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60001 661 9R 

H^l^d.. 1-^1. 

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m WBicn wiiL re AUDIO, 













And «M ml No. '2, Mead Plice, near the A.ylum ; by M1.15", Wh, 
Boolcicllert. Fleel-itrcet ; Johnson, St. Paul'i Church-yard j 
DiLLv, ill Lhe I'uiihry; and by all BoukwUers, &i:. 



GALANTHUS nivalis. 


HEXANDRI/I Mmegjnia. 
Gen. Char. Cerol/a of fix pcials, three of which art 

ftnaller th:in the reft, and cmarginated. Sli^m 

Spec. Char. . . . 
Syn. Galanthus nivalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 413. Hiitif. 

Fl. At. 140. IVith. Bet. Arr. 340. 

vyN the authority of Mr, Hudfon and Dr, Stokes, the Snow- 
drop is now admitted into the lift of Dritilh plants, nithough 
not defcribcd as fuch by Ray. Whether originally a native or 
not, it is now found in a wild (late in many different HiuationB, 
fuch as orchards, graHy meadows, groves, and thickets. Dr. 
Stokes, whofe accuracy and extenfive information none who 
pcnifcs the Botameul ArraHgemenl ef Brilijh Phnls can doubt, is 
particularly cxa£l in alTerting that lie has gathered tt remote 
from all traces of buildings or g.-irdcns. 

No plant is more generally cultivated, or more cordially wel- 
comed as the herald of approaching fpring. It frequently 
pierces through the uiimclted fnow, which it rivals in white- 
nefs, and remains uninjured by a fexfon, during whofc incle- 
mency moft vegetable productions lie dormant. Who cau 
read the following charming lines on the Snowdrop, by Mrs. 
Barbauld, without adniiradon ? 

•' Ai natunfl littilh, by fume irtlufn'ming pow'r, 

" Hid diug'd en icicle into i flnw'r. • 

'■ In Oiune and hue iba fcrntlcfs |ilRnt reraiai. 

" And tinier linger* in iti icy vtinj." 

Our figure icprercnts the entire plant drawn from a garden 

fpccimen, it not being cafy to obtain a pcrfeflly wild one. Au> 

ncxed are the parts of fniAilicauon fcparate, viz. 1 ft, the fUmina 

''wl piAillum (the petals being cut olF]} next, the Itylc andger- 

alooe* and an anthem magnified in two diff*eTCnt pelitiont. 



^B '^^ '^ \ 





t • 

'^ y 

[ 621 ] 

LEUCOJUM xmvum. 
Summer Snoivfiake. 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. 
Gex. Char. Cor. fupcrior, bell-fhapcd, of 6 petals, 
thickened at their fummit. Sligma fimple. Uta- 
wimi equal. 
Spec. Char. Spatha many-flowered. Style club- 

Syn. Leucojumasftivum. Lirm.Sfi. PL 414. fVtth.^^i. 
Curl. Land. fajc. 5. /. 23. Jacq. Aujir. t. 203. 
L. bulbofum majiia polyanthemum. Ger. em. 148. 


iR. CURTIS firft added this plant to the catalogue of £n- 
glifl] natives, having found it clofe to the I'hames' lide below 
London in fevera) places. Mr. Gough has alfo obferved it near 
Kendal. Oiir fpccimcn was gathered at Reading by Mr. Mur- 
ray of that place. We have lately been informed by Mrs. Cob- 
bold, that the Summer Snowflake is a troublefome weed in old 
paflures, which probably have ne\*er been broken up, at Little 
Stonham, Suffolk. After all thefe authorities, we can no longer 
rcfiife it a place in the Flora Brilantiica. It is perennial, and 
flowers in May. 

The root is a roundifh bulb,fmall in proportion to tlic herb- 


[ 2/5 ] 

NARCISSUS poeticus. 
Poetic Narcijfus. 

Gen. Char. Petals 6, equal. Ai^ary funnel -fliapccl, 

of one leaf, containing \\\eji,iiiiinu. 
Spec. Char. Spalha fingle-flowercd. Cup of the 
ncdtary verj' Ihort, wheel- Ihnpcd, fihny, crenate. 
Leaves obtufcly cnrinated, wilh a reflcxcil margin. 
Syn. Narciilus poeticus. Linn. Sj>, PI. 414. j^it. 
Ilort. Kew, V. 1. 408. 
N. majalis. Curt. Mag, 193, at the end. 

VTATHERED by Mr. Jacob Raycr on a rabbit warren at 
Shomc between Gravercnd and Bocheller, in flower May 36, 
1795. It is alfo found at Wood Baflwick and in other pans 
of Norfolk, according to the late Mr. Rofe, who always 
ftrentioufly infiflcd uiwn Mr. Hudfon'g having ronfounded 
two different plants under his N. poeticus, and that this now 
before us was the true Linnxan fpccics, which lad opinion 
is confirmed bv the Herbarium of Linnaeus. Mr. Curtis's 
angvjlifolius, Bot. Mag. t. 193, may, as far as we can judge 
from his account, be dtllinct trom this, though mere garden 
ir^Wi arc a^^.■.^8 K. be RTclvtd wiili caution. His is ihe 




[ ^76 ] 

NARCISSUS biflonis. 
Pale Narcijfus, or Primrofe peerUfj, 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. 
Gen. Chah. Pf/a/j 6, equal. Ne£t<iry (anncX-O^A^cA, 

of one leaf, conlaining the Jiamma. 
Spec. Char, Spatha two-fiowcrcd. Cup of the 
nedlary very (hort, whccl-fliapcd, filmy, crcnalc. 
Leaves acutely carinated, with an indexed margin. 
SvN. Narciflusbiflorus. CurU Bot.Mag. t. 197. 
N. poeticus. Hud/. Fl. Ah. 141. IVllh. BoL^rr-^-^i. 
N. medio luteus vulgaris. Ritii Syn. 371 . 

X H I S wild fpecimcn was gathered by Mr. Rayer with the 
preceding on a rabbit warren at Shomc. Ray fufpedcd it not 
to have been originally a native, but wc fee no reafon why it 
Should not. At leaft it is now pcrfeflly naturalized, though 
perhaps not found in fo many (iluations of undoubted wildnefs 
as the poeticus. Mr. Curtis has well alTericd it lo be a ditlin^ 
fpccies from that and his anguflifolius, and wc beg leave to 
add to his remarks that the leaves of the biflonis have an in- 




NARCISSUS Pfeudo-narciflus. 
Common Daffodil, 

HEXANDRIA Moiugyma. 
Gen. Char. Peta/s fix, equal. Ne^arium funnel- 
form, onc-Ieaved. Stamina within the neftarium. 
Spec. Char. Spatha one-flowered. Nedarium bell- 
form, ereft, curled, and equalling the ovate petals. 
Syh. Narciflus pfeudo-narciffus. Uatt. Sp. PI. 414. 
Hudf. Fl.y1n.\Zi. ff^iib. Bet. jlrr. $\i. 
N. fyJvedris pallidus, calyce luteo. Rait Syn. 371. 

X HE NarciiTus Pfeiido-nardlTus, or common DaSbdil, may be 
confidcred as one of the moft beautiful of the native plants of 
this kingdom. It grows chiefly in damp lituations. The name 
Pfeudo-narcill'us, or Filfc Narciflus, was given to this fpecies, in 
order to prevent its being confounded with the True Narciflus 
of the ancients, or Narcifl'us Poeticus- In the defcriplions of 
rural poetry it has long been celebrated, and fcldom fails (o oS- 
tain an honourable mention amongft the opening beauties of 
ihe fpring. There is an exotic fpecies of this genus which ex- 
tremely Tcfembles the prefent ; in (hat fpecies however the 
petals have a more expanded appearance, and the whole plant 
is confiderabiy larger. To this may be added, that in our pre- 
fent fpecies the altetnaic petals are fomcwhat fmallcr. The 
figure here given we have copied from a mod elegant drawing 
prcfcnled by Richard Anthony Salifbmy, Efq. a gentleman emi- 
nently diflinguifhed for the accuracy of his botanical rcfcaTchct. 

V . 

Allium AmpeiupmsuijB, 

Great Routid-headed Gariick, 

Gen. Cb.\r. Cor. mfoior, of 6 spreading 

Spatha cloven, contain h^ many flowers. Umhd 

dense- Stigma simple. 
Spec. Char. Umbei globose, without bulbs. Leaves 

flat. Stamina ihree-poiiued. Peols rough on the 

SvN. Allium Ampeloprasum. Umm. Sft. PI. 423. Sm. 

Ft.Bnt.S55. Huds. iSS. /f7/A, 33'i. Huil, 
A. Holmense, sphserko captte. Rait Syn. S70i 


Mr. WRIGHT, who ID 1S03 asccrtak)«I the PcKNtw co- 

rallina, I. 1313, (o be a British pUnt, ta\-ouTcd us ai ihe suae 
time with u iJd bulbs of Uiis very rare speciet of Allium from 
the island called Flat Holmes, in ihc Sei-em, where only, in 
the British dominions, it has hitherto bi-cn obstrt'cd lo grow. 
These bulbs, culiivated in a garden, ba^~i:, for the last ^ yearii 
flowered well in the month of August. Each of ihcui is aboat 
the siac and form of a common garden tulip-bulb. 

The stem is sohiary, 4 or 5 feet high, upright, simple, 
round, smooth, Icaty m the lower pan. Leaves clasping the 
stem with their long sheaths, 18 inches or 3 feet long, tiaceid, 
flat, near an inch broad, tapenng, acute ; their niax^in, aud 
top of the keel, rough with minute teeth. Umbel solitary, 
erect, large, globose, composed of innumerable flowers, un 
longish, smooth, pale purple stalks, without any accompany- 
ingbulbs, but intermixed with small narrow scales. Spatha 
scarcely so long as the umbel. Petals ovate, acittc, pale 
piirple, the 3 larger especially very rough on the keel. Sta- 
mina broad, 3 of them strongly 3-painted, the intenncdiatr 
ones nmplc. Anthene terminal, circt. Genncn brownish, 
orate, furrowed, with 3 transverse prominences. Style white, 
as long ai the gerroni. The whole plant has a strung <lis< 
urecahk guUck tmcll. It is uetrly allied to the Leek, 

I ^ 


.-inns, asaanr 

iriuEx. lara ixiT=sS' 

^ iS. Jfit SSi. a_ -2i- 

.--> i= J--U .«-:. 

■g-r n nsg z:ii xibs :s 



[ 1358 ] 

ALLIUM arenarium. 
Sand Garlick. 

HEXANDRIA Moaogynta. 

Gen. Char. Cor. inferior, of 6 spreading petals. 
Spatka cloveo, containing many Sowers. Umbel 
dense. Stigma ample. 

Spec. Char. TJmbel bearing bulbs. Leaves flat with 
cylindrical sheaths. Spatha blunt. Stamina three- 
pointed. Petals roughish on the keel. 

Syn. Allium arenarium. Linn. Sp. PI. 426. Sm. 
Fl. Brit. 356. Hitds. 13S. Ifilk. 333. HuU. 12. 
A. sylvestre amphicarpon, fnliis porraceis, floribus et 
nuclds purpureis. Rait Syn. 370. 

\V E have several limes receired wild specimens and bulbs of 
this plant from WEslmorcland and Yorkshire, the on!)' counties 
knon-n to produce it. It grows in woods and fields, flowering 
in July, after which numerous darl:-purple bulbs spring forth 
among the flower-stalks, 

The radical bulb is ovale and brown. Stem erect, 3 fcet 
high, simple, rr>uml, smooth, leafy in the lower part. Leave* 
Qit, rough-edged, with long cylindrical shuaths. Umbel round 
and dense. Spatha of 3 or 3 short, elliptical, concave, pnint- 
IcM husks. Flowers red, bell-sbapcd. Three of the stamina 
tre simple, and the intermediate ones dilated, 3-forkcd, the 
middle scgrocnl bearing ihc anihcra. Gcrmen triangular. 
The seeds arc rarely ripened ; bul the plant propagates itself 
readily by thcbulb<, which fjl! in autumn from the umbel, and 
will continue in a garden, unaltered in its habit, for many 


[ 1658 ] 

ALLIUM carinatum. 
Mountai7t Garlicl: 

HEXANDBU Monogyma. 
Gj-n. Char. Cor. inferior, of 6 spreading peta 

Spaiha cloven, containing many flowers. Umbel 

dense- Stigma simple. 
Spec. Char. Umbel bearing bulbs. Leaves flat. All 

the stamina awlshapcd. Spaiha acute. 
Syn. Allium carinatum. Linn. Sp. PI. 426. Sm. H. 

Brit. 357. Hiids. 139. IVilh. 333. Hull. 72. 
A. montanum bicorae -purpureum proliferum. liaii 

Syn. 3G9. _^^^^^__ 

xSULBS of this Allium were brouglit from Westmoreland 
many years ago by Mr. Crowe, in whose gardeu the plant has 
ever since been preserved wiihoul requiring any particular at- 
tention, flowering in July, and we are obliged to that gcaile- 
nian for a specimen. 

Bulb ovate, whitish, perennial. Slcm about 3 feet high, 
Birople, round, smooth, its lower half leaJy. Leaves uot « 
quarter of an inch broad, bUintish, rather succulent, solid, 
thicker and roughish at the cdgej concave above ; coni-ex aod 
somewhat keeled at the back ; with ver)' long ribbed sheaths. 
Umbel rather loose aud spreading, the flowcrstalks being cIod- 
gsted as the flowers expand, and they arc accompanied at their 
baae by numerous elliptical blackish bulbs, nhich fall 09" and 
vegetate. Spaiha of 3 principal very long leaves, much diva- 
ricated and acule, one of which is fallen olf in our specimen. 
Flowers dull brownish yellow, the kccU of the petals darker, 
or greenish, smooth. Stamina all simple, awlshaiied, con- 
nected at their base, 3 earlier ihau the rest. Ccrmen with <S 
furrows. Style short] with a blunt simple stigma. Tlic seeds 
seldom ripen. 

I « 

J f f 

- 1 

, . \ ^ 

[ 488 ] 

ALLIUM oleraceum. 
Streaked Field Garlick. 

HEXANDRIA Maxogynia. 
Gen. Char. Cor. in 6 fprearling fejjmcnts. Spalhi 

containing many flowers. Umhi deni'c Capfule 

Spec. Char. Umbel bearing bulbs. Leaves rough, 

channelled, ribbed beneath. Stamina (implc. 

Spathawich two long points. 
Syn. Allium oleraceum. Linn. Sp. PI. 429. Hitdf. 

140. mib. 334. 
A. lylvcftrc bicome, florc ex hcrbacco albtcante, 

cum triplici in fingulis pctalis ftria atro-purpurel. 

Rait Syn. 370. 

1 HIS wiM fpeclmcn was gatliercd at Fincham, Norfolk, bf 
the Rev. Mr. I'orby. We have received others from Wcft- 
morcland, and Ray found this fpccies in his pan(h of Black 
Notlcjr, tflcx. It is perennial, flowering in July. This is 
certainly the oleractum of Linna:iis, though fomc have taken ic 
for his carinatum, a larger and di(tin£t kind- 
Bulb ihe fize of a hazel nut. Sicm round, (lender, leaff, 
near 2 feet high. Leaves fheathing at their bafe, a foot long, 
narrow, dull green, flat or channelled above, convex and 
ribbed beneath, appearing under a magnifier rough all over. 
Umbel fimple, terminal, erefl, Spalhi of two concave mem- 
branous valves, each terminating in a long fpreading leaf-like 
point, extending far beyond the flower-ftalks, which arc flendcr, 
divaricated, finglc flowered, intermixed at their bafc with 
numerous little ovate purple bulbs, which falling to the ground 
become new plants, according to the bountiful proviuon of 
nature for this and many other fpccies of Allium, by which 
they arc propagated without end. tjegmenis of the curolia 
equal, ovate, grccuifli white, with 3 purple lines. Stamina 
limple [not toothed), conncdlcd by one common bafe. Get- 
men witli 6 fuirowi, rough at the top. The whole herb has 
the fcrtor of garlick; the bulb has Icfs of that fccnt than 
many others. It ii a very troublefomc weed, though fortu* 
natclf of rare occurrence. 

C 1974 ] 

ALLIUM Tioeale. 
Croir Garlick. 

Gen. Char. Cor. infiefior, of 6 spreading petals. 

Spatha cloven, contahung many flowers. UmM 

dense. Stigma simple. 
Si'EC. Char. Umbel bearing bulbs. Leaves cylm* 

drical Samina tbree-poinied. 
Syn. Allium vineale. linn. Sp. PI. 428, Sm. Ft. 

Brit. 359. Huds. 139. /f7iA. 333. Hull. 72. 

ed. 2. 94. Relk. 132. Sikih. 109. Abbot. 74. 
A. sylvcstre. Rait Syn. 369. 

J. HIS Garlicic is found in dr)- fields, more puticulariy on a 
I'lilgBTcoiiB soil, » well as about old miDoui buddings, flower- 
ing in July. Our specimen grew near Mackard's tovrcTj 

llie root i* a amall, ovale, while bulb. Stem 9 ftet bight 
upright, slender, round, striated, Ica(>-. Lcavet long, taper- 
ing, cylindrical, hollow, ribbed, smooth, fading bet&re the 
flowers come out. Umbel small, with abundance of liiile 
ovate acute greenish bulbs, miermixed with a smaller number 
of capillary smooth purplish flower- stalks, cUib-shaped at 
the summit. Spaiha pomtcd, deciduous. Petals closed, pale 
rose- coloured with grem keels. St«mcn» lurgcr than the pe- 
tal*, ihe ctpiiUry lateral extremities of thi: 3 irifid ones longer 
than the part which bears the anthcr,ani!spte^ingbonzonialt)r. 
GemKn snmcwhat pyramidal, with 3 lateral prolubcraaces. 
fitylc very abort. 

r «>< 

f- 1 

[ "^ 1 


Gf3.C3.u. Cir. Eb 6 : 

Lcxws Ian- 
ccnbfee, og zxx=2l£Sw C=o-i Eg.t.-. a ca tbe tap. 

Jx. 14^. JHif. ia-, _*-. 3X+- Ai^- Cc«. 1 35. 

J^ TTTI^fet JErlfl i' i.*^ KfT J<K. ^7^^ 

f^ m^ "1111*1*1.1 ■TTMarrOT. acK Ac 'vcS-feacvm fv&k b- 
gp.»i#« In nM3 ccBz£ (X '^3=:^ fie^ Ars W ihc bannn of 

ALLIUM Schoenoprasum^ 
Chive Garlick, 

HEXAKDRIA hfonoggw. 

Gen, Ciub. Car. infrrior, of 6 spreading petal? 

Sjyatha clovpn, containing man^ flowers. Umbel 

dense. Stigma simple, 
Spec. Char. Stulk naked, round, the lieight of the 

foliaijc. Leaves round, somewhat tapering. 
BvH. Allium St Iicrnoprasum. Linn. Sp. PI. 432, 

Sm. Ft. Rrit. 3G0. Lif^hlf. 180. Huds. 6> 

mth. 335. Hull ed. 9. 95. " FL Dan. I. 971 
SelxEnoprasum. Cer, em. 176. 


Dil. PARSONS, formerly Irclurer on anatomy at Oxfo 
olucrvctl Mm plant wild, as he jiid^-il, by Fast castle, on 1^ 
borders of Bcrwickftliirc, unit Mr. Liglitfool ■was told it had 
been found in the Netln-r Lsirne, Argjlpshirc. Hudson and 
Withering say it grows in Wc-stinorrUnd and Yorkshire, so 
we presume IliL-rt- uin be no doubts on tho Bubji'cl. Wc hare 
only nccn gnrdi-n siKK:im<-ris. This spt-cie* is often ciillivatcd 
by coUagers, Iteing ealen cither rjw or dressed, like othera of 
its fcetid brethren. 

The Touis consist of blender, pale, upright, tufted, perennial 
bulbs, l^-aves three or four, radical, Mi^hdy i^preadin^, tubu- 
lar, cyliiidi icnl, I«pi-r-pointed, raiher gliucoirs, sheathing the 
stalk with Iheir diltiU-d Ikis<-s. Stalk solitary, about a foot 
high, Ireiiig neady the In-ighl of the leaver, cylindrical, 
smootli. S|uitha of (wo ovale L-uves, shorter tliiin the umbel, 
which is denM', formed of ni.iny purplish- rositxilou red flowers, 
whoee stamens are all Kitnple. 

The render of (lie Flora Brilannica is requested lo correct 
an error of the press in ihe name, which HhouM be writtt-n as 
above, alluding to the habit of the plant, from ^'»*'>i, a rush. 


[ 622 ] 

ITILLARIA Mclcagris. 
Ccmmcn Fritillarv. 

HtXAXDRIA .l£nKsr»A 

Gen-. Char. Ccr. inferior, bell-fliaped, of 6 petals, esch 

marked with a hone\-bearing cavity above its clav. 

S/dNihu as long as the corolla. CaL none. Seab 

Spec. Char. All the leaves alteraate. Stem fingle- 

flovvered. Neclary linear. 
Syn. Pritillaria Melcagris. Limi. Sf. PL 436. fhij/. 

144. ffilb.^^s- S^Jb.i^j. Siiflb.iio. Abhot.y^. 

Curl. Lfmd.fafc. ?. /. to. Dwkf. H, Sicc.fafc. 9. 3, 
P, varicgata. Ger, ait. 149. 

Jl F we allow the I^fu.-'jum 3 place in a u-ori^ 011 Britifh planti, 
«i- caiinut helilatc about the hVit-ihriaj which, though not 
tioticeU by Ray or Dilleiiiti$, is very common in various parts 
of M itkllefex, as well as in SutVolk and other counties. Mn. Cob- 
bold fent it from Little Stonhani. with the preceding, Ortutbo- 
galum umM/iiruin,aiid Ccl.i'httm n at u f, ami Mr. Murray, 
from Reading. It smvi in moil! pallurcs or meadows, isper- 
ciinial, flowenng in M.iv, and the blulToms are frequently found 


[ 63 ] 

TULIPA fyiveftrit. 
mid Tulip. 

MEXANDRIA Moaogyiiia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla of fix petals, bell-lhaped. 

Spec. Char. Flower folitary, fomewhat droo] 

Leaves lanceolate. Stigma obtufc, trianguli 

Stamina hairy near the bale. 
Syn. Tulipa fylveftris. Limi. Sp. PL 438. Ft. 

N. 184. 


.W O writer on Dritifh plants has hitherto noticed the 
Tulip ; but wc arc encouraged to give it as a native, or at Icaft 
a naturalized fpecies, by the obfcrvations of W. Mathew, EJq. 
who favoured us with this fpecimen from an old chalk-pit near 
Bury i as well as by the opinion of the lace very accurate and 
learned Mr. Rofe of Norwich, and of Dr. Smith, who have 
both found it in a chalk-pit near that city. It grows in a bed 
of good mould, above the chalk, the roots lying feveral iacbes 
below the furface, and flowers in April. 

The circumftances mod remarkable about this fpcdes, and 
which abundantly didinguifli it ffom the garden Tulipa Gef- 
ncriana, are the narrow leaves, the nodding flower, the hajri- 
ncfs at the bafe of the (lamina, and on the tips of the petals* 
and efpccially the limple obtufe form of the lligma, which 
is totally dilfcrent from that of the garden tulip. The flower 
too is fragrant, and the pollen yellow, not black- The ao- 
therK are remarkably long. In Fhra Danica, t. 375, they are 
reprefenlcd Ihort and round. Linna:u3 has given an excellent 
concifc hiftory of this plant, in his Flora Suecica aborc 

[ " ] 

Tellow Star ofBetblebem. 


G£H. Char. Cir. of ii pcDals, acSt^ pcnnanenty 
from about the mijdwaf fprcadiog. Filamats al- 
ternately broader at the bafc. 

Si-ec.Chas. Stalk angular, bearing two leaves. Flower- 
ftalks in to umbel, undivided.. 

Sth. Ornithogalum luteum. Um. Sp. PL 439. Hh^. 
Fl.yin. 143. fVltb. Bol. Arr. 347. Rait Syn. 372. 

" LOWERS in March and April, in woods and paftum, but 
in very few parts of England. Near Oxford it hat been found 

[ 499 ] 

ORXITHOGALrM pyrenaicum. 
Spikai Star of Betkkkem. 


Gex. Chak. Co'. of 6 pgQk, erect, pamuwnt, from 

aboc: dw milTsy <prca£a£. FiitmeHU akeniate- 

If brooder st d» hue. 
Spec. CnAR. Sptk* Tar Lx^. Fibiiiaus all dilated. 

Flover-salks eqaal, ^ira£i^, groving erect as 

dtefrui: npso&. 
Sym. Onuthogalum prmaicam. fin. Sp. PL 440. 

ffuds. \*S. fTak. 537- 
O. angustifbGum najas, flofSxts ex albo Tirraceotibus. 

Raii Syn. STS. 

XN pastures in ibe soatbera or nudlmd coontie*, bat 
not friequcnt. This roe ci men wu tent br tbc Ber. Tbonut 
Oriebar Marsh, F.L^. from teyaaa Park wood, Bedfonl- 
^ire, who also OKntiaiu this plant'* growing copiously it 
£aton Socoa ia the same countr. Hitkienn it has been met 
with in Sussex and Somctsctshiiv only. The flowos be^ to 
opra in June, and conunuc throo^ JoJr. 

Root an ovale bulb. Leaves loiig, linear, roundly chan- 
nelled, their tips soon wiiberin^. Stilk two feet or mote 

[ '3° ] 
ORNITHOGALUM umbellatum. 

Common Star of Bethlehem. 

HEXAKDRIA Utn^^mia. 

Ges. Char. Cor. of 6 petals, crcA, pcnnaneDt, from 
about the midway fprcading. FilameTtts alternate- 
ly broader at the bale. 

Spec. Char. Flowers in a corymbus. Flower-ftaJks 
rifing above the top of the main ftalk. Filament* 
tapering, entire, 

Syn. Omithogalum umbellatum. Liim, Sp. PI. 441. 
HttJj. Fl. All. 143. Wah. Bot. Arr. 347. 
O. vulgare el verius, majus et minus. Jiaii Syn. 37a. 

X. H I S U fupporal not to hare been onginally a Britifh na- 
tive, though DOW fcHind in x ftaie of nature in fome paiU of 
Norfolk. Our rpccimen was obl^ii^ly conununicated fiom 
Babergh, near Norwich, by Mr. Wagnaff'. 

The root is a whiu roundifh bulb. Leaves fe^'erat, linear, 
bluntift), and fbon uithcrine at the tip, concave on the upper 
fide, with 3 whits rib. Stalk round, imooih, 8 or 10 inche« 
high, Icnuinating in an ere^l eorv-mbus (lor it m by no means 
an umbel, and therdbrc Linnieus would have done well to hare 
chained ihf old name] of 6 to 8 or 10 flowers, which appear 
in May. Brac^eie lanceolate, acute, membranous, and ladmg, 
about half as long as the flowcr-ftalks. IVtals of a pure ena- 
melled w Kite, with a green line alimc thnr backs, much fprcad- 
ing, ant) permanent. Stamina half thdr length, broad and 
flat, lapcnnc to a lliarp point, not emarvinate, but entire, as 
HalTclquil), My^nd, and Linnxus himfelf obfen-ed ; we have 
therefure, trom his own MS. obfcr^ations, correfled the fpcci- 
fic chancer. Germeu turbinated, with fix notches, aod a 
(hort, crc^ fimple ihle. 

The roots are eatable when boiled, and much ufed as food in 
the Levant. Ljnnieus favs, Manl. 364, they arc the doves' 
dung which uas fold fo dear during the fi^ of Samaria (id 
BwS ttf Kingt, eb. 6, v. a^) ; thou^ Olaus Cdfiui (Hienbttt, 
vol. 2, p. 30] and many other critiu take that term in iu lite- 
ral fenfc. If LimiKua is right, wc obtain a fort of clue to ibe 
derivation of Omithogalum (BirtTt-mllkJ which has puaaled 
all etymolcigin*. May not that denomination apply to the 
white Buid which always accompanies the dung of uinls, and 
15 their urine ? One may almoft perceive a (tmilar cnmbinatioa 
of coliium in the green and white of this flower, which accorda 
preciMy in that refpcd with the defcription Diofcorides gives 
of his Omithogalmn *. 

* Sintt lite ^anir*iwril»nw<hiTe hid the rilitfiSionr/ finding UaaM 
fliM U* Uiae •«{ilaaati(Mi in hii Ic^hun on the Niiunl Ordui of Ffaat 
-bjPr«MbcCif«lu, Hanburs, 17)1, p. il;. 

/'^—- ■- ^■''- 7"' 

(' 1997 *"]" 

Drooping Star of Bethlehem. 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. 
GsN. Char. Cor. of (> petals, piinnanent, their upper 
part spreading. Filaments dilated at the base. 
Capsule superior, of 3 cells. Seeds roundish. Calyx 
Spec. Char. Flowers pendulous toward one side. Fi-' 
laments dilated, cohering, b^ll-shaped; three of 
them longer and cloven. 
Syn. Ornithogalum nutans, Linn. Sp. Pl.^il, ff^lltL 
Sp. PI. r. 2. 125. Ji/. Hon. Kevi. v. I. ♦♦S. 
Jacq. Justr. I. ;J01. Fi. Dan. t. 912. Curl. 
Mag. t. 2G9. liolh. Germ. r. 1. 151. 
O. n. 12Ui. Hall. Ildvet. v. 2. 103. 
O. neapolitanutn. Cius. Exot. append. 2. 8, 9* 


ClUSIUS received this plant from his friend Tmperati of I 
Naples, and it has thence been jud^d a native of that country- j 
Othera have reported it lo be of Cretan origin, but Dr. Sib-^l 
thorp did not observe it in Crete, nor any where else in lii« I 
Grecian tour. Its original place of growth is therefore, U | 
Mr. Curtis Euggests, doiibtfnl ; but as Haller, Jacquin, Roth, 
and the editors of the Flura Danica admit it inio ihtir works, 
on (he ground of its being at least nalnralized, if not wild, ' 
about towns, orchards, &c., in the countries Ihey discrihedj 
we adopt it hkcwise, our specimen haviiiii been sent by the 
Rev. G. R. Lealhes from high fields near Bury, where lhi> , 
Ornitkogalum grows in great profusion, Bowering early in ' 

Bulb ovate, commonly deep in the ground. Leaves all ' 
radical, pale and somewhat glaucous, linear, channeUcd, 
acule. .Stullc solitary, rather taller than the leaves, cylindrical, 
creel. Cluster simple, a little drooping, composed of 7 nr H 
large atid not incli-gaiit greenish silvery-white fioucrs, which 
lean towards one side, and as they fade become q>jite pen- 
dulous. The permanent petals close over the germcn, which 
becomes a roundish nicnibrannus capsule, 'I he stamens are 
very broad, 3 of ihem longer than ihc rest, and iwu-lobed at 
Ihc top beyond their anthers. The bracltas arc lanceolate, 
acute, longer than ihc partial stalks, but shorter than the 


[ 1931 


Siarch Hyacinth. 

Gen. Char. Cor, of I petal; tube swelling; limb 

in 6 equal segments. Filaments uniform, insened 

into the tube. Ca^s. superior, of 3 cells. Seedt 

globose, about 2 in each cell. Cat. none. 
Spec. Char. Tube ovate, adth six furrows. Upper 

flowers sessile, barren. Leaves linear, looseljr 

Syn. H^-acinthus racemostis, Linn. Sp. PI. 4S5. /FilltL 

Sp'. PL V. 2. 170. Sjo. Prod. Fl. Gnrc. Sikth. v. I. 

238. Jacq. yfustr. I. 187. CurU Mag. t. 123. 
H. botryoides czcruleus. Ger, em. 118. 

W E can no longer refuse this plant a place in (he Fhra Bri- 
lannica ; though, like many oihcrs, uniiuliccd by Kay ami 
Dillenius, il is 50 abundantly wild in many places, that nothing 
hut its being amongst our oldest and moft vulgar garden 
flowers, and thence possibly nsturalized, could cause a doubt 
on the Bubjcct. It enters the carihy top of the anticnt citv 
wall on the north side of Norwich for many yards, along with 
Teucriiim CkamiBiiryt, I. 680, an e<)ually doublful tiat'rve. 
Our specimen was gathered in grassy fields on a saniJy soil at 
Cavcnham, Suffolk, in May last, by the Rev. G. R. Leathcs, 
and we have received others, aa certainly wild, from Dr. Lantb 
of Ncwbcry. 

The butos are ovale, often crowded, sometimes scattered. 
Leaves numerous, linear and very narrow, channelled, taper 
at their base, and loosely spreading. Stalk solitary, shoricr 
than the leaves, erect. Cluster ovate, dense, of numerous 
deep blue flowers smclhng like wet starch, the upjier noci 
sessile and destitute of a pistil. Stamens rangvd m S rows 
within the tube. Limb whitish, amall. Capsule of 3 lobes, 
with 3 sccdii in each cell. 

We dare not separate the genus Muscari from HvacfHtkuj, 
as H. romamii, which is truly monopeialous and therefore 
not a Scilia, so oalurally combines them. See Carl. Mag. 

[ ^3 1 

S C I L L A veraa. 

Vernal SquiJ. 

HEXASDRijI Mim^jma. 

(Jen. Char. Cir. of lix petals, fpreading, deciduous. 

Filsmfiits of equal thickDcfs throughoui. 
Spec. Chas. Root folid. Corymbus hemifphaeTical^ 

wUh few flowers. Biadcx lanccoUte, obttifc. 

Leaves linear, channcUod, aumerous. 
SVN. Scilla vemi. HmJ/. Ft. Am, 142. WUh. B»t. 

Jrr. 348. yfiioi Hvt. Kew. K I. 445. 
S. bifolta. JJibif. Fl. Sitl. 181. Fi. Dm. /. 568. 
Hyacimhus, No. i. Rati Sjm. ^-ji. (The fynonjrtns 


1 HIS it a maritime plant found among rock* on the 
wcftcm coafls of W^cs, in the lOc oT Man, and ia the He> 
brides. Our fpecimen u-as prodacc4 to the Mufcum garden, 
under the cate of Mr. Uicktbn, from a bulb brought from the 
weft of England. The plant appears in iu wild flate to be t 
luxuriant. It flovcri in April. 

Mr. Hudfon firll proved this to be dilUnft from the Linn 
Scilla bifolia | but we cannot help tbinking the fy nony ms be has 
cited belong rather to Scilla Italica linn, though Tcry like oar» 
at Grft fight. It is not without rclu^Dcc we dillcnt from a 
writer to whom tltc botanjr of Engbsd is fo Tery much obl^cd, 
•nd whufc merit is bdt known to thofe who hare moA deeply 
ttttdki the iamc fubjcd. 


C 24 ] 

S C I L L A bifolia. 

TwQ~leaved Squ'tU. 

Gen. Char. Cor. of lix pclals, fpreading, decidu- 
ous. Filameiili of equal iliicknefs throughout. 
Spec. Char. Root folid. Flowers nearly crcCt.wJih- 

out brafleie. Leaves. lanceolate, generally two. 
Syn. Scilia bifolia. Unit. Sp. PI. 443. Jacq. FL Aufi. 
V. 2. 11./. 117. 
Hyacinthus ftellatus Fuchiii. Ctr.em.iofi. \ 

VV E ate induced to prcfent the EngHQi botanill wUh a &garc 
of this pbnt, not merely bccaufe it is what has been confound- 
ed, even by Ray hinifelf, with Scilia vcrna, but chiefly becaufc 
it is a doubtful matter, after all, whether it be not Ukewifc s na- 
tive of Britain. Our authority for faying fo is Buddlc*s Hcr- 
biirium, prefervcd in the Britilh Mufeum, and alu-ays ftippofcd 
decilive in fuch cafes, as containing native ffiectmens aloiic. 
In that colledlion is to be feen an indubitable fpccimeu of Scilia 
bifolia, with the fynonym in Ray's Synopfis, p. 372 \ btil, ua- 
lucktly, without mention of any particular place of growth. It 
is moreover marked Htrb. Brilt. tab. 6-],f. 5, which refers to 
Petiver's Englifh Herbal, where a figure of it is to be found, 
rude indeed, like all thofc of Petivcr, but fufiicient to afccrtain 
;i)c plant. 

Scilia bifolia grows on the continent in groves and thickets, 
flowering in ilie fpring. The fpecimcn here figured flowered 
in a garden, but from whence brought is not known. The 
leaves are fcareely ever mote than two tn number ; the bnc- 
tea: either altogether wanting, or fo minute as to be hardljr per* 
ccptible. Modoftlic fptcics of this genus arc chara^erized 
radictjatida (with a folid bulb), to diflinguiOi them from Scilia 
Ulio-hyacimhus, which has the fcaly bulb of a lily, a circum- 
(Uncc which fomc botaoills fccm to have mifundcrftood. 


[ 78 ] 
S C I L L A autumnalis. 

Autumnal Squill, 

Gbs. Char. C»r. of fix petals, fpreading, deciduous. 

Filaments of equal thicknefs throughout. 
Spec. Char. Leaves linear. Flowers fbmewhat co- 
r}-nibolc, (landing on naked alcending fiower-ftallu 
about their own length. 
Srjf. Scilla autumnalis. LtTtn. Sp. PI. 443. ^^^^. 
Ft. An. 243.. With. Bot. Arr. 349. 
Hyacinthus autumnalis minor. Rait Syn. 373. 

J\ NATIVE of dry pallurei in the foadiem parti of 
England. The prefent fpccimen was obligingly communicaml 
from St. Vincent's rocks, near the hotiwell, Briftol, by Dr. ' 
John Ford, F. L- S- Owing to the moifture of the prcfait 
autumn, 1793, it ts more luxuriant than ufual. The plam 
liai formerly been found on feveral heaths near London, grow- 

( > 

; )!' 

[ S77 ] 

fClLL-V nutans. 
Han-UiL or fTUd Hyacinth. 

Gen* Char. Cor. d 6 pe^:^ sfmading, deciduous. 

Filaments of equal Trvtnefs tfannigfaout. 
Spec. Char. Root ^.lid. Spike diooping. Flowers 

pendent, bell-^r:-i, scraewfaat cylindrical, their 

tipG reflexed. Brz^ex in pairs, acute. Leaves 

SvN. Hyadnthus noa-scripnis. Linn, Sp. PI. 4JS. 

HufU. Fl. An. 14J. If'ith, Bot. Arr. 356, Relk. 

Cant. 136. Sitth. Or. liO. Curt. Land. fate. 2. 

(. 18. 
H. Anglicus. Rati Syn. 373. 

V^OMMON in thickets, bushy fields, and under dry hedges, 
flowering in May. 

Bulb while, solid, acrid and poi^nnus, but abounding with 
the mucilage which makes starch. Leaves linear, channelled, 
acute, flaccid, reflexrd from within 8 or 3 inches of their sum- 
mit, of a greyish green. Stalk erect, a little higher than the 
leaves, terminating in a drooping spike of from 6 to 10 pendent 
alternate flowers, fach standing on a little blue flower-stalk, 
accompanied by a pair of lini-ar acute bracteae of the same co- 
lour. ' Petalii nearly linear, perfectly distinct at the base, but 
approaching each other so as to form a cylindrical figure for 
about two thirds of their length, when they become suddenly 
recurved and soreading. Stamina united for a considerable way 
to their corresponding petals, uniform and thread -shaped. Ger- 

■ ■ - ■• • ■ ■ " .AV-lIu nn-:.,n,l Mr. 


ANTHERICUM ferotinum. 
Mountain SpliierwarU 

REXJNDRIJ Mm->gr"i- 
GlK. Char. Cor. o( 6 fprcading petals, permanent. 

filaments ihread-fliapcd. Capfuk luperior. SeeJs 

angular. C<i!. none. 
Spec. Char. Leaves fcmicylindrical ; thore on the 

flem dilated at their bafe. Stem mofdy fingle- 

SvN. Anthericum ferotinum. L'mtf. Sp. PL 444. Sm. 

Fi. Brit. 367. Hiuif. i^. rrifi.s39- ^"^^-73- 
Bulbofd olpina juncifolia, pericarpio unico crefto in 

Aimmo cauliculo dodraniali. Ii,iu Syn. 374. /• 17. 

/. .. 

J. H K Ailhertcum ferotinum, bcini; found only on tlie moft 
innucclTilile iilpiiic mcks of North VValcs, has been fcen \rf 
very fuw BrJLilli bolsnids. Our (pecinicn was communicucd 
in a frefh llaic by J. W. Griffith, Efq. of Garn, a penikmiin to 
whom we are inilehletl for many valuable partieufars concern- 
ing the botany of hiaowti Icquelicrcd and romaniiccountry, attd 
wfio finds this plant in plenty on t)ie rocks a)ioM- the alpJite 
valley of Cwm idwel, Carnarvon llti re*, flowering in June cv 
early in Jnlvt fo that the lunieyiro.'imint fcvuis not ittj 
tiappily applied. 

The root is perenninl, confiding of a Oender oblong cunred 1 
bulb, ftith many tibrct at its bale. Strni from 3 lo 6 inchci 
high, folitar\', erc^l, round, fmooih, Icsfy-, generally ficnr.le 
find fiiif^le-floucretl, as Liniivus defines it ; but Mr. Grimth 
haa 001 unfrc(]uendy oblcrved it branched and bearing man^ 
flowers. Radicil li-avc* Render, feinicylindriru) or ai^dar, 
furmounting tbe Ucm : the ie(i alternate, (hon, dilated at their 
bale. Flower lernunal, ert-fl, C()ni|inn.-il by Dr. Hiehardfim 
to that of Wood -Sorrel (/. 761), which it at firft (johi foine.. 
what refcinble*, the petal* bcine white," exienially veined 
with mir)i)ifh red. Stamina thrcail-(1i3|>cd, fnxxtih. Gcrnica 
fupenor, betoniing al Itnijlh an obliilW nictiibranoua ihrce- 
ioDcd capfiile, rruwncd with the liyle and invefled wiih the 

' hcred petals, and divided into 3 cclU, containing nume- 
« curved triangtiUr litiat^d feeds. 

* S«« a Tout n<un>l Nonb W<ki, b; iti* lU*. W. Bioftcft 

I. -•••»• 



• ^\ 


[ 535 1 

NARTHECIUM offifragum. 

Lancajiire JJfikodtL 


BEXJXDRtJ Utmegyms. 
Gbx. Char. CjI. none. Petals 6, fpreading, perma- 
nent. S/amiiu tbread-fbaped, haiiy. Cafjttk Ai< 
perior, pnl'matic. S^eJs with an appendage at 
each end. 

Spec. Char 

Syx. Narthecium oflifraguni. HttJf.\^$. R^ttb.x^^t 
Anthericum offifragum. Linn. Sp. PL 446. Ft. Dan. 

I. 42. Dickf. fi. Sii-c.fafe. 1. 5. Relb. 138. 
Phalangium anglicum paluftre, Iridis folio. Eau 

^™- 3;j- 

xV NATIVE of black iuri>- bogs in the north, as wdl as in 
SuTTe>-, Kent, and on Dei&^ham moor Norfolk, where it 
floffi-en in July or Augull. 

Root fibrous, fomcwhat luberous and creeling at in the ge- 
nus of Iris. Stem 6 nr 8 inches hifh, cuived at the baft^ 
kkA, fimplc, round, fniooih, clothed with a few aJtemate, 
Ihort, pointed, carinatt^ ]ea^'es. The ruhcal leaves aUb re- 
femble thore of the Iri^, except in being a great deal fmaller ; 
they are equiuni, f«ord-(bapcd, pointed, nervous and finooth. 
Spike tcntiiiial, erert, of feieral vellow flowers, Mfhofe fuutftalks 
are ereA, alternate, fimplc. angular, fumifhed with one brade« 


. I 


t ^39 ] 

ASPARAGUS officinalis. 
Common Asparagun, 


HEX^NDRU Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cor. in 6 segments, erect, inferior. 

of 3 cells, with 2 seeds in each. 
Spec. Char. Sitmi herbaceous, generally erect, i 

Leaves bristle-shaped, Bexible. Spines 

Stipulx solitary. 
SvN. Asparagus officinalis. L'mn. Sp. PL 448. Sud 

FL Jn. 145. tf^ith. Bat. Arr, 352. 
Asparagus. Raii S^n. 267. 

,JfCW penons would suppose the diminutive herb ticlbq 
us to be llie origin of our luxurianl garden Asparigiis, coin' 
nionly called Sparrow-grass, and very vulijarly Gran. 
grows wild in nunlime places in the south of blugloiid, abuoi 
dmilly on the pebbly beich opposite the tVrry goiug firna 
Wcymouih to Pordand Uland, from whence we received ii h] 
favour of A. B. Lambert, tUq. Dowering in August. 

Rout perennial, creeping, with ver\' long thicK simple fibrci) 
as in nioM of this natural order. Stun erect, occasiuaallj 
procumbent, round, simple, and bcanng altcrualc tcalcs (a 
stipuiz) without leaves below, in the tipper part branching ii 
a panicicd alternate manner. Leaves in tufls, very narrow am 
bri«llv, but flexible, not rigid or spinous. Stipule sc^iarv 
ineinbranous, triangular, acute, the upper ones oratr an( 
jagged. We have nevxr (as Dr. Siokcs aUo remarks) found 
the inner stipulte mentioned by Linnxus. Flowers frun 
the axilla; of the branches, on capillary simple stalk.«, droop- 
ing. Not Ending their inner segments reflcxed, as the generic 

^character of LinnsMS requires, we have altered thst chvtcter. 

KThc flowers appear hcrmapbroJite, diough in somu the lU* 
nioa, in others the piitillum, arc occasionally abortive. 
~^le deeply 3-c1eft. Berry n-d, sumetimcs iu a poor soil 
BrfiKtiiig but one seed in each cell. 

[ ^°3S 
Lify of the Valley. 

HEXANURIA MaiiKgynta. 

Gen. Char. Cor. in 6 fegments. Col. none. Stjlt 
longer than the (lamina. Sttgma 3-fiHcd. Bmj 
fuperior, 3-cellcd, fpotted before il is ripe. 

Spec. Chab. Stalk naked, fcmicylindrical. tlowm 
fpiked, drooping, on parliul flallcs. 

Syh. Convallaria majalis. IJnn. Sp.Vh 45 1. Sm., Hiuif. i^S. IVtib. 341. Hull. •}!. 
/;?/*. 138. Sikh. ill. ^hh/.yO. /.a. CW/. 
LonJ. fafc, 5. /. i\. 
Lllium conralliiim. Rait Syn. 264. 

A H I S elegant and delightfully fragrant plant, To getitfalljT 
cultivated in flower-gardens, is fometimes to be met with 
fliady mountainous fpots, or on heathy ground, 10 fw-cnP 
parts of England, as about Hampflead and llighgate, and ti 
a holly wood between Norwich and Thorpe, where it i» tmif 
wild. Our fpecimens were obligingly commtinicalcd by 
S. Hailtlone and W. Hurftlcr, cfqrs. from rocky woods at Hcb- 
den bridge near Halifax. 

Roots perennial, malted and creeping. Leaves two, radical, 00 
long tlalka, upright, elliptical, ribbed, entire; the Halks invefted 
with fcales, from among which alfo arifea the fulitary naked 
flower- (lalk, (horter than the leaves, Hal on one fide, round 00 
the other, bearing a finipic fpike of drooping, white,bell-(haped, 
wry odoriferous flowers, each on its own ciincd round lilde ' 
(Ulfc, having a lanceolate braflea where it fprings from ibe'j 
principal one. Stamina awl- fh aped, Ihort. Style cliib-fhapedf 
triangular upwards. Berry globular, fearlcl when ripe. 

The fimts of ihe unripe fruii make a principal but unfatU- 
fadory part of the generic charafter of (.'onv^iUaria m Lin- 
MBiu. The uudividcd (ligma chiefly diflinguilhcs it Ti 



CONVALLARIA verticiUata. I 
Narroiv-Uaved Soiomo«*i Seal, 

HBXASDRIA Momtg^ma. 
Ges. Chir. Cor. 6-cIeft. Berry Tpotted, j-t 
Spec. Char. Leaves verticillate. 

Syk. CoDvallaria verticiUata. Litm. Sp. PL 45^ 

Dan. I. 86, bad. 
Polygonatum caule fimplici, ere^Oj foliic verticilUtis J 

ellipticis. Ha//. Hifi. 1244. 
P. minus. Ger, tm. 903. 

1/ O R this new and very inlerufling addition to the caukrue 
ofBritifh vegetables we are indebted to Arthur Bruce, Eftu Se- 
creUry to the Nat. Hi(i. Society of fxiinbui^h, who firfl fband 
it, July ift, 1791, in the Den Rechip, a deep woody vaDtv, 
four mJcs norlh-eali of Dunkeld in Pcrthlhire. From bJs wild 
fpecimena, afliHed by a recent garden one, for tbe diiledion of 
the flower, our figure was drawn. 

The root is perennial, flelhy, creeping horixontally tnwog 
flones, in rocky, fhady, alpine placcK. Stem tnA, near 3 led 
high, angular, (Iriated, nuked at bottom, in the upper pan 
clothed with copious leaves, which are lanceolate, bluntifli, ca* 
tire, fmooth, glaucous beneath, «il)i numerous panlk) nerves. 
and Hand, nearly fcHlle, about 5 or 4 together in t whoil all 
the way up tbe liein, with here and there a (Iroggline leaf or 
two by itfelf. In weak plants mod of rhem are inerajr Of 
file, with 2 or 3 whorls occalionally. Stipulx noite. ri 
fevcral of the lowell wboHs arifc fdlitar)-, branched, flenikta 
<ir(x>ping flower-llalks, each bearing \»tt or tliree ftowcn, wludk 
api'ear m the middle of June, and are white, e\ lindrical, dividea 
aoout a quarter of ibeir length into fix bluntilh fcgments, bearded 
at the tin on the inftdo. The Hamina are as long a» the tube o' 
the coroUa; flyle Ihorier; genncn round, green; berry Uoe. 

CONVALLARIA Poljgonatum. 
Angular Solomon' s-SeaL 


HEXANDRU Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Cor. 6-cIeft. Berry spotted. Swelled. 
Spec. Char. Leaves alternate, embracing the stem, 
which is angular. Flower-stalks axillary, bearii^ 
scarcely more than one flower. 
Syn. Convallaria Polygonatum. Linn. Sp. PL 451. 
Huds. Fl. An. 146. mtk. Bat. Arr. 354. 
Polygonatum floribus ex singulis pediculis. Rail 
Syn. 263. 

Supposed to be much more rare than the last described, 
and we believe it is so, though it may have been overiooVed from 
its resemblance to that species. It is thought to be peculiar 
to mountainous situations in the north ; but this specimen was 
gathered by Mr. J. Rayer in Kent, and Dr. Smith found it on 
the sandy downs of Holland near the Hague. It flowen to 
May or June, and is perennial. 

Root and whole habit of the plant like C, muUt/hra, except 
that the stem is scarcely so tall. The essential differences are, 
that the stem of C. Polygonatum is angular and compremed; 
the flowers scarcely more than one on a flower-stalk, larger, 
more fragrant, with broader segments, and more remarkably 
bearded. The berries are said to be blue. 

The root of this also has been made into bread. Our South 
Sea voyagers made beer of the sweet root of Dracana termlna- 
lUj ft plant very nearly related to these Convallarias. As they 
seem (o abound with farinaceous matter, they might pertups 
be made into starch or hair-powder when a scarcity of wbest 
IS apprehended, for such a misfortune ought to be ilwayt 
guarded against in time before it is actually felt. 



.1-..VB ;'-J 

A..fc-,- J ,W'>J' 


:./;»! A 

.IU1 - 

CONVALLARIA multiflora. 
Common Solomoji's-Scal. 

Gen. Char. 
Spec. Char. 

which is round. 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. 
Cor. 6-cleft. Berry spotted, 3-celIed. 
Leaves alternate, embracing the stem. 
Flower-stalks axillary, many- 

Syn. Convallaria multiSora. Linn. Sp. PL 452. 
Huds. Fl. An. 147. Wit}u Bat. Arr. S53. 
Polygonatum. JRaii Syn. 263. 

A NATIVE of woods and thickets in various part* of 
England, though not very common. It is often met wth in 
coiiiilr)' gardens, and will even bear the smoke of London. It 
is perennial, flowering in May or early in June. 

Tlie roots are fleshy, creepii^ horizontally, and arc said by 
Llnn«us in Flora Suecica to have been sometimes made into 
bread. Stemit annual, a foot or mure in hdght, simple, a 
tittle curved, leafy, smooth, round. Leaves alternate, cUipticiI, 
ribbed, each of those towards the middle part of the stem bear- 
ing from their bosoms a branched flower-stalk, which susuini 
from s to 5 drooping floMxrs, of a whitish colour tipped with 
green, very slightly downy at the summit, with a faint smcUof 
bitter almonds. St.imina short, inserted into the tube of the 
corolla, as we ought to have described those of C- reriicitlala 
(tab. 128). Style slender, oa long as the lube, with 3 3-clcft 
stigma. Berries red, but rarely produced, the plant incrcaMng 
■0 much by root. — Children sometimes cat the tmripe gcrmea, 
■ it has a sweetish taste like grvcn peas. 

[ 356 ] 

ACORUS Calamus. 
Saeet Flag. 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. ' 
Gen. Char. Spadix cylindrical, clothed with florets. 

Cor, of six petals, naked. St^le none. Cajti, of 

three cells. 
Spec. Char. Summit of the stalk above the flowers 

very long, and leaf-like. 
Syk. Acorus Calamus. Linn. Sp. PI. 4fi2. Huds. 

Ft. An. 147. li^itL Bol. Arr. 357. Relfu Cant, 

140. SibtL Ox. 112. Tfoodv. Med. Bot. *72. 

t. 173. Dn/andr. in Ait. Ihrt. Kew. v. I. 474. 
A. verus, sive Calamus Officinarum. Raii Syn. 437. 

J. HIS is not a very common inhabitant of pools, ditcbet^ 
and banks of rivers, and the flowers arc extremely rare. We 
received ihis wild specimen from A. B. Lambert, Em). gathered 
near Hampton Court. In the river Yare, both above and bdow 
Norwich, it is more plentiful than in most other places, loso- 
much that, at the Mayor's annual feast in June, the cathaJnl 
is entirely Hlrcwed with this plant, which, being trodden upoo^ 
perfumes the whole building; and bowers arc conslructM in 
the streets, of its leaves, neatly platted, and stuck with cv- 
phera or other devices made of the garden ranunculus. Tm 
dried root powdered is successfully used by the country people 
in Norfolk as a cure for the ague. 

The root is thick and spong)-, wiih many long radicles,- tatiij 
(listinguinhcd by its aromatic smell. Leaves upright, long, 
sword-shaped, Dright-grccn, with a similar smell to that of 
the root, uut fainter; not unlike the odour of myrtle leaves. 
Stem like the leaves, except in being thicker below the spike, 
which comes out laterally (in June or July), about mid-w^ 
from the root to the summit, and is cylindrical, tapering, 
naked, ctiitbed with innumerable, thick-set, green flowers, 
e*ch having six mflcxed c<]iial petals, six stamina rather shoner 
tbui the pctoli, and an elliptical germen with a sessile stigma. 


J UNCUS acutus: 
Great Sharp Sea Rush, 

HEXANDRU Monogynta. 
Gek. Char. Ca[. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. ouu 

Caps, superior, of 3 valves, with 1 or 3 cells. Seeii 

several. Sligmax 3. 
Spec. Char. Stem round, naked. Panicle temunaL 

General involucrum of two spinous leaves. Capsules 

roundish, pointed. 
Syn. Juncus acutus. Linn. Sp. PI. 463. Sm. FL 

BriV. 37*. Huds. 14-8. fV it It. 3*6. HuU.IS, 
}. acutus, capituUs Sorghi. Rati Sijn. 431. 

Prod. 21./. 2. 

XF our present Number be deficient in brilliant flowers, tt 
coHtains perhaps more rare and curious articles than anvwr 
have yet published ; nur is this Juncus, though last, the leatt 
valuable among them. Manv botanists have not dittinguished 
it from the common J. marttinuts. Ft. Brit. 

Our specimen came from Crumlin Burrows in May 1S03; 
so that Its flowering season seems earlier than is nuTked in 
Fl. Brit. We have however gathered the but half ripe captule* 
in autumn on the north coast of Norfolk, (where the pfanl it 
very rare,] so that it is prubably long in truciilicatioD. 

Root perennial, nmnmg deep into the sand. Steou 3 or 4 
feet high, simple, straight, stiff and very strong. X£avcs ttke 
the stem in form, but shorter, each ending m a very sharp 
hard point. Panicle terminal, compound, accompanied by 
9 large, hut unequal, sharp leaves, and many internal sheathing 
membranous scales. Flowere clustered. Calyx-Ieavcj artlCt 
blunt. Capsule lar^, almost globular, with a small point, 
brown and shining when ripe, of 3 cells. 3eeds aumcrout, 
ovate, shining. 

The leaves of (his plant might well serve Homer'a Frogi 
and Mice for spears ; and it is probably the rush he had m 
view, being common, as Dr. Siblhorp observed, on the shoTCs 
of Greece. 

■ 1 


[ 1725 ] 

J U N C U S maritimos. 
lesser Sharp Sea Ruth, 


Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, pennanent. Cor. none. 

Caps, superior, of S valves, witb 1 or 3 cells. Suit 

several. Stigmas S. 
Spec. Char. Stem round, naked. Panicle terminad, 

proliferous. General iarolucnim ai two 9gaxm 

upright leaves. Capsules oblong. 
Syn. Juncus tnaritimus. Stn. Fl, Brit. S7S. Gn^ 

Comp. 28. 
J. acutus )3. Lmn. Sp, Pi. 464. Buds, 148. fTtth. 34& 

Hull. 75. 
J. acutus maritimus angUcus. Saii Syn. 43 1 . 

^ O person who has ever seen this and the J. acutus, I. 1814, 
alive together could long doubt of their being distinct apecica. 
The present is a lower and much more slender plant, of a more 
glaucous aspect. The capsule is much sm&'ler, and of a linear* 
oblong triangular figure, quite distinct from the large round 
•eed-yessel of the other, which caused the old botanists to 

( (>h ) 

J U N C U S glaucus. 
Hard Rujk, 

HEXAtiDRlA Mpvgyma. 

Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. noi 
Cup/, fuperior, of 3 valves, with one or tbt 
cells. Seeds fcveral. Stigmas 3. 
Si-EC. Char. Stem naked, ftraigbt, glaucous. Paoii 

lateral, upright. Capfule elliptical, acute. 
Syn. Juncus glaucus. Sikh. 113. Sm. Ft. Brit.y^ 
J. tfUifus^. Hud/. 149. 

J, inflexus. fFitb. 345. Hull. 75. Relb. i^i. Abbot. \ 
J. acutus. Rail Syn. 43£> 

J^ O T uncommon in wet paftum, or on moift wafte |di 
by the fides of roads, flowering in July. 

The roots arc perennial, creeping, black. Stems aboi 
footand half high, upright, naked, rigid and very tou^, rou 

[ 035 ] 

J U XC U S couglomeratu9« 

Common Rm/A. 


GiM. Char. dl. of 6 leaves, pcmunent. Cor. 

none. Cipf. fuperior, ol* 3 valves, with 1 or j 

celts. SciJs feiTral. S/igmas j. 
Spec. Cbak. Stem naked, (traigbt. Finicle lateral, 

denfe and globular. Caplules retufe. Stamina 

Stx. JuncDS congtomeratus. Liam. Sp. PI. 464. 

Sm. Fl. Brit. 376. HuJf. 148. H'itb. 345. 

HUIL75. Relh. 140. Sihib. £13. Abbot. 78. 
J. bevis TulgiTB^ paniculi coropafliore. Bau 

Sj*. 43a. 

V ERY frequent io moift pafturcs and by road-6iI«^ 
bloObming la the eariy part of July, and known at firft 6gbt 
from our other laieraj-flowerii^ rufliet by its very dende pani- 
cle. On a more accurate fcnitlny a ftUl more certaia mark of 
AAindion will be found in it* having only 3 ftambu to each 
flower ; a circumftance that rarely, if at all, takea place io 
J. effu/us, and n«-er in any other fpecies with which we are 

[ 836 ] 

J U N C U S efFufus. 
Soft Rujii. 

HEXANDRIA Moaogyma. 
Geii. Char.. Cu/. o( 6 leaves, permanent, Cor.nyie. 

Cap/, fuperior, of 3 valves, with 1 or 3 cdk 

Seeds (everal. Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Stem naked, ftraight. Panicle latenl, 

loofe, thrice compounded. Capfules obtu(e. 
SvN. Juncus cffufiis. Linn, Sf. F/. 464. 

Brii. 376. Hmif. 148. mib. 3^$, HiM-l^. 

Relh. 141. Sil>lb. 113. Jbbot.-]i, 
J. Ixvis vulgaris, panicuU fparsa, nollras. B^ 

Syn. 432. 

Hf QUALLY common wilh the laH in moid boggr placa, 
flowering in July. 

Root perennial, a liltle creeping. Stem about the height 
of J. conglonuralui, but of a paler hue, and more foft, not at 
all pimgeat. Panicle lateral, much hranched, loofe ind 

#1 I ■■ 

JUNCUS fiUfonnis. 
Least Riuh. 


Gek. Chax. Co/, of 6 leaves, pennanent Cor.tumt. 

Capj. superior, of 3 valves, vith 1 or 3 cells. Seeds 

seveiaL Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Chak. Stem naked, thread-shaped, drooping. 

Panicle lateral, nearlr simple, subtended b; a 

biactea. Capsules roimdisb. 
SvN. Juncus filifortnis. Lhm. Sp. PI. 465. Sm. Ft. 

Brit. 377. SpiciL 2. t. 3. Huds. 149. ff^ilK. 346. 

Hull. 75. Dicks. Dr. PI. 32. H. Siccfasc I*. 16. 
J. parvus, calamo supra pamculam compactam loODds 

pFoducto. Rati Syn. 432. 

J. HIS very raic species of Ru^ wu only known to Brittfli 
botanists as a aativE of the beautiful couulry about the Xakies 
of Westmoreland and CumWrland, till Mr. Dickson gathered 
it on Ben Lan'ers, ki famed among the botanical mountains 
of the north. It grows in little pUshy alpioe bogs, flowering 
in August, and is perennial. 

The root creeps horizontally, throwing out deep perpeo(fi- 
cular fibres, and several upright simple round sxnooOi Btntu^ 
about 10 or 13 inches high, whose summits aie pointed, but 
weak, and often drooping in some degree. The base of esch 
is separately enveloped in a few sheathing scajes, each lipped 
with a minute point, seeming the rudiment of a leaf. Tba 
panick, nearly simple, and consisting of but a few pale green 
flowrn, buTsU laterally from the stem below the middle, aod 
is accompanied underneath by a small leafy brsctea, vaxyii^ 
in length according to circumstances. Calyx-lcavcs lanccoUte, 
with % rib*. StAmina 6. Capsule roundish, bluntj of 3 cdla. 
Seeds aiuDcruus, small. 

[ 1482 ] 

JUNCUS trifidus. 
Tkrte-ieavtd Ruth. 


Gen. Char. Cal, of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. noat. 

Caps, superior, of 3 ralves, with 1 or 3 cells. 

Seeds several. Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Stem naked, terminaied by three leava 

and about as many flowers. 
Stn. Juocus triiidus. Lhtn. Sp. PI. 465. Sm. R 

Brit. 378. HuiU. 1*9. mtk, 345. HuU. 75. 

Ugktf. 183. t.S.f. 1. Didu. H. Sicc.ftuc. 1. 6. 

Ft. Dan. t. 107. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 521. 
J. acumme reflexo, trifidus. Bauh. Prodr. 23. 

T/teatr. 185. 

A NATIVE of alpiae bogs in Scotland, which li^tfoot 
uys he gathered on several mountuns of that country, tt b 
perennial, and flowers in July. 

Root creeping, luftcd, black, with many long fibrei. Sum 
4 or J inches high, erect, Ktnighl, round, smooth, unbranched, 
aheathed at the base with many icalea and a t'cw ghurtiih 
awl-shaped leaves. At the top of the stem grow about 3 
aimilar upright leaves, with aheaihing bases, in whose bosom* 
stand from l to 3, sometimes more, dark-browtt sessile 
flowers. We dnd 3 solitary flower most common ~m Bntish 
specimens, and even in exotic ones from elevated situatioot, 
in which case it is the J. mtmantlua of Jacquin ; but wfacn the 
plant is Bourishing, 3 are certainly its naiunl ntunbcr, and 
the leaves are almost always 3. The capsule is 
•hafply poiatedf with 3 cells and many seeds. « 





[ 933 ] 

JUNCUS fquarrofus. 

Mofi Rujh, or Goofe-Com, 

HEXANDRIA Mamgynla. 

Gbs. Char. Ca/. of 6 leaves, permanent. CV. 
none, Capf. fupcrior, of 3 valves, with i or j 
cells. Seeds fcveral. Stigmas 3. 

Sfbc. Char, Stem naked. Leaves fetaceous. Pa- 
nicle terminal, compound, cluftered. 

SvN. Juncus fquarrofus. Limt. Sp, PI. 465. Sm. 
Fl Brit. 378. Hudf. 149. mib, 346. Hull 7J. 
Relb. 1^2. Sibtb. 114. Aibot. y^. Dickf. H. 
Sice. fajc. 13. 12. 
J. montanus paluflris. Raii Syn. 432. 

J.N boggy fpotE, on the mod barren Tandy heaths onir, ibu 
Rufh 18 to be found, flowering in June aad July. We eon* 
ceive that few plants arc lefs promifing to the sgriculturil, 
cither as an indication of foil, or with refpcd to lU owa i]ul- 

Root perennial, of a few flrong thick tibre>. Leivts is 
tuftB, radical, numerous, fpreading at the bafc, but foon currcd 
inward ; their form is narrow, channelled, but not keeled, 
pointed ; and they arc hard, rigid, and very fmooth to the 
touch. Stems about a foot high, liraight, tliff, round, fmooth, 
naked (except at the veryboltoni], ending in one or twonrcl 
branched panicles, whofe partial as well a» genenl (talks pro* 
ceed from rrddilh -brown, Oieathing, long, fmooth braver. 
Flowers large compared with other connnon fpcciet. CaK-x 
dark-brown, with a narrow filmy border. Sumina and li>-le 
fliort ; anthcnc and lligmas lon^. Capfule obovatc, three- 
lided, bluntidi, 











[ ^38 ] 

JUNCUS articulatus. 
Jointed Rujh. 

HEXANDRIA Momgynia. 

Gen. Char. Ci;/. of 6 leaves. Cffr. none. Capfalt 

of one or three cells. 
Spec. Char. Leaves with knotty joints. Flowen 

in fmall cluftcrs, paniclcd. 
Syk. J uncus articulatus. Lim. S/>. PL 4.6$. JIu^. 
FL An. 149. fV'ub. Bol. Arr. 361. 
J. comprcflus. Relb.Cant. 142. S'tbtb. Oxoti. 114. 
J. foliis articiilolis, iloribus umbellatis. Rati Syn. 433. 

V £RY common in meadows and moift paftures, flcwcring 
in June, and ripening its feed in July. 

The root is creeping and perennial. Stems obliquely afccnd* 
ing at the bafe, then crc£t, fniooth like every otherpart, rouml, 
a foot or more in height, clothed with a few altem&te, {bcath- 
ing, recun-ed, pointed leaves; which are occaiionally cylindrical 
or comprefled, hollow, their cavity divided by numerous tniu- 



[ 2143 ] 

JUNCUS lampocarpus. 
Shining-fruited Jointed Rus/i* 

UEXANDRIA Memogynia. 
Gen. Char. Cat. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. 
Caps, superior, of 3 valves, with 1 or 3 cells, 
several. Sttgmai S. 
Spec. Char. Leaves with knotty joints, compressed. 
Stem without joints. Panicle compound, erect, 
elongated. Inner calyx-leaves bluntish, bordered. 
Capsule coloured, varnished. 
5yn. Juncus lampocarpus. Ehrk. Calam. n. 126. 
Davies Tr. of L. Soc. v. 10. 13. 
J. articulatus. Leers. 88. t. 1 3./. 6. fVuh. 347. var. 1. 
J. compressus. Relh. ed.\.\ 42. Siblh. \ 1 4. Abbot. 79. 
J. foliis articulosis, iloribus umbellatis. Rait Si/n. 4SS. 
Gramenjunceuniarticulatumpatustre hutnilius. Morit, 
sect. 8. t. 9.f. 2. 

W E readily assent to ilie corrections of our friends the Rev. 
H. Davics, and G. R. Leatho, respecting the suppoNed vari> 
eiics of Juncus arlicutalus. In the descriptions in Ft. Brit., 
snd at our (. 938, wc certainly conFounded (his with aatti- 
ftorus, Ehrh. Cal. n, 66, which that t. 238 represents. Lin- 
nRus has so entirely conTounded all ours, as well as an Atne* 
rican species, under his articuhius, that it is beat to set aside 
•o sweeping a name. 

The present is very common in moist pastures, flowering 
from June to Aiigust. Root perennial. Stem not internally 
jointed, hollow, bearing from 3 to 6 leaves, usually 4 or 3, 
which arc compressed and copiously jointed. Panicle erect; 
its branches strong, clungaied, so that the heads of flowcn 
are remote, one above another on each simple branch. The S 
inner calyx-leaves are rather blunter, with a more cvidcot 
white membranous edge than the 3 outer. The capsule ia re- 
markable for its great iiec, dark chocolate hue, and highly 
polished, as if varnished, surface. 

Tab. «38. 
JUNCUS acuiiflorus. 
Skarp-JlQwered Jointed Rusk. 
avcswith knoityjointe, slizhtlyi 

Panicle repeate^y forked^ 

Stem without 

Calyx-leares all sharp-pointed. 



t 2144 ]. 

JUNCUS obtusiflonis. 
Rlimt-JloKered Jointed Rush. 

HEXANDRU Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. Kent. 
Caps, superior, of 3 valves, with I or 3 cells. 5wii 
several. Stigmas 3. 

6p£C. Char. Leavesand stem with knotty joints, cylin- 
drical. Panicle repeatedly compound ; its branches 
divaricated and rcilexed. Caljx-teaves obtuse, u 
long as the capsule. 

Syn. Juncus obtusiflonis. Ehrh. Calam, n. "6. Do- 
ries Tr. of L, Soc. V. 10. 13. 
J. articulatus jS. Sin. Fl. Brit. 37i>i excluding the 
synonyms, which all belong to our t. 2-18, J. not- 
lijl^rus. J 

J. articulatus var. 5. fVitk. 347. I 

, by ihe 

Gathered in marshes at Llmpenhoe, Norfolk, by ihe 
Rev. G. R. I^aihes, in August bsl. It is less common ti 
J. tampocarpui or acut'iflorus, and tlowers later. 

This is easily distinguished by its pale, entangled, 
branched panicles, whose uliitiiate branches are slnjnglyn 
flexed. The stem is iiiiernally Jointed as well as the leiTC*, 
and, as the Rev. Mr. Davies observes, never bears more Ibu 
two leaves, notuithsianding its lallness. I'bete arc not con* 
pressed. Calyx-leaves all ubtiisp and elliptical, with x braad 
menibranous edge. Capsule scarcely extending beyond tbcn, 
light browni shining. 

We have this rush frotn Switzerland, and Hallcr certainly 
confounded it under his n. 1 383 along with our otMt^orm, u 
did Dillenius by inserting Doody's plant wider n. 9 \tx bis edi- 
tion of Ray's SynoptU, 433. See Mr. Oavies'i accurajc 
paper in ihc lOlb volume of the Linnean Society's Tru 



[ 8oi ] 

J UNCUS uliginofus. 
Little bulbous Rujk. 

Gbh. Chae. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. 0>r. none, 
Capf. fuperior, of 3 valves, with i or 3 ccllfc 
Seeds leveral. Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Leaves fetaccous, obfcUrely jwiitd 
within. Flowers about three together in a kind 
of proliferous clufter. Stem hullx>us, taking root 
at its joints. 
Syn. Jiincus uliginofus. Sibtb.w^. Sm^Pl^Brit.^^ 
fVilb, 348. Hull. 76. 
J. viviparus. Relb. .43. Abbot, 79. 
J. articulatus 7. Hudf. 150. 

Gramcn junceum capfulis triangulis minimum, ftm 
Syit. 434. ^_^^^^^ 

JVioiST fandy or turFy heaths often abound with tluii 
fmall fpecics of rufli, which has by fome botaoill* been Tcfcned 
to the Juncut articulatus, becaufe its leaves are (lightly jmnud, 
or at leafl feparated internally into cells; and by othcn to 
J. bulbo/us, on account of the bulbous bafe of its Hem. In the 

* ' I 








Y. '- .'/txnit , 

t M 
.... .. .M. 

[ 934 1 

J UNCUS bulbofus. 
Round-fruited Rujh. 

HEXANDRIA Mougynia. 
Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Or, 
none. Cap/, fupcrior, of j valves, with i orj 
cells. &f<^ feveral. Stigmas^. 

Spec. Char. Leaves linear, channelled. Stemlofr 
towards the bafe. Panicle cymofc, leafy. Ctp* 
fules blunt. 

Syn. Juncus bulbofus. L'mn. Sp. PI, 466. Sm. 
FLBrit.'^Zx, Hud/. ISO. W/^. 348. IM.-jh. 
A-/i. 143. Jhbot.yg. DUif.H,Suc. 
fa/e. 13. 14. 

J. parvus, cum pericarpiis rofundis. Rati Sjn, 


X HIS Junais U to be found ta moill meadows uu) ptft&rci 
that are expofed to the fall water, m which kind of liiuatioo it 
is not uncommon. Dr. Goodenough has alfo found it dot 
Windfor; and our fpccimen was gathered in marfhcs near 
Walthamflow by Mr. E. Forfler. We have what appears to 
be the fame, brought by Mr. Dickfon from high ana tailter 
dry CTOund in the Highlands. It flowersearly in July, 

The root is perennial, creeping, though not widely, ccr* 
tainly not bulbous, nor can the bafes of tne fiemi be properly 
fo denominateil : the Linna;ao trivial name, ihcrrfart, is iin- 
juftitiable, and fetms to have been taken from a fynonym of 
Micbeli which belonffs to our J. uiiginofits. Stems ere^, 
generally abouta foot nigh, fimple, finooth, a little comprefled, 
mod ledFy in the lower part. Leaves linear, narrow, chan- 
nelled, acute. Panicle erei^^, lermioal, but often furmounietl 
by a lefl'eroneon a longer ftalk, li-afy, many-flowered, FIow- 
i^rs Imall. Calyx bluntith, its fegments green with a broad 
bro»'n edge. Capfule longer than the calyx, of a rouadillt 
obovate torm. 

We know not that this Rulli hat been applied to 

e \!,i 




JUNCUS gracilis. 
Slender Spreading Ru$h. 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. wax. 

Caps, superior, of 3 valves, wilh 1 or 3 cells. Seik 

several. Sugmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Leaves linear, flat. Stem forked, n» 

mose, taller than the leaves. Flowers Bolitajy. 

rOUND by Mr. G. Don in 1795 or 1798, by the tide of 1 
rivulet, in marshy ground, among the mountains of Angut- 
Bhire, but very rarely. It appears lo us to be a nondescript, 
hut we received from Mr. Dickson, some years before the 
above dale, a specimen not 30 fat advanced towards maturity, 
of what seems lo us the same species. 

The root consists of woolly fibres, and has the appearaace 
of being perennial. Stem very slender, a. foot or mnre in 
height, naked, except at ihe base and summit. Radical leavn 
but one or two, much shorter than the stem, narrow, Sat, 
slightly thickened, or somewhat involute, ai their edges, not 
channelled. The top of the stem terminates in a few racemofc 
forked branches, with 3 or 3 leaves at their base. Flowoi 
solitary, mostly sessile. Calyx-leaves sharp-pointed. Vain* 
of ihe capsule blunt and emarginale. 

The inflorescence and fructification of this Rush codm 
nearest to lu/onia.t, t. S02 ; but the fewness of the Sowers, 
taller stem, and flatter leaves, as well as the broader and 
emarginate valves of the fruit, serve well to distiDgoUh il, 
not to mentioa the probably perennial root. 


/^ , ^,,/aL^^/'^.^*^'^--"^ 



*-. ^^ 



" ^^^^^H 


"m ^^1 


[ 802 ] 

JUNCUS bufonms. 
Toad Rujh. 

Gen. Char. Oil. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. none. 
Capf. fuperior, of 3 valves, with i or 3 cells. 
Seeds feveral. Stigmas 3, - 
Spec. Chak. Leaves linear, channelled, Stem forked, 

racemofe. Flowers folitary, 
Syh. Juncus bufonius. Jjm. Sp. Pi. 466. Sm. H 
Brit. 381. Hud/. 150. With. 348. IIuS. 76. 
Relb. 144. Sibth. 115. jibbot.Zo. Dick/. H. Siet. 
/ii/c. 4. 6. 
J. paluHris humilior ere<3us. Ai» !$)''*• 434< 

V ERY frequent in all kinds of marfliy places, piuticuUrly 
on watery Tandy heaths, where it flowers copioufly throughout 
July and AuguR. 

, annual, Slcms numeroiia, upright, Forming 



i I 

J U N C U S biglumis. 

Two-JJoivered Rujh. 

Gen. Char. Qii. o(6 leaves, permanent. Cor. none. 

Cap/, lupcrior, of 3 valves, with I or 3 cells. SaJt 

fevcral. Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Leaves flat. Head terminal, of two 

flowers, leaning to one fide, Icafj- at ihc bafe. 
Syn. Juncns biglumis. Linn. Sp. PI. 467. Sm. F1. 

Brj>. 38a. HuJ/.6Ag. Ifitb.^^b. /JW. 76. 

Light/. 1100. /'/. Dan. I. 120. 




1R. G. don, who favoured us with this rare plint, 
afliires us it is fcldom found on any other hill than Ben Lancn 
in Bredalbane; the Rev. Mr. Stuart however, iisfirft clifcoverer 
in Britain, mentions two or three highland mountains as pro- 
ducing it. We are perfuaded there are few Britifh plants leff 
known, nor any fpecies more certainly di(lin£l, though Mr. 
Ughtfoot rur[)e6tcd il might be a variety of J triglumit (fee the 
next plate), and fcveral botaniOs have fince confounded theoi 
together. The learned Dr. Montin, a diliinguifhed pupU of 
LinnxuF, originally found the J. biglumt in Lapland, and 
defcribed it in a note lo his treatife on Spiaebnum, puMilhed 
in the AmwnUiiUa AcatUmica, 

J. higlum'ii is perennial, and flowers in Auguft. The little 
fibrous roots run deep into the hoggy foil of fmatl mounuta 
rilU. The Hem is from 3 to 4 inches high, leafy, fimple, 
round. Ijcavcs awl-ftiapcd, flat, ereft, flieathing at their bafe. 
Flowers terminal, one above the other, and both leaning to 
one fide, having a fniall bra^ea hclow them, and a IcHigcr 
upright leafy one furmounting the uppcmiofl flower. Calyx- 
leaves lanceolate, c<.]ual, keeled, variegated wltli green and 
a dark choculate hue. Stamina a little longer than the calyi^ 
ss is alfo the capfule when ripe, though the germen is not 
above half fo long. 

One flower being placed above the other decidedly nudf 
this fpecies. 

^U- - >iJ> A**«W t, J. 






• *! 


. \ 
• I 


■ I 

■ 1 




• I 


J U N C U S triglutnis. ' 
Ihree-Jio'wercd RuJIi. 


Gen. Char. Cal. ot 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. none. 

Capi. fuperior, or3 valves, with i or 3 cells, iktdt 

fcvcral. Sligmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Leaves flat. Head terminal, ercfl, of 

three flowers, accompanied by braClcae without 

Stm. Junciis trigliimis. L'mn. Sp. PI. 467. Sm. Fl. 

£ri/. 382. HuJJ. i^i. fTitb. S4g. fiuJl.-!^, 

Light/. 186. /. 9./. a. Fl. Dan. I. 132. Dt4/. 

H. Sicc.fiijc. i. 3. 

nx prolifeiK. Rait Syn. 430. 

J UNCUS Irigfumit is much more common »nJ pkwifiil 
than the preceding abi)ut the little rills and bo^y place* on 
ihe tops of moft Scottifh and Welch mountains. Mr. RoMcm 
has even found it In Cumberland, li flowers in Jul^-, and it 

This has very much the herbage and general habit of ibe 
Two-fiowered Ruih ; but though extremely variable in humri- 
mcc, it generally confiderably exceeds that fpccica in magnt- 
lude. The number of Sowers in the head, though naturatlf 
three, often varies from only one or two, to four or five. Id 
ever)' cafe, however, the plant is to be known by bearing the 
flowers ereft and parallel to each other, not leaning (o one 
fide, nor one overtopping the other. They are moreover ac- 
companied by membranous brakes, Oiorter than the floaren 
Ihemfelves, inflead of a large erefl leafy involucnim. The 
glumL-s and braSete are alfo of a Cumewhat paler aud redder 
brown than tliofe of the laA. 

Dillcniiis could furely never have fcen this Rufh when, m 
bis edition of Kay's Synofjit, he fuppofcd it the fame with 
; nor was Mr. Hudfun's cnnjcdure 1 

happy, ' 

n his id edition, he took the plaul of ^*fk 

the Schvnus J'errugintui of Liunxus. 




[ 9~ 3 

J U N C U S cafiaQcns. 


Gis- Chak. dJ, of 6 koiTS, pennaneat. Cor. noiK. 
Ca-f. I'jpcnor, or" 3 nlres, with 1 or 3 cells. 

Sfec. Chak. Lrare tbitkd, flat, clafping the (lem. 
He3<is tennirta', niotilj io pairs, maDy-flowercd, 
*-.:h a lea: under ihcm. Bractcae acute. 
Sts. Juncus cafuocos. Sm. Fl. Brit. 385. 
J. J.ict)uiai. S}x. Sts. 87. Hull, 76. 

W £ knew Qoc thstanv^nre exifts of this Rufli. It «u 
firfl ttMoi OQ tbc hLehland mououin of Bcd Lawcrs, by 
Mr. DickioD and Mr. Mackay, aod appeared on the lifluf 
Bntilb planU ia Mr. Symoni's Sjncfjis. under the tunc of 
th« Luuuean J^m^ut Jj^qtiini, which at firft fight it rcfcmblcs, 
but from n-hich it » i'i b« fauud on comparifon widely diSeienL 
The plant noic bcfire ua gTx>w3 in marfliy places where the 
foil is micacvou^, fiawering in July. The root is pereoiual, 
creeping by means of long llrnder fcaly rc\-on&, which throw 
up voung plants f;om their extremities. Stems firom 6 lo I3 
inches high, round, folitary, leafy, not cluflered and naked as 
in J. J.^C'Ti!"}. I^avrt all erowuie on the (Icm, mnft immi-- 






r 1 



I > ■ 




[ 736 ] 

J U X C U S pUofus. 
Hairy Ritflt^ 

HEXAS'DRI.I M<ma^nia. 
Ges. Char. CjL of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. none. 
Oipf, fuperior, of 3 valves, with i or 3 cells. Seeds 
<e%-enil, Sligitus 3. 
Spec. Char. Stem ieaf\'. Leaves flat, hair}'. Panicle 

cymofe, di\'aricated. Flowers fblitary. 
Sys. Juncus pilolus. Umt. Sp. PL 468. Sm. Fl. 
Brit. 2%^. HaJj. iSi. ff^itb. i^j. Hull. j6. 
a/A. 145. Sihih. 115. Ahhiit.%0. Curl. L^ttd. 
fafc. s. I. 35. Did/. H. Siccfafc. i j. 15. 
Gramen nemorofum hirfutom vulgare. Raii Sjm. ^16. 

r REQLTENT in ftiady groves and ihickcts, oft broken bankt 
among dead leaver, and limilar fituations, where it flowers in 
March and April. Tlie root is perennial, and throws ont 
creeping fiioots. 

Stems near a foot high, round, poli(hed, leafy. Leatti 
linear-lanceolate, graffy, of a hright {hining green, pointed, 


• •• 




• " 1 







;• 1 








[ 1293 ] 

JLN'CUS Foreteri. 
\arro;z-leared Hairy Rush, 


Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, pennancnt. Cor. none. 

Caps, superior, of 3 nbes, ^ritfa I or S cells. 

Seedt several Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Chak. Leaves flat, hairy. F^cle cymose, erect 

Flowers solitary. Capsules sharp-pcunted. 
Stn. Juncus Foisteri. Sm. F1. Brit. 1395. 

Mr. EDWARD PORSTER first observed thU Juncm in 
1 795, growing intermixed with J. pilosui, under trees between 
H(^^U and Collier-row in Haiahault forest, Essex. Seven! 
years' attention to it, both wild and cultivated, have convinced 
him of its being really a distinct species, and we readily asieot 
to his opinion. We have moreover gathered it in the woodi 
at Hafod, Cardiganshire, growing among the common J. ^■ 
hsut, and flowering in May ; but were not aware of its diitiac- 


. 1 





• » !' 



• ' 



. .-1 

. • 


■ 1 ' 

. • !■ 



. rC 





• f 


[ 737 ] 

JUNCUS Cylvaticus, 

Great Wood Rujk, 


GiLit. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. dodc 
Cap/, fupcrior, of 5 valves, with i or 3 cells. SetJt 
fcveral. Slijmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Stem leafy. Leaves flat, hairy, pointed. 
Panicle cymofe, doubly compound. Floven 
Syn. Juncus fylvaticus. Sm. PL Brit. ^S^. Hudf.\$\. 
Siblb. \\6. jihbol.Zo. Curt. Lond.fa/c. 5. t. 26. 
Did/. H. Stcc./a/c. 13. 13. 
J. pilofiia 5. Linn. Sp. PI. 468. 
J. maximus. IVitb. 349. 
Gramen ncmorofum hirfutum latifblium c 
Rati Syn. 416. 

X HIS generally grows in the fame places as the J. fii^ui, 
and ia nearly as common, but bloflbmB a month later. !> 
fomctimcs covers the ground, as with a dry elaflic mat, to the 
exclufion of nioft other plants. 

I^nnxug conlidercd this as a variety of J. filafus, and indad 

( 672 ) 

JUNCUS campeftris. 
Hairy Field Rujh. 

HEXANDRIA Monogynia. 

Gen. Ckar. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. none. 

Capf. fupciior, of 3 valves, with 1 or 3 cells. See^ 

fcvcral. Sligmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Stem leafy. Leaves flat, hatry. Spikes 

terminal] feflile and peduneulatcd. Capfules ob- 

Syn. Jiincus campeftris. Lhm. Sp. PL 468. Sm. Fl, 

Brit. 385. Hu^/. 15a. rFt/B. 350. Hull. ',6. 

Relb. 14,5. Sibth. 116. Curt. Lond.fafc. 2. t. ij). 

Dickf. H. Sicc.fiifc. 14. j;. 
Gramen exile hirlutum. Raii Syti. 416. 
/3 G. Iiirfutum elatiiis, panicula juncea compafli. 

Jiiiif Syn. 416, the fjiionyms doubtful. 

•^ E R Y frequent in dry barren paRurcs, where it flower* in 
April or May, and is rendered confpiciious by itg EaTge fulphur* 

■ 1 . 

' ,• 

• M 
♦ ... 

t t 

> ■ 

I " 

• t* 

[ 1176 ] 

JU NC U S spicatus. 
Spiked Riuh. 

HEXjfXDRlA Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Cal. of 6 leaves, permanent. Cor. x 

Caps, superior, of 3 valves, with 1 or 3 cells. Seeds 

seveiaL Stigmas 3. 
Spec. Char. Leaves fiat. Spike cluster-like, droop* 

ing, compound at the base. Capsules pointed. 
Syn. Juncus spicatus. Linn, Sp. PI. 469. F1. Lapp. 

n. 125. /. 10./ 4. Sm. FL Bril. 386. Hudt. 650. 

iVith. 350. Hull. 76. Light/. 187. Dicks. Dr. 

PI. 33. H. Sicc./asc. 15. II. 

Communicated with the preceding by Mr. g. r 

^ro the alpine regions of Scotland. This is likewise p 
nial) flowering in July and August, and growing only i 
the grassy sunimilj of the highest hills. We have fbrnerly 
gathered it upon Ben Lomond. It seems not yet to have beea 
ob^rved in England or Wales, thou^ found OQ the Swiss aloi 
and in Lapland. 

The root is tufied and fibrous, crowned with several parccti 
of hnear, recurved, channelled leaves, more or less hairy u 
their edges. Stems solitan-, fi or 8 inches high, round, 
slender, smooth and simple, bearing S or 3 remote sheathing 
leaves. Spike terminal, solitary, drooping, interrupted and 
subdivided in (he manner of a bunch of grapes, and havit^ 
a long lanceolate entire smooth braciea at each sub^vision, 
and a smaller lacinialed one under each flower. Scgmeau of 
tlie calyx tipped with bair-likc points. Stamina 6. Capsule 
poinledf of 3 cells, each occupied by one large seed, as in 
J. campeslris, /. 6*2, to which this species is cerlainly, at 
Ughtfoot obscives, very nearly related; but they can never be 
confounded together. They often grow together in then 
elevated lituauons, but preserve their characters distinct*! 



[ 49 ] 

B E R B E R I S vulgaris. 

Common Barberry. 

HEXANDRIA Mimigjnu. 
Gen. Char. Calyx fix-leaved. Petals fix, with two 

glands at their bafe, Siy/e none. Beny with tvo 

Si'EC. Char. Flowers in cliifters. Spines thiw- 

forkcd. Serraturcs of the leaves terminated bv 

fort briftlcs. 
Syn. Berberis vulgaris. Liwi. Sp. PL 471. Ihd(. 

Fl. An. i^T, fTith. Bot. j4rr. 366. Relb.Cnk 

B. dumctorum. Rtui Syn. 465. 

K^ O M M O N in hedges, flowering in June^ and beancg 
its brigliC red pendulous berries in autumn. It is gcnciallf 
planted in flirubbcries for ormunenr as well as ufc, the frnit 
Dcing frequently introduced into pickles and prcfcrves, on ac- 
count of its ftrong and grateful acidity, of which the IcaTCl 
alfo partake with a mixture of aftringency. 

Two circumdances in the hiflory of this (hrub deferre pii^ 
ticular attention, In the firlt place, its ftamina exhibit pcrhapi 
the mod remarkable inflance of irritability hitheru> difcovered 
in vegetables ; becaufc we perceive at once the parpofe it u 
intended to anfu-er. The bafes of the filaments are fo feaG- 
ble to the touch of any extraneous body, that they immediately 
contraA, with precipitation, and throw the pollen on the 
Titt this corUr;iflioTi is cnii.iMe of being repc; 


t =^05 ] 

Smooth Sea-Heath* 

Gex. Char. Cal. 5-clcrt, funnel-ftiaped. PetaU 5, 

Stigmas 3. Cupf. of one cell, with 3 valves. 
Spec. Char. Leaves linear, cluftered, ciliated at the 

SifN, Frankenia liEvis. Linn, Sp. PL ^f^. Hudf.Ft. 
An. 137. JFitb.Bot.Jrr. 367. Relb. Cant. I35. 
Ljchnis fupina maritima Ericae facie, Raii Sytu 338. 

l\ NATIVE of muddy fait marfhes, more efpecially on om 
eaftem coafU. Mr. Lilly Wigg fent it from Yaimoutb. It ii 
perennial, and flowers after midfummer. 

Root woody. Stems procumbent, round, branched. Leavo 
in little cluders, fmall, fucculent, linear, or rather lanceolate 
and revolute, dilated at the bafc into a pair of minute, mem- 
branous, ciliated ftipulse. Flowers motlly at the divaricationf 
of the branches, rarely terminal, folitary, feflile, delicate and 
elegant in form and colour, like thofe of a little red pink or 
Q:\\y\ \y\\\\ ^ (r.-irdv Tiinr-') Iccih. . 

^J/ ^ -^ 








[ 2222 ] 

FRANKENIA pulverulenta. ' 
Poizdery Sea-Heath. 

BtXANDRU Monogynia, 
, Char. Cal. 5-cleft, funnel-shaped. Petals £~ 
Stigmas 3. Caps, superior, of 1 cell and 3 valTet 
Spec. Char. Leaves obovate, abrupt ; downy and 

somewhat powdery beneath. 
Syk. Frankenia pulverulenta. Linn. Sp. PL 474. Sm. 
FL Brit. SS8. Hudt. I3S. ffith. 352. JhB. 
ed. 2. 101. 
Alsine marilima su[uiu> foUis chanucaces. DUl. n 

Raii S^n. 352. 
AnthylUs^-alentina. Clus.Hist.v.U. 186. Ger.em.566, 
Quadrifoglio annuo di Persia. Zanon. Int. 1 64. /. G6 

A.MONG the rarest or British plant* is the Frankemia ptdn* 
ntUnta, which Mr. Brewer is saiii to have found on ihc SusMi 
coast in the lime of Dillenius, and Hudson declares that be 
himself gathered it between Bognor and Brighthelniston. Of 
late years we have no certain account of in having been ob- 
served there, nor has it ever been seen elsewhere in Britain. 
Our specimen came from Mr. Dickson's garden at Croj'doa 
last July. 

Root annual, fibrous. Stems numerous, branched from the 
vcr)' base, prostrate, repeatedly forked, divaricated, 'ufy, 
round, downy, of^en reddish. Leaves opposite, somewbal 
clustered, obovate, abrupt or emargin^te, entire, kcefad, 
■lightly revolute; smooth and green above; whitish, do<ra^ 
and hoary as if powdery beneath. Flowers aaillary and termi- 
nal, aoliiary, sessile. Calyx prismatic, with red ribs^ imocMb- 
Petals pale pink. 

Tliit species is not uncommon on the shores of the Medt- 
Unanean or ArdiipeUgo. 



[ 12" ] 

PEPHS Portula. 
Water Purslane. 


Gen. Char. Cal. bell-shjq)ed, cut into IS segmam. 
Petals Gt placed on the calyx. Capt. nqiericr, of 
S cells. 
Spec. Char. Leaves obovate. Petals often wanting. 
SvN. Peplis Poitula. Lirm. Sp. PL 47*. Sm, Fl 
Brit. 389. Huds. 147. fnth. 352. /fa/C 7& 
RelL 141. Sibtk. 108. ^iio/. 78. Cur/. Loud, 
fasc. 4. (. 27. Dicks. H. Sicc./asc. 4. 8. 
Portula. Saii Syrt. 368. 

F REQIJENT in moist placea on a gravelly or sandy whI, ted 
about shallow pools that are dried up in sununer, flowoiu 
from June to the end of August. 

Root fibrous, annual. Steins several, proatrate, i 


HEXANDRIA Trigynia. 
Gen. Char. Co/. 3-leaved. Pe(a/j 3, closed. Seed], 

superior, naked, triangular. Stigmas many-cleft. 
Spec. Char. Valves entire, oblong, one of them ai 
least bearing a grain. Leaves lanceolate, some- 
what heart-shaped. 
Syn. Rumex sanguineus. Li'im. Sp. PI. 476. Sm. Ft. 
Bril. 390. H>id.i. 153. tVtlJi, 353. HuU. 77. 
Relh. 141. Sibth. 118. 
Lapathum folio acuto rubente. Rait Syn. 143. 
(S.Var. viridis. S'lbth. 1 18. Abbot. 81. 

Rumex acutus. Curt. Loud. fate. 3. t. 21 ? H^tk. S54. 

rradcDubl. 103. /fuds. ITtS-Q. 
R. Nemolapathum. Ehrh. Phytoph. n. 94. Linn. 

Supp/. 212. 
Lapathum viride. Dill, in Raii Syn, 141. 

r OUND occasionally in groves iad waste jilaces, flowering 
in July. Mr. W. Borrer senl it Iroiii Susjcs, and ihe bdy 
of the Rev. Dr. Abbot observed it on Headington bill dcv i 

The root is perennial, tap-shapi;d. Stem 2 or 3 fret high, 
straight, branched, angular, Icaft', smooth, rcddiih. I^ave* 
all upon footstalks, lanceolate, smooth, veiny, slightly cri&pcd 
at the edge; the lowermost large, and more or teas bcttt- 
shaped at their base. Flowers in alturnate drooping eitiMen 
ranged along the branches, and almost dcstiiiitc of leave*. 
Calyx quite entire, as well as the petals, whicli arc oblonc, 
each marked with a red swelling lib. One of Umsk ribi 
(rarely more than one) bears « very large red grain or tobcrcte, 
conspicuous as the fruit ripens. The stalks and mn#of il^ 
leaves are remarkable for their deep-red juice. In ibe wicii- S , 
however, which ought perhaps to be reckoned Ibe original 
species, the leaves are green. 1'his variety, common in wood*, 
has often been confounded with fl. aattm, t, 7S4, vrUcb dif- 
fers in having more zigzau and leafy branchM> shoner and ' 
smaller valves, all constantly bearing grains, knd in its pUce ' 
of growth, which is more wet and marshy. 

■ I ■ 



.1 >' 


[ 1998 3 

R U M E X crispus. 
Ctirled Dock. 


Gen. Char. Co/. 3-Ieaved. Pe(o/j 3, closed. Seed\, 

superior, naked, triangular. Stigmas many-cleft. 

Spec. Char. Valves ovate, entire, all grained. Leaves 

lanceolate, undulated, acute. 
Syn. Rumex crispus. L'mn. Sp. PI. 476. Sm. f7. 
Bril. 391. Htids. 153. ff'il/t. 353. Hull.TJ. 
^e/A. 142. Sil-lh.m. Abbot. 81. Curt. Lond. 
fasc. 2. /. 20. 
Lapalhum folio acuto crispo. Rati Syn. 141. 

V ERY common in waste ground, by road sides, and ia 
meadows and fields, flowering in June or July, and acci* 
dentally tliroughoul the summer. 

The ront is perennial, tap-shaped, yellowish. SteoiSorS 
feet high, angular, furrowed, nearly smooth to ihc touch, 
ieafy, branched. Leaves stalked, lanceolate, acute, slmngly 
w.ivcd, crisped and somewhat crenate, of a lightish gmnf 
the upper ones narrower and nearly sessile. The little bundles 
of flowers arc not far distant from each oilier, but form longith, 
iiciirly upright clusters, leafy in their lower pari. Valves of 
ihe frtiit larpc, ovate inclining to heartsliapcd, reticulated 
with veins, undivided, waved not toothed, each tvaring a 
cunspicunus, ovale, promineni, reddish, central grain. Seed 
larger than in R. sanguineus, I. 1533. 

Tlie curled leaves, and large entire calyx-valve), readily 
ilisiinguish this species, which is a very troublesome a 
profitable weed. 










• I 


[ 7^4 ] 

R U M E X acutus. 
Sharfi Dock. 

G»N. Char. Gi/. 3-leaved. Petals -^,c\o(cA. SaJ\, 
fuperior, naked, triangular. Stigmas many-clefi. 
Spec. Char. Valves oblong, obfcurely tootbed, each 
bearing a prominent grain. Leaves cordato- 
oblong, pointed. Chifiers leafy. 
Syn. Rumex acutus. Limt. Sp. PI. 478, Sm. FL 
Brit. 391. Hudf. 155. Relb. 147. 
R. paludofiis. ^//A. 354, by thedefcript. HuU.11. 
Lapathiim acutum. Rait, Syn. 142. 
0. L. acutum minimum. Dill, in RaH Syn. 141. 

X HIS Rumex has been enveloped in fuch coofiifion, I (hould 
hardly venture, without the motl certain documents, to under- 
take ita illuAration. It is the acuttu of the Lionxan herba- 
rium, and agrees with the charader in Sp. PI. From Ray't 
excellent though fhort dcfcription there can be no doubt of iti 
being his Lapathum acutum. It does not agree with Mr. 
Iludfon's dcfcription of his paludofui, (a plant I do not pretend 
to know,) but I rather believe he confounded ours with the 
common Lap. virtde of Dillenius under his R. acutus, and Mr. 
Clinic fccnn lo have dune tli? fame. Hi? fieiirc n^rv^' 

ir ^ 


I 1 1 



[ 1999 ] 

R IT M EX obtusifolius. 
Broad-leaved Dock. 

Gen. Char. C«/. 3-Ieaved. PeW/i 3, closed. 5eeiil, 
superior, naked, triangular. Sligmas many-defi. 
Spec. Char. Valves toothed, one principally grained. 
Radical leaves hcartshaped, obtuse. Stem roughi5h. 
Syn. Rumex obtusifalius. Linn. Sp. PI. 478. Sm. Ft 
Brit. 392. Ntids. 155. frith. 357- Mull. 
Relh. \^2. Siblh.WS. Abbot. B\. Curt. 
fasc. 3. t. 22. 
Lapathum vulgare, folio obtuso. Rait Syn. 141, 

II. IB. 

iNOT less common ihan R. crispus figured in our last pU\t, 
and, as Mr. Curtis remarks, even more Iroultlesome ts i 
weed, on account of its much larger leaves. It flowers in 
July and August, and is pereDnial. 

Rout tap-shaped, blackish, yellow wiihin, bearing nu- 
merous steins 2 or 3 feet hiah, which are upright, branched, 
leafy, round, furrowed, rough chiefly in iheir upper part. R»- 
dical leaves very large, hcartshaped, more or less btuui, oo 
long stalks; stem leaves much narrower and more poiottd, 
on shorter stalks ; all in some degree crenale and cniped, 
though less than in R. crispus. Clusters with few leavn, 
often without any. Valves of the fruit rather Urge, ohUmg- 
hearlshaped, veiny, entire at the upper part, but Slaving 3 
sharp prominent iceth at each side near the base. An obloof 
grain is chiefly to be observed on the outeniiosi valve, wbich 
is smaller in proportion to ihc valve than in some other lundt. 

Mr. Curtis recommends frequent mowing as a mitc means 
oF destroying this weed. Farmers ^nd their account in hinng 
persons to eradicate docks, under which name many tap- 
rooied plants arc included besides real species of Rumex, 

■ » 



■ I 


» • 


RUMEX pulcher. 
Fiddle Dock. 

HEXANDRIA Trigynia. 

Gek. Char. CaA 3-leaved. Petals 3, oXoseA. Setdl, 
superior, naked, triangular. Stigmas many-deft. 

Spec. Char. Valves toothed, one of them bearing a 
larger grain than the rest. Radical leaves fiddle- 
shaped. Stem smooth, straggling. 

Syn. Rumex pulcher. Linn. Sp. PI. 477. Sm. Ft. 
Bnl.393. Huds.153. /f ilk. 356. HtdLli, 
Reth. 143. Abbot. 82. 
Lapathum pulchrum bononiense sinuatum. 
Syn. 142. 

ILli. j 

r OUND in dry gravelly pastures and waste ground, flowering 
about August. The root is perennial. 

The stems grow in a spreading straggling manner, panlj 
procumbent, and are much branched, divaricated, Mriiied, 
smooth to the lourh. Radical leaves on loi^ stalktj 
obtuse, slightly notched, contracted in the middle, so u In 
represent, more or less accurately, the form of a fiddk> or 
some sort of guitar; the stem-leaves arc small, narrow, aoil 
undivided. The branches form long leal\' clusters of green 
pendulous flowers, with yellow antheras. The enlarged petal* 
(or valves of the fruit) are deeply and sharply toothed^ och 
bearing an oblong reddish grain, which in one of I 
commonly larger than in the rest. Seed acutely i 
■mooth and polished. 







^^A jtr ^J 




t T^S ] 

R U M £ X marittmuS' 
Golden Dock. 

Gfis. Char. Cu/. 3-leavcd. Petals ^^diokA. Ste^i^ 
fiiperior, naked, triangular. Stigmas maay-cTc/ 
Spec. Char. Valves triangular, grained, fnnged witi 

briftly teelh. Leaves linear. Wheals crowdec/. 
Syh. Rumcx maritimuB. Zim. S^. PA 478. Sm.f/. 
Bril. 393. Hudf. 155. 
R. aureus, ff^ith. 356. Abbot. 81. HuB. 78. 
Lapathum folio acuto, flore aureo. Ran Syn. 141. 

IjY the triWal name of this fpecie* we Ibould expert to finJ 
it only near the Tea ; which is in from being esadly Ihecilc. 
It abounds indeed for the mod part in mirflies within the read 
of the tide, but fometimes occurs alfo very far Inland, u it 
Goldington, Bedfordfbire, from whence Mr. Abbot fent tbii 
fpccinien. It is perennial, flowering in July and Augufl; a^ 
as the fewls ripen, the whole plant afltimes a rich tawny-jt)- 
I0W hue, whence the names of Golden Dock, and Rumei''- 
reus, more appofite perhaps than the Linnean dcoomination. 

R U M E X palaslris. 
Ttlhx ifanM Dock. 

GzK. Cbak. CmL »-karad. Petatt 3, dosed. Seed [, 

Mipeiita r , idced, tna^nfar. Stigmas many-cleft. 

Sr£c CaAK. Valves hnceobte, grained, toothed at 

tbe base. Leaives Encar-bDceoble. Whorb disonL 

Stn. Rmnex pafaittiB. Sm.FLBriuS9^ Gamine 90. 

IL imritmuB. Otdt. 155 0. tTtth. 356. Ihins, 

Curt. Load.f<uc. S. t. 23. Ehrh. Herb. 74. 
LaparhuiD uimun. Dili, im Jtaii ^n. 148. 

^ OT rare ia St. George's fields and other nuabf placet neat 
London, wbcre it Sonera id June and July, ripeniog teed 
tbrougboat the latter part of Himiner. 

Boot perenaial, intenuHy red, with whorled fibrei. Sleaa 
s feet higb, branched, leafy, furrowed, rough, BomcttoK* 
reddish. Leaves liaear-laoccolatc, acute, rather criiprd al 
the edges ; ibe radical ones large in proportion to the rctt; 
the floral ones small and narrow. Whorls numerous, nmou 
when in flower, green, each accorapaiiicd by a spreading leaf; 
in fruit ihcy become more crowded, and Uwny, but not of to 
rich a golden hue as in R. maritimui, l. 'ih. Valves of the 
fruit lanceolate, each bearing an oblong gr^n, and fumtsbed 
on each side near the base with 3 bri:itle-shapcd teeth, modi 
■liorter than in the marilimus, from nhicb we think thb 
■pccicB unquestionably distinct. 


[ 2104 1 

R U M E X aquaticus. 
Great Water Dock. 


Gen. Char. Cn/. 3-Ieaved. Petals S, c\oseA. SsedT^ 

superior, naked, triangular. Stigmas many-cleft. 

Spec. Char. Valves ovate, entire, bearing small grains. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute; the lower oaes beait< 

shaped at the base. 

Syn. Rumex aquaticus. Linn, Sp, PI. 479. Sm. 

Fl. Brit. 394. Hall. ed. 2. J02. Ugktf. 190. 

Relk. 14*. 

R. Hydrolapathum. Huds.lSA-. fTith-SSS. Sibtk 

1 1 8. ytH'Qt. 82. /foodv. Med. Hot. I, 178. 
Lapatbum maximum aquaticum, sive Hydrolapathum. 
Rati Sijn. 1 40. 

We know not why there should have been any difficult}- is 
determining the synonjins of this plant, which U cicady Uw 
R. aquaticus of Linnsus. The palttdostu of Hudson sceiu 
to be a variety of it ; but no one has ascertained exactly what 
he intended. 

This is by far the largest of our Docks, and grows abim- 
dantly in watery places, having a large knobby perennial root, 
the stem rising to the height of 4 or 5 feci. The leaves ut 
somewhat glaucous, lanceolate, acute and CDlire; the lower 
ones heart-shaped at the bast. The 3ower> come fonh co* 
piously in July and August, and the Urge brown sb'uqt|g M*^ 
remain long, in rather close drooping uhoiU. 
neat petals are ovate, veiny, entire, rarely sot 
each bearing a small oblong reddish grain, 
occasionally in one of ihcm. 

The root is very astringent, and the latv Sir. 
commended it as a medicine of gr>-al clScacy in libgm 
Linnseus was of the same opinion, and bmugfat it;ll! 
tensive use in Stvcden. Perhaps it it too comtAn) 
much e&ieetned amon^t us. t'/l^ 

[ 9'» ] 
R U M E X digynus. 

Mauntain Sorrel, 

Gen. Char. Oil. 3-icaved, Petals 3, doled. Strd 1, 

fupcrior, naked, triangular. Stigmas many-cldi. 
Spec. Chab. Valves ovate, entire, without graiia. 

Styles t*o. 
Svx. Rumex digynup. Lam. Sp. PI. 4Z0. Sm. ft 

Brit. 395. Huiif. 156. fFiti.3S7. Bui/. 7I 

Ligbtf. 190. 
Aceiola rotundifoHa repens Eboracenfis, folio in 

medio deliquium paliente. RmlSyn. 143. 


1 R. MACCAY has kindly fupplicd us with '&M rpecunn 
of tbe Mountwi Sorrel, a plant which inhabits moitl defU of 
rocks and bc^gy fpois about the fummits of high mountains 
in Scotlaad, Wales, and the northern counties of Engbo^ 
flowering in June. 

The root ts perennial, deeply fixed in ihc ground, bnorliiii^ 
at the top into many heads. Sinns 6 or 8 inches high, nearif 
naked, panicled. Leaves almoA entirely radical, on ku^ fixK- 
llalks, kidney -Ih aped, cut off as it were at the end, entiK, 
fmooih, veiny, of a light plcafant green. Each branch of the 
item has a (heathing meuibranous braflca at its bile. Tbe 
flowers arc ranged along the branches iu little pendutou* lofii. 
Segments of the calyx unequal, ovale, entire and undivided, 
dellitute of any granulations. Stamina (hoct. Genntn obcor- 
dale, compreffed, wilh 3 red-edged wings. Styles hot i, 
fliort, with red lufted Hignias. The whole herb has ui acid 
flavour mixed wiih aOringcncy. 

Unnxus in Critica Botanka p. 23o jtiAly di\-erts himlcirat 
the expenfc of Morifon, who defcribcs the leaf of tliis RMMtr 
as "fainting away in the middle;" fee Uay's fynonym. (Ic 
at Uril conceived Morifon intended the garden foml vilh a 
p^Ic fpot on the leaf, as perfons who faint always turn paie, 
but afterwards found hia miAake, 

[ 1^7 ] 

R U M E X Acetofa. 
Comtnon SorreL 

HEXAXDRIA Trigyida. 

Gzs. Char. Cal. 3.1caved. Petals 3, clofed. S^T, 


Spec. Char. Flowers dicEcious. Lea\-cs oblong » 

Stx. Rumex Acetofa. Limt. Sp. PI. ^St, 

jiin. 156. Hllb. Bot. Arr. 375. BeUi. Cad. 149. 

n'ooiht. Mi-d, Bot. 193. /. 69. 
Lapathum acetorum vulgarc Rtii Syn. 143. 

2\. COMMON inhabitant of meadous and paftures ihraugb- 
out this iflatid, tn almoft all foils and fituatioiis, flowering mA^ 
in June. The root is perennial, running deep into the cuth, 
alVringcnt, as in moH of its tribe. Stem molily fimpl^ oA 
round, deeply tlrialcd, from one to Iw o ftct high. The ndicB 
and lower ftem-lcaves on long footftalkj, with a meinl 
cylindrical (beathing flipula, embracing the Oem, and . 
the lop ; thefe leaves are of an arrow ftiapc, entire, or but little 
undulated in their fides, but at the bafe cut into two or three 
large (harpidi teeth, pointing backwards, and not (as in faie 
fpecies of Rumex) divaricated into a right angle with the 
hne of the leaf. The upper leaves are feflile, gradually I 
entire, and at the top of ine fleni only flighlly crifpcd U _ 
bafe. A compound furt of verlicillatc tpilce i^rminatet ^ 
ftcm, its branches being alternate and nearly ereti. Ti* 
barren flowers are produced on a feparate root from the * 
ones ; the calyx and corolla fmall, nearly finiilar to 
Sumina very (nort, with large yellow anthenc. Styles 
with large crimfon bearded lligniata. The whole bcrb 
with a (^gree of aftringency, not unpleafant nor unwhc 
agreeing much with tlie di^crcnt fpecies of rhubarb, lo 
it ii nearly allied. 







T O F I E L D 1 A paluftris. 
Scottijh AJfihodcL 


Gin. Char. Cal. j-cleft. Pet. 6. Sijla vaiiai, 
fliort. Capfules 3, fuperior, united at ibe baie. 
Seeds manv. jfnibera roundifh. 
Spec. Char. Petals obovalc, obtute. 
Syn. Tofieldia palullris. Htuif. 157. Hllb. J58. 
Anthcricum calyculalum. Linit. S/>. Pl. 447. Li^btf. 

181. /. 8./. a. Dickf. H. Sice. fafc. 13. 11. 
Phalangium fcoticum paluflre miniinufn^ Iridis folio. 
Rait Syn. 375. 

S\ MORE alpine plant than the lafl, though it grotm in *. fimi- 
lar foil, and fonn§ green patches in the black bo^ey marginsof 
trickling rills on the highland moors of ScoilaM7 »"h«re tl >■ 
found abundantly, flowering in Augull. It has not till Uiclf 
been knonn to grow in England ; out our wild fpecuDcn 
fcnt by Mr. Robfon from the county of Durham. 

Hooi woodv, with long whitilli fibres. Leaves n^ttitant, 
fword-thaped, nen'ous, alniotl all radical. Stem 4 to 8 irwhc* 
high, nearly naked, finiple, round. Spike ereift, obmfe. Fhm- 
ers greenith -white, on very (liort footitalks, Brafleje foliury, 
ovate, concave, fmall, at the bafc of each fbottlalk. CaKi 
fmall, three-cleft. Petals ohovate, blunt, (.-oncave, cqiul, pet- 
mantnt. Stamina oppofite to them, but fcarcciv fb loogi 
awt-lbapcd, fmooth. Anthertc hean-fliapcd, roundifh. Co- 
men fuperior, 3-furrowed. Styles vertical, Oiort. difianU 
Stigmas blunt. Capfules 5, joined at their bafe, gibooiu, 
fcarccly inflated. Seeds numerous, elliptical, Uwny. 

This is a perfeftlv dillinft genus from every other Anlhtncmm 
as well as from iiarthcetum. We could much have wi(be«l 
retain the lafl name for it, as JulTieu, Gerard, Villars, Al 
and Lamarck (owing as it (bould fcctn to the mifUke of i 
have done ; but nolning can fct aiide the prior rigjil of 
dum as given to the other genus bv Moering. Our ' 
is indeed the original AntbtTicum of Linnffius m Gtn. ' 
and HoTt. Cliff. \ but fo many other fpccic* have 
added to it, and arc now univetfally called Anthtriatx 
ihcy are a good genus by themfelves, it would make 
a confufion to name them afrefli. If Pbalangitai 
name of an infed, we Ihoiild have preferred thai to TafigUSm. 


[ 1801 ] 

SCHEUCHZERIA palusfris. 

Mursh Scheuchzeria. 

HRXANDRU Trigynia. 
Gen. Char. Cut. none. Petals 6. Siigmeu u^w^ 
lateral. Cnpsitles 3, superior f in&jtted. S^dtloti. 
ytnthers linear. 

Spfc. Char 

Syn. Scheuchzeria palustris. Linn. Sp. VI. W2. FL 
Lapfy.ed. 2. 103. ( H)./ 1. F.hrh. Phtfloph.Si. 
Ft. Dan. t. 76. Hall. Hist. v. 2. IGG. Solk. 
Germ. v. 2. 4i9. 
Juncoidi affinis paluscrift. Sckeuckz. A^r. 336. 
Gramen junceum aquadcum, semine racemoso. Ijho, 
Fruss. 114. t. 28. 

It has now and then in ihe course of ihis work fallen to oof 
lot In sdd a new genus to the Flora of Britain, and such ii 
ilie plant before us, discovered bv the Rev. Mr. Dalioo, in 
June 1 787, growing abundaatlv, along wiih Lynmachia tjOT' 
siflora, iu Lalieby Car near Bofouijh -bridge, Yorkshire. TTiil 
at least is no outcast of eardeoG, lor we arc pretty ccruun ihu 
no person ever attcmjitca to cullivate it. Even on the Atpi of 
Switzerland it is considered as cjtretncly rare. HallerueTer 
found it, and suspected it to be lost. SVc have however re- 
ceived Swiss specimens from the late Mr. Davall. In Ltpjj&il 
and Norway the Sc/teuckztvia is less uncommon. It fn*!* 
always in very wel spongy bogs. Linnctis named this " 2"^ 
alpine genu*" after Iwo broilirr^, one of whom escetml ia 
the.knowlcdge of gruses, the uihcr of alpiue plants. Sec Oil. 
Bol. 79. 

The mot is long, creeping, scaly, and perennial. Stean 
creel, simple, a sp;in high. Leaves few, shesthing, mbj, 
semicylinOrical, rising alKivc the lop of the stem, mostly ra- 
dical, each having a pore At its point, first remarkoj b^ 
Mr. Dalton, through which water oozes when the leaf » 
compressed. Flowers in a' simple, tcnnink], bfaeleaicd ctuslef, 
greenish brown, small and inconspicuons. IVtals rccunrd, 
ei|iiul nn<l uniform, yellowish green. SUuncni »len(leT uid 
flaccid. Anthers brown, vcriical, Imear, bunting by fl lem- 
giiudmal iniernal pores. Germ ens ovate, 3, occasionally 4, 
i or 0, with hreral, sessile, oblong, downy sligtiua. Cap* 
suic* globose, inflated, each containing 1 or 3 roundish wewaL 
—The aniOoey of Tofieldia, I, 43fi, and other gcnrrs, ktdt u 
lo oousiilcr this flower as having a corolla nUher ihaa a calfii 
'''"It which Linocuiis at variuce with himtdf. 














[ 366 ] 

TRIGLOCHIN palustre. 

Marsh Arrow-grass. 

HEXANDRU Trigynia. 
Gen. Char. Cal. 3-leaved. Petals 3, like the c 

Style none. Capsule bursting at the base. 
Spec. Char. Capsules linear, of three cells. 
Syn. Triglochin palusire. Linn. Sp. PI. 482. / 
Fl. An. \51. Ifhh. Bot. Arr. 378. lUlh, i 
146. Sibth. Ox. 119. 
Juncajo palustris & vulgaris. Rail Syn, 435. 
Gramen aquaticum spicatum. Ger. etn. 13. 

X HIS spccits of Triglncliin is full as cuininon in wet li 
meadou-a, as ihat \\c have ligurui tab. SSS is in salt manbcft 
flowering about the mitldle ol" summer. 

The root is fibrou!', tufted, and perennial. Leaves nuhy, 
somewhat more slender and less flcbhy than in ihe taarUhmmm, 
but like them semicylindrieal, wiili a membranous, vaginainv, 
intrafoliaceous siipula. Stalk solitary', erect, longer than tbc 
leaves, bearing a long, ihiek-set, but slender, spike of nune- 
rous flowers, smaller than ihoseof the species jiiii Dientmned. 
The most striking and certain dislinction however between ihc 
two is lhat ihe fruit of T. palnslre is much more long and 
slender, having only 3 cells and 3 valves Inslead of C. TIicm 
valves, separating from the base, look hke a ihrfC'barfaeil 

All cattle will cat the Marsh Arrow-grass, and Dr. Wither- 
ing says cows are extremely fund of it ; yet we know not ihM 
il has as yet obiainc^ much attention from the expcriincoul 

[ ^ss 1 

TRIGLOCHIN marititnum. 

Sea Arrow-Grafs, 

H EXAND RU Trigynis. 
Ges. Char. Cal. thrcc-Icavcd. Petals 3, like the 
calyx. Style none. Capfide burfling at the bafc. 
Spec. Chak. Capfulea ovate, of fix cells. 
SvN. Triglochin maritimuin. Uim. Sp, PL l^^. 
lluJf. Fl. An. I ja. fVilb. Bot. Arr. 378. 
Gramcii marinum fpicatum. Rati Sjn. 435. 
G. Ipicatum altcrutn. Ger. em. 30. 

V^OMMON in fait tnarflies, ami muddy fhom of b^ 
riven ivhcrc ihc fait tide comes, as about the Ttumcf nev 
BocheAcr, &c. 

Tlic mot is l^Fdng, woody and perennial, with loog flia^ 
fibres. Leaves ruDiy, fcmi cylindrical, flefliy, vi-ith anioToluie 
intrafoliaccous nienibranoiis ftipula. Static faliun-, fearcdy 
longer than the leaves, inclining at the bafe, terminuing in ■ 
limple dciifc fpike of numerous green i(h~purp1e flowers, oa 

4 4 D«6» 



C O L C H 1 C U M autumiiale. 
Mcacioiv Saffron. 

IIEX^NDRIA Trigyrua. 
Gen. Char. Cal. a fpatha. Cor. in 6 divifions, tube 
arillng from the root. Capfuks 3, connc^lctl tad 
Spec. Char. Leaves plane, lanceolate, and crcA. 
Syn. Coichicum auturanale. Lhm. S/i, PI. 485. /Uf. 
FL^n. 157. H'tih. Hot. Arr.^"]!). 
Bo/. 483. /, 177. 
C. commune. Rati Syn. 373. 


OOME mcidows in Suffolk produce the Colchkum, and tint 
in but too great abundance for llic mtcreft of (he grazier. It 
is alfo faid to be found In various parts of the oorth and xctk 
of England. This fpecimen was gathered by W. Matthew, Elq. 
of Biirj". 

The plant before us exhibits a mode of fru^ificalton fctrcclf 
paralleled among Britifh vegclablcs. The flowers appealing 
\cvy late in autumn, the impregTiated germcn reauius btaW 
under ground t^uite clofe to the bulb till the iullowing fpring, 
when the capfule rifes above the furface, accompanied by for- 
ral long upright leaves, and the feeds are ripened about June, 
after which the leaves deeay (fee Dr. Withcring's remarks in 
Bot. yfrr.). What therefore appears to be Sower-ftaOc, ii 
only the tube of the corutla, as in the Crocus. Several flowtn 
arc cnclofcd in one membranous fpatha. 

!ls qunlities agree with thofe of fquills (fee Wilh.). 
If we may ditfcnt from fuch authority as M. ilc Juflicu, *« 
cannot but think this genus more nearly allied to Crocus (has 
a Veratrum {Ju^. Gm. p. 47). His accurate account of itt 
ption by root may fervc to explain thai of 
L and of the OrchidcK. 

I i 

' 'i 



[ 1432 ] 

COLCHICUM autumiialc, ^or. xei-otu 
Tar<h)-fluiccniig Meadow Saffron. 

UF.X.iNDRU TrigijHia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. a spatha. Cor. in 6 diiri 
arising from the root. Caji.iules S^ com 

Spec. Char. Leaves plane, lanceolate, and e 
P^ar. with late green abortive Bowers. 

A REPRESENTATION of this plant Id it* proper and u«ul 
state may be found in our 2d not. t. 133. It is not wHboot 
reluctance that we ariniit any varieties or monstrofiitiei bio 
this work, but so extraordinary an appearance as the presrat, 
so puzzling to common observers, and no where, to our 
knowledge, mentioned, cannot ^un:]y bi; unacccptalile. 

We arc informed b)' Mr. Salmon, to whom wc are obliged 
for specimens, this plant has been observed For 6 or 7 
years past in a meadow near Deidzes, Wilts, in tiie month* nf 
April or May. It is unquestionably no other than OJehit*^" 
anlumvale bearing leaves at its proper season, and alone "nh 
them, from the same bud, tardy abortive floiv<;rs, which sfaooU 
have come forth tiie autumn before, and by this time hsR 
perfected seed. Instead of which their stamens and othrr 
parts arc imperfect, there is no pollen in the anthcrte, J 
even the corolla is drawn out into long greenish ill-c 
segments, owing as it should seem to the cold xnd u 
of the vernal season. This however must be vstcci 
and not an eariy flowering varicly with re^i<«:t to its i 
tiawlc uf jiroduclioa. 


' ■;• 

I I 


I '■ 

1 .. 

I ! ■ 

f .. I 

■ I. 

I :■ 


. I 




[ 837 3 

A L I S M A Plantago. 
Greater Water-Planlain, 

HEXJNDRIA Pthfgjida. 
Gen. Char. CaU of 3 leaves. Peials 3. Ca^ukt 

many, aggregate, generally fingle-lcedcd. 
Spec. Char. Leaves ovate, acute. Capfules obtafdj 

Syn. Alifma Plantago. Ijm. 'Sf. PL 486. Sm. Ft. 
Brit. 400. Hudf. 158. fVilb. 361. HuU. 78. 
Beli. i$o. Sihtb. 120. jihbot. Z^. Curt. Lu^. 
fafc. 5. t. 27. 
Plantago atjuatica. Rati Syn. 457. 

XOOLS and dUches, and fometinies the borden of flow 
llreams, are plentifully adorned with the large branching ftcmi 
«nd numerous white or purplilh flowers erf' the Great Wita 
Plantain in the middle of fummer. 

The root is fibrous and perennial, fixed in the mud under 
water. Leaves all radical, erc3, on long ftalkx, ovate, acute. 



I I 


' I 

[ 1615 ] 

A L 1 S M A Damasonium. 
Star-headed ffater-Plantam. 

HEXANDRIJ Poh/gyiua. 

Gen. Char. Cat. of 3 leaves. Petals 5. Cafuuhi 

many, aggregate, generally single-seeded. 
Spec. Char. Leaves oblong; heartshaped at the base. 

Styles six. Capsules awlshap>ed. 
Syn. Alisma Daraasonium. Linn. Sp. PI. 48Q. Sau 

Ft.Brit.4Q\. Huds.\59. IVUL S6\. IiulLT% 

Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 28. 
Damasonium stellatum Dalecham|»i. Rati Syn, 272. 

Gathered frequently in Wanstead Park, Essex, b)-Mr. 
Sowerby. It grows in watery places on a gravelly soil, and 
has been observed chie6y wilnin SO miles of London ; yet w« 
leam from the Botanist's Guide that it has also been foood at 
Ellcsmere, Shropshire, as well as in SufTolli: aiid Sussei. U 
is perennial, ana flowers in June and July. 

Root of manv long fibres. Leaves floating, all radical, on 
round stalks, dilated and bordered with a metnbranc in their 
lower part; the leaf itself is of a long elliptical obtose fom, 
heartshaped at the base, entire, smooth^ with a tlrong midiib, 
S small ribs near the margin, and many transverse rant. 
Stalks 1 or 8, about a span high, round, simple, beariiu tor 
3 umbels one above another, which give it a wbnrlco Wf- 
pearance. Flowers whitish. Germens but 6, upright, etdt 
crowned with a small taper stigma. Capsules 6, sprdAac 
in a star, like those of the Iliicium or Starry Anise, cooiprtanC 
pointed, each holding I or 3 seeds. 

I am not afraid of offending my candid friend Jussiea by 
not adopting his genus Damasonium. Linnaeus obaem* 
" rard olservatitr ^enus, in qud pars aliqua Jructifica^mk 
non aberrat." Phil. Bol. seel. 170. This appears lo be (be 
case with the secd-veasels of Misma with respect to form, 
number and direction. F^aaaria is another inalucc of the 
tame aberration- 

[ 7 

ALISMA natans. 
Floating IVater-Plantain. 

HEXANDRIA Pet^gyda. 
Gen. Char. Cat. of 3 leaves. Pelals 3. Caf/ula 

many, aggregate, generally finglc-fcedcd. 
Spec. Char. Leaves elliptical, oblufc. Flower- 

ftalks folitary. Capfulcs (Irialed. 
Stn. Alifma natans. Liim. Sp. PL^%y. Sm. Ft.. 

402. liiuif. i$8. With. ■^6%. JIulLy^. 


J\. AY and Dillenius were unacquainted with this pi 
a native of Britain, Mr. Brewer feems to have been Hswi- 
ginal difcoverer in the great lake near Llanberris, whrrt, u 
well as in other alpine lakes about Snowdon, it fiill gniwi. 
From thence our living fpucimens were brought to the gankn 
of the Rt. hon. Charles Greville at Haddington, under wbofc 
care they flowered vigouroufly in May 1800. This gcailcnn 
has gathered the fame plant in Kcfwick lake. We Ji4»e lUb 
received wild dried fpccimens, gathered in Biilft lake, Meri- 
onethfliire, by the Rev. Mr. Wood of Leeds, wilh which Mr. 
Greville's eultivatcd ones perfei^ly agree. 

The root is ^brous and perennial. Herb floating, coofiOing 
of many long round Hems, of the fize of a {hiall packtbmd, 
producing from each joint Iwo or more elliptieal entire Icm 
on long footllalks, with one or two large delicate white flowan, 
each Handing ereifl above the furface of the water nn a ki^ 
purplilh flowerflalk. The petals are yellow at their bafe. 
Stamina fix, flicrt. Gcrmens from 6 to 1 3, each becoming 
a ribbed or llriated capfule. The abovementioned letvei toal 
on the furfage, to which purpofe their long flexible flalksair 
well adapted ; but (here arc alfo long hnear- lanceolate nSaX 
learcii, always immcrfcd in the water, and dill difiit^ enough 
from ihc membranous (lipuls that accompany the 
of the other*. 


A L I S M A ranunculoides. 
Lesser Water Plantain. 

HEXANDRJA Pob/gyma. 

Gen. Char. Cal. of three leaves. Petals three. 
Seeds many. 

Spec. Char. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Fruit glo- 
bose. Seeds acute. 

Stn. Alisma ranunculoides. Linn, Sp. PL 487. /Auk 
Fl. An. 158. IVilh. Bot. Jirr. 382. Relh. Caau 
150. Siblk. Ox. 120. 
Plantago aquatica minor. Rail Syn. it57. 

IjROWS in swampy turfy places, not ray 

M. J. Rayer gathered it on Finchlc)' CommoD, Soweriog in 


Root perennial, of many long simple Gbres, as in moHMpu- 
tic plants, from the crown of which arise scrcnl upri^t, 
narrow -lanceolate, smooth, entire leaves, ou long rery (pooff 
fool-slallts. Stalk mostly taller than the leavea, uprighi ot 
decumbent, round, smooth, hearing two or more wborb (ofbn 
proliferous) of flowers on long flower-stalks, w itb unall me«i- 
branous braclea; at iheir insertion. Calyx-leaves small, roasd- 
Ish, concave, permanent. Petals much larger, of in el^«t 
pale purple, yellow at their base, expanding in the middk of 
the day, slightly waved. Stamina short. Gcnnena veij ■»• 
Rterous, collected into a small globe. Seeds with five angkf, 
and an acute point, forming a round bristly head, by wfakk 
it may always be distinguished from every variety of A. Pirn- 
logOf the seeds of which art very blunt and comprctted. 

TRIENTALIS europia. 
Cbick-weed Winter-green* 


Gen. Char. Cd. feven-leaved. Cor. in revcag 
ments, regular and flat. Utrry dry. 

Spbc. Char. Leaves lanceolate and entire. 

Syn. Trientalis europjea. Urn. Sp. PI, 4S8. 
Fl.Att. 160. mtb. Bot.jirr.-^%^, 
Alfinandiemos. Rait Syn. 2S6, 

Found in dry woods and turfy heaths ia the 
England, more plentifully in Scotland, as it is a pUnt cllicB| 
confined to the mod northern regions. 

Linnxus in Flora Lapponica appears to have been quite ow 
ehanted with this plant, polTibly from its being the only L^ 
land genus of his feventh claTs, and which therefore delighted 
him in an cittraordinary degree, as completing the uniformjty 
of his fyfiem. It mult be confefled however that the niunbcT 
of its (lamina is very incondant. 

The fpecific ehara£lcr in Spfciet Plantarum, as given above, 
is now fupcriluous, tliis being the only known fpecics of Tri- 
entalis, fincc the Trientalis Capentis of Sp. PI. firft editioa, 
has been made a feparale genus by the name of Septa*. 

We fliall in future leave a blank, in place of the fpeciAc cli»- 
rader, when the plant in queltion ii the only one of its 


I »: 


: :i 



■ • 1 

I . 


4 I 

. I 

• t 





[ 1534 ] 

OENOTHERA biennis. 
Common Evening-Primrose. 

0CTANDRI4 Mmogyitia. 
Gen. Char. Ca!. in 4 segments. Petals 4. 

cylindrical, inferior. Seeds naked. 
Spec. Char. Leaves ovato-lanceoUte, flat. Stem rough, 

somewhat hairy. Stamina regular. Petals va&- 

Syn. Oenothera biennis. Linn. Sp. PI. 492. jlit. If. 

Keio. V. 2. 2. Rotfi. Fl. Germ. v. 1 . 168. r. 2. 4S9. 

Fl. Dan. t. 446. 

J^iOT wiihoui the most mature deliberation havt we been in- 
duced to admit this into a work on British plants. lu being 
found naturalized on dunghills and waste grauni) cither hen 
or ill Germany, as meniioned in Roth's excellent Flora, when 
known to have been introduced to our gardens from America 
about 900 years ago, would not have satisliecl us, Onrtpc- 
cimen was gathered on the extensive and dreary aand-banki 
on the coast a few mile? north of Liverpool, where milhon* 
of the same species have been observed by Dr. Bosiock and 
Mr. John Shepherd, perfectly wild, and covering i Urge tnel 
between the tirst and second range of und-btlls. Soine oa- 
lural caune has no doubt established it (here, though pouihif 
from the opposite shores of the Atlantic. 

It is biennial, and flowers from July to Se]>ieinber. The 
stem 13 S or 3 feet high, often branched, leafy, angular, rough 
with minute tubercles, and hairy. Leaves alternate, ovale or 
lanceolate, toothed, downy; the lowest on stalks, lunger, ui 
Boniewltat waved. Flowers sessile in ihc botoma of th&Q[fcr 
leaves, so as to form a large spike. They expand in An even- 
ing, and arc delicately fragrant, of a fine pale yellow^ CalfX 
reflcxcd. Petals wedge-shaped, waved. Stamina R)^ tut 
ereet. fod» short, rough, full of seeds which d'lfler fim 
V of the EpUobium in having no down or winfA 


[ 1947 

EPILOBIUM angustifolium. 

Rose-ba^ Willow-herb. 

OCTANDRIA Monogytaa. 
Gen, Char. CnL in 4 segments. Petals 4. C^ 

sule oblong, inferior. Seeds feathered. 
Spec Char. Leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate, vdiy, 

smooth. Petals unequal. Stamens declining. 
Syn. Epilobiutn angustifolium. Linn. Sp. PI. ♦9S. 
Sm. Fl. Brit. 40ii. Hiids. l(il. tVith. 366. 
Hull. ^2. Sibih 121. Abbot. S*. Curt. hetd. 
fasc. 2. I. 24. IVijich Guide, v. I. 36. 
Lysimachia speclosa, quibusdam Onagra dicta, at 
quosa. Jiaii Si/n. 3 10. 

l_-ERTAINLY wild iti meadows and ehady moist pi) 
many parts of tlie norih of England. Mr. Winch obfcmd 
it on the Cheviot bills j Mr. Harriman in Teesdale. Nrret- 
thcless, being a very cummnn garden flower, incrcuinf 

Kaily by its roots, the plants found iicrc nod there aboiit 
ncloii are supposed to be outcasts of garden*. Our tpcd- 
men was galbcred on the bill a little beyond the Robin nad 
inn on ihe road to Kingston, where we have observed the plant 
near 30 years, in an apparently wild stale, flowcnngiDJi^ 
and August, the stem being always simple. Mr. Curli> hesb 
to have drawn a branched garden specimen. 

Root somewhat fleshy, creeping, reddish. Stems fmin) 
to 6 feet high, erect, wand-like, roundish, lesfy, amouih- 
Leaves numerous, nearly sessile, linear- lanceolate, «cw', 
entire or slightly toothed, smooth, veiny ; glaucous bencub. 
Flowers in long, upright, leaOcBS cluNient, very omamcnial, 
inodorous; with reddish stalks and calyx; hoary, ohm 
purplish, gcmiens; and large, crimson petals^ uncqnd in 
size and icre^dar in position. Stamens anil style beat 
downwards. Pollen blue. Stigma 4-clcti. It i* often aM 
Pc ntm or French Willow in Norfolk, where, though alnoM 
1 gardens, we have never met with any uaturalml 

[ 338 ] 

E P I L O B I U M hirfutum. 
Great hairy Wilhw-herh% 

Ges. Char. Cah in 4 fcgmcnts. Petals 4. Gi/f 

oblong, inferior, Seedi feathered. 
Spec. Char. Leaves partly embracing the ftcm, 
ovato-lanceolate, baiiy. Stem much branched. 
Root creeping. 
Stn. Epilobium hirfutum. Imn. Sf. PI. 494. Sm. 
FLBrit.^iQ. mtb.266. Hull. Si. Relb.iyy 
Sibtb. 122. ^bhot. 84. Cart. Land. fafc. a./. 21. 
£. ramofum. Hudf. i6i. 

Lyfimachia liliquota hirfuta, magno florc. Ban 

V ERY common in water, ,. laces, margins of flreams. Etc., 
intermixed with reeds. Convolvulus fepiumy and wilknrt, 
flowering in July. Its pink bloflbms are conrpicuous at (onw 


EPILOBIUM parviftorum. 

Small -fowered hoary Wtllow'htrb, 

Gex. Char. Cal. in 4 fegments. Petals 4. Ctff. 

oblotig, inferior. Seetls feathered. 
Spec. Char. Leaves fetlile, lanceolate, downy. Stem 

nearly (imple, ttoolly. Root fibrous. 
Syn. Epilobiutn par\if]orura. ffiti. 367. Sm. Fl. 
Brit. 410. Hull. 8a. 
E- villcfum. Curt. Lond.fafc. a. /. 2a. Relb. 151. 

Sibth. 121. Abbot. 84. 
E. hirfutum. HudJ. 161. Unn. Sf. PI. 494,0. 
Lyfimachia filiquofa hirfuta parvo flore. Smb 
Sjn. 311. ^^^_^^_ 

P REQUENT in watery places, and xbout the buktcl 
rivers, flowering in July. 

Mr. Curtis has well diliingiiiflicd this from the comnHS 
great-flowered Willow- herb, called (on account of its fbuO) 
Codlings and Crcani ; but he ought to have retained tbeDUM 
of parv'iflonim, prcvioufly given by Schrcber and Wttherinf. 
Mr. Hudfon has commitied a different fault in uking ibcpUat 
before us fur the re^l E. birjutum of Linncus ; whercu tt ii 
his variety B- 

The root is perennial, fibrous and branched. Stem tandy 
2 feet high, fimplc, or but little branched, round, Icaiy, 
clothed with foft wixilly hairs. Leaves clothed with 6milar 
hairs, oppofite, fiflilc, minutely looihed; the upper aoes ahiir> 
nate. Flowers in a terminal leafy eor)'n)bu>, at Ici^th b&. 
coming a fpike. Petals obcordate, rare-colourtd or purpltSi. 
Stigma four-clcfi, in which particular this differ* from ibc oolf 
two fpecies of Efi/ol/ium already figured in our work. 

The great E. btrfulum above alluded to is ca£ly kDown by 
its creeping toot> tall branching Hcui, broad learct, and nmeb 
'■rvcr flowen. 


[ ^^n ] 

EPILOBIUM montaaum. 
Broad fmooth-leaved Willow-herb, 

Gen. Chah. Cal. in 4. fegments. Petalt 4. Caff. 

oblong, inferior. Seeds feathered. 
Spec. Char. Leaves on footBalks, ovate, toothed. 

Stem round. Sligma in four lobes. 
Stn. Epilobium montanum. Limt. Sp. PI. 494. 

Sm. Fl. Brit. 411. Bidf. i6a. fFiib. 367. 

Hull 8z. lUIh. 151. Sihth. 121. ./ihbot. 85. 

Curt. Limd.fafc. 3. /. 24. 
Lyiimachia campeftris. Rait Syn. 311. 

r REaUENT in dry (hady hilly places, upon fl 
buflics, or about old walls and cottage roofs, Bowering to Jidy. 
The root is perennial and moderately creeping, iu (hoou 
red, with which colour the ftem and older leave* are ofun 
elegantly tinged, as in fume of the Gtratmm tribe. Tbde 

It ' 



[ 693 ] 

EPILOBIUM rofeunl. 
Pale fmoBth- leaved Willo'tv-herh. 

OCTANDRIA Ubimgyida. 
Gen. Char. Cal. in 4 fegmenfs. Petals 4. Cr/- 

/ule oblong, inferior. Seeds feathered. 
Spec. Char. Ixaves on footflallts, ovate, toothed. 

Stem with four obfolcte angles. Stigma undt- 

SvN. Epilobium rofeum. Sebieh.Upf. Forfier in Srm. 

Sjn. 198. Sm. Fl. Brit. 41 1. 

1 HE late Mr. Curtis firft deteaod this fpecies of EpUthkK 
growing indigenously about his garden in Idmbetfa mvft. 
Mr. E. Fortler jun. afienvarda found it in a moiA dhcb a 
.Moreton near Ongar, Eflex, and by the road-fide betwceo 
Spelbrook and Bifhop's Storlford, nearly oppofite to Wall- 
bun', the great Roman camp, from whence he brou^t m 
the prcfcnt fpccimcn. It Teems to be perennial, flowering id 

■ I 



■ : 


' r- 



' i 




t'\m i 

E P I L B I U M tetragonum. 
Square-stalked fTilhw-herb. 

OCTANDMA Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cal, in 4 segments. Pelatt *. Of 
sule oblong, inferior. Seeds feathered. 

Spec. Char. Leaves lanceolate, sessile, minutely toolfaci 
Stem with four angles. Stigma undivided. 

Syn. Epilobium tetragonum. Linn. Sp. Pi. 494. 5i. 
Fl.Bnt.4[2. Huds. im. /nth, 36S. HuIl.Sl 
Jielk. IJl. Siblk. 122. M-bol. 85. Gtrt, Ltd, 
fasc. 2. I. 23. 
Lysimachia siliquosa glabra media sive minor. & 
Sj/n. 311. 

v^OMMON in watery -marshy places, flowering in July. 

Root perennial, fibrous. Stem 13 or 18 inches high, CR 
branched, leafy, nearly smooth, roundish in its trum 
secljon, but marked with four angular ribs at uno^vd 
stances from each other, by which it is known fron £■] 
lustre, t. 346. Leaves generally, if not alu-ayi, sessile, 
olate, smooth, irregularly and miiiulely toothed, for the 
part alternate. Flowers few, in leafy clusters, anaD, 
pale purple clo\'en petals, and a club'sluped undivided stigaMt 
The pods, flower-slalki, and iu some degree die floral 
are slightly hoary. 

The supposed variety with Malked and broader 
mentioned by Mr. Curtis, was what he aFterwanb 
allowed to be E. roseiim of Schrcber, sec t. 693 ) and 
we confess to have sometimes puzzled us in studying ihepcv 
sent species. How far they are really distinct mtj UiU 
ftf doubt. 








£PIL0B1UM palustrc. 
Narrow-leaved Marsh Willon-kerb. 


OCTAliDRlA Monogi/ma. 

jrEN. Char. Ca!. in 4 segments. Petals 4. Capmt 

oblong. Seeds feathered. 
Spec. Char. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, neaiiy entire. 

Petals notched at the end. Stem erect. 
Syn. Epilobium palustre. lAmu Sp. Pi. 495. Hi^. 
Ft. An. IG3. JVith. Bot. Jirr. 391. Relh. Catt. 
154. Sibtk. Ox. 123. Dicks. H. Skcfasc. 2. 15. 
Lysimachia dliquosa glabra minor angustifolia. Raa 
Si/n. 311. 

In marshy moorish land not unfrequent, though catity onr- 
looked from its resemblance to E. letragonum, from wbtdif 
honcvcr, it suHiciently differt in having a round tiem, Binow 
niid almost entire leaves, as uell as in being generally muUtr. 
It flowers in July, and is one of the leait allntctire of tbe « 

Root perennial, fibrous. Stem about a foot high, 
round, leafy, slightly downy, ss are also the young lestn, 
flower-stalks, germen and calyx. Leaves opposite, nearly acsiiky 
linear-lanceolate, obtuse, entire or very olMolctcly tootbtd. 
Flowers erect, small, of a pale purple, the pcial* fo oouhc' 
as to be often inveraely heart-shaped. Seeds vety nunterooi, 
crowned with a tuft of long slender hair. The upper lc«m, 
from whose bosoms the Sowers spring, are altcmite. Some* 
timet the whole herb is smooth, or Kircely downy, i 
tbe very youog ahoou uad genneas. 



[ 2000 ] 

E P I L O B I U M alsimfolium. 
Chickweed-leaved Willow-kerb. 

OCTANDRIA Monogyma. 
Gek. Char. Cal. in 4 segments. Petals 4. Capt. 

oblong, inferior. Seeds feathered. 
Spec, Char. Leaves on footstalks, ovale, acute, 
toothed. Stigma undivided. Root creeping, mailed 
Stems decumbent, obtusely quadrangular. 
SvN. F.piiobium alsinifolium. P'iUars Daupk. v. 3. 5\\. 
■ E. n. 361. IVinch Guide, v. I. 36. i;. 2. pre/. 4. 
E. montanum S. tf'illd. Sp. PL t;. 2. 316 ? 
Lysimachia siliquosa glabra minor latifoUa. Rait 

Sijn. 311. Hist.v. 1. 862. 
L. siliquosa nana, prunellEc foliis acutis. Bocc. Mm. 
161. t. 108. 

VVe dedicate with pleasure our 30OOth plate, s number 
wliich no work of this kind has reached befoie, to the iDostn* 
tion of a plant whose botanical history has been hitherto pe- 
culiarly obscure. This Epilobium was gathered on ibe CbcviM 
hills by Mr. Winch, who rightly judges it to be the plant cf 
Ray, always mistaken for atplnum, which last seems to grew 
only in Scotland. We have however the present species Iron 
the Highlandij also, by favour of Mr. G. Don and the late 
Mr. J. Mackay. By accidentally falling on a spcciioei) 
from Villars himself, in Mr. Davall's herbarium, we hiw 
ascertained and adopted his name, and have verified hi* 
quotation of Ray. Finally, we determine Bocconc's S)'!^!!)^, 
which Haller judiciously suspected could not belong to bis 
own V. 999, the real alpinum of Lannieus and F1. Dnt, 

E. alsinifotium is so called with a reference lu Ihe largtt 
kinds of Chickweed, which its leaves resemble. AUiat of 
Linna:u3 will not remain as a genus at all. 

One great mark of this species is that its percniual root 
creeps widely, forming broad matted tufts, leaty ifarougfaoet 
the winter, in which it totally differs from E. nueim. t. 09>, 
the species otherwise must related lo it. The leavca howcftr 
are sharper than in thai, of a darker hue, and with sbotta 
stalks. Stems numerous, decumbent, the flowering pan i»- 
cendine, roundish but marked with 4 angles. The flowcn 
cocic forth in June and July, with veined cloven petal*, and 
an undivided stigma. Germen downy, with minute recarral 
hairs. Fruit very long. It is, like E. alpinum, an berfa dut 
vsrie* much in luxuriance, aJid grows oy the turfy boggy 

trgins of mountain rilU. 








E P I L O B I U M alpinuni. 

Alpine If'illozc'-bcrb. 

OCTANDRIA Monogyma. 
Gen. Char. Cal. in 4 segments. Petals i. 


oblong, inferior. Seeds feathered. 
Spec. Char. Leaves on short footstalks^ ellipiic-bnce- 

date, obtuse, mostly entire. Stem decumbem. 

Flowers few. 
Stn. Epllobium alpinum. Linn. Sp. PI. 495. ^n. 

Fl. Brit. 413. Huds. 163. /^/M. 368. Hull.%3. 

Light/. \99. t. 10. f. 1. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc.S. }*. 

Fl. Dan. l. 332. ntlars Dauph. v. 3. 510. 
E. n. 999. Hall. Hisl. v. 1. 426. 

X HIS we have formerly gaiheretl on Ben Lomnnd, by ihc 
sides of rivulets about two thirds of the way up. From wild 
Scottish specimens, assisted by fresh ones from the garien 
of the Comtessc dc Vandes, where ihis and many other nn 
plants are eullivaied in great perfection, our figure wu com- 
pleted. The plant in perennial, flowering in Juuc or July, 
and ripening seed in August. 

Roots creeping, throning up a few scattered leafy ihooU, 
and still fewer weak ascending simple leafy stems, wbtcfaarc 
slightly angular and sometimes downy. Leaves vn tbort 
stalks, elliptical, obtuse, inclining to lanceolate, entire, or 
witb a few slight scattered teeth ; the floral ones only alternate. 
Flowers generally S, rarely 1 or 3, on simple sUiIks from the 
bosoms of the upper leaves. Germen long, downy. Pculi 
rosc'coloured, cloven. Stigma clubshaped, but we think tui* 
divided, or at least but slightly notched. 

• tit JW&iUly Jt>-- . 



: » 



[ 60 ] 

C H L O R A petfoliata. 

Ttllow Centaury, 

OCTANDRIA Mttmtgjma. 

Gen. Char. Calyx eight-leaved. Corolla in dgbt ftf- 

ments. Capfule with one cell, two valves, and manj' 

feeds. Stigma four-cleft. 
Spec. Char. Leaves perfoliate. 
Syk. Chlora perfoliata. Urm. Sjgfi. Nat. ed. 12. v.z. 

267. Hudf. Fl. M. 168. fVith. Bot. Arr. 39a. 

Relb. Cant. 157. 
Centaurium luteum perfoliatum. Rm Syn. 287. 

./\ Chalky or lime-ftone foil generally produces this plant in 
feveral parts of England, cfpccially in open, hilly fituationsi 
as Cambridgefhire, Worcefterfhirc, about Briilol Hot-wcHt, 
and the chalky parts of Norfolk and Suffolk. It does not 



> 4 




V A C C I N I U M MyrtiUas. 
Bilberry or Bleaberry, 


Gen. Char. Cor. of i petal, i^ismar/f arifing from 
the receptacle. Berry inferior, with 4 cells . 
many feeds. 
Spec. Char. Flower-ftalks fingle-flowercd. 

deciduous, fcrrated, ovate. Stem angular. 
Syn. Vaccinium Myrlillus. Limu Sp, Pi. 498, th^. 
163.- With. ^-jo. Siblb. 123. 
Vitis Idiea angulofa, Baii Syn. 457, 

VjROWS exceeding copioufly on heaths and ftony moon n 
the mountainous parts of Great Britain. PorUnd heath, At 
highefl fpoC in Norfolk, is we believe the only place it inUii 
in that county. About May the young frefli-green leaves, nd 
wax-like red flowers, m.-ike an elegant appearance. Tovaris 
autumn the leaves giow darker and more 6rm, and the ripe 
dark-blue berries arc gathered in the nonh for tarts, and la 
Devonfliire arc eaten with the clotted cream prcpariMl in the 
manner of that country. 

Root perennial, woody. Stem fhrubby, creel, fomuag finall 
tufted bufhcs, branched, frnooth, fbarply angular, cfpcctdlf 
ihc young green branches. Leaves alternate, oa ibort feat- 
It a Iks, ovate, fcrrated, fmootb, veiny. Flowers dnnping, on 
fhort round Hmple flalks, inodorous, the calyx and comllacadt 
with J teeth, and the llamina alfo generally 101 the nunAcB 
4 or 5 in the two former and 8 or 10 in the latter, being m- 
ditFerent in this natural order as to the detcnninatioa of 
genera or fpecies. The antherx arc cloven, <tifcharg;ing dK^ 
pollen by a pore in each point, and are bcGdca accompanied 
by two bridles or horns, as in many Eritii. Style and AigBa 
fimple. Berry roundilh, with a dimple at the iod, of 5 cell 
before it ripens, but when arrircd at maturity toe si 
feeds arc imbedded in one continued foft acid pulp. 




C 581 ] 

VACCINIUM uliginofum. 
Great Bilberry.^ 


Gen. Char. Cor. of i petal. FtlamenU ariUng from 
the receptacle. Berry inferior, with 4 cells and 
many feeds. 

Spec. Char. Flower-ftalks finglc-flowercd. Leavts 
deciduous, entire, obovatc, ftnooth and c\'cn. 
Branches round. 

Syn. Vaccinium uliginofum. IJtm. Sp. PL 499. 
Hiidf.i6^. fVith. y,o. Fi. Dan. t. %^i. 
Vitis Idsea magna quibuldam, five Myrtillus grandii. 
Rait Syn. 457. 

V.'N marfhy mountainous heaths, but not general in thii 
ifland. It has hitherto been obfen'cd only in Weftmorclaal 
and Cumberland, except the Highlands of Scodand. We re- 
ceived wild fpecinicns from the Rev. Mr, Harriman and Mr. 
Oliver, whofc favours we have fo often had occadon to ac- 
knowledge. It flowers in April or May, ripening its berria 


[ 598 3 


Red JVhorlU-berry, 

OCTANDRIA Monogyma. 

Gen-. Char. Cor. of I petal. Fiiamenfsaniing (too Hie 
receptacle. Berry inferior, with four cdls and 
many feeds. 
Spec. Char. Clufters (crminal, drooping. Lean) 
evergreen, obovate, revolute, finely toothed; diK- 
tcd beneath, 
SvN. Vaccinium Vitis Idaea. Urm. Sfi. PL 50* 
nmlf. 164. mik 371. Hull. 83. Diirk/. HJiet. 
fafc. 5. 10. ■ 
Vitis Ideea fcmpcrvircns, friii51u rubro. HauSn. 

i-'RY ftoney heaths or moon (aa they arc called io the Kodh) 
in the mountainous counties, are copioufly clothed «-ith tb* 
humble ever^ecn, cfpecially in Dcrbyfliire, from the bocilcfi 
of which, ahout fix miles fouth-weft of Sbeffidd, Mr. Sik 
fent us wild Ipccimcas. It flowers in June, and the bcnia 
ripen iu Augurf. 

Roots creeping, woody. Steins moHly upright, a vcn- fcw'tncfco 
high, but htOe branched, zigzag, angular, fmooih, plimL 
Leaves alternate, on foot-(lalks, c^'erg^c(:n, obavatc, more or 
lefs finely toothed ; fmooth and llitning above ; pale and doQcd 
beneath; their (irA appearance not unhkc ihalol thedwfboi. 
An elegant drooning duller of bcll-ftiapcd, bluft. ' 
ers terminates the licm or branches. Thdc fl( 
ncier obfened to vary from their proper four-cleft fc 
llamina. The anthcra? terminate in a pair of taper 
through a pore at ihc end of which the pollen is dif ' 
but they have not the lateral horns dcrcribcJ in V. uli^ 
t. 581. The berries are red, acid, aliringcnt and Uittcr. 
are fcarccly to be eaten raw, and though made into pie» in Dct- 
byfliire, wnerc they are called Cow-berries, their flavour i* br 
iiiferinr to the Cranberry. Their befl life ts fur making a rab 
or ji^lly, which is alwavs eaten with all kinds oC roaft meat in 
Sweden, and !;> far prclerable to that of the red cumnt as ■ 
fauec fur vcnifon. It is alio an excellent medicine in coU^ 
■im-throata, and all irritation of the mouth or bucc*. 


[ 319 ] 

VACCINIUM Oxycoccos. 


Gen. Chak. Cot, o£ 1 petaL FUatmadt arisiog froo 

die TBcrpttcie. Berry inferior, with 4 cdk nd 

Sfec. Char. Lcbtcs erergreoi, entire, refolote, ovate, 
acute. Stems oeqang, tfaicad-iliaped, smooth. 

StX. T afygmm Ox^COCCOL Zan. J^. PL SUi. 
Bidt. Fl Jm. 164. Ifhk. Bot. jirr. S93. Ml 
Test. 134. Dkks. H Sice fate, S.U. 
OxTOXCus aen Vacdnh pahistria. Bm Sjfn. 9S7. 

K St x bon u ^ bv Mr. W. Ttmm. It 



vMtviv b>a^aa«H im^Mbi tufuol ^iagmmm 
hog stoasci.. v^Kh corcr die aahce of dear AaUow wilcn, h 
likiK i^MC «W cshcv ifac 6n:t uc al)figcd le wade iqi U tbar 
■aA& V cei «r «. The fio«Yn come out in JmiKf nd iIk 

■*' I 



lyge^'i •*^- 


[ 2469 ] 

MENZIESIA cxrulea. 

Scottish MenzUaa, 

Gen. Char. Calyx of one leaf. Cor. of one petil. 
Stamens inserted into the receptacle. Capi. la- 
perior, of four or five cells; the partitions firoB 
their inflexed margins. 
Spec. Char, Leaves scattered, numerous, linear, ob- 
tuse, with cartilaginous teeth. Flower-stalb 
terminal, aggregate, simple. Flowers Bre-deit, 
SyN. Menziesia cserulea. Swariz Tr, of Litm. Sec. 
V. 10. 37/. /, 30. /A. 
Andromeda caerulea. Linn. Sp. PI. S63. Ft Lapp. 
ed.2. 133. (. 1./ 5. Lapland Tour, v. I. 273. 
Fl. Dan. t. &7. 
Erica casrulea. If^lld. Sp. PI. v. 2. 393. 
Phyllodoce taxifolia. Salist. Par. t. 36. 


' than usual satisfaction in annooncii^ tUi Ml 
British plant, on account of its rarity and beBUty, and of ik 
opportunity it affords of adding to our Flora a new ^^lu, 4e&' 
cated long ago, by the writer of this, to rme of the trorthint Bca 
that the native country of the plant ever produced. The ofi^ 
nal Mtnziesia, Sm. PI. h. 1.56, was gathered by Mr. A. Mm- 
zies on the west coast of North America. Our Erica IMem, 
t. 35, has been added to the genus by Jussieu and Svram. Aa 
account of more exotic species may be »een in Tr. at L. Sk. 
above cited. 

The present species has been discovered at Aviemoiv in 
Strathspey, and in the western isles of Shiant. We haw n- 
ceived native specimens from Mr. G. Don and Mr. P. Neill, nd 
have seen others in gardens about London, though ran^ in a 
condition to blosftom. It grous on drybealhy moon 
in June and July. 

Tlie habit is not unlike Empelrum, I. 526. I 
shining above ; finely toothed at the edge ; r^ downy b 
Floweratalks long, simple, nearly terminal, red, fllinniihl oJ 
downy. Plon-ers solitary, drooping. Calyx red aDJ^unlnlv, ■ 
five deep 8cut« segments, the divisions %i that part being dVt- 
rent in different species. Corolla ovate, contracted at the BmmI^ 
of a bluoi^h or livid red, well armwering to the chaakal idm i 
Wi, though Pallas changed the specific name to fiiij(Ma, 
" s less appropriate. 

ERICA DabeocL 
Mfii Heath, 

Gen. Char. Car. of one petal. Cal. foor-leated, 
inferior. Filamenit infened in[o ihe receptacle. 
Anibera bifid. CaffuU four-celled. 
Spec. Char. Amberai beardlefs, included. Corolh 
ovale. Siyle included. Leaves aUernate, on 
downy beneath. 
6tn. Erica daboecii. Utm. Sf. PL ^q^, Hii^\ 
Ah. t66. 
Andromeda daboecia. Um. Svfi. Feg. td. 13. 

With. Bot. Art, 425. 

Vacciniiim cantabricum. HitdJ. Fl. jIh, td. i, 14s, 

Erica cantabrica flore maximo, foliis Myni fub toi 

incanis. Rait Syn. 472. 

x\LTHOUGH Ray has mentioned ihU plant ai a imire 
of Ireland, be has been frequently fufpe^cd of hating coou 
mitted an error. We are at kngdl enabled to conBrm tat 
account, having been favoured with line wild rpeeimcni gidier- 
ed lafl year on the fides of mountains in the county of Mayo, 
by Aylmet Bourkc Lambert, Efq. F. L. S. It Sowers in June 
and July, and is frequently cultivated with us in gardens 

The partitions of the capfule being foimcd from the cdjct 
of the valves turned in, instead of being atuchcd (0 the centtt 
of each valve as in Andromeda, has induced Dr. Smith 113 
to confidcr this as an Erica ('&<■ Fljnt Icmti, t 58. J, ootwttli. 
Handing its leaves being mod commonly alternate, and its re- 
femblancc in habit to the Andromedas. Very rarely tlic kam 
are found oppofite, or even three together. 

Ray tells us in his Hiftory of Plants that this i« called St. D»- 

beoc's Heath (from whence the Linnxan trivial tumc hu been 

corruptly taken), and that the Irifli girls gird tbemfclTcs with 

b long trailing branches as a prote£lion to their chaflity^With 

t'lbcccfc he unluckily has omitted to infonn os. 



[ IOI3 ] 

ERICA vulgaris. 
Common Heathy or Ling. 

OCTANDRIA Mmmgyiaa. 
Ges. Char. Cal. 4.-leaved. Cor. 4-cleft. Slamma 

inlertecl into the receptacle. Anthers with a 

pores. Cipf. fuperior, oi ^ cells. Seeds many. 
Spec. Char. Anfherse bearded, concealed. Stjk 

prominent. Corolla deeply cut, fhorter thantbe 

coloured calyx. Leaves oppoflte, with twoTpun. 
Syn. Erica vulgaris. Lim. Sp. PL 501. Sm. Ft. 

Brit. 417. Hud/. 165. With. 374. Hull. 84. 

Relb. \s$. S'tbtb. \%^ Ahhot,%y. Cart. Lead. 

fafc. 5. t. 30. Rati Syn. 470. 

J. HE common Line, fo abundant on barrea heaibv moon 
and mountainous waueg, is endowed with no fmall ocgm of 
beauty. Its brilliant blol^ms, which retaia their colour when 
dried, are produced in profufion from June to September. 
Its leaves ami feeds arc ttie food of Grous and other animils. 
Its tough woody Hems make excellent brooms, and not ooW 
fcrvc the poor cottager for his own fuel, but afford him proet 


[ IOI4 ] 

ERICA Tetralix. 
Crofs-leaved Heath. 

OCTANDRIA Mimtigjmia. 
Gen. Char. Cal. 4.|e3ved. Cor. 4-cIeft. Slamm 

inferted into the receptacle. Aitthera with % pons. 

Cap/. fuper'ioT, of 4 cells. Seeds many. 
Spec. Char. Antherx bearded. Style nearly con- 
cealed. Corolla ovate. Leaves in fours, ciliated. 

Flowers in round heads. 
Syk. Erica Tetralix. Unn. Sp. PL 50a. Sm. f1. 

Brit. 418. Hudf. 166. mib. 373. Hull. 84. 

Rilb.i$6. Sibtb.ii.^. Jhht.Sj. Curt.Lomi. 

fajc. I. /. 21. Dkif. H. Sice.fafc.^. 4. 
£. Brabantica, folio Coridis, birfuto, quatemo. Reii 

Sjrn. 47 1 . 

X HE Crofs-lcavcd Heath is perhaps the moft bcaotifu] of 
all our fpecics, coafiderinc the extreme wax-like delicacy of 
iis bloflbms, which vary trom deep rofc colour to even* Oude 
of carnation, and even to a pure white. It is Icfs common 

- .;;«/i-.,r„ or n.ur.a. ami ,.h„Hy fjro 


[ 1015 1 

ERICA cinerea. 
Fine-Uaved Heath. 

Gek. Char. Cal. 4-leaved. Cor. 4-cIefV. Slatmm 
inferted into the recqitacle. Antberte with t 
pores. Gj^ fupcrior, of 4 cells. Seeds maoj. 
Spec. Char. Antherae creftcd. Style a little pro- 
minent. Stigma capitate. Cordta ovate. Leavet 
in threes. 
Sth. Erica cinerea. Lion. Sj>. PL 501. Sm. F1. 
5rt/. 418. Btdf. i6s- rri/A. 374. HuIL&4. 
Rtlb.isd. Sihtb.i2$. Abhot.^-j. Curt. land. 
fafc. 2. t. 25. 
£. tenuifolia. Rait Sytt. ^ji. 

Very frequent and abundant on heaths^ even aa moch lb 
■s E. vulgaris, and contributing no lefs to the omament of 
the country, flowering copioufly in July and Au^ft, or later. 
The above fpecific cnara£tcr ts given rather with a refereoce 
to the numerous foreign Erka than to our own ; for the 
notched appendage?, or cnll-;, ai ihe baft; nf the i.-.w'.ws. 



[ 3 ] 

ERICA vagans. 

Corntfti Heatb, 

OCr ANURIA MoMngjma. 
Generic Char. Cor. of one p«al. Co/. four-IetTed, 
inferior. FI/iimM/jinferted into the receptacle. A- 
tber,e bifid. Capjule four-celled. 
Specif. Char. Antberse bcardlefs, prominent: corol- 
la bcll-(haped : ftyle prominent. Leaves info gn. 
Flowers one on each foot-ftalk. 
Sym. Erica vagans. Linn. Maiit. 2. Z30. 
E. muhiflora. Hii^f. Fl. An. 166. 
E. didyma. IVitb. Bet. Arr. 400. 
* E. foUis Corios multiflora. J. B. Rati Sjn. ^ 

X H IS Heath, although ray abundant in Cornwall, hat? 
yvi been found in any other part of England, nor has its Lia> 
naran name been hitherto dctcnnioed. Mr. Hndfon icf c i ie d it 
to dM miiltiflora of Luinxus, which^ reTembles in appearasect 
bat is • TCTf dtfliikA fpecics. Dr. Stokes firft doubted in 
being dot plant, and garc it a new nunc, Sdjmm^ ftom the twia 
antbcnc, a circumftancc bowercr hj no means peculiar to thii 
fpecics. We therefore main the Kjnnxan denomination, ifaoo^ 
not I very e ap t effiw one ; as we are afliircd by Dr. Smith that il 
it uwJuwhiriltj tltt pbnt intended by LinniEus, and which lie 
ca&ed v^pav (««nderag}, beonfe found in Co many diferent 
and rcnkotc e i w i n i ft , as Africa, France, aitd other parts of 
the South of Eanpe 1 10 which we now add our own kingdoiDt 
as a fardier apology for the name. 

Tke Conuflt Heath b not un&cqnent in the botamc gsnkn 
ihaA London, where ii gn»ws fiedy, and looka w«U. b 
OwBwidI it b as common with while as with ted flowers. 

We have not bees able to aKCt with a %urc of thb pbu in 





[ 1381 ] 

DAPHNE Mezereum. 
Common Mezereon. 

OCTANDRIA Monogynu. 

Gen. Char. Cal. 4-cIrft, resembling a corolla, watw- 
ing but permanent, enclosing the stamina. Berry 
with one seed. 

Spec. Char. Flowers sessile, about three togellw, 
placed on the stem. Leaves lanceolate, deddiKK& 

Syn. Daphne Mezereum. Litm. Sp. PL 509. Sm. 
Fl.Iint. 420. Hads.167. fTitiuSie. IM.SS. 
IVoodv. Med. Bot. t. 23. Meyrick Mite. Bot. 1. 1. 

JVllLLER assures us in bis Dicliooaiy that this fiiTDume 
shnib, so conuDOD in plantations, had been in bis time iu- 
covered wild in woods near Andover, Hampshire, and tlul 
the prdcns had been plentifully supplied from thence. It ii 
said on good autbont)' to grow also in SuSbik and StsffonI- 



DAPHNE Laureok, 
Spurge Laurel. 

Gen. Char. Calyx four-cleft, refemblidg a corona. 
Withering but permanent, enclofing the fiamini. 
Berry with one feed. 
Spec. Char. Clufters axillary, of about five flowers. 

Leaves lanceolate, fmooth. 
Syn. Daphne Laureola. L'mn. Sp. Pi, 510. Uttdf. FL 
An. 167. IVitb. Bot. Arr.^0%. Relh. Cant. 157. 
Liaureola. Rati Syn. 465. 

X HIS flirub, not unaptly refcmbliiig a palm-tree m iBiiiu> 
turc, often occurs in woods aud hedges. Its evergreen Icara 
are confpicuous in Winter, ;Lnd the flowers come forth nriy in 
March. In Summer the black berries remain for a conCtfen- 
ble time. 

Every part is remarkably fmooth. The flcm round, abom 
three feet high, tough, but Utile branched, naked bdor, 
crowned at the fummit with a tuft of leaves, among wiiick 
grow bunches of green inconfpicuous flowers, of an tuplo- 
fant fmell, accompanied by feveral concave hnCktXt wUclt 
foon fait ofl". Thfs plant, though highly acrid, majr be nkni 
internally, and is recommended tn worm cafes, bot the dofe ii 
very fmall. See Dr. Withering. 

Gardeners have lately learned to engraft upon this tbcDipliar 
Cneorum, by which that elegant ud fragrant fpeciet U the more 
paCly propagated. 





[ 303 ] 

ACER Pseudo-PIatanus. 
Greater Maple, or Sycamore. 

POLYGJMU Montfda. 

Gen. Char. Hennaphr. Cat. 5-cIdt. Pel 

Stamina 9. PUiiUum 1. Co/wWe* 2 or S, angle, 
seeded, tennmadng in a ving. 

Male. Cat. j-cleft. Pel. 5. Stam, 8. 

Spec. Ckak. Leaves fiveJobed, imequallT ; 

Flovers in pendeni clusters. 
Stm. Acer Pseudo-PIatanus. Lirni. Sp. PI, 14&5. j 
fl Jin. 4+5. niih, Bot. Arr. 1147. 
Cont. SSO, Sihlh. Ox. 127. 
A. majus. £011 Stpt. 470. 

AAY dinks this tree, so comiDOD in b«dges, 
tKwaes isaotic^s oathr of Bhuio. We have _,. 
it in n/f KIT wild pbco. It is said 10 prefer a 
wKu ti u a and dpsmn, but wiD grow even m « mo 
ooe. Baag a ''■E^* ^^^ tuodMme, quick growing 
oot Itwkm to cne* it was much pUntcd aboulj 
kamcoft ttnii^ Evvika amplaim tbu the lam iM 
fxttiefy, «id ** rrMtmnMe and mar our walka," •ofl 
would **bauhil bonidlranousgaidenBandsnBucs.^ 
wood, at ia jB nes «f rwtd crow tk, is toft, dneflf oi 
ofiSnaiy Muwilj. X>r. Witbmng says sugar way be oT 
JVom ilie Sip, wUA is loare itnuukabty ibc cue with d 

The baifc if wtwnA, aah-ooloured. Bnacfaes r 
oppc«ite, fannal of tiuaienas acaks. Leafcs A-loi 
irnnind lobe iapst, aB vciBBd s iro og lv , and unequtur n- 
rated. Stkak* nooe. OwMn solituT/aximrT, loqg, draw- 
!iig> bnocbcd and mMf-flowered. Ficnras drooping- Peak 
Cnco. «Cfy Kfce ibe aJys-«^racnl5 In stxe, fbnn, aod colour. 
CcmKa my hiiiy. Sdgma dovtn, rcTolutr. ^utt peodeit, 
sanootb ; saod-wings often 3, iMt macfa divahcatcd. It ripou 
io AuguM, the iowos ap p eari iy in Mar. 

W'c'bavc gnat leaaoo to suspect tbcn aic two noetia if 
notdisdDcicpecinef ibis tree, m one of wlikli the kavts sc 
glauctMS Vwt'h and thm sc n itai t s verr Astant ; the fik- 
AKiits of dH* afc hain'. Our intdliccot inesA Andrew Cdd- 
w'riU Em. of I>aiUiii, '6rat mggested Stc idea of this (Uffennct, 
•od tte laBBBaQ hobanum oonfinu bis su^icmi. 


[ 304 ] 

ACER campestre. 
Common Maple. 

Gen. Char. Hermaphr. Cat. 5-cleft. Pet. S. SlaauS. 
Pist. 1 . Caps. 2 or 3, single-seeded, termmaring b 
a wing. 
Male. Cal. 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Stam. 8. 
Spec. Char. Lobes of the leaves obtuse, notched. 

Flowers in upright clusters. 
Syk. Acer campestre. Linn. Sp. PI, 1437. fftuU. K 
yfti.445. ni/h. Bot.^ri: 11 4S. Relh. CanUSSO. 
Siblh. Ot. 127. 
A. minus. Raii Syn. 470. 

iNOT rare in hedges and thickets in the sonlheni muobei, 
though seldom found in the nonhem ones or in Scntlandf 

It is a small tree, with spreading divaricated mund 
branches, their bark smooth, though ihat of the stem it J 
corky (issures. Footstalks downy as well as the leaves, 
are smaller than in most of our trees, opposite, S-Iobcd, adt 
lobe having one or two notches. Stipuls none. CluMen of 
flowers appearing in May or June, erect, terminal, bnncbed. 
Flowers green, much like those of the preceding. Their ao- 
thers {as in that) arc hairy between the lobes. Capsules downy, 
extremely divaricated ; wings smooth. 

Tlic wood is very iis^eful for turners, being compact, of a 
fine grain, and often beautifully veined. The anticnt Rotnao* 
are said to have set an cxhorbitani value upon their uibka of 
maple-wood, according to their size and the beauty of tbeir 
vems. Sec Evelyn's Sijha. 


[ 304 ] 

ACER campestre. 
Common Maple. 

Gen. Char. Hermaphr. CaL 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Stam. 8. 
Pisi. 1 . Caps. 2 or 3, single-seeded, terminating in 
a wing. 
Male. CaL 5-cleft. Pel. 5. Stam, 8. 
Spec. Char. Lobes of the leaves obtuse, notched. 

Flowers in upright clusters. 
Syn. Acer campestre. Linn. Sp. PI, 1497. Uudt. Fl, 
An. 445. mih. Bot. Jrr. 1 148. RdL Cant, 380. 
Sibtk. Or. 1 27. 
A. minus. Rati Syn. 470. 

J^ or rare in hedges and thickets in the soathcm counlief, 
though seldom found in the northern ones or in Scotland. 

It is a small tree, with spreading divaricated round oppoute 
branches, their bark smooth, though ihat of the stem is full of 
corky fissures. Footstalks downy as well as the leaves, which 
are smaller than in most of our trees, opposite, 3-Iobcd, each 
lobe having one or two notches. Stipule none. CluEten of 
Sowers appearing in May or June, erect, terminal, branched. 
Flowers green, much like those of the preceding. Their m- 
therffi (as in that) are hairy between the lobes. Capsule* dtmnj, 
extremely divaricated ; wings smooth. 

The wood is very useful fi>r turners, being compact, of x 
fine grain, and often beautifully veined. The aniicnt Ronuiu 
arc said to h.ivc set an cxhorbitant value upon ihcir tablet of 
maple-woodj according to their size and the beauty of tbn' 
vems. See Eveljii's St/lva. 

POLYGONUM amplubium. J 
Amphibious Persicaria. 

OCTANDRIA Tnsijnla. 
Gen. Char. CuL coloured, in 5 segments, pcnna. 

nent. Styles 2 or 3. Seed solitary, angular, taresl- 

ed with the calyx. 
Spec. Char. Styles two, united half way up. St>< 

mina five. Spike ovate. 
Syn. Polygonum amphibium. Linn. Sp. PL 517. 

BucU.}69. IVitLSIO. RelklSS. S/7'/A. 12S. 

Curt, Lond. fasc. 4. (. 28. 
Persicaria Salids folio perennis. Raii Sf/n. 145. 

JWOST commonly found growing in ponds and ditchti, 
where its long creeping perennial roots run deep into ihc rntid, 
throwing out whorls of fibres here and there, while the Icarct 
float upon the surface, and the heautiful spikes of flowcfs are 
(in Jnly or August) elevated ahove it. In this case ihc leattt 
are smooth, and of a bright green. Frequently howcTvr, « 
Ray observes, the roots are thrown out with the mud in riew 
ing ditches ; and if hy that, or any other accidaii, the pliat 
gets out of the water, the stems grow more erect, llie IcAva 
Become narrower and hairy, and the flowers xrc more ipa- 
rindy produced. 

The stem is round, branching in tJie lower part, leafj*, in- 
vested with tubular membranous stipulse, which sheath it 
ahove as well as below the ioscitinn of the foot-sulks. Lcarc* 
alternate, lanceolate or oblong, heart-shaped at the base, acute, 
ciliated with short bristly hairs. Spikes ovate, erect, on t 
reddish, generally smooth, finwer-stalk, at first termiDa], but 
at length the stem Js prolnided beyond it; someiimes two 


grow together. Bra 

e ovate, tnemhranous, jiointnL 

Flowers on short foot-stalks, rose-coloured, composed of onW 

a coloured calyx, for so we heg leave with Jussicu aitd CdtIU 

to call it, on account of the analogy with Bamer, ihouch 

Linnaeus terms it a calys-like corolla. This part is fiinnd- 

shaped, with i obtuse segments. Stamina but lii'c, varying 

to Icngtii. Gemien superior, red, bearing 3 styles united uu 

A eood way above their base, white in the upper pan, iip- 

b red globular stigmas. Saed comprcsscu, brown, pa- 

accordbg to Mr, Curlisj a favuuriic food of «-iicr 

[ 756 ] 

POLYGONUM Perficarla. 
Spotted Perjicaria. 


CTA NDRIA Trigynia. 
Gen. Char. Cal. coloured, in 5 fcgments, permanent. 

Seed folitary, fuperior, angular, invcfled wilh the 

calyx. Slam, and Piji. uncertain in number. 
Spec. Char. Flowers wilh fix (lamina, and (Ijlc 

divided half way down. Spikes ovato-oblong, 

ertSt. Common flower-flalks fmooth. Stipolz 

SvN. Polygonum Perficaria. Linn. Sp. PI. ^1%. Sm. 

Fl. Brit. 424. Ihidf. 169. IVilb. 380. Hull. 85. 

B£lb. 159. Sihih. 128. Jlfbat.%%. Curt. Laid. 

fafc. I. /. 23. 
Perficaria maculofa. Ran Syn. 145. 

j^ COMMON weed in ditches, wcl fields, aiul mirfliT 
places, flowering copioufly in July and Au^uft. 

Root annual, hbrous. Stem cre6l, though fomclimcs taktif 
root from one or two of the lowcrmoU joints, as in others of thu 
genua, about two feet high, alternately branched, leafy, roimd, 
fmooth, often reddilh, generally fwclled above each joinL 
Leaves almotl fclTilc, lanceolate, entire, rough on the neni-e aod 
inamin, for the moll part marked with a black fpot like > 
liorle-fboe, Stipula^ tubular, membranous, fringed, fiimiiind- 
ing the I4em. Spikes terminal or a]tiliar^-, <»n long fmontli 
(talks, ere£l, cylindrical, obtufe, denfe, compofcd of numcmu 
rofc-cDloiired or whitiiii Sowers. Stamina 6, about as long 
as the calyx. Style cloven only half way down, romctiinei 
3-tleft. Seed oblcurcly triangular. 

There is a variety with -leaves hoary beneath, and atwther 
whofe leaves have a filvery hue like the While W'illmv. nKfc 
are noticed by Dillcnius in Kay's Sympjh 145, n. 5 and 7, awl 
are very common. The curious botanil) is much indebted to 
ilif ingenious Mr. Curtis for afcertaiiiing the hmiisbciovcm 
tbi» Ipecied and P. lafatbifolium (his penfyUaniaim) whole 
many varietiea may alwaya be known by their rough glanduUr 

■•rer-fiilks, deeply divided (Ij-lc. and gcacrafly MinUcb 




-■ t 
'.■ 1 







i • 

' i 

1382 ] 

POLYGONUM lapathifolium. 
Pale-Jiowercd Persicaria. 


fGEN. Char. Cal. coloured, in 5 segments, pennaooL 
Seed solitary, superior, angular, invested with tb 
calyx. Stam. and Pist. uncertain in number. 
Spec. Char. Flowers with six slaniina and two distilKl 
styles. Flower-stalks rough. Stipuls beardless. Seedt 
concave on each side. 
Syn. Polygonum lapathifolium. Linn, S[>. PI. Sit. Sm. 
FL Brit. 425. Reth. 156. Sibth. 129. jibbot, 89. 
P. pensylvaoicum. Curi. Lorid.fasc. 1. t. 24, 25. 
P. Persicaria^. Ihah. 170. 
P. pallidum. /f7(A. 381. Hull 85. 
Persicaria milis major, foliis pallidioribus. Raii Syn. 

\JF this there are tteveral varieties; some wiih pale whttiih 
flowers, as in our figure ; others with red flowen and ctm, 
or a spotted atcm ; some whose leaves are smooth, oihm 
hoary, on the under side. All oF them are annual, Sowerii^ 
in July atid August, and occurring about dunghills uul in 
rich moist ground, especially in the low tracts about the 
Thames. Mr. Curtis, as wc have observed at v. II. p. 7M, 
was the first who clearly distinguished this species from Ihc 
more universal P. Persicaria. He erred only, with Hutbto, 
in supposing ours the P. pensj/luanicuTn, which prove* by tlM 
Linnxan Herbarium to be diHcrent. In that colleclioo is* 
deed is no authentic specimen of P. lapathifolivm ; so thU in 
: rests on the authority of descriptions and syDOByW 
only: but we believe it is not hable to be contruvcrtcd. TW 
ripucitic character depends on the separate styles, gbaibbr 
stalks^ and mostly beardless stipule 


[ 989 J 

POLYGONUM Hydropiper. 

Biting Perficaria. 

OCTANDRIA Trlgynia. 

Gen. Char. Cat. coloured, in 5 (egmcnts, perma- 
nent. Seed folitary, fuperior, angular, invcftcd 
with the calyx. Slam, and Pi^. uncertain in 

Spec. Char.. Flowers with fix {lamina, and fiyie di- 
vided half way down. Leaves lanceolate, waved, 
unfpotted. Spikes llender, drooping. Stemercd. 

Syn. Polygonum Hydropiper. Urm. Sp. PL 517. 
Sm. PL Brit. ^it. Hud/. 170. fFiib. 379. 
Hull. 85. Relb. 160. Sikb.izg. MboLSq. 
Curt. Lond. fafc. 1. 1. 26. 
Perficaria vulgaris acris, feu Hydropiper. Rtit 
Syn. 144. 

W E have lately U. 955) defcribed one plant dilunguiflicd 
by the name of Hydropiper on very flight grounds ; the prdat 
had obtained the fame denomination previoufly, on account 
of its pungent tafte, caufed by an elfential oi! which r^des b 


[ '043 ] 


Small Creeping Perjicaria. 

Gbk. Char. Cal. coloured, in 5 regmcnls pcnna- 

nent. Seed folitary, fuperior, angular, inreftcd 

with the cal)X. Stam. and Pifi. uncertain in 

SfKC. CuAK. Flowers with (\x fiamina, and mi<B- 

vided ftylc. Leaves lincar-ianceolate, flat. Spikei 

flendcr, upright. Stem rooting at the bafc. 
Syn. Polygonum minus. Hudf. td. 1. 148. <Sh. fU 

Brit. 426. Curt. Lond.fafc. I. /. aS. fVttb. 380. 

Hull. 85. Relb. 161. Sibtb. 130. jfhbol. 89. 
Ferlicaria pufilla rcpens. Raii Syn. 145. 

J. HT5 fpecies of Poljrgonum, ori^ally cbaradmscd bf 
Mr. Hudron in his firfl ediiioa, having been tUetwistt- 
duced by the fame author to the Hydropiper, and by LiimcBi 
to the Perftcaria, has by masiy perTons been confident] » wiy 
doublful. Ai length, however, Mr. Curtis e&ablilbed it beyoaJ 
all comroverfy on thecleaicft principles of diflin^Uon. 

With P. Perfiearia it has htile affinity ; its whok hafaii, 
finooth fpollefs leaves, and tery loofc flender fpikcs, bring if 
much nearer to P. HyJropifer: from both it diffcn to baving 
un undivided %le, the lligmas only being fcptnitr. The 
leaves moreover arc flat, not undulated, fcarccly si all vetDCd; 
the whole plant fmaller and more procumbcnl ibao tbe laft 
mentioned, and the flowers have no glandular dou. Tk 
(ligmas are fomelimes 3, but moilly 2. Root anoutL Spika 
cre£l, or very lilile drooping. Stipulac fringed. 

It flowers in September, and may be found 00 gnvcfly 
waier>' commons, but much more rarely than moA «f il* 
genus. In Tothill-fields, Welhnintler, as well as diost 
Blackheath, we find it in the greatefi abundance. 

[ 509 3 

r L Y G O N U M Bistorta. 

Bislort or Snakeweed. 

Gek. Char. Cat. coloured, in 5 segments, perm 
Styles 2 or 3, Seed solitary, angular, invested II 
the calys. 
Si'F.c. Char. Stem simple, bearing one spike. Leans 

ov-ate, running down into the foot-stalk. 
SvN. Polygonum Bistorta. Linn. Sp, PL 516. Huds. 168. 
fntk.3S2. Relfi. 158. SibtL 128. Curl. Land, 
-fuse. 1. t. 22. IFoodv. Med. Bol. t. 3+. 
Bistorta major. liaii Si/n. 147. 

r ROM Bitilersea meadows. The plant is most commoam" 
rtrriiJe pastures of ihe iinrlh of England, flowering tn June. 
The [oul is perennial, not ca:(i]y rxlirpated ; it is someithat 
fleshy, creeping, generally a little benl or zigzag, tihc-nce Ibc 
names Bis-(or/a and snakeweed, and, being very asiringtnl, b« 
been used v^i\h eflect where medicines of luch a quality wen 
wanted. Dr. Wuodville informs us ibe doK is from i uniple 
to a dram of the root in substance. 

The hleni is quite simple, straight and erect, about a foot aoJ 
half high, round, leafy. Leaves ovale, waved, veiny, entire, of 
a line green, sniooih, glaucous beneath, (heir base runDing 
down so as tu render the fooistaik winged. The stalks of the 
stem-kaves are dilaicd und sheathing. Spike soliiar)-, irrmioal, 
cylindrical, blunt, nearly upright, composed of u great oiany 
bcjuiiiful pink-colunred flowers, having the proper number of 
sumina and styles that belongs to the genus, and each standing 
on a slender red flower-stalk, with a pair of mcmbranaut bnc- 
tvx at ibe base. The seed is triangular, black, jod >biiut)|. 


( 669 ) 

POLYGONUM vivipanim. 
Alpine BiJIort. 

OCTANDRIA Trigynia. 

Gen. Char. Cat. coloured, in 5 fegmcnts, permancDt 

Styles 2 or 3. Seed folitary, angular, fupcricH", in- 

veftcd with the calyx. 
Spec. Char. Stem (imple, bearing one fpikc. Leaves 

lanceolate, their margin revolute. 
Syn. Polygonum vivipanim. Lhm. Sp. PI. 516. Sm. 

Fl. Bril. 428. Hudf. 169. fyilb. 383. Ughtf. 

ao6. Hull. 86. 
BiHorta minor. RitiSyn. 147. 
^ B. minima alpina, foliis imis rubrotundis et mino- 

tifllme fcrratis. ]itiii Sjn. 147. 

J\ TRULY alpine pknt, communicated frcfli from a moift 
rpot of groiuul 3 little below the Culms near Horton in Cra- 
ven, by Mr. Binglcy in July laft. It is principally found in 
high pafturcs, or the nioift fiffures of rocks, Llghtfoot fays io 
tlr^- ftonv pafturcs, in the mod mountainous parts of this if- 

: ^=^ 1 

POLYGONUM Fagoprmm. 

Gcx. C^it. Cd. t=:iccra±, b 5 l^meots, peroo- 
aeat. Ses/ iri l c j rT , Eprrior . xn^nlar, bvefied 
VJ3 :^ 3ETX. Sin^^ aod Pt0, Docertaui in 

Sivu f"»»» Lcrg acKt-armwftaped. Stem neartf 
i^ n gic . 'niiccr zn:xjes. A^;{es of the feeds 

■TS. ?;iitt<i:e= FiT-Li'JB, Zjbe. ^. P/. 513. 
S^n-t- Sn.-. iiV ftii: 171. ff^i. 384. 
/ff"-~ i<f- S0CK. :^r. j&TU.^. yitrt.Rmfi.t.4,^. 
Fisccsras- £b jrt. 14*. 

1jCCX-WH£AT. cr Bm^ n saHtr&Qr aOmnil to be 
•x £C!ci: .j r g - j . =!ccK^ 3:v -»-:ri"r«t? cQ ifi3affaU!Sf or iboot 
at^-nasi is^i. Ji y.-ir^ii-tr isi xber puts of Ennpe. It 
auriE jrrcaji'r :sik =7.^11 JLu. ■a a e d:<R m mainr otba 
evcts li .— '■"-j-m-n xarr; ^arir ikbi e this than the gCQC- 
nilci :r .1^ rw^. I: ^ y^'-'" Arwcae ia J;ilv aix) AognfL 
Titt i»i± i£:ri j. -T*ni". -^--'•'i'" =stk:«eK3nie dot uapalxubk, 
am£ in £E~jcir ixc. ir rKcirr. In >fat^]Ik it is much 


[ 1044. ] 

POLYGONUM Fagopynim. 



Gbn. Char. Cal. coloured, in 5 fegments, perma- 
nent. Seed folitary, fuperior, anguiar, invefied 
with the catyx. Slaim and Pifi. uncertain in 

Spec. Char. Leaves heart -arrowfliaped. Stem nearlf 
upright, without prickles. Angles of the feccb 

SvN. Polygonum Fagopyrom. Litrn. Sp. PL 512. 
Sm. Fi Brit, 430. Htidf. 172. fVith. 384. 
Hull.%6. Sihtb. 130. Abbot, ^o. Mart. Ruft.t. 4,6. 
Fegopyrum. Rail Syn. 144. 

Buck-wheat, or Brank, is univerfally allowed to be 
of exotic origin, though now naturalized on dunghills, or aboat 
cultivated land, in England and other parts of Eun^. It 
moft probably came from Alia, where there arc many other 
fpecies of Polygonum more nearly akin to this than the gene- 
rality of our own. It is annual, flowering in July and Auguft. 
The feeds afford a meal, neither unwholeforae nor unpalauble, 
and are excellent food for poultry. In Norfolk it is much 
cultivated for the fake of pheafants. 

[ 7 ] 

PARIS quadrifolia. 

Herb Paris, 

OCTANDRIA Tttrt^ji^a, 
Gen. Char. Col. four-leaved. PesaU 4, tapei 

Berry four-c led. 
Spec. Crak. none, as we know buc this fpccics cf 

(he geaiis. 
Sys. Piris quadrifolia. Lim. Sp. PI. ^zd. Hudf. 
Ah. i;z. ^ub. Bet. Arr. 416. Rilh. Quaai. |l 
Hertn Paris. Raii Sjm. 264. 





X HIS phiu is a mdve of (hadf woods in moft parts of Eng> 
bad, dkoo^ very nre !n fame cotmoeif and aot very comi 
in any. Its appeatancc is fingobr, and not bcauti&t. 
anahet (on remarkably prcnils in iu compoGrion, aod it 

V unally CTwftant to that number, thoagb fi>mcujne3 found 

I tbirekarcs and fesxtiiBcs with fire. The ftem is always 

The onpn of its name i% onceftain. Some ctytnologifts ' 
rirc it fnufatf a pur, on account of Ac leaves of this 
growing in pain* : bu this would be mote applicable to any 
plaM with two oftpoBxK leares, for the leaves of Paris arc rcrti- 
cilfaced. Jjaaaa* iIkhJml bocc wifely re^ons it amoi^ the 
Lkdn generic BaOBCs cf uAaown denvatioo. 

The blue amhor lap, ta flora La{^KMuca, its roots may (cm 
Inftcad of ipecacaanhaas as tnctic, bat mnft be given in twice 

rr the quMity. The heny it Buncic, and ^ whole plaat hat 

ft •}waya been cABcned ponHoWi. 

[ 453 ] 

A D O X A Mo&batelUiia. 

OCTASDRIA retragjmA. 

Gex. Chak. Oth 2 or 3-ddl, partly Inferior. Cm-. 
4 or 5-cleft, fuperior. Cd£/1 of 4 or 5 cclb, m- 
Tc:ied vitb the cal}-x. 

Spec. Char 

Stx. Adoxa Moicfaatelliaa. lAim. Sfr. PI. 527. HaJt. 
17:. nat.^iS. A/J. 163. Sibtb. i^i. Curl. 
Id^.fik. 2. /. 26. ZKf^/: H. Sice. fajc. 5. 7. 
McfchalcIJTna tbiiis FumarifC bulboJk. Baiu Svu 167. 


Not EsfieqDest a gnms, tluckets, aad fliadf laaes, Eov- 
ci=^ K April cr MzT. Tbc generic TamcAJsmi (logloriinu] 
a^— :-t\.V e^s^sfs dbe otnicft ^ifKanii^ of this Grtic hnmblc 
^ilsa:, a i: fBcrr^ ^cea hs wiatrr E>^ oFvithcred Ic2Tes, and, 
K .LJcr? r --:'^^t to lift iq> is hai^ welcomes the botaniit on 
13* =T3 cxcsiai^Ei L: Ac iVtia^. Wb-n youag, and moill wi'ii 
OCT, hiu a flirt c:=:kT ;'~y"j vLkh ^ire rile to iu origiiul 

Tbe TOrc » pee^ial* icr^^l.ti fleibT vhice imbricated 
CsJei, n-vd wi:;:£ i^iei^ccs is fibrf > are produccdt as well 
" ;.:i -'•■ — '—.i-f in frcih roots. Herb ot" a pale 


[ 4^ 
A D O X A MofchatcUma. 

Tuberous Mofchaiell. 

OCTAXDRIA Ttlragytua. 
Gek. Ch&r. Cal. 2 or 3-cIeft, partly inferior. Gr. 
4 OT 5-cleft, fuperior. C<7£/. of 4 or 5 cells, in- 
vefted wilh the calyx. 

Spec. Char 

SvH. Adoxa Mofchatcllina. Lim. Sp.Pl. $IT. Ihdj. 
172. /n/^386. A-/*. 163. Sthtb. III. Curt. 
Land. fate. 1. 1. 26. Dickf. H. Site. faje. 5. 7. 
Mofchatelliaa foliis F^inarix bulboix. Rau Sj/n. afi^. 


H err nofrequcnt in gtoro, thickets, and Haij Unes, flow- 
ering in April or May. The generic aamejtiiexa (tngkrioos) 
a^inblf cxpre0~es the modeft appearance of this Citlc humble 
plant, as it coiecges from its wintry bed of withered Icircs, and, 
fcaicely danng to lift up its head, M-elcomcs the bocanift on 
his &ril cscurfions tn the fpring. Svhcn youngi and nunfl with 
dew, it has a faint mufky fmell, wliich gave rife to its original 

I'hc root is perennial, formed. of BeOijr white imbricated 
fcaJes, from whofc intcrfticcs the fibres arc produced, «s wdl 
as runners which terminate in frcfli toots. Herb of » pak 
green, fucculent, fmooth and pellucid. Stem oc^ 3 or 4 
inches high, angular, bearing two oppoGte Icavet^ and a tittle 
bead of five felEli; wliitiOi- green Hovers, fout of them lateral, 
one terminal and vertical. The leaves are »\\ tematc, wcdco* 
fhaped and lobed, their fegments more or left elliptical, enure. 
One or two grow from the root on long foot-Aalks x thotic on ' 
tlic Hem arc more fimplc, and on Oiortcr ftalks. The lateral 
flowers have 10 (lamina, the corolla in 5 fegments, and the 
c^J^ in 3, fomeiimes 4 or 5 ; but tlie terminal flower having 
but 3 llamina, a quadrifid corolla, and gencratlj bifid cal^, 
made Linnxus (according to a principle of his own) refer the 
genus to the Sth clafs. It ts allied 10 Ctrjf^tnium, foe nor 
t. 54. The (lyles are 4 in the terminal flower, 5 ^rarely 6) in 
the others. We have never found the ripe fralt. It b dc- 
fcribed as a capfulc of 4 cells, inveftcd with the flefhy calyx, 
fo as to refcmble a berry. One of the bcH defcriptioru of the 
Jidgxa a from Mr. Lyons's manufcripis, in, the fhra Cm 


[ 955 1 . 

ELATINE Hyaropipcr. 

Smali iratei-wort. 

OCTANDRU TitrasfMo. 
GeM' Char. Cat. of ^ or 4 leaves. Petals 3 en- 4. 
Cjpf. fapenor, of 3 or 4 cells and as many valves ; 
the partitions oppofiteto tbefifliirca. SeeJtmzny. 
Spbc. Char. Leaves in pairs. 

Syw. Elatiiic Hjdropiper. Lhm. Sp. PL 517- FJ. 
Dan. t. 156. 
Alfinaftrum Irrpjlltrolium, florc rofeo tripctalo, et 
flore atbo tetrapetalo. Kaiil. Par. 5. /. 2. /. 1, 2. 
Hydropiper. Buxb. Cmt. 2. 36. /. 37. /. 3. 


_ H EVER obferved in Britain, till the Rev. Mr. Williimt 
found it, flowering in Auguft 1798, about the eadem (liore of 
Bomere pool near Condover, Shroplhire, in a lcx>fe fandy fnit. 
This acquifitioii is more peculiarly welcome to the BriiiOi 
Flora, as the other fpeciea of Elaline mull be erafed from our 
catalogue; Dillenius's original fpeciinen proving (llnuige to 
tell !) no other than Ceutuncuim mirumut, a plant quite unlike 
the Elaline AUinujlrum. 

Root annual, fibrous, white. Herb fmooth in every part, 
gCTicrallv wvAvj wMer, even the fln>viTs, which remain clofeJ 

f y ^f ^t 

'/ * 

t «5t 1 

BUTOMUS umbelUtua. 
Flowering Ra/b. 


Gin. Char, Cal. none. Petals 6. Capfides 6, fupe- 

rior, with maxiy feeds. 

Spec. Chak 

Syk. Butomus nmbellatus. Umi. Sp. PI. 532. Ha^f. 

174. ;^/j5.393. Hull. 88. Relb. 164. Sibib. 134. 

Abbot. 91. C«r/. Lond.fafe. 1. /. 29. 
Butomus. /Ji7i/ Jyn. 273. 

■L H E elegant Butomus, the only Biitilli plant of the 9tb 
Clafs in the LJnnvan Sydcm, grows in ditches and the nur- 
gins of rivers and ponds, chiefly on a. gravelly foil, flowering in 
July. Like feveral other of our aquatics, it may be ranked 
among the moll ornamental flowers. 
The root is tuberous, horizontal and perennial. Lower pan 

•"i. ' 


■J ' 

l| I 


■Iff J ' 

.. \^ / .■ 

i :• 

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