. That, however, 
suggested that it was not very widely known, so the present 
occasion is justified. The method is not by any means 
widely used yet in America either, though its use is spread- 
ing. In both countries it has been principally used in 
industries associated with electricity, such as the telephone 
industry, but I want to emphasize that it should be of 
even greater importance in the mechanical industries, and 
that it is specially applicable to the manufacture of muni- 
tions in all their aspects. 

One of the important points in the new method is that 
it gives reasoned instead of guessed values to the tolerances. 
I will take as an example the making of time fuses for anti- 
aircraft purposes, and I am giving away no military secrets 
in doing so, since the example is fictitious and the data are 
intentionally inaccurate. Suppose that the lethal area of a 
bursting shell is such that, if it explodes within ^ second 
of the set time, it will make a kill. The gunner therefore 
demands of the manufacturer a fuse with accuracy of T V 
second. The manufacturer then works out his method of 
manufacture, but finds that whereas it is easy to get 
accuracy to £ second, he would have a lot of trouble to 
work to T 'jj second, and, indeed, he might estimate that 
for the same effort of work and cost he could not hope to 
get more than one-quarter as many fuses if they must 
have the accuracy of y- second. He therefore tells the 
military authorities that they can have four times as many 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



11 



I -I- 



o 

Ï-2- 



W-3- 



TOL 1 



VM***g2~- 



FUZE SETTING— SECONDS 

_J2 2L_ 



r °t£«" 



A/Vc E 



t'l/r" 



Fig. 1. — Characteristics demanded in time fuse 

shells with an accuracy of \ second as with 
The military authorities will see that by accepting the 
inferior fuse they can get four times as many shells, of 
which half would do what is required, and therefore the 
rate of killing will be doubled. 

I have over-simplified that example, but it illustrates the 
point that in a properly organized system of manufacture 
the user and the maker of the machine ought to confer 
when deciding the tolerances, because the maker has no 
direct knowledge of what tolerances would be reasonable. 
That course would probably be to a certain extent resented 
by the designer or the user at first, because there might be 
a feeling of loss of freedom in the choice of the machine. 
Such freedom is, however, more apparent than real since 
in practice the user is obliged to make the tolerances as 
easy as possible, but he has no guidance as to what will be 
easy. Contact with the manufacturer would enable him to 
decide the matter so as to avoid on the one hand an 
unattainably high standard, and on the other, tolerances 
so easy that the manufacturer could provide him with a 
better machine without extra trouble. To summarize, the 
custom has been for the user to demand from the maker a 
machine to be made as well as possible, whereas he ought 
to demand that it should be made as badly as possible — 
or, perhaps more accurately, as badly as permissible. It is 
in that aspect that statistical control gives the right infor- 
mation. 

A good many varieties of procedure are called for in the 
circumstances of applying statistical control. First, there 
are the two classes of control, according to whether quantity 
or quality was concerned. It may be a measure, say of a 
length or perhaps an electrical resistance, which has to fall 
within certain prescribed limits; for such examples, measure- 
ments of each specimen are recorded for analysis. In other 
cases the test is qualitative, i.e., the specimen either passes 
or fails to pass a test. For example, a vessel is either water- 
tight or it is not; and even the measure of a length might 
fall in that class if it is tested with a gauge. There is 
another distinction which divides either type of work into 
two classes. Some tests, such as a measure of length, can 
be applied to every article made, but other tests are 
destructive. In measuring the tensile strength of a bar the 
test must of necessity be done only on a sample, and it is 
obviously important to have the sample as small as per- 
missible. Moreover, even when every specimen could be 
tested, great economy will result in testing a sample only. 
Sampling is thus one of the main features of the process; 
and the determination of the advisable fraction of the 
whole number to be sampled forms an important part of 
the duty of the statistician. Then again the practical 
problem of statistical control itself falls into two parts, 
for there is first the business of starting a new process 
and applying statistical control, and then the business of 
continuing it, after the control has been established. All 
these matters are described in War Emergency Publication 
No. B.S. 1008, of the British Standards Institution. 

I will take as an example a time fuse, and again I will 
intentionally falsify some of the facts. I learned of this 
example from Colonel Simon, who has shown great bril- 



liance in developing methods of statistical control for 
munitions in the U.S.A. arsenals. Certain limits of tolerance 
have been assigned by gunnery experts. Figure 1 shows the 
characteristics required in the time fuse. The horizontal 
line shows the different timings of the fuse, and the two 
widening dotted lines show the tolerances which the 
military authorities allowed to the manufacturers. The 
dotted lines expand a little to the right, since it is easy to 
get a fuse to behave accurately at a short time and com- 
paratively difficult at a longer time. The fuses failed to 
fulfill the tests assigned, since at the longer times the band 
of tolerances was too narrow at both ends. The matter 
was then handed over to Colonel Simon, and he succeeded 
brilliantly in putting it right. 

To simplify the story, I will assume that Colonel Simon 
had been called in at the beginning. In that case, Colonel 
Simon would first of all separate the batches of fuses from 
different localities, and he would group the fuses from a 
single locality into batches of five. All the fuses would 
then be set at 20 seconds; each fuse would then be timed 
and the average time and the "range" (the difference 
between the shortest and longest among the five) would 
be worked out for each batch and plotted on separate 
graphs. From the "range" chart it is possible, with the 
help of tables constructed by statisticians, to draw on the 
average time chart a pair of limits within which the dots 
should fall. 

If the points plotted for fuses made by one particular 
tool fall outside these limits, it is a sure indication that 
something is wrong with the process; the statistician cannot 
say what the fault is — though in some cases he can go so 
far as to say either that there is only one thing wrong or 
else certainly several things wrong. It is for the engineer 
to re-examine the process and find the fault. Next, of course, 
similar work must be done at the other fuse settings. Once 
that has been done, and the whole system is in control 
(supposing that the accuracy is good enough for the user) 
much less sampling is needed; but at intervals a group 
should be taken and tested in the same way. Such sampling 
nearly always gives warning of impending trouble, before 
the trouble is so bad that the fuses would actually fail in 
their test. 

When I was preparing my present remarks, I tried to 
make a diagram similar to Fig. 2 by plotting sets of points 
taken at random, as I thought that that would suffice to 
illustrate the process. However, in checking to see whether 
the actual values that would be derived from my chart 
would be anywhere near correct, I found that they were 
hopelessly wrong. Then I tried to amend the chart to make 
it more nearly right, and again failed entirely. Finally, I 
selected a chart from one of the British Standards Institu- 
tion publications, plotted from actual results. The point I 
wish to make is that it would be almost impossible for any- 
body to cheat by the method of statistical control; no 
ordinary man could make up out of his head anything that 
corresponds to the laws of probability. That is a very 
surprising fact, which ought to increase confidence in the 
process, because any attempt to fake results would at once 
be apparent to an inspector if he had any knowledge of 
statistics. 

Figure 3 shows the results obtained for fuses made by 
one of four or five manufacturers. It will be seen that at 



< O-l- 

ha 



* 2 -r- 
5 o-L 


• 


• 


• 


• 


m 




• 


• 


■ 


• 


























1 


i 


i 


i 

4 


1 


1 


* 


A 


i 


i 

10 



SERIAL NUMBER OF SAMPLE 



Fig. 2. — Average error X and range R 



12 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



about 25 seconds a considerable number fall well outside 
the tolerances given by the Army, yet their tolerances are 
much finer than those specified. Of fuses made by the 
remaining manufacturers, some give curves like that shown 
and some give curves with an upward tendency; and it 
was by mixing all the fuses of all the makers together in 
the original test, without examining them separately, that 
the idea arose that the designed tolerance was unnecessarily 
severe. 

Having obtained the curves referred to, it is only neces- 
sary to re-graduate the time markings on the fuses. As a 
result, an article which systematically fails to pass its test 
was, with a quite trivial change, found to be actually better 
than had been asked for. As a consequence of his work, 
Simon found that the old tests had destroyed something 
like twice as many of the fuses as were destroyed under the 
method of statistical control and he was thus able to make 
an important reduction in the number tested. 

When I first came across the method of statistical control 
in the United States, I was convinced that it was of the 
highest importance and that it ought to be adopted widely 
in England, but I had considerable misgivings as to whether 
it could be started in the middle of a war. When visiting 
the Bell Telephone Laboratory, New York — the premier 
works in which the process had been introduced in America 
— I asked Dr. Shewhart whether he thought that the process 
could be introduced during the war. Dr. Shewhart's reply 
was quite definitely that there was no reason why it should 
not be applied piecemeal to one article after another, in 
the middle of the war, that it would not delay production, 
and that people would soon get used to the change. 

As bearing out this view, I would mention that when 
I visited Frankford Arsenal, a large military shell factory, 
I asked one of the chief colonels there what he thought 
about the introduction of statistical control in munitions 
work. (Although the method had been in existence for a 
good many years, in munitions work it is rather new, and 



I - 



-tott R 



A MCt 



UM* T 



FUZE SETTING-SECONDS 

10 20 30 




Fig. 3, 



-Limits demanded and results obtained 
with time fuses 



I therefore expected that, Frankford being an old-estab- 
lished arsenal, those in authority there would be rather 
conservative.) The reply I received was that statistical 
control seemed to be the only sensible method to apply. 

In many works statistical control will be no great novelty, 
since in many instances all the records necessary for 
establishing statistical control are already being kept, and 
it would merely involve a slightly different way of utilizing 
those records to make them yield up two or three times 
as much information as they had given in the past. 

It could not, of course, be expected that the method was 
a panacea for all troubles, and I expect that in some cases 
it may prove unsuitable, but I venture the forecast that 
the opposite would much more often be the case, and that 
many processes to which, at first sight, it seemed inapplic- 
able, would later be found to benefit greatly by the intro- 
duction of statistical control. 



POPULAR EXPOSITION OF THE APPLICATION OF QUALITY CONTROL 

Sib Frank Gill, k.c.m.g., o.b.e. 

Director and Vice-President, International Standard Electric Corporation, and Chairman, Standard Telephones and 

Cables, Ltd. , and of Creed and Company, Ltd. 



(1) Introduction. The following is a simple, popular, but 
incomplete exposition of the statistical foundations of 
quality control, easily grasped by busy engineers. 

We have not the necessary knowledge to manufacture 
articles in large quantities and all having identical essential 
qualities, therefore tolerances are introduced into specifica- 
tions. If a number of similar articles are taken and some 
quality, illustrated here as a dimension,! is measured in 
each, we get a frequency distribution such as illustrated in 
Fig. 4, where the majority of the articles cluster round 
about the average measurement. 



3 

2i-\ 




0-080 0-081 0-082 0-Û83 0- 84 0-Ô8S 
AVERAGE DIMENSION IN SAMPLE OF FOUR— INCH 

Fig. 4. — Frequency distribution 



tFor brevity, these remarks do not refer to quality control as 
related to proportion defective. 



Using the data given by these measurements we can, 
by the probability theory, convert this figure, obtained 
from a relatively small number of measurements, into what 
it would be if a very large number were taken. This is 
shown in Fig. 5. The area in Fig. 5 has been very exhaustively 
studied and its properties are so known that it may be 
applied to a chart of the type shown in Fig. 6, on which 
frequent measurements, for example, the product of a 
machine tool can be plotted. This chart shows (a) the 
nominal dimension required, and (6) the plus and minus 
tolerance limits. 

In Fig. 7, three lines are added to the chart: (c) the aver- 
age dimension actually produced and (d) two statistical 
control limits, rather finer than the tolerance limits and 
set quite easily by the simple application of multipliers to 
the figures obtained from the measurements. These multi- 
pliers are based on probabilities. 

The chart shows, as news and not as history, current 
information of the degree to which the desired qualities are 
being embodied in the product, the extent to which varia- 
tion must be expected and be therefore inevitable and 
harmless, and the cases where the samples show harmful 
tendencies or actual "action points," so giving warning for 
instant action before the tolerance limits are reached. The 
main object of quality control is to improve the uniformity 
of the product up to the point where a "state of control" 
exists, that is when all, or substantially all, the plotted 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



13 




UPPER 
• -CONTROL 
\t ■ LIMIT 



0-07? 0-080 0081 0082 083 0-084 0085 
AVERAGE DIMENSION IN SAMPLE OF FOUR— INCH 



Fig. 5. — Probability curve 

points lie within the two statistical control limits. When 
this is attained a train of benefits accrues. 

In broad outline nothing in the new technique appears 
to be very new; but there is much in it which is different 
from the ordinary practice of factories. The following table 
shows the steps in parallel columns: — 



Without quality control 


With quality control 
(measurement) 


Inspector 


Inspector 


Takes samples 


Takes samples 


when he thinks necessary 


regularly — to plan 


measures 


measures 




records 




averages 




plots 




records cumulative averages 




records cumulative ranges 




uses probability control limits 




exhibits continuous news, open 




to production dept., of quali- 




ty being produced, thus 




tending to prevent rejec- 




tions. 


Uses purchase specification 


Uses purchase specification 


tolerances 


tolerances 


Passes or rejects 


Passes or rejects 



These changes are not difficult to make; but their effect 
is important. 

(2) Application. Prolonged research has established so 
much, that a tool has been made and, as is the case with 
many tools, can now be used by those who know little of 
the design. The operating instructions are what must be 
known, not a checking up of the research already done. 
Anyone interested may study the statistical fundamentals 
and will be the more expert for so doing, but it is wrong to 
think that nothing can be done to apply this technique 
until statistical experts are available. 

Statistical assistance is useful if coupled with factory 
experience; but care is required to prevent an unpractical 
mind from disturbing production. What, therefore, should 
be the attitude of the manufacturing man wishing to 
investigate this technique yet unable to add statistical 
knowledge to his factory experience ? Many factory 
engineers are competent to take the simple directions and 
to do useful work without a statistical expert, if one is 
unobtainable; while so doing they will find their knowledge 
expand, so that there will be fewer cases in which such help 
is required, thus relieving the difficulty caused by the 
assumed fact that not very many statistical experts with 
factory experience are available. 

Factory engineers should at once begin to study the 
rules for the application of quality control and not by 
studying the statistical foundation. They should accept 
this foundation as already established and proceed with 
practical study. 

(3) First Steps. The first steps seem to be: . 

(i) To study War Emergency Publication No. B.S. 
1,008 (1942), of the British Standards Institution. 



This Standard is simple and direct and will enable 
the factory man to set up quality control charts, 
using measurements,* and to put such charts into 
practice. 

(ii) To decide which of the products on which the 
factory is engaged is suitable for the use of quality 
control. Obviously the first thought is of repetition 
work, whether continuous flow or in batches of 
considerable size, 
(iii) To answer the question, "Which cases and how 
many for a start ?" The short answer seems to be, 
"Look for cases where the rejects are high; select 
a few of the most troublesome of these and set up 
charts for very few, say not more than six at 
first." 

(iv) To explain fully to all concerned what is being 
done and what is aimed at ; the explanation should 
be so full that the element of surprise (so often 
the cause of misunderstanding) shall be absent, 
(v) To make detailed written instructions for each 
step and each class of shop personnel concerned. 

(vi) To begin plotting charts of the selected processes 
for a few days without putting in the control 
limits. Where no queries arise, perhaps one week 
will be sufficient. 

(vii) To use the average of the averages given by the 
trial period, set up the control limits and maintain 
the charts, 
(viii) To introduce quality control gradually in those 
places where it is appropriate as a regular part of 
the factory routine. 

A copy of the written instructions actually given in one 
case is shown on p. 15. 

(4) Should Quality Control be Introduced During War 
Time? This war is unlike any other in our experience; 
whether we recognize it or not, all are involved in a struggle 
which affects all we value and may affect our very lives. 
Effective, fast production is tremendously important, yet 
to-day production is subject to numerous unusual causes 
of hindrance, such as: less skill in labour, poorer mainten- 
ance, fatigue, illness, worries, less tractable materials, or 
substitutes for normal materials. All these adversely affect 
manufacture, and the results may be summed up in two 
words "more rejects"; or, better still, more man-hours, 
machine-hours, etc., rendered ineffective through rejects. 

Less rejects will, in effect, give reduced waste in man- 
hours, machine-hours, space, materials, etc., and so result 
in greater production ; waste is always costly. This is surely 
a strong appeal to all interested in speed and in effective 
production. 

Because the effectiveness of a firm's inspection can be 
so well judged by the control charts, quality control 
should be a method which appeals to those interested in 
the philosophy of the Services Inspection Departments, 
namely, that when they are satisfied that a firm is doing 
a first-class inspection job, the Services will leave inspection 



ZlO-084 
— l_> 

Q I 0-081- 

£K 0-082- 

Qu. 

ujO 

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007»J 



UPPER TOLERANCE LIMIT 



•• «•• 



AIMÈDAT 



-•a 



LOWER TOLERANCE LIMIT 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I Ml I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I i I I I I i I 1 1 
I 10 20 10 J6 

SAMPLE NUMBER 

Fig. 6. — Oirwi plot tings 



*See footnote, p 13. 



14 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




• — » — 



••«•• 



-.^ d 

* — •~*-c 



-V 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I ! I 1 1 1 1 I I II 1 1 
I 10 20 30 36 

SAMPLE NUMBER 



Fig. 7. — Control limits 

to the firm. If a firm has a job suitable for quality control 
and uses it, not only should the quality of its product 
improve, but it will also have clear evidence of the quality 
of its inspection which can be used to justify the Services 
Department leaving inspection to the firm, with full con- 
fidence in the result. Obviously, however, the mere use of 
quality control charts does not justify leaving inspection 
to the firm, or inspection by samples, unless the quality 
has been brought into the "state of control." 

The foreword in the British Standards Institution's 
publication No. B.S. 1,008 (1942) is highly significant. 
What was it which caused the War Department to request 
the American Standards Association to issue an Emergency 
Defence .Standard on this matter ? It is believed to be 
because, while a certain number of large undertakings were 
using quality control, very many smaller concerns were not, 
perhaps owing to the clouds and complexities by which it 
was surrounded; and so we get this very simple and direct 
instruction arising out of the war. Just because we are at 
war, every method of increasing production and every 
technical improvement are necessary. Recent events must 
have made everyone realize how important is production 
and that everything leading to speed and accuracy is vital. 

(An example of a simple quality control system is given below, and is 
followed (on p. 17) by Sir Frank Gill's concluding observations.) 

Illustration of a Simple Quality Control System as 
Actually Applied in a Factory.* 

Instructions for Control of Quality of Product through 
Percentage Inspection t 

General Instructions 

1. The following procedure is designed to govern the 
inspection of all manufactured items on which the nature 
of the work performed can be measured quantitatively, 
e.g. weight of explosive charge in various components, 
explosive power of detonators in terms of weight of sand 
crushed, specific gravity of cast or pressed materials, burn- 
ing time of fuses, etc., except where 100 per cent inspection 
is performed. 

2. Sampling Schemes. The sampling scheme described 
herein is based on a sample of five items per hour, and is 
practical on the majority of production orders. In some 
instances, however, the cost of sampling may prohibit this 
procedure; whereas, in others, more extensive sampling 
may be advisable, especially at the beginning of an order. 
Hence, the shop inspector will submit his recommended 
sampling scheme to the department chief for approval 
prior to production. The procedure for other sampling 
schemes is covered in notes on sampling schemes. 

Duties of the Foreman 

3. Sampling. Take a sample of five items from the 
assembly line each hour, day or other period of time, as 
instructed by the shop inspector. 

"Taken from Appendix C of An Engineer's Manual of Statistical 
Methods, by Leslie E. Simon. Published by John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., New York; and Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1941. Repro- 
duced here by special permission of the publishers. 

tThe author has pointed out that the system illustrated is not of 
general application. 



4. Recording Observations. Accurately measure each 
sample with regard to size, weight, explosive power, or 
other characteristic described by the respective drawing 
and specification and record the measurements in the 
order taken. 

5. Computing Data, (a) Take the sum of the five recorded 
measurements of the group and divide it by 5. This figure 
is known as the_ "average" or "mean," and is designated 
by the symbol X (bar X). 

(b) For each group of five, subtract the smallest recorded 
measurement from the largest recorded measurement. This 
figure is a measure of dispersion and is commonly known 
as "range" or "maximum dispersion," and is designated by 
the symbol W, (W sub t). 

(c) Table 1 shows a sample of foreman's data. 

(EXTRACTED FROM) TABLE 1 

Foreman's Data for First Day's Sampling 

1st group of five 39 .0 

38.0 
36.5 
37.6 
38.9 



1st highest 39.0 

1st lowest 36 . 5 

1st range 2.5 



5)190.0 



1st average 38 . 



(Similar calculations are made 
by the foreman for the re- 
maining seven groups). 



Shop Inspector's Data for First Day's Sampling 



1st average 38 . 

2nd " 

3rd " 

4th " 

5th " 

6th " 

7th " 

8th " 



38.4 


2nd 


37.9 


3rd 


37.9 


4th 


38.6 


5th 


38.3 


6th 


38.1 


7th 


38.0 


8th 



1st range 2.5 



2.0 
2.0 
2.3 
2.1 
1.9 
2.3 
2.1 



Average of 8 averages ... 38 . 15 Average of 8 ranges 2.15 

Computation of Control Limits 

See paragraph 10 (a)\ Average of 8 averages, 38. 15 = X. 
(b) Average of 8 ranges, 2 . 15 = W,. 
" " (c) WtX 0.594 on "average" chart = 1.28 

_= +Spread of control limits. 
(d) W,X2.08 =4.47 = Upper control limit 
on "range" chart. 
WtX 0.254 = 0.55 = Lower control limit 
on "range" chart. 

6. Plotting Data, (a) Plot the chart described below on 
cross section paper. Head the chart "Control Chart for 

" (inserting the name of the item 

sampled), "Samples of five" followed by the production 
order number. On the face of the chart indicate the lot 
number or batch from which the samples were taken, the 
approximate daily production, and the designated measure- 
ment that the items should meet, e.g. weight of charge 
30.0 gr.±2.0 gr., per drawing 70-1-11, revised 6-20-36. 
(See Figs. 8 and 9). 

(b) On the pieces of cross-section paper mark a horizontal 
scale across the top for the working days of the month, 
e.g. September 1st, September 2nd, etc. Ordinarily, 1 
linear inch for each day is convenient. If the paper has 
eight divisions to the inch, one division will represent a 
working hour of the working day. 

(c) Mark two vertical scales on the left-hand margin 
of the paper — one near the top for the purpose of recording 
the averages (X), and one a moderate space below it for 
recording the ranges (W,). 

(d) Plot the observed average (X) for each group of 
five (see paragraph 5 (a) above) opposite the vertical scale 
for averages (see paragraph 6 (c) above), and under the 
horizontal scale for date and hour (see paragraph 6 (b) 
above). 

JOn page 16. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



15 



40 
F-" 

11 

s S» 

< I 

ï'*37- 



Z 4 



z 
< I- 



MAY S 



WT. OF CHARGE CONTROL CHART FOR 

)9±) GRAINS PRIMER. PERCUSSION. MK.X 

DWG. n-t-n REV. ï-2-j) SAMPLE SIZE croups of s | 

LOT i!4-i RATE :.soo/dat ORDER No.x.o. 145-47/2 



I 
D 0-005 



D 0-005 



POINTS; BY FOREMAN LIMITS; BY SHOP INSPECTOR 

Fig. 8. — Chart for quality control 

(e) In like manner plot the observed range (W,) (see 
paragraph 5 (b) above) opposite the vertical scale for range 
and under the appropriate date and hour. Data should be 
plotted as promptly as practicable, and at least prior to 
the observation of the next group of data. 

7. Foreman's Interpretation of the Chart. Limits will be 
placed on the chart by the shop inspector within which 
practically all points should fall (see paragraphs 10 and 13 
below). If any points fall outside of these limits call the 
shop inspector without delay. 

8. Disposition of Charts. The Foreman will conspicuously 
post the chart in the nearest office to the place of work 
while the work is in progress and, upon the completion of 
the production order, will forward the chart to the depart- 
ment office for file, as a record of the quality of the product. 

9. Delegation of Duties. In lieu of personally performing 
the functions outlined in paragraphs 1-8 inclusive, the 
foreman may designate one or more trusted assistants to 
do them under his supervision. Such assistant may not in 
any case be the workman who performs the work being 
sampled. 

Duties of the Shop Inspector 

10. Computing and Plotting Control Limits, (a) After the 
data from between eight and eighty groups of five have 
been plotted (see paragraph 11 below), compute the average 

of the observed averages. This figure is designated as X 
(bar bar X). Draw a heavy horizontal line on the chart 
for averages at the computed figure and under the hours 
for which the samples were taken. See Figs. 8 and 9. 

(b) Compute the average of the eight to eighty observed 
ranges. This figure is called W t (bar W t sub t). Draw a 
heavy horizontal line on the chart for ranges at this value 
and under the hours for which the samples were taken. 

(c) Multiply W, by 0.594 and plot two heavy dotted 
lines on the chart for averages parallel to the heavy line 

at X and located at X ±0.594 W r Mark each of the lines 
A 0.001. 

(d) In like manner, plot two_heavy dotted lines on th e 
chart for ranges, one at 2.08 W, and one at 0.254 W,. 
Mark each of these lines D 0.005. 

11. Judging and Interpreting of Charts, (a) Practically 
no plotted values of X should fall outside the dotted limits 
A 0.001 (theoretically only one above and one below in a 
thousand). Hence, the presence of a point outside the 
dotted limits is a very strong indication that the general 
level of quality (weight of material in a component, size, 
strength, or other quality) is changing from time to time. 
The shop inspector will advise the foreman to investigate 
at once to determine if someone is doing something wrong, 



if some machine is functioning wrong, if a change has been 
made in the raw material, etc., and the shop inspector 
will also report the situation to the department chief 
without delay. 

(b) A significant deviation of X from the mean value 
designated by the drawing or specification obviously calls 
for measures to bring the average of the product in closer 
alignment with the designated average, and the shop 
inspector will advise the foreman accordingly. The X from 
eighty groups of five is generally so near the true value of 
the product sampled that for purposes of control it may be 
treated as such. 

(c) Practically no plotted values of W t should fall out- 
side the dotted limits D 0.005 (theoretically only five above 
and five below in a thousand). The presence of a point 
outside these limits is a strong indication that the variation 
in the product (lack of uniformity) is greater than it should 
be. The same action will be taken as outlined in paragraph 
11 (a) above. 

(d) With respect to both charts, the plotted dots should 
be scattered rather evenly on both sides of the central line; 
the greater portion should be near the central line, and 
only relatively few should fall near the dotted limits. 
Trouble can frequently be forestalled by a study of the 
charts. If there is a general drift of the plotted points on 
either chart toward the bottom limit or the top limit, a 
timely investigation may eliminate the cause of the drift 
and prevent the occurrence of a point outside the limits. 
In like manner the too frequent occurrence of points at a 
value other than in the immediate vicinity of the central 
value indicates erroneous observations probably due to a 
faulty measuring instrument, use of an instrument not 
sufficiently sensitive for the work involved, or bias on the 
part of the observer. Action same as outlined in paragraph 
11 (a) above. 

12. Number of Groups on which Limits should be based. 
In the interest of accuracy, convenience, and economy of 
labour, it is desirable to have limits plotted on the data 
from eighty groups of five (a normal 10- working-day 
period). However, at the beginning of a job, limits should 
be calculated on the first eight plotted points; then after 
a total of sixteen have been accumulated, then after a total 
of forty, and finally after eighty, all preceding points in- 
cluded in each successive calculation. The next set of 
limits will be based on the next eighty points, namely, 
points No. 81 to No. 160 inclusive, etc. 

13. Predicting Limits. The importance of these charts 
lies not so much in disclosing that trouble occurred yester- 
day, or last week, as in disclosing it instantly, or before it 
occurs. Hence, it is most important that limits exist for 





MAY 3 


MAY -4 


MAY S 


MAY 6 


MAY 7 






— . 


„-» 
















„„.- - 












A 00 


)l 




• 


• 
• 


- • 


^V 














1 


*•• 






• 












( 




. . 




























A 0-001 \ 

1 




WT. OF CHARGE CONTROL CHART FOR 1 

)8±) GRAINS PRIMER, PERCUSSION, MK.X 

DWG.7«-4_ji REV. 7-j-j) SAMPLE SIZE croups of s 
LOT i2<-i RATE 2.S0o/day ORDER No. to. w-t,iji 




















D 0-005 1 


\s> 














< 

OS 

O a. 






















i 3 


h+ 


v-V 


.*• 


•• 














u7 i- 

z 


-**- 


• 


-* — 


w-* 














a. 


















D0(X 


» 


0- 


" T " 





POINTS", BI FOREMAN LIMITS! BY SHOP INSPECTOR 

Fig. 9. — Chart for quality control 



16 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the plotted points (see paragraph 7 above), before the points 
are plotted. To accomplish this purpose, the shop inspector 
will, at the time he computes and plots a set of limits for 
a period of from eight to eighty plotted points, extend 
these limits in light lines for the next data period. These 
extended limits are binding upon production for the next 
period during which another set of plotted points are being 
accumulated (see paragraph 7 above). The limits from the 
accumulated data will then serve as a check on these 
extended limits and as a basis for new extended limits. 
This procedure is clearly illustrated in Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive. 
Thus, when limits are calculated as detailed in paragraph 
10 and extended as detailed in this paragraph, there are 
always limits predicted ahead, except for the first eight 
points. Even this deficiency can be supplied by taking 
advantage of data from a previous order, and this procedure 
should be followed if such data are available. 

14. Meeting Drawings and Specifications. The meeting of 
drawings and specifications (as most of them are now 
written) is often more a matter of engineering, judgment, 
and interpretation than of mathematical statistics. In 
general, the drawing or specification will state that the 
product (presumably meaning every item thereof) will be 
A±jd. Actually, there is no way of knowing if every item 
falls within the limits A+d unless every item is sampled 
and, if the sampling be destructive, there is no product left. 
However, if the product has showed "control" during 
manufacture; i.e. practically no points have fallen outside 
the control limits; no exhibition of a pronounced drift or 
trend; and, if the number of plotted points be large (e.g. 
forty or more) then it can be said with reasonable certainty 
that approximately 90 per cent of the individual items will 

lie between X +0.707 W t ; 95 per_cent between X +0.843 
W,; and 99^ per cent between Z+1.21 W,. (For X and 
W h see paragraphs 10 (a) and 10 (b) respectively). Upon 
completing each period of eighty points the shop inspector 
will note on the chart "approximately 993^ P er cen t within 
X+1.21 W,," substituting for X its numerical value and 
for 1.21 W, its numerical value. 

Notes on Sampling Schemes 

15. Time not a Factor. It is not necessary that the groups 
of five be taken each hour. All the rales outlined above 
apply with equal force if the groups of five be taken every 
half hour, every five minutes, day, week, or other period 
of time, just so long as the observations are grouped in 
fives. Hence, in devising sampling schemes, sampling may 
be increased or decreased at will by merely varying the 
time interval. 

16. Grouping. Groups of four can be used just as readily 
as groups of five by changing all 5's to 4's and changing 
constants as follows: — 

Paragraph 5 (a) Divide by 4 instead of 5. 

Paragraph 10 (c) Change 0.594 to 0.750. 

Paragraph 10 (d) Change 2.08 to 2.26; and 

0.254 to 0.185. 
Paragraph 14 Change 0.707 to 0.798; 

0.843 to 0.952; and 1.21 

to 1.36. 
Groups of 10 can be used instead of groups of five by 
changing all 5's to 10's and changing constants as follows: — 

Paragraph 5 (a) Divide by 10 instead of 5. 

Paragraph 10 (c) Change 0.594 to 0.318. 

Paragraph 10 (d) Change 2.08 to 1.755 and 

0.254 to 0.439. 



Paragraph 14. 



Change 0.707 to 0.536; 

0.843 to 0.637; and 1.21 
to 0.913. 

For a given number of observations, the relative precision 
of results obtained by the use of groups of 4, 5, or 10 
under the method outlined is practically the same. How- 
ever, the smaller groups are to be preferred because of their 
greater sensitivity to a changing cause system, which is of 
relatively great importance in manufacture. 

Revised: 1/15/37 

Leslie E. Simon, 

Capt., Ord. Dept. 

(Sir Frank Gill's concluding observations, in continuation (from 
p. 15) of the text of his exposition of the subject, are given below.) 

(5) Conclusion. Many persons say, "We have used 
Quality Control for years," really meaning that they have 
used methods for controlling quality, but not quality control 
as now understood. The marks which distinguish quality 
control from all other methods seem to be: — 

(i) Regular measurement of small samples. 

(ii) Instant charting of sampling results. 

(iii) Control limits fixed by statistical method, not by 
guesswork or by the junior assistant. 

(iv) Exhibition of charts where the production force 
can easily fulfil their duty of knowing the inform- 
ation on them and when to take action. It would 
not be of much use for the railway signals engineer 
to provide perfect signals unless the driver of the 
train could see them and realize his duty to obey 
them. 

Inspectors following this method will enlarge their role 
from that of merely guarding quality turned out to that 
of also assisting production — a more satisfying job. 

Increased production is not to be obtained merely by 
encouraging shouts from onlookers urging more effort and 
longer hours. It is also affected by expert planning, the 
maintenance of smooth unbroken flow of materials, machine 
tools, labour, orders and the use of best methods, and one 
of these — in the appropriate cases — is quality control. In 
the first instance the burden of investigation and application 
of this new aid lies with the management of factories and, 
with the two British Standard Specifications, they now 
have the means to push this matter with all the intense 
energy that the war situation demands. 

But in addition, the Government has a place; in para- 
graph 33 of its Eighth Report, 26th March 1942, the Select 
Committee on National Expenditure, while agreeing that 
the primary responsibility of ensuring the best use of 
materials and labour must rest with the management of 
factories, stated: "The Government has an important 
duty in checking up how this responsibility is in practice 
discharged both in its own establishments and in industry 
generally." Lastly, on the 24th and 25th March 1942, the 
Minister of Production, in the House of Commons, referred 
to subjects which affected all three Production Ministries 
and asked for suggestions, particularly for increasing pro- 
duction without increasing plant or labour force. Engineers 
now offer to Mr. Lyttelton — in quality control — a real 
contribution to these subjects referred to by himself, and 
by the Select Committee. Perhaps it will not be indiscreet 
to say that undoubtedly engineers will be interested to 
know what use the Minister finds for it. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



17 



ENGINEER TRAINING IN CANADA 

Major J. P. CARRIÈRE, s.c, r.c.e., m.e.i.c. 
General Staff Officer, Directorate of Military Training, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa. 



Akmy Requirements 

It has been truly said that this is an engineer's war. The 
need for engineers is felt in all activities relating to the war 
effort, in the army, in the air force, in the shipyards and in 
munitions, arms and other factories on the home front. 

The unprecedented development of Canadian industries 
since the beginning of the war and the subsequent employ- 
ment of engineers in these industries, together with the 
demands of the army, navy and air force, has drained the 
existing supply of professional Canadian engineers. The 
annual production of engineers from our universities is 
far from sufficient to fill the continued requirements. 

Faced with this problem, the army is forced to train as 
engineer officers, candidates of a lower standard of educa- 
tion than that of graduate engineers. The immediate need 
of the army is for reinforcement officers possessing a 
general knowledge of military engineering science, capable 
of personal development as experience is acquired, and 
capable of commanding efficiently a section of engineers 
in the field (approximately 60 men). 

Distinctive Features of Military Engineering 

Engineering practice in civil life to-day is characterized 
by specialized organization, resulting in rapid and efficient 
execution of works in which cost and durability are the 
important factors. 

In military engineering, in wartime, the necessity for 
speed, often combined with lightness and mobility of plant, 
equipment and materials, override technical perfection and 
(within limits) cost. 

The distinctive features of the organization and tech- 
nique of military engineering are: 

(a) The almost complete absence of specialization. 

(b) The wide range of general engineering embraced. 

(c) The necessity for speed. 

(d) The capacity for improvisation. 

In connection with this last feature, military engineering 
has been described in lighter vein as: "The art of employing 
tools, equipment and materials for totally different pur- 
poses than that for which they were originally intended." 

The necessity for exploiting the wide resources of engineer- 
ing science to military purposes renders it essential that 
military engineers should be in close touch with the latest 
developments in civil practice. 

Duties of Engineer Officers 

The duties of engineer officers in the field can be stated 
broadly as follows: — 

(a) To advise the commander on engineer problems 
affecting contemplated plans of operations. 

(b) To execute engineer projects required in the further- 
ance of adopted plans of operations. 

(c) To assume tactical command of mixed forces in the 
field, when necessary. 

It therefore follows that the training of engineer officer 
candidates must aim at teaching: 

(a) A full appreciation and understanding of engineering 
problems which affect all types of military operations. 

(b) Methods of executing engineer works required in the 
field, by means of standard equipment or by im- 
provisation from the slenderest resources. 

(c) The characteristics, tactics and limitations of mixed 
forces in the field in all types of military operations. 



Selection of Personnel 

To make up for the present shortage of professional 
engineers, the army accepts as candidates for commissions 
in the Corps of Royal Canadian Engineers, individuals who 
have a knowledge in mathematics sufficient to allow them 
to learn and understand simple formulae relating to the 
design and execution of simple engineering structures, the 
use of explosives and other military engineering activities, 
who are alert and keen and who possess qualities conducive 
to good leadership. Preference is given to men who have 
been employed in engineering activities in their civil 
employment. 

Such candidates are taken either from civil life or are 
selected from the ranks in the army. 

Personnel selected as suitable officer candidates are 
posted to one of the Canadian officers' training centres. 

Officers' Training Centres 

The function of officers' training centres is to impart to 
selected soldiers from the rank and file, and to civilians, the 
elementary knowledge essential to the formation of junior 
officers of all arms of the service. 

This includes studies of the principles of modern warfare, 
the characteristics, functions and employment of the various 
arms, and the theory of administration and command of 
military forces. This is supplemented by elementary studies 
of the detailed characteristics and functions of that arm 
of the service to which they have been allotted. 

The course at officers' training centres is of twelve weeks 
duration. During the first six weeks, the candidates are 
given instruction in the appreciation of military situations, 
the correct method of issue of orders and messages, first 
aid, the elements of gas warfare, leadership and morale, 
military law, map reading, organization and administration, 
methods of training troops and infantry weapon training. 
They are hardened physically by means of drill, physical 
training, marches and sports and are also taught to operate 
motorcycles. 

The following two weeks of the course are devoted to 
tactical exercises in the field. 

For the final four weeks of the course, the candidates arc 
grouped in accordance with the arm of the service to which 
they have been allotted, for preliminary studies of specific 
subjects related to that arm. 




Canadian Army Photo 
Fig. 1 — Standard floating bridge equipment. 



18 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Canadian Army Photo 



Fig. 2 — Improvised bridge. 



In the case of engineer candidates, these subjects com- 
prise field defences, organization of engineer works, the 
use of ropes and spars, the design and erection of improvised 
bridges and ferries, the theory and use of explosives, the 
theory of water supply, methods of making engineer 
reconnaissances in the field and the preparation of military 
engineering reports. 

R.C.E. candidates who successfully complete the course 
are granted commissions as 2nd lieutenants in the Corps 
of R.C.E. Then they proceed to one of the Canadian 
engineer training centres for advanced training. 

Advanced Training for Officers 

The functions of Canadian engineer training centres, as 
regards officer training, is to complement the elementary 
instruction given at officers' training centres, to train 
officers in the practical application of the subjects taught 
and to practise officers in the actual command of small 
bodies of troops. 

The training at Canadian engineer training centres is 
divided into two main stages: 

(a) A twelve weeks course. 

(b) "Apprenticeship" lasting from one to three months. 

The course is a continuation of and complement to the 
course given at officers training centres. The subjects taught 
are: Chemical Warfare, Weapon Training, Drill, Training 
Methods, Motor Transport, Map Reading, Air Photo 
Interpretation, Military Law, Leadership, Organization 
and Administration, Reports, Appreciations and Orders, 
Security and Intelligence, Field Defences, Mining, Water 
Supply, Accommodation and Sanitation, Obstacles and 
Mines, Demolitions, Roads and Tracks, Concrete Design in 
the Field, Signal Training, Tactics, Combined Operations 
and Bridging. 

It will be observed that to cover such a wide range of 
subjects, (many of which are technical subjects) in a period 
of 12 weeks, is a big undertaking. However, it is not intended 
to produce specialists in any subject but to impart a general 
military engineering knowledge to all candidates,- on the 
assumption that they will improve this knowledge during 
their period of "apprenticeship" and in the field. 

The period of "apprenticeship" which follows the course 
varies from one month to three months duration. The 
length of time depends entirely on the aptitude and keeness 
of individual candidates. The commandants and instructors 
at Canadian engineer training centres are the judges who 
decide when an officer is suitable for despatch in the field as 
a reinforcement section commander. 

The maximum period of training given at organized 



training centres, provided the candidate does not fail on 
any course, is therefore, nine months. If we add to this the 
time spent in examination of the candidates before selec- 
tion, the time necessary to move from one training centre 
to the other, the time spent on travel from Canadian 
engineer training centres to the army in the field, and other 
unforeseen delays, we can safely say that it takes ten 
months to a year to produce and despatch each reinforce- 
ment officer. 

Specialists Training 

Reinforcement officers are despatched to an Engineer 
Reinforcement Unit where they may be held for further 
training, or from which they may be sent direct to units 
in the field. Demands for the replacement of casualties is 
the governing factor. While at either Engineer Reinforce- 
ment Unit or with a unit in the field, a selection is made of 
officers who show special aptitudes. These specially selected 
officers are given special training in one or more advanced 
engineering subjects. 

At the moment, most of this specialized training is carried 
out at the School of Military Engineering, England. Special 
courses are given in Fieldworks, Bridging, Demolitions, 
Motor Transport, Engineer Intelligence, Tunnelling and 
Bomb Disposal. Three specialized engineer courses for 
officers are given in Canada at the moment: Camouflage, 
Bomb Disposal and Driving and Maintenance of Military 
Vehicles (wheeled and tracked). 

Experienced engineer officers are also selected from time 
to time to attend senior officers' courses or staff courses 
leading to senior or staff appointments. 

Training of Other Ranks 

Training of other ranks for the Corps of Royal Canadian 
Engineers follows the policy adopted for the training of 
officers. 

Recruits are allotted to the Corps by Army Examiners 
after interviews and tests. They then go through an eight 
weeks course of basic training and follow this up by an 
eight weeks course of advanced training at Canadian 
Engineer training centres. 

On completion of this latter course, sappers are posted to 
trained soldier companies where further training is carried 
out pending despatch to the field as reinforcements. 

This applies to non-tradesmen only. In the case of trade 
trainees, these have to complete advanced training and 
quality as sappers before attending trades schools, where 
courses of from 3 to 16 weeks duration are given, depending 
on the trade. They are then posted to a trained soldier 




i 



Canadian Army Photo 
Fig. 3 — Standard bridging equipment. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



19 




company pending despatch to the field as reinforcements. 
The requirements for tradesmen in engineers are about 
seventy-five per cent of the total requirements for 
reinforcements. 

Conclusion 

Summarizing the above, it can safely be stated that the 
time required to qualify candidates as engineer reinforce- 
ments is as follows : 

Officers 10 to 12 months 

Tradesmen 6 to 10 months 

Sappers 5 to 6 months 

Provided the input of officer candidates and recruits is 
maintained at a level to conform with the theoretical 
output for which the training machinery has been set up, 
reinforcements for the Canadian Army will continue to be 
produced at a suitable rate. 

Fig. 4 — Left: Standard floating bridge equipment. 



Canadian Army Photo 



IRON ORE OCCURRENCES IN THE LAKE SUPERIOR 

DISTRICT 

With special reference to the Steep Rock Occurrences. 

J. G. CROSS, m.e. 
Port Arthur, Ont. 

Paper presented before the Lakehead Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada on November 11th, 1942. 



There are six producing ranges on the American side of 
the Lake Superior area. These are: the Vermilion range, the 
Mesabi, the Cuyuna, the Gogebic, the Marquette, and the 
Menominee (Fig. 1). These ranges are expected to produce 
this year about 100,000,000 tons of iron ore. 

The Mesabi range is by far the greatest producer, and 
also has one of the greatest ore reserves. This range pro- 
duces about eighty-five per cent of all the iron ore produced 
in the Lake Superior area. The range itself is about one 
hundred miles long, of which seventy miles is productive. 

The highest grade ore is produced from the Vermilion 
range, but the quantity is small. Some of the other ranges 
produce special types of iron ore, such as the Cuyuna range, 
where iron ores high in manganese are mined. Different 
mines on the same range produce different types of ore, 
and, in fact, several different types of ore are often mined 
from the same mine. 

The iron content of the ore is not the determining factor 
in the grade. Silica, sulphur, phosphorus, and other impur- 
ities are very important factors in determining the value of 
the ore. For example, for certain types of steel, phosphorus 
is very undesirable, and for other types, such as spring 
steel, it is necessary. It is important, therefore, for the steel 
maker, that a great variety of ores should be available for 
him to choose from, in order to make a product which will 
meet various exacting specifications. 

The question naturally arises why there are so many 
extensive deposits on the American side, and so few on the 
Canadian side. Why have the Americans over four hundred 
iron mines, against our one — the Helen ? The areas are not 
widely separated, and the rocks are similar. 

The answer to this is fourfold: 

1. The rocks on our side of the line are largely of the 
igneous type, while those of our neighbours to the south are 
largely sedimentary. The sedimentary rocks are more 
favourable host rocks for iron ore, particularly hematite, 
than rocks of igneous origin. 

2. Folding and deformation of the strata are necessary, 
in order that surface waters may circulate through the iron- 



bearing formations, and remove such impurities as silica and 
so enrich the iron content of the residue. Iron ore of com- 
mercial grade is the result. The depth of folding of the 
strata, and the nature of surrounding terrain, will, of 
course, act as factors determining the depth to which 
circulating ground waters can penetrate. This, in turn, 
governs the size, richness, and vertical extent of the ore 
bodies. Other factors enter also, but they need not be 
discussed here. 

3. Erosion has been much more intense on the Canadian 
side than on the American. Probably any ore bodies that 
did occur in our area, and did not go to great depths, such 
as those at Steep Rock, have been removed. Across the 
border, erosion was also extensive, and much of the richer 
ore of the Mesabi range was removed by erosion and 
glaciation, but enough still remained to make this the most 
extensive of all the iron ranges in the Lake Superior area. 

4. The Mesabi range extends across the border into our 
own particular area, between Loon Lake and the boundary, 
but no iron ore deposits have ever been found, either in this 
area, or for the forty miles or so that it extends into the 
state of Minnesota. The reason for this is that the iron 
formation, at the time the greatest concentration of ore was 
going on, over a period of millions of years, in Precambrian 
days, was covered by a mantle of igneous rocks, and so 
protected from surface waters, and other concentrating 
agencies. The remnants of this igneous covering still 
remain as sills that top the high hills around Thunder Bay, 
such as Mount McKay, Pie Island, Thunder Cape, etc. 
These tough-weathering, igneous cappings give our district 
a rugged and pleasing topography, but at the expense of 
iron ore deposits that undoubtedly would have occurred, 
had cappings not been there. Once the iron formations 
emerged from beneath these igneous rocks, the weathering 
agencies had a chance to act upon them, and rich iron ore 
concentrations were the result. 

Iron Ore Occurrences at Steep Rock Lake 
This area is well within the Precambrian Shield, so it 
might reasonably be asked: Why are there such extensive 



20 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



occurrences of iron ore here ? The answer is that a terrific 
convulsion of nature caused such a deep fold that even the 
extensive erosion and glaciation to which the area was 
subjected failed to remove the iron ore bodies completely. 
It must be remembered, however, that millions of tons of 
ore were removed by glaciation, but as in the Mesabi range, 
there was still some left. 

The Steep Rock area was first deeply folded along an 
east and west axis. This folding was intense, and the flat- 
lying sediments were folded into an almost vertical attitude. 
Later, a series of sharp folds occurred with a north and 
south axis. This folding was super imposed on the original 
East and West fold, and the result is a very complicated 
structure. These foldings, particularly the latter, with the 
north and south axis, produced intense fragmentation and 
shattering of the strata, which had its greatest intensity at 
the apex of the folds, as might be expected. 

These areas of greatest deformation formed channels 
through which iron bearing, circulating waters could move. 
However, in the case of Steep Rock, the mineral-bearing 
solutions came up from below, and not from the surface 
downward. No doubt there was some enrichment from 
surface waters, but any ore formed in this way has possibly 
been removed by glaciation and erosion. The Steep Rock 
occurrence is not unique in this respect, many iron ore 
deposits have occurred by this "replacement" process, but 
it is not common on the American side of the Lake Superior 
Basin. This replacement type of ore body is a favourable 
indication that the ore will continue to possibly great 
depths, since the mineralization came from below and not 
from above. 

Size and Extent of Ore Bodies 

The iron ore occurrences at Steep Rock Lake are exten- 
sive, and give promise of a very large tonnage (Fig. 2). The 
"A" ore body was the first discovered, and this, as far as ex- 
plored, has a length of nearly a mile and a maximum width 
of over two hundred and fifty feet. The "B" ore body, a 
mile and a half to the south, has a length of about a mile 
as far as explored, and a maximum width of over one 
hundred feet. The "C" ore body, three miles to the north- 
east, has not been sufficiently explored to give any dimen- 
sions, but indications are that it is quite large, possibly 



larger than the "A" ore body. Furthermore, there is a 
strong probability that other ore bodies will be found, one 
west of the "A," and one or more south of the "C" ore 
body. 

In reality, the Steep Rock occurrence is an iron range 
that is completely submerged, with a length of about 
fifteen miles, following the folding of the strata. The ore- 
bearing possibilities of this area have been only partially 
explored, and, no doubt, when the lake is drained, further 
ore bodies will be found. 

Nature of the Ore 
The Steep Rock ore is exceptionally high grade, averag- 
ing about sixty per cent iron, low in impurities. A test made 
very recently showed that it gave excellent results in the 
open hearth furnace, and, of course, it would be excellent 
material in the blast furnace. As an iron ore, it has no 
peer, not even the much touted Swedish ore. Much of the 
ore produced will be "hard" ore, which is in such great 
demand for making steel by the open hearth process. There 
will soon develop in the United States, and in this country, 
a shortage of this type of iron ore. 

Possibility of Finding other Iron Ore Occurrences in 
this Area 

By "this area" is meant the Lake Superior area on the 
Canadian side of the line. The sequence of unusual geolo- 
gical events that gave rise to the Steep Rock occurrences of 
iron ore, is remarkable. It is hardly to be expected that 
ore occurrences on such a vast scale will be found elsewhere 
within the Lake Superior district. However, the Precam- 
brian Shield is large; and to the north, in Labrador, and 
around the Hudson Bay watershed are great areas of rocks 
where iron ore might be found. 

The recent discovery of ore in Labrador is an example. 
No doubt, other important iron ore discoveries will be made 
when these vast hinterland areas are more thoroughly 
prospected. 

We must not lose sight of the fact, however, that ores that 
might be concentrated or beneficiated occur in great 
abundance, in this particular area, tributary to the head of 
the lakes. It is not intended to discuss these at the present 
time, but undoubtedly these low grade ores will be used in 



MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF 



THE IRON RANGES om„ LAKE SUPERIOR REGION 




Courtesy The Canadian Geographical Journal 
Fig. 1 — Map showing location of the iron ranges of the Lake Superior region. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



21 




Courtesy The Canadian Geographical Journal 

Fig. 2 — Map showing location of ore bodies at Steep Rock 
Iron Mines. 



ever increasing amounts as our supply of high grade ores 
diminishes. There are extensive areas of iron formation in 
the vicinity of Shebandowan, Shabaqua, east of Lake 
Nipigon, and west of Fort William to the American boun- 
dary, that might produce large quantities of commercial 
iron ore through some method of concentration and bene- 
ficiation or both. The New Helen Mine at Michipicoten, is 
an example of this. 

Canada is a big consumer of iron and steel. Hitherto we 
have had to import most of the iron ore for our purposes, 
and also many millions of dollars worth of iron and steel as 
manufactured products. At the present time we are paying 
staggering amounts for such manufactured products, the 
exchange alone, last year, • amounting to over twenty-five 
million dollars. 

Iron ore and coal are the life blood of any country, and 
the great prosperity of our neighbour to the south has been 
due in large measure to an abundance of these commodities. 
Now that we have an abundance of iron ore ready to be 
developed, we should use this bountiful gift to our greatest 
advantage. 

We should manufacture all the iron and steel we ourselves 
need, and much more, for export. Special steels, such as 
alloy steels should not be neglected. Electrolytic iron will 
probably have a considerable field for special purposes, 
such as seamless tubing, etc. We should be well to the fore in 
securing an adequate supply of cheap electric power for this 
purpose. We are not so well supplied with coal, but we have 
water power, and we should see that our water power supply 
is kept well in advance of requirements. Where there is 
water power available at reasonable cost, there industry 
will develop. Electric alloying furnaces and electrolytic 
iron-producing plants require large quantities of power, 
and we should have this power available. A dollar's worth 
of iron ore will produce fifty dollars in finished products. Let 
us not be hewers of wood, and drawers of water. We have 
the brains, let us see that we use them to the best advantage. 
Let us adopt and adhere to the policy: Canadian Iron for 
Canadian Industry! 



22 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE SPIRIT OF A PEOPLE 

JAMES W. PARKER 

President, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



SUMMARY — It is necessary for the country's welfare that 
thinking people exert leadership among their fellows. Puhlic 
opinion will be formed by the kind of thinking the better in- 
formed element of the population is doing. Men must dis- 
criminate between truth and fallacy, lest the public mind 
mistake shadow for substance. Turn over in your minds the 
political doctrines of the past three decades. In innumerable 
instances we have plainly allowed professionalized politicians, 
professionalized teachers, and professionalized publicists to 
mislead us. We have let our system of primary and secondary 
education be taken so far out of the hands of the public it 
serves that certain professional educators seriously question 
the people's right to be heard. Human incentives to work and 
progress will be destroyed if some of these teachings are fol- 
lowed to their logical conclusion. 

Whose duty is it to combat false doctrines? Whose but the 
intelligent people now so much engrossed in their private un- 
dertakings? We are committed to the perpetuation of the great 
ideal of a government which shall reflect in its courses the faith 
and the aspirations of a new nation. Its people are becoming 
amalgamated to an extent we do not yet realize by the pressure 
of great events. They are united now in a common cause. Men 
are re-examining their beliefs in the light of the realities of 
the present day. I believe devoutly that the people are return- 
ing to the failli of their fathers, inarticulately but surely. 

That this customary address by the President to the 
members of the Society is, by that same custom, given at 
the end of his term of office, implies at least an expectation 
that he will report something of the year's experience. I 
have visited many of the sections and student branches 
during the past twelve months although by no means all 
of them. My acquaintance with members has been con- 
siderably increased and I have learned much from them of 
their observations of other people and of their own attitudes 
of mind. 

The younger men in the student branches are almost all 
of them affected directly by the war. Most of these engi- 
neering students expect shortly to be in the armed forces 
and they are puzzled to know whether or not they will be 
given opportunity to make use of their engineering training 
or will be able to resume that training after the war. A 
wiser national policy might have obviated that problem 
and have prevented the almost irreparable waste of trained 
man-power now threatened. It is, I suppose, one more con- 
sequence of the country's mental unpreparedness for which 
a price must be paid. Because of my belief that there will 
be great need in the future for men with a thorough training 
in the fundamentals of technology, I have urged these 
young men to finish their engineering education whenever 
circumstances permit ; to finish it now if the time is afforded 
them before entering military service, to come back and 
finish after the war if need be. I have seen enough of the 
effects of the last war on young men's careers to give them 
that advice without hesitation. 

The members of the Society themselves are for the most 
part deeply immersed in the war effort. They are busy in 
the traditional ways of engineers, their efforts directed to- 
ward the effective adaptation of American industry to the 
manufacture of the materials of war. The techniques of 
quantity production are applied. Hitherto closely guarded 
methods are being pooled to that end. We can be everlast- 
ingly grateful that without significant exception, responsible 
men in industry have made common cause with their peace- 
time competitors. Their engineering staffs are working joy- 
ously in this new-found freedom from commercial restraint. 



Presidential Address delivered at the Annual Meeting, New York, 
N.Y., Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1942, of The American Society of Mechan- 
ical Engineers. Dr. Parker, who is vice-president and chief engineer 
of the Detroit Edison Company, Detroit, Mich., is well known to 
many Canadian engineers. His address is reproduced here through 
the courtesy of Mechanical Engineering, where it appears in the Jan- 
uary, 1943, issue. 



It is not surprising, I supposed to have found men, never- 
theless thoughtful about the future. The admonition of 
Past-President Batt in his address to the Society in 1940 
that engineers give heed to the changes that will inevitably 
be upon us after the war, has given the impetus to some 
of this thinking. People are aware of impending social- 
economic change. They are aware of the coming impact 
upon the existing order of an acquired internal debt of un- 
imagined proportions, of the seriousness of the job of shifting 
into peacetime pursuits the army of workers now being 
trained in the special skills of war production. The produc- 
tive capacity of industry is being greatly enhanced, but 
there can be no doubt that the genius that made possible 
such a conversion of product for war will find means for 
shifting back to the ordinary uses of a world at peace. The 
question about which men's minds are puzzled is what kind 
of a world we shall be living in, what the incentives, what 
the opportunities. Engineers are wondering whether the 
product of so vast an industrial machine can find a market 
or, if not, how the men and women workers now so much 
in demand can find employment. There is something sig- 
nificant in the fact that members of the engineering pro- 
fession are turning their thoughts to such matters. When 
changes come, as come they will, the country should this 
time have the benefit of the thinking that engineers can 
contribute. 

After going about the country, my strongest impression 
is that the nation is more homogeneous in thought and 
purpose than we ourselves have been believing. The variety, 
even the diversity, of races that have merged themselves to 
make up the American people has brought not disunion but 
a marked toughening of the fabric. The racial contributions 
have been many and they vary from the stamina and innate 
courage of some elements to the imagination, the high in- 
tellect, and the sheer inventiveness of others. They are evi- 
denced by the breadth of scientific research, going forward, 
the capacity for organization, the very adaptability of the 
workers. Our fathers planted more wisely than we in this 
later generation have believed, and the fruits of their plant- 
ing are the manifold accomplishments of a nation formed 
out of the raw materials of older countries that have come 
to a new world of infinitely greater freedom and opportunity. 
One finds proof of it in so many ways. The very names in 
the Membership List of the Society bear witness to the 
color and variety of the pattern in which this nation is 
woven. And with all the singleness of purpose encountered 
everywhere, one is aware of an absence of rancor, as of an 
older people who have attained tolerance with their matur- 
ity. It is one of the strongest indications one sees of their 
confidence in the ultimate outcome of the world conflict. 
It is implicit, for instance, in the action of our Government 
in removing all civil disabilities from the half million or 
more of Italian folk rated until a few weeks ago as enemy 
aliens. 

History is a melancholy record of the decay and over- 
throw of institutions and beliefs built up for generations 
with long painful effort and devotion. Time and again 
nations have indomitably faced devastation and still lived. 
They have survived military defeat and revolution and 
even the sweeping away of religious concepts and still lived. 
Whether a people can survive such changes will depend 
upon the toughness of its spirit. 

Our national fabric will be tested even though we shall 
be spared military defeat. I believe our people now are 
facing a trial of their faith in self-government, challenged 
as it has not been challenged for generations. Part of the 
serious thinking that men are doing is about their own 
beliefs and the things their sons are growing up to believe. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



23 



And they are beginning to discover unsuspected instinctive 
preferences such as determine the character of a people. 
They are the key to deeply rooted beliefs it has been too 
much the fashion to flout in these latter days. It is not much 
wonder that strangers have misunderstood the spirit of the 
American people. We have ourselves misunderstood it. 

Years ago a poet whose authorship some of you will 
recognize wrote these verses describing the North American 
as seen through the eyes of his own spirit: 

His easy unswept hearth he lends 
From Labrador to Guadalupe; 
Till, elbowed out by sloven friends, 
He camps, at sufferance, on the stoop. 

Calm-eyed he scoffs at Sword and Crown, 
Or panic-blinded, stabs and slays; 
Blatant he bids the world bow down, 
Or cringing begs a crust of praise; 

But, through the shift of mood and mood, 
Mine ancient humour saves him whole — 
The cynic devil in his blood 
That bids him mock his hurrying soul; 

That bids him flout the Law he makes, 
That bids him make the Law he flouts, 
Till, dazed by many doubts, he wakes 
The drumming guns that — have no doubts; — 

That stings some, even yet; but have we held ourselves in 
much better repute ? Have we not been believing prosperity 
has weakened our fiber ? The brave concept of a new country 
offering sanctuary to the oppressed people of the earth is 
well-nigh gone. Jacob Riis and his almost religious belief 
that America is a melting pot of diverse peoples from which 
a finer civilization will be cast have grown dim in our minds. 
Our bookshelves have abounded with historical fiction whose 
authors' purpose seems to have been to prove all we had 
been taught to revere was but the apocryphal account of 
legendary figures little resembling the far different and less 
admirable characters of the actual past. 

And, as a matter of fact, have we followed very closely 
the paths we laid out for ourselves when we were a younger 
people ? We know now we might have guided better and 
encouraged our immigrant population. We have suffered 
injustice and discrimination to mar the record of our indus- 
trial growth. In a spirit of sheer selfishness we have unneces- 
sarily limited access by other peoples to our markets, and 
in admitting this we must admit our own share of respon- 
sibility for the troubles of impoverished peoples abroad after 
the armistice of 1918. 

I believe men are beginning now to understand these 
things better, for I think we have been facing realities since 
the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor. We have had to look 
to the leaders of our Government to reach grave decisions 
— decisions that may make or mar the future of the country ; 
and I believe we have come to examine those leaders with 



a more discriminating sense. As one thinks over the lives 
of the country's statesmen in past crises, the anxieties and 
doubts of men faced with awful decisions become very vivid. 
I see now no lack of reverence for Washington and Grant 
and Lincoln. They stand out of the past, figures of great 
moral and intellectual stature. I think Will Shakespeare 
was indulging a playwright's impulse to write claptrap when 
he said, "The good is oft interred with their bones." We 
have so many to indulge the public taste from sensation- 
alism that one must see plays and read newspapers with 
more than ordinary discrimination. 

It is necessary for the country's welfare that thinking- 
people exert leadership among their fellows. Public opinion 
will be formed by the kind of thinking the better informed 
element of the population is doing. Men must discriminate 
between truth and fallacy, lest the public mind mistake 
shadow for substance. Turn over in your minds the political 
doctrines of the past three decades. In innumerable instances 
we have plainly allowed professionalized politicians, pro- 
fessionalized teachers, and professionalized publicists to 
mislead us. We have let our system of primary and secondary 
education be taken so far out of the hands of the public it 
serves that certain professional educators seriously question 
the people's right to be heard. Human incentives to work 
and progress will be destroyed if some of these teachings 
are followed to their logical conclusion. 

Whose duty is it to combat false doctrines ? Whose but 
the intelligent people now so much engrossed in their private 
undertaking ? "We have left undone those things which we 
ought to have done" and I feel certain our sins of omission, 
judging from the results, outweigh a hundred times all the 
crimes of those Theodore Roosevelt called malefactors of 
great wealth. 

Ladies and gentlemen, we are committed to the perpetua- 
tion of the great ideal of a government which shall reflect 
in its course the faith and the aspirations of a new nation. 
Its people are becoming amalgamated to an extent we do 
not yet realize by the pressure of great events. They are 
united now in a common cause. Men are re-examining their 
beliefs in the light of the realities of the present day. I believe 
devoutly that the people are returning to the faith of their 
fathers, inarticulately but surely. 

In trie 1917 sequel to the verses I quoted earlier in this 
address, Rudyard Kipling described well the hard road we 
must travel: 

Not at a little cost, 
Hardly by prayer or tears, 
Shall we recover the road we lost 
In the drugged and doubting years. 

But, after the fires and the wrath, 
But, after searching and pain, 
His Mercy opens us a path 
To live with ourselves again. 

The times cry out for a leader of the spirit of this people. 



24 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



A TECHNOLOGICAL HIGH COMMAND 

From Proceedings of the I.R.E., July 1942. 

How fast is the U.S. moving toward it? Too slowly, 
for the movement is measured by the rate at which 
technical men move up into decisive positions in the 
military and war administration. 

Technology as a whole — science, development engineer- 
ing, industry, and technical labour — is the driving force 
against the two great inertias that lose wars. 

The first is the inertia of the military mind. Charged with 
the safety of its country in war and the leading of men in 
battle — responsibilities from which flow its unassailable 
right to choose its own weapons — the military mind rests 
heavily on the tried and traditional, and is the least open 
to innovation of any segment of society. Its technical 
branches, therefore, are mainly specification and testing 
adjuncts to the top procurement divisions, which, over the 
years, have built up close connections with big industrial 
suppliers and depend heavily on those suppliers' engineer- 
ing departments. 

The second great inertia, closely linked with the first in 
modern war, is the inertia of industry's heavy investment 
in plant and equipment. It tends to hold on to old methods, 
machines, and products and resist any sudden changes or 
innovations, such as wars demand. This inertia becomes so 
great in an advanced industrial society, even in peacetime, 
that some of the most advanced technological corporations, 
like General Electric and General Motors, spend many 
millions of dollars a year combating it. They set up devel- 
opment engineering groups — distinct and separate from 
the corporation's bread-and-butter engineers working on 
products in production. These development groups have no 
other purpose in life than to prove that everything the 
company makes is no good and can be made better. On 
the broader scale of the country and the war, development 
engineering is the great missing link in the structure of 
U.S. technology for war. 

A quick look at three broad technological areas will show 
that all is not yet well. The points at which technical de- 
cisions are made today are the most critical spots in the 
world. For nothing moves — neither money, nor plants, 
nor production, nor armies — until the technical decision 
has been made as to what is to be produced. Technology is 
the initiating force. If the wrong decision is made, or it is 
flubbed, or delayed, it may upset a whole series of techno- 
logical imponderables that can only be measured approxi- 
mately in terms of time, money, and lives wasted. 

Take the case of the Napier Sabre liquid-cooled engine. 
More than a year ago a British group brought a Napier 
Sabre to Washington, fresh from successful tests in England, 
to offer it to the army and OPM. It claimed 2,000 hp. It 
was looked at by OPM production and looked over by 
OPM's aircraft section. Then from March to August, 1941, 
the engine rested on blocks at Wright Field, the army 
testing grounds, waiting to be tested. Army engineers were 
too busy on the military equivalent of bread-and-butter 
engineering, or work in production, to get around to it. It 
never did get around to NACA — for NACA, though it is 
top body in U.S. aeronautical research, is only advisory 
and in many cases must wait until a problem or an engine 
is presented to it. If the army sits on the problem or the 
engine, nothing happens. So still without a test, the Napier 
Sabre was turned down by a joint munitions committee of 
the U.S. and Britain at Washington. Brass-hats pooh- 
poohed its claim to 2,000 hp. and doubted whether that 
power could be supported in a frame — though the Napier 
Sabre was then flying over England. Not much later, 
further development of the Sabre in England shot its per- 
formance well beyond 2,000 hp. to -a revolutionary new 
peak in engine output. 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



The second great technological area is in shortages and 
allocations of raw materials. This area is so vast and com- 
plicated that no more than a side glance can be given it 
here. By an intricate series of relationships, the great short- 
ages in metals and materials that develop as the U.S. goes 
to total war move back upon one another until finally there 
are shortages in everything except wood, clay, and glass. 
Unless the highest technological skills in each industry 
are brought into full play for maximum expansion of pro- 
duction, conservation of materials, substitution of other 
materials, and allocation of what materials there may be, 
this can be the most destructive phase of total war for the 
whole U.S. economy. The total result is a further, un- 
healthy concentration of the economy that may never be 
reversed. Destruction cannot be escaped in war. Only by 
making the highest technology of an industry the guiding 
line — which means free exchange of technical advice and 
know-how, pooling of patents, and free creation of new 
competitive plants and processes — can the destruction be 
limited and shortages attacked at their source. 

Except for a few bright spots, mostly in the allocation of 
hard-pressed strategic metals, this is the darkest side of the 
war administration's record. The OPM businessmen re- 
sisted any big expansion to begin with, and then adminis- 
tered the resulting shortages and necessary allocations 
generally on the principle that existing corporate hierarchies 
must be maintained so that all might come out of the war 
in nearly the same order and positions as they entered it. 
Nothing is more vain than the belief that life can be picked 
up at some future date where it left off in 1939, and events 
are already crumbling the illusion. One of the first fronts 
upon which it began to crumble was aluminum, where 
war shattered the notion that production could be ex- 
panded without creating permanent competition for the 
Aluminum Company of America. But the belief hangs on 
and still produces delay. 

The third large area of technological action is conversion 
of industry to war, meaningless without a clear technical 
plan. Production may roar on at a terrific pace and still 
produce matériel inferior to or merely equal to the enemy's 
weapons. For the technology of conversion is again con- 
version to what ? The army, for lack of any independent 
development engineering, has never had any clear plans 
for such relatively new weapons as tanks, beyond over-all 
and general combat specifications. Not until late last 
February did the tank corps establish its first laboratory 
to get the basic physical and psychological data for picking 
tank men and adapting machines to them. 

Instead of designing a tank engine — a six months' job for 
any crack engineering group, and a job that the British did 
in three months, the U.S. rushed its M-3 tanks into pro- 
duction by pulling a Wright radial airplane engine off the 
shelf and making it do. It is now generally admitted that 
the radial engine is unsatisfactory for tanks, and M-3's 
are being partly discontinued. 

Detroit is going about making tanks as it made auto- 
mobiles, with all the rigid, corporate lines still up, instead 
of settling for one bang-up standardized model in which 
each company unit would concentrate all of its engineering 
skill on developing a part. Instead of working as a co- 
operative whole, engineering staffs are to all practical in- 
tents split into three corporate compartments, each work- 
ing on a whole tank, and each duplicating part of the work 
of the others. This might be the best way to go about 
development, if the army followed up by picking the best 
tank or best units out of all three tanks and standardizing 
on them. But the need for tanks is now so pressing that, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



25 



once the tanks are along toward production, no army supply 
division will have the opportunity to pick and choose. So 
the army will use all of them. This will mean a servicing and 
supply problem in the field of major proportions; spare 
parts for three different engines and transmissions, in addi- 
tion to two different kinds of fuel for the gasoline and 
Diesel power units. Such makeshifts may be the burning 
order of the day. But they don't represent the highest 
technology of the world's leader in standardized mass pro- 
duction, and two years have been frittered away for lack 
of any real technical plan or forethought. It is never too 
late to make a start. 

THE PIG IRON MARKET 

From The Engineer-, (London), October 16, 1942 

The allocations of pig iron show for fourth-quarter de- 
livery that there will be no contraction in the demand. For 
some time past consumers' principal anxiety has been to 
obtain the better qualities of pig iron. Far more hematite 
could be used than is available, and in consequence there 
is a heavy demand for low phosphoric and refined irons, 
which are used as substitutes to an increasing degree. For 
work in which the use of hematite is essential the Control 
releases this quality, but it is becoming more and more 
difficult to obtain licences and, of course, consumers who 
ask for this quality for purposes for which, in the opinion 
of the Control it is not absolutely necessary, have little 
chance of obtaining it. Months ago the call for substitutes 
created some tightness in the market for pig iron, which 
could be most easily substituted for hematite, and the 
stringency shows a tendency to become more acute. By 
carefully supervising distribution, however, the licensing 
authority has been able to maintain adequate supplies of 
these alternative irons to consumers employed upon essen- 
tial work. It is probable, however, as time goes on that the 
release of refined and low-phosphoric pig iron will be even 
more restricted. Liberal supplies of high-phosphoric foundry 
pig iron are available, and whilst the light castings industry 
is poorly employed, it is probable that stocks will increase. 
It has been found difficult to utilize the plant of the light 
foundries in war work, but over the last few months a cer- 
tain amount of work of this description has come their way. 
The shadow of concentration, however, still hangs over 
the light castings foundries and the tendency which has 
been noticeable for foundries to restrict their buying to 
hand-to-mouth quantities until full details of the scheme 
are available is still apparent in the market. On the other 
hand, the heavy foundries and engineering foundries are 
important consumers of pig iron, but their requirements 
are chiefly of the higher qualities. 

OIL AND THE ALASKA HIGHWAY 

From Trade and Engineering, London, Sept., 1942 

Construction of the Alaska Highway through Canada 
and requirements of oil in connection with defence of the 
north Pacific coast have given a new importance to the 
oil resources in the Fort Norman area on the lower Mac- 
kenzie river. Some new drilling in the Fort Norman field has 
been done last summer and it is expected that practically all 
the petrol requirements of the Northwest Territories will 
be supplied from the Fort Norman production. 

The actual output from the Turner Valley is limited by 
"allowables" to keep within the capacity of the present 
pipe-line to Calgary. Although no plans have been announc- 
ed for an additional pipe-line from this field, additional 
carrying facilities undoubtedly will be provided as soon as 
the proved available supply of oil warrants it. Further de- 
tailed investigations of the extensive oil sands in the 
McMurray area of northern Alberta have been made by 
engineers of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Com- 
pany of Canada on behalf of the Dominion Government, 
and efforts are being made to solve certain technical prob- 
lems of production and marketing. On the recommendation 



of the Oil Controller, the Governments of the Dominion 
and the Province of New Brunswick are co-operating in 
making a serious exploration of the oil shales which are 
found in extensive areas in New Brunswick. 



WOOD MANHOLE LIDS FILL WARTIME NEED 

From National Lumber Manufacturers Association, Washington, D.C. 

Wooden manhole covers are helping war booming com- 
munities solve a problem posed when the War Production 
Board banned the ordinary iron variety. 

First tried by Los Angeles county, California, the wooden 
manhole covers built of solid timbers specially treated with 
a salt preservative to resist termites and decay, have proved 
highly successful. 

The WPB order was designed to save 500 pounds of 
critical metal which normally goes into each cast iron in- 
stallation — 250 pounds in the lid and 250 pounds in the 
frame. Some cities already have experienced delays in the 
installation of sewage facilities for war housing projects 
due to a shortage of metal manhole covers. 

The Los Angeles county surveyor's office developed the 
wooden substitutes and Surveyor Alfred Jones asserts the 
idea is suitable for city and county use throughout the 
nation. 

These wooden lids may be constructed in either circular 
or hexagonal design by laminating short lengths of plank. 
They may be built in local wood-working shops without 
extensive fabricating equipment. Tests show that the pres- 
sure-treated wooden covers have ample strength and 
durability. 




Alfred Jones, Los Angeles County Surveyor, explains the wooden 
manhole installation to Miss Beverly Hoyt. 



26 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ECONOMY IN THE USE OF NON-FERROUS 
METALS 

From The Engineer. (London), Sept. 18, 1942 

The following statement has been prepared by the Non- 
Ferrous Metals Control and issued by the British Standards 
Institution on behalf of the Control: — The enormously in- 
creased demand for non-ferrous metals for war purposes 
and the restriction of supplies make it necessary for the 
most stringent economies to be effected in their use. It is 
no longer possible to maintain peacetime standards of per- 
fection and it is the duty of all to ensure that the quality 
of the material employed is never higher than is absolutely 
necessary. The need for economy applies to all non-ferrous 
metals, including those most commonly used in cast copper 
alloys, such as tin. Approximately one-third of all the tin 
used in this country goes into copper alloys. It is essential, 
therefore, that tin-bearing alloys should never be used if a 
tin-free material can be employed, and that, where this is 
not possible, the tin content should be reduced to a mini- 
mum. To assist users to meet this urgent need, a new range 
of standards for copper alloy ingots and castings, Nos. 1021- 
8-1942, has been prepared and issued by the British Stand- 
ards Institution at the request of the Non-Ferrous Metals 
Control. Attention is drawn to these standards, which im- 
meditaly supersede certain existing standards. The following 
general considerations should be borne in mind: — (a) Never 
use a non-ferrous metal or alloy unless it is certain that 
there is no substitute available which is in more plentiful 
supply; (b) where a non-ferrous material is necessary, use 
the least possible weight of the lowest possible grade; 
(c) make sure that all scrap is kept clean and free from con- 
tamination, use the highest possible proportion of scrap, but 
never of a higher grade than is absolutely necessary; (d) do 
not hoard your scrap; if you cannot use it for approved 
purposes, sell it and put it back into circulation; (e) if you 
are accumulating in your works residues such as skimmings, 
casters' ashes, sweepings, etc., and cannot re-use them in 
your own products, the Control will advise you where this 
material can most usefully be directed. With particular 
reference to British Standard alloys, the following points 
are of importance: — (1) Practically all requirements for cast 
gun-metals and brasses can be met from the following 
alloys:— For very special applications, 88/10/2 (B.S. 382-3), 
88/8/4 (B.S. 1021-2) ; for high-grade work, 86/7/5/2 (B.S. 
1023-4); for general work, but only where a tin-bearing 
alloy is essential, 85/5/5/5 (B.S. 897-8) ; for general work 
in place of tin-bearing alloys, type A brass (B.S. 1035-6) ; 
for all work where a copper alloy is not required to have 
any special properties, type B brass (B.S. 1027-8). (2) The 
most efficient use of scrap is essential. On no account should 
the grade of scrap used be of higher quality than that of 
the alloy in which it is to be incorporated, unless to counter- 
balance the use of a still lower grade of material. (3) When 
sufficient supplies of scrap are not available to meet de- 
mands, virgin material must be provided. As far as possible, 
it must be used only in the highest grades of alloy (e.g., 
B.S. 382-3, B.S. 1021-2, or 2 B 8 phosphor bronze). Virgin 
metal or material of comparable quality should preferably 
be employed in castings of alloys made direct in one melting 
stage. This releases ingot-making capacity for the produc- 
tion of lower-grade alloys from mixed or other scrap of an 
indefinite composition which requires to be melted in bulk 
under properly controlled conditions. (4) B.S. 1025-6, type 
A, casting brass, has been designed to take care of the lower 
grades of scrap unsuitable for the better qualities of wrought 
products. The aluminium content has been kept low to 
ensure a good casting material. Elements other than copper 
and zinc are impurities and are allowed up to the limits 
stated only to cover such quantities as may be present as 
impurities in the scrap from which the brass is produced. 
(5) B.S. 1027-8, type B brass, has been designed to take 
care of the lowest grades of scrap only ; principally material 
more highly contaminated with aluminium, which is allowed 
as an impurity up to 1.25 per cent. Allowable elements other 



than copper and zinc are impurities only and must never 
be added intentionally. If proper care is taken to avoid the 
contamination and mixing of scrap and swarf the quantity 
of material available for use in type B brass should be 
greatly reduced. 

THE INTERNATIONAL CONTROL OF TIN 

From The Engineer, (London), October 16, 1942 

Countries supplying more than half the world's total sup- 
plies of tin have been overrun by the Japanese and in these 
circumstances the International Tin Agreement, which has 
been published as a White Paper, has an appearance of 
unreality. The signatories to the Agreement are the Gov- 
ernments of Great Britain, Belgium, Bolivia, and Holland. 
The agreement provides for the setting up of an International 
Tin Committee, upon which Malaya has five votes, Bolivia 
and the Netherlands Indies four each, and the Belgian 
Congo and Nigeria two each. It also provides for three 
consumers' representatives, one representing the Govern- 
ment of the United States, one consumers in the United 
States, and one consumers outside the United States, who 
are to "tender advice" to the Committee. By the misfortune 
of war, the Governments of Belgium and Holland are oper- 
ating from London, whilst the tin resources of Malaya and 
the Dutch East Indies are in the hands of the Japanese. 
The Belgian Congo, however, remains under the control 
of the Dutch Government. In the opening paragraph it is 
stated that the signatory Governments "consider that it 
is necessary and advisable that steps should be taken to 
regulate the production and export of tin in and from pro- 
ducing countries, with the object of keeping world's stocks 
at a normal figure, adjusting in an orderly manner supply 
to demand, and, at the same time, making available all 
the tin that may be required and preventing rapid and 
severe oscillations in price." The Agreement provides for 
standard tonnages, which are defined as the annual rate of 
permissible metallic tin when the quota is 100 per cent; 
quotas are the percentage of standard tonnages which may 
be exported in any quarter of the year. The standard ton- 
nages are given as Belgian Congo, 20,178 tons; Bolivia, 
46,768 tons; Malaya, 95,474 tons; Netherlands Indies, 
55,113; Nigeria, 15,367 tons; total, 232,900 tons. The agree- 
ment provides that the stocks of tin and tin in concentrates 
within any territory shall not at any time exceed 25 per 
cent of the standard tonnage of that territory. The Inter- 
national Tin Committee may, however, permit this per- 
centage to.be exceeded in particular cases. Needless to say, 
under the present conditions of restricted supply the present 
quotas are fixed at 105 per cent. Probably, the idea in en- 
tering upon a restrictive agreement at this time is to ensure, 
so far as possible, the continuation of the international con- 
trol over the production and export of tin after the war. 



MORE CANADIAN AIR SERVICES 

From Trade and Engineering, (London), Sept., 1942 

The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has brought 
under its control ten air transport companies serving Lab- 
rador, northern Quebec, north-western Ontario, the north- 
ern reaches of the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia, 
the Yukon, and the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and has 
now inaugurated regular air services to vast areas in the 
Dominion's "hinterland". 

This replacement by a single system — namely, Canadian 
Pacific Air Lines — with an excellent organization and strong 
financial backing of the former independent companies 
sometimes referred to as "bush lines," establishes northern 
commercial aviation in Canada on a sound basis. It has 
special importance at this time because of the great increase 
in air traffic in connection with the defence of the Pacific 
coast and Alaska, but it will have a longer range value as 
well in facilitating the opening of the northern territories 
and the utilization of their rich natural resources. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



27 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL GENERAI! 



TORONTO -R 



THURSDAY AND FRIDAY ! 



THE ENGINEEI 







W. S. WILSON 
Oeneral Chairman 




ROBERT F. LEGGET 
Chairman of the Papers Committee 



■iHIBHI 




PROGlfo 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 11th 



STANLEY R. FROST 

Chairman of the Publicity Committee 



9.00 a.m.— REGISTRATION. 

9.30 a.m.— ANNUAL GENERAL BUSINESS MEETING. Announcement of 
election results. Address of retiring president. Dean C. R. Young. 

11.00 a.m.— THE ENGINEERING FEATURES OF CIVIL DEFENCE.— A 

general discussion, under the chairmanship of John E. Armstrong, 
of the work of the Institute's Committee on this subject. 

12.30 p.m.— LUNCHEON MEETING, to be addressed by Brig.-General C. 
L. Sturdevant, Assistant Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washing- 
ton, D.C. on The Alaska Highway. 

2.30 p.m.— INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS— Presentation of certain fundamen- 
tals, as a basis for discussion. Professor M. S. Viteles, Professor 
of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, and Director of Per- 
sonnel Research and Training for the Philadelphia Electric Company, 
will speak on A Scientific Approach to the Problems of Em- 
ployee Relations. Dr. Bryce M. Stewart of the Industrial 
Counselors Inc., New York, until recently Deputy Minister of 
Labour for Canada, will speak on The Role of the Industrial 
Relations Executive in Company Management. 

7.30 p.m.— ANNUAL BANQUET AND DANCE. (Dinner Jackets). 



AN EXHIBITION 

The Conservation of Critical 
Materials 

The Department of Munitions and 
Supply has organized at 55 Bathurst 
Street, Toronto, a remarkable exhibition 
of machine parts, components, castings, 
forgings, etc., illustrating what can be 
achieved in conserving critical materials. 
All who have seen it agree that the ex- 
hibition is a remarkable testimony to 
engineering skill in design, fabrication, 
and production. 

The exhibition will be open throughout 
the meeting but special arrangements are 
being made to accommodate members of 
the Institute, and of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Ontario, during 
Saturday morning, 13th February. 




NICOL MacNICOL 

Chairman of the 

Entertainment Committee 



Special return tickets are supplied by the railways at the rate of one and a half of th 



28 



lND professional meeting 



OYAL YORK HOTEL 

IBRUARY 11th and 12th, 1943 



ND THE WAR 



1ME 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 12th 



).30 a.m.— TECHNICAL PROBLEMS OF WAR PRODUCTION. This ses- 
sion is planned in close consultation with the Department of Muni- 
tions and Supply. Conservation of Critical Materials is the first 
general subject which will be discussed. 

The subject of Statistical Control of Quality in Production will 
then be introduced to the meeting. Reference to pp. 11-17 of this 
issue of the Journal will show the interest aroused by this matter 
in Great Britain. A discussion will follow. 

2.30 p.m.— LUNCHEON MEETING to be addressed by Desmond A. Clarke, 
Director-General of Shipbuilding, Department of Munitions and Sup- 
ply, on The Battle of the Shipyards. 



2.30 p.m.- 



POST-WAR PLANNING AND RECONSTRUCTION. Warren 
C. Miller, chairman of the Institute Committee on Post-War Prob- 
lems, will preside. Principal F. Cyril James, of McGill University, 
and chairman of the Federal Government's main Committee on Recon - 
struction will open the discussion. General discussion will then be 
invited. 



3.30 p.m. — JOINT SMOKER with the Association of Professional Engineers 
of Ontario. 




DR. F. A. GABY 

Chairman, of the Finance Committee 




DR. A. E. BERRY 

Chairman of the Hotel Arrangements 

Committee 




LADIES' PROGRAMME 

A special programme of entertainment 
for the ladies is being arranged which in- 
cludes visits, an afternoon tea and an 
informal party on the Friday night. 

Visiting ladies will be the guests of the 
Branch at both luncheons. 





C. F. MORRISON 

irman of the Registration Committee 



W. E. BONN 

Chairman of the Reception Committee 



lar one-way fare for persons traveUing in groups of ten or more on the going trip. 



29 



From Month to Month 



NATIONAL SELECTIVE SERVICE 

By the time these words are read National Selective 
Service as an entity will have disappeared. After almost 
ten months of trial on another basis, the Government has 
decided to turn over to the Department of Labour all con- 
trols for manpower. There will not be great changes in legis- 
lation, and in form at least, the new set-up has much in 
common with that established by the former director, 
Elliott M. Little. It is inevitable that some revisions will be 
required, and doubtless the announcements about to be 
made will take care of them. 

In theory at least the control of manpower through the 
regular divisions of the Department of Labour is a sensible 
plan, but no plan is as important as the people who ad- 
minister it. It is to be hoped that the officials of the depart- 
ment do not overlook this fundamental truth. Up to the 
time of writing, with only a part of the plan disclosed, there 
are insufficient indications of the acceptance of this principle. 

Selective Service properly recognized and administered 
should be larger than the Department of Labour itself. If 
it is planned to make it only an adjunct of the department, 
nothing but miserable failure can follow, and frankly there 
have been enough of these already in our manpower and 
labour policies. It is the wish and hope of every citizen 
that the Government sees the size and importance of the 
task to be done, and makes its immediate plans accordingly. 
In times like these we cannot afford the luxury of bungling. 

Probably no group of people are more concerned with 
manpower supply and control, than are the engineers. Them- 
selves, a substantial section of manpower, they are interested 
almost beyond any other group in labour — both skilled and 
unskilled. The success or failure of a system of labour supply 
and control is of great importance to them, not only in their 
own projects but in the broader field of their interest in 
the welfare of the country. 

In this instance, Canadian engineers have still another 
interest. Up until recently, selective service had been largely 
in the hands of engineers. With the sudden and resounding 
resignation of the director, who was an engineer, questions 
entered the minds of members of the profession. The Engi- 
neering Journal is not the medium through which the an- 
swers to these questions should be conveyed, but it should 
be safe ground to make unbiased comment on the work 
done by the director and these engineers on his staff who 
supported him. 

Few people, not themselves a part of the service, will 
have any idea of the size and complexities of the setting 
up and operating of a national service for manpower control. 
Starting with only a director, and an assistant, and unsuit- 
able legislation, about which selective service itself had ab- 
solutely no say, and almost no knowledge up to the day it 
was announced, it struggled valiantly and intelligently 
through months and months of days and nights, to gather 
information and make plans without which it could not 
possibly succeed, and without which it should never have 
been inaugurated. 

At the time of the director's resignation, much had been 
accomplished. New and more suitable legislation had been 
obtained; a greatly augmented field force had been estab- 
lished; divisions that had to do with statistics, planning, 
allocation, public information, enforcement and so on were 
working efficiently, public support was being received from 
all sides, both labour and management were cooperating and 
supporting the service excellently, and the controls were 
working. 

The director's resignation was so well publicized that 
everyone must be familiar with it. He stated simply that 
in view of the needs, the work was not being done sufficiently 
well, and that without the addition of some clarifying legis- 
lation and necessary cooperation, he could not hope to 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 

accomplish the task which he had assumed when accepting 
office. 

All this is reviewed here, not to unduly eulogize or em- 
barrass anyone, but to indicate clearly that as engineers, 
the readers of the Journal may be well satisfied with the 
contribution to public service made under unusual and ad- 
verse conditions, by a member of their own profession. 
Canada is much better off for having had Elliott Little 
inaugurate and establish National Selective Service, and 
fellow engineers have good reason to be proud of his con- 
tribution to the solution of One of the nation's greatest 
problems. 

THE GENERAL SECRETARY RETURNS 

The resignation of the director of National Selective Serv- 
ice, and the subsequent reorganization of that service, have 
made it possible for the assistant director — our general 
secretary — to withdraw from that activity and again devote 
his full time to the affairs of the Institute. While the Insti- 
tute was pleased to perform a national service by lending 
him to the federal Department of Labour, it has felt that 
increasing activities within our organization have made his 
return to headquarters very desirable. 

Mr. Wright's original purpose in going to Ottawa was to 
aid in establishing a system of controls for technical man- 
power. He was made assistant director of the Wartime 
Bureau of Technical Personnel, and remained in that office 
for over a year. Upon the appointment of E. M. Little, then 
director of the Bureau, as director of National Selective 
Service, Mr. Wright, with Council's consent, transferred 
with him, as assistant. 

For almost two years, Mr. Wright has been working 
strenuously in the interests of the engineering profession 
and of labour. His main achievement, perhaps, was the 
establishment of the Wartime Bureau of Technical Person- 
nel. He was a member of the delegation that interviewed 
Dr. Bryce M. Stewart, then deputy Minister of Labour, to 
arrange for the establishment of the Bureau. It was he who 
recommended E. M. Little to the other societies as a 
"possible" for the post of director, and it was he who per- 
suaded the officers of Mr. Little's companies to permit him 
to undertake this work. Mr. Wright's ability to appraise 
people was shown not only by his recommendation of Mr. 
Little as director, but also by his selection for the Bureau 
of such persons as H. W. Lea, J. M. Dymond and I. S. 
Patterson, the three principals of the Bureau today. The 
Bureau, still carrying on its important work under the 
guidance of these gentlemen, must be a source of much 
satisfaction to Mr. Wright. 

Mr. Little's transfer to National Selective Service took 
Mr. Wright into that field also. In the first hectic months 
of that new activity, he had to play many parts aiding the 
director in fields of administration, organization, planning, 
and enforcement. Ultimately, in the clarification that came 
with time, he became head of the division of enforcement. 

Notwithstanding the many other calls upon him during 
the past two years, Mr. Wright has found time for frequent 
consultations with the officers of the Institute and with 
headquarters, and has managed to attend all meetings of 
Council. 

Officers and members of the Institute, and the head- 
quarters staff, will certainly welcome his return to full- 
time duty with the Institute. We appreciate his work at 
Ottawa, which has made the Institute's gond name known in 
so many new directions, but his return to our ranks will 
fill a long-felt want and we shall be glad to have him back 



at Mansfield Street. 



R.J.D. 



30 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION 

During the month of November, members of a sub- 
committee named by the Dominion Government held a 
series of informal conferences in western Canada to discuss 
the development of Canada's water and power resources in 
relation to post-war problems. This committee was headed 
by Dr. J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, vice-president, The Shawini- 
gan Water and Power Company, and formerly director of 
the Dominion Water and Power Bureau, and included Dr. 
J. J. O'Neill, m.e.i.c, dean of engineering, McGill Univer- 
sity, Dr. L. C. Marsh, formerly director of social research 
at McGill University, and Mr. Victor Meek, m.e.i.c, 
Controller of the Dominion Water and Power Bureau, who 
acted as technical consultant. 

Dr. Marsh is research adviser to the Committee on 
Reconstruction set up under the chairmanship of Dr. F. 
Cyril James, principal of McGill University, as an advisory 
body to report to a Dominion Committee of the Cabinet 
on reconstruction policies and activities in Canada and 
abroad following the war. Under this main committee, a 
sub-committee under the chairmanship of Dr. R. C. 
Wallace, Hon. m.e.i.c, principal of Queens University, has 
been working on the relationship of post-war problems to 
the conservation and development of Canada's natural 
resources. Dr. Challies and Dr. O'Neill, as members of the 
latter committee, have been concerned particularly with 
the post-war development of Canada's water and power 
resources. 

Since these water resources are largely administered by 
the provincial governments it was considered advisable to 
hold a series of regional conferences. Accordingly, four 
western Canada meetings with provincial officials and 
others directly interested in the development of water 
resources were held at Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary, and 
Vancouver. The purpose was to obtain a wide view of the 
present situation with respect to water and power resources 
and the overall planning necessary for further development 
of these resources in the post-war period as an aid to 
rehabilitation. Several of the provinces have already been 
studying the problem and it was felt that the exchange of 
views and informal discussions at these conferences were 
of real value in co-ordinating the Dominion and provincial 
viewpoint with respect to the utilization of water resources 
in post-war planning. 

The discussions at Vancouver indicated that the province 
of British Columbia possesses immense reserves of unde- 
veloped water power but the extent to which these water 
resources could be used to advantage is dependent on 
finding suitable industries to use the energy produced. It 
was suggested that the possibility of locating industries in 
British Columbia to produce aluminum, magnesium, iron, 
steel and other products requiring large blocks of power be 
investigated in relation to probable markets after the war. 

In the prairie provinces the water supply is mainly 
interprovincial and international. The prairie region, with 
its comparatively low precipitation, is in itself not con- 
ducive to a reasonably dependable surface water supply 
and is dependent on water originating in the Rocky Moun- 
tains on the West and in the innumerable natural lake 
reservoirs of the Canadian Shield draining into Manitoba 
from the East. The entire settlement and further develop- 
ment of the prairies in the post-war period is dependent on 
the conservation and utilization to the fullest extent to 
the available water resources for irrigation, water power, 
domestic, municipal and industrial purposes. It was 
emphasized at the conferences that overall planning on a 
watershed basis is essential to ensure that the limited water 
supplies available are used to the best advantage. 

It was suggested that the construction of further irriga- 
tion projects within the drought area offered particular 
advantages for inclusion in post-war rehabilitation plans. 
Attention was directed to the St. Mary and Milk Rivers 
irrigation project as an example, and through the courtesy 
of Mr. P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c, director of water resources 



for Alberta, members of the committee were given an 
opportunity of spending several days looking over the 
present irrigation development in southern Alberta. The 
committee were favourably impressed with the possibilities 
of the St. Mary and Milk Rivers project to provide employ- 
ment and land settlement opportunities during the imme- 
diate post-war period. 

The St. Mary and Milk Rivers are international streams 
which are apportioned between Canada and the United 
States by treaty. The project is designed to provide the 
necessary storage reservoirs and diversion canals for the 
full use of Canada's share of these waters to irrigate an 
additional 345,000 acres at a cost of about $43.00 per acre. 
The Engineering Institute Committee on Western Water 
Problems, under the chairmanship of Mr. G. A. Gaherty, 
m.e.i.c, president of the Montreal Engineering Company, 
Limited, Montreal, Que., in a report dated June 15, 1941, 
strongly recommended that an agency be constituted by 
the Dominion and provincial governments to undertake 
the development and that funds be made available for an 
early start on construction. 

More recently a committee representing the interested 
departments of the Dominion Government and the Province 
of Alberta was established by Order in Council under the 
chairmanship of Mr. Victor Meek, m.e.i.c, controller, 
Dominion Water and Power Bureau, to make a thorough 
study and comprehensive report on all aspects of the 
proposed St. Mary and Milk Rivers irrigation develop- 
ment. The final report of this committee, dated February 
16, 1942, recommended the development as a post-war 
measure under the terms of a suggested co-operative agree- 
ment between the Dominion and the Province of Alberta, 
providing for a division of the cost and a programme of 
development extending over a period of 15 years. Members 
of the Institute who are interested in this report may 
obtain copies from the Dominion Water and Power Bureau 
Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ont. 



FRIENDLY CRITICISMS 

From time to time, the General Secretary's mail contains 
letters calling attention to some matter which, in a mem- 
ber's opinion, deserves consideration. Such letters are wel- 
come, because they may give an opportunity for Council, 
or for the appropriate committee, to make desirable changes 
in procedure, or to do something which otherwise might be 
overlooked. In any case they are valuable as indicating the 
views of at least a part of the membership on the way in 
which the Institute's activities should be conducted. 

One of our members who joined the Institute soon after 
his recent arrival in Canada, has noted some features in 
our branch meetings which, he thinks, could be improved. 
As a comparatively new member, he feels somewhat diffident 
in expressing his views, but he asks the Council to take 
such action as they may consider advisable in the matter. 

His courteous letter makes certain suggestions which are 
timely, and his very proper action is appreciated. 

The course he has followed is much more helpful than 
that of persons who merely grumble about such sins of 
omission or commission as in their opinion mar the record 
of a governing body or a committee of the Institute, but 
who do nothing about it. 

Our correspondent is grateful for the welcome he has re- 
ceived in Canada since he has benefited by the meetings 
he has attended, he desires to add to the usefulness of the 
Institute, particularly as regards its branch meetings, by 
suggesting certain changes in the way they are handled. He 
thinks that on many occasions our technical meetings would 
be more satisfactory (a) if they began more punctually; 
(b) if the time taken by the author for his presentation 
were more strictly limited, or indeed, when advance copies 
are available, if the author would present his paper in ab- 
stract only, taking say 20 minutes; and (c) if at least 45 
minutes were retained for the discussion, the author being 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



31 



allowed a further 15 minutes for his closure. In short, our 
kindly critic thinks that some lack of system is apparent 
at our meetings. 

We can assure him that none of the points he raises are 
now brought up for the first time. In fact, they involve a 
number of old familiar difficulties which have so far resisted 
all efforts to cope with them effectively. Time and again, 
they have been scotched but not killed. But the struggle is 
not yet over. 

Take the starting problem first. Here we think there is 
usually little cause for complaint. But what is a chairman 
to do when the author is late or the slides are not at hand, 
or the audience insists on staying and talking outside the 
hall ? These are only a few of the possible causes of delay. 
Obviously, punctual commencement depends on the co-op- 
eration of a considerable number of people, and can only 
be secured if they all do their part. 

As regards the author, his paper and the manner of its 
presentation, it must be remembered that our technical 
papers — particularly those presented at branch meetings — 
are prepared, often at considerable personal inconvenience, 
by people who have many other and more pressing duties. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that it is seldom possible for 
the author to send in his manuscript (and illustrations) so 
long ahead of the meeting date that it can be printed in 
time for distribution then. And authors have a way of 
wanting to revise their papers as soon as they see them in 
print, also their original illustrations are not always suitable 
for reproduction. If there can be no advance copies of a paper 
it is hard to arrange for adequate discussion, because the 
speakers have had no opportunities to consider the author's 
views. 

The plea for brevity in the author's presentation has real 
appeal, as also has the idea of having the paper read in 
abstract. But at our Institute and branch meetings, the 
audience generally and rightly includes many whose detailed 
engineering knowledge does not cover the precise subject 
of the paper. Thus a somewhat fuller presentation is desir- 
able than would be needed if all were specialists with the 
same specialty. The author has to bear his audience and 
readers in mind when he is writing. The abstract system 
has been tried and has been found possible to only a very 
limited extent. Although all authors are asked to prepare 
abstracts, not all of them do so. 

Reams might be written about the organization and con- 
duct of technical meetings, but enough has been said to 
indicate the kinds of difficulties which have to be met by 
the paper committees of the Institute and its branches, 
by our branch secretaries, by the annual meeting commit- 
tees, and by the headquarters staff. It seems fair to add, that 
when one considers the large number of technical sessions 
held annually by the Institute and the great variety of local 
conditions under which the meetings take place, it is grati- 
fying to find that cases of friction or dissatisfaction are so 
rare. Our speakers, chairmen, and branch secretaries are in 
fact to be congratulated on the effective manner in which 
their duties are performed. It is only on exceptional occa- 
sions when some unexpected difficulty arises that real cause 
for criticism appears. 

COMING MEETINGS 

Canadian Construction Association. — Annual Conven- 
tion, Log Chateau, Seigniory Club, Que., January 20-22, 
1943. General Manager, J. Clark Reilly, Ottawa Building, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Canadian Pulp & Paper Association. — 30th Annual 
Meeting, January 27th, 28th, 29th, Mount Royal Hotel, 
Montreal. Secretary, A. E. Cadman, 3420 University St., 
Montreal, Que. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada. — 57th Annual 
General Professional Meeting, Royal York- Hotel, Toronto, 
Ont., February 11-12, 1943. General Secretary, L. Austin 
Wright, 2050 Mansfield St., Montreal, Que. 



WASHINGTON LETTER 

Several months ago this letter commented on the Cana- 
dian war effort as seen from Washington. I recently re- 
turned from a week's hasty visit to Montreal, Ottawa, and 
Toronto, to take a closer look at certain aspects of Canada's 
war production. I visited a number of plants covering a 
representative cross-section of Canadian production and, 
while in Ottawa, talked to a number of key people. My 
visit certainly sustained the impression that Canada is doing 
a marvelous job. True, the closer view revealed one or two 
"stresses and strains". For instance, the manpower affair 
was a little unfortunate. A few words of comparison on 
several scores may be of interest. 

Part of my work in Washington has involved finding 
my way around the various scientific and semi-scientific 
bodies in the United States. Much of the research work on 
the instrumentalities of war is conducted at the instigation 
of the Army or Navy by the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development which was set up not long ago and which 
draws its authority directly from the President. Under the 
O.S.R.D., which is under the direction of Dr. Vannevar 
Bush, is the National Defense Research Council and also 
the Committee on Medical Research. In addition, of course, 
both the Army and the Navy have research facilities of 
their own. For instance, the Quartermaster Corps carries 
out a considerable research programme and, of course, the 
Ordnance Department does a great deal of work in its own 
field and issues a number of reports. To carry out research 
in the actual production field, the Office of Production 
Research and Development was recently set up under the 
direction of Dr. H. N. Davis. This Office will function in 
cooperation with the War Production Board. There is also 
the National Research Council and the National Academy 
of Science. The National Academy of Science, founded by 
President Lincoln in Civil War days, is in the nature of a 
Scientific Senate. In addition to these scientific bodies, there 
are also the permanent bodies such as the Bureau of Mines, 
the Bureau of Standards and the various scientific offices 
of the Department of Agriculture. Most of these scientific 
organizations "farm out" a considerable amount of their 
work to Research Departments of major universities, such 
as Massachusetts Institute of Technology or the Stevens 
Institute. If we consider a specific problem such as synthetic 
rubber, we find that nearly all these bodies are doing work 
of some sort in connection with the problem and that there 
is also a Technical and Research Division under the Rubber 
Controller. The above résumé only scratches the surface 
of the vast network of scientific bodies in the United States. 
The various branches of the War Production Board such 
as the paper section, or chemical or rubber or metals sec- 
tion, have really excellent scientific bureaux attached to 
them; the Board of Economic Warfare has a well staffed in- 
dustrial and technical section. While the end result of all 
this activity is very commendable, there is a great deal of 
duplication and considerable possibilities of confusion. 

By comparison, the Canadian situation is very much 
simpler. As in all other phases of Canadian war organization, 
a considerable degree of unification has been achieved. All 
scientific research and development is under control or 
supervision of the National Research Council. The National 
Research Council, in turn, maintains a complete liaison 
with all of the various scientific bodies in the United States 
and the United Kingdom. Through this one body, Canada 
is kept fully abreast of scientific developments throughout 
the world, and is at the same time in a position to make a 
very real contribution by virtue of being able to bring to 
bear the fully coordinated scientific resources of the Domin- 
ion. The National Research Council is headed by Dean 
J. C. Mackenzie, who, of course, is well known to all mem- 
bers of the Engineering Institute of Canada. The various 
war technical bodies are closely related to the National 
Research Council. For instance, the Inventions Board, and 
the War Technical and Scientific Development Committee 
are both chaired by Dean Mackenzie, and the Army Tech- 



32 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



nical Development Board includes Dean Mackenzie as a 
member. In discussing the scientific set-up with Dean 
Mackenzie recently, he admitted that the unity of control 
which had been achieved by the National Research Council 
would probably not be possible in a country much larger 
than Canada. 

One of the most interesting and important lines of en- 
deavour in connection with war production is in the field 
of conservation. The Conservation Division of the War 
Production Board is a very large and well organized unit. 
The Canadians are represented on this Board by Mr. Hilton 
Wilby, and, as a result, it is my understanding that the 
liaison between Canada and the United States is very much 
more complete than for any other part of the Empire. The 
new Conservation Committee recently set up in Canada 
by direction of Mr. H. J. Carmichael, under the chairman- 
ship of Mr. C. B. Stenning, has already accomplished much 
useful work. The meeting in Toronto of munitions manu- 
facturers and the conservation exhibit was a brilliant and 
(insofar as I am aware) a new venture in conservation 
technique. It was my privilege to discuss this work with 
Mr. Carmichael and to attend the Conservation Committee 
Exhibit at Toronto, and one cannot fail to be impressed by 
the importance of the work which is being accomplished. 

Another point for the record as far as Canada's war effort 
is concerned is her appointment as a full fledged member 
of the Joint Production and Resources Board in full part- 
nership with the United States and United Kingdom. This 
move was made in recognition of the fact that Canada is 
now the third largest producer in the United States-British 
Commonwealth group. 

One cannot emphasize too often the splendid job which 
is being done by Canadian shipbuilding yards. Statistical 
studies indicate that, in the main, Canadian shipbuilders 
are holding their own against the Kaiser records, and, in 
some cases, even doing better. During my visit to Canada, 
I was invited to witness the launching of one of the 10,000 
ton freighters. Canada's projected part in the merchant ship 
programme for 1943 is very far in excess of her per capita 
share. The difficulties of the shipping situation are taxing 
the creative genius of the engineering profession in many 
ways. Far reaching experiments are being conducted with 
all types of cargo carrying vessels. A large programme of 
concrete ships is at present underway in the United States, 
although little is being said about this programme until the 
ships have been fully tested. Many novel methods of con- 
struction, forming, concrete placing, reinforcing, etc., are 
being tried out in this programme. When the story can be 
told, the art of reinforced concrete construction will be 
considerably further advanced. Then, of course, there was 
the Sea-Otter and its successor the Sea-mobile which is 
now being built for full scale tests. Some publicity has also 
been given recently to the so-called Phantom ship which 
travels in a convoy and is operated by remote control. One 
of my most interesting experiences recently was a visit to 
the U.S. Navy Yard gun factory. Here again, advances 
made in recent years will make very interesting reading 
when they can be told. One gets a tremendously favourable 
impression as well as a vast sense of the complication of 
modern war from a visit such as this. It is a real experience 
to stand next to the breech mechanism of a 16-inch gun! 

E. R. Jacobsen, m.e.i.c. 



CORRESPONDENCE 

Hamilton, Ont., 

December 13th, 1942 
L. Austin Wright, Esq., m.e.i.c. 
General Secretary, 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, Montreal, Que. 
Dear Mr. Wright, 

As I approach my last chapter as secretary of the Hamil- 
ton Branch, I am mindful that it has been only a very 
insignificant portion of the great history the Institute is 
writing for Canada. 

It has been a great honour and a greater pleasure to serve 
with those like you and Louis Trudel and if I may be 
permitted to say that if my term has been one of success to 
the branch it is because of your help and that of the various 
chairmen and every member. 

Engineers have often been looked on as a little slow in 
the battle of life, but it seems to me that, perhaps, instead 
of being slow the true engineer has a little of the happy and 
contented philosophy of the Chinese. In all the six years of 
my duties I have never seen one hand grasping for personal 
aggrandizement or delivering a dirty blow. 

I have tendered my resignation because there are some 
other matters I hope to be able to give useful attention to 
and also because it seems only fair that another member 
should have an opportunity to enjoy the many pleasures that 
present themselves to the secretary-treasurer of a Branch. 

Bill Brown is a true gentleman and my help will always 
be at his disposal. 

I know that at the Annual Meeting they will thank me 
for what I have been able to do, however small it may have 
been, but I am very sincere when I tell you that my own 
feeling is one that calls for my thanks to every officer and 
member that it has been my privilege to do business with. 

Wishing you a very Happy Christmas, 

I remain, yours sincerely, 

(Signed) A. R. Hannaford, m.e.i.c. 

9 Waterloo Place, London, S.W.I. , July 25th, 1942. 
Dear Mr. Wright, 

It was indeed a pleasure to receive your letter of June 1st 
informing me that the Council had again remitted the fees 
to the Institute of members in this country. I am sure that 
my fellow members over here will agree that it is an honour 
largely undeserved, though much appreciated, because we 
read and hear many reports of the great expansion of Cana- 
dian industry to take care of the ever-rising output of war- 
like stores. This is, of necessity, largely due to our fellow 
members who have stayed behind and without whom it 
would not have been possible. 

I personally, have left active soldiering for the time being, 
to take up an appointment with the Armaments Inspection 
Department on the inspection and proof of gun carriages 
and mountings. It is most interesting work and is giving 
me very valuable experience in British manufacturing 
methods and conditions. 

The Journal is arriving regularly and I find it most 
interesting as do English friends to whom I pass it on. 

Thanking you for your kind thoughts, I am, 
Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) R. B. Wotherspoon, jr.e.i.c 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



33 



HENRY HAGUE VAUGHAN 



On the afternoon of December sixteenth the many friends 
of Henry Hague Vaughan assembled at Christ Church 
Cathedral, Montreal, to take part in his funeral service. 
Six past presidents of the Engineering Institute of Canada, 
representatives of other technical societies of which he was 
an honoured member, railway officials, business associates 
and fellow engineers joined in paying respect to the memory 
of one of Canada's foremost mechanical engineers and ad- 
ministrators. He died on December eleventh. Had he lived 
a few days longer, he would have passed his seventy-fourth 
birthday. 

Born in England, at Forest Hill, Kent, he was educated 
at Forest House School and at King's College, London. He 
then served his time as a special apprentice at Pat ri croft, 
Lancashire, in the shops and 
drawing office of Nasmyth, 
Wilson & Company, the works 
originally established by James 
Nasmyth, inventor of the 
steam-hammer. The training 
received there, together with 
extensive later shop experience 
elsewhere, gave him that thor- 
ough grasp of mechanical de- 
tails and engineering processes 
which was afterwards to serve 
him in such good stead. 

In 1891, after some months 
of work in the locomotive 
shops of two English main line 
railways, he went to the United 
States, entering railway service 
there first as machinist, later 
as draftsman, and then as 
assistant engineer of tests at 
St, Paul, for the St. Paul Min- 
neapolis and Manitoba Rail- 
road. 

In 1898, he became mechan- 
ical engineer of the Philadel- 
phia & Reading Railroad, and 
then of the Q. & C. Company, 
Chicago. After two years as 
Assistant Superintendent (and 
later as Superintendent) of 
Motive Power at Cleveland for 
the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern, he came to Mont- 
real, in February, 1904, in the 
same capacity for the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. In Decem- 
ber, 1905, he was appointed assistant to the vice-president, 
a position in which he had general charge of the design and 
construction of locomotives and car equipment, the main- 
tenance of equipment east of Fort William, and the opera- 
tion of the well-known Angus shops. At that time the road 
was at the beginning of a ten year period of rapid growth 
and the responsibility of obtaining and maintaining the 
necessary equipment was no light one. 

His first task was the standardization of the many types 
of locomotive then in service on the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, this resulted in greatly simplified maintenance. He 
undertook a great deal of experimental work on new types 
of equipment. Considerable saving followed his adoption 
of thermostatically controlled feed water heaters. Later he 
was a pioneer in the successful application of superheated 
steam to locomotives, a course which he first advocated in 
1905. This required extensive investigation of problems re- 
garding valve design, new types of piston packing, and 
cylinder lubrication. The Canadian Pacific Railway adopted 
superheating some years before the United States roads 




H. H. Vaughan, M.E.I.C 



recognized the advantages of the practice. The many other 
developments in which Mr. Vaughan was interested included 
improvements in the balancing of locomotives to avoid rail 
breakages, and the design of what were at that time the 
most powerful rotary snow ploughs in North America. They 
were needed to deal with the huge snow slides which occur 
from time to time in the mountain divisions of the road. 
Mr. Vaughan was in fact an inventor, and always had tests 
and experiments under way. Many of these resulted in 
notable economies in operation. 

He remained in the service of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way until 1915, his last achievement before his resignation 
being the adaptation of the Angus shops and equipment to 
various forms of necessary war work. In this way he became 

one of the leaders in improvis- 
ing and designing machinery 
for the mass production of 
shells and cartridge cases, the 
manufacture of which was one 
of Canada's main contribu- 
tions to the war effort in 1915- 
1918. An example of the way 
in which the Angus shops, un- 
der his direction, met urgent 
needs, was the design of four 
250-ton and one 300-ton presses 
for making shell forgings fol- 
lowed by their successful con- 
struction and delivery in 
twenty and thirty days respec- 
tively from the time the order 
was first discussed. Similarly, 
prompt action was taken in 
respect to the 800-ton hydrau- 
lic presses needed for the pro- 
duction of 18 ft. brass cart- 
ridge cases. In these and other 
instances the manufacturing 
processes were of a kind which 
had not been carried out pre- 
viously in Canadian work- 
shops, except on a very small 
scale in the Dominion Arsenal 
at Quebec. The Arsenal's in- 
formation and experience, how- 
ever, were freely placed at the 
service of munitions contract- 
ors, and proved of very great 
value in the early stages of 
their work. 

After resigning his executive 
position with the Canadian Pacific, Mr. Vaughan was 
retained by the railroad as a consulting engineer. His 
activity continued, however, as regards the production of 
munitions, for he became president of the Montreal 
Ammunition Company and subsequently vice-president of 
the Dominion Copper Products Company. In 1916 he became 
vice-president of the Dominion Bridge Company. All these 
firms were then engaged in war work. 

After the war his consulting work developed along ad- 
ministrative and financial rather than strictly technical lines. 
He became president of the Canadian Foreign Investment 
Corporation, and held directorships in a number of other 
concerns. In recent years he took a leading interest in the 
establishment and operation of the Portland cement indus- 
try in Brazil. 

In 1906 he joined the Engineering Institute of Canada 
(then the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers), holding 
office as a member of Council in 1910-1911, as vice-president 
in 1912, 1913 and 1914, and as president in 1918. He was 
largely instrumental in the work of reorganization which 



34 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



culminated in the change of the Society's name in 1918 
and he was in fact the first president of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada. He was concerned not only with the 
active functioning of the Institute as regards the dissemi- 
nation of professional knowledge but also as regards the 
recognition and legal establishment of the engineer's pro- 
fessional status in Canada, and the regulation of profes- 
sional practice. In his presidential message he pointed out 
that "the change in name implies the attempt to unite all 
engineers in Canada, to whatever branch of the profession 
they may belong, into one society." He followed with in- 
terest the discussions which took place on these matters 
between 1920 and 1930 and in that year succeeded past 
president S. G. Porter as chairman of the Institute Com- 
mittee on Relations of the Institute with the Professional 
Associations. That committee's work terminated in the for- 
mation of the "Committee of Four" (all representatives of 
the Associations), a body which gave rise to the present 
Dominion Council of the Engineering Profession. Mr. 
Vaughan lived to see the conclusion of formal agreements 
between the Institute and several of the Professional 
associations. 

Mr. Vaughan was active also on other professional socie- 
ties. He was a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Great Britain, serving as a member of its council for 1925-26. 
He was also a member of the Institution's advisory com- 
mittee in Canada. 

In 1940 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
conferred an Honorary Membership upon him. He joined 
that Society in 1899, serving as vice-president in 1910 
and again in 1923. He was a member of the A.S.M.E. 
Boiler Code Committee (Locomotive Sub-Committee) and 
represented the Society on the American Engineering 
Standards Committee. He was also a member of the Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials. Mr. Vaughan was presi- 
dent of the American Railway Master Mechanics Associa- 
tion in 1908 and of the Canadian Railway Club in 1909. 

He took an active part in the work of the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Association, of which he was chair- 
man for some years. His work was recognized in 1939 by 
the award of Honorary Life Membership in that Association. 

This outline of Henry Vaughan's career can give but 
little idea of his personality and character. Those who were 
privileged to work with or for him soon learned to appre- 
ciate his ability, his helpful co-operation or supervision, his 
professional competence, and his great store of technical 
knowledge. As the presiding officer of a council or committee 
his immediate grasp of the essential features of a proposal 
and his promptness in decision were characteristic. Widely 
read, interested in a great variety of topics, his views on 
questions of the day were always worthy of consideration. 
It would indeed be hard to fill the gap in the engineering 
fraternity which is left by his passing. 

MEETING OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council of the Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Saturday, December 19th, 1942, at ten 
o'clock a.m. 

Present: President C. R. Young in the chair; Vice-Presi- 
dents deGaspé Beaubien and K. M. Cameron; Councillors 
J. E. Armstrong, J. H. Fregeau, J. G. Hall, R. E. Heartz, 
W. G. Hunt, C. K. McLeod and G. M. Pitts; Secretary- 
Emeritus R. J. Durley, General Secretary L. Austin Wright 
and Assistant General Secretary Louis Trudel. 

Council noted with deep regret the death of Past-Presi- 
dent H. H. Vaughan which had taken place suddenly in 
Philadelphia on December 11th, 1942. On the motion of 
Mr. Armstrong, seconded by Mr. Heartz, the following 
resolution was passed unanimously, and the general secre- 
tary was directed to send a copy ot his family: 

"The Council of the Engineering Institute learned with 

profound regret of the death of Past-President H. H. 

Vaughan, a distinguished member of long standing, who 



rendered signal service to the Institute and to the pro- 
fession. 

"During his long service as Councillor, Vice-President 
and President of the Institute, he always had the interests 
of the Institute at heart. His ability, integrity and pro- 
fessional experience made him outstanding in his chosen 
profession. Few members of the Institute contributed 
more constructively to the upbuilding of the profession 
of engineering. 

"Council desires to express to the members of his 
family its deep sympathy in their irreparable loss." 

Mr. Trudel submitted a copy of the programme of the 
Annual Meeting as it will appear in the December number 
of the Journal. He commented briefly on the various items, 
and pointed out that the Association of Professional Engi- 
neers of Ontario was meeting on the Saturday following 
the Institute meeting. A joint luncheon was being arranged 
on that day to which are invited any members of the Insti- 
tute who are still in Toronto. President Young reported that 
Principal James of McGill would open the discussion at 
the Friday afternoon session on "Post- War Planning and 
Reconstruction . ' ' 

The general secretary read a letter from Mr. Cameron, 
expressing appreciation of the report which he had received 
from the Institute's Committee on Post War Problems on 
the form "Considerations for Evaluating Projects". The 
great care which had been taken by Mr. Miller's committee 
in considering this matter, and the representative nature of 
the report, covering, as it does, such a large cross-section 
of the engineering profession in Canada, made it of very 
definite and constructive value. The letter was noted, and 
the general secretary was directed to send a copy to Mr. 
Miller. 

Mr. Hall and Mr. Hunt were appointed scrutineers to 
open the ballot for Honorary Membership for Professor 
Frederick Webster. Their report showed that a favourable 
ballot had been returned by every member of Council. 

Professor Webster was declared elected an Honorary 
Member of the Institute, and the general secretary was 
directed to notify him by wire, and request his formal 
acceptance of this distinction in accordance with the by- 
laws. 

In presenting the report of the Membership Committee, 
Mr. Hall expressed appreciation of the very constructive 
comments which had been received from members of Council 
and branch executives, some of which had been of great 
assistance to his committee in preparing its final report. 
His committee now submitted a proposed "Memorandum 
to Branch Executives — re Qualifications for Membership", 
together with a suggested form for the use of branch execu- 
tive committees in tabulating all the information available 
regarding an applicant. 

Mr. Hall pointed out that as one or two of the branches 
had strongly objected to the use of the form, his committee 
was recommending that it be left to the individual branches 
to decide whether or not they returned the completed form 
to Council with their recommendation. The use of the form 
was recommended so that all branches would have some 
uniform system of evaluating the qualifications of an 
applicant. 

Councillor F. W. Gray of Sydney had brought up the 
question of engineers from the Old Country, who, although 
not holding a degree, had had special apprenticeship train- 
ing, including extensive night study at the local university 
or technical school. Such cases were not covered by the 
form, and in his opinion should receive special consideration. 

A prolonged discussion followed, in which all councillors 
took part. There was some difference of opinion as to the 
interpretation which should be given to the various items 
on the proposed form. Many important points were raised, 
and it was felt that the report should not be adopted until 
all members of Council had had an opportunity of studying 
it. It was suggested that copies be circulated and the report 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



35 



discussed at a later meeting of Council. This resolution 
was carried unanimously. 

During the discussion it had been suggested that it might 
be desirable to appoint an Admissions Committee to con- 
sider all applications before they are presented to Council. 
It was decided to leave this suggestion with the Membership 
Committee, which could make a recommendation to the 
new Council if considered advisable. 

Mr. Armstrong presented a brief progress report from 
his Committee on the Engineering Features of Civil 
Defence, giving the complete membership of the committee 
to date. 

President Young reported that up to the present time 
no positive action had been taken by the government on 
the joint submission which had been sent to the Prime 
Minister on November 3rd, concerning the setting up of 
an organization to look after the repairing of engineering 
structures damaged by enemy action. The communication 
had been acknowledged by the Prime Minister's secretary, 
but no further word had been received. Recently President 
Young had heard that steps were being taken in Ottawa 
to organize a similar set-up under military control. It seemed 
desirable to take some action, and he had drafted a follow-up 
letter to the Prime Minister, which, with the approval of 
Mr. Pitts and Mr. Stirling, the presidents of the Royal 
Architectural Institute of Canada and the Canadian 
Construction Association respectively, he would like to 
send out immediately. The approval of both these gentlemen 
having been secured, the president undertook to prepare a 
final letter for submission to the Prime Minister. 

It was noted that after consultation with the chairman 
of the Committee on Industrial Relations, President Young 
had nominated Mr. E. G. Hewson, m.e.i.c, Office Engineer, 
Central Region, C.N.R., Toronto, as the Institute's repre- 
sentative on the new Committee on Unionism as Related 
to Engineers and Technologists to be established by the 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development. 

The financial statement to the end of November had 
been examined, and it was noted that in spite of the re- 
mission of fees to those resident in combatant areas and to 
members overseas, the Institute's position was somewhat 
better than at the same time last year. 

The following resolution was presented from the Toronto 
Branch Executive Committee: 

"Whereas engineers form an important part of our 
modern army and whereas in general we have civil and 
mining engineers commissioned in the R.C.E., and mech- 
anical and electrical engineers commissioned in the 
R.C.O.C, as O.M.E.'s, and 

"Whereas there may be a movement on foot to follow 
in the Canadian army the newly formed "Royal Electrical 
and Mechanical Engineers" of Great Britain, and 

"Whereas there may be some advantage in having all 
army engineering activities grouped in one organization 
under the title "Royal Canadian Engineers", be it 
resolved 

"That Council be asked to nominate a Committee to 
study the above matter and bring in a report to Council." 
Mr. Wright commented briefly on the newly formed organ- 
ization in England, which is reported to be working out 
very satisfactorily. It is a strictly professional group, re- 
ceiving professional allowances, and it is hoped that a sim- 
ilar set-up in the Canadian Army would solve the problem 
of professional recognition for engineers, a matter which 
has been before the Council of the Institute over a long 
period of time. 

On the motion of Mr. Pitts, seconded by Mr. Beaubien, 
it was unanimously resolved that the president and the 
general secretary be asked to name a special committee to 
investigate this matter and report to Council. 

The following resolution was presented regarding a paper 
entitled "Industrial Democracy and Its Survival" by Paul 
Ackerman, m.e.i.c, which had been presented at a recent 
meeting of the Montreal Branch : 



"A resolution was passed at the branch meeting held 
on November 5th, as follows: "That, considering the im- 
portance and magnitude of the subject and the need for 
its study, it is resolved that this meeting request our 
branch executive to ask the Council of the Institute to 
appoint a committee to examine the value of this paper, 
in respect of post-war reconstruction, and give it such 
publicity as it merits." 

On the motion of Mr. McLeod, seconded by Mr. Pitts, 
it was unanimously resolved that this resolution be referred 
to the Committee on Post-War Problems for study and 
recommendation. 

Mr. Pitts suggested that this would be an appropriate 
time to tell Mr. Wright how glad Council was to know that 
he will be back at the Institute on a full-time basis, and to 
tell him how much his work in Ottawa and his efforts on 
behalf of the Institute have been appreciated. President 
Young stated that he was very glad that Mr. Wright had 
been able to do this work. While in some respects the 
Institute may have had to contract its efforts because of 
his absence, he felt that on the whole it had been a very 
fine gesture on the part of the Institute to allow the general 
secretary to carry on the work in Ottawa. 

A number of applications were considered and the 
following elections and transfers were effected : 

Admissions 

Members 12 

Juniors 4 

Students 64 

Transfers 

Junior to Member 18 

Student to Member 4 

Student to Junior 23 

It was noted that the next meeting of Council would be 
held in Montreal on Saturday, January 16th, 1943, following 
the annual meeting of the Montreal Branch on Friday even- 
ing, January 15th, at which the president would be the 
guest of honour. 

The Council rose at twelve-thirty p.m. 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At a meeting of Council held on December 19th, 1942, the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 
Cranswick, Jack Edwin Boyd, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), sales 

engr., Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd., Edmonton, Alta. 
deCuise, Paul Ernest, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), consltg. 

engr., deGuise & Desaulniers, Montreal, Que. 
Graydon, Edgar Ross, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), structural engr., 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Heyland, Kenneth Vaughan, b.a.sc. (Univ. of Toronto), asst. mgr., 

Construction Equipment Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Lovell, John (Plymouth Tech. Coll.), engr. Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd., 

Hamilton, Ont. 
Richardson, John Maxwell, b.sc (McGill Univ.), elect'l engr., 

Southern Canada Power Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Scrivener, Robert Massey, b.sc. (McGill Univ.), gen. mgr., Toronto 

Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Wvllie, James Murdoch, contracting engr., engrg. dept., Canadian 

Bridge Co. Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. 

Juniors 
Brunskill, Harry Talmadge, b.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask.), engr., 

Plant engrg. dept., Ford Motor Co. of Canada, Windsor, Ont. 
Lindsay, Donald Lome, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), sub-lieut. 

(E), R.C.N.V.R., Halifax, N.S. 
Rounthwaitc, Cyril Frederic Thomas, B.Arch. (Univ. of Toronto), 

structural designer, 69 Howland Ave., Toronto, Ont. 
*Upton, Franklin Howard, production planner, John Inglis Co. Ltd., 

Toronto, Ont. 
*Has passed the Institute's examinations. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 
Backler, Irving Saul, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), consulting engineer, 

Montreal, Que. 
Bate» Harold Carey, b.sc (Civil), Queen's Univ., county engr., 

Stratford, Ont. 



36 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Cowie, Norman Claude, b.a.sc (Univ. of Toronto), engr., Great 

Lakes Power Co. Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
Craig, James William, B.Eng. (Ceramic Engrg.), b.sc. (Chemistry), 

(Univ. of Sask.), mgr., development and research, Canadian 

Refractories Ltd., Montreal. 
Dyer, John Henry, b.sc. (E.E.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), elect'l switchgear 

dftsmn., English Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., St. Catharines, Ont. 

Gislason, Stefan Ingvar, b.sc. (E.E.), (Univ. of Man.), asst. design 

engr., Defence Industries, Ltd., Jean Brilliant, Que. 
Hinton, Eric, hydro-electric engr. and asst. mgr., H.E. Dept., 

Bowater's Newfoundland Pulp & Paper Mills, Ltd., Deer Lake, Nfld. 
Lynch, John Franklin, b.sc. (E.E.), b.sc (CE.), (Univ. of N.B.), 

res. engr., Defence Industries Ltd., Brownsburg, Que. 
Lyons, Gerald S., b.sc. (Elec), (Queen's Univ.), engr., Bell Telephone 

Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Matheson, Murray Alexander, b.sc. (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask.), 

asst. chief engr., Talara Refinery, International Petroleum Co. Ltd., 

Talara, Peru. 
Smith, Maurice Howie, b.sc. (E.E.), (Univ. of Man.), inspecting 

officer (E.E.), Inspection Board of United Kingdom and Canada, 

Peterborough district, Peterborough, Ont. 
Timm, Charles Ritchie, b.sc. (E.E.), (McGill Univ.), elect'l engr., 

Central engineering dept., Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd., Montreal, 

Que. 
Watier, Arthur H., B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), asst. to asst. supt. of 

generating stations, Shawinigan Water & Power Co., Shawinigan 

Falls, Que. 
Weselake, Edward Joseph, b.sc. (E.E.), (Univ. of Man.), reinforced 

concrete designer, Cowin & Co., Winnipeg, Man. 
Willows, Fred, b.sc. (CE.), (Univ. of Man.), field engr., Beauharnois 

Light, Heat & Power Co., Ltd., Beauharnois, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 
Evans, Edward Norton, b.sc. (McGill Univ.), sales representative. 

Champion Spark Plug Co. of Canada, Ltd., Windsor, Ont. 
Hayes, Ronald Abram Hughson, B.sc. (McGill Univ.), asst. chief 

engr., Aluminum Laboratories, Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Hubbard, Sewell Fortescue, B.Eng. (Chem.), (McGill Univ.), Chem- 
icals & Explosives Prodn. Branch, Dept. of Munitions & Supply, 

Montreal, Que. 
Lacombe, Jean Louis, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), dftsmn., mtce., mech. 

designer, Quebec North Shore Paper Co., Baie Comeau, Que. 
Nichols, Judson Timmis, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), mtce. engr., 

Aluminum Company of Canada, Ltd., Arvida, Que. 
Reinhardt, Gerard Victor, B.sc. (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), dftsmn. 

engrg. office, Aluminum Company of Canada, Ltd., Arvida, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Bélanger, Lucien, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), engr., and 

dftsmn., Royal Canadian Naval Service, Deep Brook, N.S. 
Bourgeois, Claude, b.a.sc., ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), asst. engr., 

Plessisville Foundry, Plessisville, Que. 
Carey, Leslie Clement, b.e. (Civil), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), junior engr., 

Hydraulic Dept., Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, 

Toronto, Ont. 
Clark, Alvin Ira, b.sc (M.E.), (Univ. of Sask.), mech. engr., Aluminum 

Company of Canada, Ltd., Arvida, Que. 
Cousineau, Emile, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), surveying and 

gen'l engrg., Quebec Streams Commission,, Montreal, Que. 
Decarie, Yves Stanley, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), foundry 

division, Canadian Car & Foundry Ltd., Longue Pointe Works, 

Montreal, Que. 
deTonnancour, L. Charles G., B.Eng. (Chem.), (McGill Univ.), asst. 

to Development engr., Shawinigan Chemicals Ltd., Shawinigan 

Falls, Que. 
Forest, Clement, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), inspector for 

Dept. of Transport (Civil Aviation Divn.), Montreal, Que. 
Grout, Raymond Edward, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), elect'l de- 
signing engr., Shawinigan Engineering Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Hoba, Joseph G., b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), asst. engr., Aircraft Division, 

Kelsey Wheel Co., Windsor, Ont. 
Hunter, Lawrence McLean, b.sc (Queen's Univ.), mgr., production 

dept., Coca Cola Co. of Canada, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Kirkpatrick, Robert Evans, Capt., r.c.a. B.Eng., (McGill Univ.), 

inspecting officer, Propellants and Cartridges, Inspection Board of 

United Kingdom and Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 
Laquerre, Maurice L., b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), field engr., 

Angus Robertson Co. Ltd., Villeray plant of D.I.L., Montreal, Que. 
Larose, Gérard, b.a.sc (Ecole Polytechnique), special products dept., 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Lemieux, Henri Julien, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), office 

engr., engrg. dept., Foundation Company of Canada, Shipshaw, 

Que. 
Madill, Floyd Alexander, b.sc (Civil), (Univ. of Alta.), asst. party 

chief, gravity meter surveys, producing dept., Imperial Oil Ltd., 

Calgary, Alta. 



McColeman, Hugh Alexander, b.sc (Univ. of Alta.), elect'l dftsmn., 
Aluminum Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Oatway, Harold Callaghan, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), Flight-Lieutenant, 
R.C.A.F., aeronautical engr., Aircraft Development Officer (Design 
& Production), Ottawa, Ont. 

Papineau, Marcel L., b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), Flying 
Officer, R.C.A. F., aeronautical engr. officer, No. 3 I.T.S., Victoria- 
ville, Que. 

Pearcé, Eldridge Burton, b.sc. (Queen's Univ.), dftsmn., tool design, 
Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd., Amherst, N.S. 

Phemister, William Ian, b.sc (Mech.), (Queen's Univ.), photo- 
renroduction supervisor, National Steel Car Corp., Niagara Falls, 
Ont. 

Smith, Allan Garfield, B.Eng. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), sales engr., 
Illumination Divn., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Taylor, Dudley Robert, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), radio engr., Trans- 
Canada Airlines, Winnipeg, Man. 

Students Admitted 

Beaton, William Henry (McGill Univ.), 3484 Westmore Ave., 

Montreal, Que. 
Charton, Herman (McGill Univ.), 336 Woodland Ave., Verdun, Que. 
de la Chevrotière, Jean-Marie (McGill Univ.), 6588 St. Denis St., 

Montreal, Que. 
Mackenzie, Arthur Drury (Univ. of Toronto), 506 Huron St.', 

Toronto, Ont. 
Maclure, James Hubert Crocker (McGill Univ.), 602 Victoria Ave., 

Westmount, Que. 
Morison, George Alfred (Univ. of Man.), 54 Maryland St., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
McKinney, Charles Donald (Univ. of N.B.), 44 Ludlow St. West, 

Saint John N.B. 
Reid, Robert Arthur, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), 944 Davaar 

Ave, Outremont, Que. 
Ritchie, Ross A. (McGill Univ.), 3592 University St., Montreal, Que: 
Tivy, Robert Harrison (Univ. of Man.), 54 Maryland St., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Waldron, John Ross (Univ. of Man.), 54 Maryland St., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Weber, Thomas Eugene (Univ. of Man.), 409 Sherbrook St., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Weller, Robert Charles (Univ. of Toronto), 588 Huron St., Toronto, 

Ont. 

Students at the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Que. 

Baillargeon, Robert A., 12,200 Valmont St., Montreal, Que. 

Baril, Roland Gérard, St. Hilaire, Que. 

Beaudoin, Bernard, 3783 Botrel St., Montreal, Que. 

Beaupré, Louis, 34 Hazelwood Ave., Outremont, Que. 

Beland, Jean Armand, 807 Wilder Ave, Outremont, Que. 

Bisaillon, Gérard Albert, 1956 Rachel St. East, Montreal, Que. 

Boucher, Jean-Paul, 1305 Panet St., Montreal, Que. 

Boulva, Francis, 824 Cherrier St., Montreal, Que. 

Bourassa, Jean, 1615 Bernard Ave., Outremont, Que. 

Bouthillette, Roland, 1899 Leclaire St., Montreal, Que. 

Brais, Pierre, 127 Chambly Road, Longueuil, Que. 

Brissette, Jacques L., 788 Jean-Talon St. W., Montreal, Que. 

Brissette, Paul, 2549 Chapleau St., Montreal, Que. 

Clément, Albert, 2501 Orleans St., Montreal, Que. 

Cormier, André, 837 Dunlop Ave, Outremont, Que. 

Courchesne, Armand, 5621 Côte des Neiges Road, Montreal, Que. 

Dagenais, Camille, 3876 Harvard Ave., N.D.G, Montreal, Que. 

Deniger, Jean, 2500 Sheppard St., Montreal, Que. 

Dion, Louis Armand, 4323 Western Ave., Montreal, Que. 

Dugas, Jean, 454 Outremont Ave., Outremont, Que. 

Farand, Henri-Paul, 2612 Ste. Catherine Road, Outremont, Que. 

Faubert, Guy-Albert, 369 Ville de Léry, Chateauguay Co., Que. 

Ferraro, Silvio, 7166 Casgrain St. Montreal, Que. 

Gagnon, Adrien, 1957 Kent St., Montreal, Que. 

Gendron, Lucien, 800 Gilford St., Montreal, Que. 

Giroux, Leopold, 217 Aqueduc St., Quebec, Que. 

Grenier, Guy, 4251 DeLorimier Ave, Montreal, Que. 

Iloude. Raymond, 308 Baldwin St., Montreal, Que. 

Laganière, René, 4702 Lafontaine St., Montreal, Que 

L'Anglais, François, 3493 DeLorimier Ave., Montreal, Que. 

LeBlanc, René, 194-A Querbes Ave, Outremont, Que. 

Lemieux, Phi lias, Lauzon, Que. 

Leroux, Jean-Jacques, 696 St. Joseph St., Lachine, Que. 

Marier, Jean Jacques, 187 Blainville St., Ste. Thérèse, Que. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



37 



Matte, Gilbert, 36-2nd Ave., Ville St. Pierre, Montreal, Que. 

Murray, Hubert, 1851 Theodore St., Montreal, Que. 

Parent, Albert, 8041 St. Michel Blvd., Montreal, Que. 

Partous, Georges Jean, 1638 Bennett Ave., Montreal, Que. 

Pontbriand, Joseph Edmond, Sorel, Que. 

Pouliot, Georges Aimé, 4270 St. Hubert St., Montreal, Que. 

Renaud, Robert, 6869 Fabre St., Montreal, Que. 

Ricard, Julien, 1653 Ontario Street East, Montreal, Que. 

Rolland, Paul-André, 5470 Notre Dame de Grâce Ave., Montreal, 

Que. 
Roy, Jacques, 1847 Theodore St., Maisonneuve, Montreal, Que. 
Ste-Marie, Jean E., 5314 Brodeur St., Montreal, Que. 
St-Pierre, Fernand O., 8271 Henri-Julien St., Montreal, Que. 
Scharry, Leo, 4743 Berri St., Montreal, Que. 
Tessicr, Laurent, 6253 deLaroche St., Montreal, Que. 
Thomas, Jean-Marie, 386 de Lasalle Ave., Montreal, Que. 
Touri«ny, Paul, 456 Sherbrooke St. East, Montreal, Que. 
Vincent, Jacques, 837 Hartland Ave., Outremont, Que. 



By virtue of the co-operative agreement between the Institute and 
the Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, the following 
elections and transfers have become effective: 

Members 
Cameron, Clvde Fraser, (Grad. R.M.C.). m.sc. (Mass. Inst. Tech.), 

Major, D.A.Q.M.G. (E), Atlantic Command H.Q., Halifax, N.S. 
Coy, Vincent Michael, b.sc. (Elec), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), distribution 

engr., Nova Scotia Light & Power Co. Ltd., Halifax, N.S. 
Reid, George Gideon, b.sc. (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 34 Regina 

Terrace, Halifax, N.S. 
Ward, William Albert, engrg. dftsman., Dept. of Public Works, 

Halifax, N.S. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 
Duff, Duncan Clemens Verr, B.sc. (Civil), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), senior 
asst. engr., Works & Bldgs. Br., Dept. of National Defence, Halifax, 

N.S. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 

MacKinnon, Archibald Hugh, B.Eng. (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 
designing engr., I. Matheson & Co. Ltd., New Glawgow, N.S. 



Personals 



William N. Kelly, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected chairman 
of the Vancouver Branch of the Institute. Born at Douglas, 
Isle of Man, he was educated at Belfast Technical College 
and at Liverpool University. He served an apprenticeship 
as engineer with Combe, Barbour and Combe Ltd., Belfast. 
From 1903 to 1908 he was employed with various firms of 
engineers at Liverpool. He came to Canada in 1909 and was 
engaged in various engineering projects in British Columbia. 
Later, he was appointed superintending engineer with 
Consolidated Whaling Corporation and North Pacific Sea 
Products Co. In 1925, he joined the staff of Yarrows 
Limited at Vancouver. In 1926, he entered private practice 
as a consulting engineer at Vancouver and has since been 
carrying on successfully as mechanical engineer and marine 
surveyor. Mr. Kelly is surveyor to the British Corporation 
for the Register of Shipping and Aircraft. 




William N. Kelly, M.E.I.C. 

R. H. Parsons, m.e.i.c, city engineer at Peterborough, 
Ont., has been elected vice-president of the Canadian 
Institute on Sewage and Sanitation. 

Dr. A. E. Berry, m.e.i.c, director, Sanitary Engineering 
Division of Ontario, was re-elected secretary-treasurer of 
the Canadian Institute on Sewage and Sanitation at the 
convention held in Toronto, last October. 
Squadron-Leader Wilfrid E. Hobbs, m.e.i.c, has re- 
cently been promoted from the rank of Flight- Lieutenant 
and has been transferred from R.C.A.F. headquarters in 
Ottawa to No. 2 Training Command at Winnipeg, Man. 
Before his enlistment in the R.C.A.F., he was employed 
as assistant to the manager in the Land Department of 
Hudson's Bay Company at Winnipeg. 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



Gordon McL. Pitts, m.e.i.c, is a new member of the City 
Council of Montreal, having been appointed as one of the 
representatives from McGill University. Mr. Pitts is a 
member of the firm of Maxwell & Pitts, architects. 

Flying Officer John W. Lucas, m.e.i.c, is now back in 
the R.C.A.F. after having been recalled by the Department 
of Public Works at Ottawa, for three months, early last 
year, and he is at present stationed in Halifax, N.S., at 
Eastern Air Command Headquarters. 

T. A. S. Munford, m.e.i.c, has been appointed division 
engineer at London, Ont., with Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company. He was previously assistant engineer, Bruce 
Division, at Toronto. 

David Hutchison, m.e.i.c, has been elected chairman of 
the Edmonton Branch of the Institute. Born at Owen 
Sound, Ont., he was educated at Queen's University where 
he graduated with honours in 1924. Upon graduation, he 
joined the staff of Foundation Company of Canada and 
was employed on bridge underwater inspection for two 
years. In 1926 he went with Power Corporation of Canada 
Limited at Montreal and became construction superinten- 
dent. In 1938 he joined the Hudson's Bay Company as 
manager of Mackenzie River Transport, at Edmonton. 

Roland Saint-Pierre, m.e.i.c, has obtained leave of ab- 
sence from the Quebec Department of Highways and has 
joined Bombardier Snowmobile Limited at Yalcourt, Que. 
After a certain period of time spent at Yalcourt, Mr. 
Saint-Pierre will come to Montreal where he is expected to 
take charge of engineering in the assembly plant. A gradu- 
ate of Ecole Polytechnique, in 1935, he has been connected 
with the Department of Highways of Quebec since gradu- 
ation, his last position being that of division engineer at 
Beauceville, Que. 

Commander B. R. Spencer, R.C.N. , m.e.i.c, has been 
transferred from Esquimalt, B.C., where he was in charge 
of the Mechanical Training Establishment, to Halifax, 
N.S., where he occupies the same position. 

H. O. Brown, m.e.i.c, has recently accepted a position 
with Massey-Harris Limited at Toronto. He was previously 
with Ste. Anne Paper Company at Beaupré, Que. 

H. C. Anderson, m.e.i.c, who was lately district engineer 
for the Department of Public Works of British Columbia 
at New Westminster, B.C., is now assistant chief engineer 
of the Department at Victoria, B.C. 



38 



January, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



C. K. McLeod, m.e.i.c, has recently been elected manag- 
ing director and appointed chief engineer of Walter Kidde 
& Company of Canada Limited. He has been associated 
with the company since 1925 in charge of engineering and 
sales in Canada. He was instrumental in the establishment, 
in June, 1941, of the Company's factory in Montreal, where 
fire protection products are manufactured for the aircraft 
and allied industries. 

Mr. McLeod retains his connection with Permutit Com- 
pany of Canada Limited, having been their engineering 
representative in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec and 
the Maritimes for a number of years. 



where his work brought him into relation with Quebec 
Power Company engineers. In 1930 he was invited to go 
to Quebec as assistant superintendent of that division. In 
1937 he was appointed superintendent of that division and 
in 1939 he became assistant general superintendent of the 
company. 

Last year he resigned his position with Quebec Power 
Company upon his appointment as Director of the new 
department of electrical engineering which was being estab- 
lished at Laval University. He had been lecturing at Laval 
University, in the Mining and Metallurgical Department, 
for the two years previous. 






Rodolphe Dubuc, M.E.I.C. 



C. K. McLeod, M.E.I.C. 



René Dupuis, M.E.I.C. 



Rodolphe Dubuc, Affil.E.i.c, has been appointed to the 
City Council of Montreal, representing the Canadian Manu- 
facturers' Association. Mr. Dubuc is assistant tax agent in 
the property and tax department of Shawinigan Water & 
Power Company which he joined in 1926 as a draughtsman. 
He is a graduate of McGill University and University of 
Montreal. 

R. A. Campbell, m.e.i.c, is assistant superintendent and 
production engineer with R. Melville Smith Company 
Limited, project managers, Canadian-Alaska Highway, at 
Fort Saint John, B.C. He was previously supervisor of 
forest operations with the Government of Ontario at 
Toronto. 

D. M. Dunlop, m.e.i.c, has been transferred to Kenora, 
Ont., as assistant superintendent of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company. A graduate in civil and electrical engi- 
neering from the University of Manitoba, he joined the 
Canadian Pacific Railway in 1936 as an instrument man. 
Lately he had been stationed at Ignace, Ont. 

W. E. S. Dyer, m.e.i.c, consulting and designing engineer, 
has opened an office in Buffalo, N.Y., besides carrying on 
practice in his Canadian office, at Toronto. Since 1902, Mr. 
Dyer has been engaged in the designing, construction and 
installation of power plants and factory equipment in 
Canada, the United States and Europe. One of his recent 
projects was the design of the new power plant of the 
Algoma Steel Company at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

René Dupuis, m.e.i.c, is the new elected Chairman of the 
Quebec Branch of the Institute. He is Director of the 
Department of Electrical Engineering at Laval University. 
Mr. Dupuis began his engineering education at McGill 
University, Montreal, and completed his course at Nancy, 
France, where he obtained his diplomas in Mechanics and 
Physics. He also studied Political Economy. Returning to 
Canada, Mr. Dupuis was employed for two years by the 
Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont. From 
1928 to 1930, he was employed in the repair shop of the 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company at Trois-Rivières, 



J. E. Goodman, m.e.i.c, has recently joined the McNa- 
mara Construction Company Limited of Toronto as a 
construction engineer. He was previously a county road 
engineer at Kingston, Ont. 

C. V. Dunne, jr. e. i.e., is now resident engineer with the 
Naval Service of the Department of National Defence at 
Sydney, N.S. He was previously construction engineer 
with E. B. Eddy Company, Hull, Que. 

R. C. Robson, jr. e. i.e., has left the staff of Bloedel, 
Stewart & Welch Limited, at Trail, B.C., to join the British 
Columbia Electric Railway Co. Ltd., at Vancouver, B.C. 

Sydney M. S. Dunne, Jr. e. i.e., is on the staff of Defence 
Industries Limited at Jean Brillant, Que. He is a graduate 
of the University of Toronto, in the class of 1940. 

P. R. Martin, s.e.i.c, has left the St. Maurice Power 
Corporation Limited, LaTuque, Que., to join Electric 
Steels Limited at Cap de la Madeleine, Que. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

Léon Dancose, s.e.i.c, Division Engineer, Office, Cana- 
dian National Railway, Levis, Que., on December 12th. 

S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c, Wartime Bureau of Technical 
Personnel, Halifax, N.S., on December 15th. 

T. A. McElhanney, m.e.i.c, Forest Products Labora- 
tories, Department of Mines, Ottawa, Ont., on December 
22nd. 

Capt. V. R. Davies, m.e.i.c, Royal Military College, 
Kingston, Ont., on December 23rd. 

Lieutenant J. P. Leroux, Montreal, on December 23rd. 

Lucien Allaire, jr. e. i.e., Provincial Highways Depart- 
ment, Metabetchouan, Lake St. Jean, on December 23rd. 

J-Ovide Couillard, Affi.E. i.e., field engineer, Bell Telephone 
Co. of Canada Limited, Quebec, on December 28th. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



39 



Obituaries 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

FRANK DAWSON ADAMS, Ho„.m.e.i.c. 

Among the eminent persons who have been elected Hon- 
orary Members of the Engineering Institute of Canada, 
Dr. F. D. Adams was notable as a man of science, educator, 
philanthropist, and churchman. He died at his home, in 
Montreal, on December 26th, 1942. Much of his geological 
work — especially that done for the Geological Survey of 
Canada and his later research work on the flow of rocks — 
had direct bearing on the work of the engineer. His term 
of office as Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science at 
McGill showed his grasp of the many problems of engineer- 
ing education. He gave active support to organizations for 
social and religious service, particularly in connection with 
unemployment, the Boy Scouts, and the Y.M.C.A.; he was 
the author of a History of Christ Church Cathedral, in 




Frank Dawson Adams, Hon.M.E.I.C. 

Montreal, the church to which he was so devoted and where 
his funeral service was held. 

Frank Dawson Adams, ph.d. (Heidelberg), d.sc. (McGill), 
f.r.s., Emeritus Professor of Geology at McGill University, 
was born in Montreal in 1859. He was educated at Montreal 
High School and at McGill University, studying also at 
Yale, Heidelberg and Zurich. 

He joined the staff of the Geological Survey of Canada 
in 1880, and returned to McGill nine years later as lecturer 
in Geology. In 1893 he was made Logan Professor of Geology 
on the retirement of Sir William Dawson. He became Dean 
of the Faculty of Applied Science (Engineering) in 1908, 
vice-principal in 1921 (when Sir Arthur Currie became prin- 
cipal) and Dean of the Faculty of Graduate Studies in 1922, 
holding the two posts concurrently. He retired from active 
University work in 1924. 

A complete list of his degrees, honours and appointments 
would be a very long one. Among them may be mentioned: 
Fellow of the Geological Society (London, 1895), Fellow of 
the Royal Society (London, 1907), president Canadian Insti- 
tute of Mining and Metallurgy (1910-12), president Royal 
Society of Canada (1913), president Geological Society of 
America (1918). He was an honorary member of the Insti- 
tution of Mining and Metallurgy (London), The American 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada; six universities conferred doctorates 
upon him. 

During 1918-19 he was deputy director of the Educa- 
tional Department of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and rendered enthusi- 
astic service in the rehabilitation of Canadian soldiers. 

A geologist of world-wide reputation, his long career at 



McGill University brought him into contact with six prin- 
cipals of the university and many generations of students. 
In the words of Principal Cyril James, "many of those he 
met during six decades of university life have been privileged 
to know him as a friend whose wisdom of counsel was 
equalled by his personal charm." 

The community in which he lived, and the country of 
his birth, will not soon forget his many contributions to 
their welfare, and the quiet unobtrusive way in which these 
services were rendered. 

Dr. Adams was elected Honorary Member of the 
Institute on October 23rd, 1917. 

Rex Elmer Buckley, m.e.i.c, died at Glen Ferris, West 
Virginia, on October 1st, 1942, after an illness of two 
months. He was born at Niagara Falls, Ont., on November 
17, 1889, and received his engineering education at Val- 
paraiso University, Indiana. In the first years of his career, 
he was engaged in municipal engineering and hydroelectric 
power development at Niagara Falls. From 1914 to 1916 
he worked on the construction of the Welland ship canal. 
In 1916 he joined the staff of the Canadian Niagara Power 
Company of Niagara Falls and remained with the firm for 
several years. 

Later he went to the United States where he was engaged 
in the construction of power developments. In 1928 he was 
in charge of construction for the New Power Company at 
Glen Ferris, West Virginia, where he was still located at 
the time of his death. 

Mr. Buckley joined the Institute as an Associate Member 
in 1919 and he became a Member in 1940. 

John Herbert Jackson, m.e.i.c, died at his home in 
Toronto on September 25, 1942. He was born at Windsor, 
Ont., on January 30, 1878, and was educated at Windsor 
Collegiate Institute, and at the School of Practical Science, 
University of Toronto. He served an apprenticeship, for 
three years, in the office of the city engineer, at Windsor, 
Ont. In the early years of his career, he was employed in the 
office of the late Brigadier-General C. H. Mitchell, at 
Niagara Falls, Ont., on municipal work and hydraulic 
investigations. From 1903 to 1908 he held the position of 
city engineer at Niagara Falls. In 1908 he became super- 
intendent, and later chief engineer and general manager, of 
what is now the Niagara Parks Commission. Under his 
guidance this park project grew and expanded until it 
embraced a series of parks from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, 
joined by a Government-owned highway along the whole 
length of the Niagara River, and known as the Niagara 
River Parkway. Following his retirement in 1934, he took 
up residence in Toronto. 

Mr. Jackson joined the Institute in 1899 as a Student, 
transferring to Associated Member in 1905. He became a 
Member in 1932. 

John George MacKinnon, m.e.i.c, died in the hospital 
at Montreal on October 19, 1942. Born at Underwood, 
Ont., on October 19, 1884, he received his engineering 
education at the University of Toronto where he graduated 
in 1909. During the early years of his career he was em- 
ployed on railway location in the Canadian West, and from 
1912 to 1914 was resident engineer for the Canadian Nor- 
thern on construction of the line through the Yellow Head 
Pass. In 1915 he engaged in private practice and was also 
retained by the Department of Public Works, Government 
of Alberta, as roadway engineer for the constituencies of 
Stettler and Coronation. From 1916 to 1919 he served over- 
seas as a lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion, Canadian Railway 
Troops. After his return to Canada he was associated with 
the firm of Parsons-Ed, Limited, on the construction of 
the hydroelectric power installation at Grand Falls, N.B. 
Later, he returned to private practice. A few months before 
his death he was appointed chief engineer at No. 31 Person- 
nel Depot, R.C.A.F., Moncton. 

Mr. MacKinnon took an active interest in public affairs. 



40 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




John George MacKinnon, M.E.I. C. 

He was secretary of the local Board of Trade and a past 
chairman of the Moncton Branch of the Institute. 

He joined the Institute as an Associate Member on 
March 25, 1925. In 1940 he became a Member. 

William Henry Souba, M.E.I. c, died at Minneapolis, 
Minn., on September 23, 1942. He was born at Hopkins, 
Minn., on June 6, 1884, and received his education at the 
University of Minnesota where he graduated as a mechan- 
ical engineer in 1909. From 1910 to 1912 he was engaged on 
grain elevator construction as mechanical draftsman and 
designer with Barnett & Record Company at Minneapolis. 
In^l912 he came to Canada at Fort William, Ont., in a 



similar capacity with Barnett, McQueen Company Limited. 
In 1914 and 1915 he worked as an assistant engineer for the 
Board of Grain Commissioners of Canada at Saskatoon, 
Sask., Calgary, Alta., and Vancouver, B.C. In 1916 he 
joined the staff of Mr. C. D. Howe at Port Arthur, Ont. The 
following year he became a partner in the firm of C. D. 
Howe & Company, consulting engineers. In 1933 he re- 
turned to Minneapolis, Minn., where he resided at the time 
of his death. 

Mr. Souba joined the Institute as a Member in 1922. 

Frederick Stanley Walton, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at 
Prince Rupert, B.C., on October 18, 1942. He was born at 
Hull, Eng., on June 12, 1888, and received his education 
in the local schools. 

He began his engineering career with the Grand Trunk 
Pacific Railway in Saskatoon, in 1911, and was there until 
August, 1914, when he enlisted at the outbreak of the 
Great War. He was made prisoner of war in April, 1915, 
and made several unsuccessful attempts to escape until 
the Armistice. 

In May, 1920, he resumed service with the railway as an 
instrumentman on the Smithers Division. In 1925, he was 
promoted to be a roadmaster at Smithers and in October, 
1926, he was transferred to the same position at Prince 
Rupert, B.C. 

In the past year Mr. Walton had been particularly 
active owing to developments resulting from the war and 
at the time of his sudden death he was directing operations 
on the clearing of an obstruction on the line. 

Mr. Walton joined the Institute as a Junior in 1911, 
transferring to an Associate Member in 1926. He became 
a Member in 1940. 



News of the Branches. 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

J. B. Dowler, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-treasurer 

The monthly dinner meeting of the Border Cities Branch 
was held at Windsor on November 27th 1941, at 6.30 p.m. 
Thirty-three members and guests were present. 

After dinner, the chairman, H. L. Johnston, introduced 
P. E. Adams, the chairman of the branch committee on 
"Structural Defence Against Bombing." Mr. Adams re- 
ported on the activities of the committee both in the 
branch and at headquarters and announced that he would 
be available for consultation with anyone who wished to 
review the notes of the Professor Webster lectures. He also 
exhibited copies of the Institute booklet "Structural 
Defence Against Bombing" and reviewed the contents. He 
announced that the booklets were for sale to the public 
and also that T. H. Jenkins of Windsor had been very 
active in the preparation of the material. 

G. G. Henderson then introduced the speaker of the 
evening, W. R. Stickney, welding engineer of the Canadian 
Bridge Company. 

The subject of Mr. Stickney's address was Electric Arc 
Welding — a general review of the metal arc industry 
to-day. The address was illustrated by sound and colour 
films entitled "The Inside of Arc Welding" shown by Mr. 
Wilson of the Canadian General Electric Co. 

Mr. Stickney introduced his subject by saying that at 
the time of the last war, arc welding was merely a con- 
venient or makeshift method of making repairs or fastening 
small parts to structures, whereas to-day welding is one 
of the major production method for vital war materials. 

There are three major types of fusion welding, that is 
welding which does not require pressure, namely, electric 
arc welding, thermite welding and oxy-acetylene welding. 
The former only was discussed in the paper. 

Originally, all arc welding was done with bare electrodes 
but it is only because of the development of electrode 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



coating that a.c. welding and the welding of high tensile 
alloy steels are made possible. The speed of modern welding 
would be impossible without this development. 

In the choice of arc welding equipment for any installa- 
tion, we must consider the following alternatives; either 
direct or alternating current; manual or automotive equip- 
ment, single or multiple operator outfits power from a 
transformer or motor-generator set, and many other factors. 

The training of the welding operator must be very care- 
fully conducted. Most welding schools try to instruct in 
the fundamentals but the operator must be further trained 
on the job in the particular methods of welding to be used. 
The great number of variables which enter into every job 
must all be considered and mastered. Usually an operator 
will become reasonably efficient after 4 to 6 months time. 

Mr. Stickney concluded his address with a short resume 
of the recent developments in this field. 

After the discussion period, J. F. Blowey moved a vote 
of thanks to the speaker. 

The meeting adjourned at about 10.30 p.m. on motion 
of W. P. Augustine. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 



S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c. 
G. V. Ross, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The annual meeting of the Halifax Branch was held on 
December 17, at the Halifax Hotel. Percy Lovett, retiring 
chairman, reviewed the activities of the past year and S. W. 
Gray, secretary-treasurer, gave the financial report. The 
Halifax Branch has grown in recent years until it is now 
the fourth largest in Canada, having 191 resident and 90 
non-resident members. 

The new executive officers elected were Prof. A. E. Flynn, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



41 



chairman; K. L. Dawson, L. E. Mitchell, and C. V. Duff, 
resident; and R. B. Stewart, New Glasgow, and John Clarke, 
Bridgewater, non-resident. 

When Prof. Flynn had taken over the chair, he introduced 
the speaker, Mr. R. L. Dunsmore, of the Imperial Oil Co. 
Mr. Dunsmore showed a film and gave a talk on the three 
new pre-load concrete oil storage tanks recently constructed 
here. These tanks are 130 feet in diameter, 42 feet high 
with a dome roof and have 100,000 barrel capacity. Last 
November, Mr. Walsh, chief engineer of the Gunite and 
Waterproofing Co. Ltd., spoke to the branch on the design 
and construction of the tanks they then proposed to build, 
and Mr. Dunsmore's folk and film provided an interesting 
follow up now that construction has been completed. Several 
changes were made during the construction period, as these 
are the first tanks of this type to be used for petroleum 
products, and the designers and builders had to feel their 
way along. 

Sixty-three members and guests were present. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 



[R. A. Low, m.e.i.c. 



Sccr< tary-T reasurer 



The Kingston Branch opened its winter programme on 
November 10th, at which the guest speaker was Professor 
J. C. Cameron, Head of the Industrial Relations Section, 
Queen's University. Professor R. A. Low acted as chairman 
for the meeting, and introduced the speaker. 

Professor Cameron made it quite clear that any study of 
the problems of industrial relations must proceed primarily 
from the standpoint of management. This is because prob- 
lems of procedure in handling human relations are essen- 
tially problems of managerial technique. To be complete the 
analysis must attempt to the worker the difficulties of 
management, and to management the difficulties of the 
worker. It must, moreover take cognizance of the larger 
social interests which impinge at various points on equitable 
relations in industry and business. 

In an interesting discussion period, the speaker empha- 
sized that the economic organization of a country is a 
means to an end rather than an end in itself. That end is 
dominantly social: the enrichment of human life through 
the satisfaction of natural wants and desires. From a social 
point of view, the achievement of that end through the 
exploitation of the workers is undesirable and unjustifiable. 

Following the meeting the election of officers took place. 



Officers for 1943 



Chairman 

Vice-Chairman . . . 
Executive 



Ex-officio 

Secretary-Treasurer 



.K. M. Winslow, m.e.i.c. 
.S. D. Lash, m.e.i.c. 
.W. F. Noonan, m.e.i.c. 
R. W. Carter, m.e.i.c. 
J. D. Lee, Jr., m.e.i.c. 
. T. A. McGinnis 
D. S. Ellis. 
.R. A. Low, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University, 

Kingston, Ontario. 



LONDON BRANCH 

H. G. Stead, jr. e. i.e. - Secretary-Treasurer 



A. L. FURANNA. Jr. E. I.C. 



Branch Neivs Editor 



The last regular meeting of the year, held on Monday, 
December 7th, was occasioned by President G R. Young's 
visit to the branch. Prior to the meeting the president was 
entertained by the branch members at a private dinner in 
the Hotel London. 

After being introduced to the meeting by Mr. J. A. 
Vance, the president spoke on the Institute's activities 
during the past year. The first problem facing the Institute 
was to deter :nine whether or not it should remain active 
during the war. However, it was decided that the Institute 
would carry on as usual and it may now be seen that the 



achievements of the past year alone have justified that 
decision. 

President Young outlined the purpose of the Institute 
under three headings, namely the preparation of scientific 
papers, the encouragement of interest in engineering 
activities and the promotion of the engineer's welfare. 
Under Mr. H. F. Bennett's Committee on the Young 
Engineer a book was published for the guidance of pros- 
pective engineer students. This book has been distributed 
to the high schools and technical schools. Besides, the 
branches have selected a committee who will make them- 
selves available to students seeking advice as to their 
desire of a career in engineering. Also a manual was pub- 
lished for the guidance of these counselling committees. 

The war has given rise to several special activities. The 
Institute has published an abridgment of the lectures given 
by Prof. Webster, Deputy Chief Engineer for the Ministry 
of Home Security in England. This book is now being dis- 
tributed throughout the Civilian Defence Committees. 
Members of the branches have also become local technical 
advisers to the C.D.C. on engineering problems. Another 
committee deals with the problems of structural defence 
against bombing, the repair of engineering works and the 
protection of existing and future plants against bombing. 

The Institute is very much concerned with the recon- 
struction programme after the war. Mr. W. C. Miller is 
chairman of a committee on Post- War Problems. It will 
be the duty of this committee to help evaluate engineering 
projects put forth for government consideration. Another 
committee is studying the problems of Industrial Relations. 

The president expressed his confidence for the future. 
He said that great reserves were being created by the war 
and that great quantities of material would be required. 
As shining examples of this he pointed out the tremendous 
requirements of the railways and city water and sewage 
systems. Besides this, he predicted that many new lines 
would be developed out of war research efforts and that 
great new industries would be carried on in Canada after 
the war. 

Finally, Dean Young declared a fear that the vast num- 
bers of technologists developed by the war would create a 
severe problem. He advised that there is a need for a pro- 
fessional outlook rather than that of the technologist, the 
basic difference between them being that the engineering 
profession as such has a knowledge of the art with a firm 
realization of its professional trusteeship. 

President Young was thanked for his address and visit 
by Mr. E. V. Buchanan. A number of his former students 
also took the opportunity of expressing their pleasure in 
being able to see and hear him again. 

MONCTON BRANCH 



V. ('. BlACKETT. M.E.I.C. 



Secretary- Treas urcr 



On November 11th a combined meeting of the Moncton 
Branch and the Engineering Society of Mount Allison was 
held in the Science Building of the University at Sackville. 
James Fraser, president of the Engineering Society, was in 
the chair. A series of Canadian ( teneral Electric technicolour 
sound films, entitled "The Inside of Arc Welding", were 
shown. The following evening, November 12th, the films 
were screened at a branch meeting in Moncton. H. J. 
Crudge, chairman of the branch, presided. The meeting was 
open to the public, and, in addition to Institute members, 
a number of railway welders and vocational school pupils 
were in attendance. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

L. A. DuCHASTEL, M.E.I.C. - Secretary-Treasurer 

Wilms P. Maloke, m.e.i.c. -' \„ ... _,., 
... „. r /Branch Ixrws Editors 

W. W. lNe.RAM, s.K.I.e. - - J 

Through the courtesy of the Dominion Bridge Company 
Limited, a visit was made to their Lachine plant on October 
29th, by about 350 members. 

The trip was particularly interesting in view of the work 
that is being carried on in the plant at the present time. 



42 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Operations such as forging, union melt welding, heavy 
forming of heads for Scotch marine boilers, frame bending 
and préfabrication for ship construction, were in progress. 
The mold loft, where templates are made for the fabrication 
of ships' plate, and the various furnaces used in bending 
and forming work proved of special interest. 

After the tour through the plant, refreshments were 
served. 

Transportation to and from the plant was provided 
through the kindness of the Montreal Tramways Company. 



charged at an angle just below the roof, with enough 
velocity to cause circulation. Practically all heat loss of 
these buildings occurs through the roof. 

The entrances of the buildings lead to the basement and 
the employers reach their work by nearby staircases, with- 
out disturbing operators of the previous shift by parading 
along the ground floor. The basements are also used for 
locker and wash rooms, cafeterias and kitchens, and 
recreation rooms. 



Industrial Democracy and Its Survival was the topic 
of an address given by P. Ackerman, on November 5th. 

The industrial age in which we live, where machine 
power has gone so far to replace manpower, has introduced 
social and economic problems that must be solved if indus- 
trial democracy is to survive. A plan was presented to 
solve these problems by assuring equity in "duties of all" 
and in "benefits for all" which would lead to ever-growing 
maximum security, comfort and freedom to all. The alter- 
native is "industrial anarchy," with outcast and privileged 
classes, resulting in discontent, unrest, class war and leading 
to perpetual insecurity, want and human slavery. 

The goods that are required by man can be produced by 
a fraction of the population. Therefore, some means must 
be used to avoid having superfluous labour, or as we usually 
call it — unemployment. The proposed plan would take care 
of the situation by the retirement of everyone at an early 
age, with their future secured by means of a national 
mutual retirement insurance. All workers would be taxed 
for the purpose during their working years and all would 
receive at least an adequate pension for life on retirement. 
Workers would not be compelled to retire on attaining the 
normal retirement age, but there would be no advantage 
in their working beyond it. 

Provision is made for sickness, accident and disability 
insurance, for rehabilitation after the war, for retirement of 
the national debt, for a revised monetary system, for 
foreign trade, and for economic and social needs. 

The plan promises economic freedom and social security 
by means of a "healthy national reorganization of industrial 
society." 

The discussion lasted about an hour and showed a keen 
interest in the subject. It culminated in the voting of a 
resolution that the Montreal Branch ask Council to create 
a committee to study the subject further. Mr. Duchastel 
pointed out that there already is a committee on post-war 
reconstruction to which the matter might be referred. The 
question was left for Council to decide. 



Mr. H. E. Ziel, head of the ventilating and air condition- 
ing staff of Albert Kahn, Associated Architects and 
Engineers, Inc., Detroit, gave a lecture on November 12th, 
his subject being Ventilating Buildings Manufacturing 
War Equipment. 

The aircraft factory of to-day is a vast building of one 
storey and basement. One such building covers 47 acres. 
For purposes of fire protection these plants are divided 
into sections of 350,000 square feet with fire walls between. 

Air-conditioning is designed to provide cleanliness, con- 
trolled temperature and humidity, and the movement of 
air, and is a necessity in these plants where the use of 
various metals with different co-efficients of expansion 
demands a maximum temperature of 85 deg. F. 

The fans are placed on the roof; wooden ducts six feet 
square are used with branches running down. In aircraft 
plants the discharge is usually made at floor level, the air 
being delivered at high temperature and high velocity. 
The work centres around the fuselage and the workers are 
far enough away from the duct outlets that they suffer no 
discomfort. In other plants, the conditioned air is dis- 



The meeting of November 26th was devoted to the sub- 
ject of Manpower Control and Employer-Employee 
Relations. L. Austin Wright spoke on the manpow ■« 
control features of National Selective Service and Mr. 
Douglas B. Chant described the work that is being done 
with respect to employer-employee relations. 

Mr. Wright outlined the restrictions on seeking employ- 
ment and on hiring employees under the Selective Service 
programme. The restrictions are designed to keep selective 
service officers informed as to available labour, and as to 
the requirements for labour, so that workers can be placed 
where they are needed most. A great effort is made to 
provide men with employment in the district in which 
they live and thus eliminate unnecessary movement of 
workers about the country. At times, however, it is neces- 
sary to transport labour to locations where the demand is 
expanding rapidly and the local supply is exhausted. 

Speaking of the expansion in personnel since the Unem- 
ployment Insurance offices were taken over by the Selective 
Service last spring, Mr. Wright stated that the number of 
offices had increased from 115 to 210 and the Selective 
Service staff from 2,500 to 4,000. Great care is exercised 
in the choosing of Selective Service officers because of the 
responsibility and authority vested in them. Each Selective 
Service officer has full responsibility for the operation of 
the programme in his area. 

With reference to employer-employee relations, Mr. 
Chant said that the troubles between management and 
labour are usually the result of misunderstanding and that 
a lot of the difficulty can be avoided by establishing a 
definite company policy, preferably in writing, and by 
instituting a joint labour-management agreement com- 
mittee. The tendency to-day is for labour to take the 
initiative and demand these committees. 

Mr. Chant made certain recommendations regarding 
these committees, namely, that management and labour 
be equally represented, that labour representatives be 
below the grade of foreman, that democratic elections be 
held with representation by departments or other suitable 
divisions, that powers be advisory and recommendatory 
only, that a committee cover one plant only with separate 
committees for other plants of the same company, that 
there be no third party, that wages and hours of service 
not be dealt with, that if any machinery already exists for 
handling grievances the committee not enter that field. 

In the discussion that followed, the questions of how 
to deal with absenteeism and loafing on the job were raised. 
It was suggested that these could be minimized by pointing 
out to the employee the importance of his work with 
relation to that of the other employees and the effects on 
production if he is not on the job. Persistent cases can be 
classed as "serious misconduct" and the employer may 
dismiss the employee in such cases without the usual seven 
day's notice. 

On Thursday, Dec. 3rd a paper on Design, Manufac- 
ture and Installation of 120 kv. Oil-Filled Cables in 
Canada, was presented by Messrs. D. M. Farnham of the 
Montreal Light, Heat & Power Cons, and O. W. Titus 
of Canada Wire & Cable Company. 

In the first section of the paper, Mr. Farnham spoke on 
the design of the system involved. Due to the load carried 
by the medium tension ring and the transformers installed, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



43 



it was impossible to carry power for any interconnection 
work. It was therefore necessary to choose a high tension 
line to act as a tie between two large transmission systems. 
As an overhead line would be rather long and considerable 
right-of-way would be required, it was most economical 
to use an underground oil-filled cable system. The duct 
line was laid to give the straightest line possible and also 
the most suitable contour for the cable so as to reduce as 
much as possible, oil pressures within the cable. 

In the second section of the paper, Mr. Titus spoke on 
the manufacture and installation of the cable. He outlined 
briefly the construction and theory of solid type cable 
which has no central oil channel and is impregnated with 
a viscous petroleum compound. Under load the cable 
sheath expands and upon cooling small voids are formed 
due to the contraction of the compound. Ionization takes 
place in these low pressure areas and may finally cause 
cable breakdown. In the oil-filled cable the imprégnant is 
a fluid oil and the cable has a hollow core which allows the 
oil to flow in the cable core. Thus under load the oil expands 
as in a solid type cable and, on cooling, the oil which is 
under pressure flows along the cable core and prevents the 
formation of voids. The life of the cable is thus increased. 
If the oil pressure in the cable is kept above atmospheric 
pressure under all conditions, the cable is protected against 
electrical damage due to sheath punctures. 

The cable lengths were kept under pressure from an oil 
supply even during the pulling of the cable into the ducts. 
All the joints were flushed with fresh degassed oil and 
vacuum treated to remove any contamination due to 
wiping operations and to remove all traces of gas. The 
potheads were made with connections for the oil supply as 
were also the stop-joints. Oil feed points were so spaced as 
to keep the pressure always above atmospheric pressure. 
The cables have been in service for some time now and 
data is being collected on their operation. Several slides 
were shown of construction and installation details of the 
cable. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



A. II. Jones, Jr.E.i.c. 
J. F. Osborn, S.E.I.C. 



Secretary- Treas urer 
Branch News Editor 



J. H. Ings, m.e.i.c. 
J. W. Brooks, ji-.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On November 26 the Branch held a dinner meeting at 
the Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines. Mr. J. M. Galilee, 
assistant advertising manager of the Canadian Westing- 
house Company, was the speaker of the evening, choosing 
as his subject Recent Advances in Electrical Research. 
Mr. Galilee's talk was illustrated by considerable equip- 
ment, including sterilamps, ultra-violet light, luminous 
powders, and a rather remarkable comparison between the 
efficiencies of incandescent and fluorescent lighting. 

At an executive meeting held immediately after, one of 
the main topics of discussion was the increasing prevalence 
of Category AA gasoline ration books among the local 
engineers. In a widely-scattered branch such as this, the 
matter assumes considerable importance as far as monthly 
meetings are concerned. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



A. A.[S\VINNERTON, M.E.I.C. 

R. C. Purser, m.e.i.c. - 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



An informal discussion on P.R.P. (Production Require- 
ments Plan) took place at a noon luncheon of the branch 
at the Chateau Laurier on December 17, 1942, led by G. L. 
Jennison of the Department of Munitions and Supply. The 
discussion, which was not open to the press, took the form 
of a few brief remarks by Mr. Jennison followed by questions 
from the audience, which he answered. The questions, for 
the most part, were based upon actual problems that had 
arisen amongst the members in the operation of the plan. 
Many of the members availed themselves of this oppor- 
tunity for enlightenment on various aspects of the subject. 



Branch activities for the 1942-3 season began on October 
24th with a visit to the plant of Fiberglas Limited and 
Duplate Limited in Oshawa. About 35 persons inspected 
the facilities of the company and later enjoyed dinner as 
guests of Fiberglas and Duplate. 

Mr. R. N. Fournier, industiial heating specialist, Cana- 
dian General Electric Company, Montreal, addressed the 
first regular evening meeting Thursday, November 5th. 
Mr. Fournier spoke on Electric Heat in Industry, a 
topic receiving particular attention at present in view of 
its importance in war industry. A full report of Mr. Four- 
nier's paper has been made in connection with its pre- 
sentation at other branches. 

Nearly a hundred members and guests gathered for the 
24th Annual Dinner of the Peterborough Branch on 
Thursday, November 26th. The meeting was addressed by 
Dean C. R. Young, president of the Institute and dean 
of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Toronto, and 
by Mr. K. M. Cameron, president elect of the Institute 
and chief engineer, Department of Public Works, Ottawa. 

Branch Chairman D. J. Emery, presented a brief report 
on branch activities and introduced the guests. Among the 
latter was Louis Trudel, assistant general secretary of the 
Institute who commented favourably on the impression 
gained on his first visit to the local organization. Mayor 
Hamilton welcomed the guests on behalf of the city. His 
Worship took the opportunity to express the communities' 
gratitude for activities of Peterborough engineers, singling 
out Mr. Emery for special notice in connection with his 
A.R.P. duties. 

Mr. A. L. Killaly introduced Mr. Cameron, tracing his 
outstanding career of public service. 

Mr. Cameron, an ardent and effective exponent of 
planning for post war action, stated plainly that engineers 
are bearing an increasing responsibility in the war and 
must be prepared to carry an even greater burden in the 
peace to follow. He felt that Peterborough with a great 
engineering industry was an appropriate place for engineers 
to assume the lead. 

Dean Young was introduced by Mr. Ross Dobbin, an 
early pupil of the president. 

Dean Young began with general observations on the 
affairs of the Institute, mentioning specifically the Civil 
Defence Committee. He went on to define the place of the 
engineer in society, with attention to the training and 
employment of the young engineer. The president dis- 
tinguished three different groups of technical men, namely, 
technicians, technologists and engineers. The technician 
possesses manual and other skills but with little, if any, 
theoretical background. The technologist is a person highly 
trained in theory and to some extent in application but in 
a very narrow field. The engineer on the other hand is 
concerned with organizational economic and managerial 
aspects as well as with the technical skill and knowledge 
of his work. He must be familiar with many sciences and 
mus t be able to relate his own ability and that of others 
to the problem at hand. The young man was advised to 
acquire a broad professional training, then specialize if 
the situation required it. Dean Young stressed the moral 
obligation the engineer owed society to serve it to the best 
of his ability. There is an element of trusteeship in engineer- 
ing as a profession. He assured the meeting that there 
would be a tremendous backlog of engineering work to be 
done at the end of the war and that engineers will be 
busier than ever. 

The speakers were thanked by the chairman on behalf 
of the meeting. 

Mr. Jules Mercier assisted by Mr. Ross Dobbin led 
group singing. Entertainment was provided by Mr. N. 
Thomas of the Training Centre. 



44 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH ANNUAL DINNER 




1 H 


a s ? 


ILl. 




^k H 


1 1 








r j^ 



.4borc: Vice-president K. M. Cameron 
speaks in a light vein. On his right, 
Chairman D. J. Emery and President 
C. R. Young; on his left, Immediate 
Past-Chairman John Cameron. 



Top right: G. R. I.angley, Councillor 
W; H. Miinro of Ottawa, President 
Young, Past-President J. M. R. Fair- 
liairn. Chairman I>. J. Emery. In the 
foreground, Past Vice-President R. L. 
Dobhin. 




Above: R. A. Elliott of Deloro, president- 
elect of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Ontario, A. I,. Killaly and 
Past-President J. M. R. Fairhairn. 



Left: Jules Mercier, 
"the life of the party," 
leads community 
singing. 




The assistant general secretary, Louis Trudel, reports on 
Headquarters* activities. 



A happy group. From left to right: R. L. Dobbin, Dr. 
M. H. Vclland, president of the Ontario Medical Associ- 
ation, John E. Keyes and D. Dotty. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



45 



QUEBEC BRANCH 



Paul Vincent, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



Samedi après-midi, le 12 décembre, les membres de la 
Section de Québec visitaient le nouvel Hôpital St-Michel 
Archange à Mastaï. Organisée par Yvon-R. Tassé, cette 
visite de l'institution qu'on prétend être la plus moderne 
du genre dans toute l'Amérique du Nord, a grandement 
intéressé les ingénieurs. 

L'édifice central et ses trois pavillons abritent actuelle- 
ment un personnel de 4,300 personnes. Il n'y a donc pas 
lieu de s'étonner d'y trouver réunies toutes les particularités 
d'une véritable petite ville. 

La façade principale mesure 600 pieds de longueur et les 
huit étages représentent quelque 650,000 pieds carrés de 
plancher. Trois autres ailes de 600 pieds chacune s'édifieront 
avec le temps pour former un carré autour des centrales 
d'électricité et de chauffage. Les quatre bâtisses sont réunies 
par 48,000 pieds carrés de plancher souterrain s'étendant 
sur une longueur de plus d'un mille. 

Tout a été construit et organisé en vue de l'expansion 
future et les autorités n'ont rien épargné pour que l'orga- 
nisation soit la plus parfaite possible à tous points de vue. 
L'hôpital a son usine électrique en propre. L'électricité est 
produite par la vapeur provenant de l'usine de chauffage. 
Trois chaudières, dont deux fonctionnent régulièrement, 
brûlent chacune environ 3,000 lb., par heure, de charbon 
pulvérisé amené à la chambre de combustion par des stokers 
pulvérisateurs. Toutes les opérations et les pressions sont 
mesurées automatiquement sur un tableau d'instruments 
de toutes sortes. La ventilation et l'air climatisé offrent 
aussi beaucoup d'intérêt. 

La construction de l'édifice central a été l'objet d'uneétude 
particulière de la part des membres. La structure est de 
béton armé et tout est à l'épreuve du feu. La chapelle, une 
fois terminée, pourra recevoir 2,800 personnes. Le procédé 
par lequel le plafond est suspendu est très remarquable. Des 
fils d'acier attachés aux poutres d'acier soutiennent le pla- 
fond de plâtre et ce n'est qu'en l'examinant par dessus 
qu'on peut constater le mode de suspension qui élimine 
toutes les colonnes. En regardant de l'intérieur, il nous 
semble que de grosses poutres soutiennent le plafond, quand, 
en réalité, ce n'est que soufflage. 

Le théâtre, que l'on est également à terminer, a les mêmes 
particularités et, comme dans la chapelle, tous les murs 
intérieurs sont isolés au liège pour amortir les bruits et 
éliminer la condensation qui pourrait être néfaste aux fils 
d'acier. Les matériaux acoustiques y sont amplement utilisés 
dans ces deux endroits. 

L'éclairage se fait par le système fluorescent dans tout 
l'édifice. 

L'installation des cuisines et des garde-manger, des plus 
moderne, est faite avec la même perfection du détail et de 
l'ensemble. Les repas sont servis dans un temps minimum 
par un système de cafeteria qui est, sans contredit, ce qu'il 
y a de plus moderne dans toute la ville de Québec. 

Les communications entre les départements sont nom- 
breuses et faciles, les ascenseurs, en particulier, étant com- 
plètement automatiques. 

L'appareil électrique, pour les traitements aux malades 
de catégorie spéciale, a retenu l'attention des visiteurs. On 
traite depuis un an une foule de patients à l'électricité par 
des méthodes moins pratiques. Des statistiques ont dé- 
montré que, sur 1,160 patients traités, on avait obtenu une 
guérison complète pour 60 à 70 pour cent de ce nombre. 

M. Emmanuel Fournier, chef-ingénieur diplômé de l'Uni- 
versité de Michigan et du Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology a guidé les quarante visiteurs en leur donnant les 
explications techniques. 

Le 14 décembre 1942, la section de Québec tenait son 
assemblée annuelle générale dans l'amphithéâtre de l'Ecole 
des Mines, Faculté des Sciences de l'Université Laval, 
Boulevard de l'Entente. 

En l'absence de Monsieur L.-C. Dupuis, président de 



notre section pour 1941 et 1942, Monsieur René Dupuis 
présidait la réunion. 

Après lecture des procès-verbaux et des rapports financiers 
de l'année, l'on présenta à Monsieur Cyrille Dufresne un 
certificat pour le prix de $25.00 de l'Engineering Institute 
of Canada, qu'il avait gagné au mois de juin dernier, pour ses 
succès comme étudiant de troisième année en génie minier. 
Ce certificat lui fut remis par Monsieur A.-O. Dufresne, 
sous-ministre au Ministère des Mines de la Province de 
Québec. 

En attendant le rapport des scrutateurs sur l'élection des 
officiers, les présidents des divers comités de la section ont 
présenté le rapport de leurs activités durant l'année. 

Le rapport des scrutateurs fit connaître à l'assemblée 
que Monsieur René Dupuis était élu président de la section 
de Québec pour 1943. M. Dupuis est directeur de l'Ecole 
de Génie Electrique récemment créée à la Faculté des 
Sciences de l'Université Laval de Québec. 

Monsieur E. D. Gray-Donald, assistant surintendant 
général de Quebec Power a été élu vice-président et Paul 
Vincent, ingénieur en chef au Ministère de la Colonisation, 
secrétaire pour un autre terme. 

Les nouveaux conseillers, élus pour une période de deux 
ans, sont MM. Gustave St-Jacques, Euclide Paré et Yvon- 
R. Tassé. 

Après l'allocution du nouveau président M. René Dupuis 
qui remercia les membres du témoignage de confiance qu'ils 
lui faisaient en l'élisant à ce poste, l'on procéda à la forma- 
tion des comités de Bibliothèque, Législation, Recrutement, 
Nomination, Orientation des Etudiants, Programme et 
Engineering Features of Civil Defence. 

M. Robert Sauvage nous donna ensuite une courte cau- 
serie sur La Théorie et les Effets des Bombes. 

Pour terminer cette soirée, les membres prirent des ra- 
fraîchissements tout en discutant avec leurs confrères. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 



O. A. Evans, jt.e.i.c. 

X. C. Cow IK, Jr. e. i.e. 



Secretary-Treat; u rer 
Branch News Editor 



The sixth general meeting for the year 1942 was held in 
the Grill Room of the Windsor Hotel on Friday, November 
27th, 1942, when 28 members and guests sat down to 
dinner at 6.45 p.m. 

The business portion of the meeting began at 8.00 p.m., 
with Chairman L. R. Brown in charge. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were read and adopted. The chairman 
then called upon A. H. Russell to bring in the Nominating 
Committee's slate of officers for the year 1943. The chair- 
man explained to the members that they were free to 
nominate any other member for the executive. After a 
lapse of some minutes and no further names being nomin- 
ated the nominations were closed. 

The chairman then called upon C. Stenbol to introduce 
the speaker of the evening, Professor A. E. MacDonald of 
Manitoba University, which he did in a few well chosen 
words. 

Professor A. E. MacDonald in his opening remarks 
brought greetings from the Winnipeg Branch to the Sault 
Branch. In his address entitled Foundation Problems in 
the Winnipeg Area, the speaker advised the members to 
pay particular attention to the geological structure of the 
land when constructing any building or edifice. Winnipeg 
was built on the bed of old Lake Agassiz. Great masses of 
powdered rock were deposited in different layers between 
the soil on the surface and the limestone bed rock some 60 
feet below. Some of these clays contain as much as 30 per 
cent water and in Winnipeg these clays have been drying 
up due to the almost 100 per cent run off of moisture from 
the city streets. This drying up is not general around the 
building and as a consequence the clay on one side of the 
building may dry up and let the building sag on one end. 
He also quoted incidences where this dried up clay had 
taken moisture in again and as a result raised the floor of 



46 



January, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the basement in humps, causing the centre beams to raise 
and the doors and windows jam in the household. He also 
informed the members that driving piles in the clay was 
worse than useless as the load was then distributed over a 
smaller area. This only aggravated the sag. There were a 
number of ways to overcome this problem among which 
were to drive pillars down to bed rock or to allow for a 
certain amount settlement. His address was well illus- 
trated with slides. 

A. E. Pickering in his vote of thanks said that every 
engineer encountered this problem in his career and that 
Professor MacDonald's address was full of useful informa- 
tion. 

TORONTO BRANCH 



S. H. DeJong, m.e.i.c. - 

G. L. WhVIE, Affi.E.I.C. - 



Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The second meeting of the Toronto Branch for the 1942- 
1943 season was held in Hart House, Friday, November 
20th. After the regular routine business was disposed of 
the Branch chairman, Col. W. S. Wilson, handed the 
meeting over to the chairmanship of Prof. R. W. Angus, 
particularly in view of the latter's long association with the 
speaker of the evening, Mr. O. Holden, chief hydraulic 
engineer, Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 

Mr. Holden's paper dealt with the design and construction 
of the DeCew Falls power development near St. Catharines, 
Ont. Beginning with the early development of the district 
by John DeCou and other prominent pioneers in the early 
part of the 19th century, Mr. Holden traced the growth of 
water power development at this site which culminated in 
the existing 50,000 hp, 66%-cycle generating plant of the 
old Dominion Power & Transmission Co. He then depicted 
the various features which comprise the new 65,000 hp, 
25-cycle development at DeCew Falls now under con- 
struction. The work involved in this extends from the 
intake from No. 3 Welland Canal at Allanburg northwards 
to the control and outlet works at Port Dalhousie, a dis- 
tance of approximately 10 miles. Between these points lie 
improvements to existing water channels and storage 
basins, the headworks structure and the 2,000 ft. long 
canal in solid rock leading to it, the penstock and power 
house structures, the improvement in alignment of Twelve 
Mile Creek which forms the tailrace channel, the removal 
at St. Catharines of No. 2 lock on the second Welland 
Canal with installation of a large weir structure in the 
deepened and widened channel there, together with sundry 
minor works. Design of the various structures was described 
by the speaker who also briefly indicated some of the con- 
struction problems encountered. The whole lecture was 
illustrated by lantern slides in both black and white and 
colour, and was listened to with considerable interest by 
an audience of about 70. After some interesting discussion 
the meeting was brought to a close with a vote of thanks 
proposed by Mr. W. E. Bonn. 

Surface Hardening by Induction was discussed by 
Dr. H. B. Osborn, Jr., Tocco Division, Ohio Crankshaft 
Company, Cleveland, before a joint meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers, Toronto Section, and 
the Engineering Institute of Canada, Toronto Branch, at 
the Mining Building, University of Toronto, Friday, 
November 27, 1942. 

All arrangements for this meeting were made by the 
Toronto Section A.I.E.E., and the chairman, D. W. 
Callander, presided. 

According to Dr. Osborn, induction hardening was first 
introduced in the production of crankshafts. This successful 
application led to further investigation of the possibilities 
of the process and it is now being applied for many purposes 
including important items of war material. 

While the exact method of operation and the equipment 
varies with different applications, the general principle 
involved is the heating of the surface layer of the metal by 
placing the part in a high frequency alternating field. In 



practice the principal source of heat is from eddy currents 
which are confined largely to the surface layers of the metal 
when the frequency employed is high. 

Induction hardening apparatus consists essentially of a 
source of high frequency current and a suitably designed 
water-cooled inductor coil. The inductor usually has holes 
through which water may be sprayed on the heated parts 
to quench it. The source of high frequency current may be 
a motor-generator set, a spark gap oscillator, or a vacuum 
tube oscillator. Good inductor design is an important factor 
in the successful operation of the process and in each case 
the inductor must be adapted to the particular parts to be 
treated and the area which it is desired to harden. In many 
cases where large numbers of similar parts are being hardened 
by induction, ingenious devices are incorporated to handle 
the parts and carry out the sequence of operation to 
accurate timing. 

The speaker discussed the method of controlling the 
process according to the maximum temperature and depth 
of hardening desired, and the size of piece to be heat- 
treated. The factors varied are the electrical input, the 
frequency, and the length of time of heating. 

Among the applications of induction hardening are the 
treating of gear teeth, bearing surfaces, and pins; the heat- 
ing of tubes in shell production, and the brazing of nose- 
pieces for high explosive shells. Advantages of induction 
hardening are that distortion is minimized, the short heat- 
ing time eliminates formation of scale and avoids grain 
coarsening, and mass production is possible. 

The lecture was illustrated by slides showing sectional 
view of surface hardened materials and some of the surface 
hardening equipment now in use. 

At the conclusion of a lively discussion, the vote of thanks 
was moved by W. S. Wilson, chairman of the Toronto 
Branch, Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Glass in National Defence was discussed by C. J. 
Phillips, sales manager, Insulation Division, Corning Glass 
Works, Corning, N.Y., before the Toronto Branch, of the 
Institute, at Hart House, on Thursday evening, December 
3rd. 

After opening the meeting, Branch Chairman W. S. 
Wilson called upon W. H. M. Laughlin to act as chairman 
for the evening. 

In order to provide a background for some of the newer 
developments in glass, the speaker pointed out that glass 
definitely dated back to 1500-2000 B.C. and was an early 
article of commerce. From 1300-1400 A.D. the secrets of 
glass-making were very zealously guarded in Venice but 
shortly after 1500 A.D. glass-making had spread through 
practically all the European countries. The glass industry 
has a long tradition of hand-working and until very recently 
many of the tools of glass-making were identical with those 
of the early Egyptians. However, within the last forty 
years some portions of the industry have been highly 
mechanized; a typical instance is a machine which will 
turn out 1,000 electric light bulbs a minute. 

From various viewpoints glass may be defined as any 
one of a great variety of commercial objects (Corning makes 
35,000 different glass articles), as an almost separate and 
distinct state of matter, or as the result of mixing, fusing 
and cooling of mixtures of chemicals in such a way that 
they do not crystallize. 

Approximately 90 per cent of the glass manufactured is 
the basic soda-lime-silica type common in window glass, 
bottles, etc. Countless modifications may be made through 
the use of other oxides and in an average year at Corning 
Glass Works some 350 different kinds of glass are employed, 
while the company's files list tens of thousands of glass 
formulae. 

Through such modifications, glass may be prepared in 
colours from clear to jet black, densities from 2.1 to 8.5, 
coefficients of expansion from 8 x 10 7 to 120 x 10 7 per 
deg. C, with a modulus of elasticity varying from 7-14 
million, restivity from 10 10 to 10 18 , and refraction from 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



47 



1.4 minimum to over 2. Great variations in chemical 
resistance are also experienced. 

The speaker referred to the difficulty of predicting the 
mechanical strength to glass. Under proper conditions, 
glass rods drawn from the furnace and not touched save at 
the ends (one-quarter inch in diameter) may have a tensile 
strength of 140-150,000 lb. per sq. in. If a little sand is 
drawn over the surface of the rod, the tensile strength may 
drop to 25,000 lb. and with a bit of rough handling down to 
10,000 lb. Very fine glass fibres which have not been touched 
have given tensile strength as high as several million 
pounds per square inch. 

The heat treatment of glass, setting up compression on 
the outside and tension on the inside, is used in the pro- 
duction of baking ware, armour plate glass, and gauge 
glasses. 

The metallizing of glass is one of the interesting recent 
developments. By this process a metal coating is fused 
tightly to glass, permitting the subsequent soldering of 
metal bases or other metal parts to glass articles. 

Wire is being wound in grooves on glass with the threads 
cut to a tolerance of plus or minus 2/1000 or better. Grooves 
are cut in a lathe in which a revolving disc and a screw 
mechanism grinds the thread. 

Another interesting operation is the production of pre- 
cision bore tubing with inside diameter held at plus or 
minus 5/10,000. In order to accomplish this a glass tube 
is placed over a specially designed mandrel of the proper 
diameter. The tube is heated and a vacuum applied through 
the mandrel making the glass conform exactly to the man- 
drel. Tubing of this type is used in level indicators in 
aeroplanes in which a glass ball moves in the tube. 

Perhaps the outstanding accomplishment described by 
the speaker was the development and application of 96 per 
cent silica glass. This type of glass is ground, suspended 
with a few per cent of water and slip cast in plaster of 
Paris moulds. This material may also be extruded or dry 
pressed and provides an easy means for the production of 
glass articles with holes which were formerly difficult to 
place at right angles to the direction of formation. Articles 
of this 96 per cent glass which are relatively fragile after 
casting, are fired, shrinking 15-20 per cent in the process. 



This glass is playing an important part in replacing scarce 
steatite in certain phases of radio transmitter work. 

Briefly reviewing the war uses of glass, the speaker 
referred to optical glass for instruments, binoculars, range 
finders, sights, periscopes, etc. — armour plate or bullet- 
proof glass for aeroplane and other uses — glass for lenses 
of searchlights, beacons, and signalling devices — glass for 
ship portholes, insulators for radio equipment, laboratory 
ware for industrial and medical purposes, and many other 
items. 

Dr. T. H. Hogg, chairman of the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario, addressed a joint meeting of the 
Toronto Branch, Engineering Institute of Canada, and the 
Royal Canadian Institute, at Convocation Hall, on Satur- 
day evening, December 5th, on the subject Saving Hydro 
Power for Victory. Prof. T. H. Mcllwraith, president of 
the Royal Canadian Institute, presided. 

In the introductory part of the lecture, Dr. Hogg pointed 
out that Canada entered the present war with supplies 
of hydroelectric power several times greater than those 
available at the close of the last conflict. This increase in 
hydroelectric power output may be traced largely to the 
expansion of manufacturing facilities to a point far in 
excess of domestic requirements, through Canada's position 
as the fifth exporter in the world. 

The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario at 
the beginning of the war had a 35 per cent reserve over its 
primary peak load. In spite of the further extension of 
generating capacity, and improved co-ordination of genera- 
tion and distribution, certain restrictive measures and 
voluntary reduction in the consumption of power are now 
necessary to meet this winter's heavy load. 

Dr. Hogg proceeded to show pictures of two new hydro 
developments, the one on the Muskoka River and the 
other at Barrett Chute on the Madawaska River, as 
instances of what is being done to expand electrical output. 
Other slides and a motion picture served to demonstrate 
very clearly how important savings of electrical power 
could be made in the home. 

Mr. W. S. Wilson, chairman of the Toronto Branch, 
Engineering Institute of Canada, moved the vote of thanks 
to the speaker. 



Library Notes 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



NEW CE. 8. A. SPECIFICATIONS 

The Canadian Engineering Standards Asso- 
ciation has recently issued the following new- 
standards. 

A56— 1942 Round Timber Piles: 

This specification covers the material re- 
quirements only, of round timber piles to 
be used untreated, or treated by standard 
preservatives. 50c. 

C77— 1942 OU Circuit-breakers: 

This specification applies to both indoor oil 
circuit-breakers for a.c. only, having inter- 
rupting capacities of 500,000 kva or less at 
rated voltage and having voltage ratings of 
15,000 volts or less. 50c. 

C83— 1942 Pole Line Hardware: 

Since the publication of this specification 
in June 1942, the following five sets of 
additional drawings have been published 
for insertion in the above-mentioned speci- 
fication. Recipients of this specification are 
urged to secure copies of these drawings in 
order to keep their specification up-to-date. 
25c. a set. 
Set No. 2— 

G-l Metal pole gain 

L-l Reinforcing link 



S-2 Guy straps 
S-4 Pole bracket straps 
S-6 Storm guy strap 
S-7 Reinforcing straps 

Set No. 8— 

A-l Transformer kick arm 

B-9 Phantom transposition bracket 

G-3 U cable guards 

l-l Break irons 

R-6 Span wire ring 

S-8 U cable guard straps 
Sel No. 4— 

B-8 Single point transposition bracket 

B-13 Diagonal braces 

B-14 Vertical braces 

S-9 Aerial cable support 

T-l Guy thimbles 

T-4 Communication thread 
Set No. 5— 

B-4 Extension back braces 

1-2 Pulling-in irons 

N-2 Eye nuts 

P-2 Wood thimble steel insulator pin 

P-3 Wood thimble steel insulator pins 

T-2 Wood thimble 

Set No. 6— 

F-l Crossarm pole top extension fixture 
G-5 Flat guage 



G-6 Ring guage 

P-4 Lead thimble steel insulator pin 
PS Lend thimble steel insulator pins 
T-5 Steel insulator pin lead thimble 

CESA ELECTRICAL STANDARDS 

The following six revised and new stan- 
dards are Approved Specifications under Part 
2 of the Canadian Electrical Code, the re- 
quirements of which must be met in order to 
obtain CESA approval of the electrical de- 
vices concerned. These standards were pre- 
pared in collaboration with interested manu- 
facturera and industrial associations and are 
based on laboratory tests and record in 
service. 

C22.2 No. 3 — 1942 Electrical Equipment 
for Oil-burning Apparatus, 2nd éd.: 

This specification applies to electrical 
equipment for use on supply circuits of 750 
volts and less in conjunction with electri- 
cally operated or electrically controlled oil- 
burning apparatus intended to be employed 
and installed in accordance with the rules 
of Part 1 of the Canadian Electrical Code. 
It does not apply to (a) oil burners in- 
tended for use on industrial process: — (b) 
The construction of electrical components of 



48 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



oil burners (e.g. motors, controls, trans- 
formers). Due to the present restrictions on 
the manufacture of the type of equipment 
covered by this specification the "effective 
date of new production" will be set by the 
CESA Approvals Administrative Board 
when these restrictions have been with- 
drawn. 50c. 

C22.2 No. 46 — 1942 Electric Air-heaters, 
2nd éd.: 

This specification applies to both portable 
and stationary air-heaters for potentials of 
250 volts and less, designated to be em- 
ployed in accordance with the rules of Part 
1 of the Canadian Electrical Code. Effective 
as of December 31, 1942 for new produc- 
tion. 50c. 

C22.2 No. 61—1942 Electric Ranges: 

This specification which has just been 
issued applies to both stationary and port- 
able electric ranges for potentials up to and 
including 250 volts between conductors, 
designed to be employed in accordance with 
the rules of Part 1 of the Canadian Elec- 
trical Code. The specification is applicable 
to general domestic and commercial pur- 
purposes (e.g. in homes, restaurants and 
similar establishments). Effective as of 
October 31, 1942 for new production. 50c. 

C22.2 No. 64 — 1942 Cooking and Liquid- 
heating Appliances (Domestic and 
Commercial Types) : 

This specification applies to both portable 
and stationary cooking and liquid-heating 
appliances for potentials of 250 volts and 
less, designed to be employed in accord- 
ance with the rules of Part 1 of the Cana- 
dian Electrical Code. It applies to toasters, 
waffle ironSj hot-plates (table-stoves) , sand- 
wich toasters, grills, coffee makers, kettles, 
chafing dishes, water-heaters, doughnut 
cookers and similar devices. It does not 
apply to portable (rangettes) or stationary 
electric ranges, humidifiers, stills, steril- 
izers or industrial heating appliances. 
Effective as of February 15, 1943 for new 
production. 75c. 

C22.2 No. 72—1942 Heating and Heater 
Elements — Replacement Types: 

This specification applies to replacement 
(those which are intended for general sales 
to the public and as such will be used in 
various makes of heating appliances) heat- 
ing elements and heater elements for 
domestic heating appliances, for potentials 
up to and including 250 volts between con- 
ductors and designed to be employed in 
accordance with the rules of Part 1 of the 
Canadian Electrical Code. Effective as of 
May 15, 1942 for new production. 50c. 

C22.2 No. 77—1942 Inherent Overheating 
Protective Devices for Motors: 

This specification applies to inherent over- 
heating protective devices for mounting in 
or on motors (and affected therefore, to 
some extent by heat from the motor) for 
potentials up to and including 600 volts 
between conductors and for motors rated 
at 1 hp or less, designed to be employed in 
accordance with the rules of Part 1 of the 
Canadian Electrical Code. It includes 
inherent overheating protective devices for 
both the automatic-reset type and the 
manual-reset type. They may be actuated 
by the heat from the motor alone or by a 
combination of the heat from the motor and 
the motor current passing through the 
device. Effective as of December 31, 1942 
for new production. 50c. 

Copies of these standards may be obtained 
from the Canadian Engineering Standards 
Association, National Research Building, 
Ottawa. 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 

Principles of Electronics: 

Royce Gerald Kloeffler. N.Y., John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc., 1942. 6 x 9\i in. $2.50. 



Heat: 

2nd ed. James M. Cork. N.Y., John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc., 1942. 6 x 9\i in. $3.50. 

American Diesel Engines: 

Their operation and repair. E. F. Goad. 
N.Y., Harper and Brothers (c. 1942). 
$2.75. 

Ferrous Production Metallurgy: 

John L. Bray. N. Y., John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., 1942. 6x9% in. $4.00. 

Engineering Materials Machine Tools 
and Processes: 

W. Steeds. Toronto, Longmans Green and 
Co., 1942. 5y 2 x 8% in. $4.75. 

TRANSACTIONS, PROCEEDINGS 

The Royal Society of Canada: 

Transactions. 3rd series, volume 36, Section 
5 — Biological Sciences. May, 1942. 



Ohio State University Studies — 
Engineering Series — Bulletin: 

No. 112 — Nepheline syenite in low tempera- 
ture vitreous wares. 

Purdue University — Engineering Experi- 
ment Station — Bulletin: 

Research series No. 85 — Report of the re- 
search and extension activities, engineering 
schools and departments for the session of 
1941-42. 

University of Missouri — Engineering 
Experiment Station — Bulletin: 

No. 31 — Cross-connection survey in Cal- 
houn County, Michigan, by Edward Lee 
Stockton. 

University of California — Department of 
Geological Sciences — Bulletin: 

Volume 27, No. 1 — A skull of bison lati- 
frons from the pleistocene of northern Cali- 
fornia. 

Cornell University — Engineering Experi- 
ment Station — Bulletin: 

No. 30 — The specific heats of certain gases 
over wide ranges of pressures and tem- 
peratures. Air CO, C0 2 , CH 4 , C 2 H 4 , H 2 , 
N 2 , and 2 . 

Quebec — Department of Mines — 
Division of Mineral Deposits: 

Special report on the iron deposits of the 
province of Quebec. 

St. Mary and Milk Rivers Water 
Development Committee: 

Report on further storage and irrigation 
works required to utilize fully Canada's 
share of international streams in southern 
Alberta. February, 1942. 

U.S. — National Bureau of Standards — 
Building Materials and Structures 
Reports: 

BMS88 — Recommended building code re- 
quirements for new dwelling construction 
with special reference to war housing: 

Edison Electric Institute: 

Utilization voltage standardization recom- 
mendations. A joint report of the Electrical 
Equipment Committee and the Transmis- 
sion and Distribution Committee. E.E.I, 
publication No. J8, October 1942. — 
Boilers and Combustion 1941. A report of 
the Boilers and Combustion Subcommittee 
of the Prime Movers Committee. E.E.I, 
publication No. J7, October 1942. 

Electrochemical Society — Preprint : 

No. 83-1 — The electrode position of silver 
on magnesium. 

McGill University: 

Annual report 1941-42. 
Illinois Institute of Technology : 

Annual report of the President for the year 
ended August 1942. 



American Institute of Consulting 
Engineers: 

Lesson of the last world war by Dr. James 
T. Shotwell with discussions. 
Canada — War Time Prices and Trade 
Board: 

Quarterly summary, July to September, 

1942. 

AIR RAID PRECAUTION AND CIVIL DEFENCE 

The following literature has been added to 
the Institute Library since the last published 
list in the December Journal. 

Office of Civilian Defence — Medical Divi- 
sion — Sanitary Engineering Bulletin: 

No. 1 — Protection and maintenance of pub- 
lic water supplies under war conditions. 

34 PP. 

No. 2 — Municipal sanitation under war 

conditions. 26 pp. 

Indiana State Defence Council — Emer- 
gency Water and Sewerage Commit- 
tee: 

Bulletin No. 4 — Waterworks school for 
emergency wartime training and water- 
works training course (proposed syllabus). 
82 pp. 

BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books ap- 
pear here through the courtesy of the 
Engineering Societies Library of New 
York. As yet the books are not in the 
Institute Library, but inquiries will be 
welcomed at headquarters or may be 
sent direct to the publishers. 

ACCOUNTING FUNDAMENTALS 

By R. E. Strahlem. Ronald Press Co., 
New York, 1942. 365 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9Y 2 x6in., cloth, $3.50. 
This textbook is intended for students in 
engineering and industrial schools who must 
acquire a knowledge of accounting funda- 
mentals in a relatively short course. From 
the first, the emphasis is on accounting for 
manufacturing corporations, and the prob- 
lems all relate to industrial companies. 

AERIAL NAVIGATION (Flight Lesson 
Text No. 41) 

By W. E. Dyer. American Technical 
Society, Chicago, 1942. 64 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 9x6 in., 
paper, 75c. 
The method of aerial navigation called dead 
reckoning is thoroughly explained in this 
practical text. Many diagrams and illustra- 
tions are used to depict just how the process 
works. Actual problems with solutions, and a 
set of review questions are included. 

Air Raid Precautions Training Manual 
No. 1, 1st ed. Amended reprint, 
August, 1942. 
BASIC TRAINING IN AIR RAID 
PRECAUTIONS 

His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 
1942. 57 pp., illus., diagrs., tables, 8 x / 2 x 
5Y 2 in., paper, 6d. (obtainable from 
British Library of Information, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, New York, 15c.) 
This is the first of a series prepared by the 
British government to further uniform prac- 
tical training of air raid precautions personnel. 
The present manual sets out the basic prin- 
ciples of personal protection against air 
attack and is intended to cover the first stage 
of training for air raid precautions workers. 
Protection against incendiary bombs, high 
explosives and gas are explained, and the 
elements of first aid are set forth. 

AIRCRAFT SPOT AND SEAM WELDING 

By G. Kuntz. Pitman Publishing Corp., 
New York, and Chicago 1942. 108 pp., 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 8Y 2 x 5Yi in., 
cloth, $1.25. 
The theory and practical operation of spot 
• and seam welding equipment are concisely 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



49 



presented in this small volume. The object 
is to enable the welder to understand his 
machine, and to provide the aircraft designer 
with information that will enable him to 
utilize these welding processes to the best 
advantage. 

ALTERNATING-CURRENT MACHINES 

By A. F. Puchstein and T. C. Lloyd, 2 ed. 
John Wiley & Sons, New York; Chapman 
& Hall, London, 1942. 655 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9\A x 6 in., cloth. 
■$5.50. 
In dealing with the various types of alter- 
nating-current machines, each topic is treated 
approximately in the following order: con- 
struction; discussion of operating characteris- 
tics; calculation of operating characteristics 
from tests ; discussions and analysis of various 
related phenomena. The revised edition has 
been brought up to date by the inclusion of 
new methods of analysis and recent standardi- 
zation practices. As in the previous edition, 
only steady-state phenomena are covered 
with a few important exceptions. 

AUDELS ELECTRICAL POWER 

CALCULATIONS with Diagrams 

By E. P. Anderson. Theo. Audel & Co., 
New York, 1941. 4^1 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 6Yi x 5 in., fabrikoid, $2.00. 
This is a collection of practical electrical 
problems and their solutions. It puts special 
emphasis on the fundamental laws of elec- 
tricity and includes the necessary mathe- 
matical formulae. Complete solutions are 
given for 275 electrical problems selected from 
the average practice of electrical men. The 
book is divided into two parts: direct current 
and alternating current, which includes the 
subjects of power transmission and radio cir- 
cuits. 

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC 
WAVES 

By H. H. Skilling. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York; Chapman & Hall, London, 
1942. 186 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x 8 
in., cloth, $2.75. 
In this introductory study of electric waves, 
the principles of wave action and, in par- 
ticular, the basic ideas of Maxwell's equations 
are presented in a way that has proved to be 
understandable to students. These ideas are 
discussed and used in simple examples in 
order to increase the students' familiarity 
with them. Physical concepts are stressed 
without neglecting mathematical exactness or 
the requirements of engineering practice. 
Great Britain, Dept. of Scientific and 
Industrial Research. 

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 

By J. A. Poison. 2 ed. John Wiley & 
Sons, New York; Chapman & Hall, Ltd.. 
London, 1942. 548 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9 l / 2 x 6 in., cloth, $5.00. 

A textbook for junior or senior students of 
mechanical engineering "who have had a 
thorough course in fundamental thermody- 
namics and have a fair conception of the 
operation of internal combustion engines." 
This edition has been completely rewritten 
and considerable new material added on cams, 
air cooling and the performance of aircraft 
engines. A new chapter on gas turbines has 
been added. 

INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING 
ECONOMY 

By B. M. Woods and E. P. De Carmo. 

The Macmillan Co., New York, 1942. 

441 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 

9Y 2 x6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
This textbook for engineering students is 
intended as an introduction to the subject, in 
which the relation of such subjects as eco- 
nomics, accounting, statistical methods, etc., 
to the economy of engineering enterprises is 
set forth. 



MERRIMAN'S STRENGTH OF 

MATERIALS, revised by E. K. Han- 
kin, 8th ed. 

John Wiley & Sons, New li ork; Chapman 
& Hall, London, 1942. 148 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x 5Y in., cloth, 
$1.50. 
The new edition of this well-known text- 
book has undergone a thorough revision and 
rewriting. The reviser has designed it as a 
basic textbook for nontechnical students and 
mechanics, and has made it more practical 
than before. 

OIL PROPERTY VALUATION 

By P. Paine. John Wiley & Sons, New 

York; Chapman & Hall, London, 1942. 

204 pp.. charts, tables, 9\A x 6 in., cloth, 

$2.75. 
This book reviews the meaning and scope 
of valuation in the oil business, discusses the 
factors which enter a valuation and describes 
the methods of applying these factors. The 
object is to show the influences other than the 
mere amount of oil and gas available which 
affect the value of a property. 

(An) OUTLINE OF NAVAL ARCHITEC- 
TURE AND SHIP CONSTRUCTION, 
2 Vols. 

By C. L. Wright. Jr. 2 ed. rev. Graduate 
School, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, 
D.C., 1942. Vol. 1, 145 pp.; Vol. 2] ISO 
pp. diagrs., charts, tables, lOYi x 8 in., 
paper, $2.00 each Vol. 
Presented entirely in outline form, this 
guide is intended for persons whose interests 
require a general knowledge of the design and 
construction of ships. The treatment is 
essentially practical, and numerical examples 
are fully worked out. For detailed information 
concerning any particular phase of the work, 
this outline must be supplemented by publica- 
tions such as those listed on the reference page. 

PAPERMAKING ABSTRACTS 

Compiled by TAP PI Committee on Ab- 
stracts and Bibliography, edited by R. G. 
Macdonald and V . F. Waters. Published 
by the Technical Association of the Pulp 
and Paper Industry, 122 East 42nd St.. 
New York, 1942. 270 pp., liy 2 x 9 in., 
paper, $2.00. 
This volume provides abstracts of articles 
and patents relating to the manufacture and 
technology of pulp, paper, paperboard and 
paper products which have appeared during 
recent years. Special attention is given to 
foreign publications, which are abstracted 
very fully. Author and subject indexes are 
included. 

PLASTICS FOR INDUSTRIAL USE, an 

Engineering Handbook of Materials 
and Methods 

By J. Sasso. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 

York and London, 1942. 229 pp., Mux.. 

diagrs., charts, tables, 9Y> x 6 in., cloth, 

$2.50. 
This manual discusses the plastics which 
are particularly suitable for industrial use. 
The comparative properties of the various 
types, methods of molding, the design of 
molds and the machining and finishing of 
plastic parts are described. Separate chapters 
are devoted to specific plastics. A directory of 
trade names, suppliers and molders is ap- 
pended. 

PRINCIPLES OF HEAT ENGINEERING 

By N. P. Bailey. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York; Chapman at Hall, London, 
1942. 284 PP< diagrs., charts, tablis. ''■_. 
x 6 in., cloth, $2.75. 
The principles of heat engineering covered 
in this book may be considered as the mini- 
mum requirement for any engineer. The 
theoretical material presented is expressed 
quantitatively for use in the solution of 
engineering problems, of which a large group 
is included at the end of the text. The early 
chapters deal with general concepts, while the 



later ones cover respectively such engineering 
topics as internal-combustion and steam 
engines, turbines, boilers and refrigeration. 

STRUCTURAL DEFENCE AGAINST 
BOMBING 

Engineering Institute of Canada, 2050 
Mansfield St., Montreal, Canada. Oct., 
1942. 56 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
11 x8 l / 2 in., paper, $1.00. 
This booklet, prepared by a committee of 
the Engineering Institute of Canada, presents 
an excellent outline of methods of protection 
that will give citizens sufficient protection 
against aerial attack and will prevent undue 
dislocation of industrial plants and public 
■ services. The methods are based upon British 
experience and practices. Air raid shelters, 
bomb resisting structures, shelter ventilation, 
the protection of glass, structural protection 
against fire, the protection of industry and 
vital plant, and building design in relation to 
air attack are considered. There is a bibli- 
ography. 

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES 
OF ALLOYS 

By R. M. Brick and A. Phillips. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., New York, 1942. 227 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 9Yi x 
6 in., cloth, $2.50. 
This text seeks to establish the correlation 
among alloy phase diagrams, microstructures 
and properties. Special attention has been 
directed to the effect of industrial practices in 
casting, working and heat treating alloys on 
the application of, or departure from, theoreti- 
cal principles. One hundred and thirty-six 
photomicrographs, with full descriptions of 
their origins, illustrate normal and abnormal 
structures of most standard alloys. 

(A) SYMPOSIUM ON PETROLEUM 
DISCOVERY METHODS 

Conducted by the Research Committee of 

the American Association of Petroleum 

Geologists, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, Okla., 

1942. 164 PP-, tables, 11 x 8Y1 in., paper, 

s 1.00. 

This symposium brings together the views 

of a large number of petroleum geologists as 

tu t he best approach to the problem of oil and 

gas discovery, both now and in the future. 

THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 

By R. P. Johnson. Simmons-Boardman 
Publishing Corp., New York, 1942. 502 
pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 
in., cloth, $3.50. 
In this book, the first on the locomotive to 
be published in many years, the Chief Engi- 
neer of the Baldwin Locomotive Works has 
set down certain fundamentals of locomotive 
theory and operation. In addition, attention 
is paid to the economics of the steam locomo- 
tive and to comparison with the Diesel-electric 
variety. The book contains much of interest 
to designers and those concerned with railroad 
motive power. 

(The) VANDERBILT RUBBER HAND- 
BOOK, 8th ed., 1942, edited by J. 
M. Ball 

R. T. Vanderbilt Co., 280 Park Ave., New 
York, 1942. 464 PP- Mus., diagrs.. charts. 
tables. 8 l 2 x 5H in., cloth. X5.00. 
This work brings together a large amount 
of technical information upon rubber, especi- 
ally upon compounding for various purposes 
and upon testing methods. Both dry rubber 
and latex are discussed. 

WHAT THE CITIZEN SHOULD KNOW 
ABOUT SUBMARINE WARFARE 

Bu D. O. Woodbury. W. W. Norton & 
Co., New York. 1942. 231 pp., woodcuts, 

charts, 8Y1 x 5\ 2 in., cloth. $2.50. 
A nontechnical account of the development 
of the submarine and its uses, and of the 
measures developed against it. The author 
tells something of the history of the sub- 
marine and the torpedo, describes the life and 
training of submarine crews, and analyses 
submarine warfare from 1914 to date. 
(Continued on page 53) 



50 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



December 30th, 1942. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described at 
the February meeting. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



•The professional requirements are as follows:- — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science or engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required te pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
•vidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
oumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

BJARNASON— BARNEY SVEINN, of 177 Davisville Ave., Toronto, Ont. 
Born at Cold Springs, Man., July 25th, 1906; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Man., 
1931; Summers: 1927. '28, '30, and 1931-32, Dept. of Highways, Prov. of Man.; 
Surveying and gen. engrg., 1933-35, Vanson Manitoba Gold Mines Ltd., and 1936 
(May-Dec), Ardeen Gold Mines Ltd., Kashaboinie, Ont.; 1937-42, with Hans 
Lundberg Ltd., Toronto, geophysicists and geologists. I/c of laboratory, directing 
development and constrn. of various geophysical instruments for field exploration 
work; at present, test engr. radio inspn. and test dept.. Research Enterprises Ltd., 
Leaside, Ont. 

References: A. E. Macdonald, R. W". Moffatt, G. H. Herriott, E. P. Fetherston- 
haugh, W. F. Riddell, S. H. de.Iong. 

BREESE— RUPERT WALTER, of 245 Elm Ave., Westmount, Que. Born at, 
Walsall, Staffs., England, Sept. 18th, 1890; Educ: 1906-09, articled pupil, Messrs. 
Goddard & Shrimpton, Architects and Land Surveyors, Wolverhampton, England; 
1901-16, with Joseph Rielle, Q.L.S., Montreal, surveys and plans; 1916-18, with 
Malcolm D. Barclay, Q.L.S., successor to JoBeph Rielle, city and country surveys and 
plans; 1918-21, with Laurentide Co. Ltd., Grand Mère, and St. Maurice Paper Co., 
surveys, constrn. and i/c real estate; 1921-36, technical service dept., City of Montreal; 
1936-39, Granvill & Co.; 1939, Dept. of Transport, St. Hubert Airport, asst. to res. 
engr. and inspr. ; 1939 to date, Works and Bldgs. Divn., R.C.A.F., No. 3 Training 
Command, Montreal, senior dftsman., asst. estimating engr., chief in charge of bldg. 
siting for aerodromes and relief landing fields, also instructing and supervising 
recruited junior dftsman. 

References: G. R. MacLeod, W. G. Hunt, H. W. Lea, A. A. Wickenden, L. Laferme 
W. E. Seeley. 

CHRISTIE— KENNETH JOHN, of 62 Chelsea Road, Hull, Que. Born at Ester- 
hazy, Sask., May 24th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc (Mining), Montana School of Mines, 1941 ; 
Summers: 1937, 1939, 1941, Hudson Bay Mining & Smelting Co. Ltd., Flin Flon, 
engr's. helper and junior engr.; Summer 1938, Geol. Survey of Canada; 1940, engr., 
sampler, and shift boss, Shamrock Mine, Bernice, Montana; 1941-42, asst. mining 
engr., Jerome Gold Mines, Ramsey, Ont.; 1942 (Apr. -Sept.), engr. i/c of tunnels, 
Shipshaw, Que.; at present, 2nd Lieut., Engineer Officer, Advanced Training Centre, 
R.C.E., Petawawa. Ont. 

References: C. Miller, P. C. Kirkpatrick. 

FINCH— GORDON HOLBROOK, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Cookshire, Que., 
April 24th, 1898; Educ: B.Sc (E.E.), Univ. of Man., 1924; with Canadian Westing- 
house Company as follows: 1922-24, ap'ticeship course, 1924-25, correspondent, 
Winnipeg, 1926-28, correspondent, Calgary, 1928-42, engrg. sales, Calgary, and at 
present, sales engr., at Ottawa. 

References: H. J. McEwen, J. McMillan, W. Anderson, H. A. Cooch, W. H. 
Munro, P. F. Peele, A. B. Geddes, H. B. LeBouvreau. 

FROST— JOHN GEORGE, of 3680 St. Urbain St., Montreal, Que. Born at 
Hornsey, London, England, July 24th, 1902; Educ: Private study. R.P.E. of Que. 
(by exam), 1918-20, ap'tice dftsman., Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd., Rockfield, Que.; 
1921, turbine fitter, 1922-24, dftsman., Dominion Engrg. Works, Lachine; 1924-26, 
dftsman., Southern Canada Power Co. Ltd., Montreal; 1926-30, dftsman., 1930-40, 
leading dftsman., and 1940 to date, chief dftsman., Power Corporation of Canada 
Ltd., Montreal. 

References: J. S. H. Wurtele, H. S. Grove, G. E. Booker, G. L. Wiggs, H. S" 
Van Patter. 

LABREQUE— HENRI, of Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, Jan. 27th, 1890; 
Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1912. 1923-24, post-graduate course, 
Ecole Spéciale des Travaux Publies, PariB; R.P.E. Que.; 1908-11 (summers), chain- 
man and rodman, F. C. Laberge, CE., Q.L.S., and Sask. River surveys, 1911, level- 
man and topogr.; 1912 (summer), dftsman., Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd.; Fall 1912, 
asst. engr., City of Montreal, and dftsman.. Phoenix Bridge Co. Ltd.; 1918 (summer), 
asst. engr., Health Dept., Quebec Govt.; 1919 (summer), asst. engr., City of Outre- 
mont; 1920-26 (summers), asst. and res. engr., Quebec Dept. of Highways; 1913-29, 
professor of mathB., and 1928-43, professor of static graphics, Ecole Polytechnique, 
Montreal. 1924-43, professor of static graphics and strength of materials, and 1932- 
43, of reinforced concrete, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Montreal. Also 1928 to date, 
consltg. engr., Associated Engineers Limited, Montreal, Que. 

References: O. O. Lefebvre, A. Circé, E. Gohier, H. Massue, J. G. Chênevert, 
J. A. Beauchemin. 

MacDONALD— CHARLES DONALD, of Sackville, N.B. Born at Amherst, 
N.S., Feb. 5th, 1909; Educ: B. Eng. (Civil), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1935; 1935, chemist 
on tar analysis, etc, for Milton Hersey Co. Ltd.; 1935-36, research, and 1936-39, 
res. engr., Dept. of Highways of Nova Scotia; 1939-40, lecturer, engrg. dept., 1940 to 
date, asst. professor of engrg., and from Feb., 1942, plant supt., Mount Allison 
University, Sackville, N.B. 

References: H. W. McKiel, S. Ball, R. W. McColough, G. T. Medforth, V. C. 
Blackett, H. J. Crudge. 

PARRISH— VERNON McLEOD, of Winnipeg, Man. Born at Medicine Hat, 
Alta., Feb. 16th, 1915; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Mech.), Univ. of Toronto, 1938; 1933 and 
1935 (summers), dfting., surveying, field work, gas dept., City of Medicine Hat; 
1936-37 (summers), gen. dfting. and struct'l design, Dominion Glass Co., Redcliffe, 
Alta. ; 1938-39, shop assembly and calibration of metering and control equipment, etc., 
Bailey Meter Company, Cleveland, Ohio; 1939 to date, sales-service engr., Bailey 
Meter Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

References: R. W. Angus, E. W. R. Butler, A. L. Cole, H. J. Muir, J. T. Watson. 

ROBERT— RENE ANTONIO, of Ste-Thérèse, Que. Born at Lachute, Que.. 
May 1st, 1908; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1935; R.P.E. Que.; 
1935-36, asst. divn. engr., Quebec Roads Dept.; 1936 to date, assistant, physics 
laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Que. 

References — H. Gaudefroy, L. Trudel, A. Gratton, J. A. Lalonde, A. Circé. 

THOMSON— CHRISTIAN ALDROM, of 3491 Belmore Ave., Montreal, Que. 
Born at Troy, N.Y., March 31st, 1895; Educ: 1915-17, civil engrg., Tri-State Col- 
lege, Indiana (did not graduate — enlisted in U.S. Army Engrs); 1913-15, chief 
operator, Canadian Light & Power Co.; 1917-19, Sgt. and Acting Master Engineer, 
U.S. Army, 6th Engineers; 1919-24, field engr., elec and sprinkler depts., Can. 
Underwriters Assn.; 1924-34, fire protection engr., ins. dept., Canadian National 
Railways; 1935-42, gen. sales mgr., Dominion Electric Protection Company; 1942 to 
date, technical supt., R. Campbell Brown & Co. Ltd., Insurance Brokers, at present 
on fire protection and security survey of all properties, for Cons. Mining & Smelting 
Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C. 

References: C K. McLeod, R. W. Hamilton, J. Morse, H. A. Dixon, M. Eaton, 
S. W. Fairweather, D. Anderson, S. Walsh, W. A. Duff, H. F. Finnemore, J. 
Schofield, H. G. O'Leary, F. L. C. Bond, C. B. Brown, R. O. Stewart. 

WHITEHOUSE— FRANK ALEXANDER, of Port Alberni, B.C. Born at 
Bournemouth, England, Oct. 24th, 1897; Educ: Private tuition. I.C.S. Civil Engrg. 
Course; 1920-21, rodman and topogr., C.N.R. surveys and constrn.; 1921-25, logging 
engr., in full charge of Burveys and constrn. of logging rlys.; 1925-26, dftsman., Los 
Angeles Gas & Electric Corpn.; 1927-32, dftsman., instr'man., inspr., on concrete 
pavements, etc, engrg. dept., City of Vancouver; 1940-41, manager, small lode gold 
mine; 1940-41, asst. engr. on constrn. of Nanaimo Military Camp; 1942 to date, 
engr. in charge of constrn., Alberni Brigade Camp, Port Alberni, B.C. 

References: H. D. Lambert, A. G. Graham, F. P. V. Cowley, G. L. Tooker. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1913 



51 



MacKAY — ERNEST, of 255 Outremont Ave., Outremont, Que. Born at Montreal, 
Feb. 1st, 1890; Educ.: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1912. R.P.E. Que.; 
1912-13, articled as surveyor, F. C. Laberge, CE., Q.L.S., Montreal; 1913-16, 
surveys, City of Montreal; 1916-17, munitions inspr., Lymburner & Co., Montreal; 
1917-21, design of boilers and special machy., mech. dept., Dominion Bridge Co. 
Ltd.; 1921-29, constrn. of sidewalks, sewers and paving, tech. dept.. City of Montreal; 
1929 to date, professor of mathematics, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal. 

References: J. A. Lalonde, F. Newell, J. G. Caron, A. Circé, L. Trudel. 

WINTERBURN— FRED, of 317 Augustus St., Cornwall, Ont. Born at Preston, 
England, Dec. 27th, 1899; Educ: I.C.S. LaSalle Extension Course. Mass. State 
Univ. Extension Course; 1921-24, load dispatcher, New Bedford Gas & Edison 
Light Co., New Bedford, Mass.; 1925-27, elec. locomotive electrn., Montreal Harbour 
Commission; 1927-34, elec. supt., Dominion Engrg. Works Ltd., Lachine, Que.; 
1937 to date, elec. supt., Howard Smith Paper Mills Ltd., Cornwall, Ont. 

References: D. Ross-Ross, H. E. Meadd, A. L. Farnsworth, R. M. Prendergast, 
W. R. Bunting, W. R. Fricker. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM JUNIOR 

BLACK— WILLIAM STEELE, of Pointe-à-Pierre, Trinidad, B.W.I. Born at 
Weyburn, Sask., June 19, 1909; Educ: B.Eng. (Civil), Univ. of Sask., 1933; 1935, 
(summer), Geological Survey, Dept. of Mines, Ottawa; 1936-40, engrg. dept. 
Imperial Oil Ltd., Regina; 1940-42, asst. engr., building constrn. dept., Trinidad 
Leaseholds, Pointe-à-Pierre, Trinidad, supervising constrn. work in the field. (Jr. 
1939.) 

References: R. A. Spencer, I. M. Fraser, W. E. Weatherbie, W. O. Longworthy, 
T. S. McKechnie. 

ESDAILE— HECTOR MILTON, of Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, Feb. 
6th, 1914; Educ: B. Eng., McGill Univ., 1936; R.P.E. Quebec; 1935, track layout 
and constrn., Cornwall Street Rly., Cornwall, Ont.; 1936-40, service and erection, 
and 1940 to date, supt. of service and erection, Combustion Engrg. Corp., Montreal, 
entailing the management of all erection and operation of all their steam power 
plant work in Canada. (St. 1934, Jr. 1939.) 

References: J. G. Hall, J. D. Fraser, M. G. Saunders, F. A. Combe, H. C. Karn. 

HAYES— HERMAN RUTHERFORD, of 1302 Frontenac Ave., Calgary, Altai 
Born at Gleichen, Alta., Dec 23rd, 1908; Educ: B.Sc (Civil), Univ. of Alta., 1934; 
1929, rodman, 1931-37, transitman, C.P.R.; 1937 to date, with Burns & Co. Ltd., 
— 1937, time study engr., 1937-40, supervisor of standards, 1940 to date, general 
supervisor of standards, Calgary, Alta. (St. 1933, Jr. 1938.) 

References: R. S. L. Wilson, A. Brownie, J. L. Pidoux, R. M. Hardy, W. D. 
Suitor, K. Mitchell. 

McKENZIE— ROLPH BOYNTON, of Lethbridge, Alta. Born at Lethbridge, 
Apr. 23rd, 1908; Educ: B.Sc. (Chem.), Univ. of Alta., 1932; 1929-30 (summers), 
leveler, Lethbridge Nor. Irrigation Project; 1931 (summer) and 1933-35, asst. chemist, 
Maple Leaf Oil & Refining Co.; 1935-39, electl. contracting, estimating, salesman, 
and 1939 to date, manager, McKenzie Electric Ltd., Lethbridge, Alta. (St. 1932, 
Jr. 1937.) 

References: J. T. Watson, J. Haines, W. Meldrum, G. S. Brown, A. G. Donaldson. 

STANFIELD— JOHN YORSTON, of Ste. Genevieve, Que. Born at Truro, N.S., 
Aug. 17th, 1908; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil) 1932, and B.Sc (Mech.) 1933, N.S. Tech. 
Coll.; 1930-31, steel inspr. and instr'mn., Montreal Terminals development, C.N.R.; 
1933-34, i/c lumbering operations, Moirs Ltd.; 1934-37, dftsmn. and asst. master 
mechanic, Consolidated Paper Corp.; 1937-39, sales engr., Anti Hydro of Canada, 
Ltd.; 1939 to date, Major, 15th H.A.A. Battery, R.C.A., Canadian Army, Labrador. 
(St. 1932, Jr. 1937.) 

References: C. A. D. Fowler, H. G. Mosley, R. Yuill, J. R. Kaye, H. F. Sextonl 

STIRLING— L. BRODIE, of Shawinigan Falls, Que. Born at Montreal, Que.; 
Jan. 29th, 1902; Educ: B.Sc (Elec) McGill Univ., 1924; 1920 (summer), Canadian 
Marconi Co.; 1921 (summer), Can. Steel Foundry; 1924 (6 mos.), electric boiler 
research: with Shawinigan Water & Power Co. as follows: 1923 (6 mos.), power- 
house mtce.; 1924-29, experimental hydraulic turbine testing; 1929-38, electl. and 
hydraulic testing and minor design; 1938-42, asst. engr., testing and mtce., and at 
present, asst. supt. of generating stations. (St. 1921, Jr. 1929.) 

References: E. Brown, J. A. McCrory, C. R. Reid, H. J. Ward, M. B. Atkinson. 

STRATTON— LESLIE ROBERTSON, of 335 Metcalfe St., Ottawa, Ont. Born 
at Saint John, N.B., Sept. 26th, 1908; Educ: B.Sc (Civil), Univ. of N.B., 1930; 
1930-32, designer and asst. field engr., Monsarrat & Pratley, Montreal; 1935-38, 
designer, National Harbours Board, Saint John; 1938-41, designer and res. engr., 
National Harbours Board, Ottawa; 1941-42, liaison engr., St. Lawrence Waterways 
Development; at present res. engr., National Harbours Board, Ottawa. (St. 1930, 
Jr. 1936.) 

References: P. L. Pratley, J. W. Roland, E. G. Cameron, A. Gray, V. S. Chesnut, 
G. A. Lindsay. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM STUDENT 

BROWN— GORDON JAMES, of Niagara Falls, Ont. Born at Bancroft, ()i,l . 
May 27th, 1913; Montreal Tech. Inst., and Montreal Tech. School, 1930-1939; 
1936-39, dftsmn.. Dominion Bridge; 1939-41, dftsmn. and 1941 to date, chief dftsmn. 
and designer, Herbert Morris Crane & Hoist Co., Niagara Falls, Ont. (St. 1936.) 

References: F. McHugh, D. Tenant, J. L. Miller, F. Newell, J. H. Maudei 
P. Brault, H. Buzzell. 

CARMICHAEL— JAMES I., of Port Arthur, Ont. Born at Fort William, Ont., 
Aug. 11th, 1914; Educ: B.Sc (Mech.), Queen's Univ., 1936; 1936, office asst., 
master mechanic, Copper Cliff smelter, International Nickel Co.; 1936-38, meterman, 
Thunder Bay Paper Co., Port Arthur; with Canadian Car & Foundry Co., Fort 
William, as follows: 1938-40, shop engr., production engr. and asst. production 
supervisor; 1940-41, i/c subcontract programme for machined parts on Hurricane 
Aircraft; 1941 to date, asst. chief inspr. (St.. 1935.) 

References: L. T. Rutledge, R. .1. Askin, D. Boyd, H. G. O'Leary, E. G. MacGill, 
E. J. Davies. 

DUQUETTE— ROLAND CHARLES, of 753 St. Catherine Rd., Outremont. 
Born at Montreal, Jan. 18th, 1915; Educ: B.Eng., McGill Univ., 1940; R.P.E. 
Quebec; 1937 (summer), Empire Foods Corp.; 1939 (summer), Montreal Ligth, 
Heat & Power Cons.; 1940-42, asst. electl. engr., Hull Distribution Divn., Gatineau 
Power Co., Hull, Ont. (St. 1940.) 

References: C. V. Christie, A. V. Gale. 

EXTENCE— ALAN BARR, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Toronto, Feb. 24th, 1921; 
Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1942; 1939 (summer) fitter's helper, A. S. Leitoh 
Co. Ltd., Toronto; 1939-40 (summers), fitter's helper, machinist, dftsmn., United 
Steel Corp. Ltd.; 1941 (summer), machinist, fitter, Toronto Shipbuilding Co. Ltd.; 
1942 (summer), junior research engr., Aircraft Engine Lab., National Research 
Council; Sept., 1942, to date, demonstrator in mechanical engrg., Univ. of Toronto. 
(St. 1941.) 

References: C. R. Young, R. W. Angus, E. A. Allcut, G. R. Lord, C. F. Morrison, 
S. H. deJong, G. H. Crase. 



GRAY— LAURENCE FREDERICK, of Montreal, Que. Born at Victoria, B.C.. 
Dec. 15th, 1915; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of B.C., 1938; 1935-36 (summers), 
radio operator. Hydrographie Service; 1937 (summer), radio operator, C.N. Steam- 
ships; 1938 to date, radio engr., transmitter development dept., Canadian Marconi 
Co., Montreal. (St. 1939.) 

References: H. J. MacLeod, E. W. Farmer, J. J. H. Miller, A. B. Hunt, W. H. 

Moore. 

KINGHORN— WILLIAM WALLACE, of Amherst, N.S. Born at Montreal, 
Que., Jan. 31st, 1915; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of N.B., 1941; 1934-35, and 1937 
(summers), highway constrn.; 1941 to date, aircraft inspr. for Dept. of National 
Defence at Canada Car'& Foundry Co. Ltd., Amherst, N.S. (St. 1941.) 

References: J. Stephens, E. O. Turner, J. H. Moore, J. T. Turnbull, W. Lawson. 

KOBYLNYK— DEMETRIUS FREDERICK, of 327A-23 Ave. W\, Calgary, 
Alta. Born at Daysland, Alta., Oct. 4th, 1911; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 
1938; junior engr. with Calgary Power Co. Ltd. as follows: 1938-39, hydro plants, 
mtce., 1939-40, power distribution in towns; 1940 to date, substation mtce. and 
constrn., relay protection. (St. 1938.) 

References: G. H. Thompson, H. Randle, F. K. Beach, H. B. LeBourveau, 
D. A. Hansen. 

MACNAB— THOMAS CREIGHTON, Jr., of Rothesay, N.B. Born at Winnipeg. 
Man., Apr. 14th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Man., 1940; Summers with 
C.P.R. as follows: 1929, axeman on constrn.; 1930, topographer, Peace River; 1931- 
32, labourer on constrn., Debden-Meadow Lake; 1933-34, gas locomotive helper on 
constrn., Coronation; 1935-36 (summers), inspr. on reconstrn. berths 1, 2, 3, 4, 
Saint John Harbour; 1938-39 (summers), inspr. on Highway constrn., Alberta 
Govt.; 1940-41, transitman Bruce Divn., Toronto, and 1941-42, transitman Lauren- 
tian Divn., Montreal, Canadian Pacific Railway. (St. 1940.) 

References: E. A. Macdonald, G. H. Herriot, B. Ripley, J. A. MacKenzie, A. Gray. 

MARCHAND— FERNAND, of 10 Hamilton Ave., Hamilton, Ont. Born at 
Montreal, April 2, 1915; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1940; 1940-42, 
misc. elect'l engrg., Canadian Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, Ont. (St. 1937.) 

References: A. Circé, J. T. Thwaites, J. C Nash, J. R. Dunbar, G. W. Arnold. 

MARSHALL— WELSFORD ALLEN, of 567 Island Park Dr., Ottawa. Born at 
Ottawa, Ont., Jan. 29th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Queen's Univ., 1937; R.P.E. 
Ontario; 1930 to date, Dominion Structural Steel Ltd., Ottawa, from 1936 designing 
and detailing engr. and estimator; at present Lieutenant, R.C.O.C, 7th Division, 
O.M.E. Workshops, Debert, N.S. (St. 1937.) 

References: A. E. MacRae, J. H. Irvine, L. B. McCurdy, N. B. MacRostie, W. H. 
G. Flay. 

MELLOR— ALFRED GEOFFREY, of 619 Belmont Ave., Westmount. Born at 
Richelieu, Que., Oct. 18th, 1914; Educ: B.Eng., McGill Univ., 1934; 1932 (summer), 
Nichols Chemical Co., Sulphide, Ont.; 1934-35, General Chemical Co., Marcus 
Hook, Pa.; 1935-37, inspr. wire mill, Steel Co. of Canada, Montreal; 1937-41, asst. 
to relay engr., and designer on substation work, Niagara Hudson Power Co., Buffalo, 
N.Y.; 1941-42, genl. asst. to genl. manager on operating problems of public utility 
companies in Canada, Newfoundland and South America, Montreal Engineering 
Co. Ltd., Montreal; at present Engineer Officer, R.C.A.F., mtce. of aircraft, with 
rank of Pilot Officer, Vulcan, Alta. (St. 1932.) 

References: C. V. Christie, E. Brown, N. R. Gibson, J. T. Farmer, J. K. Sexton,. 
A. A. Mellor. 

PEACH— WILLIAM HERBERT, of 218 Cameron St., Port Arthur. Born at 
Gopsall, Leicestershire, England, Feb. 1st, 1903; Educ: I.C.S. Diploma, Civil 
Engrg., 1935; 1917-20, with Messrs. Logan & Hemingway, Rly. Contractors, 
Doncaster, England, on dock, rly., reservoir, canal and mine constrn., also on iron 
ore development; with C D. Howe Co. as follows: 1923-35, design and supervision of 
constrn. of grain elevators and allied structures, also design, dfting. and checking 
of plans and details; 1935 to date, vice-pres., on design and supervision of constrn. 
of grain elevators and other projects, including sheet pile revetments and industrial 
structures. (St. 1925.) 

References: C. D. Howe, J. M. Fleming, A. E. Macdonald, R. J. Askin, M. W. 
Jennings, H. M. Olsson, J. C Antonisen, F. C. Graham. 

PRITCHARD— GEOFFREY ROWLAND, of Winnipeg, Man. Born at Winnipeg, 
July 28th, 1915; Educ: B.Sc (Elec), Univ. of Man., 1937; 1937-40, dfting. and 
shop, Montreal and Toronto, and 1940 to date, manager Western Ontario and 
Winnipeg district, Canadian Allis Chalmers; also 1942 to date, lighting service 
engr., Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd. (St. 1937.) 

References: N. M. Hall, A. E. MacDonald, F. V. Seibert, D. M. Stephens, 
W. A Trott. 

SILVERBERG— DAVID M., of 291 Manitoba Ave., Winnipeg. Born at Win- 
nipeg, Apr. 21st, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Man., 1936; 1936-40, radio 
electrical servicing under own name; 1940 to date, engrg. dftsmn., Dept. of Transport, 
Winnipeg. (St. 1938.) 

References: E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, D. N. Sharpe, G. H. Herriot, A. E. Mac- 
Donald, F. G. Haven. 

/ TOW LE— HAROLD MARTIN, of the Town of Mount Royal, Que. Born at 
Fournier, Ont., June 29th, 1912; Educ: working towards B.Sc. at Sir George Williams 
College; 1929 (summer), survey, C.N.R.; 1930-31, Shawinigan Engrg. Co.; 1932-35 
(summers), Sutcliffe Co. Ltd., New Liskeard, i/c field party, mining claim survey; 
1936-38 (summers), Labrador Mining & Exploration Co., i/c field party, mapping 
and surveying. 1936-42 (except periods specified), indentured to and working with 
D. M. Towle, Q.L.S.; 1940 to date, instrman on Montreal Terminal development, 
Constrn. Dept., Canadian National Railways. (St. 1937.) 

References: J. B. Walcot, A. E. Oulton, W. H. Abbott, R. O. Stewart, J. Gilchrist. 

TRUDEAU— MARC R., of 6388 deLorimier Ave., Montreal. Born at Montreal, 
Nov. 7th, 1915; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1940; R.P.E. Quebec; 
with Lalonde & Valois as follows: 1937-39 (summers), supervising constrn. of viaduct 
at Bromptonville and tunnel at Ste. Thérèse, and designing of concrete structures; 
1940-41, supervision of constrn. of engine testing labs., National Research Council, 
Ottawa; 1941 (3 mos.), supervision of constrn. of filtration plant, Huntingdon, Que.; 
Sept., 1941, to Jan., 1942, designing of concrete structures; Jan., 1942, to Oct., 1942, 
engr. i/o minesweeper dept., Canadian Fairbanks Morse Co.; at present, asst., 
hydraulic lab., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal. (St. 1939.) 

References: R. Boucher, A. Frigon, J. P. Lalonde, M. Gérin. 

TUCKER— ROBERT NORMAN, of 268 Lake Shore Ave., Toronto. Born at 
Hamilton, Ont., Nov. 10th, 1912; Educ: B.A, (Math. & Physics), McMaster Univ., 
1937, and 4 yr. practical elect'l instlln. course at Hamilton Tech. Inst.; 1937-38 
(7 mos.), elect'l mtce., Steel Car Corp and Steel Co. of Canada; 1939-41, elect'l 
engrg. dept., transmission section, and 1941 to date planning section, Hydro Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto. (St. 1934.) 

References: W. J. W. Reid, E. G. MacKav, D, W. Callander, E. D. W. Courtice, 
J. Hole. 



SO 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Employment Service Bureau 



NOTICE 



Technical personnel should not reply 
to any of the advertisements for situa- 
tions vacant unless— 

1. They are registered with the War- 
time Bureau of Technical Personnel. 

2. Their services are available. 

A person's services are considered 
available only if he is^ 

(a) unemployed; 

(b) engaged in work other than of an 
engineering or scientific nature; 

(c) has given notice as of a definite 
date; or 

(d) has permission from his present 
employer to negotiate for work 
elsewhere while still in the service 
of that employer. 

Applicants will help to expedite 
negotiations by stating in their appli- 
cation whether or not they have com- 
plied with the above regulations. 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

CONCRETE DETAILER for Arvida, Quebec. Apply 
to Box 2597 -V. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



MINING, METALLURGICAL OR CHEMICAL 
ENGINEER for aluminum plant at Arvida. Indus- 
trial smelting or mining experience for experimental 
and technical work and supervision in remelt and 
shipping departments. Apply to Box 2599-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER for Arvida, Que., to 
take charge of repair and maintenance of equipment, 
ordering spare parts, etc. Apply to Box No. 2605-V. 

CHEMICAL, MECHANICAL OR CIVIL ENGI- 
NEER for Arvida, Que. Supervision of operations 
and labour in alumina plant. Applv to Box No. 
2606-V. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER for Arvida, Que., to assist 
in the supervision of operations and labour in the 
aluminum fluoride plant. Apply to Box No. 2607-V. 

DRAUGHTSMAN for La Tuque, Que., experienced in 
equipment installation to take charge of engineering 
work. Apply to Box No. 2608-V. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER for Arvida, Que. Assist in 
supervision of process control of precipitation de- 
partment. Apply to Box No. 2610-V. 

JUNIOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEER OR 
DRAUGHTSMAN for Arvida, Que. Two or three 



years experience, for work on draughting or design 
combined with usual engineering office work. Apply 
to Box No. 2612-V. 
RESEARCH ANALYST for Kingston, Ont. Analytical 
work in conjunction with research work carried on 
at aluminum laboratory. Apply to Box No. 2613-V. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

ENGINEER, m.e.i.c, A.M.i.Mech.E. Available for 
essential responsible position. Apply to Box No. 
704 -W. 

ENGINEERING MANAGER, b.a.sc, m.e.i.c. Reg- 
istered Professional Engineer, Canadian, married, 
20 years' thorough experience in industrial manage- 
ment; mechanical and electrical construction and 
development, production planning, precision manu- 
facturing, very well versed in organization methods. 
At present in complete charge of an extensive pro- 
gramme now nearing completion by a large company 
of designers formed in Toronto about a year ago. 
Really responsible position with well-established 
company desired. Available immediately. Will go 
anywhere. Apply to Box No. 2437-W. 



LIBRARY NOTES 

(Continued from page 50) 

POSTWAR PLANNING IN THE UNITED 
STATES 

By G. B. Galloway. Twentieth Century 
Fund, Neio York, 194£. 158 pp., tables, 
9x6 in., paper, 60c. 

This report summarizes the activities, per- 
sonnel and publications of the various agen- 
cies engaged in research upon the economic 
and social problems that will face us when 
the war ends. A considerable bibliography is 
appended. 

PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYMENT 
PSYCHOLOGY 

By H. E. Burtt. Harper & Brothers, rev. ed. 
New York and London, 1942. 568 pp., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $4.50 
trade éd.; $8.75 school ed. 

An interesting, readable presentation of the 
principles of psychology and of their applica- 
tion in the selection and training of business 
and industrial personnel. Mental and trade 
tests are described. The book can be used 
as a textbook or by business men for reference. 
The new edition has been completely re- 
written. 

PRIVATE PILOT'S HANDBOOK 

By A. G. Norwood. Pitman Publishing 
Corp., New York and Chicago, 1942. 258 
pp., illus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 
9 x 5y 2 in., cloth, $2.50. 

This book aims to provide in a single 
volume the information necessary to prepare 
for the examination for a certificate as a 
private pilot of aircraft. The elements of flight 
theory, meteorology, aerial navigation, the 
use of radio, the civil air regulations and the 
test flight are considered. Typical examination 
questions are appended. 

ROADWAY AND RUNWAY SOIL 

MECHANICS DATA, Permanency of 
Clay Soil Densification. (Engineering 
Experiment Station Series No. 67, 
School of Engineering) 



By H. C. Porter. Texas Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, College Station, Texas, 
1942. 121 pp., illus., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., paper, gratis. 

This bulletin on the permanency of clay 
soil densification is the first of a series of eleven 
which are to deal with soil mechanics. The 
experimental procedures used in determining 
the data are described, the results are discussed, 
and a synopsis of the conclusions reached is 
given. Both tables and graphs are used in 
presenting the numerical results. 

READING ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 

By G. F. Bush. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York; Chapman & Hall, London, 1942. 
60 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, blueprints, 
liy 2 x9 in., linen, $2.00. 

This book has for its object the teaching of 
the reading of engineering drawings and of 
their reproductions in a clear, brief and 
systematic manner. Only those basic ideas 
common to all branches of the subject are 
introduced, and the important branches of 
airplane drawing, machine drawing and 
structural drawing are treated in detail. 
Actual working drawings are provided as 
examples. 

REPORT OF THE RESULT OF THE IN- 
VESTIGATION INTO THE WORK- 
ING OF THE FINANCIAL PROVI- 
SIONS OF THE AIR RAID PRECAU- 
TIONS ACT, 1937, under Section 10 
of that Act, presented by the Secre- 
tary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment and Minister of Home Security 
to Parliament by Command of His 
Majesty, May, 1942. 

His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 
4 pp., 9Yi x 6 in., paper (obtainable from 
British Library of Information, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, New York, 05c). 

The Air Raid Precautions Act, 1937, pro- 
vided that a percentage of the approved 
expenditure of any local authority would be 
paid by the British National Exchequer. 



Certain revisions in these payments are in- 
dicated in this report. 

SHORT COURSE IN SURVEYING 

By R. E. Davis and J. W. Kelly. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., New York and London, 
1942. 880 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, maps, 7Y 2 x 5 in., lea., $2.50. 
This small book presents the essential prin- 
ciples and practice of elementary plane sur- 
veyings, in a form useful for rapidly training 
rodmen, chainmen. instrumentmen and drafts- 
men during the present emergency. Numerous 
field problems are included, as well as the 
necessary tables. 

SKILLED WORKERS FOR DEFENSE 
INDUSTRIES 

By C. S. Slocombe. Personnel Research 
Federation, Lincoln Bldg., 60 East 42nd 
St., New York. 79 pp., charts, tables, 12 x 
9 in., paper, $2.00. 
This pamphlet reports the results of a 
survey of the experience of various companies 
obtaining skilled labor during boom periods. 
Methods of hiring, upgrading and training are 
discussed, as well as such questions as the use 
of central placement offices, surveying anti- 
cipated requirements, estimating the em- 
ployees capable of upgrading, selection of 
those to be trained and the results of training. 
A wide variety of methods and results is 
described. 

SMOKE PREVENTION ASSOCIATION 
OF AMERICA, PROCEEDINGS, 36th 
Annual Convention, Hotel Statler, 
Cleveland, Ohio, June 2-5, 1942 

Smoke Prevention Association of America, 
189 N. Clark St., Chicago, III. 136 pp., 
illus., diagrs., maps, charts, tables, 11 x 
8Y 2 in., paper, $1.00. 

The major part of this volume consists of 
the technical papers presented at the con- 
vention. The topics treated include atmos- 
pheric pollution, chimney performance, fuel 
conservation and smoke abatement practices. 
Several papers contain discussions of the 
relation of the subject to the war effort. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1943 



53 



Industrial News 



ACID-PROOF CEMENT 

An 8-page booklet recently issued by G. F. 
Sterne & Sons Ltd., Brantford, Ont., features 
"Penchlor," the trade name of a new acid 
proof cement developed to combat acid corro- 
sion common in chemical plants, pulp and 
paper mills, oil refineries, smelting plants, 
steel mills and other industries. Its character- 
istics are clearly set forth and it contains a 
number of illustrations showing methods of 
application. 

ELECTRICAL INSULATION 

"What Keeps the Wheels Turning" is the 
title of a 20-page bulletin published by Fiber- 
glas Canada Ltd.,Oshawa, Ont. This bulletin 
illustrates the applications of "Fiberglas" to 
the insulation of electrical machinery and its 
importance in maintaining production. It 
shows many conditions of extreme heat and 
corrosiveness, where the use of "Fiberglas" 
has prevented consistent outages. These in- 
clude steel mills, textile and dyeing mills, dry 
kilns, coal mines and street cars. The different 
forms in which "Fiberglas" may be obtained 
are described. 

BLOWERS AND FORGES 

Canadian Blower & Forge Co. Ltd., 
Kitchener, Ont., have for distribution cata- 
logue No. 811-C, 24 pages, which presents the 
company's line of portable and stationary 
forges, hand and electric blowers, tuyeres, and 
anvils. Specifications and illustrations accom- 
pany the description of each item, and com- 
pressed air and oil-burning forges are also 
featured. 

TOOL STEEL 

"Jessop R. T. Water-Hardening Tool Steel" 
is the title of an 8-page bulletin, No. 642, 
issued by Jessop Steel Co. Ltd., Toronto, 
Ont. This bulletin features the characteristics 
of R. T. tool steel which is extremely tough 
and strong. In addition to the general descrip- 
tion there are also included a typical analysis, 
a list of applications, details of heat treatment 
with a temperature range chart, details of 
hardness tests and a chart of physical proper- 
ties. 

THE WELD-IT 

Issue No. 16 of "The Weld-It," published 
by Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd., Wel- 
land, Ont., features the Taylor-Winfield "Hi- 
Wave" welder and control panel, with a full 
and well illustrated article on the new "Hi- 
Wave" welder control panel. 

OFFICE EQUIPMENT 

A 12-page catalogue recently issued by The 
Steel Equipment Co. Ltd., Ottawa, Ont., 
features the "Strongarm" line of tempered 
pressed wood office equipment, including both 
letter and cap size filing cabinets with three or 
four drawers; stationery cupboards; lockers, 
transfer cases, etc. These units are supplied 
in two standard colours, olive-green and grey- 
green, and in two standard finishes, smooth 
and krinkle. 

TIN-FREE GEAR BRONZE 

The Hamilton Gear & Machine Co., 
Toronto, Ont., have prepared a report dealing 
with the results of a series of researches to 
find a tin-free bronze to take the place of the 
conventional metal used in the production of 
gears. After trying many combinations, a 
copper-nickel-antimony bronze was tried, 
and, to quote the report — "this is really good — 
better for our purpose than the peace time 
bronze." Details of proportions and physical 
properties are given. The report concludes 
with, "We are not applying for patent nor 
imposing restrictions. This is a free gift for 
the Allied Nations." This alloy is obtainable 
in ingot form from Canada Metal Co., Toron- 
to, Ont. 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



ELECTED PRESIDENT 

Mr. W. T. Randall was elected President of 
Neptune Meters Limited at the annual 
directors meeting held recently. Earlier this 
year Neptune Meters Limited opened a large 
new plant in Long Branch, Ont., which is 
engaged 100% in the manufacture of pre- 
cision instruments for war purposes. The Nep- 
tune line of Trident and Red Seal liquid 
meters is still being manufactured at the 
Neptune factory in Toronto. 

RECESSED HEAD SCREWS 

Different types of "Stelco Phillips" recessed 
head screws and bolts and drivers are shown 
in a 6-page bulletin just issued by The Steel 
Co. of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. A few of 
the many uses of these products are featured 
and illustrated and the advantages they offer 
are demonstrated. 

TOOLMAKERS' GUIDE 

Atlas Steels Ltd., Welland, Ont., have issued 
a revised edition of their "Toolmakers' 
Guide", which is in the form of a wall hanger, 
measuring 17 x 24 inches, attractively printed 
in colour and shows at a glance the character- 
istics of their various tool steels and which 
should be used on any given job. 

WOOD TANKS 

A 6-page bulletin prepared by Ajax Engin- 
eers Ltd., Toronto, Ont., describes the con- 
struction of wood tanks, and illustrates 
different forms, round and rectangular, hori- 
zontal and vertical; also tanks fitted with 
agitators and other mechanisms used in 
process work. It contains a ready reference 
giving capacities of various shapes and dimen- 
sions. 

PAINTS, VARNISHES AND ENAMELS 

A 28-page catalogue recently issued bv 
The Northern Paint & Varnish Co. Ltd", 
Owen Sound, Ont., features in the layman's 
language the description, uses and application 
of the company's paints, varnishes, and 
enamels for mining, pulp and paper, power, 
marine, architectural, engineering and general 
industries. The catalogue is divided into three 
sections designating the general class of sur- 
face to be covered, i.e., metal, wood and 
plaster; and porous surfaces, concrete, and 
for slip prevention. A simplified index indi- 
cates the particular product required for 
specified industries. The company's products 
are manufactured for industries and institu- 
tions only and are distributed by direct repre- 
sentatives. 



WANTED 

Experienced Draughtsman & Designer 
for design of Jigs and Fixtures. 

Also 

Graduate Mechanical Engineer capable 

of Planning and Scheduling Work in 

large Munition and fine Machinery 

Plant, South-Eastern Ontario. 

New Modern Houses Available. 

Apply to your nearest Employment and 
Selective Service Office. 



DRESSING AND TRUING 

GRINDING WHEELS 

Canadian Koebel Diamond Tools Ltd., 
Windsor, Ont., have prepared a booklet 
entitled "For Grinder Men Only — Ladies 
Night," which is offered by this company, 
singly or in quantity, without cost to employ- 
ers for distribution to employees. Recognizing 
the need for specialized training of women 
new to industry who may be called on to dress 
and true grinding wheels, the booklet clearly 
and simply explains how a wheel should be 
dressed, the necessity for care in the handling 
of diamond tools, the importance of taking 
light cuts, the use of a "drag" angle, correct 
speed, and other factors bearing on the econo- 
mical and efficient utilization of diamond 
tools and grinding wheels. 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

A series of bulletins prepared by Webster 
& Sons Ltd., Montreal, Que., feature "Tartan 
Vermiculite Insulation" which is fabricated in 
various forms in combination with building 
material to provide heat and sound insulation. 
"Tartan" insulation is fire-proof, rot-proof, 
vermin-proof, odorless and a non-conductor 
of electricity. It does not dissolve, disintegrate 
or give off odors when wet, and melts at about 
2500° F. 

OVERHEAD ELECTRIC CRANES 

Systematic maintenance and care in opera- 
tion of "Morris" overhead electric cranes are 
stressed in an 8-page bulletin, Section 10-M, 
prepared by The Herbert Morris Crane & 
Hoist Co. Ltd., Niagara Falls, Ont. The bulle- 
tin also contains descriptive cross-sectional 
drawings, with each detail of the crane 
designated by a number and tabulated for 
reference. 

VARNISHED INSULATION 

Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. of 
( 'anada, Ltd., Hamilton, Out., have published 
a 20-page book designed to enable the user 
to become better acquainted with this com- 
pany's products and its laboratory and manu- 
facturing facilities. This book describes and 
deals with the uses of varnished cambric, 
canvas, paper, silk, fiberglas and tubing. It 
also includes technical data and details 
regarded as necessary to select and specify the 
product required. 

NORTHERN CIRCUIT 

The December 1942 issue of "Northern 
Circuit," published by Northern Electric Co. 
Ltd., Montreal, Que., contains a message 
from the president, Mr. Paul F. Sise, to the 
company's employees stressing three direct 
contributions every citizen of Canada should 
make to the general cause. A visit by em- 
ployees to a minesweeper; a most interesting 
item on "Uncle Tom's Cabin" at Chatham, 
Ont.; the proposal of a "National Electrical 
Federation" in a speech by Mr. Arnold L. 
Brown; and many items of special interest to 
the employees form the contents of this issue. 

DECEASED 

McKenzie James Morgan, district sales 
manager of the Canadian Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
died suddenly on December 12th, in Niagara 
Falls, Ont. Born in Wales, Ont., in 1895, Mr. 
Morgan had been with Canadian Ohio Brass 
since August 1920; first at the Chicago office 
and the past twenty years with the Canadian 
Office. (Continued on page 84) 



54 



January, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



When Engineers Figure Costs 

VITRIFIED CLAY PIPE 

is always specified 




The best is never expensive when a compe- 
tent engineer is figuring costs. This is partic- 
ularly true of sewers — where true costs are 
not so much a matter of installation but of 
maintenance and amortization over a period of 
years. 

Judged by sound standards and proved en- 
gineering practice, the record of Vitrified Sewer 
Pipe stands high. It meets the tests of the 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association 
and the American Society for Testing Materials 
with a wide margin. In the vital acid, crush 
and capacity tests, it stands pre-eminent. 
Truly the ideal and everlasting material for 
the sewage-disposal systems of today's in- 
dustrial communities. 



Ituij Victory Bonds and War Savings Certificates Regularly 




?#ils 





NATIONAL SEWER PIPE CO. LTD. 



CLAYBURN COMPANY LTD. 

ICOUVER BRITISH COLUMBIA 



STANDARD CLAY PRODUCTS LTD. 

ST JOHNS. QUE NEW GLASGOW. N S 



ALBERTA CLAY PRODUCTS CO. LTD. 

MEDICINE HAT ALBERTA 



1|||I|JED CLAT 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 




Miles away in the darkness 

enemy bombers are approaching. 
Automatically the mechanical ears 
of the Sperry searchlight focus 
on the invisible planes. 

Suddenly . . . Flash ! The search- 
light cuts through the darkness, 
and reveals the far-away planes as 
pin-points of light. 

To find a material for the electrode 
contacts of this 800 million candle- 
power searchlight was a special 
problem. Resistance to terrific 
heat while conducting electricity 
was the requirement. The 
answer was found in solid 
nickel. 

On the electrical, food and 
chemical "fronts", Nickel is 
enlisted for victory. Nickel 
is hard, strong, tough, rustless 
and corrosion resistant. 

In the present national emergency 
Nickel can be supplied only in 
accordance with government 
allocations. 




NICKEL 
"Z" NICKEL INCONEL 

MONEL 

"K" MONEL "S" MONEL 

"R" MONEL "KR" MONEL 



THE INTERNATIONAL NICKEL COMPANY OF CANADA, LIMITED 

25 KING STREET WEST, TORONTO 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



lei's make 

THE MOST 
OF WHAT 

we've cot 




7% licked the* WATER 

SHORTAGE PROBLEM . . . 



PACED with an increasing demand on their water resources, 
■ Leesburg, Va. made the most of existing water storage and 
pumping facilities ... by 100% metering. In spite of an in- 
creased number of taps, the resultant reduction in waste 
effected a decrease of 30% in pu m page. Purchases of new 
equipment and increased water storage facilities were post- 
poned for many years. 




NEPTUNE METERS LIMITED 



MONTREAL 
L. L. Roquet 



Head Office and Factory: Long Branch 
Also Factory at 345 Sorauren Ave., TORONTO 

WINNIPEG VANCOUVER SAINT JOHN, N.B. 



Walsh & Charles Ltd. Gordon & Belyea Ltd. 



G. S. Dearborn 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 




e 

MS MO SUSY I 

• No Sir, not this guy! Not only has he 
one of the strongest backs in the Electrical 
Motor Control Industry in Canada, but 
he has also a wise head screwed on his 
shoulders — a head filled with detailed 
knowledge derived from years of special- 
ized experience in the application, design 
and manufacture of heavy duty Industrial 
Motor Control built to take it. 



CeCiL is symbolic of the proper applica- 
tion of a complete line of heavy duty 
Contactors— Relays— Resistors— Push Buttons 
— Limit Switches — Accessories — Magnetic 
Brakes — Manual Controllers into soundly 
engineered Control Apparatus including 
D.C. Motor Starters and Controllers— Crane 
Control — D.C. Mill Control — Mine Control 
—Fire Pump Panels— Rubber Mill Controllers. 



IF YOU HAVE A PROBLEM IN MOTOR 
CONTROL CeC'iL HAS THE ANSWER 



Manufactured and Sold by 

RAILWAY & POWER ENGINEERING 
CORPORATION LIMITED 

MONTREAL HAMILTON NORTH BAY 

TORONTO WINNIPEG VANCOUVER 



Cv) Canadian Controllers Limited 



TORONTO, CANADA 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




^ 



are essentially efficient, quiet and compact right angle drives. Embra< 
a rational method of generating the globoidal worm and gear of the cor 
shape, these units transmit many times the power of conventional ty 
with higher all-round efficiency; this because Cone Worm Gearing al 
inherently provides area contact. 

Standard sizes available in 4", 5", 6", 7", 8" and 
10" centre distances, with ratios from 6:1 to 200:1. 




Built in horizontal, vertical 
and motorized horizontal types. 



Cone Worm Units and indiv 
Gearsets to special de.« 



Write for Bulletin No. 361. 




DOMINION ENGINEERING 



MONTREAL 



— -Gmtprnw. 



CANADA 



TORONTO 



WINNIPEG 



VANCOUVE 




Chrysler Industrial Engines serve the Empire's 
Armed Forces, Industry, Agriculture and 
Construction in Hundreds of Different Ways 



Powering generators for electric arc 
welding is just one of the hundreds 
of uses to which Chrysler Industrial 
Engines are daily being applied in 
industry, agriculture and other fields. 

Three sizes of Chrysler Industrial 
Engines meet a wide variety of power 
needs with maximum efficiency at 
minimum cost. 



M 



'#é£0W& 



Famous Chrysler Fluid Drive is 

also available to reduce shock loads 
on the driving mechanism, and 
greatly prolong the life of valuable 
equipment. 

Have you a power problem? 
Chrysler engineers would like to 
consider your needs and submit 
proposals. Write us today. 



Hundreds of Chrysler Corporation of 
Canada dealers handle parts for Chrysler 
Industrial Engines and are equipped to 
give prompt, efficient service. 



Write for FREE Booklet 

We will be glad to mail you a free booklet 
showing Chrysler Industrial Engines in action 
in a wide variety of cases. Complete de- 
scription, specifications and net horsepower 
and torque charts. Address Industrial Engine 
Division, Chrysler Corporation of Canada, 
Limited, Windsor, Ontario. 



M> 



«^f 

»»*• 



i_r 



CHRYSLER CORPORATION OF CANADA, LIMITED, WINDSOR, ONTARIO 



Chrysler Industrial Engines 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




"You have confid 



mus. 




"...and we have confidence in you!" 

Yes, we have great faith in the ability and daring of our paratroops. 
They have already proven themselves in North Africa . . . and they may 
soon be dropping in on Berlin! 

Our fighting men have confidence that the "soldiers of production" 
will do their part back home. Let's justify the confidence they are plac- 
ing in us . . . every day, every hour . . . till the war is won ! 

|THE GARLOCK PACKING COMPANY OF CANADA LIMITED 

General Offices: Montreal, Que. 
Branch Offices: Hamilton, Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Vancouver 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 194.3 




JOHN INGLIS CO. LIMITED 

<8> TORONTO <8> 



10 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



r 



AN OFFER 



w/ffi a very small string attached! 




Let us send you, with our compliments, two 
Venus Pencils in whatever degrees you 
select. We do this because we want Venus to 
speak for itself, right in your drawing hand. 

Now, the string. It's simply this. We ask you 
to forget pencil names and reputations, preju- 
dices and inclinations, hearsay, habit and present 
preference Just try VENUS on its own merit for 




the kind of work you are doing, and let VENUS 
speak for itself. You'll find its absolute smooth- 
ness and precise grading to your liking. There's- 
a mighty good reason why more artists, archi- 
tects and engineers buy VENUS than any other 
drawing pencil. 

Just drop us a postcard giving us your name 
and title, your firm name and address. Specify 
the two degrees you wish to try. 



Me CANADIAN ÇÈmwinp @>enci/ 

VENUS PENCIL COMPANY, LTD: 
165 Dufferin St., Toronto, Ont, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



11 




A typical Stelco Product 



The Steel Company of Canada, Limited 



Hamilton 



EXECUTIVE OFFICES 



MONTREAL 



FICES: HALIFAX, ST. JOHN. QUEBEC. MONTREAL. OTTAWA, TORONTO. HAMILTON. LONDON. 

WINDSOR. WINNIPEG, VANCOUVER 
WORKS: HAMILTON. MONTREAL. TORONTO. BRANTFORD. LONDON. GANANOOUE 



12 



February. 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



13 




POWER — More than nine million horse- 
power from such units as those pictured 
above has, more than any -other single 
factor, made the development of Canada's 
tremendous Armament Industry possible. 

WESTINGHOUSE, pioneer of the Alter- 
nating Current System, on which this 
tremendous power is based, proudly 



points to more than several million horse- 
power of Westinghouse Generating Equip- 
ment doing a 1 00 % job " on active service. ' * 

Many hundreds of thousands of additional 
horsepower have been harnessed since 
1939 to supply Canada's vast new war 
industries, and this additional power will 
be available for the post-war needs of 
Canadian homes and factories. 



CANADIAN WESTINGHOUSE COMPANY LIMITED 

Head Office • HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

Westinghouse 

Sales ËHaÎB«#riiui Offir-ec • ^^^^^^ S^rvirp anil Renoir Shoos; 



Sales Engineering Offices : 

VANCOUVER, TRAIL, CALGARY, EDMONTON, RECINA, SASKATOON 

WINNIPEG, FORT WILLIAM, TORONTO, SWASTIKA (Northern Ontario) 

LONDON, MONTREAL, OTTAWA, QUEBEC, HALIFAX 



Service and Repair Shops: 

VANCOUVER, CALGARY, RECINA, WINNIPEG 

TORONTO, SWASTIKA (Northern Ontario) 

MONTREAL 



699 



14 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ERECTION, 



Canada's railways are performing 
a Herculean task in transporta- 
tion. And to do a great job better, 
spur lines, short cuts are con- 
tinually added to feed industry 
faster. Hamilton Bridge Com- 
pany plays a large part in this 
stepping- up of transportation! 
Massive railway bridges — engin- 
eered, fabricated and erected by 
Hamilton Bridge — span valley 
and river in record time to help 
speed delivery of war materials. 
This type of strong, durable 
construction has a vital place too, 
in times of peace. For then, 
Hamilton Bridge may once again 
devote full time to the Nation's 
march of progress. 









HAMILTON 



BRIDGE COMPANY LIMITED 



HAMILTON, ONT. 



VANCOUVER, B.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



15 



<®éktfi& m»m§f 





yi Ck£4- now a precision instrument 
appears to your workmen under the lights 
of your factory? Good lighting is essential to 
accuracy, high speed production and accident 
prevention. Good light keeps old eyes active, 
and young eyes from growing old too quickly. 
It adds manpower to the war effort. 

Whether or not you may have new lighting 
units, you can have better light. 

* For essential industries, Amalgamated 
Electric makes a new non-metallic Benjamin 
fluorescent lightingunit that offers all the high 
lighting efficiency of the former steel units. 



If you cannot modernize your lighting system 
now with this new equipment, clean all re- 
flectors and replace blackened lamps regu- 
larly. Repaint walls, ceilings and other 
reflecting surfaces with light paints of high 
reflecting value. Ask your electrical contractor 
or your electrician how your present lighting 
units may be re-arranged for greater efficiency 
and better morale in your plant. 

* * * 

Amalgamated Electric Corporation Limited, Toronto 
and Montreal. Western Divisions: Langley Electric 

Manufacturing Co. Limited, Winnipeg; 

Langley Electrical Co. Limited, Calgary; 

Langley Manufacturing Co. Limited. 






' ancouver. 



*>*>. 



AMALGAMATED 

ELECTRIC CORPORATION LIMITED 



16 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




M I N G THE BATTL 




OF PRODUCTION 




-alU^JV GOES 

^* CANADA'S 

PLANE PRODUCTION 

6500 planes, including 9 different types of combat and 
training aircraft, now on active service, came from the 
assembly lines of Canada's aircraft industry during the 
30 months ending December 31, 1942. In addition to 
older types, Canada now produces newer, faster, more 
deadly aircraft including Mosquitos, Catalinas, Lan- 
casters and Curtiss Navy Dive-bombers ... a total of 
nearly 5000 planes yearly. 

This is truly a miracle of production ... a miracle of 
organization, tenacity and skill by the more than 75,000 
people now employed in the industry. This great army of 
workers is still rapidly expanding, and the present rate of 
aircraft production is daily mounting to greater heights. 

Every Canadian has cause for pride in this splendid 
record . . . especially those who, like us, have helped to 
make that record possible by the supply of a vast variety 
of essential equipment. 





1939 I 1940 ; 1941 ! 1942 






































/,' 


































» 


* 


































i 


* 




























; 


y 


r 
































* 








1! 






















ri 


/ 
















ï« 


i. 


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p 
































































H 






























































































































































































NE 


:s 





































>c 



42-5000 PLANES 



Fairbanks- Morse is playing an 
important part in winning the 
battle of production. Listed below are 
some of the more essential "Tools of 
Production" that we are supplying to 
Canada's Wartime Industry. 

MACHINE TOOLS 

TOOLS {Pneumatic and Electric) 

SHOP SUPPLIES 

R'L'Y & CONTR'S EQUIP'T 

SCALES 

ENGINES ipiesel and Gasoline) 

PUMPS 

TRANSMISSION EQUIPMENT 

COAL STOKERS 

TRUCKS {Hand and Power) 

REFRACTORIES 

WOODWORKING MACHINERY 

BELTING 

WELDING EQUIPMENT 

ABRASIVES 

VALVES AND STEAM GOODS 

CHAIN BLOCKS 

AUTOMOTIVE EQUIPMENT 

MOTORS AND GENERATORS 



FAIRBANKS-MORSE HELPS THE WAR WHEELS TURN 



Qh£ 



CANADIAN 



Fairbanks * Morse 



COMPANY JCimited 



HALIFAX SAINT JOHN QUEBEC MONTREAL OTTAWA TORONTO WINDSOR FORT WILLIAM WINNIPEG REGINA CALGARY 
EDMONTON VANCOUVER VICTORIA : FACTORY, SHERBROOKE, QUE. 




IN INDUSTRY AND TRANSPORT 



Ferodo Linings are designed to meet every braking need — lor 
passenger and commercial vehicles and for all requirements in 
the engineering and mining fields. These British friction materials 
possess immense capacity to withstand hard wear. They provide 
greater stopping power and they reduce costs. 

Whatever your braking problems— wherever power must be con- 
trolled — there are Ferodo Linings specifically made for the job 
they have to do. In the interests of safety and economy, always 
specify Ferodo Linings. Obtain fuller details from our agents below. 

FERO 

BRAKE AND CLUTCH LININGS 




J. C. McLAREN BELTING CO., LTD. Head Office : 620. Beaumont Street. MONTREAL. Branch Office : 43. Colborne Street. TORONTO. 

DISTRIBUTORS ■ McLennan, McFeely and Prior. Ltd.. Vancouver Duncan Auto Accessories. Calgary. Wilkinson and McClean. Ltd.. Calgary and 
Edmonton. Alta. A. A. Murphy and Sons. Saskatoon. Sask. Sharpe's Limited. Winnipeg, Man. General Automotive Supply Company, Ltd.. Saskatoon. 
Sask. Wm. Stairs Son and Morrow. Ltd.. Halifax, N.S. Manufacturers : FERODO. LTD., CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH, ENGLAND 



_"■' 



INSIST ON FERODO LININGS FOR BRAKE EFFICIENCY |feropo| 



18 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SUPPORT the 




CAMPAIGN 



for 

DEPENDABLE 
PERFORMANCE 

Low Power 
Consumption 

for actual free air delivered 

Forced 
Lubrication 

self-contained, automatic 
to All Working Parts 

Automatic 
Control 

full unloading automatically 
controlled from governor 



Made in single and two-stage 
signs and for pressure up to 
lbs. per square inch. Suitable for all 
types of drive including steam and 
Diesel engines. Applicable also as 
Vacuum Pumps. 




Write for Free Compressor Bulletin 



B ABCOCK-WILCOX & GOLDIE-McCULLOCH 



GALT 



LIMITED 



CANADA 



Branch Offices Montreal Toronto Winnipeg Vancouver 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



19 




ANOTHER CANADIAN 
CONTRIBUTION TO 
DEMOCRACY'S BATTLE 

ALL-WELDED STEEL 

HARBOR 

TIGS 4, 

CANADIAN BRIDGE 

/ 




'COMPANY 



Built to operate economically 
under all conditions of weather 
and climate, these new all-welded 
tugs are another tribute to the 
engineering and fabricating ability 
of the men of Canadian Bridge. 
Modern in every detail, they are 
doing a hard job well in speeding 
up delivery of supplies to our 
armed forces in all theatres of war. 



Designed in our own shops, this 
positioner makes it possible to 
build a tug in one-quarter the pre- 
vious time. Every square foot 
readily accessible — with no time 
lost in revolving positioner and tug 
to new work surfaces. Permits all 
downhand welding. 




TRANSMISSION TOWERS 
FLOODLIGHT TOWERS 
OBSERVATION TOWERS 
MARINE ENGINES 
ELECTRIC FURNACES 
RADIO MASTS 



BARGES TUGS SCOWS 
RAILWAY TURNTABLES 
PLATEWORK, RIVETED AND WELDED 
MACHINERY FOR MOVABLE BRIDGES 
WELDED MACHINERY BASES AND BEDPLATES 
BREN GUN CARRIER BODIES 




tfro/icA«-TORONTC*, MONTREAL 



CANADIAN BRIDGE 

COMPANY .LIMITED 

WAIKERVULE. ONTARIO 
»<yy*5M#i><»v w -WINNIt»ea. R80INA. EOmONTON. VANCOUVER 



20 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Gear Drive Units of Every Type 





Where ever high speed power is applied 
to low speed use, our worm gear units 
give efficient service. Any type of drive 
can be supplied from our sixty standard 
patterns, most of the smaller series being 
carried in stock. 

This is a type VO vertical worm unit 
and motor on a welded steel bedplate, 
with a shear-pin coupling half integral 
with the second-reduction spur pinion. 



QÀmIuj >& t fkm<£fa\ 



h 



President. 



Industrial Gear Drives 

Made in Canada 

for 31 years 



Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 

The Industrial Cut Gear Specialists 

62-100 Van Home Street, TORONTO 4 



Montreal Branch Office 






British Columbia 


1120 Castle Building, 


Manitoba 


Alberta 


B.C. Conveying Machinery Co. 


Cor. St. Catherine and Stanley, 


T. S. Taylor Machinery Co. 


Waterous Ltd. 


Geo. B. Simpson, Manager 


Montreal, P.Q. 


300 Princess St., Winnipeg. 


Edmonton, Alta. 


422 Shelley Bldg., Vancouver, B.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



21 




Slow downs may mean . . / ? Bare Hands vs. Bayonets'* 



IT TAKES MORE than courage 
alone for soldiers to win battles 
today. 

It takes specialized fighting equip- 
ment ... as much as our vast 
industries can produce, working 
every last hour on the clock. For we 
are sending thousands of men against 
a mechanized foe, and our men must 
have fighting tools to stand a fight- 
ing chance. Nowadays, a poorly 
equipped soldier would stand little 
more chance than a man with bare 
hands against bayonets. 

Thus time . . . production time . . . 
has become the most vital ele- 
ment in the war right now. We 
simply cannot afford to sabotage • 
war effort by allowing a slow down 



where that slow down can be 
prevented. 

There is one type of industrial 
slow down that can be prevented . . . 
the interruption caused by failure of 
the valves that control vital power 
and production fluids in your plant. 
The way to prevent this type of 
slow down is to avoid valve trouble 
before it starts! 

Keep your valves operating effi- 
ciently, continuously y by inspecting 
them regularly. Renew worn parts 
before thev cause destruction of the 



whole valve. And when valves must 
be replaced, have the new valves 
selected by experts, installed by 
experienced men. Above ,all, train 
new workers to operate and maintain 
valves properly. 

Jenkins Engineers are ready to 
assist any management in developing 
a practical program of valve con- 
servation. 

JENKINS BROS. LIMITED 

617 St. Remi Street, Montreal 

Branches: Toronto, Winnipeg, Vancouver and 
6Great Queen St., Kingsway,W.C2. London, Eng. 




JENKINS VALVES 

For every indt4Strial, engineering, marine and power yûs. 
plant service . . . in Bronze, Iron, Cast Steel and < <^. l 51/^ > 
Corrosion-Resisting Alloys . . . 125 to 600 lbs. pressure. jw^y<a»Y 



22 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




■PC 



LOATING DRY DOC» 

• . • Built in Canada 

Located at a Canadian port, this floating Dry Dock, the first of its kind 
to be constructed in Canada, was fabricated and erected by Dominion 
Bridge Company, Limited, for the Department of Munitions and Supply. 
Constructed and in operation in the short space of a little over a year's 
time, it represents an outstanding achievement in Canada's War Effort. 

OMINION BRIDGE COMPANY LIMITEE 

Head Office: LACHINE (MONTREAL) QUEBEC 

Branch Offices and Works: AMHERST MONTREAL OTTAWA TORONTO WINNIPEG CALGARY VANCOUVER 

Agencies: EDMONTON REGINA 



Associate Companies ; 



DOMINION ENGINEERING CO. LTD., MONTREAL, QUE. 

ROBB ENGINEERING WORKS LTD., AMHERST, N.S. 

McGREGOR-McINTYRE IRON WORKS LTD., TORONTO, ONT. 

MANITOBA BRIDGE & IROTS WORKS LTD., WINNIPEG, MAN. 

RIVERSIDE IRON WORKS LTD., CALGARY, ALTA. 



DOMINION HOIST & SHOVEL CO. LTD., MONTREAL, QUE. 

EASTERN CANADA STEEL & IRON WORKS LTD., QUEBEC, QUE. 

SAULT STRUCTURAL STEEL CO. LTD., SAULT STE. MARIE, ONT. 

MANITOBA ROLLING MILL CO. LTD., WINNIPEG, MAN. 

STANDARD IRON WORKS LTD., EDMONTON, ALTA. 




to lengthen the life of r 
RUBBER TRANSMISSION BELTS 



Don't run belts too tight. This stretches belts 
unduly — results in premature breakdown, causes 
excess strain on pulley bearings and drive shaft. 
A belt too wide or too heavy wastes rubber 
and power. Make sure you have right size of 
belt for the job. 

Be sure pulleys are correct diameter. Pulleys 
too small for number of plies of belt cause ply 
separation and loss of horsepower transmitted 
due to reduction in arc of contact. 

4. Check pulleys for proper alignment. Misaligned 
pulleys pull belt out of shape, cause uneven 
stress on pulleys and shaft. 

5. Never force a belt over pulleys spaced too 
widely apart. Likely you will stretch belt bias- 
wise causing it to run unevenly and to jump 
pulleys. 

6. Don't throw off belt until machine comes to a 
full stop. Throwing a belt while machine is 
running results in sharp bends and twists in 
belt. 

When installing belt, be sure ends are cut 
absolutely square. Use a belt square. 

In applying fasteners, be sure they are the right 
size and do not work loose. Follow instruc- 
tions of fastener manufacturers and be sure of 
true-running installation. 

Keep belt free of oil and grease. Clean off with 
laundry soap and water. 

Don't use dressings on Rubber Belts unless 
recommended by manufacturer. If Belts be- 
come glazed, clean with cloth lightly moistened 
with gasoline while belt is not running. 

Inspect your Rubber Transmission Belts regularly, 
thus conserving vital rubber by avoiding needless 
replacements, often preventable by proper care. For 
information about belts, consult Dominion Rubber 
men. They know! 



7. 



8. 



9. 



10. 



oeâe^^^<$ac^4éeai^^éa^ 



Every extra hour, every precious moment of 
added production is vital to this biggest of 
all jobs — WINNING THE WAR. 

Full rated capacity of every machine is im- 
perative — nothing else is good enough. 

On the production line, Rubber Transmission 
Belts are making the wheels hum on thousands 
of drives, turning out vast quantities of goods 
urgently needed by a nation at war. Those 
Rubber Transmission Belts are even more im- 
portant today than ever before. They give 
long trouble-free service, therefore are often 
forgotten and neglected. A little extra care 
now, will pay big returns in increased belt 
life, saving of time and money and in uninter- 
rupted production. 

DOMINIONli®RUBBER 

COMPANY LIMITED 

Manufacturers of largest range of industrial rubber goods in Canada. 



24 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



WE BUILD THE 

Ships 

WE BUILD THE 




The heart of any ship is its engine. And everv Vickers ship — swift Corvette or sturdy 
Cargo carrier — has one or more of these Triple Expansion Engines, designed and 
built by Vickers. These are the pulsing giants that give our Cargo Vessels and Corvettes 
their tremendous power. 

Canadian Vickers are also serving the "home front"... for we are making Vickers- 
Keeler Boilers and Kidwell Boilers for industry. Many installations have been made 
which stepped up tremendously the productive capacity of important war plants. 
Inquiries invited. 



IF IT FLOATS OR FLIES VICKERS CAN BUILD IT I 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1913 



25 



ON LAND 



ON SEA 




IN THE AIR 



UlMuIlMUll 



ASBESTOS-INSULATED WIRE AND CABLE 
SERVES CANADA AT WAR I 



• Because of its exceptionally high resistance to flame, Deltabeston 
Asbestos-Insulated Wire and Cable is finding a wide variety of appli- 
cations in land, sea and air equipment for Canada's fighting services. 
Positive control of raw materials and manufacturing processes, and 
rigid inspection of the finished product have established for Deltabeston, 
a leadership in the field of felted-asbestos-insulated conductors. In order 
to obtain uniform high quality, Deltabeston Cables are subjected to a 
series of tests which ensure maximum strength, flexibility and resistance 
to heat, moisture and abrasion. The Deltabeston Wire and Cable range 
includes power cables, switchboard wire, fixture wires and cords, 
locomotive cords and magnet wires. 42-jA-n 

For further information apply to your nearest C.G.E. office 




iiil n ili 



CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 



Sydney • Halifax • Si John • Quebec • SI 
Windsor • Fort William • Winnipeg ■ Regina 



LIMITED 

• Montreal • Ottawa • Toronto • New Liskeard • Hamilton • Sudbury • London 
ion • Lethbridge • Edmonton • Calgary • Trail • Kelowna • Vancouver • Victohc 



26 



February, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




The TECO Ring Connector 
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February. 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURN \E 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 26 



MONTREAL, FEBRUARY 1943 



NUMBER 2 




"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e.i.c 
Editor 



LOUIS TRUDEL, m.e.i.c 
Assistant Editor 



N. IS. D. SHEPPAHD. m.e.i.c. 
Adverlisina Manager 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

C. K. McLEOD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairmar 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c. 

H. F. FINNEMORE, m.e.i.c 

T. .1. LAFRENIÈRE, m.e.i.c 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
—Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



CONTENTS 

REBIRTH OF SCRAP METAL Cover 

(Photo Public Information) 

FABRICATION OF LAMINATED TIMBER MEMBERS .... 58 
Verne Ketchum, M.Am.Soc.C.E. 

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING .... 62 

W. R. Stickney, M.E.I.C. 

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL SERVES WAR DEPARTMENTS . 6L 

REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR 1942 67 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 88 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 92 

PERSONALS 97 

Visitors to Headquarters 99 

Obituaries .99 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 102 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 104 

LIBRARY NOTES 105 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 109 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 110 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL - 1942 

PRESIDENT 

C. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 



•bbGASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 
•K. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 



•H. W. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 



JJ. E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 

•A. E. BERRY, Toronto. Ont. 

t8. G. COULTIS, Calgary. Alta. 

tG. L. DICKSON. Moncton, N.B. 

•D. S. ELLIS. Kingston, Ont. 

•J. M. FLEMING. Port Arthur. Ont. 

•I, M. FRASER, Saskatoon, Sask. 

•J. H. FREGEAU. Three Rivers, Que. 

•J. GARRETT, Edmonton, Alta. 

fF. W. GRAY. Sydney. N.S. 

•8. W. GRAY. Halifax, N.S. 

•For 1942 tFor 1942-43 tFor 1942-43-44 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY. Montreal. Que. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 

•A. L. CARRUTHERS, Victoria, B.C. 
tH. CIMON, Quebec, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

tT. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 

COUNCILLORS 

tE. D. GRAY-DONALD, Quebec. Que. 

tJ. HAÏMES, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•J. G. HALL, Montreal, Que. 

JR. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

tW. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

tE. W. IZARD, Victoria, B.C. 

tJ. R. KAYE, Halifax, N.S. 

•E. M. KREBSER, Walkerville, Ont. 

tN. MacNICOL, Toronto, Ont. 

•H. N. MACPHERSON. Vancouver. B.C. 

•W. H. MUNRO, Ottawa, Ont. 

TREASURER 

E. G. M. CAPE, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal. Que. 



tJ. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
tG. G. MURDOCH. Saint John, N.B. 



JC. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 



tT. A. McELHANNEY, Ottawa. Ont. 

•C. K. McLEOD. Montreal. Que. 

tA. W. F. McQUEEN. Niagara Falls, Ont. 

tA. E. PICKERING, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

tG. McL. PITTS, Montreal, Que. 

tW. J. W. REID, Hamilton, Ont. 

tJ. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

*M. G. SAUNDERS, Arvida, Que. 

tH. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

•J. A. VANCE. Woodstook, Ont. 

•A. O. WOLFF, Saint John. N.B. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal. Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



FINANCE 

dbG. BEAUBIEN. Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 

E. G. M. CAPE 
G. A. GAHERTY 
J. A. McCRORY 

F. NEWELL 



LEGISLATION 

J. L. LANG, Chairman 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. J. DURLEY 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

W. G. HUNT. Chairman 
A. T. BONE 
J. S. HEWSON 
M. S. NELSON 
G. V. RONEY 



PUBLICATION 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman 

dkG. BEAUBIEN 

K. M. CAMERON 

A. L. CARRUTHERS 

H. CIMON 

J. L. LANG 

G. G. MURDOCH 



C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

R. DkL. FRENCH. Vice-Chai™ 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

T. J. LAFRENIERE 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER. Chairman 

I. M. FRASER 

W. E. LOVELL 

A. P. LINTON 

H. R. MacKENZIE 

E. K. PHILLIPS 

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 

G. A. GAHERTY 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

H. W. McKIEL 

J. A. VANCE 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT. Chairman 
J. BENOIT 

D. S. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
R. DbL. FRENCH 
R. F. LEGGET 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. McKIEL 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

R. W. ANGUS, Chairman 

J. B. CHALLIES, Vice-Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 
C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
M. J. McHENRY 
C. R. YOUNG 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

MEMBERSHIP 

J. G. HALL, Chairman 
S. R. FROST 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS. Vice-chairman 
G. P. F. BOESE 

A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 
A. GRIFFIN 

D. W. HAYS 

G. N. HOUSTON 
T. H. HOGG 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
H. J. McLEAN 

F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
P. M. SAUDER 
J. M. WARD1.E 



ENGINEERING FEATURES OF 
CIVIL DEFENCE 



J. E. ARMSTRONG. 

P. E. ADAMS 

J. N. ANDERSON 

8. R. BANKS 

H. F. BENNETT 

W. D. BRACKEN 

W. P. BRERETON 

J. M. DAVIDSON 

R. S. EADIE 

E. V. GAGE 

L. GAGNON 

G. A. GAHERTY 

R. J. GIBB 

A. GRAY 

J. GRIEVE 



Chairman 

J. L. LANG 
R. F. LEGGET 
I. P. MACNAB 
J-. A. McCRORY 
H. J. McEWEN 
C. B. MUIR 
W. H. MUNRO 
G. McL. PITTS 
C. J. PORTER 
M. G. SAUNDERS 
W. O. SCOTT 
T. G. TYRER 
H. K. WYMAN 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

WILLS MACLACHLAN, Chairman 
E. A. ALLCUT 
J. C. CAMERON 

E. R. COMPLIN 
J. A. COOTE 

W. O. CUDWORTH 

F. W. GRAY A. M. REID 

E. G. HEWSON W. J. W. REID 

POST-WAR PROBLEMS 

W.C.MILLER, Chairman G. R. LANGLEY 



F. ALPORT 
J. S. BATES 
deGASPE BEAUBIEN 
A. L. CARRUTHERS 
J. M. FLEMING 
E. R. JACOBSEN 



H. MASSUE 

g. L. Mackenzie 

D. A. R. McCANNEL 
A. W. F. McQUEEN 
G. McL. PITTS 
D. C. TENNANT 



LIST OF INSTITUTE MEDALS AND PRIZES 



Sir John Kennedy Medal For outstanding merit or note- 
worthy contribution to sci- 
ence of engineering, or to 
benefit of the Institute. 

Julian C. Smith Medal For achievement in the de- 

_. »• i i i t» . velopment of Canada. 

Dnggan Medal and Prize Medal and cash to 

value of $100. .. .For paper on constructional 
engineering involving the use 
of metals for structural or 
mechanical purposes. 

Gzowski Medal Gold medal For a paper contributing to 

the literature of the profes- 
sion of civil engineering. 

Plummer Medal Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 



Leonard Medal . 



Students and Juniors . 



University Students. 



.Gold medal For a paper on a mining sub- 
ject, open to members of the 
Canadian Institute of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy as well 
as The Engineering Institute. 

. Books to the value 

of S2"> (5 prizes) . . For papers on any subject pre- 
sented by .Student or Junior 
members. 



. $25 in cash ( 1 1 

prizes) 



For the third year student in 
each college, making the best 
showing in college work 
and activities in student or 
local branch of engineering 
society. 



56 



February 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



A. H. PASK 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, G. G. HENDERSON 
Viee-Chair., J. B. DOWLER 
Executive, J. F. BLOWEY 

A. H. MacQUARRIE 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 
H. L. JOHNSTON 
See. -Treat., W. R. STICKNEY, 

1614 Ontario Street, 
Walkerville, Ont. 
CALGARY 

Chairman, H. J. McEWEN 
Vice-Chair., J. G. MacGREGOR 
Executive, J. N. FORD 
A. GRIFFIN 
H. B. SHERMAN 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
S. G. COULTIS 
J. B. deHART 
P. F. PEELE 
Sec-Treat., K. W. MITCHELL, 

803— 17th Ave. N.W.. 
Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

(Ex-Offieio), F. W. GRAY 

Sec-Treat.. S C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave , Sydney, N.S. 
EDMONTON 

Chairman, D. HUTCHISON 
Vice-Chair., C. W. CARRY 
Executive, B. W. PITFIELD 
E. R. T. SKARIN 
J. A. ALLAN 
E. ROBERTSON 
J. W. JUDGE 
(Ex-Officio), J. GARRETT 

R. M. HARDY 
Sec-Treat., F. R. BURFIELD, 

Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec. -Treat., 



HAMILTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Offieio) 
Sec. Treat., 



A. E. FLYNN 

G. T. CLARKE D. C. V. DUFF 

G. J. CURRIE L. E. MITCHELL 

J. D. FRASER P. A. LOVETT 

J. W. MacDONALD 

G. T. MEDFORTH 

J. E. CLARKE 

R. B. STEWART 

K. L. DAWSON 

J. R. KAYE 

S. W. GRAY, 

Wartime Bureau of Technical' 
Personnel, 84 Hollis Street, 
Halifax, N.S. 

T. S. GLOVER 
H. A. COOCH 
C. H. HUTTON 
R. J. G. SCHOFIELD 
NORMAN EAGER 
A. H. WINGFIELD 
W. J. W. REID 
STANLEY SHUPE 
A. R. HANNAFORD 
W. E. BROWN, 

427 Concession Street, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



K. M. WINSLOW 
S. D. LASH 
W. F. NOONAN 
J. R. CARTER 
T D LEE 
(Ex-Officio), T. A. McGINNIS 

D. S. ELLIS 
Sec. Treat., R. A. LOW, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 
Viet-Chair., E. J. DAVIES 
Executive, J. I. CARMICHAEL 
R. B. CHANDLER 
S. E. FLOOK 
O. J. KOREEN 
S. T. McCAVOUR 
W. H. SMALL 

E. A. KELLY 
J. S. WILSON 

(Ex-Officio), B. A. CULPEPER 

J. M. FLEMING 
Sec. Treat., W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, 3. M. DAVIDSON 

Vice-Chair.,C. S. DONALDSON 

Executive, A. G. DONALDSON G. S. BROWN 

N. H. BRADLEY 
(Ex-Officio), J. HAÏMES 
Sec-Treat., R. B. McKENZIE, 

McKenzie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec-Treat., 



MONCTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec Treat., 



F. T. JULIAN 

T. L. McMANAMNA 

F. C. BALL 

V. A. McKILLOP 

H. F. BENNETT 

A. L. FURANNA 

R. S. CHARLES 

R. W. GARRETT 

J. A. VANCE 

H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 
London, Ont. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



H. J. CRUDGE 
J. A. GODFREY 
A. S. DONALD 

E. R. EVANS 
H. W. HOLE 

F. O. CONDON 

G. L. DICKSON 
V. C. BLACKETT 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., 

Moncton, N.B 



E. B. MARTIN 
G. C. TORRENS 

H. W. McKIEL 



J. A. LALONDE 

R. S. EADIE 

R. E. HEARTZ 

J. B. STIRLING 

J. M. CRAWFORD 

J. COMEAU 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

R. C. FLITTON 

G. D. HULME 
(Ex-Officio), deG. BEAUBIEN 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 

J. G. HALL 

W. G. HUNT 

C. K. McLEOD 

G. McL. PITTS 
Sec-Treat., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 

Outremont, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. G. CLINE 



G. E. GRIFFITHS 
A. G. HERR 
R. T. SAWLE 
G. F. VOLLMER 
W. D. BRACKEN 
J. W. BROOKS 
J. H. TUCK 
D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 
(Ex-Officio), A. L. McPHAIL 

A. W. F. McQUEEN 
.1. H. INGS 

1870 Ferry Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 



Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



Sec-Treat. 



OTTAWA 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



G. H. FERGUSON 

W. H. G. FLAY 

G. A. LINDSAY 

R. YUILL 

W. H. B. BEVAN 

J. H. BYRNE 
(Ex-Officio), T. A. McELHANNEY 

K. M. CAMERON 

N. B. MacROSTIE 
Sec. Treat., A. A. SWINNERTON 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, D. J. EMERY 

Executive, C. R. WHITTEMORE F. R. POPE 
I. F. McRAE R. L. DOBBIN 

A. J. GIRDWOOD 
(Ex-Officio), J. CAMERON 

H. R. SILLS 
Sec-Treat., A. R. JONES, 

5, Anne Street, 

Peterborough, Ont. 



QUEBEC 

Life Hon.- 

Chair., 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



A. R. DÉCARY 
RENE DUPUIS 
E. D. GRAY-DONALD 
S. PICARD G. ST-JACQUES 
L. GAGNON A. E. PARÉ 

G. W. WADDINGTON Y. R. TASSÉ 
(Ex-Officio). B.. CIMON 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
P. MÉTHÉ 
L. C. DUPUIS 
Sec-Treat., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bides.. 
Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, R. H. RIMMER 
Vice-Chair., C. MILLER 
Executive, W. E. COOPER 
J. FRISCH 

B. BAUMAN 
G. B. MOXON 

(Ex-Officio), M. G. SAUNDERS 
N. F. McCAGHEY 
J. W. WARD 
Sec-Treat., ALEX. T. CAIRNCROSS, 
P.O. Box 33, 

Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, D. R. SMITH 
Vice-Chair., A. O. WOLFF 
Executive, H. P. LINGLEY 

c. d. McAllister 

C C. KIRBY 
(Ex-Officio), F. A. PATRIQUEN 
V. S. CHESNUT 
G. G. MURDOCH 
Sec-Treat., G. W. GRIFFIN 
P.O. Box 220, 

Saint John, 



N.B. 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



R. D. PACKARD 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, VIGGO JEPSEN 
, J. H. FREGEAU 

E. BUTLER 

A. C. ABBOTT 

R. DORION 

H. J. WARD 

E. T. BUCHANAN 

J. JOYAL 

H. G. TIMMIS 
(Ex-Officio), A. H. HEATLEY 
Acting 
Sec.-Treas., VIGGO JEPSEN, 

Consolidated Paper Corporation, 
Grand'Mère, Que. 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, A. P. LINTON 
Vice-Chair., A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 
Executive, F. C. DEMPSEY 

n b. hutcheon 
j. g. schaeffer 
r. w. jickling 
h. r. Mackenzie 
b. russell 

(Ex-Officio). I. M. FRASER 
Sec-Treat., STEWART YOUNG 
P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask. 

SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, N. C. COWIE 
Vice-Chair., A. M. WILSON 
Executive, C. O. MADDOCK 

C. R. MURDOCK 

G. W. MacLEOD 

K. G. ROSS 

H. W. SUTCLIFFE 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 

L. R. BROWN 
Sec. Treat., O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road. 

TORONTO 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



Vf. S. WILSON 

W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 

D. FORGAN 
R. F. LEGGET 
S. R. FROST 
F. J. BLAIR 

E. G. HEWSON 
C. F. MORRISON 

(Ex-Officio), C. R. YOUNG T. H. HOGQ 

A. E. BERRY N. MacNICOL 

H. E. BRANDON J. J. SPENCE 
Sec.-Treat., S. H. deJONG 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 

VANCOUVER 

Chairman, W. N. KELLY 

Vice-Chair., T. V. BERRY 

Executive, J. P. FRASER H. P. ARCHIBALD 
R. E. POTTER I. C. BARLTROP 
E. S. JONES H. J. MacLEOD 

(Ex-Officio), W. O. SCOTT 

H. N. MACPHERSON 

Sec.-Treat., P. B. STROYAN, 

2099 Beach Avenue, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



KENNETH REID 
A. L. FORD 
H. L. SHERWOOD 
A. N. ANDERSON 
F. C. GREEN 
J. H. BLAKE 

(Ex-Officio), A. L. CARRUTHERS 
E. W. IZARD 
A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 

Sec. Treat., R. BOWERING, 

41 Gorge Road West, 
Victoria, B.C. 



WINNIPFG 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treat., 



D. M. STEPHENS 
J. T. DYMENT 

C. V. ANTENBRING 
N. M. HALL 
T. H. KIRBY 

E. W. R. BUTLER 
H. B. BREHAUT 
J. W. SANGER 

V. MICHIE 
C. P. HALTALIN 
THOMAS. E. STOREY. 
55 Princess Street, 

Winnipeg, Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



57 



FABRICATION OF LAMINATED TIMBER MEMBERS 

Principles Employed in Design and Manufacture of Built-Up Units 

VERNE KETCHUM, M.Am.soo.c.E. 

Chief Engineer, Ti?nber Structures, Inc., Portland, Ore., U.S.A. 

Paper presented at Fall Meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, held jointly with the Engineering Institute 

of Canada, at Niagara Falls, Ont., on October 15, 1942 



SUMMARY — Wooden beams with spans as great as 70 ft., and 
wooden trusses as long as 200 ft. are now possible through the 
use of glued laminated construction. One of the pioneers in 
this field, Mr. Ketchum, has promoted the development of 
commercial procedures that permit the economical use of 
smaller lumber sizes for the building of larger structures. 

Use of laminated timber in construction has increased 
steadily during the last few years. Especially during 1942, 
with the shortage of structural steel, the rate of increase 
has been greatly accelerated. Although lumber in various 
forms has to a large extent taken the place of steel for 
trusses and building frames, even in steel shop plants, the 
design and manufacture of laminated members and struc- 
tures is subject to daily developments and improvements, 
and many new designs and details will be tested and used. 
However, some general information on fabrication processes 
has been established and can be given. 

The basic principle in this type of construction is the 
combination of lumber, adhesives, and other materials to 
secure a structurally adequate product at a low price. It 
is not the aim to produce the most excellent structure that 
can be made, as that would entail a waste of materials, 
plant, and man-power. The aim is rather to secure reason- 
able strength by the most economical means. 

For instance, where joints in the laminations are outside 
the section of maximum stress, butt joints are generally 
used because, though not the strongest type of joint, they 
are sufficiently strong in this position. It is a waste of 
lumber, glue, labour, and plant to furnish scarf joints which 
give 100 per cent strength when this full strength is not 
required. 

Laminated construction using dry lumber has the dis- 
tinct advantage of producing a member that will not check, 
warp, or distort after it has been put in place. The lumber 
is dried in small sizes, providing a better member in a 
much shorter time. Also, laminated members can have 
their sizes increased at the critical sections without increas- 
ing the size of the entire piece. With this type of construc- 
tion, curved, cambered, or tapered members, which are 
pleasing to the eye, can be economically molded or shaped 
to the design size. These have been used extensively for 
curved and straight chords in trusses, for two-hinged and 
three-hinged arches, and for beams and columns. 

It is now possible to construct beams of 70-ft. span, 
wood trusses 200 ft. long, and wood arches 200 ft. or more 
in span, using glued laminated construction. Columns can 
be built to take care of combined vertical loads and bending 
stresses and can be provided with corbels or enlarged ends. 

The bowstring has long been considered one of the most 
economical types of trusses. Prior to the extensive use of 
laminated construction, it was necessary to build up the 
curved top chord at the site using 1 or 2-in. pieces and 
spiking or bolting them together to the desired curvature. 
Overlapped segmental pieces which had the top side band- 
sawed to the desired curve were also used. The top chords 
of these trusses may now be built up using glued laminated 
construction, which gives the strength and appearance of a 
single solid piece. 

Standard Lumber Sizes Used 

To-day, nearly all laminated construction utilizes either 
Douglas fir, yellow pine, or hemlock. These species are the 
most plentiful of those suitable for such construction. The 
sizes of lumber used depend largely on whether the finished 



member is to be straight or curved. It is not practical to 
dry lumber for this purpose in thicknesses greater than the 
standard 2-in. commercial plank and this is the most 
economical thickness. Practical experience has shown that 
the thickness of a lamination should not be more than 1/150 
of the radius of curvature. Such pieces bend readily and 
do not build up high initial stresses. Lumber of almost any 
width and length can be used provided that the lateral and 
horizontal splices are properly staggered and jointed. 

Lumber used in laminated construction may be Dense 
Select Structural or lower grades. A very large percentage 
at the present time is No. 1 common lumber with a slope 
of grain of 1 to 10, conforming to Paragraph 215 of "Stan- 
dard Grading and Dressing Rules" authorizing the use of a 
stress grade of 1,200 lb. per sq. in. This classification is for 
ordinary solid lumber cut green and air-dried under ordinary 
conditions. 

The Douglas Fir Cse Book states: "In dimensions sizes 
4 in. and less in thickness, the development of defects 
during seasoning does not offset the increase in strength 
from drying as much as in larger sizes, and in these sizes 
used in dry locations, working stresses in extreme fiber in 
bending and compression parallel to grain are increased 
proportionately from equal grades of larger timbers." 

This condition applies to practically all laminated con- 
struction since the requirement here is for small sizes of 
dry lumber. It would seem, therefore, that the use of the 
next higher stress grade or an increase to 1,400 lb. per 
sq. in. for laminated lumber under Paragraph 215 would 
be fully justified. The values given in Table I are those 
used and recommended by Timber Structures, Inc., of 
Portland, Ore. 

Table I 

Values in Pounds per Scuare Inch, for No. 1 Common 
Douglas Fir According to Paragraph 215 

Solid— No 
Guarantee on 

Moisture Laminated Dry 

Content Gluing Stock 

Bending compression 1,200 1,400 

Direct compression 1,000 1,100 

Compression across grain 325 325 

Horizontal shear 120 120 

Modulus of elasticity ..;....'. 1,600,000 1,600,000 

We recommend that the values for other stress grades 
be increased accordingly. On Government work specifi- 
cations allowing much higher stresses for the duration of 
the war emergency are now being used. 

Moisture Content of Lumber 

For wood used in casein laminated construction, the 
moisture content may be from 10 to 20 per cent, and no 
close control of this content is necessary to produce good 
work. A moisture content from 10 to 15 per cent is ordin- 
arily the most suitable. The moisture content of the lumber 
should be close to what it will attain in the actual structure 
to avoid a tendency for the glue joint to work during the 
seasoning process. It has been found that wood under cover 
in various parts of the United States will, under ordinary 
conditions, eventually reach a moisture content of from 8 to 
15 per cent. Timber attains its maximum expansion at :i 
moisture content of 28 to 30 per cent, and a greater content 
does not change the shape or size of the piece. 

Two general types of glue are used in ordinary laminated 
construction — waterproof resin glue and water-resistant 



58 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



casein glue. The resin glue, while being as cheap per pound 
as the casein, and requiring less glue per unit of area, has 
other disadvantages which have cut down its use. It 
requires an operation temperature of over 70 deg. F., a 
higher finish than is found on commercial lumber, more 
care in spreading, higher pressures, and much more care in 
all other operations of manufacture. These requirements 
restrict resin gluing to work done by experts in temperature- 
controlled factories and prohibit its use at building sites. 

Casein glue is now used almost entirely for ordinary 
construction. It is sold in powder form, usually in barrels, 
and must be stored in a dry place. One pound of the powder 
is usually mixed with two pounds of cold water to form 
from 13^ to 2 quarts of glue mixture, which will cover 
about 35 sq. ft. of surface. Small gluing operations can be 
done with a standard 12-quart pail but large ones require a 
mechanical mixer. In small operations the glue may be 
applied to the lumber using a 3-in. brush or larger, made 
of stiff vegetable fibers which will withstand the alkaline 
action of the glue and retain sufficient stiffness for efficient 
spreading. On large operations it is almost necessary to 
have a mechanical spreader. It will also be necessary to 
have a number of strong clamps for applying pressure. A 
sufficient number of clamps will have to be used to allow 
them to remain on the finished pieces until the glue has 
properly set. 

Mixing of casein glue is usually done in a large tank by 
mechanical means and should be under the control of one 
man only per shift. The glue powder should be added slowly 
to the water and mixed for some 3 to 5 minutes until the 
mass thickens. The mixer should then be stopped and the 
mass allowed to rest for 15 minutes. After this period it 
should be again mixed for 2 to 3 minutes until the glue 
smooths out like heavy cream, ready for use. 

Casein glue remains liquid and usable for a period of 6 
to 8 hours at 70 deg. F., and 4 to 6 hours at 90 deg. F., but 
it gradually thickens into a rubbery mass which must be 
discarded. Therefore, only enough should be mixed at one 
time for one working shift. 

Mechanical Application of Glue 

Glue is spread on the lumber with one of the standard 
types of spreaders which have been in use in various mill 
working plants for years. The spreader consists of sets of 
motor-driven rolls which revolve in a tank of glue and 
apply the glue to the board as it passes between the rolls. 
The rolls, being corrugated and under light pressure, apply 
a thin film to one or both sides of the board, as required. 
Depending on assembly time, moisture content of wood, 
and working temperature, sufficient glue should be applied 
so that the film will be moist when the pressure is applied. 
An ordinary lumber carrier can be used to move up the 
raw materials and to take away the finished product. 

The working temperature for casein gluing may be any- 
where above 50 deg. F., either for indoor or outdoor work. 
The glue and the lumber should be about the same tem- 
perature, and the water should be between 60 and 75 deg. F. 

After the glue has been applied and the lamination put 
in place, it is necessary to apply pressure to the member. 
This may be done by either of two methods. The first 
consists of driving nails long enough to extend through at 
least two full laminations. Sufficient nails should be used so 
that for each 8 sq. in. of glued joint, there is at least one 
nail passing through a lamination on each side of the joint. 
For example, when laminating boards 2 in. thick, there 
should be one 20d nail head for each 8 sq. in., or one 60d 
nail head for each 16 sq. in. The other method of applying 
pressure consists of the use of standard clamps, which may 
consist of a commercial type of C-clamp or a homemade 
clamp using angles and bolts. Where laminated work is 
manufactured in a shop, the usual practice is to use nails 
only to hold down the ends of pieces, and to employ clamps 
for all the rest of the work. At the building site, where 
clamping equipment is not often available, nails are used 



entirely, as this method lends itself readily to use by 
inexperienced workmen with meager equipment. Practice 
has shown that it is better to use clamps throughout, even 
on the ends of pieces, than to use nails. It is the opinion 
of experienced manufacturers that the nailing method is 
inadequate to develop the pressures necessary for good 
work. 

The pressure on glued joints should range from not less 
than 100 lb. per sq. in. to not more than 200, and should 
be applied by the use of jacks, clamps, or other equipment. 
Pressure should be applied within 20 minutes after the 
glue is spread on the lumber if it is applied to both faces 
meeting at a joint. If the glue is applied to one face only, 
the pressure should be applied within 15 minutes and should 
be maintained for at least 12 hours after the addition of 
the last lamination. As a general rule, the pressure should 
remain on the finished piece from 6 to 12 hours, depending 
on the moisture content of the wood and the temperature 
of the operation. 

Several Types of Joints Used 

Scarfed joints may be formed in several ways, either by 
using a straight tapered bevel for both ends of the jointed 
members or by using various combinations of daps and 
bevels. Tests made by some authorities have indicated that 
a scarf with a straight bevel from 1:8 to 1:15, depending 
on the kind of wood used, will produce a full-strength 
scarf. It is recommended that a standard of 1 :12 be adopted. 
Four types of joints are shown in Fig. 1. 



&UTT . 



s-cAKr 




/-/OOKSO S-ÇAKF. 



HOOKED SCARF . 




Fig. 1 — Four types of joints for laminated members. 

The location of scarf joints in compression members is 
not very important, and providing the two ends are in 
bearing no loss in strength results. A good bearing between 
butt joints, however, is very hard to obtain. For members 
in tension, such as the bottom chords of trusses or the 
tension side of beams, either the laminations must be 
scarfed and glued to full strength, or the loss of strength 
in the lamination must be taken into account in the design. 

It is apparent that the laminations of beams which are 
spliced in areas of no tension can be butt-jointed without 
loss of design strength. Similarly, in areas of small tension, 
some laminations can be butt-jointed. In areas of high or 
full tension stress, however, lamination splices should be 
scarfed for full design strength. By careful arrangement, it 
would seem that in most cases all laminations could be 
butt-jointed and such joints located outside the areas of 
high tension. While the locations mentioned are more or 
less arbitrary, it should be recalled that nearly all beams 
are designed by arbitrary methods, and lamination splices 
may be considered in the same way. 

A consideration of the distribution of stress through a 
beam will show that a lamination near the quarter point 
of the depth of the beam has a working value of only 
about }/$ that of a lamination at the top of the beam, and 
a lamination at the center has practically no working 
value in tension or compression at all. It is thus apparent 
that a lamination in the middle of the beam may be com- 
posed of lumber having a lower stress grade, or may be 
butt-jointed with a relatively small loss of strength to the 
beam. 

Since the maximum bending moment in a beam under 
static load occurs at one point only, the full design strength 
is required only at that point. In a beam of uniform section 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



59 



there is a reserve of strength in all other parts. Speaking 
now only of bending moments, we find that the full strength 
of a lamination in tension is required in only one lamination 
at only one point, and that is the extreme lamination on 
the tension side at the point of maximum bending moment. 
The reserve of strength in the remainder of the beam may 
be taken into account when considering splices and the 
stress grade of lumber to be used. Of course the stress 
grade of the timber will also have to be considered for the 
lamination under extreme compression at the point of 
maximum bending moment. 

Authorities recommend that unscarfed joints be not 
closer together longitudinally than 40 times the thickness 
of the lamination so that there will be sufficient length for 
the proper transfer of the stress around the joint. It is 
also recommended that scarfed joints be placed not closer 
together than 25 times the thickness. Wherever possible, 
the outer lamination should be in one piece, but if not, 
at least it should extend in one piece across the section of 
maximum stress, as it is very difficult for the full stresses 
in the outer lamination to be transferred around a splice. 
All joints in curved members should be scarfed, as other- 
wise it is almost impossible to hold the jointed ends in 
position to form a satisfactory member. Some manufac- 
turers scarf-splice all laminations in advance of assembly. 
First, the ends of the boards are scarfed and glued to form 
a lamination the full length of the member. When dry, 
this lamination is run through a planer to bring the scarfed 
joint to the same thickness as the remainder of the lamin- 
ation. This planing is usually necessary as the ends of 
scarfed joints tend to "ride up" on each other, producing a 
thickening in the splice. Such a splice, if placed in the 
member without planing, would produce a bulge and 
adjoining opening. These laminations may then, of course, 
be treated the same as a full-length lamination without 




Fig. 2 — Laminated arches provide a simple but sturdy frame for 
an army camp chapel. 



scarfs and can be assembled into the member to produce 
a very satisfactory although more costly unit. 

Thus two methods are available — the pre-glued scarf 
lamination just described, and the method of placing all 
the laminations directly in the member and gluing all the 
boards and joints in one operation. The choice between 
these two methods may well be based on the type, cost, 
and quality of the structure. Some successful manufac- 
turers use the plain pre-glued and planed scarf -joint type 
throughout in preference to the butt or stepped scarf joint 
and maintain that they are thus able to produce a better 
product at little or no additional cost. 

Many designers have insisted that steel stitch bolts be 
placed at short intervals through glued laminated members 
to help hold them together. These bolts are apparently 
intended to bolster up the strength of the glue for fear it 
will fail after the structure has been put together. We 
believe that glued, laminated construction as built during 
the last few years has given such satisfactory results that 
this lack of faith in glue is entirely unwarranted. 

It is very hard to hold the extreme end of a lamination 
to a predetermined curve, and curved members will tend 
to straighten out slightly when the clamps and forms are 
removed. This springback is not great, but may sometimes 
be 34 or IM? m - m a 40 or 50-ft. truss chord. It seems to 
require some experience to forecast the amount of this 
springback, which can only be prevented by slightly dis- 
torting the curve, that is, by slightly accentuating it at 
the ends, from a point 3 or 4 ft. back. 

Preparation of Lumber for Gluing 

All surfaces to be joined by gluing should be finished or 
machined; rough lumber should not be used. With casein 
glue, the ordinary finish such as is found on commercial 
2-by-4's and 2-by-6's is satisfactory. The lumber to be used 
should be free of grease, dust, and dirt. To produce a 
good finish on the assembled member, exposed surfaces 
may be planed or sanded. Such finishing may be done as 
soon as the glue has hardened. An ordinary floor sander 
has been used for this work. Where it is intended to plane 
or sand the finished top chord of trusses or other members, 
the changed dimension should be considered in the design 
and in the detailing of any adjoining connections. For 
example, a top chord built up out of 2-by-6's would have 
a lateral dimension of 5J^ in. assembled, but after planing 
it would be cut down to approximately 53/g in. 

From experience to date, it seems safe to assume that 
casein-glued laminated construction will last as long as 
solid wooden members of any but the more durable species 
or treated material. The longest experience for glued pre- 
fabricated construction in the United States is about six 
years, and 30 years for built-in-place structures. The 
characteristics of casein glue render it unsuited for use in 
members in contact with damp earth or where the moisture 
content of the wood may repeatedly exceed 20 per cent. 
Properly made glued joints on all woods commercially used 
for construction framing have a shear strength of 3,000 lb. 
per sq. in. This means that under extreme strain breakage 
would be in the wood rather than in the glued joint. Test 
pieces used by the glue manufacturers must be made of 
hard maple in order to secure any breakage in the joint. 

Fireproofing treatments consist of impregnating the 
wood with various salts and compounds under pressure in 
sealed cylinders. During the treatment the moisture con- 
tent is increased to between 60 and 75 per cent under a 
pressure of 100 to 160 lb., and the temperature is 125 to 
175 deg. F. Glue manufacturers claim that casein-glue 
joints will maintain 100 per cent joint value during any 
known fireproof treatment but that casein glue cannot be 
applied to lumber that has previously been fireproof ed. 
Laminated members using resin glue will not stand up 
under fireproof treatment, but resin glue can be applied to 
lumber that has previously been fireproofed. 

Glued-up laminated members using resin glue cannot 



60 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



later be treated by the Wolmanizing process of preservative 
treatment, but finished members using casein glue can 
later be treated by this process. Casein glue cannot be used 
on laminations that have been treated by the Wolmanizing 
process, but resin glue can be. Laminated built-up memb ers 
can receive preservative treatments using a creosote base, 
but laminations that have been treated with a creosote 
material cannot be later glued either by resin or by casein glue. 

At present, laminated construction is somewhat more 
costly than solid construction. Quotations for some recent 
jobs would indicate that the construction costs of laminated 
material delivered to the job were about 35 per cent higher, 
per thousand board-feet, than those for solid construction. 
The laminated construction gives a superior product and 
often this higher cost is justified. Also, laminated con- 
struction often permits the construction of larger structures 
and longer spans than would otherwise be feasible. Con- 
necting hardware, ironwork, assembly, erection, engineer- 
ing, and general overhead would be the same for both types 
of construction. 

Where members are glued up at the site, they may be 
finished to any size which can be erected by the available 
equipment. Where they are built at a shop, at a distance 
from the site, splices must be used so that the pieces can 
be transported. It is usually not practical to transport 
pieces larger than 8 by 40 ft. on railroad cars, and highways 
have overhead clearances and legal restrictions that must 
be considered. 

Laminated construction requires the very minimum of 
bolts, connectors, washers, and other steel items, and 
often avoids the use of steel entirely except for anchorage 
details. While laminated construction is relatively new in 
this country, the design follows old established principles, 
and the proper manufacture can be easily and quickly 




Fig. 3 — Fabrication of a truss web member in the shop. Note 

that one end is giving a square cut and the other end a bevel cut 

at the same time. 

learned by men experienced in other lines of building 
construction. Both laboratory and field tests give conclusive 
proof of the usefulness and durability of this type of con- 
struction, and conservative owners and engineers should 
not hesitate to use this valuable material. 

Further progress in the manufacture of glues, and the 
development and simplification of fabrication processes for 
laminated members are continually improving this product 
and reducing its costs. 



NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL SERVES WAR DEPARTMENTS 



Scientific research in Canada during the past three years 
has been directed almost wholly to the solution of new and 
urgent problems arising out of the war. The National 
Research Council is serving as a central co-ordinating body 
directing research within its own laboratories and in the 
universities and industry. The Council has been appointed 
the official research station of the Navy, Army and Air 
Force in Canada. The close co-operation between Service 
personnel and research staff thus made possible has been 
a large factor in promoting the application of science to 
military problems. 

FOR THE NAVY 

Scientific problems arising in connection with the work 
of the Navy are studied jointly by officers from Naval 
Headquarters and civilian personnel on the Council's staff. 
Decisions can thus be taken promptly and work started 
without delay. The National Research Council maintains 
civilian scientific groups at several points on both the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts who work in the closest co- 
operation with the Naval stations. A sizeable group is also 
located in Ottawa and contact is maintained with similar 
research stations in the Unitedl States and Great Britain. 

Many of the problems presented relate to the supply of 
materials and the preparation of specifications. Highly tech- 
nical problems have arisen from anti-submarine warfare and 
minesweeping operations. Several sections of the Division 
of Physics and Electrical Engineering are concerned almost 
exclusively with research and development programmes for 
the Royal Canadian Navy. In the electrical engineering 
section a shock and vibration machine based on standard 
British Admiralty design has been installed. The specifica- 
tions for building the machine were modified to permit the 
use of Canadian materials. This machine is used for testing 
resistance to shock of various electrical equipment, such as 
switches, rheostats, junction boxes, lighting fixtures used 



by Navy and merchant ships. From the results obtained, 
specifications for all electrical equipment for the purposes 
enumerated are being developed as required. Problems in- 
vestigated in the electrical engineering section have included 
studies of gear for magnetic minesweeping. A rocking 
machine to simulate the rolling of a boat has been con- 
structed and tests of various instruments have been made 
on this unit. 

In the Division of Chemistry many problems of interest 
to the Navy have been investigated. Work on paints, rub- 
ber, low-alloy high-strength steels and aluminum alloys, 
and sea-water resistance of various coatings and inhibition 
of corrosion of various metals by chemicals may be men- 
tioned. In the Division of Mechanical Engineering likewise, 
the several laboratories are engaged on numerous problems 
for the Navy, notably in matters relating to engines and 
their lubrication, the design and test of boats of various 
types. 

FOR THE ARMY 

For the Army and also for the other Services all kinds of 
supplies have had to be tested to determine whether they 
are acceptable according to required military standards. 
Apparatus has been developed and constructed for work 
in ballistics on an increasing scale. Measuring equipment 
for munition proof and gun proof has been developed and 
is in continuous service at proving grounds. Problems on 
the direction of gun-fire have been attacked with success. 
Numerous tests have also been made on the armouring 
properties of various materials and work is in progress on 
the improvement of anti-aircraft projectiles. 

An important war service was rendered in 1939 by pro- 
moting the development in Canada of optical glass manu- 
facture for the production of precise optical parts 
for military equipment. The project is now being carried 
forward in production by a Government-owned company. 
(Continued on page 108) 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



61 



ELECTRIC ARC WELDING 

W. R. STICKNEY, m.e.i.c. 
Welding Engineer, The Canadian Bridge Co., Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. 

Paper delivered before the Border Cities Branch of the Engineering Institute of Canada 

on November 27th, 1942 



Introduction 

It is not necessary to cite examples or give statistics to 
show the rapid increase in the use of metallic arc welding 
during recent years. This process is no longer a convenient 
or makeshift method of making repairs or fastening unim- 
portant parts in place but has become the preferable, and 
in many cases the only satisfactory means of joining parts 
of important structures. Whereas the last Great War stimu- 
lated the use of welding in repair work, this war sees arc 
welding as perhaps the most important "victory tool" in 
history. The modern fighter planes and flying fortresses 
could not be built without it; the speed records we have 
seen established for fabricating cargo vessels and warships, 
the rapid production of military vehicles, tanks, guns and 
shells — in all these fields and more arc welding has proved 
to be one of the major factors in the successful production 
of all vital war materials. 

This widespread use is due to improvement in the quality 
of weld metal made possible partly by better welding equip- 
ment, partly by the greater experience of engineers, oper- 
ators and supervisors, but primarily, as will be shown later, 
to the development of modern electrodes. 

Much of the following material has been abstracted from 
published papers and reports, and may serve to point out 
some of the outstanding features of present day metal arc 
welding practices, such as processes, electrodes, equipment, 
qualification and training of operators, preparation for 
welding, heat and mechanical problems, inspection and test- 
ing, and some recent developments. 

Welding Processes 

A weld may be defined as a localized consolidation of 
metals by a welding process, made with or without filler 
metal, for uniting like metals in order to transmit consider- 
able stress. The definition, however, includes subsidiary pro- 
cesses such as brazing and soldering, in which unlike metals 
are to be joined but whose products are not usually intended 
to transmit much stress. All welding processes require the 
application of heat, but some of them, for example forge 
and resistance welding, require the simultaneous application 
of pressure and heat. 

There are three major types of welding which do not 
require pressure, namely electric arc welding, thermit weld- 
ing and gas or. oxy-acetylene welding: as a group they are 
classed as fusion welding in specifications and codes gov- 
erning the fabrication of welded products and all have 
identical basic design requirements. In electric arc welding 
there are again three types of welding processes, — atomic 
hydrogen, carbon arc and metal arc. This paper will be 
confined to a discussion of the latter process. 

Metal arc welding consists of a localized progressive melt- 
ing and flowing together of adjacent edges of base metal 
parts by means of temperatures of approximately 10,000 
deg. F. from a sustained electric arc between an electrode 
and the base metal. The melting electrode furnishes the 
filler metal, the arc being maintained by manually or auto- 
matically feeding the melting electrode at a uniform rate 
toward the base metal. 'Weld metal' is, therefore, that por- 
tion of the base and filler metals which has been melted 
during the welding operation. 

When using direct current for welding, the heat developed 
at the positive terminal is greater than that developed at 
the negative terminal. Therefore, in view of the greater 
heat required to bring the base metal, .or work, to the 
welding temperature, it is customary to attach this to the 
positive terminal of the generator, and the electrode to the 



negative terminal; this is called straight polarity welding. 
Under certain conditions, as when welding thin material or 
using some types of coated electrodes, the connections are 
reversed, giving rise to the expression — "welding with re- 
versed polarity." 

Welding Rods and Electrodes 

The ideal weld is one having the same properties as the 
parts joined. Such a weld when made in any arc welding 
process can be obtained only by effectively protecting the 
molten filler metal from the oxidizing and nitrogenizing 
effects of air during the entire range of liquification and 
solidification. Originally, all metal arc welding was done 
with bare electrodes; then it was discovered that a thin 
coating of lime gave much greater stability of arc and ease 
of welding. Bare rods of this type are seldom used today, 
since the welds are quite brittle, show very little elongation 
and have a low ultimate tensile strength. This is because 
the molten metal, being exposed to the air when passing 
through the arc, readily forms iron oxide and iron nitride 
which are hard and brittle. The melting rate of a bare rod 
is also much less than that of the same size of coated 
electrode. 

The first covered electrode used was a bare rod wrapped 
in cardboard; the heat of the arc burned the cellulose pro- 
ducing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, both of which are 
splendid de-oxidizing agents, and resulting in a tougher and 
more ductile weld metal. Later on, mineral salts were used 
as a shielding medium and later still it was found that 
various minerals and their oxides added to the coating re- 
sulted in greatly improved properties in the weld metal. As 
a result of extensive development, the major functions of 
present day electrode coatings are as follows: to stabilize 
the arc, to protect, purify and refine the molten metal as 
well as control its viscosity, penetration, burn-off rate and 
hence speed of welding, to control the viscosity, surface 
tension, brittleness and porosity of the slag and therefore 
the type of bead or fillet deposited, and to add alloying 
ingredients to the deposited metal. The coatings are usually 
composed of a binder, a flux, a de-oxidizer, organic materials 
such as cellulose, and arc-stabilizing, slag and alloying in- 
gredients. They might be classified in three types: (1) or- 
ganic-coated or gas shielded, (2) organic and mineral coated 
or semi-slag shielded and (3) purely mineral coated or slag 
shielded. The gas shielded rods may be used for all positions 
of welding but will work on reverse polarity only; the semi- 
slag shielded rods can also be used in all positions especially 
where the fit-up is poor and will work equally well on either 
straight or reverse polarity. The slag-shielded electrode can 
be used only in the downhand or flat position, although there 
is one special type which has been developed for making 
horizontal fillet welds where the fit-up is good. 

While it is of lesser importance, it is essential that the 
wire core be of normalized grain structure as the specific 
resistance of mild steel in this condition is most suitable for 
purposes of metal arc welding. Lack of uniformity in the 
final heat treatment of the wire is often responsible for the 
erratic behaviour of electrodes whose coatings are processed 
under identical conditions. 

The importance of electrode coatings might be summed 
up by saying that no other development in welding has been 
as responsible for its widespread use today. Without them 
we could not have a.c. welding nor would it be possible to 
weld the high-tensile alloy steels. We could not obtain the 
speeds in welding now possible, nor could we effect the 
weight savings in the design of many structures and machines 



62 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



made possible by the joint efficiencies permissible when 
using covered electrodes. 

Equipment 

Sources of the electric arc are both direct and alternating- 
current. Motor driven generators are the commonest means 
of obtaining direct current, and for alternating current, 
either transformers, rotating motor generators, frequency 
changers or combinations of motor generators and frequency 
changers are generally used. There are two types of welding 
equipment — manual and automatic. 

Manual Arc Welding Equipment — The direct current gen- 
erators are of two kinds: (1) single or multiple operator, 
constant voltage generators, and (2) single operator, variable 
voltage generators. The first is a generator set which supplies 
a constant voltage to the welding system which in turn may 
supply one or a number of operators each of whom controls 
his welding current through an adjustable resistance. The 
second type delivers constant electrical energy to the weld- 
ing system: i.e. sudden increase in the arc voltage (which is 
dependent on arc length) causes a decrease in the welding 
current and vice versa; this self-regulating feature results 
in greater arc stability and enables operators to make con- 
sistently sound welds. Setting the machine for the desired 
current output is done by means of precalibrated dials or 
indicator plates. 

Welding machines which are built to N.E.M.A. standards 
can usually be depended on to give satisfactory perform- 
ances. In selecting the type, size and rating, the character 
of the work contemplated and the available source of prim- 
ary current should be considered. Multiple operator sets are 
advantageous where a large number of low-current arcs, at 
low operating factor (ratio of arc time to total time) are 
grouped in a limited area. Single operator sets are portable, 
and have greater independent adjustment and control of 
arc characteristics. 

Not so many years ago, a.c. welding was used to a very 
small extent and only on light work, because of the difficulty 
in maintaining an arc with bare electrodes. Since the devel- 
opment of special covered electrodes, however, a.c. welding 
processes have greatly increased, and now they are used on 
all types of work and are very popular in present day ship- 
building yards. 

Alternating current welding transformers should have a 
sufficiently high open circuit voltage to make the arc easy 
to strike but not too high to be dangerous and the method 
of current adjustment should be simple. Specially designed 
coatings on electrodes help to make the proper voltage pos- 
sible, and the current is controlled by varying either the 
resistance or the reactance of the circuit. One disadvantage 
of a welding transformer is that being single-phase it imposes 
an unbalanced load on a polyphase circuit ; if more than one 
transformer is used this may be compensated for to some 
extent by distributing them on different phases of the circuit. 

The motor generator a.c. welding sets are somewhat like 
d.c. motor generator sets in that their mechanical details 
are similar and they also supply constant electrical energy 
to the welding system. They are generally controlled by a 
variable reactance, however, and generate alternating cur- 
rent at the required welding voltage but at a much higher 
frequency which improves arc characteristics and stability. 
The chief advantage of the rotating a.c. welder is the fact 
that it does not create an unbalanced load on a polyphase 
circuit. 

There are many other relative merits and demerits of 
alternating and direct current welding equipment but one 
chief advantage of a.c. welding might be mentioned here. 
In making heavy welds on thick sections in restricted places 
and corners, using direct current the high currents changing 
direction around the weld cause magnetic forces to act on 
the welding arc and create what is called "arc blow." This 
results in an erratic arc causing blowholes and slag inclusions 
in the weld at the point of disturbance. Magnetic arc blow 
is greatly reduced if not entirely eliminated when using any 



a.c. welding equipment, and this feature has led to its wide- 
spread use in heavy welding industries. 

Automatic Arc Welding Equipment. — An automatic weld- 
ing head is a device for automatically striking and holding 
the arc between the electrode and the work to be welded. 
The success of any metallic arc welding operation is depen- 
dent on the maintenance of a uniform arc of proper length. 
In manual welding this is the duty of the operator, whose 
ability to hold a steady arc depends on his physical con- 
dition and degree of fatigue. Automatic welding equipments 
remove this variable and make it possible to obtain good 
sound welds even with an inexperienced welding operator. 

There are many methods in use for automatically feeding 
the arc and striking the electrode but all contain three 
essential parts: (1) a motor to feed the electrode, (2) a means 
of control to strike and maintain proper arc length, and 
(3) a means of conducting electric current to the electrode. 
In addition some means must be provided for either moving 
the welding head over the work or the work past the welding 
head at a steady, uniform rate. The current may be either 




Fig. 1 — Girders and columns for mill buildings fabricated by 
welding rolled plates. 

alternating or direct, and the electrodes for the majority of 
automatic machines are bare or lightly coated, some inde- 
pendent means of shielding the molten weld metal being- 
provided. The wire is usually fed into the machine from a 
coil, eliminating stops and stub ends of electrodes; then, too, 
much higher currents can be used resulting in greater speeds 
in welding. This type of welding machine, however, requires 
special precautions in preparation of the joints — a most 
accurate bevelling or grooving being necessary to secure 
good results. They are limited in application, and are still 
used mainly on production work or where there is a large 
quantity of long, straight seams to be welded. 

Training and Qualification of Operators 

As yet it is impossible to define the term "welder" or 
"welding operator." Any attempted definition or specifica- 
tion of the term would vary between one industry and an- 
other and even between individual plants in the same in- 
dustry. One plant may position all their arc-welding work 
and use large electrodes and alternating current. A first 
class operator with years of experience here would be of 
limited and perhaps no value on construction work or in a 
shipyard, where direct current may be used and a large 
part of the welding would be in the vertical and overhead 
position. Or, an operator may be highly skilled in welding 
thin sheet and have no training or experience in heavy plate 
fabrication or pipe welding. While many of the processes 
and their applications rest on the same fundamentals, a 
man trained only in those fundamentals has far to go before 
qualifying as a welding operator and being of value in 
any plant. 

Assuming, then, that an employer has developed definite 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



63 



job specifications, the important thing is to obtain, in the 
shortest time, an operator who can perform work to those 
specifications. This can be done either within the plant 
itself or by an outside welding school. 

When training is done in the plant, the employer selects the 
trainees, provides space, equipment, materials and instruc- 
tors, and all instructions and qualifications are arranged for 
the specific requirements of that plant. The trainee is first 
taught safety practices, then how to strike an arc and lay 
down a neat, sound bead. Then he learns to tack pieces 
together and make the easier types of welds, progressing to 
the more difficult ones, until in possibly four to six weeks 
he may be ready to start on the simpler forms of work in 
the shop. In the meantime he is taught some of the theory 
of welding, and if necessary for that particular plant, how 
to read welding symbols and blueprints. In from four to 
six months' time the average operator should be reasonably 
proficient in the use of the arc as a fabricating tool in 
that plant. 

Welding schools generally train a would-be operator dif- 
ferently, i.e. he gets no specialized training but general 
instructions in the fundamentals of various welding pro- 
cesses, both practical and theoretical and the observance 
of safety practices. Before such a man can be of value to 
any industry or workshop he must first undergo a period 
of further training with his employer. This period, of com se, 
should be much shorter than the time required when the 
operator is trained in the plant. 





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Fig. 2 — Positioner for all-welded ship, allowing downhand 
welding. 

In metal arc welding, the physical properties of the weld 
metal, such as tensile strength and ductility, will be deter- 
mined by the particular procedure of welding that is used. 
The reliability of the welded joint will be determined by 
the degree to which that weld metal is kept free of foreign 
materials and by the degree to which it is fused to the base 
material. Under a fixed procedure of welding these two 
latter factors are the only ones over which the welding 
operator has control. It is not considered necessary, there- 
fore, to test the welds of every operator for tensile strength 
and ductility. 

The first step in welding should be to adopt a procedure 
in which all essential variables are fixed within definite 
limits. This procedure should then be investigated to deter- 
mine whether it will produce welds with the desired physical 
properties. Having established that a given procedure is 
satisfactory, comparatively simple tests, intended primarily 
to determine the ability of an individual to make a sound 
weld, may then be used for the qualification of welding 
operators. 

Heat and Mechanical Problems 

The electric arc is particularly suitable as a source of 
energy for welding because the heat may be effectively 
concentrated on the surface of the metal being welded, and, 
in the case of the metal arc, the temperature is such as to 
boil the electrode away rapidly. 

One of the factors controlling temperatures during weld- 
ing is the dissipation of heat from the place where it is 
generated. Since the physical properties of solid steel are 
influenced by the maximum temperature of its liquid phase 
and the rate and manner of solidification, therefore, the 



manner in which cooling takes place will have a profound 
effect on the properties of the weld and adjacent metal. 
Characteristics inherited from these temperatures and cool- 
ing rates are only partly removed by later extensive mechan- 
ical and thermal treatment of the metal. Differences between 
weld metal and forged or cast metals are partly due to the 
high heat of fusion in welding and the rapid solidification 
rate which follows. 

The rate of cooling depends chiefly on convection, radia- 
tion and thermal conductivity. In thin sections the heat 
loss is chief!}' by convection and radiation, whereas in heavy 
sections it is mostly by thermal conductivity. Preheating is, 
therefore, often used for heavy sections where the welds 
are small in comparison to the mass of base metal in order 
to lower the cooling rate and to decrease the hardening and 
chilling effects on the heat affected zone. 

The most common and widely known effect of tempera- 
ture on metals is expansion on heating and contraction in 
cooling in all three directions, length, width and thickness. 
Since welding is a local operation and metal deposited in 
the arc is in a highly superheated molten state, the extent 
to which the base metal will be heated and cooled will be 
very limited and there will be little possibility of free ex- 
pansion and contraction. Because of this, a state of con- 
straint will be originated in all welded articles, and this 
constraint is conveniently expressed in terms of stresses. 
These stresses may or may not disappear when room tem- 
perature is reached, and those which remain are usually 
referred to as "locked up" or "residual" stresses due to 
welding. Heat input, however, is not always responsible for 
residual stresses since they readily result from machining 
and cold forming operations. Any process subsequently 
applied which results in a reduction or removal of such 
stresses is called stress-relieving. 

Residual stresses then, in Avelded work are introduced by 
the partial heating of the metal adjacent to the weld fol- 
lowed by irregular cooling. Their magnitude depends not 
only on the rate and sequence of welding, but chiefly on 
the rigidity or resistance to distortion of the surrounding 
parts. The cooling of mild steel welds from the molten state 
down to 600 deg. F. is accompanied by considerable yield- 
ing but below this temperature the residual stresses will 
develop rapidly; should they become sufficiently high to 
cause yielding of the structure or member, distortion will 
result, with a corresponding decrease in residual stress. 

In general, the more a structure distorts during or after 
welding, the less will be the residual stresses, but this does 
not necessarily mean that because the welded structure is 
not distorted it will have high residual stress. Proper joint 
design and preparation, symmetrical arrangement of welds 
about neutral axes of the member of structure and a care- 
fully planned sequence of welding will go a long way toward 
keeping both distortion and residual stress to a minimum. 

There is considerable evidence that residual stresses, 
whether induced by cold work or hot work, tend to distribute 
themselves in time and reduce in value particularly when 
subjected to external loading. In the majority of members 
of mild steel subject to gradually applied load stresses or to 
steady stresses, they are not of serious importance. In cases 
where the loads are suddenly applied or in members of 
high-strength steel, plastic deformation may not have time 
to develop so that high residual stresses may become serious. 
In such cases, stress relief either by heat treatment or static 
preloading is highly desirable. Metals which will be subject 
to low temperatures, members which are to be machined 
after welding and vessels subject to corrosion should all be 
stress relieved. 

The most common method of stress relief is by heat 
treatment. For mild steel, the yield point stress at 1,200 
deg. F. is reduced to 8,000 lb. per sq. in. or less, therefore, 
stresses above this amount will produce a flow in the steel 
and will be relieved. To do this it is necessary to heat the 
member slowly and uniformly in a suitable furnace, and 
hold it at the above temperature a sufficient time for plastic 



64 



February, 19-13 THK ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



flow to take place, after which it is allowed to cool gradually 
and uniformly. 

Other methods of stress relief are to peen the member or 
structure after welding or to slowly preload a structure be- 
fore it is placed in service. In Europe it is not uncommon to 
apply internal pressure to welded containers of uniform 
thickness until the yield point of the metal is reached. 

Joint Design and Preparation 

In the design of welded joints there are two general types 
of welds used, butt welds and fillet welds. These welds 
may be used in making many types of joints such as ordinary 
butt and fillet joints between parallel plates, tee joints be- 
tween plates joining each other at an angle, corner joints 
and lap joints. The proper selection between butt and fillet 
welds is of importance both from the standpoint of economy 
in fabrication and service life of the structure, but no set 
rule can be applied for selecting the proper type. 

Fillet welds, in general, require less preparation of the 
parts before welding because the parts may be lapped to- 
gether without spending a great deal of time in bevelling 
and preparing the plate edges. If the plates are lapped it 
is not essential that their dimensions be held to close 
tolerances. 

In joints where the plates are butted at right angles to 
each other it is necessary that the edge of the abutting plate 
be cut at right angles to the plate surface. This requires a 
single cutting operation with a shear, cutting torch or planer, 
but the prepared edge must be straight so that it will fit 
uniformly to the abutting plate. A space or gap between the 
two plates will reduce the effective size of the fillet welds 
and require the weld size to be increased by the amount of 
the gap, thus increasing the amount of weld material re- 
quired. 

Butt welds require a better fit of the parts to be joined 
and usually at least one of the plates is bevelled. For such 
welds in plates one quarter inch or less in thickness the 
edges are usually spaced about one eighth inch apart and 
are trimmed square. For plates over this thickness, the 
edges should be bevelled, either using a single vee, double 
vee, or U-type groove. 

The inherent shape of a fillet weld is such that it produces 
abrupt changes in contour of the sections it joins, and con- 
sequently develops points of stress concentration, which may 
have to be considered in cases of dynamic loading. Most 
butt welds, especially those with little or no reinforcement, 
on account of their form, do not possess characteristics 
which produce stress concentrations; however, for the same 
reason they generally produce greater residual stresses, be- 
cause greatest shrinkage takes place directly across the weld 
where the parts are not usually free to move. While the 
contraction in fillet welds is relatively the same, there is a 
possibility of a small movement occurring between the plates 
and in addition, the contraction is in such a direction it 
tends to bend or distort the parts thus lessening the residual 
stresses in them. 

In order to increase the speed of welding it is desirable 
to deposit weld metal in the downhand position with large 
diameter electrodes. Butt welds are ideal for this purpose 
and are generally preferred. Fillet welds are of such a nature 
that usually one fusion zone is in the vertical plane. This 
necessitates either the use of small diameter electrodes or 
the use of welding jigs, manipulators or positioners to turn 
the work and permit downhand welding. 

Another factor in connection with a selection between 
butt and fillet welds is that higher design stresses are often 
permitted for butt welds. The non-uniform stress distribu- 
tion in fillet welds often results in secondary bending stresses 
or moments and so the permissible stresses are usually lower 
than for butt welds. 

The preparation of the edges to be joined is of particular 
importance in welding. This procedure includes the prepar- 
ation of the edges so as to provide the best possible con- 
ditions for welding, the cleaning of the metal edges, and 



the making of allowances for expansion and contraction 
caused by heating and cooling. 

In preparing edges for tee joints and open, square butt 
welds, the plates should be cut so they will match accur- 
ately when assembled for welding. This cutting may be 
done either by mechanical means or by the oxyacetylene 
cutting blowpipe. For single and double vee butt welds 
the edges are bevelled by whatever economical means will 
produce the desired results, using flame cutting, edge plan- 
ing, chipping or grinding. U-grooves are usually made with 
either oxyacetylene gouging nozzles or by means of a spec- 
ially shaped tool on an edge planer. 

Preparation for welding also involves making sure that 
the edges are clean and free of oil, grease, paint, rust, scale 
or slag from the flame cutting operation. With the edges 
properly bevelled and cleaned for welding, steps should be 
taken to insure that the finished job will be in correct align- 
ment, the accuracy of such alignment, of course, depending 
on the type of work being welded. Short lengths of welds 
called tack welds placed at intervals along the joint are 
used for this purpose. They are either chipped or melted 
out during the welding operation or they may become part 
of the finished weld. Lengths of bars, strips of heavy plate 
or various shapes of steel, V-blocks, clamps, jigs and fixtures 
are all employed in various ways for maintaining alignment. 
The importance of careful preparation of material and a 
good fit-up at welded joints cannot be stressed too strongly. 




Fig. 3 — Framing for all-welded ship, with plating partly 
assembled. 

Not only will good fit-up reduce the amount of weld metal 
deposited but it will facilitate assembly and lower the resi- 
dual stresses or distortion of the structure. When the de- 
creased efficiency of the operator, greater waste of electrodes, 
straightening operations, etc., are taken into consideration, 
the cost per foot of weld will often be tripled as a result of 
poor fit-up. 

For large or complicated work it is advisable to give 
careful study to the sequence of operations. This means a 
consideration of the location of all welds with reference to 
one another, the probable effect of expansion and contrac- 
tion, the method of securing proper alignment and the order 
in which the welds should be made. Time spent in deter- 
mining such a sequence of operations in advance will be 
well repaid by results during the subsequent welding- 
operation. 

Inspection and Testing 

As in the case of much fabricated work, what is done by 
a welding process often requires inspection during the course 
of construction, either by the manufacturer, purchaser, or 
an agency which furnishes such services. The structures on 
which inspection is required will vary widely in design and 
type of welding application, so that no one class of in- 
spectors can be expected to be proficient in all of them. 

The inspector should enter a shop with two main thoughts 
in mind — namely, to obtain a good job properly fabricated 
to the applying code or specification, and to expedite the 
completion and delivery as much as possible. This involves 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



65 



(1) good judgment on his part in the interpretation and 
application of such code requirements (since even most care- 
fully prepared rules are not always clear and complete) and 

(2) full co-operation with the manufacturer in obtaining 
desired results and maintaining friendly relations between 
purchaser and fabricator. 

As yet no method of testing comparable to "tapping 
rivets" has been devised although some have been put for- 
ward which are partially successful. Most of them work 
best with butt-welds and are not as applicable to the fillet 
welds more commonly used in structural practice. 

The most effective but also the most costly are the X-ray 
or Gamma-ray methods, in which photographs of the welds 
are taken, utilizing the penetrating radiations of the X-ray 
tube and of radium to detect the character and extent of 
defects. For most pressure vessels, the various codes make 
X-ray examination one of the requirements of their 
fabrication. 

Where radiographic equipment is not available, examina- 
tion is sometimes made by trepanning or cutting sections 
from the welds. These sections should be taken at points 
where the welds look most questionable, and polished, 
etched and examined for objectionable defects. 

The "magnaflux" or magnetic powder method of testing 
may also be used on finished welded products of ferrous 
metals which can be magnetized. This consists of first mag- 
netizing the work, then sprinkling iron filings on a paper 
over the weld. The filings collect at points where defects 
occur, but considerable experience is required to properly 
apply and judge the results of this test. 

For structural welding the visual inspection by a com- 
petent inspector during and on completion of welding is 
satisfactory, but in addition there are several definite things 
which can and should be done to insure workmanship of 
good quality. First, none but properly qualified welding 
operators should be permitted to do any welding where 
strength is a requisite consideration. Second, a definite pro- 
cedure control should be followed. This involves correct 
preparation of the parts to be welded, selection of proper 
electrodes, the technique of the welding process and pro- 
vision for adequate supervision. Third, joint surfaces should 
be clean and free from dirt, grease and paint which would 
interfere with the welding process. 

These three steps will go a long way toward producing 
sound welds of the required strength. There is left the visual 
inspection of the finished weld. Observation of the welder 
at work will furnish information as to the character of his 
welds such as proper arc, amount of penetration, and cor- 
rect settings of current and voltage. The surface of the 
weld should be fairly smooth without blowholes and cracks, 
and the edges should appear to thoroughly merge with the 
base metal, with no overlapping or undercutting. Fillet welds 
should be of the correct size and outline, and butt welds 
which are reinforced must be between the minimum and 
maximum height tolerances. 



Pressure tests are sometimes used for closed containers 
such as low pressure vessels, tanks and pipes; these may 
be either hydrostatic or air but the use of air for testing is 
dangerous unless the correct type of safety valve is properly 
installed first. 

Recent Developments 

Great advances in welding techniques and equipment 
have been made which will influence the extent and char- 
acter of future welding. Perhaps one of the most important 
developments of the past year is the successful introduction 
to industry of alternating current electrodes suitable for 
producing highest quality welds in the vertical and overhead 
positions. This means that many shops which were using 
a.c. welding for flat work only can now avoid the necessity 
of changing to direct current for vertical and overhead 
work, and obtain the inherent advantages of alternating 
current in all positions of welding. 

Another development is the use of larger electrodes and 
higher welding currents where work conditions permit. By 
using larger electrodes it is possible to deposit two and even 
three times as much metal in a given time, obtaining faster 
production at great savings in cost. Arc blow is particularly 
Troublesome when using high currents in d.c. welding, so 
that this development has been made possible only through 
the use of a.c. electrodes and equipment. 

Recently there has been put on the market new welding 
equipment which has been developed especially for light 
gauge steel; this is leading to a tremendous increase in the 
use of metal arc welding in sheet metal work. 

Armour plate, alloy steels in aircraft and other high- 
tensile steels are now being welded successfully with appro- 
priate electrodes and technique. We can, therefore, build 
structures with welded high tensile steel and obtain double 
savings from the economy of welded shapes and details 
and the use of higher stresses permissible with such steels. 

These are only a few of the many developments in welding 
processes and methods, but there are still many unsolved 
problems which offer fine opportunities for research and 
investigation. These problems will be largely solved by 
welders, metallurgists and engineers. 

In the field of design, rigid frame structures are coming 
more and more into use, due to the ease with which they 
can be fabricated by welding with resultant economies in 
weight. Also, a great many items which were formerly made 
of cast iron or steel are now being replaced by weldments, 
hut so far the welded part has been a close copy of the case 
one in size and shape. Here, then are wonderful opportuni- 
ties for re-design whereby the amount of cutting, bending, 
welding and other operations may be reduced, and the full 
economy of metal arc welding may be realized. Welded 
joints well thought out by a designer who knows the action 
of a structure can be as near the attainment of ideal joints 
as practical and economic considerations will allow. 



66 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1942 

TOGETHER WITH COMMITTEE AND BRANCH REPORTS 



"Another year of war has come and gone, and through 
it all the Institute has continued to function in all its de- 
partments. Emphasis has been placed on certain activities 
and others have been allowed to subside, but on the whole 
it has been a year of greater activity. Increases in member- 
ship, and a substantial financial statement indicate that 
even under the disturbed conditions of to-day the engineers 
still look on the Institute as a vital part of the life of Canada, 
and an integral part of the war effort." 

The above quotation is the opening paragraph of last 
year's report of Council. It is just as true of conditions 
throughout 1942 as it was for 1941. In fact, almost every 
section of last year's report could be used over again for 
this year. This is a good sign because it shows that the im- 
provement and steady acceleration in Institute affairs is 
being well maintained. 

Members are becoming spread over wide areas and in all 
parts of the world. New and greater responsibilities are being 
accepted on all sides. Unfortunately, only a few items of 
news get through, and it is impossible to form any adequate 
picture of the national service being rendered by the pro- 
fession. It will be a happy day when the whole thrilling 
story can be told. 

It is interesting to observe the difference in the effects 
of this war and the last one on Institute affairs. Between 
the first and the third years of the last war the membership 
increased only by sixty-nine. During the similar period of 
this war the membership has increased by eight hundred 
and thirty-eight. In one case the income increased by over 
Three Thousand Dollars and in the other case it has in- 
creased by over Nine Thousand Dollars. The more careful 
distribution of technical personnel, and the great industrial 
development in this country, have reduced the number of 
members on active service. In the last war thirty-six per 
cent of the entire membership was in the services. 

In civilian affairs members continue to make great con- 
tributions. In Government departments and in industry 
engineers continue to occupy positions of administrative 
control, and technical responsibility. In the younger groups 
there is still the urge to leave peaceful industry for comba- 
tant activity, but many a young man, under pressure of 
his more important duty, has stayed at his industrial occu- 
pation while his interests and spirit were driving him to 
"go active". 

Many members have been honoured — in the active forces 
and others in civilian occupation. Some have been 
wounded and others killed in action. Detail mention of these 
events is made from time to time in The Engineering Journal. 
as the information becomes available. Again it is apparent 
that the whole story will not be disclosed until hostilities 
have ceased, but the news that has come out in small 
amounts is an indication of the honourable part that is 
being and will be played by those who make up the member- 
ship of this organization. In the last war a great record was 
established. In this war it may even be surpassed. 

Branch Activities 

The affairs of the branches have prospered in varying 
degrees. Those in large industrial centres have carried out 
active programmes, and have enjoyed increased member- 
ship. Some few branches have been less fortunate in that 
some of their members have moved to other areas and there 
has been no compensating movement into their areas. This 
tends to reduce activities and curtail expansion, but in 
spite of these conditions, all branches report a successful 
year. 

Visits to Branches 

The president visited every branch in Canada, and 
attended every meeting of Council. His inspirational ad- 



dresses have been a stimulus to Institute affairs right across 
the country. He spoke also to many other organizations, 
and during his western trip included six visits with branches 
of the Alumni Federation of the University of Toronto. In 
all these public appearances, both in Canada and the United 
States, he did much to enhance the prestige of the Institute 
and the profession. 

Council Meetings 

Following established procedure, Council held several 
meetings away from Headquarters. These were at Van- 
couver, Niagara Falls, Toronto, and Halifax. In all, thirteen 
Council meetings were held throughout the year with an 
average attendance of twelve. Out of a total of forty-three 
councillors thirty-five attended at least one meeting, repre- 
senting twenty-two out of twenty-five branches. 

Finances 

Perusal of the reports from the Treasurer and the Finance 
Committee indicate that finances are in good shape. The 
largest surplus that has been accumulated in many years 
is shown. The collection of arrears of fees has reached a 
new high level, being $1,492.00 higher than last year. This 
is attributed to the fact that members are now all well 
employed, and that Headquarters has made a special drive 
to turn these paper assets into cash. 

It is comforting to know that the Institute can operate 
with increasing financial stability even though fees are re- 
mitted to members overseas, and to members resident in 
combatant areas. 

It is also of some satisfaction to see that in spite of new 
and increased activities which require substantial financial 
support, such as the Webster lectures and new committee 
undertakings, the balance sheet is still favourable. 

Annual Meeting 

A review of the work of the year would not be complete 
without comment on the annual meeting held in Montreal. 
There seems to be unanimity of opinion that this was a 
record meeting from every point of view. The registration 
ran to eleven hundred and every function was patronized 
to the capacity of the facilities. 

The good fortune of having Lieutenant General McNaugh- 
ton as the banquet speaker was of itself a factor that would 
assure success. In addition to this as special guests were 
the presidents and secretaries of the seven leading engineer- 
ing societies of the United States. 

International Relations 

It is always a pleasure to report on the relations with 
sister societies in the Old Country and in the United States. 

While the advent of war has made it more difficult to 
communicate with societies overseas, it has done much to- 
wards developing closer relationships. The common danger 
and the common effort to overcome it, have brought the 
British Isles and Canada closer together. The presence of 
so many Institute members "over there" has materially 
increased the number of contacts whereby each group has 
become better known to the other. 

Many members of British Institutions are in Canada. 
Every effort has been made to locate such persons so that 
through the branches the facilities and hospitality of the 
Institute may be extended. Several branches report that 
they have frequently as guests engineers from across the 
Atlantic. It is to be hoped that these opportunities to wel- 
come fellow members of the profession will be extended in 
1943. 

The presence of the presidents and secretaries of the 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



67 



seven leading American societies at the 1942 Annual Ban- 
quet in Montreal was one of the best indications of the 
further development of the already good relationship with 
the sister societies south of the border. This was a most 
unique and impressive compliment to the Institute, much 
appreciated by all members. 

Very close contacts with these societies are steadily main- 
tained. The Engineers' Council for Professional Develop- 
ment is a splendid medium for this purpose. The visits of 
officers of the Institute to American meetings and joint meet- 
ings, such as that held at Niagara Falls, in October, are 
natural channels through which flows a steadily increasing 
volume of understanding and good-will. Engineering societies 
on both sides of the border are splendid agencies for this 
wholesome development. 

Engineers' Council for Professional 
Development (E.C.P.D.) 

In the second year of membership in this international 
co-operative bod.y, it has been made even more apparent 
than before, that the Institute membership therein has 
placed it in a unique position to aid the profession and those 
aspiring to become a part of the profession. The continued 
study of problems by committees representing all eight 
member societies has produced new thoughts in the im- 
portant general problems of professional development. 

Committees on Engineering Schools, Student Selection 
and Guidance, Professional Training, Professional Recog- 
nition, and Engineering Ethics, have turned in annual re- 
ports which show that much time and thought has been 
expended by the prominent engineers who constitute their 
membership. The recommendations of these reports are the 
basis for the work of 1943, and indicate that this year will 
be productive of many more things helpful to the profession. 

Joint Meeting 

One of the most successful and pleasant features of this 
year's programme was the joint professional meeting held 
in October at Niagara Falls, Ontario, with the American 
Society of Civil Engineers. It would be difficult to find a 
meeting that would be richer in those splendid qualities 
of good fellowship and professional interest. 

Outstanding papers and inspirational non-technical ad- 
dresses were delivered by members of both societies. Mem- 
bers of the Institute were particularly pleased with the 
contributions made by Canadians. President C. R. Young's 
luncheon address on "The Place of the Engineer", and 
Dr. H. J. Cody's banquet speech were reproduced in the 
December Journal. 

It was the opinion of everyone that meetings of an inter- 
national nature such as this should be held more frequently, 
not only because of the professional advantages, but also 
because of the opportunities afforded for developing better 
understanding between the individuals and the nations. 

The Institute is glad to assure the officers and members 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers that visits such 
as this will always be welcome, and that the Institute will 
always be ready to co-operate to the fullest extent. 

Overseas Children 

Up to the present there has been no report on the assist- 
ance given by the Institute and by members of the Institute 
to children and parents sent here from England for safety. 
This work has been so personal that it has not been 
thought wise to give any publicity to it. However, members 
will be glad to know that certain necessary assistance has 
been made available in many parts of Canada. 

Members in such places as Halifax, Montreal, Toronto 
and Winnipeg are in contact with cases, and have 
been happy to lend aid and assistance. The Institute has 
been very active in some instances where the families of 
engineers have been involved, and has aided in supplying 
many of the necessities of life. The interest in these families 
will be continued as long as the need exists. 



Committees 

During the year three new and important special com- 
mittees have been established. The work of these commit- 
tees is related directly to national problems and, because 
of its importance, members of the committees are making 
heavy personal sacrifices to see that real progress is achieved. 

Reports of the committees follow, and it is recommended 
that members not already familiar with the work read 
them carefulty in order to have an appreciation of what is 
being attempted. The committees are — Committee on The 
Engineering Features of Civil Defence, Committee on In- 
dustrial Relations and Committee on Post-War Problems. 

Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel 

The Bureau continues to do good work. Early in the 
year, Elliott M. Little and L. Austin Wright transferred 
from Director and Assistant Director respectively to the 
same positions in National Selective Service, and H. W. Lea 
and J. D. Dymond were selected to fill these vacancies in 
the Bureau. 

Order-in-Council 638 passed in March gave the Bureau 
more power and authority, and provided certain controls 
which have aided materially. This legislation was the first 
attempt in Canada to applv compulsion in the manpower 
field. 

Without having any legal obligation to do so, the Bureau 
functioned as a division of Selective Service, thereby orient- 
ing its work with the larger activity in order to aid in pro- 
viding a complete coverage in a co-operative manner. 
Changes now being contemplated by the Department of 
Labour may make this relationship even closer. It is to 
be hoped that the new plans do not contemplate the total 
absorption of the Bureau into the Department, and the 
transfer of the administration to the Department in place 
of leaving it with the professional societies themselves as 
at present. 

The Bureau was set up in February, 1941, by an Order-in- 
Council which named The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and the 
Canadian Institute of Chemistry to "organize the place- 
ment of technical personnel". 

Roll of the Institute 

The membership of all classes now totals 5,052, which is 
again a new record. New names added to the roll for the 
year 1942 amounted to 485, but deaths, resignations and 
removals reduce the net figure to a gain of 279. This is a 
gratifying figure, particularly in face of the fact that all 
persons three years or more in arrears have been removed 
from the membership list. It is likely that the present out- 
standing total of arrears is the lowest that has obtained for 
many years. 

During the year 1942, four hundred and sixty-nine can- 
didates were elected to various grades in the Institute. These 
were classified as follows: One Honorary Member: one hun- 
dred and seventy-seven Members; sixteen Juniors; two 
hundred and fifty-six Students, and nineteen Affiliates. The 
elections during the year 1941 totalled four hundred and 
thirty-nine. 

Transfers from one grade to another were as follows: 
Junior to Member, fifty-nine; Student to Member, thirty- 
two; Affiliate to Member, one; Student to Junior, eighty- 
eight; Student to Affiliate, one; a total of one hundred and 
eighty-one. 

The names of those elected or transferred are published 
in the Journal each month immediately following the 
election. 

Removals from the Roll 

There have been removed from the roll during the year 
1942, for non-payment of fees and by resignation, sixty-one 
Members; twenty-one Juniors; sixty-eight Students, and 
one Affiliate, a total of one hundred and fifty-one. Sixteen 
reinstatements were effected, and twenty -one Life Member- 
ships were granted. 



68 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Deceased Members 

During the year 1942 the deaths of fifty-four members of 
the Institute have been reported as follows: 
Honorary Member 

Adams, Frank Dawson Montreal, Que. 

Members 

Aggiman, Jacques Nissim New York, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Andrewes, William Edward London, Ont. 

Archibald, Ernest M West Palm Beach, Florida,U.S.A. 

Armstrong, Thomas Stiryaker Port Arthur, Ont. 

Baltzell, Willie Henry Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 

Bang, Claus Marius Deer Lake, Newfoundland 

Buckley, Rex Elmer Glen Ferris, West Virginia,U. S.A. 

Byers, Archibald Fullarton Montreal, Que. 

Cregeen, Kenneth Thomas Montreal, Que. 

Dennis, Earle Munro . . .Ottawa, Ont. 

Duckworth, Walter Ritchie Vancouver, B.C. 

Duncan, G. Rupert Fort William, Ont. 

Evans, John Maurice Montreal, Que. 

Fuller, Royden John Toronto, Ont. 

Jackson, Donald Alphonse Chatham, N.B. 

Jackson, John H Toronto, Ont. 

Johnson, Edward Preston Toronto, Ont. 

Johnston, Harold Stanley Halifax, N.S. 

Johnstone, William Morrison Ottawa, Ont. 

Rester, Fred. Henry Walkerville, Ont. 

Kirkpatrick, Alexander M Winnipeg, Man. 

Mahon, Harry Wendell Halifax, N.S. 

Millidge, Edwin Reginald Winnipeg, Man. 

Morrisey, Henry Fairweather Saint John, N.B. 

MacDiarmid, Archibald Alexander. . Quebec, Que. 

MacKinnon, John George Moncton, N.B. 

Macphail, William Matheson Winnipeg, Man. 

McCurdy, Lyall Radcliffe Montreal, Que. 

McDowall, Robert Toronto, Ont. 

Palmer, John Montreal, Que. • 

Parker, Thomas Wint Weir Fergus, Ont. 

Porter, John Earle Windsor, Ont. 

Reynolds, Philip Ferndown, Dorset, England. 

Robertson, A. Ross Toronto, Ont. 

Ross, Sir Charles Passagrille, Florida, U.S.A. 

Schlemm, Leonard Ernest Montreal, Que. 

Shanly, James Kenogami, Que. 

Smither, William James Toronto, Ont. 

Souba, William Henry Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A. 

Stockett, Lewis Vancouver, B.C. 

Taylor, Charles Selkirk, Man. 

Tempest, John Sugden Calgary, Alta. 

Townsend, Charles Rowlatt Montreal, Que. 

Vaughan, Henry Hague Montreal, Que. 

Walton, Frederick Stanley Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Webb, Harry Randall Edmonton, Alta. 

White, Joseph James Winnipeg, Man. 

Wilson, Wm. Thomas Dunscore, Dumfriesshire, Scot. 

Juniors 

Boyd, William Gamble Kingston, Ont. 

Mews, John Courtenay Buchans, Newfoundland. 

Porter, Lawson Bardon St. John's, Newfoundland 

Students 

Murray, Robert Leslie Vernon, P.E.I. 

Swingler, Russell Henry Ottawa, Ont. 

Total Membership 

The membership of The Institute as at December 31st. 
1942, totals 5,652. The corresponding number for the year 
1941 was 5,373. . 

1941 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 3,560 

Juniors 638 

Students 1,084 

Affiliates 75 

1942 5 ' 373 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 3,727 

Juniors 655 

Students 1,158 

Affiliates 96 

5,652 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council, 

C. R. Young, m.e.i.c, President. 

L. Austin Wright, m.e.i.c, General Secretary. 



TREASURER'S REPORT 

The President and Council: 

As can be seen from the financial statement your Institute 
has had a successful year from a financial point of view, all 
of which is covered in the report of your Finance Committee. 

The securities for your investment account which are 
shown in the statement as totalling $16,588.51 have been 
checked and found in order. The actual market value of 
these securities as at to-day's date is approximatelv 
«18,000.00. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. G. M. Cape, m.e.i.c, Treasurer. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

It is with much pleasure that your Finance Committee 
reports a satisfactory financial year for The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. 

The Balance Sheet, which has been prepared by the 
Auditors, shows a surplus of $3,208.56 for the year's opera- 
tions, and that notwithstanding the fact that a new Special 
Building Fund Reserve was created, and that an unusual 
expenditure was incurred in publishing Professor Webster's 
lectures. 

Your Committee feels that a Special Building Reserve 
should be created covering any possible future repairs or 
replacements of major character, and has set aside, for this 
purpose, an amount of $3,500. The reserve for the Building 
Maintenance has been increased from $1,350 to $2,000, 
which should cover the usual repairs. 

The amounts covered by these special reserves, as well 
as that of the excess of the Revenue over Expenditure, for 
the year, has been invested in Government Bonds. 

You have decided, last year, that the Past- Presidents' 
Fund, which is made up of private subscriptions, for a 
special purpose, should be reported to Council only. In 
consequence, the investment, represented by this Fund 
which amounted, in last year's report, to $6,212.90, has 
been withdrawn from the list of investments in this Report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

deGaspé Beaubien, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND EDUCATION 

The President and Council: 

Your Board of Examiners and Education for the year 
1942 has had prepared and read the following examination 
papers with the results as indicated: 

Number of Number 
Candidates Passing 

I. Elementary Physics and Mechanics 2 1 

II. (a) Strength and Elasticity of Ma- 

terials 3 2 

VII. (a) General Paper on Structures. . . 2 1 

VII. (b) (1) Structural Steel Design. ... 1 1 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c, Chairnmu. 

COMMITTEE ON POST-WAR PROBLEMS 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee on Post- War Problems begs to submit 
the following résumé of its activities for 1942. 

The early part of the year was spent in organization. 
An endeavour was made to have where possible a reasonable 
distribution of membership that would be representative of 
all parts of the country as well as of both the public services 
and private industry. 

After organization, a study was made of the memorandum 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



69 



entitled "Considerations for Evaluating Projects" sub- 
mitted by the Sub-Committee on Post- War Construction 
Projects of the James Committee on Reconstruction of the 
Federal Government. This memorandum was subjected to 
critical examination by each branch of the Engineering 
Institute. The comments from the various branches were 
then studied by your Committee, the reports co-ordinated, 
certain suggestions originating with members of the Com- 
mittee incorporated and the final results reported to Council 
for their approval and transmission to the proper quarters. 

At the suggestion of the chairman of the Sub-Committee, 
each branch of the Institute was communicated with and 
given a list of local Citizens' Committees concerned with 
the Rehabilitation of Returning Soldiers. It was suggested 
that the branches might give some assistance to these 
committees. Each local Citizens' Committee of record, 
about one hundred in all, was written and offered the 
services of engineers in their work. The combined response 
of these letters indicated that in several branches active 
work was going on along these- lines. A number of letters 
were received expressing appreciation of the offer of help 
and intimating that it would be accepted. One branch of 
the Institute in a centre in which there is no local Citizens' 
Committee has offered to give leadership in the organizing 
of such a group. 

It is recommended that the Council give every encourage- 
ment to Institute Branches for the study of post-war 
problems both as a branch and by way of assistance to 
local representative Citizens' Committees, particularly in 
endeavouring to see, in the formation of the latter, that 
interested engineers are included in their personnel. This 
work presents an opportunity for disinterested public 
service on the part of the profession, and each engineer, to 
the extent that he makes a contribution to this work, will 
not only assist it constructively but will also be the means 
of impressing on the non-engineering members, and through 
them citizens generally, with the place that our profession 
can take in the general councils of a post-war economy. A 
great opportunity is before us. What we do with it is up 
to ourselves alone. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. C. Miller, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee on Western Water Problems has been 
advocating the construction of further works to utilize fully 
Canada's share of the St. Mary and Milk Rivers in Alberta. 
By Order-in-Council dated February 17th, 1941, the 
Dominion Government named the following committee to 
study the matter: 
Victor Meek (Chairman), Controller, Dominion Water and 

Power Bureau, Ottawa, designated by the Minister of 

Mines and Resources; 
George Spence, Director, Prairie Farm Rehabilitation 

Branch, Regina, designated by the Minister of Agriculture; 
William E. Hunter, Accounts Branch, Department of 

Finance, Ottawa, designated by the Minister of Finance. 

This Government Committee prepared a comprehensive 
report which has recently become available in printed form. 
We quote its general recommendations as follows: 

"The Committee is not unmindful of the tremendous 
burden placed upon the Federal treasury because of the 
War. We realize the necessity of minimizing expenditures 
which are not essential to the war effort. We realize that 
the commencement of construction at this time would 
involve the employment of labour, skilled and unskilled, 
and the use of materials essential to war industry. We 
believe, however, that the St. Mary and Milk Rivers 
Development should be included as a part of the Dominion's 
post-war rehabilitation programme and we recommend : — 



"(1) That the proposed development be reserved as a 
post-war measure. 

"(2) That the Dominion and the Province of Alberta 
enter into an agreement, to be confirmed by legis- 
lation, setting out the general principles governing 
the development as a co-operative undertaking. 

"(3) That surveys and investigations be continued so 
that construction may be begun without delay after 
the war. 

"(4) That this report be ref erred to the Committee on 
Reconstruction . ' ' 

In view of its importance we suggest that members of 
the Institute make a point of studying this report. Those 
wishing to obtain a copy should write the Director, Prairie 
Farm Rehabilitation Branch, Department of Agriculture, 
Regina. 

In November, 1942, informal meetings were held in the 
West under the auspices of the Sub-committee on Natural 
Resources of Dr. James' Reconstruction Committee and 
the sites of the proposed St. Mary River works were 
visited. Dr. James' Committee was represented by Dr. J. 
B. Chaînes, m.e.i.c, Prof. J. J. O'Neill, m.e.i.c, and Prof. 
L. C. March. Members of your Committee were invited to 
present their views and at the various sessions your com- 
mittee was well represented. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON ENGINEERING FEATURES 
OF CIVIL DEFENCE 

The President and Council: 

In April, 1942, Professor F. Webster, Deputy Chief 
Engineer of the Ministry of Home Security, London, 
England, gave a series of lectures in Toronto, under the 
auspices of The Engineering Institute of Canada. In May, 
the general secretary of the Institute requested the chair- 
man of each Branch of the Institute to appoint a Branch 
Committee to deal with the local application of the inform- 
ation presented at those lectures. 

In June, the Committee on Engineering Features of 
Civil Defence was set up, to consist of members appointed 
by the president of the Institute and of the chairmen of the 
Branch Committees appointed under the general secretary's 
request. During the year, 21 branches appointed Branch 
Committees, one of which is serving two branches. The 
personnel of this Committee now consists of 13 members 
appointed by the president, G of whom are also Branch 
Committee chairmen, and 15 other Branch Committee 
chairmen, making a total of 28. 

In connection with the engineering features of civil 
defence, this Committee has co-operated with the Hon. Dr. 
R. J. Manion, Director of Civil Air Raid Precautions, and 
the Branch Committees have co-operated with Dr. Manion's 
appropriate Provincial A.R.P. Committees and with local 
A.R.P. organizations. This Committee, with the hearty 
co-operation of the Canadian Engineering Standards Asso- 
ciation, has maintained contact with that Association, and 
through the Branch Committee chairmen, has acted in an 
advisory capacity to the Branch Committees, all with a 
view to avoiding duplication of effort. 

This Committee has had prepared and Council has had 
printed and placed on sale through Headquarters of the 
Institute, a 55-page book entitled "Structural Defence 
Against Bombing." This reference book on the engineering 
features of civil defence as applied to structures has been 
well received by engineers and architects. 

This Committee, jointly with authorized representatives 
of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and the 
Canadian Construction Association, prepared a memoran- 



70 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



dum suggesting an organization to cover an essential field 
in civil defence not now covered by either Dr. Manion's 
A.R.P. organization, or by military organizations. With an 
appropriate letter of transmissal dated November 3, 1942, 
this memorandum was forwarded to the Prime Minister as 
a joint submission over the signatures of the presidents of 
these three organizations. It was promptly acknowledged, 
but so far no action on it has been reported. 

This Committee is continuing its work on specifications 
and instructions relative to the engineering features of 
civil defence in connection with air raid shelters and the 
protection of existing and proposed hotel, apartment, office, 
store, plant and other buildings and dwellings, and of the 
personnel and equipment in them. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John E. Armstrong, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

During the past year your Membership Committee made 
a careful study of those sections of our By-Laws relating 
to the classifications of "Branch Affiliate," "Institute 
Affiliate" and "Member". In doing so they gave considera- 
tion to the resolutions from Montreal and Toronto Branch 
Executives, also, suggestions submitted by officers and 
members of the Institute from coast to coast. 

The basis of our study was an endeavour to simplify the 
procedure and ensure a uniform interpretation of our By- 
Laws with regard to the election of Members until more 
normal conditions return, when our By-Laws can be revised. 

Final recommendation was submitted to Council at its 
December 19th meeting in Montreal, and included a memo 
to be sent to all Branch Executives, together with a form 
to be used in summarizing the qualifications of each 
applicant. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John G. Hall, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

The President and Council : 

The Committee on Professional Interests is glad to report 
that during 1942 another definite step forward was taken 
towards the goal of Dominion-wide professional solidarity 
when, on January 12th, at Saint John, an agreement be- 
tween the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of the Province of New Brunswick was con- 
summated. 

It is the opinion of the Committee that each of the co- 
operative agreements that have been entered into to date 
affecting the provinces of Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, 
Alberta and New Brunswick is proving its real worth. They 
add up to an impressive total and indicate a trend toward 
a common membership between the national engineering 
society and the provincial registration bodies that should 
in time become Dominion- wide. 

In the four provinces mentioned, practically all the cor- 
porate members of the Institute now enjoy the advantage 
of registration. 

A draft of a co-operative agreement between the Institute 
and the Association of Professional Engineers of the Prov- 
ince of Manitoba has been worked out by a joint Manitoba 
committee representing both the Institute and the Associa- 
tion. The draft has been agreed to in principle by the 
Council of the Institute and when approved of by the 
officers of the Association will be submitted for forinal en- 
dorsation by the Institute as required by Section 78 of 
the By-laws. 

During the year, preliminary discussions were instituted 
by the Montreal Branch looking to a co-operative agree- 
ment between the Institute and the Corporation of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Quebec. 



As for the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, 
the readiness of the Institute's committee to discuss co- 
operation in any form with the efficiently operated regis- 
tration bodies is well known. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

The President and Council: 

At its meeting in Toronto on April 25th, 1942, the Council 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada passed a resolution 
instructing the president to draw terms of reference for an 
Industrial Relations Committee and recommended to Coun- 
cil the composition of such a committee. At its meeting in 
May, 1942, the Council ratified the recommendations of the 
president and a Committee on Industrial Relations was 
formed. In selecting the members of this Committee, repre- 
sentation was secured from engineers engaged in Industrial 
Relations work and the broader field of administration, as 
well as from those engaged in presenting courses on this 
subject in the three universities of McGill, Queen's and 
Toronto. 

The first meeting of this committee was held in Toronto 
on July 25th, 1942; further meetings have been held Sep- 
tember 11th, October 16th, November 25th, 1942, and 
January 22nd, 1943. 

Naturally, as the subject of industrial relations was new 
to the work of the Institute, the Committee has spent a 
considerable amount of time in general discussion and in 
study of the broad subject as well as in consideration of 
the special approach which engineers and the Institute 
should make in order to develop constructive suggestions 
and a sound programme for the future. As part of its general 
programme, it has arranged for the publication in the 
Journal of the Institute of articles on industrial relations 
and reprints of outstanding articles which have appeared 
elsewhere. 

In reviewing the general subject, it was early found that 
some universities and engineering colleges were teaching 
certain phases of industrial relations. Letters were sent to 
the universities in Canada and details of the various courses 
being taught were gathered together and tabulated. Infor- 
mation of this tabulation was sent to the universities with 
the recommendation that study be given to the expanding 
of the present courses in industrial relations and offering 
the assistance of the Committee if they so desired. The 
Committee at the present time has a sub-committee work- 
ing on a suggested syllabus dealing with a course in industrial 
relations, particularly applying to engineering colleges. 

Through the co-operation of the Papers Committee, a 
letter was sent by that Committee to all branches, recom- 
mending that during the session one or more papers dealing 
with industrial relations be presented before the Branch 
and offering the assistance of this Committee in obtaining 
speakers if it was desired. Correspondence has been carried 
on with the branches and papers have been presented before 
various branches of the Institute and other papers are 
scheduled. 

At the request of the committee in charge of the Annual 
Meeting, this Committee has assumed the responsibility for 
one session at the Annual Meeting and has arranged for 
Professor Viteles of the University of Pennsylvania and in 
charge of Personnel Research of the Philadelphia Electric 
Company, to present a paper on "A Scientific Approach to 
the Problems of Employee Relations" and Dr. Bryce M. 
Stewart, Director of Research, Industrial Relations Coun- 
selors, Inc., New York, formerly Deputy Minister, Depart- 
ment of Labour for Canada, to speak on "The Role of the 
Industrial Relations Executive in Company Management"; 
arrangements are also being made for thorough discussion 
of these subjects. 

Your Committee has been greatly encouraged by the 
interest shown in this subject and in its activities by many 
of the university heads who have been contacted and by 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



71 



many members of the Institute. Progress made by the Com- 
mittee since its appointment would indicate that while little 
in the way of concrete results can be shown, a good start 
has been made and in the subject like the one before it, 
hasty action might defeat the whole purpose of its discus- 
sions. It is hoped that enough has been done to show the 
necessity for such a committee and that future committees 
will extend the work that has been started. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Wills Maclachlan, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LEGISLATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

No legislation affecting the interests of the Engineering 
Institute or of the engineering profession in general, came 
to the attention of the Committee during 1942. There is 
consequently nothing to report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John L. Lang, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



COMMITTEE ON THE TRAINING AND WELFARE 
OF THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

The President and Council: 

The Committee on the Training and Welfare of the 
Young Engineer asks leave to make its fourth annual 
report. 

During the year you have asked for reports on several 
matters referring especially to the younger members of the 
profession. These included — 

(a) The continuance of the five Student and Junior 
prize competitions; and 

(b) The possibility of Government grants-in-aid to 
engineering students after the war ends. 

Council has taken action on our report on the first, and 
it is hoped that competition will be increased in the several 
Zones. The second question will require further and con- 
tinued study before any definite recommendations can be 
offered. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF 

For the Year Ended 

Revenue 

1942 1941 
Membership Fees: 

Arrears $ 5,049.11 $ 3,557.00 

Current 27,563.49 26,686.75 

Advance 527.80 569.44 

Entrance 2,581.87 1,632.00 

$35,722.27 «32,445.19 

Publications: 

Journal Subscriptions $ 8,263.77 $ 7,698.65 

Journal Sales 74.41 36.72 

Journal Advertising 18,645.42 15,723.32 

$26,983.60 $23,458.69 

Income from Investments $ 545.49 $ 505.10 

Refund of Hall Expense 500.00 450.00 

Sundry Revenue 39.17 102.16 




REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 

31st December, 1942 

Expenditure 

Building Expense: 1942 

Property and Water Taxes $ 1,328.98 

Fuel 592.53 

Insurance 177.85 

Light, Gas and Power 363.82 

Caretaker's Wages and Services 1.031.00 

House Expense and Repairs S47.43 

Special Building Repairs — net 

Building Fund Reserve 3,500.00 

$ 7,841.61 

Publications: 

Journal Salaries and Expense $20,298.76 

Provincial Sales Tax 33.36 

Sundry Printing 650.29 

$20,982.41 

Office Expense: 

Salaries $12,912.59 

Telegrams, Postage and Excise Stamps. . . 1,152.42 

Telephones 667.75 

Office Supplies and Stationery 1,353.25 

Audit and Legal Fees 325.00 

Messenger and Express 1 19.39 

Miscellaneous 408.23 

Depreciation — Furniture and Fixtures. . . . 364.48 



1941 

1,995.48 
578.68 
154.78 
339.05 
976.00 
385.52 

3.120.03 



$ 7,549.54 



$17,639.26 
357.34 
589.80 

$18,586.40 



$13,825.79 
1,290.12 
598.55 
1,663.48 
315.00 
141.54 
449.51 
368.63 



$17,303.11 $18,652.62 



Total Revenue for Year $63,790.53 $56,961.14 



General Expense: 

Annual and Professional Meetings $1,689.73 $ 764.20 

Meetings of Council 719.25 292.57 

Travelling 734.49 785.83 

Branch Stationery 146.33 148.90 

Prizes 407.80 350.32 

Library Salary and Expense 2,021.62 1,079.49 

Interest, Discount and Exchange 168.92 107.4S 

Examinations and Certificates Jfi.86 7.82 

Webster Lectures— net 996.20 

Committee Expenses 590.38 558.02 

Advances re Overseas Children 225.00 

National Construction Council 100.00 100.00 

Sundry Expense 169.28 110.07 

7,928.64 4,289.56 

Rebates to Branches $ 6,526.20 $ 6,111.03 

Total Expenditure 60,581.97 55,189.15 

Surplus for Year 3,208.56 1,771.99 

$63,790.53 $56,961.14 



72 



February, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOUR^ \L 



Student Selection and Guidance 

The brochure "The Profession of Engineering in Canada" 
was printed in February and upwards of 9,000 free copies 
have been distributed to all the high schools of all the 
provinces of Canada, and to the universities, with instruc- 
tion in the English language. In December, through the 
generosity of Dr. J. B. Challies and his associates, 5,000 copies 
of a French translation were printed. These are being dis- 
tributed to all the high schools and classical schools in 
Quebec and the other provinces where instruction is in 
French. 

Branch Student Guidance Committees 

These have been set up in 21 of the twenty-five branches. 
The personnel in every case is composed of outstanding 
members of our profession. This augurs well for the success 
of the undertaking. Each of these committees, and also 
the Branches which have not yet appointed committees, 
have been supplied with information as to the objectives 
of our committee, instructions on the approach to students, 
copies of "Engineering as a Career" and of the "Manual for 



Counsellors," both of the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development, and of the Institute brochure. You 
will doubtless be interested in some of the results. 

The Halifax Branch, under the leadership of Professor 
A. E. Flynn, m.e.i.c, has organized the whole province, 
including the Cape Breton Branch district, and District 
Vocational Counsellors have been appointed to cover the 
forty schools from which the greater number of students 
are graduated. The Provincial Science library has pur- 
chased books on guidance for the use of these counsellors. 
There is definite co-operation evident among all those 
interested in engineering education. 

The Montreal Branch has given definite leadership in 
Quebec Under Jacques Benoit, m.e.i.c. The Quebec, Sague- 
nay and Saint Maurice Valley Branches are now co- 
operating fully and the issue of the French edition of the 
brochure has stimulated interest. 

Through the efforts of G. R. Langley, m.e.i.c, chairman 
of the Peterborough Branch committee, a general Voca- 
tional Guidance Committee was set up by the Peterborough 
Board of Education and three members of the Engineering 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
As at 31st December, 1942 

Liabilities 



Assets 
Current: 1942 

Cash on hand and in bank $ 1,204.97 $ 

Accounts Receivable $ 4,513.53 

Less: Reserve for Doubtful Ac- 
counts 95.04 4,418.49 

2,500.00 



Arrears of Fees — Estimated. . . 

Special Funds — Investment Account: 

Investments — at Cost 6,282.64 

Cash in Savings Accounts. . . . 1,239.69 



1941 
826.24 

3,299.43 
2,500.00 



Investments — at Cost: 
Bonds: 

Dominion of Canada, 

3%, 1951 $2,500.00 

Dominion of Canada, 

3%, 1956 5,500.00 

Dominion of Canada, 

4K%, 1948 96.50 

Dominion of Canada, 

4}^%, 1958 180.00 

Dominion of Canada, 

4^%, 1959 4,090.71 

Montreal Tramways, 

5%, 1951 

Montreal Tramways, B, 

o%, 1955 

Province of Saskatchewan, 

5%, 1959 

Shares: 

Canada Permanent Mort- 
gage Corp., 2 shares — 

$100.00 each 

Montreal Light, Heat and 
Power Cons. — 40 shares 
N.P.V 



950.30 

2,199.00 

502.50 

215.00 



324.50 



Sundry Advances 

Deposit with Postmaster 

Prepaid Insurance 

Gold Medal 

Library — At cost less depreciation 

Furniture and Fixtures — At cost less de- 
preciation 

Land and Buildings— Cost $91,495.22 

Less: Depreciation 55,495.22 



$ 8,123.46 $ 6,625.67 
7,522.33 13,636.35 



$16,558.51 $11,058.51 



400.00 

100.00 

200.00 

45.00 

1,448.13 


100.00 

100.00 

275.00 

45.00 

1,448.13 


3,280.33 


3,317.73 


36,000.00 


36,000.00 



$73,677.76 $72,606.39 



Current: 

Accounts Payable. . . 
Rebates to Branches. 



Special Funds 

Reserve for Building Fund 

Reserve for Building Maintenance. 



1942 
$ 2,674.23 
507.30 


1941 
$2,476.18 
479.39 


$3,181.53 

6,823.45 
3,500.00 
2,000.00 


$ 2,955.57 
13,336.60 
1,350.00 



Surplus Account: 

Balance as at 31st December, 

1941 $54,964.22 



Add: Excess of Revenue over 
Expenditure for year as 
per Statement attached. . 



3,208.56 58,172.78 54,964.22 



$73,677.76 $72,606.39 



We have audited the books and vouchers of The Engineering Institute of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1942, and have 
received all the information we required. In our opinion the above Statement of Assets and Liabihtes and attached Statement of Revenue and 
Expenditure for 1942 are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the Institute's affairs as at 31st December, 1942, and of 
its operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of our information and the explanations given to us and as shown by the books. 

(Sgd.) Ritchie, Brown & Co., 
Montreal, 19th January, 1943. Chartered Accountants. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



73 



Institute of Canada are members of that committee. The 
E.I.C. activities have been extended to other municipalities 
in the branch district. 

At Toronto, The Engineering Institute of Canada and 
the University of Toronto Alumni Guidance Committees 
have joined forces to cover all the schools in that city. 
Professor R. F. Legget, m.e.i. a, has given this work his 
personal attention. The branch holds a successful Students' 
Night every year and with more than 1,400 engineering 
students at the University of Toronto, this feature will no 
doubt be emphasized in the future and help to bring the 
students in contact with practicing engineers. The recent 
formation of a Junior Section in Toronto should go a long 
way toward increasing the interest of the younger engineers 
in the affairs of the Institute. 

The Border Cities and London Branches have depended 
largely on the efforts of individual members to carry out 
the guidance programme, with a fair degree of success. The 
work at Windsor has been divided between C. G. R. 
Armstrong, m.e.i. c, and T. H. Jenkins, m.e.i. a, and many 
students have received valuable advice from them. The 
London Branch interviews have not been as numerous, but 
were equally effective and they extend into the four cities 
of the district. 

In the Western Provinces committees have been formed 
in all the branches except Lethbridge. The principal 
activity has been in the Calgary and Saskatchewan 
Branches. Unfortunately, Professor H. R. Webb, m.e.i.c, 
who had been appointed chairman of the Edmonton Branch 
Committee, met a tragic death early last summer. 

At Calgary, where student guidance work had been 
carried on for a number of years by service clubs in co- 
operation with the school board authorities, the Institute 
committee is working through the present local organiza- 
tion, and under the chairmanship of J. B. deHart, m.e.i.c, 
increased activity is expected. 

D. A. R. McCannel, m.e.i.c, Chairman of the Saskatche- 
wan Branch committee, has organized local committees in 
the several cities of the province. The Collegiate Institute 
Boards have welcomed these advisors and it is expected 
that the coming year will show definite results. 

The Winnipeg Branch has been active under the chair- 
manship of Professor A. E. Macdonald, m.e.i.c, and they 
have adopted a programme embracing the schools of the 
city of Winnipeg and of the province of Manitoba. The 
committee is ready to supply speakers and it is discussing 
the matter of student guidance with the educational 
authorities. 

Both branches of the Institute in British Columbia have 
set up committees and these are co-operating with the 
local organizations in presenting the needs for the engineer- 
ing profession to interested students. 

Programme for 1943 

It is evident that several methods of approach may be 
adopted in order to present the information which we have 
concerning engineering guidance. In some communities, 
addresses to student bodies and individual interviews have 
been used with very good results. The distribution of the 
Institute brochure has brought enquiries from individual 
students all over Canada. It is evident that this booklet 
alone has brought to the young men sufficient information 
to compel them to think seriously of their approach to 
further studies. The work of these committees has now 
started along a definite course and your committee is sure 
that the interest of the branches will increase provided, of 
course, the general committee continues its activities. 

The circumstances of the war has taken many of our 
young engineers from their normal activities and from con- 
tacts with the older members of the profession. Some day 
these men will return, more experienced, more disciplined 
and ready to take their rightful place in the Canadian 



professional, economic and social life. To these will be 
added the increased number of students graduating from 
our universities. What will we have to offer them ? Those 
who will return to former employment may not adapt 
themselves readily to changed methods and conditions. A 
rehabilitation process must be evolved to meet this situa- 
tion. 

Others will come back to no former employment. We 
must associate ourselves with the study of post-war prob- 
lems if for no other reason than that we have a moral 
obligation to help these men. It is evident not only in 
Canada but in the United States, that national and local 
governments will be embarking on extensive post-war 
reconstruction projects. For this work the young engineer 
should be especially trained not only technically but to 
handle the administration under a governmental set-up. Other 
engineers will be used in industries and ultimately move on 
to managerial positions and again, research will require a 
greater number of technically trained men who are adapted 
to this type of work. 

The Professional Training Committee of the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development is preparing a booklet 
for distribution to young men, giving a lead in such matters 
as have been described. It will be the duty of our com- 
mittee to watch the progress, to study the local situations, 
and to present concrete proposals to the Institute. It is 
our hope that many of the senior members of the Institute 
will give some attention to this problem and their advice 
will be welcomed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Harry F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LIBRARY AND HOUSE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

This committee reports as follows for the year 1942: 
Owing to the fact that a great deal of building repair 
work was done in 1941, repairs were held to absolute essen- 
tials during the year. The largest items, outside of minor 
routine repairs, being re-roofing the new section of the build- 
ing that had been already authorized in 1941 and repairs 
to the front entrance steps which will be continued next 
spring. 

Routine work was handled very efficiently and economic- 
ally by the staff. 

Library 

Tabulated below is a summary of the accessions to the 
library in the past year together with the number of requests 
for information received by the librarian: 

Books borrowed 40(> 

Bibliographies (a total of 29 pages) 22 

Photostats furnished : 

Negatives 229 

Positives 171 

Figures 13 

Requests for information: 

By telephone 779 

By letter 373 

In person 412 

Books presented by publishers for review in the Journal 16 

Books presented to the library 13 

Proceedings and Transactions 27 

Reports (including Standards and Tentative Standards) 373 
ARP and Civilian Defence 11 

We also acquired material published by the Office of 
Civilian Defence, Washington, D.C. 

The above figures show an increase in the use of the 
library for the past year. It is recommended that a complete 
survey of the library be made with a view to removing 



74 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



obsolete material from the shelves. It might be possible, 
for this purpose, to obtain the advice of members of the 
Institute well versed in the various branches of engineering. 
Publishers of technical books in the United States and 
Great Britain should be requested to send review copies of 
their new books in acknowledgment of the Book Notes 
appearing monthly in the Journal. Thus it would be pos- 
sible, at little cost, to provide the library with the newest 
books. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Walter G. Hunt, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The President and Council: 

The marked decrease in the activities of the Employment 
Service as shown in the accompanying table is due mainly 
to the new legislation of the Wartime Bureau of Technical 
Personnel. 

1941 1942 

Registered members 77 34 

Registered non-members 75 45 

Number of members advertising for positions 14 19 

Replies received from employers 9 48 

Vacant positions registered 229 134 

Vacancies advertised in the Journal 35 58 

Replies received to advertised positions 110 101 

Men's records forwarded to prospective 

employers 302 35 

Men notified of vacancies 306 117 

Placements definitely known 71 30 

On March 23rd, 1942, the Wartime Bureau of Technical 
Personnel was given control over the distribution of tech- 
nical manpower. Under these regulations, it became com- 
pulsory for our members, along with other technically- 
trained persons, to register with the Wartime Bureau if they 
had not already done so, and to report to the Bureau if 
afterwards they became unemployed or available. The same 
regulations make it necessary for the employer to notify 
the Bureau of each specific need for technical personnel 
and to apply for permission to employ any technically- 
trained person. 

The effect of these regulations has been an important 
decrease in the number of inquiries from employers filed 
with our Employment Service Bureau and, correspondingly, 
a smaller number of applications for employment from en- 
gineers. The additional time thus made available to our 
Bureau staff has been well taken up by other activities 
which had to be taken care of during the absence of the 
general secretary, on loan to the National Selective Service 
at Ottawa. 

The establishment during the year, by the Wartime 
Bureau, of regional offices in Montreal and other centres, 
has afforded closer co-ordination of effort between the 
Bureau and our Employment Service. Members and other 
engineers who have applied to us during the year have 
been properly instructed as to the governmental regulations 
with which they were expected to comply and have been 
directed to the regional offices of the Wartime Bureau. 
Useful exchanges of information have been made between 
the Ottawa office of the Bureau and our Employment ' 
Service. Again this year, the Employment Page of the 
Journal has been open to members and employers and has 
proved of distinct value in establishing contacts. 

Assistance has been continued to the armed forces in 
recruiting their technical personnel. In this connection, the 
assistant general secretary is a member of a committee, in 
Military District No. 4, for the selection of potential French 
Canadian officers. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. Austin Wright, m.e.i.c, General Secretary. 



COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

The President and Council: 

Conditions accompanying the war and the generally dis- 
turbed state of affairs, have not been conducive to formal 
international relations, so that there has been little for the 
Committee to do. The intimate contacts between Great 
Britain, the United States and Canada, incident to war 
contracts and supplies, has, however, greatly strengthened 
informal relationships. 

As far as the United States is concerned, the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development, on which the 
Institute has three members, apart from five others who 
are members of its Committee, has kept up connection 
between us and them, and some account of the work of 
this Council has already appeared in the Journals of the 
Societies. Several members of the International Relations 
Committee have attended the professional meetings of some 
of the American founder societies, and at least one paper 
was presented by one of the members in that connection. 

One event of unusual importance was the joint meeting, 
held at Niagara Falls, Ontario, October 13th to 15th, 1942, 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers and The Engin- 
eering Institute of Canada. The total attendance was about 
400, and many of our members were present at the meet- 
ings, and our president and others took a prominent part 
therein. Civilian defence of Canada and the United States 
was one of the subjects discussed, and members of both 
societies were greatly pleased by the spirit of friendship 
and good feeling existing between these two adjacent 
nations. 

The Committee records its profound sorrow over the 
recent death of Past-President H. H. Vaughan, one of its 
members. Mr. Vaughan had a very close connection with 
our own Institute, The American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
and was in a position to create very harmonious relations 
amongst members of the profession in different countries. 
He is a distinct loss to the Committee. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Robert W. Angus, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON DETERIORATION 
OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES 

The President and Council: 

The Committee on Deterioration of Concrete Structures 
has nothing to report this year. The members of the Com- 
mittee are all busy men and due to war conditions it seems 
to me inadvisable to press them in connection with com- 
mittee work unless some special problem should come up 
which was related to the present emergency. 

At the beginning of the year I questioned whether or not 
this committee should be continued if it could not be active, 
but there is plenty of work for the committee to do in more 
favorable times; and I am now inclined to the belief that 
we should maintain it in its present form ready to work 
actively when the war is over, for at that time there will 
be much deferred maintenance to be carried out on concrete 
structures and the work of the committee will become of 
interest to a great many of the Institute's members. 
Respectfully submitted, 

R. B. Young, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Publication Committee submits the following report 
for the year 1942: 

As usual, the principal work of the committee has been 
the publication of the Engineering Journal, and we feel 
that in spite of the difficult and strenuous times through 
which we are passing the standards have been well main- 
tained. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



75 



It is a source of satisfaction to point to the many con- 
t ributions the Journal has received from special correspond- 
ents overseas. Most of these have been along aeronautical 
lines, and our correspondents have been experts in that 
Held. Correspondence from members in the United States 
has also been an important feature of several numbers of 
the Journal. The committee is indeed grateful to these 
people for their contributions. 

The Institute's membership in the Engineers' Council for 
Professional Development has brought to us several excel- 
lent papers which appeared simultaneously in the publica- 
tions of all the societies making up the membership of the 
Engineers' Council. These articles all related to the profes- 
sional and ethical side of engineering. 

Several excellent papers have been submitted to the com- 
mittee for which publication was denied because the censors 
failed to give approval. 

An important publication for the year was the French 
translation of the booklet "The Profession of Engineer- 
ing in Canada." The English version was printed last year. 
This publication and translation was carried on under the 
auspices of the Committee on the Training and Welfare of 
the Young Engineer, but it also received the approval of 
the Publication Committee. The Institute is much indebted 
to Messrs. Huet Massue and H. Gaudefroy for their assist- 
ance in preparing an excellent translation. 

Another publication which has entailed a lot of work 
and expense was the printing of the notes of Professor Fred 
Webster's lectures on "Structural Defence Against Bomb- 
ing." Since the original confidential notes were printed, an 
abridged edition has been published which has already gone 
into the second printing. The work associated with these 
publications was very largely attended to by the Institute's 
Committee on the Engineering Features of Civil Defence, 
and the Publication Committee is glad to take this oppor- 
tunity to acknowledge the excellent work of that Com- 
mittee. 

Although it involves no work for the Publication Com- 
mittee, it is interesting to report that the advertising portion 
of the Journal continues to operate on a quite satisfactory 
basis. The volume of advertising is being well sustained. 

In May of 1943, the Engineering Journal will celebrate 
its 25th Anniversary. It is proposed to fittingly acknowledge 
this anniversary by means of a special number. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. McLeod, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



PAPERS COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Papers Committee has not accomplished as much 
during the year as it had hoped to do. The war work under- 
taken by the various members is restricting most other 
activities. However, some meetings have been arranged, and 
the following is a brief outline. 

Harry F. Bennett of London, Ontario, chairman of the 
Institute's Committee on the Training and Welfare of the 
Young Engineer, made a tour of all the four maritime prov- 
inces early in the year. These meetings were well attended 
and his visit was very much appreciated. 

Professor Fred Webster, deputy chief engineer, Ministry 
of Home Security, London, England, visited seven branches, 
Halifax, Saguenay, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, 
and Victoria. His topic was "The Structural Features of 
Defence Against Bombing." 

The committee would like to emphasize the value of re- 
gional meetings of Council. Such meetings promote co-oper- 
ation between engineers, and are stimulus to closer rela- 
tionship between branches, inasmuch as they bring together 
officers of the Institute and councillors from all branches in 
the zone. 

A perusal of the reports of branches indicates that the 
papers through the year have been of a high standard. The 



committee believes that assistance to branches could be 
extended by a better supply of motion picture films as well 
as papers. 

It is encouraging to see that the officers and members 
of the Institute are developing the practice of visiting 
branches when, for business or other reasons, they travel 
in different parts of Canada. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James A. Vance, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

The reports of the examiners appointed in the various 
zones to judge the papers submitted for the prizes for 
Students and Juniors of the Institute were submitted to 
Council at its meeting on January 16th, 1943, and the fol- 
lowing awards were made: 

H. N. Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces). No papers 
received. 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario), to Robert 
J. G. Schofield, jr. e. i.e., for his paper"Cotton Yarn Dyeing." 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec — English), to 
Paul O. Freeman, s.e.i.c, for his paper "Cold Rivetting — 
Its Principles, Procedure and Advantages". 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec — French), to 
René Dansereau, s.e.i.c, for his paper "Etude comparative 
de la construction, par la rivure et par soudure, d'un pont- 
route en acier." 

Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces). No papers 
received. 

GZOWSKI MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

It is the unanimous recommendation of your Committee 
that the Gzowski Medal for the year 1942 be awarded to 
Dr. S. D. Lash, m.e.i.c, for his paper, "Notes on the 
Analysis and Design of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete 
Slabs Supported on Four Sides," as published in the Sep- 
tember, 1941, issue of the Journal. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. V. Anderson, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Committee, consisting of Messrs. J. M. Fleming 
and R. C. Flitton together with the writer, has examined 
carefully a number of papers presented to the Institute 
during the year ending June 30, 1942 which appeared to 
meet the conditions prescribed for this award. 

Having reached a unanimous decision, the members of 
your Committee would recommend that the award be made 
to J. H. Maude, m.e.i.c, for his paper, "The New Oil- 
Hydraulic Press in Munitions Manufacture," as published 
in the February, 1942 issue of the Journal. 

Among other papers of outstanding interest, your Com- 
mittee would like to mention the paper by Howard 
Johnson, m.e.i.c, on "Shipyard Production Methods," and 
W. F. Drysdale's paper on "The Manufacture of the 25- 
Pounder in Canada." 



Respectfully submitted, 
John T. Farmer, 



M.E.I.C, Chairman. 



PLUMMER MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council : 

Your Committee has considered the papers presented 
during the prize year, July, 1941 to June, 1942, and recom- 
mends that the Plummer Medal for 1942 be awarded to 
Professor E. A. Allcut, m.e.i.c, for his paper, "Producer 
Gas for Motor Transport," as published in the April, 1942 
issue of the Journal. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. R, Whittemore, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



76 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



LEONARD MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Among the papers submitted for consideration for the 
Leonard Medal award there are several considered b3 r your 
Committee to be of a high standard, and it has not been 
easy to differentiate in making a selection for the award. 
However, a substantial majority of the Committee approves 
for first place, the paper entitled, "The Ore Deposits of 
Nickel Plate Mountain, Hedley, B.C." by Paul Billingsley 
and C. B. Hume, as published in the October, 1941 issue 
of The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin and 
your Committee therefore recommends this paper for the 
award. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John McLeish, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

JULIAN C. SMITH MEDAL COMMITTEE 

Carrying out the instructions pertaining to the award 
of the Julian C. Smith Medal for 1942, the special com- 
mittee consisting of Past Presidents Hogg, Mackenzie, and 
myself has made a selection of names. 

The regulations pertaining to the medal require this com- 
mittee to select not more than two names from the nomi- 
nations and that these names shall be submitted by open 
letter ballot to all Councillors not later than October 1st 
of each year. The two names that have been selected are 
the following: 

Dr. H. G. Acres, Consulting Engineer, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Mr. R. M. Smith, Deputy Minister of Ontario. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. R. Young, m.e.i.c, President. 



NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Chairman: G. A. Vandervoort 

Branch ■ Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary F. K. Beach 

Cape Breton J. R. Morrison 

Edmonton J. Garrett 

Halifax LP. Macnab 

Hamilton A. Love 

Kingston H. W. Harkness 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge N. H. Bradley 

London F. T. Julian 

Moncton H. W. McKiel 

Montreal E. R. Smallhorn 

Niagara Peninsula A. L. McPhail 

Ottawa W. H. Munro 

Peterborough W. T. Fanjoy 

Quebec A. 0. Dufresne 

Saguenay S.J. Fisher 

Saint John V. S. Chesnut 

Saskatchewan H. R. MacKenzie 

Sault Ste Marie L. R. Brown 

St. Maurice Valley M. Eaton 

Toronto Wm. Storrie 

Vancouver W. O. Scott 

Victoria S. H. Frame 

Winnipeg H. L. Briggs 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



77 



Abstracts of Reports from Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held nine meetings during the 
year for the transaction of branch business. 

During the year, the Executive appointed two very 
important committees which have functioned in such a 
way as to greatly increase the usefulness of the Engineering 
Institute to the community at large. 

Mr. C. G. R. Armstrong was appointed chairman of the 
Branch Committee on Student Guidance and Counselling 
and has been very active in this connection. His report 
shows that the response to his efforts has been very gratify- 
ing. 

Mr. P. E. Adams has been appointed chairman of the 
Branch Committee on Structural Defence Against Bombing. 
The members of the committee are drawn from those who 
attended Professor Webster's lectures in Toronto on April 
22nd, 23rd and 24th. This committee will become of 
increasing value to the public as its activities become more 
widely known and deserves the hearty support of all 
Institute members. 

Seven Branch meetings were held during the year, 
including the Annual Meeting, and the joint meeting with 
the A.S.M.E. of Detroit, at which our president, Dean 
Young, presided. 

The meetings held were as follows, attendance being 
shown in brackets. 

Feb. 20 — Mr. James N. Livermore, of the Engineering Department 
of the Detroit Edison Company, spoke on The Adapt- 
ation of Air Conditioning to an Existing Office 
Building (37). 

Mar. 13 — Mr. Warren C. Miller, of St. Thomas, president of the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario, spoke 
on The Work of The Associations of Professional 
Engineers. (35). 

April 10 — Mr. A. E. Davison, transmission engineer of the Hydro 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, presented a paper 
on 220 Kilovolt Lines in Ontario 1941 (44). 

May 22 — The speaker was Mr. W. H. Furlong, chairman of the Board 
of the Sandwich, Windsor and Amherstburg Railway, 
who spoke on Canada's War Effort as shared by the 
S.W. & A. (26). 

Oct. 16 — This dinner was held in honour of the president of the 
E.I.C., Dean C. R. Young, of Toronto, and the president 
of the A.S.M.E., Mr. J. W. Parker, of Detroit. The 
meeting was attended by members of the Detroit section 
of the A.S.M.E. (100). 

Nov. 27 — Mr. W. R. Stickney, of the Canadian Bridge Company of 
Windsor, spoke on Electric Arc Welding (33). 

Dec. 11 — The Annual Meeting and election of officers. Mr. T. H- 
Jenkins, designing engineer of the Grand Trunk Western 
Railway, spoke on Wartime Railroad Transportation. 

(21). 

We record with regret the passing of three of the Branch's 
charter members: Messrs. J. E. Porter, F. H. Kester and 
W. H. Baltzell. 

CALGARY BRANCH 

The following report covers the activities of the Branch 
for the year 1942. Attendances are shown in brackets: 

Jan. 12 — Anglo-American Responsibilities, by Mr. Max Ball. 
(100). 

Jan. 29 — Programme in charge of and convened by Juniors and 
Students. Mr. B. A. Monkman spoke on The Minne- 
wanka Lake Power Project. Motion Pictures — Manu- 
facture of Army Vehicles, courtesy of the Ford Motor 
Company (47). 

Feb. 12 — Motion Pictures — Rainbows in the Rockies. Commentary 
by Mr. V. A. Newhall. Copper Mining in Arizona, 
courtesy of Mr. Gaddis, of Canada Wire & Cable Com- 
pany (44). 

Feb. 26 — Motion Picture — Construction of the Hydro Plant near 
Yellowknife, N.W.T., Commentary by Mr. A. G. Ben- 
nett of Bennett and White Construction Company (47). 

Mar. 14 — Annual Meeting, following luncheon (31). 



Note — For Membership and Financial 
Statements see pages 82 and 83 



April 10 — Dean C. R. Young, president of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, visited the Branch; following the President's 
talk, lunch was served (76). 

July 29 — Effects of Aerial Bombing, by Professor I. F. Morrison. 
(50). 

Sept. 25 — Mr. C. A. Price on Recent Electrical Developments. 
Motion Pictures — Arc Welding, courtesy Canadian 
General Electric (109). 

Oct. 28 — Mr. S. N. Green on History of Aircraft Construction 
over the Past Thirty Years (44). 

Nov. 12— The Edmonton Power Plant, by Mr. R. R. Couper (38). 

Nov. 26 — Mr. James Fowler spoke on The History and Scope of 
The Provincial Institute of Technology, and its 
Function in Relation to the War Emergency Pro- 
gramme (25). 

Dec. 10 — Showing of coloured pictures, The Flora of the West, 
Commentary by Mr. McAlla. This was our annual Ladies' 
Night. Luncheon was served following lecture (82). 

During the year the Branch Executive Committee met 
nine times. 

CAPE BRETON BRANCH 

During the year the branch held three meetings, the 
first on The St. Lawrence Waterway and The Young 
Engineer at which Mr. H. F. Bennett was the speaker; 
the second on Air Raid Precautions and Civil Defence 

by Messrs. Ira McNab and G. Clarke. 

The third meeting was a dinner in honour of the visit 
of the presidential party in August, the speakers being the 
members of the party and several local representatives of 
industry. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 

During the year 1942 there has been a large influx of 
American engineers to Edmonton; invitations have been 
given to these to attend our regular meetings and interesting 
additions to our discussions have been obtained thereby. 

In order to meet these engineers from the U.S.A., the 
Branch held a reception or cocktail party on November 6th 
which was attended by 31 Canadians and 25 American 
guests. The Americans responded by inviting our members 
to a similar party in December. 

The following is a summary of our regular meetings with 
attendances shown in brackets. Except for the July meet- 
ing, these were all preceded by a dinner. 

Jan. 21 — Geophysical Methods of Oil Exploration by W. H. 

Gibson of the McColl-Frontenac Oil Co. (40). 

Feb. 24 — The Cascade Power Development by B. A. Monkman, 
Field Engineer for the Calgary Power Company (50). 

Mar. 27 — Chemicals and the War Effort by Dr. E. H. Boomer of 
the Department of Chemistry at the University of 
Alberta (43). Election of Branch Officers for the 1942-43 
Session took place at this meeting (43). 

April 9 — Dean C. R. Young, president of the E.I.C. visited the 
Branch and gave an interesting and instructive address 
on the work being done by the Institute (37). 

July 20 — Prof. I. F. Morrison, one of the Edmonton Branch's dele- 
gates to the Webster lectures spoke on The Effects of 
Aerial Bombing (35). 

Nov. 13 — Development of Natural Resources in Relationship to 
the Railways by G. M. Hutt, Assistant Development 
Commissioner of the C.P.R. (32). 

Dec. 9 — The Work of Ducks Unlimited in Canada by G. R. 
Fanset, Chief Engineer of Ducks Unlimited Canada (38). 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held nine business meetings 
with an average attendance of seven members. The figures 
in the brackets show the attendance at the meetings of the 
Branch. 



78 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Jan. 9 — The Annual Business Meeting and Banquet was held at 
the Royal Connaught Hotel. The guest speaker, Professor 
E. A. Allcut, University of Toronto, spoke on Sub- 
stitute Fuels for Gasoline. President C. J. Mackenzie 
and the general secretary, L. Austin Wright were present 
and each addressed the gathering. W. A. T. Gilmour 
closed the meeting by introducing the new chairman, 
Stanley Shupe who replied in a few words. 

Feb. 10 — Hardening by Induction, by Dr. H. B. Osborne, Jr., 
research and development engineer, Tocco Division, Ohio 
Crankshaft Company. This was a joint meeting with 
American Society of Metals (Ontario Chapter) also the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers (Hamilton 
Group) and was held in the Westinghouse Auditorium. 
(135). 

Mar. 20 — Cotton Yarn Dyeing, by R. J. G. Schofield, Jr. E. i.e., 
The Application of Electric Drive to Machine Tools, 
by Andrew M. Swan, s.e.i.c, and A History of Water 
Power Development on the Saguenay River, by K. 

R. Knights, s.e.i.c. 
This was the annual Junior and Student night and the 
three contestants submitted excellent papers. After the 
contest, Chancellor G. P. Gilmour, as our guest speaker 
gave a most interesting address entitled Useful and 
Useless Learning (62). 

Mar. 31 — Essential Air Raid Precautions, by E. Arthur Pinto, 
M.E.i.c, at the Delta Collegiate Auditorium, when the 
following were our guests; Hamilton Civil Guard, under 
the command of Lieut. Col. H. S. Robinson; Officers and 
men of the Army Trades School, under the command of 
Col. White, m.e.i.c; Auxiliary Firemen and A. R. P. 
workers under the command of Major Wilson and the 
Women's Auxiliary Defence Corps and Band, under the 
command of Brigadier Molly Mockler. Cash prizes were 
awarded to A. M. Swan and R. J. G. Schofield who had 
been judged the winners of the contest of the previous 
meeting (1121). 

April 10 — Trends in Design of A. C. Generators, by C. M. Laffoon, 
Manager, A. C. generator engineers, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric and Mfg. Company, Pittsburgh. This was a joint 
meeting with the A.I.E.E. (Hamilton Group) and was 
held in the Westinghouse Auditorium (176). 

May 5 — Magnesium: Lightest Commercial Metal, by Dr. L. 
M. Pigeon, Metallurgist, Dominion Magnesium Com- 
pany, located at Halleys. This meeting was held at 
McMaster University (48). 

June 23 — Welding and War, by E. W. P. Smith, b.sc.e., consulting 
engineer, 1 The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. This meeting was a joint meeting with the Niagara 
District Electric Club and was held in McMaster Univer- 
sity (96). 

May 16 — Insulation and Condensation in Buildings, by W. W. 
Cullen, chief engineer of insulation, H. W. Johns-Manville 
Company, New York. This was a joint meeting with 
the Hamilton Chapter, Ontario Association of Architects 
and Geo. T. Evans, m.r.a.i.c, president of the local 
Chapter conducted the meeting as chairman (38). 

Aug. 7 — Official opening of the Shand Dam, near Fergus, Ontario, 
was conducted by Premier Mitchell Hepburn who gave 
an important address to the engineers, contractors, dis- 
tinguished guests and public gathered to witness this 
ceremony. Executive members of the Hamilton Branch 
attended as guests of the management. 

Oct. 6 — P. P.C. Street Railway Cars, by J. A. M. Galilee, Assistant 
Advertising Manager, and L. A. Shaver, control engineer, 
both of the Can. Westinghouse Company. This was a 
joint meeting with the Hamilton Group of the A.I.E.E. 
(150). 

Nov. 18 — Air Bombing and Structural Defence, by D. C. Ten- 
nant, m.e.i.c, engineer, Ontario division, Dominion 
Bridge Company. Meeting was held at McMaster Uni- 
versity (63). 

The main activities of the year have been the formation 
of a branch committee on Engineering Features of Civil 
Defence and the participation in the work of the Hamilton 
Council of Adult Education Agencies. 

Some surveys and reports have been made in connection 
with the civil defence effort but the public does not appear 
to feel the need for proper precautions in case of actual 
danger. 

The matter of adult education was promoted by Professor 
C. H. Stearn of McMaster University and the Branch took 
part in this work from its inception and it is hoped and 
expected that we may be of use to this new organization. 

In response to the request of the Vocational Guidance 
Department of the Hamilton Y.M.C.A., for volunteers from 



a number of professional societies to participate in an 
experimental project to determine if there were any per- 
sonality differences between occupations on the professional 
level, a number of members of the Branch volunteered. 
The test chosen for this experimental project was the 
Rorschach Psychodiagnestic Group method. The branch 
was later informed of the result. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 

During the year, four regular dinner meetings, one even- 
ing meeting, and two special dinner meetings, were held, 
all of which were found to be interesting and enjoyed by 
those present. These meetings were as follows: 

Feb. 27 — Mr. H. F. Bennett, of the London, Ontario Branch, and 
chairman of the Institute Committee on the Young 
Engineer. His subject was The Engineer of To-mor- 
row. 

Mar. 11 — Prof. F. Webster, a member of the Research Experimental 
Staff of the Ministry of Home Security, London, England. 
He spoke to us on Engineering Features of Civil 
Defence. 

Mar. 20 — A moving picture was shown in the Nova Scotia Technical 
College Assembly Hall on Photoelastic Stress Analysis, 
prepared by Prof. A. E. MacDonald, of Engineering, 
University of Manitoba. 

April 23 — Dr. Allen E. Cameron, Deputy Minister of Mines for the 
Province of Nova Scotia. His subject was, The Develop- 
ment of Nova Scotia Resources. 

Aug. 7 — On this occasion we were privileged to be visited by the 
president of the Engineering Institute of Canada, the 
vice-presidents for Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime 
provinces, the general secretary, and the assistant general 
secretary. During the morning a regional council meeting 
was held which was well attended. In the afternoon, a 
very pleasant trip on the harbour was arranged through 
the courtesy of His Majesty's Canadian Navy, through 
the good offices of Rear Admiral G. C. Jones. In the 
evening, a dinner was held in honour of the President, 
at which the President was the guest speaker; his subject 
being, The Institute and the Engineering Profession. 

Oct. 22 — Mr. J. R. Sutherland, Editor of The Evening News, New 
Glasgow, whose address dealt with a six week's visit 
which he has just made to the British Isles. 

Nov. 19 — Mr. D. B. Lindsay, Manager, Clark Ruse Aircraft Ltd. 
His subject was, Aircraft, Overhaul and Repair for 
the R.C.A.F. 

During the year, the executive held ten meetings, at 
which ordinary routine business was transacted. 

Since the last annual meeting, the Halifax Branch has 
become one of the "Big Four" and is now privileged to be 
represented by two councillors. The executive recommended 
to Headquarters that Mr. J. R. Kaye, be appointed as a 
second councillor from this branch, and his appointment 
was unanimously confirmed by Headquarters. Mr. Kaye 
was also appointed the representative of the Halifax Branch 
on the Joint Finance Committee of the Halifax Branch of 
the Engineering Institute of Canada, and the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia. 

Two special committees have been set up by the execu- 
tive, they being the Committee on Engineering Features of 
Civil Defence, with Mr. Ira P. Macnab as chairman, and 
the Committee on the Guidance and Welfare of Young- 
Engineers, of which Prof. A. E. Flynn, was appointed 
chairman. 

The chairman was also asked to appoint a committee to» 
co-operate with the local committee on post-war recon- 
struction, of whom the local chairman is Mr. Fred Alport. 
It was decided that the executive as a whole, would act as 
a committee. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 

The following meetings were held by the Branch this year: 

Mar. 20 — A very interesting address on Aircraft in War was given 
by Wing-Commander Morgan Keddie of the Norman 
Rogers Training School at a meeting held at the Bad- 
minton Club. 

Nov. 10 — Guest speaker at the opening meeting of the winter pro- 
gramme was Professor J. C. Cameron, Head of the 
Industrial Relations Section at Queen's University. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



79 



Dec. 8 — A special meeting was held at the LaSalle Hotel to welcome 
the president. Dean C. R. Young of the University of 
Toronto. Mr. K, M. Winslow, chairman of the Branch, 
presided and Dean Young was introduced by Col. Le Roy 
Grant. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

The following meetings were held by the Branch this year: 

Jan. 14 — Mr. Z. Kryzwoblocki of the Canadian Car and Foundry 

Co. Ltd., Fort William, gave an address on The Rocket 

Wing-Bomb and Rocket Torpedo. 
Feb. 13 — The Annual Dance of the Lakehead Branch was held in 

the Norman Room of the Royal Edward Hotel in Fort 

William. 
April 4 — A special dinner meeting was held in the Prince Arthur 

Hotel, Port Arthur, to welcome the president of the 

Institute, Dean C. R. Young. 
June 10 — The annual dinner meeting of the Lakehead Branch was 

held at the Port Arthur Golf and Country Club. 
Nov. 11 — Iron Ore Occurrences in the Lake Superior District 

was the subject of an address given by Mr. Jules J. Cross, 

M.E., well-known engineer of Port Arthur and discoverer 

of the great hematite ore body at Steep Rock Lake near 

Atikokan, Ontario. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

During the year 1942, the following meetings were held: 

Jan. 31 — Joint dinner meeting at the Marquis Hotel with the Asso- 
ciation of Professional Engineers of Alberta. Wing- 
Comdr. Jones spoke on Bombing and Gunnery Train- 
ing (49). 

April 8 — Annual meeting and election of new officers. 

April 11 — Afternoon meeting in the Marquis Hotel to welcome the 
president of the Institute, Dean C. R. Young. 

Three executive meetings were also held during the year 
with an average attendance of six. 

LONDON BRANCH 

During the year 1942, the executive held seven business 
meetings. Eight regular and special meetings were held as 
follows. Attendance is given in brackets. 

Jan. 21 — Annual meeting and election of officers held at the Grange 
Tea Rooms, London. The Rise of The University, by 
Dr. Floyd Maine, of the University of Western Ontario. 
(35). 

Feb. 27 — Regular Meeting held in the Officers Mess, Talbot Street 
Armouries, London, Madawaska Development, by 
Otto Holden, M.E.I. c, Chief Hydraulic Engineer, Hydro 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario (45). 

Mar. 18 — Regular Meeting held in the Officers Mess, Talbot Street 
Armouries, London. Drainage Systems, by Geo. A. 
McCubbin, m.e.i.c, Drainage Engineer, Chatham, Ont. 
(35). 

April 21 — Regular Meeting held in Board Room, Public Utilities 
Commission, London, F. T. Julian, m.e.i.c, Branch 
Chairman, Report of Annual Meeting and Institute 
Affairs (28). 

May 21 — Special Dinner Meeting. Complimentary Dinner to Warren 
C. Miller, m.e.i.c, President of the Professional Engineers 
of Ontario. Held at the London Hunt & Country Club. 
(35). 

Sept. 25 — Regular Meeting held in the Board Room of the Public 
Utilities Commission, London, Dr. A. E. Barry, m.e.i.c, 
Director of Public Health, Toronto, Some Changing 
Concepts in Public Health Engineering. 

Nov. 4 — Regular Meeting held in the Board Room of the Board of 
Education, City Hall, London. The Effect of Bombing 
on Structures, by H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, District 
Engineer, Dept. Public Works, London (70). 

Dec. 2 — Special Supper Meeting for President C. R. Young at Hotel 
London, followed by a regular meeting in the Williams 
Memorial Library (35). 

MONCTON BRANCH 

The Executive held six meetings during the year. Seven 
meetings of the branch were held, at which addresses were 
given and business transacted as follows: 

Feb. 25 — A meeting was held in the City Hall. H. F. Bennett, b.sc, 
District Engineer, Department of Public Works, London, 
Ont., gave an address on The Great Lakes System. 



Mar. 24 — A meeting was held in the City Hall. Films dealing with 
Photoelastic Stress Analysis were shown. C. S. G. 
Rogers gave a running commentary. 

June 1 — A dinner meeting was held in the Brunswick Hotel. H. 
Franklin Ryan, b.sc, General Electric Co., Halifax, N.S., 
gave an address on Plastics. Mr. Ryan placed on display 
numerous samples, and his remarks were illustrated by 
slides. Nominations for branch officers for 1942-43 were 
made at this meeting. 

June 29 — The annual meeting was held on this date. 

Aug. 3 — A dinner meeting was held in the Y.M.C.A. The guest 
speaker was Dean C. R. Young, president of the Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada. Addresses were also given by 
Vice-President K. M. Cameron and Assistant General 
Secretary Louis Trudel. 

Nov. 11 — A combined meeting of Moncton Branch and the Engineer- 
ing Society of Mount Allison was held in the Science 
Building, Mount Allison University, Sackville. A film 
entitled The Inside of Arc Welding was shown. 

Nov. 12 — A meeting was held in the City Hall, at which the film 
The Inside of Arc Welding was shown. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

The outstanding event of the year was the fifty-sixth 
Annual General and Professional Meeting. With a regis- 
tration of over 1,000, it was a complete success. The Insti- 
tute was fortunate in being able to greet Lieutenant General 
and Mrs. A. G. L. McNaughton at the Annual Dinner. The 
General Committee on arrangements was under the able 
chairmanship of Mr. Walter G Hunt. The Executive Com- 
mittee is much indebted to the various chairman and 
members of the sub-committees who were responsible for 
this most successful meeting. 

Papers and Meetings Committee 
(Chairman — C. A. Peachey) 

Eight meetings of the Committee were held during the 
year and in spite of the war little difficulty was experienced 
in filling the autumn programme. The spring programme 
(1943), however, was more difficult to complete. 

A feature of the year was the special meeting held to 
hear Professor F. Webster of England, lecture on the effects 
of bombings on structures. 

As usual the annual plant visit was a decided success. 
About 350 members visited the plant of the Dominion 
Bridge Co. and were tendered a reception by the officials 
of the company. 

Previous to his paper on Industrial Democracy and 
Its Survival, delivered before the Branch on November 5, 
Mr. P. Ackerman gave a course of five lectures which were 
attended by several members as a preparation to discuss 
the subject at the meeting. 

It may be said that the meetings were, in general, excep- 
tionally well attended, especially during the fall, as shown 
by the figures given in brackets in the following list of 
papers delivered during the calendar year of 1942 : 

Jan. 8 — Shipyard Production Methods — An Outline of Building 
Operations for Steel Vessels, by Howard Johnson (185). 

Jan. 15 — Annual Meeting of the Branch (140). 

Jan. 22 — The Problems Encountered in Erecting Canada's 
First Directive Broadcast Station, by E. O. Swan (70). 

Jan. 29 — Airplane Transport Design, by John T. Dyment, m.e.i.c. 
(90). 

Feb. 5 & 6 — Annual General and Professional Meeting. 

Feb. 12 — Photoelastic Stress Analysis, by C. G. Axworthy (130). 

Feb. 19— Plates in Shipbuilding, by W. B. McCreery (80). 

Feb. 26 — Subcontracting in Canada's Munition Industries, by 
F. L. Jeckell (75). 

Mar. 5— Synthetic Rubber, by Dr. R. S. Jane (215). 

Mar. 12— An Engineer Looks at Music, by S. T. Fisher, Jr.E.i.c. 
(140). 

Mar. 19 — The Modernization of a Puerto Rico Electric Gen- 
erating Station, by John T. Farmer, m.e.i.c. and E. A. 
Goodwin, m.e.i.c. (55). 

Mar. 26 — Blackouts and Protective Lighting, by Samuel G. 
Hibben (150). 

April 9 — The Electron Microscope, by Dr. D. A. Keys (160). 

April 28 — Effects of Bombings on Structures, by Professor F. 
Webster (175). 



80 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Oct. 8 — Aquifers and Water Wells, by J. W. Simard, m.e.i.c. 
(175). 

Oct. 15 — Air Power Theories and Aviation Progress in Reality, 
by Z. Krzywoblocki (145). 

Oct. 22 — Engineering Aspects of Air Bombing and Structural 
Defence, by D. C. Tennant, m.e.i.c. (200). 

Oct. 29— Plant Visit— Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. (350). 

Nov. 5 — Industrial Democracy and Its Survival, by P. Acker- 
man, M.E.I.C. (175). 

Nov. 12 — Ventilating Buildings Manufacturing War Equip- 
ment, by H. E. Ziel (125). 

Nov. 19— Annual Student Night (165). 

Nov. 26 — Manpower Control and Employer-Employee Rela- 
tions, by L. Austin Wright, m.e.i.c. and Douglas B. 
Chant (200). 

Dec. 3 — Design, Manufacture and Installation of 120 KV Oil- 
Filled Cables in Canada, by 0. W. Titus and D. M. 
Farnham (110). 

Dec. 10 — Mechanization and Modern Military Tactics, by Capt. 
A. C. Rayment, m.e.i.c. (80). 

Junior Section 
(Chairman — J. E. Hurtubise) 

The activities of the Junior Section have been somewhat 
curtailed this year; all the papers that were arranged for 
the spring session had to be cancelled because the authors 
had either joined the army or were too busy with war work. 
The attendance at the meetings was smaller than usual for 
the same reasons. 

Mr. Graham Wanless, who was Branch News Editor and 
a member of the executive of the Junior Section resigned 
when he joined the staff of National Research Council. 
His departure for Ottawa deprives the Branch of his 
valuable services. 

The Student Night, which took place on November 19, 
was very successful. Mr. P. E. Salvas of Ecole Polytechnique 
took the first prize with an interesting talk on the "Launch- 
ing of Ships," and Messrs. Maclure and G. Bisaillon were 
awarded second prizes for original papers on "Introduction 
to Wooden Shipbuilding" and "Long Range Cruising Con- 
trol" respectively. 

Mr. W. G. Hunt addressed the McGill students and Mr. 
L. Trudel the students of Ecole Polytechnique with regard 
to enrolment in the Junior section of the Institute explaining 
the advantage to be gained. The results of their talk have 
been most gratifying. 

The following is a list of the Junior Section meetings 
with the attendance given in brackets: 

Jan. 26 — Annual Meeting — Mr. Jean Flahault, s.e.i.c, spoke on 
Some Engineering Aspects of the German Army. 
(83). 

Feb. 16 — Nomography, by A. Looker, s.e.i.c. (14). 

Mar. 16 — The Experimental Study of Stress, by Raymond A. 
Frigon, m.sc, s.e.i.c. (18). 

Mar. 30 — Modern Trends in the Maintenance of Lubricating 
Oil, by Bruce M. Scriver, s.e.i.c. (15). 

April 13 — Some Mechanical Properties of Rubber, by Graham 
G. Wanless, Jr. e. i.e. (24). 

Oct. 19 — Opening Night, the secretary of the Branch, Mr. L. A. 
Duchastel, gave a short talk, replacing the chairman, 
Mr. J. A. Lalonde who was unable to attend (70). 

Nov. 19 — Student Night. Design and Production of Marine En- 
gines, by R. A. Ritchie (McGill); Launching of Ships, 
by P. E. Salvas (Ecole Polytechnique); Introduction 
to Wooden Shipbuilding, by J. H. Maclure (McGill); 
Long Range Cruising Control, by G. Bisaillon (Ecole 
Polytechnique) (160). 

Membership Committee 
(Chairman — Henri Gaudefroy) 

The Executive Committee was called upon to approve a 
recommendation that no more Branch affiliates be admitted. 

After a careful study, a motion to that effect was passed 
and approved at the November meeting. 

No further Branch affiliates will therefore be accepted by 
the Montreal Branch. It was also recommended that the 
present ones who do not pay their fees regularly be auto- 
matically dropped. 

It has been observed that although many students of 



L'Ecole Polytechnique belonged to the Institute, there was 
a lack of participation by senior graduates. It was decided 
to ask the Membership Committee to organize a campaign 
with a view to obtaining their adherence. 

A group of eighteen members were assembled to carry 
out the work and a total of 175 circular letters were issued 
to prospective members. The group contacted 87 of these 
persons during the year but so far only 8 new applications 
have been received ; however, it is expected that if the work 
is carried out next year, there are good possibilities that at 
least 44 new members should be enlisted. 

Obituaries 

It is with regret that we record the names of those who 
have died during the year and we wish to extend to their 
families the most sincere sympathy of the Branch. 

HONORARY MEMBER— Dr. Frank Dawson Adams 
MEMBERS 



Archibald Fullarton Byers 
Kenneth Thomas Cregeen 
John Maurice Evans 
Lyall Radcliffe McCurdy 



John Palmer 

Leonard Ernest Schlemm 
Charles Rowlatt Townsend 
Henry Hague Vaughan 



Reception and Entertainment Committee 

(Chairman — M. S. MacGillivray) 

Refreshments were served at the Annual Meeting and 
the opening fall meetings of the Branch and of the Junior 
Section and also at the Student Night. Out-of-town speakers 
were entertained by members of the Papers and Meetings 
Committee as it was decided last year to suspend regular 
courtesy dinners for the duration. The Branch Smoker was 
held as part of the entertainment provided by Mr. W. W. 
Timmins and members of his Committee during the Annual 
Meeting of the Institute. A record attendance of 794 was 
established. 

Committee on Provincial Professional Interests 

(Chairman — J. A. , Lalonde) 

In view of the progress being made in several provinces 
towards closer co-operation between the Institute and the 
provincial professional associations, this committee con- 
tinued this year to explore the possibilities in this province. 

Several meetings were held between February and June, 
at which the agreements passed in four other provinces 
were closely studied, and a draft of a proposed agreement 
between the Institute and the Corporation of Professional 
Engineers of Quebec was drawn up. This draft was sub- 
mitted to the Executive Committee of the Branch and 
subsequently to Council. Authorization was obtained to 
discuss its contents informally with the Institute Com- 
mittee on Professional Interests, the other Branches of the 
Institute in the province and the Corporation of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Quebec. 

Copies of the proposed agreement were forwarded the 
St. Maurice Valley, Quebec and Saguenay Branches and 
the Committee met with their official representatives on 
September 11th, 1942. 

The chairman of the Committee was invited to a Council 
Meeting of the Corporation on October 24th, 1942. 

Finally, on December 11th, a joint meeting was held with 
the representatives of the various Branches and three 
representatives from the Corporation. 

A draft of the agreement, as proposed at this meeting, 
is now being written. It is the intention of your Committee 
to send a copy of this draft together with recommend- 
ations to the Council of the Institute. 

Committee on the Engineering Features of 

Civil Defence 

(Chairman — G. McL. Pitts) 

Upon recommendation of the Institute this special com- 
mittee was formed following the lectures given in Toronto 
by Prof. F. Webster and is composed of all members of 
the Branch who followed the lectures. Meetings were held 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1913 



81 



MEMBERSHIP AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



Branches 



MEMBERSHIP 
Resident 

Hon. Members 

Members 

Juniors 

Students 

Affiliates 

Total 

Non-Resident 

Hon. Members 

Members 

Juniors 

Students 

Affiliates 

Total 

Grand Total December 31st, 1942 

December 31st, 1941 

Branch Affiliates, December 31st. 1942 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Balance as of December 31st, 1941 

Income 

Rebates from Institute Headquarters . 

Payments by Professional Assns 

Branch Affiliate Dues 

Interest 

Miscellaneous 

Headquarters Building Fund Subscrip 
tiohs 

Total Income 

Disbursements 

Printing, Notices, Postage® 

General Meeting Expense® 

Special Meeting Expense® 

Honorarium for Secretary 

Stenographic Services 

Headquarters Building Fund 

Travelling Expenses® 

Subscriptions to other organizations. . 
Subscriptions to The Journal 

Special Expenses 

Miscellaneous 

Professional Assn. Registration Fees. . . 

Total Disbursements 

Surplus or Defied! 

Balance as of December 31, 1942 



u ■ 

V «J 
■! "* 



48 
5 
6 



59 



17 

2 
2 



21 



80 
98 



210.56 

187.52 

278^42 



463 . 94 



28.61 
331.02 



10.00 



27.10 



396.73 
67.21 

277.77 



6J3 

'a 
U 



97 
11 
10 

1 



119 



17 
3 
5 



25 



S 
o 
— 

- 

- 

ft 

05 

u 



30 
3 
2 

2 



37 



23 
5 
4 
3 



35 



144 
145 

42 



103.57 



284 . 45 
54.75 

148.50 
43.54 
61.46 



592.70 



105.39 

88.00 

173.55 



21.90 
24^00 

25.00 

21.22 



459 . 06 
133 . 64 
237.21 



72 

77 



s 



s 

W 



64 

9 

20 

1 



94 



255.06 



230.75 
90.00 



10.00 



336.75 



2.01 
26 '83 

32.60 



15.80 
90.00 



167.24 
169.51 
424 . 57 



101 
113 



93.14 



38.70 
220.50 



107.00 



366.20 



48.52 

39.43 

183.72 

50.00 



27.85 



7.50 



357 . 02 

9.18 

102.32 



X 



163 

10 

16 

2 



191 



71 

6 

13 



90 



281 
256 



220.61 



90.27 
360.20 

o'eo 



451.07 



78.17 
75.95 
87.73 
37.50 
25.65 



59.11 
22.67 



386.78 

64 . 29 

284.90 



es 
X 



89 

18 

20 

1 



128 



19 
1 
1 
1 



22 



150 
146 

14 



280.55 



311.33 



30. 

67. 
15. 



423 . 96 



86. 

252 i 

50 i 



131.50 



46 . 06 



566 
11$ 
137 



72 
76 
79 



e 


« 

C 



2 
37 

8 

24 

1 



72 



81 
91 



40.27 
122.03 

6"n 



122.14 



9.74 

6.53 

15.30 



15.00 



5.00 



51.57 

70.57 

110.84 



"0 

a 
- 

- 



29 
4 
5 
5 



43 



17 
2 
5 



24 



67 
68 



229 . 14 



130.60 



0.70 
260.60 



391.90 



15.83 

158.25 

208.45 

10 00 

2.00 



6.00 



400 . 53 
8.6S 

220.51 



"«H 

- 

- 

— 



16 
1 
2 



19 



23 
9 

7 



39 



58 
58 



89.03 



27.30 
76.25 

5. 50 
4.00 



113.05 



6.23 
1.50 



4.45 



12.18 
100.87 
189.90 



©Includes general printing, meeting notices, postage, telegraph, telephone and stationery. 

(J Includes rental of rooms, lanterns, operators, lantern slides and other expenses. 

©Includes dinners, entertainments, social functions, and so forth. ©Includes speakers 



82 



councillors or branch officers. 
February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOl RNAL 



F THE BRANCHES AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1942 



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60 
es 

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es 

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es 

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3 


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es 


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60 

V 

fin 

'S 

3 


31 
6 
4 


2 

811 

166 

431 

22 


69 

15 

18 

4 


2 

312 

39 

44 

3 


33 
17 
19 


89 
14 

11 

1 


63 

18 

24 

4 


48 
5 

10 
2 


31 
15 

15 
1 


96 

23 

1 


21 

7 
1 


1 

375 

65 

75 

17 


113 
5 

11 
2 


1 

43 

3 
3 


116 
22 

82 
3 


41 


1432 


106 


400 


69 


115 


109 


65 


62 


130 


29 


533 


131 


50 


223 


14 
3 
5 



43 
22 
33 

1 


6 

1 


49 

12 

14 

2 


^22 
4 
3 
1 


15 
5 

7 
1 


3 
1 

1 


48 
5 

24 


4 

4 

7 
1 


38 
8 

13 
1 


33 

7 
9 
1 


14 
5 

4 

1 


46 
4 

7 
1 


10 
3 
3 


20 
6 
9 


22 


99 


7 


77 


30 


28 


5 


77 


16 


60 


50 


24 


58 


16 


35 


63 

41 

4 


1531 

1399 

19 


113 

117 
10 


477 

444 

20 


99 
89 

8 


143 

141 


114 
92 


142 
102 


78 
74 


190 
260 


79 
90 
12 


557 

521 


189 

197 

1 


66 
65 

1 


258 

231 

9 



*For voting purposes only, there should be added to Montreal Branch, an additional 310 members, 181 being resident in the United States, 98 
British possessions and 31 in foreign countries. 



58.10 


© 
2,287.26 


296.95 


827 . 58 


134.42 


33.90 


229.66 


257.88 


110.94 


23.29 


427 . 39 


695.75 


284 . 00 


99.90 


333 . 35 


30.40 


1,954.39 


232.35 


552.04 


136.96 


270.12 


175.50 


31.10 


111.92 


37.30 


160.83 


681.53 


303 . 92 


125.50 


307 . 06 


30.00 














148.00 




202.19 












55.00 


83.00 


39.40 


54.00 


24 . 00 












36.00 






3.00 


45.00 


3.41 


6.82 


3.00 


46.08 


0.60 


0.36 










9.13 


11.04 


1.60 




22.50 


25.75 


578.35 
53.00 


4.88 


42.95 


36.44 


134.77 
70.00 


32.50 


303.80 


152.84 




145.75 


178.85 




50.00 
3.00 


41.70 


54.56 


2,675.56 


279.63 


695.07 


198.02 


475.25 


208.00 


482.90 


264 . 76 


239.49 


351.71 


871.42 


305.52 


181.50 


416.26 


23.73 


765.20 


52.01 


175.01 


04.78 


98.32 


29.10 


48.42 


25.93 




16.94 


183.37 


90.44 


40.70 


114.23 


L3.00 


296.01 


19.95 




50.00 


16.42 


13.15 


1.62 


10.00 


94.41 


179.56 


132.63 


52.40 


40.00 


55.75 


37.34 


142.12 


23.27 


208.90 


11.31 


181.89 


167.06 


346.72 


233.21 




44.26 


272.91 


62.05 


39.03 


15.75 


25.00 


300.00 


75.00 






100.00 




25.00 




60.00 


25.00 


125.00 


50.00 


35.00 


75.00 


10.00 


120.00 
500.00 

12.02 


5.00 
11.75 


50.00 




75' 00 
21.65 


44.82 
30.00 


10.00 


5.00 


12.00 

7.40 


1.00 


2.60 

75.50 
10.00 


20.00 


12.10 




8.00 


34.00 

© 
1,040.00 


16.45 


6.00 


6.00 












12.00 








18.00 




113.23 


182.90 


2.30 










23.75 




30.00 






70.00 


22.94 


44 40 


3 17 


26.08 




3.64 


16.72 


28.68 




4.63 


1.40 


76.70 


8.70 


57.31 


10.80 


70.01 


3,253.75 


319.83 


648.89 


134.39 


496.92 


300.85 


460.44 


274.14 


202 . 19 


280.16 


908.71 


283 . 59 


224.14 


359 . 53 


14.55 


578.19 


40.20 


46.18 


63 . 63 


21 .67 


92.85 


22.46 


9.38 


37.30 


71.55 


37.29 


21.83 


42.64 


56.73 


32.65 


1.709.07 


256 . 75 


873 . 76 


198.05 


12.23 


136.81 


280.34 


101.56 


60.59 


498.94 


658 . 46 


305.83 


57.26 


390.08 



©Includes contribution to annual meeting of the Institute. 

© Includes $500.00 for building fund received in 1941 and disbursed in 1942. 



IE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



83 



to consider the type of study most needed and it was agreed 
to undertake specific studies in accordance with items 4 
and 5 of the terms of reference of the Institute Com- 
mittee on the Engineering Features of Civil Defence. 

Student Guidance Committee 

(Chairman — Jacques Benoit) 

This Committee was formed following a recommendation 

of the Institute Committee on the Training and Welfare 

of the Young Engineer and its activities comprised the 

following : 

1 — Preparation of a list of High Schools and private 
schools of both French and English language in the 
Branch area. 

2 — Preparation of a letter addressed to each school prin- 
cipal informing him of our aim to assist the student 
and asking for an opportunity to discuss this matter, 
which letter will be mailed before the end of the year. 

3 — Distribution of French version of engineering pro- 
fession booklet through the Institute Headquarters. 

4 — Study of methods used by the Engineering Council 
for Professional Development in meeting and advising 
boys about to decide on a vocation. Also study of 
instructions received from Mr. H. F. Bennett, chair- 
man of the Committee on the Training and Welfare 
of the Young Engineer. 

5 — Preparation of short guide to be used by the Com- 
mittee members in addressing the students. 

Most of the work has been of a preliminary nature but 
following the distribution of the proposed circular letter, it 
is planned next year to visit schools and talk to students 
in groups and individually and possibly arrange visits to 
engineering enterprises. 

Publicity Committee 
(Chairman — Gordon D. Hulme) 

At the request of the chairman of the Annual General 
and General Professional Meeting of the Institute, the 
Branch Publicity Committee handled all publicity matters 
for the Annual Meeting of the Institute. Several meetings 
were held for the members of the press and they were 
supplied with all available information concerning the 
Institute and all the functions of the meeting. Besides 
articles in periodicals, items were found in 71 newspapers 
and a survey showed that 25 per cent more publicity was 
given on this meeting than on the one held the year before. 

The Montreal newspapers received information regarding 
Branch meetings held during the year and several visits 
were made to the press in order to maintain friendly 
relations. In some cases the newspapers were urged to have 
a reporter cover meetings but when the topic under dis- 
cussion was not of general interest and only of a technical 
nature, this practice was omitted. From casual observations 
of articles published it is felt that the relationship between 
the Branch and the newspapers is on the most satisfactory 
basis. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

The Branch Executive held five business and one elec- 
toral meeting during the year in order to conduct the affairs 
of the branch. 

The outstanding event for the year was, of course, the 
joint convention of the Engineering Institute of Canada 
and the American Society of Civil Engineers, held in 
Niagara Falls, October 14-15. The branch was pleased to 
be able to assist, in a small way, the planning of this meet- 
ing. 

The programme committee arranged and conducted the 
following professional meetings: 

Jan. 22 — Joint dinner meeting with the Niagara District Chemieal 
and Industrial Club, held at the Welland House, St. 
Catharines. The speaker was Mr. Douglas Lorimer, who 
talked on The Wartime Control of Chemical Re- 



Feb. 26 — Dinner meeting held at the General Brock Hotel, Niagara 
Falls. Messrs. J. P. Skillen and C. Vrooman, of the 
Canadian Westinghouse Company, spoke on the Appli- 
cation of Relays and Meters for Industrial Sub- 
stations. 

Mar. 19 — Joint dinner meeting with the Buffalo Section of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, held at the Mather 
Arms, Fort Erie. Mr. D. B. Niederlander, of the John 
W. Cowper Company, spoke on The Construction of 
the Pine Camp Cantonment. 

April 15 — Joint dinner meeting with the Canadian Section of the 
American Water Works Association, during their con- 
vention at the General Brock Hotel, Niagara Falls. 
Messrs. A. E. Berry and W. Storrie spoke on Modern 
Practice and Developments in the Water Works 
Field. 

May 21 — Annual dinner meeting of the branch, held at the Leonard 
Hotel, St. Catharines. Our president, Dean C. R. Young, 
spoke to us on Institute Affairs and The Engineer and 
The War. 

June 24 — Special evening lecture, held in the Page-Hersey Audi- 
torium, Welland. The late Mr. E. W. P. Smith, con- 
sultant to the Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland 
gave a review of Modern Electric Welding and how 

it may assist the war effort. 

Oct. 14-15 — The usual October meeting was cancelled in order that 
the branch might attend and co-operate with the Activi- 
ties of the Joint Convention of the E.I.C. and the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers. The sessions were held at 
the General Brock Hotel, Niagara Falls. 

Nov. 26 — Dinner meeting held at the Leonard Hotel, St. Catharines. 
Mr. J. M. Galilee, of the Canadian Westinghouse Com- 
pany, gave a demonstration talk on Recent Advances 
in Electrical Research. 



OTTAWA BRANCH 

During the year the Managing Committee held nine 
meetings for the transaction of general business. 

It is with deep regret that we report the deaths of two 
of our members: Mr. E. M. Dennis, m.e.i.c, and Mr. R. H. 
Swingler, s.e.i.c. 

As in previous years the Branch donated two sets of 
draughting instruments to thé Ottawa Technical School for 
presentation as prizes for proficiency in draughting. A copy 
of "Technical Methods of Analysis" by Griffin was pre- 
sented to the Hull Technical School to be awarded to one 
of its students. 

The following is a list of meetings held during 1942, with 
attendance figures in brackets. Unless otherwise indicated, 
these were luncheon meetings at the Chateau Laurier. 

Jan. 8 — Annual evening meeting, National Research Laboratories. 
Address by J. W. Bateman, b.a.Sc, m.i.e.s., Manager, 
Lighting Service Department, Canadian General Electric 
Company Limited; Magic of the Spectrum, with 
demonstration equipment and lantern slides in colour. 
(265). 

Jan. 22 — F. Cooksey, District Chief Drill Master, Fire Brigade, 
Ottawa; Incendiary Bombs (84). 

Feb. 19 — R. E. Hayes, b.sc, m.e.i.c, Manager, Engineering Depart- 
ment, The General Supply Company of Canada Limited, 
Ottawa; Earth Moving Takes Wings, with a sound 
film (77). 

Mar. 5 — M. S. Kuhring, Division of Mechanical Engineering, Na- 
tional Research Council, Ottawa. Engine Testing Tri- 
bulations (65). 

Mar. 26 — P. Lebel, m.e.i.c, Asphalt Technologist, Imperial Oil Com- 
pany of Canada, Montreal. The Portland-Montreal 
Pipe Line, with a sound film in colour (140). 

April 9 — W. R. Campbell, City Traffic Manager, Trans-Canada Air 
Lines, Ottawa. Skyway Across Canada, with a sound 
film in colour (108). 

April 17 — Evening meeting, held jointly with the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgy and the Society of Chemical 
Industry; Auditorium, National Research Laboratories, 
Ottawa. Address by A. E. Byrne, Glyptals and Insulating 
Materials Section, Supply Department, Canadian (Jou- 
erai Electric Company Limited, Toronto. Plastics with 
demonstration equipment and lantern slides (250). 

April 20 — Evening meeting, Auditorium, National Research Labora- 
tories, Ottawa. Address F. Webster, Dean of Engineering, 
University of Rangoon. Bombs and Structures with a 
slow-motion film. (175). 



84 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



May 7 — Evening meeting. Auditorium, National Research Labora- 
tories, Ottawa. Address by C. E. MacDonald, b.a.Sc, 
c.i.m.m., a.s.m., Manager of Domestic Sales, Inter- 
national Nickel Company of Canada Ltd., Toronto. 
The Mining, Smelting, and Refining of Nickel- 
Copper Ores, with a sound film (35). 

Sept. 16 — C. R. Young, b.a.Sc, c.e., m.e.i.c. Post-War Importance 
of Engineers (84). 

Sept. 25 — Evening meeting, held jointly with the Society of Chemical 
Industry. Address I. M. Rabinovitch; Chemical War- 
fare, with lantern slides (280). 

Oct. 22 — Evening meeting, held jointly with the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgy, Auditorium, National Re- 
search Laboratories, Ottawa. Address 0. W. Titus, 
b.a.Sc, a.i.e.e., Chief Engineer, Canada Wire and Cable 
Company Limited, Toronto. Copper Mining in Ari- 
zona, with a silent film (60). 

Nov. 5 — R. M. Gooderham, b.a.Sc, m.e., Shipbuilding Branch, 
Department of Munitions and Supply, Ottawa; Increas- 
ing Welded Production, with a sound film in colour. 
(121). 

Nov. 19 — Evening meeting; Auditorium, National Research Labora- 
tories. Address by George L. Long, Bell Telephone Com- 
pany of Canada, Montreal. Your Voice as Others Hear 
It with demonstration equipment (285). 

Dec. 17 — G. L. Jennison, Priorities Branch, Department of Munitions 
and Supply, Ottawa; PRP (88). 

PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 

The following meetings were held during the year, with 

attendances shown in brackets: 

Jan. 22 — Mr. Frank O' Byrne, of Associated Screen News, on Visual 
Aids for the Industrialist (56). 

Jan. 24 — Social Evening (Ladies Night). 

Feb. 5 — Mr. F. R. Pope of Western Clock Company, Peterborough, 
on Alarm Clocks — How they are made (30). 

Feb. 19 — E. V. Leipoldt of the Shawinigan Engineering Co., Mont- 
real, Electrical Design of the LaTuque Develop- 
ment (59). 

Mar. 12 — Dr. H. B. Osborn of Ohio Crankshaft Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Surface Treating by Induction (55). 

Mar. 26 — Mr. H. M. Dunkerley, Inspection Board, Dept. M. & S., 
United Kingdom and Canada. Mechanism in War- 
fare (55). 

April 9 — Messrs. G. R. Langley, R. L. Dobbin, J. W. Pierce, A. J. 
Girdwood, J. F. Osborn, all of Peterborough Branch, on 
Discussion of Post- War Problems (57). 

April 23— Mr. G. E. Bourne of C.G.E. Co., Toronto, on Electricity 
in Modern Warfare (60). 

May 7— Student Night, Mr. R. Scott and Mr. A. M. McQuarrie (49). 

May 20 — Annual Business Meeting (34). 

Nov. 5 — Mr. R. N. Fournier of C.G.E. Co., Toronto, on Electric 
Heat in Industry (40). 

Nov. 26 — Annual Dinner with President C. R. Young, and Vice- 
President K. M. Cameron as speakers (96). 

Dec. 10— Mr. Montague of the H.E.P.C. of Ontario, on The DeCew 
Falls Development (52). 

QUEBEC BRANCH 

During the past year, seven meetings of the Executive 
Committee were held at which the attendance averaged 
eight members or sixty per cent. 

Seven general Branch meetings were also held through 
the year as listed below with the attendance given in 
brackets : 

Mar. 24 — Aerial Photography, by Mr. Théo. Miville Dechêne, 
m.e.i.c, at School of Mines Theatre, Laval University. 
(53). 

Mar. 30 — Aluminum, Strategic Metal, by Mr. P. M. Haenni, 
d.sc. Métallurgie, at the School of Mines Theatre, Laval 
University (80). 

July 31 — Dinner Meeting in honour of Dean C. R. Young's visit 
at the Garrison Club (45). 

Aug. 17 — Second Annual Golf Tournament at Levis and dis- 
tribution of many prizes (45). 

Sept. 28 — Electric Welding, by Mr. R. N. Fournier, specialist of 
General Electric Company, at the School of Mines 
Theatre, Laval University (45). 

Dec. 12 — Visit of the New St-Michel-Archange Hospital, 
organized by Mr. Y. R. Tassé (40). 

Dec. 14 — General Annual Meeting and election of Officers of the 
Quebec Branch, at The School of Mines Theatre, Laval 
University. Bombing and its effects, by Mr. Robert 
Sauvage, m.e.i.c. (40). 



SAGUENAY BRANCH 

During the year 1942 the Branch held eleven general 
meetings as follows: 

Jan. 15 — Man As An Engineering Miracle, by Prof. D. L. Thom- 
son, Dept. of Biochemistry, McGill University. The 
motion picture, Tacoma Bridge Failure, was shown. 
After the lecture, tea was served by the Junior Red Cross. 

April 22 — The Lions Gate Bridge, illustrated lecture by Dr. Philip 
L. Pratley, D.Eng., Consulting Engineer. 

May 18 — Air Raid Precautions, by Prof. F. Webster, Deputy Chief 
Engineer of the Ministry of Home Security, Great 
Britain. 

June 11 — The Portland-Montreal Pipe Line, industrial film was 
shown and a running commentary was given by Mr. Paul 
Lebel, Consulting Engineer, Technical Service, Imperial 
Oil Co. Ltd. Electrical Fibre Glass, industrial film was 
shown with a running commentary by Mr. C. A. Booth 
of the Fibre Glass Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Aug. 13 — Annual Meeting. Dean C. R. Young was our honorary 
guest and he was accompanied by Vice-Pres. de Gaspé 
Beaubien, and K. M. Cameron and the assistant-general 
secretary of the Institute, Louis Trudel. 

Sept. 2 — Welding, Mr. L. T. Larson, welding expert of the Allis- 

Chalmers Co. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
Oct. 8 — The motion picture Inside Arc Welding was shown. 
Oct. 15 — The Aluminum Industry and the War Effort, by Mr. 

A. W. Whitaker, Jr., General Manager of the Aluminum 
Co. of Canada Ltd. 



-Mills and Kilns, by Mr. F. T. 

the Allis-Chalmers Co. of Mil- 



Oct. 30 — Processing Equipment- 

Agthe, Engineer with 
waukee, Wisconsin. 

Nov. 19 — Automatic Combustion Control, by Mr. A. G. Stewart, 
Vice-President and General Manager of the Bailey Meter 
Co. Ltd., Montreal. 

Dec. 17 — Welding, by Mr. P. H. Thae, welding engineer, Canadian 
General Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

During the year the Executive Committee held eight 
meetings for transaction of general business. Average 
attendance was six members. 

With deep regret we report the death, in June, of Lt.- 
Colonel H. F. Morrisey, m.e.i.c, Councillor of the Institute 
representing the Saint John Branch. A. 0. Wolff, m.e.i.c, 
was appointed to fill the vacancy until the next annual 
election. 

Seven general branch meetings were held as follows, 
with attendance thereat given in brackets: 

Jan. 12 — Joint dinner meeting with Moncton Branch and the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of New Brunswick. Special 
guests were Premier J. B. McNair, Premier of New 
Brunswick; K. M. Cameron, Vice-President of the E.I.C., 
for Ontario, and L. Austin Wright, General-Secretary of 
the E.I.C. A joint co-operative agreement Was signed 
between the Institute and the Association by Messrs. 
Cameron and Wright for the Institute and Messrs. G. L. 
Dickson and C. C. Kirby for the Association. Witnesses 
were Messrs. A. Gray and H. W. McKeil forthe Institute 
and Messrs. A. A. Turnbull and G. A. Vandervoort for 
the Association. The Premier spoke on Canada's War 
Effort. F. O. Condon, chairman of the Moncton Branch 
was in the chair (60). 

Feb. 24 — Supper meeting. Harry F. Bennett, chairman of the Com- 
mittee of the Young Engineer, spoke on The Engineers 
of To-morrow, and reported on the work done by the 
Committee. Guests were Dr. E. J. Alexander, Principal 
of Saint John High School; W. B. Main, Director of 
Vocational School and Dr. W. J. Shea, Principal of St. 
Vincent's High School (23). 

Mar. 26 — Supper meeting. A moving picture entitled Photoelastic 
Stress Analysis was shown. Prior to showing the picture 
a description of the film and explanation of the theory 
of the photoelastic stress analysis was read by Sidney 
' Hogg. The paper was prepared by Prof. Macdonald of 
the University of Manitoba (28). 

May 7 — Annual dinner and election of officers of the Branch. Before 
the business meeting was called to order some very fine 
coloured motion pictures of fishing and hunting in New 
Brunswick were presented by H. P. Lingley. D. R. Smith 
reported verbally on his attendance at lectures given in 
Toronto by Prof. Webster, Deputy Chief Engineer to 
the Ministry of Home Security in Great Britain, on the 
various phases of bombing action (28). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



85 



May 22 — Luncheon meeting to entertain the visiting Dominion 
Council of the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Canada. Ten delegates were present from other provinces 
and seven officers of the New Brunswick Association. 
President D. A. R. McCannell, Regina, representing the 
Saskatchewan Association, spoke on the vital part 
engineers are playing in the war effort, and the burden 
that would be theirs in post-war reconstruction pro- 
grammes (33). 

Aug. 10 — Supper meeting. Special guests were Dean C. R. Young, 
president of the Institute; K. M. Cameron and deGaspé 
Beaubien, vice-presidents, Louis Trudel, asst. general 
secretary and G. A. Gaherty of the Montreal Engineering 
Company. Dean Young spoke on the present activities 
of the Institute, its various committees and the import- 
ance of their work. He outlined a scheme proposed by 
the Government to finance worthy students in college 
in order to alleviate the scarcity of trained technicians 
which was facing it. Mr. Cameron asked for better 
recognition of the student and junior members and also 
spoke on post-war reconstruction and its problems. Each 
of the other guests also spoke (40). 

Dec. 29 — Supper meeting. A paper entitled The Effect of Aerial 
Bombing on Structures, prepared by Dean I. F. 
Morrison, Professor of Applied mechanics, University 
of Alberta, was presented by D. R. Smith, chairman. 
The lecture was illustrated by lantern slides (35). 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 

Six meetings were held during the year; three at Shawini- 
gan Falls, two at Three Rivers and one at Grand'Mère. A 
brief summary of these meetings, with the number of people 
attending in brackets, is as follows: 

Mar. 20 — At Shawinigan Falls High School. A film entitled From 
Rapids to Electricity. Speaker: Mr. Guy Rinfret, 
m.e.i.c. (400). 

April 22 — At Cascade Inn, Shawinigan Falls. A dinner and the 
Annual Branch Meeting with installation of new officers. 
A talk was given by Dr. R. S. Jane on Synthetic Rub- 
ber — Its Possibilities and Development (80). 

June 25 — At Chateau de Blois, Three Rivers. A dinner meeting and 
speech on Electric Heat in Industry, by Mr. R. N. 
Fournier (40). 

July 30 — At Laurentide Inn, Grand'Mère. A dinner meeting to wel- 
come President Young and his party, which included 
Past President Lefebvre, Vice-President Cameron, Coun- 
cillor Armstrong, Asst. Gen. Secretary Trudel and Huet 
Massue (60). 

Sept. 24 — At the Technical School in Three Rivers. A film entitled 
The Inside of Arc Welding, by the Canadian General 
Electric Company (40). 

Oct. 22 — At Cascade Inn, Shawinigan Falls. A speech by Mr. A. \V. 
Whitaker, Jr. on the subject of Aluminum in War- 
time (100). 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

Thirty-three members are on active service with His 
Majesty's Forces, all holding commissions in the Navy, 
Army or Air Force. 

With the exception of one special meeting, all meetings 
were held jointly with the Association of Professional 
Engineers, to which the members of the Saskatchewan 
Section of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
were invited. The respective programmes were as follows: 
Jan. 23 — Ladies Night, at which Mr. E. Dickinson gave an illustrated 
lecture on his experiences in Bolivia during the past 
several years. 
Feb. 20 — Annual Meeting, addressed by S. J. Latta, Commissioner, 
Bureau of Publications, Saskatchewan, on Our Way of 
Life. 
Mar. 10 — (1) Film on The Manufacture of Plywood, shown by 
F. C. Leroux, s.e.i.c, Vancouver, B.C. (2) Film shown 
by F. Heseltine, Manager, Saskatchewan Division, 
Canada Wire and Cable Co., on Copper Mining and 
Refining in Arizona. 
April 20 — Special meeting to welcome Dean C. R. Young, President, 

Engineering Institute of Canada* 
Oct. 19 — A visit to the Crime Detection Laboratory, R.C.M.P. 
Barracks, Regina; the main speaker being Surgeon (Dr.) 
Maurice Powers, Director of Criminal Investigation for 
Canada. 
Nov. 19 — (1) Address by Dr. John Mitchell, Head of Soils Depart- 
ment, University of Saskatchewan, on The Soils of 
Saskatchewan. (2) Film, in colour, presented by Geo. 
E. Kent, m.e.i.c, showing conditions in Peru and Ecua- 
dor. 
Dec. 17 — (1) Address by Mr. R. T. Blackmore, Technical Service 
Department, British American Oil Co., on The Fuel 
and Oil Requirements of the Modern Gasoline 



Engine. (2) Film shown by Mr. R. M. Pugh, Provincial 
Apiarist on Bees and the Production of Honey in 
Saska tchewan . 

The average attendance at these meetings was 48. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met on January 13th, 1942 
and appointed standing committees. The committees and 
their respective chairmen are as follows : 

Papers and Publicity A. E. Pickering 

Membership W. D. Adams 

Entertainment J. L. Lang 

Junior Engineer's T. F. Rahilly 

The Executive Committee met four times during the year 
to transact and promote the activities of the Branch and 
Institute. 

During the course of the year two additional committees 
were appointed. One headed by the chairman and secretary, 
whose purpose was to advise prospective students in 
engineering. The other, consisting of J. L. Lang, E. M. 
MacQuarrie, P. P. Martin, K. G. Ross and G. W. MacLeod, 
was established to study Post War Problems and Rehabili- 
tation. 

As usual the Branch Affiliates took an active part in the 
Branch affairs. At one meeting the discussion was led by 
a Branch Affiliate. 

We were honoured with the visit from the president of 
the Institute, C. R. Young and Vice-President K. M. 
Cameron on April 2, 1942. 

Seven dinner meetings were held during the year. The 
average attendance was twenty-five members and guests. 
The meetings were usually on Friday night, but this rule 
was not rigidly adhered to, as some meetings were arranged 
to suit the convenience of the speaker. 

Programmes of the meetings were as follows: 

Jan. 30 — Progress and Design in the Operation of High Effi- 
ciency Power Plants, by W. E. S. Dyer, M.E.I.C. 

Feb. 27 — An illustrated address on Some Recent Trends in Indus- 
trial Applications of Electricity, by Fred. A. Becker, 
field engineer, Canadian General Electric Company. 

April 2 — Visit of President C. R. Young and Vice-President K. M. 
Cameron. 

April 24 — New Principles in Heating Becker Coke Ovens, by 
Win. Seymour, m.e.i.c. 

Oct. 30 — Open discussion on Post War Reconstruction and Re- 
habilitation. 

Nov. 27 — Foundation Problems in the Winnipeg Area, by Pro- 
fessor A. E. MacDonald, University of Manitoba. 

Dec. 18 — Annual Meeting. 

The executive regrets the loss of the following resident 

members through change of address: W. E. S. Dyer, Wm. 

VanEvery, F. Smallwood and Wm. Seymour. The last two 

mentioned had served on the executive for many years and 

were past chairmen of the branch. 

TORONTO BRANCH 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch was held in the 
Debates Room, Hart House, University of Toronto. The 
meeting was preceded by a paper given by W. B. Redfern, 
m.e.i.c, on Waterworks and Sewerage Installation for 
Wartime Housing Projects. 

During the past year the Executive Committee held 
twenty-one meetings with an average attendance of ten. 

The regular meetings held during the year are listed 
below with the attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 15 — Students' Night. Frequency Modulation Receiver, W. 
O. Cartier. The Successful Engineer, D. Schmidt. 
Pre-Stressed Concrete Construction, W. S. Glynn. 
On Spinning of Aeroplanes, C. B. Livingstone. Cen- 
trifugal Pumps, A. B. Extence. Mercury Arc Power 
Rectifiers, C. W. Shearer (78). 

Jan. 29 — Design and Construction of a Concrete Head Frame 
for the Hollinger Mine, Dr. A. H. Harkness, m.e.i.c, 
and R. .1. Fuller, m.e.i.c. (75). 

Feb. 19 — Hydraulic Misbehaviour in Water Power Units, Mr. 
Forrest Nagler (85). 

Mar. 5 — The Organization and Work of Research Enterprises, 
Limited, Lt.-Col. W. E. Phillips, d.s.o., m.c. (85). 



86 



February, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Mar. 19 — Power Transformer Station and Transmission Line 
Problems with Particular Reference to Burlington 
220 K.V. Station and Associated Lines, Mr. C. F. 

Publow, and Mr. A. E. Davison (75). 

April 23 — Air Raid Damage to Structure, Prof. F. Webster. 

Nov. 5 — Welding Large Electrical Equipment, Mr. H. Thomas- 
son (70). 

Nov. 20— DeCew Falls Development of H.E.P.C. of Ontario, 
Otto Holden, m.e.i.c. (65). 

Nov. 27 — Surface Hardening by Induction, Dr. H. B. Osborn, Jr., 
Joint Meeting with Toronto Section, A.I.E.E. 

Dec. 3— Glass in National Defence, Mr. C. J. Phillips (85). 

Dec. 5 — Saving Hydro Power for Victory, Dr. T. H. Hogg. 
m.e.i.c. Joint Meeting with the Royal Canadian Institute. 

Previous to each regular meeting, dinner was held at 
Hart House, attended by the members of the Executive, 
speakers and members of the Branch. 

On April 22, 23 and 24 a series of lectures by Professor F. 
Webster dealing with Structural Defence Against Bomb- 
ing, was given before representatives of the engineering 
profession from all over the Dominion, except the Pacific 
Coast. General arrangements were made by Headquarters 
of the Engineering Institute and local arrangements were 
made by the Toronto Branch. 

It is with deep regret that the Toronto Branch records 
the deaths of the following members of the Branch during 
the year: Professor W. J. Smither, Robt. McDowall, R. J. 
Fuller, A. Ross Robertson, and John H. Jackson. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 

The following meetings of the Branch were held this year: 

Jan. 20 — First meeting of the branch in 1942. The speaker was W. 
D. McLaren, general manager of the West Coast Ship- 
builders Ltd., a company engaged in building standard 
cargo vessels for Wartime Merchant Shipping Ltd. His 
subject was Ships: Selection of Type. 
During the month, members of the branch were guests at a 
meeting on the subject of arc welding held under the 
auspices of the British Columbia Chapter of the American 
Society for Metals. The principal speaker was Mr. James 
F. Lincoln, president of the Lincoln Electric Company 
of Cleveland and director of its allied companies in 
Canada, England and Australia. His subject was Electric 
Welding Developments. 

April 17 — Dinner meeting held in the Georgia Hotel in honour of the 
president of the Institute, Dean C. R. Young. Branch 
Chairman W. O. Scott presided and forty members and 
guests were present. 
The Branch was exceedingly fortunate in having three 
lectures delivered by Professor F. Webster of London, 
England, on the subject of air raid shelters and the 
making of structures bomb-resistant. A large attendance 
of members and specially invited guests at each lecture 
indicated the degree of interest in the subject. 

May 27 — At a meeting held in the Medical-Dental Building, Pro- 
fessor Frank Forward, professor of metallurgy at the 
University of British Columbia, spoke on Metallurgical 
Progress in the War. 

Sept. 17 — An address entitled The Failure of the Ta coma Narrows 
Bridge was given by A. H. Finlay, associate professor 
of civil engineering at the University of British Columbia. 

Oct. 22 — The Design and Construction of the Scanlon Dam 
was the subject of a paper given before the Branch by 
William Jamieson, field engineer for the Powell River 
Co. Ltd.,' Powell River, B.C. Following his address Mr. 
Jamieson displayed many interesting photographs and 
plans of the work. 

Nov. 9 — Members of the Branch were guests at a meeting of the 
Vancouver section of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers. Dr. H. S. Osborne, plant engineer of 
the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and 
national president of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers gave an interesting address on The Con- 
servation of Critical Materials. 

VICTORIA BRANCH 

Five meetings of the executive committee, six general 

branch meetings, two lecture meetings and one industrial 

visit were held during 1942 as follows: 

Jan. 16 — Dinner meeting. Annual meeting and election of officers. 
Introductory talk by Mr. W. H. Mathews of the Pro- 
vincial Dept. of Mines on Polarized Light followed by 
a film Photoelastic Stress Analysis. 

Apr. 2 — Dinner meeting. Mr. A. S. G. Musgrave gave a very 
interesting talk on Aerial Photography and Mapping 
in the Great War, accompanied by still pictures, maps 
and photographs of Palestine, Egypt and France. 



Apr. 15 — Dinner meeting. In honour of President Young and the 
occasion of the presentation of the "Julian C. Smith" 
medal to Mr. Charles Alexander Magrath, an honorary 
member of the Institute and a famous engineer. "A 
pioneer in the development of the West, a surveyor 
qualified to practice in every province and an expert in 
the conservation and use of water." 

May 11 — Lecture meeting. Structural Defence Against Bombing, 
by Professor Webster, Deputy Chief Engineer, Ministry 
of Security, Great Britain, attended by members, mem- 
bers of other engineering associations, architects and 
members of public utilities, A.R.P., etc. 

May 19 — Lecture meeting. Making and Shaping of Steel, courtesy 
of United States Steel Corporation and introduced by 
Mr. F. Wilkinson of the United States Steel Export Co. 
of Vancouver, B.C. Two-reel film depicting steel from 
mine to finished product. Attended by members, other 
engineers, machinists, shipyard workers, etc. Sponsored 
by Victoria Branch, of the Institute, Yarrows Ltd. and 
the Victoria Machinery Depot Ltd. 

Aug. 12 — Luncheon meeting. Methods of cleaning Water Main, 
described by Mr. L. S. Olding of the National Water 
Main Cleaning Co. of New York, followed by a visit to 
operations of this company in Oak Bay Municipality. 

Dec. 2 — Dinner meeting. The Alaska Highway, describing "Topo- 
graphical Features," "Details of Construction," "Per- 
sonal Experiences on Construction."" "Maps and Photo- 
graphs" in the order named by Messrs. F. C. Green, 
Surveyor General of the Province, A. L. Carruthers, 
Chairman of the B.C. Highway Board, H. C. Anderson, 
Assistant Chief Engineer, Provincial Dept. of Public 
Works and Norman Stewart, b.c.l.s. 

Dec. 17 — Luncheon meeting. Nominations for Branch officers and 
general business. 

Dec. 19 — Industrial visit. Members and their wives were invited to 
visit Yarrows Ltd., Yard No. 2, to observe methods of 
organization and construction and to witness the launch- 
ing of a corvette. Courtesy of Mr. Norman Yarrow, and 
Mr. E. W. Izard. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH . 

The following meetings were held by the Branch during 

the year 1942: 

Jan. 8 — Meeting in Theatre F of the University at which Mr. G. 
A. Howard, Supervisor of Apprentices, C.N.R. Western 
Region, gave an interesting talk on The Selecting and 
Training of Apprentices. 

Feb. 5 — Annual Meeting. Following the reports of the various 
officers and committee chairmen, a very interesting film 
on Copper Mining Methods was shown by courtesy of 
the Canada Wire and Cable Co. 

Feb. 19 — Meeting in Theatre F of the University when an address 
by Dr. F. D. White, Professor of Biochemistry, Medical 
College, Winnipeg, on the subject of The Present 
Status of Gas Warfare proved very instructive and 
interesting. 
Meeting in Theatre F of the University when the modern 
method of construction of Prefabricated Houses was 
described by Mr. Ralph Ham, since deceased. 
Meeting in Theatre F of the University at which two 
Student papers were given. Mr. W. A. Bowman spoke on 
Construction of Temporary Grain Storage Annexes 
and Mr. C. H. Glenn spoke on Electric Arc Furnaces. 
Meeting in Theatre F of the University when a seven-reel 
film entitled The Making and Shaping of Steel was 
shown. 
Special Luncheon Meeting in the Hudson's Bay Company 
Dining Room when we were privileged to have the 
president and his party as our guests. In the absence 
from the city of both the chajrman and vice-chairman 
of the Branch, Mr. J. W. Sanger, councillor, occupied 
the chair. 

Apr. 16 — Meeting in Theatre F of the University when a talk and 
film on the subject, Rubber in Defence was presented 
by Mr. J. McGale, Branch Manager, the B. F. Goodrich 
Rubber Co. of Canada. 

Oct. 15 — Special closed meeting held in Theatre F of the University 
when Mr. F. S. Adamson, assistant engineer, City 
Engineers Department, gave a very interesting paper on 
the material received in the lectures at Toronto by Prof. 
Webster. The subject of the paper was, Structural 
Defence Against Bombing. 

Nov. 5 — Meeting in Theatre F of the University at which Mr. C. 
A. Smith, Branch Manager, Ford Motor Co. gave an 
interesting paper on Mechanical Transport. This paper 
was followed by a very instructive film depicting assem- 
bly, testing, and actual service of this type of equipment. 

Dec. 3 — Meeting in Theatre F of the University at which two films 
were shown. The Erection of the Golden Gate Bridge 
and The Manufacture of Sheet Steel. 



Mar. 


5- 


Mar. 


19 


Apr. 


2 


Apr. 


6- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1913 



87 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



RUBBER FROM GUAYULE 

From The Engineer (London), December 18, 1942 

While the synthetic rubbers serve many purposes as well 
as does the natural product — are even better for some, it 
is said — there are some products for which they are not so 
well adapted, at least when used alone. In the manufacture 
of tyres, for example, it has so far been found necessary to 
use a certain proportion of natural rubber for satisfactory 
results. 

The great need for rubber of any kind, and especially the 
need for some natural rubber, has caused the United States 
government to intensify investigations into rubber-bearing 
plants adapted to culture in that country, and to start 
actual production of the more promising ones. There are a 
number of such plants, both native and imported, which 
are capable of producing greater or lesser amounts of rubber. 
This article is concerned with guayule. Guayule rubber is 
the same kind of- rubber as that produced by the Hevea 
tree of the East Indies, and while the two have slightly 
different properties in some respects, they are readily inter- 
changeable for most purposes. Guayule rubber makes excel- 
lent tyres, used either alone or in conjunction with other 
rubbers. 

Guayule is a shrub, with the botanical name Parthenium, 
argentatum. It looks a good deal like sagebush, and grows 
wild in North-Central Mexico and an adjacent area in the 
"Big Bend" section of Texas. The mature shrub is usually 
3 ft. or less in height, and has crooked, brittle branches. 
Its leaves are slender and greyish-green, with slightly irregu- 
lar edges, and the many inconspicuous yellowish flowers 
are borne on short slender stems. 

In its native habitat, guayule grows generally on outwash 
fans of limestone soils, where the soil is light in texture 
and well drained. As indicated by its natural range, it re- 
quires a mild climate, though dormant plants have with- 
stood a temperature of 5 deg. Fah. without being killed. 
It is very drought-resistant and can live where rainfall 
ranges from 10 in. to 15 in. per year. Like most other 
plants, though, the better the growing conditions, the larger 
and faster it grows. 

Unlike the Hevea rubber tree, where the rubber is con- 
tained in the sap and is drawn off by tapping the trunk, 
the guayule shrub deposits pure rubber in the fibres of the 
plant itself, under the bark. It deposits the rubber when 
the soil moisture begins to run short, so for most effective 
rubber production the plant requires a relatively short, wet 
growing season followed by a long, dry period. This is the 
condition that obtains where the plant grows naturally, 
and that must be present where it is to be grown. If moisture 
is available for growth too much of the year, little rubber 
is produced. 

The guayule plant deposits some rubber each year of its 
life, and may live for twenty years or more. However, 
under cultivation the peak of production is reached during 
early maturity, and since the plant is destroyed in recovering 
the rubber, the most economical cropping period is four or 
five years. Under optimum growing conditions, the rubber 
content of the shrub, when dry, ranges from 18 to 22 per 
cent of its weight. In case of need, it may be harvested 
earlier, but with a corresponding reduction in yield. The 
rubber occurs in both the branches of the plant and the 
roots, and extraction is accomplished by crushing and pul- 
verizing the shrub and floating the rubber particles off on 
water. 

It was not until 1904 that large-scale production of 
guayule rubber got under way, with the erection of proces- 
sing plants in Mexico and Texas. By 1909, 30 million dollars 
of American capital was invested in the business, and the 
factories have exported some 4,000 tons of rubber annually. 
The figure for 1940 was 4,106 tons. There is no longer a 
factory in Texas, but four of them operate in Mexico. 



Abstracts of articles appearing in 
the current technical periodicals 



One of the early operators in Mexico was the Intercon- 
tinental Rubber Company. In 1912 the company decided 
to try domesticating guayule in the United States, and 
Dr. W. B. McCallum, chief botanist for the company, col- 
lected seeds from several hundred strains of the plant, which 
he took to southern Arizona. There experimentation was 
started, looking both to improving the productiveness of 
the plant and to finding situations suitable for growing it 
commercially. 

Later, it was decided that the Salinas Valley of California 
offered the best climatic conditions for both continued ex- 
perimentation and commercial production, and the opera- 
tion was moved there in 1924-25. A mill capable of produc- 
ing about 10,000 lb. of rubber per day was built, and since 
that time about 8,000 acres of guayule has been grown in 
the valley and processed in the mill. The rubber has been 
sold under the trade name "Ampar", and used for many 
purposes, including the manufacture of tyres. 

Of much greater importance, however, is the fact that 
over the intervening thirty years Dr. McCallum kept up 
an elaborate and painstaking experimental programme, 
which has greatly increased the productiveness of the 
guayule shrub. The wild shrub, which, of course, is of all 
ages when harvested, turns out on the average about 10 
per cent of its dry weight in rubber, while the best of the 
improved strains make around 20 per cent at five years 
of age. At the same time experiments were carried on to 
discover the strains best suited to various situations of 
growth. The hundreds of strains with which the research 
programme originally started have been boiled down to 
about ten, of which four produce the bulk of the actual 
planting stock. There is no reason to suppose that the limit 
has been reached in breeding up the plant in productive- 
ness or in adapting it to diverse growing conditions. Thirty 
years is a very brief time in which to improve a long-lived 
plant such as guayule. 

Because of the generally low world price of rubber, the 
company had never felt justified in embarking on a large 
production programme, but it did perfect machinery and 
methods of culture and processing adapted to production 
on any scale, should occasion ever warrant expansion. Of 
still greater importance, when the country began looking 
for a source of rubber supply to take the place of East 
Indian imports, was the fact that some 23,000 lb. of seed 
from the best strains of guayule had been collected and 
were in storage available for planting. This seed, together 
with all its equipment and properties in California and 
patents in this country, the company offered to the Govern- 
ment. By an act adopted March 5th, 1942, Congress auth- 
orized the Secretary of Agriculture to acquire them and to 
embark on a 75,000-acre production programme. 

As indicated previously, guayule requires certain condi- 
tions of soil and climate for successful culture, and a recon- 
naissance survey of California was made to locate the areas 
adapted to it. More intensive surveys within these areas 
are made as required in connection with the leasing pro- 
gramme. In general, the areas are found in the coastal 
valleys from Monterey County south, along the west side 
of the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, the Imperial 
Valley, and scattered small areas in Riverside and Imperial 
counties. Further expansion of the Project is possible in 
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, where adaptable lands 
an> known to exist. 

As time goes on, the shrub may be found to be adapted 
to other areas now considered infeasible for one reason or 
another, or the plant itself may, by selection and breeding, 
be adjusted to other conditions. Already a large number of 



88 



February, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



indicator and test plots have been set over the suspected 
possible range of the plant, and experimentation is under 
way looking toward producing strains resistant to some of 
the principal hazards which now prevent otherwise excellent 
land from being considered for guayule culture. 

Production of guayule rubber from plantations has so 
far been on so small a scale, and costs have been influenced 
by the developmental character of the operation, that there 
are no existing figures that would be of much value in fore- 
casting the cost of such rubber under full-scale production. 
The present Governmental production programme is a war 
effort, aimed entirely at helping to relieve the critical rubber 
situation, but it is not beyond the bounds of possibility 
that it may also result in developing both a permanent 
at-home source of rubber crop, it is "easy" on land, occa- 
sioning less drain on soil resources than many other crops, 
and since genetic research in connection with the plant 
itself is really only in its infancy, there is every probability 
that both its productiveness and its tolerance to growth 
conditions will be improved. 

MR. C. P. EUGÈNE SCHNEIDER 

From Engineering (London), November 27, 1942 
Very many people in all walks of life in France, and the 
numerous friends he had in this country, will have learned 
with deep regret of the sudden death of Mr. Charles Prosper 
Eugène Schneider, which occurred in Paris on November 17. 
Mr. Schneider was the grandson of Mr. Joseph Eugène 
Schneider, the founder of the works at Le Creusot, and was 
born in that town on October 29, 1868. He had been head 
of the firm of Messrs. Schneider et Compagnie for over 40 
years and we have no doubt that his death was hastened by 
the fact that all his firm's establishments, at Le Creusot, 
Chalon-sur-Saône, Paris, Le Havre, Caen and Bordeaux, 
were occupied by the enemy as a result of the events of 
June, 1940, and that the works at Le Creusot were subjected 
to a heavy daylight air attack by the Royal Air Force on 
October 17. Moreover, he had never fully recovered from 
the blow caused by the death of his eldest son, Mr. Paul- 
Henri Schneider, who was killed in 1917 over the enemy 
lines when serving in the French Air Force. Mr. Schneider's 
two other sons also served in the war of 1914-18. 

Over a period of many years, and mainly under the ad- 
ministration of Mr. C. P. Eugène Schneider, the company 
greatly extended its scope and kept fully abreast of the 
times. New Works were built and interests in others, both 
in France and abroad, were acquired. It is interesting to 
note that as early as 1876, Messrs. Schneider started the 
manufacture of all-steel armourplates, while they have been 
long renowned for the excellence of their artillery. It would, 
however, be a mistake to consider the firm and its late 
head as having been employed mainly upon the design 
and manufacture of munitions of war. This is very far from 
being the case, since prior to the outbreak of hostilities, at 
all events, their ordinary industrial products were much 
more numerous than their manufactures of war material. 
The former covered a wide range, including the rolling of 
merchant bars, plates, sheets, and sections, and the con- 
struction of bridges, piers, locomotives, electrical machinery 
and plant, internal-combustion engines, steam turbines and 
other mechanical and civil engineering work. Moreover, Mr. 
Schneider and all the members of his family have always 
appeared to attach as much importance to the benevolent 
institutions which they established at Le Creusot at their 
own expense, as to the actual manufacture of iron, steel 
and the products derived therefrom. These institutions in- 
clude first-rate arts and crafts schools ; a hospital staffed by 
eminent surgeons, doctors and nurses; dwelling houses at 
cost price on easy terms; and the provision of pensions, of 
sports grounds, and of home for the aged and infirm. 

Owing to the development of the firm, Le Creusot ceased, 
some years ago, to be the central governing organization, 
and Mr. Schneider found it necessary to reside in Paris and 
to direct the business from the city, but that Creusot benevo- 
lent institutions never ceased to function smoothly under 



the careful attention devoted to them by him and his family. 
Similar relations exist between master and man in other 
establishments outside Le Creusot which have been acquired 
by the firm. 

For many years the Creusot works had at their disposal 
iron mined at no great distance, sufficient to keep the blast 
furnaces supplied. These iron-ore mines, however, became 
exhausted some years ago and the blast furnaces gradually 
ceased to function. The Creusot works had therefore to be 
adapted to meet the situation, but they have never ceased 
their activities in all other directions. After the war of 
1914-18, Mr. Schneider acquired a controlling interest in 
the Skoda Works at Pilsen, in Czechoslovakia, a venture 
which was lost to the firm when Germany seized that coun- 
try. A few years ago the firm also acquired what might be 
termed a technical interest in Marine Industries, Limited, 
of Sorel, in the province of Quebec, Canada. The Canadian 
company is independent of Messrs. Schneider's establish- 
ments, but entered into an agreement with them in regard 
to technical collaboration, so that Messrs. Schneider sent 
engineers and technical men to the Sorel works to assist in 
the design and manufacture of various products. 

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND MANPOWER 
CONSERVATION 

From Mechanical Engineering (New York), January, 1943 

According to a recent statement, since Pearl Harbor 
85,000 persons have been killed by accidents in the United 
States and 7,700,000 have been injured. Of the fatal acci- 
dents, 42,000 were to workers; and it is said that only one 
out of eight industrial establishments is fully covered by a 
safety programme. Even assuming it would be possible to 
institute effective safety programmes to guard persons dur- 
ing working hours, there would still remain the hazards of 
street, home, and recreational pursuits which claim three 
out of five workers. 

Obviously, industrial safety is, in more than one sense, 
a personal responsibility. No one seriously argues that em- 
ployers have no responsibilities, but the modern tendency 
of the public to regard all questions affecting their security 
and welfare as obligations laid upon others — their govern- 
ment and their employers, for example — and to assume that 
safety regulations and compensation insurance relieve the 
individual of the necessity of exercising prudence and 
caution, is futile nonsense. No one has yet been able to 
discover all the ways by which a fool may be saved from 
the consequences of his folly. Safety is still, fundamentally, 
a personal responsibility. 

The toll of accidents which this nation has grown to 
accept with callous disregard is brought into sharp relief 
by comparison with recently published figures of civilian 
casualties in air raids in Great Britain. These casualties, 
from September, 1939, through September, 1942, totaled 
103,379, of which 47,498 represented persons killed. The 
population of Great Britain is, of course, much smaller than 
that of the United States. The dramatic background of 
war and aerial bombardment has greatly emphasized the 
wastage and tragedy of human lives resulting from air raids. 
Because we have stupidly grown accustomed to everyday 
accidents we have no public concern over their importance 
comparable to what we feel when the casualty lists of war 
and bombings are made public. Yet the loss resulting from 
the 42,000 fatalities among workers since Pearl Harbor must 
be admitted to be a loss of production capacity which affects 
our nation, for the most part needlessly, at a time when 
manpower is being used to the limit in the defense of our 
own way of life. 

Industry must assume a large measure of responsibility 
in the effort to reduce accidents. By intelligent study of 
hazards to eliminate them as much as possible and by ad- 
ministrative and disciplinary procedures, accidents can be 
practically abolished. Many plants in the most hazardous 
industries have gone for years without lost-time accidents 
because they have made a business of industrial safety. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



89 



Management and worker have co-operated to this end and 
are equally proud of fine records. What has led to the 
spoiling of some of those records lately has been the increase 
in production, the change in the kinds of work done, and 
great numbers of new workers and supervisors- that have 
been employed. 

Mounting accident wastage at a time when production 
facilities and manpower have been strained to the limit 
has led the President to call upon the National Safety 
Council "to mobilize its nation-wide resources in leading a 
concerted and intensified campaign against accidents." 
Accordingly, the Council has organized the War Production 
Fund to Conserve Manpower, of which William A. Irvin, 
former U.S. Steel Corporation president, is chairman and 
Thomas W. Lamont, of J. P. Morgan and Company, is 
treasurer. A five-million dollar fund is being raised and a 
national committee of 600 is being formed. Detailed plans 
for re-energizing the safety movement have been laid. New 
safety councils in war-production centres, training pro- 
grammes in public schools, trade schools, and engineering 
colleges, and public education by means of the press and 
the radio are contemplated. 

FAST FIGHTERS 

From The Engineer, (London), December 11, 1942 

So frequently does one read of some new wonderful per- 
formance in speed or climbing capacity of the latest fighter 
aircraft that one cannot but wonder whether the pace can 
last. It is not merely that speeds have risen since the last 
war from the neighbourhood of 150 to 400 miles an hour, 
but that nearly the whole of this immense advance has been 
concentrated in the last ten years. The increase in engine 
power alone has not done this, since to force the aeroplane 
of the day from 150 to 400 miles an hour would require be- 
tween ten and twenty times the power, whereas the actual 
improvement, great as it is, would not be much over four 
to one. Most of the change has been due to improvements 
in the airframe, partly to the drastic alteration from biplane 
to monoplane construction, with its absence of struts and 
therefore of wetted area and of aerodynamic interference 
in the streamline flow, partly to the use of undercarriages 
that can be tucked up, and partly to the meticulous cleaning 
up of all excrescences, including miscellaneous instrumental 
gear formerly carried outside. In a lecture given before the 
Lilienthal Gesellschaft just before the present war, Dr. 
Heinkel, the aircraft designer, estimated that whereas six 
years earlier nearly 40 per cent of the total drag was caused 
by struts, exposed landing chassis and the like, by 1938 
the whole of this had disappeared. So aerodynamically clean 
are aircraft now that even the gun mountings and turrets 
do not usually reduce top speed by more than a few miles 
an hour. 

It is worth considering how much further the aircraft 
designer can go. Little of such a character as instantly to 
strike the eye seems left to him, but there is a good deal 
that is less obvious. Rivet heads, when not finished 
flush, cause an extra drag that can and must be avoided; 
new wing shapes in which the air stream follows the contour 
further back than used to be the case are a vitally important 
field of study, since success in this direction at once puts 
down the drag. Bold pioneers, in Germany as well as else- 
where, have experimented with methods of sucking the tur- 
bulent air into the wing, or, in the alternative, of blowing 
it backwards, in order to reduce still further the wing re- 
sistance which accounts for some half of the total resistance 
of the modern aircraft. Engine power is being steadily pushed 
up at the same time, and the end of that endeavour is far 
from being in sight. But with all these possible developments 
and other which cannot be mentioned, and some still no 
doubt to be discovered, a very steep hedge is being ap- 
proached. If the drag invariably rose at no steeper rate 
than the square of the speed, a change from 400 to 600 miles 
an hour would merely lead to a drag increase in the ratio 
of 16 to 36, but owing to the close approach of the higher 



of these two speeds to the velocity of sound — the highest 
speed at which any sudden disturbance in the air can move 
itself away — the actual increase in drag, as many wind 
tunnel tests have shown, is likely to become tenfold, and 
no ordinary increase of engine power, however substantial 
in itself, can surmount such a barrier, especially when the 
airscrew efficiency is known to drop substantially once this 
range of speed is entered. The search for a way around or 
over this hedge is assiduous. 

The new German fighter, "FW190", has shown a remark- 
able capacity for climbing fast, and the Junkers "86" has 
an unusually high ceiling but even these improvements, 
considerable as they are, have not given either craft appre- 
ciably greater safety when in combat with the R.A.F. Many 
"FW190s" have been shot down and we note that over the 
African fighting zone at least three Junkers "86s", although 
flying close to their lofty ceilings, have been engaged and 
destroyed by our indomitable "Spitfires". An exceedingly 
high ceiling may indeed be useful for photographic aircraft 
and well worth striving for, but for bombers hardly at all, 
since little surplus lifting capacity is possessed by any air- 
craft built for stratospheric flying. Despite, therefore, the 
technical skill of the German designers, we have ample 
reason to feel confidence in our own men — designers, con- 
structors and flyers alike. What the future has in store is 
always and everywhere carefully concealed, but each time 
the curtain is drawn slightly aside we realise how effectively 
each move of the enemy is matched, and more than matched, 
by our side in this Homeric contest. In air warfare quality 
counts even more than quantity, but the lead in quality 
once assured, the advantage of overwhelming numbers is 
one which steadily mounts. The crisis of the war seems to 
be close upon us, and as engineers we are justified in feeling 
as well served in the technical efficiency of our fighting 
equipment as we are in the Air Force that so confidently 
uses it. In the severe air fighting that lies immediately 
ahead the performance of the R.A.F. will, we feel sure, to 
borrow Mr. Churchill's modest but confident phrase, be 
"well worth watching"! 

AXIS DEPRIVED OF NORTH AFRICAN GOODS 

From Trade and Engineering (London), December, 1942 

The allied advance in North Africa and the Mediter- 
ranean has had some noteworthy economic effects. Not the 
least important is that between 200,000 and 300,000 tons of 
merchant shipping will be taken over by the allies. About 
120,000 tons were tied up in ports there, and another 120,000 
tons represent one-third of the tonnage which is estimated 
to have been operating between France and North Africa. 
The enemy will lose not only this useful shipping but also 
quantities of goods which the vessels helped to bring from 
North Africa and over three-quarters of which were seized 
for war purposes 

These products included minerals, phosphate rock, vege- 
table oils and seeds, grain, and other foodstuffs. Hitler in- 
creased his imports of iron-ore from North Africa nearly 
eight-fold in 12 months. It is of special quality with very 
low phosphoric content and represent about 16 per cent 
of the total Axis consumption of this high-grade material. 
While alternative supplies may be available from Sweden, 
Spain and Norway, the two first-named have a habit, which 
seems likely to prove awkward for the Germans, of requiring 
payment. Moreover the journey which Swedish ore has to 
make is rendered very hazardous by the activities of the 
Allies. Good quality ore is also available in the Donetz 
Basin, but not easily, because of shortage of man-power 
and difficulties of transport. Similarly the cutting off of 
other products will accentuate Nazi troubles and deficiencies 

The new situation in French West Africa should make 
useful supplies available to the United Nations and deny 
them to the enemy. Such products include a number of 
vegetable oils, notably groundnut and palm oil, (reported 
to have been used in fuelling submarines at Dakar), fibres, 
gums, hides and skins, rubber, and tapioca. 



90 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



LARGE WATER TREATMENT PLANT 
FOR CHICAGO 

From The Engineer, (London), December 4, 1942 

While Chicago, with 1,500,000 population, has the vast 
reservoir of Lake Michigan as a source of water supply, 
the south end of the lake is subject to serious pollution, 
especially with sewage and industrial wastes from a group 
of manufacturing cities. As a result of this condition, the 
city has nearly completed a filtration and treatment plant 
having a capacity of 320 million gallons daily, and estimated 
to cost £5,400,000. This will serve only the southern section 
of the city, and eventually two somewhat similar plants 
will be required. Two special features are its construction 
as a pier or structure extending into the lake, and its use 
of a novel treatment by the sodium-silicate conditioning 
process. This process, developed in the experimental studies 
for the plant, serves to toughen or consolidate the coagulated 
matter, thus making it possible to use smaller settling basins 
and higher filtration rates, and consequently reducing the 
cost. Water is taken through shafts about two miles from 
shore, and pumped to a head of 18 ft. above lake level, 
there flowing by gravity through the filtration and treatment 
works. Chemicals are to be added as the water flows through 
a channel equipped with agitators for rapid distribution, 
and then a channel so fitted with baffles as to ensure a 
uniform velocity of flow in the entire depth of the stream 
of water. The settling basins are of two-storey design. There 
are eighty filters of 1,400 square feet area, with a depth of 
13 ft. 6 in., and each having a capacity of 4,000,000 gallons 
daily. The gravel, graduated in sizes from 1/12 in. to 23^ in., 
will be about 20 in. thick, covered with two feet of sand. 
Chemicals will include alum, iron compounds, lime, ammo- 
nium sulphate, activated carbon, sodium silicate, sulphuric 
acid, and possibly sodium- hexametaphosph ate. In addition, 
the chlorination equipment includes fourteen chlorinators 
having maximum capacities of 300 lb. to 2,500 lb. per 
twenty-four hours. Beyond the main pumping plant, the 
works are divided into three identical units. 



THE "AUSTERITY" LOCOMOTIVES 

From The Engineer, (London), November 27, 1942 

Notices have- appeared in the Press about the locomotives 
specially designed by the Ministry of Supply for the use of 
the British Army, and a few details of a technical character 
will be welcomed by engineers. 

The design is of the most simple description and is gov- 
erned by the availability of materials and labour. The em- 
ployment of steel castings is strictly limited, and compli- 
cated forgings are avoided wherever possible. Constructional 
details are reduced in number to the lowest limit consistent 
with efficient working, and as far as possible renewable parts 
are duplicate with those of L.M.S.R. standard locomotives. 

Materials will be the best obtainable of their respective 
kinds, and tests are to be in accordance with British Stand- 
ard Specifications so far as these are applicable. Workman- 
ship will be of the highest standard throughout. 

The boiler barrel is parallel and the fire-box casing of 
the round-topped type. The fire-box is to be of copper, 
stayed to the outer casing by steel water space stays riveted 
over on the inside only, and by copper stays in the breaking 
zone, riveted over both inside and outside. The crown is 
to be supported by steel direct stays screwed and riveted 
over at both ends. The boiler as a whole follows good modern 
practice. 

The main frames are to be of steel plate and the stretchers 
are to be of flanged plates and fabrications, while the smoke- 
box saddle will be of cast iron. The stretchers will be secured 
to the frames either by turned and tightly driven bolts or 
by hot steel rivets closed by hydraulic pressure. 

The cylinder block is of cast iron, and the slide bars, 
made of steel, will be of the double overhead type to suit 
the "Laird" type, of crosshead, which is to be a steel casting. 



The slide blocks will be of cast iron lined with white metal. 
The pistons will be of the box type, of cast iron, each with 
three narrow rings of cast iron. The valve gear is to be 
Walschaerts, operating piston valves arranged for inside 
admission. Holes with wearing surfaces will be fitted with 
cast iron bushes, and hand screw reversing gear arranged 
for left-hand drive is to be fitted. 

The driving wheel centers are to be steel castings, and 
those of the leading intermediate, and trailing wheels of 
cast iron, all with balance weights incorporated in the cast- 
ings. Tyres will be fitted to the coupled wheels only. 

The springs will be of the laminated type. 

Steam brakes will be fitted to the engines, with dual 
automatic brake apparatus for train working. 

Steam sanding will be arranged at the front of leading 
and front and rear of driving wheels. The boxes are to be 
of fabricated plate with cast iron lids. 

The two-wheel truck at the front end of the engine will 
be of the three-pin swing-link type. The wheels, which also 
incorporate the tyre section, will be of disc form and made 
of steel, forged and rolled. 

For lubricating the cylinder barrel and steam pipes a 
sight-feed lubricator having four feeds will be provided. 
Other important points requiring lubrication will be 
siphon fed. 

Tender 

The wheels of the tender, which also incorporate the 
tyre section, will be of disc pattern and made of cast iron 
chilled on the tread. All the wheels of the tender will be 
braked by steam and hand brakes, and for train working 
dual automatic brake apparatus will be fitted. The brake 
rigging will be compensated. 

Leading particulars of the locomotive and tender are 
given in the accompanying table. 

The tank will be of welded construction throughout. 

The fuel space will be so arranged as to make the bunker 
self-trimming. 

Engine 

Cylinders 19 in. dia. by 28 in. stroke 

Coupled wheels 4 ft. 83^2 m - diameter 

Front bogie wheels 3 ft. 2 in. diameter 

Coupled wheel base 16 ft. 3 in. 

Rigid wheel base 16 ft. 3 in. 

Total wheel base 24 ft. 10 in. 

Heating surface: 

Tubes 1,512 square feet 

Fire-box 168 square feet 

Total 1,680 square feet 

Superheater surface 338 square feet 

Grate area 28.6 in. 

Working pressure 225 lb. per square inch 

Tractive force, 85 per cent 

working pressure 34,215 lb. 

Tender 

Tank capacity 5,000 gallons 

Fuel capacity 9 tons coal 

Wheels 3 ft. 2 in. diameter 

Wheel base 15 ft. 9 in. 

Engine and Tender 
Wheel base 53 ft. 1% in. 

Estimated Weights 

Engine in working order About 72 tons 

Tender in working order About 56 tons 

Approximate weight distribution 
in working order: 

Truck axle 10 tons 

Coupled axles 1534 15^, 15J4 15H tons 

Tender axles 14, 14, 14, 14 tons 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



91 



From Month to Month 



HONORARY MEMBERSHIP FOR PROFESSOR 
WEBSTER 

All those members who had contact with Professor Fred 
Webster of London, England, during his stay in Canada, 
will be delighted to know that Council has elected him an 
Honorary Member of the Institute. 

Not many people more adequately meet the requirements 
for this honour than does Professor Webster. His services in 
many parts of the world, both in practice and in instruction, 
have done much to enhance the prestige of the engineer. 
The wide dissemination in Canada of his expert knowledge 
on effects of bombing was made possible only by real 
sacrifices of time and effort on his part. 




Prof. F. Webster, Hon.M.E.I.C. 

Professor Webster's quiet, modest manner did much to 
conceal from the public the breadth of his experience and 
the depth of his knowledge and understanding. Even those 
who were privileged to be with him most found it a rare 
occasion upon which he talked about himself. One has 
but to read the following sketchy biography to realize how 
well he has kept to himself those things which most people 
are inclined to display on any suitable occasion. 

Professor Webster was graduated from the University of 
Liverpool in 1913 with the degree of Bachelor of Engineer- 
ing. His early experience was mostly on structural design 
having to do with harbours and docks in many parts of the 
world. He became assistant to the chief engineer of the 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, but early in the war 
left this work to enlist as an engineering officer. He served 
in France with the B.E.F. as Commanding Officer with the 
155th Field Company, R.E. During this service he was 
awarded the Military Cross. He served for some time as 
Captain and Adjutant, R.E., of the 16th Division, and 
afterwards with the 156th Field Company R.E. 

After the armistice he was engaged on the restoration of 
railway lines in Belgium, and late in 1919 he returned to 
his former work with the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 

He joined the staff of the University of Liverpool as a 
lecturer in civil engineering, which position he held until 
1930. During this time he did much research work on the 
failure of concrete structures and on the movements and 
methods of stabilizing sands on the River Dee tidal basin. 

In 1930 he became senior lecturer in civil engineering, 
and later principal of the government Technical Institute 
at Burma. In 1931 he joined the civil engineering staff of 
University College, Rangoon, and by 1938 was professor of 
engineering, and head of the Engineering Department of 
the University. The University operated an Honours School 
of Civil Engineering and Final Schools in Mechanical and 
Electrical Engineering and Civil Engineering ; also diploma 
courses in mechanical and electrical engineering. 



News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 



In addition to teaching and administration, he was 
responsible for the testing and standardization work in the 
province, and he did much research work. 

In 1939 he returned home on leave, and on the outbreak 
of hostilities, joined the staff of the chief engineer of the 
Ministry of Home Security, Sir Alexander Rouse, becoming 
Deputy Chief Engineer, with the special care of structural 
design and related experimental work for the large pro- 
gramme of civil defence construction undertaken in Great 
Britain. He has lectured extensively on this subject through- 
out Great Britain and has been selected for important 
official missions to other countries. 

Professor Webster made many friends amongst Institute 
members from coast to coast. He spoke to branches at 
Halifax, Arvida, Montreal, Ottawa, Vancouver, Victoria 
and Toronto and under Institute auspices, gave a three-day 
series of lectures on the engineering features of defence 
against bombing. This series and the complete notes which 
were subsequently prepared by him for printing constituted 
a huge undertaking but they were the means by which was 
made available in Canada the most authoritative and up 
to date information on this important topic. 

It is in recognition of this service and of his own Stirling 
characteristics that the Institute now honours him. In 
honouring Professor Webster, the Institute is indeed 
honouring itself. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND THE ENGINEERING 
STUDENT 

The Institute's Committee on Industrial Relations has 
made inquiries at all Canadian universities where engineer- 
ing is taught, to determine the amount of instruction that 
is now given in this increasingly important topic. The result 
shows a great variation, both in content and in degree. All 
universities canvassed give some time to it, but no one 
seems to offer a course that is both comprehensive and 
specifically directed at industrial relations. 

The survey indicates clearly that all universities are alive 
to the changes in our economic existence, that make a study 
of these matters of prime importance. The real difficulty is 
to find a place on an already crowded curriculum, that 
would permit of adequate instruction and study. It has been 
suggested that the subject should be left for post-graduate 
study or for extra curricula instruction. Both these sugges- 
tions are worthy of study and investigation. 

The following letter was sent to Canadian universities by 
the Institute committee. It is published herewith as a 
matter of interest to all members: 
"To the Universities: 

A short time ago we wrote to you enquiring into the 
course in industrial relations as it applied to the engineering 
students. At this time we also wrote to a number of other 
universities and colleges in Canada and we are attaching 
hereto, a summary of the replies. ' 

This matter has been the subject of extended discussion 
in the Committee on Industrial Relations of The Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada and the committee desires to present 
to you some thoughts relative to this matter. 

The engineer in his work is dealing with materials and the 
forces of nature, and naturally in the university training, 
courses are developed to equip him from a theoretical and 
practical standpoint so that he can solve practical problems 
as presented to him during his career. There is, however, 
another phase of the engineer's work that is receiving more 
and more attention. Whether or not he is placed in adminis- 
trative work, he must be able to work in the society of 



92 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



other human beings in such a manner as to obtain the best 
results. If he is placed in a managerial or administrative 
position as is the case with most senior engineers, he is 
confronted with all of those problems dealing with the 
relations of human beings, individually and in groups; also 
matters dealing with wage scales, and remuneration, 
methods developed to protect employees in health and to 
provide for their general security. 

In viewing the courses in the universities, we have a 
feeling that much has yet to be done to equip the young 
engineer with the necessary fundamentals for dealing with 
the human phase of his work, which incidentally is as 
necessary, if not more necessary, than in dealing with the 
material phase. It has been generally recognized that most 
of the so-called failures among engineers who do not reach 
positions of large responsibility and remuneration are due 
to shortcomings on other than the technical side. 

We would also raise the point that not only theoretical 
phases of psychology and economics are important to the 
engineer, but that their practical application is of paramount 
importance. It is felt, therefore, that in presenting these 
subjects to the undergraduate engineer, the practical 
application should be kept well to the fore. 

We would very definitely draw to your attention the 
great desirability of giving adequate attention to the 
subject of industrial relations in courses for undergraduate 
or graduate engineers and should you desire, this committee 
would be very happy to have the opportunity of discussing 
it with you along detailed lines." 

LATE DELIVERY OF JOURNALS 

These days one becomes accustomed to the disjointing of 
routines and habits that have been established over a 
period of years. Some of these are serious; others are of 
much less importance. Perhaps among these latter can be 
included the increasing inconveniences attached to the 
publishing of The Engineering Journal. 

Many things continue to retard the monthly appearance 
of the Journal — shortage of materials and labour being the 
principal ones. Members have not complained, due doubt- 
less to their appreciation of changing conditions, but 
nevertheless an explanation is due. 

Ordinarily the Journal appears not later than the tenth 
of the month. Recently it has been from one to two weeks 
late. The January number set a new record, and at the 
moment of writing it is still not in the mail and the printers 
cannot give any definite date. The fault seems to be a set of 
conditions over which there is no control. 

The Journal is not alone. Other publications, too, are 
having difficulty, and it is possible that conditions may be 
worse before they get better. The company doing the 
printing and mailing is one of the largest and most highly 
regarded in Canada, and is in as good a position as anyone 
to overcome or meet the new conditions. Readers may be 
assured that everything possible will be done to re-establish 
the schedule but, in the meantime, it is only fair to express 
appreciation of their patience. 

RESEARCH WORK ENCOURAGED 

To encourage research work in chemistry and chemical 
engineering, the Shawinigan Chemicals Limited has 
donated four thousand five hundred dollars to the Faculty 
of Science of Laval University, at Quebec, distributed over 
the next three years. This grant is to be used to establish 
nine scholarships of $500 each, and the awards will be 
known as "The Shawinigan Chemicals and Research 
Scholarships." The scholarships will be awarded to chemists 
and chemicals engineers doing post-graduate work at Laval 
University. 

The vital importance of continued research is well 
utilized by Shawinigan Chemicals Limited, which has two 
research departments employing over twenty chemists 
devoted entirely to research. The history and achievements 
of the company have amply proved the wisdom of its policy. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



WILLIAM KENNEDY, JUNIOR' 

Since this article was written, news has come of the death, 
on January 31st, of Mr. Kennedy. An obituary will appear in 
the March issue. 

The above title suggests a word of comment because it is 
not the name of one of our younger members. On the 
contrary, William Kennedy, Junior, has just celebrated his 
95th birthday and is actually a very senior member. On 
January 25th, he was good enough to receive the General 
Secretary, the Assistant General Secretary and the Secre- 
tary Emeritus, who called upon him at his home in order to 
present the felicitations and good wishes of the Institute. 
The deputation was heartily welcomed and found Mr. 
Kennedy looking well and enjoying his well-earned leisure. 

Born near Prescott, Ont., on January 4th, 1848, Mr. 
Kennedy belongs to a large family many of whose members 
have long been leaders in engineering progress in Canada. 
In 1858, his father (the Senior William Kennedy) founded 
the well-known engineering works at Owen Sound which 
are still maintaining their reputations for hydraulic machin- 
ery of high quality. After working with the firm for some 
years, William Kennedy, Junior, came to Montreal in 1893 
and established a consulting practice. During the following 
thirty years he planned and supervised the construction of 
a score of dams, waterworks, and hydro-electric power 
plants, from Nova Scotia to British Columbia. His work 
included consultation, advice, reports and valuation on 
many questions of water power and supply. 

In 1886 he took part in the movement which led to the 
formation of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, and 
with his older brother — who later became Sir John Kennedy 
— joined that body on its establishment in February of the 
following year. His long and successful professional career 
ended with his retirement in 1925. Since then he has 
travelled widely, and is still a member of the Institute and 
a resident of Montreal. Institute members hope he will long 
remain on our membership list. 




William Kennedy, Junior, M.E.I.C. 



93 



ENGLISH HOSPITALITY FOR MEMBERS 
OVERSEAS 

The following letter from the secretary of the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers (London, England) has special 
interest for those members who are now and who may be 
later in England, but it will be of general interest to the 
whole membership. It is a splendid illustration of the co- 
operative relationships which exist with our sister societies. 

THE INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS 

Savoy Place 

Victoria Embankment, London, W.C.2 

_ . . „ T . , „ 22nd December, 1942. 

L. Austin Wright, Esq., 

General Secretary, 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

2050 Mansfield Street, 

Montreal, Canada. 

Dear Mr. Wright: 

The arrangements which have been made to place the 
facilities of The Institution at the disposal of engineers from 
overseas have recently been under review, with the object 
of ensuring that the members of sister Institutions abroad 
and other engineers now stationed in this country, should 
receive details of the meetings which it is open to them to 
attend if they so desire. 

There has, of course, already been correspondence 
between us during the war on the subject of the reciprocal 
extension of facilities for visiting members, and in my letter 
of the 29th August, 1941, I referred to the Canadian Forces 
and also to those Canadians who are here in civilian 
occupations. As to the former an early contact with General 
McNaughton on his arrival has been followed up and we 
now have three links at Canadian Military Headquarters 
to ensure that all those concerned in the various Units will 
receive our programme of meetings. I have no doubt, 
therefore, that members of your Institute who are in the 
services here will be kept advised in this way. 

With regard to those of your members who arc in Great 
Britain in a civilian capacity, we are anxious to make sure 
that they. also will be advised of the position and I am 
wondering whether a note could be published in your 
Journal drawing attention to the arrangements between the 
two Institutions and advising any civilian members who 
may be in this country to get into touch with me. If in 
addition it would be possible for you to write direct on the 
matter to those whose addresses here are known to you, 
then I think we should be on much firmer ground in the 
effort to make as many contacts as possible. 

For my own part, in reference to the reverse operation of 
the scheme, I enclose a list of our members who have gone 
to Canada for war work since the list enclosed with my letter 
of the 29th August, 1941, was drawn up. As previously 
stated, it is difficult to compile a complete list as the visits of 
some of our members are regarded with greater secrecy than 
those of others and we do not always know the nature of 
their visits. I shall shortly, however, be publishing a 
reminder in our Journal of the arrangements with the 
various sister Institutions abroad, and this will serve the 
purpose not only of bringing the scheme to the notice of our 
members already in Canada, but also to any others who are 
likely to go there in the near future. 

I should like to take this opportunity of sending to you 
my very best wishes for 1943 and of expressing the hope 
that your Institute will have a very successful year. 
Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) W. K. Bkashek, 

Secretary. 

Sometime ago negotiations with the three leading engin- 
eering societies in England lead to reciprocal arrangements 
being made whereby the members of the Institute in the Old 
Country could enjoy the facilities of those institutions, and 



their members in Canada could enjoy similar facilities with 
the Institute. 

All branches were notified of these arrangements and from 
time to time, as they were received, names of Old Country- 
engineers were forwarded to the branches concerned. These 
branches have put the names on their mailing lists, and have 
assured the visitors of a welcome at all meetings. In some 
cases it has been possible to render a really special service, 
and such opportunities are taken up with alacrity and 
enthusiasm. 

Branch officers and members are urged to remind persons 
going overseas of these privileges. If names of such persons 
are sent to Headquarters, the information will be forwarded 
to the Institutions, and every endeavour will be made to see 
that suitable ar angements are completed. It is a rare 
privilege for Canadians to visit these old British institutions 
which are the progenitors of similar societies in all parts of 
the world. 

The institutions at which members of the Institute will be 
welcomed, in addition to the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, are the Institution of Civil Engineers, and the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

R.C.E. BAND 

During the course of the annual meeting at Hamilton in 
1941, a collection was taken to aid the Royal Canadian 
Engineers at Petawawa in the purchase of instruments for 
a band. This contribution was a substantial part of the 
total required, but it was not until some time later that the 
fund was completed. 

For the Institute's part in this worthy objective, a framed 
photograph of the band has been presented to Headquarters. 
It is reproduced herewith. The inscription on the plate 
reads : 

"Presented to the Engineering Institute by (A 5) 
C.E.T.C. of Canada in grateful acknowledgment of the 
assistance given in forming this band." 





T"^ é AJ^v^ m ™ 


Ai . ~s\*e 3 ai^ x Nk i^ ^ \ 


*^9K7 "^ ^b* 




lil?*^. 



Royal Canadian Engineers Band 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON AUTOMATIC STATIONS 

The fourth bibliography of technical literature entitled 
"Bibliography on Automatic Stations, 1930-1941" is soon 
to be issued by the American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers. This publication sponsored by the AIEE committee 
on automatic stations supplements earlier bibliographies on 
the subject published previously in AIEE Transactions. 

The entries in this bibliography are numbered consecu- 
tively by sections and listed alphabetically by years. The 
material is divided into the following sections: general; 
supervisory and remote control ; telemeter and telemet ry : 
automatic and remote-controlled switches and Bwitchgear; 
automatic features of generating stations using fuels; auto- 
matic boiler and combustion control, automatic hydro-elec- 
tric plants; automatic substations. 

The "Bibliography on Automatic Stations, 1930-1941" 
is a 26-page pamphlet, 8^ x 11 inches. It may be obtained 
from AIEE headquarters, ".33 West 39th Street, New York. 



94 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURIS \1. 



N.Y., at 25 cents per copy to Institute members (50 cents 
to non-members) with a discount of 20 per cent for quantities 
of 10 or more mailed at one time to one address. Remit- 
tances, payable in Yew York exchange, should accompany 
orders. 

Members of the Engineering Institute may obtain copies 
of the bibliography at 25 cents each from their own Head- 
quarters. This is made possible owing to the exchange ar- 
rangements between the Institute and American Societies. 

WASHINGTON LETTER 

Our Washington correspondent, E. R. Jacobsen, m.e.i.c, 
has recently left for Australia on a technical mission which 
will probably take the better part of the next two months. 
Preparations for his departure have prevented him from 
contributing his monthly letter. It is hoped that on return- 
ing he will have something of interest to readers of the 
Journal. 

Mr. Jacobsen is Engineering and Technical Assistant to 
the Director, Commonwealth of Australia War Supplies 
Procurement, at Washington. He is on loan from Dominion 
Bridge Company, Limited, Montreal, where he was struct- 
ural designer. 

MEETING OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council of the Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Saturday, January 16th, 1943, at ten 
o'cIock a.m. 

Present: President C. R. Young in the chair; Vice- 
Presidents deGaspé Beaubien and K. M. Cameron; Coun- 
cillors J. E. Armstrong, J. G. Hall, R. E. Heartz, W. G. 
Hunt, C. K. McLeod and G. M. Pitts; Treasurer E. G M. 
Cape; Secretary-Emeritus R. J. Durley, General Secretary 
L. Austin Wright and Assistant General Secretary Louis 
Trudel. 

The general secretary reported that in accordance with 
Council's instructions, he had sent to each member of 
Council, with a request for comments or suggestions, a copy 
of the proposed Canons of Ethics for Engineers as prepared 
by a committee of the Engineers' Council for Professional 
Development (E.C.P.D.). Replies received from seven 
members of Council indicated a general approval, although 
there was some feeling that the Canons were too numerous 
and too detailed. One member of Council had submitted a 
completely revised draft. 

Mr. Pitts suggested that a small committee of possibly 
three senior members should be appointed to consider the 
replies received and prepare a memorandum covering the 
Institute's recommendations for submission to E.C.P.D. 
After some discussion it was decided to bring the matter up 
for further consideration at the annual meeting of Council 
in Toronto on February 10th. 

The general secretary read a cablegram from Professor 
Frederick Webster accepting election as an Honorary 
Member, and expressing his great pleasure and appreciation 
of the honour conferred upon him. He also read a letter from 
Professor Webster extending greetings to the many friends 
he had made during his recent visit to Canada. 

The financial statement for the year 1942, as prepared by 
the auditors, had been examined by the Finance Committee 
and approved. The finances of the Institute were in excellent 
condition in spite of certain substantial expenditures of an 
unusual nature, such as the Webster lectures. The surplus 
on the year's operations was the largest that had been 
recorded for some time, and the collection of arrears of fees, 
amounting to over $5,000.00 was perhaps the largest ever 
recorded. It had been decided to set aside from the surplus 
$2,000,00 towards a reserve for maintenance of the building, 
and $1,500.00 towards a reserve for a building fund. 

A letter from the Canadian Manufacturers Association 
asking the Institute's approval of the Pay-as-you-Earn 
Income Tax Plan had been received. The Association is 
endeavouring to indicate to the government that this plan 



is approved by a substantial number of citizens so that the 
government may be influenced accordingly. The recom- 
mendation of the Finance Committee that the Canadian 
Manufacturers Association be given the support requested 
was approved. 

It was unanimously RESOLVED that W. H. Munro, 
m.e.i.c, of Ottawa, be appointed chairman of a Striking 
Committee, whose duty it is to make recommendations to 
Council regarding chairmen for the various Institute com- 
mittees for the year 1943. It was left with Mr. Munro and 
the president-elect to name the other members of the 
committee. 

At this point, the president and the general secretary 
retired from the meeting, and Vice-President Cameron 
took the chair. 

The following resolution was presented from the executive 
of the Winnipeg Branch. 

"The executive recommends that the American Stan- 
dard Abbreviations for Scientific and Engineering Terms 
as approved by the American Standards Association, 
March, 1941 (ASA-Z101-1941) be adopted by the 
Winnipeg Branch; and that the Secretary be instructed 
to write Headquarters recommending these abbreviations 
for consideration by Council with the view to adoption by 
the Engineering Institute of Canada." 

A letter from the secretary of the Canadian Engineering 
Standards Association intimated that that body had 
already adopted the American Standard Abbreviations but 
that publication had been deferred pending a decision as to 
whether or not certain items of a purely Canadian or 
British interest should be added to the lists contained in the 
A. S.A. standard. 

In view of the fact that all Canadian standard specifica- 
tions are now handled through the C.E.S. A., it was felt that 
no action was necessaiy on the part of the Institute Council 
or any of its branches. However, in order to clarify the 
situation, it was unanimously resolved that Mr. Durley 
and Mr. Trudel be asked to review the situation from the 
time the Institute handled such specifications, and prepare 
a memorandum for the records and for the information of 
the Winnipeg Branch. 

On returning to the meeting, President Young explained 
to Council that he and the general secretary had just met 
in the secretary's office with Mr. James Wilson, president 
of the Shawinigan Water and Power Company. Mr. Wilson 
had attended at the president's invitation in order to 
receive from him a replica of the Julian C. Smith Medal. 

The president had made this presentation knowing of the 
co-operation and assistance given to the Institute by Mr. 
Wilson and his company, and because of his particular 
interest in the establishment of the Julian C. Smith Medal. 
The replica was to serve as a personal record and a keepsake. 
The inscription read as follows: "Presented to Mr. James 
Wilson, a friend of the Institute and the immediate successor 
to Mr. Smith as president of the Shawinigan Water and 
Power Company." 

The president commented on the value of the support 
given to the Institute by commercial organizations. The 
establishment by outright contribution or by endowment of 
worth while objectives such as medals, prizes or scholar- 
ships, was very helpful. 

The following resolution was presented from the Canadian 
Institute of Chemistry. 

"That Council of the Canadian Institute of Chemistry 
is in favour of recommending to the Honourable Minister 
of Labour that the principle of compulsory transfer for 
technical personnel should be adopted, and is of the 
opinion that the views of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada and the Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy should be sought as to their feelings for the 
purpose of sending a joint recommendation." 

After considerable discussion Council decided that in 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



95 



view of the proposed changes in National Selective Service 
procedures and the government's policy towards conscrip- 
tion, it would be inadvisable and ineffective to present a 
resolution along the lines suggested. 

The president reported that early in January he had had 
a conversation with C. S. Kane, president of the Canadian 
Institute of Steel Construction, in which Mr. Kane outlined 
a proposal to institute some inquiry relative to the part to be 
played in post-war reconstruction by the heavy industries. 
In response to the president's suggestion Mr. Kane had 
submitted a proposal in writing. This proposal was read to 
the meeting by the general secretary. It suggested that as 
the members of the Institute were interested in heavy 
industry the Institute might care to name a representative 
to a joint committee that might be established to investigate 
this proposal. 

Mr. Cameron pointed out that on Dr. James' Committee 
on Post-War Reconstruction there is a member who 
represents industry. The purpose in having him on the 
committee is to have a contact with industry so that it 
might be organized to fit into the other general activities. 
Mr. Cameron suggested that Mr. Kane might get in touch 
with this representative to see if his group of industries 
could work along the same lines as other industries. 

It was agreed that this whole proposal be submitted to the 
Institute Committee on Post-War Problems. 

It was noted that the next meeting of Council would be 
held at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, on Wednesday, 
February 10th, 1943, convening at ten o'clock a.m. 

A number of applications were considered, and the 
following elections and transfers were effected : 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on January 16th, 1943, the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 
Allan, John Charles, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), asst. industrial 

control engr., Canadian General Electric Co., Peterborough, Ont. 
Howard, Ernest E., ce. & b.s., (Univ. of Texas), D.Eng., ,(Univ. of 

Nebraska), senior partner, Howard, Needles, Tammen & Berquedoff, 

cons, engrs., Kansas City, Mo. 
Lundy, Homer Shannon, struct'l designer, H. G. Acres & Co., Niagara 

Falls, Ont. 
Pascoe, Thomas, (City & Guilds London Institute), senior asst. engr., 

M.D. No. 13, Suffield Experimental Station, Suffield, Alta. 

Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Member 
Allaire, Lucien, b.a.sc, ce., (Ecole Polytechnique), asst. division 

engr., Highways Dept. of Quebec, Metabetchouan, Que. 
Anderson, Roderick Victor, b.a.sc, (Civil), (Univ. of B.C.), chief 

dftsmn., Welland Chemical Works, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Baker, John Arthur, b.a.sc, (Univ. of B.C.), inspector, Canadian 

Underwriters' Association, Toronto, Ont. 
Bradford, George Allen McClean, b.sc, (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask.), 

mech. designer, H. G. Acres & Co., Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Brown, William Edward, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), wire rope engr., 

The B. Greening Wire Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
Craig, William Royce, b.sc, (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), asst. engr., 

B.C. Sugar Refining Co., Vancouver, B.C. 
Crain, Harold F., b.sc, (Queen's Univ.), vice-pres., Crain Printers 

Ltd. Ottawa, Ont. 
Ehly, Lucas Joseph, b.sc, (Chem.), (Univ. of Alta.), res. engr., Dept. 

of Transport, Lethbridge, Alta, 
Higgins, Edgar Clarence, asst. engr., Hydro Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 
Johnston, Orval Ellsworth, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), designing 

engr., Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 
Marcotte, Roland, b.s., (Sch. of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wis.), 

operating engr., Saguenay Power Co. Ltd., Isle Maligne, Que. 
McCann, William Neil, b.sc, (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), engr., McColl 

Frontenac Oil Co., Toronto, Ont. 
Oddleifson, Axel Leonard, b.sc (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), junior 

engr., Winnipeg Electric Co., Seven Sisters Falls, Man. 



Stead, Harry G., chief engr., E. Leonard & Sons, Ltd., London, Ont. 
Tames, John Alex, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), sales engr., Canadian 

Westinghouse Co. Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 
Warkentin, Cornelius Paul, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), engr., 

Imperial Oil Co. Ltd., Sarnia, Ont. 
Willis, Ralph Richard, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of N.B.), chief engr., 

Ross Engineering of Canada Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Member 
Peters, Henry F., b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), (Fl./L.), Works 

Officer, No. 12 S.F.T.S., R.C.A.F., Brandon, Man. 
Ramsdale, Donald Osland Dallas, B.Eng. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), 

Prob. Sub-Lieut., R.C.N. V.R., Halifax, N.S. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Belle-Isle, Joseph Gérard Gerald, b.a.sc, ce., (Ecole Polytechnique), 

P/O, R.C.A.F., St-Basile-le-Grand, Que. 
Crook, Donald Gordon, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Sask.), production 

engr., Neon Products of Western Canada, Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 
Dick, William Arthur, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), plant engr., 

American Can Co., Montreal, Que. 
Edwards, Milton Chalmers, B.sc (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), F/O, 

signals officer, R.C.A.F., Winnipeg, Man. 
Ellis, Gwillym Lionel Townshend, b.sc (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask.), 

asst. engr., Weathermakers (Can.) Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Hindle, Walter, b.sc. (Univ. of Alta.), erecting engr., Canadian West- 
inghouse Co., Ltd., Hamilton, 
Hugill, John Templeton, b.sc. (Chem.), m.sc. (Phys. Chem.), (Univ. 

of Alta.), Capt., R.C.A., chief experimental officer, Experimental 

Station, Suffield, Alta. 
Ingram, Wallace Wellington, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), foreman, 

lead and impregnating depts., Phillips Electrical Works, Montreal, 

Que. 
Jacobs, Clifford Roy, b.sc (Chem.), (Univ. of Alta.), asst. inspector, 

at Atlas Powder Co. Plant, Joplin, Mo., for Inspection Board of 

the United Kingdom and Canada. 
Jones, David Carlton, B.Eng. (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), chief ground 

instructor and chief link instructor, No. 5 E.F.T.S., High River, 

Alta. 
Klodniski, Nicholas Albert, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), engrg. 

dftsman., Canadian National Railways, Montreal, Que. 
LaRivière, Marcel Gérard, B.Eng. (Civil), (McGill Univ.), junior 

engr., Dept. of Public Works of Canada, New Westminster, B.C. 
Marantz, Oscar, B.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), demonstrator, Faculty 

of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. 
Mercier, Jules Mathias, b.a.sc, ce., (Ecole Polytechnique), meter 

engr., Canadian General Electric Co., Peterboro, Ont. 
Moule, Gerald William, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Man.), elect'l. engr., 

Defence Industries Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
McEown, Wilbert R., inspector of electricity and gas, Dept. of Trade 

& Commerce, Winnipeg, Man. 
Weston, Norman Owen, b.sc. (Elec), (Univ. of Alta.), illumination 

engr., Canadian Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, Ont. 
Wright, Austin Meade, B.Eng. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), Sub-Lieut., 

R.C.N.V.R., Overseas. 

Students Admitted 
Betnesky, Abraham David, (Montreal Tech. Inst.), dftsmn. Dominion 

Bridge Co. Ltd., Lachine, Que., 3921 Drolet St., Montreal. 
Gerrard, James Herbert, (Univ. of N.B.), 263 York St., Fredericton, 

N.B. 
Heinze, Laurence Sherwood, (Univ. of N.B.), 752 Union St., Freder- 
icton, N.B. 
Janigan, George Gregory, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 705 Barrington St., 

Halifax, N.S. 
McElwain, Donald Melvin, (Univ. of N.B.), 618 Brunswick St., 

Fredericton, N.B. 
Muirhead, Charles Randolph, (Univ. of Man.), Kingsley Apts., Win- 
nipeg, Man. 
Tod, James Alexander, (Univ. of Toronto), Lundy Ave., Newmarket, 

Ont. 
Vaillancourt, Rosaire, (Ecole Polytechnique), 8131 Berri St., Mont- 
real. 

By virtue of the co-operative agreement between the Institute and 
the Association of Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan, the fol- 
lowing election has become effective: 

Member 
Hay, Charles Cecil, B.Eng., (Univ. of Sask.), refinery supt., Hiway 
Refineries, Ltd., (Petroleum Products), Saskatoon, Sask. 



96 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Personals 



Major-General G. R. Turner, M.c, D.C.M., m.e.i.c, has 
been made "Companion of the Most Honourable Order of 
the Bath." He is deputy adjutant and quartermaster- 
general of the first Canadian Army overseas. 

He was born at Four-Falls, N.B., in 1890, and was 
educated at Andover, N.B. He enlisted at sixteen in the 
3rd Field Company, Royal Canadian Engineers, and served 
in France as a sergeant and sergeant-major, being com- 
missioned in September, 1915. He was promoted to captain 
a year later. His subsequent appointments included regi- 
mental and staff service and in May, 1918, he was promoted 
to major. He was mentioned in despatches, awarded the 
Distinguished Conduct Medal and the Military Cross and 
bar. 

In 1920 he was appointed to the permanent force with 
rank of captain, and studied at the School of Military 
Engineering, Chatham, England. Returning to Canada, 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. He is 
director of works and buildings at R.C.A.F. Headquarters, 
Ottawa. Marshal Collard was born at Belmont, Ont., and 
received his education at Kitchener. In 1906 he joined 
Warren Bros. Company and rose from the position of 
foreman to that of general superintendent when engaged 
on construction work in the western provinces. In 1922-23 
he was president and general manager of Warren Bros. Co. 
at Honolulu, Hawaii. In 1924 he joined the staff of Carter, 
Halls Aldinger Company Limited at Winnipeg and in 
1927 he became vice-president of the firm. In 1933-34 he 
organized the_Acadia Construction Company Limited, 
Halifax and'became managing-director a position which he 
still holds. 






Ma jor-General G. R. Turner, 
C.B., M.E.I.C. 



Rear Admiral G. L. Stephens, 
C.B.E., M.E.I.C. 



Air Vice-Marshal R. R. Collard, 
C.B.E., M.E.I.C. 



he became instructor in military engineering at the Royal 
Military College, Kingston. In 1924 he attended the Staff 
College at Quetta, India, and in 1927 he was appointed 
district engineer-officer of Military District No. 10, Win- 
nipeg, Man. In 1929 he became assistant director of 
engineer services, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, 
Ont. In 1938 he attended a course at the Imperial Defence 
College, London, England, and on his return, in 1939, he 
was on the General Staff at M.D. No. 11 Headquarters, 
Esquimalt, B.C. 

At the outbreak of this war he went overseas as general 
staff officer, grade 1, with the 1st Division. He was promoted 
to colonel and later brigadier, and on formation of the 
Canadian Corps was appointed deputy adjutant and 
quartermaster-general of the corps. 

Engineer Rear-Admiral G. L. Stephens, r.c.n., 
m.e.i.c, has recently been promoted from the rank of 
engineer captain and, in the King's new year honours list, he 
was made "Commander of the Most Excellent Order of 
the British Empire." His promotion to Engineer Rear-Ad- 
miral makes him the first Canadian to hold that rank. 

Admiral Stephens was born and received his first naval 
training in England. He joined the Canadian Naval Force 
in 1910 as engine-room artificer. His advancement to the 
commissioned rank came during the Great War and he has 
since served as senior engineer on both coasts. In 1941 he 
was appointed engineer in chief of the Royal Canadian 
Navy and came to Ottawa in the Naval service, in the 
Department of National Defence. 

Air Vice-Marshal R. R. Collard. m.e.i.c, has been made 



Air Vice-Marshal G. O. Johnson, m.e.i.c, who was 
commanding officer at No. 1 Training Command, R.C.A.F., 
at Toronto, has been named commander of the Eastern*Air 
Command at Halifax. 

Major-General C. R. S. Stein, m.e.i.c, has recently been 
promoted from the rank of Brigadier and named to succeed 
Lieutenant-General E. W. Sansom to the command of a 
Canadian Armoured Division overseas. 

General Stein is an engineer officer of long experience and 
at 46 is one of the youngest men of his rank in the army. 
He joined the 6th Field Company of the Canadian En- 
gineers, in the Non-Permanent Active Militia in 1914 as a 
sapper and after graduating from the Royal Military 
College was commissioned a lieutenant. From 1917 to 1919 
he saw service in France and Belgium. 

After the war he served as district engineer officer in 
M.D. 5 (Quebec); attended the Staff College at Quetta, 
India; he was promoted to major in 1931, and served at 
Defence Headquarters. At the beginning of the war he was 
confirmed in the rank of lieutenant-colonel and appointed to 
command the engineer training centre. He went overseas in 
1940 as an Assistant Adjutant General in personal services. 
In 1941 he was appointed Adjutant and Quartermaster- 
General of a Canadian Armoured Division, was made a 
brigadier commanding a Canadian Armoured Brigade, and 
then went to the General Staff, an appointment he held 
until his new promotion. 

George L. Watson, m.e.i.c, consulting engineer of New 
York City, has been recalled to active duty in the United 
States Army as a colonel. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



97 



Paul A. Béique, m.e.i.c, was elected president of La 
Chambre de Commerce de Montréal at the annual meeting 
held last month. Mr. Béique is a native of Montreal and 
received his early education at Collège Ste-Marie, Montreal, 
and St. Charles College, Baltimore. He later undertook his 
engineering studies at the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 
from which he received the degrees of Civil Engineer and 
Bachelor of Applied Science, in 1906. 

His first work was with a firm of engineers and architects. 
Subsequently he accepted the position of draughtsman with 
the Quebec, Montreal and Southern Railway. 

In 1907, Mr. Béique joined the staff of Messrs. O'Brien 
and Mullarkey, railway contractors, in the capacity of 
inspector, and in the following year he was appointed 
superintendent for the same company on construction of 
the Quebec, Montreal and Southern Railway. In 1909, he 



R. S. Eadie, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected chairman of the 
Montreal Branch of the Institute. He is a graduate of 
McGill University in the class of 1920, his engineering 
course having been interrupted during his service with the 
R.C.E. in the last war. In 1922 he received the degree of M.Sc. 
from McGill. He lectured in the Faculty of Applied Science 
of McGill until 1924 when he joined the Dominion Bridge 
Company Limited as a designer. He became designing 
engineer in 1935 and in 1937 he was appointed assistant 
chief engineer of the company, a position he still holds. 

Aimé Cousineau, m.e.i.c, has been appointed director of 
the City Planning Department of Montreal, replacing 
H. A. Terreault who died recently. Mr. Cousineau is 
a graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, of 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard 
University. He has been active for a number of years in 




Paul Béique, M.E.I.C. 





Aimé Cousineau, M.E.I.C. 



R. S. Eadie, M.E.I.C. 



became associated with a firm of civil engineers and land 
surveyors who were engaged in private practice. In 1913 he 
entered consulting work, and in addition to his general 
practice was acting town engineer for the town of Ville 
Lasalle, Que., and was a member of the Consulting Board 
of the Metropolitan Commission of Montreal. He has since 
carried out a successful practice, specializing in valuation 
and municipal work. For several years he was a member 
and later vice-president of the Montreal Tramways Corn- 
mission. 

Professor E. G. CuHwick, m.e.i.c, head of the Depart- 
ment of Electrical Engineering at the University of Alberta 
has been granted leave of absence from the university in 
order to assume the position of director of electrical engin- 
eering at Canadian Naval Headquarters, Ottawa, with the 
rank of Commander (Electrical). Commander Cullwick was 
born in England and educated at Cambridge University. He 
served his apprenticeship with British Thompson-Houston 
Company Limited, in England, and after his arrival in 
( 'anada, in 1926, he took the test course with Canadian 
General Electric Company at Peterborough, Ont. In 1928 
he was appointed assistant professor of electrical engineer- 
ing at the University of British Columbia. In the years 
1934-1935 he lectured in electrical engineering at the 
Military College of Science, Woolwich, Eng. He returned 
to the University of British Columbia, in 1935, as assistant 
professor of electrical engineering and in 1937 he became 
professor and head of the Department of Electrical Engin- 
eering at the University of Alberta. 

Wing-Commander Denton Massey, M.P., m.e.i.c, is 
now overseas. Until recently he had been posted for sonic- 
time as Comm nding Officer of No. 3 Initial Training 
School, R.C.A.F., Victoriaville, Que. 



city planning work in Montreal and has lectured for many 
years on the subject at the Ecole Polytechnique. 

J. C. Aitkens, m.e.i.c, is now employed in the engineering 
department of Ford Motor Company of Canada at Windsor, 
Ont. Since 1937, he had been employed with Madsen Red 
Lake Gold Mines Limited, at Madsen, Ont. 

E. A. Beman, m.e.i.c, is chief engineer of the Chesterville 
Larder Lake Gold Mining Company Limited at Kearns, 
Ont. He was previously with Pandora Limited at Cadillac, 

Que. 

Henri Gaudefroy, m.e.i.c, a member of the teaching staff 
at the Ecole Polytechnique, has been appointed secretary of 
the Faculty and assistant to the Dean. Born in Montreal in 
1909, Mr. Gaudefroy received his high school education at 
Mont Saint-Louis College, in Montreal, and then studied 
engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique from 1929 to 1933, 
being awarded the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science. 
After graduating from the Ecole Polytechnique he studied 
for some time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
which conferred upon him the degree of Sc.B., in electricity, 
in 1934. 

From 1935-1939 Mr. Gaudefroy was with the Bell 
Telephone Company. Since 1939, he has been assistant 
professor of mathematics at the Ecole Polytechnique. Mr. 
Gaudefroy is chairman of the Membership Committee of 
the Montreal Branch of the Institute. 

N. I. Edwards, m.e.i.c, has joined the Royal Canadian 
Naval Volunteer Reserve as Engineer Lieutenant. He has 
been on the staff of Franklin Railway Supply Company of 
Canada, Montreal, since 1924. 



98 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



R. H. Moore, m.e.i.c, has left his position with Hudson 
Bay Mining & Smelting Company Limited, Flin Flon, Man., 
and has joined the staff of Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie 
McCulloch Limited, Gait, Ont. 

Flying-Officer M. S. Layton, jr. e. i.e., was awarded the 
D.S.O. last December. According to news which reached 
here recently he was navigator on an aircraft escorting a 
convoy. The crew fought off, during several hours, enemy 
submarines and prevented them from attacking the convoy. 
2nd Lieutenant J. E. Beamish, jr. E. i.e., has left his 
position with the Dominion Experimental Station at Swift 
Current, Sask., to enlist and is at present training with the 
R.C.E. at Chilliwack, B.C. 

J. M. Thomas, Jr. e. i.e., lately of Montreal is now located 
at Pictou, N.S., with Foundation Maritime Limited, 
Shipbuilding Division. 

G. F. Webster, s.e.i.c., is at present serving as a lieutenant 
with the R.C.E. He graduated from the University of 
Saskatchewan in 1942. 



Obituaries 




D. Hutchison, M.E.I.C. 
The new chairman of the Edmonton Branch 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 
R. E. McMillan, m.e.i.c., Aluminum Company of Canada 
Limited, Arvida, Que., December 30th, 1942. 
Ls. P. Cousineau, m.e.i.c., Dufresne Engineering Com- 
pany, Passe Dangereuse, Que., January 6th, 1943. 
P/O. M. L. Papineau, jr.E.i.c., R.C.A.F., Cap de la 
Madeleine, Que., January 6th. 

Gustave St-Jacques, m.e.i.c, Public Service Board, 
Quebec, January 6th. 

P/O. J. A. Lamb, jr. e. i.e., Saskatoon, Sask., January 21st. 
Lieutenant Jacques Leroux, m.e.i.c., Petewawa, Ont., 
January 21st. 

P/O I. H. Wilson, School of Aeronautical Engineering 
Lethbridge, Alta., January 21st. 

J. A. Reynolds, m.e.i.c., Department of Munitions and 
Supply, Army Engineering Design Branch, Ottawa, Ont., 
January 21st. 

Colonel Edward C. Thorne, m.e.i.c., N.D.H.Q., Ottawa, 
Ont., January 25th. 

D. S. Thomas, m.e.i.c., Mining Engineer, Toronto, Ont., 
on January 26th. 

J. A. Van den Broek, m.e.i.c, Professor of Engineering 
Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
U.S.A., January 26th. 

Lieut. C. W. Elliott, R.C., jr. e. i.e., Calgary, Alta., 
January 30th. 

W. E. Brown, m.e.i.c, Secretary-Treasurer of the Hamilton 
Branch of the Institute, Wire Rope Engineer, Sales Depart- 
ment, The B. Greening Wire Company Limited, Hamilton, 
Ont., January 30th. 



The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives of 
those whose passing is recorded here. 

Jacques Nessim Aggiman, m.e.i.c, died on July 22, 1942, 
in Washington, D.C. He was consulting engineer and 
owner of Aggiman Engineering & Construction Company 
at Ankara, Turkey. Born on March 7, 1892 at Monastir, 
Turkey, he received his engineering education at McGill 
University, Montreal, where he graduated as a B.Sc. in 
1917. Before attending McGill he worked as a draughtsman 
from 1911 to 1915 with the St. Lawrence Bridge Company, 
at Montreal, on the Quebec bridge project. In 1916 and 
1917 he was a designer with St. Lawrence Pulp & Lumber 
Company at Chandler, Que. Upon graduation he joined the 
Ha-Ha-Bay Sulphite Company at Port Alfred, Que., as 
superintendent of construction on the pulp mill. In 1919- 
1920 he'was chief engineer of the company. 

From 1921-1924 he was chief engineer of construction 
for the Standard Oil Company of New York in the Near 
East. In 1924 he established a consulting practice at 
Constantinople and later founded the contracting firm of 
which he was still the owner at the time of his death. 

During his engineering career in Turkey, Mr. Aggiman 
was connected with the design and construction of several 
public buildings such as the palace of the president of the 
Turkish Republic, several embassies buildings as well as 
commercial buildings. In particular he was retained as 
consulting engineer and contractor for the Turkish Par- 
liament, the Ministry of Works and Buildings of Great 
Britain, various diplomatic missions and the Embassy of 
the United States. He held decorations from the Govern- 
ment of Yugoslavia and Persia. 

Mr. Aggiman joined the Institute as a Student in 1916 and 
transferred to Junior in 1917. In 1919 he transferred to 
Associate member and became a Member in 1929. 




Ernest M. Archibald, M.E.I.C. 

Ernest M. Archibald, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at his home» 
at West Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.A., on September 19» 
1942. A native of Nova Scotia, he was graduated from 
McGill University in the '99 Science class, with honours. 
In 1900 he joined the engineering department of Crocker- 
Wheeler Company at Ampere, N.J. From 1901 to 1904 he 
was employed with the American Locomotive Company at 
Richmond, Virginia, and in 1905 he returned to the Crocker- 
Wheeler Company at St. Louis, Missouri, as a sales engineer. 
In 1906 he went to the Dominion Coal Company at Glace 
Bay, N.S., as electrical engineer and assistant mechanical 
engineer, at the inception of the electrification of the col- 
lieries. He then went over to Europe, where he spent much 
time studying and investigating the latest developments in 
industrial power and colliery practice. In 1912, Mr. Archi- 
bald turned his attention to general contracting, and carried 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



99 






out a number of important contracts, such as the successful 
completion of the substructure of the Annapolis Bridge, 
also the Moncton, N.B., bridge substructure, which was a 
difficult compressed-air undertaking and carried out under 
extreme tidal conditions, and said to be one of the most 
difficult projects ever undertaken. Mr. Archibald also built 
100 miles of macadamized highway under contract with the 
Nova Scotia Highway Board, and carried out the entire 
paving programme for the city of Halifax for the season 
of 1922. He then returned to the contracting business, and 
became associated with the E. F. Power's Construction 
Company of Saint John, N.B. In 1926 the .firm moved to 
Florida and entered into the construction of highways and 
bridges throughout the State. From 1928 to 1934 they con- 
structed many miles of levees on the Mississippi River, with 
the then new electrical dirt moving equipment. 

As Power & Archibald Inc. they were engaged in road 
building, and later in airport Construction work throughout 
the State. At the time of Mr. Archibald's death, Power & 
Archibald Inc., were constructing an airport at Homestead, 
Florida. 

Mr. Archibald joined the Institute as an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1906. He became a Member in 1940. 




C. D. Harrington, M.E.I.C. 

Conrad Dawson Harrington, m.e.i.c, vice-president and 
general manager of the Anglin-Norcross Corporation Limit- 
ed, Montreal, died at the hospital in Montreal, on January 
26, 1943, after a short illness. Mr. Harrington was born at 
Montreal on November 17, 1884, and received his early 
education at the Montreal High School. He entered the 
Royal Military College at Kingston in 1902 and completed 
his engineering studies at McGill University where he was 
graduated as a B.Sc. in 1907. 

He became associated with the Anglin-Norcross concern 
upon his graduation, when it was known as Byers and 
Anglin. Later, the firm became known as Anglins Limited 
and Mr. Harrington was appointed vice-president. When 
the new firm Anglin-Norcross Corporation Limited was 
established he became vice-president and chief engineer. 

Among the notable engineering projects carried out by 
the company, under Mr. Harrington's supervision, are the 
Royal York Hotel in Toronto, the Canadian Bank of Com- 
merce building also in Toronto, the church of St. Andrews 
and St. Paul in Montreal, the Supreme Court building in 
Ottawa, the Chateau Frontenac in Quebec and the Imperial 
Tobacco Company Limited buildings in Montreal. 

The firm of which Mr. Harrington was general manager 
has taken a very active part in the construction programme 
for industrial expansion in Canada since the beginning of 
the war. Mr. Harrington has been responsible particularly 
for the expansion of the Quebec arsenal, and in the words 
of the Honourable C. D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and 
Supplies "There is no doubt that his untiring efforts to 
rush through that important job affected his health." 



Mr. Harrington was a former president of the Montreal 
Board of Trade and of the Canadian Construction 
Association. He was president of Anglin-Norcross Quebec 
Limited and Anglin-Norcross Ontario Limited. He also 
served on the Canadian board of directors of the Yorkshire 
Insurance Company Limited. 

Mr. Harrington joined the Institute as a Member in 1940. 

James Shanly, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at Kenogami, Que., 
on December 18, 1942. He was born at Montreal, Que., on 
January 5, 1897, a son of the late James Moore Shanly, 
widely-known engineer. Educated first at the local schools, 
he entered McGill University to study engineering. In 1916, 
however, he broke off his course to enlist with a unit of the 
Royal Canadian Engineers, going overseas with the rank of 
lieutenant. 

Returning to Canada in 1919, the late Mr. Shanly entered 
the service of Price Brothers Company Limited at Keno- 
gami, Que., as a draughtsman. Later he became field 
engineer on construction and maintenance of the plant and 
townsite. In 1926 he was appointed assistant to the mechan- 
ical superintendent and, in 1931, he became assistant general 
superintendent. Later he was appointed to the position of 
manager of the paper division. During his residence at 
Kenogami he became a strong supporter of all the activities 
of the community and, at the time of his death, he was head 
of the Canadian Red Cross Society in the Lake St. John 
district. 

Mr. Shanly joined the Institute as a Junior in 1920 and 
was transferred to Associate Member in 1933. He became a 
Member in 1940. He was chairman of the Saguenay Branch 
of the Institute in 1935. 

Lewis Stockett, m.e.i.c, died in the hospital at Vancouver, 
B.C., on December 19, 1942. He was born at Ashland, Penn., 
U.S.A., on March 31st, 1861. He received his education in 
the local high school and under private tutors. In 1875 he 
entered the office of the division engineer of the Lehigh 
Valley Coal Company for the purpose of studying mining 
engineering. He remained with this firm until 1882 when he 
was appointed engineer of the Westmoreland Coal Co. near 
Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1884 he was appointed superintendent 
of the Park Collieries in the anthracite region, Park Place, 
Pa., and in 1887 became chief engineer of the Consolidated 
Coal Co. at St. Louis. He remained there until 1891 when he 
went into private engineering practice in Illinois. In 1892 
he became secretary-treasurer of the Wabash Mining 
Company, in Indiana, and held this position until 1895, 
when he went to the Great Northern Railway as mining 
engineer. From 1897 until 1904 he was general manager of 
the Great Northern Coal Mines at Great Falls, Mont. 
Then he came to the Calgary district in 1905 as manager 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway's Bankhead coal mines, 
near Banff. 

He was also manager of the company's mines at Hosiner, 
B.C., and in 1912 he was appointed general superintendent 
of the coal mines branch of the Department of Natural 
Resources and came to Calgary to reside. 

After his retirement in 1929 he lived for several years at 
the Ranchmen's Club at Calgary and travelled extensively 
through England and Scotland, the United States and to 
Hawaii. He always took a keen interest in community 
affairs and was a member of the Calgary Board of Trade, 
of the Ranchmen's Club and the Calgary Golf and Country 
Club. He went to live at Vancouver in 1932. 

Mr. Stockett joined the Institute as a Member in 1916. 

Charles Taylor, m.e.i.c, died suddenly at his home at 
Selkirk, Man., on December 11, 1942. He was born in 
London, England, on June 25th, 1872. From 1896 to 1900 
he was employed with Canadian Pacific Railway at Win- 
nipeg and Moose Jaw. From 1901 to 1902 he was engaged 
in bridge construction with the Canadian Northern Railway. 
He joined the Department of Public Works of Canada in 
1903 and worked on design and construction in Manitoba 



100 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING .JOURNAL 



until 1911 when he was appointed superintendent of 
dredges for the Department in Manitoba, Saskatchewan 
and Alberta. In 1920 he was appointed engineer for the 
town of Selkirk, Man., which position he held until his 
death. 

Mr. Taylor joined the Institute as an Associate Member 
in 1912 and in 1940 he became a Life Member. 




H. E. Wingfield, M.E.I.C. 

Harold Ernest (Pat) Wingfield, m.e.i.c. — The death of 
"Pat" Wingfield, on January 14th, 1943, removes from the 
ranks of the profession, and from the ranks of good citizen- 
ship, one of the most likeable and useful persons in Canada. 
At the age of forty-two, in the midst of a multitude of 
activities, of which he was an essential part, he succumbed 
to an illness which for a long time he had hidden from all 
but a few friends and relatives. Medical authorities had 
advised him to retire in order to lengthen his days, but he 
chose to go on to the end, making his contributions to the 
many causes in which he was interested. Had he chosen 
otherwise, he would not have been true to himself. 

H. E. Wingfield was born in England, and came to 
Canada at the age of nine. He attended public and high 
school at Dunnville, Ontario, and entered the University 
of Toronto in 1919, graduating with honours as a Bachelor 
of Applied Science in Electrical Engineering with the famous 
class of '23. 

Upon graduation he joined the engineering staff of the 
Turnbull Elevator Company, Limited, at Toronto, remain- 
ing there until 1933, four years of this time being spent at 
Winnipeg as branch manager. Upon his return to Toronto 
he was made sales manager of the company. In 1933 he 
became industrial engineer with the Toronto Industrial 
Commission. At the tirne of his death he was vice-president 
and director of sales, advertising and purchases, with the 
Imperial Rattan Furniture Company, Limited, Stratford. 
He was also vice-president of V. H. Mclntyre, Limited, 
of Toronto. 

No mere chronological account of education and business 
experience can give any conception of the full life lived by 
Pat. Successful in all his business endeavours, he still had 
time to devote to unselfish interests. To his intelligence, 
energy and enthusiasm many societies owe much of their 



success, and his departure will leave them all with an irre- 
parable loss. It is to be hoped that in each instance some 
person, fired by the inspiration and attainments of his 
predecessor will arise to carry on the good work. He would 
wish it so. 

Among the varied interests just mentioned can be 
included the Boy Scouts Association, of which he had been a 
district commissioner, the Engineering Alumni of the 
University of Toronto, the Kiwanis Club, and the Church 
of England. He was buried in the uniform of the Boy 
Scouts, and Dr. Cody, President of the University of 
Toronto, assisted in the ceremony. 

The Engineering Alumni was particularly fortunate in 
receiving a large portion of his attention. Many of the good 
works accomplished within the last ten years, were inspired 
and carried out under the impetus of his enthusiasm and 
energy. Starting in 1933 as treasurer, he served in succession 
as vice-president and president, occupying each office for 
three years. His conduct of the reunion in November, 1942, 
was an outstanding performance, and those who saw him 
then find it impossible to believe that he is gone from us 
forever. 

This man's life and his leaving of it, should be an inspir- 
ation to all who remain. A review of the good things he has 
accomplished, and the friendships he has made should serve 
as a model for the aspirations of other engineers. The force 
of his example will carry on for the lifetime of those of us 
who knew him. His was a brilliant light that burned all too 
shortly, but in its time both warmed and illuminated those 
fortunate enough to come within its orbit. 

The world is better for his having lived, but he will be 
missed sadly. The sense of loss experienced by his friends 
gives them some appreciation of the depth of the bereave- 
ment of his wife and son. To them sincere and kindly wishes 
are extended — and sympathy. — L.A.W. 

COMING MEETINGS 

Ontario Good Roads Association — Annual Convention 
at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, February 24-25. Secre- 
tary: T. J. Mahoney, Box 485, Hamilton, Ont. 

Canadian Section, American Water Works Association 

— Annual Convention, Royal Connaught Hotel, Hamilton, 
Ont., April 7-9. Secretary: Dr. A. E. Berry, director of the 
Sanitary Engineering Division, Ontario Department of 
Health, Parliament Buildings, Toronto. 

Industrial Accident Prevention Associations — Annual 
Convention, at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, April 12-13. 
General Manager: R. B. Morley, 600 Bay Street, Toronto. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers — 1943 
Spring Meeting, Davenport, Iowa, April 26-28. Secretary: 
C. E. Davies, 29 West, 39th Street, New York, N.Y. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers — 1943 
Semi-Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, California, June 12-14. 
Secretary: C. E. Davies, 29th West, 39th Street, New 
York, N.Y. 

American \S a 1er Works Association — Annual Meeting, 
to be known as A.W.W.A. Conference on War-Winning 
Waterworks Operations, at the Carter and Statler Hotels, 
Cleveland, Ohio, June 14-17. Secretary: Harry E. Jordan, 
22 East 40th Street, New York, N.Y. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



101 



News of the Branches. 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



J. B. DOWLER, M.E.I.C. 

W. R. Stickney, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



The Border Cities Branch held their annual dinner meet- 
ing at the Prince Edward Hotel on Friday, December 11. 
After the dinner Mr. J. B. Dowler gave the Secretary- 
Treasurer's Report and Financial Statement, and the chair- 
men of the various committees then gave their annual re- 
ports. Following this, scrutineers were appointed and the 
following officers elected for the coming year: Chairman, 
G. G. Henderson; Vice-Chairman, J. B. Dowler; Secretary- 
Treasurer, W. R. Stickney; Executive Committee, J. F. O. 
Blowey, A. H. Pask, A. H. MacQuarrie. 

Mr. G. E. Medlar then introduced the speaker of the 
evening, Mr. T. H. Jenkins, Designing Engineer of the 
Grand Trunk Western Railway, whose topic was Wartime 
Railroad Transportation. At the conclusion of his speech 
a lengthy and interesting discussion took place and after 
a vote of thanks to the speaker by Mr. C. G. R. Armstrong 
the meeting adjourned. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 

W. E. Brown, Jr.E.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The branch held its annual business meeting and dinner 
on Wednesday, January 13th, in the Royal Connaught 
Hotel with Chairman Stanley Shupe presiding. We can re- 
port that this was one of the most successful in several 
years and thoroughly enjoyed by all. 

The guest of honour and speaker was our president, 
Dean C. R. Young, who was introduced by H. A. Cooch. 
Dean Young spoke on the subject, The Engineering Pro- 
fession in War Time. The Dean gave us a very splendid 
address pointing out that it is not sufficient that the engi- 
neer's role in war-time be purely technological in character. 
The engineer must develop the whole doctrine of professional 
competency and make his contribution to all aspects of 
our national life. 

In reporting on the activities of the Institute, the presi- 
dent illustrated how the E.I.C. is making that contribution. 
The Institute is affiliated with the Engineers' Council for 
Professional Development, which concerns itself with the 
broader aspects of professional life. The E.I.C. actively 
supports the policies of that council, and has representation 
on three E.C.P.D. committees, namely, Committee of Pro- 
fessional Training, Committee on Professional Recognition 
and Committee on Principles of Engineering Ethics. Fur- 
thermore, the Institute has its own Committee on Welfare 
and Training of the Young Engineer. 

Three important committees of the Institute were ap- 
pointed this year — Committee on Industrial Relations. 
Committee on Post- War Problems, and Committee on the 
Engineering Aspects of Civil Defence, which sponsored and 
financed the Webster lectures on Structural Defence Against 
Bombing, in Toronto last April. 

The president then went on to speak of the things con- 
cerning the profession having a more direct relation to the 
war effort. The demands on engineers have been very great 
and many are serving with distinction in the armed forces. 
At home the engineer has been faced with the problem of 
vast construction and the provision of plant and equipment 
for the manufacture of the munitions of war. 

There also has been the problem of design modification 
to save critical materials and reduce the amount of mater- 
ials used. Plastics and synthetic rubber were mentioned, 
as well as many other ingenious contributions to the war 
effort. 

Concluding, Dean Young remarked that in the years of 
peace there was a great future for the engineer and every 
evidence there would be great technological activity, and 



the longer the war went on the greater would be the demands. 
T. S. Glover moved the vote of thanks. 

Mayor William Morrison was present and spoke briefly. 
We were pleased to have the general-secretary with us and 
to hear his report on interesting Institute activities. 

Earlier in the evening the annual reports were received 
and the various items of business attended to. E. H. Darling 
moved a vote of thanks to McMaster University and staff 
for the assistance given to the branch during the past year, 
to which Chancellor G. P. Gilmour replied. 

Presentations were made to the retiring chairman, 
Stanley Shupe, and A. R. Hannaford, the retiring secretary- 
treasurer, whose work during the last six years was warmly 
praised by E. G. MacKay, who made the presentation to 
him. 

T. S. Glover, the new chairman, took over the office and 
introduced the other officers. The attendance was 78. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 



R. A. Low, M.E.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The Kingston Branch held a special meeting to welcome 
the President, Dean C. R. Young, of the University of 
Toronto on December 8th, at the LaSalle Hotel. 

Mr. K. Winslow, chairman of the Kingston Branch, pre- 
sided at the meeting. Dean Young was welcomed and intro- 
duced by Col. Le Roy Grant. 

In his address to the Branch, the twenty-third that he 
has visited during his term of office, the President spoke of 
the national character of the work that the Institute is 
doing. It is of much value to the organization for senior 
officers to visit as many Branches as possible so that the 
views of members across Canada may be ascertained and 
may assist in the formulation of policies for the general 
benefit of the profession. 

President Young expressed the view that the engineering 
societies had a function of particular importance to fill in 
time of war. There is a great disposition towards narrowing 
of the training of young engineers into purely technological 
channels, and efforts should be made to offset this. The 
meetings of the great engineering societies that have recently 
been held have all been unusually well attended and in 
numbers of cases all-time records have been established. 
The Institute feels therefore that it is eminently justified 
in holding its annual meeting in the usual form at Toronto, 
February 11-12, 1943. This is particularly so as the pro- 
gramme will generally gather about the war activities of 
the Institute. 

Speaking of the general and continuing activities of the 
Institute, the President laid particular stress upon its par- 
ticipation in the enterprises of the Engineers' Council for 
Professional Development. Representatives of the Institute 
sit on the more important committees of ECPD. The Insti- 
tute's Committee on the Training and Welfare of the Young 
Engineer is working closely in parallel with the ECPD Com- 
mittees on Student Guidance and Selection and Professional 
Training. Already, under the guidance of the Institute's 
Committee, counselling committees have been set up in 
seventeen of the twenty-five Branches. Nine thousand copies 
of "The Profession of Engineering in Canada" in English 
have been distributed and an additional five thousand copies 
in French have recently been printed. 

Strong emphasis was placed by the speaker on the special 
undertakings of the Institute connected with the war and 
its aftermath. The Committee on the Engineering Features 
of Civil Defence, which supervises the general activities of 



102 



February. 19*3 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Branch committees in twenty of the twenty-five Branches, 
has issued a valuable booklet "Structural Defence against 
Bombing" and through certain subcommittees is making 
available to the country generally the expert advice and 
assistance of the engineer in counteracting the possible 
effects of bombing and sabotage. The Institute's Committee 
on Post-War Problems has given important assistance to 
the Government-appointed Advisory Committee on Recon- 
struction and is arranging to make available to the one 
hundred and twenty-five local citizens' committees set up 
across Canada any assistance that engineers can give to 
these committees in studying problems of rehabilitation 
and reconstruction. The Institute's Committee on Indus- 
trial Relations is making important progress in drawing 
the attention of the universities to the need for providing 
fully adequate instruction to engineering students in this 
important subject and has arranged for a thorough dis- 
cussion of the whole matter at the annual meeting in 
Toronto. 

In speaking of the future of the profession, the President 
expressed the view that the technological advances now 
being made will ensure the employment of engineers for 
some time after the cessation of hostilities. A vast demand 
for the goods and services of peace is being built up which 
must be satisfied and this will mean not merely the pro- 
vision of these things according to old time standards but 
rather according to the best and most modern practices. 
Out of this desire of the public to profit from the results of 
discovery and invention a great source of technological em- 
ployment is sure to arise. 

The President spoke strongly of the need for maintaining 
and extending the professional point of view in the training 
of young engineers both in college and in the years following 
graduation. It is imperative that one who is to be a thor- 
oughly qualified member of a learned profession should be 
characterized by a humanistic outlook and not merely a 
technological one. Many engineers make the mistake of 
thinking that all the problems of the world can be solved 
by a technological approach. A little consideration will show 
that human advancement comes as a result of many different 
kinds of workers co-operating to a common end. Each pro- 
fession and each calling has its own distinctive role to play, 
and it is the duty of the engineer to realize the necessity of 
considering many factors other than technological ones when 
dealing with public questions. To the extent that he acquires 
a breadth of view his effectiveness as an educated and 
trained citizen will be advanced. 

The speaker was thanked by Dean A. L. Clark, Queen's 
University. 

Following the meeting an informal social hour was spent 
when members and their guests had the pleasure of meeting- 
Dean Young. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



A. A. SwiNNERTON, M.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



At the annual branch meeting, held on the evening of 
January 14, 1943, at the auditorium of the National 
Research Laboratories, G. H. Ferguson, chief engineer of 
Pensions and National Health, was elected chairman for 
the ensuing year; A. A. Swinnerton, m.e.i.c, was re-elected 
secretary-treasurer; and W. H. Bevan, m.e.i.c, and J. 
Byrne, m.e.i.c, were elected to the managing committee to 
serve two years. Mr. Ferguson succeeds N. B. MacRostie, 
retiring chairman, who presided at the meeting. 

The branch, according to reports presented, held 8 
luncheon meetings and 4 evening meetings during the year 
including the annual meeting, and co-operated in holding 
3 more evening meetings with other organizations. Two 
sets of draughting instruments were donated to the Ottawa 
Technical School for presentation as prizes for proficiency 
in draughting and a copy of "Technical Methods of 
Analysis" by Griffin was sent to the Hull Technical School 
for presentation to one of its students. 

Total membership of the branch increased by 48 during 



the year, standing at 434 resident and 119 non-resident 
members. With deep regret the loss by death of two of the 
members was reported: E. M. Dennis, m.e.i.c, and R. H. 
Swingler, s.e.i.c 

Co-operation with the committees set up by the Council 
of the Institute in Montreal was maintained and according 
to the secretary-treasurer's report "the close of the year 
finds the Ottawa branch fully organized to co-operate not 
only with the regular requests for this co-operation but also 
to lend assistance in special matters such as Air Raid 
Precautions and Post-War Reconstruction." During the 
year the managing committee held nine meetings for the 
transaction of general business. 

At the close of the annual meeting proper, the members 
listened to an address on Wardens of Power by Past- 
President T. H. Hogg of Toronto, chairman of the Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission. Dr. Hogg's address was 
of much public interest and was well reported in the press. 
It reviewed conditions relating to electric power supplies 
in Ontario since the commencement of the war and outlined 
possibilities for further developments. 

Light refreshments were served at the close of the 
evening's activities. 

PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



A. R. Jones, jr.E.i.c. 
J. F. Osborn, S.E.I.C. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



A paper of wide interest "DeCew Falls Power Develop- 
ment" was presented before an audience of about 60 engi- 
neers at the December 10th meeting. Mr. O. Holden, the 
author of the paper and Chief Hydraulic Engineer of the 
H.E.P.C., was detained so the paper was read by Mr. J. R. 
Montague, Assistant Chief Hydraulic Engineer H.E.P.C. 

Mr. Montague dwelt on the difficulties encountered in 
the development but stated that experimental work and 
careful preparation have resulted in good progress which 
will permit an early completion of the undertaking. 

The DeCew Falls site is located on the escarpment along 
Lake Ontario and adjacent to the old Welland Canal. The 
65,000 HP which will be immediately developed and the 
further block of power available in the near future will be 
of great importance in easing the power shortage in a 
critical area. 

An important feature of the job relates to war economy. 
By use of a generator and turbine from the Abitibi Canyon 
Plant, considerable time will be saved and scarce machinery 
conserved. 

This paper which has great current interest will be pub- 
lished in the near future, sponsored by one of the branches 
at which it has been presented. 

Mr. Sills conveyed the thanks of the meeting to Mr. 
Montague for an excellent paper and for the entertaining 
remarks accompanying it. Mr. J. Cameron acted as chair- 
man in the absence of Mr. D. Emery, Branch Chairman. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

G. W. Griffin, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The Saint John Branch held a Supper meeting on Decem- 
ber 29th, at the Admiral Beatty Hotel, at which there were 
35 present. 

The technical explanation of what aerial bombing does 
to material in air raid shelters was given in a paper, The 
Effects of Aerial Bombing on Structure, presented at 
that meeting. 

The paper, prepared by Dean I. F. Morrison, professor 
of applied mechanics, department of municipal and civil 
engineering, University of Alberta, was illustrated by lantern 
slides, and was read by David R. Smith, chairman of the 
Branch. Various designs for shelters were outlined also in 
the paper. 

In addition to members of the branch, guests from the 
Ottawa and Moncton branches and engineering students 
of the University of New Brunswick attended the meeting. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



103 



SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

Stewart Young, m.e.i.c. - Acting Secretary-Treasurer 

The Saskatchewan Branch, E.I.C., met jointly with the 
Association of Professional Engineers in the Kitchener 
Hotel, Regina, on Thursday evening, December 17, 1942. 
The meeting was preceded by the usual dinner at which 
the attendance was 25. 

Mr. R. T. Blackmore of the Technical Service Depart- 
ment, The British American Oil Company Limited, ad- 
dressed the meeting on Fuel and Lubrication Require- 
ments of the Modern Gasoline Engine, following which 
Mr. Roy Pugh, Provincial Apiarist, showed a very inter- 
esting film on Bees. 

Mr. Blackmore reminded his audience that the motive 
power of the modern mechanized army is the internal com- 
bustion engine, which, for the purpose of studying gasolines 
and how motive power is derived from it, must be considered 
as a heat engine. The refining of three different type* of 
gasoline was then discussed, the types being straight run, 
cracked and polymerized gasoline. Automotive Gasolines 
have a boiling range of from approximately 80 deg. F. to 
400 deg. F. Light ends for easy starting, 50 per cent, warm 
up period, heavy ends for power and economy. 

During the past 25 years compression ratios have in- 
creased from 4 to 1 to nearly 7 to 1, with consequent greatly 
increased power output. The increase in compression pres- 
sures resulted in detonation or motor "ping", overcome by 
the introduction into gasoline of tetra ethyl lead. The estab- 
lishing of an Octane rating on different fuels in a knock 
motor was illustrated. Spark setting to accommodate No. 1 
and No. 2 graded fuels in the modern motor was also cov- 
ered. For starting purposes both grades of gasoline have 
equal value, providing distillation ranges are the same and 
the only difference being in the lead content, No. 1 Gasoline 
having a higher content than No. 2. Different gasolines for 
various altitudes and temperatures are necessary. 

In the brief discussion of oils Mr. Blackmore ventured 
the opinion that after the war, all premium priced oils will 
be of a compounded nature. Compound oils now on the 
market for diesel and heavy duty gasoline operation are 
compounded chemically to achieve the following: high de- 
tergency, film strength, metal deactivation and oxidation 
inhibitors. 

The illustrated address by Mr. Pugh dealt with the sub- 
ject of Bees from the larva stage of the honey bee to the 
final product, honey. The Province of Saskatchewan is the 
second largest producer of honey in Canada, the total annual 



output being 5,000,000 pounds (approximately 250 carloads) 
all of which is consumed in Saskatchewan. 

Both addresses proved very interesting and were followed 
by numerous questions answered respectively by Mr. Black- 
more and Mr. Pugh. A hearty vote of thanks was tendered 
the speakers on motion of Mr. E. W. Bull. 

SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 

O. A. Evans, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The annual meeting for the Sault Ste. Marie Branch of 
the Institute was held on Friday, December 18th, 1942, in 
the Grill Room of the Windsor Hotel. 

Eighteen members and guests sat down to luncheon at 
6.45 and enjoyed a tasty meal which was along the tradi- 
tional Christmas style. 

Chairman L. R. Brown called the meeting to order at 
8.00 p.m. and asked the secretary to read the minutes of the 
previous meeting. 

The chairman then asked the secretary to bring in his 
report for the year 1942. The secretary reported a very 
successful year. The highlights of it were a financial surplus 
of $71.55 and seven dinner meetings. One distracting 
feature was the loss in membership in the non-resident areas. 

A. E. Pickering then brought in the report of the Papers 
and Publicity committee. He explained that due to the 
pressure of business we were unable to obtain a number of 
papers as some of the speakers had been called from town 
and were unable to give their papers when they had promised 
to do so. 

The chairman then asked A. M. Wilson to bring in the 
report of the election of officers for the year 1943. 

L. R. Brown then called upon the new chairman N. C. 
Cowie to assume the chair. In relinquishing the chair L. R. 
Brown thanked all the people who had helped in making 
the past year a success and was pleased to see a younger 
man as chairman. 

Mr. Cowie in assuming the chair thanked all those who 
saw fit to elect him to the position and called upon the 
members for their co-operation. 

The new chairman then called upon the members for a 
vote of thanks for the outgoing chairman and executive in 
providing the members with an interesting year. 

O. A. Evans the retiring secretary thanked the members 
and executive for their co-operation during his term of 
office. 

The members then retired to an adjoining room where a 
social evening was enjoyed by all. 



News of Other Societies _ 

PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 
ELECT NEW OFFICERS 

R. A. Elliott, General Manager, Deloro Smelting & 
Refining Co. Ltd., Deloro, has been elected president of 
the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province 
of Ontario for the year 1943. Always interested in the affairs 
of the Association, he took an active part in the legislation 
programme. In 1938, he was elected councillor in the 
Chemical Branch and since then has been chairman of the 
Publicity Committee. He was elected vice-president in 1942 
and chairman of the Finance Committee. 

Following graduation from Queen's University, Mr. 
Elliott joined the Copper Queen Mining Co. in 1912 at 
Bisbee, Arizona, going from there to the engineering staff 
of the International Nickel Co., Copper Cliff. In March 
1915, he was appointed Assistant Chemist of the Deloro 
Smelting & Refining Co. Ltd. and in the same year was 
made Superintendent of the Cobalt Oxide Plant and 
General Superintendent of the Plant in .1917. Mr. Elliott 
was appointed a Director and General Manager of the 
Company in 1940. 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 



Mr. Elliott is Reeve of the Village of Deloro and is Vice- 
President and Treasurer of the Deloro Trading Company. 
He is a member of the Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy, the American Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Engineers, and the American Society for Metals. 

M. J. Aykroyd, Outside Plant Engineer of the Bell Tele- 
phone Company, Western Area, has been elected vice- 
president of the Association of Professional Engineers of 
the Province of Ontario for the year 1943. He was elected 
by ballot in 1941 to the Council of the Association, Elec- 
trical Branch, and is a member of the Finance and Pub- 
licity Committees. 

Mr. Aykroyd, a graduate of Queen's University, was with 
the Imperial Ministry of Munitions during the last war in 
Toronto, New York and later Montreal. After the war he 
was engaged in commercial work in Canada, the United 
States and abroad until 1923, when he joined the Chief 
Engineer's staff of the Bell Telephone Company in Mont- 



104 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




A. Elliott 



real. In 1926 he was transferred to London, Ontario, as 
Division Plant Supervisor, three years later returning to 
Montreal as Assistant Division Plant Superintendent. With 
the formation in 1930 of the western area at Toronto he 
was made General Plant Supervisor of the area. Since 1934, 
he has been Outside Plant Engineer. 

Mr. Aykroyd is a Director of the General Alumni Asso- 
ciation of Queen's University and a Vice-President of the 
Toronto Branch. 



Other members of Council for the year 1943 are as follows: 
Past-President: Warren C. Miller, m.e.i.c, City Engineer, 
St, Thomas. 

COUNCILLORS: Civil Branch: G. H. Bryson, Street 
Supt., City of Ottawa, Ottawa. J. Clark Keith, m.e.i.c, 
General Manager, Windsor Utilities Comm., Windsor. J. 
L. Lang, m.e.i.c, Lang & Ross, Sault Ste. Marie. 

Chemical Branch: J. G. Morrow, Metallurgical Engineer, 
Steel Company of Canada, Hamilton. E. T. Sterne, Chemi- 
cals Controller for Canada, Montreal. H. P. Stockwell, Jr., 
Chemical Engineer, Ottawa Water Purification Plant, 
Ottawa. 

Electrical Branch: E. V. Buchanan, m.e.i.c, General 
Manager, Public Utilities Commission & London Railway 
Commission, London. Lieut.-Comdr. C. P. Edwards, o.b.e., 
m.e.i.c, Deputy Minister, Dept. of Transport, Ottawa. J. 
H. Smith, Engineer, Elec. Construction Sales, Can. General 
Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto. 

Mechanical Branch: C. C. Cariss, m.e.i.c, Chief Engineer, 
Waterous Limited, Brantford. G. Ross Lord, m.e.i.c, 
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University 
of Toronto, Toronto. R. M. Robertson, Chief Engr., Bab- 
cock-Wilcox & Goldie McCulloch Ltd., Gait. 

Mining Branch: J. Beattie, Manager, Delnite Mines Ltd., 
Timmins. G. B. Langford, Professor of Mining Geology, 
University of Toronto, Toronto. D. G. Sinclair, Assistant 
Deputy Minister, Ontario Dept. of Mines, Parliament 
Bldgs., Toronto. 



Library Notes 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 

Communication Circuits: 

Lawrence A. Ware and Henry R. Reed. 
N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1942. 
6x9 in., $8.50. 
Quebec. Statistical Year Book: 

For the year 1941. Published 1942. 

Bibliography of the Literature Relating 
to Constitutional Diagrams of Al- 
loys: 

Compiled by J. L. Haughton. London, The 
Institute of Metals (1942). (Institute of 
Metals Monograph and Report Series No. 
2). 5V 2 x 8Y 2 in. 8s 6d. 

Handbook of Scientific and Technical 
Societies and Institutions of the 
United States and Canada: 

4th ed. Washington, National Research 
Council, 1942. 6% x 10 in. 

Wells' Manual of Aircraft Materials and 
Manufacturing Processes: 

T. A. Wells. N.Y., Harper and Brothers 
(c. 1942). iy 2 x 10 in. $3.50. 

PROCEEDINGS, TRANSACTIONS 
The Royal Society of Canada: 

Transactions, Vol. 86, Section 2. 

REPORTS 
United States Steel Corporation T.N.E.C. 
Papers: 

Comprising the pamphlets and charts sub- 
mitted by United States Steel Corporation 
to the Temporary National Economic Com- 
mittee, 1940. 8 vols. Vol. 1 — Economic and 
related studies. Vol. 2 — Chart studies. Vol. 
8 — Basing point method. 

Carnegie Corporation of New York: 

Annual report for the year ended September 
30, 1942. 
Social Insurance and Allied Services: 

Report by Sir William Beveridge. N.Y., 
MacMillan Co., 1942. 6 x 914, in. $1.10. 

Aerial Bombardment Protection: 

Harold Everett Wessman and William 
Allen Rose. N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., 1942. 6x9 in. $4.00. 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



University of Toronto — School of Engin- 
eering Research — Bulletin: 

Lateral support of steel columns and struts 
by C. R. Young and W. B. Dunbar. 
Bulletin No. 170, 1942. (Reprinted from 
the Canadian Journal of Research Vol. 20, 
August, 1942). 

Survey of High Obliques: 

The Canadian Plotter and Crone's Graphi- 
cal Solution by Captain L. G. Trorey. Re- 
printed from the Geographical Journal, 
Vol. C, No. 2, August 1942. 

Toronto Harbour Commissioners: 

Annual report for the years 1939, 1940 and 
1941. 
The Asphalt Institute — Construction 
Specifications : 

Emergency revisions of the Asphalt Insti- 
tute Construction specifications, Dec. 3, 
1942. 
Ohio State University — Engineering 
Experiment Station — Circular: 
No. 44 — Travel and trade in twentieth cen- 
tury Ohio. 

University of California — Bulletin of the 
Department of Geological Sciences: 

Vol. 26, No. 4 — Pliocene vertebrates from 
Big Spring Canyon, South Dakota, No. 5 
— Fossil vertebrates from the superjacent 
deposits near Knights Ferry, California. 

U.S. Bureau of Standards — Building 
Materials and Structures — Report: 

BMS92 — Fire resistance classifications of 
building constructions. BMS98 — Accumu- 
lation of moisture in walls of frame con- 
struction during winter exposure. 

Stratosphere Flying: 

Including navigation for emergencies by 
Captain E. Cecil Evans Fox. Vol. 1. Com- 
plete astro-navigation. Toronto, The Aero- 
nautical Institute of Canada (c. 1942). 



BOOK NOTES 

The following notes on new books ap- 
pear here through the courtesy of the 
Engineering Societies Library of New 
York. As yet the books are not in the 
Institute Library, but inquiries will be 
welcomed at headquarters, or may be 
sent direct to the publishers. 

A.S.T.M. STANDARDS ON PETROLEUM 
PRODUCTS AND LUBRICANTS 

Prepared by A.S.T.M. Committee D-2; 
Methods of Testing, Specifications, Defini- 
tions, Charts and Tables, October, 1942, 
American Society for Testing Materials, 
Phila., Pa. 442 pp., Mus., diagrs., 9x6 
in., paper, $2.25. 

The 1942 report of the committee on petro- 
leum products and lubricants, the standard 
and tentative methods of test and specifica- 
tions pertaining to petroleum are brought 
together in convenient form. 

A.S.T.M. STANDARDS ON TEXTILE 
MATERIALS 

Prepared by A.S.T.M. Committee D-18 on 
Textile Materials; Specifications, Toler- 
ances, Methods of Testing, Definitions and 
Terms. October, 1942, American Society 
for Testing Materials, Phila., Pa. 408 pp., 
iUus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
paper, $2.25. 
This pamphlet contains the definitions and 
terms, methods of testing and specifications 
for textiles and related materials at present in 
force. Seventy-three specifications are given, 
for cotton goods, glass fabrics, jute, rayon, 
silk and wool. In addition to specifications, the 
publication contains photomicrographs of the 
common textile fibers, a yarn number con- 
version table and other useful information. 

AIRPLANE. DESIGN MANUAL 

By F. K. Teichmann. Pitman Publishing 
Corp., New York and Chicago, 1942. 440 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



105 



pp., Mus., diagrs.. charts, tables, 9 1 ■> x 6 

in., cloth, $4.50. 
This volume outlines an orderly form of 
procedure in design, covering such subjects as 
preliminary weight estimating, the three view 
and the balance diagram. In addition, inform- 
ation is given on wing design, fuselage design, 
power plant, control, instruments, etc.. suffi- 
cient to enable the beginner to cany out the 
design of a new machine, and to supplement 
works on aerodynamics and structures. 

AMERICAN DIESEL ENGINES. Their 
Operation and Repair 

By E. F. Goad. Harper & Brothers, Nt w 
York and London. 1942. 313 pp.. Mus., 
diagrs., tables. ,9' 9 x 6 in., cloth. $2.75. 
Intended as an introductory text for voca- 
tional classes, this textbook offers an excellent 
account of the principles of the diesel engine 
and of its general design and construction, 
with practical advice on its operation, main- 
tenance and repair. The book is based on long- 
teaching experience. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS' MANUAL 

By D. B. Keyes and A. G. Deem. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1942. 221 pp., 
charts, tables, 6Y 2 x 4 in., cloth, $2.50. 
A compact collection of tables and equa- 
tions constantly used by chemical engineers, 
presented in a book of convenient pocket size. 
The equations relate to fluid flow, heat trans- 
fer, diffusional operations and separations. 
The tables include logarithms, integrals, 
specific heats, thermal conductivities, vapor 
pressures, safe loads, etc. 

COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS 

By L. A. Ware and H. R. Reed. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York; Chapman <fr 
Hall, London, 1942. 287 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., cloth, $3.50. 
The theory of communication circuits is 
presented as a first course in communication 
engineering for those training for civilian 
duties or for service in our armed forces. The 
basic principles of communication lines and 
their associated networks axe presented, cover- 
ing the frequency range from voice frequen- 
cies through ultra-high frequencies. Special 
attention is given to ultra-high frequency 
transmission. 

DAVISON'S KNIT GOODS TRADE 

52nd Annual, pocket edition. October. 191,2. 

Davison Publishing Co., Ridge wood. New 

Jersey, 1942. 729 pp.. Mus.. 8 x 5 in.. 

cloth, $5.50; de luxe office éd., $6.50. 
The 1942 edition of this well-known direc- 
tory follows the pattern of previous issues and 
provides a complete, up-to-date register of 
manufacturers of knit goods, arranged geo- 
graphically and by products. Spinners, dyers, 
wholesalers, and chain and large retail stores 
are also listed. 

ENGINEERING DRAWING 

By L. M. Sahag. Ronald. Press Company, 

New York, 1942. 394 pp.. Mus., diagrs.. 

charts, tables. 10* > x 6% in., cloth, $2.75. 
The aim in this text has been to offer a 
basic course which will be complete and 
thorough in subject matter, and also closely 
articulated with industrial standards and 
practice. The text is divided into three sec- 
tions of increasing difficulty, fundamental 
requirements being taught first. A wide 
selection of problems is included. 

ENGINEERING MECHANICS, a Text- 
Rook for Engineering Students 

By B. B. Low. Longmans. Green A Co.. 

London, New York. Toronto, 1942. 252 

pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 8* ■> x 5}/% in., 

cloth, $4.50. 
This book is chiefly concerned with kine- 
matics and dynamics, including instantaneous 
centers, velocity and acceleration diagrams, 
analysis of cams, motion of rigid bodies in two 
dimensions, and vibrations of various kinds. 
A chapter is devoted to dimensions and 
dynamical similarity. Although complete in 



itself, the book is intended as a companion 
volume to D. A. Low's "Applied Mechanics." 

FERROUS PRODUCTION 
METALLURGY 

By J. L. Bray. John Wiley & Sons, New 

York; Chapman & Hall, London, 1942. 

457 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 

9Y 2 x6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
An unusually successful attempt to cover 
the production of iron and steel in a volume 
of moderate size is provided by this text. The 
current processes are described in some detail, 
and the fundamental theories underlying them 
are presented. Excellent line drawings are 
used as illustrations. The treatment is thor- 
oughly up to date. Bibliographic references 
accompany each chapter. 

(The) FLOW OF HEAT IN METALS 

By J. B. Austin. American Society for 
Metals, Cleveland, Ohio, 1942. 144 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., 
cloth, $2.50. 
Contains five lectures intended to present 
the basic principles of heat flow in metals in 
a non-mathematical way. The nature of heat, 
the factors that affect the thermal conducti- 
vity of metals, the basic laws of heat con- 
duction and the flow of heat are discussed. 
Each lecture has a bibliography. 

FLUSH PRODUCTION, THE EPIC OF 
OIL IN THE GULF— SOUTHWEST 

By G. Forbes. University of Oklahoma 

Press, Norman, Okla.. 1942. 253 pp., 

Mus., maps, tables, 8* ■> x 5Y> in., cloth, 

$2.75. 

A history of the Gulf-Southwest oil field, 

telling the story from the early days of the 

nineteenth century to to-day. The discoveries, 

the era of rapid production, the question of 

regulation, stock speculation, the natural gas 

industry, the social and economic effects of 

the industry are described. A considerable 

bibliography is given. 

Great Rritain. (Ministry of Labour and 
National Service Welfare Pamphlet 

No. 5) 

VENTILATION OF FACTORIES, 4 ed. 

His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 
1942 reprint. 40 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9 x /i x 6 in., paper, (obtainable from 
British Library of Information, 30 Rocke- 
feller Plaza. New York, 45c). 

This pamphlet presents the principles which 
should be applied to secure satisfactory 
atmospheric conditions in workrooms, des- 
cribes the standards in force in England and 
discusses the ventilating apparatus and 
methods available. 

Great Rritain. Ministry of Works and 
Planning, Directorate of Construc- 
tional Design 

TIMRER ECONOMY, No. 3 (FITMENTS) 

His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 
1942, no pagination, diagrs., charts, tables, 
13 x 8 in., paper, {obtainable from British 
Librari/ of Information, 30 Rockefeller 
Plaza,' New York, 30c). 
This bulletin discusses the economical use 
of lumber in the construction of shelving, 
drawers, storage cupboards and bins, work- 
benches, kitchen fittings and other storage 
equipment. Dimensioned drawings are given. 

INDUSTRIAL INSPECTION METHODS 

By L. C. Michelon, Harper A - Brothers, 
New York, and London. 1.942. 389 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 11x8 in., 
cloth, $3.50. 
A course of instruction prepared for use in 
training junior inspectors for the War Depart- 
ment. The book describes the principles, con- 
struction and uses of the various instruments 
tor dimensional control, tor testing physical 
properties and for surface inspection. A 
chapter on the organization of inspection 
departments is included. 



(The) MAN REHIND THE FLIGHT 

By A. Jordanoff. Harper & Brothers, New 

York, 1942. 276 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 

tables, 10 x 7 in., cloth, $8.50. 

This book presents some information on 

mechanical drawing, elementary electricity 

and hydraulics, mechanics and physics, 

accompanied by a brief outline of airplane 

history. It is offered as a ground course for 

aviation mechanics and airmen. 

MARINE PIPE COVERING 

By W. W. Godwin. Cornell Maritime 

Press, New York, 1942. 142 pp., Mus., 

diagrs., 7Yi x 5 in., cloth, $2.00. 

A practical manual on the materials used 

for insulating piping and on methods of 

installing them on ships. Molded, curved and 

flat block and canvas coverings, and plastic 

cements are described. There are also chapters 

on covering boilers, on molded cork coverings 

and on hair felt and asbestos rope. 

MECHANICAL DRAWING 

By E. Kenison, and J. McKinney, revised 
by T. C. Plumridge. American Technical 
Society, Chicago, III., 1943. 330 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 8 y /l x 5Yi in., cloth, 
82.00. 
This textbook offers a practical course, 
adapted for class use or home study. 

(The) MECHANICAL TESTING OF 
METALS AND ALLOYS 

By P. F. Foster. 3 ed. Sir Isaac Pitman 
& Sons, London; Pitman Publishing 
Corp., New York, 1942. 317 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., chaits, tables, 8]A x 5Y 2 in., cloth, 
18s. or $5.00. 
Descriptions of modern testing equipment 
are coupled with its mode of use and com- 
bined with the theory underlying current 
developments in the testing of metals in a 
very practical way. The book should be useful 
for reference. 

ORE DEPOSITS AS RELATED TO 
STRUCTURAL FEATURES 
Prepared under the direction of the 
Committee on Processes of Ore De- 
position of the Division of Geology 
and Geography of the National Re- 
search Council, Washington, D.C. 
Edited by W. H. Newhouse. Princeton 
University Press, Princeton, New Jersey: 
Humphrey Milford, Oxford University 
Press, London, 1942. 280 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 12Y> x 9 in.. 
cloth, $6.50. 
Articles describing the relations of struc- 
tural features and ore occurrence in over 
seventy important mines and districts are 
presented in this volume, the first to be 
devoted to its subject. The contributors 
include many prominent geologists, and their 
opinions as to the relative importance of 
different structural features in localizing ore 
vary greatly. 

PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURAL 
GEOLOGY 

By C. M. Nevin. 8 ed. John Wiley & Sons. 

New York; Chapman & Hall, London. 

1942. 320 pp., Mus., diagrs.. charts, tables, 

9Y 2 x6 in., cloth, $3.50. 
The aim of this text tor beginners is to dis- 
cuss the deformations of the earth as simply 
as possible. The new edition has been thor- 
oughly revised and brought up to date. 

PROCESS PRACTICES IN THE 
AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY 

By F. D. Klein, Jr. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., New York and London., 1942. W6 
pp.. Mus., diagrs.. churls, tables, 9} ■> x 6 
in., cloth, S2.75. 
The processes, methods and materials cur- 
rently used in the aircraft industry arc di~- 
cussed in this book, which is intended :i> 1 
reference and instruction book for workers in 
that field. The procurement of raw materials, 
their marking for identification, the metals, 



106 



February, l<)i:i THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



fabrics and organic finishes used are listed in 
full and described briefly. Methods of process- 
ing are discussed at some length. A great deal 
of information is compressed into a small 
book. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR 
MARINE ENGINEERS, Book I— 
BOILERS 

Compiled by H. C. Dinger. Marine Engin- 
eering and Skipping Review (Simrnons- 
Boardman Publishing Co.), New York, 
1942. 168 pp., tables, 8 x 5 in., paper, 
$1.00. 
During the last twelve years the Marine 
Engineering and Shipping Review has pub- 
lished answers to readers' questions. This 
booklet contains a collection of those on the 
operation of marine boilers and on boiler-room 
equipment, which answer many problems 
that arise. 

(The) RADIO AMATEUR'S HANDBOOK 
20th ed. 1943. 

American Radio Relay League, West Hart- 
ford, Conn. 478 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9Yi x 6Y2 in., paper, $1.00 in 
U.S.A.; S 1.50 elsewhere; bound. $2.50. 

The new edition of this well-known manual 
of high-frequency radio communication fol- 
lows the model of earlier ones, but has been 
revised and expanded to meet current con- 
ditions. A special new feature is a chapter on 
the War Emergency Radio Service. The book 
provides a simple, non-mathematical text on 
the theory, design and operation of radio 
communication equipment, with full inform- 
ation on the construction of apparatus. 

RADIO TO-DAY, the Present State of 
Broadcasting. (Geneva Studies. Vol. 
XII, No. 6, July, 1942) 

By A. Huth. Geneva Research Centre, c/o 
Graduate Institute of International Studies, 
132 rue de Lausanne, Geneva, Simtzcrland. 
1942. 160 pp., tables, 8 x /o x -5 1 ■-> in., paper, 
1.75 Swiss frs. or $0.40~ 

The author first discusses the organization 
and financing of broadcasting, the method of 
transmission, the programmes offered and 
the number of listeners. Following this, he 
describes the broadcasting available through- 
out the world, and closes with a brief account 
of recent developments. The study gives an 
excellent survey of the whole field, with 
emphasis upon its permanent problems and 
the solutions that have been devised. 

ROGERS' INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY. 
2 Vols. 

Edited by C. C. Furnas. 6 ed. D. Van 
Nostrand Co., New York, 1942. 1721 pp., 
ilius., diagrs., charts, tables, maps, 9]/2 x 6 
in., cloth, $17.00. 

The new edition of this Manual will be 
welcomed by students and manufacturers. 
Like its predecessors, it offers rapid surveys. 
prepared by specialists, of the essential 
features of the most important branches of 
chemical industry. Without being encyclo- 
pedic, these surveys meet ordinary require- 
ments and are accompanied by references to 
sources of further information. The result is a 
valuable reference book. 

SEVEN-PLACE VALUES OF TRIGONO- 
METRIC FUNCTIONS FOR EVERY 
THOUSANDTH OF A DEGREE 

Compiled by Dr. J. Peters. D. Van Nost- 
rand Co., New York, 1942. No pagination 
given, tables, 9Y 2 x 7 in., cloth, $7.50. 

These tables are admirably suited for large 
scale computations with calculating machines. 
Tables are provided for sines, cosines, tan- 
gents and cotangents. Supplementary tables 
are given for converting minutes and seconds 
into decimal parts of degrees, and vice versa, 
and for converting degrees to time and time 
to degrees. 



SHIPBUILDING BLUEPRINT 
READING 

By J. L. Tomlinson. American Technical 
Society, Chicago, III., 1942. 208 pp., 
(answers, 27 pp. extra), diagrs., blue- 
prints, charts, tables, 11 x 8 Y in., stiff 
paper, spiral binding, $8.00 with answers, 
$2.75 without answers. 
The information needed by shipyard work- 
ers is presented in a practical way, beginning 
with the basic arithmetical data and covering 
methods of projection, relation of views, scales, 
symbols, etc. Typical drawings, with question 
sheets, are included. The course emphasizes 
the reading of ship drawings, rather than the 
making of them. 

STEEL AND TIMBER STRUCTURES 

Compiled by a Staff of Specialists; 
Editors-in-Chief, G. A. Hool and W. S. 
Kinne, revised by R. R. Zipprodt and D. 
M. Griffith. 2 ed. rev. and enl. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., New York and London, 
1942. 738 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9y 2 x6 in., cloth, $6.00. 
This book is one of a series of six designed 
to be a reference work on the design and con- 
struction of structures. It deals with steel and 
timber buildings, roof trusses, short span steel 
bridges, timber bridges and trestles, steel 
tanks, chimneys, and discusses detailing, 
fabricating, erecting and estimating, and 
materials. The treatment is thorough and 
detailed. This edition has been thoroughly 
revised and brought up to date. 

ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT AND ITS 
APPLICATIONS 

By H. C. Dake and J . De Ment. Chemical 
Publishing Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., 1942. 
209 pp., Mus., 9 x 5Yz in., cloth, $3.25. 
Some of the uses to which ultra-violet light 
has been put in criminology, warfare, adver- 
tising, medicine, etc., are briefly described in 
non-technical language. 

WITHOUT FAME, the Romance of a 
Profession 

By O. Eisenschiml. Alliance Book Corp., 
Chicago and New York, 1942. 368 pp., 
Mus., 9y 2 x6 in., cloth, 83.50. 
The autobiography of a chemical engineer 
who came to America as a young man. His 
career is traced from his first job in a Pitts- 
burgh steel mill to his final success as execu- 
tive of his own oil plant in Chicago. The 
story is full of incident, told in interesting 
fashion. 

CAN OUR CITIES SURVIVE? an ABC 
of urban problems, their analysis, 
their solutions, based on the pro- 
posals formulated by the C.I. A.M. 
(Congrès Internationaux d'Architec- 
ture Moderne, International Con- 
gresses for Modem Architecture) 
By J. L. Sert. Harvard University Press, 
Cambridge, Mass.; Humphrey Milford, 
Oxford University Press, London, 1942. 
259 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, 
tables, 12 x9]4in., cloth, 85.00. 

This important new book on city planning 
is based upon many years of study and an 
analysis of thirty-three American and Euro- 
pean cities of varied types. The problems of a 
modern city are approached from both a 
realistic and a human point of view. The four 
elementary functions — dwelling, recreation, 
work and transportation — are examined with 
reference to the cultural, social and political 
needs of large groups, and safeguards against 
repetition of past errors. Diagrams and illus- 
trations are strikingly used to present the 
subject. 

CHEMISTRY OF ENGINEERING 
MATERIALS 

By R. B. Leighou, rewritten by the follow- 
ing members of the Chemistry Faculty of 
the Carnegie Institute of Technology: J . C. 
Warner {Editor), T. R. Alexander. P. 
Fugassi, D. S. McKinney, H. Seltz, G. H. 



Stempel, Jr., and K. K. Stevens. 4th ed., 

McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 

London, 1942. 645 pp., Mus., diagrs., 

charts, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, $4.50. 

The chemical properties of materials are 

discussed from the viewpoint of the user, to 

aid in their intelligent selection and use. This 

edition has been rewritten by a group of 

teachers and has been enlarged by new 

chapters on protective coatings, the shaping 

of metals, abrasives, glass and organic plastics, 

and alloys. 

(The) ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS 
OF COMMUNICATION 

By A. L. Albert. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 

New York and London, 1942. 554 PP-, 

Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x /> x 6 in., 

cloth, $3.50. 

Intended as an elementary text for students 

of communication engineering, including 

telegraph, telephone and radio, this book 

presents the electrical fundamentals upon 

which these forms are based. The explanations 

and illustrations used are taken from the 

communication industry itself, and not from 

the power industry, as is usually done. 

METEOROLOGY AND AIR NAVIGA- 
TION, Air Pilot Training 

ByB.A. Shields. 2 ed. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., New York and London, 1942. 285 
pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 
9Y 2 x6 in., cloth, $2.25. 

This is a revision and expansion of parts 
three and four of the author's previous book, 
"Air Pilot Training." It contains a course in 
meteorology and air navigation which covers 
these subjects sufficiently to prepare one for 
the written examinations for a private and 
commercial pilot's certificate. The information 
is presented in a simple, non-technical style 
which calls for no advanced educational 
equipment. 

MODERN BUILDING INSPECTION 

"The Building Inspector's Handbook," 
with text by C. N. Dirlam and others, 
compiled, edited and. arranged by R. C. 
Colling, sponsored by the Pacific Coast 
Building Officials Conference, Los Angeles, 
Calif., published by R. C. Colling and 
Associates, 124 West 4}h St., Los Angeles, 
Calif., 1942. 404 PP-, Mus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, blueprints, 9Y x 6 in., cloth, $5.00. 
This is an admirable handbook on the 
organization and administration of building 
inspection and on the technical problems that 
arise in the work. The first section describes 
the organization and work of an inspection 
department, the drafting of codes, the forms, 
fees, reports, etc. Section two is a concise 
course in structural engineering for the 
inspector, which includes a chapter on resist- 
ance to wind and earthquake forces. The final 
section deals with legal problems in con- 
nection with the enforcement of building 
codes. Appendixes contain suggested forms of 
ordinances and procedures, an extensive 
bibliography and a directory of publications 
and technical associations. 

N.A.M. HANDBOOK ON WAR 
PRODUCTION 

Compiled and published by National Asso- 
ciation of Manufacturers, Washington, 
New York, San Francisco, August, 1942. 
184 PP-, charts, tables, 8Y2 x 11 in., paper, 
$1.00. 
This handbook for manufacturers brings 
together the information needed by those 
having war contracts or seeking them. How 
to go after a contract, how to sell to the 
Government, and the principles of cost 
determination under Government contracts 
are explained. The organization and functions 
of the War Production Board are described in 
detail, and the functions of the various 
agencies set forth. The priorities regulations 
are given in full, and there is a list of priorities 
orders, forms, etc. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



107 



NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL SERVES WAR 
[DEPARTMENTS {Continued from page 61) 

Equipment was installed and a staff assembled in the 
National Research Laboratories for the inspection of gauges 
used in the production of guns, shells, fuses, bombs and 
other mechanical items which are now being made in mass 
production. 

Another important activity of the Army which is built 
on science is chemical warfare. From a small co-operative 
effort between the National Research Council and the 
Army, this activity has developed rapidly and is now a 
highly co-ordinated project operating as a Directorate of 
the Department of National Defence, but under a Director 
General who is a civilian scientist on the staff of the National 
Research Council. Of the active personnel about one-half 
are civilian scientists and the rest are uniformed officers 
and men. 

Indicators for war gases and chemicals for other war 
services have been synthesized and studied. The rubber 
laboratory has investigated for production purposes or im- 
provements, products used by almost every branch of the 
Armed Forces including surgeons' gloves, ground sheets, 
gas-mask components, artillery and tank parts, crash and 
steel helmets. In addition, the laboratory has made numer- 
ous acceptance tests on contract deliveries. Recently, much 
attention has been given to rubber conservation problems 
and to the study of synthetic rubber processes. Commercial 
production of fuse-powder charcoal was carried on until 
recently by the National Research Council; manufacturing 
has now been turned over to a commercial concern. 

Activities in the textile laboratory have been largely in 
connection with acceptance test work and specifications. 
Special problems included an investigation of methods to 
reduce weathering of canvas duck, a study of thermal trans- 
mission of blankets, colour analyses of certain types of 
textile products and work on respirator pads. 

Inspections have been made and advice given as to the 
suitability of a variety of leathers for different military 
purposes. Examination has been made of numerous dressings 
and waterproofing compounds for leathers. Tensile strength 
tests on leathers, and wear-resistance tests, chiefly on com- 
position-sole materials were carried out for the Department 
of National Defence. 

Component parts of certain anti-aircraft protection de- 
vices were constructed. Transport sheet resins for military 
purposes have been tested against specifications ; vulcanized 
fibre identification discs and other objects have been ex- 
amined, and general consideration has been given to the 
substitution of plastics for metals in a number of articles 
and parts related to war materials. 

Preservative coatings for use on military vehicles and 
other equipment for war purposes have been developed. A 
surprising variety of finishes is required in this field and 
many of the materials are comparatively new to Canadian 
industry. 

Mention should be made of the establishment of an ex- 
plosives laboratory to carry out testing required under 
the Explosives Act and to conduct research on explosives 
and related compounds. This laboratory is under the joint 
administration of the National Research Council and the 
Department of Mines and Resources. 

FOE THE AIR FORCE 

Establishment of the new aeronautical laboratories just 
outside of Ottawa has provided improved facilities for re- 
search on the multitude of problems arising from modern 
trends in aviation. Closest co-operation is maintained be- 
tween the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Council's 
laboratories through the Associate Committee on Aero- 
nautical Research, the chairman of which is the Air Member 
for Aeronautical Engineering, R.C.A.F. Much of the work 
in progress relates to problems that have been suggested 
by Air Force authorities in Canada, the United Kingdom 
or the United States. 



Horizontal and vertical wind tunnels enable tests to be 
made on model aircraft of all kinds to determine their 
characteristics, good or bad, which are likely to affect their 
behaviour in flight. These studies are very important in 
the development of superior fighting machines and in work- 
ing out all possible safeguards for the flying personnel who 
use them. In the engine laboratory, dynamometer rooms 
are provided for the testing of aircraft engines, while in 
the gasoline and oil laboratory complete equipment is pro- 
vided for physical and chemical testing of aviation fuels 
and lubricants. A structures laboratory provides for the 
fabrication of prototypes of aircraft and for the test of 
component parts. 

Experimental work required in connection with scientific 
problems under investigation in the National Research 
laboratories is often carried out co-operatively with the 
Royal Canadian Air Force Test and Development Estab- 
lishment which is really a full-scale experimental flying sta- 
tion. In this way it has been possible to correlate in a most 
effective way the results of laboratory and model experi- 
ments with full-scale tests and to bring together on a com- 
mon project civilian scientists and Service operating per- 
sonnel. 

During the year the Radio Section continued to work on 
the development of secret radio locator equipment with 
considerable success. There are already in the hands of 
the Services numerous different equipments which have been 
developed in the National Research Laboratories. Some of 
these have already been used successfully against the enemy. 

FOR WAR INDUSTRIES 

Industrial requirements for war materials have created 
many new problems on which the National Research Coun- 
cil has been invited to lend its assistance. 

The Division of Applied Biology has rendered valuable 
assistance in the fitting of temporary refrigerators on mer- 
chant vessels. The successful transport of perishable food- 
stuffs demands refrigerated shipping space or the conversion 
of the material to a less perishable form that can be carried 
in ordinary stowage. This problem is most acute for bacon 
which goes forward in large volume. The shortage of refrig- 
erated space has also affected other perishable commodities. 

Considerable work has been done on the treatment of 
shell eggs to avoid deterioration during shipment at ordinary 
temperatures. All export eggs, however, are now shipped in 
powder form and the work of this group of investigators is 
now directed towards the development of methods for 
assessing quality and developing drying processes capable 
of producing a dried egg material of high quality. 

Dehydration of meat, chiefly pork and cured ham, has 
been studied and an acceptable quality of product has been 
obtained. Closely related to food studies on products for 
shipments overseas is the development of containers in 
which a substitute for tin plate has been used. Packages 
based primarily on fibre and wax combinations have been 
found useful. Dehydrated products require packaging in 
waterproof materials. 

The need for magnesium, the lightest of all metals, for 
example, led to intensive research and resulted in the devel- 
opment of a process well suited to Canadian conditions of 
production. A plant of ten-tons capacity per day, built by 
the Department of Munitions and Supply to use this pro- 
cess, is in operation, while plants totalling about 100 tons 
per day capacity are being built in several centres in the 
United States. 

The shortage of natural rubber, which is so important 
for military purposes in this age of mechanization, has 
stimulated research on the possibility of producing rubber 
from plants that can be grown on the American continent. 
Synthetic rubbers of various types are being developed and 
tested, and plants are being established for the production 
of the more useful types. In this work and in hundreds of 
other industrial problems the scientists on the staff of the 
National Research Council are playing an important part. 



108 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



January 25th, 1943 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names 
of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which mav affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described at 
the March meeting. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



•The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been en- 
gaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruction 
in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate for 
election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science or engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered 
as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a Course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else Pre 86 " 1 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high school 
»r the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations lor 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the clasB of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty -seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
oumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
■ot necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

AUBERT— MARCEL A., of Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, Jan. 24th, 1905; 
Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1928; 1924, dam location, Quebec 
Streams Commn.; 1925, power line constrn., Southern Canada Power Co.; 1926, 
Dominion Water & Power Bureau; 1927, road location and timber estimating; 1928, 
mine engrg., A. Mailhiot, consltg. engr.; 1928-30, asst. engr., new bldg.. 1930-35, 
chief engr., supervising bureau, Univ. of Montreal; 1935-36, bridge designer, Quebec 
Public Works Dept. ; 1936, gen. engrg., F. J. Leduc & Associates; 1936-38, surveying, 
road location, and constrn., L. Bernardin, CE.; 1938-39, concrete and gen. civil 
engrg., Archer & Dufresne, Quebec; 1939-40, bldg. design, roads, L. Bernardin; 
1940, road engr., Quebec Roads Dept.; July 1940 to date, gen. civil engrg., Aluminum 
Co. of Canada, and professor, Montreal Technical School. 

References: J. -A. Lalonde, L. Trudel, D. G. Elliot, S. R. Banks, L.-A. Duchastel, 
E. Prévost. 

BLAIS — ROBERT, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Ottawa, Nov. 18th, 1888; Educ : 
B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1912; with Dept. of Public Works, as follows: 
1909-12, engrg. student, 1912-21, asst. engr., 1921-36, senior asst. engr., 1936-37, 
engr., grade 1, 1937-41, engr., grade 2, 1941 to date, suptg. engr., Chief Enginner's 
Branch. 

References: K. M. Cameron, R. deB. Corriveau, F. G. Goodspeed, J. -A. Lalonde 
J.-E. St-Laurent. 

DUNCAN— ALLAN S. E., of Montreal, Que. Born at Toronto, Ont., June 10th, 
1917; Educ: B.Sc (Chem.), Queen's Univ., 1940; 1939-40 (summers), asst. inspr., 
airport constrn., Dartmouth, N.S.; 1941 (Jan. -June), chem. control, nitro-cotton 
mftre. ; June 1941 to date, plant mgr., Oxygen Co. of Canada Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
• References: W. E. Patterson, L. M. Arkley, L. T. Rutledge, D. S. Ellis, A. Jackson. 

DUQUETTE— ROLAND R., of 262 Outremont Ave., Outremont, Que. Born at 
Montreal, Oct. 17th, 1907; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1932; R.P.E. 
of Que.; 1931-32, with Villeneuve, Bernier & Leblanc, cons, engrs.; 1933, asst., 
hydraulic lab., Ecole Polytechnique; 1933, with Ricard & Royer, cons, engrs.; 
1934, member of firm, Ricard, Royer, Brillon & Duquette, cons, engrs.; 1935-42, 
partner, deGuise & Duquette, cons, engrs.; 1942 to date, with McDougall& Friedman, 
Montreal, as supervising engr., at Dominion Arsenal plants. 

References: J. -A. Lalonde, H. Gaudefroy, L.-A. Duchastel, L. Trudel. 

GARDNER— DONALD, of 540 Charlotte St., Peterborough, Ont. Born at 
Calgary, Alta., Feb. 20th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1941; 1941-42, 
test course, Aug. 1942 to date, student engr., industrial control. Can. Gen. Elec. 
Co. Ltd., Peterborough, Ont. 

References: D. V. Canning, A. L. Malby, W. T. Fanjoy, H. R. Sills, J. Cameron 

GARDNER— CYRIL JAMES, of 252 James St. South, Hamilton, Ont. Born at 
Birmingham, England, Dec 16th, 1907; Educ: B. A. McMaster Univ., 1935. M.Sc, 
London Univ., 1940; 1921-25, ap'tice toolmaker, Turner Tool Mfg. Co., Birmingham, 
England — 1922-25, Central Technical Institute, Birmingham; 1927-31, machinist 
toolmaker, Hamilton Bridge Co. ; 1935-38 with British War Office as follows: 1935-36, 
dftsman., tools and guages, 1936-37, dftsman in charge drawing office, army ordnance 
shops, Woolwich Arsenal, and 1937-38, engrg. aBst.; 1940-42, Dept. of Munitions & 
Supply — officer i/c mach. tools section, asst. to chief of divn., mach. tools, guages 
and plant records, administrative and technical asst. to the director -general of 
industrial planning branch, also part time asst. to the director general, army engrg. 
branch; at present, manager of production planning dept., Hamilton Bridge Works, 
Hamilton, Ont. 

References: W. F. Drysdale, H. J. A. Chambers, A. Love, W. B. Nicol, A. W. 
Sinnamon. 

HUNTER— DAVID, of 158 Portage Ave. East, Winnipeg, Man. Born at St. 
Andrews, Scotland, Jan. 20th, 1908; 1924-25, consltg. engr's. office asst.; 1925-26, 
house wiring and storekeeper; 1926-27, substation operator, Nipigon system, H.E.P.C 
of Ont.; 1927-31, ap'tice elec machinist, 1929-34, elec. machinist on installn. of 
elec. equipment in power projects across Canada, and 1934-35, time study man, 
rate dept., Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd.; 1935-36, pumping station operator, 
City of Hamilton; 1936-41, diagnosing of trouble and making repairs to large elec. 
apparatus, and at present, sales engr., Canadian Westinghouse House Co. Ltd., 
Winnipeg, Man. 

References: H. L. Briggs, E. E. Orlando, W. L. McFaul. 

JANE— ROBERT STEPHEN, of 6 Holmdale Road, Hamsptead, Que. Born at 
Cornwall, England, Dec. 27th, 1898; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1922. M.Sc, 
1923, Ph.D., 1925, McGillUniv.; 1919-22 (summers), Topogl. Survey, Dom. Govt.; 
1922-24, demonstrator in chemistry, McGill Univ., 1925-27, demonstrator in physics, 
Sir John Cass Technical Institute, London; 1928-36, chem. engr., research and 
development work, 1936-42, research and development work and also patent dept., 
Shawinigan Chemicals Ltd.; at present, director, electro-metallurgical research dept., 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company, Montreal. 

References: J. B. Challies, F. S. Keith, J. A. McCrory, J. Morse, P. S. Gregory. 

JANELLE— WALDECK ALEXIS, of 610 Champagneur St., Outremont, Que. 
Born at St. Philippe de Laprairie, Que., Nov. 7th, 1899; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole 
Polytechnique, 1924 R.P.E of Que.; 1920-24 (summers), Quebec Streams Commn.; 
1927-33, lab. technician, testing and research in pulp and paper lab., Bonaventure 
Pulp & Paper Co., Chandler, Que., 1936-40, insptg. engr., on road constrn., Prov. 
of Quebec, Dept. of Mines & Resources, Ottawa; 1940-41, asst. to supervising engr. 
on constrn. for Allied War Supplies Corp., Montreal; at present, lab. technician, 
testing and research, concrete lab., Aluminum Co. of Canada, Ltd., Shipshaw, Que. 

References: W. H. Norrish, W. F. Campbell, C. Miller, J.-P. Chapleau, J.-A. 
Lalonde, J.-P. Lalonde, F.-J. Leduc, R. Sauvage. 

LANCASTER— WALLIS JOHN, of 1176 St. Mark St., Montreal, Que. Born at 
Fassette, Que., March 1st, 1909; Educ: 3 years, maths, and trig., and 1 year structl. 
design, Montreal Technical Evening School. Special 5 year evening course conducted 
by V. R. Davies, M.E.I.C, incl. maths., strength of materials, mechanics, thermo- 
dynamics, hydraulics; 1924-28, ap'tice in mech. engrg., 1928-32, dftsman (industrial 
machinery), 1932-36, dftsman (platework and boiler design), Canadian Vickers Ltd.; 
1936 to date, designer of power plant equipment for Combustion Engineering Cor- 
poration Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

References: J. G. Hall, L. H. Birkett, V. R. Davies, P. F. Stokes, R. M. Calvin, 
G. Agar, R. C Flitton. 

LEY— ALBERT GEORGE, of 4353 Wilson Ave., Montreal, Que. Bom at Louis- 
burg, N.S., Oct. 24th, 1905; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), N.S.Tech. Coll., 1930; 1919-22 
(summers), ap'tice, machine shop; 1924-27 (summers), fireman, tow boat, 1922-23, 
chemist, Dominion Iron & Steel Co.; 1929 (summer), electrician's helper; 1930-37 and 
Nov. 1937 to Feb. 1938, distribution engr., N.S. Light & Power Co.; 1937 (June-Nov.), 
acting gen. supt., Demerara Electric Company; Feb. 1938 to date, engr., assigned as 
asst. to supervisor, northern properties, Montreal Engineering Company, Montreal, 
Que. 

References: G. A. Gaherty, G. H. Thompson, J. T. Farmer, D. Stairs, J. B. Hayes. 

McKENNA— JOSEPH VICTOR, of 300 Arthur St., Oshawa, Ont. Born at 
Hamilton, Ont., Jan. 1st, 1916; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Mech.), Univ. of Toronto, 1942; 
1939^40-41 (summers), tool repair Ford Motor Co., locomotive mtce., Algoma Steel 
Corpn., tool inspection, Otis-Fensom Elevator Co.; at present. Junior layout man 
and engr., General Motors of Canada, Oshawa, Ont. 

References: C R. Young, R. W. Angus, E. A. Allcut, J. J. Spence, W. J. W. Reid. 

MOFFATT— EDWARD HOPKINS, of 4870 Cote des Neiges Road, Montreal, 
Que. Born at Newcastle, Pa., U.S.A., April 6th, 1894; Educ: S.B., Harvard Univ., 
1920. Extension courses, New York Univ., Toronto, and McGill; 1921-22, dftsman., 
physics dept., Univ. of Toronto; 1922-37, various jobs, principally radio engrg. 
(industrial research), bio-physics (vitamin D. and pharmaceuticals), with three years 
social settlement work; 1937 to date, research engr., i/c research and control labs., 
aeronautical divn., Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd., Montreal. 

References: W. S. Atwood, D. Boyd, E. F. Viberg, H. J. Roast, B. Collitt. 

(Continued on page 110) 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



109 



Employment Service Bureau 



NOTICE 



Technical personnel should not reply 
lo any of the advertisements for situa- 
tions vacant unless— 

1. They are registered with the War- 
time Bureau of Technical Personnel. 

2. Their services are available. 

A person 's services are considered 
available only if he is^ 

(a) unemployed; 

(b) engaged in work other than of an 
engineering or scientific nature; 

(c) has given notice as of a definite 
date; or 

(d) has permission from his present 
employer to negotiate for work 
elsewhere while still in the service 
of that employer. 

Applicants will help to expedite 
negotiations by stating in their appli- 
cation whether -or not they have com- 
plied with the above regulations. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, junior, to act as assist- 
ant to engineer in charge of maintenance in one 
division of plant, or other related work such as 
mechanical installation. Apply to Box No. 26I.5-V. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER, supervisor to take care of 
experimental and development work in connection 
with alumina plants. Apply to Box No. 2616-V. 

MECHANICAL, CIVIL, MINING, METALLUR- 
GICAL OR CHEMICAL ENGINEER, for develop- 
ment and control work probably leading to super- 
visory capacity if required ability is proven in 
potrooms. Apply to Box No. 2617-V. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEER with at least five years 
experience. Design and layout (on draughting board 
at least part of time) of power and lighting for in- 
dustrial plant. Apply to Box No. 2618-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER. Either capable of mak- 
ing mechanical repairs to shovels, tractors, etc., or 
willing to learn. Apply to Box No. 2619-V. 

GEOLOGIST. To undertake exploration for bauxite 
under supervision of chief geologist. Apply to Box 
No. 2620-V. 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER. Technical control 
and development of light alloy easting procedures. 
Apply to Box No. 2621 -V. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

CIVIL ENGINEER, 38, experienced in all types of 
building construction and in industrial layout work. 
Wants permanent or temporary position in charge of 
design or construction. Present location, Montreal. 
Apply to Box No. 576-W. 

ENGINEERING MANAGER, b.a.sc, m.e.i.c., Reg- 
istered Professional Engineer, Canadian, married, 
20 years' thorough experience in industrial manage- 
ment; mechanical and electrical construction and 
development, production planning, precision manu- 
facturing, very well versed in organization methods. 
At present in complete charge of an extensive pro- 
gramme now nearing completion by a large company 
of designers formed in Toronto about a year ago. 
Really responsible position with well-established 
company desired. Available immediately. Will go 
anywhere. Apply to Box No. 2437-W. 



REQUIRED IMMEDIATELY 

Chemical, Civil, Electrical, 

Mechanical and 

Metallurgical Engineers 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

ASSIGNMENTS 

ESSENTIAL WAR WORK 

Apply to Box No. 2622-V 

The Employment Service Bureau 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

2050 Mansfield Street, 

Montreal, Que. 



TRANSITS, LEVELS and accessories for rent. 
Apply to Ralph Kendall, m.e.i.c, 49 Granville 
Street, Hailfax, N.S. 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE (Continued from page 109) 

NOAKES — FRANK, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Edmonton, Alta., Oct. 13th, 1913; 
Educ • B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Alta., 1937. M.S., 1937, Ph.D. (E.E.), 1940, Iowa 
State College; R.P.E. of Ontario; 1935-36-37 (summers), rodman, Geol. Survey, 
road constrn., Jasper Banff Highway, survey asst., Dept. of Transport; 1939-40, 
research asst., engr. experiment station, Ames Iowa; 1940, lecturer in elec. engrg., 
Univ. of Toronto; 1941 (summer), engr., design office, Ferranti Electric, Toronto; 
1942 (summer), engr., National Research Council, Univ. of Toronto; at present, 
lecturer in elee. engrg., University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. ..„■•» 

References: C. R. Young, R. S. L. Wilson, E. A. Allcut, \\ . E. Cornish, R. F. 
Legget. 

TYLEE— ARTHUR KELLAM, of 150 Argyle Ave., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Lennoxville, Que., April 24th, 1887; Educ: B.Sc, Mass. Inst. Tech., 1907; 1907-30 
(with exception of 1914-20— R.A.F.), with George T. McLaughlin Company, Boston, 
Mass., various duties, incl. supt., chief engr. and director in charge of production 
and engrg., at present supervisor, overhaul and repair divn., aircraft branch, Dept. 
of Munitions & Supply, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: C. D. Howe, E. P. Murphy, K. M. Cameron, D. Stairs, L. C. Jacobs. 

WOERMKE — ORVILLE R., of Buckingham, Que. Born at Arnprior, Ont., Oct. 
25th, 1916; Educ: B.Sc. (Chem.), Queen's Univ., 1939; R.P.E. of Que.; 1934-35, 
lumber mills of Gillies Bros., Braeside, Ont.; 1934 (winter), highway constrn., Dept. 
Nor. Development; 1939-40, soapmaker, United Chemical Co., Montreal; 1940, 
instructor, Queen's Univ.; 1940, dftsman., and 1941 to date, plant designing engr., 
Electric Reduction Co. of Canada Ltd., Buckingham, Que. 

References: R. M. Prendergast, A. Jackson, N. Malloch, A. N. Ball. 
FOR TRANSFER FROM JUNIOR 

FERRIER— JOHN ALEXANDER, of Renfrew, Ont. Born at Renfrew, May 27, 
1909; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1937; 1935-36 (summers), Ford Motor Co.; 
1937-38, Bailey Meter Co.; 1938-40, i/c automatic control equipment, and 1940-42, 
foundry mtce. and planning, Ford Motor Co.; 1942 to date, base engineer, special 
branch, R.C.N. V.R., H.M.C. Dockyard, Halifax, N.S. (Jr. 1939). 

References: W. Mitchell, J. E. Daubney, B. R. Spencer. 

HOOD— GEORGE LESLIE, of 29 Hardy Street, North Bay, Ont. Born at 
Minnedosa, Man., Apr. 17th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc (Elec), Univ. of Man., 1932; 
1934-37, elect'l. mtce., Howey Gold Mine; 1937-38, demonstrator, Univ. of Toronto; 
1938 (2 mos.), dftsmn., Toronto Harbour Commission; June 1938 to date, asst. 
meter and relay engr., H.E.P.C. of Ontario, testing, mtce. and inspection of meter, 
relay and control equipment. (St. 1930; Jr. 1940). 

References: E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, N. M. Hall, H. Robertson, L. G. Scott, S. 
H. deJong, J. A. Aeberli. 

JONES— ARTHUR R., of 5 Anne St., Peterborough, Ont. Born at Wessington, 
Alta., Sept. 7, 1905; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), Univ. of Alta., 1928; 1928, mine surveying 
and equipment installn.; 1929, test course, 1930-31, A.C. Engrg., and 1931 to date, 
asBt. to induction motor engr., Canadian General Electric Co., Peterborough, Ont. 

' References: A. L. Malby, D. V. Canning, V. S. Foster, W. T. Fanjoy, H. R. Sills. 

THURSTON— ARTHUR MONROE, of 149 Cornwall Ave., Town of Mount 
Royal, Que. Born at Toronto, July 7, 1912; Educ: B. Eng., McGill Univ., 1936; 
R.P.E. Quebec; 1936-38, student apprentice, 1938-40, engr., Shawinigan Water & 
Power Co., Montreal; 1940 to date, with Dom. Electric Protection Co. as follows; 
1940-42, special products engr., i/c production of aircraft instruments for Dominion 
Govt., and 1942 to date, plant mgr., responsible for installn. and mtce. of central 
station apparatus and installns. through Dominion. Also responsible for engrg. 
office and test lab. staffs, also acting as technical adviser to mfg. dept. and responsible 
for special products instrument inspection staff. (Jr. 1939). 

References: R. E. Heartz, F. S. Keith, G. D. Hulme, J. M. Crawford, G. R. 
Hale, L.-A. Duchastel, C. F. Christie, R. W. Hamilton, G. E. Templeman. 

WHITE— WALTER EDMUND, of 146 Manor Rd. East, Toronto. Born at 
Stouffville, Ont., Aug. 9, 1905; Educ: B.A.Sc, 1928, E.E. 1936, M.A.Sc 1941, 
Univ. of Toronto; B.Sc (economics) Univ. of London, England, 1939 (external 
degree); summers as follows: 1925, Ford Motor Co., Detroit; 1926, Western Electric 



Co., Chicago, 1927, Western Electric Co., Kearney, Ont.; 1928-29, meter engr. 
H.E.P.C. of Ontario; 1929-39, development engr., responsible for design of testing 
equipment. Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal; at present, test engr., radio 
division, Research Enterprises Ltd., Toronto. (Jr. 1931). 

References: H. Miller, W. H. Eastlake, W. C. M. Cropper, N. L. Morgan, A. B. 
Hunt, C. R. Young. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM STUDENT 

BOURBONNAIS— GEORGE VALOIS, of Dorion, Quebec. Born at Quebec City 
■ luly 11. 1915; Educ: B.Eng. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1940; 1940-41, asst. camp engr. 
officer, 1941-42, camp engr. officer, and 1942 to date, 2nd i/c B. Company, 3rd 
Battalion, R.C.E., Canadian Army Overseas, with rank of Captain. (St. 1938). 

References: W. S. Lawrence, E. Brown, R. E. Jamieson, L. Trudel, R. Del.- 
French. 

McARTHUR— DONALD SMITH, of 27 Heney St., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Gilbert Plains, Man., Jan. 14, 1918; Educ: B.Sc. 1939, M.Sc. 1941, Univ. of Sask.. 
1939-40 (summers), supt., Hi-Way Refineries; 1941-43, junior research engr., Na- 
tional Research Council, Ottawa. (St. 1938). 

References: J. H. Parkin, C. J. Mackenzie, N. B. Hutcheon, I. M. Fraser. 

OLAFSON— MAGNUS JOSEPH, of Park Road P.O., Ontario; born at Leslie, 
Sask., Dec 22, 1912; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), Univ. of Sask., 1939; 1939-40, dftsmn.. 
1940-41, chief dftsmn., Steel Co. of Canada, Hamilton; Jan. 1942 to date, asst. 
machine tool engr., Modern Tool Works, Toronto. (St. 1939). 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, I. M. Fraser, N. B. Hutcheon, R. A. Spencer, \\ 
A. T. Gilmour. 

RICHARDSON— GEORGE WILLIAM, of Riverside, Out. Born at Montreal. 
July 7, 1914; Educ: B.Eng., McGill Univ., 1942; 1936-41, apprentice (machinist). 
C.N.R.; 1942 (May-Nov.), junior research engr., National Research Council; at 
present, chassis engr., dept. of automotive engrg., Ford Motor Co. of Canada, 
Windsor, Ont. (St. 1940). 

Reference: C. M. McKergow, A. R. Roberts, B. Brown, R. DeL. French. 

RING— ALFRED JACKSON, of 8606 Drolet St., Montreal. Born at Fredericton, 
N.B., July 31, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of N.B., 1940; 1937-39, (summers), 
with Canadian Copper Refineries, Montreal, Currier Constrn. Co., Fredericton, and 
Geological Survey of Canada; with Defence Industries Ltd. as follows; 1940-41, 
dftsmn., engrg. dept., Montreal; 1941-42, mtce. engr., Pickering, Ont.; at present 
foreman, Montreal Works. (St. 1940). 

References: A. B. McEwen, C. H. Jackson, M. S. Macgillivray, J. W. LeR Ross 
J. Stephens, E. O. Turner, A. F. Baird. 

SUTHERLAND— DONALD BOYD, of 57 Atlantic St., Halifax, N.S. Born at 
Macleod, Atla., May 3, 1913; Educ: B.Sc, Engrg. Dip., Dalhousie Univ., 1934. 
Completed 3rd year mining, Queen's Univ., 1939; 1934-35, asst. to engr., assayer, 
storekeeper, and 1935-38, engr., responsible for underground and surface surveys, 
direction of development programmes, design of bldgs., etc., Guysborough Mines. 
Ltd., Goldenville, N.S.; 1938-39, geologist, Ventures Ltd.; 1940-41, geologist, Cana- 
dian Malartic Mines; 1941-42, engr., Guysborough Mines Ltd., and Tungsten Mines 
Ltd., Indian Path, N.S.; also some work on Dom.-Prov. Rehabilitation Project at 
Fifteen Mile Stream, N.S.; at present Prob. Sub.-Lieut., R C.N.V.R. (St. 1932). 

References: W. P. Copp, G. V. Douglas, A. E. Cameron, W. E. Neelands, A. E. 
Flynn. 

ZWEIG— IRVING ISRAEL, of 361 Wilbrod St., Ottawa, Out. Born at Montreal, 
Aug. 14, 1916; Educ: completed 1st year engrg., McGill Univ.; B.Sc, Sir George 
Williams College, 1942; 1936-38, cost accountant, credit mgr. and asst. in pro- 
duction and plant management, Knit-Craft Mills, Montreal, Que.; 1939-42, clerk, 
Montreal Engrg. Branch, Marine Service divn. Dept., of Transport (Dom. Govt.), 
i/c office work under supervn. marine supt. and chief dftsmn.; at present, senior 
research asst. Divn. of Physics and elect'l engrg , optics section. National Research 
Council. (St. 1941). 

References: R. W. Boyle, J.-E. St. Laurent, R. S. Eadie, R. M. Robertson, J. B. 
Phillips. E. Brown. 



110 



February, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Industrial News 



MONOFILAMENT NYLON BRUSH 
BRISTLES 

Canadian Industries Limited, Plastics 
Division, Montreal, Que., have prepared a 
15-page bulletin describing the development 
of "Nylon" and its use in monofilament form 
for brush bristles. In addition to describing 
the features of these bristles in different 
applications, their general physical and 
chemical properties when used for industrial 
brushes are tabulated; illustrations show 
different types of brushes employing "Nylon 
bristles. 

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 

Bulletin 41-C, 15 pages, recently issued by 
Darling Brothers Limited, Montreal, Que., 
features the "Darling" Class B motor driven 
centrifugal pump, and contains cross-sec- 
tional drawings with descriptions of all prin- 
cipal parts. Steam turbine, V-belt motor and 
gasoline driven pumps are illustrated and 
described and in addition to specifications, 
dimensional and rating tables and other data, 
a number of typical pump installations are 
shown. 

LUBRICATING SERVICE EQUIPMENT 

"Alemite Service Equipment" is the title of 
a 48-page catalogue recently issued by 
Stewart-Warner-Alemite Corp. of Canada 
Ltd., Belleville, Ont. This catalogue contains 
innumerable photographs with specifications 
and other descriptive matter covering the 
company's extensive line of lubricating 
equipment. Many new and exclusive features 
that have been incorporated in these products 
are shown. These include the "Super De 
Luxe" high and low pressure, air and hand 
operated barrel pumps, the "Master" and 
"Advance" lines of pumps, "Alemiter" 
cabinets, centre stands, oil bars and depart- 
mental service units. Other items include 
barrel pumps, transfers, loaders, air operated 
and electric hand and foot operated power- 
guns and specialized guns and lubrication 
equipment, etc. 

CARTON STITCHERS 

Acme Steel Company of Canada, Ltd., 
Montreal, Que., have for distribution a 
6-page folder describing in detail the various 
standard and special types of "Silverstitcher" 
carton stitchers available to shippers of war 
products. Detailed specifications, numerous 
illustrations depicting special features and 
various uses are shown. 

WORKMAN'S WARTIME PLEDGE 
CARD 

Canadian Koebel Diamond Tools Limited, 
Windsor, Ont., as part of a continuing pro- 
gramme of tool conservation, has just 
published a Canadian Workman's Wartime 
Pledge Card, which stresses the theme "When 
you extend the life of a tool for a single hour 
or make that tool do better work, you are 
making a worthwhile contribution to Cana- 
dian ideals and to Canada's future." Cards 
are available to industry in any quantity, free 
of charge, upon request to the Company. 

WOOD PARTITIONS 

An 8-page bulletin being distributed by The 
Mills Company, Cleveland, Ohio, is fully 
illustrated with photographs and mechanical 
drawings, describing a new type of wood 
partition for offices, cubicles, toilets and 
factories. These are streamlined in design 
and are said to be sturdy, rigid and long 
lasting, and combine the advantages of inter- 
changeability, movability, etc. All office door 
sections with frames are inter-changeable 
with 42" wide panel units and the partitions 
contain ample wiring connections in their 
bases, posts and cornices; for toilets, each 
wood panel is ready to erect being pre- 
fabricated from % in., five-ply plywood. 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



NOVA SCOTIA 

THE MINERAL PROVINCE 
OF EASTERN CANADA 

The search for war minerals and the 
prosecution of their production in Nova 
Scotia is being carried on by such well 
known Canadian Mining organizations 
as: — Ventures Limited, Consolidated 
Mining and Smelting Company Lim- 
ited, Nipissing Mining Company 
Limited and Inspiration Mining and 
Developing Company. The Province is 
indebted to these corporations for 
their public spirited co-operation. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF MINES 

HALIFAX 



L. D. CURRIE 

Minister 



A. E. CAMERON 
[Deputy Minister 



PLANNING AND SPECIFYING LIGHT 

Curtis Lighting of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 
Ont., have issued an 8-page bulletin in the 
form of a handbook for the planning and 
specifying of lighting equipment for war 
production. It contains complete information 
covering distribution curves, performance 
tables, dimensions and details of installation 
and features particularly the company's 
"X-Ray" reflectors and fluorescent industrial 
fixtures with "Fluratex" (non-metallic) re- 
flectors and the Curtis "Tranquil ux" twin 
fluorescent luminaire. 

AUTOMOBILE AND TRUCK SPRINGS 

McRobert Spring Service Limited, Mont- 
real, Que., have for distribution a catalogue, 
with 1942 supplement, which lists replace- 
ment springs for every type of automobile and 
truck. The data it contains is arranged under 
the name of each type of vehicle, first for 
fronts and then for rears, giving stock and 
manufacturers numbers, models of cars, year 
of manufacture, number of leaves, length of 
short and long ends, free arch and bushings. 

THE PLASTIC FOR THE TASK 

A 4-page bulletin prepared by Duplate 
Canada Limited, Oshawa, Ont., illustrates 
and describes the plant facilities and nume- 
rous and varied products of this company. It 
stresses the complete plastic service offered 
by the company to Canadian manufacturers. 
It also features the plant of Duplate Tool & 
Die Limited, a subsidiary company, fully 
equipped .for gauge, jig and fixture making 
with special equipment for plastic moulds. 

SAFETY CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT 

Catalogue No. 45, 64 pages, of The Safety 
Clothing & Equipment Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, illustrates and describes the Company's 
extensive line of equipment manufactured for 
the industrial safety field. Variations of each 
product, the different materials, sizes and 
styles in which each is available and its par- 
ticular uses are included under the following 
headings; hats and helmets; hoods and masks; 
aprons; asbestos clothing; fireproofed cloth- 
ing; rubber clothing; leather clothing; gloves; 
mittens; leggings; face shields; shoes; safety 
belts; guards; magnifiers; lamps and lanterns; 
stretchers and litters; skin protective creams 
and liquids; fire extinguishers; and miscel- 
laneous safety devices and first aid supplies. 



MACHINE TOOLS 

An 8-page bulletin just issued by Jefferson 
Machine Tools Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
describes this Company's "Bulldog" pre- 
cision milling machines; milling machine 
attachments; conversion attachments for 
lathes; endless belt sanding machines; swing 
frame grinding and polishing machines and the 
gyratory foundry riddle for screening, mould- 
ing and core sands, also for fine, medium and 
coarse dry materials. Each piece of equip- 
ment is illustrated and fully described. 

REFRACTORY LABORATORY WARE 

Norton Company of Canada, Ltd., Hamil- 
ton, Ont., have issued a 12-page bulletin 
which is devoted to the description of various 
refractory products made from "Alundum "- 
electrically fused alumina. After describing 
the source and method of producing the basic 
product, this bulletin gives the properties of 
(crystalline) alumina and the properties of 
"Norton" refractories (Alundum ware). Var- 
ious shapes are illustrated and tables of stock 
sizes are included. Among these are crucibles, 
ignition capsules, melting crucibles, flame 
collars, filtering devices and combustion 
boats. 

ARC WELDING TECHNIQUE 

A booklet recently issued by The Steel 
Company of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Que., 
and Hamilton, Ont., describes an amazingly 
simple technique in electric arc welding which 
eliminates the wastage of electrode stub ends, 
thus conserving critical materials, saving 
time and reducing costs. 

MATERIAL HANDLING AND OTHER 
EQUIPMENT 

"Industrial Time and Money Savers" is 
the title of a 4-page bulletin recently issued 
by S. A. Armstrong Limited, Toronto, Ont., 
featuring the "Reco-Barrett" line of lift 
trucks and portable elevators. The bulletin 
also contains illustrations and details covering 
the company's portable cranes, drum storage 
racks, two- wheel hand trucks, pressure 
reducing and regulating valves, pull hoists, 
electric hoists, automatic combustion control 
equipment and heat exchangers. 

RUBBER STAMPS AND MARKING 
DEVICES 

Dominion Marking Devices Reg'd., Mont- 
real, Que., have prepared a catalogue, 104 
pages, which is a comprehensive list of the 
extensive line of rubber stamps and marking 
devices handled by this company and included 
are a great many stamping devices of stand- 
ard design which have been on the market 
for years but in which have been incorporated 
the latest improvements. Among the special- 
ties are various types of time stamps, ticket 
punchers, lead seals and presses, stencil 
plates, bronze plates, key tags, and badges of 
various kinds. 

SPRUE CUTTERS 

A 4-page bulletin, No. 320-B, by Canadian 
Blower & Forge Company, Ltd., Kitchener, 
Ont., illustrates and gives specifications for 
the "Buffalo" sprue cutters which are built in 
single and double end types. The ends can be 
removed permitting other tools to be used 
for different work. Frames are electrically 
welded, gears are cut from solid steel blanks, 
pinions are nickel steel, shafts are chrome 
nickel steel and bronze bearings are used 
throughout. These machines are furnished 
with an "Alemite" lubrication system and 
equipped with a 10-h.p. motor giving a fly- 
wheel speed of 250 r.p.m. with 32 strokes of 
plunger per minute. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



29 



4 



IOHNS-MANVILLE AIDS TO 




BOILER FURNACES . . . Johns- Man ville Superex is the 
most widely used block insulation for temperatures be- 
tween 600° and 1900° Fahrenheit. Low thermal conduc- 
tivity means less thickness required than with any 
other material of equal heat resistance. 



SUPERHEATED STEAM LINES ... For maximum fuel 
conservation, Johns-M anville Superex Combination In- 
sulation is recommended. Built up of Superex and J-M 
85% Magnesia, it has unusually high insulating value 
and exceptional heat resistance. 




LINES UNDER 600° . . . For greatest economy in serv- 
ice up to 600° F., use J-M 85% Magnesia Pipe Insula- 
tion. For many years the standard insulation for steam 
lines, J-M 85% Magnesia combines light weight with 
high insulating efficiency. 



LOW TEMPERATURES . . . J-M Rock Cork Sheets and 
Pipe Insulation are recommended for cold storage con- 
struction and refrigerating equipment. J-M Rock Cork 
does not rot or decay. Unusually moisture-resistant, it 
assures permanently high insulating efficiency. 




TRANSITE CONDUIT AND KORDUCT . . . Two types 
of electrical conduit provide lower'installation cost and 
reduced maintenance expense. Other J-M electrical ma- 
terials include Asbestos Ebony, Trancell, Cable Fire- 
proofing, Friction Tapes, Splicing Compounds. 



SEALING COMPOUND . . . J-M Duxseal is a non-hard- 
ening adhesive plastic compound with an asbestos base. 
Duxseal adheres tightly to duct walls and cables, won't 
slump or harden in service, and it is insoluble in water 
and unaffected by ordinary gases and condensates. 



30 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



POWER PLANT CONSERVATION 




GENERAL UTILITY ROD AND VALVE STEM ... Un- 
usually adaptable, J-M Mogul Packing may be used for 
a wide variety of services. Soft and pliable at the start, 
it stays that way . . . does not wilt under sustained heat. 
Available twisted, and braided — round and square. 



AGAINST STEAM, AIR, BRINE, OIL . . . J-M Sea 

Rings provide a minimum of friction on rods and plung- 
ers. They automatically seal on the work stroke, and 
release on the return stroke . . . thus reducing friction, 
minimizing rod wear, and conserving power. 



I^HM^Ht 




MOULDED PACKING PRODUCTS . . . J-M Packing 
Cups, Seal Rings and other moulded packings are made 
to the exact shape and size required. They are made 
from materials proved by long experience to be most sat- 
isfactory in the service for which they will be used. 



DOOR LININGS, SPECIAL SHAPES . . . Shapes can 
be cast, quickly and easily . . . and ready for service 
within 24 hours ... by use of J-M Firecrete Castable Re- 
fractories. Ideal for poured door linings. 3 types: Stand- 
ard (2400°), High Temp. (2800°), Light Weight (2200°). 



Specialists in Conservation for 84 Years 



JOHTtS-MAKVULt 

1131 

PiODUCIS 



Today, more than ever, power plant 
conservation is important — indeed, 
it is essential to the welfare of the 
nation. J-M brings you the knowl- 
edge accumulated during 84 years of 
experience ... to help you avoid 
waste, save fuel, and cut costs. 
In power plants all over the coun- 



try, J-M Power Products are today 
contributing to the war effort, and 
will tomorrow be available for the 
resumption of peacetime activities. 
For complete details on any or all 
of the products described here, write 
for Catalog GI-6A, Johns-Manville, 
199 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario. 



JOHNS-MANVILLE POWER PRODUCTS 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



31 



PURCHASERS' CLASSIFIED DIRECTORY 

A SELECTED LIST OF EQUIPMENT, APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES 

FOR ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ADVERTISERS SEE PAGE 38 



A 
Acids: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Accumulators, Hydraulic: 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 

Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 
Alloy Steels: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Ammeters and Voltmeters: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Crompton Parkinson (Canada) Ltd. 
Angles, Steel: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Apparatus Bushings: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Asbestos: 

Can. Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 
Ash Handling Equipment: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-Mc- 
Culloch Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Asphalt: 

Barrett Co. Ltd. 

Imperial Oil Ltd. 

B 
Ball Mills: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 
Balls, Steel and Bronze: 

Can SKF Co. Ltd. 
Barking Drums: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Barometers, Indicating: 

Tavlor Instrument Cos. of Cda. 
Ltd. 
Barrels, Steel: 

Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 
Bars, Steel and Iron: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Bearings, Ball and Roller: 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Belting, Transmission, Conveyor. 

Elevator: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 

Gutta Percha & Rubber Ltd. 
Billets. Blooms. Slabs: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Bins: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Blasting Materials: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Blowers, Centrifugal: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

Reavell & Co. (Canada) Ltd. 
Blue Print Machinery: 

Montreal Blue Print Co. 
Boilers: 

Babcock-Wilcox & GoIdie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 

Vulcan Iron Wks. Ltd. 
Boilers, Electric: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada 
Ltd. 
Boilers, Portable: 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Boxes, Cable Junction: 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Braces. CrosB Arm, Steel, Plain or 

Galvanized : 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 



Brackets. Ball Bearings: 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Brakes. Air: 

Canadian Controllers Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 
Brakes, Magnetic Clutch: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Bridge-Meggers: 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd 
Bridges: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Bucket Elevators: 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Building Materials: 

Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 
Buildings, Steel: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd 



Cables, Copper and Galvanized: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Telephones & Supplies 
Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Cables, Electric, Bare and In- 
sulated: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Telephones & Supplies 
Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Caissons, Barges: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Cameras: 

Associated Screen News Ltd. 
Capacitors: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Castings. Aluminum: 

Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Castings, Brass: 

Canada Metal Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

The Superheater Co. Ltd. 
Castings. Iron: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul 
loch Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

The Superheater Co. Ltd. 

Vulcan Iron Wks. Ltd. 

Castings. Steel : 

Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd. 

Vulcan Iron Wks. Ltd. 
Catenary Materials: 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Cement Manufacturers: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
Chains. Silent and Roller: 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 

Lyman Tube & Supply Co. Ltd 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Channels: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Chemical Stoneware: 

Doulton & Co. Ltd. 

Chemicals: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 

Chemists: 

Milton Hersey Co. Ltd. 
Chippers. Pneumatic 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 
Circuit Breakers: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 
Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 
Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 
English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd 
Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Clarifiers. Filter: 
Bepco Canada Ltd. 



Clutches. Ball Bearing Friction: 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Clutches. Magnetic: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Coal Handling Equipment: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Combustion Control Equipment: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 
Compressors. Air and Gas: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Reavell & Co. (Canada) Ltd. 

Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 

Swiss Electric Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Concrete: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
Condensers. Surface: 

Babcock-Wilcox <fc Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 

Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 
Condensers. Synchronous and 

Static: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd . 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Conditioning Systems, Air: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 
Conduit : 

Can. General Elec. Co Ltd. 

Can. Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

Phillips Electrical Works Ltd. 
Conduit. Underground Fibre, and 

Underfloor Duct: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Controllers. Electric: 

Amalgamated Electric Corp Ltd. 

Canadian Controllers Ltd 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Controllers, Temperature: 

Taylor Instrument Cos. of Cda. 
Ltd. 
Controls, Thermostatic: 

Tavlor Instrument Cos. of Cda. 
Ltd. 
Conveyor Systems: 

Mathews Conveyer Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Couplings: 

Dart Union Co. Ltd. 

Dresser Mfg. Co. Ltd 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Couplings, Flexible: 

Canadian Controllers Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Dresser Mfg. Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Crane Girders: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Cranes, Hand and Power: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd 

Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Herbert Morris Crane & Hoist 
Co. Ltd. 
Cianea, Shovel. Gasoline Crawler, 

Pillar: 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
Crowbars: 

B. J. Coghlin Co. Ltd 
('rushers. Coal and Stone: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 
Culverts. Corrugated: 

Canada Ingot Iron Co. Ltd. 

Pedlar People Ltd 
D 

Dimmers: 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd 



Disposal Plants. Sewage: 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Ditchers: 

Dominion Hoist <fe Shovel Co. Ltd. 
Drawing Pencils: 

Dixon Pencil Co. Ltd. 

Eagle Pencil Co. of Canada, Ltd. 

Eberhard Faber Pencil Co. Canada, 
Ltd. 

Venus Pencil Co., Ltd. 
Drills. Pneumatic: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 
Dynamite: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
E 
Economizers, Fuel: 

Babcock-Wilcox &. Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Elbows: 

Dart Union Co. Ltd. 
Electric Blasting Caps: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Electric Railway Car Couplers: 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Electrical Supplies: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Electrification Materials, Steam 

Road: 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Engines, Diesel and Semi-Diesel: 

Babcock Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Ruston & Hornsby Ltd. 
Engines, Gas and Oil: 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Engines, Steam: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
Evaporators: 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Expansion Joints: 

Dresser Mfg. Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 
Explosives: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
F 
Feed Water Heaters, Locomotive: 

The Superheater Co. Ltd, 
Finishes: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Fire Alarm Apparatus: 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Floodlights: 

Amalgamated Electric Corp. Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Flooring, Industrial: 

Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd 
Floor Stands: 

Jenkins Bros. Ltd. 
Flooring, Rubber: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
Floors: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
Foil, Aluminum: 

Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Foreite: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Forgings: 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Foundations: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
G 
Gaskets, Asbestos. Fibrous. Me- 
tallic, Rubber: 

Anchor Packing Co. Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 

Garlock Packing Co. of Can. Ltd. 

Robb, Joseph, & Co. Ltd. 
Gasoline Recovery Systems: 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 



32 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 




Another Anchor Packing 



Production schedules on small 
parts requiring small sized 
packing sets can be met by our 
small ring packings. They are 
made from braided asbestos, 
flax or metallic constructions 
— accurately die-formed to 
close dimensions — suitably 
lubricated for their service. 



Write us for samples 



Manufactured in Canada by 



THE ANCHOR PACKING CO. LIMITED 

FACTORY AND HEAD OFFICE: 5575 COTE ST. PAUL ROAD, MONTREAL 






PRODUCTION PACKINGS 






;■" ■ 



i 






TORONTO 



HAMILTON 



SYDNEY, N.S. 



f 



V 



buy COG H LIN SPRINGS 

FOR QUALITY AND SATISFACTION 

With seventy-four years' Canadian reputation and experience, you 
can safely specify COGHLIN'S for all your spring requirements. 

"•COGHLJN 

M10 ONTAMO STREET EAST 

MONTREAL 
Ettablithcd lit» 



\ 



Lb 



Agents: 
Filer-Smith Machinery Co., Ltd., Winnipeg Gordon & Belyea, Ltd., Vancouver l 

i ' ■ A 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



33 




Quadruplex Compressors Single or 
Double Stage in pressures up to 350 
lbs. per sq. in. and 520 cu. ft. per 
minute. 



The Quadruplex Compressor 
shown above is one of the well- 
known Reavell line, which supply 
Compressors for any pressure, any 
volume and any form of drive. 

Specialized concentration on the design and 
manufacture of Compressors and Exhausters 
solely has given Reavell outstanding leadership 
in this particular field. 

Sales and Service throughout Canada. 



REAVELL & CO 

(CANADA) LIMITED 

CANADA CEMENT BLDG. 

MONTREAL 




Purchasers' Classified Directory 



Gates, Hydraulic Regulating: 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Gauges, Draft: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Bristol Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Gear Reductions: 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Gears : 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Generators: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Governors, Pump: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Governors, Turbine: 

Canadian Allis-Clialmers Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 
Gratings: 

Canada Ingot Iron Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

H 
Hangers, Ball and Roller Bearing: 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Headlights, Electric Railway: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 
Heat Exchange Equipment: 

FoBter Wheeler Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Heaters, Convection: 

Chatham Malleable & Steel Prod- 
ucts Ltd. 
Heaters, Unit : 

Chatham Malleable & Steel Prod- 
ucts Ltd. 
Hoists. Air, Steam and Electric: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Mathews Conveyer Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Hose. Rubber: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
I 
Indicator Posts: 

Jenkins Bros. Ltd. 
Industrial Electric Control: 

Canadian Controllers Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Injectors, Locomotive, Exhaust 

Steam : 

The Superheater Co. Ltd. 
Inspection of Materials: 

Milton Hersey Co. Ltd. 
Instruments, Electric: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Bristol Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Insulating Materials: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Industries Limited. 

Can. John8-Manville Co Ltd. 

Spun Rock Wools Ltd. 
Insulators, Porcelain: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Can Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Intercoolers: 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

.1 
Journal Bearings and Boxes, Kail- 
way: 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 



Lacquers: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Lantern Slides: 

Associated Screen News Ltd. 
Leading Wire: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Library Films: 

Associated Screen News Ltd. 
Lighting Equipment, Industrial 

and Street : 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 



Lightning Arresters: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Line Materials: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Liners and Linings, Rubber: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
Linings. Brake and Clutch: 

Atlas Asbestos Co. Ltd. 

Ferodo Limited. 

J. C. McLaren Belting Co. Ltd. 
Locomotives, Electric: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Lubricants: 

Imperial Oil Ltd. 
M 
Machinery, Hydraulic: 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 
Magnetic Separators: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Material Handling Equipment: 

Can. FairbankB-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Mathews Conveyer Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Mats and Matting, Rubber: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
Meters, Boiler and Coal: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Meters, Electric: 

Bristol Co. of Can. Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Meters, Flow: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Bristol Co. of Canada Ltd 

Neptune Meters Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Meters, Liquid (Hot or Cold) : 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Bristol Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Neptune Meters Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Mine Cars: 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
Mining Machinery: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Motion Pictures: 

Associated Screen News Ltd. 
Motors, Electric: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

Swiss Electric Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Moulded Goods, Rubber and As- 
bestos: 

Can. Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 

Garlock Packing Co. of Can. Ltd. 

Gutta Percha & Rubber Ltd. 
O 
Oil Burning Equipment: 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Oil Refining Equipment: 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Ornamental Iron: 

Vulcan Iron Wks. Ltd. 
P 
Packings. Asbestos. Cotton and 

Flax, Metal, Rubber: 

Anchor Packing Co. Ltd. 

Atlas Asbestos Co. Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 

Garlock Packing Co. of C»n. Ltd. 

Gutta Percha & Rubber Ltd. 

Robb, Joseph, & Co. Ltd. 
Paints, all purposes: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Paving Materials: 

Barrett Co. Ltd. 
Pencils: 

Dixon Pencil Co. Ltd. 

Eagle Pencil Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Eberhard Faber Pencil Co. Canada 
Ltd 

Venus Pencil Co. Ltd. 



34 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Purchasers' Classified Directory 



Penstocks: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd. 
Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Photographs, Commercial and 

Portrait : 

Associated Screen News Ltd. 
Piling, Steel Sheet: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 
Pillow Blocks, Plain, Ball and 

Roller Bearing: 

Ca». Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Pinions: 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Pipe, Clay, Vitrified: 

Alberta Clay Products Co. Ltd. 

Clayburn Co. Ltd. 

National Sewer Pipe Co. Ltd. 

Standard Clay Products Ltd. 
Pipe, Iron, Corrugated: 

Canada Ingot Iron Co. Ltd. 

Pedlar People Ltd. 
Pipe, Steel: 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Pipe Coils: 

The Superheater Co. Ltd. 
Pipe Couplings and Nipples: 

Dart Union Co. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Plates, Steel: 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Pneumatic Tools: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd.. 
Pole Line Hardware: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Polishes: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Powder. Black and Sporting: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Power Switchboards: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westingliouee Co. Ltd. 

Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Preheaters, Air: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 
Presses, Hydraulic: 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Projectors: 

Associated Screen News Ltd. 
Pulleys: 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Pulleys, Ball Bearings, Loose: 

Can. SKF Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Pulleys, Magnetic: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 
Pulp and Paper Mill Machinery: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. . 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Pulverized Fuel Systems: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 
Pump Valves, Rubber: 

Garlock Packing Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Pumps: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 
Pyrometers, Electric. Indicating: 

Taylor Instrument Cos. of Cda. 
Ltd. 



R 

Radiator Air Vents and Traps: 

Jenkins Bros. Ltd. 
Radiator Valves: 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

Jenkins Bros. Ltd. 
Radio Masts: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Radio Receiving Sets: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Rail Bonds: 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Rail Braces and Joints: 

B. J. Coghlin Co. Ltd. 
Rails and Rail Fastenings: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Railway Equipment: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 
Receivers, Air: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Recorders: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Bristol Co. of Can. Ltd. 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Refractories: 

Atlas Asbestos Co. Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Refractories Ltd. 
Refrigerating Machinery: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 
Regulators, Feed Water: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Regulators, Temperature, Time- 
Vacuum : 

Taylor Instrument Cos. of Cda. Ltd. 
Reinforcing Bars: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Reservoirs: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Riveted Pipe: 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Roads: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
Road Machinery: 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Rock Wool: 

Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 

Spun Rock Wools Ltd. 
Rods: 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Roll Covers. Paper Mill: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
Rollers, Inking: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 

Gutta Percha & Rubber Ltd. 
Rolls, Paper Machine: 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 
Roofing Materials: 

Barrett Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd. 
Roofing, Prepared : 

Barrett Co. Ltd. 
Roofs, Built-up: 

Barrett Co. Ltd. 
Rope, Wire: 

Dom. Wire Rope «St. Cable Co. Ltd. 
Rubber Liners and Linings: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 

Gutta Percha & Rubber Ltd. 



Scales: 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Screening Equipment: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd. 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Separators. Electric: 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Sewers: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
Sheets. Aluminum: 

Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Shingles. Prepared Asphalt: 

Barrett Co. Ltd. 
Shovels — Powered. Electric or 

Gasoline: 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 




*»0 y %mc J!m&&C 




Bethlehem makes a complete range of 
structural shapes for war construction 

Bethlehem rolls a complete range of structural shapes, 
including wide-flange, standard, and light sections, all 
conforming to C.E.S.A. specifications. These shapes are 
being used in the construction of mills, buildings and blast 
furnaces; tank arsenals and airplane plants, shipways, 
hangars, and many other types of structures essential 
in Canada's war effort. 

BETHLEHEM STEEL EXPORT CORPORATION 



BETHLEHEM 
STEEL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



25 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 

Sole Exporter of Bethlehem Steel Company' Products 

Canadian Offices: 804 Dominion Square Bldg., Montreal, 
Quebec; Royal Bank Bldg., Toronto, Ontario; Marine Bldg., 
Vancouver, B.C.: Canadian Bank of Commerce Bldg., Sydney, N.3. 



35 







THIS 



(Point 



IS IMPORTANT 

"It's your point" says the 
badminton player to her 
opponent. And "it's your 
point" when you select 1 the 
new Microtomic Van Dyke 
Drawing Pencils with HI- 
DENSITY Lead. It will suit 
you to perfection because 
it's different and better than 
any drawing pencil you've 
ever used. There's less 
smudging — alterations are 
more easily effected. Lines 
are uniformly opaque and 
therefore more sharply 
white when blue-printed. 
All grades — consistently 
accurate. Ask for Van Dyke 
Drawing Pencils by name. 



Made in 
Canada 



VAN DYKE 

MICROTOMIC 

THE DRAWING PENCIL WITH THE MICROTOMIC LEAD - U DECREES 

l.oW.nk.p in fin. Writing «glinili time» 11*1 
EBERHAUD FA.BER PENCIL CO. CANADA LTD.. TORONTO 




Department of Labour 
National War Labour Board 

GENERAL ORDER 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics has found that the 
cost of living index number for January 2, 1943, is 
117.1 (adjusted index 116.2) as compared with the 
cost of living index number for July 2, 1942, of 117.9 
(adjusted index 117). 

The Wartime Wages Control Order, P. C. 5963, 
provides in Section 48 (iv) : 

"the amount of the bonus shall not be 
changed unless the cost of living index 
number has changed one whole point or 
more since the last general order of the 
Board requiring an increase or decrease 
in the amount thereof." 

The index number not having changed by one whole 
point or more since July 2, 1942, pursuant to the 
provisions of P. C. 5963 as stated, the National War 
Labour Board orders that the terms of its General 
Order dated August 4, 1942, shall continue to apply 
for the period February 15, 1943, to May 15, 1943, 
subject to the right of employers or employees 
to apply to a War Labour Board for authorization of 
payment of such an amount of cost of living bonus 
as a Board may determine to be "fair and reasonable." 
ander the provisions of the Order. 

HUMPHREY MITCHELL 

Chairman, National War Labour Board 

Ottawa, Canada 
February 4. 1943 



Purchasers' Classified Directory 



Smokestacks : 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Horton Steel Work» Ltd 
Sporting Powder: 

Canadian Industrial Limited. 
Springs — Automobile. Railway. 

Wire: 

B. J. Coghlin Co. Ltd. 
Stains: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Steam Plant Equipment: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Canadian AUis-Chalmera Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 

Harland Eng. Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Steel Flooring: 

Canada Ingot Iron Co. Ltd. 
Steel Plate Construction: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Stee! Steps: 

Canada Ingot Iron Co. Ltd. 
Stokers: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd. 
Stoneware, Chemical: 

Doulton & Co. Ltd. 
Structural Iron and Steel: 

Algoma Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 

United Steel Corp. Ltd. 

Vulcan Iron Works Ltd. 
Superheaters: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 

The Superheater Co. Ltd. 
Switchboards, Power Lighting: 

Amalgamated Electric Corp. Ltd. 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 

Canadian Controllers Ltd. 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 

Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 

English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
T 
Tanks: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 
loch Ltd. 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 

Canada Ingot Iron Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Canadian Vickers Ltd. 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 

Foster Wheeler Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 

Vulcan Iron Wks, Ltd. 
Tees : 

Dart Union Co. Ltd. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Telegraph Line Material: 

Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Thermometers, Indicating, 

Recording: 

Taylor Instrument Cos. of Cda. 
Ltd. 
Thermometers, Recording: 

Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. 

Bristol Co. of Can. Ltd. 

Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Tiles: 

Canada Cement Co. Ltd. 
Tinplate: 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 

The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd 
Towers, Cooling, Fractionating: 

Foster Wheeler Limited. 

Horton Steel Works Ltd. 
Tr.it- k Tools: 

B. J. Coghlin Co. Ltd. 
Transformers, Instrument Test- 
ing, Distribution: 

Bepco Canada Ltd., 
Can. General Electric Co. Ltd. 
English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Transformers, Lighting and 
Power: 

Bepco Canada Ltd. 
Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 
Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 
Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 
English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 



Transmission Poles and Towers: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Trolley Materials: 

Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Tubes, Aluminum: 

Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Tubes, Boiler, Lapwelded, Steel 
and Iron: 
Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 

loch Ltd. 
Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
Tubes, Rubber, Ventilating 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
Tubes, Steel, Electrically Welded: 

Standard Tube Co. Ltd. 
Turbines, Hydraulic: 

Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd. 
Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 
English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Turbines, Steam: 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 

loch Ltd. 
English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Harland Eng. Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Swiss Electric Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Turbo-Generators : 
Bepco Canada Ltd. 
Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 
Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 
English Electric Co of Canada Ltd. 
Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Swiss Electric Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Turntables: 

Canadian Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd. 
Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd. 
U 
Unions 

Dart Union Co. Ltd. 
V 
Valve Controls: 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Valve Discs, Rubber: 

Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd. 
Garlock Packing Co. of Can. Ltd. 
Jenkins Bros. Ltd. 
Valves: 

Can. Fairbanks-Morse Co. Ltd. 
Can. Ohio Brass Co. Ltd. 
Crane Limited 

Dominion Engineering Co. Ltd. 
Hydraulic Machinery Co. Ltd. 
.lenkins Bros. Ltd. 
Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 
Valves, Diaphragm: 

Taylor Instrument Cos. of Cda. Ltd. 
Valves, Relief: 
Crane Limited 
Neptune Meters Ltd. 
Smart-Turner Machine Co. Ltd. 
Varnishes: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
Ventuhe: 

Canadian Industries Limited. 
W 
Washers, Air: 

Can. Ingersoll-Rand Co., Ltd. 
Water Cooled Furnaces: 

Bubcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCul- 

loch Ltd. 
Combustion Engineering Corp. Ltd. 
Foster Wheeler Limited. 
Welding Machine», Electric and 
Accessories: 

Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 
Can. Ohio BrasB Co. Ltd 
Can. Westinghouse Co. Ltd. 
Commonwealth Electric Corp. Ltd. 
English Electric Co. of Canada Ltd. 
Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
The Steel Co. of Canada. Ltd. 
Wheels, Fly and Gear: 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 
United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Winches, Stop-log and Headgate: 
Canadian Vickers Ltd. 
United Steel Corp. Ltd. 
Wire: 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corp. 
The Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd. 
Wire, Electric, Bare and Insulated: 
Can. General Elec. Co. Ltd. 
Northern Electric Co. Ltd. 
Phillips Electrical Works Ltd. 
Wire Rope: 

Dom. Wire Rope 4 Cable Co. Ltd. 
Wire Springs: 

B. J. Coghlin Co. Ltd. 
Wood Preserving: 
Osmose Wood Preserving Co. of 
Canada Ltd. 
Worm Gears: 

Hamilton Gear & Machine Co. 
Peacock Bros. Ltd. 
United Steel Corp. Ltd. 



36 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 





A COMPLETE SERVICE 

in the field of 
FUEL BURNING • STEAM GENERATION 



DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION 
OF ALL TYPES OF 

MECHANICAL STOKERS ■ PULVERIZED 

FUEL SYSTEMS • BOILERS • WATER-COOLED 

FURNACES • ECONOMIZERS • AIR PRE-HEATERS 

OIL BURNING SYSTEMS 

CONTRACTORS FOR 

COMPLETE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT 

All under one Responsibility 

^UtdLliLLiiUkkLiL 



COMBUSTION ENGINEERING CORPORATION 

J-imlted 

MONTREAL • TORONTO • WINNIPEG • VANCOUVER 





LEGEND OF 20 MEN AND HOW 
A YALE LIFT TRUCK BEAT THEM 



r 



• Once upon a time there was 
a plant manager who said *'Oh! 
I have twenty men who can 
move light loads in my plant, 
if necessary." But at the end 
of six months- the boss found 
that half the men had left him 
and the other half took far too 
long to lift and carry the loads. 
So he got in touch with his 
local distributor of Yale Hand 
Lift Trucks . . . 

Now Yale Hand Lift Trucks 
are made to Yale standards— 
the finest standards— in a wide 
variety of models so that almost 
every type of lifting job in every 
industry can be exactly suited, 
and if Yale Hand Lift Trucks 
cannot do the job, there is also 



a w:de range of Yale Electric 
Industrial Trucks to choose 
from. The boss of the twenty 
men bought the right Hand 
Lift Truck and thereupon did 
all his loading and conveying 
easily, saving time and money 
on handling costs. 



SE3 




TRADE If X\ 1 T* MARK 

HAND LIFT TRUCKS AND 
ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS 



Distributed by the Canadian Lift 
Truck Co., Ltd., Toronto and Mont- 
real, and Canadian Fairbanks- 
Morse Co., Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 



DON'T WASTE 

STEAM 




use these 

Leakproof 

unions 

extra wide 
contact . . . 

bronze to 
bronze . . . 
. . . ground 
ball joint. 



DART UNION 

PIPE COUPLINGS 

— at all supply houses — 

DART UNION CO., LIMITED, TORONTO 



//ùeMûé. LxmZteicÙrt, , T^A&hoteofr, cUzyMn&eSi, 



Don't MEDITATE 



INSULATE 




with 



r 

I SPUN ROCK WOOL 

\ Rcs'd 

Us 



v> 



Save yourself time. Here's the insulation 
you know is right — sure to satisfy with 
its positive protection against cold, heat 
and sound. Safe estimating, too, for it's 
easily installed on every job. Available 
in Bulk, Batts, Rolls, Blankets and Pipe 
Covering for domestic, industrial or 
naval use. 

For complete information, write to 

SPUN ROCK WOOLS LIMITED 

THOROLD - ONTARIO 

Represented by: 

F. S. BRIDGES LIMITED. 8 Marlborough Avenue, Toronto, 5 

ATLAS ASBESTOS CO., LIMITED, 110 McGill Street, Montreal 

VANCOUVER LUMBER CO. LIMITED, Vancouver, B.C. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



37 



Dresser Can Make 

Your RINGS FOR WAR 

Dresser's peacetime production is the manufacture of the well-known 
Dresser Pipe Couplings and Repair Devices. The couplings are essentially 
a combination of heavy, accurately-sized metal rings. 

Today, 90% of our output (many times our total in peace) is the fabrication 
of these same metal rings for war purposes. 

Perhaps you are seeking a competent fabricator. Why not consider Dresser 
who has 62 years experience and the necessary equipment. Address your 
inquiries to DRESSER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LIMITED, 60 FRONT 
STREET, WEST, TORONTO, ONTARIO. 

DRESSER COUPLINGS and other products are available upon proper 
priority through these distributors: 



WM. STAIRS, SON & MORROW, LTD., Halifax and Sydney, N.S. 
G. SHERMAN DEARBORN, Saint John, N.B. 
SAUNDERS VALVE & SUPPLY CO., LTD., Montreal, Quebec. 
MINE EQUIPMENT CO., LTD., Kirkland Lake, Ont. 



MACKAY-MORTON, LIMITED, Winnipeg, Man. 

WILKINSON & McCLEAN, LIMITED, Calgary, Edmonton, 
and Lethbridge, Alberta. 

B. C. EQUIPMENT CO., LTD., Vancouver, B.C. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 



Page 

Alberta Clay Products Co. Ltd 3 

Amalgamated Electric Corporation Ltd 16 

Anchor Packing ( Company, Ltd 33 

Armstrong, Wood & Company. Inside Front Cover 

Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-Mc( Culloch Ltd 19 

Bethlehem Steel Export Corporation 35 

Canadian Bridge Company, Ltd 20 

Canadian Controllers Limited 6 

Canadian Fairbanks-Morse Company, Ltd 17 

Canadian General Electric Company, Ltd 26 

Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Company, Ltd 

Outside Back ( lover 

Canadian Johns-Manville Company, Ltd 30, 31 

Canadian Telephones & Supplies Ltd. Inside Back ( 'over 

( Canadian Vickers Limited 25 

Canadian Westinghouse Company, Ltd 14 

( Chrysler < Corporation of Canada, Ltd 8 

( Clayburn Company, Ltd 3 

Coghlin, B. J., Company, Ltd. . 33 

Combustion Engineering Corporation, Ltd 37 

Dart L T nion Company, Ltd 37 



Department of Labour 36 

Dominion Bridge Company, Ltd 23 

Dominion Engineering Company, Ltd. 



Dominion Rubber Company, Ltd 24 

Dominion Wire Rope & Cable Company, Ltd 39 

Donald. .1. T.. & ( 'ompany, Ltd 39 

Dresser Manufacturing Company, Ltd 38 

Eagle Pencil Company of Canada, Ltd 28 

Eberhard Faber Pencil Company Canada, Ltd 36 

Ferodo Limited 18 

Fetherstonhaugh & Company 39 



Page 

Garlock Packing Company of Canada, Ltd 9 

( lutta Percha & Rubber Limited 13 

Hamilton Bridge Company, Ltd 15 

Hamilton Gear & Machine ( 'ompany 21 

Hersey, Milton, Company, Ltd 39 

Horton Steel Works, Ltd 39 

Inglis, John, Limited 10 

International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd 4 

.Jenkins Bros. Limited 22 

Leonard, E., & Sons, Ltd 39 

Mathews Conveyer < Company, Ltd 39 

Mclntyre, J. S .'. 39 

Melntyre, V. H., Limited 27 

McLaren, J. C, Belting Company, Ltd 18 

Montreal Blue Print ( Company 39 

National Sewer Pipe Company, Ltd 3 

Neptune Meters Limited 5 

Osmose Wood Preserving Co. of Canada Ltd 40 

Phillips Electrical Works Ltd Inside Back Cover 

Reavell à Company (Canada) Ltd 34 

Ryan, E. A ' 39 

Spun Rock Wools Limited 37 

Standard Clay Products Ltd 3 

Steel ( 'ompany of Canada., Ltd 12 

Venus Pencil Company, Ltd 11 

Vitrified Clay Pipe 3 

Yale & Towne Mfg. Company 37 



38 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



J. T. DONALD & COMPANY 

LIMITED 
Chemical Engineers 
Consulting Chemists 

Investigation and Research Analysts 
and Assayers 

1181 GUY STREET MONTREAL 



PROFESSIONAL CARDS 



J. S. McINTYRE 
Industrial Consultant 

Precision production manufacturing, develop- 
ment of new products, processing methods and 
schedules, estimates, revisions, designs, speci- 
fications, reports, investigations and research. 

595 Bay Street, TORONTO, Ont. 
Phone: WAverly 6711 



1093 Beaver Hall Hill Phone 

MONTREAL LAncaster 5215-5216 

MONTREAL BLUE PRINT CO. 

Blue Prints, Blue Line, Black Line, 
and Photo Reductions from Plans, 
Blue Prints, etc. Ozalid Process. 



E. A. RYAN 

Consulting Engineer 

Mechanical and Electrical 
Equipment of Buildings 

CANADA CEMENT BLDG. - MONTREAL 



PATENTS and TRADE MARKS 

FETHERSTONHAUGH & CO. 

Patent Solicitors 

Patent* and Trade Mark» Secured in ail Countries 
VICTORIA BUILDING, OTTAWA 



MILTON HERSEY CO. 

LIMITED 

Industrial Chemists, Engineers 
and Inspectors 

Inspection, Analyses and Tests 
of All Commercial Materials 



MONTREAL 



WINNIPEG 



MATHEWS CONVEYERS 



# When conveying problems confront you, keep 
in mind the Mathews engineer in your vicinity. By 
combining your experience with his, you can 
usually solve these problems without difficulty. 
Often he can show you how such problems have 
been solved in plants similar to yours. Why not 
call him in this week? 

MATHEWS CONVEYER CO. LIMITED 

PORT HOPE, ONT. 



SOUNDLY ENGINEERED— WELL' BUILT 



STEEL STORAGE TANKS 



Practically all steel 
tanks are now required 
for the production of 
war materials. We hope 
that those of our custom- 
ers who cannot obtain 
tanks under present con- 
ditions will not be too 
greatly inconvenienced 
and that we will have 
the privilege of serving 
them after the war. 
Gordon N. Russell, Vancouver 
Mumford- Med land, Limited 
Winnipeg 





HORTON STEELWORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO, ONT. FORT ERIE, ONT. MONTREAL QUE. 




7 



DOMINION 



REASONS WHY 

ANYWHERE FROM 30% TO 300% INCREASED 
SERVICE MAY BE OBTAINED WHEN YOU USE 



"TRU • LAY" 
PREFORMED 



WIRE ROPE 



1 . Less internal friction. 

2. Each strand carries its share 
of the load. 

3. Resists kinking. 

Pioneex Manufacturers in Canada 



4. Cuts without seizing. 

5. Easier to handle. 

6. Easier to splice. 

7. Makes "Lang Lay" practical. 



WIRE ROPE & CABLE 



DOMINION WIIVJU XWJTb « VXIBljIi CO., LIMITED 

MONTREAL ■ TORONTO 

QUEBEC SAINT JOHN HALIFAX WINNIPEG CALGARY VANCOUVER VICTORIA 



BOILER MAKERS IRON FOUNDERS 



*xu\^x\i*'4*xw:L*r& 



E.LEONARD £. SONS. LIMITED - JSSffgZS!» 

■MHMHiilillBBillillBHiilfl 

in 1 1 1 1 







^«■M ill «II 

ijfliliiiiMiAH" 









•■TM;« 



'KfcMtWiM 



LONDON 
O N T A R I O 
ESTABLISHED 1834 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1943 



39 






ALASKA HIGHWAY 



V V 




A MAGNIF/CENT 
ACCOMPLISHMENT 

This highway, some 1 600 
miles in length, has been 
built in the face of tremen- 
dous obstacles presented 
by rivers, lakes, and 
swamps, involving 200 
bridges, and the forests 
and mountains of a rugged, 
virgin country. Its construc- 
tion is a remarkable 
achievement, and a tribute 
to all those responsible. 



15 ON THE JOB/ 



" Osmose " products are being used for the economical preservation of 
wooden bridges, guard rail posts, and 65,000 telephone poles, as speci- 
fied by the U. S. Engineering Corps, and the U. S. Signal Corps. 

"OSMOSE" FOR LUMBER — "PENTOX" FOR MILLWORK 



OSMOSE WOOD PRESERVING CO. OF CANADA 

LIMITED 

TORONTO: 321 DUPONT STREET HEAD OFFICE: CASTLE BLDG., MONTREAL VANCOUVER: (IS HASTINGS ST. w. 



ST. JOHN 



H AM I LTON 



WINNIPEG 



CALGARY 



iO 



February, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 26 



MONTREAL, MARCH 1943 



NUMBER 3 




'"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e.i.c. 
Editor 



LOUIS TRUDEL. m.e.i.c 
Auitlant Editor 



N. E. D. 8HEPPARD, m.b.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

J. A. LALONDE, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.b.i.c. 

H. F. FINNEMORE, m.e.i.c 

T. J. LAFRENIÈRE. m.e.i.c. 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
—Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following page». 



ALASKA MILITARY HIGHWAY Cover 

(Wartime Information Board Photo) 

MESSAGE FROM THE NEW PRESIDENT 113 

K. M. Cameron, M.E.I.C. 

THE DAYS AHEAD 115 

C. R. Young, M.E.I.C. 

THE ALASKA MILITARY HIGHWAY 117 

Brigadier-General C. L. Sturdevant 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 122 

The Role of the Industrial Relations Executive in Company Manage- 
ment 122 

Bryce M. Stewart 

A Scientific Approach to the Problem of Employee Relations . . 126 
Professor M. S. Viteles 

Discussion 133 

FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING 136 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 142 

FROM MONTH TO MONTH 144 

PERSONALS 164 

Visitors to Headquarters 166 

Obituaries 166 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 168 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 176 

LIBRARY NOTES 176 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 177 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 180 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 181 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL - 1943 

PRESIDENT 

K. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 



tW. P. BRERETON, Winnipeg, Man. 
*H. CIMON, Quebec, Que. 



*T. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 



tJ. E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 

tH. E. BRANDON, Toronto, Ont. 

*S. G. COULTIS, Calgary, Alta. 

*G. L. DICKSON, Moncton, N.B. 

JE. V. GAGE, Montreal, Que. 

*F. W. GRAY, Sydney, N.S. 

*E. D. GRAY-DONALD, Quebec, Que. 

*J. HAÏMES, Lethbridge, Alta. 

tR. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

*W. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

*E. W. IZARD, Victoria, B.C. 

* For 1943. t For 1943-44 t For 1943-44-45 



SECRETARY-EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 

tL. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

tC. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

COUNCILLORS 

tA. JACKSON, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. R. KAYE, Halifax, N.S. 

ÎJ. A. LALONDE, Sorel, Que. 

tA. M. MACGILLIVRAY, Saskatoon, Sask. 

*N. MacNICOL, Toronto, Ont. 

tN. B. MacROSTIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

*T. A. McELHANNEY, Ottawa, Ont. 

*A. W. F. McQUEEN, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

tG. E. MEDLAR, Windsor, Ont. 

tJ. P. MOONEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tE. NELSON, Edmonton, Alta. 

TREASURER 

C. V. CHRISTIE, Montreal, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



tC. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 
*G. G. MURDOCH, Saint John, N.B. 



XC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 



tH. G. O'LEARY, Fort William, Ont. 

*A. E. PICKERING, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont 

*G. McL. PITTS, Montreal, Que. 

*W. J. W. REID, Hamilton, Ont. 

*J. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

tC. SCRYMGEOUR, Dartmouth, N.S. 

*H. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

tH. J. WARD, Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

tJ. W. WARD, Arvida, Que. 

tC. E. WEBB, Vancouver, B.C. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY 

LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 
J. E. ARMSTRONG 
deG. BEAUBIEN 
C. V. CHRISTIE 
G. A. GAHERTY 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

LEGISLATION 



J. L. LANG, Chairman 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. J. DURLEY 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

E. V. GAGE, Chairman 
A. T. BONE 
J. S. HEWSON 
M. S. NELSON 
G. V. RONEY 



PAPERS 

L. F. GRANT, Chairman 



PUBLICATION 

J. A. LALONDE, Chairman 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 

I. M. FRASER 

W. E. LOVELL 

A. P. LINTON 

H. R. MacKENZIE 

E. K. PHILLIPS 



GZOWSKI MEDAL 

W. H. POWELL, Chairman 

H. V. ANDERSON 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD 

T. H. JENKINS 

V. A. McKILLOP 



DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

J. M. FLEMING, Chairman 
R. C. FLITTON 



PLUMMER MEDAL 

O. W. ELLIS, Chairman 
J. CAMERON 
R. L. DOBBIN 
R. E. GILMORE 



LEONARD MEDAL 

A. E. CAMERON, Chairman 

J. B. deHART 

A. O. DUFRESNE 

A. E. MacRAE 



JULIAN C. SMITH MEDAL 

K. M. CAMERON, Chairman 



MEMBERSHIP 

J. G. HALL, Chairman 
S. R. FROST 
N. MacNICOL 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Province») 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 

W. P. BRERETON, Chairman 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Galbraith Prize 

L. F. GRANT, Chairman 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 

Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

H. CIMON, Chairman 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

G. G. Murdoch, Chairman 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

M. J. McHENRY, Chairman 

R. W. ANGUS 

E. A. ALLCUT 

A. E. BERRY 

C. CAMSELL 

J. B. CHALLIES 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. E. WEBB 

C. R. YOUNG 

THE YOUNG ENGINEER 

H. F. BENNETT. Chairman 
J. BENOIT 

D. 8. ELLIS 

J. N. FINLAYSON 
R. DeL. FRENCH 
R. F. LEGGET 
A. E. MACDONALD 
H. W. MoKIEL 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG. Chairman 

E. VIENS. Vice-Chairman 
G. P. F. BOESE 

A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C. J MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 



WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 
A. GRIFFIN 

D. W. HAYS 

G. N. HOUSTON 
T. H. HOGG 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
H. J. McLEAN 
F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
P. M. SAUDER 
J. M. WARDLE 

ENGINEERING FEATURES OF 
CIVIL DEFENCE 



J. E. ARMSTRONG. 

P. E. ADAMS 

J. N. ANDERSON 

S. R. BANKS 

H. F. BENNETT 

W. D. BRACKEN 

W. P. BRERETON 

J. M. DAVIDSON 

R. S. EADIE 

E. V. GAGE 

L. GAGNON 

G. A. GAHERTY 

R. J. GIBB 

A. GRAY 

J. GRIEVE 



Chairman 

J. L. LANG 
R. F. LEGGET 
I. P. MACNAB 
J. A. McCRORY 
H. J. McEWEN 
C. B. MUIR 
W. H. MUNRO 
G. McL. PITTS 
C. J. PORTER 
M. G. SAUNDERS 
W. O. SCOTT 
T. G. TYRER 
H. K. WYMAN 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

WILLS MACLACHLAN, Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 

J. C. CAMERON F. W. GRAY 

E. R. COMPLIN E. G. HEWSON 

J. A. COOTE A. M. REID 

S. M. GOSSAGE W. J. W. REID 

POST-WAR PROBLEMS 

W.C.MILLER, Chairman H. MA8SUE 



F. ALPORT 
J. S. BATES 
deGASPE BEAUBIEN 
A. L. CARRUTHERS 
J. M. FLEMING 

E. R. JACOBSEN 

G. R. LANGLEY 



G. l. Mackenzie 

D. A. R. McCANNEL 
A. W. F. McQUEEN 
G. McL. PITTS 
P. M. SAUDER 
D. C. TENNANT 



112 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

VOLUME 26 MARCH 1943 NUMBER 3 

"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



MESSAGE FROM THE NEW PRESIDENT 



you have conferred on me one of the greatest honours that can come to a Canadian 
engineer, and I am deeply conscious not only of the honour but of the trust you 
have placed in me. The honour and trust I feel I share with my colleagues in 
the Government service. 

Every emphasis has been placed on the weight of the Institute and its membership 
being wholeheartedly, unreservedly and unselfishly devoted to the one objective, to 
win this war. From Lieutenant-General A. G. L. McNaughton, the able and inspira- 
tional commander of the Canadian Army, down through all the ranks of the profession 
in civilian as well as in service life, the evidence that this task has been accepted by 
all is unquestionable. The engineering profession in Canada has every reason to be 
proud of its accomplishments. It is determined to relax no effort. It is firm in its resolve 
to maintain its contribution. It is unalterably determined to exceed all past per- 
formance. 

We entered this last year of Institution activities under circumstances which called 
for an all-out and united effort. That effort was put forth. We now begin to see the 
effect and are inspired to put forth those supreme exertions which will advance and 
assure the day of final victory. There must be no let up. 

If we wish to retain our self-respect, if we expect from our fellow citizens respect 
for our profession, if we are to keep faith with our colleagues on active service, we 
can do no other. 

With this determination, and with faith in final victory, we face the great task 
which lies ahead. In peace, as in war, the engineer's job is never done. The fruits of his 
ingenuity, developed for the betterment of mankind, have been diverted into the 
abominable ways of the Nazi ideology. However, with the indomitable spirit of the 
free peoples of the world, they will be turned on the aggressor, and they will destroy 
him. Together, they will assure continued peace. 

Always in the forefront of man's advancement, the engineering profession must 
take its place in preparing the way for that better world security, which will ensure 
enduring peace and prosperity, with freedom. The end must be kept steadily in 
mind. No opportunity to advance must be missed, no delay tolerated. We must keep 
faith with those who place their trust in us. There must be no relaxation. 

To these tasks the Engineering Institute and its members are pledged. They are 
conscious of their responsibilities and will discharge them with all honour. We go 
forward into the future with heads high, and enthusiasm undimmed. 




President. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 113 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, G. G. HENDERSON 

Vice-Chair., J. B. DOWLER 

Executive, J. F. BLOWEY A. H. PASK 

A. H. MacQUARRIE 
(Ex-Officio), G. E. MEDLAR 

H. L. JOHNSTON 
Sec.-Treas., W. R. STICKNEY, 

1614 Ontario Street, 
Walkerville, Ont. 
CALGARY 

Chairman, H. J. McEWEN 
Vice-Chair., J. G. MacGREGOR 
Executive, J. N. FORD 
A. GRIFFIN 
H. B. SHERMAN 
(Ex-Officio), G. P. F. BOESE 
S. G. COULTIS 
J. B. deHART 
P. F. PEELE 
Sec.-Treas., K. W. MITCHELL, 

803— 17th Ave. N.W., 
Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, J.A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

(Ex-Officio), F. W. GRAY 

Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney. N.S. 
EDMONTON 

Chairman, D. HUTCHISON 
Vice-Chair., C. W. CARRY 
Executive. B. W. PITFIELD 
E. R. T. SKARIN 
J. A. ALLAN 
E. ROBERTSON 
J. W. JUDGE 
(Ex-Officio), E. NELSON 

R. M. HARDY 
Sec.-Treas., F. R. BURFIELD, 

Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 



HALIFAX 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



HAMILTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec. Treas., 



A. E. FLYNN 

G. T. CLARKE D. C. V. DUFF 

G. J. CURRIE L.E.MITCHELL 

J. D. FRASER P. A. LOVETT 

J. W. MacDONALD 

G. T. MEDFORTH 

J. E. CLARKE 

R. B. STEWART 

K. L. DAWSON 

J. R. KAYE S. SCRYMGEOUR 

S. W. GRAY, 

Wartime Bureau of Technical 

Personnel, 84 Hollis Street, 
Halifax, N.S. 

T. S. GLOVER 
H. A. COOCH 
C. H. HUTTON 
R. J. G. SCHOFIELD 
NORMAN EAGER 
A. H. WINGFIELD 
W. J. W. REID 
STANLEY SHUPE 
A. R. HANNAFORD 
W. E. BROWN, 

427 Concession Street, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



KINGSTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



K. M. WINSLOW 
S. D. LASH 
W. F. NOONAN 
J. R. CARTER 
J. D. LEE 
(Ex-Officio), T. A. MeGINNIS 

L. F. GRANT A. JACKSON 

Sec. Treas., R. A. LOW, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ont. 
LAKEHEAD 
Chairman, MISS E. M. G. MacGILL 
Vice-Chair., E. J. DA VIES 
Executive, J. I. CARMICHAEL 
R. B. CHANDLER 
S. E. FLOOK 
O. J. KOREEN 
S. T. McCAVOUR 
W. H. SMALL 
E. A. KELLY 
J. S. WILSON 
(Ex-Officio), B. A. CULPEPER 

H. G. O'LEARY 
Sec. Treas., W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 
LETHBRIDCE 

Chairman, J. M. DAVIDSON 

Vice-Chair., C. S. DONALDSON 

Executive, A. G. DONALDSON G S. BROWN 

N. H. BRADLEY 
(Ex-Officio), J. HAÏMES 
Sec.-Treas., R. B. McKENZIE, 

McKenzie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



(Ex-Officio), 
Sec.-Treas., 

MONCTON 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 

(Ex-Officio), 
Sec. Treas., 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



F. T. JULIAN 

T. L. McMANAMNA 

F. C. BALL 

V. A. McKILLOP 

H. F. BENNETT 

A. L. FURANNA 

R. S. CHARLES 

R. W. GARRETT 

J. A. VANCE 

H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 
London, Ont. 

H. J. CRUDGE 
J. A. GODFREY 
A. S. DONALD 

E. R. EVANS E. B. MARTIN 
H. W. HOLE G. C. TORRENS 

F. O. CONDON 

G. L. DICKSON 
V. C. BLACKETT 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., 

Moncton, N.B. 



R. S. EADIE 

C. C. LINDSAY 

H. F. FINNEMORE 

R. C. FLITTON 

G. D. HULME 

G. E. GELINAS 

K. G. CAMERON 

G. H. MIDGLEY 
(Ex-Officio), C. K. McLEOD 

J. E. ARMSTRONG 

R. E. HEARTZ 

W. G. HUNT 

J. A. LALONDE 

G. McL. PITTS 

E. V. GAGE 
Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 
Outremont, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. G. CLINE 

Vice-Chair., G. E. GRIFFITHS 

Executive, A. G. HERR 
R. T. SAWLE 
G. F. VOLLMER 
W. D. BRACKEN 
J. W. BROOKS 
J. H.TUCK 
D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 

(Ex-Officio). A. L. McPHAIL 

a. w. f. mcqueen 

Sec.-Treas., J. H. INGS 

1870 Ferry Street, 

Niagara Falls, Out. 



OTTAWA 

Chairman, 
Executive, 



G. H. FERGUSON 

W. H. G. FLAY 

G. A. LINDSAY 

R. YUILL 

W. H. B. BEVAN 

J. H. BYRNE 
(Ex-Officio),T. A. McELHANNEY 

K. M. CAMERON 

N. B. MacROSTIE 
Sec. Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, D. J. EMERY 

Executive, C. R. WHITTEMORE F. R. POPE 
I. F. McRAE R. L. DOBBIN 

A. J. GIRDWOOD 
(Ex-Officio), J. CAMERON 

H. R. SILLS 
Sec.-Treas , A. R. JONES, 

5, Anne Street, 

Peterborough, Out. 



QUEBEC 

Life Hon.- 

Chair. , 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



A. R. DÉCARY 
RENÉ DUPUIS 
E. D. GRAY-DONALD 
S. PICARD G.ST-JACQUES 
L. GAGNON A. E. PARÉ 
G.W. WADDINGTON Y. R TASSÉ 

(Ex-Officio), H. CIMON 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 
P. MÉTHÉ 
L. C. DUPUIS 
Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 
SAGUENAY 

Chairman, R. H. RIMMER 
Vice-Chair., C. MILLER 
Executive, W. E. COOPER 
J. FRISCH 

B. BAUMAN 
G. B. MOXON 

(Ex-Officio), M. G. SAUNDERS 
N. F. McCAGHEY 
J. W. WARD 
Sec.-Treas., ALEX. T. CAIRNCROSS, 
P.O. Box 33, 

Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, D. R. SMITH 
Vice-Chair., A. O. WOLFF 
Executive, H. P. LINGLEY 

c. d. McAllister 

C. C. KIRBY 
(Ex-Officio). F. A. PATRIQUEN 
V. S. CHESNUT 
J. P. MOONEY 
G. G. MURDOCH 
Sec.-Treas., G. W. GRIFFIN 
P.O. Box 220, 

Saint John, N.B. 



R. D. PACKARD 



Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, VIGGO JEPSEN 
Vice-Chair., J. H. FREGEAU 
Executive, E. BUTLER 

A. C. ABBOTT 

R. DORION 

H. J. WARD 

E. T. BUCHANAN 
J. JOYAL 
H. G. TIMMIS 

(Ex-Officio), A. H. HEATLEY H. J. WARD 

Acting 

Sec.-Treas., VIGGO JEPSEN, 

Consolidated Paper Corporation, 
Grand'Mère, Que. 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, A. P. LINTON 
Vice-Chair., A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 
Executive, F. C. DEMPSEY 

n b. hutcheon 
j. g. schaeffer 
r. w. jickling 
h. r. Mackenzie 
b. russell 

(Ex-Officio), A. M. MACGILLIVRAY 
Sec.-Treas.. STEWART YOUNG 
P. O. Box 101, 

Regina, Sask. 

SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, N. C. COW IE 
, A. M. WILSON 

C. O. MADDOCK 

C. R. MURDOCK 

G. W. MacLEOD 

K. G. ROSS 

H. W. SUTCLIFFE 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

A. E. PICKERING 

L. R. BROWN 
Sec. Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road. 

TORONTO 

Chairman. W. S. WILSON 
Vice-Chair., W. H. M. LAUGH LIN 
Executive, D. FORGAN 

R. F. LEGGET 

S. R. FROST 

F. J. BLAIR 
E. G. HEWSON 
C. F. MORRISON 

(Ex-Officio), C. R. YOUNG 
T. H. HOGG 
H. E. BRANDON 
Sec.-Treas., S. H. deJONG 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 

VANCOUVER 

Chairman, W. N. KELLY 

Vice-Chair., T. V. BERRY 

Executive. J. P. FRASER H. P. ARCHIBALD 
R. E. POTTER I. C. BARLTROP 
E. S. JONES H. J. MacLEOD 

(Ex-Officio), W. O. SCOTT 
C. E. WEBB 

Sec.-Treas.. P. B. STROYAN, 

2099 Beach Avenue, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



N. MacNICOL 
J. J. SPENCE 



VICTORIA 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



KENNETH REID 

A. L. FORD 

H. L. SHERWOOD 

A. N. ANDERSON 

F. C. GREEN 

J. H. BLAKE 
(Ex -Officio), E. W. IZARD 

A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 
Sec. Treas., R. BOWERING, 

41 Gorge Road WeBt, 

Victoria, B.C. 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair 
Executive, 



J. T. DYMENT 

T. H. KIRBY 

C V. ANTENBRING 

N. M. HALL 

B. B. HOGARTH 

R H. ROBINSON 

R. A. SARA 

(Ex-Officio), W. P. BRERETON 
.1. \Y SANGER 
D. M. STEPHENS 

Sec.-Treas., T. E. STOREY, 

55 Princess Street, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



114 



March, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOl R\ VI. 






THE DAYS AHEAD 



C. R. YOUNG, m.e.i.c. 
Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto; President of The Engineering Institute of Canada for 1942. 

Presidential address delivered at the Annual General Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Toronto, Ont., on February 11th, 1943 



For three and a half years the engineers of this country 
have been engaged in a task at once more extensive and 
more exacting than any other that has ever confronted 
them. They have put into the doing of it all of the energy, 
thought, and initiative that they possess. There has been 
little time for relaxation and although the way has been 
long and hard it has been travelled with pride and deep 
inner satisfaction. 

At this time, when our armed forces are entering upon a 
new phase of the world struggle and when we of the Insti- 
tute are surveying the work accomplished during the past 
year, it is not inappropriate that we should attempt to 
draw aside at least a little the curtains of the unknown. 
What lies ahead of the engineer ? Where is he going, what 
service can he render in the remaining months or years of 
the war, and what is the role that he is to play in the days 
of peace ? 

I — The Way We Have Come 

Risking, perhaps, the charge of indulging in professional 
self-approbation, let us examine the basis for the intensive 
demand that has arisen for the services of the engineer in 
these crucial war years. 

There is, of course, the obvious ground of professional 
knowledge and skill. But that is not all. Added unto it is 
the exploratory faculty of imagination and the ability to 
devise remedies for old situations and the means of meet- 
ing and coping with new ones. Significant although these 
may be, they are no more than qualities of the intellect. 
Whatever eminence the engineer may have achieved here- 
tofore is due as much to other characteristics, often of 
greater import. Colonel H. G. Prout has well said that the 
engineer reaches the limit of his usefulness from defects of 
character rather than from want of technical attainments. 

The engineer must, of necessity, be a quick and accurate 
analyst of new problems. Although this faculty may often 
be snared by the pure scientist, the engineer, faced with the 
need for rendering decisions upon which immediate and far- 
reaching programmes must be launched, is often forced to 
deviate from theoretical exactness and drive straight to- 
wards the solution that limitations of time, urgency of the 
need, or imperfections of materials and workmanship will 
dictate. It is a case of what is practicable in the circum- 
stances. Here, in war, as in peace, he continues to be a 
co-ordinator of many sciences, techniques, and arts to the 
attainment of a desired objective. 

The engineer is adaptable. His ordinary employment 
makes it essential for him to be so. Emergencies confront 
him daily in the course of any normal enterprise. He must 
quickly change front, devise remedies, and marshal men, 
materials, and equipment at the threatened point. In the 
development of a project, no plans and no specifications are 
sacrosanct. They are ruthlessly cast aside if a better way 
of attaining the desired end appears. 

In all this the engineer remains imperturbable. He is 
accustomed to work under pressure and in the midst of 
distractions. If one who aspires to a place in the profession 
cannot function in these circumstances with efficiency, he 
had better seek another calling. The characteristic ability 
to cut resolutely through obstacles and confusion which 
differ only in degree from those of actual combat peculiar- 
ly fit him for wartime tasks. 

It is not strange, therefore, that demand for the services 
of the engineer has been very great in this war and con- 
tinues unabated. That demand has rested not only upon 
his scientific equipment or mastery of techniques. His 



practical sense, ability to secure willing and loyal service 
from those under his direction, and proficiency in whatever 
of art there is in the practice of engineering has cast him 
in vital roles. And so he not only provides the technical 
leadership for normal and wartime industry, but has at the 
same time taken his place in the armed forces to an extent 
beyond that which might in the circumstances be expected 
of him. 

In what has the engineer made his chief contribution to 
the amazing development of war industry in Canada ? 

With the fall of France in 1940, it was but natural that 
the engineer should be called upon for intensive service in 
the sphere of planning and design. Plant locations had to 
be selected quickly, structures designed, utilizing a mini- 
mum of materials, particularly in the case of those that 
would be in intensive demand for combat, and machinery 
had to be selected and installed. In the actual production 
of war equipment itself, design services are still required. 
Although the original designs have generally been prepared 
outside of Canada, many revisions have had to be made 
in order to secure standardization and to facilitate manu- 
facture in this country. As has been pointed out by Mr. 
H. J. Carmichael, Co-ordinator of Production, Department 
of Munitions and Supply, ingenious modifications of parts 
have been made that lessen weight and often replace scarce 
materials by others that can be more readily obtained. 
Moreover, original designs of great importance, about 
which it is not yet permitted to speak, have been made in 
this country and are serving their purpose with high effect- 
iveness. 

As a supervisor or director of construction, either in the 
role of skilled adviser of a client or employer, or as the 
technical representative of a construction organization, 
the engineer has played a vital part in the building of the 125 
new airfields in Canada and in the construction of the 
formidable array of new plants for war industry. These two 
represent an outlay of over $300,000,000. He has had a 
determining hand in the spending of nearly $750,000,000 of 
government money on the building, extending, and equip- 
ping of war plants. But what is even more stirring than the 
prodigious expenditure is the speed with which these enter- 
prises were carried out. It has been a case of planning 
operations as thoroughly and carefully as a military 
operation in the field. 

The engineer has shown his originality and resourceful- 
. ness in the modification and improvement of the processes 
of industry. 

Old as is the art of metal casting, striking improvements 
have been shown to be possible. During the past year a 
new technique of casting steel by a centrifugal process has 
been developed. Not only is the quality of the metal 
markedly improved, but an important saving in the quan- 
tity of it has been effected, the amount of labour required 
is reduced, vital machine-tool hours have been lessened 
and the production has been increased. 

From the days of the classic researches of Frederick W. 
Taylor, the art of cutting metals has bulked large in the 
determination of industrial processes. That art has received 
a new impetus through the development of carboloy, the 
cemented metallic carbide that has revolutionized the 
machining of metals and the drawing of brass shells and 
cartridge cases. Due to it the production of shells has been 
speeded up from three to five times. 

The technique of machining has been vastly improved, 
thanks to engineering inventiveness. In one plant the ma- 
chining of a supercharger housing took 224 minutes, pro- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



115 



ceeding according to traditional methods. By arranging 
eight machines radially, working on the housing simultan- 
eously, the time was cut to 24 minutes. 

Following keenly on the trail of the research worker, the 
engineer has been able to bring about impressive improve- 
ments in manufacturing processes by enlisting the aid of 
electronics. In the newer rolling mills the reversal of the 
motors driving the rolls is effected by electronic devices with 
a gratifying speeding up of output. Rectification of alternat- 
ing current to direct current is made possible without the 
use of heavy and expensive rotary equipment. Counting, 
sorting, and the discarding of imperfect or off-colour pro- 
ducts is now being effected by electronic wizardry. 

Necessity, born of the war, has forced the engineer so to 
alter his designs as to utilize substitute materials in large 
measure. Timber and concrete have been made to lift much 
of the burden off steel. Plastics or phenolic laminates have 
been mobilized in substitution for scarce metals with 
dramatic success. Some of our finest aircraft are in part 
fashioned of these materials. Even aircraft gasoline tanks 
have been constructed of them. They have been widely 
adapted to the manufacture of parts of fire control instru- 
ments. Out of plastics an impressive mileage of pipes and 
tubing has been produced. 

With the fall of Malaya our source of tin was largely cut 
off. Confronted with the impossibility of obtaining the 
standard gear bronze, one of the members of this Institute, 
a proprietor of an important metal-working industry, set 
to work to devise a substitute. After extensive investigation 
and experimentation, he announced the discovery of a tin- 
free gear bronze of properties superior to those of the 
material that had hitherto been employed. And what is of 
particular significance to this professional body, he freely 
contributed the results of his enquiry to his competitors 
for the general benefit of those who fight under the banners 
of the United Nations. 

II — The Way Ahead 

And now that engineers have passed, I hope, through 
the most difficult years of the war with high credit, what 
of the way that lies ahead ? 

There is no ground for anxiety so far as technological 
employment is concerned. The stage is set for its con- 
tinuance. Unless all our post-war planning is to go for 
nought, there will be an impressive volume of construction 
undertaken in the early years of peace. Such forms an 
important ring stone in the arch of post-war stability that 
is now being designed. Moreover, a vast and ever-growing 
backlog of demand is being built up for the goods and 
services of peace. The longer and more drastic is the 
restriction of private expenditure, the more vigorous will 
be the rebound. 

The country will be technologically well prepared for the 
upsurge when it comes. We shall have a well-trained and 
widely experienced body of qualified engineers. There will 
be an immense reservoir of men trained in the trades, 
particularly those of the mechanical type, many of whom 
but for the war would have remained totally unskilled. We 
shall still have, despite the heavy production of the war 
years, vast natural resources, if not in all of the traditional 
materials then in others that form the basis of effective 
substitutes. There will at the same time be an excess of 
available power. The Honourable C. D. Howe has said that 
ninety per cent of the great war plant built up in Canada 
will be susceptible to adaptation for peaceful industry. 

The circumstance that is most likely to put the breath 
of life into this tableau is the existence of a formidable 
backlog of tested discovery and invention ready to be taken 
in hand by vigorous and enterprising men. Some of it was 
ready for commercial exploitation when the war broke upon 
us and some has come as a by-product of intensive war 
research and development. Indeed, Dr. C. E. Inglis, imme- 



diate past-president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
has expressed the opinion that in "mechanical, electrical, 
aeronautical, and shipbuilding engineering, at least fifteen 
years of normal progress has been crowded into the past 
three years." 

Moreover, the inventive spirit, vigorously excited by the 
war, will carry through into the peace. Scientific building 
stones have been quarried in days of storm and tempest 
which may now be used to erect vaster and more amazing- 
edifices than we have yet seen. Sir Louis Beale is right in 
his view that the engineer will hold a large place in a coming 
world that will present alluring prospects to the adventurous 
spirit of man. 

Great as will be the urge to produce speedily those things 
of which we shall have immediate need after years of 
deprivation, the rehabilitation of industry will be based 
much more upon new products than upon old and standard 
ones. Once having had a glimpse of the possibilities flowing 
from new discovery and invention, we are never going to 
be satisfied with old models, types, or styles. The new will 
drive out the outmoded and inferior. We shall never go 
back to pre-war notions of what was adequate. 

Consider, for example, the future course of plastics. Dr. 
Inglis has expressed the view that this group of materials 
will reduce the ferrous metals to a position of secondary 
importance. Just as humanity has passed through the ages 
of stone and bronze, he believes that we are now nearing 
the end of the iron and steel age. 

To the rude jolt thus administered by plastic materials 
is added the impact of the light metals. The amazing- 
increase in our capacity to produce aluminum and mag- 
nesium is bound to have permanent and far-reaching effects. 

After bearing the hurried and intense burden of wartime 
traffic for years, our whole transport system will need over- 
hauling. It is unthinkable that reconstruction and re-equip- 
ment will be in close conformity to pre-war standards. 
The forced and intensive developments of war will pro- 
foundly influence the programme. We are not going to 
overlook the contributory value of light metals and new 
fuels. Nor can it be doubted that commercial air transport 
will be vastly important in the new transport order. 

There will be widespread re-equipment of buildings. 
Fluorescent lighting is bustling in. There are some who 
think they can see the glow of cold light just over the 
horizon. The firefly had better look to his laurels. Air- 
conditioning, just nicely started when war came, will grow 
apace. 

Television is coming. It is probable that most of those 
now here assembled will in their time find it as common- 
place as we now find the telephone or the moving pictures. 

We have been afforded a glimpse of the amazing field of 
electronic devices. It has been said that the new industrial 
god is electronics and the vacuum tube is his messiah. In 
view of what has already been achieved in devising and 
putting to work contrivances that see, feel, and hear, it is 
not unreasonable to look for wizardry around almost any 
scientific corner. For example, Raymond F. Yates asserts 
that Russian engineers have perfected a new automatic 
lathe which operates in obedience to an electronic scanning 
device that translates the lines on a blueprint into the 
behaviour of a cutting tool on metal. The control mechan- 
ism may be used on one lathe or on a number of them 
working simultaneously. 

Comforting although this appraisal of the post-war 
material prospects of engineers may be, it constitutes a 
source of only limited gratification. The engineering pro- 
fession will be advanced only in a technological sense by 
such activities. We must not forget that our science, how- 
ever effective, does not present the whole solution to 
human problems. We should do well to reflect on the words 
of Sir Louis Beale: 



116 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



"From dull, laborious toil, the engineer does save, can 
save, and will save humanity. He will lead humanity to 
happier, nobler, and freer lives by his conquest over Nature. 
He will open up a realm of peaceful living as yet undreamt 
of. But he will not control the world. He will not mechanise 
the human soul. He will realise that there is more to life 
than creature comforts, that man is ever striving toward 
the Infinite, toward a higher goal than the mere satisfaction 
of his bodily desires." 

It should be the solemn obligation of every engineer here 
to do what he can to further the concept of the engineer 



as a thoughtful and conscientious member of a great and 
learned profession, in all that that implies. He should 
endeavour to envisage a fair and spacious field of service 
in which he, as a loyal and devoted member of society, 
will play his full part. 

In this forereaching we ought to remember, as F. L. 
Mayer has put it, that 

"Nothing really worth while can ever be done except 
under the inspiration of something much greater than 
material achievement or personal gain — 'Except the Lord 
build the house, thev labour in vain that built it'." 



THE ALASKA MILITARY HIGHWAY 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL C. L. STURDEVANT 

Assistant Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C. 

Luncheon address delivered at the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Toronto, Ont., on February 11, 1943 



On Monday, February 2, 1942, the author was informed 
by the War Department that a decision had been reached 
to undertake the construction of a highway to Alaska. A 
route connecting a series of airfields from Fort St. John, 
British Columbia, to Big Delta on the Richardson Highway 
in Alaska was to be selected and the Chief of Engineers 
was to carry out the project. A plan for surveys and con- 
struction was submitted on February 4th and a formal 
directive to proceed with the project was received on 
February 14th. 

Permission was promptly obtained to send survey parties 
into Canada and a formal agreement with the Canadian 
Government was reached on February 26th which, among 
other things, provided that the United States would pay 
for the construction and that rights-of-way would be fur- 
nished by the Canadians. On March 9th and 10th, Quarter- 
master and Engineer troops began arriving at the end of 
the railroad at Dawson Creek, British Columbia, in sub- 
zero weather. 

The plan submitted to the War Department was neces- 
sarily quite general in character but it was apparent at once 
that the main impediment to rapid progress was the fact 
that there were only four practicable points of access by 
land to the entire 1,600-mile route; namely, at the two ex- 
tremities, at Whitehorse, and at some undetermined point 
on Teslin River or Teslin Lake which could be reached by 
steamer from Whitehorse. A fifth and difficult route of 
access to Watson Lake by way of the Stikine and Dease 
Rivers was considered but discarded as impracticable. 

The magnitude of the project, the need for speedy con- 
struction and the limited accessibility indicated the neces- 
sity for a two-phase construction programme, the opera- 
tions in the first phase to provide with utmost rapidity a 
rough minimum road to make possible the early and ex- 
tended distribution of many additional crews which in the 
second phase would improve and complete the road. 

Engineer troops are trained and equipped for rapid road 
construction. Moreover, troops were available for prompt 
dispatch, whereas a part of the season would probably be 
lost if civilian forces only were to be utilized. Consequently, 
engineer regiments were given the mission of building the 
access road which has been generally referred to as the 
pioneer road. The specifications for the pioneer road were 
very brief and were included in the instructions of the 
Chief of Engineers to troop commanders as follows: 

"A pioneer road is to be pushed to completion with all 
speed within the physical capacity of the troops. r Lhe 
objective is to complete the entire route at the earliest 
practicable date to a standard sufficient only for the 



supply of troops engaged on the work. Further refine- 
ments will be undertaken only if additional time is 
available." 

It may be stated at this point that all troops did actually 
work enthusiastically to the limit of their physical capacity 
and the capacity of their equipment and without regard 
to hours. The clearing operations at the heads of columns 
set the pace and were practically continuous. They did 
complete their assignments in one short season to a standard 
far higher than was believed possible when the above in- 
structions were issued. 

The Public Roads Administration at the request of the 
Chief of Engineers employed contractors to improve the 
pioneer road in rear of troops, to construct certain mileage 
without the aid of troops and to furnish various engineer- 
ing services. 

Winter March of 35th Engineers 

From the railhead at Dawson Creek to Fort St. John 
there was a provincial dirt road passable in winter and 
dry weather. From Fort St. John to Whitehorse along the 
proposed route are nearly 1,000 miles of wilderness inac- 
cessible for heavy equipment except over frozen trails in 
the winter months. There existed such a winter trail from 
Fort St. John to Fort Nelson, a distance of about 265 miles. 
This trail is generally on low, swampy ground and becomes 
impassable with the spring thaw which may occur in early 
April. It was decided to send a regiment over this trail to 
Fort Nelson before the thaw with supplies sufficient for 
four months and to have the regiment work northwest- 
ward from Fort Nelson. In this manner another point of 
access was established, thus cutting off 265 miles from the 
longest inaccessible section of the route. 

Selected for this difficult mission was the 35th Engineer 
regiment commanded by Colonel Robert D. Ingalls, Corps 
of Engineers. The regiment, equipped with special arctic 
clothing, began arriving at Dawson Creek on March 10 
and after many difficulties and hardships in weather 35 
degrees below zero reached Fort Nelson on April 5th with 
all equipment and some 900 tons of supplies. For men in- 
experienced in such winter operations, this 325-mile march 
was a remarkable performance. Accomplishment of its mis- 
sion by the 35th Engineers furnished the key to the early 
opening of the road to traffic. 

Route Location 

The second problem requiring early solution was the gen- 
eral location of the route. Although the road was to serve 
specified airports the main road did not necessarily have 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



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A heavy fill over a deep culvert. 

to touch them as they could be supplied if necessary by 
branch roads. Thus there was considerable latitude in loca- 
tion. Both the army and the Public Roads Administration 
sent in exploring parties in February by automobile, air- 
plane and dog teams. Joint parties were organized in several 
cases. It was soon apparent that the route of the winter 
trail to Fort Nelson was impracticable for an all-year road 
and that the higher ground to the west would have to be 
used, but, having reached this decision, this section remained 
the most difficult for detailed location as much of the route 
was in rolling, heavily forested country and did not always 
follow well defined ridges or streams. 

Between Fort Nelson and Watson Lake there were appar- 
ently two possible routes: one starting northwest through 
a considerable stretch of swampy country, and another 
starting westward, through mountainous terrain. Lack of 
airplanes and bad weather prevented final decision for some 
time, but it was finally decided in June to follow a series 
of water courses through the Rocky Mountains. Following 
the Tetsa River to Summit Lake, 102 miles west of Port 
Nelson, is found the highest point, on the entire road at an 
elevation of approximately 4,212 ft. On the west slope of 
the Rockies the road follows down Mac Donald Creek and 
Racing River and up the Toad River Valley to a low divide 
which it crosses to the Muncho Lake Drainage. From 
Muncho Lake it follows down the Trout River to its con- 
fluence with the Liard River and follows the north bank 
of the Liard River to the vicinity of Watson Lake. 

After the general location as far as the Liard River had 
been decided, a great deal of reconnaissance was conducted 




in an effort to find a suitable route to the vicinity of Lower 
Post following the south bank, thus eliminating the neces- 
sity for an additional major bridge over the Liard. (Access 
to Watson Lake airport requires one crossing of the Liard). 
A location on the south bank was found impracticable be- 
cause of excessive rock excavation, frozen ground and 
swampy areas. On the other hand the north bank is gently 
rolling usually with dry gravelly soil and the tributary 
streams to be crossed are of approximately equal magnitude 
on both banks. 

In the beginning the most uncertain part of the entire 
route was between Watson Lake and Whitehorse. The air 
route maps available indicated that any reasonably direct 
route would have to cross a mountainous plateau not less 
than 6,000 ft. above sea level which might prove impassable 
due to heavy snowfall in winter. This was freely predicted 
by critics who exhausted every means to upset the plans 
of the War Department. Prior to sled and airplane recon- 
naissance it was thought that the road might have to be 
built via Dease River and Lake, Telegraph Creek and Atlin 
which would have increased its length by nearly 500 miles. 
However, airplane reconnaissance soon discovered a fairly 
direct route entirely through forest growth which in this 
latitude does not exist far above elevation 4,000. This meant 




Rough grading sufficient to permit passage of truck traffic in 
weather not too wet. 



Drifters" drilling holes for blasting charges. 



that the summit was not much over 4,000 ft. above sea 
level. It turned out to be less than 3,500 ft. high. This route 
was apparently unknown to any of the local inhabitants 
and its discovery was an important factor in the early com- 
pletion of the road. This section between Watson Lake and 
Whitehorse also follows stream lines for most of the distance 
— up the Rancheria to the divide between the Mackenzie 
River and Yukon River drainage basins, thence down the 
Swift River and across a low divide to the Morley River 
which it follows to Lake Teslin. It crosses the Teslin River 
near the foot of the lake and continues southeast along an 
old trail to Marsh Lake and then follows that lake and the 
Lewes River into Whitehorse. 

For locating the road northwest of Whitehorse to the 
Richardson Highway in Alaska better maps and reconnais- 
sance reports previously made by the Alaskan International 
Highway Commission and the Alaska Road Commission 
were available. After considerable exploration of other pos- 
sible routes the location recommended by the Alaskan Inter- 
national Highway Commission was adopted with certain 
minor exceptions. This route follows an old trail to Kluane 
Lake, 150 miles west of Whitehorse, thence along the south 
shore of that lake and the south bank of Kluane River to a 
crossing of the White River at Lower Canyon, thence north- 
westward on the north bank of the Tanana River to the 



118 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



mouth of the Tok River, and thence along the south bank 
of the Tanana to a junction with the Richardson Highway 
near Big Delta. 

The general route having been selected, the detailed loca- 
tion became a matter for the decision of regimental com- 
manders on the ground with the assistance of airplane pho- 
tographs. Generally, no more elaborate instruments than 
the compass and hand level were used. An early effort was 
made to have the Army and Public Roads Administration 
engineers work together on detailed location in order that, 
insofar as practicable, the pioneer road might follow directly 
upon the location selected for the final improved road. This 
effort was soon abandoned because of the impossibility of 
supplying elaborate survey parties sufficiently in advance 
of the clearing operations to prevent delay in the latter. 
The army units therefore located the pioneer road by recon- 
naissance methods, and even so had great difficulty in keep- 
ing ahead of the bulldozers in many localities. Time-con- 
suming obstacles were usually avoided, a course which re- 
sulted in some crookedness and excessive grades to be 
eliminated in the final location. For these reasons the Public 
Roads Administration surveys usually followed in rear of 
the army units and obtained data for relocations and grade 
corrections. In spite of the rapid methods used, the army 
pioneer road was so well located that the bulk of its mileage 
will be improved directly to the standard of the final road. 




Carry-all moving earth to a fill. 

Mobilization and Tasks 

Except for the early dispatch of survey and administra- 
tive personnel and the 35th Engineers for the special reasons 
previously indicated, there was nothing to be gained by 
sending in additional construction troops before the passing 
of severe weather. The 35th Engineers although on the 
ground on April 5 did not build much road during April, 
May and early June because of heavy rains, floods and the 
low wet ground extending west of Fort Nelson for 50 miles 
to Steamboat Mountain. After July first, however, this 
regiment averaged three miles per day and on September 24 
had reached a point 305 miles from Fort Nelson where it 
met the 340th Engineers working eastward from Teslin Lake. 

Because the 35th Engineers would be inaccessible except 
by airplane until a road was opened to Fort Nelson every 
possible effort was made to push a road through from Fort 
St. John. Two regiments, each with a strength of 1,290 
officers and men, were assigned to this section. The 341st, 
under Colonel Albert L. Lane, arrived about May first and 
lead the way to Fort Nelson which was reached on August 
26, the bridge across the Muskwa near Fort Nelson being 
completed by detachments of a pontoon company and the 
35th Engineers almost exactly on the hour of the arrival 
of the regiment from the south. The 95th Engineer Regi- 
ment (coloured), under Colonel David L. Neuman and later 




Crew engaged in ditching and corduroying. 

under Colonel Heath Twichell, arrived about June first 
and backed up Colonel Lane's regiment by culvert con- 
struction, and grading and drainage work thus permitting 
the leading regiment to advance rapidly without too much 
danger of having its supply line bogged down. 

The 18th Engineer Regiment, under the command of 
Colonel E. G. Paules, arrived at Skagway, Alaska, and after 
some delay due to the small capacity of the narrow-gauge 
railway, arrived at Whitehorse on April 29 with part of its 
equipment and was assigned the mission of building the 
road northwest of Whitehorse. This regiment advanced 
rapidly until about August first for a distance of about 220 
miles after which it encountered very difficult going to 
October 25 when it met the 97th Engineers working south- 
ward from Alaska at a point 313 miles northwest of White- 
horse. The cause of this difficulty was permanently frozen 
ground which required special treatment. 

Two other regiments, the 93rd and 340th, also arrived 
at Skagway in April. They were not originally scheduled to 
arrive so early but an unusual opportunity permitted the 
men and light equipment to be forwarded. As shipping was 
very limited it was necessary to take advantage of this 
opportunity. However, both regiments remained in Skagway 
until June awaiting arrival of their road building equipment . 

The 93rd Engineers (coloured), under the command of 
Colonel Frank M. S. Johnson, then moved to Carcross and 
at the end of July had constructed 99 miles of difficult road 
from that point to Nisutlin Bay of Lake Teslin. Part of 
the regiment then dropped back to improve its own pioneer 
road and the remainder improved the road' constructed in 
the meantime by the 340ih regiment. 




Building a bridge over Morley River. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



119 




Raneheria River crossing. 

The 340th Engineers, commanded by Colonel F. R. 
Lyons, moved in part via Carcross, over the road under 
construction by the 93rd Engineers and across country to 
Teslin River and thence by boat to Morley Bay of Lake 
Teslin where it set up its base camp. The remainder of the 
regiment with its heavy equipment moved by steamer and 
barge down the Lewes River and up the Teslin River to 
Morley Bay. This regiment began work at this point late 
in June with part of its equipment. Working in both direc- 
tions it constructed the nine miles of road between Morley 
and Nisutlin Bays and by September 24 had crossed the 
Liard River near Watson Lake and had met the 35th Engi- 
neers at "Contact Creek," 240 miles east of Nisutlin Bay. 
It then dropped back to improve its own road. 

The 97th Engineers (coloured), under the command of 
Colonel S. C. Whipple and later under Lieut. Col. L. E. 
Robinson, landed at Valdez, Alaska, in late May but could 
not get over Thompson Pass on the Richardson Highway 
until the middle of June. It then assisted the Alaska High- 
way Commission in repairing the Richardson Highway and 
moved to Slana on the Gulkana-Nebesna road where it 
began construction of a road through Mentasta Pass in 
the Alaska Range at the end of June. This regiment pro- 
ceeded through the pass with considerable difficulty due to 
frozen ground and down the Tok River to the Tanana 
River. Crossing the Tanana it opened up the road along 
the north bank of the Tanana, crossed the international 
boundary and met the leading elements of the 18th Engi- 
neers on October 25 in the vicinity of Beaver Creek, which 
is 194 miles from the starting point at Slana. 

The Public Roads Administration was assigned all con- 
struction on the 114-mile section of the main route between 
the mouth of the Tok and Big Delta and also the 50 miles 
section between Whitehorse and Jakes Corner. 

Supervision 
For supervision and administration, two sector head- 
quarters were established, one at Fort St. John controlling 
work southeast of Watson Lake, and the other at White- 
horse controlling the remainder of the work. Brigadier 
General William M. Hoge organized both offices and super- 
vised all activities until June 6, when Colonel James A. 
O'Connor assumed charge of the southern sector. Both sec- 
tor commanders reported directly to the Chief of Engineers 
until the virtual completion of a route practicable for truck 
traffic. Enlarged plans for such traffic and extension of other 
projects in the region led to the organization of the North- 
west Service Command under General O'Connor, who 
assumed charge in September. 

Equipment 

All the seven regiments assigned to this project were 
similarly equipped, although in some cases delivery of com- 



plete equipment to the job was delayed. The principal items 
of interest included, for each regiment, twenty D-8 diesel 
tractors and bulldozers; twenty-four D-4 and R-4 tractors 
with bulldozers and trailers for their transportation; three 
motor patrols; from fifty to ninety dump trucks; various 
cai'go trucks; eleven to twenty 34-ton trucks (jeeps) ; twelve 
pick-up trucks; two H-yd. gas shovels; one truck crane; 
six 12 cu. yd. carry-alls; six tractor-drawn graders; one 
portable sawmill; and two pile drivers. In addition, each 
regiment carried the normal assortment of small tools, water 
purification equipment, and electric lighting plants. Each 
company was provided with a radio receiving and sending 
set mounted in a jeep. 

Nearly all of the foregoing equipment was new, which 
proved very fortunate as spare parts were often unobtain- 
able and repair facilities were inadequate. Much ingenuity 
was displayed in keeping equipment in operation but at 
the end of the season much of it was on the dead line await- 
ing repairs or parts. 

Operations 

In the typical operations of a regiment engaged in break- 
ing new trail through the forest, we find in the lead, of 
course, the locating party which indicated the centre line 
by blazes or pieces of cloth. The clearing crew with three 
shifts of tractor operators followed. One large bulldozer ran 
along the marked centre line clearing a narrow trail. Other 
large machines were then assigned tasks along this trail. 
Pushing the trees laterally to both sides they made a clearing 
from 60 to 90 ft. wide. Having finished a task a bulldozer 
would leap-frog forward to its next similar task. On much 
of the route the forest growth was dense but the trees were 
usually not large nor deeply rooted. Where the ground was 
firm, ten or twelve bulldozers could clear two to three miles 
through solid forest each day. The smaller bulldozers were 
used to follow the large tree movers, cleaning off moss, 
muck and lesser debris. The clearing crew was generally 
several miles beyond the reach of trucks and had to be 
supplied by pack train or tractor drawn sleds or trailers. 
The men slept in pup tents and moved camp nearly every 
day. 

A crew consisting generally of a company followed the 
clearing crew constructing log culverts and small bridges 
and was followed in turn by another crew engaged in ditch- 
ing, corduroying if necessary, and rough grading sufficient 
to permit passage of truck traffic in weather not too wet. 

The remainder of the regiment, perhaps two or three of 
the six companies, might be distributed along the road 
thirty to forty miles in rear of the clearing crew and be 
engaged in widening the narrow places, reducing the worst 
grades, gravelling soft spots and smoothing with motor 
patrols. This operation completed the pioneer road which 
was generally 18 to 24 ft. wide. As means permitted later 




\ typical bri«l«;e over Aishinik River. 



120 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOIRNAL 



in the season, still further improvements in grade and align- 
ment were undertaken both by Army and Public Roads 
Administration forces and the entire road has now received 
a light surfacing with gravel. 

Two light pontoon companies each equipped with 675 ft. 
of floating bridge material were parcelled out to the regi- 
ments. The pontoon detachments promptly put in floating 
bridges over streams that could not be forded, or ferries 
where available material was insufficient for bridges. Pile 
or trestle bridges were constructed as soon as possible to 
release the pontoon equipment. 

Rate of Progress 

The rate of progress is best indicated by mileage under 
construction at the end of each month since the road was 
usable for supply purposes in a very short time after clearing 
was completed. Such progress is indicated in Table I. 

TABLE I 
Mileage Under Construction' 
To Date Indicated Miles Remarks 

April 30 8 By 35th Engineers 

May 31 95 By four regiments 

June 30 360 By seven regiments 

July 31 794 By seven regiments 

August 31 1186* Fort Nelson reached August 26 

September 30 1479* Road passable to Whitehorse 

September 24 

October 25 1645* Road passable to Fairbanks 

* Includes Public Roads Administration construction. 

In conclusion it is believed that nobody can really appre- 
ciate the volume of work accomplished without actuall}' 
making a trip over the road. The main difficulty proved to 
be supply rather than construction. Progress would have 
been still better except for lack of adequate water trans- 
portation to Alaska which delayed the start of effective 
work in the Whitehorse area. Much delay was also due to 
the scarcity of certain supplies resulting from war con- 
ditions, particularly spare parts for transportation and con- 
struction equipment. 




Completed road 40 miles east of Teslin. 

The credit for pushing this road through the wilderness 
in the short span of one working season belongs first and 
foremost to the ten-thousand-odd American soldiers who 
took their fine equipment and did the job. This statement 
does not overlook the excellent and necessary work accom- 
plished by the civilian forces of the Public Roads Adminis- 
tration in following up the troops and improving the Army 
road. 

These soldiers of ours worked early and late. Neither 
heat nor cold nor all the challenges of the pathless wilderness 
could stop them. During March the men braved bitter 
winds and temperatures of 35 below. In July and August, 
gloved and swathed in netting against swarms of mosquitoes, 
flies and other insects, they sweltered under 90-degree heat. 
The rainy weather found them slogging through bottomless 
mud. They threw into their job the same spirit and the 
same courage that their comrades-in-arms have thrown into 
the operations in Algiers, in Morocco and at Guadalcanal. 
Yes, America can well take pride in the way its soldiers 
have performed in the building of the Alaska Highway. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



121 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 



Proceedings of the session held during the Fifty-Seventh Annual General Professional Meeting of The Engineering 

Institute of Canada, at Toronto, Ont., on February 11th, 1943, under the auspices of the Institute Committee 

on Industrial Relations. Mr. Wills Maclachlan, M.E.I.C., chairman of the Committee, presided. 



THE ROLE OF THE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS EXECUTIVE 
IN COMPANY MANAGEMENT 

BRYCE M. STEWART 

Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc., New York, N.Y. 
From 1940 to 1942 Deputy-Minister of Labour for Canada 



Importance of Industrial Relations 
Management 

At the outset, it might be appropriate to refer to the in- 
creasing significance of industrial relations in the conduct 
of industry and for the general social welfare. Different 
groups — politicians, business men, trade unions — become 
one after another the most powerful factors in our society. 
Since the early thirties trade unions have been increasing 
in strength and influence, and business has lost prestige 
since it was regarded as responsible for most of our economic 
ills. For this reason, industrial relations men also lost prestige 
in some quarters because of their part in business manage- 
ment. However, during the war period, business has played 
its proper role well; it has achieved production objectives 
that were regarded as impossible and is winning a higher 
place in public esteem. It is now becoming quite respectable 
to be an industrial relations executive and those entering the 
field at this time have that advantage. 

Mr. Walter Lippmann said recently that in the United 
States, "there is no governing class which has a social posi- 
tion and political power superior to that of the business 
community. That is why the American business men who 
manage the greatest industrial plant on earth are in a unique 
position. That is why their future cannot be discerned by 
reading analyses and predictions made by thinkers in lands 
where there is a quite different social structure. And that 
is why the working philosophy of the American business 
man is destined to play so decisive a part — for weal or for 
woe — not alone in his future but in that of this republic 
and of the world." 

One may venture the assertion that in the years ahead 
the working philosophy of the business man with reference 
to the relationship between management and workers will 
have greater social import than his thinking in any other field. 
It is the function of the industrial relations executive to 
shape management's philosophy in this area. Mr. Lippmann 
in the article just quoted raised the question whether in 
these trying times American business men will assume neces- 
sarily "heavy burdens in order to continue to lead our in- 
dustrial society." He suggests that they must not be diverted 
from "the conviction that they have a great mission to 
perform." Surely, therefore, the industrial relations man 
must exert himself to the utmost to see that the part the 
industrialist is destined to play in this important field of 
the relationship between management and employees is for 
weal and not for woe. What other profession has a greater 
responsibility or opportunity ? 

Many trade unions have been inclined to look askance 
at company industrial relations departments, and many 
employers have regarded trade unionism as not very con- 
structive, to say the least. In Great Britain and on the 
Continent, since the turn of the century, unions have been 



the major factor in shaping the industrial relations policies 
of management, and, in general, company industrial rela- 
tions programmes have had a minor part. In America the 
reverse condition has obtained. The labour movement had 
a slow growth over a period of half a century and only a 
minority of companies had signed union agreements. In 
these circumstances the most progressive firms developed 
their own industrial relations policies, practices and depart- 
ments. In this field American business stands supreme. How- 
ever, with a marked increase in union membership in the 
United States and Canada in the last decade the unions 
now have a much greater influence in the determination of 
management's labor policies. Interestingly enough, while 
the rate of growth of trade unionism has been speeding up 
in America the war has accelerated the development of 
company industrial relations programmes in Great Britain. 
What we know as industrial relations management is now 
receiving greater emphasis in that country. Ernest Bevin, 
the Minister of Labour and National Sen-ice, who before 
becoming a member of the Cabinet was the general secretary 
of the Transport and General Workers' Union, has said: 

"In the layout of our war effort, sufficient attention 
was not paid to the personnel problem . . . The longer 
the war goes on, the more necessary it becomes to pay 
greater regard to this personnel side of industry. The 
absence of a proper understanding of the problem has 
been one of our greatest handicaps in this great struggle. 
Hence my additional plea for the personnel manager, who 
should be specially trained to have an equal position in 
industry with other members of the executive. Indeed, I 
am sure — and I would emphasize this — that our post- 
war position will be materially helped and the future 
prospects of British industry enhanced by a full appre- 
ciation of this important fact." 

Acting on this view, the British government is giving 
financial assistance for training in personnel management. 
Since early in 1942 the Department of Labour of ( Canada 
has sponsored and financially aided practical courses in this 
field at five Canadian universities. Can there be any better 
evidence of the necessity and importance of company in- 
dustrial relations policies and of capable industrial relations 
executives than the action of these governments under the 
stress of war ? This development is a sufficient answer to 
those trade unionists, employers and others who have held 
that with increasing determination of management's labour 
policies by the action of governments and unions, the field 
of company industrial relations activities and the role of 
the company industrial relations executive are being pro- 
gressively restricted and ultimately may disappear. One 
is surprised and alarmed at the number of employers who 
in these days take the view that if labour standards are to 
be established by legislation or union dictation, manage- 
ment should comply submissively and make no effort to 



122 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



develop and promote its own labour policies. This mistaken 
attitude serves notice on employees that they must compel 
employers to make concessions either directly through col- 
lective bargaining or indirectly through legislation. It tends 
to destroy any sense of partnership between management 
and employees and militates against co-operative effort 
in the promotion of the enterprise. In short, when manage- 
ment washes its hands of responsibility in these matters it 
affirms the Marxian thesis that employers and workers are 
distinct classes whose interests are in no sense identical 
and that a political dictatorship of the proletariat is the 
worker's only method of securing better conditions. 

Progressive employers can oppose this contention by 
demonstrating orderly improvement in labour standards 
on their own initiative. They must prove that more can 
be gained by peaceful methods than by force, that as co- 
operative effort makes the enterprise more successful em- 
ployees will share accordingly. Such employers will always 
be in the vanguard of the movement for improved condi- 
tions of work since collective bargaining and labour legis- 
lation must compromise to meet the necessities of marginal 
firms. 

These managements are likely to profit by their foresight. 
Employees like other humans are prone to co-operate with 
any regime under which their conditions improve. Further, 
it pays to anticipate the compulsory standards of the future. 
A company that has a long established and well financed 
pension plan does not suddenly have to assume a new burden 
of costs when a governmental retirement system is intro- 
duced. Nor is employee good-will likely to be generated 
by action taken under compulsion. There can be no doubt 
that, if the management is imbued with this philosophy, 
the status of the industrial relations executive will broaden 
in this time of war and will continue to grow in the post- 
war period of readjustment as he is confronted with old 
problems in larger proportions, new problems and new fron- 
tiers. This conception of industrial relations is found to 
have a larger part in the art of industrial leadership. 

The Industrial Relations Executive as the 
Proponent of Democracy in Industry 

Democracy stands for progressive realization of freedom 
for the individual and his acceptance of his proper share of 
responsibility for the general well-being. In democratic 
countries a considerable measure of individual liberty has 
been achieved, as in freedom of speech, religion and politics. 
Full enjoyment of these rights by the citizen is conditioned 
by his measure of economic independence. If his family is 
starving he is prone, regardless of his convictions, to join 
the church, political party or labour organization that will 
help him most. The worker depends on the income from 
his job and its adequacy by way of rates and continuity, 
for decent independent living. In short, the hungry man 
cannot be free. Here and now we are striving for this new 
freedom, designated in the Atlantic Charter as freedom 
from want. The major long-term function of the industrial 
relations executive is to assist his management in the pro- 
gressive realization of this objective for its employees. 

Planned orderly progress in this sector, gauged to the 
capacity of the business to assume the burden, is the only 
alternative to direct action by the employees of the plant 
and to violent change that will shake the foundations of 
our society. Employees are securing better working con- 
ditions, better and steadier incomes, and more leisure 
through the voluntary action of employers, collective bar- 
gaining and labor legislation. The more that this can be 
accomplished by management with the assistance of a well- 
equipped industrial relations department, the better. In- 
deed, it probably is not an overstatement that the future 
status of industry in the national economy depends upon 
its achievements in this direction. 

Perhaps, at this point, a word of caution is in order. The 
industrial relations executive is the proponent of democracy 



in industry but he should have a clear understanding of 
that term. In industry both management and employees 
have their rights and duties. It is not suggested here that 
either should trespass upon the territory of the other. Man- 
agement is responsible to the owners for the successful 
functioning of the business at a fair profit. It must safe- 
guard the investment in the enterprise. Its social obligation 
is to secure the greatest possible production at the lowest 
possible cost consistent with fair wages and working con- 
ditions. To these ends management has the right and duty 
to select, allocate, transfer, promote, demote, discipline and 
dismiss employees. It should be so anxious, however, to 
ensure the fairness of its policies in these matters that it 
should stand ready at all times to discuss them with, and 
have them challenged by, the employees. It should stand 
ready to modify the policy announced in so far as the sug- 
gested changes do not hamper the responsible executives 
in the discharge of their proper functions. But the final 
responsibility must rest with management, and manage- 
ment must resist any encroachment upan its prerogatives. 
Similarly the employees should have complete freedom 
within their own sphere — for example, to join or not to 
join any labor organization as they choose. Democracy in 
industry means that each of the parties stands on its own 
ground, maintaining its own rights and performing its own 
duties in a spirit of mutual respect and co-operation for 
the success of the business upon which the welfare of each 
is dependent. Especially in these times the industrial rela- 
tions executive will do well to have this definition of his 
field of activity constantly in mind. 

The Day-to-Day Duties of the Industrial 
Relations Executive 

Having dealt with the long-term objectives of the indus- 
trial relations executive, we may now turn to his day-to-day 
activities. At the outset he must assist the management in 
the formulation of an industrial relations programme and 
in the development of the techniques involved, and must 
supervise the application of the policy throughout the busi- 
ness. The need for a written statement of industrial rela- 
tions policy for every management available to all employees 
cannot be over-emphasized, nor can the industrial relations 
executive work effectively in the absence of such a policy. 
One may express the conviction that no industrial relations 
man worth his salt will accept a position with a company 
unless the management is willing to formulate its labour 
policy and reduce it to writing. 

Nor, of course, should the executive identify himself with 
the company unless he believes that the policy is fair and 
workable in the circumstances of the enterprise. Not a few 
industrial relations men have accepted new positions during 
the war period only to resign a few months later. They 
have found the managements according to their own state- 
ments too busy with production to develop an industrial 
relations programme. Such managements think, appar- 
ently, that the executive should be an opportunist and 
deal with cases individually. They refuse to be bothered 
with the establishment of a grievance procedure, for ex- 
ample, but they would not operate any other department 
of the business on such a hit-or-miss basis. The industrial 
relations executive joining a new company should make 
sure that it has a labour policy with which he is in accord, 
that the management is keen for its fullest application and 
will support him to that end. 

In its practical managerial aspects industrial relations 
has been defined for the Scribner's Dictionary of American 
History by Mr. C. J. Hicks, chairman of the board of 
Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc., as follows: 

Industrial relations, as the term is commonly under- 
stood in the United States, is concerned primarily with 
the position of the worker in relation to his employer 
and includes whatever is involved in the employee's selec- 
tion for and relation to his job. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



123 



The term industrial relations as distinguished from 
welfare work has grown to include all contacts between 
labour and all grades of management, connected with or 
growing out of employment. Specifically it covers items 
usually classified as personnel work, such as recruiting, 
hiring, placement, transfer, training, discipline, promo- 
tion, layoff, and termination of employees, together with 
proper service records; also all of the financial relation- 
ships such as wages and salaries, overtime rates, bonuses 
and profit sharing, savings and thrift and stock plans; 
also education, health, safety and sanitation, recreation, 
housing and employees' service activities; hours of labour 
and other working conditions, including days of rest and 
vacations; reasonable provision to help meet the common 
economic hazards involved in temporary or total unem- 
ployment, sickness, accident, old age, disability and death ; 
also methods used to adjust differences and to promote 
co-operation between employees and management. 

Many of these items have been gradually covered by 
state and federal legislation, starting with sanitation, 
accident compensation and safety measures, later dealing 
with child labour, hours and minimum wages especially 
for women and minors and more recently extended to 
include federal legislation on hours and wages. 

The dictionary article just referred to contains the fol- 
lowing statement concerning the industrial relations ex- 
ecutive: 

Personnel work, which was at first a mere incident in 
the day's work of the foreman or superintendent, has 
gradually been broadened into an industrial relations pro- 
gramme with increasing emphasis on standardization. The 
responsibility for developing a uniform company policy 
and practice as to all industrial relations activities in the 
individual company is increasingly being placed in the 
hands of an industrial relations executive, with the rank 
of vice-president or responsible to some high official of 
the company, and having a staff relation to those directly 
responsible for both employee relations and production. 

A number of important factors must be considered in 
planning the organization for industrial relations adminis- 
tration in a company: 

1 . The plan of organization must be related to the size 
and character of the business. 

2. The head of the industrial relations department should 
report to the chief executive of the company. 

3. The industrial relations head should have a staff rela- 
tionship to the line executives and respect their final 
authority and responsibility. 

4. Line executives should consult the industrial relations 
department in their interpretation and application of the 
company's industrial relations policy. 

5. The industrial relations department should supervise 
the administration of the company's industrial relations 
policies and should interpret the viewpoint of employees 
to the management. 

It was stated above that the industrial relations executive 
should make certain that the management he serves has 
proven its interest in his field of work by the formulation 
of a written industrial relations policy. The role of such an 
executive in a business may be elucidated by the following 
brief outline of the essentials of an industrial relations 
programme. 

1. An organization plan, accompanied by a full and de- 
tailed explanation, that clearly defines departmental func- 
tions and relationships, channels of communication and 
the respective authority and responsibility of line super- 
visors. 

2. The persistent application of the consultative method 
of administration whereby, through thedine organization, 
supervisors and employees participate in the formulation 
of policies and decisions vitally affecting their interests. 



3. The formulation, reduction to writing and announce- 
ment to the whole organization of a definite company policy 
with respect to personnel relations, so that everyone knows 
the rules under which the game is being played. 

4. The assignment of responsibility for directing admin- 
istration of the labour policy and for advising management 
regarding industrial relations to a staff officer who reports 
directly to the chief executive of the company. 

5. Recognition of the line responsibility of supervisors 
toward their own personnel and delegation of adequate 
authority to them for the execution of this responsibility. 

6. A training programme that will assure the sincere and 
fair interpretation of the company's labour policy by the 
supervisory force. 

7. Payment of the prevailing rates of wages, establish- 
ment of wage differentials or methods of compensation that 
reflect differences in relative responsibilities, skills and per- 
formance, and assurance of the effective administration of 
this system by the periodic review of individual earnings. 

8. A procedure for the consideration and review of griev- 
ances that provides channels of appeal to the highest ex- 
ecutive of the company for the correction of injustice to 
the individual employee. 

9. A persistent effort, through research, planning and 
co-ordination, based upon adequate personnel records, to 
assign each employee to the job for which he is best fitted 
and to increase stability of employment. 

10. Recognition of the social obligations and economic 
value of providing safeguards against the major hazards 
of industrial employment such as disability, superannuation 
and unemployment. 

The Industrial Relations Executive 
as a Staff Official 

Industrial relations executives too often err by assuming 
line functions, a step which usually results in conflict and 
weakens them in the discharge of their proper duties. It- 
may be well, therefore, to give further attention to indus- 
trial relations as a staff function. This conception of in- 
dustrial relations is predicated upon the ultimate respon- 
sibility of the line executives of the company for direction 
of the labour policies as well as the financial, sales and 
operating phases of the business. Within the limits of his 
authority, each member of the executive organization — 
from the president, vice-presidents and department man- 
agers down to the district or plant managers, superintend- 
ents and foremen — shares the responsibility for personnel 
relations. If responsibility for action and results is to be 
definite and fixed in an organization, there can be no division 
or delegation of this responsibility. The authority of each 
executive must of necessity be commensurate with the re- 
sponsibility conferred upon him and cannot be divided. 

The modern industrial relations department in large bus- 
iness organizations has originated out of the need on the 
part of chief executives for assistance in carrying on the 
responsibility for personnel relations. The provision of a 
special assistant does not alter the fact that the chief execu- 
tives still carry the responsibility and must make the 
decisions. This is true not only in the field of employee 
relations, but in engineering, research and other phases of 
the business. 

The head of the industrial relations department is, there- 
fore, a staff assistant, directly responsible to the president, 
advising and aiding management in the formulation and 
administration of policies affecting employees. In co-opera- 
tion with the operating staff his duties involve the co-or- 
dination of personnel activities, the development of efficient 
procedures and their uniform application so far as prac- 
ticable throughout the company. It is also the function of 
the industrial relations director to assist in bringing to top 
management the viewpoint of the employees so that, in 



124 



March, 1913 THE ENGINEERING JOURNVL 



the development and application of personnel policies, their 
suggestions and ideas may be given due consideration and 
their interests may be adequately represented. 

It should be clearly understood that the fact that there 
is a staff assistant to give direction and help to the manage- 
ment with respect to employee relations involves no de- 
parture from the established policy of supervisory authority 
and responsibility for these matters. The execution of per- 
sonnel policies and the maintenance of co-operative em- 
ployee relations must continue to be one of the primary 
duties of each department head, plant manager and 
supervisor. 

Though the industrial relations department must recog- 
nize and respect the final authority of the department ex- 
ecutives, there is a corresponding and equally binding obli- 
gation upon the department executives to recognize the 
position of the industrial relations department and to co- 
operate with it in the closest possible manner. Foremen, 
superintendents and plant executives are responsible for 
keeping the industrial relations staff currently and promptly 
informed of all developments in personnel and labour and 
for consulting and advising with them before making vital 
decisions on these matters. Department and top executives 
are committed to consulting with the department in the 
formulation of policies and major decisions respecting any 
matters affecting employees. It should be borne in mind 
that the authority of line executives and particularly of de- 
partment managers is final or absolute in matters of per- 
sonnel and labour policy only within the bounds of general 
policies which have been laid down by the company, and 
that the formulation, interpretation and supervision of these 
policies is a major function of the industrial relations direc- 
tor. In a real sense, therefore, responsibility for the admin- 
istration of the labour policies of the company is shared 
between the line organization and the members of the 
industrial relations department. 

Securing Compliance with Industrial 
Relations Policy 

The major responsibility of the industrial relations 
director and his staff throughout the organization is to see 
that the labour policies of the company are adhered to by 
the operating managements in their handling of personnel 
and labour matters. In most cases differences of opinion 
are avoided when executives and operating managers con- 
sult in advance with the industrial relations department. 
However, in case of inability to agree as to the proper 
course or where the personnel representative thinks that 
the policy of the company is being disregarded or violated, 
it is his duty to make his protest first to the foreman, 
superintendent or plant manager concerned and, failing to 
secure a correct decision, to take up the matter with the 
chief executive of the unit affected. 

The director, while not in a position to order compliance 
from subordinate line executives, does have the right of 
access to the chief executive officers of the company from 
whom in most cases it is possible to get a decision directing 
that the proper action be taken by the subordinate execu- 
tives. As a matter of fairness and co-operation, the industrial 
relations director, having a problem in any department, 
will first discuss it with the executive head concerned and 
then take it to the higher executives. 

With the right kind of co-operation from the line organ- 
ization, the headquarters industrial relations department 
would be currently informed as to the compliance of field 
managements with company policies respecting wages, hours 
and working conditions, either on the initiative of the 
department managers concerned or through the medium 
of personnel, hour and wage reports. In actual practice, 
however, it is found that strong and active employee organ- 
izations are of tremendous assistance to both department 
managements and the employee relations officers in seeing 



that the day-to-day transactions in the field are in harmony 
with the wishes of the company as expressed in their written 
labour policies and departmental working regulations. Like- 
wise, through the medium of periodic conference with the 
field staff personnel men, the director of industrial relations 
has an opportunity to keep informed as to the working of 
the various labour policies in all departments of the 
organization. 

Industrial Relations in Large 
and Small Companies 

As between large and small companies the plan or organ- 
ization for industrial relations will differ. The number of 
persons on the industrial relations staff depends on many 
factors besides the total number of employees. One 
business has widely scattered units operating under a 
variety of conditions, and a considerable field personnel 
staff may be required. Another operates entirely in one 
locality. One firm will -have an ambitious programme of 
broad scope while another more cautious and perhaps not 
so prosperous will have fewer activities. Accordingly, the 
industrial relations staff may comprise any number of per- 
sons — from one man and a stenographer to ten or twelve 
individuals (director, employment manager, training super- 
visor, safety engineer, supervisor of benefits, doctor, nurses 
and a few clerks); and in companies of considerable size 
and activity in the field there may be as many as sixty staff 
members, not including the clerical force. 

Two considerations are important. First, no company is 
so small that it can safely disregard industrial relations. 
The small concern may at least centralize responsibility 
for these functions on a part-time basis in one executive. 
Second, the industrial relations staff should exemplify a 
spirit of fairness and co-operation, of willingness to recognize 
and promote the employee's legitimate interests, combined 
with initiative and fearlessness in urging required steps upon 
the management. This is more important than any particular 
plan of organization. 

Conclusion 

The executive in charge of industrial relations in a com- 
pany that has just begun organized activity in the field 
will do well to proceed slowly and to develop his depart- 
ment gradually. He should, however, envisage a complete 
industrial relations programme for his company and should 
be quick to take advantage of opportunity to introduce new 
phases of the programme. He must keep in mind that, 
with the broadening down of democracy in industry, con- 
cessions will be made and that employee good-will is 
to be expected from the voluntary action of manage- 
ment, not from grudging compliance with compulsory 
requirements. 

It seems quite safe to assure industrial relations execu- 
tives that a great future lies ahead of them. During the 
war many firms with a few hundred employees have in- 
creased their forces into the thousands. Of necessity they 
have had greater regard for industrial relations and the 
consequent demand for qualified industrial relations execu- 
tives cannot be satisfied. It may be predicted that most 
of these managements will retain this newly acquired in- 
terest in this increasingly important field of company man- 
agement. They will want the assistance of industrial rela- 
tions specialists in the vastly different problems of the post- 
war years. There will be difficulty in finding and developing 
the men. The greatest need at the moment is more adequate 
professional training in the field and the provision of some 
kind of internship for the student. But that is a subject in 
itself. Surely with governments providing instruction in 
industrial relations and with a life-long trade unionist like 
Ernest Bevin proclaiming the importance of this depart- 
ment of business management there can be no doubt of 
its opportunity for greater service to management, to 
employees and the nation. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



125 



A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF 
EMPLOYEE RELATIONS 

MORRIS S. VITELES 

Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Director of Personnel Research and Training, 
Philadelphia Electric Company, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 



According to one school of historians, the essentially sig- 
nificant details of an era are to be found not in the records 
of its great battles and great reforms, or in the approved, 
formal biographies of its military and political leaders, but 
in the plays, the essays, the dramas, the novels and in the 
words-of-mouth stories — yes, even the bawdy ones — told 
during the period. 

While perhaps not agreeing fully with this major em- 
phasis upon literature and conversation as a source of his- 
torical material, I am in sympathy with the viewpoint that 
much concerning the actual role o'f a person or an event 
or a movement is to be found in the stories about each 
which appeal to the man on the street. For this reason, as 
an industrial psychologist, I find something of interest and 
significance in the comments on psychology and psycholo- 
gists appearing in a series of articles, originally published 
in Punch, and later brought together in a book entitled 
"How to Run a Bassoon Factory," with the subtitle 
"Business Explained." 

The Business Man Looks at the Psychologist 

The author of this book points out that: "A hundred 
years ago our fathers had to manage without psychologies 
at all. Even thirty years ago they were the privilege of a 
very few. But nowadays with our cheap methods of pro- 
duction they are to be found in every home." 

Addressing himself specifically to the business man, the 
author goes on to say: "As a modern business man, it is 
most important for you to realize that your workers want 
psychologies of their own and to see that they get really 
first-class chromium-plated ones, with cavity walls. That 
was why, somewhat earlier on, I placed a psychologist high 
on the list of Experts You Can't Do Without. It is essential 
to have a man in the place whose expert knowledge tells 
him that workers are Human Beings, Not Machines. The 
old chap with whiskers who glues the bits of kid on the 
bassoon keys — he isn't a machine — really he isn't. So don't 
let your maintenance engineer oil him, and don't think if 
he breaks down you can just fit a spare part. He is like 
the author of Pagliacci — 'a man with a heart like you' — 
and he can probably be depended upon to keep himself 
well-oiled. So just keep him bright and healthy, change his 
water everv dav, and have a psvchologist deal with his 
soul." 1 

I recall that my first reaction upon reading the material 
cited was one of resentment at what appeared to be an 
attack upon the dignity of psychology and of the profes- 
sional psychologist. However, I was quick to recognize that, 
in fact, this bit of satire gives a fairly close approximation 
of what the ordinary, practical business man frequently 
thinks of psychology and of the psychologist. Beneath this 
good-natured jibing lies a keen appreciation of the essential 
skepticism concerning the use of psychological methods 
which has seriously hampered the extension of psychological 
research and practice in industry and business. 

Psychology and Magic 

As the years have gone by, I have come more and more 
to the opinion that such skepticism represents an essentially 
healthy condition, to the extent that it forces the profes- 
sional psychologist to work within a sound pattern of real 
accomplishment in preparing the tools and techniques which 

1 Spade, Mark: How to Run a Bassoon Factory, or Business 
Explained. London, Hamish Hamilton, 1934, pp. 54-57-58. 



he brings to the aid of business. As a matter of fact, such 
skepticism is to be preferred to the equally common belief 
that the psychologist has some mysterious power to pene- 
trate the secrets of the individual's occupational abilities 
through the use of magic formulae which makes it unneces- 
sary to expend time, effort and money in order to get 
results. 

Actually the psychologist has no such mysterious 
power. He simply applies to the everyday problems of per- 
sonnel in industry the more or less humdrum principles 
and practices, which characterize the scientific approach. 
For example, industry has discovered that it is highly im- 
portant to select for each job those workers who are par- 
ticularly qualified to handle it. This is necessary because 
the production cost per unit may be two or three times as 
high with the less competent than with the more competent 
workers. The intimate relationship between vocational ad- 
justment and the mental hygiene of the worker represents 
a second reason for giving improved selection an important 
place in the industrial relations programme. Problems 
arising when management deals with labour furnish a third 
and equally realistic reason for continued emphasis upon 
the quality of initial selection. Contracts and also less 
formal agreements with labour frequently call for the 
reinstatement on a seniority basis, regardless of perfor- 
mance, of employees laid off for lack of work. Under 
such conditions, mistakes made in selection are not easily 
corrected. Experience also shows that among the most 
troublesome of grievances are those involving the discharge 
of an employee because of "unfitness." In such cases man- 
agement ordinarily finds little sympathy on the part of 
labour for its plea that the worker is incompetent. "That." 
says labour, "is a matter which should have been settled 
prior to employment." And whether or not this stand is 
justified — and I am of the opinion that it frequently is — 
the issue is one which contributes to misunderstanding 
and strife. 

The Scientific Approach in Selecting 
Qualified Workers 

It is for such reasons that selection of qualified workers 
occupies a prominent place in applying science to solving 
the problems of employee relations. The essential feature 
of the scientific approach in selecting workers is merely the 
application to the selection of the testing apparatus of the 
same rigorous techniques as are applied by the engineer h. the 
selection of equipment required for the industrial plant. In 
choosing such equipment, the engineer starts by analysing 
the situation; then writes specifications on the basis of his 
study; designs the equipment; estimates the cost, and pro- 
ceeds finally to test the finished equipment under operating 
conditions before it is finally accepted and appro ved for 
use. Similar measures must be taken in the development 
of scientific techniques for use in picking the right worker 
for the job. The job must be analysed and specifications 
written to describe the kind of worker that is needed. 
Appropriate equipment is then designed to determine 
whether a man meets the specifications, but this is not 
finally accepted or approved for use until its effectiveness 
has been examined under operating conditions and in 
relation to the cost of replacing and training personnel. 

The Selection of Electric Substation Operations 

The methods employed in the development of improved 
methods for selecting workers, and the results achieved, can 



126 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



be illustrated by reference to the experience of the Phila- 
delphia Electric Company in the selection of electric sub- 
station operators 2 . The management of this system rightly 
prides itself on the care exercised in the selection of mechan- 
ical equipment. In spite of the quality of mechanical equip- 
ment there was an average of 36 operating errors per year 
chargeable to the 140 electric substation operators employed 
on the system, when, in 1927 the author undertook an 
investigation of substation personnel*. These errors, it is 
well to note, were made by operators selected, with more 
than the usual concern exhibited by electric utilities in the 
selection of workers, by a well-organized, centralized per- 
sonnel department which carefully interviewed applicants, 
reviewed their application blanks, obtained references, and 
applied other traditional techniques of the employment 
office in determining fitness for work. 

The continued occurrence of operating errors, in spite 
of the relatively advanced methods of selection, awakened 
the suspicion that, in part at least, they might be due to 
the character of the men who had been hired for the job. 
This suspicion seemed particularly pertinent because, in 
spite of the similarities of training and experience, certain 
operators were involved in a number of errors, while others, 
working under exactly the same conditions, managed to 
proceed year after year without an operating error. As a 
matter of fact, an analysis showed that in an experimental 
group of 84 operators who had been in service for not less 
than one and not more than ten years, the average oper- 
ators averaged three times as many errors as the best; 
the poorest operators averaged 7.5 times as many errors 
as the best; the poorest operators averaged 2.5 times as 
many errors as the average. 

The chief purpose of the study was to develop psycho- 
logical tests for use in measuring the underlying predispo- 
sition to error that appeared to be so conspicuously present 
in the poorest group and absent in the best group of 
operators. Tests were selected on the basis of a careful 
analysis of the job to determine the characteristics of the 
accurate and safe as contrasted with the inaccurate and 
unsafe operators. 

The tests finally chosen for use in measuring the mental 
abilities and temperamental traits necessary for safe and 
accurate switching included three series. The test in Series 
A and B are used to measure qualities required for accurate 
switching under normal operating conditions. Series C in- 
cludes one test, known as the Switching Control Test, for 
measuring adaptability under emergency conditions. It is 
essentially a fear-reaction test which allows an opportunity 
for observing and recording changes in accuracy of response 
under extremeh r disturbing conditions of electric flashovers, 
noise, smoke, etc. 

As a preliminary to using these tests in the selection of 
substation operators a study was made of the test scores 
best, average, and poorest operators in the experimental 
group. The results of this comparison, in so far as Series A 
and B are concerned, are presented, in part, in Chart A. The 
average score of the poorest group is shown to be 27.9 
points below that of the best group and 15.7 points below 
that of the average group. The average score of the latter 
group is also 12.2 points below that of the best. 

A further analysis of test scores showed 75.0 to be the 
critical score in distinguishing between satisfactory and 



2 Viteles, M.S., The Science of Work, W. W. Norton, New York, 
1934, Chapter 6. 

* This investigation was formulated with the co-operation of the 
supervisory staff of the Station Operating Department, in particular 
through the interest of N. E. Funk, now Vice-President in charge of 
Engineering, Philadelphia Electric Co., C. C. Baltzly, General Super- 
intendent. Station Operating Division, and of the late E. O. Mac- 
Ferran, Superintendent of Substations. In general, the development 
of improved selection procedures described in this paper have involved 
the active co-operation of operating personnel from the various depart- 
ments of the Philadelphia Electric Company. 

** From a report by R. M. Pennybacker, Superintendent, Substation 
Section, Station Operating Division. 



unsatisfactory operators, and therefore the one to be used 
as a minimum "passing score." In Chart B is presented a 
comparison of substation operators reaching this score with 
those who fail to do so. The percentage of best operators 
with the passing score is double that of average operators 
and aboutten times thatof poorest operators. Itis important 
to note that only 7.7 per cent of the poorest operators would 
have been hired had they been tested prior to employment, 
whereas 70.6 per cent of the best operators would have 
been employed. This is of particular significance when the 
difference between the two groups in number of operating 
errors is recalled. Moreover the average number of errors 
of operators who made less than the passing score of 75 
proved to be over twice that of men who passed. 

Such facts show clearly that scores on Series A and B 
differentiate substation operators with respect to predis- 



CCTJAtoA?/SOrt O^A\/f/SAG£~ TOTAL T/TST SCO/F/TS A/Y0 Al/CfAG/T 

f*e/?C"? ^>F^T7Arr (j-/)rr./,/9.e6 T0SfPT.30,;<>23) o° 8-* 






AV£fAT,â~ TFSTSCO^F 





Chart A 

position to error in switching. These figures, and numerous 
others of the same kind gathered by checking other groups, 
including newly hired assistant substation operators, demon- 
strated the desirability of using the tests in determining 
fitness for substation operation. The tests were put into 
operation in the selection of assistant electric substation 
operators on April 1, 1928. In addition, substation operators 
who had not been included in the experimental group were 
examined and the practice established of reassigning oper- 
ators in service as well as placing new employees on the 
basis of test scores. So, for example, operators for newer 
and bigger stations were chosen largely on the basis of test 
score. On the same basis, operators with low test score and 
unsatisfactory working records have been reassigned to the 
smaller stations. 

The net result has been the marked decrease in operating 
errors, shown in Chart C, which started immediately after 
the first changes on the basis of test scores were made, 
and has continued in spite of increasing load on the 
system**. It is also interesting to note that operators with 
low test scores who have been retained in the service have 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



127 



added errors to their records at a rate above that of oper- 
ators with higher test scores. 

Other Illustrations of the Use of Psychological 
Methods in Selecting Workers 

Such results have been obtained wherever a conscientious 
effort has been made to develop improved selection tech- 
niques on a sound scientific basis. The Scovill Manufacturing 
Company, for example, reports a marked decrease in the 
percentage of unsatisfactory apprentices as the result of 
the use of well-standardized tests in selection. The Scovill 
Testing Programme was started late in 1923. Following an 
extended period of research, tests were introduced in 1926 
in hiring metal trade apprentices. "The percentage of un- 
satisfactory apprentices, which had hovered around 40 per 
cent for the previous five years, dropped to 17 per cent 
(Table I). In 1930, after a similar study of additional tests, 
two more were added to the battery, and the percentage 



CrtAFT B 

4n/)i vj/s or o4 on?*?AToies "r fx/=>fje/rtcrr tal croof* i<//r/-/ scores 
ABovf Ar/£> eeioiv roT/u. resr score ce 7Sûû(rAss/fC scorsl 

TOTAl TCSr SCOPES Bf/Ov 7S00 
'2 OPFJ. 



rarAi rfsr scours 7soo cPA&n/e 



ersr 

70.6%, 




rtom'j. 





Chart B 

of unsatisfactory apprentices dropped to about 8 per cent. 
The foremen who rated the apprentices on their progress 
and skill in mechanical work never knew the test scores. 
Not only was there a sharp decrease in the number of 
unsatisfactory apprentices with each change, but the un- 
satisfactory apprentices were more readily dropped by the 
foreman, instead of being carried along to fail ultimately, 
when the foreman realized that they could be replaced by 
better boys." 3 

In the ten years subsequent to 1930 new and higher re- 
quirements for potential development of tz-ainees beyond 

3 Pond, M., "Experience with Tests in the Scovill Mfg. Co.", in 
National Industrial Conference Board Report. Studies in Personnel 
Policy, No. 32, New York, 1941, p. 45. 

4 Tests, Puzzles, Aid in Selecting War Workers, Factory Manage- 
ment and Maintenance, July, 1942, pp. 220-221. 

5 Russell, W. V., & G. V. Cope, A Method of Rating the History 
and Achievements of Applicants, Pub. Pers. Studies, 1925, 3, 202-19. 

* With the assistance of the staff of the Life Insurance Sales Research 
Bureau. 

6 Selecting, Successful Salesmen, The Phoenix Life Insurance Com- 
pany, Hartford, Conn., 1937. 21 pp. 

7 Viteles, M. S., Industrial Phvchologv, W. W. Norton Co., New 
York, 1932, pp. 183 ff. 



the original goals were set, the number of apprentices trained 
currently increased, etc. Nevertheless, the percentage of 
failure is still about 8 per cent. This fact is attributed to 
an enriched interview technique. In other words, in the 
Scovill works, as in many other plants, experience has 
brought convincing evidence of the value of psychological 
methods for employment, and also of the practical advis- 
ability of selecting tests and setting the passing marks on 
the basis of adequate preliminary research. 

In adding to its personnel for war the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company is using tests selected 
on the basis of many years' experience in devising methods 
of fitting each worker exactly to the task where require- 
ments, talents, and temperament match. Since extremely 
high standards are set in selection, only 18 per cent of the 
10,000 applicants considered since 1937 have passed the 
tests, but only one per cent of applicants enrolled have 
failed to make good as skilled workmen. 4 

Similar achievement in improved production, in reduced 
turnover, in increased sales have been reported both in the 
United States and abroad. Life insurance firms, for example, 
have found psychological methods extremely useful in select- 
ing salesmen. It is interesting to note that in this instance 
tests, as such, prove to be of little value. However, a pains- 
taking analysis of biographical data has revealed that it is 
possible to use specific items of information obtained from 
an application blank or a general information blank, such 
as age, marital status, number of dependents, etc., in selecting 
those men who are most qualified for the job of selling. 

The Use of Application Blank Data 

The value of this method in selecting life insurance sales- 
men was demonstrated fifteen years ago in the exeperience 
of the Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company. This com- 
pany found that the use of a score obtained by weighting 
1 1 biographical items, was followed by a marked increase 
in sales and in the stability of those employed. 5 In 1919, 
56 out of every 100 salesmen employed failed to last out 
the first year. In 1921-22, when the new plan was fairly 
operating, only 42 out of every 100 salesmen failed to remain 
one year. Between 1922 and 1925, this figure had been fur- 
ther reduced to 30 out of every 100. Moreover, whereas in 
1912 the Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company emploved 
1,700 salesmen to sell insurance to the value of $20,500,000, 
in 1923, under the new plan, 375 salesmen had sold insurance 
to the value of $52,000,000. The same company has within 
the past few years reviewed the experience of all salesmen* 
who were under contract in regular agencies from 1927 to 
1935 and has developed a promising revision of the original 
scoring methods applying to various age levels. 6 

While the method of using especially selected personal 
items has found its widest application in the selection of 
life insurance salesmen, productive results have been ob- 
tained in hiring other kinds of salesmen. So, for example, 
in a study made by the writer in the taxicab industry, it 
was found that a "good earner" could be differentiated from 
a "poor earner" prior to employment on the basis of such 
personal history items. 7 This device is also finding wide 
application in connection with the war effort, particularly 
in the selection of aircraft pilots. 

In passing, it is interesting to note that there has been a 
tremendous expansion in the use of psychological tests and 
allied techniques by the armed forces of the L T nited States 
and of other countries during the present conflict. It is 
generally known that such procedures are being used in 
preliminary screening of all recruits in the American Army 
and Navy as an aid to assignment for training. More im- 
portant still, wide use is being made of tests and other 
psychological techniques in measuring aptitudes necessary 
for the operation of the highly complex machine which 
characterizes modern warfare. Engineers working for the 
military services have discovered, for example, that it is 
not enough to devise mechanisms designed to bring con- 
fusion upon the enemy. Such instruments have no value 



128 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOl RNAL 



Table I 
PROGRESSIVE VALUE OF SELECTION 



Dates 
Hired 




Number 


Number 


Percent 




Group 


Hired 


Satis- 


Satis- 


Remarks 






factory 


factory 




1-1-20 


I 


57 


36 


63 


Selected by inter- 


to 


II 


50 


28 


56 


view only. 


8-31-26 


III 


56 


35 


63 






Total 


163 


99 


61 




Yearly 


IV 


40 


36 


90 


Selected by inter- 


Groups 


V 


44 


33 


75 


view and the Sco- 


9-1-26 to 


VI 


35 


32 


91 


vill Classification 


8-31-30 


VII 


36 


28 


78 


Test. 




Total 


155 


129 


83 




Yearly 


VIII 


13 


11 


85 


Selected by inter- 


Groups 


IX 


1 


1 


100 


view, Scovill Clas- 


9-1-30 


X 


3 


3 


100 


sification, Mac- 


to 


XI 


12 


12 


100 


Quarrie and 


6-1-37 


XII 


21 


19 


90 


Wiggly Block 




XIII 


32 


28 


83 


Tests. 




XIV 


65 


62 


95 






Total 


147 


136 


93 





From: Millicent Pond, "Experience with Tests in The Scovill 
Manufacturing Company," National Industrial Conference Board 
Report "Studies in Personnel Policy, No. 32," March 11, 1941, p. 45. 

unless they are handled by qualified men, and the selection 
of such qualified men has been accomplished through the 
application of the methods referred to in this paper, which 
have been successfully applied in industry. Unfortunately, 
it is not possible to speak at this time about the results 
which have been obtained in the military services. 

In considering such results, as well as those reported 
for industry, it is to be noted again that they are obtained 
not by guesswork, but through a careful, painstaking, ob- 
jective check and recheck of the value of the psychological 
apparatus and methods in relation to men's performance 
on the job. Only under such conditions can tests of other 
psychological techniques serve a useful purpose in increasing 
the probability of obtaining qualified personnel for various 
industrial, and also military tasks. 

The Concept of "Probability" in 
Scientific Selection 

The term "probability" is used advisedly because the 
psychologist, as other scientists, deals largely with prob- 
abilities and not with certainty. In all scientific fields there 
are only few generalizations which give the same certainty 
of prediction as the law of gravity. This limitation applies 
with special force to psychological generalizations, particu- 
larly as they refer to the prediction of individual perform- 
ance in specific work situations. However, on the basis of 
adequate statistical treatment it is possible to make accurate 
predictions as to the characteristics of a group hired through 
the application of improved psychological methods. 

The situation is analogous to that found in the field of 
vital statistics. The actuarial statistician can predict, for 
example, the number of deaths, the number of cases of 
pneumonia and of measles which will occur in a given period 
among men 30, 40, 50 and 60 years of age, respectively. 
In the same way, the psychologist can predict how many 
"good" workers, how many "average" workers and how 
many "poor" workers there will be among men with scores, 

8 Furnas, J. C, Major Miracle, Ladies Home Journal, October, 1939. 
(Quoted from Palmerston, L. R., Psychological Tests in Industry and 
Education, Pers. J., 1941, 19, 325 ff. 

* In a paper to be published in a series of reports prepared for the 
Civil Aeronautics Administration by the National Research Council 
Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots. 

9 Viteles, M. S., The Role of Industrial Psychology in Defending 
the Future of America, Annals of the American Academy of Political 
and Social Science, July, 1941, pp. 156-62. 



let us say, of 60, 70 and 80, respectively, on a well stand- 
ardized battery of psychological tests. 

On the basis of preliminary experimentation a doctor 
may be able to tell his patient that his chances of surviving 
an operation are 98 in 100 or he may predict a pneumonia 
patient's chances ôf recovery are perhaps 95 out of 100 
if sulfanilamide is administered, whereas they would be 
75 out of 100 without the drug. 8 In the same way, if the 
psychological selection method has been suitably stand- 
ardized it is possible to say that an applicant with a score, 
let us say, of 60, has a 75 per cent chance of meeting existing 
production standards, whereas one with a score of 45 has 
only a 30 per cent chance of meeting the same production 
standards. In addition, it is possible and necessary, when 
applying scientific methods in selecting workers, to indicate 
the extent to which the selectivity of the tests is better 
both than that of methods already in use or better than a 
chance method of choosing workers for a specified job. 

These may sound like abstract concepts, but just such 
data are needed and are obtained by the competent psycho- 
logist in order to determine whether it is economical to use 
the test battery; whether the selectivity of the test justifies 
the cost of administration. There are also procedures for 
determining objectively how to make best use of the reser- 
voir of available labour. The larger the reservoir, the higher 
the test score can be set. Conversely, if the reservoir is 
small, the test score must be lowered. As has been pointed 
out in a recent analysis by Professor H. M. Johnson*, of 
Tulane University, this is a practical issue which can be 
simply met by a series of tables from which can be deter- 
mined the number of applicants required to obtain 100 
employees at various levels of working proficiency. 

In Summary 

It is possible that this section of the paper has been 
extended to the point of boredom, but there seems merit 
in presenting this material in detail to indicate the scientific 
character of the psychological approach and to show the 
advantages which can be achieved through a scientific 
approach to the selection of workers. In the future, as 
in the past, the development of scientific techniques for 
the selection of workers will continue to represent a pro- 
ductive approval in solving the human problems of industry. 
Because of the wide differences in suitability for varied jobs 
which characterize members of the human race, the selection 
of qualified workers represents an important basis for main- 
taining employee relations while increasing the capacity 
of industry to meet the economic demands imposed upon it 
and upon an advancing civilization. 9 

Strengthening the Will-to-Work 

As is apparent from the above discussion, the develop- 
ment and validation of techniques for hiring workers rep- 
resents one of the major applications of psychology in 
industry. Considerable progress has also been made in im- 
proving the training programme through a scientific ap- 
proach to the problems of training. However, no matter 
how well they are selected, or how well they are trained, 
employees cannot attain maximum efficiency unless they 
demonstrate the will-to-work on the daily job. The develop- 
ment of this will-to- work is one of the major problems in 
the present employees relations situation. An outstanding 
practical problem in industry to-day is to find ways of stim- 
ulating the inclination to work; and, at the same time, to 
further the development of job satisfaction and of the loy- 
alties which lead workers to co-operate fully to keep the 
organization working smoothly. 

The Inadequacy of Financial Incentives 

Perhaps one defect in the industrial situation lies in the 
dependence placed upon wages and wage incentive plans 
in arousing the will-to-work. There are, of course, very good 
grounds for the belief that appropriate wage rates and in- 
centive wage payment plans, properly devised and adminis- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



129 



tered, are of great importance in improving performance 
on the job and in stimulating favourable employee atti- 
tudes. The average worker wants a better home, a choicer 
variety of foods, a bigger and better automobile, a finer 
radio — more and more of the good things in life which can 
be procured in increasing amounts as wages increase. Even 
the Bolsheviks, setting out with the theoretical communistic 
ideal of sharing everything equally, were quickly forced to 
come back to wage-incentive plans as a means of stimulating 
individual workers to reach the maximum levels of pro- 
ductive efficiency. However, the fact which has been over- 
looked is that pay, and material satisfactions which can 
be purchased with it, represent but one factor in arousing 
job satisfaction and in inducing employee co-operation. 

At all occupational levels, factors other than wages play 
an important part in stimulating production, in creating 



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Chart C — Comparison of substation operating errors and kilo- 
watt-hour output, Philadelphia Electric Company. 

satisfaction, and in building morale among workers. The 
nature of the evidence leading to such conclusion is illus- 
trated in a study by English investigators of the relative 
output, in successive weeks, on different work processes, 
under three systems of wage payment. 10 The order of 
worker preference for the operations, determined through 
controlled interviews with workers, proved to be: wrapping 
— 1; packing — 2; weighing and wrapping — 3; weighing — 4; 
unwrapping — 5. The findings of the study clearly show 
that the effect of each wage incentive plan is most 
marked in tasks which arouse the more favourable feeling 
tones, and is completely absent in the least preferred pro- 
cesses. In the most popular operation (wrapping), rate of 
output was almost trebled by the end of the experiment, 
while production on the least popular operation (unwrap- 
ping), which involved very similar movements, but which 
appeared to be futile to the workers," showed no improve- 
ment. 

Both experimental studies and everyday observation of 
the plan brings growing realization that "pay" in itself is 
but one factor, and frequently a minor one, in arousing 
satisfaction and in inducing employee co-operation. One 

10 Wyatt, S., Frost L., and Stock, F. G. L., Incentives in Repetitive 
Work, Ind. Health Res. Bd. Report— No. 69, London, H. M. Stationery 
Office, 1934, 65 pp. 

11 Hoppock, R., Job Satisfaction,. Harper and Bros., New York, 
1935, pp. 29-30. 

12 Evans, J. J. Jr., Supervisor Conduct Attitude Survey, Personnel, 
1940, 17, pp. 142. 



investigator in the field of job-satisfaction, for example, tells 
of an express deliveryman who, when asked to recount the 
things he liked most about his job, replied first of all, "I'm 
satisfied with me boss." Every foreman knows of similar 
instances. The superintendent of a manufacturing plant 
declined a position with another company at a higher salary 
because "That concern was harder to work for than this," 
and because his employers were "particularly human, sym- 
pathetic and interested in people." 11 Almost every super- 
visor who likes his job will agree with this superintendent's 
decision. 

At all levels factors other than wages play an important 
part in stimulating production, in creating satisfaction, and 
in building morale among workers. As the worker proceeds 
beyond the hunger minimum, the pay check's ability to 
buy material things is overshadowed by the ability of the 
worker to obtain an immaterial something of equal impor- 
tance and of vastly greater intricacy. 

Such findings have led many to question the emphasis 
upon financial incentives by industrial engineers who have 
been so largely responsible for the development of elaborate 
systems of wage payment. There is increasing recognition, 
for example, that demands for increased wages may rep- 
resent merely a way of expressing fundamental dissatisfac- 
tion with the failure of the industrial organization to satisfy 
the desire for social approval and recognition, for security, 
for self-expression, and other deep-seated wants. 

What do Workers Want ? 

Questions that naturally arise out of this discussion in- 
clude : What are the chief sources, besides pay, of satisfaction 
and dissatisfaction at work? What do workers want? What do 
they expect industry to do for them? What devices can be used 
most efficiently to stimulate attitude and feelings conducive to 
efficient production, job satisfaction and to the development of 
employee morale? 

The tendency in the past has been to guess at the answers 
to these questions. The present tendency, associated with 
the development of an adequate programme of employee 
relations and of industrial psychology, is to seek accurate 
and honest answers by direct appeal to the workers- 
through the orderly and objective study of employees' atti- 
tudes. If management can find out what workers want ; if 
it can determine the true nature, extent and cause of dis- 
satisfaction with particular incentives, with specified poli- 
cies, practices or working conditions; constructive changes 
can be made with the view of effectively stimulating and 
utilizing employee will-to-work. 

The objective study of employee attitude usually takes 
one of three forms. The first of these involves personal inter- 
view with the worker, either on the job or in the home, 
conducted by trained interviewers. This is the method which 
has been used in the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric 
Company. Another method involves the use of unsigned 
attitude questionnaires to obtain exact information on em- 
ployee attitudes. In other cases experimental conditions 
have been set up within the plant and the observation of 
the effect of changes in experimental situations upon em- 
ployees' morale. 

Studies of Employees' Attitudes 

Numerous surveys have demonstrated that the employee 
attitude survey can be a particularly practical and useful 
tool in finding out what is on the worker's mind and indi- 
cating where attention is needed in the field of employee 
relations. The Armstrong Cork Company has gone so far as 
to place the planning and conduct of the employee attitude 
survey in the hands of the supervisory force, on the theory 
that since supervisors are directly responsible for employee 
relations, they are the logical ones to plan and direct the 
employee attitude survey. 

The types of questions used in the employee attitude 
survey by means of questionnaires can be illustrated from 
the Armstrong Cork Company study. 12 (Appendix I.) An 






130 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



example of the questionnaire method of analyzing employee 
attitudes in the public utility field is found in an experiment 
conducted during 1940 by the Florida Power and Light 
Company. 13 In this experiment all the employees of the 
Miami Branch of this utility were asked to fill out a ques- 
tionnaire containing 32 questions on working conditions in 
the company having a bearing upon employees' satisfaction. 
The questionnaires were unsigned and after the employee 
had filled out the questionnaire, he dropped it into a slot 
of a large steel box. Each question in the questionnaire was 
followed by five answers expressing different degrees of 
satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Each person checked the one 
answer to each question which expressed his feeling on that 
question. On the front page the employee printed the name 
of his department and on the back page printed any addi- 
tional comments he wished to make having a bearing upon 
his satisfaction on the job. 

A special committee of a dozen employees sorted the 
questionnaires by departments. The analysis of the ques- 
tionnaires was made by a disinterested person from outside 
the company experienced in this type of work and centered 
particularly upon a study of the comparative "morale" 
found among employees in various departments of the com- 
pany as determined from the expressions of employee atti- 
tudes towards various policies and practices. 

Chart D, entitled "1940 Departmental Morale Profile" 
shows graphically how much the "morale" of this company 
varied from department to department. Each bar on the 
chart represents a particular department, the long bar rep- 
resents a department with high morale, a short bar stands 
for a department with a relatively low morale. The wide 
variations among departments are easily noticeable from 
an examination of the chart. 

Chart E, entitled "1940 Morale Profile" shows the analysis 
of the morale situation in one of the departments of this utili- 
ty. The results show clearly that the "morale" problems of 
this department were not centered around wages, although, 
as the investigator points out, many people in the company 
assumed that "money tells the whole story of employee 
morale." Questions 23, 24, and 25 refer to wages. The atti- 
tudes of employees in this department towards wages are 
all "in the black", that is above the corresponding company 
averages by the amounts of 10.6, 12.6, and 6.5 respectively. 
The largest deviation in terms of unfavourable attitude is 
with respect to Question 18, "Criticism in Public"; the value 
in this case is the 18.2 below the company average. This 
item is purely one of leadership. Evidently the well-known 
principle of refraining from criticising employees in the pres- 



ence of others had been violated flagrantly in this de- 
partment. 

Question 13, "Consideration and Courtesy Shown to 
Subordinates", reveals another source of unfavourable atti- 
tudes among employees in this department. In other words, 
the survey revealed that in this department, and, to some 
extent the company as a whole, the workers wanted more 
consideration, better treatment by the supervisory force. 
Such dissatisfaction as existed was not with the wage plan, 
but with the failure of the department head and his subor- 
dinates to recognize the wokers' worth as human beings. 
The primary source of dissatisfaction was the disregard of 
the workers' feelings and sentiments — the mainsprings of 
human conduct. 

The chief value of the employee attitude survey is to reveal 
objectively and in numerical terms the specific sources of 
irritation as a first step irt their correction. Another example 
of how such surveys can be used to find out what employees 
think about particular employee relations policies and prac- 
tices, plant condition, and so on is found in a study reported 
by Bergen. 14 In this, use was made of a questionnaire in 
measuring the over-all "morale" and reactions to particular 
policies of 1,000 employees from selected office and factory 
departments of a manufacturing company. 

Among the outcomes of this study are the findings that 
approximately one-half of the factory workers were dis- 
satisfied with the wage incentive plan; 70 per cent of the 
hourly workers felt that there should be work sharing before 
layoff; there was considerable dissatisfaction among the 
salaried group with respect to promotion policies and prac- 
tices; 28 per cent of the factory employees were convinced 
that the company employed labour spies, although this 
was not the case; 29 per cent of factory emplo} r ees were 
of the opinion that management was unfair to organized 
labour. 

What Workers Think of Labour Unions 



13 Smith, McGregor, Mending Our Weakest Links, Advanced Man- 
agement. 

14 Bergen, H. B., Finding Out What Employees Are Thinking, 
Industrial Conference Board Management Record, April, 1939, pp. 1-6, 

15 Chamberlin, E. M., What Labor is Thinking, Pers. J. 14 (1935). 
pp. 118, ff. 



In addition to the studies in individual plants and in- 
dustries to determine workers' attitudes towards manage- 
ment and working conditions, the survey technique has 
been used in numerous studies to determine workers' atti- 
tudes toward unionism. 

Management frequently has ready-made answers to these 
questions, such as "Workers don't really want to join unions, 
but they are being forced into them by racketeering labour 
agitators supported by self-seeking politicians." Labour 
leaders invariably speak of unionism as a spontaneous ex- 
pression of solidarity on the part of a universally exploited, 
dissatisfied class of the population. And as Chamberlin 
points out, the opinions of labour leaders, particularly those 
engaged in the administrative work of labour unions, have 
apparently been accepted by political leaders as represen- 
tative of the views of at least a majority of the workers 
themselves. 15 



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PER vtHT 
— lOO 



i j • ) I i i > m ii h n » 15 ii u » i5 » » " '» n i) u i) » n y )> )■ » >• » >< » y » •• •> « •> « ■» •' •;<•■> y '.< « i> >• 55 5» « y r. <• «■ <• <> u 
Chart D — 1940 departmental morale profile in the Florida Power and Light Company. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



131 



In contrast to the vociferousness with which such opinion 
is expressed, there are studies, such as one reported by 
Chamberlin, which undertake to answer factually even on 
a small scale some of the questions of this type. In his in- 
vestigation Chamberlin interviewed 200 men employed in 
textile mills in Massachusetts — 100 union members and 100 
non-union members. Their answers to his queries indicated 
that 90 per cent of union members and only 38 per cent of 
non-union members believed that the unions get results. 

To a request for reasons for which they would join the 
union, non-union men gave the following in the order noted : 
(1) because fellow workers had joined; (2) because they 
desired a feeling of greater security; (3) because a union is 
the only way that the working man can get results; (4) be- 
cause of a liking for such organizations. 

The principal objection of non-union men to unions was 
the failure to get results (45 per cent) with the type of 
leader running a close second (41 per cent). 

Both union members and non-union members showed a 
remarkable emphatic agreement that the strike is not the 
only way workers can get results, 87 per cent of union 
members and 100 per cent of non-union members answering 
"no" to the question on this item. However, there was 
close agreement between union members and non-union 
members that bankers and inventions are the causes of 
depression. Moreover, 88 per cent of union members and 
65 per cent of non-union members agreed that mill owners 
do not treat the working man like a human being. 

Summing up his results, Chamberlin points out that "The 
typical male textile worker in Massachusetts, who is about 
33 years old, thinks that the textile unions are effective in 
obtaining results, but is unwilling to entrust to his union 
leaders the management of all of his labour problems, in 
spite of the fact that he has an adequate knowledge of the 
mental capacities of these leaders. On the other hand, our 
typical (textile) worker has no knowledge of what goes on 
behind the scenes at labour-management conferences. 



"If a member of a union, he joined because he felt that 
it was the only way that the working man could get results, 
although he is not of the opinion that the only way workers 
can get results is to strike, and he considers it unfair to be 
called out on a 'sympathetic' strike. Contrary to the state- 
ments of union leaders, our typical (textile) worker is en- 
tirely satisfied with the number of hours in the work week, 
and his chief dissatisfaction is with wages, working con- 
ditions and management. As far as unions are concerned, 
he prefers a national to a company union. He is convinced 
that he can use his spare time effectively." 

In Conclusion 

Such are examples of the scientific approach in the study 
of employee attitudes which underlie the will-to-work and 
play a predominant role in the development of conflict 
situations in our modern industrial civilization. Probably 
the most immediate and most pressing need, to further 
the harmonious relations so necessary to the war effort, 
is for a more complete understanding of the nature, the 
origin, and the operation of such attitudes. To arrive at 
such an understanding, with the aim of promoting a more 
effective and more satisfying application of human energy 
in occupational life — now and in the better years to come 
— is the major objective in the scientific approach to the 
problems of employee relations. 

APPENDIX I 

• Typical Items from 

questionnaire used in employee attitude survey 
Armstrong Cork Co. 

Hours of Work and Pay 

ô. On the whole, are you given an equal number of hours of work in 
comparison with other employees in your department ? 

1. Always" More ( ); 2. Almost Always More ( ); 3. Given the 

Same ( ); 4. Most Always Less ( ); 5. Always Less ( ). 

I say so because 



HELP AND COOPERATION 



INSPIRATION AND ENCOURAGEMENT 




umima ■* »j««o bars 



ntu> ano cooperation. 

I. EFFICIENCY Of EQUiPICNT 

'2. EFf ICIENCY Of PLANNING 

•J. teaching «SI ICIKK» 

4. PHYSICAL fORKINC COWiTicnS 

inshratiOi w rirnnw,ri>»T 

•S. giving i»rrrffCSTi*c information 

•t. ENCOURAGING SA/ETY ACTKJOS 

-7. ENCCURAGfuENT Of INITIATIVE 

*e. OPPORTUNITY Id» LEACHING 

9. BROADER «NOyjUCGE OF COur AW 

10. «J» INTEPESTIWG 'S TEu« AG*»' 

•II. CMtCN ON SELF -iyPR<VE*CNT 

•12. GETTINT. CLE All CUT DECISIONS 

•13. CCNSIOECaTicn AND cofmsv 

*I4. EPECOniA EIICU ( '■ -i' ■ » 

'IS. unOEPSTaaci'iG aao appréciât.:*. 

■16. COUNSEL FRCNl SUPTBICP 

•IT. FREEDOM FOR CTICB COUNSEL 

■ie. criticism in public 

I». CONGENIALITY OF ASSOCIATES 



20. OPPORTUNITY FOB TRANSFER 

21. KNIT TO GOVERN PROMOTION 

27. OPPONTONITIES FOB AOYANCEJAtNT 

23. EQUAL PAT FOR EQUAL tOR* 

24. PAY O0MPAPED TO CITY 

25. FAIRNESS OF PAT 

26. Tin ovrsiot of business 

•27. FLU. CREDIT FOB Au SERYICES 
•29. JOB SECURITY FOR COCO Oft 
A. SECURITY COMPARED TO ELSOWRE 



Chart E— 1940 morale profile of a single department in the Florida Power and Light Company. 

132 March' 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



6. Do you understand how your pay is figured ? 
1. Yes ( );2. No ( ). 
I suggest 

12. All in all, does your superior give you fair treatment ? 

1. Always ( ); 2. Almost Always ( ); 3. Sometimes ( ); 

4. Seldom ( ); 5. Never ( ). 

I say so because 



13. If you thought you were qualified for a better job that might open 

up, do you feel that you would be given fair consideration ? 

1. Yes ( ); 2. Probably ( ); 3. Doubtful ( ); 4. Would Get 

None ( ). 

I say so because 

I suggest 

17. Taking all things in all, I think the Armstrong Cork Company is 

1. The Best Place to Work I Know ( ) ; 2. A Poor Place to Work 

( ); 3. As Good as Most Places I've Heard of ( ). 
From J. J. Evans, Jr., "Supervisors Conduct Attitude Survey," 
I suggest. . Personnel, 1940, 17, p. 142, ff. 



DISCUSSION 

(The Committee earnestly invites further discussion on the subject of industrial relations. Several members of the Institute in 
their daily task have to deal with this important phase of our social organization. It is requested that they share with their 
fellow-members the benefit of their experience. Contributions from non-members will be welcomed as well and should be 
forwarded to Headquarters of the Institute, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal, Que.) 

Captain J. A. Kitchen 1 

The Director of Personnel Selection for the Canadian 
Army was instructed about a year and a half ago to carry 
out duties in the army similar to those performed by 
personnel or industrial relations men in industry. 

In the army we have men of every type, some of whom 
are exceptionally brilliant; it is of primary importance that 
that ability should not be wasted. Now, when these men 
come into the army we know nothing about them. They 
may be of any grade of intelligence or capacity. Therefore, 
they are given a preliminary test, commonly known as the 
"M Test," which gives some idea as to their ability in 
various subjects. This includes a very practical short inter- 
view, which is not on any particular line, but is a general 
and friendly conversation. All results are recorded, and as 
each man goes from his recruiting centre to his place of 
basic training that information is available to the personnel 
men at those points. In that way we are able to follow 
any peculiarity or exceptional ability that a man may have. 

For example, officer material is looked for, so that if a 
man comes up and reaches the necessary standard as he 
goes through his courses he will be given an opportunity 
for an officers' training course. 

During his training after his basic training, which every- 
one must take, he is selected for a particular arm — artillery, 
engineers, ordnance, armoured corps — according to his 
aptitude and special requirements. 

He may be chosen for technical training. For example, 
in the army, we need highly technical men in connection 
with devices used by the artillery. We have specific require- 
ments and tests for those men; there are also other highly 
specialized technicians, in whose case requirements are 
based on the lines mentioned earlier this afternoon, and 
shown by the graphs and the charts that were exhibited. 

Morale is an important point in dealing with selection. 
Morale means much in industry, for if you get a man 
working for you whole-heartedly, putting everything he has 
into his job, he will do far more than by any driving method. 
This has been proved by the experience of the last war. 
Thus it is part of our job as personnel people in the arm}' 
to encourage men who go behind in their training, or who 
become despondent. 

Frequently men find it difficult to have conversations 
with their own officers, due to the regimentation that must 
exist in any army, but any man is always at liberty to 
contact a personnel officer, and as a result such officers are 
able to do much to promote morale. 

Dr. K. S. Bernhardt 2 

"* After listening to Dr. Viteles' paper any psychologist like 
myself would be proud that our science is making such an 
admirable contribution to personnel work. 

If we were to ask the so-called "man in the street" for 
his comments about the world in which he lives to-day, he 



1 Army Examiner, District Depot No. 2, Military District No. 2, 
and President of the Trades Testing Board, Toronto, Ont. 

2 Department of Psychology, University of Toronto. 

:i Chief Engineer, Water Supply Section, Department of Works, City 
of Toronto. 

induction Motor Engineer, Canadian General Electric Co., Peter- 
borough. 



would probably remark that he is amazed at the enormous 
strides we have made, technologically, and at what the 
engineers have been able to do with material, but that he 
is horrified, to put it mildly, at the messes that we quite 
frequently get into in terms of social relationships. 

Perhaps the most valuable feature in this afternoon's 
session has been the demonstration that scientific methods 
and technique can be amplified to problems of human 
relationships in much the same way that they can be 
applied to physical materials. We still have a lot to learn 
and the real demonstration of scientific technique in action 
in dealing with human material is something that we need 
more and more of. 

There is a feeling on the part of a good many people, 
especially in industry, that there may be something in these 
tests that the psychologists talk about. In fact, some 
industrialists have gone so far as to apply such tests and 
have been partly disappointed that they did not work, as 
anticipated, and partly glad, because they did not think the 
procedure was any good anyway. But the attempt to use 
such scientific methods without the kind of steps that Dr. 
Viteles has outlined so well is, of course, doomed to failure. 

In Dr. Bryce Stewart's address, one thing that he said 
near the end should be underlined. After we had followed 
him through the intricacies of the machinery of industrial 
relations programmes, we came to the core of the whole 
problem, namely, as Dr. Stewart suggests, that the spirit 
of the thing is much more important than the machinery. 
That means the full recognition of the human factor in the 
situation. 

A. U. Sanderson, m.e.i.c. 3 

I would like to ask Dr. Stewart if, generally speaking, 
he has found that the average working man in Canada is 
more interested in security for his old age, and if he is 
married, for his wife, than he is in obtaining the last few 
cents in wages. I have found that, generally speaking, the 
labouring man is more concerned about his security for the 
future than he is about a higher wage. 

Dr. Bryce M. Stewart 

In the devising and installation of pension plans it has 
been found almost always that interest in pensions rises 
with age. There is also a sex factor. In an organization 
which is composed largely of young employees, and many 
of those are women, their interest in pensions is quite low. 

But you will find in the few that are up around 40 and 
over, a great interest. So I just put it that way. Men are 
all like when they are young. They are mainly out for a 
good time and it is pretty hard then to sell life insurance, 
as you know. But once they make the turn of the middle 
thirties and often shortly after they are married, the 
interest in pensions mounts very rapidly and from that 
period they are much more concerned in seeing the pension 
than seeing another dollar or two in the pay envelope. 

V. S. Foster, m.e.i.c. 4 

Regarding the block tests which Dr. Viteles has men- 
tioned I noticed that if you look at the blocks long enough' 
you see a different number of blocks. I am wondering which 
answer you base your results upon ? 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



133 



Pkofessor M. S. Viteles 

That is an interesting question ; but the change in number 
occurs only with prolonged exposure of the blocks. That 
test is taken in three minutes by those to whom it is given 
and there is not time for the change in point of orientation 
that you experienced. 

That is a very interesting thing. I must have shown 
these pictures on the screen some fifty times, and you are 
the first man who has ever noticed that. The first answer 
is light. That is the one that comes with the short exposure. 

Professor E. A. Allcut, m.e.i.c. 5 

Remarked that he did not have the opportunity of seeing 
the test results and the diagrams of which Dr. Viteles had 
spoken but he had prepared the following contribution to 
the discussion. 

Professor Viteles draws a parallel between the specifica- 
tion and supply of materials, and the specification of jobs 
and the supply of suitable workers to do them. If this pro- 
cedure could be carried out accurately and surely, the 
process would indeed be scientific, but the field of industrial 
relations is so full of imponderables and unknown factors, 
that personnel management appears to be more of an art 
than a science. The smaller the knowledge of the inside of a 
material, the larger is the "factor of safety," or "factor of 
ignorance," that must be applied to its use. If this be so 
with materials which can be weighed, measured, analysed 
and tested, that stay where they are put and can be trans- 
ported or manipulated at will, still more must it be the case 
with people, whose reactions are frequently dictated rather 
by prejudice than by reason, whose ideas and ideals change 
and who are sometimes mere pawns moved by able and 
unscrupulous hands. The problems of the psychologist are, 
therefore, complicated and, while some of us feel that 
progress is being made toward their solution, we also feel 
that, in many instances, the consistency and significance of 
the test results are over-estimated. Too much emphasis is 
placed on averages and the fact is frequently ignored that 
there are more exceptions to some of the "laws" than there 
are examples of them. In the long run, it is the individual 
who has to be dealt with if misfits, excessive labour turn- 
over and other personnel troubles are to be avoided. 

The paramount importance of the personality of the 
supervisor has been rightly stressed. The forceful, tyran- 
nical type is only a little less obnoxious than the mean, 
nagging busybody — both are foci of discontent and, on the 
whole, probably cause more trouble than do questions of 
wages. Also, in the writer's experience, the form of the wage 
formula is less important than is the method of applying 
it. Question 6 (Appendix I) has a distinct bearing on this 
matter, as workers are usually suspicious of what they do 
not understand and it is important, therefore, that wage 
incentive systems should be simple and should give prompt 
returns. Mutual confidence is imperative if satisfactory 
personnel relationships are to be obtained and maintained. 

Another significant remark is that "there was close agree- 
ment between union members and non-union members that 
bankers and inventions are the causes of depression." The 
writer knows nothing about banking, but the old bogey that 
research and invention produce unemployment takes a lot 
of laying. Eighteen new industries introduced within the 
last fifty years or so are responsible for one fourth of all 
employment in the U.S.A., and most of the products of 
the electrical and chemical industries were unknown 
twenty years ago. If statistics prove anything, they do show 
that invention has produced far more employment than 
it has displaced. 



5 Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

6 Vice-President and Executive Engineer, The Shavvinigan Water & 
Power Company, Montreal. 



Dr. J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c. 6 

I remember a very eminent, greatly beloved Anglican 
Minister in Montreal. People said that all through his life 
he comforted the afflicted and afflicted the comfortable. 

Dr. Stewart and Dr. Viteles have afflicted the comfortable 
in this case, because the company that I have the honour 
to be associated with, a utility organization in the province 
of Quebec, has always been proud of the personnel relations 
of the four or five thousand people on the staff. It now 
appears that we have been babes in arms; we have learned 
to-day from these gentlemen something which will enable 
us to attempt, with the advice of such experts, to do some- 
thing far better than has been done so far. 

I feel that this year under President Young has been one 
of the most constructively successful in the history of the 
Institute, and one of the most satisfactory accomplishments 
has been the setting up of this Committee on Industrial 
Relations under the able chairmanship of Mr. Maclachlan. 

A. U. Sanderson, m.e.i.c. 

While I appreciate that Dr. Viteles in adopting the test 
for employment of personnel was trying to choose the best 
men for a certain type of labour, what would happen to 
the under-average man if all employers used this scientific 
method of choosing personnel ? 

Professor M. S. Viteles 

The answer to that is very simple. The under-average 
man gets the job in which he ought to be, instead of getting 
the job he can't handle, and there is a place for the under- 
average man. The difficulty is that usually he is not recog- 
nized as under-average. The problem is one of application 
and distribution of labour, making the best use of what 
you have. 

What can happen, not only with the under-average man, 
but also the very-much above-average, is perhaps illus- 
trated in a study made for a department store some years 
ago. The store was selecting wrapper girls, who spend all 
day wrapping packages to be handed out to customers. We 
used a test and discovered that girls who made scores of 
below thirty on the test did not meet the wrapping standards 
on that job. On the other hand, girls who made sixty-five 
on the test did not stay long enough on the job for the 
company to be repaid for the time and money that was 
used in training them as wrappers. Evidently for that par- 
ticular job it was just as undesirable to have a really 
superior person, as to have an under-average person. What 
was needed was an average person. 

The problem is to take jobs in the plant, classify, pick 
the under-average man for the under-average job and the 
above-average man for the above-average job. And it must 
be remembered that the under-average man for one job 
may still be bright, he may be intelligent, but he may 
have poor mechanical dexterity. The fact that he is above 
average in intelligence, in mental ability, should not be a 
reason for placing him on any job where a high degree of 
skill is required. The problem is one of picking the man 
for the job in terms of exact specifications. 

With reference to Professor Allcut's remarks, I should 
like to recall a statement made by a vice-president in 
charge of engineering of the Philadelphia Electric Company. 
He was telling about the installation of lightning protectors 
on their high tension lines, running a distance of ninety 
miles into Philadelphia. The question was: Should $300,000 
be spent in putting in lightning arrestors on these lines? 

When they started on the problem they found they did 
not know, to begin with, just how much voltage was 
generated in a particular stroke of lightning. They found 
they knew too little about the resistance of certain of the 
insulators, because they did not feel free to expose the 
insulators to sufficiently high voltage to test them as they 
should be tested and as he said there were other variables 
of which they were ignorant. Notwithstanding all this, they 



134 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



spent the $300,000 for the lightning protectors, because it 
seemed like a good bet. 

Now if the engineer is willing to do that, with all his 
fine technique, and when there are so few difficulties in the 
handling of material goods, as compared with those involved 
in the handling of human variables, the phychologist can 
perhaps be excused if he occasionally makes some guesses 
about the human element. Actually, the good psychologist 
does not guess as frequently as is supposed. If the test is 
adequately developed, the psychologist knows what the 
standards are, or has estimates for the accuracy of each 
score, and he can tell you when a man makes a score of 70, 
it really means that this score lies somewhere between 65 
and 75. It is not a score of 70, because there is a standard 
error of estimate of five points on that score, and for that 
reason, he knows that the probability of that man making 
good cannot be expressed as a hundred per cent or as eighty 
per cent. We would say that the chances are between 70 
and 90 per cent that that man will make good. 

Here is another man with a score of 35. His score lies 
somewhere between 30 and 40, but the chances in his case 
for making good are somewhere between 20 and 30 per cent. 

Now, those figures are available in standardized tests. 
This was not put in the paper but the concept of possibility 
to which I refer takes care of all the comments which 
Professor Allcut made. The situation remains one of dealing 
with probabilities. Actually we are interested in groups, say 
of a hundred people, available for a job. 

We need twenty welders. Picking by chance, we will get 
ten above-average welders and ten below-average welders. 
Picking by means of scientific tests we will get 15 men or 
17 men who are good or above-average. Let us get the 17, 
and not worry about the other three until we get the war 
done with. 

Gordon McL. Pitts, m.e.i.c 7 

This scientific selection of personnel is very instructive. 
But how does organized labour respond to the acceptance 
of this principle, and how far do you think that the wages 
should be affected by the result of these tests ? 

Professor M. S. Viteles 

Labour, I think, still remains suspicious of tests, just as 
labour was suspicious of medical examination when it was 
first introduced. That suspiciousness has largely disappeared, 
but not completely. 

Well, there is the same attitude of suspicion towards 
psychological tests. I think that suspicion is unwarranted. 
I think labour will come to recognize, as some unions have 
already done, that the one way to settle the issue on 
selection with management is for labour to participate in 
the creation of the tests and to help set the standards. 
That would support some of their actions with respect to 
keeping certain men out of the union, whom they now keep 
out on a cash basis of fees — it would help to decide which 
men were most acceptable to the union and would strength- 
en the union because there would be less strife between 
management and labour with respect to the retention of 
certain men. 

Such a movement had developed in Germany before the 
war, where labour unions participated in tests. In Russia, 
the labour unions were presumably running the tests. Prac- 
tically all the Institutes where tests developed were sup- 
ported by the labour unions, although the tests were by 
the government. In that country it is very difficult to find 
the dividing line between the labour union and the govern- 
ment. I hope a progressive movement will bring labour 
into the fold to the advantage of all parties. 

With respect to wages, so far as improved production is 
concerned, I believe that part of that return should go back 
to the worker. I think that is the attitude of progressive 

7 Member of the firm Maxwell & Pitts, Architects, Montreal. 
"Professor of Educational Research, University of Toronto. 
9 Manager of Engineering Division, Cooksville Company Limited, 
Toronto, Ont. 



management. It is a matter of education. Labour needs 
education just as well as management. 

Chairman Maclachlan 

In the matter of the medical examination, many of us 
have been emphatic in connection with colour blindness, 
where there is choosing of colours and distinguishing be- 
tween a red and a green light, and so on. Yet we were told 
in this room yesterday that the R.A.F. was using colour 
blind people to see through camouflage. 

In England I personally observed during the last war the 
use of blind people in winding transformer coils and -winding 
machine coils. They made fewer mistakes than people with 
sight. Yet many would reject the blind. If you find a place 
for these various people then you gain the advantage. 

By these tests for placement, for selection and use in 
certain specific things you will get an advantage to manage- 
ment and to the man. 

Professor J. A. Long 8 

As a psychologist in a gathering mainly of engineers. 1 
would like to put in a brief word for the psychologist. 

I have the honour to be a member of the Faculty of the 
University of Toronto and we have a School of Engineering- 
there, where certain examinations are conducted every year, 
presumably with the desire of selecting people who will 
become good engineers, and flunking those who will not. I 
think they are not a hundred per cent successful, because 
some who fail, if allowed to continue, would have made 
acceptable engineers, and some of those who pass do not 
turn out according to expectations. 

I believe that what can be done in two or three hours, 
by a set-up such as Dr. Viteles describes is almost as success- 
ful in picking out, in separating the sheep from the goats, 
as what the Engineering Faculty does in testing over three 
or four years. 

W. C. Smith, m.e.i.c 9 

I find myself rather confused in regard to personnel 
selection because first, I was raised in a trade union 
mechanic's home, graduated into engineering and then 
became involved as an employer. 

This transition has given me an appreciation for both sides. 

In the lifetime of men who are working there are three 
distinct periods — the younger period of working, the middle 
period and the older period, when they are settled. 

In ray opinion, a great mistake is made in plants where 
they do not permit the employing of men over 42 years of 
age. That unsettles men from the age of 38 to 42 to an 
unbelievable degree. If they are laid off they lose their 
seniority, they were out on their neck and nobody will 
hire them. That is one thing that should be corrected from 
the standpoint of the employers. 

Under the selection system, a man on entry is allocated 
to a certain branch in the plant. If the foreman and the 
sub-foremen are not conversant with the selective method, 
then there is not the progress there should be. The selection 
system should continue so that the man is not stuck in a 
groove, but allowed to advance in accordance with his merits. 

As regards trade unions — they are undoubtedly against 
scientific selection in a general way. Education will not 
correct this, in so far as the men are concerned, because 
their education comes through delegates, to use a polite 
term — or agitators, to speak less delicately — and there are 
both classes in labour. 

Most men realize their limitations in any operation. Most 
men are honest in the back of their minds. If they are 
getting a fair deal they are satisfied and if personnel man- 
agement, through their foreman and sub-foremen in the 
large shops are interested in seeing that they get a fair deal, 
and demonstrate that interest by their improvement from 
time to time, happier relationships will exist in our plants. 
But we cannot expect full happiness in our plants until the 
unions are so organized that they represent the interests of 
the men and not the interests of the delegates. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



135 



THE FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

Convened at Headquarters, Montreal, on January 15th, 1943, and adjourned to the Royal York Hotel, 

Toronto, on February 11th, 1943 



The Fifty-Seventh Annual General Meeting of the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada was convened at Headquarters 
on Friday, January fifteenth, nineteen hundred and forty- 
three, at eight o'clock p.m., with President C. R. Young 
in the chair. 

The general secretary having read the notice convening 
the meeting, the minutes of the Fifty-Sixth Annual General 
Meeting were submittted, and, on the motion of deGaspé 
Beaubien, seconded by John G. Hall, were taken as read 
and confirmed. 

Appointment of Scrutineers 

On the motion of George H. Midgley, seconded by H. R. 
Little, Messrs. G. D. Hulme, H. Massue, and A. G. Moore, 
were appointed scrutineers to canvass the officers' ballot 
and report the result. 

There being no other formal business, it was resolved, on 
the motion of J. R. Auld, seconded by P. E. Poitras, that 
the meeting do adjourn to reconvene at the Royal York 
Hotel, Toronto, at nine-thirty a.m. on the eleventh day of 
February, nineteen hundred and forty-three. 

Adjourned General Meeting at the Royal York 
Hotel, Toronto, Ont. 

The adjourned meeting convened at ten o'clock a.m. on 
Thursday, February 11th, 1943, with President C. R. Young 
in the chair. 

The general secretary announced the membership of the 
Nominating Committee of the Institute for the year 1943 
as follows: 

Nominating Committee — 1943 

Chairman: G. A. VANDERVOORT 
Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armst ions 

Calgary F. K. Beach 

Cape Breton J. R. Morrison 

Edmonton J. Garrett 

Halifax LP. Macnab 

Hamilton A. Love 

Kingston H. W. Harkness 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge N. H. Bradley 

London F. T. Julian 

Moncton H. W. McKiel 

Montreal E. R. Smallhorn 

Niagara Peninsula A. L. McPhail 

Ottawa W. H. Munro 

Peterborough W. T. Fanjoy 

Quebec A. O. Dufresne 

Saguenay S. J. Fisher 

Saint John V. S. Chesnut 

Saskatchewan II . R. MacKenzie 

Sault Ste. Marie L. R. Brown 

St. Maurice Valley M. Eaton 

Toronto Wm. Storrie 

Vancouver W. (). Scott 

Victoria S. H. Frame 

Winnipeg H. L. Briggs 

Awards of Medals and Phizes 

The General Secretary announced the awards of the 
various medals and prizes of the Institute as follows, stating 
that the formal presentation of these distinctions would be 
made at the annual dinner of the Institute that evening: 

Gzowski Medal — To Dr. S. 1). Lash, m.e.i.c, Kingston, 



for his paper "Analysis and Design of Rectangular Rein- 
forced Concrete Slabs supported on Four Sides." 

Duggan Medal and Prize — To J. H. Maude, m.e.i.c, 
Montreal, for his paper "The New Oil-Hydraulic Press in 
Munitions Manufacture." 

Plummer Medal — To Professor E. A. Allcut, m.e.i.c, for 
his paper "Producer Gas for Motor Transport." 

Leonard Medal — To Paul Billingsley, Burton, Washing- 
ton, and C. B. Hume, Hedley, B.C., for their joint paper 
"Ore Deposits of Nickel Plate Mountain." 

Julian C. Smith Medals — "For Achievement in the Devel- 
opment of Canada" — To Henry Girdlestone Acres, m.e.i.c, 
Niagara Falls, and Robert Melville Smith, m.e.i.c, Toronto. 

Students' and Juniors' Prizes 

John Galbraith Prize — (Province of Ontario) — To Robert 
J. G. Schofield, jr. e. i.e., Hamilton, Ont., for his paper 
"Cotton Yarn Dyeing." 

Phelps Johnson Prize — (Province of Quebec) — (English) 
—To Paul O. Freeman, s.e.i.c, Montreal, for his paper 
"Cold Rivetting — Its Principles, Procedure and Advant- 
ages." 

Ernest Marceau Prize — (Province of Quebec) — (French) 
—To René Dansereau, s.e.i.c, Montreal, for his paper 
"Etude comparative de la construction par rivure et par 
soudure d'un pont route en acier." 

Report of Council 

On the motion of B. G. Ballard, seconded by R. E. 
Heartz, it was resolved that the report of Council for the 
year 1942, as published in the February Journal, be accepted 
and approved. 

Report of Finance Committee, Financial Statement 
and the Treasurer's Report 

On the motion of J. E. Armstrong, seconded by G. G. 
Murdoch, it was resolved that the report of the Finance 
Committee, the financial statement and the Treasurer's 
report, as published in the February Journal, be accepted 
and approved. 

Reports of Committers 

On the motion of R. B. Chandler, seconded by G. M. 
Brown, it was resolved that the reports of the following 
committees be taken as read and accepted: Hoard of Exam- 
iners and Education, Post-War Problems, Western Water 
Problems, Civil Defence, Membership, Professional Inter- 
ests, Industrial Relations, Legislation, The Young Engineer, 
Library and House, International Relations, Deterioration 
of Concrete Structures, Publication, Papers, and Employ- 
ment Service. 

Branch Reports 

On the motion of J. W. Falkner, seconded by R. C. 
McMordie, it was resolved that the reports of the various 
branches be taken as read and approved. 

Aid to Enginekrs' Families 

Having regard to By-law 32 which states "The Council 
shall not incur any expenditure for extraordinary purposes 
unless previously authorized to do so at an annual general 
meeting," and to the fact that because of the war there are 
in Canada to-day several members of families of engineers 
ordinarily resident in the British Isles, and that in the 
future additional persons may come to this country under 
similar circumstances, on the motion of H. E. Brandon, 
seconded by J. M. Gibson, it was unanimously resolved that 



136 



March. 19 Hi THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Council be authorized at this annual general meeting to 
incur such expenditures as Council may consider to be 
appropriate to aid in the support of these families, providing 
such persons are referred to the Institute by sister societies 
in the British Isles. 

Recognition of Twenty-five Years Service 

In appreciation of twenty-five years of loyal and intelli- 
gent service to the Institute, the president called Miss 
Ellen L. Boyden, the Institute accountant, to the platform, 
and on behalf of himself and Council and all the members, 
thanked her for all she had done. He then called on Secre- 
tary-Emeritus R. J. Durley, and Mr. Durley, speaking on 
behalf of the three general secretaries with whom Miss 
Boyden had worked, expressed his pleasure at participating 
in this ceremony of recognition. On behalf of the Institute 
he presented her with a bouquet of flowers. 

Election of Officers 

The general secretary read the report of the scrutineers 
appointed to canvass the officers' ballot for the year 1943 
as follows: 

President K. M. Cameron, Ottawa 

Vice-President: 
Zone A (Western Provinces). .W. P. Brereton, Winnipeg 
Zone B (Province of Ontario).. L. F. Grant, Kingston 
Zone C (Province of Quebec) . .C. K. McLeod, Montreal 

Councillors: 

Vancouver Branch C. E. Webb 

Edmonton Branch E. Nelson 

Saskatchewan Branch A. M. Macgillivray 

Lakehead Branch H. G. O'Leary 

Border Cities Branch G. E. Medlar 

London Branch J. A. Vance 

Toronto Branch H. E. Brandon 

Kingston Branch A. Jackson 

Ottawa Branch N.B. MacRostie 

Montreal Branch E. V. Gage 

J. A. Lalonde 

Saint Maurice Valley Br H. J. Ward 

Saguenay Branch J. W. Ward 

Saint John Branch J. P. Mooney 

Halifax Branch C. Serymgeour 

On the motion of E. D. Gray-Donald, seconded by Viggo 
Jepsen, it was resolved that the report of the scrutineers be 
adopted, that a vote of thanks be tendered to them for 
their services in preparing the report, and that the ballot 
papers be destroyed. 

It was announced that the newly elected officers would 
be inducted at the annual dinner of the Institute that 
evening. 

Before delivering his retiring address President Young 
expressed his feeling of indebtedness to his friends in the 
Institute for selecting him as president for the year 1942. 
It had been a source of great pleasure and satisfaction to 
him to serve in this position, following, as he had, many 
men of great eminence in the profession of engineering in 
this country. His address, "The Days Ahead," will be found 
on page 115 of this issue of the Journal. 

On the motion of E. P. Muntz, seconded by A. Mac- 
Quarrie, it was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote of 
thanks be extended to the Toronto Branch for their hospi- 
tality and activity in connection with the Fifty-Seventh 
Annual General Meeting. 

On the motion of G. E. Booker, seconded by Huet 
Massue, it was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote of 
thanks be accorded to the retiring president and members 
of Council in appreciation of the work they have done for 
the Institute during the past year. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned 
at ten-forty-five a.m. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 



THE GENERAL PROFESSIONAL MEETING 
OF 1943 

When planning began for the Annual Meeting of 1943, 
it was a question whether its activities should be limited to 
the transaction of such business as is necessary for the 
proper management of Institute affairs, or whether, under 
war conditions, it would be proper to hold professional 
sessions, together with a modest programme of social events. 
After receiving the approval of the Ottawa authorities, the 
latter course was adopted; this decision was amply justified 
by the success of the meeting which has just concluded. 
Not only were the papers and addresses helpful as contribu- 
tions to the war effort, but the many members who attended 
from all over the Dominion had opportunities of meeting 
informal^ and exchanging ideas on their wartime activities 
in a way which would otherwise have been impossible. 
Further, each technical session was devoted to the discussion 
of some topic of special importance at this stage of the war. 

The Toronto Branch deserved and received the thanks 
of the Institute for the very effective way in which this 
policy was carried out. Its committees, besides undertaking 
the detail organization of the meeting, had much to do 
with the smooth functioning of the professional sessions. As 
already mentioned, these were all of a somewhat unusual 
type. They were extremely well attended by members and 
visitors, who appreciated the effective way in which the 
subjects were presented and the value of the preparatory 
work which resulted in such instructive discussions. 

A striking feature of the meeting was an exhibition of 
war material and photographs in the foyer of the Conven- 
tion Floor of the hotel. This was made possible by the kind 
cooperation of several of the Canadian companies engaged 
in the production of basic war equipment, and had the 
approval both of the Department of Munitions and Supply, 
and the Wartime Information Board. Among the interesting 
exhibits may be mentioned components and assemblies of 
the latest patterns of such weapons as the Browning machine 
gun, the Bren gun, the Sten carbine and the Lee-Enfield 
rifle. The products of the newly established Canadian optical 
glass industry were well displayed, together with the range 
finders, gun-directors, binoculars and other instruments in 
which they are being used so successfully. These exhibits, 
with many others, served well to indicate the diversity of 
Canadian wartime arms manufacture. 

Facilities were also given for visiting the remarkable ex- 
hibition of machine parts, components, castings, forgings 
and so on, organized at 51 Bathurst Street by the Depart- 
ment of Munitions and Supply, to show what has already 
been accomplished in saving critical materials by changes 
in design or technique which made possible the use of sub- 
stitutes for materials previously employed. 

In order to avoid any interference with war production, 
no plant visits were arranged for this annual meeting — a 
departure from the usual practice which met with general 
approval. 

The first professional session on the morning of Thursday, 
after the general business meeting, was necessarily a short 
one. The topic was "The Engineering Features of Civil 
Defence". Interest in this matter has been stimulated by 
the lectures delivered last year by Professor Webster and 
by the activities of an Institute committee which includes 
members from practically every branch of the Institute, who 
take part in the work of its various local sub-committees. 

The committee's chairman, John E. Armstrong, presided 
and gave a general statement, after which the chairmen of 
sub-committees, Messrs. H. F. Bennett, R. F. Legget, I. P. 
MacNab, and G. McL. Pitts spoke briefly on their respec- 
tive divisions of the subject which are Structural Defence 
Against Bombing, Organization for Repair of Damage, 
Specifications for Air-Raid Shelters, and Protection of 
Buildings. Although the time available was limited there 
was a lively discussion and all present agreed that real 
progress was being made. The material presented will be 
published in The Engineering Journal as space permits. 
{Continued on page l/fi) 

137 



CLOSE-UPS OF THE BANQUET PROCEEDINGS 





Above: K. M. Cameron takes 
over from C. R. Young. 



Right: H. G. Acres receives 
from his class-mate, the 
Julian C. Smith Medal. 




Above: Dr. Edward C. 
Elliott, president of 
Purdue University, the 
guest speaker. 




Belotv: 11. V. Coes, presi- 
dent of the A.S.M.E., 
greets the Institute. 



President Young intro- 
duces Ezra B. Whitman, 
president of the A.S.C.E. 





Prof. E. A. Allcut receives the Plummer 
Medal. 




Right: J. L. Bennett, 
president of the 
American Institute 
of Chemical Engin- 
eers, presents gree- 
tings from his 
society. 



Belotv: Past Vice-Presi- 
dent E. P. Muntz. 



The president presents tin 
Medal to Dr. S. D. Lash. 



Gzowski 







138 



March, 1943 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SPEAKERS AT MEETINGS 





Brig.-Gen. C. L. Sturde- 
vant speaks on The Alaska 
Highway at the Thursday 
luncheon. 




Vice-President Lieut. -Col. 
L. F. Grant introduces the 
speaker, Desmond A. 
Clarke, on his right. On 
his left, K. M. Cameron 
and R. A. Elliott, presi- 
dent, Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of 
Ontario. 



Retiring president's dinner. Left to right : Past-Presidents 
T. H. Hogg and C. J. Mackenzie, Brig.-Gen. C. L. Sturdevant, 
President C. R. Young, Past-Presidents J. M. R. Fairbairn 
and O. O. Lefebvre. 




Prof. M. S. Viteles of Philadel- 
phia speaks on "A Scientific 
Approach to the Problems of 
Employee Relations." 



Colonel A. L. Bishop thanks Desmond A. Clarke. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1943 





Dr. Bryce M. Stewart contrib- 
utes to Industrial Relations, 
his paper on "The Role of the 
Industrial Relations Executive 
in Company Management." 



139 



APART FROM PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS 




Above, from left to right: 
President K. M. Cameron, 
H . W . Lea , Nicol 
MacNicol, Col. W. S. 
Wilson, Mrs. Wilson, 
Lieut. -Col. L. F. Grant 
and J. J. Spence. 



Above, left to right: J. P. 
MeRae, J. G. Hall and J. 
T. Farmer. 



Lee-Enfield rifle parts are examined by W. E. Bonn, E. G. Hewson, 
T. S. Glover and J. R. Dunbar. 





Optical glass under the scrutiny of, from left to right: 
Hannaford, E. G. Ratz, L. B. Chubbuek and W. B. Buchanan, 



A. R. 



A Department of Public Works group. Left to 
right: O. S. Cox, H. F. Bennett and F. G. 
Good s peed. 



THE GENERAL PROFESSIONAL MEETING OF 1943 

{Continued from page 137) 

After luncheon, at which Brigadier-General C. L. Stur- 
devant, U.S. Corps of Engineers, gave an illustrated address 
on the work of that Corps in constructing the Alaska High- 
way, the professional meeting took up problems of Indus- 
trial Relations. Two papers were presented and discussed, 
under the chairmanship