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News -Re cord 

A Consolidation of Engineering News and Engineering Record 


/ / o - . 



January 1 to .June -30, 1919 



■r - 



January 1 to June 30, 1919 


Jan. 2 1 to 70 

Jan. 9 71 to 117 

Jan. 16 119 to 168 

Jan. 23 169 to 213 

Jan. 30 215 to 263 

Feb. 265 to 311 

Fob. 13 313 to 355 

Feb. 20 357 to 405 

Feb. 27 407 to 151 

Mar. 6 453 to 499 

Mar. 13 501 to 548 

Mar. 20 549 to 595 

Mar. 27 597 to 645 

Apr. 3 647 to 696 

Apr. 10 697 to 748 

Apr. 17 749 to 797 

Apr. 24 799 to 845 

May 1 847 to 894 

May 8 895 to 943 

Mav 15 945 to 992 

May 22 993 to 1040 

May 29 1041 to 1088 

June 5 1089 to 113K 

Juno 12 1139 to 1186 

June 19 1187 to 1238 

June 26 1239 to 1286 

Abbott. H., on wood construction of 

Charleston port terminal '702 

Aberthaw concrete lighters, side launching. *555 
Abrams. Prof. D. A., on how to design 

concrete mixtures e752. a*758 

On aggregates too coarse in Bureau of 

Standards test 1147 

On surface aggregates or fineness modu- 
lus 1203 

Abutments, standard bridge, on canal proj- 
ects ( D. C. Willett) *777 


And expert checking of engineering plans 

(J. A. L. Waddell) 11075 

Boston molasses-tank collapse n353. (B. 
S. Brown) e945, *974, (J. A. L. 
Waddell) 11075 
Fire in U. S. Army hospital. Colonia, 

N. J.. 929. (G. H. Tefft) 11177 
Launching, men killed at Harriman, 

Penn n744 

Portland. Ore., grain elevator subsidence. 

preliminary report on n792 

Prevention and compensation laws e502 

Railway, reported by Interstate Com- 
merce Commission 185 

Accounting, committee analyzes track-ele- 
vation costs on Rock Island work in 

Chicago 83 

Equipment at Hog Island; Keeping track 

of (R. E. Roesler) 246 

Acheson. Maj. W. M.. on vitrified brick con- 
struction for heavy motor-truck traffic. . ,a467 
Activated sludge (See Sewage) 
Adams, T.. on regional and town planning. al097 
Aerator and mixer combined for colloidal 

water '1210 

Aerial cableways successful in Northwest 

shipyards *37 

Wire rope conveyors to feed railways 

and ships 1158 

Aero-photographic mapping. . .e993, 996, *1000 
Aggregate, see Concrete. Aggregate. 
Air currents or Lorelei? (sounds at Hunt- 
ington Lake. Cal.) 1108 

Air header, single, supplies 11 drills h202 

Air-lift installation, design and tests. Fort 

Bliss (Capt. J. F. Brown) '1111 

Airplanes : 

Flying the Atlantic el090. ell87 

Mapmaking from (J. B. Mertie) . .e993 996 

also «1000 
Materials sold by Aircraft Production 

Bureau n495 

Struts, wrapped, tests of 1170 

Air-supply; single air header supplies 11 

drills h202 

Akron. Ohio, will vote on $3,000,000 sewer- 
age bonds n206 

Alaska Railway nearly half completed. . . . *46 

Extended nl281 

Service maintained despite icy rails.. 442 

Snowslides removed by sluicing 1210 

Work curtailed n591 

Alexander. Col. J. H.. biography n*210 

Algae cause taste in Fort Worth water 

(R. H. Craig) 778 

Removal from California canal (E. C. 

Eaton) *382. e407 

Allegheny River bridges at Pittsburgh or- 
dered raised n743 

Allen. J. R.. on engineering education and 

Students' Army Training Corps 142 

Allen. S. W.. with C. H. Teesdale. on rain- 
fall influence on zinc-treated cross-ties.. 234 
Alvord. J. W.. on engineer in Government 
housing al47 


And Engineering Council n88S 

Compensation Committee report. ...... .1051 

Conference. Chicago, adopts wage scale 

for railroad engineers e597. 612 

Convention nl034 

Efforts to raise engineers* pay (C. E. 
Draver) 1394. IE. A. Van Deusen) 
1585. (T. P. Morrissey) 1N34 
First to adopt joint memberships plan 

(C. E. Draver) 1738 

Hearing on railroad engineers' pay at- 
tended by n688 

Licensing committee proposes bill 462 

Not entitled to sole credit for raising 
railroad engineers' pay (E. A. Van 

Deusen) 1585. e597 

Policies outlined by W. H. Finley n448 

Seeks better pay for railway engineers. . 295 
American Chamber of Commerce. London. 

G. P. Toby appointed secretary n889 

American Concrete Institute, preliminary 

program of meeting nl035 

"Proceedings" of 1918 convention 150 

American Concrete Pipe Association meet- 
ing 516 

Reorganized n689 

American Federation of Labor: engineers 
and draftsmen organizing to join (R. 
N. Atherton) 1201. (C. E. Drayer) 1394 

Opposed to radicalism ell87 

American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 

semi-annual meeting nll81 

American Institute of Consulting Engineers 

elects officers n447 

Gives dinner to M. de Billy n889 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
development committee advised by St. 

Louis electrical engineers 1272 

American Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Engineers, fall meeting nl035 

To hold joint meeting with Canadian Min- 
ing Institute and electrical engineers. . nl63 
American Library Association, a resource 

every engineer should know (G. W. Lee)11079 
American Railway Association reorganized.n206 
American Railway Engineering Association. 

convention e501. e.">98. 606 

Nominations nl65 

American Railway Express Co. trucks, 

gasoline and electric 902 

American Road Builders' Association con- 
vention e454, e455. a464. n494 

America's legacy, solution of problem of 
proper distribution of wealth, happiness, 

education el042. al050 

American Society for Testing Materials. 

active discussion expected at meeting. . n937 

Danger ahead for e751 

Four specifications translated into Span- 
ish 152 

Joins Engineering Council n259 


Annual meeting ' nl60 

Coles. Capt. S. L., new assistant secre- 
tary n690 

Convention in St. Paul-Minneapolis June 

1720 n039. plans for. nl034. nl231 

Convention, members visit engineering 

works and attend social affairs nl283 

Development committee disappointed by 

lack of suggestions e598 

Report ell87. 1229, nl231, el240 

Should be discussed at Minneapolis.. .el090 

Discusses Hudson River tunnel el0S9 

Interest in future of e697 

Iowa members take steps to form asso- 
ciation n494 

Local associations form section develop- 
ment commUiws ■ . ...- , ...-.•. , . e598 

Pittsburgh Aseotiallpn- ;;md* '.Engineers'; 
Society of Western Pennsylvania pop-' . 

fer on cooperation .'.'..." 7*83 

Presidential address. F. S. Curtis 1208 

Presidential address. A. N, T^Ibof. . . . :■. a.175 

Problems before '. . i ... . .. -.-.J134 

Progress in organization* Th .1918 el/1 

Technical sections, formation suggested 

by A. N. "3 aSu.i , . . al75. 

To omit lists 'fvdm.'"iisti: "of Members'".;. e$97 
American Society of MecBafJiflat Engineers'.. ' 
joint membership plan with Cleveland 
Engineering Society . .nl80, e454, n495, 
(C. E. Drayer) 1738 

Takes over "Engineering Index" nll4 

American Water-Works Association annual 

meeting 1 , program n988 

Convention ell89, »1193. nl'33 

Growth el089 

Minnesota Section, annual meeting n988 

New York Section, meeting n495 

American Welding Society formed n545 

American Wood Preservers' Association, to 

hold convention in St. Louis n67 

Americanization Conference program n840 

Anchor bolts held in position while concret- 
ing footings h»588 

Andrews. G. C, on reduction of water con- 
sumption in Buffalo all96 

Angle as a beam (R. Fleming) *433 

Anthony. G. C. on engineering education 
and Students' Army Training Corps 43 


Aerial cableways successful in north- 
west shipyards *37 

Automatic dump skip, single line h*317 

Backfilling and digging with one ma- 
chine n , 168 

Belt conveyor saves time in unloading 
cement bags h*396 

Bicycle support for end of concrete 
chute h*346 

Cableway carrier, home-made, operates 
with sinsle hauling line h'443 

Car measures correct amounts for con- 
crete mix n*213 

Cars with plate racks, in shipbuilding 
yard h'lll 

Corner detail makes stripping of forms 
easy h*203 

Derrick. improvised. without usual 
irons (S. P. Baird) h«540 

Device, simple, for removing footing 
forms h'741 

Digging and backfilling with one ma- 
chine n*168 

Ditcher arranged to cut close to ob- 
structions n*7-t.S 

Dividers, submerged, used on concrete 
walks 159 

Double roller and long board float give 
superior road finish (S. P. Baird) . . . h*110 

Drill, portable home-made gasoline (C. 
M. Youngl h*741 

Dump-bottom truck body for spreading 
road materials n548 

Float, split for finishing concrete at ex- 
pansion joints h*931 

Freight conveyor between cars and boats. 
Alton. Ill »30 

Gasket and form for cementing joints in 
tile pipe n*355 

Horse to support steam siphon (G. W. 
McAlpin) h'lll 

Movable towers concrete deck of Phila- 
delphia elevated •50 

Paver for use in alleys and streets. . . . n*21.'l 

Push plow unloads flat-cars h'1081 

Rigid corner frame permits frequent re- 
use of concrete forms h*541 

Safety feet for ladders h*203 

Shovel, light-weight, can be converted 
into crane n*263 

Side chute charges wheelbarrow from 
cement wa?on h'540 

Single air header supplies 11 drills h202 

Snat-h cable aids. teams on steep 
gradss h'1228 

Straight-edge short, with handles for 
narrow widths (G. W. McAlpin) . . . .h*1279 

Straight-edge split, corrects Joint humps 
in concrete pavement h*63 

Strainers, gravel, placed in shell of well.hl58 

Swing pipe saves hose changes on con- 
crete highway work (H. H. Edwards)h*30i 

Telescopic pipe carries steam supply to 
traveling derrick h934 

Thawing box reduces cost of winter ex- 
cavation (L. McL. Hunter) h'254 

Trailer shield holds sides of caving 
ditches in pipe laying h*740 

Trench-excavation platform. portable 

(M. R. Lewis) h«789 

Valves, economical nonfreezing type (J. 
H. Sawkinsi h*341 

Weed and root grubber on highways (E. 
E. Glass) h*159 

Welding outfit on home-made truck 

(E. E. Glass) h-159 

Arch dam abutment built before rest of 

dam *820 

Arches : 

Analysis by method using variable elastic 

•.' ■-his (F.J Dulude) *471 

. Coiier,e1e. 385 ft. proposed nll82 

R< n forced-concrete, largest, designed ... n791 

Relievtng. in subway, distribute stress 
to piers '667 

Timber. 100 ft. long (D. R. Walkinshaw) *775 
Arcs, parabolic, comparison of formulas 

for computing (R. C. Strachan) *32S 

Argentine-American Chamber of Commerce 

for.ii ed n645 

Argentine railways nll7 

Arizona- highway bond issue for S30.000.- 

000 vetoed n641 

New water cod- (G. E. P. Smith) 1027 

Armory Minneapolis, faulty foundation 

work causes failure el043. '1067 


Auxiliary Engim r Corps urged n989 

Bases, suggested use as part of free 

ports el 69 

Brooklyn supply base. .e314, '317. '366 

•641, h«589 
Hoisting -cd to help trucks 

up 177r h»589 

Concrete mat. rial hauled by motor 
truck ... '366 

Camps. 12. sold n988 

Charleston. S. C, supply base, wood 
construction <H. Abbott) •70S 

Construction Division: 

Achievements rumored n207 

Form of contract defended by General 

Marshall air;. 

Officers and \w, r k D*208 

Should not be included in Public 

Works Pepntmcnt 8896 

Work of (G. YV. Fuller) e408. 116. 
562 •800, i Maj. Gen. W. C. Lang- 
fitt) 11 <'T<; 

Eleventh Engineers, Col. W. B. Parsons' 

address to 1270 

', illustrated; 1, letters; e. editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 



Engineer board to recommend system of 

national roads nll32 

Engineer officers, one-third discharged. ,n745 

Rank first in mental tests *814 

Engineers at front e647 (C. E. De 

Leuw) 656 

Not reimbursed for traveling ex- 
penses nll32 

What they did in war 953 

Equipment from France to be distributed 

to states nl281 

Motor trucks adapted to many pur- 
poses *1052 

New Orleans base improves port facilities 

(G. H. Davis) *823, (M. G. Findley 

and G. H. Davis) 11077 
Norfolk, V'a., base, cement gun built 

walls and roof of warehouses *1199 

Pile casting and handling. . . ,ell39, *1155 

Ordnance base depot in France *124 

Personnel work to be exhibited n642 

Second Engineers cited n590 

Trade skill tests applicable in construc- 
tion a554, e598 

Twenty-third Engineers held to repair 

French roads (W. Bathon) 821 

Typhoid in Expeditionary Forces (Maj. 

G. A. Soper) 677 

War Department will receive bids on 

cantonments Apr. 15 n639, n839 

Will sell horses and mules n65 

Ash-collection and street-cleaning costs. 
Cincinnati 1124 


Association formed nl237 

Increases staff nl286 

Blo~k adapted to war purposes (E. J. 

Morrison) 131 

Paving; neglible year in 131 

Plant. Los Angeles municipal, costs. . . . 397 

Portland. Ore., operation costs 1200 

Washington. D. C.. operation cost. . . .e764 
Southern Asphalt Association formed.. .nll82 

Street maintenance. Los Angeles 489 

Assessment for benefits discussed at New 
England Water-Works Association con- 
vention n591, e549 

Associated General Contractors adopt pro- 
gram 669 

G. W. Buchholz. secretary n398. n449 

Associated Highways of America formed.. n258 
Associations, trade, to have national build- 
ing in New York n942 

Augusta. Ga., flood-protection work com- 
pleted n601 

Austin. O. P.. on prices yesterday, today 

and tomorrow 809 

Automatic dump skip, single-line h*347 

Auxiliary Engineer Corps urged. . . .n989. nl232 
Awning reduces lost time by hiding move- 
ments of derrick. .h443, (J. J. Dunn) . . .1586 


Babcock, D. P., on balancing of highway 
excavation by semi-graphic method. ... *361 

Backfilling and digging with one machine. n*168 

Backwater problems, new method for solu- 
tion of (H. R. Leach) *76R 

Bacteria reduced by filter galleries, Des 
Moines 1247 

Bacteriological tests, numerical interpreta- 
tion of (M. F. Stein) '1106 

Baird. S. P.. on double roller and long 

board float gives superior road finish. h*110 
On improvised derrick without usual 
irons h*540 

Baker. C. W.. on Federal Department of 
Public Works, how should it be orga- 
nized? 722 

On pay and position of railway engineers. 

e216. 228 

Baker. I. O.. retracts criticism of Chicago 
paving administration n66 

Balanced automatic sluice gate for park 
dam *1166 

Baldwin. A. S., president Western Society 
of Engineers n308 

Baltimore, garbage disposal contract (W. 

E. Lee) e265. *287 

Women water-waste inspectors *1105 

Bamman, F. C, on garbage during war and 
after e359. *373 

BaDkhead National Association meeting ... n888 

Barges, self-propelled, to be built for New 
York State Barge Canal n839 

Barriers, yielding, at drawbridges *1168 

Bartholomew. H.. on selection of industrial 
site *872 

Bartow. Col. E.. service in France in charge 
of water laboratories 331 

Bathon W. on 23rd Engineers held to re- 
pair French roads 821 

Baths', pressure and pipes' influence effect 
on water meters n767 

Baton Rouge. La., unusual well conditions. . nOOl 

Bauer & Black factory. Chicago: close se- 
quence of construction operations h*62 


An"le as a beam (R. Fleming) *433 

Deflections under distributed or concen- 
trated loading (J. B. Kommers) *44 

Distortional rotation and principle of 

virtual work (G. N. Linday) 1107,1 

I-beams retain marks 30 years (R. P. 

Clave) 1*301 

Beanfield, Capt. R. McC. on rein forced-con- 
crete swimming tank at Fort Bliss *195 

Belgium, are American engineers and con- 
tractors wanted? e2, 31 

Devastation (George B. Ford), e215, 
•218, (Maj. D. T. Pierce) 627 
Bell. G. L., becomes chairman of permanent 
labor arbitration board n405 


Bell slots in trench sides made use of nar- 
row elevator possible hi 12 8 

Belt conveyor saves time in unloading ce- 
ment bags h*390 

Bennett. R., on graphical records of surge 
pressures in pipe lines *1048 

Berrien County. Michigan, maintains roads 
by gang system *526 

Bibbins, J. R., on economics of transporta- 
tion in the Mississippi Valley e945. *971 

Bicycle support for end of concrete chute.h*346 

Big Sioux River, short circuiting floods in 

(F. C. Shenehon) ." *961 

Birge. E. A., new president of University 
of Wisconsin n67 

Bishop, F. L., on engineering education . . . 475 

Bishop. H. K.. appointed chief engineer, 
Indiana State Highway Commission. .. .n988 

Blaek, Maj. Gen. W. M.. decorated *165 

Made chairman of Port and Harbors 
Facilities Commission n403 

Blackstead, A. P.. on effect of air in 
centrifugal pump *618 

Blaine. E. S.. on inspection of drainage 
ditch cross-sections after contract dretl?- 
ing *10i9 

Blair. W. P., on drainage system lor im- 
proved country highways, 1985. 914. 
(M. H. Downey; with ed. comment) 

11080. (M. H. Downey) 1112 7 

On status of paving brick in 1918 132 

Blanchard, A. H.. on factors influencing 

selection of road plant all 03 

On highway transport engineering all53 

Blanket lake bottom to stop leaks from 
reservoir 711 

Blast furnace supported while foundation 
is being replaced (C. W. Lush) *1123 

Blasting concrete mats under building 
foundations 838 

Blatt apartment building, Chicago, cost re- 
duced by concrete mat and columns *959 

Bloomington, Ind.. combined aerator and 
mixer for colloidal water *1210 

Blueprints, costs 1065 

Bohmann. H. P., on causes of tastes in 
Milwaukee water. 181. (W. R. Gelston) .. 1685 

Boilers, 45-ton. rolled 21 miles along coast. *772 

Bolts, loose, for temporary bridge deck.. . .h789 

Bond issues, highway, efficient methods of 

financing a573 

(See also Highways. Bonds) 

Bonds, corporate, function of, and how ob- 
tained (H. W. Swart) 1212 

Bonus payments speed up shaft sinking. . . 232 

Book list for disabled soldiers 981 

Books, reference, for the engineer (R. Cana- 
van) 578 


American Concrete Institute, Proceed- 
ings, of 1918 Convention 150 

'American Highway Engineers' Hand- 
book" 387 

"American Methods in Foreign Trade". . 582 
"Analysis and Tests of Rigidly Connected 

Reinforced-Concrete Frames" 979 

"Applied Mechanics" 582 

"Asphalts and Allied Substances" 779 

"Building Estimators' Reference Book". 1215 
"Calculation of Flow in Open Channels 

(I. E. Houk) 149 

"Chlorination of Water" 780 

"Conveyance and Distribution of Water 
for Water-Supply" (reviewed by C. M. 

Saville) 580 

"Cost Accounting" 391 

"Designing Concrete Mixtures" 980 

"Efficient Railway Operation" 1125 

"Electric Generation and Distribution in 

Canada" 1217 

"Elements of Wood-Ship Construction," 

Curtis 980 

EngineeriT, i Vems .index 779 

"Engineerh ^ Profession Fifty Years 

Hence" 151 

"Experts in City Government" 1216 

"Fighting the Boche Underground" 150 

"George Westinghouse" 390 

"Government Ownership of Public Utili- 
ties" 1216 

"Graphical and Mechanical Computation" 

(reviewed by R. C. Strachan) 388 

"Great Hunger. The" 781 

"Handbook for Highway Engineers". ... 1216 
"Instructor. The — The Man and the Job" 581 

"Iron and Steel" 781 

"Irrigation Engineering" 979 

"Liquid Steel" 583 

"Location. Construction and Maintenance 

of Roads" . . . ! 151 

"Man to Man" 581 

"Materials of Construction." Johnson's. 579 

"Mathematics for Engineers" 980 

"Methods of Shutting Off Water in Oil 

and Gas Wells" 150 

"New Municipal Program" 1216 

"Our Cities Awake" 388 

"Pollution of Boundary Waters" 1216 

"Practical Ship Production" 781 

"Public Utility Rate Fixing" (reviewed 

by F. P. Steams) 389 

"Relation of Landslides and Glacial De- 
posits to Reservoir Sites in the San 

Juan Mountains. Colorado" 980 

"Results of Municipal Electric Lighting 

in Massachusetts" 3&1 

"Retaining Walls" 390 

"Rules for the Preparation of Railway 

Projects" (India) 151 

"Sewage Disposal" 581 

"Shipbuilding Industry, The" 980 

"Storing" 389 

"Stmctural Engineers' Handbook," 

Ketchum 979 

"Topographic Stadia Surveying" 151 

"Vital Statistics" 1216 


"Waterproofing Engineering" 979 

Boston engineers' trade union dinner ("Ob- 
server" ) 1737 

Molasses-tank failure. . . . n.353, (B. S. 
Brown) e945. *974. (J. A. L. Wad- 
dell) 11075 
Raising water main (F. J. Sauer, Jr.).h*254 
Society of Civil Engineers, committee on 

run-off makes progress report 152 

Bowles. F. T., to leave Emergency Fleet 

Corporation n305 

Box on side of railroad car decreases load- 
ing costs (M. Miller) h*985 

Boxes, fiber-board, strengthened by edge 

taping 1271 

Bracing eliminated in sheeting octagonal 

excavation (W. K. Knauff ) h*541 

Brackets, safe loads on, diagrams for (F. 

W. Seidensticker) 1*1222 

Bradt. S. E., on efficient methods of fi- 
nancing highway bond issues a573 

Breed. H. E.. on long and short highway 

contracts *831 

On calcium-chloride solution and setting 

of concrete al258 

On testing aggregates for concrete roads. all02 
Brick, Dunn wire-cut-lug brick patents sus- 
tained n213 

National Manufacturers' Conference. ... n399 
Bridge shops, in fabricated ship construc- 
tion 16 


Abutments, standard, on canal projects 

(D. C. Willett) *777 

Allegheny River ordered raised n743 

Bascule, Buffalo, trouble with nll80 

Builders report 27% of capacity taken 

n263. 12% taken n499 

Chords put on drawbridge carrying traffic. '956 
Concrete; accurate costs kept on war- 
time fee contract (F. Gannett and 

J. D. Carpenter) *571 

And steel span, 385-ft. arch, Willa- 
mette River nil 82 

Base track O ">7 

Contract to be let in four parts. . . . '1247 
Piles concreted to avoid replacing (F. 

E. Semon) *766 

Reinforced-conerete lift-span towers 

(F. H. Frankland) *660 

Schenectady, N. Y "1247 

Corrosion, local, causes scrapping of 

good metal el043 

Delaware River, at Philadelphia, bill 

passed by New Jersey legislature. .. .n742 
Delaware River toll. Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey to cooperate in purchas- 
ing nl035 

Dismantle bridge spans for use else- 
where *765 

Drawbridge, new chords put on draw- 
bridge carrying traffic *956 

Yielding barriers at *1168 

Engineers; are they losing heads or unit 
stresses (J. A. L. Waddell), 1155, el22. 
(W. C. Thomson) 1251. (R. S. Foulds) 
1296. (C. E. Fowles) 1345, (J. H. 

Flynn) 1395. (F. H. Frankland) 1485 

Erection methods applied to erecting 

long-span roof e895. *898 

Floors: waterproofing with burlap (A. H. 

Rhett ) 1299 

Concrete for steel floor-beams to pre- 
vent corrosion (A. B. Tappen) 11226 

Metal scrapped because of local cor- 
rosion el043. (A. P. Tappen) 11226 
Loads, equivalent uniform. C. L. Christen- 

sen replies to Dr. Steinman 1199 

Louisville, design of new superstructure 

with 644-foot span e995. *1007 

Maintaining traffic during erections 
•1061. (correction, 1151) 
Missouri River, Chicago. Burlington & 
Quincy R.R., at Kansas City, dis- 
mantling *705 

Movable, electrical equipment for 966 

Named for war heroes, at Hutchinson, 

Kan 805 

Newark Bay, committee to report on 

site nl085 

Niagara arch to be reconstructed for 

heavier traffic nll31 

Omaha track-elevation '380 

Over rivers, discussed by Division of 

Bridges, National Highway Association .n305 
Pennsylvania R.R.'s. at Louisville, Ky., 
design, with 644-foot riveted span 
e995. *1007, maintaining traffic dur- 
ing erection *1()61, (correction, 1151) 
Pennsylvania R.R. over Allegheny River 

at Pittsburgh, raising e847. *850 

Pittsburgh asks architects' aid in de- 
signing nll80 

Railway : 

Column formula of parabolic type, A. 

R. E. A. considers n.">45 

Concrete trough-slab floor 1*157 

Design loadings and actual engine 

loads (R. B. Leffler) *1270 

Impact allowances e454. (J. E. 

Greiner) 1736. (J. A. L. Waddell). .. 1786 
Louisville, design with 644-foot riveted 

span e995, *1007 

Louisville, maintaining traffic during 

erection *1061. (correction) 1151 

Raising Pennsylvania bridge over Al- 
legheny River at Pittsburgh. ,e847. *850 
Specifications. American Railway En- 
gineering Association, new. drafted 
by committee and discussed at con- 
vention e598, 607 

Train loading, standard, proposed con- 
ference on n545 

Union Pacific at St. Joseph, Mo., 
moved *530. *567 

*. illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 

Raising. Pennsylvania R.R. bridge over 


Allegheny River at Pittsburgh. .e847. *850 

Reinforcement . . • • ■ .e895, .11- 

.Roumania wants Americans to rebuild. . .nl^Bi 
Riveted-truss span of record length. . . 

e995, *1UU / 

Salem Ore., bridge over Willamette 
River (L. W. Metzger) *143. criticized 
(E. Godfrey) 1441 .-.oat 

Schenectady. N. Y.. long concrete bridge. • 1347 

Skew spans shifted laterally by jacks 
on roller blocks (S. A. Snyder) .. ,h*34b 

Steinman. D. B.. replied to by C L. 
Christensen, on equivalent uniform 



Tests ratio of tensile to compressive unit 
stress should be increased (R. S. 

Foulds) l'-'m 

Toll New York State buys two nl084 

Pennsylvania and New Jersey to co- 
operate in purchasing .nlOJa 

Waterproofing floors with burlap (A. 

H Rhett ) l-vily 

Willamete River at Salem. Ore. (L. W. 
Metzger) *143: criticized (E. God- 
frey) 1441 
At Oregon City, 385-ft. concrete arch 

proposed nll8- 

Bristol yard. Merchant Shipbuilding Cor- 




British Columbia Technical Union formed.. n989 

British engineering standards 1)1 

Ministrv of Health, bill for .. . ... . . n840 

Ministry of Ways and Communications 

proposed .• ■■■ n841 

Women engineers organize union. . .ebd. 

(Engineer) .-,••■• 1984 

Brooklyn Engineers' Club, industrial ex- 
hibition • • • -61041 

Brown B. S.. on Boston molasses-tank 
failure e945. *974 (see also n353). (J. 

A. L. Waddell ) „ U0 ' ;> 

Brown. H. P.. holds bulging retaining wall 

with buttresses • 19- 

Brown. Capt J. P., on design and tests of 

air-lift installation. Fort Bliss •1111 

Brown. R. A., on mechanical devices help 

overcome engineer shortage 34- 

Brule River dam, Wisconsin .el-9 

Bryan. E. N.. on departures in canal de- 
sign and location effect saving 48 

On piecework faster than day labor on 

hand excavation. California 7/J7 

Buehholz, G. W„ acting secretary Associated 

General Contractors of America. .n398, n*448 
Bucket chain conveyors coal transports. . .*11 
Buchler. W . on paint-coat method for wood- 

block paving 


Buel. E. D.. on underwater construction of 

outshore launching ways •1121 

Buente C. F., on standardizing concrete 

. a516 

pipe .. 
Buffalo. N. Y., water-meter practice and 



Water- waste education by bulletins 1094 

'Build Your Own Home" movement, con- 



Builders' Supply Association elects officers.n263 

Activities and mortgages -ell88 

Campaign to be started by Government. . r.04 

Home. England will subsidize n448 

Materials: . . _._ 

And machinery for South America. . . .n7j»7 

Government surplus small n398 

Illinois Commission sees no reduction 

in prices 25i 

No freight rate reduction nb4i 

Officials' conference • • • • ■ n «gS 

Plan to eliminate jurisdictional strikes. . e550 
Prices halt Chicago operations 369, <F. 

F Vater) 158o 

Promoted in Huntington (J. M. Triggs)e441 

Safety record, San Francisco Ilb4 

What is? eK47 

Building and loan associations, assets, etc. .n348 


Concrete mat and columns reduce cost.. .'959 
Concrrte. wrecked with derrick and drop 

weight •,■•; A ■ " 87 

Design long girders and high columns de- 

signed as rigid frame (A. E. Wynn).. . *340 
Hi'N at Camp Custer, framed units 

Caissons chambers concreted in sections. h203 
Pneumatic, sunk through moving ground^ 

Calaveras dam slide, what was coefficient 

of friction? (D. C. Henny) ........ .1*487 

Calcium chloride accelerates concrete hard- 
ening- a507. al25S 

Calder, Senator W. M., .bill for Hudson 
River vehicle tunnel introduced. n30(>, 
defeated n.J.jl 

Caldwell. Representative, introduces bill to 

promote industrial education nd.jJ 


Good road s-ntiment strong. n 3n2c 

Highway bond issue to be voted on...J03b 
Highways, outlook for improvements. . n5»l 

Increase of costs • • ■ -1055 

Motor-vehicle fees pay large part of 

maintenance .•••;„■ ',;.■ T ; ' ' 1,,jl 

Land prepared for irrigation (F. W Her- 

ron J e313, *.i37 

Land Settlement Board, money for. .. .£401 

Water commission advises changes 5- 

Calkins F. J., on map-indexing system 
adapted to small cities .............. 

Calumet District, sewage-treatment plant.. 
Cameras, panoramic and transforming used 

in aero-photographic mapping. . .e993. •100(1 
Cameron septic tank patent ligation pro- 
posed settlement el041, nl084 

Camp Custer. Michigan, cafeteria plan cuts 

time of serving meals n o»t> 

Erection of officers' huts by means ot 

framed units ■ n ,J97 

Saucer-topped garbage table prevents 

spattering ......_..■.. .B b8o 

Camp utility operation by Army Construc- 
tion Division (G. W. Fuller) *600 


Camps, Army, 12, sold n9 88 


Budget provides for public work. . . . .n640 
Building and Construction Industries As- 

sociation organized .............. "JjSn 

Federal-aid highwav bill introduced nb8J 
Formula for steel columns, e266, defended 

(W. C. Thomson) 1250 
Good Roads Congress and Exhibition 

sixth, nl084: papers read lioo 

Government states road policy n.lH.t 

Partial ownership of railways. el lS5 

Takes over Grand Trunk Pacific. .. ..nj9- 
Industrial Congress to be held at Cal_ 



Atlantic intraeoastal, two reports ... .n349 
Barges, self-propelled to be built for 

New York State Barge Canal nii.i'.t 

Cape Cod. owners refuse Government 

offer ■ n.«»n 

Departures in design and location effect 

saving (Everett N. Bryan) ... . . 4H 

Navigation in 1918, report of director ... 480 
New York Barge, self-propelled barges 

to be built for ^"™ 

Traffic in 1918 ■ ... ■ e360. 370 

New York Harvr. Canal Bulletin ceases 



Prices lowered throughout country. . . .n748 
Lowered by dealers, not manufac- 
turers n398 

Production falls off. 1918 291 

Tests show value of fine grinding of 

Portland cement ~33 

Unloaded by measuring chutes from 

wagons h*540 

Central R.R., of New Jersey, skew bridge 
spans shifted laterally by jacks on roller 

blocks IS. A. Snyder) h*346 

Centrifugal pumps at Chicago water-works 

plants el089. 1114 

Chamber of Commerce, United States, 
for Federal highways and waterway de- 
velopment, and against Government own- 
ership • n93J; 

Charleston port terminal (H. Abbott) *70.i 


Manning formula, chart for solution of 

M. F. Sayre) 1*1126 

Motor truck and trailer costs (W. Bige- 

low) 1*1278 

Progress, for recording preparation ol 

plans h202 

Provide labor cost analysis h*lu8 

Show number of gallons of oil required 

to treat road .2?/. 

Weir, universal (E. E. Glass) *926 

Chattanooga. Tenn., wood-block pavement 

spreads 2 in • • 5.-3 

Cheeking, expert, of plans, and accidents (J. _ 

A. L. Waddell) 1107o 

Chemical industries, fifth national exposi- 
tion nll31 


Bauer & Black factory; close sequence 

of construction operations h*G- 

Board of Local Improvements criticism 

of. retracted by J. O. Baker nbo 

Centrifugal pumps for water-works plants 

el099. 1114 
Health board studies pipe corrosion in 

buildings £■•••,' a 469 

Improvement scheme proposed by plan 

commission • • • • 194 

Paving administration, criticism by I. O. 

Baker retracted .?§? 

Railway electrification nlldl 

Societies, opportunity to work together 
(C. E. Drayer) 328. (A. G. Frost) 1931 

Union station work in 1919 .*528 

Water-works intake crib tilted level with 

screw jacks ~ 4S 

Chicago Chapter. American Association of 
Engineers, gets mayoralty candidates 

promise to aid engineers ?„„! 

Salary schedule adopted by ............ 100.^ 

Straw ballot on mayoralty candidates. . . 439 
Chicago. Rock Island and Pacific Ry.; com- 
mittee analyzes track-elevation costs m 







Seepage losses affected by temperature 
(L Crandall). e313 *323; (E. C 
Murphy and L. Crandall) ..... . • • .■ • • l"™ 

Used alternately to irrigate and dram.. »-» 

Welland. work resumed • • ■ ■• n-iu 

Yakima-Tieton enlargement (G. C. Fin- 
ley) 1 " 5 ° 

Canavan. R.. on reference books for thei 

engineer •/•.!'_ 

Canopy contractor's, need not be ugly, .n 88/ 
Cantonment fire due to faulty masonry in 

fireplace • •. • • ; • i • 8, " a 

Cantonments, bids on. to be received by 

War Department Apr. 15 .n63». WSBS 

Cappelen. F. W., designs largest reinforced- 

concrete arch ll.i'ii 

Car camps for road maintenance gangs. .h 444 

Car-icing plant. Illinois Central. •• <«'«> 

Car measures correct amount of concrete 

Carnegie" Natural' Gail Co.] constructs largest 
gas line in United States. . ■ ■ • 70b 

Carpenter. J. D.. and Gannett. F., on keep 
accurate costs on war-time fee contract .171 

Chimnev, brick, carried on platform at roof 

(J. G. Mingle) 10 .5? 

China bandits kidnap American engineers, bba 
Red Cross refugees in. build macadam 

road (R. A. White) *4«8 

Salvaging construction material in 1-511 

Chinese United States and other railways.. 9.3 

Chloramine tried by New York City a5o« 


Advance in and effect on typhoid (J. 

Kienle) al J,V>S 

Interruptions costly • • • • • • »»-' 

Oil in chlorinated water causes trouble 

in West Virginia }}<\a 

Plants in Michigan 1*°*' 

Price cut in half .• ■ • ' 

Removes 80<; of bacteria from sewage 

at Davtona. Fla. (G. W. Simons) ..... 99 
Treatment of Detroit water-supply effec- 

tive 685 

Use of in Milwaukee water-supply, hi 

connection with tastes and odors (H. 

P. Bohmann). 181: (W. R. Gelston) .lfi8> 
Use of. in treating sewage in tests at 

New Haven 


Cinder fills, control of fires in. 711; < L I{ , W ^ 

Cinrinniti prohibition and water revenues 7^1 
Street cleaning and ash-collection costs . .11-4 

Bureau of Industrial Housing and Trans- 

portation, L. K. Sherman new head. . . .n399 
Bureau of Mines to dedicate new Pitts- 

burgh la/boratories nllJ- 

Bureau of Public Roads, failure to ap- 
point director delays Federal-aid work 


Salary of director raised . . . nll32 

Burgess. P.. on revenue from sale of water 

to metered domestic consumer *lllb 

Burke R. H.. on light and heavy equip- 
ment in sewer construction ....... . . . l«i 

Burkhalter. R. M.. on design and construc- 
tion of navy concrete oil barges . . 1050 
Burlap deterioration, in waterproofing (J 
B W Gardiner) 440, (M. Toch and 

J B W. Gardiner) H>H- 

Burma, sanitary Problems solved by Amer- 
ican engineer (H. N. Jenks) el69, *172. *339 
Bush. Col. L.. biography. ■■■■•■•■ • • .■ . n Ma 
Buttresses, concrete, used to hold retaining 


Cableway carrier, home-made, operates -witVi 

single hauling line . ■ • ■ • ■ • h 44.5 

Cableways. aerial, successful in Northwest 

shipyards • • • ■ • • • • • • ■ • • ■ 

Cady H. R., on new coal-handling plants 
for Philadelphia water works 

accurate costs on war-time fee contract *.)71 University, cooperative course in r om- 

Carpenters, earnings of. with one contractor mercial engineering nllBO. eiioo 

(O. P. Rietschlin) » ' J ' 


Cars. See Railways. Cars 

Cars with plate racks, in shipyard n ill 

Carson. H. Y.. on ancient, war-time and 
present water-supply of Jerusalem *10.)-. 
(correction) 1207 ,.„„ 
Cast-iron car wheels, residual strains in... . &-J 
"Castle" formation, 209th Engineers photo- 
graphed • lioii 

Cedar Lake landslide damage suits. ...... ^n-« 

Reservoir. Seattle water- works, sealing 
work to be resumed muoo 


Barges unloaded by special belt eon h - . 3! j 6 

Companies combine for femsn tride. -nl036 
Dust-bin for shaking out empty bags. ,li*88b 
Grinding: tests show value of fine grind- 

Guns build wall's' and roof of' Army ware- 
houses li.*.' 

Joints for cast-iron water and gas mains 

at Vallejo. Calif • • • • - ■ x - 01 

For water mains save money in I'orl- 
land. Ore • • • ■ • „«2o 

Los Angeles wants to 8°H mill. . •■• • • ■ •, n0 *'° 

Pric<. B investigated by Dnluth Engineers 
Club n74 * 


illustrated: 1. letters: e. editorials: h. bints: n. news notes 


Ash-collection and street-cleaning costs.. 11 -4 

Asphalt plants, see Asphalt 

Chicago improvements proposed by Pl an . 1 

commission ■ / ' ' ' Vir ' t> 

Common sense of civic centers (N. *^ 10ng 

ConfeTenee' ' on' ' City' ' ^^ lh n ^ 1 nl ^ 
Detroit and Duluth vote against buying 

street railways • • • • ■ ■••»'•" 

Industrial, planning problems of ,J al0fl8 

Nolen ) ,■ ■ «rt*in 

Kansas City, Mo., cannot make »«>•:„• n f|2 
Los Angeles wants to sell ^ m ent mill. .n64- 
Map indexing system for small cities <*•.„., 

J. Calkins) v • ;• JJlo 

Mayors, some, need education . ■••■•:•• eot>u 
National Conference^on C1^ Q ^Jgg^* u83 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.. sees B^^^jgg 

Overhead charare between departmenU. . . 587 

PhnadelPhia. propOBed charter contains 

provision for long-term contracts „?hz\; 

Philadelphia charter changes ° loi 

Planning. Pittsburgh program "" 

n. abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 


Public ownership, Detroit and Duluth 

vote against buying- street railways . . . n743 
Public ownership. Superior, Wis., votes 

for n742 

Rain gages needed in el089 

Record of city property, accurate and 

prompt *565 

Reference maps, Portland. Ore *911 

Regional and town planning (T. Adams) al097 
Seattle to buy street-railway system 

ell9, nl63 
Should plan improvements to provide 

work for returning soldiers e2 

St. Paul, industrial district formed by 

Railways »186 

Steam railroad in its relation to city plan 

(E. J. Port) al099 

Street-cleaning and ash-collection costs. 

Cincinnati 1124 

Superior, Wis., votes for public owner- 
ship n742 

Transit planning and growing problems. el70 

"City of Eureka" built in 27 days nl034 

Civil service examinations. .n450, 495, 545, 
592, 642. 691. 745, 795, 842. 890. 938. 

989, 1037, 1085. 1134. 1183. 1235 
Civil War price trends and today's (M. 

Knowles) *414 

daffy. T. J., on pipe corrosion in build- 
ings a*469 

Clarion call to the profession e849 

Cleveland. Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis 

Ry.. double-track improvement *524 


Clearwater basin case hearings concluded 

New York Central's freight terminal (W. 

E. Phelps) »508 

Railway terminal e216. *240 

Sewage-treatment works. Westerly, to be 

started n690 

Straightening Cuyahoga River. . .e749. *763 

Terminal, Galion. Ohio *519 

Votes to build union station nl65 

Cleveland Engineering Society, joint mem- 
bership plan with Am. Soc. M. E.. .e454, 
495. (C. E. Drayer) 1738, nll80 

Clinton, Mass.. hydraulic turbine casing 
breaks, floods power plant n403 

Coal-handling costs reduced: by electric 
truck n*311 

Coal-handling plants, new, for Philadelphia 
water-works (H. R. Cady) *1095 

Coal production in 1917 nll7 

Saved by electrifying railroads in Italy. . 331 

Cofferdams, used in constructing Brule 

River dam. Wisconsin *129 

Single-wall, designing (P. R. Sweenv) 

•708. (W. A. Lyon) 1*1029 

Cohoes. N. Y.. new electric-drive water- 
pumping station (H. W. Taylor) *653 

Cole. D. W.. on cost of ditches for reclaim- 
ing Idaho lands 678 

Cole. E. D., on laying out reservoir gage 
table «956 

Coles. Capt. S. L., new assistant secretary 
Am. Soc. C. E n690 


Collins. A. W., on concrete box flume car- 
ried across gulch on trestle *463 

Colorado Engineering Council formed. . . .nl085 

Colorado, heavy road traffic 157 

Societies submit names for board of 

engineer examiners 982 

Colorado River, commission to study, and 

save Imperial Vallev. proposed e315 

Flood control by storage. e453, *45fi. 

(J. C. Stevens) 1739 

Flood-control survey proposed n401 

Columbia College,- psychological tests for 

entrance e357 

Columbia irrigation project, Washington 

State, appropriation for surveys n793 

Columbus. Ohio. Engineers' Club effects 

close relation with city council n353 

Water treatment saves lives and money. . 755 
Column formula. proposed conference 

on n545 

Columns, reinforced-concrete. of precast 

pieces *778 

Coming status of employee in industry 

el042. al050 
Comparison of formulas for computing 

parabolic arcs (R. C. Strachan) »325 

Compensation laws and accident preven- 

_ tion e502 

Compound curves, railway, general solu- 

tions of (A. Llano) «1070. el090 

Compressed-air line connected to water 

mains for fire protection hl033 

Shortage relieved by waste-prevention 

campaign h934 

Compression tests show effect of silt 757 

Compute area of four-sided figure, method 

(C. K. Averill) «787 

Comstock. G. F.. on transverse fissures in 
rails and phosphorus segregation a*532 


Abrams. D. A., on how to design mix- 

, tures e752. a*758 

Aggregates : 

Light, for concrete ships 14 

Light for structural concrete e3 

Light, history and properties. .e799. *802 
Mortar test does not insure good con- 
crete aggregate (C. C. Williams) . . *1006 
Testing for roads (H. E. Breed) . . . .all02 
Too coarse in Bureau of Standards 
test (D. A. Abrams) 1147 

American Concrete Institute: Proceedings 
of 1918 convention 150 

Anchor bolts held in position while con- 
creting footings (A. P. Roscoe) *588 

Arch, largest reinforced-concrete span 

designed, for Minneapolis n791 

Automatic dump skip, single line, makes 

record h*347 

Base-track for bridges el 07 

Bettering, by new mixing method (N. E. 

Johnson) 1126 

Bicycle support for end of chute h*346 

Box flume carried across gulch on 

trestle (A. W. Collins) '463 

Building wrecked by derrick with drop 

weight h687 

Caisson chambers concreted in sections h203 
Calcium chloride and setting. ... a507. al258 

Casing pipe line. Lousiana e698. *725 

Coating for steel floor-beams to prevent 

corrosion (A. B. Tappen) 11226 

Columns, reinforced-concrete, of precast 

pieces *778 

Consistency measured by new device (H. 
A. Davisl *603. (D. A. Abrams) .... 1836 
Test in laboratory practice (D. A. 

(Abrams) 1836 

Derricks, mammoth, build outlet for 

Lockington Dam. Miami Valley *326 

Disintegrated, in Chicago sewer, makes 

repairs necessary nl037 

Dry, for road work e599 

Extra screening of sand reduces costs . . h44o 
Factory construction; close sequence of 

operations h'62 

Fineness modulus and surface aggregate 
methods of proportioning tested (G. 
W. Williams and W. Davis) el 139. 
♦1142. (L. N. Edwards and D. A. 
Abrams) 1203 
Finishing of floor (W. McGinnis) 477, 
(T. P. Morrissey) 1636. 

Flat-slab patent, Norcross, expiration of e801 
Flat-slab patent, two-way, declared in- 
valid n889 

Flat slab substituted for groined roof of 
Floor forms of wood grids with sheet 

reservoir (H. C. Wight) *1016 

iron covering h*986 

Floor stands big overload without col- 
lapse *813 


Corner detail makes stripping easy. . .h*203 
Floor, made up of wood frame sec- 
tions h*1280 

Floor, of wood with sheet-iron cov- 
ering h*986 

Footing, simple device for removing. .h*741 
Model of section helps contractor. . .h*1228 
Removal aided by simple device. . . ,h*741 
Rigid corner frame permits frequent 

re-use h*541 

Special detail corner (L. Kopczynski) 

Unit form permits building wall on 

pier edge h*1279 

Frame building has wooden roof (W. E. 

Turner) *926 

Freight car n*595 

Frozen, thawed by putting warm con- 
crete on surface e945. a964 

Girders, new type of expansion joint for.*773 
Guns, cement, built walls and roof of 

Army warehouses '1199 

Hammering a useful development el69. 

(C. Reger) 1394 

Hammering, hand, of forms not new 

(C. Reger) 1394 

Handled several ways on bridge abut- 
ment job '533 

Hardening, acceleration of a507, al258 

Highway, delivered wet by trucks, cost 

of '870 

Holding bulging retaining wall with but- 
tresses *192 

How to design mixtures e752. a*758 

Improving quality discussed at conven- 
tion American Railway Engineering As- 
sociation 608 

Joint Committee on Concrete and Rein- 
forced Concrete, another el239 

Lines mine shaft 936 ft. deep (R. L. 

Russell) '1259 

Lines temporary diversion channel (G. D. 

Holmes) a«1228 

Made water-tight, under external hydro- 
static pressure h637 

Manholes for pipe sewers, design and 

cost (R. A. Koerner) *1250 

Mat and columns reduce cost of building. *959 
Material for Army base hauled by motor 

truck *366 

Mats under building foundations blasted h838 
Mine shaft on steel slope reclined with 

concrete *1152 

Minute concrete mix subject to doubt 

(H. A. Davis) 1300 

Mixers and Mixing: 

Association standardizes rating 79 

Car measures correct amounts n'213 

Horse-drawn derrick loads mixer. . . . h*445 
Long-time should hot reduce strength 

(L. N. Edwards) 1486 

Minute mix subject to doubt (H. A. 

Davis ) e300 

Mounted on street-repair truck h*638 

Moving picture studies (N. C. John- 
son) n350, el239. *1266 

New type of mixer (N. C. Johnson) . . *1266 
Paving has inclosed transmission . . . n595 
Paving, new. propelled by multiple- 
tread apparatus n*694 

Self-propelled crane for charging. . . .n'942 

Tests on time (J. O. Jones) 1200 

Mixture, fundamentals in make-up (Prof. 

A. N. Talbot) 869 

Movable towers concrete deck of Phila- 
delphia elevated *50 

Moving pictures by N. C. Johnson show 

making of concrete. . . ,n350, el239, *1266 
Output increased sixfold by method of 

operating mixing plant *96 

Patches for worn brick paving *1018 

For worn pavement 914 

Pavements, side chutes charge wheel- 
barrows from cement wagon h*540 

Split straightedge corrects joint humps h*63 
Pier. Redondo Beach. California, under- 
mined by ocean n*641 

Piles, casting and mechanical handling 

at Norfolk Army base ell39, "1155 

Cutting h*886 

Highway bridge, concreted to avoid 

replacing (F. S. Semon) '766 

Pipe Association reorganized n689 

Pipe, standardizing a516 

Placing, movable towers concrete deck of 

Philadelphia elevated *50 

Precast frames make up flume trestles. . *977 
Properly proportioned batches hauled to 

mixer by trucks h'1032 

Proportioning, new theories advanced by 

Prof. D. A. Abrams e752, a*758 

Reinforced : 

Columns of precast pieces *778 

Culverts under irrigation canal (D. C. 

Willett) '919 

Lift-span towers for highway bridge 

(F. H. Frankland) »660 

Roads, see Roads, Concrete 

Rodding improves concrete (F. E. 

Giesecke) *957 

Screeds for groined floor, suspended angle 

irons form h*886 

Setting hastened by calcium chloride. 

a507. al258 
Sewer-pipe specifications. Los Angeles. . . 518 
Shears, high, in deep reinforced-concrete 
beams e407, *430 (correction 570), 
(E. Godfrey and W. A. Slater) 1783. 
E. Godfrey) 1931 
Shipbuilding, see Shipbuilding. Concrete 
Silt in. compression tests show effect of. . 757 
Single-line automatic dump skip makes 

record h , 347 

Slab footing for chimney supported from 
ground by separate columns (J. G. 

Mingle) «1069 

Standard precast frames make up flume 

trestles *977 

Strength in shear (E. Godfrey and W. 

A. Slater) 1783 

Structural: light aggregate for e3 

Sump and drain keep footing pit dry 

(A. P. Roscoe) h»985 

Surface aggregate, see Fineness modulus 
Swimming tank at Fort Bliss (Capt. R. 

McC. Beanfield) «195 

Talbot. A. N.. on fundamentals in make- 
up of mixture 869 

Tests : 

Aggregates too coarse in Bureau of 

Standards tests (D. A. Abrams) . . . .1147 
Counterweight tested according to as- 
sumptions (C. C. Neher) 1442 

Fineness-modulus and surface aggre- 
gate methods of proportioning (G. 
M. Williams and W. Davis) ell39. 
•1142. (L. N. Edwards and D. A. 
Abrams) 1203 
Shears high in reinforced-concrete 
beams (W. A. Slater) e407. «430. 
(correction 570), (E. Godfrey and 
W. A. Slater) 1732. (E. Godfrey) 
Two recent theories tested (G. M. Wil- 
liams and W. Davis) ell39. *1142. 
(L. N. Edwards and D. A. Abrams). 1203 
Traveler carries chute and forms for 

conduit h*588 

Trough-slab floors for railway bridges 1*157 
Walls poured before core is excavated (D. 

H. Fleming) h»542 

Waste prevented by use of curved steel 

end plate on screed h*687 

Water mains, service connections h'63 

Winter concreting. Miami Conservancy 

work 618 

Wood core is inside form for monolithic 

conduit h*789 

Concreting mine shaft 936 ft. deep (R. L. 

Russell »1259 

Conduit, monolithic concrete, wood core is 

inside form for h*789 

Conference on City Planning. .n701. el090, 

1097, nll33 
Connecticut electric railways bankrupt. . .n793 
Constant. F. H., on engineering education 
and Students' Army Training Corps. . . . 141 


Chart, progress, for recording prepara- 
tion of plans h»202 

Costs carry on (A. W. Welch) n893 

Stabilizing, material and labor mar- 
kets n695 

Machinery exports n694 

Machinery, training operators of e848 


Balanced rations and good cooks cut cost 
of rations el20. 146 

Cafeteria plan, cuts time of serving 
meals h*686 

Car camps for road maintenance gangs h*444 

Community association like commission 
government e215, 235 

Drinking fountains improvised from bar- 
rels h"346 

Garbage table, saucer-topped prevents 
spattering ,h*686 

How soldiers were quartered and fed in 
Spruce production camps ^So 

Rations of convict labor hl032 

", illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 

Sanitary service overcomes influenza (M. 

D. Kauffman) *620 

Sectional houses built by laborers. . . . h*1033 
Self government; like commission gov- 
ernment e215, 235 

Construction firm finds personnel work 

profitable (editorial interview, C. S. H.) . 970 
Contentious contractors shunned by en- 
gineers hllO 

Contour of pavement traced to exaggerated 
scale *1026 


Are American engineers and contractors 
wanted in France and Belgium V ... e2. 31 

Associated General Contractors adopt pro- 
gram 669 

Establish free service bureau for 
members n937 

Associated General Contractors of Amer- 
G. W. Bushholz. secretary . .n398. n«448 

Bonds, corporate, function of, and how 
obtained (H. V. Swart) 1212 

Canopy need not be ugly h*887 

Contentious, shunned by engineers hllO 

Earnings of carpenters with one con- 
tractor (O. P. Kietschlin) 1*737 

Large, will they take up highway work? 

ell40. 1150 

Lowers bid (J. Kemper) 11125 

Minnesota cities, bill would reimburse 
contractors for war losses n398 

Northwestern Association formed nU89 

Not harmed bv new Illinois road speci- 
fications (C. Older) 735 

Output versus wages as contractor's prob- 
lem e946 

Personnel work found profitable by (ed- 
itorial interview, C. S. H.) 970 

Problems, who will solve? (F. C. Beam) 
e885. (M. D. Riker) 1*1125 

War; what war has done for contract- 
ing e& 

What war has done for contracting ... e4 


Bidding prices checked against list of 

possible cost items (C. S. H.) h986 

Bonds, corporate, function of. and how 

obtained (H. W. Swart) 1212 

Bridge, concrete — contract to be let in 

four parts *1247 

Completed work only counts in monthly 

estimates hl58 

Cost-plus and labor efficiency (H. C. Tur- 
ner) e800. 815 

A success U. B. Chaff ey) 1485. (E. 

T Johnson) 1683. (C. H. Higgins) 1784 

Defended by General Marshall al77 

For Kansas City viaduct, criticised 

ii743. n938 

For Ohio road maintenance 734 

el 140 1150 
In public interesf; (H. L. Phelps) .1199 
Incentive to close management (C. S. 

H editorial interview I 863 

Not to blame for low labor output in 
war work (Editorial interview; C. 

S. H.) 909 

Engineers' estimates in relation to care- 
ful bidding (Construction Engineers) .11029 
Fair-compensation form (N. F Helmers) 1393 
Fee contract, war time, accurate costs 

kept (F. Gannett and J. D. Carpenter) '571 
French, for S200.000.000 awarded to 

American form nl231 

Highway, will large organizations take? 

ell40. 1150 

Labor turnover high on two war-time 

contract jobs (S. G. Koon) 1159 

Let, and projected work n*353 

Marshall. Gen. R. C. Jr.. defends Con- 

struction Division's form al77 

May HllO. aggregate S100. 000.000 (A. 

W. Welch) nll38 

More light on fair-compensation contracts 

H. E. Phelps) 1199 

Road. letting in long stretches e.503, (W. 

Ore) 1635, (H. E. Breed) *831 

State-insured, for highway construction 
tion suggested n257, (H. V. Swart and 

I. J. Morris) 1484 

Supreme Court fixes responsibility; 

George A. King author 85 

War, cancelled, claims to be presented by 

May 15 n748 

Conveyor, freight, between boats and cars. 

Alton. Ill *30 

Conveyors aerial wire rope to feed railways 

and ships 1158 

Bucket chain coal transport *1171 

Cooks: balanced rations and good cooks cut 

cost of construction camp rations . el20, 146 
Cooley. M. E.. on engineering education and 

Students' Army Training Corps 42 

On Latin and Greek ofr the engineer 
e890 930 (G. Paaswell i 11031 (F. H. 

Clutz) 11077 

Copper. Government will sell stock n645 

Mining, wages reduced e994 

Copper sulphate, used in removal of algae 
from California irrigation canal (E. C. 

Eaton) *382. e407 

Cornell Society of Civil Engineers, employ- 
ment bureau (C. S Rindsfoos) 278 

Cornell University may merge engineering 

schools n260 

Collection of level notes for personal equa- 
tion and other errors (R. A. Truf ant) . .1539 
Corrosion, local causes scrapping of good 

highway-bridge metal el043 

Cost-plus contract, see Contracts. Cost-Plus 
Costs accurate, kept on war-time fee con- 
tract (F. Gannett and J. D. Car- 
penter) *571 

Asphalt plant, see Asphals 

Cost. unit, lowered without cutting wages 

(J. B. Lippincott) e597, •605. e697 

Costs of elevated-railway erection (A. P. 

Roscoe) 1164 

Cotten, S. M„ designs new type of expan- 
sion joint for concrete girders *773 

Council of National Defense, information 

gathered by. available n839 

Cradock, Va., housing development (S. H. 

Lea ) e749. *753 

Craig, R. H., on algae cause taste in Fort 

Worth water 778 

Crandall, L.. on canal seepage losses affected 

by temperature e313. *323, (E. C. 

Murphy and L. Crandall) 1684 

Crandcll. J. S., on engineering education. . 475 

On road maintenance and repair by tar 
products 132 


Heavy shop framing for 250-ton travel- 
ing crane *1172 

Jib, designed for maximum clearance. . . *1246 
Locomotive, new, developed by Terry & 

Tench Co n451 

Self-propelled, for charging concrete 

mixer n*943 

Municipal. St. Paul, Minn., for freight 

handling *1115 

Shipbuilding on Great Lakes handled 

by cranes of many types '86 

Creosote, coal-tar and water-gas-tar. in 

treating fence posts (C. H. Teesdale) . . . 1254 
Crowbar, bent, easily removes shale rock 

<G. W. McAlpin) h*159 

Crucible Steel Co.. plant, Harrison, N. J., 
erection of long-span roof by rolling 

trusses to place e895. *898 

Crusher, gyrator. of record size nl040 

Cuba, members of national societies there 

form association n793 

Culverts, rein forced-concrete, under irriga- 
tion canal (D. C. Willett) *919 

Cupper. P. A., on successful operation of 

Oregon water code 420 

Curtis, F. S.. new president. American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers n*160 

Presidential address 1208 

Curves, assembled, and radii diagram aid 

in railroad drafting (D. Gerber) '664 

Compound, railway, general solution of 

(A. Llano) '1070. el090 

Highway, to compute added area on (W. 

W. Crawford) 1*738 

Cuyahoga River, Ohio, Conservancy Dis- 
trict proposed n495 

Straightening, at Cleveland. .. ,e749, *763 

Daily code letter shows status of all high- 
way work, Texas (J. Montgomery) . . . 1060 

Dallas engineers get together, start En- 
gineers' Club nll34 


Austin, Tex., holds back drift (T. A. 

Taylor) »724 

Auxiliary outlet gate relieves main gates 
R. C. E. Weber) '624 

Balanced automatic sluice gate for park 
dam *1166 

Brule River. Wisconsin *129 

Calaveras, slide, what was coefficient of 
friction? ID. C. Henny) 1*487 

Collapsible. Huerfano River. Colorado, 
panels of movable weir collapse auto- 
matically *818 

Concrete, closure completed behind needle 

dam *129 

Upward pressure test pipes constructed 
in '954 

Devil's Gate. California, bids. . . .n351. n493 

Equipment and material moved through 

small tunnel *681 

Gates, balanced automatic, for park 
dam *1166 

Gibraltar. California, arch dam abutment 
built before rest of dam '820 

Huerfano River. Colorado, collapsible 
dam. panels of movable weir collapse 
automatically '818 

Multiple-arch, record height, at Lake 
Hodges. California, completed *720 

Repairing, bv old-fashioned methods (C. 
F. Dingman) *517. e597 

Skimming, double, eliminates sediment 
from canals '818 

Sweetwater enlarged for third time (H. 
N. Savage) '948 

Willimantic, Conn., repairing (C. F. Ding- 
man ) *517. e597 

Data file compact and convenient (A. H. 

Myers) 1*587 

Dauenhauer, E.. on stranded river boat 
moved and relaunched on rollers h*110 

Davis. A. P., on engineering education. . . . 474 

Davis, G. H., on New Orleans Army base 
•823. (M. G. Findley and G. H. Davis). 11077 

Davis. H. A., on measuring concrete con- 
sistency bv new device *603. (D. A. 
Abrams) 1830 

Davis, W.. with G. M. Williams, on two 
new theories for proportioning concrete. 

ell39. *1143 

Davis. W. A., organization manager. Asso- 
ciated General Contractors n448 

Day labor does municipal work at Flint, 
Mich 524 

Daytona, Fla., sewage: fine screens and 
chlorine meet Daytona conditions (G. W. 
Simons) 99 

Dean. F. W.. article on slow-burning mill 
construction commended e501 

De Billy, M„ farewell dinner to, given by 

consulting engineers n889 

Decay of timber in Mexican coastal plains 

(J. D. Mathews) 631 

Decrow, D. A., on "Unaflow" pumping en- 
gine ell§7. •llfKS 

Delaney. J. H.. appointed rapid-transit com- 
missioner. New York City nl083 

Delaware River. Covernment will dredge. . .n311 
De Leuw, C. E., military engineers at 

front e647. 656 

Department of Labor, United States see Labor 
Denver & Salt Lake R.R.. organization 
formed to save 989 


Auxiliary Engineer Corps nl232 

Conference of 74 societies on 1598. n642, 

e849, 855. e89(> 

Construction Division, U. S. A , should 

not be included e890 

No bill this session. . . n398 

Government has no policy e453 

Establishment proposed e359 

How should it be organized? (C. W. 

Baker) 722 

Should not be under military control. ,e550 

Proposed n304 

Would spend over S125.000.000 annually. 757 

Department of Transportation. British, 
proposed n841 

Derleth. C. Jr., on engineering education 
and Students' Army Training Camps.. . . 140 


Boom lengthened by second boom . . h*1129 

Build concrete outlet for Lockington dam, 
Miami Valley *326 

Improvised, without usual irons (S. P. 

(Baird) h*540 

Stiff-leg, turntable mounting extends 

reach h*638 

Tilt and swing long girders between ob- 
structions h*,N37 

Traveling, gets steam supply through 
telescopic pipe h93 1 

Two operated by one engine and crew. h*491 

With drop weight, wrecks concrete build- 
ing b.687 

Design and cost of concrete-block manholes 

for pipe sewers (R. A. Koerner) *1250 

Des Moines. Iowa, relieving arches in sub- 
way distribute stress to piers *667 

Filter galleries reduce bacteria 1247 


Grade crossings, eliminating . . .e601, *511 

Machines cut water-main costs 613 

Overhead charge betveen city depart- 
ments 587 

Votes against buying street railways. . »743 
Water-filtration experiments e647. 662 

Developments in practice of laying and 
manufacturing paving materials 131 

Devil's Gate dam. California, bids n.351. n493 

Diagrams for safe bracket loads (F. W. 
Seidensticker) 11222 

Digging and backfilling with one machine.n'108 

Dikes built to cut off bay. Bull Run Lake 
reservoir. Oregon, to stop leaks 711 

Dingman. C F.. on repairing dam. Willi- 
mantic. Conn *517. e597 

Dining rooms for industrial plants 981 

Director of Inland Waterways, salary. . .e993 

Distortional rotation and principle of vir- 
tual work (G. N. Linday) 11079 

Distortional rotation, formula for. Prof. 
G. A. Swain a864, (G. N. Linday) .... 11079 

Ditch and road work combined on drainage 

project *623 

Ditcher arranged to cut close to obstruc- 
tions n*748 

Ditches, cost of. for reclaiming Idaho lands 

(D. W. Cole) 678 

Side elimination from highways (W. P 
Blair) e895. 914, (M. H. Downey) 1. 
with ed. comment. 1080. (M. H. 
Downey ) 11127 

Dismantle bridge spans for use elsewhere. *765 

Dividers, submerged, used on concrete 
walks 159 

Dock, graving, computation of time to fill 
(E. E. Halmos) *920 (correction 978) 
Municipal. St. Paul. Milnn.. for freight 

handling *1115 

Doors: what is right-hand door? (H. L. 
Conrad) 1201. (E. M. Buehler) 1485. 
(T. P. Morrissey) 1630 

Dot and dash lines drafted by simple de- 
vice n*1137 

Doten. L. S„ on Fort Myer sewage-treat- 
ment plant '244 

Double roller and long board float give su- 
perior finish (S. P. Baird) h*110 

Dow. A. W.. review of "asphalts and al- 
lied substances" 779 

Drafting, dot and dash line device n*1137 

Room, conservation in (J. G. Wishart) . . 921 

Draftsmen's and shoemakers' salaries (C. 

H McGarry) 1835, (G. F Sehlesinger) 1983 
Classed with engineers (A. F. Fowler). .11277 
Deceived in regard to opportunities. . . .ell.39 
Organizing, with engineers (R. N. Ather- 

ton) 1201. (C. E. Drayer) 1394 

Unions, growth of ell41 

Dragline embarked by grounding scow.. n*l 129 


Bill. Minnesota senator asks engineers 

help in framing 439 

Canal system used alternately to irrigate 
and drain ?2i 

Commission proposed for Missouri n 18 < 

Ditch and road work combined on 
project •623 

*, illustrated; 1. letters: *-. editorials : h, bints; n. news notes: a, abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 



Erosion, progressive, in dredged drainage 

channel (C. E. Ramser) *876 

Hydraulic dredge used under difficulties 

(A. S. Fry) *410 

Hydraulic efficiency of ditch for five dif- 
ferent channel conditions (C. E. Earn- 

ser) *522 

Inspection of cross-sections after con- 
tract dredging (E. S. Blaine) *1019 

Land reclamation by, outlets govern. . . .e409 

Manitoba appoints commission n260 

Minnesota administration reorganized by 

new law n987 

Segment blocks' advantages on larger 

drains (D. L. Yarnell) 663 

System for improved country highways 
(W. P. Blair). e895, 914, (M. H. 
Downey) 1, with editorial comment 

1080, (M. H. Downey) 11127 

Tile, on irrigation work, corrugated-iron 

manhole and sand trap for n* 118(5 

Drawbridges, yielding barriers at *11G8 

Drayer. C. E., opportunities for Chicago 
engineers to wor ktogether 328, (A. G. 

Frost) 1931 

Dredge, hydraulic, operating, under difficul- 
ties *410 

Dredging chart, Lehigh Valley R.R. used as 

standard for records 1108 

Inspection of drainage ditch cross-sections 
after contract dredging (E. S. Blaine) *1019 
Drift on Colorado River held back by Aus- 
tin. Tex., dam (T. U. Taylor) *724 

Drill, portable home-made gasoline (C. M. 

Young) h*741 

Single air header supplies 11 drills h20'2 

Drill points, dull and sharp, comparison. . . . 1152 
Drinking fountains improvised from bar- 
rels h*346 

Driscoll, W. J., on road building materials 

supply. Outagamie County, Wis.. . . *289. e749 
Driven pile point comes out of ground. . . .1*109 
Dry Dock, building floating' in well laid out 

yard, Galveston *552 

Filled by pumping 302 

Pearl Harbor finally completed n841 

Dulude, F. J., on arch analysis by method 

using variable elastic weights *471 

Duluth Engineers' Club investigates cement 

prices n744 

Proposes United Society for nontechnical 

work 198 

Recognizes public service responsibilities. 440 
Duluth votes against buying street railways.n742 
Way of meeting water-main extensions 

(D. A. Reed) 1739 

Dump-bottom truck body for spreading road 

material n548 

Dump ears and wagons enlarge railway fills. 419 
Dunlap, Prof. J. H., on education for in- 
telligent industrial production 910 

On how Iowa engineers got registration 

law 1073 

Dunn wire-cut-lug brick patents sustained. .n213 
Durham Colony. California; costs (A. T. 

Parsons and E. Mead) 1251 

Dust-bin for shaking out empty cement 

bags h*886 

Dust explosion in grain mill causes damage. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa nll34 

Dwarf railways of front-line trenches (J. E. 
Sellers) *774 


Eagan bill for Hudson River vehicle tunnel, 
introduced n306 

"Eagle." Ford, built in 10 days n791 

Earthquakes. Guatemala rebuilds after. . . . 515 
Porto Rico, effect on structures (C. F. 

Joslin and M. L. Vicente) *800 

Wave-action in Guatemala *105 

Earthwork computations simplified (J. H. 
Dorroh ) 1787 

Easement curves for railroads, history and 
use (P. O. Maeciueen) 924 

Eaton. E. C. on removing alga? from Cali- 
fornia irrigation canal *382. e407 

Eaton. G. S.. on wider pavements needed by 
motor vehicles at curves *461, (C. C. 

Wiley) 1684 

On temperatures of pavement surfaces. . . *633 


America's legacy, solution of problem of 
proper distribution of wealth, happi- 
ness, education el 042. al050 

Civil War price trends and today's (M. 

Knowles) *414 

Coming status of employee in industry. 

el042, al050 
Machinery must supplant unskilled 

labor ell87 

Prices yesterday, today and tomorrow, by 

O. P. Austin 809 

Profit sharing by law (H. A. Rands) . . . .1536 

Wages reduced in one industry e994 

Will prices and wages drop? e2 

Will prices fall? e551 

Economics- of transportation in the Missis- 
sippi Valley (J. R. Bibbins) e945. *971 

Edge taping strengthens fiber-board boxes. 1271 
Edison medal awarded to B. G. Lamme..nl037 
Educating public on engineering matters. . .e896 


Are engineering educators seizing their 

greatest opportunity? el21 

Broader commercial, for engineers 904 

Cincinnati. university of. cooperative 
course in commercial engineering. 

nll83. ell88 

Class in art for engineers 1154 

Colleges should strengthen road-engi- 
neering courses (R. L. Morrison) .... 1054 
Colleges to train reserve officers n65 

Commercial engineering, at University of 

Cincinnati nll83. ell88 

Conference on "Business Training for En- 
gineers and Engineering' Training for 

Business Men" n937 

Cornell may merge engineering schools. ,n260 
Courses in industrial hygiene and medi- 
cine 276 

Does teaching bring out originality ':.... e895 
Engineering and commerce colleges 

merged Cincinnati University ... ,nll83 

Educators to meet nll83. ell88 

Educators' opinions reflect past and 

predict future conditions. .41. el21. 138 
How construction should develop 

(Prof. L. W. W. Morrow) ...e801. 827 

Engineering, opinions 41, el21, 138, 473 

For intelligent industrial production.... 910 
How much for minor engineering posi- 
tions? e455, (J. M. Goodell) 1482, 
1683. (K. P. Armstrong) 1736, (L. 

Fisher) 1883 

Industrial, bill to promote n350 

Kansas State Agricultural Department, 
engineering department, distributes 

technical information to public e896 

Latin and Greek for engineer e896, 930, 

(G. Paaswell) 11031. (F. H. Clutz) . .11077 
Not best for engineers (R. Hering) . . .11272 
More English, not Latin and Greek (W. 

G. Raymond) 11176 

Progress, lines of. suggested by practic- 
ing engineers (J. D. Isaacs. A. P. 
Davis, V. G. Marani, M. M. O'Shaugh- 
nessy, J S. Crandell, F. L. Bishop, J. 

• AT. Waddell ) 473 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 

record number of students n402 

Psychological tests for college entrance. ,e357 
Research assistantships at Illinois Univer- 
sity n350 

Universities should help railway engi- 
neers e358, 368 

University of Wisconsin; new president. 

Dr. E. A. Birge n67 

Edwards, H. H., on macadam stone treated 

with deliquescent salts 976 

On swing pipe saves hose changes on con- 
crete highway work (H. H. Edwards) .h*301 
Edwards. L. N.. on surface aggregate or 

fineness modulus for concrete 1203 

"Eighty-niners." reunion of n841 

Eldridge. H. W.. on Hudson River ship- 
yard for concrete ear floats *732 

Electric drive for warships el23 

Equipment for movable bridges 966 

Furnace Association organized n797 

Power, transmission line with 4801-foot 

span over St. Lawrence *383. h*396 

Street-cleaning vans efficient in England. 771 

Truck reduces coal-handling costs n*311 

Electrifying railroads in Italy, coal saved 

by 331 

Elevated railways, overhead and time cost 

to erect (A. P. Roscoe) 1164 

Elevator, grain, subsidence, at Portland. 

Ore. ; preliminary report on n792 

Eleventh Engineers parade in New York..n937 

Addressed by Col. W. B. Parsons 1270 

Elimination of dangerous road junction and 

its cost (E. Gedney ) *679 

Ellipse. three-centered. construction (B. 

Silberberg) 1*489 

Embankment, earth; wire bags Hold riprap 
on h*301 


Changes in personnel n936 

Inland ship-steel fabricating plants (L. 
G. Fishach) *332, e358 

Plant-disposal section created to sell ship- 
yards n937 

Training 350.000 men for shipyards. ... 53 


Agencies, private, upheld (A. G. Frost) . .1931 
Bureaus and services. . . .n204, 256, 304. 
348. 398, 446. 493. 543, 544. 590, 
688. 742. 790. 839. 888. 936. 987. 

1034. 1083. 1130, nll80 

Free service to soldiers n742 

National Chamber of Commerce urges 

employment work n639 

Service. United States: 

Continuation asked by Secretary Wil- 
son nil 31 

Curtailed n590 

Professional Division, opens office. . . 

nll.3. n544 
Taken over in Chicago by Training 

Camps Association n590 

Engine terminals and roundhouse cost. . . . al059 

"Activities of Twin Cities," addressed by 

F. C. Shenehon el239. 1251 

And business interests unite for export 

trade n499 

And industrial research. Gronna bill for. 

introduced nll31 

And popular magazines (C. W. Barber) . .1933 

British engineering standards 151 

Civic Federation proposed (W. L. 

Saunders) *756 

Definition of ("Applied Science") 11277 

Educators' opinions reflect past and pre- 
dict future conditions 41, el21. 138 

Enriching literature of e501 

Impossibilities e993 

Literature, enriching e501 

Originality essential to success e895 

"Profession of. "why not?" (W. C. 

Thomson ) 11226 

Professional, definition of, proposed by 
license committee of Engineering Coun- 
cil (T. L. Condron) 11079 


Proposed definition (E. M. Walker) .... 1393 

Engineering material, packing for export . . 980 


Acts on engineers' discharge, New York 
City n205 

And American Association of Engineers. .n888 

And nonmember societies . e749, n888 

Appoints advisory committee to New 
York Reconstruction Commission. . . .n493 

Appoints committee to investigate pay 
and classification of engineers n930 

Appoints licensing committee n349 

Calls conference on Public Worlts Depart- 
ment e598. n642 

Compensation Committee progress by. . .all98 

Definition of professional engineering pro- 
posed by license committee (T. L. 
Condron) 11079 

Hearing on dismissal of New York engi- 
neers nl63 

Hearing on railroad engineers' pay attend- 
ed by n688 

Joined by American Society for Testing 
Materials n259 

National Service and licensing com- 
mittees e4.">3 

National Service Committee, M. O. 

Leighton n*262 

Reports nl235 

Organizes National Service Committee. . n206 

Suggestion to President Wilson about en- 
gineer on reconstruction commission 
(M. S. Parker) 1395 

Takes up case of Army engineers not re- 
imbursed for traveling expenses. . . .nll32 

Urges engineers for reconstruction com- 
mittees n342 

Work of year n447 

"Engineering Index." taken over by Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers. . . .nll4 
Engineering Institute of Canada, annual 

convention n399 

Engineering News; bound volumes given to 

Bureau of Yards and Docks by H. B. 

Seaman 1109 

Engineering News index completed 779 


History of, 1, staff 1 

Increased postal rates after July 1, west 

of the Mississippi el041 

Engineering Record: bound volumes given 
to Bureau of Yards and Docks by H. B. 

Seaman 1109 

Engineering Standards Committee. . . .e700. e800 
Effect on American Society for Testing 

Materials e751 

Reorganization (E. B. Rosa) e848, 

801, 931. ell40. 1154 


Administrative ability in technical work. e72 
American, kidnapped by Chinese bandits. 665 

and Italian form association to pro- 
mote public works n405 

and union labor (T. P. Morrissey) 

1834. (F. T. Howes) 11078 

Architects and Constructors' Conference 

on National Public Works, on Auxili- 
ary Engineer Corps nl232 

Are American engineers and contractors 

wanted in France and Belgium? ... .e2, 31 
Army : 

Designated for early return from 
Europe n67 

Not reimbursed for traveling ex- 
penses nll32 

Officers rank first in mental tests. . . . *814 

Should not control proposed Public 
Works Department e550 

What they did in war 953 

As physical economist (C. P. Keyser) . . . .1885 
Asked to help in framing drainage bill.. 439 
Boston engineers' trade union dinner 

(Observer) 1737 

Chicago, opportunities to work together 

(C. E. Drayer) 328. (F. K. Copeland) . 1683 
Civilian also served in war (P. H. Nor- 

cross) 1393 

Class in art for 1154 

Commercial education broader 904 

Columbus. Ohio, effect close relation with 

city council n353 

Compensation, see Pay 

County, in Washington State, bill to 

take out of politics n351 

Dallas, get together, start Engineers' 

Club nll34 

Decline post of transit construction 

commissioner. New York City el091 

Discharged by Board of Estimate, New 

York City e72. e73 

Duluth. recognize public service re- 

sponsibilties 440 

Economic betterment (L. Fisher) 1883 

Duty (W. R. Ingalls) 292 

Education, see Education 

Efforts to consolidate profession (A. D. 

Flinn) 81 

Employment bureau for Cornell men (C. 

S. Rindsfoos) 278 

Bureaus, see Employment. 
English, professional organization . ,e699. 712 

Esperanto for 1156 

Executive versus technical ability el091 

Fees, Kansas Society for standardization. 439 
For Federal rural health-protective work 

(H. C. Hodgkins) 1535. (E. G. 

Sheibley) 1738 

Highway, should be returned from France 

(J. K. Shinn) 1584 

Highway transport engineering — a new 

technical field all53 

*, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 

How much education for minor position? 
e455. (J. M. Goodell) 1482. 1683, (K. 
P. Armstrong) 1736, (L. Fisher) ....1883 
How raise status and pay? 1106, (B. 

Reimaim) 1253 

Human side must be recognized. el042, al050 
Illinois, bills affecting, discussed by West- 
ern Society of Engineers ef>97 

In politics, views of W. A. Stinchcomb. .1214 
International language for (Civil Engi- 
neers) 1156, (G. W. Lee) 1342. (W. A. 
Callaway) 1635. (H. S. McKibben) . . . 1836 
Iowa, how they got registration law (J. 

H. Dunlap) 1073 

Must register n841 

Italian and American form association to 

promote public works u 105 

Lack of knowledge of business methods 

and conditions (C. W. Barber) 1933 

Latin and Greek for e896. 930. (G. 
Paswell) 11031, (F. H. Clutz) 11077 

Not best for (R. Hering) 11272 

Licensing, bill discussed by Indiana 

society n307 

Bill proposed by American Association 

of Engineers committee 462 

Colorado societies submit names for 

board of engineer examiners 982 

Columbus, Ohio, engineers push bill..n353 
Comparison of existing and proposed 

laws 423. efi99 

Comprehensive laws proposed e699 

Definition of professional engineer pro- 
posed by license committee of Engi- 
neering Council (T. L. Condron) . .11079 
Engineering Council appoints com- 
mittee n349 

Iowa engineers must register n841 

Iowa, how engineers got registration 

law (J. H. Dunlap) 1073 

Iowa registration law. Engineering So- 
ciety helps to pass 982 

Louisville Engineers' and Architects' 

Club to draft bill for n67 

Michigan registration law passed n889 

Oregon act amended 911 

Oregon and Idaho laws, and Ohio bill. 

616. e699 
Questionnaire on, sent to members of 
Montreal branch. Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada 783 

Mechanical; take over "Engineering In- 
dex" nll4 

Military, at front. e647. (E. C. De Leuw) 656 

Military honors for officers n400 

Missouri, on par with lawyers 662 

More English, not Latin and Greek for 

(W. G. Raymond) 11176 

Need more meteorological data (R. E. 

Horton) 614. el089 

New York City drops 300 engineers on 

half day's notice nlll 

New York City, meet to discuss engineer 
as citizen, formation of local society, 

etc e647. n688 

New York Subway, delay in appropriating 

money for e647 

None in Iowa Assembly 1051 

Oklahoma county engineers obtain better 

pay n791 

Only one reconstruction commissioner. 

New York e215 

Organizing. with draftsmen (R. N. 

Atherton) 1201, (C. E. Drayer) 1394 

Pay, editorial on letter by J. M. Goodell. 

e455. editorial 597 

Pay — leters by "Subscriber." 106. "E. 
N. Gineer," 106. (D. C. Washburn, 
"M. Am. Soc. C. E.." 201 fe357). 253, 
R. Reimann, 253. W. J. Sherman, 297, 

A. E. Golding. 297, L. W. Weed, 297, 
"E. N. Gineer." 345. C. E. Drayer, 394. 
J. H. Giles. 394. J. M. Goodell. 482 and 
683. A. H. Armstrong. 584. E. A. Van 
Deusen, 585. W. F. Fox. M. Lushbaugh, 
and Josephus Daniels. 634. K. P. Arm- 
strong, 736. International Federation of 
Draftsmen's Unions. 785, T. P. Morris- 
sey, 834, C. H. McGarrv. 835, R. P. 
Johnson, 882, L. Fisher. 83. L. Alter. 
931. G. F. Sehlesinger, 983. P. C 
Ricketts and G. Stierlin. 1075. T. S. 
Ford. 1218. E. N. Goldstine. 1219. E. 

B. Taylor. 1220. E. Feldman. 1220, J. 
Fee. 1221. J. F. Le Baron. 1276 
American Association of Engineers 

Compensation Committee report .... 1051 

American Association of Engineers' ef- 
forts to raise (C. E. Draver) 1394. 
(E. A. Van Deusen) 1585, (T. P. 
Morrissey) 1834. 

American Association of Engineers not 
entitled to sole credit for raising (E 
A. Van Deusen) 1585. e597 

American Association seeks better pay 
for railway engineers 295 

And artisans' (J. H. Giles) 1394 

And position of railway engineers. 

e216. *228 

Compared with street-railway men's . . 1200 

Comparison of engineer's salary and 
laborer's wage (L. Alter) 1931, (P. 
C. Bicketts and G. Stierlin) 11075 

Draftsman's and shoemaker's salaries 
(C. H. McGarry) 1835. (G. F. 
Sehlesinger) 1983 

Draftsmen deceived in regard to op- 
portunities ell39 

Effectiveness of strike weapon in 
raising salaries (R. P. Johnson) . . . .1882 

Engineering Council appoints commit- 
tee to investigate n936 

Engineering Council Committee's re- 
port all98 

Hearing on railway engineers' pay. . . . 688 

Hint to engineer employers (M. Am. 
Soc. C. E.) 1201. e357 

•, Illustrated; 1, 


Injustice to engineers returning from 
Army (A. H. Armstrong) 1584 

How raise status and pay? ("E. N. 
Gineer" and "Subscriber") 1106. 
(B. Beimann) 1253. 

Levelman's statement corrected (E. N. 
Gineer) 1345 

Minnesota engineers engaged in drain- 
age to receive increases n987 

Navy ami Fleet Corporation unfair to 
draftsmen (W. F. Fox and Jose- 
plus Daniels) 1634. (International 
Federation Draftsmen's Unions) 
1785. (M. Lushbaugh) 1634 

Eailway engineers, American Associa- 
tion of Engineers seeks better pay 
for 295 

Railway engineers. American Associa- 
tion not entitled to sole credit for 
raising (E. A. Van Deusen) . .1585. e597 

Railwav engineers' conference adopts 
wage scale (W. W. D.) e597, 612. 
(R. P. Johnson) • 1882 

Railway engineers, hearing by rail- 
road wage board n742 

Railway engineers, pay and position 
(C. W. Baker) e216. 228 

Railway engineers, schedule proposed 
(C. E. Drayer) 345 

Railway engineers, universities should 
aid e358. 368 

Eailway engineers, wage scale adopted 
at Chicago conference (W. W. D.) 

e597. 012 

Railroad wage board gives hearing.. . .n742 

Schedule adopted by Chicago Chapter, 
A. A. E 1005 

Versus mechanics' wages 502 

Promote industrial exhibition. Brooklyn. 

N. Y el041 

Professional consciousness must be de- 
veloped through service a671 

Professional conscience e946 

Professional Division, U. S. Employment 

Service opens office nll3 

Public Service, New York, organize. . . ,nl282 
Public Service. New York * City. • rein- 
stated n303. e313 

Publicity work, suggestions 1272 


Classification objected to (E. B. Tay- 
lor) 11028 

Beconstruction committees. engineers 

urged for n402 

Registration, see Engineers. Licensing 
Relation to community, W. H. Finley on. 

364. e407 
Resource (American Library Association) 
every engineer should know (G. W. 

Lee) 11079 

Restricted by high authority (M. S. 

Parker) 1395 

Returned from France, will address so- 
cieties n . 300 

Boosevelt and the engineer e72, (T. C. 

Martin) 1251 

Salaries, see Pay 

Shall we have a trade union? (C. E. 
Drayer) 1394. (E. A. Van Deusen) 

1585, (T. P. Morrissey) 1831 

Shortage overcome by use of mechanical 

devices (B. A. Brown) 342 

Success of American, in war n64 

St. Louis electrical advise development 

committee 1272 

Suggest lines of progress in engineering 
education (J. D. Isaacs. A. P. 
Davis. V. G. Marani. MM. O'Shaugh- 
nessy. J. S. Crandall. F. L. Bishop. 
J. A. L. Waddell) 473. 
To direct rapid transit construction. New 

York City e313 

To educate public 535 


Apathy of national society a cause 

(F. Lavis) 1882 

British women engineers organize union 

863. (Engineer) 1984 

Discussed at Chicago conference on 

Public Works Department n888 

Economic betterment of engineer (L. 

Fisher) 1883 

Effectiveness of strike weapon in rais- 
ing salaries (B. P. Johnson) 1882 

Letter by J. F. Le Baron 11276 

Scientific and technical employees of 

Government form union e947. n987 

United States Chamber of Scientists pro- 
posed (J. F. Le Baron) 11276 

United States Public Health Beserve. en- 
gineers in 814 

Value in public life ("Engineer") 11218 

Young, will be needed in Europe n839 

Zionist, organize to rebuild Palestine, .nl 13 
England, professional organization in. .e699, 712 
To investigate South American machinery 

market 311 

Will subsidize home building n448 

English suggested as international language 

for engineers (H. S. McKibben) 1836 

Equitable Trust Co., New York, compares 

principal railroad control plans 658 

Erection costs, elevated railway (A. P. 

Boseoe) 1164 

Erie. Penn.. Mill Creek flood-protection 

work to proceed n744 

Erosion, progressive in dredged drainage 

channel (C. E. Bamser) »87fl 

Esperanto for engineers 1156 

Estimates, engineers', in relation to careful 

bidding (Construction Engineer) 11029 

Etching, process, new. for studying steel. al207 


Dragline excavators, walking, for shift- 
ing pontoons (A. S. Fry) h»1227 

Hoisting engines used to help trucks up 

17 % grade h*589 

Octagonal, sheeted without bracing. . . .h*541 
Platform, portable, saves shoveling time 

(M. R. Lewis) h'789 

Thawing box reduces cost in winter (L. 

MeL. Hunter) h*25t 

Trailer shield holds sides of caving 

ditches h*740 

Executive versus technical ability el091 

Expansion joint, new type, for concrete gir- 
ders *773 

Explosion, dust, in grain mill causes 

damage nll34 

Explosives, Interior Department obtains for 

road work n592 

Handling and storing during war (Maj. 

G. C. Munoz ) 1242 

Plan for utilizing waste n645 

Exports, cement companies combine for ex- 
port trade nl036 

Engineering and business interests unite 

for trade 499 

Grand Central Palace, New York, to be- 
come world trade mart nll37 

Increase enormous in April nil 83 

Express trucks, gasoline and electric 902 

Factory building. concrete-frame. has 
wooden roof (W. E. Turner) '926 

Fair day's pay for fair day's work e597. 

(J. B. Lippincott) 605 

"Faith," concrete ship, in Panama Canal. .n*402 

Federal highway commission opposed by 

Secretary Houston n L')83 

Defended by Highways Industries Asso- 
ciation nl282 

Federal Highway Council. ... n303, n591. n?90 

Federal Industrial Relation's Commission, 
bill for. introduced nil 30 

Federal Trade Commission loses chief 

counsel n845 

New secretary n744 

Felton. S. M.. deeorated n'259 

Fence posts, treated, long-time tests (C. H. 

Teesdale.) 1254 

Field methods on rapid stadia surveys at 
Columbus. Ohio (H. K. Kistler) *776, 
(Correction 885.) 

File. data, compact and convenient (A. 

H. Myers) 1*587 

Fills, railway, enlarged by dump cars and 
wagons 419 


At Niagara Falls. N. Y 1104 

Explained to visitors by model '923 

Experiments. Detroit e647. 002 

First bids received since war's end are 

low nll5 

Galleries reduce bacteria. Des Moines. .. 1247 
Plants, old, overworked, a serious health 

menace e994 

Poor operation accountable for typhoid 

outbreaks at Moline. Ill '1264 

Water, explained to visitors by model . . . *923 
Finley. G. C. on enlargement of Yakima- 

Tieton main canal *1255 

Finley. W. H.. on engineer's relation to com- 
munity 364. e407 

Outlines policies of American Association 

of Engineers n448 

Fire, cantonment, due to faulty masonry in 
fireplace 929. (G. H. Tefftl 11177. 
"Finder" for lookout stations. Forest 

Service •1055 

Service connections menace pure water- 
supply of cities 1018 

Williamsburg bridge. New York nl036 

Fires in cinder fills, control of. 711. (L. 

W. Clark) 1984 

Fishach. L. G.. on inland ship-steel fabricat- 
ing plants of Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion •332. e858 

Fisher. Prof. Irving, on new price level. . . .e551 

Flat-cars unloaded by push plows h'1081 

Flat slab substituted for groined roof of 

reservoir (H. C. Wight) *1016 

Patent. Norcross. expiration of e801 

Fleming, D. H.. on concrete walls poured 

before core is excavated h'542 

Fleming, R.. articles commended e501 

On angle as a beam *433 

On approximate formulas useful in 
structural design 534. (H. K. Ellis). 1636 

On definition of pitch of roof *286 

On electrically driven pumps for irriga- 
tion *74 

On weights of steel roof trusses by em- 
piric formulas 576. (M. L. Murray ).. 1884 
Flinn, A. D.. on efforts to consolidate engi- 
neering profession 81 

Flint. Mich . day labor does municipal work. 524 
Float split, for finishing concrete at ex- 
pansion joints h*934 


Augusta. Ga.. protection work com- 
pleted n691 

Colorado River, control by storage e453, 

•456. (J. C. Stevens) 1739 

Columbus channel improvements progress 669 

Flows reduced by sump holes 915 

Interstate control proposed nOS9 

Miami conservancy works not damaged in 

flood 800 

Mill Creek work, at Eric. Penn.. to pro- 
ceed n74 1 

Sacramento damage increases n448 

Short circuiting, in Big Sioux River (F. 

C. Shenehon) '901 

Survey of River Colorado proposed n401 

letters ; e, editorials ; h. hints ; n, news notes ; a, abstracts. 

January 1 tc June 30, 1919 



Floor, concrete, finishing (W. McGinnis) 

477, <T. P. Morrissey) 1636 

Concrete, stands big overload without 

collapse *813 

Trough-slab, for railway bridges 1*157 

Railway bridge; concrete-base track 1107 

Flue lining would protect faulty chimney 

(G. H. Tefft) 11177 

Fluming a stream to unwater a tunnel. . . ."232 
Food, how soldiers were quartered and fed 

in spruce production camps *105 

Ford "Eagle" built in 10 days n791 

Ford, G. B„ on devastation and reconstruc- 
tion in France e215, *218 

Fore River shipyard Quincy, Mass.. hous- 
ing for workers (J. Meltzer) . . .el042. *1044 
Foreign trade, see Trade. Foreign. 
Foresight as dividend-paying asset e847 


Approximate, useful in structural de- 
sign. R. Fleming 534. (H. K. Ellis).. 1636 
Distortional rotation. Prof. G. A. Swain 

a864. (G. N. Linday) 11079 

Distortional rotation and principle of 

virtual work (G. N. Linday) 11079 

Empiric, used to determine weights of 
steel roof trusses (R. Fleming) 576, 

(M. L. Murray) 1884 

Hydraulic, see Hydraulics. Formulas 

Parabolic arcs (R. C. Strachan) *325 

Structural work (H. K. Ellis) 1636 

Weights of steel roof trusses (M. L. 

Murray) 1884 

Fort Bliss. Texas, design and tests of air- 
lift installation (Capt. J. F. Brown) . . .*1111 
Swimming tank (Capt. R. McC. Bean- 
field) *195 

Fort. E. J., on steam railroad in its relation 

to the city plan al099 

Fort Myer sewage-treatment plant (L. S. 

Doten) '244 

Fort Worth, Tex., Water-supply, algse cause 

taste in 778 

Foundation Co.. New Orleans shipyard. ... *43 1 
Foundation work, faulty, causes failure of 

Minneapolis armory el043. *1067 

Foundation, cylinder, for high tower, trap 

door aids in excavation h*390 

Four-sided figure, to compute area of (C. 

K. Averill) '787 

Fox, O. M., on material prices halt Chicago 
building operations 369, (F. F. Vater)..1586 


Are American engineers and contractors 

wanted? e2. 31 

Conditions, reported upon by American 

engineers n348 

Contract for $200,000,000 for rebuild- 
ing Nancy district, for American firm.nl231 
Devastation (G. B. Ford) . .e215, '218. n256 
Immediate national reconstruction (Maj. 

D. T. Pierce) 670 

Munitions department now reconstruction 

ministry nl68 

Reconstruction (G. B. Ford) e215. *218 

Reconstruction will be delayed n493 

Road signs for Amexforce *94 

Says France will do own rebuilding nll3 

Frankfurter. F.. resigns as head of War 

Labor Policies Board n-40"> 

Frankland. F. H.. on reinforced-concrete 

lift-span towers for highway bridge.. . *660 
Free ports or zones favored by Tariff Com- 
mission n204 

Free ports, recommended el69, n206 


Car. concrete n*595 

Conveyor between boats and cars, Alton, 

111 *30 

Distribution by motor trucks 1011 

Dock and cranes, municipal. St. Paul. 

Minn •1115 

Economics of transportation in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley (J. R. Bibbins) . .e945, *971 
Export, hauls for (J. R. Bibbins) . .e945, *971 

Handling in port el70 

Reduced on road materials consigned to 

government n700 

Short-haul truck and rail shipments. . . . 903 
Switching cars into station order at large 

yards a612 

Terminal. New York Central's, in Cleve- 
land (W. E. Phelps) *508 

French suggested as international language 
for engineers (W. A. Calloway) 1635, (H. 

S. McKibben) 1836 

Fritch. L. C. on fourteen points essential to 

establishing a sound policy 18, el22 

On solution of railroad problem based on 
plans presented before Congress. .e502. 504 
Fritz. John, medal, to be awarded to Gen- 
eral Goethals n39S 

Fuller. G. W.. on Construction Division of 
the Army e408. 416. 562, *600, (Maj. 

Gen. W. C. Langfitt) 11076 

Fry, A. S.. on operating hydraulic dredge 

under difficulties *410 

On shifting pontoons for walking drag- 
line excavators h*1227 

Gage table for reservoir, laid out (E. D. 
Cole) »956 

Galion. Ohio, new engine terminal. C. C. C. 
& St. Louis Ry *519 

Galveston. Tex., floating dry dock, building. *552 

Gannett. F.. on engineer arbitrators fix 
value of water-company property 625 

Gannett. F.. and Carpenter, J. D., on keep- 
ing accurate costs on war-time fee con- 
tract *571 


Baltimore disposal contract (W. E. Lee) 

e265. *287 

Disposal: during war and after (F. C. 
Bamman) e359, *373 

Indianapolis reduction profits 624 

Made into park. Baltimore (W. E. Lee) 

e265. *287 

New York City, opposing reports on dis- 
posal e847 

St. Louis, will be fed to hogs n400 

Gas container 70 ft. in diameter moved on 

two barges h*935 

Line, largest in United! States, con- 
structed *706 

Plant wastes and city water, Quincy, 111. 

(W. R. Gelston) 1685 

Gasket and form for cementing joints in tile 

pipe n*355 

Gasoline tax on motor vehicles e750 

Gate valve that turned in the ground (M. 

Moffitt) 1*1031 

Gedney. E.. on elimination of dangerous 

road junction and its cost *679 

General Committee of Technical Societies, 

Chicago. Employment Service activities 

(F. K. Copeland) 1683 

General Motors Corporation to increase 

plant n892 

General solution of problems in railway 

compound curves (A. Llano) . . .*1070, el090 
Geological Survey. United States, engineers 

assist in mapping Mexican border (R. B. 

Marshall) *235 

Making maps more popular e750 

Should have 81,000.000 for topographic 
maps 933 

Topographical maps of. engineers want 

completed n888 

Geology, new classification proposed for 

rock to be excavated 907 

Gerber, D., on assembled curves and radii 

diagram aid in railroad drafting *664 

German military tunnel (Capt. D. I. Cur- 
tin) 1*489 

Giesecke, F. E.. on improving concrete by 

rodding *95 " 

Gin-pole removes train-shed trusses hlOol 

Girders, long, and high columns designed as 

rigid frame (A. E. Wynn) *340 

Long, tilted and swung between obstruc- 
tions by derricks h*837 

Glass, E. E.. on home-made truck supports 

welding outfit h*159 

On road-oil heating plant. Los Angeles 

County, California 728 

On universal weir chart *926 

On weed and root on grubber for high- 
ways h*159 

Glued joints, rough faces do not strengthen. 851 
Glues, waterproof, strength of, wet and dry. 925 

Good Roads Association meeting n888 

Goodell. J. M„ on how much education for 

minor engineering positions? e455. 1482, 

1683, (K. P. Armstrong) 1736. (L. 

Fisher) 1883. 

Goodwin, W. L., invents' dump-bottom truck 

body for spreading road materials n548 

Goethals. Gen. G. W.. decorated n*165 

Made officer of Legion of Honor n400 

Receives John Fritz medal n398. nl0S5 

Retires to civil life n545 

Tribute to Roosevelt nll3 

Gorgas. Maj. Gen. W. C. made officer of 

Legion of Honor n400 

To head Yellow Fever Commission n744 

Goriachkovsky, V., on Murman R. R.. Rus- 
sia *1023 


Buying of construction material. . 289. e749 

Concrete ships now building n65, n0S7 

Directors for railway corporations el22 

Housing program (M. Knowles) . . . .e313. 329 
Ownership opposed by United States 

Chamber of Commerce n936 

Scientific and technical employees form 

union e946, n987 

Surplus building material small n398 

Material to be sold in seven classes. .nl238 
To build river boats nl083 

Governors' and mayors' conference called 
by President at Washington e453. n493. 
e501. (F. C. W.) . . . •. 514. eooO 

Grade crossings, see Railways Grade Crossings. 

Graf, S, H.. on structure and strength of 
overheated rivet steel *280 

Grain elevator subsidence, at Portland. Ore.. 
n400. preliminary report on n792 

Grain mill, dust explosion in causes damage. 
Cedar Rapids. Iowa nll34 

Grand Central Palace, New York, to become 
world trade mart nll37 

Grand Trunk Pacific taken over by Canadian 
Government n592 

Graphical records of surge pressures in 
pipe lines (R. Bennett) *1048 

Gravel pit; one tractor operates six wheeled 
scrapers h*302 

Graving dock, time required to fill, com- 
putation of (E. E. Halmos) *920, (cor- 
rection) 978 

Grav. Carl R., operation of railways in 
1918 al78 

Grayhaven Shipbuilding Co., boats built in 
dry dock at Detroit *21 

Grease pump removes water from dia- 
phragm pump in cold weather h887 

Great Lakes shipyards: berth construction 
and side-launching practice *7 

Greene. Col. F. S.. nominated New York 
highway commissioner n545, appointed.. n79 2 

Gregory, C. E„ on grit chamber and fine 

screens for part of New York sewage. 

•672. e69 7 
Gronna. Senator A. J., introduces bill for 

engineering and industrial research. .. .nll31 
Groton shipyard built on sloping limestone 

ledge *135 

Grouting stops leak in subway station 957 

Guatemala, earthquake wave-action *105 

Rebuilds after earthquakes 515 

Gunby. Col. F. M., biography *208 

Gussets, safe loads on. diagrams for (F. 

W. Seidenstacker) 1*1222 

Guthrie, K. O., on sinking a concrete pump- 
ing station in a river *1013 

Gymnasiums; long girders and high 

columns designed as rigid frame (A. E. 

Wynn) *340 

Hale, F. E., review of "Chlorination of 
Water" 780 

Hallowell, J. W.. appointed assistant to Sec- 
retary of Interior n793 

Halmos. E. E.. on computation of time re- 
quired to fill graving dock *920. (correc- 
tion) 978 

Hanson, Ole, mayor of Seattle, action in 
strike e313 


Harrison. T. S.. leaves $1,000,000 for im- 
proving city government of Philadelphia. nll32 

Hartman, Col. C. D., biography n*210 

Haskell. E. E., on engineering education 
and Students' Army Training Corps. . . . 138 

Hayford, J. F., on engineering education and 
Students' Army Training Corps nl41 


Heise, G. W.. on supervision of Philippine 
water-supplies 238 

Helping disabled soldiers to a vocation. . . . 980 

Hermans. F. A., on device for measuring 
irregularities of pavement surface. ... *1026 

Herrold, G. H., on handling iron ore at 
head of Great Lakes *1119 

Herron. F. W.. on preparing land for irriga- 
tion e314, «337 

Hetch Hetchy aqueduct, etc., see Water Supply, 
San Francisco. 

Higgins, H. K.. on old Southern mill has 
curious horizontal wheel *675 

High relative temperatures of pavement sur- 
faces (G. S. Eaton) *633 

Highway Engineer and Contractor appears. .1217 

Highway transport engineering — a new tech- 
nical field all53 

Highways Industries Association, at Wash- 
ington conference on Federal road laws.nl084 
Information of Federal Highway Coun- 
cil n*303 


Aid for bridge projects n68 

Alabama; control of main routes by 

state commission n227 

American Road Builders' Association con- 
vention e454, e455, a464. n494 

Appropriations for national n257 

Arizona, bond issue for $30,000,000 

vetoed n641 

Associated Highways of America formed n258 
Asphalt : 

Block adapted to war purposes 131 

Design and construction of hot-mix 

pavements (F. P. Smith) allOO 

Negligible year in 131 

Southern Asphalt Association formed. nll82 

Street maintenance. Los Angeles 489 

Balancing of excavation by semi-graphic 

method (D. P. Babcock) *361 

Bankhead National Association meeting. n888 
Bidding prices checked against list of pos- 
sible cost items (C. S. H.) h986 

Bills introduced in Congress, December, 

1918 n66 

Bituminous carpet on macadam highways 

in Michigan fruit district *526 

Pavement defects in surface due to 

concrete base (H. W. Skidmore) .... *878 
Street with center gutter construction 

(W. D. Johnston) *966 

Surfaces, efficiency under motor-truck 

traffic (P. Hubbard) a464 

Bond issues: 

Arizona. $30,000,000 vetoed n641 

California, special election nl036 

Iowa, favorable vote in Black Hawk 

County nll80 

Kansas. Good Roads Association favors 

$60,000,000 issue n204 

Long term for New York highways. .el240 
Michigan, votes for issue of $50,000,- 

000 n794 

Missouri, proposed n68 

Minnesota, approved by legislature. . .n399 

New York, long-term el240 

New York, vetoed nl036 

Oregon, $30,000,000 available in next 

three years n794 

Washington state, submitted to vote..n591 

West Virginia, voted n545 

Wisconsin, funds available 513 

Bond issues, efficient methods of financ- 
ing a573 

Breakups, spring, lessons from e549 


Heaved, at Oak Park, HI., repaired (H. 

W. Skidmore) 1*199 

Monolithic and semi-monolithic con- 
struction (Maj. W. M. Acheson) . . . ,a467 
Monolithic. durability. Pennsylvania 
Station. New York e357. *378 

*, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 


Volume 82 

Patched with concrete *1018 

Paving; status of. in 1918 (W. P. 

Blair) 133 

Vitrified for heavy motor-truck traffic 

(Maj. W. M. Aeheson) a467 

Bridges, steps to organize bridge division 
of National Highways Association.... n68 

British, national aid for e266 

Build road to fit traffic (R. C. Barnett) . 11078 
Builders in France needed here. . .6454, n494 
Bureau of Public Roads. T. H. Maedon- 
ald appointed engineer in charge Fed- 
eral-aid road work e647. n*689 

California, bond issue wins in Fresno 

County nl 030 

Increase of costs 1055 

Maintained in large part \>y motor- 
vehicle fees 1051 

Outlook for improvements n591 

Special election to vote on bond issue nl036 
Canadian, federal-aid bill introduced. ... n689 
Good Roads Congress and Exhibition. 

sixth nl084 

Government states policy n399 

Road Congress, highway design and 

construction papers 1100 

Car camps for maintenance gangs h'444 

Center gutter construction used on bitum- 
inous street (W. D. Johnston) '966 

Colleges should strengthen road-engineer- 
ing courses (R. L. Morrison) 1054 

Colorado, heavy road traffic 157 

Committee of state highway officials ap- 
pointed to cooperate with Federal bu- 
reau nl034 


Construction standards raised by Mis- 
sissippi Valley Association of State 

Highway Departments e946. 955 

Cost of highway concrete delivered wet 

by trucks *870 

Curved steel and plates for screed pre- 
vent waste h*687 

Details of construction (A. N. John- 
son) 133 

Dividers, submerged, used on concrete 

walks 159 

Dry. for road work e599 

Joints in (C. O. Frye) 1983 

Mixer has inclosed transmission. .. .n*595 
Multiple-strip to conserve material. . .•1170 
Rural. Mississippi Valley conference. . . 482 
Straight-edge short with handles for 

narrow widths (G. W. McAlpin) . .h*1279 
Swing pipe saves hose changes (H. H. 

Edwards) h»301 

Tamped specified for Illinois roads. . . . 735 
Testing aggregates (H. E. Breed) . . . .all02 
Used to patch worn brick paving. . . . *1018 
Contractors large, will they take up high- 
way work? ell40. 1150 

Contracts, state-insured, suggested (H. 

V. Swart and I. J. Morris) 1484 

Control of main routes by state com- 
missions 227 

Cost of concrete delivered wet by trucks *870 
Costs of resurfacing excavations in Los 

Angeles 347 

Pre-war and present 564 

Curves, to compute added area on (W. 

W. Crawford) 1*739 

Daily code letter shows status of all high- 
way work. Texas (J. Montgomery). . .1060 
Defects in surface of bituminous pave- 
ment due to concrete base (H. W. Skid- 
more) *878 

Deliquescent salts used for surfacing (H. 

H. Edwards) 976 

Design and construction of hot-mix as- 
phalt pavements (F. P. Smith) allOO 

Device for measuring irregularities of sur- 
face «1026 

Dixie Highway, bidding on nine Illinois 

sections n888 

Double roller and long board float give 

superior finish (S. P. Baird) h*110 

Drainage system for improved country 

highways (W. P. Blair) e895, 914. (M. 

H. Downey) 1. with ed. comment 1080, 

(M. H. Downey) 11127. 

Dump-bottom truck body for spreading 

road materials n548 

Earth, maintained by patrol contracts in 

Kansas 674 

Elimination of dangerous junction and its 

cost (E. Gedney) «6"?9 

Engineers wanted in Alabama t43 

Estimates, engineers', in relation to care- 
ful bidding (Construction Engineer) . .11029 
Excavation, balancing by semi-graphic 

method (D. P. Babcoek) «361 

Expansion-joint air chamber for road- 
builders' pipe lines n'1286 

Explosives, Interior Department obtains 

for road work. n592 

Extensive building shown by inquiry. . .nl65 
Federal-aid appropriation passed n446. 

n592 (correction n(542) nl084 

Committee of state highway officials 
appointed to cooperate with Fed- 
eral bureau nl03 4 

Conferees agree upon post-office appro- 
priation bill n.399 

Proposed modifications n.303 

Report on. misleading n544 

Townsend bill introduced in Congress. nll80 
Work delayed by failure to appoint 
director of Bureau of Public Roads. e597 
Federal commission opposed by Secretary 

Houston nl083 

Conference on legislation nl084 

Highway commission, bill for intro- 
duced in Congress n44fi 

Highway Council formation. . .n.303. n790 
Highway Council to meet n591 


Finance, see Highways. Bonds 

Float, split, for finishing concree at ex- 
pansion joints h*934 

Good Roads Association meeting n888 

Favors (60.000.000 bond issue n204 

Good roads show and exposition. South 
Carolina, to be held nll80 

Government to give states 20,000 motor 
trucks for road work n987 

Granite block laid on mortar bed and 
a -lapted to trunk highways (A. T. 
Rhodes) 134 

Half-section e993 

Hard-surface Illinois specifications (E. L. 
Heidenreich. P. E. Green. C. Older) . . .11224 

High relative temperatures of pavement 
surfaces (G. S. Eaton) »633 

Higher standards for construction will 
mean higher prices e946 

Highways Industries Association, replies 
to Secretary Houston's criticisms of 
Federal Highway Commission nl282 

Highways Transport Comimttee plans bet- 
ter highway transportation nl282 

Hot-mix asphalt pavements, design and 
construction (F. P. Smith) allOO 

Illinois, bidding on contracts not active. n888 
Cost of operating trucks in main- 
tenance (B. H. Piepmeier) 1074 

Hard-surface specifications (E. L. Heid- 
enreich. P. E. Green, C Older) 11224. 
Pits and quarries mapped for bidders 

on Dixie and Lincoln Highways. . .n'794 
Tamped concrete specified for, 735: 

comment on. by C. Older 735 

Upkeep high on disconnected system.. 724 

Impact tests, motor truck, made by Bu- 
reau of Public Roads n938 

Indiana commission appoints H. K. 

Bishop chief engineer n988 

Commission law constitutional n205 

Iowa, first road-bond vote favorable. . .nll80 
Has extensive program n794 

Kansas, Engineering Society asks state 
aid n350 

Good Roads Association favors $60,000,- 

000 bond issue n204 

New highway engineer, M. W. Watson. 

appointed nll81 

Plans state aid n794 

Labor, unskilled, source of supply (P. 
D. Sargent) a466 

Letting road contracts in long stretches 
e503. (W. Ora) 1635. (H. E. Breed Jk^J 831 

Lettings should be expedited e549 

Lincoln Highway, bidding on 20 Illinois 

sections n888 

In Pennsylvania: maintenance 

"Location. Construction and Maintenance 
of Roads." book (J. M. Goodell) 151 

Location for improved (H. L. Baker) . . J538 

Macadam, built by Red Cross refugees in~ 

China (R. A. White) »479 

Surfaced with deliquescent salts (H. 

H. Edwards) 976 

Macon. Ga.. promotes use of motor 
trucks n349 

Maintenance and repair by tar products 

(J. S. Crandell) 132 

By day-labor, system without red tape *384 
Cost-plus-lump-sum contract. Ohio. . . . 734 
Data on twenty-eight sections of test 

road 670. (B. H. Wait) 1984 

Of Lincoln Highway in Pennsylvania. . 36 
Material available n840 

Materials consigned to Government. 

freight reduced on n790 

Developments in laying and manufac- 
turing 131 

For economical construction lacking in 

Texas 1182 

Freight increase not contemplated. . . . n447 

Prices, gambling on e993 

Move to increase freight rates in Cen- 
tral Freight Association territory 

e215. e265. n306 

Supply solved by system. Outagamie 
County. Wis. (W. J. Driseoll) . *289, e749 

Michigan plans extensive improvements . n.399 
Votes for bond issue of $50,000,000. n794 

Minnesota, bond issue approved by legis- 
lature n399 

Constitutional amendment, to be sub- 
mitted to popular vote ell9 

Mississippi Valley Association of State 
Highway Departments raises concrete 
highway construction standards. e946, 955 

Missouri road bond law declared consti- 
tutional nll31 

Mixer, new. propelled by multiple-tread 
apparatus n*694 

Motor equipment, special, used on main- 
tenance. North Carolina (D. H. Win- 
slow) '771 

Motortruck highway problem el07, (C. 

F. Dingman) 1343 

National, arguments against by Secretary 
Houston answered by Highways Indus- 
trial Association nl282 

National, army engineer board to recom- 
mend system nll32 

Technical association needed e455 

War-Service Council approves plan. . nll4 

New locations for through truck routes 
(F. Bache) 1*298 

New York, bills signed for cancellation 
of contracts and deposit of certified 

cheeks with bids nl084 

Bond issue vetoed nl036 

Department, work at head office 130 

Long-term bonds el240 

Pre-war and present costs 564 

Ohio Good Roads Congress n206 

System without red tape makes success 
of day-labor road maintenance *384 

Uses cost-plus-lamp-sum contract for 

maintenance 7:54 

Oil heating plant. Los Angeles County. 

California (E. E. Glass) »728 

Oil required for treating, number of gal- 
lows shown by chart h*887 

Ontario act passed nS40 

Good Roads Association meets n591 

Oregon, S30.000.000 available in next 

three years n794 

Passes bond issue for $10,000,000. .. nlill 
Overhaul specification, what is? (R. G. 
Williams) 1835. (F. T. Howes) 1983 
IN. B. Gregory) 1983. (E. N. Bryan). 11078 
Paint-coat method for wood blocks (W. 

Buehler) 133 

Paver for use in alleys and streets n*213 

Pennsylvania, engineers appointed for 15 
districts, to get early start on bond 

issue construction n743 

Record week in road letting 1074 

Pits and quarries. Illinois, mapped for 

bidders on road work n*794 

Postoffice appropriation bill, conferees 

agree upon n.399 

Quarries and pits. Illinois, mapped for 

bidders on road work n*794 

Regulation of motor trucks discussed. . n;.">!» 
Rigid Illinois adopts uniform basis of 
design for all types (C Older) .. ,e897. 905 
Roads, rural. Mississippi Valley con- 
ference on 482 

Salt-marsh sand clay as road-building 

material ao75 

Scenic location e698, (C. R. Harte) 1932 

School at West Virginia State University 

reestablished n545 

Screenings on water-bound macadam, de- 
,vice for spreading needed (F. C. Beam) 

1 884. (M. D. Riker) 1«1125 

Selection of plant, factors influencing (A. 

H. Blanchard) all03 

Signs, in France, for American Army 

trucks (R. K. Tomlin. Jr.) «94 

Slab strength, uniform, for neavy-traffic 

roads (C. Older) e897. 905 

Slag used for metal. Michigan fruit dis- 
trict »526 

Smooth, dustless roads maintained by 

gang system *526 

South Carolina, good roads show and ex- 
position to be held nll86 

Southern Asphalt Association formed. . .nll82 
State, city and county systems should be 

unit (N. P. Lewis) a465 

Department. New York, head-office ex- 
pense ^_ 336 

Insurance for contracts suggested D.257 

Mileage 1027 

Straightedge, split, corrects joint humps 

in concrete pavement h*63 

Surfaced with deliquescent salts (H. H. 

Edwards) 976 

Taking state highways out of politics. .ell9 
Tar products: maintenance and repair by 

(J. S. Crandell) 132 

Technical association needed e455 

Texas, daily code letter shows status of 

all work (J. Montgomery) 1060 

Material for economical construction 

lacking nll82 

Townsend bill reintroduced in Congress. nll80 
Township, New Trier, 111., employs pub- 
licity e750 

Tractor operators trained for road work . 986 

Trails, national system proposed 1 1 *»»> 

Transport committee reorganized n791 

Transport engineering — a new technical 

field all 53 

Trunk, direct location for e"ti5 

Upkeep high on disconnected system. . . . 724 

United States Good Roads show n888 

Vitrified brick construction for heavj 
motor- truck traffic (Maj. W. M. Ache- 
son ) a467 

War control in U. S. and Great Britain. 671.101 
War Service Council approves national 

plan nll4 

Washington State, road-bond issue sub- 
mitted to vote n591 

Wayne County. Michigan, system to be 

extended 105 

Weed- and root-grubbing implement (E. 

E. Glass) 159 

West Virginia votes bond issue n545 

Wider pavements needed by motor ve- 
hicles at curves (G. S. Eaton) *461. 

(C. C. Wiley) 1684 

Wisconsin, comparatively small increase 

in cost of building *1115 

Funds available 613 

Progress in 1918 379 

Wood-block experiments in Minneapolis 

(C. H, Teesdale and J. D. MacLean) . a'233 

Paint-coat method 188 

Pavement. Chattanooga, spreads 2 in.. 523 

Worn, patched with concrete 914 

Highways Transport Committee reorgan- 
ized n791 

Plans better highway transportation ... nl282 
Hill, C. S., on large construction companies 

shun road work ell40. 1150 

Hines. W. D.. made director general of 

railroads nl62 

To address lumber congress n548 

Hog Island construction plant, keeping track 

of equipment (R. E. Boesler) 84fl 

Hoisting engines used to help trucks on 

17% grade h«589 

Holding a bulging retaining wall with but- 
tresses *192 

Holland, C. M.. and board to build Hudson 

River tunnel nil 30 

Holmes. (5. D.. on concrete used to line 

temporary diversion channel h*l'.'> 

Hoover, H. C. receives Washington Award, nil I 

*, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 



Horse to support steam siphon, simple (G. 

W. McAlpin) h'lll 

Horton. R. E., on additional meteorological 

data needed by engineers 614, el089 

Review of "Calculation of Flow in 

Open Channels" 149 

Hospital, contractor's, simple heating and 
ventilating system (Dr. J. M. Stadter) .h*788 
Medical inspection in Miami Valley 

checks influenza *197 

Houses, cheap, acceptable, needed . el042, *1044 
Houses, sectional camp, built by laborers, h* 1033 


Bureau. L. K. Sherman new head n399 

For shipyard workers, at Quincy. Mass 

(J. Meltzer) el042. »1044 

Government, part played by engineer al47 
Government program should be finished 

(M. Knowles) e313, 329 

Plans of United States Housing Corpora- 
tion n841 

Houston, Sec. D. F., opposes Federal high- 
way eomirmsion nl083 

Houk, I. E., on rainfall, absorption and 

run-off on small rural drainage area. . . 8. "5 
Hubbard. P.. on efficiency of bituminous 
surfaces under motor- truck traffic a464 


Bill defeated n351 

Passed by New Jersey legislature. . . . n742 

Bills for n306 

Consulting engineers appointed to advise 

on el089, nll30 

Discussed at meeting Am. Soc. C. E. 

n639, el089. nll30 

Is interstate communication local? el21 

Legislation asked n257 

New York State appropriates $1,000,000 

for n791 

Twin tunnel or single tube? e903 

Hughes. H. J., on engineering education 
and Students' Army Training Corps 142 

Huie, I. V. A., second deputy highway 
commissioner. New York State n840 

Human side of labor and engineer must be 
recognized el042, al050 

Humphreys. A. C on engineering educa- 
tion and Students' Army Training 
Corps 139 

Hunter, L. M., on thawing box reduces 

cost of winter excavation h*254 

On transporting concrete pipe by rolling 

(L. M. Hunter) h»637 

Huntingdon, Penn., value of water-company 
property fixed by engineer arbitrators (F. 
Gannett) 625 

Huntington, Ind., building promoted in (J. 
M. Triggs) 1441 

Huntington Lake. Cal., sounds at 1108 

Hurley, E. N., gives average cost of ship- 
building nll81 

On American ships el5 

Outlines shipping plan e648, n688. e697 

Reports on shipping statistics n640 

Hutchinson, Kan., names bridges for war 
heroes 805 

Hydraulic dredge, operating under difficul- 
ties (A. S. Fry) *410 

Hydraulic turbine casing breaks, floods 
power plant n403 


Alga? removal from California canal (E. 

C. Eaton) *382. e407 

Canal seepage losses affected by tem- 
perature (L. Crandall) e313, *323, 

(E. C. Murphy and L. Crandall) 1684 

Efficiency of drainage ditch for five dif- 
ferent channel conditions (C. E. Ram- 

ser) »522 

Erosion, progressive in dredged drainage 

channel (C. E. Ramser) *876 

Formulas : 

Kutter's, erosion, progressive, ' in 

dredged channel (C. E. Ramser) .... *876 
Kutter's n, determining value, on South 

Forked Deer River, Tennessee. . .n*522 
Kutter's n = 0.0168 to 0.0181, shown 
in loss of head in sewage sludge 

pipe, Toronto (T. H. Nevltt) 279 

Kutter's formula should be ganguillet 

and Kutter's, in book review 149 

Kutter and Manning's formulas, varia- 
tion of roughness coefficient (H. R. 
Leach and R. E. Horton) 1»536, (H. 

W. King) 1685 

Manning formula again (I. E. Houk). 11274 
Manning formula, chart for solution 
of (M. F. Sayre) '11126, addition 

and correction 11177 

Manning and Kutter, variation of 
roughness coefficient (H. R. Leach 
and R. E. Horton) 1*536, (H. W. 

King) 1685 

Manning's and Kutler's variation of 
roughness coefficient (P. Parker) .. 11276 
Illinois to develop 40,000 kilowatts water 
power, Chicago to downstate and Mis- 
sissippi waterway n038 

Large turbines ordered n743 

New England rivers have similar run-off 
characteristics (C. H. Pierce) *577 

(credited to author) 605 

New methods for solution of backwater 

problems (H. R. Leach) *768 

Rainfall, absorption and run-off in small 

rural drainage area (I. E. Houk) . . . 875 
Russian water-power possibilities, Dnieper 

River rapids (V. V. Tchikoff) *1065 

Sump holes. Kentucky, reduce flood flows 

(R. W. Spear) 915 

Surge pressures in pipe lines, graphical 
records (R. Bennett) *1048 

Water hammer in penstocks as affecting 

economy of design (A. H. Reeves, R. E. 

Horton, A. V. Garratt) 11222 

Weir chart, universal (E. E. Glass) .... '926 

Ice cakes thawed by steam jets to clear 
foundation h*935 

Idaho Government reorganized n792 

Proposed new water law n257 


Adopts uniform basis of design for all 

types of rigid pavement (C. Older) .897, 905 
Bidding on highway contracts not active. n888 

Has waterway project n591 

Pits and quarries mapped for bidders on 

road work n*794 

Section, American Water- Works J ssocia- 

tion. convention n690 

Society of Engineers, annual meeting. . . n305 

Issues bulletins to members 535 

State Reformatory, water waste due to 

poor plumbing and unruly temper. . . 910 
University, research assistantships n350 

Illinois Central R.R., car-icing plant *270 

Imhoff tanks, see Sewage. Imhoff tanks 

Imperial Valley, California, commission to 

study Colorado River proposed e315 

Control of Colorado River flood by stor- 
age e453. *456. (J. C. Stevens) 1739 

Imperial Valley active in all American 
canal nl282 

Impostor. Thomson Meter Co. warns 
against nl237 

Inclined railway, to deliver materials. 

Hetch Hetchy project *730 

Index to Engineering News completed 779 

Index, topical, used for reference (F. L. 
Bixby ) 1538 

India. American engineer fights epidemics 

in mining camp (H. N. Jenks) *339 

Camp sanitation (G. Harper) 1395 

Sanitary problems solved by American 
engineer (H. N. Jenks) el69, «172 

Indiana Engineering Society, annual meet- 
ing n307 

Indiana Highway Commission law constitu- 
tional n205 

Sanitary and Water-supply Association 
condemns shallow wells and privy 

vaults 982 

State Highway Commission appoints H. K. 
Bishop chief engineer n98H 

Indianapolis garbage-reduction profits 624 

Asks bids on sewage-disposal plant nl284 

Industrial Board. Department of Commerce. 

to stabilize prices n543 

Resigns n987 

Industrial education, bill to promote n350 

Exhibition promoted by engineers, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y el041 

Insurance in State of Washington nl038 

Plants, dining rooms for 981 

Relations discussed at Chicago meeting. n744 
Site, factors governing selection (H. 
Bartholomew) *872 

Influenza, quarantine against, in Alaska . . 787 
Sanitary service rids construction camp 
of (M. D. Kauffman) *620 

Ingalls, W. R., on economic duties of the 
engineer 292 

Ingenieria Internacional. announcement. . . el 

Inland waterway navigation in 1918, re- 
port of director 480 

Waterways, Director of, salary e993 

Institute of France, elects Dr. Waddell 
nl62. (J. Lundie) 1393 

Insurance, industrial, in State of Wash- 
ington nl038 

Liability, rates high in Wisconsin 836 

International Harvester Co., employment 
methods, etc n744 

International language for engineers (Civil 
Engineer) 1156. (G. W. Lee) 1442. (W. 
A. Callaway) 1635. (H. S. McKibben) . . .1836 
Language for Engineers. English sug- 
gested (H. S. McKibben) 1836 

Language for engineers, French suggested 

(W. A. Callaway) 1635 

Interstate Commerce Commission, favors re- 
turn of railways nll2 

Overrules rate on lumber products n258 

Reports on accidents 185 

Inventions, war. considered by War Com- 
mittee on Technical' Societies n67 

Iowa Assembly, no engineers in 1051 


Backs Raymond plan of railway organiza- 
tion 783 

Boosts membership by growth chart on 

post cards 198 

Circulates Raymond plan of railway or- 
ganization 783 

Convention works for technical pub- 
licity n494 

Gets newspaper publicity for meeting. .e407 
Helps to pass engineers' registration law . 982 

Publicity work 535, 1273 

Iowa engineers' registration law, how en- 
gineers got (J. H. Dunlap) 1073 

Engineers must register n841 

Highways, extensive program for n794 

Section, American Water-Works Associa- 
tion, spring meeting n839 

Iron ore at head of Great Lakes, handling 
(G. H. Herrold) »1U9 


Algae removal, from California Canal (E. 
C. Eaton) •382, e407 

Rag ■ 

Box flume, concrete, in Hawaii carried 
across gulch on trestle (A. W. Col- 
lins) Mi;:! 

California Water Commission advises 
change 52 

Canal seepage losses affected by tempera- 
ture (L. Crandall) e313, '323 

For soldiers' lands in Kansas 1166 

Colorado River flood-control e453, *456, 

(J. C. Stevens) 1739 

Columbia project. Washington State, ap- 
propriation for surveys n793 

Cost of ditches for reclaiming Idaho 
lands ( D. W. Cole) 678 

Departures in canal design and location 
effect saving I Everett N. Bryan).... 48 

Drainage of irrigated land 1153 

Electrically driven high-lift centrifugal 
pumps supply water for irrigation (B. 
P. Fleming) *74 

Enlargement of Yakima-Tieton main 
canal (G. C. finley) »1255 

Idaho, new law proposed n257 

Imperial Valley. California, commission 

to study Colorado River proposed e315 

Control of Colorado River floods by 
storage e453, *456, (J. C. Stevens) . 1739 

Imperial Valley active on all-America n 
canal nl282 

Newlands project, new name of Truckee- 
Carson n545 

Oregon water code, successful operation 

(P. A. Cupper) 420 

Panels of movable weir collapse auto- 
matically *818 

Preparing land for (F. W. Herron 1 

e314. *337 

Pumps for (see Pumps and Pumping) 

Reinforced-concrete culverts under canal 

(D. C. Willett) *919 

Russia, extension needed (V. V. Tchikoff) 

el69. *190 

Scientific advance '382. e407 

Standard bridge abutments on canal 
projects (D. C. Willett) *777 

System used alternately to Irrigate and 
drain *928 

Truekee-Carson project renamed New- 
lands n545 

Yakima-Tieton main canal enlargement 

(G. C. Finley) '1255 

Isaacs, J. D., on engineering education.... 473 
Isometric working drawings, how to make 

to scale (G. Paaswell) «661 

Italian Government eomimssion buys Amer- 
ican lumber nl68 

Railways electrified 331 

Italy, devastation in (Maj. D. F. Pierce) . . 627 


Chicago water-works intake crib tilted 

level with screw jacks *24S 

Move bridge spans 136 ft. endwise on 

car trucks *530. *567 

Raising Pennsylvania R.R. bridge over 

Allegheny River at Pittsburgh . . e847. *850 
Skew bridge spans shifted laterally by 
jacks on roller blocks (S. A. Snyder)h*34(> 

Straightens steel columns h'491 

Jenks. H. N.. comment on his article on 
camp sanitation in India (G. Harper). . .1395 
On American engineer at Burma camp 

fights epidemics *339 

On sanitation in mining camp in Burma 

el 69, »172 

Jersey City, N. J., asks bids for water pipe.n400 
Buys dredged fill from Government to 

make new land n79.1 

To re-let contract for under-river water 

conduit n260 

Water-supply, bids for furnishing and 

laying pipe n691 

Jerusalem, water-supply, ancient, war-time 

and present (H. Y. Carson) *1092 

Jervey. Gen. H.. decorated n*165 

Made officer of Legion of Honor n400 

John Fritz medal conferred on General 

Goethals nl085 

Johnson, A. N., on concrete road construc- 
tion 133 

Johnson, N. C. shows moving pictures of 

concrete making n350. el239. »1266 

On bettering concrete by new mixing 

method *1266 

Johnston. W. D.. on center gutter construc- 
tion used on bituminous street '966 

Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced 

Concrete, another el239 

Joints, cement for cast-iron water and gas 

mains at Valleys. Calif 1201 

For water mains save money at Portland. 

Ore 324 

Joslin. C. F. and M. L. Vicente on effects 

of earthquakes on Porto Rico structures. *806 
Junkersfeld, Col. P., biography n*208 


Earth roads maintained by patrol con- 
tracts 674 

Good Roads Association favors $60,000.- 

000 bond issue n204 

Highways, state aid planned n794 

Irrigation for soldiers' lands Ilti6 

More water laboratories in 730 

Southeastern. water-supplies (F. M. 

Vea,tch and F. N. Raymond) 145 

State Agricultural College, engineering de- 
partment distributes technical informa- 
tion to public eS96 

Utilities commission proper means of 
compelling service, court rules n642 

*. illustrated ; 1, letters ; e, editorials ; h, hints ; n, news notes ; a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 


Water-supplies to be studied 1104 

Kansas Engineering Society, annual meeting n350 
For standard lees 439 

Kansas City. Mo., cannot make ice nC40 

Engineers' Club, interest in civic affairs. n743 
Viaduct. 23rd St.. conflict over bids 

n743. n938 

Water works to be improved n544 

Kauffman, M. D.. on sanitary service at 
construction camp *620 

Keel-blocks, new quick release. *881. (F. 

H. Frankland) 11028 

Use of »7 

Kelly. Representative: bill for employment 
on public works n256 

Kenyon. Senator W. S.. abandons public 

works department bill n398 

Bill for public works n204. n256 

Kentucky sump holes reduce flood flows 

(R. W. Spear) 915 

Kienle. J., on advance in chlorination and 
effect on typhoid all94 

King, George A., author of "Supreme Court 
Fixes Responsibility of Contracts" 85 

Kistler. H. K.. on field methods on rapid 
stadia surveys, *776, correction 885 

Knauff, W. K.. on bracing eliminated in 
sheeting octagonal excavation h*541 

Knickerbocker, J., on need for standardiza- 
tion of flanges for light cast-iron pipe.a'1197 

Knowles, M.. on Civil War price trends and 

today's *414 

On Government housing program. . .e313, 329 
On some engineering problems of regional 
planning all73 

Koerner. R. A., on design and cost of con- 
crete-block manholes for pipe sewers . * 1250 

Kommers. J. B., on beam deflections under 

ditributed or concentrated loading. . . *44 

Koon, S. G., on labor turnover high on two 
war-time contract jobs 1159 

Kopcznski. L., on formwork easily stripped 
by use of corner detail h*203 

Kutter's formula, see Hydraulics Formulas 

Kyle, G. A., kidnaped by Chinese bandits, 
experiences 665 


Ample, but materials still high in Cen- 
tral West .nil 7 
And Bolshevism (E, "W Wendell) '.'.'.'.'. ! 1299 
American Federation opposed to radical- 
ism ell87 

Advocates scientific research nl283 

Bonus payments speed up shaft sinking. . 232 
Coming status of employee In industry 

el042, al050 

Common, becoming scarcer n943 

Convict, how rationed in road-construc- 
tion camp hi 032 

Cost analysis shown by simple chart. . .h*169 
Dav labor does municipal work. Flint. 

Mich 524 

Department of, begins movement for 

building campaign n64 

Organizes division to study building 

conditions nl61 

Will take up safety code work n307 

Earnings of carpenters with one con- 
tractor (O. P. Rietschlin) 1*737 

Efficiency and cost-plus contracts (H. C. 

Turner) e800. 815 

Employment methods, etc., at works of 

International Harvester Co n744 

Fair day's pay for fair day's work e597, 

( J. B. Lippincott) 605 

Human side must be recognized. el042. al050 

Job records kept on two forms h*1179 

Jurisdictional building strikes, to arbi- 
trate nl233 

low labor costs with high wages e71 

Low output in war not due to cost-plus 

contract (Editorial Interview, C. S. H.) 909 
Machinery must supplant unskilled. .. .ell87 
Malingering not neurasthenia (C. C. Sher- 
lock) 918 

Neurasthenia a growing disease in en- 
gineering work (C. C. Sherlock) 918 

New York State wages doubled in four 

years 1228 

Opposed to radicalism ell87 

•Output versus wages as contractor's 

problem e946 

•Oversupply e895 

Overtime work decreases efficiency e697 

Pay. higher, causes increase in materials 

prices (F. F. Vater) 1586 

Personnel work found profitable by con- 
struction firm (editorial interview. C. 

S. H.) 970 

Piecework faster than dav labor on hand 

excavation. California (E. N. Bryan) . . 727 
Plan to eliminate jurisdictional strikes. e550 
Prices, etc.. in Boston water-works dis- 
trict. April. 1919 1192 

Profit-sharing and stockholding bv em- 
ployees el 042. al050 

Railway, advancing views on e098 

Reduction of shortage reported n7() 

Safety code work. Labor Department will 

take up n307 

Shipbuilding, keeping up spirit e.'115 

Stockholding and profit-sharing bv cm 

ployees cl042 ninvi 

Tests of skill. Army, applicable in con- 
struction a554. o.'OS 

Time card as check on workmen h*837 

Training operators of construction ma- 
chinery -.e848 

Turnover high on two war-time contract 

jobs (S. G. Koon) ] 1 59 

Turnover on Pennsylvania R.R 328 

Unemployment decreasing n892 

Union, and professional engineers (T. P. 

Morrissey) 1834, (F. T. Howes) .. .11078 
Unit costs lowered without cutting 

wages (J. B. Lippincott) .e597, *605. e697 
Unskilled, for highway work, source of 

supply (P. D. Sargent) a466 

Wage adjustment by arbitrator, in "Notes 

from the Field" (E. J. M.) n545 

Wages doubled in New York State in 

four years 1228 

Reduced in one industry e994 

Small part of ship-operating cost 1228 

War wage increase met by revising con- 
struction plan •96 

Will prices and wages drop? e2 

Working Conditions Service, United States 

Department of Labor n841 

Labor-saving machinery used in building 

houses (S. H. Lea) e749, '753 

Ladders: safety feet h«203 

"La Ingenieria Internacional." announce- 
ment el 

Lamme. B. G., receives Edison medal nl037 

Land reclamation outlets govern, by drain- 
age e409 

Land settlement, California board, money 

for n401 

Durham. Cal.. colony, costs (A. T. Par- 
sons, E. Mead) 1251 

Lang, C. F., views on "proper distribution 
of wealth. happiness. education 

el042, al050 

On light railway feeder lines al262 

Langfitt, Maj. Gen. W. C, receives Dis- 
tinguished Service medal n402 

Language, international, for engineers, see 

International language 
Latin and Greek for engineers — more Eng- 
lish, not Latin and Greek (W. G. Ray- 
mond) 11176. R. Hering. 11272. 
Latin and Greek for engineers e896, 930, 

(G. Paaswell) 11031. (F. H. Clutz) .. .11077 
Laub, H.. tribute to n*164 


Accident at Harriman. Penn n744 

Berth construction and side-launching 

practice in Great Lakes shipyards *7 

Many on Memorial Day nll30 

Side, of Ohio River boat, speed and list 

in «1017 

Ways, outshore underwater construction 

(E. D. Buel) *1121 

Lea. S. H.. on using labor-saving machinery 
at housing development at Cradock. Va. 

e749. «753 

Leach. H. R.. on new methods for solution 

of backwater problems *768 

Leak in subway station stopped by grout- 
ing 957 

Lee. W. E.. on Baltimore garbage will be 

made into pork e265. *287 

On women water-waste inspectors at Bal- 
timore *1105 

Leetsdale. Penn.. ship-steel fabricating 
plant. Emergency Fleet Corporation (L. 

G. Fishach ) *332. e358 

Leffler B. R. on railway bridge design 
loadings and actual engine loads *1270 


Arizona $30 000.000 bond issue for high- 
ways vetoed n641 

British Ministry of Health, bill for....n840 

Bureau of Public Roads, bill raises di- 
rector's salary nll32 

California Land Settlement Board, money 

for n401 

Special election to vote on highway 
bond issue nl036 

Canada. Federal-aid road bill nfisO 

County engineers, bill to take out of 
politics n351 

Delaware River bridge bill passed by New 
Jersey legislature n742 

Drainage bill. Minnesota senator asks en- 
gineer's help in framing 439 

Employment Service. United States, con- 
tinuation asked by Secretary Wilson. . nll31 

Engineering and industrial research, 
Gronna bill for, introduced nll31 

Federal-aid for highways, bill passed 
n446. nf>92 (correction n642) nl084 

Federal-aid road law, proposed modifica- 
tions n303 

Federal Industrial Relations Commission 
bill introduced nil 30 

Few bills of interest to engineers passed 
by Congress n493 

Flood-control survey of Colorado River 
proposed n40i 

Highway appropriations, national n257 

Highway bill. new. introduced in Con- 
gress nl 16 

Bills, six. introduced in Congress in 
December. 1918 n06 

Hudson River vehicle tunnel bills n257. 
introduced n300 defeated in United 
States Senate n351, passed in New Jer- 
sey n742 

Idaho Government reorganized n792 

Proposed new water law n257 

Illinois, bills affecting engineers dis- 
cussed by Western Society of Engi- 
neers e697 

Waterway project bill n591, 938 

Indiana Highway Commission law con- 
stitutional n205 

Industrial education, bill to promote. .. n350 

Iowa engineers must register n841 

Registration law, how Iowa engineers 
got (J. H. Dunlapl 1073 

Kansas highways, constitutional amend- 
ment for state aid passed n7!M 

Land reclamation, bill to appropriate 

$100,000,000 nl62 

Licensing, see Engineers, Licensing. 
Michigan highways, bond issue of $50,- 

000,000 approved by voters n794 

Plans extensive highway improvements.n399 
Minnesota constitutional amendment for 
highway trunk system to be sub- 
mitted to people ell9 

Legislature approves bill for highway 

bond issue n399 

Would reimburse Minnesota contractors 

for war losses n398 

Missouri, bill proposes waterways and 

drainage commission n495 

Engineers put on par with lawyers. . 662 
Road bond law declared constitution- 
al nll31 

New York appropriates $1,000,000 for 

Hudson River vehicle tunnel n791 

Buys two toll bridges nl084 

For cancellation of road contracts and 
deposit of certified checks with 

bids nl084 

Highway bond issue vetoed nl036 

Motor trucks removed from personal- 
property class nl035 

Water-Power Commission bill vetoed.nl035 

Ohio conservancy act upheld n210 

Oklahoma county engineers obtain bet- 
ter pay n791 

Ontario highways act passed n840 

Oregon passes highway bond issue for 

$10,000,000 n641 

Provides funds for road work n794 

Reclamation bills go to referendum. .n745 
Pennsylvania, to cooperate with New 
Jersey in purchase of Delaware River 

toll bridges nl035 

Postoffice appropriation bill conferees 

agree upon n399 

Power survey, bills care for n401 

Public health, rural. Lever bill e.316 

Works, bills for employment on n256 

Works department bill, none this ses- 
sion n398 

Works. Kenyon, bill for n204 

Questionnaire sent to members of Mon- 
treal branch, Engineering Institute of 

Canada 783 

Rivers and harbors bill reported n67 

Roads, national. Army engineer board to 

recommend system nil 32 

St. Lawrence River navigation route to 

be investigated n493 

Townsend highway bill reintroduced in 

Congress nll80 

Washington State, appropriates $100,000 
for surveys. Columbia irrigation proj- 
ect n793 

Bond-issue submitted to vote n591 

Water-power, again before Congress, .nll.30 

Bill should be passed e313 

Water-powers: Congress should unlock.. ell9 
What do you want from your legisla- 
ture? e71 

Western Society of Engineers studies. . . . 783 
Leighton. M. O., chairman of National Serv- 
ice Committee of Engineering Council.. n*262 
Levelman's pay: a correction (R. Reimann) 

1253. 1345 
Lever. Representative A. F.. bill for Fed- 
eral aid in rural public-health work....e316 
Lewis, M. R., on portable trench-excavation 

platform h«789 

Lewis. N. P.. on common sense of civic 

centers al099 

On state, city and county road systems 

should be unit a465 

Lewiston Flat irrigation project: electri- 
cally driven pumps (B. P. Fleming) .... *74 
Ley. F. T. & Co.. find personnel work profit- 
able (editorial interview. C. S. H.).... 970 
Liability insurance rates high in Wisconsin. 836 
License fees, automobile, applied to road 

building and maintenance a573 

Licensing, see Engineers. Licensing. 
Lima. Peru. F. W. Spalding to build water- 
works 1099 

Limestone rock asphalt produces good 

mortar (J. R. Nash) 903 

Lincoln Highway in Pennsylvania: mainte- 
nance 36 

Lindenthal, G.. proposes New York port 

scheme n401 

Line revision on Cincinnati Southern R.R..*873 
Lippincott. J. B.. on unit costs lowered 

without cutting wages. . e597. *605. e607 
Little River Drainage District. Missouri. 
inspection of drainage ditch cross-sections 
after contract dredging (E. S. Blaine) .'1090 
Llano. A., on general solutions of prob- 
lems in railway compound curves. 

•1(170, el090 
Loading costs decreased by box on side ol 

railroad car iM. Miller) h*985 

Loads safe, on gussets or brackets (F. W. 

Seidensticker) 1*1222 

Local corrosion causes scrapping of good 

highway-bridge metal el043 

Locomotive crane developed by Terry & 

Tench Co n 151 

Logansport, Ind., railway shop erected by 

traveler h*302 

Long Beach Calif., operation of fine sew 
age screens 1012, (correction. 1266 I 

Long girders and high columns designed as 
rigid frame (A. E. Wynn) ••'<' ' 

Los Angeles. Calif., aqueduct power bonds, n I 

Asphalt street maintenance I 88 

Concrete sewer-pipe specifications S18 

Cost of resurfacing street excavations. . . 347 

Municipal asphalt plant, costs 397 

Wants to sell cement mill nOI" 

Louisville Engineers' and Architects' Club 
to drafi bill for licensing engineers n67 

Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen, 
organization el041 

*, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 




Camps, organization of Loyal Legion of 

Loggers and Lumbermen el041 

Decrease in production in 1918 960 

Government will dispose of surplus 

n260. n591 
Italian Government commission buys 

American lumber 168 

West Coast Lumbermen's Association to 

hold meeting nl286 

Wood lots, flood-basin, logged for con- 
struction timber h*1178 

Lund, C. L., on water-meter practice and 

testing at Buffalo, N. Y *1110 

Lush, C. W„ on supporting blast furnace 

while replacing foundation *1123 

Luten formula used for timber arch bridge 

100 ft. long (D. R. Walkinshaw) *775 

Lyle, A., on subaqueous tunnel heading 
under 8 in. of rock cover h*1082 


Macadam stone treated with deliquescent 

salts (H. H. Edwards) 976 

MacArthur Bros., in $200,000,000 French 

contract nl231 

MacDonald. T. H„ appointed engineer in 

charge Federal-aid road work. . . ,e647, n*689 
Machinery must supplant unskilled labor. ell87 
MacLean. J. D., with C. H. Teesdale, on 

wood-block experiments in Minneapolis, n* 233 
Macon, Ga., promotes use of motor trucks.n349 
Macqueen. P. O.. on history and use of 

easement curves for railroads 924 

Magazines, popular, and engineering (C. W. 

Barber) 1933 

Main. Charles T., extract from address to 

Amer. Soc. Mech. Engineers 82 

Maintenance data on twenty-eight sections 

of test road 670. (B. H. Wait) 198 4 

Deferred, catching up with e895 

Malaria control at nitrate plants (W. G. 

Stromquist) *718 

Manganese ore industry, effect of war on.. 1069 
Manhole and sand-trap, corrugated-iron, .n* 11 8" 
Manitoba, drainage commission appointed. . n260 
Mann. Charles R.. opinions concerning his 

report on engineering eduaction.41. el21. 138 
Manning's formula, see Hydraulics, Formulas. 


Airplane e993. 996. *1000 

Contour lines in various colors (L. R. 

Bowen) 11080 

Indexing system for small cities (F. J. 

Calkins '965 

Mexican border surveyed by engineers of 

Geological Survey (R. B. Marshal] )... *235 
New projection in map of United 

States 11)9 

Of pits and quarries, niinois, made for 

bidders on road work *791 

Photographic, from the air (J. B. 

Mertie) e993. 996 

Reference, Portland, Ore., made accessible 

by new numbering (O. E. Stanley) .... '911 
Topographic engineers want completed. . . n888 
Topographic. Government should spend 

$1,000,000 for 933 

United States Geological Survey, popu- 
larizing e7.">0 

Marani. V. G., on engineering education.. . . 474 

Marble; waste converted into lime n70 

Marbles, physical properties 854 

Marshall. R. B.. on topigraphic engineers 

assist in military mapping *235 

Marshall. Gen. R. C. Jr., biography n*208 

Defends Construction Division's form of 
contract and advocates league of tech- 
nical societies al77 

Honored at dinner n207 

Receives Distinguished Service Medal. . . . n400 
Marston, Anson, on egineering education and 

Students' Army Training Corps 141 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

record number of students n402 

Masury. A. F., on motor-truck tire main- 
tenance el239. '1262 

Material-Handling Machinerv Association 
formed nll7. n213. n405. meeting, 

nll37, nl238 
Material prices halt Chicago building opera- 
tions (O. M. Fox) 309. (F. F. Vater.1586 

Prices (A. W. Welch) n893 

Mathews J. D.. on decav of timber in 

Mexico 631 

Mavell A. J., on construction problems. 

Canal St. subway. New York *650 

Mayors' and Governors' conference called by 
President at Washington e453. n493. 
e501. (F. C. W.) 514. e550. 

League proposed , n543 

Some, need education e550 

McAdoo. W. G., report on inland waterway 

navigation for 1918 480 

Reviews operation of railways in 1918.. alTS 
McAlpin G. W.. on bent crowbar easily 

removes shale rock h*159 

On short straightedge with handles. . . . *1279 
On «imple • horse to support steam 

siphon h*lll 

Mc^ E. J on engineering educa- 
tion and Students' Armv Training Corps. 43 
McClintie-Marshall Co.. in $200,000,000 

French contract nl231 

McDougall-Duhith shipyard: workmen en- 
couraged to think 282 

McGinnis on finishing of concrete floor 477. 

(T. P. Morrissey) 1630 

Mechanical devices help overcome engineer 

shortage (R. A. Brown) 340. 342 

Medal. John Fritz, conferred on General 

Goethals nl08."> 

Medical inspection in Miami Valley checks 
influenza *197 


Meltzer. J., on how one contractor went 
about a housing job el042, *1044 

Memorial structures, public works as. . . .el69 

Mental tests. Army engineer officers rank 
first in '814 

Merchant marine; national association or- 
ganized n307 

Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation, yard 

at Bristol '557 

Yard at Bristol. Penn.. routing of fabri- 
cated material *25 

Mertie, J. B.. on present status of photo- 
graphic mapping from the air....e993. 996 

Metcalf, L., on effect of war upon water- 
works revenues and expenses all94 

Messes, how soldiers were quartered and 
fed in spruce production camps *105 

Meteorological data, additional, needed by 
engineers (R. E. Horton) 614, el089 


Compound, study of, made by New York 

City 930 

Venturi, portable, used in Oak Park, 111., 

water- waste surveys *829 

Water, effect of. influenced by baths. 

pressure and pipes a767 

Niagara Falls. N. Y.. to be 100% 

metered 1091 

Practice and testing, Buffalo, N. Y. (C. 

L. Lund) *1110 

Revenue from sale of water to me- 
tered domestic consumer (P. Bur- 
gess) mio 

Salt Lake City to have more 1114 

Metzger, L. W.. on Williamette River 
bridge, at Salem, Ore. *143; criticized 

(E. Godfrey) 1441 

Mexican border surveys, by engineers of 
United States Geological Survey (R. B. 
Marshall) *235 


Act upheld by supreme court n210 

Camps self -governed; like commission 

government e215. 235 

Lockington dam; mammoth derricks build 

concrete outlet *32(i 

Medical inspection checks influenza. ... '197 

Not damaged in flood 860 

Travelers carry concreting chute' and 

forms for conduit h*588 

Winter concreting 618 

Wood lots logged for construction tim- 
ber h*117,8 

Michigan, chlorination of water-supplies . . 1199 
Highways, bond issue of $50,000,000 ap- 
proved n794 

Plans extensive highway improvements. . n399 

Michigan Engineering Society, annual meet- 
ing n306 

Microscopic count of sewage bacteria. 196. *1106 

Miles acid process, (see Sewage) 

Military engineers at front eG47. (C. E. 

De Leuw) 650 

Honors for engineer officers n400 

Training Camps Association takes over 
employment work n59 ) 

Mill, old Southern, has curious horizontal 
wheel (H. K. Higgins) *675 

Miller, M„ on simple device decreases load- 
ing cost h*985 

Milwaukee; tastes in water-supply (H. P. 

Bohmann) 181, (W. R. Gelston) 1685 

To develop harbor n988 

Mine shaft on steep slope relined with con- 
crete 1152 

Mine shaft 930 ft. deep, sinking and con- 
creting (R. L. Russell) *1259 

Minerals mined in 1918. value 345 

Mingle. J. G.. on brick chimney carried on 
platform at roof '1069 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of Ameri- 
ca, address, W. R. Ingalls, on "Economic 
Duty of Engineer" 292 

Ministry of Ways and Communications. 
British, proposed n841 

Minneapolis armory, faulty foundation work 

causes failure el043. *1067 

Engineering activities, address by F. C. 

Shenehon el239. 1251 

To have largest rein forced-concrete arch.n791 
Water-supply, filters added and water- 
softening proposed n793 


Cities, bill would reimburse contractors 

for war losses n398 

Constitutional amendment for trunk high- 
way system to be submitted to people.. ell9 
Drainage control reorganized by new 

law n987 

Educational water-supply campaign. ... 1240 
Legislature approves highway bond is- 
sue n399 

Section. American Water-Works Associa- 
tion, meeting n988 

Soeiet es meet in joint sessions n401 

Society nearing organization 153 

Minute concrete mix subject to doubt (H. 
A. Davis) 1300 

Mirick. G. L.; dinner for. at Boston nl63 

Mississippi Valley Association of State 
Highway Departments. Conference on 

rural concrete roads 482 

Raises concrete highway construction 
standards ef> +6. 955 

Mississippi Valley, economics of transporta- 
tion in (J. R. Bibbins) e945. *971 

Missouri, bill proposed for waterways and 

drainage commission n495 

Road bond law declared constitutional. .nll31 
Engineers on par with lawyers 602 

Missouri River water-power studied nll80 

Modern methods applied to group house 
building (S. H. Lea) e749, »753 


Moffit. F. H., work in aero-photographic 
mapmaking e993. *1000 

Mohlman. F. W.. and C.-E. A. Winslow, 
on four methods of sewage treatment 
studied at New Haven testing station.. . . a32 

Molasses-tank failure. Boston (B. S. 
Brown e945, *974, (see also n353). (J. 
A. L. Waddell) 11075 

Moline. 111., poor filter operation account- 
able for typhoid outbreaks n*1264 

Monolithic brick pavement, durability. 

e357. *378 

Montgomery, J., on daily code letter shows 
status of all highway work, Texas 1060 

Moore, Prof. H. F. and W. J. Putnam test 
effect of cold-working and rest on steel. a*619 

Moore shipyard, San Francisco *283 

Morris, C. T., on "Applied Mechanics" .... 582 

Morrison. E. J., on asphalt block adapted to 
war purposes 131 

Morrison, R. L., on colleges should play 
part in highway program 1054 

Morrow. Prof. L. W. W., on engineering 
teaching e801, 827 

Mortar, good, from limestone rock asphalt 

(J. R. Nash) 903 

Silt in. compression tests show effect of. 757 
Test does not insure good concrete aggre- 
gate (C. C. Williams) '1006 

Mosquito, eradication reduces malaria at 
nitrate plants (W. G. Stromquist) '718 

Motor sweepers and trucks show economy. . 969 


Adopted by teaming company, improve 

service *1202 

And railways; motor trucks needed to 
supplement, not compete with rail- 
ways el20 

Army, adapted to many purposes *1052 

Chart for estimating costs (W. Bige- 

low) 1*1278 

Combined detachable body serves several 

purposes h*1081 

Cost of operating in road maintenance 

in Illinois (B. H. Piepmeier) 1074 

Costs, chart for estimating (W. Bige- 

low) 11278 

Costs much higher than generally as- 
sumed 438, (E. N. Bryan) 1438 

Costs of long-distance haulage in Ohio.. . 717 
Effect of, on bituminous surfaces (P. 

Hubbard) a464 

Express route. 100-mile 1115 

Express trucks, gasoline and electric. . . 902 

Freight distribution by 1011 

Gasoline tax on e750 

General Motors Corporation to increase 

plant n892 

Government, status of 716 

To give 20,000 to states n987 

^_ To sell very few nl088 

Haul material for Brooklyn Army base. . *366 
Haul properly proportioned concrete 

batches to mixer h*1032 

Highway — motor-truck problem 1107, (C. 

F. Dingman) 1343 

Impact tests made by Bureau of PubUe 

Roads n939 

Increase in traffic. New York State. 1918 326 

Macon, Ga.. promotes use n349 

Needed to supplement, not compete with 

railways el20 

New locations for through truck routes 

(F. Bache) *298 

New York State, motor trucks removed 

from personal property class nl035 

Operate over steep grades on Hetch 

Hetchy project *40 

Postoffice appropriation bill makes pro- 
vision for experiments n399 

Regulation discussed by Highway Traffic 

Association n259 

Requirements, reasonable, discussed at 
meeting of National Highway Traffic 

Association n3 ) - 

Routes as substitutes for branch rail- 
way lines e314 

Sectional side-dump body for hauling 

road-repair material n*992 

Semi-trailer, new. has collapsible auxili- 
ary wheels n*1088 

Short-haul truck and rail shipments. . . . 903 
Sweepers and trucks show conomy .... 969 
Tire maintenance (A. F. Masury)el239. '1202 
Trailer costs, chart for estimating (W. 

Bigelow) 1*1278 

Trailer manufacturers reorganize. n499. n992 
Turntable for, needed (F. C. Beam), 

1884. (M. D. Riker) 1*1125 

Used to inspect water supplies 773 

Versus electric railways e799 

Wider pavements needed at curves (G. 

S. Eaton) *461, (C. C. Wiley) 1684 

Moulton. Prof. H. G., on work for soldiers.. e357 
Moulton. R. H., on tests to free under side 

of railroad viaducts from smoke 1162 

Movable towers concrete deck of Philadel- 
phia elevated *50 

Move bridge spans 136 ft. endwise on car 

trucks *530, *507 

Equipment and material for dam through 

small tunnel *681 

Moving pictures by N. C. Johnson show con- 
crete making n.350, el239. *1200 

Multiple-arch dam record height, at Lake 
Hodges. California, completed '720 


Munoz. Maj. G. C. on handling and storing 

explosives during war *1242 

Murman R. R. Russia (V. Goriaehkovsky) *102.'i 

Muscle Shoals nitrate plants, malaria con- 
trol (W. G. Stromquist) *718 

*, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 



Volume 8kl 



Narrow-gage railways proposed in England. e750 
Nash. J. R., on limestone rock asphalt pro- 
duces good mortar 903 

Nashville Engineering Society asks for pub- 
lic works n'258 

National Association of Manufacturers. .. .n892 

Elects officers 11IO88 

National Board of Jurisdictional Awards of 

Building Industry e650 

Brick Manufacturers' Conference n399 

Builders' Supply Association elects of- 
ficers n263 

Chamber of Commerce urges employment 

work n(539 

Conference on City Planning. ... el090. 

1097. nll33 
Crushed Stone Association will hold con- 
vention n311 

Foreign Trade Convention n355, to be 

held in Chicago n748 

Highway Traffic Association discusses 
motor-truck regulation d259, n304. 
program of meeting n938. meeting. .nl036 
Highways Association, organizes Division 

of Bridges n68. n305 

Lumber Manufacturers' Association con- 
vention n548. to hold convention .... n690 
Merchant Marine Association organized. . n307 
Municipal League. C. R. Woodruff to re- 
tire as secretary n938 

Research Council to get S500.000 from 

Rockefeller Foundation n744 

Service Committee organized by Engineer- 
ing Council n206. n*262 

Slag Association elects officers nl68 

Naval Consulting Board, inventions con- 
sidered by. in cooperation with War 

Committee on Technical Societies n67 

Navigation improvement under Ohio Con- 
servancy law e749, *763 


And Fleet Corporation unfair to their 
own draftsmen (W. F. Fox and Jose- 
phus Daniels) 1634. (International 

Federation Draftsmen's Unions) 1785 

Bureau of Yards and Docks receives 
bound volumes of Engineering News 

and Record from H. B. Seaman 1109 

Electric drive for warships el23 

Sells materials by bids n448 

Nebraska State University, training opera- 
tors of construction machinery e848 

Neurasthenia a growing disease in engi- 
neering work (C. C. Sherlock) 918 

Neville. Col. C, biography n*210 

Nevitt. T. H.. on loss of head in sewage 
sludge pipe. Toronto 279 

Newark Bay bridge, committee to report 
on site nl085 

Newark. Ohio, water consumption cut more 
than half (F. H. Waring) 731 

New Castle, Penn.. accurate and compact 
record of property *565 

Newell, F. H.. elected president of Ameri- 
can Association of Engineers n*1035 

Review of "Irrigation Engineering." 

Davis 979 

Tribute to Roosevelt nll3 

New England rivers have similar run-off 
characteristics (C. H. Pierce) '577, 
(credited to author) 605 

New England Water-Works Association. 

annual meeting nl64 

Committee on rainfall and run-off n210 

Convention e549. n591 

To protest against fishing in reservoirs. nll83 

New Haven, Four methods of sewage treat- 
ment studied at testing station (C-E. A. 
Winslow and F. W. Mohlman) a32 

Newlands project, new name of Truckee- 
Carson n545 

New law for Venezuela railroad concessions. 52 

"New Mexico." U. S. 3.. electric drive... el23 

New Orleans Army base improves port 
facilities (G. H. Davis) *823. (M. G. 

Findley and G. H. Davis) 11077 

Shipyard for building "unsinkables". . . . *434 

New Trier. 111., employs road publicity. . . .e750 

New York Central's freight terminal in 

Cleveland 1 W. E. Phelps) *508 

Train wreck at Batavia. N. Y. (H. 
Bartholomew .12 53 


Board of Estimate discharges engineers, 
e72, e73. nll2: hearing by Engineer- 
ing Council. nl63. Engineering Coun- 
cil acts. n205; engineers reinstated 

n.iiKJ. e313 
Business Publishers' Association's indus- 
trial conference n793. e800 

East River tunnel, new. in service n790 

Engineers dismissed, see New York City. 
Board of Estimate. 

Meet to discuss engineer as citizen, 
formation of local society, etc. 

e649, d688 
Port scheme proposed by G. Lindenthal. .n401 
Treaty between New York and New 

Jersey to develop e265 

Treaty postponed n743 

United, urged n642 

Public Service Commission, First Dis- 
trict, abolished n936 

Rapid Transit: 

Construction should be separated from 

regulation (A. Ludwig) 1296 

Commissionership declined by engi- 
neers nl083 

Commissioner, single, replaces five-mem. 

ber body n!)K7 

Continuous-train or moving platform 

suggested 1 H. li. Seaman) . . I'M 1 , '1248 

Construction problems. Canal St. sub- 
way (A. J. Mayell) '650 

Delaney. J. H . appointed commis- 
sioner nl()83 

East River tunnel, new, in service. . . .n7!)0 
Engineers decline post of construction • 

commissioner el091 

Engineers organize nl282 

Engineers, delay by city authorities in 

appropriating money for ei>47 

Heaviest traffic in one day 764 

In 1918 n308 

Leaky subway station made tight 957 

Parsons. Col. W. B.. receives offer of 
appointment as director of construc- 
tion e313. n.349. declines el 091 

Elevated railway extension begun. . ,nll30 
Six years of progress (D. L. Turner) . . '865 

Tunneling, advance in e897 

Subways: see New York City. Rapid Transit. 
Viaduct across New York Bay proposed. . n543 
Water-supply, why more Catskill water 

is needed n544 

Water-supply, large dam to be built. ..nl284 


Barge Canal, traffic in 1918 e360. 370 

Building of barges *-268 

Concrete barges built for. at Detroit. . *21 
Governor Smith urges land settlement for 

soldiers e71 

Highway bond issue bill vetoed 1036 

Highway department. New York, head- 
office expense 336 

Reorganized n840 

Public Service Commission, First Dis- 
trict, replaced by two commissioners. 

n936. n987 
Reconstruction commission appointed by 

Governor Smith e215 

Wages doubled in four years 1228 

Water-Power Commission bill vetoed. . nl035 
Niagara arch bridge to be reconstructed for 

heavier traffic nll31 

Niagara Falls. N. Y.. filter operations. . . .1104 
Planning as affected by steam railroad 

(E. J. Fort) al099 

Sees municipal faults ell39 

To be 100 % metered 1094 

Nixon. L., appointed Public Service Com- 
missioner, for regulation. New York City.n936 
Nolen. J., on planning problems of indus- 
trial cities al098 

Nomographic chart in cofferdam design (W. 

A. Lyon) 1*1029 

(See also 708) 
Non-pressure treatment of wood for build- 
ings *237 

Norcross flat-slab patent expires e801 

Norfolk Army base, mechanical handling 

feature of concrete pile yard..ell39. *1155 
North Dakota Engineers' Society annual 

meeting n401 

"Northern Pacific." U. S. A. transport. 

large weld repairs stern frame nll86 

Northwest Association Members Am. Soc. 

C. E.. considers technical publicity 439 

Northwestern Association of General Con- 
tractors formed n689 

Northwestern Colorado Tunnel Association 

formed n989 

Notes from the field (E. J. M.) . . . .n402. n543 
Numerical interpretation of bacteriological 
tests (M. F. Stein) '1106 

Oak Park, Dl„ analyzes calls on water con- 
sumers 808 

Devices for water-waste surveys a*829 

Heaved brick pavement repaired 1*199 


Allen. H. ft, 1039: Atlee, J.. 310; Ayres. 
B„ 355; 

Banks, D. B., 404; Bannard. W. N„ 35.5: 
Becker. G. F„ 844: Berger. B.. 212: Biggi. 

F. A„ 1185; Bodwell. H. L„ 262: Brainard, 
O. T., 747: Brooks. F. 212; Brown. R. H., 

Carpenter. R C. 212; Cheney. C. E.. 844: 
Crane. F. T.. 1136; 

Davidson. M. T.. 796: Dickerson, J. T.. 
844: Dobson. A.. 991; Dougherty, C. 796. 

Eells. H. P.. 499: 

Fraser. A. T.. 747; Friestedt. L. P., 404; 
Funk. K. A.. 69: 

Galbraith. W. J., 110; Garden, G. H.. 747: 
Geer, H. M„ 644: 

Haberman. B. D. 167: Hart, F. D.. 356; 
Haven. W. A.. 167: Hazlehurst. Maj. J. N. 
497: Hedrick. Capt. A L.. 693: Hobart. F.. 
547; Hodgins. G. S.. 212: Horn. F. C. 450; 
Horton. J. W.. 167; Hough. W. B.. 1136: 
Hunt. R. C. 450: 

Jacobi. C. H., 891: Jacobs. E. H. 404: 
Johnson. J. E.. Jr.. 747. 844: Jones. Cant. 

G. R. 116: Just. G. A.. 69: 

Keatinge. R.. 450: Kingsley, M. W„ 167; 
Kinnear. L. A.. 1087: 

Lamarche, F. ft. 1285: Lance. O. M.. 404: 
Lovelace. E. K.. 644: Low. R. S.. 26 

Marceau E. 1136; Mark. Hal. J. W.. 941; 
Mclndoe. Brit'. Gen. J. F.. 450; Milligan. R. 
E., 497: Mullaney. E. F.. nll85; 

Newell. A \V. 683; Nichols. A. E.. 1087: 
Noble. Maj. C. S.. 404: 

Oakes. T. F.. 594: Ostrup. Maj. J. C, 497: 
Owens, H. K.. 1136; 

Payne. E. F.. 1285: Phelps. C. E.. 69: 

Preston, W. T . 1087; 

Ravmond. R. W.. 116: Richards. C. B.. 844: 
Rittcr. H. P., 991: Roosevelt. Maj. J. A.. 
69.1; Ryan. T M . 1136: 

Sabine. W. ft, 167: Sanne-Jacobsen. S.. 
891; Sauer, F. J. Jr. 310: Sauerman. Capt. 
H. B. 1087; Schilling A. C. 355; Schoemaker. 
L. B.. 594: Schussler. H.. 941: Scott. G. W.. 
547; Sinclair. A.. 115: Slifer. Lieut. Col. H. 
J.. 404; Smith. M. L.. n262: Stamps. J. A. 
844: Stradley. C. 497: Swensson. E„ 1039 
Taylor. D. W.. 69: Taylor. D. W. In.!:) 
Thomson. Capt. S, 693; Turner. W. V 167- 
Uhlig. C. 991: 

Van Rensselaer. R. S.. 310: Vogdes, C E 
21-:: Vogdes. J. T.. 644; 

Walker. A. C 747: Webster, JOB 
1136: Westland. C. E.. 796; Wilson. Gen. j' 
M.. 310: 

Young. J. F., 262. 
Ohio Conservancy law and navigation im- 
provement e749, *763 

County Commissioners' Association at 

good roads congress n206 

Conservancy law upheld n210 

Good Roads Congress n206 

Ohio Engineering Society at good roads con- 

„ eress „206 

State University, course in industrial 

hygiene and medicine 276 

Ohio River improvement e749, *763 

Oil. casing pipe line with concrete. . .e698. *725 
In water causes trouble in West Vir- 
ginia and in Kansas 1119 

Number of gallons required for treat- 
ing road shown by chart h*887 

Production in 1918 148 

Oklahoma Society of Engineers' conven- 
tion ,,592 

Obtains better pay for county en- 
gineers n 791 

Older. C. on new Illinois road specifications 

work no hardship on contractors 735 

On uniform basis of design for rigid 

pavement e897. 905 

Old-fashioned methods reduce cost of dam 

repairs (C. F. Dingman) *517. e597 

Omaha, public works to cost 82.000.000.. 56 

Track-elevation bridges *380 

Ontario Good Roads Association meets. .. n591 

Highways act passed n840 

Ordnance base depot in France *124 


Commissioner of public works proposed. 543 
Highways. S30.00O.000 available in next 

three years n794 

Passes highway bond issue for S10.000.- 

000 , „641 

Reclamation bills go to referendum n745 

Reconstruction bond issue 545 

Water code, successful operation (P. A. 
Cupper) 420 

Oregon Society of Engineers, annual meet- 
ing n40-: 

Sends questionnaire to members 982 

Originality, two elements of e895 

O'Shaurhnessy, M. M.. on engineering edu- 
cation 474 

Outagamie County. Wis., solves road build- 
ing materials supply (W. J. Driscoll). 

•289. e749 

Output versus wages as contractor's prob- 
lem e946 

Overhaul specification, what is? (R. G. 
Williams) 1835. (F. T. Howes) 1983. (N. 
B. Gregory) 1983. (E. N. Bryan) 11078 

Overtime work decreases efficiency e697 

Ozonization, water purification by 942 

Paaswell. G.. on how to make isometric 

working drawings to scale *661 

On "Retaining Walls" 390 

Packing engineering material for export . . 980 

Paint: I-beams retain marks 30 years (R. 

P. McClave) 1*201 

Spraying, on corrugated steel (T. M. 
Wheat) *676 

Palestine, Zionist engineers organize to re- 
build nll3 

"Palo Alto." largest concrete ship, launched. 


Panama Canal. "Faith." concrete ship. in.n*402 

Pan-American Commercial Conference. ... nll82 

Parabolic arcs, comparison of formulas for 
computing (R. C. Strachan) •325 

Parker. A. E., on thawing frozen concrete 
by putting warm concrete on surface. 

e945. a964 

Parry. J. W.. on Training 350.000 men for 
shipyards 53 

Parsons. Col. W. B.. receives offer of ap- 
pointment as director of transit construc- 
tion in New York City c.ll.i d349. de- 
clines D.986, nl083 

Addresses Eleventh Engineers 1270 

Returning from France n839 

Passaic Valley sewage disposal case re- 
opened n590 

Patches, concrete, on worn brick paving.. *1018 


Cameron septic tank litigation, proposed 

settlement .1041 nl084 

Condron two-way flat-slab, declared in- 
valid n889 

Dunn wire-cut-lug-brick patents sus- 
tained 813 

Norcross flat-slab, expires 6801 

Turner-Norcrc- 6801 

Two-way flat-slab, declared invalid. . 
Patent Office employees orc-anizr society. . n792 
Pavements, wider, needed by motor vehicles 
it curves (G. S. Eaton) *461. (C. C. 


Paver for use in alleys as well as streets.. n*213 

*, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 



Paving, see Highways. 

Pearl Harbor dry dock finally completed.. n841 
Pegram. G. B., on engineering education and 

Students' Army Training Corps 139 

Peninsular Power Co., Brule River dam, 

Wisconsin *129 


Engineers appointed for 15 road districts, 
to get early start on bond issue con- 
struction n743 

Has emergency public works commission. 516 

Railroad., labor turnover 328 

Record week in road letting 1074 

Pennsylvania Station, New York, monolithic 

brick pavement e357, *S78 

Penstocks, water hammer in. as affecting 

economy of design (A. H. Reeves, R. E. 

Horton, A. V. Garratt » 11222 

Petroleum; production in 1918 48 

Phelps, W. S., on operation of New York 

Central's Cleveland freight terminal |W. 

E. Phelps) *508 


Assembles maintenance data on twenty- 
eight sections of test road 670, (B. H. 

Wait) 1984 

Association Am. Soc. C. E., studies devel- 
opment n493 

Charter, proposed new. contains provision 

for long-term contracts el 20 

Charter changes nl283 

Elevated railway; movable towers con- 
crete deck *50 

Engineers' Club's methods of maintaining 

membership 834 

Lets contract for pier n400 

Million-dollar trust fund left by T. S. 
Harri—va for improving citys' govern- 
ment nll32 

New coal-handling plants for water- 
works (H. R. Cady) *1095 

Street cleaning and garbage changes . . . nl283 
Philippines, water-supplies get strict super- 
vision (G. W. Heise) 2JJ8 

Phoenix, Ariz., to have new water-supply .nll32 
Phosphorus, segregation in broken rails.. a*532 
Photographic mapmaking from the air. 

e993. 996. *1000 

Photostats, cost of 1065 

Piecework faster than day labor on hand 

excavation (E. N. Bryan) 727 

Piepmeier. B. H., on cost of operating 
trucks on highway maintenance in Il- 
linois 1074 

Pierce. C. H.. on New England rivers have 
similar run-off characteristics '577. 

(credited to author) 605 

Pierce. Maj. D. T.. on devastation in Bel- 
gium. Serbia. Italy 627 

On immediate national reconstruction 

work in France 570 

Piers. Portland, Me., large pier, recom- 
mended n841 

Redondo Beach. California, undermined 

by ocean *641 

Staten Island. New York, to have 12 new 

steamship piers n988 

Unit form permits building concrete wall 

on pier edge h*1279 

Piez, C. retires as director general, Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation n936 


Casting at Norfolk Army base. .ell39. *1155 

Concrete, cutting h*886 

Concrete, mechanical handling in casting 

at Norfolk Army base ell39. '1155 

Concrete, wood diaphragm leaves top for 

concrete pile after driving h*1129 

Driven point comes out of ground, at 

Pearl Harbor, H. T 1*109 

Highway bridge, concreted to avoid re- 
placing (F. E. Semon) *766 

Inadequate number and length have part 

in settlement of Minneapolis armory. 

el043, *1067 
Portland, Ore., grain elevator settles ... n400 
Timber, for bridge abutments on canal 

projects (D. C. Willett) '777 

Wheels on driver save moves h*838 

Wooden : point comes out of ground, at 

Pearl Harbqr.H. T 1*109 


Bell slots in trench sides made use of 
narrow elevator possible hll28 

Casing job lesson in coordination. .e698, *725 

Casing pipe line with concrete. . . . e698. *725 

Corrosion in buildings. Chicago health 
board studies a*469 

Expansion-joint air chamber for road- 
builders' pipe lines n*1286 

Flanges for light cast-iron pipe, need for 
standardization (J. Knickerbocker. . a* 1197 

Laying cost influenced by many condi- 
tions hl227 

Line lowered by side cuts allowing core to 
squeeze out h935 

Lines, surge pressures in, graphical rec- 
ords IR. Bennett) *1048 

Lowering 240 ft. of submerged pipe from 
scow in one section hll28 

Sewer pipe, concrete, transported by roll- 
ing (L. M. Hunter) h*637 

Steel for Jersey City water-supply, re- 
duction in bids n691 

Steel or wrought iron, in buildings. . . . a*4(>?l 

Tile: gasket and form for cementing 
joints n*355 

Trailer shield holds sides of caving 

ditches h*740 

Pitorneter inserted in house service. Oak 

Park, HI., makes leakage charts *829 

Pits and quarries mapped for bidders on 
Illinois road work n*794 


Allegheny River bridges ordered raised.. n743 
Asks architects' aid in designing 

bridges nll80 

City planning program 481 

Site for South Hills tunnel chosen nl085 

Street-car loop subway proposed *1059 

Pittsburgh Association Members Am. Soc. 
C. E. and Engineers' Society of Western 
Pennsylvania confer on cooperation.... 783 
Studies development .' n493 

Planning, regional, some engineering prob- 
lems (M. Knowles) all73 

Plant selection, as shown at repair of 
Willimantie dam (C. F. Dingman) . *517, e597 

Plants, coordination expedited work of cas- 
ing oil-pipe line e698. *725 

Plumbers to be called sanitary engineers? 

(S. T. Smith) 11127 

"Polias." concrete ship, ready to launch. 
n*792. launched n*1085 

Pontoons, shifting, for walking dragline ex- 
cavators (A. S. Fry) h*1227 

Portable pumping plant for general munici- 
pal use n*845 

Portland. Me., large pier recommended. . . .n841 
Cement joint for water mains saves 
money 324 

Portland, Ore., asphalt plants, operation 

costs 1200 

Grain elevator settles n400, preliminary 

report on n792 

New system of reference maps (O. E. 

Stanley) *911 

To vote on harbor bonds n987 

Porto Rico earthquakes, effect on struc- 
tures (C. F. Joslin and M. L. Vicente) . . *806 


Brooklyn Army supply base e314, *317 

Facilities Commission, General Wm. 

Blackheads n403 

Milwaukee to develop harbor n988 

New York scheme proposed by G. Linden- 
thai n401 

Treaty to develop e265, treaty post- 
poned n743 

United port urged n642 

Postal rates on Engineering News Record, 
increased after July 1 west of the Mis- 
sissippi el041 

Postoffice appropriation bill, conferees agree 

upon n399 

Pottstown. Penn., ship-steel fabricating 
plant. Emergency Fleet Corporation (L. 

G. Fishach) *332, e358 

Power flushers economical at Ottawa, 

Ontario 1064 

Precast pieces used for reinforced-concrete 
columns *778 


Construction costs stabilizing, material 

and labor markets n695 

High, will continue, opinion of American 
Water Works Association convention. ell88 

In 1913 and now n498 

Lower, Government commission to study .n446 

Materials (A. W. Welch) n893 

Increase due to labor (F. F. Vater)..1586 

May. 1919 (A. W. Welch) nll38 

New level e551 

Stabilization board appointed n543 

Reduction shown in bids for Jersey City 

water-supply pipe line n691 

Trends, Civil War's, and today's (M. 

Knowles) *414 

Will prices and wages drop ? e2 

Will they fall ? e551 

Yesterday, today and tomorrow, by O. P. 
Austin 809 

Privy vaults condemned by Indiana sanitary 
engineers 982 

Professional conscience e946 

Organization in England e699, 712 

Profit sharing by law (H. A. Rands) 1536 

Progress chart for recording preparation of 
construction plans h202 

Prohibition and water revenues at Cincin- 
nati 734 

Providence, R. I., water-supply project goes 
forward n691 

Public educated on engineering matters. . . .e896 

Public Health, see Sanitation 

Public Ownership, see Cities 

Public Service Commission, New York State. 
First District, replaced by two independ- 
ent commissioners n987 

Public service through technical discussion. 


Public utilities, state commission proper 
means of compelling service, Kansas 
Court rules n642 



As memorial structures el69 

Bills for employment on n256 

Kenyon bill for n204 

More than ever duty of cities e501 

Pennsylvania has emergency commission 516 
Pumping station, concrete, sunk in river 
(K. O. Guthrie) *1013 


Centrifugal effect of air in (A. P. Black- 
stead) *618 

Largest, being installed in Chicago 
works plants el089. 1114 

* iV trated ; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, n 


Electrically driven high-lift centrifugal 
pumps supply water for irrigation (B. 
P. Fleming) *74 

Grease, removes water from diaphragm 

pump in cold weather h887. 

Irrigation, electrically driven high-lift 
centrifugal pumps supply water for ir- 
rigation (B. P. Fleming) *74 

Portable outfits unwater trenches for lay- 
ing pipe lines h*490 

Plant for general municipal use. . . .n*845 

Tractor pumps oil from cars to tank (A. 
S. Fry) hll79 

"Unaflow" engine (D. A. Decrow) 

ell87. a*1193 

Pursell. E. J., kidnaped by Chinese bandits, 

experiences 665 

Push plow unloads flat-cars h*1081 

Putnam, W. J., and Prof. H. F. Moore test 

effect of cold-working and rest on steel.a*619 

Quarantine against influenza in Alaska. . . . 787 

Quarries and pits mapped for bidders on 
Illinois road work n*794 

Quicksand, drains under, irrigation engineers 
use reinforced-concrete culverts under 
canal (D. C. Willett) *919 

Quincy. Mass.. housing for shipyard work- 
ers (J. Meltzer) el042, *1044 


Railroad Administration plans use of in- 
land waterways n790 

Purchases 2,000.000 ties n942 

Rails, see Railways. Rails 

To ask $500,000,000 for improvements. .n206 
Changes in specifications. American Rail- 
way Engineering Association. . . .e598. 606 


Accidents. New York Central at Batavia, 

N. Y. (H. Bartholomew! 1253 

Reported by Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission al85 

Accounting: Committee analyzes track 
elevation costs. Rock Island, in Chi- 
cago 83 

Alaska, nearly half completed 46 

Service maintained despite icy rails. .. 442 
American Railway Association reorgan- 
ized n206 

Argentine, gage nll7 

Branch lines substituted by motor-truck 

routes e314 

Bridges : 

Chicago. Burlington & Quincy R.R., 
over Missouri River, at Kansas City, 

dismantling *765 

Floors, deterioration of burlap in water- 
proofing (J. B. W. Gardiner) 1440, 
(M. Toch and J. B. W. Gardiner) . .1682 
Floors, waterproofing with burlap (A. 

H. Rhett) 1299 

Impact experiments 70 years ago (C. 

W. Lloyd Jones) 1483 

Loads equivalent uniform: C. L. Chris- 

tensen replies to Dr. Stelnman 1198 

Omaha track-elevation *380 

Stresses; C. L. Christensen replies to 

Dr. Steinman 1198 

Canadian. National Railway Co. to op- 
erate properties for Government ac- 
count nll31 

Partial Government ownership ell88 

Can cooperate now in local improvements. n641 
Car floats, concrete. Hudson River ship- 
yard layout for (H. W. Eldridge) . . . . *732 

Icing plant. Illinois Central *276 

Wheels, residual strains in 529 

Chicago, electrification nil 31 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, analysis 

of track-elevation costs in Chicago. . . 83 
Chicago Union Station work in 1919. . . . *528 

Chinese, United States, and others 93 

Cincinnati Southern, line revision *873 

Committee analyzes track-elevation costs 

on Rock Island work in Chicago 83 

Concrete trough-slab floor for bridges. . .1*157 

Construction work stopped n639 

Control : 

American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion meeting and railroad problem . e501 

Chamber of Commerce report nl281 

Concealed or physical defect, not shown 

under government operation e994 

Discussed by F. L. Stuart 275 

Fourteen points essential to establish- 
ing a sound railway policy (L. C. 

Fritch) 18. el22 

Government directors for railway cor- 
porations .■ el 22 

Interstate Commerce Comimssion favors 

return of railways nll2 

Partial ownership in Canada ell88 

Plan of W. G. Raymond 783 

Principal plans compared by Equitable 

Trust Co.. New York 658 

Solution based on plans presented to 

Congress (L. C. Fritch) e502. 504 

Stuart, F. L.. to discuss n257 

Curves, compound, general solutions of 

problems in (A. Llano) *1070. el090 

Denver & Salt Lake, proposed abandon- 
ment, organization formed to prevent. n989 
Double-track improvement on Big Four.'.VM 
Drafting, assembled curves and radii dia- 
gram, aid in (D. Gerber) *664 

Dwarf, of front-line trenches (J. E. Sel- 
lers) *774 

Easement curves, history and use of (P. 

O. MacQueen) 924 

Electric. Connecticut bankrupt n793 

Versus motor truck e799 

■ a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 

Elevated, overhead and time cost to erect 

(A. P. Roscoe) 1104 

Engine terminal. Galion. Ohio, outside 

city avoids congestion *519 

Engine terminals and roundhouse cost. . .1059 

Engineers, better pay for 295 

Have railways used profession well? 
pay and position (C. W. Baker) e21t>. 228 
Pay universities should aid...e358. 368 
Jso Engineers Pay i 
Executives favor transportation depart- 
ment nl63 

Fills enlarged by dump ears and wagons. 419 

Floors: concrete-base tracks 1107 

Freight, conveyor between cars and boats. 

Alton. Ill '30 

Move to increase in Central Freight 

Association territory. .e215. e265. n300 
Rate on lumber products overruled by 

Interstate Commerce Commission . . n258 
Switching cars into station order at 

large yards a612 

Terminal. Cleveland. New York Central. 

operation (W. E. Phelps) '508 

Grade crossings. Detroit e501, *511 

Problems demand cooperation e501 

Grand Trunk Pacific. Canadian Govern- 
ment takes over n592 

Holding bulging retaining wall with but- 
tresses *192 

Improvements: administration to ask 

S500.000.000 for n2'>0 

In relation to city plan (E. J. Fort) . . .alOOO 

Italian; coal saved by electrifying 331 

Labor, advancing views on e698 

Light, suggested for feeder lines al262 

Line revision on Cincinnati Southern R.R. '873 
Missouri Pacific, track-elevation bridges. 

Omaha *380 

Narrow-gage proposed in England e750 

Operation in 1918 reviewed by McAdoo.al78 
Regulation, see Railways, control 

Broken, transverse fissures in, and phos- 
phorus segregation a* 532 

Joint to carry rails by heads (W. M. 

Pegram) 1*1278 

Joint tests show heal treatment and short 

bars advisable a611 

Peculiar old (S. P. Baird) 1441. (W. H. 
MeLauehlan) 1*684. (A. G. Collins) 

1836. (Railway) 11030 

Prospects for improving steel e599 

Studied by American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association committee. ... e598. aOlO 
Road crossings. Wisconsin, should be re- 
ported 525 

Russian: Murman R.R. (V. Gariach- 

kovskyl *1023 

San Diego & Arizona Ry.. heavy construc- 
tion 664 

Shop, at Logansport. Ind., erected by 

traveler h*302 

Suggestions and complaints. 1918 286 

Stuart. F. L.. discusses situation n257 

Terminals: Cleveland e216. *240 

Distributed versus centralized, pas- 
senger e751. (Railway) 1932 

Freight conveyor at Alton. Ill *30 

Sanity in planning e216 


Meeting of producers, with American 
Wood Preservers' Association. St. 

Louis n67 

Railroad Administration purchases 2.- 

000.000 n942 

Rainfall influence on durability of zinc- 
treated cross-ties (C. H. Teesdale and 

S. W. Allen) 234 

Treated bv zinc as alternative for creo- 
sote a«09 

Zinc as alternative for creosote a609 

Timber, decav in Mexican coastal plains 

(J. D Mathews) 631 

Track-elevation: committee analyzes costs, 
on Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific, in 

Chicago 83 

Track, relations with wheels d scussed at 
convention American Railway Engineer- 

in? Association 609 

Train control, automatic, committee to 

study n260 

Valuation, work of bureau reported by 

Interstate Commerce Commission nl62 

Venezuela; new law for concessions 52 

Viaducts, tests to free under side from 

smoke (R. H. Moulton) '1162 


Absorption and runoff in small rural 

drainage area (I. E. Houkl 875 

Committee on standardization of measure- 
ments. New England Water-Works As- 
sociation n21 

Gas-es. municipal, advocated el089 

Influence on durability of zinc-tr"ated 
cross-ties (C. H. Teesdale and S. W. 

Allen) 234 

More meteorological data needed by en- 
gineers (R. E. Horton) 614. el089 

New England rivers have similar charac- 
teristics (C. H. Pierce) '577. (credited 

to author) 605 

Progress report on 152 

Raising Pennsylvania R.R. bridge over Al- 
legheny River at Pittsburgh ... e847. *850 
Ramser. C. E. on hydraulic efficiency of 

drainage ditch *522 

On progressive erosion in dredged drain- 
age channel *876 

Rapid-transit construction should be sep- 
arated from regulation (A. Ludwig) . . .1296 
Citv concentration. . .el241. (H. B. Sea- 
man) *1248. 
Delayed transit planning and growing 

problems el 70 

(See also New York City, Rapid Transit) 

•, illustrated; 1, 


Rapid Transit Engineers Association organ- 
ized nl282 

Rations of convict labor in road-construc- 
tion camp hl032 

Rawdon H. S.. studies internal fissures of 
steel e408. e599 

Raymond. F. N.. on water-supplies in South- 
eastern Kansas 145 

Raymond. W. G.. on engineering education 
and Students' Army Training Corps. . . . 139 
Plan of railroad organization 783 

Reclamation, land, bill would appropriate 

$100,000,000 nl62 

Oregon bills go to referendum n?45 


Advisory committee to New York comims- 

sion appointed by Engineering Council. n493 
Are American engineers and contractors 

wanted in France and Belgium?. ... e2. 31 
Are you doing your share to start con- 
struction? e267 

Belgium, little room for American en- 
deavor e215 

Belgium, Serbia and Italy, devastation in 

(Maj. D. T. Pierce) 627 

Bill would appropriate $100,000,000 for 

land reclamation nl62 

Building campaign to be started by gov- 
ernment n61 

Commission appointed by Governor Smith 

of New York e215 

Conference, called by President n417 

Engineers, Service in. President Wilson 

on (M. S. Parker) 1395 

France, immediate work to be undertaken 

I Maj. T. D. Pierce) 570 

Little room for American endeavor. . .e2 15 

Will be delayed n493 

French munitions department now recon- 
struction ministry nl68 

Government has no public works policy . e453 
Governors' and mavors' conference called 
by President at Washington e453, n493. 

e.501. (F. C. W.) 514 e550 

Information gathered bv Council of Na- 
tional Defense available n839 

Labor department to study building con- 
ditions nl61 

Land settlement for soldiers urged by 

Governor Simth. New York e71 

Municipalities should plan improvements 

to provide work for returning soldiers e2 
Nashville Engineering Association asks 

for public works n258 

Oregon bond issue n544 

Pennsylvania has emergency public works 

comimssion 516 

Public works, bill for n204, for employ- 
ment n25fi 

More than ever duty of cities e501 

Or public charity e357 

Says France will do own rebuilding. .. .nil 3 

States should attack problems ell9 

Too late is no better than never ell9 

Transmississippi Readjustment Congress. 447 

Urged for committees n402 

Will prices and wages drop ? e2 

Red Cross refugees in China build macadam 

road (R. A. White) '478 

Redondo Beach. California, concrete pier un- 
dermined by ocean n*641 

Rees. Brig. -Gen. R. I., receives Distinguished 

Service Medal n400 

Reference books for the engineer (R. Can- 

avan) , 578 

Regional and town planning (T. Adams). al097 
Regional planning, some engineering prob- 
lems (M. Knowles) all73 

Relieving arches in subway distribute stress 

t.o piers. Des Moines. Iowa *667 

Reline mine shaft on steep slope with con- 
crete • 1152 

Research assistantships at Illinois Uni- 
versity n.350 

National Research Council to receive 

$500,000 from Rockefeller Foundation. n744 
Work results should not be scrapped. . . .el69 
Reservoirs bottom blanketed to stop leaks 711 
Cedar Lake. Seattle waterworks, sealing 

work to be resumed nl085 

Fishing in. protest against nll83 

Flat slab substituted for groined roof 

(H. C. Wight) '1016 

Gage table for. laid out (E. D. Cole) . . . *950 
Residual strains in cast-iron car wheels. . . 529 
Retaining walls, holding with buttresses. * 192 

Reunion of "Eighty-miners" planned n841 

Rhodes. A. T., on granite-block pavement. 134 
Rice. C. W„ on developing and supporting 

local societies e896 

Richards C. R„ on engineering education 

and Students' Army Training Corps 41 • 

On railway engineers' pay e358. 368 

Ricketts Palmer C. on engineering educa- 
tion and Students' Army Training Corps. 42 
Riensch-Wurl screen; see Sewage 
Rigid corner frame permits frequent re-use 

of concrete forms h*541 

Rindsfoos. C. S on Cornell employment bu- 
reau for engineers 278 

Riprap held bv wire bags h*301 

River boats to be built by Government. . .nl083 
Rivers and harbors bill reported to House 

of Representatives n67 

Run-off. New England rivers have similar 
characteristics (C. H. Pierce) '577 

i credited to author) 605 

Rivet cutter, pneumatic. Rice Manufacturing 

Co.'s n'797 

Riveted span. 644-ft., in Louisville bridge 

e995, *1007 

Rivets; spacing in lateral bracing 1*157 

Structure and strength of overheated 
rivet steel (S. H. Graf) *280 

Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way As- 
sociation of America not to unionize. . ,n839 


Rock to be excavated new classification 
proposed 907 

Rockefeller Foundation to appropriate $500,- 

000 for National Research Council n744 

Roesler, E. R.. on accounting system at Hog 
Island 246 

Roller, double, with long board float fin- 
ishes concrete road (S. P. Baird) h*110 

Roof; definition of pitch (R. Fleming) ... *286 
Erecting long-span by rolling trusses to 

place e895. '898 

Trusses, steel, weights determined by em- 
piric formulas (R. Fleming) 576. (M. 

L. Murray) 1884 

Wooden, for concrete-frame factory build- 
ing (W. E. Turner) *926 

Roosevelt, Theodore; an appreciation (T. 

C. Martin) 1251 

And the engineer e72 

Tributes by General Goethals and Dr. 
Newell nll3. (T. C. Martin) 1251 

Rope, frozen, tests show slight loss of 

strength h637 

Manila, strength requirements for 958, 

(S. W. Stratton) 11127 

Should be guarded against freezing (C. 
S. H.) h492. h637 

Rosa. Dr. E. B., on Engineering Standards 
Committee e848. 861. 931 

Roscoe, A. P., on anchor bolts held in posi- 
tion while concreting footings h*588 

On overhead and time cost to erect ele- 
vated railway 1164 

On sump and drain keep footing pit dry h'985 

Rose, Brig. Gen. W. H., receives Distin- 
guished Service Medal n400 

Rose Polytechnic Institute, bequest from 
W. S. Rea n745 

Rossiter. E. A., on land reclamation by 
drainage e409 

Rotary screens remove dirt from water at 
St. Paul. Minn *566 

Rotation, distortional. and principle of vir- 
tual work (G. N. Linday) 11079 

Roumania wants Americans to rebuild 
bridges nl281 

Russell R. L.. on sinking and concret- 
ing mine shaft 936 ft. deep '1259 

Russia. American Railway Corps in Siberia. n260 
Irrigation needed (V. V. Tchikoff ) . el69. *190 

Murman R.R. (V. Goriachkovsky) "1023 

Water-power possibilities Dnieper River 
Rapids (V. V. Tchikoff) *1065 

Run-off. see Rainfall and Run-off 

Sacramento Calif., flood damage increases. n448 
Water-supply problem el091 

Safety, code work. Labor Department will 

take up n307 

Feet for ladders h*203 

Records in building construction, San 

Francisco 116 4 

Workmen's should receive first considera- 
tion (J. J. Dunn) 1586 

Salt Lake City Utah, has $890,000 for 

water-works improvement . .nil 32 

More metering for '. . . .1114 

Salt-marsh sand clay as road-building ma- 
terial a575 

Salvaging construction material in China.. 1250 

San Diego & Arizona Ry., heavy construc- 
tion 664 

San Francisco buildings, safety record. .. 1164 
Societies establish "service bureau" 153 

Sand, mining molding; one tractor operates 

six scrapers h"302 

Washed, rid of surplus water by screw 
conveyor h*492 

Sand-trap and manhole, corrugated-iron. . n*1186 

Sanitary engineers get results in East In- 
dian mining camp (H. N. Jenks) el69. *172 


American engineer fights epidemics in 

Burma mining camp (H. N. Jenks) . . . '339 
British Ministry of Health, bill for....n84U 
Engineers for Federal rural health-pro- 
tective work (H. C. Hodgkins) 1535. 

(E. G. Sheibley ) 1738 

India, camp (G. Harper) 1395 

Influenza overcome in construction camp 

by sanitary service (M. D. Kauffman I . *620 
Privy vaults condemned by Indiana san- 
itary engineers 982 

Problems in Burma solved by American 

engineer (H. N. Jenks) el09. *172 

Rural Federal aid for e316 

Shallow wells condemned by Indiana san- 
itary engineers 982 

Shipyards, health of men protected 420 

Texas, changes in health board recom- 
mended n743. 1232 

United States Public Health Reserve, en- 
gineers in 814 

Yellow fever eradication work to be con- 
tinued n744 

Santa Barbara, Cal., sewer location e409 

Sargent. Chairman P. D.. on sources of sup- 
ply of unskilled labor for highway work . a466 
Sauer, Fred. J.. Jr., on raising water main: 

Boston h*25 I 

Saunders W. L.. on proposed Engineering 

Civic Federation •756 

Savage H. N . on Sweetwater Dam en- 
larged for third time *948 

Saville, C. M., on "Conveyance and Distribu- 
tion of Water for Water-supply" 580 

Sawkins J. H., on economical non-freezing 
outlet valve h*541 

letters ; e. editorials ; h, hints ; n, news notes ; a, abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 



Scenic highway location questions 698, (C. 
R. Harte) 1932 


Schultze, P., first deputy highway commis- 
sioner, New York State n840 

Scientific and technical employees of Gov- 
ernment form union e947. n987 

Scioto River, Ohio, channel improvements 
progress 669 

Scoops slower than shovels for ore h*788 

Scott, Col. W. D„ on Army trade skill 
tests a554, e598 

Scrapping good highway-bridge metal be- 
cause of local • corrosion el043 

Screeds for groined floor, suspended angle 
irons form h*886 

Screenings on water-bound macadam-road 
work, device needed (F. C. Beam) 1884, 
(M. D. Riker) 1«1125 

Screens, fine, for sewage treatment, studied 

at New Haven a32 

Rotary, used in removal of algae from 
California irrigation canal *382. e407 

Screw conveyor rids washed sand of surplus 
water h*492 

Seaman. H. B., presents bound volumes 
Engineering News and Engineering Rec- 
ord to Bureau of Yards and Docks. . . .1109 
On continuous-train or moving-platform 
system for New York el241, '1248 

Seattle. Wash.. buys street railways 

ell9. nl63, n688 

Plans for reconstruction 542 

Penalty for municipal strikers n543 

Water- works improvement authorized. . n447 

Second Engineers, U. S. A., cited n590 

Seelye, E. E., new tension joint for wood 
truss *556, (M. J. Welch and E, E. 
Seelye) 11028 

Segment blocks' advantages on larger 
drains (D. L. Yarnell) 663 

Sellers, J. E., on dwarf railways of front- 
line trenches *774 

Semi-trailer, new, has collapsible auxiliary 
wheels n*1088 

Semon. F. E„ on concreting highway bridge- 
piles to avoid concreting *766 

Septic tank. Cameron patent litigation, pro- 
posed settlement el041, nl084 

Serbia, devastation in (Maj. D. T. Pierce) . . 627 

Service connections to concrete water 
mains h*63 


Activated sludge treatment studied at 
New Haven a32 

Bacteria, direct microscopic count 196, 

(M. F. Stein) *1106 

Calumet district, project 422 

Cameron septic tank patent litigation. 
proposed settlement el041, nl084 

Chlorination ; studied at New Haven .... a32 

Chlorine removes 80 % of bacteria at 
Daytona, Fla. (G. W. Simons) 99 

Chicago, disintegrated concrete requires 
repairs nl037 

Cleaner, operated by crew above ground. n*694 

Cleveland to start westerly treatment 
works n690 

Complicates foundation plan *770 

Construction, light and heavy equipment 

(R. H. Burke) *183 

Daytona. Fla.. fine screens and chlorine 
meet conditions (G. W. Simons) 99 

Fort Myer plant (L. S. Doten) *244 

Grit chamber and fine screens for part 
of New York sewage (C. E. Gregory) 
"672. e697 

Imhoff tanks elsewhere more efficient than 
screens at Daytona, Fla. (G. W. Si- 
mons) 99 

Studied at New Haven a32 

Indianapolis asks bids on disposal plant. nl284 

Light and heavy equipment in construc- 
tion (R. H. Burke) '183 

Location, meeting problems e409 

Long Beach. Calif., operation of fine 
screens 11012 (correction 1265) 

Loss of head in sludge pipe, Toronto 

(T. H. Nevitt) 279 

Manholes, concrete-block (R. A. Koer- 
ner) »1250 

New York, grit chamber and fine screens 
for part of New York sewage (C. E. 
Gregory) •672. e697 

Passaic Valley disposal suit reopened. .n590 

Pipe, concrete, transported by rolling (L. 

M. Hunter) h«637 

Design and cost of concrete-block man- 
holes (R. A. Koerner) '1250 

Specifications, concrete pipe, Los An- 
gelese 518 

Pumping, not all sewage need be pumped e409 

Purification of sewage, mayors display 
ignorance concerning e550 

Riensch-Wurl screen at Daytona, Fla. 

(G. W. Simons) 99 

Operation at Long Beach, Calif 1012 

Used in New York plant (C. E. Greg- 
ory) '672, e697 

Santa Barbara, Cal., location e409 

Screens, Fine 

At Lon^ Beach. Calif. 1012 (correction. 1265) 
And chlorine meet Daytona, Fla.. con- 
ditions (G. W. Simons) 99 

And grit chamber for part of New 

York sewage *672. e697 

Studied at New Haven a32 

Septic tank patent. Cameron, litigation, 
proposed settlement el041. nl084 

Tests, bacteriological, numerical interpre- 
tation of (M. F. Stein) «1106 

Trade-waste treatment studies in Wiscon- 
sin (E. J. Tully) 1167 

Treatment : four methods tested at New 
Haven testing station (C. E. A. Win- 
slow and F. W. Mohlman) a32 


Shaft sinking, bonus payments speed up. . . 232 

Shelby. Col. E„ biography n'208 

Shenehon, F. C. on short circuiting floods in 

the Big Sioux River *961 

On "Engineering Activities of the Twin 

Cities" el239, 1251 

Sherlock, C. C, on neurasthenia a growing 

disease in engineering work 918 

Sherman, C. W.. on excessive storms ob- 
served by Weather Bureau 1066 

Sherman. L. K., heads housing bureau. . .n399 
Shield, trailer, holds sides of caving ditches 
in pipe laying h*740 


A year of apprenticeship in e3 

Aerial cableways successful in North- 
west shipyards *37 

American, low cost and efficiency 

e648. n688, e697 

Yards authorized to build for foreign 

account nl034 

Ames yard, Seattle, aerial cableways. . . *37 
Average cost given by E. N. Hurley . ,nll81 
Berth construction and side-launching 
practice in Great Lakes shipyards. ... *7 

British, in 1918 below 1913 324 

Cancellation of orders. Hurley reports on.n544 

Cancellations n9.'S7 

Cars with plate racks h'lll 

Clearance on scaffold runways saves time.h203 
Committee to revise Federal program. . .n204 

Aggregate, light e3. 14 

Barges built in dry docks at Detroit. . . *21 
Barges, shell formed of precast plates. *1171 
British colliers have precast sides. . . .1074 
Consistency measured by new device 
(H. A. Davis) «603, (D. A. 

Abrams ) 1836 

Design and construction of navy oil 

barges (R. M. Burkhalter) «1056 

England has built 22 1058 

"Faith," performance 14 

Government ships now building n65, n987 
Hammering a useful development el69, 

(C. Reger) . . . .' 1394 

Hudson River yard layout to build 

car floats (H. W. Eldridge) '732 

Lighter, side launching *555 

New York State Barge canal barge, 

building '268 

Shipways at Sun Co. yard, Chester, 

Penn *57 

Steamers to be built for War Depart- 
ment n987 

Tests show value of fine grinding of 

Portland cement 232 

What year has taught about 14 

Cost of producing ships ell40 

Cranes, many types used on Great Lakes *86 
Detail-drawing method for steel ships... *188 
Duthie, J. F.. yard, aerial cableways. . . *37 
Economy of operation. Moore plant. San 

Francisco '283 

Electric drive for warships el23 

Emergency Fleet Corporation creates 
plant-disposal section to sell ship- 
yards n937 

Committee to revise Federal program. n204 
Emergency shipbuilding on lakes handled 

by cranes of many types *86 

Fabricated : 

Bristol yard described *557 

Construction in one year's experience. 16 

Improving efficiency e358 

Inland steel plants of Emergency Fleet 
Corporation (L. G. Fishach) .. *332. e358 

Low price asked for building n793 

Routing of material at Bristol. Penn . . *25 
Shop and berth equipment at Sun ship- 
yard '57 

Fast work in building 8800-ton ship. . ,nl034 

Ford "Eagle" built in 10 days n791 

Grayhaven Shipbuilding Co.; boats built 

in dry dock at Detroit *21 

Groton shipyard built on sloping lime- 
stone ledge *135 

Health of workers protected 422 

Hog Island, Penn., inland ship-steel fab- 
ricating plants for (L. G. Fishach) 

•332, e358 
Keeping track of construction plant 

(R. E. Roesler) 246 

Housing for workers. Quincy, Mass. (J. 

Meltzer) el042. *1044 

Hurley. Edward N.. on American ship- 
building el. 5 

Keelblock, new quick-release *881 (F. H. 

Frankland) 11028 

Keeping up shipbuilding spirit of work- 
ers e.315 

Launchings, many, on Memorial Day. . .nl330 

Launching, side, a concrete lighter *555 

Launching, side, of Ohio River boat, speed 

and list *1017 

Launching, ways, outshore, underwater 

construction (E. D. Buel) '1121 

Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation at 
Bristol, Penn.; routing of fabricated 

material *25 

Message to engineers and contractors, by 

E.N. Hurley .' . el, 5 

Moore plant, San Francisco *283 

New blood in yards el 70 

New Orleans yard for building "unsink- 

ables" *434 

Northwest Steel Co. yard, Portland, Ore., 

aerial cableways *37 

Production in May, 1919 ell39. nll81 

Record of production made in April. . . ,n987 

River boats to be built by government . . nl083 
Routing of fabricated material at Bris- 
tol, Penn *25 

Seattle North Pacific yard, aerial cable- 
ways *37 

Shipyard (Groton. Conn.) built on slop- 
ing limestone ledge *135 

Skinner & Eddy, Seattle, contracts rein- 
stated n791 

Skinner & Eddy yard at Seattle, aerial 

cableways *37 

Steel, detail-drawing method *188 

Steel scaffold towers reduce handling 

costs at Fore River h*985 

Submarine Boat Corporation makes low 

price for building fabricated ships .... n793 
Todd yard, Tacoma, aerial cableways. . . *37 
Training 350.000 men for the ship yards 

(J. W. Parry) *53 

United States Shipping Board; committee 

to. revise Federal program n204 

Wages small part of ship-operating cost 636 
Workmen encouraged to think at Du- 

luth 282 

Shipping. Hurley E. N., outlines plan 

e648, n688, e697 

Reports on situation n640 

Shipping law revision, advisory committee 

appointed nll30 


Books on ships and world trade 781 

Concrete : 

Largest launched at San Francisco. ,n*1181 
Oil tanker. Government, launched at 

San Francisco n*1181 

'Palo Alto." largest concrete ship. 

launched at San Francisco n*1181 

Polias" ready to launch n*792, 

launched n*1085 

Fabricated ships : 

British e3.">8 

Emergency Fleet Corporation 16 

Possibilities (L. G. Fishach) 1536 

"Northern Pacific," large weld repairs 
stern frame nll86 

"Palo Alto," largest concrete ship. 

launched n'1181 

Sold by Shipping board at high prices. nll80 

Shop framing, heavy, for 250-ton traveling 
crane *1172 

Short circuiting floods in the Big Sioux 

(F. C. Shenehon) *961 

Shovels, attachment for road rollers and 

tractors n*892 

Faster than scoops for ore h*788 

Light-weight, can be converted into 
crane n*263 

Sibert. Gen. W. S.. decorated n*259 

Side chute charges wheelbarrows from ce- 
ment wagon h*540 

Silt, compression tests show effects of 757 

Simons, G. W., on fine screens and chlorine 

meet Daytona. Fla.. conditions 99 

Single air header supplies 11 drills h202 

Sinking a concrete pumping station in a 
river (K. O. Guthrie) *1013 

Skidmore. H. W.. on defects in surface of 
bituminous pavement due to concrete 
base *878 

Skinner & Eddy shipyard, Seattle, contracts 
reinstated n791 

Slag, national association elects officers. . .nl68 

Slater, W. A„ on tests show high shears 
in deep reinforced-concrete beams e407, 
•430, (correction 570) (E. Godfrey and 
W. A, Slater) 1783, (E. Godfrey) 1931 

Smith. Gov. A. E.. of New York, vetoes 

highway bond issue nl036 

Vetoes water-power commission nl035 

Smith, F. P.. on design and construction of 
hot-mix asphalt pavements allOO 

Smith. G. E. P., on new Arizona water 
code 1027 

Smith. J. W.. declines rapid-transit commis- 
sionership. New York City nl083 

Smith, Prof. W. D., proposes new classifica- 
tion of rock to be excavated 907 

Smoke, tests to free under side of railroad 
viaducts from smoke (R. H. Moulton) . .*1162 

Snatch cable aids teams on steep grade. h*1228 

Snow, C. H„ on engineering education and 
Students' Army Training Corps 142 

Snow removal machinery for. at railway 
terminals e217 

"Snowflakes" in steel e408. e599 

Snowslides removed by sluicing 1210 

Snyder. S. A., on skew bridge spans shifted 
laterally by Jackson roller blocks (S. A. 
Snyder) h*346 

Societa Itala-Americana di studi i Lavori 
Publici n405 

SOCIETIES, see also Names of Individual So- 

Colorado, submit names for board of en- 
gineer examiners 982 

Combined dues plan, Cleveland Engineer- 
ing Society and American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, operative nll80 

Committee work makes supporters e453 

Conference. Chicago, on Public Works 
Department e849, 855. e896 

Cooperation at Pittsburgh proposed 783 

Development work studied by Philadel- 
phia and Pittsburgh Associations. Am. 
Soc. C. E n493 

Efforts to consolidate engineering profes- 
sion (A. D. Flinn) 81 

Federation proposed (W. E. Bullock) . . .1584 

Growth chart on postcard boosts mem- 
bership 198 

Joint membership plan adopted by Am. 
Soc. M. E. and Cleveland Engineering 
Society e454. n495. (C. E. Drayer) 
1738, nll80 

•, illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 


Appreciated e896 

Organization e407 

Publicity for e407 

Local admits national society members 

without fee 198 

Membership, methods of maintaining. 

Philadelphia Engineers' Clubs 834 

Mining and electrical engineers to hold 

joint meeting nl63 

Minnesota, meet in joint sessions n401 

Nearing organization 153 

National, apathy of. a cause of unioniza- 
tion 1 F. Lavis I 1882 

National technical highway association 

needed e455 

Officers should be selected for service 

rather than honor e649, n688. el090 

Organization, progress in 1918 el71 

Participator gets greatest benefit from 

serving 295 

Publicity promises good results 982 

Public service through technical discus- 
sion el089 

Questionnaire sent to members by Oregon 

Society of Engineers 983 

Secretaries criticized (M. A. M. Soc. 

C. E. ) 1201. e357 

Secretaries, work of national 1201, e357 

Should join, declares General Marshall. .al77 

Show greater activity e314 

Technical sections advocated by A. N. 

Talbot 175 

Type of man elected to office criticized 

e649, n688. el090 

Unity, professional e849 

War Committee on Technical Societies 

disbands n67 

Society for the Promotion of Engineering 

Education to meet nll83 

Soldiers, disabled, book list for 981 

Disabled, helping them to a vocation. . . 980 
Land settlement for, urged by Governor 

Smith. New York e71 

Solution, general, of problems in railway 

compound curves (A. Llano) ... *1070, el090 
Sorghum stalks used as construction mate- 
rial in China 1250 

South America, building materials and ma- 
chinery for n797 

Machinery market, England to investi- 
gate n311 

South Carolina, highway department, over- 
comes engineer shortage by use of me- 
chanical devices (R. A. Brown) 343 

Southern Asphalt Association formed. .. .nll82 
Southern Pine Association, reports on lum- 
ber purchased by Italian Government 

commission nl68 

Southwestern Water Works Association con- 
vention nl233 

Soper. Mai. G. A., on typhoid in Expedition- 
ary Forces 677 

Spalding, P. W., to build water-works at 

Lima. Peru 1099 

Spanish-English specifications, for foreign 

trade 153 

Speaking, public: value of (E. J. M.) n08 

Specifications. British engineering standards 151 

Spanish-English, for foreign trade 153 

Spikes, screw, for railway ties, discussed 
at convention. American Railway En- 
gineering Association 609 

Split float for finishing concrete at expan- 
sion joint h*934 

Spraying paint on corrugated steel (T. M. 

Wheat) *676 

Spring breakups of roads, lessons from..e549 


Developing equipment e945. '967 

Organization of Loyal Legion of Loggers 

and Lumbermen el041 

Soldiers' camps *105 

Tribute to engineers and contractors (E. 

J. M.) n68 

Will sell equipment n359 

St. Joseph. Mo., bridge moved 136 ft. *530. *567 
St. Lawrence River, electric transmission 

line with 4801-foot span *383. h*396 

St. Lawrence River, navigation route to be 

investigated n493 

St. Louis. Mo.. $33,000,000 bond issue.. n743 
Associated Engineering Societies to be 

active in civic affairs 483 

Factors governing selection of industrial 

site (H. Bartholomew) *872 

Garbage will be fed to hogs n4U0 

St. Paul, engineering activities, address by 

F. C. Shenehon el239. 1351 

Industrial district formed by railways. '186 
Municipal freight-handling dock and 

cranes *1115 

Reservoir, bill would reimburse contractor 

for war losses n398 

Reservoir construction *96 

Rotary screens remove dirt from water. *566 
St. Paul Engineers' Club, Minnesota Senator 
asks engineers' help in framing drainage 

bill 439 

Stadia surveying, see Surveying 
Stadter. Dr. J. M.. on simple heating and 
ventilating system for contractor's hos- 
pital h»788 

Standardizing concrete pipe a516 


Engineering standardization e700. e800 

Engineering Standards Committee, reor- 
ganization (E. B. Rosa)...e848 861. 931 
Standardization referred to societies 

ell41. 1154 

Wider use should be promoted e800 

Stanley. O. E., on city reference maps. . . *911 


State-insured highway construction con- 
tracts suggested n257 

Staten Island. New York, to have 12 new 
steamship piers n988 

Steamboat : stranded. moved and re- 
launched on rollers (E. Dauenhauer) . . . h*],10 

Stearns. F. P., review of "Public Utility 
Rate Fixing" 389 


Cold-working and rest, effect of, on en- 
durance a*619 

Columbus: Canadian formula for, de- 
fended (W. C. Thomson) 1250 

Internal fissures e408. e599 

Prices lowered n645 

Government bureaus fail to agree on. .n7!>l 
Judgment and calculation in fixing. . ,e266 

Rails, prospects for improving e599 

Ratio of tensile to compressive unit stress 

should be increased (R. S. Foulds) . . 1396 
Scaffold towers reduce handling at Fore 

River shipyard h*985 

Stress on columns e266 

Canadian formula defended (W. C. 

Thomson ) 1250 

Real and unreal progress in steel work- 
ing stresses el22, 1155, (W. C. 
Thomson) 1250, (R. S. Foulds) 1296. 
(C. E. Fowler) 1345, (F. H. Frank- 
land) 1485 

Structure and strength of overheated 

rivet steel (S. H. Graf) *280 

Transverse fissures in rails and phos- 
phorus segregation a* 532 

Stein. M. F.. on direct microscopic count 

of sewage bacteria 196 

On numerical interpretation of bacterio- 
logical tests '1106 

Stettinius, E. R., receives Distinguished 

Service Medal n400 

Stimson. Earl, president American Railway 

Engineering Association n640 

Stinchcomb, W. A., on engineers in politics. 1214 
Stone, old. broken across bed, S10.000 

saved 1258 

Stone, crushed, in 1917 half total quarried, nl 17 
Stone crusher, gyratory, of record 9ize...nl040 
Storms, excessive, observed by Weather 

Bureau (C. W, Sherman) 1066 

Strachan. R. C, on comparison of for- 
mulas for computing parabolic arcs. . . *335 
Review of "Graphical and Mechanical 

Computation" 388 

Straight-edge, short, with handles for nar- 
row widths (G. W. McAlpin) h*1279 

Straight-edge, split, corrects joint humps in 

concrete pavement h*63 

Strainers, gravel, placed in shell of well. .hl58 
Stranded river boat moved and relaunched 

on rollers h*110 

Street-car loop subway proposed, Pitts- 
burgh '1059 

Street-cleaning and ash-collection costs. 

Cincinnati 1124 

Vans, electric, efficient in England 771 

Street Railways, delayed transit planning 

and growing problems el70 

Detroit and Duluth vote against buying. n743 
Seattle to buy ell9, nl63, n688 



Christensen. C. L . replies to Dr. Stein- 
man on equivalent uniform loads. . . .1198 
Column. Canadian formula defended (W. 

C. Thomson I 1250 

Judgment and calculation in fixing... e266 
Working stresses; real and unreal 
progress el22 1155. (W. C. Thom- 
son) 1251. iH. S. Foulds I 1296. 
(C. E. Fowler i 1345, (J. H. Flynn) 

1395. (F. H. Frankland) 1485 

Ratio of tensile to compressive unit 
stress should be increased (R. S. 

Foulds) 1296 

Real and unreal progress in steel work- 
ing stresses el22, 1155. IW. C. Thom- 
son) 1251. (R. S. Foulds) 1296. (C. 
E. Fowler) 1345. (F. H. Frankland) .. 1485 
Strikes, plans to eliminate jurisdictional 

e550, nl233 
Stromquist. W. G., on malaria control at 

nitrate plant *718 

Structural design, approximate formulas 
useful in (R. Fleming) 534. (H. K. 

Ellis) 1636 

Structural work, formulas, approximate, for 

IH. K. Ellis) 1636 

Structure and strength of overheated rivet 

steel (S. H. Graf) *280 

Structures, theory of new principle in, of 

Prof. G. A. Swain a864. (G. N. Linday) .11079 
Stuart. F..L., discusses railroad situation.. n257 

On railway control 275 

Stuart. Lieut. W. H.. missing n989 

Students' Army Training Corps: opinions 

concerning 41. el21. 138 

Submarine Boat Corporation makes low 

price for building fabricated ships n793 

Subways. New York : see New York City, 

Rapid Transit. 
Sump and drain keep footing pit dry (A. P. 

Roscoe) h*985 

Holes reduce flood flows (R. W. Spear). 915 
Sun Shipbuilding Co.. Chester. Penn.: fabri- 
cating shop and berth equipment *57 

Superior. Wis., votes for municipal owner- 
ship n742 

Supporting blast furnace while replacing 

foundation (C. W. Lush) '1123 

Surge pressures in pipe lines, graphical rec- 
ords (R. Bennett) »1048 


Correction of level notes for personal 
equation and other errors (R. A. Tru- 

fant) 1539 

Field methods on rapid stadia surveys 
at Columbus. Ohio (H. K. Kistler) 

•776, (correction) 885 

Mexican border; by United States Geo- 
logical Survey engineers (R. B. Mar- 
shall) »235 

Soil. 1918 277 

Stadia, field methods on rapid stadia 
surveys (H. K. Kistler) *776. (cor- 
rection) 885 

Methods, special used in Florida (A. 

D. Cunningham I 11177 

"Topographic Stadia Surveying" (C. E. 

Grunsky) 151 

Wireless telephone, use in (F. A. Nagler) . 

Suspended angle irons form screeds for 

groined floor h'886 

Swaab. S. M., on developing professional 

consciousness through service a671 

Swain. Prof. G. F.. on new principle in 
theory of structures a864. (G. N. 

Linday) 11079 

Swart. H. V., on corporate bonds 1212 

Sweeny. F. R.. on designing single-wall 

cofferdam *708. (W. A. Lyon) 1*1029 

Sweetwater Dam enlarged for third time 

(H. N. Savage) «948 

Swimming tank, concrete, at Fort Bliss 

(Capt. R. McC. Beanfield) '195 

Swing pipe saves hose changes on concrete 

highway work (H. H. Edwards) h*301 

Syracuse. N. Y.. Y. W. C. A., building: 
long girders and high columns designed as 
rigid frame (A. E. Wynn) *340 

Talbot. A. N.. address before American 

Society of Civil Engineers al75 

On fundamentals in make-up of concrete 
mixture a869 

Tank, molasses, failure, in Boston n353. 
e!145. *974, (J. A. L. Waddell) 11075 

Tariff Commission favors free zones n204 

Taylor. H. W., on design of new electric- 
drive, water-pumping station. Cohoes. 
N. Y «653 

Taylor. T. U.. on drift on Colorado River 
held back by Austin dam *724 

Tchikoff. V. V., on irrigation in Russia 

el69. '190 
On Russian water-power possibilities. 
Dnieper River rapids *1065 

Technical and executive ability el091 

Articles, value of (F. W. Harris) 1932 

Editors' trip to war areas D350 

Opportunities, in shipbuilding (E. N. 

Hurley) 5 

Schools, see Education. 

Teesdale. C. H.. with S. W. Allen, on rain- 
fall influence on zinc-treated cross-ties. a234 
On long-time tests of treated fence posts. 1354 
With G. D. MacLean. on wood-block ex- 
periments in Minneapolis a*233 

Telephoned from desk to airplane 386 

Telescopic pipe carries steam supply to 
traveling derrick b.934 

Tension joint, new. for wood truss '556. 

(M. J. Welch and E. E. Seelye) 11038 

Terminals. passenger. distributed versus 
centralized e751. (Railway) 1932 

Terre Haute. Ind.. bequests from W. S. 
Rea n745 


Air lift installation at Fort Bliss, Texas 

i Capt. J. F. Brown) * 1 1 1 1 

Airplane struts, wrapped 1170 

American Society for Testing Materials, 

danger ahead for e751 

Bacteriological numerical interpretation 

of (M. F. Steinl M106 

Boxes fiber-board, strengthened by edge 

taping 1271 

Bridges, ratio of tensile to compressive 

unit stress should be increased (R. S. 

Foulds I 1296 

Cement, fine grinding 233 

Concrete, see Concrete. Tests 
Engineering Standards Committee, effect 

on American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials e751 

Fence posts, treated, long-time tests (C. 

H. Teesdale) 1254 

Glued joints. rough faces do not 

strengthen 854 

Impact, motor truck, made by Bureau of 

Public Roads n938 

On railway bridges. 70 years ago (C. 

W. Lloyd Jones I 1483 

Marbles, physical properties 854 

Mental. Army, engineer officers rank first 

in «814 

Rail joint show heat treatment and 

short bars advisable a611 

Residual strains in east-iron car wheels. 529 
Rope, manila. strength requirements 958. 

(S W. Strattonl 11127 

Silt, effects of. in mortar and concrete. 

shown by compression •. . . . 757 

Steel, effect of cold working and rest on 

endurance a'619 

Internal fissures e408. e.">99 

Ratio of tensile to compressive unit 
stress should be increased (R. S 

Foulds) 1206 

Structure and strength of overheated 

rivet steel (S. H. Graf) •881 

To free under side of railroad viaducts 

from smoke (R. H. Moulton) e!162 

*, illustrated , 1, letters ; e, editorials ; h, hints ; n, news notes ; a, abstracts. 

January 1 to June 30, 1919 



Transverse fissures in rails and phos- 
phorus segregation a*532 

Wood-block experiments in Minneapolis 

(C. H. Teesdale and J. D. MacLean) .. a*233 

Texas state health work to be improved 

ii743, nl232 

Thaw ice cakes to clear foundation h*935 

Thawing box reduces cost of winter exca- 
vation (L. McL. Hunter) h*254 

Thomson Meter Co., warns against im- 
postors nl237 

Ties, see Railways, Ties. 

Tilden, C. J„ on engineering education and 

Students' Army Training Corps 140 

Tile drains for improved country highways 
(W. P. Blair) e985, 914. (M. H. Downey) 
1, with ed. comment. 1080, (M. H. 

Downey) 11127 

Timber arch bridge 100 ft. long (D. R. 

Walkinshaw) *775 

Charleston port terminal construction (H. 

Abbott) "702 

Decay in Mexican coastal plains (J. D. 

Mathews) 031 

Timber walls to divert rolling rock from 

power house "970 

Time card as check on workmen h*837 

Tires, motor-truck, maintenance (A. F. 

Masury) el239. '1262 

Toby, G. P., appointed secretary. American 

Chamber of Commerce. London n889 

Toll bridges. New York State buys two . . . nl084 
Tomlin, Capt. R. K. Jr., on ordnance base 

depot in France *124 

On road signs for Amerforce trucks in 

France *94 

Topographic engineers assist In military 

mapping (R. B. Marshall) *235 

Maps of country, engineers want com- 
pleted n888 

Toronto: loss of head in sewage sludge pipe 

(T. H. Nevitt) 279 

Towers, steel scaffold, reduce handling at 

Fore River shipyard h*986 

Townsend, Sen. C. E.. calls conference in 

Washington on Federal road laws nl084 

Introduces bill for Federal highway com- 
mission n446 

Township. New Trier, 111., employs road 

publicity e750 

Tracings, Shipping Board reduces cost....n451 


Drag plows and haul concrete carts at 
housing development, Cradoek, Va. (S. 

H. Lea) e749, *753 

Operates six wheeled scrapers h*302 

Operators trained for road work 980 

Output for 1918-19 n694 

Pumps oil from cars to tank (A. S. 

Fry) hll79 

Reduce service cost at machinery plant. ."908 
Trade associations to have national build- 
ing in New York n942 

Trade, economics of transportation in the 
Mississippi Valley (J. R. Bibbins). 

e945. *971 


Argentine-American Chamber of Com- 
merce formed nfi4."> 

Books on ships and world trade 781 

Building materials and machinery for 

South America 797 

England to investigate South American 

machinery market n311 

For 1918 n263 

Increase in exports, enormous, in April. nll83 

National convention n355 

National Foreign Trade Convention to be 

held in Chicago. Apr. 24-26 n748 

Pan-American Commercial Conference. ,nll82 

Trade-waste treatment studies' in Wisconsin 

IE. J. Tully) 1167 

Trailers, auto trucks, manufacturers re- 
organize n498. n992 

Chart for estimating costs (W. Bige- 

low) 1*1278 

New semi-trailer has collapsible auxili- 
ary wheels nl088 

Trails, national system proposed 1106 

Train control, automatic, committee to 
study n260 

Transmission line with 4801-foot span over 
St. Lawrence '383. h*396 

Transmississippi Readjustment Congress. .. n447 

Transverse fissures in rails and phosphorus 
segregation a*532 

Trap door aids in excavation of cylinder 
foundation for high tower h*396 

Traveler carries concreting chute and forms 

for conduit h*5S.H 

Erects frame of railway shop h*302 

Trench-excavation platform, portable (M. 

R. Lewis) h*7S9 

Machine, digger and backfiller n*168 

Trestles, flume, made up of standard pre- 
cast concrete frames *977 

Tripp, Guy E., receives Distinguished Serv- 
ice Medal •. n400 

Truck, electric, reduces coal-handling costs.n*311 

Truckee-Carson project, renamed New- 
lands n54."> 

Trucks, dump-bottom body for spreading 
road materials n548 

Truss, wood, new tension ioint for *556. 

(M. J. Welch and E. E. Seelye) 11028 

Trusses, distortional rotation and princi- 
ple of virtual work (G. N. Linday) . .11070 
Roof, steel, weights determined by em- 
piric formulas (R. Fleming) 576, (M. 

L. Murray) 1884 

Steel roof, formula for woights of (M. L. 

Murray) 1884 

Train-shed, removed by gin-pole hl081 

Tully, E. J., on trade-waste treatment 

studies in Wisconsin 1167 

Tulsa, Okla., plans $5,000,000 water bond 

?ssue nl036 


Colorado, association formed to save. . . .n989 
East River, at New York, new, in serv- 
ice n790 

Heading, subaqueous, under 8 in. of 

rock cover (A. Lyle) h*1082 

Hudson River, see Hudson River Tunnel. 

Subaqueous, advance in e897 

Turbines, large hydraulic ordered n743 

Turneaure, F. E.. on engineering education 

and Students' Army Training Corps.... 42 
Turner. D. L., on six years of rapid-transit 

work in New York *865 

Turner. H. C, on cost-plus contracts and 

labor efficiency e800, 815 

Turner, W. E., on concrete-frame factory 

building has wooden roof *926 

Turner-Norcross patent cases e801 

Turntable for motor trucks needed (F. C. 

Beam 1884, (M. D. Riker) 1*1125 

Mounting extends reach of stiffleg der- 
rick h*638 

Portable, for motor trucks (M. D. 

Riker) 1*1125 

Twenty-third Engineers held to repair 

French roads (W. Bathon) 821 

More units scheduled for early return. .nl034 

Some units returning n938 

Twin Cities engineering activities, address 

by F. C. Shenehon el239. 1251 

Two Hundred and Ninth Engineers photo- 
graphed in castle formation n*351 


Honor roll grows e799. 812 

In Expeditionary Forces (Maj. G. A. 
Soper) 677 

Outbreaks follow interruptions of chlo- 
rination in water supply 232 

Poor filter operations acountable for out- 
breaks. Moline. Ill «1264 

Reduction by chlorination of public wa- 
ter-supplies (J. Kienle) all94 

Reduction by water treatment. Columbus. 
Ohio 755 


"Unaflow" pumping engine (D. A. Decrow) 

ell87. a*193 

Underwater construction of outshore 
launching ways (E. D. Buel) *1521 

Union Pacific Ry. bridge at St. Joseph. Mo., 

moved 136 ft *530, *507 

Draftmen's growth of ellll 

Unions, trade, Boston engineers' trade 
union dinner (Observer) , . 1737 

Unit costs lowered without cutting wages 
(J. B. Lippincott) e597, *605. e697 

United States Chamber of Commerce rail- 
road report nl281 

United States Chamber of Scientists pro- 
posed (J. F. Le Baron) 11276 

United States Construction Service, pro- 
posed n256 

United States Emergency Public Works 
Board, proposed n25(i 

United States Housing Corporation, dwell- 
ing-house plans n841 

Part played by engineer al47 

United States Public Health Reserve, engi- 
neers in 814 

United States Public Health Service attitude 
toward sanitary engineers (E. G. Sheib- 
ley) 1738 

United States Shipping Board, cancellations 
of contracts n93 

University of Cincinnati, colleges of com- 
merce and engineering merged nll83 

University of Wisconsin; new president.... 67 


On engineering education 476 

On unit stresses el22. 1155, (W. C. 
Thompson) 1251, (R. S. Foulds) 1296. 
(C. E. Fowler) 1345, (J. H. Flynn) 
1395. (F. H. Frankland) 1485 
Suggesion for testing of bridges, com- 
mented upon by R. S. Foulds 1296 


Walkinshaw, D. R., on timber arch bridge 
100 ft. long «775 

Walsh, John, resigns as chief counsel for 
Federal Trade Commission n845 


American engineers successful in n64 

Devastation in Belgium, Serbia and Italy 

(Maj. D. T. Pierce) 627 

Dwarf railways of front-line trenches (J. 

E. Sellers) *774 

Effect of, upon water-works revenues 

and expenses (L. Metcalf ) all94 

Engineers. American, in n64 

Explosives, high, handling and storing 
during war (Maj. G. C. Munoz) . . . . *1242 

Housing: part played by engineer al47 

Material available for road work n840 

Military honors for engineer officers ... n400 
Technical editors' trip to war areas .... n350 
Twenty-third Engineers held to repair 
French roads (W. Bathon) 821 

War Department has locomotives and 

cranes for sale n743 

Organizes office for selling surplus mate- 
rials n311 

War Labor Policies Board, F. Frankfurter 
resigns n405 

Waring, F. H., on water consumption cut 
more than half, Newark, Ohio 731 

Warships, surrendered Germans, suggestion 
for use as training walls (J. F. Le Baron) 1785 

Washington Award: to H. C. Hoover nll4 

"Warren Elsey." Ohio River boat, speed and 
list in side launching *1017 

Washington. D. C. asphalt plant, municipal, 
operation cost 764 

Washington State, bill to take county en- 
gineers out of politics n351 

Road-bond issue submitted to vote n591 

Waste products, marble made into lime. etc. n70 

Water consumption cut more than half. 
Newark. Ohio (F. H. Waring) 731 

Water code. new. of Arizona (G. E. P. 
Smith) 1027 

Water, drinking; Florida supply regulated. 40 

Water hammer in penstocks as affecting 
economy of design (A. H. Reeves, R. E. 
Horton, A. V. Garratt) 11222 

Water jackets, cracked, repaired by rust 
joints or with steel cement hl033 

Water-main extension problems discussed 
at New England Water-Works Associa- 
tion convention e549, n591, (D. A.. 
Reed) 1738 


Bill should be passed e313 

Commission vetoed by Governor Smith. 

New York nl035 

Congress should unlock el 19 

Illinois, to develop 40,000 kilowatts. .. .n938 

Legislation again before Congress nll30 

Los Angeles authorizes aqueduct bonds. n 1232 

Missouri River, studied nll80 

River water treated for compensation 

supply, Sheffield. Eng 1254 

Russian, at Dnieper River rapids (V. V. 

Tchikoff ) • *1065 

Surveys, bills call for n401 


Water softening, sludge repumped eliminates 
after-reactions a973 


Upward pressure test pipes constructed in 
concrete dam 954 

Valuation, engineer arbitrators fix value of 

water-company property (F. Gannett) . . 625 
Valuation. Railway, see Railways, Valuation. 
Valve, gate, that turned in the ground (M. 

Moffit) *1031 

Outlet, economical nonfreezing type (J. 

H. Sawkins) h*541 

Vandykes, cost of 1065 

Variation of roughness coefficient. Manning 

and Kutter formulas (H. R. Leach and 

R. E. Horton) 1*536, (H. W.. King) ... .1685 

Vault will hold two freight cars 877 

Veatch. F. M.. on southeastern Kansas 

water-supplies 145 

Venezuela: new law for railroad concessions 52 

Venturi meter, see Meters. 

Viaducts, railway, tests to free under side 

from smoke (R. H Moulton) *1162 

Vicente, M. L., and C. F. Joslin on effects 

of earthquakes on Porto Rico structures. *806 

Victory Loan e799 

Virtual work, principle of, and distortional 

rotation (G. N. Linday) 11079 

Vitrified brick construction for heavy 

motor-truck traffic (Maj. W. M.Acheson) .a467 
Vulcan Steel Products Co. gets $200,000.- 

000 French contract nl231 


Wachusett dam power station, hydraulic 

bine casing breaks n403 

Waddell, J. A. L.; elected to French Insti- 
tute nl62, (J. Lundie) 1393 


Aerator and mixer combined for colloidal 
water *1210 

Air-lift installation. Fort Bliss, Texas 
(Capt. J. F. Brown) *1111 

Algae cause taste in Fort Worth water 

(R. H. Craig) 778 

And "mobexpertocracy" el091 

Assessments for benefits e549. n591 

Baltimore, women water-waste inspec- 
tors * 1 105 

Bloomington, 111., combined aerator and 
mixer for colloidal water *1210 

Boston: hydraulic turbine casing breaks, 
Wachusett dam power station n403 

Buffalo, N. Y., waste education by bulle- 
tins el094 

Reduction of waste by pitometer sur- 
veys and house-to-house inspections 

(G. C. Andrews) ell87. all96 

Water-meter practice and testing (C. L. 

Lund) *1110 . 

Calls on consumers analyzed at Oak 
Park, III 808 

Cement joints for mains save money in 
Portland, Ore 324 

Chicago, centrifugal pumps, large, being 

installed el089. 1114 

Intake crib tilted level with screw 
jacks *248 

Chloramine tried by New York City 556 

Chlorination interruptions costly 232 

Chlorine treatment in Detroit effective.. 685 
Advance in. and effect on typhoid fever 

(J. Kienle) all94 

Oil in chlorinated water causes trouble 

in West Virginia 1119 

Price cut in half nll7 

Use of in Milwaukee, in connection 
with tastes and odors (H. P. Boh- 
mann) 181, (W. R. Gelston) ...1685 

illustrated ; 1, letters ; e, editorials ; h, hints ; n, news notes ; a, abstracts. 



Volume 82 

Plants in Michigan 1190 

Cleveland, Ohio. Clearwater basin case 
hearings concluded n743 

Cohoes, N. Y., new electric-drive pump- 
ing station (H. W. Taylor) *653 

Colloidal water, combined aerator and 
mixer '1210 

Columbus, Ohio, treatment at, saves lives 
and money 755 

Council Bluffs, Iowa, water treatment in 
1918 1123 

Design of new electric-drive pumping sta- 
tion. Cohoes, N. Y.. governed by water 
rate (H. W. Taylor) «653 

Des Moines, filter galleries reduce bac- 
teria 1247 

Detroit filtration experiments e647, 602 

Machines cut water-main costs 613 

Treatment by chlorine effective 685 

Duluth way of meeting cost of main ex- 
tensions (D. A. Reed) 1739 

Educational campaign. Minnesota 1246 

Engineer-arbitrators fix value of water- 
company property (F. Gannett) 625 

Expenses, effect of war upon (L. Met- 
calf) all94 

Filters: see Filters. 

Filter plants, old and overworked a seri- 
ous health menace e994 

Filtration experiments. Detroit ... .e647. 662 

Fire- service connections menace pure 
water supply of cities 1018 

First filter plant bids received since war's 
end are low nllo 

Flanges for light cast-iron pipe, need 
for standardization (J. Knickerbocker). 


Fluming a stream to unwater a tunnel. . *232 

Fort Bliss. Texas, design and tests of air- 
lift installation (Capt. J. F. Brown). *1111 

Fort Worth, alga? cause taste (R. H. 
Craig) 778 

Gas plant wastes and city water, Quincy, 
III. (W. R. Gelston) 1685 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. water-softening 
sludge repumped eliminates after-re- 
actions a973 

Insufficient "curing" period in water 
softener a652 

Jersey City, bids for furnishing and lay- 
ing pipe n400. n091 

To re-let contract for under-river con- 
duit n260 

Jerusalem, ancient, war-time and present 
(H. Y. Carson) *1092. correction of 
writer's title. 1207 

Kansas, more laboratories 730 

Pollution by oil wells under investiga- 
tion 1119 

To be studied 1104 

Kansas City, water works to be improved.n544 
Labor prices, etc., in Boston district, 
April, 1919 1192 

Laboratories of United States in France. 331 

Lima. Peru. F. W. Spalding, to build 
water-works 1099 

Mains, meeting cost of extensions e549. 
n591, (D. A. Reed) 1738 

Michigan active in purification 1199 

Minneapolis adds filters and proposes 

water softening n793 

Model explains water filter *923 

Minnesota, educational campaign 1246 

Model explains filter to visitors *923 

Moline. 111., poor filter operation account- 
able for typhoid outbreaks •1204 

Motor truck used to inspect 773 

Newark. Ohio, consumption cut more than 
half (F. H. Waring) 731 

New York City, chloramine tried a556 

Why more Catskill water is needed. . .n544 

New York, large dam to be built nl284 

Niagara Falls, N. Y., filter operations. . .1104 
To be 100% metered 1094 

Oak Park 111., analyzes calls on con- 
sumers 808 

Devices for waste surveys a*829 

Oil in chlorinated water causes trouble in 
West Virginia, also in wells in Kansas. 1119 

Philadelphia, new coal-handling plants 
for waterworks (H. R. Cady) '1095 

Philippine get strict supervision (G. W. 
Heise) 238 

Phoenix. Ariz., to have new nll32 

Pitometer inserted in house service. Oak 

Park. 111., makes leakage charts *829 

Pitometer surveys, Buffalo, N. Y. 

ell87. all96 

Portland, Ore., bottom of lake blanketed 

to stop leaks 711 

Providence R. I., project goes forward. n691 

Pumping station. Cohoes. N. Y„ electric- 
drive, design governed by power rate 

(H. W. Taylor) «653 

Purification by ozonization n942 

Quincy. 111., effect of gas plant wastes 

on citv water (W. R. Gelston) 1685 

Raising water main. Boston (F. J. Sauer, 

Jr.) h«254 

Revenue from sale of water to metered 

domestic consumer (P. Burgess) '1116 

Revenues, effect of war upon (L. Met- 
calf) all94 

River water treated for compensation 

supply. Sheffield, Eng 1254 

Sacramento. Calif., delay in obtaining 

water-supply el091 

Salt Lake City. Utah, has $890,000 for 

improvements nll32 

More metering for 1114 

San "Francisco. Hetch Hetchy project, 
fiuming a stream to unwater a tun- 
nel »232 

Bids for Hetrh Hetchy dam asked. . . nl282 

Greater activity planned 574 

Inclined railway to deliver materials. .'730 
Motor trucks operate over steep grade. *4 r ) 
Timber walls to divert rolling rock 

from power house *070 

Seattle. Cedar Lake landslide damage 

suits 1120 

Cedar Lake reservoir, sealing work to 

be resumed nl085 

Improvements authorized n447 

Service connections to concrete water 

mains h'63 

Sheffield. Eng.. treated for compensa- 

• tion supply 1254 

Southeastern Kansas (F. M. Veatch and 

F. N. Raymond) 145 

St. Paul, Minn., rotary screens remove 

dirt «566 

Tastes in Milwaukee water (H. P. Boh- 

mann) 181. (W. R. Gelston) 1685 

Tests, bacteriological numerical interpre- 
tation of (M. F. Stein) •HOO 

Treatment in 1918. at Council Bluffs, 

Iowa 1123 

Waste, education by bulletins 1034 

Institutional caused by poor plumb- 
ing and unruly temper 910 

Reduct'Tn bv pitnm=ter surveys and 
house-to-house inspections. Buffalo, 

ell87. all96 
Surveys at Oak Park. 111., devices used.*829 
West Virginia, oil in chlorinated water 

causes trouble 1119 

Winnipeg, in service n840 

Women water-waste inspectors, Baltimore 


Chamber of Commerce, United States, for 
development n930 

Findings of board of engineers ignored 

<B. Ehle) 1535 

Illinois project n591 

Inland, Railroad Administration plans use 
of n790 


Watson, M. W., appointed state highway en- 
gineer of Kansas nll81 

Wayne County. Michigan, highway system 
to be extended 105 

Weaving wire bags to hold riprap on earth 
embankment h*301 

Webb. Beatrice and Sidney, on professional 
organization in England 712. e699 

Weber. R. C. E.. on auxiliary outlet gate 
relieves main gates of dam *624 

Weed and root grubber on highways (E. 
E. Glass) h*l.">9 

Weights and measures convention to be 

held n841 

English, origin of 964 

Weir chart, universal (E. E. Glass) *926 

Movable, panels collapse automatically . '818 

Welch. A. W.. on construction costs n893 

On material prices n893 

On prices. May. 1019 nll38 

Weld, large, repairs stern frame of "North- 
ern Pacific" nll86 

Welding. American Welding Society formed. n545 
Outfit, on home-made truck (E. E. 
Glass) h«159 

Welland Canal, work resumed n210 


Baton Rouge, La., unusual conditions 

nOOl, artesian well experience *1175 

Large-capacity well installation and 

operation *880 

Larger casing gives increased flow '1175 

Shallow, condemned by Indiana sanitary 

engineers 982 

Strainers, gravel, placed in shell hl58 

Sunk about 2000 ft. in 62 days •1175 

Temperature a factor in yield *1175 

West Coast Lumbermen's Association to 
hold meeting nl286 

West Virginia votes highway bond school. n545 

Western Pennsylvania Engineers' Society ad- 
mits national society member without 

fee 198 

And Pittsburgh Association Members Am. 
Soc. C. E. confer on cooperation 783 

Western Society of Engineers: 

A. S. Baldwin, president n308 

Discusses Dlinois bills affecting engineers . e697 
Studies legislation 783 

Wheat. T. M., on spraying paint on corru- 
gated steel '676 

Wheels on pile driver save moves of barge. '838 
White. R. A., on macadam road built by 

Red Cross refugees in China *478 

Whitson. Col. M. J., biography n*210 

Wiekhorst. M. H., studies defects in steel. .e408 
Wider pavements needed by motor vehicles 
at curves (G. S. Eaton) *4fll, (C. C. 

Wiley) e684 

Wight. H. C. on flat slab substituted for 

groined roof of reservoir *1016 

Will prices fall ? e551 

Willamette River, Oregon, bridge, details at 
support of pony span criticized (E. God- 
frey I -. 1441 

Willcutt. Col. J. N.. biography n*208 

Willed, D. C„ on reinforced-concrete culverts 

under irrigation canal *919 

On standard bridge abutments on canal 

projects *777 

Williams. C. C, on mortar test does not as- 
sure good concrete aggregate *1006 

Williams. G. M„ with W. Davis, on tests 
of two recent theories for proportioning 

concrete ell39. *1142 

Williams. P. C„ on devastation in France 

e215. n256 

Williamsburg bridge. New York, fire nl036 

Willimantic. oCnn.. repair of dam (C. F. 

Dingman) '517. e597 

Winnipeg water-supply in service n840 

Winslow. C.-E. A., and F. W. Mohlman. on 
four methods of sewage treatment 
studied at New Haven testing station. a32 
Gives course in industrial hygiene and 

medicine 276 

Winslow. D. H.. on motor equipment used 

on road maintenance. North Carolina. .. *771 
Wireless telephone outfits for surveying and 
construction operations (F. A. Nagler) .11078 


Highways, progress in 1918 379 

Railways should report road crossings. . . 525 
Road building, comparatively small in- 
crease In cost a* 11 15 

Road funds available 513 

University of, new president n67 

Wisconsin Engineering Society convention . .n495 

Wishart. J. G.. on conservation in drafting 
room 921 

Wolfe. C. H.. invents shoveling attachment 
for road rollers and tractors n*892 

Women in drafting room (J. G. Wishart) . . 921 
Water- waste inspectors at Baltimore. . . . *1105 

Wood-block experiments in Minneapolis (C. 

H. Teesdale and J. D. MacLean) a«233 

Pavement. Chattanooga, spreads 2 in . . . 523 

Wood construction feature of Charleston 
port terminal (H. Abbott) *702 

Wood core is inside form for monolithic 
concrete conduit h*789 

Woodruff. C. R.. to retire as secretary of 
National Municipal League n938 

Work, virtual, and distortional rotation (G. 
N. Linday ) 11079 

Working conditions Service. United States 
Labor Department n8JL 

Wood Preservation. American Wood Pre- 
servers' Association to hold convention 

in St. Louis n67 

Creosote, coal-tar and water-gas-tar in 

treating fence-posts <C. H. Teesdale) 12. "> 4 
Fence posts, treated, in long-time tests 

(C. H. Teesdale) 1254 

Nonpressure treatment of wood for build- 
ings '237 

Zinc-treated cross-ties influence of rain- 
fall on (C. H. Teesdale and S. W. 
Allen ) 234 

Wynn. A. E.. on long girders and high col- 
umns designed as rigid frame *340 

Wyoming Society of Engineers, some mem- 
bers show discourtesy to visiting en- 
gineers 535 


Yakima Tieton main canal enlargement 

(G. C. Finley) *1255 

Yale University course in industrial medi- 
cine and hygiene 276 

Yarnell, D. L., on advantages of segment 
blocks on larger drains 663 

Yellow fever eradication work to be con- 
tinued n744 

Yoder. J. P., new secretary of Federal Trade 

Commission n744 

Young. C. M., on portable home made gaso- 
line drill h*741 

Youngstown. Ohio, district Engineers' Club 
plans larger activities 982 

Zinc as alternative for creosote in treating 
railway ties aOOO 

Zinc-treated cross-ties, influence of rain- 
fall on (C. IT. Teesdale and S. W. Allen) 234 

Zionist Society of Engineers organize to 

rebuild Palestine nl!3 

s , illustrated; 1, letters; e, editorials; h, hints; n, news notes; a, abstracts. 

Devoted to Civil Engineering and Contracting 

January 2, 1919 

This issue is dedicated to the American shipbuilding indus- 
try, because of the contribution of civil engineers and con- 
tractors to its marvelous development and their interest in 
its future. Very appropriately the issue carries to the 
technical man a message of appreciation from Mr. Hurley 
and his optimistic forecast of the future. 

Fabricated ship construction and the concrete ship are the 
leading war-born innovations in shipbuilding. What is their 
status? The Government has not made the answer upon 
which depends much of the future. For that reason facts 
are marshaled in this issue to give the reader a basis for 
independent judgment. 

If the industry is to be permanent, high efficiency must be 
developed in the shipyard. Stimulating ideas in shipyard 
practice are here brought together — in the accounts of the 
Pacific Coast cableway rigs, the Grayhaven barge process, 
Great Lakes berth construction, work planning at Bristol, the 
ingenious yard layout at Chester and in Mr. Parry's inspira- 
tional story on the training of shipbuilders. 

Are American Engineers and Contractors Wanted in France ? 
Results of Studies. of Four Methods of Sewage Treatment 


New Algebraic Method for Figuring Beam Deflections 


Editorial Reviews of the Year's Progress 


nited States, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico. Hawaii or the Philippines, *5 .per year ; Canada, $7; elsewhere VK ^\^vy, 2^.^ubl\^eAWee^lt 
>th Ave. at 36th St., New York. Entered as second-class matter April 11, 1917, at the Post Office at New \ork under the act or marcn a, 

Buying— E NGINEERING NEW S-R E C O R D— Section 

Vol. 82, No. 1 

/ am the Birthplace of Millions 

of Federal Cement Roof Slabs 

I am the product of twelve years of study and experience : twelve years of improve- 
ment and healthy growth. From one small shop I have developed into a huge 
fireproof, daylight industrial plant equipped with every invention and every con- 
trivance engineers could evolve for the perfection of an indestructible concrete 

An increasing demand has made my growth imperative, until I am now adequately 
equipped to meet the heavy production industrial plants throughout the land have 

From my portals thousands upon thousands of cars and millions of tile have gone 
forth to the roofs of the industrial bulwarks of the nation. From under my shelter 
have gone train loads of roofs to the ship-building yards, factories and shops which 
backed the nation's war program. 

The product created within my walls is the result of years of persistent study and 
research: of years marked by the application of every device known to science for 
the production of the perfect fireproof covering, 

Why, then, should you not reap the benefits? Buy Federal Cement Tile. 

For flat and pitched surfaces. 
Made, laid and guaranteed by 


920 Westminster Building, Chicago, 111. 

A Consolidation of Engineering News and Engineering Record 

McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. — James H. McGraw, President 

Engineering News-Record 

E. J. Mehren 




Charles Whiting Baker 
Consulting Editor 

Volume 82 


Number 1 

"Engineering News-Record" is a consolidation of "En- 
gineering News" and "Engineering Record." 

"Engineering News" was founded in 187 'U by George 
H. Frost, as the "Engineer and Surveyor," which title 
subsequently became the "Engineer, Architect and Sur- 
veyor," then "Engineering Neivs and American Railway 
Journal" and, finally, "Engineering News," under the 
successive editorships of D. McN. Stauffer, Arthur M. 
Wellington and Clutrles Whiting Baker. 

"Engineering Record" was established in 1877 by 
Henry C. Meyer as the "Plumber and Sanitary En- 
gineer. The name was subsequently changed to the "San- 
itary Engineer," "Engineering and Building Record" 
and, finally, to "Engineering Record." During his owner- 
ship of the paper, Mr. Meyer was directly responsible for 
the editorial policy. John M. Goodell became editor in 
1902, and was succeeded by E. J. Mehren. 

The staff of "Engineering Netvs-Record" is composed 

°f E. J. Mehren, Editor 

Charles Whiting Baker, Consulting Editor 

M. N. Baker J. P. J. Williams 

F. E. Schmitt Morgan Cilley 

F. C. Wight F. T. Townsend 

H. H. French 

Chicago: W. W. DeBerard, E. E. R. Tratman, C. S. Hill 

San Francisco: N. A. Bowers 

On Leave of Absence: 

R. K. Tomlin, Jr. Captain, Engineers, A.E.F., France 

Harry Barker, Captain, Engineers, on special duty at 

New York 

In Honor of 

American Shipbuilders 

IT IS an honor and a privilege to dedicate this first 
of the year number to the American shipbuilders, 
and particularly to those among them who are our own 
brethren — the civil engineers and contractors who threw 
themselves unreservedly into the work, and were no 
small factor in its marvelous success and development. 
Fittingly, the issue opens with a message to these 
professional brethren from Edward N. Hurley, chair- 
man of the United States Shipping Board. With 
emphasis and repetition he pays tribute to what they 
did. What is more, he promises that the industry they 
helped to build under stress of war will be permanent. 
That his vision may not be belied, he pleads that 
America may become "ship-minded," that, thinking 
internationally, we may acquire a fostering pride that 
shall install shipping as a permanent American in- 
dustry. If we may speak for American civil engineers 
and contractors in reply to Mr. Hurley, we would say 

that they will be no less loyal in trying to perpetuate 
the industry than they were in building it. The keynote 
for a permanent industry is efficiency, efficiency in ship 
building, efficiency in ship operation. Both are the work 
of the engineer, for ship operation involves not merely 
the navigation of the ship and the handling of the 
crew at sea but the creation and operation of terminals 
that will load and discharge cargo rapidly and eco- 
nomically. There must also be favorable external con- 
ditions — which include what Mr. Hurley terms "ship- 
mindedness." Here, too, the engineer and the contractor 
will back Mr. Hurley in his efforts to give us a per- 
manent merchant marine. 

Carrying Abroad America's 

Engineering Message 

REALIZING the value of the international exchange 
of ideas on things engineering, the McGraw-Hill 
Company on March 1 will begin publication of a maga- 
zine dedicated to that purpose. While eventually it is 
expected to appear in editions in several languages, 
the original issue will be in Spanish, under the name, 
"La Ingenieria Internacional." It is aimed to serve 
Latin America and Spain. The purpose of the new 
magazine, which has been under consideration for some 
years, is to afford a medium for the presentation of 
those developments in American engineering which may 
be of value to engineers, contractors and manufacturers 
in other lands. At the same time, following the prac- 
tice of the present McGraw-Hill publications, a far-flung 
editorial organization will be developed, so that there 
will be drawn into the paper the best of engineering 
practice in Latin America, Spain and other Spanish- 
speaking countries. Aside from this function, the 
new magazine will be an important developer of inter- 
national good-will, and at the same time a medium by 
which American manufacturers engaging in export 
trades can carry their message to prospective buyers 
in foreign lands. It may be a cause of surprise that 
the McGraw-Hill Company, whose specialized papers 
circulate so widely overseas, should establish a maga- 
zine to serve the foreign field. The reason, however, 
is not hard to find. The present highly specialized papers 
appeal only to those who are situated where engineering 
enterprise has made such progress that there is room 
for the specialist and need for the last refinement in 
equipment and design. But everywhere, the world 
over, are territories newly developing, where the engi- 
neer, the contractor and the manufacturer must each 
turn his hand to many lines. It is to serve the general 
practitioner so situated that the new magazine, and its 
later companions in other languages, will be started. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Will Prices 

and Wages Drop? 

ON THE theory that there will be a marked drop 
in prices and wages, owners are holding in abey- 
ance their construction projects. Is their expectation 
correct? Prices and wages, in the last analysis, are 
determined by the laws of supply and demand. They 
were forced to high levels by the war, since the supply 
of materials and labor was very short and the demand 
very great. The volume of goods which can be con- 
sumed, in the present state of the world's warehouses, 
may easily exceed the war demand, but the urgency 
of the war demand being absent, the conclusion seems 
sound that price and wage levels will recede. The 
puzzling question is as to the extent of the recession. 
In all likelihood the drop will be small, for, as one 
shrewd observer put it, "the shelves of the world are 
bare." That applies as well to public works, railroad 
improvements and private buildings as it does to manu- 
factured articles. Highways have been neglected, cities 
without number are short of housing (and therefore of 
water-supply, sewerage, paving, fire protection, etc.), 
office building space is at a premium everywhere. Price 
and wage levels will probably go off, but, with a still 
abnormal demand and a lessened man-power, not only 
will the pre-war levels not be reached, but the price 
recession within a year will not be large. Just what the 
recession may be no one is willing to predict. Some 
place 15 per cent, as a maximum, others 25 per cent. But 
there is quite general agreement that all of the sub- 
stantial lowering will come between now and June. It 
would not be surprising if in some products prices would 
again rise after the full peace demand is felt. What 
is lacking in war's insistence will be made up by the 
optimism of a renascent world. 

Are We Wanted in 

France and Belgium? 

EVERY day the question is asked of Engineering 
News-Record, "Are American engineers and con- 
tractors wanted in France and Belgium?" This journal 
has been at pains to learn the answer, and the answer 
at the present minute is, "No." France and Belgium, 
so far as their agencies in this country are informed, 
feel confident that their own engineers and contractors 
can satisfactorily handle the situation. Moreover, the 
materials will be largely of European origin. Only 
for construction machinery do the Belgians and the 
French seem to be turning to this country. Such at 
least is the situation for the present. What change 
will be brought about when the question of credits for 
restoration is raised remains to be seen. If they are 
granted by the United States Government, there will 
be the usual string, for the credit will be available in 
this country. What seems more likely than the granting 
of extensive Government credits is that strong financial 
groups here will undertake the financing of projects 
abroad, and will inevitably pick out large contracting 
organizations to do the work. When that time comes 
the personnel will likely be recruited in part here and 
in part from our men released abroad from military 
service. For the present, however, we must await the 
decision of the French and Belgian authorities upon 
the method of financing the work of restoration. 

Unparalleled Municipal Opportunities 

NINETEEN-NINETEEN offers unparalleled oppor- 
tunities to every city, town and village in the 
land. Hosts of -soldiers, sailors and war workers will 
be eager for employment, contractors and supply men 
will be turning from military to civil contracts, engi- 
neers and other technically trained men will stand ready 
to plan and direct construction, all after years during 
which municipal improvements have been at a standstill. 
At such a juncture great service may be rendered, by 
the undertaking of extensive construction, to those who 
have devoted themselves to the cause of democracy at 
home and abroad, while at the same time industry will 
be stabilized, general prosperity promoted and our 
municipalities provided with long-delayed and much- 
needed improvements. 

To fulfill these multiple opportunities for service 
requires extensive and careful planning, both physical 
and financial. Some cities have already done such plan- 
ning, or have it well under way. Others have scarcely 
begun. There is no time to lose. The construction 
season will soon be upon us. Men needing work, and 
highly deserving it, will be seeking employment in 
ever-increasing numbers, unless every city and village 
does its part. 

Municipal work for 1919 should be planned with a 
view to starting first on jobs which can be got under 
way early in the year, and which can be adjusted 
readily to the labor supply, and perhaps to the mate- 
rials supply as well. 

No city should look upon finding employment for the 
demobilized as mere stop-gap work. There will be more 
need than ever in this year and succeeding years to 
have every undertaking fit into a carefully devised 
municipal program. As proof of this, let any city 
engineer, mayor, commissioner or councilman take 
pencil and paper and set down needed improvements 
and their approximate costs. The list will soon reach 
such a length and total as will exceed the financial 
ability of the municipality for years to come. This 
means that work for 1919 and succeeding years must 
be selected with regard to its relative value and urgency. 

Where city-planning commissions with vision exist, 
municipal programs will have been formed before this. 
Where they exist but lack vision, it behooves them to 
open their eyes and their minds and point the way. 
Cities without planning boards might well create them, 
if state legislation permits, or seek statutory authority 
with the opening of their legislatures, where it is now 
lacking. But no city or village should wait for the legis- 
lature to authorize a planning commission. Cooperation 
among existing officials and the mere saying the word 
"plan" to the city engineer may be immediately pro- 
ductive of results. 

Where there's a will there's a way. The opportunities 
for municipal improvements, combined with unparalleled 
service, are many and great. The war has been won, 
but the world and this country will not have been 
made "safe for democracy" if suitable work at adequate 
pay is not provided, both now and in the future, for 
every soldier, sailor and toiler who helped win the war. 

The world expects every American municipality to do 
its duty. 

January 2, 1919 


A Year of Apprenticeship in Shipbuilding 

THERE is satisfaction of a high type in the mar- 
velous achievement of the nation during the year — 
multiplying its shipbuilding power to the degree that 
ten times as much was constructed as in any previous 
year. But it is no less satisfying to find that while 
building we have been learning. The year has been 
one of apprenticeship in the shipbuilding art. 

During the hard winter that ushered in the new year 
of 1918 a new system for producing ships was just 
being put to trial. The inadequacy of the old methods 
and equipment furnished the motive. Yet before the 
new fabrication system had been made a reality came 
a more amazing development in the sudden rise of 
the old shipbuilding art to a wholly new level of 
achievement. And it is through the power of the 
revivified old art, without essential aid from the fab- 
ricating yards, that the country was able to set new- 
standards in ship construction. 

Much has been said in derogation of the speed-ship 
work; the results have been called stagey, all prepared 
for. But this very point gave the clew, it soon ap- 
peared : If a good performance resulted from thorough 
preparation, why should not preparation precede every 
piece of work? The advance was made right there. 
Each case, "Tuckahoe" or "Crawl Keys," reinforced the 
preceding ones in bringing this point to the fore. 

The spirit of better management was grasped quite 
broadly. Yard after yard, discovering that labor could 
be used more efficiently, and equipment more intensively, 
by management, set about providing for steady flow 
of work, preparing all tasks, guarding against mutual 
interference of men and of material. Yards were ex- 
panded and rebuilt, to permit of doing this. When, 
in the midst of this activity a shop-trained manufac- 
turer stepped into the shipbuilding field to build patrol 
boats, it turned out that what he had learned in factory 
work and carried over into his yard was already being 
applied by shipbuilders. 

While the old-line yards moved forward thus, it is 
regrettable that ship fabrication lacked time to exhibit 
its full power of production. It is just as regrettable 
that the authorities have maintained silence on what 
results are being achieved by this iconoclastic method. 
For our coming development we need to have the guid- 
ing marks set. It is gratifying, therefore, that the 
review which we have been able to compile of results 
obtained in the use of the fabrication system gives 
grounds for a certain amount of optimism concerning 
its utility. 

Specialization problems lead in the shipbuilding field 
today. There is specialization in labor and in equipment, 
while there is coming yard specialization, still in its 
earliest stages, but clearly indicated by the yards that 
are planned for definite sizes of ships and the yards that 
are pure assembly plants, with shop processes transfer- 
red to outside enterprises as far as possible. 

In the future, specialization may develop further. 
Mr. Hurley's strong words on the unpredictable pos- 
sibilities of. our renascent maritime business mean too 
much to pass quickly out of mind. He opens a prospect 
into years that may bring many new tasks. But whether 
the key to their solution be increased efficiency, or 
specialization, we are the better prepared for them by 

the apprenticeship of the months just past. And we 
are the more amply equipped by being able to center 
on those tasks the fresh energy of the new working 
forces that have been gathered into the yards. 

Light Aggregate For Structural Concrete 

CONCRETE is essentially an artificial stone, and it 
approximates to the natural material even in weight. 
Though largely used as a structural material in frame- 
works where weight is a detriment, the original nature 
of concrete has so thoroughly controlled its uses that 
little effort has been made, until the past year, to effect 
a desirable saving in weight with no loss in strength. 
In developing a light but strong aggregate, then, the 
concrete-ship pioneers have now opened new possi- 
bilities for structural concrete, whether or not the con- 
crete ship is more than a war-time expedient. 

The invention of a light aggregate was born of neces- 
sity. Early in their studies the engineers of the 
Concrete Ship Section of the Emergency Fleet Corpo- 
ration found that to compete in carrying capacity, and 
therefore in operating cost, with the steel ship, the 
concrete ship could not possibly use the standard 150-lb. 
concrete which had come to be accepted as inevitable 
in structural work. Experiments were made with many 
substances, both artificial and natural, before approval 
was fixed on a burnt shale-clay resembling in appearance 
certain volcanic tufas of the Pacific Coast. 

Full information regarding the manufacture and 
properties of this material will soon be made public. 
At present it is sufficient to say that it fully satisfies 
the requirements of the Concrete Ship Section, that one 
large ship has been built of it, and a contract has been 
let for 10,000 tons to a cement company which is pro- 
ducing the material in one of its rotary kilns. Roughly 
speaking, the aggregate, crushed to i- and i-m. size, 
makes a 1 : 2 concrete weighing about 100 lb. per cubic 
foot and breaking in compression at 4000 lb. in 28 days. 

Assuming that more exhaustive tests will confirm 
these figures, the aggregate is a most important devel- 
opment in concrete construction. Dead load is a serious 
factor in reinforced-concrete design. No small part of 
every concrete member goes to support the member 
itself, and the accumulation of these dead loads as the 
foundation is approached further increases the required 
size of every member. If this dead load can be reduced 
40 or 50 per cent., not only with no loss but actually 
with a gain in strength, the field of concrete in struc- 
tural work has been widely extended. 

As in all engineering problems, this one hinges on 
relative cost. The probability of a wider use of a struc- 
turally effective light aggregate depends on how cheaply 
it can be put down at the job. On this score there are 
not yet sufficient data to base predictions. It can be 
said, however, that the basic clay from which it is made 
is widespi-ead, and that the technique of production is 
not so complicated that it cannot readily be undertaken 
at any modern kiln. Already aggregates of practically 
identical properties have been produced in Alabama, 
New Jersey, Missouri and California. Assuming that 
production of the aggregate will be undertaken com- 
mercially, it becomes a matter of computation for each 
structure whether a possible increase in cost due to the 


Vol. 82, No. 1 

special aggregate is balanced by the saving not only in 
concrete and steel, due to reduced dead weight, but, in 
building work, in the value of the space gained by the 
more slender columns of the lower stories. As used 
in shipwork the light-aggregate concrete is rich and 
strong, and the aggregate itself is fine. Such concrete 
is, of course, expensive, but in static structures, except 
possibly in columns, a leaner concrete with coarser ag- 
gregates would be used. 

In mass concrete, weight is often a desideratum. 
Specially heavy aggregates giving concrete weighing up 
to 190 lb. per cubic foot have been used in dams, with 
resulting greater efficiency against overturning or 
shoving action of the retained water. In articulated 
structures, on the contrary, strength with minimum 
weight is wanted. It has been the impression for years 
that the two properties, strength and weight, were 
more or less proportional in concrete, and that an aggre- 
gate which floats, as does this new burnt clay, could 
not possibly have a strength usable in structures. If 
these views are to be revised and the new aggregate 
has such strength as the Government studies so far 
show it to have, its application is readily obvious to all 
structural engineers. There will be placed in their 
hands practically a new material whose economic ad- 
vantages will need consideration in all projected designs. 

What War Has Done for Contracting 

THE war has benefited contracting. 
A year ago this statement could not have been 
substantiated. Even now we are too close to events to 
make a true estimate of their influence. Only mental 
myopia can, however, blind one to the main fact that 
the war has given contracting a spirit and a purpose 
not possessed a year ago. Contracting is a far more 
definite force in industrial affairs than it was. With 
the cooperation of organized engineering and organized 
labor, it can become the power which will recreate a 
new, stable, construction industry. Only the tenets of 
an ancient autocracy stand in the way of such cooper- 
ation. A democracy of the engineer, the contractor 
and the workman, dedicated to the common purpose of 
service to construction, is a goal which war has brought 
within our vision. 

In canvassing the war's accomplishments for con- 
tracting, one's thought leaps first to the successful 
operation in war construction of the cost-plus-sliding- 
scale-fee contract. A work of greater creative influence 
has been the development among contractors of a 
strengthened spirit of cooperation, culminating in the 
organization of the Associated General Contractors of 
America. And still there have been other gains. 

A year ago the wisdom of the new war-construction 
contract was being questioned. The lapse of twelve 
months has furnished the answer. It is this: The 
cost-plus-sliding-scale-fee contract has operated success- 
fully, and should not be permitted to disappear from 
public-works practice. It may well be that the details 
of this contract can profitably be altered, but its prin- 
ciple of assured fair compensation should be maintained 
inviolate. Government officials who have directed war 
construction, contractors who have performed this con- 
struction, and engineers who have watched the war 
work are a unit in this opinion. They are supported by 

the record of a thousand million dollars' worth of work 
accomplished with remarkable speed and with astonish- 
ing harmony between engineers and contractors and 

Organized contracting is, in a very definite way, the 
outcome of war construction. Do not misread this 
assertion. The elements for organization existed; war 
conditions merely vitalized the spirit to organize. 
Patriotism was one of the influences ; business foresight 
was another; perhaps also shame at being in a position 
where a gratuity must be accepted instead of a right 
demanded. The paramount force, however, was the 
lesson of the power of organization which war wrote 
for a nation to read. 

When the call came to mobilize for war construction 
organized labor responded, and so did an organized 
construction materials industry. Contractors responded, 
but not organized contracting. Contracting had no 
organization. It is true that its interests were guarded 
in planning the war work, but the guardians were the 
engineers of the Federal war-construction bureaus. 
It was these facts, coming home to the contractors who 
were called upon for war work, which crystallized the 
sentiment that has materialized in the Associated Gen- 
eral Contractors of America. 

Recognition of the doctrine of the partnership of 
labor in the construction industry is another accom- 
plishment of war. Organized labor had a seat in the 
councils which determined the policies of war construc- 
tion. All that followed in improved working conditions 
was merely an outcome of the original action. Labor 
has made it plain that these privileges gained will not 
willingly be abandoned. Nor does sound reasoning 
advise their abandonment. Construction, like other in- 
dustries, has reached the stage in its relations with 
labor where the decision must be made between com- 
radeship or battle. War construction has demonstrated 
that comradeship is practicable. 

War, then, has educated contracting to the possibility 
of establishing fair-compensation contracts; to the 
recognition of labor's right to participate in the manage- 
ment of construction, and to the advantages of organi- 
zation. These are great gains. Let us not overestimate 
them. The principle of the fair-compensation contract 
has not become a belief; national organization of the 
contracting business has barely been begun, and the 
right of labor to partnership in management has been 
recognized but not accepted. Obviously, the problems 
ahead are mighty ones. What of the method of their 
solution? War has provided the answer here, also. 

Organized cooperation of engineer, contractor and 
workman is the primary essential. If ground gained is 
not to be given up, this cooperation must be immediate. 
What stands in the way? Distrust between engineer 
and contractor; intolerance by both of the claim of 
labor to the right of a voice in determining the conduct 
of work. Successful cooperation of all three, impelled 
by the common purpose of war service, demonstrated 
how superficial the reason was for distrust and in- 
tolerance. It needs only the disposition of organized 
engineering and organized contracting and organized 
labor to come together in consultation to expose the 
shallowness of the reason even in peace-time construc- 

January 2, 1919 


American Ships — A Field of Vast Technical Opportunities 

A Message to the Engineers and Contractors Who Threw Themselves Unreservedly Into 
War Production of Ships and Now Ask As to the Future of the Shipbuilding Industry 

By Edward N. Hurley 

Chairman, United States Shipping Board 

IN THE building and manning of our new shipyards 
in the past twenty months there has been a tendency 
to overlook the contribution of the technical man. 

That contribution has been very great. Only by mak- 
ing generous drafts upon the accumulated technical 
skill of other American industries has it been possible 
to produce war transports and food ships in record 

But our task of organizing and mobilizing a new 
shipbuilding industry in a matter of months, in the 
emergency of war, caused the technical factor to be 
lost sight of for a time. We had to achieve the super- 
human. The first appeal was patriotic. Had it not 
been possible to stir deeply the manual workers of this 
country, bring them into the shipyards by tens of 
thousands, and stimulate them to national service, we 
should never have succeeded. It was necessary to cre- 
ate new viewpoints among craftsmen, inspire them with 
a willingness to learn new trades, and call upon them 
for unusual energy and production. Had we not begun 
our task at this end we should never have accomplished 
what was necessary under the circumstances. 

Of course, neither patriotism nor human willingness 
could have built the ships without the quiet teamwork 
of the technical men. 

Now that the ships are being launched and delivered 
and put into service, I am glad to have this opportunity 
of thanking the technical men, and of emphasizing 
what I consider to be their best achievements, and of 
calling upon them for even greater contributions in con- 
nection with our new merchant marine. 

Contribution of the Bridge Shops 

The most notable contribution has been that of the 
fabricated ship. It is not conceivable that we could 
ever have built tonnage in such record-breaking time, 
without fabrication. And fabrication would never have 
been possible without the technical skill of our bridge 
and skyscraper industries to draw upon. In principle, 
it is thoroughly simple. In practice, however, it is 
most complicated. For the fabricated steel ship, when 
she is launched and delivered, represents the assembled 
materials from hundreds of mills and shops. No amount 
of ingenuity in designing or planning would make those 
materials fit into their proper places without the tech- 
nical skill and experience which we found in establish- 
ments hundreds of miles from tidewater. No amount 
of patriotism, or willingness to break riveting records, 
could have assembled those materials in ships had tech- 
nical accuracy been lacking. But the materials have 
come down to the seaboard from hundreds of shops, 
each making parts without knowledge of other contri- 
buting organizations, or of shipbuilding, and they have 
fitted with a refinement which is utterly new in the 
shipbuilding industry. 

It is high time to review our technical results, and 
thank the technical men for their contribution, and to 

point out the solid groundwork they have laid for an 
American merchant marine and a real shipbuilding 

The reviewing of technical achievements may best be 
left to others who have been more directly identified 
with those details of the work in the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation and the shipyards. As Chairman of the 
United States Shipping Board, I can express my thanks 
and appreciation for the results, and testify to the 
resourcefulness and spirit of the technical men who have 
faced, not merely new problems, but unprecedented dif- 
ficulties, shortages and handicaps, and won out against 
all odds. When the history of the war is written their 
achievements will be found as epoch-making and as 
characteristically American as the achievements of our 
fighting forces in France. 

Future of Shipbuilding 

New let us look a little into the technical future of 
our shipbuilding industry and our merchant marine. 

Ship fabrication outside of the shipyard is unques- 
tionably a success. Moreover, it is an American success, 
for no other country in the world possesses the tech- 
nical resources of our bridge or skyscraper industries.. 

Is fabrication to be a permanent factor in our ship- 
building? Will it place us on a fair footing with other 
nations in cost of ship construction? Will it lead to 
the standardization of ships, both in hulls and equip- 
ment, and to standard practice in manning ships, and 
operating them, and turning them around in port? 

I believe that all we have accomplished to date in this 
new industry points toward the fabricated standard 
ship. I believe that with our American facility in pro- 
ducing more bushels or tons or pieces per worker than 
any other nation, backed by the great ship-manufac- 
turing plants which we have built for the war emer- 
gency, we shall be able to build ships as cheaply as any 
other nation — perhaps a little more cheaply. I believe 
that we shall operate ships largely with American offi- 
cers and seamen, at American wages, and under Amer- 
ican standards of living. 

But we shall be able to do these things only if we 
apply American ingenuity and energy to the merchant 
marine as a whole. This is a national task. It calls 
for well informed public opinion and nation-wide in- 
terest in ships, first of all. Until we think of ships as 
we think of railroads we cannot have them — and when 
we think of ships in that way we can have anything. 

This public opinion must be wise enough and strong 
enough to make all factors work together. The tech- 
nical man, the ship operator, the seaman, the banker, 
the business man, the factory operative, the farmer, 
the salesman and the legislator must all work together 
for the common end. Ships are useless without cargo, 
cargo implies world trade, world trade is based upon 
international banking and investment, and all rest on 
national interest. 


Vol. 82, No. 1 

I believe that within the next year we shall see this 
national interest develop to such a degree that the 
American people will never again consent to be without 
ocean transportation facilities. 

Somebody has said that none of us owns the United 
States — that our country was handed over to us by 
our forefathers and that we simply hold it in trust to 
be handed over to our children. Our forefathers left 
us America and also an American merchant marine. 
We have allowed the merchant marine to fall into de- 
cadence. We owe it as a duty to posterity to reconstruct 
it and hand it down once more. The bare facts about 
our new ships are so inspiring, and our world oppor- 
tunities and obligations are so great, that simply to 
make these facts known during the next year should be 
to create the necessary interest in ships. 

Now, most of the technical questions as to fabrica- 
tion and standardization and operation, and the future 
of our shipbuilding industry, seem to me to turn upon 
the uses to which we shall put ships when we really 
want them badly enough and find work for them to do. 

Shipping Development to Be Our Teacher 

Great economies reside in the fabricated ship. But 
orders for our fabricated ships have been placed by the 
Government for war-time bottoms. When a govern- 
ment needs ships by the hundred, to transport troops, 
munitions and food, through a great standardized serv- 
ice, to the war zone, that is one thing. But if the Gov- 
ernment, following the provisions of the Shipping Board 
°.ct, disposes of these ships to private operators for 
service in carrying cargo and passengers on many dif- 
ferent routes, that seems to me something entirely dif- 
ferent. One operator will require cargo carriers of 
moderate tonnage and speed for charters. Another 
will want to put ships into scheduled freight service on 
regular routes. Still others will plan passenger-and- 
cargo liners to South America or Oriental ports, and 
still another may wish to enter the transatlantic pas- 
senger trade with fast ships of 20,000 or 30,000 or 
more tons. Therefore, the kind and quantity of service 
determine the type of ship and the number that can 
be operated. That in turn determines the kind and 
volume of ship orders and also the extent to which 
fabrication and standardization can be utilized. 

Was it Liebig, the chemist, who about a hundred years 
ago confounded the chemical experts of his day by in- 
troducing the experimental laboratory? Up to that time, 
they say, chemists taught entirely by theory, lecturing 
upon what would happen if the substance A were mixed 
with the substance B — but never taking the trouble of 
mixing them. Then Liebig came along, as I remember 
the story, and actually mixed A and B, and they gave 
reactions never prognosticated in chemical theory. 

Something of the sort is likely to happen when we 
actually begin operating merchant ships. It is easy to 
see that, with ships of our own, and a revival of our 
world trade, we shall create new American ocean routes. 
With the necessary backing of branch houses and 
branch banks abroad, the character as well as the vol- 
ume of our trade will change, both in imports and ex- 
ports. This suggests not only growth of our seaports, 
but probably a rearrangement of traffic to seaports 
over our railroads and inland waterways. Quite a num- 

ber of conscientious citizens — usually inspired by local 
pride — are already theorizing about the effect upon this 
or that port. Other interested citizens are theorizing 
about navigation laws, seamen's wages, shipboard living 
conditions, and like matters — and very often from the 
viewpoint of self-interest. But just as it would have 
been impossible in 1865, when the Union Army marched 
up Pennsylvania Ave., to foresee the railroad develop- 
ment of the West during the following 15 years, much 
less carefully to arrange it all in advance by well 
planned theories, so I believe we are today facing a 
world expansion just as difficult to foresee in detail. 

One assurance may be safely given the technical men 
who have gone into shipbuilding and who would like to 
continue therein — the assurance that when the energy 
of America turns to world channels, as it is now doing, 
it will give ample scope for technical activity. The 
world today is 18,000,000 tons of merchant shipping 
short of normal needs. That is, 4,000,000 tons more 
have been destroyed by submarines than have been 
built during the war and taken over from the enemy, 
and 14,000,000 tons shortage exists over what would 
normally have been built since 1914, without war. There 
are good grounds for anticipating that our shipyards 
will be busy during the next five years building up to 
the world's shortage, and that for five years afterwards 
they will be building for the world's growth. We shall 
need not only ocean tonnage, but increased lake tonnage, 
with vessels for inland waterways, tugs and barges for 
harbor use, and tonnage for coastwise trade, and repair 
and dry-dock facilities in keeping. 

Let the Nation Become Ship-Minded 

Types of ships and character of shipyards and con- 
struction will depend upon the demand. Along with 
these factors, let the technical men remember that the 
merchant ship is about to undergo almost startling im- 
provements. We have the electrically welded ship just 
appearing over the horizon, as well as the motor ship 
operated with Diesel-type engines. These two modifi- 
cations in themselves should keep the technical men 
busy during the next decade, for they promise radically 
new ideas in ship operation. The motor ship, for ex- 
ample, will give an unheard-of range of voyages, with- 
out bunkering, increased cargo space, improvement in 
working conditions and morale, and probably higher* 
wages and general emancipation for seamen. 

To sum up, briefly — American shipbuilding and the 
American merchant marine seem to me today compar- 
able with our automobile industry when it was in its 
infancy. The technical men then set out to meet a 
known demand for road transportation with several 
distinct types of propulsion, such as the gasoline and 
the steam engine and the electric motor. The demand 
for vehicles far outran all anticipations. It determined 
the type of car, led the technical men into unforeseen 
fields of development, and, by modifying our whole na- 
tional scheme of living, created an industry which has 
never since shown any signs of lagging. I believe that 
in shipbuilding and the merchant marine we are enter- 
ing one more great field of unconditioned possibility. 

Let us all work now to the end that this nation may 
become ship-minded, and the future will be ample 
enough for everybody. 

January 2, 1919 


Berth Construction and Side-Launching Practice in 

Great Lakes Shipyards 

Berth Structure Simple — Timber and Concrete Foundations for Support of Ships*— Concrete Launching- 
Way Stringers at One Yard — Keel-Blocks and Cradles Variously Arranged — Trip Shores To Release Ships 



HIGH-PRESSURE shipbuilding in the yards of the 
Great Lakes has emphasized the simplicity and 
cheapness of berth construction and the saving of time 
secured by side launching. Ships can be laid down 
almost anywhere along a dock front, with little prepara- 
tion of the berth. No submerged ways or other under- 
water work are required. The ways can be cleared 
and a new 
keel laid in 
much less 
than an hour. 
Building the 
ship on an 
even keel elim- 
inates extra 
labor and de- 
lay in lining 
up the parts 
of the hull. 
Much ingenu- 
ity has been 
applied to the 
details of the 
method. It ap- 
pears in modi- 
fications of 
timber berth 

foundations, the use of concrete substructures, quick- 
release keel-blocks of different forms, and variations 
in launching-way and cradle arrangements. The ex- 
tensive enlargement of old yards and construction 
of new ones during the past two years because of 
the urgent demand for maximum ship output has 
created special opportunities for applying new ideas. 

In a review of Great Lakes shipyard practice in 
Engineering Neivs-Record of Nov. 28 and Dec. 5, 1918, 
pp. 978 and 1037, the various yards are listed and their 
main operating characteristics summarized. It may be 
referred to in connection with the present article. 

Timber Berth Construction — Berths on firm fill re- 
quire but little preparation of the ground for laying 
down a ship, as the view (Fig. 1) in the newest 
yard of the Lakes, the McDougall-Duluth Co. yard at 
Duluth, Minn., indicates. The keel-blocks are set on 
stringers founded on piles, as the soil is backfilled 
behind the timber dock front, but for emergency use 
this preparation could be dispensed with. In general, 
the company's timber berth construction is like that 
shown in Fig. 6 for its concrete berths, with timbers 
in place of the concrete caps. It is a longitudinal 

Several new berths of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding 
Co. at Manitowoc, Wis., are of the very simple type 
sketched in Fig. 2. A keel-block foundation consisting 
of two longitudinal stringers supported on piles runs 

down the center of the berth, and pile bents at right 
angles to the dock line give support for cribs or ways. 
The bents on the water side are set on a slope some- 
what less than the launching slope of H in. per foot, 
while those on the land side are level. The berth 
as a whole is not piled. 

Somewhat more extensive foundation work, providing 

supports at 5- 
ft. intervals, 
was used in 
the four old 
berths, and 
was adopted 
again in build- 
ing the new 
berths 5-9 of 
the American 
Co.'s yard at 
Wyando 1 1 e, 
Mich., sketch- 
ed in Fig. 3. 
Piles were 
driven 5 ft. on 
centers all 
over the 
berths ; there 

was 20 ft. of water on the site of berths 7-9 only a year 
ago. The main bents are 10 ft. apart, and those on 
the water side have only half the launching slope, 
to give more room under the ship at the keel-block 
foundation level. Intermediate between the sloping 
caps are shorter level caps. 

Stringer construction of a special kind is used on 
the land side of berth 10, the last one built at Wyan- 
dotte; its arrangement is sketched in Fig. 4. The 
water side of the berth is identical with that just 
described, except for the omission of intermediate 
piling, because of older and firmer fill. In the land 
half the ground is so firm that the stringers were 
laid without pile foundation. Direct bearing on the 
stringers of all main supports of the ship during 
construction is to be furnished by the arc-shaped pair 
of stringers. For supporting the launching ways, which 
carry load only an hour or two, blocking direct on the 
ground appears to be satisfactory. 

McDougall and Toledo Have Concrete Berths — By 
substituting reinforced-concrete caps for timbers in 
some of the berths, the McDougall-Duluth Co. has 
produced a simple form of permanent foundation. It 
follows the stringer system on both land and water 
sides. Fig. 6 shows the layout and main dimensions. 
These concrete berths are the ones intended to be con- 
tinued in service after the emergency shipbuilding is 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

More elaborate concrete berths are used by the 
Toledo Shipbuilding Co., Toledo, Ohio. They were 
built ten years ago, but are still practically in new con- 
dition, in spite of constant service. They consist of 
a complete gridiron of way bents and stringers or 
struts, arranged around a backbone formed by a heavy 
longitudinal girder under the keel-blocks. The water- 
side work is sloped to the inclination of the launching 
ways, and permanent 6 x 18-in. oak ways are bolted 
to the concrete caps of the transverse bents from this 
side. On the land side the concrete structure is level; 

— t — t— ■ — i I' ' ' j- — r-f 

\ \3enis[ 30' 1 f 
I on Cerrterk\ 


7 !?g_Way 

Ground and 
Caps Leve/ 

Berth Area Pil&d 5' 


Fiji, Former 



... — .. 37 ' 

8x16 Timber. Flat 




Ground on Slope 1 |» ^ 
6round Ways on Slope | *- r 

Piles-. • ' 

Centers, 45' Piles 

Level Cap 



bepth here IS'- 25' 

-.,.. T t y — 

. \ 

r \ 





l.C , 


— ' 



Good fill; 

Piling only as shonn 


■J Amidships 

Fig. 2 — Timbei berth construction at Manitowoc. Fig. 3 — 
Piled substructure of berths 7. 8 and 9, Wyandotte Sard. Fig. 4 
—Combined transverse and stringer type used at berth 10 at 

hinged launching-way sections here can be raised up 
to the way slope. After a launch, they are dropped 
down to give free working room for setting keel-blocks 
and laying a new keel. Later they are taken out, at 
leisure, to leave the berth space clear, being easily 
replaced when preparations for the next launching are 
to be made. 

Protection covers are provided for the fixed way tim- 
bers (on the water side), but they are rarely used. 
Lugs for launching-trip supports are formed in all 
the transverse concrete caps, so that the trip shores 
used in releasing a ship at the time of launch can 
be set anywhere. 

Firm support is afforded by the concrete structure 
for the outboard rail of the gantry cranes with which 
the Toledo berths are equipped. This rail can be re- 
moved or replaced in a few minutes' time, and by reason 
of the firm foundation no time is lost in lining it up. 

Wedge Keel-Blocks- Save Time in Launching — While 
building, the ship is supported by keel-blocks (Fig. 1) 


and props or shores just as in end-launching practice, 
except that it is level in both directions. Safety cribs 
are built up near the bilges as the ship grows, to 
give it stability independent of the shores. In the 
Cleveland yard of the American Shipbuilding Co. cribs 
are used on the water side only — three cribs, each 4 
or 5 ft. square. Most other yards place cribs on 
both sides, and use eight to twelve in all. 

As all the fixed supports must be taken out for 
launching, and their load transferred to the sliding 
blocks or cradles resting on the ways, special devices 
for releasing their load are used in many yards. The 
shores carry each only a small amount of load, and 
they are therefore easily knocked out after the ship 
has been wedged up on the cradles. The keel-blocks, 
however, which carry most of the load, are so held 
between foundation and ship that they cannot be 
knocked out. At Cleveland the top block, on which the 
flat keel rests, is a piece of 12 x 12 about 18 in. long, 
and in order to take the load off the keel-block at 
launching time this upper block is split out by steel 
wedges. For 30 keel-blocks the operation of splitting 
out — working at two simultaneously, so that there are 
15 operations — takes the better part of an hour and 
keeps a large crew busy. Quick-release wedges have, 
therefore, been devised in several forms and are widely 

Wedge blocks of the type shown by Fig. 10 are 
used in many of the yards either on the end blocks 
only or on all the keel-blocks. At Cleveland they are 
used only on the four end keel-blocks at stem and 
stern and (after the link is unbolted) they are knocked 

January 2, 1919 


out with a ram after the other blocks under the ship 
have been cut out — this being the final step in trans- 
ferring the ship's weight to the cradles and putting 
strain on the trip-shore ropes so that the ship will start 
when the ropes are cut. The McDougall-Duluth yard 
uses these wedges on all keel-blocks, and so saves the 
work and delay of splitting out blocks ; it also uses 
them on the safety cribs, as sketched in Fig. 11. 

An ingenious double-wedge block, the Thompson keel- 
block, has been adopted at Manitowoc. This was 
originated by one of the company's carpenters and 
patented by him. It provides not only for quick re- 
lease, but also for easy adjustment to proper height 
at the time of laying the keel, or later in replacing 
a keel-block after it is taken out for riveting the keel 
directly above. As sketched in Fig. 12, it consists 
of a bottom wedge whose upper sloping face is roof- 
shaped with longitudinal ridge, and two upper blocks 
bearing on the side slopes of the roof surface. The 
upper blocks are bolted together, but for releasing, 
after the bolts are taken out, they can be knocked 
away easily. When in place and bolted up they may 


O | 


o o | 



o o 



be shifted lengthwise on the lower wedge for height 
adjustment. An important saving in launching time 
has been realized through the use of this block, as 
explained farther on. 

Simple wedge blocks are used at the South Chicago 
yard of the Chicago Shipbuilding Co., as may be seen 
in Fig. 15. They are sketched in Fig. 13. 

Toledo also uses blocks wedged on both sides, as 
can be seen also in the view, Fig. 5. 

Launching Ways and Cradles — Twice as steep a 
launching slope is used in side launching as in end 
launching — H to TJ in. per foot, as compared with 
i in. to I in. The ship must acquire a considerable 
velocity to make its drop at the end of the ways prop- 
erly, in view of the retardation produced by the ship's 
outer bilge entering the water just before the final 
drop (Fig. 16). Fig. 9 shows the general declivity 
of the launching ways as set for a 600-ft. ore steamer 
at Ecorse. A nearer view of the way surface as pre- 

Fig. 6 — McDougall-Duluth concrete berth foundation. Fig. 7 — Concrete foundations for blocking and ways as built at Toledo 



Vol. 82, No. ] 

FIG. 9. 



pared for one of the short Emergency Fleet ships ap- 
pears in Fig. 17. 

Timbers 18 x 24 to 20 x 20 or 24 x 24 are used for 
launching ways (Fig. 18). They are spaced 10 to 12 
ft. apart (for example, 12 ft. at Cleveland, 10 ft. at 
Toledo and Wyandotte), in uniformly spaced arrange- 
ment, except at Duluth, where the interesting twin-way 
arrangement shown by Fig. 19 is used. 

leve/ed up 
by Sliding 
on Wedge-. 

Alfernafe ffeei-b/ocks 
have Wedges se-/- in 
reverse Direct/on 


u hh 


g— ^ -= 


Fig. 10 — Wedge block with locking link used on end keel-b!ocks 
(Cleveland). Fig. 11 — Safety crib with quick-release wedge block 
(McDougall-Duluth). Fig. 12- — Manitowoc duplex wedge keel- 
block. Fig. 13 — Arrangement of wedges in keel-blocks at South 

Blocking under the way tim- 
bers, directly on the ground, 
forms their foundation. The 
forward end of the ways is 
usually supported on the bulk- 
head wall of the dock. The 
regular practice is to let the 
forward end of the timber bear 
on the main 12 x 12 pile cap 
of the dock front. At Mani- 
towoc the timber is made to 
bear on the sheetpiling of the 
bulkhead and is kept clear of 
the pile caps (Fig. 2), as the 
former is considered better 
able to take the extra load as 
the ship passes over. At 
Ecorse, however, the ways are 
not allowed to bear on any 
part of the bulkhead, but are 
placed to clear the cap timber 
by about 3 in. (Fig. 20), the support being given wholly 
by blocking on the ground. Relatively light bearing 
pressures are developed between the sliding cradles and 
the ways. With the 
Emergency Fleet ships, 
weighing not over 1200 
tons at launching, the 
total area of sliding sur- 
face is 250 to 400 square 
feet, giving three to four 
tons pressure on the slid- 
ing surface. With long 
Lake ships the pressure 
may be 9 to 10 tons per 
square foot. The Amer- 
ican Shipbuilding Co.'s 
standard arrangement of 
ways and cradles, used 
with minor modifications 
at each of the company's 
six yards and represent- 





ing fairly closely the 
general Lakes practice, is 
shown in Fig. 18, which 
exhibits the relation of 
ways and cradles to the 
ship and the edge of the 
dock. The ways do not 
extend down into the 
water so as to give sup- 
port to the ship until it 
is floated off the cradle 
(as in end launching), 
but stop short at the 
edge of the dock. Launch- 
ing involves a tipping of 
the ship just before the 
vessel finally leaves the 
ways, as the view Fig. 16 
clearly portrays. The ac- 
tion is as sketched in 
Fig. 21, representing a 

January 2, 1919 




diagrammatic transverse section through the ship 
at the time of launch. Supported on its five lines 
of cradles, the ship when released moves down the 
ways from position A to positions B and C. By 
the time position C is reached the two lines of cradle 


on the water side, 1 and 2, have already passed over 
the ends of the ways and dropped out. At position C, 
the center line cradle K also drops out; the vessel then 
is unbalanced and pivots on cradle 3. While tipping 
to position D and beyond, it continues to move forward 
and strikes the water in position E. Forward move- 
ment continues, and the resistance of the water applied 
at the bilge increases the tipping moment and tends to 
relieve the load on the rear cradles. When cradle 4 
drops out, the vessel soon settles to an even keel. 

Ordinarily, the end of the ways is only a foot or 
two above the water surface, so that conditions are 
fairly represented by the sketch, Fig. 21. Much higher 
drops, however, occur at South Chicago (4 to 5 ft.) 
and at Buffalo. A new berth at Buffalo has a dock 
front about 7 ft. high, so that the keel of the ship is 
10 to 12 ft. above water at the moment when the drop 
begins. At low water in the extreme case the drop 
is about 12} ft., and this was the condition at the 

time the "Lake Delancey" was launched, on July 4. Fig. 
23 shows how the ship took the water. 

The cradles on which the ship moves down the ways 
are relatively simple arrangements of blocking in the 
flat-bottomed ship now being built. A row of center- 
line cradles the full length of the ship and two shorter 
rows of cradles on either side of the center line con- 
stitute the common arrangement. Six cradles are used 
at Duluth (Fig. 19). Wedges in the upper tiers of 
each cradle (see cross-section in Fig. 18) are the means 
for lifting the ship to transfer the weight from the 
shores and keel-blocks to the cradles. At Cleveland the 
cradle on the land side, which comes just inboard of 
the turn of the bilge, is blocked solid from way-timber 
to ship, and the wedges are set under the way-timber. 

l v *H 


Cbk Ways, ■■' , 
Z0"xSO "xSB ' Drop /| x IS 


This is done partly because when put under the way, 
the wedges tend to lift its upper end. 

More common practice has all the wedges above the 
ways, (sketched in Fig. 24) as at the Wyandotte yard. 
Single wedges are used in the cradles, except in the 
center-line cradle. The two cradles on the water side 
are tied together transversely by tie planks about mid- 
height, for greater stability. 

Oak or maple sliding blocks are used on the ways, of 
a length not greatly exceeding the width of the ways 



Vol. 82, No. I 

(usually 24 in.). In the twin-way arrangement used 
at Duluth, the sliding blocks or "butter boards" extend 
across the two ways of the twin pair. Their length 
of 8 ft. gives 6 in. of projection over the sides of the 
ways. Using the long butter boards and having two 
ways in a pair is believed to offer greater security 


Way Timbers 

Pairs abouf- 

35'C.ioC ■ 

Use 3 Pairs 



s M 26 l r Ship 




' over each 
I Timber 


J{3 ^^^ay77mbe7 

Arrangement of Center Cradle 

FIG. 21. 


shores being visible in the picture. The two trip shores 
used for the Emergency Fleet vessels show clearly in 
Fig. 17, a view of the "Lake Alvada," launched Aug. 
18 at the Cleveland yard. 

As shown in Fig. 25 (see also Fig. 18), the thrust 
of the trip shores against the launching ways is ab- 
sorbed by raking struts bracing the way timber which 
serves as abutment. An anchorage arrangement used 
at Wyandotte, shown in Fig. 14, transfers this thrust 
from the insecure ground at the berth to secure anchor- 
age timbers some distance back. The same timbers 
serve for holding the ropes by which the long end of 
the trigger lever is held. 

Hydraulic or screw jacks are placed against the side 
of the ship, one near each end, to start the ship from 
its static conditions before the ropes are cut. Most 
yards pump up these jacks in every case, to make sure 

Distribution of Cradle Butterboards 

against the cradles leaving the ways in case one end 
of the ship is released before the other and the ship 
skews during the launch. 

Releasing the ship is accomplished by cutting the 
ropes holding trip shores constructed according to the 
drawing, Fig. 25. Each trigger consists of a lever 
parallel to the center line of the ship, one end resting 
against an abutment arranged on the side of a way 
timber and the other held by a bight of li-in. rope 
securely anchored inshore. This lever is about 10 ft. 
long. About a foot from its abutment or fulcrum end 

Mudsill, 3 Jong 



a short post footing against the lever bears against 
the keel of the ship or a ledger-block fastened to the 
side of the ship. In launching the 600-ft. ore steamers 
which constitute the main carriers of the Great Lakes, 
often four trip shores were placed at each end of the 
vessel and two near the center, making a total of 10 
that had to be released simultaneously. The short 
261-ft. vessels being built for the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation are launched with two trip shores at each 
end, four in all, arranged as sketched. The vessel shown 
in Fig. 9 is held by ten ropes, the four stern trip 


that no obstruction is present and that the ship will 
start promptly. 

Typical Launching Procedure — Transferring a ship 
from its fixed blocking to the cradles and launching 
it is an operation of an hour or an hour and a half. 
The following description of the procedure is from 
notes taken during a launching at the Cleveland yard, 
but the steps are substantially the same in all the 

January 2, 1919 



Lakes yards. At the start of the work described, the 
vessel rests on its keel-blocks, on one or two rows of 
posts or shores near each bilge, and on three to twelve 
safety cribs, also located near the bilges. The launch- 
ing ways are in place, all the cradles are on the ways, 
with launching tallow between the contact surfaces, 
and are lightly wedged up against the ship. 

Putting the entire launching gang on the water side 
of the berths, the launching boss clears this side of 
its fixed supports, as the first step. The men, working 
in pairs, drive in the wedges of both lines of cradles 
on the water side of the ship ; after a first "rally" of 
two or three minutes, followed by a breathing spell of 
the same length, a second rally transfers enough load 
to allow the shores to be knocked out. Simultaneously 
with removal of the shores, the cribs on this side of 
the ship are taken out by knocking out the wedges in 
the blocking. The water side of the ship is then free 
and on its cradles. Repeating these operations on the 


(<-- 6'-- >j<— - <?'->j<— e'->\<— 6'->\ 



land side clears the ship of all fixed supports except 
the keel-blocks. 

Trip shores and releasing ropes were placed on the 
previous day, and the ropes drawn up by tackle to a 
good strain. Everything is therefore ready for the 
removal of the keel-blocks. Beginning at the center, 
the blocks are split out, in pairs, first the two blocks 
amidships, then the one forward and the one aft of 
these, working on successively to the ends of the ships. 
When all are split out, the four end keel-blocks sup- 
ported on wedge blocks tied by linke (Fig. 10) still 
hold the ship. The links are taken out and eight squads 
of men with heavy planks as battering rams get in 
position to knock out the eight sets of wedge blocks. 

For even launching, the four ropes holding the ship 
must be cut simultaneously, and the ship must be 
ready to move. The latter requirement is assured by 
giving the ship a slight shift by means of the jacks 
before cutting the ropes. To make sure that the cutting 
goes on as a single blow, four axemen, one at each rope 
where the rope passes over a chopping block, work in 
conjunction with the launching boss and his two assist- 
ants in such a way that one signal is carried to all 
four. Close to each end of the ship is stationed one 
of the assistants, where he is in plain view of the two 
axemen at that end. Halfway between them, and in 
a little, back from the ship, the superintendent stands on 
a platform or box, in clear view of the assistants. Each 
of the latter has tacked to a rail in front of him and 
facing the boss four sticks or semaphore markers. 

At a signal, the first ram gang at each end knocks 
out the wedge keel-block farthest from the end of the 
ship; the moment it is clear the assistant in charge 
turns down the first of his four markers. The 
other wedge blocks are then knocked out in order. 

As the last supports go out, the cutting ropes should 
show the strain of the ship's pull, and the last of the 
four markers is not turned down until the assistant in 
charge has made sure that this is so — in other words, 
that the ship is "alive" — otherwise, the jacks are ap- 
plied to start the ship. 

When the turning down of the last marker informs 
the superintendent that both ends are clear and alive, 
he slowly raises his outstretched arms, a signal to the 
axemen to raise their axes. The assistants at the ends 
follow him in this movement, and the axemen in their 
turn. After a moment's pause, the launching boss 
brings down his arms, and the signal goes through 
the chain to the axemen and results in a simultaneous 
cut on all the ropes. 

Preparation for the launch may be started as soon 
as the ship's bottom is riveted; after this time there 
is no more occasion for working under the ship, so that 
ways and cradles do not interfere with anything. 
Ordinarily, however, no ways are set until about two 
weeks before the intended launching date, and if fur- 
ther delay is desirable the work may be started as late 
as a week before launching. 

Launch Ship in Ten Minutes by Help of Wedge Keel- 
Blocks — Remarkably fast work in launching is accom- 
plished at Manitowoc by a change in procedure which 
was developed after the adoption of wedge keel-blocks 
of the type described. The last half dozen launchings 






'6 "x 6 " Tallowed Oak Skid 

Under Triqqer 
Plan o-f One Trip-Shore 

. ,lron,3"x4 
20'x20"x 56,' i2" K i2$ Uy3offom of Ship 

FIG. 25. 


at this yard were made in about 10 min. each, from 
starting time to the moment the ship struck the water. 
A description of the method is contained in the fol- 
lowing memorandum of Elias Gunnell, president of 
the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Company. 

"The launching gang hardens up the upper side of 
the vessel and removes all shores and cribs on that 
side, in advance, so that on launching day all that is 
necessary is to harden up the lower side and remove 
the lower or river-side cribs and shores. There is no 
attempt to raise the vessel off the keel-blocks. After 
taking out the bolts a wedge is driven between the two 
pieces of the upper block, and the block comes free. 
Our last six launchings averaged just 10 min. from 
starting time to water. This time could be cut, but 
counting on the regular run of launching gangs that 
we use in these days, bolters and helpers, it is good 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

What the Year Has Taught About the Concrete Ship 

Much Learned Regarding Design and Construction — Future Depends on Ability To Build in Cost 
Competition with Steel — Structurally, Ship Is Success 

(Editorial Review) 

WHEN the United States entered the war the 
concrete ship was unknown in this country. When 
the armistice was signed the Government itself had 
over a hundred ships and barges under contract, one 
American vessel had finished a 12,000-mile voyage 
ending at New York, and millions of dollars had been 
put into yards where vessels from 7500-ton oceangoing 
tankers down to 500-ton canal barges were being built. 
This new industry was developed practically in its 
entirety by engineers and contractors who had before 
no experience in ship design or construction. Whatever 
future it may have will undoubtedly remain in the 
hands of the concrete constructor who brought to the 
problem native ability and experience in the general 
art of concrete construction. Now that the war is 
over and the immediate critical need which developed 
the concrete-ship idea has passed, many are asking 
what has been learned in the past year and what are 
the chances for the concrete ship as a permanent com- 
petitor of the vessel of wood or steel. Even now it 
is too soon to do more than review certain obvious 
conditions and developments and to set down briefly 
some of the things that have been learned. 

The history of the concrete ship has been told in 
these pages during the past year. It suffices now to 
repeat that the development was, early in the war, taken 
over by the Concrete Ship Section of the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, and that the Shipping Board soon 
refused to allow any ships to be built for private ac- 
count. In consequence, though hundreds of engineers 
interested themselves in the study of the problem, the 
only ships contracted for were those built under the 
auspices of the Fleet Corporation, except some small 
power boats and lighters for the War Department, tow- 
boats for the Railroad Administration and the Navy, 
and a few barges for private owners. The Concrete 
Ship Section conducted many studies in design and con- 
struction and, though handicapped by what at best may 
be termed a lack of sympathy in some quarters in the 
Fleet Corporation, is, together with its associated con- 
tractors, entitled to the major part of the credit for 
what has been done. 

Design Based on Theory, Not Rules 

Many pages might be written on the design of the 
concrete ship. In fact, many pages have been written 
recently. They all reduce to the fact that the usual 
ship-design methods have been used to determine bend- 
ing moments, although strain studies now under way 
on actual ships may modify these methods in the future. 
The difficulty in design comes in proportioning members 
to meet the assumed moments according to theory rather 
than according to standardized rules based on past prac- 
tice and performance, as has been the practice with steel 
ships. Distribution of shear in the shell has been par- 
ticularly bothersome, and has been met in some cases 
by assuming larger unit stresses than have been con»= 

mon, though apparently justified by incomplete tests, 
and in some ships not yet beyond the design stage by 
radical rearrangement of the frame so that the shell 
takes no shear. 

Construction Problems Many 

Ship lines in the early ships, particularly in the 
"Faith," were very crude. The opposite extreme was 
reached in the first Government ship, the "Atlantus" 
launched last month at Brunswick, Ga., which takes 
on the appearance of a yacht and which, due to the 
very extreme fairing, was difficult to build. Between 
the two extremes lie the latest Government ships which 
have sufficient curving of the lines to present a good 
appearance, but which are not particularly complicated 
in form. 

It is in construction of the concrete ship that most 
has been learned. It can be definitely said, for in- 
stance, that the claim of the violent advocates of a year 
ago, that no skilled workmen would be required on a 
concrete ship and therefore it could readily be built any- 
where with little difficulty, is not true. No one who has 
gone through the first few months of building one of 
the large concrete ships will deny that the work requires 
the highest type of skill, and that even the training 
gained on reinforced-concrete buildings is inadequate — 
because, primarily, of the greater accuracy required in 
placing the steel and forms and of the greater conges- 
tion of the steel in the forms. A concrete ship does 
not require as many kinds of skilled labor as does the 
steel ship, but the labor that it does require must be of 
the highest type. 

Placing Steel Difficult and Expensive 

Difficulties which arose in the construction were 
mainly those connected with the placing of the steel 
in the narrow, congested forms. Contrary to many 
expectations, the construction and erection of the forms 
themselves have not proved overly difficult. It was, of 
course, a problem different from that met in building 
construction in that the whole form structure, inside 
and out, had to be erected complete before any concrete 
pouring started. In addition, all of the forms so erected 
had to be arranged in such manner as to allow free 
access inside the boat during the pouring, and a ready 
method of stripping, so as not only not to injure the con- 
crete itself, but to preserve the forms for subsequent 
use. This has been met quite successfully and, so far 
as shown by figures given out, quite economically. 

Placing the steel has been the critical element in the 
construction of both barges and ships. Bending itself 
has been very difficult. The curves are complicated and 
diverse, so that templets have to be changed frequently. 
Much of the steel is large in diameter. In none of the 
boats so far built has the cost of this work been reduced 
to what it may be ultimately. Placing the curved steel 
has still further complications, not only on account of 
the difficulty of fitting it to the curves in the forms, but 

January 2, 1919 



also because of the accuracy in its spacing which is 
required. Undoubtedly, with practice, the bending and 
placing of steel will be made cheaper. Indeed, it must 
be made so if the cost of the ships is to be brought 
down to a competitive basis. 

Mechanical Hammering an Innovation 

The element of mixing and placing the concrete has 
not given the trouble that was possibly anticipated. In 
fact, it has been shown that getting the concrete to the 
forms themselves is a minor detail, and no great elabora- 
tion of plant is required to insure it. The narrowness 
and the general congestion of the formwork make it 
difficult to place the concrete in the forms, so that 
delivery to a nearby point from which shoveling to the 
forms may be done requires only a moderate speed and 
quantity of concrete. 

The placing of the concrete, however, could hardly 
be done at all successfully without the use of the air 
or electric hammer, which has been introduced by the 
Concrete Ship Section in the making of all of the Gov- 
ernment ships. As stated above, all the forms in the 
ship must be up before the concreting starts. This 
leaves many bends and turns inside the forms around 
which the concrete must be led. The ideal consistency 
attempted by Mr. Edison in his concrete-house project 
of a decade ago is what the concrete shipbuilder would 
like. Lacking this so far impossible mixture, the ham- 
mer is the next best thing. Several of these hammers 
battering the inside forms during the pouring of the 
concrete permit the use of considerably drier mixture 
than used to be employed in thin, heavily reinforced 
wall work, and performs almost incredible feats in 
leading the concrete into the corners of the forms. 

Behavior Tested in But One Ship 

So far as performance of the concrete ship is con- 
cerned, our whole dependence is on the freighter "Faith," 
which was dry-docked in New York in November after 
a voyage down the Pacific to South America, up to New 
Orleans, thence to Havana, and up to New York. Bar- 
ring the rather serious cracks in the deck where a 
winch was seated in a place not intended for it, the 
ship, to all outward appearances, is intact. All rumors 
to the contrary notwithstanding, her hull is free from 
anything but minor hair cracks, and the outside surface, 
which has been subjected to sea-water action for nine 
months, is in as smooth and unpitted a condition as any 
concrete in the dry air of the interior of a building. 

The "Faith" is as "ugly as original sin." Her struc- 
tural design, according to those who have investigated 
it, is susceptible of considerable improvement. She is 
heavy and therefore undoubtedly uneconomical, but she 
is an oceangoing concrete vessel which has success- 
fully passed a long sea test. 

What is the future of the concrete ship? It is still 
too early to draw definite conclusions, but the experi- 
ence of the year seems clearly to indicate that struc- 
turally the problem is solved; improvements are bound 
to come, but the fears of a year ago as to difficulties 
in erection and dangers in service need not deter 
progress. The future today is bound up in costs. Com- 
petition with steel ships rests on cost per ton of freight 
carried, which is tied up to original cost plus carrying 

capacity per ton displacement. The concrete ship will 
have to be built sufficiently cheaper than the steel 
ship to counterbalance the extra cost of the dead weight, 
which is still higher than for the steel ship, despite the 
advantages of the new light aggregate. 

This light aggregate, an artificially burnt clay devel- 
oped by the Concrete Ship Section, gives promise of 
being a most important step forward in concrete-ship 
work. Weighing less than water, it produces in a 1:2 
mixture a concrete having a weight of 100 lb. or slightly 
more, and a strength at 28 days of 4000 lb. By its use 
it is possible to produce a concrete ship with a carrying 
capacity to dead-weight ratio only slightly below that of 
the steel ship — so close, in fact, as to bring the two types 
in competition. 

So far figures for the oceangoing ships have not been 
produced showing the closeness of this competition, but 
in towboats they have been made. Barges of identical 
dimensions, for instance — one of steel carrying 600 tons 
and one of 150-lb. concrete carrying 500 tons — have 
operating profits practically equal, using actual con- 
tract costs and identical freight charges. A barge built 
with the 100-lb. concrete would naturally show greater 

The costs of the seagoing ships have been confused 
by a number of things. The "Faith" is a private 
venture for which costs are not available. The first 
Government ship, the "Atlantus" will prove to be in- 
ordinately expensive. Until official explanations are 
given out, exact causes cannot be stated, but it seems 
evident that the slow construction and high cost were 
due to a combination of inexperience in concrete design 
and construction, a lack of proper plant equipment due 
to the fact that only one ship was to be built in the 
yard, a possibly praiseworthy experimentation with 
methods and devices, and — so many reports go — shift- 
less labor. 

It is unfortunate that this first Government ship 
should have taken so long to build and have been so 
expensive, because it will undoubtedly be used as an 
argument against future development. Meanwhile, the 
other Government yards have been built at large expense 
for eight ships apiece. The big ships being turned 
out from these yards apparently are being built cheaply 
enough to permit them to compete fairly with steel 
vessels, if the proper proportion of plant charge is 
assessed against each. The responsibility for giving 
out full and authentic cost data on the concrete ship 
rests squarely on the Emergency Fleet Corporation. 
Only by knowing these figures can shipowners or pros- 
pective builders form their judgment of the practicabil- 
ity of this new kind of vessel. 

Concrete shipbuilders are learning their trade in the 
hardest of schools. They cannot produce as efficiently 
or as cheaply now as they will after their first few 
units are turned out. It is going to take the backing of 
the Government or of courageous spirits such as those 
who financed the "Faith" to continue the big concrete 
ship as a commercial proposition, but the future is 
bright for any such venture. For the small barge, 
car-float or lighter, on the other hand, the field seems 
more immediately open. A number of contractors have 
learned to build such boats, and their experience should 
be worth much in reducing costs to a competitive basis. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Fabricated -Ship Construction in One Year's Experience 

New System Now Thoroughly Tested by Large-Scale Working Has Proved Adaptable 
And Free from Inherent Difficulties or Elements of Excess Cost 

(Editorial Review) 

SINCE the "fabricated-ship" enterprise was launched 
by the Emergency Fleet Corporation as a war-time 
experiment, 15 months ago, actual hull construction 
has been in progress for a full year. The system has 
undergone a thorough, practical trial during this time. 
Its feasibility has been shown by the launching of a 
large number of fabricated ships, and the completion 
and acceptance of half a dozen. 

No report on the outcome of this gigantic experiment 
has been made by the Shipping Board. Since, under 
the now changed conditions, the value of the ship- 
fabricating system depends on how it can maintain 
itself in commercial shipbuilding service, some notes on 
the practical working of fabricated-ship construction 
collected by representatives of Engineering News- 
Record are summarized here. 

The "fabricating" system is characterized by the 
fact that the yard sublets to bridge-building shops the 
punching, shearing, planing, countersinking, scarfing, 
assembly riveting (so far as practicable within ship- 
ping limits), and in some cases the bending or curving 
of the plates and frames and other parts of the ships' 
hulls. This means that the work is done at a distance 
from the yard. It requires sending the necessary con- 
struction data from yard to shop by drawings or tem- 
plets, or both, and obviously demands that the advance 
information be so precise that the parts will fit together 
when erected. Extensive changes in ship design, plant 
layout and construction methods have developed to suit. 

Shipping Board Report on Method 

So far as the Shipping Board's report (issued Dec. 
1, 1918) indicates, the success of this new shipbuilding 
method is just as problematical as it was a year ago, 
for the subject is dismissed with the following remarks : 
"Summarizing the facts in connection with the fabri- 
cated ship, we find that the development of the struc- 
tural steel ship and the enlistment, for the task of 
shipbuilding, of the engineering experience, the organ- 
izing ability, and the mechanical skill of the trades 
which built our bridges, our great office buildings and 
other commercial structures, may be counted upon to 
add from 3,500,000 to 4,000,000 tons of ships each year 
to our total. 

"Three very significant facts should be noted with 
reference to this plan : First, if the yards had depended 
on their own fabricating shops and facilities it would 
have been impossible to develop an. equal amount of 
new shipyard capacity for the manufacture of machin- 
ery and equipment, in two or three times the number 
of months required under the plan adopted. Second, 
without the ship-fabrication work and the ship equip- 
ment orders, hundreds of shops throughout the country 
might have been closed down, with immense losses to 
owners and employees. Third, the expense of new shop 
installations at the yards, if they had been built under 
the old system, would have run into hundreds of mil- 
lions, and further concentration of the additional 

workers in the already overcrowded shipyard districts 
would have required many additional millions for 

Over $200,000,000 of public funds has been invested 
in the bridge-shop-fabrication system of shipbuilding, 
besides a large amount of private money. Exclusive 
of the latter item, the cost to date comprises $100,- 
000,000 expended for shipyard plant and $100,000,000 
or more for material and labor used in shipbuilding. 
The report of the Shipping Board from which these 
figures are deduced states that the ultimate expenditure 
for fabricated ships on present contracts will be nearly 
$500,000,000, so that with the plant cost a total invest- 
ment of $600,000,000 will be chargeable to the fabri- 
cation system. 

Quality of Work Excellent 

All evidence obtainable testifies to the success of the 
fabricating method in point of quality of work. "The 
quality of the work is excellent ; the possibility of delay 
constitutes the only danger of the fabricating system," 
says one yard manager. The results obtained at an- 
other yard are described by the statements of fitters 
and bolters of many years' service in old-line shipyards, 
that they have never handled steel that fits as well as 
the bridge-shop steel. An especially critical judge of 
shipbuilding matters, who spent many months in inti- 
mate daily touch with the work in a fabricating yard, 
states without reserve that "the work is superior to 
anything ever done in ordinary shipbuilding." 

Curved Work Accurate — In some of the cases only the 
straight part of the ship is fabricated in the bridge 
shop, while in others molded and curved work also is 
done away from the yard. The quality of work ap- 
pears to be independent of the large differences in 
system between the various yards, whose bridge-shop 
allotments range from 70 per cent, of the entire hull 
to 100 per cent. 

The amount of altering or scrapping of bridge-shop- 
fabricated material has been negligible. As described 
by an experienced steel man now in shipyard work, 
the material does not contain many more field errors 
than ordinary viaduct work. One yard reports that 
during the construction of several ships not a piece 
was scrapped except for mistakes made in the yard 

Effect of Distance — Under present shipbuilding con- 
ditions fabrication is done at distances ranging from 
5 to 1500 miles from the shipyard, yet there appears 
to be no effect of distance. Remote fabrication has 
been fully as successful as that done nearby. One yard 
had some of its best results, both in quality and deliv- 
eries, from the most distant shop of the several which 
fabricate its material. A concise summary of the effect 
of distance is found in the remark, "Fabrication at a 
distance is exactly the same thing as fabrication at 
the yard, except that the shop is 300 miles from the 
ways instead of 300 feet." 

January 2, 1919 



Distant Fabrication Does Not Complicate Erection — 
While many difficulties have developed in ship erection 
in the large fabricating yards during the year, it does 
not appear that these are chargeable to the system 
itself. It is, in fact, stated specifically that outside 
fabrication involves no greater erection difficulties or 
necessary costs than ordinary shipyard methods. Actual 
operations during 1918 have been affected by troubles 
of sequence of material and shortage of skilled labor to 
an extent that makes the erection performances no 
criterion of reasonable possibilities. 

Conclusions on Cost Not Yet Possible 

No present basis exists for comparing the cost of 
ships built under the outside-fabrication system with 
those built under ordinary methods. Main factors for 
comparison are the shop, transportation, handling and 
erection costs. Under the wholly abnormal cost, labor 
and urgency conditions of the past year, available fig- 
ures are valueless for the necessary comparisons. 

Concerning transportation costs: Some fabricated- 
ship contracts, let to shops located near steel mills, were 
based on fabrication in transit, so that the fabricated 
material arriving at the shipyard has no higher railway 
charge than raw steel shipped to the yard direct. In 
other cases the cost of shipment of steel to the bridge 
shop and thence to the shipyard has been several dollars 
per ton above that of direct shipment from mill to yard. 
It seems likely that under normal conditions the excess 
transportation charge, if any, would be negligible. 
Handling charges also should not differ materially. 

Shop Costs Probably Favor Bridge Shop — So many 
factors bear on any comparison made between fabri- 
cation in a bridge shop and in a yard shop, that present 
contract prices throw little light on the matter. The 
fundamental element is the relative efficiency of the 
two kinds of plant. The past year's work has afforded 
opportunity for comparative judgments. Experienced 
shop managers state as a result of such comparisons 
that bridge shops are unquestionably able to work more 
economically than shipyard shops. For their normal 
production, bridge shops have been developed to a high 
degree of efficiency under keen competition, while no 
similar direct influence toward efficiency has been active 
in the case of shipyard shops. Men who have had 
occasion to study yard punch shops since the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation took over control of shipbuilding 
report that most of the shops could be greatly improved 
in efficiency by revising their layout, equipment, ar- 
rangement and operating systems. 

Under present conditions, therefore, it appears prob- 
able that bridge-shop fabrication is about on even terms 
with yard-shop fabrication, taking into account the 
differences in shop efficiency and in amount of handling. 
It is assumed that the bridge shop is at the time in a 
position to do the shipwork without unbalancing its 
shop program or seriously lowering the load factor on 
part of its equipment, in view of the fact that shipwork 
makes use of only part of the equipment of a bridge 

The advantage of bridge shops having multiple and 
other automatic or semi-automatic punches, capable of 
doing most economical fabrication if the ship design 
permits their use, has been a factor in the past year's 

work. Its influence may be modified in future by the 
introduction in shipyards of multiple punches and semi- 
automatic punch tables, on an extensive scale. 

Difficulties of Sequence in Getting Hull Material 
Due to Size of Operations 

Serious difficulties have beset all the fabricating yards 
during 1918 with regard to the speed of building ships. 
These difficulties appear to have resulted partly from 
labor shortage and partly from irregularity in the re- 
ceipt of fabricated material — in other words, the im- 
possibility of getting hull material in sequence. 

Though in the large yards steel has been piling up 
in storage since midsummer, yet in general the ship- 
ways have always been ahead of the steel supply. This 
meant not merely delay, but all the lack of system that 
hand-to-mouth living implies — and this under the worst 
kind of pressure for speed, the yard men explain. "The 
impossibility of getting material in sequence has 
brought a series of misfortunes in its train that no one 
who speaks plainly will deny," it is said. In part, 
perhaps, the sequence difficulties arose from the steel 
shortage, and in part from shop difficulties chargeable 
to the new character of the work. The abnormal scale 
on which the operations were conducted was the chief 
source of trouble, however. No reason has appeared for 
attributing the lack of sequence to the fabricating sys- 
tem itself. Under normal conditions and with the sys- 
tem worked on a normal scale, the difficulties should 

Modifications of Ship Design 

Practically all the fabricating yards have worked 
with simplified designs of ships. Simplification was 
thought necessary because of doubt as to whether 
bridge shops could do shipwork successfully. Allow- 
ance for the limitations, actual and fancied, of the 
existing shop equipment was therefore made by more 
or less radical simplification of lines and of structural 

As a result of the past year's experience, many fabri- 
cated-ship men are coming to the belief that such sim- 
plification is not an indispensable thing with regard 
to feasibility or quality of work or its cost. Similarly, 
some of the large yards have virtually concluded that 
a large part of the templet making should be left 
to the bridge shop, and that detail drawings care- 
fully developed in the drafting room are a satisfactory 
basis for fabrication. 

Difficulties have arisen in the case of two yards 
through necessity for distributing their work among 
a very large number of individual fabricating shops. 
Uncoordinated deliveries have resulted from the dis- 
tribution adopted, in a measure. It is now acknowledged 
that allotment to many fabricating shops offers a diffi- 
cult problem. 

Concentration of fabrication in a few big shops, to 
each of which large sections of a ship or entire ships 
could be allotted, has been decided upon in one case. 
Four inland ship-fabricating shops are being erected 
by the Emergency Fleet Corporation, of capacity 10,000 
tons per month each, for this purpose. These shops 
will constitute an important basis for future ship- 
fabrication work. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Fourteen Points Essential to Establishing a Sound 

Railway Policy 

By L. C. Fritch 

Vice-President and Chief Engineer, Chicago, Rock Island and Tacific Railway Company, Chicago 








Incorporation of Interstate Common Carriers under a FederaltAct 

Private Ownership and Operation 

Federal Regulations and Control 

Pooling of Traffic 

Unification and Common Use of Facilities and Equipment 

Regulation of Transportation Rates, Wages and r orking Conditions of 
Employment by Interstate Commerce Commission 

Uniform Accounting and Statistical Methods to be Prescribed by In- 
terstate Commerce Commission 

Federal Guarantee of a "Standard Return" to Meet Fixed Charges, 
Dividends and Surplus for Improvements 

Representation on Board of Directors of the Federal Government 

Elimination of State Regulation and Control in Interstate Commerce 

Federal Control and Regulation of Capital Issues and Financing 

Valuation of Property by Boards of Arbitration 

Regional Directors to Supervise Operations 

Standardization of Method and Practice in Railway Operation and 

TRANSPORTATION is the most important item of 
all the various economic problems confronting the 
nation. In direct proportion to the wise solution of this 
problem will be our future progress. 

The "fourteen points" enumerated above, if intelli- 
gently and rationally applied to this question, will solve 
the problem in the interest of the public, the owners 
and the employees, the three most vitally interested par- 
ties. Any settlement which does not protect these in- 
terests equitably and fully will retard national progress 
and adversely affect the welfare of the people. 

1. Federal Incorporation — The first essential to en- 
able common carriers to perform their public functions 
is an allegiance to one master, the Federal Government, 
which makes necessary incorporat'on under Federal 
statutes. Experience has conclusively shown that the 49 
regulating bodies existing at the present time have 
neither the inclination nor the ability to adopt a uni- 
form and rational set of regulations. It is not possible 
for a corporation or an individual to serve two masters, 
particularly when each master prescribes conflicting 
rules, a compliance in one case being an offense in the 
other. Under such chaotic conditions no satisfactory 
results can be obtained, and the proper solution can 
only be found in Federal incorporation. 

2. Private Ownership and Operation — This is to be 
preferred to Government assumption of these functions, 
for the reason that a government has in the majority 
of instances completely failed to operate any enterprise 
efficiently, unless it may be a political machine. The 
nation at this time is not prepared to assume the finan- 
cial burden which acquisition of ownership of some 
twenty billions of property would impose upon the oeo- 
ple, in addition to the war debt, and if the operation of 
the railways is placed in the hands of the owners, and 
proper and sound public regulation u enforced, the re- 

sults will be more satisfactory than could possibly be 
secured under Government ownership and operation. 
Proof of this fact is abundantly available. To be con- 
vinced of this truth it is only necessary to investigate 
the mistakes Canada has made in its railway policy. 

3. Federal Regulation and Control — These are most 
essential elements in the proper solution of the future 
railway policy. The assumption of the control of rail- 
ways during war time has demonstrated the necessity 
and wisdom of such action. While many things are done 
under war emergency measures which, in peace times, 
would not be necessary, yet the peculiar interests of 
the owners must be directed and controlled, and this can 
only be done by the supreme authority of the Govern- 
ment, which should rule for the benefit of the public as 
a whole and control the selfish purposes of the indi- 
vidual, bo it a parson or a community. Federal regula- 
tion and control will act as a governor to private owner- 
ship and oparation, but it must be absolutely divorced 
from all political affiliations. 

h. Traffic Pooling — The pooling of the traffic of the 
country among the railways will produce the most 
economical results and efficient service. It* will move 
the traffic over the shortest and most economical routes, 
will prevent congestion and insure each carrier a fair 
proportion of traffic, resulting in a scientific use of the 
railways in the interests of the best service at the low- 
est cost. The most pernicious and destructive competi- 
tion will be thereby eliminated, through cutting out un- 
necessary and duplicate service, resulting in reduction 
in cost and improved service otherwise unattainable. 
The repeal of laws now prohibiting the pooling of traffic 
is, of course, necessary. In effect, this law has been 
suspended during Federal control of the railways, with 
most excellent results. Under future Federal regula- 
tions the law should be repealed, if the public is to do- 

January 2, 1919 



rive the benefits of the economies already secured in this 
respect during Federal control. Service will still be the 
controlling competitive feature, which will be an incen- 
tive for efficiency in operation, and the best service at 
the lowest cost will inevitably result. The weaker lines 
must be compensated fairly in the division of traffic to 
enable them to give adequate service to the territories 
which they traverse. This is not a difficult matter and 
can be equitably adjusted. 

5. Unification and Common Use — Federal control of 
the railroads has accomplished excellent results in the 
unification of terminals and common use of tracks, 
equipment and other facilities. Such results were im- 
possible under private control, due to the selfishness of 
the individual roads, regardless of the benefits such use 
might be to the public. The duplication of expensive 
terminals, trackage, equipment, etc., has resulted in 
capital expenditures of millions which might have been 
avoided under a sane policy of regulation and common 
use. There is no field in the operation of railways more 
fertile of results — economical and beneficial alike to 
owners of the railways and the public — than the unifica- 
tion of terminal facilities, trackage and equipment and 
their common use under fair regulation, but it will re- 
quire the supreme authority of the Government to make 
it effective and overcome the prejudice of the individual 
owners, which has been the means of preventing such 
consummation under private control. 

6. Regulation by Interstate Commerce Commission — 
It is eminently unfair to hold that the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission has entirely failed to perform its 
functions. As a regulating body it has performed emi- 
nent service to the public in the prevention of discrim- 
inations and favors to certain classes of shippers, and 
by these very means has performed the valuable service 
to the carriers in "protecting them against themselves." 
The carrier retained the revenues which before the days 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission were largely 
dissipated in refunds and rebates to favored shippers. 
The commission, by its regulation of rates, has given 
the public the lowest cost of transportation of any coun- 
try in the world, and has thus fully justified itself as a 
public body. On the other hand, it may be claimed that 
the result of this extreme policy has reached its limit, 
and must be reflected in decreased transportation fa- 
cilities and impaired service, due to the inadequacy of 
these rates to produce sufficient revenue to enable the 
carriers to perform their public function properly. 

The duties and responsibilities of the commission 
should be enlarged to cover, not only the income, but 
the outgo of the carriers as well, to the end that suf- 
ficient revenue will be derived to meet the necessary ex- 
penditures of fixed charges, reasonable return on invest- 
ment, operating expenses, and a surplus to provide neces- 
sary improvements and extensions. Granted these en- 
larged duties and powers, the commission will be alike 
responsible to the public, the owners,, and the employees, 
and it will be in a position to demonstrate its useful- 
ness and, if properly constituted, will amply justify its 
existence. The commission cannot be held responsible 
for its inability to secure results which it was power- 
less to secure under the laws regulating its duties. The 
proper solution lies in granting it the necessary legal 
powers to perform its various functions and then in 

holding it accountable for the results. If thus consti- 
tuted, it will not be found wanting. The fixing of 
wages and working conditions of employees engaged 
in transportation should be controlled by the same body 
that prescribes the revenues of the carriers. The highly 
specialized departments of the commission should have 
charge of these important matters and alike protect the 
interests of the employees, the public and the owner of 
and investor in railway securities. Under present condi- 
tions, the operating heads of railways devote a large 
part of their time to negotiations with labor organiza- 
tions over wage schedules, working conditions and 
grievances, leaving little time to be devoted to the le- 
gitimate duty of running their business. This should 
be corrected and the matter handled by a competent 
technical body, skilled in such matters, with time to de- 
vote to them and reach equitable conclusions which will 
be stable and satisfactory to the interests involved. 

7. Uniform Accounting — The Interstate Commerce 
Commission has performed a valuable duty in prescrib- 
ing a uniform system of accounting for common car- 
riers, and while modifications of the existing system are 
desirable, it has produced greater reliability in opera- 
tion and more confidence in the carriers, and has in this 
respect performed a service of inestimable value to both 
the public and the carriers. In addition to the system 
of uniform accounting, there should be prescribed by the 
commission a uniform method of reporting statistics 
covering the various operations. This is a necessary ad- 
junct to the accounting system to enable the true re- 
sults of operation to be reflected. 

8. Federal Guarantees— The Government operation 
of railways under war-time conditions has been the 
means of saving from bankruptcy the majority of the 
companies taken over. It would have been impossible 
for many of these companies to pay the high costs of 
wages and material entering into operations during the 
war, and meet their financial obligations. The Govern- 
ment has performed a great public service in thus pro- 
tecting the roads against the calamity which confronted 
them, and its duty will be fully met if the roads are re- 
tained under Government control until the proper ad- 
justments in economic conditions have been made to 
enable them to carry their own burdens. A return of 
the roads to private control before that time would be a 
public calamity. 

Under Federal control, the law provides that the car- 
rier shall receive as compensation a "standard return" 
equal to the average annual operating income during 
the three years which ended June 30, 1917. In the case 
of the strong roads, this amount is generally sufficient 
to meet fixed charges, a reasonable dividend, and a sur- 
plus to finance necessary improvements and extensions. 
In the case of the weaker roads, however, this standard 
return is not sufficient to meet financial obligations. 
Some of the so-called "weaker" lines have made requests 
for additional compensation which have good and rea- 
sonable grounds for consideration, and in the interests 
of the public should be allowed, to enable these roads 
to discharge their financial obligations. It would be 
disastrous to have a number of these roads default in 
their payments at this time, and the Government owes 
it as a public duty to the communities served by these 
lines that they shall remain solvent corporations. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

The proper policy to protect the transportation in- 
dustry must make provision for the so-called "weaker" 
roads; they serve various communities which depend 
upon them for their existence. It is a Governmental 
duty to preserve these properties and aid them in such 
a manner as will enable them to exist and perform their 
functions properly. This can be done by guaranteeing a 
standard return to such companies sufficient to enable 
them to meet their financial obligations, paying the op- 
erating expenses, fixed charges, a reasonable return on 
the investment, and expenditures for improvements and 
extensions, all to be done under full Government regula- 
tion and control. The stronger lines might by an equita- 
ble plan assist the Government in meeting such obliga- 

9. Government Directors — Government regulation 
and control makes necessary a voice in the management 
of the properties, and to this end adequate representa- 
tions on the boards of directors is essential. The policy 
of selecting able representative business men to act for 
the Government in such capacity would result in busi- 
ness management of the railways in the interests of the 
public and would have a wholesome effect in railway ad- 

10. No State Regulation of Interstate Matters — The 
regulation of common carriers by the various state com- 
missions has resulted in confusion and increased cost 
of transportation, without any d.'rcct benefit to the pub- 
lic. There are certain functions which must be regu- 
lated by the communities, such as police powers, health 
regulation and questions of purely local character. These 
should be delegated to municipal and state authorities, 
but the broader powers, which affect interstate com- 
merce, should be regulated by the Federal Government 
alone. At present there are 49 regulating bodies having 
jurisdiction over railway operation, and in no two states 
are the regulations the same. Indeed, the rules in some 
states conflict with those of an adjoining state, and in 
many instances what may be required in one state may 
be strictly prohibited in another. This could be reg- 
ulated in a uniform manner by one authority — the Fed- 
eral Government — with equal justice to all. There is 
scarcely a state-made rate which does not affect interstate 
rates — therefore it is the function. cf the Government to 
regulate interstate commerce without discrimination or 
favor to any community or person. This cannot be ac- 
complished under state regulation. The first essential, 
therefore, to a uniform policy of Government regula- 
tion and control is to abolish state regulation and con- 
centrate this power in the Federal Government, for the 
benefit of the whole people. 

11. Federal Control of Financing — There may have 
been cases of flagrant violation of the rules of propriety 
in the issuance of railway securities in the past. There 
is no defense for such action and no apology can be 
made for it, but, because isolated cases have existed in 
the past, and becauss a limited amount may have been 
irregularly issued, is it fair to condemn the entire rail- 
way security issues? The proper solution of this problem 
is so to regulate railway financing and capital issues 
in the future that it will be impossible to con- 
tinue the abuses of the past. This would restore public 
confidence in such investments and enable the roads 
to secure capital for improvements and extensions. 

12. Valuation by Arbitration — The proper Go 1 - rn- 
ment regulation and control of common carriers make^ 
necessary a consideration of the value of the respective 
properties. It may be desirable to consolidate certain 
properties or operate them in common, which calls for 
data as to the value of the properties involved. The 
physical valuation of the railways being made by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission is promised in 1920 
or 1921. This may, in many cases, be too late for the 
purpose of carrying out a general railway policy. Much 
doubt is expressed by railway owners as to the valua- 
tion which the commission will finally place on their 
property. This will result in lengthy litigation, to 
which the roads will resort, unless an agreement is 
reached. It would seem more desirable to submit the 
question of valuation to impartial boards of arbitra- 
tion, which would reach results more quickly and with 
justice to all concerned. 

13. Regional Operating Directors — Numerous sug- 
gestions have been made to apply the experience gained 
in the organization of the Federal reserve banking sys- 
tem to the regional control of railways. Seven regions 
have been created, each in charge of a regional director. 
The objection to this system is that it results in a cen- 
tralized control, from which authority must be obtained 
governing the details of operation. Such a system will 
not produce the most efficient results, as it takes away 
from the direct operating heads of the various proper- 
ties the initiative resultant from complete authority 
over the details of operation. 

A system of regional boards of governors similar to 
those in the Federal reserve banking system would 
produce better results than the present scheme of cen- 
tralized control over operations. The boards should act 
in an advisory and supervisory capacity only, leaving the 
details of operation and responsibility in the hands of 
the active managers of the respective properties. 

The transportation business requires prompt action 
and will not brook the delay incident to appealing for 
authority to a central source, except in matters of policy. 
The man on the ground should have the authority to act 
on his own responsibility. With it he will secure results. 

Ut. Standardization — Transportation is of a similar 
nature all over the country, and while the conditions un- 
der which the operations are conducted vary in different 
sections there are numerous and various practices and 
methods followed to obtain the same results within the 
same territory. 

There is one method of obtaining a certain result 
which is better than every other plan, and on almost any 
railway system there are certain methods and practices 
used to obtain certain results, which methods and prac- 
tices are better than those used on other roads. Ex- 
periments are costly, and much time, money and energy 
are needlessly expended. This could be avoided by 
utilizing the experience of others. 

A committee or committees on the standardization of 
methods and practices in railway operation and manage- 
ment could save millions of dollars annually in the op- 
eration of our railroads, if the standards formulated 
were put into practical effect. These results can be se- 
cured through the means of regional boards having 
broad powers over the railways, all working to a com- 
mon miroose, "The best service at minimum cost." — 

January 2, 1919 



Build Boats in Dry Docks at New Yard in Detroit 

Concrete Barges Under Construction on Concrete Floors Inside Dikes Which Will Be Flooded for 
Launching — Lighters Carry Construction Machinery Alongside Dry Docks 

CONCRETE barges for the New York State Barge 
Canal are being built at the new yard of the Gray- 
haven Shipbuilding Co., on the Detroit River, Detroit, 
Mich., in a yard which contains many original features, 
the most important of which is the use of dry docks in 
which to build the barges. There are at least two build- 
ing docks in this country for large ships, but the design 
of an entire shipyard around a series of dry docks is 
entirely new, so far as the records show. The yard is 
intended to be a permanent undertaking, though at pres- 
ent it is being devoted entirely to the construction of 
five concrete barges for the United States Railroad Ad- 

The site of the yard was a real-estate development, 
the main feature of which was a lagoon 150 ft. wide 
extending up from the Detroit River, which is about 
2000 ft. away. This lagoon was connected by a cross 
canal to a similar lagoon also extending to the river, it 
being the intention to sell building lots with water 
frontage on the whole site. No houses had been built 
at the time it was taken over last July. The dry docks 
of the new yard have been built out into the lagoon, 
and the waters of the lagoon will be used not only to 
float the completed barges out to the river, but also to 
carry lighters and barges bearing the construction ma- 
terial and plant. Connection is also established over a 
bridge across the connecting canal between the lagoons, 
so that the yard may be reached by trucks and wagons. 

The first step toward constructing the dry docks was 
to throw up a continuous dike about 382 ft. long at a 
distance of some 50 ft. from the shore of each lagoon, 
and then to cut in two the basin so formed on each side, 
with a cross dike extending to the shore. This formed 
four basins, as shown on the plan, two opening toward 

the shore and two toward the river. The bottom of each 
basin was then paved with a 5-in. thickness of concrete; 
the side slopes of the dikes were smoothed off but left 
unpaved, and gates were placed across the opening of 
each of the basins. Four dry docks were thus formed, 

S e c + i on 

A - A 

2 'irV" 3 $3rm!' so k^f > Y 3 ° r ' > 0-z' 

mm %^W%, 

Section B- B 


having a depth of 7 ft., a total inside bottom length of 
172 ft., and a bottom width of 30 ft. The main lagoon 
was then dredged to a depth of 10 ft. For the time 
being the gates consist merely of earth dikes which will 
be dug out when the water is to be let in under the 

Material Scow . ; 

^^^"T^TTjy - -^w^sww^mwmww 





Vol. 82, No. 1 

■1x4 Continuous 

^,-j. - \-Concreie Col. 

| rfco J ?^/4;s r c.t>c. 


-Doffed Lines'^ 
I shorn Fbshioh 
\ I of Col. when : 
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K <^5"- H 



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boats to be launched, but it is intended to have perma- 
nent gates, of stop logs, which can be readily removed 
and replaced. 

The concrete barges now being built in the yard were 
described in Engineering Netos-Record of Aug. 8, 1918, 
p. 271. Each boat is 150 ft. long, of 21-ft. beam, and 
12 ft. deep. It is of simple type, with frames 5 ft. 
on centers, a 3-in. shell and an open hatchway crossed 
with deck beams every 15 ft. The bottom is flat, except 
for a 2-ft. quadrant curve at the bilge, but both bow 
and stern have framed lines. 

Many innovations have been introduced in the con- 
struction of the barges. The principal points of inter- 
est are the use of precast concrete frames to carry the 
outside forms, a hydraulic pump device to give the com- 
pleted barge an initial lift so that water can get under 
it for launching, the gantry crane control for the ways, 
and the use of floating equipment for the concrete mix- 
ing and placing. 

As shown in one of the drawings, the outside forms 
of the straight section of the barge, which compose the 
greater portion of its length, are made up of tongue- 
and-groove lagging which spans concrete jack columns 
spaced 5 ft. center to center and fastened with remov- 
able hooks to eyes let into the depressed concrete floor 
running along the outer edge of the dock. These jack 

frames are of precast concrete, with openings to save 
weight and also to provide spaces for trestle beams. 
They are 2 x 14 in. in normal cross-section, and are 
reinforced with' I- and T \-in. steel, as shown. Each 
frame has an extension at the top to carry the working 
platform, and has also a sloping bottom which is wedged 
up from the dock base. The outside forms — that is, 
the tongue-and-groove lagging — are carried as a con- 
tinuous section for the entire straight length of the 
barge, about 120 ft. 

This lagging is tacked to a 4-in. wood strip held to 
the concrete frame by bolts through holes left there for 
that purpose. Spaced on 1 ft. 8 in. centers between the 
frames are vertical intermediate 2 x 4's, supported di- 
rectly on the dock bottom and intended to give addi- 
tional bracing to the outside forms. The outside form 
of the bilge curve is made up of small slats laid longi- 
tudinally and coming flush at the lower end with the top 
of the concrete floor of the dock. The bottom of the 
barge is poured directly on this concrete base, which is 
oiled or soaped to insure easy removal after the concrete 
has set. 

The outside jack frames also carry at their top a light 
truss which serves the double purpose of cross-bracing 
the frames and of carrying the inside forms. From the 
outside of the working platform there rise posts which 
carry, with the aid of the center post of the cross-truss, 
the tarpaulin roof which must be ready, according to the 
specifications, in case of wet or extra cold weather dur- 
ing the continuous pouring of the barge. 

The outside forms between the beginning of the end 
curves are removed as one piece by the knocking out of 
the wedges under the jack frames. Thereby each frame 
is let drop 2 in. at its outer support, which means about 
7 in. away from the concrete at the top of the shell. 
Once away from the shell, the whole side form is slid 
back along the concrete floor of the dock, until it is 
well out of the way. When a new barge is built the 
whole thing is wedged up again and pushed into proper 

The end forms for the barge are of mortar molds. 
The stern, which is of somewhat complicated curvature, 
is in three sections divided along vertical lines. These 
three sections were set up in a shop with the frames 


of timber cut to templets and a sheeting of wire mesh 
tacked to the proper curvature in each section. An in- 
terior and an exterior layer of mortar were then 
plastered onto the metal, forming a perfect mold for the 
curve. These forms were then blocked up on the con- 

January 2, 1919 



crete bottom of the dock and slid into proper place. 
When the section is cast they are dropped with wedges 
and slid out in three sections. The bow has a one-way 
curvature above the bilge curve, and this upper section 
was formed with the regular I-in. tongue-and-groove 
material bent around wooden frames cut by tentplet to 
proper curve. Below the bilge curve, where there is 
double curvature, due to the turn of the stern and of the 

sheathing of the barge. In the design of the forms for 
the Detroit yard the frame forms are in two pieces — 
the outer piece, li x 5i in. in section, being bolted 
clear through and left in place as the nailing strip for 
the sheathing. The inner piece, which is 1£ x 3i in., 
forms a piece of the inside shell form and is removed 
when forms are dismantled. 

Provision is made for concreting each of the barges 
from a dump bucket carried on 
a gantry crane traveling up 
and down over the barge. As 
shown on the drawings, on 
the top of each dike there is 
a 2-ft. industrial track. Trav- 
el.. . |p eling on this track, continuous 
along both docks on the same 
side of the central lagoon, 
is a timber gantry crane, one 
for each side of the lagoon. 
One of the views gives an 
idea of the appearance of 
this crane. It has an ex- 
tending cantilever arm which 
reaches out over the water 
side of the dock. When the 
barge is to be poured the 
floating mixer plant, consist- 


bilge, a mortar form similar to that employed at the 
stern was used. 

The inside forms are thoroughly cross-braced, but are 
supported by small concrete pieces blocked up on the 
steel of the floor. The floor has no top form, of course, 
a proper thickness being screeded off level. The floor 
frames — that is, the keelsons and the cross-frames — are 
in boxes between the keelsons and the frames, and the 
connecting joints are nailed to the keelson box and 
screwed to the frame box, so that in dismantling wood 
screws can be readily taken out and the whole box 
slipped out. The forms for the side frames are heavy 
U-in. timbers held in place by cross-bracing attached 
to the bottom frame and to the hatch girders. The de- 
sign of the barge calls for a wooden strip alongside of 
each frame, to be used as a nailing strip for the wooden 

ing of a power boat and a material scow, is brought 
immediately alongside of the dry dock and is fastened 
to the outside truck of the gantry crane by a heavy 
timber frame, so that any movement of the boat parallel 
to the dock communicates a similar movement to the 
gantry crane. In order to insure the parallel motion 
of the crane during any such movement, there is a 
continuous l-in. cable running along the center of each 
track and around sheaves across the end of the dock. 
By the same mechanical motion which controls the well 
known drafting machine devices, the crane is thus kept 
moving parallel up and down the track over the barge 
whenever the material boats are moved up and down 
alongside of the dock, by hauling on lines to dead men at 
either end of the floating equipment. 

In concreting, then, the operation is as follows : The 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

material scow, which is a wooden scow with bins let 
down into the deck, and has belt conveyors running 
under these bins to the end of the scow, is first filled 
with enough material to make the run and is lashed 
tight to the power boat. This, besides carrying the 
heavy engine equipment for all removing and mixing 
operations, has an apron with the concrete mixer ex- 
tending out toward the material scow. Just inside the 
mixer is a concrete tower with an elevator bucket tak- 
ing material from the mixer. The mixer and material 
scows are then fastened alongside of the dock with the 
gantry crane so that its traveling cross buckets can 
run on the extended arm directly under the spout of 
the elevated hopper. Material is fed to the mixer 
through the belt conveyor, and is mixed and carried up 
to be dumped into a double-mouth bucket which 
traverses the beam of the gantry and, controlled by the 
engineman on the power boat, is lowered into the 

Concreting is carried on from two ends of the boat si- 
multaneously. After enough concrete has been dumped 



in the boxes at one end of the boat to keep the placers 
busy, the whole equipment — that is, the scow, the power 
boat and the gantry — is moved back to the other end of 
the boat, and the concrete is deposited there. Mixing 
the concrete and getting it to the boat are not the con- 
trolling operations in concreting a barge. The prime 
difficulty lies in getting the concrete into the narrow 
forms so that there is ample opportunity for the moving 

operations, without delaying the placing at either end of 
the boat. 

An interesting detail in connection with the gantry 
crane is the .small precast concrete frames which carry 
the track for the crane on the dike side. On the in- 
side, it will be noticed, the tracks are on the original 
ground and do not require additional support, but over 



Mm r -+ 

7 Bc*r 

Concrete Post 

r -4\4 



Section A-A 

Track for Gantry Crane 


the dike it was thought better to provide some extra 

This has been taken care of by the use of inverted L 
concrete frames 14 in. wide in the shaft and 2 in. thick, 
with an extending arm carrying the wooden plank run- 
way which extends out to the concreting barges. These 
frames are footed in concrete piled around the base and 
are spaced 8 ft. on centers. They carry longitudinal 
4 x 4's on which the steel ties rest. 

The final novel device is the lifting arrangement of 
the barge. It will be seen from the cross-section that 
the only buoyancy the completed barge will get when the 
water is let in is the lift under the bilge curve. This 
is not sufficient to float the boat. There is, therefore, 
provided along the center line a groove 2 x 12 in. in 
dimensions in which are set wood planks 9 ft. long, 
with slot spaces between. Under this groove is a con- 
tinuous pipe with ij-in. nipples rising up under the plank 
every 10 feet. 

When the boat is to be launched water pressure 
is put on this pipe, which lifts the plank, and 
thereby raises the barge a sufficient height to allow the 
water to run under the barge and give flotation to the 

The Grayhaven Shipbuilding Co., which built this 
novel yard and has the contract for the five New York 
State canal barges, has for its principal members 
Thomas E. Currie, a well known Detroit concrete con- 
tractor, and Edward Gray, engineer. Mr. Gray has re- 
cently been connected with the Ford Motor Co. in the 
capacity of construction engineer. 

Other details of the concreting operations at the 
plant will appear in an early article which will compare 
the methods in use at four yards building the New 
York Canal barge. 

January 2, 1919 


9. r i 

Routing of Fabricated Ship Material at Bristol 

Hull Construction Operated on Basis of Shop-to-Storage-to-Ship System Requires Accurate Tim- 
ing of Material Supply, Shop Work, and Assembly — Routing Handled by Production Department 

MAINTAINING coordination of material supply 
and shipbuilding, which has proved to be one of 
the key problems in high-speed shipyard work, is 
effected at the Bristol, Penn., yard of the Merchant Ship- 
building Corporation by a storage and routing system 
worked out to suit the plant operation. It is ad- 
ministered by a production department, separate from 
the technical and operating branches of the yard or- 

preceding the hull erection upon a manufacturing basis 
in which the several units can work without mutual in- 
terference and delay. 

Functional Conditions — Half a dozen different classes 
of material involved in the shipbuilding work had to be 
provided for in the operating system. 

1. Fabricated material arrives from distant bridge 
shops, ten or more in number. These shops punch, 



ganization. The machinery of the system is simple, but 
it works effectively. 

With material fabricated in distant shops, it has been 
found impossible to assure precise sequence of delivery 
at the yard. Incoming fabricated ship parts cannot be 
sent directly to the shipways, and therefore coordination 
of supply and consumption must be obtained by storage 
intermediate between shop and ship. The advantages 
of working through storage are so marked, moreover, 
that this system is applied at Bristol to the entire oper- 
ation of the yard, including the punch shop and the 
steam engineering and equipment departments. In 
other words, the shop-to-ship system favored in the con- 
ventional yard practice of former days is eliminated 
throughout, just as it has been eliminated in all ship- 
yards during the past two years so far as miscellaneous 
ship equipment is concerned. 

Large storage yards for hull material, and store- 
houses for machinery and equipment, have been pro- 
vided at Bristol to act as equalizing reservoirs. These, 
with a system of ordering, routing and handling be- 
tween shop storage and ways, control the flow of ma- 
terial. The system as used for hull material is de- 
scribed herein, but substantially the same procedure is 
applied to the other parts of the yard work, as the han- 
dling of machinery, rigging and equipment. 

Special pre-assembly facilities and space for finished 
storage have been found necessary to the best working 
of the Bristol yard. They aid in placing all operations 

scarf, countersink — and, to a certain limited extent, 
assemble and rivet — about 83% of the tonnage of the 
hull. Much of this material is ready for erection, but 
some must undergo further working in the yard shop. 
None of the material can go direct to the shipways, as 
it does not arrive at the exact moment when it is re- 
quired and as the incoming cars contain material for 
several different ships. Therefore it must be delivered 
to storage — for unloading, sorting and marking with 
the proper erection marks — and piled where it will be 
instantly available. 

2. Bridge-shop material requiring further work in 
the yard shop includes such parts as shell plates for the 
molded body, which must be rolled, and floor frames 
for placing forward and aft of the middle body, which 
require the shaping and riveting on of bent bottom 
angles. This material, drawn from main storage as the 
shop routine requires, must return to storage after 
final fabrication, as the work in the shop does not co- 
ordinate with that on the building berths. 

3. A large amount of raw steel is required for the 
yard fabricating shop. This is stored close to the shop, 
and kept apart from storage for fabricated material. 

4. Most of the yard shop production is made from 
templets, and is fabricated on stock so that erection need 
never be held up by shop delays. When fabricated, the 
material is in the same relation to the yard as incoming 
bridge-shop material, and, like the latter, goes to the 
main storage. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

2 R.R. TRACKS-, 




SCi ^ 





100' 200' 300' 400' 500' 
_J i I ■ I ■ I i I 


EACH „, 

5. A certain number of parts must be "lifted" from 
the ship. These, of course, require to be put through 
the shop without delay when the berth requires them. 
Storage is not involved. 

6. Pre-assembly of fabricated material has undergone 
very great development at Bristol during the past year. 
It now includes possibly 25% of the total weight of the 
hull. Assembly of parts such as web frames, floors, 
stringers, girders, etc., has been carried on from the 
beginning, but in the expansion of the work deck houses 
and bulkheads were assembled complete, and assembly 
has been applied to the entire keel, the fantail, and some 
special groups such as the bow section of the keel with 
its frame. The material to be assembled must be drawn 
from storage, in order to keep the assembly work in- 
dependent of the shop routine. The smaller assembled 
parts return to storage, while the larger units are held 
in the assembly space until needed by the ship. 

Storage and Assembly Yards — The main elements of 
the storage system are a raw-material yard directly 
adjacent to the plate and angle shop ; and a large main 

S^ ±J. 

""15-ton Gantry 
Crane, 65 'Span 

/ Storage. 


. Storage 

FIG. 2. 


storage yard for fabricated material. The latter has 
recently been extended southward, and a section for 
storage of pre-assembled parts thereby provided. The 
two main yards are located as indicated by the letters 
A and B in the sketch plan, Fig. 1. In each, material 
is handled by traveling gantry cranes, and the yards are 
therefore arranged as narrow, long bays correspond- 
ing to the craneways, 95 ft. wide. The raw-material 
storage consists of a single bay, while the fabricated- 
material storage has three bays side by side. Two 
railway tracks extend down the middle of each bay. 

Flat piling is used in the main storage yard. The 
arrangement of this yard is indicated by the section and 
part plan, Fig. 2. A separate piling space is allotted to 
each special piece in the ship; these spaces measure 
about 20 ft. along the bay and 30 ft. transversely. The 
storage for assembled material, at the south end, is ar- 
ranged like that in the northerly part of the yard. 

Timber sills laid on the ground are the foundation for 
the piles of steel. In the plate portion of the yard a 
few racks have been set up, but in general the rack 
system was distinctly discarded when the yard was 
planned. The raw-steel yard is arranged in the same 

A governing feature in the arrangement of the pil- 
ing sections in the main yard was the erection schedule 
of the ship, which fixes the sequence in which the pieces 
are erected. The piling sections, beginning at one end 
of the yard, were arranged approximately in accordance 
with this erection schedule, so that picking up pieces 
and sending them to the shipway could be done as nearly 
as possible by a slow, progressive movement of the crane 
along the length of the yard during the shipbuilding 
period. The six cranes of the three storage-yard bays 
correspond to the 12 shipways, with two ways at the 
same stage of erection. 

An important element in the working system is a 
space for working storage at the head of each shipway. 
This space is about 50 ft. square, and racks and sills 
have been placed in it. Originally, the intention was 
to do some pre-assembly work in this space; parts de- 
livered from storage to the ship were to be stowed under 
the crane trestles between the shipways. But stowage 

January 2, 1919 




under the trestles has been found less convenient than 
using the head of the way for the purpose. 

Assembly work was at first provided for by turning 
over to it a triangular space north of the raw-steel 
storage, marked C in the sketch plan, Fig. 1. Sub- 
sequently it was found necessary to turn over to this 
work a large area forming the continuation of one of 
the bays in the main storage yard, as marked by the 
letter D in the plan. A view of this space is shown by 
Fig. 4. Crane service is provided by a gantry like those 
of the storage yard. Compressed-air outlets are ar- 
ranged along the sides of the supply tracks along the 
middle of the bay. Assembly 
of small parts is facilitated 
by the provision of two Hanna 
compression riveters under a 
shelter roof near mid-length of 
the yard. Other assembly riv- 
eting is performed by air 

Deck-houses and bulkheads 
are assembled entire. The 
most distinctive novelty of 
pre-assembly at Bristol is the 
riveting up of keelson and flat 
keel plates in continuous 
lengths of 70 to 100 ft., these 
lengths further being fitted 
together and the splices 
reamed before the sections are 
taken to the shipway. This is 
done in the assembly space 
marked C. 

Here also the bow section of 
the ship is assembled with 
eleven pairs of frames to form 
one erection piece. 

Erection Schedule Governs — Planning the sequence 
and timing of all parts of the work, on the shipways and 
in the shop, was governed by an erection schedule to 
which the berth work is required to conform. The 
schedule was made out early during the past year, in 
conference between the different departments concerned. 
Thereafter all orders for the bridge shops were timed 
correspondingly, the storage yard was laid out in the 
erection sequence, and all work in the shops and on the 
berths was made subject to the same schedule. A small 
part of the schedule diagram is reproduced in Fig. 5. 

As this diagram indicates, the units of the schedule 




Vol. 82, No. 1 

are not individual pieces, but "erection groups." These 
are lots of material equivalent to approximately a car- 
load each, required at substantially the same time. These 
erection groups are the items by which the shipway 
places orders for steel with the storage yard. 

Adjoining each shipway is a production clerk's office. 
Here is kept on file a complete set of Material Order 
sheets (Fig. 2), covering the successive erection groups 

























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United States Shippi 


Hlil.l M». . „ . _ m 

■ Shipbuilding Corpora! 

Agent For 
ng Boaro Emergency Fleet 



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shipping mai 


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Signed .. 

- - - - Signed 

Prod. M.I. Checker 

Store* DrpV 


composing the ship; these forms are filled out in ad- 
vance in the main office of the production department, 
and, arranged in proper sequence, are turned over to the 
way clerk. They serve automatically as orders to the 
storage department, when dated, signed and issued by 
the clerk. Interleaved with these material-order sheets 
in the way clerk's file are placed Advance Notifications 
with respect to certain other work required in the con- 
struction of the hull, to provide for having such work 






Charge No _. Date 


A -Assembled Material 
F— Fabricated by American 

R - Raw or all material from 

Yard Shop. 

is listed on Master Bill of Ma- 
terial on 




Prod. Order Clerk 





prepared for and carried out in proper timing for the 
needs of the ship erection. This applies, for example, 
to lifted shop material and to assembly work. 

By use of the file of material orders the way clerk 
keeps a supply of material in the way storage, without 
special attention. He places his orders in accordance 
with general instructions to keep about three carloads 
on storage at the head of the ways. As there are 71 

January 2, 1919 



























Ordered la 

Delircr ed to Ww 













' . , 


FIG. 8. 


erection groups in the entire hull, the average amount 
of material per group is about 40 tons, representing 
rather more than a day's consumption. 

When the clerk issues an order to the storage de- 
partment, the latter fills the order as detailed on the 

tion report shows that the corresponding piece has been 
erected in the ship ; it is dated with the date of erection, 
and the piece mark and weight are entered on a Master 
Bill of Material, Fig. 8, which, when complete, goes to 
the cost department. 


sheet (no partial shipments are allowed), and at the 
same time makes out a Manifest (see the form, Fig. 6). 
The material is delivered into custody of the boat fore- 
man, who thereafter erects it as the requirements of his 
working force dictate. The manifest goes to the way 
clerk and is made the basis for the subsequent erection 

Each piece entered on the manifest is transferred by 
the clerk to a Steel Requisition card, represented by Fig. 
7. Horizontal numbering along the upper edge of this 
card, 1 to 31, guides the attachment of a tickler tab 
indicating the approximate date on which the piece 
should be erected. These steel requisition cards, placed 
in a file case, form the clerk's check on the erection oper- 
ation, and are the basis for the final cost sheet. A card 
is taken out of this file when the foreman's daily erec- 

A check on the foreman's erection reports is had by 
noting when any steel requisition card remains in the 
file for. some time after the estimated date of erection. 
The clerk can then take this card, locate the piece on 
the ship or in the way storage racks, and make cor- 
rections accordingly in his bill of material. 

Advance notification, interleaved with the way orders 
as already described, are so placed as to allow about 10 
days before date of erection for lifted material, and 18 
days for assembly sections. The clerk sends these 
orders forward to the shop and assembly departments, 
each of which has an independent organization. The 
assembly department is organized in effect as a hull, 
with a foreman in charge. More elaborate organization 
is represented in the shop. 

A clerk of the production department is located in the 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

shop, for handling the orders by which all work is initi- 
ated and routed. The shippers of the shop also *re 
under control of the production department, and govern 
their reports and correspondence accordingly. Incom- 
ing orders arrive either from the way clerks (for lifted 
material) or from the dispatching office of the produc- 
tion department (for templeted material). In either 
event, the routing of the material through the shop is 
set forth on a standard form for the piece in question, 
on which are noted the successive operations required 
for its fabrication. 

The ship erection schedule (Fig. 5) serves not only 
for control of the yard operations, but also for schedul- 
ing the bridge-shop orders. Basing the calculation on 
the time when a given piece will be required on the 
shipway, according to the erection schedule, successive 
allowances are made for storage (three days minimum), 
transportation from the bridge shop, time of fabrication 
in the bridge shop, transportation from mill, and time in 

These calculations are all recorded graphically on 
a series of charts, and the mill and bridge-shop orders 
are made out to correspond. Prints of these charts are 
allotted to each hull, and the actual mill and shop, ship- 
ment and receipt times are marked in red on these 
charts, thus giving a graphical comparison with the 
scheduled or order time. One of the interesting results 
of an examination of these charts at Bristol is their 
showing the lag of mill and shop fabrication behind 
schedule time in spring and early summer of the cur- 
rent year, and the rapid improvement of these condi- 
tions, up to a marked lead over the schedule at present. 

System Similar for Other Departments 

All other departments of the yard — machinery, rig- 
ging, fitting-out, and the like — are controlled by systems 
which are similar to that described for the hull construc- 
tion, and modified to suit the needs of the particular 
service. This is true not only of the installation of these 
parts in the ship, but also of the shop and store ele- 

Orders for certain parts of the work of the equipment 
departments are interleaved with the hull construction 
orders, in the way clerk's order file. Thus, most of the 

ship tank piping is installed during the erection of the 
hull, and a certain amount of other equipment is put in. 
In addition, a distinctive practice of the Bristol yard 
is to install boilers and turbines in the hull before 
aunching. This practice was followed for the first four 
ships built 'and will be continued, except in case of delay 
in the delivery of machinery. The parts in question 
can all be handled by the ship erection cranes, which, 
with an individual capacity of 15 tons, can handle 30- 
ton loads when two cranes are worked together. The 
added weight of the machinery is considered an advan- 
tage in launching, besides which a great amount of time 
is saved at the fitting-out dock. 

A. H. Cooke, production manager, is in charge of the 
rcheduling and routing work briefly sketched in the pre- 
ceding. The principal officials of the company in active 
charge of shipbuilding operations are R. H. M. Robin- 
son, president; W. T. Smith, vice-president; G. C. 
Thayer, general manager, and D. D. Smith, assistant 
general manager. H. E. Frick is authorized representa- 
tive at the plant for the Emergency Fleet Corporation, 
representing Admiral Francis T. Bowles, assistant gen- 
eral manager of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, who 
is in charge of the fabricating yards and has general 
supervision also of the Delaware River district. 


Conveyor Handles Freight at River Port 

A FREIGHT-HANDLING conveyor for transferring 
freight between boats and cars at the Mississippi 
River port of Alton, 111., is shown in the accompanying 
view. The carriage or frame travels on a track at right 
angles to the freight tracks, and carries a 45-ft. con- 
veyor boom, which can be adjusted to the level of the 
deck or cargo hatch of the barge or steamer. At the 
head of this conveyor is a 20-ft. horizontal conveyor ex- 
tending to the freight cars, and the farther end of this 
can be raised so as to load the car to its full capacity. 
A third 15-ft. section, not shown in the view, forms an 
extension for reaching cars on another track. When 
the carriage is run to the outer end of its track the 
boom can reach a barge or steamer outside the one 
moored to the dock. 

Two classes of freight are handled by the conveyor, 
half of its width forming 
a continuous flat traveling 
apron or platform for boxes 
and other packages, while the 
other half has crossbars bent 
in concave form to receive 
barrels. The conveyors travel 
at a speed of 80 ft. per min- 
ute, and are all operated from 
a 15-hp. motor on the car- 
riage. This conveyor was built 
by the Brown Portable Con- 
veying Machine Co., Chicago. 
It is installed at the new 
waterfront dock and terminal, 
of the Illinois Terminal R.R., 
which was described in Engi- 
neering News-Record of March 

B( i ATS AND CARS _ ._ ' 

ILL. 7, 1918, p. 448. 

January 2, 1919 



Are American Engineers and Con- 
tractors Wanted in France? 

Reports from French and Belgian Sources Show 

That Preference Will Be Given to Native 

Organizations and Men 

AMERICAN engineers and contractors are asking to 
what extent they will be called upon to help recon- 
struct France and Belgium. Inquiries made by Engi- 
neering News-Record at all the official sources in the 
United States indicate that, although a large amount of 
American and foreign construction machinery will un- 
doubtedly be used, participation on the ground by 
American engineers and contractors will probably not 
be encouraged by the two countries. The purchase of 
raw materials and semi-finished products, will, it ap- 
pears, be confined as far as possible to home markets. 
Large-scale production of certain construction materials 
has already begun in Belgium. 

Engineers on the staff of the French High Commis- 
sion are unable to say what the reconstruction policy 
of France will be, because the recently organized 
Ministry of Reconstruction has not had time to forward 
plans. The impression prevails in both the New York 
and Washington offices of the commission that the 
ministry is awaiting some indication of the trend of the 
peace conference. The Washington office states that, 
although American engineers would be welcome in 
France as citizens of a country with which the warmest 
ties of friendship existed, French engineers, on account 
of their long service and great sacrifices in the war, 
will naturally receive preference. It is believed, how- 
ever, that the supply of engineers will be ample, because 
of the comparatively short time during which it was 
necessary to use engineer regiments in front of the 
fighting lines. \ 

Same Conditions in Belgium 

The same conditions exist in Belgium. The Belgian 
information bureau in Washington states that the serv- 
ices of those engineers only who possess extraordinary 
ability or highly specialized talent will be needed, but 
both the French and Belgian officials say that there 
will probably be a call for engineers familiar with such 
American construction machinery as may be bought. 
But American engineers as well as machinery are de- 
sired by Belgium in the development of her African 

The United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce says that the question is largely one of credit. 
Purchases will be made in those countries holding the 
largest credits, and since it is probable that the United 
States will be the leading country in this respect it will 
also be the leading country supplying machinery and 
materials. As mentioned above, however, the local 
supply of raw materials in France and Belgium will 
probably be ample. Figures quoted by a German in- 
vestigator in the Berliner Tageblatt recently, in dis- 
cussing the Lorraine iron supply, give an index of the 
amount of iron available to France due to the recovery 
of that territory. The German writer stated that in 
1913 the Lorraine and Luxemburg mines (the two in- 
dustries being closely related) supplied 28,500,000 tons 
out of a total of 35,000,000 tons of iron ore used in the 

whole of Germany. He pointed out, however, that in 
the utilization of this large amount of raw material the 
French are handicapped by lack of furnaces and mills, 
they having been more concerned in selling the raw ores 
to foreign countries than in reducing it to the finished 
or semi-finished state themselves. He also stated that 
lack of available coke in France, (Germany having 
obtained it from her own sources) was another obstacle. 
These conditions, it is pointed out in Washington, will 
require a large amount of machinery and plant of a 
highly engineering character. 

In commenting on the problem Richard L. Humphreys, 
chairman of the Construction Material Section of the 
War Industries Board, pointed out that before any ex- 
tensive purchases could be made or work done a revision 
of credits would be necessary. The present war credits 
will cease to exist when peace is finally established. 
Measures will also be necessary to revive the purchasing 
power of the various European monetary units, Mr. 
Humphreys said. 

Congo and Home Country 

A student of Belgian home and colonial affairs, who 
resides in Washington, states that the finances of 
Belgium were in an anomalous condition in that al- 
though the home country is in financial difficulties, the 
colonies on the Congo have immense reserves of money 
and wealth. The Congo Free State was originally the 
personal property of the late King Leopold of Belgium, 
who,- he explained, bequeathed it to the state at his 
death. The country, however, accepted the bequest in 
such a way that the revenue could not be used directly 
by the state, and although there are ample funds in the 
colonies they are net available for use in reconstruction 
work. The accumulation of this revenue, he stated, is 
very large, and the Government is working on a solution 
of the problem, through parliamentary or other action. 
It will therefore be some time before the work can be 
commenced on a nation-wide scale. 

Other factors that will delay the final rehabilitation 
of the industrial life of Belgium are indicated in a 
recent United States commerce report. Industrial re- 
habilitation is vital, it states, yet the repair of the 
damaged ports, railways, highways and canals will be 
necessary before industrial reconstruction can be 
started. The railway equipment and rolling stock 
saved from the German invasion have been worn out 
from continuous military use on the French railways, 
and the network of canals will be out of use until it is 
repaired and the barges are replaced. The Belgian 
ports capable of accommodating seagoing vessels are not 
yet available for commerce, and the shipping itself has 
either been destroyed or diverted to other routes. Port 
equipment has been badly damaged or completely de- 
stroyed by the Germans, and the bridges and roads 
connecting the ports with the interior have been 
wrecked — so that even if sufficent shipping facilities 
were to be had the means for discharging and distribut- 
ing cargoes is not available. The problem of the re- 
construction of Belgium, the report points out, does not 
mean solely the furnishing of goods which she will need, 
but the complete rehabilitation of trade, industry and 
agriculture, as well as the actual rebuilding of dev- 
astated cities, towns and villages and rural regions. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

It is also reported that extensive preparations for the 
further development of the Belgian Congo have been in 
progress for some time. A hydro-electric plant has 
already been erected, and the electrolytic reduction of 
copper commenced. The dumps of the copper work- 
ings that have been in existence for thousands of years 
are being worked over, and in the first four months of 
the plant's op3ration 40,000 tons of copper were shipped 
to England. It was found that the copper content in 
these dumps averages from 40 to 50 per cent. 

Edmund Laplae, professor in the University of 
Louvain, and director general of the colonial ministry 
of Belgium, has been in the United States studying 
American methods and machinery. He has returned 
to Belgium to make his report, but will come back soon 
to engage American engineers and to purchase American 
machinery to be used in the development of the 
Congo colonies. It is also stated that he will not 
make any effort to interest capital. The development 
cf the Congo had already been started before the end 
of the war, and as much equipment as could be gotten 
through the various embargoes has been sent over. A 
steamboat, similar to those used on the rivers of the 
Western United States, was needed for the upper Congo. 

M. Laplae found one in Pittsburgh ready to be shipped 
on a South American order, but held up on account of 
lack of cargo space. He bought it from the original 
consignees and managed to have it shipped to the 
Atlantic coast, where he obtained cargo space for it by 
an agreement with the Federal Government to ship a 
cargo of rubber in return. The steamboat is now in 
operation on the Congo. 

Representatives of the Department of Commerce who 
have been studying the problem state that the people of 
France and Belgium hope and expect that preparations 
for the forwarding of needed supplies will begin 
promptly, especially since the invaded portions of the 
two countries have been reoccupied and it is possible to 
get definite particulars as to their requirements. The 
Belgian consul at New York states that information 
regarding his country may be had from the Comptoir 
National pour la Reconstruction de la Belgique, 15 Rue 
Louis le Grand, Paris, France, and that it has re- 
quested duplicate catalogues. Information regarding 
France may be had from the French High Commission, 
Washington, D. C, and catalogues should be sent in 
duplicate, in care of Lieut. Maurice Boyer, of the com- 

Four Methods of Sewage Treatment Studied at 
New Haven Testing Station 

MHes Acid Process Advised for First of Four Permanent Works Rather Than Fine Screens, Imhoff 
Tanks (Each with Chlorination) or Activated Sludge — Results of Analysis, and Cost Estimates 

By C.-E. A. Winslow Dr. F. W. Mohlman 

Professor of Public Health AND Chemist, Connecticut State 
Yale School of Medicine Department of Health 

ELEVEN months' experiments at the sewage-experi- 
ment station established by the City of New Haven, 
Conn., have led to the conclusion that for the particular 
and somewhat unusual local conditions there prevail- 
ing the Miles acid process of sewage precipitation, with 
recovery of grease and fertilizer, is the best available 
method for one of the four plants necessary, and may 
prove advisable for the other three. The reason for 
the tests, the results obtained and the conclusions drawn 
are here presented, except that the Miles acid process 
is not taken up in detail because it was treated sepa- 
rately and at length in Engineering News-Record of 
Dec. 5, 1918, p. 1034. 

New Haven has a population of approximately 160,- 
000, and is sewered on the combined plan. The water 
consumption is very high, and the total sewage flow 
is estimated at about 35,000,000 gal. per day. Thirty 
million gallons are discharged from the main sewers of 
the city at five different points about the harbor. The 
present outfalls are all above low-water mark; the up- 
per harbor is shallow (averaging less than 5 ft. in 
depth outside of the main channels), and the sewage 
as it spreads over the flats and deposits sludge upon 
them produces in many places a condition of gross nui- 
sance. The pollution of bathing beaches and shellfish 
layings constitutes a very real danger to public health. 
The United States Bureau of Chemistry in 1915 forbade 
the shipment in interstate commerce of oysters taken 
from large areas in the harbor "unless such oysters were 

purified by transplanting them in nonpolluted water for 
at least seven days before shipment." In the following 
year the United States Public Health Service made an 
exhaustive study of harbor conditions. This resulted 
in the conclusions that the harbor was grossly polluted, 
that shellfish taken therefrom are filthy, dangerous and 
unfit to be eaten as taken from the area, and that bath- 
ing and swimming in the upper harbor are unsafe. 

As a result of these conditions, an aldermanic and 
citizens' committee was organized in the spring of 1916 
to study the problem. The committee consisted of Prof. 
C- E. A. Winslow as chairman, Prof. S. E. Barney, A. 
B. Hill, H. B. Sargent and Aldermen J. W. Murphy and 
F. S. Nelson. It was assumed on the testimony of those 
most familiar with the local situation that it would not 
be economically advisable to attempt to intercept the 
sewage from the various outfalls and treat it at a single 
point, but that at least four different treatment plants 
must be contemplated, all discharging into the inner 
harbor. It appeared essential, however, to provide for 
outfall sewers to carry the sewage to submerged outlets 
in the main channels. The digestive capacity of the 
harbor waters is such as to render the production of a 
nitrified effluent unnecessary ; but it was felt that a sub- 
stantial removal of suspended solids and of sewage bac- 
teria was demanded in order to avoid sludging up of 
channels or pollution of bathing beaches and shellfish 

To determine what methods of treatment were best 

January 2, 1919 



adapted to the solution of the local problem, as outlined 
above, an experiment station was operated for 11 
months — June, 1917, to April, 1918. The total cost of 
the investigation was slightly less than $18,000. The 
immediate direction of the experiments was in the hands 
of the chairman of the committee, with Dr. F. W. Mohl- 
man as chemist in charge and W. S. Sturges, Jr., as bac- 

The experiment station was located at the outfall of 
the East St. sewer, which is not only the principal sewer 
of the city (flow of approximately 15,000,000 gal. a day), 
but also the most important one to study on account of 
its high content of industrial wastes. Special studies of 
certain processes were also made during the spring of 
1918 at an outfall serving a residential district. 

The processes studied were (1) fine screening; (2) 
Imhoff treatment; (3) activated-sludge treatment, and 
(4) Miles acid precipitation — all but the last followed 
by chlorine disinfection. The sewage for the experi- 
ments was obtained in a somewhat original manner, in 
order to avoid the breaking up of sludge solids by pump- 
ing. A considerable part of the flow in the sewer was 
diverted through a forebay from which the sewage 
needed for the experiments was withdrawn by means of 
a bucket elevator. This device proved highly successful 
and yielded an entirely normal fraction of the sewage 
flow suitable for accurate screening tests. 

The sewage was distributed to the various devices 
over movable notch and rectangular weirs from a weir 
box in which the head was controlled by a Wallace & 
Tiernan regulator, operating a butterfly valve in the 
raw-sewage flume. 

Peculiarities of the Raw Sewage 

The sewage of the East St. sewer proved to be highly 
abnormal in several respects. It was very dilute, aver- 
aging for the 11 months 4.4 ppm. of ammonia nitrogen, 
97 of total suspended solids, and 63 ppm. of volatile sus- 
pended solids. It contained during the first seven 
months of operation over 1000 ppm. of chlorine, which 
condition was traced to a million gallons a day of sea 
water used as condenser water in an industrial plant. 
Its bacterial condition was most peculiar. Samples col- 
lected on Sundays, Saturday afternoons and at 8 a. m. 
on certain week days gave normal results (1,470,000 
bacteria and 143,200 colon bacilli per cubic centimeter) ; 
but samples collected during the industrial day showed 
only 160,200 bacteria and only 9600 colon bacilli per 
cubic centimeter. This condition we found to be due 
to the antiseptic action of copper salts derived from the 
washing of shells in a large munition factory Such a 
phenomenon appears not to have been previously recog- 
nized in the literature of sewage disposal, although 
recent studies by the Connecticut State Department of 
Health indicate that it is by no means unique, and that 
certain peculiar results noted in the Waterbury experi- 
ments in 1909 must have been due to the same factors. 
The effect of antiseptic wastes of this kind upon biolog- 
ical processes is of course a profoundly important one. 
The raw sewage showed an average "relative stability," 
or pseudo-stability, as we preferred to call it, of 58, 
when measured in the usual manner. 

Screening studies were made with stationary screens 
2 ft. wide by 3 ft. long, placed on cleats inclined down- 

stream at an angle of 45° in a screen chamber 8 ft. 10 
in. long by 2} ft. wide and 2J ft. deep. Two types of 
screen were tested, one of 30-mesh monel-metal wire 
cloth, and the other of galvanized-iron plates perforated 
with slots 11 in. long and ^ in. wide. Sewage was in 
all cases passed through the screen under test at an 
initial rate of 100,000 gal. per day. As the screen 
clogged, the sewage gradually built up behind it, and in 
from 15 min. to one-half hour, when the loss of head 
had reached 2 ft., a second screen of the same type was 
placed in the chamber, resting on cleats 2 ft. below 
those on which the first was placed. After the second 
was in position, the first was pulled out of the chamber 
and allowed to drain. The second screen was kept in 
position until the loss of head had again reached 2 ft., 
when the sewage was bypassed, and the sewage remain- 
ing in the screen chamber was removed by the opening 









Suspended Solids 

- 3 

w a, 




CC . 


CO . 

Screen i> >-3 

.2 o 







CD -3 













Wire mesh 1,367 







Plate 665 








Wire mesh 1,347 




• 117 



Plate . 386 







of vents in the side of the tank. After the sewage had 
been drawn down to within i in. of the bottom of the 
tank the second screen was removed and drained. The 
amount of sewage passed through the two screens in 
each experiment averaged about 3000 gallons. 

After draining, the screenings were brushed off the 
screen and weighed, and the moisture content was de- 
termined. The effluent was sampled frequently during 
screening, and the suspended solids in the composite 
sample determined. Knowing the quantity of the sew- 
age screened and the weight of the dry screenings, the 
parts per million of suspended solids removed and the 
per cent, of removal could be calculated. 

Such studies of screening by the use of stationary 
screens is open to criticism on the ground that it per- 
mits a much greater clogging than would occur in prac- 
tice with a revolving screen cleaned automatically dur- 
ing the process. The clogged screen will of course effect 
a greater purification than one that is kept clean. If 
the head were allowed to increase beyond a certain point, 
the pressure would operate in the opposite sense by forc- 
ing an undue proportion of solid matter through the 
meshes. With a loss of head never rising above 2 ft. 
this criticism cannot be made, since this is a range 
within which commercial screens are supposed to oper- 
ate Our method of experimentation was therefore ex- 
ceedingly favorable to fine screening, and working with 
an unusually fresh sewage we expected to obtain good 
results. As indicated in Table I, however, even the wire- 
mesh screens effected only 15% removal of suspended 
solids in the case of the East St. sewer, while the 
Boulevard domestic sewage (in which the solids were in 
a more finely divided state) gave an even lower degree 
of purification, the plate screens proving in each case 
inferior to those of wire mesh. 

Altogether, it seems evident that fine screening, with 


Vol. 82, No. 1 

cither wire screens (30 meshes to the inch) or plate 
screens (1! x fe-in. slots) cannot be expected to accom- 
plish any important degree of purification with either 
of the sewages studied. Such screens will, of course, 
remove the grosser and more obvious floating solids 
and, where it is only necessary to avoid visual offense, 
they may be of great value. Where a substantial 
removal of suspended matter is desired, such as is 
accomplished by tank treatment, fine screens will not 

Our results are in accord with the general conclu- 
sions of conservative sanitary engineers. George W. 
Fuller, who is a firm believer in fine screening for 
situations to which it is adapted, estimates a removal 
of only 10% of suspended solids by such treatment. 
It is quite certain that a full-size installation of moving 
screens would accomplish less than the purification in- 
dicated by our tests. At Cleveland, several years ago, 
preliminary studies, made like our own with stationary 
hand-operated screens, gave a removal of 25 to 28%, 
while an actual Reinsch-Wurl installation (on another 
outfall sewer of the city) took out only 4% of the 
suspended solids present. Any such degree of purifica- 
tion as was indicated by our studies, or by the Cleve- 
land experience, would, in our. judgment, be inadequate 
for an effluent to be discharged into a shallow harbor 
with a narrow dredged channel, like that at New Haven. 

Results of Imhoff Treatment 

The Imhoff tank used in our experiments was con- 
structed of tongue-and-groove spruce, with calked seams. 
It was 16 ft. long, 4 J ft. wide and Hi ft. deep. The 
flow chamber extended for the full length of the tank, 
with gas vents 8 in. wide on each side. The flow 
chamber was constructed of heavy galvanized iron, 
with a triangular beam below the vent. The vent was 
8 in. wide, and the seal overlapped each side 2 in. 
The sides of the flow chamber sloped at 60°, so that 
no difficulty was encountered from solid matters cling- 
ing to the slope. The capacity of the flow chamber 
was 840 gal. The detention period was theoretically 
2 hours when treating 10,000 gal. of sewage per day. 
The linear velocity of the sewage was 0.15 ft. per 

The sludge compartment was out of proportion to 
the flow chamber, being relatively much larger than 
would be designed for a full-size plant. It was assumed 
that a large sludge compartment might be needed 
on account of the shallowness of the tank. The bottom 
of the tank was built in the form of two inverted 
pyramids with the sludge draw-off pipes just above 
the apices. When the tank was first filled with sewage 
it leaked badly. It was made tight only after many 
trials and was finally placed in service in November, 
1917. It was unfortunate that operation should have 
been begun in winter, but by the end of April the 
increasing warmth of the season should have brought 
about normal conditions. Yet the results were at no 
period satisfactory, and they became worse as time 
went on. The average removal of total suspended solids 
for the six months' period was only 43 per cent., of 
volatile suspended solids only 38 per cent, and of settle- 
able solids only 69 per cent. Sludge drawn from the 
tank at the close of the experiments was reddish-brown 

in color and highly offensive and dewatered badly, hav- 
ing in no respects the characteristics of a normal 
Imhoff sludge. 

It seemed evident that with so weak a sewage as 
that studied sedimentation would not yield a very high 
degree of purification (this was confirmed by one 
month's study of plain sedimentation, which showed 
only 41% remo\ r al of total suspended solids) and that 
some factor, presumably the presence of the antiseptic 
industrial wastes, prevented the normal digestive action 
of the Imhoff tank. In view of the latter fact, it 
seems inadvisable to recommend this method of treat- 
ment for a disposal plant in a thickly settled district, 
on account of the danger that the operation of the 
tank and the removal of sludge therefrom, with a 
sewage of so abnormal a character, might be produc- 
tive of local nuisances. 

Activated-Sludge Treatment 

Our activated-sludge experiments were made on the 
continuous-flow basis. The aerating tank was 16 ft. 
long, 4 ft. wide and 8 ft. deep. At the bottom of 
the tank the sides sloped at 45° to a trough 1 ft. 
wide, running the full length of the tank. An iron 
frame in which were cemented 15 filtros plates was 
cemented into this trough. The air was admitted at 
the inlet end of the trough, and the water which 
filtered through the plates could be drawn off at the 
outlet end. The air was compressed to 3.5 lb. pressure 
by a hydro-turbine having a capacity of 20 cu.ft. of 
free air per minute, the flow being measured by means 
of a venturi tube. 

The settling tank was 4 x 4 ft. in plan, and 12 ft. 
deep to the bottom of the hopper. This hopper sloped 
at 60° to a sump in which was cemented a 3-in. ell 
connected to the suction of an air-lift pump. The sludge 
deposited here could be pumped back to the aerating tank, 
being measured on the way in an orifice box. A baffle 
7£ ft. deep extended across the center of the settling 
tank. This baffle was first placed 3 ft. from the inlet 
weir and 1 ft. from the outlet weir, but the upward 
velocity of the effluent was too strong and carried par- 
ticles of sludge over the outlet weir. After the baffle 
was placed in the center of the tank no sludge was 
lost in this way, the theoretical upward velocity being 
decreased by this change from 4.8 in. to 2.4 in. per 
per minute. The capacity of the aerating tank was 
3100 gal., that of the settling tank 1150 gal. While 
treating 17,000 gal. of sewage per day with 50% 
returned sludge the aeration period was 3 hours, the 
settling period 66 minutes. 

The activated-sludge process was studied less as an 
oxidizing than as a clarifying process, in the same way 
in which it was used at Cleveland. It was thought that 
activated-sludge treatment and chlorination might com- 
pete with Imhoff treatment and chlorination if the air 
and tank space required for the former process could be 
cut down considerably, and if the amount of chlorine re- 
quired for disinfection were much less in the former 
case than in the latter. For this reason small amounts 
of air and short periods of aeration were used and no 
attempt was made to obtain full nitrification of the 

The process was at first studied with an aeration 

January 2, 1919 



period of 2.5 hours, a mixture of 73 parts of very dilute 
sludge per 100 volumes of sewage, an air supply of 
1.3 cu.ft. per gallon of sewage, and a sedimentation 
period of 55 min. All of these variables were modified 
at different timrs, the aeration period being varied 
between 2.5 and 10 hours, the proportion of sludge 
from 50 to 73 volumes per 100 volumes of sewage, the 
air supply from 1.1 to 2 cu.ft. per gallon of sewage, 
and the sedimentation period from 30 to 78 min. At 
no time and under no conditions could really satisfac- 
tory results be obtained. The sludge 'accumulated 
slowly, was rarely well flocculated and did not settle 
well. The effluents never showed a normal clarity. The 
removal of total suspended solids averaged only 55 per 
cent., and of settleable solids only 74 per cent. The 
nitrogen content of the sludge averaged only 3.23 per 
cent. The failure of the process no doubt was due in 
part to the design of the settling tank, the small size 
of the sludge pipes and the lack of a separate sludge- 
aerating tank; but we are satisfied that the primary 
reason for the poor results obtained was the presence 
in the sewage of the antiseptic industrial wastes which 
would render hazardous and uncertain the use with 
this sewage of any process depending on biological 

Experiments on Chlorination 

The effluents from the screen chamber, the Imhoff 
tank and the activated-sludge process were conducted 
by wooden flumes to small baffled tanks, giving deten- 
tion periods of 2 to 5 min. in which they were treated 
with liquid chlorine delivered from a special Wallace 
& Tiernan solution-feed apparatus. The samples of 
chlorinated effluent were held in the sample bottles for 
30 min. before plating, to reproduce the action of the 
small storage tanks that would be required in an oper- 
ating plant. 

To interpret our results, it was necessary to fix on 
some tentative standard which might be considered 
adequate and satisfactory. For this purpose we have 
assumed as the ideal to be attained that the final dis- 
infected effluent should contain not over 10,000 bacteria 
per cubic centimeter, and not over 1000 colon bacilli 
per cubic centimeter, as a general average. This rep- 
resents a purification of over 99% for the normal 
sewage and about 90% for the day sewage at East 
St. containing the copper wastes. Activated-sludge 
effluent required 3 ppm. of chlorine to produce this 
result, and screened sewage, five parts, while Imhoff 
effluent showed average counts somewhat above the 
standard even after treatment with six parts, and crude 
sewage after treatment with 8 ppm. In making esti- 
mates as to the cost of chlorination of screen and 
Imhoff effluents, we have assumed that five parts of 
chlorine would produce a fairly satisfactory degree of 
purification, basing this assumption chiefly on the re- 
sults of the colon test, which is of greater significance 
than the count of total bacteria. This amount might 
very probably have to be increased in practice, however, 
particularly in the case of the Imhoff effluent. 

The process of precipitation with sulphurous acid, 
patented by George W. Miles, and reported on so 
favorably by Prof. R. S. Weston of the Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology (American Journal of Public 
Health, 1916, VI, p. 334) seemed deserving of special 
attention in our experiments, in view of the fact that 
such a process would not be interfered with by anti- 
septic wastes and would be favored by the low alkalinity 
of the East St. sewage, and also because it yields a 
clarified and disinfected effluent such as was- desired 
in view of local conditions. [These tests were detailed 
at length in an abstract of a paper by Professor 
Winslow and Dr. Mohlman, printed in Engineering 
News-Record of Dec. 5, 1918, p. 1034. — Editor.] 

Comparison of Various Processes Studied 

The general average results of the various processes 
studied are indicated in summary form in Table II. 

Of the various processes available for the treatment 
of city sewage, it is obvious that any form of filtra- 


■ Solids 

Ammonia Tur- Total Volatile 

(N) bidity Suspended Suspended Settleable 

Wire-mesh screens . . 15 ... 41 

Plain sedimentation — 30 23 41 34 86 

Imhoff treatment — 12 14 43 38 69 

Activated-sludge treatment. 13 44 55 50 74 

Miles acid treatment 36 61 54 90 

tion would be out of the question for a disposal plant 
located at the East St. outfall. Our studies have in- 
dicated that activated-sludge treatment cannot be con- 
sidered, on account of the presence of industrial wastes 
which prevent the bacterial activities upon which this 
method of treatment depends. In order to secure the 
results desired, a substantial removal of suspended 
solids and a reasonably high degree of bacterial puri- 
fication, there remain three possibilities: (1) Fine 
screening followed by chlorination; (2) Imhoff tank 
treatment followed by chlorination, and (3) the Miles 
acid process. It has been pointed out above that fine 
screening gave us a removal of suspended solids which 
we did not consider adequate for the protection of 
the harbor, and that the character of the sludge formed 
in the Imhoff tank was so abnormal as to threaten 
the possible production of a local nuisance. We have 
nevertheless given careful consideration to all three 
of these processes and have prepared for each of them 
preliminary cost estimates which are shown in Table 
III. (See next page.) 

The estimates are based on the production of S0 2 
gas by burning sulphur (assumed to cost $36 a long 
ton) and on drying from 85 to 10% moisture (coal 
assumed at $7.50 per ton). We have estimated a very 
high cost for the construction of Imhoff tanks ($20,000 
per 1,000,000 gal.) on account of peculiar local conditions 
of the outfall, since the tanks would have to be built 
for the most part below tide water. The cost of 
chlorination is based on the use of five parts of avail- 
able chlorine per million parts of sewage, an amount 
which we have found essential for the treatment of 
either screened or clarified sewage. It is very probable 
that in actual practice more than five parts might be 

It appears from these estimates that the acid treat- 
ment of the sewage from the East St. outlet should 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

be materially cheaper than either Imhoff treatment 
or fine screening, under existing local conditions. With 
a fall in the price of grease after the war the outlook 
would be less favorable. Even if all revenue from the 
sale of grease and fertilizer were eliminated, however, 
the cost would not be very much greater for acid than 
for Imhoff treatment. Other conditions make the case 
for the Miles process at this outfall almost irresistible. 
Our studies have shown that fine screens will remove 
only a small proportion of the suspended matter from 
either the East St. or the Boulevard sewers, and we 
are of the opinion that the purification so effected would 
not be adequate to prevent sludging in the dredged 
channel into which the effluent must be discharged. On 
the other hand, our experiments with Imhoff treatment 
of the East St. sewage have been most unpromising, 
as noted above, on account of the antiseptic action of 
the copper present in the sewage. 

Above all. however, the thing that counts most heavily' 
in favor of the Miles process under the conditions 
obtaining at New Haven is its freedom from nuisance. 
If heavy costs for interceptors and pumping are to 
be avoided, the sewage of the city must be disposed of 
at four different points, all of them in thickly settled 
areas where offensive odors must be prevented at all 
costs. Furthermore, the problem of disposal of sludge 
and screenings would present peculiar difficulties. A 
process of treatment which should be free from local 
nuisance and which wholly eliminates the problem of 
sludge disposal is ideal for such a local condition. 

Normal Sewage at New Haven 

Aside from a short series of screening tests and a 
month's operation of the Miles acid process on the 
Boulevard sewer, we have conducted no experimental 
work on the sewage discharged from the other main 
outfalls of the city. We know, however, from the United 
States Public Health Service survey and from analyses of 
sewage from the other outfalls made under the direc- 
tion of Prof. S. E. Barney, that the sewers of New 
Haven, aside from that at East St., carry a fairly 
normal flow of domestic sewage. From the conditions 
of the case the processes likely to prove successful 
are limited to the same three combinations tested at 
East St. ; and we know pretty well what fine screening 
and Imhoff treatment are likely to accomplish with an 
average American domestic sewage. Activated-sludge 
treatment could no doubt be applied successfully to 
such sewages as those in question, but the operation 
of four small units of this type would certainly be 
expensive, since the cost of power in New Haven is 
high and the sewage of the city is in general so weak 
that a relatively small revenue could be estimated from 
the recovery of nitrogen in the sludge. 

To obtain an idea of the relative cost of the three 
processes which seem most suitable for local conditions, 
we prepared preliminary estimates for the treatment 
of the sewage of the Sea St. outfall, based on our 
studies of its principal tributary, the Boulevard sewer. 
These figures [$9.60 for Miles acid, $12.14 for Imhoff 
tanks and chlorination, and $12.35 per 1,000,000 gal. for 
fine screening and chlorination — Editor], which should 
be fairly typical for the other New Haven outfalls, 
show that the Miles process in this case is considerably 

more expensive than at East St. — first, because of the 
higher alkalinity of the sewage, and, second, because 
of the fact that the plant would be smaller (6,000,000 
gal.) and costs per unit volume therefore larger. In 
particular, the 'cost of superintendence rises to a high 
figure, since we are convinced that a chemical industry 


Imhoff Tanks Fine Screens 

Tanks and buildings (interest end de- 

Miles Acid 

$2 47 

6 93 
2 09 

1 06 
1 00 

15 50 

7 09 

8 41 


$5 28 


1 20 

1 00 

4 05 

11 99 

11 99 




Acid treatment 

Decreasing sludge 

Redrying tankage 

Superintendence . 

Labor on tanks and screens 

Disposal of sludge or screenings 

1 42 

4 05 

Gross cost 

11 03 

Net cost 

11 03 

No allowance has been made in these estimates for royalties on the Miles acid 
process, which is a patented one. Before definite plans are made proper assurance 
should be obtained that such charges would be reasonable. In the case of Imhoff 
treatment, royalties in the past have been small as compared with the total cost 
of treatment. 

of this nature cannot be carried out without expert 
guidance. Imhoff treatment is slightly dearer, for the 
same reason, in spite of lower construction costs. 

The same objections which militate against screens 
at East St. limit the promising possibilities at the 
Sea St. sewer to Imhoff and acid treatment. 

The gross cost of the Miles process is very high, 
and with a new procedure of this sort, never yet applied 
to purely domestic sewage on a practical scale, it must 
be recognized that many factors such as the difficulties 
in distillation and the deoxidation of diluting water 
caused by the contained chemicals, may cut heavily 
into the assumed revenue. 

If the problem of the Sea St. sewer stood by itself, 
we should be somewhat in doubt whether to favor 
Imhoff or acid treatment, with the facts in mind. Since, 
however, the case for acid treatment seems so clear 
for the East St. sewer, we are of the opinion that it 
would be wise to delay construction at other New 
Haven outfalls until the acid process has been tried 
out on a practical scale at the point where it promises 
best results. If an acid treatment plant at East St. 
is successful, the drying and degreasing of the sludge 
from this and other plants could be conducted at one 
central location, the costs estimated for Sea St. would 
be materially reduced, and acid treatment might well 
prove economical for all the main outfalls of the city. 

Lincoln Highway Maintenance in Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania has expended $747,505.78, during the 
past year in maintaining the Lincoln Highway, accord- 
ing to a statement prepared for the Lincoln Highway 
Association by J. Denny O'Neil, state highway com- 
missioner. The main items of maintenance covex-ed by 
this expenditure are: Surface treatment, 248 miles; 
reconstruction, 22i miles; building of seven modern 
concrete bridges, and the necessary oiling. The report 
adds that this large sum was made necessary in great 
part by the thousands of United States Army trucks 
which used this highway during the year. 

January 2, 1919 



Aerial Cableways Successful in Northwest Shipyards 

Similar to Loggers' Cableways — Ability To Get Men Expert In Handling Them Is One 
Secret of Success — Well-Planned Installations Are Fast and Flexible 

FIG. 1. 



WORLD records in ship construction have been 
broken on the Pacific coast by yards handling ma- 
terials with aerial cableways, a method which many 
shipbuilders do not regard with favor. Disfavor may 
be justified by the installations in some yards, but the 
good records of some of the well designed cableway sys- 
tems and the high speed attained in placing steel speak 
for themselves. For example, the Skinner & Eddy yard 
at Seattle has recently launched fifteen 8800-ton boats 
in an average of 54.4 working days, and delivered them 
ready for service in an average total of 72.3 working 

Moreover, the strong preference for cableways shown 
by managers of several successful steel shipyards in- 
dicates that the method will be for some time a factor 
in shipyard design. In fact, cableways are now be- 
ing used in nine of the ten steel yards in the northern 
Pacific district of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. 
The first cost of an aerial cableway system is only a 
small fraction of the cost of overhead cranes, and the 
former can be built with materials quickly available on 
the Pacific Coast. 

The aerial cableway idea was first applied in the 
Northwest early in 1915. When the Skinner & Eddy 
plant at Seattle was laid iut in 1916 the system was in- 
stalled on a comprehensive basis. Members of this firm 
had previously used cableways extensively in logging 
operations, and the methods employed in the woods were 
adapted to shipyard service. Expert riggers and oper- 
ators were available from logging crews. Since that 
time the idea has been adopted by many of the new 
yards. Of course, the use of cableways presupposes the 
endwise delivery of material — that is, the cableway sys- 
tems pick up material from storage inshore of the ship- 
way and move it parallel to the keel. Thus, the system 

is best suited to yards in which the ways have to be 
built close together, and no storage alongside is avail- 

The layout and detail of design of the cableway sys- 
tems vary greatly, but throughout the Northwest, in 
the more successful yards, there is a notable uniform- 
ity "of main features. The most common arrangement 
is to have two cableways for each shipway, with bow 
and stern masts about 650 ft. apart. The bow and stern 
rows of masts are each tied together by cables at mast- 
head, and are steadied by backstays and guys, as re- 
quired. A three- or four-sheave tackle is usually put 
in the backstays to take up the slack in the main cables. 
The bow masts are usually set plumb, and the back- 
stays are run out as far as anchorages can be con- 
veniently placed. Where the ways front on deep water 
and it is inconvenient to use long guy lines astern, the 
stern masts are inclined outward, to increase the sta- 
bility that may be obtained from short backstays and 
to keep the anchorages in shallow water. 

It is the common practice to use counterweights on 
the dead end of the hoisting line and also on the carrier 
line, instead of making them fast to the masthead. This 
automatically prevents overloading the trolleys, and 
takes up slack in the carrier line. About one ton is used 
as the carrier-line counterweight; the hoisting-line 
counterweight equals the maximum load, usually about 
2i tons. The main cables are kept pulled up taut, with a 
sag not to exceed 3% or 4% of their length. 

In one of the Northwest plants a temporary guy line 
was removed during construction before the permanent 
connection had been effected, and, as these ways were 
on an acute angle with the shore line, the entire row of 
bow masts fell over, doing considerable damage. In an- 
other plant the bow masts collapsed when one of the 



Vol. 82, No. 1 


main cables parted. This occurred, however, within a 
few weeks after the system had been installed, and is 
regarded as a failure to exercise sufficient care in de- 
sign and inspection, rather than as a reflection on the 
cableway system. 

The masts used vary from 105 to 125 ft. in height. 
The bow masts are usually 5 ft. higher than the stern 

FTG. 3. 


masts, so loads are handled downgrade. The taller 
masts are conceded to have advantages over the 100- and 
105-ft. masts which probably more than offset the addi- 
tional cost. The 115-ft. masts are 3 to 4 ft. in diameter 
at the bottom and about 21 ft. at the top. They cost at 
tidewater in Portland and Seattle between $300 and 
$400 apiece. Steel masts for this purpose have not been 

used in Pacific coast yards. 
The main cables are almost all 
11 in. in diameter. A notable 
exception to this is the system 
of the Northwest Steel Co. at 
Portland; this yard, which 
has been in operation for two 
years, uses a 12-in. main cable 
of six strands, with hemp core. 
When one cableway in this 
plant had built three 8800-ton 
vessels, in each of which ap- 
proximately 2800 tons of steel 
had been placed, the main 
cable was found to have been 
flattened somewhat on top. It 
was then replaced with a line 
of the same size having a 
steel core, thus increasing the 
strength without necessitating 
a change of trolleys. These 
stronger cables last for about 
six boats, after which the 
mechanical wear shown war- 
rants their replacement. The 
i-in. hauling cables average 
only three to four boats. 


January 2, 1919 




Operating Control — An important operating feature 
of the cableway design is the location of the hoist con- 
trols. Most of the yards deem it essential for best 
results to have the operator where he has an unob- 
structed view of the work. Where there are no build- 
ings located so that it would be convenient to set the 
hoist controls upon them, towers are built specially 
for this purpose. Most of the yards have the winches 
also in the towers; the cables run first to the ground! 
and thence to and up the masts. At the Skinner & Eddy 
plant the winchmen are set on the ground. They are 
provided, however, with a telephone head-set with which 
they can hear a bell located well down the way, ancJ 
which a signalman rings to indicate just how the load 
is to be moved. 

Where a cableway is provided on either side of the 
way, towers are set on the center line, near the bow 
masts. Except for one steam-winch plant at Portland 
the hoists are all electrically operated, a separate motor 
and pair of drums being provided for each cableway. 
Where the two hoists for each way are mounted side by 

side, a single operator only is 
required. The two hoists in 
each tower are frequently so 
arranged that their traveling 
frictions can be locked to- 
gether and the two trolleys 
operated at uniform speed, 
controlled by a single control- 
ler and brake. In this way 
one operator, handling both 
lines, can utilize the combined 
capacity of the two on a single 
lift or can separate them for 
independent operation. 

Ordinarily, the two hooks 
are coupled together by a 
header cable about 14 ft. long, 
and the carriers are operated 
together for every load, to give 
the greatest precision in plac- 
ing. It is generally reported 
by yard foremen that the two 
lines operating as one can de- 
liver the material faster than 
it can be placed in the ship. 
The trolley speeds range up to 
250 ft. per minute. In one of 
the Northwest plants the 
eight-hour operating record 
stands at 110 lifts with travel 
averaging 300 feet. The 
motors range up to 25 or 
30 hp. and loads up to four 
or five tons can be handled 
by a pair of hooks combined. 
Not all of the yards, how- 
ever, use two cables per way. 
Some are using three and 
some four. In these cases 
one stern mast (on the way 
center line) has to be re- 
moved before each launching. 
A crew of six men does 
this in about half a day, without disturbing the other 
masts, thus leaving the two outer lines free to operate 
separately or jointly. Where four cables are used the 
central mast carries two cables separated by a spreader 
near the mast head. With the four-cable arrangement 
two winchmen are used in each tower, each man operat- 
ing two carriers that can be coupled together or op- 
erated singly; all four hooks could be combined, but it 
is seldom done. Where three lines are used the two 
outer ones are usually worked together, the central 
cable being used ,for lighter loads. This three-cable 
system is commonly installed where oil tankers are to 
be built, because of the amount of material to go into 
the holds. 

In the Ames yard at Seattle the towers are 125 ft. 
high and contain only winch controls, the winches them- 
selves being set on the ground at the base of the masts. 
Under this plan the winches cannot be coupled together, 
and a separate operator is required for each carrier. 
Some of the shipways have three cableways each, and 
three operators are required in each tower constantly. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Although this is expensive in labor cost, it has the ad- 
vantage of making the winches very accessible, and 
delays from breakdowns and maintenance costs are re- 

In the Seattle North Pacific yard, the plan of which is 
shown, the ways had to be set at an acute angle to pro- 
vide sufficient space for launching. This called for a 
more elaborate system of cross-guying than is usually 
provided, and required high masts so that the cross- 
cables could clear the main cables. The superintendent 
in this yard reports that the system is very easy to 
maintain, and riggers are always available when needed. 
The responsibility for the maintenance of the cable- 
ways is placed upon one man, who is expected to inspect 
personally all parts of the system as frequently as 

The masts in this yard are particularly fine sticks, 
ranging up to 4 I ft. in diameter. They rest on a cluster 
of piles, on top of which a nest of timbers was built 
up for the foot of the mast. When the J. F. Duthie 
plant was built, masts of the desired height could not 
be obtained promptly for all the ways. Shorter and 
lighter masts were therefore used at the bow, and foot- 
ings were built up above the planking 8 to 12 ft., as 
required to give them the desired height. These masts 


were strengthened by wrought-iron truss rods with 
turnbuckles for drawing them taut against struts placed 
at about mid-height. 

Motor Trucks Operate Over Steep Grades 
on Hetch Hetchy Project 

TRANSPORTING of materials to the Eleanor Dam 
on the Hetch Hetchy project in California was an 
important factor in the construction problem. A fleet 
of motor trucks was used to haul materials over the 


12 miles from the terminus of the Hetch Hetchy R.R., 
and was found to be entirely satisfactory, despite the 
rough trip involved. The costs worked out at about 
$10 per ton. 

A 68-mile railroad built by the city terminates at the 
Hetch Hetchy dam site, and from this point a wagon 
road had to be built to the Lake Eleanor site. In order 
to get out of the valley, it was necessary to locate the 
road with continuous grades ranging up to 15% for 

the first three miles. In this distance there are seven 
very sharp turns, which usually require a truck to re- 
verse about three times in order to get around. Making 
these turns wider would have greatly increased the cost, 
because of the uniform slope of the hill along which 
the grade is located. Beyond this rise the grades and 
alignments are much better. The entire road was built 
in the three months between Apr. 20 and July 20, 1917, 
at a cost of about $6000 per mile. 

In the hauling contract the basis was a 70-sack load 
of cement, and the price was $35 per round trip of the 
truck. It was found, however, that by special agree- 
ment with the drivers each truck could make two trips 
a day. From a rough check on costs kept by the city it 
is estimated that the contractors' net profit has been 
about $5 per day per truck. There were eight trucks in 
the fleet and sixteen drivers. Most of the trucks were 
rated at 3 I or 4 tons capacity. 

The work is being carried out by the City of San 
Francisco under the direction of M. M. O'Shaughnessy, 
city engineer. 

Regulates Bottled-Water Traffic 

Two hundred dollars fine is the penalty which Florida 
purveyors of bottled water must pay if they do not 
follow the stringent regulatory measures of the State 
Board of Health. First, there must be furnished to 
the board on Jan. 10 of each year the name of the 
water sold and the exact location from which it is ob- 
tained; chemical and bacterial analyses, or formulas, 
if the waters are manufactured. A pern ; ' must be 
obtained, and the board may revoke this if the water 
"appears to it to be a menace to health." Two bottled 
samples as prepared for sale are to be supplied to the 
board for laboratory examination every two months. 

January 2, 1919 



Engineering Educators' Opinions Reflect Past 
and Predict Future Conditions 

Now that the Students' Army Training Corps has been disbanded and educat- 
ors are actively engaged with the problems of the transition period of readjust- 
ment to peace conditions, the opportunity is being seized to initiate changes of 
far-reaching importance. In order to reflect these changes and present the trend 
of opinion among engineering educators., "Engineering Neivs-Record" sent to the 
deans of various engineering colleges a communication containing the following 

1. What was the influence of the S. A. T. C. upon the engineering colleges? Did 
the experience affect the educator's viewpoint, and if so, how? 

2. Will the return tv peace mean a return to pre-war courses without essen- 
tial modification? If not, just -what changes are contemplated? What consider- 
ations determined these changes? 

3. Have you embodied in your plans for after-war courses any of the sug- 
gested solutions brought out by Dr. Mann in his "Study of Engineering Educa- 
tion"? (See "Engineering News-Record" of Oct. 24, p. 782). If so, just how 
are they to be applied? 

4. What is your estimate of the new needs and opportunities in engineering 
education developed as a result of the war? How can they best be met? 

The replies which are here presented indicate the wide divergence of opinion 
which still persists through the war experience. It is hoped that practicing 
engineers will also cooperate in this vital matter of developing the best possible 
future for engineering education, and send us definite suggestions, in the nature 
of specifications for the desired graduates, in the light of war experience. — Editor. 

Illinois To Make Readjustments, but 
No Permanent Changes Now 

By C. R. Richards 

Dean and Director of the College of Engineering, University of 
Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

IN REPLY to your letter asking my opinion concern- 
ing certain matters in connection with engineering 
education, I will undertake to answer your definite ques- 
tions as follows: 

1. If the war had continued for a year or two longer, 
it is possible that the organization of the S. A. T. C. 
would have had a decided influence on educational in- 
stitutions. The signing of the armistice so soon after 
the organization of this corps has interrupted this edu- 
cational experiment, to its detriment. It does not seem 
possible to estimate at this time the influence of this 
organization on the engineering colleges, although I 
have no doubt that in those institutions which under- 
took the instruction of mechanics and tenchnicians 
there will be an increased appreciation of the possibili- 
ties for intensive training of men for highly specialized 

2. For the remainder of the current academic year, 
the College of Engineering of the University of Illinois 
has been compelled to make certain readjustments in 
existing curricula to permit the students to continue 
without being seriously penalized as a result of their 
experience with the S. A. T. C. Very little real work 
has been possible during the first quarter, and we have 
found it necessary to take this into account in outlining 
our program of studies for the remainder of the pres- 
ent academic year. At the present time, no permanent 

changes in the curricula are contemplated or are con- 
sidered necessary or desirable. This college is alive to 
the need to keep in touch with changing conditions, but 
it does not feel justified as yet in making any revolu- 
tionary changes in its work. 

3. During the past three months, as a result of the 
serious interruption to our work, the more or less com- 
plete disorganisation of the university and a reduced 
staff of instructors, together with the extraordinary 
demands made upon the staff, we have had no time to 
give serious consideration to Dr. Mann's report. This 
report is to receive the careful consideration of the 
faculty during the year, and I have no doubt we shall 
make such use of the suggestions which Dr. Mann has 
made as may seem wise and practicable under existing 
conditions. I may frankly say that it would seem to 
me to be very unwise for any technical school to effect 
a complete revision of its curricula as a result of Dr. 
Mann's report, without giving the matter very careful 
thought and study. 

4. In my opinion, there will be a greatly increased 
enrollment of students in the technical schools of Amer- 
ica as a result of the war, for the importance to the 
nation of men with technical and scientific training has 
been demonstrated. It seems to me, therefore, that the 
industries should show an increased appreciation of 
properly trained men and of scientific research. Both 
in Europe and in America the need for research to en- 
able the industries of these countries to meet new con- 
ditions which have arisen has been so strikingly shown 
that I anticipate that more attention will be given in 
the future to research in the colleges and in the indus- 



VoL 82, No. 1 

tries. I have no doubt that there will be some disposi- 
tion, as a result of the experience with vocational train- 
ing in the Army, to assume that short courses of in- 
tensive training may be profitably substituted for the 
longer and more complete curricula of instruction 
given in the engineering schools. While I believe that 
vocational education should be stimulated in every pos- 
sible way, 1 should consider that the substitution of 
such training for the broader training which the Amer- 
ican colleges have developed would be little short of a 

Rensselaer Polytechnic to Make no 
Radical Changes 

By Palmer C. Ricketts 

President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. 

REPLYING to your four questions on the war edu- 
cation experience at Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, I would give the following opinions : 

1. The S. A. T. C. did not have a fair trial at this 
institution. The influenza affected the work seriously, 
and after the influenza came diphtheria. Many mem- 
bers of the Corps lost weeks of time. I hoped that the 
Government would be able to continue the corps in ex- 
istence until June, in order that this form of military 
training at our educational institutions might have a 
fair trial. I hoped this in spite of the serious difficul- 
ties we had had, from an educational point of view, dur- 
ing the three months just ended. Since this experi- 
ment could not be tried in this way, I am at a loss 
what to say regarding military training in institutions 
of this character. Last year we had a paid instructor 
who gave military drill three hours a week to the 
students who elected to take it. We may have some 
such arrangement in the future. I do not expect that 
we shall establish a unit of the Reserve Officers' Train- 
ing Corps here. What we want just now is a rest for 
some months before we decide this matter. 

2. The return to peace will mean a return to pre-war 
courses without essential modification. We shall give 
five weeks' review here, beginning Jan. 2, and we shall 
give our second term as usual. 

3. We have not embodied in our after-war courses 
any of the suggested solutions brought out by Dr. Mann. 

4. We all know that the war has shown very forcibly 
the value of an engineering education to many per- 
sons who never before gave the matter much thought. 
Increased attendance at the engineering schools may 
result. It will be our business constantly to improve 
our engineering courses in the future, as they have 
been constantly improved from year to year in the past, 
but we certainly do not expect to make any radical 
changes in our methods. 

General Effects on Middle West Universities 
Are Profound 

By M. E. Cooley 

Dean of the College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

HAVING been away from Ann Arbor since the mid- 
dle of October, in charge of collegiate training of 
the S. A. T. C. at the universities of Illinois, Wisconsin 
and Michigan, I can only make a general statement in 

reply to your questionnaire. Engineering educators 
probably have the same opinion as other college teach- 
ers, the general verdict being that the S. A. T. C. was 
a failure, and that it is a pleasure to return to the old 
status. My own belief is that the S. A. T. C. was a 
pronounced success, considering it as a gigantic enter- 
prise in operation less than 12 weeks and seriously 
handicapped by influenza. Another 60 days would have 
seen smooth sailing. 

I further believe that educational institutions were 
stirred to their foundations, and will never return com- 
pletely to the old status. Something was needed to jar 
them from their complacency, and the S. A. T. C. did 
it. Teachers have had an opportunity to adapt their 
courses to immediate practical needs, which should 
result in greater directness in the courses of the future. 
More important is the changed attitude of people toward 
the kinds of education desired. I hope and pray mili- 
tary training may be desired, for its discipline and 
leveling effect. What the country needs is escape from 
slavery to the almighty dollar, and education should 
strive to impart another ideal — such as responsible 
citizenship, for example. 

Engineering education should be broadened and not 
narrowed; the biggest problems of the world today re- 
quire men of vision, and the engineer of today is near- 
sighted. He can do one specific thing splendidly, and 
usually only one. 

The above general statements answer your fourth 
question. In reply to the other three I would say: (1) 
The effect of experience with the S. A. T. C, is not 
yet crystallized, but the educators' viewpoint is un- 
doubtedly changed; (2) yes, but not permanently; (3) 
no changes based upon Dr. Mann's report are yet pro- 
posed here. 

Wisconsin to Return to Pre- War Courses 

By F. E. Turneaure 

Dean of the College of Mechanics and Engineering, University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

REFERRING to your request for opinions regard- 
ing the effects of experience with the Students' 
Army Training Corps, I have the following to suggest: 

1. The S. A. T. C. has, during the past quarter, inter- 
fered very seriously with the academic work of the Col- 
lege of Engineering at this institution, but it is gener- 
ally conceded that the work of the engineering students 
has been better than that of the students of the College 
of Liberal Arts. This is probably due to the fact that 
the engineering students were pursuing studies more 
in accordance with the work they came to do than was 
the case with the other students. It is the judgment of 
the engineering faculty, I believe, that the lack of suc- 
cess of this experiment, from the academic point of 
view, was due partly to accidental circumstances and 
partly to the nature of the system itself — a combination 
of military and civilian life under two separate heads. 
The S. A. T. C. had a very considerable effect on the 
attendance, the number of freshman students being 
more than twice as large as the normal. Many of these 
will not return after Christmas. 

2. With the demobilization of the S. A. T. C, the 
college will promptly return to its pre-war basis, with- 
out essential modification for the present year. 

January 2, 1919 



3. Due largely to the extra labor involved in the S. 
A. T. C. work, there has not been time for serious con- 
sideration of the suggestions contained in the report 
of Dr. Mann. This report will, however, receive care- 
ful consideration during the year. 

4. I believe that the needs and opportunities which 
will be developed in the near future will not be radically 
different from those in the past, although they will 
doubtless differ considerably in degree. It seems ap- 
parent that engineering graduates have thoroughly 
made good in all kinds of war activities, and I do not 
anticipate any radical changes in engineering education. 
It is probable, however, that additional emphasis will 
be laid upon humanistic studies such as economics and 

Missouri Sees Change in Spirit of 
Presentation of Courses 

By E. J. McCaustland 

Dean and Director of the School of Engineering, University of 
Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

ANSWERING your questionnaire in categorical de- 
tail, I would say: 

1. On the whole, I believe the influence of the S. A. 
T. C. upon the engineering colleges was good. While 
a great deal of friction developed, due to an overlapping 
of authority, yet the results were, on the whole, helpful. 
The experience has affected the educators' viewpoint in 
regard to the possibility of holding the student up to a 
higher standard of accomplishment than has ordinarily 
been done in the colleges. This result, however, can 
only be accomplished through special effort on the part 
of the teacher, and I believe that all wideawake teachers 
of engineering have come to appreciate their oppor- 
tunities more fully from having observed at first-hand 
the effects of insistent demands on youth even though 
such demands come from young and inexperienced mili- 
tary instructors. 

2. Whether the return to peace will mean a return 
to pre-war courses without essential modifications, is 
a crucial problem facing the engineering schools. For 
ourselves, we feel that the change most desirable is ia 
change in the spirit of presentation rather than in the 
substance of the courses offered. We must show the 
student wherein he is rendering a service to the com- 
munity and to the state by his more earnest attention 
to his preparation. Since the main motive actuating 
the members of the S. A. T. C. was the consciousness 
of making preparation for definite service as officers in 
the Army, we must show them that preparation for 
professional fitness will be as great a service to the 
state in times of peace as the other preparation would 
be in time of war. 

3. We have not yet fully discussed the possibility of 
embodying in our courses some of the suggested solu- 
tions brought out by Dr. Mann in his study of engineer- 
ing education, but our men are examining this report 
very carefully, and I believe we shall feel the reaction 
from such study in the coming term's work. 

4. Two points will be emphasized in future engineer- 
ing education, as a result of the war. First, the arous- 
ing of more interest in and furnishing greater oppor- 
tunity for research. In general, research is sadly neg- 

lected in the engineering schools or restricted to very 
high-class work. I believe that recent experiences in- 
dicate that we need to develop a wider interest in re- 
search, so that latent research ability may be brought 
to the front and receive an opportunity to develop. 
Second, more than ever before there has been impressed 
upon us the supreme value of a thorough training in 
the fundamentals of science and in covering a broad 
field, to serve as a basis for later specialization. I think 
both of these points can be met only gradually as the 
point of view of engineering educators begins to con- 
centrate more and more on these needs. 

Curriculum Changed at Tufts College 

By Gardner C. Anthony 

Dean of the College of Engineering, Tufts College, Mass. 

IN THE engineering school of Tufts college a most 
interesting and somewhat radical departure from pre- 
vious curricula will be made. It is in line with the 
suggestions made by the Joint Committee on Engineer- 
ing Education (Dr. Mann's report). Some of the rec- 
ommendations made by this committee are not entirely 
new to the Tufts Engineering School, and the new 
curriculum which is offered to the freshmen already 
entered, and those about to enter Jan. 2, 1919, will 
embody details which have been tested before, but never 
properly correlated. 

During the past year intensive courses were tried out 
for freshmen, and it was observed that high-grade work 
and enthusiastic application to studies can be obtained 
by giving them courses of a laboratory character which 
shall serve as introductory to the special courses leading 
to the several degrees, and accompanying such courses 
by such mathematics and physics as may be necessary 
for the logical development of the subjects. 

Very recently, too, a readjustment of the five courses 
in engineering has made it possible so to combine them 
as to reduce the number to three; namely (1) civil 
engineering; (2) mechanical and electrical engineer- 
ing, and (3) chemical engineering. Furthermore, the 
faculty had already postponed some of the more ad- 
vanced mathematics to the junior year and had pro- 
posed postponing some of the physics until a more ap- 
preciative period of student development. 

On registering for the next term the freshmen en- 
gineers will choose an introductory course in one of 
the three engineering departments. This will require 
nearly one-half of the total time allotted for study. In 
addition to this major course, the student will pursue 
but two other studies, which in the second term will 
be English and mathematics, and in the third term 
English and graphics. 

By this plan, the attention of theastudent will be con- 
fined to but three, or at the most four, subjects, which 
will be properly correlated and pursued intensively. One 
of these, the main introductory course, is designed to 
give a proper perspective of the relation of the profes- 
sional courses to the theoretical studies. 

In the second year, each of the three engineering 
departments will offer a second and more advanced 
course accompanied by the necessary mathematics, 
physics and other subjects, which latter will be taught 
as a part of the departmental course. But the student 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

must elect an introductory course in another depart- 
ment; thus, it is designed to require introductory- 
courses in at least two engineering departments, in- 
suring a broader type of education than can possibly 
be obtained by specializing in one department. 

This plan will postpone the main course in physics 
until the junior year and the most advanced mathe- 
matics until the senior year. It will also admit of con- 
siderable more election in the junior and senior years 
than has previously been possible. The modern lan- 
guage course will be conducted with special reference 
to the study of the commercial relations between the 
United States and foreign countries. To this end promi- 
nence will be given to the study of Spanish. 

[Several have replied that they felt it was too early 
to make definite statements on the questions raised, as 
they are still considering changes and studying Dr. 
Mann's report. Other replies loill be printed in a later 
issue. — Editor.] 

Beam Deflections Under Distributed 
or Concentrated Loading 

New Algebraic Method Proposed for Cases Usually 

Solved by Graphical Calculation Gives 

Accurate Results 

By J. B. Kommers 

Madison, Wisconsin 

DEFLECTIONS of beams can be calculated by an 
algebraic method that compares favorably with the 
graphical method both in time required and in accuracy. 
It is intended for use in those cases of combinations of 
uniform and concentrated loads for which the ordinary 
algebraic method would become very long and tedious. 
Simple beams, cantilever beams, beams fixed at one end 
and supported at the other, and beams fixed at both 
ends, will be discussed. 

Suppose a simple beam has upon it a concentrated 
load, P. When P is at the center of the span the max- 
imum deflection occurs at the center; when P is at the 
right support the maximum deflection occurs 0.577L 
from the left support. This means that no matter 
where the concentrated load is placed on the beam its 
maximum deflection will always be very near the center 
of the span, and therefore that the midspan deflection 
will be practically equal to the maximum deflection. This 
latter fact is utilized as the basis of the new method. 
Deflections of Simple Beams 

In Fig. 1 the maximum deflection due to the two con- 
centrated loads is to be determined. According to Max- 
well's theorem, the deflection produced at the center, 
0, by the load at A equals the deflection produced at A 
by the same load placed at 0. Therefore, place the 7000- 
lb. load at 0, calculate the deflection it produces at A; 
place the 8000-lb. load at and calculate the deflection 
it produces at B. The sum of these two deflections will 
be the deflection that the two loads at A and B produce 
at O and, as shown above, a very good approximation 
to the maximum deflection. 

The deflection which a central load P on a simple 
beam produces at a point distant x from the nearest 
support is, 

uen - \2Er 16EI u; 

Applying this equation to the case of Fig. 1, in order 
to get the maximum deflection by the method outlined, 
7000 X 60 

Max. Den. 


8000 X 180 2 X 36 

7000 x 180 2 x 60 ^sooox36 3 

16JS7 12EI 

= — 0.1971 inches. 


As a check upon this method, the correct maximum 
deflection was calculated; it was found to be 0.1970 

If the beam in Fig. 1 is loaded with 13,000 lb. at A 
and 2000 lb. at B, the approximate result is 0.50% too 

If the beam carries distributed loads on parts of its 
length as well as concentrated loads, the method is ap- 
plied by breaking the distributed load into several sec- 
tions and replacing these by concentrated loads at their 
centers of gravity. In Fig. 2 is shown a uniformly 
loaded beam. Such a symmetrical case would not re- 
quire special treatment, but is chosen here to illustrate 
the method. Consider the load divided into four parts; 
then calculation by the approximate method gives 0.2525 
in., while the exact value of the deflection is 0.2462. 
Thus, the approximate result is 2.56% too large. The 
load can easily be broken up into six parts instead of 
four, and then the approximation will be only 1.21% 
too large, a precision comparing favorably with that of 
graphical work. 

If the beam in Fig. 2 is loaded over the left half of 
the span with a uniform load of 21,000 lb., and this is 
then broken up into three sections, the approximate 
method gives a result which is only 0.44% too large. 

Distributed Loads on Cantilever Beams 
In a cantilever beam any load will produce its maxi- 
mum deflection at the free end, so that the method de- 
scribed involves no approximation for concentrated 
loads. Distributed loads are broken up into sections, 
as before, and replaced by concentrated loads. The de- 
flection produced at the free end of a cantilever by a 
load at A, Fig. 3, is 

Defl. - -^(3a + 26) (2) 

Applied to the numerical case shown in Fig. 4 it gives 
1.438 in. (correct deflection 1.443), so that the approxi- 
mate result in this case is 0.35% too small. 

If the same beam is loaded with 7500 lb. uniformly 
distributed on the half next to the fixed end, and this 
load is considered broken up into two sections for ap- 
plying the approximate method, the result is 5.2% too 
small. Greater accuracy may be obtained by breaking 
the load into a larger number of sections; if four sec- 
tions are used the deflection at the free end is only 1.5% 
too small. 

It should also be noted that when there are several 
loads on the beam the uniform load near the fixed end 
produces only a small part of the total deflection. In the 
case of a uniform load over the whole beam, the half 
next to the fixed end produces only 14.6% of the total 

Beams Fixed at One End 

Fig. 5 shows the case of a beam fixed at one end and 
supported at the other. For the case shown the absolute 
maximum deflection occurs under the load when a = 
0.414L. When a = 0.95L the maximum deflection oc- 

January 2, 1919 



curs at a point 0.568L from the left support. When a 
= 0.05L the maximum deflection occurs at a point 
0.332L from the left support. It will be assumed that 
for all ordinary combinations of loading the maximum 
deflection will occur at 0.414L. 

In order to determine the maximum deflection, it is 
necessary to determine the reaction, R, at the support. 
To do this, treat all loads as though on a cantilever 
beam, and determine the deflection they would cause at 
the left end. The deflection due to R must be exactly 
equal to the deflection of the loads. Therefore, solve 
for R from the following formula: 


nor = Deflection due to the loads (3) 

The deflections due to the loads will be found, of course, 
by the approximate method for cantilever beams here- 
tofore described. 

When R is known, the downward deflection caused 
by the loads at 0.414L is calculated, and from it is sub- 
tracted the upward deflection caused by R at 0.4 14L. 
The difference will be a good approximation of the cor- 
rect maximum deflection. 

The formulas to be used for calculating the deflection 
at A in Fig. 6 are as follows : 

Due to 
Load to 
left of A 
Due to 
Load to 

Defl. = - ~g£ (3a + 26) 


Defl. = 

right of A J 

Do to 1. p. fl 
Reaction ' Dett 

-**j (3c + 2d) 



0.1382PL 3 
j Uen -=- EI 

The method will be illustrated by working a problem 
which can be easily checked. Fig. 7 shows the load- 
ing. The deflection at the left end due to the loads is 
1.2262 in. Then R X 180 3 /3#7 = 1.2262, and R = 4087 
lb. Using this value, the deflection at A due to R is 
found from formula (6) to be 0.5088. By formulas 
(4) and (6) the deflection at A due to the loads is com- 
puted as 0.5865 in. Subtracting, the net deflection at A 
is 0.0777 in. This result is 1.27% too small. 

If the beam in Fig. 7 is loaded with a uniform load of 
15,000 lb. on the left half of the span, and this is then 
broken up into three sections, the approximate result 
is 1.64% too large. If the same load is placed on the 
right half of the span the approximate result is 4.02% 
too small. Thus, for uniform load near the fixed end the 
degree of accuracy is not as great as for the same load 
near the left support. 

Investigation shows that for the load near the left 
support increased accuracy can be had by breaking up 
the load into more than three sections. For the uni- 
form load near the fixed end, however, the error is 
due to the fact that the maximum deflection occurs near 
the center of the beam instead of at 0.414L as assumed. 
It is recommended, therefore, that for those cases in 
which all the loads, both uniform and concentrated, 
lie to the right of the center of the beam, the deflections 
be calculated at 0.47L instead of 0.414L. In this case 
the deflection at 0.47L due to the reaction is 

n fl 0M55RL 3 

Defl - = EI (7) 

If in the case of the beam loaded on the right half 
of the span the deflections are calculated at 0.47L, the 
result is only 0.17% too small. 


15 ■- 

FIG. 1 

14001b. per jr. 

g l P ' l Pe .„„„„„ 

U-3 ' >1 Rh. 31.5 lb. I-Beam ]<■■ o -*\c— b — ■{-■--- ^ 

T \ r-womoMih . I 'A ~n 

->j FIG. 6 i 

I ■ }, \ Bin.3/Slb.I-BeamA k44-.7f---105.3~ — *|f^f 

t\j <o f" 

, „ . ! , , ,,,, , ,, }„,. . ...»,„„»„. 

FlO. 7 

FI6. Z 


.... L ._.. 

Fie. 8 


^H| W.OOOIb. | f. 

FIG. 3 

7500 lb. 

- -14- 4?M 

W,12in. J ,, ,j '2500 Z500 ffiOO 12,600 „,..,, 
~"3l-5lb. W/A .[ 1 ,1 I M W//, 

J-RjrTm U 1"'"' ' ''' ■ ■' ' ' ' '' ■ r ~ f ^ "" I 


.'.J U..-J2?,.; 


FIG. 9 


■6ZS"^< //as"- 

FIG. 4- 

r- -° H<-b->| 


B {= 


k- — a 

FIG. lO 



—l — -wm 

FI&. 5 


Fig. 8 shows a beam which is fixed at both ends. The 
absolute maximum deflection for a concentrated load 
will occur under the load at the center of the beam. 
Even if the load is distant from the right support only 
0.05L, the maximum deflection will occur at 0.653L, 
or still quite near the center. This, of course, is an 
extreme case, and as in the case of simple beams it will 
be assumed that the maximum deflection occurs at the 
center. The deflection which a load P, in Fig. 8, causes 
at the center is given by the formula 

PLx 2 , Px 3 

Defl. = - 


this way will 

16#J ' 12£7 

The sum of the deflections found in 
equal the maximum deflection. 

Fig. 9 shows a numerical case with the concentrated 
load quite far to one side of the center. The approxi- 
mate result in this case is 0.69% too small. 

When the beam in Fig. 9 is loaded with a uniform 
load of 15,000 lb. over the right half of the span, and 
this is then broken up into three parts, the approximate 
method gives a result which is 2.85% too small. In- 
vestigation shows that the error is due to the fact that 
the maximum deflection falls to the right of the center 
instead of at the center, as assumed. It is recom- 
mended, therefore, that for those cases in which the 
loads, both uniform and concentrated, are all on the 
right side of the center of the beam, the deflections be 
calculated at a point 0.54L from the left end. For this 
purpose two formulas are necessary. The deflection at 
A, Fig. 10, is, 

Due to 
Load to 
right of A 

Due to 
Load to 
left of A 

Defl. = - 

Defl. = 




Pib*L + 


P 2 b 2 



6EI (ct 


0.46L) 3 

P,a 3 


When the left half of the beam is loaded the distances a 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

and b in the formulas are measured from the left end 
of the beam. 

When these formulas are applied to the beam shown 
in Fig. 9 with a uniform load of 15,000 lb. over the 
right half of the span, the result is only 0.17% too large. 

The examples which have been worked show that the 
approximate method here suggested gives results which 
are at least as accurate as would be obtained by a 
graphical method. In the matter of speed in getting a 
solution, the method suggested will be found much su- 
perior in a great many problems. 

Alaska Government Railway Nearly 
Half Completed 

Main Line Open for 227 Miles, with 38-Mile Branch 

— Summit Elevation 2319 Feet — Grading 

By Stationmen 

PROGRESS of construction on the Alaska railroad 
by the United States Government is called to atten- 
tion by the recent completion of a 16-mile link which 
gives a 190-mile rail route from the Matanuska coal 
fields to tidewater at Seward, on the Gulf of Alaska. 
This was noted in Engineering News-Record of Sept. 
26, p. 600. An extended article on the work up to 1916, 
by Thomas Riggs, Jr., formerly member of the Alaskan 
Engineering Commission and now Governor of Alaska, 
was published in Engineering Record of May 6, 1916, p. 
600. The following brief review of this Government 
railway enterprise down to the present time is ab- 
stracted from a paper by Col. Frederick Mears, U. S. A., 
also formerly a member of the commission, in the Alas- 
ka Railroad Record. The route of the railway, with the 
parts completed and those under construction, is shown 
on the accompanying map. 

An earlier commission, to study the transportation 
situation in Alaska, was appointed by the President in 


1913. This was headed by Maj. J. J. Morrow, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A., and its report was made in Jan- 
uary, 1914. In March, 1914, Congress passed an act 
authorizing the President to construct and operate rail- 
ways in Alaska and to acquire existing lines. The cost 
of the proposed system was estimated at $35,000,000. 

0S ■ h PHALALUKA39 „, 

■ '^(. .-. ,- "V Fairbanks % r *'JT.. — - 

1 1 If HI IRK *t? '*Jl ■ '" v < n 

■ ' ■'• 1/ 





The present Alaskan Engineering Commission was ap- 
pointed by President Wilson in the spring of 1914, with 
William C. Edes as chairman and chief engineer, to 
work under the general direction of the Secretary of 
the Interior. During the summer 13 parties were in 
the field, surveying mainly along two routes outlined 
by the first commission. Three bases of supplies were 
established : At Seward on the Gulf of Alaska (then the 
terminal of the Alaska Northern Ry.) ; at Anchorage, 
the head of ocean navigation in Cook Inlet, and at Fair- 
banks, the head of river navigation on the Tanana 
River. On the basis of the report made in 1915 tho 
route from Seward to Fairbanks, 470 miles, was adopted, 
and in April the duties of the commission were ex- 
tended to include the construction of the line. 

The Alaska Northern Ry. was a private enterprise, 

January 2, 1919 




started in 1904 but abandoned in 1909 with track laid 
for about 70 miles from Seward to Kern Creek, of which 
about 47 miles were operated in summer by gasoline 
cars. This line was purchased by the United States 
Government for $1,150,000, and its rehabilitation cost 
about $1,800,000. The location of the new Government 
line, north from Kern Creek, follows along the shores 

* -• 

IHInM ! 

w&'' tit rTr»- ' 

_ 1 u uj! 



of arms of the sea to Anchorage and then to the mouth 
of the Matanuska River, whence a 38-mile branch ex- 
tends to Chickaloon in the coal district. It then strikes 
west to the Susitna River, which it follows to mile 265, 
where it makes a crossing and then follows the Indian 
River and the forks of the Chulitna River. After cross- 
ing the Chulitna Pass and Broad Pass the line follows 

along the west bank of the 
Nenana River to mile 373, 
where it crosses and follows 
the east bank to the town of 
Nenana, at the junction with 
the Tanana River. It then 
crosses the latter river and 
follows the Goldstream vallej 
to the terminus at Fairbanks. 
A summit elevation of 
2319 ft. is reached in Broad 
Pass (mile 314) on the con- 
tinental divide. The max- 




Vol. 82, No. 1 

lmum grades are 2%, but on the greater part of the line 
they do not exceed 1%. Grading and clearing are done 
in short sections by stationmen, and Colonel Mears 
states that in view of the abnormal war conditions of 
high labor and material costs it is fortunate that the 
commission adopted this system instead of letting a gen- 
eral contract under the very different conditions of 1915. 
, Grading was classified as solid rock, loose rock, frozen 
material and common excavation. Clearing of right- 
of-way was let at $35 to $100 per acre. Piles, culvert 
timber, ties and poles were obtained from native timber, 
but lumber was imported for bridge trusses and decks. 
Track-laying was done partly by steam tracklaying ma- 

The heaviest construction on the entire line is along 
the north shore of Turnagain Arm. Occasionally there 
are short benches which were utilized for the roadbed, 
but for the greater part of the distance the roadbed 
had to be formed along steep slopes. The country is so 
rough that it was impossible to avoid heavy work even 
by the liberal introduction of curvature. In many cases 
heavy sidehill fills were made to avoid expensive cuts in 
the precipitous rock bluffs. The slopes of these fills 
extend into the water and are subject to erosion by 
the tides and waves. Timber culverts and trestles are 
numerous, with timber truss bridges over larger 
streams. It is estimated that about 8000 ft. of snow- 
sheds will be required in this district. These will have 
to be of substantial construction in order to resist 
the slides, which start from long distances up the cleared 
mountain side. 

How Materials Were Distributed 

For work north of Anchorage the camps were supplied 
largely by barges working along the east shore of Knik 
Arm. In order to expedite work on the Matanuska 
branch, materials were distributed for about 18 miles 
from the junction during a severe winter by bobsleds 
working on the bottom lands of Knik Arm and on the 
ice of the Matanuska River. Where the main line lies 
along the Susitna River for about 75 miles, materials 
and supplies were distributed along the first 50 miles by 
a stern-wheel river steamer of 100 tons cargo capacity, 
which had been used previously for construction work 
on the Grand Trunk Pacific Ry. On the next 25 miles 
the river is cut up into numerous channels, with in- 
tervening bars, so that navigation is difficult. For this 
part of the river three propeller boats of the tunnel 
type were used, having a draft of 12 in. when light 
and about 20 in. with a cargo of 30 tons. 

In 1917 the Matanuska branch was completed, and in 
1918 the tracklaying on the main line was pushed north 
to Talkeetna, the 16-mile link along Turnagain Arm 
also being completed. About 50 miles of track has been 
laid south from the Tanana River, and some work has 
been done around the northern terminal at Fairbanks, 
where the old lines of the Tanana Valley Ry. form 
branches to Chatanika and Chena. 

William C. Edes is chairman and chief engineer of 
the Alaskan Engineering Commission. William Gerig 
is consulting engineer; F. D. Browne and R. J. Weir 
are engineers in charge; W. J. H. Fogelstrom is bridge 
engineer; F. A. Bailey and H. F. Dose are district engi- 
neers. The main offices are at Anchorage, Alaska. 

Departures in Canal Design and 
Location Effect Saving 

Minimum Excavation, Greater Bottom Width 

and Omission of Upper Levee — 

Full Tunnel Bore Used 

By Everett N. Bryan 

Chief Engineer, Waterford Irrigation District, Waterford, Cal. 

DEPARTURES from customary practice in canal 
design and location have saved money for the 
Waterford Irrigation District, California. These de- 
partures have included changes in canal section, omis- 
sion of the upper levee or bank, and grade changes 
in both canals and tunnels for the sake of economy. 
Canals have been satisfactorily located without using 
a transit. Mass diagrams have been used on excavation 
and embankment studies. 

In one case the design of a canal of 100 sec.-ft. 
capacity which it had been proposed to construct with 
an 8-ft. bottom width, 1J to 1 inner slopes and a 
5-ft. water depth, had its bottom width increased 10 
ft., ' its inner slope on the upper side changed to 1 
to 1, and the levee on the upper side entirely omitted. 
The prime reason for the change was that it was im- 
practical to attempt to balance excavation and embank- 
ment quantities, because the materials to be excavated 
were largely talc, hardpan and soft sandstone, and 
wholly unfit for forming impervious levees. It was 
desirable instead to seek a design which would require 
the least depth of water above the natural ground 
surface with a minimum of excavation. The minimum 
depth of cut for the lower slope was fixed at 3i ft. 
(except in the rare instances where the application of 
this minimum to the crossing of small washes would 
have introduced sharp and adverse curvature), and this 
minimum of Zi ft. was increased to 4 ft. where 
outcroppings of hard material gave evidence of an 
unusually shallow earth covering and shortage of levee- 
forming material. Thus, in general, the maximum 
water depth above the natural ground surface was 18 
in. and this was decreased to 12 in. or less when there 
was an exceptionally small amount of soil. 

Greater Freedom for Scraper Movement 

The advantages of the adopted design were found 
in greater freedom of rrovement for scraper teams in 
the bottom of the canal and a very considerable reduc- 
tion in the quantity of excavation. An 8-ft. bottom 
width is a little narrow for easy operation of a four- 
horse scraper team in so deep a ditch in other than 
"cross-fire" work, and the alteration of the shape of 
the cross-section effected a reduction in the volume of 
excavation required, ranging from 6% for a 3i-ft. 
lower-slope cut on a ground-surface slope of 1 on 6, 
to 24% for a 4-ft. lower-slope cut on a ground-surface 
slope of 1 on 3^. The ground-surface slope for this 
particular canal varied betwee" these limits on the side- 
hill location. 

The omission of the levee on tht upper side gave a 
considerable increase of materials for the levee on the 
lower side, where it was particularly important to 
strengthen that bank. There were few instances where 
the omission of the upper bank permitted the canal 
to spread out over more than a few feet. In addition, 

January 2, 1919 



the absence of an upper levee simplified to a great 
extent the problem of caring for drainage from above 
the canal. Had an upper levee been constructed, the 
number of passages through it or of culverts beneath 
the canal would have been very great and would have 
required a large expenditure. Without it, the drainage 
is collected by the canal and discharged at compara- 
tively infrequent intervals through waste gates in the 
lower levee, where a minimum of damage will result. 

Saving by Single Levee and Change op Location 

The application of this plan of using a single levee 
was not abandoned in one extreme case where the water 
in the canal spread out to form a lake reaching back 
about 800 ft. and flooding several acres. At this point 
the original location followed the usual practice of a 
3 J ft. minimum cut for the lower slope, and only a 
very small area was flooded. The location was changed 
when it was revealed by a new survey that by throw- 
ing a levee across the canon at a lower point the length 
of the canal could be shortened 1700 ft., with attendant 
saving in grade and a 36% saving in construction cost 
over that of the original location, after paying for 
flooded ground and a levee of double strength. 

The not uncommon practice of diminishing the 
section and increasing the grade was sometimes 
adopted for portions of canals lying in deep cut, but 
accomplishing much economy in this way requires a 
considerable sacrifice of grade, and this was not always 
practicable. In such cases another alternative was 
adopted — that of dropping the bottom grade and nar- 
rowing the section. This effected a considerable saving 
in excavation, with no loss in the water cross-section, 
and with the use of short, taper sections return could 
be made to the old grade at the lower end of the cut, 
without appreciable loss of head. A canal 4 ft. deep 
with an 18-ft. bottom width and i to 1 slopes may thus 
be narrowed to one of 134-ft. bottom width and the 
same slopes, by dropping the grade only 1 ft. and 
creating a water depth of 5 ft. The water area will 
not be decreased, and the economy effected will vary 
from nothing for a 4-ft. level cutting to 10% for a 
level cutting of 20 ft. Still greater economy may be 
effected by a further lowering of the bottom grade. 

The "jumping up" presents some difficulties to the 
lay mind, but it may be understood that it presents 
no real obstacles if one will but pause to study the 
bottom grade of any of nature's water courses. He 
will find there a grade which is not always continuous, 
but often adverse. Where the banks are obdurate, 
nature has a way of digging down for more room, and 
when again they offer less resistance than the bottom 
the grade of the bottom is "jumped up." 

Saving Effected by Using Full Tunnel Bore 

This method of economizing in the deeper sections 
of canal excavation is particularly applicable in the 
design and location of tunnel sections. Tunnels are 
often seen on irrigation, municipal and hydro-electric 
developments with the bottom grade located continuous 
with that of the canal above and below, and an area 
above the water surface almost equal to, if not greater 
than, the water area. In many of these cases it would 
have been practicable to lower the bottom grade so 

as to use the full area of the bore and thus save 
largely in the cost. 

In one case, on a Waterford Irrigation District canal 
with a water depth of 5 ft., the bottom grade of the 
tunnel was dropped 3 ft. so as to fill the entire bore. 
The grade was not again "jumped up" until the lower 
end of the lower approach cut was reached. This was 
about 1300 ft. from the portal. The canal bottom in 
this approach cut was 8 ft. wide and the water depth 
was 8 ft., with side slopes of i to 1*. To have secured 
the same water area with an unbroken continuity of 
grade would have required a canal bottom width of 
141 ft. and I to 1 slopes. The center cuts of this 
approach ranged from 28 to 8 ft. To have constructed 
this canal with an unbroken grade would have increased 
by 23%, excavation for the average cut in this portal. 

Wasteway Provided to Cleanse Pocket 

To cleanse the pocket created by the dropping thus 
of the bottom grade in the tunnel and lower approach, 
a wasteway was provided at the lower end. This 
continued the low grade to an open spill. Materials 
sloughed from the sides of the canal or tunnel may 
thus be sluiced out by occasionally diverting the dis- 
charge of the canal through the wasteway. 

That the pockets so formed will fill to any great extent 
is unlikely. Debris or silt carried in suspension in a 
canal will not deposit unless the velocity of the stream 
is arrested, and this does not occur in such a case. 
Particles being rolled along the bottom may find diffi- 
culty in negotiating the grade at the point where the 
"jump up" is made, but in most cases this will cause 
little trouble. The increased water depth on the canal 
sides and the saturation of the top of the tunnel may 
induce a tendency to slough. Both this and the likeli- 
hood that pockets will fill must always be considered. 

Where the materials taken from the canal prism 
were suitable for forming levees, an effort was made, 
of course, to balance the cut section with the fill section. 
On the side-hill location with a single levee it was found 
that the lower-slope cut would vary only a very little 
in securing this balance. It increased slightly as the in- 
clination of the slope of the natural ground increased. 
The proper depth of cut at the lower slope could be easily 
determined for the various ground-surface slopes likely 
to be encountered, and because this depth of cut 
changed so little it was easy at any time to locate it 
on the hill side and know that a reasonably close 
balance of excavation and embankment areas was 
secured. The center cuts for the various inclinations 
of the ground surface were also computed, and it was 
these which were actually most used in the location 
work. They changed rapidly as the inclination of the 
ground surface changed, but with a little practice rod- 
men soon acquired the knack of calling for the proper 
cut. It was but a moment's work at any time to cor- 
rect or verify the rodman's judgment by stopping to 
catch the lower slope. 

Transit Not Used on Location 

A transit was not used in location, and the work 
proceeded somewhat as follows: Without particular 
attention to alignment or chaining, the rodman pro- 
ceeded from station to station, setting temporarily the 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

center stakes at an elevation on the side hill which 
would as nearly as practicable give proper balancing 
quantities — the levelman assisting by placing him where 
the cut would be that called for by the rodman. When 
in doubt, the rodman stopped to test his judgment by 
finding the cut at the lower slope. When the limit of 
the range of vision for the level "set-up" was reached, the 
rodman returned over the line to the initial point, iron- 
ing out the abrupt changes in the alignment. Beginning 
there again, he worked forward over the line, carefully 
chaining in and establishing the center line and taking 
cross-sections — the tapeman lining him in always to 
the next temporary center peg ahead. When the limit 
of the levelman's range of vision was again reached 
he moved forward. If a line of check levels be excepted, 
only once was it necessary to run an instrument over 
the line. 

Now that construction of these canals is complete, it 
is doubtful that any difference could be detected be- 
tween these canals and those located with the aid of 
a transit, unless the former should attract attention 
by reason of the evenness of their construction, because 
of the perfect balance between excavation and em- 
bankment. Nature has a marked tendency to work in 
easy curves, and as has been aptly said by an eminent 
engineer of the older school, "Water is not very par- 
ticular just how it goes, so long as it can keep sliding 
down hill." 

Mass Diagram for Each Canal 

A mass diagram was worked out for each canal as 
soon as the yardage could be computed. It was the 
aim always to have this curve climb a little, and thus 
show an excess of excavation, to provide for the shrink- 
age which will almost inevitably occur in moving earth 
from excavation to embankment. If the curve was 
found to vary unnecessarily, the matter was considered 
by the chief, together with the locator. An estimate 
of the cost of relocation was easily made, and this was 
compared with the possible yardage to be saved thereby. 
A 100% perfect relocation would effect a 50% reduc- 
tion in the excess cut or borrow, but in practice it 
is impossible of course to secure such a relocation, even 
were it 'desirable, and it is needless to say that in 
many cases the 100% perfect relocation, so far as lack 
of excess cut or borrow is concerned, is not the best 

The locators soon developed a keen desire to develop 
the best mass curves practicable, because these were 
"yardsticks" by which their skill was readily measured. 
A miscalculation on the original location was an in- 
teresting field for speculation as to the percentage of 
perfection which could be obtained by another try. 
If it were known that the cost of a relocation, with 
attendant office expense, would be more than compen- 
sated for by a reduction in the cost of excavation, 
the relocation was made, regardless of the layman's 
censure of another survey or the additional charge to 
engineering expense. 

The mass diagrams were placed at the disposal of con- 
tractors bidding upon the work and were interpreted to 
them if necessary. In the preparation of monthly 
and final estimates they were found invaluable. Dupli- 
cates were furnished to the foremen in charge of the 

grading crews. At first they had some difficulty in 
getting away from the idea that these were some sort 
of modified profile, but they generally did get away 
from such idea, and it was not long before many were 
ardent students of their mass curves and were cutting 
their haul effort to a minimum. 

These were but a few of the economies practiced in 
the matter of the canal location and design. With 
such savings, together with those practiced in other 
branches of the construction program, success was 
achieved in putting through, without diminution in 
quantity or quality, during the years 1916, 1917 and 
1918, the work intended to be done by bonds voted 
early in the first-named year. This was accomplished 
in spite of the phenomenal rise in prices which began 
late in 1916 and raised the cost of most construction 
by from 10 to 60% of the original estimate on which 
the bonds were voted. 

Movable Towers Concrete Deck 
of Philadelphia Elevated 

Station Work and Straight Sections on Six-Mile 

Stretch of Frankford Line Divided 

Between Two Mixing Gangs 

HAVING one crew organized and trained for the 
straightaway concreting work between stations, 
and another with a separate organization for putting 
in the different type of deck required at stations, is the 
method adopted by the contractor in concreting the 
deck of the Frankford elevated line in Philadelphia. 
The stations have a track section with short ties em- 
bedded in concrete, which ballasted track is used be- 
tween stations. Each of these gangs uses a mixing 

plant on the street, with a 
40-ft. steel tower to hoist the 
concrete to runways on top 
of the structure. Each gang 
has two towers and two 
hoists, so that one can be 
moved and rigged while the 
other is being used. 

The Frankford elevated 
line, part of Philadelphia's 
new rapid transit system, 
was well under way when 
the war broke out, and now 
is so nearly completed that it 
is hoped it can be put in 
operation at an early date. 
The steelwork has been 
erected from Callowhill St. 
in Philadelphia to Deyer St. 
in Frankford, and about half 
of the 27,700 yd. of concrete 
to go in the track deck over 
this six-mile stretch has been 

I placed. The steelwork con- 

sists of two types. One has 
^9 columns on the sidewalks, 
capped by transverse plate 
girders which support three 
— M 5™J lines of longitudinal lattice 

portable tower plant truss girders, one between 

January 2, 1919 



the tracks and two outside. In the other type the three 
rows of lattice girders are carried on a line of single 
column bents between the car tracks in the center of the 
street. The problem of concreting the deck is the same 
on both types, the deck consisting of jack arches between 
cross beams at right angles to the track carried by the 
longitudinal lattice girders. As may be seen from the 
photographs, the concrete deck does not extend quite to 
the center of the, outside girders, being carried only 12 
ft. out on each side from the middle girder. 

Sheet steel forms, curved to fit the arch section, and 
flanged along the bottom edges to rest on the lower 
flanges of the I-floor-beams were used. Each form 
section is 3 ft. wide and is collapsed by two turnbuckles. 
There are thus four of these forms to one arch on 
each side of the central girder, and with an average 
progress of 100 cu.yd. or a little more than 100 lin.ft. 
of structure per day for each gang, enough forms for 
about 1000 lin.ft. of double-track structure were pro- 
vided. When the placing is being done close to the 
tower, and the buggy run is therefore short, as much 
as 160 lin.ft. is accomplished in a day by one gang. 

Work on the deck was begun at the end of October, 
1917, with a traveling mixing plant mounted on top 
of the structure. This plant, before it was closed down 
for the winter, concreted about 4 mile on Front St., 
where the base of the rail is 45 ft. or more above 
the street level on account of several railroad crossings. 
The plant consisted of a i-yd. mixer supplied by over- 
head bins holding material for about 8 yd. of concrete. 
On the rear end of the traveler was mounted a small 
derrick, which supplied the bins, using a dump bucket. 
Three buckets were used, being loaded by hand on the 
street with sand and gravel. The derrick also hoisted 
the cement. The entire rig was mounted on one set 
of timber stringers and rolled on another. It occupied 
only the east half of the elevated structure, and, on 
account of the design of the steelwork, it was difficult 
to move it. The central girder of the steelwork was 



at the same elevation as the outside girders, but side- 
walk brackets carried on top of the outside girders 
prevented rolling the traveler on it. It was therefore 
necessary to use a platform of 12 x 12-in. timbers, 
extending from the center girder to the outside girder 
and resting on the latter between the sidewalk brackets 
to carry the stringers on which the traveler was rolled. 
These timbers were taken out and swung ahead by the 
derrick, which was placed so as to reach both ends of 
the traveler. It is stated that this plant proved to be 
slow, for its output was limited by the capacity of the 
one derrick. 

When work was resumed last spring this traveler was 
dismantled and four steel towers were placed on the 
job. These were set up at street intersections and a 
length of one block each way was concreted from each 
set-up. While the concrete gang is using one plant, 
the rigging gang takes down the last tower and hoist 
and moves them ahead to the next set up. The towers 
are erected in sections, with a gin pole and crab. The 
plant investment is reduced by using only two f-yd. 

These are mounted on wheels and are pulled along 
the street by a truck. It is possible to move one of 
them and set it up while the gang is moving and reas- 
sembling the runways, buggies and forms. The mixers 
are of the type that is loaded by a charging hopper filled 
with wheelbarrows from material piles on the street. 
Sand, gravel, and cement are delivered in motor trucks 
by the material-supply firms, to the mixers. 

The main runway is carried on the central lattice 
girder, the buggies being dumped down a movable chute 
into the section being poured. This runway is con- 
nected by a plank bridge about 12 ft. wide to the 
side of the structure at the tower, giving the buggies 
room to come up and turn under the hopper into which 



Vol 82, No. 1 

the tower skip discharges. As the work progresses 
away from the tower, passing platforms long enough 
to hold about two buggies are put in at the side of 


the main runway, being carried on joists to one of the 
outer girders. 

The deck is divided into sections by the steel plate 
transverse girders which support the longitudinal gir- 

ders, the spans varying from 42 ft. to 72 ft. It is 
usual to pour from two to three of these sections in 
a day, averaging about 100 yd. of concrete for each 
gang. The largest runs have been about 160 yd. The 
concrete gangs employ each from 38 to 40 laborers, 
four carpenters, three or four cement finishers, two to 
three foremen and two engineers. Each gang is under 
its own superintendent. While of about the same size, 
the gangs are organized differently. 

The deck between stations is finished with a smooth 
top, on which a ballasted track is to be laid. The deck 
at stations is carried up to within 3 in. of the bottom 
of the ties, and paving stones are half embedded under 
each rail in the space between the ties, to form a 
bond between the deck and the concrete in which the 
ties will be set. When the station gang has finished 
all of these sections it will go to work on the curve 
sections, where the floor-beams spacing is irregular and 
special forms are required. 

The erection of the steelwork was completed in 1917. 
The construction of the track floor, walk ways, and 
drainage provision was let to the Keystone State Con- 
struction Co., which sublet the concrete track floor to 
the Union Paving Co. The work is being carried on 
under the Department of City Transit of Philadelphia, 
of which W. F. Twining is director, and Henry H. 
Quimby is chief engineer. Construction is under the 
immediate supervision of M. Golder, division engineer. 

New Law for Venezuela Railroad 

ANEW law, states a commerce report, has been 
passed relating to railway concessions in Venezuela. 
New or changed provisions are as follows: 

The Government will guarantee no interest on capital 
invested in the construction of railways. 

A contractor for any railway must make a cash de- 
posit proportionate to the length of the line and the 
width of gage — ranging from 600 bolivares per kilo- 
meter for 0.610-meter gage to 1400 bolivares per kilo- 
meter for 1.435-meter gage. The Federal executive 
may reduce this deposit at his discretion by as much 
as 15 per cent. 

The Federal executive may or may not reserve in 
contracts the right of buying the railway and its equip- 
ment, with six months' notice to the enterprise. It is 
optional to the Government to make this purchase upon 
appraisal, paying 20% premium on the value of the 
enterprise, or by paying the price represented by value 
of the capital stock at the time of purchase with a 
premium of 10%. In all cases of purchase the appraisal 
shall be made by experts, and the purchase price shall 
be paid to the enterprise upon transfer of property. 

The Federal executive shall have the power to require 
a reduction of rates when the annual tonnage trans- 
ported by the road shall exceed a certain amount to be 
fixed in each case. 

In contracts for building railway lines the following 
franchise shall be granted: Free duty on importa- 
tion, during the first 25 years of the concession, of 
rolling stock, engines, tools, utensils and necessary im- 
plements for the building, exploitation and maintenance 

of the line and its branches, it being understood that 
said franchise shall lapse if it be proved that any of 
the exonerated goods have been designed to uses other 
than those of the company which obtained the contract, 
without express permission from the minister of public 
works. For the purposes of the exoneration of the 
custom duties the corresponding provisions of the code 
of finance must be complied with. 

California Water Commission Advises Change 

Abolition of the salaries of two of the three mem- 
bers of the California State Water Commission, making 
the remaining salaried commissioner the sole executive 
officer in water-right appropriation matters, with right 
of appeal to the full commission, is recommended in the 
second financial report of the commission. The recom- 
mendation is based on a study of water-control methods 
in 15 "irrigation" states, which study shows that in 
nearly all cases the plan recommended is in force. A 
vital need exists, the report states, for legislation giving 
an individual the right of eminent domain for rights- 
of-way for ditches, the same as is enjoyed by public 
utilities. This is necessary because it is required of 
anyone desiring to appropriate water that he have the 
right of access to the proposed point of diversion, and 
because of the frequency with which such rights have 
been withheld when an offer of reasonable compensation 
has been made. The commission began operations in 
December, 1914, and up to Sept. 1, 1918, had considered 
1059 applications for water for agricultural, mining, 
power and domestic purposes. The commissioners are 
A. E. Chandler, Berkeley, president; W. A. Johnstone, 
San Dimas, and Irving Martin, Stockton. 

January 2, 1919 



Training 350.000 Men for the Shipyards: How the Fleet 

Corporation Met the Problem 

By J. Will Parry 

Lately Executive Assistant to the Director of Education and Training, United States Shipping Board, Emergency 

Fleet Corporation, Philadelphia 

. Building ships for the war emergency required many men, an army oj skilled 
workers, to be assembled and trained in the shortest possible time. Ordinary 
methods of training were hopelessly inadequate for creating this force. The 
Emergency Fleet Corporation developed new methods by which it solved the prob- 
lem. Personal training by working instructors made from intelligent yard me- 
chanics is the core of the solution. Schooling for foremen and executives, to im- 
prove leadership, constitutes an important auxiliary development. Numerous 
other special fields of training called for the Emergency Fleet Corporation's 
labors. Mr. Parry, who was in close contact with the direction of the Education 
and Training Section of the corporation until his departure for Europe to take 
up educational work in the Army, sketches very briefly the methods used and some 
of the results attained. — Editor. 

EARLY in the emergency shipbuilding the man- 
power problem was seen to be one of almost startling 
magnitude. There were about 40,000 shipyard workers 
in the country — not all of them in the shipyards. The 
full complement required to produce the ship output 
projected was about 400,000. Thus — disregarding that 
bothersome leak in the bottom of the pail, labor turn- 
over — every shipbuilder had to be multiplied by 10, 
and that, too, at a time when all industries were bid- 
ding for skilled men. 

Dilution processes, which depend on the survival of 
the fittest, could develop these men. But these are 
slow processes, and the men for the shipyards had to 
be developed rapidly. Furthermore, dilution would have 
involved, inevitably, a material loss in production, due 
to the skilled workers having to give time to instruc- 
tion. Clearly, the task was hopelessly beyond the 
reach of dilution methods. 

Three Sources of Labor 

Labor could be obtained from three sources: First, 
skilled shipyard craftsmen not already employed could 
be impressed into the service (the supply from this 
source would be so soon exhausted as to make it a 
negligible factor in the problem) ; second, mechanics 
not trained in shipbuilding but skilled in crafts sim- 
ilar to the shipyard trades could be "converted" to the 
particular operations required in the shipyard. With 
men obtained in such ways might be considered parti- 
ally trained mechanics in shipyards who could be de- 
veloped to higher degrees of skill. Together, these 
groups could furnish a supply somewhat larger, but 
still hopelessly below the needs of the case. As the 
third and only remaining source, there was the sup- 
ply of unskilled labor — green men with little or no 
knowledge of any mechanical trades. In view of the 
numbers required, this was the only source offering 
hope of meeting the needs of the case. 

Thus, the kernel of the problem was, how to train ab- 
solutely green men and make them into shipyard work- 
ers, and do this rapidly enough to perform the work 
allotted to the yards. 

Training men for shipyard occupations is not essen- 
tially different from industrial training of any other 

kind; and providing the men needed for quantity pro- 
duction of ships is essentially the same under emer- 
gency conditions of war time as under normal peace 
conditions. However, there was the magic bidding, "Do 
it quickly," and this, as a governing condition, did ef- 
fectively stimulate decision, sweep away suspicion, and 
bring out into relief and place in proper grouping many 
facts and tendencies of training which under normal 
conditions of development come to light so slowly and 
in such scattered form that they are not easily dis- 

Nature of the Essential Training Task 

When the shipbuilding program was planned, the 
shipyards of the country were forced to think in fig- 
ures entirely beyond the customary in magnitude. Few 
of the managers could perceive all their problems clearly 
enough to be able to set them down in proper order 
and attack them consecutively. In consequence, plant 
construction got ahead of housing conditions, steel 
supply was now ahead of hull construction and now 
behind, and, in general, things moved by jerks rather 
than smoothly, as is inevitable with any great, unesti- 
mated project that is still finding itself. The man- 
power problem was one of the earliest and most obvious 
in claiming attention, and it remained the primary 
problem throughout the whole stage of shipyard de- 
velopment hardly concluded yet. The 61 shipyards, 
with 235 ways, of the early part of 1917, had grown 
to 198 yards, with 1083 ways, at the time the armistice 
was signed, and 80% of the ways were completed. This 
growth, and the numbers of men involved in both con- 
struction and in shipbuilding, will serve to define the 
problem of man-power, and hence that of training men. 

The chief training problem was centered in the yards 
building steel ships. The seven concrete shipyards 
among the 198, for example, use, largely, unskilled 
labor. Wood shipbuilding, carried on in 114 yards, pre- 
sents a much simpler labor development problem than 
steel shipbuilding. There is not so great a diversity 
of trades to deal with, and related trades of ready 
conversion possibilities are more numerous; also, dilu- 
tion can be more readily accomplished, as the typical 
gang organization of the work is more nearly the 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

proper organization for training green men The 77 
steel yards, therefore, presented the main bulk of the 
training problem. Again, in these, the hull construc- 
tion trades constituted the most immediate need. 

Ten trades called for trained workers in the largest 
numbers. These were: Bolters-up, chippers and calk- 
ers, drillers and reamers, erectors, rivet heaters, hold- 
ers-on, riveters, shipfitters, ship carpenters, and elec- 
tric welders. 

Emergency Training Method Applied to the Main 
Two fundamental premises underlie the emergency 
plan of training developed by the Education and Train- 
ing Section of the Emergency Fleet Corporation: 

1. Learners must be instructed by work on produc- 
tion jobs, because: (a) Counterfeit jobs do not pre- 
sent a sufficient breadth of field for all-round effective 
training; (b) keeping learners off production work 
means waste of material and tools; (c) the stimulus 
of working on a job which will go to sea rather than 
on a play box is essential — as was recognized very early 
in the work. 

2. Instructors handling gangs of learners must be 
men who are expert in the trade in which they are in- 
structing, and who at the same time know how to 
teach it, and are free to produce skill rather than riv- 
eted plates. Training is essentially a production job, 
but its main product is skill, its byproduct is finished 

Production work, and working teachers, were thus 
the two essentials. 

Any experienced training man will recognize at once 
that the critical element in this enterprise was the 
corps of instructors, the "skilled mechanics, who can 
teach." Teaching ability is sometimes called a gift. 
Emergency does not wait for gifts, however. It was 
necessary to develop the required number of yard in- 
structors by training. The Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration's training question, then, was to train yard 
instructors for training green men in yard crafts. 
The scheme developed for this work was to put selected 
mechanics through a training course designed to give 
them the necessary teaching ability. The success of 
the plan may be briefly indicated by saying that on 
Nov. 10 there were on the job 1100 yard instructors 
who measured up to their work about as well as do 
college professors or public-school teachers; and the 
training capacity of America's shipyards was some- 
where around 15,000 men a month. 

Mechanism of the Instructor Course — the Four 

The mechanism of the instructor-training plan of 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation (shown by the dia- 
gram on the following page) is essentially this: 

Selected mechanics of proved ability from various 
shipyards are sent to an instructor-training center for 
a six weeks' course. The class is under an instructor 
who knows teaching methods. His main function is 
to assist each man to classify his knowledge in such 
manner that he may be able to impart it effectively 
to others. The instructional material of the course 
is arranged according to a scheme developed by Charles 

R. Allen, superintendent of instructor training. Its 
characteristic is a division into four blocks, as will 
appear from the following outline. 

Block 1 — Job Analysis — Includes the analysis and 
arrangement of the occupational knowledge in an ef- 
fective instructional order of jobs. The prospective 
instructor's knowledge of his trade is taken in the 
form and with the peculiarities as found; no attempt 
is made to impart trade knowledge or to teach stand- 
ard practice. 

Block 2— How to "Put It Over"— Telling what in- 
struction is and how to accomplish it. The learner is 
made familiar with the successive steps in the instruct- 
ing process, methods of approach and the like. 

Block 3 — Establishing an Effective Instructional Or- 
der — Teaching how to lay out operations in a difficult 
scale and establish checking levels for determining the 
progress of the learner. 

Block 4 — Instructional Management — Importance of 
good management for the emergency program; gang 
organization ; meeting instructional conditions ; getting 
along with production departments, and maintaining 

Results op the Training Work Briefly Stated 

Organized as suggested in the preceding, the train- 
ing of instructors grew to remarkable proportions. 
The growth of training centers and of yard training 
departments has kept pace with the development of the 
shipyards and with their advance from the stage of 
plant construction to that of production. 

On Apr. 15, 1918, three instructor-training centers 
were running; on Nov. 10 there were 36 centers. 
Thirty-eight shipyards had installed regular training 
departments, and 19 others had modifications of train- 
ing departments. Training was proceeding in 42 trades 
and occupations. 

The training capacity, based on the number of trained 
instructors, was not far from 15,000 men a month. 
Two yards were equipped to train 2000 green men 
per month each. Ten yards could train more than 
500 green men a month. 

What kind of instructors were being produced? The 
yard instructors went out from the training centers 
with the zeal of crusaders. They not only saw their 
trade or job in a new light, but they were fired with 
the consciousness of the power "to put it over"; and, 
not the least valuable characteristic, they had an en- 
tirely different — an almost impersonal — viewpoint as 
to the value and possibilities of the green man. 

There had been an "instructor turnover." Instruc- 
tors were lost through the yard gobbling them up for 
production foremen, for example. Training work has 
suffered from labor troubles, housing conditions, ma- 
terial supply slip-ups, and countless other difficulties. 
But so far no criticism has been made that the yard 
instructors could not "produce the goods." 

An Experience : The Instructor's Faith — To a new 
yard instructor in a Great Lakes yard was assigned 
the job, as part of his practice teaching— before he got 
out from under the eye of the staff man-^of instruct- 
ing a green hand in laying off some angle clips. These 
had to be punch-marked and lettered with a brush, to 
conform to the mold. An especially green man had 

January 2, 1919 



BLOCK NO. I . The Analysis and Arrangement of Trade Knowledge in an Efficient Instructional Order of Jobs 


Trade Analysis 





. 2. How to Put It Over 










The Instructing 


Step One 

Step Two 

Step Three 

Step Four 

Lines of 








Practice Lessons 
BLOCK NO. 3. Establishing an Effective Instructional Order 

I I 






Using Scale 

Laying Out 
Instructional Order 


NO. 4. Instructional Management 











War Situation 

The Problem 

The Plan 


for Effective 


Handling the 
Gang for 


Relation of 
Training to 



Problems of 

the Training 



In Charge of a Group as Instructing Foreman on the Job 

been picked for this teaching practice. The learner 
completed the operations, but it was seen that he la- 
bored very hard over the lettering. On investigation 
it was found that he could neither read nor write. 

Here was a difficulty which the old-time "breaker- 
in" would have given up in despair; not so the new 
instructor. Referring to the learner, he said, "But 
he's all right. He can learn. He showed it by the way 
he laid off the piece." 

Instructor-Taught Men Efficient — In a certain North 
Atlantic yard the management was in a tight place 
with respect to riveting on a hull that was behind 
schedule. Ten riveting gangs still under instruction 
were pulled off the school work and put on the hull, 
along with 17 regular production gangs. The two sets 
of men worked side by side on the hull; there was no 
coddling or favored-job arrangement about it. The 
day's average for the new gangs was 278 rivets, that 
for the seasoned gangs 138. The highest drive of one 
of the new gangs was 318. The highest drive of one 
of the old-timer gangs was 240. 

What the Professor Concluded — A former college pro- 
fessor who had deserted the field of economics to 
learn shipfitting passed through the "system," and, 
aided by native ability, advanced rapidly enough to 
become inspector on hulls. "I have never encountered 
a piece of teaching," said this specialist in instruction, 
"which took a fellow from where he was to where he 
was going by such direct and effective steps." 

Improving Leadership the Second Great Problem 

An army, no matter how efficient and well disciplined 
its troops, cannot be effective if it is not handled by 
capable officers. So, with the tremendous expansion 
of the shipyard working forces, the need developed auto- 
matically for more and better foremen, superintendents, 
quartermen, leaders and higher executives. This need 
was supplied in the time-honored way of picking a 

good mechanic, or a man with promise of leadership, 
and making him foreman. The results were as good . 
as those in any industry using the same method of 
selection and bidding the new foreman "go to it" — 
and they were no better. 

The foreman, using the term in its now common in- 
dustrial application, makes or breaks the organization. 
Yet he is ordinarily left to his own salvation, to work 
out his own problems and plan his work. It was soon 
recognized that improvement in this part of shipyard 
operation was vitally necessary. The Emergency Fleet 
Corporation, therefore, organized classes in shop man- 
agement and modern production methods. 

These classes did not train men to become foremen; 
they trained foremen and executives already in the 
yard, to make them better foremen and better execu- 
tives. No ready-made scheme or preconceived system 
could serve in this work. Each yard and its personnel 
were looked upon as a special problem, requiring its 
own individual treatment and solution, though of course 
the underlying principles of good management found 
application in each instance. As in the case of training 
the yard instructors, results were secured chiefly by 
guiding the individual through some of his own prob- 
lems, and thereby imparting to him the ability to sep- 
arate, analyze, lay out and schedule his own work in 
effective fashion. 

Two very important and valuable byproducts devel- 
oped: (1) A team spirit among the men, and a feeling 
that all were pulling together; (2) the successful solu- 
tion in conference, sometimes in blood and tears but 
more commonly with gain of mutual respect, of certain 
"tough-nut" problems that had been in everybody's way. 

Thus, in a New Jersey shipyard a certain group of 
men, all in the hull-construction department, and all 
from the same ways, had developed a tender spot over 
the use of the cranes. The men were more than merely 
touchy on the subject; they were completely at logger- 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

heads ; each man cherished the idea that the other fellow 
was waiting just around the corner to "do him dirt." 
By devoting several hours to the matter, with the 
aid of the instructor as referee, carefully analyzing the 
problem, it was worked out to everybody's satisfac- 
tion, with the relief of much tension. 

On Nov. 10 fifty-four foremanship classes were run- 
ning. They were attended by more than 1800 men. 
One yard enrolled over 700 of its minor executives. 
In at least one case the cooperative spirit generated in 
these classes produced a most obvious result: By the 
action of the spirit of power and heave-together re- 
sulting from the foremanship conferences, a certain 
hull that had long been behind schedule and was daily 
slipping farther behind went into the water on the con- 
tract date. 

Schooling the Trained Shipyard Worker 

Manual instruction on the job gave little opportunity 
to provide the mechanics with that part of their equip- 
ment which may be described as the technical knowl- 
edge related to the trade. This knowledge is of vital 
importance in stimulating ambition, developing short- 
enlistment men into skilled and permane^ 4 ; employees, 
and creating in the individual a pride in his occupation. 
To aid in providing this knowledge, the Education and 
Training Section developed the Supplementary Train- 
ing Branch. The work was done mostly through classes 
organized on the familiar plan of evening and part- 
time schools. 

Over 8000 men in 38 yards have enrolled in such 
courses. The seven fundamental courses prepared and 
published for the work are: Elements of blueprint 
reading, blueprint reading for steel-ship construction, 
blueprint reading for wood-ship construction, elements 
of wood-ship construction, course for shipfitters, course 
for marine pipefitters, course for machinery erectors. 

It is beyond question that such supplementary in- 
struction succeeds in developing and holding craftsmen 
in all lines of industry. An extreme example comes 
to mind of the results that may be secured. The di- 
rector of training of a certain Great Lakes yard or- 
ganized evening classes. Among others there reported 
a man nearing 50, who had for 20 years been a common 
laborer in the yard. Instructors were skeptical of the 
chances of a man so old, and apparently so deep in a 
rut, ever climbing out. Nevertheless, he received a 
trial in the school. Today the man is a second-class 
shipfitter, and is still climbing. 

Special Problems Handled by Specialized Methods 

In many lines of war work it was found necessary 
to take craftsmen from various trades and make them 
into craftsmen for the specific war work in hand. In 
the shipyard field this "conversion training" was han- 
dled as a branch of the intensive training work. 
;' Essentially, the method of handling it comprised 
analyzing the man's previous trade experience and, 
using this so far as possible, building up the training 
necessary for the new occupation. 

Notable examples of such conversion were making 
ship riveters from structural steel riveters, ship car- 
penters from house carpenters, marine pipefitters from 

plumbers and steamfitters, coppersmiths from sheet 
metal workers, and outside machinists and machin- 
ery erectors from machinists. Careful and expert super- 
vision and follow-up were essential in this instruction, 
chiefly in order to make sure that the men were getting 
just the type of jobs which would rapidly "convert" 

Electric welding came up as a new problem. Its 
application to steel-ship construction, stimulated by the 
war program, has already passed through the experi- 
mental stage, and today it should be said, perhaps, that 
electric-welded ships are rather more than a possibility 
for the future. Here the Emergency Fleet Corporation 
found it important to work not only on the develop- 
ment of the art, but also on the training of men in this 
entirely new craft. To the latter task the plan of in- 
tensive training was also applied. About 100 crafts- 
men have been trained, in consequence, and some 200 
are now in training. 

Naval Architects Needed — In September the ship- 
yards of the country made a call for 200 to 300 men 
of technical training in naval architecture and marine 
engineering. To meet this call, eleven-week courses 
were developed in two prominent universities. Only 
men of engineering training were admitted to these 
courses. As they already had the preparatory knowl- 
edge, as much naval architecture and marine engi- 
neering could be given to these men as is ordinarily 
given in a regular four-year course. Further demand 
for technical men by the shipyards will undoubtedly be 
met by the necessary response from universities and 
technical colleges. 

That shipbuilding will live as the result of its re- 
vival under the stress of emergency — that it will adapt 
itself to peace conditions and remain an essential part 
of American industrial life — must today be regarded 
as assured. The need for trained shipyard workers 
therefore will continue. The national emergency has 
also brought out specialization in higher degree than 
known before. The trend will be toward the develop- 
ment of trades largely new to the American people. 
Whatever the course of coming development may be, 
however, shipbuilding will have the advantage of a 
more ample fund of training experience than any other 
industry in the country. This training constitutes a 
secure foundation for the future. 

Omaha Public Works To Cost $2,000,000 

An extensive program planned by the Department of 
Public Improvements of Omaha, Neb., will involve the 
expenditure of about $2,000,000 for sewers, paving and 
grading, and the extension of the park and boulevard 
system. The paving projects include the improvement 
of the main arteries leading into the city and the 
principal connecting streets, which will cost approxi- 
mately $500,000. For parkway and boulevard develop- 
ment there will be acquired about 160 acres of wooded 
ravines, sparsely covered with dilapidated dwellings. 
The sewer work includes the construction of a trunk 
line system outside the city limits, and a disposal plant 
to serve the Saddle Creek drainage area. The planning 
and execution of these improvements are under the di- 
rection of John A. Bruce, city engineer. 

January 2, 1919 



Fabricating Shop and Berth Equipment at Sun Shipyard 

Assembly Bay of Shop Delivers Finished Material to Shipbuilding Cranes — Multiple Punches 
and Roller Tables — Reinforced-Concrete Berths Served by Bridge Cranes 

A FABRICATING shop specially planned along orig- 
inal lines for systematic working and direct rout- 
ing of hull steel to the berths forms the central feature 
of the Sun Shipbuilding Co.'s new plant at Chester, 
Perm. The yard was designed 2| years ago for build- 
ing large oil tankers and cargo steamers ; since Decem- 
ber, 1916, when it began operation, it has put into the 
water 12 hulls of 10,000 to 13,000 tons, two of them said 
to be the largest freight steamers ever built. Among 
the features that give character to the yard, besides the 
shop, are concrete pile-bent shipways, bridge cranes on 
high runways serving the berths, a fixed hammer-head 
crane serving the wet dock, an excellentiy equipped 
boiler shop of capacity exceeding the needs of the yard, 
and a large engine and machine shop nearby — the plant 
formerly owned by Robert Wetherill & Co., Incorporated. 

The enlargement and rearrangement of the fabuicat- 
ing shop are now being carried out to improve the bal- 
ance of its departments. It is believed that when this 
work is completed the shop will rank second to none 
in the country for completeness of equipment. 

In order to carry the idea of direct routing through 

from the raw-steel storage to the berths, the shipbuild- 
ing end of the Sun yard is arranged as a compact 
group. There are five shipways, and the shop stands 
immediately at the head of the ways, with a space of 
only 150 ft. between its delivery side and the bow of 
a ship on the stocks. The crane runways over the 
berths are extended to the shop wall, and the cranes 
take their material directly from the doorways of th 1 ? 
shop, where the bridge cranes in the building deposit it. 
Separate Layout and Assembly Bays. — As originally 
planned, the shop consisted of three sections forming 
one continuous building. The main section in the mid- 
dle, 225 x 300 ft., is the fabricating shop, with its 
shorter side facing the shipways. Across the incoming 
end of this portion is a layout bay 80 x 500 ft., with a 
mold loft over it. In similar position across the out- 
going end is an assembly bay 80 x 600 ft., so that the 
entire shop has an H-shaped layout. Some of the spe- 
cially interesting structural features of the framing of 
the building were described in Enginering Record of 
Oct. 21 and Dec. 16, 1916, pp. 498 and 734. The layout 
and assembly bays are served by two bridge cranes each, 

FIG. i. 




Vol. 82, No. 1 


spanning the full 80-ft. width of the bay and traveling 
its entire length. The fabricating portion of the building 
has no bridge cranes, but is equipped with a number of 
overhead I-beam trolley runways, and, in the plate side 
of the shop, extensively rollers beds for transferring 

Revision of the layout will consist in adding on the 
east side of the fabricating section a 115 x 300-ft. ex- 
tension, making this section of the shop 340 x 300 ft. 

0' 100' 200' 300' 

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As indicated in the small sketch plans of the layout, 
Fig. 4, the addition will be devoted largely to furnaces 
and bending slabs, which will be moved from their pres- 
ent location separating the shape and plate fabrication. 
The shop as it now exists has ample plate capacity but 
inadequate shape capacity. The provision for straight 
shapes consists only of a single line of punches and 
shears along the east wall of the shop, with a longitudinal 
hoist trolley centered over the machines. Furthermore, 
the furnaces and slabs now separating the plate and 
shape sections not only interfered with any expansion 
of the shape-fabricating facilities, but also made it nec- 
essary to place a new plate multiple punch, acquired 
some time ago, in the layout shop. With the extension, 

and the furnaces and slabs accommodated there, the 
shape-fabricating section can be expanded as needed and 
room can be found within the area of the fabricating 
shop itself for the plate multiple and a new beam 

The shop was designed for an ultimate capacity of 
5000 tons of fabricated material a month. This would 
provide for a production of about 15 ships a year, count- 
ing 4000 to 4500 tons of steel per ship. It was thought, 
however, that a capacity of 150 tons per day per shift 
could be attained so that the day shift alone would be 
able to supply a production of 12 ships per year. It has 
not been possible to reach this output, but with the re- 
arranged shop these figures should be realized. 

Steady increase of the production of the shop has been 
recorded during the past season, through increasing effi- 
ciency of the working force. This is illustrated by the 
following figures for average daily output of the shop 
in four consecutive months, August to November: 180, 
195, 222, 227 tons. All this is on two-shift work. The 
night shift has a materially lower output than the day 
shift, although the same number of men are at work and 

Wot dock No. 2 is now under construction. Only the hull 
construction part of the yard is shown. An extensive machine 
shop and foundry plant belonging to the yard is located a quarter 
mile away 

the' working time is slightly longer. For November 
the total production of the day shift was 2866 tons and 
that of the night shift 1855 tons. 

Handling Materidl Through the Shop— The roller- 

January 2, 1919 




bed equipment of the plate section of the shop can be 
seen in the view, Fig. 6. Originally these rollers served 
also for supporting and moving the plates at the 
punches, but during the past year ten Lysholm manually- 
operated punch tables have been installed, and the shop 
will be equipped with them throughout. A wide multiple 
punch is already in service, as indicated in the sketch 
plan, Fig. 5, and a 42-in. multiple punch for beams is 
soon to be installed. Material is supplied to the shop 
by way of six standard-gage tracks entering the land- 
ward side of the layout shop from the storage yard. 
The bridge cranes of the layout bay take material from 
the cars as delivered from storage, and transfer it 
as needed for laying out, straightening, etc. They 
deliver the material finally to the roller beds, the 
furnaces, or the hoist trolleys in the shape section. 
The extension of the shop now under construction will 
be equipped with a very complete system of overhead 
trolley runways, carrying in part electric hoists and in 
part hand hoists, and connecting with three transverse 
runways now in service in the plate section of the 
shop. With this handling equipment, all facilities for 
the movement of material through the shop will be sup- 
plied. The trolleys and roller beds deliver the fabricated 
material to the edge of the assembly bay, where it is 
taken up by the bridge cranes traveling along that bay. 

All assembly bolting and riveting, from floors and 
frame brackets to bulkheads, is done in the assembly 
bay. This has proved a highly satisfactory feature of 
the original plan, though the officials state that an 
assembly area of twice the size could be used to advan- 
tage. The two 10-ton cranes in this bay suffice for 
handling assembled parts up to 20 tons in weight. This 
is enough to take care of all bulkheads (riveted up in 
half widths) except cofferdam bulkheads, which, with 
their stiffening girders, are assembled in the 'space 
between the shop and the head of the way. 

Referring to the sketch plan, Fig. 3, it will be seen 
that there is a track along the outgoing side of the 
assembly shop and spur tracks leading out under the 
crane trestles along the shipways. These were laid out 
with a view to distributing much of the ship and other 
construction material down along the berths by railway 

cars, but the tracks have been used very little for 
such service, the bridge cranes proving ample for all 



J — Ipunch 







t— 140' Shop 
as Extended 

FIG. 5. 




Vol. 82, No. 1 

FIG. 6. 


Two Cranes Per Shipivay — How the berths and 
cranes are arranged may be gathered from the view, 
Fig. 6, and the sketch, Fig. 7. The trestles are spaced 
115 ft. on centers, allowing for an 80-ft. width of 
shipway, a trestle width of 15 ft., and 10 ft. of clear 
space between shipway and trestle. The trestles are 
built of towers 15 x 25 ft. in plan, spaced 50 ft. apart, 
so that the crane runway spans are alternately 25 and 
50 ft. Each tower bent carries, by means of a trans- 
verse 30-in. girder, two crane run girders spaced 3 ft. 
apart and braced together for lateral stiffness. The 
crane girders in the tower spans are 30-in. I-beams, 
while the intermediate spans are 6-ft. plate girders. 

The design of the shipbuilding crane runs, which is 
distinguished by the use of single H-sections for the 
columns and heavy sections for beams, up to 30-in. 
200-lb. rolled girders for the transverse supports of the 
crane girders, was carried out by the Belmont Iron 
Works. The same concern designed and built the 
structure of the fabricating shop. 

Small Way-Head Storage — Fabricated material com- 
pleted in the shop- — whether punched or assembled — is 
in part retained in the shop until wanted on the ship, 
and in part placed in storage at the head of the ways 
and alongside the crane trestles. The original inten- 
tion was to take care of all this storage alongside the 

trestles, using the space at the 
head of the ways only for 
large assembly work, such as 
that of the cofferdam bulk- 
heads. It has been found more 
convenient, however, to pro- 
vide racks and stow material 
at the head of the ways, in 
small amounts. The heavy 
bulkhead assembly is carried 
on in this space, and stowage 
possibilities are therefore lim- 
ited. It is expected that the 
way-head storage and supple- 
mentary storage along the 
trestles will provide for all re- 
quirements of equalization be- 
tween shop and ship. 

Reinforced-Concrete Berth 
Construction — What is vir- 
tually a copy of timber pile 
bent way construction was adopted by J. N. Pew, presi- 
dent of the Sun Shipbuilding Co., who is responsible 
for the principal features of the yard layout and con- 
struction. The Raymond Concrete Pile Co. designed 
and built the ways. Some essential details are shown 
in Fig. 8. 

Over each pile a concrete column was molded. Trans- 
verse caps over the column bents, 80 ft. long over all, 
are connected by three longitudinal stringers near the 
center, and a spacer stringer along either side of the 
way. The center stringers are in the line of the keel 
blocks and the two launching ways. The transverse 
section in Fig. 7 makes their construction clear. For 
the rest, the bents are separate and wood flooring is 
placed over the caps to form a working surface. As 
the flooring is not fastened to the concrete the planks 
can be removed and replaced at any time. 

At the site the present surface is all hydraulic fill. 
There was water over much of the present yard area 
at the time construction commenced. Hard bottom is 
found 25 to 45 ft. down, however. The piles were 
driven to a firm bearing in this. They were placed 
to develop a carrying capacity of 30 tons, or 50 tons 
at i-in. settlement, but H. G. MacNees, plant engineer, 
believes that they would develop a 50-ton capacity with 
no appreciable settlement. The entire way structure 


-8 Bays or 25' and 8 Bays of 50 = 600- 




i Assembly 
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January 2, 1919 





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General Eleva+ion 

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is set on an j^-in. slope, this inclination being the 
launching slope. 

Excellent service has been given by these berth struc- 
tures. No damage or settlement of any kind has been 
noticed. The principal change that has been made is 
the addition of a short timber platform blocked up di- 
rectly on the ground, at the head of the ways, to form 
an extension for a longer ship than could be accommo- 
dated by the ways as originally built. 

From high-water level down, the ways are wholly of 
timber construction, and consist of separate transverse 
bents of piles spaced 5 ft. on centers, for a total length 
of 182 ft. outward of the lowest concrete bent. 

Storage Yard Rearranged for Bridge Crane Service — 
As originally planned, the area back of the fabricating 
shop was to be used for storing raw steel by flat piling 
on mud sills, the material to be handled by locomotive 
cranes from cars into storage and from storage into 


shop. A year's experience with this system made flat 
piling appear unsatisfactory, and racks were built. The 
final working out of the rearrangement is represented 
at present by a complete rack system covered by a 
bridge-crane runway spanning 80 feet and 800 feet 

The standard rack developed for this yard consists of 
a 12 x 12-in. base timber to one side of which are 
bolted 6 x 4-in. angle ' standards, spread about 24 in. 

at the bottom and about 10 in. at the top, where they 
are conected by a gusset plate. These standards are 
stiffened by a short length of 8-in. channel at mid 
height. No longitudinal connection between parallel 
members of the rack is used. 

Wet Dock Being Duplicated — The present wet dock is 
an excavated basin, 200 x 600 ft., walled by concrete 
retaining walls on pile-supported timber platforms. It 
is served by a fixed McMyler-Interstate hammer-head 
crane of 120 tons capacity. The machine is fitted with 
an auxiliary hoist of smaller lifting capacity. Engines 
and boilers (Scotch) are set in the ship here. 
The hammer-head crane does all minor handling at 
the fitting-out dock also, no other lifting machines being 

To increase the dock capacity, a second basin, 100 
ft. shorter, is now under construction immediately to 
the west. This will be served by a locomotive crane on 

portal base, of light load ca- 
pacity but with f'ist motions, 
for handling general fitting- 
out work. The heavy lift will 
still be handled at the ham- 
mer-head crane, as described. 
The Sun Shipbuilding Co. was 
formed as an offshoot of the 
Sun Oil Co., whose main plant 
is only a few miles farther 
down on the Delaware River. 
Building large tank steamers 
for the oil company was the 
principal business at the start. 
Orders soon came for large 
cargo steamers, however, and 
the present program of construction at the Sun yard 
includes mainly cargo steamers. As already stated, the 
yard was planned and is being operated as a specialist 
institution for vessels of about 10,000 tons. For 1919 
the intention is to work the yard at a rate to produce 
18 ships in the twelve months. This means a building 
time of 100 days per ship. Such a rate of working could 
now be realized except for the fact that the fabricating 
shop has not reached full output capacity. 

Hints for the Contractor 


Close Sequence of Operations Cuts 
Construction Time 

Caissons for War Work Factory Started as Soon as 

Steam Shovel Clears Sites — Construction Crews 

Scheduled to Crowd Each Other 

CREWS purposely scheduled to crowd close on each 
other's heels were employed to speed construction 
on a concrete factory recently completed in Chicago. 
Occasionally, a crew was started even before work was 
ready for it, so as to increase the progress of the crew 
ahead. Clamoring for right-of-way, the concreting gang 
pushed the steel men and the steel men crowded the 
form carpenters, and behind all drove the contractor, 
with materials supplied and construction plans laid out 
well ahead of the best speed the workmen could reach. 

War contracts required the completion of the building 
in four months. The ground dimensions were 108 x 
76 ft. and the height was seven stories. The foundations 
were 24 open caissons sunk to rock at a depth every- 
where less than 50 ft. Square outside columns and 
round interior columns carried longitudinal girders, 
between which were concrete joist-and-tile-fill floors of 
the Johnson type. A two-story building occupied the 
site. This had to be removed and a basement excavated. 
The work was let for a lump sum. Labor supply was 
the great problem, since war industries were offering 
workmen bonuses and unlimited overtime on percentage 

Close sequence of operations was the plan devised to 
meet the speed requirements. 
As soon as a corner of the old 
building was wrecked, a steam 
shovel started excavating the 
basement, and as soon as the 
steam shovel had cleared suf- 
ficient space a single caisson 
was started. Caisson sinking 
proceeded by usual methods, 
except that, owing to quick- 
sand and water, a large part 
of the lagging had to be driv- 
en and the wells were driven 
one at a time, using a hand 
windlass, as fast as the shovel 
cleared the site, instead of 
waiting until the general ex- 

How much 

would you have 

saved ? 

When you figured how much that new 
"stunt" saved you last year, did you 
stop to think how much more it would 
have saved if you had tried it out the 
year before ? 

By telling about it in "Hints for 
the Contractor," you and the 

"other fellow" may both be "in" just 
that much next year. 

All contributions used will be paid for. 

cavation had proceeded far enough to allow an en- 
gine to be rigged up to carry a number of wells 
at once. By this plan, the caisson work kept close behind 
the shovel, and the foundations were finished in prac- 

A. First-floor girder being- poured 
in this corner, by use of temporary 
portable mixing plant. B. Form 
building and sb-el placing in all 
stages of progress proceeding in 
space between. C. Uast foundation 
caisson being sunk in this corner. 


January 2, 1919 



tically the same time as was the general excavation. 
As fast as the caissons were ready, the foundation 
girders under the basement floor were concreted. At 
the same time, the adjacent building was shored. 
Retaining wall work followed as rapidly as the way was 
cleared for the forms. As shown by the view, slightly 
over one month after construction was started the old 
building was wrecked, the general excavation was com- 
pleted, all but one caisson had been excavated and con- 
creted, the foundation girders and the retaining walls 
were finished, concreting was in progress on the first 
floor girders, and column steel and floor forms were in 
various stages of erection. The view shows how close 
the sequence of operations was. It shows the last cais- 
son being sunk in one corner, and the first floor slab 
being poured in the other corner. The procedure out- 
lined saved two or three weeks' time at the start of the 

It was decided to handle the concrete by spouting from 
a tower at the end of the building to a hopper at 
the center of each floor, and to deliver the concrete from 
the hopper to the forms by carts. The 2-cu.yd. mixer 
for the tower plant was used first for concreting the 
caissons, and was busy on this work until after the 
first floor concreting was begun. A small portable mixer 
was, therefore, installed temporarily to concrete the 
first floor and the retaining walls until the larger ma- 
chine was free and the tower could be erected and the 
spouting strung. 

Concreting of columns and floors followed the same 
close sequence as characterized the operations on the 
foundations and basement. As soon as carpenters had a 
section of floor forms ready, bridgemen were started 
laying steel and masons placing tile, and the concreting 
gang followed close behind. Each crew was kept close 
on the heels of the crew ahead, crowding it to get it 
out of the way. Often a gang was started even before 
the gang ahead was ready for it to take up the work. 
The fact that the job was war emergency work was kept 
constantly before the men. Constant pressure on the 
workmen by the means outlined was the secret of the 
progress made. 

The building was designed by Holabird & Roche, 
architects, Chicago. Avery Brundage was the contrac- 
tor. The contractor's superintendent was W. G. Nelson. 
Bauer & Black, Chicago, are the owners. 

Service Connections to Concrete 
Water Mains 

METAL pipe fittings, such as are kept in stock, can be 
used in making service-pipe connections to concrete 
pressure pipe for city distribution lines, by a device re- 
cently developed by the Lock' Joint Pipe Co., Ampere, 
N. J. Malleable iron couplings are embedded in the orig- 
inal pipe when cast, as shown in the illustration. The 
inner end is fitted with a bronze plug inside of a malle- 
able iron bushing. The outside end is fitted with a plug 
of malleable-iion, and the space between them is filled 
with grease. When everything is in readiness for con- 
nections, the outer plug is removed and the plug on the 
inner end is unscrewed by means of a stem inserted 
through a T, as shown in the sketch. The plug is then 

fill with Cup Grease 


raised to and screwed into a faced bushing at the top of 
the T. The stem is unscrewed, along with the packing 
nut and perforated cap, and a solid cap is screwed on 
the faced bushing at the top. No tapping machines 
are required, and the excavation need be carried only 
to the top of the pipe. 

Split Straightedge Corrects Joint Humps 
In Concrete Pavement 

HUMPS in a concrete pavement due tofhigh slabs at 
joints are prevented in Wisconsin road work, ac- 
cording to F. M. Balsley, division engineer of the 
Wisconsin Highway Commission, by the use of the split 
straightedge shown by the drawing. Owing to the 
projection of the joint filler above the slabs, the strike 

(Not to . 

.... 3 ' ; 



-Edge is Steel Shod ^n 





board canno„ ^e swept across the joint, and frequently, 
when it is lifted to start the next slab, exact elevation 
is not secured. The result is a high slab, as indicated 
by the drawing. Use of the split float at the joint will 
bring the edges of the two slabs to a common elevation, 
as at A, in the diagram, but there will still be a hump, 
as at B. The split straightedge, applied as indicated 
by the diagram, permits the detection of this hump or 
other irregularities in the planes. 

The construction of the straightedge is simple. A 
li x 8-in. plank is cut as shown, and the edge is beveled 
sharp and shod with sheet metal. 


News of the Week 

New York, January 2, 1919 

American Engineering 
Success in War's Test 

Accomplishments by Engineers Cited to 

Rebuke Recent Utterances on 

Need for Training 

That American engineers have suc- 
ceeded in impressing the general public 
by the success of their work in the great 
war's crucial test is demonstrated by 
the comment of the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger in a recent editorial. This com- 
ment is so illuminating and informative 
that it is reproduced, as follows: 

"This seems to be an odd moment 
for the recent pessimistic utterances of 
one of the professors at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology on the 
need of better training in all our engi- 
neering schools. For the fact is, not 
only have the professional engineers 
and their associates from West Point 
and Annapolis and all their 'amateur 
assistants who went into the Army and 
Navy covered themselves with glory in 
the war, but at this very moment, when 
the English University Commission has 
started back for home, its farewell 
opinion is more than usually flattering 
to American collegiate and university 
education. Moreover, what it particu- 
larly admired and marveled at was the 
splendid equipment of the technical 
schools and the physical laboratories in 
our larger institutions. In this it but 
confirmed English opinion as expressed 
in the friendly report of Alfred Mose- 
ley's unofficial commission, which made 
a survey of engineering training and 
practice in this country about a decade 
ago, a report that was a great tribute 
to the American trained engineer and 
to American schools. 

"But if any confirmation of the 
value of the American engineer and of 
the technical training that has given 
him an efficiency recognized everywhere 
be needed, it will be found in Prof. 
William M. Sloane's brilliant account 
of his experience with the leading Ger- 
man magnates when he was one of our 
exchange professors. In his inimitable 
way, Professor Sloane has told how 
these German specialists fumed at the 
mouth because the American engineers 
were successful and beat the German 
engineers, when from the Prussian 
point of view, such a thing ought to 
have been impossible, since America 
was a wretched country, without stand- 
ards of education and without indi- 
viduals possessing any capacity for 
science or Kultur. 

"Well, as the very modest recent re- 
port of President Vail, of the Ameri- 
can Telephone and Telegraph Co., 
shows, in his discussion of the new 

(Concluded on page 66) 

Wide Building Campaign Involving Billions 
About To Be Started by Government 

^uild Now for Better America" Is Slogan of Department of 
Labor in Beginning Movement 

(Washington Correspondence) 

A great building campaign, involv- 
ing the construction of highways, pub- 
lic works of other character, homes, 
and public utilities, is about to be un- 
dertaken by the Government, largely 
for the purpose of making certain that 
employment will be found for demo- 
bilized soldiers. 

An organization to conduct the cam- 
paign is now being created in Wash- 
ington, with headquarters at 16 Jack- 
son Place, under the general supervis- 
ion of Secretary Wilson of the Depart- 
ment of Labor, and with the coopera- 
tion of the American Federation of 
Labor and other labor interests. The 
following slogan has been adopted: 

"Build now for greater and better 
America. A billion for roads; two bil- 
lions for public works; three billions 
for a million new American homes. 
What are you doing to help this cam- 

City Officials Urged To Build 

The Department of Labor, as one of 
the first steps in the campaign, is send- 
ing the following message to wage 
earners throughout the country: "Use 
your influence with your city fathers, 
your selectmen and other town officers 
to start at once municipal and town 
improvement." Cities and towns are 
being urged to build school houses, en- 
gine houses, roads, canals and other 
improvements. To those who believe 
that the cost of building will be less 
in a few years than it is now, the De- 
partment of Labor is replying that 
"probably 95% of the cost of a resi- 
dence ultimately goes to labor when- 
ever a house is built, so that the cost 
is almost immaterial to wage earners 
as a class." 

Secretary Baker of the War Depart- 
ment is cooperating in the campaign, 
and has sent telegrams to the Govern- 
ors asking them to urge in inaugural 
messages the immediate resumption of 
building of every character. 

One of the first branches of the new 
activity of the Government to be or- 
ganized is the "Own a Home" branch, 
which has been placed under the 
direction of the Information and Edu- 
cation Service of the Department of 
Labor, of which Roger W. Babson is 
chief. Mr. Babson is creating an or- 
ganization of assistants, headed by 
Franklin T. Miller of New York City. 

One of the arguments being used in 

favor of the "Own a Home" movement 
is the figures as to increase of popu- 
lation. The population of the United 
States normally increases, exclusive of 
immigration, by 3,000,000 persons an- 
nually. At this rate the population is 
supposed to have increased by 6,000,000 
during the past two years, during 
which the building of homes has been 
largely suspended. It is estimated that 
it is necessary to build 315,000 homes 
each year to meet increased housing 
needs, and that the building of 630,000 
homes is necessary now. Secretary 
Wilson's statement is as follows: 

"I am of the opinion that from the 
time we restore ourselves to our nor- 
mal post-war activities, the demand 
for peace-time production will be so 
great that there will not be the remot- 
est possibility of securing any reduc- 
tion in the wage rates from their pres- 
ent basis. I feel further, that the 
manufacturer who fails to take into 
consideration the prospects of the fu- 
ture and who, in a hope of securing a 
cheaper labor or cheaper raw material, 
does not build up his organization and 
maintain it during the possibly brief 
period of readjustment, will be handi- 
capped in securing his share of the 
business afterward; because he will 
be handicapped through lack of work- 
ing forces in his factory. 

"It therefore seems to me that the 
situation resolves itself into taking 
care of the possible problem in the in- 
terim between our ceasing war activities 
and the time when we have assumed 
our natural post-war activities. 

Labor Reservoir Suggested 

"With the attitude of mind that I 
have expressed as existing on the part 
of some manufacturers relative to 
waiting for a lowering in the price of 
raw material and the price of labor, it 
may be that the restoration of indus- 
try will pot take place as rapidly as the 
demobilization takes place. We are not 
sure of that. There ought to be pro- 
vision made for a reservoir that would 
absorb the demobilized workers and 
the demobilized soldiers, not in doing 
the things which there is no need to 
have done, but in doing the things that 
ought to be done — that are valuable for 
peace-time purposes — a reservoir that 
will take care of them for the brief 
period between their dismissal from the 
Army or their dismissal from the war 

January 2, 1919 



industries until they can be reabsorbed 
into the natural post-war industrial 

"The Department of Agriculture is 
taking steps to accomplish part of that 
purpose in the matter of road improve- 
ment, highway improvements, on the 
theory Congress has acted on in the 
past, that for military purposes and for 
postal routes roads, are necessary all 
over the country. Where men are em- 
ployed in road-building, they do not 
have to be taken from their own home 
communities to engage in the work. 
The Department of Agriculture, there- 
fore, has asked or is about to ask for 
an increased appropriation which will 
enable it, in cooperation with the re- 
spective states, to engage in a nation- 
wide project of road-building that will 
absorb, if need be, some of these work- 
ers temporarily, until industry re- 
sumes its natural course. 

"During the period of the war, be- 
cause of the shortage of workmen, 
there has been little or no municipal 
activity in building operations, in park 
extensions, in sewer extension, water- 
works, or any other of the public utili- 
ties. They have been delayed and post- 
poned because of the shortage of man- 
power and because of the inability to 
finance them. We are suggesting, 
through the Department of Labor, to 
the various municipalities throughout 
the country, the advisability of their 
resuming these activities at as early a 
date as possible. 

"Whenever it is possible to utilize 
public means, wherever it is possible to 
undertake public work, or things that 
are valuable for peace-time purposes, 
they should be undertaken as promptly 
as possible." 

Colleges To Train Reserve Officers 

With the demobilization of the 
Students' Army Training Corps, vari- 
ous colleges of the country will turn 
their attention to the Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps. Before the war there 
were about 115 units of the latter, in 
as many colleges. About 100 of these 
are being reestablished and applications 
have been received for the formation 
of about 200 new units. 

Secretary of War Baker announces 
one important change in the organiza- 
tion which is now being worked out 
to allow the units to specialize in train- 
ing officer material for the field artil- 
lery, engineer, signal, coast artillery, 
ordnance, medical, and military aero- 
nautics corps, instead of the uniform 
training for infantry, which was the 
rule before the war. 

The administration of the Reserve 
Officers' Training Corps has been placed 
in the hands of the Committee on Edu- 
cation and Special Training. The 
committee will attempt to make avail- 
able a large amount of scientific and 
technical material which has been de- 
veloped by the experience of the war, 
and in all units special emphasis will 
be placed on physical training and mass 

Government Concrete Ships 
Now Building 

Owing to Cancellation of Some Con- 
tracts Big Ships Have Been Cut 
From 42 to 14 

In Engineering News-Record of Sept. 
5, 1918, p. 471, there was published a 
list of Government concrete ships then 
contracted for. That list has since 
been curtailed, so that at present the 
tabular statement represents Govern- 
ment concrete shipbuilding at the end 
of 1918. The cut is entirely in big 
ships. Instead of 42 vessels, mainly 
of the 7500-ton class, to be built in the 
agency yards, the Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration is reducing contracts to 14, 
distributed as shown in the table. 
In addition, there are a number of 
barges under construction for private 
account, though there is no record of 
any private ships being built. 

construction of the two tankers was 
started the latter part of October. 
About 30% of the steel has been placed. 
The inside forms have been made and 
partly erected. First concrete will be 
poured in January. The cargo ship 
will not be started until after the first 
tanker has been launched. 

The San Diego yard is building two 
7500-ton concrete tankers. Construc- 
tion on these was started early in De- 
cember. Outside forms are now prac- 
tically completed, and some steel has 
been placed. The first concrete will not 
be poured until the latter part of 

Two 7500-ton concrete tankers and 
one 7500-ton cargo ship are to be built 
at San Francisco. The construction 
on the two tankers was started the 
middle of October. The outside forms 
on both ships have been completely 
fabricated. About 60% of the steel 


Emergency Fleet 
Corporation. . . 

Navy Department 

Railroad Admin- 

Supervised by 
E. F. C.) 

War Transport. 
Branch, War 

Type of Boat No. 

3500-ton Freighter I 

3000-ton Freighter 1 

3500-ton Freights r . . 2 

7500-ton Tankers 2 \ 

7500-ton Freighter 1 

7500-ton Tankers.. 2 

7500-ton Freighter 1 

7500-ton Tankers 2 

7500-ton Tankers .... 2 

500-ton Harbor Lighters . 4 

500-ton Harbor I ighteis. . . 4 

500-ton Harbor Lightf rs. . . 4 
500-ton N. Y. Barge Canal 

Barges 8 

500-ton N. Y. Barge Canal 

Barges 4 

500-ton N. Y. Barge Canal 

Barges 5 

500-ton N. Y. Barge Canal 

Barges 4 

130-ft. River Boats 9 

100-ft. Water Tankers 5 

265-ft. Car Floats 6 


Name of Contractor Location of Yard 
Fougner Concrete Shipbuilding 

Co Astoria, L. I. 

Liberty Shipbuilding Co Brunswick, Ga. 

Liberty Shipbuilding Co Wilmington, N. C. 

San Francisco Shipbuilding Co. Oakland, Cal. 

F. T. Ley & Co Mobile, Ala. 

A. Bentley Sons Jacksonville, Fla. 

Scofield Eng. Co San Diego.Cal. 

Ambursen Consn. Co Little Ferry, N. J. 

L. L. Brown Co Peekskill, N. Y. 

S. H. Beskin Beacon, N. Y. 

Holler-Davis & Flood Co Fort Edward, N. Y. 

Caldwell-Marshall Co Tonawanda, N. Y. 

Grayhaven Shipbuilding Co. . . Detroit, Mich. 

Cummings Structural Concrete 

Co Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Contracts not ccn plet(d) 

Gt. Northern Sbldg. Co Vancouver, Wash. 

Liberty Sbldg. & Transp. Co. . . Cleveland, O. 

L. B. Harrison Co Athens, N. Y. 

The status of construction in the 
large ships is as follows: 

At Wilmington, N. C, there are un- 
der construction two 3500-ton concrete 
cargo ships on molded lines. The yard, 
with two ways, was completed suffi- 
ciently to start the construction of 
ships about Oct. 15. The outside forms 
of one ship are practically complete, 
and part of the steel has been placed. 
On the second ship the outside forms 
are about 40% erected. There has 
been some delay in construction in this 
yard due to the change in the Shipping 
Board's program, which originally con- 
templated the building of both tankers 
and cargo ships in this yard. 

The present program of the Shipping 
Board contemplates the construction of 
two 7500-ton tankers at Jacksonville. 
Construction work upon these two ships 
was started about the middle of No- 
vember. The outside forms are prac- 
tically completed on both ships, and 
some steel has been placed in both 
ships. The first concrete will be poured 
about Feb. 10. 

At the Mobile yard the construction 
of two 7500-ton concrete tankers and 
one 7500-ton cargo ship is now con- 
templated by the Shipping Board. The 

has been placed. The inside forms are 
built and partly erected. The first con- 
crete will be poured in January. The 
construction of the cargo ship will not 
start until the first tanker is launched. 

The Brunswick ship has been 
launched and the Fougner ship is 
nearly ready to launch. 

The status of construction of the 
canal barges is as follows: Concreting 
has been completed on eight barges. 
Five are now in the water and 19 of 
the 21 under contract are either com- 
pleted or under construction. Of the 
other boats, three of the Navy barges 
have been delivered, two of the Army 
car-floats have been poured, and one 
water-tank steamer has been poured. 

Army Will Sell Horses and Mules 

Contractors who need horses and 
mules may be able to get some cheap 
at auction sales of surplus animals to 
be held at the various camps and can- 
tonments during January. The sched- 
ule calls for four sales, Jan. 7, 14, 21 
and 28, at which a total of 44,455 ani- 
mals will be sold. These will include 
cavalry horses, artillery horses, draft 
horses, mules and pack animals. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

American Engineering Success 
in War 

(Concluded from page 6t) 
multiplex device for 'phone and tele- 
graph, the invention, one of the greatest 
ever made, was not the freakish dis- 
covery of one mind, but the result of 
the team work of hundreds of men on 
the company's technical staff. Not only 
that, but suggestions from men trained 
at Annapolis and West Point also 
proved helpful. In other words, the 
discovery was the result of the high 
equipment of the average American 
trained in the average school of tech- 
nology or in that of trade experience. 
And one naturally mentions this multi- 
plex discovery, since, taken in connec- 
tion with the resourcefulness and 
initiative which mark so much of the 
college-trained, school-trained and shop- 
trained Americans on the battlefield in 
which they completely outclassed their 
German opponents, it is a feather in 
our cap and calls for some little reas- 
surance, if not complete optimism, as 
to the American methods of the present. 
"Moreover, the English engineer has 
also shown up well in war, although 
Germany despised the English experts 
for years and also had a poor opinion 
of the Frenchman's ability. And yet 
the English tanks, the French baby 
tanks, the French guns, to say noth- 
ing of the supreme French airplanes — 
and also not forgetting the Italian en- 

gineers and mecnanicians who reached 
an almost super-excellence — have all 
achieved wonders in the war and beat 
the Germans point by point in every 
line of action. 

"The fact is, we must stimulate our 
own and we must increase our facili- 
ties for training engineers and for 
reaching down and connecting and 
gearing up the various engineering 
trades with the technical colleges and 
universities. But while it is quite right 
not to relax or fall back, at the same 
time we should take a little satisfaction 
in the evidence that the German sys- 
tem of education and the state-com- 
manded scheme of a standardized uni- 
versal Kultur has proved a failure so 
far as the question of developing men 
with initiative and individual resource- 
fulness is concerned. That our labora- 
tories are likely to attract English 
students is another thing we can take 
to heart with comfort. Aside from 
this, it is clear that as civilization in 
the future will demand more of the 
engineer than ever, this demand our 
schools and colleges must meet. That 
they will no one can doubt. And as a 
sort of first instance, the recent re- 
organization of the Yale Graduate 
School, by which the Sheffield Scien- 
tific School and the Arts are grouped 
under a common head, with an in- 
crease of the undergradute scientific 
course from three to four years, is 
proof of the pudding." 

Six Highway Bills Introduced in 
Congress During December 

Besides the $1,000,000,000 highway 
bill introduced by Senator Smoot (as 
reported in Engineering 'News-Record 
of Dec. 26, p. 1198), five other road 
bills were introduced in Congress dur- 
ing December. While Senator Smoot's 
bill provided for a complete reorgan- 
ization of highway administration by 
the Federal Government, the other bills 
aimed at utilizing present agencies and 
were either amendments to the present 
Federal-aid highway law or utilized 
the organizations of the War and Post- 
office Departments. A joint resolution 
was also introduced, which provides 
for the handing over to the Secretary 
of Agriculture by the Secretary of 
War of such war material as may be 
used in highway construction work. 

Senator Smoot's bill provides for the 
formation of a United States Highway 
Commission, to be composed of the 
Chairman of the Senate Committee on 
Postoffices and Post Roads, the chair- 
man of the House Committee on Roads 
and the Director of the Bureau of Pub- 
lic Roads. It proposes to issue bonds 
to the amount of $1,000,000,000, the 
proceeds of which will be distributed to 
the states in proportion to the aver- 
age percentage of their percentages 
of population, total assessed valuation, 
and total mileage of public highways. 
When mon»v is supplied to the states, 
they must deposit state bonds, drawing 
interest at 4%, to cover the amount 
advanced to them. The 4% interest 
shall pay the 3% rate on the United 

States highway bond issues, and also 
establish a sinking fund to pay for 
these bonds. Long-time payments are 
provided for the state bonds. It is fur- 
ther provided that the Federal Govern- 
ment shall pay yearly to the depositing 
states 2% of the amount deposited, to 
be expended in maintenance. 

Of the four bills providing for the 
utilization of the present Federal high- 
way administration, those by Senator 
Bankhead, and Senator Swanson, in 
the Senate, and Representative Browne 
in the House of Representatives, are 
practically identical. They are in the 
form of amendments to the present 
Federal-aid highway law and consist of 
a change in wording to permit a wider 
interpretation of the words "post road," 
to cover any road that might so 
be used. They also provide for the 
appropriation of $50,000,000, to be im- 
mediately available; $75,000,000, avail- 
able July 1, 1919; $75,000,000, avai- 
able July 4, 1920; and $100,000,000, an- 
nually to July 1, 1924. Another bill, 
introduced by Representative Shackle- 
ford, provides for a similar change in 
wording and for an appropriation not 
to exceed $150,000,000 per year. 

The other bill was introduced by 
Senator Swanson, and provides for 
the setting aside of 50% of the net pro- 
ceeds derived from the operation of 
motor trucks engaged in carrying par- 
cel post, to be expended in the survey, 
construction, reconstruction, improve- 
ment, repair, maintenance and admin- 
istration of such highways as might be 
selected by the Postmaster General for 
the transportation of mail. 

Criticisms of Chicago Paving 
Administration Retracted 

Some time ago Prof. Ira O. Baker, 
of the University of Illinois, made a 
report on pavements in Chicago (see 
Engineering News of Dec. 7, 1916), 
which contained criticisms of the engi- 
neers and inspectors of the Board of 
Local Improvements. Some of the 
statements made in this report were 
shown on investigation to be based 
upon incorrect premises, and the fol- 
lowing statement was obtained from 
Professor Baker of the Illinois Society 
of Engineers: 

"Under date of Nov. 20, 1916, I for- 
warded to the Committee on Finance 
of the City of Chicago the manuscript 
of a report entitled "Report on Pave- 
ments Recently Built by the Board of 
Local Improvements of the City of 
Chicago." That report implied that 
there had been a considerable shortage 
in the thickness of all concrete founda- 
tions of pavements, and also in the 
thickness of the binder courje and of 
the wearing coat of all sheet-asphalt 
pavements, which statements have 
been strongly objected to by the engi- 
neers of the Board of Local Improve- 

Pavements Examined Representative 

"In preparing those parts of my re- 
port, I inquired specifically of the engi- 
neers of the technical staff as to 
whether or not the inspectors selected 
pavements of particular contractors, 
or pavements that were known to be 
faulty, and received an answer that 
convinced me that the pavements ex- 
amined by the inspectors were fairly 
representative. I next inquired of the 
staff whether or not the summary of 
observations by the inspectors included 
all the observations made, and I was 
informed that they did. I asked for 
the inspectors' reports, and compared 
them with my report and found them 
to agree with the summary which the 
staff had furnished me. 

"I had no reason for believing that 
my report was in error in any of these 
three matters, until I heard the testi- 
mony of one of the inspectors during 
the progress of the investigation con- 
ducted by a board appointed by the 
Chicago Civil Service Commission, 
Mar. 5-9, 1917. I then learned for the 
first time that, if the inspector found 
any defects in a pavement, he pre- 
pared a somewhat elaborate report from 
his field notes and filed that report; 
but, if he found no defects, he filed no 
report thereof. The data furnished to 
me were a summary of these special 
reports, and did not include any state- 
ment that other pavements had been 
inspected and found to be according to 
the specifications. 

"All of my intercourse with the staff 
engineers convinces me that their only 
desire was to have the facts correctly 
presented, and I feel quite sure that 
they were entirely innocent of wrong 
intention in the matter. 

"It is plain that as a number of ob- 
servations were made and defects found 

January 2, 1919 



in only some cases, it was wrong to 
assume that the observations in which 
defects were discovered were repre- 
sentative of all the work done by the 
board during that season. I am very 
sorry that my report was not correct 
in these particulars; and am sorry 
to have made erroneous statements 
which have been considered as reflect- 
ing upon the honor of engineers of the 
Board of Local Improvements. I in- 
tended no such reflection. 

"Public acknowledgment of the er- 
rors in my report has been delayed for 
a year and half on account of the fact 
that. three investigations of the report 
have been pending. I believed, that, 
awaiting the outcome of these investi- 
gations, any statement concerning the 
matter by me might be considered as 
an attempt to forestall the verdict of 
the investigating body. I do not think 
that the delay in this acknowledgment 
has done any serious harm, since in the 
investigation conducted a year and a 
half ago by the board appointed by the 
Chicago Civil Service Commission I 
freely acknowledged my error, and 
since the findings of that board have 
been given wide publicity. 

"Ira 0. Baker." 

Louisville Club To Draft Bill 
For Licensing Engineers 

The Engineers' and Architects' Club 
of Louisville, Ky., at its December 
meeting, unanimously passed a reso- 
lution providing that a committee of 
three be appointed to draft a bill li- 
censing engineers and architects, and 
submit the draft to the board of di- 
rection. Then it is to be sent to every 
engineer and architect in the state of 
Kentucky of whom the committee can 
learn — including consulting engineers 
and architects and men holding sal- 
aried positions — with the request that 
the men addressed indicate whether 
they are in favor of licensing engineers 
and architects, and if so, that they sug- 
gest any desired changes in the bill 
as drafted. 

The resolution also provides that the 
committee shall make such revisions in 
the draft as it may deem wise, submit 
it to the board of direction and then 
to the club, and, after approval, that 
a copy be sent to every member of the 
Kentucky legislature with the request 
that the bill be passed, and with a 
statement of the number of men in 
the state who expressed an opinion for 
or against the bill. 

Rivers and Harbors Bill Reported 

The current rivers and harbors bill, 
reported to the House of Representa- 
tives Dec. 21, contains items totaling 
$27,000,000, made up, practically, 
wholly of the usual project improve- 
ments. Large items are $4,000,000 for 
continuing the East River improve- 
ment at New York City, $2,500,000 for 
the Delaware below Philadelphia, and 
$3,000,000 for the Chesapeake & Dela- 
ware canal. 

Wood-Preserving and Tie Men 
To Meet in St. Louis 

The 15th annual meeting of the Am- 
erican Wood Preservers' Association 
will be held in St. Louis, Jan. 28-29. 
On the following two days a meeting 
of the tie producers of the country, to 
effect a national organization, will be 
held under the auspices of the tie and 
timber division, St. Louis Chamber of 
Commerce, in order to bring together 
both producers and users of cross ties. 

In order to correlate the programs 
of the two bodies, the meeting of the 
American Wood Preservers' Associa- 
tion has been curtailed to two days, 
with three sessions on the first day 
and two on the second, concluding with 
a joint dinner with the National Tie 
Producers' Association. A session on 
the first day of the meeting will be 
devoted to consideration of the pre- 
servative materials situation, and a 
session on the second day to the tie 

War Committee on Technical So- 
cieties Handled Many Problems 

As stated in the final report by D. 
W. Brunton, chairman, before its dis- 
bandment on Dec. 31, the War Com- 
mittee on Technical Societies cooperated 
with the Naval Consulting Board and 
issued two bulletins, one on "The 
Enemy Submarine" and one on "Prob- 
lems of Aeroplane Improvement." Be- 
fore these bulletins on concrete prob- 
lems were issued, only four-tenths of 
one per cent, of the matter received 
was adjudged by the committee of 
technical examiners to ha^e sufficient 
merit to go before the final examiners 
of the Naval Consulting Board. Since 
that time the percentage has risen to 
4.7%. The material received ranged 
from airplane superchargers and fuel 
for high altitude flying down to subma- 
rine detectors and depth bombs; from 
long-range guns to trench knives; from 
observation balloons to tunneling ma- 
chines, and from caterpillar tanks to 
radium sights. More than 110,000 
ideas, suggestions and inventions were 
received and passed upon by the Naval 
Department and the Naval Consulting 
Board, either separately or conjointly, 
while the Inventions Section of the 
General Staff, which is a much younger 
organization, has already handled over 

The inventions received may be 
roughly divided into four classes: (1) 
Those which have no intrinsic or sug- 
gestive value; (2) those which, while 
having no real value in themselves, 
suggest new lines of thought and in- 
vestigations; (3) inventions which 
have considerable promise, but are not 
yet developed to a point where it is 
possible to pass judgment on them, 
and (4) inventions which are suffi- 
ciently perfected so that they can be 
investigated and tested. Ample facili- 
ties for testing inventions of the fourth 
class are provided by the Bureau of 
Standards and the Bureau of Mines, 
in Washington. The ideas, suggestions 

and inventions belonging to the sec< nd 
and third classes are, of course, much 
more numerous, and the necessity of 
providing some means for solving prob- 
lems and developing inventions has long 
been apparent. In many instances, in- 
ventors have not the funds, the scien- 
tific knowledge or the mechanical skill 
to perfect their own inventions, hence 
aid in each of these directions is neces- 
sary in order that the country may reap 
the full benefit of the originality of its 
citizens. ^^ 

Army Engineers Designated for 
Early Return 

The War Department has announced 
that the following engineer units have 
been placed on the priority list for or- 
ders to return to this country: 

Fortieth Engineers, placed on prior- 
ity list Dec. 4, 33 officers and 623 men; 
109th Engineers,- Sappers, placed on 
priority Nov. 26; 311th Engineers and 
Engineer Train, Nov. 29, 57 officers, 
1685 men; 312th Engineers, Nov. 26, 
headquarters, 24 officers and 29 men; 
headquarters company, two officers and 
156 men; o. A, three officers and 224 
men; Co. B, five officers and 221 men; 
Co. C, five officers and 217 men; head- 
quarters detachment, one officer and 
three men; Co. D, four officers and 245 
men; Co. E, six officers and 237 men; 
Co. F, five officers and 241 men; 312th 
Engineers' Train, two officers and 74 
men; 319th Engineers and Train, Dec. 
4, four officers and 217 men; Co. E, 
four officers and 222 men; Engineer 
Casual Co. No. 1, Dec. 4. two officers 
and 223 men; Second Engineers, Dec. 
6, Cos. F, I, K and Medical detach- 
ment, 20 officers and 760 men; Cos. 
D, E, G and H, 35 officers and 1000 
men; 26th Engineers, Dec. 17; Co. A, 
eight officers and 253 men; Co. B, three 
officers and 181 men; 27th Engineers, 
Dec. 16, 46 officers and 1409 men; 29th 
Engineers, Dec. 12, headquarters de- 
tachment, two officers and eight men; 
Co. B, 14 officers and 238 men; Co. C, 
11 officers and 185 men; Co. D, eight 
officers and 83 men; Co. E, 14 officers 
and 119 men; attached, three officers 
and 18 men; Co. F and detachment, 24 
officers and 408 men; Engineer Casual 
Co. No. 1, Dec. 4, two officers and 223 
men; 317th Engineers placed on pri- 
ority Dec. 4, cancelled Dec. 16. 

It was stated that the units generally 
arrive in this country from four to 
six weeks after being placed on the 
priority list. 

New President for University 
of Wisconsin 

Dr. Edward A. Birge was elected 
president of the University of Wiscon- 
sin Dec. 17 to succeed Dr. Charles R. 
Van Hise, who died on Nov. 19. Dr. 
Birge has been dean of the College 
of Letters and Science for the past 27 
years, and a member of the faculty 
of the university for 43 years. He 
will assume the office of president at 
once, having been acting president since 
the death of Dr. Van Hise. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Notes From the Field 


In the issue of Dec. 5, Engineering 
News-Record told the story of the 
Spruce Production Division. The edi- 
torial tribute was well deserved, but I 
doubt whether the full spirit of that 
great job has been conveyed to the 
reader. I had the pleasure of seeing 
part of the railroad work on the 
Olympic Peninsula, one of the projects 
to which the article makes reference. 
I have never seen a job that for spirit 
and organization impressed me so fav- 
orably. One of the best railroad con- 
tractors said it could not be done in a 
year. It was completed in six months. 
Soldiers as well as civilians formed the 
working crews. Three shifts there 
were, and as one man laid down his 
pick, or quit his place, his successor 
took up the work — took it up imme- 
diately, with not ten minutes', not one 
minute's delay. Lunch was carried to 
the line to save time. 

If the work was under high pressure, 
there was full compensation — good 
wages, model camps, excellent food. 
Throughout were enthusiasm and an 
unbeatable determination to put the 
job through. 

Sometime all the men who were con- 
cerned with this great work will receive 
adequate credit. I wish I could name 
them, but I would have to start with 
the chief engineer, Mr. Kelliher, and the 
Siems-Carey Co., the general contrac- 
tors, and continue down till I had 
named the last contractor's foreman. 

And then, to be fair, I would have 
to go to each of the other Spruce Di- 
vision's operations. 

A great job, and I shall not soon lose 
its inspiration. 

Linked with the memory of the job, 
too, are the hospitality of my hosts, 
Palmer, Pearson & Woods, one of 
the subcontractors, and the wonderful 
scenery of Lake Crescent, its waters 
rivaling those of Lake Tahoe and be- 
ing reminiscent of the Italian lakes, its 
scenery recalling Champlain and 

Last week I met two young engi- 
neers who have secured a return from 
a certain investment of time while in 
college that is well worth recording 
for the benefit of other engineers. They 
took courses in public speaking. 

One of them, engaged in highway 
work, has made as rapid progress as 
any young engineer I have ever met, 
and he is pointed toward a great suc- 
cess. He recently played an important 
part in a bond-issue campaign, both 
through writing and speaking. To a 
large extent he attributed his rapid* 
progress to the recognition that haa 
come to him through his ability to 
speak in public. 

The other young man, out of school 
only three and one half years, has 
built up a large acquaintance in his 
specialty — technical advertising — an 
acquaintance of direct and constant 
value to him in his work. 

These men are at the entrance of 
their careers, but already they are be- 
ginning to reap returns from their 
ability as public speakers. As years 
go by and they talk from fuller ex- 
perience, their speaking asset "will de- 
velop in value in a rapidly increasing 

Training and practice in public 
speaking are to the thinking man not 
merely exercises in overcoming bashful- 
ness, though they are hardly more than 
that for the man who deals in plati- 
tudes and spread-eagleism. For the 
thinking man public speaking is a 
training in clear thinking and concise 
exposition. Success as a public speaker 
comes from having something worth 
while to say and saying it clearly and 
forcefully. The young engineers in 
question have not merely overcome 
stage fright. They have schooled them- 
selves to analyze questions thoroughly 
so as to disclose the essentials, and have 
learned how to present these essentials 

And the important things are yet to 
be said: 

A little training in public speaking 
goes a long way; 

It is never too late to learn. 

Moral: Go to the nearest Y. M. C. 
A. or similar institution and find 
out when the next course begins. 
E. J. M. 

Engineering Societies 

Aid for Highway Bridge Projects 
To Be Considered 

Recent steps taken to organize a 
committee of bridge engineers as a 
Division of Bridges of the National 
Highways Association will be supple- 
mented by a meeting of the committee 
Jan. 17 in New York City. A tentative 
outline of the program of work which 
this committee will undertake includes 
consideration of the subject of highway 
crossings over large rivers, advice and 
assistance in the broader preliminaries 
of highway bridge projects, and related 
matters in which special knowledge of 
bridge engineering may be made of 
service to highway development. The 
division will carry on its work on the 
principle of taking the initiative in any 
particular case only when called upon 
to do so. The functions of the commit- 
tee are planned exclusively for service 
to the public good. Further develop- 
ment of the program of future work is 
expected to come about through the 
meeting on Jan. 17. G. Lindenthal is 
chairman of the division, and C. E. 
Fowler is secretary. 

Promote Large Bond Issue 
for Missouri 

A bond issue for $50,000,000 will be 
proposed for the building of public 
roads in Missouri, and will be urged 
upon the state legislature at the com- 
ing session by the Federation of Mis- 
souri Commercial Clubs. It is pro- 
posed to raise the funds for this con- 
struction, both principal and interest, 
from the motor-license tax. 


Annual Meetings 

ENGINEERS; 29 West 39th St.. 
New York City; Jan. 15-16. New 

ASSOCIATION ; F. J. Angier, Mt. 
Royal Station, Baltimore, Md. ; Jan. 
28-29, St. Louis. 

SOCIATION; 150 Nassau St.. New 
York City; Feb. 25-28, New York 

BORS CONGRESS; 824 Colorado 
Bldg.. Washington, D. C. ; Feb. 5-7. 
Washington, D. C. 

The Engineers' Club of Philadelphia 

will hold a joint meeting with the So- 
ciety of Automotive Engineers Jan. 21, 
at which G. Douglas Wardrop, editor 
of Aerial Age Weekly, will present a 
paper on "War Aviation in Retrospect; 
Commercial Aviation in Prospect," il- 
lustrated with motion pictures and lan- 
tern slides. Mr. Wardrop will speak on 
his experiences in the war zone, in- 
cluding his participation in bombing 
expeditions and observation of aerial 
battles. Dr. Grover G. Huebner, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, will speak on 
"The American Merchant Marine" at 
the weekly luncheon Jan. 7. 

The County Surveyors' Association, 
the County Road Superintendents' As- 
sociation and the State Highway Com- 
mission of Indiana will meet at the 
fifth annual road school of the School 
of Civil Engineering, Purdue Universi- 
ty, Jan. 7 to 9, 1919. Important high- 
way developments are under way and 
need the cooperation of all officials and 
others interested in road problems, it is 
announced. Prof. R. C. Yeoman, of 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., 
may be addressed for programs and in- 

The Nashville Engineering Associa- 
tion was addressed Jan. 21 by J. F. 
Walters, Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis Ry. on "Railroad Water Supply." 
Dr. C. R. Mann's recent report on en- 
gineering education was discussed by 
J. P. W. Brown. The annual meeting 
and dinner of the association will be 
held Jan. 6. 

The New England Water-Works As- 
sociation will hold its annual meeting 
in Boston Jan. 8. The meeting of the 
executive committee on the morning of 
Jan. 8 will be followed by a luncheon 
at the Hotel Brunswick, and reports of 
officers and committees will be received 
in the afternoon. Among the commit- 
tee reports to be presented are the fol- 
lowing: "Standard Specifications for 
Cast-Iron Pipe"; "Statistics of Water 

January 2, 1919 



Purification Plants"; "Proposed Stan- 
dard Schedule for Grading Cities and 
Towns of United States with Refer- 
ence to their Fire Defences and Phys- 
ical Conditions," and "A National 
Water Law." 

The Western Society of Engineers' 

nominees for office to be voted on be- 
fore Jan. 17 are as follows: For presi- 
dent, D. S. Baldwin; vice-pi - esidents, 
Kempster B. Miller, William M. Kinney 
and J. L. Hecht; treasurer, C. R. Dart; 
trustee for three years, E. T. Howson. 
Herbert C. Hoover has been named as 
recipient of the Washington Honor 
Award presented by the society for the 
first time. It was founded by John W. 
Alvord for meritorious public service. 
The presentation will be made at the 
society's Washington Birthday meet- 
ing. The annual meeting will be held 
Jan. 22 at the Sherman Hotel, Chicago. 

The Engineers' Club of Trenton, 

N. J., was addressed Dec. 30 by W. W. 
Colpitts, who read a paper on "Some 
of the Questions Involved in Determin- 
ing the Compensation Due the Rail- 
roads While Under Government Con- 

Personal Notes 

Ma j. Edward C. Schmidt, 
Ordnance Department, U. S. A., pre- 
viously professor of railway engineer- 
ign, University of Illinois, who was 
temporarily assigned to service with 
the United States Fuel Administration 
as assistant to the manager of the Fuel 
Conservation Section, has returned to 
service in the War Department. 

William B. Landreth has 
been named chief of the board of con- 
sulting engineers, New York State 
Canal System, succeeding Joseph Rip- 
ley, who has resigned to undertake 
irrigation and canal work in China. 
Mr. Landreth has been connected with 
the canal system of the state for many 
years and has served as deputy state 
engineer during the administrations of 
State Engineer Williams. 

T. C. Hughes, Tulsa, Okla., has 
been appointed consulting engineer to 
supervise the construction of hard- 
surfaced roads to be built by Tulsa 
County, under the $1,700,000 bond issue 
voted last year. He will cooperate with 
D. W. Patton, county engineer, who 
will be engineer of construction. 

J. S. D o d D, assistant road engineer 
of the Iowa Highway Commission, who 
has been taking the place of Maj. 
T. R. Agg as professor of highway en- 
gineering, Iowa State College, during 
the absence of the latter in the Army, 
has resigned and has returned to his 

duties with the commission. Major 
Agg hasreassumedhis teaching duties 
as professor of highway engineering. 

H. T. S Y M P s N, assistant division 
engineer, Eastern Division, Pennsylva- 
nia Lines West, with headquarters in 
Pittsburgh, has been appointed division 
engineer at Columbus, Ohio, succeeding 
G. R. Barry, promoted to division en- 
gineer, Chicago Terminal Division, as 
mentioned elsewhere. 

George Weston, assistant chief 
engineer, Board of Supervising Engi- 
neers, Chicago Traction, has resigned 
to become consulting engineer for the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. 

W. J. E c K has been appointed sig- 
nal engineer, Southern Ry. and asso- 
ciated lines, with headquarters in 
Washington, D. C. 

V. I. Smart, formerly professor 
of railway engineering and transpor- 
tation, McGill University, and J. A. 
Burnett, formerly electrical engineer, 
Grand Trunk Railway System, are 
now associated as consulting engineers, 
with offices at 821 New Birks Building, 

G. R. Barry, division engineer, 
Pennsylvania Lines West, Columbus, 
Ohio, has been appointed division en- 
gineer, Chicago Terminal Division, 
Pennsylvania Lines, succeeding F. M. 
Graham, who was appointed supervis- 
ing engineer, Southwest System of the 
Pennsylvania Lines, with offices in 
Columbus, as mentioned in Engineer- 
ing News-Record of Dec. 12, p. 1102. 

J. D. Neville, county engineer 
of Lewis County, Washington, has been 
appointed division engineer of the 
southwest Washington counties for the 
Portland Cement Association. 

Harley W. Brundige, Los 
Angeles, and Irving Martin, Stockton, 
Cal., have been appointed by Gov- 
ernor Stephens of the State Railroad 
Commission. Harry D. Loveland has 
been reappointed for another term. 

Maj. Clark R. Mandigo has 
returned to his duties as consulting en- 
gineer, Western Paving Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association, with headquar- 
ters in Kansas City. 

Roy J. Finch, who for some 
years has been chief clerk of the New 
York State Engineer's office, has been 
appointed deputy state engineer to 
succeed William B. Landreth, who has 
been appointed chief of the board of 
consulting engineers, as mentioned 
elsewhere. Mr. Finch, a graduate of 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, has 
been connected with the State Engi- 
neer's office since 1908, serving as 
supervising engineer and division engi- 

neer before taking the position of chief 

Roswell M. Roper, for the 
past year acting engineer for the water 
department, East Orange, N. J., has 
been appointed engineer of the depart- 


Charles E. Phelps, former 
chief engineer for the Public Service 
Commission of Maryland, whose death 
was noted in these columns last week, 
was born in 1871 and received his first 
technical training at Johns Hopkins 
University in 1891-1893. In 1902 he 
was retained by the City of Cleveland 
to report and estimate upon the cost 
of an electric street and commercial 
lighting project adopted by the city 
council. In 1903 he was retained by 
the cities of Johnstown, N. Y., and 
Rochester, N. Y., in litigation over the 
construction and operation of under- 
ground electric conduit systems, and 
by the city of Montreal to report and 
estimate upon an underground con- 
duit system project. Two years later 
he was retained by the City of New 
York to assist in the investigation of 
charges for electric street lighting. 
Later he became chief engineer for the 
electric commission of the city of 
Baltimore, and was in charge of the 
construction of underground conduits. 
He also served as secretary of the 
Municipal Lighting Commission of 
Baltimore and as a member of the 
Sewerage Commission. In 1910 he be- 
came chief engineer for the Public 
Service Commission of Maryland, and 
five years later was appointed to the 
Maryland State Board of Health as 
engineering member. 

George Alexander Just, 
president of the George A. Just Co., 
contracting engineers, Long Island 
City, N. Y., died Dec. 27 in New York 
City. He was born in 1850 and was a 
graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic In- 
stitute. At one time he was associated 
with Cooper, Hewitt & Co. He had 
been in charge of the erection of many 
buildings in New York City. 

Douglas W. Taylor, formerly 
city engineer and superintendent of 
streets, Portland, Ore., died in that city 
Dec. 12, at the age of 68. 

Karl A. Funk, structural engi- 
neer, who for the past few months had 
been associated with the Deslauries 
Aircraft Corporation, Newark, N. J., 
died Dec. 11 in that city. He was grad- 
uated from the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1912 and had been in 
charge of the construction of several 
buildings in Boston. 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Converts Waste Marble Into 
Valuable Byproduct 

Vermont Company Now Produces Lime 

from Culls and Chips Formerly 

Discarded as Useless 

During the past four years a large 
New England marble company has 
been experimenting with the stone usu- 
ally wasted in its yards, with a view 
to converting it into a byproduct. 
Three years ago experiments were 
made on different grades of marble to 
determine the amount of lime obtain- 
able by burning. The tests resulted in 
the company's building a modem well- 
equipped lime plant. 

The raw material, as it comes to the 
plant, is in miscellaneous sizes. Blocks 
over 12 in. thick are conveyed in slings 
to a 60 x 48 jaw crusher, from which 
the material is conveyed by gravity 
through a gyratory crusher set to re- 
duce all the material, including the 
sizes not sent through the jaw crusher, 
to 2 in. or less. The material is then 
elevated and screened, the screened 
product passing through a set of 36 
x 16-in. rolls to reduce it to * in. or 

of the kiln into a revolving cylinder, 
where it is cooled by the draft of air 
on its way into the kiln to support com- 
bustion. The cooled lime is elevated 
from the discharge of the cooLer and is 
then deposited in lime-storage bins. 

Reduction of Labor Shortage 
Reported by Department 

That the supply of labor is rapidly 
meeting the demand is indicated in a 
report received from the Department 
of Labor. The information in the bul- 
letin, the department says, is received 
by telegraph from local representatives 
of the Federal Employment Service, 
and is used in making replacements, 
in allocating labor, in the curtailment 
and cancellation of war contracts, and 
in the demobilization of the Army. The 
bulletin shows that there is a surplus 
already in the Middle West, West and 
Far West, mostly in the cities, and 
some slight surplus in certain lines is 
reported from Boston, Buffalo and 
Rochester, as well as from Nashville, 
Tenn., and cities farther south. The 
greatest surplus reported, in Dayton, 


less. All of the material is then ele- 
vated and conveyed into storage or kiln 
bins, from which it can be drawn at any 
desired time. 

The material from the kiln bin is 
sent into the kiln by a feeder. The 
kiln is patented after the familiar ce- 
ment design, 8 ft. in diameter, 20 ft. 
long, installed with a 4% pitch. It is 
belt driven from a 30-hp. variable-speed 
motor, geared to give 10 ft. from 0.5 
to 1.5 revolutions per minute, as de- 

The producer gas is introduced 
through a flue into the lower end of 
the kiln, and in burning furnishes the 
heat for calcining the stone as it grad- 
ually rolls through the revolving cyl- 
inder. A temperature of 2200 deg. F. 
is maintained, which drives off the CO 
from the stone, leaving the quicklime. 
The hot lime drops from the lower end 

Ohio, amounts to 5000. The New Eng- 
land States generally report the supply 
and demand about equal, as do some of 
the Middle Western States and the 
South generally. Los Angeles, Cal., 
also reports the demand about equal to 
the supply. 

Most of the shortage appears to be 
in the Atlantic States, from Connect- 
icut to Florida. The greatest, amount- 
ing to 15,000, occurs in Philadelphia, 
but is 10,000 less than is shown in the 
preceding report. Although there are 
shortages in the manufacturing cities 
of eastern Ohio, the report states that 
they are reducing rapidly. Pittsburgh, 
Harrisburg, Scranton, Allentown and 
South Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, all 
report shortages, more or less in 
amount, as well as the southern cities 
of Atlanta, Louisville, Baltimore, 
Lynchburg, Norfolk and Chattanooga. 

Record Non-Stop Tractor Run 

A run of 480 miles from Peoria, 111., 
to Detroit, Mich., in six days, was re- 
cently made by a caterpillar tractor. 
This is said to be a record for tractors, 
and to mark a new milestone in tractor 

The tractor, which was of the 85 hp. 
Holt type, was delivered to representa- 
tives of the United States Government, 
and the run was made in the nature of 
a test of the machine. It followed 
highways of all kinds, many in very 
bad condition,* and although the speed 
on road is rated at three miles an hour, 
it did a little better, covering the dis- 
tance in 151 hours. Despite the bad 
roads, however, the tractor was in such 
good condition at the end of the run 
that it was immediately ordered over- 
land to the Army Proving Grounds at 
Aberdeen, Md. There were no me- 
chanical breakdowns, and inspection 
showed the machine to be in excellent 

Business Notes 

The Maxwell Engineering Co., for- 
merly at 156 Twenty-fourth St., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., is now completing its new 
yard, plant, and office building at 103 
Thirteenth St., Brooklyn. 

The Carbo Steel Post Co., formerly 
of Chicago Heights, 111., has changed 
its address to 2600 West 111th St., 
Chicago, 111. 

The Chicago office of the Electro- 
Bleaching Gas Co., 11 La Salle St., 
which was temporarily closed on ac- 
count of the war, is to reopen, and will 
be in charge of G. R. Ellis, as formerly. 

Trade Publications 

The Raymond Impact Pulverizer Co., 
Chicago, 111., has issued catalogue No. 
13, covering its equipment of roller 
mills and pulverizers equipped with air 
separation for grinding all kinds of ma- 
terials to powdered form. 

"Steel Pile Forms" is the title of bul- 
letin No. 12-A issued by the North- 
western Steel & Iron Works of Eau 
Claire, Wis., builders of engines, con- 
crete mixers and steel forms. It is an 
8 x 10 twenty-page pamphlet illus- 
trating and describing the product of 
the works. 

The Milliken Brothers Mfg. Co., New 
York City, has issued a 23-p. 6x9 J-in. 
booklet entitled "Space and Speed in 
Steel Buildings," describing the stand- 
ardized truss unit system of building 
construction designed and manufac- 
tured by the company. 

January 2, 1919 

Eng. News-Record 






100 Pieces 12-in. 


24 ft. long, located at Syracuse, 
Rochester or between these cities. 


Box No. 176, Tonawanda, N. Y. 




1 132 ft. of 18 in., 300 ft. of 12 in., ! 
1 118 ft. of 10 in., and 108 ft. of [ 
I 8 in. Write or wire immediately. | 

1 617-619 Filbert St., Philadelphia, Pa. I 



We Will Buy 

All classes of Contractors 

I Used Machinery 


Terms draft attached 
B/L all shipments 

The National Equipment Corp'n. 
| 1322 Widener Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 




1,000 pieces 25 to 50 ft. long:. State num- 
ber of pieces, each length of each kind, 
weight per ft., price, location, earliest 
shipment. Address 

W310 — Eng. News-Record 
1570 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



of all kinds, for cash — also 


3 Dover St.. New York, N. Y. 

uUIIIIIIIiiiiimiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilillllllllll IIIIIIMIUIIIIIIl 


10—5000 to 7500-ton 

I Cargo Steamers 

ready for operation. 

I Desire to secure possession 

| within next 30 days. Will 

| undertake to secure appro- 

| val of Shipping Board for 

! transfer of ownership. 

I Would desire to take ones 

I complete with crews. Will 

I also assume completion of 

I uncompleted carrying con- 

1 tracts if attractive. Terms 

| absolutely spot cash, short 

I negotiations. Ample re- 

j sponsibility. 

W30— Eng. News-Record 
935 Real Estate Trust Bldg* 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Two steel body hydraulic hoist 


I of three or five-ton capacity in good 

1 condition near New York. Will pay | 

| cash for bargains. Reply, giving full I 

| information as to price, specifications | 

i and where trucks can be inspected, i 

i i 

W253 — Eng. News-Record 

| 10th Ave. at 36th St., New York City 1 


Fifty 3 or 4-foot lengths of 24 in. 
steel or wrought iron pipe. 


Garfield, N. J. 


Standard gauge switching 


saddle tank or sloping tank, short 
wheel base, cylinders not less than 18 
inches in diameter, weight of loco- 
motive not less than 60 tons. 

Give full particulars, price and where 
locomotive can be inspected. 

W139 — Eng. News-Record 
10th Ave. at 36th St., New York City 

I | 





gasoline driven. Will dig trenches up to 
16 Vi ft. deep. 28 to 42 in. wide. Strictly 
first-class condition. With Operator. Now 
working at Washington, D. C. Expect re- 
lease about January 1, 1919. 


gasoline driven, on traction wheels. Im- 
mediate delivery at Jersey City, N. J. 


50 Church St., New York City 


Two second-hand 500-hp. McNaull i 


Must be in good condition. 

Advise age of boilers and where same 1 
can be inspected and price wanted. I 

Write I 


Bay Port, Michigan 


1— 5-Ton 


Electrically Driven 

Standard Gauge Track, 60 to 70 | 

ft. Boom. Prefer 70 ft. M.C.B. ] 

Couplers. Power, 220-volt, 60- I 
cycle, 3-phase. 

Give Full Description. 
State Price and Condition. 

Address P. O. Box 167, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 


| We would like to buv second-hand 
I 12 to 15-ton Saddle Tank 


| or Gasoline Locomotive. 
| Also eight 4-yd. Side 


| standard gauge. 


New Bern, N. C. 




6000 tons 60 to 70 lb.— 60 lb. preferred I 

W. 252 — Eng. New»-Record I 

1570 Old Colony Bldg.. Chicago. 111. | 



Browning 25 — 30 ton, 8-wheel 

bucket handling 

Available Immediately — No Broker* 

FRS6 — Eng. News-Record 
935 Real Estate Trust Bldg., Philadelphia. Pa. 





iiiiiiiiiujiiiilMiiticiir: .iiHiiitiimiiiMii 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Eng. News-Record 



Because of the existence of two different construction 
companies of the same name 


71 Broadway, New York 

hereafter will do business as 


We continue to issue our 



Motors, generators, turbines, wire, cable, boilers, steam 
engines, pumps, piping, water wheels, gas engines, con- 
struction equipment, gas plant equipment, etc. 

As Offered By a Number of Large Public Utilities. 


71 Broadway, New York City 


1 — 150-hp. Erie City Butt Strap 
Triple Riveted, Horizontal Return 

2 — 125-hp. Erie City Butt Strap 
Triple Riveted, Horizontal Return 
Tubular, new 1912 for 150-lb. pres- 

1 — 125-hp. Phoenix Iron Works Hori- 
zontal Return Tubular. 

1 — 150-hp. Monroe Horizontal Return 

1 — 100-hp. Locomotive Type. 

1 — 40-hp. Locomotive Type. 

Complete with Stack and All 
Fittings. Immediate Shipment 


Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

200 H.P. Slip Ring 


Westinghouse type C.C.L., Alternating Cur- 
rent, 3-phase, 25-cycle. 2200-volts. 485 
amp., 480 r.p.m., arranged for belt drive 
extended shalt. together with Westinghouse 
Starting Panel, type D„ including Switch 
and Oil_ Switch. 

Excellent condition. Immediate New York 
delivery. Can be seen in operation. 


38 Park Row, New York City 

Corliss Pumping Engine 

One Epping-Carpenter duplex cross compound Corliss Pumping 
Engine, size steam cylinders 22/41 in., water plungers, 10^ in., 
stroke 36 in., capacity 2200 gallons per minute at 41 r.p.m. 
Pump end good for 200 lb. pressure. Pump originally designed 
to operate with 140 lb. steam pressure non-condensing. This 
machine is in first-class shape, having been operated not over 
90 days. Ready for immediate sale. 

2— 12-Ton 


2 — Erie Traction 


3 — Domestic 


Several Types 

Also considerable other equipment. 

For details and information write to 

B. R., P. O. BOX S3 

Baltimore, Md. 

// interested, communicate with 


5th Avenue and 38th Street, New York City 





I 75-ft. boom, 30-ton capacity. 

Bucket operating drums. For j 
: terms and conditions, address 

\ The West Park Eng. & Erecting Co. f 
: No. 048 Engineers Bldg., Cleveland, O. f 


2 — Keystone Grading and Ditching 

Machines No. 3. 
1 — Keystone Grading and Ditching 

Machine No. 6. 
2 — Marion Steam Shovels, 5^-yd. 
Also one Parsons Trenching M.tchine, 

Model F. 

All the above furnished with or 
without operators. 


Camden. N. J. 


2— No. 3 


Fully equipped for Grading or Ditch- 
ing with Expert Operators. 
F. D. LEFFINGWELL, Montrlair. N. J. 



Style "O." Cut 27. 36 and 42 in. wide 
and to lfi ft. deep. 


Richmond. Va. 

1 — % -yard. Browning 


and 1 — %-yard. Communicate 


Buffalo. N. Y. 

IIIHIIIIItiilC =111111 Ill 

January 2, 1919 

Eng. News-Record 








12 — 1-way 4-yd. .dump cars, 36-in. 

110 — Standard gauge, 12-yd. capacity, 

all steel two-way dump cars. 
3 — Standard gauge, 50,000 capacity, 

flat cars. 


American Locomotives, 12-ton, 36- 
in. gauge. 

4 — Locomotives, consolidation, type 
208, Baldwin make, 80 tons. 

9 — Standard gauge, Mogul type, 61 


2 — Type O Thew shovels, l/$-yA. 

1 — Atlantic type 45 — 2^-yd. bucket. 
1 — J4-yd. Smith concrete mixer, power 

motor, without boiler. 
2 — 10-ton Buffalo rollers, 3-wheel. 


2 — 14-in. x 14-in. stiff-leg Derricks. 

60-ft. boom, complete with bull 

1 — Dipper dredge, hull 90 x 40 Scotch 

Marine Boiler, vertical spuds, i l / 2 - 

cu.yd. dipper. 
1 — 278-cu.yd., 6-pocket Dump Scow. 
1 — 318-cu.yd., 6-pocket Dump Scow. 
1— Tug Boat, 50 ft. long by 9 ft. 6 in. 

1 — Ransome Concrete Paver, No. 60 

(traction), complete with chute. 
1 — Koehring Concrete Paver, No. 14. 

Diaphragm, Duplex and Centrifugal Pumps, all sizes. 
// you need contractors' equipment we have it. 


273 W. Mt. Pleasant Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Telephone Chestnut Hill 2020 




1 — 20-ton Browning- 8-wheel. 38-ft. doom. 
M. C. B., 120 lb. steam pressure, 
equipped with 1 % yd. clamshell 
bucket ; excellent condition ; immediate 

1 — 20-ton McMyler 8-wheel M. C. B., 40- 
ft. boom. 120 lb. steam pressure; good 
condition, immediate shipment. 


501 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Phone: Vanderbilt 2752 



i Hunt's, cheap, 5000 ft., 40, 8000 ft. each, I 
| 16 and 35 lb. = 


1 Erie, 15 in. x 14 in. direct to W. E. Type I 
£ 15% E. 125 kw., 250 volt. 500 amp., i 
1 D.C., $2650. i 


= 36 in. gauge, good, used, direct and geared. = 

$1200 and up. 


30 Church St., New York 






Air Compressors, Asphalt Plants, Boilers, 
Buckets, Cars, Concrete Mixers, Crushers, 
Derricks, Engines, Excavators, Heaters, 
Hoists, Locomotives, LOCOMOTIVE 
CRANES for sale or rent, Pipe, Pumps, 
Steam Rollers, Steam Shovels, Tanks. 


Guaranteed in Good Working Condition 


50 Church St., New York City 
Phone 7664 and 6341 Cortlandt 



I l-yd. Clamshell or Orange Peel in 

1 N. Y. Harbor. Also sand, cin- 

I ders, dock, rip-rap and one-man 

| stone. 


264 W. 34th St., New York City 




Type B Erie Traction, full re- j 

volving, % yd- dipper, excellent 1 

condition. Due at our New York 1 | 
yard this week. 

The Hubbard-Floyd Co., Inc., I I 

90 West St., New York City 
Old South Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

200 H.P. 


5 — Duplex 


3 — Single Drum 


1 — Westinghouse 


36 in. gauge Plymouth 



30 Church St.. New York City 


1—7 x 10, D.D.. D.O. Lideerwood Hoisting En- 
gine, complete with boiler and swinging engine. 

1 — 7 x 10, D.D., D.C. Lidgerwood Skeleton 
Hoisting Engine, with swinging engine. 

1 — 8-in., D.C. Morris Centrifugal Pump. 

1— 8-ln., D.C. Gould Centrifugal Pump. 

1 — 6-ln., D.C. Morris Centrifugal Pump. 

1 — 4-in.. belt driven Morris Centrifugal Pump 
brand new. 

1 — l-yd. Brown Hoist Single Line Clam Shell 

1 — l-yd. Hayward Orange Peel Bucket. 

1 — 4-yd., 3-way Express Type Lee Body, complete 
with hand hoist. 

1 — 3-yd., 2-way Lee Dump Bodv. 

1 — 1 l-yd., 24-in. gage Koppel Car, equipped with 

2 — l!-yd., 24-in. gage Koppel Cars without 

1 — Right hand, lfi-lb.. 24-in. gage Koppel Switch. 

1 — Left hand, 16-lb.. 24-in. gage Koppel Switch. 

Approximately 350 ft. 16-lb., 24-in. gage Koppel 

Approximately 500 ft. fi-in. Pipe. 

Large stock of Sheaves running from 9 J to 18; 



418-419 First National Bank Bldg. Syracuse, N.Y 

The Big Year 1919 

Buy Early. 
| O Thew gas-driven revolving traction 
= shovel. 

= Brown Hoist clam 1 yd. 
= Owen H. clam 2 yd. 
1 Clyde 9 x 10 D.C, 3 drum hoist. 


226 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 


I RELAYING RAILS, 35-lb. to 100-lb. ! 

| per yard. 

! NEW RAILS, all weights. 


| and Spikes. | 

f STEAM SHOVEL, Thew, type No. j 

1. Full circle swing, traction I 

wheels, weight 30 tons, l^s-cu.yd. | 

dipper. Perfect order. f 

I LOCOMOTIVE, 24-7n7 gauge, Vulcan, ! 

7 x 12-in., four-driver saddle tank, | 

9 tons. In working order. Good 1 

i as new. | 

| CARS, 36-in. gauge. 8 — Western, | 

4-yd., 2-way dump, steel lined | 
floors. Excellent condition. 

| HOISTING ENGINE, Lidgerwood, 7 I 

x 10-in., double cylinder, double = 

tandem drum derrick hoist, with I 

Lidgerwood No. 4 boom, swinging | 

gear, no boiler. = 

I HOISTING ENGINE, Lidgerwood, 9 j 

x 10-in., double cylinder, reversible | 

| link motion, double tandem fric- I 

tion drums, levers in quadrant. | 
Strictly first-class condition. 

j CONCRETE MIXER, Smith, size No. j 

10, 1-bag batch, with gasoline en- i 
gine on wheels. 

I BUCKETS, Excelsior type, bottom 1 

dump, Steubner make, l-yd. and I 
lH-yd. capacity. 


50 Church* St., New York City 

illllllMMIItllUlllMIIIIHIIIINIUHIIIlMIHimilllllHIi IlllllllllllllUlllllllinC 

-pinnim raiimui hhmiihiuiii mil iimiiiuiifiimiiiainm 




Rochester, N. Y. 

» ,>u *SwnmillllB iiMiimiiiiiiiii 


" ' 1IIIUHI1HII <■■ 




Vol. 82, No. 1 

Eng\ Xews-Record 


1 — 1410 cu.ft. Laidlaw, compound steam and air. 

1 — 926 cu.ft. H, Ingersoll, compound steam and air, 

1 — 707 cu.ft. X-2 Ingersoll, duplex steam, two-stage air. 

1 — 396 cu .ft. WB-2 Sullivan straight line, steam. 

1 — 96 cu.ft. NF-1 Ingersoll straight line, steam. 

1— 888 cu.ft. XB-2 Ingersoll, belt. 

1—314 cu.ft. WG-4 Sullivan, belt. 

1 — 207 cu.ft. WG-3 Sullivan single stage, belt. 

1 — 145 cu.ft. ER-1 Ingersoll-Rand single stage, belt. 

4— 512-hp. NEW B. & W. 

stokers, superheaters. 

1 — 150 hp. vertical Manning, 
160 lb., Mass. 

1— 150-hp. HRT. 125 lb. 

1 — 48-in. x 105-ft. self-sup- 
porting Steel Stack. 

1 — 500 kw. Wsthse. nor. Par- 
sons Turbo Set, 3 ph., 60 
cy.. 480 v. 

1 100 kva. Ridr»ay. 3 ph.. 

tiO cy.. 230 v.. Engine Set. 

1 — 300 kw. G. E. Turbo Set, 
3 ph.. 60 oy., 220 v 

1 — 100 kw., G. E.. 3 ph., 60 
cy.. 2300 v.. Turbo Set. 

2 — 100 kw., 230 v.. DC. G. E. 
Buckeye Vertical Compound 
Engine Set. 

1 — 75 kw.. 125 v.. D.C.. Turbo 
Generator, Curtis G. E.. 
2400 speed. 


Phone: Fort Hill 4597 

10 High Street, Boston, Mass. 


■ ■■in niiiiii mil 




Double Cylinder. Slide Valve Type 
2 — 4 x 4-ln. Vertical. 5 — 6 x 6-in. Horizontal. 
1 — 7 x 10-in. Horizontal, 1 — 9 x 12-in. (Link 
Reverse) Horizontal. 


1 — (New) 42-in. x 13-ft. 6-in. Locomotive Type 
Mass. and Ohio standard. 140-lb. pressure. 

I — (New) 36-in. x 12-ft 75-in. Locomotive Type. 
Mass standard, 125-lb. pressure. 

1 — (Used) 54-in. x 18-ft. 0-in. Locomotive Type, 
built for 100-lb. pressure. Good condition. 


1 — 10 x 10-in. Lawrence, 65-hp., 30O-r.p.m. at 
100-lb. pressure, equipped with throttle, 
governor, fly-wheel, lubricator, and some spare 
parts. First-class condition. 


4 — 6-cylinder, 7i x 9-in.. rated 87-hp.. will operate 
with crude oil, complete, good condition. 

1 — 4-cylinder, 4} x 5-in. rated, 35-hp. Good 

(Fuel and Water Tanks) 


4 — 41 x 4{ Curtis, belt-driven, single acting, single 
cylinder, water cooled, with automatic unloader 


4 — 14-in. x 4-ft. 0-in. Tanks, with safety valve, air 
gage and drain cock. 


! — 25-kw., 230-volt, 2-phase. 60-cycIe. 1200-r.p.m. 
Sprague. little used Can be made 3-phase at 
slight additional cost. 


1 — No. N?wton for 32-in. blade, 3 x 4-lt. table 
with 18-in. side adjustment. Good condition. 

1 — No. 1 Newton for 40-in. blade, 4 x 6-ft. table 
with 18-in. side adjustment. Good condition. 


Several new steam shovel or dredge Dippers of 
li, 25, 3, 3! and 4-yd. capacity, offered at lo^~ 
prices to reduce stock. 


Specialty Department P.O.Box " K" 
South Milwaukee. Wis. 

Wrought Iron Pipe, thoroughly overhauled, 
with new threads and couplings, guaranteed 
to give entile satisfaction. Pipe cut to 
sketch. It will pay to correspond with us. 

Oakland and Kent Sts., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


I 1 — 100-hp. return Tubular Boiler. 

| 1 — 30-hp. Erie Locomotive Boiler. 

| 1 — 35-hp. Ajax Engine. 

= 1 — 40-hp. Ajax Engine, center crank. I 

| 1— 35-hp. Engine, 8 x 24. 

I 1 — Lidgerwood single drum Hoisting 1 

Engine; drum 14 x 18, double cyl- | 

inder 7 x 10. I 

I 1 — Reversible single drum Hoisting i 

Engine ;drum 12 x 16, cyl. 5x9. | 

| 1 — Hoisting Engine, Webster, 16 x 12, I 

dou. cyl. ; 40-in. diam. drum. 

| 1 — 75-hp. Upright Boiler and 40-hp. 1 

Upright Engine. 
| 1 — Upright Engine, 12 hp. 

| 1 — 34-cu.yd. Smith Concrete Mixer, | 

boiler and engine complete, mount- I 

I ed on trucks. | 

| 1 — 34-cu.vd. Smith Concrete Mixer and I 

Engine, mounted on skids. 

i 1 — 1-cu.yd. Smith Concrete Mixer and I 

Engine, mounted on skids. 

(These mixers have been com- I 

| pletely rebuilt and are practically as | 

good as new.) = 

| 2 — Jaeger big and little, }^-bag Con- 1 

crete Sidewalk Mixers each. 

| 1 — Wonder gasoline Mixer, 1 bag | 

batch loading skip and distributing | 

skip. | 

I 6 — 24-in. gauge steel Quarry Cars, end | 

dump. | 

| 2 — Koppel standard gauge steel Cars, | 

12'/2-cu.yd. capacity, with air | 

breaks and hand breaks, air | 

coupled. | 

| 1 — Morris Machine Works Centrifugal I 

Pump, 8-in. suction, 6-in. discharge. | 

| Also complete grading outfit includ- | 

| ing road machine, wheelers, scrapers, | 

I etc. | 


I 1 — dou. drum or three drum Hoisting | 

Engine, for operating 10-ton der- | 

| rick. | 


I First Nafl Bank Bldg. 
I Oxford. N. C. 

327 Arcade Bidg., I 
Norfoa-, Va. z 


New and second-hand. Wit) 1 new threads and 
couplings. All sizes from ) to ,2 in. Also cut to 


436-40 Kent Ave., Brooklyn. N. Y. 

1 f £y HAND 

With new threads and couplings; also cu f - to 
i sketch. 


i Ferry & Foundry Sts., Newark, N. J. 



Large Stock — All Sizes 

Recut — Perfect Threads 
and Couplings 

Also a Large Stock 

| Contractors' Equipment f 

Marine Metal & Supply Co. 

167 South Street, New York 

25,000 ft. of 8-in. 25 and 28 lb. 


New stock, for immediate delivery. 

861 Western Ave., N. S. Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Wrought Pipe 

New and Second-Hand 


Large Stock — All Sizes 
Special Low Prices 

Eagle Pipe Supply Co., Inc. 

30 Church St., New v ork City 


Keep Your Eye on the 


and your 
Advertisements in it 

January 2, 1919 

Eng. News-Record 



For Sale or Rent 

The Following Thoroughly 



7}-ton Industrial, 4-wheel, 30-ft.boom, bucket 


1 — Marior 75, 4-yd dipper, sKdp number 2191. 
1 — Bucyrus 70-C, 2|-yd. dipper, shop number 

1 — Marion 60, 2j-yd. dipper, shop number 

1 — Bucyrus 35-B, 1. an» lj-yd. dippers; shop 

number 1837, full revolving, caterpillar 

1— Erie Type B, }-yd. dipper, shop No. 389, 

long boom. 
1 — Marion 70, 2$-yd. dipper, shop No. 2693. 
1 — Marion 28 "full revolving, traction wheels, 

f-yc" dipper, shop number 2803 


8 — 18-ton, 10 x 16-in., 4-wheel Dinkeys, 36-in. 

4 — 15-ton, 9 14-in., 4-wheel Dinkeys, 36-in. 

2 — 10-ton, 7 x 12-in., 4-wheel Dinkeys, 36-in. 



1 — Western Hand Spreader, standard gage. 
I — Western Hand Spreader, narrow gage. 


20 — 12-yd. Wester) air dump, standard gage. 
^00 — 4-yd. Wester Steel Beam, 36-in. gage. 
75 — 4-yd. Western Wood Beam, 36-in. gage. 
13 — 4-yd. Oliver Wood Beam, 36-in. gage. . 


3 — Byers 2-drum, 6x8, with boilers. 

1 — Lidgerwood, 9 x 10 skeleton Cableway, 

1 — Lidgerwood, 2-drum, 7 x 10, with boiler. 
1 — Lidgerwood, 3-drum, 7 x 10. 


1 — Ingersoll-Rand, 12 J x 12, belt-driven 
Compressor, complete with receiver, 300-ft. 


1 — Novo Centrifugal Pump, 4-in. suction, 4-ia. 

discharge, 6-hp., shop number 24745. 
1 — F-M Centrifugal Pump, size 5, 5-in. suction, 

5-in. discharge, shop number 24864. 
2 — Emerson No. 2 Pumps. 
3 — Emerson No. 3 Pumps. 
2 — Emerson No. 4 Pumps. 


20 tons 40-lb. Relaying Rail. 
200 tons 70-lb. Relaying Rail. 


1 — No. 2 Union Steam Hammer. 

1 — No. 7 McKiernan-Terry Steam Hammer. 

1 — No. 1 McKiernan-Terry Steam Hammer. 


1 — Lidgerwood Cableway, complete except 
towers, 9 x 10 engine, 1164-ft. span, 3-ton 


1 — j-yd. Owen, new, with teet K 
2 — -j-yd. Owen.JJ , 

Offer Us Your Used Equipment 

We are always in the market for heavy construction equipment and buy for cash. Wt 
have large repair shops in Pittsburgh, where all equipment is thoroughly repaired 
before being re-shipped. 

Send for Our Complete List 

H. KLEINHANS CO., Union Arcade Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Eastern Office: 30 Church St., New Y-— 



Vol. 82, No. 1 

Eng. News-Record 


1 — Rand Imperial, duplex, steam, 2- 

stage, air, 1600 ft. per min 83000 

1— Sullivan. 2 stage air, simple steam, 

■ apacity 1800 ft. at 80 to 100 lb. 2500 
1 — Infjersoll-Rand, belt driven, 2- 

stage. 500 ft 1500 

1 — Sullivan 2 stage, belt driven, 

1400 ft., good as new, f.o.b. St. 

Louis 4500 

1 — Norwalk, 2 stage air, simple 

steam, cap. 427 ft 1200 


1 — Stiff Leg, mast 24 ft., boom 46 
ft., 12 ft. bull wheel, timbers 
12 x 12 $450 

1 — Stiff Leg Hand Derrick, mast 18 

ft. boom 22 ft., 6x6 timbers. . . 200 


3 — 50,000 capacity. 34 ft. 8 in. 

long, flat cars, each $400 

20 — 12 yd. Western Air Dump, each 1100 


1 — Gates K, No. 8 Right Angle Drive,$4500 

1 — Austin. No. 5 Direct Drive 1500 

2 — Austin, No. 7% Direct Drive. 

each 2500 

'.'. — Jaw Crushers. 24 in., each 2200 

1 — Jaw Crusher. Blake, 10 x 20... 750 
1 — Gates D. No. 7V 2 , plant complete. 
Write for prices. 

1 — No. 9 Gates K $6500 

1 — No. 12 Gates K 11000 


1 — No. 9 with 36 in. buckets, good 

condition, without belt $900 

1 — Stephens & Adamson stone screen, 

42 in. x 16 ft., with dust jacket. 

practically new 700 

1 — 48 x 18 Austin screen with dust 

jacket 800 

1 — 40 x 18 Gates screen with dust 

jacket 700 

1 — 40 x 18 Gates screen, with dust 

jacket 900 

3 — Stephens-Adamson screens, ea. . . 150 


Aveling & Porter 12 ton. . 

. $925 


3 — Brown Hoist. 2 yd. Clamshell. 

each $550 

1- — McMyler Power Bucket Clam- 
shell 500 

1 — Hay ward. 1 V-. yd. Clamshell 550 


1 — Erie, with 32 ft. crane boom 

and % yd. clamshell $12,000 

1- — 10 ton McMyler, 4 wheel, with 

% yd. Clamshell 8250 


1 — 7 x 12, D.C., D.D.. Mundy, with 
Butt strap boiler, new gears and 
frictions $1200 

1 — 6% x 10, D.C., D.D.. American. 

without boiler 575 

1 — 6% X 10, American, with boiler 900 

1 — 6 x 10. Extra 3 drum Skeleton. 

almost new 600 

1 — 6 x 8, S.C.. S.D.. Contractors' 

Skeleton 250 

1 — 12 x 14 D.C.. D.D., Special Drag- 
line Engine, new 2000 

1 — 9 x 10 Lidgerwood 3-drum link 

motion 1750 


1 — Porter standard gauge 9 x 18 
saddle tank boiler, only two years 
old and in good condition $2500 

1 — Vulcan, 36 in. gauge, 9 x 14 

saddle tank steel cab 1250 


1 — 12 in. Morris, sand, belt drive. . $600 

1 — 10 in. Morris, sand, belt drive.. 500 

1 — 8 in. Morris, water, belt drive.. 300 
1 — Wilson-Snyder water works pump. 

complete with condenser 2000 


1 — No. :!#Monighan 65 ft. boom, 

3 yd. bucket, fine condition. . .$13,000 

1 — Class C, Lidgerwood, 60 ft. 

boom, lM>yd. : 15,000 



1 — -28 Marion Traction, % yd. dip- 
per $4800 

1 — No. 1 Thew Traction. 1 VI yd., 

perfect condition 5500 

1 — No. Thew Traction with % yd. 

dipper, fine condition 4000 

1 — 45 ton Bucyrus. standard gauge. 

1 % yd. dipper 6500 

1 — 70 ton Bucyrus with 2% yd. 

dipper 7000 

1 — Model 60 Marion with 2% yd. 

dipper 6250 

1 — Model 41, Osgood, 1% yd., almost 

new 7500 

1 — 70 C. Bucyrus. with high boom, 
extra dipper stick, also standard 
equipment 11,500 


-9 x 10 Lidgerwood. 3 drum en- 
gine and boiler and carriage and 
part of other fittings, no rope. . .$3000 


2 — Erie City Economic, 60 hp. each.. $850 

1 — Upright. 66 in. x 11 ft. 6 in 750 

1 — Upright. 30 in. x 7 ft 250 

1 — Upright, 9 ft. 6 in. x 52 in.. 

Butt strap 850 

1 — Upright. 9 ft. x 42 in 350 

1 — £00 hp. Marine type 2200 


1 — Tandem 12 x 15 Dragline En- 
gine $1750 

1 — Sturtevant 5x5. 400 r.p.m 150 

1 — Erie City Horizontal. 8 x 10.... 150 
1 — Corliss 16 x 36, right drive, 

heavy duty, Allis Chalmers 1500 

1 — -Westinghouse, self-contained, 10 

x 16, D.C 200 

1 — Atlas Horizontal. 14 x 20 650 

1 — Erie City. 60 hp.. 11 x 15, cen- 
ter crank 200 

1 — Keystone, 7 x 10, Reversible. . . . 150 


Successors to GEO. C. MARSH & CO. 

Tel. Harrison 5799. 794 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago 


1 Unr Condition 

Prompt Delivery 

40 — 12-in. Beams. 10 to 11 ft., !) in. long. 
MO — 15-in. Heams, 17 to I!) ft.. S in. long. 
150 — 20-ln, Hcams, 15 to 18 ft loim. 
Variety of other beams on hand. Send us your 


5 — Conical Tanks, overall length 16 ft. 2 in., 
larges' diameter 9 ft. 5 in., length of tank 
14 ft. 2 in., made of 5/lfi-in plate, 

10 — 6 ft. diameter x 17 ft. to l!l ft. (i In. Ioiir. 
Many others — open and closed. 

1—400.000 gallon. 


Large stock, all of second-hand pipe, rc- 
thrcaded and coupled, for Immediate delivery. 


Seamless (New) 
5-tons, 21-in. x 7-ft. 1-ln. 

Lap Welded (Second Hand) 
150-ton, 2j, 3, 3i, 3! and 1-in., 15 to 20 ft. long. 


: 2 — Erie City Watertube, 400-hp. each. 
= 1— Stirling, 250-hp. 

I I — Mass. Standard. 72 in. x 17 ft. 6 In. H.R.T. 
= 1 — Mass. Standard, on In. x 20 ft. (i In. H.R.T. 
Many other boilers. 

i Lot of 100 tons of 1-1/16 in. Round Steel 
Bars, 18 ft. long. 

Prompt Deltrenj 
Send us a list of your requirements 


214 W. 1st St., So. Boston, Mass. 

" tllllllllllllltllllllltllllllllllMIIIIIMItlllllllllllllllMlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 


Second Hand and New 

Large stock, all sizes. 

Immediate Delivery. 


412-24 Mover St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Large stock. All sizes, 

threaded and coupled or 

cut to length. 

Your inquiries solicited. 

r eerless Iron ripe t,xchange 


396 Broadway, New York 

PJDI7 All sizes, bargain prices, 
A I* JCj second-hand and new 


8,000 ft. of 12 -in. pipe 50,000 ft. of 2 -in. pipe 

10,000 ft. of 8 -in. pipe 50,000 ft. of I Ho. pipe 

10,000 ft. of 6 -in. pipe ' . , ... HF 

10,000 ft. of 4 -in. pipe 100,000 ft. of lj-in. pipe 

15,000 ft. of 3 -in. pipe 100,000 ft. of 1 -in. pipe 

Also a large stock of 16, 18 and 20-in. pipe. 

PIPE & CONTRACTORS SUPPLY CO., 3 Dover Street, New York, N. Y. 

A Consolidation of Engineering News and Engineering Record 

McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. — James H. McGraw, President 

Engineering News-Record 

E. J. Mehren 




Charles Whiting Baker 
Consulting Editor 

Volume 82 


Number 2 

What Do You Want 

From Your Legislature? 

THIRTY-THREE state legislatures meet this year. 
What do you, reader, want from yours in behalf of 
your city or state, the engineering profession, the re- 
turning soldier, or to better the relations between em- 
ployees and employers, or to help solve the increasingly 
serious utility problems of the day? The question would 
be most appropriate for discussion before local and state 
engineering societies. Many of the latter will meet this 
month and next. Meanwhile, each engineer and con- 
tractor may well ask himself and his fellow, "What do 
you want from your legislature?" 

Low Labor Costs 

With High Wages 

OF THE two chief construction-cost factors, mate- 
rials and labor, one is inflexible, the other flexible. 
Material prices are what they are, and there is no 
recourse. Wages are relative to what the laborer pro- 
duces. Steel-erection costs in the vicinity of New York 
are very much lower today than they were ten years 
ago, though wages have doubled. The reason is simple : 
The men are producing more per dollar of wage. Labor 
leaders are recognizing that to maintain high wage 
levels production must come up in proper proportion. 
We know of one construction job on which labor leaders 
are working with the owner (in this case the Govern- 
ment) to bring up the admittedly large output per man. 
In consequence, costs have been reduced 30 per cent, as 
against what they were some months ago. With such 
a wage policy adopted generally by the labor unions, the 
labor costs, even with present wage scales, need not be 
above pre-war costs. Only high material prices would 
then remain to becloud the construction horizon. 

Rural Development Urged 
by Governor of New York 

IN HIS message to the legislature Governor Smith of 
New York has urged very strongly the cooperation of 
his state with the national Government in creating land 
settlements for soldiers. In doing so he heartily in- 
dorses the plans laid out by the Secretary of the Interior 
for cooperation between the Federal Government and 
the individual states.- He well says: "It is becoming 
more and more apparent that the ability and the experi- 
ence of our agricultural leaders should be mobilized to 
create a planned rural development which will include 
cooperative organization for buying and selling, a sys- 
tem of credit that will give broader opportunities for 
men of small capital to become farm owners, and a 
better social life." We have generally associated with 

Western conditions such rural projects as that so well 
described by the Governor, but every one familiar with 
rural conditions in the West realizes the need for well 
planned rural projects, even in the most thickly settled 
districts. Such projects would take advantage of all 
of the experience and experimentation which has re- 
sulted from Federal initiative or from successful local 
communities in every part of the country. The remark- 
able development at Durham, Cal., of the State Land 
Settlement Board is a pattern that can easily be du- 
plicated if existing agencies are called upon for help. 
The entry of New York State into such a land settle- 
ment scheme would give an impetus for better agri- 
culture throughout the entire East, and we sincerely 
trust, therefore, that the New York legislature will 
give attention to this feature of the Governor's message. 
While put forth principally as a reconstruction measure, 
it has promise of great influence as a peace-time 

War Control of Highways 

Here and in Great Britain 

A COMPARISON of highway construction control in 
the United States and Great Britain during the 
war will be found elsewhere in this issue. It is written 
by an engineer who had close contact with the control 
work in this country and constant access to reports of 
the English Road Board's activities. His attitude to- 
ward the work of the United States Highways Council 
is quite favorable, while that of Engineering News- 
Record during the activities of the council was decidedly 
critical. There is all the more reason, therefore, why a 
hearing should be given to what may be interpreted as 
approximating the council's own view. Two points 
should be advanced in extenuation of the heavily re- 
strictive activity of the council: First, that the narrow- 
ness of policy, the failure to recognize the war-function 
of highways, was due very largely to the attitude of 
one member of the council ; and, second, that during the 
last month of the council's life there was, marked prog- 
ress in the direction of a more liberal policy. One man, 
it will be contended, should not have been able to 
hamstring the whole council; yet that was possible 
when the man in question held the whip hand — in his 
control over materials. In the matter of more liberal 
policy, the increase in the number of projects approved 
in the month before the signing of the armistice indi- 
cates that if the war had continued there is likelihood 
that the council's stand would have changed to full 
recognition of the highway's place in the war scheme 
As it was, however, criticism lay heavily on the coun- 
cil for its too heavily restrictive attitude. 




Vol. 82, No. 2 

Will New York Engineers 

Fail in Their Civic Duty? 

AS THIS issue goes to press there is grave danger of 
the engineers of New York City failing in their 
civic duty. Elsewhere in these columns are the details 
of the sudden discharge of 300 engineers of the Public 
Service Commission, resulting in the disruption of an 
excellent engineering organization and in a probable 
heavy loss, through delayed work, to the city. The situ- 
ation calls for immediate and organized protest by engi- 
neers. The work being chiefly of a civil engineering 
nature and of a public character, responsibility for call- 
ing a meeting lies either with the organized body of 
civil engineers or with an organization designed to 
handle public questions of an engineering nature. 
There being no local society of civil engineers in New 
York, responsibility lies between the American Society 
of Civil Engineers and the Engineering Council. The 
society, holding that it had passed its civic functions to 
the Engineering Council, promptly, by telephone mes- 
sage of its secretary, urged the council to take the 
matter in hand. Up to this writing (Tuesday, noon), 
the executive committee of the council has refused to 
call the much-needed meeting of protest. 

The reason has not been made public, but the weakness 
of the committee's position is shown by the known fact 
that it is ready to take action if it receives a formal 
communication from the Public Service Commission or 
from one of the Founder societies requesting action. 
Formal communication! when the story of the injustice 
and the disruption is spread in every newspaper in New 
York City, when an Associate of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers has spread the matter before the 
council in a letter, when the secretary of the same so- 
ciety has urged the council by word of mouth to act, 
when other engineers who know the situation thor- 
oughly have orally put the matter before the council's 
executive committee. Formal communication! while 
meanwhile every engineer in New York City with red 
blood in his veins is boiling at the injustice to his fel- 
lows and the loss to the city. But the end is not yet. 
Before the week is out, we hope, the executive committee 
of the council will have acted, and the engineers of New 
York will have registered a ringing protest. Mean- 
while, this weakness of engineering society organization 
in New York City needs to be recorded, this inability 
of the engineers to secure quick action in the discharge 
of their civic responsibilities. The Engineering Coun- 
cil will have its side to tell, but this fact is outstanding, 
that it has delayed action awaiting a formal communi- 
cation on a pressing matter on which even the man in 
the street is infdrmed. 

Theodore Roosevelt and the Engineer 

THIS is not the place for any extended comment on 
the personality or work of Theodore Roosevelt. For 
two of his activities, though, engineers have especial 
reason for remembering and honoring him — his vigor- 
ous backing of the Panama Canal work and the impetus 
he gave to the movement to conserve our natural re- 
sources. In both he displayed a keen appreciation of 
technical features and backed the engineers with a vigor 

that could be the result only of strong faith in men of 
professional training. 

His interest in the Panama work, particularly, was of 
value to the nation. The project had dragged along in 
the report Stage for years. With his accustomed desire 
for action, he put the job under way, first taking what 
was then the very sensational step of casting aside the 
majority report of the international commission, which 
favored a sea-level canal, and accepting the minority's 
view. We know now, as a result of the building of the 
canal, that he was well advised in his choice. What 
part he played, whether of action or acquiescence, in the 
Panaman revolution, the first step in the realization of 
the canal project, is not for discussion here. 

In the conservation movement his ability to grasp 
problems was no less clearly shown, and with the em- 
phasis that he so well knew how to put on things that 
he wanted cast into the public eye, he made conservation 
the most talked-of subject in the country in a few weeks' 
time. What the result of his work in this direction has 
been has not, so far as we know, been appraised. That 
it gave a new impetus to the engineers' work in trying 
to conserve our resources there is no doubt. The full 
vigor of the early propaganda seemingly is lost, but 
there is good reason to believe that much of it has been 
translated into effective machinery for investigation, 
administration and operation. 

In respect to one of his activities the engineers of the 
future will have more cause than those of the present 
to remember Colonel Roosevelt. The social-justice pro- 
gram of his 1912 campaign was about six years ahead 
of the time. Belittled then and scoffed at, it has now 
been accepted by employers, in theory at least. There 
was clear evidence of that at the recent Atlantic City 
Reconstruction Conference. In the coming day those in- 
strumentalities of industrial cooperation will be placed 
on a scientific, on an engineering, basis, and then some 
engineers will revert to the 1912 campaign and marvel 
at the foresight of Colonel Roosevelt and at the dense- 
ness of American business. 

Administrative Ability in Technical Work 

IN THE readjustment for peace conditions which is 
now just beginning, one of the serious mistakes made 
in the readjustment for war conditions, which was car- 
ried out in 1917, should be avoided. When the nation's 
resources were being mobilized, eighteen months ago, 
there was a great demand for engineers to fill places in 
the little rectangular spaces of numberless so-called 
organization charts. The harassed higher officials, with 
their utterly inadequate staffs, trained in precedents 
and fettered by red tape, had to create proper organ- 
izations while carrying on business with what they had. 
The Construction Division of the Army grew out of 
an unimportant section of the Quartermaster Corps 
into a most effective agency because it had the benefit 
from the outset of the advice of some of the most suc- 
cessful engineers and builders in the country. In the 
same way the Bureau of Mines, with the help of suc- 
cessful specialists, organized the Chemical Warfare 
Section, the most imposing aggregation of chemical 
technologists the country has seen. But there are other 
departments whose success has been less marked, which 

January 9, 1919 



brought into their organizations a large number of 
technical men of good reputation, but which neverthe- 
less failed to make much progress. These conditions 
have caused much comment, and the general explanation 
of them, made by men who have been successful in 
private life and successful in Government work during 
the war, is full of warning to those who are taking up 
the readjustment to meet the requirements of peace. 

Where a war-time agency has been successful, it has 
had an organization in which the difference between 
technical knowledge and administrative ability has been 
recognized in the appointments and the scheme of man- 
agement. In a general way, everybody recognizes this 
difference, but practically few men, not themselves ex- 
perienced executives, appreciate its importance. Bu- 
reau chiefs in Washington, whose salary lists were so 
low they could not obtain men of both technical and 
administrative ability in competition with private cor- 
porations, failed to realize that such men would be 
willing to serve the public in war times at Government 
rates of compensation. The new men they brought to- 
gether often lacked administrative capacity, and needed 
so much overhead direction and control that progress 
was slow, in spite of the abundance of technical talent 
that was gathered together. 

This is not the place to enter into a prolonged dis- 
cussion of the administration of technical undertakings. 
It is enough to say that the war has proved beyond 
question that, while there is an abundance of technical 
talent in the country, the combination of technical and 
administrative talent necessary to make speed econom- 
ically in war times is the same combination necessary to 
make profits in peace times, and it is far from plenty. 
It is the result of an astigmatic view of the duties of the 
average technical executive, which lays stress on his 
scientific knowledge and blurs the importance of his 
ability to plan and direct the work of others. Admin- 
istrative capacity has a higher value than technical 
knowledge in many presumably technical positions, and 
as it is more difficult to obtain it should be examined 
into more carefully. The technical schools should also 
recognize this fact, and turn out graduates who know 
that the ability to direct others successfully has a big 
cash value, even in a scientist. 

Political Piracy With the Engineer as Victim 

POLITICAL piracy has many discreditable deeds in 
its book, but most of these are outdone by the 
action of New York City's governing body, the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment, in tearing to pieces 
the Public Service Commission's engineering department 
on the eve of the new year. Certain consequences of 
this action, perfectly obvious and as well known to 
the board as to any citizen, have an ugly appearance. 
But because a great enterprise of engineering construc- 
tion is involved, and a great engineering organization 
performing urgently necessary functions is made the 
immediate victim of the vicious act, the occurrence be- 
comes one of peculiar concern to engineers. 

By vote of the board in connection with a running- 
expense appropriation, the commission was ordered to 
dismiss a third of its staff. More than 300 engineers 
were thrown out on a few hours' notice, without apology 

or farewell. These men were and are badly needed, on 
rush work now under construction and on other work 
soon to be let. So far the bare facts — except perhaps 
the brief note that, as every one in the street knows, 
the board has for some time been engaged in bitter 
personalities with the commission as a whole and with 
individual members. 

Now for the background, of justification or accusa- 
tion. A score of subway and elevated railway contracts 
are under way. Some of them were being urged along 
as fast as possible, as closing links in lines shortly 
to be put in operation. Many other contracts for finish- 
ing work and equipment are also under way. Additional 
work was being prepared for contract, and this, besides 
its local importance in helping to bring the city's sadly 
deficient transit facilities up to requirements, would 
have been of national influence in aiding to restore the 
normal course of industrial life in the nation, momen- 
tarily checked and reluctant. 

All of this activity under the Public Service Commis- 
sion's jurisdiction is vitally dependent for its progress 
on the engineering department. A highly expert organi- 
zation — now wantonly dismembered — had been built up 
in the course of years to perform this essential municipal 

By contract stipulation, all engineering data, all lines 
and grades, all directions and instructions as to quality 
and quantity, all estimates for payment, must be sup- 
plied by the engineers. In much of the work the con- 
stant day-and-night attendance of engineering parties 
is required, aside from inspection. Without this engi- 
neering service, the contractors cannot proceed; their 
work will be delayed, their plant and organization 
expense continuing, and the city, in the end, must pay 
the bill. Delay in subway service means further cost — 
a week's interest on the idle investment already made 
will weigh up the three-month "saving" in salaries which 
the board accomplished. 

It was known to the Board of Estimate, which itself 
passed upon the contracts, that the construction work 
cannot go along without the engineers. It was known 
to the board that New York needs the service of the 
new lines, and is paying tens of thousands of dollars 
daily in interest on idle investment. It was the board's 
plain duty to know that losses of great amount would 
fall upon the city if it delayed the work. Did the 
board, then, act in ignorance? Or must we entertain 
the hypothesis that it acted with deliberate malice? 

So far as engineers are citizens merely, their interest 
lies in fighting the wrong done the community, and in 
cooperating with the rest of the community in answer- 
ing the challenge of the recreant officials by the law 
and by the ballot. As technical men, however, they 
have a somewhat specialized duty. 

It is their privilege as well as their duty to brand 
with proper opprobrium the baseness that uses a great 
engineering work as the plaything of personal antago- 
nisms. It is theirs to write on the record a proper 
characterization of the outlawry that destroys a trained 
engineering organization, a municipal asset. And, we 
think, it will be their privilege to take this occasion for 
protesting against the subordination of intricate tech- 
nical problems, and of men trained in their solution, to 
the whims of political chancemen. 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

Electrically Driven High-Lift Centrifugal Pumps 
Supply Water for Irrigation 

Water Forced Through Steel Manifold to Reinforced Concrete Conduit Leading Up to Canal — Design 
Features — Pump Tests Show Over 81 Per Cent. Efficiency Under 90-Foot Head — Construction Work 

By B. P. Fleming 

Mechanical Engineer, Member American Society of Civil Engineers, Iowa City, Iowa 

EVERY year sees greater strides made in irrigation 
by pumping. This article describes a new high-lift 
irrigation pumping project with steel manifold and 
reinforced-concreted force main, put in successful oper- 
ation in 1917 for supplementing the water-supply of 
a large area known as the "Lewiston Flat" in northern 
Utah and southern Idaho. This district is one of the 
most progressive and productive agricultural districts 
of the inter-mountain region, the products being sugar 
beets, dairy products, alfalfa, grains and potatoes. Two 
sugar-beet factories and two condensed-milk factories 
are located in the district, and the farming generally 
is on an intensive and profitable basis where and when 
water for irrigation is obtainable. Power at low cost 
as well as intensive agriculture make high-lift pumping 

The irrigable area of the district has been estimated 
at about 30,000 acres, of which about 20,000 are under 
existing canals. For the past 40 years the water- 

f: : '" :; :':1 Dry Farmed Lands 
fr"--""4 ' (4500 Acres) 

Lands Partially Irrigated 
(13,000 Acres) 

Uncultivated, Waste & Non-lrriqable 
E s (4200 Acres) ^ 

2 3 4 

J 1 I 


supply has been derived from a small stream known 
as the Cub River, a tributary of the Bear River. The 
flow of the Cub varies from about 400 sec.-ft. in June 
tc an amount not exceeding 60 sec.-ft. in July and 
August, during which months the valuable sugar-beet 
crop is most in need of water. In normal years about 
8000 acres of the Lewiston district would be fairly well 
supplied with water over the entire season, 8000 acres 
would receive only sufficient to grow grain crops or 
mature one crop of hay, while 4000 acres might receive 
no water at all. 

The securing of such a supply of water as might 
permit not only of adequate irrigation of the area now 
farmed but also would lead to a development of the 
entire irrigable area, has been a very important public 
question in the district for many years. Various sur- 
veys both by Government and private agencies have 
shown the economic impractability of development of 
additional water-supply either by gravity flow from the 
Bear River or by storage developments on the Cub 
River, so that pumping from the Bear River seemed to 
be the only solution of the problem. 

The Bear River lies from 85 to 90 ft. below the 
general level of the lands in question. Its natural flow 
has been entirely appropriated by agricultural and other 
interests along its course in Idaho and Utah, so that 
the only hope of the district was in securing a right 
to stored water. This, fortunately, was obtainable 
through the extensive storage developments begun by 
the Telluride Power Co. and completed by its successor, 
the Utah Power & Light Co., on the body of water 
known as Bear Lake, in northern Utah. This develop- 
ment comprised the construction of a large pumping 
plant of 1500 sec.-ft. capacity and control gates which, 
together with an artificial channel between Bear Lake 
and the Bear River, make it possible to divert floods 
into the lake and store them there, or, in case of long- 
continued drought, permits the pumping out of the 
waters of the lake to a depth of 17 ft. below the 
normal stage, and thereby augmenting the flow of the 

The object of this development is to insure continuity 
of operation of the large hydraulic power plants estab- 
lished on Bear River, but, incidentally, it has assisted to 
a certain extent in the possibility of agricultural devel- 
opment, by providing some stored water for the use 
of those who are able to secure a right to it, and who 
can divert it below the power plants. The attractive 
rates for electrical power for pumping offered by the 
power company, together with the offer of a right to a 
certain amount of stored water, led to the inception 
of the project here described. The amount of water 
estimated as necessary to be supplied by pumping, to 
supplement gravity water, was 10,000 acre-ft. Since 

January 9, 1919 



this amount must be supplied mainly within a period 
of 50 days, the capacity of the plant became fixed at 
100 sec.-ft. For flexibility in operation, it was decided 
arbitrarily to build a plant of four units of 25 sec.-ft. 
capacity each. 

The plant was located directly west of Fairview, 
Idaho, at which point the Bear River approaches quite 
near to the present canal system of the Cub River 
Irrigation Co., into which the pumped water was to be 

The site finally selected for the plant was on a hill- 
side and flat adjacent to a V-shaped bend in the Bear 
River. Preliminary studies were made of the compara- 
tive cost and general suitability of a plant located at 
the river and discharging into a canal at the crest of 
the hill through a long wood-stave force main, and a 
plant located at the base of the hill and taking water 
from a supply canal leading to the river and discharging 
through a comparatively short concrete or steel pipe 
into the canal. Test pits dug on the line of the pump 
supply canal and at the proposed site of the pump- 
house structure seemed to indicate that although water 
would be encountered in large quantities, the necessary 
excavation required by the second plan could be carried 
on without serious difficulty. How far this surmise 
missed the true conditions is related under "Construc- 
tion." The comparative studies made indicated that 
the second plan was the more feasible and economical, 
particularly since it was the desire to eliminate entirely 
the use of wood-stave pipe, which under the conditions 
of a pumping plant in use only a few months of the 
year, cannot be properly maintained. The distance 
through which the water would have to be carried under 
pressure, in the case of a plant located at the river, 
and the size required, seemed to indicate that only a 
wood-stave pipe could be considered from the standpoint 
of initial cost — and this fact was of the greatest weight 
in the decision to adopt the other type of plant. 

Another factor having an important bearing upon the 
general design of the pumping station was the type 
of pump to be selected, whether vertical or horizontal. 
This matter was not decided until after bids had been 
received upon both types. It is significant of the favor 
with which these two types of units are regarded by 
the pump manufacturers themselves that, out of seven 
manufacturers represented, only one would offer a bid 
upon the vertical unit, and the others were most 
decidedly opposed to its use under the circumstances. 

After various studies had been made, it was found 
that a concrete pipe was practically as cheap as a riveted 
steel pipe of the same internal diameter, so concrete was 
decided upon because of its greater permanency and 
lower friction loss, as well as the less difficulty in 
securing construction materials. The design of a 
reinforced-concrete manifold to receive the discharge 
from the four pumps proved to be so difficult that" it was 
abandoned in favor of a riveted steel manifold. The 
full-discharge velocity throughout the manifold and the 
concrete pipe was limited to 5 ft. per second, and in 
the design of the manifold an attempt was made to give 
the easiest flow lines possible while yet maintaining a 
form providing a maximum of strength. The manifold 
has a circular section in every part, and in order to 
insure additional stiffness a vertical plate is riveted in 

the crotch of the breech-like portion. No leak of con- 
sequence was discovered in any of this riveted steel 

Some concern was felt by the designers as to the 
probable pressure effect in the steel manifold and the 
concrete discharge pipe resulting from sudden closing 
of the hydraulic gate valves on the discharge side of the 
pumps. If, for any reason, power goes off while the 
pumps are in operation, the pumps almost immediately 
begin to run backward, and the water in the discharge 


pipe attains a fairly high velocity backward down the 
pipe. Checking this flow suddenly by the closure of the 
gate valve would cause water hammer. Calculations, 
based upon the various formulas tried, while not giving 
consistent results, seemed to indicate that no dangerous 
pressures would be developed. A small relief valve was, 
however, placed at the end of the steel breeching. In 
the operation of the plant and in the deliberate creation 
of conditions favorable for water hammer at the time of 
testing, scarcely appreciable rises in pressure were noted. 

A vacuum relief valve was also placed at the top of 
the concrete pipe at Sta. 14 + 17, at which point 
there is a break in vertical alignment where vacuum 
conditions may be created by the rapid letting out 
of water from the pipe. The free area of the air valve 
is about 1 % of the area of the pressure pipe. 

Excessive temperature changes in the concrete and 
steel piping were anticipated, since, although back- 
filling over the concrete pipe was proposed, it was not 
of sufficient thickness to insure against considerable 
daily and seasonal temperature changes, while the steel 
piping was completely exposed. Expansion joints in 
the concrete pipe were considered, but the difficulty of 
construction and the possibility of leakage led to the 
rejection of expansion joints altogether in the concrete 
pipe and the placing of dependence upon the longitudinal 
reinforcement alone to prevent the formation of trans- 
verse cracks. It was planned also to construct the pipe 
in cold weather, and this was successfully accomplished 
by late spring, before hot weather had set in. No leaks 
of any magnitude have so far (April, 1918) appeared 
in the pipe although water was turned into it for the 
first time early in July, 1917, when there was probably 
50° difference in temperature between the pipe and the 
water. Expansion joints were introduced in the steel 
piping of the manifold next to the pump-house, and the 
pump side of the joint was anchored securely to piers 
braced against the pump-house foundation. 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

The substructure of the pump-house is of reinforced 
concrete, designed to withstand a water pressure of 15 
ft. The sump floors are designed to act as beams be- 
tween the sump walls. The parts of the floor beneath 
the machinery were designed as beams heavily rein- 
forced. Elsewhere the floor is 6 in. thick, well rein- 
forced. The walls are 15 in. thick. The superstructure 
walls are of brick. They sustain a concrete crane girder, 
a 10-ton crane, and a flat roof supported by 12-in. I- 
beams. The roof is 3 to 5 in. of concrete on asbestos- 
steel corrugated roofing, and is covered with tar felt and 
gravel. The crane is provided with hand-operated 
lifting and racking mechanism. 

Sump Drainage — Hydraulic Gates — Pumps 

To drain the sump beneath each main pump unit, 
there is a 3-in. motor-driven side-suction centrifugal 
pump, with a valve-controlled 4-in. suction pipe. For 
priming the main pumps and the sump pump, a motor- 
driven rotary vacuum pump is provided, its suction 
being connected to a vacuum main from which branches 
lead to each pump. To the priming pump, immediately 
above each main unit, is attached a gage glass by which 
the operator can tell exactly when the unit is primed. 
Some difficulty was met in the initial operation of the 
priming pump, due to inexperience in adjusting the 
amount of water needed for water-sealing it. When final- 
ly adjusted, it would prime a main unit in from 5 to 7 

The hydraulic gate valves are 18 in. in size and are 
provided with a hand operating device for use when the 
pumps are first started and no pressure head is avail- 
able in the discharge line for their operation. This de- 
vice was found by no means satisfactory, since its de- 
sign requires an entire dismounting before the valves 
can be operated hydraulically. The control of the hy- 
draulic valves is centralized at a point near the switch- 
board, so that after priming a unit and starting the 
motor the operator merely turns a small pilot valve 
which opens the main valve. A reverse motion of the 
pilot valve likewise closes the main valve, so that the 
operation is very easy and rapid. Hydraulically rather 
than electrically operated valves were chosen because 
of their greater simplicity and much smaller first cost. 
Their operation in this plant has been eminently satis- 

Each main pump unit is an 18-in. double-suction split- 
case centrifugal pump with bottom horizontal discharge 
and vertical suction connection. The impellers are of 
bronze, and a bronze sleeve covers the shaft from the 
impeller out through the stuffing-boxes. The latter are 
water-sealed and were provided with bronze lantern 

Water for sealing was taken originally from the pumps 
themselves, which necessitated tightening the glands 
when priming. It is now proposed to utilize clear water 
from a spring near the station which will give suffi- 
cient water under pressure for water seal irrespective 
of the operation of the pumps. 

The pumps are provided with ring oiling bearings in 
split babbitt cases. A flexible coupling attaches the pump 
to a 350-hp. induction motor on the same bedplate. 
These motors are three-phase, 60-cycle, of the squirrel- 
cage type, using current at 440 volts. Each motor is 

controlled from its own switchboard panel, the cable 
running in a conduit laid in the floor. 

The switchboard is of standard slate construction and 
consists of six panels. Of these, four are motor panels, 
on each of which is mounted an ammeter, an integrating 
watt-hour meter, and the triple-pole single-throw oil 
switches. One panel is a totalizing panel, on which is 
mounted a totalizing wattmeter, a totalizing integrating 
watt-hour meter and a graphic recording frequency 
meter. On the sixth panel are a volt meter and the in- 
struments of the auxiliaries and lighting circuits, com- 
prising a watt-hour meter and the necessary single- 
throw switches for the house lights and auxiliary 

The current is transmitted to this station from the 
Preston substation, about six miles away, at 44,000 volts. 
Current is transformed into the 440 volts used at the 
plant by a bank of three 500-kva. transformers of the 
outdoor, oil-filled, air-cooled type. Four 44-kv. alumi- 
num cell lightning arresters are provided for protection 
against line surges and lightning discharges, and the 
other equipment includes disconnecting and line 
switches, choke coils, expulsion fuses, etc. Serious dif- 
ficulty experienced in times of electrical storms with 
high potential discharges on the secondary side, soon 
after operation was started, led to the installation of 
secondary arresters between the transformers and the 
switchboard, in addition to the more thorough ground- 
ing and transformer cases. 


The contract between the pumping enterprise, or the 
Lewiston-Bear Lake Irrigation Co., and the Utah Power 
& Light Co., comprises many features intended to pen- 
alize peak-load conditions and to encourage an endeavor 
to economize on power consumption, although the base 
rate is only lc. per kilowatt-hour. In the design of the 
plant, therefore, an effort was made to eliminate so far 
as possible hydraulic energy losses in piping and sumps, 
and in preparing the specifications an efficiency for the 
pumping units themselves of 81% was demanded. This 
figure was considered a not unattainable ideal, but one 
of the largest pump manufacturers in the country re- 
fused to bid upon the basis of this figure, and several 
other manufacturers were very loath at first tc offer 
to attain this efficiency, particularly since the contract 
was so worded that a certain percentage of the contract 
price was to be withheld pending the attainment of the 
guaranteed efficiency. Inasmuch as this percentage 
amounted to $12,000, the contract provided for very 
complete tests of the pumps upon completion of the 
plant. Considerable thought was given to the matter 
of accurate water measurement. After rejection of 
other methods because of difficulty of operation or prob- 
able inaccuracies, it was decided to install a 14-ft. Cip- 
poletti weir in the discharge canal, 200 ft. below the 
outlet of the discharge pipe and at the end of the con- 
crete-lined section of the canal. The weir was con- 
structed of 2-in. grooved and tenoned lumber with a thin 
steel plate for the weir crest, the weir being installed 
in a substantial concrete structure, with provision for 
removing the weir board upon completion of the tests. 
Heads on the weir were measured by a hook gage read- 
ing to thousandths of a foot, the zero of which was de- 

January 9, 1919 



termined by an engineer's level. Bazin's formula, as 
tabulated in Williams' and Hazen's tables, was used for 
calculating weir discharge. Although Bazin's formula 
is based upon the use of a weir without lateral contrac- 
tions, it is recognized that the trapezoidal weir with side 
slopes of 1 to 4 gives a discharge "equal to that of the 
rectangular weir without end contractions"; hence Ba- 
zin's formula may be applied to the determination of the 
discharge of the weir in question and provides a very 
convenient method of computation, inasmuch as velocity 
of approach is taken into account in the formula and 
may be neglected when the weir conditions are com- 
parable to those of Bazin, which it was the endeavor 
to secure in this case. 

Pressure head on the pumps was determined by a 
calibrated Bourdon gage and suction head by a mercury 
manometer, both being referred to the axis of rotation 
of the pumps as a datum. Power input to the motors 
was measured at the motor terminals by an indicating 
polyphase wattmeter, current transformers only being 
used. Merely as a check, the readings of the switch- 
board instruments were taken during the test, but were 
not used in making calculations. Subsequent to the test 
the gages and electrical instruments were calibrated, 
and these calibrations were used in making the official 
calculations. In calculations of pump efficiency the mo- 
tor efficiency was assumed as that shown by factory 
test at full load, 91 per cent. 

In testing (see Table I), the pump; were each run 

separately at three heads, the heads being varied by 
partly closing the hydraulic gate valves. Following the 
runs of the individual pumps all four were operated to- 




















70. 1 
75 8 


88 3 
93 5 
98 25 

85 35 
85 26 
85 05 

28 36 

284 5 

344 6 
347 6 

84 2 




75 3 


92 8 

84 90 

26 82 

282 8 

347 8 

80 6 

81 4 





18 1 


85 24 



344 6 

83 8 
85 2 


74 8 


88 5 
92 7 

85 55 



339 6 

81 9 

83 4 


1, 2, 
3, 4 









gether to determine the action of the manifold as re- 
gards friction effect. 

The most significant figures in Table I are those on 
pump efficiency. It will be noted that efficiencies cf over 
85% were attained by No. 3 unit, while all units are 
safely over the guaranteed efficiency of 81% at 90-ft. 
head. The lower efficiency of No. 2 unit is thought to 
be due to a small air leak in the suction pipe. This 
leak was not discovered until the tests had been com- 
pleted. With all the pumps in operation there is noted 
a distinct falling off in pump efficiency which is difficult 
to explain, since there is no apparent reason why an 
efficiency determined for the four units working in 
parallel should not be the mean of their individual 
efficiencies at approximately the same conditions of 
head and discharge. 

Table II illustrates the apparently anomalous condi- 
tion of friction head decreasing as discharge increases. 


a «w 

-"'■^ Drain 

-10-ton Crane 


£1.4515.5 al full £ 
Ca paci ty 



r* — r 

Drain V"/'/e'' 

'Stop Plank Groove' 4' x 4' Gale 

Section A " A 

Pressure Pipe 


Typical Section of 
Reinforced - Concrete 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

This is probably due entirely to the better flow condi- 
tions established in the steel manifold when all four 
branches are discharging than when one only is being 


Unit No. 12 3 4 Four in 


Total static lift, ft 85.35 85.34 85.23 85 55 85.8 

Discharge head, ft 70.1 70. I 70.1 69.9 71.1 

Suction head, ft 18.2 18.1 18.3 18.6 17.4 

Totalhead.ft 88 3 88.2 88 4 88 5 88.5 

Friction head, ft 2.95 2 86 3 17 2.95 2.7 

Diicharge.Bec.-ft 28 35 27.69 28.52 27.72 108.01 

used, so that the saving of head here more than over- 
balances the greater loss in the concrete pipe due to 
the increase of velocity when carrying 108 second-feet. 
As a whole, the efficiency tests of this plant illustrate 
the recent very remarkable advance in centrifugal-pump 
design from the standpoint of efficiency, and give rea- 
son to believe that it is not too much to expect that in 
the case of large units, working under reasonably high 
heads, 85% efficiency may be obtained where the char- 
acter of the installation is such as to warrant the ex- 
tra expense of a pump designed for the special con- 
ditions under which it is to operate. It is to be noted 
that such efficiency can only be obtained by the use of 
small running clearances in the impeller at the wearing 
ring which prevent leakage from the discharge back to 
suction ; and the water seal preventing air leakage into 
the suction passage around the shaft must be perfectly 
air-tight. Wear is to be expected in the course of time 
in the wearing rings, and the glands cannot be main- 
tained in perfect condition after a long period of use, 
so that to maintain the high efficiency found when the 
installation is new it will be necessary to renew from 
time to time the wearing rings and the bronze sleeves 
on the shaft. 


Active construction work was begun in September, 
1916. To J. E. Wilson, Jr., of Logan, Utah, was awarded 
the contract for the pump-house building and founda- 
tions, the supply canal and all concrete structures, in- 
cluding the concrete pipe and the outlet, the weir and 
the various structures in the discharge canal. 

The contractor's scheme of operation was to use a 
dragline excavator for the supply canal and for as much 
of the pump-house excavation as could be reached by 
such a machine. The excavation for the concrete pipe 
was attempted by teams and slip scrapers. The work 
had progressed only a short time when great and in- 
creasing difficulty was experienced with slides and cave- 
ins. The whole hillside was found to be in a completely 
saturated condition, and the site of the pump house and 
most of the supply canal was found to be underlaid to 
a great extent by an undetermined depth of quicksand. 
No progress could be made with the pipe trench until 
several lines of drain tile and brush drains had been 
put in and piling had been driven 5 ft. c. to c. almost 
the entire length of the pipe. Although the use of piling 
under either the pump house or the pipe had not been 
contemplated, the uncovering of the subsoil conditions 
made it necessary to use about 400 piles beneath the 
force main. Cave-ins in the pump-house excavation 
delayed the work greatly and increased enormously the 

amount of material to be moved. When the point was 
reached where concreting could be done it was mid- 
winter. Most of the concrete in the foundation was 
placed when the thermometer never rose above freezing 
temperature. Forms frequently were overthrown or mis- 
placed by cave-ins before concrete could be poured, and 
the water rose so rapidly in the excavation that a 3-in. 
centrifugal pump was kept going night and day. Never- 
theless, in the face of such discouragements, the foun- 
dations were built and the superstructure was erected 
>b time for the completion of the plant before the ir- 
rigation season of 1917 started. The pump-supply canal 
likewise involved serious difficulties in excavation, and 
it was found necessary to use side slopes as flat as 2% to 
1 to prevent slipping. This required the removal of 
excessive quantities of material and repeated dredging 
of the bottom, in order to establish a grade. 

The construction of the concrete pipe involved form 
work of so interesting a character that it will be de- 
tailed. The hoop reinforcement was formed first to cir- 
cular shape of the proper diameter, the ends being 
lapped about 18 in. and securely wired. It was then 
assembled in place and spaced by being wired to the 
longitudinal reinforcement. The inside form was then 
assembled inside of the reinforcement. The inside form 
was made in 12-ft. lengths, in six sections, five of which 
were bolted together at brackets. The sixth or top sec- 
tion rested on wedges supported on a cross-brace, and 
the whole inside form was hung by i-in. rods, hooked 
on each end and attached to eye-bolts, passing up 
through 4 x 4-in. longitudinal stringers supported by 
the outside form framework. Thus the inside form 
could be raised or lowered into exact position by the 
adjusting nuts on these eye-bolts, the outside form first 
having been set to correct position and grade. The 
hoop reinforcement was supported in proper position 
by small blocks resting on the inside form. It will be 
noted that the bottom of the inside form was left open 


1 1 


i 1 


1 1 


,J~~ k 


\ ' 


_— _ 



Side Elevation 


.... 5' 

|< 6 : 4 ". >j 

End Elevation 

at A (see detail), and that an opening, B, was left in 
the outside form. The latter was held together by *-in. 
bolts, to facilitate disassembling and moving. 

Concrete was poured through a spout into opening B 
from a trough running the length of the pipe and sup- 
plied by a mixer established at the crest of the hill. 
The opening A gave an opportunity to see that the con- 
crete was worked well underneath the inside form and 
completely filled the bottom of the pipe. After con- 
crete had been poured partly up the sides of the pipe, 
the hooks supporting the inside form were removed and 
pieces of tin were tacked over the opening; the blocks 
supporting the reinforcement also were removed, so noth- 

January 9, 1919 



ing was left in the concrete to prevent the pipe from 
being perfectly tight, and no patching of the hole was 
necessary. Forty-eight feet of pipe was poured every 
alternate day. Care had to be exercised not to use too 
wet a mixture, as at the start some difficulty was ex- 
perienced with the concrete running up through the bot- 
tom opening in the inside form. 

The morning following the pouring of the concrete 
the first 12 ft. of inside section was taken to pieces and 
moved ahead through the other sections and reassem- 
bled. The other sections followed, until all were moved 
ahead and set ready for the pouring of the concrete 
the following day. 

The conduit as finally completed was an exceptionally 
neat and smooth job inside, and when plastered with 
neat cement a surface was insured which, as subsequent 
tests showed, gave little frictional resistance to the flow 
of water. No leaks of any consequece developed in the 
entire length of the pipe — a mere sweating, which soon 
stopped completely, being noted soon after water was 
turned in near the lower end. 

The joint at the junction of the concrete pipe and the 
•manifold is worthy of notice. It is a section of steel 
pipe 5 ft. in diameter. A length of 3 ft. is bedded in 
the concrete block at the lower end of the concrete pipe, 
there being two 3-in. angles riveted around the steel pipe 
to act as cut-offs. The longitudinal reinforcement was 
passed through holes drilled in the flange of one of 
these angles and bent back to form a loop, thus being 
held securely to the reinforcement of the concrete pipe. 
No packing joint around the steel pipe between it and 
the concrete was provided, and no leak of any conse- 
quence has yet been noted at this point. 

Design of Outlet — Contract Costs 

The outlet at the upper end of the concrete pipe pre- 
sented in construction some difficulties that were over- 
come. The curved interior walls are for the purpose of 
(greeting the flow of water as it issues from the en- 
larged end of the pipe so that it does not bank up against 
the outside wall. 

To insure a minimum of leakage between the outlet 
and the measuring weir at the time of testing, the out- 
let canal for 200 ft. was lined with concrete. This has 
a thickness of 4 in., the bottom width being 12 ft. and 
the side slopes 1] to 1 to a water depth of 4 ft. The 
concrete was laid in alternate sections about 12 ft. in 
length, and no special provision was made for joints. 

The contract cost of the various items was as fol- 

Supply canal, 23,485 cubic yards $8,220 

Pump house and foundations 13,534 

Reinforced-concrete pipe and outlet 5,007 

Delivery canal, 23,000 cubic yards 3,450 

Light structures on delivery canal 3,461 

All machinery and equipment, including erection 40,000 

Total .I' $73,672 

No extras of any consequence were found necessary 
on any but the first three' items. The very difficult ex- 
cavation for the pump-house foundations, concrete pipe 
and supply canal, and the greatly increased amount of 
material which had to be moved, due to slides and cave- 
ins, as well as the necessity of using piling under the 
pump house and pipe, increased the cost very materially. 

The final cost, therefore, of th3 completed project, in- 
cluding right-of-way, engineering and legal expenses, 
was $96,000. 

The machinery and all the hydraulic and electrical 
equipment was furnished by the Allis-Chalmers Manu- 
facturing Co., Milwaukee, Wis., through the Salt Lake 
Hardware Co., contractor. The erection of machinery 
was subcontracted to the Lynch Construction Co., Og- 
den, Utah. The concrete structures including the pump 
house and the supply canal, were contracted by J. E. 
Wilson, Jr., Logan, Utah. The supervision of the work 
was under the immediate charge of T. H. Humphreys, 
hydraulic engineer, Logan, Utah, and most of the de- 
tailed plans and drawings were prepared by the writer. 

Mixer Association Standardizes 
Mixer Rating 

Wet-Batch Capacity Is Taken as Basis After 
Careful Study of All Factors and Sub- 
mission of Questionnaire 

By G. B. Arthur 

Manager, Concrete Mixer Association 

IT IS not necessary in this day to argue the advantages 
of standardization to anyone engaged, as engineer or 
contractor, in engineering work. For example, the 
field would be thrown into utter confusion if an electric 
motor rating meant one thing to one manufacturer and 
another to someone else. Intelligent design, intelligent 
purchasing, intelligent operation are not possible so long 
as the producers of equipment fail to agree on standard 
methods of designating their product. 

What is true of electric motors or steam engines is 
equally true of concrete mixers. The output of the 
mixer usually controls the speed of the job. Intelligent 
"planting" of work, so far as the mixing is concerned, 
is impossible unless there is a standard rating or the 
contractor fortifies himself with knowledge of all the 
fifty-seven varieties of ratings used by as many manu- 

Realizing the need and advantages of standardization, 
the Concrete Mixer Association has adopted a standard 
method of rating concrete mixers. This is based on the 
"wet batch" — that is, on the amount of mixed concrete 
which a mixer will discharge. 

Standard Rating Not Absolute 

The adoption of a standard method of rating may 
suggest that such a rating will be absolute, but this is 
impossible. A No. 7 mixer may mean a mixer which 
will discharge 7 cu.ft. of mixed concrete of given pro- 
portions. But when other proportions are used the 
output will be the largest batch which is consistent 
with the use of whole sacks of cement, although when 
cement is used in bulk the maximum output of the 
mixer can be obtained with any proportions. 

A system of rating can be established only by taking 
a mixture of given proportions as a basis, with the un- 
derstanding that this rating can apply only to the pro- 
portions specified, and that the output, when other pro- 
portions are used, will vary with the size of the batch, 
which in turn is determined by the method of handling 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

the cement. And while any rating should be expected 
to state the capacity of the mixer, this capacity might 
be either in terms of loose, unmixed material — called 
"dry rating" — or, according to the "wet rating," in 
terms of mixed concrete in one batch as discharged from 
the mixer. 

The "wet rating" was adopted by the National Asso- 
ciation of Mixer Manufacturers before that organiza- 
tion was dissolved to form the Concrete Mixer Asso- 
ciation, and it became so familiar to buyers and users 
that any change in the method would seem like throw- 
ing away a certain amount of capital; at least, the care- 
ful work which brought about the adoption of the 
method could not be disregarded easily. 

On the other hand, manufacturers who were not mem- 
bers of the old organization, and therefore were not con- 
sulted when the "wet rating" was adopted, were now to 
be considered, and most of these manufacturers had 
used the "dry rating." Some of them made chiefly 
large mixers, the others made only small ones. The 
former had much in common with the members who had 
been parties to the earlier standardization ; the latter 
group, who sold many of their mixers to small con- 
tractors, farmers and other individuals, had an entirely 
different problem. A thought-provoking element in 
their selling is the principle that when a mixer receives 
a "dry rating" the buyer is impressed with the "big- 
ness" of the machine and feels that the bargain is highly 
satisfactory, whereas if it receives a "wet rating," mak- 
ing the rated capacity one-third less, this reduction has 
its effect on the mind of the customer — he thinks he is 
not getting as much for his money. 

Questionnaire Used 

The standardization committee carried its investiga- 
tion far enough to make a convincing recommendation, 
but action was deferred until a questionnaire was mailed 
to a representative list of men and organizations who 
would be likely to have a preference for either the "wet" 
or the "dry" method. When the replies were tabulated 
as in Table I it was seen that the preference was in 


-o |Q 

* .s 

S Jv " Wet " 

6 ci£ 6 „ 

Classification Z tf: Z t» 

State highway officials. 47 26 19 73 

Cement companies 82 35 26 74 

Engineering schools ... . 109 32 28 87 

Testing laboratories 20 6 5 83 

Engineers and consult- 
ing engineers 200 72 66 92 

Engineering societies. . . 26 1 
Editors of technical 

journals 6 2 2 100 

Contractors 505 98 75 76 

Other associations 15 II 6 55 

Total 1,010 283 227 80 

Replies Not Vot 














o „ 



Z ^ 





7 27 




9 26 


4 13 





1 17 


6 8 




1 100 




23 24 





5 45 


56 20 

19 318 

accord with the report which was ready for presenta- 
tion. It will be seen that of the 283 replies which were 
made 80% voted in favor of the "wet rating" while 20% 
favored the "dry rating." 

One factor probably outweighed all others and became 
the deciding one, when everything else had been con- 
sidered: The advisability of using the "dry" method 

of rating could be disputed in the beginning because the 
volume of a batch of loose, unmixed materials when 
thrown together is a variable quantity, depending not 
only upon the kind but also upon the condition of the 
aggregates •used. A careful reading of the replies which 
favored the "dry" method gives the impression that in 
the majority of cases this consideration was overlooked, 
the writers probably assuming that the volume of a 
batch of loose materials when thrown into the drum 
would be so nearly constant as to warrant its use as a 
basis for rating the mixer. It seems reasonably certain 
that, seeing that this is not true, many would change 
their preference to favor the "wet" rating. 

As there is only one constant quantity available — the 
amount of mixed concrete which a mixer will deliver 
in one batch — the rating is established on this basis, 
with the following definition : "The standard association 
method of rating mixers shall be upon the basis of the 
quantity of mixed concrete which a mixer can deliver 
in one batch; assuming the use of one part cement, 
three parts sand and six parts H-in. crushed stone, 
with water at the rate of not more than 1J gal. to 1 
cu.ft. of mixed concrete; the loose, unmixed batch to 
be approximated as li times the mixed batch, or the 
mixed batch as § of the loose, unmixed batch." 

A method of numbering was then adopted which re- 
quires that the size of the mixer shall be designated by 
a number indicating the capacity of the mixer in cubic 
feet of mixed concrete per batch, based upon the ac- 
cepted method of rating. The practice of using the let- 
ters "S" and "E" to indicate side or end loading is dis- 
continued, because in practice they seem to confuse 
rather than explain. 

With these rules in force a No. 7 mixer can mean only 
one thing when found in the catalogue of a member of 
the Concrete Mixer Association — a mixer which will 
discharge, in one batch, 7 cu.ft. of mixed concrete of 
the proportions 1:3:6, using lj-in. crushed stone, 
with water at the rate of not more than li gal. to each 
cubic foot of mixed concrete. The number 7 thus ac- 
quires much significance and becomes the natural be- 
ginning for a range of sizes of mixers. 

Just before a war conservation program was put into 
effect in the industry the sizes 2A, 4, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 
of building mixers were practically adopted for all mem- 
bers. But to conserve as much as possible the War 
Service Committee revised this, and the sizes 4, 7, 14, 
21, and 28 in building mixers were recommended, with 
the understanding that manufacturers would put into 
these classes any mixers which were approximately of 
these sizes. In paving mixers the sizes 10 to 14 were 
recommended for adoption until it was possible to make 
the definition more particular. The tendency in the in- 


Proportions Volume in 
by Parts Cubic Feet 

Ce- Sand Stone Loose Mixed 
ment Cu. Cu. Cu. Cu. 
Sacks Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. 

Number of one-bag batches which will be 
discharged by mixers of different sizes, Con- 
crete Mixer Association rating. (No. 10 is for 

paving mixer only) 
, Number ■ 































January 9, 1919 



dustries is to hold to sizes recommended by War Service 
Committees, as far as practicable. 

Table II shows the output of these standard sizes for 
various proportions, and a little study of the variations 
in one-bag batches will throw all the foregoing state- 
ments into sharp relief. It shows also that the standards 
which have been adopted are practical and rational, and 

puts them beyond further argument. This table should 
be made a part of the information supplied for every 
job, to make sure that the mixer is doing all 
that should be expected of it; and these standards 
should not only make it easier to choose a mixer 
but should also go far toward safeguarding the 
integrity of the job. 

Efforts to Consolidate the Engineering Profession 

More Federation and Simplification Which Means Elimination Are Advocated — 
Problems Which Demand Solution Are Outlined 

By A. D. Flinn 

Secretary, Engineering- Council, New York 

THE organization of engineers in America is 
chaotic, complex and illogical. As consequences 
there are confusion, waste, inefficiency and dis- 
satisfaction, which, however, are exaggerated in some 
minds. If no associations existed, it would be relatively 
easy to plan and create a system of organization that 
would satisfy demands much more effectively than does 
the present multiplicity of unrelated societies. But 
there have grown with the years traditions, and loyal- 
ties, and prejudices, clustering about the societies that 
now are. An answer to the problem thus created is not 
easy. To me the solution is not obvious, but some prog- 
ress in the process is now appearing. There must be ex- 
tensive consolidations, more federation and much simpli- 
fication, each of which demands elimination. Steps are 
being taken, or preparations made for them, in various 
ways and places, and by a number of agencies. They will 
be accelerated as their benefits gain appreciation; but 
education, time, and patience are needed for attaining the 

The Problems Confronting a Consolidation Scheme 

What are the present desirable limits to consolida- 
tion and federation? To what goal should they tend? 
By what methods and means can they best be brought 
about? These and similar questions are not being 
answered conclusively, because the necessary facts are 
not in hand. We have been muddling along in an un- 
engineering fashion, attempting to plan and design and 
specify without a survey. On Sept. 12, Engineering 
Foundation by formal vote proposed to make the much- 
needed survey and preliminary studies, the four Founder 
Societies concurring. Of the necessity for this survey 
I have been more deeply convinced with the passing 
weeks, as I have listened to ineffective arguments and 
to misstatements based on ignorance which can be cor- 
rected only by the results of the proposed survey of 
engineering organizations. 

Without the enlightenment of such a survey it now 
seems that the following elements of organization are 
desirable for the engineering profession in America: 
Excepting possibly three or four cities having large 
numbers of engineers, there should be in each com- 
munity, having a sufficient group of technical men to be 
organized, one organization that embraces them all. 
Reasons for this are obvious. This organization may 
be an association of local societies and sections of na- 

tional societies, or it may be a society admitting to its 
membership men of all branches of the profession. Ex- 
amples of both forms of organization exist in a number 
of places. Local organizations should have large meas- 
ures of autonomy, but should conform to approved types 
and standards. 

Logically, the next step in organizing would be the 
combining of these local organizations into one or a few 
national societies, so that the loyalty, interest, com- 
radeship, and activities naturally developed by the local 
organizations would flow to the national societies. But 
at this step the difficulties increase. Many engineers 
cannot become active members of local organizations, 
because of distances from headquarters; others do not 
desire local membership. If there were only one na- 
tional society, many of the difficulties of scheming a 
system of organization would disappear; but there are. 
and probably for some years will be, several national 
societies of importance, and in each local organization 
there will be members of two or more national societies. 
A number of plans have been submitted to me for over- 
coming these difficulties. None is wholly acceptable. 
These problems lie at the bottom of the tasks of the 
Committee on Development of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, and of the Committee on Aims and 
Organization of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, and similar committees appointed by the 
other societies. Many engineers are giving them 

There are said to be approximately 400 organizations 
of engineers in America, of various kinds. Of these, 
about one-quarter are the leading national societies and 
their local sections. In general, the remaining societies 
have no official relationship, excepting the associations 
of local societies and sections in a few communities. 
Consequently, the engineering profession, before the 
public and Government, has no one organization which 
represents it as a whole, as have the medical profession, 
the lawyers, the chemists, the architects, the Chamber 
of Commerce and even labor. In the memberships of 
the Founder Societies, aggregating 35,000 engineers, 
there have been variously estimated to be only 
one-third to one-sixth of the total number of en- 
gineers in the country. The engineering profession 
lacks solidarity. 

Not a little of the dissatisfaction voiced in various 
quarters as to the shortcomings of the national societies 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

grows out of ignorance or lack of apprehension of bene- 
fits actually received. In no small measure the com- 
plainants are at fault in not making better use of the 
facilities provided and the means of information put 
within their reach. Furthermore, some important bene- 
fits of membership in large technical societies are in- 
tangible and not capable of definition ; not a few persons 
overlook these. Nevertheless, there are causes for rea- 
sonable dissatisfaction. The societies are endeavoring 
to remove these as they are recognized and remedies can 
be found. Humanity and its institutions will never be 
wholly rid of dissatisfaction, and to this truism en- 
gineers are no exception. 

Quotes President Main's Address to Mechanical 
Engineers' Society 

In this connection, a quotation from the presidential 
address of Charles T. Main to the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, December, 1918, is interest- 
ing reading: 

In the Monthly Bulletin of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers, March, 1918, there appeared the following: 

"The vision dwells in the minds of many that ultimately 
these four great societies, lightening the emphasis they place 
upon their differences, may see the time when, for the soli- 
darity of the profession, for their best interests, as well 
as for the increase of their influence on the country at 
large, they may become one great national association of 
engineers. With the gain in power and prestige inevitably 
following such an aggregation, freedom from individual de- 
velopment may be achieved through division along the lines 
of technical interests, which might either follow the present 
four grand divisions or be more minutely subdivided. 

"An organization of this sort could and probably would 
be more strictly professional than any of the four have been 
heretofore, and through the prestige and power of its num- 
bers could establish standards of ethical conduct for its 
members, violation of which would bring grave conse- 

This great vision is worthy of the most careful consider- 
ation and might be carried with safety to a point where the 
national societies would be gathered in under one executive 
head, without any one losing any vital portion of its indi- 

This would be a great step in advance and perhaps as 
far as we should go for some time to come. 

Whatever scheme of organization be ultimately se- 
lected, it must be flexible, so as to meet successfully 
constantly changing conditions, and it must provide for 
both technical and social requirements of the member- 
ship, while maintaining high standards. "Social re- 
quirements," is here used to mean, in addition to social 
intercourse among members, services of the organiza- 
tions to Government and to the public, and services to 
engineers individually, such as assistance in securing 
engagements and better standing in corporate and Gov- 
ernmental employment. Technical and social functions 
probably will be best kept distinct. Some engineers 
even suggest separate organizations; but at present 
prefer separate departments of one organization or of 
a federated group of organizations. 

The United Engineering Society 

So far as known, none of the leading organizations 
has stated a definite policy on these questions. Opinions 
herein expressed are only personal. The statements in 
this paper are merely a contribution to the general dis- 
cussion of this subject by one who for several months 

has had especial opportunities for learning the opinions 
of others and gathering a little information. 

As regards the joint activities of the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, and the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, the present organization seems involved; 
and even some members of the governing bodies of 
these societies have difficulty in keeping relationships 
straight. It is, however, not so complex as some persons 
assume. It may be simply stated as follows. The four 
Founder Societies named have joined in creating the 
United Engineering Society to hold and administer 
property and to perform other broad functions for them. 
At their request the United Engineering Society has 
established three departments — the Library Board, the 
Engineering Foundation, and Engineering Council. 

The Engineering Societies Library has possibilities 
for active usefulness to the engineering profession and 
to the industries of this country. Its present passive 
services are good and of great value, but the library can 
do much more. Funds are needed at once for complete 
recataloging of the books, for strengthening the col- 
lection of books, and for instituting new lines of 
service. The books of the societies have been brought 
together, but they have not yet been assembled as one 
library. Never, except during the war, has it been so 
important that all useful recorded technical informa- 
tion should be fully and quickly accessible to engineers — 
not only to those in the New York district, but also 
to those scattered throughout the whole land. 

Engineering Foundation and Engineering Council 

The Engineering Foundation now has an endowment 
of $300,000, yielding an annual income of $15,000. It 
rendered vital financial assistance to the National Re- 
search Council at the latter's inception in 1916, and 
for the year terminating in September, 1917. That 
council performed services of great importance to the 
Government during the war. For the future it already 
has in hand many projects. One of the most important 
of these is the promotion of industrial research, in 
which the Engineering Foundation is cooperating. The 
Engineering Foundation investigated a scheme for 
spray camouflage of ships; is conducting long-time tests 
on the wear of gears, and is making a research into the 
selective control of wireless communication. It has 
offered to undertake a "survey of existing engineering 
organizations, and from information thus developed to 
formulate a series of constructive recommendations 
which may be serviceable in guiding the further develop- 
ment of local and national engineering organizations, 
in their relations to the profession of engineers, to the 
public, and to one another." Other projects are being 
studied, but cannot yet be announced. Engineering 
Foundation's policy is to devote its energies and re- 
sources to undertakings of broad application, such as 
bringing about and stimulating cooperation among ex- 
isting agencies engaged in research and outlining pro- 
grams and organizations for research in specific fields. 

The Engineering Council, since its organization meet- 
ing on June 27, 1917, has made progress in exploring 
its proper field of activity and fixing some of its boun- 
daries. It has accomplished much useful but negative 

January 9, 1919 



work. In other words, its rejection have been im- 
portant and have consumed much time. But there are 
noteworthy constructive achievements, also, on the 
credit side of its records. During hostilities the Council 
rendered no small aid to the Government through the 
American Engineering Service, which procured thou- 
sands of engineers for the War, Navy, and other 
departments, and through the War Committee of Tech 
nical Societies, which assisted the Naval Consulting 
Board and the Army General Staff in examining scores 
of thousands of suggestions for naval and military 
devices. Through efforts of its public affairs committee, 
the Council aided in having the military draft adjusted 
to permit the continuance of training in the engineer- 
ing schools of the vitally necessary technical men. 
Through the industrial affairs committee vigorous op- 
position was offered to "anti-efficiency" legislation in 
Congress. Ten days after the signing of the armistice, 
the Engineering Societies Employment Bureau, with 
the four Founder secretaries as its board of directors, 
was substituted for the war-time American Engineer- 
ing Service. The fuel conservation committee acted in 
a consulting capacity to the Fuel Administration and 
the Bureau of Mines in securing war economies, and is 
continuing its much-needed services into the era of 
peace. The water-conservation committee is prepared 
to promote right, and to oppose wrong, national or state 
Governmental actions relating to water-power or other 
utilization of water, by supplying statements of facts 
rather than joining in controversial support of or opposi- 
tion to any particular measure. The license committee, 
with members judiciously distributed throughout the 
country, is collecting information on the licensing of 

engineers by the various states, and is preparing to 
render proper assistance in these matters whenever 
needed. The patents committee, cooperating with other 
similar bodies, is preparing important action for the 
improvement of the patent law and practice. During 
the spring and summer, the secretary visited groups of 
engineers representing the local societies and sections 
of national societies in 20 different cities from the 
Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Coast. In 30 or more 
communities local correspondents have been selected for 
direct communication between Engineering Council and 
engineers at distances from headquarters. Further- 
more, important projects of interest to all engineers are 
in preparation and may soon be announced. One of these 
is the formation of a national service committee, which 
is to have an office in Washington, as the representative 
of American engineers at the national capital. 

All aims and endeavors of engineers through their 
national and local societies and their joint instrumen- 
talities must be pervaded by a sincere spirit of service, 
not alone of one to another, but by all to the com- 
munity, the state, and the nation. Such public service 
by engineers, architects, chemists, scientists, doctors, 
lawyers, and clergymen is our professional obligation, 
the noblesse oblige of a free and democratic people. 
Each profession has its distinct service to perform. In 
each profession there are big men and small men; each 
must contribute according to that which he has. Service 
is the only true stepping-stone to that eminence which 
alone is worth attaining. Greater opportunities have 
never opened to American engineers than those which 
confront them in these rapidly passing years of war and 

Committee Analyzes Track-Elevation Costs or 
Rock Island Work in Chicago 

Book Figures Are Redistributed, Freight Charges and Other Elements of Expense Estimated and Added 
In, to Obtain Complete Unit Costs for Fifty Items on $2,700,000 Improvement 

UNIT costs of the track-elevation work of the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. have been the 
subject of an extensive study by a committee of valua- 
tion engineers. An organization known as the General 
Committee of the Chicago Zone Railways has been con- 
sidering for more than two years the special valuation 
problems presented by the network of railroads in the 
Chicago terminal district. Between Aug. 1, 1912, and 
Dec. 31, 1916, track-elevation from 72nd St. to 90th St., 
a distance of 21 miles, was carried on by the Rock 
Island as a continuous operation, at a book cost of 
$2,703,196.75. The Rock Island completed an extensive 
study of the unit costs of this work, the results of which 
were reviewed and criticized by a subcommittee of the 
general zone committee, created for the purpose. The 
subcommittee is known as subcommittee 14, and Robert 
H. Ford, principal assistant engineer, formerly en- 
gineer track elevation of the Rock Island, is its chair- 
man. The object of the investigation was to determine 
the correct methods for the distribution and probating 
of certain charges that appear on the books of the 
auditor, set up under account 43, later referred to, and 

the proper basis for estimating costs that do not so 

The report is divided into three books. Book 1 is 
simply an accounting analysis, or summary, of the 
auditor's records. Book 2 is an engineering analysis 
of the charges set up in book 1, which has been made 
for the purpose of obtaining the cost per unit of work. 
It embraces labor, material and work-train service costs 
as set up in book 1, and in addition freight on material 
over company lines. In this book the items in book 1 
are analyzed and redistributed, and the units of work 
done allocated to the book charges for each class of 
work, such as filling, excavation and concrete. Book 3 is 
an addendum to the engineering analysis in book 2 and 
consists of added items of direct expense which affect 
the unit cost but which for various reasons have not 
been inc uded in the book charges, these being added 
in order that the entire direct unit cost may be derived. 

Book 1 — Accounting Records 

In book 1 the accounts are set up in conformity with 
the Interstate Commerce Commission classification — 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

(1) engineering; (2) land for transportation purposes ; 
(3) grading; (6) bridges, trestles and culverts, and so 
forth. These are subdivided into the items of work — 
account 6, for example, containing 37 subaccounts, in- 
cluding such items as excavation, sand, cement, wood 
forms, drainage. Across the page these are divided into 
labor cost, material, quantity and cost, and work train 
hours and cost. The labor column includes only such 
labor as is covered by the pay rolls of the track-elevation 
forces. All amounts paid by voucher to contractors or 
others, whether for labor or material or both, are in- 
cluded in the material column. The material column 
does not include freight charges on the company's own 
lines. On July 1, 1914, the I. C. C. classification was 
changed to provide that thereafter such charges should 
be added on completion of the job, but as the work was 
still in progress when the analysis was being made the 
charges were not added in book 1. They were included 
in the material column in book 2. Under account 43, 
other expenditures and suspense, the company carried 
a large number of items that under a different policy 
would perhaps have been charged to other accounts, the 
company's policy being that doubtful items could better 
be classified upon completion of the work, after careful 
study. One hundred subaccounts, totaling $594,826.03, 
were carried under account 43. 

Book 2 — Engineering Analysis 

The task in preparing book 2 was to subdivide and 
regroup the subaccounts of book 1 to cover actual in- 
ventory or physical units, adding in the computed 
freight charges for material hauled over the company's 
lines and allocating the suspense items in account 43, 
but otherwise retaining the I. C. C. classification. Thus, 
in accounts 3 and 6 the items for forms appearing in 
book 1 are incorporated in the concrete costs for book 2, 
and on the other hand the single item for concrete crib- 
bing in book 1 is subdivided to cover the making and 
the handling and setting of two types of cribbing. 
"Drainage" in book 1 is replaced by "Drainage — 4-in. 
Tile" and "Drainage — 6-in. Tile" in book 2. Detailed 
statements of what the items in book 2 consist of, where 
the materials were obtained and how they were trans- 
ported, are included in the report. 

Numerous different bases were used in distributing 
the items of account 43 to the other primary accounts. 
General work-train service and repairs to material cars 
were allocated to benefited items in all of the other 
accounts, except engineering and land in the ratio of 
total costs of those items; handling material and gen- 
eral freight charges to benefited items in the same ac- 
counts as indicated above, in the ratio of the material 

















Cost Not 







Cost Not 





Per Unit 






Per Unit Included 




in Book 


in Book 




Engineering Per Cent 

6 1857c 





Reinforcing metal 






Filling (including 

Structural steel 


(not painted) 








cu. yd. 

$0 690 

$0 088 

$0 on 




sq. ft. 






in. yd. 





Walls and 


cu. yd. 



{0 051 




Sq. ft. 




Filling (excluding 


sq. ft. 







4-in field tile. . . 

lin. ft. 






cu. yd. 





6-in. field tile 

lin. ft. 






cu. yd. 





Gunite-steel in- 


cu. yd 








Floorbeanis and 


lin. ft. 

9 211 





box girders — 1 1 

sq. ft. 





E xcavatio n — 

Expansion joints 


cu. yd. 






— 2 in. thick 

lin. ft. 

1 279 




1 343 

Shoring ' 

cu. vd. 





Girders — 2] in. 

lin. ft. 

1 062 






sq. ft. 






sq. ft. 






Bottom floor 

♦Excavation and 

slabs — 5 in thick 

s,,. ft 







cu. yd. 

1 492 





Box girders — 8 

Excavation — street 

cu. yd. 

1 017 





in. thick 

sq. ft. 






Concrete founda- 

Box girders — 

tion piles 

lin ft. 







ni ft. 




00 > 


Creosoted founda- 

f'mssties — n e w. 

tion piles 

lin. ft. 


o on 





1 142 



1 685 

Excavatio n — 

Crossties — n e \v, 


cu. yd. 

9 837 










1 093 

Concrete — caisson 

cu. yd. 

4 982 





Switch timbers — 

tConerete — plain 

new, untreated 

ft. b, m. 

23 195 


23 633 

(forms in place) 

cu. yd. 

6 080 






Concrete — plain 

Gravel base, 2 to 

(traveling forms) 

cu. yd. 

5 192 






cu. yd. 





Concrete — rein- 

Gravel top 


cu. yd. 

8 737 





dressing, '. to 

Column and girder 

IS in. 

cu yd. 





incasement in 


cu. yd. 







cu. yd. 

18 081 





Tracklaying and 

Slabs and girders 


built in place 

cu. yd. 

9 025 







1274 64 

218 94 

28 04 

1521 62 

Column and girder 



2591 32 

17 01 

49 30 

2657 63 

incasement in 

cu. yd. 

15 745 





Brick paving 

sq. yd. 

2 542 



2 606 

Slabs and girders 

Asphaltic macadam 

sq. yd. 

1 402 



1 673 

built in yard, in- 

Concrete sidewalk 

sq. ft. 





cluding handling 


12 in., depth 

6 ft 

15 in, depth 

and placing 

cu. yd. 

10 145 






Concrete railing 
Concrete cribbing 

lin ft. 

1 297 





lin ft 

1 519 



1 549 



sq. ft. 





6 ft. 

6 in. catch- 

lin ft 

1 672 



1 705 

Dowel type > 

no. ties 

3 167 





eu. yd. 

sq. ft. 

25 386 






basin connec- 

9 in. catch- 
basin connec- 

lin. ft. 




Lock type j 

no. ties 
cu. yd. 

mring for 

1 578 024 030 1 632 
25 411 359 487 26 257 

signal bridge foundation. $2,537 per cubic yard 

lin. ft. 


40 074 




♦Excavation and si 

41 098 

tConerete plain for 

signal br 

dge foundation, $1 1 995 per cubic yard 



47 546 



48 476 

January 9, 1919 



costs of those items; camp, repairs to small tools, to 
tool cars and to bunk cars, to benefited items in the same 
account as above, in the ratio of labor costs of those 
items ; temporary trestle to "filling," account 3, and "con- 
crete," accounts 3, 6 and 16, in the ratio of yardage; 
material yard items and temporary tracks to benefited 
items in accounts 3 to 27, in the ratio of weights of 
material; temporary tracks at source of supply of ma- 
terials to "filling," account 3, "ballast," account 11, and 
all items in which sand and gravel were used in "con- 
crete," accounts 3, 6, 15, 16, 26 and 27, in the ratio 
of yardage. 

Book 3 — Additions to Book Charges 

Book 3, as previously explained, is an addendum of 
the engineering analysis shown in Book 2. "It consists," 
states the committee's report, "of added items of direct 
expense which materially affect the unit cost, but which, 
for various reasons, have not been included in the book 
charges." One element which is not included in these 
additions is general overhead charges — organization ex- 
penses; general officers and clerks; law; stationery and 
printing; taxes; interest during construction, and other 
expenses, general. Special studies have been made of the 
various items to determine whether the figures indicated 
in book 2 contain omissions. The same general classes 
of items, irrespective of the account to which they have 
been charged, are regrouped to show the average unit 
cost. Thus, the concrete items in the different primary 
accounts of grading, bridges, trestles and culverts, sta- 
tions and office buildings, and so forth, were merged, 
but the different classes of concrete as plain, reinforced, 
etc., were kept distinct. On the other hand, certain 
items dependent on local conditions, such as station 
buildings, rail and other track material, were eliminated. 

Engineering in book 2 was carried on a basis of 
percentage of all accounts except engineering itself 
and land, and was shown as 6.185%. Two additions 
were made in book 3. In connection with the inclusion 
of freight charges it was estimated that the additional 
work required the time of at least one accountant and 
one clerk during the period covered by the analysis, this 
amounting to 0.408%; the other addition was for divi- 
sional overhead, embracing charges for services of the 
chief engineer, bridge, signal, building and other staff 
engineers and their office forces. This was estimated by 
a special study to be 0.680%, and the two increments 
bring the percentage for engineering up to 7.273. 

Special Studies 
Following is the statement regarding the item for 
cinders. "Cinders have been included in the book ac- 
counts at an arbitrary rate of 20c. per yd. This is 
lower than actual cost, and an independent study is in 
process to determine the cost. Preliminary to this de- 
termination an estimated amount has been made based 
upon the switching rate directed by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission and the State Public Utilities 
Commission of Illinois, viz., lc. per hundredweight 
(60,000 lb. minimum per car) to the originating line, 
plus ic. to the delivery line, or equal to a minimum of 
$6 per car for the originating line, plus actual cost of 
handling on the delivery line, the latter being assumed 
as requiring four days' service for use of car at 35c. 
per day (demurrage rate then prevailing) , plus the cost 

of switching, estimated as equivalent to 10 miles at Jc. 
per ton per mile. Computed upon 35 cu.yd. per car 
(which is the estimated average yardage of the loads of 
cinders covered in this analysis) and allowing 1500 lb. 
per cubic yard, the rates indicated above amount to $8.00 
per car or 25.1c. per cubic yard. The difference between 
this cost and the arbitrary cost of 20c. per cubic yard 
or 5.1c. is added to class A cinders. 

A special study of the cost of treated crossties re- 
sulted in an addition of 51.2c. per tie, the total cost 
including freight charges from the treating plant in 
Missouri to the distributing yard. Similarly, another 
study added 26.5c. per tie for untreated crossties. 

Unit Costs Derived 

The accompanying table shows some of the larger 
items — the unit costs (with freight charges) derived in 
book 2 and the estimated additions properly included. 
In some instances, costs in two or three kinds of units 
have been figured. In the use of the data, it is pointed 
out, judgment must be applied to evaluate the affecting 
conditions — not only the character and composition of 
the finished structure, but the hampering or facilitating 
conditions under which it was built. Thus, as concrete 
for retaining walls, it is pointed out, is ordinarily 
cheaper to place than concrete for abutments, because 
the work can be laid in larger sections, so all of the 
concrete work covered by the analysis is held to have 
cost less per yard than in the average track-elevation 
program in Chicago, partly because the right-of-way 
was less restricted and it was less difficult to prosecute 
the work and still maintain traffic, and partly because 
the Rock Island, having a large amount of concrete to 
place on the job, was especially organized for that class 
of work. On the other hand, it is thought that a similar 
study of track elevation on the Chicago & Western In- 
diana R. R., where filling is the principal item and the 
work has been organized for that, would show a much 
lower unit cost for grading and a much higher one for 
concrete. The report- describes in considerable detail 
just what, as to materials and method of fabrication, was 
involved in each item, and the report, aside from giving 
a definite basis for fixing prices on the work it covers, 
aims to show the unreliability of undigested book costs, 
to suggest a method of analysis to determine correct 
figures, and to present a fair guide as to what those 
figures should be. 

Besides Mr. Ford, chairman of the subcommittee, its 
members are Joseph Weidel, valuation engineer of the 
Santa Fe system; J. H. Roach, valuation engineer of 
the New York Central; E. B. Crane, assistant valuation 
engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; W. C. 
Bolin, pilot engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio; D. J. 
Brumley, valuation engineer of the Illinois Central; 
G. W. Hand, valuation engineer of the Chicago & North 
Western; A. Montzheimer, chief engineer of the Elgin, 
Joliet & Eastern, and L. S. Rose, valuation engineer of 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. 

Supreme Court Fixes Responsibility of Contracts 

Through oversight in the preparation of the article 
with above title published in our issue of Dec. 26, 1918, 
p. 1167, the author's name and title were omitted. The 
article was written by George A. King, of the Bar of 
the United States Court of Claims. Washington, D. C. 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

Emergency Shipbuilding on Lakes Handled By 
Erection Cranes of Many Types 

Side Launching Imposes Special Requirements — Old and New Cantilever Cranes — Gantries Do Successful 
Work — Tower Cranes Installed During Past Year — One Crane Per Berth Now Thought Necessary 

SHIP-ERECTION cranes of many forms are giving 
efficient service in the rush work of building ocean- 
going ships for the Emergency Fleet Corporation 
in the Great Lakes yards. Side-launching, which these 



yards practice exclusively, imposes on crane layouts 
and crane types requirements which lead to pronounced 
differences from the equipment found in the seacoast 

end-launching yards. As the building berth lies along 
a dock wall and the ship is launched over this wall, 
cranes and material cars can operate along one side 
only. This condition, and the common arrangement of 
grouping berths on a pier, have controlled the develop- 
ment of the shipbuilding cranes. Recent types, however, 
are such as to suit any berth arrangement equally well. 
The service obtained from the various cranes appears 
to depend more on the space layout of berth, craneway 
and storage facilities than on inherent characteristics 
of the cranes. 

Revolving-jib traveling cranes are newcomers in the 
Lakes yards. Many have been installed during the 
past year. They are traveling portal-frame towers on 
which are mounted revolving locomotive-crane or equiv- 
alent superstructures. 

All the cranes built for Lakes shipyards prior to the 
present year are either gantry or cantilever trolley 
bridges. These machines had proved entirely satisfac- 
tory, but as additional crane service was needed at 
once revolving-jib cranes, which could be obtained most 
quickly, were introduced. 

While even the oldest of the trolley machines, as that 
shown by Fig. 1, are meeting the demands of rush work, 
evidence of progress is given by the fact that the more 

A - Single Cantilever (Cleveland) 

B - Double Carrti lever 
(Wyandotte, South Chicago, Superior) 



C-Gan-Hlever on Garrtry Base (Ecorse) 

D- Cantilever with Gantry Base on 
Low Trestle (Man'rtowoc) 

E- Trestle Gantry, with Outboard 
Track on Columns (Lorain) 




Y 5 

F-Outboard Track 
on Ground (Toledo) 


1 | 


1 1 
1 1 

i r 
i / 


l \ 

1 1 

/\ i\ 

6- Gantry with both 
Tracks on Ground (Globe) 

H - Locomotive Portal Crane 
(Wyandotte, Buffalo, South Chicago, Manitowoc, 
Superior, Ecorse, Ashtabula) 

A-D. Single and Double Cantilevers; E-G, Gantries; H. Revolving Jib Cranes 

January 9, 1919 





recent ones have proved superior in speed and operating 
convenience. The best speed records have been achieved 
in yards equipped with cranes of relatively recent design. 
It is noteworthy that the cranes which made the two 
fastest shipbuilding performances were designed by 
shipyard men ; and one of these performances made a 
world's record for shortest time from keel-laying to 

Three Main Types Represented in Various Forms — 
Except for the revolving cranes of the present year, the 
Lakes yards are equipped with (1) cantilever cranes 
reaching out over the berth from its land side, leaving 
the other side clear to permit launching, or (2) gantries 
which span the berth and find support on an outboard 
track removed at the time of launching. The operation 
of removing and replacing the track, together with the 
fact that the berth is without crane service in the 
interval, constitutes a prima facie argument against the 
gantry type, but this is invalidated by the successfu" 
work of the gantries. Moreover, gantries as well as 
cantilevers are represented among the new cranes addec 
during 1918. 

A. C. Payton, superintendent oi the American Ship- 
building Co.'s Lorain, Ohio, yard, where gantries have 
been used since the foundation of the yard in 1899, 

states that the cost of removing the outboard track to 
clear a 261-ft. ship is negligible, as a gang of 11 men 
does the work in 1% days, and in any event part of 
this time is required for taking down scaffolding. He 
considers the Lorain gantries the best ship-erection 
machines on the Lakes. C. B. Calder, president of the 
Toledo Shipbuilding Co., Toledo, Ohio, is equally pro- 
nounced in favor of gantries, of which the yard has 
three; the cranes can go into service within two hours 
after a launching. The Globe Shipbuilding Co., 
Superior, Wis., which began operations during the past 
two years, has installed gantries as giving the most 
efficient utilization of the yard space. 

Cantilever cranes are the oldest as well as the newest 
of shipbuilding cranes of the Lakes, however. Four 
different arrangements are in use, represented by 
sketches A to D, in Fig. 2. Trestle-supported cranes 
with cantilever arm projecting to one side (sketch A 
serve riverside berths at the Cleveland yard of the 
American Shipbuilding Co. Similar trestle machines 
cantilevering to both sides (B) form the equipment of 
berths grouped on piers at three other yards of the same 
company, at Wyandotte, Mich., South Chicago, and 
Superior, Wis. All these machines are about 25 years 

Recent cantilevers are shown at C and D. One-side 
cantilever bridges carried on gantry bases running on 
tracks on the ground (sketch C) are used at the Ecorse, 
Mich., yard of the Great Lakes Engineering Works; the 
berths are on piers, and two cranes set back to back 
on separate tracks serve the two sides of the pier. 
The Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, Wis., has 
cranes of the same structural type, but running on 
low trestles 6 to 12 ft., high (D) ; the berths here are 
arranged along the river bank, and, as supply tracks 
are located both within the gantry width and back of 
it, the trolley runway is cantilevered out backward a 
short distance, so that it commands both tracks. A 
gantry-base double cantilever similarly supported on 
low trestles (Fig. 8) is in use at South Chicago. 

Gantry cranes, used in three yards, are of as many 
different forms, distinguished by their track arrange- 


ment. At Lorain the outboard track is carried on a 
line of columns (E, Fig. 2, and view, Fig. 4). The 
Toledo gantries have their outboard track on the ground 
(F). Both these have a trestle to carry the main or in- 
board track, and the bridge has pin or hinge connections 
to its supports at both ends. The cranes of the Globe 
Shipbuilding Co., however, are of true gantry type (G) 



Vol. 82, No. 2 


-"^ TRANSOM /" 



. , „__ 


1 j. 



Compact Grouping of Berths, 
Storage and Shop (Cleveland) 

Pier with Double Cantilever 


Wide-Base Cantilevers Supplemented 
by Revolving Jib-Cranes (Ecorse) 









Gantries with Overhang Commanding 
Storage Space (Toledo) 

FIG. 5. 


and have both tracks on the ground. Removing and 
replacing the outboard track (and its supports, in the 
case of the Lorain arrangement) is in all cases done 
by the crane itself. 

Revolving-jib cranes as installed during the past year 
comprise regular locomotive-crane superstructures, re- 



volving on a fixed turntable seated on a portal-braced 
tower (sketch H). Even where the supporting tower 
is widened out to gantry proportions as shown by the 
dotted line (new cranes at Ecorse), the jib hoist does 
not traverse on the tower. Such locomotive tower 
cranes have been installed by the American Shipbuilding 
Co. at Buffalo, Wyandotte, South Chicago and Superior, 
to serve new berths; and by the Great Lakes Engineer- 
ing Works at Ashtabula and Ecorse, and the Manitowoc 
Shipbuilding Co., to supplement existing cantilever 
cranes. One of these machine is shown in Fig. 3. A 
slightly different type of revolving- jib crane was adopted 
by the McDougall-Duluth Co. late last year in equipping 
its yard at Duluth, Minn. 

Old Cantilever Cranes Under Various Service Condi- 
tions — That the berth conditions and the arrangement of 

the surrounding space are of 
vital bearing on the results 
obtained from a particular 
crane appears in pronounced 
manner from comparison of 
the six old cantilever cranes 
to which reference has al- 
ready been made — two one- 
side cantilevers at Cleveland, 
serving three berths, and 
four double cantilevers at 
Wyandotte, South Chicago 
and Superior, generally serv- 
ing a group of four berths. 
All were built in the early 
'90's, and two of them are 
of the rod-braced light truss 
type characteristic of coal- 
handling machinery in that 
period. The Cleveland and 
Wyandotte cranes, Figs. 6 
and 7, were built by the Brown Hoisting Machinery Co. 
for the F. W. Wheeler Shipbuilding Co.'s yard at West 
Bay City, Mich., and were removed from there later by 
the new owners, the American Shipbuilding Co. The 
Superior crane. Fig. 1, was installed about 1896 by the 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. when Capt. Alexander Mc- 
Dougall built his whalebacks at that yard. 

At Cleveland the shop, berths and cranes are in 
closely-knit grouping, as sketched in Fig. 5. The shop 
lies directly back of the crane runway, and delivers 
either to the cranes or to storage racks in the runway. 
Material, therefore, has to move only a short distance 
in going from shop to ship, and a given crane capacity 
can erect more material than where a longer path is 
involved. Due to this fact, and also to unusually able and 
energetic management, the yard has been able to make 
an excellent shipbuilding record during the past two 
years, in spite of having much ancient, inadequate 
equipment and cramped facilities. Not only are the 
cranes old and of light capacity, and in need of very 
careful maintenance, but the shop, which is even older, 

fig. 7. 


January 9, 1919 


ETC. 8. 


is badly cramped in layout and lacks handling facilities. 
The hoisting capacity of the cranes is three tons, and 
the speeds are: Lifting 250 ft. per minute, trolley 
travel 1000 to 1200 ft. per minute, bridge travel 300 
to 400 ft. per minute. 

Very different layout is found at the berths equipped 
with the double cantilever cranes, as Wyandotte and 
Superior. These are berths arranged in a group of four 
en a pier, down the center of 
which is placed the trestle 
of the double cantilever, as 
sketched in the small-scale 
plan in Fig. 5. No space is 
available for supply tracks 
between the ship and the 
crane trestle, or under the 
trestle. In fact, there is no 
way of bringing ship parts 
or other material from the in- 
shore end of the pier except 
by the crane itself. Under 
this condition, and with only 
one hook for four hulls, these 
berths have crane service that 
is more limited than any other 
on the Lakes. 

Experience in the South 
Chicago yard, where there is 
a Brown double cantilever 
similar to that at Wyandotte, 
is that shipbuilding on the 
berths served by the double 
cantilever is under a handi- 
cap in regard to crane service. 
Edward Morris, assistant su- 
perintendent of the yard, says 
that the crane is far from 

equal in capacity to the locomotive tower crane which 
has been installed to serve a new berth. 

Surprisingly satisfactory service, however, has been 
given by the Wyandotte crane, according to the yard 
officials. A special method of operating the crane con- 
tributes to this. The crane platform is used as a 
magazine when material is handled from the shop to 
the berths, and this practice economizes in crane travel 
and saves time. Six or eight shell plates or other ship 
parts are piled at once on the truck platform of the 
crane carriage (see end elevation sketch at B, in Fig. 
2) and are distributed to the ship in a single trip. 
While one plate is being run out on the trolley, the 
crane helper fastens lifting chains to the next plate, 
so that when the hook returns no time is lost in picking 
up a new load. The crane has a lifting capacity of 
4 to 12 tons at speeds of 300 ft. to 80 ft. per minute; 
its trolley speed is 1000 to 1200 ft. per minute and its 
travel speed about 500 ft. per minute. It is reported 
to work as fast as the needs of the berth demand. At 
the time of writing, the yard officials were of the opinion 
that the double cantilever crane is equal in service to 
three of the tower cranes recently provided for the new 
berths of the yard, but called attention to the fact that 
the old crane has the advantage of skilled operators, 
the new cranes having been in service too short a time 
to have been brought up to best performance as yet. 

An interesting change was made in the Wyandotte 
crane (Figs. 6 and 7) a few years ago. The traveling 
counterweight, which is equal to about half the maxi- 
mum load capacity, was cut down to one-fourth or less 
of its original amount. Though this change decreased 
the stability of the machine, a 14-ton load has been 
carried at extreme reach without lifting the far wheels 
of the crane off the track. 




Vol. 82, No. 2 

Another early cantilever, Fig. 8, shows more modern 
detail design, though built in 1898. Its trolley runway 
is supported by a gantry base resting on separate lines 
of columns. This crane is in service at South Chicago. 
Its structural parts are of plate-girder makeup, as 
commonly used by its builders, the Wellman-Seaver- 


Section B- B 


Morgan Co. This machine, at present serving only a 
single berth, has been giving very satisfactory service. 
Its capacity is 10 tons, the maximum lift about 50 ft., 
the height of track rails above the ground 22 ft., and 
the total length of girders 195 ft. It was built for a 
Buffalo yard, and was later moved to South Chicago. 

Wide-Base Single Cantilevers Are Doing Fast Work — 
Remarkable efficiency was shown recently by the ship- 
building cranes of the Great Lakes Engineering Works 
at Ecorse, Mich., in building the 3500-ton steamer 
"Crawl Keys" in 14 working days. The berth system 
is such as to utilize most fully the advantages of short- 
travel material supply afforded by the layout. This 
feature, which was brought out in a description of the 
Ecorse pre-assembly system printed in Engineering 
News-Record of Dec. 12, 1918, p. 1076, is the deter- 
mining factor in the performance of the cranes. The 
load capacity (seven tons) and the crane speeds com- 
pare closely with those of other ship-erection cranes 
in the Lakes yards. 

The Ecorse cranes, Figs. 9 and 10, were originally 
designed by the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., but the 
lower part has been rebuilt at the yard. Two were 
built in 1903 and the other several years later. Electric 
current for the operating motors is supplied by contact 
wires carried on short poles just back of the rear gantry 
leg. The control stand is in a cage at the forward end 
of the gantry frame, just under the trolley rail. 

By combining the operator's cage with the hoist 
trolley, the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co. has added a 
new operating feature to the gantry-base cantilever 
crane. The yard has four of these machines at present, 

all of them designed in the yard; the last was installed 
during the present year. 

An old coal unloader was the starting point of the 
first crane, shown in the view, Fig. 11, Gantry legs 
were added to it, with the necessary travel machinery. 
The bridge was strengthened by trusses between the 

front and rear legs and by 
cable guys run from a frame 
erected over the forward legs 
down to the panel-points of 
the cantilever portion. An I- 
beam runway carries a two- 
hoist Pawling & Harnisch- 
feger monorail trolley with 
operator's cage. This ma- 
chine, built in 1903, has 
proved its value in the serv- 
ice it has rendered since then, 
and on the basis of this 
experience the same type was 
adopted for three new cranes 
installed during 1917 and 
1918. Fig. 12 shows the 
structure of the latest of 
these cranes, built last spring 
by the Wisconsin Bridge & 
Iron Co. With forward and 
rear cantilevers of 80 ft. and 
12 ft., it commands a supply 
area 59 ft. wide and a berth 
area 80 ft. wide. The two 
1917 cranes, built for a double 
handled by the first crane, are 
the same design, but have a track 
gage of 58 ft., so as to be able to use the existing 
trestle. Berth 4, newly built, is served by the oldest 
of the cranes, transferred from the double berth, so 
that one crane per berth is provided, while berths 5 and 

berth hitherto 
of substantially 

1 1 

1 1 

B ^**?*< 




FIG. 11. 


6, the newest, are equipped with a locomotive tower 
crane, which, together with a second one yet to be in- 
stalled, will handle these berths and the adjoining 
fitting-out dock. 
A speed record in shipbuilding was made by the 

January 9, 1919 



Manitowoc cantilevers in July ; 
on July 10 a keel was laid 
and on Aug. 7 the hull of the 
"Corsicana" was launched, 
after only 24 working days of 
building. Two cranes were 
used on the ship and a night 
crane force was run, but bolt- 
ing and riveting were done 
only by the ordinary 10-hour 
day shift. 

Gantry Cranes in Three 
Yards — During the same time 
exactly the same speed-record 
was made by the Lorain yard 
of the American Shipbuilding 
Co. The keel was laid July 

1, and the fully riveted hull of 
the "Lake Deval," with tail 

shaft, propeller and rudder in place, was launched 
Aug. 8. Only one crane was available for this 
work. It was a gantry, of a type used at Lorain for 
20 years. In a single 10-hour day this ma- 
chine made 230 lifts, working up to its limit of speed, 
according to A. C. Payton and Charles Marlow, superin- 
tendent and assistant superintendent of the yard. 

Berth conditions are substantially the same at all of 
the yards using gantry cranes. Material is picked up 
by the gantries from a rear cantilever extension of the 
trolley bridge in most cases. A few of the cranes have 
a span sufficient to cover a wide supply area alongside 
the berths. 

Of the four gantries at Lorain, two built in 1899 
and two in 1906, the later ones are represented by 
Fig. 13, from a drawing of the builders, the Wellman- 
Seaver-Morgan Co. The older cranes differ only slightly 
from these. Open-side main frame, gear drive of the 
travel wheels, and high travel speed distinguish these 
machines : trolley travel 250 ft. per minute, crane travel 
500 ft. per minute. Steel columns support the outboard 
track of the 1906 cranes, while the earlier have 12 x 12 
timber columns braced by the ship-erection scaffolding. 

Figures on the time lost in removing and replacing 
the outboard track have already been given. The loss 
of time is reduced greatly at Toledo, where the crane 
serving a berth of reinforced-concrete construction has 
its outboard rail supported by an I-beam resting on 
chairs at a height sufficient to clear the fixed launching 
ways (see drawing in Engineering News-Record of Jan. 

2, p. 9). Preparation of the ways, therefore, does not 
interfere with crane service. 

At this yard three 10-ton gantries (Fig. 14) serve the 
six (short) berths. No speed records have been made 
here, but the gantries are specially interesting because 
of the flexibility of service which their design and 
location afford. They are designed so as to serve not 
only the berths which they cover, but also the dry docks 
which at this yard are used as launching slips (see 
sketch in Fig. 5). A 32£-ft. forward extension out 
over the dry dock enables the crane trolley to reach 
nearly to the middle of a ship in the dock. A rear 
cantilever extension of the same length covers a 
fabricated-storage and assembly space, and, as the layout 
uf the yard gives a remarkably short straight-line route 

U S/-8-- — i NMax. 



for material from receipt through the shop and to 
delivery opposite the ship, conditions for efficient hull 
construction are present. The travel speed of these 
cranes, however, is notably slow, being only 100 ft. 
per minute. A little boom is mounted on the gantry 
bridge to remove and replace the outboard track. 
Two of the three machines were built by the Cleveland 

LongHudinal Travel Speed 500 ft. per Min- 
Cross » « £50 ft. '» n 


60 ft. 

FIG. 13. 


Crane and Engineering Co. about 15 years ago, while 
the third was designed and built by the yard. The 
spans are 75, 80 and 100 ft.; the long-span crane has 
no rear cantilever, as it is located close to the side 
property line, and has the storage and assembly space 
under the bridge, instead of back of the trestle. 

The new Globe Shipbuilding Co. yard at Superior, 
Wis., has two gantries, which present an interesting 
difference in outboard rail supports. The first one built, 
of five tons lifting capacity, has its rail stringer seated 
directly on the cap timber of the dock wall. The launch- 
ing ways, which rest on this same cap, cannot be placed 
until the stringer is removed. When the second 
crane, of 15 tons, was designed, this difficulty was 
avoided by raising the outboard track stringer on tim- 
ber pedestals, about 3 ft. high. The ways can be placed 



Vol. 82, No. 2 


under this stringer between pedestals, and thus the 
crane can continue in service. James McKellar, general 
manager of the company, says that it takes about six 
hours to remove this rail before launching and about 
one day to replace it. The crane is operated up to 
within one day of the launch. 

Ample width to cover supply tracks, storage and 
assembly space also distinguishes the newer crane. The 
first one is located so close to the side of the punch 
shop that the same arrangement was not practicable, 
and the inboard track was therefore placed close to the 
line of the scaffolding (Fig. 15) ; a cantilever extension 
of the trolley runway commands a supply track just 
inshore of the crane track. The new crane (Fig. 16) 
has a similar cantilever extension in addition to its 
large gantry width. Both machines were built by the 
Lakeside Bridge and Steel Co. of North Milwaukee, to 
outline designs of Mr. McKellar. 

Some data of the larger machine are as follows: The 
span between the track rails is 100 ft., and its cantilever 
extensions are 18 J 2 ft. and 43 ft. on outboard and 
inboard ends, respectively. The clearance height is 75 
ft., the maximum lift 65 ft. Three speeds of hoisting 
and lowering are provided for, varying from 60 ft. per 
minute for a five-ton load to 20 ft. per minute for a 
15-ton load. They are controlled from the cab, which, 
as in the Manitowoc cantilevers, is hung from the 
trolley, so that the operator has a direct view of his 
load. Power is supplied as 60-cycle three-phase cur- 
rent at 220 volts pressure. The crane travel drive is 
actuated by separate motors at the two legs. As the 
inboard leg carries about 60% of the total load with 
the trolley at midspan, and also takes all of the wind 
load, it was equipped with a larger motor; the drive 
has been found to work well with this arrangement. 

Large-Capacity Tower Cranes Introduced This Sea- 
son — in the pressure to increase crane facilities during 
the past year, locomotive tower cranes have become the 
dominant type of crane in some yards. The Wyandotte 
yard has its six new berths served by Link-Belt tower 

cranes, while the four old berths are served by the double 
cantilever crane previously described. One has been in- 
stalled at Chicago. Ecorse has now four Orton & 
Steinbrenner tower cranes, against three of its regular 
cantilevers. Two McMyler-Interstate tower cranes have 
been added to the four cantilevers at Manitowoc. The 
McDougall-Duluth Co. yard has a tower crane of distinc- 
tive type, the superstructure being of derrick type ; that 
is, only the boom and mast swing, while in the other 
machines the engine platform with boom is a unit, re- 
volving on a center pin. The Duluth crane was built 
by the Clyde Iron Works. 

One of the new gantry-base locomotive cranes at 
Ecorse is shown by the view, Fig. 3. It uses the samo 
runway as the cantilever which hitherto served the two 
berths here. Each of the yard's three cantilevers ha* 
been supplemented by a machine of the kind shown, 
while berths 7 and 8, which are new, have been equipped 
with a locomotive tower crane alone, a narrow-base ma- 
chine which will work from storage back of the track 
instead of between the rails. All four machines have 
booms 85 ft. long capable of lifting Si tons at full 
reach and 10 tons at 35-ft. reach. They are steam- 
operated, the boiler being oil-fired. With engines 9 x 
10 in., they secure a high hoisting speed — 110 ft. per 
minute with maximum load and 220 ft. per minute on 
single lines. The swinging speed is four revolutions 
per minute, and the travel speed 200 ft. per minute. 
The travel drive is actuated by double-friction clutches 
on the crankshaft of the hoisting engine. The super- 


January 9, 1919 




structure is simply the upper part of a standard loco- 
motive crane of the same manufacturers. The turntable 
is formed of 28 chilled tread wheels 8 in. in diameter 
running on an 11-ft. circle of 60-lb. rail. 

The Wyandotte cranes are of similar proportions, with 
boom length of 90 ft. and lifting capacity of about five 
tons at 50-ft. radius. A slightly more powerful machine 

To carry on shipbuilding 
at maximum speed, as de- 
manded by the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation's program, 
the erection equipment of 
all the yards, as well as 
other departments, required 
expansion. While the exist- 
ing cranes in most cases were 
able to handle material fast 
enough to keep up with the 
average rate of shipbuilding 
during the past year, irregu- 
larities in material supply and 
fabrication frequently unbal- 
anced the work sufficiently to 
call for a large excess, tempo- 
rarily, of erection capacity. 
The pressure for output there- 
fore led most of the yards to 
increase their crane equip- 
ment to practically double its 
former amount. All yard ex- 
tensions made during the year 
have been provided with one crane per berth, and vir- 
tually the whole Lakes district will enter on the 1919 
work so equipped. 

FIG. 17. 


has been installed at Manitowoc, and a similar 
one at Ashtabula (Fig. 17). The boom length of this 
crane is 98 ft. and the capacity at extreme reach is 
three tons. All engine parts are set by this crane, work- 
ing at the fitting-out dock. Boilers do not have to be 
set at the yard, however, as the affiliated Manitowoc 
Boiler Works, about a mile away, has a river-front 
shear-legs for this work. 

Chinese, United States and Other Railways 

China has 5193 miles of railways, according to a recent 
commerce report issued by the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce, giving statistics for 1915. The 
lines under control of the Ministry of Communications 
aggregate 3703 miles (including the Hsuchow-Kai- 
fengfu line completed in 1916), of which 150 miles are 
owned by private companies. Railways operated under 
concessions to foreign nations total 1490 miles. China 
has about 460 square miles of territory and 107,000 
population per mile of railway, as against 40 and 8600 
for India and 12 and 3800 for the United States. The 
report states that China's extensive system of canals 
tends to keep the proportion of mileage lower than in 
other countries. The locomotives on the Chinese gov- 
ernment railways total 629, and are of various types 
introduced by the different nations which have built or 
provided capital for lines now forming parts of the na- 
tional system. The necessity for standardization is be- 
coming apparent, as the Chinese policy is to prolong 
the life of the engines by extensive repairs and re- 
newals, partly on account of the heavy freight charges 
and agency commissions on imported locomotives. The 
passenger and freight cars total 1280 and 10,652 respec- 
tively. The freight cars averaged 69 tons per ton of 
capacity, or 69 loads per year, as compared with 99.3 
for Japan and 23.7 for the United States. The average 
haul per ton was 89, 84 and 146 miles for the three 
countries, respectively. The cost of operation absorbs 
53% of the total revenue; while 30% covers interest 
and other income charges. The remaining 17% is for 
the Government, of which 10% is the return on invest- 
ment and 7% is business profit. The total investment is 
given as about $512,500,000, of which construction and 
equipment represent about $507,000,000. The total oper- 
ating revenue for 1915 was $36,000,000. 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

Road Signs for Amexforce Trucks 
Save Gasoline 

In the Army's Intermediate Section East, in 

France, It Is Almost Impossible to 

Take Wrong Route 

By Robert K. Tomlin, Jr. 

War Correspondent of Engineering News-Record 

A CERTAIN adjutant on the staff of an American 
brigadier general here in France has the reputation 
of being lightning-quick in detecting mistakes and 
letting their authors know of them promptly. It is 
only in exceptional cases, however, that he has been 
known to praise work. One of these occurred recently 
after he had finished his first long automobile trip in 

Photograph by "Engineering \eivs-Record" 


the Intermediate Section East. Returning to his gen- 
eral's headquarters he happened to encounter there the 
major of engineers who is acting as superintendent of 
roads for this district. 

"Are you the man responsible for all those road 
signs which have been put up in this section?" he in- 
quired. The major admitted that he was. "Well," re- 
plied the adjutant, "you've done a damned good job." 

The marking of the roads in the Intermediate Section 
East of the American Expeditionary Forces has been 
carried out in a manner so thorough that one can now 
travel from one end of the section to another without 
once stopping to ask questions and without taking the 
wrong route. But while the new signs would justify 
themselves from the point of view of convenience alone, 
the important feature of this whole business is the 
enormous saving in gasoline which has been effected by 

the placing of wooden signboards at frequent intervals 
along the roads which are now carrying so heavy a 
volume of Army motor-truck and automobile traffic. 
Through the Intermediate Section East is moving, day 
and night; train after train of motor trucks, to say 
nothing of passenger automobiles, motorcycles and side 
cars. Gasoline in France today is a costly commodity, 
and it is imperative to conserve it in every way pos- 
sible. In this campaign the road signs of the Inter- 
mediate Section East are playing a silent but effective 

The plan of marking the roads embraces other fea- 
tures than the indication of direction. With the long- 
haul motor-truck trips which have now become so com- 
mon, as a result of congestion of railway transportation, 
a train of vehicles may be on the road many days. 
Gasoline and oil supplies must be replenished en route, 
and occasionally it is necessary to know where spare 
parts and extra tires can be obtained. Special sign- 
boards are placed to give this much desired information. 
Then, too, in that part of central France covered by the 
Intermediate Section East, the old macadam roads were 
built primarily for slow moving traffic. Curves much 
sharper than would be considered good practice today 
are very common. Almost invariably they are built 
without any superelevation, and with the trees and 
foliage so general along French roads, one arrives at 
a sharp turn before realizing it. To prevent accidents 
at such points, all curves are marked by warning sign- 
boards located several hundred feet back from the 
curve, so as to give the motor-truck driver ample time to 
slow down. 

In July, about 2500 road signs had been placed in 
the Intermediate Section East. As a general rule, they 
are squares, 15 in. on a side, and are made of wood 
salvaged from broken packing cases. They are given 
three coats of white paint and are lettered in black. 
When possible these signs are nailed in place, but in 
cases where they must be affixed to a metal support 
they are wired. The sign-placing problem, however, is 
a simple one, and generally it is not necessary to place 
any post or standard, as all French roads are flanked 
by trees. Since our Signal Corps has been busy estab- 
lishing communication by wire between all important 
Army centers, there are, in addition, lines of telegraph 
poles to which road signs may be attached. The Amer- 
ican Army road signs are recognizable as such because 
they are always set up with a diagonal vertical instead 
of like the existing French road signs, which generally 
have a rectangular form. When an American truck 
driver sees a white, diamond-shaped sign he knows that 
its message is for him. There is no confusing our 
Army's signs with anything else to be seen along a 
French road. 

During a recent trip through central France .with 
the superintendent of roads of the Intermediate Sec- 
tion East I had a good opportunity of observing how 
the roads have been marked. To begin with, there is 
in front of headquarters a large rectangular special 
sign, 4J ft. long and 2 ft. wide, listing the names of 
the principal towns and indicating the best routes to 
them. One of these signs is shown in one of the photo- 
graphs. On this sign the location of gas stations also 
is indicated. A driver entirely unfamiliar with the 

January 9, 1919 




surrounding country can start at this sign and, without 
questioning anybody, proceed to any town in the sec- 
tion. If his gasoline supply should run low he would 
know where to replenish it, as a result of the informa- 
tion given on the headquarters signboard. 

The matter of getting out of a French village and on 
to the main road leading somewhere else is no simple 
matter. The streets twist and turn in the most unex- 
pected manner. A route that looks like a back alley may 
actually be the connecting link to the route nationale 
for which you are looking. On the other hand, you may, 
if your French vocabulary has not yet been recruited 
up to war strength, turn into a street with a name 
like Impasse de I'Univers, only to pull up sharply at its 
end when you discover that you have been navigating in 
a blind alley. Another confusing situation is pre- 
sented to the motor-truck driver by the place, or square, 
which is abundant everywhere. Sometimes half a dozen 
streets radiate from one of these centers and when you 
try to choose the right one you begin to realize how 
overwhelming are the odds against you. I can think 
of no better way of describing the complex street plan 
of the small French town than to say that it follows 
lines that are as regular as those of a dish of Italian 

There is one other point about the marking of roads 
over here which cannot be fully appreciated in the 
States. Take the case of a motor-truck driver arriving 
at a cross-roads. He may have two or three choices of 
route to follow, and all of them may appear to be main 
roads. Without road signs, what is he to do? The 
obvious solution would be to stop and inquire at the 
nearest farmhouse. This sounds simple, but in reality 
it is not. Many names of French towns as pronounced 
by the American truck driver mean absolutely nothing 
to the French peasant. The poor chap whose desti- 
nation may be, let us say, Pougues-les-Eaux, or Mon- 
teignet-Escurolles gets in over his head when he tries 
to make known orally the name of one of these tongue- 
twisters. As one driver expressed it recently, after 
trying out his limited stock of French words on an old 
farmer whom be encountered plodding along the road- 

"These guys can't understand you even when you 
talk to them in their own language." 

Direction signs are placed at all crossroads and at 
intervals along all main routes. They are of several 
types, as shown in the drawing. If a town happens to 

be a "gas station" these words are placed in small letters 
above or below the name of the town. In addition to the 
direction signs are many others, of which the following 
are samples: 

Road closed to U. S. Motor Vehicles. 
U. S. Vehicles Must Not Cross This Bridge. 
Bad Curves and Grades — Suitable Only for Pas- 
senger Cars and Light Trucks. 
Slow! Railroad Crossing — 300 Yards. 
Loaded Trucks Use This Road. 
Slow — Danger — Bad Curve — Sound Horn. 

In the case of so long a title as that in the third 




l .Miu 

^Hrv ' Jrm 

^ „j 


, ■ 


W*^*** '* **^«"^"^ .*' ■ 

Photograph by "Engineering News-Record" 


Superintendent of roads for Intermediate Section (right) co- 
operates closely with the departmental engineering 
representative (left) of the Ponts et Chaussees 

group above the 15-in. diamond-shaped signboard is too 
small, and a larger rectangular one is employed gen- 
erally for these special notices. 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

War Wage Increase Met by Revising 
Construction Plan 

Concrete Output Multiplied Sixfold on New St. Paul Reservoir by Changing 
Method of Operating Traveling Mixing Plant 

WELL-PLANNED plant met the handicap of labor 
scarcity and rising wages, in the construction of 
the new concrete high-service reservoir for St. Paul, 
Minn. Transportation was the governing operation. Not 
far from 150,000 tons of materials, including excavation, 
had to be moved. For the concrete structure alone 
40,000 tons of materials had to be transported some 
two miles from the railway to the work. At the work 
these materials had to be assembled into a structure 
covering 2i acres. By careful plant selection and lay- 
out, material handling both to the site and into the 
structure was made largely mechanical. Everything 
was. put onto wheels. All raw materials were handled 

Skip Tracks 

Section B-B 



E/ev. Reservoir 


ji//r7w/fr/7///w , ///> 

y Section A-A 


by cars. Concrete when not chuted directly into place 
was distributed in buggies over runways. The mixing 
plant was truck-mounted, and even complex forms for 
groined arches and buttressed walls were shifted by 
travelers on wheels. 

The plans and structural details of the new reservoir 
were illustrated and described in Engineering News- 
Record of Nov. 15, 1917, p. 927. The plans provided 
for a structure 452 x 446 ft., so located that a second 
unit of the same area can be added when required. 
Structurally, the reservoir consists of an inverted 
groined arch floor carrying columns which support a 
groined arch roof. On three sides, the walls are in- 
clined slabs braced by buttresses. The fourth side 
wall, which will be the dividing wall when the additional 
unit is built, is a cantilever gravity wall. Included in 
the main structure are gate chambers, aerator chamber, 
sluice gates, conduits, valves, etc. The roof and sides 
are covered and banked with earth. 

Located 300 ft. above city datum and two miles 
from the nearest railway, the reservoir site, despite 
its proximity to the city, was isolated in respect to 
available means of transportation. Estimates were 
made of the cost of tractor haulage. Including a 
necessary concrete road up the reservoir hill, a figure 

below $1.20 a ton could not be had. Surveys for a 
narrow-gage railway connecting with the contractor's 
yards and gravel plant on the railway two miles away, 
and passing a clay pit, gave a more reasonable figure, 
and the railway was built. It was 2i miles long, with a 
1000-ft. trestle and a maximum grade of 1\ per cent. 
Turnouts and yard tracks at the reservoir were pro- 
vided. The road cost $12,000, this figure not including 
rails and some other materials in stock. This railway, 
as events proved, did not reduce haulage cost below 
the original estimate, but it did cut down haulage time. 
Without it the construction probably would not have 
been completed in the specified time. 

Construction began with the building of the railway 
and simultaneous excavation of about 90,000 cu.yd. of 
earth to level the site. Excavation was by steam shovel 
and narrow-gage cars, wasting the spoil on the sloping 
sides of the hill. About 32 days were required for 
these tasks. When the reservoir site had been graded 
the clay blanket was placed. In this blanket, and later 
for banking the walls and covering the roof, some 
15,000 cu.yd. of clay was required. 

All construction materials came in over the narrow- 
gage railway and was stored as indicated by the sketch 
map. Incoming tracks ran over the sand and gravel 
storage bins and to the cement house. From under 
the sand and gravel bins skip car tracks rose on a 
50% grade to sand and gravel service bins with meas- 
uring hoppers. Under these bins and alongside . the 


January 9, 1919 




f'Vi Y~~ — ^^T "*" 

l -Nj 


5" ~^ 


^ / 1 

« ,>' 1 

ti ' — - J 

n *p4 

: ^=a 


Elevation of Buttress Form 

Buttress Form in Place 
Section A - A 

Side View of Traveler showing 
Max. Collapse of Buttress Form 


cement house ran the batch track to the traveling 
mixing plant. All batches were proportioned at the 
service bins and cement house in side dump cars holding 
each a batch. 

Batch cars run to the mixing plant, which was 
mounted on a 16 x 22-ft. steel frame with a two-wheel 
truck at each corner and a wheel gage of 15 ft. From 
the platform rose a hoist tower, with a boom for sup- 
porting chutes. The tower bucket was charged from 
two 1-yd. mixers, which in turn were charged by an 
elevating skip into which the batch cars dumped. A 
50-hp. boiler supplied steam to two hoist engines and 
to the mixer engines, all mounted on the steel frame. 

The concrete was proportioned 1:2:4. At the be- 
ginning, empty batch cars returning from the mixer 
passed the cement house and there received their sup- 
plies of cement. Thence they passed under the service 
bins and received sand and gravel. With this method 
of loading, the cement stuck to the car bottom and 
gave trouble in dumping. To avoid this, a change was 
made by which the cement was added last. Trouble 
was then experienced from the cement blowing off the 
car in transit. The final change was to load first the 
sand, then the cement and finally the gravel. An 

inspector controlled the proportioning, from an elevated 
seat under the service bins. The measuring hoppers 
at the bins were like those described in Engineerrnfi 
Netvs-Record of June 27, 1918, p. 1221. As originally 
planned, sand and gravel were dropped into the car 
simultaneously by one lever movement. When the order 
of loading was changed to sand first, then cement and 
then gravel, the hoppers had to be operated by separate 
levers. This was the only change found essential in 
the plant or the methods of handling raw materials. 
The construction of the reservoir structure began 
with the concreting of the partition wall. First the 
footing was poured by direct chuting from the mixing 
plant running on a track parallel to the wall. When 
the footing was finished the mixing plant retraced its 
course and poured the wall proper*. After the parti- 
tion wall and a section of the connecting side wall at 
one end were completed, the mixer track was moved 
over a distance equal to three bays of the reservoir 
parallel to its first position. It was planned to complete 
the reservoir by repetitions of this operation. One 
condition which prompted this plan was that the 
specifications restricted chuting of concrete to a dis- 
tance not exceeding 50 ft. The procedure in concreting 



Vol. 82, No. 2 


the first three bays was about as follows : The inverted 
groined arch floor three bays wide was poured for 
several days, by which time the forms for a group of 
columns had been erected. The mixing plant then 
backed up and poured the columns. It then moved 
ahead and resumed pouring the floor until the roof 
forms were in place on the columns first poured, when 
it ran back and poured the roof arches and such other 
columns as were ready. Shuttling ahead and back, the 
mixer proceeded until three bays across the east end 
of the reservoir were completed. 

During the operations just described the contractor 
had been working with the material and labor market 
rising. A change of plan was necessary to equalize the 
wage and price increase. While this change was being 
planned, the mixer was set to concreting the wall foot- 
ings all around the reservoir, and it had completed this 
work when cold weather set in. 

Too frequent shifts of the traveling mixing plant 
to place a small yardage of concrete was the fault of 
the first plan of operation. Not only did the plant 
have to go ahead and back up several times to concrete 
the floor, columns and roof for a three-bay zone, but 
it had to be shifted sidewise, track and all, every 48 
ft. During the winter the contractor sought by careful 
cost analysis a means of overcoming the fault. The 

outcome was a decision to place a permanent mixer 
track just west of the north and south middle line 
of the reservoir, and from this track to complete both 
halves of the concrete structure, spouting the middle 
50-ft. zone and handling the concrete in buggies from 
mixer to forms for the remainder of the area. This 
plan was put into operation when work was resumed 
in the spring. 

The procedure by the new plan was to concrete first 
the east half and then the west half of the reservoir. 
In detail, the operations were: The mixer, standing 
at the south end of the north and south track, poured, 
two rows at a time, nine rows of footings from the 
track east to the east wall of the reservoir. Concrete 
was spouted directly into the footings nearest the mixer 
and was wheeled in buggies on runways to the footing 
farther away. By the time nine rows of footings had 
been concreted, column forms had been erected on the 
two rows first poured. The mixer backed up and poured 
these two rows of columns, the buggy runways being 
supported on the column forms. Then the mixer ran 
ahead and poured two more rows of footings (rows 10 
and 11). The form erectors then had ready roof forms 
on the two rows of columns first poured and also two 
more rows of column forms. The mixer then backed 
up and poured two rows of roof arches and two rows 

January 9, 1919 



of columns, and ran forward and poured two more 
rows of footings. These operations were repeated until 
the east half of the reservoir was concreted. Precisely 
the same procedure was followed in concreting the west 
half. By the sequence of operations followed, the con- 
crete poured in each operation had time to set, the 
form erection was kept ahead of the concrete, and the 
mixing plant was continuously in operation. The time 
required to pour 24 footings was six hours; 24 columns 
three hours, and 24 roof arches 54 hours. The maxi- 
mum yardage poured in one day was 330 cubic yards. 
The cost of placing concrete by the original method 
was $1.43 per cubic yard. Then the average yardage 
of the plant was 25 cu.yd. per day. In 1918 the plant 
averaged 155 cu.yd. a day. The cost is not available, 
but it can be stated that it has been considerably less 
than in 1917, notwithstanding the increased wages. 

Oct. 1. The City of St. Paul furnished f.o.b. cars 
at the contractor's plant all cement, reinforcing steel, 
pipe and castings. 

at , 




1 x^ 







Sec+ionoil Eleva-Hon 

Front Elevation 


When work was started in 1917 wages were on a 25c. 
per hour basis. In 1918 work began with an increase 
to 30c, then to 35c. and finally to 40c. Labor difficulties 
were not lacking. During the height of operations 175 
men were required, but a two weeks' payroll had 527 
names entered. 

Form handling by means of travelers was employed 
whenever practicable. In building the partition wall 
timber sections 12 ft. long and the full height of the 
wall, 21 to 23 ft., were supported and moved by steel 
frame travelers which straddled the wall. Forms were 
set up for a 50-ft. wall section at a time, and a 50-ft. 
section of 150 cu.yd. was poured in six hours. This 
did not include footing, which was concreted in a sep- 
arate operation at the rate of 25 cu.yd. per hour, or 
a 50-ft. section in eight hours. Side walls were con- 
creted in step with the floor, roof and column construc- 
tion previously described, except the footing slab, which 
was completed ahead of the other work. Chief interest 
in the side-wall concreting lies in the use of traveling 
forms for a complex wall design. The forms and 
traveler are shown by the drawings and picture. All 
of the forms were designed with care to economize in 
lumber by repeated use. Groined arch roof forms were 
like the wall forms handled by travelers. 

The contract for the work was held by the George 
J. Grant Construction Co., St. Paul, Minn., which com- 
pleted the concrete work Aug. 5, 1918, and the reservoir 

Fine Screens and Chlorine Meet 
Daytona Conditions 

Ample Dilution — Chlorine Removes 80% of Bac- 
teria — Imhoff Tanks Elsewhere More 
Efficient Than Screens at Daytona 

By George W. Simons, Jr., 

Sanitary Engineer, State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Fla. 

PERFORMANCE studies of the Reinsch-Wurl sewage 
screens installed by the City of Daytona, Fla., in 
1916, made by the State Board of Health, show that 
although the percentage of removal of suspended matter 
is only 7, yet fine screening, followed by chlorination, 
gives results at low operating cost which meet local 
requirements of discharge into the Halifax River. The 
percentage removal of solids would be higher if pump- 
ing and storage did not break up the sewage consid- 

Daytona sewage is almost wholly of domestic origin. 
Originally strong, it is highly diluted by ground water 
on its way to the screens. Ejectors at seven stations 
lift the sewage from half the area of the city over a 
ridge to the screening, disinfecting and main pumping 
station within the corporate limits of the city. For 
efficiency of pump operation, the sewage is stored in 
560 ft. of 24-in. trunk sewers and in nearby laterals 
for some five hours, and is then fed to the screens and 
at the maximum capacity of the pump in operation at 
the time. Regulation is effected by passing the sewage 
through a small slot, the size of which is automatically 
controlled by a float designed by G. A. Main, superin- 
tendent. As the most remote sewer connection is less 
than 7000 ft. from the sewage-works, the sewage would 
be comparatively fresh were it not for the storage 
just mentioned. The septic action, combined with the 
previous agitation of the ejectors and the subsequent 
passage of sewage through the regulating slot, com- 
minutes the original solid matter to such an extent that 
much of it passes the screen in a finely suspended or 
colloidal state, as is shown by the analytical data and 
also by tests with Imhoff conical settling glasses. 

The raw sewage, as delivered to the screen, shows 

—« = 


Date, Start cf Length of Pumpage in Gallons Chlorine 

1917 Pump Run, Hr. Per Run Per Day Used, Lb. 

Dec. I 7:00a.m. 1.75 146,000 1.5 

3:00 p.m. 2.00 166,000 1.0 

9:00 p.m. 1.50 125,000 437,000 15 

Deo. 2 5:15 a.m. 1.75 146,000 10 

11:30 a.m. 1 .00 83,000 0.5 

5:45 p.m. 1.50 125,000 15 

11:30 p.m. 1.00 83,000 437,000 I 

Dec. 3 6:00 a.m. 1.00 83,000 1.0 

11:10 a.m. 2.00 166,000 1.0 

4:30 p.m. 1.50 125,000 1.5 

11:45 p.m. 1.50 125,000 499,000 1.5 

Dec. 4 6:20 a.m. 1.10 97,000 0.5 

12:30 p.m. 2.00 166,000 1.5 

5:00 p.m. 1 00 83,000 1.0 

11:45 p.m. 1.10 97,000 433,800 1.0 

Dec. 5 6:00 a.m. 1.50 125,000 0.5 

2:55 p.m. 2.30 195,000 1.5 

1 1:20 p.m. 2.50 208,000 528,000 2.5 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

upon evaporation (filter paper, etc., method) an average 
of 95.7 p.p.m. of suspended solids (800 lb. per 1,000,000 
gal.) and 620 p.p.m. of dissolved solids — or 87% of the 
total solids content appears as dissolved solids or vola- 
tile matter. The same sewage showed 15 p.p.m. of 
nitrogen as free ammonia, 31 parts of total organic 
nitrogen and 142 parts of chlorine. 

Sewage flow for 24 hours on May 23-24, 1917, with 
335 house connections, was 280,000 gal., or 835 gal. per 
connection. Daily totals for Dec. 1-5, 1917, are shown 
by Table I. The average for these five days was 470,- 
000 gal., or 1030 gal. a day for each of the 456 connec- 
tions then in use. Some idea of the relative rates of 
flow during the 24 hours may be got from the records 
of intermittent pumping given in the table. On Dec. 
6-7, when the pump was operated continuously for 24 
hours, the maximum daily rate of flow was about 860,- 
000 gal. and the minimum night rate was about 500,000 
gal. All these records fall outside the winter tourist 
season and in comparatively dry weather, although 
there was rain on Dec. 5-6 and again on Dec. 6-7. The 
ordinary night flow is apparently ground water, at a 
rate of 100,000 gal. or more a day. This dilution in- 
creases the volume of sewage to be pumped and treated, 
and it affects the operation of the screen. 

The Screen and What it Accomplishes 
The sewage screen is of the usual Reinsch-Wurl over- 
hung type, 8 ft. in diameter, with 5/64 x 2-in. tapered 
rectangular slots. The screen is driven by a belt at a 
rate of approximately 0.5 r.p.m. The rotating brushes 
move around the vertical axis of the brush shaft at a 
speed of 7.5 r.p.m. and revolve around their own axis 
at a speed of 37.5 r.p.m. The screen is placed in a pit 
at the pump station, receiving the gravity flow from 
the trunk sewer. 

According to the specifications, "the screen will be 
required to remove from the sewage all solids sedi- 
mentable and nonsedimentable above 0.10 in. in diame- 
ter." The screen does this, but for reasons already 
stated a large part of this suspended matter passes the 
screen, the average suspended solids content of the 
screened sewage being 88.6 p.p.m., or 740 lb. per 1000 
gal. On Dec. 6, 1917, an increase appeared in the com- 
posite samples representing the sewage flow from 5 to 
11 p.m., sample collections being made every 15 min. 
Increases are not of regular occurrence, as decided re- 
ductions have also been made, as on Dec. 5, 1917. At 
this time composite samples representing the flow from 
2:55 to 5:15 p.m., collected at 5-min. intervals, indi- 
cated a decided reduction. 

The removal of screenings is the one real criterion 
by which to measure screen performance. During the 
pumping period, 2:55-5:16 p.m. Dec. 5, 3.67 cu.ft. of 
wet screenings were collected from 195,000 gal. of 
sewage, representing a removal of 18.8 cu.ft. or ap- 
proximately 1080 lb. per 1,000,000 gal. From the pump- 
age started at 11:20 p.m. on Dec. 5 and continuing for 
2.5 hours and again resumed at 6 a.m. Dec. 6 and con- 
tinuing for an hour, 15.3 cu.ft. of wet screenings were 
collected per 1,000,000 gal. of sewage, representing 
the night flow. During these two periods a total of 
291,000 gal. of sewage were pumped; 208,000 gal. from 
11:20 p.m. to 1:50 a.m. following a heavy downpour of 
rain, and 83,000 gal. between 6 and 7 a.m. The in- 

Treated Sewage, Percentage 

p.p.m. Removal Place Method 

43. 72 Eustis Tanks 

35.0 70 Mulberry Tanks 

85.0 58 Tampa Tanks 

88.6 7 Daytona Screen 

Raw Sewage 






fluence of the rainfall can here be noted. The com- 
bined removal of wet screenings during the two periods 
representing the night flow was considerably less than 
during the period preceding, when there was no rain- 
fall. The reduction of screenings following a heavy 
rain is made still more apparent in the following para- 

To get results with the screen operating continuously, 
a 24-hour test was instituted 11:36 a.m., Dec. 6, 1917. 
All sewage passing the screen was carefully gaged and 
samples were collected at frequent intervals. During 
this 24-hour run a heavy rain occurred which affected 
the flow curve decidedly, and 446,000 gal. of sewage 
passed the screen. From this total sewage flow only 
4.7 cu.ft. of wet screenings were collected, representing 
about 10 cu.ft. per 1,000,000 gal. These wet screenings 
weighed 271 lb., or 608 lb. per 1,000,000 gal. of sewage. 
Unfortunately, no apparatus was available for making 
moisture determinations of the screenings. The screened 
sewage showed an average of 88.6 p.p.m. suspended 
solids, or 740 lb. per 1,000,000 gal. of dry matter. 

As the sewage flows upon the screen the degree of 
comminution is easily noticeable, and the finely divided 
appearance of the screenings gives additional evidence 
of the disintegrating action. The sewage after screen- 
ing is very turbid, high in suspended solids, but free 
of large particles which would have a tendency to float, 
despoiling banks and flats, and of a quality suitable 
for disposal into ample dilution water. 

The wet screenings, which average 14.5 cu.ft. (2J 
cans) a week are removed from the screen station to a 
dumping ground a mile west of the city limit by a 
negro who is paid 37£c. a can for this work. 


Chlorine is used to protect the oyster beds in the 
vicinity of the sewer outfall into the Halifax River. 
When the plant was first started the chlorine was sup- 
plied to the sewage, previous to the screening, at a 
rate of 20 lb. per 1,000,000 gal. of sewage treated. 
During the spring of 1917 the point of chlorine ap- 
plication was changed so that the greater part of the 
disinfectant was admitted to the chamber under the 
screen, a small portion still being admitted to the upper 
side of the screen. Bacteriological determinations made 
under the original plan (chlorine applied previous to 
screening) indicated a 75% reduction of all bacteria 
and a 90% removal of the colon type. At the present 
time, with the chlorine cut down to 5 lb. per 1,000,000 
gal., there is an 80% removal of all bacteria. 

For the year 1917 the cost of screen operation, in- 
cluding labor for removing and burying screenings and 
for other purposes and slight repairs, but with no al- 
lowance for power consumed, was $370. The steriliza- 
tion cost for the year was $679. 

Much has been said of late as to the relative merits 
of fine-screen and Imhoff-tank treatment. That there 
is a definite place for screen installations and a future 

January 9, 1919 



for fine screens is unquestionable, but screens will hardly 
replace tank treatment where refined results are neces- 
sary. Out of curiosity the writer has collected a few sus- 
pended-matter removals from Imhoff tanks in Florida, 
in plants treating sewage closely resembling that at 
Daytona. These results are shown in Table II. (See 
preceding page.) 
With the usual Florida conditions — where fresh sew- 

age is to be handled, quantities are small, flow is 
regular and ample supplies of dilution waters are 
available — the screen is more to be preferred than the 
tank because a refined treatment is not essential. 

In conducting investigations at Daytona the writer 
has received heartiest cooperation and assistance from 
George A. Main, superintendent of the sewerage de- 

Characteristics of War-Time Highway Work in 
Great Britain and the United States 

War Conditions Have Been Injurious to Roads in Both Countries, and Immediate Maintenance 
Is Necessary — Each Has Recognized the Importance of Better Systems, Nationally Organized 

This article has been prepared by an engineer who 
has seen the work of the United States Highway Council 
at close range and has also been in touch with highway 
ivork and highway control in Great Britain. A brief 
comment on this article will be found in the editorial 
pages — EDITOR. 

NOW that peace is assured, it is apparent that one 
class of public works in need of immediate atten- 
tion in this country and Great Britain is the public 
highway. In both countries it has been subjected to 
such excessive wear and inadequate maintenance, the 
investment in roads is already so great that the loss 
due to further neglect will be a serious economic matter, 
and it has been demonstrated that the utility of the 
roads during war times has so national an aspect that 
there, as well as here, a national system of highways 
is receiving serious study. Until the war laid its 
heavy hand on road work, the nationally economic value 
of main roads was looked upon in many quarters as 
theoretical rather than actual. The purpose of these 
notes is to point out how the war has nationalized road 
work on both sides of the Atlantic among English- 
speaking peoples. 

Pre-War British Road Work 

Before the war Great Britain had made a small step 
toward national roads by the creation of the Road 
Board. This was formed in 1910 for the purpose of 
assisting financially desirable improvements in the 
highways of the United Kingdom. The influence of 
this board was directed toward the widening of narrow 
roads, the improvement of road intersections, the 
strengthening of bridges and the betterment of the 
pavements forming the roadway. The actual amount 
of money granted by the board has not been large, but 
its influence has been marked. 

When the war broke out there were 150,000 miles of 
roads and streets in England and Wales, of which 33,600 
miles were in cities and 23,800 miles were main rural 
highways. The funds for the road work were provided 
by taxes levied by the local authorities, by loans which 
required the sanction of the Local Government Board 
and which were equivalent to American bond issues, and, 
to a small extent, by funds supplied by the Road 
Board. The funds supplied by local taxation formed 
most of the appropriation for road building, and were 
not directly subject to national control. 

In Scotland there were 24,900 miles of roads and 
streets. Here the financial management is more local, 
for there is no national board to control the making 
of loans for road work. The Road Board exercises 
practically all the national influence there is upon the 
highways of the kingdom; it is mainly advisory and 

In Ireland there were 58,300 miles of roads and 
streets, under a sort of dual control by both county 
and district councils. Here there is a Local Govern- 
ment Board which must give its consent to all loans 
for public works, so that the local financing of road 
work, not carried on by direct taxation, is under central 

British War-Time Road Control 

The financial features of road work in Great Britain 
during the war have been little understood in the United 
States, and as a consequence many erroneous statements 
have been made. It has been frequently stated that 
the British expenditures for road work have greatly 
increased ; actually, however, the total funds made avail- 
able for road and street work have remained practically 
stationary, despite the fact that large appropriations 
were made by the War Department and other agencies 
for roads having heavy motor traffic. The local author- 
ities have continued to raise for road work sums which 
would be ample for their usual programs under normal 
conditions, but these sums have rarely been used up, 
and there are considerable accumulations available for 
work when conditions become normal. Practically no 
money has been raised for road work by loans, the 
Local Government Board stopping such bond issues, and 
the funds of the Road Board have been greatly reduced. 

As soon as the war began, British road building 
received its most severe setback by the call for experi- 
enced road engineers and road builders for service in 
France. Just as some of the British railways had 
their rolling stock, rails and ties shifted to France 
almost overnight, so every highway resource in men 
and materials was sent across the Channel to maintain 
the roads which it was recognized at once were essential 
for military success. The first call was by no means 
the last, and the reports of the local authorities are 
practically unanimous in declaring that lack of skilled 
labor at any price has been one of the most serious 
difficulties in British road work since 1914. 

This is a more serious matter in Great Britain than 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

here, because the normal road program is based on 
wages for experienced road men which are extremely 
low from our viewpoint. This is shown by a recent 
report from the authorities of Derbyshire, complaining 
that the minimum wages have been advanced to 20s. 
(about $5.00) a week, and there were 157 workmen 
receiving 25 to 30s. Even wages so high as to be 
unprecedented have failed to obtain needed men, and 
the following quotation from the latest report of the 
county surveyor of Worcestershire is typical of many 
such statements : "While there are considerable stocks 
of material in certain parts of the county, they are 
more or less concentrated on a few roads on which it 
was impossible to provide the labor. In some cases 
the material has been deposited on the side of the 
road for upwards of three years, and it is unfortunate 
to be compelled to watch a road seriously deteriorating 
while material is ready at hand." 

A few attempts have been made to work German 
prisoners on the roads, but the results do not seem 
to have been satisfactory. The county surveyor of 
the eastern part of Suffolk recently reported that he 
had some prisoners on road work being done at the 
request of the military authorities. They were paid 
about lid. an hour; some were good workers and 
some were slackers. The results depended to some 
extent upon the man in charge of them, for they were 
not obedient to civilian superiors, and more attention 
had to be paid to their oversight than was the case 
with free labor. 

By the end of 1916 it was apparent that the war 
demands for stone and gravel were so great that some 
method of rationing such materials was needed. Accord- 
ingly, the Road Stone Control Committee, composed 
mainly of experienced engineers, was organized to have 
supervision of their production and transport. It obtained 
from the local authorities statements of their require- 
ments and from the quarry and pit owners of their 
facilities for production, also information regarding 
transportation facilities. Then the material needed for 
essential war-time road work was allocated, and the 
remaining needs were met in what seemed to the com- 
mittee the most fair manner. 

Complaints Against Restrictions 

There has been some complaint about the restrictions 
placed upon local officials, but such complaints arise 
in times of peace as well as under the stress of war. 
One of the chief complaints has been that the committee 
forced some authorities to employ local stone, inferior 
to that previously used and brought from a distance, 
but the war-time demands for the superior stone and 
the limited transportation facilities in Great Britain 
during the war are held to justify such rulings. When 
the committee first exercised its authority producers 
of these materials were quite generally able to supply 
large quantities of them, and there was much criticism 
that prohibition of shipment was in some cases an 
unwarranted and arbitrary exercise of power. As time 
went by, it was discovered that such shipments would 
have been useless, because the labor for using the 
materials was not available, and those accumulating in 
stock were used elsewhere to immediate advantage. In 
other words, the comprehensive knowledge of the needs 

of the country whLh the committee possessed enabled 
it to foresee conditions better than the local authorities 

The supply of tar for road work was also curtailed 
in 1917. ' In September, the Minister of Munitions 
directed that no crude or dehydrated tar should be used 
for the purpose, without a permit. The Explosives 
Department of the Ministry of Munitions allocated 
52,000,000 for 1918 road work, and entrusted 
its distribution to the Road Board. This quantity was 
later reduced to 47,000,000, and the specifica- 
tions were changed to allow a somewhat greater per- 
centage of oils in the tar. This material has been used 
only on roads of national importance. As a matter of 
fact, the scarcity of labor in some districts has been 
so great that even had more tar been available it could 
not have been used satisfactorily. Attempts have been 
made to use women in tarring roads, but with only 
fair success. 

War-Time Road Work Under Direct Control 
of Road Board 

Strictly war-time road work has been under the 
control of the Road Board, to which the Army Council 
early delegated the following duties: (a) Arranging 
and supervising the construction and maintenance of 
new roads, and the improvement of certain private 
roads in several districts for military purposes; (b) 
arranging with local authorities for improvements on 
public roads, mainly at the cost of the Army Council, 
required for military purposes; (c) settlement with the 
local authorities for the Army Council of damages due 
to extraordinary traffic for military purposes; (d) 
similar duties for the Admiralty, the Ministry of Muni- 
tions, the Timber Supply Department of the Board 
of Trade, and for the Air Ministry. About $22,000,000 
have been spent on such work since the beginning of 
the war; about three-fourths of this sum has been 
spent for the War Department. 

The common belief in the United States that the 
British Government repairs all damage it does to 
roads, or pays for such repairs, is entirely wrong. The 
principle on which payment is made can be stated by 
quoting as follows from a recent report of the county 
surveyor of Nottinghamshire: "The damage done to 
the roads by the timber traffic has been considerable. 
Up to the present no satisfactory scheme has been 
inaugurated whereby the liability for the damage can be 
fixed on the responsible parties. Ninety-five per cent, 
of the timber is for national purposes, but the Treasury 
has so far declined to accept the responsibility for 
making good damaged roads, except those damaged by 
conveying timber on behalf of a Jirect Government 
department, it being left for highway authorities to 
take proceedings on the ground of extraordinary traffic 
against the person by or in consequence of whose order 
the traffic has been carried on." As such proceedings 
are very expensive, the local authorities are reluctant 
to begin them, for even if they are successful, the 
cost of obtaining an award will be so great that the 
net return is likely to be inconsiderable. 

On account of the shortage of materials and labor 
during the war, most of the work done on the roads of 
Great Britain has been performed on main routes. The 

January 9, 1919 



impetus given to reconstruction and effective main- 
tenance by the Road Board for a number of years prior 
to 1914 put the highways generally in good condition 
for any ordinary service. The county surveyor of 
Nottinghamshire reported a few months ago that the 
main roads under his care were in a very satisfactory 
condition, considering the general condition of public 

In Aberdeenshire, where only one-third of the normal 
number of men can be obtained, the official report for 
the last fiscal year calls the road conditions very fair. 
In Essex, the roads have of late been kept in fair 
condition with the greatest difficulty only. There "effi- 
cient labor has been greatly reduced, whilst team labor 
in the ordinary sense has almost ceased to exist." In 
Kent and Worcestershire, the main roads have been 
maintained in fair condition, but they will soon need 
reconstruction. In Northamptonshire, a recent report 
states, the shortage of labor and materials has made 
maintenance very difficult, and extensive reconstruction 
necessary as soon as possible. In Gloucestershire, the 
conditions of labor, materials and traffic were such that 
it has been impracticable even to maintain some of the 
main roads, and highway conditions there are very poor. 

If the occasion demanded, it would be possible to give 
many similar comments from comparatively recent 
reports of local engineering officials, regarding the 
British situation. It is unnecessary to do so, however, 
for these conditions have been summed up by the Road 
Board substantially as follows: 

There is an urgent demand for the reconstruction 
of important roads to fit them for modern traffic. When 
the war is over a great number of motor trucks will 
be released for business uses. Roads must be built for 
the legitimate use of such trucks, but it should be 
stated here that there is the same complaint in Great 
Britain as in the United States about the reckless use 
of heavy trucks by military drivers. One county sur- 
veyor recently commented bitterly on the "unnecessary 
damage to road surfaces through the excessive speed 
at which Army motor lorries are driven, both empty 
and loaded." Another stated lately that where ex- 
cessive damage has resulted from military and timber 
traffic, it has been almost entirely due to driving heavy 
vehicles in the same tracks without endeavoring to 
break wheel gage. There are strong indications that 
while heavy truck traffic will be planned for in Great 
Britain, the regulation of this traffic will be strict, and 
the taxpayers will have their investment in roads pro- 
tected against the needless destruction caused by high 
speed and careless operation of vehicles. 

Many Roads Must Be Reconstructed 

It has been estimated by the board that about 15,000 
miles of English and Welsh roads must be reconstructed 
for the traffic they will have to carry shortly. It is 
out of the question for local authorities to raise the 
money needed for this work and also for the other 
public improvements which are essential. The cost is 
estimated by the board at about $150,000,000. It is 
justified, the board states, by the fact that unless the 
main roads referred to are reconstructed to carry heavy 
traffic, as they become worn out, the annual cost of 
their repair and maintenance, as now built, will be 

greater than the total annual cost of suitable highways. 
This reconstruction of main roads is by no means all 
of the necessary expense at an early date in order to 
repair war-time neglect and place the roads in suitable 
condition for the traffic. About $6,500,000 must be spent 
on new roads and on widening old highways, and about 
$35,000,000 must be spent on bridge work in order to 
make the roads useful for the heavy vehicles which 
present structures are unable to carry. The total ex- 
penditure needed in Scotland is estimated at about $15,- 
000,000. The same need of providing large sums for 
road improvements does not exist in Ireland, according 
to the Road Board, because the large volume of heavy 
traffic which has caused such destruction in Great 
Britain has not existed in Ireland. 

American War-Time Road Work 

It will not be possible to give any good summary of 
the effect of the war on roads in the United States 
until the state and municipal authorities make public 
the information concerning the work they would cer- 
tainly have undertaken if not stopped by one cause or 
another incident to the war conditions. In a general 
way, however, anybody who has kept in touch with the 
road work here and in Great Britain has seen for 
some time one great similarity — namely, that the local 
officials agreed that the severe restrictions placed on 
their activities by the national authorities were marked 
by an excessive zeal in opposing local improvements. 
Probably this is perfectly natural, for the persons 
ordered to check construction in specified lines must 
inevitably be unpopular with those whose activities are 
hindered, no matter how carefully they may endeavor to 
minimize the hardships of the regulations. 

The first war-time trouble in road building in this 
country was due to car shortage, just as it was in Great 
Britain. The difficulty was much greater here than 
there, however, because so much more road material 
is moved by cars here, and our coal situation was so 
much more acute than that in Great Britain. When 
the Government Commissioner of Priorities issued his 
order forbidding the shipment of road materials in 
open-top cars, except under special conditions, the bot- 
tom was knocked out of road work until arrangements 
were made for hauling such materials when empty cars 
were moving in the direction of the mines. This was a 
material help. A little later the demands for fuel 
oil became so great, and the prospect of still heavier 
demands was so good, that the Fuel Administration put 
its ban on the use of bituminous road materials. By 
this time it was apparent that some step had to be 
taken to enable important road work to proceed and 
to distribute the available road materials where most 
needed and where transportation could be provided. 
Accordingly, the late L. W. Page, director of the 
Bureau of Public Roads, suggested the formation of a 
committee representing all the Government agencies 
interested in any way in road materials and transporta- 
tion, for the purpose of unifying all regulatory super- 
vision of road and street construction and maintenance. 
The Secretary of Agriculture approved this plan and 
invited the Railroad Administration, the Fuel Adminis- 
tration, the War Industries Board, and the War De- 
partment to join with the Department of Agriculture 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

in the formation of a committee which would practically 
control road and street work through the control exer- 
cised by the departments and agencies named. The 
United States Highways Council formed in this way 
later had the cooperation of the Department of Labor 
and the Capital Issues Committee, and, as a conse- 
quence, was able to assist materially in overcoming 
situations similar to those which had previously led to 
the drastic orders of the Railroad Administration and 
the Fuel Administration, to which reference has already 
been made. If the work of the council has seemed 
oppressive at times, the conditions prior to its forma- 
tion should be the criterion and not pre-war conditions. 

Cooperation Given by State Highway Departments 

The work of the United States Highways Council 
was only made possible by the cooperation of many of 
the state highway departments. All requests for mate- 
rials had to be approved by the highway departments of 
the states concerned before they were considered by the 
council. Some of the state departments exercised great 
care in examining applications, and their recommenda- 
tions were of the greatest help, it is understood. Even 
in such cases, however, war-time demands for materials 
or transportation made it impossible for some of the 
departments and agencies to furnish the assistance 
desired, and the applications had to be denied. Other 
state departments did not have the facilities for mak- 
ing such complete investigations, and as it was phys- 
ically and financially impracticable for the council to in- 
vestigate every application through the resources at its 
command, many of the applications were doubtless de- 
layed seriously by the correspondence necessary to 
establish the facts. 

The outstanding facts concerning the work of the 
council seem to be these: Before it was established, 
road construction and maintenance were in a fair way to 
be stopped. As soon as it was established, the con- 
ditions under which road materials and transportation 
could be furnished were explained, and the state high- 
way departments were not only notified, but were asked 
to cooperate by passing upon all projects in the light 
of the conditions outlined by the council. This was in 
line with the action of the Road Stone Control Com- 
mittee in Great Britain. In both countries the central 
authority apparently desired to utilize the knowledge 
and resources of the local authorities to the utmost. 
The cooperative idea was carried much farther here 
than in Great Britain, however, and it is believed that, 
when the extent of the countries, the mileage of roads 
and streets and the quantities of materials are taken 
into account, the results here are at least as good as 
those in Great Britain. 

No data concerning the operations of the council 
have been given out by that body, but in a general way 
it is known that of the materials approved by the state 
highway departments the council was also to supply 
about 85% of the bituminous materials, over half of 
the cement, about the same proportion of brick, about 
three-fourths of the crushed -stone and about two-thirds 
of the gravel. Steel was practically beyond the reach 
of the council, for the other war committees required 
all of it for war purposes. 

The reasons for declining to furnish materials ap- 

proved by the state departments have been quite varied. 
In the Southeastern states the transportation situa- 
tion has been so difficult that it was necessary, speaking 
generally, to restrict the quantities of materials brought 
into that section to a minimum, and to stop all freight 
movements not essential. The fuel shortage operated 
to restrict the output of cement and brick below the 
quantities which the producers were able and willing 
to supply, if permitted to do so. The threatened short- 
age in fuel oil made it necessary to exercise, over some 
grades of bituminous road materials, control which 
would otherwise have been unnecessary. Transportation 
difficulties existed in some of the Central states which 
interfered somewhat, in all probability, with the delivery 
of materials allocated by the council, although the Rail- 
road Administration did all it could to furnish trans- 
portation, for road materials, granted by the council. 
That body has stated the reasons for its actions in 
individual cases without any attempt at concealment, 
but it could not lay down detailed rules governing the 
allocation of materials, because the conditions varied 
from time to time and from place to place. All it could 
do was to give every possible help to essential road 
projects approved by the state highway departments, at 
the time these applications were received. 

The roads of the country have suffered from lack of 
maintenance, but that is a chronic condition in the 
United States. It is open to debate whether maintenance 
would have been done any better throughout the country, 
as a whole, if there had been no war conditions. The 
most serious result has been the ruin of many miles of 
roads by heavy military trucks, just as in Great Britain. 
Neither country has produced any effective measure of 
diminishing such destruction by control of speed and 
careless driving, and very little attention has been paid 
to overloading. 

Selection of National Highways 

In this country, as in Great Britain, the war has 
shown that some roads are a military necessity — which 
is synonymous with national necessity. It has shown 
that where railways are congested and good highways 
are available the latter are a decided help in moving 
freight, particularly fast freight. But it is apparent 
in both countries that the cost of building roads for 
heavy trucks operated at high speed is so great that 
no balance sheet of the cost of motor trucking which 
does not include an item for roadbed — just as the cost 
sheet of railway transportation includes such an item — 
is complete, and it may be so incomplete as to be mis- 
leading. The experience in this country indicates that 
one of the most difficult things to define is a "road of 
national importance," and while there is an evident 
tendency in both countries toward national highways, 
the war has done little to help along the determination 
of those roads whose construction and maintenance are 
so widely useful that they are plainly of national rather 
than state importance. The war over there and its 
influence over here have shown that railways, waterways 
and highways form a complete transportation system 
that can only be successfully studied in a broad way, 
free from economic errors, when studied collectively, 
before its parts are taken for detailed investigate; 

January 9, 1919 



Earthquake Wave-Action in Guatemala 

WAVE action of the earthquakes in Guatemala last 
winter is shown effectively by the effects on an 
old masonary aqueduct near Guatemala City, according 
to Lee F. Whitbeck, chief engineer of the Inter- 
national Railways of Central America, who has sent the 
accompanying view. 

He states that at a high arch, illustrated in Engineer- 
ing Nexos-Record of Oct. 3, p. 624, the fallen keystone- 
shaped block of heavy masonry lies directly under its 


former position in the arch, indicating that the wave 
distance coincided very nearly with the distance be- 
tween the pillars. Under the wave action the spandrel 
walls evidently puled apart, allowing the central block 
of masonry to fall, and then closed. This occurred in 
a succession of arch spans. The wave distance is 
clearly marked in the accompanying view of the covered 
aqueduct, where this action caused the arched roof to 
"pop out" at regular intervals. 

How Soldiers Were Quartered and Fed in 
the Spruce Production Camps 

ALTHOUGH there were many phases of the soldier's 
life in the Northwest woods, under the direction 
of the Spruce Production Division, which were unlike 
that at military encampments, yet the camp sanitary 
regulations were on a strictly military basis and were 
rigidly enforced. A great con- 
trast to the usual woods camp 
was presented by the appear- 
ance of those camps in which 
soldier labor was quartered. 
Typical of these was Camp 
I-H at Raymond, Wash., the 
layout of which is shown in 
the accompanying drawing. 
The plan shown was the stand- 
ard arrangement for camps of 
100 men. While the men were 
in fact "under canvas," yet 
all the tents had wooden floors 
and wooden wainscoting 3 ft. 
high, with a wood frame struc- 
ture over which the tent was 
stretched. A striking feature 

of the camp was the scrupulously clean condition of all 
quarters inside and out, and the strict regulations 
concerning all sanitary measures. In the mess hall the 
boards in the table tops and bench seats were loose 
and were removed and scrubbed daily. Hot and cold 
water was always available in the bath tent, a feature 
of the camp that was very popular. The quarters were 
kept clean and in order by the men themselves. The 
beds were made, floors swept, clothes hung up, Army 
shoes shined, blankets aired twice per week, and the 
sides of tents raised or furled when the weather per- 
mitted. The sleeping quarters were inspected daily by 
both the commander and the doctor of the company. 

The regulations of the Food Administration were 
strictly observed, and meals were served by the contrac- 
tor on a cost-plus-10% basis. The quality seemed to 
be very satisfactory to the men. The quantity of food- 
stuffs and the actual costs of meals served in several 
of the camps, during August, 1918, are given in the 
following table: 



White Flour 


Per 90 

Per 90 




per Meal 




Number Cost 

6 Lb.) , 

23 Lb.), 

2.2 Lb.), 

of per 





Meals Meal 



7 03 


14,526 $0 24 





7,690 .485 



II 88 

2 191 

8,514 .374 




2 047 

3,549 .3374 




2 086 

5,994 .413 




1 820 

9,642 .339 


5 67 


2 088 

49,9l5(total) $0.3647 

These figures were supplied by G. W. Gauntlett, dis- 
trict supervisor for the Warren Spruce Co., at Raymond, 
Wash., in which district these camps were located. 

Wayne County Highway System To Be Extended 

A further development in the plant of the Wayne 
County, Michigan, highway system calls for encircling 
of the county with three belt lines, according to the an- 
nual report of the county road commissioners, recently 
issued. Ten main roads now radiate from the City of 
Detroit, being completed to the county lines and con- 
nected up to most of the villages and cities. The outer 
belt will be finished this fall, and a start has been made 
on both the middle and inner belts. These belts will 
enable traffic to get out of Detroit on any main road and 
return by any other main road, as desired. 




I6'x 16' Tents 

->| 'Kj 

16x16 Tents ^Faucet] j 


1} Pipe Line^rrX 
DRY TENT--* 1 



□ K/rafo/^ /[7T>? 
16'xW i-H' 'Hfo; 







Vol. 82, No. 2 

Letters to the Editor 

Comment on Matters of Interest 
to Engineers and Contractors Will Be Welcome 

How Raise Status and Pay of Engineers? 

Sir — In engineering magazines there is much discus- 
sion as to the status and pay of engineers. Not very 
long ago, while reading a scholarly article along these 
lines by an engineer of prominence, the writer could 
not dismiss from his thoughts an experience with the 
organization of which this same engineer was the chief 
engineer, in which his indisputable rights received no 
consideration. This article strengthened the opinion — 
which had gradually grown to be a conviction — that the 
average engineer working for a salary has the employer- 
engineer and those in the higher positions to thank 
for most of his blessings in the shape of remuneration 
and resultant standing in the community in which he 

The employer-engineer fixes the salary, and to a 
certain extent controls living conditions. No complaint 
has ever been heard that he fixes the salary too high, 
or makes conditions too livable. His main idea seems 
to be to make low cost records. On large projects no 
other item contributes so little to the total cost as 
engineering. Still, in these times, when skilled and 
unskilled labor is getting two or three times its 
normal pay, we find some lines of engineering working 
on practically the same basis as in pre-war times. 

Evidently, there will be no relief from this state of 
affairs until we have an association to look after our 
own interests. Whether it will be necessary to form 
a new one or reshape an existing one is the question. 
Such an association could adopt a minimum scale of 
salaries for all grades; that is, in civil engineering for 
rodmen, instrument men, assistant engineers, etc., in 
the various branches; for city engineers in cities of 
various sizes, etc., and similarly in other lines of engi- 
neering. The engineer or employer who violated this 
scale could be blacklisted. In a short time the rank 
and file of engineers, seeing the advantages of such an 
association, would come into the fold. This may smack 
too much of unionism to some engineers, but through 
such an association only, in my opinion, can results be 

Some months ago, in a small city, the seven physicians 
by mutual agreement doubled all of their fees. Suppose 
the engineers of that city had done the same, what 
would have been the result? They probably would have 
starved, for the services of others from outside could 
undoubtedly have been obtained at the old rates. Not 
so with the physicians. Another would not think of 
coming in and cutting under the new scale established. 

Did the physicians' standing in this community suf- 
fer? Not that the writer is aware of. The prosperity 
of a person has much to do with his standing in the 
community in which he lives. In all probability — other 
things being equal — the physician with the smallest 
practice in a big city has a better standing than the 

city engineer who, acting singly, probably could not get 
a penny's increase in salary. 

These observations are made by an engineer who for 
twenty years has been of the opinion that hard, earnest 
work is the all-important thing, and that salary, condi- 
tions, etc., will take care of themselves. Twenty years' 
experience has made him "a sadder but wiser man," 
and has led him to the conclusion that only through an 
organization similar to the one suggested above can the 
rank and file of engineers get results. 


Sir — "Questioner," in your issue of Dec. 5, p. 1042, 
states that "following the signing of the armistice he 
lost a position paying $350 a month." On the same 
page there is also a letter from V. S. Lawrence on the 
wage question. 

While perhaps but little consolation to these writers, 
an article in the Sunday papers entitled "Grindstone 
Jennie," by Christine McKenzie, is apropos. The gist 
of the article is this: Mrs. Hanch is a pretty widow, 
24 years old and she has one child. A few months 
ago she was earning $2 a day as checker in the Sub- 
marine Boat Corporation shipyard's (Newark Bay) 
commissary. She was transferred to a machine shop 
and her pay jumped from $2 to $8 a day. It took her 
about two hours to master her new job, earning $48 
per week. 

This is in striking contrast to $35 a month received 
by a leveler on a line now owned by the Baltimore & 
Ohio R.R., with $15 added for board; and $65 a month 
paid the resident engineers on a line now controlled by 
the New York Central R.R. Many other instances can 
be given which would place the engineering profession 
in very unfavorable light. 

I have read Dr. Charles R. Mann's report very care- 
fully, and, in the vernacular of the day, "What's the 
idea ?" — spending years in a college to imbibe knowledge 
which will yield but a small remuneration, when two 
hours' practice in a shipyard will bring in $8 per day? 

I have been a member of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers for 30 years, and my membership has 
never been a financial advantage to me. As you plainly 
say on page 1057 of your issue of Dec. 12, the main 
object of engineering societies is "the reading of 
voluminous papers." I recall one of 350 or more pages 
that could be compressed into 35. E. N. Gineer. 

"No Place." 

Proposes National System of Trails 

Sir — The pedestrian has been driven from our roads 
by motor traffic, but, as he is still on earth, he is 
entitled to some consideration. 

The tendency in locating and relocating roads is to 
take care of a heavy commercial traffic, so that roads 
begin to assume more and more the utilitarian aspect 
of the railroads. The problem, even in scenic areas, 
of locating a road that combines utility and scenery 
is almost hopeless. It has, however, been done in a 
few places, such as the Columbia River Highway. 

The writer, as the locating engineer for the state 
highway through the Snoqualmie Pass in 1913 (Cascade 
Mountains, State of Washington), gave this phase of 

January 9, 1919 



the locating problem special study, but with only mod- 
erate success; the prettiest places were not touched 
by the road. Construction of trails through the country 
and mountains will accomplish this end. These trails 
should follow certain uniform lines. The right-of-way 
should be 30 ft. wide. In the matter of grade and 
curvature, there should be anything up to 10% grades, 
and curves with a maximum radius of 60 feet. 

In the United States, as in all countries, the wealthy 
have acquired the best places both in the mountains 
and along the coast, so that an American cannot see 
his own country except by permission of private prop- 
erty owners. Now, although a man can rightly object to 
having his estate cut up by a road, he could not make 
the same objection to the construction of a trail. On 
the trails, no motor-propelled vehicle or motor cycle 
should be allowed, and no livestock should be driven 
over it. The surfaced portion of the trail should be 
10 ft. wide — this will enable troops to march in column 
of squads. These trails would have a great value in 
the training and maneuvering of infantry, and would 
be used by the Boy Scouts on their hikes. Trails would 
run through all the cities and towns. 

Every state highway department should have a trail 
department, so that the work of location, construction 
and maintenance could be kept separate from that of 
the roads. It is probable that county engineers would 
separate their work into road and trail work. By 
designating a project, for instance as the "Sunset 
Trail," it would be easy to distinguish between it 
and the "Sunset Highway," although in naming trails 
duplication of names should be avoided. 

The question of bridges would call for a large variety 
of treatment. The conditions, as between the mountains 
and the seashore, would be too variable to permit of 
the laying down of hard and fast rules. It would add to 
the military value of a trail situated in a strategic 
area if all structures were designed to carry a 10-ton 
road roller. 

"See America First" is a good slogan for all Ameri- 
cans, but America cannot be seen until we have built 
at least 100,000 miles of trails. 

Renton, Wash. Frank W. Harris, 

Captain, Civil Engineer, United States Army. 

Concrete-Base Track For Bridges 

Sir — Your editorial of Dec. 12 on concrete-base track 
and the illustrated article on a 2000-ft. stretch of per- 
manent way of this character on the Northern Pacific 
R.R., as well as the article on waterproofed floors for 
railroad crossings over streets, by H. T. Welty, recall 
testimony given by me in 1917 on behalf of the City 
of Elizabeth before the Board of Public Utility Com- 
missioners of New Jersey, advocating the use of such 
concrete-base track for bridges, referring to the low 
maintenance costs in the subways and elsewhere for 
such permanent way, and giving also some new designs 
for concrete bridge floors and other trough sections for 
ballasted floors. 

I introduced here four types of thin floor construc- 
tion, keeping to about 3 ft. thickness from the under- 
clearance line to the top of the rail (my records are 
in New York), designed in connection with the prob- 

lems of eliminating grade crossings on the Central 
R.R. of New Jersey, where headroom over city streets 
was very limited, and in new alignment and changes for 
six tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad through Eliza- 
beths The crossing of 12 tracks at two levels over 
Broad St. made a very interesting problem, one street 
approach being on sharp curve and at a grade of over 
7%, dipping under the intersection of the two railroads 
to a sinkhole which could not be drained by gravity. 
The upper railroad was at its summit, with falling 
grades in both directions. 

In making these designs to meet such requirements 
for thin floors, I began with the old Thompson trough 
floor which my chief installed on the Park Avenue via- 
duct in the early nineties, when I was assistant engineer 
on this work, and followed other practice of record and 
in evidence within my experience about New York. Mr. 
Welty has the benefit of all the experience in better 
designs used on the New York Central R.R. since then, 
and gives valuable information concerning his several 
types which may be adapted to the various require- 
ments of the railroad engineer. 

In the testimony we brought out at the grade-crossing 
elimination proceedings to which reference has been 
made, it was shown that waterproofing materials gen- 
erally used were not flexible or sufficiently elastic, espe- 
cially, as Mr. Welty says, at the junction with main 
girders and attachments of least deflection, and a good 
type of waterproof thin floor was not in evidence. 

Philadelphia, Penn. R. W. Creuzbaur, 

Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Discussion Has Failed to Reach Bottom of 
Highway-Truck Problem 

Sir — In the many discussions of the "motor truck vs. 
highway" problem that have appeared in print during 
the past few months, there has been, I believe, an al- 
most unanimous failure to get far enough back into the 
economics of the proposition. The question that is now 
vexing highway engineers the country over is, like all 
other questions, based on certain propositions that have 
been either firmly established or long recognized as 
axioms. Starting from these basic propositions, one 
should be able, by logical steps, to answer beyond the 
shadow of a doubt two very important questions: First, 
"Has the motor truck an economic right to exist?" and, 
second, "Is there a definite relation between the capac- 
ity of the. truck and the cost of the road and has this 
relation, in common with other relations, one point that 
is economically to be preferred?" 

Considerable compilation and collaboration will be 
necessary to answer finally the questions stated above, 
but the logic that is involved in the answering may be 
outlined. The questions are of such broad import that 
there is neither justice nor wisdom in putting the 
whole thing up to the highway engineer. They are ques- 
tions for the whole engineering profession to solve, and 
that solution must be found soon. But let us state the 
facts that have been overlooked, apparently, in the dis- 
cussions to date. 

As an opening statement on which all can agree, we 
can reenunciate the old statement — long established but 
often disregarded through oversight or design — that 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

"it is the ultimate consumer that pays the bill." This 
expression has been bandied about until it has become 
almost if not quite hackneyed, and yet it is deliber- 
ately ignored in even the most elaborate estimates of the 
cost of motor transportation. In the most reliable of 
the estimates — those based on actual performance — we 
shall find entering into the ton-mile costs all items relat- 
ing to the truck itself — interest, depreciation, repairs, 
taxes, insurance and operation. In how many of them 
shall we find the fact recognized that money spent on 
roads for interest, depreciation or repairs should also 
enter into the estimate? What would happen to the 
privately owned railroad if it forgot, when fixing its 
freight rate, to include the cost of building and main- 
taining its roadbed, bridges and tracks? 

When a merchant receives a consignment of goods 
by freight, he pays for such transportation service a 
definite amount — an amount which includes the whole 
cost of bringing the goods to him. This amount he adds 
to his other costs, in fixing the price to be paid him by 
the consumer for the goods. If the goods are trans- 
ported by motor truck instead of by rail, the cost of part 
of the transportation service — building and maintaining 
the road, the track on which the truck operates — is not 
included in the price paid by the consumer for the goods. 
This cost is paid, however, by the consumer in the 
shape of a state or Federal tax for highway purposes. 
Because of our more or less invisible system of tax- 
ation, it is impossible to attack the problem from this 
end — that is, we cannot determine the actual cost to 
the consumer of any article in which such an item as a 
road tax enters. The true cost of transporting goods 
by trucks can be established, however, but before pro- 
ceeding to outline the procedure let us point out once 
more that "the consumer pays the bill" either as a 
higher rate to the railroad or as a tax to the state. 

In order to establish the true transportation charge 
on material carried by trucks, we must include part of 
the cost of building and maintaining the road. Here 
begins the argument between the highway builder and 
the truck manufacturer. What part of this cost shall 
be included? Opinions, more or less biased, may be un- 
covered, varying all the way from all to none. A posi- 
tion at either extreme of the discussion is untenable. 

Disregarding the truck, roads are still of prime im- 
portance and still cost money. It is comparatively a 
simple matter to determine what a road will cost, both 
for building and for maintaining, to meet successfully 
any class or concentration of traffic. It is possible to 
build a road over which we could transport the Rockies, 
a mountain at a time, and such a road would be not a 
question of skill but merely of money. We can there- 
fore determine the difference in cost of building and 
maintaining a road designed for any class of traffic, and 
a road designed for any other class of traffic. The 
calculations may be complicated, but they can be made. 
With these differences in cost, we are in a position to 
determine the true transportation charge over a road 
per ton-mile by trucks of various sizes. 

As long as this ton-mile cost is lower than the cor- 
responding freight rate, the truck is an economic factor 
in life and has a right to consideration, and the truck 
that would make this figure a minimum is the truck to 
use, whether its capacity be a hundredweight or a 

hundred tons. With highways designed for such a 
truck, it remains for legislation to provide for the 
proper use of the highways. 

It may be objected that the solution is easy to point 
out but hard to find. That is true, but it is not a prob- 
lem for one man or for one group of men to solve. We 
all know the story of the bird that, having found a hole 
in the roof of a deserted house, tried to fill the house 
with acorns — how he worked and worked and finally 
gave it up with the idea that it could not be done. It 
could have been done, nevertheless, but not by one poor 
little bird. Just so this proposition calls for the united 
experience of truck makers and users the country over, 
even involving the value of different designs in truck 
construction. It calls for the clearest thought of engi- 
neers and financiers and, since it touches the pocket 
book of every person that pays taxes — and who of us 
does not? — it is a legitimate subject for Governmental 
consideration. W. Earl Weller, 

Binghamton, N. Y. City Engineer. 

Lehigh Valley Dredging Chart Used 
As Standard for Records 

Sir — Referring to the graphic dredging chart shown 
in your issue of Dec. 12, p. 1070, furnished by G. T. 
Hand, chief engineer of the Lehigh Valley R.R. : I 
was allowed to make a few suggestions in this scheme 
for showing at a glance performances and hold-backs 
in the work of this suction dredge, operating for the 
Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Last spring the Fleet Corporation was seriously in 
need of a third dredge to clean up the turning basin 
at the Newark Bay shipyard. Partly for patriotic rea- 
sons an unnamed 20-in. hydraulic dredge, which we 
called the "Lehigh," was put to work for the Fleet 
Corporation on a low flat rental basis. It gave, as partly 
shown in this chart, an output as high as 970 cu.ft. 
per hour on a 3200-ft. discharge. This was generally 
light material, silt, including some shell and hard 

The work of this dredge was frequently interrupted 
by the breaking of the line across the Port Newark 
channel, where we had made an arrangement with the 
quartermaster's department for quick opening, but in 
spite of this device the percentage of channel openings 
ran from 20% to 28% of the total time, increasing 
costs; notwithstanding this, the clean-up was entirely 
satisfactory as to cost. 

On getting this diagram from Mr. Hand last spring 
I took the liberty of using it as standard for dredging 
records in the several shipyards coming under my con- 
trol. R. W. Creuzbaur, 

Philadelphia, Penn. Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Air Currents or Lorelei? 

Sir — A queer sort of phenomenon has been occurring 
at Huntington Lake, the reservoir for the power houses 
of the Southern California Edison Co., at Big Creek, 
Cal. This takes the form of a shrill sound which 
travels, quite regularly, from one end of the lake to 
the other, very rapidly, and at an altitude of about 200 
ft., apparently, above the surface of the water. 

January 9, 1919 



Huntington Lake is in the heart of the San Joaquin 
high Sierras, about 75 miles northeast of Fresno. The 
lake is about 4A miles long and one-half to three- 
quarters of a mile wide, and extends northeast and 
southwest. The water in the lake is impounded by 
three large arched concrete dams, the tops of which are 
at El. 6950 ft. above sea level. These dams were raised 
from El. 6915 during the summer of 1917. 

The sound in question was never heard before the 
spring and summer of the past year, 1918, and it is 
wondered whether or not the raising of the dams would 
so affect the action of air currents as to produce a noise 
which resembles the whir of the propeller of an air- 
plane. The sound occurred regularly during the spring 
and summer months at 10 a.m. daily, starting in at the 
south end and traveling to the other end and back in 
10 sec. Since the colder weather began in October the 
visitations have become irregular and less frequent, 
although they still occur at 10 a.m. 

There is no construction work in progress that would 
produce an echo, and the only explanation advanced so 
far is that conflicting air currents may produce the 
sound. Some of the readers of Engineering News- 
Record may be able to corroborate this or offer another 
explanation. D. H. Redinger. 

Big Creek, Cal. 

Driven Pile Point Comes Out of Ground 

Sir — In driving a wood pile at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 
some time ago, the shaft took a most curious path. As 
shown in the accompanying view, the point came up 
vertically through the ground some distance away from 


where it was driven. At the time the pile was being 
driven it was noticed that it was not driving straight, 
but driving was continued, with the result shown. 

The pile was 52 ft. long, of green douglas fir, and it 
was driven in a hydraulic back-fill of coral, overlying a 
rock excavation. The distance from the center of the 
butt, projecting 6 ft. above the ground, to the center 
of the point, projecting 4 feet, was 18 feet. 

James T. Reside. 

Washington, D. C. 

A Gift and an Appreciation 

Sir — One of the most insistent demands to be met 
by a working engineering library is that for bound 
volumes of technical periodicals. It has been found that 
in the library of the Bureau of Yards and Docks the 
call for previous issues of Engineering News and 
Engineering Record is especially urgent. Up to a 
recent date, the bureau's file was far from complete, 
and some difficulty was being experienced in obtaining 
one or two volumes of comparatively late issue. 

Henry B. Seaman, who has been connected with the 
Navy Shipyard Plants section of the bureau during the 
war period, happened to learn of this situation. Mr. 
Seaman, who was formerly chief engineer of the New 
York Public Service Commission, First District, bridge 
engineer for the Erie R.R., etc., has been a subscriber 
to the News and Record during a long professional 
career and up to a very recent date had kept an un- 
broken series of the bound volumes on his shelves. It 
was therefore with every indication of deep chagrin 
that he informed the writer that, owing to the hazards 
of moving from place to place, he had found it neces- 
sary to consign his entire collection only a week pre- 
viously to a second-hand dealer in Brooklyn. The 
writer's regret, as may be imagined, became acute as 
the tale progressed. Mr. Seaman, however, was not 
disposed to let the matter rest. He held that the books 
ought to give the greatest service to the greatest num- 
ber, regardless of his pecuniary interests in the trans- 

He accordingly got in touch with his dealer, found 
that the volumes had not been uncrated, and directed 

that the whole shipment, con- 
sisting of three heavy cases, 
be forwarded to this bureau 
at once by express, all ex- 
penses, save actual rail 
charges, to be met by him per- 
sonally. In due time the con- 
signment was delivered to this 
library, all volumes in good 
condition, complete with in- 
dexes, and excellently bound. 
Numbers were found to supply 
the recent deficiencies, and the 
previous volumes were "tied 
on" to the bureau's series — so 
that today, owing principally 
to Mr. Seaman's generosity, 
the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks possesses an unbroken 
file of Enginering News from 
1887 to date, and of Engi- 
neering Record from 1890 to date — a collection practi- 
cally invaluable for the bureau's purposes. 

Over the gentleman's protest, this letter is being 
written as evidence of the unselfish public spirit and 
genuine human cooperation which seem to form a salient 
part of the first-class engineering character. 

Librarian, Bureau of Yards and Docks, Navy De- 

Washington, D. C. 

Hints for the Contractor 


Contentious Contractors Shunned 
by Engineers 

AN OLD contractor who was gossiping away an idle 
hour with the editor remarked: "One accomplish- 
ment which I may claim, and which few contractors can 
claim, is that in 30 years' contracting I have never 
had a lawsuit. Sometimes I have lost money by refus- 
ing to go to law, but I have gained a more valuable 
asset, which is the reputation of not being quarrelsome. 
That reputation has helped me to secure many con- 
tracts." Submission is a practice not free from risk. 
Occasionally, at least, the reputation of being able and 
willing to hit back is the best guarantee of peace. 
Nevertheless, it is true that the engineer having con- 
tracts to award shuns as one shuns pestilence a conten- 
tious contractor. That contractor may have the reputa- 
tion of doing work quickly and well, of working to 
specifications in every detail, but, if he is known to be 
contentious, he is passed by for a contractor who is 
perhaps less capable but is certainly more amiable. A 
contractor's appeals to the law courts should be rare, 
and only when all other resorts have failed. A reputa- 
tion among engineers of being "easy to work with" is 
an asset which a contractor should not lightly risk. 

C. S. H. 

Stranded River Boat Moved and 
Relaunched on Rollers 

By Emil Dauenhauer 

Pittsburgh, Penn. 

STRANDED by high water 250 ft. from and 30 ft. 
above the river edge, a 1000-ton steamboat was 
moved by jacks and rollers and side-launched without 
injury to any part, and a few days after the launching 
the boat resumed her regular schedule. Ordinary house- 
moving procedures were followed, and the operations, 
begun Aug. 13, were completed Oct. 7, 1918. 

As shown by the view, the vessel was a typical 
steel-hull stern-wheel river steamer. The steel hull had 

• •"7 ™i"» 

a beam of 40 ft., but 16-ft. guards in the sides increased 
the overall width to 72 ft. The length was 248 ft., the 
draft at the stern 3i ft., and the weight approximately 
1000 tons. As stranded, the boat lay parallel to the 

Using 200 jackscrews, the boat was raised sufficiently 
to place it on runways consisting of 11 lines of 6 x 
8-in. oak timbers laid to a grade of 1 on 12. Skids 
were placed under the hull, one over each line of run- 
way timbers, and 8-in. wood rollers inserted between 
the skids and the runways; 225 rollers were used. 
When mounted, the boat was pulled to the river edge 
by six sets of block and tackle reaved three and three. 
At the river edge it was necessary to grade down the 
bank and carry the runways down to an elevation about 
4 ft. above water level. Jackscrews eased the vessel 
down the steeper grade. From the ends of the run- 
ways 11 lines of launching ways were extended down 
into the water to a depth greater than the draft of 
the vessel. These launching ways were 13 x 15-in. 
timbers, thoroughly blocked and braced. The grade was 
li on 12. The boat was slid down the launching ways 
on skids and rollers. 

The contractors for the moving and launching were 
the John Eichleay, Jr., Co., Pittsburgh, Penn. The 
writer was in charge of the work. The boat was the 
"Kate Adams," owned by the Memphis, Helena & Rose- 
dale Packet Company. 


Double Roller and Long Board Float Give 
Superior Road Finish 

By Samuel P. Baird 

Columbus, Ohio 

EXCEPTIONALLY good finish on a concrete road 
built at Camp Sherman, Ohio, was secured by using 
a double roller and long board float. The roller and 
the float were built on the job. 

At Camp Sherman the warehouse street has two 30- 
ft. pavements separated by a 10-ft. utility space for 
pipes and poles. The pavements have no crown, but for 
proper drainage received transverse grades of 6 in. in 
70 ft. to 17 in. in 70 ft. The slabs were built in lengths 
of a day's run, the longest being about 135 ft. The side 
forms were 2 x 6 in. x 16-ft. Southern pine planks. 
As the forms were left in place to protect the edge of 
the slab, their construction was unusual. To insure 
exact elevation, the side planks were supported on 
2 x 4 x 12-in. blocks set 3 ft. apart and tamped to solid 
bearing in the ground. Thin wedges on the blocks ad- 
justed the plank to exact elevation, and stakes held it 
upright. To hold the planks close to the slab edge when 
the stakes were removed, 1-in. wire ties 3 ft. long were 
inserted 3 ft. apart along the edge of the slab. 

After the concrete had been struck off with an extra 
heavy strikeboard it was compacted by the double roller 
shown by the drawing. Four 28 x 18-in. rollers were 
made of No. 18-gage galvanized iron shaped in a bend- 

January 9, 1919 




ing roll. Each roller had a ll-in. solid head in each end, 
made of two 5-in. boards that were placed with the 
grain crossed. 

There were also intermediate heads I in. thick. These 
heads were sawed out on a band-saw. The center hole 
was a loose fit on a 1-in. pipe. Between the rolls and be- 
tween the rolls and the frame were placed I-in. wood 
washers. The pipe axles were rigid in the frame and 
extended beyond the frame, for use as convenient 
handles. All the frame material was I in. x 4 in. cypress. 
When completed the roller weighed 105 pounds. 

The location of this work was so restricted by ware- 
house platforms on one side and a very busy street on 
the other, that the use of a roller with a handle was out 
of the question; also, a single roller hauled by ropes 
did not give satisfaction, so the double roller was de- 

The split feature was the result of an afterthought ; we 
could not find a bending roll to handle anything wider 
than 28 in., nor could we get the material, No. 18-gage, 
any wider than the standard sheets. 

To get best results, there should be placed at each 
side of the road temporary strips outside the side forms, 
as shown by the sketch, so that the front roller can be 
readily pulled over the side forms. In this way any 
water which is ahead of the second roller can be forced 
over the forms. 

Removal of the water is one of the objects of 
rolling concrete. Another good result is the crowding 
down of the coarse aggregate slightly below the sur- 
face, thus permitting the 
ready use of a float 2 ft. longer 
than the road is wide, and 
made of some light wood 
from \ to \ in. thick and S 
to 10 in. wide. The results 
are more satisfactory than 
those given by a belt. At 
Camp Sherman the float used 
was a cypress board $ x 6 in. 
and 32 ft. long, composed of 
two 16-ft. pieces spliced on top. 
The split-roller idea is of no 
practical use in my opinion, 
as the roller— whether pulled 
by ropes, as in the case in 
question, or by a handle — is 
not easily controlled as to di- 
rection of movement, and any 
rolling close to the expansion 
joints tends to get them more 
or less out of line. 

Simple Horse To Support Steam Siphon 

By G. W. McAlpin 

Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

FOR holding steam siphons on rock foundations the 
horse shown in the accompanying sketch has been 
successfully used. It is made of two pieces of H-in. pipe 
pointed at the bottom to hold firmly on the rock, and 


Rope Slina to hold Siphon 

and pern-ut raising and 

lowering same 


connected at the top by elbows and an 8-in. nipple. The 
siphon is suspended between the legs of the horse by a 
rope passing over the nipple. This permits the raising 
or the lowering of the siphon, as desired. By resting 
the discharge pipe of the siphon on a discharge chute, 
or other convenient rest, balance is obtained. 

Shipyard Has Cars With Plate Racks 

TO FACILITATE loading and to reduce dangerous 
overloading, the Groton Iron Works, in the ship- 
yard at Groton, Conn., introduced racks on the yard 
cars. One such car is shown in the view. This car has 
plate racks in the middle and shape racks on the side. 
A greater weight can be carried in this way, and there 
is a great saving by loading without respect to the 
piece wanted first and by making it possible to pick 
out the desired piece when the car is at its destination. 



News of the Week 

New York, January 9, 1919 

City Drops 300 Engineers on 
Half Day's Notice 

New York Rapid-Transit Work Crippled 

By Cut in Appropriation — Many 

Contracts Will Be Affected 

A New Year's surprise came to over 
300 engineers of the Public Service 
Commission, New York City, in the 
shape of abrupt discharge from their 
positions. The Board of Estimate of 
the city resolved upon this action at a 
meeting held Dec. 30, and advised the 
Public Service Commission of the ac- 
tion on the following day. As the 
matter involved was the administrative 
appropriation for the first quarter of 
1919, the engineers affected were given 
notice of the termination of their em- 
ployment on the evening of Dec. 31. 

Application made by the commission 
for the sum of $559,000 for adminis- 
trative expenses during the first quar- 
ter was submitted a month ago, but was 
not acted upon until Dec. 30. The 
Board of Estimate cut the amount 
asked for to $291,000, and required that 
this amount be expended in accordance 
with a schedule of positions prescribed 
by it. This list, as compared with the 
existing organization of the rapid-tran- 
sit work, represented a reduction of 
376 men (out of 1004), of whom 334 
are engineers (out of 812). 

Board of Estimate of City Has 
Final Authority 

Prior to the present year, it was 
possible for the Public Service Com- 
mission to appeal to the Supreme 
Court in urgent cases, but under a new 
law of 1918 it is considered that final 
authority as to all appropriations and 
other administrative matters involving 
other departments of the city is lodged 
with the Board of Estimate. The Pub- 
lic Service Commission has therefore 
applied to the board for a supplemental 
appropriation to restore its staff to 
proper number. 

Sverre Dahm, deputy chief engineer, 
and George S. Rice, division engineer, 
are two of the men whose positions 
were abolished by the appropriation 
schedule. All designing engineers but 
one were discharged, and the designing 
force cut from about 130 to 41 — this 
in spite of the fact that new contracts 
are in course of preparation for letting 
during the current year, among them 
those for the Nassau Street line, the ex- 
tension of the Steinway tunnel, and 
new elevated extensions and yards. The 
work in hand was sufficient to tax the 
resources of the designing division as 
it was organized, and cannot be ac- 
complished in the necessary time by the 
reduced force. In the field, correspond- 
ing conditions prevail. In a typical in- 
stance, the division engineer and the as- 

sistant division engineer are dropped 
the senior assistant is retained, the 
section engineer and one inspector and 
four junior engineers are dropped ; this 
section has lost seven men, out of a 
staff of eleven. It happens to be one 
of the sections on which work was be- 
ing rushed in order to complete the line 
of which it is a closing link, so as to 
permit starting of operation of traffic. 
A number of other sections show sim- 
ilar figures, and in general it is a 
typical instance of how the situation 
affects the field work of the commis- 

Supervision of field construction is 
one of the important daily functions of 
the engineering organization of the 
Public Service Commission, especially 
as, under the contract, the commission 
must furnish all engineering data to 
the contractors, including lines and 
grades for all construction. The con- 
tractor is dependent wholly on the en- 
gineer for field information on the lo- 
cation and the character of the work, 
for approval of finished work, and 
for estimates for payment. In work of 
particular difficulty, as the river tun- 
nels, the engineering service is con- 
tinuous, and the proper progress of 
the work essentially dependent upon 
it. As it will be impossible to perform 
these varied functions with the depleted 
staff, the acting chief engineer of 
the commission, Robert Ridgway, is 
temporarily making such adjustments 
and exchanges of men as will permit 
operations to be carried on in normal 
manner at the most vital points. The 
commission's contracts at present in- 
clude about 20 active sections of 
rapid-transit lines, exclusive of many 
contracts for track construction, sta- 
tion finish, equipment, and cases of 
final estimate. 

Engineers Volunteer Services 

In order to maintain the organization 
and allow work to continue, in the an- 
ticipation that better counsel will soon 
prevail and the organization be re- 
stored to working condition, a number 
of the discharged engineers voluntarily 
continued in their regular duties, giv- 
ing notice to the commission that this 
continuance in service is at their own 
risk, subject to future provision for it 
by the Board of Estimate, and that the 
commission is not liable to any claim 
against it for these voluntary services. 

The present crippling of the commis- 
sion's organization follows a long 
period of sharp political controversy 
between members of the commission 
and officials of the city Government 
(the commission is a state body, 
though dependent upon the city author- 
ities for its appropriations and for ap- 
(Concluded on page 111,) 

Commerce Commission For 
Return of Railroads 

Sentiment Favors Return Within 21- 
Month Period Rather Than Five- 
Year Control Plan 

At the Senate Interstate Commerce 
Committee's hearing on proposed rail- 
road legislation, Commissioner Edgar 
E. Clark presented the first alterna- 
tive yet proposed to Director General 
McAdoo's plan for a five-year ex- 
tension of Government control. The 
Interstate Commerce Commission con- 
siders that the 21-month period inter- 
vening between the signing of the 
peace treaty and the return to private 
ownership affords sufficient opportun- 
ity for readjustment before the roads 
are turned back by the Government. 
Commissioner Clark said: 

"Considering and weighing as best 
we can all of the arguments for and 
against the different plans, we are led 
to the conviction that with the adoption 
of appropriate provisions and safe- 
guards for regulation under private 
ownership it would not be wiso or best 
at this time to assume Government 
ownership or operation of the railways 
of the country." 

He also stated that it seemed ob- 
vious that no plan of private ownership 
should be considered unless it be un- 
der broadened, extended and amplified 
Government regulation. He said that 
comparatively few contracts for com- 
pensation had been perfected between 
the transportation companies and 
the Government. Return to private 
ownership and operation should, there- 
fore, not be understood as meaning 
precipitous return. A reasonable pe- 
riod of readjustment or preparation 
should be afforded, and reasonable no- 
tice given that upon a given date the 
properties would be restored to their 

Commissioner Woolley dissented 
from part of the report and gave a 
number of reasons why he favored the 
extension plan proposed by Mr. Mc- 
Adoo, saying that the good accom- 
plished far outweighed the shortcom- 
ings and was a promise of better 
things for the future, and that the 
proposal to return the railroads to 
private control had not yet been pro- 
ductive of any concrete plan which 
would carry the undertaking safely 
over the breakers obviously ahead. 

The commission reiterated its rec- 
ommendations, made last year, that 
the Presidential power to merge lines 
during war or peace should be con- 
tinued, that railway construction 
should be limited to works of neces- 
sity, and that inland waterways should 
be developed and coordinated with tho 

January 9, 1919 



Says France Will Do Her Own 

At the meeting of War Service Com- 
mittee chairmen in New York City, 
Jan 3, W. H. Manss, until recently 
chairman of the War Service Executive 
Committee of the United States Cham- 
ber of Commerce, stated that investi- 
gations of which he had knowledge had 
disclosed the fact that France intended 
to do her own rebuilding. He told 
the maunfacturers' representatives 
present that they could not expect 
much French business in materials. 
He strongly urged the initiation of an 
extensive public works program, par- 
ticularly in highways, emphasizing the 
point several times. Mr. Manss' words 
bear out the statements made by 
Engineering News-Record of Jan. 2, 
that American engineers and contrac- 
tors — at present, at least — are not 
wanted in France. 

Professional Division U. S. Em- 
ployment Service Opens Office 

The Professional Division of the 
United States Employment Service has 
opened a New York office at 16 East 
42nd St. Its registrations of exper- 
ienced professional men are increasing. 
University graduates in mechanical, 
electrical, and civil engineering, and in 
chemistry, and other technical men 
with several years of practical exper- 
ience are now registered. The record 
of each man is carefully investigated 
before registration is permitted. 

Employers seeking men of profes- 
sional experience are asked to inform 
the division of the precise nature of the 
positions which they wish to fill. Only 
men who are well qualified for such 
positions are referred to employers. 

Zionist Engineers Organize to 
Rebuild Palestine 

The first annual conference of the 
Zionist Society of Engineers, which 
was organized at a National Zionist 
convention in Baltimore in June, 1917, 
was held Dec. 28-30 in New York 
City, for the purpose of instituting 
plans for undertaking engineering de- 
velopment in Palestine, in connection 
with the expected immigration. 

The opening session of the meeting 
was addressed by Judge Julian Mack, 
president of the Zionist Organization 
of America, Jacob de Haas, secretary 
of the organization, and Dr. Benzion 
Mossinsohn, director of the Hebrew 
Secondary School, Jaffa, Palestine. 
Pledges made by the allied nations 
with respect to Palestine were reiter- 
ated. A resolution was adopted that 
the society immediately embark upon 
the preparation of plans and estimates 
for the agricultural and industrial 
projects which will be made necessary 
by the expected immigration. To carry 
out the resolution, studies of the na- 
tional resources, topography, etc., of 
the Holy Land will be made, and a 
commission will be sent as soon as con- 
ditions warrant such a step. 

Colonel Roosevelt's Part 

in Panama Canal and 

Reclamation Work 

Tributes to the Former President by 


FOLLOWING receipt of news of the death of Colonel 
Roosevelt, "Engineering News-Record" asked Maj.-Gen. 
George W. Goethals, former chief engineer of the Panama Canal, 
and Dr. F. H. Newell, former director of the United States 
Reclamation Service, for brief appreciations of the part the former 
President played in the great works with which they were 
connected. Their replies follow: 

GENERAL GOETHALS— "American engineers especially 
should honor the memory of Theodore Roosevelt. It was due 
him that they were given the opportunity to show what 
American engineering science, skill and initiative could do 
in the greatest undertaking of peace in the history of the 
world — namely, the building of the Panama Canal. 

"Theodore Roosevelt's name must be forever linked with 
the building of the canal. He boldly went in opposition to 
the Board of International Engineers which had decided 
upon what they believed to be the best type of canal, and 
whenever and wherever American engineers are gathered 
they should bear in mind that the confidence that Theodore 
Roosevelt had in them and in their work gave them the 
opportunity to serve in linking the nations and in making 
a highway among them which will forever serve the cause 
of Humanity and Justice." 

DR. NEWEL L — "Roosevelt's interest in the irrigation 
of the arid lands, the preservation and use of the national 
forests and allied engineering matters of broad national 
importance was not only deep-seated but effectively shown. 
That interest came primarily from an enthusiasm for out-of- 
door things, matured by his experience as a Western frontiers- 
man and student of natural phenomena. 

"As Governor of New York he came in contact with the 
forestry and water supply problems of his state. Almost 
his first action on arriving in Washington as President was to 
confer with the experts on these subjects in order to lay out 
with them his first message to Congress and to develop 
needed legislation. The resulting Reclamation Act, signed 
by him June 17, 1902, was made possible by his influence. 
He gave personal direction to many of the larger reclamation 
problems, cutting them free from entanglements of red tape 
and hampering precedents. His guiding principle was that 
the work, if necessary for the public benefit, should be carried 
out in spite of opposing precedents unless clearly prevented 
by existing law. 

"We, as engineers, owe a debt of gratitude to Roosevelt not 
only because of his breadth of vision, embracing in its wide 
scope the public benefits conferred by engineers, but for 
his sympathetic attitude and effective co-operation in encour- 
aging and securing methods that lead to economy and effi- 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

Engineers Honor Hoover 

Almost coincident with the news that 
to Herbert C. Hoover has been given 
the huge responsibility of directing the 
distribution of food supplies to the neu- 
tral and enemy peoples of Europe 
comes the announcement that Ameri- 
can engineers have recognized the great 
services rendered to humanity by their 
fellow engineer, by making him the 
first recipient of the Washington 

Two years ago, John W. Alvord of 
Chicago made a gift of $1000 to the 
Western Society of Engineers, to estab- 
lish a prize which is to be given annual- 

©Vnderwood & Underwood 


ly to some engineer, "on account of ac- 
complishments which have preeminent- 
ly promoted the happiness, comfort and 
well-being of humanity." 

The award of this prize is made by a 
board of 17 engineers, of whom nine 
are chosen by the Western Society of 
Engineers and two by each of the four 
national societies. The award, there- 
fore is representative of the American 
engineering profession at large. 

As Mr. Alvord remarked in his letter 
giving the fund to establish the award, 
"almost all engineers serve the public, 
directly or indirectly, and it is one of 
the most important duties of engineer- 
ing societies to point out to their mem- 
bership and to the public such instances 
of engineering and administrative skill 
as seem to have unusual merit, in order 
that honor may be properly accorded 
where it is due." 

The story of how Mr. Hoover organ- 
ized the work of feeding the millions 
of people in Belgium and Northern 
France during the early years of the 
war, and how he organized food pro- 
duction and conservation in the United 
States, is fresh in the memory of every- 

Now comes a task far surpassing in 
magnitude and difficulty either of the 

foregoing; and all agree that upon 
its accomplishment with some measure 
of success depends the chances of 
checking the flood of Bolshevism and 
anarchy now rolling westward. . 

Mr. Hoover has been in Europe for 
several weeks cooperating with the of- 
ficials of the allied nations in an in- 
vestigation of European food supplies 
and needs. On Jan. 3 it was announced 
at Paris that the allied governments 
had requested the United States to take 
a predominating part in the organiza- 
tion of relief measures in all enemy 
and neutral countries, and that Presi- 
dent Wilson had named Mr. Hoover to 
be director general of the international 
commission which is to carry on this 
work. There are 250,000,000 persons 
with whose food necessities this com- 
mission will have to deal. 

The story has been told, but will bear 
retelling, of Mr. Hoover's notable en- 
gineering career. That story is of a 
boy born on an Iowa farm, working 
his way through Leland Stanford 
University, being graduated with high 
honors in 1895 and tackling at once 
the hard work of mining engineering, 
first in New Mexico and California and 
then in West Australia. In his two 
years spent in the latter country, his 
rise was so rapid that in 1898 he was 
made chief engineer of the Chinese 
Government's Bureau of Mines. The 
Boxer rebellion of 1900 put an end to 
this work; and while it was going on 
he helped organize the defense of Tien- 
tsin. When the rebellion was over he 
found work for a few months in re- 
building Chinese railway and harbor 

In 1901 he went to London, and as 
a partner in the firm of Bewick, 
Moreing & Co., mine operators, he be- 
came at once a prominent figure in the 
organization of mining industry, 
especially in the East Indies, China and 
Burmah. The engii sering treatises 
which he somehow found time to write, 
"Economics of Mining," published in 
1906, and "Principles of Mining," pub- 
lished in 1908, are standard textbooks 
for the profession. 

It was characteristic of Hoover that 
he threw himself in 1914 heart and 
soul into the work of a hastily organ- 
ized American committee which under- 
took the task of rescuing the 100,000 
or so Americans who were caught una- 
ware by the war's outbreak and were 
panic-stricken over the difficulties of 
getting home. 

In the American colony in London, 
Hoover's great ability and public 
spirit were so well known that when 
the huge task of organizing relief for 
the Belgians was presented the late 
Ambassador Page was in no doubt 
where to turn to find a man equal to 
the need. From that time to the pres- 
ent Mr. Hoover has been been devoting 
his time and ability to carrying on a 
work of public service without a prec- 
edent in the world's history, and 
without compensation other than the 
consciousness of duty that was well 

City Drops 300 Engineers 

(Concluded from page 112) 
proval of contracts and certain other 
acts). Governor Smith indicated his in- 
tention, even prior to taking office on 
Jan. 1, of reshaping the entire Pub- 
lic Service Commission, and in his 
message to the legislature recommended 
division of the functions of construction 
and regulation, each to be entrusted to 
a single-headed commission. Under 
these conditions the action of the Board 
of Estimate is regarded as merely an 
item in political warfare, having no 
regard to the efficiency or services of 
the engineering organization. No in- 
formation has been obtainable to show 
whether the Board of Estimate consid- 
ered in taking its action the delay and 
interruption to contract construction 
work and the probability that contract 
claims for delay will result therefrom. 

War Service Council Approves 
National Highway Plan 

Acting as an industrial advisory 
council to the War Service Executive 
Committee of the United States Cham- 
ber of Commerce, the chairmen of the 
War Service Committees at a meeting 
in New York Jan. 3 adopted a reso- 
lution advocating the construction of a 
national system of highways, the crea- 
tion of a national highway commission, 
and the extension of the Federal-aid 
plan as applied to highways. The res- 
olution was identical with that adopted 
by the Highway Congress in Chicago 
in December. 

Resolutions favoring a national high- 
way policy were adopted at several 
of the related-group sessions at the 
recent Atlantic City Reconstruction 
Conference, but did not get through 
the Clearance Committee. The latter 
body referred them for consideration 
to the War Service Committee chair- 
men acting as the Industrial Advisory 

Mechanical Engineers Take Over 
"Engineering Index" 

The "Engineering Index," published 
for 25 years in Engineering Magazine 
and its successor, Industrial Manage- 
ment, and the standard index to engi- 
neering periodical literature, has been 
acquired by the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, and hereafter 
will be compiled and published by the 
society. The first issue of the index 
under its new management appears in 
the January number of the society's 
Journal. The index will be regularly 
issued in three forms: (1) As a part 
of the Journal; (2) as a separate 
monthly publication for libraries or in- 
dividuals desiring to clip the items for 
indexing purposes; (3) as an annual 
volume in which all the items for the 
year are collected. 

The "Engineering Index" originated 
with Professor J. B. Johnson of Wash- 
ington University, St. Louis, Mo., in 
1883, and for 12 years was prepared 

January 9, 1919 



under his direction and published by 
the Association of Engineering Socie- 
ties. The following classifications give 
an idea of the scope of the "Engineer- 
ing Index," as it will be carried in the 
Journal: Mechanical engineering, 31 
subheads; electrical engineering, 11 
subheads; civil engineering, nine sub- 
heads; mining engineering, 14 sub- 
heads; metallurgy, seven subheads; 
aeronautics, 19 subheads; marine engi- 
neering, four subheads; organization 
and management, 13 subheads; indus- 
trial technology; railroad engineering, 
15 subheads; munitions and military 
engineering; general science, three 

First Filter Plant Bids Received 
Since War's End Are Low 

Bids received for a filter plant at 
Wyandotte, Mich., Dec. 30, one of the 
first municipal jobs of this kind to be 
advertised for since the armistice was 
signed, indicate that prices are ap- 
parently somewhat lower than those of 
last spring. For concrete masonry 
walls, beams and columns, the bids of 
the six firms represented ranged from 
$17 to $25. The low bid on filter boxes 
was $19 a yard. Cast-iron pipe prices 
ranged from $75 to $90, with specials 
ranging from $160 to $185. Flanged 
specials were listed from $185 to $250. 
The Pitt Construction Co. was the low 
bidder at $211,235. The figures given 
were received from R. Winthrop Pratt, 
civil and sanitary engineer, Cleveland, 

Angus Sinclair 

The death of Angus Sinclair at the 
advanced age of 78 years removes a 
notable pioneer in American engineer- 
ing journalism. It was 35 years ago 
that he left a job as roundhouse fore- 
man on the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & 
Northern Ry. and came to New York 
City to be an ^assistant editor on the 
American Machinist. His experience 
previous to that time has been chiefly 
in the railway field. While holding the 
job named he managed to attend classes 
in chemistry at Iowa State University, 
and was made chemist for the railway 
company, a job at that time deemed 
of so little importance, however, that 
it was combined with the place of 
roundhouse foreman. 

It was at this time that Mr. Sinclair 
began writing for the technical and 
railway journals. One of his early 
writings was a treatise on "Locomo- 
tive Running and Management" which 
has passed through 26 editions. 

In 1883 he came to New York to 
take up work on the editorial staff of 
the American Machinist. A few years 
later the late John A. Hill also left a 
locomotive on a Western railway to 
go to the same journal, and the two 
men formed a friendship which re- 
sulted in a business partnership for the 
publication of a journal devoted to 
locomotive engineering. This made a 
rapid and spectacular success, which 
in a few years enabled the partners to 

purchase the American Machinist, on 
the staff of which they had started 
their work in journalism. 

It was 'then decided to dissolve the 
partnership and Mr. Sinclair took the 
journal with whose field he was per- 
sonally familiar. 

He was a member of the American 
Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion for 46 years. He served as its 
secretary from 1887 to 1896, and was 
its treasurer from 1900 until his death. 
In 1908 Purdue University conferred 
on him the degree of Doctor of Engi- 

Engineering Societies 


Annual Meetings 

ENGINEERS; 29 West 39th St.. 
New York City; Jan. 15-16, New 

ASSOCIATION ; F. J. Angier. Mt. 
Royal Station, Baltimore, Md. ; Jan. 
28-29, St. Louis. 

SOCIATION; 150 Nassau St., New 
York City; Feb. 25-28, New York 

BORS CONGRESS ; 824 Colorado 
Bldg., Washington, D. C. ; Feb. 5-7, 
Washington, D. C. 

ENGINEERS ; 29 West 39th St.. 
New York City; Feb. 17-20, New 

The following state societies will 
hold their annual meetings as listed be- 

Ohio Engineering Society, Columbus, 
Jan. 14-16. 

Michigan Engineering Society, Flint, 
Jan. 21-23. 

Indiana Engineering Society, Indian- 
apolis, Jan. 23-25. 

Illinois Society of Engineers, Bloom- 
ington, Jan. 29-30. 

Minnesota Surveyors and Engineers' 
Society, St. Paul, Feb. 12-14. 

Iowa Engineering Society, Musca- 
tine, Feb. 19-20. 

Engineering Society of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Feb. 21-22. 

The Engineers' Club of Philadelphia 

will be addressed by Col. James B. Cur- 
tis, president of the American Mangan- 
ese Bronze Co., on "The Legal En- 
gineer," at the weekly luncheon Jan. 14. 

The Duluth Engineers' Club, at a 

meeting Dec. 23 passed a resolution 
favoring immediate efforts toward the 
organization of the engineering profes- 
sion in an effective form to render full 
public service and to obtain adequate 
recognition of the work of its members. 
A committee of five, to be appointed by 
the president, W. G. Swart, will com- 
municate with other engineering organ- 

izations, in order to obtain cooperation 
and concerted action for calling a gen- 
eral engineering congress, in the name 
of and by the authority of all the co- 
operating societies. The Duluth com- 
mittee will make a report of progress 
every two weeks. Another resolution 
relative to the street railways of Du- 
luth was adopted; it suggested that a 
thorough engineering investigation be 
made and a plan prepared to provide 
additional trackage in the center of the 
city, to relieve present congestion. 

The Boston Society of Civil En- 
gineers has made the following nom- 
inations for office, through the nominat- 
ing committee: For president, Leonard 
Metcalf; for vice-president, Robert 
Spurr Weston; for secretary, S. Ev- 
erett Tinkham; for treasurer, Frank O. 
Whitney. The election will take place 
Mar. 19. 

The Chicago Chapter of the Amer- 
ican Association of Engineers was ad- 
dressed Jan. 3 by Capt. Charles E. Mer- 
riam, on "Italy's Part in the War." 
Captain Merriam, who is a candidate 
for mayor, represented the Committee 
on Public Information in Italy. 

The Brooklyn Engineers' Club will 
be addressed tonight by James C. Meem 
on "Metropolitan Subway Construc- 
tion." Mr. Meem's paper will deal 
with the diversion of sewers during 
construction, the underpinning of build- 
ings and overhead structures, provision 
for the care of surface structures, the 
excavation and disposal of material, 
and methods of tunneling. 

The Rochester Engineering Society, 
Rochester, N. Y., was addressed Jan. 6 
by Prof. Victor J. Chamber, University 
of Rochester, on "The Development of 
a Research; Synthetic Indigo." The 
regular monthly meeting of the society 
will be held tomorrow; C. E. Drayer, 
secretary of the American Association 
of Engineers, will read a paper on "Lo- 
cal and National Societies Coordi- 

The Technology Club of Syracuse, N. 
Y., will be addressed Jan. 13 by Secre- 
tary of Commerce William C. Redfield 
and Dr. S. W. Stratton, director of the 
United States Bureau of Standards. 
Secretary Redfield will speak on the 
various phases of the work of his de- 
partment, with perticular reference to 
the Government's reconstruction plans 
for industry and the extension of for- 
eign commerce. Dr. Stratton is ex- 
pected to discuss important chemical 
discoveries not made public heretofore. 

The Engineers' Subdivision of the 
Chicago Association of Commerce was 
addressed Dec. 30 by George Bayard 
Jones, who explained the recent report 
on the proposed rebuilding of various 
Federal buildings in Washington. He 
advanced arguments for the removal 
of the capital to a more central loca- 
tion. T. E. Tallmadge described a lay- 
out prepared for a model capital on 
Lake Michigan, north of Chicago. A 
committee to follow up the project was 



Vol. 82, No. 2 

Personal Notes 

Readers ivho are returning 
to civil life from military, naval 
or other Government service are 
strongly urged to send in items 
about themselves and about their 
friends who are in similar situ- 
ation. Items should give former 
position, describe character of 
military or other service and 
state the civil work to which the 
engineer or contractor in ques- 
tion is going. In the case of 
those with service abroad, in- 
formation regarding the activi- 
ties of the units to which they 
were assigned is especially de- 

Henry W. Clausen, first as- 
sistant city engineer of Chicago, and 
formerly engineer of water-works con- 
struction, has resigned to enter the 
glove manufacturing business. Mr. 
Clausen's chief work in Chicago was 
the construction by force-account of 
the Wilson Ave. water-works tunnel, 
intake and Mayfair pumping station. 

J. Harold Rapp and John J. 
Dunkel have become associated as the 
firm of Rapp & Dunkel, structural en- 
gineers, Fulton Building, Pittsburgh, 

Howard B. Keasbey has 
been appointed county engineer of 
Salem County, New Jersey. 

H. Stringfellow, district en- 
gineer, Southern Ry., with headquar- 
ters at Lexington, Ky., has been ap- 
pointed district engineer at Charlotte, 
N. C, succeeding F. Furlow, appointed 
engineer of surveys, with headquar- 
ters in Washington, D. C, as noted 

C. R. Seabrook, who until last 
September was structural engineer, 
Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata, 
Chile, has become structural engineer 
for H. M. Lane Co., industrial engi- 
neers, Detroit. More recently he has 
been engaged in the Air Nitrates Di- 
vision of the Ordnance Department. 

H. Z. Osborne, Jr., has resigned 
from the office of engineer of the Los 
Angeles street planning department to 
become chief engineer, board of public 
utilities. Mr. Osborne has been con- 
nected with the Los Angeles city en- 
gineer's office for 22 years. Last year 
ho was elected president of the Engi- 
neers and Architects' Association of 
Southern California. 

F. F U^R LOW, district engineer, 
Southern Ry., at Charlotte, N. C, has 
been appointed engineer of surveys, 
Southern Ry. Lines and Associated 
Railroads, with headquarters in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Mw. ll. W. LOiCKETT, U. S. A., 
has obtained his discharge from the 

service and will become associated with 
Fred. S. James & Co., to take charge 
of engineering and inspection work. 
For the past year and a half Major 
Lockett has served as a building section 
chief in the Construction Division. Pre- 
viously he was with the Chicago office 
of Fred S. James & Co. for 18 years. 

Ira E. Taylor, previously coun- 
ty engineer, Pottawatomie County, 
Kansas, has been appointed assistant 
engineer, extension division, Kansas 
State Agricultural College, and will 
specialize in farm drainage. 

Franklin D. Howell, for- 
merly chief engineer of the Board of 
Public Utilities, Los Angeles, Cal., has 
become general manager of the Cali- 
fornia Highway Transportation Com- 

Lieut. Col. Edward Bar- 
tow, Sanitary Corps, U. S. A., was 
incorrectly mentioned in these columns 
Dec. 26 as Maj. Edward Bostow, due 
to a typographical error. He was in 
charge of water analysis laboratories 
for the American Expeditionary Forces, 
and has recently been promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant colonel. He was 
formerly director of the Illinois Water 

Karl R. Kennison, supervis- 
ing plant engineer, Emergency Fleet 
Corporation, stationed at the recently 
completed concrete shipyard in Mobile, 
has been transferred to the office of 
the district plant engineer, Middle At- 
lantic District, Baltimore. 

Maj. Charles H. Higgins, 
Ordnance Department, U. S. A., has 
received his discharge from the service 
and returned to the firm of Delano & 
Aldrich and Charles H. Higgins, ar- 
chitects and engineers, New York City. 

A. Yappen has been appointed 
assistant engineer in charge of bridge 
maintenance, inspection and operation, 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 
succeeding C. N. Bainbridge, promoted 
to be engineer of design, as mentioned 
in Engineering Neivs-Record of Dec. 
12, p. 1102. 

J. C. Hill has been appointed di- 
vision engineer, St. Louis District, Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas Lines, with of- 
fice at Sedalia, Mo., succeeding B. E. 
Wilbur, resigned. 

Capt. Arthur C. Poole, 
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., has re- 
turned from Camp A. A. Humphreys 
to his duties 'as city engineer of 
Rochester, N. Y. 

L. S. H u L B u R D, senior assistant 
engineer, New York State Barge Canal, 
has been appointed division engineer 
of the western division of the canal, 
succeeding F. P. Williams, appointed 
special deputy state engineer, as men- 
tioned in Engineering News-Record of 
Dec. 26, p. 1203. 

W. L. Winters has withdrawn 
from the firm of Winters & Dove, civil 
and hydraulic engineers, Forth Smith, 
Ark., and is engaged in practice under 
his own name in the Merchants' Na- 
tional Bank Building, Fort Smith. 


Dr. Rossiter W. Raymond, 
mining engineer and author, previously 
editor of Engineering and Mining 
Journal, published by the McGraw-Hill 
Co., Inc., died at his home in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Dec. 31, at the age of 78. He 
was graduated from the Polytechnic In- 
stitute of Brooklyn, and later studied 
at the University of Heidelberg, the 
Royal Polytechnic School, Munich, and 
the Saxon Mining Academy of Frei- 
burg. He served in the Union Army 
from 1861 to 1864, after which he be- 
gan practice as a mining engineer and 
metallurgist. Four years later he was 
appointed United States Commissioner 
of Mining Statistics, and in 1870 be- 
came lecturer on economic geology at 
Lafayette College. He was one of the 
United States commissioners to the 
Vienna World's Fair in 1873. He was 
appointed New York State commission- 
er of electrical subways for Brooklyn 
in 1885. For many years, beginning in 
1866, Dr. Raymond was editor of the 
American Journal of Mining, which af- 
terwards became the Engineering and 
Mining Journal. 

William J. Galbraith, civil 
engineer, Montreal, Canada, died in 
that city Dec. 21. He was 32 years of 
age, and was graduated from McGill 
University in 1909. A year afterward 
he became associated with the Geologi- 
cal Survey in the Rocky Mountains. 
Later he entered the firm of M. P. & 
J. T. Davis as assistant engineer on 
caisson work for the Quebec bridge. 
Recently he became associated with the 
Foundation Co. of New York City as 
a superintendent of construction of 
shipways on the North Pacific Coast. 
He was a member of the British In- 
stitute of Civil Engineers. 

Capt. Grandville Reynard 
Jones, Sanitary Corps, U. S. A., pre- 
viously associate professor of civil en- 
gineering, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, died of influenza at Camp 
Benning, Columbus, Ga., Dec. 22. Cap- 
tain Jones was graduated from Ohio 
State University in 1904 and from the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
in sanitary engineering in 1907. His 
principal professional work was with 
the filtration plant, Washington, D. C. 
At Johns Hopkins University he de- 
signed and built the Hydraulic Labo- 
ratory and the Laboratory of Sanitary 
Research. He developed several courses 
in sanitary engineering for the senior 
classes in civil engineering at Johns 
Hopkins. Early in November of last 
year Professor Jones was commissioned 
in the Sanitary Corps, with the rank 
of captain, and was ordered to Camp 
Greenleaf, Georgia, for a brief period 
of training, at the end of whicli he 
was sent to Camp Benning as camp 
solitary engineer. 

January 9, 1919 



Last Year's Coal Production More 
Than in 1917 by 36,000,000 Tons 

Although the year 1917 was in itself 
a record year in bituminous coal pro- 
duction, that of 1918 exceeded this by 
36,000,000 tons, according to official 
figures of the United States Geological 
Survey. The total production for the 
year just closed was almost 600,000,000 
tons. This record was made under the 
spur of war-time necessity, with fewer 
men generally in the coal mines of the 
country than during 1917. Patriotism, 
increased efficiency, and the desire of 
the employees to support to the ut- 
most, the Government in its various 
undertakings, and a better railroad car 
supply and movement are believed to be 
chiefly responsible for this increase in 
production. It is believed that the 
country at present has a sufficient 
bituminous coal supply to meet its 

Gage of Argentine Railroads 

The gage of the Argentine railways, 
as given on p. 1204 of the Dec. 26 issue 
of Engineering News-Record, should 
have been 5£ ft. for the first, 4 ft. 81 
in. for the second, and 3 ft. 31 in. for 
the third, instead of 6 ft. 5 in., 4 ft. 9J 
in., and 3 ft. 4 in., respectively. 

Labor Ample, But Materials Still 
High in Central West 

A report from the Central West in- 
dicates that an ample labor supply has 
become available within the past few 
days. All big munition plants have 
ended their war work, and employers 
of labor report more applications than 
they can handle. A contracting com- 
pany having large drainage projects 
on hand in all sections from Minne- 
sota to Louisiana reports a plentiful 
supply. This company suspended all 
operations last September on account 
of labor shortage, but is now going 
ahead with everything and even start- 
ing new projects. Another contracting 
company which specialized in canton- 
ment and war plants reports labor plen- 
tiful at 40c. an hour in all cities where 
it is operating, whereas 10 weeks ago it 
could not get labor at 65c. No further 
shortage is anticipated, the company 

Regardless of the disappearance of 
labor difficulties, however, building 
construction is still delayed on ac- 
count of the high cost of materials, 
as was shown in recent bids for steel 

A b.d of almost $120 a ton on struc- 
tural steel to be used in a proposed 
building in Chicago indicates that the 
steel price is still high, especially 
since this same class of work was 
quoted two years ago at half that 
amount. It is reported that architects 
who have work on hand are recom- 
mending that owners hold off until a 
price of $80 is allowed, and a report 
is current that a reduction will be mada 
about Mar. 1. 

Crushed Stone in 1917 Half 
the Total Stone Quarried 

Crushed stone represented 48% of 
the quantity and 35% of the value of 
all the stone quarried in the United 
States in 1917, according to a bulletin 
of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey. The total sales of crushed stone 
in the United States in 1917 amounted 
to over 40,000,000 short tons, valued at 
about $29,000,000, and the average val- 
ue per short ton at the crusher was 
72c, lie. more than in 1916. Of the 
crushed stone produced, 66% was lime- 
stone, 20% traprock, nearly 8% gran- 
ite, nearly 4% sandstone and a little 
over 2% miscellaneous rock, classed as 

New Machinery Association 
to Be Formed 

Manufacturers of material-handling 
machinery will form an association 
similar to other national associations of 
manufacturers. Representatives will 
meet at the Hotel McAlpin in New 
York City Jan. 15 to hear a report of 
the temporary committee appointed last 
fall to consider the matter. 

It is expected that the association 
will afford means for the cooperation 
of all manufacturers of material- 
handling machinery with the United 
States Shipping Board, the Port and 
Harbor Commission, the Railroad Com- 
mission, and other boards interested in 
the handling of material; also to ex- 
tend the acquaintance and cooperation 
of manufacturers. It will also afford 
means for the concentration in a 
general bureau of statistical informa- 
tion, to cover the present methods 
of mechanical handling as now prac- 
ticed in this country and abroad, the 
dissemination among the members of 
information collected and developed by 
the association, as well as educational 
campaigns and the collection of in- 
formation on foreign trade. 

A luncheon is announced at which 
the Hon. William C. Redfield, secretary 
of commerce, and Edward F. Carry, 
chairman of the Port and Harbor 
Facilities Commission of the United 
States Shipping Board, will speak. The 
announcement requests all manu- 
facturers of material-handling ma- 
chinery who desire to join the proposed 
association to sign an application and 
send it to J. A. Shepard, temporary 
chairman, care of the Shepard Elec- 
tric Crane & Hoist Co., 30 Church St., 
New York City. 

Chlorine Price Cut in Half 

A contract for liquid chlorine for 
water treatment has been awarded by 
the City of Chicago on a bid of 8c. per 
pounJ, while market prices until re- 
cently have been 14 to 16c. The con- 
tract, given to the Hooker Electro- 
Chemical Co., Cleveland, Ohio, is for 
400,000 lb. for the 1919 supply, deliv- 
ery to be made as required by the city. 

Business Notes 

Charles H. McCullough, Jr., was 
elected president of the Lackawanna 
Steel Co. at a recent meeting of the 
board of directors. Mr. McCullough 
has been vice-president and general 
manager of the company, and succeeds 
Edward A. S. Clarke, who resigned a 
week ago. 

S. M. Williams, president of the 
Highway Industries, Association, and 
for the past four years sales manager 
of the Garford Motor Truck Co., has 
been relieved of his duties as sales 
manager to take charge of the new 
department of highway development 
which has been established by the 

Walter N. Polakov, consulting engi- 
neer, 31 Nassau St., New York, an- 
nounces the ' founding of Walter N. 
Polakov & Co., Inc., consultants in 
power-production methods, industrial 
investigations, labor problems, scien- 
tific record systems and production 

The Brown Hoisting Machinery Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio, announces the follow- 
ing changes in its organization: Har- 
vey H. Brown, chairman of the board 
of directors; Alexander C. Brown, 
president; Melvin Pattison, vice-presi- 
dent, general manager and director. 

Trade Publications 

The American Zinc Institute has is- 
sued its 1918 bulletin. It is a 5-p. folder 
outlining the aims of the institute and 
the reasons for its formation. Other 
information of interest to zinc users is 

The American Manganese Steel Co., 
Chicago, 111., has issued a new cata- 
log on sand and gravel pumps, which 
they announce is for distribution 
among those interested in pump in- 
stallations. It is a 6 x 9-in. pamphlet 
of 22 pages, punched for filing in a 
loose-leaf binder. 

"Home Building with Metal Lath 
and Stucco for Permanence and 
Safety" is the title of a 7x9l-in., 
20-p. catalogue issued by the Asso- 
ciated Metal Lath Manufacturers, 
Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 
It illustrates and describes residences 
and buildings in which their product 
is used. 

The Denver Rock Drill Manufactur- 
ing Co., Denver, Colo., has issued a 
leaflet describing its model 110 Waugh 
drill steel punching machine which, the 
company states, is one of its latest 


For Proposals Advertised See Pace* 
54 and 55 



See Eng. 

Jan. 10 Pembroke, Ont Jan. 9 

Jan. 14 Detroit, Mich Jan. 9 

Jan. 15 Kansas City, Mo Jan. 2 

Jan. 31 Poteau, Okla Dec. 26 

Adv. Dec. 19 and 26. 


Jan. 15 Long- Island City, N. Y Jan. 9 


Jan. 13 Eureka, Cal Jan. 9 

Jan. 13 Los Angeles, Cal Jan. 9 

Jan. 22 Ft. Smith. Ark Jan. 2 

Adv. Jan. 2 and 9. 

Jan. 27 Fallon. Nev Jan. 9 

Jan. 27 Winneucca, Nev Jan. 9 

Feb. 3 Charlotte Harbor, Fla Jan. 2 

Adv. Dec. 19, 26, Jan. 2 and 9. 


Jan. 13 California Jan. 9 

Jan. 13 Brownwood, Tex Jan. 9 

Jan. 14 Bay City, Tex Dec. 26 

.ian. 15 Blytheville, Ark Dec. 5 

Jan. 15 Indiana Jan. 9 

Jan. 16 New York, N. Y Jan. 9 

Jan. 20 Oswego, Kan Jan. 2 

Jan. 21 Charleston, S. C Jan. 9 

Adv. Jan. 2 and 9. 

Jan. 24 Topeka, Kan Jan. 2 

Jan. 2 7 Nevada Jan. 9 

Feb. 3 Wichita, Kan Jan. » 

Feb. 5 Indiana Jan. 9 

Bids See Eng. 

Close News-Record 

Jan. 13 Post Office — West Point, Oa. Dec. 5 
Jan. 13 Post Office and Custom 

House — Ft. Fairfield. Me. ...Dec. 5 
Jan. 13 Post Office and Court House 

—Globe, Ariz Dec. 5 

Jan. 13 Altering Post Office and 
Custom House — Petersburg, 

Va Jan. 2 

Jan. 14 Hygienic Laboratory • — 

Washington, D. C Jan. 2 

Jan. 14 Post Office — Southbridge, 

Mass Dec. 5 

Jan. 14 Post Office — Cherokee, la. ..Dec. 5 
Jan. 14 Post Office — McKees Rocks, 

Pa Dec. 5 

Jan. 14 Sewers- — Wash.. D. C Jan. 9 

Jan. 15 Altering Post Office — Ports- 
mouth, Va Dec. 26 

Jan. 15 Post Office — Long Island 

City, N. Y Dec. 5 

Jan. 15 Post Office — Kenton. O Dec. 5 

Jan. 15 Post Office — Belief ourche, 

S. D Dec. 5 

Jan. 15 Post Office — Winchester, 

Mass Dec. 5 

Jan. 16. Post Office — Eldorado, Kan. Dec. 5 
Jan. 16 Post Office — Shawnee, Okla. Dec. 5 
Jan. 17 Post Office; — Franklin, Pa. ..Dec. 5 
Jan. 17 Post Office — Cohoes, N. Y. ..Dec. 5 
Jan. 17 Post Office — Buffalo, Wyo...Dec. 5 
Jan. 18 Irrigation — Boise, Idaho. .. .Jan. 9 
Jan. 20 Gas Holder. Removing Sys- 
tem, etc. — Spec. 3594 — North 

Ft. Worth. Tex Jan. 9 

Jan. 20 Heating System — Spec. 3722 

— Roc.kaway, N. Y Jan. 9 

Jan. 20 Oil Storage Buildings, etc. — 
Spec. 3714 — Hampton 

Roads, Va Jan. 9 

Jan. 20 Post Office — Harrisonville, 

Mo Dec. 5 

Jan. 20 Post Office — Owego, N. Y. ..Dec. 5 
Jan. 20 Post Office — Sunbury, Pa. ..Dec. 5 
Jan. 20 Post Office — Decatur. Ala... Dec. 5 
Jan. 20 Post Office — Shelbyville, 

Ind Dec. 26 

Jan. 23 Post Office — Salem, Va Jan. 2 

Jan. 23 Post Office — Russellville, 

Ark Jan. 2 

Adv. Jan. 2. 
Jan. 28 Dredging — Key West, Fla. 
Adv. Jan. 2 and 9. 

Feb. 4 Boilers — Memphis, Tenn Jan. 9 

Adv. Jan. 9. 
Feb. 4 Turbine, Pumpset, etc. — 

Memphis. Tenn Jan. 9 

Adv. Jan. 9. 

Wis., Oshkosh — City will sell $50,000 
bonds Jan. 17, to improve water-works. 
A. March, comptroller. Noted Dec. 26. 

Minn., Fairmont — City receives bids in 
February or March building 1,000,000 gal. 
water purification plant. C. H. Currie, 
Webster City, la., engr. 

Minn., Minneapolis — Golden Valley Golf 
Club plans to extend water system at Gold- 
en Valley, 5 mi. west of here. About $20 - 
000. E. Von Ende, 651 Plymouth Bldg., 

Kan., Eldorado — Black & Veatch, engrs.. 
Interstate Bldg., Kansas City. Mo., making 
survey of water system and investigating 
feasibility of building ground water supply 
and dam for collecting and holding water 
up river. 

N. D., Belfteld — City receives bids in 
spring building water-works system, in- 
cluding rein.-con. pump house, c.i. pipe, 
mains, rein.-con. reservoir, etc. Former 
bids rejected. L. P. Wolff, 1000 Guardian 
Life Bldg.. St. Paul, Minn., engr. Noted 
Sept. 12. 

Mont., Ft. Benton — City election Jan. 17, 
to vote on $35,000 bonds to improve water- 
works system. 

Wash., Spokane — City plans to install 
steel and iron headgates, with operating 
devices at Upriver pumping plant to replace 
old timber headgates on masonry dam. 
cost $30,000 ; also replacing 6 mi. wooden 
water pipes with 6 in. steel mains. Will 
purchase equipment and install same by 
day labor. A. Lindsay, supt. 

Que., Machine— See "Industrial Works." 

Sask., Assiniboia — City plans to complete 
water-works system. About $20,000. Ad- 
dress J. Nolan. 


Mich., Detroit— Until Jan. 14, by H. S. 

Starkey, secy, water comn., 232 Jefferson 
Ave., furnishing 1000 tons 6 in. c.i. pipe 
and 1000 tons 8 in. c. i. pipe. G. H. Fen- 
kell, 232 Jefferson Ave., engr. 

Ont., Pembroke — Until Jan. 10, by town 
elk., furnishing 1600 lin.ft. 20 in. c. i. pipe. 
15 flexible joints, two in. gate valves and 
1 screen for water-works intake. W. J. 
Moore, town engr. 


Jan. 13 Delta, Utah Jan. 9 

Jan. 14 Albanv, N. Y Dec. 26 

Adv. Dec. 19, 26, and Jan. 2. 

Jan. 15 New Ulm, Minn Dec. 26 

Jan. 15 Carnesville, Ga Jan. 9 

Jan. 15 York. S. C Dec. 26 

Jan. 21 El Centro. Cal Jan. 9 

Jan. 27 Madison, S. D Jan. 9 

Feb. 3 Madisonville, Ky Dec. 12 

Adv. Dec. 5, 12 and 19. 


Jan. 14 Cherokee, la Dec. 19 

Jan. 15 Norfolk, Va Jan. $ 

Jan. 20 Hartford, Conn Jan. 9 

Jan. 25 Asbury Park, N. J Jan. 9 

Jan. 30 Phoenix, Ariz Jan. 2 

Feb. 3 Melbourne, Fla Jan. 9 

Feb. 3 St. Paul, Minn Oct. 31 

Mar. 15 Culver, Ind Dec. 26 


Jan. 10 Post Office — Vineland, N. J.. Dec. 5 
Jan. 10 Altering Lobby — New York, 

N. Y.— Adv. Dec. 19 and 26. Dec. 26 
Jan. 13 Additional Buildings — Spec. 

3611 — San Diego, Cal Dec. 19 



Jan. 13 Dump Cars — Winnipeg, 

Man Jan. 9 

Adv. Jan. 9. 
Jan. 14 Heating, Plumbing, etc. — 

Sonyea, N. Y Jan. 9 

Adv. Jan. 9. 
Jan. 16 Portland Cement, Sand, etc. 

— New York, N. Y Jan. 9 

Jan. 24 Sheet Steel Rivets — Los 

Angeles. Cal Jan. 2 

Feb. 3 Dam — Los Angeles, Cal Jan. 9 

Feb. 19 Gantry Crane — Seattle, 

Wash Jan. 2 

Adv. Jan. 2 and 9. 

Where name of official is not given, 
inquiries should be addressed to City 
Clerk, County Clerk or corresponding 



Mich., Ferndale (Royal Oak P. O.) — G. 

Jerome, engr.. 1331 Majestic Bldg.. De- 
troit, receives bids about Feb. 1, furnish- 
ing and laying water mains for complete 
water system for village. About $99,000. 
Noted Dec. 5. 


(■^-Indicates award of contract) 

Mich., Wyandotte — City received bids 
Dec. 30, (1) furnishing and laying 1450 ft. 
submerged intake pipe and elbows equipped 
with flanges and joints, removal of existing 
elbow, relocating existing crib, final test- 
ing, dredging and backfilling and all labor 
and material, involving 1450 ft. 14 in. c. i 
pipe. Alternate bids on (a) Fenkell joints, 
(b) Ward joints, (c) Metropolitan joints. 
(d) Walker flexible joints; (e) according 
to bidder; (2) building filter plant with 
6,000,000 gal. daily capacity, composed of 
six filter units, 21 J x 24 ft. of 1,000.000 
gal. capacity each, 40 x 65 ft. and ::? \ 
73 ft. brick and steel filter and head 
houses. 2 coagulation basins, 64 x 94 ft. 
each, filtered water reservoir having ca- 
pacity of 850,000 gal., usual equipment of 
hydraulic valves and controllers and 32 
x 50 ft. brick addition to pumping station, 
(a) using concrete piles with alternate on 
reservoir; (b) using wood piles with alter- 
nate on reservoir, from Amer. Constr. Co., 
1552 Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, o. (1a) 
$55,340; (lb) $52,155; (lc) $52,155; (Id) 
$53,155; J. H. Baer, Penobscot Bldg.. De- 
troit, (Id) $51,750; (le) $48,632. Class 
"B" pipe with Walker flexible joum- at 72 
ft. intervals; Lennane & Mcllvenna. 809 
Union Trust Bldg.. Detroit. (Id) $45.i'0O . 
Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co.. 1630 Wil- 
liamson Bldg., Cleveland, O., (la) $49,300; 
(lc) $60,900: (le) $51,475. ordinary B & 9 
pipe Class "B" with Thatcher Joints ; A. O. 

A Consolidation of Engineering News and Engineering Record 

McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. — James H. McGraw, President 

Engineering News-Record 

E. J. Mehren 




Charles Whiting Baker 
Consulting Editor 

Volume 82 


Number 3 

States Should Attack 

Reconstruction Problems 

RECONSTRUCTION problems have received so little 
attention at Washington, and Congress seems so 
unlikely to do anything adequate before adjournment, 
that the several states must act if danger of great in- 
justice to soldiers and war workers and of serious in- 
dustrial disturbances is to be averted. Some states have 
it within their power to provide work through highway 
and other construction. Many can aid by removing va- 
rious state restrictions which prevent cities from mak- 
ing needed improvements. All states can and should 
establish or continue state agencies to deal with recon- 
struction problems. Such bodies should lose no time in 
making broad surveys of the field, with a view to deter- 
mining needs and ways of meeting them and obtaining 
necessary legislation at the earliest possible moment. 

Congress Should 

Unlock Water Powers 

PASSAGE of the Congressional water-power bills now 
in conference is earnestly to be hoped for before the 
close of the present session. Every engineer who is fa- 
miliar with the water-power situation will agree that 
prompt action is needed. Water-power needs to be un- 
locked, to conserve fuel and to furnish profitable em- 
ployment to the men released from military service and 
munition making. The present Congress has given more 
attention and study to this vital matter than any pre- 
vious Congress. Its work should not be lost, especially 
at this critical time. Even if the bill as finally reported 
should be more or less of a compromise and defective 
in many particulars, yet if, without undue sacrifice of 
vital interests on either side, it opened the way for even 
a limited development of unused water powers, it would 
be well worth while as a contribution to the solution of 
reconstruction problems and to the conservation and 
utilization of our natural resources. 

Too Late Is No 

Better than Never 

MORE and more it becomes apparent that public 
works are the only reservoir which will tide us over 
the almost inevitable unemployment crisis approaching 
in the construction field. That reservoir must be made 
ready immediately, and not delayed, as seems the pros- 
pect in mpst of the proposed projects. In Cleveland, 
for instance, with great flaunting of headlines it is an- 
nounced that the mayor is now planning to furnish 
employment during the reconstruction period, by going 
right ahead with the $3,500,000 East Side filtration 

plant. So far the announcement seems hopeful, but one 
reads farther and sees that it is expected that ground 
will be broken "the latter part of this year." So far as 
helping present needs is concerned, such a plan is about 
as useful as would be a scheme for huge landing places 
for the transatlantic airplanes which the optimists tell 
us will be flocking across the ocean within the decade. 

Taking State Highway 
Routes Out of Politics 

VARIOUS plans have been devised to keep the desig- 
nation of the routes to be followed by state 
trunk highways out of politics, but generally without 
success. Log-rolling to bring the improvements to 
locations where they will do the most good to the par- 
ticular crowd of politicians in power has always been 
a disorganizing factor, and one which has put peculiar 
"kinks" in many systems. To eliminate this trouble- 
some interference, the highway officials of Minnesota 
propose to map out a system and submit the map to 
vote of the people, as a part of a constitutional amend- 
ment (noted in Engineering News-Record of Dec. 26, 
p. 1199) necessary to enable the state to enter upon 
highway construction. In laying out the roads, tenta- 
tively, they have been proportioned to the various parts 
of the state according to assessed valuation and popula- 
tion, and, if approved, each section will know just what 
roads it is entitled to. Such a plan has the advantage 
of fixedness in any event, and if any "fixing" is done in 
the original layout, the people will be in a position to 
see the results before voting. The object of the plan — 
freeing highway routes from log-rolling — is most com- 
mendable, but it is a pity if there is no way of doing it 
short of making the proposed highway routes a part 
of the state constitution. Such documents should be 
confined to fundamental principles and not lumbered up 
with administrative details. 

A Daring Adventure 

In Municipal Ownership 

SEATTLE is making a daring adventure in municipal 
ownership. As noted on p. 163, the city authorities 
have taken action to buy the local street-railway sys- 
tem. British and some continental European cities set 
the example long ago. San Francisco has municipalized 
an important street railway line or two, and Seattle al- 
ready has a short line of its own. New York, Boston 
and Philadelphia have put millions into subway con- 
struction for private operation, and Cincinnati launched 
a similar project before we entered the war. Seattle, 
if it goes forward as rapidly as is expected, will be the 




Vol. 82, No. 3 

pioneer American city of considerable size to own and 
operate its entire street-railway system. Whether the 
present difficulties besetting- many of our privately owned 
street-railway systems will lead to an early extension of 
municipal ownership is an interesting question. At 
this critical juncture in local transportation, perhaps it 
is well that some American city should make a trial of 
complete municipal street-railway service. Seattle has 

Philadelphia Again 

Pays Heavy Penalty 

AMONG the good features proposed for insertion in 
a new charter for Philadelphia under consideration 
by a voluntary charter committee is one that would au- 
thorize long-term contracts for some city services now 
restricted to yearly contracts. The need for such a re- 
form as to garbage disposal has been pointed out again 
and again by Engineering News-Record and its prede- 
cessors. It was recently illustrated anew by a contract 
award for garbage disposal in 1919 at an advance of 
$123,636 over the 1918 contract. Earlier last year a 
bid at a reduced price was received, but for reasons pre- 
sumably connected with the one-year contract system it 
became necessary to readvertise the contract twice. As 
was to be expected, with a new contract beginning Jan. 
1, and requiring an extensive plant, there was no com- 
petition. The legislature has been asked in vain to au- 
thorizo long-term garbage contracts for Philadelphia. 
It gives heed to the interests of contractors and poli- 
ticians instead of to the pocket books of the citizens of 
Philadelphia. Possibly this evil, in common with others 
with which Philadelphia is burdened, may be remedied 
by a new charter. Unquestionably, they might be if 
the people would prove by an aroused united effort that 
Philadelphia is no longer "corrupt and contented." 
What are the engineers of Philadelphia doing about it? 

Look Well to Choice of 

Camp Cook and Save Money 

FOOD waste is characteristic of construction camps, 
as it is shown by Captain Tharaldsen on p. 146 to be 
characteristic of lumber camps. Perhaps waste is not 
so large in construction camps, but the causes are the 
same. The remedies outlined in the article apply to con- 
struction as well as to lumber camps. Camp messes 
in general fail more because of poor cooks than because 
of limited variety and poor quality of supplies. This 
fact makes of prime importance the task of selecting 
a camp cook. Captain Tharaldsen's remarks on this 
point deserve emphasis. The position of camp cook is 
not a menial one whicH any "pot slinger" can fill even 
in a small camp. When several hundred men must be 
kept fed and satisfied, it is a position which only a man 
having knowledge of foods and menus, and catering 
generally, can fill and keep the men contented and the 
costs moderate. No construction employee should be 
hired with greater care to determine his skill and re- 
sponsibility than the camp cook. Few workmen can, 
because of personal inefficiency, directly and indirectly 
cost the job so much money as its cook. With the higher 
standards of catering set by war construction as exam- 
ples, there will be more need than ever for the contractor 
to look well to the quality of his camp mess. 

Motor Trucks Needed To Supplement 
Not Compete With Railways 

THE radical changes in manufacturing industries 
resulting from the suspension of hostilities and the 
cancellation of munition contracts are paralleled by the 
changes in the transportation field. The competition be- 
tween the railway and the motor truck is entering on a 
new phase. The motor truck has been an invaluable 
aid in the munitions industry, especially during railway 
congestion, because it could give prompt deliveries. 
Cost of service has been a minor consideration. 

That condition has passed. The manufacturers and 
merchants are looking after their freight bills as sharp- 
ly as they do to their purchases of goods ; and to hold its 
place the motor truck must show as low a cost, all 
things considered, as the railway. 

During the traffic congestion resulting from the war 
the railway managers have rather welcomed the diver- 
sion of business to motor-truck lines. With the relief of 
congestion the railways, naturally and properly, are 
seeking to regain their business, for profits in railway 
transportation depend directly on the volume of traffic, 
until the point of congestion and delay is reached. 

Certain railway managers are making a careful study 
of truck transport costs in order to determine the field 
in which they can expect to regain business. Realizing 
that one chief advantage of the motor-truck service is 
prompt delivery, railway managers are making plans 
for a more rapid and systematic handling of small mer- 
chandise shipments over short-distance routes. 

As several contributors have pointed out in the col- 
umns of this journal recently, the railway and the motor 
truck ought to supplement each other. Every engineer 
will heartily approve the recent declaration of Director 
General McAdoo, "Upon the efficiency of the transpor- 
tation machine in America depends in great measure 
the future prosperity of the nation." This efficiency can 
only be secured by furthering the use of whatever type 
of transportation that can render the service desired 
at the lowest cost. 

There is an enormous field for the motor truck in 
reducing the present heavy cost of terminal hauling — 
using that term in its broadest sense to include short- 
haul business between cities. It ought to be more gen- 
erally understood that this is where the need and the 
opportunity for the motor truck lie and not in competing 
with the railways for traffic over long-distance routes. 

When freight has been loaded into a railway car, made 
up in a train, and started on its journey, the railway 
can haul it at a cost per ton-mile which is often not 2% 
of the cost of hauling by motor truck. The average 
cost per ton-mile for all freight moved over the Penn- 
sylvania R.R. in the year which ended June 30, 1916, 
was only 0.43c. This includes, of course, all the ex- 
pense of handing in railway terminals as well as hauling 
over the road. Even on railways of very light traffic, 
the cost of hauling freight over the road seldom ex- 
ceeds 2c. or 3c. per ton-mile. In contrast with this, the 
cost of hauling freight by motor truck, even over good 
roads, is seldom less than 15c. per ton-mile, and often 
exceeds 25c. This does not include, either, the interest, 
maintenance and depreciation charge on the road over 
which the truck runs. 

January 16, 1919 



The advantage of the motor truck over the railway 
lies in its ability to transport goods from the original 
to the final destination without rehandling. This elim- 
inates the terminal expenses of the shipper and receiver 
as well as those borne by the railroad itself. These ter- 
minal costs on most merchandise shipments are several 
times the cost of hauling by rail, even when the dis- 
tance is considerable. It is not at all uncommon to have 
the cartage charge oh a freight shipment at destination 
equal the railway freight charge on a haul of several 
hundred miles. The larger the city, the larger, as a rule, 
are the costs of the terminal handling, both to the rail- 
way and to the shipper. The repeated rehandling of 
goods necessarily is, of course, a large element in these 
terminal costs, and on certain classes of goods the loss 
and breakage likely to occur in such rehandling counts 
very heavily in favor of the motor truck. 

This whole matter is not one that interests merely 
the builders and operators of motor trucks and the rail- 
ways. Its vital relation to the public welfare is obvious 
from the quotation from Director General McAdoo, al- 
ready given. It is not possible to reduce much farther 
the cost of transportation by railway over long distances, 
but there are great opportunities for reducing the costs 
of movement at both ends. The problem here, further- 
more, is as much a problem of organization as it is of 
the proper use of both railway and the motor truck to 
accomplish, the work to which each is best adapted. 

Is Interstate Communication Local? 

ONLY a week or two ago the War Department re- 
ported against giving Federal aid to the construc- 
tion of a highway tunnel under the Hudson River at 
New York, on the ground that such an improvement 
would serve local traffic and benefit local interests. 
Within the past few days, however, the Government has 
intervened in a boatmen's strike which stopped commu- 
nication across the river, and thereby it has acknowl- 
edged in unmistakable manner the national importance 
of this communication. 

If the port of New York — physically a unit, but cut in 
two by the New Jersey-New York state line as regards 
construction, planning and administration — concerns the 
nation sufficiently that the Federal Government may 
take a hand in its intercommunication problems, what 
shall be said of other places where there is interstate 
communication? Hitherto the Government has hesi- 
tated to approach problems of communication and trans- 
portation that are localized at state lines, though these 
are preeminently problems of interstate commerce. But 
what has been learned in the past two years about the 
urgency of transportation questions suggests that the 
time has come for a change of attitude. 

Consider, as an example, the case of the Hudson River, 
which for 150 miles splits the country in two, without 
a single road connection and but one railway crossing. 
In this stretch the Federal Government has spent mil- 
lions of dollars for facilitating traffic along the river, 
but not one dollar to help carry traffic across. No rea- 
son exists for this discrimination except policy founded 
on an ancient tradition : That rivers are proper subjects 
for Government appropriations, while bridges and tun- 
nels are not. Shall we continue to let tradition control 

the allotment of vast sums of public money to works 
of construction? 

Every important river forming a state boundary shows 
the same conditions existing. As in the case of the 
Hudson, each instance gives proof that interstate com- 
munication is important, and that it has become sunk 
in general neglect. Local interest, as experience has 
shown time and again, furnishes no incentive for dealing 
with the subject broadly, to take care of the whole coun- 
try's interests. 

The national concern in the question, then, is obvious. 
Interstate communciation is not a local issue. To secure 
the best adjustment of national, state and local inter- 
ests in a specific case will not always be an easy prob- 
lem, but the adjustment will be quite impossible so long 
as responsible Government departments continue to be 
guided by tradition rather than by present-day need. 

Are Engineering Educators Seizing Their 
Greatest Opportunity? 

ONE of the illuminating statements in the symposium 
from the deans of various engineering schools upon 
the effects of their experience with the Students' Army 
Training Corps (see Engineering News-Record of 
Jan. 2, p. 41, and p. 138 of this issue) is that by 
Dean Snow, who quotes the popular phrase, "We do 
not know where we are going, but we are on our way." 
A review of the replies in answer to the question on 
future needs and opportunities in engineering education 
and how they can be met will disclose a discouraging 
lack of definite ideas, in spite of the fact that the 
greatest success will come to those educators who best 
foretell the demands of the future. Do American 
educators need a reawakening to develop teacher-leaders 
in applied science? Is it too much to expect a combina- 
tion of great power of achievement, such as America 
has shown in the war, with leadership in science? 
Can we not insist upon a degree of excellence in our 
schools and colleges such as we have just demanded 
from industry during the war? Is H. G. Wells right 
in calling English and American education a "loafer 
education" as compared with German depth and thor- 
oughness? Have we in the past failed to develop power 
of sustained mental effort in the graduates of our engi- 
neering colleges? 

These questions are now receiving the serious con- 
sideration of engineering educators, many of whom 
have been profoundly influenced by their recent ex- 
perience. For while many colleges are returning to 
pre-war courses, yet individuals and committees are 
discussing proposed changes, and studying Dr. Mann's 
report with its "suggested solutions." Few have made 
or announced definite changes — some give an impression 
of being self-satisfied. The majority favor fewer highly 
specialized courses and a more thorough training in 
the fundamental core sciences. There is a general 
agreement that one result of the experience will be a 
peace issues course, similar in character to the war issues 
course given in all the S. A. T. C. colleges, to demon- 
strate the meaning of engineering work in the life of 
the world. One of the big lessons of the war is the 
possibility of arousing exceptional effort through the 
power of a real incentive. 



Vol. 82, No. 3 

The war experience suggests a solution of the problem 
of how to provide bread-and-butter training and at the 
same time meet the need for broadly educated men of 
limitless possibilities. This solution is a combination 
course coordinating general with highly specialized 
courses, using both the spur of discipline and the draw- 
ing power of incentive. The latter may be developed 
by showing the worth of academic effort, by tying it 
up to actual engineering work. In this combination, 
which in favorable localities may mean cooperative 
courses, such as developed by Dean Schneider at Cin- 
cinnati, the weakness of both extremes will be over- 
come^ — the superficiality and "bluff-it-through" attitude 
of graduates of general courses on the one hand and 
the narrow, materialistic results of overspecialization 
on the other. 

The serious question of time limit in a four-year 
course should be met by using more of the synopsis 
method and leading the student to read and investigate 
for himself. This would develop originality and initia- 
tive, the necessity for which has been shown, by our 
war experience, to be so essential. Fewer lectures, 
refusal to permit teacher-specialists to dominate other 
departments, new tests for measuring acquired knowl- 
edge which will combine the objective tests proposed 
by Dr. Mann with the usual examination methods, 
would all tend in the right direction. 

Perhaps the greatest need is for teachers with broad 
vision and practical experience in engineering life. Ad- 
ministrators of technical schools must realize that no 
price is too great to pay for educators capable of lifting 
the profession, through their influence on its young 
men, to new heights of accomplishment. 

Government Directors for Railway 

IN THE illuminating discussion of the question of 
what to do with the railways, by L. C. Fritch, in Engi- 
neering News-Record of Jan. 2, p. 18, one suggestion 
in particular is so important and valuable that it ought 
to be incorporated in any plan involving the return of 
the railways to company control. 

Mr. Fritch urges that in addition to supervision by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission there should be 
on the board of directors of each railway company men 
appointed by the Government to represent the interests 
of the public. He says: "The policy of selecting able 
representative business men to act for the Government 
in such capacity would result in business management 
of the railways in the interests of the public, and would 
have a wholesome effect in railway administration." 

This, we believe, is one of the most constructive and 
fruitful suggestions which has been made in the public 
discussion of the subject. Everyone agrees that there 
must be established a firm control over railway opera- 
tions in the public interest, if they are to be returned 
to the companies. But all regulation by a commission, 
however constituted, is regulation from outside. What 
is needed in the public interest, and in many cases in 
the interest of railway security holders as well, is regu- 
lation from inside. 

At any previous time it would probably have been im- 
possible to have carried out such a reform successfully, 

because of the antagonistic attitude which would have 
been assumed toward such Government regulation. 
Railway managers and financiers, however, are viewing 
things through very different eyes from those they used 
half a dozen years ago, and Government-appointed di- 
rectors of the right type would not have the uphill fight 
that would have been their portion a few years ago. 

We say, "Government directors of the right type." 
Of course, if the authority to name directors to repre- 
sent the public were made use of by the Government to 
take care of "lame duck" Congressmen and other needy 
politicians, or to put bureaucratic hacks in a position 
to exercise authority, the Government directors would 
be figureheads or worse. 

Real and Unreal Progress in Steel 
Working Stresses 

IF THE majority of the structural engineering profes- 
sion of the country were in accord with the ultra-con- 
servative limitation of column working stresses to 12,000 
lb. base, as recommended by the Column Committee of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers a year ago and now 
reflected in a few new specifications, there would be rea- 
son to fear that engineering judgment is at fault. Struc- 
tures proportioned for much higher stresses have given 
satisfactory service for many years, without the least 
symptom of trouble from excessive column stress. In 
view of this service efficiency, there is no solid ground 
to support the claim that steel columns loaded above 
12,000 lb. are unsafe; on the contrary, the facts of ex- 
perience must be taken to prove that a 12,000-lb. limita- 
tion will mean a waste of material. 

There has been enough criticism of the committee's 
recommendation to make it probable that practice will 
be slow to accept it. Individuality of thought is a neces- 
sary factor in bridge engineering ; committees, however, 
are often dominated by conservatism or even timidity. 
It is natural, then, that engineers should protest — as 
does Dr. Waddell in this issue — against any straitjack- 
eting of structural judgment by the result of such tend- 

Further tests on columns are surely desirable. But 
Dr. Waddell suggests a new kind of testing, using a 
truss or a bridge as a testing machine. The method has 
attractive aspects, but do we need it? Will it aid 
progress toward safety and full utilization of material? 

The tests conducted for the Civil Engineers' commit- 
tee, though laid out on a narrow plan and leaving many 
practical conditions unrepresented, yet produced data 
that establish a satisfactory basis for judgment on the 
strength of steel columns. Additional tests, then, should 
be precise experiments on specific questions of detail. 
To complicate such tests by introducing the elusive and 
erratic influence of truss distortions is not likely to 
meet this requirement. 

However, if further testing of heavy members is to 
be initiated, tension members offer the field of greatest 
promise. It is true we have ample data on eye-bars. On 
the other hand, less is known about the strength of the 
large riveted chords and diagonals of modern bridges 
than about any type of compression member. It may 
well be said, therefore, that tensile working stresses 
are involved in greater uncertainty than column stresses. 

January 16, 1919 



Despite this fact, a tendency is distinctly observable 
toward increase in tensile unit stresses even while — 
since the report of the Column Committee! — the compres- 
sive units are being pared down. It is remarkable that 
this should be the case, in the absence of test knowl- 
edge. Manifestly, those who propose to increase stresses 
aim in the direction of true progress, by way of safety 
and economy. But we think it may be fairly objected 
that they secure these objects in divided form — safety 
in the compression members, economy in the tension 
members. Is it not necessary, at this stage, to inquire 
whether test data and sound judgment warrant a raising 
of tensile stresses to eighteen or twenty thousand pounds 
and a lowering of column stresses to twelve? 

While refinement of analysis and design has been 
helping us on toward maximum utilization of material, 
we have adhered to the large margins of ignorance that 
were established in the early days of the structural art. 
An increase of working stresses, then, is needed, and if 
all signs do not fail such increase is sure to come about 
— at least for those structures which do not involve the 
perplexing uncertainties of change of railway loading. 
These stress increases, however, will be based on de- 
pendable knowledge of strength, test knowledge, or they 
cannot be permanent steps of progress. Change such 
as represented by an indiscriminate increase in the 
tensile units, while we know nothing whatever con- 
cerning the strength of large riveted tension members, 
is not entitled to rank as true progress. 

Electric Drive for Warships 

IN THE great superdreadnought "New Mexico," as our 
readers are well aware, the United States is possessed 
of the first electrically driven battleship in the world. 
True enough, we have already had a "trial horse" in the 
collier "Jupiter," which proved a rather conspicuous 
success, but the step from a collier to a fighting ship 
of the highest class is a considerable one, and it is grat- 
ifying to know that it has been most successfully taken. 
There is nothing mysterious about the general prin- 
ciple involved — that of a high-speed and light-weight 
generating set furnishing current to variable-speed driv- 
ing motors. To all intents and purposes, the electrical 
part of the equipment is a very efficient variable-speed 
reducing gear. The basic idea behind the electrically 
driven ship was the intent to take advantage of the 
great simplicity, compactness, convenience and weight 
efficiency of the steam turbine, so as to adapt it to ma- 
rine purposes. No one would have had the least desire 
to use electrical drive in connection with reciprocating 

The steam turbine, of course, in its present stage of 
development, possesses the qualities just mentioned in 
an extraordinary degree, and the one thing which stands 
against it is that these- qualities are virtually dependent 
on the extremely high rotative speed necessary for effi- 
cient design, a speed at least ten times greater than can 
be advantageously used on the propellers of a large ship. 
To utilize the steam turbine in marine practice implied 
either an enormous increase in the propeller speed or a 
great reduction between the turbine and the screw. The 
former alternative implies, owing to increased friction 
and slip, a very great loss in the propeller efficiency, so 

great that it would outweigh, several times over, any 
conceivable gain by the use of the steam turbine instead 
of the reciprocating engine. But at its best the steam 
turbine has such remarkable efficiency from the thermal 
standpoint that one can readily afford the losses in al- 
most any sort of well-designed reducing gear. As an 
example of what a turbine can do, it is only necessary 
to quote the guaranteed performance of a turbine re- 
cently installed for land service, which at 14,000-kw. 
load brought the steam consumption down to 10.45 lb. 
per kilowatt-hour, equivalent to 0.78 lb. per brake horse- 
power-hour. Obviously, at this low steam consumption 
one could well afford considerable loss in a reduction 
gear while still retaining a fuel consumption of about 
one pound of coal per horsepower-hour. On the other 
hand, the losses in trying to use a propeller at the tur- 
bine speed would more than nullify the advantages of 
a turbine. 

As between the mechanical gear and the electrical 
gear as a means of speed reduction, the advantage of 
cost and weight lies with the former, but that of speed 
control, subdivision of power in the propellers, and gen- 
eral flexibility, enormously with the latter. In the me- 
chanical sense, too, the electric drive is almost friction- 
less, the losses being thermal instead of mechanical, and 
so not expressible in terms of wear. So, whatever suc- 
cess may have been attained with gearing in relatively 
simple cases for naval use, the electrical gear was a 
logical recourse. One need not go here into details of 
the equipment of the "New Mexico," which will un- 
doubtedly be very fully described, now that the war is 
at its close, in the technical journals specializing in 
such matters. In brief, she is equipped with two 11,- 
000-kw. turbo-generators which furnish the power to 
four 7000-hp. driving motors. As the induction motor 
is essentially a constant-speed machine, the intermedi- 
ate and lower speeds are obtained by varying the tur- 
bine speed, which can be done within moderate limits 
without too serious effect upon its efficiency. For low 
speeds one generating set can handle any or all of the 
motors that may be necessary, and either set can be put 
upon any motor connection that is necessary. 

This arrangement gives a beautifully efficient and 
flexible drive, and its advantages for naval use are of 
momentous importance, perhaps not yet fully realized. 
In fact, it is probably not too much to say that the elec- 
tric equipment of the "New Mexico" opens a new era 
in naval architecture. The dimensions of the turbo- 
generators and of motors are such that they can be kept 
low in the ship, exceptionally well protected beneath the 
water line and armor. The motors, too, can be located 
so as to maintain the best structural relation to the 
propellers which they drive. 

The United States stands committed already to six 
battleships and five battle-cruisers equipped with elec- 
trical drive, and the success of the "New Mexico" is 
prophecy of the great future that lies before the system. 
Nor is it likely to be confined to ships of the battle line, 
for its advantages would be especially valuable in the 
large, fast cruisers which form the everyday working 
force of a well ordered navy, ships uniting great radius 
of action, very economical cruising speed for their long 
swings about the Seven Seas, and prodigious power 
when it is necessary to drive them. 



Vol. 82, No. 3 

Huge Steel Buildings at Ordnance Base Depot in France 

Project Includes Both Shops and Warehouses — AH Material Supplied from United States — Ten-Mile 
Transmission Line Built to Supply Electric Power for Machine-Tool Operation 

All photographs by "Engineering News-Record" 

By Robert K. Tomlin, Jr. 

War Correspondent of "Engineering News-Record" 

This article was written last summer and delayed in transmission. It is pub- 
lished at this time just as written by Mr. Tomlin, because of the great interest 
in the work of our engineers in France. — Editor. 

INTO the construction and equipment of the main 
Ordnance Base Depot for the American Expeditionary 
Forces is entering about 60,000 tons of material, 
practically all of it shipped from the United States. 
Covering a site of many acres, the 10 big steel struc- 
tures, now almost completed, represent one of the 
largest building projects undertaken by United States 
forces in France. Certainly, it is the largest project 
involving the exclusive use of structural steel; yet, in 
spite of the diversity in size and character of the 
several buildings, standardization has been carried to 
such a point in the designs prepared for the Ordnance 
Department by the firm of Stone & Webster that only 
148 different kinds of pieces are required for the entire 
work, this number including not merely main steel 
members, such as columns, rafters and purlins, but 
also such small accessories as anchor-bolts, tie-rods, 
clips and angles. 

The buildings already erected (Aug. 15) comprise the 
following: Two gun-shops, each 245 x 600 ft. in plan; 
one reamer shop, 182 x 240 ft. ; two warehouses, each 
240 x 500 ft. ; one carriage machine shop, 227 x 500 
ft. ; one carriage assembly shop, 240 x 500 ft. ; one 
woodworking shop, 200 x 320 ft. ; one forge and foundry 
shop, 160 x 245 ft; one substation, 40 x 60 ft. This 
program alone represents steel-frame buildings cover- 
ing a ground area of 917,000 sq.ft. As future possi- 
bilities there are, in addition, two tractor shops, each 

245 x 600 ft.; two warehouses, each 240 x 500 ft., 
duplicating those already built; and a small-arms shop 
240 x 500 feet. 

All Material Shipped from America — After an in- 
vestigation of the material markets of France more 
than a year ago, it was decided to send over from the 
United States everything needed for building and fitting 
out the ordnance shops and warehouses. This meant a 
tremendous amount of advance planning, for provision 
had to be made not merely for the structural-steel 
frames, roofing and glazing, but also for a big schedule 
of machine tools, cranes, electric-lighting fixtures, 
power equipment and construction plant. The job had 
to be figured down to the smallest detail, purchases 
made in America and shipping schedules laid out. 

The unusual character of the work, in which the 
questions of a 3000-mile transatlantic trip for every- 
thing entering into the construction, and the probable 
use of labor entirely unfamiliar with steel erection, 
were the controlling features, made the preliminaries 
a subject of prime importance. To have started work 
in France and then to have discovered that something 
had been forgotten would have meant not a delay of a 
few weeks waiting for its arrival, but a setback of 
months, for material could not be delivered quickly 
from the United States to France under conditions of 
shipping existing early in 1918. Foresight in ordering 
materials has been a big factor in aiding progress. 

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January 16, 1919 



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FIG. 2. 


History of the Project — The history of the Ordnance 
Base Depot in France dates back more than a year, 
when the contract for the design, purchase of mate- 
rials, and supervision of construction was awarded to 
the Stone & Webster organization. The project as 
originally laid out was described in Engineering News- 
Record of Jan. 3, 1918, p. 13. Many changes, both 
in the actual layouc and the handling of the work, have 
taken place since those days. It is worth while to 
present a brief historical outline, for without it no 
true conception of the project and the working condi- 
tions is possible. 

Unlike most of the Army engineering work in France, 
the Ordnance Base Depot has involved the participation 
of a civilian organization, not only in the design but 
also in the handling of materials and the supervision 
of construction. This resulted in the creation of cer- 
tain special conditions which had their influence on the 
conduct of operations in the field. To begin with, a 
civilian organization in the American Army zone of 
France is not in a position to order things done by 
military units. There must always be some inter- 
mediary. This applies not merely to the actual handling 
of labor, but to another matter equally as important — 
transportation of materials. The site of the job is 
quite a distance from the nearest base port, and, in 
fact, from the nearest railway station. When railway 
cars or motor trucks are needed, arrangements for 
them cannot be made directly; everything must go 
through military channels. 

The status of the civilian representatives was, there- 
fore, somewhat anomalous. As events have turned out, 
their duties have been largely supervisory. Instead of 
officially directing the job, and being responsible for 
its progress, the civilian engineers and superintendents 
have acted as consultants, rather, giving advice as to 
the conduct of the work and placing their construction 
experience at the disposal of such officers as cared to 
avail themselves of it.' 

Labor Scarce — One of the earliest difficulties en- 
countered was the matter of labor. The intention was 
to have the Ordnance Base Depot built by the enlisted 
personnel of the Ordnance Department, with the Stone 
& Webster representatives acting as superintendents. 
The vanguard of the Stone & Webster forces had ar- 
rived in France in September, and about the middle of 
October the Ordnance Department officers who were 

to have immediate supervision of the project arrived. 
After some time was spent in examining possible sites 
for the plant, a definite location was fixed late in 
October, 1917, and steps were taken to obtain the land 
from the French. One of the first jobs to be done 
was the construction of a railroad siding connecting the 
site with the nearest French railroad line, for mate- 
rial was beginning to arrive in France and means were 
needed to deliver it to its destination. As all sidings, 
railroads, camps and other accessories for this project 
had been assigned to the Army engineer troops for 
construction, a detachment of engineers was placed 
on this work and the siding was put in the latter part 
of January, 1918. 

While this was the first step in actual progress, other 
difficulties were to follow. There were no unloading 
facilities at the site in those early days and labor was 
scarce, as a detachment of ordnance troops scheduled 
to arrive had not reached the job in the numbers 
expected. Meanwhile, the engineer troops which had 
put in the railway track began to construct barracks 
for the working force, and finally began the actual job 
of putting up the steel buildings for the base depot. 
In the meantime a detachment of 600 Chinese had 
appeared on the scene and they were set to work 
unloading cars and distributing material. 

As time went on, however, material still continued 
to arrive, the labor force began to build up, and the 
civilian representatives continued in an advisory capac- 
ity, assisting in the layout of the work, the routing 


of materials and the supervision of the steel erection. 
Ordnance and engineer units in varying numbers came 
and went, and by the middle of April about 1200 men 
were on the job. Since then, the force has carried 
between 1200 and 3000, and on July 1 it numbered 
about 2500. 

The labor force, however, was never constant. In 
the case of detachments, these would come and go, or, 
even if they remained, details would often be removed 
from construction operations and assigned to other 
duties. The conditions with respect to these troops 



Vol. 82, No. 3 

are best expressed by one of the officers who, in dis- 
cussing the difficulties due to the lack of a permanent 
working force, said that many of the detachments he 
received "merely filtered through the job." It became 
necessary, therefore, to train successive batches of men 
as they arrived, and to lose the benefit of this training 

frames of the warehouse buildings are sheathed with 
plain, corrugated, galvanized-iron sheets. A single 
warehouse structure 240 ft. wide and 500 ft. long 
involves .the erection of 410 tons of steel. Including 
other accessories, such as corrugated siding, roofing, 
doors and glass for windows, the total weight of the 


when they were removed. The engineer troops, how- 
ever, remained, and their number was greatly increased 
by the addition of other units. 

Between the commanding officer of the engineers and 
the members of the Stone & Webster organization still 
on the job there has developed a spirit of cordial 
cooperation. In fact, during my visit to his headquar- 
ters, this engineer officer said to me: "Too much 
cannot be said for the help which has been rendered 
by the civilian superintendents and engineers. We 
are all glad that we have had them here on the job." 

Additional engineer battalions arrived at the Ord- 
nance Base Depot site about Mar. 1. In reply to my 
question as to what he had available for commencing 
work, Major F — , commanding, replied, "Nothing but 
snow." He started his men on excavations for the 
column footings of the big steel buildings and assigned 
a labor crew of about 500 Chinese to unloading material 
which was beginning to arrive in large quantities on 
the newly built sidings connecting with the double- 
track French railroad. 

In the early days of this work everything had to 
be unloaded by hand, as no locomotive cranes had 
arrived. It was no easy job to remove some of the 
steel members from the short French railroad cars, on 
account of the limited clearance at the ends. With the 
material out of the cars the problem was by no means 
solved, because at this time of the year, with the frost 
leaving the ground, the site was a veritable mud sea — 
so soft, in fact, that the two-wheel pick-up carts used 
later for transporting steel columns, rafters and pur- 
lins sank in so deep that they could not be moved. 
At this time all of the steel-work was transported from 
railway truck to building site in slings carried by 

There are in the new ordnance depot two general 
types of building, the warehouse and the shop. The 
warehouse structures have 10-in. I-section columns 
spaced 20 ft. on centers, all of the columns being of 
one length and therefore interchangeable. The roof 
slope is obtained by varying the elevations of the con- 
crete footings on which the columns rest. The steel 


material entering into a warehouse of the dimensions 
given above is about 700 tons. 

While the shop buildings are of the same general 
type as the warehouses, they differ in certain important 
details. In the first place, structures such as the big 
gun-shops will be equipped with traveling cranes in 
every bay. The column spacing for the shop buildings 
is 35 ft., as compared with 20 ft. for the warehouses. 
The columns themselves are heavier, built-up members, 
in order to carry the crane loads. In the case of the 
shops, the roof slopes are not obtained by varying the 
elevations of the column footings, but rather by setting 
at the proper elevations, by means of a flexible splice, 


§ ♦ 



H^. :iS ^_ L 

SwiiTZ: it 



light extensions of the main columns. In other words, 
the heavy columns are bored with holes for some dis- 
tance at their tops, and the lighter extension members 
supporting the roof are bolted to them at the the eleva- 
tion desired. 

In the matter of the concrete footings for the col- 
umns there is also a difference between the warehouse 
and the shop structure. In both cases the footings 
are cylindrical. A plain footing serves for the ware- 
house, inasmuch as the columns carry only the dead 

January 16, 1919 



loads of the roof, but a spread footing is used under 
the shop columns which support the craneways. 

In one other detail also ""he two types of buildings 
differ. Warmth in the completed warehouse structures 
is not a matter of any great importance, and the 
sheathing, therefore, is of plain, corrugated sheets, 
galvanized. In the shop structures, however, the force 
of men will be at work winter and summer, and to 
conserve heat the sheathing adopted for the sides is 
asbestos-protected metal. 

As indicated in the first paragraph of this article, 
every effort has been made in the design to standardize 
the lengths and cross-sections of members and to reduce 
to the minimum the number of all the different kinds 
of pieces. All connections are bolted and only two 
sizes of bolts, l-in. and I-in., are employed. The fact 
that all of the huge structures indicated by solid black 
lines in Fig. 1 have been erected by labor a large 
percentage of which had absolutely no previous experi- 
ence on steel-work is a tribute not only to the engineers 
who supervised the erection, but also to the men who 
designed the structures which could be thus handled 
in the field. 

One detail of the spread footings for the shop build- 
ing columns should be noted. Practically no wood was 
available for concrete forms, and it will be seen from 
Fig. 2 that corrugated sheets intended for the siding 
of the buildings have been bent and employed for con- 
crete forms. 

In the early days of the steel erection, which was 
started Mar. 28, no plant was available, and gin-poles 
were rigged and used for hoisting the roof members 
into place. Later, however, auto-cranes of the type 
shown in Fig. 10 and hoisting engines (see Fig. 9) 
arrived and greatly expedited steel-erection progress- 

buildings thus far erected for the Ordnance Base Depot 
the roofing item alone involves the covering of an area 
of nearly 1,000,000 square feet. 

The interior of the buildings is painted by sprays 
(Fig. 3), supplied with air from portable compressors, 
gasoline-driven. These machines also supplied air for 
reaming and drilling tools used in connection with 
the steel erection and electric wiring. 

During my visit to the job a large percentage of 
the glazing had been finished on the shop buildings. 
Wire-glass is employed for the monitors, while the side- 
wall sash is fitted with ribbed factory glass. Like 
everything else entering into the work, the wire-glass 
was supplied from America. On such a long trip and 
in the reloading in France, a certain amount of rough 
handling was inevitable, but even those panels which 
are cracked are entirely serviceable, as the wire rein- 
forcing holds the plate rigid. Sheets of glass with 
cracks radiating across their surfaces like spider-webs 
are set up in the monitors and are performing efficient 
service. The use of wire-glass has effected a substan- 
tial item of saving, because it has rendered unnecessary 
the replacement of breakage. This is not the case with 
the plain ribbed glass. At a time when the demand 
for glass in France has been increased by the bombing 
and long-range bombardment of cities by German air- 
planes and guns, it has been possible to use at the 
Ordnance Base practically all of the wired glazing which 
we brought over here, rather than go into the French 
market for it. 

The machine tools with which the shops will be 
equipped include practically everything up to huge 
gun-barrel lathes 60 ft. long. There is demanded, 
therefore, a very sizeable yardage of concrete in the 
foundations for this equipment. The excavation is made 



One rafter was always bolted to a column on the ground, 
and the two members were raised to place simultane- 

The original plans contemplated the use of a thin 
cement layer on top of the corrugated roofing, but on 
account of the scarcity of cement and sand this feature 
had to be eliminated. The roofing actually in place 
consists of a full mop of pitch, two plies of roofing 
felt and tar, and one ply of finish roofing, the latter 
being laid in strips with a lap of 6 in. On the 

by pick and shovel, and for the concrete a number of 
portable 1-yd. mixers, such as those shown in Figs. 4 
and 5, are employed. The delivery of cement and aggre- 
gate to the machines and the transporting of the 
concrete to the forms are handled by metal-body wheel- 
barrows, of which there are a great number on the 
job. They are employed not only for the delivery of 
concrete to machine-tool foundations (Fig. 5) and 
column footings, but also for distributing the earth fill 
for the floors. 



Vol. 82, No. 3 

Wood is at a premium on 
the Ordnance Base job, and 
the sight of packing-cases 
broken up and used for con- 
crete forms is such an old one 
in France now as hardly to at- 
tract attention. Practically 
all of the forms for the ma- 
chine-tool beds are made of 
packing-case lumber. Another 
place in which this lumber is 
serving is in the gun-shrink- 
ing pit at one end of the gun- 
shop. Here a rectangular ex- 
cavation 20 x 35 ft. in plan 
and 25 ft. deep was taken out 
with the aid of a clamshell 
bucket and a crane, as shown 
in Fig. 6. This pit is being 
lined with concrete, mixed in 
a paving mixer. An interest- 
ing detail of the work of 

placing the concrete is the improvised inclined chutes 
shown in Fig. 8. These are merely the regular cor- 
rugated sheets used for the siding of the warehouses, 
and bent into the form of a trough. 

The patchwork character of the framework in the 
shrinking-pit, due to the scarcity of lumber, is also 
plainly indicated in Fig. 7. The concreting of the floor 
of the pit was rendered difficult by a flow of under- 
ground water amounting to 600 gal. per minute. Pumps 
had to be installed before the concreting work could 
proceed. While on the subject of concreting, it is 
well to mention the difficulty of obtaining cement, sand 
and coarse aggregate. One of the superintendents told 
me that the job has been out of concreting materials 
for 10 days at a time. 

Shipping Details Systematized — With the tremendous 
number of crates reaching France it is important, to 
insure prompt delivery at the right destination, that all 
packages be properly marked. To this matter the ship- 
ping end of the Stone & Webster organizations in the 
United States and in France gave particular attention. 
Every crate intended for the Ordnance Base Depot 
carries on its side a triangle and the initials "S. W." 
painted in black, together with a complete description 
of its contents. 

The explicit marking aids in the routing of the crate 
to its proper place on the job. Initials O. B. D. in the 


triangle identify the crate at once as intended for the 
Ordnance Base Depot. The serial and package num- 
bers aid in checking invoices; the plant and building 
numbers leave no doubt as to where the machine is 
to be installed. 

For the handling and routing of Ordnance Depot 
material arriving in France men were stationed at 
every base port. Shipments leaving the United States 
may arrive at any one of several ports — no one knows 
in advance the point of landing. The method followed 
in checking up was substantially as follows: On 
receipt of a ship's manifest at a base port the repre- 
sentative at that place would at once communicate with 
his headquarters office and receive instructions as to 
routing of the material, for half a dozen of the ord- 
nance buildings were set up at other sites than the main 
depot. The record of the material received was made 
in the form of a quadruplicate report. One copy of 
this report went to the administrative headquarters in 
France, two copies were sent to the job, and the fourth 
was retained by the checker at the docks. The two 
copies reaching the job were checked up against mate- 
rial actually delivered, one copy was retained for the 
job files, and the other was sent to administrative head- 
quarters as a receipt of the shipment. On Aug. 15, 
2400 carloads of material had been delivered to the 
base depot and 48 carloads were en route. 

Construction Plant — While 
construction plant did not ar- 
rive in time to aid in the first 
stages of the job, notably in 
building the railroad siding, 
and in unloading the first 
shipments of material, a con- 
siderable number of machines 
of various types was delivered 
later and have been responsi- 
ble in large measure for the 
progress made. "We didn't 
even havea track jack when 
we began the railroad work," 





FIG. 10. 

auto-crane which speeded up the erection of steel work said a captain of engineers, 

January 16, 1919 



in telling me of the early difficulties encountered. 
"Mud was one of our chief enemies early last spring, 
and the use of wheeled vehicles for distributing mate- 
rial around the job was simply out of the question. 
Why, in walking across the site of the gun-shops the 
mud would build up on a fellow's boots in a broad, 
flat cake, so that after he had been going awhile he 
looked as if he had snowshoes on his feet." 

The following table lists some of the more important 
construction plant used in building the Ordnance Base 
Depot : 

Type of Machine Number Kind of Work Done 

Locomotive cranes 2 Handling steel and crates 

Steam shovels (f-yd.) 2 Railway excavation 

Hoisting engines 6 Steel erection and miscellane- 

Auto-cranes 2 Steel erection 

Traction crane and bucket. I Excavation of shrinking pit 

Portable air compressors 4 Drilling, el. work, reaming 

and spray painting 

Stifflcg derricks ( 1 0-ton) 4 Not yet set up 

Road roller 1 Rolling floors 

Wheelbarrows Several Concreting and earth moving 


Concrete mixers . ■ Concreting column footings 

Pavers 4 Machine tool foundations, and 

Portable (5-yd.) 12 lining shrinking pit 

Locomotives 3 Handling cars 

There is an abundance of concrete mixers on the job. 
Those in use are serving the column footings, the 
machine-tool foundations and the shrinking-pit lining. 
The change in plans whereby concrete flooring for all 
of the shop and warehouse structures has been elimi- 
nated has left many of the mixers idle, and they will 
probably be shipped to other points in France where 
there is a demand for them. 

For the Army all construction work at the big base 
depot is under the immediate direction of Major F — , 
commanding the 501st Engineers, which consists of 
four companies of about 250 men each. One of these 
companies, however, has been assigned to duties con- 
nected with the handling of a railroad yard some miles 
away. In addition, there are detachments of ordnance 
units, several hundred Chinese, negro labor battalions 
and a so-called detachment of Spanish labor. Referring 
to the last unit, Major F — told me that shortly after 
the men had arrived on the job his interpreter came 
into the commanding officer's barracks looking abso- 
lutely fagged out. 

"Did you get things all straightened out with that 
Spanish outfit?" inquired the major. 

"Spanish !" sputtered the interpreter ; "I've checked 
them over, and there are fourteen different nationalities 
represented in that bunch. Anybody that wants my 
interpreter's job can have it right now." 

Wages for Foreign Labor — The Spanish labor is paid 
from 8 to 12 francs per day and board. Chinese labor 
is cheaper. The Orientals receive a minimum wage of 
four francs daily, plus food and lodging, and in addi- 
tion there is a payment of 1.50 francs per man per 
day made to the French for the privilege of using 
this labor. The Chinese are good on simple jobs in- 
volving repetition of operations. For example, in con- 
nection with some of the roof work, 50,000 pieces of 
wire had to be cut to a certain length and twisted to 
a certain form. One of these pieces was made up as 
a sample and turned over to a detachment of Chinese. 
The remaining 49,999 pieces turned out by the Chinese 
did not vary a hair's breadth from the original model. 
"They copy a thing of this sort so perfectly," said 

Major F — , "that you would think the job was handled 
by a machine." 

What the advent of mechanical plant on the Ordnance 
Base construction has meant in speeding up the job is 
indicated by one illustration. The steel-work for the 
first warehouse, 240 x 500 ft. in plan, took about three 
weeks. For the second, after the auto-cranes, hoists 
and other plant were available, the time of steel erection 
was about 41 days. 

Closure of Concrete Dam Completed 
Behind Needle Dam 

Two Channels Formed by Island Simplify Problem 

of River Control by Cofferdams in 

Water-Power Plant Construction 

EXCEPTIONAL use of cofferdams solved the prob- 
lem of stream control in constructing the new Brule 
River plant of the Peninsular Power Co., in Wisconsin. 
Besides dams for diverting the stream and inclosing 
the construction operations in the stream beds, an in- 
genious combination of needle and flap-gate cofferdam 
was devised for backing up the water while making the 
closure of the concrete portion of the dam left open to 
pass the flow during construction. 

Where the new power plant dams the Brule River, 
high banks inclose the stream and an island divides it 
into two channels, as shown by the map. The power 


house and a short section of concrete dam close the 
south channel. The north channel is closed by an earth 
dam with a concrete core wall. On the low part of the 
island is a second short concrete dam and a spillway 
of Tainter gates. 

Construction was begun in June, 1917, and will be 
completed in 1919. In general, the plan of procedure 
has been: First, diversion of the stream through the 
north channel, and construction, to above water level, 
of concrete structures in the south channel ; second, re- 
diversion of the stream through the south channel, and 
construction of the earth dam in the north channel; 
third, the backing up of the south channel flow and com- 
pletion of the closure of the south channel dam. Oper- 
ations 1 and 2 have proceeded simultaneously, in some 

Work began on the south channel structures. Near 
the head of the island a cofferdam, A, was carried across 
the channel. Here the water had a maximum depth of 



Vol. 82, No. 3 

5 ft., and the stream bed consisted of gravel and bould- 
ers overlying bedrock. A rock-filled timber-crib dam was 
constructed and sheeted on the upstream side with 2-in. 
tongue-and-groove planks. This dam diverted the 
stream through the north channel. To protect the lower 
end of the works from back flow a second cofferdam, B, 
was constructed. Water here was only 2 ft. deep, and 
a dam of A-frames, sheeted on the downstream side with 
2-in. tongue-and-groove planks, met the requirements. 
Dams A and B inclosed the south stream bed opera- 

Seepage through the upper dam A was small, but to 
reduce pumping as much as possible a secondary earth- 
fill dam, C, was constructed about 200 ft. downstream. 
A fall of about 2 ft. between the upper and the lower 
main dams permitted a sluice, located along the south 
edge of the island, to carry the water ponded by the 
secondary dam to a discharge below dam, B. Two 4-in. 
diaphragm pumps then unwatered and kept dry the 
stream bed needed for construction. 

Under the power house and south dam, bedrock lay 
only about a foot below stream bed. Excavation to get 
to sound rock was a hand-loading and dump-cart opera- 
tion. Construction of the power house and of the two 
wings of the concrete dam followed. For the south 
wing of the dam only the foundations and the south 
abutment were completed; the dam section proper, as 
shown by the drawings, was left open except for two 
narrow diaphragms, of the section of the dam, which 
were built up like two piers and which divided the open- 
ing into three 18-ft. sluices for passing the stream un- 
til closure. The power house and the north wing of the 
dam were constructed complete. After completion of the 
south channel structures, as described, a cofferdam, 

Sectton -through Sluice and 
Needle Cofferdam 


D, was built across the north channel and the stream 
rediverted through the south channel and the sluices in 
the south wing of the concrete dam. 

Excavation was next begun for the core wall of the 
earth-fill dam across the north channel. The core-wall 
trench was carried down 18 ft. below the stream bed, 
After the core wall was concreted, as described later, the 
earth fill was begun. A i-cu.yd. steam shovel loaded 
the earth in H-cu.yd. dump cars which traveled to 
and dumped into the fill. 

The concrete construction included the south channel 

dam shown in section by the drawing; the foundations, 
forebay and wheel pits of the power house ; the founda- 
tions and piers for the Tainter gates, the core walls 
and the necessary dam abutments. 

All the concrete was mixed at and distributed from 
a plant on the south bank of the river. Here the mixers 
were set at an elevation about 4 ft. above the dam top. 
Two steam-driven mixers of 12- and 16-cu.ft. capacity, 
and one electrically driven, 16-cu.ft. mixer constituted 
the plant. Only one mixer was operated, the two oth- 
ers being spare units. Storage bins for gravel were 
constructed above the mixers and a cement house along- 
side them. Gravel was excavated from a bank about 
i mile from the mixing plant, and was hauled in dump 
wagons to an elevated road above the bins, and thence 
dumped into the bins. Cement from a railway at Flor- 
ence, Wis., was hauled by wagons to the same elevated 
road, and thence chuted into the cement house. 

The concrete for the lower portions of the work was 
chuted to a hopper at the foot of the bank. As the work 
progressed, the hopper was raised. Distribution from 
the hopper was by two-wheeled carts. Even the con- 
crete for the core wall of the north channel dam was 
hauled by carts over the power-house site, dams and 
spillways. For winter work the concrete materials 
were heated by means of perforated steam pipes in the 

Closure of the south wing of the concrete dam was 
to be accomplished by backing up the water. As shown 
by the drawing, one of the 18-ft. openings will be 
closed by 6 x 6-in. needles. Behind this needle dam the 
gap will be filled with concrete, except for a 7 x 7-ft. 
sluice, which will be fitted with a wood flap-gate. The 
second and third gaps will be closed by similar meth- 
ods, except that the third gap will be completely closed. 
Until the final raising of the water the two 7 x 7-ft. 
sluices will remain open. At that time the gates will 
be closed, and the sluices will be filled with concrete by 
means of the spout indicated on the drawing. 

J. R. McDonald, Black River Falls, Wis., is general 
contractor for this work on a cost-plus-fixed-sum basis. 
Daniel W. Mead and Charles V. Seastone, Madison, Wis., 
are the chief engineers, the entire work being done un- 
der their supervision. They are represented on the work 
by A. M. Trester. O. C. Davidson, Iron Mountain, Mich., 
is the president of the power company, and F. E. Tur- 
neaure, Madison, Wis., is the secretary-treasurer. 

Work at Head Office of Highway Department 

That the routine work in the main office of a state 
highway department is large is shown by the report 
of H. Eltinge Breed, first deputy highway commissioner 
of New York State. This report, recently issued, covered 
the year 1917. Some of the work reported consisted of 
the following: Making 31,689 blueprints and 4643 white 
prints, of which 4178 were on cloth; 335 sets of highway 
plans on cloth, averaging 12 sheets each, 609 sets high- 
way plans on paper, averaging 13 sheets each; 5385 
prints of 500-ft. scale maps; 3000 cross-section prints; 
2700 right-of-way prints; 5500 maintenance and repair 
prints; 6500 miscellaneous prints of forms, etc. A to- 
tal of 149,504 sq.ft. of paper and cloth was used for this 

January 16, 1919 



Developments in the Practice of Laying and Manufactur- 
ing Paving Materials 

War-time restrictions have had a marked effect upon progress in the field of 
pavement construction. Output has been cut to a minimum, by both Government 
regulations and by uncommon economic disturbances. However, the following 
statements, obtained at the solicitation of "Engineering News-Record" from 
representatives of manufacturers of various materials, indicate that there has been 
considerable advance in the adoption of methods heretofore considered experi- 
mental, and that economies have been fostered or forced by the abnormal condi- 
tions. It is shown that much greater attention is being paid to proper drainage, 
smoothness and other details of construction, and that maintenance methods are 
being more closely studied. Mortar-bed or other rigid construction has become 
practically established for all types of block pavements, superseding the old sand- 
cushion design. Interesting adaptations of paving materials to war purposes are 
also recorded. — Editor. 


Asphalt Block Adapted to War Purposes 

By Edwin J. Morrison 

President, National Association of Asphalt Block Manufacturers 

NOTHING notable was added during 1918 to the 
accepted practice in the building of streets and 
roads with asphalt blocks. Many Governmental re- 
strictions confined construction to essential improve- 
ments of heavy-traffic roads where asphalt blocks were 
specified because of their demonstrated ability to carry 
heavy motor-vehicle traffic. The most interesting de- 
velopments of the year were along the lines of working 
out labor-saving methods, in order to minimize the 
effects of extreme labor shortage and high wages. 
These efforts resulted in far-reaching improvements in 
methods of handling blocks, so that from the plant to 
the place of use, practically all hand labor has been 
eliminated, and mechanical devices have been designed. 

A notable development of the year has been the de- 
mands of war and war industries upon the industry 
and the adaptation of the blocks to many military and 
essential war uses. Their utilization in war business has 
amounted to over 85% of the year's output for the com- 
pany which the writer represents. The Navy Depart- 
ment has made extensive use of asphalt block at the 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington yards 
in flooring for storehouses, machine shops, etc., and at 
the great Brooklyn Navy supply base, where alone about 
45,000 sq.yd. were used in flooring for storehouses, 
paving of loading platforms and streets around the 
plant, and paving connecting roadways between the 
buildings and the water front. These installations in- 
volved a very careful study of service conditions, in 
order to adapt the manufacturing formula to the pro- 
duction of blocks of requisite hardness, softness or mal- 
leability for special traffic and temperature conditions. 

One unique problem urgently submitted to us was to 
produce an acid-resisting block for use in the flooring of 
a large submarine-battery storage building. This prob- 
lem was successfully solved by the manufacture of a 
special block composed entirely of traprock, crushed to 
an unusual degree of fineness, and combined under high 
pressure with a processed cementing material. These 
blocks passed the severe tests of the Navy Department 
when subjected to a 25% sulphuric-acid solution. 

In addition to many installations in ordnance and 

munition plants, the War Department selected asphalt 
block for extensive use in one of its most important 
plants — the South Brooklyn Army supply base — where 
more than 100,000 sq.yd. are being used in the flooring 
for the four piers, 1300 ft. long by 150 ft. wide; also 
for bridges, tunnels, loading platforms and traffic aisles. 
The developments for the near future will prob- 
ably be in the direction of the improvement of paving 
material and the design and construction of highways 
to carry the vastly increased motor-vehicle loads which 
recent military use has shown to be beyond the power 
of many existing highways to withstand. 

A Negligible Year in Asphalt Paving 

(From interviews with asphalt manufacturers) 

GLOOMY prospects for new paving of every descrip- 
tion marked the opening of the year 1918, on ac- 
count of war conditions. Aside from any other fea- 
tures, the railroad situation was such that it seemed 
hopeless to figure on shipping paving materials with 
any degree of success at that time. Labor was ex- 
tremely scarce, very high in price and in most cases 
inefficient; but the particular feature which affected 
the asphalt situation was the shortage of tank and 
other steamers to carry the crude asphalt from Mexico 
and South America and the impossibility of land trans- 
portation from other sources. 

A large number of steamers carrying supplies for the 
American Expeditionary Forces were equipped to burn 
fuel oil, and it was especially desired that they should 
do so, owing to scarcity of coal. A great many Pacific 
Coast steamers which were fuel-oil burners were di- 
verted to the European traffic, and all such steamers had 
to rely upon the Mexican oil for power. Consequently, 
the demands for oil were so great that it was neces- 
sary to make this the paramount feature in connection 
with the importation of Mexican asphaltic maltha. 

In addition to there being a shortage of tank equip- 
ment, the importation of asphalts from South America 
was also greatly restricted by the action of the War 
Trade Board, which cut down the importation of these 
asphalts on account of the shortage of cargo steamers. 
These outstanding features, combined with the labor 
problem, made it a very negligible year in the construc- 
tion and maintenance of asphalt pavements. 



Vol. 82, No. 3 

Maintenance has been the principal paving use to 
which asphalt has been put, and surface treatments 
have been used to some extent. Considerable patching 
has been done by "cold-patch" methods, using asphalt. 

The fact that the maintenance of so many streets and 
roads had to be neglected, and the widespread and in- 
sistent demand for new roads and streets, would portend 
that the year 1919 may be a very busy one. 

Status of Paving Brick in Manufacture 
and Use During Past Year 

By Will P. Blair 

Vice-President, National Paving Brick Manufacturers' Association 

NO DISTINCTIVE advance in the manufacture of 
paving brick has developed during the year. Prog- 
ress is always in the mind of the manufacturer, cover- 
ing two essential phases of the business : (1) Economy 
of production; (2) betterment of quality. 

Generally considered, manufacturers do not hope for 
any special development which will increase the quality 
of paving brick. They do, however, bear in mind that 
care and skill must be constantly exercised, or quality 
will depreciate. The best known methods must be skill- 
fully applied in each step of manufacture — preparation 
of the raw material, its formation, its drying and its 
burning — or, properly speaking, its vitrification. 

In the economical phases of production, considerable 
hope is felt that some special saving may be achieved. 
Economy in fuel is a large question, to which many 
engineers are devoting much time. It is most impor- 
tant in the manufacture of paving brick, because the 
great proportion of expense is for the large amount of 
fuel consumed. 

Economical handling, in both the processes of manu- 
facture and of loading for shipment, is open to improve- 
ment. Special skill and devices, many of which have 
been patented, embracing almost numberless designs — 
all of more or less merit — have been brought into exist- 
ence; but neither a particular method of fuel consump- 
tion nor any of handling has attained general approval. 

In the use of paving brick throughout the year but 
few really new methods have been suggested. West of 
the Mississippi River the use of a bituminous filler is 
adhered to almost universally. 

Throughout the Central states, the use of the sand 
cushion underneath the brick in connection with the 
use of cement filler has been almost wholly abandoned. 
In its place the method known as "the green-concrete- 
foundation method," which consists in laying the brick 
in the wet concrete, is extensively used. South of the 
Ohio River, particularly in the Gulf Coast section, also, 
this method is becoming popular. 

Both in the Central and Eastern parts of the coun- 
try there is frequently employed the type of construc- 
tion known as the "sand-cement superfoundation," 
which consists of mixing the cement with the sand in 
a dry state and laying the brick thereon, after which 
the sand and cement is thoroughly dampened. 

There has been a suggestion — in theory meeting the 
approval of a number of students of construction — to 
lay the brick upon a bituminous base or foundation. 
However, this method has not been tried out sufficiently.. 

During the past year the subject of drainage (always? 

of frequent mention, but seldom seriously undertaken) 
has gained in importance. F. R. Williams, paving 
engineer, Cleveland, reports an interesting experience the 
past year.. Improvement of Woodhill Road was designed 
for the monolithic or green-concrete-foundation type 
of brick pavement. The road skirts the foothills 
throughout the greater part of its length, so that the 
fall of water through the plastic soil has been the source 
of much trouble. Drains were laid outside of either 
curb and at sufficient depth to carry the water into the 
manholes. Cross drains discharging into these were 
laid under the entire base of the pavement, with suffi- 
cient fall to remove the water quickly from the sub- 
grade. It was immediately observed, following severe 
downpours of rain, that the subgrade was quickly re- 
lieved of water, and the contractor was able to resume 
work with little loss of time due to weather. 

Such advantage in construction economy was estab- 
lished by this drainage that contractors have installed 
it without cost to the city even where their specifications 
did not call for it. This experience not only established 
a construction economy, but clearly demonstrated that 
such a complete drainage system insured a continuous 
dry subgrade, and thereby the durability of the road. 

Sees Development in Maintenance and 
Repair by Tar Products 

By John S. Crandell 

Consulting Engineer, General Tarvia Department, 
The Barrett Company 

EXPERIENCE during the past year has emphasized 
bhe necessity for careful laboratory control and strict 
adherence to standardized methods, in the manufacture 
and use of paving materials. Especially has this been 
true of tar products. Control at the plant has been in- 
sisted on more than ever before, with the result that 
the output has been satisfactorily uniform. In the 
actual road work it has been necessary to try new meth- 
ods, for the shortage of labor and its high cost have 
made economy obligatory. Furthermore, the restric- 
tions placed on the highway builders by the Highways 
Council have caused the former to repair and maintain 
many miles of road that, under former conditions, would 
have been rebuilt. In consequence of this, patching and 
maintenance materials have been used to a greater ex- 
tent than materials of construction. 

For the repair of bituminous roads, cold patching has 
assumed a leading place. Tarvia-KP has been used in 
quantity by the various state and town highway officials. 
It has shown what can be done to keep roads in good 
condition at slight expense. Concrete roads have been 
repaired and kept in service by the use of Tarvia-XC ; 
this is the material recommended by the Association of 
Portland Cement Manufacturers for patching and for 
mending cracks in concrete roads. 

In actual road construction a new method has been 
standardized. This is the cold-penetration method, us- 
ing Tarvia-B to take the place of water in the water- 
bound road. The results appear to have fully justified 
the slight increased cost of tar over water-bound mac- 
adam. The roads built by this method in Camp Douglas, 
Wisconsin, have carried heavy camp traffic. Enough 
roads of this type have been built to standardize the 
method of construction. 

January 16, 1919 



What may have been the established practice for many 
years in one locality may be a novelty in another. Sur- 
face treatments with Tarvia-B have been standard prac- 
tice in many regions for years, but in others this past 
year has been the first in which they have been tried. 
With the increase of heavy truck and swiftly moving 
pleasure-car traffic, and with the scarcity of labor, the 
necessity of preserving existing macadam and gravel 
roads has been placed upon the entire country. 

The greatest development looked for in the near fu- 
ture is the return to the tar-bound base. A number of 
articles have been written during the past few months 
on this subject, which show plainly that engineers are 
interested. The undisputed success of this type of 
foundation in many widely scattered cities points to its 
possibilities and offers interested engineers an oppor- 
tunity to investigate. Specifications covering the ma- 
terials and method of construction have been prepared 
and published in periodicals. The tar-bound base has 
been used under sheet-asphalt and block pavements. 

Another development looked for is the patching of 
brick and the mending of the cracks in grouted brick 
pavements with Tarvia-XC in the same manner in 
which cement concrete pavements are now repaired. 
Many of the brick pavements that have failed could have 
been saved, probably, for some time, if the cracks and 
holes caused by local disintegration had been filled with 
Tarvia-XC at the time of their appearance, and before 
the adjacent pavement began to shatter. 

Another future development expected is the treatment 
of wood-block pavements that bulge and heave, due to 
absorption of moisture. If these dried out blocks receive 
a treatment with a light tar, they become waterproof. 

Highway Engineers Perfect Details of 
Concrete Road Construction 

By A. N. Johnson 

Consulting Highway Engineer, Portland Cement Association 

EXPERIENCE during the past year with heavy war 
traffic has demonstrated the necessity of thoroughly 
substantial pavements, so that thicker roads will be 
more generally designed and built. Concrete roads 
should be not less than 6 in. thick at the side and about 
8 in. in the center for widths up to 20 ft. On main 
traveled ways, a thickness of 8 in. at the side and 
10 in. at the center should be laid. 

With the greatly increased use of concrete for roads, 
highway engineers are giving more and more attention 
to perfecting details of construction. There is probably 
no single development in the manufacture of concrete 
of more significance than a proper water content. An 
appreciation of this fact has been made possible chiefly 
through the exhaustive investigations carried on under 
the direction of Prof. D. A. Abrams of Lewis Institute, 
Chicago, made in cooperation with the Portland Cement 
Association. By controlling the water content, the 
strength of the concrete can be increased from 50 to 
100 per cent. 

It was formerly the practice to specify H in. as the 
limiting size for the largest aggregate. It is now gen- 
erally recognized that the largest aggregate may well be 
2 in., and many engineers are using aggregate as large 
as 21 in. It is of more importance to have clean aggre- 

gates than it is that particles of aggregate shall be of 
the hardest and toughest variety. In fact, it has been 
shown by the service rendered on many concrete roads 
that aggregate which is too soft for use in macadam 
roads does make a concrete road that will withstand 
without appreciable wear the heaviest motor traffic. 

The importance of testing aggregates, particularly the 
fine aggregates, for organic impurities has received 
prominence in recent practice. The colorimetric test 
devised for this purpose can be readily made in the field, 
as only the most simple apparatus is required. The 
test is made with a 3% solution of sodium hydroxide 
in which the fine aggregate is shaken, the organic im- 
purities being readily detected by the dark color of the 
liquid after settling. Light yellow or amber color in- 
dicates freedom from organic impurities that will in- 
jure the concrete, while a pronounced tan or light brown 
color indicates an amount which should not be allowed 
in aggregate for concrete road work. 

Thoroughly mixed concrete is recognized more and 
more as essential to the best results, so that now prac- 
tically all state specifications require not less than 1 min. 
of thorough mixing of all materials. The most common 
mix is 1:2:3, but some engineers require l:li:3. 

Special attention has been given to the development 
of as perfect a surface as possible for concrete roads. 
Of first importance to secure this result are accurately 
placed and substantially built side forms, which should 
be rigidly held to the grade line. The roller-and-lbelt 
method of finishing has made it possible to secure a 
better surface than with the hand-float method. During 
the past year no less than 85% of various sections of 
concrete road work have been finished by this method, 
which is prescribed in many state specifications. 

An improvement upon this method, and one that gives 
a remarkably true surface, is made by the use of a fin- 
ishing machine so constructed that it automatically 
shapes and tamps the concrete. The machine can be 
reversed so that it is possible to go over the surface a 
number of times. This is of the highest importance, if 
the greatest density and strongest concrete are to re- 
sult. Also, a much smaller quantity of water may be 
used in the mix, when finishing is done by this device, 
and this insures a stronger and better concrete. 

Paint-Coat Method Becomes Standard 
Construction for Wood Block 

By Walter Buehler 

Chairman, Committee on Wood-Block Paving, American Wood 
Preservers' Association 

DURING the past year the greatest advance made 
in the construction of creosoted wood block pave- 
ments has been the general adoption as a standard of 
the pitch paint coat method. 

In January, 1918, the American Wood Preservers' As- 
sociation's Committee on Wood-Block Paving submitted, 
as information, a specification for the laying of wood 
blocks directly on a smooth concrete base painted with a 
thin paint coat of pitch. At that time there were only 
a few examples of this form of construction. During 
1918 more than 1,000,000 sq.yd. were laid in this way. 

The principal precautions necessary to assure success, 
aside from the treatment of blocks, are: (1) Proper 



Vol. 82, No. 

proportioning of the concrete; (2) careful application 
of the paint coat; (3) proper application of the filler. 

Concrete for this work should consist of aggregates 
so graded and proportioned as to assure a sufficient 
mortar content to permit of proper finishing. A mix- 
ture consisting of one part of cement, 2\ parts of sand 
and 5 parts of gravel or crushed stone, the gravel or 
crushed stone all passing a li-in. mesh and retained on 
a 1 in., and with no intermediate sizes removed, will 
give satisfactory results. 

A number of ways of finishing concrete have been 
developed. The simplest is by the use of a long handled 
float. The standard concrete roller-and-belt methods 
have also been used. E. R. Button, engineer of paving 
of Minneapolis, Minn., has developed a method which 
he asserts is working out successfully. It consists of a 
small pipe roller of about 3 in. diameter and about 15 
ft. long. This roller is operated crosswise of the street 
on templets, consisting of 1 in. boards on edge, cut to 
crown of street and held vertically by specially pre- 
pared iron stakes driven into the subgrade. Whatever 
method is used, the important result is an even surface, 
but it is not necessary that it have a sidewalk finish. 

Application of the pitch paint coat requires no special 
skill. It is important that the pitch be heated to at 
least 250° F. and that it be spread over the surface 
of the concrete in a very thin layer, not exceeding \ 
in. thickness. The blocks should be laid after the paint 
coat has hardened. If possible, all paint-coated concrete 
should be covered with blocks each night. 

To assure success, it is important that the blocks be 
properly filled. The pitch must be heated to a tem- 
perature of not less than 250° F. and not more than 
325° F. It should be poured on the surface of thor- 
oughly cleaned blocks and squeegeed rapidly in one di- 
rection only and should not be mopped back and forth. 
The ideal condition is a clean surface, with pitch filling 
about one-third of each joint. 

Granite Block Laid on Mortar Bed and 

Adapted to Trunk Highways 

By A. T. Rhodes 

Field Engineer, Granite Paving Block Manufacturers' Association 

THERE are several developments, both in manu- 
facture and laying of granite blocks, which de- 
serve the consideration of engineers and commissioners 
of public works — such as standardization of sizes, adop- 
tion of the mortar bed, and the recent adaptation of 
the blocks to trunk-line highway construction. 

If any practicable method could be devised where- 
by paving block could be machine made, economically, 
this method would be adopted. When it is realized, how- 
ever, that the subdivision is made from blocks as large 
as 1 cu.yd., and a block containing eight standard sized 
pavers is reduced to finished units in 90 sec, it can be 
seen that a skillful mechanic can make these blocks by 
hand much faster and more economically than could 
any present mechanical device requiring shifting of the 
blocks into various positions. 

There is another condition in manufacture which 
would be very much improved if engineers would realize 
that they gain no particular advantage by sticking to 
their "pet" size of blocks. If blocks were standardized 

the producer could more readily hold a large stock of 
material, having confidence in the ultimate sale of any 
standard style. As there are schedules of sizes under 
which paving cutters sign annual agreements, and as 
any deviation from these sizes in the way of specials 
calls for an increased charge, a standardization of sizes 
to not more than three or four would give confidence to 
these producers and effect an economic saving. 

From a construction standpoint, 34-in. granite blocks 
are coming rapidly to the front as resurfacing for worn- 
out pavements of various types. Where these were con- 
structed originally with good concrete bases, sufficiently 
low for laying, this method is proving satisfactory. 

Probably the greatest change from the original con- 
struction methods, during the past few years, is the 
elimination of the use of peastone to hold the blocks 
while ramming. It is probable that more failures occur 
in granite paving through the use of peastone than are 
occasioned in any other way. 

Cement-grout filler of 1 : 1 mix is unquestionably the 
best. In connection with this, it is found better to 
eliminate pargeting, or plastering, of the rails of street- 
railway tracks, and allow the grout to run in against the 
rail itself. The grout makes a much better bond with 
the rail, is a more substantial mixture and has been 
- — in one instance, at least — the support of the rail- 
way iron for three years after the ties were rotted 
out. Where grout filler is used, a bituminous expan- 
sion joint along the curb is coming into practice. 

Another change in practice is toward the mortar bed 
instead of the old sand cushion under the blocks. This 
bed should be a 1:3 mix, in the writer's opinion. It is 
laid dry and is wet down after the blocks are rammed, 
so as to give it a set and a bond with the cement filler. 

The use of the bituminous mastic filler is more or 
less in its infancy, superseding the old peastone and 
pitch type of joint filler. It cannot be expected that it 
will show the durability of cement grout filler, but cir- 
cumstances, such as opening the street immediately to 
traffic, instead of waiting six days, and giving a better 
footing for horses and facilitating the making of pave- 
ment cuts, make its use advisable in many cases. To 
obtain the best results, it must have a quality of ex- 
treme fluidity (so that it will flow readily to the bottom 
of the joint), a high melting point (so that it will not 
bleed in the hot weather) and have strong adhesiveness. 
This, to my mind, could be obtained best by a mixture of 
tar and asphalt, but producers are opposed to supplying 
a mixed product. The proper proportion of sand for this 
mastic filler is from 35 to 50 per cent. It is difficult to 
use a greater amount of sand without extreme care. 

One of the newest developments in the matter of 
granite-block paving is its entrance into the field of 
trunk-line highway construction. With t