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DEDICATED, BY PERMISSION, TO HER MAJESTY. 



Natural History 



Ok 



♦ ft 



Buoviti giMsbtt d "Cfee ^nglis]^ dDgriopobia, 



yC 



CONDUCTED BY 



CHAKLES KNIGHT. 



Volume II. 



LONDON: 
BRADBURY, EVANS, & CO., 11, BOUVERIE ST., FLEET ST., E.C. 

SCRIBNER, WELFORD, & CX)., 654, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

i86r. 



.ens' 



lokdon: 

BRADBURT, KVAHU, AHD CX)., PKINTKRS, WUtTEFRIARB. 











CL-b^^hr 



' ' \ 






Ul 'i ' 



a 



NATURAL HISTORY 



VOLUME II. 



CLIVINA. 



CLUPEIDiEL 



CLI VFNA, a genus of ColeopterouB Inflects of the family SeariiidiB, 
and section Qtodephaga, It has the following oharacten :— -Body 
elongate, somewhat cylindrical ; antennae monilifonn, the basal joints 
rather long (the first longest), the remaining joints short and rounded ; 
palpi with the terminal joint long and pointed ; mentum trilobate ; 
thorax, nearly square ; anterior tibinJbroad and compressed, with two 
notches eztemiJly, leaving three long pointed tooth-like processes ; 
the intermediate pair of legs with one of these external prooesseB on 
the tibia. 

Dejean incorporates with this genus that of jyyiehirivM, but we 
think without sufficient reason. 

These insects are of small size, and live under stones m damp 
situations, particnlariy on the margins of rirers, lakes, fta Their 
dentated anterior tibiis enable them to burrow like the Lamellicom 
Beetles. 

Of the genus Cliwna but few species are knows. In Bn|;laDd there 
are two ; the more common is C. fouor (or O. arenarta of some 
authors). This species is rather more than ^ths of an inch in length, 
and of a black or brown colour ; the legs, antennn, and palpi, are 
reddish. C. collarit, the other British species, is rather less than the 
one just described. It is black, and has chestnut-red elytra, sometimes 
with a black dash on the suture. 

The species of the genus Dytchiriut are distinguished from those of 
Clivina principally by their having the thorax globular, the terminal 
joint of the palpi thicker in proportion, and somewhat securiform. 
The body is generally shorter in proportion, and more convex, or less 
cylindrical ; they are almost always of a brsssy metallic colour, 
whereas the species of Clivina are black or brown, and without any 
metallic hue. 

Of the genus Dytchiri^u between twenty and thirty speciee are 
known, ^eir habits are much like those of the genus CUvina, but 
they are less frequently found under stones, and often make cylin- 
drical burrows in the ground in banks at the margin of rivers or 
other pieces of water. Upwards of twelve species inhabit this country, 
the largest of which is scarcely more than one-eighth of an inch in 
length. 

CLO ANTHITE, a oobaltiferous anentde of nickel. 

CLOT. [Blood.] 

CLOTHO, a genus of Fossil Bivalve Shells, established by Faujas 
de Saint Fond. Shell oval, subregular, striated longitudinafiy, equi- 
valve, subequilateral Hinge formed by a bifid tooth, curved into a 
hook, a little larger in one valve than in the other. Ligament 
extemaL 

CLOTHONIA. [BoiDJB.1 

CLOUDBERRY, a dwarf kind of Bramble, with herbaoeons stems, 
and orange-yellow fruity found in turfy alpine bogs ; it is the Rubut 
chamcmorui of botanists. Its fhiH is excellently well flavoured when 
newly gathered. [RuBUS.] 

CLOVE-PINK, a species of JHanthtu, so called frt>m a supposed 
reaemblsnce in odour between its flowers and the cloves of the shops. 

[DiANTHUS.] 

CLOVER. rTRnrouuM.] 

CLOVES. fCABYOPHTLLUS.] 

CLUB-MOSS, or SNAKE-MOSS, is a prostrate moss-like plant, 
with small scaly imbricated leaves, found in alpine or damp situations 
in most parts of the world. Its fructification consists of little two- 
valved cases, containing powdery nuitter. All the spedes belong to 

VAT. HI8T. Dr7. VOL. IL 



the genus Lyeopodimm; that to which the name is most oommonly 
applied is A ekwaium. [Ltcopodiux.] 

CLUNCH, a name given to the lower and harder beds of the 
Cretaceous Rocks. They are occasionally used for building purposes, 
and have been especially employed for internal work in cathedrals 
and other large public buildmgs. This material stands well if not 
exposed to accidents from mechanical violrace. (Ansted, JBlementary 
Qeology.) 

CLUPE1DJS, a family of Fishes of the section AhdominaUi. The 
CUnpeidm are placed by Cuvier between the Salmanidiz and the 
Qadida : in ftJC^ they form the fifth and last division of his section 
' Malaoopterygiens Abdominaox.' The fishes of this division may be 
distinguished by their wanting the adipose fin, by having the upper 
jaw composed of the inteimaxillaiy bones in the middle, and the 
maxiUaries at the sides, and by the body being always covered with 
scales. Some of the species ascend rivers. 

The genus Clupea, as now restricted by Cuvier, may be thus 
characterised : — Maxillaries arched in frxint ; opening of the mouth 
XAoderate; upper jaw entire; body compressed and covered with 
laiige scales; teeth minute or wanting. To this genus belong the 
Herring, Sprats Whitebaity^ Pilchard, kc 

0. narengutf Linn., the Herring (French, Le Hareng Commun), is a 
fish well known. Its characters however will be useful to distinguish 
it fix>m some allied species ; they are* as follows : — 

Small teeth in both jaws; subopercolum rounded; veins on the 
infrsrorbitals and gUl-oovers ; dorsal fin behind the centre of gravity ; 
this fin commences about half way between the point of the upper 
jaw and the end of the fleshy portion of the tul ; ventrals placed 
beneath the middle of the donal fin ; toll foiked ; length of the head 
one-fifth of that of the body ; the greatest deptii of the body one-fifth 
of the whole length. The upper part of the fidi is blue or green, 
according to the light ; the aides, belly, and gill-covers are silvery- 
white ; ordinary length, ten to twelve indies. 

The term Herring is the same as the Qerman Hiiring, which, 
according to some, is derived from Heer, an army, and is applied to 
these fishes from their visiting the coasts in such immftnaA numbers. 

"The Herring inhabits the deep waters all round the British 
coasts, and approaches the shores in the months of August and 
September for the purpose of depositing its spawn, which takes place 
in October, or the begumingof November. It is during these months 
that the great fishing is carried on, for after the spawning is over it 
returns to deep water. The mode of fishing f6r herrings is by drift- 
nets, very similar to those employed for taking mackerel and pilchard, 
with a slight dififerenoe in the size of the mesh. The net is suspended 
by its upper edge from the drift-rope by various shorter sad smaller 
ropes, called buoy-ropes; and considerable practical sldll is required 
in the arrang^ement, that the net may hang with the meshes square, 
smooth and even, in the water, and at the proper depth ; for according 
to the wind, tide, situation of their food, and other causes, the herrings 
swim at various distances below the surface. 

" The size of the boat used depends on the distance from shore at 
which the fishery is carried on, tmt whether in deep or in shallow 
water, the nets are only in actual use during the ni^t^ It is found 
that the fish strike the nets in much greater numbers 'v^en it is dark 
than when it is light : the darkest nights therefore and those in which 
the surface of the water is ruffled by a breeae are considered the most 
((svourable. It ib sappoied that nets stretched in the daytime alarm 



CLUPEIDJE. 



' CLUSIA. 



the fish, and cause them to quit the places where that praotioe is 
followed ; it is therefore strictly forhidden.*' (YarrelL) 

The young are found on our coast during the summer months in 
great abundance, and are often taken in sniall-meBhed nets used for 
catching other fishes. 

The food of the Herring consists principally of small Cfnutaeea, but 
they have been known to devour the fi^ of their own species. 

C. Leaehii, Leach's Herring. This second species of herring was 
discovered by Mr. Yarrell, and described in the ' Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society ' for 1831, p. Si. An account by the same gentle- 
man is also given in the ' Zoological Journal/ vol r., where a figure 
of the species will be found, as well as in his 'History of British 
li^hes.' The following is Mr. Yarrell's description : — 

*' The length of the head, compared to that of the body alone, with- 
out the head or caudal rays, is as one to three ; the depth of the body 
greater than the length of the head, and, compared to the length of 
the head and body together, is as one to three and a half; it va there- 
fore much deeper in proportion to its length than our common 
herring, and has both the dorsal and alidominal lines much more 
convex : the under jaw longer than the upper, and provided with 
three or four prominent teeth just within me angle formed by the 
symphysis; the superior maziUiiiy bones have their edges slightly 
crenated ; the eye is large, in breadth fuU one-fourth of the length of 
the whole head; iridespale yellow; the dorsal fin is placed behind 
the centre of gravity, but not so much so as in the common herring ; 
the scales are smaller ; the sides without any distinct lateral line ; 
the edge of the belly carinated, but not serrated; the fins small 
The fin-rays in number are->dorsaI, 18; pectoral, 17; ventral, 9; 
anal, 16 ; and caudal, 20. Vertebra, 54. 

" The back and upper part of the sides are deep blue, with green 
reflections, passing into . silveiy-white beneath. The flesh of this 
species differs from that of the common herring in flavour, and is 
much more mild." 

Mr. Yarrell first discovered this species when examining the various 
kinds of fishes caught by the fishermen engaged in taking sprats. 

C, SpraUtu, the Spi«t» called in France Le Melet» EBprot» or 
Harenguet This fish has by many authors been confounded with 
the young of the herring. It is however disthust^ and its characters 
were first pointed out by Pennant ; Uiey are as follows : — ^proportions 
nearly the same as those of the herring, but the depth of the body is 
greater in proportion than in the voung of that species ; the giU- 
covers are not veined ; the teeth of the lower jaw are so minute as 
to be scansely visible to the touch. The dorsal fin is placed fiiurther 
back, and the ke^ to the abdomen is more aontefy serrated than in 
the herring. 

Sprat-fijB^ing commences in the early part of November; hence in 
season they immediately follow herrings, and the markets continue 
to be suppUed with them during the winter months. Like the 
herrings these fishes inhabit the deep water during the summer: 
they are so plentiful as to be frequently used for manuring the land, 
and are often sold as low as 6cL per buweL 

(7. alba (Yarxell), the White-Bait; French, Blanquette; German, 
Brietling. This fiah has been supposed to be the young of the Shad. 
ILr. Yanell however, upon a careftil investigation of the subject) 
ascertained it to be a distinct species. Its distinguishing characters 
are : — Length of the head compared with that of the body, and not 
including uie tail, as two to five ; depth, as compared to the whole 
length of the fidi, as one to five; keel of the abdomen distinctly 
serrated, but not so sharp as in the Shad. The dorsal fin commences 
half way between the tip of the mujssle and the end of the tail ; the 
upper jaw is slightly crenated, the lower jaw is the longer, and is 
smooth. Its colour is silveiy-white, growing (preenish on the back ; 
the body is more oompressed than in the herring, and the keel to 
the abdomen is more sharply serrated than in either that fish or the 
sprat. 

The White-Bait is caught in great abundance in the Thames as 
high up as Woolwich and BladkwaU. The* fishing commences about 
the beginning of April, and is continued to September. "When 
fishing as high as Woolwich," says Mr. Yarrell, " the tide must have 
flowed from three to four hours, and the watw become sensibly 
bracULsh to the taste, before the White-Bait will be found to make 
their appearance. They return down the river with the first ebb- 
tide ; and various attempts to preserve them in well-boats in pure 
fresh water have uniformly failed." The food of the White-Bait 
consists of small Cnutacea, Dr. Pamell states that he has taken 
White-Bait in the Frith of Forth in considerable numbers during the 
summer months. It is also taken in the Ex and other rivers of 
Eng^d. When fried with flour it is a favourite dish with all classes 
of the community ; and amongst the English few entertainments are 
more popular than White-Bait dinners. It is the young of the season 
that are taken in such large numbers in the Thames. The adult White- 
Bait are taken on the Kentish and Essex coasts throughout the winter. 
C. Pilchardw, the Pilchard ; Le Celan of the French. In size this 
fish resembles the herring ; it is also nearly of the same form, but rather 
thicker, and of greater proportionate depth ; the scales are larger, the 
head is shorter, tiie suboperculum is square, and the dorsal fin is 
more forward in position ; the gill-covers are distinctly veined. 
This fish is caught off the coast of Cornwall in great abundance ; 




the fishing commences in July. The food of the Pilchud consists 
of small shrimps and other crustaoeous animals. 

O, aloia, LimuBus (Alota firUa, Cuvier), the Shad, is another fish 
belonging to this group. Cuvier separated this, together with several 
other species, from the true ClutpecB, from the circumstance of their 
having the upper jaw deeply notched in the middle. 

Two species of Shad are foimd off the British coast ; the first, the 
Twaite Shad of Yarrell, known generally by the name of Shad {Alota 
fifUa), is about 14 inches in length ; its colour is brownish-green on 
the back, or inclining to blue in certain lights ; the rest of uie body 
is silvery ; five or six dusky spots are observed on each side, and are 
disposed longitudinally, the first close to the head, and the others 
at short intervals ; the length of the head, as compared with the body, 
is as one to five; the body rather exceeds this measurement in 
depth ; the jaws are furnished with distinct teeth, and the tail is 
deeply forked. 

This fish is found in the Severn and Thames in tolerable abundance. 
The principal fishing season for the Shad in the Thames is about the 
second week of July. They begin to ascend the river about May for 
the purpose of depositing their spawn, and this being done they 
return to the sea about the end of July. 

In former times the Shad was caught as high up the river as 
Putney; it now rarely passes London Bridge, and is caught in the 
greatest abundance a little below QreenwidL Its flesh is dry, and 
therefore not much esteemed for the table. 

The second species of Shad, the Allice, or Allice Shad of Yarrell 
{AUua eotMMmii), is considerably larger than the one just described, 
from two to tlu«e feet in length : it may moreover be distin- 
,ed by its having only one spot on the side of the body, near the 
, and that is sometimes scarcely visibla : the jaws have no distinct 
teeth, and 'the aotlM of the body are rather smaller in proportion, 
though they are laxge in both species. 

The Allice Shad is plentiful in the Severn, but of rather rare 
occurrence in ^e Thames. 

O. encraneoku O^innssus}, the Anchovy (Bngraidit eneratieol^ 
Fleming ; JSngraulii vulgarts, Cuvier). This fish, whidi is a favourite 
condiment^ is a native of the Britidi seas. It has been taken in the 
river Dart; and Mr. Couch, in his 'Cornish Fauna,' says, "This fish 
abounds towards the end of summer, and if attention were paid to 
the fishery enough might be caught to supply the consumption of the 
British Islands. It is abundant on the coast of Wales : " and Mr. 
Yairell says, " The Anchovy is reported to be at this time an inha- 
bitant of the large piece of water below Blackwall called Dagenham 
Breach ; and in May 1838 I received one that was caught in the 
Thames, where however this species is so little known that the 
specimen referred to was sent to me with a request to know what 
fish it was." [Anohovt.] 

CLU'SIA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
OUuiacea or Outtifero!, named after Charles de I'Ecluse, or Clusius, one 
of the most celebrated botanists of the 16th century. [Clusius, 
Cabolus, in Bioo. Div.] It has a calyx of four imbricate coloured 
permanent sepals, the outer ones smallest, usually doubly bracteate 
at the base ; the corolla of 4-6 deciduous petals ; the stamens nume- 
rous and free in the male flowers ; few, sterile, and connected in the 
female flowers; the style absent ; the stigmas 5-12, radiately peltate, 
sessile, permanent; uxe flowers usually polygamous; the ovaiy 
surrounded by a short staminiferous nectiury; the capsule fleshy, 
5-12-celled, opening bv valves from the top to the base, with a dis- 
sepiment in tne middle of each valve ; the placenta thick, triangular, 
central; tiie seeds egg-shaped, surrounded hj pulp, suspended from 
the inner angle of the cells ; the embryo straight, inverteid ; the coty- 
ledons separable. This definition includes the genus Quapoya of 
Aublet The species are trees and shrubs, usually parasitical, and 
yielding a viscid resinous juioe^ of a balsamic flavour ; hence they are 
called in England Balaam-Trees. 

C, ro»ea, Rose-Flowered Balsam-Tree, has polygamous flowers, a 
rose-coloured 5-6-sepaled calyx ; the tops of the dense nectaries awl- 
shaped; 8-12 stigmas; the leaves obovate, obtuse^ veinless, some- 
times enkarginate, on short striated petioles. It is a native of the 
Carolines and St^ Domingo, and other parts of tropical America. The 
fruit is green, and of the size of an apple, with eight lines running like 
the meridians of a globe : when it ripens it opens at these lines, 
disclosing its scarlet seeds lying in the midst of a pulpy mucilaginous 
matter, similar to the pomegranate. The whole tree is very hand- 
some, but few fruits offer so beautiful a piece of mechanism. " It 
grows on rocks, and frequentiy on the trunks and limbs of trees, 
occasioned by birds scattering or voiding the seeds, which being 
glutinous, like those of the mistietoe, take root in the same manner ; 
but the roots not findmg suflicient nutriment spread on the surface 
of the tree till they find a decayed hole or other lodgment wherein is 
some small portion of soil : the fertility of this being exhausted a 
root is discharged out of the hole till it reaches the ground, where it 
fixes itself, and the stem becomes a large tree." (Loudon.) The 
resin collected from this plant is used as an external application in 
veterinary medicine, and also is employed for covering boats instead 
of tallow and pitch. 

C. alba has hermaphrodite flowers, a many-leaved calyx ; corolla 
with 5-8 petals ; tops of nectaries retuse, or with 5-10 short stamens ; 



CLUBIACBA 



CLTTUa • 

i«f«r it to ipacdta of Omiiigia, Zamlko<Afmt», BOradeiuhwt, and 
BbilaffmMi. The But ludiu TennulkUK U yidded bj s ipedca of 
Qifapii Wfa w. rCALoraTLLOiL] Tha Butter orTdlow-Tree of Siwn 
I«oiM h the Pa U a d m m a tMyrocM. The frnlta of nuny eptoJM srs 
eeteemtd, bcddea the Ifui^ait««n. The Hammee Apple, m Wild 
Afojoot of South America, u aaid to be very dcdidoni. It« aeiKU an 
aDtlieliniiilio ; ita floren vield on diatillatioi] a apirit known aa Eaa 
ds Creole, and vine ia obtained 1^ farmeDtiiig ite lap. Tha lain 
beiriaa of the PaoouryuTa {PlaloiMa Hu^nit) of Braail are hlgliW 
priied on aooount of Uiair delidona flavour. The tndUt of aernvl 
apecice of OarcMia [Qutoiliu.], baaidea the Hangooteen, an brought 
to table in Oie countriea where thay grow, but tiiaj are Rgvded aa 
vary inferior. The bloaaotna of Mtna ftrrea are remaAabla for thcdr 
fngrmnoa, and ara aold In the banara of India under tha name of 
Nagkeaur. 

The affinitiee of the order Chuiatta an with Sfpericaeta, TWn- 
ttrOnicaeea, and Mtitaeta. The order oonlaina SO ganei« and ISO 

Sndln', VegOaiU Sinfdim.) 
UTHALITE, aUineralooouRinginlai^Bodnba in amygdaloid, 
oonatitutii^ a oongariaa of imperfect ciyatala with ron^ aarfkoea. 
Colour fleah-red. Hardnaaa 8-(£ BritUe. Luatra *ltr«oiia. Opaqne 
or tnmaluoent on the edgea only. Spedflc gravity 2106. Found in 
the Rilpatariok HiUa, ami Dumbarton. An analyaia t^ Dr. ThonuMi 
givea— 

SUiM Gl-SflS 

Alumina ....... 38560 

Peroxide of Iron T'S06 

Soda E'lSO 

Hagneaia 1-28S 

Water . ' 10M8 

CLTUBNIA. rCLTMunsA] 

CLTMENID^, a fii^ilr of FomH IfoBiiaca bdooglngto D-Orbtgn/B 
Older TmlanU^eraotiiMaiimO^luUepoda. Itembraoea aevenjgenen^ 
which are divided into groupa aooording aa Uudr partitiona are withont 
or poaaaaa a aingle lateral loW To the firat diviuon, or thoaa without 
lateral or donJ lobee, belong Um genera Mdia, Chmenetnu, Oimpw- 
Ufa, and Tr^MlUa. To the aeeond diviaion, or thoee In whioh the 
parttUona have one latraal lobebnt no donal lobe, the genera Olfnmia 
and Mtgatipi«»ia are rehired. 

The genua Otyauina, the type of thia fantUy, waa flnrt aepaiated 
from the Omiatiia, to which It haa a ationg reaerablanoe, by Count 
Hunater. The BpadM of Olynwrna have the variationa of form and 
lorfaoa aeea In tJoniatila. [CkiHunraa.] By aome writcia the 
ClymaHda are referred to th« yattlilUa, with which they have no 
doubt a atronger afflnitf than with Jatatonttutoi, the family to which 
Ooniattitt mnat be ref eirvd. 

The genua (Xfoiaiia haa a diaooidal ahall with alightly lobed aapta, 
and an internal aiphmicle. BevenI apsciea ware deacnbed by Count 
Hunater from aome oalc&raoui bands in the Falnoaoio strata of the 
Fiohtelgebarge. Some of tfaeee, with othera, ooour in the etrata of 
Devon and Cornwall, and aUo in North America. 

CLTPBASTER. [EoHnnnA] 

CLTTBDS, the gmerio name given b^ Klein and Leake to a group 
of Foaail Xcktitida, nwoent In the Oolitic Formationa. C. aw m atw M 
Leake ia the largeat Bntiah apeciea. C. cfaMwoIarii of Smith ia now 
ranked aa a A iicfaolifca. 

CLYTHRA, a gauoa of Coleoptennu Inaecta of the family 
OkrytomMda. The inaacta of thia gcoua generally have the body 
more or leaa cylindrical ; the antennn abort, with the baaal joint 
thick, the two following jointa ghort, ind the remaining (with the 
eioaption of the apical joint) aensted, that ia, produoed intOTually, aa 
aa to reaemble the teeth of a saw. The head ia placed vertically, and 
inaerted into the thorax, ao aato be acareely visible from above ; often 
larger in the male than the female. The lega are moderately long, 
rather thick ; in the malea the anterior pair are ottea oomdderably 
larger than the two poatorior paira ; the penultimate joint of tha 
'rdiabilobed. 

The larvtB of tbeae inaecta (at least tfaoae that are known) inbatnt 
a corlaceooa tube, which they drag about with them. 

The ClyfAni teeide on (reea and ahruba, and thoae found in thia 
country appear in the beginning of tlie aummer. The apeciea are 
very abundant, and aeldomadomedwithmetalliecolouia. In England 
we have five apedee, the moat common of which ia C. guadriputittala. 
Thia i> not qmie half an inch in length, and black ; the elytoa ochre- 
ilonred, with four blank apota, two near the baae, and two near tha 
liddle. The next apeciea which ie not tmcommonly met with ia 
C. IridaiXata. Thia beetle ia nther leaa than .the laat, and of a 
blue-gteen colour, thickly and finely pnnotui«d above; the elytrk 

e pale-yeBow and immaculate ; tha anterior pair of lega in the male 

e elongated. 

CLT'TUS, a genua of Coleoptenma Inaeota of the aeotion Limgi' 
coma and family Cerambyeida. 

The apedea of the genua Olj/fm (a genua eatabliihed \>j Fahridoi) 
form a well-marked group among the OcroatijrcKia, and are ohiaflj 
diatinguiahed by their having the palpi abort and nearly equal, the 
terminal joint thicker than the othen, and tiunoated at the apex j 
tha head nanower than the thonx, and tha latter nearly globular ot 



RoM-Flonnd BakaiD-rtn {CXtula roMn). 
1, an axpaniMl lawer ; 9, a salfi tto firm below ; I, the Dvary, with a 
part of tha ealfi sDt i.inj ; i, a UaBmna KctlDn or a trolL 
atigmaa 6-6 ; Icevee like tha preceding, but not ematginate. An 
elegant tree, native of South America, and epiphytical on larger traea. 
The trunk ia frequently a foot in diameter. It abonnda in a balaamio 
juice of a green colour, which becomea brawn on being expoaed to 
the air. Tha fruit ia acai^et, and contain! Ita aeeda embedded in a 
acarlet Dulp. Birda ore very fond of the aeeda, and pluck thcta out 
of the fruit while hanging on the tree. The Caiibbeea uae the juice 
fbr painting the outaide of their boata, The flowera are white, but 

O. Quopoya haa atalked dimdoua flowan ; the oalyi of S or S 
amala; the eorolla of fi or ft yellow petala; the neotary abort, 
4-S-lobad ; atigmaa 5 ; fmlt globoae ; leavee obovmte, acute. It ia a 
native of the wooda of Qnyana, where it ia called Quapoy. It ia a 
climbins thrub with yellow flaweie, and when cut into yielda a white 
tranaparent juice. O, pcmopanari ia a aimilar plant, yielding a 
yellow jnioe. C, JUtva i> a tree cloady naembling C. aHa. C. JIava 
la aaid by Bndlicher to yield the Hog-Oum of Jamaica. The flowera 
of O. ttwi^it weep a ocnaiderable quantity of reain from the diac and 
atannena. Ton Hartiui aava he obtained an oonoe from two flowera. 

All the apeciea grow weU in a li^t aandy loam, and cuttinga root 
freely in aand under a hand-glaaa in heat. The pola in whioh tha 
planta are grown require to be well drained with potaherda. 

SDoa, DiMtatydrnvt Plant! ; iModon, EneycUqiadia of PlaiUt.) 
!LDSIA'CE£, or QnTTIFEIUG, Outtifer; a amall natural order of 
Exogenooi Planta, inhabiting the hotter parte of tropical countriea In 
both the Old and New World. Th^ are readily known by their 
ooriaoeoua oppoaite leavea, with van fine veina running parallel with 
each other in a gentle euirve from the midrib to the margin ; by the 
abaenoa of atipulea ; their oa^ oompcaed of aavaral aepala r^ularly 
overlapping aaoh other, and bearing a definite proportion to the 
pelala ; thdr numeroua atamensj and their aupenor ovary, which ia 
In moat caaea many-oelled and many-aeeded, with a peltate radiant 
atignta. Their fruit ia auooulent, juic^, and in many caaea reaembling 
\ large apple or oTwige. The Mangoeteen [Qareinia Mangotl<ma) ia 
probably the moat delicioui of any known ; but it haa never been 
'n a freah atale in Europe, for the tree will hardly eiiet 



wall known aa a vaTlow pigment, aa 
alao a purgative medidne. The plant which yielda tha Otunboge of 
commerce ia atill unknown. The London College of Phynciana in 
thdr ' Pharmacopcaia ' refer it to aome upeciea of (lOrtWHO, others 



CNEMIDIUM. 



COAL. 



approaching to a cylinder. The body ib elongate, and nearly cylin- 
drical ; the antenniB are shorter than the body, and filiform ; the 
basal joint is rather thick ; and the terminal joints are sometimes 
incrassated ; the legs are moderately long. 

These insects are generally of moderate aze, and haye the elvtra 
adorned with arcuated fasoisB ; their ground colour is usually blacK or 
brown, and the markings rellow. 

About 90 species of uus genus have been disoovered, and they 
appear to inhabit every quarter of the globe ; 5 are recorded as 
Bntish, of which the more common are C. myttiouij C, ArietiSf and 0. 
arcuatU9. (7. mywlicuB is about half an inch in length ; colour black ; 
the base of the elytra red-brown ; three bent white fasciA are situated 
near the middle of the elytra ; and there is a white patch at the apex. 
This spedes is common in the neighbourhood of London. We 
have frequently found its larva in the rotten wood of old black- 
thorns. 

(7. ArielU is about the same size as the last ; its colour is black ; 
legs and base of the antennse reddish ; the former with the thighs of 
the two anterior pairs blackish ; thorax with a yellow band on the 
anterior part, and another on ^e posterior ; soutellum yellow ; elytra 
with four yeUow bands. 

This insect is frequently met with in gardens and woods in the 
neighbourhood of London and elsewhere. When handled it makes a 
peculiar noise, which seems to be produced by the friction of the thorax 
against the smooth part of the abdomen which is inserted in that part 
Many of the Ceramhycida have this power. 

(7. arcnottM is less common than either of the preceding species ; it 
somewhat resembles the O, Arietit, but is considerably larger and 
broader in proportion. The ftTit<ynTiflB are entirely of a reddish-yellow 
colour; the legs are coloured as in the last-mentioned species ; the 
thorax has a yellow band on the fore ^art^ and an interrupted band 
in the middle; the dytra have three yellow bands, and towards 
the base three spots of the same colour ; the scutellum is also yellow. 

CNEKI'DIUH, a genus of Sponffiadce, proposed by Qoldfuss for 
some fossils usually ranked as ManUUia and Stphonia, 

COAGULATION. [Blood.] 

COAITA, or QUATA. [Atslbs.] 

COATIMONDI. [Viybbbida] 

COAL, an opaque combustible mineral substance of a black or 
brown colour, and in all cases giving indications of having been 
derived from a vegetable source. Such is a definition that would 
probably include aU those substances which are used in domestio 
economy and the arts for the purposes of combustion, and popular^ 
called Coal. At the same time it should be stated that the tetm hM 
at present no special scientific application that is univertallv admitted, 
•aa each investigator thinks himself at libertv to apply the term in 
accordance with his own views. As the knowledge of chemioal prin- 
oiples and methods of investigation have advanced, substances which 
at one time were regarded as identioal have been shown to have a 
very diffeiient chemioeJ composition as well as miorosoopio struoture. 
This has led in some instances to the discussion of the question, 
What is Coal? 

For instance, in our courts of law, one of the most recent oases — 
that of QiUeapie v. Ruasell — ^was tried in Edinburgh durixig the pre- 
sent y«ar (1863). In this case, by an agreement for a lease entered 
into between the plaintiffs and defendants, the former agreed to grant 
to the latter a lease of " the whole coal, ironstone, iron-ore, limestone, 
and fire-day, but not to comprehend copper or any other mineral 
whatsoever. ' It was alleged by the plamtifb that, although the 
defendants had in the course of their operations come upon iron-ore 
and ironstone, coal, and firenolay of workable value, they had n^lected 
these, and had chi^y worked a certain mineral substance which the 
p]ainti£b contended was not let to the defendants, not being one of 
the mineral substances specified in the sgreement. This mineral was 
of much greater value, it was stated, than any which the defendants 
were permitted to work. Although used as a combustible material, 
it was alleged that tiiis substance was not coal, and that its chemical, 
microscopical, and mineralogical characters were not those of coal. 
On the other hand, it was asserted by the defendants that the mineral 
in question was coal; that they had been led to seek a lease of the 
Torbane-Hill estate from the fisMt that on the adjoining lands of 
Boghead this minenl existed, and was worked and sold as coal, beiiig 
known in the markets l^ the name of the ' Boghead Gas CoaL' This 
mineral, they contended, was true coal belonging to the variety known 
as Cannel or Parrot CoaL This trial was interesting on account of the 
large nimiber of chemists, mineralogists, geologists, and mioroscopiats 
examined, who appeared in about eqiuQ numbers on either side; 
one set of them contending that the mineral was coal, whilst the 
others contended it was not. A laige amount of interesting facts on 
the nature of coal and the substances with which it is found asso- 
ciated was laid before the jury, who came to the conclusion that, 
wluktever might be the result of scientific investigation in more 
rigorously defining the nature of coal and limiting the use of that 
term, both plaintiffii and defendants called this mineral coal when the 
lease was ^wn up, and therefore gave a verdict in &vour of the 
defendants. 

The same .question which has thus been debated in Scotland has 
also oome before the law courts of G^ermany and of the United States 



of America with the same differences of opinion ; and we refer to these 
cases to show the difficulty of defining accurately this weU-kdown 
substance. It may be regarded in the present state of our knowledge 
as one of those instances in which the typical form is lost by irregular 
combination with other and different substances. 

That Coal is and must be of vegetable origin seems to be agreed 
upon by all inquirers, but the question of how to determine that 
origin in particular cases is the difficulty. Again, it is well known 
that coal after it is deposited undezgoes certain chemical changes by 
which substances with a v6ry definite chemical character are pro- 
duced, such as bitumen, paniffine, &c. These, mixed with the coal 
itself and the earthy matters around, nuiy form compound substances 
about whose nature there may be considerable difference of opinion. 
This is not improbably the case with the Torbane-Hill mineral, and 
will account for the peculiarity of both its chemical and microscopical 
characters. 

Coal presents itself ordinarily in a massive form, and is brittle or 
sectile. It has a hardness of 2*5, and a specific gravitv of 1*2 to 1*75. 
It is opaque, and has a black or brown colour. Its chemical compo- 
sition is distinguished by the presence of carbon ; in addition, it also 
yields, on ultimate analysis, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. On 
burning it leaves an ash whidi conaiBts of vaiying quantities of silica, 
alumina, and oxide of iron. The carbon and hydrogen are often 
found chemically united to form bituminoua compounds which are 
mixed with the coaL It is Uie presence of these compounds whidi 
causes coals to bum with a bright flame ; at the same l^e they give 
off a bituminous odour. Tliose destitute of bitimiinous compounds 
bum with a pale blue flame, due to carbonic oxide, which is formed 
in these cases through the decomposition of the water present. 

The following taUe, founded on Mr. Mushet's Analysis of Coel, is 
taken from Professor Ansted's 'Elementary Course of Gtoology, 
Mineralogy, and Physical Geography ^ — 

Anaij^ of tariout Kinds of OoaL 



Looality. 


Description 
of OoaL 


• 

If 


• 

1 


Bitumen. 
Volatile 
Matter. 
Water. 


i 


1. Neweastle-QpoB-Tyne 


Bitumiaoas. . 


1*257 


57*00 


87*60 


5-40 




Ditto . . . 


1-260 


54*90 


40*48 


4-62 


8. Ditto . . . 




~. 


56*40 


41*00 


2*60 


4. North Wales . 




— 


62*72 


8600 


1*38 


6. Staffordshire Potteries 


Ditto . . . 


— 


62*40 


84*10 


8-50 


6. Torkahlre 


Ditto . . . 


«~ 


67*14 


80-78 


2-18 


7. Ditto . . . 


Ditto . . . 


_ 


58*88 


89-51 


2-00 




Ditto . . . 


1-285 


52*46 


45-50 


2-04 


e. Ditto . . . 


Oaanel . . . 


1-278 


48*86 


47*00 


4-64 


10. Ditto . 


Cherry . . • 


— 


57*00 


40*00 


8*00 


11. Shiopahire . . . 


Bituminous. . 


». 


64*10 


84*77 


1*18 


12. South StaflDfdihire . 


Ditto . . . 


— 


54*05 


43*70 


8*25 


18. Ditto . : . 


Ditto . . . 


— 


5417 


48*88 


2-50 


14. Dean Forest 


Ditto . . . 


— 


68*72 


83-08 


4*25 


15. South Walei . . 


Ditto . . . 


.^ 


60-25 


8800 


6*75 


16. Ditto . 


Ditto . . . 


.« 


66-02 


29*15 


2-88 


17. Ditto . . . 


Ditto . . . 


_ 


70*68 


2^*82 


8-50 


18. Ditto . 


Anthraeits • . 


— 


91*89 


5*61 


1*50 


19. Ditto . . . 


Dry . . . . 


^^ 


79*50 


17*50 


8*00 


30. Ditto . 


Steam . . . 


.— 


85-00 


11-87 


8*80 


21. Clyde YaUey . . 


Bituminous . . 


— 


51*30 


45*50 


813 




Cannel . . . 


— 


89*48 


56-57 


4-00 


23. Sootch Goal (mean) . 


Dry . . . . 


— 


48*81 


41*85 


9-84 


24. Ireland, Lelntter 


Dry Anthracite 


1*602 


92*88 


4-25 


2*87 


25. Ditto ditto . . 


Cannel . . . 


— 


79*60 


iroo 


8*40 


26. France (mean) . 


Dry .... 


m^ 


79-15 


7*87 


18*25 


27. France, St.-Etlemie . 


Bituminous. . 


.». 


65*68 


27*88 


6*49 


28. Spain (B«A) . 


Ditto . . . 


— 


58*00 


40*00 


7*00 


39. Belgiunn, Qainault . 


Ditto . . . 


1*276 


84-67 


18-28 


2*10 


80. Belgium, U^ 


Ditto . . . 


— 


76*00 


19-60 


4*40 


81. Ditto ditto . . 


Dry . . • . 


1*865 


81-90 


9-00 


9-10 


82. Silesia . 


Glance . . . 


— 


5817 


87*89 


8*93 


88. Bengal . . . 


Slaty. . . . 


1*447 


41-00 


8600 


28-00 


84. America, Ohio . 


Bituminous . . 


— 


55*55 


41-85 


3*60 


85. America, Alleghany . 


Dry . . . . 


— 


78*85 


9-47 


11*78 


36. America, Nora Scotia 


Bituminous . . 


1-821 


58-80 


28*20 


12*95 


87. America, Fennsylvanii 


i Anthracite . . 


"^ 


92-60 


2-25 


2*25 



The following analyses of the Torbane-Hill Mineral and Cannel Coal 
were presented by Br. Fjfe at the trial in Edinburgh :— ' 



Torbaaa.Hill Mineral 
Capeldrae Cannel Coal 



Carh. 


Hyd. 


Oxy. 


Nit 


Sulp. 


60*25 


8*8 


8*6 


1-5 


9-8 


56*7 


6-8 


8*8 


1-9 


0-25 



Ash. 
25*6 
25*4 



The Torbane mineral is only remarkable amongst other coals for 
the Isige quantity of sulphur it contains. 

A large series of coals, more especially Welsh, has been submitted 
to fthi^TTii*^ examination by order of the government ; and the fol- 
lowing table is taken from the ' Report on the Coals suited to tiie 
Steam Nayy,' by Sir Henry De la Beche and Dr. Lyon Playfiur, in 
the second volume of the ' Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain : ' — 



COAL. 



COAL FORMATION. 



10 



Locality, or name 
ofOoaL 




1 


1 


g 


1 


1 

8 


i 


Percentage 

of Coal 
lefh in each. 


Welsh Coals:— 


















Graigola . 


1*80 


84-87 


3-84 


0-41 


0-45 


7-19 


3-24 


85-6 


Anthracite 


1876 


91-44 


8-46 


0-21 


0-79 


2-68 


1-62 


92-9 


Oldcastle Fiery Veiii 


1-289 


87-68 


4-89 


1-81 


009 


8 89 


2-64 


79-8 


Ward's Fiery Vein . 


1-844 


87-87 


8-98 


2-02 


0*83 


included 
in Ash 


7-04 


— 


BureaCoal 


1*804 


88 66 


4-68 


1-43 


0-83 


103 


8-96 


88-10 


Uangennech 


1-812 


86-46 


4-20 


1-07 


0-20 


2-44 


6-64 


83-60 


Pentrepoth 
Pontrefelin • 


1-81 


88-72 


4-60 


0-18 


— 


8 '24 


8-36 


82-5 


1-358 


85 52 


3-72 


trace 


012 


4 55 


6 09 


85 


Dufl^yn . 


1-826 


88-26 


4-66 


1-45 


177 


0-66 


8-26 


84-3 


Mynydd Newydd 


1-81 


84-71 


6-76 


166 


1-21 


8-62 


8-24 


74-8 


Three - quarter ) 
Rock Vein . i 

Cwm Frood Rock) 
Vein . ; 


1-84 


7616 


4-98 


1-07 


2-86 


604 


10-96 


62-5 


1-266 


S2-26 


6-84 


111 


1-22 


8-68 


600 


68-8 


Cwm Nanty-gros . 


1-28 


78-86 


6-69 


1-86 


8-01 


6-68 


6-60 


65-6 


RasolTen • 


1-82 


79-88 


4-76 


1-88 


6-07 


included 
in Ash 


9-41 


83-9 


Ponty Pool 


1-82 


80 70 


6-66 


1-86 


2-89 


4-38 


5-62 


64-8 


Bedwaa 


1-82 


80 61 


6-01 


1-44 


8*50 


1-60 


6-94 


71-7 


Ebbw Vale 


1-276 


89-78 


615 


2-16 


1-02 


0-39 


1-60 


77-6 


Porthmawr Bock 
Vein . . ' 


1-89 


74-70 


4-79 


1-28 


0-91 


8*60 


14-72 


681 


Coleahill . 


1-29 


78-84 


614 


1-47 


a-84 


8-29 


8-92 


66-0 


^ootoh Coals :— 


















Dalkeith Jewel Beam 


1-277 


74-66 


6-14 


010 


0-88 


15-61 


4-37 


40-8 


Dalkeith Corona- 1 
tion Seam ) 


1-816 


76-94 


6*20 


trace 


0-88 


14-87 


810 


63-6 


Wallaend Elgin 


1-20 


76-00 


6-22 


1-41 


1-68 


6-05 


10-70 


68-45 


Fordel Splint . 

Orange Mouth . 

Engliah Coals :— 


1-25 


79-68 


6-60 


lis 


1-46 


8-38 


4-00 


62*03 


1-29 


79-85 


6-28 


1-35 


1-42 


8-68 


3 62 


66 6 


Broomhill . 


1-25 


81-70 


617 


1-84 


8*86 


4-87 


8-07 


60-2 


Park Bad, Sydney . 


i-iss 


78-62 


6*60 


S-04 


2-27 


6-48 


10*00 


67-8 


Irish Coals:— 
Sievardagh 
Foreign Coals :— 


1-69 


80-08 


2-30 


0-28 


6-76 


indnded 
in Ash 


10-80 


90-1 


Formosa Island 


1-84 


78-26 


6-70 


0-64 


0-49 


10-95 


8*96 


_ 


JBomeo (Labuan 
kind) . . • 


1-ffl 


64-62 


4-74 


0-80 


1-46 


20-75 


7-74 


— 


8 feet Seam 


1-87 


64-81 


603 


0-98 


114 


24-22 


14-82 


_ 


11 feet Seam . 


1-21 


70-88 


6-41 


0-67 


117 


1919 


3-28 


_ 


Patent Fuel :— 


















Wylam*s Patent Fuel 


1*10 


79-91 


6-69 


1-68 


1-26 


6-63 


4-84 


66-8 


Bell's ditto . 


1-14 


87-88 


6-22 


0-81 


0-71 


0-42 


4-96 


71-7 


Warllch^s ditto . 115 


90 02 


6-66 


trace 


1-62 


indnded 
in Ash 


2-91 


85-1 



Coal diffan oonsiderably in its physical properties, and it has 
obtuned various names in the markets. The mineralogist generally 
divides it into two varieties : — 

First, Coal without Bitumen. 

Second, Coal with Bitumen. 

The first variety is known by the general name of AtUhracite, It 
has however various local names. [Aztthraoitb.] It is sometimes 
very hard, and has a high lustre, and is often iridescent. Besides 
being used for fuel it is often made into inkstands, small boxes, and 
other articles of use. This is more especiBlly the case with the 
Anthracite of AmeriosL It is the most common form of coal in the 
Welsh beds. 

The Bituminous varieties of Coal present greater differences of 
structure and appearance, and have a larger number of names. By 
the above analyses it will be seen that the quantity of ^Bitumen, or 
substances resembling it [BrnrMEx], differ very much in different 
specimens of coaL It is generally softer and less lustrous than 
Anthracite, although occasionally specimens exhibit a very brilliant 
fracture. Its speofio gravity is less than that of Anthracite, seldom 
exceeding 1*5, whilst the spedfio gravity of Anthracite ranges from 
1*8 to 1*75. The kinds of this coal are known by various names. 

'The following are analyses of the different Unds of Coal as they 
occur in the Newcastle beds : — 



Density .... 
Carbon .... 
Hydrogen .... 
Nitrogen and Oxjgen 

ASu ..... 

SelatlTs heat by the same weight \ 
of Coal. 






Belatire heat by the same volume 
of Coal . . . . / 



Splint 
Coal. 



1*302 

74*961 

6-254 

4'878 

1S'912 

110*340 
108*990 



Caking 

Coal. 

No. 1. 



1*274 
83*688 
5- 150 
8*743 
2*591 

114-980 
111*310 



Caking 

Coal. 

No. 2. 



1-280 
87-800 
5*159 
6*139 
1*898 

122-560 
119*030 



Cherry 

Coal. 



1-266 
84*694 
5-054 
8*476 
1-576 

110-630 
112*070 



PUchingor Caking Coal is known by its velvet or grayish-block 
colour. When first Uirown on a fire it breaks into smidl pieces, but 
on the continued application of heat the pieces again unite into a 
solid mass or cake. It bums readily with a yellow flame, but on 
account of its caking quality it is likely to clog the fire unless it is 
freouently stirred. The Newcastle beds mostly yield this form of coal 

Uktrry Coal resembles in external appearance the pitch coal, and 
whan exposed to heat it cracks and iiea, but does not cake. It is 



very brittle, and on this account much loss is occasioned in mining it. 
It bums with a clear yellow flame. This kind of coal occurs in the 
Ghuigowbeds. 

S^iini Coal is a variety found in connection with the last, and is 
remarkable for its hardners ; for which reason it is sometimes called 
Hard CoaL It is also found at Qla^gow. 

Cannd Coal has little lustre, is very compact and smooth in its 
texture, and breaks with a large condhoidal fracture. It bums very 
i^'o<^<lil7» giring out a clear yellow flame without melting. In conse- 
quence it has been employed for the making of candles — Whence its 
name. It is often employed for making inkstands, snuff-boxes, and 
other articles of uscl At the Great Exhibition of 1861 several models 
of public buildings^ monuments, &c., were exhibited, formed of 
Cannel CoaL 

The above cools are those most commonly bnnied. Their goodness 
for heating is tested by the quantity of water they evaporate. The 
following are the results of some recent experiments : — 



lb. 
5 

7 
8 



OS. 

14 
5 

84 
anthracite 



Common Scotch Bituminous Coal . . 

Carres West Hartley Main (Newcastle) 

Merthyr Bituminous Coal 

Pure Welch Anthracite 10 

From which it will be seen that the heating power of 
nearly doubles that of some bituminous ooals. 

Broion Coal, Wood Coal, LignUe, are names given to less perfect 
varieties of coal than the Ifust Specimens of these coals have a 
brownish-black colour, and bum with an emp^umatic odour. 

On placing sections of Lignite under the microscope, the structure 
of the wood of the plant foraoing it can be readily detected. This is 
not the case with the other kinds of coal, where, although the woody 
fibre can be frequently made out, it has evidently undergone con- 
siderable change. Professor Quekett, on this ground, proposes to con- 
fine the term Coal to those fossil or mineral substances alone which 
are evidently made up of the woody tissue of plants. He maintained 
that the Torbane mineral was not coal, on the ground that it was not 
composed of the debris or remains of v^etable woody tissue. 
Althou^ woody and vascular tissue can be seen in the Torbane 
mineral. Professor Quekett mainfnma that this has been accidentallv 
introduced, and that no true vascular or spiral tissue is found in coal. 

The term Brown Coal is frequently applied to coal more recentlpr 
deposited than that of ike great coal-beds of the world, and this 
quite independent of its structure or any^ peculiarity in combustion. 
LignUe is also a term applied to the semi-carbonised forms of wood 
which are frequently found in deposits later than those cfl the coal 
deposits. Most of these varieties of coal contain a laige quantity of 
water, and the quantity of matter given off at a moderate heat by 
distillation is at least equal to Uiat of the carbon contained. . 

" DytodU is a yellow or grayish highly laminated substance, often 
found with lignite, and burning vividly, and spreading an odour of 
assafoetida." (Ansted.) 

Jet is another variety of coal belonging to the bituaoinous series. 
It sometimes occurs in elongated reniform masses, and sometimes in 
the form of branches with a woody structure. It is soft and brittle, 
with a oonchoidal fracture. Its specific gravity is but little greater 
than that of water. It is opaque, of a velvet-black colour, and has a 
brilliant and resinous lustre. It is found in Saxony, and also in the 
Prussian amber-mines in detached fragments. It is sometimes washed 
up on the shores of Great Britain. The finer sorts are used in the 
manufacture of ornaments and trinkets of various kinds. The coarser 
sorts are burned as fueL It gives out when burned a greenish fiame 
and a strong bituminous smell, and leaves a yellowish ash. It con- 
tains about 874 P^>* ^^'^^^ o^ volatile matter. 

For an account of the origin of Coal, an^ che beds of Coal on the 
surface of the earth, see Coal Formation ;ad Coal Plants. 

(Dana, Manual of Mineralogy; Ansted, Elementary Cowrte of 
Otology, Mineralogy,andPhy»ical Geography ; Memoirt of the Geological 
Survey of Oreai £rit<tin and qf the Mueeum of Practical Geology ; 
Gregory, Hand-Book of Organic Chemistry ; Reports of Juries of Great 
RschOnlion ; Catalogue cf the Great Exhibition ; Proceedings cf the 
Microscopical Society ; Microscopical Journal, 1854.) 

COAL FORMATION. That part of the Carboniferous System of 
Rocks which lies above the Limestone Shale and Motmtain Limestone 
is called the Coal Formation. The deposits constituting this formation 
consiBt of a series of alternating beds of sandstone and shales, between 
which Ue beds or seams of coid. These deposits generally lie upon a 
rock called the Millstone Grit. The following is a synopsis of the 
Carboniferous System as it is developed in two of the most typical 
coal districts in the British Isle& These two districts are South 
Wales and Derbyshire. 

In South Wales we get, resting on the Old Red-Sandstone, a band 
of about a hundred feet in thickness, of black fossiliferous shals^ 
called the Lower Limestone Shale, over which are beds of thick 
limestone, called the Mountain or Carboniferous Limestone. The fol- 
lowing is a synopsis of the whole formation, taken from the published 
sections of the ' Geological Survey of Britam' (ascending order) : — 

1. Lower Limestone Shale, about 100 feet. 

2. Carboniferous Limestone; limestone^ with occasional partings of 
black shale ; from 600 to 1500 feet 



m ■ ■■■ 



11 



COAL FORICATION. 



COAL FORMATIOK. 



IS 



8. Milktone Orit^ or Farewell Rook ; white qturtsose aandstone 
and ooDglomemte ; 800 to 600 feet. 

4. Coal-Measures ; a great series of sltemations of sandstones and 
shales, with occasional beds of coal ; from 8000 to 12,000 feet in total 

In the Derbyshire district we get the following groups or series : — 

1. Mountain Litnestone ; the base of whidi ib not exposed, consist- 
ing principally of thick limestone, occasionally interstratified with 
black shales, and exceeding 1200 feetw 

2. Limestone Shale ; black shales, with their interstratified lime- 
stones ; in some places 400 to 650 feet. 

8. Millstone Qrit; strong sandstones, with occasional small con- 
glomerate, interstratified with shales and a few small beds of coal ; 
about 1700 feet. 

4. Coal-Measures ; alternations of sandstone and shale, with beds 
of ooal and ironstone ; total thickness, 2700 feet and more. 

Proceeding from the Derbyshire district towards the north, a 
gradual change takes place in the Carboniferoxis Formation in sudi a 
way that it becomes more and more a series of Coal-Measures from 
top to bottom. The Millstone Orit is never anything more than the 
lower part of the Coal-Measures in which beds of strong sandstone 
occur. These as we proceed north become more and more split up 
and interstratified by beds of shale and occasional beds of coaL The 
Limestone Shale, too, of Derbyshire farther north becomes split up bv 
beds of gritstone and limestone, and still fiurther north by beds of ooaL 
Lastly, the Mountain limestone itself becomes split up and interstra- 
tified first by beds of shale, then by beds of shale and sandstone, and 
lastly, on the borders of Scotland, by shales, sandstones, and coals. 

In the midland counties of England — namely, in Leicestershire^, 
Warwickshire^ Stafibrdehire, and Shropshire — the Carboniferous 
Formation consists simply of the upper group of the formation of the 
Coal-Measures. Little patches of Mountain Limestone are found 
below them in one or two spots in the first and last named counties ; 
but usually the Coal-Measures rest directly and unconformably on 
Silurian and still older rocks. In Staffordshire sereral beds of ooal 
oome together by the thinning out of the intermediate measures, and 
make a mass of coal which in some places is upwards of 80 feet 
thick, in fiom 10 to 18 beds. 

In Scotland the Carboniferous Fonnotion admits of no subdivisions 
into groups. Immediately above the Old Red-Sandstone are Coal- 
Measures containing beds of ooal, over which are thick encrinital 
limestones interstratified with shales, so that no single maas of lime- 
stone is more than 40 feet thick. The whole series of Carboniferous 
rocks in Scotland is said to be upwards of 6000 feet thick, the whole 
being Coal-Measures with intentratified beds of limestone in tiie 
lower portion, representing the Mountain Limestone of England. 
The whole series is oompooed of materials in the following pro- 
portions: — 

Feet. 

Sandstone 8800 

Shale I ' • 2160 

Umestone 806 

Coal 180 

Clay 183 

6078 
These materials tjfe so disposed that there never is an unbroken set 
of beds of more than tbe f oUowing thickness of each sort : — 

Feet. 

Sandstone 200 

Shale ........ 180 

Limestone 40 

Coal. 18 

Clay 28 

Small bands and nodules of clay-ironstone are found ocoasionally 
in all the shales and days of the Carboniferous rocks of England^ 
Scotland, and Indand ; but though of economical value, they are not 
of great geological importance. 

In IreSmd the Carboniferous rooks consist in the south and west 
of two subdivisions — Carboniferous Limestone and Coal-Measures. 
The Carboniferous Limestone, the maximum thickness of which is 
about 8000 feet, is locally again subdivided into three parts — A. Lower 
Limestone. B. Calp, a series of dark limestones, iaterstratified with 
black shale. C. Upper Limestone. The Coal-Measures consist of 
alternations of shale and sandstone, with a few thin beds of coal 
principally anthracite or culm, and have a thickness of more than 
2000 feet in the Queen's County. In the north of Ireland the Car- 
boniferous rooks seem to assume more of the type of those of York- 
shire and the north of England. The Coal-Measures are still confined 
to the .upper portion ; but the lower part seems to consist of alterna- 
tions of shale and sandstone with various thick beds of limestone, so 
that it may be doubted whether the subdivisions of the Carboniferous 
Limestone of the centre of Ireland can be accurately traced into the 
north or north-west. 

The Carboniferous Formation of Belgiimi admits of a three-fold 
subdivision (ascending order) : — 

1. Arenaceous Shales; gray shales, limestones and purolitio iron-ore, 
OTtr which are gray nndsUmes and anthracite. 



2. Limestone Group; orinoidal, dolomttio, and pioductos lime- 
stones, with chert and anthracite. 

8. Coal-Measures ; shale and sandstone, with coaL 

The formation is found slso at St.-Etienne in central France, where 
it appears to consist of conglomerate and sandstone below, and shale 
and sandstone above, with beds of coaL 

In Westphalia there are black shsles below, passing up into black 
limestones, and those into lighterooloured hmestone, whidi sre 
covered by black shales and sandstone in which beds of ooal occur. 

In Russia there are, according to Sir R. Murchison, two types of 
the formation. The northern type consists of (ascending order) : — 

1. Sands and Shales with coal 

2. Dark-Gray Productus Limestone^ Yellow Magnesian Limestone, 
White Limestone of MoscoWi shale and sandstone, and gray, white, 
and yellow limestone. 

8. Limestonesy calcareous grits, and flagstones capped by con- 
glomerate. 
In this type the ooal is confined to the base of the fonnation. 
The souwem type consists of : — 

1. Sands and Shales without coaL 

2. Productus Limestone with shalei^ sandstones, and thin lime- 
stones, with many beds of coaL 

8. Limestone, oalcareous grits, and flagstones, with traces of ooal, 
capped by sandstone oontaining ooal plants. 

In this type the most coal occurs about the centre of the formation. 

The above remarks, taken from Mr. Jukes's admirable 'Intro- 
duction to Physical Geology,' will serve to show the relation of the 
deposits of Coal to the other rooks and substances with which it is 
found associated. The Coal-Measures above referred to occupy defi- 
nite and limited areas of somewhat considerable extent in various 
parts of Europe, Ada, America, and the islands adjacent. The 
following is an estimate of the annual production of ooids in various 
parts of the worid as given by Professor Ansted : — 



Conntriet. 


Ooal Area 


Proportion 


Total Yearly 


in Square MUm. 


toArea. 


Prodnotion in Tons. 


British UUnds 


1S,000 


1— 10 


82,000,000 


Franoe 


S,000 


1—100 


4,150,000 


Belgiom 


6S0 


1~ S2 


8,000,000 


Spain . . . . 


4,000 


1— 4S 


680,000 


PniMia 


l.SOO 


1— 80 


8,800,000 




1,000 


1— SO 


— 


United States of America 


119,000 


1— 20 


4,000,000 


Britlah North Amerioa . 


18,000 


2— 


(t) 



Table pf tU Principal Coal-Fidds qf the Bntitk Idandt. 
Fiim Ptofuaor Avited, 



COAL-FISLDS. 



1. Worthnmberland and Dnriuun Diitriet 
Neweaetle OoaUFIeld 

2. Cnmberlaad, Westmoralaad, and West 
Biding of Torkshiie : — 

Whitehaven and Akertoa • 
Applehy (8 basins) . • 
Seberghsm (Ctunberland) 
Kirhy Lonsdale . . 

S. Lancashire, Flintdiire, and North 
Staflbrdshlre :— 
Laneashircl^SoaUField • 
Flintshire .... 
Pottery, North Staflbrdshlre . 
Cheadle, North Staflbrdshlre . 

4. Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, and 
Derbyshire :— 

Great Yorkshire Ooal.FleId . 
Darley Moor, Derbyshire ; Shirley ) 
Moor, Derbyshire • / 

5. Shropshire and Worcestershire : — 
Colebrook Dale, Shropshire . 
Shrewsbury, Shropshire 
Brown Glee HiU, ShropsUre . 
Titterstone Glee HUl, frhn^vshlre 
Lnkey Hill, Worcestershire • 
Bcwdley, Worcestershire • 

8. South Staflbrdshlre : — 

Dudley and Wolverhampton • 

7, Warwickshire and Leicestershire : — 
Nuneaton . . • • 
Ashby-de-laJSouch 

8. Somersetshire and Gloucestershire : — 

Bristol 

Forest of Dean 
Newent, Gloucestershire 



800,000 



80,000 
17,000 

(?) 
2,800 



880,000 

120,000 

40,000 

10,000 



880,000 
1,800 

21,000 

16,000 

1,800 

5,000 

680 

45,000 

65,000 

40,000 
40,000 

130,000 

86,000 

1,800 



I- 
^1 



18 



17 

1 

4 



78 

8 

24 



12 



17 
8 
8 

(t) 

(t) 

11 

9 
8 

50 
37 
15 



3ll 



80 



8 
17 



180 
89 
88 



82 



40 



(I) 



67 

30 
83 

00 
17 

4 



J 

I 



8 

9 



10 

9 

10 



10 



(T) 



40 

18 

21 



II 

I i 

6 s 



2,00 



6,000 
200 



1,000 



IS 



COAL FORMATION. 



COAL FORMATION. 



14 



{Table eon^MMieei) 



COALFIELDS. 



9f South Welch Coal-Field • • 

10. SoottUh Ooftl-FieldB :~ 

Clyde Yallej, Lanarkthlre, South 

SootUnd lererftl nmUl areu 
Hid Lothian 
East Lothian 
Kilauurnoek, Ayrshire • 
Pifethira .... 
Dnmfiries Coal region . 

11. Irish OoaUFields:— 

Ulater 

Connanght .... 
Lelnster, Kilkenny 
Hnniter, lereral . 



oft 



I 



1^ 
P 



600,000 

1,000,000 

(T) 
(t) 
(!) 
(!) 
45,000 

600,000 

200,000 

150,000 

1,000,000 



i 

o 



II 



80 

84 

S4 

60 

S 

(!) 
10 

8 

8 






hi 

X3.9 « 

a|1 



100 

200(1) 

94 

180 

40 

(!) 
55 

40a) 
28 



I 



8« 
I 



IS 

18 

SO 

21 

6 



I I 

ill 

a 



12,000 

6,000 

4,400 
6,000 



The following airangemeiit is that of Mesara. Conybeare and PhiUipa, 
and from its siinpliclty will serve as a plan for some general remarks 
on the ooal-fields of Great Britain : — 1. The great northern district, 
including all the coal-fields north of the Trent 2. The central 
district^ indoding Leicester, Warwick, Stafford, and Shropshire. 
3. The western district^ which may be subdiTided into north-western, 
including North Wales ; and south-western, including South Wales, 
Gloucester, and Somersetshire. 

Ooal-Dutrict North of the Treni. — This great coal formation encircles 
the whole Pennine mountain chain on the easty south, and north ; not 
however in one uninterrupted line, but in a series of detached ooal-fields. 
1. The Coal-Field of Northumbtfland and Durham. 2. Some small 
detached Coal-Fields in the North of Torkshire. 8. The Coal-Field of 
South Yorkshire, Nottingham, and Derby. 4. The Cosl-Field of 
North Stafford. 5. The South Lancaahure Coal-Field. 6. The North 
Lancashire Coal-Field. 7. The Whitehaven Coal-Field. 

1. The Coal-Field of Northumberland and Durham commences 
near the mouth of the river Coquet on the north, and extends nearly 
to the Tees on the south. As £ur as Shields the sea is its boundary on 
the east; from that point it leaves a margin of a few miles between 
it and the sea, and extends about 10 miles west from Newcastle. Its 
greatest length is 68 miles, and its greatest breadth about 24 miles. The 
coal-measures of this field rest on the series of strata of the millstone 
grit and shale, and are in part under the magnesian limestone, the 
northernmost point of which is near the mouth of the Tjme. The 
beds of which this coal formation is composed dip towards the east 
and crop out towards the west, so that a section of them gives the 
idea of a form of a boat. In consequence of this disposition the beds 
of coal in some places appear at the surfiioe, while in the middle of 
the basin they are at great depths. At Yarrow, about five miles fh>m 
the mouth of the Tyne, one of the thickest beds, cidled the High 
Main, is 960 feet deep, and rises on all sides ; the dip of the strata 
averages one inch in twenty, but this is not uniform throughout; and 
theren)re that bed does not rise to the surfiuse at equal distances around 
Yarrow. The beds of the ooal-measures are 82 in number, and consist 
of alternating beds of coal, sandstone, and slate-day; twaVfng ^n 
aggregate thickness of 1620 feet, which varies however in different 
parts. The irregularities of the surface do not affbct the dip or in- 
clination of the strata ; so that when a valley intervenes tney are 
found in the sides of the opposite hills at the same levels as if the 
respective strata had once been continuous. It is difficult to deter- 
mine the exact number of beds of coal, in consequence of the different 
depths at which the same bed occurs, the numerous faults, and the 
varying thickness of the beds of coal and other strata. These strata 
occasionally enlarge and contract so much, that it is only by extensive 
observation that the identity of the seams can be ascertuned. Dr. 
Thomson supposes the whole number of beds of coal in this field to 
be twenty-five ; Messrs. Conybeare and Phillips state that forty beds 
of coal have been seen : a considerable number however of these are 
very thin. The two most important beds are those distinguished by 
the names of High Main and Low Bfain. The thickness of the 
first is 6 feet, and of the second 6 feet 6 inches. The Low Bfain is 
about 60 fathoms below the High Main. Eight other beds of coal 
occur between these : one called Bensham is 4 feet thick, and another 
called Coal- Yard is 8 feet thick. Seven beds of coal have been ob- 
served under the Low Biain, some of which are of considerable 
thickneas, but of an inferior quality. The aggregate thickness of 
the whole number of seams is about 44 feet ; but there are eleven 
beds not workable, the thickness of some of them being only a few 
inches. Five others amount together to only 6 feet. Making proper 
deductions for these, it may be considered that the available beds 
amount to 80 feet in thickness. 

The number of dykes or faults which traverse this field is very 
considerable. They appear to run in aU directions. The most re- 
markable, called the Great Dyke, or 90-&tbom dyke, has received the 



latter name because the beds on the north side of it have been thrown 
down 00 fsthoms. Its direction is north-north-east and south-south- 
west It enten the sea a little to the south of Hartley, or about three 
miles north of Shields, and running westward crosses the Tyne at 
Lemington, about four miles west of Newcastle Bridge. In some 
places it is only a few inches wide, but in Montagu colliery it is 22 yards 
wide, and is filled with hard and soft sandstone. From the southern 
side of this dyke two others branch off, one to the soutJi-east and the 
other to the south-west The latter, called from its breadth the 
70-yard dyke, is also filled with hard and soft sandstone. This dyke 
intersects the upper or Beaumont seam of coal, but does not alter the 
level on either side. The thickness of the seam however decreases, 
beginning at the distance of 15 or 16 yards from the dyke : and the 
coal first becomes sooty, and at length assumes the appearance of 
coke. The south-eastern branch is only 20 yards in breaduL Another 
dyke, which passes through Coal^ Hill, about four miles west of 
Newcastle, is about 24 feet wide. It is filled with basalt'in detached 
masses, which are coated with yellow ochre ; a thin layer of indurated 
day is interposed between the sides of the fissure add the basalt 
The upper seam of coal is here about 85 feet from the surface, and 
where it is in contact with the dyke is completdy chaired. Another 
dyke, which crosses the l^rne at Walker, and traverses the Walker 
colliny, does not alter the levd of the strata^ but on each side of it 
the coal is converted into coke, which on one side in some places was 
found to be 18 feet thid[^ and on the opposite side only about 9 feet 
At Walbottle Dean, 5i miles west of Newcastle, a double vein of 
basalt crosses the ravine in a diagonal direction, passing nearly due 
east and west; it underlies at an angle of 78 degrees, and cuts the 
coal strata without altering their dip, but the seam of coal is chsored. 
A dyke, called the Cockfield Dyke, 17 feet wide, throws up the coal- 
measures on th^ south 18 feet The Low Main coal, contiguous to 
the basalt^ is only 9 inches thick, but enlaiges to 6 feet at the distance 
of 150 feet from it; the coal contiguous to the dyke is reduced to a 
dnder. The dykes, if not large, are locally called troubUa, tUpi, or 
kUehet. These minor faults are numerous and extensive, and are a 
perpetual source of diffic^ty and expense to the coal-owner by dis- 
turbing the levd of the strata and by the disengagement of carburetted 
hydrogen gas. They are not however without thdr use, being often 
filled with a tenadous water-proof clay, by whidi numerous springs 
are dammed up and brought to the surface. The faults which depress 
the strata have kept valuable seams within the basin, which would 
otherwise have cropped out and have been lost 

The coal-fidd of Northumberland and Durham supplies an enor- 
mous quantity of coaL Besides being consumed in its own district^ 
London depends nearly altogether on it, as wdl as all the southern 
coast counties, with the exception of ComwalL It is consumed along 
the eastern coast, induding all the eastern coimties as far west as 
Hull, Boston, Peterborough, Bedford, and Windsor. An inquiry as 
to the probable duration of this supply is one of no small inta«st 
Dr. Thomson calculates that this coal-fidd may fiuriy be expected 
to yield coal for 1000 years, at the annual consumption of two 
millions of dialdrons ; but as we have no data by which to discover 
how much coal has been already consumed, we cannot tell how mudi 
of these 1000 years has already elapsed. Besides this, Dr. Thomson 
has taken the average annual consumption much too low for the 
present time. The coals shipped from the Tyne, the Wear, and the 
Tees, in 1885, amounted to 4,868,144 tons. The quantity of waste 
coal is estimatiBd at one-third of the whole. Without therefore taking 
into account the pousumption of the immediate district, the annual 
quantity of coal taken from tiie mines is more than 6,552,216 tons. 

On the other hand it appears tiiat in this calculation the area of the 
coal-fidd is very much under-estimated, being taken at 1 80 square miles. 
Professor Buddand, in his examination before the House of Commons, 
limits the period of supply at the present rate of consumption to 
about 400 years. Mr. Baily, in his ' Survey of Durham,' states the 
period for the exhaustion of the ooal to be about 200 years hence. 
Some proprietors of the coal-mines, when examined before the House 
of Commons, in 1830, extended the period of exhaustion to 1727 
years. They assumed that there are 837 square miles of coal strata 
in this fidd, and that only 105 miles had been worked out The small 
coal taken out of the pits is not considered worth shipment ; large 
quantities of it were therefore often piled up near the mouths of the 
pits. These masses of ooal were frequently set on fire, and bumed 
for several years. Dr. Thomson describes two of these immense fires 
which were burning in 1814. About three miles to the north of 
Newcastle, and three miles off the road from Berwick, on the left 
hand, '' one has been burning these#ight years. The heap of coal is 
said to cover twelve acres. The other, on the right hand, is nearer the 
road and therefore appears more bright : it has been burning these 
three or four years (1814)." Of late years many more manufactories 
have been established in this district, by whidi, and by converting it 
into coke, most of the small coal is consumed. 

Besides this coal-field there is another coal formation in the northern 
coimties, which is minutdy described by Dr. Thomson in the 'Annals 
of Philosophy,' November, 1814, under the name of the Independent 
Cod Formation. This tract terminates westward at Cross Fell, in 
Cumberland, is supposed to occupy the whde of Durham, and con- 
stitutes the whole of that part of Northumberland east of the Cheviots 



u 



COAL FORMATION. 



COAL FORMATION. 



16 



ezelufllTe of the oottl-field already deaoribed. The diffezent strata of 
this ooal formation amount to about 147. The coal-meaeurea here 
differ from those we have just noticed, in having limestone as well as 
sandstone and slate-day alternating wii^ the iMds of ooal ; the ooal 
worked in this formation is slate-CKNJ| and is considered inferior in 
quality to the Newcastle ooal. There are several ooUieries, but the 
ooal is only employed for home consumption. The lowest bed of these 
measures crops out near Cross Fell The coal of which it is composed, 
provinoially called crow-coal, falls into powder when exposed to the 
air, and cannot be burnt by itselC The poorer dass make it up into 
balls with clay, and use it for fuel. This bed is 887 fathoms below 
the lowest of ike Newcastle beds. {* Ann. of Phil,' vol iv.) There 
are numerous lead mines in this tract 

2. Detached Coal-Fields in the North of Yorksire. — These are very 
limited in extent, being small insulated coal basins, lying in hollows 
in the gritstone. They occur near Middleham, Leybume, Thorpefell, 
near Bumsell, and as far west as KettlewelL The seam is seldom 
more than 20 inches thick. At Thedswell Moor the lowest seam is 
one yard, btit the stratum diminishes and vanishes at the edges. 
Messrs. Conybeare and Phillips doubt whether these beds should not 
be referred to the thin ooal seams subordinate to the millstone gdt 
series, rather than to ^e prindpal coal-measures. 

Coal is wrought in some jparts of the great carboniferous chain 
extending from Fenigent to Kirkby Stephen. Here the great ' Craven 
fault' occurs, descril^ by Professor Sedgwick (' On the Carboniferous 
Chain from Fenigent to Kirkby Stephen,' in * Geol Trans.,' voL iv. 
series 2) as ranging idong the line of junction of the central dhaan with 
the skirts of the Cumbrian system, passing along the south flank of 
Casterton Low Fell, up Barbondale, thence across the valley of Dent 
through the upper part of the valley of Sedbeigh, and along the 
flanks of Bowe Fell, and Wildboar Fell, to the ridge which flanks 
Bavenstone Dale. Throughout the whole of this line there are 
enormous and most complex dislocations, which affect the strata of 
the coal formation and produce other phenomena Oidy one of the 
coal strata in the lowest part of the coal-measures is suffidently 
valuable to be worked ; it varies from ISinches to nearly 4 feet in 
thickness. At Tuma Fell, near Hawes, in x orkshire and at Tan Hill, 
near the highest part of the road from Brough to Aigengarthdale, this 
coal is extensively woriked, and is of good quality. The same seam is 
found near Kirkby Stephen. Horizontal dnfts have been canned into 
this bed near the top of Fenigent, of Whernside, and of Great Colm ; 
but in these parts it is of bad quality and not fit for domestic use, 
being mixed with ferruginous and pyritous shale. This coal varies in 
thicbiess from a mere trace to 2 feet. It was once worked to some 
extent on the south side of the valley of Dent, by means of horizontal 
drifts under Oreat Colm. It was only a few inches in thickness, but 
said to be of so good a quality as to be in great request About 70 or 
80 years ago it was sent on pack-horses from this place as far as 
Kendal, for the use of blacksmiths' forges, &c. Kendal has long been 
supplied witii fuel from the Lancashire coal-field ; but this fact, of 
comparatively so recent a date, strongly illustrates the astonishing 
progress we have made in our modes of internal communication. 

At the Barbon coal-pit in Westmoreland, a coal-bed of this series 
is likewise wrought ; the lower part of it is however so impure as to 
be unfit for ordinary purposes, and is chiefly consumed in lime-works. 
The following is a section of the strata as occurring in the Barbon 
colliery:— 

feet. in. 

1. Alluvial Soil 52 6 

2. Plate (Calcareous Shale) . . . .'.16 
8. Limestone, the 4th or Mosdale Moor Limestone 

of the great section 27 

4. Gritstone 27 

6. Alternations of Shale and Gritstone . ..120 

6. Shale SO 

7. Crow Limestone 2 

8. Plate with a S-inch Crow-Coal . . .16 

9. Gritstone 27 

10. Coal 12 

The strata of the ooal are in general much less regularly continuous 
than the strata of limestone. This however is not always the case. 
Some of the thin bands of coal here appear to continue with astonish- 
ing regularity. The following example is quoted from Professor 
S^gwick. "At Cross Pits, in the valley of Dent, the coal seam 
under the 12-fatiiom limestone is divided, by a band of day half an 
inch thick, into two parts, with distinct mineral characters ; and the 
same coal seam, with exactly th^same subdivisions, has been foimd 
in the mountain on the opposite side of the valley at the distance of 
3 or 4 miles measured in a straight Ihie. This seems to prove that a 
bed not more than a fraction of an inch thick was originally con- 
tinuous throughout an area probably several miles in diameter." 
(* Geol. Trans.' vol. iv. sec 2, p. 101.) 

8. Coal-Field of South Yorkshire, Nottingham, and Derbyshire. — 
This extensive field, which in character is closely allied to that of 
Newcastle, is considered by some geologists as a re-emergence of the 
same strata from beneath iLe covering of magneeian limestone under 
which it is concealed through the intervening space. This coal-field 
occupies an area extending north and south from a little to the north- 



east of Leeds nearly to Derby, a distance of more than 65 miles ; its 
greatest width. 28 miles, is on the north, reaching nearly as ^Ear as 
Halifax to the west On the south it extends towards the east to 
Nottingham, and is here about 12 miles wide ; but in some parts it 
is much narrower The strata of these ooal-measures range in the 
same manner as in the Northumberland ooal-field, from north to south, 
dip to the east and rise to the west and north-west^ in which direc- 
tions the lowest measures at length crop out sgainst the rodcs of the 
millstone-grit series, which constitute the higher ridges of the Pennine 
chain, ^e strata of this ooal formation are very numerous. Th^ 
are 20 beds of gritstone at the least, some x>t great thickness. Most 
of these beds consist of grains of semi-transnarent sUex united by an 
ai^|;illaceous cement ; the lowest of these beds is termed the miUrtone 
gnt» beneath which no workable coal is found. Besides these gritstone 
beds there are numerous strata of shale (slat»^y), bind (indurated 
loam), and dunoh (indurated day), altematiDg with several beds of 
coal of diffBrent thickness and value. A hard argillaceous rode called 
crow-stone forms in some places the floor of &e ooal beds, and is 
supposed to be a variety of the dunch still more highly indurated. 
The numerous faults in this ooal-fidd render it extremely difficult to 
ascertain the exact number and order of the ooal beds. Mr. BiJte- 
wdl (p. 884) states their number at 80, varying from 6 indies to 
11 feet^ and the total thickness of ooal at 26 yards. This however he 
oonsiders as only an approximation. Three varieties of coal oocur in 
these measures : hard, or stone-coal, which bums to a white ash ; 
sofb^ or bright, which bums to a white ash ; caking, or oroiling, which 
usually bums to a red ash. The first is esteemed the best^ and ia in 
much greater demand than the others. The tluckest bed is worked 
near Bamsby. In a pit near Middleton three seams are being worked ; 
one at the depth of about 40 to 70 yards from the surface, another 
88 yards lower, and the deepest fr^m 28 to 82 yards deeper, making 
the whole depth from 106 to 140 yards. The upper seam is about 2 
feet 8 inches thick, the middle seam from 2 feet 10 inches to 8 feet 
4 inches, and tiie lower one from 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet. 

The strata of this field are traversed by an immense fault com- 
mencing from Allestry, in the south, and running in a aigzag direction 
through the south and east part of the field ; the rise of the strata is 
said to be much more rapid on the western than the eastern side of 
the fault. Besides tlus great fault there are man^ others which 
txaverse the field in various directions, and create an mextricable con- 
fusion by the rise and fall of the different strata, rendering it almost 
impossible to trace distinctly the continuation of each bed. This coal- 
field supplies the ooal for the important manufactures which surround 
it, and dso, by means of inland navigation, the midland counties 
south and east of Derbyshire. 

A little to the west of the coal-fidd already described, coal has been 
found in two places about half-way between Ashbome and Derby, but 
it has not been worked. 

4. Coal-Fidd of North Sta£ford.— There are two detached coal- 
fields : the one situated on the north-cast of Newcastle-under-Lyne, 
distinguished as the Pottery Coal-Field ; the other at Cheadle, to the 
east of the first. The form of the Pottery Coal-Field is triangular. 
Its vertex is near Congleton, from which point the sides diverge to 
the south-south-east and south-south-west, running in each direction 
about ten miles ; the base is estimated at about seven miles : New- 
castle is nearlv in the centre of the base. The strata dip from the 
two sides to tne centre of the area. On the eastern side the inclina- 
tion westward is estimated at one foot in four ; on the other side it is 
still more rapid. Between Burslem and its eastern limit, nearly in 
the centre of the coal-field, it has been ascertained that there are 
32 beds of ooal of various thickness, generally from about 3 to 10 
feet each ; but tiie strata are in general much dislocated in this field. 

In the prindpal mines in this district coal is found at various 
depths, from 50 to 800 yards and more; there has been a mine 
worked at the depth of more than 400 yards. Some seams only 20 
inches thick have occasionally been worked, ** ' they are seldom 
worked under 8 or 4 feet thickness. 

The Cheadle Coal-Field is an insulated basin surroimded by and 
reposing upon millstone grit ; it is about five miles long and three 
miles broad, and is of litUe importance. 

5. The Manchester or Soutiii-Lancashire Coal-Fidd is separated 
from that of South Yorkshire and Derbyshire by the range of lofty 
hills extending from near Colne to Blackstone Edge, and thence to 
Ax Edge in Derbyshire. It commences near the western side of this 
range in the north-west of Derbyshire, and continues thence to the 
south-western part of Lancashire, forming an area somewhat in the 
shape of a crescent^ having Manchester nearly in the centre. The 
chord or span between the opposite horns is about forty miles. It 
runs nearly due north from Macclesfield to a few miles beyond Roch- 
dale, a distance of thirty miles; the part between Macclesfield and 
Manchester is however very narrow, being in some places not two 
miles in width. From Rochdale it extends westward to Bolton and 
Chorley, south-west to Leigh and Prescot, north-west to Preston, and 
north to Colne. Viewing it as a whole, the strata rise towards the 
exterior edge of this crescent-shaped coal-field, along which the strata 
of miUstone grit, on which they repose, crop out from beneath them, 
and dip towards its inner edge, where they are covered by the superior 
strata of the newer sandstone formation, whidi contain occasionally 



17 



COAL FORMATION. 



COAL FORMATION. 



18 



k 



y 



beds of calcareo-magnesian conglomerate. Qreat duturbaaces bave 
however interrupted the regidarity of this arraneement, and caoBed 
diviflions of the ooal-measures, which render it difficult to trace out 
the exact dimenjnonB of the field. At Dialey, in Cheshire, it bifur- 
cates into two branches, having an intermediate ridge or " saddle of 
millstone grit, the eastern branch forming a trough, of which the 
strata crop out on both sides against the millstone grit." Tlds part of 
the field is a long narrow strip joined to the main field at Disley, and 
extending thence southward fifteen miles to near Mearbrooke in 
Staffordshire. The strata of the western branch of this bifurcation, 
extending from Disley to Macclesfield, dip again to the west^ but not 
at so great an angle aa thev rose, on the eust side of the intermediate 
ridge. In other parts of the coal-field great faults occur, but it has 
not been sufficiently investigated by the geologist for them to be 
distinctly traced. Mr. Bakewell has investigated a small portion, 
which he distinguishes as the Coal-Field of Bradford : the result of his 
observations is found in the second volume of the ' Qeological Trans- 
actions.' This tract is rather more than two miles long, and little 
more than one mile and a furlong wide. It is situated on the river 
Medlock, a short distance east-south-east of Manchester. It is sur- 
rounded on every side, except the east^ by the red-sandstone which 
prevails in the environs of Manchester. Beds of limestone pass under 
this and overlay the coal-measures, in which there are several beds of 
coal rising to the north, under aa angle of 30*. One of these, near 
the centre of the field, is four feet in Udcknesa. To the north of these 
inclined beds there is a considerable disturbance, and the direction of 
the beds becomes suddenly vertical One of the vertical beds, toge- 
ther with its accompanying strata, bears so close a resemblance to the 
4 -feet coal above mentioned, that there is no doubt of their iden- 
tity, and that the vertical stratum was, before the dislocation which 
severed them took place, a continuation of the first With these 
vertical beds the ooal-measures terminate : on the north an interval of 
the red-sandstone succeeds for about 1400 yards, when coal-beds 
again appear, rising as before towards the north. All this indicates 
considerable faults and subsidences, which however cannot be accu- 
rately traced at present The coal from the Lancashire field supplies 
Manchester, Liverpool, and the surrounding districts. 

6. The North Lancashire Coal-Field is one of little importance. It 
lies midway between Lancaster and Ingleton ; it is about eight miles 
long and six miles wide, but it has never been thoroughly examinedi 
and its strata cannot be distinctly stated. 

7. The Whitehaven Coal-Field is situated on the west coast of 
Cumberland, and extends from near Egremont, south of Whitehaven, 
to near AJlonby on the north. 

Central Coal DUtrict, — Under this division are classed the coal- 
fields of Ashbv-de-la-Zouch, of Warwickshire, and South Staffordshire. 

1. The Coal-Field of Ashby-de-la-Zouch is of a very irregular figure, 
and so much dislocated that it rather forms two small basins than 
one continuous whole. The greatest length from north-west to south- 
east is about ten miles, the greatest breadth about eight miles. The 
eastern extremity of this area approaches almost dose to the transition 
district of Chamwood Forest. This coal-field is described by Mr. 
Farey as "one of the highly curious but perhaps not uncommon 
occurrences in the red man districts ; a tract entirely surrounded by 
a fault, or a series of faults, which unite, seem lifted up through the 
red marl strata, and denudated, the coal strata having rapid dips in 
various directions, while the surrounding strata of red marl are hori- 
Eontal, or as nearly so as may be." Of the two portions of the 
field, one ranges by Ashby Wold, about three miles on the west 
of Ashby ; the other by Coleorton, which is about the same distance 
on the east. 

The Ashby Wold portion ranges from Swepston, four miles south 
of Ashby, to Bretby in Derbyshire : the inclination of the strata is 
towards Ashby ; but between the out-crop of the beds and that town 
another crop ha^ been traced near Brothorpe, dipping in a contrary 
direction. More than twenty coal-works have betBU opened on thiiB 
line. The lowest shaft sunk is to. the depth of 246 yards. One of 
the seams is from 17 to 21 feet thick. This great thickness is catised, 
it is supposed, by the running together of two or more seams — a cir- 
cumstance which is known to occur in the coal-fields of South 
Staffordshire. The eastern portion of this district commences about 
a mile and a half north-east of Ashby, and extends about six miles in 
length, running parallel to the larger portion. The strata dip to east- 
north-east In tiie pits belonging to Sir Geoige Beaumont two coal- 
beds, each a yard and a half thick, are worked. On Coleorton Moor 
several coal-seams, which have been proved to lie above these, have 
been worked at the depth of 116 feet 

2. The Warwickshire Coal-Field commences at Wyken and Sow, 
two villsges about three miles east of Coventry, and continues in a 
north-west direction to Polosworth and Wareston, about five miles 
east of Tamworth, a distance of sixteen miles : its average breadth is 
about three miles. All the strata rise to the east-north-east^ the 
inclination becoming greater towards the eastern edge of the field, 
where in many parU it makes an angle of more than 45° with the 
horizon : towards the west it decreases to about one foot in three, 
and lastly in five. The principal collieries are near the south of the 
field, at Qriff and Bed worth. The depth of the first is 117 yards, and 
the principal seam three yards in thickness. The same seams are 

VAT. HIBT. DIY. TOL. II. 



worked in the Bedworth mines, but there the first and second coal- 
seams of Griff run together and form a 5-yard seam. The interme- 
diate strata of shale which separate them at Griff are found in the 
eastern shaft to be 88 yards, and in the western 25 yards thick ; but 
they gradually decrease as they proceed westward, till at length 
they entirely vanish. 

8. South Staffordshire or Dudley Coal-Field, the principal in the 
central district, extends from. Beverton, near Badgely, on the north- 
east> to near Stourbridge on the south-west The greatest length is 
about twenty miles, and its greatest breadth, from Walsall to Wolver- 
hampton, is about seven nuies, but it is veiy irregular towards the 
south, bcong almost divided into two parts. The area, from actual 
survey, has been found to be about sixty square miles. The soulhen^ 
portion, extending from Stourbridge to Bilston, about seven or eight 
miles in length and four in breadth, has been fully investigated by 
Mr. Keirs, and described by him in Shaw's ' History of Staffordshire.' 
No satisfactory accoimt of the northern portions of this field has 
hitherto been published ; manv coal-seams, of eight, six, and four 
feet in thickness, are worked in, it The southern portion is of much 
more importance, as it contains seams firom 80 to 45 feet in thickness. 
This enormous thickness is however not one continuous seam, but a 
number of seams, divided by layers of what the miners caU band, 
which are very thin beds of day-slate. The working of these thick 
seams is not so profitable as might be supposed. The pillars left 
standing in order to support the high roof are estimated at about one- 
third of the whole coal in the bed, and the small coal left in the mine 
is about equal to another third, so that only one-third of the whole is 
at present taken out of the mine. 

In the coal-measures of this district there is an absence of the 
millstone grit, carboniferous limestone, and old red-sandstone, which 
usually lie under the coal-meaiyires. The coal-measures rest, in the 
Dudley Coal-Field, on the transition rock at once, without any inter- 
mediate strata : this singularity is likewise observed in the Coal* 
brook Dale coal formation. 

The coal district in South Staffordshire is traversed from north- 
west to south-east by apparently a line of hills, but they are not 
absolutely continuous, though they have a uniform general direction. 
On exammation, the hills on the north and those on the south of 
Dudley are found to differ entirelv in their character. The northern 
chain consists of highly inclinea strata of limestone, against the 
sides of which all the ooal-measures crop out at a considerable aaglo^ 
but come nearer a horizontal position as they recede from these 
hills. The other chain of bills, on the south of Dudley, is entirely 
composed of one mass of basalt and amygdaloid, and the coal- 
measures preserve their usual level in approaching the hills, not 
cropping out as they do upon the limestone chain. Two opinions 
are entertained with r^ard to these basalt elevations: "they may 
be either the protruding edge of a vast basaltic dyke traversing the 
coal-field, or an overlying mass :" the latter is considered the more 
probable. The coal-measures on the south, near Stourbridge, appear 
to dip beneath the beds of the newer red-sandstone formation : the 
beds of this and of the Warwickshire coal-field dipping in opposite 
directions imder the superstrata, give reason for supposing that they 
may extend' continuously below this through the intervenixigspace. 
The eastern side of the field, which extends a little beyond WaJsall, 
is bounded by the same limestone with that of Dudley, and the coal- 
measures are observed again to crop out against it, thus lying in a 
basin between these two towns. Tluit the coal-beds rise towaitis the 
north, and the upper ones crop out while others continue imder the 
surface, is very satisfactorily shown by the comparison of the strata 
in different collieries. At Tividale tiie main coal is 60( fathoms 
below the surface ; at Bradley it is only 20} ; and the greater number 
of beds which cover the mam coal at the former place have entirely 
disappeared before the main seam reaches Bradley ; and farther to 
the north the main seam also crops out and disappears altogether. 
A very curious phenomenon takes place at Bloomfield colliery, to the 
south of Bilston, thus described in the ' Geology of England,' p. 412 : 
— " The two upper beds of the main coal, called the roo^ fioor, and 
top slipper, separate from the rest, and are distinguished by the 
name of the 'flying reed.' This separation grows wider, and at 
Bradley oolliery amounts to 12 feet, four beds of shale (slate-day) 
and ironstone being interposed. These two upper beds crop out, 
while the rest of the main coal goes on to Bilston, and is only eight 
yards thick." 

This district supplies coals to the numerous iron-works in the 
immediate neighbourhood, and the manufactories of Birmingham 
and its vicinity; besides which, all the neighbouring counties, aa 
far south as Beading and Gloucesteri are supplied by means of inland 
navigation. 

The clay ironstone occurs in various beds, but is only wrought 
in two : one of these is the bed under the main coal, and is wrought 
for iron- ore. 

Many faults or dykes occur in this field ; they are usually fissures 
in the beds, filled up with day, and very frequently the levels of the 
different strata vary in consequence. There is a great fault near 
Bilston, which causes the dip of the strata to be reversed, the beds 
on the south side dipping south, and those on the north side dipping 
north: this is however an unusual droumstanoe 

C 



19 



COAL FORMATION. 



COAL FORMATION. 



90 



Western Coal DistrieU. — The Coal-Fields of this diyision axe dis- 
posed around the transition district of North and South Wales. The 
north-western district includes the coal-fields of Anglesey and Flint- 
shire, the western those of Shropshire, the south-western those of 
South Wales, of South Qloucester and Somerset^ and of the Forest 
of Dean. 

1. Isle of Anglesey. — ^At the distance of about six nules from the 
Menai Straits, and running nwAj parallel to them, a remarkable 
valley stretches across the whole island. This yalley opens oi^the 
north into Red Wharf Bay, and on the south into the tdstuary of 
Maltraeth ; it is flanked on both sides by parallel bands of carboni- 
ferous limestone, in the depression between which coal has been 
found, and it is thought probable that the coal-measures may extend 
through the whole line. Coal has been worked near the Maltraeth 
estuaiy ; and a few years since shafts were sunk in the neighbour- 
hood of Trefdaeth. Successful trials have likewise been made at 
Pentreberen, about five miles north-east of the former pits : the 
beds are said to be of a tolerable thicknesB, and the coals of a good 
quali^. 

2. Flintshire. — The Coal-Field of this county extends north and 
louth from. Llanassa, near the western cape of the sestuary of the 
Dee, to near Oswestry, in Shropshire^ forming an exterior belt co- 
ext^udve with the range of the mountain line crom the north of the 
Qwyd. Where the carboniferous limestone is partially interrupted 
by the mountain of Selattyn the coal shales rest immediately on the 
transition slate, of which that mountain is composed. (Conybeare 
and Phillips, p. 419.) The greatest lenjgth of the district in which 
the coal-measures are found is about th&y miles, but it must by no 
means be understood that coal is worked throuf^out At Oswestry 
there is a very small detached piece, not more than three miles long 
and half a mile broad ; there is then an interval of some miles. 
Near Chirk another coal tract commences, and runs north for about 
five miles; then another interval occurs; and a little to the north of 
Wrexham the prindpcd portion begins, and thence extends to the 
coast, and forms a narrow belt along it to the termination at the 
west cape of the Dee. The beds dip from one yard in four to two 
in three, sink beneath the eastuaiy of the Dee, reappear on its opposite 
side, and finally sink beneath the strata of the newer red-sandstone. 
This position of the coal-measures has led to the conjecture that 
they are connected with the beds of the limcashire coal-field. The 
coal formation here commences with the same strata as those of 
Derbyshire. The beds of coal vary in thickness from three quarters 
of a yard to five yards. In the Basalt mines three seams are worked, 
varying from 84 to 7feet. Common, cannel, and peacock coid are found. 

3. The Coalbrook Dale Coal-Field rests on transition xock: it 
extends from Wombridge, in the parallel of Wellington, to Coal 
Port, on the Severn, a length of about six miles ; its greatest breadth 
is about two miles. The coal-measures are composed of the usual 
alternating strata, which occur without much legulari^, except that 
each bed of coal is always immediately covered by indurated or 
slaty clay, and not by sandstone. The strata are 86 in number. In 
Maaely colliery a shaft is sunk 729 feet through all the bed& The 
first coal-seam, which occurs at the depth of 102 feet, is very 
sulphurous, and not more than 4 inches tmok ; nine other beds of a 
nmilar nature, but rather thicker, occur between this and the depth 
of 896 feet. This coal is called ' stinking coal,' and is only emploved 
in the burning of lime. The first seam of coal that is worxed is 
496 feet deep and 5 feet thick. Two other beds of coal occur, one 
10 inches and the other 8 feet thick, before the bed of 'big fiint' 
sandstone, which is found at the depth of 676 feet : nine beds of 
coal occur, of the sggregate thickness of 16 feet, between Uie 'great 
flint' and the 'little flint' bed (an interval of 100 feet). Beneath 
the ' little flint ' and the lowest bed of the whole formation there is 
a sulphurous 8-inch coal. This account of the strata refers more 
particularly to the Madely colliery. The coal of this field is usually 
a mixture of slatoKXMl and pitch^ooal. 

West of the Coalbrook Dale field there are a few detached, narrow, 
and broken coal-fields in the plain of Shrewsbuiy^ at the other side 
of the Wrekin. 

Several small Coal-Fields occur in the Brown Clee Wil] and the 
Titterstone Clee Hill, which rise a few miles south of the Coalbxx>ok 
Dale Field ; the latter hill is about four miles south of the former. 
The coals in the Brown Clee Hill only lie in thin strata, while the 
principal stratum in the Titterstone Clee Hill is 6 feet thick. The 
coal-fields on the Titterstone Clee Hill are represented as six detached 
portions, or separate basins, cut asunder and rendered irreg^ular by a 
vast basaltic dyke, more than 100 yards wide, which intersects the 
hilL These coal-measures are more interesting to ihe geologist than 
the miner. 

On the east of these hills, and between them and the Severn, a 
Coal-Field extends from Dense Hill and Billingsley on the north to the 
borders of Shropshire and Worcestershire on the south, a length of 
about eight miles, coal being worked in several points along 1^ line. 
Coal is also worked near Over Arley, on the Severn, adjoining this 
tract on the west. Only a few miles from the Billingsley coal-field at 
Pensex, near the foot of the Abberley Hills, is "a sznall patch (rather 
than field) of coal-measures," and another similar piece about three 
miles to the west 



The SoutK-Weitem Coal Dittrid comprehends the several Coal-Fields 
near the seetuarv of the Severn and the Bristol Channel, including 
parts of the adjacent coimties of Qloucester, Somerset, Monmouth, 
and Glamorgan. The various coal-fields distributed over this district 
are apparency insulated, yet they have several pomts of cozmection. 
" They all rest on one common base of old red-sandstone ; they all 
appear to have been formed by similar agency and at the same era ; 
to nave been subject at a later period to the same revolutions ; and 
lastly, to have been covered paitiallv b^ similar overlying deposits." 
(' OteclL Trans.,' voL L) The several basins in the coal formation are 
divided by lines termed ' antidinal,' formed by the saddles of the 
strata or meetings at the surfi»ce of their vertical angles, on each side 
of which the strata dip in opposite directions. The coal-measures are 




1. AbMH**'^' line ftmniag the erest of a hlU. 2. Tha isme line mnniBf 
aloBf the eouae of a vaUsj* 

thus surrounded by exterior bands of mountain limestone and old 
red-sandstone, in the order of the outcrop of the subjacent beds. This 
district includes three principal coal oasins, together with some 
smaller ones, adjacent to and closely connected with the two last 
Hnt, the South Welsh coal basin ; second, that of South Qloucester 
and Somerset ; third, that of the Forest of Dean. 

1. The Coal-Field of South Wales is upwards of 100 miles in length, 
and the average breadth in the counties of Monmouth, Qlamoi^gan, 
Caermarthen, and part of Brecon, is frx>m 18 to 20 miles ; it becomes 
much narrower in Pembrokeshire, being there only from 8 to 5 miles. 
This area extends frt>m Pontypool on the east to St Bride's Bay on 
the west, and forms a vast basin of limestone in which all the strata 
of coal and ironstone are deposited. The deepest part of the basin is 
between Neath and Llanelly : ftom a line ranging nearly east and 
west through Neath all the strata rise on the south towards the south, 
and on the north towards the north, cropping out at the edges. The 
limestone crops out at the surface all round the coal, except where 
its continui^ is interrupted by Swansea and Caermarthen bays. 
The depths from the surface to the various strata depend upon local 
situations. The upper coal-seam does not extend a inile either north 
or south beyond Neath, and not many miles in an east or west direc- 
tion, and its utmost depth is not above 60 or 60 fathoms ; the next 
stratum of coal and those likewise beneath, being deeper, crop out at 
a greater distance from the centre ; and so of the rest in proportion 
to their dep^ The lowest bed is 700 fathoms deep at the centre, 
and all the principal strata lie from 600 fathoms deep to this depth. 
But this district is intersected by dee^ valleys which generally run in 
a north and south direction, intersectinff the coaL By driving levels 
in tiie hills the beds of coal are found without the labour and expense 
of sinking shafts; there are also many pits in the low valleys. This 
basin contains twelve beds of coal from 8 to 9 feet thick, making on 
aggregate of 70( feet ; and there are eleven more from 18 inches to 8 
feet, ^ether equal to 244 feet ; the whole thioknew is therefore 95 
feet A number of smaller seams likewise occur. On the south side 
of the basin, from Pontypool to Caermarthen Bay, the coal is princi- 
pally of a bituminous nature ; on the north-east it is a caking coal ; 
on the nortii-west, anthracitia It is this latter coal which has the 
greatest heating power. It is found in abundance near Swansea, and 
IS cheap. Qreat faults occur in this field, which traverse it generally 
in a north and south direction, and throw the strata out of their level 
40, 60, 80, or 100 fathoms. These dislocations are not often shown 
on tiie surface. A principal fault occurs at Cribbath, where the 
strata of limestone stand erect ; another of considerable magnitude 
lies between Tsteadvellte and Penderryn. These dykes are usually 
fiUed with clay, but one of some magnitude has been observed near 
Swansea, which is many frithoms wide and filled vrith fragments of 
the disrupted strata, the level of which differs by more than 240 feet 
The rich ironstone of this basin supplies extensive iron-works in the 
neighbourhood The principal beds of ironstone occur in the lower 
part of the coal-measures ; the most valuable bed is found beneath 
tiie lowest ooaL The strata of this coal formation dip much more 
rapidly on the south than on the north ; on the south tiiey make an 
angle of 46" with the horizon, and on the north dipping only 10**. 
The coal from, the South Wales basin supplies the whole of Wales 
with the exception of the more northern counties, the whole of Corn- 
wall, and the western half of Devonshire. 

2. South Qloucester and Somerset Basin. — This basin occupies an 
irregular triangular space, bounded on the south by the Mendip 
Hills, which are a high range of mountain lii]lestone resting on an 
arch of old red-eandstone. The vertex of the triangle is on the north, 
at the village of Tortworth in Qloucestershire : the western side from 
theMendips to the vertex is formed by three insulated masses of high 
land, separated by narrow intervals^ tiie widest of which is less than 



X 



/ 



21 



COAL FOBMATION. 



COAL FOBMATION. 



three miles. Kear Toitwoith the range extending from Almonds- 
bury Ib deflected suddenly to the south, and this may be considerBd 
the north-eastern frontier of the basin ; it may also be traced through 
Wickwar to Sodbuzy. The south-eastern lunit^ from Sodbury to 
near Hells, the eastern extremity of the Mendips, is mostly oonooded 
by overlying deposits. Partial denudations occur at Lansdown, near 
Wick Bock, where the limestone can be traced in the valleys dipping 
towards the centre of the coal basin. From Lansdown to the Mendips 
the continuity of the basin can be well ascertained, the coal-measures 
being imcov^«d in some of the valleys in which the principal collieries 
are situated. In other places shafts have been sunk through the 
overlying horizontal deposits beneath which the coal is worked. The 
greatest length of this area is 25 miles ; the width, from the collieries 
near Bath to those of Bedminster near Bristol on the west, is about 
11 nules. In this district there is much local irregularity, and the 
stratification of the coal-measures is so deranged that they have yeiry 
different and varying leveLk In some parts the beds are denuded^ 
in others concealed by the more recent horizontal deposits ; and thus 
the whole basin is divided into several detadied coal-fields. 

The imcovered areas may be divided into the northern, the central, 
the southern, the eastern, and the western coal-tracts. The northern 
is the most extensive and elevated : its greatest length, from the vertex 
of the basin near Tortworth to the viUage of Brislington on the left 
bank of the Avon near Bristol, is 12 miles ; its greatmt breadth from 
east to west is nearly four miles. The collieries of Iron Acton, Sodbury, 
and Kingswood are in this coal-tract. Along the northern limits of 
the basin, frt>m Sodbury to Cromehall and Titherington, the coal- 
measures are exposed in immediate contact with the limestone ; on 
the western, southern, and great part of Uie eastern border of the 
tract they are skirted by hills of red marl capped by lias. At 
Pucklechuroh shafts are sunk to the coal through both the latter 
formations. 

The central tract, which begins on the south of Dundry Hill, is 
divided into two parts by a narrow valley; the northern portion, 
about six miles in length, extends from Burnet on the north-east to 
Knowl Hill, near Stanton Drew, on the south-west; near Pensford it 
is about two miles in breadth. The southern division, extending from 
Temple Cloud on the west to between High IdtUeton and Timsbury 
on the east, is about three miles in length. To the south-east of this 
central coal-tract the coal-measures are entirely concealed by super- 

i*acent deposits through a distance of six milee. Throughout this space 
lowever many shafts are sunk — some through the red marl of the 
valleys, and some through the lias which occurs on higher ground. 
There are several of the latter description in the parishes of TimsbiOT 
and Poulton ; but the deepest is on Clan Down near Badstock, which 
is sunk 200 fathoms before its horizontal adits are driven. Another 
shaft, beginning in the oolite, is sunk on the edge of the same Down 
near Pamton ; but it is not so deep as the former, since here there is 
a rise in the strata, and the coal-seams are in consequence much nearer 
the surface. On the ascent of the hiU abovQ Clmcompton the coal- 
measures are again exposed to the extent of about an acre. 

The southern coal-tract commences near the point where the road 
between Bath and Shepton Mallet crosses the Nettlebridge stream, 
and ends between Vobster and Mells ; its greatest length is six miles, 
and greatest breadth two miles and a hal£ The coal-measures of the 
eastern coal-tract axe laid open In the vale of the Buoyd at Wick and 
Upton, both in Gloucestershire ; they are likewise exposed at Newton 
St. Loe, on the left bank of the Avon below Bath, dipping towards the 
interior of the basin. Several seams are worked at Upton and Newton. 
The western coal-tract lies at the south-east of Leigh Down, near 
Bristol Beds of red marl form the upper strata in tiae shafts of all 
the coal-pits of this tract between Long Ashton and Bedminster. The 
coal-field of Nailsea,lying more to the west, is a continuation of thistraot 

A great undulation in the strata of the coal-measures which form 
the coal-basin of Somersetshire and the south of Gloucestershire, alters 
the apparent position of the seams so much that it is very difficult to 
ascertain the identity of each throughout the various colnerieft. The 
local names of the several seams also tend to oonfrise the g^logist 

The cham of hills which limits the western boundary of this coal 
district presents remarkable anomalies between Clevedon and Port- 
buxy along its northern escarpment. A great fault rangijog along the 
edge effects a very considerable subsidence of the strata. In conse- 
quence of this " the coal-measures, depressed to the level of the old 
rad-sandstone, appear to occupv its place, and seem to dip beneath 
the mountain limestone, on which in fiaiot they repose. ('GeoL 
Trans.,' voL iv.) 

The following are the principal subdivisions of theCoal-Measures in 
this basin, beginning witn the nighest : — The Upper Coal Shale; the 
Pennant Grit (sandstone) ; the Lower Coal Shale ; and the Millstone Grit. 

In the Bedminster collieiy on the south-west of Bristol there are 
three seams of good bituminous coal : the deepest and uppermost are 
worked ; the former is i feet 8 inches, the latter 2^ feet to 3 feet 
thick; the middle seam is only 1 foot The interval between the two 
principal seams is 28 fathoms ; the lowest shaft simk is 127 fathoms 
deep. These beds are obviou^y referrible to the lower coal shale. 

In the meridian of Pitcot, situated a little to the north-east of 
Nettlebridge, all the strata are vertical : a perpendicular shaft is 
there sunk to the depth of 80 fothoms in one bed of coal. 



The total number of mines worked in this district is probably less 
than it was formerly, but the whole produce is certainly much greater, 
owin^ to improved methods in working. The seams of coal are very 
thin m oompaiison with those which are worked in the principal coal- 
fields of England, and in most of those would be rejected as not 
worth the working. 

8. The Forest of Dean Coal-Basin oooupies an irregular elliptical 
area, circumscribed by the trian^e formea by the Wye, the Severn, 
and the road from Gloucester to Ross ; the laigest diameter from 
north-north-east to south-south-west is about ten miles, the shorter 
about six miles. AU the strata dip unifcnrmly towards the centre of 
the basin. The whole of this coal-tract^ together with the high land 
that surrounds it^ constitutes a mountain group, the average height 
of which above the level of the sea is about 900 feet. The aggregate 
thickness of the whole strata of the coal-measures is, according to Mr. 
MuAet, 600 faUioms ; he divides the diflferent strata into seven series, 
in which there are 27 beds of coaL 

On the north of the Forest of Dean basin, and at the distance of a 
few miles, is the Newent coal-field, a very sinall tract surroimded and 
concealed by overlying strata of the new red-sandstone. 

Scotch Coal-Pidas, — Several small Coal-Fields occur in Dumfries- 
shire, forming narrow basins in the valleys of the great southern 
transition chtun of Scotland. In the valley of the Nith, in the parishes- 
of Sanqidiar and Kirkoozmel, there is one of these coal-basins, about 
7 miles in length and 2^ miles in breadth. Three seams of workable 
coal have been discovered, avera^^ing in thickness from 8 to 4 J feet. 
The range of the seams is in the direction of the Nith ; the measures 
are disturbed by a dyke running north and south, by which the strata 
are much depressed on the east side. In the parish of Canobie, 
adjoining Cimiberland, coal is worked in two pits : the principal seam 
is 5 feet 10 inches thick. 

The principal coal-district of Scotland occupies the tract which 
forms tiie great central lowland of Scotland, and lies between the 
great transition chain on the south and the still loftier primitive 
mountains of tibe Highlands on the north. " The whole of this wide 
tract is occupied by the coal-measures, the carbomferous limestone, 
and the old red-sandstone, associated in every possible manner with 
vast accumulations of every variety of trap." (Conybb and Phil.) 

To b^gin with the most eastern oountv in this tract in which coal 
is found : — In the parish of Dunbar, on tne east coast of Haddington, 
there are indications of coal, but no seams have yet been found of 
sufficient thidmess for working. In the pariah of Ormiston, in the west 
of the same county, coal is found in abundance; there are three 
workable seams of coal, varying from 28 to 48 indies in thickness, 
and the coal is of good quality. 

Coal oocurftin Fifeshire, on the north side of the Forth. ^ There are 
mines in tiie parish of Dysart, where coahi were first raised in Scotland 
nearly 400 yean ago. Coal is wrouglit in several places in Mid-Lothian. 
In Lanark the cou-fields are numerous and extensive. The Wilson- 
town coal-basin and the Climpy basin both occur in the parish of 
C^umwath; the latter is on the west side of the first, the crop of the 
one nearlv approaching the other. There are several seams of coal 
in these basms. The main coal, or lowest^ is called the 4-feet coal ; 
another seam is about 2 feet in thickness. The accompanying strata 
are sandstone^ varying in composition and hardness, bituminous shale, 
slate-day, and thin beds of ironstone alternate with the coaL Several 
small faults, or hitches, as they are here called, traverse the field. On 
the south-west part of the fidd the main coal is generally 14 feet 
bdow the crow coal, which is the next superior bed ; on the north- 
east the space between the same beds is only about 2 feet. These 
basios form part of the great coal-basin of the Clyde, which extends 
on both sides of that river, and the centre of which is near DalzieL 
On the same side of the river, in the parish of Monkland, there are 
many collieries, in which the thickest bed of ooal is 9 feet, and it is 
of good quality. On the left bank of the river coal is wrought in 
several places. Several mines ai-e worked in the parish of Rutheiglen, 
and othen in the adjoining parish of Cambuslang. There are several 
also in Hamilton, Stonehouse, and Douglass. Throughout this dis- 
trict seven seams of coal are usually found within 415 feet of the 
surface; five of these seams are of sufficient thickness and good 
quality to be wrought The following ehowb the situation and thick- 
ness of the seams of coal in the pits in the parish of Cambuslang : — 

feet. in. 

Upper soil (earth and day) . • . from 20 to 80 

Argillaceous white fiwestone 20 

Shde, with vegetable impressions, from 80 feet to 40 feet 85 

1st Seam, soft coal 4 6 

Interval (hard freestone, &a) 26 6 

2nd Seam, soft coal 8 6 

Interval (shale) 68 6 

8rd Seam, snaft ootl 5 

r shale, 20 feet . . . . 1 . 

Interval < hard ironstone, from 6 to 18 inches > . 65 2 
[shale and freestone . . *} 

4th Seam, soft coal 6 



COAti f^BltAf lOK. 



COAL FORMATION. 



U 



feet. in. 
Sth Seam, aoft ooal * . 8 

i-*«™^{dSf"} ...... 10 

6ih Seam, hud. coal, good for iron-works, forges^ &c. . 8 6 

Interval (shale) . . . . . . .16 

7th Seam, soft coal .,,.,,. 16 

Till, ftc., with thin seams of ooal 84 

445 8 
The thickness of the coal and of the freestone varies considerably 
in different parts, and the numbers here given must be taken only as 
an approximation. The strata are frequently deranged by faults, 
several of which run from east to west In their genend arrangement 
the strata usually run nearly parallel to each other, elthous^ they 
have always a considerable angle of elevation, and uniformly dip 
towards the Clyde. A great fault occurs between Hamilton and 
Quarter, and none of the principal seams are wrought for some miles 
north of this spot, the coiu-beds being sunk nearly 100 fathoms lower 
than those out of the fault. The main seam worked at Quarter is 

5 feet 6 inches thick, and consists of four distinct varieties of coaL 
This Coal-Basin of the Clyde extends into Renfrew, where there are 

many collieries. Coal is wrought in the parish of Eastwood, in that 
county, in several seams of various thickness, but none exceed 2 feet 

6 inches. ^The whole are of good quality. Five of them are wrought 
in pits vaiying in depth from 10 to 40 fathoms. The coal-measures 
here consist of the usual series of freestone, shale, &o., dipping 
generally to the south-west. This coal formation pad*tly surrounds 
the Loch of Castle Semple, and continues without interruption into 
Ayrshire, around Kilbimie Loch, and onwards to Ardrossan. Coal 
occurs in different places in Dumbarton, where, among other parishes, 
it is wrought in Easter Kilpatrick. It is also foimd abundantly in 
Stirlingshire, along the southern base of the Lennox Hills. Coal 
likewise occurs thiHoughout Linlithgow, and is worked extensively in 
that county ; it is likewise found in Clackmannan and in the south 
of the counties of Perth and Kinross. 

Some of the richest and most valuable bands of ironstone are 
obtained from the coal-measures of Scotland, chiefly in the basin of 
the Clyde. The manufacture of iron in this distnct is very exten- 
sive. In the year 1849 nearly 700,000 tons of pig-iron were wrought 
in this district The Scotch beds include a large proportion of sand- 
stone and a peculiar limestone, worked at Burdie House near Edin- 
burgh. The remains of plants and animals are found in these rocks, 
and amongst the latter the MegaliclUhift, a fossil fish of large size and 
interesting structure. [MsaALiOHTHT8.1 

Irith Coal-Fieldt. — ^Mr. Qrifi&ths, in his ' Report on the Leinster 
Coal District,' gives an excellent summary of the Irish coal-fields, 
from which what follows la taken : — ** If we except the Leinster dis- 
trict, my knowledge of the coal-fields of Ireland is as yet vexy limited; 
and though each in its turn will form the subject of a separate report> 
I think it right to draw attention to them in this place, bv giving 
such general infonnation as I possess respecting their situation and 
circumstances. Coal had been discovered in more or less quantity in 
seventeen counties of Ireland; but I believe the island contains but 
four prindpctl coal-districts — ^namely, the Leinster, the Munster, the 
Connaught, and the Ulster. The two former contain carbonaceous 
or stone-coal, and the latter bitimunous or blazing coaL 

" The Leinster ooal-district is situated in the counties of Kilkenny, 
Queen's County, and county of Carlow. It also extends a short dis- 
tance into the county of Tipperary, aa far aa Killenaule. This is 
the principal carbonaceous ooal-district. It is divided into three 
detached parts, separated from each other by a secondary limestone 
country, which not only envelops, but in continuation passes under 
the whole of the coal-district ; a fact which was indisputably, though 
accidentally, proved by the Grand Canal Company, who sank a pit 
through 18 yards of black slate-clay and flinty slate into the limestone 
in search of coal. The Leinster coal-district is therefore of subsequent 
formation to the limestone. 

" The Munster ooal-district occupies a considerable portion of the 
oonnties of Limerick and Kerry, and a large part of the county of 
Cork. It is by much the most extensive in Ireland ; but as yet there 
is not suflicient information respecting the number, extent^ or thick- 
ness of the beds of coal it may contain. 

" Coal and culm have hem raised for near a century in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kanturk, ih the county of Cork. At Dromagh colliery 
I understand the work has been carried on to a very considerable 
extent^ and its annual supplies of coal and culm have materially 
contributed t6 the agricultural improvement of an immense extent 
of the great maritime and commercial counties of Cork and Limerick, 
which must otherwise have continued neglected and unreclaimed. 

** Many drcumstances combine to mue the examination of this 
district of peculiar interest and importance ; and as a recent applica- 
tion has been made by tixe Cork Institution to the DubUn Society to 
aid the undertaking, it is probable that this immense district will 
shortly be minutely explored. From all that has been ascertained, 
it is very dear Uiat the dip of the beds and the quality of the coal 
differ materially from those of the Leinster district In the Munster 
district the beds run east and west^ and dip to the south, forming an 



angle of 45*. In the Dromagh oolliety, where all tJie beds which 
have been discovered have been successively and in general success- 
fully wrought^ four beds incline on each other, and at no greater 
distance than 200 yards. The first of these beds is a 8-feet stone- 
coal, and is the leading bed. All faults, checks, and dislocations, 
simUar to those which are discoverable in this bed, are in genenl to 
be encountered in the other threa The names of the four beds are, 
the eo€Urbed — this lies farthest to the north ; the roek-eoal, so called 
from its being oomparativelv of harder quality than the other beds ; 
the hulk-bed, so called from its contents being found in laige marwcfi or 
bulks ; and Bath't-hed, so called from the name of a celebrated English 
miner, by whom it had been many years ago discovered and worked. 
The coal-bed consists of 3-feet solid coal, and is not sulphurous ; 
the rock-coal is nearly .of the same thickness with the leading bed, 
but is very sulphurous, and, having the soundest roof, is the most 
easily wrought The other beds are of the culm spedes, but of 
peculiar strength. . . . The bulk-bed forms immense bulks and 
masses of culm, in which the miners have frequently been unable to 
retain the ordinaiy directions of roof and seat 

*' No work has been undertaken in the Munster cosl-district to a 
greater depth than 80 vards. The present work at the Dromagh 
colliexy is at that depth; it is heavily watered, and consequently 
expensivdy wrought The quality of the coal and culm improves as 
the work descends. . . . 

" The Connaught coal-district stands next in order of value and 
importance to the Leinster and Munster, and possibly may be found 
to deserve the first place when its subterranean treasures shall be 
explored. At present nothing is known, except that the outer edges 
of several beds of coal have oeen observed, but they have not been 
traced to any distance, so that their extoit is by no means ascer- 
tained. The coal is of the bituminous spedesi Tins coal is particu- 
larly adapted to the purposes of iron-works, foundries, ftc. ftc. 

** The iJUter coal-custrict is of trifling importance when compared 
with the for^^ing. It commences near Dungannon, in the county of 
Tyrone, and extends in a northern direction to Coal Island, and in 
continuation to the neighbourhood of Cookstown. Ko beds of ooal 
worth working have hitherto been discovered between Coal Island 
and Cookstown, but certainly the coal strata extend there. The 
principal collieries are at Coal Island and at Dungannon. The coal 
of this district is bituminous. I understand that mdications of coal 
have been observed at Drumquin, in the coun^ of Tyrone ; and also 
at Petigoe, to the north of Leugh Erne. Possibly the coal foxmation 
may extend firom the neighbourhood of Cookstown westward to the 
north of Lough Erne. 

"Besides the foregoing principal coal-districts^ there are okhen of 
less consequence. Bituminous coal has been found in the neighbour^ 
hood of Belturbet^ in the ootmty of Cavan, and at the ooUieries of 
Ballycastle, in the county of Antrim ; but Uie Antrim ooal-distriet is 
not very extendve. These collieries have been wrought for a number 
of years. The coals are of a slaty nature, and greatlv resemble both 
the coal and the accompanying rocks which occur m Ayrshire, and 
probably they bdong to the same foxmation." 

CorUinentcu Europe. — ^France. — In the centre and south of France 
some small coal-fidds occur in the valleys of the Loire, the Allier, 
the Creuse, and the Dordcgne, the .KYejron, and Axd^che^ 
between ridges proceeding from the primitive central group 
connected with the Cevennes; and, in a few localities, some of the 
thickest beds of coal yet discovered have been found. In the north 
of France, the coal-formation occupies a very large tract of country, 
running westward frt>m Hardinghen, near Boulogne, by Valendennea, 
and thence up the Schdde and down the Mouse to Eschweiler, 
beyond Aix-la<!hapelle. The total area of coal in France is probably 
not less than 2000 square miles. Its annual yield is not less than 
4,000,000 tons. These depodts are of the same age as those of England, 
but they rest on granite or other ciystalline and metamorphine rocks. 

Belgium. — ^The district along the Meuse, between Namur and 
Lidge, is said to resemble in its geological structure, as well as pic- 
turesque features, the Somersetshire and South Qloucester district : 
the strata being broken and deranged, exhibit, if posdble^ still more 
contorted and mverted positions of the respective beds. The defiles 
of the Sambre and the Mouse {* CeoL Trans.,' voL L, 2nd 8eriesX_pre- 
sent an exact cotmterpart of those of the Avon and the Wye. There 
are two prindpal coal-fields in Belgium, the one extending to the east 
and known as the Li^ Coal-Field, and the other west forming the 
Hainault dividon. The seams are generally thin, remaricably 
numerous, and presenting an apparent multiplication by doublings 
of the strata. A kind of coal is found in Belgium called Flenu Coal, 
which is not found in Great Britain. It bums rapidly, giving out a 
disagreeable smelL [Belgium, in Qeoo. Div.] 

Qermany. — The coal-districts in the north of Germany are probably 
the prolongation of the Belgium formation. On the north-east and 
Bouui-east of the Hans Mountains, near Ballenstadt and Keustadt, the 
coel-formation occurs resting on the transition rod^ of that group. In 
Saxony coal is found in man^ places along the northern foot of the 
Erzegebixge. It is extensively worked near Zwickau and near 
Dresden. There is a very extendve coal-district in Bohemia, extend- 
ing into Upper Silesia. This district lies between the great primitive 
chain of the Erzegebiige and the Riesengebixge, on the north, and the 



COAL FORMATION. 



COAL FORMATION. 



26 



great distriot of primitive slate which t>ccupie8 the larger part of 
Bohemia aouth of the Beraun and Upper Elbe. More than forty beds 
of coal are supposed to be worked in this district. The whole annual 
supply from Prussia and the Qerman States of the Zollyerein exceeds 
2,760,000 tons. 

Russia. — Qood ooal has been found in Southern Ruflm% near Toula, 
lat. 54*, long. 87% where it is worked ; but the quantity is so small, 
and the difficulty of working it beneath a loose and half-liquid bed of 
quicksand is so great, that it seems unlikely to be of much utility. 
Coal halt also been worked at Bakhmont^ mt 48'', long. 88**, in the 

Stvemment of Katerinoslat (Mr. Strangways on the Oeology of 
ussia, ' OeoL Trans.,' toL i., 2nd series, p. 85.) 

Sweden. — ^Coal occurs in this country near Helsingborg at the 
entrance of the Baltic, and also in the island of Bomholm. 
[BOBKBOLM, in Gsoo. DlY.] 

Spain. — ^Both bituminous coal and anthracite are found in Spain. 
The richest beds are in Asturias, where the measures are so much 
broken and altered aa to be worked by almost Tertical shafts driven 
through the beds. The area covered by coal-beds ^in Spain is not 
exactly known, but it is said to be the largest in Europe, presenting 
upwazds of 100 workable seams varying from 3 to 12 feet ia thickness. 
(Anstad.) 

Hunguy and some other countries in the east of Europe contain 
coal-measures which appear to belong to the carboniferous period. 
It has hem, conjectured that ooal exists in several parts of contmental 
Greece.' Coal is said to be found north of Constantinopla 

Atia, — ^In Asia coal has long been known in China, where it is said 
to have been worked as early as the 18th oent'ury. Mr. Williams says 
that both bituminous coal and anthracite are seen in the coal marts 
of the north of Chintu Coal is likewise found in the countries imme- 
diately around the Persian Qulf, but of a very indifferent description. 
In most parts of Cutch, ooal occurs in abundsAoe and of good quality ; 
it Ignites quicUy, and bums to a white ashl Coals are also found in 
Bundelcund. There are huge mines in the district of BurAwan, 180 
miles from Calcutta, and worked to the extent of 14,000 or 15,000 
tons annually. They are situated on the banks of a river connected 
with the Hoogly, and were first worked about thirty-five years ago, 
but they have not been in extensive operation more than twenty-five 
years; the principal seam is about 9 feet thick, and is about 90 feet 
from the surfiice. Coal has likewise been got fram a mine opened 
near Bhaugulpoor, on the Ganges, about 800 miles from Buxdwan. 
Another ooal-field has been discovered on the banks of the Hoogly, 
near Merzipoor, about forty miles from Calcutta ; the coal is found 
close to tile surface, and the thickness of the principal seam is 
said to be 2 feet. Coal of good quality likewise occurs in the Birman 
Empirci 

America, — ^Plofessor Ansted says, " It is only within a few years 
that the coal-measures of the continents of America have been in an v 
way knowD, and we are even now in ignorance of many details with 
regard to the greater number ; but enough is ascertain^ to convince 
any unprejudiced person that the supply of mineral fuel there obtun- 
able is amply sufficient for the requirements of the whole civilised 
world for thousands of years, even should the demand increase 
rapidly and the consumption continue to bear reference to the multi- 
plication of all kinds of industrial occupation. There are in North 
America four principal coal areas, compared with which the richest 
deposits of otner coimtries are comparatively insignificant These 
are the great central Coal-Fields of the AUeghanies ; the Coal-Field of 
Illinois and the basin of the Ohio ; that of the basin of the Missouri ; 
and those of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Cape Breton. Besides 
these there are many smaller coal areas which in other coimtries 
might well take rank as of vast national importance, and which even 
ioNorth America will one day contribute greatly to the riches of 
various states. We will endeavour to give a brief outline of the 
main fsuits concerning the chief of these districts. 

** The Alleghany or Appalachian Coal-Field measures 750 miles in 
length, with a mean breadth of 85 miles, and traverses eight of the 
principal states in the American Union. Its whole area is estimated 
at not less than 65|000 square miles, or upwards of 40,000,000 of acres. 
The area is thus distributed — 



Name of States. Area in Acrea. 

Alabama .... 2,250,000 

Georgia 100,000 

Tennessee 2,750,000 

Kentucli^ 5,750,000 

Virginia 13,500,000 

Ma^land 850,000 

Ohio 7,500,000 

Pennsylvania 9,500,000 

41,700,000 

" Making a liberal deduction for improductive portions, denuded and 
eroded strata, and the parts of the seams out of reach, we may still 
fahrly calculate that there exists in this district an area of 25,000,000 
acree of productive coal-measures. The working has already com- 
menced in most of the states above mentioned, though not geneially 



to any very considerable extent. Thus in Alabama, the beds alternate 
with the usual sandstones, shales, and clays, and the coal-seams worked 
seem to be from 4 to 10 feet thick, and are quarried at the surface. 
They repose on grits and appear on the two sides of an anticUnid. 
The coal is bituminous and used for gas. In Kentucky both 
bituminous and cannel coal are worked in seams about 8 or 4 feet 
thick, the cannel being sometimes associated with the bituminous 
ooal as a portion of the same seam ; and there are in addition valuable 
bands of iron-ore. In Western Virginia there are several coal-seams 
of variable thickness, one 9^ feet, two others of 5 feet, and others 
8 or 4 feet On the whole there seems to be at least 40 feet of ooal 
distributed in thirteen seams. In the Ohio district the whole ooal- 
field affords on an average at least 6 feet of coaL The Maryland dis- 
trict is less extensive, but is remarkable as containing the best and 
most useful coal, which is worked now to some extent at Frostbnr^. 
There appears to be about 80 feet of good coal in four seams, besides 
many others of less importance. j_ The quality is intermediate between 
bituminous and anthracitic, anoit is considered well adapted to iron- 
making. Lastly, in Pennsylvania there are generally from two to five 
workable beds, yielding on an average about 10 feet of workable coal, 
and amongst them is one bed traceable for no leas than 450 miles, 
consisting of bituminous coal, its thickness being from 12 to 14 feet 
on the south-eastern border, but gradually diminishing to 5 or 6 feet. 
Besides tiie bituminous coal there are in Pennsylvania the largest 
anthracitic deposits in the States, occupying as much as 250,000 acres 
and divided into three principal districts. The Illjlnois Coal-Field, in 
the plain of the Mississippi, is only second in importance to the vast 
areas already described. There are four principal divisions traceable, 
of which the first or Indiana district contains several seams of bitu- 
minous coal, distributed over an area of nearly 8000 square miles. It 
is of excellent qilality for many purposes; one kind burning with 
much light and very freely, approaching cannel coal in some of its 
properties ; other'kmds consist of caking or splint coaL In addition 
to the Indiana Coal-Field, there appears to be as much as 48,000 
aquare miles of coal tCrotk in the other divisioiu of the Illinois dis- 
trict Although these site leas known and not at present mudi 
worked,' 80,000 square miles are in the Sta.te of Illinois, which sup- 
plies' coal of excellent quality and with great fietcility. The ooal is 
generally bituminous. The third great coal area of the United States 
is that of the Missouri, which is little known at present, although 
oertainly of great importance. From the account given of these 
localities the rteder'will be able to appreciate in soxiie measure the 
mineral resources of the United States, and may perceive also the 
importance of geological knowledge in. recognising the laws of the 
position of a material so valuable. 

" British America oontains very large supplies of cpal in the provinces 
of N6w Brunlnvick and Nova Scotia. The former presents three coal- 
fields, occupying in all no less than 57,000 square iniles ; but the latter 
is far larger; and exhibits several very distinct localities where coal 
abounds. The New Brunswick coal-measures include not only 
ahales and sandstones, as is usual with such deposits, but bands of 
lignite infpregnated with vitreous copper-ore and ooated by green 
carbonate of copper. 'The coal is generally in thin seams lying 
horizontally. It is Chiefiy or entirely bituminous.". 

Nova Scotia contains a great quantity of coaL The great coal-field 
of Pictou has been traced from Carriboo Harbour to Merigomish, 
comprising an area of more than 100 square mUes. The seams of 
coal tesemble much more those of Staffordshire than those in the 
north of England. One bed is described by a practical miner, who 
went to Nova Scotia to superintend the opening of the mines^ as 40 
feet in thickness ; it is not however equally good throughout, and it 
was th#ught advisalde to work only 10 feet of the upper part Ac- 
cording to Bouchette, the seams of this field vary in thickness from 
1 foot to 50 feet The coal is highly bituminous and bums well. 
There is another ooal-field, also of considerable extent, in the north- 
west part of the county of Northumberland, between tiie river Macan 
and the shores of the Chignecti ChaimeL In this district there are 
eight strata of coal, varying from 1 foot to 4 feet in thickness. This 
coal is not considered so good as that of Pictou. There are also indica- 
tions of coal in the township of Londonderry and at Onslow ; on the 
north shore of the Mina's basin ; at the head of Pomket Harbour, in 
the upper district of the county of Sydney ; and on the south shore 
of Wallace Harbour, in the county of Cumberland. (Bouchette.y 

Coals of excellent quality are got in Cape BretoiL The coal- 
measures have been traced in the western part of the island, on 
Inhabitants River, at Port Hoodi and at Mabou. On the east the 
Sydney Coal'^Field is of great extent; it eommenees at Miray Bay and 
runs along the coast to the Great Bras d'Or, being in length about 40 
miles, and averaging 5 miles in breadth. " From a minute calcula- 
tion, after deducting harbours, bays, and all •other interpositions, it 
appears Uiat there are 120 square miles of land,- containing available 
veins of coaL" (Bouchette.) The measures in this district contain 
fourteen beds of coal, varying frt>m 8 to 11 feet in thickness. The 
coal is wrought at Sydney Harbour and at Lingan. 

Coal is found very abundantly in Australia, and is worked exten- 
sively in the Newcastle district, on the Hunter's River. A ooal 
formation likewise occurs in Van Diemen's Land ; and ooal has been 
found and is wrought in several parts of New Zealand, £Sttpp. } 



27 



COAL FORMATION. 



COAL PLAKTa 



FauUi of the Coal Formation. 
The plants found in this deposit are so important that a separate 
article, Coal FhAsn, is deroted to them. The animal remains found 
have only been occasionally alluded to : we acoordingly furnish a list 
of the g^era of animals found in the entire Carboniferous System of 
Great Britain, fus given in Professor Tennant's list of British Fossils. 
Where the species are more than one, the number is given, but where 
there is but one the specific name is added. 



Amorphozoa. 
TragoB, temicirculare . 

ZOOPHTTA. 

AmpUxui . 

AitfiBa aranea 

AitfHBopora aniiqna . 

Anlopora 

Bermieea(f) megattoma 

Caryophyllia . 

C^<Me9radi<mi 

Oladoeora 

OyathophyUwm 

Favotitea capillaris 

FenateUa . 

FUiMra palmata 

Giaueonome 

Chiyoma 

ffemitrypa Hibemica . 

Ichihyorachie Ncwenham 
Jania. 

Lithodendron . 
Lithottrotum 
Michdinia ienutaepta 
Orbieulitea antiquu$ . 
Polypora 
Ptylop&ra phma 
Puttnlopora 
JUitpora undata , 
Stromatopora auhtUis 
Syrmgopora 
TuMnUia expama , 
VinetUaria, 



EOHnrODSBXATA. 

Aetinocrimu . 
Atoerinut MiUeri 
C^atkoerinm . 
JSdkinoermut 
Bw ryocrim ti wneavu$ 
OUberttoerinut . 
Paktekinm 
Pentairemaiitti . 
PkUUpaoerimm earjfocrinoidet 
PlatyervMu 
PoteriocriMu . 
Khodoerinfu 

Symbathocrinut eonicvi . 
TauDocrimu 

AVKXLXDA. 

SaMla tmiiqua 

Serpula 

SetTHtlitet 

SpwrorhU . 

i^roglyphw margintUut 

Ikucta. 
OureuUaidet . • 

Cbubtaoba. 
ApnM dubUu . 
Aaaphut quadraUmhu 
Bairdia . * • . 
Cydutradialu . 
Cypriii^) 
Cyihert 

Cytharina Phimpnana . 
Vapknia primava 
Ditkyroearit . 
BiUotnocanchui Scouleri 
Bwrypterui Seouleri, 
GrijUhidea 

Lm.vim .... 
PhiUiptia . 



2 

2 

8 

2 
2 

20 

4 

2 



8 
8 
4 



4 

2 

2 
4 

10 

9 
5 

4 

6 
8 

16 
6 
2 

4 



5 
2 
4 



2 



2 

4 

17 



8 



5 

8 

11 



CONCmPEBA BlXTABU. 

Amphidetma(Ji) . . . . 4 

Anotma ..... 2 

Area 2 



ArUmisparva 

Aitarte 2 

Axinna 7 

ByMtoarea 5 

Cardinia(1) ... 5 

Cardiomwpha . . 8 

Cardium orbieulare 

Corhia eanedlata . . 

Oorbfda aeniUa 

Orenella aeutiroairia . . . 

OueuUcea .... 8 

Cyprieardia . . . . 11 

Uyprina 2 

Ihlabra 5 

Ihnax primigeniua , 
3im<mdia untformia • . . 
laocardia axiniformia . 
KeUia gregaria . ... 

La/ni^ea 2 

Leptodamua . . . . 2 
Lithodomua dactyloidea . 
Lucina . . . . . 2 
Lutraria .... 8 
Mactraovata . . . . 

Modiola 9 

Mytilua 8 

Nucula 22 

Pandora davata . . . 

Pinna 4 

Pleurorhynehua . . . 10 

PaamnuHna decuaaaia 

PuUaatra 4 

Sanguinolitaa . . . .19 

Sedgwiekia 6 

Solemya primasva . 
SoUnpdagicma . ... 
y^naritpia » . .8 
Venits 4 

Ungidina atUiaua . 

rnfo(?) 8 

CoyCHIPEBA MOVOICTARU. 

Aviada 16 

CkrviUia 4 

Inoceramua . . 7 

Lima . . . . .8 
MeUagrina . . . 6 

MonoHa caqualia » 

Pectm 75 

Poaidonomya .... 9 

Ptmnea 8 

Ptenmita .... 5 

■ 

Bbachiopoda. 

Atrypa 9 

Chondea 12 

Orama vtaicuhaa . . 

Zitptcsna • . .4 

Lingula 5 

Orbicula 4 

Orthia 17 

Prodmdua .46 

Spirifer 59 

TerAratuda • .26 

Oastebopoda. 



AerocuUa .... 


. 4 


Buecimim 


. 8 


drrua .... 


. 5 


Dentaiiitm inomaium 




BUndima .... 


. 2 


Buomphalaa • 


. 17 


FiaanSrdla dongaia 




Olobultia. . . . , 


. 8 


Lacuna aaUiqtM . 




Loxanema . . . . 


. 11 


LittoHnapuaiUa . . . 




MaeraehcUua • • • , 


, B 



Metoptoma . . 5 
Mieroconehua carbonariua 

MurdUaonia . . 8 

Natica • .... 8 

Natieopaia 6 

Neriia 2 

Paidla 5 

Phanerotinua .... 2 

Platyeeraa 8 

Platyadiiama .... 8 

Plmrotomaria . . 41 

Pyramia 2 

Sipkonaria Konindn . . . 
Terebra eondrida . 
T^vchdla priaea . . . 

Tnrbo 5 

Twritdla 8 

Umbrdla kevigata . 

PVnWFODA. 

Oonularia quadrindeaia . . 



Phyaonemna aubterea . . . 

Oyracanthua .... 4 

Oraeanth^a . . 4 

Lapraeanthua .... 2 
^TVittyc^MM orciMlia . . . 
Cladaeanlkua paradoxna 
Oieaeanthua loneaii .... 
Oroduaeindua 

Orthaeanthiu eylindricua . . 

PleuraeaaUhua ... 4 

ffdodua 9 

Chomatodfua .... 8 

a>eU»o<lM« 5 

\Paammodua .... 4 

PcBcilodua 6 

Pleuirod/ua . . .2 

Ctfnoplyc&HM . . 8 

Otenodm .... 4 

P€<a2(K2if« 8 

Cladodua .... 7 

Diplodm 2 



Hbtxbopoda. 
BdUropkon 
Poredlia . 



Ckfbalopoda. 
Adtnoeeraa 

Oyrtoeeraa t^Aereidaiwik 
Ooniatitea 

I^atUUua . . . . 
Orthaceraa 
Phragmoceraa JUxidria 

TaoEB, 
Placoidaa, 
Onehua .... 
Cftena^mihua 
Ptychaeanihua aM<Bvia . 
Sphenaeanthua aemUaiua . 
Aataropiydiiua 



19 
8 



2 

54 
42 
82 



6 
6 






(T^onoMfei. 
Aeantkodea auteatua . 

Pakeomacui • 

iWynofus 

Seiicroiefei. 

JHplapterua • 
Pygoptarua. 
AeroUpia aaUirodria 
Orognathua oonideua . 
GraptoUpia omaiua . 
Pdodua eapUatua 
Ccelaeamikua . . 

Holopygua Bennuvi . 
jBIeronaiMit [odcUtis 



. 3 

. . 6 

. 2 



2 
2 
3 



2 
8 



COAL PLAKTS. That ooal is the result of the minenlisation of 
vegetable remains is abundantly proved, both by tlie numerous 
impresiions of plants found in connection with it^ and by the traces 
of organisation which are still discoverable in it. 

In general the impressions of plants occur chiefly in the shale of 
the coal-measures, that is, in the mud which separates the seams of 
coal, or in the sandstone or ironstone associated with the coal fonna* 
tlon ; and as such impressions are much more distinct than any that 
occur in the ooal itself, it is chiefly from them that our ideas of the 
vegetation from which coal has been produced have been derived. 
They are often present in inconcdvable beauty and abundance, as 
may be imagined from Dr. Buckland's graphic accoimt of those in 
the coal-mines of Bohemiiu In his ' Bridgewater Treatise,' he says : — 
"The finest example I have ever witneraed is that of the coal-mines 
of Bohemia just mentioned. The most elaborate imitations of living 
foliage upon the painted ceilings of Italian palaces bear no comparison 
with the beauteous profusion of extinct vegetable forms with which 
the galleries of these instructive coal mines are overhung. The roof 
is covered as with a canopy of gorgeous tapestry, enriched with 
festoons of most graceful xoliage, flung in wild irregular profusion 
over every portion of its surface. The efi<Bct is heightened by the 
contrast of the coal-black colour of these vegetables with the light 
ground-work of the rock to which thev are attached. The spectator 
feels himself transported, as if by enchantment, into the forests of 
another world; he beholds trees of forms and charaeten now 
unknown upon the surface of the earth, presented to his senses 
almost in the beauty and vigour of their primeval life; their scaly 
stems and b^icUng branches, with their delicate apparatus of foliage, 
are all spread forth before him, little impaired l^ the lapse of 
countless ages, and bearing faithful records of extinct systems of 
vegetation, which began and terminated in times of which these 
rehcs are llie infiUlible historians." 

Such remains consist chiefly of impressions of leaves separated 
from their branches, and of casts of trunks more or less in a broken 
state ; and with them occur now and then pieces of wood or remains 
of trees in which the vegetable texture is to some extent preserved. 
Of the leaves the greater part is more or less mutflated; those of 
ferns, which are extremely numerous, have lost their fructification in 
the majority of ^stances; and it fre(j[uently happois that the 
leaflets of compound leaves have been disarticulated either wholly 
or partially. Stems or trunks are in all cases in a state which must 
be supposed to result from decay previously to their conversion into 
coal ; aestitute of bark, or with the principal part of that envelope 
gone, and often pressed qui te flat, so that all trace of their original 
convexity is deslxoyed. Where ripe fruits are met with, they are not 
in dusters as they probably were when alive, but sepacmted into 



» 



COAL PLANT& 



COAL PLANTa 



30 



Bingle indiylduals. Of flowen there is no trace that can be satiB- 
factorily identified ; for AfUhdUhea PUeaimuB, the most perfect that 
has yet been diBCovered, is altogether of a doubtful nature. 

It will at once be seen that the investigation of plants in such a 
condition is very much more difficult than that which is presented by 
a recent Flora, The nature of the inquiries, and the difficulties 
presented to an investigator of the plants of the coal formation^ have 
been well described by Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, in a paper 'On the 
Vegetation of the Carboniferous Period as compared witn that of the 
Pr^nt Bay/ in the second volume of the 'Memoirs of the 
(j^logical Survey of Great Britain.' His remarks are arranged under 
four heads — ^the nature of the plants, their geographical distribution, 
relation to the boU, and the reciprocal influence of the whole mass of 
the vegetation on the surface it covers : — 

"1. Of the mutual affinities of the groups under which the 
majority of the genera of ooal-plants arrange themselves little more 
can be said but that the ferns occupy thejower end of the series and 
the Con^ferm possibly the highest ; but this depends upon the view 
taken of the affinities of StgiUaruB, the most important group. 
These are classed by some observers amongst Ferns, ny others with 
CcnifircB, another considers them as linking these two widely different 
families, whilst a fourth ranks them much higher than either. The 
affinities of another group, CaltmUtetf are entirely unascertained. 
Of the whole amoimt of species in each no conjecture can be formed, 
or any but a very rough one, of the number mto which those with 
which we are familiar as of common occurrence should be divided 
The Ferns far outnumber probably all the others; but this again 
materially depends on the value according to the markings of 
StgillaruB, as means of dividing that genus; for if the slight 
differences hitherto employed be msisted upon, the number of the 
so-called species may be uzilimitedl^ increased. 

"2. With regard to the geograpmcal distribution of the spedes, ftci., 
it appears that a uniformity once existed in the vegetation through- 
out the extra-tropical countries of the Northern Hemisphere, to 
which there is now no parallel ; and this was so whether we consider 
the coal-plants as representing all the flora of the period, or a part 
only, consisting of some widely-distributed forms that characterised 
certain local conditions. Nor is this uniformity less conspicuous in 
what may be cdled the vertical distribution; the fosnls in the 
lowest coal-beds of one field very frequently pervading all the 
succeeding beds, though so many as thirty may be interposed 
between Uie highest and the lowest 

" 3. Of the relations between the soil and the plants nourished by it» 
little more is recognisable than that the SiffiUaria have been partiou- 
lariy abundant on the under day, which, judging from the absence of 
any other fossils but SiffiUarioB roots {Stigmaria), seems to have been 
either in itself unfriendly to vegetation, or so placed (perhaps from 
being gubmei^ged) as to be incapable of supporting anjr other. The 
latter Is the most probable, because both SigtUaria and their 
Stigmaria roots occur in other soils^ besides under day, and are there 
accompanied by CaUunUei, Ferns, &a The 0(m\fara! again are chiefiy 
found m the sandstones, and their remains being exceedingly rare in 
the clays, shales, or ironstones, it may be oonduded that they never 
were associated with the SigiUarue and other plants which abound 
in the coal-seams, but that they flourished in the neij^bourhood, and 
were at times transported to these localities. The qoanti^ of 
moisture to which these plants were subjected must remam a 
question so long as some authors insist upon the SigiUaria being 
ulied to plants now characteristic of deserts, and others to such as 
are the mhabitants of moist and insular dimatea. The singular 
succulent texture and extraordinary size of both the vascular and 
cellular tissttes of many, possibly indicate a great amount of humidity. 
The question of light and heat involves a yet more important 
question, some of the coal-plants of the arctic regions beinf^ considered 
identical with those of Britain. How these can have existed in that 
latitude under the now prevailing distribution of light and heat has 
not been hiUierto explained ; they are too bulky for comparison with 
any vegetables inhabiting those regions at the present time, and of 
too lax a tissue to admit of a prolonged withdrawal of the stimulus 
of light, or of their being subjected to continued frosts. 

"4. The consequence of the existence of the ooal-plants has been 
the formation of coal; but how this operation was conducted is a 
question yet unsolved. The under-day or soil upon which the coal 
rests, and upon whidi some of the plants grew, seems in general to 
have suffered little change thereby, further wan what was effected by 
the intrusion of a vast number of roots throughout the mass. The 
shales on the other hand are composed of inorganic matter, materially 
altered by the presence of the vegetable matter they contain. The 
iron-clays again present a third modiflcation of this mixture of 
organic and inox^ganic matter, often occurring in the form of nodules. 
These nodules seem to be the result of a peculiar action of vegetable 
matter upon water, chaiged with soil and a salt of iron ; the iron- 
stone nodules of existing peat-bogs appearing altogetiier analogous 
to those of the carboniferous period, whether in form or in chemical 
constituents. Here then tne botanist recognises in one ooal- 
seam a vegetable detritus under three distinct phases, and which 
has been acted upon in each by very different causes. Li the under- 
day there are roots only ; these permeate its mass as those of the 



water-lily and other aquatic plants do the silt at the bottom of still 
waters. 

" The coal is the detritus dther of those plants whose roots are 
preserved in the under-day, or of those togeuier wiUi others which 
may have grown amongst tiiem or at a distance, and have been after- 
wards tliiftiBd to the same position. Above the cod is the third soil, 
bearing evidence of the action of a vigorous vegetation ; this is the 
shde, which has all the appearance of a quiet deposit from water 
chaiged with mineral matters, and into which broken pieces of plants 
have fUlen. Here there is so clear a divisional line between the coal 
and shale that it is still a disputed point whether the plants oon- 
tained in the latter actually grew upon the former, or were drifted to 
that podtion in the fluid whidi depodted the mineral matter. Amongst 
the sndes are also interspersed in many cases innumerable stumps of 
SigUlaria, similar to those whose roots occur in the underdav, and 
which are themsdves found attached to those roots in soils similar to 
the underdays, but unconnected with anv seam of ooal These 
stumps are almost universally ereot^ are uniformly scattered over the 
seamsy and otherwise appear to have deddedhr grown on the surfkoe 
of the ood ; the shales likewise seem depodted between these stomps. 
The rarity of SigiUaria roots (l^igmaria) in this podtion is probably 
due to their bong incorporated with the ood itself, though they 
sometimes occur above that minerd and between the layers of shde. 
The seams of ironstone (or black band) are the last modifications of 
soil by vegetable matter to which allusion has been mada When 
these are uniform beds or layers, they may be supposed to be the 
depodt fh>m water diaiged with iron and soil widen has percolated 
through the peat» and in so doiiig absorbed a great ded of vegetable 
matter. The layers of nodular ironstone are simple modifications of 
these, and may be caused by the sedimentary partides contained in 
the fluid, whidi instead of being deposited in a unifonn stratum, are 
aggrmted round bits of vegetable matter (as fern leaves, stems, or 
cones) which served as nudei 

"Nowy though each of these points admits of some explanation 
when taken separately, and some illustration firom the action of an 
existing veptation on the soil, ftc., it is very difficult to und^vtand 
their oombmed operation over so enormous a Bur&oe — ^for instance, 
as one of the American ood-fidds — and even more to account for 
their regular recurrence according to some flxed law in eveiy succes- 
dve coal-seam throughout the whole carboniferous formation." 

Cod-plants may be divided for practicd purposes into three classes : 
1, those of which only wood still containing organic structure has 
been found ; 2, those which have an obvious andogy with recent 
plants ; 8, those with which no existing andogy has been traced. 

1. Coal-Planii of which Wood only amtaining Opganio Structure 

hat been jownd. 

The exlstenoe of wood in the cod foraAtion with its texture still 
preserved, is a discovery of very modem date. Mr. Nicol, of Edin- 
burgh, oldms the credit of having first invented the art of preparing 
fosm wood so as to show its structure microscopicdly ; Mr. Witham 
has investijgated the subject extendvely, and he nas beoi foUowed by 
Messrs. Lindley, Hutton, and others. The result of these inquiries 
has been, that wood still preserving its texture exists in a minerd 
state extendvely t^iroughout the ood-mines of the north of England ; 
that it in most cases has a structure andogous to, dthough not 
identical with, that of recent coniferous wood ; and that in those 
oases in which its structure is not coniferous it is unlike that of any 
existing trees. 

Coniferous wood is known amongst other things bv the presence of 
small discs upon the ddes of its woody tubes ; differences in the 
arrangements of these discs have given rise to the formation of the 
genera Pence and Pinitet, to one or other of which dl the ooniferous 
cod-wood seems refeirible. Mr. Niool believes that it may all be 
referred to dther the existing genera Ptn/iu or Araucaria, Specimens 
of this kind of wood occur sometimes of condderable sise. A trunk 
of PvnUet Bramdlingi has been found 72 feet long^ and another of 
Pinitee WUhami 36 feet long. 

The wood to which Mr. Witham's genus Anahaihra apparently 
bdongs Is known by its longitudind section 'representing tubes 
marked by parallel transverse lines resembling the steps of a ladder. 
This iB Yery uncommon, and is stated by Messrs. Lindley and Hutton 
to belong to the genus Stigmaria, mentioned hereafter. 

Specimens in ironstone dso have occurred of the wood of the 
genus Lepidodendron. It consists principally of loose odltdar tissue, 
having near the centre a zone of spird vessels, connected with the 
bases of the leaves by arcs of spird vessels, and having rudiments of 
wood on the outdde of the zone. 

2. Ooal-Pkmte which have an obviout Analogy with Heeent Plante» 

Coniferous plants have but few .remains, except wood, by 
which they can be recognised. A cone of PinMe onlAroctna has been 
met with, and there is reason to believe that certain stems called 
Bothrodendron, having numerous minute dots upon their surfitce, and 
deep circular oblique concavities 4 or 5 inches across, at intervals of 
10 or 11 inches, are also remains of trees of this description. It is 
probable moreover that some of the fosdls referred to the genua 



n COAL PLANTS; 

£giHloilen(fnMi in reall; eooiferoui planta, eipeciaU; £. leng\fativm ; 
but upon tbw point □□thing certki^ la known. 

It wkB at one tims lupposed that the ramuna of palms had bean 
found : the eridence, however, upon wbioh thia nippoaition reabi ia 
coutidered by JL Brongniart and Dr. Hooker aa insufficient. The only 
portiooa of planta auppoaed to be palmi that have been fonnd, ai« the 
nmaint of fniila. Theae remaina are generally oblong; S-aided or 
6«idid bodies, not mors than an incb long. They haxe been named 
Trigonoearpitai NSigtrathi. 



Lycopodiaceona plants, or what are oonaidersd anslogoni to tham, 
form a vary largs proportion of ths vsgetable remEtlns or tbe nortli of 
England coal-field. They are repreaanted by impresaiona clonly 
coTcrsd either with loiengo-ahaped apacei diapoaed in a apinl manner, 
or by small scalo-like learea, which are sappoaad to have produoed 
those spaces by fslling off. Whan they branch Uu; have often been 
observed to do so in a forked or dichotomous ■wnner. Somstimes 
they are minute, and no larger than existing Lgeofodia, bat they are 
oooamonally found of considcxable size, som* bkTing besn seen whiah, 
.- -^5o7^- 



althpngh n 



« fragmenlB,w 



a betwean 40 and GO U 



than 1 feet in diameter. An idea of tlieir 



dwi of tlieir aopeaiani 



. iriU ' 



Sttnierjii. 



be gained 



ZtpUatlnlia TsriaHlit. 



Ifplititniean Sltmitrfii. 

Asaodated with Uiem aro narrow sbarp'pointed loves reasmUti 
scalea, which no doubt belonged to them, but which are distingoiahi 
by Uie name of ZepidojAyliun, In the same formations ar« found 
cones of differeat aima, conajating of small sharp-pointed lax ncalea, in 
the aiila of which were aeeds : theae have been supposed to be the 
fhictiScation of Lipidodaidnm ; but as there is no actual oertaintj of 
the but, the; bear the name of LepidoMlrnbi. The aliove figure repre- 
sents Lepidalnbiu rariniilu. [LEFIDOSTnOBm.] 

Ltpidadaidra are usually quoted as an instance of andant i^edea 
belonging to the budb genua aa modem plants of very hnmble ttatdre 
{tor existing tii/copodia, although they acquire sometime* Hie laigth 
or liei^t of three or four fert, gjv always more like monaea than Iteea), 
having artivod at gigantic dimenBions in the remote ages when coal 
was depoaltad. Thia is ths opinion of M. Adolphe Brongniart and 
Dr. Joseph Hooker, who liave bath studied this subject carefully. 
Dr. Lindley haa however expressed the opinion that the Ltpidodeadra 
are allied to the Canifera. He arguea, iu ths first pUce, that there is 
no certainty whatever that the moat gigantic Lepiiodtndra were not 
flr-treea,aiui!ogoua to.JroiKorio; a conjecture which ia rendered the 
more probable by Mr. Nicol's discovery that some of the apedmena of 
fosul coniferous wood are nearly identical with the wood of that 
genua. Now, the Norfolk Taland Pine, which ia a speciea of Arau- 
Corio, ia one of the latgeat of knovra trees. In the second place, it ia 
asserted that Lepidodendron Harcouriii ia not a Lyeopodiaceous plant 
at all, but an extinct genua, intermediate in organisation betvreea 
Omiftra and Ljfeopodiaeir, connecting Oymnoepermn and Acrogens 
more directly ud satLsfactoiily than any known plant Dr. Lindlej 



COAL PI-AKTS. tt 

admita that with regard to the small spedsa of Lepidodtndron, it is 
more probable that th^ belonged to the genus Lycopadutm; but 
there U nothiog remarkable in their stature. 

Pema are the most abundant of all planta In the ahale of the ooa], 
almoat every yard of it being more or leas marked by their impresnons, 
and veiy oflen containing them in great multitudes. It naa beaa 
estimated that of the vegetable remains belonging to tlte Coal Flora, 
one-half at least of the apeciea are feme. They ore inmost oases deiti- 
tute of fnicUGcaUon, ao that tllfly oanuot be arranged acoording to 
the system in uae for recent apeciea ; and conaequent^ M. Ado^^ 
Brongniart, the great writer upon these aubjeota, haa divided them 
into genera characteriaed chiefly by the way la wliich the veins are 
disposed. The number of ferns renden it ooovenient that some anch 
clasdBeation ihould be formed, and M. Bcongniart'H plan boa been 
adopted by all other writers. It ia no part of our object to go into 
auch details iu thia plioe, but it will be useful to many of our reader* 
to know what the diflei«neea are between some of tlie moat ooumon 
of these foaail genera. Such ore the following : — 

Pteaplerii consiata of apedea whoae leavea are once, twic*, at thriee 
pinnated, with the leateta eHber odhsrin^ bv the whole breadth of 
their base, or by the centre only. The midrib runs quite through to 
the point, and the veins ore planted upon it tomswhat perpendiouStfly. 



PtcfltrU ItnMtiee, a Ultle lufBiflnL 
Nrunpltrii haa leavea divided like those of Pttopterit, but the mid' 
rib doe* not reach the apex of the leaflets ; on the oontniy, it divides 
off right and left into veins, ud giaduall; disappeaiA 



Knnflirii f if Htm. 



W COAL PLAHTS. 

OdmtlOfttrii hu Iutoi like ths UM, bat its lekflets kdhwa to tlia 
■Ulk by their whola haae ; then ii no midrib ; Mid the Toini spriDg 
■Mb by dde at diim fram the bMe of the leaflet, puung onvu^ 
ttxnwdi the point. 



COAL PLANTS. 



Spktm^lent htt twice or thrice 

n^miwert >t the bue, and the v 
radiated from the bue; t^ leofleti 
thui uy other figure. 



innatifld laavee ; the leaflet 

la generally amnged >a if they 

r« more frequently wedge-ehaped 



^fimafttrit crtmitltifUiit, magnUed. 
XowsteiiterM baa the learea aereiml tiniBi pinnatiBd, and the laaSela 
more or leea imitod to one another at the baee ; then il k diatinol 
midrib, and the Teiua are reticulaUd. 



Lnuhopitru Bridi. 

Cfdapttrit has the leaveg umple, and either altagether undivided 
or only lobed at the margin ; they are more or lea orbieular, and are 
filled with Tune ndiating hom the baee ; there ia no midrib. 8pMi- 
meaa of thii genus am common in innutone sodulei. 



S e kiat ftt ri* ie like the laat, except that tlia leaf ie deeply divided 
into numeiotu unequal aegmenta, whieh are uraally lobed and taper- 
Under the name of CmJopttri» an oompreheDded all the kinds of 
■teme of bvejema. They are finmd in the form of ehort, round, or 
oQinpreeeod tmncheone, marked eitamally by oblong acara of cooai- 
derable aiie, much wider than the ipacea that eepante them, and 
having their eurfaoo irr«((ukrly interrupted bv projeoting poiote. 
Bach appeaiancea ar» owing to the manner in which the woody parte 
of the iMf when tteah wen connected with (he etem. The fragments 
'' which this name is given no doubt belong to leaves bearing other 



impoaalble I 



_ ... r fonnd united, it . 
I identity them. Remaina of tree-fem itama an of buoI 
that up (a the preaent time not more than two o 
been f ' '" ■' - 



I found in the rich ooal-fielde of Oreat 



three epeoimena have 1 

Dr. Joeeph Hooker obeervee, with re^ud to the apedea of foaeil 
feme, tliat the charaoten on which num^ of them have been 
founded are quite insufficient to prove them distinct. Be ahowi that 
amonget reoent ferna the presence of the fructification is alone suffl- 



of prooedun amongst foasil fema, woold be widely d 






CUoatiM are foeails found in abort, jointed, cylindrical, or com- 
preened f^agmenta, with channele furrowed in tbeirsidee, and loine- 
timea partially ■urrotittded by • bituminou coatdng, the renwina ot » 
oortioal integument. 



They were originally hollow, but the oavity is oiually filled up wiHi 
the eubatanoe into which they thenuelvea are eoBVerted. They wore 
■eparsbia at their articulations, and, when broken acrooa at that part 
■how a number of strin originating in the hirrows of the eide^ and 
tuning inwards towards the centre of the etem, which however tboy 
do not reach. It ie not known whether thia etnictoi* waa oonneoted 
with an impeifaot diaphragm etretched ocroea the hollow of tfaa 
Btem at each joint, or whether it merely repraaante the anda of "W^O^ 
plat^ of *tl>9)^ ttie aojid )>nrt al the stem was oempuaed. ^tOT 



SS COAL PLANTS. 

Bitremities have been duooTBred either to taper endnall; to & point, 
or to end abruptly, the inten&lB becomiog sborter and emaller. The 
Utter ore believed tohavebeeDthert>ot.endBaf thenepUutg, the otbeni 
the eitremity at their branchee. Varioua speculBtiona upon the 
nmture of theiie plants ore to be foimd in H. Adolphe BrongDiort'e 
works, slid in Lindlay Mid Button's ■ FdbsP Flora.' The former 
bobuiiat eoncludea that th^ were plants allied to Equiietiim, only of 
a more gigantic stature. Later botoniffte, on the oontrarj, adduce 
what they consider ample eridenceto show the supposition that Cala- 
mila were analogous to Ej^tiiela to be unfoimded ; and that thay 
more probably irere a race of plants which have now become extinct. 
It is particularly urged that the preeenoa of bark in Ctdamitu, the 
ezisteuce of wbicb H. Adolphe Broagnisrt admits, is quite conEluuTe 
against these plants being related to the EgutMetacea. Dr. Hooker 
also points out the absence of siliceous matter in the Calataita, a sub- 
atacos always found to be present in recent Bquitetaair. 

Stigmaria U one of the moat common Tegetable forma in the cool 
fonnatioii ; not a mine is opened, nor a heap of shale thrown out, but 
there occur fragments of on irregularly-compressed roundish form, 
apparently portions of a stem, marked eilermdly with small oaTities 
in the centee of slight tubendes arranged irregularl}', but somewhat 
in a qoincundal manner. The axis of these fragments is often hollow, 
or different in texture from tbe Burrounding port. From the tubercles 
arias long ribbon-shaped bodies, said to have been traced to the length 
of twenty feet. Although for a long time regarded es an independent 
plant, there is now no longer any doubt that SigmarM is tbe root of 
Sigillmia. In various places specimens of Siffiitaria have been found 
standing upright in nlit, with tbe Siigmaria proceeding from it u 



BtiffButria JUoidu. 

SigUlariit comprehends all those oolumnar ^gantio stems which 
oooor oonunonly in the sandstone of the coal in an erect or ns4riy 
OMOt position, but whioh are prostnte and crushed flat in the oou- 
sbole, and which ore marked by fluUngs with a single row of small 
scan hetmsn them. In diameter they Toiy from S to 3S inches, and 
thn most have sometimes been full tO or 60 test high. 

It U baUered, from the verj comprsHed state of many specimens, 
that these plants must have berai of a aoft nature, and, mim the gene- 
ral absence of soan i^ Isrgesize, that they must have been veiy little 
blanched. 

Of the folisse of StgHiariai little or nothing is known. The scon, 
especially in the larger species, are much too brood to be regarded as 
the point of attschment of learee such aa may be sappoaed to have 
been the case in ZcpidedoKiron. The great maaa of the stems of i%il- 
laria seems to hare been of a soft and succulcot character, but the 
remains of a oentral oolumn of a denser texture are soffldently 
obvious in many of the upright stems. These have been called Endo- 
gmita. "That this slender column," says Dr. Hooker, "roproBented 
all the vascular tissue of this plant, I cannot doubt from examination o ' 
Sluniaria, whoes vascular column often osaumee the same appearance.' 

The affinities of these plants have been variously estimated. Artie, 
Lindlmr, Button, and Corda, have referred them to EupKorhiacea , 
Bchlotheim to Palms ; Vun Hartius to Cactacea ; Sternberg to Ferns , 
Sronguiart to Oycadacae. Dr. Hooker, regarding SHnllana efe^onj as 
their type, places them not for from Lj/aopodiiKKe, and near to Lepi~ 
dodeBdroa, " That it was," he says, " of much completer structure 
Mid higher organisation than either, [i iBCOuteatable ; but the iudica- 



COAL PLANTS. m 

ions of a relationship with any individual group higher in the neriea, 
ir with (^catUa in particular, appear to me for too feeble to justify 
lur considering it as tending to unite these two natural ordeis." It 
s a plant which must be considered as belonging to the great fiuuil; 
if Ferns, diaplaying a relationship, though only of analogy, to C^a- 
dea in one point and to Euphorlnacti* and Oactacca in othen," 



BigiUaria rtniforwtU, 

AdenfhyUitm are reiy common plants, with narrow pointed whoried 
learei^ which vary in fignre and In size, but which, together with the 
■lendmMSS of Uie stem to which they belong, give the plants much 
Uie appeonaoe of the modem genus OMum. Thsy present howera' 
no further afBnity to Bzogsnous Plant* than this anidogy of form. 

SphtnofhsUum, with many of the characters of the last genua, has 
broad wedgMhaped leaves, the Teios of which axa forked. That cii^ 
cunutanoe has led to the notion that it was related to Fem^ aspeciallj 
to the genus Maniiaa. 



Such are the more cotomon of the plants whose remains are traced 
In the coal-meosuras. One of tbe first things vhich strikes us in cast- 
ing the ne on the list is tbe little variety of form apparent in the old 
flom. Instead of the infinite diversity of plants which are contained 
in a modem forest, nothing here preeents itself except fir-treesi, fema, 
and a small numbw of speciea whose nature ia unknown. Kot a ttace 
is found of grasses, or Uie numerous herbs and shrubs that are now 
met with in all regions clothed vrith vegetation ; and of the Tsst class 
of Eiogens not one authentic instance occurs. Feme, loo, would 
seein to have constitnted in themselves one-half of the entire Flora, 
and yet it is only in a few rare cases that they have been met with in 
a state of fructipoation. These circumstances have led to the bast; 
inference that in the beginning nature was in reality but little diverai- 
£ed ; that a few forms of organisation of the lower kind only were all 
that clothed the iace of tbe earth ; and that it was only in aftei-«ges 
that nature assumed her many^oolonred eTer-vaTying robe. And yet 
it has been at the same time admitted that in those early days vegeta- 
tion was more luxuriant and vigorous than at the present hour. It 
ia not a little singular that the true explanation of this drcomstauce 
should not have been hit upon without any direct eiperimsnt having 



87 



COAL PLANTS. 



COAL PLANTS. 



•13 



been instituted for the purpose of demouBtrating how it is really to 
be expkined ; for, coxuddenng that all geologists are of accord in the 
opinion that the plants which formed coal were for a period of some 
duration floating in water, a partial destruction of them might easily 
have been suppiosed to be the result. Professor Lindley has proved 
that plants are capable of enduring suspension in water in very difiEer- 
ent degrees, some resisting a long suspension almost without change, 
others rapidly decomposing and disappearing. One hundred and 
seventy-fleven plants were thrown into a vessel containing fresh water ; 
among them were species belonging to the natural orders of which 
the flora of the coal-measures consists, and also to the common 
orders^ which, from their general dispersion over the globe at the 
present day, it might have been expected should be found there. In 
two years one himdred and twenty-one species had entirely disap- 
peared ; and of the fifty-six which still remained, the most perfect 
specimens were those of Conifarous Plants, Palms, I^copodiaewef and 
tne like ; thus showing in the blearest manner that the meagre cha- 
racter of the Coal Flora may be owing to the different capabilities of 
different plants of resisting destruction in water. The same experi- 
ment accoimts for the want of fructification in fossil fems ; for it 
showed that one of the consequences of long immersion in water is 
a destruction of the fructification of those plimts. 

A much more important fact is the presence of certain tropical 
forms of vegetation, such ea tree-ferns, m the coal; and the quasi- 
tropical character of other species, as Ara/ikeaHaAJika CkmiftrcB, This 
is the more startling when connected with another fact, that the coal- 
measures of Newcastle are of the same age as those of Newfoundland, 
and even of Melville Island, in 75* N. lat. 

From this it has been inferred that the northern parts of the world 
enjoyed in remote ages a dimate where firost and snow, and the incle- 
ment seasons of arctic regions were unknown ; that t2i0y were at least 
as hot as equinoctial countries now are ; and that the inhospitable 
hyperborean plains of Melville Island at one time displayed the noble 
scene of a luxuriant and stately vegetation. Palms, it has been said, 
were there, and they are the especial and princdy denicens of the 
tropics; tree-ferns occur, and they now only exist in the -primeval 
forests of the torrid zone, haunting their deepest recesses, breathing 
a damp and equable atmosphere, and living, like vegetable eremites, 
without even a parasite to fix itself upon their trunks and keep them 
company. Stigmarke, SigiUariat, and even Calamites have been 
enlisted in the cause of tlus theory, notwithstanding that no one can 
say what they may have been. And in confirmation of all this, the 
preponderance of fems has been appealed to as having its parallel 
nowhere except in the hottest and dampest islands of Polynesia. 

In opposition to this view it has been asserted that the presence of 
these tropical forms of vegetation in northern latitudes is no proof of 
what the climate in which they were deposited formerly was, because 
they mav have been drifted to their present situations by currenta 
The^ perfect state of many of the remains offers however great diffi- 
culties in the way of this supposition ; for although they are very 
much broken, yet the angles of most fossil plants are by no means 
water-worn, and in SiffUtariag, &c. are as sharp as they ever were. 
Nor is the state of those tropical stems and firuits, which in modem 
times reach the coasts of Ireland and Norway, at all like that of the 
buried plants of the coal-measures. 

Another difficulty in the way of admitting a high temperature in 
northern regions in former days is suggested by considering the dura* 
tion of the days. Without a diurnal change of light and darlmeas 

Slants cannot exist ; absence of light blanches them, by the aocumu- 
ktion of undecomposed carbonic acid ; absence of darkness destroys 
or dwarfs and deforms them, by the incessant decomposition of tiieir 
carbonic acid. Now, however this may be reconciled with a oountiy 
like England, in which the winter days are of moderate length, it is 
leas reconcilable with the northern parts of North America, and not 
at all with Melville Island, in which there are 94 days when the sun 
is never above the horizon, and 104 days that he never sets. With 
regard to the transportation of the ooal, the absence of indications of 
washing, and the frequent occurrence of upright stems, seem to lead 
to the conclusion that in most instances the plants which formed coal 
have^ grown at the most within a few hundred miles of the places 
where they are now deposited, and probably in their very vicinity. 
From this statement we must at present except the coal of Melville 
Island ; for although the veg^ble impressions in the English coal- 
measures are by no means water-worn, yet those in the British 
Museum from lielville Island are so rubbed and damaged that there 
is no doubt they have travelled long distances before they were 
deposited. 

The opinion that the plants of the coal-measures afford evidence 
that the climate where they grew must have been tropical, has been 
founded upon three classes of fkots, each of whidi requires separate 
examination ; the one, the excessive development of certain forms of 
vegetation ; another, tiie presence of the remains of palms and tree- 
ferns, which are usually considered incapable of existing unless in a 
tropical atmosphere ; the third, the excessive disproportion of fems 
to other plants. 

With regard to thfr first alignment it may be answered, that we 
know too little of the real nature of the SigiUairiaBy Lepidodendr<i, 
CdlamiUs, and other plants, to form a correct opinion. It is almost 



certain that all these plants are in reality destitut-e of living analogies ; 
and therefore as we do not know what they were, we have no means of 
judging what kind of climate they required. Supposing that some of 
the L^ddodendra were closely allied to the modem genus Araucaria, as 
is highly probable, yet that fact does not afford any proof of a tropical 
climate ; for AraucaHa Ihmbeyi now inhabits the cold mountains of 
southern Chili, and is at this day uninjured in the severest of our 
English winten ; while Ckmmngkamia SinentU, and species of OaUUria 
or Dacrydiiunf with which other remains of Zepidodtndra may be 
compared, although not European, are by no means of tropical habits^ 
but are found on the mountains of New Zealand and Van Diemen's 
Land, where they are exposed to a far trom temperate cUmatei 
Moreover, Saliiiyuna cuiiantifolia, which would certainly be oonsidcored 
a tropical form of Oontfera, if found in an extinct state only, is one of 
the hardiest of trees, and a native of the rigorous climate of Japan. 
But even supposing SigiUairia could be found to have been succment 
plants, allied to Cactaceat or EuphorbiaeetE^ as some think, still no real 
evidence of their having required a tropical climate for their develop- 
ment would be afforded by th^m, because there is nothing in the mere 
oiganisation of succulent plants which unfits them for oold dimates; 
A capability of enduring cold is something immaterial and independ- 
ent of oiganisation, about which nothing can be judgedl k priori ; for 
tumipsy cabbages, Jerusalem artichokes, house-leek, and many other 
hardy plants are in parts as succulent as OaeUtcecB, All azgnments 
therefore to prove that the north of Europe was foraierly tropical, 
deduced frt>m the presence of sueh plants as those now mentioned, 
are inadmissible. 

Nor is the argument derived from the presence of palms and tree- 
fems of much greater force. In the first place^ we have seen that 
there is really no grounds for believing that palms existed ; and as for 
tree-ferns, we have them in New Zealand, and especially on tJie south 
side of Van Diemen's Land, where the mean t^pentore probably 
does not exceed 54' Fahrenheit So that, aU things considered, it 
is by no means safe to take the remains of these plants as good evi- 
dence of a tropical climate, or of a climate materially unBke that 
which we now experience. 

The only remaining argument 'to be considered is that derived from 
the great preponderance of fems in the Coal Flora. It is said by 
Adolphe Brongniart, that as it is oidy in damp tropical regions that we 
now find fems equal in the number of their species to all the species 
of other plants, and as this same proportion is found in the Coal 
Flora, that therefore the climate undnr which the Coal Flora was 
produced must have been damp and tropical. But as, by the experi- 
ment already mentioned, it was shown that when a given number of 
plants of entirely different habits are plunged into ihe same vessel of 
water, by far the greater part is decomposed before fems b^;in to 
be affected, it is obvious that no estimate of what the proportion of 
ferns to other plants really was, can now be formed ; and consequently 
this argument also falls to the ground. 

From these facts it appears wen that we may safely adopt the fol- 
lowing conclusions : — 

1. That coal is of vegetable origin. 

2. That at the period of its deposit, the earth was covered with a 
rich vegetation^ of which onlv a small portion has been preserved ; 
and that of thk portion all the species and several of the races are 
totally unknown at the present day. 

8. That the climate may possibly have been something milder than 
it now is, but that there is no evidence in the vegetable kingdom to 
show that it was materiallv di£brent from that of the present day. 

The following is a list of the species of plants that have been found 
in the coal-measures of Great Britain, as given by Plro&ssor Tennant 
in his ' Stratigraphical List of British Fossils.' Very few species indeed 
appear to have been found in other parts of the world that are not 
found in Ghneat Britain : — 



AleOyopikerit OitUi, Oopp. 
A. heterophylUtf Gopp. 
A. Lindieyana, PresL 
A. hmchitidit, Stemb. 
A, ManteUi, Oopp. 
A. nervotci, Gopp. 
A. Sawverii, Gopp^ 
A, Sara, Gopp. 
A, Serlii, Gopp. 
A, urophylla, Gopp. 
A. vuiffoUcTf Stemb. 
Anabathra pvlcherrimOf Lindley. 
Annularia fertUis, Stemb. 
A, longifolia, Brong. 
AnthUUhei onomoZiw, Morris. 
A, Pitcaimia, Lindley. 
Aphlebia adniueent, PresL 
Artitia apprtKcinuUtt, Brong. 
A. ditiang, Brong. 
A. transvertaf PresL 
Atpidiairia Anglicct, PresL 
A, eov^ueng, I^-esL 
A, erittaiki, PresL 



A, qmdrainguUuriM, PimL 
A. «Mic{ii2ato, PresL 
Atteropkyllitet eomoMif, Lindley. 
A, foliotut, lindley. 
A. ffoUoidei, Lindiey. 
A. Jvlbatutf Lindley. 

A. rigidtttj Lindley. 
Beehara ehara^ormig, Stemb. 

B. fframdU, Stemb. 

Bomia egwifee^fbrmis^ Stemb. 
Bruckmannia grandiMi Lindley. 
B. tonffifolia, Stemb.. 
B, rigtdOf Stemb. 
B. tmuifoUa, Stemb. 

B. tnbercuUUa, Stemb. 
Caiamtteg approximaiHi, Brong. 

C. eamneeformit, Schlot 
C. OUtii, Brong. 

C, decortUvt, Brong. 
C. dubiut, Brong. 
C, inaquaUa, Brong. 
O. JAndUyi, B^Mnxh. 
O.nodotui Schlot. 



COAL PLANTa 



COOALT OtlEa 



C. paehjfdenna, Brong. 

O. romotnc, Brong. 

C. Sleinkaweri, Brong. 

C. Swkowii, Brong: 

O, %mdulaiug, Brong. 

C. variani, Stembw 

a ^ertieillalmg, LincDey. 

Oardioeorpon ac^Oumf Brong. 

CarpoUiMes alaiuiflJikdlBy, 

C. kdkteroidat Monia. 

O, margmtUMg, Artia. 

C, gamioidaf Morrio. 

CoMlopteriB PkiUiptii, Lindley. 

C, primavet, Lindley. 

CkimdriteM Ptatmei, Morria. 

CjfetopUru dUaUtUif Lindlej. 

q/oMtoa, Brong. 

O. Mala, Lindley. 

C Mtqua, Brong. 

C orbicMkHg, Brong. 

C, reniformi§f Brong. 

Ojfperitet hicarmata, Lindley. 

Favutaria tmaeOata, Lindley. 

F, nodo$a, Lindley. 

FlahMaria horamfoUa, Sternb. 

Hatonia ditHeka, Morris. 

J7. gracUu, Lindley. 

H. reguUui$, Lindley. 

J7. (orCttMO^ Lindley. 

J7. M«roM2ots, Lindley. 

l^pidodendron Bueklandi, Brong. 

Z. eUgant, Brong. 

L, Hareowrtiif Lindley 

L. longifoUum, Brong. 

L, obopoium, Stemb. 

L, phtmairinmf Lindley. 

L. Mdaginoideif Sternb. 

Z. Serlii, PresL 

L, Stemhergiif Brong. 

I^epidopkuUiMm imtermedwrn, 

L, kmceoMUfMi. 

L, trinerve, Lindley. 

Ztpidottroinu eomotut, Lindley. 

L. omaitu, Lindley. 

L, pinagteTf Lindley. 

Jt, vatriabiliif Lindley. 

Ljfeopoditei eordattu, Stemb. 

L. pkUffmarwidei, Sternb. 

Mtffophyton AUani, Preal. 

M, approximatum, Lindley 

M, dktan$f Lindley. 

MyriophyUUe$ graeHU^ Artia. 

NewropUru luwminala, Brong. 

N. aeSuiifoUa, Brong. 

N. amgitt^foUoy Brong. 

N, aUenmaia, Lindley. 

N, eordaia, Brong. 

N, fiexwMo, Sternbb 

N, gigaaUeOy Sternb. 

N. AeUrophyUOf Brong. 

y, LoAU, Brong. 

N, maerophfUa, Brong. 

N, roiwtdifoUa, Broog. 

N. SoretH, Brong. 

N, tmuifolia, Sternb. 

Nofffferathiajlabdktia, Lindley. 

OdontopterU BriUmniea, PreaL 

0. LindUj^na, Stemb. 

0, oUusa, Brong. 

0. Sehhtheimn,Brfmg. 

PeeopierU aUrevtatof Brong. 

P. adiamioidea, Lindley. 

P, arboreteent, Brong. 

P, Buddandi, Brong. 

P. dentata, Brong. 

P. heterophffUa, Lindley. 

P. laeiniSata, Lindley. 

P, MUUnU, Brong. 



P, murieaia, Brong. 

P. cbliqua, Brong. 

P, or&iutridUf Brong. 

P. p l m m o § a , Brong. 

P, pieroidea, Brong. 

P. repamda, Lindley. 

P. vittota, Brong. 

Pemee WUhami, Lindley. 

Pimiim ambiffmu, WHham. 

P. amtkraeina, Lindley. 

P, BramdUmgi, Lindley. 

P, earhonaeet, Witham. 

P, medullarii, Lindley. 

P. WUkami, Lindley. 

Pi nmU a i na eapiUacea, Lindley 

Pitya amUqua, Witham. 

P. priKUBvaf WithanL 

Poaeite» coeoina, Lindley 

JSjUkIm dteeeeo, PreaL 

RJurcata^FTeBl 

Soffmaria tuuUaia, PreaL 

& ctxiaia, Brong. 

8, ophimra, Brong. 

Seloff mUta patent, Brong. 

SigiJUitria aUeman§, Lindley. 

8. eatemdata, Lindley. 

8. eowtraela, Brong. 

& dongatOf Brong. 

8, JU^moaa, Lindley. 

8 Kwtrrii, Brong. 

5. leioderma, Brong. 
8 lavigata, Brong. 

.5. Mwtchiiom, Lindley. 
»8, notaia, Brong. 

8. ocuUUa, Lindley. 

8 (frnatmn, Brong. 

8 rentformu, Brong. 

8 8tmlUi, Brong. 

Sphftnoph^um deiUaium, Brong. 

8 emarginatwm, Brong. 

8 eratiim, Lindley. 

8 8ehlotheimii, Brong. 

Sphmopient aeuttfolia, Brongp 

8 adianloidei, Lindley. 

8 affimg, Lindley. 

8 artemiicrfoUet, Stemb. 

iSL bifida, Lindky. 

8. camdata, Lindley. 

8, OoMoagi, Lindley. 

8 era$mt, Lindley. 

8 erenaia, Lindley. 

8 cuneolaia, Lindley. 

8 dUaiata, Lindley. 

8 eUgam, Brong. 

8 €SBedi€tt Lindley. 

8. gnteilia, Brong. 

8. HibbertU, Lindley. 

8 UaifoUa, Brong. 

8 linearit, Stemb. 

8 maeilenta, Lindley. 

6. mulUi;flda, Lindley. 
8. obopoia, Lindley. 

8, polyphyUa, Lindley. 
8. tmdla, Brong. 
19. trifcUata, Brong. 
StigmaHaficoides, Brong. 
Trigonocairpvm Dmoeaii, Lindley. 
T. NoeggerathH, Brong. 
T. cblarifgwn, Lindley. 
T. oUvcrfonne, Lindley. 
T, owUum, Lindley. 
Ulodtndnm AUani, BudcL 
U. Cimf^earii, BuokL 
U, Lueatii, BuckL 
U* nu^us, Lindley. 
U. minut, Lindley. 
Walehia pinifvrmit, Sehlot. 



More recent inTeatigationa haye enlaiged thia liat: at the aame 
time it ahonld be romembered, that there ia oonaideirable donbt aa to 
whether iH theae forma ahould be regained aa apeciea. The following 
table drawn up by ICr. Pattiaon in hia Siaptera on FqaaU ^tany will 
giye an idea of the oompaiatiye abundance and diyendty of the planta 
of the Coal period in Great Britain aa compared with that of any other 
geological period ■— 



Formation. 


Plaati foQBd Fonil. 


0(U6i'a. 


SpMin* 


Tertlarj 

Chalk 

Oraenaaad 

WeaUoi 

OoUta * . . . 

IJm , . 


n 

t 

7 

8 

84 

7 

8 

88 

1 


ISO 

4 

f 

11 

88 

10 

8 

S79 

1 


New Bed-SudstoM 

Coal-Mbajobxi 


148 


6S9 



COASSUa [CnyiDA] 

COBiBA'CEiE, a amall natoral order of PIaata» aeparatad by D. 
Don firom Poiemomiaceee, It haa a leafy 6-cleft'eqnal «lyx; an 
inliarior eampannlate regular 6'lobed oorollay imbricate in natiyation ; 
6 unequal atamena riaing-from the baae of the corc^ with 8-celled 
oompreaaed anthera ; auperior. 8-celled oyary, aurrounded by a fleahy 
annular hjpogynoua diac; the oyulea aeyeral, aacending; aimple 
atyle; trifid atlgma; the fruit capsular, S^Mlled, S-yalvi^ with a 
aeptiddal dehiaoence; the placenta yenr laige^ S-coroerad in the 
azia, ita anglea toudiing the line of dehiacence of the pericarpium ; 
the aeeda llat» winged, imbricated in a double row, their intagument 
mudlaginoua, fleahy albumen, and a atraight embryo ; the cotyledona 
foliaceoua; the radicle inferior. The apeciea are climUng ahrabe, 
with altemate pinnated leayea, the common petiole bemg ccnyerted 
into a tendriL G. Don obaervea that thiaorder la readily diatinsuiahed 
from BigmomaettB $nd PedaimecB by the flowers bcrag ragnlar and 
pentandroua, and in the preaence of albumen in the aeeda ; and from 
Polemamaetm by habit and ita winged aeedai Lindlaj placea the 
genua Oobaa, which ia the only one of the order, in Pdemomiaeea, 
and aaya, " The diflfarenoea of miportanoe be t w e en the one and the 
other appear to oonaiat in the former haying an unuaualhr laige lobed 
diaq, a aepticidal dehiacence^ and climbing habit; diatinctiona, I 
fear, of too little moment to be admitted aa of ordinal yalue." 

Than aro two apeciea of Oobaa, C. aeamdmu and C, hdea : the 
former haa large eampannlate flowers, with a short tube of a dark 
dirty purple colour ; the latter haa yellowiah flowera, about half the 
aiae of thoae of O, aeemdem. The O, ieandem ia a great fkyourite in 
our gardena, and ia a rapid-growing and abundant-flowerfaig climber. 
It will grow in the open air in summer, and ahould ho trained 
againat a aouth wall, or against a honae^ when it flowers pofriaely. 
It ia adapted for conaeryatoriea and graenhouaea. It may be propa- 
gated by aeeda or cuttinga. 

a>on, DidUaawdeomi Plamti; Lindley, NaNnl SgHeaL) 

COBALT 0RB3. Cobalt ia not found m the natiye atate^ and its 
orea, though not numeroua, require a more minute examination than 
they haye hitherto receiyed. We ahaU notice those which are beat 
known. 

Brigfa WkUeOobaUw TFU^ Cbftoft occurs aystalline and maaaiye; 
the primary form is a cube, the planes of which are usually attiated ; 
colour ailyer-white; atreak grayiah-black ; luatre metallic; hardneaa 
6*6, yielding with difficulty to the knife, and not yery frangible; 
apeeifto gravity 6*8 to 6*6 ; fracture nneyen ; deayage parallel to the 
fiioea of the cube ; before the blowpipe on charcoal giyea araenical 
fumea, and tin^ borax of a deep blue. 

It ia found m fine ciyatala at Tunaberg in Sweden, in Norway, 
Sileaia, and ComwalL 

It ia met with alao amorphoua, aihoraacent^ botryoidal, and 
atalactitic. The foUowiog ia the analyaia of the cryatala from Tuna- 
berg by Klaproth and Stromeyer : — 

Cobalt 44 86-7 

Araenic 55 49*0 

Sulphnr 00*6 6*6 

6*6 



09*6 



97*8 



Tm-WkUeOoiaUiiirffard TfAito Cb6aU oecuim maasiye anderystal* 
lised in cubes snd octahedrons; colour tin-white^ but sometimes 
externally tarnished; fracture fine-grained and uneyen; lustra 
metallic; it yields with difficulty to the knife, and is hard and 
brittle; specific grayity yariously stated, from 6*74 to 7*7; yields 
arsenical vapour whan heated with the blowpipe, and tinges borax 
deep blue. 

The maasiyB is amorphous, arborescent^ botnrotdal, fte. The 
amorphous occun in Cornwall, and the orystsllissd at ^cuttamd in 
Norway. Analyais of the crystals by Stromeyer : — 

Cobalt .... . . 88*10 

Araenio 48*46 

Iron . . 8*SS 

Sulphur • 90*00 

99-^9 



41 COBALTINE. 

Oray Cohalt occunt mHMive Hnd ctystallued ; primiuy (orm it Ciibo ; 
colour gimyiili tin-whila; atreak gTByimh-bUck ; luKtre mfli&llio; hard- 
nenB 5'5 ; apacifio gnrity 6'46S \ fnotura nneven ; cleaTOgs indUtiact. 

The miuiVfl ocoun amorphoiu uid T«tiouUt«d. It in found prin- 
cipollj kt.EtatuiMbais in Sazonj, and ia xatA in the muiufuture of 

EaTt\y Cobalt oooon munTS, amorphotu, botryoidal, pnlTsmlent, 
Jtc; oolouTyellairuh-browiisiidbluuh-bliok; spBoificgravitf 2to2'4 ; 
the fnotore of the nundTa ii earthT and dull, but polithed bj 
friction, ud jrields to the knife readily ; wbait heated on charcoal 
RiTfls on anemokl odour, and a deep blue colour with borax: itia 
found in Heaae, Saxony, Bohemia, and also in Cheahire and Cornwall 
StilphurtI of Cobalt oocura yeliowlih-vhite and ateal-graj; streak 
gnj ; it ii amorphoiu or boUyoidal, and externally brilliant ; fraoture 
uneren. Aocordinf; to Buinger it coniiata of — 

Cobalt lS-3 

Copper ll'l 

Iron 8'SS 

StUphnr S8-fiO 

Earthy Blatter -SS ' 

Arieaialt of Ci^idU—CiAaU filooM— Aoi CMoU— ooonn flbraui, 
maaaiTe, and cryHtoUiMd ; primary form an oblique rikombio priam ; 
colour TOriona ihodes of red paning into crimaon; sometimee 
grayish ; tranaluoeot, traniparent ; it is soft, light, md flexible ; 
apeciflo gravity a'e48 ; the manive variety amorphtnu, botrjoidal 
etnioture fibroua, imdiating; before tiie blowpipe emita oraenical 
odoura, and tinges beroz blue ; It oooun In Saxony, Bohemia, Soot- 
land, and Commll, ka. 
Analyrii by BnoholB : — 

AiMnioAdd ST-4 

Oiida of Cobalt SB-3 

Water 23-9 

100 

BuipKaU of OiAab—Sai 7Un«l~lM at a pale rose-red oolonr, ssd 
oocuTB inreeting other minerala, in amall maaaes and in atalaotitea 
the marainn are aenu-baniparent and crystalline; it ia aolnbls ii 
water ; tranalnoant ; loatra vitreoDS, often dull exteraallj : it DOOnn 
among the mining heaps nnr ECaoan and in Balibatt;. 

COBALTINE, u Arsenical Ore of Cobalt containing sulphur. I. 
' la of a lilver-white oolonr InoUniag to red. It ia alao called white 
oobolt [CouLT Oan.] 

COBI'TIS, a genua of nahes belonging to the Abdominal MaUt- 
copltrygU and &mily Oyprimida. This genua includes the Loaohea, 

Uieir haying the head ima]] ; month but alightly cleft, with 
and furniahed with barbnlea on the upper lip ; body elongated, 
oorered with small scales, and invested with a mucous secretion ; 
ventral fina situated for back, doml fin placed above them; gill- 
opaninga small ; bronohiaategouB rays three in number. 

C. lariatula, the Loach, Loche, or Beordie, ia common in most ol 
our running watem It ia about i inchea in length, and of a dirty 
pale-yallow colour, motUed with brown ; its upper lip la famlahed 
with nx borbulee, one of which apringi from eaoh comer of the 
mouth, and the oUisra are situated on the fore part 

Like flahes in graieral whioh have barbuJee, the Loaches feed at 
the bottom of the water. The speoies above deeoribed apawna 
Uarch or early in April, and ia very proliflo. 

O. toiMo ( T.inn }, the Spined Loooh, or Oronndling, la a far li 
common apeoies than the above ; its form ia more compressed ; the 
barbnles are very ahort, and consequently less oonspicuoui 
principal ohaiaoter howsvar oonaiata in its having two apinei. 
before each eye. From this character and some other diffiirenoes of 
minor importance, this fish, and sevenl others having the same 
structure, have betm separated tmm the true loachea^ and now con- 
stitute the genua BoUa at Hr. Oray. 

The Losohes are eitremely reatlen during atormv wnther, when 
they generally rise to the aurftoe of tile water, which from ^'---- 
rastleaanaaa is kept in conatont agitation. 

COB-NUT or HOO-NDT, a name given In the West Indfee t . _ 
fruit ot a apecjea of Omphaiea. {Oufkalmx.} It is alao applied to 
the larger forma of the cultivated Haiel-Kab [FiLBSBT. A. ft S. DiT.] 

COBRA. fNlu.1 

COCA, the dried leaf of SiytkroxylM^ Coca, is one of those stimu- 
lating narcotics which belong to the same doss with tobooco and 
opium, but ia more remarkable than either of them in ite effeota upon 
the human natem. The plant ia found wild in Peru, according to 
Piippig, in the environs of Cuchero, and on the stony summit of the 
Cerro de San Cristobal. It ia cultivated eitensiTaly in the mild but 
very moiat climate of the Andes of Peru, at from 2000 to 
aixne the aea : in colder aituationa it is apt to be killed, and in 
wanner diatiicts tlie leaf loaea its fiavour. 

A detailed aooount of it ia given by Fopplg and Sir WilHom 
Hooker in the ' Companion to the Botanicsl Hagaaina,* whence we 
extract the following mformaticn. It forms a shrub from 1 to B feet 
high, the stem covered with whitish tnbercles, which appear to be 



formed of two curved lineH 8ot fnoe to face. The leaves are oblong, 
acute at each end, 3-ribbed, on short petioles, with a pair of Intra- 
peticlary brown acute atipulea. Flowers in little fasddea ; peduncle* 
iharplv angled; i»lyx 6-elefl; petals oblong, concave, wavy, with a 
jagged plaited membrane arising &om within their base ; stamens 
10; stylea 8 ; fruit a 1-seeded oblong dr«pe. 



Ayttm]>lsH Cbta. 

The sffiwts of this dmg are ladd to be of the most pemlctotu 
nature^ eioeeding even opium in the destruction of msntsl and 
bodily powen, The coca leaf is chawed by the Peruviana, mixed 
with flnely-powdered chalk, and bringa on a state of apathy and 
indiffsrence to all surrounding objects, the dnire for which increaaea 
BO muoh with indulgence in it, that a confirmed Coes-chewer is said 
nevra to have been reclaimed. Fiippig describes such a person In his 
usual graphic manner ; — 

" Useless Ibr every active pursuit In lifb, and ths slave of his 
pononi, even more than the drunkard, he exposes bimaelf to the 
greatest dangers for the sake of grati^ng this propensity. As the 
stimulus of the oooa is moat fully davaloped when the body Is 
sxhanated with toil, or the mind with eonvenatlon, the poor victim 
then hastens to some retreat in a gloomy native wood, and flinging 
himself under a tree, remains atretcbed out them, heedlees of niight 
or of storms, unprotected by covering or by fire, unconscious of ths 
floods of rain and of the tnmsndoas winds which sweep the tbreat ; 
and after yielding himself, for two or three entire days, to the occu- 
pation of chewing coco, retoma home to his abode, with trembling 
£nibs and a pallid ooontenance, the miserable apectacia of uuDataral 
enjoyment. Whoever aoddaitally meets the Coqoero under such 
(ureumstonoes, and by speaking interrupta the e£Fect of this Intoxi- 
cation, ia aura to draw upon himself the hatred of the half-maddened 
creature. The man who is once seised with the paasion for this 
practice, if placed in oircuraatanoaa which favour its indulgence, ia a 
ruined being. Hany inatano« were related to ua in Peru, where 
young people of the best fomiliee, by occasionally visiting the forests, 
have b^nn using the oooa for the sake of passing the time away, 
and, acquiring a relish for it, have, from that period, been lost to 
dvilioation ; as if Belzed by some malevolent inatinct, they refuse to 
return to their homes; and, resisting the entreaties of their friends, 



tunity of escaping when they have been brought bock to ths 

The immodarate addiction of the Peruvians to the use of this 
drug ia Buch that their forests have long since ceased to be able to 
supply their wants ; and the cultivation of the plant baa been carried 
to a vary great extent, not only under the Incaa, but beneath the 
local govammant of the Bpaninrda, nho seem to have been no mor« 
able to resist the temptation of a lam revenue from the monopoly 
of this article than European nations from the conaumptiou ot 
ardent spirits. It ia said that in ths year 1G8S the govamment of 
Potoai derived a autn of not lem than 500,000 dollars from the con- 
sumption of 90,000 to 100,000 boskets of the leaf. The cultivation 
of Coca is therefore an important feature in Peruvian husbandry, 
and, it is added, ao lucrative, that a coca plantation, whose original 
oost and current expanses amounted to 2500 dollars daring the 
first SO months, will, at the end of 1 months more, bring a clear 
Inaame of ITOO doltws. FQppig states that Coca hoa now bscom* 
evil ; that thouHuda of persona would ba 



43 



COCCID-^ 



COCCOLITE. 



4A 



deprived of their meaxu of ezisience if its consumption were put a 
Btop to ; and that the value of it in Peru and Bolivia amounts to 
above two and a half millions of dollars a year. 

Hie exciting principle of tlie Coca has not yet been inquired into. 
It is stated by P5ppig to«be of so veiy volatile a nature that 
leaves only twelve months old become perfectly inert and good for 
nothing. "Large heaps of the freshly-dried leaves, paiticularly 
whileuie warm rays of the snn are upon than, diffuse a very strong 
smell, resembling uiat of hay in which there is a quantity of melilot 
The natives never permit strangers to sleep near them, as they would 
suffer violent headaches in consequence. When kept in small 
portions, and alter a few months, the coca loses its scent and becomes 
weak in proportion. The novice thinks that the grassy smell and 
fresh hue are as perceptible in the old state as wlien new, and this 
is to be expected with the Peruvian, who never uses it without the 
addition of burnt lime. Without this, which always excoriates the 
mouth of a stranger, the natives declare that coca has not its true 
taste, a flavour, by the bye, which can only be detected after a long 
use of it. It then tinges green the carefully-swallowed spittle, and 
yields an infusion of the same colour. Of the latter alone I made 
trial, and found that it had a flat grass-like taste, but I experienced 
the full power of its stimulating principles. When taken in the 
evening it was followed by great restlesBneas, loss of sleep, and gene- 
rally uncomfortable sensations; while, from its exhibition ,in the 
morning, a similar effect, though to a slijght degree, arose, aocompazued 
witii loss of appetite. The Knglish physioian, ih, Ardliibald Smith, 
who has a sugar plantation near Huanuco, once, when unprovided 
with Chinese tea, made a trial of the coca as a substitute for it, but 
experienced such distressing sensations of nervous excitement that 
he never ventured to use it agaixL The Peruvian increases its effects 
by large doses, utter retirement^ and the addition of other stimulating 
substances. The inordinate use of the coca speedily occasions bodily 
disease, and detriment to the moral powers; but still the custom 
may be persevered in for many yean, especially if frequently inter- 
mitted, and a Coquero sometimes attains the age of fiffy, wim com- 
paratively few complaints. But the oftener the orgies are celebrated, 
especially in a warm and moist cUmate, the sooner are their destructive 
effects made evident. For this reason the natives of the cold and 
dry districts of the Andes are more addicted to the consumption of 
coca than those of the dose forests, where, undoubtedly, other 
stimulants do but take its place. Weakness in the digestive organs, 
which, like most incurable complaints, increases continually m a 
greater or less degree, first attacks the unfortunate Coquero. This 
complaint, which is called ' opilaoion,' may be trifling at the beginning; 
but soon attains an alarming heif^t. Then come bmous obstructions, 
attended with all those thousand painful symptoms which are 
so much aggravated by a tropical climate. Jaimdice and derangement 
of the nervous system follow, along with pains in the head, and such 
a prostration of strength that the patient speedily loses all appetite; 
the hue of ihe whites assumes a leaden colour, and a total inability 
to sleep ensues, which aggravates the mental depression of the 
unhappv individual who, spite of all his ills, cannot relinquish the 
use of the herb to which he owes his sufferings, but craves brandy in 
addition. The appetite becomes quite irregular, sometimes failing 
altogether, and sometimes assuming quite a wolfish voracity, espe- 
cially for animal food. Thus do yean of misery drag on, succeeded 
at length by a painful death." 

(Poppig, Bntc in C%ile, Ac, vol u. ; Hooker, Companum to BoL 
Mag, h and ii) 

OOCCIDiB (Leach), GaUinaeda (Lat)-eille), a fSunily of Insects 
placed by Latrcdlle and others at the end of tiie Somopiera. These 
msects apparentiy have but one joint to the tarsi, and this is furnished 
with a smgle claw. The males are destitute of rostrum, and have two 
wings, wmch when closed are laid horizontally on the body : the 
apex of ihe abdomen is furnished with two setn. The females are 
apterous, and provided with a rostrum. The antennas are generally 
filiform or setaceous. 

The insects belonging to this family live upon trees or plants of 
various kinds : they are of small size, and in the larva state nave the 
impearance of oval or round scales, hence they are called Scale Insects. 
They are closely attached to the plant or bark of the tree they 
inhabit, and exhibit no distinct external origans. At certain seasons, 
when about to undergo their transformation, they become fixed to 
the plant, and assume the pupa state within the skin of the larva. 
The pupa of the males has their two anterior legs directed forwards, 
and the remaining four backwards ; whereas in l£e females the whole 
six are directed backwards. When the nudes have assumed the 
winged or imago state they are said to iMue from tile posterior 
extremity of their cocoon. 

In the spring time the body of the female becomes greatly enlarged, 
and approaches more or less to a spherical form. In some the skin 
is smooth, and in others transverse mcidons or vestiges of segments 
are visible. It is in this state that tiie female receives the embraces 
of the male, after which she deposits her eggs, which are extremely 
numerous. In some the eggs are deposited by the insect beneatn 
her own body, after which she dies, and tiie body hardens and forms 
a scale-like covering; which serves toprotect the egga nntU the 
following season, when they hatch. The females of other species 



cover their ^ggs with a white cotton-like substance; which answers 
the same end. 

Upwards of thirty species of the fSunily CoccidcB, or CfaOimaeela, are 
enumerated in Mr. Stephens's ' Catalogue of Britiidi Insects ;' several 
of these however have undoubtedly been introduced with the plants 
they inhabit, and to which th0y are peculiar. 

Many of the exotic Cocci have long been odebrated for the beantif ol 
dyes they yield. The Coccua Cacti of Linmeus may be mentioned as 
an instance. The female of this species is of a dieep brown colonr, 
covered with a white powder, and exhibits transverse mcisions on the 
abdomen. The male is of a deep red colour, and has white wing^ 





Ooeeua OacU, mafnifled. 
a, the male; h, the female. 

This insect, which when property prepared yields the dye called 
cochineal, is a native of Mexico, and feeds upon a partioolar kind of 
Indian fig, which is cultivated for the express purpose of rearing it. 

[COOHINBAI..] 

C. Ilicia, an insect found abundantiy upon a small species of ever- 
green oak (Qucrcua eoeeifera), oonunon in the south of PVanoe and 
many other parts, has been employed to impart a bk>od-ied or 
crimson dye to doth fh)m the earliest ages. ('Introduction to 
Entomology,' by Kirby and Spenoe, voL L p. 819.) 

C PotSnacua is another species which is used in dyeing, and 
imparts a red colour. It is now chiefly employed by the Turks for 
dyeing wool, silk, and hair, and for staining the nails of women's 
fingers. (Kirby and Spenoe, voL i p. 320.) 

But we are not only indebted to tiie Cbccua tribe for the dyes they 
vield ; the substance called Lac is also procured from one of these 
insects (the Coccua Zacctu)^ This species inhabits India, where it is 
found on various trees in great abundance. " When the females of 
this Coccua have fixed themselves to a part of the branch of the 
trees on which they feed {Ficua rdigioaa, and F, Indica, BuUa 
frondoaa, and Bhamnua Ji^uba), a pelluoid and glutinous substance 
b^ni> to exude from tiie margins of the body, and in the and covers 
the whole insect with aioell of this substance, which when huniened 
by exposure to the air becomes lao. So numerous are these insects, 
and so closely crowded together, that they often entirelv cover a 
branch ; and the groups take difoent shaptt, as squsxes, hexagons, 
ftc., according to the space left round the imrnst which first began to 
form its cell. Under these cells the females deposit their eggs, which 
after a certain period are hatched, and the young ones eat their way 
out." (Kirby and Spenoe, voL iv. p. 142.) 

C, adonddfwnt the Mealy Bug, is an insect well known in our hot- 
housea It attacks vines, pineapples, and other plants. It is of a 
reddish colour, and is covered with a white mealy powdery-looking 
substance — Whence its name. 

C. Vitia, the Vine-Scale, is another spedes which does great mischier 
to vines on account of the rapidity with which it is propagated. 

C. Jleaperidum is found on orange-trees. C, Teatmdo, the Turtie- 
Scale, is found on stove-plants exposed to a high^ temperature.^ 

Many ways are recommended of getting rid of these insects. 
Brualung them off with cold or lukewarm water, when plants 
will bear it, is a good plan. Painting with spirits of turpentine, ot 
exposiug them to the fumes of turpentine; or tobacco, or sulphur 
has also been found effectuaL 

COCCINELLA. [TBiMnA.] 

COCCOLITE, a general name fbr grRnular varieties of PfroxnM, 
[Ptbozbnb.] 



43 COCCOLOBA. 

COCCO'LOBA, ft geouB of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Polt/gonacBX. It haa a Gparted oalfi, ereDtoBlly becoming succu- 
lent ; the fiUmenta 6, uuert«il into the bosa of ihe ca1;i, and farming 
a short ring by their unioQ ; tLe iitjl« S ; atigma limple ; the nut 
l-seeded, bony, oovared with the fucculent enlarged calyx; the 
nmbryo in Vbe middle of the albumen. 

C. wifera, Sea-Side Qrape, has cordate ronndiah ahining leavea. 
It is a tree 20 feet in he%ht^ intli fleiuose branchea. The leavea 
are very beautiful, being of a full bright gloisj green colour, i*tth 
the pnncipal nerves of a deep red. As the fruit advances to maturity 
it becomes surrounded by the succulent perianth, which forms an 
obovate reddish purple berry, not unlike a small pear. The nut in 
the inside is roundish, very acute, 3-lobed at the base, and attached 
by the centre. The embryo has foliaceoos cotyledons. The leaves, 
wood, and bark of this plant are powerfully astringent, and a 
decoction of them is evaporated to form the Bubatanoe caJled Jamaica 
Kino, The af!trin|;enc7 depends on the presence of taimin, but there 
is in addition present in the wood a red colouiing-matter which is 
used OS a dye. The wood is sltn valued for oabinet-worfc. The fruit 
is eatable, and is exposed for sale in the West Indian markets, but is 
not valued much. It is a native of the sea-oossta of most of the 
West Indian Islands and the adjoining shares of Araerica. Then 
are several oIlieT species of Ooccoloia natives of the West Indies. 
They are all of tliem eveigreen-tiees. They grow freely in a light 
loamy soil, and ripened cuttings taken oETat the joint and placed under 
ahand-glassiaapot of sand will root (reely. Theyreqi" ' — 



coTsring, ftom Uie Old B«d-8andstons of Gamrie, Cromarty, Caitbneog, 
and the Orkney Islands. (Agsssi&i) 

COCCOTHRAUSTES, ■ geno* of Insessorial Birds bslonging to 
the family Frinqillida. It has the following characters : — Be«k 
conical, very thidc at the base, tapering nraidh to the point ; culmen 
rounded ; the commissure slightly aiehad ; lower mandible nearly 
OS large m the upper, its cutting edges inflected, and shutting within 
those of the □pper. Nostrila banl, lateral, oblique, oval, nearly 
hidden by the ahort feoUien at Qie base of the b«k Wings long, 
ratlier powerful, the second and third quiU-feallierB of nearly equal 
length and rathra longer than the first. Legs with the taim short, 
not eiceediog the length of ibe middle toe, the outer toe longer than 
the middle one ; claws sharp and curved, the hind-toe and claw broad 
and strong. Tul short and more or less forked. 

C. vtUgarit. the Hawanch, Haw Qrosbeak, Orosbeak, of the 
English; Oylflnbraff of the Welsh; Le Giosbec and Finson 
Boyol of the French ; Prog^one, Frocdone; Froeoue, Frisone, 
Friggioue, of the Italians ; Kembeisser, Elrsch EembeisBeT, Kersch- 
fink, Nusbeiseor, of tlie Oermans; App^-Yink of Oia NetherUDdos; 
Loxia (hemthraiutei of Linntsus; FrmgiUa CWcatinniffet of 
Temminck; Cocatthrmuta vulgarit of Briffion. 

It has the rump, head, and cheeks, red-brown; edging round the 
bill, space between tbat and the crye, a line beyond the eye and throat, 
deep black; a lat^ ash-coloured ooUor just below the nape; back 
and greater port of the wings deep brown, but there is an oblique 
white stripe upon the wing, and beyond it a oonsIdeiKble space of a 
light whitikh colour going o7 into chestnut ; secondary quills as if 
out off squars at tlie ends, or, as Edvnuds si^ with justice, like the 
figuiea of some of the ancient battie-axes, glossed with rioh blue, lees 
conspicuous in the female; tell-ttethers whita within, of a blsc^ish- 
brown on the external borba ; lower parte of the bird vinous-red ; Iris 
pale red (according to Temminck); feet and biU gn^ish-brown. 
Length seven indies. 

ifbs female is generally like the male, but with the oolauis much 
less brilliant. 

The young of the year before the moult ore very dififarent from the 
adulta and old birds. Throat yellow ; &ce, cheeks, and summit of 
the head dirty yellowish ; lower ports white or whitosh ; iddee marked 
with small trown streaks, with which all the featheie are terminated. 
As the young bird advances in age some red vinous fbathere appear 
disposed irregularly upon the belly; the upper parts are of a 
toniished brown, spotted with dirty yellowish ; bill whitjsh brown, 
except at the point, where it is deep brown. (Temminck.) 

Mr. Gould ('Birds of Europe') says that In the male the beak and 
feet in winter are of a delicate flesh-brown, the farmer beooming in 



chestnut-brown. The rest of the description does not dffibr much 
from H. Temminck's. 

Varietie& — White, yellovrish, or grayish. Wings and tiJl often 
white. Plumage often vari^ated with white feathers. 

Food, Habits, Reproduction, Ac — Hard seeds and kernels form the 
principal food of the Qrosbeak, but we have seen it feeding on the 
bemce of the hawthorn (whenoe its name), and shot it when eo 
employed; so that it is probable that the soft part of fjruits is not 
disagreeable to it, although Uie bill ia evidently farmed for cracking 
the stony kem^. Willughby states that it broaks the stones of 
cherries, and even of olives, with expedition. The stomach of one 
ivhich he dissected in the month of December was full of the stones 
of holly-bemea. The majority of ornithologists give the Hawfinch 



credit for forming a 

vegetable fibres, witli . 

But, according to Hr. Doubleday, who has thrown much light on ihe 

history of this bird, and discovered it breeding in Epping Forest in 

Hny and June, the nest, which is made in some instances in bushy 

trees at the height of five or eix feet^ and in others near the top of 

firs at an elevation of twenty or thirty feet, is remarkably shallow 



in intensity, spotted and streaked with greenish-gray and brown. 
Mr. Oould states that he has known the bird to breed near Windsor, 
and a few other places ; b^ certainly nowhere so abundantly as on 
the estate of W. Wells, Esq., at Rodieaf, near Penshurst, Kent This 
gentlemaii informed Mr. Oould that he had, with the aid of a small 
teleecope, counted at one time eighteen on his lawn. 

Mr. Selby remarks that in the pairing sesaon it probably utters a 
superior song, aa Montagu says that even in winter, during mild 
weather, he has heard it aing aweetly in low and plaintive notm. 

Distribution. — Plentiful in some districts of France ; permanent 
and not uncommon in Itjdy ; common in Oermany, Sweden, and port 
of BuBsia. In Mr. Selli^B ' niuitrations,' and indeed in meat other 
English works, the Hawfinch is noticed aa an occssioiial visitant. 
Dr. Latham says that " the hawfinch visits us chiefly in winter, but 
one was shot in the summer months near Dortfocd, in Kent." He 
goes on to remark that White records another instsjice at the soma 
season, snd aaya that it hod the kernels of damsons in its stomach, 
" These," continues Dr. Latham, " might possibly have bred here, 
though we have no authority for its ever being the case." This 
authority now exists in the observations of Mr. Doubleday. "The 
hawfinch," nys Mr. Doubleday, " is not mlgraloiy, but remains with 
us during the whole of the year." 'Thia observer sufflcientty 
accounts for the rarity of ite appearance: — "Its >hy and retiring 
habits leading it to choose the moat secluded places in the thickest 
and mora remote parts of woods and forests, and when disturbed it 
Invariably perches on the tallest tree in the neighbourhood." 



Omsbesk {Coteot^auta tatgarii]. 

C. cUcrw, the Qreenflnch or Qreen {grosbeak ; Ghoabeo Yerdier of 
the French ; Loxia Morit and Fringiiia cUoria of authors. 

The male has the upper porta and breast yellowish-green ; the head 
tinged with gray ; the edges of the wings, outer wsbe of primanr 
quills, with the boaal part of the tail-featWa, yellow. Female with 
the upper parts greenisn-brown ; the breast grayiah-brown ; the wings 
and tail marked yellow, as In the mole. Young ainular to the femalt^ 
with foint brown streaks on ihe back. 

This bird is common in all the oountries of Southern Europe, and 
is found geneially in the oultdvated parb of Englajid, Ireland, and 
Scotland. It remains in this country all the veor round, and 
frequents gardens, shrubberies, orchards, small wooiu, and cultivated 
lands. It feeds on gr^n, seeds, and insects. Its notes are haiell 
and inharmonious. The eggs ara white tinged with blue, finm four 
to six in number. 

SLrrell, BrMA Birdt; MaceilUvisy, Mtumai of BriiiA BirtU.) 
'CCULUS, a ^os of IMantA belonging to ihe natural oi4er 
MenitptrvMeta, oonnsting of olimbers, whose leaves are usually more 
or less heortehaped, and the flowers small, and either white or pale 
green, in loose panicles or ncamea ; in most coses they an diosoious, 
and ore always very minute. The distinguishing ohancten of the 
genus ara: — eix > - ■ ■ ■ ...... 






} whorls, a corolla ^ 6 petal% 3 or 



3, 6, ( 



nsnally powerfdl bitter febrifuges. OoeaUm cruptit, ■ twining 
plant found m Sumatra and the Holuooas, with a iubOToIed or wsrted 
stem, is employed by the Hataya for the cure of intermittent 
fevers. Owmg to ita intense bittemees and twining habit it was 
called Ftmit ftOvu by Rumf. Another plant, the ifeniipmnius 



who illaB [t, itMp it in 
M k iliomMliio. 

0. viUottu, > pUut oommon in the hedges of BengiJ, with TftriabU 
downy Ihth uiii aiilluy ■olituy fenule flowen, aucceeded by deep 
purple berriei the dsaof peas, ii ■ Bpesiei of ootuddanbla importuice 
to tag Hindoos. The juice of its npe berriea makes a good durable 
bluish-purple ink, aooording to Roibuigli, who adds gome further 
[lartlculars oonoamiiig its uses: — "A decoction of the &eah roots, 
with a few heads of long pepper, in goata' milk, is adminiaterad for 
rtiaumatlo and old renereal pains; it is rackoned heating, lazative, 
and iudoriflc. The fresh lesTea taste simply berbsfeousj rubbed in 
water they thleksn It Into s greeu jelly, which is sweetmed with 
SURV, and drank, when fraah made, to (fte quantity of half a pint 
twioa a dav, far the oure of heat of urine in gonorrhcea. If Buffered 
to tUnd for a few minutes, Qxa gelatinaos or mucilaginous parts 
•sparate, oontraot, and float in tlie centre, leKving the water clear, 
like Madeira wins, and almost tasteless. Curry is made of the leareii^ 
forpeopla under a ooune of its roots, or jell^ of thelearea." 

T'ha species most important to Europeans is ttut which produces 
ths celsbratad Calumba Boot, Ooccuha palmatM, from wMch a 
valuable bitter is procured. This plant is a native of Hoaambiqae 
and Oibo, abounding in the thick forests that Dover the shores of 
those oountrles, and sztendins inland for IS or 20 miles. The 
AIMcani of Uieea parts call it Kalumb. It has a large fleshy deep 
yellow root, divided into many irregular forks or fangs, which are 
amputated by the collectors, cut into slices, strung on oords, and 
hung to dry in the shade. The stem is oovered with a thick whitish- 
green glandular fur ; the leaves are large, rounded, baart-shaped, and 
deeply divided into &am t! to T shari^point«d lobes. The plant i> 
now cultivated in the island of Mauritius. 



QfdeylHf juAaiUu. 
a, mile flower ; h, widsr side, ihewlBC »1^ j c, ituien ; 4, petal ; (, bractea. 

The name given to this genus is that of a kind of seed importad 
from the East Indies under the name of Coooulus Indious Berries, 
which poneaa a powerful bitter poisonous principle, that, aooording 
to Ooupil, exists principally in the kernel The plaiit is found in the 
forests of Malabar, and when tnnsplanted to tlie Iratanui garden, 
Croatia, grew in a few years so as to extend over a Urge mango-tr^e, 
with a stout woody stem as thick as a man's wrist, oovered with 
deeply cracked, spongy, ash-ooloured bsj^ The leaves were very 
ezaouy eoidate, entire, obtuse, or amai^inate. of a hard texture, 
shining on the upper Bur&oe, uid team 1 to 12 inchea long, by from 
8 to S inches broad. This plant is the ifmitptrmum Coecuhu of 
Linnnus, the Coectibu Mubtrotiu of De Candolle ; but according to 
Heesia. Wight and Amott, it does not properiy belong to the latter 
genus, haviog the stamens combined into a central oolumu and no 
corolla. They call it J namiiia Ooccalia. 

Dr. CbrisloBon reovmmendt "the medical jurist to make himself 



COCHINEAL. w 

well acquainted with the extamal characters of those berries, 
because, beaidea being occasionally used in medicine, they are a 
familiar poison for deatroying flsh, and have also been extensively 
used Iiy brewers as a substitute for hops — an adultention which ia 
prohilHtad in Britain by severe statutes." This fruit is a berried 
drupe, varying in siae from that of a pea to that of a laurel (or bay) 
bern; auba^boae, smaiginate, dark brown, opaque, rough, and 
wrinkled ; the ext<nial integument, or husk, is vecj brittle ; within 
is the seed or kernel, lunulate, oily, with a nauseous and intensely 
bitter taste. The kernel contains about one part in the hundred of 
Picrotoiia, or Heuispermia, as some term it. Upon this principle 
its polBonoua properties depend. It seems to act b^ exhausting the 
irritability of the heart, and if the doss be considerable ita &tal 
effects are very speedily displayed. What renders it a moi« redoubt- 
able sgeut ia Uie circumstance of ite leaving scaroely any trace of ita 
ptqaeitoe on the aoats of the stomach. Ooeeihu IndtctiM is never used 
mtemally in the praddoe of medicine, but an ointment formed of the 
powdered berries ia ver; efBcaoiouB in some cutaneous disesses, such 
as Porrigo CapUii and ,^|reatu Menti. It speedily allays the inflamma- 
tory state ; but ite employment requirea gT«at ears. Creaaote will 
probably supersede it in such oases. 

Oa'wmia is the root of the CocailMipalxfuiiiia, a native of ths foreate 
of the Bsat ooast of Africa, whence it is sent to Ceylon, and thence to 
Europe. It occurs in the form of tnuiTarw sectioos, the bark of 
which ia thick and easily separable ; the woody portion is spongy, of 
a yellow colour, and when old much perforat«d by worms. The 
odour is bintty aromatic, ths taste Utter and alightly acrid. It 
contains much starch, a yellow asotised matter, a y^ow bitter 
principle, IfBoea of a volatile oil, woody fibre, salte (chiefly of lima 
and potassa), oxide of iron, and ailei. The active principle is Calum- 
bina, which may be obtained either by alcohol or ether. As Calumba 
□ontains nothing which can decompose the salte of iron it may be 
given along with them. The powder is a good form : ths infusion 
soon spoils, but is otherwise a very eioellent form ; a tincture or 
extract retains the virtues, and keeps a loi^ time. 

Other roote sie oft«n fraudulently subatitutad for Calumba. Soma 
of these are supplied by America, athen by AMca. The American, 
which is the moat common in England and the north of Europe, is 
the root of the Fraura Waiitra (Idich.), a native of the marshes of 
Carolina. It ma; be distinguished &om the true by ita whiter colour, 
lighter texture, the presence of longitudinal pieces, and the taste 
b^ng at first sweetish, and not nearly so bitter as genuine Calumba. 
Chemical teste further sssist in diacrimiaating them : solutjon of 
proto-sulphate or of permuriata of iron, does not trouble the tincturo 
of tha teal, while it gives the false a dark gi«en colour ; the tinctura 
of ths genuine yieldg with tincture of ^Ils a copious dirty gray 
precmitate, but the false none. The substance of the true is rendered 
blueb; lodina, Uie false brown. In large doses the spurious causes 
vomiting, but the genuine allays that action. 

BliccB of bryony root ara often employed to adulterate Calumba 

C0CCD8. rCooom*.] 

C0CCTZU8. [CoaoLiDJL] 

COCHINEAL u extremely rich in the Snest red oolouring-matter, 
and has been long employed in scarlet dyeing and In tha manufacture 
of carmine. [Cobhiiib, m ABta asd Sc. Div.] 

Cochineal has been aualyaed by Folletier and Caventou, and they 
find that it contains : — 1, a oolouring-matter to which Oiey have 
given the name of carmine, or oarminium ; 3, a peculiar animal 
matter ; S, fatty matter which is soluble in ethar, and consiiting of 
stearine, oleiue, and an odorous acid ; 4, phosphate of lime and of 
potash, chloride of potassium, and carbonate of lime, and potash 
oombinsd with an organic acid. 

Caimininm was obtained by Felletier and Caventou bj digesting 
Cochineal in ether; tieating the reddus repeatedly with boiling 
alcohol, allowing it to cool ; treating the deposit formed with pure 
alcohol, and then adding a volume equal to ite own of pure sulphuric 
ether : a deposit of Corminium is thus formed. 

Tha chief use of Cochineal is the dyeing of scarlet ; tha fine colour 
which it yields is oonvortad to this tint by means of chloride of tin 
usually oolUd Muriate of Tin, and by the clyer Tin Spirita. 

The insect which constitutes Cochineal tbeds chieBy upon tbe 
CbcfUi eoclimtiliftra and O. Bpuniia. [CooCID«.] The female insect 
oiJy is collected. Several varieties are distinguished in commerce, and 
have diBerent d(«reee of value attached to them, dependent chieSy upon 
the different methods employed to kill and dry the insects. When 
dried they rBHembie small grains scarcely so large as a p«ppei'<»m, 
ovala, convex above, plane below, traneveraely furrowed, axtemally 
btackiah-brovra, but as if dusted vrith a white powder, light, friable, 
the internal substance consisting of extremely small gruns, obecurely 
purple, but when roduoed to powder of a rich purple. Inodorous, 
but with a bittersweet acrid taste. They import to wate'r or alcohol 
by digestion an intensely red colour. Tha colouring principle ia 
termed Carmine. Adulterations are effected either by mixing old 
insecte oonoisting of the mere skin or grains artificially prepared with 

Cochineal has hitherto bean employed mostly as a colouring 
material either of tinctures or of other things, the nature of which it 



€9 



COCHLEABIA. 



COCKATRICE. 



50 



ia wished to disguise ; but lately it has been stated to possess diuretic 
and antispasmodic powers, and to be useful in pertussis, or hooping- 
coueh. Its claim to this diaracter requires yet to be established by 
further eyidenoe. 

COCHLEAHIA (from Cochleare^ a spoon, the leaves of the species 
being hollowed out like the bowl of a spoon), a genus of Plants 
belonging to the natural order Crucifera, the sul>order PUurorhuea, 
the ^be Alyuvnem, It has sessile ovate-globose or oblong silicles, 
with ventricose very convex valves, with a prominent dorsal nerve ; 
many seeds, not margined; the calyx equal at the base, spreading; 
the petals entire; the stamens too^less. The species are annual or 
perennial herbs, usually smooth and fleshy, but sometimes pubescent. 
The flowers are mostly white. 

One of the most common species of this genus, as formerly defined, 
28 the common Horse-Radish {O, Armoracia). This species however 
is now referred by some botanists to a new genus, Armoracick, and is 
described by Babington, in his * Manual of British Botany,' as 
A. rusUcmM. The genus Armoracia diflers from Cochlearia in its 
globose pouches or silicles being destitute of a prominent dorsal 
nerve. The Horse-Radish, though described in books on British 
Botany, can scarcely be considered a native of Great Britain, aa the 
wild specimens are evidently escapes from gardens. 

C. officincUis, common Sourvy-^rass, has the radical leaves cordato, 
reniform, stalked ; the stem-leaves sessile, oblong-sinuate, half 
embracing the stem ; the pouch globose or ovate. It is a native of 
Great Britcdn, in muddy places near the seaKK>a8K This plant varies 
much in aize, and two or three varieties have been described. The 
C. GroBfdandica of Smith and Withering appears to be nothing more 
than a diminutive variety of this species. In France the Scurvy- 
Grass is called Cranson Officinal ; in Germany Loffelkraut. When 
fr^sh it has a peculiar smell and a bitter acrid taste, which are quite 
lost by drying. The fresh plant is a stimulant, and possesses the 
antiscorbutic virtues of the whole order. It has however a peculiar 
reputetion in the disease caUed scurvy ; hence ite common name. It 
is sometimes used as a salad. When cultivated the seeds should be 
sown in July, in drills eight inches apart^ and when the plante are up 
they should be thinned to about six inches apart. Those plante 
whftsh are taken out may be placed iir new beds. They will all be fit 
for use in the following spring. 

C. Danica has the leaves all stalked, the radical ones cordate, some- 
what lobed ; the stem-leaves 8-5-lobed, subdeltoid uppermost, mostly 
shortly stalked ; the pouch roundish, elUpticaL It is found in Great 
Britain, in a few places on the sea^<x>ast. It is a more abundant 
native of the sean^aste of the north of Europe, and is a native of 
Kamtehatka. 

C. Anglica, English Scurvy-Grass, has the radical leaves stalked, 
ovate-oblong, entire; the stem-leaves oblong, entire or toothed, 
mostly sessile, the upper ones embracing ^e stem ; the pouch oval, 
oblong veinedL It is a native of muddy sea-shores about the mouths 
of rivers, especially in Great Britain ; but is found in Norway and 
Lapland and other parts of Europe. 

There are several other species of Co^learia described ; they are 
however most of them insignificant plante, inhabitante of nortnem 
climates. For the culture and medioil properties of C. Armoraeia 
see Horss-Radish, in Arts and So. Diy. 

COCHLICELLA. [Helioida] 

COCHLICOPA. [Hblioid^J 

COCHLIODUS, a genus of Placoid Fishes, from the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Armagh and Bristol. (Agassiz.) 

COCHLITOMA. [Hblicida] 

COCHLODESMA. [Ptloridea.] 

COCHLODINA. [Hblioida] 

COCHLODONTA, [HBLicmiB.] 

COCHLOGENA. [Helicidjb.] 

COCHLOHYDRA. [Hblicida] 

COCHLOSPERMUM, a genus of Plante placed by Lmdley in the 
natural order CistacecB, found in Asia, Africa, and Soutii America. 
Botaniste usually place it amongst the Theads (TemgtHimiacete) ; but 
ite parietel plaoentee, acrisomerous flowers, and curved embryo lying 
in the midst of albumen, seem fatal objections to that association. 

C. Go89ypiwn is a large tree with downy shoots. Leaves 5-6 inches 
long, 5-lobed ; ovary beneath on C7lin<hrical downy stalks. Panicle 
terminal Flowers lai^ge, and bright yellow. The trunk yields the 
gum Kuteera, which in the North-Westem Provinces of India is 
substituted for Tragacanth. 

C inaignt growb in Brazil on the plains in the western desert^ part of 
the province of Minas Geraes, and also on the Catui^ges of Minas Novas. 
The leaves are coriaceous, palmate, 5-lobed, the lobes folded together 
coarsely and sharply double serrated, when full grown nearly smooth. 
A decoction of the rooto is employed in internal pains, especially such 
as result from falls or accidente ; it is also said to heed absoesses 
already commenced. C, tinetorivm is used in cases of amenorrhoea, 
and also as a yellow dye. 

(Lindley, Flora Sfedica ; Lindley, VegetaibU Kingdom^ 

COCHLOSTYLA. [Hblicida] 

COCK. [PHASlAiriD2B.1 

COCK OF THE WOOD. rCAPEBOALL] 
COCKATOO. [PsrrtJLOTDAj 

RAY. HI3T. DIY. YOU IL 



COCKATRICE, one of the names by which the Basilisk was known. 
"Many opinions," says Dr. Thomas Browne, in his 'Pseudodoxia 
Epidemica,' "ai'e passant concerning the basilisk, or little king of 
serpents, commonly called the Cockatrice; some affirming, others 
denying, moat doubting, the relations made hereof. .... That 
such an animal there is, if we evade not the testimouy of Scripture 
and human writers, we cannot safely deny." This is very true ; and 
it is equally true that the alleged generation of the Basilisk or Cocka- 
trice, and Uie powers attributed to it in ancient times, were the most 
ridiculous fables. 

Of Basilisks or Cockatrices there were said to be three, if not four 
kinds. One species burned up whatever they approached; — a sort of 
breathing upases, they made a desert wherever tney went, for every- 
thing animal and vegeteble withered before them ; a second were a 
kind of wandering Hedusa's heads, and their look, like Yathek's eye, 
caused an instant horror, which was immediately followed by death * ; 
the touch of a third caused the flesh to fall from the bones of the 
wretohed animal with which they came in contact ; and a fourth, a 
concentration of evil, was said to be produced from the eggs of 
extremely old cocks {Ova centonkia)), hatohed under .toads or ser- 
pente. There are authors who maintain that this parentage did not 
belong exclusively to one kind only, but that it was the origin of the 
whole infernal brood. 

The Greek won> 'RturOdaKoi is often translated in Latin by the word 
Regvlvs. When mention is made of these Basilisks or Cockatrices in 
the Holy Scriptures, nothing appears to occur in the sacred volume 
beyond words expressive of a very poisonous and deleterious serpent, 
intended, in the opinion of many commentetors, to typify sin, misery, 
destruction, God's judgments, and the principle of evil, or Anti-Christ. 
Thus, in Psalm xcL 13, it is written — "Super aspidem et basilisciim 
ambiUabis," which in the old quarto Bible, * imprinted at London by 
Robert Barker, printer to the King's most excellent Majestic, 1615,' 
is translated — " Thou shalt walke upon the lion and aspe ;" and in the 
more modem editions, " Thou shalt tread upon the Hon and adder." 
In the 'Booke of Common Prayer,' by the same printer (Robert 
Barker), 1618, the passage stands, "Thou shalt goe upon tiie lion 
and adder," and so in the more modem editions. Again (Proverbs 
xxiiL 82), speaking of the abuse of the wine-cup, " Monlebit ut colu- 
ber et sicut Regulus venena dififundet," which in the old edition above 
alluded to is rendered, " In the end thereof, it will bite like a serpent 
and hurt like a cockatrice; " and, in the modem version, " At the last 
it biteth like a serpent and stingeth like an adder." So, Isaiah xiv. 29, 
" Ne Iseteris," fta " de radice enim colubri egredietur Regulus," &c., 
in the old quarto, " Rejoyce not (thou whole Palestina) because the 
rod of him that did beate Uiee is broken ; for out of y^ serpente roote 
shal come forth a cockatrice, and the fruit thereof shall be a fiery 
flying serpent:" and lix. 5, speaking of the wicked, "Ova aspidis 
rumpunt et telas aranearum texunt ; qui comederit de ovis ejus morie- 
tur, et quod fructum erit crumpet in Regulum :" in the old quarto, 
** They hatch cockatrice egges, and weave the spiders webbe : he t^at 
eateth of their egges dieth, and that which is trod upon breaketh out 
into a serpent ;" which the commentetor tiius explains, " Whatsoever 
Cometh from tliem is poison and bringeth death. They are profitable 
to no purpose." The present edition reads, " They hateh cockatrice- 
eggs, and weave the spider's-web : he that eateth of their eggs dieth, 
and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper." Also Jeremiah 
viii. 17, " Ecce ego mittam vobis serpentes Regulos," &c., which the 
same old edition renders, '* For behold I will send serpents and cock- 
atrices among you, which will not bee charmed : and they shall sting 
you, saith the Lord ; " which the commentetor explains as follows : 
" Go4 threateneth to send the Babylonians among them, who shall 
utterly destroy them in such sort as by no meanes they shall escape." 
The modem edition scarcely varies from the old quarto, except fti the 
substitution of the word *bite* for 'sting.* 

These Basilisks were called Kings of Serpente, because all other 
dragons and snakoi, behaving like good subjecte, and wisely not wish- 
ing either to be burnt up, or struck dead, or to have their flesh fall 
from their bones, although they were in full feast upon the most 
delicious prey, were supposed, the moment they heani the distant 
hiss of their king, to turn tail in a ' sauve qui pent ' style, leaving the 
sole enjoyment of the banquet to the royal monster. 

Of the ancient profane writers, Aristotle, as might be expected, 
says nothing aboiit the wonders of the Cockatrice ; but Pliny, who 
dearly loved a fable, mentions the Basilisk more than once : thus 
(* Hist Nat' book viii. c. 21, and book xxix. c. 4) he enters at length 
into ite deadly attributes, and records the praises with which magi- 
cians celebrate the efficacy of ite blood, which was considered an 
admirable antidote agaiilst sorceiY (veneficia). Dioscorides, Galen, 
Solinus, JSIian, and others, are eloquent upon Basilisks, as are Avi- 
cenna, Grevinus, Scaliger, and many more. 

Browne (Paeiidodoxia) is of opinion that what " we vulgarly call a 
cockatrice, and wherein (but under a different name) we intend a 
formal identity and adequate conception with the basilisk, is not the 
bas ilisk of the anciente, whereof such wonders are delivered ; for this 

* Lady Anne, in Shakapere's play of Biohard IIL, in answer to Biohard's 
obaervatioa on her eyes, sajb— ' 

" Would they were baailiaka to strike ibee dead I '* 



" COCKATBICE. 

of ours is genenllj deicribed with lege, wingi, ■ serpeDtine and wind- 
ing toil, uid > criat or comb lomeirlut like a oock ; but ths bamliiik 
of slder tim« iru b propar kind of •erpent, Dot &boTe three polniB 
lon^ u KimB accouDt ; uid differeni^ from other aapeuta by 
wiTUiciiig hii head, uid •ome white nuriu or aoroiuuy spots upon 
the cromi, ss all authentio writ«n Iutb delivered." The following is 
Flinr's description ('Hiit. Nat' viiL 21). After stating that the 
Builisk, like the beast Catoblepu, ilsjrs wilJi its nje, he proceeds : — 
"The Cyreiuuc proiince prodacea bim of Uia gnatDesa of not more 
thsn twelve fingers, and remarkable for a while ipot, like a, diadem, 
on hii hssd. He drives away all serpents bv his hissiiig, Dor does he 
im Ml his body like the rest by a multiplied fleiioo, but advances lofty 
and upright (celsus et erectus In medio). He kills the shrubs, not 
only by coated^ but by breathing on them, soorche* up the green 
herb, and iplita the rocks : such power of evil is there in hTtn I( 
was formerly behaved that if killed by a spear from on honelwck, 
the power of the poison conducted Uirougb the weapon killed not 
only the rider, but the hone also." To this Lnoan alladea in these 

" Quid prodsn mlmi buUbetu ciuplde Himl 
Truasotu t velor currlt per tela veDennm, 
Inndllqn* miaau." 
Snch a prodigy waa not likely to b« psnad over in die l^endi of 

the saints. Aooordingly we find that a good man (vir quidnm Justus) 
a fountain in the desert, suddenly beheld " '" " 



related of the abbot 8i^ John, who, by prayor, alew a Basilisk 
that In; hid in the bottom of a deep well, and nduced the monks of 
a monastery built by him to the greatest distress for want of water. 
IiBo IV., by a limiliLr piety, is said to have delivered Rome &om a 
Basilisk whose breath afflicted the inhabitants witlx a terribia pesti- 
lence in his pontificate. 

Jonston enumerates the attribute! of tbe Basilisk in silence, tiU he 
comes to its alleged power of annihilating wiUi the eye, wheu he sagely 
remarks, " Intuitu interimere viz crediderim, quis enim primoa 
vidiuiet ? " — " I would acareely believe that it killi with its look, for 
who flnt could hsve seen it t" The woithy physiciaii was not awam 
that those who went to bant the Basilisk of thia sort, took with 
them a minor which reflected back the deadly glare upon its author, 
and, by a kind of poetical justice, slew the Basilisk iriUl it* own 

It is curious to observe that Browne, who treats moat of the fable* 
about the Basilisk with contempt, ia still unable to leaist the story of 
its killing with the eye. We think we can traoe a little of the sym- 
pathetic theory maintained by Sir Kenelm Digby and othera, in the 
fcllowing passage : " According to the doctrine of the andanta, men 
still affirm that it killeth at a distance, that it poisoneth by the eye, 
and by priority of vision. Now that deleterious it may be at some 
distance, and deetructive without corporal contaction, what uncer- 
tainty soever there be in the eflTect. ther« ia no improbability in the 
relation. For if plsguei or pestilential atoms have been conveyed in 
the air from difTerent regions ; if men at a distance have infected each 
other ; if the shadows of some treea be noiioua ; if torpedoes deliver 
their opium at a diatanoe, and stupify beyond themselves ; we cannot 
reasonably den; that (beaidea our grois and restrained poisons, 
requiring contiguity unto their actions) there may proceed from 
aubtiUer seeds more agile emanations, which contemn tboae lawa, and 
invade at a diatatioe unexpected. That this Tenenation diooteth Aom 
the eye, and Qitt this w^ a *^ii«^ ma; emp(Haan, although thus 
much be not agreed upon by auUion, some uapntmg it unto the 
breajjli, others unto the bite, it is net a thing impoenbls ; for eysa 
receive olliiasive impressions bom their objects, and may have innu- 
ences dcrtruotiva to each other ; for the visible Bpecies of thioga abike 
not our senses immaterially, but streaming in corporal raies, do carry 
with them the qualitiea of the object from whence they flow, anil the 
medium through which they paai. Thus, through a green or red 
glasi, all things wa behold appear of the same colours ; thus, sore 
eyes affect those which are sound, and themselves also by reflexion, 
as will hsppen to an inflamed eye that beholds itself long in a glass : 
thus is fascination made out ; and thus also it ia not impossible what 
is affirmed of thia animal; the visible raies of their ejea carrying 
forth the Bubtillest portion of their poison, which, received by the eye 
of man or beast^ infscteth flnt the brain, and la from thence ooounu- 
nioatvd unto the heart" 

But if the author of the ' Inqniries into Vulgar and Common 
Errors ' here shows something of the lingering lo^ with which moat 
wen regard received prejudices, he makes amends b; declaring war 
against the story of the mode of the Cockatrice's produotioiL " A* 
for the generatioD," lays be, " of the bsMlisk, that it proeeedath from 
a oock'»egg hatched under a toad or serpent, it is a oonceit as mon- 
■troua aa Uie brood itself." Jonston, who aupears to rcfpud with a 
proper horror most of the ne&rious prooeedingi of the Cockatrice, 
treats tiiis part of ths aubjeot quite profeedonolly. " Quomodo," 
rsmonsttates the sage doctor of medicine, " formari a gallo intra 
ovmo poisit cum utero deatituatnr non video." It ia aupposed that 
this idea took its rise {mm an Egyptian tradition conoetning the 
this; "for an opinion it wat of that nation that the ibis feeding upon 



COCKATBICE. 



food BO fnqainatas their oval) oonoeptiDEia, or 
eggs within their bodies, that they sometimea csme forth in serpeutjns 
sh^HB ; and tJierefbre the; alwaiea brake their ^g^ nor would they 
endure the bird to sit upon them." (Bniwoe.) Biuitdsta Porta is of 
opinion tliat if a hen's«gg be placed in a ditch full of serpent*, cor^ 
mption (tabes), arsenic, and other poisona, it will produce an animal 
n<^OQB to the sight and touch ; at the same time he put* On expari- 
mentolist on his guard, l»t in tiying to produce thia atdmaf ha 
might (like EVankonstein) give birth to a croture that would do him 

But what ms to atta^ this terrible and* unapproachable monster t 
There is an old sa;ing that " ever;thing hath its enemy j " and the 
Cockatrice quailed before the weoseL (Pliuy, Solinus, and othera) 
The Basilisk might look daggers, the weasel cared not; — in he went 
to Uis scratch. When it came to biting, the a&ir became more 
•aiona ; but the waasd retired for a moment to eat some rue (which, 
of eoDna^ was the only plant which the Basilisks could not wither, 
and was always growing where they lay), returned to the charge, and 
never left the enemy idl be lay stretched dead before Kini , So that 
when men found out the den of a Basilisk, they had only to torn in a 
weoael, and the thing was done. The monster, too, as if oonsooos of 
the irregular way in wMoh ha entered the worid, was supposed to 
have a great antipathy to a cod ; and well he mi^t ; for aa soon aa 
he heard the cock crow, ha expired. Tiiia we learn from .£lian ; and 
African travellcn, conBei|uentl;, carried with thero the * bird of 
dawning ' aa a specific against Cockatrices. 

The Basilisk was of some ute after death. Thoa wa read that its 
mspended in the Temple of Apollo, and in private houses 



ths sacred pbum. 

The reader will, we apprehend, bj this time have " supped full " of 
absurdities, bnt still we can iiriagme his anxie^ to know what a 
Cookatrioe was like. We therefore subjoin from Aldroraodns, in 
whose work he will find two others made out of skatea (Raia), a 
couple of Sgnreo, one of which he seems to owe to Cardan, and the 
other to Grevinus. In both it will be seen that , 



BntiHtem in *pK(m«ih 4;*i(« li 



AsiiKMW, ite* St^yt, GlCTiol. 



■ COCKCHAFER. 

In thva outs will be seen bh exunple of the ' Bomak Poiton- 
taque Theauk,' irhicli luTe vuiuhed bafot* Um light of fdMKe. 



COCKROACH. The o 



! for the Blaaa trimtalU. 



a.] 

_.._.. . [Cocoa] 

COCOA-PLUH, the fruit of CKrywbafanM leaea. [Chbts 

COCOON. [Bohbicida; Pufa.1 

COCOS, K geauB of Pluita bBlongtoK to ths utuial order ot 
Palms. It ii l£uB defined V Von Hutliu :— Both mala ud famale 
flowen on the aame spadix. Spatbe aiinple ; flowan wnile. Hklee : 
caljx S-leitTsd ; corolU of S petals ; Btamaiia 6 ; a rudiment of a 

KtiL Famolaa ; 8 sepoU and S petals rolled together ; ovuy 
elled ; itigmaa 3, leaBUe j drupe fibrous ; putamen wiOi three 




Coooa-Hol Palm (Omi mteVtra). 

0, lo'ver portion of tbo spfctlu opennl ; ^ bruuhlrtt with fnoida flomrs 

the mils on the upper nd dtopprd off; i, fcmsle flover; ^ itunvn 

porei at the base ; albumen hamogenaous, hoUow ; embryo next one 
of the porea at the bB» ; stems either loft; or middle-oiad, alendar, 
ringed, or cromied bj the basu of the petiolea, with a pale fibroua 
vood ; leave* pimiAted ; the pinnis lanceolate or Hoear ; flowers pali 



jretlow; drupe* broim, green, or orange-oolour, rather di7. The 

" inua oontaina soToral spaciea. 

Cocot nudfera. the common Cocoa-Nut Palm. This plant is found 
I over the tropioai parts of the world, especially in the Tidnity of 



Its principal range is said by Ur. HarsbsU U 
and the 25th parallel of latitude, and in the equinoctial sons to an 
altitude of about S900 feet. Its great importance to man has cnuaed 
be cultivated wherever the climate ia favourable to ita growth ; 
and accordingly it is sometimes found occupying eitensire tracts to 
jxclusion of all other trees : the whole Biazilian coast from tha 
San FraDcisoo to the bar of Mamangui^w, a distance of 280 miles, 
Lth few breaks, thus occupied ; and it was estjmated that in the 
year 1813 no fewer than 10,000,000 trees were growing on the south- 
sat coast of Ceylon. 

The Cocoa-Kut Palm rises like a slender column to t^m 60 to SO 
feet in height ; its stem is of a soft fibrous natun, and is marked on 
the outside by rings produced by the foil of ita lea'tes j two such 
leaves are sud to drop off annually, and oonsequently the age of an 
individual is equal to half the number of the annular acara of it4 
stem. About a dozen or fifteen leaves, each from 12 to 11 feet long, 
a the summit of the stem ; and as theae are not inaptly compared 
to gigantic ostrich-feathers, they give the plant the air of an enormon* 
toft of v^table plume*. A retioulatad substance, resembling coarse 
cloth, envelops the base of each leaf-atslk, but falls off befora the leaf 
is fiill grown. The Sowers proceed from within a large pointed apathe, 
which always opens on the under side. In wet aeasoniT tha tree 
blossoms every five or six weaka, so that there are geaerslij fr«sh 
flowen and ripe nuts on the tree at the same time : Uieie are com- 
monly from five to ' fifteen nut* In a bunch ; and in good soils a tree 
may produce from eight to twelve bunohea, or ftom 80 to 100 nut* 
inuBlly. 

In hot oountriee the uses to which the Coeo(i-Nut Tree ia applicable 
e innumerable The roots are chewed in place of the areca-nut; 
gutters, drums, and the pasta of huts are formed trom the trunk ; the 
youog buds are a delicate vegetable ; shade is furnished by the leaves 
when growing, and after separation from ths tree their large siie and 
hard texture render them mvsluable as thatch for cottages ; they are 
moreover manufactured into baskets, buckets, laotems, articles of 
head-diees, and even books, upon which writing is traced with an iron 
stylus. Their asbea yield potash in abundance ; their midrib forms 
oars i and brushes are formed by bruising the end of a leaf with a 
portion of the midrib adhering to it. 

Tha sap of the tree during the time of blosmming ascends in large 
quantities: it is veiysweet, and Sows &«elj on the stem being punctured, 
in CeyloD it is diuly collected by a clsas of people known as ' toddy- 
drawara,' wh^ get up early to procure it for the use of the inhabitants. 
If allowed to stand, this toddy ferments, and fonna palm-wine, from 
which an ardent spirit called arrack is distilled. By further diatilW 
tion sugar is procured from this spirit, which is called ' ga^^ghsu 
sugar.' This sugar, mixed with lime, forms a powerful cement, which 
lemsts moisture, endurea great solar heat, and will take a fine polish. 
A farinaceous matter contained in the stem is a good substitute for 
sago. The ripe fruit is a wholesome food, and the milk it contains is 



husk, which has three flat sides le 
the top in a blunt point. This peculiar form seems to be a special 
provision for the disBemination of the sgecieB; growing, as it does, Dear 
the shores of seas and rivers, its large seeds drop into the water, and 
their ahape particularly adapts them for sailing; one edge, being down- 
wards, fonns the keel, while the upper snrfaoe, being fiat, is acted upon 
by the wind, and so propelled ^ng on the surface until it reaches 
some coral reef or shore, where, whan stranded, it vegetates and rises 
to be a magnificent palm, affording food and shelter in abundance. 
The shell of the Cocoa-Nut is inclosed in a fibrous husk, which has 
DOW become a considerable article of commerce on account of the 
strength and durability of the fibre. Its preparation is veiy simple, 
consisting of little more than beating the husks to separate the fibre*, 
which are dir and but loosely held together, and afterwards drawing 
them through a coaraa oouib or heckle, by which the refuse is cleaned 
oat ; it is tbra spun into yarzis of different thickness, and is now 
extensively manufactured in Europe into ropee and matting : it is also 
used to stuff mattresses and cushions. In India it is very genenlly 
used as cordage for vessels, and for fishing-nets ; its lightness recom- 
mends it especially for the latter purpose. Ita durability is surprising ; 
perhaps no other vegetablfrfibre will resist so long the action of altei- 
nate dryness and moisture. The hair-like fibre is made also into 
scrubbing-brushes ; and the poorer classes in many places use the 
entire husk for the same purpose. The imports of cocoa-nut yam 
sod rope into England are greatly increasing . in the year 18E1 (as 
Dearly as can be asoertained) 10,661 tons were brought into Liver- 
pool from Ceylon and Bombay. The oil of the Cocoa-Nut is valuable 
as an export : it is used lan^ely in Europe for burning, in the manu- 
facture of torches, and in the composition of pharmaceutical prepan- 
tiona. Mixed with dammar (the resin of Skoria Tobvila), it forms ths 
substance used in India for payiug the seams of boats and ships. 



(0 COFFEA. 

■roniBtic nimuiBted mlsatanoe to ■ nutmeg. If U a BecMtioD foimed 
iu the interior of the leail, and oDTelaping the embryo plant, for 
whoBe anppoit it ia destined whm it fint begjmi to germlDnte; it 
coDititutea the principal part of the ue<], the embryo iUelf being A 
minute body lying in a cavity at one end of the albumen. Unakilfiil 
obserren are often unable to find the embiyo ; but it may readily be 
seen by the following ainiple means r— Take a new aampla of amall 
fine unroasted Mooha cofrea> and throw it into boiling water ; the 
embryo will, after a httle while, be expelled with foroe from the 
albumen in a maiority of cosea. 

The genua Cogta is known among Cinchonaceoua Plants by haring 
a tubulaT corolla, with four or five ipreadiog diviiiona ; itameni 
ariaing from the naked throat of the corolla, and either extending 
beyond it or incloaed withic it ; and a succulent berry containing two 
cells lined with a cartilaginous membrane, of the texture of parch- 
ment, in eaoh of which cella there is a single seed, convex at the 
back and deeply furrowed in front, in conaequence of the albumen 
being rolled inwards. 

Coffia AnJnca ia an evergreen ihrub, with oval shining wavr 
sharp-pointed leaves, white fragrant Gve-cleft clustered corollas with 

Erojecting antheia. and oblong pulpy berries, which are at first of a 
right red, but afterwards become purple. It is stattid by If iebuhr 
to have been brought from Abyssinia to Yemen by the Ar«bs from a 
country similar to their own plains and mountains. By that people 
it has for ages been cultivated in the hilly range of Jabal, in a headthy 
temperate climate, watered by frequent rains, and abounding in wells 
and watfiT-tanks. Here the plants are grown in grounds that are 
Continually irrigated, and in aoU from one to one and a half foot deep. 
Among the plantationB are intenperaed various kinds of trees, whose 
shadebas a beneficial effect upon the coSba-bushee. When in Sower, 
they diffuse a most delicious fragrance, in the midst of which the natives 
fix their habitations. The fruit begins to ripen in February: and 
when the seeds are prepared, they are oonveyed to the city of Beit el 
Faldh, whence part goes to Hocha, and another portion to Hodeida 
and Loheia, whense it finds its way to Djedda and Snes for the 
Turkish and Europesji madeU. 



Ihs •anu 1 /, nnbrfo. 

ttiehoMS of soil in the Weat Indies has been thought to be the cause 
of the inferior quality of coffee grown in that part of the world, and 
to the SBppoaed dryness of Yemen has been ascribed the excellence 
of Hocha coffee. But it has been shown that the Arabs counteract 
the effect of an; dirness in the ur by abundant irrigation ; and that 
moreover it is not m the Tehama or dry parts of the country that it 
is cultivated, but on hill-aides, where the temperature is mudi lower, 
and when it laina daily for four months in the year. 



COLCBICACG£ rt 

The seed of Coffea Jro&ica conaisla of much homy albumen, and a 
peculiar principle or alkaloid, termed CaSeiiMi, which oootaiu more 
nitrogen than anyothsr known vegetable lubalance. Theaeed is osed 
in a raw stitte in medicine, and, when roasted, both as a medieiDe and 
still more extensively as an article of diet. The coSeHilant begins to 
produce frnit when two or two and a half years old ; but the quality 
of the seeds from young stems is not ao good as that from stems four 
or five years old. The aixe and oolonr at the bean (as the inner part 
of the seed ii called) vary oonsidenbly, those from the West Inilifs 
bong larger than thoae tiata tiie East, Huch more depends upon the 
manner of roasting and making the coffee, than upon the qunlity of 
the beau. The supariori^ of French coffee, in the prepustion of 
which little or no Hocha coffee is used, proves this position. Beans 
of a good quality are hard and heavy, sink quickly in water, are of a 
light yellowish-green oolour, not diaooloursd or black, and poee ou a the 
odour of eoffse, which Uiongh faint is peculiar, and are free fttnn any 
damp smelL Beans recently oollected, or only two or three montltt 
from the tree, are not so good as those about a year old ; when older 
than this Ihev become deteriomled. From the analyns of Segnln and 
SnhrOder, coffee oonsista of ooffee-bitter (impure offdne), lolid fat, 
resin, a little aromatio principle, gum, albumen (this albumen, accord- 
ing to Beguin, nnitea with the jcUow coffee-hitter, and fonns t, greeo). 

The taste of rmw imB^ is somewhat sweetie ; but the application 
of heat in the process of roasting prodoces important ohangea. 
The bean increasai to nearly twice the original atae, while it loses 
about one third of its weight : a powerful and agreeable odour is 
evolved, and a laije quantity of empyreumatic oil, which ^pe«rs in 
small drops on the surface, is formed along with a bitter prindpli^ 
probably by an alteration in the caffeine, and of the saodiarlne matter. 
The roaeting should take plaoe in a close revolving iron cylinder, over 
a clear but moderate fire, and should not be earned too &r : when 
the beans have aoqnired a light cheetnut colour, the roastins should 
be diaoontinued. The beans are then to be cooled quicUyby being 
toned up into the air, and the grinding, or rather rough pounding, 
should be performed in a covered mortar or milL The drink ahould 
be prepared from it as soon as possible, by infusion, which is pnftr- 
able, unless some apparatus be employed by which a kind of decoction 
is made in a close vessel Abonthalfanonnoe of ooflee powder should 
be used fbr erety eight ounces (half a pint) of water. Id Britain the 
roasting is generally earned too (ar ; and ika subvqnsnt parts of die 
proceaa, instead of being perfonned immediately, are ofUm postponed 
for days or even WMU, by which the aroma is diaipated : when 
made the liquid is generally deficient in strength and cleamev. Ths 
employment of white of egg or flsh-skin for clarification is decidedly 
objectionable : clearness is thus purchaaed, but at the expense of the 
•trengtb. 

The addition of milk (which should always be hot) and of sugar 
heightens the nourishingqualities of this beverage, and in the morning 
renders it a more subs^tial article for breakfast When taken after 
dinner to promote digestion it should be without milk, and, where the 
palate can be recoodled to it, vrithout sugar. 

There is much uncertainty as to the first introduction of ooflbs 
into the weatem parte of Europe. The Yenetians, who tnded with 
the Levant, were probably the first to use it. We find it mentioned 
in the year 1916 b^ Peter de la Yalle, and thirty yeui afler this some 
gentlemen returmng from Constantinople to Haiseille brought with 
them a supply of tlus luxury, together with the vessels required for 

CoS^ was first introdnoed into England in the year 1653, fourteen 
yean esrlter than the introduction of tea. The first ooSee-faouse was 
opened in Oeoige Yard, Lombard Street, 1^ a Qreek named Paaque, 
who was brought from Turkey by a merchant of ths name of 
Edwards. 

The adulterations of grauDd ooffee are very considersble ; the most 
Important of these is chicory, a dork brown powder made from the 
roasted roots of the CkiBoriiim Inlyiui. It is perfectly haimleaa, and 
by some is thought to be an agreeable additioo to the coffee : it is not 
however of sn much value, and should not therefore be added to the 
coffee hy the dealer, but sold separately, aa that those who dodrato add 
it may purchase it themselves. Tanous other seeds aro used eitfaor 
as imitations or adulterations of coffee, such as Rye-Chick Peas (Ckh- 
aritlinwn). Broom Seeds (Sparlum tcopariitm), the Yellow Water-Iris 
(Irit pMOHtaturui), and the Dandelion root (LtimtodcK taraxacum). 
It has been suggested to use the leaves of the coffee-plant in infusion 
the same as those of the tea-plant, and it is said they form a very 
agreeable beverage ; but the berries are too valuable in themselves to 
permit of the trees being injured by the loss of their leaves, as they 
would be were titers any demand for them as an article of diet. 

For medical uses, trade, and cultivation, see CorFU, in Astb «jm 
ScDiT. 

COIX, a genus of Plants belonging to the natutsl order of Oraosesi 
One of the species, C. Lachryma, has hard stony fruits, which are 
known by the name of Job s Tears. These frmts ore supposed by 
— ^' — '- be strengthening and diuretia 



81 



COLCHICUM. 



COLEOPTERA. 



es 



COLCHICUM, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
MelarUhacece, It has a coloured funnel-shaped perianth, with a very 
long subterranean slender tube, and a somewhat campanulate 6-parted 
limb; 6 stamens inserted into the throat of the tube; a S-celled 
ovary; numerous ovules in 2 or 4 rows; 8 long filiform styles; 
stigmas somewhat clavate ; capsule 8-celled, S-partible, opening 
inwardly; seeds numerous, roundish, with a shrivelled skin. 

O. auttmndU, Meadow Saffron, is a plant with a solid bulb-like 
rootstock, found wild in various parts of Europe, as well as in Great 
Britain, and forming a gay carpet in the autumn in the fields, where 
its lively purple croous-uke flowers spring up. Its under-ground 
stems, or bulbs, as they are called, and its seeds, abound in an acrid 
stimulating deleterious principle, which has been carefully examined 
by modem chemists, and the plant forms an important article in the 
Materia Medica, large quantities of both rootstooks and seeds being 
annually consumed in the manufacture of Eau M^dicinale, and other 
medicinal preparations. The rootstock is irregularly egg-eiiaped, and 
covered with a dry brittle brown skin ; at its base it bears a bud, 
which feeds upon the parent stock, exhausting and finally replacing 
it every year. Its flowers are large, pale purple, and spring up in the 
autumn witiiout leaves, forcing &emselves resdily through the soil, 
and expanding just their orifice, together with the anthers and 
stigmas, above the surfieuM of the soi^ while the tubular part with 
the ovary and filaments, remains enveloped in membranous sheathing 
spathes below the soiL Each stock produces six or eight of these 
flowers. The stamens are six, the ovaries three, each with a long 
thread-shaped style, and not adhering in any degree to the tube of 
the flower. These are succeeded by three little follicles, which 
slightly adhere to one another by their inner edge, and in the spring 
are elevated above Uie soil by their lengthened footstalk. At this 
time, too, the foliage makes its appearance in the form of an erect tuft 
of broad, oblong, shining, sheathing leaves. Each follicle contains 
several oblong seeds. It is found in the moist rich pastures of 
England, and in various other countries of Europe. 

Colchicum is so very like an autumn crocus that an inexperienced 
observer might readily mistake the one for the other. They are 
however to 1^ distinguished by the crocus having only three stamens, 
one style, and an inferior ovary, while the Colchicum has six stamens, 
three styles, and a superior ovary — distinctions of no little importance 
when the poisonous qualities of Colchicum, in which the crocus does 
not at all participate, are considered. 

For medicinal purposes the rootstocks of Colchicum should be col- 
lected at Midsummer, and they should be used immediately ; for at 
that time the peculiar principles which they contain are in the 
greatest state of concentration. If they are employed at a time when 
the plant is in a state of growth, especially when it is coming into 
flower, those principles are partly lost and decomposed by the growth 
of the plant, and there is no certainty as to the quantity of Colchicine 
that a given weight of the rootstocks will yield. 

Other species of Colc^cum are cultivated for the sake of their 
flowers, but they aro of no medicinal importance, and aro very badly 
distinguished from each other by botanists. 

Three difibrent parts of O. autumnale yield an active principle used 
in medicine, but wey respectively contain it in the greatest mtensity 
at different seasons of the year ; the cormus (incorrectly called root 
or solid bulb) having it in perfection about June or July, the flowers 
in September, and the seeds the following spring. The cormus and 
seeds are most frequently employed in Britain ; but should the proper 
period (Midsummer) for collecting the cormi be neglected, the flowers 
may be substituted,' though they can only be put to immediate use, 
as they do not keep well. The cormi are found at various depths 
under ground ; when very deep they aro not so good, being the pro- 
duce of old exhausted plants. Each cormus is about the size of a 
hazel-nut or walnut, ovate or heartwdiaped, consisting of a white 
fleshy succulent substance, which, when cut across, exhibits roundish 
plates. It is somewhat flatter on one side, on which also may be dis- 
covered a groove, in which is lodged the germ of the flowernitem of 
the following year. The recent cormus has a nauseous radish-like 
odour ; when dried, no odour ; the taste is sweetish-bitter, leaving an 
acrid sensation in the throat. 

The seeds, which should be collected in May, are small, globose, 
about the size of a grain of millet, of an obscure fawn-colour, opaque, 
raugh, and wrinkled, with a white hilum at the base, very hard, 
tough, and difficult to reduce to powder. The relative proportions 
of the constituent ingredients of the cormus differ greatly, according 
to the season of the year when it is taken up for examination, as 
Stolze's analyses demonstrate. The active principle of Colchicum 
was long considered to be the same as that of Veratrum, and hence 
called Veratria; but Geiger and Hesse have shown that it is different, 
and have termed it ColcUcine. The seeds contain this principle, and 
likewise some thick oiL Colchicum imparts its active principle 
partially to water, but more so to acetic acid, proof spirit, and wine. 
A sirup is sometimes formed of it^ but it does not keep wdL 

COLE, COLESEED. rBRABSiCA.] 

COLEOTTERA (ico\cdirTcpa), a name first applied by Aristotle 
^' Hist. Anim.' i &c.), and now imiversally adopted, to designate one of 
the orders into which Insects are divided, the species of which order 
are commonly known by the name of Beetles 



Nearly all true Insects, or those Annulose Animals which have six 
legs, exhibit, in a more or less developed state, four wings, or mem- 
bers, which, although they may not enable the animal to fiy, occupy 
the same situation, and are analogous to those which in many insects 
are true oigans of flight. 

These members are modified in various ways to suit the habits of 
the species or of the groups in general ; but in those insects whose 
habits are of a nature not to require the power of flight they are very 
seldom entirely wanting, being found either in a rudimentary state, 
or modified in their structure so as to perform some other office. In 
those instances where the wings are only rudimentary, we cannot 
often assign any positive use for them ; we can only perceive that the 
affinities of the individuals exercise an influence in these respects — 
that is to say, those species which belong to groups where tne indi- 
viduals generally possess perfect wings, wiB often possess these 
members in a rudimentary state^ when from their habits they do 
not require the power of flying. It appeared necessary to make 
these few general remarks before proceeding to give the distin- 
guishing characters of a Coleopterous Insect, in order that tiie 
nature of these characters and the departures from them might be 
understood ; for it ia difficult to give a strict definition of any group 
of animals. 

The insects, then, which constitute the order OoUoptera may be 
characterised as having four wings, of which the two superior are not 
suited to flight> but form a covering and protection to the two inferior, 
and are of a hard and homy or parchment-like nature, and when 
closed, their inner maxgins, which are straight, touch and form a 
longitudinal suture {fig. 16, c); the inferior wings, when not in use, 
are folded transversely under the superior, and are membranous. 
From this character of having the wings in a sheath, the term 
OoU(^tera was applied, it being composed of the two Groek words 
KoAc^f, a sheath, and rrepd, wings. The superior wings, which form 
the sheath, are generally called elytra. 

The principal exceptions to this general rule are as follows : — those 
beetles whicH have no under-wings, or have them in a rudimentary 
state, as in Carabua eancelUztut, and those in which the elytra are 
soldered together at the suture, in which case we believe no under 
wings are ever found. Another species of Carahut {C. violaceiu) and 
many among the ffeteromera afford examples of this exception. There 
are several beetles in which the elytra do not close at the suture, and 
in which the under-wings are not protected by them. Such is the 
case in the genera SUarit, RipipJionu, and others, in which the wing- 
cases, or elytra, are somewhat pointed ; and in the genus MolorchuB, 
among the CerambycidcBf the wing-cases are very short, and the wings 
are not folded beneath them when at rest. In the Staphylinidix l£e 
wing-cases are also very short, but the under-wings, by a series of 
folds, are, when not in use. entirely concealed beneath them; and 
as in this tribe the elytra form a straight suture when closed, the 
only exception consiBts in the greater number of folds in the under- 
wings. *^ 

Numerous other exceptions might be noticed, but we shall merely 
mention the genus Afeloe, where one elytron partly folds over the 
other ; the families Lampyridce and Tdepkoridce, in which the elytra 
are comparatively soft and flexible ; and the glow-worm, the female 
of which beetle has neither elytra nor wings. 

The larvae c^ Coleopterous Insects are generally composed of 
thirteen distinct segments, the head included. They aro almost 
always of an elongate cylindrical or slightly depressed form; the 
body is often soft and fleshy, and of a white colour : in these the head 
is always of a firmer texture, being of a homy nature. The principal 
parts of the mouth are the same, as to number, as in the perfect 
insect^ although the parts aro (as far as our observations go) always 
differently formed. The head is furnished with two antennae, which 
are generally minute, and composed of four joints ; and ocelli, or simple 
eyes, are, on each side, situated near the base of the antenna. The 
body is furnished with six legs, which are attached to the first three 
segments, or those next the head, a pair to each : the legs are small 
and usually terminated by a simple claw. Sometimes, in addition to 
the ordinary legs, the larva is furnished with false legs (often termed 
pro-legs) ; these are fieshy tuberoles which the animal can protrude 
at pleasure, and are used to propel the body. Some larvae have only 
two of these pro-legs, which are attached to the apex of the terminal 
segment of the abdomen, or placed beneath that segment; and in 
the larvae of the species of CtrambycidcB each segment of the body 
is thickened in the middle both above and below : these parts the 
animal has the power of protruding considerably, by which means it 
is enabled to thrust itself forwards or backwards in the holes in 
the trunks or boughs of trees which are formed by its feeding upon 
the wood. 

The larvae of groups (generally believed to be natural) very closely 
resemble each other, though those of different groups are sufficiently 
distinct ; hence a knowledge of the larvae is of great use in determin- 
ing the natural affinities of species when their fSamilies or sections are 
not well ascertained. 

We select as an illustration of the principal characten of a Coleop- 
terous larva, that of one of the LameUicomeSf a group which comprises 
the common Cockchafer, and where the larvae generolly, if notalway^^ 
have their body bent under at the apex. 



COLEOPT£BA. 




Fig. 1, lArnoraColsivWrowluHtti ■.mtonlilia; t,Uti 
d, numdibl* ; •, nuilla. F^. 3, F«P> (Uta oT tb* Hma Ijum 

nitorml lengUi <^ tha pupn. 



WeahaUi 



IT proceed to the pup« « 



le of Coleoptoroiu 



■tate bj remoTing . . 
open oval space : otheifl form 
oomtmcted of paiticlaB of earth, 
joined together by t, kind of web or glutJnouB BubBtanca. Wood- 
feeding lorVEC, or Oioie that live in the tnmkii or bark of tress, for the 
moBt part auimie the pupa state vithout each preparation. 

Some luTS which feed upon phukta inclose thnnselTea in * sphe- 
rical cocoon; others again siupend themaslTes b7 the'tul, and hang 
from Ai leaf or stalk of the plant. In one instance We have known the 
■nimal to aBimme the pupa state within the skin of the larra. The 
pupse of ColeopterouB Insects are what is termed iocomplete, that ia, 
■11 the parte of the perfect insect ore distioctly liaiUe, the legi, 
antonnie, winge^ Ao-f being each inclosed in a separate sheath, iLd 
not as in the pupa or cluTBaUs state of moths and bntterfliea, where 
all the parte are eoldered together, or as in the pnpBS of the Eaniptera 
(bug-tribe), or Orlhopttra (locust-tribe), in which stage the insect is 
ective, aiid in some instances cannot be distinguished from the perfeot 
insect. This character of inoompletenees in the pupa ia therefore 
ona of great importance, and is generall; added to Uie deGnition of a 
Coleopterous Insect, for there are no other insecta which, in tha pupa 
■lata, are incomplete, and which in the imsgo state could be oon- 
founded with the CoUoptira. 

Having traced the beetle through the larva and pupa states, vre 
arrive at the last or imago stato, tha perfeot ioaoot. 

Beetles belong to the Manda>viata, which forms the first of the two 
great sections into which Ineecte are divided : a section, the indivi- 
duals of which are distinguished b7 their pcsseeaing distinct mandi- 
bles; and as the insects of the order Calioptent possess the mandibles 
and all other parte of the mouth so well developed, they have by 
many Iwea placed at the head of the Insect-Tribe. We ims^ine, 
however, that the reasons elated for so doing are not suffloienb 

The anatomy of insecta is given mider the article Ihbecta. We shall 
therefore at preaent con&ne ourselves to Uie external parts of a beetle, 
and to those only which it is esaential to know, in order to understand 
the description of tboaa insects. 

When we look at a beetle, we perceive that it is oompond of three 
distinct parts, the foremost of whioh is the head ; the next is tailed 
the thorax; and the last the abdomen. 

The head is furnished with two e^ea, two antenn«, and tha various 
parte of the mouth, called the trophi. The eyes aie situated on each 
aide of the head, and are generally prominent, and always convex 
manee oomposed of an immense number of leuaes arranged oloeely 
together, so that their interstices form hexsgons. These are techni- 
csJij termed compound eyee, and are of a circular or oval form, 
frequently kidney-shaped, and in some instances (as in the genus 
TelToft among the Ctnanhycida) they are completely divided. 

The antennn in Coleopterous Insects have their origin genenlly 
near the eyes, and are situated for the most port either between them 
or before them. They are generally composed of eleven Jointa ; in 
many however this number cannot be traced, whiiat in soma few there 
appear to be twelve. The form of the antentiES is extremely variable, 
and will be best understood by an inspection of the following illus- 
trations, among which will be found most of tlie more common forma, 
and some of the more extraordinary : — 

Fig. i represents the head (with one antenna atteched) of ona of the 
OurcvlioBida, a large tribe of beetles, in which the antennie are what 
is termed geniculate ; that is, they have the terminal jointa kneed, or 
bent at an angle with the basal joint. In deecribing beetlea of this 
tribe the antenna is generally divided into three parts. The long 
basal joint (a) is called the scapus, the several following joints (6) are 
tonned the funiculus, and the terminal jointa which form the nob 
(c) clavB. Figi. S and 12repreBent antennsa which are tonned capitate, 
or which have the terminal joint or jotnte suddenly enlarged and 
forming a knob. When the knob exhibits distinct articulatioiis {fg. G), 
the Hutenna is tenosd capitate with perfoliate knob ; and whan the 



COLEOPTERA. M 

knob does not exhibit articulations, or is composed of a single joint, 
it is said to be capitate with solid knob. Examplca of the former 
will be foond in the genns JVecrepAonu, and of the Utter in the genu* 
Monotoma. Fig. 9 represents on antenna which becomea gradually 
thicker towards the apex, and which is termed clavate. Fig. 7 is the 
' mn of ona of a moat extraordinary group of beetlea, the Pauttid/r, 
J of which insects have the knob of that member swollen or 
infiat«d. Fig. 8 is an auriculato ant«ima, and is ao called from ita 
having an eaivlike appendage at its base. This description of antenna 
is found in the genera Pamut and Gyrintti. Fig. 6 represente the 
antenna of the common Cockchafer {MttobnMa vtUgarit). This form 
of antenna, whioh is termed lamellate, is fbund thniughout the 
Immense tribe of beetle* called by Linnsius ScartA<nu, and which 
ha* received the luune of Lanellitmitei from this peculiar ohaiacter. 




It must be observed however that slight modiGcations are found. 
Fiff. 10 is a figure of a serrate antenna. Antennai are ao called when 
they hare the apex of the jointe widened, so as to resemble the t«th 
of a saw. Examples may be found in the Eialtrida and Sapratida. 
Pectinate antenna ify. 11) ore those in which the i^x of the joints 
is produced on one aide, and which somewhat resemble the teeth of 
a comb. There are many examples of this structure in the anteniue 
of Iho Lampgrida, A:c, and there are some in whioh the jointe are 
elongated on each aide : these are termed bipectinat& Fig. 13 is 
what is called a fissate antenna (the jointe on one aide divided aa b; 
incisures). This form of antenna is found in the genoi Xvcaau, 
Fig. H repreeenta a very common form of antenna (where it is slender 
and teperine gradually to the apex) ; it is tonned setaceoua, and most 
of the Caraiida and Cerambycida will afford examplee. The antennai 
termed Blifonn somewhat resemble the last, but the jointa are all of 
equal thickneaa throughout. The Lut dettcriptioo of antemuB which 
we shall notice ore those termed monilifcrm. {Fig. IS.) Here all tbs 
joints are ova] or round, and resemble a necklaoe of beads. Examplta 
are found in many of tha apociea of the section lltteronera. 

We now come to the parte which constitute the mouth of a beetle ; 
these, it is scarcely necessary to say, are situated in the fore part of 
tha head : they consist of a labrum, or upper lip j two mandiblee, or 
jaws; two moxillie, or undeHaws ; and a labium, or under hp. These 
are the six principal parts. We shall however also notice the portions 
called the mentum, or chin,'and the clypeus, since the; are frequently 
mentioned in descriptjens. 

The labrum ia a moveable piste, often on the same plane with the 
fore part of the head, which it terminates, and generally covera the 
l»se (at least) of the mandibles above ; hence it is often called the 
upper lip, forming as it does the upper boundary of the mouth. 

This portion, although of various forms, is less liable to variation 
than most of the other parte of the mouth. The moet common fonn 
perhaps is somewhat quadrate, or brooder than long, as in fig. 21, a. 

Upon referring to the article CaRibub, it will be aer n that that 
genus and some other closely-allied genera an sepanted chiefly on 
account of the diffarence in tha form of this member. In one it ia 
described as bilobate ; by this is meant that the labrum is notched in 
the middle, so that the two side-pieces form lobes (Fig. 2S.) When 
the labrum ia not thus notched, but presents on even anterior margin, 
it is described as entire. In one ot the other Beuarm (iVocnisfa), 
where the labrum is desoribed as trilobate, the only di^reooe 
consiste in ite having two notches on the anterior parts, and is thm 
separated as it were into three lobee. 



as COLEOPTERA. 

The olfpeuB ia the part to which Oie Ltbrum ii attached, and which 
ia uiuallv on the lune plane with it The term olypetu will eeldom 
be foaod in descriptiDnii, eioepting in giving the chantctera of tboee 
beetle! which beloDX to the LatatUicarmt, a tribe in which this part 
ia great!; developed (jl^t. IT and 18, d), and where the l^nim ' 
hidden beneath it. 




Under the labnim the mandiblei (mandibalie) are dtuated. Tbcae, 
oa their name implies, are the oisaiw of mandacatioD ; thejT move 
horizontally, and an most comtnonlj of a ebape moie or ]em 
approaching to a trian^ Their form howsTer vaiiee acooidiog to 
the food of the ineeot. 

Generally speaking, in bsetleB which feed upon vegetable sub- 
stancts the Jawb ■» broad, obtuaelr pointed at the apex, and have 
moreover ■ broad flat BUiface at their base (often with Uttls eharp 
ridges), which pomewbat reeemblefl a molar tooth of herUvoroiu 
quadrupeds. IPig- 21.) In thoae epeciea whose habiU are carnivo- 
rous the jaws are longer and less stoat, have the apex acatelypointed, 
and seveial sharp tooth-Iilce processea on their inner side. (I'ig. 20.) 

Next in aucceasion follow the maxillie, or under jaws (^. 17, n, and 
Jig. 22) : theae organs are situated beneath the mandibles, and, like 
them, move honjsontallj. A t^picA] maxilla consists of several parte, 
the priacipal of which are — the hinge (cardo), a piece situated at the 
base of the maxilla (fig. 22, <f) ; the maxillarir palpua (j(jr. 22, a), an 
ortiinilated oi^an generallj composed of four jointe ; Uie outer lobe 
(lobuB superior), which in beetlee of camivoroua habits ia a two-jointed 
process IJlg. 23, b) eituated between the maxillary palpos and the 
inferior lobe (lobua inferior), which last portion oonsUtutes the imier 
part cf the maxilla, and is often formed like the blade of a knife, snd 
fiimiahed generally with a series of bristles or hairs on the inner edge. 
(Fig. 22, c) The maxillm aeem to be used vdtb the labium in direct- 
ing the food during mauducatiaD, and the bristles on the inner edge 
appear to serve as a kind of etrainer through which the juioea are 
pressed, for we cbserve that aeUd inbetancei are seldom ewallowed b; 
insects in their imago state. 

The labium, or under lip (fig. IT, A and g, and figi. 23 and 26), ia 
a moveable organ which serves to close the mouth beneath, and ia 
generall; divided b; a traosverae suture, in wMoh case the lower 
portion oonatitutee the mentum, or chin. The tongue (fig. 23, e), 
which may be considered as ■ portion of the labium, in Coleopterous 
Inaecta, is usually situated at iht apex of that member, or emerging 
from it. The labial palpi (Jig. 23, b, b, ani fig. IT,/) are two articu- 
lated oigana osiially springing Sana the summit of the labium on 

Having noff brieSy noticed the head and its parts, we come to the 
thorax. On this portion it will be unnecessary to dwell : we need 
only mention that the thorax in ineecta is composed of the three first 
aegmenta of the body, which in the larva state are naually distinct ; 
these are termed the prothorax, meeothorai, and motathoiai ; and it 
generally happens that in the perfect insect one of (heee segmenta ia 
greatly developed at the expeoae of the other two, particularly on 
'the upper lurfsoeor the bod;; meh ia the caae in thaBeeUe Tribe, 
RAT. am. Div. VOL. u. 



COLEOPTERA. ee 

where Uie firat portion or prvthorax (fig. 16, a) and the email plate 
(fig. 16, b), which is a part of the meaothorax, are all that ia visible 
ftoia above when the elytra are closed. Some few entomologista, 
therefore, in describing Beetles, call the part (fig. 16, a) the protborax, 
but it is most oommODly called the thorax. The small plate (fig. Ifl, i] 
above referred to ia called the scutellum, and is uaually of a trianguhir 

To the thorax are attached the legs and wings : the anterior pair 
of lege are attached to the prothorax ; to the maiothorai the inter- 
mediate pair of legii and the anterior pair of winge, or elytra, as they 
are termed in the CoUofttra; and to the metathorax the posterior 
pur of legs and the hinder pair of wings. Of the winga enough haa 
for the Dresanb. 

a their habita. Thua in aome 
^ -r ,■ others for Bwimming (fig. 38) ; 
here they are very broad and dat : in others agun their atructure ia 
Boited to burrowing habita 0^, 29) ; and fig. 30 reprasenta the hind 
lag of a beetle, which haa the power of leaping to a great distuioe, 
where the thigh ia vary larger 




A leg may be divided into five principal parta : the coxa, cr hip 
{otfigi, 27 and 26), which is the flrat joint, or Uiat joined to the body, 
where it playa in a aocket ; the next part, or aeoond joint of the 1^, 
ia the trochanter (b, figt. 27, 28, and 29) ; the third is the femur, or 
thigh (n, figt. 2T, 26, and 29} ; the fourth joint is called the tibia, or 
shank (d, figi. 2T, 23, and 29) ; the fifth and last part is the tareus (t, 
figt. 2T, 38, and 39) : this put in a great portion>of the Coleopteroua 
Inaecta ii compoaed of five jainta ; in many a leaser number is found, 
but in ncme do they exceed five : the last joint of the tareus is uaually 
tenoinated by two hooked claws called unguiculi (g, fig. 27), and the 

rt of tike tjbia ia fumiahed generally with two atnight apinea called 
cricaria(/,/in.2Tand2S}. 
Aa regards the clsssification of the CoUopttra, aa well as of inaecta 
in general, in almost every work which treats of the subject, a new 
meUiod ia proposed. We shall content ouraeives however with 
noticing two — that which is moet oommonly adopted on the conti- 
nent, and that which ia followed by moat entomologiets of our own 
country : the former ia the method proposed by I^treille, and tha 
Utter by Btepheni. 

In the classifiostion of the CeUofttra, published by JCr. Stepbena 
fn his ' Syatematic Catalogue of Britdah Inaecta,' the varioua aectiona 
and Bubtections are aa follows : — 



BeeLl. Adtphagii. 
" ■ " ■ 1. Ottdephaga, 

2. Bydradtphaga. 

8. Philhi/iirida. 

t. Hcrrophaga. 
Sect 2. ChOagnaUtotaorpha. 
Sab-Seot. 1. Clanctima. 

2. ZoffieUKomca. 

8. Plenum. 

4. Mcdacodtrva. 



Order, OaUopUra. 



BtipiiiUhomorplui. 
' 1. SMiHitopkara. 
2. Longieonta. 



Sub-Sect. I 

2. Oy'dica. 

8. ZWfwri 
Sect S. f cteranem. 
Sect fl. Brachdtlra. 



Saotion 1. Ptntatntra, inolndlng all those Beetlaa which have five 

joints to their taraL 
Section 2. Eiteromera, Beetles with five joinla to the tarai of the 

two anterior pairs of 1(^ and four to thooa 

of the posterior pair. 
Section \ T^Tomera, Beetlea with only four diatinct jointa to all 

the taraL 
Section 4. IMmeri, Beetlea with only tliree distinct jcnnts to Uis 



opuuon b 

the value of certain groups. The TWowH, aocordiog to Latreille, fa 
of the four gr«at aectiona, whilst Hr. Stephen* makea tha 



LatndSe'a At 



it equal unpmtanoa witlt 



k grtmi number of iiuecti poBseaaiiig certain characters ui conusaa, 
but it often happens that we cannot asoertain what influence these 
chancten have on the habits and economy of the imiiTiiluats. In such 
instances, the moit ooireot waj psrhapg would be to judge of the 
Talne of a character from its conatanc; ; or, in other words, to con- 
sider that character of moat importance, aa ragards claaaificatioD, 
which Is found in the greateat number of apeciei, theae speciaa 
agreeing more or leas in aome olJier points. 

In all groups of animals then arahowerer certain tjpical chatacters 
to which all the speoies approach more or leas, and which perhaps the 
greater portion aotuallj poaaaBS. The typical charaoters of a group, 
and the departures from them, ought not therefore to be selected for 
conatructing natural and equivalent groups. In the CoUopltra, for 
instance, the typical (truoture is to possess five joints to tjie tarai ; 
Lalfeille's firat seotion (the Penlam^ra) consequently oompriaea at 
least half the species and seTeral distinct groups, each of which is 
equivalent to one of his other sections. 

It appeaia to us, being guided by the points abore mentioned, that 
the Older CUcopfera contains the thirtsen fallowing distinct sectiona, 
and that Latreille'B groupa are not natural : — 

All the Tani with file jointa. 
Section 1. OtodtiAaga, H'Leay. ^ 

2. Hydradtjihaga, H'Leay. 

8. SraeMylra, LatreiUe. 

4. Nccnipliaga, M'Leay. 

C Pa^itcomti, Latraille. 

6. LaneliKOTTiM, Latreills. 

7. 3ltntoxi, Latreills. 

8. MiUacodtrmi, Latreille. 

five Joint* to the Tusi of the two antenor pair* of legs, and four to 
the posterior pair. 

9. BtUromtra, Latreille. 

All the Tarsi with four joints. 
10. AAyneqUtoro, Latreille. 
IL Lomtoriut, latreille. 
12. Oydiea, Latreille. 

All the T^isi with three jointa. 
IS. Trmtri, Latreille. 
The number of species of Beetles in sxistenoe may probably amount 
to between 30,000 and 10,000. 

The principal works on the Ooltopltra are as follows : — Fabricius 

g. C), ' Systema Eleutheratorum ;* OUvier (A. T.), ' Entomolo^e, ou 
istoire Naturelle dea Insectes,' &ve vols. foLo, wiUi coloured pjates ; 
Paykul (QustaTos), ' Fauna Suedea,' three vols. ; QyUanhal (L.), 
' Insecta Suedoa ;' Schtenherr (G. J-), ' Qenera et Species Curculioni' 
dum j' Dejean, * Species Oi5n^ral des Col4optferea ; fEve volumea of 
this work are publiahod, and contain deacriptions of the genera and 
^edes of the Carainda and Gicindilida. Besides these, the works of 
dermar, UliKer, Sturm, Knoch, and Duftachmid may be conaultei! ; 
and the (Mcoptera of our own country will be found described in 
Stephens's ' Ulustratioua uf British Entomology.' The works also of 
Curtis, Kirby and Speaoe, Westwood, Newman, and the Tranaactions 
of the T'""r'" and Entomological SuciBtiee, may be consulted with 

COL^L JTBOcmLiDAl 

COLLEUACG^ an order in the Liohenal Alliance proposed b; 
Dr. Lindley, having the following chaiaoten :^Nuoleus bearing asci ; 
thallus homogeneous, gelatinous, or oartilaginoua. Dr. Lindley has 
given no arrangement of the genera and species of this order in his 
' VegeUble Kingdom.' [Lie ■" 

COLLO'MLA (from ititAAa, , 
natural order PoUmtmiacea. 



COLLO'HIA (from KitAAo, glue), a genua of Plants belonging to the 
natural order Polemoniaceir. It has a oampanulate cslji, S^left or 
somewhat 6-parted, the lobes lanoeolate or linear, equa^ entire ; the 



corolla salver-shaped, with a slender eiserted tube, and a spreading 
6-parted limb ; the aegmenta oblong, entire ; the stamena inserted 
towards the middle of the tube ; the anthen ovate-rouudiah ; the 
cells of the capsule 1-2-seeded. The species are annual herbs, with 
alternate leaves and dense heada of flowera. They are all nattvea of 



C. Imearu is an erect branched plant, clothed with glandolai burs ; 

the leaves ovate-lanceolatc^ qulta entdre, opaque, reniform, the upp^ 
ones downy beneath ; the calyx cup-shaped, S-parted ; corolla more 
than twioe as lon^ as the otuyi; the cells of the capsule 1-seeded. 
This plant Is a native of North America, from Lake Winnepog to the 
western ocean. The corolla has a reddish tube and a rose-coloured 
limb. The seeds of this as well as the other species are covered with 
a testa, which is oompoaed of a spiral tiasue held together by inspissated 
mucus. On the seeds being placed in water the gum of the mucus is 
dissolved, and the spiral fibres start up on the surface of the seed. 

The species of cdUmia are showy pUuits, and may be eaaily cnlti- 
ffted in any common garden soiL The seeds should be sown in an 
ffprnttorderin spring. 

(O^ IHiAlaMylpnu Flaall.) 



C0L0BU8. «s 

COLLOFHORA, a genua of PUnta belongiag to the natuivl order 
Apotynacea. One of the spedee, C tUilu, palda oaoutchou^ or a 

substance analogous to it ' 

COLLUKICINCLA. [Lawad*.] 

COLLUBIO. [LaaiAD*! 

CO'LOBUS, a genus of Quadnuoanoua ifammaZta (Cheiropeds of 
Mr. Ogilby) established by Illiger and adopted by M, Qeo&oy. The 
latter places the genus in the group of SingssCatarrhina, or Monkeys 
of the Old Continent ; a group distinguished by having their noatrila 
separated bv a very thin partition, and by poaaeaaing five molar teeth 
o[Jt on each aide of the two jawa, 

Ths genus has the following characters : — Fatoal anf^e from 4 to 
46 d^reea ; muzale abort; face naked; body elongated and small; 
extremities slender; the anterior hands deprived of a thumb; the 
fingers rather short ; the posterior thumb very distant &om the 
fingers, snd placed veiT much baekwaids ; tail longer than the body, 
snuil], and tufted at the end ; cheek-pouchea ; and calloaitie* on the 
buttocks. 

The CoMii, which are supposed to be inhabitanta of the Coast of 
Guinea, seem to be in Uie Old World the repreaentativea of .^Ufe), 
whose locality is South America. 

C. pciycoDKU, Ooo&oy, is the iSimia palyconum of Schreber ; the 
^tniia comota of Shaw ; the Quanon h Camail of Bufibn ; and the 
Full Bottom of Pennant It is a very handsome spedee. The head 
and upper part of the body are covered with hair, falling over the 
shoulders and forming a kind of hood and pelerine, from whence it 
derives the name given to it by Buffon, while the resemblance of this 
chsielure to a wig determined Pennant to give it the English name 
above recorded. This ornament is compooad of aoating hiura, which 
are yellow miogled with blwik ; the face is brown, and the rest of 
ths body is covered with very short close hair of a jet-block, a oolour 
which seta off the snow-white tail, which is much longer than the 
body and not prehenole. In this last particular, in the posaeasion of- 
cheek pouchea, and in other characters, it diffsra from ^t«l<i,- while 
ia some points, and eepecially in the absence of the thumb in tha 
anterior hands, it resemblea it much. 



Poll Bottom {Oolntmi patyamiii). 

It inhabila the forests of Sierra Leone, where the natives give i< 
name of the ' King of the Monkeys ' (Roi dee Singes), apparently, 
Desmarat, on account of the b«uty of its colours, and its ' can 
which represents a sort of diadem. They attach great value t< 
fur, of which they make ornaments, and they apply it to vai 
purposes. 

0. polt/eomoi, Schreber, with the bead and shoulders covered ' 
long coarse fiowing hair, of a dirty yellowish colour, mixed ' 
black ; body, arms, and legs of a fine glosay blackness, covered 
short hsir ; tail of a snowy whiteness, witii very long hair at the 
fomung a tufL (Pennant) Locality, SieriB Leone. 



s; 



«> COLOCASU. 

C t'l'rtRtM, Ogilby, " with vary long gloea; black hur over the 
whole body aod eitreroities, sod a long Bnowji-white tail, tufted at 
the end;" described finm two impenect akins without haads or 
hands. It is probable that this animal is onl; a Tsriety or idsatical 
with C poiynnno*. 

C. Gueraa, Biipp«Il, with the head, face, neck, bock, timba, and 
basaJ half of the tail, covered with abort black hair ; the temploa, 
chin, throat, and a 
band over Uie ejres, 
white ; Hie iddcs, 
flanks from the 
shouldcia downwards. 



Sawing whit«, 
hangs down on eacn 
side like a, loose gia- 
meDt ; the tip of the 
tail tufted with dirty- 
white. Locolitr, AbjB- 
sinia. There u - ■"-- 



QeoflVoy. Crown 

black 1 bock of & deep 
bay colour ; outside 
of the limbs black ; 
cheeks, under part of 
the body, and legs, 
very bright bay; tail 
black. Locality, Siem 

C. fidiffinoiiu, CobAm 

Smoky-blue above, 

dirty yellowiah-gToy beneath; cheeks, throat, tail, and eitremitiei, 
brick-red. (OgUhy.) Locality, the Oambis. Hr. Ogilby obaerrea 
that the (ace is short, the head ronnd, and the whole form and habit 
of the animal similar to those of the Semnopithcci. The teeth, he 
adda, are of the usual form and number, and there are large and 
very distinct cheek-pouches. "I was the more particular," says 
ISt. Ogilby. " in making this last observation, because the organs in 
questioii had not been previously recorded as existing in the Colobi, 
aud because H. QeoBroy St. Hilaire, in bis valuable lectures, of which 
it is a matter of great regret that so small a portion has been given 
to the public, even doubts their existence." In the ' British Museum 
Catalogue ' this species is given sa a synonym of the following ; — 

C. Temminckii, Kuhl, " with the hands, face, and tail, purpUsh-red ; 
restof the membera clear-red; belly reddish-yellow ; head, neck, back, 
shoulders, and outer face of the thighs, UacL" Habitation unljiown. 
Described from a specimen formerly in Bullock's Huseum, and now 
in that of Leyden. 

COLOCASIA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Araeta. The species are excessively acrid ; the leaves of C. tttslaita 
excite a violent salivation and biuning sensation in the mouth. Not- 
withstanding this property many of the species are used as food by 
the natives of the south of Europe. The leaves and roots of 
C. acaltnta, C. Bimalam, C. antiquaram, and C nutenmata, under 
the names of Cocoa-Nut, Eddoes, and Yams, when boiled or roasted, 
are common articles of diet in hot countries. Whale Selds of 
C. macrorhaa are coltivated in the South Sea Islands under the nc 



-a or Kopeh roots. In the Himalayas the apeciea which is called 
I.', aimalenru forma a chief portjon of the food of the Hill Tribes. 
Medicinally the root is stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant. The 



:io1e of the species are remarkable for containing a milky juice. 
They are cultivated in Portugal, Greece, and Egypt. 

COLOCYNTH. [Cucciaa.] 

COLOy. The abmentary canal below the stomach is divided into 
the small and great intestjnea. The former consist of the duodenum, 
jejunum, and ileum ; the latter of the colon and rectum. The Colon 
commencGE a little above the right groin, in the right iliac fossa 
[Abdomen], in the form of a dilated pouch, which is called the caput 
coli, or more commonly the ccccum.mim its blind rounded extremity. 
The ileum opens obliquely into the left side of this pouch, its inner 
or mucous membrane projecting so as to fbrm the Ubo-ciscbI valve, 
which, permitting the cootents of the small intestine to pass into the 
Colon, suffices to prevent tikeir return, except in peculiar casee of 
diseased action. Near the some part of the ctecum opens also a 
slender contorted intestine about two inches long, likewise blind, 
which is called the appendix vermiformia, from its resemblance in 
the human subject to a worm. The use of this appendsge is 
unknown ; in some animals, as the sheep, it is much larger, and is 
probably of more importance than in man. From the right iliac 
region wa Colon passes upwards along the side to the under surface 
of the liver. Hence it turns to the left, stretching over the upper 
part of the bally just below and in front of the stomach, to which 
It is oannected 1^ the common attachment of both organs to the 



COLOPHONIA. 



, a loose pendulous membrane, formed by a double fold of 
the peritoneum, and spread like on aprao in front of the small intes- 
tinea Having reached the opposite aide of the abdomen, the Colon 
passes downwards to the left iliac fosea ; thence, taking two sudden 
tuma to the right and downwards, it descends into the pelvia over 
the last lumbar vertebra, and becomes continuous with uie rectum. 
The double turn Just mentioned is the sigmoid Seiure ; the trans- 
verse port is called 
the areh of the Colon ; 
and the ascending and 
descending or lateral 
parts, as they lie im- 
mediately over the 
loins, are called the 
right and left lumbar 
portions. The central 
space thus nearly en- 
circled by the Colon 
is occupied by the 
convoluted heap of 
small intestines. The 
length of the whole 
intestinal canal is six 
or seven times that 
of the body in man, 
the Colon constituting 
about a fifth part. In 
graminivorous animals 
its length is proper- 
tionably greater ; in 
those which feed ez> 
cluaively on flesh it is 

The Colon is en- 

Khtcu. veloped in the seroaa 

membrane colled the 
peritoneum, which forms the external covering of all the abdominal 
viscera. [Abdoiibn,] This outer tunic passing entirely round it, meets 
behind, and forms a duplicatnre called the mesocolon, which attaches 
it, more loosely at the arch than at the rades, to the spine and loins, and 
serves as a medium for the passage of nerves and vessels, and the 
lodgment of absorbent glands. Between the peritoneal coat and the 
interior mucous lining thars is a layer of muscular fibres, some of 
which encircle the bowel in scattered bands, and serve to diminish its 
calibre ; others, more rwulorly arranged in three distinct longitu- 
dinal bands, contract its length ; and their combined actions, t^ing 
place succesnvely in difieient parts of the intestine, but on the whole 

Siropagoted from above downwards, agitate its contents backwards and 
orwaMs, and urge them ultimately mto t*— — ' 

~ " lli blood 



The Colon is amply supplied w 
nddu ■ 
rell a 



ilood -vessels, nerves, lymphatics, 
■ "•-• '•■'■-cateB lie interior as 
separated from the 
blood SB being injurious or nseless. The canal is not smooth and 
uniform like the small intestines, but bulges out between the bands 
of muscular fibre into various prominences more or leas regular in 
their form, in which the becee lodge for a time and become deprived 
of much of their moisture as they ore rolled onwatdibylhaperuitaltia 
action. Hence arises their lobiUated or globular form, more observable 
in some of the lower animals, as the hone and sheep, than in man. 
It is in tie Colon that the feces acquire their peculiar odour, which 
is not perceived above the ileo-cowal valve. It is in this port of the 
alimentaiy canal that the fluid port of the food is chiefly absorbed, 
being no longer needed to keep the nutritive particles in suspenaion. 
The lymphatjc vessels of the Colon are consegueutl* found distended 
with a transparent fluid, and not the milk-like chyle absorbed by 
those of the small intestines. [Absobbuct Brsnu.] 

COLOPHO'NIA (in French the wood is called Boil de Colophane), 
a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order Burieniceir. It has 
on urceolar bluntly 3-lobed calyx ; G roundish-ovate petsis inserted 
under the disc, imbricated in Uie bud ; stamens, one-half shorter 
than the petals, equal in length to the calyx ; the disc S-lobed, It is 
to a genus thus defined that De Candolle refers the tree producing the 
Bois de Colophane of the island of Mauritius, and calls it C. Mauriliana. 
In bis description of the tree he says the fruit is unknown. Lindlej, 
in his ' Flora Medics,' gives Colophoaia Mauriluma, Da Cand., 
Buitera panicvlala. Lam., Amyru Zeiflaniea, Rate, and Baliomo- 
dendntn Ztylanieam, Da Cond., as synonyms of Canartitm cominime. 
This last Is described as a small tree, with T-11 leaflets on long etalks, 
ovate-oblong, acute or shortly acuminated, quite entare, smooth ; 
stipules oval; the panicles of flowers tennizia], divaricating; the 
flowera S'3 together, almost eeaaile, when young covered over by 
broad ovate concave eilky brocteola ; the calyx siUy externally ; the 
drupes oblottg, black. The bark of this plant yields a limpid oil, 
with a pungent turpentine smell, whioh congeals into a buttery 
iperties as 



Copa 



eet it 



Don aaya : — " When the nuts are mature t1 . 

Tuel. which does not bnoome rancid, and which reeembles 

ret chestnut; they are eaten boti raw and dressed by the 



71 



COLOPHONITE. 



COLTTMBn)^ 



fa 



inhabitants of the Mohiccas, Banda, and New Guinea ; and an oil ia 
expressed from them, which is used at the table when fresh, and for 
lamps when stale ; bread is also made from them, cakes, biscuits, &c., 
for the table. Eaten fresh they are apt to bring on diarrhoeas and 
dysenteries, and to occasion an oppression at the breast." The same 
tree is also said to yield East Indian Elemi It is a native of the 
continent of India and of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago. 
(Don, Dichlamydeotu Plantt; Lindley, Flora Medico.) 

COLOPHONITE, a coarse granular variety of Oamet, presenting 
iridescent hues and a resinous lustre. [Gabnst.] 

COLOQUINTIDA. [Cucumis.] 

COLOSSOCHELYa [Chblonia.] 

COLTSFOOT, the common name of TuesUago Foffara, 

[TUSSILAOO.] 

COLUBER. [Colubbida] 

COLUBRID^, a family of Snakes, the last of the sub-order 
Colubrina of Dr. J. K Gray. The Colubrinfi include the families 
HydridcB PHTDRiDiE], Boida [BoiDJt], and Col/vibridcB, This last 
family includes the genus CcHibtr of Linnmns, which comprised all 
the serpents, whether venomous or not, whose scales beneaui the tail 
are divided into two, or, more properly speaking, arranged in pairs ; 
but the term is generally applied by Cuvier and other authors to 
those sorfjbnts which have transverse plates on the belly, and the 
plates under the tail forming a double row, a flattened head with 
nine laiger plates, teeth almost equal, and no poison-fangs. The 
following is Dr. Gray's definition of the sub-order CoVubrina .'—Jaws 
strong, both toothed, sometimes with some fangs in front or grooved 
teeth behind. Head moderate or indistinct; crown often covered 
with regular shields. The section of this order to which the 
Cclvbrida belong have the belly covered with broad band^like shields; 
vent without any ; spur-like feiet ; the tail conical and tapering. The 
only family in this section are the CohAridoBj which have the nostrils 
apical, lateral, open ; the head g^erally shielded. * 

Laurenti placed the ColvbriicB between the Rattlesnakes (Caudi- 
mma) and the Vipers. Scopoli's genera were those of Linnaras. 
Lac^pMe placed the CMbrida at the head of his nine genera of 
Serpents^ and next to them came the Boas and Rattiesnakes. 
Alexander Brongniart made them the last but one of his six genera 
of Ophidians, arranging them between the Vipers and the Boas. 
Latreille gave the genus a place between Ckenydnu and IHpttu in 
his family of Anguivipdres. Daudin comprehended 172 species under 
the genus. In the synoptical table of Dum^ril and Bibron, Cuvier is 
made to place it between JHp&aa and Cerberut. Oppel subdivides his 
section (the second) the Sqiummata (Ecallleux) into seven families, 
of which the CokArida (Couleuvr^es) are the last, coming imme- 
diately after the Pseudo-vip&res. Merrem divided the Serpents into 
two sub-tribes: in the fint sub-division, the Innocui, or serpents 
without venom, of the first tribe {Chdonet), Colvher appears between 
SeytdU and Hwrridk, De Blainville separated the Serpents into 
Dipodet and Apodet; Coluber coming immediately after Boa, is placed 
in the innocuous division of these Apodei. Dr. Harlan made the 
Ophidians, his fourth order, contain six genera, and placed Coluber, 
between Ophieamrut, his firaty and Vipera, his third- genus. Ifr. 
Haworth arranged the genus Colvber between Scytale and Dryinue, 
among the True Serpents (Apoda epalpdtraia, or serpents without 
eyelids), and under the innocuous branch of the Gulonia, Fitzinger 
(1826) placed the CohibrOidet between the Pythondide$ and the 
Biimgariidet, in his comprehensive third tribe Monopjioa Bquammata. 
Ritgen (1828) arranged the Colvbridce and the Boida under his 
MfkcrotUimata, the third sub-partition of the first subdivision, 
HolodomUupiMteB (with entire teeth), of his third sub-order of Scaly 
Serpenta Wagler publiahed in 1830 his 'Naturliohes System der 
Amphibiens.' He mjAkes his fourth order, the Serpents, consist of one 
family only, comprehending 97 genera, and places Colvber the forty- 
ninth between SpUota (Wagler) and Herpetodrye (Boi^). 

In 1882 Professor John MiiUer, of Bonn, published his system : 
the Colubers are arranged by him immediately after Dryinus, as the 
last of the Isodonts, the third family of his second order, uniting the 
Macrostomet, which correspond to the Heterodermet of DumdriL 

The species of the genus Colvber, as left by Cuvier, aro very 
numerous, and their geographical distribution ia very wide. The 
foreign species are some of them remarkable for their vivid colouring, 
and others for the regularity of the pattern, so to spei^ with whidi 
they are marked. Others again are singularly slender in form, but 
none grow to a lane size. 

The harmless Common Snake or Ringed Snake (Neidr fraith, 
Neidr y tomenydd, of the Welsh, Nairix torqwUa of Gesner and 
Ray, Colvber NcUrix of Limueus) is the best example of the fonn. 
[Natbdl] 

COLUbRINA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Bhamnacea. It has a spreading 5-oleft calyx; petals 5, obovate- 
convolute ; stigmas 8. Fruit capsular, dehiscent^ tricoceous, girded 
at the base by the oa]yx. The seeds are furnished with a short stalk. 
The species are shrubs with alternate, quite entire, or crenulated 
leaves, netted with distant feather-nerves, smooth but usually pubes- 
cent or rusty villous. The .flowers are in axillary short crowded 
cymes, or in fascicles with simple peduncles. 

(7. ftrmmUwn, Fermented Snake-Wood, is a native of Guinea ; the 



bitter bark of which tree is said to bring on violent fermentation in 
the liquors into which it is thrown. There are several other species 
described, natives of South America, Africa, and the East Indies. 
None of them are of any known wae, and are not worth enltivatiaa 
except in general collections. 

COLUMBA. [CoLnMBiD&] 

COLUICBIDjE, a natural tuDjly of Birds, comprising the Hgeoni^ 
Doves, and Turtles. 

Aristotle mentions five, if not six, birds of this group — IXc^^rcp^ 
IlfAccib, ^TTo, Olrhs, and Tpv7^,^-entering at laive into their 
organisation and habita (* Hist,' b. L a 1 ; b. ii. c 15, 17 ; b. iii c. 1 ; 
b. V. c. 18 ; b. vi a 1, 2, i, and 8 ; b. viiL c 8 ; b. ix. c. 7.) He also 
(b. viiL c 8) speaks of a bird named *&^, which A^enaeua ('Deipn.,' 
b. ix. o. 11) and others consider to be one of the Columbidee, while 
others a^in hold a different opinion, inasmuch as Atheneus states 
that Anstotle has distinguished five species of Pigeons, and 
enumerates ^^ as one, omitting IIcXci^; and so Aristotle does 
(b. viii. c. 8), but he mentions n^cuU elsewhere (b* '^^ ^ ^^)t ^i^d it 
is clear to us from the context that Phapg signified one of the 
CoUimbida!, tltpurrtpMiSus, There is considerable doubt as to which 
of the species of pigeons Aristotle intended to designate by the 
terms above given, and some of them have been applied by modem 
ornithologists to signify forms which he probably never saw. Only 
two, or at most three, can be identified with anything like certainty. 
Pliny ('Nat. Hist,' b. x. c 84) writes 'De Columbis,' and (c 35) 'De 
Palumbibus.' He enters moreover laigely into their habits in other 
parts of his ' Natural History.' 

Much doubt seems to have prevailed as to the proper place of the 
pigeons in the system. Belon collected the few species known to him 
under the titles Ramiers, Tourterelles, Bisets, Pigeons Fuyarda, and 
Pigeons, among the birds " qu'on trouve viander indiffdremment en 
tons lieux," placing them between the Toroou (Yunx TorqwiUa, Wry- 
neck) and the Merle Bleu (Blue Thrush). Gesner arranged them 
between the Gallinaceous Birds and the Bustards ; Aldrovandus placed 
them between the Domestic Cock and the Sparrow; Willughby 
between the Bustards and Thrushes, and Ray gave them Ihe same 
place. Brisson, Pennant, and Latham insulated them in a particular 
order. Pennant also arranged them between the Gallinaceous and 
Passerine Birds, and Latham between the Pottere* and the OoUuub. 
Other authors placed them among the Gallinaceous Buds. linnseus 
made them a genus of his order Pa$aere», arranging them between 
Tetrao (the Grouse and Partridges, kc) and JUawda (the Lazks). 
Cuvier placed them among the Gallinaceous Birds, next to the 
Tinamous {Tinaimu, Lathun; Oryptvtrvt, Illiger), making them the 
last of the order. In his arrangement the Echassiers JiflraJUaioreM, 
Wading Birds) form the order which immediately follows the 
Ghdlinac^ LacdpMe had previously given them the first place in 
the last-mentioned fiunily, as did also DumdriL Meyer had insulated 
them as his seventh order, coming between the Ckdidxmee (Swallow 
Tribe) and his eighth order, OiUma; and Illiger had found a 
situation for them under his Batoret (the Rasorial Birds). Le 
Vaillant, who seems to have been the first who separated the 
ColwoAida into well-defined divisions, arranged them in three 
sections; the first containing the Colombes, fijniers, and Tourte- 
relles; the second the Colombars ; and the third the Colombi-Gallines. 
Vieillot made them the last family but one (Colombins) of his second 
tribe (Aniaodactyli), arranging them between his OpkiopkagtM and 
Aleetridee. M. Temminck classed them as his ninth order between 
the Chelidons and the Ghillinacds. De Blainville's order Sponsored, or 
Les Colombins, contained these birds, and came between the Saltatoret 
(Paaseret) and the Oradaiorei (Pheasants or Partridges): in his 
amended method, as developed by M. Lherminier, they occupy nearly 
the same position between the Paueret and the Gallinaceous Birds. 
C. Bonaptrte (Prince of Canine) assigns the same place to them. 
(* Spe cchio Comparativa') 

When he wrote the article 'Pigeon ' in the ' Dictionnaire d'Histoire 
Naturelle,' M. Vieillot conformed to the opinion of Linnaeus in 
placing these birds among the Pataeret, because of its natural great 
analogy to the last-mentioned group, like nearly the whole of which 
the pigeons pair in the season of love, the male and female working 
jointly at the nest^ taking their turns during incubation, and partici- 

gating in the care of the young, which, among the true pigeons, are 
atched blind, fed in the nest, which they do not quit till Uiey are 
covered with feathers, and are supported by their parents some time 
after their departure from it^ having no power to feed themselves. 
Such are the points of resemblance. Their dissimilarity consists in 
their mode of drinking and feeding their young, in the nature of their 
plumage, and the singularity of their courtship and of their voice — 
points of difference which slso separate them from the true gallina- 
ceous birds, with which, says M. Vieillot, they have no analogy in their 
instincts, tiieir habits, or their loves. Nearly all tiie gallinaoeoTis 
birds are polygamous, and lay a great number of eggs each time they 
incubate, wmch is rarely more than once a year in the temperate 
zones; while the true pigeons lay only two eggs each time, incubate 
frequentiy during the year, and are monogamous. Among the galli- 
naceous birds, as a general rule, the male does not solace the female 
at the time of building the nest and of inoubation ; the young run as 
soon almost aa they are out of the agg-iheU, quitting their nest^ and 



-- - llll«M iJilBI 



73 



COWKBlhM. 



COLtTMBlD^. 



74 



seeking their own food immediately, f'inally, a striking character 
remoTes the pigeons from the gallinaceous birds, and in 11 
Yieillot's opinion places them in the same natural group witii ^e 
Pcuaerei, namely, liie possession of a posterior toe articulated at the 
bottom of the tarsus, upon the same plane as the anterior toes, 
touching the ground throughout its length in walking and embracing 
the roost in perching. On the contrary, in the gallinaceous birds, the 
hind toe is articulated upon the tarsus higher tlum the otJiers, and 
only touches the ground with its claw, or at most with its first 
phidanx, and remains peipendicular when the bird is on the perch. 
Nevertheless it must be confessed that there are found among the 
pigeons species which participate in some degree with the gallinaceous 
birds in regard to theur manners and gait (allures) or some exterior 
conformity. Such are the Colombi-Qallines, the Pigeon-CaUle of Le 
Vaillant, to which must be added the Colombi-Gallines of M. Temminck, 
the Mountain-Partridge of Sloane, the Blue-Headed Pigeon, the 
Cocotzin, &&, all which have their feet more elongated than those of 
their congeners, with the wings of the partridges, that is to say 
rounded, and with the two first quills shorter than the third or fourth ; 
but for the rest, all, with the exception of the Colombe-Oalline of Le 
Vaillant, approach the other pigeons in their amours, their laying, and 
the bringing up of their young; and so it is of the birds which at 
Guadaloupe and Martinique bear the name of Partridge ; and M. 
Vieillot quotes Dutertre, who says that "according to the common 
opinion of the inhabitants of Guadaloupe, there are thi^e sorts of 
partridges, red, black, and gray, which have never passed in my mind 
for aught but turtles (tourterelles) ; for they have not the short 
quality of flesh belonging to our partridges, tiiey have the straight 
bill, they perch and bmld their nests in trees, they only lay two ^ggs," 
&c. C Hist des AntiUes,' tom. ii.) These facts, adds M. Vieillot, 
have been confirmed to me by the inhabitants of Martinique and 
Quadaloupe. Of all the pigeons and turtles, continues this ornitho- 
logist, which I have had occcasion to study in the living state, the 
Cocotzins are those which appear to me to have the greatest relation 
to the partridges ; their haunt is always hi the fields and savannahs ; 
there they secuc their food, and never resort to trees ; they raise them- 
selves into the air like the partridges, and after a short flight alight 
upon the ground. For this reason the En^h and the inhabitants of 
the United States call it the Ground Dove. But the habit of 
frequenting the ground, Ac does not belong exclusively to the 
pigeons whose wings are formed as above stated ; fZtar, according to 
lAtham, the Coltmba Chaleoptera (Pkapt), which M. Temmin^ 
arranges with his OoUmbeB (Vieillot* s first section), has the same 
habits^ so that the English of Australia call it the Ground Pigeon. 
(Vieillot) 

"The family of OolwrnbidcB (says Mr. Vigors, 'Linn. Trans.,' 
YoL xiv. p. 410), alteniately arranged by systematio writers among the 
Perching and Gallinaceous orders, and not unfrequently grouped as a 
separate order between the two, at once indicates where the point of 
iunction exists between them. These birds, although we have the 
high authority of Linnsus for uniting them with that division of our 
Perchers whi^ forms his Pcuteret, Ido not hesitate in arranging, con- 
formably to the opinion of Messrs. Cuvier and Illiger, as a subdivision 
of the Gallinaoeous Birds. 

" In those particulars, where they respectively assume the character 
of each order, their affinity with the latter is considerably stronger 
than that which approximates them to the former. Their food and 
habits, their internal economy, and the formation of their bills, 
identify them with the Rtuoret ; while, on the other hand, the cha- 
racters which bring them near the Intesioret, their divided toes and 
comparatively short legs, are weakened by the resemblance which 
those members bear to the same parts of the contiguous order in their 
general structure, and more particularly in the blimtneas of the nails, 
BO strongly indicative of the rasorial habits of the Gallinaceous Tribes, 
and so strikingly contrasted with the sharpness of the nails in the 
Linnaean Pantrti, They are much more nearly allied to these latter 
tribes by their habits of perching and building their nests in trees or 
rocks, by the absence of the spur on the legs of the male, and by the 
inferior nimiber of their tail-feathers." 

In a note to that part of the text which alludes to the rasorial 
habits of the Gallinaceous Birds, the author cites the habits of 
Colwttha Nieobariea, Ooiwnba caruneulata, and Colvmba paaterina. 
Mr. Vigors accordingly places the Oolumbida In the aberrant group 
of his Rawrei. ** I have already observed, when speaking of the affi- 
nities," says that ornithologist in the paper above quoted, " which 
connect the orders of birds together, that the Ooltmbida form the 
passage from the Intesaores to the Roiorea by their habits of perching 
and ^eir powers of fUght, The hind toe is articulated, as in the 
Perchers, and their tarsi are shorter, more particularly in the earlier 
groups, than those of the Gallinaceous Birds in general. The first 
group which we meet in this extensive fiimily is the genus Vinago of 
M. Cuvier, the bills of which, stronger and more solid than they are 
usually found to be among the pigeons, unite them to Pendope and 
Crax, which form the opposite extreme of the present order, as well 
as to Mutophaga and Cbf^^Aaix, which approach, as we have seen, the 
whole of the groups before us, and connect them with the Perchers. 
From this genus Vinoffo, which seems confined to the southern divi- 
sions of the Old World, we may observe a series of cpx>ups leading 



gradually to the true Coluniba, of which genus the European species 
Colvmha (EnaSf Linn., may be considered to form the type. Hence 
we are led by several intervening species to the Columbi-Gallines of 
M. Le Vaillant, which, still retaining the soft and fiexible bill of 
ColuffihOf approach the typical Gallinaceous Birds in their moi^e ele- 
vated tarsi, and in their habits of living in company and seeking their 
nourishment chiefly on the ground. Among these may be noticed 
some forms, (7. Nicob€urieaf Linn., and C. caruncvlata, Temm., for 
instance, which possess the feathered appendages, together witib the 
naked face and caruncles of the Linnssan GcUIiikb ; and another group, 
the Lophynu of M. Vieillot, which exhibits the size and general form 
of the same birds, as well as the singular plumes which frequently 
decorate their head. This last-mentioned genus, formed of ^e 
crowned pigeon of India, possessing the strongly-formed leg and foot 
of Meleagritf Linn., but without the spurs, while at the same time it 
retains the bill of Colwnba, may be observed to open the passage 
immediately from the present to the succeeding family" (the 
Phtuianidte). 

The following remarks embody Mr. Swainaon's views upon this 
interestitg family : — " The extensive genus of (7oZum&a, like that of 
Falco, has been pronounced indivisible by an eminent ornithologist of 
the present day; who, from having made these birds his peculiar 
study, is in one sense pre-eminently qualified to give a decided 
opinion. The principle he has laid down, and on which this opinion 
consequently is founded, is, that whenever intermediate species are 
discovered which serve to unite two neighbouring genera, such genera 
should invariably be united." After stating that this theory hu been 
refuted in the pages of the ' Zoological Journal,' Mr. Swainson thus 
continues : " It is admitted that there are certain peculiarities of form 
and of economy among the ColumbicUEf which point out natural divi- 
sions. Some of these have been used for the construction of genera, 
by Messrs. Le Vaillant, Vieillot, and Cuvier, and of sections by M. Tem- 
minck ; but the inmiense number of species already known, and the 
great influx of new ones, renders it essential that many others should 
be formed. As we labour under a comparative ignorance of the 
natural economy of the vast number of tropical species recently 
described, any attempt to throw tiie Columbtda into their natural 
arrangement must be very imperfect The basis of such a work must 
rest on their natural habits, their food, and their geographic distribu- 
tion. Tet, as we ^ee in other natunl families that a peculiarity of 
economy is almost invariably accompanied by some corresponding 
modification of structure, we shall receive considerable assistance by 
accurately examining such variations. We may note the forms 
without being acquainted with their reference to the peculiar habits, 
of the group; and although our inference in some cases may be 
erroneous, in others we shall not be tar from the truth. The pas- 
senger-pigeons, for instance, have their first quill-feather as long as 
any of the others — a sure indication of that rapid and long-continued 
power of flight they are known to possess. The Columbi-Gallines of 
M. Le Vaillant are described as having naked and somewhat length- 
ened tand; a structure well adapted to those ambulating habits 
which bring some of them close to the Phaaianida, Vigors, and others 
to the Oraeida, Vigors. Another group, the Colombars of M. Le 
Vaillant {Vinago, Cuv., Triron, VieilL), liave a strong hard bill; and 
their short clasping tarsi covered with feathers lead us to conclude 
they seldom perch upon the ground ; in fact, Messrs. Le Vaillant 
and Cuvier both assert that these birds are only found in the tropical 
forests of the Old World. Apparently confined to the same regions, 
we see another group, wherein the bill partakes of that weak structure 
observed in the generality of pigeons, while the tarsi are thickly 
clothed with feathers, similar to 3ie group last mentioned. These 
seem to be the principal divisions among the Columbidca," In 1827 
the same author characterised the genera Periatara, durmtpdia, and 
Ectopiatea; and in the 'Fauna Boreali-Americana,' under Columha 
Bctopiatea migratoriOf he has the following note : — "As ornithologists 
do not appear to be aware of the great difference which exists in the 
groups of this £unily in the relative structure of their feet, we shall 
here draw their attention to the principal groups. In the even-tailed 
wood-pigeons of Europe, North America, and the Old World, forming 
the restricted genus uohmba, the external and internal anterior toes 
are equal In the lovely genus PtilinoptUf Swainson, confined to the 
men pigeons of the Indum and Australian isles, and in that of Vinago f 
Cuv., formed l^ the thick-billed species of the same countries, uie 
inner toe is much shorter than the outer ; but in the sub-genus (Y) 
JSetopiatea, Swainson, and the small turtle doves, this proportion is 
reversed, the inner toe being the longest In the beautifrd genus 
Periatera, Swainson, which comprises idl the bromse-winged pigeons 
of Australia and the ground-pigeons of America, the tand are more 
elevated, the hind toe shorter, and the inner toe is likewise the 
longest We have been for some time engaged in analysing this 
family, with the view of ascertaining the reUxive value of aU these 
groups." Dr. Ritgen (1828) makes the genus Colwnba, Linn., form 
the tnird tamilj{Herpochoropteni) of his first tribe {Chofyptemj, of his 
second series (Xeromithea, or birds of the dry land) in his tricho- 
tomous system, as applied to birda 

P. J. Selby, Esq., in the ' Naturalist's Library' (1886), charaoteriset 
the following genera, Catpophaga, Phapa, and OeophUua. He thus 
speaks of the classification: — " Of the sub-families or five typical 



Ti COLUHBIDA 

fonnB of the Catvimbida., we oan only Bpeak with difBdence and uncer- 
taintf, u DO uutjsia oftho gpecisa eamcientl? strict or eitenmve lus 
bitherto been instituted, fn>m wbesce conclasire deductiona can be 
dnvn. We etudl onl; cunorily obaerre, that the arboreal pigeoni, 
embracing Viaago, Swmiiuoii'B genna PlUrao}na,i>MT gentu Carpophaga, 
and aoQis other imdafined groups, with feet formed sipniialj for 
perehing and graaping, uid through which, fram their babita uid 
form, the neceaaary eoiuiection with the inaeaaoria] order is Buppart«d, 
are likely to eonelitate one ; the true pigeons, of which our ring- 
pigeon and commoD pigeon may be considered typie&l, a aeoond ; the 
tujtlea mod their tihea, with feet of different proportions from the 
preceding, and graduated tails, a third; the mund-pigeons, or 
Columbi-Oallinea of the French □atunlists, a fourd ; and the fifth 1* 
not unlikely to be repreaented by Vioillofs genua Lophym, in which 
the deviation from the proper Columbine form ia not to that of the 
typical Xatira, but to the OrrKidfi, placed at the farther eitremity, 
and, like the CiihmMda, another aberrant family of the Baaorial 

B^ote apeakiog of the olaanficstion of the Caliiri^iida, one part of 
the internal organiiation of the pigeon ia worthy of apeci^ notice. 
Tbe crop, in the state which ia adapted for ordinary digeation, is thin 
and membranouB, and the internal surface ia smooth ; but by the 
time the young are about to be hatched, the whole, sxoept that part 
which lies on tbe trachea, becomes thicker, and puts on » glandular 
appearance, hAving its internal surface very irregular. In tbii organ 
it is that the food is elaborated by the parents before it is conveyed 
to the young ; tor a milky fluid of a grayish colour ia secreted and 
poured into the crop among the grain or seeds undergoing digestion, 
and a quality of food suited to the nestling is thus produced. The 
fluid coagulates with adds and forms curd, and the apparatus fi>rms, 
nmong birds, the nearest approach to the mammm of wnrm-blooded 
animals [Birds]; hence no doubt the term ' pigeoa's-milk.' The 
number of vertebnc amounts to 13 cervical, 7 dorsal, 13 sacral, and 
7 caudal = 40 (Cuvier), The atenium is narrow, with a deep keel, 
the inferior border convex, and the anterior one curved forwards, thin, 
and trencbatit ; the manubrial process is strong and bifurcated, tbe 
oostal processes short. The posterior margin is clefl by two Essurea 
on either side of tbe meeisl plane, the lateral and superior fisaurea 
being the deepest ; the mesial onee are occasionally converted into a 
foramen, Tbe costal surface of the lateral margin is, as in the galli- 
naceous birds, of very little extent. In the crown-pigeon l^e swerior 
fissures are so deep and wide as to convert the rest of the lateral 
margin into a mere flattened process, which is dilated at the extre- 
miM', (Owen.) 

The distribution of this family is very extensive, the form occurring 
almost everywhere, except withm the frigid zones, Tbs specieB are 
most abundant in Southern Asia and the Orest Indian Archipelago. 

The following definition includes the Colnmbida:, to which we shall 
refer in the preaent article : — Bill moderate, oompresned, covered at 
the base of the upper mandible with a soft skin, in which the nostrils 
are pierced, and more or less curved at the point. Feet with three 
divided toes in front, and one behind. 

Vimigo (Cuvier),^Bi]l comparatively large, strong, thick, and solid, 
compressed at tbe sides; the tip very bard, hooked, and inflated ; the 
nostrils comparatively exposed, and with the swollen or projecting 
membrane but little , developed. Tarsi short, partly clothed with 
featben below the tarsal joint ; sole wide, the membrane being 
extended, and the whole foot formed for perching and grasping ; the 
outer toe longer than the inner, claws strong, sbsrp, and semioiroular, 
" closely resembling in form those of tbe woodpecker or other scan- 
■orial birda" (Selby.) Wings of mean length, strong and pointed, 
second and third quills about equal, and the longest in the wing, 
Mr. Selby soys, that in all the species submitted to examination the 
third qmll 1^ lie central part of the inner web deeply notched, as if 
a piece had been cut out ; and that tbe prevailing colours are green 
and yellow of different intensitiee, contrasted more or less in cert ' 
parts with rich purple and reddish-brown. 

The ipeoies mhobit intertropical Asia and Africa. Tbsy feed 
berries and fmita. They are shy and timid, and inhabit the woods. 
Mr. Selby gives the following, on tbe authority of Hr. Neill, who, 
speaking of Vinajfo iphoHtra, says : " I hod two, but both, I believe, 
were males. BoUk had a song, very different from tbe mere o ' 
of the ringdove. When they sang in concert, they gave the 
little tune, but on different keys. After the death of one thi 
vivor used to sing at command, or, at all events, when incited to it by 



. . It is the Columbia anmaliea of Latham, "The 
Aromatie Vinago is of a mild and timorous disposition, and is gene- 
rally seen in flocks or societies, except during the period of reproduc- 
tion, when they pair, and retire to the recesses of the foreel. The 
nest ie simple, and composed of a few twigs loosely put together, and 
tbe eggs are twa .... The base or softer pari of the bill is a 
blackish-gray, the tip yellowish-wbite, strong, muoh hooked, and 
bulging on the side. The forehsod is of a bright siskin-green, tht 
crown greenisb^ray, the chin and throat gamboge-yellow, the remain 
der of the nedi, the breast, belly, lower back, and rump, yellowish 
green. The upper back or mantle, and a part of tbe lesser wing 
eoverta, are of a rich brovmish-ped, and exhibit a purplish-tinge u 



in lights The greater wing-coverts and secondary quills are 

greenish-blAck, with a deep and well-defined edgizig of gambr^s- 
yellow throughout their length. The tail has the two middle feathars 
'holly green, and slightly exceeding the rest in length ; tbeee are of 
- dark bluish-gray, with a dark eenbal band. The under tail-coverta 
are yellowish-white, barred with green. The legs and toea are rod, 
the claws pale gay, strong, sharp, and semicircular." (Salby ; and sea 
Tamminik.) 



Aranstio TlBM^n [ rinaft anmAltet). 
It inhabits the continent of India, Java, and other adjacent islanda 
The habits of this speoieB are arboreal. Hr. Selby, givee tbe follow- 
ing note which accompanied the skins of V. nilitani, and F. aromalica. 
" Green Pigeon,— This beautiful bird has brilliant red eyes. Its feet 
are sometlung like the parrot's, and it climbs in the same way as that 
bird. It is very difficult to find ; for although a flock is maAed into 
a tree, yet its colour is so siniilar to the leaf of the banyan ( on tiis 
small red Sg of which it feeds ), that if a bird does not move you may 
look for many minutes before you can see one, although there may ba 

Ptilinapm (Swainson). — Wings moderate, first quill oontrvcted 
towards the apex, third and fourth longest Bill slendw. Tatm 
feathered. 

Mr. Swainaon says that in propoemg the characters of this gmua, 
he wishes them to be considered more as indicating a group, by whidi 
the genus IWron, Fiaill. { Vinago, Cuv.), may ba united to the naked- 
legged pigeons, than as being so rigidly framed as to exclude all other 
species which do not strictly present the same structure. 

Hr. Selby, in the ' Naturalist's Library,' feels inclined to still 
further subdivide the group, restrictiag the genuine title of J>fiItnop« 
to that group of sm^er pigeons in which the fint quill-feather 
becomes suddenly nnirowed or attenuated towards the tip, and the 
tarsi are feathered almost to tbe division of the tee^ 

The species inhabit the Holucosa, the Celebea, and the islands of 
thePacific (Selby.) Their habits are retired ; they live hi forwt aoli- 
tudef. Food, fruita and berries. 

The following is a description of the genoi aa realnoted by 
Ur. Selby :— Bill comparatively slender, the base slightly dspresaod, 
and the soft covering of the nostrils not much arched or swollen; 
the tip though bard is little inflated, with a gentle curvature ; the 
forehead ia ratber low and depreased ; the legs are short but strong ; 
the taru clothed with feathera nearly to the division of the toea ; the 
feet are calculated for grasping, and are aimilar in form to those of 
Vinago, the sides of the toes beiog enlarged by the eitenaion of tha 
laternal mombrane, and tbe outer longer than the inner one ; the 
wings are strong, and of moderate length, tbe first quill-fcAther con- 
siderably shorter than tbe second, and suddenly narrowed towards the 
tip — a peculiarity also possessed by several pigeons belonging to other 
distinct groups, and by which means the connexion ia thus kept up 
between them. Tbe third and fourth quills are nearly equal to each 
other, and an the longest in the wing. The tail is of proportionate 
length, and genarally square at the end. Predominating oolonr like 
that of FiiKwo, green, varied in ports with yellow and orange, and in 
acme, besntifully encircled with maseee of purplish-red and vivid blua. 

P. qfOHO-wirau. It is the tSJiMRAa qf/uw-viireHi of Leason, who 
described it in the 'Voyage de la Coquille." Tbe bird is termed 
Manasope in the Papuan tongue, and iuhabita, says Lesson, the pro- 
foond and still virgin foresta ifencore viergsa) of Now Ghiinea. " It was 
ib the nei^bourhood of tha harbour of Dordry that we procured the 



COLUMBID^. 



6 linea (Frenoh); bill delicate and black; iria 
of a red-brown J iaia ahort, uid naarly entirely faatbered; totK 
with ■ membruioiu border, uid of a livaly oncge cdour ; hwd, rump, 
upper part of the body, winga, uid tail, tdajt ogneoble grase-grean ; a 
lATge palub falotte) of a beautiful indieo-blue cxnan the oodput ; 
elongated blua apota ocmipy Uie oentie of the aubalw feathen, whioh 
are bordered witli a atraight yellow line j the internal and hidden part 
of the same featherB ia brown ; the qoilla are entirely brown, and 
bordered at the external edge with a liiie of canary yellow ; the tail is 
square and rectilinear ; the featheis which oomposa it sre fourteen in 
number, brown, their eitremitiee whita below, aod of a green siuular 
to that of (he back abuve, pasBing into black in the middle, ood each 
tenniaating within with a white spot; the two exterior onea an 
bivwn, bordsred with yellow exteru^y, as are the two or three next ; 
the shaft is brows ; (he (hroat to half-way down the neck ia ash-gray ; 
the breaat ia grayiah-graan ; the belly and the flanks are at first green 
mingled with some yellow bordering^ and then oomee a lai^ paUJk 
of yetlowiih-white eztending on each side ao as to fonn a kind of 
giidle; the festhera of (be thigba are green; those of the rent, white 
and pale yellow; the lower tail-coverts are yellow mingled wiUi green. 
H. Lesson mention! another indiiidual rather inuller, with some 
diSerances of plumage, which he supposea to have been either a female 
or a young one. Mr. Selbj remarks upon the &ct that no notice is 
taken of the form of the Srst quill-feather in this deaoription, and 
regrets it, but entertaina little or no doubt of its preaenoe m nearly a 
similar form to that assumed by (he rest of tliia group, of which 
P. purftiraltit is the type. 

Oarpofhaga (Selby).— "In this group," says Ur. Selby, "which is 
composed of birds i^ a mucb iaiger size than ths preceding, the 
wings, though posseaaing the same relatiTe proportiona, havs no 
emuginstioD, or sudden naironing of the tip of the first q uill Their 
tanii also are not ao thickly or entirely feaUiered j and their nostrils 
are placed nesrar to the base of the bill In some apedes, green, 
yellow, and purple are the prevailing colours ; in others, a rich 
bronzed or metallic colour compoiee t£e upper plumige, exhibiting 
shades of deep green and puiple, accordiug to the light in which it is 
viewed, while in those which lead the way to the typical pigeons, the 
tints become less vivid and more uniform in their distribution. Their 
hill is considerably depressed at the base, tbe membrane ia which (be 
nostiila are plaoed but little prominent or swollen, the tip compressed 
and moderately arched, the tomia slightly ainuated. The forehead 
ia low, and tbe fsatheiB advance considerably upon the soft portion of 
ths bill In man^ of theca a caruncle, or gristly knob, vatyiug in sise 
and shape according to the species, grows upon the basal part of the 
upper mandible during the season of propagation. This is anppoeed 
to be common to both seiea, ss the female is described with it in 
Duperrey's ' Voyage.' Aftw thia epoch it is rapidly absorbed, and its 
situation scarcely to be obaerved upon the surface of the bilL The 
feet are powerful and formed for grasping, the soles being flat and 
greatly extended. As in the other memb^ of this group, th« bmtl 
toe ia fully developed and long, and the exterior longer thui the iunar 
toe. They inhabit the forests of India, the Holucoas, Celebes, Aus- 
tralia, and the Pacific Iale& Their food consists of fruits and berries. 
That of the preoioua nutmeg, or imthsr its Soft covering, known (o us 
by (he namo of mace, at certain teMoas affiitdi a likTOuntble repast to 



COLUMBIDJS. n 

some species, and upon thia luiurioua diet they become so loaded 
with fat as A^quently, when shot, to burat asunder when they trJl to 
the ground. And here we may remark on the remarkable provision 
nature has made for the propagation as well as the diaaemination of 
thia valuable spice ; for the nutm^ itself, which is gsnerallv swallowed 
with the whole of its pulpy covering, passes uninjured through the 
digestive otgans of the bird, and is thus dispeised throughout the 
group of the Moluccas and other islands of ths east. Indeed, from 
repeated experiments, it appears that an artificial preparation ana- 
logous to that which it undergoes in its passsge through the bird, ia 
neceasary to enauie the growtii and fertility of the nut ; and it was 
not till after many unsuccesaful attempts bad been made that a 
lixivium of lime, in which tbe nuta were steeped for a certain time, 
was found to have the wished-for eBect^ and to induoe the germinat- 
ing tendency. The fruit of the Banyan (Ficui rtligioia), we sacred 
tree of the Hindoos, is also a favourite repast of all the pigeons of thia 
group, as well as of the stronger-billed Vinago." 

O. Dcranica. It is the CotunJia oetanica of Lesson. This s|>eciea, 
according to Leaeon, is the Houlouesse, or Houleux, of the nabvea of 
Oualan, and though it approaches the Nutmeg Pigeon, Colmnia 
(Carjtophaga) anea, very nearly, it differs from it in sise, being one- 
third lees, and in the distiibution of some of ita colours. "The 
Nutmeg Pigeon lives mora particularly in the eastern Holuocaa, and 
BSpaciaJly nt New Guinea and Waigiou, while the Octanio tVuil- 
PJgeon is abundant in the little isle of Ouslan, in the midst of the 
great archipelago of the Carolines, and seems to exist in the Pslew 
Islands, where Wilson mentions it under the narn^ of cyep/' Lesson 
further observes, thst it may be posably spread over the Philippines, 
and atHagindanaa 



Oeeanle FmltJigMin lOaiypiafa s«hhjm). 

Description. — Total length, 14 inchea (EVench), including the 
tail, which measures five ; the bill, an inch long, is block, strong, and 
surmounted at its base by a roundod and very block caruncle ; the 
feet are veiy strong and of a bright orange colour ; the tarai are 
feathered nearly down to the toes, which have a well-dereloped 
border ; the wings are pointed, and only one inch ahorter than the 
toil, wlucb ia almost rectilinear. The feathers of tiie forehead, cheeks 
and throat, are whitish mixed with gray ; the head and the bock 
of tbe neck are of a deep slaty gray ; ttie book, rump, wing-coverts, 
quills, and tail-feathers, are of a uniform metallic green, passing into 
brawn on the interior of the great feathers; the breast and upper 
part of the belly are gray, with a tint of rust-colour ; the lower port 
of the belly, the vent, Uie thighs, and the lower tail-coverts, are a 
deep ferruginous red ; the tail-featheiB on the under side are a bright 
reddish-green (vert rougelirB olair). (Lesson.) 

VL Lesson thinks that this, very probably, is the species mentioned 
by "the ceJebisted naturalist, Foreter (and not Captain Forster, as 
the reading is, twice, in M. Temminck's work, torn. L p. 89, 8vo), 
who observed in the Isle of Tanna, one of tho New Hebrides (Cook's 
'Sooond Voyage,' vol iU. p. 17B, *to), a Nutmeg Pigeon of tbe some 
apeciee as Hat which occurred at the Friendly Islands." 

Tbe caruncle shown in the cut ia disiiipated after the breeding 
aeaaon, leaving nothing but a slight cu^meous wrinkle. M. Lesson 
says that thebird feeds on a berry which is veij abundant in the 
small lala of Oualan, and that it is not disturbed by tbe natives. 

Mr. Selby givea as a form apparently belonging to this divinon of 
tbe (MvB^ida, tbe foDowing species : Cuiumio PKatiantUa (Tonun.), 
the strueture of the bill being, as he obaervea. Intermediate between 
that of Vinago and CbJvmia, and the feet formed upon the same 
plan M those of the rest of the Ptiliaofina. 



n COLTIMniD.E. 

DeaeriptioD. — Langth from 11 to 16 iDchea, the tail being KTen, 
mnd rather more. Winga ahart. Teaching, when closed, about an inch 
and a half bejond the root of the tail, rounded, and with the third 
quill longest ; the first and fourth being equal to each other. BUI, 
tneasnrmg from the forehead, nearly three quarten of an inch long 
the tip of the upper miuidible moderatel; arched, and with a notoh 
that of the lower augulated and itrong ; tliroat, yeUowioh-nhita , 
head, nidaa, and front of the neck, and whole of the under plumage 
orange-brown ; hinder part of the neck changeable rich Tiolet-purple, 
with brilliant gold reSectionis; back, wing-coverts, and the rest of 
xhe upper plumage, deep redduh-brown, shot with bronze in some 
lights J tail graduated or cuneiform, the two middle featherB brown, 
the laterKl marked obliquelj with a black bar ; feet and naked part 
of 1<^ reddish-brown; sole of the hind and innai toes tnoch 
expanded. 

Young differing from the adult in having the neck dirty reddish' 
brown, trith narrow ban of black ; bell; of a pale reddiah-graj, 
minutely and darkly speckled ; back inclining to haii~brown ; and 
smaller winjfcoverta deeply edged with orange-brown. 

H. Temminck first described the spedea.in the 'Linntean Trans- 
actions,' from an Australian spacimen. It has sincA been observed 
in moat of the Philippine and Holucca Islands, Java, fto. 

Caitmiia Phatiamlla ia an inhabitant of the wooda. Its food ii laJd 
to connst of a kind of pimento and of other aiomatio bertiea, 
swallowed entire. The flesh is dark, bnt ita flavour is stated to be 



Hr. Selby makes the group to oontain C<dumiba Maermtra, Auct. ; 
C. nucAo/ii, Wogler ; and V. Seitaeardtii, Temm. " Of its precise 
situation," says Mr. Selby, "in the circle of the Cotumbida, we speak 
with some degree of doubt, not having had an opportunity of 
instituting so strict an analysis of the species as the subject reqturea ; 
bnt we believe'it will be found to enter among the i'tiltnoprntr, or 
arboreal pigeons, as the feet and tarsi of its members are similar in 
form to those of that division, the latter being very short and partly 
plumed below the joint, the fonner with the exterior toe longer than 
the inner, and the hinder toe fully developed ; the sole of the foot, 
by the extension of the membrane, is broad and expansive, and the 
euws ore arched and strong, all of whioh are oharaeters evidently 
ahowiug these members to be expT«HBly adapted f<^ perohing and 
prehenmoo, and not for gmsorial movements. The bill slso in one 
species (0. Reimcardtii) approaches in point of strength neariy to 
that of Vinago, and in all of them the tip of both mandibles ia hard 
and flrtn, tho upper one with a visible emargination and moderately 
arohed. Their habita and mode of life are also nearly allied to the 
other arboreal speciea, being the oonstant inhabitants of the vroods, 
and subsisting upon tbe fruits and berriee of various trees and shruba. 
U. Temminck, in his description of tins species, says that it pos- 
•SMBa a straeture and form precisely sinulor to that of the C. 
nijfratoria of North America. To this we cannot mbscribe, seeiog 
that Ita essNitial obancten^ ** above described, are difiersn^ and 



COLUMBID.E. so 

that the only point of resemblance conaiEta in the length of the tail, 
Indeed, so tut removed do we think it from the American group, 
that we cannot consider it aa ita analogue in the Asiatic regions 
where it resides." 

CoUm^a, Auct Most ornithologists are agreed that the sub-familx 

Colwnbina conttuns the type of the form of the Coimmbida, and that 
we are to look among the species of our ovm country for that type. 
The Ring.Pigeon, Cuahat or Queeet (C. Palmabut), the Wood-Pigeon 
«7. (Enat), and ilia Rock-Pigeon or Biaet (O. livia), are oonudered to 
be the foima in which the peculiarly of structure and habita of tha 
family are moat petfeotij developed, and of these 0. Palumbiu is 
generally taken aa the t<rpioal point of comparison. The Columiina 
are diatmgnished In a bill of moderate strength, witii a hard tip, 
bulging and somewhat arohed. The nostrils ore partly ololhed by a 
soft membrane, and the orblta of the eyes axe more or less denuded 
of feathers. The feet may be'called both greseorial end inasBBorial ; 
for they are so organised, that the action of walUnK or perching 

1 at pleasure, for the bad: toi ' . ■ • 

e BO formed and placed as n 



t the longest. The tail ia 



pointed; the second and tl 
generally square, and moderately long 

"In those speciea," laya Hr. Selby, in the WOA above quoted, 
" which ate the media of eonneebion with other groups, the above 
charactan become partially modified, aa we see exemplified in the 
spedsB neanst allied to die Ptiii»opkue, or arboreal pigeons, their 
tbet loung the tme character of that of the common pigeon, and 
assoming more of the grasping fbnn than that fitted for progress upon 
the grodnd." - 

The speciea are *ei7 nnmeroos, and spread over ever; quarter of 
the globe. 

" The prevailing Oolonr of tha pigeons ia bluish-gray, of various 
intfinaitieB and shaded frequently embelliahed upon the neck with 
fsathers having a metallic lustre and peculiar form, and which exhilnt 
various tints of oolour according to the light in which they ara viewed. 
They are naturally birds of a wild and tmiid disposition (though one 
species has been partly reclaimed), and usually live congregated in 
extensive flocks, except during the season of reproduction, when thej 
pur. Most of tlie species seek their food upon the ground. This 
consists of the different Certalia, as also aooma, beech-mast, and other 
seedi, and oocasionally of the green and tender leaves of particular 
plants. Their flesh is sapid and nutritious, being of a warm and 
mvigorating nature. Their fl^ht ia powerful, very rapid, and can bo 
long Buatoined, and many Bpeoim are in tlio habit of making distant 
periodical migrations. They are widely diaaeminated, speciea of the 
genua being found in every quarter of the globe, and in all climates, 
except the fruien reg^ona of the two hemispherea. They build in 
trees or holea of rocka, ""l-'ng a shallow nest of small twigs loosely 
put together. Their eggs ate never mora than two in number, their 
oolour a pore white; they are incubated alternately by both sexes, 
and are hatched after being sat upon from eighteen to twenty-one days. 
The young, upon exclusion, ore thinly covered with down, which ia 
rapiiUy succeeded by the proper feathers." (Selby.) The apparatus 

r preparing the food for the neBblinga hoa boen before adverted to- 

O. tpadi^ea. Hr. Selby places this Bpedea aa connecting the arbo- 
real species with the typical pigeons, but arranges it under the Ooium- 
bina, not vrithout doubt, " for (dtbough it presents characters in some 
of ita members approaching tboae of tiie pigeoTis, it cannot be denied 
that, in its general appearance, and the metsllic lustre of its plumage, 
it also shows evident maiks of a near.affinity to several species of tho 
genua CoTjiophaga, and it might perhaps with equal propriety be 
placed at the extremity of that group ;" and regnta the litUa infor- 
mation extant of its peculiar habita and mods of life, which would 
have asaiated in farming a more satisfactory conclusion oe to its proper 
poaitioD. He adds, that from the form and size of the feet we may 
judge that its habits are more those of an arboreal than terrestrioL 
bird, though its claws wont the great curvature of those of the Ptili- 
nopttur, and show its capability of occadonally resorting to the ground 
for food. H. Lesson, who killed many iadividusJs of this brilliant 

Sigeon, described by Lathsm and figured by Tenuninck, says that its 
ah is excellent, and that it is very abundant in the woods about 
the Bay of Ipiripi, or the Bay of lalanda. The first which he procured 
was kUled and sent to the expedition by one of the offlceia of the 
CoquiUe ; and Toui, ohief of the hippoh of Koouera, near which ahe 
was moored, brought them frequentiy on board. He adds, that the 
individual described by Latham as the Chestnut-Shouldered Pigeon 
from Norfolk Island, not far frem New ZcsJand, and that 
H. Temminck indicates the Friendly or Tonga Islands as its native 
oountry. This locality M. Lesson, from whom the following descrlp- 
tion ia taken, seems to doubt. 

*" tal length, 16} inches (French) — English anthoni give it as from 
20 inches; tul 6 inchea, nearly rect^«l, and slightly notched ; 
bill rather swollen near the point of the lower mandible, of a brilliant 
ine at its base as well aa the feet, the tarsi of which are feathered 
almost to the toea. The eyes ore surrounded with a bright^red mem< 
brane, and the iris is of the same colour. All the upper parts of the 



SI COLUMBID-R 

bird, tbe bsck, the rump, tbe wings, nnd the thront, are of a chan 
able huo, in which are mingled rosy coppar-reBeBtiona nmning ii 
briUiant and irideiceDt tiuts, but becoming more Boiubra upon i 

great quOin. The plumage of the breaat, bBlly, yeot, and tarai 

pu™ while. The upper part of the tail ia brown, slightly tinged with 
grefmiah ; aa^ below it ia brown, whith ii deepest witlun and at the 



C. dUtpIka, " In this euriooB qMcies," uyi Hr. Belbr. " bvidea the 
ooapital crest, an ornuaeDt which ia found iu many other birda, thare 
is an additicnal one in front, oompoaed of long recurved and lai 
featbe™, which not only oooupj the forehead, but also the superior 
part of the soft or banJ portion of the bill. This double creet girea 
the head of the pigeon a, cbaraotar unlike any of its coogeoeni, and 
more raesmbling that of aome of the created P/iatianida or CnKida, 
witli which an aualogieal relation is thua austuaed. In other respeota 



it« characters agree with those of 0. tpadicta, the proportion of the 
wiaga and the form of the feet being nearly the same. Temminck, 
who first described it, obserres, " Cette nouTelle esp^ce a le plus de 
npporta daoa toutea aea formes aveo la Columha tpadicea, at toutes 
Ics dniii Bout trte pen diff^rent«9 de notre Krunier d'Euiope," 



COLUMDID^. n 

The alee of this bird ia nearly that of C. ipadieta. Wings long and 
powerful, reaching when closed beyond the middle of the tail, second, 
third, and fourth feathers longest and nearly equal, fifth shorter thau 
the fimt, Biil rich orauKe, tip of undermandible obliquely truncated, 
tip of upper niaudible comprsaaed, somewhat arched, culmeu rouudeii. 
Frontal crest begimiiag on the upper part of tbe bill immediately 
behind the homy tip aud above the nostrila, composed of long curved 
feathers, soft and loose in texture, and bluish-gray tinged with rufous 
in colour, pointing backwards. Occipital creet rich rufous, bounded 
on each aide from the posterior angle of the eye by a streak of glossy 
black, decumbent, composed also of long soft featben with open 
barbulee, each feather widening towards the tip. Side and front of 
neck and breast pale gray, block at the base of the feathen, which ia 
bid. Tbe feathen here are trifid at the end ; on the back of the neck 
they are acuminated, but not distinctly divided as upon the breaat. 
Bock, acapulara, and wingKHiverta deep bluiab-gray, the feathers 
darker at tbe margin; quills and eecondariea bluish-black | under 
plumage gray. Tail square, basal part and narrow band pale gray 
tinged with reddiah, tip and broad intermediate bar black ; length 
7 inches. Naked parte of tarai and toes crimson-red ; hind toe 
strong, with a broad flat sole, aud exceeding the tarsus in length ; 
naQa long and somewhat curved. It ia found in Australia and Java. 

C. Palmniui, the Cushat. It is the Ramier of the French ; Torquato, 
Ohiondario, kc, of the Italians, according to Belon ; Colombacoio, 
Polombo, Picdone da Ohianda of tbe same, according to PriUce Bona- 
parte ; BingdufwB of the 'Fauna Suecicaj' Witd-Taube and Ringel- 
Tauba of the Oermansj Ring-Do ve, Queest, and Cushat of the British ; 
Ysguthan of the Welsh, and in Belon's opinion the Wttb of the 
Greeks. 



Instances have been known of its laying in aviaries, and Hr. Selby 
states that a pair of ring-pigeons in one of the aviaries of the 
Zoological Qardens " built their neat in a tree or shrub contained 
within it, and that the female laid two eggs, which unfortunately 
were deatroyed by aome accident during incubation. Thia fact ahowa 
that under favourable circumstances, and when the habits of the bird 
ore attended to, a progeny may be obtained." 

0. (Emu. It is the Falomballa, Falombella di Hacchia, Piccdone 
Topacchio of the Itsliana ; Le Pigeon Sauvage of Brisaon ; Stock-Dove 
and Wood-Pigeon of the British. Mr. Selby observes, " Near as it 
approaohsB the common pigeon in size and form, no mixed breed that 
-e ore aware of has ever been obtained between them, although 
ipaatfld attempts to effect an intercourse have been mode. Thia in 
ar tnind appears a strong and convincing proof that all the varieties 
geneially blown by the name of Fancy Pigeons have originated from 
one and the some stock, and not from crosses with other species, as 
some have supposed, the produce of which, even could it be ocoa- 
aionslly obtained, we ^tc no doubt would prove to be barren, or 
what are genEsally termed mules." 

C. livia. This— the Pigeon Priv^ of Bflon; Le Pigeon Domestiqno, 
Le Biset, and Le Kocheraye, of Brisson ; Coulon, Colombe, Pigeon, 
of the French ; Palombello, Piccione di Tom, Piocjone di Rocoa, of the 
Italians; F^ld-Taube,Haaa-raube, Hohl-Taube, BUu-Taube, ondHolts- 
Taube, of tiie Oermana ; Wild Rock-Pigeon of the British; Colommen 
of the Welsh — is the stock from whidi ornithologists generally now 
agree that the domestic pigeon and its varieties ore derived. 
" Under this species," writes Ur. Selby, " we include not only the 
nnmou pigeon, or inhabitant of the dove-oot, but all those numerous 
srieties, or, ss they are frequently termed, nces of domestitsted 
pigeons, ss highly prized, and fostered with suoh care aad attention 
by the amateur breeder or pigeon fancier; for, however diversified 
their forms, colour, or peculiarity of habit may be, we consider them 
all as having originated from a few accidental varieties of the common 
pigeon, and not from any cross of that bird with other species, no 
or marks whatever of such being apparent in any of the nume- 
rous varieties known to ua. In fact, the greater part of them owe their 
moe to tbe interference and the art of man ; for by separating 
from the parent stock such accidental varieties as have occasionally 
oocurred, by subjsctiug these to captivity and domestication, and by 
assorting them and pairing them together as fancy or caprice sug- 
gested, he haa at intervals generalsd all tbe various races and peouliir 
varietiee which it is well known when once produosd may be per- 
petuated for an indefinite period, by being kept separate from and 
unmixed with others, or what by those interested In auch pursuits 
ia usually termed ' brenling in and in.' Such also, we may add, is 
the opinion of the most eminent nsturalists aa to their origin, and it 
is strongly inusted on by U. Tamminck in his valuable work tbe 
' Histoire OJn jrale Naturalle dea Pigeons.' Indeed the fact that all 
Jie varietiea, however much they may diSbr in colour, siie, or other 
particulars, if permitted, breed freely and indiaciiminately with each 
other, and produce a progeny equally prolific, is another and « 
convincing proof of their common and self-same origm ; for it is one 
' ' ise universal laws of nature, extending even to plants, and ona 
which if once set sside or not enforced would plunge ail animated 

ir into indescribable confusion, that the offepring produced by 

the intercourse of different species, that is, distdnct spedes, is incapable 
of further incresiae. That such an intercourse may be e&otod is w«U 



B3 COLUUBID^ 

known to ali ; but it ii geDarally under peculiif or oitifictal circmn- 
st&ncea, and rarely when the animala, birds, or Trhatsrer the; may 
be, Dfe in their natural state, and in a qondition to make tlieir own 
election. It u eeen in the orossea obtained in a atate of confinement 
between the uqut and goldfinch, linnet, &0. ; in the hybrids between 
different apedea of Anatida, when domeatioated or kept in captivity; 
in the croaa between the pheasant and conimon fowl, tut. - 

" The bastard produce of the common wild turtle (Turlur comnunu) 
with the turtle of the aviary (TWttir ruon'iu} has been proved by 
freqaent eiperimente to be btu^ren, although the two speciea from 
whence it originates appear to be closely allied, and a mixed breed 
is easily procured ; and Buoh, we have no hesitation in aayinif, would 
be the event if ■ croaa could be obtained between the common pigeon 
and the ring pigeon, the wood pigeon, or any other apectes." These 
observations are well woriJiy of attention. The aaaertion respecting 
the bastard produee of the tnrtleo, made above, ia corroborated by 
Heaan. Boitard and Corbid In Uisir ' Hisloire dss Pigeons de Toliire,' 
and tiie princble is further confirmed by the eiperimenta of Uaudayt, 
VieiUot, and Corbi& 

The varieties of this bird produced under the fostering band of 
man, the tumblers, croppers, jscobines, runts, spots, turbite, owls, 
nuna, Sx. ko,, would fill a volume. Uur limits will not permit us to 
figurs or describe them. Tbe Carrier however demands notice. In 
one of his odes (EIi OifHimpdi') Anacieoa has immortalised it as the 
bearer of epiattea. Taurosthsnes sent to bis expectant father, who 
maided in .£gina, the glad tidings of his success in the Olympie 
games on the very day of his victory. Pliny (' Nat. Hist.' book i. 
37) speaks of the communication kept up between Hirtins and 
Decimus Brutus at the siege of Uutlna (Uodeoa) : "What aviuled An- 
tony the trench and the watch of the beeiegere j what availed the neti 
(retia) stretched across the river, while the messenger was cleaving 
the air (per ctsliim eunte nuntio)." The Crusaders employed them, 
and Joinville records an instance during tjie cruaade of Samt Louis. 
Tasso ' Oieroaalenuna Liberata,' cant, iviii angs of one that wa^ 
attaclud by a blcon and defended by Qod&ey, 

which 'carta' Godfrey of oourae reads, and ia put in possesnon of all 
thesecrala. In the sams way Ariosto {cant, iv.) makwtbe 'Castellan di 
Damiata' spread the news of Orrilo's death all over Egypt. Sir John 
Haundeville, knight, warrior, and pilgrim, who penetiat«d to the border 
of China in the reigns of our Second aod Third Edward, thus writes ; 
" In that contree and other oootreea beionde thai )i«" a ouatom, whan 
thei schulle nsen werre, and whan men holden sege abouten oytee or 
cssteUa, and thei withinnen dur not senden out messacen with lettere 
fro lord to lord, for to aske sokour, thei maken here letters and 
bynden them to the nekke of a Ooher, and letten the Colver flee ; 
and the Colverea bon ao taugbte that theraean with the lettera to 
tbe very pkce that men wolde sonde hem to. For the Colveres ben 
norysBcht in the places where thei ben sent to ; and the! senden bam 
thus for to bsrsn bare letters. And the CoLveres retournea ssen 
where as thei ben noriascht, and so tbey den comounly." 

The Carrier however gradually Bank, in this countiy at least, to the 
bearer of the intelligoncs of the felon'a death at Tybum— Hogarth's 
print will oocur~to every body: it became the messonger from the 
rBc»«ourBs andpriie-ring, and woa olao largely used in Btook-jobbing 
transactions. The inventjon and applioation however of ths electric 
telegnph hsi to a oonudcarable extent superseded the use of the 
Carrier-^geon. 

Some idea of the astoniahing fecundity of the domesticated pigeon 
may be derived from the aaeertioa of Biberg, who observes that if 
you suppose two pigeons to hatch nine times a year they may produce 
iu four years 14,760 young. 

In its wild state the Hock Pigeon ia widely distributed ; the rooky 
isUnda of Africa and Asia, and in the Hediterranean, abound with 
them. Tiigil'a beautiful simila in the Fiith ^neid evidently rdatei 
to this spedea : — 

In the Orkneys and Hebrides it is said to swarm. " It is also met 
irith upon the northern and western coasts of Sutherland, the perfo- 
rated and cavernous rocks which gird the eastern side of Loch Eriboll, 
and those of the limestone district of J>umeaa, furnishing suitable 
places of retreat ; and again upon the eastern ooaste of Sootland it is 
seen about the rocky steeps of the Isle of Baas and the bold pramon- 
torv of St Abb'a Head." (Selby.) 

C. twin in its wild state has the following charactdra : — Bill blackiah- 
brownj the nostril membnne red, sprinkled as it were with a white 
powder. The irides pale reddish-orange. Head and throat bluiah- 
gr^. Kdes of tbe neck and upper part of the breast dark lavender- 
punilt^ glossed with shades of green and porpliah-red. Lower part 
of brnsl and abdomen bluinh-gray. Upper mandible and wing- 
OOTsrta Un»fTay. Greater coverts and secoodariaa barred with black, 
■o that there are two broad and distinct baia acrooa the closed wings. 
Lower part of ths back white j rump and tail-coverta bluiah-gray. 
Tail deep gray, with a bi:oad black bar at the end. L^ and feet 



Wild Boek-Fiteon (Cblunte Una). 
Turiur lEdapitlaia, Selby),— Bill more alender than that of the 
pigeona. Tip of the upper mandible gently deflected, that of tbe 
lowor Bcarcely exhibiting the MpeaiancB of an angle. Tarsi rather 
shorter than the middle toa. Feet formed for walking or perching ; 
inner toe longer than the outer. Front of tarai covered with broad 
imbricated aodea. Winga — flrat quill a little ahort^r than the second, 
third longest of alL Tail rounded or slightly giaduat«d. (Selby.) 

•T. ritoritu. It ia the Ootan^a riaoria of authors; T. lorcuatut 
Saugitifnuit, Brisson ; Tourtorelle & Collier, Bufian ; probab^ the 
Turtle of the Scriptures, and atill plentiful in Egypt and other ea«tem 
coontries, where it is often kept in confinement. The relics of Qreek 
and Roman art give a very fair repreeentation of this species ; 
BAon and others seem to be of opinion that the T, ec ~ 
Turtle Dove, was the T/iOynt of the Greeks. 



The following is a description of a wild specimen from Southern 
Africa : — Length about 1 inches. Chin whitish ; from the oometa 
of the mouth to the eyes a narrow streak of block. Forehead pale 
bluiah-giay ; crown darker ; cheeks, neck, breaat, and belly, gray, 
tinged irith vinaoeoua or pole purplish -rad ; the hind neck with a 
demi-oollar of block ; some of the aide feathers of the collar tipped 
with white. Bock, scapulan, and rump, pale clove-brovm, with a 
greenish tinge. Margins of wings, greater oover^ and nnder win^ 
coverts, blua^pmy- Greater quiUa hair-brown, delicately edged wiUi 
giayiah-white. Vent and under tail-coverts white. Legs and feet 
gray ; inner toe a little longer than the outer. (Selby.) 

In its natural state this species haunts the woods, where it breeds, 



(I COLlTUBID^ 

making ■ Deat like that of the common turtle, flnd lays two wbits 
tggn. It Heka its food in ths open grannda, and Rubeitta upon groin, 
gntneeds, imd pulM, &c Its triTisl nune ii dgriTsd !com > fanciful 
reaemblonoe to the human Uugh in its ccninga. (3elb<^.) 

A race between the common turtle and thie speciee has been ob- 
tained ; bat the mule* are stated to hare been iQTSTiablf barren. 

T. nmnUHiu (Linnsus), the Turtle Dove {Cohtmba lurlw of authon), 
is found in Great Britain. It oocon only aa a sunimsr Tijuter coming 
from Africa. 

Mr Selbf proTiaioaally placei the C. lophoia of Temminck under 
this genua. 

EctopUtu (Swninsoa).— Bill ilender, notched. Wings rather elon- 
gated, pointed ; the Snt and third quill equal ; the second longest. 
Tijl rounded, or curvated. Feet ihort, naked ; anterior sooles of the 
tuid imbricate ; lateral scales very small, reticulate. 

£ nigreaoria. It ia the C. migritiaria of authors, the Passenger 
Pigeon of Wilson, Audubon, and othera. Our limits not allowing -- 



PssKnfCr FiEtOD ISetapiila migratiiria). 

" The rooating-placeB ore always in the woods, and aometimea 
occupy a large eitent of foreat When they have frequented one of 
tbcae places for some time, the appearance it eihihita is aurpriaing. 
The ground is covered to the depth of several inches with their dung ; 
all the tender grass and underwood destroyed; the aurfaoe strewed 
trith large limbs of trees, broken down by the weight of the birds 
collecting one above another ; and the trees themselves, for thousands 
of scree, killed aa completely as if girdled with on axe. The morlu 
of their desolation remun for many years on thespot; and numerous 
places could be pointed out where, for several years alter, scarcely a 

discovered, the inhabitants, from considerable dislanceii, visit them 
in the night with guns, clubs, long poles, pots of sulphur, and various 
other enginee of destruction. In a few hours they fill msny socks 
and load honn with thsm. By the Indiazu a pigeon-ioost or breed- 
ing-place ia consjdflfed on important source of national proSt and 
dependence for that season, and all their active ingenuity is eierdsed 
on the occaaioa. The breeding-place differs from the former in its 
greater eitent In the western oountriee, namely, the states of Ohio, 
Kentucky, and Indiana, these are generally in back wood^ and often 
extend in neor^ a stroight line aoroas the country for a great way. 
Not far from ^elbyviUe, in the state of Kentucky, about five years 
ago, there was one of these breeding-places, which sb«tched through 
the woods in nearly a north and south direction, was several miles in 
breadth, and was said to be upwards of forty miles in extent. In this 
tract almost every tree was furoished with nests wherever the branches 
could accommodate them. The pigeons made tlieir first appearance 
there about the 10th of April, andleft it altogether with their young 
before the 25th of Hay. Aa soon os the young were fully grown, and 
before they left the nests, numerous parties of the inhabitants tram 
all part* of the adjacent country came with waggons, axes, beds, 
cooking utensils, many of them accompanied by the greater part of 
their families, and encamped for several days at tills immense nunery. 
SeTer«t of them informed me that the noise was so great aa to terriF^ 
their horses, and that it was difficult fbr one person to hear another 
speak without bawling in his ear. The ground was strewed with 
broken limbs of trees, eggs, and young squab pigeons, which had been 
piecipitated from above, and on which herds of hoga were fattening. 
Hawks, buzEardB,and eagles were sailing about in great numbers, and 
seizing the squabs from we nests at pleasure, while, from twenty feet 
upwards to ute top of the trees, the view through the woods presented 
a pcrpeloal tumult of crowding and fluttering multitudes of pigeons, 
their wings roaring like thunder, mingled wiw the frequent crash of 
falling timber ; for nowUie axemen were at work, cutting down thi 
trees that seemed to be most croivded vrith nests, ond coatrived tof 



them in such a manner, that in their descert they might bring down 
several others; by which means the falling of one large tree some- 
times produced 200 squaba, little inferior in siss t6 the old ones, and 
olmost one heap of fat^ On some single treea upwarda of 1 00 neitla 
were found, each cont^ning one squab only ; a circumstance in the 
history of this bird not generally known to natunliata. It waa 
dangerous to walk under these flying and fluttering millions, &om tha 
int fall of large branches, broken down by the weight of tha 
budea above, and which in their descent often destroyed numbeni 
of the birds themaelves ; while the clothes of those engaged in 
the woods were completely covered with tie excrements 
of the pigeons. 

" Thefle eircumfftances were reloted to me by many of Uie moat 
ipectable part of tbe community in that quarter, and were con- 
firmed in part by what I myself witnessed. I passed for several miles 
through thie same breeding-place, where every tree was spotted with 
nests, the remains of those above described. In many instances I 
connted upwards of ninety nests on a single tree ; but tbe pigeons 
had abandoned this place for another, sixty or eighty miles off. towards 
Green River, where they were said at tliat time to be equally numer- 
ous. From the great numbem that were constantly passing over onr 
beada to or from that quarter, I hod no doubt of the truth of this 
statement. Tbe mast bod been chiefly conaumcd in Kentucky ; and 
the pigeons, every morning a little Mfore sunrise, set out for Uw 
Indiana territory, the nearest part of which was about sixty milea 
distant. Many of these returned before ten o'clock, and the great 
body generally appeared on their return a little aft— noon. I had 
left the public road to visit the remuns of the hreeding-plooe near 
Shelbyville, and was traversing the woods with my gun, on my way 
to Frankfort, when about ten o'clock the pigeons which I hod observed 
flying the greater part of the morning northerly, began to return in 
such immense numbers as I never before had witneued. Coming to 
on opening by the aide of a creek called tbe Benson, where I had a 
more uninterrupted view, I was astonished at their appearance : thej 
were flying with great steadiness and rapidity, at a height beyond gun- 
shot, in several strata deep, and so close together that, could shot 
have reached them, one discharge could not have failed of bringing 
down several individuals. From right to left, as far as the eye could 
reach, the breadth of this vast procession extended, seeming every- 
where equally crowded. Curious to determine how long thia appear- 
ance would continue, I took out my watch to note the time, and aat 
down to observe tbem. It was then half-past one ; I sat for more 
than an hour, but instead of a diminution of this prodigious proces- 
sion, it seemed rather to increase, both in numben and rapidity; 
and anxious to reach Frankfort before nigbt I rose and went on. 
Aboot four o'clock in the afternoon I crossed Kentucky River, at tho 
town of Frankfort, at which time the living torrent above my head 
seemed as numerous and as extensive as ever. Long after this I 
observed them in large bodies that continued to pass for ail or eight 
minutea, and theae again were fallowed by other detached bodies, all 
movmg in tbe some south-east direction, till after six o'clock in tbe 
evening. The great breadth of front which this mighty multituda 
preserved would seem to intimate a corresponding breadtli of their 
breeding-plaoe, which, by several gentlemen who tiad lately passed 
through part of it, was stated to me at asvera] milea." 



ihat its whole length was 240 
miles, and that the numbers oomponng it amounted to 2,280,272,000 
pigeons, observing that this is probably far below the aotual amount. 
He adds, that allowing each pigeon to consume half a pint of food 
daily, the whole quantity would equal 17,424,000 bushels doily. Ur. 
Audubon conflrms Wilson in every point, excepting that he very pro- 
perly corrects that part of the murative wtuph would lead to the 
conclusion that a single young one only is hatehed each time. The 
latter observes that the bird lays two eggs of a pure while, and that 
each brood generally consists of a male and female. , 

DeeoriptioD. — Winga long and acuminate, having the seeoad quill- 
feather exceeding the othera in length. The taii is greatly cuneifonu 
or graduated, and consists of twelve tapering fea^era Bill black, 
and like that of the turtle. Legs purpliah-red, abort, and atrong. 
Iria bright orange-red, the naked orbit purplish-red. Head and cheek) 
pale bluish-gray. Fore-neck, breast, and aides brovfoish-red, with a 
puniliah' tinge. Abdomen and vent white. Lower port and sides of 
neck purplish-crimaon, reBecting tints of emerold green and gold. 
Upper plumage deep bluish-gray, some of the scapulars and wing- 
coverts apotted with black. Greater ooverta gray, tipped with wbitK 
Quills blaokish-gny, their exterior webs bluish-gtiy. Tail with the 
two middle feothera block, the other five on each side grav at the base, 
with a black bar on the interior arch, and paaaing into white towards 
the extremitieik 

The female is rather smaller, and has the coloun of her plumaga 
much duller than tbooe of the male, though the diatribution ia the 
some. (Selby.) 

The Passenger Pigeon inhabits the North American continent, be- 
tween the 20th and 02nd degrees of north latitude. Mr. Eyton has 
flgured one as a visitant to our shares, on the authority of Dr. Fleming, 
who, in his ' History of British Animals,' says that one was shot in 
tbe parish of Monimai), Fifeahire, on tbe 31st December, 1335. llr. 



a COLUMBIDJS. 

Yurell also records the capture of anoUieT Bpecimen at RayBton, 
in Cambrtdgeehire. 

Hr. Selb; refsn praviraooBlly fbfwnta Capeatit, Aiiot, C. Mac- 
giMirni, Loaun, uid C. vemtila, Temm., to his group of EeUrpittma, 
<uid thinlu that bythsBeuid some other nearly allied forma apaaaaga 
tc the next RTOup, Ftriiitrina, the Qroiutd-DoTea, is affected. 

Family PeritUrina (Selby). — DiaJJnguiahed from the praeodlng 
graupa by their terrene habits, and their evideot approach in many 
points to the more typioal Satora, or OallinaceouB Birds. In these 
the bill is rather alender, frequently aub-emargiuat^ and the tip of 
the upper mandible gently deflected ; the wings are generally shart 
and rounded, and in many instances concave, aa in the partridgo, 
gronso, &c The legs are canaidersbty longer than in the typical 
pigeons, the taisus uanally exoeeding Uis middle toe in length, and 
the feet better adapted for walking than grasping ; the olaws an 
obtuse and alightly arched. The hallux a shorter, and ita relative 
position different ftom that of the arboreal apeciea. Their plamags 
IS plaiuBT and more uniform In tint than that of some of the preced- 
ing groups, though it is still brilliant in those epeciee which connect 
them with other forms. They live almoat entirely upon the greund, 
and many of the gpeciea run with gnat celerity, on which account 
they have been called Partridge Flgeoni. Their fli^t, which is 
usually low, is efibcted with greater exertion than that u the pigeons, 
and is nerer long suatalned. (Selby.) 

Mr. Selby observes that this division oontains a great number of 
species, and is of opinion that wlien better investigated it will be 
feund divisible into a variety of minor groupa or g«isn. He places 
under it Pha^, Chanurfdia, and Periilera. This group is dis- 
tinsniabed by a longer bill, very faintly emarginate, and by its tarsi, 
whieh are moderat^y long and naked, with the ^ntal scales divided 
into two aeries, and Uie sides and hinder port reticulated with minute 
scales. Another group, he adds, leems indicated by certain Amatio 
■pedes, conspicuoua for the rich metallic green of the plumage 
oLUieir backs, resembling therein some of the Ptiluurpina. The 
tarsi of these are destitute of scales, except a few indistinct ones in 
front, just above the toes. The bill ia rather long, and destitute of a 
notch. Thi^ live mostly on the ground, but their flight ia powerful 
Mr. Selby tales CUmalba titperiAiata of Wagler bb the type of this 
last-mentioned group. 

Pkapi (Selby). — Bill moderately long, rather slender ; upper man- 
dible gently deflected at the tip, and with the indication of a notch 
or emargination. Wings of mean length ; second and third feathers 
longest, and nearly equal Tall slightly rounded. Legs — tarsi aslong 
s« tde middle toe, the front covered with a double row of scales, sides 
and back reticulated with small hexagonal acalea. Hind toe short ; 
inner toe exceeding the out«r in lei^tli. Claws blunt, slightly arched. 
Type, Cblumia eAaieopfcru, Latham. C. tiegaiu, Temm. ; and C. picata, 
Wftgler, belong to this group. (Selby.) 

P. duUeoptera. It is the G. chaUopltnt, Latham ; the C. Lamaehellt 
of Temminok ; Bronie-Winged Qraund-DoTe. 



Broan-Wingcd Onnad-DoTC (napi e^kopttrB). 

Bin about that of C. (Ema. Total length about IG inches. Bill, 
from edges of the gapo, hardly an inch ; black anteriorty ; reddish 
near the base. Forehead, stripe below the eyes, and throaty white ; 
crown brown, tinged with reddish, filleted with dusky red ; cheeks 
Mid sides of neck bluiah-gray ; bottom of neck in front and breast 



scapulars, rump, and upper tan-ooverta, brown tinged w_._ „. . 

in Home lights, the border of each feather paler. Wing-coven blnisb- 
giay, but the outer webs of every feather have a large ovate spot, 
producing varioua tints of metallic brilliancy according to the direc- 
tion of the light. Quills brown above, with the iimer sur&oe <rf tha 
webs, the axillary feathers, and under wing-cavSrta bordeied rather 
deeply with pale orange-red. Tail slightly rounded, bluish-gray, with 
a black baad. Legs red ; two rows of scales in fron^ the sides 
reticulated. 
It is an inhabitant of Australia and islands in the PadSc ; in the 



ground, and occasionally perched upon the low branches of shrubs. 
Ifest inartificial, in holes of low trees or decayed tninks near the 
greund, sometimes on it Egga two, white. These l^rds go in paira 
generally ; their cooing is tond, and has been compared, whoi heaid at 
a distance, to the lowing of a cow, 

Ckamcepdia (Swainion), — Bill slender, entire. Wings rounded, tha 
first quill short, third, fourth, and fifth nearly equal and longest ; Ut« 
weba on both sides alighUy emaiginate. Tul rounded. Feet nther 
short ; the sides of the tarsi feathered. Types, Coiimiib* posscrina, 
Linn. ; 0. tjuoauua, Temm. (Swainion). 

C. Talpieati. It ia the OolaoJia Talpieoti of Temminok, the spedsa 
which Mr. Selby considen to be the ^pe. Length 3J inches, adult 
male j forahead, crown, and nape of neck, aah-gny ; cheeka and throat 
pinkiah-white ; upper plumage entirely brownish-orangs, with tiie 
exception of a few transverse etreab of black upon ths exterior weba 
of the wing-coverta neareet the body ; under plumage deep 



browniah-blnck, with reddish-brown tips, moderately curved ; bill and 
orbits bluish-gray ; legs and toes pale red, tha outer side of the tarsus 
with a row of amsll feathers down the line of junction b 



and parataraia; quilla broad, the fourth with a large 

Cjectdng notch Cowardi the middle of the inner web. The fnnale 
the crown of the head at a sordid gray j the apper plumage of • 



wood-brown, tinged with red ; the scapular and wing^overts marked 
OS on the male ; under plumnga dirty gray, tinged with pale tnirpli*I>* 
red. (Selby.) 



Chamaftlia Tiilpieiiti. 

This bird inhabits Brazil, Poiaguay, and other districts of South 
America. It haunts open grounda near woods, where it roots and 
breeds upon the underwood, but never far frem the ground, where it 
ia active, and feeds upon the smaller cerealia, berries, Aa. Generally 
observed in pairs, sometimes in familiea of four or six, never in luge 
flooka. Does not fly fi'om the face of man, but affects the confines of 
hooaes and farm-yards. Easily kept and propagated in aviariea. 

Pei-uKra (Swainson). — Bill slender, sub-emaiginata. Wings rounded, 
the fii-Bt quill abort and abruptly at(enna(«d, second and fiftli equal, 
third and fourth equal and longest Tul rounded. Feet strong, 
naked, somewhat lengthened ; anterior scales of the tatai imbricati^ 
lateral scales none. Type, L'ottanlia emtrea, Temm. (Swainaon). 

P. tyatpamtlna. It is the CbJumia t^paaitlria of Temminok. 
Leogth about 9 inches ; upper plumage brown, slighUy tinged with 
gray on the neck ; large spots of shining dark green on the outer webs 
of three or four of the greater wing-ooverts ; middle tail-feothera 
brown ; the two exterior on each Hi(k gray, with a broad black tiar 
near the tip ; inner weba of greater quilla deep brown ; forehead, 
streak over the eye, and under plumage, pure white; under wing- 
ooverts and sides pale oruige-brown ; undu' tail-oo verts brown ; bul 
and legs gray, thejatter with a reddish tinga 

It inhabits South Africa, where it is said to haunt woods. The 
spedea does not seem to be common. 

Qeophiliu (Selby),— Mr. Selby, speaking of Oohmba Cfatu/Ctphalm, 
Wsgler, IWttir Janatcouu, Brisson J Co^tMt&i Mranculnfs, Wagler; 
and Oolambn Nicabarica, Latham, Ceivmba QaUvt, Wagler, Bay»— 



Piriittra lg„^KuMa. 

" Whether tlie7will fonzi a wparate diTuucn, or the three fint will 
enter among the Pervterina, and the Lophymt eJons ramain a repn- 
■entntiTO of another group, we are noabls to detwmine, not poaaeoBuig 
sufficient materuJa to ioatitute so etrict an aoalfaii aa ii necenary, or 
to b-aee out with precimon the direot afBoitiea of those ipecLeB, and 
the aitaaUon they hold in mpect to the other gronpa of the 
CUnmMdor, M well u those of the adjoining families. The three firat 
wa hare proriaioiiall; included in the genus Otofhiliu. In their 
form and babita they approach still nearer to the typieal gallinaoeoua 
birda than the species we have just heen describing. Their tarsi are 
lon^ and covered with hexagonal scales ; their tail short, and rather 
pendcmt ; their wings ooncave, shorty and rounded ; aud their body, 
aa oompared with the typical pigeons, thid: and heavy. A striking 
departure from the gennvl economy of the CohnMda is further 
obeerved in th«ir mode of propagation, the number of the eggt they 
Uy each hatching not being confined to two, aa is seal to prevail in 
the groups alrea^ described, but extending to eight or ten, which are 
incubated upon the ground, and the yoimg, l^e those of the true 
gallinaoeona birds, are produced from the egg in such a state aa to 
be able immediately to ibUow the parent, which brooda over and 
attaids them like the partridge or domestic fowL Tbey live entirely 
upon the grotmd, ezoept during the hours of repose, when they some- 
tiinei lelira to boshes, or the loi# branches of tiws. They walk and 
nm with great qniekness, like the OaUina, and in fact appear to be 
the forms which immediately connect this family Vith the Pavonida 
and TelrtKmiAx. JUthoogh for the present we have placed the first 
three under the ume generic head, yet from their distinct geogra- 
phioal distributian, and the diSerence observed in the bill of the first) 
it ia more than probable that a further division will be required." 

a. eaniuMtalut. It is the Columba eartmctilaia of Temminek ; the 
Colombe Oalline of Le Vaillant. Sim about that of the Common 
Turtle, bnt with the body stouter and more rounded. Base of the 
bill and forehead covered with a naked red wattle; another wattle of 
the same hue depends from the chin, and branches of it extend 
upwards towards the ears. Plunuge of head, cheeks, neck, and 
breaat, purplish-gray ; back, scapulars, and wing-ooverts, pale gray ; 
feathers bordered with white. Belly, UPI*^ and under tail-coverts, 
Banks, and under wing^ooverta, white. Tail aborts rounded, deep 
ruddy-brown, except the outer feather on each side ; these have the 
outer web white. Legs covered with hexagonal scales, pnlplish-red. 
Iris with a doable cirole, yellow and red. The female bat UO wattle^ 
and her ooloure are less pure. (Le Taillant.) 

It inhabits South A&iea, where it was disooveind in the Oraat 
Kamaqoa ooantry t^ Le Taillant, who gives the following aoeount of 
ile habits and ^Bnilies : — " To Uie pigeons its affinity is shown by 
the form of the bill and the plnntage ; while It difite* from them in 
the pendaot wattle, elongated tarn, rounder body, less gnuwful form, 
tail, which it osniea baoging down like that of a partridge, and 
rounded vrings ; points which bring it near to the Oaliinte." A 
passage ia thus formed by it, in his opinion, betweoi tboae birds and 
the pigeons. The nart, oompoaed of twigs and the dried stems of 
grasses, is formed in aooe sli^t hollow of the gronnd, and there tbs 
female lays six or eight reddisb-wbite eggs, which are Inmbated by 
both the parenta. The yoong are hatched clothed wil^ down of a 
l«iidish-gray, run immediately and follow their parents, which keep 



COLUMBID..E. M 

them together by a peculiar oft-repeated- cry, and brood over them 

with their wings. Their fir«t food consists of the larvn of anta, dead 
inseota, and worms, which the parents point out to them. When 
strong enough to find their own food, they live on grain of difibrent 
sorts, berries insects, tc, and keep together in coveys, like the 
[lartridge and other Ttlraxmida, till tiie poiriug-time. 



OtopkUiu 
If the wattles of the last-named apeciea recall to the observer the 

highly devel. ' 

txt present ' 

GalUna. 

O. NicDbarieuM, It is the Coluatta Nieoiariea of Latham, the 
0. OaUut of Wagler. Length hardly IS inches ; iaH slender, about 1 \ 
inch long, tip but little bent downwards; the t^ pure white, the 
quills deep blackish-blue, with varying ttnin of green ; ^ the rest of 
Uie plumage rich metallic green, shooting, according to the light, 
into the variegated tints of gnlden^freeQi bronze, bright ooppcr- 
oolour, and deep purplish-red; neck-feathera long, narrow, and 
pointed, like those of the domestic cock ; barbulea towards the tip 
alky and distinct; bail ahorti pendent, nearly square; wings, whoi 
oloaed, reaching nearly to the termination of tail; legs strong, 
moderetely lone, black, covered with hexagonal scales ; nails yellow, 
gently curved, blunt- Cpon the base of tiie upper mandible of the 
male a round fleshy tubercle (probably apparent in the breeding 
season only). The female resemuea the male in colour, but bar neck- 
feathers are not so long, and she has no tubercle. 



It inhabits the isles of Nicobar, Java, Sumatra, snd nisnjr of the 
Uoluocaa, Authors differ about its habits, some asserting that ila 
nest ia }daced on the ground, and that the female lays sBveral eggs, 
the yoong running aa soon as hatched ; but Mr. Bennett, who saw 
them in Mr. Beale'a aviaiy at Uacao, aays that they w«re usually 
sera perdied apon the trees, even upon the loftiest branches, and 
adds, that they build their rode nests and rear their young npm 
tress, similar to all tiie pigeon tribe. 

Lofhynu (Tieillot). — Bill moderate, rather slender, and slightly 
gibbons towards the tip ; npper mandible cduumelad (sUloimfe) 'Ml 






COLTTUBIKB. 



tbs lidn, t""!'"*-* toirarda the point; noatrili Mtu»)*il 
winsi roundad. (VieiUot.) 

L. evrtmaiiu. It b tiis Columba atnmata of ImAata ; PAonamu 
cH^oJw Indian, BiiMaD ; CMwkM foeco, La Vaill. ; Colomba Oalline 
Ogim, Tamm. ; QrtaX CmwDed Pigeon, Edv. A apec' 
in nza all tha other Cobimbida. Total length from 27 
bill two iochea long, blank, tip* of maodiblea thickened 
upper one lomswhat deflectA) ; bead with a Urge elera 
Itf eompreawd ereat of narroir itrai^t feathen, with dsoompoaad 
or rather diaunitad nlky barbulea, always erect ; treat and bodj below 
grayish-bliu ; feathen of back, acapulaia, and ainallsr wing-coveita, 
black at the baae, rich piirpLe-brown at the tip* ; greater coverta 
■una colour, but ceotrall; barred with white, forming a aingle trane- 
Verae bond acroee the ninga when cloaed ; quilla and tail deep gray, 
the latter terminated with grapah-blue ; legi gn; ; tani 31 inehea id 
Imgih, covered witti rounded acalea not clotel; aet, with a white 
border of akin round each ; toea itrong and lomewhat ahort, acalei 
pUced H in the Q^tminn^ 



""''**Wi^_^ 



Gm( Crownad Tlgnn ( CopAynu esrsmUu). 

Thia bird Ii found in many of the iilanda of the great Indian group. 
Not nr« in Java and Banda, abundant in New Quioea and in ntost of 
the Holuocaa. Meat built in treoa; eggs two; cooing of the male 
hoane, aooompanied b; a noiae BDmewhat like that of a turkey-cock 
whan atrulling. Food— berrien, teed, grain, Ac Flavour of the flesh 
•aid to be excellent. 

"In thia magnificent and beautiful bird," aayi Mr. Selby, "we 
obMTTe a combinatjoa of form different from that of the ground- 
pigeoDH lo lately described ; for, instead of the marked affinity to the 
typioal raaorial famUiea, the Pavonidre and Tttriumida, lo decidedly 
exhibited by these ipeoiea, both in their mode of life and in their 
divlation from the uaual Columbine figure, we haie, in the present 
Inatanoe, an approximation of structure much nearer that of oome of 
^he Oracidtr, another tribe of birda which oonstitutea an aberrant 
bunlly of the Raaorial Order; and it ia on thia aooount we think that 
tbia bird cannot well be placed in the aame diviaion with the ground- 
dovea, but miut constitute the type of a eeparate group." 

FoaH CiJtmbida.—J>T. BuoMand enumerates the bonea of the 
pigeon among the remaina In the on at Kirkdals, and figures a bone 
which he aan uproaches oIom^ to the Spaiush runt ; but Profeaaor 
Owen, in hia ' ^itUh Foa^ MaTnmali and Birds,* is silent on Uiis 

COLiniBINE. [Aoduou.] 

OOLtlHBITE, a Kinetal into the ootupotitian of wUeh Iha metal 
Columblum etitanL Columblum on its fliM diMoverr was alao called 
by ohemlila Tantalum, and tbli BuiMnl has idao been ealled 

Colutnhita oooon in notugular prisms, mom or leM modified, also 



COLTTUELttACB^ « 

ii'C. It Li of an iruu-blouk or bi-owiuihliLkck colour, often with 

a choncteristic irideaoence on a surface of firoetute ; the streak dark 

hrowtt, slightly leddiah ; \aiAn snbmetallie, «*'i"'"g ; opaque i brittle. 

The hardnaaa is S to 8 ; the specific grmnty S-8 to 6L 

According to Dana the eompodtioD of an American specimen was 

Colnmhie with Ifiobic Acid SO'l 

Protoxide of Iron ISit 

Protoxide of Hanganeae 6*0 

Oxide of Tin -1 

Oxides of Copper and Lead -l 

BaTaiion specimens contain Pelopic acid, wliich, oecordiog to Boa(^ 
accounts for their high specific grarity, which rougea bom G'TtoS'l. 

This mineral is infusible alone before ttie blowpipe, but on miitore 
with borax in Gne powder it fuses slowly but perfectly, forming ■ dark 
green glass, which indicates the presence of iron. 
Columlnte is found in granite at Bodenmais in Bavaria, also in 
shemia. It ooonn in the United States in faldspathia or albitjo 
nx^ at Hiddletown and Haddam, Conneeticnt, at Chesterfield and 
Bevsrl<7, Hasaachnsetts, and at Aicworth, New Hampshire; Faro- 
tantalitt ia a Colnmhate of Iron. 
(Dana, ilmeralogji.) 

COLUHE'LLA, the oeutnd part or axis in the theoa of a noes, 
around which the sporea are arranged, without having any de6nile 
oonneolioa with it. Also Uie axis irf any kind of fruit when separate 

' the carpels : in the latter esse it is a hardened state of the 

growing poinL 

COLUHELLIACE^, a natural otder of EiOMnoDs Planta with 
epipetalooa stamena^ nnnona antiiat* busting longitodioaUy, and 




unsymmetrical flowera. They are evergreen shmba or trees. The 
leaVflfl opposite, wiUiout stipule^ entire or serrated; the flowers 
yellow and teiminoi; calyx supsriar, S-parted; corolla rotate, S-8- 
parted, with an imlnicated Ecstivation ; stameni S, inserted in the 
throat, alternate with the aegmenta of the corolla ; anthers roundish, 
3-lobed, bursting externally, eoob comnstdng of tliree pairs of narrow 
somewhat ainiiaos cells, which open loogitudiiully, and which are 
placed upon a solid fleshy connective. The affinities of thia order 
are very doubtfuL Professor Don, who first noticed the order, plocsa 
it near the Jasmines. It differs however materially from them, and 
may almost t>e described as a form of monopetalous O^agraeae. Dr. 
Ltndley, in thia uncertainty, leaves it by the sids of Btrbtraeta and 
Cindtonaeia ; to either cS which, and especially to the latter, it may 



COLDMNARIA. 



I for PlocU belonging to the 
u Pluta, . 



TOigs; 



COLimSI'PERM, 
nitunl order Matvaeea. [Halvaora.] 



nhich explode vhsD auddenlj compressed, and which look like Tegs' 
table bludden, whence the conunon Eaglish name of Bladdei^SeimA. 
The species have jellow or yellow and red flowers of Boue beauty ; 
and are kll found in the South of Europe, in Palestine, md in the 
fiinulnft Hountaini. 

COLT'MBIDiE, a fuoilj of Swimming Birds {NatMoret), having a 
smootli, atnight, oompressed, and pointed bill. 

WiUnghbj anigned the fsjnily ft place in his fllth section (' Whole- 
Footed Birda, wiUi Shorter Lws '), under the nsJne of " Douckera or 
Loons, called in Latine Cblysto^' and he divided them into " Cloren- 
Footad Douckors that have no Tails," the Qreban, and the " Whole- 
Footed Douckers with Tails," the true Divert. The following is 
Wiliughby"! doecription ' of^DouokerH in general : '— " DouokecB have 

ow, stntight, Bharp-poiiitad bills, small heads, lad also small 

1^ ; tlunr legs situate backwards, near the tail, for quick awim- 

g and easier diving ; broad 3at lees, by which nota they are di>- 

tingiiiahed from all other kinds of birdu ; broad claws, like human 
naus. Of Uiose Douckers there are two kinds ; the Smt is of such as 
an cloran-foolad, hat fln-toed, having lateral membranes all along the 
sides of ttidr toes, aid Uiat want the tail ; the.second is of those that 
ace wbolO'footed and candat^ iriiich do nearly approach to those 
Urds we call TridaOfjla, that want the back toe. These are not 
without good reason called 'Douckers,' for that tbey dive mach, and 
continua long nnder water, aa soon aa they are up dropping down 
igain." 

Bay, in his ' Synopsis,' amnges the Cloven-Footed and Whole- 
Footed OUyitAi, Grebes, and Diven, mider hia 'Palmipedes Tstta- 
doctyls di^to postioo solute, et prim6 roatro recto angusto acuto, 
Bradiyptetm et Uriuatricea, Column dictn.' He also mdades the 
genua Mergalia. [Ade.] 

linnnus placed both the Divers, property eo Called, and the Qrebee 
under hie genus Calymlnu, which stands in his ^atem nnder the 
order Anteret, between the genera Phaiton (Tropio Birds), and ZanM 
{OuIIb). 

Pennant followed BrisBon in separating the Orebea ^m the Diven. 
The fint he placed next to the Cool«, and immediately before the 
Aicoets ; and the Divers between the Quillemots and the Oulls. 

Under the term ' Plongeurs, ou Brachyptirea,' Cuvier arranges 
thoae Paimiiptda, " a part of which have some relation to the Watei- 
Hens. The legs placed more backward.thBu in any of the other birds, 
reader walking a ditBcult operation, and oblige them, when on land, 
to keep themselves in a vertical position. Aa the greater part of them 
are, besidee, bad flyeni, inasmuch as some of them cannot fly at all 
on account of the shortness of their wings, they may be regarded aa 
almost eicluaively attached to the surface of the waters. Id aocord- 
snce with this destination their plumage ia more close-set, and some- 
times it evan ofibra a smooth sor&ce and ailveiy hue. The; awim 
under the water, Uding themaelves with their wings, Dearly as if th<^ 
were fina. Their naaaid ia anffldently mnacular, their oeeoa arc 
iiiademt<^ and dur have each a pecnliar muscle on each aide of didr 
lower lannz." The following are the genera comprehended under 
this buJlT by Cuvier : — the Grebes, Brieaon {Padietft, Latham ; 
Colyntiui, BrisBon and Illiger) ; Oie Diven (Flongeons), properly no 
called (Mergm, Brisson ; Colyv^m, Latham ; Eudyta, Uliger) ; the 
Goillemota lUria, Briseoa and Illiger) ; the Auks (I^ngouins), Alea 
of Linnmoa; the Penguiiu (Hani^ticts), Aplauidj/ta of Foister, con- 
sisting of the Bub-genen ApUnodnttt, Cuvier ; Calatrhaeta, Brisson ; 
and Sphenixiit, Briasou. 

Temminck places the Qrebee {Podicrpt) next to the Phalaropti, at 
the end of his fourteenth order, the Piimatipida, or Fin-Footed 
Birds ; and the Diven {Oigmhu*, Latham) between Ills Pelicans and 
the GuiUemotB in his fifteenth order, the Palmiptdtt. 

VLt. Vigors mokes his fifth order of birds (Natatvrti) comprise the 
foUowing fauiliea ; — 

Anatida, Leach. 
Oolymbida, Leach, 

Pdtcanidai, Leach. 
Larida, Leach. 
Or, with reference to the ^pical nvupa — 
Hormal Group. 



.iAkadec 
Aberrant Group. , Bj„.,—ij- 

With longer and weU-feathered wings, and feet espe- 1 VoJ^ 
dally placed within the equipoiae of the body , •\Aiialida. 



COLYllBID.^:. 



'y of «" 

sizth order of birds, Les PalnupMes {ffatalora of Illiger and Vieillot) ; 
and the family oomprises the genera Podictpi, Latham ; Calymmu 
(part), Linnaeus ; and Ctp\ut, Cuvier. 

The Prince of Canino places Podicepi under his order Amera in 
the fiunily Lobiptda, and Colpiilmt undn' the aame order in his family 
Pygopoda. 

In the ' Fauna Boreali-Americnna,' Podierpt is placed at the head 
of the order Natatora, and is immediately succeeded by SterRU {the 
Terns) ; the pontion of Cblymiiu is between Peleeamu and Uria, 
which lust-mentioned genus concludes the order. 

Podicepi. — Bill longer than the head, robust, elighUy compreased or 



Hnd tod Foot at tb* male Earsd Grebe ; i 

Hi. Qanld'i ' Biltiili Birds / the foot frsm ■ 
ZODloglol SiKinj. 

The species of Podictpi are called Qrebea. They haunt the aea aa 
well as the rivers, are excellent BvrimmerB, and dive frequently, as aU 
who have watched the Dabchick or Little Grebe (Padictpt minor), 
and have been amused by its quickly-repeated plungings, well know. 
Tbey feed on small Sshes, frogs, crustaceans, and insects, and their 
neete, farmed of a large quantity of gras, Ac, ore generally placed 
amoDg reeds and coricee, and rise and foil with the water. 

The geographical distribution of this genus is very wid& Fiva 
European species are enumerated, and the foreign species ore very 
numerous. The form seems oapable of adaptation to great varieties m 
climate. In the ' Tables ' published in the ' Introduction to Fauna 
Boreali-Amerioana,' we And P. comutut and P. CaroUnentii among 
the birds which merely winter in Pennsylvania, and migrate in 
summer to rear their young in the Fur Countriea ; and P. eriila- 
ttu, P. ntbricoUii, and P. eoriHitiit in tiie list of speoies common to 
the Old World and to the Fur Countries. Sabine gives a deeodption 
of a mature individual of P. rufrricoUu killed at Great Slave lake, 
and of a ^ecimen of P. Carolinentu killed at tiie same plaoe, both in 
Sir John Franklin's first expedition and in May 1S22; and Sir John 
Richardson notes P. erittaint as having been killed on the Saskatche- 
wan, and P. cemtitM at Great Slave Lake ('Fauna Boreali-Amerioana'). 
P. CkUtmiM and P. Ameneannt are naUvea of the warm parts of 
America ; the Snt, aa its name implies, having been found in the Btf 



BB COLYHBID^. 

of ConoepfioD, and the nooud on the Biwdliu wtUn (Bio Qiando 
■nd S. Piuilo). 

P. oecipit^ii (Laosou) maj be taken aa aa euunple. Thu Qrebe, 
aooording to H. Leason, .a reaaAtiiXv for the d^mte tiiita of ita 

eiuisge, which ia atate-gny (gria ftrdois^ sbare and of ii utiiiy white 
low. The oheeka and foniieftd are of a light grmf ; a bundle of 
loose plumflB (plumea efflldes) springB behind each eye, and is pro- 
longsd backwBixla and on the sides of the neok. A calotte of deep 
black rises from the occiput, and ia prolonged on the posterior part of 
Hie neck half-wa; down it. The throat ia of > pearlsd-gray, which 
becomes lighter, so that the &OQt of the neck and tlie sides are of ■ 
pure white, as well aa the reat of the lower part of the body. The 
back and wings are of a deeper slate-colour, and this tint, mingled 
however with white, prevaila on the feathers of the rump. The tarn, 
toea, and the ooostderably large membranes whioh fringe them, are 
greukiah. The bill is short and black. The iria ia of a moat lively 
rad, BO brilliant aa to call forth from Vire Dom Pemetty, whose Petit 
Plongeon b Lunettea it ia, the expression that " diamonds and rubies 
have nothing to offer equal to the fire of the eyee of a spedas of 
Flongeon whioh is frequently found on the edge of the sea." The 
total length of this Qrebe is II inchea and 2 or 3 lines ; &ota the 
forehead to the point of the bill, 8 lines; tarai, IT liuea; ezt«nialtoe, 
2 inches. 

The British species of thia genoe given by Tarrell in hia ' British 
Birds,' are — P. crittatat, the Oreat-Created or Qreat-Tippet Orebe ; 
P. rabricoHit, the Red-Ifooked Grebe ; P. aymntiiu, tha SolaTonian, 
Dusky, or Homed Orebe ; P. auritat. the Eared Qrebe ; and P. minor, 
the Little or Black-Chin Qrebe, Dabchick, and DidSpper. 

CWyminK — It is the Mtrgvt of Briaaon ; Urinaior, Lac^lpide ; and 
Sudgta, Illiger. Bill moderate, alfong, atraightj vary much pointed, 
oompreaaedi nostrils concave, half closed. Wings abort; the first 
quill the longest Tail short, rounded. Three front toes very long, 
entirely palmated ; hind toe bordered with a small supple membrane. 

The Diren bear a dose resemblance to the Qrebes, from which 
tiley differ but little, excepting in their palmated feet On the water 
they are at their ease : on land, thejr, as well as the Qrebea, ara awk- 
Wanl and beset with difflcolties in their looamotion. 

They priDOipslly inhabit tiie northern latitudes, where they nestle 
in the wildest and moat desert spote. In the ' Tables ' in ' Faona 
Boreali-Amaricana,' we find C. glaciaiit and C. ttptenirioniUit in ths 
liat of species which merely winter in Pannsylvania and migrate in 
Bummer to rear their young in the Fur Countriss, and C. teptaUriann- 
lit in the list of bir^ (migratory) detected on the Korth Qeorgian 
lalands and adjoining seas (lat. 73° to 76° north), on Sir Edward 
Parry's first voyage. 0. glaciaUt and 0. ttptaUrionalit ocmir in 
Sabine's list of Qreenland Birds ; and C. glaeiattiM, C. antieat, and 
C teptaUTwnatit in Sir John Bichardaon'a list of species oommon to 
the Old World and to tha Fur Countriea. 

O. glacialit, the Qreat Northern Diver. Head, neok, and npper tul- 
oovarta glossed wi(h deep purplish-green on a blaek ground. A short 
' lebaion tha throaty a collar on the middle of tlie ueA, inter- 



Grest Northsra Dlier {Myilmi glaelatiM). 

mpted above and below, and the ahonldats white, broadly striped on 
the shafts with blaek. Whole upper plumage, winga, sides of the 
bi«aat, Qanki, and under tul-ooverb^ blodi ; all, except the quills and 



COLYHBID^ M 

tail, mariied with a pair of white spate near the tip of each feather : 
the apota form rowi, and are large and quadrangular un the acapulars 
and interscapulars, round and smaller elsewhere, smalleet on tke rump. 
Under plums^ and inner wing^nverts white, the aiiUsiiee striped 
down their middles with black. Iridea brown. Bill oompressed, 
strong, tapering ; its rictus quite straight ; its contour very slightly 
arched above ; Tower mandible channeled beneath, appearing deepest 
in the middle ; ita gonys sloping npwarda to the point ; margina of 
both mandiblee, but pu-ticularly of the lower one, infisct«d. Inner 
wing-eoverta vary long. Tail, of twenty feathers, much rounded. Total 
length Sflinchea; extentofwinglSincheB. Sir John Richardson, whose 
deacriptioD this isi obserTea, that speoimena iu mature plumage vary 
oonsidarablv in total length, upwards of an inch in length of wing, 
and mora than half aa indk in the length of the tarsus. 

The young of the year di^r considerably from the old birds. The 
head of the young, the ocdput, and the whole posterior part of the 
neok ara of an ashy-brown ; on the cheeks are small ashy and white 
points ; throat, front of the neok, and other lower parts, pura white ; 
feathers of the back, of the winga, of tha rump and flanks, of a Tory 
deep brown in the middle, bordered and terminated by bluish-ash ; 
upper mandible ashy-gray, lower mandible whitiah ; iris brown ; feet 
externally deep brown ; internally, aa well as the membranes, whitish. 
In this state Temminck says that the bird is the Ooii/minu Immer, 
{Qinelin, ■ SjsL Lath. Ind.') ; Le Qrand Plongeon of Bnflbn (but the 
plate eid. 914 repreeents a young individual of Oalymbut orcftnu) ; 
Heigo Maggiora o Smergo ('Stor. dag. Uoo.'), with a good figure. Ue 
thinks that the Imber Taucher of Beohsteiu (' Naturg. Deat^') is pro- 
bably a young of this species on aooount of its large dimensions, and 
remuka that under the name of C. Immer the young of this species 
ara often oonfonnded with those of C. arclieiu. 

At the age of a year, according to the same author, the indiridoala 
of both aexei ahow a tranaverse biaokish-brown bsjid towards the 
middle of the ned, about an inch in length, forming a kind of collar ; 
the featben of the back become of a blackish tint, and the small white 
blotchea begin to appear. In this stste it is the Qrsnd Plongeon of 
Bresson (voL vi. p. 105, pL 10, f. 1), a very eiaot flgui«. 

At tha age of two years the collar is more defined : this part, the 
head, and the neck ara varied with brown and greenish-black feathers ; 
the rmmeraua blotches on the back and wings beoome more prevalent, 
and the band under the throat, and the nuchal collar also, are marked 
with longitudinal brawn and white linea. 

At the age of three years the plumage ia perfect. 

Aeoordiog to Mdntagu, 0>lyajna glaeiaiit ia the Ooiyaiiu maximtu 
eimdatM* of Bay ; Mtrgvi major n/tvva and MtrguM nmwu of Briason ; 
L'Imbrim of Buffon ; Oreateet Speckled Diver or Loon of Willughby ; 
and Northern Diver of Pennant (' Brit. ZooL') : and tha female ia 
Oolymhut Inmer of Limueus ; Colspihui vmximut Qetneri of Ray; 
SttTfftu mnjor of BrisBOD ; Le Qrand Plongeon of Bufion; Ember 
Qooae of Sibbsld ; and Imber Diver of tha Britiah ZooIoct. It is the 
Ofymbnt torgitatui of Bnumich ; Uie Schwanhalaiger See-Tauoher, 
™- "■--icher, Orosse HaJb-Enta, and Meer-Ni ' 
of the Norwegians; Turlik of the Q 

Ti of the Cree Indians ; Talkyeh of the i^mpewyans ; Kagiooiex 
Esquimaux ; Inland Loon of the Hudson's Bay residents ; and 
TrochyddHawr of the Welsh ; it is proviacially oslled by the British 
Gunner and Greater Doucker. 

Fish is the prindpal food of this apeciea, and the herring in par- 
ticular ; the fry of fiah, crustaceana, and marine Tegetablea. It nestles 
in small islands and on the banks of fresh waten, and tha female l^s 
two eggs of so Isabella-white, maded with very large and witlt amsll 
spots of a putplish-Bsb. Sir John Bichardaon gives the ft^owing 
deeoripCion of ita maimen : — " Though this bandjKiioe bird i* gene- 
rally described as an inhabitant of the ooeao, we seldom observed it 
dther in the Arctic Sea or Hndson's Bay ; but it abounds in all the 
interior lakes, where it destroys vsat quantities of fi"li It is rarely 
seen on land, ita limbs being ill fitted for walking, though admirably 
adapted to ita aquatic habits. It can swim vrith great en-iftnees, and 
to a very oonaiderabla diatance under the water; and when it comes 
lo the aurface, it seldom expoeea more than the neck. It takea wing 
with difficulty, fliea heavily, though iwiftly, and frequently in a drcle 
round thoac who intrude on its haunte. Ibi loud and very melaooholy 
cry, tike the howling of tha wolf, and at times like the distant acream 
of a man in distress, is said to portend rain. Its flesh is dark, tough, 
and unpalatable. We caught several of these birds in the fiahing- 
neta, in which they had entangled themselves in the ponnit of fish." 
The Bpedes is sometimea taken even in tha south of England. Montagu 
mentions one which waa kept in a pond for some months. In a few 
daya it became extremely docile, would come to the call from one 
aide of the pond to the other, and would take food from the hand. 
The bird had reoeivad an injury in the head, whieh had deprived one 
eye of ita sight, and the other was a little impaired ; but, notwith- 
standing, it could, by incessantly diving, discover all the fish that 
ware thrown into the pond Whan it could not get fiah it would eat 
fleah ; and when it quitted the water, it shoved its body along upon 
the ground like a seal, b^ jorka, rubbing the breast against the 
ground ; end returned sgam to tha water in a similar manner. In 
swimming and diving the legs only were used, and nut the winge, and 
by their situation so far behind, and their lit) lo deviation Ir^ the 



V7 



COLYMBUS. 



COMA.TULA. 



P4 



tine of the body, it is enabled to propel itaelf in the water with great 
velocity in a straight line, as well as turn with astoaishing quickuessL 
In the winter of 1813-14, according to Mr. Graves, during the intense 
frost, two fine individuals were taken alive in the Thames below 
Woolwich, and were kept in confinement for some months. They 
eagerly devoured most kinds of fish or ofiaL At the approach of 
ipriog they began to show great uneasiness in their coE^nement, 
though they hiiwd the range of an extensive piece of water, from 
whence they ultimately escaped in the month of ApriL The distance 
of the river from the pond in which they were confined was several 
hundred yards, but they made their escape ; and two birds resembling 
them in colour were seen on the river in that neighbourhood for 
aeveral days after they were missed; and though repeatedly shot at, 
they escaped by diving. 

They are found in the azotic seas of the New and Old World ; very 
abundant in the Hebrides, Norway, Sweden, and Russia ; accidental 
vifliterB along the coasts of the ocean. The young in winter are very 
rare on the lakes of the interior, in Germany, Fhmoe, and Switzer* 
land; the old birds are never seen there. (Temminok.) It is a 
rather rare visitant to these islands, especially to the southward. 

C. areticut, the Black-Throated Diver, the Lesser Imber, Plongeon 
k Qotge Noire of the FVenoh. In habits and appearance this bird is 
like the last. It is more rare in this country. 

C. aeptentrunuUu, the Red-Throated, or Speckled Diver, is the most 
common species in Great Britain. 

Lesson arranges the genus Cephut, Moehring, Cuvier (Colymhut, 
Linn. ; Uria, Temm. ; Merffulus, Ray, Vieillot), uuder the Colymhidcs, 
obstsrving that it forms the passage fh>m the Divers to the Auks. 
[Auk.] 

COLYMBUS. [C0LT1IBID.B.] 

COLZA. [Bbassica.] 

CO'MARUM, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
BoBoctoB, It has a concave 8-10-parted calyx in two rows, the five 
exterior sepals being smallest ; 4-5 petals ; the receptacle ultimately 
large, fleshy, spongy, and persistent ; the style lateral near the summit 
of the nu^ the seed ascending. There is but one species of this 
genus, CpaUutrt^ Marsh Cinquefoil. It has an ascending stem, is 
about one foot high, has pinnate leaves, dark purple flowers, and 
numerous carpels seated on the dry spongy receptacle. This plant is 
a hative of Great Britain. It is found in marshes and peaty bogs. 
In Scotland the fruit is called Cow-Berries. The roots dye wool of 
a dirty red colour, and possess a sufficient amount of tannin to render 
them available for makmg leather. In gardens it will grow in any 
moist soil, and may be increased by dividing at the root. 

COMATULA, Lamarck {AUeto, Leach), a genus of Radiated 
Animals. Linneos appears to have confounded the form with the 
other Star-Fishes ; for it is only noticed by him as a species of his 
genus Aslericu, Neither Gmelin nor Pennant disturbed thui arrange- 
ment M. de IV^minville (' Nouv. BuU. des Sciences') seems to be 
the first who formed a genus for it^ under the name of AfUedon. Leach 
characterised it genericaUy under the name of Alecto. Lamarck 
makes it the first genus of his first family (Les Stell^rides) of his 
order of Echinodermatous Radiariaf placing it immediately before 
EuryaU, Cuvier arranges the genus under his Eichinodermes P^- 
cellds ; observing, that it is near to the division of the Ewryaln and 
CamatuUB that the EncrvnUet ought to have their position. Miller is 
of opinion that Cvmatviia presents a conformity of structure with 
that of the Pentacrinite almost perfect in every essential part, except- 
mg that the column is either wanting or reduced to a single plate ; 
and M. de Blainville makes it come under his first section (Free 
Asterencrinideans) of his third feunily (Asterencrinideans) of his 
third order (Stelleredians^ of his first class (Cirrhodeimarians) of his 
first type (Actinozoarians) of Zoophvtes. 

The genus is thus characterised by M. de Blainville : — Body orbi- 
cular, depressed; membranous ; protected above by an aasembkge of 
calcare6us pieces, of which one is medio-dorsal, with one or two rows 
of acoessorr articulated simple rays, and provided on its drcum- 
fersnce witn five great rays, deeply bifid and pinnated, commencing 
with three basilary pieces. Mouth rather anterior, isolated, mem- 
branous, at the bottom of a star formed by five bifurcated channels. 
A large peeudo-anal orifice at the fringed extremity of a visceral sac 

The following details of structure are given by the same author. 
The body of CcmtUula is almost entirely membranous below ; above, 
on the contrary, it is protected by a sort of cupule, which is thick, 
and composed of calcareous pieces, articulated and held together by 
a very delicate and hardly distinct skin. This cupule is formed by a 
centro-doFud part, in which two pieces placed one over the other 
enter. It is round the first that the auxiliary rays are articulated, 
and to the second the great rays are joined by means of their basilary 
part. 

The auxiliary rays, whatever may be their number, for they may 
form one or two rows, are always simple ; that is, they are composed 
of simple articulations joined end to end, of which the last is attenu- 
ated and curved into a hook. {Pig. 5.) They are never pinnated, and 
it would appear that they are not provided with any sucxers. 

The g^reat rays enter by their base into the composition of the 
cupule or cell in whidi the visceral mass is contained. Each of them 
IS formed by a simple basilary part^ and another much more extended, 

vijo. Bin, PIT. YOU n. 



divided, and pinnated. The basilary part is composed of three joints, 
a first articulated with the centro-dorsal piece, a second intermediate, 
and a third terminal, with which the two principal divisions of the 
rays are joined, and which on that account is shaped into an angle at 
its summit. The joints of this basilary part not only articulate with 
each other, but laterally they touch the corresponding parts of the 
two neighbouring rays. By such a disposition, becoming more and 
more complex, it is that the heads of EnerinUet and the genera allied 
to them are formed. With regard to the pinnated or complex part of 
the ray, it is at first constantly double, that is, formed of two digita- 
tions, which are thems^ves often subdivided in a variable manner ; 
so that sometimes the ChmiUvia bears a resemblance to a great figure 
of a sun : each subdivision is composed of joints in general but Uttle 
elongated, which augment but little in number in a given space in 
proportion as they approach towards the extremity. Their most 
remarkable points are, that they alternately differ a little in length, 
and that the longfest carry, right and lefl> on their internal surface 
compressed triangular pinnules nearly cirrhous at their extremity, 
and also composed of a great number of short articulations. The 
result is, that when the animal is dead the digitation resembles the 
leaves of the Mimo$a, because the pinnules in repose cling one to 
another like the folioles of sensitive plants throughout the length of 
the rachis when they are dosed. But the principal character which 
disting^hes the great rays from the accessory ones is, that through 
the whole length of the axis and pinnules the buccal or labial channel, 
fleshy and provided with sucking cirrhi serving the animal to seize its 
prey, is continued. In following out these channelings (espies de 
sillons), the number of which is in proportion to that of the digita- 
tions of the ray, we arrive, by means of a channel from each, and 
occupying its base, at the centre of a sort of star with thick fringed 
borders, and finally at the mouth, which is at the bottom. The star 
formed by the junction of the channelB of the rays is not symmetri- 
cal, that is, its branches are veiy unequal ; some, which we shall call 
the anterior ones, being shorter than the others, or posterior ones. 
The result is, that the mouth is not at the centre of the star, but 
much nearer one side than the other ; it is difficult to be seen, which 
is not the case with another orifice which we shall presently discuss, 
and which M. Lamarck seems to have taken for it. The mouth is 
deeply buried in the star of the channelings, is round, unarmed, and 
leads immediately into the stomach. What is remarkable in this last 
is, that its parietes are thick, and especially that it is not simpla It 
is in fact ftul of laoims, or rather it forms a sort of caveinous tissue, 
enveloped on all sides by a yellow g^ranulated matter of some volume, 
which must be the liver. The result of this disposition of stomach 
and liver is a considerable visceral mass, which occupies the excavated 
|)art of the calcareous cupule, and which is attenuated by degrees as 
it retires backwards, where it terminates in a soft and obtuse point. 
All this mass projects in the interior of a large cavity, of which it 
remains to speak. This cavity, entirely membranous — at least below, 
for above and on the sides it is doubled by the solid parte — surrounds 
the visceral mass, and detaches it from all the rest of the animal, 
except towards the mouth, where it is continued. The internal orifice 
M. de Blainville was unable to discover. It is perfectly smooth, but it 
is prolonged externally into a sort of bladder (vessie), the base of 
which is behind, and whose truncated summit is forward. This free 
summit passes even a little beyond the mouth as it advances below it. 
It is pierced by a large gaping orifice, provided with a circular row of 
tentaculiform papille. 

In the ' Descriptive Catalogue of the Museum of the College of 
Surgeons' (Physiological Series, vol. i), there is a notice regarding 
Alecto glaeialit (No. 485, ▲), wbdch imports that the alimentary caniu 
is continued in a spiral direction from the sub-central opening at the 
convergence of the radiated canals to the opening at the extremity of 
the fieuiy tube which projects forwards by the side of the mouth, 
forming a second distinct orifice or anus. Professor Owen at first 
follow^ Lamar^ in considering this tubular orifice as the mouth ; 
but after dissecting a specimen carefully, and considering the analogy 
of Alecto with the other Aeterite, he regarded it as the superadded 
orifice, and the sessile orifioe at the convei^gence of the canals or 
channels as the normal orifice, and consequently the mouth. He is of 
opinion that this tubular orifice cannot be the opening of the oviducts, 
because the ovaries are situated in membranous expansions on the 
inside of the pinnules of the rays, as has been described in another 
part of the ' Physiological Catalogue.' That the tubular cavity should 
be a locomotive orgiui he oonsiders most improbable, to use no 
stronger term ; indeed the animal is so well provided with moveable 
rays, that such an adaptation would be superfluous. Whether or not 
some respiratory actions are effected by the fleshy tube and receptacle 
is another question, requiring observation on the ouxrents, &c, while 
the animal is living, for its solution. 

P^ron states that these Badi€Uii suspend themselves by the small 
arms from fud and polyparies, and in that position watch for their 
prey, which they entotp in iheir spreading arms. 

uonuUiUa roeacea. Link, Rosy Feather-Star. The whole animal is of 
a deep rose-colour dotted by brown ovaries and fringed by transparent 
cirrhi Professor £. Forbes, in his ' History of British Star-Fishes,' says : 
— " The histoiy of this creature is one of the little romances in winch 
natund liutoi^ abounds, one of those nazxations which while beUeriiitg 



M COHATULA. 

we ■ImtHit doubt, aod 7«t while doubting wa muat beliara, it bcuig tha 
only Criaotd ammil at preHiit mbaUtlug our saa*, at one tjma lo full 
of thoea beautiful and wonderful creiturea, pnaeotiBg; pointa of groat 
intsreat noC to the aoologiat oul; but also to the geoTi^UL" In the 
Tear 1823 Mr. J. V. Thompaon discovered in the Ba; of Cork a nin giiUr 
Lttle pedunculated animal, which he colled Pentacrimu EitFopmu, 
and which proved to be the young of the ConuUtUa, and gave riae tu 
muoh interest and diaouiiaion both at home and abroad, for it waa the 
first animal of tha Enorinita kind which had been aeen in the aeaa of 
Europe, and the firat recent JSncrmttt that had ever been eiamined 
by a competent obaarver in a living state. In 1836 Ur. Thompiim 
publiahed a memoir in tha ' Edinburgb Now Fhiloaophical Journal,' 
maintaining tha propoaition that bia PeUaeriimi Eun/paut waa only 
the younj of ConaMa ; that the Feather^tar commaDced life aa an 
Bnermile, and thua ai it were changed its nature &om a Hendo-polfpe 
to a itar-fiah. He then compares the youngest Oanatwa he had met 
with, with ths oldest Ptnlatrvuu, and ibowa the gradual 




I, (hmahJa AitBna, tbraa-tOnrUia ot tb« n 
ride of tbe tune ; 1, part ot Um Dnder tide of a . 
A, oDa of the dotui nyi ma^Ulcd, ihowlnff the book or uohor. 



De BtalnTille. 



of form doling tha darelopment of the lattar towarda Uie adult atata 
of the fonner. Since that time other naturaUata have taatil!ed to 
this obaarration of Hr. J. T. Thompson ; it is confirnied by Profeasor 
£. Forbaa, Dr. Ball of Dublin, and tha Ut« Mr. W. Thompaon of 
Belfast. 
G Adtom of Lamarok ha* the foUowiog cbaractara . — 10 pinnatad. 



COHEPHOBUS. loa 

slender, penniform raya ; pionulea laooeolate, oomplicatedly eaoaliou- 
lata below ; 20 dorsal cirrbi. 

It inhabita the seas of Aiutnlia, when Pdron and Lttuaor found 
it hooked OD to an Adtona. Itia amall, dulicale, with 10 very alendar 
feathery rays, and only S inchea in diameter. The pinnulaa are 



lanoeolated, and folded m two, aa it 



e, below, longit 



le pinnu. 



"7-.. 



The apeciea of ComiluZa are widely spread. The Rosy father- 

' ' .... Q^(^ Coast. Two apedea are 

works on aoolo^, 0. maaa and C. barba!a. 



id on many pariA of tht 

Dren aa British in most works on i . 

Thay are evidently the same animal of difTetent ages 

atatee of prcservabon : thc^ are both identical wiui the C. Mediler- 

preaerred in spirits with its expanded fins fiom what it appears when 
dried. In the Museum of the Coll^ of Sui^eona there an two 
spBciniena {rota the Society lalea, one brought up from a depth of 
22fl fathoma, in 80° 20' N. lat, 12° 30' K lon^ (H.ILS. Dorothea, 
Captain Buchan, B.N.); and the same apeciea (Aueioglatialit) troot 
250 fathoma, 80° 26' N. lal, 11° S2' E. long. <H.1LS. Trant, lien- 
tenant FranUin, RN.). 

Dr. Laaeh recoida 
and De 



Tha apaciea probably are tcJerably ni 

Urae apedet, two in iba British Huae 

~ iville nine. Hany of the qi«ciea a 



[EOHOK 



FattU CoimUiiUe. 



I four apeciea ii«m Solenhofen (Oolitic group), 
of the Britiah atiato. 



Oaldfiw 
There are none in any 

COMBRETA'CK*, 

ith 1-eelled inferior 
ao, and pendnlona, the stamens definite in number, and tha oo^ledona 
convolute. It caimot be doubted that thia order haa a near rolatioa 
to Mfriactit and eapadally to Paniea. Dr. Lindl^ conmders it to be 
in olooer alliance with Lauraeta and Cbnponto. 



4 



eiPilUli ^itanuD', n^lrult; /, borluntal le 






The apeciea known as Hyrobalans are tropical ohruba or trees, with 
alternate or oppomte laavee destitute of stipules, and long Blender 
stamens. The order doea not contun any plants of much importance 
for their useful propertieo. Some of them are astringent and used 
for tanning, and the kernels of othen are eatable; they are chiefly 
valued for their brightly oolourad ihowy flaWBi% eopacially in the 
genua Conbrttnak 

COHEPBORUS, a genua of Ilahea belonging to the family of 
Qobiea. There is only one apaciea, which ii found in tha freah-watar 
lake of BailcaL It is not taken by Qis flohennen, but ia found dead 
on the shores after tlie Mvere stoima to which Uiat lake ia freqaently 



m COUFAET. 

exposed. The 6stL ia aboat a fout in lengtli, and of a Kift greaa; 
toxtiir& It ia oaUsated uid proBsed for oil, but ia not Mton, 

COMFREY. [BthfhtthilI 

COHUELTKX. [ConuLTNAiTUL] 

COUHELTNA'CE^, a ver; rdoII order of Trip«taloid«ouB 
Eodogena, uoiuiBting of Planta with aheaUiing lurga, white or mo«t 
frequenUf btoe flowers inclosed in ■ green sputhe, and a nngle 
B-oaUed oykj terminated by a nngle style. They are moreover 
remu-kftblfl for their pulley-sbaped (or trochlear) embryo Ijiug in a 
porticoiar eaiity of the albumen. Ifoae of the apeoiea are European, 
nor of any known lue. Many of them ue common Indian weeds ; 
others are handaome Amorican herbeoflona plan^ The conAnon 
Spiderworts are a good type of the oider. Thn an in many reapecta 
sUied to the Lillea. Blown •ompana them with Ruahea. They may 
alao be compared with Aliamads. Lindley placea them between 
LiUaeta and BrmuiUatta. Then are 16 genera of Uiia order and 
■bout 260 apeoiaa. 



a, Caljx. itimau, uil rlilU ; i, •tuDsn tiUEiilAed ; a, Jointed hair fimi (be 
Olaaanla of tlie«tuiitD; d, plitll; /, fniiti g, hortiontil Kotlim of Ibe Kcd- 
Tfaaal; k, i, atetloni oCuMdi t, embtra; f, ued g«RBli»t[tir. 

COUHA, a genoa of Plants belonging to the natural order 
BifiKiAiaeta. It has dicedous floweia. Tha ataminiferous flowers 
are formed of braota united into an amentom; the atamena are 
nnmenma and united into a BJngle cnlumo. The piatiliferoua flowera 
are noemcae, the oalyi ia S-parted, the styles S, the capanle 3-tobed. 

O. ddUHolHMiutf is a small tree witti a leainoos jnios. It has 
•Hemate aotiie amooth learea. The mala flowen are amentaoeos^ 
the "— Wnif conriating of imbiicatad 1-flowered acalc^ axillary and 
duat ; the (tanale flowers raosmcaa, terminal, and amalL Uiia tzea 
ylalds a gnm which poaaaaaes emetia and purgative prOMCtiea. It ia 
reooomiended in oaaea of dropay, but hu not been Introdnced into 
EoTOpaan pnottoa. It la a natiTe of Cochin China. 

OOMMUIQTONITB, a Mineral belonging to tlie Plicate of Iron 
HCioL It la a eompomid of ailiea, iron, nunganeee, and soda. 

OOMOCLADIA (&om «V<k hair, and kA^i, a branch), a genoa 
of Flanla belonging to the natural order Atiaeardiatta. It has 
hnm^ihzodito or monceoious flowera ; a 3-4-parted permanent oalyl, 
S-1 long petala ; &-1 abort atamena ; a single oTary with no style, and 
■ ain^atlgmai an orate l-oelIed,I-eeededdrupe; tha seed somewhat 
pendnlooa from a ourred funioalua originating at the base of the 



d dmtata, Tooth-Leared Huden-Plum, has pinnated shining leaTea, 
gnsn abiire, with a roimd raehia 6 inches long, S-10 teafleta on aaoh 
lid<^ with an odd one oblong, acuminate, spiny-toothad, vein, and 
■omewhat downy at the baak. This plant is a tree reading a hai^t 
efabootSOfaat. Itlaanativaorthairoodaof Cnb«aad8tI)omingo, 



COKPOSIT^ 101 

where it ia called Ouao. It has an erect not much branched steuk 
A milky juice eiudea from it, which ia glutinous, and beoomea black 
by expoaure to the air. It ataina linen and Uie akin blick, which 
cannot be waahed out of the former, and only comes off from the 
latter by the exfoliation of the cuticle. It is belieTed by the natives 
of Cuba that it is death for persons to sleep under tliia tree, especially 
if they are fat or of a full halut of body. It ia, undoubtedly, a 
poisonous tree, although nothing ia recorded of ita mode of action on 

C. inlegrifolia hsa stalked leaflets, lanceolate, quite entire, smooth. 
It ia a tree 20 feet high, with sinall scentleaa deep red flowora. 
The berries are black and suoouleot, and may be fsaten with impunity, 
but ore not pleasant to the taste. The wood is hard, of a fine grain, 
and reddish colour. The tree gives out a natery Juice, which ii 
alightW glutinous, and grows black on exposure to the air. Like the 
juioe from tha last, it stuns linen and the skin indelibly. It ia a 
native of Jamaica. 
(Don, DieAloMwUotu Plmtt; Lindl^, Flora Mtdica.) 
OOHPCSIT.^ the laneat known natural order of Plaota. It 
oonsiats of Honopetaloua Exogena mtii syugsnepious stamens, and an 
erect solitary ovule in a simple 1-oelled inferior ovary, the style of 
whiob ia divided into two arms ; the flowera are alwaya arranged in 
dense heada, or capitula, and are aunounded by one or more external 
rows of btaota forming sn involuore. Profeaaor Lindley regards it aa 
an alliance of aeverol natural orders. It consiata of herba, abruba, or 
treaa, found in all parte of the world, but aaauming an arborescent 
oharaoter only in warm latitudes : the; occur in every conceivable 
varie^ of situation, are often exceedingly similar to eaoh other in 

, and have always been, from the birth of botany aa a 

adance, the puaala and reproach of syatematista. Every 
■uimsuuig writer, with a few exoeptiona, rendered the subject more 
complicated and difficult, till Caasini, a Frenchman, of good powers of 
observation, much patience in investigation, and a clear bead, wiUi 
the command of the rich materials included in the Paris herbaria, 
sat ataadily about a re-fonnation and re.«iBminBtion of the whole 
order. In 1SS3 Laadng gave tha woild a aynopsis of the genera of 
Aatpalita^ in which for the fint time aolear, oompendioua, intelligiblo 
view of the order was ayatematicaUy taken. Subeequently De Can- 
dolle, the oelebrated botanist of Geneva, achieved the difficult task of 
syst^natining tha Cbmpottto in an nnezoeptionabls manner in his 
great worit, ' Prodromua Systamatis Naturalis Regni Vwatabilis.' 

The old and generally adopted plan of breakiog up Chmfotita into 
primaiy divisions ia that of Jussieu, which may be eiplained thus ; — 
Every head of flowera, or florets, aa they are technically named, has a 
oentnJ part, or diao, and a dronmference, or lay : of th»e floreta 
some are n^ularly tubular, with their limb out into four or Gve m- 
menta ; others are alit up on one aide, opened Sat, and turned toward 
the drcumferenoe of the head ; the Litter are named ligulate floret*. 
When In a head of flowera oU the floreta ore alike and ligulate, it 
belonged to the division CiiJuraeea (Jtg. a), aa in the dandrliou ; if 
thefloretaof thadisavraratubnlar, and thoat of tha orcurafereuce only 
ligulate, it was referrible to Cormibiftra (Jig. t), as in the marigold ; 
and when all the floreta are alike tubular, both In the disc and ny 
-), It behmged to Oftua-ot^u^ provided the faivolucre waa at 
una time sfiff and ovate, as in the thistla. The latter ohaiaoter 
.euesBBi'i in order to distinguish C^rnorocepiala from tJioae Curyat- 
Tnftra in iridch tha ray ia not developed, as common graundsal. To 
(heae three diviaiotis a tburtli baa in later times bean added nndar the 

ime of Latii^ifOTa, in oonaeqnenoe of the floreta having diatlnetly 

ro lipa of unequal siae. {Figt. d and t.) 

These divisions have however been thought obleotionable on aereial 
account^ and De Candoll^ following Cassuil and LesainB, has tnialed 
more to modifications of the style ; the result of which b the folloi^ 

g arrangement i£ the order in eight tribee : — 

■ T^Hndifiora; namely, with the hermaphrodite florets regularly 
tabular, and C-toothed, seldom 4'toothed. 

Tribe 1, Ytnumiaeta. Style of the hermaphrodite flowers cylin- 
drical, its arms usually lengthened and subulate, rarely ehort and 
obtuse, always equally hispid la about all the length. The true stigma 
ending short of the middle of the arms of the style. A part of the 
~~~'Issa Oorgwiiifera. {Pig. 1.) 

Priba S, Enpiloriaeea. Style of the hermaphrodite flowen cylin- 
drical, with long somewhat club-shaped arms, which on covered 
externally near the end with papillose down. The true stigma but 
little prominent, and usually ending short of the middle of the arms 
of the style. A port of the rayleas Corymb^era. (Fig. 2.) 

Tribe 8, AiltriidtiE. Style of the hermaphrodite flowera cylindrioal, 
with linear arms, rather flat externally, and towards Ilia end equidly 
and finely downy. The true stigma produced about as for aa the 
iiiirin of the external down. A part of Corj/mbifera. (Pig. 3.) 

Tribe *, SenttvmiiUa. Style of the hermaphrodite flowers cjlin- 
drioal, wit^ linear arms having a pencil of hairs at the point ; either 
truncated, or produced beyond the pennl into a abort cone, or a long 
narrow hiapia appendage. The true stigma broad and prominoit aa 
br «a the penciL A [«rt of Qoryv^iftra. (Fig. 4.) 

Tribe 5. Opuma. Style of the hermaphrodite floweia thickened 
and knobby towwda Uie npper end, and often pencilled at the knob^ 



CONCBACEA. 



UH 



aenfiamt. A)l Uie CfnaroapMaiiE. {Pig. S.) 

* ■ IiMalifionx ; ntxaaij, with the hennapbrodito florati nnuUj 2-lipped. 



on th* outaid^ uid >t the upper part oovared irilli 
{Pig. 8.) 

Tribe T, ^ouaunaaic. Style at the hermaphrodite Sowen nerer biabb? uid 
thickened ; the unu linear, latier long, truncated, and pencilled at the point 
onlj. (Pig. 1.) 

■ * * lAgydifiora ; namely, with all the flowsn hermaphrodite and li^ate. 



of the middle of the . 




De Candolle egtimatea Conptaita at ODe-t«nth of the whole TegetAb'e kingdom. 
They are in soma cuea ■oporiGo, aa Isttuoe and aucoory ; in otbera Uiej are 
diuretic, aa variou* ooDysai ; aome are tonio and atomachic^ aa wormwood and 
cbamomile. Common artichokes with tbeir auooulant recaptacl ei, and Jeruaalem 

' utichakes with their auoculent tubera, are the only eaculents. Maoy are beautiful 
objecta to look upon, and are amoagit our cboioeat garden flowen, aa dahliaa, 
tnari^ilda, ooreopsia, aatan, Ac. 

For furtber infonnBtion on thie order iM-^AcBILLla ; AirTBIUIS; ARtnoa: 
Abtucsia; Astib; Baboehahiu; Bklubj BtDiHa; Calehdula; CKMTADitEa; 

' CBBTUNTBnnrM; CtOHaaacBX; CiuHOBiOHi CiMaRAniA} CoriTZAj CoRTMBtrinxi 



Crems; Ci.v.tn>i Qm.tik.otM; Dablu ; DiOTia ; 
tle; Bbioeiiohj BurAlonloM ; Filioo; Hsum- 
; HiEHAciuu; HTFocBcuia; Ihdla; LaorncA; 

LarBANA ; Leontodon; Luiostbis ; Sohohuh ; Hdl- 

aEDID>; PETABim; PlOHLS; PBINANTEBBi PtBITHBUII; 

SEnxno; BouDAOO; OFOSintAj TaHAOETDM; ThbiucIa; 

TRAOOI'OOOII ; TUBalLAOO. 

COUPOUKD FLOWERS are the flower-heada oT 

Comparita:; they are maaiea of nnall flowua coUedAl 
upon a deprss»d azii, or receptacle, and aurrounded by 
ao involucre of flon! leave* or braota. 

COUPT'ONIA, a gennB of Flanta belongiiig to th> 
latural order Mj/rieactiE, named after Hwiy ComptoD, 
uahop of London, by whom tite fine collection of ptanta 
attached to the epiaoopal palace at Fulham waa formed. 
The male flowers have cylindrical looaelj imbrioatod 
catkins, with dectduous l-flowei«d braeli; ! aepala; 
' stamens, adhering in pain : the female flowen have 
rate deuealy imbricated catkins, with 1-flowered braota ; 
aepala, larger than the brada ; 2 eapillaiy abylea, aud 
l-weded nnC. There is onlj one speeiea, the C. atpUiu- 
fotia. Sweet FernT It ia a small bush fhim 3 to 1 feet in 
height, yielding a powerful aromatic fragnnce when 
rubbed between the fingers. It haa long lin^ pinnatLfid 
leavea, brown and nther downy on the nndarnde, shining 
on the upper. It ii a native of the wooda and mouuUJna 
of the United Statea, whera it la a favourite domwUo 
remedy for the cure of dianfaoea. It poaaeeaea tonic and 
aatriogent propertisa. It ia a handaome ahrub, and will 
thrive in a peat soil or sandy loam, and may be propa- 
gated by layen or Backers. It was called Ltqttidamiar 
ofpleni/olttm by Linnaua, but differa very muoh from 
that genua in Ita cfaaraotata and propertiea. (Lindley, 
Plora MedUa; London, Saq/dopaaia a/ PlanU.) 

COHPTONITB, a Hineial, also called Thomnmilt. 
Trimetric. In right teotangular prisma. TIsnally in 
maaaea having a radiated atruotore within, and oonaiat- 
ing of long flbrea or acicnlar eryatala. Also amorphoua. 
Cleavage parallel to the diagonal planea of the primai; 
form. Flaoture uneven, oonohoidaL Hardnea^ acratchea 
fliior-apar. Colour anow-white; Inatre vitreoos, in- 
clining to pearly ; tranaparsnt to traoaluoent. Specific 
gravity, 2'S to 2-lT. Compositian :— 

SiUca 38-S 

Alumina . 307 

Lime 135 

Soda i-5 

Watar 13.0 

It intumesces aud Incomes opaque, but the eilgea merely 
are rounded at a high heat. When pulverised it gelatiniaea 
with nitric or muriatic adds. It is diatinniiahed from 
NatnSilt and oilier Zealita by ita difficult fuaibility. It 
occurs in Amygdaloid near Kilpatrick, Scotland ; in 
lAvas at Veauvioi; in Clinkatone in Bohemia; also at 
Peltar'a Point in Nova Scotia, in Trap. 

COKCHA'CEA, a family of MMutea in IL De Blain- 
ville's arrangement of the Animal Kingdom. The fol- 
lowing is hu definition of the family : — " Mantle cloaed 
before (en avant), above, and behind, where it is pro- 
longed by two tubes more or less long, extensile, and 
either aeparated or unlt«d ; abdomen constantly provided 
with a foot of slightly variable form, aerving for loco- 
motion. Shell nearly always regular, entirdy oloaed, 
eqaivalve; nmbonta curved forward; hinge dorsal, com- 
plete — tiiat is to say, with teeth and a lignment; ttua last 
cither external or internal, ahoit, and awoUen (bomb^) ; 
two distinct muacular impresmona united below by a 
ligule more or less large, and very often inflected or 
rutuming backwards {rentrie en arriere). 

" All the animals of this &mily live plnnged more or 
leaa deeply in the sand or in IJie mud, bnt Uhey are still 

U. Rang thus modifiei De Bl»nville'a definitjon, 
priDcipally for the introduction of Iridma (which aooord- 
mg to the observations of II. Deehayea ooold no longer 
be retained among the StAmylUacta) and Oratdn^ia, a 
foBsil apeciaa 

" Mantle closed, fiimished with a conaidenble antero- 
inferior opening, for the passage of a foot, and pnaenting 
two posterior tabee more or leaa elongated, eitenaila, 
united or aeparated longitudinally, the lower one serving 
for reopiration, and the upper one for dejectiona. Shell 
equivalve, geaendly regular, rarely gaping; umbonea 
more or leea curved forwards; hinge almoat always with 
teeth ; ligament ahort and swollen, internal or external ; 
murcular impreaaioDs vei; diatinct ; united by a pallial 
impreaaion more or len excavated posteriorly. 

" Animals marins^ rarely ftedi-water." 



1>3 



CONCHACEA. 



CONCHACEA. 



CuTiar, in hii li*t edition of tlis ' Rigne AnimJ,' at, Ibi 
defiuition of the Cardiaeta, th« fourth funilj of bis 
A eijAala, haa th* folloviDg liot« ■ — -" U. d* BUinviUs en fkit U 
fuuiUe d<a Conchaeta." The following ii CuTler*! definition of bi» 
Cudiiu^: — " HuUe open in troai (pur dennt), mnd moreorer with 
two Mparate opening*, cme for reapintion and the other for the excra- 
ments, which mre tirolanged into tubes eometiiDaa diitinot, lometitnes 
onitfld iiit« ■ ungle mue. Then U idwafi a tiaDirene mtuole at 
each eztnnu^, and a foot which moat fraquoitl; Mnrea for oraarang. 
' It mtj be re^rded m t, Huffidentl^ gennal ride, that those irtiidi 
have long tabea live plunged in the mnd or und. One may rvcogoiw 
on the Bhell thii oondition of otguiiaatiou by the mora or lew 
developed contour (contonr plus ou moina rentnnt), which the im- 
preudon of tha BttochraeDt of the borders of the mantis deicribeB 
bafare un iting with the impnadon of the posterior tnnsvene 

These definltiona appear oontntdictoiy, bnt in reality they are 
meant to conrey the same idaaa. Tha month is placed anteriorly, Uia 
foot ia eiaertad <tiferii)rlj, and the tubes opeD poeteriorly. The fbl- 
lowiug i* an anangemaot of the genera : — 

Hinge lineu- and tootUess— freshwater. (Hang.) 
Iridiita. — Animal elongated, sbaight, nther thick od the back, 
thinner towards its inferior border; mantle daheate, terminated 
anteriorly by a thick border, open bom the anterior musole to two- 
thirda of the lower border for the paassge of the foot ; harden of 
the mantle united throughout the whole posterior part, whenoe q>ring 
two abort and unequal tubes, with no rebsctor muacle to the aiphoni ; 
foot compressed and aharp-edged. Shell, with an epidermis, nacreous 
or iridescent internally, tolerably thick, oral oblong, elongated, in- 
auriculated, eqniv&lTe, inequilateral, the anterior end sluaW than 
the posterior, a little gaping at either end ; umbonea small and pro- 
jecting but little, alighUy inclined ; hinge veiy long, linear, attenuated 
towBidi the middle, often crenulated, as it wers^ throughout its 
length ; ligament Tery long, marginal, external ; muscular impreoiona 
Tery distinck Example, I. txatita. Lam. ; 1. tlmgata. Sow. 



TrUima aeliea, onbtUid of uturti ■!». 
I«mank pros the riTera of wnnn climates aa the locslitj. The 
specimens were supposed to oome from China. H. Caillaud found 
them in considerable abundance in Uie Nile ; and from his speoinieni 
preesrred in spirit U. Deahayes made his examination. Hr. O. R 
Sowerby figures another spades (' ZooL Joum.,' roL i.), I. IfiMtea, 
obtained from Sennaor bj X. CoiUaud, and sent to England by U. 
D'Aadebord. It veiy much i Mumbles the species given here as on 
eiunple, bat its hinge margin is not crcnulatfid or dentatod. H. Des- 
hayea, in his lost edition of Lamarck, mokes It identical with 
/. uotita. Lam. and Dash., Anodenta emiica, BLdav., and Le Hutel, 



Begolar: Hinge-Teeth lateral and wide apart (marine). 
Oardium [CiAnroHl. — Tha apeoiea are onmennu, and 



a very la^e ai 



of Lomanik, gives 



} separate from the others, oomprehending the spedes with com- 
preaaed Valves strongly oarinated in tha middle, observing that it is 
difficult to suppose that tha animal is not modified in unison with 
this ■ingulor {noformation. U. Rang oorroborates Cnvier's observo- 
tioD, fmm the examination of many living individuals of Cardiuin 
CariUfa, the type ; but U Deahayes oonaidars that theform can only 
be admitted as a aaction. 

De BloinviUs divides the genus into the follovring secUoaa 

1. Species more or less gaping posteriorly, and wi<ti the ribs of the 
shell as lai^ aa the channetings. Example, Cardium smMcMM. , 

2. Speoiea not gaping, and with the ribs as large as the ohannslings. 
Example, 0. Inicrciilataic*. 

3. Species not gaping, with the ribs loigar than Uie ohannaliugs. 
Example, C tdnU. 

i. Smooth or almost smooth species. Example, C. dongaiitM. 

5. SpecisawhaBsanteriorddeis very shortandneariyflat. Example 
C. ktmuartiiiim. 

Sevetsl spades have bean added to this genus from the ooUeotion 
of Hr. Cuming. 

The spedes of Oardivm are found foaaiL 



nalonl lllt. 1. Otriium [?Mi(Hr«H>) 

Deahayes in his Tables gives fifty-three living spedes and thirty-nine 
fossil (tertiary), and C. ringm, C. ciliare, (7. ccAtnaMtm, C. ntonttMH, 
C. tduit, C lafterca/aMm, and 0. ptaimlaM, as both living and fossil 
Bpedea (tertiary). Of the recent epedes M. Deshayes, in his edition 
(^ lamarck, where they are given as forty-dght, considers C. IndicHm, 
0, ringait, C. ecAtfuWmt (of which last be makes C. (uiermJottiM to be 
only a variety), C. nileat»n, and C. ethile (common cockle) as identical 
with fcasil apaoiei described by Brocchi and others under different 
names. The fossil species he nukes amount to thirty. Of theae he 
refera C. tckinatMm, to its living analogue, C. Burdigalimtm to the 
recent C. Indiokm, C, rhmnbiida to the recent C. eduU, and Considers 
C. dilsrumwn. Lam,, as identical with C. kiaiu, Brocchi. The fossils 
ooeur in nearly all the fosailiferouB atrata from tha Supracretseeous 
the Qrauwa^a group, and appesr to be most abundant in the dig. 



inferior border for the passags of a compressed and very large foot : 



Cipta BraxUittuU, 



CONCHACEA. 



,e diBtijict bi 



umboDee ; a large Bi 



le polllBl ii 



The ipecieB are found in temperate and warm isoa. They bu] 
themsalTea at a bihbII depth m the sand, where they ore said to 1 
with the posterior part upward! to facilitate the inSux of the water 
for respiration. The genus has beau foimd in sandy mud and soft 
mod, at depths vaiying from five to twelve fathoms from the aurface 
of the leo. 

Hr. Q. B. Sowerb; has added a new species, C allior, brought he 
by Mr. Cuming. {' ZooJ. Proc.') 

Donax. — Animal rather compressed, more or less triangular, having 
the mantle bordered with tentacular appendages ; kbial appendages 



laigs ; mouth small ; branchiie ven unequal, on the » 



le side ; foot 



iDgmtO a duns of the mootle. 

Shell more or leea triangular and oompressed, always longer than 
it ts high, regular, equivalve, very inequilateral, posterior side shorter 
tikan the antsrior ; umbones but little prominent, and nearly vertical ; 
hinge composed of two cardinal teeth, sometinufl upon both valves, 
Bometinies upon one only, and one or two lateral teeth more or less 
distant ; ligament external, short and swollen ; muscular impreasions 
rounded, nnit«d by a pallial impression, whioh is straight and very 
much excavated posteriorly. 

The species are widely extended. De Blainvilla says that they 
occur in all parts of the world. They pltmge themselves in aond and 
sandy mud, where the animal lies with the short side of the shell 
uppermost, at a depth longing from the surface of the sea to ten 
hdioms. 



M. Deshayes in his Tables « 



le living, and in his edition of Lamarck thirty of thsM^ 
BTH 2>. puAeicou, Limi., as havingbeen established on a yoong 
of A swrtvm ; i>. trranosii, Lam., as ft rariet J of i). eiHiaafa ; 



2>. (rifttcfra, as approaching 



tbs (^thmirr than the AnuKet; 
oelonging to the genus Capia, Lam., if Lamarck's 
ligoroualy followed ; D. cardiliidtt (the onimoJ), as 



o that of Cardiam vudium than those of the 
Ihnaea ; and O. MerUe and D. leripta, as having more of the ohano- 
tsrs of OyUunta than Donaea. Forbes and Hanley give ths fitllawiitg 
Bpedes as British :^D. anaftnuL It has the inner margin crenulated, 
and the hings with lateral teeth. It is the D. tnmctUiu of Linnaiuo. 
It is veiy common on all our shoreo. D. potilut luui the inner margin 
eotire; It is the D, eoB^lanaivt of Montagu, and is one of the most 
beautiful of our native shells. It is never common, and is much prised 
by ooUectoro. It is found on the south coasts of England, and at 
Itoatry Bay in Ireland. 

Lamarck divides the species Sato two Beetjans : fiist, those which 
have the internal border of the valves entire or nearly bo ; seoond, 
those that have the internal border distinctly crenulated or dentated. 

De Blainville aeporatea them into Sve divieions, according to the 
shape, sculpture, and markings of the shell His fifth divinon is the 
genus Capia of Lamarck. 

Mr. Q. B. Sowerby, in his ' Oeoera of Sbella,' says, " Of fossil species 
there are very few : Brocchi mentions two, and we possess a Bmsll 
one&om Bordeaux, but we believe they at« very scarce." De Bloin' 
ville quotes Defiance for seventeen, three of which are anali^uea, one 
•t Loignan, near Bordeaux, one in lUly, and a third In the environs 



CONCHACEA. its 

of Paris. Deshayes in his Tablesgivea fifteen fj sil ,l«rtinry), and one 
only (D. tiongata) as both living and fossil (tertiary). In Iub editjon 
of Lamarck, the last-mentioned species is passed without any notice 
of its occurring in n fossil state ; but D. tnintviut is noticed as faesil, 
and Brocchi, ' Conch.,' t.ii., p. 637, No. 1, is quoted ; nine fossil speciea 
only ore given. The fosailB are said to have occurred principally in 
the blue marls of the south of France, Ao., the bads at Bordeaux and 
Dai, and in the oolitic group. 

(hattlupia. — Shell subtrigonal, oquivalve, regular, nearly eqnilatenj, 
a little attenuated at its posterior part, and pregenting at the pontero- 
inferior border a alight sinuosity ; umbonee very small, not projeetiog, 
hardly inclined forwards ; hinge with three cudinol diverging teeui 
in eo^ valve, and from three to six cardim.«erial teeth, lamellar, with 
finely dentelated edges, converging towards ths sommita, and situated 
a litUe below them, under the ligament ; a single lateral tooth, ante- 
rior, beneath the lunule, in the left valve, corresponding with a hollow 



oval, noitsd by a pallial impr«asion largely and very deeply excavated 
poeteriorly. 

This genos, founded by H. Chories des Moulins, was confounded 
with the Donaces by M. de Basterot. U. Bang, who agrsea with 
H. des Moulins on the propriety of this separation, says that there is 
but one species, Q. donacifonnu, which is fbsaiL It is found in the 
marine beds of Mdrignao (tertiary). Dr. Lea, in his ' Contributions 
to Qeology,' describee and figures another sp< ' ~ " " " " ' 
Claiboma, Alabama (Amsrioa), here copied. 



Craltlupia VMlintii. 

IVUtna. — Animal generally very much compressed, oonsiderably 
eloDgitad; mantle moderately opeo at its antero-inferior part, and 
bonier«d with tentacular appendages ; branchim unequal, on both 
■idea ; foot Teiy mach eonpreeseiC trenchant, and painted before ; 
tubes very muah eloogatad, aepftrmted, and oap^ls <tf being retutned 
'~to a fold cf the mantis. 

Sbdl gmerally riongated, and very mnoh oompreMed, equiralvs, 
regular, sometimes slightiy inequilateral ; the antoior aide not being 
always much longer than the posterior one, which is oftan angular, 
witli a fleiuous and irregular bend or fold at its lower btndar; 
' [mea very small; hinge with three cardinal teeth, and two lateral 
which Gire often distant, with a hollow at their base in eooh valve ; 
„ unt posterior, swollen and elongated; a very small second 
ligamant near the umbo ; muscular impreasioiis rounded ; poUiol 
imprenion straight, and very deeply excavated. 

lAmarck mokes the forme of Tellina and Tdiinidm disliiiet^ genericL 
Mr, O. R Sowerby follows Lamarck's arrangement, observing that of 
the TUfiwE there are many apectiB,someof a form very much elongated 
in a transverse direction, aa T. roitrata, T. Spengleri, ftc ; others of an 
oval shape, some of which are rough on the outeide, T. Iinjnq/alu, 
for example ; othen, again, nearly orbicular, T. timbmata, T. eamaira, 
ka. ; a very few have one valve more flat than the other, T, optrei^aHt, 
for instanoe : while both valves are remarkably deep in others, aa in 
T. 100*0040. Of TtUinida, he says that the number of shells that 
may be ranged under it is rather conalderable, althou^ Lamarck baa 



th M. de BlaJnville and H. Rang think that theea two form* 
belong to one genus, and M. Deabayas is of the same opinion. 

The species are found in almost all seas, but more particularly in 

oae of worm climates, where, like the Doaaca, they live plunged in 

sands and sandy mud ; TeWino having been found in the former 

depths varying from the Burfoce of the aea to seventeen bthoms, 

and Tdlinidei in sandy mud at depths ranging &om five to riitaen 

iathoms. Mr. Q. B. Sowerby obawves that thsy are ocmmonly th« 

prey of Aporrhtridei, Bttcema, and other cftmivoroos Troehtl^iodt, 

which pierce the shell to devour the inhabitant. 

The speciea ore very numerous. M. Deshayes, inhisTablee, makes 
tha number of livingspeciesaiity-eight, and that of TUItnuJu, one. In 
his edition of Lamarck (183S), he records sixty-two only, the number of 
speciea of TtUinidet being still one. Of these, he connders soma aa 
repetitions or varieties (TtUina nmmaettUUa, T. nlijf^imta, for example 
tha Gnt of which ha Donsiders a white vonety of T. rodi/tia, and tha 
second as identical with T. tofvatfro, tha only dilTersnee being that 



IN CONCUACEA. 

of colour), and othan u> founded merelj on the diflemuM of i^ 
T. ehtonititea, for exumpls. 
Laourck dinded the spscUa into — ' 

1. TboM with the shall traiiBTanely oblong, ExHbpIe, T. 

3. Thou with tba shell orbiauUr, or loimded onL Example, 
T. teoiinata. 
De BlaisTille dirides the geniu Ihua : — 

1. Sabtriquetral ipecisB. EumpU, T. bimaaUala. 

2. EloDgaiad Bpeoiea, but which uve the posterior side shorter 
and lurTDwaT (plus dtroit) than the uitarior. Exunpl^ T. radiala. 

3. Onl, or Buborbioubtf, sod nwl; eqniUteraL Kumpla, T. 
tabmata. 

4. EqoUatersl apecice, Bufflcieotly elongated, almost without a 
fliKuoaa fold ; two divergent cardinal teeth, and two distant lateral 
ones, of wbich the antarior is but little distant from the umbo. 
{TtlUnidu, Lazn.) 



Thefoaailsi 



1. IMItfu nxf rofa. 1. Tellmi 

■B recorded as ocourring in the Sap 



ronp, in the Cntsceou* groop, and in the Oolitio group (Coralline 
Oolite, Yo AshJre ; Kinuneridge Cia; ; Bemeae JuraX Sir S. Hurchison 
mentions two Bpeciea (probab!;) in the Salopian outlier of Liaa. 

Aatpkidana. — Shell suboval or rounded, of little thickneas, longer 
than it ia high, inequilateral, sometimea ■ little gaping ; hinge with 
one or two cardinal teeth, and lomeUnMa latenl tseth mora or Ism 
projecting ; ligament double ; one lignment external and abort, the 
other iutenial and fixed in a narrow (Aroite) hollow of the hinge. 

As the ganoB was left b; Lamarck, it would appear to be widely 
■pread, for it is recorded as oooarring in the European aaaa (Northern, 
Ensjidi Channel, MediterrsDeu) ; t^oae of Auatralia and the south ; 
and on the ooaats of BranJ. But it should be remembared that A. 
torbaioidm, Imd., Mga Nonetgica, ChenuL, ia the example giren by 
Deehayaa f tn" hia gonna CWcodssmn, while ^.plairella (aeasof Anatralia 
and Kangaroo ialsa) is one of his JfeMdosMta. The EpeoieB, which 
are tolnmbly nomaroua in their undisturbed state (Amtphidttma, 
I^m.), are sMd to have been found in sands and mud at depths 
vaiTing b-oin the sur&ce of the sea to forty fathoma. Lamarck gives 
aixl«an ntadea ; Hr. Q. B. Sowsrby baa added twelve, brought home 
bjHr. Cuming. ('ZooL Pnio.') 

J. s>arM(nX<H nay be takes Han example of the genna. Itisfoaud 
on the ooaat of Brazil. 



Bnt few ipeoiea have been found foaaiL 

Maodttma (Deshayes).— Animal inclining to oval or nbtrigonal, 
flattened ; lobes of the mantle united for two-thiida of the posterior 
length, and provided, at their posterior extremity, with two short 
aipbona prolonged within by a very delicate membrane; foot verv 
much flattened, quoitrangulor, hidden in port by the ' ' ' ~ 



COMCHACEA. IW 

are abort, truncated, and flied (aoud^) posteriorly, the eitdmal pair 
amaUest and BubarticuUted. Shell oval, transverBe or triangular, 
thick and ordinarily closed. Hinge with a apoon-ahaped hollow, 
Btruight and mesial for the ligament, and, on each aide, an oblong and 
simtile tooth. (Deebayes.) 

M. Deahajes remaps that the ahellB of this genus are eaally 
reoognised. llie ahell is always thicker than that of the ilaelra : 
they ore more compreaaed, more completely cloBed (mieui ferm^) 
and in this respect approach the OrattattUa. The binge is particularly 
remarkabla ; in the middle of the border and immediately below the 
umbo ia placed a spoon-ehaped triangular deep hollow, the border 
of which pnijecte within the valves as in the greater part of the 
ZolrartOL On each aide of tbia spoon-like procees, in which the 
ligament is inserted, is seen in each valve a Urge thick tooth, and 
behind ia a hollow to receive tho tooth of the opposite valve. Muscular 
ImpreBBionB unequal ; the anterior largest, elongated ; the posterior 
somewhat rounded. The pallial impreasioQ in the spedes which 
approach the Maclra haa a moderate posterior ainuoaity wbich 
diminishes mora and more in proportion oa the species have more 
reaambUnoe to the Oranattlla. The ainuoaity exiata however in all 
tiie epedea of the genua. 

Ouningia (G. B. Sowerby). — A genua which ahould he plaoed near 
to AnpKidama. It ia remairfcable for the diaaimilnrity of the hinge 
of the two valvea, one having a strong lateral tooth on each aide of 
the ligament, and the other being entirely destibute of Uteral teeth. 
Having only met with a small West Indian species, we could not 
venture to oonstder this gcmiiB as established, until Hr. Cuming showed 
UH several species in his rich collectian of South American and Pacific 
abelts, one of which ia sufBciently large to show the charaotepa 
distinctly. ('Oeneraof BocantandFoseil SheUa.'Ho. 40.) Mr. Sowerby 
eharacterissa the shell as inequilateral, equivalve, wiUi the anterior 
side rounded and the posterior rather acuminated. A single small 
anterior cardinal tooth observable in each valve : one strong lateral 
tooth on each side of the hinge in one valve, but no lateral tooth in 
the other valve ; ligament internal, and affixed to a somewhat spoon- 
shaped pit in each valve. Muscular impressiona two in each valvc^ 
lat^al and distant, the anterior irregular and oblong, the posterior 
ronnded. A very large Btnus in the muscular impresaion of the manUo. 

The apedea are found in the tropical seas oa far as ia yet hiown, ia 
clay, mud, and aand, in the fissures of rocks, at a depth varying from 
the BOiface of the aea to six fathoma, No fossil specie* known. 
.. (Sow.). 



Cuminfta mutiea, 

Madra. — *plmtl oral, somswhat thick, wiUi the borden of tba 
mantle thick and simple, fHimisbed posteriorly with two tubes but 
little elongated end united ; branchial lamin« small and nearly equal ; 
foot oval, trenchant, very long, angular. Shell transvene, inequi- 
lateial, aubtrigonal, sometimes a little gaping at the sidee; umbone* 
protuberant ; hinge with one cardinal tooth, folded into the shape of 
the letter T, the point being neanat the umbo and the branches 
diverging from it ; posterior to this and very close to it ia a very 
thin sluup tooth ; aometimee the bronchee of the folding tooth are 
separated at the base, forming two divarging teeth ; ligamental pit 
immediately behind the angular tooth and projecting within tbe 
sbelL Lateral teeth, two on each side in one valve, one on each aide 
in the other, diverts from the umbones, and very near the margin, 
thin, moatly elongated, and the inner ones more prominent than the 
outer, but m aome species very short, in the tbiokar spedes perpen- 
dicularly atriated. Muscular impressions two, lateral, distant; pcdlial 
impreesion with a small sinus. Ligament oonsisting of two portiona 
(as usual), one, by far the larger, internal ; the other external. In 
some spedea the umbones are separated, and the ligament farma a 
deep pit extending both within and without to the point of the beaks: 
of this Jf . Spengltri is an example. 

" Thia genus," aaya Mr. O. B. fjowerby, " ooutains a groat number 
of spedea, some of which are handsome and others very ungular 
shslla ; upon examining a number of species we think it might ba 
dedrahle to divide it mto several genera, because we find aeveral 
distinct forms in it." It is found in Europe, East and W«t Indies, 
Africa, North America, Ac, buried generally in sandy mud and Bands 
at a depth varying from the surface of the aea to 12 fathoms. 

The spedei axe numerous. DeshByes,inliiBTables,gives thirtjr-two 
living ; m his edition of Lamarck thirty-three ; but in his opinion 
one of these, M. datutcia, is not a Maclra but' a ltitodmt»a, and 
others are lepetitJODS or varieties. 



Ill 



COSCHACEA. 



De BUinTille thua divides Uie genus ; — 

1, 8p«dw whoM eanliQsl teath become nearlf 
ooosequeDce of the enliirgement of the ligamantal hollow. Elunple, 
U. giganlta. 

2, Species »11 of whowi teeth ore Ter? lorgs, Ismallar, knd not 
■triatsd. Example, M. SttiUonHa. 

3, Thick and solid species without sn epidermis ; the Utarel 
teeth Snel; atri&ted; mantle pteroed with two apenings; but 
almost withoat tubas. Example, M. IrigimeUa. 

i. Very thick solid specieB atristed longitudiosUy ; cardinal 
teeth none or unt to nana; Utenl teeth very thick, approximated, 
raised ; an external ligunent besides the intranal one. 



Jladra Bratilimi 
Mr. a. B, Sowerby ssyo, " The fose 
they are onW found in the tertiary bed^ unless indeed some very 
ringular fosaili faimd in the secoQiliuT strata, particularly oolite, be 
tndy refarrible to thia genus ; of this however we cannot be eertidn, 
beosose we know not thsir hinges ;" they will be found represented in 
Sowerby's ' Mineral Conchology.' Da Blainville quotas M. Dafrance 
for eightean fossil apeoiBS, one identical, one analogue in the FUiian- 
lin, and another analogua "dana la Caroline du Kord." Desha^M 
in his Tables gives fourteen foaail (tertiary) snd four as both living 
and fossil (tertian) : in hia edition of Lamarck but three ipecies are 



maiborae 

. anMotetlcL — Shell eqoivalve, tnnsrarse, inequilateral, not attached 
nor gaping. In one valve two strong, cuneiform, mgosa, loinetimea 
perpandicularly-grooved cardinal teeth ; in the other odIv one ; liga- 
netit internal, attached to a concave space placed on the anterior 
ude of the binge ; the pit divided by a carina into two portions, and 
that part of the ligament attached to the outer portion virible 
externally when the valves are cloaad : two strong oblong depiessioos 
may then be observed, one on the anterior side of the umbo, rmther 
elongated, aitd not so distinct as the other on the posterior side. 
Muscular impressions two, distant, lateral, rather oblong; lateral 
teeth none, or nearly obsolete. Shell very thick, particularly in old 
■pscimetis ; the recent ones with a brownish somewhat homy spi- 
dermis ; all more or lees transTersely grooved near the umbones. 

The spedee are found in the seas of Australia. 

IL Deshayes, in his Tables, gives the number of living spades at 
nine. The shdls may be distinguished &om Maadama by msoni of 



the pillial imprcesioD, which is always simple in the C?natalella, and 
always rinnous posteriorly in Maodama. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby, in his 'Qenera,' mentions C. Ivmida sod 
C- cwnjimvt from tite Caloaire GrOBsier of the environs of Paris, and 
C. mictUa as very common at Holdwell, and as appearing to be 



CONCHIFERA. ll» 

ohoncteristic of the London Clay. M. Deshayes remarks npon that 
shell, that Lamarck regarded tlie fossils at Besuvais and those living 
at Australia as analogues; but that he has satisfied hinuelf that t^oae 
fossils and C. (ti^nUa are difibrent speciea. C. twnida, he observes, 
■pproachea C, Singicola nearer than any other, 

De Blainville states tliat there ore seven at least foaail in Fnnce, 
and that H. Defiance mentions twenty from the lower chalk with 
some doubt In his Tables M. Deshayes gives twenty-four fossil 
species (tertiary) : in his edition of Lamarck he records fourteen 
only. It appears in the catalogaes in the Bupracretaoeous and 
Cratoceou* groups. 

Other geuers balon^ng to De BlaJnville'a (bncAocsa vrill be found 
under liTraoPBAaiDM, oiid the generu sepatsted &rom Vttivd, or allied 
to that family, nndsr Vbhhida 

CONCHITERA, Lamarck's name for that large class of Molluscuus 
*¥iiiiu.l« which are protected by shells oonaiatjng of two principid 
piaoes oommonly known under the denominatioa of Bivalves. It 
oomtoiMi the whole of the Aoephalous Hollusks of Cuvier, including 
the SmMopoda. [BaiOHiopODi.] 

Idmarok divided the dasa into two great orders, the Dinyaria 
(Dirajairea), or Cendufers, furnished vrith two adductor muscles, and 
the Mtiumyaria (Hoaoonires), or Conchifers furnished with one 



Dmyaria; 3, the Mtmomj/aria. Ha foundi this order of arrange- 
ment on the principle that the organisation of the Brackitrpoda is 
more siiaple than that of the other Conchifers, white that of the 
Dimj/aria is somewhat less oomplai than that of the Mtmonyaria. 
The tvro lost divinons are now more generally called LamelU- 
branehiata, fkom iJie fact that in nearly every case the brandmB, or 
gill^ ocour in the form of four riband-shaped lamelhe, two of which 
are attached to each lobe of the mantle. 

The following account of the atructurs of the OmAifera refen 
more especially to the Lamdlibmneltiala :— 

Digestive System. — Houth witiiout any hard parts, situated ante- 
riorly : in the Dimyarians oonoeoled between the foot and the anteiio- 
retractor musde : in the Honomyariane under a sort of hood made hr 
the mantle. Labial palpa or lips Sattenad, aometimea truncated, 
sometimn laminated internally, more or less elongated, extending on 
dlher side. No aolivaiy Eland. (Esophagua varying in length and 
capacity, often wanting altogetiier both in Dimyarians and Mono- 
mjarions. Stomach sometimes, not often, lengthened and narrow, 
aometimea subcircular, geuerally pear^haped ; interior surfiice vrith 
irregular depressions, or biliary crypts. Intestine arising posteriorly, 
convoluted within the liver and ovary, and so brought towards the 
bock and mesial line of the animal, and continued posteriorly to the 
vent, nearly of the same diameter all through. Rectum, which 
commencee vrith the dorsal port of the intestine, shorter in the 
Monomyarions than in the Dimyarians : in the former it is convo- 
luted behind the single central adductor, and terminates in a floating 
vent hetwaau the edges of the mantle ; in tiie latter the vsnt is 
situated above the niperior adductor. Liver very larger aupporlad 
by muscular flbrea, which traverse it, pouring the bile into the 
stomach by the bilioiy crypts. 

Ciroulat(H7 and Kespiiatoiy System. — Cinmlatioi, a simple eircoit 
of two vasci^ar systems, namel;, a ventricle and an arterial system — 
a vanoua system and two auricles, the ventricle firmly and cloady 
embracing the rectum, so that it appears to pass through it. The 
arterial system not ocmpUoated, the venoua syitem upon a oondder- 
able Bcole of development. Circulating fluid nearly colourless, or 
white, aoarcelj tinged with bluiah, alightly viadd, and with very 
little crasaamantum. [Blood.] "Circulation then ia an eitremdy 
simple fouotion in the Conchiferous Uollusks ; an aorUo ventricle 
gives the blood impulse enough to carry it through the two syitems 
of vessels, to expel it from the heart, and to carry it back agaiD to 
the auiiole. In other branchiferous animals the auricle is sometimes 
adapted to give the blood a new impulse when it ia about to psa 
throng^ the bronchisj; hare, on the contrary, the auriclee do not 
receive the blood until it hoa been expoaed to the "revivifying influence 
of theorew" of reapirotion." (Daahayea.) Tha respiratory function 
is carried on by means of hranchiie variously disposed. They are all 
however disposed in a lamelliform manner. 

The reproductive system consists aimply of an ovaiy enveloped in 
the viaoenl mass. Taking the common oyster for example, it reate, 
a whitish mass of considerable nze, upon tha adductor, and may be 
seen through tha mantle. It oocupies the whole upper part of tho 
molluak, and creeps down along the sides and lower parte, being 
filled at the time of reproduction with a milky fluid, containing 
multitudes of small globules of a whitish colour. These are the eggs; 
and in many of the famil; the; are not at the time of their exclusioQ 
abandoned at onee, but ore deposited between the two membranes of 
tha branchial laminEe, where tbey undergo a kind of incubation. In 
some the shell is developed in the ovum before it quits this receptacle. 
This fostering of the eggs seems to be analogous to the gestation of 
the eggs in the CrtuliKta and the pipe-fishes. Sir Anthony Carlisle 
('Hunlarian OtatioQ,' 1826) says, "OyBtara are viviparous, and their 
young are found within the tracheal poasagee and between the folds 
of the ooTsrlet (mantle) during tho month* of June snd Jul; to Uua 



m CONCHIFERA. 

diniWtfL In tU fint state the ojBter sihibita two Bemi-orbiculac films 
of tranaparent ahell, vbich are continuajl; oponiog and cloitng mt 
regulirintemlB. Tha whole brood are nssociated together by being 
iniolTed in a viscid Blime, and in th&t state called the 'spat,' it beiog 
eemmoD unong viviparous animals of this kind to have their spawn 

n*ted in contact with the luogs. The involving slime servea as the 
notriinent : and we may infer that the fcotal food no influenced 
bj the gills is at the same time a respiratorj' supply to the imperfecllf 
fonnad f ouDg." In the siphoniferous branch of the family the longer 
the siphoiiB the laivaT, as a general rule, is the mass of the ovarj : in 
those fonuB which have the siphons short and the foot compaiaUvely 
Urge the ovary is compaiatively small. As far >■ anatomy baa 
hitherto detected this part of the organisation, here we hara hermv 
phroditiam in the true sense of the word. The whole bualoeea of 
reproduction is apparently carried on within the two valves of the 
shell without the aid of a second individual, as it is in a hermaphro- 
dite flower. But it will occur to most observers that the Con^tra 
are gregnrions; the Filed Conchifeni (Oyslera, Spondyli, Chama, 
&c, for instance) eminently so ; and it ia by no means dear that 
this coDgregatJon may not be a necessary condition for the 
fecundation of the ova ; and that there may not be a mutual 
diSuaicn of some influenco analogous to that of the milt in fishes. 
M, Fraioat, who made his experiments upon the Uraona, would 
make it appear that though there can be no union, still no propa- 
gation takes place without an assemblage of these animals upon the 

The muscular system, as it rsfsids moUon, Is two-fold; valvular 
and locomoliTe. The first conaists in the adaptaUon of muscular 
Sbra to the movement of the valves, and indeed this muscular appa- 
ratus may in some cases be made ancillary to locomotion, as in 
the Pecteiu, for eiample. The adductor muaclea are attached to 
(ppoaite points in each valve, and their offlce ia to cloae the valves by 
their contractility, or sufler them to expand by their relaxation. In 
the greater number [Dimyana) there are two ; one anterior near the 
oval apertott^ the other posterior. The Monamyana have appa- 
rently one only ; but Poli has shown that this muscle is in reality an 
approximation of two, and thence most prebably arose the slight 
regard manifeeted b]L Cuvier for the division of Lamarck. The 
•ecood or true looomotire organ ia called the foot, and is formed of 
various layer* of flbrea, which by their counteraction bestow on it 
great power of motion when the organ is well developed. Though in 
some species merely rudimentary it is found in all the Dimyaria, 
not 90 in the Monomyaria, some of which are entirely without it. Its 
place may be defined by stating that the mouth is generally hidden 
between its base and the anterior adductor. Where well developed 
it is of various shapea, cylindriol, flattened, ftc In some it is a 
digging organ, or kind of ploughshare for making a furrow in the 
land or mud wherein the animal means to lie hid ; in others, as in 
the cockle, Jko., it becomes a leaping organ, god enables the coni^fer 
to clear a boat's gunwale when laid on the bottom boards. The foot 
ia the instrument which produces the bysaus. [Btssub.] The 
following is Deshayea'a acoount of the structure : — " If the byaaus and 
foot of a byaaiferous molluak be placed under a powerful lens, the last 
EUmenta of the bysaus ar« first seen to be nearest to the tiase of the 
foot ; and if the inferior edge of the foot be inspected, a fissure will 
be found miming completely along it, at the tnttom of which a 
brewniah and semicomeous filament is often to be perceived : this is 
neither more nor lees than a filament of the bysaus prepared to be 
detached by the animal, in order to which the animal atretchee forth 
its foot until it encounters the object upon which Uie other fibres of 
the byasus are fixed ; to this it applies the point of the foot, which 
then secretea a small quantity of glutinous matter continuous with 
the rilky filament lying aloi^j- the bottom of the furrow of which we 
have spoken. When the pasty matter has acquired sufficient oon- 
aistency, and is firmly fixed to the stone or other body at the bottom, 
the aniPiM retracts ita foot, and in doing so detaches the new fibre at 
the base of the pedicle. The mode in wliich the filaments of the 
bjsaui are formed is consequently entirely difierent from that in 
which hair or the horns of the higher animals are evolved, and it is 
easily understood when the intimate structure of the foot of ths 
bpBiferouB molluska is known, when we are aware that this organ 

irall. 

imala that 
now eogages our attention the fibres situated at the bottom of the 
groove of the foot become horny, and are detached in succession in 
the form of threads as they become oonaolidated." The siphons, 
which are the organs by which these animals take in and throw out 
vater, are retracted by means of two latersl fen-shaped muscles, 
situated posteriorly. 

Uantle and Cuticular System. — Two thin fleshy lamins applied over 
the back of the animal, extending over its aides, and with its edges 
meeting along the anterior middle aspect of the body, covering, or 
dosely in contact with, the whole interior surface of the shell, form 
the mantle, in the thickened edge of which is the principal apparatus 
that secretes the shell : there are also frequently rows of oontraotile 
tentacular cilia fringing it. The whole of these parte are ezquisitety 
senuble, and highly contractile. The mantle becomes free at the 
origin of the brancbiie, and forms a cavity round the lower part of 



CONCHIFERA. 





i, aaleilor or oral citremlty ; P, poaterlor or anal extremity. 




BbeU at (V"Unta. 



116 



CONCHIFERA, 



CONCHIFERA. 



116 



the animal, containing the visceral mass, the foot, for the extrusion of 
which there is an opening, and the branchiae. This is the pallial sac, 
and is the area wherein &e omrents for respiration and nutrition are 
formed. The siphons^ where they exist, project from tiie mantle, 
with which they are continuous. The^ are sometimes very long, and 
sometimes reduced to mere perforations ; sometimes separate, and 
sometimes conjoined; but in any case the superior siphon is that 
destined for dejections, and is called the anal siphon, while the office 
of the lower one is to conduct the water to the branchiae; whence it 
is termed the branchial or oral siphon. The structure of these 
posterior siphons or tubes is eminently contractile, and their apertures 
are fringed with a number of papillsB of great sensibility, capable of 
giying notice of the contact of any prejudicial foreign body. The 
retractor muscle is generally more or less developed according to the 
greater or less development of these parts. 

The nervous system is very simple. Symmetrical in the Dimy<tria, 
hardly symmetrical in the Monomyaria. They have no true brain. In 
the Dimycuia there is a ganglion above the oesophagus on each side of the 
mouth towards the labial palps, connected by a transverse filament 
crossing the cesophagus. From these ganglions filaments are given 
off to Uie mouth, anterior adductor, kc ; and from their posterior 
edges two nervous branches go to the stomach, liver, and heart, ovary, 
and branchisB. A branch of some volimie goes down to the foot. 
The lateral filaments, after advancing along the internal surface of the 
posterior adductor, are coi\joined into one or two ganglions larger than 
the anterior ones. These posterior ganglions give off the nerves to 
all the posterior parts ; if the ganglions are much separated a nervous 
filament connects theoL In the Monomyaria the system is less 
perfectly developed 



The senses of these animals are very limited ; and indeed there is 
no good ground for attributing to the generality of them anything 
beyond a sense of touch and taste. That most of them may be 
conscious of the presence or absence of light is possible. "Not 
having any especial organs for seeing, hearing, or smelling," says Sir 
Anthony Carlise, speaking of the common oyster, in hia 'Hunterian 
Oration' (1826), "the creature is limited to perceive no other 
impressions but those of immediate contact ; and yet eveiy part of 
its exterior seems to be sensible to light, sounds, odours, and liquid 
stimulants. It is asserted by fishermen that oysters, in confined 
beds, may be seen, if the water is clear, to dose their shells whenever 
the shadow of a boat passes over them." 

M. Deshayes goes so far as to say that no especial oxgan of sense 
can be detected among them, unless perhaps those of touch and 
taste ; but we must not fox^t what have been called the eye-specks in 
Peetm, to the animal of which Poll gave the name of Argug, from the 
supposed number of its visual organs. The peotens are free swimmera, 
and, from their rapid and desultory motions, we have heard Uiem 
termed the butterflies of the ocean. The manner in which these 
motions are executed, especially on the approach of danger, indicates 
the possession of a sense analogous at least to that of ordinary 
vision. These eye^pecks may be seen in the pecten placed at short 
intervals round the thickened edge of the mantle, on the outworks, 
as it were, of the internal part of the animal fabria "As locomo- 
tion so vision" is a general aphorism, not without its particular 
exception ; for there is good reason for believing that Spondyfus, 
whicui is a fixture in its adult state, is furnished with these visual 
specks. 



The following arrangement of the Conehifera proposed by H. Deshayes, is published in the ' Cydopflddia of Anatomy and Physiology ' : — 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CONCHIFERA. 

FamiliM. 
TUBIOOUB (^^P**??!""* 



iStplaria 
Tenduia 
PholOM 






OsrsoDmcATA 



'Pkoladomya o 
Ctteodttma e 
Ptriploma ^ 
Anatina 

^T%raeia 

iCMnda* 



(V, 

* 



AnatindUi 



^ The lobes of the insntla( 
united in a greater or 1 



fDIlCTARIA.., 



dogroe poeteri<»rly 



M0LLU8CA , 
ACEPHALA ( 
BIVALVU 



Mactkacbjb 



ILutraria 
Maetra 
Mtaodetma 
Cm$aatdla 
JBfyc%iut 
Amphidwna 



PMmmoMo- 
Donax 



) PBTRIOOUB 



OOKOBiB 



• • • • • • 1 



AitarUi 

is CyrkM 

QaUakta 

^ ( Cjnprieardia 

Cabdiac&b \l!oeardia.^,t^ 



TmmAoncjE 
' Naiadu . . . 



The lobes of the mantle 
dieunitod 



TaioovBA 



Abcaceji 



^Mttilaci 



'Having a foot 



Max.liao>« 



iBippopua 

fOmftta 
\Unio 

i TriffotUa 
{Nweuta 

{Peehmtului 
Area 
Cueyilka 

Pimna 

Avieula 

(MaUeuM 
Vul$dla 
,( Crmahda 
^ Pentor- 



lllMciMa 
Ung¥lina 



Jlfyo^ama 
%Clei(UlheruM 
Ckama 

JHeenU* 
BOuria 



} 



LUCINIPiB 



CHAMAOEA 



Hippwitn 
Copriua 



} 



RUDI8TE8 



^MOKOMYARIAI 



Having no foot 



,PMjniiii>i 



OSTlAOBiV 



JnoeeramM* 
{OcUUbu 

IUma 
Pedmm 
Ptetm 
PUaUvla 
Spondflut 



-OerviUia 



{ 



Odna^ 



^Plaauut ) 

Plaeunanomia VPLACUNIDJB 
itfnomiat ) 



iTerdftniula, 



117 



CONCHODERMA. 



CONDOR. 



118 



Thn lobes of the mantle, the thick edges of which form tho 
principal secreting organ, determine apparently the form of the shell. 
[Shell, Psabl.] In the Conchifera it is bivalve, or composed ot two 
pieces, often covered with an epidermis, joined at their uppw edge 
(corresponding to the dorsal part of the animal) by a hinge. 

The hii^e is entirely formed by the inner layer of shell, and 
consists of either a simple cardinal process, or a serrated edge, or of 
projections, or teeth as they are called, and corresponding cavities 
into which they are inserted. To this hinge is superadded a ligament^ 
which binds the two parts together, and keeps the parts composing 
the hinge in their places. The ligament is either internal or external, 
intemal when it is hidden by the outside of the cardinal edge, 
external when it appears beyond it, and is highly elastic, being 
composed of a number of fibres parallel to each other, and perpendi- 
cular to the valves which they connect. This is a beautiful 
contrivance for the necessities of the animaL When undisturbed, the 
elastic ligament keeps the valves open, and the animal functions are 
carried on without any e£fort; when danger is apprehended, or 
circumstances require it, the adductor muscle or muscles contiact, 
overcome the resistance of the hinge, and shut the valves close till 
they may be opened in ssfety. One of the earliest signs of the loss 
of vitality in the Conchifers is the more than ordinaiy wide gaping of 
the shelL This arises from the state of the adductor muscle, which 
being relaxed by death is no longer an antagonist to the elastic 
ligament 

The common oyster will serve as an example of the Konomyarians, 
and the cuts will give a general idea of the Dimyariansi, their shelly 
and its muscular impraarions. 

COKCHODERMI. [Cibripedia.] 

CONCHOLEPAS. [Eiteomostomata.] 

CONCHOLOGT is that branch of science which teaches the 
stmcture and forms of the shells which are the hard external 
covering of the animals belonging to the class MoUusca, Although 
these shells present great variety of forms, and aro variously marked, 
they are only a subsidiary part of the structure of the animals to 
which they belong. Hence amongst naturalists the shells are only 
studied in connection with the structure of the ^nimRla which 
inhabit them. An account of these animals, with their shells, will 
be found in the articles Mollusca, Braohiopoda, Tunioata, Covchi- 
nRA, Gastbbopoda, Pterofoda, Cephalopoda ; also under the heads 
of the more important of the families and genera of the MoUuaca, 

CONDAMINEA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural oider 
CmckonacetB. It has a campanulate calyx, 6-crenate or 6-toothed 
limb, deciduous; corolla funnel-shaped, with a somewhat curved 
tube, which is a little longer than the calyx, a dilated throat, and a 
5-parted limb ; stamens inserted above the middle of the tube or near 
the throat ; anthers oblong, linear, bifid at the base, length of corolla ; 
stigma 2-lobed. Capsule turbinate, truncate, opening in the middle 
of the cells. Seeds numerous, very small, wedge-shaped. The 
species are American shrubs, with 2-parted acuminate stipules and 
terminal many-flowered corymbs. 

0. corymba$a is a native of the hills and ravines of the Peruvian 
Andes. It has ovate-oblong leaves, acuminate, cordate, sessile, 
plicated, coriaceous ; corymbs large, brachiate, trichotomous ; corolla 
purple externally, with the throat and filaments naked ; teeth of ^e 
calyx broad, short, and blunt The bark is febrifugal The bark- 
gatherers of Peru are said to use this plant for adulterating samples of 
Cinchona. Its bark is only slightly bitter, and may be easily 
recognised by its being white inside, rather bitter, and viscid. 

C. tinetoria is a native of South America, and is used occasionally 
as a dye. 

(Lindlev, Vegetable Kingdom ; Lindley, Flora Medico.) 

CONDOR, or OwntwTj one of the largest Birds belonging to the 
family VtUturida. Of the size and habits of this bird many exagge- 
rated accounts were at one time current. It was compared to the 
Roc of the Arabian romance-writers ; nay, by some it was considered 
identical with that monstrous oriental conception. In the ' Mudteom 
Tiudescan.tianum,' under title ' Clawes,' we find " the daw of the bird 
Rock, who, as authors report, is able to trusse an elephant." This 
may have been the claw of a Condor, exaggerated by some of the 
artiste who wrought extraordinaxy zoological forms for the collectors 
of the day. Near the passage quoted there is a notice of a toucan's 
(Aracari's) bill, and other parts of birds from Brazil and ' the West 
Indias.' In the old French ' Encydopddie,' after noticing Condamine's 
statement^ the writer adds that it is believed that these birds exist 
also in the region of Sophala, of the Kaffirs, and of Monomotapa, as far 
as the kingdom of Angola, and that it is supposed that they do not 
differ from tliose which the Arabians call ' roiidi.' 

Ray, in his ' Synopsis,' confesses that such was the enormous and 
almost incredible magnitude attributed to it, that he at one time con- 
sidered the Condor the mere o£bpring of fiction ; that he dared not 
insert the bird in Willughby's ' Ornithology ;' and that it was to Sir 
Hans Sloane, who possessed a feather plucked from the wing of one 
•hot on the coast of Chili, and presented to him by Ci^tain Strong, 
who gave him at the same thne the measurement of the bird, that he 
first owed his belief of its existence. 

Joseph Aoosta, Qarcilasso de la Vega, and John de Laet, all speak 
of this vulture. Acosta says that the birds called Condors are of 



great magnitude, and of such strength that they are ni>t only able to 
eviscerate and devour a sheep, but even an entire calf. Qarcilasso 
enumerate among the rapacious birds those called Cuntur, and cor- 
ruptly by the Spaniards Condor, and states that some of those killed 
by the Spaniards measured 15 or 16 feet from tip to tip of the 
extended wings. He further observes that nature, in order to temper 
their ferocity and strength, has denied them the crooked talons which 
she has bestowed on the eagle, and given them daws more like those 
of the Gallinaceous Birds ; but that she has however endowed them 
with a beak sufficiently strong to perforate and tear off a bull's hide, 
and to rip out its entrails. Two of them, he adds, will dare to attack 
a cow or a bull, and will devour it ; " neither do Uiey abstain from 
the human race, but will set upon and slay single-handed boys of ten 
or twdve years, and it is by a providence of nature, for the protection 
of the flocks and the natives, that many are not hatched ; for, if they 
were numerous, they would cause great slaughter among the herds, 
and the greatest damage to the inhabitants." The accoimt given by 
John de Laet, who speaks of the ' vasta moles' of the bird, is much 
the same with that of Qarcilasso. 

In relation to the Condor's alleged attack upon children, Condamine 
notices^ a story of tho Indians setting up a figure of a child made of 
very viscous clay ; on this the Condors were said to pounce, and so 
entangle their claws that they were hdd fast. 

Abbeville assures his readers that it is twice the size of the most 
colossal ei^le. Desmarchais gives eighteen feet as the extent of the 
wings, which, he says, are so enormous that the bird can never enter 
the forest ; and he adds that it will attack a man, and carry off a stag. 
Linnseus seems to have drawn up his account of the habits of the bird 
£rom the writers above noticed, some of whom he quotes. " It preys," 
says Linnseus, " on calves, sheep, nav, on boys of ten years ; a pair 
wUl tear up and devour a cow ; " and he adds, that the rudung of its 
wings, as it nears the earth, renders men planet-struck, as it were, and 
almost deafens them — ** in terram devolans, susurro attonitos et surdos 
fbre reddit homines : " he makes the alar extent from 18 to 16 feet. 
These marvellous stories were left to work upon the minds of men 
always prone to receive the wild and the wonderful ; foif, till within 
the last forty or fifty years, one or two specimens, and Uxose not perfect^ 
were the ozdy evidences of the Condor in the cabinets of Europe. 

The Great Vulture of the Andes was a striking instance of the way 
in which things imperfectly known are exaggerated. " It was with 
the Condor," observes Vieillot, " as it was with the Patagonians, — 
" both shraiik before examination." To the scrutiny of the Baron 
Von Humboldt and of M. Bonpland we owe the reduction of the bird 
to its proper dimensions. Nestling in the most solitary places, often 
upon the ridges of rocks which border the lower limit of perpetual 
snow, and crowned with its extraordinary comb, the Condor for a 
long time appeared to the eyes of Humboldt himself as a winged 
giant, and he avows that it was only the measurement of the dead bird 
that dissipated this optical illusion. The grand scenery among which 
it is found had a precisdy contrary effect on Lieutenant Maw ('Journal 
of a Passage from the Pacific to tiie Atlantic '), who, in describing Ms 
descent into the deep and narrow valley of Magdalena, says : " "V^ilst 
descending, several condors hovered round us, and about the rocks on 
which they build their nests; but so vast was the scale of the rocks 
and mountains, that even these immense birds appeared quite insig- 
nificant, and I doubted for a time that they were condors." 

Under the name of Zopilote, a word derived from the Mexican word 
Tzopilotl, which is said to signify ' King of the Vultures,' M. Vieillot 
places the Condor in the same genus with the bird usually termed 
' the King of the Vultures ' ( Vultur papa of Linnseus and others), and 
the Califomian Vulture ( Vidtur Califomianue, TAfhum and o&ers). 
His Latin name for this genua is Oypague, Mr. Bennett adopts this 
arrangement^ and, as his description of the bird is accurate, and evi- 
dently made from personal observation, we give it the preference. 
*'The condor," writes Mr. Bennett, "forms the type of a genus, a 
second species of which is the Yvlttw papa of Linnaeus, the ' King of 
the Vultures ' of British writers. They are both peculiar to the New 
World, but approach in their most essential characters very closely to 
the vultures oi the Old Contiuent, differing from the latter prindpally 
in the large fleshy or rather cartilaginous caruncle which surmoimts 
their beaks ; in the large size of their oval and longitudinal nostrils, 
placed almost at the veiy extremity of the cere ; and in the compara- 
tive length of their quill-feathers, the third being the longest 'of the 
series. The most important of these differences — the size and position 
of their nostrils — appears to be well calculated to add to the already 
highly powerful sense of smell possessed by the typical vultures, ada 
for which these birds have been almost proverbially cdebrated from 
the earUest age& There is also a third species^ the Califomian vulture, 
two noble specimens of which, the only pair in Europe, are preserved 
in the Sodety's museum, rivalling the condor in bulk, and agreeing in 
every respect with the generic characters of the group, except in Uie 
existiauce of the carunde, of which they are entirely destitute. 

"In size, the condor is little, if at all, superior to the bearded griffin 
(the Lonimergeyer of the Alps), with which Buffon was disposed con- 
jccturally to confound it, but to which it bears at most but a distant 
relation. The greatest authentic measurement scarcely carries the 
extent of its wings byond 14 feet ; and it appears rarely to attain i 
gigantic a size. M. Humboldt met with none that exceeded P '^ 



lit CONDOR. 

uid wu auDi«d bjrmui; credible inhftbitanta oF the pcvTiuce of Quito 
that the; bftd never ahot an; that measured more than 11 feet. The 
length of a male Bpecimea ■ometrhiLt leu than 9 feet in expanse, wu 
3 feet S inches from tho tip of the beak to the eitreroity o! the tail . 
and its heiglit, when perching, with the neck parti; withdrawn, 2 feet 
"■ ' ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ "n length, and an inch and a quartai 



in depth when closed. 



t the b 



>ppe> 



mandible beoamei archc 
Btrong and wall-currfld hoot The basal 
the remaining portion towards the point is nearl; white. The head 
and neck are bars of feathers, and covered with a hard, wrinkled , 
dusk; reddish skin, rat which are scattered some short brown or 
blacbsh hain. On the top of the head, which is much flattened 
above and ertendiog some distance along the beak, is attached an 
oblong firm caruncle or oamb, covered by a continuation of the skin 
which invests the head. This organ is peculiar to the male. It 
wmiectfld to the beak onl; in its anterior part, and is separated fmta 
it at the base in such a manner as to allow of a free passage of the 
air to the large oval nostrils which are situated beneath it at that 

Enrt. Behind the e;e«, which ara somewhat elongated and not mink 
Bneath the general suiface of the head, the akin of the neck 
were, gathered into a series of descending folds, extending obliquel; 
from Uie back of the head over the temploi to the under side of the 
neck, and there connected anteriorl; with a lax membrane or wattle, 
capable of being dilated at pleasure, like that of the common turkey. 
The neck is marked b; niuneroua deep parallel folds, produced by 
the habit of retracting the head, in which the bird indulges when at 
rest. In this position scarce!; an; part of the neck is visible. 

" Round the lower part of the neck both sexes, the female as woU 
as the male, are futnished with a broad white ruff of down; feathi 
which forms the line of separation between the naked skin above i 
- the true feathera covering the body below it All the other feathi 
with the exception of the wing-coverta and the second ar; quill-featheni, 
are of a bright black, generall; mingled with a gra;iBh tinge of greater 
or less inl«iBity. In the female tie wing^;overi« are blackish gra; ; 
but the males have their points, and frequentl; as much as half their 
length,' whits. The wings of the latter are consequently distinguished 
fromthose of the female bylheir lacge white patches. The secondary 

Joill-fsatheri of both sexes are white on the outer side. The tail is 
lort and wedge-shaped. The legs are excessively thick and powerful, 
and Bra coloured of a bluish-gra;, intermingled with whitish streaks. 
Their elongated toes are united at the base by a loose but very appa- 
rent memlMDe, and are terminated by long black talons of considerable 
thickneaa, but very little curved. The hinder toe is muoh shorter 
than the rest, and its talon, although more distinctly curved, is equal!; 
wanting in strength ; a deficiency which rendera the foot much less 
powerfid as an organ of prehension than that of any other of ths large 
birds of the raptorial order." 

This bird is found in the Andes, and the greater part of the 
mountain chain which runs up South America to 7* H. lat, but i 
common in Peru and ChilL 

The Condor is found moot frequently at an elevation of from 10 
to 15,000 feet above the level of the sea, and there they ara to be i 
in groups of three or four, but never in large companies, like the true 
Tulturea. Many of tho clusters of rocks and of the elevated plateaux 
are named after them Cuntur Kahua, Cuntur Palti, and Cuntur Hua- 
cana, for example — nsmea which, in the language of the Incaa, are said 
to aigni^ the Condor's Look-out, the Condor's Boost, and the Condor's 
Nest In this rarefied atmosphere the bird breathes freely, and 
morts to the plains only when impelled b; hunger. Then two of 
them will attack the vicuna, the guanaco, the heifer, and even the 
puma, the lion of South America, persecuting the tormented quad- 
ruped till overpowered it falls beneath the wo^iods inflicted b; their 
claws and beaks, groaning and protruding ita tongua Upon thia and 
the eyes, their favourite morsels, the Condors instantly seise, and the 
bloody banquet is continued till they are quits gorged. Humboldt 
saw them alter such repasts sitting sullen and sombre on the rocks ; 
and when thus overlosdud, tbey mil sufiiir themselves to be driven 
before the hunter rather than take wing. But he has also seen them, 
when on the look-out for prey, and especially on serene days, soaring 
at a prodigious height, as iJT for the purpose of commanding the most 
extensive view. " C^est I'oiseau," says Cuvier, speaking of the Condor, 
" qui s' tl&ve le plushauL" With regard to the stories of their carry- 
ing off children, Humboldt never heiurl of an instance, although the 
in&nts of the Indians who gather snow for sale are frequently left 
sleeping in the open air in the midst of the haunts of these birds. 
He often approached within a few feet of three or four of them as 
the; sat on the rocks, but they never manifested any disposition to 
attack him : and the Indians ot Quito assured tii"! that men have 
nothing to fear from Condon : hs admits indeed that two of these 
vultures would be dangerous antagonista for a single man to oope 
with; and SirFrancia Head describes a severe struggle between one ot 
them and a Comisb miner, with his usual graphic power. When 
the bird descends into the plains, it rerel; perches on trees, preferring 
the ground, for standing snd walking on which its toes and sliaight 
daws are better adapted. 
Biimboldt was assured UutttJie eggs, which are whlto, «nd thiM or 



CONDBOLITE. IM 

four inches in length, are depoaited on the bat^ rock without any 
border of straw or other defence. The young ones are said to remain 
with tho female during one ;ear. The nestlings have no feathers ; 
their bodies for some months are covered with a very fine curling 
whitish down or hair, something like that of young owls ; and they 
ara BO puffed out by this envelope, that they look almost larger than 
adults. At the age of two years the Condor is not yet black, but of 
a ;e11owUh-brewn ; up to this time the female baa no appearance of 
the white ruff {gollUa of the Spaniards), and it is owing to want of 
observation on this change of plumage that man; naturalists and 
travellera — nay, the inhabitants of Peru themselves — talk of two 
species of Condor, the black and the brown (Condor nt^re ; Condor 
pardo). Thus Lieutenant Haw, in the sequel to the passage above 
quoted, b»;s, " There were two kinds of Condors ; one dark-brown, 
tJie other white on ths bock, with half the upper aide of ths wings 
next the back, and a white ring round the neck." 

At Peru, Quito, and in the pravince of Popayne, Condors are taken 
alive with the iaaao. To this end a cow or a hone is killed. Down 
come the Condom, and ore permitted to gorge themselves. Then tha 
Indians, with their lassoes, appear on the scene, and soon eaptura 
them. When one of the birds finds itself hampered, it makes 
incredible efforts to raise itself in the air, and succeeds, after vomiting 
freely. The Spaniards call this sport * oorrsr Buitres,' and it is, next 
to the bull-feBsta, ths great amusement of the country people. In 
other countries it is said that poiaonous herba are placed in jlie belly 
of the quadruped that serves as a bait, and then the Condon appear 
OS if intoxicated after their meal. 

The tenacity of life exhibited b; the Condor almost rivals the 
endurance of the Qrisl; Bear. [BuB,] Humboldt relates that at 
Riobomba he saw some Indians first strangle one with a lasso snd 
hang it on a tree, pulling it fordbl; by the feet for some minutes. 
The lasso was hardly removed when ths Condor arc«, and walked 
about as if nothing extraordinary bad happened. At less ihan four 
paces, three balls were then discharged from a pistol at it, all of which 
entered its body, wounding it in the neck, chest, and abdomen : the 
bird still kept its legs. Another ball broke its thigh, and brought it 
to the ground ; but the wretched creature did not die till after on 
interval of half an hour. Ulloa asserts that in the colder parts of 
Peru the skin of the Condor is so closely covered with feathers, that 
eight or ten balls may be heard to strike it without penetrating its 

This celebrated vulture, Vvttur Gryphut of LinnEus, Gypayia 
Orsfftu of Vieillot^ Sarcoramphvi OrypAtu of Dum&4!, is said to 
possess a most exquisite sense of smelling. It may be doubted how- 
ever whether, as in other vultures, Uke eye is not at lesst as great an 
ossistantto thebirdin discovering its prey as ths nostrils ore. [Bird^] 
Lieutenant Maw saw ths Condor s quiII used ss a pen in ths Cordillera 
(Toulea). 






malt). 



The Zoological Society of London have now made thia bird, of 
which such romantic ttJes were told and credited, familiar to the 
whole population of the metropolis. It js a striking contrast to rise 
from lie perusal of one of these marvellous stories, and look iX the 
hving bird in tha Regent's Park. 

CONDKODITK [U&cldrbitb.] . 



Ill COKDURBITE. 

CONDURRITE, a MiDenJ fouDd in Cornw»U. It U bq arMnato of 
eopperof abrovnidi-bliuk or blue colour. It gives out, like tbe other 
uttenatCB, as aUlaceouB odour vben heated on charcoal before the 
blow-pipe. 

CONDTLnilA, Illigor, a genuB of IcaectiToroua Mammalia, 
founded on tbe Sorex crulolwi of Linneus. CuTier observea that 
DesmarMt ma die Arrt who made the peculiar deutition of the genua 

It haa the following chaiKoten : — Body thick, furr; ; muzile much 
elongated, bordered with membranoui creata. diipoaed Btor-like round 
the opeoing of the noatrilJi; ao ext«rDal auHclea; ejes eitremelf 
Bmall 1 anterior feet abort, luge, with fire toes, fumiahed with robust 
ciaits properfordigging ; poBteiioc feat sleoder, with five toes : length 
of tail moderate. 

lacieara, ~; caDinei, -^^ ; moUn, - — ==40. 




Tnth of aw{«fura tHitaia (F. Cnrler). 

Leason obHrrea that tbe generic name reata on an error made b; 
La Faille, whobadrepreHntedthe radiated mole with knatt; Bwelliugs 
on the tab ; but it ia generally received by aoologista. The genui i> 
allied to the Uolea and to Scalopi. 

The speciea an eatirelf confined to North America, as far as ii 
known Rt prwent. Spedting of some Hpecimens of Candylura longi- 
catuJola in the Muaeumof tbe Zoological Societ]', obtained from Mouse 
Factory, Hudaon'a Bay, Sir John Richardson says, "They were not 
accompanied by any occaunt of thejr habita, or notice of the eiact 
locality where thw were kUled ; but, as the most aouthem fur posta 
depeuding upon Hoose Fwctory are situated upon the tnrdere of Lake 
Superior, it is probable that tbuy came from that quarter, Pennant's 
specimen wss received from New York." 

C. nuKTVum (Harlan), the Thick-Tailed Star-Kose. The follow- 
ing is Sir John Rtcbardson's description of a specimen presented to 
him by the unfortunate Mr. David Douglas, and which the latter bad 
procured OD the banks of the Columbia River. 

" Tbe head is remarkably Urge ; the body is thick and short, and 
becomes narrower towards tbe toil, and the hind legs are consequently 
nearer to each other than the fore onea. The nose is rather thick, 
and projects beyond the month ; it ia naked towards its end, is 
marked with a furrow above, and terminates in a flat surface, which 
is aurroutided by IT cartilaginous processes, with two more anterior 
ones situated above the DOstrila, and a pair of forked ones immediately 
below the nostrils. The surfaces of those procaaaea are minutely 
granulated. Some white whUkers spring fram the side of the nose, 
and reach about half thg length of tbe head. There are others not so 
long on' the upper end under lips. The fur on tbe bod; is very soft 
and Sne, and has considerable lustre. It is longer than the fur of the 
other two known species. Its colour on the dorsal aspect is dark 
amber-brown, approaching to blackish-brown. On the belly it ia 
pale livei^brown. Whan the fur ia blown aside, it exhibits a shining 
bUckisb-gray colour towards its roots. It ia longer on tbe hind-head 
and neck than on the belly. The tail is narrow at its origin, but it 
suddenly swells to an inch and a half in circumference ; it then tapeia 
gradually until it ecds in a fine point, formed by a pencil of hairs, 
about half an inch long. It ia round, or very slightly compressed, 
and ia covered with scales about as laive as those on the feet, and 
with short, tapering, acute hairs, which do not conceal the scales. 
The hairs covering the upper surface of the tail are nearly black ; 
those beneath are of a browner hue. The eitremitias are shaped 
almost precisely like those of the C lotigicatidata. Only the palms 
and toee of the fore feet project beyond the body. The palina are 
nearly circular, and are protected by a granulated skin like shagreen. 
Tbe sides of the feet are furnished with long white hairs, wbisb curve 
in over the palms. Tbe Eve toes are very short, equal to each other 
in length, and, together with the book of the hands, are oovered with 
hexagon^ scales. The fore claws are white, nearly atraight, broadly 
linear, and acuta, convex above and flat beneath. The palms turn 
obliquely outwaids, which causes the fourth claw to project out the 
farthest ; but the third one measures as much, the second is shorter, 
and the first and fifth are equal to each other, and a little shorter 
than the rest. The hind feet are also turned obliquely outwards, 
and are scaly, with a few interspersed hsira above, and granulated 
underaeath. Tbe aides are narrow, and present a coospicuoua calloua 
tubercle, poaterior to the origin of the inner toe. The hind legs are 
very short, and are clothed with aoft brown hair, a tuft of which 
curves over the heel There on no hairs on the sides of the bind 
feet, like those which form a margin to the fore ones. The 
toes are longer thm the fore ones, and are armed with mora sleodgr 



C0N1D.S. l:i 

claWB, which are white, ani-shsped, curved, and acuta. They have a 
narrow groove towards their paints underneath. Length of the bead 
and body i inches 3 lines ; of the bead, 1 inch 6 lines ; of the tail, 
2 inchea 6 lines, including the pencil ol hairs at ite extremity, 
S inches 3 lines ; naked part of the nose, exclusive of the awl-ihaped 
processes, i\ lines," Ac. (' Fauna Boreoli-Ami 



Thiek.Tsiled Btar.TCoM (Onityrsra maermra). 

Dr. Oodman observes, that though the eztemsl ear in C criilata 
ia destitute of auricle, it is very extensive, and is situated at a short 
distance frem the shoulder, in the broad triangular fold of integu- 
ment connecting the fore-arm and head. 

Two or three other species are known. 

COMESSI BABK is the produce of a plant belonging to the 
natural order Ap^c^aaaf a native of the western const of Hindustan, 
It is the WrigUia anttdyiaUtrUa, and is a valuable astringent. 

COXPEHVACEjG, a nsma sometimes considered synonymous 
with Alga. It is limited in aystematic botany to a section of Alga, 
eoQoisting of simple tubular jointed species mbabiting fresh water. 

CONFERVITES, species of FosmI Plants, probably of Uie Con- 
fervaceoua Family, occurring in the chalk of Bomholm and the south 
of England, in Uie Qreenaond of Maidstone, and Chalk-Marl of 
Hamsey, (Mantetl) 

CONOER-EEL, [Mubshids.] 

CONQLOMERATB. This term is most usually applied by geolo- 
gists to designate rocks more or lesa distinctly inclosing displaced 
fragments of mineral mames which bad been consolidated at some 
previous epoch, and subsequently broken up, removed frem their 
original site, and placed in circumstances such as to permit of their 
being re-aggregated, and more or lesa cemented together by interven- 
ing smaller particlea Thus the old red conglomenitd on the borders 
of tha Orampiana ia full of fragmeuts of the atill more ancient 
schistose and gneisaic strata, worn by attrition in water, and reunited 
into a solid rock by interposed reil sands. In some volcanic regions 
the matariala thrown out by eruptions are re-aggregated into conglo- 
merate, by the operation of water. 

The coarser conglomerates are sometimes oaUed Pudding-Stone. 
Conglomerates diSer in their nature, and vary in the siie of their 
component parts sccordjng to the process by which they have been 
brought into the form of congloraerate. Along the base of the 
Maritime Alps the rivers, with few eiceptiona, are now forming con- 
glomerate and ssnd, (Lyeirs • Geology.') Near Kico the mud, 
pebbles, and portions of rock brought down by tho torrenta form 
beda of shingle ; but the greater part are swept into the deep sea, 
where they form strata of inclined conglomerate, about 1000 feet in 
thickneas oud 7 or Smiles in length. Volcanic eruptions also tend 
to the formation of conglomerate by uniting masses of rock together. 
Conglomerates, as already observed, to whatever causes owing, are 
characterised by being manifestly a congeries of ^agmenta of rock, 
of various siieB, whi<£ have undergone the process of attrition, and 
consequently have been formed by fragments of various rocks that 
have been carried conudersble distancea. [Sheccia.] Many of these 
conglomerates ore sometimes so well compsoted as to form a hard 
rock, eapaUe of receiving a considerable degree of polish, as we 
observe in two colossal fragments of hesds in the British Museum, 
the faces of which are tolerably smoothed by Egyptian art, while 
the broken paria exhibit a conglomerate consisting of irregulartjaed 
rounded grains, and masses of qoartE and other recks. According aa 
they consist of granite, qoartK, limestone, 4c., they are called 
, granitic, quortsose, calcareous In building, the oonglomerBtes are 
generally only employed for the coarser kinds of work, as foi rounds' 
tjons and the abutments of bridges. 

COHID.^, a family of Oaateropodoui JfoUwca, including tha 
genera Cunni [CuHDs] and Plamtoma [SirHOMOBtoMaTA]. Thsy are 



in CONIFERS 

dunctcrised b; the ahell being iurenely oooical ; the aperture Inng 
Mid DHTOw ; the outer lip DOtched at or near the auture ; operculum 
minnta and lamellar. The aaimal ha* an oblong foot truacated in 
front, with a coiupicuous pore in the middle. The head a produced, 
and the tentacles are far aparL Tlie ejea are attached to the tea taclee. 
The gitla an two. The lingual teeth are la purs, elongate, subulate, 
or hastate. 

Lamarcic reoords nine foujl apeciea of Cottida. Deehajee in hia 
'Tablet' makea the nuuiber farty-oine (tertiary), one of which, C.Medi- 
Itrraneut, he giiea ae both living aud foasil (terUar;), Mr. Q. B. 
Sowerby ('Genera') aajs: — "Foaail oones are not unfrequeot; but 
we believe that they occur only in the newer atrata, or thoee above 
the chaU. such as the London Clay and Crag in Englaud, the Calcaire 
Oroaaier in France, and the contemporaneous bads in other countrisa. 
There are a few aeen in collections, Rlleil with a coarae dark-green 
arenaoeouB subatance ; these belong to the Terraina Calcoreo- Trap- 
pfienaof Brongniart Doubtfulcaatsoremetwithin the inferior Oolito, 
according to Coiiylware and Phillips." The aama author gives a 
figure of C. darmitot, a fowl from Barton, approaching very near to 
a PUarotoma. Many ipeciea are found in the blue marla of the south 
of France (M. Marcel de aorroa). M. de BuaCerot givn many from 
Bordeaux aud Dai, Ac ; one of thetn, C. deprrdilm of Lamarck, as 
analogous to the eiiHbing species at Owbyhee. Among the fo«il 
■pedes from the western borders of the Red Sea, collected by Ur. 
James Burton, named by Dr. J. E. Qray and Mr. Fretnbley, and com- 
municated to Sir Charles Lyell by Mr. QreeDough, are twelve species 
all living; hut neither C. MediUrraneut nor C. deperditut appears in 
thelir" 



Tannanlinhis List of British Fuaails records three species of i'^n 
Omm in the latter fan 



lama in the Crag and uinetoen In the London Chty, a 



le species of 



CONITER.1E, a natural order of Oymnoapermous EUogens (called 
by Dr. Lindley Pinacea), consiating of resinous, mostly evergreen, 
hard-lesved trees or shrubs, inhabiting all those parts of the world in 
which arborescent plants can exist. Under this name are collected 
the Tarious rscea of fir-tiees, pines, cedars, junipers, cypresses, aud 
the like, which, however dissimilar they may at first sight appear, 
correspond not only in their universally terobinlaceoiis sap, but in 
the following poinU of organisation :— They all branch from numerous 
buds, procenlmg from the side of a main stem. Their wood consists 
of tubes of nearly equal diameter, oniong which there are here and 
there fistular cavities which receive the resin that eiudes from the 
wood. The sides of the woody tubes are marked by circular discs, 
which when highly msgniSed appear as if coaaistiug uf a smaller 
internal and a large external circle : the nature and use of these discs 
■re unknown. The following out representa highly-mngnified sections 
of s piece of deal A shows the nearly equal size of the woody tubes 
when viewed tranaversely ; B is a perpendicular section with the discs 
seen on the sides of the tubes. 



The leaves ars articulated with the stem, and rery often are linear, 
veinleas, and sharp-pointed ; but in some esses, as ^iiiburia adianti- 
folia. Jig. 1, and Podotarjnu atplaiii/olia, fy. i, the leaves becomi 
broad, and then they are filled with veins, which are all of the sami 
nie, and branch by repeatedly forking ; a mode of veining knowi. 
only in these plants and in ferns. The Bowers are collected in little 
■caly cones ; males in one cone and females in another. The fenwjes 
haVe no pvricarpial coverine, but consist of naked ovules, to which 
fertilisation is communicated directlv from the pollen, without the 
intarpositian of a style or stigma. When the fruit is ripe it consists 
of a certain number of acales collected into a cone, and inclosing the 



naked seeds in their axils. Sometimsa luch scales sie thin as in t 
larch, or bard and long as in the pine, or even succulent as in t 
juniper, whose berries, as they are named, are small cones with 11 
culent consolidated scsles. 



Satiahufia adiautifvlia- Podocarpvt aipttmiifbiia^ 

Lindley places this order between the Ci/cadacea and Taxacea. 
There are SO genera aud above 100 species, which include trees and 
ehruba of univeiaal importance to maokind. Oigantic in size, rapid 
in growth, noble in aspect, robust in constitution, these trees form a 
considerable proportion of woods and plantations in cultivated 
countriea, and of forests where nature remains in temperste countries 
in a aavage state. They are natives of Tarioyt parts of the world, 
from the perpetual snows of arctic America to the hottest regions of 
the Indian Archipelago. The principal part of the order is found in 
temperate climates. In Europe, Siberia, China, and the temperate 
parts of North America, the species are exceedingly abundant. The 
timber of these trees is exceedingly valuable in commerce, and is 
knownunderthenamesofDeal, Fir, Pine, aud Cedar. Their resuious 
secretions are also well known by the names of Oil of Turpentine, 
Burgundy Pitch, Canailian Balsam, kc. The common I^rch yields 
Venetian Turpentine 1 Liquid SCorax is procured from a species of 
Pine ; the branches of the Hemlock Spruce are used in making spnice 
beer ; and the Savin, which is well known in medicine, is a species 

CONlROSTREa, a family of Bi^d^ the third amongst Cuvier's 
Pattera. Jt comprises those genera which have a strong bill, more or 
less conical, and without notchea Cuvier says that t£ey live exclu- 
sively upon seeds, in proportion as their bill is more or lees thick. 
The CoairotlTa form one of Uie five tribes of tbe order Iniai>ra of 
Mr. Vigors. [B1BD8.J 

CONIUM, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order Apiacea, 
or UmbtU^/eric. It has an obsolete calyx ; petals obcordate, some- 
what emarginate, with a very short iuBexed lobe. Fruit oompressed 
at the side; ovata Half-fruits vrltb five prominent equal undulated 
ridges, of which the lateral are on the border. Channels with many 
striic, but no vittie. Biennials Root fusiform; stem taper^branched ; 
leaves decompound ; botli involucres 3-G-loaved, the pextial one-halved. 
Flowers whiu, aU fertile. 

0. miKulalum, Hemlock, is found in waste places throughout 
Europe, the east of Asia, and the cultivated parts of America. It 
possesses highly narcotic and dangerous quslitiee, but is used medi< 
cinally as a remedy in nervous affections. It has a white fusiform 
biennial rout ; an erect branched bright-green spotted stem, fivm 
five to ten feet high, on which are planted so many smooth finely cut 
large fem-like leavo. When very healthy, and growing in a spot 
where it is neither injured by sterma nor disfigured by dust, the 
Hemlock is one of the moat nobk) of our wild plants. Its little 
greenish white fiowers, arranged in umbels after the manner of its 
order, have a minute involucre of severTiI leaves at the base ; and the 

firtial umbels have also three or four short oval leaflets on one aide, 
he fruit is globular, encfa half having five projecting angles, which 
are slightly crcnelled, without either x-itto! or appendages or projec. 
tions between them. It grows in wild places, sometimes by the 
sides of ditches in meadows, but more frequently in light upland 
pastures, flowering in June and July. It is almost the only wild 
umbelliferous plant whose fiuit is destitute of vittai, aud consequently 



It is necessary to pay the greatest attention to the botanical cha- 
radera of Conntm maculatum, in order that the genaine plant may be 
collected. Sometimes plants resembling it are collected, which ai« 
almost or entiraly inert when employed as a medicine ; or plants 



*1 of {greater potency ara iia*d in iU Bt««d, Trom which fatal offBotiiBlly allayed by coniuiii and IpecaouanluL From tlie Tery deoidiid 
femltB h»vo followed. It is » " well-known ciromn«t«noB that the , aedatiTe sction of conia on the apbal Oord, Dr. Gordon hu suggested 
greatest discrepancy prerula among medical men aa to the activity ' that it will prove a useful remedy in t«tauua and other spauuodio 
of hemlock, not niBroly u a remedy hut. also aa a poison." Thie dia- "' 



CT«piincy admits of satisfactory eiplan 



even! graunds. The 



activi^ of the pluit — even supposing the proper one to be colleoled- 
depends greatly upon its plaoo of growth, the kind of sesMn, the 
time when collected, and the meaoi employed to dry it or form it 
a the temperature and dryness of the plaoa where 
I on the length of time it has been k^t. In the 




d wllh fmlt, nitanl site ; i, (he buk tI«w of ■ 
miit, mncli mi^iBcd-; 3, a IniuTcne hkUdu of tic rune, ahowing Ibe 
rtdm, Ihe abKD« or tIIUb, ind the iniolnte albnnien. 
south of Eompa it is much more energetic than in the aartb, owing 
to the greater intensity of light ; even in the eonthem proTincei( of 
France it is more powerful than in the northern. The wild plant, 
growing in well-eiposed sitnations, is always to be preferred to a 
cultivated one; the kind of season markedlj iaSuenoes its power, 
which is greatest in a dry sunny season, and least in a wat gloomy 
one. The leaves during the first year of growth possess little potency ; 
nor do they possess much during the early period of the second, till 
the flower-atem is developed, and the flowere are about to expand. 
If this period, which is the fittest time for collecting the leaves, is 
allowed to pass, it is better to wait two months longer, and oollect 
the fruits instead, as they become the reoipient of the active principle. 
The leaves should be dried quickly, but not by the application of a 
high temperature ; they should never be powdered till the time when 
it is intended to use them, but prsBcrred meanwhile in a cool dry 
place. If an extract be formed which requires much care in the 
preparation, it can rarely be kept beyond twelve months. A. fresh 
supply of leaves, fruits, or extract, abauld consequently be procured 
every year, and the farmer thrown away, as the action of time or heat 
volatilises the active principle (Conia), and renders the residue nearly 
inert. When these precautions are attended to, Hemlock is a medi- 
cine of great power and unqueationable value. 

The &eeh leaves are dark green, shining : odour strong, stapifying, 
nnpleasant, resembling that of mice, or the urinous odour of fresh 
Spanish Flies ; when dried the colour is lighter, a grayish green ; the 
taste is disagreeably saline, nausBously bitter, and at last somewhat 
said. The expressed juice is green. 

According to LinnEeua, aheep eat the leaves, but horses, cows, and 
goats refuse it. Say informs us that the thrush will feed upon the 
seeds even when com is to be had. The first physician who endea- 
voured to bring hemlock into repute as a medicine was Baron Stcerck 
of Vienna, who announced that it exerted extraordinary efTecte on tbe 
most inveterate chronic diiiordere in 1760. The whole plant is a viru- 
lent poison, but varying much in atrength according to circumstances. 
When taken in an over done it produces vertigo, dimness of sight, 
nausea, and paralysis of the limbs. In small doees however it is found 
very useful in scirrhus, scrofulous tumours, dropsy, epilepsy, and 
as an anodyne. Dr. Pereira and Dr. Christison recommend an 
alcoholic tincture of the bruised ripe fruit instead of the leaves. 

In what way hemlock proves useful aa a remedial agent in many 
diseases ia by no m^ana clear, unless it be by allaying irritabiUty in 
the diseased parts, and giving an opportunity to the vital powers to 
recover their beathful action. That it leesena irritability in many 
diseased organs ia certain, from the eSsota of the adminidtratioa of 
even a few dosea, especially in many cases of scrofulous aSectiona, 
and above all from allaying tbe irritation of the lungs during the 
fonnatioa of tubercles, and indeed during all the subsequent stagea of 
consumption. Even when inhaled along with the vapour of wann 
water the same good effect is said to follow, but this is rather doubtful. 
Its beneficial influence over external ulcers is however open to oleerva- 
tion ; and John Hunler remarked, that under the combined action of 
conium and cinchona-bark, many obstinate buboes, which resisted 
every other mode of trcAtment, aoon took on a healing process. Many 
irritable or oainful ulcere are soothed and improved by a hemlock 
poultice. RiieuniBtio pains, and those attending nodes, are said to be 



Dr. Chriatiaon is of opinion that the Coniuta macvlalwn of the 
present day is not the plant which furnished the poison employed to 
dispatch Phocion and Socrates. Waller conHiders it to have been 
Oinula viroia. [CoNlA, in Abm AND So, Dry.] 

For farther partioulars with regard to tbo subject of this article 
we refer to Dr. Christison's ' Memoir on the Poisonous Properties of 
Hemlock and its Aloaloid, Conia." (' Traneaotiona of the Royal Soriaty 
of Edinburgh,' voL xiiL) 

CONNARACE^ a natnral order of tropicil Trees or Shrubs allied 
to Anacardiaccie and Legami-naice, It coutaitis 5 genera and about 40 
apeciea. The leaves ara compound, not dotted, alternate, witiout 
stipules. The flowere terminal and axillary, in racemes or panicles, 
with bracts. Calyx 5-parted, regular, pereistant ; [estivation either 
imbricated or valvular. Petals 6, inserted on the calyx, imbricated, 
rarely valvate in eestivation. Stamens twice the number of petals, 
hypogynooB, those opposite the petals shorter than the others; 
filaments usually monadelphaua. Carpels solitary or several, each 
with a separata style and stigma. Ovidee 2, collateral, orthotropal. 



II isd >(]'1m; 3, a 

ascending; s^les terminal; stigmas usually dilated. Fruit dehiscent, 
fotlioular, splitting lengthwise internally. Seeds erect, in pairs or 
solitary, vritJi or without albumen, often with an aril ; radicle superior, 
at the extremity opposite the hilum ; cotyledons thick in the speeies 
without albumen, foliaoeous in those with albumen. Brown says the 
genua can be distinguished from Leguminous plants by the relation 
which parts of its embryo bear to the umbihcus of the seed ; that is 
to say, by tbe radicle being at the extremity moat remote trmn the 
hilum. From AnacardiactiE and othen they ara at once known by 
their total want of reainous juice and their orthotropal ovules. 

The species are all tropical ; most common in America. The beautiful 
ESbra-wood now so much nsed by cabinet-makers is ascertained to be 
produced by Omph/Uobiitm Lamherti, a large Guyana tree of this 

CONNOCHETES. [Antiixipejs.] 

CONNOR, a Fish belonging to tbefamilyZo&rtdiT. [CRKHILLBftDB.] 

CONO'CEKAS, a genus of Cephi^opoda, fossil on Lake Huron. 
Bronn founds the characters of it on the form of the aepta, which are 
convex towards the base of the cone. 

CONOELIX,CONCELIX,orCO»JOHELIX,agenuaofTurUil«ted 
Malliuea, eatabliahed by Mr. Swainaon for a group which, ia his 



m coNOPa 

npinioii, "fonn k beaatifull; deBaed link connecting the Cones iriUi 
the Volutes, atrtcUj so tenned." It bu the following generic chir 
neter; — ^"Shell caniTorm. Spin tctj ahart Outsr lip ■imple. 
Columella or pillu- pluted. Apertun linear, dutdw, longer thin 
the apin^ Generic tjpe, Conalix Uiualut." (Swunson.) 

Hr.SmiaKin ('Zoological Illoitrstions') figures three species, and 
nwntions Uut sererKl specimens are in the Bsnluian oollection from 
Um Pd«w Iilsnds. To one of th«e species in thst ooUeetJoD, Tnheite, 
nsosUr called Otaheit«, is giren as b locality. Hr. Cumitig brought 
home another species, 0. Virgo, which Mr, Swainson considers as 
r c pr es giting CtHia Virfo, &om the reefs at the island of Bietea. It 
was in shsllow water. 

C. liKodu. '• Shell smooth, whitjsh, with truasYerae oapillarr 
(qItous linea. Bpire depressed, the spei prominent. PilLirsii-plsited. 
Inhabits the South Seas (T)." (Swainson.) The figures, which are of 
tlie Dstoral tii^ are oopied fivm the accurate drawing in the ' Zoological 
niuatratiooi.' All the other known species are compsntiTelf small 



DeHainTilla dirides the genus Milra into Sts sections, and makes 
bis fifth oonaiiit ot Imbricaria, Sebum., and Caindix, Sow,, meaning 
SuworUy ; bat the genus is Swainson's, and is generally adopted. 

COMOPS, a genus of Inseeta belonging to the order Diplera and 
tlia (ainily Concpida. The family Conopida is thus chsncterised : — 
Proboecis distinct, last joints of ontenns forming a short style. 
Wings perfect. Cubital vein simple ; brachial veius without spurious 
vein ; uillary lobe rounded. H^teres uncovered. 

The genus Conopt has tbe following characters : — Body of middle 
size, nUher slender, generally adorned with yellow or red bands- 
Head thick, TCaiculose, the crown especially, with a transTerse ved- 
eulsr tabercle ; front brood in both seiea. Eyes prominent, oblong ; 
ocelli none. Proboscis long, porrect, stiff, cloTste, horizontal, or 
somewhat nused rnto a curve, geniculate at the base, arched above, 
hollow beneath, obliquely notched at tbe tip, much shorter than the 
labium. Lingua slender, filiform, transparent. Pslpi untarticulate, 
short, Tery small, fringed itt tbe tips with fine bristles. La,bium 
obliquely porrect, cylindrical, twice the length of the lingua, narrower 
towards the tip, most slender in the mide, bilobed, slightly hairy, 
and with three shallow transverse furrows at tbe tip. Antennn 
about as long ss the head, porrect, seated on a tubercle, approximate 
at the base, diverging thence ; first joint short, cyliadrit^, pubescent, 
forming on angle with the second; seoond long, Bub-clavate; third 
conical, shorter than the second ; fourth very short ; fifth and aiztb 
liuger, widened on one side; siith and seventh like a little spine. 
Thorax almost quadrate, slightly convei above, with a scapula on 
each aide ; scutellum small, semicircular. Wings lanceolate, finely 
pubescent incumbent, and parallel in repose, prwbrachial vein united 
with the cubital tovsrds the tip; proahrachial and discal sreolete 
long, Che latter closed near the posten or margin l)y a tnnsTeiH vein; 
onol areolet long, distinct, complete. Abdomen arched, rather long, 
jrilh six segments more or less slender towards the base, obclavate 
towards tiie tip, which is incurved. Legs rather stout; tibial very 
slightly curved, compressed and dilated at the tips, in some cases 
with a tnnsveras auture ; tani rather broa^; ungues and onychia 
distinct, 

Male, — Abdomen with a ptojecting oonic^ proeeas on the fourth 



CONUS. 



ita 



"s; 



lese flie* frequent flowers ; their larm are paraaitio on those of 
are twenty spedes of this insect in the ool- 
<um, of these not more than three are found 
; been caught in ths south of Fnnce, Korth 



il genus of MoBtuta, generally ranked witli 

Dame for jScAvtwdi, to which also the term 

laleropodou* ifoSusca, founded byLinDDBUB. 
eery much compressed and involved, with a 
loted by a proboBcts capable of mnch eiten- 
^e rather short, but projeotjng, and armed 
rth ; tentscula cylindncol, carrying the eyes 
al, elongated, wider before than it ia behind, 
)r channel ; mantle scanty, narrow, forming 



Shell thick, solid, rolled ap aa it were in a conical form ; epidermis 
membranous, sometimes very thick ; spire of different degrees of 
elevation, sometimes almost flat ; aperture long and very narrow, 
widening a little anteriorly; lipa generally straight and parallel, the 
outer lip simple and sbartHedged, sometimes a little curved, the iimer 
lip without any plaits on the columella, but with a few elevated strin 
on its anterior termination. Operculum homyj very small, subspiral, 
vrith a terminal summit, placed obliquely on the bock part of tbe 
foot^ and, when compared with the length of the aperture, appearing 
like a rudiment. 

The apecies ore found in southern and tropical sess. The form 
becomes gradually less developed as Ihe locality appioachn tbe north. 
In the Mediterranean there are a few species, but none appear to have 
been detected in the northern seas. They are camiToroue, and found 
on sandy mud at depths vaiying from near the sur&oe of the sea to 
seventeen fathoma. 

Tbe species are very nomerooB. Lamarck raoorda 181 recent ; and 
aerersl of these include Tarieties. The following obeerrations of 
Hr, Broderip in bis introduction to the description of some new spedes 
in the Gumingian collection may be of use to the student After 
pointing out the difficulty of tbe task arising from the infinite varieties 
presented by the genus, and the very few pointa of form and s^iicturs 
in the shell that con be relied on as the foundation of speciSc cho- 



them may bo w 

cat! examine an extensive coiiecuon 01 v;anea, particujo; 

many individuala of each species, for the purpoea < . ^ , 

without being struck by tbe force of tbe observation. Colonr, granu- 
lation, or smoothness, length or shortness of the spire, its plunness 
or coronation, will be found m many apecies the result of locality, 
food, or temperature." H. Ducloe, in reference to tJie numbers given 
by Lamarck, states that he is convinced that there are many of the 
Bpefies which can only be regarded as varieties at most. About 
269 recent species and 80 fossil epeciea have heen described up to the 
present time, 

Uony of these species and nrieties are very beautiful, both in shape 
and colour, and the genus baa always been highly volaed by collectora. 
Oonui gliiria-marii, C. etdo-nnlti, C. Dmaicitf, C. aurisiociM, C. amntir- 
ajti, and some others, have brought very large prices, and aom* of the 
finest specimens of these shells are now m this country. 

Lamarck separates thegenus into two diviaiona : the first compriaidg 
thoae apeciea wbose apire ia coronated; and the second thoee whose 
spire is simple. By far the greater proportion of apedea belong to the 
Utter division. 

De Blainville thna divides the genu ; — 



(Oeaua Rhombiu, De Uontfort) 
Conical SDedes with a coronated spir^ which is either projecting 
or flattened. (Example, 0. imperialii). 

(Qenus Ct/linder, De Hontfort.) 
Species a littie elongated, suboval ; the spire projecting and 
pointed, but not coronated. (Example, C. ttxitle.) 



■J.) 

(Genua Htrma, De Montfort) 

Elongated, cylindrical apedea with a projecting spire, and the 
aperture as in the genus TrrsicUum, that ia, angular posteriorly. 
(Examples, C. Nwuatelia and C. nu/nUiu,) 

Mr. G. a Sowarby ('Genera of Recent and Fosdl Shells') observes 
that the Cones are Uabte to be confounded with the PUaroloiaata, and 
the young spedmena of some Slron^i ; and tbosa which are rathei 




Animal or Oomu iaiiitina, 

a. Been [d proSle ; i, iliw of UDdrr ilde ; c, DpennilDni, 

ventricosa with young Ogfraa ; but that they may be disliDgiiiahed 

from tbe Plevrolowita by their short spire, their linear apei'ture, and 

their straight columella; troai the young Strombi, by .their being 



I» 



CONVALtABITES. 



entirely destitute of TBrioote suturea, *iid by tbeir never haTJog; any 
■ppeanuice of a notsh neu the lower axtremit; of the outer lip ; the 
young &rombi moreoTer an Mldoin, if ever, so regularly ooniod; 
and from the young Cypraa by the thickneH of their ahell, by the 
coroiuted or abrupt ipire, and b; their not being naturally polubed 
in every pari, whioh the Ci/praa alnnya nra, in cooKqueDce of the 
want of epidermia which covers the shell of the Cone, while in the 
Ol^raa the Urge mantle Oomee in oontaotwith the whole of the ahalL 



Shell at OnuupifunLM). 

CONVALLABIT^, a genua of IJliaceans <t} Plants foadl m the 
Ilsd-3and>tone of Sulibad. (Brongniart.) 

CONVOLVnLA'CEl<S,aiiatural Older of Hanopetalooa Exogenous 
Plants, with bell-ahapad flowers, opening or contracting beneath the 
inBaence of light, a plaited natiTation of the coroUo, 5 gtameni, and a 
fruit with 2 or 3 celle, in which 1 or 2 OTulea itand erect The 
embryo is crumpled up in the midst of very firm albumen. - The 
common Bind- Weeds of the hedges, the Ipomaa and Oonvolvuii of the 
Gardens, offer illnstrstiona of the ordinary state of Utis order, the 
s^ieedes of which have purgative roots ; and in the case of scammony, 
yielded by Contolvulfu Scammonia, and of jalap, produced by various 
spedee of Ipouioa [IroWEA], are of great medictnol importance. 
OcGasionally the purgative principle is so much diffused among Uis 
fieculii of the root as to be almost inappreciable, as is the case in the 
Cowtoirtiiiu Balaiai, or Sweet Potato of America, which was the 
fororunner of the common potato, and gave it its name, and which is 
still cultivated in the south of Spain and France. [BiTaias.] 




of this natural order ai 
it ia immediately recognised ; but oecasioiiaUy they ai 
B spiny, and when that happens it is n ' 



CONTZA. IM 

know the order. If however attention is paid to the -fery imbricated 
state of the calyx, two of the sepals beine^uite exterior with respect 
to the other three, no real difficulty in id^tifying it need be experi- 
enced. For illustration we have taken a singular East Indian genus 
called (Veuroprfris, in which the flowers grow from the niidrib ot the 
bractesl leavea 

The BpedsB are abundant in all porta of the tropics, but rsre in 
cold elimates where only a few are found. In the ooldest elimataa 
they are unknown. The roots abound in a milky juice, which ia 
■tronglr purgative : this property dependa on a peculiar resin 
which u the active principle of jatap, scammony, and oUien of like 
nature. There aie 43 genera and above SOO i^tedes. The order. 
Dr. Lindl^, is allied to Solanaeea, Boroffiaacta, and 



COMVOLYULnS, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural 
order ConvolwiiKta, The spades are chiefly herbs or herbflhruba, 
The genus ia known by the style being divided into 2 linear arma 
and its ovaiy having 2 cells in which stand 2 erect ovul&s. There 
are aboTS ISO species of this genus, They ore commonly known by 
the name of Biod-Weeds, 

C. Scammonia, Scamtaony Bind-Weed, is a native of Syria, Cappa- 
docio, and of the island of Rhodca, in hedges. It has large campanu- 
late cream-coloured or very pale red corollas. The roota, whii^ ara 
very long and thick, when freah contain a milky juice. Thia ia 
obtained Dy removing the earth from the npper part of the rootj^ and 
cutting off the tops obliquely. The milky juice which flows out is 
oollected in a vessel in the earth at the lower end of the cut. Sach 
root fumishes a few drachms, and the produce of several roota is 
added together, and then dried in the sun. This is the true and una- 
dulterated Seammony. It is lights of a dorkgray colour, and becomes 
of a whitish-yellow when touched with the wet finger. It seldom 
reaches us in a pure stato, but is commonly mixed with the eiprened 
juice of the root, and often with Sour, sand, or earth. The best comes 
from Aleppo, and a second quality from Smyrna. Scommony Is 
an eiDoaoioiu and powerful purgative. [Scamuost, in Abts and 
8o.DtT.] 

C. dPKDsis has angularatriated atoms; leaves sagittate, somewhat auri- 
eledjpeduncleausuaUyl'Bowered; sepals ovate, roundish; corolla whita 
or rose-colour. It ia native throughout Europe in sandy fields and by 
road-sidee ; also in China, Persia, and some parts of Indis. It [s very 
common in Oreat Britain, lliis species is said to possess a purgative 
quality, oa also C. SoidantUa, C. laaritianu, and O, tnacncarpvt, 

C. pmdvn^uM abounds in prussic add, and ia one of the plants from 
which the liqueur Noyau is prepared. 

C. abmoida is a nstivs of the South of Europe North of Africa, 
and Levant, climbing ammg bushes. It hoe stems branched from the 
bottom, cliinbing or spreading, taper and leafy ; the conilta about two 
inches long, and of a beautiful rose^nlour. According to M. Loiseleur 
Dealongchamps the roots contain a purgative resin, ^ch is given in 
doses from 16 to 24 grains. 

C. SoldantUa and C. SQnun are now referred to the genua Calytt^ia 
by Robert Brown. [Calibtbou.] Several of the apeciet are nativea 
of Qreat Britain. Many grow well in our gardens, and form handsome 
and showy flowsrs. 

COMY'ZA, a genus of Plants belonging to ths natural order Ctm- 
pcrila, to the sub-order TiibulijUnr, Uie tribe Eupaloriaaa, the sub- 
tribe £aechan<Ua, the division Cimyua, and the lub-diviidon Enco- 
ngita. It has an herbaooooa imbricate involucre, the flowen of l^s 
ray tubular, 3-toothed, pistiliferous, those of the diso tubular, 6- 
toothed, hermaphrodite ; the anthers caudate, the achenium beakless, 
the pappus pilose, the receptacle naked. The species are herbs and 
shrubs, and are found in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. 

C. iquamoia, Fleabane, Ploughman's Spikenard, has the scalea of 
the involucre Ul linear, theleavesoTal«-lanceol«le,downy,denticulBte, 
the lower leaves narrowed into a footstalk, the florets of the ray sub- 
ligulate, the fruit terete. This is a common plant on calcareous soila 
in Great Britain and throughout Europe. It possesses a volatile oil 
with a peculiar scent, and is used for the purpoae of driving away 
fleas and gnala. It seems to have had this reputation from an early 
period, as ita names in most languages have reference to this quali^. 
Ila I«tin name is PidUana: French, Herbea sui Puces ; English, 
Fleabane. Thia species has been referred bj De Condolle, in his 
' Prodivmus,' who is followed by Babington, m his ' Manual,' to the 
genus Inla, under the name of I. Conynt. 

O. anlkdmiatKa has ovate or oval-oblong leaves, acuminate at both 
ends, coarsely serrated, and downy ; the heads corymbose, each con- 
taining 40-SO florets ; the scalea of the involucre Uncsotat«, linear, 
acute, the outer somewhat spreadiog. le<ifly, and obovale-linear. It is 
a oommon plant among rubbish and in dry uncultivated ground in 
the Ejist Indies. It is the Vsnumi'a anihrlmmiiea of Willdenow, 
The fruit is used by the doctors of Indio as a powerful remedy for 

C, gtnitUUoida has very small leaves reduced to sharpish somewhat 
temate acnlea ; 1-2 heads in interrupted spikca, the involucre turbinate, 
with the acsles all acuminata. This plint U a native of Peru and 
Braiil. It is the Baeeharit goiitUitoida of PerM>on, the Molina 
rcHcidaia of Lcwlng. It contains a bitter ettrootiva matter aikd an 
nromutiii oil, and ia not unlike in Ha medioiual ehomcters the oommoa 



wormwood, tt ia em;dojeiI in the Bmzila id inUnnittent fimn, and 
nuiy be u»«d in tH tho» ciiBe« where the Artamiiisi U indicated. It 
is puticuliirif beoeficiftl in the chronio dieenHfl of horees, which are 
ver; fond of this plant Itmty be employed in the form of an eitract 

C. Harglandica hoe seuite, broad -lanceolate, acute, aemited leaves ; 
the corTmbe tenninal nud fastiginta. It is a natiTe of North America, 
■nd eeorot«a a powerful volatile oil, which givea out the odour of 
oimphor. This property is also poaatieeed by C, eamphorata. 

(Loudon, Encyclopadiaof Planti; Koch, Ptara GermatUa; Lindley, 
Flora Medico.) 

COOKIA, n gonui of Plnnta belongiig to the naturd order 
Auraaliacta. The epeciee are emull trees with impari-pinnate leaTea; 
Icnfleta nlteniate, uoequal at the b.-ise, or oblique. 

C. punctata ia a native of China and tlie Molucoaa ; it hu ovate 
Injioeolftto leaflets, acuminated, hardly unequal at the base. It is a 
ini<1dle'Bized tree bearing eatable fruit about the aJES of a pigeon's egg, 
yellow OD the outside, the pulp white, rather acrid, but sweet. Thu 
fruit is esteemed as an article of diet in China and the ladian Archi- 
P'liigo, and is tnown by the name of Wiimpee. There are two or 
three other species, natives of the Kaat, all known as Wampee Trees. 

COOT. [RaLLiD*.] 

COPAI'FERA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Fahacea or Lrgviminota, sometimes placed in the Aiayridacea. It has 
a 4-parted oalyi, eegraents diverging, the lowest the narrowest. 
Curolla wanting; stamens 10, declinate. Ovary roundish, com- 
pnsBcd, with 2 ovules. Fruit pedicelUte, oblique, obovate, 2-valved, 
1-aceded ; seed inclosod in a l-sided aril. The species are trees or 
xhnibe, inhnbiting tropical America. Their trunks yield balsam by 
inoirioQ. The leaves are alternate, pinnntetl equally or unequally; 
leaBeta opposite or alternate, either dotted or not. The flowers 
are arranged in compound aiillary and terminal spikes. 

C. Jacqaini, the C. officinatii of Jacquin, is a nntive of the West 
Indies. The leaves are gcnciTkllv equally pinnated ; leaflets in 2-5 
pairs, incurved, ovate, uncquu-aided, obtusely noumtnato, with 
pellucid dots. From this species is obtnined the Copniva Balsam 
of the West Indies, which is used in medicine. [Cofaiva, in Arts 
ASD 8c. Div.] 



Oipaififa JaequifiL 

C.nvl/ijuga has equally-pinnated leaves; leaflets O-IO pairs, some- 
what incurred, unequal-sided, with a long tapering point and pellucid 
dote, the lower ovate-oblong, the upjior lanceolate. This is said to 
yield the Copaiva exported from Para. 

C. Langtdorfli grows in the province of 3. Paulo In Brazil. It has 
leafiets in 3-S pairs, equal-sided, obtuse, with pellucid dots ; the lower 
ovate, the upper elliptical : the petioles and peduncles slightly 

The Copaiva H*'""" of Braiil is fumiahed bj this and the next 
■pedes. 

C. earUKta is also a native of S. Paalo in Brazil. It has leaflets ia 
S-3 pairs, elliptical, equal-aided, cmarginate, not dotted ; petioles and 
peduncles nearly smooth. The Balsam of Copaiva, an acrid bitter 
IS liquid resin, is apparently furnished by all iba species of this 



applied indiscrimiDately to many diBTeient apecit 

The ParpleHeart, a Ouyana tree yielding timber of great toughneos, 
which is very valuable for resisting the shock of artillery-discbarges, 
sod is therefore employed for making niortnr-lwds, ia the C. jminfivra 



COPPER in 

and hntdeata. The balsam is said to gush out of tlie heart of these 

trees in largo quantitiee when wounded. 

COPAL, a resin poasoesed of peculiar properties, the prodace of 
the SJtiu copaUinumj a n.itiTe of Mexico ; it is in rounded masses, 
■mootli and brittle, tronapareat or nearly ao, without oolour or having 
a slight tinge of yellow; it has but little taste, and is nsarif 
inodorous ; it is Insoluble in water, fusible, and inflammable. It 
differs from most other resins in its very sparing solubility in slcohol ; 
and of the little that dissolves with the assistance of heat the greater 
part is deposited as the solution cools. It ia dlasolvcd by ether and 

A aubstauce resembling Copal is also found mineral, which is called 
Foail Copal. It ia however insoluble in alcohol. 

CO'PHINUS, a fossil genua whoaaafEuiticB are uncertain. (Uun^ 
'Sil. Syet.' pL 26, f. 12.) 

COPPER, one of the motals, occura native in conaideruble quantiUea ; 
also combined with oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and various acida The 
ores of copper voir in apeciGc gravity from 3'5 to 8'S, audaeldom exceed 
i in hardnesa. Many of the ores give to borax a gnten colour in the 
outer flame, and an opaque dull red in the inner. With carbonate of 
aoda on charcoal, nearly al! the orea are reduced, and a globule of 
copper obtained ; borax and tinfoil are required in some cases, where 
a combination with other metals oonceala the copper. When soluble 
in the acids, a clean plate of iron inaerted in the aolution become* 
covered wiUi copper, and ammonia produces a blue solution. 

NlTlvi CoFPiB. — Uonometric In octahedrons; no cleavage appa- 
rent. Oflen in plates or masses, or arborescent and filiform shape*. 
Colour copper-red. Ductile and malleable. Hardness, 2'5 to 8. Specific 
gravity, 8-68. 

Native copper oflen contains a little silver disseminated throu^out 
it. Before the blow-pipe it fuses readily, and on cooling it ia oovared 
with a black oxide. It dlsnlvea in nitric acid, and produces a Uu9 
aolution with ammonia. 

Native copper accompanies the ores of copper, and usuallj occurs 
in the vicinity of dykes of igneotu rocks. Siberia, Brwdl, and Corn- 
wall, are noted for the copper they have produoed. A. mass, supposed 
to be from Bahia, now at Lisbon, weighs 2616 lbs. The vidnity of 
Lake Superior ia one of the moat extnordinary regions in the world 
fur ita native copper, whero it occurs moatly in vertical seams in timp, 
and alao in the inclosing sandstone. A mass weighing 3TIH lbs. haa 
been taken from thence to Washington dty. One large mass weigh- 
ing 80 tons was quarried out in the same district. It was GO feet 
long, 6 feet deep, and averaged 6 inches in thicknesa This copper 
rontJuns intimately mixed with it about 3-lOths per cent, of silver. 
Besidea this, perfectly pure silver in strings, masses, and grains is 
ofteu dieseminated through the copper ; and aome masses when 
polished appear aprinklcd with large white spots of silver. Crystals 
of native copper are also found penetrating magses of prehnita and 
onolcime in the trap rock. This mixture of copper and silver cannot 
be imitated by art, aa the two metals form an alloy when melted 
together. It is probable that the separation in the rocks is due to 
the cooling from fusion being so extremely gradual as to allow the 
two metals to solidify separately at their respective temperatures of 
Bolidiflcation ; the trsp being an igneoua rock, and ages often elapsing, 
as is well known, during the cooling of a bed of lava covered from 
the air. Small specimena of native copper have been found in various 
parts of the Unitnl States. It occura also in Australia. 

FUrtotu Copptr Ore. — Trimetric Cleavage parallel to the faces of 
a right rbombio piiam, but indistinct. Secondary forms, variously 
modified rhombic prisms. It occurs also in compound crystals like 
aiTSgonite ; often massive. Colour and streak hinckiah lead-gray, 
often tamishod, blue or green, streak sometimes shining. BardnesB, 
26 to 3. Specific gravity, iS to C*S. Compoaition : — 

Sulphur 20-8 

Copper 77-2 

Bcforo the blow-pipe it gives off fumes of sulphur, fuses easily in the 
external flame, and boils. After the sulphur is driven off a globule of 
copper remains. Dissolves in heated nitric acid, with a precipitation 
of the Bulphur, The vitreous copper ore resembles vitreous silver 
ore ; but the lustre of a surface of fracture is lees brilliant, and they 
aSbrd different results before the blow-pipe. The solution made bj 
putting a piece of the ore in nitric acid covers an iron-plate or knife- 
blade with copper, while a similar solution of the silver ore ooven a 
copper-plate with rilver. 

This ore occurs with other copper ores in beds end veina. In Corn- 
wall splendid orjatollisations occur. Siberia, Heaao, Saxony, the 
Bannat, Chili, and the United States, also afford it. 

Capper Pyrita — Sulphuret of Copper and Iron. Dlmetrio. Crys- 
tola tetroliedrsl or octahedral, sometimes compound. Clsavsge 
indistinct It occurs also massive and of various shapes. Colour 
bian-yellow, often tamiahed deep yellow, and also iridesosntj 
atreak unmetallic, greenish-bhuk, and but little shining. Hardneas, 
8S to i. Specific gravity, *-16 to *-17. Compoaition ;— 

Sulphur SB'S 

Copper ... ... SSI 

Iron . . . . 81-B 



133 



COPPEtt. 



COPPER. 



134 



It fusea before the blow-pipe to a globule, which is mugnetic, owing to 
the iron present. Gives sulphur-fumes on charcoal; with borax 
affords pure copper. The usual effect with nitric acid. 

This ore resembles native gold and also iron pyrites. It is dis- 
tinguished from gold by crumbling when it is attempted to cut it, 
instead of separating in slices ; and from iron pyrites in its deeper 
yellow colour, and in yielding easily to the point of a knife, instead 
of striking fire with a steeL 

Copper pyrites occurs in veins in granite and allied rocks; also in 
grauwacke, &c. It is usually associated with iron pyrites, and often 
with galena, blende, and carbonates of copper. The copper of Fahlun, 
Sweden, is obtained mostly from this ore, where it occurs with serpen- 
tine in gneiss. Other mines of this ore are in the Harz, near Goslar, 
in the Bannat, Hungary, Thuringia, &c. The Coinwall ore is mostly 
of this kind, and 10,000 to 12,000 tons of pure copper are smelted 
annually. There is much of this ore found in the United States. 
Besides being mined for copper, this ore is used extensively in the 
manufacture of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) in the same manner 
that sulphate of iron (copperas) is obtained from iron pyrites. 

Vari^foied Copper Pyn'/eiL^Monometric. Cleavage ootahedral, 
in traces. Occurs in cubes and octahedrons ; also massive. Colour 
between oopper-red and pinchbeck-brown ; tarnishes rapidly on expo- 
sure ; streak pale grayish-black, and but slightly shining. Brittle. 
Hardness, 8. Specific Qravity, 6. Composition : — 

Sulphur 25*7 

Copper 62*8 

Iron 11»6 

It fuses before the blow-pipe to a globule, attiTictable by the magnet. 
On charcoal affords fumes of sulphur. Mostly dissolved in nitric acid. 
This ore is distinguished from tne preceding by its pale reddixh-yellow 
colour. It occurs with other copper ores in granitic and allied rocks, 
and also in secondary formations. The mines of Cornwall have 
afforded crystallised specimens, and it is there called from its colour 
Horseflesh Ore. Other localities of massive varieties are — Ross 
Island, Killamey, Norway, Hesse, Silesia, Siberia, and the Bannat. 
Fine crystallisations occur in some of the United States. 

Gray Copper Ore, — ^Honometric. Occurs in modified tetrahedrons, 
and also in compound crystals. Cleavage octahedral, in traces. 
Colour between steel-gray and iron-black; streak nearly as the 
colour. Rather brittle. Hardness, 8 to 4. Specific Gravity, 
4*75 to 5.1. Composition : — 

Sulphur 26*3 

Copper 88*6 

Antimony 16*5 

Aisenic ....... 7*2 

together with some iron, sine, and silver, amounting to 15 per cent. 
It sometimes contains 80 per cent, of diver, in place of part of the 
copper, and is then called Argentiferow Cray Copper Ore, or Silver 
FakUrz. The amount of arsenic varies from to 10 per cent One 
variety from Spain included 10 i>er cent, of platinum, and another 
from Hohenstein some gold ; another from Tuscany ^*7 per cent, of 
mercury. These varieties give off before the blow-pipe fumes of 
arsenic and antimonv, and after roasting yield a globiUe of copper. 
It dissolves, when pulverised, in nitric add, affording a brownish-green 
solution. Its copper-reactions before the blow-pipe, and in solution 
in nitrio acid, distinguish it from the gray silver ores. The Cornish 
mines, Andieasberg in the Harz, Kremnits in Hungary, Freiberg in 
Saxony, Kapnik in Transylvania, and Dillenberg in Nassau, afford 
fine crystallisations of this ore. It is a conmion ore in the Chilian 
mines, and is worked there and elsewhere for copper, and often also 
for silTer. 

Bed Copper Ore. — Monometric. In reg^ular octahedrons, and modi- 
fied forms of the same. Cleavage octahedral. Also massive, and 
sometimes earthy. Colour deep red, of various shades; streak 
brownish-red. Lustre adamantine, or sub-metallio; also earthy, 
sub-transparent to nearly opaque. Brittle. Hardness, 8*5 to 4. 
Specific Gravity, 6. Composition : — 

Copper 88*88 

Oxygen 12 

Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it yields a globule of copper. 
It dissolves in nitnc acid. The earthy varieties have been called TiU 
Ore, from the colour. From cinnabar it differs in not being volatile 
before the blow-pipe, and from red iron ore in yielding a bead of 
copper on charcoal, and copper-reactions. It occurs with other 
copper ores in the Bsnnat, Thuringia, Cornwall, at Chessy, near Lyon ; 
in Siberia, and Brazil ; also in the United States. The octahedrons 
are often green, forming a coating of malachite. 

Black Copper, TenoriU, — ^An oxide of copper occurring as a black 
powder and in dull black masses and botryoidul conci^etions, in veins 
or along witlk other copper ores. From Cornwall, and also the Yesu- 
viau lavas. It is an abundant ore in some of the copper mines of the 
Mississippi Valley, and yields 60 to 70 per cent of copper. The 
oxides of copper are ensily smelted by heating with the aid of 
charcoal alone. They may be converted directly into sulphate 
or blue vitriol by means of sulphuric acid, but are more 
valuable for the copper they afford. 



Blue Vilriol, Sulphate of Copper, C7oj)p«r<M.— Triclinate, In oblique 
rhomboidol prisms ; also as an efflorescence or incrustation. Colour 
deep sky-blue; streak uncoloured. Sub-transparent to translucent. 
Lustre vitreous. Soluble. Taste nauseous and metallic. Hardness, 
2 to 2*5. Specific Gravity, 2*21. Composition :— 



Sulphuric Acid 
Oxide of Copper 
Water 



81*7 
821 
86.2 



A polished plate of iron in a solution becomes covered with copper. 
It occurs with the sulphurets of copper as a result of their decompo- 
sition, and is often in solution in tlio waters flowiug from copper 
mines. Occurs in the Harz, at Fablun iu Sweden, and in many 
other copper regions. 

Blue Vitriol is much used in dyeing opcrati(Hi8, and in the printing 
of cotton and linen ; also for vai'ious other purposes in the arts. It 
has been employed to prevent dry rot by steeping wood in its solu- 
tion, and is a powerfiJ preservative of auimal substances ; when 
imbued with it and dried they remain uunltered. It is afforded by 
the decomposition of copper pyrites, iu the same manner as greeu 
vitriol from iron pyrites: It is manufactured for the arts from old 
copper sheathing, copper turnings, and copper refinery scales. The 
scales are readily dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid at the temperature 
of ebullition ; the solution obtained is evaporated to the point where 
crystallisation will take place on cooling. Metallic copper is exposed 
in hot rooms to the atmosphere after it has been wotted in weak 
sulphuric acid. By alternate wetting and exposure it is rapidly 
corroded, and affords a solution which is evaporated for crystals. 
400,000 lbs. is the annual consumption of blue vitriol in the United 
States. In some mines the solution of sulphate of copper is so 
abtmdant as to afford considerable copper, which is obtained by im- 
mersing clean iron in it. It is called Copper of Cementation. At the 
copper springs of Wicklow, Ireland, about 500 tons of iron wei« laid 
at one time in the pits: in about twelve months the bars were 
dissolved, and every ton of iron yielded a ton and a half, and some- 
times nearly two tons, of a precipitated reddish mud, each ton of 
which produced 16cwt. of pure copper. The Rio Tinto mine, in 
Spain, is another instance of working the sulphate iu solution. These 
waters yield annually 1800 owt. of copper, and consume 2400 cwt. of 
iron. 

Qrten Malachite. Green Carbonate of Coppa\ — ^Monoclinate. Usual in 
incrustations, with a smooth tuberose botryoidal or stalactitic surface. 
Structure finely and firmly fibrous ; also earthy. Colour light green ; 
streak paler. Usually nearly opaque. Crystals translucent Lustro 
of ciystals adamantine, inclining to vitreous; but fibrous incrustations 
silky, on a cross fracture. Earthy varieties dulL Hardness, 3*5 to 4. 
Specific Gravity, 4. Composition : — 

Carbonic Acid 18 

Oxide of Copper . . ... 70*5 
Water lis 

Dissolves with effervescence in nitric acid. Decrepitates and blackens 
before the blow-pipe, and becomes partly a black scoria. With borax 
it fuses to a deep green globule, and ultimately affords a bead of 
copper* It is readily disting^uished by its copper-green colour and its 
association with copper ores. It resembles a siliceous ore of copper, 
ChrysocoUa, a common ore in the mines of the Mississippi valley ; 
but it is d is t in g ui s h ed by its complete solution and effervescence iu 
nitric acid. The colour also is not the bluish-green of chrysocolla. 
Green malachite usually accompanies other ores of copper, and forms 
incrustations, which when thick have the colours blended, and 
extremely delicate in their shades and blending. Perfect crystals 
are quite rare. The mines of Siberia, at Nischne Togilsk have 
afforded great quantities of this ore. A mass partly disclosed mea- 
sured at top 9 feet by 18 feet; and the portion uncovered contained at 
least half a million pounds of pure malachite. Other noted localities 
are Chessy in France, Sandlodge in Shetland, Schwartz in the Tyrol, 
Cornwall, Australia, and the island of Cuba. This mineral receives 
a high polish, and is used for inlaid work, and also ear-rings, snuff- 
boxes, and various ornamental articles. It is not much prized in 
jewellery. Very large mosses are occasionally obtained in Russia, 
which are worked into slabs for tables, mantel-piecen, and vases, 
which are of exquisite beauty, owing to the delicate shadings and 
radiations of colour. In the Great Exhibition of 1851 there were 
magnificent specimens of this material in the shape of doors and 
vases sent thither by the Emperor of Riissio. At Versailles there is 
a room furnished entii*ely with tables, chairs, &c., wrought in 
malachite, and the same are to be found in other European palaces. 
At NiBchue Tagilsk, a block of malachite was obtained weighing 
40 tons. Malachite is sometimes passed off in jewellery as turquoise, 
though easily distinguished by its shade of colour and much inferior 
hardness. It is a valuable ore when abundant^ but it is seldom 
smelted alone, because the metal is liable to escape with the liberated 
volatile ingredient, carbonic acid. 

Agurile. Blue Carbonate of Copper. — Monodinate. In modified 
oblique rhombic prisms, the crystals rather short and stout ; lateral 
cleavage perfect ; also massive ; often earthy. Colour deep blue, 
azure, or Berlin blue ; transparent to nearly opaque; streak bluisli. 



lU 



COPPER. 



COPROLITES. 



IM 



Lustr6 vitreous, almost adamantine. Brittle. HardneM, 8 '6 to 4*5. 
Specifio Qrayity, 3*5 to 3*85. Compositioii : — 

Carbonic Acid 26*5 

Oxide of Copper 691 

Water 5*5 

Before the blow-pipe and in acids it acts like the preceding. Azurite 
accompanies other ores of copper. At Chessy in France its crystal- 
ILiations are very splendid. It is found also in Siberia, in the Bauanat, 
and near Redruth in ComwalL As incrustations, and rarely as 
crystalB, it occurs uear Singsing, New York ; also in other parts of 
the United States. 

When abundant it is a valuable ore of copper. It makes a poor 
pigment, as it is liable to turn green. 

ChrfftocoUa. Silicate of Copper, — Usually as incrustations ; botryoidal 
and massive; also in thin seams and stains ; no fibrous structure 
apparent, nor any appearance of crystallisation. Colour bright green, 
bluish-green. Lustre of surface of incrustations smoothly shining ; 
also ewrthy. Translucent to opaque. Hardness, 2 to 8. Specific 
Gravity, 2 to 2*3. Composition : — 

Oxide of Copper 400 

Silica 86*5 

Water 20*2 

Carbonic Acid 2*1 

Oxide of Iron I'O 

This mineral varies much in the proportion of its constituents, as 
it is not crystallised. It blackens in the inner flame of the blow-pipe 
without melting. With borax it is partly reduced. No effervescence 
nor complete solution in nitric acid, cold or heated. 

It is distinguished from green malachite, as stated under that species. 
It accompanies other copper ores in Cornwall, Hungary, the Tyrol, 
Siberia, Thuringia, kc In Chili it is abundant at the various mines. 
In Wisconsin and Missouri it is so abimdant as to be worked for 
copper. It was formerly taken for green malachit& This ore in the 
pure state affords 30 per cent of copper, but as it occurs in the rock 
will hardly yield one-third of this amount. Still, when abundant^ as 
it appears to be in the Mississippi valley, it is a valuable ore. It is 
easy of reduction by means of limestone as a flux. 

bioptate is another silicate of copper, occurring in rhombohedral 
crystals and hexsgonal prisms. Colour emerald green. Lustre 
vitreous ; streak greenish. Transparent to nearly opaque. Hardness, 
5. Specific Gravity, 8*28. From the Kirghese Steppes of Siberia. 

Besides the above salts of copper, the following species, which are of 
little use in the arts, are given in Dana's ' Manual of Minerslogy ' : — 

ArupnattM of Copper, 

JSvtehroite has a bright emerald-green colour, and contains 83 per 
cent of arsenic acid and 48 per cent, of oxide of copper. Occurs in 
modified rhombic prisms. Hardness, 8*75. Specific Gravity, 3*4. 
From Lebethen in Hungary. 

AphanetUe is of a dark verdcgris-green inclining to blue, and also 
dark blue. Hardness, 2*5 to 8. 8p. Gr., 4*19. It contains 80 per cent, 
of arsenic acid and 54 per cent of oxide of copper. From Cornwall 

£rmUe hss an emerald-green colour, and occurs in mammillated 
coatings. Hardness, 4*5 to 5. Sp. Gr., 4*04. Contains 83*8 per cent 
of arsenic acid and 59*4 per cent of oxide of copper. Ftom Limerick, 
Ireland. 

Liroconite varies from sky-blue to verdigris-green. It ooeun in 
rhombic prisms sometimes an inch broad. Hardness, 2*5. Sp. Gr., 
2 '8 to 2*9. Contains 14 per cent of arsenic acid and 49 per cent 
of oxide of copper. 

OliveniU presents olive-green to brownish colours, and occurs in pria- 
matic crystals or velvety coatings. Hardness, 8. Sp. Gr., 4*2. Contains 
36*7 per cent of arsenic acid and 56*4 per cent of oxide of copper. 

Copper Mica is remarkable for its thin foliated or mica-like struc- 
ture. The colour is emerald or grass-green. Hardness, 2. Sp. Gr., 
2*55. It contains 21 per cent of arsenic acid, 58 per cent of oxide 
of copper, and 21 per cent of water. From Cornwall and Hungary. 

Copper Froth is another arsenate of a pale apple-green and veitligris- 
green colour. It has a perfect cleavage. It contains 25 per cent of 
arsenic acid, 43'9 of oxide of copper, 17'5 of water, and 18*6 of carbo- 
nate of lime. From Hungary, Siberia, the Tyrol, and Derbyshire. 

Condurritc has a browuish-black or blue colour. From ComwalL 

These different arsenates of copper give an alliaceous odour when 
heated on charcoal before the blow-pipe. 

Pho9phatea of Copper. 

Pteudo-MalachiU occurs in very oblique crystals or massive and 
incrusting, and has an emerald or blackish-green colour. Hardness, 
4*5 to 5. Sp. Gr., 4'2. Contains 68 per cent of oxide of copper. 
From near Bonn on the Rhine, and also from Hungary. 

Lihdhenite has a dark or olive-green colour, and occurs in prismatic 
crystals and massive. Hardness, 4. Sp. Gr., 8*6 to 3*8. Contains 64 
per cent of oxide of copper. From Hungary and Cornwall. 

Thromholite is a green phosphate occurring massive in Hungary. 
Contains 39 per cent, of oxide of copper. 

These phosphates give no fumes before the blow-pipe, and have the 
reaction of phosphoric add. 



Chloridet of Copper, 
Ataeamiie. — Colour green to blackish-green. Lustre a d a ma nti n e to 
vitreous; streak apple-green. Translucent to sub-tmnslucent Oocrora 
in right rhombic prisms and rectangular octahedrons ; also maaarve. 
Consists of oxide of copper 76*6, muriatic acid 10*6, water 12*8. Gives 
off fiimes of muriatic acid before the blow-pipe, and leaves a ^obnls 
of copper. From the Atacama Desert between Chili and Peru, and 
elsewnere in Chili ; also from Vesuvius and Saxony. It is ground up in 
Chili, and sold as a powder for letters under the name of ArseniUo. 

A Sulphate Chlwide of Copper has been observed in Cornwall, in 
blue acicular crystals, apparently hexagonaL 

Beaumoniite of C. T. Jackson is a hydrous crenato-ailicate of copper, 
containing 15'8 per cent of crenic acid. It is bluish-green to greraish- 
white, and pulverulent when dry. From Cheasy, France. 

Vanadate of Copper, — Massive and foliated or pulverulent; folia 
citron-yellow, pearly. From the Ural. 

Bwatite. — A hydrous carbonate of copper, zinc, and lime, occurring 
in blmsh radiating needles. Sp. Gr., 8*2. From Chessy, France ; the 
Altai Mountains; and Tuscany. 

Velvel Copper Ore. — In velvety druses or coatings, oonsiating of 
short fine fibrous crrstallisations. Colour, fine smalt blue. 

Copper has been known since the earliest periods. It is obtained 
for the arts mostly from pyritous copper — the gray sulphurets 
and the carbonate ; also to some extent from the black oxide and 
from solutions of the sulphate. The principal copper mines in the 
world are those of Cornwall and Devon in England; of the island of 
Cuba; of Copiapo and other places in Chili ; Chessy, near Lyon, in 
France ; in the Er^gebixge, in Saxony ; at Eisleben and Sangerhauaen, 
in Prussia ; at Goslar, in the Lower Harz ; at Schemnitz, Kremnits, 
Kapnik, and the Bannat^ in Hungary ; at Fahlun, in Sweden ; at 
Turmsk, Nischne Tagilsk, and other places in the Urals; also 
in China and Japan. Lately extensive mines have been opened in 
Southern Australia. Copper, united with zinc in different proportions, 
forms brass and pinchbeck. Bronze is an alloy of copi>er with 7 to 10 
per cent of tin. This is the material used for cannon. With 8 per 
cent of tin it is the bronze used for medals. With 20 per cent of 
tin, the material for cymbals. Bell-metal is composed of copper with 
a Uiird to a fifth as much tin by weight Sheet-copper is made by 
heating the copper in a furnace, and rolling it between iron rollers. 
Copper is also worked by forging and casting. In casting it will not 
bear over a red heat wiUiout burning. 

(We are indebted for the substance of this article to Dana's excel* 
lent ' Manual of Mineralogy.') [SuppLBannr.] 

COPPER, ORES OF. rCoppER.] 

COPPERAS. [COPPKB.] 

COPROLITES {K6wpos and \i0os), the fossilised excrements of 
reptiles, fish, and other animals, found in various strata of the earth. 
Dr. Buckland in his ' Bridgewater Treatise ' first drew attention to 
the probable nature of these substances, some of which bad been 
previously known under the name of Bezoar Stones. These foesila 
were first detected in the Lias at Lyme Regis and in other localities, 
and their true nature inferred from the fact of their identity with 
similar masses found actually within the body of many species of 
IdUhyoBaunu, The Coprolitet are often found to contain scales of 
fishes, and occasionally teeth, and fragments of bone, belonging to 
species of fishes and reptiles which have been swallowed by the animal 
as food, and have passed undigested throu^ its stomach. They often 
occur in a spirally twisted form, which is a characteristic of the 
excrements of some of the larger forms of recent fish, and have been 
accepted by comparative anatomists as indications of the nature of 
the intestinal tube in the extinct forms of Reptiles and Fishes. 

Professor Liebig says in his 'Letters on Chemistry,' "In the autupin 
of 1842 Dr. Buckland pointed out to me a bed of Coprolites in the 
neighbourhood of Clifton, from half to one foot thick, Inclosed in a 
limestone formation, extending as a brown stripe in the rocks for 
miles along the banks of the Severn. The limestone marl of Lyme 
Boob conusts for the most part of one fourth part of fossil excrements 
and bones. The same are abundant in the Lias of Batheaston, and 
Broadway Hill, near Evesham. Dr. Buckland mentions beds several 
miles in extent, the substance of which consists in many places of a 
fourth part of Coprolites." 

Coprolites, when chemically examined, are found to contain a large 
proportion of phosphate of lime. Liebig states that some he examined 
from Clifton contamed above 18 per cent of phosphate of lime^ whilst 
other specimens have afforded a much laxger per oentaga The 
occurrence of phosphate of lime in these substances has led to their 
use as manurei^ and large quantities are annually 0(dleoted in this 
country for that purpose. Biofore being used they are submitted to 
the action of sulphuric acid, by which the phosphate is converted into 
a super-phosphate of lime. [Manure, in Arts aud Sa Dir.l 

Not only have the beds of the Lias afforded deposits of pnosphate 
of lime which have received the name of Coprolitee, but they have also 
been found in the Greensand, in the Wealden Formation, and in the 
Red Crag. In the latter formation it may be altogether doubted as 
to whether the phosphate of lime there found in the form of dark- 
brown or blackish smooth nodules, can be appropriately called 
Coprolites. These nodules occur in beds or seams running through 
the Red Cm| of Suffolk, where, in the neighbourhood of Ipswich and 



i!7 COPROPHAQI. 

Woodbndge, uid oa tho lea-cout of Feliiatow and Bawilae;, it it 
worked to K coiuidembie extent. Id ndditiou to these nodules, ore 
foond the fmgmenta of the bonei of vorioui forme of Ceiaeta, nil of 
irbicli contoui large qunotitiea of phoaphate of lime, and &re collected 
luider the nune of Coprolttes. It a itill a quutton of interest u to 
how the nodulea not bsTing im orguiic bmais bava been formed. It 
hu been Bnppoaed tlint all deposits of phoi^phala of lime are derived 
from the deatruetion of organised beinge, but it is very evident that 
phosphate of lime must have existed in some form or another before 
the creation of either vegetable or animal beings. The increase alao 
of the number of indiTiduali of epeciee of plants and animala demand 
that there afaould be some oomitant supply of thiA substance from tba 
mineral kingdom. Whatever may be the result of further inquiry on 
this point, there cim be little doubt of Che itopropriety of .calling all 
depoota of phosphate of lime Coprolites. A better general name and 
whieh ia not eipoaed to the objection of a falsa theory would be 
PJuuphalUe. [PBoarnATnx.] 

CWPROPHlai, [SciBiBiroia.] 

CDPTIS (from niirTB, to out), a genua of Plants belonging to the 
natural order EanatxcidiKai. It hu S-6 sepals, ootound, petaloid, 
deciduoni ; the petalj imall, cucullate ; the stameua 20-2fi ; the 
capsalea S-10, on long italla, somewhat stellate, membrauoui, ovate, 
oblong, tipped with ^e style j 1-6 seeded. 

C, trifoUa, Gold Thread, has tenute leaves, obovate blunt toothed 
hardly 3-lubed leaflets ; the soape 1-Qowered. It ii a native of Ice. 



Virginia. It is a small plant with white Sowers and a yellow fibrous 
rtiizoma which rung in all directions. The French in Canada coll it 
TinvojBiins jaune. A decoctioD of tbe'leaves and stalks is used by 
lbs Indiana for giving a yellow colour (o cloth and skins. Tba rhiio- 
mata are bitter, and when administend as a medicine act in the sama 
manner aa ouasaia, gentian, and other hitters, but are not astringent ; 
it ia a popular remedy in the United Ststaa for aphthous afiectioni of 
the mouth in children. 

C. atpUnifoiia has bitemate leaves, the leaflets rather pinnatifid, very 
acutely seintted, the scape i-towend. It is a native of Japan and the 
north-west coast, of America. 

Both species areprettyplantfl, and will thrive in a peat BoiL A moist 
■itnatioD agrees with them, or they may be planted in pota among alpine 
plants. They may be propagated by seed, or by dividing the roots. 

(Don, IHchlamydtoui PlaaU ; Llndley, Flora Medical) 

CORACES. [CoRiciAS.] 

CORACIAS, agenuaof Birds belonging to the Inseasorial or Perch- 
ing division. 

LioDa-ua arranged the genua Caraciai between Cormu and Oriolus. 
Beooant ('British Zoology') gives it a position between the Nut- 
Oracker and the Oriole ; sL Dumdril placed it between the Birds of 
Pandisa and the Crowa ; and Meyer arranged it in his second order, 
Coraca, among which it stands in llliger's method. Cuvier placed the 
Kullers (Ooratiat, Lion.) between the Crows (Comtf, Linn.) and the 
Birds of Paradise {Paraduea, Linn.), the poution assigned to them by 
LacipMa; and includes under that title the Hollers properly so called 
{Coraciai garrvia, Linn, kc), and the Rolles [Colaru). 

Mr. Vigore places them iu his family CorviiHr. [CoRTIDA.] 

M. Lesson's family Eurytamida (Rolliers of Cur.) oonsiala of tbe 
Rollers iGalgiUiu, Brisson, and Coraciat, Linn.); the genus KoUe 
(fsryHontu, Vieill rUiHOFm.s], Colarii, Cur., Cotikuu, Linn.) ; the 
l!>TDus JfaiTKUw {Eidaba, Cuv., Orofda, Lino.) ; and the genus ifins. 
Less. U. Lesson rejects the term Coradai, because many suthora 
have BO dismembered it, according to their different views, that a 
confusion calculated to produce error is the result. 

In tbe system of Hr. Swainson, who retains tbe generic name 
Coraciat, the Bolters appear among the Men>pida. [Hzbopuis.] 

The Prince of Canlno arranges the genus C'oraciai, giving as an 
eiample the common Boiler, ( C. narmia, Linn. ) in the family 
Awipttida. (' Birds of Europe and North America.') 

In Mr. Gould's great work on tiie 'Birds of Europe,' the BoUer 
(C. gamUa) comes down between the Bee.Eater {Merop$ apituStr) and 
Siogflaher [A letde arpida). 

Hr. Yarrell ('British Birds') arranges the common Boiler under 
the family Mtropidce. 

C. garniia, the Roller. It is the Pica Marina and Pics Merdsria of tbe 
Italians; Bollier of the French; Birk-Beher, Blaue-Backe, and 
Uaodelkrshe, of the GermaDa ; Spnnsk Kmka, Blakrako, and AUe- 
knka, of the Swedes ; Ellekrage of Brunich ; and Bholydd of the 
Welsh. The bill ia black towards the point, becoming brown st the 
Use with a few bristles ; irides of two circles yellow and brown ; head. 
Deck, breast, and belly various ahades of varditer-blue changing to 
pale green; shoulders aiure-blue, bock reddish-brown, rump purple, 
ving.primaries dark bluiah.black, edge lighter, tnil-feathera pale 
greemsh-blue, the outer ones tipped with black, those in the middle 
•Ira much darker in colour ; legs reddish-brown ; in old males the 
Dul«r tail-feathers are somewhat elongated. 

Adult females diSer but little from the moles ; joung birds do not 
attain their brilliant colour till the second year. (Gould, ' Birds of 
Eorope.') Length about 13 inches. 

This bird appears to have a wide geographical range. In Enropa, 



CORACIAS. 



IM 



it is found in Denmark, Sweden (where it arrives with tbe Cuckoo), 
and tbe southern provinces of Russia; is more common in Qermany 
than France, where however it haa been found in Provence ; and it 
has been taken at Gibraltar. In Italy, according to Prince Bonaparte, 
it is rather common, arriving in thoapring and departing in September. 
In Malts and Sicily it is exposed for sale in the shops of poulttrers, 
and is said to have the taste of a turtle-dove. In tbe Moron it ia con- 
sidered a delicacy in tbe autumn, when it is fat with its summer food. 
It has been captured at Aleppo, and at Trebiiond and Knerum. It ' 
visits the countries between the Black and the Caspian seas ; and 
Dr. von Siebold and M. Burger inclucio it among the birds of Japan. 
inNorthAfricait is found from Marocco to Egypt. Flocks were seen 
by Adanson at Senegal, and ha concluded that they passed the winter 
there. Dr, Andrew Smith records it among the buds of South Africa. 
In Great Britain it haa been killed in Cornwall, in Suffolk.and Norfolk, 
ia Cambridgeshire, in Yorkshire, Northumberland, Perthshire, the eaal 
of Scotland.aiid Orkney. It has been only occaaioDolly seen in Ireland. 



The Itollcr [Oaraciai farmla). 

Deep forests of oak and bireh appear to be tba &vonrite hannia ol 
the Boiler. In the 'Annabi of Natural History' for 183l>, it is stated 
by a traveller in Asia Minor, that the Roller, which was most common 
ibroughout the south and west parts of the country wherever the 
magpie was not found (fbr it was not seen in the same district willi 
that bird), was observed to fall through the air like a Tumbler Pigeon. 
Temminck states that it makes its nest in the holes of trees, where it 
lays from four to seven e^a of a lustrous white. M. Vieillot atates 
that iu Malta, where trees are scarce, tbe bird builds on the ground. 
In Barbary it has been observed to form its nest in the banks of the 
Shelifl', Booberak. and other riven ; and Pennant remarks that where 
trees are wanting, it makes it in clayey banks, ^hese last modes of 
nidification bring it very close to tbe Bee-Eatareand KingRshers, whose 
eggs quite reeemble those of the Roller in colour and shape, and odIj 
vary in size. Tbe male takes hie turn to sit. The food is very varied, 
according to Temmtnck, who enumerates moles, crickets, cookchafeis, 
grasshoppers, millipedes, and other insects, slugs, and worma. Gould 
states that it feeda on worms, slugs, and insects generally. Yarrell 
informs us that tbe food oonsista of worms, slugs, insects in tlieir 
various stages, and berries. 

Bechstein observes that til! lately he fasd Hiought that the Boiler 
waa untnmeable ; but Dr. Meyer of Offenbach had convinced him to 
the contrary, having himself reared them in hia room by the following 
method : — The young ones must be token from the neat when only 
half grovn, and fed on little bits of cow't.heart or any other meat 
which is lean and tender, till they can feed alone ; small frogs, worms, 
and insects may then be added. Its mode of kiUing and swallowing 
insects is thus described : it commences by seiKingond crusbingthem 
with its bill, and then throws them into the air several times, in order 
to receive them in its throat, which is very capacious. When the 
morsel is too large, or the insect is still slive, the bird strikes it hard 
against the ground, and begins again to throw it into the air till it 
falls not across, but so aa to thread the throat, when it is easily swal- 
lowed. Bechstein says that he had never seen the bird drink. The 
translator of Becbstein's interesting little book states, that be once 
saw a Roller drink after having aw^owed dry anta'-eggs ; it then ate 
greedily of lettuce and endive, " Another which I kept," adds the 
translator, " liked the outside of lettuces and spinach after having 
eaten insects, especially beetles, which are very heating. To judge 
" om what I have observed, the Boiler is by nature wild and solitary ; 

seldom changes its situation except to seek its food or to hide itself 

[>m strangers. It is a good thing, whether kept in a cage or let 

range, always to have a box in its way, in which it may take i^tiigt 



u» 



COSACIAS. 



wbeo frightened ; it will not foil to hide Itjielf then, and b; thii 
meunwiJl not ba tempted to bent itself TiolentJ 7, which ttdoes when 
it cuinot fly (rma the object of its fright. It knowa lie mietnea very 
well, lets ber talcs it up, comes near her, find >ita without any fear on 
her knees for whole hours without atiikng. This is as far u it goes 
even when tamed. It is usither caressing nor funillsr ; when fright- 
ened it utters harsh oriea, soller ones when its food is brought ; but 
' crag, crag, oraag,' at the same time raising its head, is the eipression 
" of its joy or triumph." 

Oracvia rdigioia (Linnmus), the Mino-Bird. is the Boo and Hencho 
of the JavaoeHi, Teeong of the Sumatrans, and is referred by Hr. Swain- 
■ou to the Stumida. Mr. 0. R. Qray BirangeB it under the family 
Corrida, in the sub-fumly Oraciiiinar. Mr. Swoiuson atatee that 
analyais has convinced him that neither the Rollers nor the bird in 
question belong to the Corvida ,- aad he romorVs that the little value 
that can be attached to speculatianB on the rank of the preseot genen 
founded upon mere eyntheeis, will best appeor by looking to those 
artificial anangementa that place the sbort-lt^^ed Rolleia close to the 
long-i^ged and powerfully-constructed Qrakle {Oratvla rdiffioia). 
H. Louon places this bird next to the Holleie, and among tiie 
Euiytt</Mida. 



Uiso-Blrd {Oracula nllgicMa), (Aifatw /anmu, Tlelll.) 

It ia the tvpe of Cuvier's genus Eiiiaha, which has the following 
oluuaoters : — Bill short, stout, not so long as the head ; tntirsly com- 
praosed. Frontal feathen advancing far upon the base, Imt not 
dividing the &ont. Culmen gradually curved from Uie hose to the 
Up, which is distinctly notched. Commissure but slightly angnlated. 
Under nundible with the bnae fannd and dilated. Xostiila bual, 
naked, round, sunk in a depression. Frontal feathers short, velvety. 
Head with naked wattles. Wings as in Pastor. Tail short, oven. 
Feet rather short, very strong. Tanus and middle toe equal ; hinder 
toe shorter ; inner toe almost equal to the outer toe. (Sw.) 

Its colour is of a deep velvety black ; a white space in the middle 
□f the wing ; bill and feet yellow ; behind the eye spring fleshy ca- 
runcloB of a bright orango-oolour, and extend beyond the occiput. 

It is found in Java, Sumatra, and the great Eastern Islands. 

Insects end fruits form the food of the Kino-Bird, which is easily 
tamed, and learns to whistle and talk with great facility. With the 
natives it is a, great favourite in consequence. Haisden says of it, 
Uiat it has the isculty of imitating human ipeecb in greater perfection 
than any other of the feathered tribe. &>ntiuB, who terms it Picn, 
SCTt pptitu iSMmiu /ndtcM, heads the chapter where he figure* and 
describes it, with the following lines : — 

"Piitlacns EcrUqavnTliI 



•sloquu 



nlu ladu. 



And tells the fallowing story :— There was, when he was !d Batavia, 
an old Javiuieee woman, the aerrant of a Chiuesfl gardener, who kept 
one of these birds, which was very loquacious. Bonlius vu very 
anxious to buy it, but this the old woman would not hear oC He 
then begged Oiat she would at least tend it to him that ite picture 
might be taken, a request which was at last gnnted with no very 
good grace, the ancient Mohammedan dame being under groat appre- 
hension that Bontine would offer that abomination, pork, to her 
beloved bird. This he promised not to do. and had the loan of the 
Mino, which kept continually saying " Onuig Naaarani Catjor Hacan 
Bahi." Thia, being interpreted, means "Christian Dog, Eater of 
Fork ; '* and Bontius carne to the couclusion that tiie uuwillingneas of 
the old woman arose not only from the fear of her bird being dfc^e- 
cnited \ij nn offer of swino'e flesh, but nl,"o fmm the apprehonaion 
that he or his servants, irritated by its contumelies, would wring its 
neck. U. Lesson also saw one at Java which knew whole pbrasea of 
the Unlaj' language. 



CORACIKA. no 

The genera] opinion seems to ba that there ii but one spedea of 
Mino-Binl. 

Cuvier however states that Linnmus oonfounded two spacies nnder 
the name of QnKviM rtligiota, namely, Buiaba Indietu and BtUabet 
Javama. 

H. Lcason, who states that only one spoaies is known, namely, the 
Hainate ReUgieui, Gracnla rdigioia, Linn,, Bco and Henoho of the 
JnTsneae, remarks afterwards that there is said to be a smallsr variety : 
this is probably the Ealaba /ndicui above noljced. 



The last-mentioned ornithologist appliea the old Indian irord Hino 
» a generic term for a veiy di&rent bird, Mino AmoiKii, described 

a him in the ' Zoology of the Coquiile,' and lliere figured at pL 26. 
I is also of opinion that GranUa ci^tia, Linn., should bo added to 
this geuus. 

CORA'CINA.a ^nua of Birds, separated from the Crowe {Oavitltx) 
by Tieillot, and divided by him into four aectians. The first comprises 
those species n'hich have the bill fumiahod at ila base with velvety 
(cAthers (Lea Col-Nus, 'naked necks'); the aecond those whose nostrils 
are covered with setaceous feathers, directed forwards, and whose 
upper mandible is notched towards the end (LeaChoucnris,(A-aiicaJiu) ; 
the third those whose bill is nake<l at the base, and notohed at the 
point (CariKina gymnocfphain, VieiUot ; Corviu calvui, Latham, for 
example) ; and the fourth, that curious species on which Geoffi^j- 
3aiat.Bi]aire founded hia geuus Cfptudojtterut. 

Cuvier, in the last edition of the ' Rigno Animal,' defines Graucaint 
to be the Qreek name of an nsh-colouKd binl (oiseau cendn!), and 
says that three Choiicaris out of four are of that colour. M. Vieillot, 
he adds, confounds these birds with bis Coraeina, which oomprise tlie 
Oymnoderi and the Oymnoetphali, 

H. Lesson, who places the group under the Amp^ida, ohserres that 
the genus Coraeitui ia far from being determined. Thus, he obeerres, 
M. Tieillot phices under it the CepluJopltnu of M. QooBroy.Saint- 
Hilaire, the Choucaris and the Col-Nu, or Ogmnodena. (He might 
have added tbe Oymnocsphalm of Qeoflroy and Cuvier.) Temminck 
adds to it many of the Cotingm of Le Vaillant ; but for hia own 
(Leeson'a) part, ho adopts the term Ooracina for that group of birds 
which Cuvier has collected together under the name of Piauhaus. 

Oaraema, Lesson {Ooracina, Temminck ; Lea Piauhaus, Coliiiga, 
Cuvier ; Piauhau, Qaerula, Vieiilot). — Bill depresaed, smooth, ciliated 
at the base, thick, narrowed at the pointy angular above, a little curved 
towaids the end, slightly toothed at the point ; lower mandihle a little 
flattened below ; head and neck feathered, but without any ornamental 
plumes, and without any naked skin. 

C, icniala, Temminck and Latham. Tliis ipedea differs but little 
from Comeina nbricoUii, Mvieicapa rvbricollit, of Gmelin, in the 
colour of its plumsgo, but the wings are shorter. In C, mbrieoUit the 
plumsge ia all black, with the exception of the throat and ttont of 
the neck, which are of a purpled rose-colour. In C. Mcutala, the red, 
which coven the throat and breast, goes aa low as the upper part of 
the belly, and the bill ia not black aa it ia in C n^iritoUl*. It is found 
hi Biwdl, which is also the habitat of C. nbricolli: 

Oifninoeephaltu{Coracina, Tieillot). — M. Lesson observes that Hcssr^ 
Tiemot and Temminck place the (TyninocKipAali (Bnld-Heods) among 
the Coradna, and that Cuvier contents himself with ohserviug that 
Coi-tui (olrat, Irfitham, the type of this new gennp, has the bill of the 
Tyrants, with the ridge (culmen) a little more arched, and a great 
portion of the face denuded of fenthers. Le Tailiant, he states, 
regarded this denudation of the skin in the front of the head as tha 



CORACINA. 



lU 



Ths principal ehuiu:teni at Oymtmdena, OeoS^f -Saint- HiUire, rest 
on the poassiaion of a bill lika that of tlw Coraeiwc and CtpSalopla-i, 
with a partially naked neck and a head coTer«d -with TeNoty fcatben. 
0. fatidui. It ia Coradna ffymnodtra, Viaillot; Cornu nudm, 
Latham ; Oracuia nudicoUu, Shaw ; Oraada Jalida, Linccciu ; Col- 
" BuDoD. Rather larger thiu the jackdav, but Uio body ia thick 
lashy. The aidea of the neck are entirely naked, and only pro- 
■ome trscea of dowu. Buffon's figure, on the contrary (Flanchea 
Enlmn. 609), repreBenta this part ai bciog clothed with a eoiwldBrably 
thick down. Upper part of the hoad, back of the neck and throa^ 
covered with amall elose-wtt feathen like black velTet. External 
edges of the quills of the middle of the wing, the laat quilli, and all 
the wing-corerta, bluish-gray. Qreat quilla and tail-feathon black, 
with bluish reflections. The rest of the plumage, bill, and feet, black. 
Eyea red brown, with a yellow skin beneath. The female ta unaller, 
and of a brownish black. It is ■ native of Brazil and Guyana. 



reault of a particular habit ; and in the ' History of the Birds of 
Paradise' has printed a nota, in which he affirms that he had reoeived 
from Cayenne a specimen having this part well oaverod with featheti ; 
but H. Loson adds that ha hinuelf bod seen at Kochefort mor« 
than twenty skins of Oynamxphati, and thnt all had the face bare of 
feathe™. However it may be, he contiaues, this genus entirely 
requires revision. 

O. rains, the Ckpuchin Baldhead. It ia the Coradna gynttoapliala, 
Tieillot ; Cbr*M calnu, Latham. Biie of the crow ; and of the ootour 
of Spanish innf^ or, as some authon write it, Capuchin colour, whence 
the Cr«oIea of Cayenne gire it ths name of Oiseau mon FAce. The 
quills and the tail-feathers are black. The large beak and ample fore- 
head bare of feathen give a singular air to this bird. Tieillot obaerrei 
that it has been compared to the rook, on account of the nakedneas 
of the head, a comparison which seems to him just; "for," says 
Viallot, " it baa not this part nakod till it is adult, the yoong, like 
the yooDg rook, having the head entirely feathered, and even the 



OyjHnodrrui ftrtidnt^ mate. 

CtfiAalppfenu.— Bill strong, robust j mandibles nearly equal, tha 
upper one convex and scarcely curved at the summit, not notched at 
the point; lower mandible flattened below. Nostnla longitudinal, 
ojien, hollowed into an ova] excavation ; briatles at the border of th« 
bill, which infringe a little on (he frontal feathers. Two tow* ot 
feathers, taking their origin on the forehead, and elevating themselvea 
into a pluma or crest on the head. The feathers of the neck form a 
kind of pendent pelerine in front of the neck, which is naked. 

C. entalv. It is the Ceradna e^pkaiopUra of Vieiltot Colour a 



Capoelila Baldlicad {Q^mnottphaiut caicut), 
nostrils coverad with amall setaceous feathers, as I can testify, from 
the iospactioD of a young individual of which I have nude mention 
in tbe em edition of the ' Houveau DioUannsore d'Histoire Natnrelle.' " 
It is a native of Quyana. 
G^nuadcrM((7i»-acisa,Vieillot,Temmincki CbJitvOiL^VaiUant). — 



Ii3 



CORACITB. 



CORALlilNACE^ 



lU 



uniform blue black. Head and base of the bill ornamented with a 
plume or crest, forming a sort of parasol, composed of straight elevated 
feathers, with white and stiff shafts, and terminated by an ear (^pi) of 
black beards, which projects forwards (se renverse en devant). The 
sidM of the neck are naked, but long feathers forming a loose pelerine, 
and hanging down lower than the breast, spring from beneath the 
throat and from the sides of the neck. TaU long, slightly rounded. 
General plumage of a deep black. Crest and feathers of the pelerine 
giving metallic reflections. (Lesson.) 

The bird that furnished the description was brought to M. Qeoffroy- 
Saint-Hilaire from Lisbon. M. Lesson states that the belief was that 
it came from Brazil, but that a well-informed PoHuguese had told 
him that it was from Gba. M. Vieillot says that the colour of the 
naked skin of the neck is cerulean blue. Mr. Swainson, in his 
' Natural History and Classification of Birds,' London, 1836, says : — 
" The crest of this extraordinary bird is immensely large, advancing 
so fkr in front as to touch the end of the bill, and it is compressed in 
the same manner as that of Rupicola ; but the ends of the feathers, 
instead of meeting so as to form a sharp ridge, suddenly recede from 
each other, curve outwards, and form a most el^;ant drooping line of 
plumes, hanging over on the sides so as to shade the face like an 
umbrella. The figures that have hitherto been given of this rare 
bird are all taken from the specimen in the Paris Museum, and which 
has been sadly distorted in the setting up. A minute examination of 
this specimen has convinced us that the frontal feathers, instead of 
being nused over the bill, as Temminck represents them, partly repose 
and overshadow it, at least as much as do those of CcUyptomeiia and 
Rupicola*' (voL L p. 41). The species above noticed is the only one 
known. 

CORACITE (Le ConteX an ore resembling PildMende [Uba- 
Kiuu], in which oxide of aluminium supplants a part of the oxide 
of uranium contained in that mineral. It is found on the north 
shore of Lake Superior in a vein two inches wide, near the junction 
of trap and syenite. It occurs massive with a resinous lustre, and 
has a hardness of 4*5, and a specific gravity of 4*38. 

CORAL. [POLTPIFERA.] 

CORAL RAO, the most calcareous or at least most coralliferous 
part of the Oxford Oolite Formation. It is a variable and singular 
rock, most rich in Madrephylliaa and Rchinodermalta, in the vicinity 
of Calne. 

CORALLINA. [CoRALLnrACBJS.] 

CORALLINACEifi, a family of Marine PUnts belonging to the 
order Algat. According to Harvey's definition it includes the CoraU 
Unee and SpongiUa of Kiitzing, and the CoralUmdtz and NtUliporidce 
of Dr. Johnston. 

The forms referred to this family have been alternately regarded 
as animals and plants. When their structure was imperfectly under- 
stood they were regarded with many of the zoophytes {Polypi/era 
and Polytoa) and sponges as sea-weeds. When the animal nature 
of these beings was established it was again an inference that the 
Corallines belonged to the animal kingdom. Recent researches have 
however demonstrated the truly vegetable nature of this family both 
in their general structure and mode of reproduction. The following 
is Dr. Harvey's diagnosis in his 'Manual of the British Marine 
AlgsB :' — ^Rigid, articulated, or crostaceous, mostly calcareous sea- 
weeds, purple when recent» flEuling on exposure to milk-white. 
Composed of closely-packed elongated cells or filaments, in which 
carbonate of limo is deposited in an oi^ganised fonn. Tetraspores 
tufted, contained in ovate or spherical oonceptades. Ceramidia 
furnished with a terminal pore. 

The following general remarks on this family are taken from Dr. 
Harvey's work : — ^The root, where this organ is manifested, is an ex- 
panded crustaceous disc, often widely spreading. The frond almost 
always calcareous, effervescing strongly when thrown into acids, rarely 
destitute of lime, very variable in aspect and habit, llie lowest 
forms of the order are simple incrustations, spreading like the crus- 
taceous lichens over the suiface of rocks, or Uie fronds of the lai^ger 
Algce. In the smaller of these the crust is a mere film, as thin as 
paper, generally circular, and extending by means of small additions 
to the ciroumference, so that the frond becomes marked as it advances 
with concentric oirdes. In the larger the crust is thick and stony, 
rising here and there into prominences and sinking into depressions. 
Still farther advance manifests itself by the crust assuming a branched 
habit: at first papills rise from the surface; these thicken, and 
widen, and lengtnen, and at length throw out branches, till a shrubby 
frond, of stony hardness, but extremely brittle, is formed. All these 
changes in character take place within the limits of a single eenus, 
Mdobuia. Nearly related to this (and by many botanists considered 
identical) is Maslophorci, a genus in whicli the frond is expanded 
into leafy lobes, usuallv fan-shaped, sessile, or stalked, but not adnate 
to rocks; of a flexible substance, containing a smaller portion of 
carbonate of lime than the former group. Some of these have the 
habit of Padina, but differ from that genus in being of a red colour. 
They are the most perfectly organised of the leafy or frondose 
Corallines (Jfi^Z^porece). The articulated or true Corallines are 
filiform, either pinnated or dichotomous, the branches formed of 
strings of calcareous articulations, truncated at the upper extremity 
and rounded at the lower, each articulation connected with that above 



and below it by a flexible joint composed of cellular tissue, destitute 
of carbonate of lime. This joint in our British species is scarcely 
evident till after maceration ; but in many exotic species (of Amphiroa) 
it is so long as to interrupt the continuity of the articulations, and is 
either marked or coated with warlike GEilcareous tubercles. 

The form of the articulations varies extremely, and often in the 
same species, or even in the same specimen, so that the determination 
of these plants is sometimes difficult. In many the articulations are 
cylindrical, in others oval and compressed, in some flat and irregularly 
shaped ; but in the greater number they are heart-shaped or wedge- 
shaped, with the upper angles frequently prolonged with horns. 

The fructification consists of hollow extemsJ or inmiersed con- 
ceptades containing a tuft of oblong spores, divided at maturity by 
three horizontal fissures into four parts. They are therefore tetra- 
spores, precisely similar to those of Plocamiunif Hypnea, &a The 
nature of the conceptacle varies even in the same species. Thus in 
CoraUina it is normally formed by the metamorphosis of the terminal 
articulation of the branches, which swells at the sides and becomes 
piereed at the apex; but in C. tquamata and even in C. officinaliM 
other articulations frequently bear numerous small hemispherical 
conceptacles on their sides; and sometimes the whole surfiace is 
warted with such, and these irregular organs are equally furnished 
with tetraspores as the normal ones. These latter conceptacles, which 
are irregular in CoreUlina, are the normal fruit of ^mp^troa, a genus 
chiefly firom the Southern Ocean. In Jania the oonceptade is similar 
to that of OoraUiTM^ except that it generally bears a pair of ramuli 
(resembling the antennae of an insect) from its upper angles. 

The Coiallines are found in all parts of the ocean, but are much 
more numerous in warm than in cold countries, and some of the 
species of the tropical and sub-tropical ocean are among the most 
beautiful of marine vegetables. Until recently the plants of this 
order were with other calcareous Alga confounded with Zoophytet, or 
polypiferous corals. They are however undoubtedly of v^etable 
nature, and when the lime which they contain is removed by acid, 
the vegetable framework concealed beneath it is found to be of a 
similar structure to that of other Rhodosperms, to which g^up of 
Alga they are further allied by their colour and the nature of their 
spores. The order consists of two, or if Lgthoeyttea be rightly placed 
in it> of three sub-orders, as follows : — 

Sgnoptia of the British Qtnera, 

Sub-order 1. CoraUinea. — Frond filiform, articulated. 

1. CoraUma. — ^Frond pinnated. Ceramidia terminal, simple. 

2. Jama, — Frond dichotomous. Ceramidia tipped with two horn- 
like ramulL 

Sub-order 2. iVtifftporea.— Frond crustaceous or foliaoeousi, opaque, 
not artictdated. 

3. Mddbeaia, — Frond stony, forming either a crustaceous expansion 
or a foliaceous or shrub-like body. 

4. jffildenbrandlia. — ^Frond cartilaginous, not stony, forming a 
crustaceous expansion. ' * 

Sub-order 3. LythocyttetB. — Frond plane, hyaline, composed of 
cells radiating from a centre. Fructification unknown. 

5. Lythoey$ti$, — ^A minute parasite. 

Sub-order 1. OoraUinece. 

1. OoraUina. — Frond filiform, articulated, branched (mostly pin- 
nate), coated with a calcareous deposit. Fructification turbinate or 
obovate, mostly terminal ceramidia, pieroed at the apex by a minute 
spore, and containing a tuft of erect pyriform or club-shaped trans- 
versely parted tetraspores. Name from Corallium, Coral, which these 
plants resemble in having a stony substance. 

C. officinalia is the most common example of this genus on British 
shores. It is decompound, pinnate, the lower articulations cylindrical, 
twice as long as broad, upper slightly obconical, round edged, their 
angles blunt, ultimate ramuli cylindrical obtuse. It is found on rocks 
between the tide marks, extending from the limits of high to the 
extremity of low water mark. Perennial. Winter and spring. The 
root is a widely expanded rod .crust. The fronds from two to six 
inches high, tuftod, much branched, bipinnated, but varying greatly 
in luxuriance according to the depth at wliich it grows. 

C. dongaia and C. »quamata* are both British species, and are 
mentioned in Dr. Johxuston's woi^ on the Corallines and also by 
Dr. Harvey. 

2. /anto. — Frond filiform, articulated, dichotomous, branched, 
coated with a calcareous deposit. Fructification urn-shaped. Ceramidia 
formed of the axillary articulation of the uppermost branches (mostly 
two-homed), pierced at the apex by a minute pore, and containing a 
tuft of erect pyriform transversely parted tetraspores. Named fbom 
JanirOj one of the Nereides, 

J, rubetu is found on all parts of the British coast on the smaller 
AlgcB between tide marks. The articulations of the principal branches 
and ramuli are cylindricfd, about four times as long as broad. The 
fronds are from half an inch to two inches high, densely tufted, 
dichotomous, many times forked, fostigiate ; branches either erect or 
spreading gradually, tapering upwards. Articulations cylindrical in 
all parts of the frond, without prominent angles ; those near the base 
very shorty the up^ter ones gradually longer. Ceramidia subterminali 



lis 



CORALLINES. 



CORDIACEiE. 



lid 



um-ehaped with long horns, formed of two to four articulations. 
Colour a pale i-ed with a purplish nhade when quite fresh. 

/. eornicidcUa is also found on the southern shores of England and 
Ireland, and in Jersey. 

Sub-order 2. NuUtparecB. 

8. Melobesia, — Frond attached or free, either flattened, orbicular, 
sinuated or irregularly lobed, or cylindrical and branched (never arti- 
culated), coated with a calcareous deposit; fructification conical, 
sessile. Ceramidia scattered over tiie surface of the frond, and con- 
taining a tuft of transversely-parted oblong tetraspores. The genus 
is named from one of the sea nymphs of Hesiod. 

If. polymorpha is foimd attached to rocks, thick, stony, incrusting, 
or rising into short clumsy branches, which are seldom much divided, 
and often merely rudimentary. Much is yet to be done in working 
out the species of this genus. 

Af. ptuttdata is the laz^^est and most developed of the parasitic 
section of the genus. It is found on Phyllophora rubenSf Chondrut 
crisput,^ &c It is thick, of a dull purple^ or green colour, oblong or lobed, 
incrusting, smooth. Ceramidia numerous, large, rather prominent, and 
conical. Dr. Johnston refers this species to Corallina officinalis. 
This plant, he says, appears first in the g^ise of a circular CfUcareous 
patch of a purplish colour, and in this state is common on almost 
every object that grows between tide-marks. When developing on 
the leaves of Zogtent, or in other unfavoiu^ble sites, these patches are 
usually pulverulent and ill-coloured, green or white, and never 
become lax^e ; but in suitable situations they continue enlai^ging in 
concentric circles, each marked with a pale zone until they ultimately 
cover a space of several inches in diameter. The resemblance which 
in this condition the crust has to some crustaceous fungi, more espe- 
cially to Polypwtu verneoloTf is remarkably exact ; and neither is it 
less variable than the fungus in its growth, the variations depending 
on the nature of the site from which it grows. If this is smooth and 
even, the foliaceous coralline is entirely adnate and also even ; but if 
the surface of the site is imeven or knobbed, the coralline assumes the 
same character. If it grows from the edge of a rock, or the frond of 
a narrow sea-weed, or from a branch of the perfect coralline, the 
basal laminsB spread beyond in overlapping imbrications of consider- 
able neatness and beauty ; they are semicircular, wavy, either smooth 
or studded with scattered granules, and these granules (ceramidia) 
may be either solid or perforated on the top. Such states of the 
corajline have been described as MiUepora Hchenoides, while its 
earlier states constitute Lamouroux's various species of Melobesia. 

4. HildtHJbrandtia. — The frond cartilagineo-membranaceous (not 
stony), crustaceous, suborbicular, adhering by its lower surface; 
composed of very slender closely-packed vertical filaments ; concep- 
tacles immersed in the frond, orbicular, depressed, pierced by a hole, 
and containing tetraspores and paraphyses at the base of the cavity. 

H. rtAra is found on smooth stones and pebbles between tide-marks 
and in deep water. It is very common, and fomu a thin membra- 
nous crust, at first orbicular, and spreading concentrically, at last 
irregular in form, following the sinuosities of the body to which it 
may be attached. Viewed under the microscope, a small portion 
shows minute cells lying in a clear jelly. When in fruit, the surface 
is pitted with disc-like depressions, pierced by a hole which commu- 
nicates with a chamber in which the spores lie. The colour is 
variable ; now a bright^ now a dull red. 

Sub-order 3. (?) LUhocystea, 

LithocffHis. — Plant calcareous; consisting of a single plane of 
cellules, which are disposed in radiating dichotomous series, forming 
an uppressed flabelliform frond., Nameid from a stone in the bladder, 
because the cells have stony coats. ' 

5. L. AUmanni is parasitical on Chrysymenia clavellosa firom an oyster 
bed at Malahide, Dublin, by Professor Allmann. It forms minute dot- 
like {Mttches of a whitish colour on the fronds of the Chrysymeniti. 
Each dot consists of one or several fan-shaped fronds composed of 
qnadrate cells disposed in dichotomous series. The plant is brittle, 
colourless, and effervesces in acid. 

(Harvey, British Algat,) 

CORALLINES. rCORALLINACE&] 
CORALLIUM. [POLYPIFERA.] 

CORALLORHI'ZA, agenus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Orchidea^ and to the tribe Malaxidea, It has a converging perianth ; 
the lips with two prominent longitudinal ridges at the base ; 8-lobed, 
the lateral lobes small, the middle lobe large, slightly emarginate ; the 
spur short or obsolete ; the stigma triangular ; the rostellum obsolete, 
but with a laige globose appendage ; the anthers terminal, 2-celled, 
opening transversely; the colxunn elongated; the germen slightly 
stalked, straight. 

C. iflauUa has the sptur obsolete or wanting. It has thick fieshy 
roots vrith much Ivanched fibres. The flowers are seated on a spike, 
and are of a yellowish colour. It is found in Qreat Britain in moun- 
tainous woods, but is a rare plant. There are several An^erican species. 
They are exceedingly difficult of cultivation. 

CORALWORT. [Dentaria,] 

CORBULA, a genus of Marine MoUuseaf belonging to the Lamelli- 
branckiata. The shell is suborbicular or oval, tumid or depressed, 

SAT. HIST. DIY. VOL. IL 



very inequivalve, slightly inequilateral, rounded anteriorly, more or 
loss truncated posteriorly ; beaks prominent ; surface of the valves 
mora or leas furrowed or transversely striated, covered with an epi- 
dermis. Hinge composed of a recurved primary tooth in one or both 
valves, with corresponding socket and ligamental pit beside it. Liga- 
ment small, interior. Muscular impressions slightly marked, united 
by a pallial one with a very slight sinus. The animal is short, with 
veiy short imited siphonal tubes. 'Orifices fimbriated. Mouth closed, 
except in front, where there is an opening for a bony narrow thick 
foot of considerable dimensions. Anal siphon with a conspicuous 
tubular membrane. Labial tentacles slender. 

This genus was once abundant in the European seas, especially 
during the early part of the Tertiary epoch. Only a few species now 
exist. It has more species in the tropical seas of the present day. 

O. nucletLs is one of the most common species in the seas around the 
British IslandSL Whilst very frequently found in the dredges, it is 
seldom washed on shore or found in shallow waters. It is about half 
an inch in length and about one-fourth less in breadth. 

This genus belongs to De Blainville's family Pyloridea, which 
embraces Solen, Panopea, Mya, and other allied species. [Ptloridia.] 

CORCHORUS, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
TUiacecB. The leaves of C. olitoriut are used in S^gypt as a pot-herb. 
Fishing-lines and nets, rice bags, and a coarse kind of linen called tat, 
are made in India of the fibres of C. eapsularis. 

CORDIA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order Cordiacete. 
It has a tubular calyx, 4-5-toothed. Corolla funnel shaped or cam- 
panulate, with a flat 6-7-cleft limb, and a hairy or naked throat. 
Stamens 5, short, inserted in the throat of the corolla. Style pro- 
truding, bifid, with 4 stigmaa Ovary 3-4-celled. Drupe containing 
1 stone with 1 or 8 cells, two of which are usually abortive. 

O. UuifoUa is a native of Hindustan. It has numerous spreading and 
drooping branches ; the young shoots angular and smooth The general 
height of trees ten or twelve years old about 20 feet. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, round, cordate, and ovate, often slightly repand ; 3-nerved ; 
of a hard texture, smooth above, scabrous and pide underneath ; from 
8 to 7 or even 8 inches long, and rather less in breadth. Petioles 
nearly rounded and smooth. Panicles short, terminal, and lateral, 
roundish; the branches alternate, divex^ging, and one or more 
frequently dichotomous. Flowers numerous, small, white. Bracts 
minute, Filloua. Calyx villous, campanulate, leathery ; mouth unequally 
toothed. Corolla short, campanulate. Segments 5, linear-oblong; 
filaments as long as the segments of the corolla, and inserted imme- 
diately under their fissures. Anthers incumbent. Ovary ovate, 4-celled, 
with one ovule in each attached to the upper end of the axis. Style 
short. Stigma 4-cleft ; segments long, rugose, and recurved. Drupe 
oblate-spheroidal, about an inch or an inch and a quarter in diameter; 
smooth when ripe, straw-coloured, covered with a whitish bloom. 
Under the name Sebesten Plums, Sebestans, or Sepistans, two sorts 
of Indian fruit, have been employed as pectoral medicines, for which 
their mucilaginous qualities, combined with some astringency, have 
recommended them. They are believed to have been the Persea of 
Dioscorides. Linnseus has erroneously applied the name of Sebesten 
to an American species of this genus which is not known in medicine. 

C, Myxa is a native of many parts of India, Persia, Arabia, and Egypt. 
The trunk is generally crooked, from 6 to 12 feet high, and as thick 
or thicker than a man's body. The bark gray, cracked in various 
directions. Branches numerous, spreading, and bent in every possible 
direction, forming a dense shady head. The flowers are numerous, 
white, small ; a very large proportion of them are sterile, and they 
always want the style. The drupe is globular, smooth, the size of a 
cherry, sitting in the enlarged calyx ; when ripe, yellow ; the pulp is 
almost transparent, very tough, and viscid. The smell of the nut 
when cut is heavy and disagreeable ; the taste of the kernels like that 
of filberts. It is the true Sebesten of the European Materia Medica. 
The fruits, according to Roxburgh, are not used in the Circars 
medicinally, but when ripe are eaten by the natives, and also most 
greedily by several sorts of birds, being of a sweetish taste. The 
wood is soft, and of little use except for fuel. It is reckoned one of 
the best kinds for Idndling fire by friction, and is thought to have 
furnished the wood from which the Egyptians constructed their 
mummy cases. The wood is said by Dr. Royle to be accounted a 
mild tonic 

(7. Qerasaeamthus is a native of the West Indies in woods, and of 
Mexico, near Acapulco. It has ovate oblong leaves, acute^ quite 
entire, glabrous; racemes terminal, aggregate; flowers verticillate, 
sessile; calyx 10-furrowed, lO-striped, downy; limb of corolla 5-cleft; 
throat villous; stamens the length of the corolla. This is esteemed one 
of the best timber-trees in Jamaica, of which it is a native. The wood is 
of a dark brown colour, and gently striped ; it is tough and elastic, of 
a fine grain, and easily worked. It is called Spanish Elm or Prince 
Wood by the English, and Bois de Chypre by the French. 

O, Ruanphii has brown wood beautifully veined with black, and 
smelling of musk. 

There are above 100 species of this genus. 

^Lindl^, Fhra Medico.) 

bOBDlXVEM, a smaU natural order of Monopetslous Exogens, 
with a shrubby or arborescent habit, a gyrate inflorescence, and a • 
drupaceous fruit. The leaves are alternate, usually covered with aspe- 

L 



H» CORMEIIITE. 

ritieB, KnA deatitute of Mipulea. The oOtx !■ ioferior Bud S-toolhed ; 
tbd coro11& regular, with 6 itamenB proceedintt from the tube, uid 
kltemikta nith the Bdgmenta. Tbere is n peDduloiu arule in encb cell. 
and the >t;1e is Iwice-forkrd. Thn cotyleilaiiB are crumpled or folded 
in plaita lengthwiw. The aSuitiea of the order ire olmort equnl between 
Bomginacea tmd Cmvolwlaaa, but prepondsistaa in fnvour of tbo 
former. The onl; ecoDominl pluita cantsined In it tire the Sebeet«u 
Piums, the produce of Cordin Uyia uid Sdialeaa, the rind of which 
u mjcculent and macitaginana. All the Epeoies are tropical. 
CORDIEHITE, [Iolub.] 
C0BEOONU8, fSii-MoMn)*.] 
CORIANDER. [CoaiiUDBCB.] 

CORIANDRUM, a genus of Plant* belonging to the natural order 
Vfnhtllifera. TthaefiAcutecalyxteetb, unequal and permanent; petals 
oboTate. emarginate, with an inflsied segment, the exterior rndiating 
and bifid. Fniit globoae, with 10 riba scarcely separaWng. Halt 
fniita, with G primary deprened wavy ridges, and 4 secondary ones 
(besides the marginals) more prominent and keeled. Channels with- 
out vittae ; commlBmire with 2 vittie. Seed hollowed out in front 
with a loose skin. The species are smooth herbs. Leaves muIUfid ; 
nmbets with S or 5 rays. Involuoro none; involucels about 3-leaved, 
halved. 

C. lativun is found in the corn-Gelds of Tartary, the Levant, Qreece, 
Italy, and the south of Europe. It ie not really wild in EngUnd. 
The root is tapering, the 
■tern erect, 12 or 18 inches 
high, mare or Issa branch- 
ed, leafy, round, atriated. 
The lower leaves are pin- 
nate on longish slender 
stalks, their leafleta wedge- 
shaped or fan-shaped, and 
acutely notched ; npper 
leaves multifid in fine 
lineal segments. The 
flowera are white, often of 
a reddish tint. The fruit 
pale brown, somewhat 
coriaceous, spherical, 1( 
lines in diameter ; all the 
ridgee indistinctly shown 
on account of tbeir slight 
elevation; the Titlje of 
the commissure short, lu- 
ibcl. In bolt j 1, a halt nata, just visible without 
' IM same, dissection. The fruit is 

C ullsn oonstdeied it more powerfully corrective of the odour and taste 
if eenna than any other aromatic {Lindley, ' Flora Medica.'} 

Coriander fruit, or seeds as they are incorrectly called, are used in 
fwcelmeats, in certain stomachic liqueun, and in some countries in 
(ookpry ; they are little esteemed in Enghmd. 

CCEIARIA'CE^, n vary small iintunil order of Qynobaaie Poly- 




•y) -^ '(If 



Oorvria m)fTt\falia. 



HctiOB ottbosa 



petolou 



CORIfACE^ lU 

ovariea, with distinct spreading itigmss. The two genera, of which 
alone tiie order comusta, are nearly allied to Rutacta, but their leavea 
are not dotted. The only plant uat gives the onter any interest is 
Coriaria myiiifoHa, a shrub inhabiting the south of Kurope, and 
employed by dyers for staining black. Its fniit is suoculent, and aaid 
to Ie poisonous. 

CORIOCELLA. [Chibhobbakcbiata.] 

CORK, botanically considered, is a soft and elastic layer of bark 
which becomes remarkably developed in the kind of oak iahabiting 
Spain and FortugaL [Qitsrcus; BaIiil] This aubstnnce is deve- 
loped in other plants, but in none in so ]ari:e quantity as in tba 
Qnfrriu Subtr. As soon as the boi'k dies it ceases to grow, and then, 
not dixtending as it is pressed upon from within, it f^ls off in flakea 
wbiiti correspond to the layen that are formed annually. These 
flakes are tbe layen of cork which the Spaniards collect under the 
name of the outer bark, while tbo inner living bark is cr rather should 
be spared. We are told however by Captain 8. Cook that the 
Spaniards have been in the habit of stripping off the inner bark also, 
although it is of no value except for tanning, and although its removal 
destroys the trees. The same intelligent obeerrcr states that tbe 
cork-tree accura in Spain throughout the whole extent uf the Tierra 
Caliento, but is most abundant in Catalonia and Valencia, whence the 
principal ezporta have been made. Cork sppean to be a corruption 
of tbe Latin word 'cortei.' For the uses of Cork in the arts ■«« CoBK 
in Anra ahd Sc. Div. 

CORK, MODNTAIN. [ABBtsrua.] 

CORK-TREE. [QnEiiciia.] 

CORK-WINO. [CBEKlLiBRUB.] 
CORKLING. rCREIIILAHBUS.1 

CORMORANT. rTELi 

CORN-MARIGOLD. [Chb 

CORN-SALAD. [VALBnliMELLA.] 

CORKA'CE.£, a small natural order of Polypetalous Exogenous 
Planta. They consist principally of shrubs, very rarely of berbaccoua 
plants. They have opposite strongly-veined leaves without stipules; an 
inferior ovary, in each of whose cells is one pendulous ovule ; 1 val- 
vate petals ; 1 slamena alternating with them ; and a drupaceous fruit 
wiUi two cells i the embiyo lies in some fleshy albumen. 



cut tlinHi|li 

vcrtlosU)', ihowinf a eup-tike diss inrrDiinilinR Itis bus of tbs ttrle, sad the 
pendulaui ovb1« ; 9, ■ (rait cat lo u to (haw tbe slniie ; 1, ■ vttUcal KCUoo 
at the itoae, eihlliltlBg tbe e mbrja and albuDUD. 

Kany of the species are cultivated in European gardens^ especially 
ComHi taos, the Gomel-Tree; C. alba, C tangminta, and O, tericta, 
called Dogwood ; together with Bcnlhaniia fragifera. They ai« 
valued either for their bright-red ahoots, which in the winter are 



149 



CORNBRASH. 



CORONILLA. 



150 



highly ornamental, or for their richly-coloured fruit. BmUiamia 
fragifera in particular has its drupe* collected in roundish strawberry- 
like heads, which have a beautiful effect in the south-west of England, 
where it haa been several years intix>duced from the Himalaya Moun- 
tains. The bracts of some species of this order are very large, and 
resemble petals, and being white they are a gay substitute for the 
flowers themselves, which are small and inconspicuous. This is 
particularly the case with Oomua herbacea, C. fiorida, and Benthamia 
fragiftra. Medicinally, Comaoeous plants are of great importance. 
The American physicians esteem the bark of ComiM Jlorida and 
C, aericea equal to Cinchona as a febrifuge. 

Formerly the Comut mat used to be cultivated in gardens for the 
sake of its fruit, which were called Cornelian Cherries. It is a deci- 
duous tree, with clusters of small starry yellow flowers, appealing in 
the spring before the leaves. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
wavy, and of a dull grayish-green. The fruit consists of oblong 
drupes of a red or occasionally a yellow colour ; they are excessively 
austere before ripe, but eventually blet like medlars, and then 
become eatable. 

This order is allied to Vmbellifera and ffamamdidacece. There 
are 9 genera and above 40 species. 

CORNBRASH, a thin calcareous member of the Oolitic Formations. 
It oonatitates the uppermost band of the Bath Oolitic Formation, 
and is extremely ridi in Echinodermata Bnd ConcKifera, but somewhat 
remarkabbr deficient in BeUmnUet. 

C0RNC31AK£. [Rallid&] 

CORNEA. [Ete.] 

CORNEL-TREE. [Cobkus.] 

CORNELIAN, or CARNELIAN. fAQATB.] 

CORNELIAN CHERRY. [Cobnaoba] 

CORNISH CHOUGH. [Cobvidjb.] 

CORNISH DAW. [Cobvida] 

CORNSTONK The peculiar Limestone, often mottled in colour, 
of the Old Red-Sandstone of Hereford, Salop, and South Wales, receives 
this title. (Murchison, Silurioin Syttem.) 

CORNUAMMONia [AiocoviTBa.] 

CORNULITES, an obscurely characterised genus (of PUypiaria f), 
which occtm in the Silurian Limestones and Sandstones very fre- 
quently, as at Dudley, Usk, Marloes Bay, &c. (Murchison, SUnrian 
HjfMteaiy pL 26, t 5.) 

CORN US, a genus of Plants, the type of the natural oxder Cwnaeem. 
It has a calyx with a very small 4-toothed limb; with 4 oblong 
sessile petals ; 6 stamens ; 1 style ; a baccate drupe marked with 
traces of a <»lyx; the stone 2Hselled, rarely S-oeUed; the seeds 
solitary, pendulous; the albumen fleshy; Uie radide-of the embryo 
shorter than the cotyledons. The species are trees, shrubs, or low 
herbs, with opposite leaves, and white flowers^ sometimes yellowish. 

C, Mfi^mea, Dog-Wood, Wild Cornel-Tree, has arborescent straight 
branches; ovate cuspidate leaves, green on both sides; t]^e cymes 
flat^ without an involucre. This plant is a shrub, i«aohing a height 
of 5. or 6 feet Its branches are of a reddish colour. It is a native of 
Oreat Britain, in hedges and thickets. It also inhabits North America, 
in Canada and the State of New York; but was probably introduced 
there. It has a dark purple fruit, which is very bitter. Matthiolus 
says that it contains an oil, which is sometimes expressed, and is used 
for lampa The wood is used for making charcoal, from which gun- 
powder is made. The fruits are sometimes mistaken for those of 
bnckthom, but do not possesa the active properties of that plant 
The wood is also used for making skewers for butchers. It is called in 
the country Female Cornel, Pnck-Wood, Dogberry-Tree, Hound'a- 
Tree, Gat^ and Qaten-Tree. 

C, mueiea, Dwarf Cornel, has herbaceous stems, the leaves all oppo- 
site, sessile, ovate; the nerves separate almost to the base; the 
flowers umbellate^ shorter than the 4-leaved petaloid involucre. It is 
found in high mountain pastures in England and Scotland. It is not 
BO large a plant as the last, and has purple flowers with yellow 
stamens. The berries are red and sweetish, and are supposed by the 
Highlanders to create an appetite^ of which their name for Uiem, 
' Lua-a-Chrasis,' is expressive. 

C, fionda has shining branches, ovate acuminated leaves, pale 
beneath, beset with adp rcooe d hairs ; the flowers umbellate ; the leaves 
of involucre large, roundish, retuse, the drupes ovate. It is a native 
of moist forests in the United States, especially on the borders of 
swamps. The bark of this tree is a powerful tonic, astringent^ and 
antiseptic, resembling Cinekona in its action on the system, and much 
valued by American physicians. The young branches stripped of 
their bark, when rubbed against the teeth, render them extremely 
white. The bark of the roots yields a colouring-matter which dyes 
cloth scarlet 

C. aericea. Silky Dogwood, has spreading branches ; woolly branch- 
lets ; ovate acuminate leaves, clothed with rusty pubescence beneath ; 
the corymbs depressed, woolly; the nucleus cpmpressed. It is a 
native of North America, in moist woods. It has the same properties 
as the last species, and is used for the cure of intermittent fevers. It 
is probable that these plants contain an alkaloid identical with quinine, 
but it has not yet been separated. 

C, ma$, Male Cornel, Cornelian Cherry, has smoothish branches ; 
leaves or:tl, acuminate, i-ather pubescent on both surfaces ; flowers I 



rising before the leaves; the umbels about equal in length to the 4- 
leaved involucre ; the fruit elliptic. It is a native throughout the 
continent of Europe, but is not found in Qreat Britain. It has yellow 
flowers, which are succeeded by an elliptical fruit of a bright shining 
scarlet colour, of the sixe and form of a small acorn. This plant was 
formerly cultivated for the sake of its fruit, but it is very inferior to 
many others that can be more easily produced, so thiit it is not now 
often used. The fruit is called Corbet by the Turks, and is used 
by them in the manufacture of sherbet The wood is very durable 

The species of Comus form good plants for shrubberries, and many 
of them \7ill grow under the drip of trees, and in spots where other 
plants will not thrive. They may be propagated by cuttings, layers, 
or suckers. 

(Don, I>iehlamydeou» Plantt ; Lindley, Flora Mediea ; Babington, 
Manual of British Botany.) 

COROLLA, the name given by botanists to the innermost of the 
envelopes of which the flower is composed. Like the Calyx [Caltx] 
it ia formed of leaves changed from the ordinary state of those parts 
in consequence of an alteration in the office they have to perform, but 
liable to resume the state of common leaves if exposed to the effect of 
any disturbing cause. The corolla is usually thin, delicate, perish- 
able, and both laiger and more richly coloured than the calyx ; hence 
the older botanists considered those qualities proper to the corolla, 
and applied the term to all cases in which they existed. But it is now 
known that the calyx is frequently in the same state, and hence the 
only distinction that is now made between calyx and corolla is to 
consider everything calyx which forms the exterior of two or more 
rows of floral envelopes, everything corolla that belongs to the inner 
rows, and when there is omy one row, to refer that to the calyx, 
whatever the colour or texture of it may be. 

There is little doubt that when a calvx is green and leafy its busi- 
ness is principally to protect the corolla ; and that a corolla when 
laige, thin, and brightly coloured, is intended to exercise some special 
influence upon the fertUising organs of the flower; for while the 
respiratory action of the calyx when green is not distinguishable from 
that of common leaves, the corolla differs most essentinJly in the want 
of all power of decomposing carbonic acid ; it absorbs oxygen from 
the air, but does not part with it again in a pure state : on the con- 
trary, it combines it with its carbon, and throws off the carbonic acid 
thus formed. But although there is this difference between the calyx 
and corolla in ordinary cases, the functions of the corolla are par- 
formed by the calyx when it has the appearance of a corolla, and 
vice vend. The peculiar functions of tnese parta are therefore 
performed indifferently by the one or the other according to their 
structure. 

The leaves of which a corolla is composed are called Petals ; and 
the endless varieties of its form and structure depend principally 
upon the different manner in which those parts are unitea, or upon 
the proportions they bear to each other. A Monopetalous Corolla, for 
instance, is composed of several petals joined more or less together by 
their edges ; Campanulate Corollas originate from petals without a 
claw or unguis; Tubular Corollas from unguiculate petals. In a 
regular monopetalous corolla all the petals are of equal size, and are 
united in the same degree ; in an irregular monopetalous ooroUa, the 
petals are unequal in size, and perhaps unequally united. 

The corolla is generally the part of the flower in which grotesque 
forms are most frequently met with ; such as horns or spurs project- 
ing from the base ; or a cowled figure, or dark hairy appearances 
resembling the bodies of insects, as in the Bee-Larkspur, various orchi- 
daceous plants, &a The cause of these singular forms is entirely 
unknown ; they appear to be specific cases of which no explanation 
can be given. [Flowbb.] 

COROLLIFLOR^, a subdivision of the class of Exogenous or 
Dicotyledonous Plants. It embraces those orders in which the petals 
are united and the stamens are attached to those organs. 

CORONARIL [Ammonites.] 

CORONILLA, agenits of Plants belonging to the natural order Zf^a- 
minoeau It has a campanulate calyx, short, 5-toothed, the superior 
teeth approximated and nearly united. Claws of the petals distinctly 
longer than the calyx ; keel acute. Stamens diadelphous. Legume 
tapering, slender, finally separating into oblong l-seedod joints. Seeds 
ovate or cylindricaL The speciea are shrubs or herbaceous plants. 
Leaves unequally pinnated. Peduncles axillary, bearing an umbel 
of stalked flowers. 

C, Emerue is common all over the South of Europe. It is known 
by the name of Scorpion Senna, and its leaves are cathartic like thos<> 
of true Senna, but less so. It is a small bush. Branches deep 
green, strongly furrowed, quite smooth. Leaflets 2-3 pairs, obovatew 
retuse or obtuse, when young very downy ; stipules ovate, acute, very 
much shorter ^an the first joint of the petiole. Peduncles axillary, 
2-3-flowered, slender, erect, as lonj; as the leaves. Calyx fdightly 
downy, only half the length of the claws of the petals. Corolla deep 
bright yellow. Legume a long while before its joints drop in pieces. 

C. vana is an herbaceous plant, with distinct lanceolate petals ; the 
leaflets 9-13, oblong, elliptic, mucronate, the lower ones approaching 
the stem ; the umbels 16-2(lf-flowered ; the legumes angular, veiy long^ 
straight It inhabits meadows and waste places iu the soutli of 
Europe and in the Crimea. The leavea h.ive a diuretic action on th^ 



lei 



COBONULA. 



CORVlDiE. 



luS 



fiyiftem, and aLio puiige. The juice is said to be poiaonouB wLen taken 
in large quantities ; although this is the action on the human system, 
cattle feed on this plant with aridity, and it has been proposed to 
cultivate it in. this countiy as fodder. It probably does not develop 
its aetire secretions in climates north ot its native districts. In a 
good soil the stems grow to the height of five feet, so as amply to 
repay its cultivation, especially in a diy season. When once planted 
it is diiBcult to eradicate. C. globota and C, (beriea have the same 
tendency. 

The species of OoroniUa are numerous, and are all shrubs or herbs, 
adapted for ornamental cultivation. Of the hardy shrubby species, 
ripened cuttings root freely, and may be planted in open ground in 
the autumn. The frame and greenhouse species are of easy culture. 
They grow best in a mixture of loam and peat; cuttings strike 
readily in sand under a hand-glass, and may be turned out into the 
open border in spring, where they will flower all summer. Many of 
them are well adapted for rock-wotk, but are apt to be killed during 
a severe winter. 

(Don, XHchUunydeaus Plants; Loudon, Enepclopcedia of PlcaUs; 
Lindley, Flora medico.) 

CORONULA. [CiBBiPRDiA.] 

COROPHIUM, a genus of Animals belonging to the class Crustacea 
and the family Oammarince. With the whole of the funily, it is 
remarkable for the length of its antenna. It has no claws. One of 
the species. Cancer aronipe* of Linnseus, QafMuaruM longieomU of 
FabriciuB, Onitcua vMutaior of Pallas, is well known on the coast of 
La Rochelle for its habit of burrowing in the sand. They live prin- 
cipally upon the annelides which inhabit the sand, and are remarkable 
for assembling in great numbers around their prey, and destroying it 
although it may be twenty times as large as themselves. They also 
attack fishes, moUntca, and the dead bodies of other ftwitwiilM. 

CORREA, n genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
JtutacffE, of which one of the species, C, alba, is used by the settlers in 
Australia as a substitute for tea. (Lindley, Vegetable Kingdom.) 

CORRIOrOLA (diminutive of corrigia, a shoe-string), a genus of 
Plants belonging to the natural order Paronyehieee, It has 5 sepals 
slightlv cohering at the base ; 5 petals equalling the sepals ; 5 stamens; 
8 sessile stigmas ; a 1-seeded indehiscent fruit; the seed suspended 
by its cord, which arises from the base of the capsule; the petal, as 
the sepal, inserted upon an obscurely perigynous ring at the bottom 
of the calyx. The species are procumbent glaucous herbs, with 
alternate stipulate leaves. 

C. littoraliSf Strap- Wort, has the stem leafy on the part only which 
bears the flowers. It is the only British species of the genus. It is 
found on sandy shores in England, but it is not an abundant plant. 
There are three or four other species described, natives of America 
and Africa. 

(Babington, Manual of BrUith Botany.) 

CORSIOAN MOSS. [Plooabia.] 

CORUNDUM. Several substances difiering considerably in colour, 
and sometimes in form, but nearly agreeing in composition, are classed 
together tmder the name of Corundum, which is that given to the 
common variety bv the natives of India. 

tSapphire, of which there are several varieties, the names of which 
are dependent chiefly upon their colour : the White Sapphire, which 
is transparent or translucent ; the Oriental Sapphire, which is blue ; 
Oriental Amethyst, which is purple; the OrienteU Topaz, yellow; the 
Oriental Emerald, green ; and some other varieties occur, as the Cha- 
toyant and the Opaleecent Sapphire. The Sapphire occurs in rolled 
masses and crystallised, and the primary form oi this and every variety 
of crystallised Corundum is a slightly acute rhomboid, presenting a 
great variety of secondary forms ; it usually occurs in the form of 
0-sided prisms variously terminated. Its specific gravity is 8*976 to 
4*101 ; it possesses double refraction, and is inferior in business only 
to the diamond. Alone before the blow-pipe it suffers no change ; 
with borax it fuses slowly but perfectly into a colourless glass. In 
one direction only the crystals cleave readily parallel with the faces 
of the primary rhomboid, and present a very brilliant surface ; the 
cross fracture is conchoidaL The finest are found in Ceylon. Accord- 
ing to the analysis of Chenevix, the Sapphire consists of — 

Alumina 92 

SUica 6*25 

Oxide of Iron 1 

98-26 

According however to Dr. Thomas Muir, this substance is pure 
alumina, containing no silica but what is abraded from the mortar ; 
and this is the view adopted by modem mineralogists. 

Jiuby. Colour blood-red or rose-red, sometimes a tinge of violet ; 
primary form as above, and generally occurs in Owitded prisms. It is 
not 80 hnrd as the Sapphire, and is more readily cleaved. Like the 
Sapphire, it consists of pure alumina. '' The laigest oriental ruby 
known was brought from China to Prince Gargarin, governor of Siberia ; 
it afterwards came into the possession of Prince Menzilkoff", and con- 
stitutes now a jewel in the Imperial Crown of Russia." (Dana.) 

CoTnmon Corundum, the variety usually called Adamantine Spar, 
occurs, like the Sapphire and Ruby, commonly in the secondary form 
of 0-sided prisms, but usually much laigor. It is sometimes nearly 
colourless, and rather translucent ; it presents great vai*ioty of colour. 



but is most coinuiouly gi-ecnish or grayish ; occasionally bruwu or i-eJ, 
rarely blue. Although iu most common form is the 6-sided prism, 
it occurs, though rarely, also in acute and obtuse double 6-eided 
pyramids. On account of its extreme hardness it received the name 
of Adamantine Spar. It occurs in China, Bengal, Malabar, Tibet, the 
Camatic, ftc. It is used in the East Indies for cutting and polishing 
precious stones, and also granite and other hard rocks that are em- 
ployed in the temples and other public monuments. According to 
Chenevix, the Camatic Corundum contains silica, but this does not 
appear to be constants 

Emery. This substance which, when reduced to powder, is much 
used for polishing hard bodies, though very different in appearance 
from the preceding, is, on account of its hardness and analysis, 
regarded ss Amorphous Corundum. Its colour is usually gray; its 
lustre is somewhat glistening. Its specific gravity is about 8'66 
to 4 ; it occurs massive, and is granular. It is principally imported 
from the island of Naxos in the Qredao Archipelago, and was found 
by Mr. Smithson Tennant to consist of — 

Alumina 86 

SiUca 8 

Oxide of Iron 4 

—98 

It occurs also in Italy, Spain, and Saxony ; and it is said, in small 
quantities, also in Wicklow, Ireland. 

CCRVIDiE, Crows, a family of Birds belonging to the division 
Conirottres. The bill is strong, slightly cultrirostral, or more or leas 
compressed ; the gape or commissure straightb The nostrilB are 
covered with stiff bruitle-like feathers directed forwards. 

" The Nueifraga, Briss., our Britidi Nutcracker," savs Mr. Yigors,* 
in his paper ' On the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and 
Families of Birds,' in ' Linn. Trans.,' " closely resembling the pre- 
ceding groups (Fam. Stumida) in the form of its bill, in conjunction 
with Barita, Cuv., introduces us into the family of Corvidce, From 
that genus we may trace a line of affinities, through some intervening 
forms, to the Jays and Rollers, Oarrulm, Briss., and Ooraeiat, Linn., 
until we arrive at the Corvut of Linnaeus, which again branches out 
into several groups closely allied to each other, but differing consider- 
ably in the structure of the bill. Hence we proceed by means of 
Olaueopu, Forst., to some genera, among which we may particularise 
Ptilonorhynehus, KuhL, Crypeirina, VieiS., Eulabee, Cuv., and PregUut, 
Cuv., which, in the metallic lustre of their plumage and the velvet* 
like process that in some species ornaments the face, indicate our 
approach to the Birds of Paradis& The last-mentioned genus, Pre- 
gilus, in particular, by its curved and slender bill, brings us imme- 
diately into this group, the Paradieea, Linn., which, in conjunction 
with the EpifMuihue of M. Cuvier, tenninates the family of Cvrvidct, 
Here we shall probably find the passage from the present to the 
succeeding family. The Epimachun, more united in its front toes 
than the Corvida in general, holds a middle station in respect to that 
character between the two groups ; while in the length and curvature 
of its bill it approaches, in conjunction with many of the Paradiseee, 
to some of the extreme species of the Bueeridee, among which 'the 
Buceroe natutut of Latham may be instanced." Mr. Vigors, in a note, 
says that he speaks with considerable hesitation as to the situation of 
Epimachue, wtdch bears too strong a resemblance to the Promerope 
of M. Brisson, a group feeding on vegetable juices, with an extoisile 
tongue, to permit him to separate it without some expression of 
doubt. 

Mr. Swainson, in ' Fauna Boreali-Americana,' vol il, thus writes on 
the Corvidce : — " There are some singular and highly interesting 
peculiarities exclusively belonging to groups pre-eminently typical, 
which demand the deepest attention of the {milosophio natuiaUstk 
One of the most striking of these is the great difference between 
those forms which belong to perfect and natural genera, strictly so 
termed. We might cite the restricted genera, Tanagra, CeuhmoT' 
hynchua (Camnarhynchot), and Coccothrauetee, as remarluible examples 
of this fact, and as groups which would repav the most minute 
analysis. This peculiarity sometimes extends to higher groups ; and 
in the present family, the most pre-eminently typical in the whole 
circle of ornithology, it is more striking than in any other. It is 
perhaps to this circumstance that we must attribute the very imper- 
fect manner in which the internal relations of the Corvidce have been 
illustrated, and the artificial distribution that has been made of the 
groups it containa Our space indeed will not permit us at present to 
throw much light upon the subject, further than what may be gained 
by studying the following table of sub-families : — 

1. Typical Qroup. 
Analogies. Siib-fainillca. 

2. Sub-Typical Qroup. 

8. Aberrant Qroup. 
SCAKSORES. TBiU short, entire, light; feet short. 1 Crypeirince. 

Tenuirostres. <♦ ♦ • • • • *M 
FissiRoSTRBS. [ BiU slender, lengthened ; feet short. J JWgi'ina:, 



va 



COUVWJE. 






" k glnnce ftl the modem nrrangeinentd miii ihow how eu 
we differ from all ornilbologints who lika oa hnvo attempted ■ 
lUM this yerj iutricate family. Tha t«st« however ly which every 
nerieB of animatfl thought to be natiim] muHt be tried, will brio^ to 
light moDj remarkable peculiarities which belong Dal; to the fore- 
gi>ing arrangement. Yet however confideQt we feel on the general 
accurac; of this sketch, vra are unprepared either to show in what 
■□aiiner the aub-families are connected, or to refer man; of the modem 
{.Tiiera to their natural divisiona. The Jsjs (Oamiina) UQqueation- 
ably represent the Buih-Shrikes (Tliamnophilina) ; while the genua 
Criiptirata and the ahort-leggod Glaucopina of M. Tomminck form 
part of a gronptypifjing the Drongo-ahrikea, The slender bill ot the 
PngtUna, at the opposite side of the circle, indicites the position of 
the fiseirostrsl group, corresponding to the Bactrida. But we have 
' msuy doubts on the true nature of the tenuirostial tf pe, siace it 
miiit QOt oaly represent the Hang-Ne*t Starlings (/cfcrins), but also 
the Calerpillar-Catchera Ifitblipyritta), and the typical Ampetida, or 
Chatterer*. Now it will strike every ornithologist who has the means 
of eiamining the Graevia ealea of authors, that notwithstanding its 
general resemblance to the Chauve of Le Taillant (■ Oiseaux de 
I'Amtfrique,' pL 49), it is decidedly a Crow ; while the latter is con- 
•idered by Le VaiUant as unquestionably belonging lo the A mptlida. 
We have therefore good reason to suspect the Qracila caiva to be one 
of the tenuirostml types of the Corrida. Id all probability it will 
prove to be the sub-family type representing that tribe, although at 



gite. 

<^ 

the ndea; convei and curved towards lie point, its edges cutting. 
Nostrils open. Fourth qoill the longest. Tail even, rounded, or 
red^linenr. 

" The apecies Coma," says H. Leasoo, " is very Dumerous in its 
species. Birds which differ in their characters and halnta tima the 
crows, properly so callad^which are the largest of the Poswru, 
whose way of life is camivoroud, and their food composed of oU sorts 
of nibstances, especially carrion — have been joined to the genus; The 
crows poBsess much intelligence, are easily tuned, and become very 
fnmiliar. They ore very vorscions, and live in numerous bands, and 
their harsh cry has been called croaking. They often commit sui^ 
hsvoc that a price is set on their head m some countries. They have 
at all times been objects of superetitjon to the people. Some of the 
' ' " rs again are travellera, and migrate annually. 



imd in ell the four quarters of fho 



Tbvj moult hut ( 

The species of 
globe. 

C. Corax, the Raven. This welt-known bird ia the lU|>atafthe 

Oreeks ; ComuM of the Latins ; Corro, Corbo, and Corvo Qroaso of 
the modem ttaliaas; El Cuervo ot the Spaniards; Corbeau of the 
French; Ber Rabe and Der Kolkrabe of ^eQermans; Korpofthe 
Swedes; Rkud of the Danes; Corbie of the Sootoh ; Cigfran of the 
Welsh ; Knw-kaw-gew of tie Cree Indians ; and TooUoo-ak of tike 
Esquimaux. Sir John Richardson says that it abounds in the Fur 
Countries, and visits the remotest islands of the Polar Seas. "It 
frequents the Barren Qrouuds even in the moat intense winter colds, 
its movements being directed in a great measure by those of the berds 
of rein-deer, musk-oxen, and bison, which it follows, ready to assist in 
devouring such as are killed by beasts of prey or by accident. Np 
sooner has a hunter alaiigbtered an animal than these birds are seen 
coming from various quarters to feast on the offal ; and considerable 
numbers constantly attend the fishing stations, where the; show 
Hiual boldness and rapacity. The eiperienced native, when he aeea 
from afar a flock of ravens wheeling in small circles, knows that a 
party of hia countrymen well provided with veniaon are encamped on 
the spot, or that a band of wolves are preying upon the carcass of some 
of the larger quadrupeds, and pushes on briskly in the certain pros- 
pect of having his wants supplied. The thievish habib of a tame 
raven are well known ; but it is remarkable that, inhabiting in a wild 
state the most socluded and worst peopled districts of America, it 
thould exhibit the same disposition to carry off shining metallic 
bodies and other articles totally unfit either for food or to be used in 
the construction of its nest; Hr. Kendall, in crossing the height of land 
which divides the natera that flow towsfils Hudson'a Bay from those 
which fall into the Arctic Sea, aaw a raven Sying off wMi something 
in his clawB pursued by a number of his clamourous companions. 
The bird being fired at dropped the object of contention, which 
proved to be the lock of a cheat" 

The aptitude of the raven for articulating clearly ia generally 
admitted. Hr. Swainson says, "One belonging to lib. Henalow, of 
BL Albans, speaks so distinctly that when Brst we heard it we were 
actually deceived in thinking it was a human voice : and there !s 
another at Chatham which has mode equal proficiency ; for living in 
the vicini^ of a giiaid-houae it has more than once turned out the 
guard, who thought they were called by the sentinel on duty." 

Sir John Richardson {'Fauna Boreali -Americana ') statiS that a 
pied individual was killed on the south branch of the Uackeniie from 
a flock of the common sort lis nsck, fore part of the baok, and 
part of VUa wings were gray ; the i«it of ita plumage black. 



COUVID^ lU 

This," writes Dr. Latham, "is a univeraid apcdes, found both In 
the old and new continents ; from Greenland to the Cape of Oood 
Hope in the one, and from Hudson's Bay to Heiico in the other. It 
was also met with by our circumnavigators in the Sandwich Isles, 
and at Owhybee was held in great estimation." Its appearance ia 
recorded in the first and second voyage of Parry as occurring within 
the Arctic Circle, and in Franklin's Journal. Several pairs were seen 

Helville laland, and Sir John RicbardaoQ gives a desoription of 

le killed at Fort Franklin in March, 1820. 

Sir James Roas ('Anpendii to Sir John RoJs's Second Voyage,' 
p. 28), speaking of the lUven, soya, " This is one of the few birds Uiat 
- — capable of braving the severity of an arctic winter, and of enduring 
scorching raya ot a tropical sun without any change being pro- 
duced in its plumage by the extremes of climate. Cuvier and other 
authora mention that in the north it is frequently found more or less 
white : we never saw anything corroborative of such an observstiott. 
It preserves ita plumage and peculiar characteristics unchanged in 
evBiy quarter of the globe." 

In his ' History of British Birds,' Hr. Yorrell haa gone into ■ 
minute investigation of the stmcture of the larynx in the Raven, in 
which he shows that ita power of voioe depends on the complicated 

Lture of the muscular apparatus with which tbia oi^an is supplied. 

C./rufi'ifffui (Linn.), the Rook. This well-known gregarious and 
familiar bird (for it seems to aS*ect the neighbourhood of man. and 
even not to be seared by the amoky atmosphere of great towns) is the 
Comacchia Nera and Comacchione of the Italians; Qraye, Orolle, 
Freux, and Fniyonne of the French ; ComeilleMoisaoneuseof Brieson; 
Schwartce Kriihe of the Qermans ; Boka of the Swedes ; and Ydfren 

of the Welsh. 




DvDd and Fool at Book {Oimu firufUifn). 

Bslon and Caius, the latter of whom names the Rook l^iervmhgiu, 

ant Fmgikga, appear to be of opinion that it is the 3npiii)\iyai of 

Aristot^ ('Hist Anim.'viiLS). It is doubtless, as Pennant observe^ 

the Comu of Vi:^, who has happily described a flock of Uiem — 






.* lib. i. V 



The Rook is spread over the graator part of Europe ; but nowhen 
doe* it seem to be more abundant than in Great Britain and Ireland. 
Wooded and cultivated districts are ita &vourite haunts. The 
farther north the observer goes in Scotland the fewer rooks does he 
see. In Orknn and Shetland there are none, nor are there any in 
Guernsey and Jersey. They do not appear to be numnona in Den- 
mark, nor in the southern districts of Sweden, nor in Russia and 
northern Asia, thou^ they may be seen there. In iMly the Rook is 
oommon and permanent ; but it appean to be migratory over a part 
of the continent of Europe. In France it is also common, and th* 
following quatrain appears under the cut of it in tba 'Fortraita 
d'Oyseaui :'~ 

" Ismsls le Fnax ne haole ta livagei 
£t ne se palst que de rnliu et 



u, srofliwrvers, 



It oocura between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea ; and Dr. Yon 
Stebold and H. Biirger note it among the European birds seen by 
them in Japan. 

Grain, and insects especially, form the food of the Book, and then 
doubt that it amply renays the farmer for the seed which 



165 



CORVID-^ 



CORVIDiE. 



136 



llook-Worma in many places, and the birds may be seen following 
the plough-tail to gather them up as the share exposes them. In the 
end of May and beginning of June, when the young are able to fly 
and go abroad with their parents, they may often be seen among the 
bright green leaves of the horse-chestnut and other trees, bending the 
branches with their weight as they assemble to pick off the cock- 
chafers in their winged state. Where these birds have been incon- 
siderately destroyed on account of the supposed damage which they 
had done, a total ftulure of the crops has made the farmer glad to try 
to get them back again. The stick-built nest contains four or five 
pale g^reenish eggs, blotched with dark greenish-brown; these are 
sometimes palmed upon the undisceming for plovers' eggs, but are 
easily distinguished from them. Not that a rook's egg is by any 
means bad, though far inferior in every respect to the other. The 
male is most attentive to the female whilst she is sitting, and feeds 
her assiduously ; both are very industrious in supplying their young, 
and the skin under the tongue may at this season be often seen 
dilated into a kind of pouch by the collected food. During the 
building season they have great squabbles among themselves about 
their nests. An account of one of their battles with the herons for 
the possession of a disputed territory is alluded to in the article 
Abdba. They frequently visit their nest-trees in the autumn on 
their way to roost in some distant wood, and come to them for the 
purpose of repairing their nest, and setting about the business of 
mcubation early in March. 

The Rook is not without the power of mimicry granted so laigely 
to the greater part of the true crows, is docile, capable of learning 
amusing tricks, and becomes much attached to the kind hand that 
feeds it. It has been heard to imitate the note of a jackdaw 
(Hewitson) and the barking of dogs so perfectly that if the mimic 
had been out of sight no ear could have discovered the deception. 
(Macgillivray.) 

Varieties. — ^White, pied, and cream-coloured. "A gentleman," 
says the charming author of the ' History of Selbome, " had two 
milk-white rooks in one nest. A bOoby of a carter finding them 
before they were able to fly, threw them down and destroyed them, 
to the regret of the owner, who would have been glad to have pre- 
served such a curiosity in the rookery. I saw the birds myself nslled 
against the end of a Imm, and was surprised to find that their bills, 
legs, feet, and claws were milk-white. These perhaps were perfect 
albinos, and might so have continu^ ; but instances are not wanting 
where the origioal light colour deepens into the usual sable with age. 
Mr. Yarrell quotes Mr. Hunt, of Norwich, who states that a gentleman 
of his acquaintance had in 1816 a young rook of a light ash colour 
most beautifully mottled all over with black, and the quill and tail- 
feathers elegantly barred ; but when the bird moulted it became a 
jet-black rook, and in this state was suffered to join its sable brethren 
in the fields. Mr. Yarrell remarks that this agrees with his own 
observations, and he adds that accidental varieties will generally be 
found to be comparatively small and weak birda As these young 
birds increase in age and gain constitutional power, the secretions, he 
observes, become perfect, and the plumage assumes its natural 
colours, whilst the assumption of white feathers by old birds is 
probably the effect of the converse operation of the physiological law. 
(* British Birds.') 

It has been, and indeed still is with some, a question whether the 
loss of the feathers at the base of the beak in the young rook upon 
the first moult, is or is not a specific distinction, or merely the result 
of denudation from plimging the bill into the ground in search of 
prey. It must be borne in mind that some foreign birds resemble 
the rook in this particular. Mr. John Blackwall's observations 
(' Researches in Zoology ') touching this matter are full of interest. 
He i-efers to a rook preserved in the Manchester Museum, which has 
its mandibles crossed near their extremities, but so slightly that the 
malformation could not have interfered materially with the mode of 
procuring food usually resorted to by rooks, as is clearly shown by 
the denuded state of the nostrils and anterior part of the head, both 
of which are entirely destitute of feathers. But he notices another 
specimen, in the possession of Mr. R. Wood of Manchester, which has 
the mandibles greatly elongated and much curved. "Now," says 
Mr. Blackwall, *'it is evident that the bird possessing a bill thus 
formed could not thrust it into the ground in search of worms and 
larvsB of insects, as the rook is known to do habitually ; and accord- 
ingly the plumage at the base of the bill of this individual, and the 
bnstly feathers which cover its nostrils, are very conspicuous, not 
having sustained the slightest injury. The opinion entertained by 
many persons that the naked condition of the nostrils and anterior 
part of the head is an original peculiarity in the rook is thus satis- 
factorily proved to be incorrect ; indeed the fact that young rooks 
exhibit no deficiency in these particulars is sufficiently conclusive on 
this point ; but the possibility of an entire species being endowed 
with an instinct destructive of a usual portion of its organisation was 
probably never contemplated by tliese observers ; it is not surprising 
therefore that the inference deduced from a partial view of the 
subject should be erroneous." 

C, Corone, the Carrion-Crow, Qor Crow, Black Crow, Corby Crow, 
Hoody, Bran. ; the Comeille Noire of the FrencL It has the feathers 
of the throat short, ovate-lanceolate, compact. Tail stniight, slightly | 



rounded. Plumnge black, highly glossed, with purple reflections 
above and green beneath. Young similar, but less glossy. 

It is found throughout England, and also in the north of Ireland 
and Scotland. It idso inhabits Germany, France, Spain, Provence, 
and Italy. Temminck says it is a native of Japan. 

Like the raven, the crows keep in pairs all the year, and seldom 
more than two are found together, unless at a feast of carrion. Its 
partiality to animal food has given it its various appellations, as well 
as that of Flesh-Crow. They are dangerous enemies where sheep are. 
They attack lambs and small quadrupeds, as well as the young of 
birds. They also eat shell-fish on the sea-shore. In de&ult of meat 
they eat grain, potatoes, and have been known to feed on green- 
walnuts. The Carrion-Crow is an early breeder, and commences 
building its nest in February. The female lays four or five eggs of a 
pale bluish-green, spotted and speckled with two shades of ash colour 
and dove-brown. 

C. comixt the Hooded or Royston Crow, Gray-Backed Crow, Gray 
Crow, Dun Crow, Bunting Crow, Heedy Crow ; Comeille Mantel^ of 
the French. The feathers of the throat are short, lanceolate, comp€u^t ; 
tail straight, slightly rounded ; head, fore-neck, wings, and tail, black ; 
the other parts ash-gray. Young with the plumage all dull blacky 
except a broadband of dusky round the fore part of the body. 

This bird resembles the last in its form, and in its habits is said to 
be even more mischievous. In the southern parts of England it ia 
only a winter visitant, arriving from the north early in October, and 
departing again in ApriL In the western and northern parts of Scot- 
land it remains all the year. It frequents marshes near the sea, the 
banks and shores of tidal rivers, as for instance the Thames. It is 
called Royston from its frequency in the neighbourhood of that town 
from October to ApriL Like tbe last species, they feed on lambs, 
poultry, and other animals, and when on the sea-shore partaking of 
cnutacea, moUutcti, and fish. Mr. Selby says, "I have repeatedly 
observed one of these birds to soar up to a considerable height in the 
air, with a cockle or mussel in its bill, and then drop it upon the r jok 
in order to obtain the included fish." The Hooded Crow often pairs 
with the Carrion-Crow, and, what is singular, the produce are not 
apparent hybrids, but assume either the plumage of the Hooded Crow, 
or Carrion-Crow. 

Pica. — Bill entire, with cutting edges, straight or curved, furnished 
at the base with setaceous feathers, lying forwards. Tail very long, 
graduated. (Vieillot) 

The Piece, Magpies, feed much in the same manner as the true 
crows, build their nests in trees, advance on the ground by hopping, 
are clamorous, leam to articulate words easily, and the European 
species is renowned for hiding anything shining and portable that 
pleases its eye. This bird also has been always an object of supersti- 
tion with the vulgar. 

P. caiid<Ua of Ray, Corvui Pica of LimuDus, our common Magpie, 
or Pianet, is, there is hardly any doubt, the Klrra of the Greeks. It 
is the Pica of the Romans ; Gazza, Regazsa, Putta, Picha, Gazzuola, 
Gazzara, Ghiandara, Gaggia, and Ghiggia Domenicana, of the Italians ; 
Pie, Jaguette, Dame, and Agasse, of the French; Die Elster, 
Die Aebter or Aglaster, of the Germans ; Skade and Huus Skade of 
the Danes ; Skior and Tunfugl of the Norwegians ; Piogen of the 
Welsh ; and Ootawa-kee-aakee of the Cree Indianis. 

The Magpie hardly needs description, its plumage of black and 
white being so characteristic and well known. It is omnivorous, and 
lays six or seven oblong eggs of a yellowish-white, spotted with brown, 
and cinereous : its nest^ wdl fortified with blackthorn twigs, is a curiosity. 
The female is rather less than the male, and her tail is shorter. 

"This bird," says Sir John Richardson ('Fauna Boreali- Ameri- 
cana'), "so common in Europe, is equally plentiful in the interior 
prairie lands of America; but it is singular that though it abounds 
on the shores of Sweden and other maritime parts of the Old World, 
it is very rare on the Atlantic coasts of America, or near Hudson's 
Bay : only stray individuals passing to the eastward of the Mississippi 
or of Lake Winipeg. Mr. Say informs us that it winters on the 
Missouri, and takes its departiure northwards on the 23rd of March. 
It does not entirely quit the banks of the Saskatchewan even in 
winter, but is much more frequent in summer. On comparing its 
eggs with those of the European bird, they are found to be longer and 
narrower; and though the coloiuv are the same, the blotcnes art 
laiger and more diffused. The manners of the American bird are 
precisely the same that we are accustomed to observe in the Engli-ih 
one." Mr. Swainson odds, that he has been able to compare English 
and Arctic specimens with one from the interior of China, communi- 
cated to him by Mr. Gray, and that he cannot perceive the slightest 
difference whereon to build even the character of a variety, much less 
of a species. The tails of the Arctic specimens, he observes, are very 
beautiful. A white variety of this bird is occasionally seen. 

The habits of the Magpie are very suspicious. Although seeking 
the habitations of man, it is always prompted by s^-interestw " It 
is," says Montagu, "a great enemy to the husbandman ^nd the 
preserver of game; but has cunning enough to evade their wrath. 
No animal food comes amiss to their carnivorous appetite; young 
poultry, eggs, young lambs^ and even weakly sheep it will attempt to 
destroy by first plucking out their eyes ; the young of hares, rabbiti^ 
and feathered game, share the same fiate; fish, carrion, insects^ and 



fhiit, lutly grain, irheD oothuig eUe can be got. It ia 



bird. 



l»aUyg 



r aloud I 



apparent danger, and thereby j 



J Dr. Latham aayi be baa Been ti*o Tarietiea ; the one pure nliite, the 
LI I other as in the ConunoQ Jay, bat haling the whola of tbs quilli 



appear without being obeerved end haunted ; even the fowler la 
frequently apolled of hie sporty tar all other birda seem to koo^r the 
alorraing chatter of the magpie." 

Everywhere this bird ia marked for destruction, and were it not 
for ita sagacity it would certoiuljloDg eince have become extinct. 

This bird is common io Scotland. Although not koown in Ireland 
a ceutury and half mnce, they are now common. This bird is very 
oommon in Norway, where the tnbabjtanta avoid destroying it. It 
liree in X^pland, and is common in the Morea. It is also a oAtive of 
China and Japan. 

There ore several foreign spedea of PUa. They occur both in the 
Old and New World. 

DemtneUla — a genus founded by Mr, Qould, and comprehending 
Pica vagabunda of Wagler, P. SiatntU of Hardwicke and Gray, and 
a tliird ipedei, which Hr. Qould believes to have been hitherto 



ird ipeciei, 



It haa the bill ehorter than the head, cultreted, broad at the base 
ctjlmen arched, aidee eubtumid; nostrils basal, partly oovred witi: 
■etaceoni feathers. Wings moderate : fifth and sixth quills longest 
Tail elongate, cuneated, the tail-feathers spatulat«. Feet (tani) short 
and weak: toes moderate; hallux strong, with a etroog incurv'-' 

D. loKDgaitnL Block ; occiput, neck, tiansvene artripe at the 
of the quills, and abdomen, white ; scapulars, interscapular n _ 
<intei»c*pulio), and lower tail-coverts, tinged with chestnut (dilute 
caatoneis); two intamal toil-featliers a^-colouied, except at their tips. 

" The sbortneBB and compantive feebleness of the tarsi in Den- 
dToeUta, and its more elongated tail, tbe feethen of which are equally 
gTaduat«d, except the two middle ones, which ore much longer than 
Uie others, distinguish it from the typical Pica, the common magpie, 
for example. These characters are in accordance with its haUt of 
wandering from tree to tree in search of ite food. It is farther 
distingni^ed by the form of ita bill. 

" All the speciea jet known are native! of Eastern Asia." (Ooold, 
ZooL'Ptoc.,' May lith, 1833.) 

D. ragabunda. Pica ragabtrnda, Wagler. Head, neck, and crest, of 
a amoke colour, or blackish gray; the back light cin n a m on ; tbe centre 
of the wings gny ; tbe quilla black ; the tail gray, each feather being 
tipped laigel; with block ; under surface pole tawny ; beak and tarai 
black. Length 16} iuchca; beak IJ inch; tarsi 11 inch; tail ID 
incheo. The species ia mom wide! j diffused than an; of its congeners, 
beiUK found in oonsidereble abundance all over India. (Qonld, 'Century 
ot Birda from the Himalaya Mountaina') 

Carr^M. — Bill moderate, straight^ with cuttjng edges, inclined, and 
with obecnre notches near l^e point. Tail even, sometimes rounded. 
(TieilloL) 

The Joya are inhabitants of the wooded dietricta, and live chiefly 
upon fruits, principaiiy acorns and such vegetable productions. They 
larely come mto the open country, but make great havoc in gardens 
and cultivated grounds in the neighbourhood of woodlands. Their 
food is much leas varied thou that of the true crows ; but they may 
■till be styled omnivorouo. Their plumage is generally |ay, and even 
brilliant: the beautiful speculum on the wing is a leadmg eharoctar. 
The manners of the foreign species are analogous to those of the 
foreign magpies. Those of the Common Jay and ita aptness at 
imitation ore vrell known. 

G. gtandaritu, the Common Jay, is auppoaed by Belon to be 
the Maiuwsicrani;! of Aristotle; sod we may observe, in coa- 
SrmotioD of this opinion, that the editor of the lost edition of 
Pennant says, that the bird is very common in Greece, where it still 
retains ita ondent name, MiUmniitpttFriii. Belon statee it to be the 
Oaia Ghiandaia, or Ohiandora, the Gaia Verio, and the Berla, of 
tbe Italians; and the Prince of Cauino gives Ghiandaja, Pica, 
Pica ffkiandaja, and Piat paUmbina os its Italian appellations. It 
is the Jay and Oeai of the French, the Kieben-Hoher (Oak Jay), 
Holtnchryer (Wood-Cryer), or Holz-Baher, of tbe Oermana; and 
Screch y Coed of the Welsh. 

The Jay, like the Magpie, is too well known to require deaoriptiDU. 
Its beautiful colours make it one of the handsomest of our native 
birda. It builds ila basket-like nest in treea or high coppico-wood and 
hedges, and lays five or six (ggs of a dull whitish olive, mottled vary 
obscurely with pale brown ; towards the large end there aro usuallj- 
two or three black linea. It is a sad enemy to gardeners. Fruits, 
•specialty cherries, ond peas are its great favourites, and it ia fre- 

Krntly taken by springa sat upon the rows ot peas when in bearing. 
, KiMier says that it will kiU small birds. With regard to their 
imitative powero, Bewick Bays, " We hove heard one imitate the sound 
made by the action of a saw so exactly, that though it was on a 
Sunday, we could hardly be pereooded that the person who kept it had 
not a oipenter ot work in the house. Another, ot the approach of 
cattle, bod learned to bound a cur dog upon them, by whistling and 
calling upon him by his name. At hist, during a severe frost, the dog 
waa, by that means, excited to attack a cow big vrith calf, when tbe 
poor animal foil on tha lo^ and waa much hurt ; the jay waa oom- 
plained of as « nuiMUioa, and its owner was oblized to destroy it." 



Joy, bat having t 

The author last quoted states that this species, though not neoriy 
so for spread as the magpie, eiiota in various paiis of the continent 
of Europe, aud that he has observed it sniong drawings done in 
Chins. 

There sre aeveml foreign species, both of the New and Old World. 
Mr. Gould, who figures three species in his 'Centuiy ot Birds,' well 
observes that, " The close affinity which the Gamdm lanciolaltit 
bears to some soeciea inhabiting the United States and Mexico is 
worthy of remark, as o corroboration of the fact so often insisted on, 
that eimilor forms of ornithology are found in countries widely 
separated from each other, whose' temperatures ore alike." Indeed, 
the lost-mentioned bird immediately reminds the observer of the 
Blue Jay (GamJut mifuCut) of America, while Oarntliu biipeculari4 
recalls flie common Joy to his recoUaction. 

Picalharlei — o genus foiindod by H. Leieon, who takes for the type 
the Ke Chauve (Cormu ffymnocephalut of Temniiuck), 

It has the bill convex, not very robust, the upper moudible higher 
than the lower; the latter a little swollen towards its eitremitv ; the 
base entirely without hain, and furoished with a cere. Nostrils 
placed on the middlu of the bill, oval, open, hollowed into an oblong 
excavation. Head entirely naked. Feet (tarsi) long, but little 
Bcutellated in front, naked behind; claws feeble; wings rounded, 
short. Toil long, graduated. (Lesson.) 

" The form of this singular tuid," says M. Temminck, " the cut of 
its wings, ond its long conical and very graduated tail, serve me os 
indicia to judge by ^olo^iy of whot country it may be a native, ita 
locality being unknown. In tact, on comparing our new species with 
tbe Piapic of Le Vaillant (Comu Senegalemit), one is inclined, from 
the marked analogy, to conclude Africa to be its country. Some data, 
which it is noveruieless not prudent to trust, lead me to believe that 
the only individual known, which is in the collection ot Mr. Lead- 
beater of London, was brought from the English possessions on the 
coast of Guiuea." 

" Proportions (taille) a little stronger, tar« much longer, and a toil 
less in proportion distinguish our bird from the Piapic The head in 
certain pomts offers some resnnblance to that of the Graeitia caiva of 
the Philippines, and tbis approximation is so strong that it would 
produce doubts as to its African origin, if it did not bear a greater 
resemblance in its general contour to tiie Piapic of Africa. In fine, 
if this bird is not AAican, it can onlf be a native of the Philippine 



FkalKarUr ff^MWtetpl 



Upon this passage M. Lesson remarks, that he does not find the 
least analogy between tbe figure of the Enlum., 638, which i> 
C'liiTiu Scaigalmtu, and the Pie Chauve, whivh ff " 



lU COBVID^ 

Catluula. Th« coacluaion itated In H. Temtsiiiok'i I*a( wnteDOB H. 
LwaoQ U fiir from Bdniittuigf. 

Tha following ii Tsmmiiiofc'a dMcriptioa of the apecica; "Thu 
Dnlied parta ot tba head oSar a particular character. The whole of 
the auUitorj meatna ia completely deatitute of feathen and otcd of 
hair*. A amall border, or nuUment of membniDB, fomu, beloir the 
orifice of the ear, a sort of eitflmal concha, but little apparent, it ii 
true, in tba staffed BpecimeQ, but the extent of which miiat be renaark- 
able to the liring bird. All thJB part of the organ of hearing, as 
well aa a part of each aide of the occiput, are covered bf a black skin 
with a ahghtlj-projecting orbicDlar border, and forming a rounded 
plaque. The cere which enrelops the base of the bUI ia ain blick. 
All the reet of tha naked parte of the head, the mesial line of the 
occiput which eepaiatei the black plaquea of the temples, and Uie 
upper part of the top of the neck, appear to ma to hare been red or 
ros; in the living aubject ; a (light tint of roej-jellow cotoi these 
parta in that before ua The whole of tha nape is covered, clorly, 
by a whitiah and very short down. The front of the neck and all the 
other parte are white. The back, well covered with thick-set feathera, 
is of an aahy-black ; all the rest of the plumage is bistre brown. 
The feet ara yellow, and the bill is black. Length 16 inchea." 
<Telnla.) 

Pudoca. — This geaui was founded by M. Fischer, for a bird dia- 
oovered by Dr. Paoder, in the country of the EiroheM beyond Otcm- 
burg, whose habits of life are analogous to those of the crows, among 
nhich ilL Leason thinks it ought to be placed 

The bill is moderate, of the length of the head, bendiug downwards 
at ita point, without a ifotcb, and slightly angular, the upper mandible 
shorter than tha lower, receiving and covering the edges of it. 
Noetrilj basal, rounded, large, covered with setaceous oveihaoging 
fmthers (plumea setactSeeretombantaa). Feet robust and long ; chws 
triangular, very mnch pointed, and but litUe i^rred ; a warty mam- 
brane bordering the thickness of the phalanges. First quill short, 
second long, the three neit equaL Tail rectilinear. (Fischer.) 

P. Pandtri. Greenish glaucous above ; eyebrows white ; bill and 
claws blackish ; feet greenish. The bird flies badly but wolki very 
wea It lives'- " ^ 



feet areenii 
Bocka. 



JWmu FtKdrrl. 
_«, (trong ant ... 
oueniDg with some stiff 'bristies and small feathera turned forwards. 
Iiaaol nasB eub-oval, closed by a large membrane. Winga rounded, 
niodaiata. Quilla nearly equal, the third longeat Feet very long, 
demiseutellatad. Tail rounded. 

There are aevaral ipedaa, all oriental Mr. Oould, who has pub- 
lished two, namely, Jf. Bm^iddii and 3f, Ttmminctii, in his 
' Century,' states tha^ aa regards the habits of these birds, little can 
be said with certainty, but that &om their lengthened tarsi and 
general structura they m^ be couudered aa depending in a great 



measure fjr their subsistence upon worms, insects, 
manners of M. TVnninciu, when on the groimd, ai 
leaeuible those of the English blackbird. It may 
whether this grvup ia property plaoed among the Cor 
M. Jtsvirotlrii (M. ■wfoUiciu, Temm.) Entirely of i 
with metallic tints. Bill of a beautiful jellow. 
inbabita Java. 



and larva), 'ile 

re Bidd much to 
be questionable 



iryopinntu JIarimiiii. 
Ptilonorhjiitektu. — BUI strung, rohnst, widened, rather long, upper 
baaal termination convex, but little marked ; point recurved ; upper 
mandible presenting two small notches at its aitreniity ; edges a little 
swollen i lower mandible slightly convex ; commissure of the mouth 
itnught, simple. Nostrils basal, lateral, furnished with short briatlea. 
Wings short, rounded. Tail moderate, graduated. Feet skndcr. 

Tba genus, aa modified by Lesson, contains but two apedea. He 
thinka that it would be better placed among the Dattirctlrtt at the 
side of the Cboucaria (Ontuealiu, Cuvier) ; but he allows that it baa 
all the forms of the Boilers (Coraciai) and of the Crows, Locality, 
the warmest islands of the Weet Indian Archipelago. 

P. Sintntit, Coraeiat Sinauii, Latham. Body above pale aqua- 
tuarins green clouded with yellowiBh-green. Forehead furnished with 
silky round feathers turned in ^Serent directions; feathers of tha 
nape long, unravelled aa it were, and capable of being erected into a 
tufl— boUi of a yellowiah-green. A black band taking ita rise from 
the angle of the bill surrounds the eye and nape. Throat and cheeks 
of a yellowish-green. Lesser wing-covarts brown. Quilla brown, 
inclining to olive externally and chestnut internally; the lut thrre 
progreesively terminated with greenish white. Bill red, Burtounded 
by a few black bristles ; feet reddish. Siie 11 inchea. Locali^, the 
Philippine Ishuids. 

The other specie^ accordingly Lesson, is Killa fWasnna, Tem- 

KiUa. — Bill short, oonvex, com pressed on the sides ; upper mandible 
with the bKSal termination recurved, and depressed aides ; the point 
aharp and fucuiibhcd on each side with a sm^dl projecting tooth, bor- 
dera of the mandibles thick, recurved, and covered at the commiaure. 
Noatrits baaol, transversal, hidden by the silky feathers of the fore- 
head, and by a row of small btistlea Wings pointed Tall equal, 
rounded. E«et robust ; toes equal ; hallux atoeng. (Lesson.) 

Lesson, who places in this genus Killa hotoxrieta, Plilonerkynelitit 
Smtthii, and Killa rircscms, says that what was observed aa to the 
last-mentioned geEus is applicable to this, which has tha genersJ 
characters of the Rollers and BoUes (Oolarit). 

The birds composing the genus are exclusively peculiar to Aus* 
ttalia and the temperate sons. (Lesson.) 

K. kolatrricca, Tom mi nek ; PtiloaorhgndiiH kolOKriaut, Kuhl; 
Satin Oiakle. Latham ; PCtionorAyncAiu Mac-Ltayii, Latham USS. 
Vigora and Uorsfleld. 



IWe, very briHiant bl^kUli-blue. QuilU and Uil-feathara dead 
blank. Bal and feet j-ellow. A double row of Bilky uid toItbIt 
blukh-black feathers at the baaa of the hih. Unft^i 13 inchaa. The 
ftmala haa tho upper parts of im olive-green. The quilU and tail- 



BalLn-Bliil {Eitla holoifHcta). 
feather* of a i«d-brown ; wing'Coverta varied irith brown and a colour 
inclining to olive ; lower parte gneniah, barred with blaok. There 
are whitiih barliontal epots, lanceolated, and bordered with black, on 
the front of the neck. 



COBVID.(E. in 

Mr. Caley eaja (Vigore and Honfield, ' Linn. Traaa./ toL it. p. SflJ) 
that ■ tbe male of thie species is reckoned a leiy scarce bird, and ia 
highly valued. The natives call it Cowry, the colonists Satin-Bird. 
I have novr and then mot with a solitary bird of this species ; but I 
once saw lai'ge flocks of them on some newly-eown wheat, from 
wlienoB they fled on being KSred into a nf ighbouring bnieh. When 
all was af!un quiet they soon returned to tie whent They did not 
leave the brush above a few yards. There were no black onea amons 
them, nor can I affirm that they were feeding on the wheat." 

A'um/rnjo— Bill long, thick, with cutting edges terminating in a 
blunt |K)int, furnished with setaceous feathers at the base, the upper 
mandible longer than the lower. Noatrils round, open. Wiugs 
pointed ; fourti quill longeat. 

Till the publication of Mr. Oonld's Niulfraga hemitpxla (see ' Cen- 
tury of Birds') but one species wrh known, namely, that which we 
select as the example :— 

K. Caryocatar-la. Briason, the Nutcracker; OaryiKaiacta nueifraga, 
NiU ; Conui Caryocalada. LinnIBU^ the Caese-Noii of the French ; 
the Tannen-Hiiher of the Qermane; the Noddekrigr of the Danes; tbe 
Not-Kraake of the Norwegians; and the Aderyn y Cnau of the 

Thia bird ia somewhat less than the Jackdaw. The bill ia atraigbt, 
strong, and black. Head, neck, breast, and body, rusty brown. 
Crown of the head and rump pUin, the other parta marked with 
triangular white spots. Winiri black. Covi-rts spotted like the body. 
Tail rounded at the end, black, tipped with white. Legs dusky. 
Locality, most parts of Europe ; but the Prince of Caniuo does not 
notice it in bis ' Specchio Compamtivo." 

PgrrhiiTOTax, — Bill moderate:', oompreaiied, subulate, rather slender, 
furnished at the base with festhera directed forwards, and at the 
extremity of the upper mandible with two small teotb whidi are 
often wanting. Nostrils basal, ovoid, open, hidden by bristles. Feet 
robust; claws strong and recurved. Fourth and fifth quills longeet 

These birds, the Choquords of the French, live in troops like the 
Jackdaws, which they resemble in their manners. They inhabit the 
high moimtains of Europe, and especially the snowy regiona of the 
AJpe, Thej are omnivorous, feeding on insects, worms, soft fruit*, and 
seeds. They moult once a year, aod the sexes are alike eitemally. 

P. Pyrrhocorax. Brilliant black, but the colour is dull in youth, 
und the bill and feet are black. In the adult bird tbe black preaenta 
iridescent and changeable tints varying to greenish ; the bill is yd- 
lowish, and the feet bright red. Tbe female lays four white egga, 
ipotted with dirty yellow ; the neat is in holes of the rocka Locality, 
Alps of Switzerland. The Prince of Canino {' Specchio Compantivo ) 
ites it as rare, and only occurring in the Apennines. 
^V^M.— Bill longer than the head, slender, entire, arched, pointed. 
Nostrils covered with feathers directed forwards. 

Lesson is at opinion that this genus ought to be united with the 
last, from which it only diSers in having tbo bill longer and more 
curved, which ma.le Cuvier place it in the tribe of Ttaviratlre*, near 
the Hoopoes {Upupa). The species have the manners, habits, and 
general organiaation of the crows ; and the European species (selected 
here as an example) perfectly resembles Fyrrhocarax. (Lesson.) 

P. gractUta, Temm. ; Corrai ffracutut, Linn. The CoroiBh Chough, 
or Red-Legged Craw, is considered by Belon, on no bod grounds, to 
be the Koinuilat, the KapAwTi ^anKipayxai <Red-Billed Crow) of the 
Greeks and the J^rrAoraroi of tbe Romans; Spelvier, Taccols, Pason, 
Zorl, of the Italians (Belon); Choucas aui Pieds et Bee Rouge, Choquar, 
Choiiette Rouge, of the French (Belon) ; Stein-Tahen and Stein-Fne 
of the (^rmans ; and Br&n Big U6ch of the Welsh. 

BHck beautifully glossed with blue and purpla Legs and bill 
bright orange, inclining to red. Tongue almost as long as the bill, 
and a little cloven. Claws large, hooked, and black. The Chough 
builds its nesta in high cliffs or ruined towers, and lays four or five 
eggs, white, spotted with dirty yellow or light brown and ash colour. 

It is a native of England in Devonshire, Cornwall, and Wales. 
Pennant says that it is found in different parts of Scotland ai far sa 
Straithnavern, and in some of the Hebridtt. He also atstes that it ia 
found in small numbers on Dover cliff, where tbry came by accident; 
a gentleman in that neighbourhood had a pair sent as a present frotn 
Cornwall which escaped and stocked these rocks. They sometime* 
desert (he place for n week or ten days at a time, and repeat it eevei-al 
times in the year. Montagu, speaking of this locality, says, " Wa 
believe tbe breed in those parts is ngain lost." Latham states that it 
ia also said tu frequent the South Downs about Beachy Head and 
Eastboum, where it is culled the Red-Billed Jackdaw. With regard 
to its general geographical dietributioQ, Pennant observes that we do 
not find it in other parts of Europe except England and the Alps. 
In Asia the island of Candia produces it; in Africa, Egypt, which 
laat place it visite towards the end of the inundations of thp Nile. 
He quotes Pliny, Brissun. Belon. and Haaselquist, for these statements. 
The e^tor of the last edition of Pennant says that the Chough inha- 
bits the lofty cli& about the mid region of the higheat mountains of 
Qreece, but never the maritime partA, as with us. Scopoli apcaks of 
it in Camiola, and ssya that the feet of some during autumn turn 
black- These were probably young birda. 

Tbe Comiah Chough is easily tamed, and may be taught to speak. 
Ona in Colonel Montagu's possesaion would stand quietly for hours to 



ba lootlMd tad atnued, btit would rsaent an afiWint lioUi with bill 
uid cUm. "It «," Bays Penmuib, "aotiva, rertlBBg, and thiBiring ; 
mudl taken with glitter, nnd ao meddUnK u not to be tnuted when 
UuDgB of oon«equcace lie. It ii veiy apt to alflh up bits of lishted 
(Ucki, 10 that there ars iiutuioet t^ houiea being let on Are br lb 
nieuu, whicb ie the reuon that Camden calls it ' inoendiaria btu.' " 
Ssrenlof Um WeUhand Comiih fkmilLea bear tliii bird in thsir ooat- 

l^ere are foreign Bpeciai — Fregilut leucoptena, Tigort and Hoci- 
fieW (Pyrrhocorax leaci^ltnu, Tomniinok}. from Auatialia, where 
it ji called b; tbe nHlivei Wajbung, according to Hr. Caliejr, and 
Rrgiltu Enca, of Horsflsld, from Java, for inatance. 

Paradiiea — fBiBDB oi PiBiDiSE.] 

AilTo^ia. — 'Bill amootb at the baae, compressed laterally, etraight 
aboTe, pointed, notched, and bent toTrarda the eitrsmitj. Tail Teiy 
loi^ and very gmdunted. 



Pie d* Puadli. 



plum*^ 1 



nigra, and Latham that of Paradttta gviari; while Cut 



COBTLi.CK£. IM 

it to coma under tbe genus Titrdta (Herle de la you^elle Oninfe). 
Thii beautiful bird is the Pie de Faradis or Incomparable of th« 
FrencL Leeson ea;a : — " I brought from New Qutnea two indiriduala 
of this magnificent bird, the value of which is sufficiently considerabla 
in France, and which saenu to ba Tery rare eren in its native country ; 
for, during our sojourn at tbe Moluccas aud the land of the Papoua, 
I only law there two birds, and cna of these now embellishes tha 
gallerioa of the muaeum where I deposited it." 

No desoriptioQ osn convBy any idea of the brilliancy of this bird. 
The metallic tints of almost every hue, varying with the pisy of the 
light on the plumage, olmoat nirpan beliet It is well figurad in 
Le Vaillant'i ' Oi»Bui de Pandis,' plaU 20 aad 21 ; but no colouc- 
ing can give the ilighteat Dolaon of its aplendid intensity and varietj. 
The form may be imagiued from the preceding out taken from th* 
plates above mentiivied. 



the c«ve at Kirkdale, and figures the right ulna of one of those luids 
in ' Reliquin Diluviaiue,' plata xl 

C0RVU3. rCoBTnii] 

CORTDA'LIS, a genua of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Pumariacia. It haa a calyx oomposed of two sepals, or abaent ; 4 
petals, the upper one spurred at the base ; the stamens diadelphous ; 
the pod 2-valvad, man; seeded, oompreased. Tbe species are mostly 
small glaucous herbs, with temat« or pinnated leaves, and fuiifonD 
tuberous or fibrous roots. Upwards of 10 apeciea of this genua have 
been dncribed. They are natives of the temperate parts of the earth 
in tbe four quarter! of the globe. 

0. tiavicalala. White Climbing Fumitory, haa a fibrous root; pin- 
nate kavee, with acuminate bracts, the pinnsa temate ; footstalk ending 
in tendrils. It bas small pale-yallow or nearly white flowers. It liai 
a slender climbing stem, 1 to 4 feet long. It is found in bushy place* 
in hill; districts of Great Britain and throughout Europe. 

C. lulta. Yellow Fumitory, haa a fibrous root, tritemate leaves; 
minute oblong cuapidate bracts ; shining aeeda, gnu) u late-rugose, with 
a patent denticulatad crest. Thia plant ia a native of the south oi 
Europe, in the fiasurea of rocke and old walla. It ii now naturallaed 
in Oraat Britain, and forms a picturesque object on the old walls of 
ruins, as at Casdeton in Derbyshire, and Fountains Abbey, YoiUiin. 
It ia a very common plant in gardens. 

C. lolida haa n tuberous sohd root, with bitemata cut leavaa, the 
lowest petiole a leafleaa scale, the bracts palmate. It is found in Qraat 
Britain, but has been undoubtedly introduced. 

0. Fahacta has a nearly limple erect stem, scaly under tbs lower 
leaf I the leaves stalked, bitemate ; the bncta ovate, acute, longer than 
the pedicles. It is a native of shady mountainous places in Sweden, 
Denmark, and many other ports of the continent of Europe. This 
species, as well as C. UiberaKi, a native of the South of Europe, bas a 
tuberous root. Tbe root of both the spedea is very bittar and rather 
acrid. That of C. Htieroia ia hollow, and is found to contain a pecQ- 
liar alkali called Coiydolin. On the continent these roots are used 
under the name of Radix Aralolochitc, and uv employed aa eiteroal 
appUcations to indolent tumours. C. bulboia bas a tuber which ia 
somewhat aromatic, extremely bitter, slightly astringent and acrid, 
and was formerly used as a substitute for Birth- Worts in expelling 
intestinal worms, anJ as an ammensgogue. 

Many of the species on cultivated in Qreat Britain, and, having 
escaped from gardeus, ore occasionally found wild, but only C. tlawi- 
cuiaia is a native ; C- Uttea ia naturalised- In cultivation they require 
A light rich soil. They are well adapted for flowar-bordeta and rock- 
work. The perennial apeciee may be propagated by dividing the roots, 
the annual % seeds, which shotud be sown where they are intended 
to remain. Thay will grow well under treea it the abil ba not very dry. 

(Don, ZHiJilamydfoii4 PlaaU ; Lindlay, Flora Ifedica; Loudon, 
Encyelopadia of PlanU : BMagtaa, ManutU of BritiA Sotaag.) 

CORYLA'CE.^, MaitviorU, the Oak.Tribe, a highly important 
natural order of Apetalous or Incomplete Exogenous Pluila, 
eonoiating of trees or shruba, chiefly natives of the colder port* 
of the world, and valuable either for the nuia they bear or the 
timber they produce. The Oak, the Beech, the Hazel, (he Horn- 
beam, and the Sweet Cheatnat, all belong to this order, the 
general character of which ia briefly thia : — Leaves alternate, usually 
serrated, often with veins running atroight from the midrib to the 
margin, beyond which they ilighUy project ; at the base of each leai 
a pair of membranous stipules. Flowers monracioua ; the males in 
catkins ; the females in bud-like clusters. Stamens from S to 20, 
arising from the acolas of the catkin. Ovoiy infarior, crowned by a 
toothed obsolete calyx, seated in a membranous cup or involucra^ 
with more cells than one, and aa many styles as cells ; ovules solitary 
or in pairs, penduloua ; all the ovules except one and all the cells 
disappear after the flowering is over, and whan the fruit is ripe there 
is but one cell and one seed, whatever thoir number may originally 
have been. Fruit, a nut (called also acorn, maat, &c), incloaed within 
a peouliar kind of involucre or cupule composed of bracts more or leaa 
united together, and forming a cup in the oak, a huak in the filbert, 
and a apiny osaa in the oheatnut nnd beech. The seed conusts of a 
roundiall embryo, with thick fleshy cotyledons, and no albumen. Tha 



M coRttTra 

mort Mntheni of the spaaica of this order ia the Beech, of irhinh nun; 
nn<Ci«s occur in the lower parts of South Amarioa, AuatnlU, 
and Sew Zealiuid. The order w (Jlied to Jaglandaeea. For parti- 
cnkra respecting the genera of thia moat importajit fiimilf of plants 
Me CABriyris ; Ostbta ; Cobtlits ; Fiam ; Caiiania ; Qukboub ; 
LiraocABFVB. 



Flonra of Ihe Sacel-Nnt {Oerftat Ataiana), 
I, a tmneb, wltb tba aula flowen " In dreaping satklni ; the ftmile* • In 
bnd-liko cluilen ; 1, onn of the Kslci of Iha duIe »tkin, irlth Iha itameiu 
•tuctwd to It ; 3, B female bud. wiLb Itie ilfla prnJmtiiiB bejimd tba brteti i 
4, Ibc rooDt onriia wllh Uh biacU remoTed ; 3, a h«1ds of the otstj, 
nhlMtlnf the otuIh, the loolhid hIti, and the bsie ol the stjle ; 6, a eroH 
(Hiiua at Um otuj ; 1, a laniitadissl section ot a not. 

C0HTLTJ9, a genua of Plant* after whiiA the natural otdar Ctorj- 
loMd recaiTCB its name. It consieta of the diSersnt ipedes of hazal- 
tmt, and ia diatinguiehed from the genera aaaociated witb it bf its 
eupule baing a twa-leavad lacerated husk, and its Ovar; bunng but 
two cella, in each of nhich is one ovule. 

C. Av^ana, the Comman Uazel-Xub This planl^ which It • 
nitire of all the cooler parts of Europe, Northern Asia, and North 
America, is the parent of the many varieties of nuts and filberls now 
cultivated for their fruit. [Hazel-Nut, Fi[.BEBt,in Abtb add 9a D^.] 
It is speciGcall/ known fa; its husks baing hispid with glands, laafj, 
broad, much lacerated, and ruther spreading at the point ; never con- 
tflKted into a long tube, nor divided into narrow rigid s^ments ; b; 
its rounded, heart-ehaped, very rugose, angular, toothed cuspidate 
leaves, glandular-hispid branchni, and shrubb; habit. It varies very 
much in the form of its hueke, in the degree of their hisptdit;, eoma 
being nearly smooth, in the shape of their nuta, and in the height to 
which it grows. In the Hazel-Kut the husk is open at the point, 
ehoiter or at least but little longer than the nut, and nearly smooth ; 
while in the Filbert (Coryliu fuiWoja of some writers) it is lengthened 
ooneiderably beyond the nut, and covered more or leas with glandular 
hairs ; all d^jTeea of intermediate atructure ma; be found in the cul- 
tivated vaiieties. This plant is found as a large shrub having nome- 
rous stems rising from the rool^ or as a small bushy tree with a great 
number of branches, which ore covered with hairs when it is young. 
It is found all over Oreat Britain, from Cornwall to Sut^erlandihire. 
It grows at the height of 1600 feet above the level of the sea, in the 
north of England and Scotland. It is cultivated very generally on 
account of its nnte, eapetially in the caunt; of Kent, where it attains 
its greatest perfection. It is also cultivated on the continent of 
Europe ; and every year laige quantitiea of the nuts are brought into 
England from various |»rts of Fiance, Portugal, and Spain. The 
haiel is valued in planting principally as an undergrowth. Its branches 
sod stems are used for various kinds of wicker-work. The wood 
is said to make the beat charcoal for gunpowder, and ia also used foi 
Disking crayons for drawing purposes. 

C. Amtritana is not distinguishable as a variety from the last 
spedee. The Beaked American or Cuckold-Hscel is a pretty purple- 
leaved kind in shmbberiea. 

C. rotfrala, the Homed Hazal-Nut. In this tlie branches are 
qnite free from glandular hispidity, the leaves are oblong, not cordate, 
doubly toothed, and acuminate, and the husks globular over the nuta, 

' e they are eitremely hispid, without ever being glandular; 



dOBTHBIFER.^. l«i 

C. Columa, the Constantinople Nut, a white-barked tree SO feet 
and more high, with an erect trunk and a dense spreading head. The 
leaves are shining, much less nigoee than in the haiel-nut, cordate, 
angular, serrated, acute or acuminate, slightly haiiy on the under 
BurFace. The branches and all the other parts are destitute of 
glands ; tJie huaks are campanulata, deeply cut into narrow hairj 
rather falcate segments. The nuts ore roundish and verv hard- It 
is a native of Aaia Minor, and known from all the other garden 
apede* by its becoming a tree. It seldom produces ita nuts in thia 
climate. 

Besides these tliere ore the C. laeera and C. /trax, two spedea 
found in the Himslaya Hounlaine. Of these, the former, gathered in 
Kumaon, is hardly different from C, Colnmaj the other, from Mount 
Sheupore, has narrow taper-pointed leaves, and eiceesively hard nula 
'nclosed in a husk, with divaricating narrow epiny divisions. 

COSYHB, a form of inflorescence approaching ven nearly to the 
nceme. The raceme consists of an axis, upon which all the floweta 
ire disposed upon footstalks of the earns length ; and henoe ita figure 
a more or less cylindrical. A corymb oonsiets of an axia, the lowar- 
noat flowers on which have very long stalks, and the uppermost 
rery short ones, so that the mass of inflorescence ia an inverted oon^ 
IB in candytuft and man; other cruciferous plants. The oorymb i^ 
in fact, an umbel with a lengthened axis. 

From this word ia derived the term Corymbose, which is applied not 
only to flowers, but to any kind of branching in which the lowermost 
parts are very long aud the uppermost very short, as is the case in 
most spedes of Atter. [Ikflorbbcssce.] 

CORTMBI'FER^, one of the primary subdivisions in the system 
of Jussieu, of the natural order CotnpotUa. It comprehends most of 
the Tttbulijlora of De Candolle. It is characterised by the absanoe of 
albumen, an erect aeed, a hemispherical involucre, and the florets vt. 
the ray, if present, ligiUate. Thia division comprises b; far the 
laigeot number of the genera of the large order Oonyionta. The 
apedea of Corymii/era produce more active secretions, and have been 
used more extensively by man than those of the other subdivisions of 
the order. They generally represent the Cichoracfa [Cioboraoka] 
in hot elimatee, and this will perhaps account for their more active 
properties. In Oreat Britain the CotytiA^fera ore more numerous 
than either the C^naracea or CieKoracta, The number of apeoiea hi 
the second edition of Babington's ' Manual of British Botai^ ia — 

Oarymbiftm SS 

CiAortKta 61 

Cynaractai 28 

Comptmttt 189 

De Candolle estimates that the apeciea of the C<mtiil>tita form a 
tenth part of the flowering planta in tlie world, and this is about ib* 
proportion in which they occur in Oreat Britain. 

The following is a nynopsis of the British genera of Ooryntitftrtl !— 
Tribe I. Eupatoriaci*. 

Section L Si^/aiorta. 

Eupaiariitm eannabinwn 
Section IL TnutUagntta, 
PitatUa vtt^rij 
Tuuilago Fcufara 
Tribe IL AniROiSES. 

Section I. AUereic 
Alter IHpirftwn 
Erigtron . . . S spedes 
SittU pirennil 
Solidago Virgaurea 
Chryiocoma Lmotjfrit 
Section IL Invito. 

Inula .... 3 species 
Pulicaria . . 2 speciea 
Tribe IIL SKTraciosniK* 

Section I. Ifelianlkta. 

Sidetu ... 2 specdea 
Seotion II. Anlktmidaf. 

AnthanU, . . S species 
Achilita ... 4 speciea 
Diotw maritima 
Chryianthenium ! species 
Pyrtlhram . . 3 species 
Slalriearia ChancimiUa 
Atttmitia . . 5 speciea 
Tanactitmi vulgare 
Section IIL Onapkaiieo'. 
Pilago . . . S species 
Qaaphalitim . 6 species 
Antamaria . . 2 speciex 
Seotion IV, Seitcionta. 



w 



COBTNE. 



The propertiea oF thU dirisiou of Compotita un otuTacteristic. 
BittfiDHO, with ta nroni&tic odour, a common tio M the apecies. 
Whether the bitterueiM depends oa ui alkaloid or not, checniBta hRFe 
not detennined. Hany of the ipeciog poBBesa properties very similar 
to thooe possessed bj quinine, and ore administered in the same 
diseasee u cincliona; among Uiesa fire species of the genera IntUa, 
' Pigueria, Mitania, and Emilia. This bitter principle seldom hov- 
ever girea the chaiicter to the plant alone, but is combbed with some 
BTDmatJc oil, which gives the plant the properties of both a tonic and 
a, aiimu]ant. Such a combination is found in many of the species o* 
thp genera AtUhtnU, Arlenitia, Diolii, Santolma, CArytan/Aonuni 
Eufatonvm, Liatu, Ac. Sometimes the volatile oil is more promi 
nent than the bitter principle ; and this is obvious in the species of 
Pl/rtlhrum, Tamuelum, Sleaactit, Erigeron, &C. In some of these the 
volatile oil nasumeBthe characters of turpentine and the oil of juniper, 
and acta aa a diuretic ; heuoe a certajn number of these plants Imve 
the repatatioD of stimuIatinK the action of the kidnejs. In some the 
volatile oil assumes an acrid character, as in Bidau, and acts as a sia- 
logogue, as in Pyrtlhrum and Spilanlka ; in Mamia it is sufficiently 
active to produce vomitiog. In some a secretion is produced, similar 
to that which gTves the character to Oicheracea. Thus Sapl^lialmum 
i^UiciJotima is said to possess oarcotic powers, and the Arnicamaafana 
it stated by Burnett to have yielded a principle identical with Citi- 
mne, the active principle of the laburnum. Some of the species yield 
a filed oil. In addition to the acrid oil in Pi/rethmm offcinate, there 
is a butyraccoue matter, consisting principally of atearinc. The seeds 
of the species of HtliatUhu4 yield a fixed oil on ezpresaioo, and this is 
probably not couSued to the seed-i of this genus. These seeds also 
contain nutiitivs matter (protein F), and are the support of birda and 
sometimes of man, in America. Another group yield colouring- 
matl«ra : Anthtmit titatoria, and the species of CalmdMla and Bidmt, 
are used for dyeing yellow ; the TJnamliim vulyare for dyeing green. 
The roots of many species contain starnh, and in quantities large 
enough to afford food for man, as in the tubers of SHiavUhu* tubtrotut. 
Hany of the species also yield the peculiar kind of starch known by 
the name of laulin, so named after tiie Inulas tn vhich it was first 
foond. Some of them appropriate potash in the spots where they 
grow, and a spedes of Erigerva is remarkable for the large quantities 
of this alkali which it contuns. Qum is a secretion found in consi- 
derable quantities in some species, as of Q/uipludmm, Vauyta, and 
TuMfilago, and on this account they have been used in medicine as 
demulceala. TanniD is not found in any quantity in this tribe of 
plants, BO that they seldom eiert on astringent action upon the sys- 
tem ; the Acliillca mi'Ifr/ofiTim seems ho vsver to possess this proper^. 
Uany of ths omamenta of the garden belong to the (7Drym6t/<!ii;. The 
Dahiia, CArytanlliemum, Xerati>hemum,Airtr,Erigen)n, Soiida^, Cert- 
eptit, and Tagda, are amongst the genera that ^ord the most showy 
and highly valued flowers in the autumn of tbe year. Although tha 
properUes and uses of these plants in relation to man are important, 
yet iu proportion to tbe poaitian they oocupy in the veiretable king- 
dom, they are few. Mjuy orders which yield a much smaller number 
of species aSWii! n.v.'-h -.r.iiie abundant materials for the use of man, 

(Lindley, J^ffra Medi^'i; Liudley, Vegetable Kingdom: BabingtOD, 
Manttai of BritiA Eolati-i ; Burnett, Outiima of Botany.) 

CORYNE [Pot,TPi»kM-] 

CORTNETBORUii, a K~r.ns of British Qrasass, belonging to the 
tribe Avmaiea, with the liiUuwin'g characters : — Awn club-shaped, 
straight, jointed in the middlv, the upper portion clavate, a tuft of 
boirs at the joint, panicle lai, glumes 2-flowered. There is but one 

Secies, C caneKent, which has a rather dense elongated panicle, the 
imes acuminate, longer than the flower, the awn coming from near 
the base of the palea, the leavea aetaceous. It ia a native of the sandy 
coastH oF Norfolk and Sufiblk and Jersey. (Babington, Manual) 

COJIYFHA, a genua of Plants belonging to the natunl order Pet- 
maecit. Jt has gigantic fan-shaped leaves, Sowers with a S-toothed 
calyi, S petals, 6 stamens, and a 8-cslled ovary. The &uit ia oom- 
posed of round l-aeeded berries. 

C. TaUirra, the Tara, or Talliera, is an elegant stately apeciea in- 
habiting Bengal, Its trunk is about 30 feet high, and as nearly as 
possible of equal thickness throughout. The leaves are in about 
80 divisions, each 6 feet long by 4 inches broad, radiating from the 
point of a leaf-stalk from fi to ID feet !ong, and covered with strong 
spines at its edge. Roxburgh describes the spadix as decompound, 
issuing iu the month of February from the apei of the tree and centre 
of the leaves, farming an immense diffuse ovate panicla of about 
20 or more (eet in height. The fruit is the size of a crab-apple, 
wrinkled, dark-olive, or greenish-yellow. The leaves are used by tbe 
natives of India to write upon with their steel styles, and for other 
purposes. 

a umbrattiliftra, the Tah^ or Talipat Palm, ia a native of Csylon, 
and similar in appeamnce ; but its leaves are not so round as those oF 
tlie Talliera, the divisions in tho centre being ehorter than those at 
the sid«. The trunk grows 60 or 70 Feet high ; the leaves are U Feet 
broad and 18 Feet long, exclusive of this stalk, and they form a heail 
about 40 Feet in diHmeter. Fana of enormous size are manufactured 
from this pinut in Ceylon ; the pith of its trunk Furnishes a sort cF 
flour From which bread is made; the leaves make excellent thatcli, 
end arc sIko used For writing on, tike those of the Talliem. 



COBTPHJENA 1« 

C. Oibauga is one of the most useful of all the Tadian Palms. It« 

pith furnishes a sort of sago ; its leaves are used for thatch and 
broad-brimmed hats; fiihing-nets and linen shivto are woven from its 
fibrLs, and ropes from its twisted leaF-atalks ; tbe root is both emollient 
and 'lightly astringent ; sliced, it is used in slight diarrhcni^ and 
Waita says that it in a most valuable remedy for the periodical 
diarrhceaB which in the East Indies attack Enropeana. 

CORYPHJENA (Linnaus), a genus of Fishes belonging to the 
section Aeanlhopierygii and family SamberidiF. 

The group of fi^es formerly iocludrd under the head Corypkatia 
is new Bubdivided, and the subdivisions may be either termed sub- 
genets of the genus Coryphama, or the group may be looked upon 
as a BubFsmily, and the subdivisions as genera. The principal 
characters of this group are aa follows ; — Body elongated, compressed, 
covered with small scales ; dorsal fin extending the whole irngth of 
the back (or nearly so); branch iostecous rays generally seven in 
number. These fishes have commonly a long anal fin. iu Eome 
extending From tbe tail almost to the ventral. The tail is more or 
leas Forked, and tbe pectoral fin ia usually Jirohed above and pointed. 

Considering Corj^phiena aa a genus, Oit following are the sub-gen eta : 
— Coryphana (proper), Caranxomorat, Cenlrolophiu, Atlrodermtit, and 
Pttraclit. 

Cbtyphana. — The species have the bead much elevated, and the 



and they prey upon the fiying-fish 

C. hij^urm (Linn,), a speciee not uncommon in the Mediterranean, 
is about 2 feet in length, of a bluish-lead colour above and pale-yellow 
beneath. There are dark-blue spota on the back and dorsal Sn, and 
the under parts oF the body are furnished with spots of a paler 
colour. The ventral fins are yellowish beneath and black above, and 
the anal fin is yellowish. The greatest depth of the body is about 
in»<iith of the whole length. 




Gjfj/phitHa hippurut- 

There are seveml other species of this genus, some of which are 

found in the Mediterranean, and very closely resemble tbe one just 

Caraiu-omorai (Lac^ptde) is closely allied to Coryphitna (properj ; 
tho species however may be diBtiuguisbixi by their having the head 
less elevated and the eye in a medial position; the dorsal-fin is 
shallow and of equal height throughout : the tail is much forked. 

C. pelagieuM is about 9 or 10 inches in length, of a bluish colour 
above and yellowish beneath ; tbe dorsal and anal Gna are of the aame 
oolour SB the back of the fish, and have a whitish margin. It iobabite 
the Heditananean, 

Cenlrolophm. — The npecies of thiB genus have the body shorter in 
proportion than iu either of the two preceding genera, and of a 
somewhat elongate-oval form, tha ttul le.a forked, *c (CwrrRO- 

AtriiMermiul.Bonu»l1i). — But one species of this aub-genos is known. 
The generic characters are :— Bead elevated, mouth bat elightly cleft ; 
dorsal fin extending nearly tbe whole Ungth of the body ; ventral fins 
very small, and placed on tbe throat ; branchiostegous ntys four. 

A. Coryphanoidtt (Ciiv,) is from 12 to 15 inches in length, and of a 
pale-rose colour, with five or six longitudinal rows of round black 
spots ; the dorsid and anal fins are bhickish, and the pectoral and 
caudal fins are oF a red hue. The most remarkable character oF this 
fish however consists in the scales, which, instead of folding over each 
other in the usual way, are scattered over tbe body and hcBd ; they 
are very minute and serrated, and uuder a leoji rosomble amall stars. 
It inhaMla tha HBditerranean. 



AttndtrmuM (^rypt>enwdtt. 

Pirraclii (Cuv,) The species of this group are remarkable for Hm 
Dmense uze of the donal.and anal fina, each of which spiingi from 



1« CORYPBODOK. 

batween two tien of ickIm, which form a protection, Mid pnbably 
gin itreogtb to tba biunl portioa of tbe fln-rny*. Theu flna extend 
the whole laimth of the body; tho bend »nd teeth tn nearly the 
nine la in the true Caryphrm-e ,- the matlet m large. 

P. oceUo/iH <Cuv ) ie about 4 inchsB in lenKth. tuidof anlTeiyhue; 
the pectoral \ad caudal Gna-Bre yellowiah; the others are bluiah-gny, 
■nd the dorsal fin has a large blue spot near ita biRheat part. 



Ftinulii mlUtui. 

CORTPHODON, a genua of Foaail AninuJi beloaging to the family 
of TapiiB. The remaina of this genua haTa beeu found in thia 
eoontry ; and althoiigb closely allied to the genus Lophiodon of Curiar, 
Profeuor Owen regards its differences as of aufficient importance to 
conetitute a new type. The specimen os which thia genua was eata- 
bliahed is unique, and was dredged up from the bottom of the sea 
between St. (jsyth and Harwich on the Eesex coaat, and now forms 
part of the collection of John Brawo, Esq., of Hauway Green, near 
Colcheat«r. Tliis specimeu is petrified, coDtaining metallic salts, and 
having the appearaiice orfussiia trom the London Clay. There can be 
litUa doubt that it was originally imbedded in tbe Eocene Tertiary 
Formation of the Harwich coast. It oonsiata of tbe riglit branch of 
the lower jaw, ooataining the last and part of the penultimate molar 
teeth of Uie lower Jaw. Although thia fragment resembles the same 
bone in the ganui Lophiodon, yet a close examinatioa of tbe crown of 
the last molar tooth exhibits a smaller antero-posterior diameter in 
proportion to its tranBTerse diameter, as compared with the corre- 
spooding tooth in that genua It also diffem from the teeth of 
AnlAnuollieriun, to which it haa some rewmblance. Frofeasor Otrati 
infera from tbiii aod other characters a! theae teeth that " the whole 
dental series of tbe extinct Eocene Pachyderms offered modifications 
of the Lopbiodont type of dentition, which led towards that of the 
Anfhracotherium, more especially of the smaller species ftim Garonne 
and Valery. From the closer resemblance which tbe fossil presents 
to the true Lophiodona, it must be regarded as a member of tbe saiae 
family of Tapiroid Pachyderms; indicaling therein a distinct sub- 
genus, characterised by the want of paralleLsm of tbe two principal 
tnuerene ri' gea, aud by the nidimental state of the postenor talon 
in the last miliar tooth of the lower Jaw. The name Corypkodon, which 
1 bale proposod for this sub^renus, is deriveit from xiVV^ a point, 
and itaas, a tooth ; and is significative of the development of the 
(idges into points. Tbe broad ridged and pointed grinding surface of 
the tooth indicates its adaptation to comminute the coarser kinds of 
v^tetable aubataneea ; and it is rery probable that the habits snd 
food of the Tspir, which is the iiear«t existing analogue of the Cory- 
pkodva. are not very dissimilar from those which characterised of old 
the present extinct gpecies and tbe true Lophioduns." 

Professor Owen gives the species the name of Coryphodon Eaamiu. 
He also dirscrii>eB a tooth fouod in digging.for a well at Camber-well^ 
at a depth of 160 feet in the Plastic Clay. After dncribing this tooth, 
Ur. Owen saya, "From its close rosemblaacs in tbe essential characters 
of its form to the canines of the great extinct Tapiroid Pachyderms, 
and the apparent ipedSc distinctions from sny of the known species 
of Lophiottm, I strongly suspect it to have belonged to a Coryphodon." 

(Oven, £rilit\ Fouil MammaU and Sirdt.) 

COKYSTES, a genus of BracbyurouB or Sbort-TaUed Crutlaeia. 
The species have the following chaiaoters :— Exterior antennte longer 
than the body, setaceous, with two rows of cilii. Jaw-feet (piiids- 
mocboina) having their third Joint longer than the second, stnight, 
terminated by an obtuie pointy with a notch upon its internal border. 



CORTSTES. 17« 

Syea rather distant, boma npon large peduncles, which are nearly 
:ylladrictil, and somewhat short. Anterior feet (cbeloi) large, aqiud, 
twice as long as the body, and Qearly cylindrical in the males ; in the 
females, of about the length of tbe body, and eompressed, enpecially 
towards the hand (monus). The other fvet terminated by an elongated 
nul or claw, which is strsight, pointed, and channeled longitudinally. 
Carapace oblong-oval, terminated by a rostrum anteriorly truncated 
and bordered posteriorly. The regions but slightly indicsted, with 
tbe exception of the cordial region, the bcanchiai or lateral tigiona 
being vary much elongated. 



LoBK.^lsveiI Cmb {OarfMta Ounrtlammi), male. 



TtiyUft OuttH/atnu, tessle. 

C. Cauivtlaitniu (Laach), tbe Long-Gawed Crab ; C. dtntata, C. 
dtntaliu, C. iongimanat, of Latreille; Canctr Caaivtiaumu, Catietr 
pertonatia, of Herbst; Albtaua deiUata of t'abricius. 

This snb has the surfaoe of the canpaca somewhat gianuloui^ with 
two denticles bettrcen tbe eyes, and three rhei'p point* dirMtsd 



171 



COSCINOPORA. 



COTTON. 



ITS 



forwards on each side. The male has but five abdominal pieces ; but, 
as M. Latreille obeezres, the yestiges of the separation of the two 
others may be clearly remarked upon the intermediate or third piece, 
which is the largest of all. 

It is found on the coasts of England and France. The specimens 
figured by Pennant were dredged up from deep water near Holyhead 
and Red Wharf, Anglesey. 

M. Desmarest is of opinion that the natural relations of his crustacean 
approximate it to AteUcyelus, Thia, and LeucotiOf of which M. Latreille 
forms his Orbicular Tribe (Les Orbiculaires). Dr. Leach, he adds, in 
his method, placed them near the first two of the above-mentioned 
genera, solely because they hare the same number of abdominal 
articulations. The LeucoauBf in which the number of those articulations 
is less considerable, are remored to a distance. 

COSCINOTORA, a genus of Fossil Corals proposed by Goldfuss. 
(7. ifrfwndibuliformit occurs in the Chalk of Ireland. 

CO'SSONUS (Clainrille), a genus of Coleopterous Insects belonging 
to the family CwculionuUe. It has the following characters : — 
AntennsB shorty rather thick; funiculus 7-jointed, the basal joints 
longer than the following ; club lai^ge and of an ovial form ; rostrum 
rather long, thickened at the apex ; thorax truncated before and 
behind, and somewhat depressed above ; elytra elongate, moderately 
convex above, and covering the abdomen ; tibies dilated towards the 
apex, where there is a large hook ; tarsi rather slender, the penul- 
timate joint bilobed. 

About seventeen species of this genus are known, of which 
Schonherr selects (7. linearis as the type. This species is not 
uncommon in England, and has been found in Boleti and in old trees. 
It is about a quarter of an inch in length, and of a narrow elongated 
form, and black or brown colour ; the elytra are punctate-striated. 
C. tardui is another British species which closely resembles the last^ 
but is of a lazier size, being nearly half an inch in length. 

COSSUS (Fabricius), a genus of Insects belonging to the section 
Lepidoptera Twetwrna^ Moths, and the family H^ialidce (Stephens). 
The species have the following characters : — ^AntennsB long, raUier 
slender, furnished on the inner edge with a series of transverse 
elevated ridges (which when viewed from the side resemble the 
teeth of a saw) ; two distinct palpi, thickly clothed with scales, and 
each 8-jointed ; head very small ; upper wings longer and laiger than 
the lower; body large. Larva lignivorous. Pupa inclosed in a 
cocoon. 

O. ligniperda (Fab.), the Goat-Moth, is one of the lai^est of the 
British moths, measuring from tip to tip of the wings when expanded 
from 3 to 3} inches. It is of a gray colour ; the upper wings are 
mottled with white, and adomeid with numerous irregular black 
lines ; the under wings are almost of a uniform brownish ash colour ; 
the anterior part of the thorax is of a buff colour, and there is a 
transverse dark mark towards the posterior part ; the body is of a 
dark brownish-gray colour, with rings of a silver-like hue. 

The larva, or caterpillar, is about three inches in length when full- 
grown, and of a yellowish colour; the upper part of the body is oink, 
tiie head is black, and the first segment of the body (or that joining 
the head) has two irregular black patches above. 

This caterpillar emits a very strong and disagreeable odour, and if 
touched with the hands the scent cannot be discharged from them for 
some considerable time, although they may be frequently washed. 
It resides in and feeds upon the wood of the poplar, oak, and aspen ; 
but old pollard willows appear to be its most favourite haunts. 
These we frequently see perforated with numerous oval holes large 
enough to admit the finger, and when the caterpillan are abundant the 
trees attacked eventually fall a sacrifice to their ravagesw It is three yean 
before attaining maturity, at which time it incloses itself in a tough 
cocoon, formed of pieces of wood joined together by a glutinous web. 

The moth is common in various parts of the south of England, and 
the name Goat-Moth has probably been applied to it from the 
property of emitting a disfljg;reeable odour having been transfeired 
from the caterpillar to the moth. 

A detailed histoiy of the C, ligniperda will be found in the 
'M^moires pour servir k I'Histoire des Insectes,' by De Geer; and 
for its anatomy we refer our readen to the ' Recherches sur T Anar 
tomie et les Metamorphoses dc diffSrentes Esp^ces d'Inaectes,' 
by L. L. Lyonet. This latter author has also published a sub- 
stantial quarto work, with numerous beautiful plates engraved and 
drawn by himself, which is entirely devoted to the anatomy of the 
caterpillar above mentioned. This work, which was the labour of 
years, must ever stand as a monument of the great skill and perse- 
verance of its author, who boasts of having destroyed but one 
caterpillar for its completion. It is entitled * Traits Anatomique de 
la Chenille qui ronge le Bois de Saule,' &a 

CO'SSTPHUS (Olivier), a genus of Coleopterous Insects of the sec- 
tion Httemmera and sub-section Taxieomea, The principal character 
of this genus consists in the dilated and flattened sides to the thorax 
and elytra — a structure also found in many of the NUidultB and in 
the CairideB, These insects, if it were not for the dilated portions of 
the thorax and elytra, would be of a long narrow form, but with 
these parts they present an oval outHne. The thorax is nearly semi- 
circular, and its dilated margins as well as those of the elytra are 
Bemitransparent .The anteonsa are ll-jointad; the last four joints 



are considerably thicker than the preceding, and rather flattened ; the 
terminal joint of the maxillary palpus is dilated, and of a somewhat 
tiiangpilar form ; the head is completely hidden by the anterior part 
of the thorax. 

These insects inhabit the south of Europe and the northern parts 
of Africa and India. About ten species are known. 

C. Hoffnanaegii is nearly half an inch in length, and of a dark brown 
colour; the parts of the thorax and elytra which extend beyond 
the insect itself are of a paler hue. It is difficult to give an accurate 
idea of this curious insect, which appeara as if it were an ordinary 
shaped beetle pressed against the under side of a little oval scale of 
wax, so that its impression is distinctly visible above, being convex, 
whereas the scale itself is concave. 

The present genus, with two othen {HtUxua and NUio), form, 
according to Latreille, the second tribe of the family Tcueicomet, and 
are included under the head CosypkeneB. 

COTINGA. [CoRAOiNA.] 

COTON EASTER, a genus of Plabts belonging to the natural order 
RosacetBf and to the tribe Pomeeg. The st^gments of the calyx 5 ; the 
petals 5 ; the styles 2-5 ; the fruit turbinate, its nuts adhering to the 
sides of the cidyx, but not cohering at the centre; the stamens 
erect, as long as the teeth of the calyx. The species are shruba, 
with simple entire leaves, woolly beneath. This genus was separated 
from Meipilus by Lindley. 

C. vulgaris, the Common Cotoneaster. It has roundish ovate leaves, 
rounded at the base, flower-stalks and margins of the cidyx downy ; the 
petals are rose-coloured. It is a native of Europe, and is found in North 
Wales upon the cliffB at the Great Ormeshead. Previous to its having 
been discovered to be a British plant it had been cultivated in this conn- 
tiy. Several varieties are met with both in a wild state and in gardens. 

C. tomentosa has its peduncles and calyxes woolly. It is a shrub 
like the preceding^ and is foxmd wild on the rocks of the Jura and 
other parts of the Alps of Switzerland. 

C. laxifiora has its flowers in panicled cymes, and its calyxes 
quite smooth. It has the same general appearance as C. vulgarit, 
and is probably a variety. 

O. frigida is an East Indisn species. It is a native of the higher 
mountains in the northern region of NepauL 

C7. (nfflnis was brought from Chittong, a town of Lower Nepaul, and 
is similar in general appearance to the last species. C. acuminata 
and C. nummidaria are likewise species from NepauL 

(7. rotwidifoUa and O. microphglla are probably varieties of the 
same species. They are both from the north of Hindustan. 

All the species are adapted for shrubberies, and many of them 
are very commonly cultivated in Europe. They are easily propagated 
by laying down the branches, or by cuttings, which should be placed 
in a sheltered situation under a hand-glass. They may be also 
increased by dividing their roots, and by seeds. 

(Lindley, Linnean Transactions; Loudon, Arborettun et PrtUiceium 
Britcmnicum.) 

COTTON, a word derived from. JTvfn, or Kuiun, one of the names 
given by the Arabs to this substance, is a filamentous matter pro* 
duced by the surface of the seeds of various species of Oossgpium. 
[GosSTPiUM.] It consists of vegetable hain, of considerable length, 
springing from the surface of the seed-coat, and filling up the cavity 
of the seed-vessel in which the seeds lie. Hain are extremely 
common on the surface of plants ; frequently however they are 
unobserved, in consequence of their small number and minuteness ; 
while on the other hand in some cases they give plants, such as the 
Mullein for instance, a remarkable hoary appearance. On the surface 
of seeds they are uncommon ; and yet in the Malvacece and their allies, 
to which the cotton plants belong, they not only exist abundantly on 
the seeds of that genus, but in several other species. Vegetable hairs 
are one of the many forms in which the cellular substuice of vege- 
tation is developed, and they consequently partake of two of the 
great characteristics of that foim of tissue, namely, thinness and 
transparency. In the cotton they are long weak tubes, which, when 
immersed in water and examined \mder the microscope by transmitted 
light, look like flat narrow transparent ribands, all entirely distinct 
from each other, and with a perfectly even surface and uniform 
breadth. At certain distances along the hair, an interruption occurs, 
which looks as if it proceeded from the turning round or twisting 
of the hair during its growth. On each side opposite these inter* 
ruptions a slight indentation is observed. Sometimes a slight traoe 
of fine grains is discernible in the interior, but more frequently the 
hairs seem empty. If strained singly they have little strength and 
readily break, and it is only when many are entangled together that 
they acquire any appreciable degree of strength. In all these points 
cotton differa from the vegetable matter that constitutes linen ; the 
latter consists of woody tissue, in the state of long tubes, but is at 
once distinguished by the tubes adhering in bimdles, which it is 
difficult under a microscope to break up into their component parts ; 
the tubes are thick-sided, and will not acquire a riband-like appear- 
ance when viewed in water, but rather resemble extremely minute 
thermometer tubes. When they are jointed together the articulation 
is oblique, the ends of the tubes being pointed and overlying each 
other; and finally, in each particular tube of the woody tissue, 
delicate as it may be^ there is a sufficiently approdable degree of 



193 



COTTON. 



COTTUa 



174 



toughness when an attempt ia made to break it. In short, cotton is 
a development of cellular tissue. Linen is a form of vascular tissue. 
Henre it is easy to distinguish with certainty linen from cotton 
manufactured articles, in cases of doubt ; and hence also the well* 
known superiority of linen to cotton in strength : the latter is manu- 
factured from the most delicate part of plants, the former from the 
toughest [Tissues, yKaBTABL£.J 

Cotton is produced by many different species and varieties of the 
genns Gotaypium, which consists of herbaceous or nearly herbaceous 
plants, vaiying in height from 3 or 4 to 15 or 20 feet, according to 
the sort Sometimes the branches become woody, but they always 
partake very much of the herbaceous character. The leaves are 
downy and ntiore or less lobed, being sometimes however near the 
top of the stem undivided; at their base is seated a pair of awl- 
shaped stipules. The flowers are either yellow or dull purple, and 
have the ordinary structure of the Malvaceous Family ; each is sur- 
rounded by three heart-shaped bracts, which are more or less lacerated. 
The calyx is a bluntly 5-toothed cup. The seed-vessel is a capsule 
opening into from 3 to 6 lobes, and then exposing many seeds 
enveloped in cotton, which sometimes adheres to them so firmly that 
it is separated with difficulty ; sometimes it parts freely from them ; 
in Mme sorts it is long and in others comparatively short, giving rise 
to the commercial names of Long Staple and Short Staple. 

The qualities of these hairs most valued by the nyinufacturer are 
length of staple, strength, and silkiness. In these respects cotton 
differs very much, and it is when these three properties are combined 
in the highest degree that the cotton obtains the highest prices in the 
markets. 

Cotton-plants are found wild in both the Old and Kew World. 
Herodotus and Arrian speak of the cotton-plant as indigenous in 
India, and the cloth found in Peruvian tombs sufficiently attests its 
having existed in that country long before it could possibly have been 
carried to America by eastern intercourse. In fact the wild American 
cotton-plants are specififially different from those of the Old World ; 
but at the present day the cotton of the West is cultivated in Asia 
and Africa, while that of the East has long since been introduced to 
the American plantations. 

The situations in which cotton-plants have been advantageously 
cultivated are included between Egypt and the Cape of Gk>od Hope 
in the eastern, and between the southern banks of the Chesapeake 
Bay and the south of Brazil, in the western hemisphere. It has not 
been found to succeed beyond the parallels that limit those countries. 
In the equinoctial parts of America Humboldt found it at 9000 feet 
elevation above the sea ; in Mexico as high as 5500 feet ; and Professor 
Royle saw it at the elevation of 4000 feet on the Himalayas. It seems 
generally to prefer the vicinity of the sea in dry countries, and the 
interior districts of naturally damp climates. Thus, while the best 
cotton is procured in Ipdia from the coast of Coromandel, or other 
msritime districts, and in the southern states of the American Union 
from certain coasi-islands, the coast cotton of Pemambuco is inferior 
to what is produced in the interior of that country. These facts 
lead to the inference that it is not merely temperature by which the 
quality of cotton is'affected, but a pecidiar combination of heat, light, 
and moisture ; the most favourable instance of which maybe assumed 
to be the coast of Qeorgia and the Carolinas, and the worst to be Java 
snd the coast of Brazil. 

That this should be so would, in the absence of positive evidence, 
be probable, considering thenature of cotton. We have seen that it 
is a hairy development of the surface of the seed ; and nothing in the 
organisation of plants is more affected by the situation they live in 
than their hairs: thus many water-plants which have scarcely any 
hairs, when transferred to a dry exposed station are closely covered 
with such organs, and vice vend. The quantity of hair is also affected 
in an extraordinary degree by local circumstances. The Venetian 
sumach-plant, when in flower, has its flower-stalks nearly naked ; a 
large proportion of the flower-stalks has no fruit, and becomes covered 
with very oopious long hairs, whence the French call this plant Arbre 
k Perruque; but those flower-stalks which do bear fruit remain 
hairless. In this case the local cause is probably the abundant food 
, thrown by the system of the sumach-plant into the flower-stalks for 
the nouiishment of the fruit ; and the fruit not forming, the food 
intended for it is expended in the formation of hairs upon the surface 
of the flower-stalk. This is only an accident^ but local circumstances 
conducive to the formation of cotton in excess may be permanent, 
snd derived fr^nn the situations in which the plants grow. In a damp 
cloudy climate the food procured from the soil may not be concen- 
trated upon the surface of the seed, but may be expended in the 
production of excessive quantities of leaves, and of proportionally few 
flowers ; or it may pass off into the atmosphere in the form of a mere 
exhalation, a smul proportion only being consolidated ; or in a dry 
climate the soil may not be able to furnish food enough to the plant 
out of which to form more cotton than it is absolutely its speciflc 
property to produce under any circumstances. Or, lastly, there muy 
be a mean where the powers of vegetation are called into their utmost 
activity by v^armth and abundant food, and where, nevertheless, the 
dryness of the atmosphere and the brightness of the sun, constantly 
acting upon the surface of the cotton pods (seed-vessels), may drive 
back the juices from the tfuxfiioe of the latter to that of the seeds, and 



thus augment the quantity and improve the quality of the cotton 
itself : this may explain the action of climate upon this substance. 

The question is however rather more complicated ; the different 
specific qualities of different varieties of the ootton-plant must be also 
taken into account. A considerable number of varieties of cotton ia 
certainly cultivated, although little is correctly known about them. 
In some of them the cotton is long, in others it is short ; this has it 
white, that nankeen-coloured: one may be cultivated advantageously 
where the mean winter temperature does not exceed 46" or 48**, and 
another may require the climate of the tropics. This is just what 
happens with all cultivated plants. Some vines will produce only 
sweet wine, others only hard dry wine, and some are suited only to 
the table ; some potatoes are destroyed by a temperature of 32", while 
others will bear an average English winter ; only one kind of wheat 
produces the straw from which the fine Leghorn plait for bonnets is 
prepared. But to multiply such instances is unnecessary. There can 
then be no doubt that the quantity and quality of cotton will depend 
partly upon climate and partly upon the specific properties of parti- 
cular varieties. 

The Cotton-Plant, or Qozteypiufn, must not be confounded with the 
Cotton-Tree, Bombax, or Eriodendron. The latter has also cottony, 
seeds, but they cannot be manufactured into cloth. 

For further information see Cottok Manufactubb, in Abts and 
So. Div. 

( Royle, lUiutratiom qf the Botany amd other Branches of the 
Natural Hietory of the HivMlayan Movntaine, and qf the JPhra of 
Cachtnere, article ' Malvacese.') 

CO'TTUS (Linnssus), a genus of Fishes belonging to the section 
Acanthopterifgii and family Loricati (Jenyns). The species have the 
following chiunu^rs : — Hrad large, depressed, furnished more or leas 
with spines or tubercles ; teeth in front of the vomer and in both 
jaws, none on the palatines; two dorsal fins; ventral fin small; body 
\fithout scales ; branchiost^^ous rays six. 

C. gobio, (Linn.), the River Bull-Head, Miller*s Thumb, or Tommy- 
Logge, affords an example of this genus. This little fish, which is 
found in almost all the fresh-water streams throughout Europe, is 
from 3 to 4 inches in length, and of a browiah colour above, more or 
less mottled and spotted, and whitish beneath The head is very 
laige in proportion to the body, and without spines ; the pre-oper- 
cuImS has a single curved spine on the posterior part : the eyes are 
small, and directed upwards. The number of fin-rays are— anterior 
dorsal 6 to 9, posterior 17 or 18 ; pectoral 15 ; ventral 3 ; anal IS; 
caudal 11. The name Bull-Head is given these fishes on account of 
the large size of their heads. These fish more particularly frequent 
those streams in which pebbles abound. They feed upon aquatic 
insects, kc It is foxmd in the brooks and streams of Great Britain. 

The remaining British species of this genus inhabit the salt water, 
and together with others of the same habits, are distinguished from the 
fresh-water species by having the head armed with numerous spines. 

C. scorpiua (Bloch), the Sea^corpion, or Short-Spined Cottus, is very 
common on our coasts, and is foimd very frequently under stones or 
sea-weeds, in the little pools left by ike retiring tide. It is thus 
described by Mr. TarrelL "The head large, more elevated than 
that of the River Bull-Head; upper jaw rather the longer; teeth 
small and sharp; eyes large, situated about half-way between the 
point of the nose and the occiput ; irides yellow, pupils bluish-black ; 
one pair of spines above the nostrils, with an elevated ridge between 
them ; the inner edges of the orbits elevated, with a hollow depression 
above, but no occipital spines ; pre-operculum with three spines ; the 
upper one the longest ; operculum with two spines, the upper one 
also the longest, the lower one pointing downwards ; there is besides 
a scapular and a clavicular spine on each side ; gill-openiiigs large ; 
the body tapers off rapidly, and is mottled over with dark purple- 
brown, occasionally varied with a rich red-brown; the belly white; 
the first dorsal fin slightly connected with the second by an extension 
of the membrane; lateral line smooth; the ventral fins attached 
posteriorly by a membrane to the belly." Length rarely exceeding 
8 or 9 inches. 

This fish feeds upon small enutacea and the fry of other fishes. 

C. &tt6a2t« (Euphraseu), the Father-Lasher, or Long-Spined Cottus, is 
about the same size, and resembles the last both in appearance and 
habits ; the two species however are seldom found in the same imme- 
diate neighbourhood. This species is distinguished from the last by 
its more perfectly armed head, the spines of which are longer in pro- 
portion, tne space between the eyes is less, the crest above the eyes is 
more elevated, and the ventral fins are destitute of the connecting 
'membrane observed in the Short-Spined Cottus. Both these and the 
last species are remarkable for the length of time they will live out of 
the water. Hence Mr. Tarrell concludes that it is not a large gill- 
aperture, as has been supposed, which hastens the death of certain 
kmds of fish, as these have very large heads and gill-apertures. 

C. qttadricomu (Linn.), the Four-Homed Father-Lasher, or Cottus, 
another species also foimd off the British coast, though less abund- 
antly than either of the foregoing maritime species, may be distin- 
guished, as its name implies, by the four tubercles which are situated 
on the top of the head, two on the nape, and two near the eyes ; the 
pre-operculum is furnished with three spines, and the operculum with 
one ; length from 10 to 12 inches. 



m COTUNNITE. 

Atpidophomt, LaoJpMa, is oomidared bj CuTiar u * xilHgetliu of 
Colliu. This gsniu, or nib-gsniu, U thus cliuwiterued : — HMd Urge 
uid deprflnod, more or !«■■ arnifld with ipiTiH and tubercles ; both 
j&WB fumuhad with teeth, nans on llie vomer; body ftttauuBited poi- 
tariorlf , oorered with uigulkr platai ; rentnU uaall ; bnuchioitagoui 
raTiiix. 

A. EVropatu (CuTier), the Armed Bull-Hewl, Fogge, Lrrie, Sn- 
PcAcbar, PUck, or If obis. Thia little fiah, geMrallf about 4 oi 6 inchea 
in length, U frequcDtlj augbt in the sbrimping nets, and ■■ oalled b; 
tLa fiafacmeu, in some diatricti, ia addition to ita other names, tbe 
Hook-Noae. Its general covering ia brown above find white beneath : 
there are however most commonly indicationa, m<ire or leaa distinot, 
of aaverkl broad dark marks serosa the back ; the nose is fumiahed 
with four recurved apinea; the upper jaw exteods beyoDd the lower; 
the infra^rbitali have three blunt tiiberoles on their lower margin, 
and a shsip apiue dirwted baokwarda ; the pre-operculum is also 
armed with a spine ; the brsnchiost^gous membrane and chin 
an each furnished with numeroui flesh; fllamenta ; the body is 
divided lonj^tudinally byeigbt scaly ridgea, those on the upper part 
being moat produoed. The number of Bti-raja are — dorsid G to T; 
pectoral IS; ventralS; anal T ; caudal 11. 

The habtta of tbia fish appear in uiaay respects to be the same as 
those of the C. irorpiw, Ac. It is very freqaent on the aonthem 
shores of Omt Britain. 

COTUNNITE, a Mineral It is a native Chloride of Leti, ooaa- 
ring on Vesuvius in white acicular cryatala. 

COTURNIX, [TlmiOBlDi.] 

COTYLE'DOy is the leaf of a seed; it is the part preparad by 
nature to enable tbe young plant when it first springs into eiistenoe, 
and before it has been able to form otgana of digestion and reapiration, 
to perform both those functions. Sometimra the cotyledon performs 
these functions under ground during the whole period of its activity ; 
but in many cases its subterranean IDe extends only to a few days or 
hours, after which it ia elevated above the soil, and takes on the 
ordinary property of the leaves. [aiBHmATiOH.] 

The situation of the cotyledon ia on one tide of the axis, of which 
the plumule is the apex, and the radicls the base. In tiie largest 
nnmber of known seeds there are two co^ledons on opposite mdea 
on tbe same plane ; in a few there are several opposite to each other 
in a whorl ; in a conaiderable number (here ia only one ; and among 
the lower planta there appears to be an absence of any distinct organ 
of this kind. These differences have given rise to the tsmu Dicoty- 
ledons, Polycotyledons, Monocotyledons, and Acotyledona. 

The &Rt two and the laat of theae fornu will be readily undentood ; 
bat the structure of a Monocotyledon is far more puasling to the 
student, in consequence of the axis not being found on one side of the 
cotyledon, as would have been expected. A common monocotyle- 
donous embryo is a nearly cylindrical body, obtuse at each end, as at 
fy. t, and its axis of growth is in the iuterior of the cotyledon, so that 
it can only be found by cuttiog the organ opsn. The following 
diagram will explain this anomaly. Let the upper line represent four 
kinds of embryoes seen from the side, and the lower line tbe plan upon 
which those embiyoas are constructed, the inner circle being always 
the axis of growth, aud the crescent or crescents the cotyledons; 
Fig. 1 is a common dicotyledonous embryo, with ita cotyledons equal ; 
jt;. 2 is a rare kind of embryo of the same kind, with one of tie 
cotyledons exceedingly small If the smaller cotyledon -were abso- 
lutely deficient, it may easily be conoeived that such an embryo as 
that ttjig. 3 would be the remit, the angles of the crescent being 
dtiiwn tf^ther round the axia, just as the edgu of leaves are drawn 
together when they roll up in tha leaf-bud. If we now suppose that 
the anglaaare not only drawn together, but actually united as atjt?-1, 
the preaance of the axia within the cotyledon will no longer appear 
inexplicable. 



n d 



CXJWBANR. IM 

It ia also a native of PortugaL Altbougb this plant belongs to bd 
order with comparatively inert properties, it has obtained a reputa- 
tion in the treatment of nsrvoos diaeaaea, especially epilepsy. 

C. lutea hns tbe lower Isavea somewhat peltate, upper leavea crsnats 
or toothed, the bracts toothed, flowen ereot. The flowers are of k 
bright yellow. It has been found wild in England, but is probably 
not a naljve. 

Many of the species of this genus hare been separated nndar tha 
gsnus VmbUiau, tha trpe of t^ich is the first apeciea name! — which 
is called U. erielMt. Tbe species of Umiiiiciu closely resemble thi—a 
□f OalslcdoH, In the cultivation of the spedes of both gener>, tliey 
should be plaoed in pota well drained, with a soil of sandy loun or 
brick rubbish. They may be propagated by cuttings, whioh should 



ate planted, as they ai 
The best situation for th 
(Don, DitUamydioui 



. . at the wound if otherwise 
B planta is the shelves of a greenhonaSL 
P^nti; Babiugton, ManwJ qf Brilitk 



con AGO A. [EqniDA] 
C0UCH-QRAS3. [TbitIOuh,! 

OOUCOO. [CUCDLID*.] 

COUMAROUKA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
leguniinoia. It has 8 stsmens, and the lowar segment of the calyx 
undivided. TUs genus is also referred to DipterLz. 

C odiyrala ia the plant which yields the sweet-scented Tonga Bean 
of the parfumsra. It is a native of French Ouyaua, where it forma ■ 
taige forest-tree, called by the natives Coumarou. The tnmk is sud to 
be 60 or 80 feet high, with a diameter of St feet, and to bear a large 
head of tortuous stout limbs and branches. The leaves are pinnated, 
of two or three pain of leaflets, without an odd one at the extremity. 
The flowers appear in axillary bnnches, and consist of a calyx wiUi 
two spreading sepals, and five purple petals washed with violet, of 
which the three upper are the largest and most veiny. Tbe stamens 
are eight, and monadelphous. The fruit iaan oblong hard dry fibroos 
drupe, containing a single seed ; tha odour of ita kernel ia extremely 
agreeable. The natjvea string the seeds into necklaces ; and tha 
Creolsa place them among their linen, both for the sake of their scent 
and to keep nwny insecta. 



®QQ)Q 

COTTLE'DON, a genns of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Craitulacia. It baa 6 sepals shorter than the tube of the corolla ; 
the petala cohering in a tubular fi-eleft corolla; tha stamcoa 10, 
insetted on the corolla ; 6 hypogynous scales ; G carpels. The spocisa 
sre anccultnt shrubs, mostly nativea of the Cape of Oood Hope. 

C imWt'oiu, Navel-Wort, haa the lower Ieavsa_peltate^ oonoava, 
orbicular ; the bracts entire ; flowers pendulous. The flowers are of 
a greenish-yellow colour, and the stem ia from to 13 in^s high. It 
la found very commonly on rocka or walls in the weat of lilngland. 



lafO- 



.to). 



flower ; *, ths csIti 
with a yaant drupe projecUiiK from It. 

COimSER. [CaxBacBianx.] 

COUZERANITE, a Mineral from tbe Pyreneea. It has a compo- 
sition atar to that of Labradoritt. [KamturantM.] 

COW. [BoYim] 

COWBAIKB, ou« of the oommon names for tha Watai^Hamloo)L 

[CtOUtA.] 



in COW-BERRY. 

COWBERRY, » oomDiDn luune for the Red WhoiilebmTy. 



COW-BUNTINO. [MoLOTHnn*,] 

COWITCH. or COWAQE, a word of unknown deri AtioD, unlau it 
be > corruption of Al Kooabw, tbe Beugftli Dame of one nf the planU 
tbAt produca it, coDBUts of the hmin found upon the podi of diSenoit 
■p«ifB of Mucuna. They ue eicwdinci; ilender, brittle, and ewdl; 
dcUched, uid th» fragroente readil; stick iaio the skin nnd produce 
■n intolrmble itching ; hence they are rrequeutl; amplojed for mii- 
ehierniu purposea. Cowitch U bIki ueed medicinaltT u a vermifage, 
bj being tuized with syrup till of the ooniiatence of hODe;, knd given 
iu Hoata of two or three tea-spoon fuU. 

The plftuts thst beju' these pods nre large twiniog Bunuiila or peren- 
Bisli, with 1b«tp« like thoaeof kidney-beans, beiDgd»rit purple papiliona- 
CHus flowers, with a short standard lying close upoa the wings and 
kni, and dindelpbons e-.araena, half of which hare round and half 
arrow headed authen. The pods cnutaiu fnim one to six seadd, and 
are coiered by a very wrinkled shriveled skin, wbich even stands up 
in little pUtes. Before they are ripe and their hairs hardened, thu 
podi are employed as a vegrtsble, like kidnej-benns, and are described 
u being delicious. The species are found in hedges, tiiickets, on 
the banks of rivers, and about watercoiiraes in both the Kest and 
Vest Indiea, and America within the tropics. Mvama vreiu and 
M. prtiriau usually furnish the lubatanoe ; but that from M. moae- 
tpmta, called b; the Telingai Enooga dola Qunda, or Elephaat'a 
Semtch-Wort, is said to exceed the others in the irritating bunking 
prc»rty of it* hairs. Dr. Roxburgh statea that M. prurient was one 
of the plants formerly ueeil in India to poison v^lls ; " it has turned 
out, however, not to be the poinon it wsa iskHn for, and it is more 
than likely that tbe other plants employed !• r the same base ends 
an fortunately much leu dangenias Uian those who employ tham 
imagine." [SIdcdka.] 



Opened pod of Macuna mmoipmiia, cstDnl lia. 
COW-FARSLGY, an tJmbeUiferoaa Flaot {Chatvpkyllmm Mnahm). 
[Cb^bophi 



COW-PLAKT. [Oi* 
COWHY. [CmMJD^t 

COWSLIP. [PBlMOLi.] 

COW-TEEE, a Plant belonging to the natural order Urticacea, and 
apparently to the geuug ^ifutmiiin, from which, when wounded, 
a milky nutritious juice is discharged in such abundance as to tender 
it an iioportunt object to the poor natives in whuse country it grows. 
It is described by Humboldt as being peculiar to the Can]illeras of 
the coast of Caracas, particularly from Barbuta lo the lake of Mara,- 
caybo, near the villsge of Ssn Hateo, and in the valley of Caucagua, 
three days' journey east of Caracaa. In these places it bears the name 
of Pain do Vaca, or Arbol de Leche. and forms a fine tree resembling 
the Star-Apple of the West Indies " Its oblong pointed leaves, rough 
and alternate, are marked by lateral ribs, prominent at the lower 
surface, and parallel ; they are, some of them, ten inches long." Its 
flowers and fruit have not been seen by an; botanist. From incisions 
in its trunk flows a glutinous milk, similu' in consistence to tbe first 
milk yielded by a cow after calving. It has an agreeable balsamic 
smell, is eaten by the negroes, who fatten upon it, and has been found 
by Europeans perfectly innocuona. In chemical characters it is 
temarksbly similar to the milk of animals, throwing down a cheeay 



CRACWM. m 

matter, and nodergoiog the same phenomena of putrefaction as 

gelatine. 

Humboldt supposed the Cow-Tree to belong to the Sapotaceoue 
Order ; but, though tittle hsa been added to our knowledge of it since 
his visit to the Caracas, it is at least certain that it is either a spscisa 
of BroiimHm or very nearly related to it, and consequently a member 
of the Urticaceoua Order. 

The latter circumstiuice rendeia the Cow-Trse still mora interesting ; 
for tbe milky juice of Urticaceoua plants is in other cases highly 
poisonous. But botanists are now Hcquainted with many instaooes of 
innocuous plants in poisonous orderi | thus the Hya-Hya Tree of 
Demerara, for instance, belonging to the deadly Apocynaceoua Family, 
yields a thick rich milky fluid destitute of scrimony ; and the Eiria- 
ghuna plant of Ceylon is a sort of East Indian Cow-Plant, notwith- 
standing it belongs to the Asclepiadaceoiis Order, which is acrid and 
dangerous. In tbe absence of precise information as to the circum- 
stances under which the Cow-Trees are milked, it is imposiible to eay 
what is the cause of their harmlessnese ; but every phypiologiet wiU 
eee that it is capable of being eipbdned without difficulty in mora 
ways than one. 

COYPU. [Htsiiuoida] 

CRAR [Cinckr; CnnETACEA.] 

CRAB-APPLE, or WILD APPLE. [Praos.) 

CRABRO'NlD.iG (Leach), CSotronila (LatreiUe), a family of 
Hymenopterous Insects of the section Aculfata and subjection 
Pouortt. The species hare the following cbaracten : — Head large, 
and appearing almost square when viewed from above ; body oval or 
elli[itii»l, narrowed more or less at the base, and joined to the thorax 
by a peduncle; antemue short, and generally thickened towards the 



'be species of Tripoxi/tim provision their neats with small spiden. 
The species of Gorytu are parasitic. 

The species of the genus Oralkro are chiefly distinguished by their 
having but one perfect cubital cell to the anterior wing ; the mandibles 
terminating in a bifid point, and tbe antennte being distinctly genicn- 
lated, they are sometimes filiform, and sometimes slightly serrated. 
The palpi are short, and almost squsl. The clypeua is frequently 
clothed with a Gue down of a glossy silvet^like hue. 

These insects are extremely active in their movements, and may be 
frequently seen settling on the flowen of umbelliferous plants, on 
palings, or on the leaves of plants when the sun is shining upon them, 
Iviog wait in such situations for the approach of other insects, which 
they seiie snd carry to their nests for the purpose of feeding their 
larvta. The larger spooies of this country are mostly of yellow and 
black colours, the body being adorned with rings of the former colour, 
the smaller species are for the moat part black. 

Crabra ctpKalola is upwards of half an inch in length ; black ; the 
body isadorned withfiveyellowring^; the baaal joint of the antenna) 
and the tibia and ti—' ' "- — 



MAT. I 



T. W». V 



Crabro palelialiu (Panzer), and several other species of tbii genus, 
_re remarkable in having a large appendajie attached to the exteraBl 

Sart of the anterior tibiae ; this is a thin plate of a somewhat rounded 
)rm, convex above and concave beneath, and is undoubtedly used in 
removing the soil whilst these insects are forming their burrows in 
the ground. Each burrow is stored with flies or other inseets 
(depending upon the species of Cratro to which it belongs) ; the egga 
are then deposited with these flies, which constitute the food of the 
larvn whan batched. Many species of Ondro form their cells in 
rotten trees or poste. Much that relates to the habits of these insects 
however niisains to be discovered. 

CRA'CID^ (Vigors), a family of Rasorial or Oallinaceous Birds 
(Satora). Hr. Vigors regarded this family as connected with the 
Btrutbious Birds, Struthionida (Ostrich Family), by means of the 
Dodo [Doso], generally supposed to be now extinct, the foot of 
which, he observes, has a strong hind toe, and which, with the excep- 
tion of its being more robust, in which character it still adheres to 
the Stnuhionida, corresponds exactly with the Linnaean genus Orax. 
" The bird," says Mr. Vigoni, " thus beoomes osculant, and forms a 
strong point of junction betwi^n these two conterminous gTOU[M, 
which, though evidently approaching each other in general points of 
similitude, would not rihiblt that intimate bond of connection which 
we have seen to prevail almost uniformly throughout the neighbourinjf 
subdivisions of uatura, were it not for the intervention of this important 

" The family of Oracida," says Mr. Vigora, " thus connected with 
the SirvMonida, are separated from the typical groups of the order 
by tbe length and robustness of the hinder toe, and by its being 
situated more nearly on a level with those in fiunt These birds, 
placed in this manner at the extreme of the preeeat order, assume 
more of tbe habits and appearance of the preceding order of Penhera 
than the other Auoref, with the exception of the family of Columbtda. 
They are found most frequently to make their abode in trees, and to 
i«ort to the neighbourhood of forests ; in the leaser number of their 
tail-feathers they evince an equal deviation from their more typical 
congeners, and they never possess a spur. Tbi* family contains th« 



in CRACID^ 

Oarax of M. Cusiar, uid tho trua Crax, Lion., toRathor with the 
Pemlopt «nd Ortalida of M. Marram. The two Imtter ganei» h«V8 
th.ir hind toa ftrtieulated on a level with the front toes, and thm 
rtcoDduct u» to the Columhida. Their billa also, more lengthoned 
Ifasn those of Crax, approach moat naarly to those of the Pigeons, 
which, on the other hand, seem to meet them by the atroniter form 
and cunature of thabill of finojo, which lieriates in these particulars 
from the 1,'enenJ structure of ifci own fumily. Th» gaoua Orlalida, in 
particular, tlia feathered cheeks of which sre dialjnguished from the 
naked face of Pendope, brings u» in immediatB contact with that 
family. Here it is, in this extreme of the order, that I would assign 
■ place to the beautiful New Holland genus ifnum. Lath., a group 
that haa hitherto afforded more difficulty to the Bystemalio writer 
than any other in the class. By modern authors it ia geQerslly placed 
among the Perchen on account of the length snd low position of the 
hind toe. But its hahits and manners are gallinaceous, as far as we 
CAD ascertain, and its generul appearance decidedly eviuces an affinity 
to tlie Batata. The deviation in the structure of the foot from that 
of the typical Rasorial groups only indicates ita being placed at a 
dialance from them, and in that eitreme of the order which connects 
itself with the conterminous order of Perohers. The same deviation, 
it has been seen, ii found in other groups of ita own family, and in 
the adjoining family of Coiambida. A group newly discovered in 
some islands of the Enstfm Archipelago, the Megapodiiu of M. Tem- 
minrk, semes strongly to illustrate thfsa principles, and to corroborate 
my opinion as to the situation of the singular New Holland genus 
brfow us. The Megapodiut, brought home to France by one of har 
late expeditions, ia ccinfeaiedly gallinaceoua in its habits, and 
has been placed, without hesitation, among the trie Kanra, and yet 
its foot is preciaely of the same conntruotion as that of Jfmuro. The 
bill also "hows uo very material differenoa from those of the oxtre 
groups of the Cracida. To return however to the general affinitiei 
the frimilj, it may again be repeated that all the latter genera tl 
united iimong themai-lves, evince an evident approach to the CVifi 
hid'Xt from which, it may be remembered, we commenced our ohi 
Tatione on the order. The whole of the groups uf the Raiora, thua 
following each other in continued affinity, 
socceasion without interruption." [M«[I1;h ._ 

The following are the charade™ of the Family :— Three toes before, 
one behind, the latter touching the ground througbouL Head 
feathered, generally orested : there ia oRea a Cere or naked akin at 
the base of ths bill. 

Mr. Swainnoii, ' Natural History and Classification of Birds,' voL i., 
p. 153, state-, that " in the &mily of the Craada, which connects thi 
/nirmru with the RatoTti, the hinder toe is nearly as long as in thi 
euokooii, and ia oonBiderably mora developed than in any other grouj 
of rwtorini biida. We will aay nothing of the genera Megapodiui 
Palamidta, and Menwa-, whose feet are well known to be enormous 
or of Opitlhoeomia, because apecimeoa of these larga and rara birds 
are not upon our table. Confining ourselves to the genus Penrtopc, 
we msy remark that the toes, considered by themselvea, might be 
taken for thoiie of a cuckoo, if the outer one was only versatile; it ia 
evident also, from the structure of the claws, that these birds are 
much more arboreal than tlieir congeners, for their claws are more 
curved ; and from their lateral and not horizontal compression, as 
well from their acuteness, we conclude that they are very little, if at 
all. employed in scratching the ground, their structure being similar 
to those of Pereheis, and adapted only for clinging. The foot, in tact, 
of the Penilopc. ia not a rasonsl but an inaessorial toot, for it does not 
mssess any one of the rasorial characters. Even the hind toe, which 
all other rasoriii] birds ia raised above the heel, is here placed upon 
toea. That no ambigi ' ' •' ^ 



CBACID.S. W 

a positions a slight tinge of green. Tail-fi-athera tipped with 
white. Lags red, claws yellow. Iris brown. Bill bright rod : th» 
protuberance with which it if surmounted (which is rounded in the 
young birds, and pear-shaped with the narrow end directed forward* 
in the adult males) of a liviil alate-colour ; it is more (ban two inches 
in length when fully devolopid, hard and bony eitemally, and inter- 
nally oellular, the cells communicating with the cavity of thi mouth. 
This protuberance is not visible til! after the first moulting, when it 
Qnt appears in the form of a small tubercle, and becomes .much 
larger in the male than in the female. In other respecti then ii 
litUe difference between the seIe^ and the young atfl only diatin- 
guiahed by a browner tinge. The windpipe descenda for a consider- 
Lble distance in front of the sternum, immediately beneath the akin, 
.md makes no lees than three distinct convolutions before poaaiilg 
into the cavity of the cheat (E. T. Bennett) 



the 



9 beg to call the omithologiat's attention to the parCi- 
culftr species now before us, the F. Aracuan of Spix, one of the most 
common of the same genus. How this remarkable formation in the 
foot of the typical Cracida should hitherto have been completely 
overlooked, even by those who have speculated so much on the mode 
by which ibt SoMrei and lnia»0!tt are united, is somewhat extraor- 
dinary. We can only acconnt for it by the custom of examining epe- 
ciniena set up in cases, or on branchee, inateail of preserving them in 
■kina, in which stale they can be handled in all directions. But how- 
ever this may be, the fact itself decides the long-conteated queation aa 
to which family of the Satoru mokes the neareat approach or rather 
forms the paf sage to the Inttttera ; while, if tbia question be revt 
and it is ssked which of the JmenoTa makes ' 
the Raim-it, we need only direct our search n 
legged Brazilian cuckoos, or at once point 
Ojnj'Aocumu." 

Ourax (/"aaxi, Temm.}.— Bill short, atrong, compressed, vaulted, 
convex, dilated at the base of the upper mandible into a homy, oval, 
hard, end elevated substance. Nostrils basal, pierced near the fron^ 
hidden, open beneath ; bead covered with ahoit and close-set feathers. 
Feet (tarai) long and amooth. This family conaiata of the following 
genera: — 

0. Paiui (Cuv.), the Oaleated Curassow. Size about that of a small 
hen turkey. Head and neck covered with short velvety feathers of i 
rich black. All the rest of the plumage, with the exception of th' 
white abdomen and under tail-coverte, brilliant black, exhibiting ii 



i singular genus 



GelrateiJ CuraHow [Outai Fnui!). 

This bird ia a native of Mexico, where the species lives In large com- 
paniei perching upon the trees. Nest generally made on tb- ground. 
The young are led about by the femali; iu the same manner as tlie 
hen pheasant and the common hen lend theirs. The Gist food of th« 
chicks conaiats of worms and insects, but as they advance fruita and 
seeda are added. Hemandea gives a very good deacription of the bird 
a ■ Uistoria Avium Novs Hispanim,' cap. ccixii. The Oaleated 
CurasBOW is eoHily domesticsted, and is enumei-ated by M. Temminck 
among the birds which brecl abundantly in the menagerie of H. 
Ameaboff before the French revolution. 

Mr. Yarrell hiu pointed out the peculiarities of the very elongatad 
trachea of another apecies, Ourax Milu, Cuvier, Thia organ is pro- 
duced between the skin and the muscles beyond the sternum, and 
reaches almost to the vent It haa been figured by Dr Lnthsm, 
M. Temminck, and others. The stemo-tracheal muscles extend along 
the whole of the tube, a diapoaition which, Mr. Yarrell remarked, 
prevails with one or two exceptions in all birds in which the fold ol 
the tracbM ia not included in the hone. (' Zool. Proc,,' 1B30-81.) 
Mr, Bennett (' Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society') 
observes that the nostrils in Ourax Pauii are seated behind ths 

Erotubarance, and are perpendicuUr in their directiou : the roem- 
rauoiu cere which surrounda them, be adda, ia covered with alKirt 
velvety feathers. 

{>iu.— Bill moderate, long, comprsised, higher than it is broad at 
the base, thick, carinated above, curved towards the end, aunounded 
at tbo base with a membrane; lore naked; noatrila lateral, longitu- 
dinal, pierced in the cere, and partially covered. Head crested with 
curied festhera. Tail apread out, inoliueil ; tail-featbersH. Siithquill 
the longest Hallux reaching the b:rDuud with the Grst phalanx. 

C. AUetor (Linmeus), the Created Curaasow. The plumage of the 
Crested Curaasow is of a deep black, vrith a elight gloss of green upon 
the head, creat, neck, baok, winga, and upper part of the tail ; it ia 
of a dull white beneath, and on the loner Uil-covarta. Ita cnrt ia from 
2 to 3 inches in length, and occupies the wl'ole upper surjaoe of the 
head ; it is curled and velvety in ita appearance, and capable of being 
raised or depressed at nilL The eyes are surrounded by a naked skin 
which eiteode into the cere, and there asaumea a bright yellow colour. 
Sixe about that of Ourax Paiai. (hi. T. Bennett) 
■ " Thia epeciea," aays Mr. Bennett, " ia a native of Mexico, Guyana, 
and Brazil, and probably extends itself over a large portion of the 
acuthem divlaiou of the American continent In the woods of Ouyank 
it appeara to he ao extremely common that M, Sonnini regards it ■■ 
the most certain resource of the hungry traveller whose stock of pro- 
visions ia eihauated, and who has conaequently to trust to bis gon 
for fumiahing him with ■ freeh supply. The; congregate together la 



unmeroiia flockn, and appear to be under little 



en a cansiderable 
reat remnin quietly perched upon 
if the haroc that bju been com- 



CreitcJ Curiuov (Ovi Alittcr). 

mitted MUODgit tbem. Tbia conduct ie by no rneana the result of 
liniplicity, but pn>ceedB latlier from the natural tameueia and nnaui' 
pitiuusneH of their character. Thoee however which frequent the 
neighbourhood of inhabite-l places are raid to be much vihler nnd 
more mietrustful. heiag kept coustantl; on the alert to iToid Ui* 

Eumiiit of the huntere, who destroy them io great numben. They 
uild their nestii on the tn^ee, forming them eitemally of brunchea 
interlaced with the atalki of herbaceous pistite, and lining tbem inter- 
nally with leaFea. They genernlly lay but once a year, during the 
lainy aeneon ; the number uf their egga being, accordiag to Socniui, 
Gve or ail, and according to D'Aiara aa many an eight. Tbey are 
nearly aa larye ae those of a turkey, but lire wbita like a hen's, and 
with a thicker ahelL" ('aardena and Menagerie of the Zoological 
Society.' Tol, iL) 

C. yarrtUii, the Red-Knobbed CuraBaow. The traohea of this 
apeciea differs from all Ihoee previoualy known, but most resemblea 
that of C. Aleetor, Linnsiua, while in external choractera the bird 
approachea C. gtvbicera, Linngnia, from which it ia diatinguiahed by 
the redness of ita oere, and by a prominence on each side imder the 
baae of thu lower juw, in addition to the globoee knob near the base 
of the upper. The tube in C. Yarrdlii ia straight throuf^hout its whole 
length, except a short conrolutinn imbedded in a cellular menibraae 
pLiced between the shafts of the oa furcatorium. The trachea is 
nuTow. and the fold, inrr-Bted uid supported by a membranous sheath, 
gives off one pair of muaclea, which are inserted externally below the 
apex of the os furcatoriitm. The lower portion ot the tube immedi- 
ately above the bone of diTarication aenda off a pair of muscles to be 
inserted in the ttemum. The upper pair of mviaclea (furculo-traeheal) 
influence the lensth of the tube aboTc the convolution. The inferior 
pair < atemo-traoheai) baie the aame power over the bronchial tubes 
and that portion of the trachea which ii below the' coqtoIuUod. 
(■Zool. Proo,,' 1830-31.) 

Ur. Bennett. ApeaklDg of the Zoological Sooiely's Henagerie, eayi: — 
" Of all the gallinaceous birds in the collection, the most inlareating 
Of* thoee which hold out to ua a prospect of supplying our farm -yards 
with oew braada of poultry of a auperior kind. Such are especially 
like Cunaaowa In many p^krts of South America these birde have 
long been i«cUmed ; and it is really surprising, oonsideriDg the ez- 
trrme familiarity of their mannera and the facility with which tbey 
appear to pass from a atate of nature to the tameness of domestic 
towla, that they have not yet been introduoed into the poullry-ysnls 
of Europe. That with proper treatment they would speedily become 
habituatsd to the climate we have no reason to doubt; on the oou- 
trory, numerous examplfis have shown that they thrive well even in 
its nortbem parte; and Temminck informs us that they have once at 
least been thoroughly acclimsted in Holland, where they were as 
prolific in their domesticated state as any of our common poultry. 
The eatabliahuient however in which thia had been effected wae 
broken up by the civil commotions which followed in the train of the 
FRDch revofutiou, and ail the psins which bad been bestowed upon 
the education of these birda were loet to the world by their audden 
and complete dispersion. The task which had at that time been in 
acme nicaiura accomplished still remaina to be performed ; and it 
may not be too much to expect that tbe Zoological Society may be 
moee»fixl in perfecting what was then ao well b^;un, and in natural- 



CIlAf^ID.*. Mj 

ising tbe Curoasow as completely aa our ancestors hnve dune the 
equally exotic and in their wild Btate much less familiar breeds of the 
turkey, the Ouinea-fowl, and the peacock. Their introduction would 
certainly be moat deeirable, not merely oq account of their aize aud 
beauty, but also for tbe whitenen and excellence of their flesh, which 
is Bsid by those who have eaten of it to surpoaa that of tbe Quinea- 
fowl or of the pheasant in the delicacy of ite flavour." (' Gardens aod 
Menagerie,' Ac, vol. iL) 

Lieutenant Maw. who appears to have shot a Red-Knobbed Curnaafiw 
on hiBpieenge from the Pacific to tbeAtlantic down the river Harabon, 
says that the native Peruvian name for the bird is Peury. 

Penilopr. — Bill moderate, naked at tbe base, entir*, convex above, 
wider than it is high, bent at the point] lore and btue of the bill 
n^ikad. Under the throat a naked akin which is c.ipsble of being 
inflated or awoUen. NoBtrila pierced in tbe cere towarda the middle 
of the bill, half closed. Foot (tarsus) slenrler, louger than the inter- 
mediate toe ; nails somewhat curved, atrong, compreseed, and pointed. 
Fifth and eiith quill longest. ToilfeatheiB 12. 

P. crUtala (Qmelin), the Ouan. Length about SO iuches. the tail 
being IS or H inches." Upper parts dusky black nr bronze, glossed 
witb green, changing to olive in certain ligbts. A blick Bti i|ie pauses 
from the under part of the bill backwards, and surruuiids the ear. 
Fore part of neck and breast spotti^d with whitish, each of the 
feathera being bordered by white ; belly and legs, lower part of tbe 
hock, and under tail coverts, reddish. Cheeks a:ikeil aud vidlet- 
purplish. Iris reddish brown. Bill bta<'kiah. Feathers of the back 
of the head long, forming a thick tufted crest, wliii:h the Idrd con 
raise or depress at pleasurtj. Naked part of the throat BCarlot, with 
a contractile and extensile fuld of depending skin. Mr, Bennett 
observes that this fold retains its elasticity after death. The female 
differs from tbe male principally in having Iter plumage, eapeciallj 
her under parte, more decidedly tinged with red. 



Onan (AihIoik crulalu). 

Mr. Tarrell states that the trachea of the Ouaa ia oDiform in eise 
and substance throughout its whole length. After descending by the 
neck in the usual way, it ia extended, and passes downwards under 
the skin, but over the outer surface of the pectoral muscle on the 
right side, to the extent of two inches beyond the angle formed by 
the junction of the two portions of the os furcatorium. The tube of 
the trachea is tbcD reflected, aod, ascending to the cavity of the 
thoiai, again turns to be carried to the lungs as in other birda, and ia 
provided with one pair of true muscles of voice, which have the usual 
origin and inaartioc. The loop or fold of the tube farmed on the 
BuHace of the pectoral muscle is imbedded in cellular ti<>aue, and 
further retained in its place by a strong ligament, which, firmly 
adhering to the loon, passea backwarde to be first attached to the 
posterior angle of the sternum ; and afterwards dividing once, and 
passing still farther backwards, the two slips are inserted on the two 
elongated pubio points of the pelvis. This structure in the Quan, Mr. 
Yarrell obaervea, haa been noticed and figured by M, Temminck In 
his ■ Histoiie des Pigeons et Oallinac^s.' 

Mr, Bennett remarks that the manners of the Ouan have little to 
distinguish ^them from those of the Curossowa. Atthuugh to all 

introduced into Europe in equal numbers with the Curaaaows, nor has 
the same Buccess attended the attempts to propagate them in this 
quarter of the globe, " We are told however," continues Mr, Bennett, 
"by M, Terominck,that the proprietor of a menjigerie in the neigh- 
bourhood of Utrecht had bred them for aeveral years ; and there can 
be little doubt that with proper care and attention these birds might 
be added to the Etook of our domeetioated fowls. Tbey are spoker 



IS! CRiCIDX. 

of u fumiihiDg an gxcslleut diah for ttia tabls. In k urUd atkte thajr 
inhsbit QuyBDn uid Biszil, aad perhsps eitoivl itilL fu-th«r to the 
□orth. Their food coUBUti prindpall; of seeds Kid fruit«, which the; 
search far s^d eat upon the ground ; but the grester part o! their 
existence ib paeeed upon the bves^ on the tops of which th^y perch, 
and in which the; build their neeta. They are often fcuod in large 
bands, but generally pair together with tile etricteat eooitano;. The 
feinalea la; from two to fire eggs. Their Bight, like that of moat 
gaUiaaaeouB birds, in consrqneDoe of the shortness of their winga. 
low and heav; ; nnd in the performance of this action tirnj deri 
much assistance from their tail, the featheia of which pa; be 
axpaDded in the shape of a fati. All the birds of this genus appear 
to be known in Brazil li; the oame of Jacu, pronounced Tacou, 
deriTnd, acoordiog to Hanzgrave, from their note. Tbir, as might be 
expected from the ooDformation of their trachea, is extramel; loud, 
insomuch that when a considerable number are collected near the 
same spot, the ver; woods, to use the eipreasiou of the scientific 
traveller juat quoted, re-echo with their clamorous criea." The same 
author obserrea that H. Spii added very conaiderabl; to the difS- 
culties that previousl; existed in distinguishiDg the species of this 
inlarastinR group b; the publication, in his ' Brazilian Birds,' of 
•eriea of ngurea representing apparentl; very sli^t modiflcatione i 
the oonunon form, but to each of which he has preGicd a peculia 
specific name. Ur. Bennett eipreasea his belief that moat of theae 
will be found on further eiamination to be referrible to the present 
speciea, which, from its long domestication in tho poultr;-;arda of 
S«uth America, must necessarily be subject to very extensive raria- 
tions. (' Oardena and Ucnsgarie of the Zoological Society,' vol. it) 

M. Lesson, on the authorit; of H. Qondot, meutiooa a species, 
Penclopt Abttrri, Gkiud., 2 feet S inches (French) long, the tail being 
10 iochea. H. Ooudat states that this speciea seems peculiar to the 
mountains of New Qranada, inhabiting temperate and cold districts ; 
it is, he says, unknown in the great warm valleys and b; the rivers. 
In the eavirona of the cit; of Huio, celebrated for its mine of 
emeralds, thia bird, he statea, is known under the name of Pavo-&- 
Ouali. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood of Bogota and of the 
valle; iif Cauca designate it b; the ttmn Psva Burri, or Aburri 
Aburrida, which when alowl; pronounced well aipressaa its ay. The 
male does not differ from the female; and thoaa which M. Ooudot 
opened had two ctecums analogous to Pttuiope PanJKUta and Paviia 
(japernltarii I ). The trachea descended without an; fold to the lungs. 
There was no gravel in the gizzard, the walls of wMch were thio, and 
nearly entirely covered by the proper muscles. M. Qoudot states 
that the species lives soUtaiT, perches upon high trees, files but little, 
and suffers the hunter to approach easily within shot. It ia never 
seeu on the ground. The berries of tree* compose its food. Its neat 
is formed in a mass of dry leaves, disiiosad between the forks of 
treea The eegs are three in number, white, and 1 inch 8 lines in 
diameter. Thaso birds, adds M, Ooudot, are very common in the 
mountsins of Quindiu, between Hague and Cartliagena. Their notes 
are the last that are heard on the approach of night, and the first 
that announce the dawn uf ds;. 

Ortalida. — Ita chancters are the SBmet* tboaa of Paitloi't, except- 
ing that the head ia completcl; feathered, and that there is no naked- 
neaa about the throat or round the eyea. 

0. Uolavit, />AananM Mottnat, OmeL, Phanania Parraqua, Lath. 
Colour r«d-brown, brtmied above. Tail modenta; It inhabits 



H. Ooudot describes a new 
H. L«HBan names Orlali 
the same places with the 



a new species from Santa-74 de Bogota, which 
ida Gondolii. The bird it appears Is found in 
the Pmdopt Abmrri. Total lei^ 23 inches. 



CRACID.£. IH 

of which the tail is S inches. Feet red ; tarsus 2 inches E lines ; 
middle toe 2 inches 1 lines, the claw being fit lines (French). The 
bill ia blackish, brown at its point; the upper mandible 1 inch 
S linM^ cere and naked memlnnne round the eyes blue. All the 
upper ^mage brown, with deep green reflections, or rather of a very 
deep greenish. Feathers of the throat gray. Bottum of the neck, 
hell;, and abdomen, as wall aa the thighe, covered with ruddy. Ko 
crest nor nakedneas about the throat. N.o fold of the trachea in either 
sex. It ia found in the uiountaina of Quindiu. 

U. LesBon observes that this bird approaches nearl; to the last, but 
is clearl; dintingulahable from it, especially by the trachea, which does 
not descend upon the abdomen. 

Opiitlutctmm, Hotfm, ( Hoazin, Buff. ; Orlhocorgi. TieilL).— Bill thick, 
robuet, short, convex, bent atthe point, which is suddenly compreeaed, 
fumiahed with diverging briatlea at the base, which is dilatwl later- 
ally ; lower mandible strong, terminated in an angle ; edges dentelnted 
towards the origin. Noatrils mesial on the surface of the bill, pierced 
(de part en part), covered above by a membrane; Feet robust and 
muscular; tarsus shorter than the middle toe, the lateral toea long, 
equal, entirely divided; sole broad; toes bordered with rudiments 
of membranes. Wings moderate, the first quill veiy short, the tour 
following graduated, and the sixth the Eongeat. Tail-feathen ten. 

0. crisfafui. This speciea, which appears to be the only one 
belonging to the genus, ii the Hoatzin and Hoactxin of Hemandei; 
who deacribea it as an inhabitant of warm districts, where it was seen 
Bitting on treea by the aides of rivers, and as having received its name 
from a suppoaed similarit; of the shrieking cr; of the bird to the 
intonation of the word 'hoatsin.' Heruandez relates some Bb«nge 
stories of cures effected by ita bones and b; a sufBtua of ita featheia ; 
but Ba;s that the bird is deemed inauspicious b; the natives. Soiinini 
states that it is known in Guyana b; the name of Saaa. 



Hooiln lOpitthBHmHi triitattt). 

The Hoozlns an said to live in pairs or in small troops, consisting 
of from aix to eight individuals, in the flooded savannahs, which they 
prefer, and where Vimj seek for their food the leaves of the Aram 
arboractiu. Their flesh ia not oonstdered good, having a strong smell 
of Castoreumabout it.. Theae birds are by no tnaana timorous. In 
Stature and gait the; resemble the peacock. 

Megapodiiu. — Bill slander, straight, aa wide sa it is high, and 
flattened above at the base : upper mandible longer than the lower, 
slightly curved at ita extremity ; lower mandible straight, the point 
hidden by the edges of Che upper mandible. Nostrils suboval, open, 
plaoed nearer to the point than to the base of the bill ; nasal lifoe 
long, oovered by a membrane furnished with email feathers. Space 
round the eye naked, head and neck well feathered. Feet large and 
strong, plaoed &r bBakwardi ; tarsua large and long, and covered 
with large scales, compreased posteriorly ; four very elongated toei^ 
the three anterior ones nearly equal, united at their bases by a small 
membrane, which is more apparent between the inner and middle to» 
than between it and the outer one ; posterior toe horizontal, touching 
the ground throughout ita length ; claws very long, very strong, 
flattened above, very little curved, triangular, obtuse at the poin^ 
nearly like thoae of Jfenaro. Wings moderate, concave, rounded ; 
third and fourth quills the longest. Tail small, wedge.ahaped, scarcely 
exceeding tbewiogs in length, and formed of twelve feathera. (Quo; 
and Oaimard, with slight iteration.) 

a. Oapemyii. In size hardly so large as apartridge. Tani !«■ 
elevated than they are in M. Pftj/cinelii and M. mAnpea The bird 

moreover altogether better proportioned. Total length, from the 
of the bill to that of the wings, whtdi ar« longer than the 
r less than a foot (French). Tarsi strong, coTered with 



IK CRACIDA 

•odea, and 20 Hum in leogth; middle toa, InoladingUieolftir, IT UDBa; 
bind bw II lines; posterior cUw T lioes. Billslightl; swollen tovuda 
iU extremity, yellow, 8 liaes ia length. Noatiils luboTkl, oovered 
■ith a metnbrans clothed with very smftll rudimeatary fskthei 
Space round the eya naked, but leas tbui in the otiier two specie*. 
Keck well clothed with feathtn. Iris reddish. A very thick oreat 
carm the bead ; the festhers wltioh compose it are raised (s« redres- 
■ent) lowerdB the occiput The winjjS ere concaTe, an inob longer 
than the Uil, and terminated in * point : the fifth qniil (he longest 
Tail suboval, p.intcH, very short, oumposed of 10 small featlie™. 
Lega grajieh, and feathered down to the tani ; the clawa sli 
curred, pointed at the end, flat below, and of 
(Leaaoa.] 



slightly 



Manfolpe ( Jft^jmHtu I)upim)iii). 

" The tutl," Bays H. L«ason, " of our M. Ditptrreyii ii of a browo- 
;(11dw ; the neck, the throat, tbe belly, and the lateral parts, are of 
■ gntj-slate calotir. The feathers of Uie back ODd the wing-oorerta 
la^e, and of a ruddy yellowish brown. Eump. uppw part of the 
tail, and TCDt-feathers, ochreous red. Quills yellow without, brown 
within, the shafts being ruddy bromL 

" Tbe middle toe ia united to the inner one by a membnnou* 
border, which is wanting between tbe middle toe and the eiteraal one. 

" In comparing our Megapwiiv* with the Mawra of New Holland, 
we cannot fail to peroeive that it oonneots the last-mentioned genua 
with the gallinaceous birds, by forming a rery natural passage. In 
&ct, if we examine the position of the nostrils, the geneial form of 
(he bill and li-gs, and the nakedneas round the eyes— tbe membnne 
vhich unite* the two external toes, but which is wanting between the 
middle toe and the inner one (an arraogemeDt which is reversed in 
W^^orfituJ— the same length ot the toes, the analogy in the form 
of the claws, the greater length of the posterior one, the concavity 
and the smallness of tbe wings — aU these characlen, in Gne, coincide 
to eooGrm tbia passage, if we eioept the extraordinary grandeur and 
liiiurisDt form of the tail of Memra, a form without analof^ among 
the other birds, if qropoifitu would thus belong to a small natural 
gn)up,thei.«"/'"c''V'eillot (27th family); the naroeof which, in oon- 
•eqaence of its having become improper, would have to be changed. 

"Tbe M. Dwperrtsii, the Hangoipe of the Papuans, inhabita the 
Dmbrageoiia foreata of Tfew Guinea, in the neighbourhood of the 
barbaur of Dor^ry. Tbe bird is timid, runs very fast among the 
biubea, like ■ partridge in standing com, and uttera a feeble cluck 
(an petit glouaaement}." 

U. Lesson statea that he only observed M. Fnt/ciaetii In tbe 
Island of Waigiou, and that the attempt to preserve it alive in 
n"M vna vain, for the birds sodd died. Tbeir flesh, he says, ia 
black, very hard, and not Vi^ry agreeable as food, although posHSsing 
a gauiey Sivnur when it is cuuked. The Papuans brought them 
CD board the Coquitle daily, snd called tnem (thoae of the harbour 
of Oflack at least) Haneaaqu^. 

Both PigafettH and Oemelli Carniri apeak of the Tavon (MegO' 
fdiiu), and it would seem that this, the Megapadinu of the Philip- 
Iiinea, leaves its eggs to the fastertng heat of the sun. The habita of 
the Urgapodii of New Qiiinea and tbe neighbouring islands are, 
Kcording to M. Lcason, entirely unknown. 

ilicthrtia-^^tha characters of tbe genus Mtgapodivt, obserrea M. 
Lesson, estnbliahed by Meaan. Quoy and QaJmard in the Zoology of Lbs 
voyage round the world performed by the Unute, are in great 



CRAO. IM 

measure applicable to tbe siib-geoas Attcllulia, formed "bj H. LeSMin 
for the position of a bird whioh diffem &oni (he true Migapoda, or ' 
Tavona, by many distinctive charaotera. 

Bill abort, oomprened, pointed ; the upper mandible prolonged, 
the lower mandiUe a little swollen and very short; noatrils at the 
base of tbe bill separated by a straight ridge; beul and forehead 
abundantly DOTrred with featber* down to tbe noatrils ; space round 
thu eyes fumished with short and close^et feathers ; innir toe rather 
the shortest ; membrane which unites the middle toe to the inner 
one almoei absent; no tail; all the foHthers of the body, eioapt 
tbuee of the wings, composed ot loose barba, vary finely ciliated on 
each of the shafts. 

A. Ufviltii, LsHon. It is tbe only species known. Its total lengdi 
fWim the extremity of tbe bill to that of tbe wings is e inches 4 line*. 
Tain H lines; middle toe 10, bind toe 8, claws 5,bill 6 linea(FTvnch). 
The bird is oovered with loose and scanty feathen, but has upon the 
occiput a thick bunch of feathers. The general tint is brown, 
fuliginoua, deepest aboie; belly and throat bmwn, slightly tinged 
with ruddy colour; throat aah-coloured ; wings concave, rounded, 
the festhen entirely brown, the second, third, and fourth being 
equal; tbe upper part ia brai^n sprinkled with tigiag or irregular 
lines, not well defined, of ruddy yellow. Place of the tait-feathsis 
supplied by very loose plumes, composed of very fine barba, br^ed 
with very slender approximated barbules, presenting much analogy 
wl^ those of the Cassowary (No. 6, pi. 67, 'Atlas da Psron'), and 
which, implanted in the rump in the same manner, form a feathery 
tuft OS in tbe Cassowary ; all the feathei-s ef thia bird, eioept those 
of the wings, ore composed of multiple stems, very slender and soft, 
fumisbed with equal and very fine borbuies which may be called 
multirochid. The biU is greyiih, and so are the feet ; tbe inner toe 
is a little more united to the middle one than to the external one ; 
the daws are slightly curved, sharp, convex above, ooncavs bdow, 
and of a brown oolour; the iri is reddish. 



This species, which comes from the Isls of Ousbj, placed imme- 
diately under the equator, is, no donbt, proper to the neighbouring 
lands such as the great and beautiful Isle of Halnniiva or Qolilo, so 
little known and so little studied by naturalists. (Lesson.) 

CRAO, the uppermost of tbe distinctly Tertiary Strata of England 
— using this term in a sense wliich is perhaps gradually passing 
away, to be replaced by tbe larger meaning of Camozoic, suggested 
in this work. The Crag of Norfolk and Suffolk is partly a calcareous 
moss rich in delicate corsla ; partly a subcajcoreous sand rich in 
shells; and partly a rudely Bt[gregated deposit of sand, sbells pebbles, 
and bono. To these divisions, whoso origin is due to different local 
conditions, snd successive times, Mr. Charleaworth has sseigned tlie 
title* of Coralline Crag, Red Crag, and Mammaliferous Cng. The 
position of these beds will be best seen from the following table of 
the classification of tbs Tertiary Bocka from PiofttMur Autted'a 
' Elementary 0>-ology.' 

Newer Tertiary, or Fliooane Series : — 

1. Upper Oravsl and Sand. 

2. -m. 

S. Manmialiferoia Orag. 

t. Fieah-Watar Sand and OnveL 

B. JUd Crag. 
Hiddle Tertiary, or Miocene Seriea ; — 

fl. OoTamni Crag. 
Lower Tortiary, or Eooejw Seriea r — 

T. Fluvio-Harine Beds, &□. 



187 



CRAKE 



CRANGONIDiE. 



18t 



For « further aoooant of the raktion of the Crag Formation to the 
other membera of the Tertiary Seriee, see Tbhtiabt Strata. [Sup.] 
CRAKE. [Raludjb.] 

CRAMBE, a genuB of Plants helonging to the natural order 
Orvcifenx, It helongs to the sub-order LwneiUaeea and the tribe 
RapkanecB, It has a 2-jointed silicle, upper joint globose, with 1 seed 
pendent from a long curved seed-stalk springing from the bottom of 
the cell ; lower joint barren, stalk-like. 

0, marUima, the Sea-Kail, or Sea-Kale, is a glaucous spreading 
pUmt, with broad-toothed sinuated leaves, and dense corymbs of large 
white flowers, foxmd occasionally on the sea-coast of England, and 
now commonly cultivated in giuxlens for the sake of its delicate 
tender shoots. Naturally the flavour of the plant is strong, cabbage- 
Uke, and highly disagreeable, but in the state in which it is sent to 
the kitchen, it is merely a colourless mass of delicate fleshy vege- 
table tissue, with little or no flnvour. This arises from the shoots 
that are to be cooked being grown in darkness, and with a little more 
speed than usuaL For this purpose a garden-pot is inverted over the 
crown of an old sea-kail stock, in the winter before the leaves sprout. 
Over the pot is thrown a little litter, or some decajing leaves, or 
some old tan, so as to increase the temperature of the earth, and to 
exclude light ; after a week or two the pot is examined from time 
to time, and when sprouts five or six inches long have been pro- 
duced, they are cut ofi^, and are fit for table. 

Sea-Kail loves a Kght sandy soil, well drained in winter and richly 
manured. It will continue to bear cutting for twenty years together 
without suffering much ;*and ia one of the most simple and useful 
of all culinary plants for a small garden. It is generally grown in 
rows eighteen inches or two feet aparL 

CRA'MBUS, a genus of Moths {Lepidoptera no^uma) of the family 
TineidcB (Stephens). The type of this genus is the Phalana PawneUa 
of LinnsBus. 

In crossing dry meadows during the summer time, we observe 
numerous little moths fly from the grsss at every step we take; 
they soon settle again, and are then not easily detected, owing to 
their mode of folding their wings, which when shut almost inclose 
their slender bodies, and partly surround the blade of grass on which 
they rest ; their form is then long and narrow, pointed at the head, 
and somewhat truncated at the opposite extremity. Their colouring 
is often brown and white, disponed on the upper wings principally in 
longitudinal lines. Very frequently however we find ttiem adorned 
with beautiful metallic colours, generally of silvery or golden hues. 
Such are the insects which constitute the genus Orambut, and of 
which we possess about 40 species in this country. The characters 
of this genus are : — Proboscis distinct ; wings convoluted round the 
body when at rest ; superior wings narrow ; palpi long, the inferior 
the longer ; head furnished with short closely-applied scales. 

When the wings are expanded, these moths commonly measure 
about an inch in width ; they are called in England the Veneers, and 
sometimes Grass-Moths. 
CRANBERRY. [OxTCOCCUS.] 
CRANE FLY. [Tipulid^] 
CRANES. [Gbuid^] 
CRANE'S-BILL. [GERAKmic] 

CRANGONID^, a family of Cfnutaeea belonginflr to the division 
Deeapoda Maeroura, The type of this family ia the Common Shrimp 
(Crangon mUgarii), and no other genera are included in itw It has the 
following characters : — 

Internal antennsB inserted on the same line as the external antennso; 
first pair of feet terminated by a subcheliform hand. Although there 
are a large number of Onutacea which are vulgarly called Shrimps 
which resemble in general form the Common Shrimp, the OrangonidcB 
difier too much from all these to be comprised in the natural tribes 
formed by theuL It corresponds to the genus Orangon of Fabricius, 
which, in the opinion of M. A^ilne-Edwards, has been unnecessarily 
subdivided by Dr. Leach and M. Risso into the Crangons, properly 
so called, Egeons, and Pontophili, 

Orangon comprises those shrimps whose anterior feet are terminated 
by a mooodactylous and subcheliform hand. 

Carapace much more depressed than in the other shrimps, and 
presenting anteriorly only the rudiment of a rostrum. Eyes short, 
large, and free. Antennas inserted nearly on the same transversal 
line; the first pair dilated at their base, at the external side of which 
is a rather large scale ; their peduncle ia short, and they are termi- 
nated by two multi-articulate filaments.. The external anteimss are 
inserted outwardly and a little below the preceding, and they offer 
nothing remarkable. The mandibles are slender, and without any palp. 
The external jaw-feet, which are pediform and of moderate length, 
terminate by a flattened and obtuse point ; within, they cany a short 
palp, terminated by a small flagriform appendage directed inwards. 
The sternum is very wide backwards. The first pair of feet are 
strong, and terminate in a flattened hand, on the anterior edge of 
which a moveable claw is bent back : the internal an^le of this hand, 
srhich corresponds to the point of the claw, is armed with a tooth 
representing an immoveable rudimentary finger. The two succeeding 
pairs of feet are extremely Klender ; the second terminate generally in 
a very small didaotylous claw; and the third are monodactylous, 
like those of the fourth and fifth pairs ; but these four posterior feet 



are much stronger. The abdomen is very large, but presents nothing 
remarkable in its conformation. The branchis are only seven in 
number on each side of the thorax (Milue-Bdwarda.) 




Details of (h-ani^on. a. Mandible. 

The genus is divided by M. Milne-Edwards into the following 
sections : — 

1. Species having the second pair of feet nearly as long as the 
third pair. ^ 

In Uus section are comprised C vtUgarU, Cfateiatutt and C. Boreas. 

2. Species with the second pair of feet mudi longer than the third. 
Example, C. teptemcarifuUui. 

C. vulgariif the Common Shrimp. Carapace and abdomen almost 
entirely smooth, with the exoeption of one small median spine on 
the stomachal region, and one lateral above each branchial region. 
Terminal filaments of the internal antenn® more than twice as long 
as their pedimcle. Lamellar appendage of the external antenne large 
and elongated (about twice as long as the peduncle of the internal 
antennse). Last joint of the external jaw-feet long and narrow. 
Two last pairs of feet of moderate size. A strong spine inserted on 
the sternum between the second pair of feet, and directed forwards. 
Abdomen smooth, and without any keel. Median blade of the caudal 
fin pointed, and without a furrow above. Length rather more than 
two inches. Colour greenish-gray, dotted with brown. 




Common Shrimp {(k'trnpon vulgarU). 0, anterior foot or claw. 

It ia common on the coasts of England and Fnmce. 

It is the Crevette of the French, and Shrimp of our markets, and 
is one of the most delicious (Pennant thinks the most delicious) of 
the macrurous crustaceans. 

The shoals of these creatures which frequent our coast give employ- 
ment to a great number of persons, who are engaged in catching 
theuL They are abundant at the mouth of the Thames, from whence 
the London market is principally supplied. They are caught by a 
large open net, which is attached to a long stick and pushed through 
the water. They are most plentiful on sandy shores. They are luied 
also for baitw 



l« CRAKIA. 

C.fataaliu, tha Banded Shrimp, ia fouDd in the HaditvTTMMUt. 
tt hu kbo been taken in Eogluid at Salcnmbe Bay. 

C.tpiiuaia, the SpiDj Shrimp, It in the PoiUofhilM* fpuxwiu of 
Ltuh, ^n>it loncat\tt of Ouerin. This iihrimp hai been taken in 
hi«bI placca on the louth cout of EngliiDd. 

C. tcitlptut i« a Britith apeciea, deMribad by Profeasor Bell in bis 
'HiMoiT of the Britiab Stalk-Eyed Crustacea.' It was taken at 
Weymouth by Mr. Bowerbank. 

C. IritpinotoM and C. bitpinom are alio Britiah apeciea, and hare 
been takt^n an the coiut of Rafltiuga. 

CRANIA. rRHicHioroDA.] 

CRASSAUENTUM. [Blood.] 

CRA3SATELLA. [CancnacEa.] 

CRAS3INA. [A«T*aTi] 

CRAS3ULA, a genua of Planla, the type of the nataral order 
Cniti^acta. It baa a S'parted calyx, much ahorter than the oorolla ; 
KfrAi flattiah ; the petala fi, atellate, apreadlng, diatinct ; the itamena 
6, Glamenta awl-tihaped ; icalea C, avata, abort; carpels E, many- 
Ksled. The apeciea are very Dumeroua They ore luceulent herbs 
or ■hniha, and are moatly natiTee of the Cape of Oood Hope. Their 
luTca are oppoaite and entire, or nearly ao. Tha Sowara are moatly 
vbite, rarely ruee^oloured. Upwarda of Bfty apeciea hare been 
dttcriheit ', and many of them, on account of their groteaque appf ai^ 
•DCS, are cultivated in our gardena. '^'7 *xv greeobauae plants. 
One ipwiea, C. Mragima, ia ueed at lie Cape of Qood Hopa as a 
nmed; iiT dyientary. Any medicinal propertiea they possess ia 
prnlikbly nwing to the presence of tannin. 

CRA3SULA^CE£, Boiarrleda, a natural order of Poljpetaloua 
Eiogpsoua Plants. It cooiiatB of succulent plants, with herbaceous 
or ihrnbhy, and annual or perennial roots, groving in hot dry eipoaed 
plicei in the mora temperate parts of tbeOld World chiefly. On the 
lun-Korcbed clifft and volcanic soil of the Canariee, aod on thf dry 
ittrile plains of the Cape of Qood Hope, they are tnoat abundant. 
Tleir flowen are arranged in panicles, apikee, cymes, and corymbs ; 
trch has a calyx of several diviaioos, alternating with which ia the 
like number Mpetals, alternating with which ia the like number of 
tUmens, or ttnce as many, alternating with which are as many 



Jiatam; 1, aeslfx of A stviaraa 

n, snd adhering 1>t U>e tube oi 
g— tlie bjponnoui scide* are 



distinct carpels a 



a there are segments of the csilyx. The stameDi 
tuba uf tbe calyx; there is usually a hypogynoui 
tlaod at the base of each carpel ; tbe carpels are often of tha samt 
colour aa tbe petala; and sometintea, in moustroas cases, ths anthers 



bear ovules aa well as tbe ovarios. The fruit conaisU of a number of 
distinct folliclea, each containioa numsrouH minute eeeda ; the embryo 
lies in the axis of fleshy albumen. The afGnities of thi* order, 
according to Dr. Limiley, are with SamaguiiKta, CaryophgUacuB, 
&> '-ifragacat, and Tumeractcs. 

Many species of CraiMida, Roclua, Semptreivim, Sedam, ir,, are 
cultivated for the beauty of their flower* ; the various annual Tilleas, 
Ac, are obscure weeds ; hause-leeks (different sorts of Sanpermmm.) 
are grown for tbelr refVigeiant qualities; aod the leaves of 5^per- 
vivam arboram possess puwerfiU tanning qualitiea This order 
contains 22 gaoera and 460 spoclsa. [Skddm ; SEHrEBvrvuM ; CoTT- 
liiion; Ecuiitkhia; Tiu.aj ; Kocuiu ; Uhuiuui;*; tlBYuruiL- 

All tbe hardy species may be grown on old wall;, roofs, rock-work, 
or other places thoroughly druned of moisture ; tJie greenhouse kinds 
require what is called a dry'Stove treatment — that is, they must be 
patted in a mixture of lime, rubbish, broken pots, and earth ; in 
summer they an freely exposed to the weather in sunny aituationa 
without protection, and in winter they are kept moderately coul, and 
□early without water. 

CRAT.£'QU3, a genus of Plaota belonging to the natural ot^ft 
BattKea and the sub-order Fonea. This gonus ia very nearly aUisd 
to tbe Apple (i^n-w), from which it differs in the fruit contaming a 
variable number of at«nea, u> the Medlar does ; from the Medlar it is 
known by its fruit being closed, not spread open, at tbe apex. 

Ths Bpeciea inhabit woods and bedgea through put ths northent 
hemisphere, from Barbery and Palestine to about 60° N. lat. tn ths 
east, and from Mexico to a similar latitude in the west South of 
these limits they do not occur tn a wild state. Ths flowers appear in 
the greatest profusion, usually in terminal cymes, in t b early munths 
of the year, and are succeeded by small round fruita, coloured yellow, 
red, purple, or black. Moat of them are merely haws, and fit only 
for the food of birda ; a few ara lai^^er and more fleshy, but Done of 
them have been found worth cultivating for the fruit, except the 
Azarole (i ruloyiu Aiaroiiu), which ia eaten in Italy, and the Aronia, 
which is s>'ld in tbe markete of Montpellier under the name of Pom- 
mettea It Deux Closes. 

Between uity and seventy well-marked species and varieties are 
known in tbe gardens of this country. Into extensive collections tbey 
are all worth introduction, except C. patvt/olia and those immediately 
allied to it; and for tbe ornament of patk-scenery there is prohnbly 
no genus of flo.vering trees at all to be compared with Cralirgui for 
variety, fragrmnca, and Iwauty. Our limita prevent our notiuiog all ■ 
these at length; we therefore confine ourselves to a brief indication 
of tbnse which are molt vnlviable for ornamental purposes. 

C. aryacaatha, the Hawthorn, White Thorn, or May, The leaves 
ore obovate, 3-1-lobed, cut and serrate, cuneate at the base ; tba 
flowers corymbose; calyx not glandular; styles 1-3. The bnuicbea 
are spinaae. Thia plant ia ona of tbe most common in tbe British 
Flora, baii^ used throughout the kingdom for farming quickset 
hedgea. Babington mentiona two varieties, eipressii;g oi 



(Jaoquin), with the peduncles and cuyz villose. The latter is 

The Hawthorn not only growa in the form of a thrub or bush in our 
hedges, but is not unfrtqueutly seen in the form of a tree. It is of 
slow growth, and many mdividuals have attained celebrity for their 
antiquity. There are several in Bushy Park said to be above two 
centurlea old. The wood of the Hawthorn is bard, takes a fine 
polish, and ia uaed by cabinet-makers. 

Under the name c^ Hawthorns rnay be comprehended alt the noma- 
roue sorts which are either varieties of Cralagru aiyaeanlha or nearly 
n-latod to it, They have all deeply-lobed rather shining lesvei, ao 
little hairy that their brii^ht i^reen colour ia nut deadened, smsll fra- 
grant flowers, and small shining hawa They are distinguished for 
the graceful manner in which they generally grow in rich soil and 
unharmed by the pruning-knife. Thirty feet is not an unusual height 
tor very fine specimeno, and when of that stie their appMtrsuce ia 
exceedingly graceful and pictureaque. C. oryaeaniha itself prodncaa 
varieties wiUi double flowers, bright crimson Sowers, yellow fruit, 
black fruit, and &uit downy when young ; the latter ia called C. oxy- 
acaniha erioearpa, and is one of the moat beautiful of the genua 

Very nearly allied to these are the Oriental Thorns, spec es which 
have their dveply-cut leaves covered so cloatly with hun as to have a 
dull gray or hoary aipect, large fragrant fiowen, and loiga succulent 
rather angulu' fruit. These are less graceful in their manner of 
growth than tbe true Havrthoms, some of them, est>eoially C. tanaetli' 
folia and C. odoraluima, having a round formiJ head ; but their 
flowers are even more frngrant than the May-bush, and their fruit ren- 
ders them striking objects in tha autumn. The Asarole is ons of 
them ; but it does not fruit or flower readily, and is the least worth 
having of the group. We should recommend C. odoraliMtima, with 
its rsd fruit. C. latuKtlifolia with ite yellow fnut, C, arienlalu witli 
purple fruit, and C. Araaia with ite light orange-coloured fruit. 

The American Thorns are species with leavee but littls lobed, 
usually broad, shining, and toothed unequally, often Laving eiceed- 
....._)•.__ ._. J ,.._!__ ._-. ii_-r._;_^ — isdjate siaa. 



ingly long spines, and having fmit genenlly oif ai 



m 



CRATiEVA. 



CREI^USCULARIA. 



18^ 



They are not qnite so handsome as the species of the two former 
groups ; but the following, nevertheless, have suflBciently ornamental 
features, namely — C. Cruagallif or the Cockspur Thorn, with very 
long strong spines and 8hining deep green l^tves ; of this we have a 
bmad-lcaved variety called C. aplmdent, and a narrow-leaved variety 
ealted C. talieifolia ; C. prunifolia, C. avalifolia, and C. DougUmi, with 
dark handsome leaves ; C, punctata, with large yellow or red haws ; 
C. cordate^ with brilliant scarlet fruit ; and U. microcarpa, with very 
■mall beautiful vermilion fruit and graceful pendulous shoots. 

The Small-Leaved Thorns are all North American : they form small 
straggling bushes, and are not worth cultivation. 

f^ally, the Evergreen Thorns consist of C. Mexieana and C pyr- 
acantha. The former is a small tree with lance-shaped bright g^reen 
leaves, and large round yellow fruit ; it is probably too tender for 
hardy cultivation north of London. The latter, an iuhabitant of rocks 
and wild places in the south of Europe and the Caucasus, has been 
long cultivated ic this country for the sake of its flame-coloured berries 
and evex^green leaves. 

All these plants may be budded or grafted upon the Common Haw- 
tiiom, so that persons whose means do not allow them to purchase 
the plants may nevertheless ornament their gardens with them by 
providing hawthorn stocks, upon which they may work them them- 
selves ; or a very small garden might exhibit a good many sorts, if 
each of the groups here pointed out were intermixed upon the same 
plant This mii^ht be easily effected by a skilful budder. It would 
not however .do to intermix the different groups upon the same plant, 
because the species would not harmonise, and consequently a bad 
appearance would be the result. 

(LovLdon, Arboretum et FnUicetum JBritannicum ; Botanical Register, 
vols, xxi and xxii.) 

CRATifiVA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order Cap- 
paridacecB. It has 4 sepals; 4 imguiculate petals larger than the 
calyx, and not closing over the stamens during SBstivation ; 8-28 sta- 
mens ; the torus elongated or hemiBpherical ; the berry stalked, between 
ovate and globose, pulpy within ; a thin pericarp. The species are 
unarmed shrubs or trees with trifoliate leaves and terminal cymes or 
racemes of large flowers. 

C. gynandrai Garlic Pear, has 20-24 stamens inserted on the cylin- 
drical receptacle, longer than the petals ; the berry ovate ; the leaflets 
ovate, acute ; the petals lanceolate. It is a native of bushy pUces 
and thickets near the sea-side in Jamaica. The whole plant has a 
nau!«eous smell and a burning taste. The bark of the root is said to 
blister like cantharides. 

C, Tapia, the Tapia, or Common Oarlic-Pear, has 8-16 stamens, 
dedinate, about three times as long as the petals ; the stipe of the 
ovary as long as the stamens ; the stigma sessile, capitate ; the fruit 
globose. This plant is a tree about 20 feet high. Its fruit is the size 
of a small orange. It is brought both from the West India Islands 
and from South America. The fruit has the smell of garlic, and com- 
municates its odour to animals that feed on it. The bark is bitter 
and tonic, and has been employed in the ciure of intermittent fevers. 

61 Manndoi, the Bilva, or Mahura, is a small tree bearing a large 
spheroidal berry with a hard shell, and 10-15 cells which contain, 
besides the seeds, a lai^ge quantity of a tenacious transparent gluten, 
which on drying becomes very hard, but continues transparent ; when 
fresh it may* be drawn out, before it breaks, into threads of one or 
two yards in length, and so fine as scarcely to be perceptible to the 
naked eye. This plant in now however transferred to the family Auran- 
tiacece, tmder the generic name JSgle. It is the Peronia peUucida of 
some authors. It is found in all parts of the East Indies. The fruit 
is nutritious and aperient, and very delicious to the taste. It is 
recommended by European physicians in the East as a valuable 
remedy in habitual costiveness, and it is said never to fail in producing 
its aperient effects. The root, bark, and leaves are also used in fevers 
by the Malabar phyfficiiins. 

(Lindley, Flora Medica; Don, DiclUamydeous Planti.) 

CRAW-FISH. [AsTACUS.] 

CRAX. [CRACIDiB.] 

CRAY-FISH. [Abtacus.] 

CREAM-FRUIT, a kind of eatable Fruit found at Sierra Leone, and 
said to be produced by some Apocynaceous Plant 

CREEPERS. [CerthiadaJ 

CRENATULA. [Malleaoea.] 

CRENELLA. [MTTiLiDiB. See Supplbubnt.] 

CRENILA'BRUS (Cuvier), a genus of Fishes b'^Ionging to the 
section A eanthopterygii and family Labridce. The species of this genus 
have all the general characters of the true Labri, or Wrasses, but are 
distinguished by their having the margin of the pre-operculum denti- 
culated : the cheeks and operculum are scaly. 

C. melops {Labrus melops, LinnsBua), C. tinea of others, the Gilt* 
Head, Connor, Golden Maid. This fi^h is found on various parts of 
the coaH ; it is about six inches in length, and the depth is nearly 
Dne-third of the length. The general colour of the body is obscure 
red and green ; these colours are arranged in longitudinal stripes on 
the upper parts, and beneath the lateral line the red is disposed in 
spots* The Gilt-Head mostly frequents deep water, where the bottom 
is rocky ; its food is chiefly Crustacea, 

O. Norwegicus (Cuv. et VaL), 0. Oonmbieus (Risso), the Goldfinny or 



Goldsinhy, and Corkwing, somewhat resembles the last, but may 
always be distinguished by a black spot on each side near the base of 
the tail, and situated on the lateral line ; its general colour is yellowish 
green, darkest on the back ; the sides are usually adorned with longi- 
tudinal lines of a deeper hue. Length about three or fotir inches. 

O. gibhus, the Gibbous Wrasse, may be readily distinguished from 
either of the known British species of this genus by its comparatively 
shorter and more elevated form. The depth of the body is consi- 
derably more than one-third of the length : the colours are chiefly 
orange and blue; the gill-covers and sides of the body are spotU;d, 
and the back is striped. The ventral fins are green, the pectorals are 
yellow, with transverse red stripes at their base. 

Pennant obtained a specimen of this fish off the coast of Angle^y ; 
and this is we believe the only instance on record of its capture off the 
British coasts. 

C. luscus (Couch), Aeantholabrus Couchii (Cuv. et VaL), the Scale- 
Rayed Wrasse, has been caught by Mr. Couch off the coast of Cornwall : 
the specimen was 22 inches in length. The tail is round, and consists of 
15 rays; "between each ray of the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, is a 
process formed of firm, elongated, imbricated scales. Colour, a 
uniform light brown, lighter on the belly ; upper eye-lid black ; at the 
upper edge of the base of the caudal fin is a dark brown spot Pectorals 
yellow : all the other fins bordered with yellow." 

C fmUtidentatus (Thompson), Ihirdvs minor (Ray), Lahrus pusPlvs 
(Jenyns), the Corkling, Ball's Wrasse. This fish was originally taken 
in the British coast by Professor Henslow at Weymouth. It bas 
once been taken in Cornwall and Ireland. Jt is about foiu* inches 
in length. Mr. Jenyns says, ** It is quite distinct from any of those 
described by other authors. Though belonging to the present section 
{Labrus) which it is convenient tc retain, it would seem to form the 
transition to the Creniiabri, to which its near affinity is indicated by 
the rudimentary denticulations on the margin of the pre-opercle.'* 

C. rupestriSf Jsgo's Goldsinny (Selby) It has been referred by 
various writers to the genera ScicBua, Labrus, Peiea, and Lutjanus. 
Several specimens of this fish have been taken in Great Britain. It 
is found occasionally in the Baltic, in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. 
Its prevailing colour is orange, the free edge of each scale being of 
light golden-yellow colour ; the colour is darkest over the three or 
four Imee of scales along the highest part of the back, and lightest 
on the lower part of the sides and belly: the body is indistinctly 
marked with five transverse bands. In northern localities it is tinged 
with green. 

O. microstoma^ the Small-Mouthed Wrasse, or Rock-Cook (Thomp- 
son). It is the Aeantholabrus exoletus (Cuv. and YaL^, the Labrus 
exoUtus of other authors. This fish is occasionally caught in Com 
wall, and has been taken at Antrim in Iiv land. It is immediately 
known amongst its congeners by its very small mouth. It is found 
on the coasts of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. [Labbidjb.] 

CREPIDOTTERIS. a genus of Fossil Ferns, which Preal substi- 
tutes for Pecopteris of Bronguiart, in the case of two species, one from 
Stuttgardt, the other from Newcastle. 

CREPIDULA. [Caltftbjsid^] 

CREPIS, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order Com- 
posUce, the division Cichoracea, and section Lactueea. It has many- 
flowerad heads ; a double involucre, the inner of one row, the outer 
of short lax scales ; the fruit terete, narrowed upwards or obscurely 
beaked. Most of the species of this genus are common weeds in the 
hedges of Europe. Five of the species are found in Great Britdn. 
The most common is the C. virenSf which has the outer involucral 
scales adpressed, linear, the inner ones glabrous within : the leaves 
lanceolate, remotely dentate, runcinate, or pinnatifid, the uppermost 
leaves linear, arrow-shaped, clasping with flat margins ; the stem sub- 
corymbose; the fruit shorter than the pappus, oblong, slightly 
attenuated upwards, with smooth ribs. This is the C. tectorum of 
Smith ; but the true tectorum has revolute mai^gins to its upper leaves, 
and other points of difference, and has never been found in Great Britain. 

The other British species are — C putchra, a rare plant found in 
Scotland ; C biennis, also rare, found in chalky places in England ; 
C. succiseefoUa, common in woods in the north of England ; C. palu- 
dosa, not uncommon in damp woods and shady places. C. lacera ia 
considered to be a venomous plant in Naples, where it growa 

(Babington, Manual of British Botany.) 

CREPUSCULA'RIA(Latreille), a section of Lepidopterous Insects, 
corresponding with the genus Sphinx of Linnaeus. These insects 
occupy an intermediate station between the Lepidoptera Diuma, or 
Buttei'flieB, and the Lepidoptera Noctwma, commonly called Moths. 
They have the following characters: — Antennse growing gradually 
thicker towards the apex, at which part they are furnished with an 
elongated club, either fusiform or prismatic. Inferior Mrings furnished 
with a rigid bristle-like process at their base, which passes into a hook 
on the under surface of the superior wings, and serves to retain them. 
The larvae are furnished with 16 legs, and many of them have a long 
homy process on the last s^^ent of the body. The chrys^ides are 
smooch, or sometimes furnished with small spines (but destitute of the 
points and angles usually observed in those of butterflies). They are 
either inclosed in a cocoon or buried in the earth. The larvae sometimes 
feed upon wood, in which case they assume the pupa state within the 
tree or branch. 



CRESCENTLL 



s the ^Mtiffida, Saiida, 



IB c*l;i ; the corolla 
eunpumlftte, with ■ flwhj tube much ahorter Outa the ventriooae 
S-dnft unequal crisped limb ; i KtAmeiu, didjnamcnu^ with the mdi- 
meat of ■ fifth ; tha fruit gourd-like, 1-celled, with a, mild iheU, inter- 
hmUj pulpy, many-eeeded. The B|MoiaB are luea npiTiling tieea, with 
■olituT Sowen rising from the trunk or brandiee. 

C. Otiete, Cujete or Common Cakbesh-Tree, hu oblcmg asute or 
obtius leaTOB, cuoeate at the baie, and in EtuKJcles. This plaat ia a 
natiTe of the Went India lalanda and Spaoiah Main, It ia a tree 
about 20 feet high, and ia readiiy distinguiebsd from all others b; its 
habit. It eends out Urge hariumtal bnuichsa, wliich bear fascicIeB of 
learee at Tahous diatanoea. Theae leavaa ara from 1 to 6 inches long. 
The flowen are scattered over the older braDohea j the coTolla is large, 
■omewhat campauulale and conatricted below the middle, which girea 
the nppcT part a Tantricoae character. It does not wither up M other 
eorDllaa, but becomea putrid, giving out a nauseous and intoleiaUe 
odour. The form and aiie of the fi-uit ia very variable, being from 
9 inches to 1 foot in diameter. lb ia coTOred with a thjn skin, of a 
greenisb^yellow colour whan ripe, and under this is a hard woody shell 
i^oh oontains a pale yellowish soft pulp, of a tart unplesaant Sbtout, 
mrrounding a great number of Sat SBsda. The shell ia of great use 
to the inhabitants ; tha smaller oblong ones ara formed into spooiia 
and ladles, the larger ones form drinkiag cups, basins, and bowls for 
BTery Tariety of domestie purpoaea. They will eran bear fire, and 
are used for boiling water io. The Cariba generally carra the out^e 
of these Teasels with a variety of groteaque Ggurea. The pulp is 
■omatimea eaten by the natives, but it ia not much Bought after. A. 
syrup ia preporwl ^m it in the West Indies, which has a great repu- 
tation aa a cough medicine The pulp is also used as a poultice in 
oases of abeceas or bniises. The leaves and branches and pulp of the 
b-uit are eaten by cattle in timea of scarcity. The wood of the tree 
ia tough and flexible, and well adapted for the work of the ooacb- 
mnker. There are three or four oUier spedea, naUvea of the West 
Indies and Soath America, having the same geoeral charaoten aa the 

The spedea of Craeeatia will grow in a mixture of loam, peat, and 
sand, and woody cuttioga will grow when placed in aand in heat under 
a hand-glaaa. They do not howerer blossom in this country, aa they 
require nrst to arrive at the full size. 

(Don, DiMamydecm Plantt; Iioudon, Snej/dopadia of PUaiU ; 
Lindley, FU/ra Midiea.) 

CRESCENTIACEiE, a natural order of Fhmts formerly included in 
the Solauiaa, allied to Oetaeraeta and Bigaoniaeta. The species are 
trees of small sise, with alternate or clustered simple leaves without 
stipules. Tha flowers grow out of Uie old stems or brsaohce) 
the calyx free, undivided, eventually apUtting into insular pieces; 
the corolla mononetalous, irregular, somewbnt 2-lipped, with an 
imbricatad nativation. The atamena are four in number, growing on 
tlie corolla, didynamoua, with the rudiment of a fiflb between the 
poatcrior pair, which are the longest ; anthen 2-lobed, bunting longi- 
tudinally ; ovary free, surrounded by a yellow annular disc, 1-celled, 
.cumpoaed of au anterior and posterior oarpellary leaf, with 2 or 4 
equidistant parietal placentae, which sometimce meet and produoe 
additional oella ; ovules 0-Q, horizontal ; style 1 ; atigma of 2 plates. 
Fruit woody, not splitting, contuning a multituda of large ajnygda- 
loid seeds buried in the pulp of the placautn ; akin leathery, loose ; 
embryo atiaight, without albumen, with plaoo-Oonvai fleshy cotyle- 
dons, and a thi(^ short radicle next the hilum. 

CRESS, the u'Une given to various Flanta with acrid or pungent 
loaves. Common Creas is Lepiditim lativam; Water-Crass, Nattitr- 
iium offtdiaie ; Belleisle or Normandy Cress, Barhama praeoxi 
Indian Creas, TVopmlnni nuvuf. [LEFlDnrM; ITASttritnnil; BailBABBa; 
Tropxolcil] 

CRETACEOUS GROUP or FORMATION. [Caiii Fowiaiioii.] 

CHEU3IA- [CiRBiraDU-l 

CREX. [RiLUDE] 

CRIBELLA. [SoLASTBHi*.] 

CRICACA'NTUUS, a genus of FoasU Fiahen from the Mountain 
Limestone of Armagh. (Agassis.} 

CRICETUS, tha name of a gsnua of Rodenta, whose economy 
tiukea them one of the most interesting of the great Limusan genus 
Hum, or the family of Mitrida in its moat extensive sense. The 
species have the following characters :^ 

Molar teeth simple; Uieir crown furnished with blunt tubercles. 
Four toes and the vestige of a thumb on the fbre feet ; five toes on 
the hind f^t ; nuls robust. Tail short and hairy. 

Dental Formula :— Incisors, - ; molars, SzZr = IS. 
^2' ^8—8 ■ 

The species are found over all the north of Europe and of Asia, the 
temperate countries of Peixia, and the deserta of Astrakhan. If the 
Canada Pouched Rat (Kamater du Canada, Criixltu (wrsaruu of 
Deamareat, ifaj bunariut of Shaw) ia to be considered a Hamster, 
Canada and the borders of Lake Superior must be added ; and it must 
be remambered that tha Tuoan of Hemandes, an inhabitant of New 
Spain, ia considered by some to be identical with this Canada Rat 



CBICETUa IM 

John Richardson thinks on insufBcient grounds). But the laat- 
mentioned aoologiet places Desmarest's Canada Uancister under the 
genua Oeontj^t, with a note of interrogation ; and Say haa given it a 
generic distinction under the name of Pieudoiloma. 

C. vyJgarit, the Common Hamster, Miu Cricetui of Falla^ La 

amater of BuQbn and the French authora. 



Tnlh of Cmmnon Hanutn ICriatia tv'farti). P. Cnvler. 
It b reddiih-brown above; black below, with three great whitish 
KitB on the ddu ; feet white ; a white spot on the throat, and ano- 
lar on tlu breaat. Length abont B inches ; tail 3 inohee. Hales 

bigger than femalea Weight of some males trom 12 to 10 ounces ; 

-reight of females seldom oxoeeding from 1 to 6 ounces. 



CommuB Huniter [Cricitui ralgarU). F. Cuvler. 

Variations in colour are not uncommon. Tlftre is one variety 
entirely bhwk. Pennant fignrea one which ia entirely block, with the 
eioeptioD of the edge of the ear, the muzsle, the under-jaw and feet. 

It ia found in the north of Europe and Asia (Lesson), Austria, 
Silesia, and many parts of Germany, Poland, and the Ukraine ; all 
the aouUiem and temperate parts of Russia and Siberia ; end even 
about the river Yeneeei, but not farther to the east. In the Tartarian 
deserta, in sandy soil ; thoy dislike moist places. Swarming in Qotha. 



(Per. 



mt) 



The Common Hamsters are ill friends to the fanoen. The quan- 
laty of grain wliich the; consume is very great, nor does the destruc- 
tion stop with mere satiety of appetite; the animal never forgets its 
hoard, and fills its two cheek-pouches till they seem bursting with Oie 
booty. They ore also said to be very fond of tba seeds of liquorice. 
Their dwellings are under the earth ; their mode of forming tbem, 
and the purposes to which they apply them, have been thus 
described : — Tbej fint fbrm an eutrsnce, burrowing down obliquely. 
At the end of this psassge one perpendioular hole is sunk by the male ; 
the female sinks BeveraL At t^e end of theae they exoavats various 
vaults, some aa lodgea for themselvee and young, some aa atorehouSRa 
for their food, - Every young one ia said to have ita aaparate apart- 
ment ; each sort of gnun ita difierent vaull The ' living apartments,' 
as they may be called, ore lined with straw or grass. TEe vaults are 
said to be of different depths, aooording to the age of the constructor : 
a young hamster, it ia stated, makes them scarcely a foot deep, an old 



198 



CRICHTONITR 



CROCODILID^. 



196 



one Biziks to the depth of four or fiye feet ; and the whole ' curtilage/ bo 
to speak, ia aometiinea eight or ten feet in diameter. From the mode 
of proceeding in their work, the reader will be prepared for the state- 
ment that zke male and female live in separate Itpartments ; and 
indeed it appears that, excepting at the short season of courtship, 
they haye yery little or no intercourse. Pennant giyes them a yeiy 
unamiable character. " The whole race," says that Eoologist, " is so 
maleyolent as to constantly reject all society with one another. They 
will fight, kill, and deyour their own species, as well as other lesser 
animals ; so may be said to be camiyorous as well as graniyorous. If 
it happens that two males meet in search of a female, a battle ensues ; 
the female makes a short attachment to the conqueror, after which 
the connection ceases. She brings forth two or tlurae times in a year, 
and produces from 16 to 18 young ones at a birth : their growth is yery 
quick, and at about the age of three weeks the old one forces them 
out «f the burrows to take care of themselyes. She diows little affec- 
tion for them ; for if any one digs into the hole, she attempto to saye 
herself by burrowing deeper into the earth, and totally neglects the 
safety of her brood ; on tne contrary, if she is attacked in the season 
of courtship she defends the male with the utmost ftiry." 

The haryest of these animals commences in August . GraioB of 
com, ears of com, peas and beans in the pods, all find their way into 
their cheek-pouches, which will hold a quarter of a pint English. 
This fonige is carefully cleaned in their burrows, and the husks and 
chaff carried outb When all is in order, they stop up the entrance 
and prepare for their hybernation, whidi lasts during the whole of 
the seyere season ; the proyision they haye made haying been col- 
lected for the purpose of their support before their torpidity actually 
oommeuoefl^ and also in the spring and summer before the season has 
produced a supply for them in the fields. If all tales be true, they are 
a bold generation, and will jump at a horse if he tread near them, and 
hang by its nose so as to be disengaged with difficulty. Th^ yoice 
is said to be like the barking of a dog. Fierce as they are, t^ey qujul 
before their deadly enemy the pole-cat, which, chasing them into their 
holes, destroys tnem unrelentingly. Notwithstanding tins check, 
they are said to be so numerous m some seasons as to occasion a 
dearth of com. 

The fur of the animal is said to be yaluable ; and the peasant, when 
he ' goes a Hamster-nesting ' in the winter, not only possesses Umself 
of the skin of the plxmderer, but of the plunder, which is said com- 
monly to amount to two bushels of good orain in each magazine. 
Buffon, quoting Sulzer, says that in Gotha, where these animals were 
proscribed on account of their yast deyastations amonff the com, 
11,664 of their skins were deliyered at the H6tel-de-Ville of the 
camtal in one year, 54,429 in another, and 80,189 in a third. 

There are four or fiye other spedes of this genus. 

Professor Kaup records Orieettu vtUgarit fottiUi, from the Epple- 
aheim sand. 

CRICHTONITE. [Titawium.] 

CRICKET, FIELD. [GrtllidaJ 

CRICKET, HOUSE. [Grtllioaj 

CRICO'PORA, a genus of Corals formed by Blainyille out of a sub- 
diyision of the MUUporida, including some fossil ^ecies, which chiefly 
occur in the Oolitic Formations C* f^romuiea is found near Scar- 
borough ; C. ocBapiio§a near Bath. 

CRINOIDEA. [Emobinites.] 

CRINUM, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
AmcurylUdawE. It has a tubular long perianth, with a spreading 
reflezed or equal limb ; 6 stamens, spreading or declinate, inserted 
into the orifice of the tube ; the oyules hardly separable from their 
fleshy plaoentn; the capsule membranous, bursting irregularly; the 
seeds globose, with a fleshy testa, giying them the appearance of 
small tubea. The species are handsome plants, and many of them 
form the greatest ornaments of our gardens. 

C. AiicUieumf Poison Bulb {Radix toxicaria, Rumph.), has a cylin- 
drical bulb aboye ground ; the leayes lanceolate, smooth at the edge, 
longer than the scape, flowers on stalked umbels, the segments long, 
linear, reflexed ; the oyary inferior ; the style as long as the stamens, 
declinate ; the fruit membranaceous, subglobose. The bulbs of this 
plant are powerfully emetic, and are used m Hindustan for the purpose 
of producmg yomiting after poison has been taken, especially that of 
the Antiaris. It is a natiye of the East Indies. 

C amabile has a yery large btdb witli a long red neck, the leayes 
broad, glaucous, smooth at the edge ; the umbels many-flowered ; 
the tube shorter than the limb. This plant is a natiye of the East 
Indies, but is now common in our greenhouses. Many of the species 
haye been lately introduced. They grow bes^ in a rich loam mixed 
with a little rotten dung. They should be potted in large pots, where 
they will flower abundantly. They may be propagated by suckers 
from the roots, or they may be raised from seed. Should the plant 
show any indii^sition to put out suckers it should be cut down near 
to the root, when it will put out plenty. 

(Lindley, Flora Medica; Loudon, Bncydopcedia of Plants; 
Herbert, Anutryllidaeeout Pkmis.) 

CRIOCERATITEa The discoidally spiral AmmorUtidw, whose 
whorls do not touch each other, receiye this generic title. The spedes 
occur in the Oolitic and Lower Cretaceous Strata. [Ammonites.] 

CBIOCE'RIDM (Leach), o family of Coleopterous Insects^ of the 



sub-section Eupoda and section Tgtramera, distinguished by the fol- 
lowing characters : — ^Mandibles truncated at the apex, or presenting 
two or three notches ; labium generally entire, or but idighSy emai^gi- 
nated; antenna of moderate length, filiform, somewhat thickened 
towards the apex ; the joints mostly of an obconic form ; tarsi with, 
the penultimate joint bilobed ; femora often thick, especially towards 
the apex. 

The principal gfenera contained in this family are — Donaeia, 
ffcemonia, Ptawrittea, Orioeerit, Zeuffophora, Auchmia, and MegacdU. 

The species of the genus Chioeeria haye Uie posterior femora of the 
same thickness as the others ; the antennas gradually enlazged towards 
the apex, the joints of which are scarcely longer than broad ; the eyes 
are emaiginated on the inner side : the thorax is narrower than the 
elytra, short, and usually of a somewhat cylindrical form : the elytra 
are elongate. 

About eight spedes of this genus haye been found in England, of 
which the most common is the OrioeerU Aaparagi, sometimes called 
the Asparagus Beetle, which is nearly a quarter of an inch in length, 
and of a blue-black colour ; the thorax is red, with two black spots ; 
the elytra are yellow, with the suture, two transyerse bands, and a 
spot at the base, black. 

This pretty little beetle is found in abundance in the south of Eng- 
land on asparagus plants ; the laryse are of a greenish hue, resemble 
little masses of jelly, and inhabit the same situations as the perfect 
insect. They subsiBt upon the leayes and soft part of the stalk of the 
asparagus plantw 

CRIOCERia [Criooeridjs.] 

CRISIA. [Cbllarlaa; Poltzoa.] 

CRISTATELLA. [Poltzoa.] 

CRITHMUM, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
UmbeUifercB, The mar^ of the calyx is obsolete ; petals roundish, 
entire, inyolute, ending in an oboyate segment ; transyerse section of 
fruit nearly terete ; mericarps with 6 eleyated shaip rather winged 
ribs, lateral ribs a little broader than the rest, and maiginating; 
pericarp spongy, with large cells; seed semi-terete, constitutiDg a 
free nucleus which is coyered with copious yitt» in eyeiy part. 
A sufi&utioose glabrous fleshy herb ; petioles sheathing at the base ; 
leayes bipinnate; leaflets oblong linear; umbels compound; inyolucre 
and inyolucds of many leayes ; flowers white. 

C, maritimvm, Samphire, is a well known natiye of rocky sea- 
shores and clifis along the Black Sea, in Tauria, the Mediterranean 
Sea ; and of Europe, along the shores of the Western Ocean, from 
Spain to Britain, and of the Canary Islands; in Britain on the rocky 
sea-shore and diffs. The root is branched and creeping extensively ; 
the plant is greenish, salt, and pungently aromatic in flayour; 
the leayes bitemate, liie stems ascenmng; the flowers are white, 
anthers yellow. Samphire la a fayourite ingredient in pickles. It is 
generally gathered in places where it is found wild, and the alludon 
to the practice by Shakespere in his description of the diffii of 
Doyer is well known. The plant is also used medicinally. Samphire 
is cultiyated artificially in many places for the purposes of diet 

CROCIDOLITE, a Silicate of Iron of a layender-blue or leek 
colour. It is called Blue Asbestus. It comes from Southern Africa 

CROCODILK [Crooodilida] ' 

CROCODI'LIDiE, Crocodile-Tribe, Crocodiles, a family of Saurians, 
comprising the lai^i^est liying forms of that order of Reptiles. 
Dum^ril and others distinguish the family by Uie appellation of 
Aspidiot (shielded) Saurians; while many modem zoologists haye 
considered them as forming a particular onier. They form the Lori' 
cataof Menem and Fitzinffer, and the Emffdoiouruxna of De Blainyille. 

Cuyier in his 'R^e Animal' describee the peculiarities of the 
family. The tail is flattened at the udes ; there are flye anterior and 
four posterior toes, of which the three inner ones only on eadi foot 
are armed with daws; all the toes are more or lees joined by 
membranes. There is a single row of pointed teeth in each jaw, and 
the tongue is fleshy, flat, and attached yery nearly up to the edges, 
which made the ancients belieye that tiie Crocodile wanted that 
oigan. The intromittent male organ of generation is single; the 
opening of the yent longitudinaL The back and tail are coyersd by 
great and strong squared scales, deyated into a ridge on their middle. 
There is a deeply dentilated crest on the tail, at the base of which 
the crest becomes double. The scales of the bdly are squared, 
delicate, and smooth. The nostrils are opened at the end of the 
muzzle by two small crescentnihaped slits, dosed by small yalyes, 
and lead by a long and straight eanal pierced in the palaUne and 
sphenoidal bones to the bottom of the back part of the mouth. As 
the lower jaw is prolonged behind the dcull, the upper jaw haa the 
appearance of mobility, and so the andents wrote ; but it only moyea 
in concert with the whole of' the head. The external ear is shut at 
will by means of two fleshy lips ; and the eye haa three lids. Under 
the Uuroat are two small glandular orifices, whence issues a musky 
secretion. ' 

The yertebrss of the neck bear upon each other by means of small 
fiilse ribs, which render lateral motion difficult. Crocodiles there- 
fore change their direction not without trouble, and they may be 
easily ayoided by doubling, and escaping while they are employed in 
the laborious operation of turning round. They haye no true 
clayides ; but their ooraooid apoph^ea are attached to the Btemxmif 



i» CnoCODIUDA 

*■ ia kll the other Sauriuu. Beude* the ordiouy and the hlae ribs, 
than ire m Mt whioh pioteot the abdomen without ra&ching up to 
the qiine, and which appgar to be produced bj the OBmficatioQ of the 
tAtidinolu portioiu of the reoU muBale& Thoir longs are not sunk 
in the abdomen like those of other reptilM, and there are fleahf fibrea 
adhering to the part of the peritoneum which coTen the liver, and 
vbich preacDt the appaanmce of a diaphragm, which. Joined to their 
trilocuUr heart, whrae the blood which comee from the lunga ii not 
mingled with that venoui portion of it which comee from the bod; 
•a completoly ae it ia in the other reptilea, ilight]; approximates the 
Crocodilea to the warm-blooded quadrupeds. The auditory bone 
(raJMii] and the pterygoid apophyeea are fixed to the skull as la the 



The eggs of the CrocodileB are hard, and aa large aa those of the 
goose ; and these reptUea are eoneidei«d to be animale in which the 
extremea of aiie, takmg that of the newly-hatched joung and that of 
the full grown sdult aa the moat remote polnta, present the wideat 
diSerence. The femalea guard their eggt, and when they are hatched 
take care of the young during some montha. (CuTiar.) 

The dentition of the Crocodilee ia peeijiar. The teeth are 
numeroos, large, of unequal length, conical, hollow at the baae, 
disposed in a single row, and planted in the thick- 
ness of the edgea of the superior and inferior 
mazillaTy bonee, in separate carities which may 
be couaidered as true alTeoli. These teeth are 
hollowed at the base in suoh a manner aa to 
aerTs for the case or sheath of the germ of the 
tooth destined to replace it, and which is to be 
of grcBter volume ; so that, in Crocodilee, the 
number of the tasth does not vary with age aa in 
many other animals. 

Great aolidi^ and strength are tbe reaults of 
this double RomphosiB, and the alveoli are more- 
over directed obliquely from front to rear. The 
bony edges of tbe jawa whence theae insulated 
teeth spring, are covered by a kind of gum. 
Another peculiaiiw of admirable adaptation to 
the neossaitiea of Ute animal, may be obeerved in 
the interior of the mouth of the Cnicodilea. 
Their palatine vault is neirlv Sat, and ia not 
piereed by the extremilaea of the usal totue, aa 
in the majority of other reptilea. The posterior 
nasal apertures open in the pharynx behind the _ ,. , ^ .„ 
velum palati. which ia .uffiaentfy long to over- ^^;?'^r™J"': 
spread that portion of the roof whioh U in front '^rS~' „Tai 
at tbe orifice of the glottis. They are probably hoUowbaaal enw 
the only reptiles wbic^ have a true pharynx, that fr„g u,, ttcet et the 
ia to say, a vestibule common to tbe posterior rising pnunra or the 
noBtrila, the mouth, the larynx, and the oasophagus. sdvunlDg tooth. 
This conformation, joined to tbe muscolar sb-uc- 
ture of the tongue, and a peculiar expansion of the body of the os 
hyoides, produces a kind of cartilaginous diao or valve, which can 
be railed and applied to the velum palati above, so aa to protect 
the glottia, to which it serves the office performed by the epiglottis 
in mammifen, while it confers on the reptile a peculiar power of 
degluldtian and respiration, of the greatest consequence to its economy 
when it ie below the sorface of the water and has seiied its prey in 
that situation ; or, when the muide alone is above the sumos. In 
carrying on resptiation. 

ThefitUowing is a summary of the oharacteri of the fkmily Oocedt- 
hda-SoAj depreseed, elongated, protected on the back with solid 
and catiuatad scutcheons or ahielda ; tul longer than the trunk, 
Dompeesed laterally, annulated, and furnished with crteta above ; 
feet four, short, tiie toes of the posterior feet united by a nstatoiy 
membrane : each foot with three ckws only ; he^d depressed, elongated 
into a muzsle, in front of which are the nostrils approximated upon a 
fieahy tubercle, furnished with moveable suckers (soupapea) ; gape of 
the mouth extending beyond tiie skull ; tongue fleshy, adherent, 
entire, not protractile ; teeth conical, simpje, hollowed at the base or 
towifds the root, unequal in length, but placed in a single row ; male 
genital organ simple, having its exit from the cloaca, which opens 
hingitudinally. (Dumjril and Bibron.) 

No living speciea of this family is found in Europs, nor has any 
been yet detected in Auatralasis. The Alligators are peculiar to 
America ; the species of Cromdihu are distributed in the Old and 
New World; t^ose of Qovialii seem to be limited to the Oonges and 
the other large rivers of continental India. 

Ana, boudes the Qavial of the Oanges, produces at least three true 
crocodiles, via. CrotodUvt m^orti, C. gaitattu {C. Siomauu, Schnaid. ; 
C. Siamau^i, Gray I], and 0. inp^catui, Siam seems to be the prin- 
cipal, if not the only locality, where the Srst of these has been found | 
while the other two appear to he natives of those rivers which have 
their mouths in the Indian Ocean and the Oanges. 

Africa, where neither Caimans {A Uigator) nor Gavials have yet bean 
discovered, ia the native country of the Crocodile & BoucUer, and 
CrBa>diltu wigarit ; it may also be the locality of C planintlrit of 
Qiaves and of Qray {C. ffmnnt, Bory de St. Vincent); and C. 
inJermnf (US of Qtaves and of Ony {C. Jmtmti, Bory de St Vincent), 



America is 



CBOCODILID^. IM 

though their gecgisphicsl position does not seem to be determined : 
tiiese may perhaps come from the ooaat of Guinea. The only part of 
Afnos whence the Crocodile h Bouclier has been received is Sierra 
Leone ; while Crocodilut mlgarit seems to be spread over the whole 
of Africa, and ie also an iubabiUnt of Hadanscar. Numbers have 
been taken in the Nile, and one in the river Senegal. (Dumdril and 
Bibron.) 

Amerioa is most fruitful in CrooodHea, and poassses more spedea 
than Asia and Africa put together. True Crocodiles have never been 
detected on the continent. C ncufut has l>een found at Martinique 
and St. Domingo, and C. rhombtftr at Cuba. The northern part of 

* " inhabited by one species only, Altigalor LueitH, wlulefanr 

Attigator palp^ratta, A. idavpt, A. ptHMMIaMj. and A. 
', inhabit tbe south, (Dum^ril and Bibron.) 

Cavier says that the Cntodilida inhabit fresh-water, that they 
cannot swallow while in the water, but drown their prey and place 
it in some nook tmder water, where they suffer it to putre^ before 
they eat it. This account seems to require some momfioation. Sir 
Charles Lyell, in his ' Principles of Geology,' observes that the larger 
Qsngetic species deecends beyond the brackish water of the Delta into 
the sea : and other instances are recorded of the true Crocodiles (but 
not of the Alligators) frequenting the mouths of large rivers, and 
even passing between different ieluids at eonaiderable distances from 
each other. [ALuaAtoH.] Thii should be romembered by geologists. 
Then, as to uieir inability to ewaUow wtiile in the water, those authora 
who describe their collective Gahing expeditione, entirely contradict 
it. True it is, according to them, that the Alligators, after Hmt have 
seised the fish from below, rise to the eurfaca and toss the fish into 
the air to get rid of the water which they have taken in with it, 
catching it again in its descent : but it is clear that they swallow it 
without resorting to the land, though they go thither fbr the purpose 
of devouring those land animals which they have suoceeded in 
capturing and drowning, after they have undergone some degree of 
decomposition. 

" The laying of the ^gs," aayi M. Bicord, " takea place in April 
and Hay, and ths number amoimts from 20 to 2G, more or leas, laid 
at many times. The female deposita them in the sand irrith little 
care, and scarcely covers them. I have met with them in the lima 
which the masons had left on the bank of tbe river. If I have 
reckoned right, the yonng oome forth on tbe fortieth day, when ths 
temperature is not too cold. At their birUi they aro 5 or 6 inches in 
len^h. They are hatched alone, and as they oan do without nourish- 
ment while coming out of the egg, the female is in no haste to bring 
it to them : she Irnds them towards tbe water and into ths mud, and 
disgorges for thsm half-<ligeated food. The male takes no aoconnt of 
thetn. The young preserve tor some tjme the umbilical mark or 
doatrice on the abdomen, whereby the vitellus was absorbed. 

The OramdUida aro generallj considered as forming a natural 
paasage from the Saurians to tbe Chelonisjis, the last genera of which, 
m certain points of their conformation and habits, approximate nearly 
to the fhmily under oonsideration. 

The following is a synopsis of the species from ths ' Catalogue of the 
Speoiee in the British Museum' : — 

Fam. L Cbocodiudx (Crocodiles). 
Ths lower canines fitting into a notch in the edge of the upper jaw. 
The hind legs with a fringe of compressed scales behind. 

Synopsis of Qenera. 

* Teeth all uniform ; nose of the male very large, inflated. 



ITeeistsfit. — Jawa oblong, slender, depressed. Cervieal and dorsal 
discs united. Hind feet webbed. 

CVoetxMtu. — Jaws oblong, depreased. Nnchal, cervical, and dorsal 
discs separated from eaih other by amall scales. 

Oanialit. — Jaws very long, subcylindrical, slender, rather dilated 
and convex at the end. 'Teeth, canines two, quite anterior, imaM ^ 
lower caniius shuttmg into a notch in the edge of the upper jaw. 
Feet fringed ; toes webbed to the tip. The cervical plates united to 
and forming a disc with the dorsal ones. Males mth a large swelling 
in front of the nostrils. Native of Aaia. 

a. Gangtticm, the Oavial, or Nakoo. 

If eeutopt (Gray), Otaiialv (Uliller). — Jaws oblong, slender, ifcpr esse J , 
fiat, without ridgea. Teeth unequal, lower canineeSttin^intva notch 
in the side of the upper jaw. Feet fringed ; toes webbed to the lap. 
The cervical plataa m three or four cross series united to the dorsal 
ahield. Hales without soy swelling in front of the nostiila. 

M. Batntttii, Bennett's False GaviaL 

M. oofapArMM {OneodHnM eaiaplvraettu of Cuvier), like FiIm 
GaviaL 



IM CROCODILID^. 

M. Joumti (.Cracodiliu intermtdiv* of Qraves), Jouraej'B Falie 
Qavul. 

Oraead^iu. — Jaw» oblong dapresMd, tapering, rather dilated at the 
end. Teeth uneau&l, lower canines fitting into a. notch in the eide of 
the upper jaw. Feet fringed; toeg webbed to Uie tip. Nuchal and 
cervical plataB forming a dieo separated from the danul one by imall 
gnumlar ecalsB. The head of the newly hatched gpeoimeiia ia ihort, 
but it gradually eloogatee, and after ■ short time attaini the form 
proper to the species ; and, through the bones becoming more solid by 
increasing age, they only slightly alter the relative proportiona of the 
different puts, so tbat the form of the bead, taken with the ehielding 
of the back, affords good characters for the determination of the 

C. poronu, the Indian Crocodile. 

C. bomh^rvai, the Large-Headed Indian Crocodile. 

C rkoiMiftr, the Aqua Palin. 

C. Jmericantu, the American Crocodile. 

C. margirtatut, the Margined Crocodile. 

C nigarii, the Epyptiaa Crocodile. 

C. paiitilTii, the Muggar, or Goa Crocodile. 

C. Irigonopt, the Wide-Faced Crocodile. 

(7. pUmirottrit, Oravee'i Crocodile. 

C. SiamtTttii, the Siamese Crocodile. 

Fam. II. Allioatoridx (Alligators). 
Synopui of the Genera. 

Canine teeth of the lower jaw fitting into a pit in the odge of 
the upper jaw. It is a native of the New World. 

/ocarc— Jaws oblong, depressed, with a rii^ auross the face 
between the eyes. Hind feet scarcely webbed. Nostrils with a car- 
tilaginous aeptiim. EyeUds Seahy. 

JJIuj'iCor,-— Jaws oblong, depreesed, with a small longitudinal rib 
between the orbits. Uind feet webbed. Nostrils separated by a 
bouy septum. 

Caiman Jaws oblong, depresaad. Hind feat scarcely webbed. 

Nostrils a cartilaginous septum. Syelids with three bony plates. 

Jacart. — Head oblong, depressed, with a ridge across the face before 
the eyes, rounded in front. Teeth unequal, canlnee of lower jaw 
each fitting into a pit in the upper jaw. Toes scarcely webbed. 
Nuehal and cervical plates united into one group. Eyelids fleshy, 
only partially bony. Nostrils only separated by a cartilage. 

/ fiuipa, the Sroad-Headed Yacare. 

/. icleropi, the Yacare. 

J. nigra, the Black YacBi«. 

/. fanaidata, the Spatted Yacare. 

/. valiifTom, Natterer's Yacare. 

Alligator. — Jaws oblong, very depressed, broad, nearly parallel, 
rounded in front Forehead witti a small longitudinal ridge between 
the orbits. Teeth unequal, the lower canines received into a pit in 
the edge of the upper jaw. Nuchal and cervical plates separate. 
Feet fringed behind ; toes half webbed, the outar front toe free. 
Nostrils separated by a bony septum arising from the outer edge. 
North America. The muzzle elongates by age. 

A. ifiirinpcTUit (Qiay), A. Lueitu of others, the Alligator. 

Coiiiian.— Jaws oblong, depressed, subpyramidica], rounded, and 
swollen at the end, without any frontal ridges or maiillaiy pita. 
Forehead flat and smooth. Teeth — , unequal, lower ouiine t«eth 

fitting into a pit in the inner edge of the upper Jaw. Eyebrows 
defended with three bony platea. Toes scarcely webbed. Nuchal 
and cervical plates united into one group (I). Tropical America. 

C. Irigonalut. — The Trigonal Caiman. 

C. palptbratia. — The Eyebrowed Caiman. 

C. gibbicept. — The Swollen-Headed Caiman. 

With regard to the diffeiences between the above-named gAiera, Du- 
ndril and Bihrcn observe that nothing better distinguishes the Craco- 
diliu ft»m the Alligators than Uie narrowness of the muzele behind the 
nostrils, a uarrownen which is produced by the deep natch on each side 
of the upper maodible serving for the passage of the fourth la wrr tooth. 
The Oavuls, it is true, have similar notches, which are destined for 
Ihe same purpose ; but at the extremity of the muzzle they have also 
two others far the reoeption of the front lower teeth ; in heu of this 
the front lower teeth in the Crocodiles pierce the upper mandible 
through and through- The horizontal contour of the head of the 
Crocodiles rppresents in general the figure of an isosceles triangle 
more or less elongated, depending upon the size of the jaws ; but in 
no case is the mussle wider than that of the Caimans, nor more slander 
than that of the Qavials. The Crocodiles have, hke the fanner, their 
jaws fsstuoned, as it were, oa their sides, and their teeth unequal, but 
in leas numlier, because they have never been observed with mora 
than 19 on each side above, and ]S on each aide below. The cranial 
holes are larger than they are in the Ci^imans, and less wi<le than they 
are in the Gaviala Their diameter is always found to be less than 
that of the orbits. The nssal aperturo is oval or aubciroular. There 
is a very small bony plats in the thickncaa of the upper eyelid. 



CB0CODII.ID.fi 



tOD 



The same remark, ns to the length of tiie head in proportion to it« 
width at the three piincipal epodis of life, applies to the Cumans M 
well as to the Crocodiles. 

The greater part of the Sauriana of this group have the hind too*. 
the three eitemol ones at least, united up to their extremity^ by a wida 
natatory membrane. There are indeed some nevertheless in which it 
is shorter, and one species, CroeodUtu rhombifer, wants the membrane 
almost entirely, in the interval of the two inner toes. With about 
two exceptions, all the Crocodiles have the posterior border of t^o 
1^ fumished with a dentilated crest formed of flattened scales. Tb« 
two species which are said not to present tl 
dilw jiiantnwtrtt and O. rhonbifer. 



is character are CVvcO- 



b, ikoU of Allifattr ZuiIum, 



a, hind KwtoC Caiman 1 », htnd foM of Crecedlle. 
Only ona species among the Crooediles (Jftnttoju Btnneltii, C. eala- 
pkraelvi) has its cervical scales similar, in regard to the extent which 
they occupy on the neck, to those of the Caimans ; that is to say, 
they form a long band commencing behind the nape, and prolonging 
themselves to the first dorsal olatea. In the olhen, the cervical 
armour occupies about the middle of the neck ; so that there remains 
before and behind it a considerable space devoid of bony pieces. The 
scales which cover the sides of the body are flat in some, carinated in 
otbeiB, and there are some wMoh are provided with both aorta. The 
cuiuM Bpriu3;iu5 from the toll-platoa to form the creet which sur- 



BSi CROCODILID^ 

mounte that p«rt ■!« in general lower, of lua coanliiUiicB, antt leu 5t 
(hui thoM in the Cainiuii. Crocodilut Thombifcr must however 
Hccpted; for th» caudal eredt of 



Zoologiatii aLuiu to be agreed iu 
allowing that then u ncaroely anj 
genu of Beptilea the species ot 
irhich are so difficult to be disUn- 
guiehed ftvm each other aa thoaa 
of OneodSMt. CnmdUitt vuigaru, 
the Egyptian Crocodile, maj be 
takcD a* a ^pe of the gmiis to 
«hicb it beloogi and of the whole 
fuuilj. It haa the follaving chaiao- 

ten :~-JawB not elongated into a , ' 

pimnr h^k. Hind feet kigely 
palmated, and with a feitooned cmt 
along their posteiior border. Six 
nrrical platea. Boreal scutcheons 
or shields quadrangular, and sur- 
mounted bj aix lougitudiiial rOWs of 
carinas but little elevated. 

It ts the CroeadHtu ai^thiiiiit Kntkel and ccrrieil pUlta, ke., at 
mUiieru, Loch. ; Le Crocodile du eraaiiiiliirnilfarU. 

Nil, Daud. ; Cntvdilut vnigaru. 

Cot. ; OneodUiu rulfarv, ^iedm. ; La Crocodile Tulgaire, Cut. j the 
ComiDon Crocodile, Qrifil, ' Animal Kingdom ;' Laeerta CrocodU»4, 
Una. ; C. Champtei, B017 ; C. IdranonM, Oeoff. ; C. eomplamalut, 
Geoff 

Hosn. Dumiril and BibtODDuke four varietiM of this ipeeies. The 
first TBiiety haa the following ebaiacten : — Hunle a little narrowed, 
ntbei flat than arched acroaa, with small hollows and chauneliDgii, 
which are now aod then wono-ahaped, on its surfaoe. Table of the 
■kull entirely flat Back green, speckled with black ; two or three 
oblique bands of the UstrmentioDed oolour on each Bank. The author* 
giTe the following ■rnomyni) : — 

OncodOuj vy^rii, Qeoff, ' Ann. Mus.' torn. i. p. 67 ; ' Deacript 
Ern>-'('Hiat.Kat.')tom. L p. 8; Atlaa, pL 2, flg. 1, 2 : (7. ruZ^ofu, 
' Heir. Amph.' p. 37, siiec ; C. Ckampm, Bory de St Vincent, 
'Dirt. Claa. tom. v. p. 105; 0. tvlgarit, Geoff, 'Crocod. d'Egypla," 
It 159; C. tonHonw, OeoE, 'Croc d'Egyple,' p. 107; C. wigarii, 
way, ' Synops. Rept.' part i. p. (17. ipeo. 1. 

lliiB, as well a* the following rariety, la that to wUch those indivi- 
dnals wboaa jawi are the least narrowed belong. The jaws bave not 
indeed the aame width in all, but it may be said genenlly that their 
width, when meaaured at the ninth upper tooth, is only one-aerenth 
of the lengUi of the head meaaured from the and of the noae to the 
occiput. There are some indinduals of this Tariety wboas upper 
nundible praaents a neariy flat aurface ; that ii to aay, the extreme 
edge of ita oontonr is the only part which declines towards the lower 
jaw. As ao euunple of this group Heani. Dumdril And Bibron refer 
to th« indiTidaal brought from Egypt by U. Oeof&oy, and wbicb 
both Cuvier and himself haTe- liken as the type of Omtodibi* 



CR0CODILID.fi. KB 

that hiatocian to the locality of Elephantine alone, nor to any parti- 
cular species. OeoSroy obMrvM that the Crocodile still beua ill 
Egypt the name of Tenua, which H. Champollian thought he recog- 
nised upon many papyri, as mahah, a word which he r^arded aa 
formed of tbe preposition ' m,' * in,* and the subatantive ' aah/ ' egg.* 
With regard to the Suchus, 1L Champollian, tbe younger, states t^t 
tbe Egyptians gave ths name of Souk to a deity which they repr*- 
sented as a man with a Crocodile's head. We refer those who wish 
to follow out this, part of the subject more especially to the ancient 
authon above mentioned, to U. OeofTroy St. Hilaiie, to Curier, and to 
tbe Tolmne on Egyptian Antiquities in the ' Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge;' obaening only that the EgypUana ornamented their 
tame Crocodiles by banging rings of gold and precious stones in the 
opercula of their ears, wbiob they pierced for the purpose, adorned 
their fore feet with braoeleta, and pnaented them in tbia finery to the 
Tenenition ot tbe people. They also fed them well Cake, roaat meat, 
and mulled wine were oooaaionally crammed and poured down their 
throats. Pliny. £lian, and othen, did little hut oopy what preceding 
writers bad written upon thia subject ; bnt wa learn from the former 
that the Romans fint saw tbem in the ndilnhip of Scaurua, who 
" ■"■ ' " n into an amphi- 

idiatora. 
:d that CrvcodHia vfjgarit is no longer seen in the Delta, but 
that it is found, sometimes in great numbera, in the Thebaid and the 
Upper Nile. 

The eharaeton of the genua Oavvilit are giTen above. 

The upper mandible of the Qaviala ia nevsr pierced for the intro- 
mioaion of the teeth of the lower jaw, as it is in CnKodilut; but tbera 
are four large notches whiohaarveaslodgmenta for the first and fourth 
pair of lower teeth. The Qaviils are beeidea distinguished by the 
narrowness and length preeented by the anterior part of their head 
and jaWB, which resemble a aort of stnught beak spread out at its 
origin, Bubcylindrical for the greateet part of its length, and termi- 
nating in a ught circular enlargement at its extremity. These jaws 
are rectilinear, and not undulated as in Alligator and Croeodilut. The 
number of teeth with which these narrow mandibles are armed is also 
greater than in nther of the laat-meutioned ganen, amounting ordi- 
narily in OantOu to 118 or 120, all of which are equal, with the 
eicsption of thoaa which compose the five or aiz first pain above a* 
well aa below. The post^rblto-crBBia] holes are oval, and larger thaa 
they are in Crocodilut, for tbeir diameter approaches that of th« 
orbits themselves. The eileroal orifioe of the nasal foaasa, or rather 
if the long canal, which H. Oeoffivy St. Hitaire haa termed oranio- 



tilaginona maaa. Thia prominence ia a kind of sac divided i: 
portions internally, the aperture of which ia backwards and a little 
below. Aa in the Crocodile^ the eyelid contains in its substance ■ 
rudiment of a bony plate. 

The hind feet of the Oavials are formed for the most part in tbe 
same manner as those of the ro^ority of species of CrotodOitt : that is 
to say, there are long and wide webs between the toea, and the poet*- 
rior part of the leg ia fumiahed with a dentilatad crest. The cervical 
platoB of the Qaviala form a long band on the neck, as in the Caimans, 
and in one species only of Crocodile. Theacaleaof theflanksareflstand 



ZnP'laB Crocodile {Cntoii 
The second variety is the C. pattulrii, Leaa., ' Toy. Ind. Orient.' ; 
Bell, ' ZooL Bepl' p. 309 : C. vaigaru, tax., E., Gray, ' Synopa. Kept' 
p.B8. 

The third variety is C. marginalm, Qeoff, ' CrocoJ. d'Egypte,' p. 
IBS ; C. vnigaru, vsr., B., Gray, ' Synopa. Kept.' part. i. p. SB. 
The fourth variety is the C. tomplanaivi, C. Suchvt, Qeoff 
It may be expected that we should notice the nncient hiatoi; of 
an fnJTwl held aocred by the Egyptiana, and even elevated by tnem 
to tbe lank of a deity, for it was certainly one of the symbols of 
Typhon. Herodotus, Aristotle, Diodorua, Strabo, and Plutarch, wiU 
be md with interest on Una subject While it waa wonhipped id one 
part of Egypt under the name of Suchua or Souchis, it was eaten at 
Elephantine. Cuvier observes that the term Zoix", or 3aixii woa 
only applied to the sacred individuEl, aa Apis, Unevta, and Facia wera 
amellatioDB of the deified bulla of Memphis, Heliopolis, and Hermon- 
this respectively, and not intended to designate particular races of 
oitn. GeoO^y St. Hilaire ia of a different opinion from Cuvier, who 
Conoidered that Champaa,* aa used by Herodotos, was not applied by 
• Kaifnm U li ■(•■OiiiUa, aJUt xsf^iu— DdI I1i*r are nDlulltd CroHdils. 



"be carina which surmount the bony pieces forming the dorsal 
cuiraaa aiw low, but the ciest of the toil is very much elevated 
throughout the whole of ita length. 

The Caimans and Crocodiles, in tbeir youth, have the head abort in 
proportion to the uze which it eihibita at their full growth. Ths 
contrary obtains among the Qaviala, for in them the head is propor- 
tionally lor,' T in youth than it is in age, ao that it has the appearance 
of becoming ahorter as Uie nnimul increases in ai^ (thitndril and 
Bibron.) 

0. OangOieiu, the Narrow-Beaked Crocodile of ths Ganges, Edw., 
' PhiL Trsns.' It ia the OmcodOtu wuixilii* Itrelibiu siiicy/uKtmeeis, 
' OroDov. Zooph. ;' OrMedUui, Herck, ' Hess. Beytr.' ( Laecria OoKgt- 
tica, Qmel. ; Le Qavial, Laoip., ' Hiat Quad. Ovip. ;' Le Qavial, Bonn., 
' Encyc Mith, ;' Crocodile du Gange ou Gaviat Fa^j. Saint Fond, 
' Hist Uont Saint-Pierre ;' CncodUut Umgiroint, Schneid., ' Hiat 
Amph. ;' Le Qavial, Latr., ' HiatL Repl ;' Qangetic Crocodile, Shaw, 
' Gener. Zool. ;' Cricodiiui aretiratlrii, C. lonfirotlrii, Daud., 'Hiat 
Rent, i' C. lomimtrit, C. (enairosfrit, Cuv., 'Ann. Uus. Hist Nat;' 
C. Gangtlicui, C. tttHtimlrii, Tied,, 0pp. und Liboscb, ' Notuig. Ampb. ,■* 
O'atiaiii Itityirotliii, 0. ItnuimttiM, Hen., 'Amph.;' Vrocoditut 



W3 CROCODILID^ 

tmu/troitru, C. (mutrw(i-i», Cuv., ' On. Fou.;' Le Orand QiTittl, Le 
PeUt Q»rial, Boiy dfl St Vinoant, 'Diet. Claffl, d'Hiit Nat;' 
Crocodilta Gangelicui, C. Itnitiroilru, Geoff., ' Mim. Mus. d'Hiit Nat ;' 
Le Giivial du GangB, Cut., 'Keg. Anim. ;' (jcmia/ii (mnirDi(rt(,Quer,, 
' Icon. Itejr. Anim. ; ' Shampluuloiaa le»Miroiire,WagL, ' NaturL Syat 
Amph.;' Gavudit Gangeticiu, Onr, 'Sjaova. Eapt :' the Oavial of 
the GBngM, Qriff., ' Aaim. Kingd.' 

The head of the Osvial may be considered u franied of two porta ; 
one anterior and long, almoat cylindrical in form, more or lea flat- 
t«ued ; the other poiterior and short presenting the Ggur« of a 
dopressed hexahedron, wider behind than before. The jaws constitute 
the anterior pui. or beak, which is long, stnught, aud of eitreme 
narrowneaa, but not, properly speaking, ojlindricaL It ie j-aided, 
but the angles are rounded. Itspreads out at ita base and terminatoa 
in front so aa to recal to the obBerrsr the beak of the SpoonbilL Its 
vertical diameter is throughout loaa than its tranaveraal diameter. 




CR0CODILID£. im 

heak, at a small distance tram its tenmnal border. Tlie ^lertan U 
senulunar, at the bottom of whieh may be psroeiTed a oftrtilaginoiia 
plate, which dividea it longitudinally id two. The edges of this 
opening fom two lipa, which appear to have the power of approaching; 
each other, so aa to cloee the aperture hermetically. The anterior of 
these is cunilinear, end the porterior rectilinear ; in the femaln and 
in young subjects they are very delicate and qnitesoftj but is the 
old males tbe anterior lip not only arrives at a caitit^iiuras c<m- 
listence, but a development that carries it backwards u &r ai Iha 
seventh pair of teeth, and triples the thickness of the muiile. This 
pouch, or cartilaginous sac, with two compartmenti, ia of a snb-onl 
form, and is notohed behind so aa to form two very thick ronnded 
lobea. Above these ia, on the mesial line and in front ■ cordiTonu 

Erominenoe, on each side of which is a deep fold in the form of the 
itter 8. This sac has ita opening, which is coomon to it and the 
nostrils, below. This apparatus ia the nasal pntse or poudi (bouraa 
nasale} of H. Oeoffitiy, and in hii opinion performs the otBca of ■ 
ressrvoir of air for Uie animal whan plunged beneath the maztto» of 

The anterior limb ia nearly on^-faalf longer than that part of the 
body which Ilea between the anterior and posterior limbs of the same 
aide. The hinder limb ia about two-thirda of the same inl«mL The 
third toe is longest in all the feet The three middle teas of the fore 
foot are united at thur base by a very short membrane : the other 
two toes are free, aa well aa tiie first toe of (he portsrior f est ; bnt 
id, third, and fourth of these last are nnited by a thick 



ill orihe Great aBTiaI((7aiiiatii Oanfflina), bkb rrom mbar*i t, loner 
Jaw at Gatlal, anoLhtr inBlridiua ; c, prsflle of the akuU et aaiial ; d, auUine 
of Ihe hfetl corr rtd with tb« iDt^untBta. 

The hew), properly so called, that is, the part situated behind the 
beak, has its sides straight and perpendicular. The upper Burface ia 
quadrilateral The poet-orbital portion ia flat and smooth, except 
that one can perceive through the ektn the subtriangular or ovoid 
holes with which the skull is dotted. The other portion is consider- 
ably inclined forwards, and mostly occupied by the eyes, the interval 
between which forms a slight gutter-like dsprssaion. The mandible 
is not continued from the forehead by a gradual alope as it is in the 
Crocodiles, but sinks suddenly to follow a straight and nearly hori- 
■ontal direction, on a line with the inferior edge of the orbit At the 
extremity of this upper mandible arc the four notches for the passage 
of the first and fourth lower teeth when the mouth ia shut Two of 
these Dotchea are very deep, and situated quite in front : the other 
two are moderate, and placed one on tbe right the other on the left 
behind the spatuliform termination of the beak, where it is alightly 
constricted. 

The division of tbe lower jaw into two branches does not com- 
mence till towards the twenty-aecond or twenty-third tooth. The 
fint ten upper teeth, among which the two anterior teeth are the 
least separated, are implanted in the intermaxillary bone, and the 
greater portion of the teeth of the upper mandible are longer than 
the correeponding teeth of the lower jaw. Up to tbe ninel«enth or 
twentieth pair they are turned a little outwarda, ao that when the 
mouth is shut the upper teeth paaa over the sides of the lower jaw, 
and the lower teeth over the sides of the upper. The lest six pairs 
are straight or nearly ao. so that the points of the one set correspond 
exactly with the intervijs of the other. The first the third, and the 
fourth above, and the 6rst second, and fourth below, are the longest 
Tbey are in general a tittle curved and slightly oompreased from 
before backwards, and are veiy slightly trenchant right and left. 
Hardly more than the laat eight or nine on each side are nearly 
oouic^ Slight vertical ridgea show themselves on the surface of the 
teeth of old individuals. 

Under the throat about the middle of the brancbe* of the maxillary 
bone, are utuated, one on tiie right and Uie other on the left side, the 
musky glands. 

The external orifice of the nostrila opens on tbe upper side of the 



with a free border, which is notched a_ ,. 

circularly between the toea. The noils are alightly arched. 

The naps supports two strong scutcheons, surmounted by a carina, 
more compressed behind than it is before. Their form ia oval, and 
their height nearly eaual to their width. There is sometimn a 
small scutcheon on eaoh side of these. This ia the case in one of the 
largest individuals ; namely, that described by Lac^pide, and flgnred 
by F^ujas de Saint-Fond in bis 'History of St Petw's Mountain,' at 
Haaetricht, The cervical scutcheons, to the number of four pain, 
form a longitudinal band, which eitanda from two-thirds of Ihe length 
of the neck to the dorsal ahield. The firet two are triangular, the 



Noehal and cerrial pUtcs, Ac., of Iwa IndiTldoBls of Onialll GangtlUat, 

ttaa CuTier. 
The upper part of the body ia transversely cut by eighlaen faanda 
f osseous plates, with equal carina, which consequently form four 
ingitudiiuu rows all down the back. The plates of the two lateral 
:iWB are squared, and rather smaller than those of the mesial rows, 
which are also four-sided ; but their longitudinal diameter is lev thaa 
their tianaveisaL A longitudinal row of other carinated acatcheona 
borders this doml cuirass on the right and on the left for a part of 
length. The Banka, the aidea of tha neck, and a portion of its 
upper part are covered with oval fiat ecalos of moderate aixe. Tho 
tail is surronnded by from thirty-four to forty scaly circlea, the num- 
ber vaiying in di&^nt individuals. The dentilat«d crest does not 
'- veiy parceptible till towards the sixth or seventh drcle : its 



is delicate and 

flexible. The acalea which clothe the lower partji of the body are quadri- 
Utera], oblong, and perfectly smooth: there are needy alxty tranam«e 
from the chin to the rent, and, like those of the flanks, th^ ars 
all pierced with a small pore on (he middle of their posterior border. 

Crotected above with rhomboidal scales : th« 
eir external edge ; the posterior limbs from ttxe 
hock (jarret) to the little toe have a row forming a serrated edga. 
The surfaos of the natatory membransa is covered with graunlous 

Tbe grooDd-oolonr of the upper part* is a deep watei^firasii, on 
which are often toattand mmsTons oblong irregular brown spot*. 



W CROCODILID.'E. 

In ymuuriuloeetB Uie ImcIc and limb* ua tmurenaly btuidad with 
bUok. Tho lowta region of tlia body ia yary pale yellow or whitish. 
Tha jawB mrs aprinklcd with brown. Tha luuls u« of » dear honi 
eolour. (Dtim^ and Blbcon.) 

The OaTial of the Oangsa a luppoeed to be tbe largeat of Uia liying 
Sauriaus. The meaBunmaat of the largset maationed by Heaan. Du- 
aJrilandBibTfin iigiian atS metree, 40 osntimetna (17 feat 8 iuchea). 

CnTiflT waa led to think, principally from the figuree published I^ 
Ftnjaa de Saint-Pond, that there was mors than one ipecies of 
Oanal, and on lubsaquent inquiry dlttinguiihed two, the Oreat 
QiTial and the Little Qmal ; but he waa i^rwardi latiifled, from 
tha e i« mm >tion of namerou* apecinien^ that age alone made the 
diSeranoe betweea them. 

Fotnl Orotodilida. 



"In the liring ■abf^anaim of <Aa Crocodilean familr." obaerrea 
T. Bnckbad (' Bridgewater Treatin,' p. 250), " we aee Uie elongated 
IT beak of the Qarial of the Oangea conitruoted to feed on 



fiihea ; whilst the ahurter and itrongar inout of the broad-DOsed 
ODcoditea and aJligatora give* tham tbe power of Hiiing and 
dsTouriug quadnipeda that oome to the banki of riven in hot ooun- 
triea to drink. Aa there were scarcely any Mammalia during tha 
■Bcondary periods, whilst tha waters were abundantly stored with 
fishes, we might, k priori, eipeot that if any crocodilean forms had 
then anrted, they would moirt nearly have resembled -the modem 
Qariil : and WB have hitherto found only thoaa genera which have 
aloBgatcd bxW in formations anterior to and including theobalk; 
•rliilst true crocodiles with a short and broad snout like that of the 
aiman and the alligator appear for the first time in strata of tha 
tertiary periods, in which the remains of MamtiuJia abound." 

The ganna Semauaiinu of Oeofl^y St. Uilaire appears to come tha 
■Karat in its conformation to the living Gavial, and a general idea of 
the structura of tho mnasle and anterior nasal aperture will be 
derived from the following cut of a specimen from Ham ; whilst 



Huxla at SUruo^mmnu, from Dr. BuoUsnd, who qnoi 
in TUrajtmrw* (Geoff), though then is aonsideiable siniilarity In the 
genanl contour of the head and jaws, the confarmation of the muzzle 
sod naml apertnre is very different from that of the living Saurian, 
the anlarior termination of that aperture forming almost a lartlcal 
notion of the extceniity of the upper mandibla. 




n rroiB above; b, bead of soother 
ladl'iidaal of the tana spceies seen from below, ifaawlgf tba lower Jaw ; 
louUiT or both, liss In tbe naiglibaarbooil of Whitby ; e, indda view of 
inlerier eitreniltT at lower Jsir : localltf. Great OeUM at Enskiw dov Wood- 
Modi, Oion. rrom 



Anterior aitremitiei of the beak oi 



In his moDograpb on ths ' Fosail Reptilia ' of tbe London Clay, 
published by the Palieontographical Society, Professor Owen describes 
tbe foUowing apedea of extinct Eaydoaaurians. 

Oixodtlau TWtOfiifWi. It ia the Crooodile do Sheppey of Cnvier; 
C. Spoiceri of Backlandi in hia ■ Bridgewater TreatJae,' and of Boss In 
the ■ Beport* of the British Asaociation,' ISll. 

It was Fonod originally in the Eocene beds of Sheppey, and waa Brst 
dsKribed by Bsjon Ciirier trom a specimen in the collection of H. 
Delue of Qeneva. Professor Owaa doubia if the skull figured by Dr. , 



CROCODILIDJL 

Buckland (and given below) as C. Spaiceri is identical with a n 
perfect specimen of this species now in tha British Museum, £ 
which he has given his own desuription. 



C. Champioida (Owen). This species seems also to have been 
included in Buckland's C, Spenceri, and Cuvier's Crocodile da Sheppey. 
This species has been eBlabliabed from a skull in ths poeaoaion of 
Hr. Bowerbank, and although not to be clearly identified with Buck- 
land's C. SpenKtri morq nearly resemblea it than C. Tuliapieut. 

"Tha evidences," says Professor Owen, "of Crocodilean Beptilee 
from the deposits at Stieppey, less oharacteristio than thoas above 
described, are abundant. Hr. Bowerbank posaeasee numerous rolled 
and fractured rertebne, condyloid BKtremities, and other portiona of 
long bones, with fragmenta of jaws and teeth." In relation to the 
two Sherosy spedes he ssys, " Amongst the existing species of Croco- 
dile, the C. aevlMi of the West Indies offers the nearest approach to 
the C. Ttiiapiau ; and the C. SMigdii of Borneo most resemblea the 
C. Clurnqmida." 

C, Hailingria (Owen). Tbe specimen upon which thii species i« 
eatabllshed was discoTered by the Uarcbtoneaa of Hastinga in tha 
Gooene Freah-Waterdepoails of the Eordwell CliA in Hampai^, which 
her ladyship has described in the volume of ' Heports of the British 
Aasociation' for 1817. 

AUigati>r Hantcmiauit (Searlea Wood). The spedmsns of tbia 
foaail differ from the last in the exposed oondition of the inferior 
canines when the mouth is shut. Although this distinction is rnffi- 
oient to separate tbe eiiating species of Crocodiles and Alligators, 
Frofesaor Owen is iadiced to doubt whether it may not be In thia 
cass a mere accidental variety, 

ChitMit Dixmi (Owen). The temains on which this species is 

' ' " bed were disoaversd by the late Mr. Frederick Dixon in the 
dnraaitBOf Biaeklashun. 

[eluding tha monogiaph in which these Fossil Crooodilea aia 
dcocrflMd a ■ " " ' 



minutely d 



1 and flgnred, and ths skeletal anatomy of th« 



remuns of the Proocslian Cmeoddia that have been discovered in 
Eooene dspodta of Enijand, the great degres of cUmatal and geogra- 
phical dimge, whioh this put of Europe must have undergone ainoa 
the period whan every known generic form of that group of reptiles 
flourished here, most be fordbly impressed upon tbe mind. 

"At the present day theoonditiana of earth, air, water, and warmth, 
which are indispensable to the existence and propagation of tbeea 
moat gigantic of living Saurians, concur only in the tropical or warmer 
temperate latitudes of the globe. Crooodiles, Gavials, and Alligatura 
now requite, in order to put forth in fnll vigour the powers of theb 
ooki-blooded oonalitiition, the stimuloa of a large amount of aolar 



he»t, with ample veige of watery space for the evolutions whioh thn 

nd diqrasal of thaur pr^. Manhes with 

laige rivets, aneh aa the Oambia and Niger 



tnots of Africa, or thoes that inundate 
the country tllToug^ whidi they run, nther periodically, aa thp Ifile 
for example, or with boundless forest and savannahs, like thoss 
ploughed in evsr vaiying channelaky the force of the mighty Amaxon 
or Onnoco, — such fenn the theatres of the destructive eiisteuoe of tha 
carnivorous and predacious Crooodilean Septilea. And what then 
must have been the extent and configuration of the Eoome oontinsnt 
which was drained by the rivers that deposited the ma—is of day 
and sand accumulated in some parts of the London and Eampahire 
baains to the height of 1 000 feet, and farming tbe graveyard of count- 
leas Crooodilea and Gaviala. Wliither tended that great atream one* 
the haunt of aUigaton and tha resort of taper-like quadrupeds, the 
sandy bed of whioh is now exposed on the upheaved face of Hord- 
wsll Clifff Had any of the human kind existed and traversed t^e 
land where now the base of Britain risea from the ocean, he might 
have vritoessed the Oavial deaving the waters of its native river with 
the velocity of an arrow, and ever and anon rearing its long and 
ler snout above the waves, and making the banks re«ho with 
Qud and sharp anapjung of its formidably armed jaws. He might 

watched the dea<fly stmggle between uie Crocodile and Palteo- 

thera, and have been himself warned "isj the hoarse and deep bellow- 
ings of ths Alligator from the dangerous ricinity of ita retreat. Oor 
fossil evidancu supply us with ample materials for this most straaga 



S07 



CROCOISITE. 



CROTALIDiE, 



S08 



picture of the animal life of anoient Britain ; and what adds to the 
singularity and interest of the restored ' tableau vivant ' is the fact» 
that it oould not now be presented in any part of the world. The same 
forms of Crocodilean Reptile it is true stiU exist, but the habitat» of 
the Gavial and the Alligator are wide asunder, thousands of miles of 
land and ocean interrening : one is peculiar to the tropical riyers of 
continental Asia, the other is restricted to the warmer latitudes of 
North and South America ; both forms are excluded from Africa, in 
the rivers of which continents true Crocodiles alone are found. Not 
one representative of the Crocodilean order naturally exists in any 
part 01 Europe : yet every form of the order once flourished in 
close proximity to each other in a territory which now forma part of 
England." [Sdpp.] 
CROCOISITE, a native Chromate of Lead. [Lead.] 
CROCUS, a beautiful genus of Iridaceous Plants, oonsiBting of 
many hardy species, some of which are among the commonest orna- 
ments of gardens. Crocuses are chiefly found in the middle and 
southern parts of Europe and the Levant, three only being wild with 
us, namely Crwvn nvdi^orutf which is abundant in the meadows near 
Nottingham, C. vemva and C, tativus. Botanists have found it ex- 
tremely difficult to ascertain by what precise technical marks the 
species are to be distinguished. We do not propose to o<Scupy our- 
selves with that subject, but shall rather enumerate briefly the names 
and localities of such as are apparently distinct ; so that those who 
wish to form a complete collection of these pretty flowers may know 
where to look for them, and when their task ia accomplished. 

* Vernal Species. 

C, vemu8. This is the common Purple or White Crocus of our 
gardens in the spring. It has produced a multitude of florists' varie- 
ties, some of which are extremely beautiful and well marked. Its 
root^oats are finely netted, its flowers scentless, and the throat of 
the tube of the flower ooveied with haurs. C. albiflonu and O. ohoveAiu 
are varieties of it. It is said to be wild in some parts of England, 
but it may have been introduced. It is certainly wild on the Alps, 
particularly of the Tyrol, Piedmont, Switserland, Sal£bux*g, and 
Carinthia, descending to the sesrcoast at FriulL It is also found on 
the mountains of the Abruzzi and elsewhere, in similar situations in 
the kingdom of Naples, associating itself with oaks, chestnuts, and 
similar trees, and not existing at elevations exceeding 6000 feet 

C. veraicohr, the common Sweet-Soented Variegated Spring Crocus. 
There are not many varieties of it, all of which are recogniseid by the 
root-coats not being cut circularly, the yellow tube of the flower 
hairless, and the sweet scent. It grows wild about Nizza (Nice), and 
in all the eastern parts of Provence. 

C. hifloruB, the Scotch Crocus. The beautiful pencilled sepals 
and clear or bluish-white petals of this species distinguish it at once ; 
added to which the root-coats are cut round into circular segments, 
a circumstance that occurs in no other species. It is a native of the 
most southern parts of Italy; growing wild in sterile subalpine 
pastures in the kingdom of Naples, and in similar situations in Sicily. 
Our garden plants are merely a cultivated state of the C. ptuiUus of 
the Italians. 

C. Impeniti^ This is little known in England. Its leaves 
appear long before the flowers, and are glaucous and spreading. The 
petals and sepals are a delicate violet inside, but externally white ; 
the petals are almost whole-coloured and pale purple, except at the 
base ; the sepals are strongly feathered with rich purple. A white 
and a whole-coloured variety of it are said to exist. It differs from 
C. biJhruM in its root-coats being membranous, and not cut circularly, 
and from C. verneohr in the tube of the flower not being haiiy. It 
inhabits low hills and woods in the kingdom of Naples, on Capri, on 
Mount S. Angelo di Castellamare, and elsewhere. It is supposed that 
C. ftMiveo2«iif is at most only a variety of this. 

0, IvteuB or nustiacui, the Laige Tellow Crocus. It is charac- 
terised by veiy large whole-coloured flowers, and laige roots, with 
coarsely netted coats. It is an oriental plant> but its exact locality is 
unknovpL 

C. aurau, the Small Tellow Crocus, by no means so common as 
the lasty of which it is probably a variety. Its flowers are smaller and 
deeper coloured, and it has a pale cream-coloured variety. Dr. 
Sibthorp found it wild on the hills of the Morea. 

C, ttuianuB, the Cloth-of-Qold Crocus. This species is well 
known for its coarsely-netted root-skin, and small deep yellow flowers, 
the sepals of which are feathered with dark chocolate brown, and are 
rolled back when expanded under sunshine. It is a native of the 
Crimea, the Ukraine, and the other parts of south-western Russia : it 
is also believed to be a Turkish plant; and localities are given for it 
' under the name of C. reticttkttuBf on mountains near Trieste, in woods 
near Lippizza, in FriuU, and in Hungary, in the lordship of Tolna. A 
remarkable variety with deep purple flowers exists, but it is extremely 
rare. 

O. titdUUua and O. nUphureua are pale and probably hybrid varieties 
of C. luteus. They have never been seen except in gardens, and are 
the least pretty of the genus. 

* * Autumnal Species. 
(7. tcUivutt the common Saffron Crocus, an eastern plants culti- 
vated from time immemorial for the sake of its long reddish-orange 



drooping stigmas, which, when dried, form the saffron of the shops. 
Its Asiatic localities are not known ; in Europe it grows i^parenUy 
wild in the south of Tyrol, and is said to have been found near Ascoli, 
and on the Alps of Savoy. Its British station is in all probability to 
be ascribed to accident. 

C. odorus, the Sicilian Saffi:on. This species, which has also 
been named C, Umgijlorut, is found in mountain pastiures in Cedabri% 
and in both mountainous and maritime situations through all Sicily, 
where its stigmas are collected instead of those of the true safi&on. 
Its blossoms are sweet-scented, and are known at first sight from the 
stigmas not hanging out of the flower, but standing upright and 
inclosed within it The tube of its flower is very long. 

C, Thomatiif a Calabrian plant, found in mountain woodSb It 
is said to have coarsely-netted root-coats, fragrant saffron-l^e trun« 
cated stigmas inclosed within the flower, which appears long after the 
leaves, and has a bearded throat. It exists in English gardens, but is 
veiT^ rare. 

U. nudi/hrus. The flowers appear without the leaves, and tlie 
root-coats are slightly netted. The stigmas aro divided into many 
deep narrow segments. The plant is not rare in many parts of 
Europe, flowering about the time of the Colchicum, to a small species 
of which it at first sight bears much resemblance. C tpeciosut, 
C. muUiJidfUf C. meditiSf aro mero varieties or synonymous names of 
this plajit. 

C. ecrotinus. This requires to be compared with C. odorut, to 
which it approaches very nearly, if it be not the same thing. 

The Crocus delights in a dry situation and a rich light sandy soil. 
In such a place and soil it flowers profusely and produces lai^e roots ; 
but in a wet poor soil it dwindles away. Slugs aro the chief enemies 
of this plant, which may be destroyed by watering the beds or clumps 
with lime-water. 

For a florist's account of the varieties of spring Crocuses cultivated 
in the gardens of this country, see the ' Transactions of the Horticul- 
tural Society of London,' vol. vii 

CRONSTEDTITE, a hydrous Silicate of Iron, occurring both 
massive and crystallised. Its primary form is a rhomboid, in small 
thin hexagonal prisms, and in radiatmg groups. The cleavage is per- 
pendicular to the axis, distinct. The colour is black and brownish- 
black; streak, dull green. Hardness 2*0 to 2'5. Specific gravity 
8*8 to 8*86. Lustra vitreousL Opaque. This mineral is found in 
Cornwall, Brazil, and Pndbram in Bohemia. It has the following 
composition : — 

SiUca 22-45 

Oxide of Iron 58*85 

Oxide of Manganese 2*89 

Magnesia 5*08 

Water 10*70 

CROSSARCHUS. [Vivbrbidjb.] 

CROSSBILL. [LoxiAOJB.] 

CROSS-STONE. [Staubolitb.] 

CROSSWORT. [QaliuilI 

CROTALIDiE, a family of Reptiles belonging to the order Serpents 
or Snakes, and including those species known by the name of Rattle- 
Snakes. In the ' Catalogue of the British Museum ' Dr. J. E. Gray con- 
stitutes Orotalida a family of his sub-order Viperina. The family, 
has the following distinctions : — Face with a lai^y^o pit on each side, 
placed between the eye and the nostriL The head large behind, crown 
flat, coverod with scales or small shields ; the jaws weak, the upper 
with long fangs in firont and no teeth. The belly covered with broad 
hand-like shields: anal spurs none. The species aro all of them 
venomous and viviparous. 

The following is a synopsis of the genera and speciaa ."-^ 

A, Head covered with scales, having small shields on the edge of the 
forohead and eyebrows ; tail ending in a spine ; cheeks sody. 

& Subcaudal plates two-rowed to the tip. Oratpedoeej^alina. 

Crcupedocephah*. — Superciliary shield single, hinder labial shields 
laige ; scales lanceolate, keeled. America. 

Species — C, BratUieniU; G, lanceoUUiu; C, cUroxj C. eUgant ; 
0, trilinetUut, 

Tnmtturu9, — Superdliaiy shield single, hinder labial shields 
smaUest ; scales lanceolate, keeled. Asi& 

T, viridit; T, cUbolabru; T, earincAua; T, purpuretit; T. macw- 
UUua ; T. tubannulatua ; T, PhiUppmtU ; T. ilrigattu; T. Sumatranua ; 
T.formoitu; T, CtyUmentit. 

jParia«.^-Superoiliary shield single, hinder labial shields smallest ; 
scales lanceolate, of head and body smooth, of crown unequnl. 
Am**- 

P, fiavomaeulaiut ; P, omatus; P, variegatus. 

Megtxra. — Superciliary shield double, hinder labial shields smallest ; 
scales lanceolate^ of head and body smooth. Asia. 

M. triffonoeephala ; M, olimtcea, 

Atropot. — Superoiliary shields many, forming a prominent arched 
series. Asia. 

A. cusoiUia. 

h. Subcaudal plates four-rowed at the tip. America. ZaditiincL 
Lachmi, — Head ovate; crown scaly. 
L, muiui; L.pictu8, 



tO0 



GROTALIDiE. 



CROTALIDiE. 



210 



B. Head more or lewihielded. 

c Snbcaudal plfttee two-rowed ; tail ending in a spine ; oheeka not 
scaly; head-ahieldB with some additional platea in front Tngono- 
eepkaUtuL 

Trigonocephalui, — Dorsal scales keeled. 

T. ff€Uy9; T. affinit; T, Bromhoffl; T. rhodott<mia; T. ffjfpndU; 
T. AMora. 

d, Subcaudal plates one-rowed; tail ending in a spine; cheeks not 

scaly; head shielded. America. Ceiiehrina. 
Ctnehrii. 
C, eontortrix; C. atrofiueut; (7. piteivcrus, 

e. Subcaudal plates one-rowed ; taU ending in a rattle ; cheeks scaly ; 

head more or less shielded. America. Orotaliwt, 

Crvialophoru*, — Head with nine laige shields extending behind the 
eyos. 

a miliaria; C. tergeminuij C KiHlandi, 

{TropiopAiML— Head with scales behind; temporal scales and labial 
ihield moderate. 

U. deeuuui, 

Orotalut. — ^Head with scales behind; temporal scales and labial 
shields Tery small, convex. 

C. horridiu. 

The last species, C, horridutf the Battle-Snake, may be taken as a 
type of the whole family. 

The colour of the head is brown ; eye red ; upper part of the body 
yellowiah-brown, transrersely marked with irregular, broad, black 
lists. Rattle brown, composed of seyeral homy membranous cells, of 
an undulated pyramidal figure, articulated one within the other, so 
that the point of the first cell reaches as far as the basis or protuberant 
ring of the third, and so on ; which articulation, being veiy loose, 
gives liberty to the parts of the cells that are indosed within the 
outward rings to strike against the sides of them, and so to cause 
the rattling noise which is heard when the snake shakes its tail 
(Catesby.) 



"TYnorrrrriGQacina^i 



•.*>.».i.*>.#»»U. .•i.. 



4 .V tl t 




a. Battle of twenty ^oar Jointa ; b, section of rattle. 

It is a native of Virginia, the Carolinas, and other parts of America. 

LawBon, in his 'History' (1714), says, "The Rattle-Snakes are 
found in all the main of America that I ever had any account of ; 
being so called from the rattle at the end of their tails, which is a 
connection of jointed coverings of an excrementitious matter, betwixt 
the substance of a nail and a horn, though each tegmen is very thin. 
Nature seems to have designed these on purpose to give warning of 
such an approaching danger as the venomous bite of these snakes is. 
Some of them grow to a very great bigness, as six feet in length, tbwr 
middle being the thickness of the small of a lusty man's leg. We 
have an account of much larger serpents of this land ; but I never 
met them yet, although I have seen and killed abundance in my time. 
They are of an orange-tawny and blackish colour on the back; 
difTering (as all snake^ do) in colour on the belly, being of an sah- 
colour inclining to lead. The male is easily distinguished from the 
female by a black velvet spot on his head ; and besides his head is 
smaller shaped and long. Their bite is venomous if not speedily 
remedied ; especially if the wound be in a vein, nerve, tendon, or 
Bnew • when it is very difficult to cure. The Indians are the best 
physicians for the bite of these and all other venomous creatures of 
thw country. There are four sorts of snake-roots already discovered, 
which knowledge came from the Indians, who have performed several 
neat cuxw. The rattle-snakes are accounted the peaceablest in the 
world ; for they never attack any one, or injure them, unless they are 
trod upon or molested. The most danger of being bit by these 
snakes is for those that survey land in Carolina ; yet I never heard of 
any surveyor that was killed or hurt by them. I have myself gone 
over several of this sort, and others ; yet it pleased God I never came 
to any harm. They have the power or art (I know not which to aUl 
it) to charm squirrels, hares, partridges, or any such thing, m such a 
manner, that they run directly into their mouths. This I have seen 
by a squirrel and one of these rattle-snakes ; and other snskes have 
in soS messure the same power. The ratUe-snskeshave many small 
teeth of which I cannot see they make any use; for they swallow 
everything whole ; but the teeth which poison are only four ; two on 
each side of their upper jaws. These are bent like a sickle, and hang 
loose as if by a joint. Towards the setting on of these, there is, m 
each tooth, a little hole wherein you may just get in the point of a 
small needle. And here it is that the poison comes out (which is as 
erccn as grass) and follows the wound made by the pomt of their 
teeth. They are much more venomous in the months of June and 

KAT. HIST. DIV. VOL. IL 



July, than they are in March, April, or September. The hotter the 
weather the more poisonous. Neither may we suppose that they can 
renew their poison as oft as they will ; for we have had a person bit 
by one of these who never rightly recovered it, and very hardly 
escaped with life ; a second person bit in the same place by Uie same 
snske, and received no more harm than if bitten with a rat. They 
cast their skins 6V€|>7 your, and commonly abide near the place where 
the old skin lies. Ijiese cast-skins are used in physic, ana the rattles 
are reckoned good to expedite the birth. The gall is made up into 
pills with clay, and kept for use, being given in pestilential fevers and 
the small-pox. It is acoounted a noble remedy, known to few, and 
held as a great arcanum. This snake has two nostrils on each side of 
his nose. Their venom, I have reason to believe, effects no harm any 
otherwise than when darted into the wound by the serpent's teeth." 

Catesby thus notices this species in 1771 : — '' Of these vipers," says 
he, writing of all the American venom-snakes under that name, "the 
rattle-snske is most formidable, being the largest and most terrible of 
all the rest : the largest I ever saw was one about eight feet in length, 
weighing between eight and nine pounds. This monster was gliding 
into the house of Colonel Blake of Carolina ; and had certainly taken 
his abode there undiscovered, had not the domestic animals alarmed 
the family with their repeated outcries ; the hogs, dogs, and poultry 
united in their hatred to him, showing the greatest consternation, by 
erecting their bristles and feaUiers, and, expressing their wrath and 
indignation, surrounded him, but carefully kept at a distance ; whilst 
he, regardless of their threats, glided slowly along. 

" It is not uncommon to have them come into houses, a very extra- 
ordinazy instance of which happened to myself in the same gentleman's 
house, in the month of February, 1728 : the servant in making the 
bed in a ground-room (but a few minutes after I left it), on turning 
down the clothes discovered a rattle-snake lying coiled between the 
sheets in the middle of the bed. 

" They are the most inactive and slow-moving snake of all others, 
and are never the aggressors except in what they prey upon ; for 
unless they are disturbed they will not bite; and, when provoked, 
they give warning by shaking their rattles. These are commonly 
believed to be the most deadly venomous serpent of any in these 
parts of America : I believe they are so, as being generally the laigest, 
and making a deeper wound, and injecting a greater quantity o£ poi- 
son ; though I know not why any of the other kindh of vipers may 
not be as venomous as a rattle-sxiake, if as big, the structure of the 
deadly fangs being alike in all. The most successful remedy the 
Indisns seem to have, is to suck the wound, which, in a slight bite^ 
has sometimes a good effect ; though the recovered person never fails 
of having annual pains at the time they were bit. They have likewise 
some roots which they pretend will effect the cure ; particularly a 
kind of Atarumt commonly called Heart Snake-Roots, a kind of Ckryt' 
ofUAemum called St. Anthony's Cross, and some others; but that 
whidi they rely on most, and which most of the Virginian and Caro- 
lina Indians carry dry in their pockets, is a small tuberous root, which 
they procure from the remote parts of the coimtry ; this they chew, 
and swallow the juice, applying some to the woimd. Having, by tntr 
veiling much with Indians, had frequent opportunities of seeing the 
direful effects of the bites of these snakes, it always seemed and was 
apparent to me that the good effects usually attributed to these their 
remedies is owing more to the force of nature, or the alightness of the 
bite of a small snake in a muscular part, &o. The person thus bit I 
have known to survive without any assistance for many hours ; but 
where a rattle-snake with full force penetrates with his deadly fangs, 
and pricks a vein or artery, inevitable death ensues ; and that, as I 
have often seen, in less than two minutes. The Indians know their 
destiny the minute they are bit ; and when they perceive it mortal, 
apply no remedy, concluding all efforts in vain. If the bite happeneth 
in a fleshy part> they immediately cut it out to stop the current of 
the poiK)n. I could heartily wish that oil of olives applied to the 
wotmd might have as good success against the venom of these snakes 
as it hath been found in England to have had against the poison of 
the adder." (Catesby, .' Natural History of Carolina.') 

LawBon, it appears, was an eye-witness of the fascination, if so the 
effect of terror on the victim is to be termed, of the Rattle-Snake ; and 
though Catesby never saw it, he thus details the evidence of the fact 
known to him : — 

" The charming, as it is commonly called, or attractive power this 
snake is said to have of drawing to it animals and devouring them, is 
generally believed in America. As for my own part, I never saw the 
action, but a great many from whom I have hul it related all agree 
in the manner of the process ; which is, that the animals, particularly 
birds and squirrels (which principally are their prey), no sooner spy 
the snake, than they skip from spray to spray, hovering and approach- 
ing gradually nearer their enemy, regardless of any other danger ; but 
with distracted gestures and outcries descend, though from the top 
of the loftiest trees, to the mouth of the snake, who openeth his jaws, 
takes them in, and in an instant swallows them." 

There can be little doubt that this supposed power is greatly 
exaggeiated. That a suddenly-surprised animal should be arrested 
by terror and easily fall a victim to the serpent^ is highly probable ; 
but that it should descend to its destruction from the top of the 
loftiest trees, is almost incredible. 



CROTON. 



Tlut Uie Mcrelioii of the poison mfty be greatly inew ned by loo&l 
iiriUtiOD would be expeoted ; and Mr. Bell, in hii ' Hiitory of Briliiili 
Beptilei,' ftdducea the fbllowing; aa evidauoa of the bet. Ha waa 
diisecUiig very carefully aod minutely the poiBon-apparatiu of a luge 
ntUe-snake which bad been dead far some ooura ; the head had beoi 
taken off iminediately liler dmth ; yst a* iii. Ball oontinoed hia dia- 
aaotioD the poinn oontinued to be aecreted ao faat aa to require to ba 
oocaaianallj dried off wiUi a bit of rag or apoDge. Ha atatea hia belief 
that there could not have been lets idlagetW than dz or ei^t diopa 
UtheleMb 



RntUe^nako (tHIoTuf honiiliu]. 

The Mon* adentifie and ^tertaining author relate*, aa a proof that 
the effeol of wouttda inBtcted by venomona awpenta anbaequently to 
the (Int la gnttly leeaenad, either bj the diminutian of the quantity 
of venom or of lome detoioration of it^ atrengUi, the following anec- 
dote i^—i. gentleman of hia aoquaiutance had received a living rattle- 
inaka from America. Intendmg to try the effect of its bitelupon 
Bome rata, he introduced one of those animnla into the cage with the 
aerpent, which immsdifttely abuck the ratj and the latter died in two 
miuiitea. Another nt waa then placed m the oag^ and ran to the 
&rClie«t oomer from the anak^ uttering criee of diatnea. The serpent 
did not attack St immediately ; but after about half an hour, on bong 
Irritated, atnick the ratj whioh exhibited no i^mptomB of being poi- 
Boned for several minutes, nor did it die till twenty minutea aller the 
bite bad been inflicted. A third rat, remarkably Urge, was then intro- 
duced into the cage, and exhibited no aigiu of terror, nor waa it appa- 
rently noticed by ita dangerouB companion. After watehing forlthe 
nat of the evenmg, Ur. Bell's Mend retired, laaving the rattlesnake 
and the rat together. He rose euly the next momiiig,'and visited 
Oie cage : there lay the.make dead, and the rat hod au^ied upon the 
moBciUar part cf its t«ck. Ur. B«U does not remember at what time 
of the year this took place, but he expreesea his belief that it was not 
during vary hot weather. 

The length of time during which a man will linger after being 
Utten by one of these deadly snakes was manifested in a very dii- 
treenng Mss. Some yean ago a carpenter came to see a rattlesnake 
which was poblicly ^own toi money in London. The man endee- 
Toured to exdle it, probably to heu ita rattle, with hia rul^ which 
he dropped into the aerpant'i cage. As he waa trying to reeorar it 
the roalie bit him in the hand. Ha waa taken to one of the hospitals 
(81 Qsorge's, if we recollect right), and bore up so long that hopes 
were antart^ed of hia reoovaiy ; tint his constitution gave^way at 
last, and after many days he fell a victim to the poison. [Vifieiha.] 

CROTON, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
St^horbiaeta, comprehending a laiga number of apedea, many of 
wtuch have important medical properties. It is distinguished from 
other genera of its order by monoecious flowers ; the males with a 
E-parted valvular calyx, 6 petals, 6 glands alternate with the petals, 
and a definite number of distinct stamens ; the fenudea with a S-parted 
calyx, no petals, 3 biSd or multifld styles, 6 glands surrounding 
tho ovary, and ■ tricoccous fruit The specien are eitramaly diversi- 
fied in appearance, soma being trees, othera busbos, others herbaceous 
plants ; many with sarrBted or lobed leaves, many vfith enUra ones ; 
BometiineB covered with hair, Bometimes naked ; and now with a small 
compact inflorescence, now having it long and lax. The following 
are a few of the mora remarkable species : — 

0. Catcariila. Leaves lanceolate,, acute, quite entire, stalked, 
downy on the under surface. Stem arborescent. A native of the 



CROTOPHAQA. lit 

aiders that the true Caaoarillk Bark is not yielded by tbla apealea but 
by C. EltMhena. 

C. Ili^ittm. Leavea ovate, smooth, aaumiDBte, senatad. Stem 
arborescent. Flowers in terminal spikes. Fruit imooth, the size of 
a hazel-nut. An inhabitant of the Holuccaa, Ceylon, and other porta 
of the Eaat Indies. This plant is at once the moat actjva and dangerous 
of drastic purgatives; every part — wood, leaves, and fruit — seems to 
partidpate equally in the energy. The leaves are so acrid as to 
inflame the moutl^ lips, and Enuoes of thoaa who merely chaw them, 
bringing on swelling and producing a senjVition of burning aa far oa 
the anusb The seeds thrown into water intoxicate flah. Ten or 
twenta fruits bruised with honsy have been known to kill a horse by 
the violent diarrticea they have produced. Henoe the oil obtained 
from the seeds, which is known by the name of Croton Oil, when nsed 
medidnally, has to be administend with extreme care. 



Cralan ■niUvm. 

C. taeciftrta^ Leaves ovite, downy, serrulated, stalked ; calyxes 
downy ; Sowers in terminal spikes ; fruits small and velvety. A 
native of the Fast Indies. This apedea is said to fiimiah the flnest of 
all the sorts of lac, but soorcdj ever to find its way to England. It 
is very pure, of a bright red, and fumiabea a brilliant vamish in 






this species is that which furnisbee the Coscarilla Bark of 

but others ascribe it to C. EUulheria ; and Sohiede suspects that 

may be rather the produce of C. Pteado-Chma, which he found to 1 

tho real Quina Blanca of the apothecaries of Jalapv Dr. Lindlsy con- 1 of Birds 



Draco, a MexicMl plant, with long heart-ahaped woolly leaves, 
vrith C i^arocarpum, and C. tanguijluim, yields, when wounded, a 
resinous substaooa of a deep red colour, reaembling dragon's blood. 
Others are merely aromatic. From C, iaJtfHn^nwa the liquor called 
Kau de Hantea ia distilled ; O. aromalicum, C. niveum, C, fragrant, 
and C. coriaceun have similar qualities ; and C. Ikurtfenun exudes a 
fragrant resin analogous to incense. 

The bark of these trees occurs in pieces about a foot long, which 

e tubular or overlapping, externally covered with a cutide which 

cosily peels ofi', so thatthe liber or bark ia otien eipofwd, in which 

:i t..i n. — I ---k-like. The colour extomaiiv is yellowi ., 

Uy 
)f lichens. The surface is also marked by 
irregular deep fongitudinol furrows. The inner surface is a dirty or 
rusty-brown colour. Odour faintly aromatic ; taste bitter, not un- 
pleasant, and stimulating. No alkaloid has been detected in it ; but 
". possesses much volatile oil One pound of bark yields one drachm 
ad a half of volatile oiL This bark is Bometimes mixed with the 
inchona barks, being called Qray Fever-Bark — a substitution in no 
respect hurtfuL 
For the medical properties of this genus see CaBOa&lLU and CsOTOX 
' Abts abd Sc. Div. 



CROTOTHAOA (Linn.), CVotopAfutu (Browne, Briason), a genua 
' Birds placed by Lesson imder the third CamilT Hdt^rampne^ of 



CROTOPHAOA. 



Ilie order Qrimp^un (&an*aret), CuHer; Zygodaetjfii, Temmittek ; 
SjIyuhb Zygodactylea, VieiUot. 

Ths bill ihort, tbtj muoh eomprasaed, arched, withont deotilatioiu, 
elentsd, and Burtnoonted by b vertioel kod trenaluuit onat ; Ooatdli 
builar;, open ; roarth and fifth qoUU laiigwt ; tail-featlisre long, 
mniided. 

TheflB birdfl aro caJled Ani utd Ahqo in Ouyuia and Bruil, and 
Anno in Vtn^axj. In Maiico they mre tULmed, woording to Her- 
oindez, CecalototoU, aod in the AntillM BoaU de Fatnn, Anwngous, 
Diiblee de 8«vbjuw«, and Fertoqaet* Noiiv. In Ca^anns thdr 
oommoD name ia BooiUeur de Canaii Their gcdaial oolaor ia blaok, 
vilh mora or 1«b> of motallie refleotdona. 

A cotuddarkUe portion of die ipecdea are found in America — 
pnncipallf the hot and hofflld petta, Ditt Uia louth mon eapedally — 
ud the AntiUM. 

The Ania lire in Sooka, and are ao Ux &om timid that when they 
Me Uieir oompMiioiu &11 betbre the gnn, the lUTrivora S7 but a ihort 
w^, and then again aatUa Buah«, the akirU of woods, and the 
bordara of Koodnd aaTaonaha, are their favonrite haunta. Thur food 
comiita of amaU linrda, inaeols, and leeda. Hanj pairs are add to 
tiM the aama neat, bailt on the branchee of trece, and of latge 
dimanaiOQi, when oonaidered in relation to die number of ooi^c* 
nocupjing it, wbere the; la; and hatch their young in oonoert. 

C. Ania V. blaokbird with bronaed tinte in lome lights. Biie 
lather larger tban that of the common blackbird ; leaa than that of a 
jackdaw. Ifocatlity, nxdat aaTannaha and the neighbondiood of water, 
in the Wert India lalandt, Carolina^ Bnsil, Fanguay, &o. It ia the 
Ranr-Billed BlaekbiTd cf Jamaica of Cateal^, the SaTannah Blaokbird 
utthsEi^iah aolcokti, and <^ Onat KaAInid of Sloane. 



Juulea BlukUrd [OvUpliafa Jul). 
Browne (' Hiist. of Jamaica ') thua deacribea it ; — " Thia liird Ia 
ibant the aise of a Barbery dove, or aomething larger, black all orer, 
and aplay-footed like a parrot It haa a long nqoare tail, a broad 
comprened bill, and a ahart thin tongne : but the beak or upper part 
at t^ bill ia flatted on the aldaa, arched and aharp above, and strugbt 
•t the edges below. Thn Utb chiefly upon ticka and other onell 
Tcrmin, and msT &eqaenuj be seen jumping about all the oowi and 
oxen in the fields ; nay, they are oftm obaerred to fly oo their backs 
tmleas they lie down Sat them, which if maoh troubled with ticks 
the; generally do when the; aee the biida about them ; but if the 
bout be heedless they hop once or twice round it, looking it very 
eameatly in the face eveiy time they pass, as if the; seem to know 
th«t it was onl; reqnl«t« to be seen tc bo'indulged. They are toij 
noisy birds, and one of the moat common aorta in all the pastures i» 
' Jamaica. Their flight is low and short." 

Sloans thns describee his Bpe<nmen, under tha name of the Qreat 
Blackbird : — " This was thirteen inches long from the end of the bill 
to the end of the tail, and about fifteen inches troTa the end of ana 
ving to the end of the other, both being extended ; the bill was three- 
qiuuiers of an inch long, and black, the under mandible being straight, 
Uie upper of a dngnlar make, distinguishing it ^m other birds ; for 
it was arched or round, raised high, flat and thin on the upper round 
edge. .The feet have three toes before and one behind (though 
Uarcgrave says oUierwise). The legs ore two inchea long, and black 
u jet ; the middle toe before is one inch and a half long, armed with 
a pretty ahaip claw, and ths other toes proportionable. The colonr 



of the feathers all o 



s block. The stomach of thia bird v 



pt«tty thicki it was Tery fuU of gnttshoppera, b«etlea,fte., diajdnted 

and partly disaolred. 
"It haunts the woods on the edges of the savannahs, and Is tot 

alarms all the fowls in their neighbourhood, so that they are very 
prqudicial to fowlen ; but on ue other htuid, when negroes run 
from their masters and are pnraued by them in the woods to be 
brought book to their lerTitM^ these birds, on sight of them as of other 
man, will make a noise, and direct the pursuers which w» they must 
take to follow their blacks, who otherwise might live olw^s in the 
remoter ioland woods in pleasura and idlaneao. 

"Perhaps Uiis bird may have the toes sometamei two before, at 
other times two behind." 

Slosne's doubt may have arisen from a casual ezominaldon of dead 
specimens. The hot is that the external toe in some soansoriol bird* 

' ■" ' 1 backwards, but not * ^ 

are eaaily tamed, an 
have a bad odour. 

CROUOEH, a local name tot the Pmsaiaa or Oibal Carp. 
[CTPnnrm*; 

CROW, [CoavmiJ 

CROW-BERRT. [EMmBUJLl 

CBOW-FOOT. pLmTBonnrBT] 

CROZOFHORA, a genus of Plants belonging to the natural order 
Euipluirhiaeta. The flowers are moncedoui. Calyx of male flowers 6- 
partad ; petals 6 ; atamans 6-1 0, with unequal aoimata filaments. Calyx 
of ftanata flowers 10-parted; petals abeent; atylee 8-bifid; oapaole 
S-ooccons. 

..-__ aboutafootlongrsoft, oTd,alt«nat«s»i— - -, 

which are plaited and curled at thdr edge ; small Aowen arranged In 
short dusters, and drooping fruit oompoMd of three UaeUahnxigfa 
oalla. ItiaanotiveofbanenpUceaaUoTerthesonthofBnrop^andis 
cultivated about Montpelier for the aake of the deep purple d^ 
called Toumesolc^ which It prodnoea. Its properties are amid, emebc, 
oorroaiTSt aod drastic, like the meet virulent Guphorbiaoeotu Planto, 



I, s male flcver oat open, ihowtcf t^ eUmou 
neailj ripe Iralt ; 4, E, dUTtmnt ktodi of itairy loale 

CRUCIAN CARP. [CtpbihiiiaI 

CRUCITERiE, (Wi/'erj, the Cabbage Tribe, a very exienatve and 
meat natural assemblege of Plants, called TVtnidyHafliu) and Omeiatm ttj 
Linnnus, and Bratneaeea by others. It comprebenda the Hustard, 
Cress, Turnip, Cabbage, Scurvy-Grass, Radish, Hor»i.Radiah, and 
.^r . .", . ^ ?_■__!_,- j;iE — . M l«ea in their 



Itt CBUCIFEB^. 

longolawi, uid their bUdea planed ■omethint; like the ■rtoiafsMiltMa 
orou, whence their nkme ; 6 itameQ*, 1 of which nra longtr thui the 
Other 3; and > fruit conmBtiiigof 2 eeOt, with a centnl Avine, to which 
is fitted a pair of deoiduoiiB nliea, and from the iddBi of wliioh under 
the valvaa is itretched a thin doable traoapareot diaphngm. In each 
cell an two or more leadi, with an embryo folded upon ilaelf, and 
daatitnte of albumen. The form of the frait hi eitceinelf variable : 
when it 1b long and slender it ie called a Siliqne, and whan ahrat and 
round a Siliole ; hence the two diviiioDa of the JVfrodjnuMui of Lin- 
umia into Sili^twa and SUiadoia. 

About a couple of thousand speeies an diq»aned over the milder 
put* of the world, reftimng alike to exist beneath the leren cold of 
the arctie ton* and the exoesaiTe heats of the tropica. A Uxga pro- 
portion oonrista of inoonspienous and nsdias weeds; manyanob'--'^- 
of beau<T from tile stie and g»7 colours of their p«t^; andUien 
already mentioDed show that another part of the order oonsis 
planta luriiil to man. 



Ouiranlliiil OliM. 
■ flovet Irom which Iha peUli litT* ben icn 
an ot tb* 0TU7 ; 4, * ripe tinlt, ftom whieb 



• wpuaUn^i 



Owing , ._. , ..__ .__ , 

between them, the sjrtematjo arrangemont of Cruoi 

until late years eioeedinglf unsatisfactory. It has howarer bean di*- 
coveied that ths embryo prosenbi the most oaiistant oharacter, and 
that by five modifioatioos of the maimer in which it is folded up Bn 
preaissly limit«d diviaioiit of the order an secnred. Ths following 
out illustTatea them. Let A 1 be an embryo with the radicle applied 
to tlie ootyledona in suoh a way m to lie agunst its edgea; then B 1 

Qm' ' 

"=o ||o/<o|io||||||o 

will be Um appearance of sueh an embryo iriMn out across, and C 1 1 
will be a tigo expressing the mutual poaitiooi of the radicle and ooty- 
ledona by a circle end tivo tars : thef e are Plnrm-hiica. Then jlf . A 3 



CRUCIFER^ IM 

will be the same embtTo with the radiele applied to the back of the 
cotyledons ; and B 2 and C S will giie the section and sign of what 
an called Natorkiitii. When the ootyledoiu instead of bemg flat am 
channeled so as to rectdve the radicle in a kind of groove, as at A S, 
it gives ths division Ort^oplix»t. If the Cotyledons an so long aa to 
be doubled twice, A 1, the; constitute ^mtobta ; and if, aa at A 6, 
the ooMedona are doubled thne timea, they iiidicate the divisl»n 
DifleaJotta. Upon theae dlstiaetioa* all reoent arrangamenta ^ 
OnK^fa^ have been formed. 

The affinities of this order are with Papaveraeta, CSttacea, Oappa- 
ridaeea, and Fumariacea. There are ITS genera and above 1600 
epedes dcaoribed. It is aninently a European order : 166 speeiet 
an found in Hortlism and Middle Europe, and ITS on the noHhem 
shore or islands of the Ueditertanean ; ii an peculiar to the coast oi 
Africa between Mogadon and Alexandria ; 181 to Syria, Alia Minor, 
Tauria, and Persia; 90 to Sibeiia; 85 to China, Japan, or India; 
T6 to Australia and the South Sea Islsnds ; 6 to Mauridns, and the 
neighbouring islands ; 70 to the Cape of Oood Hope ; 9 to the 
Canaries or Madeira ; S to St Helena j 3 to the West Indies ; 11 to 
South America; 48 to North Amerioa; E to tiie islsnds between 
If orth America and Kamtohatka ; and 35 an oommon to varions parts 
of the world. This being their general geographical distdbutioa, it 
appear! that, exclusive of the species that are unoerti' 
aaveral different oountries, about 100 an found i 



hemisphere and about 800 in the northern hemisphere ; or 91 ii 
Hew and the rest in the Old World. Finally, if we o " 
irith regard to tempentore, w 



In the frigid lone of ths northem hemiaphera SOS 

In all the tropioa (and ohiafly in mountainous regions) SO 

In the temperate lone — 

Of the northern hemisphere .... 5481 -a. 
Of the southern hemisphere . .86/ ^^ 

Buoh wen the caloulations of De Candolls in 1831. Although («• 
quiring oonsiderable modification, especially in the Adatic and North 
American numbers, which are much too low, they serve to give a general 
idea of the manner in wliiob this order is dispersed over the globe. 

The aharaoter of the genera of this order is ontisoorbuUc and stimu- 
lant, combined with an acrid flavour. The officinal apeoisa an among 
of ail planta, and will he found treated of under their 
It. Alatge number of genera ai 
The fallowing is a synopaia of the British g 



large number of g 

— _ - synopsia of the E 

Babington's ' Maonal of British Botany :'— 

Sub-Order I. SmqvoiM. 

' Pod (sllitjue) linear or linear-lanoeolate, opening by two Talraa; 

diMepimsnt narrow, but in its broadest diameter. 

Tribe I. t»iiiTn«» 

Cotyledons aooumbsnt, parallel to tiis dissepiment ; radicle lateral ; 



6. IWrifia 

6. ArabU. 

7. Cardtmiitt. 

8. JktUaria. 
Tribe IL SuntBUiA 

Cotyledons inaunbent, oontrar7 to the dissepiment ; radid* donal 
seed oomprested. 

9. Haptru. 

10. Sinrnbritm. 

11. AmaHa. 
13. Sryimum. 

Tribe Itl. B&AssioKA 
Cotyledon* conduplioate, longitudinally folded in the middle; 



15. DipUitaxit. 
Sub-Order IL Latomt*. 
Pouch (dlicle) short, op«ning with two valvea; dissepiment in 
broadeet diameter. 

TriU IV. At.nsi](K& 
Cotyledons aocomhant 

18. Alytim. 
17. Kaluga. 
IS. Draba. 

19. CoMtaria. 

20. ATmoraeia. 
TriUT. Caiolivia. 



21. 

Tribe VL Vi 
u oondnplioate. 

S3. VMa. 



t"> i£ 



n7 



CRUCIROSTRA. 



CRUSTACEA. 



218 



Sub-Order III. Akoustisepije. 

Pouch (silide) short, laterally compressed, opening with two boat- 
diaped yalvesy keeled or winged on the back ; disaepiment narrow, 
linear, or lanceolate. ^' -. 

Tribe YIL THLABPiDKiB. 
Cotyledon! aocumbent. 

28. TkUupi, 

24. StuAinna, 

25. Teeadalia, 

26. IherU 

Tribe YIII. Li?n)zv&& 
Cotyledons inoombent 

27. Lepidium. 

28. CapteUa, 

Tribe IX. SUBULABIXJE. 
Cotyledons incumbent, long, linear, cunred back above their base ; 
cells many-seeded. 

29. Sutndaria. 

Tribe X. SnriBBniRUL 
Cotyledons incumbent^ long linear, ourred back above their base ; 
cells o ne s e e ded. 

30. SeMbrier(i. 

Sub-Order IV. Kuoamxntacks. 
Pouch (silide) scarcely dehiscent^ often 1-celled, owing to the 
absence of the cUssspiment 

Tribe XI. ISATis. 
Cotyledons incumbent 

81. Itatii. 

Sub-Order V. LoMSKTAOEiE. 
Silide or silique dividing transversdy in single-seeded cells; the 
true silique often barrenTi^ the seeds being in the beak. 

Tribe XIL Cakilinul 
Cotyledons aocumbent. 

82. CakUe. 

Tribe XIIL Rafbanea 
Cotyledons condupUcate. 

88. Cframbe, 
Si, JRaphamu. 

CRUCntOSTRA. [Loxiadjl] 

CRUSTA'CEA^ Grustao^ of the French, Krustenthiere of the 
Gennans, MoXoic^srpnca of Aristotle and the ancient Greeks, a 
diss of Articulated Animals, whose external covering is less solid 
than that of the majority of Testaceous Molluslu, but much 
firmer and harder than the skin of the Kaked MoUusks; and whose 
oonfoiination is essentially distinguishable from other classes, espe- 
cially in tiie circulating, respiratory, and locomotive organs. The 
Common Crab [Cbab], the Lobster, and Crayfish [Abtaottb], the 
Common Shrimp [CbakoovidaI, and the Water-Fleas [Branchio- 
foda], may be tiScen as types of different sections of this family. 

As in many of the Testaceous MoUusks, the skeleton of the Onutaeea 
is extemaL It is made up of the t^gumentaiy envelope, which, in 
some of the dass, always continues Bott, but in the greater portion is 
very firm, forming a shelly case or armour, in which all the soft parts 
are contained. In the more perfect Crustaceans it is complex. The 
following description of its component parts is ttom, the pen of 
If. Milne-Edwaids, who, in his ' Histoire Katurelle. des Crustac^' 
(Paris, 188i, &a, 8vo), and in the article 'Crustacea' in the ' Cyclo- 
paedia of Anatomy and Physiology (London, 1886, &c.), has given 
the moet complete view of the oiganisation of this family. Taking 
the Brachyura, or Short-Tailed Cnistaceans, as his instance of the 
more highly developed forms of the dass in whidi the complex 
structure is exhibited, he thus proceeds, " The integument consists of 
a corium and an epidermis, with a pigmentary matter of a peculiar 
nature, desttined to conununicate to the latter membrane the various 
colours with which it is ornamented. The oorium or dermis, as 
among the VeridfreUcif is a thick, spongy, and very vascular membrane; 
on its inner surface it is intimatdy connected with a kind of serous 
membrane, which lines the parietes of the cavities in the Oruataeea in 
the same manner as the serous membranes line the internal cavities 
among the VertebnUa; these two membranes, divided in the latter 
order i>y the interposition of muscular and bony layers, which cover 
and protect the great cavities, become dosely united when these 
layers disappear, as they do in the Ortuiaeeti, in consequence of the 
important changes that take place in the conformation of the apparatus 
of locomotion. The corium again, among the OruiUicea, is completely 
covered on its outer surface 1^ a membranous envelope unfurnished 
with blood*vesseIs, and which must be held in all respects as analogous 
to the epidermis of the higher animals. It is never found in the 
properly membranous state, save at the time of the OrtuUieea casting 
their shell; at this period, it is interposed between the corium and 
the solid covering z«ady to be oast off, and has the appearance of tk 
pretty dense sad consistent membrane, in spite of its thinness. It 



forms, as among animals higher in the scale, a kind of inorganic 
lamina, applied to the surface of the corium, from which it is an 
exudation. After the fall of the old shell it becomes thicker and 
very considerably firmer, owing to the deposition or penetration of 
calcareous molecules within its substance, as well as by the addition 
of new layers to its inner surfisuse. The degree of hardness finally 
acquired, however, and the amount of calcareous matter deposited 
within it, vary considerably ; in many members of the dass, it remains 
semioomeous, in a condition very sixnilar to that of the integuments 
of insects, with which, moreover, it corresponds veiy dosely m point 
of chemiiMil composition ; in the higher crustaceans, again, its compo- 
sition is veiy different: thus, whHst chitine in combination with 
albumen is the prindpal dement in the tegumentary skdeton of some 
spedes, this substance scarcely occurs in the proportion of one or 
two tenths in the carapace of Uie Decapods, wmch, on the contrary, 
contains 60 and even 80 per cent, of phosphate and carbonate of lime, 
the latter substance particularly occurring in considerably lax^ger 

groportion than the former. With regard to the pigmentum, it is 
iSB a membrane or reticulation than an amorphous matter diffused 
through the outermost laver of the superficial membrane, being 
secreted like this by the conum. Alcohol, ether, the acids, and water 
at 212° Fahr., change it to a red in the greater number of spedes; 
but there are some species in which it may be exposed to the action 
of these different agents without undergoing any perceptible change. 
The epidermic layer hardened in different degrees is the part which 
mainly constitutes the tegumentary skdeton of the Oiurtocea. In its 
nature it is obviously altogether different from that of the internal 
skeleton of the Vertebrata; still its functions are the same, and this 
physiological resemblance has led naturalists to speak of these two 
pieces of organic mechanism, so dissimilar in their anatomi(Mil relations, 
under the common name of skeleton. The tegumentary skdeton of 
the Onuteicea consists, like the bony skeleton of the Vertebratcif of a 
great number of distinct pieces connected together by means of 
portions of the epidermic envelope which have not become hardened, 
in the same way as, among the higher animals, certain bones are 
connected by cartilages, the ossification of which is only accomplished 
in extreme old age." 

This skeleton, or crustaceous frame-work, consists of a series of 
rings varying in number, the normd number of the body-segments 
being twenty-one. Instances of a larger number are rare, and a lees 
number seldom occurs ; one or more rmgs may be appca«ntly absent, 
but in such cases they will generally be found consohdated as it were. 
In the embryo the segments are developed in succession from before 
backwards ; the posterior rings therefore are generally absent when 
the number is defective. Each ring is divisible into two arcs, one 
upper or dorsal, the other lower or ventnJ. Each arc may present as 
many as four dementary pieces. Two of these united in the mesial 
line form the tergum ; uie sides of this upper arc are framed of two 
other portions denominated flanks or epimeral pieces. The lower 
arc is a counterpart of the upper. Two of the four pieces into which 
it is divisible constitute the sternum, situated in the mesial line, and 
are flanked by two epistemums. These two arcs do not cohere at 
their edges, but a space is left for the insertion of the lateral append- 
ages or extremities which correspond with them. (liilne-Edwards ; 
Audouin.) 

The one^md-twenty rings above mentioned are generallv dividble 
into three sections of seven each, and may be considered as corre- 
sponding with the three regions which zoologists have generally 
consented to recognise- in the bodies of the crustaceans, under the 
denominations of a head, a thorax, and an abdomen ; but the student 
should be on his guard against the false impresdons which, as M. Milne- 
Edwards observes, are likdy to arise from these terms, by their leading 
the mind to liken them to the grand divisions in the Vertebrata, which 
are defined by the same expressions. 

The cephdo-thoradc portion and carapace first claim our attention, 
and the latter acquirea its greatest development in the Decapods. 
*' In these animals," says M. Milne-Edwards, ** the frame-work of the 
body does not appear at first sight to consist of more than two por- 
tions, the one anterior, formed by the carapace, and representing the 
cephalic and thoradc segments conjoined ; the other posterior formed 
by the abdomen. In reality, the first fourteen rings of the body are 
covered by this enormous buckler, and are so intimatdv conjoined 
as to have lost all their mobility ; the whole of the thoracic segments 
thus hidden below the carapace are connected with it in their superior 
parts ; they are only joined with one another underneath and late- 
rally ; and their texgal parts having, in consequence of this, become 
useless, are no longer to be found, being ia some sort replaced by the 
great cephalic buckler ; thus the whole of these rings, m conformity 
with this arrangement, are imperfect and open above." 

The subjoined cut represents the carapace of a Brachyurous or 
Short-Tailed Crustacean, and the regions of which it is composed, 
named after the viscera and oi^gans protected by them. 

The succeeding figure represents the carapace of a Macrourous or 
Long-Tailed Oostacean. 

The abdomen is most fully devdoped in the Macrwra, or Long-Tailed 
Crustaceans, in many of which it becomes a very important organ of 
motion, and in them there is a comparativdy small development of 
the carapace ; while in the ^rocA^ro, or Short-Tailed Crustaceans, 



CRUSTACEA. 



Cmpu* of Omiiuii mmtai {Omtw iwiut, Liim.] 
0, B«fion of th* ttomuh, oi ^utiis Tt(!aB ; t, gmltal ncion ; e, oudlu 



Chnpu* or common Cnvfldk {Atlamu fmiaiaui, 
a, Outiis ntlm ; t, (oiitil nsloo ; «, OMdiM nfton ) i, postvln oudlio 

nfion; i^ f, brucblAl ngloiu. 

thii mle ii revenad, th« abdoman being compantiToIy imall, ukd the 
great development takiiig pUca in the carapace, IJIustaktiiig the " lol 
oe balanoepMutoTguiique" of M. Oeofftx>7 St. HilaireL TheCommoa 
Crab and Common Lobrtw affoid sfcriUng ezunpln oT ttda kw of 
oiBanio eqniTAlaatt. 



Ti(« ol (lie mdn t\i» ol the rcmilg at TMp>tm4t,JhKiatilU, with the UU or 



I, (, D, d; (, atenul pleeu; /, f , t, i, litenhiterul ^eeMi t, t, extenul 

TtsTs td a>» lOula oi^uu Dl lennMloD ; I, 

a (Mt. Tba dedwhtd Ifon rtpneraU —- 



ftom Ih* abdoDu 



£ 



now of lb* ludB ilda or the mele of IMjilhiM JturiatilU, with the mule 
011*111. The detuhed Agim TepromU DU of tluae orguu. 

On tliii lubjeot FrofeMor Bell remark! ■,^~" When we oonaider tiis 
■Imoot endleee dlToiBitf of form iiiidsr wliiott tlie 'apeoies compoeing 
tllia daw of «"'"■»!" appear, tlie Mtoniahing diacrepancf which eiista 
in the forma and relabva proportiaiu of the different ncion* of the 
body, and other parte of their orgMliaatioD for the peifonnaDce of 
oSmi and funotioiu equ*]l; Tarioiu, aod eee that all dieae diversitiee 
■re produced onl; by modifloatiaDB of a trpieil number of part«, we 
' but be itruck bj no remarkable and interMtins an illujttratiDD 
■a it nur be terraed, dut U 



of the great eoonomio^ law, a 



t Uc typtcof 



„- - — . . - - -Jjb - , ... 

Hructvrc of any j/rmp bting pwcK, Ihe differtnt hihiU of it* eompmatl 
Ipecit* or minor groupt art prvvided for, not hg tlie creation of not 
orgamt or (Ac dafrHCfwii Itf oDtert, &M by U< ntadijlciriwit in fonn, 
ttnustmrt, or pUtct, of orgmu (jpicaUy bcZoiwiiw fo lie group," 

One of tiiB nooeaaary ooiuaquenoea of the eon<Ution of theae 
animaliinoloaadin ahatdohellii thapowerthnpoeaaaa of throwing 
it oE If thia were not the eaae all growth would be itopped,oioept- 
iog increase of tbicikneaa in the nhrrll rji mnnnaeinn of aedretjonafrom 
bdow. To alloir therefore room for .the ezpaniton and growth of 
Uie bodr ukd Ibnba, a proTisfon for their inm«aae ii made by meajia 
of moolting, which, aa a general rule, ii more tt^qaant the younger 
the animal ii, aa indeed might be Bxpeoted. Thus eight moiilta ii 

Cnb. [C^aiii.J 

In Aitacru JfnmatHit, the moult, en 
la prsoeded by a few dara of fkatin^ , . 

the OBiapaoe beoomea loosened from the corium to which it waa 
attached. The corium begini forthwith to aeoiete a new ehell, which 
b at fint toft and membranous, beoomea gradually harder and harder, 
and Ii at but calcareous. When all oonneotion with the old shell ia 
broken off; and the corium has oompletsly secreted the new mem- 
tnaoons envelope^ the ammal begin* to sat about freeing itaelf from 
the old iQoaubnooei ud bMomss very raatloB, the symptoms of 
inquietude InoreMJtig in proportion as the time tor emanointion 
dram ni^h. It ruba it* legs one againat the other, and finally thniwa 
itaelf OQ Its back. In Umt ajtuation it begins to shake itaelf and awell 
itaelf out, till it tears the membrana which connects the car^nce 
with the abdomen, and begina to niae the former : then it reata a 
while. Altematioiia of agttatioa and rot anooeed each other at luter- 
vaU of longer or shorter duiatiou, the cai^woe is oompletaly raised, 
the head, the eyes, iha anteniue, are extrioatad. The greatest dif- 
fioolty oOcors in fiming the eitremitie*, nor oould the; be eidicated 
at all did not the old coTenng split longitudinally: and indeed it 
frequently hqipena that the Crawfiah leares a limb or two behind ; 
and ia somstimea so fettered, that it perishes from inaUlity to aitri- 
cate itseli The abdomsQ ia the last diriaitm of the body freed, and 
the whole change ganorally takea plaoe in half an hour. Four-aud- 
twen^-homa, or tao or thrse ds^ at furthest an necessai; f^r the 
oonvenion of the soft and mamravnous integument which aheathei 
the corium or Baked body into a firm calcareous case similar to the 
last, and resenting the same appendages, eren to the hain ; although 
M. Uilne-Edwards has stated tliat tbiiM last organs are not formed 
within the old ones, aa suppoBed by Bteumur, but exist rea<^-fonued 
in the new entolopo, tuned in towards the interior like the fingan of 
a glove tuned in upon itself, 

Mr. SpeDCe Bata of Plymouth, who has very suooeaafully studied 
the OnMocco, ttatea that he has oonflrmed the original ohserrataoD 
of Kdaomur. 

H. Milue-Bdwarda obeerve* that tho time oocnpied in the busintM 
of throwing off the shell varies oonsidraably in difierant species, and 
that it also depends on atmoepheric inSuenoes ; and this obaenatioD 
applies equally to the oumbw of days required for giving the new 
tegumentary sheath the oonaiatency of the old shell ; and he adda, 
that in the whole of the specdee which have been duly watched, 
eapedallj thoeefoundrai the French shorea, the period which preoedes 
and that which follows the Bodj^ is a pwiod of inquietude and 
disorder. The musolea are then flaccid, Um fleeh is soft and watery, 
and the animals are conaidetvd unwholesome and unfit for food. An 
exception to this remail: occnrs in the Land-Crabs (Amtchmij), which, 
according to the teatimonv of all ivbo have spoken and writtsn on the 
subject, art never so delimous m during the lossnn of change. 



tn 



CRUSTACEA. 



CRUSTACEA. 



233 



At the period of Eodysia, roonded flattened calcareouB concretions 
(carbonate of lime), commonly called Ocnli Citncrorum, are formed 
at the aides of the stomach of the conunon river crawfish. (Prep. 
m, Mu& ColL of Suig.) 

Every one has occasionally been struck with the difference of siise 
in the members of crabs and lobsters. One claw of these, and other 
crustaceans which have the daws, when perfect, nearly equal, is often 
found of its full volume, while the other is comparatiyely diminutive ; 
for the animal, upon the limb receiving any injury, has the power of 
suddenly throwing it oS, and the effort does not appear to be attended 
with pain, though it is frequently made when the system receives a 
severe shock. [Astaous.] The point at which the separation takes 
place is always in the. second articulation, near the basis of the 
limb, and from the stump, which speedily cicatrises, a new daw buds 
forth with all the proper articulations, and with an entire Uiough 
miniature resemblance to the rejected member. This new daw is 
formed within the dd shell and hee folded up until the exuvia are 
shed, when it appears as a part of the new udeton. If one of the 
limbs be severed In any other place than the usual point of separation 
the stump goes on bleeding, nor does it heaL In such cases the 
renovating prooesB does not commence until the animal succeeds in 
separating the remains of the member at the proper point, and this 
it does by a violent muscular contraction. Some vears sgo there 
were some Land-Grabs {Ofecareinut) at the Qaiden of the Zoological 
Society, and the apparent ease with which they parted with their 
smaller legs in order to escape from any one who injudidoudy took 
them up by these members was very remarkable^ They did not seem 
to regard the loss at all, and ran awi^ on the remainder of their legs 
sa if nothing had happened. Mr. Hairy Qoodsir has pointed out 
that this power of renewing the members in the Onutacea depends 
on a small glandlike body seated at the base of each limb. This 
body oonsiBts of a great number of laige nudeated cells, which are 
intezspersed throughout a fibro-gelatinous mass, it is supplied by a 
vessel and a nerve. Mr. Spenoe Bate describes the development of 
the shell as follows : — 

" Immediately above the hearty a pulp consisting of nucleated cells, 
areolar tissae, (and blood vessels?), is formed, extending to the 
intemd suzfruse of the shell, from which it is separated by a layer of 
pigment whidi gives colour to the new formation. Towaids the 
base, that is, immediatdy above the hearty the cells are uniformly, large 
and disUncty while an areolar tissue ramifies throughout the whole. 
As advance is made from the base, cells of less size mix with them, 
which increase in number as they diminish, in diameter, untU they 
approach the layer of pigment^ immediately beneath which *they 
adapt themsdves by mutual pressure into a polygonal fbrm. The 
pdp extends over the whole periphery of Uie crab^ immediately 
beneath the shell ; the thickness of the p^p decreases with the 
distance from the centre; and the larger cells become fewer in 
nunber, the mass being maide of the smdler cdls which become the 
secreting ozgans of the future shdl, which process conmiences pre- 
viously to and is completed after the removal of the exuvlse." {* Annals 
of Kat. Hiflt,' voL vu.) 

Of the nature of the organs of locomotion developed by the 
external skeleton, Milne-Edwards has given the best account :— ' 

" The kind of solid sheath formed by the tegumentary skeleton of 
the Onutacea, and which indudes in its interior the whole of the 
viaoera and other soft parts of these animals, is required to be so 
constructed as not to oppose locomotion ; consequently there exist, 
either between the different rings of the body or the various con- 
stttuent elements of the limbs, articulations destined to admit of 
motion to a greater or less extent between these different pieces. 
The structure of these articulations is of the most simple kind ; the 
moveable piece rests upon that which precedes it by two hinge-like 
joints, sitiuted at the two extremities of a line perpendicular to the 
plane in vhidi the motion takes place. In the internal portion of the 
edge of the moveable piece comprised between the joints there exists 
a notch of greater or less depth, destined to admit of flexion, whilst 
on the opposite or external side the same edge generally glides xmder 
that of the preceding piece. This kind of articulation, whilst it is the 
most favourable to preddon of movement and to strength, has the 
disadvantage of admitting motion in one plane only ; therefore the 
whole of ttie rings of the body, the axis of motion beiug entirely 
paralle], cannot move save in a verticd plane ; but nature has intro- 
duced a kind of corrective of this disadvantage in the structure of 
the limbs, by changing the directions of the articular axis, whence 
ensues the possibility of general motions being performed in every 
direction. Between the two fixed points two opposed emptor spaces 
are observed, left by the rings severdly, and destined to admit of the 
occurrence of motions of flexion and extendon. The tegumentary 
membrane which fiUs it never becomes incrusted or calcareous, but 
dwm continues soft and flexible. 

** The tegumentary skdeton supplies the apparatus of locomotion 
with fixed points of acUon as weU as with the levers necessary to 
motion. The immediate or active organs of this apparatus are the 
muscles, the colour of which is white, and the stnicture of which 
presents no peculiarity worthy of notice. They are attached to the 
pieces which they are required to move either immediately or by the 
intermedium of homy or cdcareous tendoni^ which are implanted 



upon the edge of the segment to which they belong. To the fixed 
point they are most commonly attached immediatdy. Thdr struc- 
ture is simple, and each segment in fact, as has already been said, 
bein^ contrived to move in one fixed and determinate plane, the 
muscles which communicate motion to it can constitute no more 
than two systems antagonists to each other, the one acting in the 
sense of flexion, by which the segment moved is approximated to 
that which precedes it, the other in the sense of extension, by which 
the segment is brought into the podtion most remote from the centre 
of motion. The musdea that produce these oppodte effects, as might 
have been conduded, are found implanted into the oppodte arms of 
the lever upon which their energy is extended. 

" The motions in flexion tend universally to bring the extremities 
and the diflerent rings towards the ventral aspect of the body ; it is 
consequently upon this aspect that the flexor musdes are inserted, 
and these are in general the more powerful On the contrary, and in 
accordance with the nature of the motion produced, it is upon the 
superior or donul aspect of the segments that the extensor muscles 
are attached. In the trench the two orders of musdes generally 
form two distinct layers, the one superficial, the other deep; the 
former thin and sometimes absent, the second on the contra^ very 
powerful wherever powerfril| motions are required. The musdes 
generally extend from the arc above to the one immediately below, 
passing for the most part from the anterior edge of the upper to the 
anterior edge of the lower segment The extent and the du^ction of 
the flexion of which any segment is susceptible depend on the sise of 
the interannular spaces above or bdow the ginglymoid joints ; and as 
these spaces are in general of condderable magnitude on the ventral 
aspect^ whilst the superior arcs are in contact^ and can only ride one 
over another in a greater or less degree, it is oxdy downwards that 
the body can be bent upon itself, while upwards, or in the sense of 
extendon, it can hardly in general be brought into tiie horizontd line. 

" Thus far what has been said applies more espedallyto the rings of 
the body, but the extremities present nothing that is essentially 
different, dther as regards the mode in which the tubular segments 
are articulated to one another, or as regards the mode in which the 
musdes are inserted. Each of these indeed having but one kind of 
motion, and even that very limited in its extent, nature has aided the 
defidenoy, as has been steted, by increasing the number of articula- 
tions, by which extent of motion is confened, and in varying the 
direction of the articular axes, an arrangement by which the animal 
obtains the ability of moving in every £rection, but at the expense 
of power, rapidity, and precision in its motions. Each segment of a 
limb indoses the musdes destined to move that segment which suc- 
ceeds it^ unless it be too short and weak for this end, in which case 
the musdes themselves have their origin at some point nearer to the 
medium plane of the body. As a general law the muscles are observed 
to be more powerful in proportion as they are nearer to the centre, 
which is to be explained by the fact that each motion they then com- 
municate is transmitted to a larger portion of a limb, to a lever 
longer in that sense in whidi it is disadvantageous to the power. 
Occadonally however the two last segments of a member are converted 
into a sort of hand, and in this case the penultimate segment some- 
times indudes a muscular mass, whidi may surpass in power the 
same system in the whole of the limb besides. Those musdes that 
put an extremity generally into motion are attached to the ddes of 
the thorado cavity, and the apodemata supply them with surfaces of 
insertion of great extent, and very favourd)ly dtuated as regards 
their action. They occupy the double rank of cells formed by these 
laminsD, but they vary too much in their mode of arrangement to 
admit of our saying anything generally upon this head The motion 
of translation or nrom place to place, the only kind upon which it 
seems neoessaiy to say anything here, is effected in two modes, 
dther by the alternate flexion and extendon of the trunk, or by the 
play of the limbs. 

" In those Onutacea which are formed essentially for swimming, 
the posterior part of the body is the prindpal sgent in enabling the 
anixnd to change its place ; but here the motions, instead of being 
laterd, are vertical ; and instead of causing the creature to advance 
they cause it to recede : it is by bending the abdomen suddenly 
downwards, and bringing it immediately under the sternum, that it 
strikes the water, and consequently by darting backwards that the 
animal makes it^ way through the liquid. [Abtaoits.] From what 
has now been said it may be imagined that the Ormtf»cea whose con- 
formation is the best adapted for swimming have the abdomen largely 
devdoped, and this is in fact what we dways observe ; the Amphi- 
poda and Deca/poda Macrowra are examples; whilst in the walking 
Onutacea, such as the Crabs, the Caprella, the Oniaeut, &&, this por- 
tion of the body attains but very insignificant dimendons. In the 
swimming Onutacea the appendages of the penultimate segment of 
the abdomen also become important organs of locomotion, inasmudi 
as they for the most part terminate in two broad horisontal plates, 
which, with the last segment, also become lamdliform, constitute an 
extendve . caudd fin arranged in the manner of a fan. We have 
already sud that the thoradc extremities done constitute true ambu- 
latory limbs. When destined for swimming only, their segments are 
lamdliform, and the pdp, as well as the stem, contributes to form the 
kind of oar which each of them then constitutes. 



tt CROaTACEA. 

"To concludB^ ths (temmatoui portioD of the thorwdo flxtreiaitlsi, 
whilit it still prcMTTMi the genenl form which we have ungned it, 
u modified ia loms eisee to serve for walking aa well tis iwimming, or 
to aid the Buimal u >n initrumeiit for burrowing with hcility, and 
making a cavitv fbr ihelter among the aand. Tbua in the Decapods 
that buiTow, the last a^ment of ths tanus anumes a lineeolated 
form ; and in Uie ■wiimniDg SrscAyuro, the aama segment, eapemallj 
of thelast pairof aEtntnitieB(Jfa(Wa, for example), appeara entirely 
lamellu'." 

Any one who will take the tnmble of gobg orer this exeellent 
deecriptioD with a common crab and lobiter before him, will have a 
clear idea of the locomotiie system in these ammals. 

Wo have only furtbar to add, that in a great number of spraiea one 
or eevaral pain of the thoracio extremities are modified so aa to 
become lutramente of preheneioD ; sometimes it is the last segment 
of the limb which, acquiring more Uian usual mobility, bends in such 
a manner as to form a hook with the preoeding aliment ; sometimaa 
It is thia pannltimate segment which extendi below or by the side of 
tha last^ so aa to form a kind of immoveable finger with which it is 
pUced in oppoaitian. In the first instance theee inatrumants are 
danomiuated sabcheliform clawa, in the second chelm simply, or 
oholiform daws. 





Jnw.I^ [fitii nucholrti], be., or n,ilpiua flmiatHii. 

1, right tiUTDSl Jiw-nwt ; A, Its Intmsl bisde, ct tig»; a, t, e, d, t, Its 

tuiOBM anlaslatiaiu ; B, its Hicraat blade, or palp ; 3, Jsw of the ronrth piir 

wlUi iU palp ; 1, ]kw of tht lUrd pair with Its palp ; 4, Jaw oT the seuod 

__._ . . ■ — _. .>j jjij p^ . g^ nisndibls wilh Its palp; I, npptr Up; t, 



CBPSTACEA. IM 

adapted for sucking, and In tbe interior of which are two slendar 
poiobsd prooessaa tlut act aa lancata for the piupoae of pcrforatiotl, 
m lieu of the true mandiblaa. 

The basilar articulations of tlie anterior thoraoio extremitiea in 
many apeciea are employed to seise, hold bst, and in a considerable 
dwree comminute, tha food ; and Uie moat perfect derelopment of 
thia design is manifestsd in the chelifonn clawa of the lobatera and 
crabs, with all their admirable modiflcatioiu for powerfol prehension. 

The mouth is a mere opening of the short cesophagus ; nor i* it 
furnished wilji a tongue — Uie organ to named (langue and laiiguett«) 
is no more than a, homy and lamellar pnceaa, performiw in a degree 
the functioDS of a lower lip. The ceaophagoi, which terminates 
without any interruption in the stomach, and both parts, with one 
striking exception in the ease of tha latter, whieh we shall presently 
mention, present nothing remarkable, oonaisting, as well as Uia whole 
of the Intestinal canal, of two mamtotmoui layers, and preaanting a 
considenble reaemblanoe to the same put of tlia organisation of the 
hi ahfv animals. The stomach Is globular and ouMoioui, oconpying 
much of the area of the cephalic cari^. Mid oouMug of two dictiaet 
portions: I, the cardiac region, sDTmoanting the tDOvtb and amo- 
phagu* J 3, the pyloric, placed behind the oardiao ragioo. 

A^und the pylorus is situated that extraordinary apptT«tas of hard 
taberolea or ahaip teeth which opeiate as grinding or tearing organa 
on tha food submitted to the action of this animal miU ; and though 
the different pieces vary ooniiderably in dillhrent specieB, their greater 
or less derelopment depending npon the nature of the food tuen by 
those apaoiea, they may be tneed in all the Brada/tuv and JfacrMmi. 
In Squilla thia mastiratoiy fiwnework ia reduced to two half-horay 
pieosa, with rounded projectiona ; and, to make up for thia deficiency, 
a bn&ah of each manditde reaehaa down to the pylorio orifice. 

From the pyloms the intasUne prooeeda dinct to the Ttnt, there 
being no convolution ; but in the higher Cmstaaeans ft b diatingniah- 
•ble into two portions, to which the names of duodenum and raotntn 
have bean applied, and which are aometimea, in the lobster for in- 
stance, separated by a valve, but mora frequently are without defined 
Umits. In the lower Cmitaceans the intestine is cylindrical, anJ 
oSen no differenoe throughout its whole length from the stomach to 
tha vent, which is alwaya situated in the laat ring, and has its orifice 
closed by muscular fibres which perform the functions of a sphincter. 

The liver is largely developed in many of tha Omilaeta, eepeoially 
in the Decapods ; indeed, no one can eat a crab or a lobster without 
being struck with the laif^e proportions of this viacus, which in thoae 
species is considered so delicioua. In the Bdriophthalmians, on the 
contWy, it is almost rudimentary, there being in them only three 
pairs of biliary vessels, much reaembling those of insects. The organ, 
when well developed, consiste of two symmetrical portions, generally 
sepatated from each other, and oompoaed of a collection ot ocuma, 
whi^ at one of their eitremitiea dischaiva their ascietion into excre- 
tory ducts, which being oonvertad by uiur union into longer and 
laiger veasls, pour the bile ultimately through a double channel into 
the pylorua. The nature at the whitiah fluid accreted by the two, 
and, as it is said, in soma casee three, elongated blind tubular worm- 
like oigana—the Gnt two tituatad on each aide of the pylorus and tha 
third on the middle of the intestine a ahort way below then — ia not 
known, nor is its use. 

The two groan glandular organs placed on each aide of the ceso 
phagui are supposed to aet in soma degi«e aa aDbstltutat for aalivaiy 

Much has been written on the subject of the vMCular sralem of the 
Oruitaeta. The following are the conclusiona to which HUne-Ed wards 
and V. Audooln came, after a careful study, bb well of the anatomical 
disposition of the circulating apparatus ot the Onulacta, as of the 
progress of the blood through its interior : — 

" The circulation of the blood in these animals is accomplished in s 
manner very similar to what takes place in the MoUu*ca. The blood 
puahed forward by the heart, is distributed to svray part of tha body, 
from whence it is returned into Urge sinuses situated at no greal 
distance from the base of the hnnctun; from theee sinuses it is sen' 
on to the respiratory apparatus, which it trBverses, and from which i^ 
finds ite way to the heart, to recommenoe the tame circle anew. Thf> 
heart is consequently aortic and single. The heart is always found 
in the median line of the body, and lying over the alimentary cnnal, 
near the dorsal aspect. Its form is various ; in the Decapods it is 
nearly square, and lies in the middle and superior part of the thorax, 
being separated from the carapace by tegumenteiy membranes only, 
and may be seen in the spaoe included between the two vaulta of the 
Banks. In structure it appears to be composed by the interlacement 
of numerousmuscular fibres, fixed by their eitremitiea to neighlrauring 
parte, and passing to some distance over the aggrwate at either end, 
so that tha whole oigan brings to mind such a figure ae would be 
formed by the luperposition of a number of stara Uie rays of which 
do not correspond. In the other orders this general form of the heart 
varies conaiderably, from the figure of an oblong square of rather 
inconsiderable aiae, aa it occura in the Dteapoda, to that of a long 
cylindrical vessel extending through the whole length of the body, as 
it appears in the Slomap«da and the Edriophthalmians. In the 
former of these it gives origin to six vascular trunks, three of whi^ 
issue from tha anterior edge, and three from the posterior sur&ce; 



CRUSTACEA. 



CRUSTACEA. 



SH 



etch of the tax openings ui doeed by a valynlar apparataa, which 
prarants the ragnigitation of the blood. 

** The fint of the thiee anterior yeasela is situated in the median 
line, and b distributed to the eyes, in consequence of which we have 
entitled it the ophthalmic arteiy. Lodged within the substance of 
the general tegumentary membrane, it continues its course without 
undergoing any subdivision along the median line through the whole 
length of the thorax, until, arrived opposite the eyes, it subdivides 
and terminates in two branches, which penetrate the ocular pedundes. 
On the two sides are the two antennary arteries. They run obliquely 
towards the aatennfiB, sending off numerous branches to the tegumen- 
tary membrane, in which tney are at first lodged ; they then plunge 
more deeply, sending branches to the stomach and its musdes^ and to 
the oigans of generation, between which they insinuate themeeWes 
by following Sie folds of the same membrane which parts them. 
I^ly, each of these vessels subdivides into two branches, one of 
which proceeds to the internal and the other to the external antenna. 

" Two hepatic arteries arise from the fore part of the inferior sur- 
face of the heart, and penetrate the liver, there to bo ramified ; but 
they are only found double and distinct from one another so long as 
the Uver is met with divided into two lobes, as it is in the crawfish 
and lobster. 

*' From the posterior part of the same surface of the heart there 
proceeds a large trunk, which, from its importance, might be com- 
pared with the aorta. This is unquestionably the vessel which many 
oathon have spoken of as a great vena cava ; we have entitled it the 
sternal artery. It bends forward, giving origin to two abdominal 
arteries, dips into the sternal canal, distributing branches to the 
different thoracic rings, as also to the fint five cephalic rings, which 
it passes over in its course. Meeting with the oesophagus, it bifur- 
cates, but still sends branches to the mandibles and the whole of the 
anterior and inferior parts of the head. 

"The bulb presented by the sternal artery at its origin, in the 
Jfocnmro, is the part which Willis characterised as auricle of the 
heart As ooncems the two abdominal arteries, which may be distin- 
gmshed into superior and inferior, and which arise from ^e kind of 
cross which it forms almost immediately after its exit^ they are in 
precise relationship in point of size with the magnitude and import- 
anoe dT the abdomen itself. In the Brachyura they are mere slender 
twigs ; in the Moicmu/ra, on the contrary, they are capacious stems, 
and the inferior of the two sends branches to tiie two posterior pain 
of thoracic extremities. 

" The disposition of the first three vessels is the same in the Stoma- 
poda as in the preceding species ; but the great vessel which represents 
the heart being extended through the whole length of the body, sup- 
plies immediately other arteriaJ branches in pairs, and in number 
equal to those of the rings. 

'* The blood returns from the different parts of the body by canals, 
or rather TBCuities, among Uie tissues (for they have no very evident 
appropriate parietes), which terminate in the venous sinuses situated 
dose to the branchiss. 

*' In the short-tailed Ikeapoda we find no more than a double series 
of these sinuses included within the cells of the planes above the 
articulation of the extremities. They communicate with one another, 
and they appear to have no parieties other than laminss of cellular 
membrane, of extreme tenuity, which cover the neighbouring parts. 
Euh of them, nevertheless, receives several venous conduits, and 
gives origin at its superior and external part to a vessel, which, tra- 
Tcrsing the walls of the planes at the base of the branchiae, conducts 
the blood to the latter organs. This is the external or afferent vessel 
of the branchiss. 

"We find the same lateral venous sinuses in the if acrottra; but 
instead of communicating with one another athwart the thoradc 
septa, as is the case in the Bf*adiyura, they all empty themselves into 
a great median vessel, which is itself a venous sinus, and occupies the 
sternal canal. In the SquiUa this sinus is almost the only vessel which 
•errcs as a reservoir to the venous blood. 

" The blood, after being arterialised in its passage through the 
capillaries of the branchise, is poured into the efferent vessel which 
nms along the internal surface of each branchia. It enters the thora- 
cic cells in the same manner as the afferent vessel passed out firom 
them, bends upwardly under the vault of the flanks, and thus takes 
its course towards the heart. It is to this portion of the canal that 
we have given the name of branchiocardiao vessel" 

The anatomical accuracy of the above description is generally 
admitted ; but the physiological deductions of M. Lund differ from 
those of Messrs. Audouin and Milne-Edwards. He regards the heart 
as destined to propel, not only the pure blood from the gills, but also 
an admixture of venous blood which enten the cavity of the heart by 
four orifices, seated on its dorso-lateral aspects, and distinct fipom 
those in which the brandual veins terminate. The French anatomists 
have objected that these orifices described by Lund are dosed by a 
membrane ; but we find them plainly shown, and provided with the 
valvular apparatus for preventing a reflux of the blood, in a prepara- 
tion (No. 898 a.) added by Mr. Owen to the Hunterian Series illus- 
trating the same subject in the Museum of the College of Surgeons. 
John Hunter had long sgo arrived at the same conclusions as to the 
mixed condition of the blood which is sent from the heart, and in a 

KAT. HIST. Dty. VOt, II. 



series of elaborate researches on the circulation in the Onutaeea 
and Insects, fint discovered the difiiised state of the venous blood in 
extensive and irregular venous sinuses; the general disposition of 
which, in the lobster, is well displaved in the four beautify plates 
(15, 16, 17, and 18) illustrative of John Hunter^s account of the circu- 
lating system of the lobster, in the * Catalogue of the ^ysiological 
Collection,' voL ii 

With regard to the circulation in the Amphipod^t, Mr. Spence Bate 
has pointed out to us that there appear to be no vessels, and that the 
fluid circulates between the muscular structure. 

The vascular system just described is regarded by most authon as 
a true sanguiferous system, but Professor Agassis has stated his rea- 
sons for believing that the fluid which circulates is not blood but 
chyle, and that this system must be regarded as chyliferous. (' Ann. 
Nat. HisV 1851.) 

The respiration of the Crutlcieea is carried on generally by means 
of branchise. We say generally, because there are some forms where 
no special organs have been detected, and where it is presumed that 
oxvgen is obtained from the water through the medium of the exter- 
nal tegument. But where, as in the great mass of these animals, 
brancQal respiration is present, the variety in form and disposition of 
the apparatus, and in some cases the complexity of it» are very great 
Thus, in the Branchiopoda the lamellar form of all the thoracic extre- 
mities and the two external appendages corresponding to the palp 
and flabeUum present membranous vesicles, flat in shape, highly vas- 
cular and soft, whose office is to facilitate ^e action ox the air upon 
the blood. In the Amphipoda and Lctmodipoda we begin to perceive 
a gradual departure fix>m this type. In the LoBmodipoda the vesicu- 
lar bodies produced by the flabeUiform appendage of a certain number 
of pain of the thoradc extromities, only peiform the functions of 
branchiee ; and in the laopoda the locomotive extromities cease to act 
as respiratoiy organs, the firat five pain of abdominal extromities 
being exclusively devoted to those duties. The Stamapoda, which in 
some cases aro without determinate respiratory organs, in othen pre- 
sent an oiganisation analogous to that of the Decapodous embiyo, and 
again in Uie SquUlce and Thytanopoda exhibit a highly-complicated 
s&ucturo of branchiie, which, though superior even to the highest 
^pe in complexity, still fall short of the perfection manifested in 
that type, inasmuch as the branchise float in the water unprotected 
by any envelope. 

M. Milne-Edwards thus roviews the respiratory apparatus in its 
state of greatest complexity, commencing with it in the embryo, and 
following it in its progressive development. It should however be 
recollected that the larvse of Attacut /luvicUilu undergo no metamor- 
phosis, and can hardly be regurled as typical of the QrvMUteea : — 

" In the earliest periods of embryotic life of the common Ariaeui 
JluviaiUiB we discover no trace of branchise ; but at a somewhat moro 
advanced stage of the incubation, though still beforo the formation of 
the heart, these oigans begin to appear. They aro at first small lamd- 
lar appendices of extreme simpUdty, attached above the three pain 
of mudllaxy extremities, and roprosanting the flabelliform portions of 
these limba Soon these lamellar appendages dongate and divide into 
two halves, one internal, lamellar, and triangular, the other external, 
small, and cylindrical; lastly, upon the surface of this, strise aro 
observed to appear, whidi aro the rudiments of the branchial fila- 
ments. During this interval the thoracic extromities have beoomtf' 
devdoped, and above their bases other branchise have made their 
appearance, presenting in the beginning the form of tuberdes, and 
subsequentiy that of stilete, smooth and rounded on their surface, 
but by-and-by becoming covered with a multitude of small tubercula- 
tions, which, by Uieir dongation, aro gradually converted into branchial 
filaments similar to the preceding. During this period of the de- 
velopment of the branchise, these organs aro applied, like the extremi- 
ties, to the inferior surface of the embryo ; but they subsequoitly 
rise against the lateral parts of the thorax, become lodged within a 
cavity situated under the carapace, and thus aro no longer visible 
externally. 

" The cavity destined to protect in this manner the brandiial appa- 
ratus is ndther moro nor less than an internal fold of the common 
tegumentary membrane. It shows itself first under the guise of a 
narrow groove or furrow, which rons along the lateral psjrts of the 
thorax, below the edge of the lateral piece of the carapace. This lon- 
gitudinal furrow is not long of expanding, and becomes consolidated 
by its superior edge with the internal surface of the carapace, which, 
by being prolonged inferiprly, constitutes the external wall of a cavity, 
the opening of which, situated above the base of the extremities, 
becomes more and moro contracted, and ends bv being almost entirdy 
dosed. The space in this way ciroumscribed mcloses the branchise, 
and constituteB what is called the respiratory cavity of the Decapod 
Crustaceans. 

*' From what has just been said, it would appear that the embryo 
of AttacuB Jluviatilit presents four principal periods with reference 
to the state of the rospiratory apparatus : 1, that which precedes the 
appearance of this apparatus ; 2, that during which the branchise aro 
not distinguishable from the flabelliform appendages of the extromi- 
ties, or in which it consists of simple lamelhu: or stiliform processes, 
which appear as mero processes of other oigans especially dedicated to 
locomotion or mastication ; 8, that characterised by the transformation 

Q 



227 



CRUSTACEA. 



CRUSTACEA. 



of these extremely simple appendages into oi^gana of a complex 
structure, entirely distinct from the extremities, but still entirely 
external ; 4, and lastly, that during which the branchiss sink inwards, 
and become lodged in a cavity especially adapted for their reception, 
and provided with a particular apparatus destined to renew the water 
necessary to the maintenance of respiration. 

'* If we now turn to the examination of the apparatus of respiration 
in the different groups in which it exhibits important modifications, 
we shall, in the series of Crustaceans, encounter permanent states 
analogous to the various phases through which we have just seen the 
apparatus passing in the most elevated animals of the class. And in 
fact the first period which we have particularised above in the 
embryonic life of the Decapod is exhibited in the permanent condition 
of some inferior Crustaceans, in which not only are there no special 
oigans for respiration, but in which none of the appendices occur 
with such modifications of structure as would fit them to become sub- 
stitutes for the branchiae, in which, consequently, the process of 
respiration, that is, the aeration of ike blood, appears to take place 
over the surface of the body Mb large. The greater number of the 
GEaustellate Onuicteea, of the JSntomottraca properly so called, of the 
Copepodiif and even of the PhyllotonuUa, appear to belong to this 
type of oigamsation." 

The branchial character is so inherent in this class, that it is pre- 
served even in certain species that live on the land. The Land-Crab 
(CfecareiMu), for example, would die if long immersed in water ; but 
this, as W€ul as other land Crustaceans, requires a certain degree of 
moisture to enable the branchiee to act, and accordingly they never 
remove far from damp situations. 

Much light has been recently thrown on the anatomy of the nervous 
system and senses in the Onutacect, 

The principles derived from the study of the gradual evolution of 
the nervous system in the common Crawfish are— 1. The isolated 
formation of the nervous centres, independently of one another. The 
ulterior junction of the organs comrtdtutes the law of centripetal 
development of M. Serretf. 2. A tendency to conjunction by a motion 
transversely. 8. A second motion in the line of the axis of the body, 
producing a final concentration of a greater or lees number of nervous 
centres, originally independent of each other. 

The first of these conditions is well seen in TalUrui, On each side 
of the mesial line in this genus is a chain of ganglions, cox^oined by 
nervous centres of simple construction, flattened, and somewhat 
losenge-like in their outline. Thirteen pairs of these correspond to 
the thirteen segments of the body, the two nuclei of each pair com- 
municating together in the same way that each pair is connected with 
its antecedent and succeeding pair, by means of medullary cords in 
the first case, and longitudinfd cords in the second. Each of these 
pairs in all essentials is a counterpart of the other, the cephalic gang- 
lion, which sends branches to the antennse and eyes, not excepted. 
In PhyllowfMk the tendency to centralisation is more obvious, and in 
Oymothoi the union of the medullaiy nuclei is accomplished, the 
approximated chains forming a single longitudinal series from head 
to tail. 

In the tvpes, as might be expected, the centralising system is per- 
fected by the actual cox^unction of the nuclei. This subject has been 
fully treated by Rathke, Audouin, Milne-Edwards, and Newport 
Hr. Newport's excellent and instructive paper ' On ^e Nervous Sys- 
tem of the Sphinx liguttri of IdnnflBus ' (' FhiL Trans.' part iL, 1884), 
including beautiful illstrations of the nervous system of the Lobster, 
and showing its identity in principle with that of the Sphinx, may be 
consulted with advantage. 

The conclusion formed by M. Milne-Edwards in his 'Histoire' is, 
that "the nervous system of the Onutaeea consiBts uniformly of 
medullary nuclei (ganglions), the normal number of which is the 
same as that of the members or rings of the body, and that all the 
modifications encountered, whether at difforent periods of the incuba- 
tion or in different species of the series, depend especially on the 
approximation, more or less complete, of these nuclei (an approxima- 
tion which takes place from the sides towards the median line, as well 
as in the longitudinal direction), and to an arrest of development 
occurring in a variable number of the nudeL" 

Mr. Newport appears to have been the first who pointed out the 
double ganglionic chain in the Lobster, as being composed of two 
orders of fi1»es, forming distinct and superposed fasciculi or columns, 
designated by him columns of sensation and of motion. 

The highest d^ree of nervous centralisation is found in Maia, 
according to M. Milne-Edwards, who lays down the following princi- 
ples, the result of the experiments made by himself and M. Audouin, 
and his deep and elaborate investigation of the subject : — 

" 1. The nervous system is the system which entirely presides over 
the sensations and motions. 

** 2. The nervous cords are merely the organs of transmission of the 
pensations and of volition, and it is in the ganglions that the power 
of perceiving the former and of producing the latter resides. Every 
orgnn separated from its nervous centre speedily loses all motion and 
Eensation. 

" 8. The whole of the ganglions have analogous properties ; the 
faculty of determining motions and receiving sensations exists in each 
of these oigans ; and the action of each is by so much the more inde- 



pendent as its development is more isolated. When the ganglionic 
chain is nearly uniform through its whole length, it may be divided 
without the action of the apparatus being destroyed in either portion 
thus isolated, — always understood, that botii are of considerable size, 
because, when a very small portion only is isolated from the reet of 
the system, this appears too weak, as it were, to continue its func- 
tions, so that sensibiiitv and contractility are al^e speedily lost. But 
where one portion of the ganglionic cham has attained a development 
very superior to that of the rest, its action becomes essential to the 
integrity of the functions of the whole. 

" It must not be imagined, however, from this that sensibility and 
the faculty of exciting muscular contractions are ever completely 
concentrated in the cephalic ganglions, and it seems to us calculated 
to convey a very inaccurate idea of the nature and functions of these 
ganglions to sp^stk of them under the name of brain, as the generality 
of writers have been led to do, seduced by certain inconclusive analo- 
gies in point of form and position. 

" It is nevertheless to be remarked, that in these animals an obscure 
tendency to the centralisation of the nervous functions is observable 
in the anterior portion of the ganglionic chain ; because i^ in the 
lobster, for instance, it be divided into two portions, as nearly equal 
as possible, b^ severing the cords of conmiumcation betvreen the gan- 
glions belongmg to the first and seoond thoradc rings, sensibility, and 
especially mobuity, are much more quickly lost in the posterior than 
in the anterior half, and this disproportion is by so much the more 
manifest as the division is performed more posteriorly ; still there la 
a great interval between this first indication and the concentration of 
the faculties of perception and of will in a single organ — the brain — 
of which every other portion of the nervous systems then becomes a 
mere dependency." (' Cycle, of Anat. and Phys.') 

The sense of sight is possessed by the whole of the claas at some 
period of their fives, and in the gjraat majority the organ is of a 
highly complicated structure. The parasitic Onulaeea, which 
undergo a land of metamorphosis, possess eyes in the early stage of 
their existence, though they are subsequently obliterated ; but the 
great mass of Crustaceans are gifted with the power of distinguishing 
objects through the medium of light from their birth to their death. 
The different forms presented by the visual apparatus are as 
follows : — 

Smooth or Simple Eyes. — These consist of a smooth rounded 
transparent cornea, being a modification of the tegumentaiy mem* 
brane, immediately behmd which and in contact with it is the 
crystalline lens, generally spherical, and behind this last and in con- 
tact with it is a mass of gelatine, which performs the function of the 
vitreous humour, and touches the extremitv of the optic nerve. A 
thick deep-coloured pigment envelops the whole, and lines the inner 
surface of the eye-globe up to the point at which the transparency of 
the cornea b^^ns. Limvliu (Molucca Crab, Eing-Crab) affords an 
example of this kind of eye. The simple eyes have never been found 
to exceed two or three In number. 

Intermediate Eyes. — NAaUOf Branchipui, and JOaphnia present us 
with the first modification of a visual structure, intermediate as it 
were between the simple and the compound eyes. In this organisa- 
tion the cornea is stiU undivided externally, but a number of small 
crystallxne lenses and vitreous humours, each in its separate pigmen- 
tiuy sac and terminating in immediate contact with the optic nerve, 
presents an eye consisting of a ooz^unotion of several stemmata or 
simple eyes under a common cornea — Apui [Bihoottlub], besides its 
pair of simple eyes, has also a posterior compound pair. The second 
modification, which is to be found in the Edriophthalmians (Ampki- 
thoi, for instance), brings us still nearer to the Ixxdy compound form 
with distinct facets. Two transparent laminse form the*ooniea in 
these Crustaceans : the external is smooth and undivided, the internal 
divided into a variable number of hexagonal facets, each wiUi a 
distinct cornea, which are superposed upon the conioal crystalline lens, 
which is an ingredient in compound eyes properly so ceJled. 

Compound Eyes. — The external and internal membranes, the junc- 
tion of which forms the cornea, present simultaneously the division 
into facets, each of which forms anteriorly an ocular compartment. 
Unlike the facets in the eyes of insects, which are always hexagonal, 
these present various figures in different Crustacea, In ScyllanUt 
Oalaihea, the common Crawfish, fta, for example, they are square : in 
Pagurttt, SquUla, the Crabs, &o., they are hexagons. The crystalline 
humour that succeeds them immediately, is, according to M. Milne- 
Edwards, " of a conical form, and is followed by a vitreous humour 
having the appearance of a gelatinous filament, adhering by its base to 
the optic nerve." Each of the columns thus formed is moreover 
lodged within a pigmentary cell, which likewise coven the bulb of 
the optic nerve. " But the most remarkable circumstance is, that the 
large cavity, within which the whole of these parallel columns, every 
one of which is in itself a perfect eye, are contained, is closed poste- 
riorly by a membrane, which appears to be neither more nor lees than 
the middle tegumentary membrane pierced for the passage of the 
optic nerve, so that the ocular chamber at large results from the sepa- 
ration at a point of the two external layen of the general envelope." 
....'' The most remarkable modification of fooetted eyes con- 
sists in the presence of a kind of supplementary lens, of a circular 
shape, and set within the cornea in front of each proper crystalline 



229 



CBUSTACEA. 



CRUSTACEA. 



230 



lens. These small lentioiilar bodies exist independently^ and are 
p^fectly distinct from the small corneal facets. In some cases they 
might be mistaken (in the Idotea, for example, where they may be 
peroeiTed singly, and with their distinct circiUar forms), and the 
incautious obseryer led to conclude that the corneal facets are merely 
these lentieulAr bodies so much enhuged that their hexagonal or 
equare forms result from their agglomeration in a point ; but there 
are Qnutaeea, such as the Ca^iofUMtcr, in which these two elements 
of the external ooniea may be perfectly distinguished, the lenticular 
body being of insignificant dimensions, sad occupying the centre of 
the ootneai &cet only. In general however the diameter of the lenti* 
cular body is equal to that of the oomeaJ facet itself, so that l^eir 
edges blend. Further, the lenticular bodies are most commonly 
erolTsd in the substance of the comes ; but there are oases in which, 
under fsTourable drcumstances, they may be detached from it 
Although the existence of these different modifications must not be 
oonsidcared as being exdusiye, inasmuch as there are certain Onuitacea 
^hich exhibit more than one of them at the same time, for instance, 
Btemmata and compound eyes, the latter only are the species of visual 
ozgao encountered in the great minority of cases. Their general 
number is two ; but these are occasionally united, so as to form a 
single mass, and make the animal appear at first sight as if it had but 
a single eye. This peculiarity of organisation can even be followed in 
the /}aphnia [Bbakohiopoda], in the embxro of which the eyes are 
first seen isolated ; with the progreas of the development however 
they are observed gndually to approach each other, and fixially to 
become united. Stemmata are always immoveable and sessile ; the 
compound eyes with smooth oomen however, although in the m^ority 
of cases they present the same disposition, now snd then occur move- 
able : sometimes they are supported by a pedicle, moveable in like 
manner and provided with special muscles. The eyes with facets 
present the nme modifications, and even supply important ohacaeters 
in das^ying these animals : thus in the Bdi%ophihtUmia the eyes are 
always immoveable and sessile, whilst in the Deeapoda and Stoma- 
poda they are supported upon moveable stems of very various 
lengths, sAd which every consideration leads us to view as limbs or 
appendages of the first cephalic ring. It sometimes even happens that 
in these animals* between the outer edge of the carapace and the base 
of the antemue, there occurs a furrow or cavity, within which the eyes 
may be withdrawn or Isid flat, so as to be out of the way of injury ; 
this groove or cavity is generally spoken of under the name of the 
orbit." (' Cyd. of Anat and Phys.') 

Absence of Eyes. — ^Mr. Westwood has recently made known through 
the Iiinnnan Sodetv a form of JBdriopMhaltnia inhabiting a deep well, 
a spedes in which there is no external appearance of eyes whatever. 
Hr. Newport has however, with his accustomed accuracy in dissection, 
pointed out that even in this case a rudimentaiy visual oigan exists 
underneath the cephalic crust 

In some of the rorms {M<Ua, for instance) there is a fringe of hairs 
on the inner side of the orbit, so placed as to perform the office of a 
brush in wiping the eye when brouffht into contact with it 

With regard to hearing, a cavitv full of fltdd, supplied with a nerve 
fitted for uie perception of impulses of sound, forms the basiB of the 
auditory system in the Onuiacea, This apparatus appears to be 
aausted by certain oigans, elastic membranes, and rigid stems, for 
7nff*'*?««^ organised so as to vibrate under the action of sonorous 
undulations, or to assist sudi vibrations. The long rigid stem formed 
by the antenna of the second pair is said to asttst in this function, 
and, according to the highly interesting experiments of BL Savart, the 
addition of such a rigid stem renders certain vibrations appreciable ; 
but in some instances no such stem exists. In many of the forms 
{Maia, for instance) there is an ossictdum auditus. 

In the Museum of the College of Suigeona (Ghdleiy, No. 1559 A) is 
a Hermit Crab (Pagurua MiUb, Oliv.), prepared by Mr. Owen to show 
the organ of hearing, which ia compost of a simple vestibular cavity 
situated at the under part of the basal joint of the external antenna. 
The cavity is surrounded by a dense crustaoeous substance, except at 
the internal opening, where the auditoxy filament of the antennal 
nerve penetrates it, and at the opposite side, where an elliptical open- 
ing or fenestra is left, which is closed by the acoustic membrane : the 
membranes of sound affect this membrane, and are transmitted to the 
nerve, which is exposed on ihe left side. (Owen, * Cat of Physiolog.,' 
series, voL in. part 1.) 

Every lobster-pot Uiat is baited on our coasts aflbrds evidence that 
the Crustaceans are endued with the sense of smelling, but where the 
organ is seated is doubtfiiL H. de Blsinville placed it in the antenna, 
where it certainly does not reside, according to H. MUne-Edwards, 
who further states that the opinion of H. Itosenthal, who ascribes 
thft function to a cavity which he discovered at the base of the first 
pair of antenna, requires to be supported by direct experiment 

Though the Ontiacea have no true tongue, their selection of food 
and the preference exerdsed by Uiem, show that they are gifted with 
the sense of taste or a sense analogous to it The seat of the faculty 
is most probably that portion of the tegumentary membrane that 
hnes the inside of the mouth and OBSophagus. 

The more or less calcareous crust wi& which the Oruttacea ere 
covered forms a medium not calculated to convey external impresdons 
of any delicacy. " Nevertheleaa," says M. Milne-Edwards, "in front 





a, right external anteima of 
Thelphuaa Jltinatilu ; (, left an- 
tenna of the same. Desmarest 



of the head there are certain special oigans which all the observations 
I have had an opportunity of making upon the oiganisation of these 
animals lead me to regard as parts more particularly destined to be 
the seat of the sense of touch. These oigans are the antenna — those 
slender filaments possessed of a great degree of flexibility, of motility, 
and of sensibility. M. de Blsinville was led to regard these oigans as 
the;Mat of the sense of smell ; but 
direct and condudve experiment 
has satisfied us that the destruc- 
tion of the antenna has no influence 
whatever on the exercise of the 
sense of smell : and we are on the 
same grounds induced to believe 
them destined to the exerdse of 
the sense of touch ol oondderable 
delicacy, unless we would imagine 
them as the instruments of some 
quite peculiar sense, the existence 
of which would be purely hypothe- 
tical. The number and dispodtlon 
of these organs vary extremely. 
Some of the Crustaceans at the 
very bottom of the series are 
wholly without antenna, or are 
furnished with them in a merdy 
rudimentary state. Some spedes 
have no more than a single pair; 
the normal number however is 
two pairs. In speaking of the 

tegumentary skdeton we have said to which of the rings these 
appendages bdong; we shall only say further here that they may 
be inserted on the superior or inferior surface of the head according 
to the respective development of the different pieces of which this 
segment is composed. They do not differ less widely in their form 
and compodtion, and under this double point of view present modi- 
fications analogous to those which we have specified as occurring in 
the extremities." 

As a rule the sexual oigans are separate in the Cnutacea, that is, 
they never co-exist in the same individual, and the reproduction is 
oviparous. Milne-Edwards has however described a crab in whidi 
the oigans were male on one dde and female on the other. Mr. 
Spence Bate also informs us that he has in his possession a 
specimen of OoryHei in which all the characteristics are female but 
with male oigans. The celebrated hermaphrodite lobster also (* Phil. 
Trans.,' 1780, p. 290) presented a different sexual oigan on each dde, 
and both the mde and female portion were complete. In the more 
perfect Crtutaeea the analogy between the male and femde organs is 
so great as frequently to deceive the observer at first sight 

m the male oigans of the Common Crab tiie testis is grape-like, 
the duster consisting of four prindpal lobes formed of numerous 
woim-like delicate cuials convoluted into pellets. The first portion 
is placed in the front of the thorax, and terminated in a laige coiled-up 
vessd dtuated on the dde of the stomach ; behind, and connected 
with it, is the deferent vessel, a convoluted canal of some size and 
of a milky colour. It is twisted about the thorax, and at last pene- 
trates the cell of the last pair of limbs, opening outwardly on the 
basilar piece, and again passes into the styliform organs, which are 
true intromittent oigans. The intercourse of the sexes only takes 
place during the time that the female is moulting. 

" The female reproductive apparatus of the (^ruttacea," says Milne- 
Edwards, "in the highest state of complication consists of an ovary, an 
oviduct, and copulatory pouchesi The ovaries in the Deeapoda brachy' 
ura resemble four qylindricd tubes placed longitudinally in the thorax, 
and divided into two symmetrical pairs, each opening into a distinct 
oviduct, yet communicating with one another by a transverse csjial, 
and by the intimate union of the two posterior tubes in a portion of 
their length. The oviducts as well as the ovaries are of a whitish colour ; 
they are shorty and become united in their course to a kind of sac, the 
neck of which extends to the exterior of the animd's body ; there is 
one of these on each side, and they are known by the name of the copu- 
latory poudies. It is into these reservoirs that the mde pours the 
spermatosoa, which are dmple round cells, and are applied to the 
ova as they pass in succesdon dong and out of the oviducts. These, 
after a course which is never long, terminate at the vuIvsb — openings 
formed in the stemd pieces of the segment which supports the thiM 
pair of ambulatoiy extremities, 

"The Anomowra and Macroura have no copulatoiy pouches, and 
their vulva are dtxutted on the basilar joint of the ambulatory 
extremities of the third pair. The mode in which fecundation is 
accomplished in these genera is consequently much leas apparent than 
in the Brachuura, Many writers are of opinion that this operation 
takes place in the interior of the ovaries, a process that appears by no 
means feadble on account of the inequality of development of the 
ova, which is such that the last of them are not in being even long 
after the first have been expelled. 

"The femde Crustacean does not abandon her eggs after their 
extrudon. Those of the Decapods preserve them under their abdo- 
men by means of the abdomiud extreiuitied modified in their 



131 CRUSTACEA. 

■truotura, TheSdriapUkalmia, again, ksop thfau no^br tbair thoiax b; 
meuu of the flabtllifonn apptnidagea of ths eitr«miti«a belonging to 
the region ; whilst the inTerior ggneni, Buch u the EntonuiartKa, Ac, 
hava inipended to the external oriGcea either horn; tubes or a pair 
of membTBDOiu laaa which oontain and teaniport them troai place ' 
plaoe. Theie vaiietiea in the aooeaaorr orgau of geneniion are 
many case* aaffleieDt to diiitiuKuiah the aexn ; thuM, among i 
Dieapoda (rotAjwa, the fam^w are known at a gluce b; Uudr 
wider abdomen, which a aometimes of auch dimennona aa to • 
the whole alemum." 

The following cute wiU oonTsy some idea of the reUtire poaition of 
the parti in the carapace. 



B, a, s, o, 1 

ImnehlB ; /,/, mu. 

At one time it waa auppoied that the young of ths Cnulacta 
underwent no change after being hatched from the ova, and this waa 
formerly given aa a diatinotion between the loaect* and OwdKco. We 
now know however that those anomaloua forma of unimrJ life known by 
the name of Zeta, and referred t^ Boao and othera to the Entomostra- 
coua OuitacM, are truly the young of t!ie higher forms of Ortulaaa 
undergoing metaraorphosiH. jEwiioHlOPODi.] The faots of this pro- 
eeoa were first made out by Mr. V. Thompson in the year 1828, and 
anbteqnently the instances in which it has been obaerred are ao 
numerous that there can be no doubt that mstamorplio«s takes place 
in all the Uarina Deoapodcus Cnutaeta. In the Tarious forms of 
Maenmra, the metamorphosis is less decided than in the £racA]/ura ; 
and in the Fresh-Water Ciay-Fish {AHaeiti JtuvialUit) no change takes 

KceatalL Thegehave lodsomaobeervers to doubt the correctnees of 
. Thompson's conclusions. One of the last and most importuit series 
of investigations conducted on thia subject was by Mr. H. Q. Couch, 
at Pensance, Cornwall, who, diBsatisfied with the uncertainty and 
contiadiction of former testimony, resulved tu inVHtigsto the matter 
for himself. He observed the metamorphoiis to occur in the following 
genet* :— Cancer, Zantho, Pilunimu, Cardnyu, PorimHu, Main, 
OalaOea, Samaiiu, and Paimunu. The details of Mr, Couch's 
observationi were published in the 'Proceedings of tjie Cornwall 
FobtMihnia Society' for 1B4S. 

nofesBOT Bell says, " Eliminating, therefbre, thii exceptional cue 
(tint of AiHum fiuviatilii), it will be found that the fact of a. meta- 
morphoma has been demonstrated with mo™ or less suooau in no less 
than seventeen genera of the Bracbyurous order ot the Duapada, in 



CBUSTACEA. tss 

which order the phenomenon ia most decdded and obvions, belonging 
to the families i^^odiada, Maiada, Caiueridtx, Portuntda-, Pmnc- 
Aeiidce, On^Ma, Qteardnidix. In the Anomourous order it has been 
shown in the genera Paguna, PuTceUarm. and Gaiathta, and amongst 
the Maenura in Homartu, Patinarat, PaUmum, and Crangvik." 

The following is Ur. Couch's account of the cbangrs which take plaoe 
in the Common Shore-Crab (Cornnui nHeTU)). Having procured aome 
q)ecimena of the Crab laden with ripe oya, he says—" These were 
transferred to nq>tiTity, placed in separate basins, and supplied with 
sea-water, and in about sixteen hours I hod the gratification of finding 
large numbeia of the cresturea alluded to above swimming about with 
all the activity of young life. There could be but little doubt that 
these creatures were tho young of the captive craba. In order how- 
ever to secure accuracy ot result, one of the crabs was removed to 
another vestiel and supplied with filtered vlei, that all insects might 
be removed ; but in about an hour the aame creatures were observed 
swimming about aa before. To render the matter if possible still 
more certain, some of the ova were opened, and the embryos extracted. 
but shortly afterwarda I had the pleasure of witnessing beneath tht 



microsoope the natunl bunting and escape of one precisely nmilar in 

'" ~m to uioae found so abundantly in th '" "^ — ■^'--- ■> 

doubt tliat these groteoqufr-looking or 



then there is 
are the young of the 
Careintu tnaaat; but how different they are from the adult need 
hardly be pointed out. When tliey Arrt escape th^ rarely e*oeed 
half a line in length. Ths body is ovoid, the dorsal idueld large and 
inflated; on its upper edge and about the middle is a loog epine, 
curved posteriory, and rauier longer than the diameter of ttw body, 
though it varies in length in different specimens; it is hollow, and 
the Mood may be seen circulating through it The upper portion of 
the body is sap-green and the lower samitransparent. The eyes an 
laige, sessile, and situated in ^nt, and the urcumferance of the 
pupil marked with radiating linee. The lower margin of the shield 
IB waved, and at its posterior and lateral margin is a pair of natatoir 
feet The tail is extended longer than the diameter of the shield 
and is composed of five equal annulations besddea the terminal one j 
ita extremity is forked, and the external angles long, slender, pointed, 
and attached to ths last annulation by joints. Between the external 
angles, and on each side of ths median line, are three lesser spine^ 
also attached to the last ring by joints. Between the eyes and from 
near the edge of the shield hangs a long stout and somewhat oom- 
prsssed appendage, whioh as the animal moves is reflexed posteriorly 
betwssn the claw*. Under eadi eye there ie also another appeodags, 
shorter, andilightlj mora compressed. The claws arain three pairs; 
each is composed of three jointe, and terminates in four long slender 
hair-like appendages. These claws an generally bent on the body, 
but stand m relief &om it. If the animal be viewed in fomt the 
lower margin of the dotnl shield will be foond to be waved into 
three semiciroular festoons, the two external of which sn occupied 
by the eyes, and between whioh the middle one intervenes ; the 
general direction of the claws will be seen to be at right snglss to die 
body. As the young lies indoaed wiUiin the membnines of the egg, 
the daws are folded on each other, and the tail ie flexed on t^em so 
fv as the margin of the shield ; and if long enough is reflected over 
the front of the shield between the eyea. The dorsal spine is bent 
backwards, and lies in contact with the donial shield ; for the youn^ 
when it escapes from the egg, is quite soft, but it rapidly hardens and 
Bolidifles by the deposition of calcareous matter in what may be called 
ita skin. 'The progress of this solidification may be very beautifully 
observed by watching the circulation is the dorsal spine. When the 
Qceatore has just effeeted its liberation from the egg, ths blood globules 
may be seen ascending to the apex, but as the consolidation advances 
the droulation becomss more and more limited in ita extent, and is 
finally confined to the base. These minute cmturea, in this early 
state of their existence, are natatory and wonderfully active. They 
are continually ■dimming from one part of the vesnl to -the other, 
and when observed free m their native pools, if possible even more 
than when in conflaemenb Their swimming is produced by 
IS and extensions of the tail, and by repeated beating moticua 
of their claws; this, together with their gretesque-looking forms, gives 



a most extrac 



appearance 



when under ei 






shell becomes more solid they get less active, and return to the 
sand at the bottom of the vessel to cast their shells, and acquire a 
form. They are exceedingly delicato, and require greet care and 

lUon t« convey them through the first stsge, for unless the watei- 
be supplied very frequenUy and in great abundance they soon die. 
Ths second form of bansmutation is equally as remarkable as the 
Grsl, and quite as distinct from the adult anioiat. In the spedes now 
under consideration this second transformation is marked by ths dis- 
appearance of the dorsal spine ; the shield becomes Qatter and more 
depreeaed: the anterior portion more horiiontal and pointed, the 
three festoons having dimppeared. The eyes, from being sessile, are 
now t-levat«d on foot-stalks; the in&a-orbitsl appendages beoome 
apparently converted into antennK, The claws undsigo an entire 
"— 'olution; the first pair beoome stouter than the others and a 



m 



ORUSTACEA. 



CRUSTACEA. 



M 



bat ii more oommonly extended. Thia form ie as iiAtatoty as the 
first. They are frequently found c o ngregating around floating sea- 
weed, the buoys and strings of the crab-pot marks, and other floating 
sabstanoes, both near the shore and in deep water. Their genenu 
fonn somewhat resembles a Galatketk." 

Subsequently to this second change a third takes place, in which 
ihe animal loses its tail, and becomes more like to the form it assumes 
in adult age. In the various species different forms are aaramed, but 
they can ul be referred to departures fh»m the typical form of the 
bsmlj. On this point the following observations of Mr. Couch are 
very interesting : — 

'*So &r as my observation has extended, it appears probable that 
tile metamorphoBis of the young in their pro gress to adult growth is 
not universal in all Crustaceans ; but^ on the contrary, that the fSunilies 
in which the eyes are always sessile in their adult growth, and which 
do not exuviate or voluntarily throw off tb»ir limbs, are in the habit 
of producing their young perfectly fonned : and an opportunity that 
has occurred to me of obeerring the process of early development in 
the common lobster will tend to establish the existence of a law of 
nature as applicable not only to it, but probably also to all the genera 
of this extensive family or class, that is, the Long-Tailed Onutacea ; 
which law is, that the greatest extent of metamorphosis is in those 
genera which are of the highest rank in the series, that is, the Short- 
Tailed, or Crabs, that even at their birth the Long-Tailed genera, as 
the Lobster, approach more closely to the ultimate sice of the parent ; 
and, what is still more extraordizmiy than all beside, that so long as 
the lobster in particular retains the eyes sessile, the progress of 
development and growth is'conformed to what is the perpetual mode 
of growth of the permanently sessile-eyed races ; and it is only when 
the crust baa become fully extended and hardened, and thus the 
exuviation is rendered necessary, that the eyes become elevated on 
footstalks^ and the adult form and habit are completely established." 

With regard to the arrangement of the Otwtooea, almost every 
writer on this class of animals has embodied his own views in their 
classification. Among the principal soologiats who have written on 
^he subject^ the names of Cuvier, Desmarest, Latreille, and Leach will, 
with many others, occur to the observer. We select the arrangement 
of M. Milne-EdwardS) because it is founded on anatomical mvesti- 
gation, and on actual experiment made in a great many instances by 
himself and H. Audouin. He makes .the Chiitocea to consist of two 
great diviaiona 

1st. Those which have the mouth funushed with a certain 
number of organs destined in an espedal manner to the prehension 
or division of the food. 

2nd. Thoee which have the mouth unfurnished with special pre- 
benaile or masticatory oxgans, but surrounded by ambulatory extre- 
mities, the b as es of which perform the part of jaws. We shall take 
this second division first, because it contains but one order, namely, 
the XypAoMira. Example, lAminJiM*, 

But it is to the first division that the great mass of the Crustaceans 
belong, and these are subdivided into two great groups. 

Ist The MaxUloeaj or Mandibtdaia, which poesess a mouth armed 
with jaws, ftc. 

2nd. The Sd€niata, or HoM t ieUa t a, whose mouth is prolonged in 
the shape of a sucker. 

L Uaullosa. 
The Maxilloia are separated into four great sections : — 

1. Podophthalmia. 

These almost always possess true branchiae ; pedunculated and move- 
able eyes; feet or ex^mities vergiform, partly prehensile, partly 
ambulatory ; and a thorax covered by a carapace. 

The Podophthalmia contain two orders, the Ikcapoda and Stomapoda, 

1. The Peeapoda, whose branchiso are fixed to the sides of the 
thorax, and are inclosed in special respiratory cavities. The oral 
apparatus is composed of six pairs of members. There are five pairs 
of thoracic extremities, which are generally ambulatoiy. The 
Ikcapoda are divided into Ist^ the Brachywra (Cancer, Portunuif 
Grapsus, Podophihalmis, Thdphuta, Gecarcimu, Ocypode, Pinnotherea, 
Maia, Leucoiia, Dorippt, ftc.) ; 2nd, the Arunnoura (Dromia, JSantna, 
PaffuruM, Hippo, JRemipa, Birgt$9, &c.) ; 8rd, the Macroura {Aitactu, 
Scyllanu, Patcemonf Palinwui, Penautf &c.). 

2. StomapodOf whose branchiff) are external ; sometimes rudimentary, 
or none. Oral apparatus composed in general of three pairs of mem- 
bers. Thoracic extremities prehensile, or for swimming ; generally 
six or eight pairs. {Myn$, PhyUotomOf SquHlOy Thytanopodeif Alima, 
Cynthia, ftc). 

2. Edriophthalmia, 

True branchiae none, but replaced by certain portions of the extre- 
mities modified for tiiis in their structure; eyes sessile; thoracic 
extremities ambulatory, almost always consisting of seven pairs ; no 
carapace. The BdriophthtUmia contain three orders, namely, the 
Amphipoda, the Lamodipoda, and the Itopoda, 

1. JflipAtpocta.—- These have the flabella of the thoracic extremities 
vesicular, and subserving respiration. The abdomen is very much 
developed, subserving locomotion, and is furnished with six pairs of 



limbs, the first three of which differ in form and use from the last 
three. {Qammamm, TaUUu, ffyperia, Phronima, &c ) 

2. Lctmodipoda, — ^Abdomen rudimentary. Flabella of the thoracic 
extremities vesicular, and subserving respiration. {Proio, Caprdla, 
Cyanui, ftc.) 

S. liopoda. — ^Abdominal extremities weU developed ; the first five 
pairs lamellar, and subserving respiration. Abdomen well developed. 
{Jdotea, Spheroma, CyfMthoa, lonct, Bopyrut, &a) 

8. Branchiopoda, 

No true branohie, but thoracic extremities lamellar, membranous, 
and so formed as to be subservient to respiration. The PrancKiopoda 
contain two orders, PhyUopoda and Cladocera, 

1. PhyUopoda.'^^o bivalve sheU-like covering. Extremities nata- 
tory, and in considerable numbers (from 8 to 22). (lAmnadiOt Chiro- 
cepkahtt, Nebalia, &c.) 

2. Cladoeera, — Carapace in form of a biTalvendielL Thoracic 
members five pairs. {Daphnia, Ac.) 

4. Bntomattraca, 

No branchise nor any modification of oigan apparent to supply 
the place of these. Eyes sessile, and commonly umted into a single 
mass. The Entomoitraca contain two orden^ namely, the Cbpepoda 
and OttrapodcL 

1. Cbp^xxlflk— Body divided into distinct rings, neither carapace not 
valvular envelope. . Thoracio and oral members in considerable num- 
bers. {Cydopi, Pontia, &c.) 

2. Okrapoda, — ^Body without veiy evident annular divisions, and 
entirely inclosed undeor a large dorsal shield having the form of a 
bivalvfrehell. Extremities in very small number. (CyprU, ko.) 

IL Edentata. 

The Bdentaia contain three orders, namely, the Arcmeiformu, the 
SiphomatomioUi, and the LemcBiform/u. 

1. Jrcmet/oniiet. — Extremities rod-like, long, adapted for walking. 
{PycnogwMin, Nympkon,) 

2. StphomoitofMOa, — ^Extremities not adapted for walking; partlj 
lamelUf, partly prehensQe. (CaUgut, DiehdatUm, Nieotkoa, ftc.) 

8. LtsniaifcTmeM, — Extremities rudimentary, body presenting anor- 
mal forms. (Ltmaa, ftc.) 

Foufl Cruttaeea. 

Various forms of Crustacea have been found throughout the whole 
series of fossiliferous rocks. Although their shells are not so well 
calculated to resist decomposition as those of the McUutca, and even 
the Behmodennata, yet a considerable number of speciee have been 
recorded, especially of the smaller forms. Bronn, in his list of extinct 
and recent species of the families of animals, gives the following as 
the result amongst the OrMttaeea : — 

Eztinet. Beeent. 

Bntomostraca 568 148 

Malacottraca 244 541 

These numbers are probably higher for the extinct and lower for the 
recent than the present state of our knowledge would warrant. 

One of the most interesting groups of extinct Oruttaeect, are those 
found in the Silurian Rocks, and which from their meet prevalent 
forms may be called Trilobitic. [Chirociphalus ; TBiLOBnn.] The 
species in this formation are more abundant than at any subsequent 
period, and present greater departures from the types of existing 
Cruatacea, 

In the Devonian Bocks the Cnutaeea are represented also by Trilo- 
bitic forms, some of which, as Brontee, are characteristic and remark- 
able. This fossil which was at first supposed to be a fish, has been 
rrferred by Agassis to the Cruttaeea, It was not unlike a lobster in 
shape, but was four feet in length. Its claws were of gigantic size. The 
shield was sculptured with delicate markings, looking like scales. The 
tail was continuous, and so laige that a lobster of ordinary size might 
stretch its entire length on it. 

.The Carboniferous group of Rocks presents us with a considerable 
number of species of Cruttaeea, but they principally belong to the 
groups of smaller forms referred to the Entomostraoous Cruttaeea* 
[Ertomostraca.] We have however, in certain forms, as in those 
spedes which have been referred to Aput, Ataphut, Daphniet, Cyprit, 
and XAmulut, approaches to the forms which exist at the present day. 
Of the Ostracodous Cruttaeea Professor M'Coy has figured, and has 
described twenty-two species fh>m the Carboniferous Limestone of 
Ireland; M. de Koninck six species in Belgium. The Ottracoda 
described in the Carboniferous and Silurian Rocks amount to about 
thirty-seven spedes. 

The Permian system, embracing the Magnesian Limestone Formation 
of England, affords the remains of no other Crustacean but those 
belonging to the Bntomottraca or Ottracoda, 

In the OoUtic Rocks the species of Cruttaeea are not numerous, but 
the forms so closely resemble those more common at the present time 
as to afford some difficulty in distinguishing theuL The specimens 
discovered in British rocks have all beenrefernod to the genus Attacut, 
of which Professor Tennant gives four species — A,leptomanut,A. mitero- 
naiu*. A, tcahrotut, A» rottreUut. Tue Lithographic Limestone of 



215 



CRYOLITE. 



CRYSTALLOQRAPUY. 



230 



Solenhofen, affords several examples of the OruUaeea of this forma- 
tion. It contains species of IdiMUuij and also of a genus Ergon 
allied to the reoent genua Attiteua. 

In the Chalk, specimens of CrutUteea are found representing hoth 
the lobster and the crab. The following list of species is given by 
Tennant in his ' British Fossils f — Attacua Leaehii, A. longimtmui. A, 
Suatexiantu, Orithrya Bechei, Pagwnu FavjmtU, ScyUarua McmteUii. 

In the Tertiary biads the remains of Onutaeea are not very numerous, 
but their forms are many of them identical with those now existing. 
Many forms remain yet to be discovered, especially among the minute 
EtUomoatraca [Cttherb], of which only a few have yet been described. 

(Bell, ffialary of the BritM Stalk-Eyed Oruataeea; Owen, Leetttrea 
on Comparatwe Anatomy ; R. Jones, (hnUwea of Ammal Kingdom; 
Cydo^dia of Anaionvy aand Phyaiolog^, article Onutaoaa : Spence 
Bate, in Annala of NcUvral Hiatory ; Mihie-Kdwards, ffiatoire Naiu- 
reUe dea Orwtaciea ; Rathke, Unteravkchungm ahor die EUdung vnd 
Entwiekdung dea Fltua-KrAaea ; J. V. Thompson, Metamorphcaea of 
Crustacea; Rupert Jones, Monograph of the EtUomoatraca in the 
Cretaceoua Formatione of England — Pal. Soc ; W. King, Monograph of 
Permian Foaaila — ^Pal. Soc.; Baird, Eiaiory ofBritiah EtUomoatraca — 
RaySoc.; Burmeister, The Organiaation of TriMntea—l^y Soa) [Sup.] 

CRYOLITE, a species of Mineral, a fluate of soda and alumina. 
It is of a white colour, or reddish, or yellowish-brown, and its streak 
18 white. It occurs in crystalline masses, but its primary form has 
not been observed ; its cleavage is parallel to the terminal And lateral 
planes of a rectangular prism. Its specific gravity is from 2*94 to 
2*963. It is not so hard as fluor-spar, is translucent, and by immer- 
sion in water beoomes transparent. It fuses by the blow-pipe into a 
transparent globule, which becomes opaque on cooling. 

It IS found at Arksut-fiord, in West Greenland. According to the 
analysis of Vauquelin it oonsiBts of — 

Fluoric Acid and Water 47 

Soda 82 

Alnmina 21 

100 

CRYPTOCETHALUS (Geoffroy), a genus of Coleopterous Insects 
of the section CfycUca and fiunily C^isryaomeUdca* It is known by the 
antennn being filiform, nearly as long as the body ; palpi with the 
joints nearly of equal thickness ; head deeply inserted into the thorax, 
small and vertical ; thorax nearly as broad as the elytra : body short 
and cylindricaL 

Upwards of twenty species of this genus are found in this country. 
The most abundant species is Oryptocephalua aericeaa. This little 
beetle is of a brilliant golden-green colour, and about a quarter of an 
indi in length ; it is found during the month of July in the flowers of 
the Hieraeium and similar plants. 

Orvptoe^hdl/ua JLineola is about the same size as the last, and is 
found on oak-trees, hazels, &a ; it is black and glossy ; the dy tn are 
red, and have an oblong dash in the middle, and the suture and outer 
maigin black. 

CRYPTOCONCHUS, a name given bv some zoologists to those 
Chitonida whose shellv plates are entirely hidden by the investing 
border. rCHiTOini>A.J 

CRYPTODIBRANCHIATA, De BlainviUe's name for the Cepha- 
lopodoua MoUuaca [Cephalopoda.] 

CRYPTOGA'MIA, the twenty-fourth ckias of the Linnesan System 
of Plants. It includes all those genera the flowers of whidi are either 
altogether absent, or formed upon a plan difierent fiK>m that of ordi- 
nary plants. Ferns, Mosses, Lichens, AlgcB, Fungi, with their immediate 
allies, form the class, which is the same as the Aootyledons of Jussieu 
and the Miularea of De CandoUe. It is often employed to distinguish 
the Flowerless from the Flowering Plants, which are thence called 
Phanerogamia, [Liohbhs; Ltoopodiaoba; Aloji; Fukoi; Diato- 
maobjb; Aobooenb; Desmidrb.] 

CRYPTOLITE. [Cerium.] 

CRYPTONYX. [TBTRAOiriDA] 

CRYPTOTHAGUS (Herbst), a genus of Coleopterous Insects of 
the family Engidoe. They are minute beetles, which are found in 
Fungi and in flowers, and some of the species are common in damp 
cellars. 

The Cfryptophagi are seldom more than an eighth of an inch in 
length, genen^ of a pale brown colour, and more or less pubescent. 
They have the antennsB rather thick and 11-jointed ; the basal joint 
is thioker than the seven following, and the three apical joints form 
an elongated knob ; the terminal joint is somewhat conical, and the 
twQ preceding joints are cup-shaped ; the head is nearly triangular, 
inserted into Uie thorax as far back as the eyes ; the thorax is nearly 
square, and the lateral margins are more or less denticulated ; they 
usually exhibit an obtuse tooth-like process in the middle ; the elytra 
are elongate ; the sides are generally straight and parallel, or nearly 
80, and the apex is roimded. 

About sixteen species have been found in this country. Oryptopha- 
gna bU^tberculatua is sometimes abundant in puff-balls, and probably 
inhabits other Fungi. 

CRYPTOPROCTA. [Vivbbbida] 

CRYPTORHY'NCHIDES (Schonherr), a family of Coleopterous 
Insects belonging to the section Rhynchophorat the species of which 



are chiefly distinguished b^ their possessing a groove in the chest into 
which the rostrum is received when at rest 

This famOy contains upwards of twenty genera, of which the genus 
Cryptorhynchua may be considered as tne type. The characters of 
this ^enus are : — ^Antenns 12-jomted, short, funiculus 7-jointed, the 
first joint rather longer than the rest ; dub oval or oblong oval ; 
rostrum moderate, rather arched; thorax often broader than long, 
narrower towards the apex, and furnished with tufts on the anterior 
part ; elytra somewhat ovaU, covering the abdomen ; scutellum dis- 
tinct ; logs moderate, femora often armed with a spine beneath. 

Of this genus upwards of ninety species are Imown, only one of 
which inhabits England, Oryptorhynektu LapathL This beetle is less 
than half an inch in length, and of a dull brownish-black colour ; the 
thorax is whitish at the sides, and is furnished on the upper part vrith 
five black tufts — ^two on the anterior part near the eyes, and three in 
a line a little behind these, one in the middle of the thorax, and one 
on each side ; the elytra are brown-white at the base, and white at 
the apex, and are studded with numerous black tubercles. 

C. Lapathi is found on willows, and is sometimes tolerably abun- 
dant in osier-beds in the south of England : when touched, like most 
of its tribe, it contracts its legs and falls to the ground. 

CRYPTOSTOMA. [CHfiuiOBRAiroHiATA.] 

CRYPTURUS. [Tbtbaonidjl] 

CRYSTALLINE LENS. [Eye.] 

CRYSTAIiLO'GRAPH Y, or the doctrine of the relations of crystal- 
line forms, is in strictness an application of solid geometry ; but it is 
practically allied to Mineralogy, and may also be regarded as a sub- 
sidiaiy department of that soienoe. 

Minerals oocur very generally in the state of dystals, that is, in 
certain definite and symmetrifm form% and these are regarded as 
crystals whether they are transparent or opaque. 

A solid figure, of the shape of a common die used in games of 
chance, frequentiy occura among mineral^ and is then termed a Cube 
or Cubic C^staL 

If the comen of this cube wera to be cut off so as to take away 
equal portions of the three adjacent edges, a new figure would bo 
produced which is said to be derived from the cube. 

If the edges were to be all out off so as to produce new surfaces, 
making equal angles with the acfjacent sides of the cube, another 
derived form would result In these ca ses the cube would be deemed 
the primary form, and the derived figures second^ forms of the 
€ube. 

Minerals are veiy generally known by their primary forms ; but as 
these ara of diffei*ent kinds, and as natiiral ciystals are very generally- 
found in secondary forms, from which the prixnary is to be inferred, 
a knowledge of the exact relations of the primary and secondary 
forms is requisite to enable the minerslogist to detennine the primary 
from the secondary, and hence to arrive at a knowledge of the mineral 
to which any given crystal belongs. 

Our subject may therefore be conaidsred under three heads, 
namely : — 

1. Primary Forms. 

2. Secondary Forms. 

8. The Laws Qjf Derivation, or the mutual relations of the aeoondaiy 
andprimary. 

We must however premise a few definitions. 

What we have called the oomen of ike cube will be termed its 
Solid Apexes, and so of the oomen or points of all other figures. 

A solid uigle, or edge cut off so as to produce a new sur&oe, or 
Plane as it is termed, is said to be truncated. 

The series of forms resulting from each of the primary forms con- 
stitutes a peculiar System of Cmtallisation ; there are consequently 
as many Afferent systems as there are different lands of primaty 
forms. 

A Prism is a solid figure, having any number of sides with parallel 
edges, and its two ends paralleL 

A Right Priam is one which stands upright when placed on a table ; 
if it overhangs the base in the direction of an edge or diagonal it is 
termed oblique, and if an oblique prism is again oblique in the direc- 
tion of a second edge or diagonal it is doubly obliqua The basea of 
doubly oblique prisms are usually oblique-angled paraUelograms. 

The edges of the sides, and the side planes of a prism, are termed 
lateral, and those of the ends teiminal edges and planes. 

1. I^imary Forms. 

These are in some degree arbitrarily assumed, as it appean from 
the three following figures, showing the relation between the cubes 
and angular octahedron. 

Fig. 1 is a Cube. 

Fig. 2, a Cube, with its solid angles truncated. 

Fig. S, an 8-eided figura or octahedron, which is produced when the 
solid angles are so deeply truncated as to obliterate all the fiioes of 
the cube. 

Now it is, mathematically speaking, indifferent whether we take 
the cube or the octahedron as the primary form of all the derived 
figures of this system of czystallisation ; for it may be readily per- 
ceived, from an attentive comparison of the following figures^ that new 
planes which might be produced on the octahedron oy the truncation 
of its solid angles would correspond in position with the faces of the 



S97 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



288 



Fir. K 



Fig. 2. 



7 
) 




Flf. S. 




enbe, and those which would result from the tmnoation of ite edges 
woold correspond in {Kwtion with those which would result from the 
imncation of the edges of the cube. The cube might therefore be 
regarded as the Becoudary form of the octahedron, arising from the 
trancation of its six solid angles. Relations of the same nature subsist 
among the original and derived figures belonging to each kind of the 
primary forms except the riiomboid. The reason for preferring the 
one or the other of these as the primary will be considered when we 
treat of the relations of the different forms of crystals. 

We have, for reasons which we shall then state, assumed the fol- 
lowing figures as the primary or fundamental forms of all known 
dystaiu. 

TheCiibe,/^. 1. 

The Square Prism, in which, supposing the base of this prism to be 
of the same dimensions as a side of a given cube, end tms and the 
cube to be both standing on a table, the upright edges would be longer 
or shorter than those of the cube. 

A Right Rhombic Priam, fig. 4. 

An Oblique lUiombic Prion, fig. 5. 

A Double-Oblique Prism, fig. 6. 

A Rhomboid or Rhombohedron, fig. 7. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 





Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 





The Cube being bounded by six equal square planes, the minerals 
which assume this form are not distinguishable by the figure of their 
crystals; but minerals which occur under the other forms may gene- 
rally be diaUnguished as follows : — 

Those which can be referred to square prisms, by the different 
proportions which, in each particular case, the lateral edges bear to 
the terminal edges ; and those which belong to the other prisms and 
to the rhomboid, by the angles at which &eir planes intersect each 
other. The ratios oi the edges of square prisms may be determined 
by known algebraical formulcs from the aiigular measurement of some 
of the secondary forms, and the angles at which the planes of the 
other fonna meet, may, in many cases, be ascertained by measurement 
with an instrument called a Goniometer, but in others they must 
be deduced mathematically from some of their respective seoondary 
forms. 

These six primary forms stand in certain relations to each other, 
which it may not be useless to point out. If the lateral edges of the 
cube be supposed to be longer or shorter than the terminal edges, a 
square prism, aa we have already seen, would be produced ; if two 
opposite lateral edges of a square prism could be pressed towards each 
other, the paralleUsm being kept, a right rhombic prism would be 



formed ; if this j^riam could be pressed in the direction of either of 
the diagonals of its terminal plane, so as to make the figure overhang 
the base in that direction, an oblique-rhombic prism would be repre* 
sented ; and if again pressed in the direction of the other diagonal, so 
that it would overhang the base in both directions, a doubly-oblique 
prism would be formed. If we suppose a cube to be made to stand 
on one of its solid angles by placing the fingers on an opposite one, 
and if, while held in this position, the two solid angles could be 
pressed nearer together or drawn further apart, the altered cube 
would become a rhomboid. 

2. Seoondary Forms. 

These might be produced, and are most conveniently described, by 
supposed truncations of the solid angles or edges of any of the pre- 
oeding forms ; but as in nature the most minute crjrstids appear in tiie 
shape of seoondary forms, it is to be inferred that these modifications 
of the primary are occasioned by some natural influence operating 
upon the first germ of the crystal, and continuing during the period of 
ite increase in size. 

Secondary Crystals are sometimes altered from the primary only 
by single sets of planes replacing some of the solid angles or edges ; in 
other oases both the solid angles and edges are replaced by planes in 
the same secondary crystal ; and in others, several different sets of 
planes appear replacing the solid angles and edges of the same crystals, 
and producing very numerous and complicated seoondaiy forms. 
Thus it occurs that the solid angles of the cube are sometimes replaced 
by three and sometimes by six symmetrical planes, of which several 
sets may occur on the same crystal, and perhaps with other plaues 
replacing the edges. Similar changes of figure may also occur on 
each of the other kinds of the primary forms, thus producing the 
different-systems of crystallisation before referred to. 

The number of known secondary forms belonging to each system is 
alreadv very great ; in one mineral, carbonate of lime, they amount to 
many hundreds ; but thousands and tens of thousands more might 
occur under the operation of only a few of the laws of which we shall ^ 
afterwards treat 

Among the secondary forms of crystals there are some which differ 
in their characters from those already described. Let us suppose two 
diagonal lines to be drawn through opposite angles, and crossing each 
other on the faces of the cube. It may be observed, by referring to 
fig, 2, that the solid angles at the extremities of all Uiese diagonals are 
truncated to produce tiie octahedron ; but it sometimes happens that 
the solid angles at the extremities of only one of those diagonals on 
one plane, imd a transverse diagonal on a parallel plane are truncated, 
producing a four instead of an eightHsided secondary figure ; these are 
termed hemi forms, from their presenting only half the nimiber of 
planes which might be expected from the symmetry of the primary 
crystal These defective figures, as thev may be termed, from their 
wanting the number of faces which mignt be expected on Uie crystal, 
are frequently troublesome to the mineralogist, and occasionally 
mislead him; but there is another, of a much more capricious 
deviation from the regularity of the simple forms, which is still more 
troublesome than the preceding; these are what have been termed 
Hemitrope and Twin Crystals. In twin crystals the two individuals 
are united in such a manner that if one of them be made to describe 
a half-revolution round an axis perpendicular to a plane, which is 
either a fisu^ of one of the crystals or which might be one in virtue of 
the laws of crjrstallography, it comes into the position of the other. 

Twin Crystals are produced by the union of two or more crystals 
according to some regular plan, so that if any number of twin crystals 
of the same kind of minenJ should be found, they would be fashioned 
in the same manner. Hence these apparently capricious composite 
figures are subject to definite laws, ana are not the results of merely 
accidental sggregation. There are also two other classes of irregular 
forms of crystal one of which, termed by Haiiy ' Epigene,' occurs 
where a cr^tallised mineral has undergone a chemical change without 
disintegration or suffering any change of figure; the form in the 
altered state of the minexal not being proper to the new substance, 
but remaining that of the original body. 

The other class, termed Pseudomorphous, appears as if they had 
been produced in moulds resulting from the destruction of crystals of 
other substances which had been inclosed or imbedded in them, and 
which moulds being filled with some new kind of mineral, the new 
and intrusive matter assumes the form of the originally inclosed body, 
and one altogether foreign to its proper shap& 

3. The secondary forms of crystals are not derived from the primaiy 
by accidental and indefinite truncations of the solid angles and edges, 
but according to known and definite laws, so that all the possible 
alterations ot figure which any given primary form can undergo, 
xhight be determined h priori, if the extreme limits of the relative 
proportions of the edges considered to be cut off in producing new ^ 
planes were known. Within well ascertained limits however many 
thousand of possible seoondary forms, belonging to each kind of 
primary, might be determined with absolute precision. 

The laws according to which any secondarv planes are produced 
are termed the laws of ^ose planes. To illustrate the nature of 
these laws, let fig, 8 represent a square prism, whose edges ah c are 
each divided into any equal number of parts, which partis are conse* 
quently proportional to the respe^j^ive edges. Now a new plane 



239 



CRYSTALLOORAPHY. 



CTENODACTYLUa 



210 



Fig. 8. 




which Aould cut off one proportion from each of the ^dges ab e, 
would evidently be parallel to the plane d e f, whose edges would 
coincide with the diftgonnls of the primary planes. It would carry 
us beyond the limit to which we must restrict this paper, if we were 

to enter upon a geometrical consideration of 
these lines, and we shall therefore confine our- 
selves to this statement, that if, on any square 
prism, we find a set of planes truncating its 
solid angles, and if we assume the edges of 
these planes to be respectively parallel to the 
diagonals of the primary planes, the ratio, or 
comparative lengths of the edges a and c, may 
be found, and thus the distinction between 
prisms of different heights belonging to different 
minerals may be ascertained. Crystals be- 
longing to the other primary forms may 
generally be distinguished, as we have already stated, by measurement 
of the angles at which the planes severally incline to each other. But 
in order to investigate the laws of their respective secondary planes, 
we require to mow the comparative lengths of the latend and 
terminal edges, which may be found by means analogous to those we 
have just dncribed. The rhomboid however, whose edges, like those 
of the cube, are all equal, does not require this preliminary investiga- 
tion, but the laws of new planes may be determined from measurement 
alone. 

When a plane similar to that shown in fig. 8 occurs on one solid 
angle of a crvstal, it generally occurs on all the others, establishing 
what Haliy has termed the Law of Symmetry. Bu^ as we have 
before stated in reference to the cube, this law is occasionally deviated 
from by the production of only one-half the symmetrical number of 
secondary planes on a square prism. This remark ako applies to such 
other kinds of secondary planes as we now proceed to describe. 

Besides the plane shown in fig. 8, there are three other kinds 
•aifeoting the soUd angles. 

Firs^ such as would out off one, two, three, or more portions of the 
edges a and 5, but at the same time some other number from the 
edge e. Thus if one portion be cut from a and one ttom b, there will 
be two, three, four, or some other niimber cut from e; or if three 
portions were cut from a and three from b, either one, two, four, 
five, or some other number would be cut fr^m c, so that a numerous 
series of planes of this nature might occur on each solid angle. 

The second kind of planes are those which would cut off an equal 
number of parts fr*om a and c, but a different number from b. But 
in this case there would be two planes on each solid angle, for if we 
suppose one plane to cut three parts from a, and three from c, and 

two frt>m 6, a second plane would also be pro- 
duced, cutting three parts from b and c, and two 
from a, producing two planes similar to those 
in fig. 9. 

Each of the series of planes of the first kind 
would have an edge parallel to the diagonal d e, 
fig. 8 ; and each of those of the second kmd would 
have edges parallel to the diagonals d f and 
e f of the same figure. The planes of the third 
class also occur in pairs, and are such as would 
be produced by cutting off dissimilar numbers of 
pails from, the three edges, such as two parts 
from a, three from 6, and four from c, none of the edges of these new 
planes being parallel to any diagonal. 

The secondary planes on the terminal edges may cut off^any number 
of parts from the edges r and b, and the same, or any other number, 
from $ and c. Those on the lateral edges, if they cut unequal 

Sortions from a and o, and b and n, will be found to occur in pairs, 
ingle planes on the lateral edges are such as would i^esult from 
cutting a and o-, and b and n, equally ; and the secondary planes on 
the other primary forms are produced by laws analogous to those we 
have just described. 

The reasons for preferring prisms to octahedrons for the primary 
forms may be thus oriefly stated. 

We have already seen that the octahedron derived from the cube 
might be taken as the fundamental or primary figure of that system 
of crystallisation. An octahedron derived from the truncation of tiie 
upper and lower edges of the square prism, or of its solid angles, by 
planes which would intersect the termmal planes parallel to their 
diagonals, might be assumed as the primary form of this system ; and 
ootahedrons similarly derived from the other prisms might also be 
regarded as the primaries of their respective systema And these 
figures have accordingly been adopted by Mdhs, as the fundamental 
forms of his system of crystallography. From the greater simplicity 
however of derivation which results firom the assumption of the 

Srisms as primary forms, and the greater niatiiematiciu facilities in 
etermining the relations of the derived to the primary, we have been 
induced to retain them as the fundamental forms of our system. For 
the relations among these primary and their respective secondary 

' ''re, according to our plan, dependent only upon the proportions 

*hnaij edges required to be cut off to produce given second- 
But m taking the octahedrons as primaries, M&hs has 
e rflntions of these %o the seeonda^ figures upon the 



Fir. 9. 




relative lengths of the axes of the derived figures, according to which 
view of derivation the lateral planes of the square prism would be 
denoted as those of an octahedron with an infinitely long axis, and 
the end planes as those of an octahedron with an infinitely short axis. 
And for all the various prisms which may occur, ootahedrons must 
first be found, from the infinite prolongation of whose axes tiie given 
prisms may be produced. From the complexity of this method it 
win probably not extend fkr beyond the school of its highly ingenious 
author. 

The exact relations among primary and secondary forms may be 
determined mathematically, sometimes fivm measurement and some- 
times from parallelisms between certain edges of tiie seconduT^ figures : 
and the mathematical processes may be either those of plane trigono- 
metry, as applied by Haiij ; or spherical trigonomet^, as used by 
other authors; or analytical geometry, as applied by Professor 
Whewell in a paper in the * PhiL Trans.' for 1825 ; or by referring 
the planes of the crystal to the surface of a sphere and denoting their 
positions stereographically, as shown in a paper by ProfessOTMiller, 
of Cambridge, in the 'Lend, and Edinb. Phil Mag.' of Feb. 1885. 

Crystallisation and the circumstances under which it takes place 
form an interesting subject of inquiry, not only in respect of the 
variety of figures under which crystals present themselves, but in 
relation to much more comprehensive geological investigations into 
the formation of the early crystalline roocs and the various embedded 
crystallised minerals, and into the manner in which the numeioua 
crystalline bodies found in the metallic and other veins have been 
produced. 

From the great length of time during which these natural processes 
must have been in action, the slowness with which they probably have 
proceeded, and the hidden recesses in which they have tieJcen place, 
the progress of natural crystallisation can scarcely be said to have 
been ever observed; for the production of saline crystals at the 
bottom of certain lakes, and even that of iron pyrites, which aro 
said to have been observed in a progressive state of formation, 
cannot be regarded as belonging to the class of phenomena we are 
contemplating. 

Not having thereforo the operation of nature open to our inspection, 
our only souroes of information relative to the formation of crystals 
are those afforded by the processes of artificial crystallisation ; and 
hero until very rocently our experiments were circumscribed and our 
views bounded by a very few modes of operation : that of tiie deposit 
of crystals firom solution in some fluid ; their production while 
gradiially cooling from a state of fusion ; and their volatilisation by 
heat or otherwise. Latterly however, by the aid of that universal 
agent, electricity, new methods of producing crystals have heen 
pursued : much of the darkness in wfdch the subject had been pre- 
viously involved has been dispdled, and there can now be littie doubt 
that tiie phenomena of crystallisation are influenced in a greater or 
leas degree bv electric influence. 

The crystallisation of salts from solution in fluids generally takes 
place when the solutions are sufficientiy evaporated, but the degree of 
evaporation is very different for different substancea Some salts begin 
to crystallise at the surface very soon after evaporation commences, 
and others (for example, sugar) must be evaporated to the consistence 
of a thick nrup before any crystals wUl be formed. Hot fluids will 
generally dissolve more matter than cold ones, and crystals are 
frequently produced during the cooling of the hot solution. Some 
soluble substances however cannot be brought to crystallise under 
any droumstances hitherto tried; but on the solvent evaporating a 
thick pasty matter is left, which by further evaporation becomes a 
hard solid mass. Camphor affords an instance of the formation of 
crystals by volatilisation. The sides of a bottie containing this body 
may fr«quentiy be observed inorusted with brilliant crystals. 

The slsgs of furnaces will frequently be found to contain <;iystal- 
lised matter; and the common roUs of sulphur when broken will 
frequentiy present small cavities lined with thin needle-like crystals. 

(Ansted, Blemeniorp Otology; Dana, Manwd of Mineralogy.) 

CTENACA'NTHUS, a genus of Fossil Placoid Fishes, from the 
Mountain Limestone and Old Red-Sandstone. (Agassis.) 

CTENODA'CTYLA (Dejean), a genus of Coleopterous Insects 
belonging to the section Oeodephaga and sub-section TrunaUipennes. 
It has the following characters : — ^Body but slightiy elongated, 
flattened ; thorax longer than broad, truncated posteriorly ; terminal 
joint of the palpi almost oval ; three basal joints of the tarsi dilated, 
nearly triangular or heart«haped ; claws denticulated beneath. 

Dejean, in his ' Catalogue des Col^ptdres,' only enumerates three 
species of this genus, all of which are from Guyana. There are 
however other species known. 

O. Ckeovolatii is less than half an inch in length, of a blue-black 
colour above, and brown beneath ; the thorax is rwl, and the legs and 
antennn are yellowish-red. 

CTBNODA'CTYLUS, a genua of Rodent Animals of the family 
Arvi€olid4B, establiahed by Dr. J. K Qray. 

Each foot has four toes only, and an obsolete dawless wart in 

Slace of the thumb; claws sinall and falculated; toes pectinated 
itemally, with small bony appendages. Tail very short and hairy, 

2 3—3 

Dental formula : — Incisors, j ; Molars, j — «. (Gray.) 



Ul 



CTENODUS. 



CUCULIDiE. 



Dr. QtKf ia of opinion th«t this Bab-genus appears to be most 
nearty allied to the Lemmings {Zmmus), with which it agrees in 
teeth and form, but differs from them in only hsTing four firae toes 
on each of the feet and a very obsoure dawless wart in place of the 
thumb, and in the claws of all the feet being short and incurved, 
those of the hinder ones being ooyered with a tuft of rigid hair, more 
especially to be distinguished in the two inner toes, each of which 
also has a double, small, deeply pectinated, bony plate on its inner 
side. The tail is veiy short, scarcely longer thMi the Air of the back, 
corered with long bristly hair. The cutting teeth inouryed, the 
lower rounded in front^ the upper ooncayely truncated. The upper 
grinders are probably like the lower, which are laminar and with a 
2-lobed crown, the anterior lobe being transrerae, narrow, round on 
the outer, and narrow and sharp on the inner side ; the hinder lobed, 
larger, axul rounded, the lobe of the two anterior ones being rather 
wider than long, and that of the last as long as it is wide. (Gray.) 

C, Ifosfonu, ICasson's Comb-Rat The fur is soft and sill^; upper 
pa