Skip to main content

Full text of "English cyclopaedia, a new dictionary of universal knowledge"

See other formats




■ '''' 


■ / 

•' .' , •' ■ , 


■'".. '':'. , 


' ■'/ ' ^ 

I . 

'■■■■-■' ,' 


' ■ ■' '■ t 


■ ^A 


.J,, . 

■J '■ ' /' .V 

Digitized by tine Internet Arcinive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 






a l^eto ©tctionarg of S^nifacrsal Snotolclige. 












COIN : metal stamped for currency, or in commemoration of some 
event, in which latter case the coin are frequently distinguished as 
medals. With the ancicnbi, however, the coins used for currency had 
occasionally this property of the modem medaL [Uedal.] The word 
coin is derived by some from the Greek xitvot, common ; by others 
from the Latin, cuneus, a wedge ; the first currency of metal, in all 
probability, being in the form of wedges, or ingots. Commerce, in the 
earliest periods, was carried on by we mere exchange of articles, and 
it is remarkable that throughout the early part of Scripture, aa well aa 
through the poems of Homer, not a single paraage occurs from which 
we can infer either the use or the existence of stamped money. Metals, 
however, being cloee imd compact in form, universal aa to use, and 
admitting uf division Into larger or leaaer parts, soon became the 
reprewntatives of value, though at what exact period remains in doubt. 
Herodotus, i. 94, speaking of the Lydians, expressly says they were the 
first people on record who coined gold and silver into money. The 
Parian Chronicle, however, ascribes the origin of coined money to the 
.-Gginetans, under Pheidon, king of Argos, 895 years before Christ. 
.-Elian, in his ' Various History,' corroborates this statement as far aa 
the i B g ine t ans are mentioned : and our best numismatic antiquaries 
agree in oafnidering the coins of iEgina, from their archaic form and 
appearance, as the most ancient known. They are of silver, and bear 
on the upper side the figure of a turtle, and on the under an indented 
mark, as if the metal, at the time of striking, had been fixed upon a 
puncheon, and from the weight of the blow bad received a deep d^. 
In later coins of JEgiia, the turtle has been changed to a tortoise, and 
the fissure on the other .side converted into a device. The coins of 
Lydia probably come next in point of antiquity, and then the early 

Oold Dtrie. 

Danes of the Persian kings, which occur both in gold and silver, and 
bear a strong resemblance to the coins of /Hgina in the mode of 
striking : these, if they are to Iw referred to Darius the First, must 
have been coined between B.C. 622 and 486. The richer the metal, the 
smaller and more portable was the quantity required for the coin. 
There are coins in gold of the early kings of Pema, similar in type to 
the silver Darics, and of very minute size. 

The study of coins is not to be considered as the province of the 
antiquary alone. Coins are among the most certain evidences of 
history. In the later part of the Greek series they illustrate the 
cbnmoldgy of reign*. In the Roman series they fix tiie dates and 
succession of events. Gibbon observes that if all our historians were 
lost, medals, inscriptions, and other monuments, would be sufficient to 


record the travels of Hadrian. The reign of Probus might be written 
from his coins. In illustrating the histoiy and chronology of sculpture 
and ancient marbles, coins enable the scholar and the artist not ouly to 
discern those peculiarities which cb.iracteriKe styl^, as it relat«8 to 
different ages and schools, but to ascribe busts and statues to the persons 
whom they represent. The personation of the different provinccH, too, 
forms another point of interest upon the Roman coins. Coins are 
frequently essential to the illustration of obscure passages in aneieut 
writers ; and preserve delineations of some of the moat beautiful edifices 
of antiquity not existing now even in their ruins. Addison, in his 
' Dialogue on the Usefulness of Ancient medals,' has long convinced 
the world of the connexion of this science with poetry. As a branch 
of the fine arts, it may be sufficient to say that some of the medals of 
Sicily belong to a period when sculpture had attained its liighest per- 
fection. We would particularly refer to the coins of Syracuse. In 
every quality of art, too, the Roman coins, to a certiiu period yield 
to the Greek alone. From Augustus to Hadrian the Roman miut was 
the seat of genius : and coins of admirable execution are found even 
down to the time of Posthimiua. 

The generality of numismatic writers divide coins into Ancient imd 
Modem ; — the Ancient, into the great divisions of Greek,, and 

The Ortel they divide into cities and kings. Of the first they can 
make no chronological arrangement : it is alphabetical, under the 
different countries. The kings commence with the age of Alexander 
the Great, and belong to the four kingdoms into which his empire 
was divided, besides the kingdom of Epirus. This ^series, in a chrono- 
logical point of view, closes with the extinction of the dj-niisty of the 
Logidn in the Augustan age. The coins of the Greek cities were 
impressed either with appropriate symbols or the heads of deities. 
The coins of the monarchs bore the heads of the respective princes. 
Knkerton observes that the first copper coins of Greece known are 
those of Gelon king of Syracuse, about 490 years before our tcra. 
These were called Chalci, pieces of brass ; others, of a more diminutive 
size, were called Lepta, i)r Kerma, aa being change for the poor. He 
considers there is no proof of the coinage of gold in Greece before 
Philip of Macedon. Athens had no gold money at the beginning of 
the Peloponnesian war. 

The Boman coins are divided into consular, imperial, and medallions. 
The subdivisions of the consular are into Roman ases and coins of the 
families. Of the imperial there are two subdivisions, Roman and 
Grecian ; the latter being again subdivided into those of provinces, 
colonies, and municipia. The medallions are likewise divided into 
Boman and Grecian. The earliest coinage of Rome was of copper, and 
took place in the reign of Servius Tullius, probably about five centuries 
before Christ. The Romans are supposed to have borrowed the art 
from their neighbours, the Etruscans. Of the as, its divisions and its 
compounds, we h.ive .already spoken in a former article. [As.] On 
.lome of the later Roman, its well as on what were called the Italian ases 
and their parts, the practice became prevalent of placing the names of 
many of the principal familie!4 of Rome upon the fields of the coins. 
These form the division which are called family coins. The silver 
coinage of Rome was intro<luced in the year 266 B.C., when the denarius 
was so termed from its being equivalent to ten ases. Pliny informs 
us ('Nat. Hist.' xxxiii. 13, edit. Hard. ii. 612) that the coinage of gold 
was introduced sixty-two years after that of silver. The largest piece 
of gold was called aureus. [Acbeus.] The imperial coins of Rome 
form the most complete and most interesting series of any extant. 



TVfT af aoaMr h»bm taaai at dUhrwt date, ar* d itri n gn i riii nt into 
kal.twiMd^iniltkMbnM: la liblnftei iaparUDM m «raU m for 

lk» Atfkm. th« hmrt wria tr It »- r~* Ths UtgaA im|MrUl 

lMfWa>iB«MUMWl«tilH,MKl (koid Um AucuilMi ■«• ««at bjr <iw 
BUM o< auauDiM, or Bmw. U w«« woHh twoMOM Eai^ AU 
tha kuM bf^ eaiM «• o( nOow nMtal ; tha middh fafaat, jrdlow and 
iwl : lb awJl. BMrtlv rad. No muAO* dimuniUao o( tba awteitiua 
took phe* liU tk* nin of Akgnitdar Bavwua, whan it lort upwardi 
ct^JutkM ito waisht, aad eantiaaad to diminidi tiU tha itiign of 
fhlBMiw. TTJirn H irrrlh- — t*-^-* In thU rain tha <Aiaf copper 
ealM in wa «M« tba ^aU hnm. or u>Hl^ wUdi. aoeordinR to the 
WT^ten of the Lower Empira, ware at Uat aumbared at liity to the 
Mirar daoariuii Ondar Valerian and Oallieniia, oopprr waahed with 
aU*«r apraarad. In tba raign of Diocletian, a coin denominated tha 
foUia auppUed tba phea of tba aaatartiuii ; Imt Uio <)eiiarii airai con- 
liMad qaita eommm down to Conatontina I. He intrtxtuoed a nev 
•ataMi^nd thai <ka (oilia had ita ehaMca and iu aubdiviiiona ; but 
Ma ata»Ha>lnii adbarad to what had nowbeoofne the largeat braai ooin 
of the Roman ooifarv, to the rery lateat notieea which we hare of the 
ByantiDe money. Frotu the time of Au^uatua to that of Oallieoua, 
tba imperial or drer deiwriiu contained aizteen aaaria. Under Cara- 
caUa a Uiger danariua wm atnick, which had a half more or twentj- 
foaraaria, aad waa called aifmimu : the common danariua of aUver 
w.^ then tanned niinutUB. Under Oallienoa, howarer, the miautoa 
oaaeed, and the aigantiiu and denarius then became onlr diflennt namea 
for the Roman ailver ooin, which at that time contained no leia than 
axty aaaria. Conetantine I. introduced the milliarenaia, worth aome- 
wbara about a ahiUing of our money: but the argeotei, or denarii, 
ware atrucfc ai iato aa the reign of Heracliua. Aurei and aemi-aurei 
war* tbe aoie pieeca in gold for near three centuriea. TiU SulU'a time 
tba aoieoi continued at thirty diver denariL In the reign of Claudius, 
, and aftarwaitb, it went for twenty-five ^ver dCnaiiL Under Philip, 
aural of two or three aisea tint appear, of a rude fabric ; one class of 
which wara caUed trientas. The weight originaUy given to the aureus 
waa ISO grains ; it aftarwarda fluctuated to between 80 and 90 grains, 
aad waa sometimea even of leas wei^t Constantina L aooommodated 
tlie aureuB to his new coinage, and gave it the name of solidus, of six 
in the ounce of gold. The aoUdua passed for fourteen milliarenses. It 
want for rather more than twelve ahillings of our money, and con- 
tinued of tbe aame standard to the very dose of the Byzantine empire. 
The medalliona were struck both at Rome and in the provincea, whence 
the division of this class into Roman and Grecian. The term is 
wplied to all tlMae productions of the Roman mint which exceeded 
the eoias ordinarily current in sise, whether in gold, silver, or brass. 
M «,falWoa«_ Bays Flnkerton, from the time of Julius to that of Hadrian 
ara v<M7 nneoounmon and of vast price : from Hadrian to the doae of 
tba \Vastem Empin they are leaa rare. The types of the Roman 
madallioas are oftao repeated upon common coin. Thoee struck in 
the Oredan territoriea are the most numerous, and are distinguished 
from the Roman br their thinness and inferiority of workmanahip. 
Maay Roman atadallions have s. c. upon them, as being struck by the 
aamta ; other have not, as being struck by order of the emperor. The 
Rflaona aiedals called Coatomiati, it is the opinion of our first medal- 
lista, wara no mora than tidwta of admisnon for different places at tbe 

Ilw third daas of ancient coina, denominated BariariaH, consists of 
tboaa of Lydia, Persia, Judaa, Phasnicia, Numidia and Mauritania, 
Oartbi^a, Spain, Oaul. and Britain. The coina of Lydia and Persia 
bava bean already slightly noticed. The Darics, from thoir present 
axtrama aoarcity, ara suppoaed to have been melted down for his own 
coimga by Alexaiidar tha Oraat, upon hiaoooquaat of Persia. Pinkerton 
aaaarta that all tlie real Darica were of gold, and that the silver coins 
with the an^er (the aame type) are later. Nevertheleas many of the 
silver Darics are eqaally if not more archaic in appearance. Of Persian 
ooina there is a aaeond aeriea, that of the Saasanide, beginning about 
AJ>. 310, when Artazerxaa ovartaraad tha Parthian nxniBrohy ; they 
estaad to the year OSS, when Penia was -conquered by the Arabian 
oalisba. The Hebrew coina were struck under the dominion of the 
ftouly of tbe M af wahea a, and chiefly in the time of Simon tbe liii;b- 
priest, about the year 150 B.C. Th«y ara nearly all «( cop|)er, and 

COIN. * 

tatnidiacbm [Sbuu.]; aad there were half and quarter shekels. 
Hahraw eoins pcatendlng to an aariiar dato than the M arcaheea are 

Khekel of Sllvrr. 

spurious. The Pbcenlciaii coins are in no inatanoe oonsidered older 
than the time of Alexander the Great, and are chiefly referred to the 
cities of Tyre and Sidon. The Numidian coins are those of Juba I. 
and II. The Punic and Carthaginian coins are believed to have been 
ttmA by Greek artists. Those of Spain agree in diaraoter with the 
coins of the different nations by whom the several colonies of that 
country were planted, PhocnicLina, Greeks, and Carthaginians; and 
many of them are inscrilied with Phccnician, Greek, and Roman legends : 
a few others are met with, distinguished by what are called Celtiberian 
chantcteis, not unlike the letteni of the Runic and Etruscan alphabets. 
Of the coins of Oaul, the most ancient have no legends at all ; they 
have very rude devices, and many of them are in base gold ; after the 
Gauls had intercourse with the Ronuuis, some of their coins bear 
inscriptions which look like Latin, mostly in single words, and not of 
easy intorpretation ; they are not unlike many of thoee which are 
called early Britiah. Omar dcacribes tbe Britons as a people just 
emerging from barbarism, and no further acquainted vrith oomnierce 
than to have discovered that it could not be conducted by simple 
barter alone. His account implies, that however they might have 
known ito use, the Britons had not proceeded so far as actually to com 
money; although they had a substitute for it in pieces of brass, or iron 
rings, or pUtes regulated by weight. He says, " Utuntur aut ««), aut 
annulis ferreis, ad certum pondus oxaminatis, pro nummo.' (' Bell. 
Gall.' V. 12.) The paaaage, however is corrupt; for aHnulU aome 
manuscripts read laUu, and others lami»i*. Coina however are found 
in this country which are usuallv attributed to tbe very early British 
kings, in gold, silver, and the interior motaU ; ruder in fabric than they 
would luive been had tha Britons learned the art of coining them from 
the Romans. They are without legends, and many of them, like the 
eariy Gaulish coins already mentioned, have unintelligible devices; 
they aeem to justify our antiquaries in thinking that Caaar had not 
suffldent information to make his testimony Quito conclusive. The 
use of a better sort of money was unquestionably^ taught the Britons 
by the Romans veiy soon after Cscaar's second invasion, when the 
types improved, and when no one who examines them carefully will 
doubt that Roman artiste were employed upon the dies. The earliest 
coin which can, with the le.-viit appearance of probability, be attrib<ited 
to any particular British monarch, bears upon it the letteni SBOO, 
possibly for Scgonax, one of the fo>ir Kentish monarchs who attacked 
Csaar's camp at the time of the invasion wc have just mentioned ; it has 
also the word tascio upon it, which is seen upon numerous other coins 
which arc undeniably British. Cunobelin was a later monarch of 
Britain, whose name is considered to be abbreviated upon the coins 
which have cvy, cvso, and cvitonxu upon them, together with tlie 
worda camv and caItvl, the leading letters of Camulodimuni, his 
capitel dty, suppoaed to be either Colchester or Maldon in Kssex. 
Ver, as well as Verlamio at length, for Verulam, occur upon other 
coins of the same period. One has noDVO, which may or may not bo 
a coin of Bonduca or Boadicea, quean of the loeni. It is probable that 

OBppsr Sbdwl of Blmon. 

•Btrsnoly ruda in workmanship ; tba leaands ara in Samaritan cha- 
nstars, nd tba symbols are tboaa appropmto to tha nation, stioh as a 
'_ daad M Aaroo's rod, sacruaantal cups, censers, Ac. The 

ahraar Atkal, aa it k called, is of silver, about the value of the Greek 


Uu.u of CunobcUn. 

tba British coinage dosed with the money of Cunobeliu ; for in a very 
faw yean afterhu deoaaas the second subjection of Britain took phuio 
tmder Claudius, and waa so complete and severe, that the country 
became rather a Roman than a Britiah island. Oildas (' De Exddio 
Britannin,' c. v.) expreaslv speaks of a Roman edict which ordained 
tbat from that time Ml money current among the Britons should 
bear the imperial stamp. That this prohibition was followed up by 
the eatabliidiment of Roman mints in Britain is highly probable ; and 
certain initial lattan, as r. lon. for pecimia Londini, &c., are brought 
forward as eridence of the fact ; but most of these initials are equally 



applicable to other places iu the Roman empire where mints were 
established, and therefore do not aiford a proof quite so conclusive as 
is wanted. We give a representation of one found in London. The 

Coin, with seated figure of Britannia. 

coins of Carausius and Allectus, the seat of whose empire was in 
Britain, have a strong claim to be considered as the production of 
British mints. Those who wish to see under one view the ' Coins of 
the Romans relating to Britain,' will find the fullest information in a 
little volume published under that title by Mr. John Yonge Akerman, 
12mo., London, 1844 ; much information will also be found respecting 
the Roman coins found in various parts of London, in Mr. Roach 
Smith's ' Illustrations of Roman London,' 4to, 1859. 

Modern Coiss are those which have been struck since the fall of 
the Western Empire ; but it is impossible, in the space to which the 
present article is necessarily confined, to enter into minute details 
respecting the series of coins in each country. We shall be brief in 
our notices of the greater part, that we may devote a larger space to 
the coins of England. 

The series of the coins of Italy under the Ostrogoths began soon 
after the year 480 of the Christian era. The French series com- 
mences with Clovis, A.D. 490. That of Spain with Liuva, Prince 
of the Visigoths, soon after the middle of the 6th centiuy, or about 
A.D. 567. The states of Germany appear to have struck money very 
shortly after the age of Charlemagne; as well as the independent 
Lombard cities, and the Neapolitans. The Papal series of money 
begins with Pope Hadrian I., a.d. 772. Denmark has coins of an early 
date, but few of them are intelligible before the time of Canute ; con- 
temporary with whose date are the coins of the petty kings of Ireland. 
In Sweden coinage is said to have begun imder Biomo, a.o. 818 ; and 
in Norway with Olave or Olaf, a.d. 1066. The Russian coinage is 
of a later date than the other coinages of Europe. Of Scotland pennies 
exist ascribed to Alexander I., a.d. 1107 : those of William the Lion, 
A.D. 1165, are numerous. Pennies were the earliest coins in most of 
the European kingdoms, and a prevailing device upon them was a 

The Coiiu of England form the most complete modem series extant. 
At what time the circuUtion of the Roman money ceased, we are 
ignorant : but Sceatte (from the Anglo-Saxon rceac, shot, money) 
are known of the early kings of Kent, some of which must have been 
struck within the 6th century ; and there are others so similar to them 
in type as to justify their appropriation to the same people, but which 
from their symbols were evidently coined before their conversion to 
Christianity. They are too rude generally to admit of description, are 
of silver, and found of different weights, from seven grains and a half 
troy to twenty and upwards : their most common weight is from fifteen 
tt> nineteen grains. Several plates of these coins are engraved in 
Ruding ; they appear to have been current chiefly from the ye«r 600 
to 700. A soeatta of Ethelbert I. of Kent is the earliest Saxon ooin 
which can be appropriated : he reigned from a.d. 561 to 616. Soeattse 
also are the only coins which have hitherto been discovered of Egbert, 
king of Kent, who reigned from 665 to 674. In point of antiquity the 

Coin of Egbert. 

penny luooeeds ; the name of which first appears in the laws of lua, 
king of the West Saxons, who began his reign in 688. The word has 
had numerous etymologies ; but that from ptndo, to weigh, seems the 
most reasonable : it was then, as it still is, the 240th part of the num- 
mary pound. The half of the penny, called help hnj^e or hal]:)>emje, and 
th* fourth part or peopiSunT^ farthing, are mentioned in the Saxon 
gospels ; and a Saxon halfpenny of Edward the Elder is said to exist 
in the Bodleitn collection at Oxford : but we know little more of the 
earlitst diviatona of the penny. The coin ascribed as a penny to Ethel- 
bert II. king of Kent, between 749 and 760, with Romulus and Remus 
on the reverse, is beyond doubt a forgery. As to the rest of the king- 

doms of the Heptarchy, no coins have yet been discovered of the South 
Saxon monarchs. Of the West Saxon kings, we have coins of Athel- 
heard, a.d. 726 ; and of Beorhtric, who came to the throne in 784. 
Mercia seemB to have been the most wealthy kingdom, and has a large 
series. It begins with Eadvald, who ascended the throne in 716, 
followed by Offa (whose queen Ceuethreth or Quindred also enjoyed 
the privilege of coining), Egbert, Coenvulf, Ciolvulf I., Beomwulf, 
Ludican, Wiglaf, Berhtulf, Burgred, and Ciolvulf II., with whose short 
reign the kingdom expired. The coins of the East Angles begin with 
Beonna, about the year 690; but in consequence of the temporary 
annexation of the kingdom to that of Mercia, we have but few coins of 
succeeding monarchs : those only of ^thelweard, 760, Edmund the 
Martyr, 855, and Ethelstan, 860, are known. The kingdom of North- 
umberland has this remarkable peculiarity belonging to its coinage, 
that from its mints issued, as far as is yet discovered, the only brass 
coins which were struck by the Anglo-Saxons. The earliest specimen 
hitherto known is of the reign of Egfrith, who ascended the throne in 
670 : it differs from the stycaa of succeeding monarchs in the omission 
of the moneyer's name on the reverse. Of sixteen succeeding monarchs 
(whose reigns occupy more than a hundred and thirty years), no coins 
have as yet occurred. The first that appears was struck by Eanred, 
who began to reign in the year 808. One silver penny of Eanred is 
known. His stycas are of various rude types, without any representa- 
tion of the monarch, but with a legend similar to that on his silver 
coin, excepting that the moneyer's name stands on the reverse, without 
any addition. Other stycas occur of Ethelred his son 840, of Redulf, 
and of Osbert, whose reign began in 849. After his reign stycas seem 
to have fallen into disuse, at least none of a later period have yet been 
found. Stycas were also struck in the Saxon times by the archbishops 
of York : Ruding has engraved those of the archbi-shops Eanbald II., 
Vigmund, and Wulphere. One coin of Regnald, who was expelled the 
kingdom of Northumberland in 944, is known ; and one of Anlaf, 
which has upon its reverse the Danish raven : these are pennies. 
Pennies also are known of Eric. At the beginning of the 9th century, 
Ecgbeorht or Egbert .iscended the throne of the West Saxon kingdom ; 
and in the course of his long reign brought under his dominion nearly 
the whole of the Heptarchic states ; he is therefore commonly con- 
sidered as the first sole monarch of England, notwithstanding those 
states were not completely united in one sovereignty until the reign of 
Kdgar. On his coins he is usually styled ecobeorht rex, and some- 
times the word saxosvm is added in a monogram within the inner 
circle of the obverse : some of his coins have a rude representation of 
his head, and some are without it. From Egbert's time, with very few 
exceptions, the series of English pennies is complete ; indeed for many 
hundred years the penny was the chief coin in circulation. Of the 
Saxon pennies those of Alfred bear a considerable price ; on some he 
is called aelbked bex, on others ^elfred. Edward the Elder has 
Saxon buildings on the reverses of several of his coins ; and on one of 
Athelstan's is a building intended for York Cathedral. The coins of 
Canute and of Edward the Confessor are among the most common of 
the Saxon series ; those of Hardicnut are rare. English coins of Canute 
have frequently, and of Hardicnut in a few instances, been found in 
Denmark. Numerous coins of Canute .and Ethelred II. have also been 
found in Ireland. 

The Azchbiahops of Canterbury, during a part of the Anglo-Saxon 
period, also coined money. Pennies exist of Jaenberht, Archbishop of 
Canterbury from 763 to 790; of ^thilheard, who died in 803; of 
Vulfred, who succeeded in that year ; of Ceolnoth, who died in 870 ; 
of Ethered, 871 ; and of Plegmund, who sat from 891 to 923. In 
Athektan's laws two moneyers are allowed to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, but no archinpiscopal coins of that reign are known, nor indeed 
any until the time of Archbishop Bourchier, a space of several hundred 
years. Of Harold II.'s pennies there are three distinct types; two 
with the head looking to the left, the third, which is of very uncommon 
occurrence, with the head to the right ; all have the word pax in the 
centre of the reverse. Of the coins of William I. and II. the best 
account, with engravings of all the types, will be found in the ' Archaeo- 
logia,' vol. xxvi. p. 1 — 25. Of the types there exhibite<l, those which 
bear the strongest resemblance to the coins of the Confessor and Harold 
are ascribed with great probability to the first William ; those which 
most resemble Henry I.'s coins to William II. The coins which pre- 
sent a sceptre on each side of the king's head are universally ascribed to 
the Conqueror ; those with two stars to William Rufus, the same orna- 
ment occurring upon his great seal. Most of them read pili.em, pilemv, 
or Pii.LEMVS HEX A, AN, AHOLO, Or ANai.oB ; the P ill Pillem being in 
reality the Saxon V (W). Of Heniy I.'s pennies tlio types are as 
various as upon those of any monarch of the English series : the 
reverses bear the name of the mint and moneyer. This had been 
the Saxon practice, and it continued till the reign of Edward I. Our 
historians say that Henry I. coined halfpence and farthings, but none 
such are known in our cabinets. Through the Norman times, and cer- 
tainly in the reign of Edward the Confessor, halves and quarters of the 
penny, regularly and nicely cut, to go as halfpence and farthings, occur 
almost whenever parcels of the coins of those periods are discovered. 
The troubles of Stephen's reign will account for the wretched state in 
which the pennies of that king occur : these, with what are certainly 
the earliest pennies of Henry II., are among the worst of the English 
coins in point of mintage. The barons of this reign are reputed by our 



kMoHMM to b»«* alrack eote* ; butoalytwoorUuMfuohweknowii, 
Hid tkoM ot iHtaaiM nlatad to the Ui^. PwmiM tn astant aaeribad 
toRotMtaariofOloaeMtar.bMtanlniiaf Hmnr I.: toHamybUiop 
ol WfawlnrtT, hmt broUwr ol StoplxB ; aad to EiuUm, StaphMi'a aon. 
TIm^ «f« all ol gnat nrity, m U tbo coin whidi baan the raU-loigth 
cOgM* of Stariiwi ukI Hmr; II. Tbo coia of Bobart, howerar, U by 
■ooM Moribaa to Robert duke of Sonaiaiy, the eldeat ton of the 
CoaqoMor. Hmij II., aooordiag to Ruding,h>d but one type; but 
titan nami vnrj raaenp to bdiava that the pwnniaa which unially go 
bjr tka Mine of tha ftnt eoim^ of King Heniy III. are in reality the 
liat iwinagn of Hennr IL at the time he rafonuad hia money, aj>. 1180. 
Of Skkard L and John wa hare no Eng^iah monay ; but peooe, half • 
pane*, and futhii^ are extant of John, all itnidc in Irabad. Thoaa 
eoina with a full tuet, bounded by the inner oiroia, baTa tha inaeriptioii 
lOBAXSBB DOM., and were atruck at the time his bther made him lord 
of Irdaad; thoaa which giTe the tmaa indoaed in a triangle, and 
loaAmm bkx, ware eoinad attar he aaoended the throne. The brthing 
of thia laat eoinaga ia aztremely nn. Of John's ooins, Dublin appears 
to hare been tha od^ plaoe of mintage. Henry IIL's pennies, (if those 
wfaioh wa hara oooaidared as tha Uteat neanies of Heniy II. really do 
not bekng to Haniy III.) bare usually the numerals added to his 
naas, naiBirra *>x -ul Some of hia paaniea have hxhbicts res 
mci, and a few nKinicra six ano. His ooinaga, if we may judge 
from the quantity of hia pennies which still remain, must have been 
a TafT extaoaiTe one. Halfpence and farthings are spoken of in a 
raeord of this reign, but none have appeared. The pennies of Edward 
I. II. and III. are usually thus distirgnished by our antiquaries : those 
which give the king's name edw. are ascribed to Edward I. ; those with 
EDWA., EDWAB., aod EDWARD, to Edw&rd II.; those with eowardvs, to 
King Edward III. A few with edw. are luiown certainly to belong to 
Edward L, particularly those which have a moneyer's name on the 
l ena i ae, bobest db baoilxib, who is known from records to have 
besn a moneyer in 1280. Both Henry III. and Edward I. struck 
pennies in Ireland, in the manner of John's later coins, representing 
the king's head within a triangle. Edward I. struck halfpence .ind 
farthings in his great ooinase of 1279, which arc not un£re<)vientl7 met 
with in tha cabmata of coUectois, as well as halfpence and farthings 
with th« Mah type, struck at Dublin and Waterford. It may be suffi- 
cient, as regarda these small coins, to say that they continued in cur- 
rency for sevaral centuries. The last silver farthing is known to have 
baan coined in the reign of Edward VI., but no specimen of it has been 
seen : tha last silver halfpenny was strxick under the Commonwealth. 
The penny has oontinuwl through everj' reign to the present. Our 
limits will not allow of further minute description. Among the rarest 
in the later part of the series may be reckoned the pennies of 
Edward VI., Mary, and Philip and Mary. From the reign of E<lward I. 
to Henry VIII., we have pennies which bear the privy marks of the 
Bishops of Durham ; from Henry IV. to Henry VIII., we have coins 
struck in the arohiepiaoopal mint at York ; and others of the see of 
Canterbury, from Archbishop Bourchier to Archbishop Cranmer. The 
first English pennies were 221 grains troy. Towards the close of Ed- 
ward III. the penny wei^ 18 grains, and in the reign of Rdwanl IV. 
it fell to 12, after previously sinking to 15. In Edward VI. 's time, 
IS51, the penny was reduced to 8 grains, and after the 43rd of Eliz. to 
7|t graina, at which weight it still continues. The penny affords the 
beat rale for eatimating the other silver coins. 

Aooording to Oimfton, Henry III., in 1249, ordered groats to be 
■tamped, but none such are mentioned in any record. There is a 
largo piaoa howarer found occasionally in the cabinets of the curious, 
■om a timaa aaeribad to EdVnrd I., but whether his, or Edward II.'s, or 
Edward III.'s, is uncertain. It occurs of different weights, from 80 to 
138 grains, and represents the kinf^s head on its obyerse, within a 
double tf a ss u re of four arches, with mullets and roaee ; inscribed 
mWABDVt Dl. OB. BEX. ASOL. "The reverse, bendes a continuation of 
tha kiij^s titles in the outer circle, has cm. lomdosia within an inner 
ana. "niare can be little doubt that it was a trial-pieoe. Croats 
and half-groata were not introduced for currency till the 25th Edward 
III., and oootinua at preaent, though not for circiUation. A silver 
fourpanny place tor oireulation, of a different ^rpe from the ordinary 
float, was iauad for circulation by William IV;, in 1884. The groat 
reoaivad its name from the Prenoh groi, a laiga pieoe. In the time of 
Hanry VIL and Haoiy VIII. groats and half-groi^ were struck in the 
awhl afi a o nn a l minta of Canterbury and York. It was one of the 
ahwiM afaiart Wolaey, that ha had put the cardinal's hat upon the 
Unrs monay. as ia seen upon his York groats and half-groats. 

flia tartooa, or shilling, was fint oMned by Henry VII., In 1603. 
Tha appellation of testoon was from the tale or Ute, the head of the 
idag, upon it : that of shilling is of old but uncertab origin. Pin- 
karton aays, that coins of that name had baan struck at Hamburg in 
1407. Tha rciUiBjwasadaooaiiiiaUonof monavinthaSazontimea. 

Hamy VIII. struck soma pattama for a ailTer crown ; but the 
Ibat crown for ourranoy waa atrack by Edward VI., with the half- 
crown, aixpaooe, and thraepenoe. Queen Elisabeth, in 1658, coined 
ttraa-naUpaaiiy, and in IMl thraa-farthing piaoes. Pinkerton says 
thav wan droppad in 1682, but thsra is a three-halfpenny {riaoa In the 
caUaala of tha British Museum, bearing tha daU of 1699. Cbarlsa I. 
struck twaaty-ahiUii^ and ten shilling piaosa in lilvcr, but they were 
of refj Umttad oorrcoey. 

FVom the 4Srd Eliabeth, 1901, the denominations, weight, and 
flneaaaa of g»» g<iA silrar have remained the same, with the exception 
of the florin of two diillings and the fourpenny pieoe. It is worthy 
of remark, that, during all hia distreaaes, Charles I. never debased 
his coin. 

The gold coinage of England is next to the silver in point of 
antiquity. The gold current with us, till the 41st Henry III., was 
foreign. In that year, 1257, a manuacript chronicle, in the archivea of 
the dty of London, atatea that the king made a penny of the finest 
gold, which weighed two sterlings, and willed that it should be current 
for twfuty]>ence. Three specimens of it only ore yet known to have 
reached us ; and two out of the three are preserved in the British 
Museum. They are from different dies. This coin is engraved in 
Snelling's ' View of the Uold Coin,' in the last edition of Folkes's 
' Tables,' and in Pinkerton'a ' Essay on Medals.' It is from Edward 
m. that the aeries of English gold coin really commences, for no more 
occtus till 1344, when thM prince struck florins. The half and qtuuter- 
florin were struck at the same time. The florin vaa then to go for 
six shillings, thotigh now it would be intrinsically worth nineteen. 
This coin being inconvenient, as forming no aliquot |>art of larger 
ideal denominationa, aeems to have been withdrawn. None have yet 
been found, but a few quarter-florina are preserved in cabinets, and 
one half-florin is known. In consequence, in the same year, the noble 
was published, of 6s. Sd. value, forming half a mark, then the most 
general ideal form of money. The obverse represents the king standing 
m a vessel, asserting the dominion of the sea. The noble was also 
attended by its half and quarter. This coin, sometimes called the 
rose noble, together with its divisions, continued the only gold coin, 
till the angels of Edward IV., 1465, stamped with the angel Michael 
and the dragon, and the angeleta] or half-angels, were substituted in 
their place. Henry V. is said to have diminished the noble, still 
tnitUn g it go for its former value. Henry VI. restored it to its size, 
and caused it to pass for 10»., under the new name of ryal. The ryal of 
10s. and the angel of 6s. 8d., with their divisions of lulf and quarter, 
then continued the sole gold coins till, in 1485, Heury VII. issued the 
double ryal, or sovereign, of 20»., accompanied by the double sovereign 
of 40». Henry VIII., in 1527, added to the gold denominations the 
crown and half-crown, at their present value, and in the same year gave 
sovereigns of 22*. 6d., ryals of 11«. 3d., angels of 7s. 6<f., and nobles at 
their old value of 6s. 6d. In 1546 he struck sovereigns of the former 
value of 20»., and half-sovereigns in proportion. Henry Vlllth's gold, 
like his silver coin, was in the latter part of his reign much debased. 
E<iward VI. coined a treble sovereign ; and under Jaraeti I. the sove- 
reign was called a unite. The former coins however continued, with a 
few variations, till Charles II. coined the guinea, so called from the 
Guinea gold, out of which it waa first struck in 1663, when it was 
proclaimed to go for 20s., but by tacit and universal consent never went 
for less than 21<. Charles II. likewise issued halfguiueaa, double 
guineas, and five-guinea pieces, which his succesitors, till Oeorgo IV., 
continued. Qeorge I. and George III. issued quarter-guineas ; and 
George III. pieces of seven shillings in 1797. In 1815 sovereigns and 
half-sovereigns, of 20>. and 10<. each, were again coined, and the 
guinea and half-guinea were gradually withdrawn from circulation. 

With the exception of the styca, the copper coinage of England arose 
a tbouB.-md years later than its silver. Queen Elizal>eth had a great 
aversion to copper money, although the necessities of her i)eople for 
small change were obvious. She suffered a j)attcm to be struck as the 
PLEDOE. or. A. HALF PENNY, and James I. and Charles I. actually issued 
farthing tokens also as pletlges ; but no authorised coinage of copper 
was struck till 1672, when halfpence and farthings of that metal were 
first made public money. In 1684 tin farthings were coined, witli a 
stud of copper in the centre. Others, as well as halfpence of the same 
metal, were struck by James II., and William and Mary. In 1693 the 
tin was called in, and copper renewed. Pieces of a penny and two- 
pence in copper were coined in the reign of George III. The latter 
did not answer their porpoae, and were soon discontinued. In 1852, 
half-farthings were corned, chiefly for use in the colonies ; and in the 
parliamentary session of 1859, the chancellor of the exchequer an- 
nounced the intention to change the copper coinage for one of a mixed 
and harder metal, of which the weight of each coin would be about 
half its present weight. Neither the denominations nor the value 
were to be changed. 

Our space will allow us to say leas than we could wish upon the 
money struck in France by English princes. Of Anglo-GalUc silver 
coins we have deniers of Eleanor, wife of Henry II., as duchess of 
Aquitaine, with deniers and half-deniers of Henry II., and pennies and 
half-penniea of Aquitaine, and pence of Poitou and Rouen of Richard I. 
Of John and Henry III. we know of no Anglo-French money; but 
there is a lion of billon of Edward I., coined during the Ufetime of his 
lather after he had received Gaacony, and a plentiful series of silver 
and billon ooins of Edward III., of Edward the Black Prince, of 
Riohaid II., Henry IV., V., and VI. The denominations of the silver 
ware the hardi, double hardi, groat, half-groat, penny, and half-penny. 
In this elaas also fall the Calais groats and half-groata of the sovereigns 
of England, from EMward III. to Hennr VI., and the Tournay groats 
of Hamy VIII. Edward III. waa the first of the English princes who 
■truck gold money in France; the denominjktions were guiennois, 
leopard, chaise, and mouton ; to these Edward the Black Prince oddetl 




the hardi of gold and the pavilion ; and Henry V. salutes and half- 
aalutes. Henry VI. coined salutes, angelots, and francs in gold. The 
equivocal specimen of silver coin, supposed to have been struck by 
Margaret of Burgimdy for Perkin Warbeck, is usually classed with the 
Anglo-Gallic series. The British Museum jwssesses a most extensive 
and interesting collection of coins, those of Great Britain being the 
largest collection in existence, and the^collections of Sicilian, Greek, and 
Koman coins exceedingly rich. 

Gold and silver with certain alloys have formed the material for the 
more costly currency of all European nations, and copper for most of 
them in those of smaller value, but France and some few others have 
used a mixed metal for that purpose. Russia is the only country 
which has used platinum in the manufacture of coins. 

In respect to numismatic writers, we can only enumerate a few of 
the most important upon the various series of coins. On the Greek 
and Roman series, the best works are Eckhel's ' Doctrina Numonim 
Veterum,' Rasche's ' Lexicon Universse Rei Numaria," and Mionnet's 
' Descrijjtion des Medailles Antiques Grecques et Romaines ; ' the last 
work in 5 vols., 8vo, with 7 vols, of Supplement, Paris, 1806-35. For 
the Roman alone, the reader may consult A. Morel's 'Thesaurus 
Familiarum Romanarum,' 2 torn., fol., Amsterdam, 1734 ; and his ' The- 
Baunis Nmnismatum Imperatonun,' 3 tom., Amsterdam, 1752. Another, 
which brings the Roman series to the close of the empire, will be 
found in Banduri's ' Numismata Imperatorum Romanonim a Trajano 
Decio ad Palxologos Augustos," 2 tom.. Par., 1718, with Tanini's 
' Supplement,' in 1 vol., fol., Rome, 1791. See also Mionnet's work, 
in 2 vols., ' De la Raretd et du Prix des Medailles Romaines,' 8vo., 
Paris, 1827; Mullinger's 'Considerations but la Numismatiques de 
I'sDcienne Italic,' 1844; and Akermann's 'Descriptive Catalogue of 
Rare and Unedited Roman Going,' 2 vols., 8vo, London, 1834. 
Pinkerton'a 'Essay on Medals,' 2 vols., 8vo, 1789, with all its errors, 
is valuable as a general elementary treatise. A better is Mayer's 
' Einleitung in die iilte Romiscbe Numismatik,' 1842; and also Mr. B. 
N. Humphrey's ' History of Ancient Coins and Medals ; ' ' The Pro- 
ceedings of t^e Numismatical Society,' of which the publication com- 
menced in 1838, contain a large amount of valuable information. 

On English coins, the best works are Leake's ' Historical Account of 
English money,' 8vo, London, 1745 ; Ruding's ' Annals of the Coinage 
of Britain ; ' and Sir. Humphrey's ' Coins of England,' and ' Coin 
Collector's Guide.' Simon has written an ' Essay towards .in Historical 
Account of Irish Coins ; ' and Cardonnel his ' Numismata Scotia;, or a 
Series of the Scottish Coinage.' On Anglo-Gallic coins, we have a 
quarto volume by Ducarel ; a volume of similar size, ' A Description 
of the Anglo-Gallic Coins in the British Museum ; ' and ' Illustrations 
of the Anglo-French Coinage,' by Major-Gen. Ainslie, 4to, London, 

On the French coinage, we have the works of Bonteroue, Le Clerc, 
and Millin ; on the Papal coins, Floravante ; Florez on those of Spain. 
For the coins of Germany the reader may consult Hadai's ' Thaler- 
Cabinet,' 4 tom., Konigsberg, 1765-8 ; Weise's ' Gulden-Cabinet,' 
2 torn., Niimberg, 1780-2 ; and Voasberg's 'Geschichte der Preussis- 
chen Munzen und Siegel,' 1843. For Danish coins, the 'Danske 
Mynter og Medailler,' 3 torn., fol., Copenh., 1791-4. For Bulgarian 
coins, Fraehn's work, 4to, Casan, 1816. For Hungarian coins, Schiin- 
visner, ' Notitia Hungariio rei numarix,' 1801, and Szecheayi ' Catalogus 
numorum Hungarite,' 1810. For Russian coins Chaudoir's ' Aper^u 
snr monnaies russes,' 1837. For Polish coins Bandske's ' Numismatyke 
Krajowa.' 1889. For Oriental coins, Marsden's • Numismata Orientalia 
Illustrata,' 2 vols., 4to, London, 1823-5; Grotefend's ' Miinzen der 
(iriechischen, Parthischen, und Indo-Skytbischen Kiinige von Bactrien ; ' 
and ' Essays on Indian Antiquities, Historic, Numismatic, and PalaiO- 
graphic,' by James Prinsep, edited by J. Thomas, 1858. 

COINING. [Mlnt.] 

COININO. The numerous and complicated laws upon this subject, 
p awe d from time to time during several centuries, as occasion called 
ibr potal enactments to protect the coin of the realm, were repealed 
by the stat. 2 Will. IV. c. 34. The making or coining of money being 
one of the exclusive prerogatives of the crown, the counterfeiting of 
the king's coin was in early periods of the history of English law con- 
sidered to be an usurpation upon the royal authority, and upon that 
principle constituted the offence of high treason both by the common 
law and by various statutes. By the stat. 2 Will. IV., c. 34, s. 3, the 
following offences are provided for: — 1. Falsely making or counter- 
feiting any coin resembling, or apparently intende<l to resemble or 
paas for, the king's current gold or sUver coin. 2. Colouring, washing, 
or caaing over any metal or counterfeit coin so as to pass for the 
genuine gold and silver coin of the realm; and filing, washing or 
otherwise altering silver coin so as to pass for gold, or copper 
coin so as to pass for silver or gold. 3. Impairing, diminishing, 
or lightening gold or silver coin, with intent to make it pass 
current. 4. To buy, sell, receive, pay or put off, any false or 
counterfeit coin resembhng, or apparently intended to resemble or pass 
for, any of the king's current gold or silver coin, or offer so to do, at or 
for a lower rate or value than the same by its denomination imports. 
6. To, import into the United Kingdom, from beyond the seas, any 
false or counterfeit coin resembling, or apparently intended to re- 
semble or pass for, any of the king's current gold or silver coin, know- 
ing the same to be false or counterfeit. ("The above offences were 

punishable by transportation, now penal servitude). 6. To tender, 
utter, or put off any false or counterfeit coin, resembling, or apparently 
intended to resemble or pass for, any of the king's current gold or 
silver coin, knowing the same to be false or counterfeit. 7. To tender, 
utter, or put off any false or counterfeit coin resembling, or apparently 
intended to resemble or pass for, any of the king's current gold or 
silver coin, knowing the same to be false or counterfeit, and at the 
time of such tendering, littering, or putting off, having in possession, 
besides the false or counterfeit coin so tendered, uttered, or put off, 
one or more piece or pieces of false or counterfeit coin resembling, or 
apparently intended to resemble or pass for, any of the king's current 
gold or silver coin ; or 8. Either on the day of such tendering, uttering, 
or putting off, or within the space of ten days then next ensuing, to 
tender, utter, or put off, any more or other false or counterfeit coin 
resembling, or apparently intended to resemble or pass for, any of the 
king's current golel or silver coin, knowing the same to be false or 
counterfeit. 9. Any {rerson having in his custody or possession three 
or more pieces of false or counterfeit coin resembling, or apparently 
intended to re.semble or pass for, any of the king's current gold or 
silver coin, knowing the same to be false or counterfeit, and with 
intent to utter or put off the same. (The four last offences are 
punishable by imprisonment.) The punishment is increased for the 
commission of any of these offences after a previous conviction. 

The provisions above abstracted relate to the protection of the gold 
and silver coin. The following offences relate to copper coin. 1. To 
falsely make or counterfeit any coin resembling, or apparently in- 
tended to resemble or pass for, any of the king's current copper coin ; 
or, 2. Knowingly, and without lawful authority (the proof of which 
authority lies on the party accused), to have iu liis custody or posses- 
sion any instrument, tool, or engine adapted and intended for the 
counterfeiting any of the king's current copper coin ; or, 3. To buy, sell, 
receive, pay, or put off, or offer to buy, sell, receive, pay, or put off, 
any false or counterfeit coin resembling, or apparently intended to 
resemble or pass for, any of the king's current copper coin, at or for a 
lower rate or value than the same by its denomination imports. 4. To 
tender, utter, or put off any false or counterfeit coin resembling, or 
apparently intended to resemble or pass for, any of the king's current 
copper coin, knowing the same to be false or counterfeit, or haviug iu 
custody or possession three or more pieces of false or counterfeit coin 
resembling, or api)arently intended to resemble or pass for, any of the 
king's current copper coin, knowing the same to be false or counterfeit, 
and with intent to utter or put off the same. 

The statute also contains various provisions against making, sending, 
or having in possession, any coining tools. By the 16 & 17 Vict. c. 
48, the provisions of the 2 Will. IV., c. 34, were extended to the 
colonies, and punishment provided for importing counterfeit coin into 
the colonies. A practice which arose of defacing coin by Rtamping 
and bending it for advertising purposes was met by the 16 & 17 Vict, 
c. 102, making the offence a misdemeanour, and imposing a penalty 
on uttering such def-iced coin. The statute also makes a tender of 
such coin invalitL 

COIRE. The manufacture of cordage, mats, matting, coarse canvas, 
and sailcloth from the fibres of vegetables, has been known to the 
inhabitants of nearly all countries with which we have any acquaint- 
ance. So far, however, from the source from wliicli the material is 
obtained being alike in all plants, it differs considerably. In flax and 
hemp the fibrous material is furnished by the stem, deprived of its 
ligneous centre or core. In the Simnish broom the fibres are furnished 
by the young jiliant branches of a shrub ; and these fibres are occa- 
sionally wrought both into cloth and into cordage. The stalks of the 
hop-plant, and also of the common nettle, are mjule to yield fibres 
applicable to a similar purpose ; and so likewise may be those of the 
bean-plant and of the mallow. In other cases it is rather the bark of a 
tree than the stem of a young plant that yields the fibres. Such is the 
case with the paper-mulberry tree, the bark of which is so prepared by 
the natives of Tahiti as to yield fibres fitted for a kind of cloth. Such 
is likewise the case with the Unden-tree, the bark of which, prepared in 
a suitable way, is used for the manufacture of mats, baskets, bags, and 
thatching. It is estimated that fourteen million mats are ma<le 
annually iu Russia from this material ; that for this purpose the bark 
of a million trees is required ; and that a traffic equal to half a million 
sterling is thus created. Two other examples of the same kind are 
furnished by the maho-tree (Hibisnu tiliacciia) and the Theobroma 
auffutla, two East Indian plants, the stalks of which are steeped and 
disentangled from the fibres of the inner bark. Another class of mate- 
rials for similar purposes is furnished by the leaves of certain plants. 
The Phormium tenax, or New Zealand flax, has leaves which produce 
such fibres. The enormous leaves of the Aijare, or American aloe, yield 
fibres capable of answering a similar purpose ; and so likewise do several 
species of the Brmnelia. 

But Coire differs from all these in its origin. It is the fibre of the 
husk of the cocoa-nut, bearing such relation to it as the downy fibres 
of cotton do to the seeds of the cotton-plant. The inhabitants of 
Ceylon make great use of it. The nut is gathered before being com- 
pletely ripe ; and in order to remove the husk, an iron spike or sharji 
piece of hard wood is fixed in the ground, and the nut is forced upon 
the point in such a manner as to separate the rind from the shell. One 
man can clear about a thousand nuts in a flay by this means. The 




rind o( Um not U acaiui ta watar for wfwal month*, Uxa bostM upon 
» rtaw whli a pioao «< hmry wood, •ad afUnnrd* raWMd wUb Um 
kMd MrtU liM faMMMdhU Milwluieo k oomiOoMy aipuBt^ iron t^ 
Mfoao pofHon. Um riad d fot^ w i^ auts MpiiUoi aboat Mx 
pooadi «ii|k» «f ih» BbNL This Sbrt oowtitutM tbo eoirc, which 
M Umk fm^ lor «m in Um mom way as kaap or othar flbroiu 

Thia maiattel imiiMii mat ttnaeity. Indood, Dr. Koxburgd 
nnvka, that "eou* ia o«ia&i))r the Tory baat matarial yet known for 
«atte.oaaeeeaalofto»wt aiaatieity and atnngth.* The material 
i* rmy boejant, and waU anitod for making ropea of Urga diameter. 
Until ehain-eabka were introduoMl. all the ihipi whioh narigated the 
ladiaa ma* had eablea mvle of thii aubetanoe. The abr« are mther 
Imu iiwa d than inhirad by iamMirion in aea-water; but the nuoothneat 
and elMtiuity of the ooii»«ordme, though rery advantageoua to 
raaBiiV.riggiag aad the light liaaa of a ship, render it lea* fitted for 


TlMr* ha* baaa a bruioh of manufKture introduoed within the lact 
few yean in WiigWiMi Jn whioh ooire i* employed rather diflerently 
than in the aborakdeeoribed inatanoa* ; this u for the pruduction of 
m^ diuggeta, mata, matting, imlliiaaia, and limilar coane good*. 
Dampier menticaied two or three oenturiea ago the production of cloth 
fhim aueh a material ; for he mya, " I hare been toM by Otptain Knox, 
who wrote the ' Relation of Ceylon,' that in iome plaoea of India they 
make a aort of ooarae doth of Uiia huak of the ooooa-nut, which ia uaed 
foraaila. Myaelf hare aeea ooarae aailoloth made of euch a kind of aub- 
ataaee." Baaidea the actual wearing or plaiting of thi* material into textile 
&bries ot a ooarM kind it ia uaed aa a atumng for mattreaaea, pillowi, 
aad coihioniL Dampier alluded to the uae of the fibres to caulk the 
■earns of diips ; and Mr. Marahall speaka of the employment of them 
ia India in stuffing mittresaea, cushions for oouobea, and saddlee, as a 
■ubatitute for horse-hair. The arailability of the material for such a 
puipaas aeems to depend upon theee quaiitiea : that the ooire is very 
iadeatmetible ; that it doee not harbour vermin, as hnrse-hair would in 
a warm climate ; and that it is free from oflenaive smell. 

The quantity of coire now imported is large, but it cannot be 
quite determined from the Board of Trade returns, in which it is 
iiwluded with " jute, and other vegetable siibetanoes of the nature of 

COKE, the solid residue obtained by the destructive distillation of 
ooaL It consists almost entirely of carbon, aasodated with a certain 
quantity, usually small, of incombustible mineral matter, which is left 
behind as aah when the coke is burnt. 

As an article of commerce, it is produced by partial combustion in 
dose chambers, or in heaps from which the free access of air is 
exdudMl. Being eompoeed almoet entirely of carbonaccoug matter, 
ooke in a ftiel much ptuer and better adapted fur use in smelting and 
various other furnaces than raw or uncoked coal ; and aa it iii divested 
d thoaa constituent parte which produce most dark-coloured smoke, 
it ia aapeeially preferred in cases in which it is ueoeaaary to avoid 
the enussion of smoke, as for the furnaces of locomotive engines. 
The intruductiun of railways has occasioned a very large demand 
for coke for this purpoae, though its use in the manufacture of iron 
ha* been diminished in aome desree by the adoption of the hot-blast 
for fnmaeea, by the aid of whidi uncoked ooal may be uaed in lieu 

The simplsat mode of coking, which is still occasionally followed, is 
to lay the coal in large flattened heapa, often containing 80 or 40 tons 
each, in the open sir, covering it with ashes and earth to confine the 
heat, so that the maai of coal may be slowly burnt in a smothered 
manner, men being employed during the procesa to renew the covering 
wherever the tre may begm to bum Uirough too fiercely. The late Dr. 
Urs, in deaeribing vu^ous modes of mnUng coke in Qermany, noticed 
both circular and oblong coking meUen or mounds of this character, 
the former being piled round a central chimney built of loose bricks, 
towards which small horizontal flues are laid among the lumps of coal 
forming the mound ; while in the latter vertical flues or chimneys are 
provided by the insertion, while the mounds are forming, of wooden 
alakas, which, whan the whole pile is completed, are withdrawn, their 
niae* being filled uu with readily combustible materials, to aid in 
{gaitiag the masa ol coaL The exterior of theee meilers is covered 
with met, or coal-dust, and clay. 

The best and moat economical method of making coke is in dose 
oveae, which are built in varioux forma. In some huge establishmenta 
thsas ovena are a hundred or more in number, each being a brick 
atitMttita sight or tan feat high, with a flat roof in which is an opening 
for ialradiMag th* coal, and with another o]>enhigin troat from which 
to raawra tha eoka. The ovens being placed side by side in a 
oa utfauuu a fange, a railway is laid along their flat nwfii by whioh 
tha ooal is brought dose to the chafing -holes, while another, 
running on a lower levd, in front of Uie openings by which the 
ooke is taken out, affords facilities for its removal. Dr. l7ro gave 
details of various forma of ooke-ovens, of whidi we can only notice 
tb* rtrj aMallant kind adoptad by the London and North- Western (at 
that tttM tha Londeo aad Biimfaigham) Railway Company for making 
eoka at tha Camden-Town station, for the use of their locomotive 
engines. Each of these ovens was, internally, of an elliptic form, 
measuring IS feet by 11 in the clear, and surroun<1ed by brick- work 

S fact thiok. The intamal height wa* about 4 feet, the floor being 
Sat, baddad upon a thick atratnm of octMrete, and the roof in th* form 
ol a flat ddia*i la tha front of «aeh oven waa aa opening about 8 feat 
sqoara, eorarad by a eaat-iroo door lined with flra-bridca, which slid up 
and down by means of chains aad oounter- weights. At the back of thia 
roof waa aa opening, capable of being wholly or partially etoaad by a 
eliding damper oommunieating with a horiiontal llue which oondutied 
the smoke to a high chimney serving for the whole range of ovaas. 
The orana war* ehaivsd through the front opening with about three 
tone aad a half of ooala, upon the top of which a little straw waa thrown. 
The oven baiag vary hot from it* preceding charge, smoke bagaa 
immediately to rise from the maas, while the straw bacama ignited by 
radiation from the dome. By the active combustion thiu exdtad on 
the surfsoe of the coal the greater part of the smoke waa consumed, all 
that aroee from the half-ignited ooala having to riae through the fuUy- 
kindled coals on the aurfoce, which were freely expoaed to the aooeas 
of air, botii the fuinaoe door and the flue bemg for a time left fully 
open. As the operation proceeded, the fire burned regularly down- 
wards, and the doors and dampers were gradually doiwd. After a 
calcination of upmrds of forty hours the doors and dampers ware 
parfectly oloeed, oy which means the msss was partially cooled, aad 
formed itself into prismatio concretions, somewhat resembling columnar 
basalt ; when sufficiently cooled the furnace was opened, and the maaa 
of coke broken up with iron bars and thrown out upon the pavement 
to be extinguished by sprinkling water over it. MThen the ooking i* 
conducted in this manner a very amall quantity of unoonsumed gas 
and soot eaoapee, and the coals, if good, yield about 80 per cent, of 
compact glistening coke, weighing about 14 cwt. per ckafdron. The 
more recent operations of the railway companies have led to the intro- 
duction of many improved proceaaes in coke-making. In ordinary 
coking-ovens the loss in weight is about 2S, instead of 20 per cent., 
but the bulk of the ooal is increased about 25 per cent, by the prooeaa. 

The production of coke in the manufacture of coal-gas is noticed 
imder OAS-Lioimxo. 

In 1854 the London and North Weatem Railway company requested 
Messn. Woods and Marshall to institute a series of experimente, to 
determine whether coal could advantageously be used in substitution 
of, or in combination with, coke in locomotive engines. The experi- 
ments were made with Hawksbury coal, dug from a pit near Coventry ; 
it was selected on account of the proximity of the pit to the railway, 
and also because the coal is hard, and possessed of other bvouiable 
qualities. The main ooal could be supplied in large lumps at the 
Rugby depAt for 9>. 8d. per ton. Some of Mr. M'Connell's looomotivea 
were tried, alternately with Hawksbury main coal and with the best 
coke. Under nearly equal circumstances in other respects, a con- 
sumption of 25 Ibe. of coke was found to equal that of 85 lbs. of coal, 
in working effect ; and 84 lbs. of water were evaporated by I lb. of 
coke, against S] lb. by 1 lb. of coal. In trials with various engines, 
drawing various loads, the comparative results were nearly as above, in 
some cases more favourable to the coke. The result of the experi- 
ments showed that the use of coal in locomotives ia quite practicable ; 
that the engines, with coal fuel, have no difficulty in maintaining the 
required 8j>eed and pr e s s ure of steam ; that the consumption, or rather 
non-production, of smoke may be very nearly attained ; but that the 
last-named advantage depends very much on the skill and attention of 
the men employed, there being a necessity for a much more frequent 
supply, and for smaller quantities at each firing. Taking the results 
of one particular locomotive as an example, it was found that I ton of 
coke did about as much work aa I ^ tons of coal ; but as the price of a 
ton of the latter was 9$. 6d., and that of the other 21<., the money-cost 
for a given amount of power produced was leas in the cool to the 
extent of nearly 7«. per ton. The experimenters found, however, that 
the company possessed only a small number of one particular kind of 
engine suitable for burning coal without producing smoke; and it 
would become, therefore, a commercial queation how for it would 
be worth while to build new engines for the soke of ensuring these 

There has long been, and still is, a controvennr among practical men, 
not only concerning the relative qualities of coke and coal for use in 
locomotivea, li\it in furnaces generally. At Pellatt's glass-works, near 
Blackfriars' Bridge, coke has been found to possess better qualities than 
cool for heating the kilns : 1 8 cwt. of coke was found to produce as 
much heating effect as 20 cwt. of coal. It has been found that, if a 
little cool be mixed with a preponderant quantity of coke, the glass 
ingredients become reiine<l many liours e.arlier, the effects are more 
certain, there is less injury to the melting-pots, there is much leas 
emissioft of rimoke, and there is lesa cost by 2^ per cent, than when 
coal alone is luied. The best ooke is found to be obtainable from 
Newcastle coal, the next best from Wigan, a third quality from 
Bamnley, and a qualily neariy as good as breeze from cannel cool. 
The sooner coke is used after making, especially if gas-coke, the bettor. 
It has been laid down by some manufacturer, that whenever a chaldron 
of coke is sold at a lower price than a ton of small ooal, it is cheaper to 
use ooke than cool. Many maniifacttiring establishments now mix coke 
largely with their cool, thereby greatly lessening the emission of 
smoke ; but in the North, where ooal is cheaper, aad where smoke- 
prevention is little thought of, ooke i* not much used in steam-engine 
fumaoee. Many persons object to the tise of gai-coke, on account of 





the unpleasant smell of sulphur belonging to it ; to remedy this, one 
of the gas companies at Liverpool is in the habit of using salt, in the 
ratio of 1 4 lbs. to every charge of coal ; this is said to lessen consider- 
ably the sulphureous exhalation from the coke. From various and 
somewhat conflicting reports of experiments made, it would appear 
that the relative profitableness of coke and coal as fuel depends greatly 
on locality ; the ratio between the prices of the two being by no means 
tmiform. If, on the one hand, manufactiu-ers are trying to substitute 
coke for coal in many fixed furnaces, railway companies, on the other, 
are seeking to substitute coal for coke in locomotives. The experi- 
ments require to be carried to a much greater extent, before Uiese 
problems can be effectually solved. 

Many patents have been obtained for peculiar methods of preparing 
coke ; but they do not require any lengthened notice. One is for a 
mode of applying muriatic .acid to small coal, to dissolve the carbonates 
of lime and magneeia, and other impurities, after which the roasting is 
efTected. Muriatic acid being rather a costly liquid when thus em- 
ployed, it LB suggested to employ the refuse acid from alkali works. 
Another is for a mode of obtaining ammoniacal salts. The products 
of combustion are to be drawn off by a blower into a flue, in which is 
placed a refrigerator ; they then pass into a condensing chamber, where 
they come in contact with surfaces over which a of dilute 
sulphuric acid is trickling ; the ammonia is taken up, and the non- 
condensible gases allowed to pass off. 

COLCHICINE, the active principle of the meadow saffron {Col- 
ehieum autumnaU). It was at one time regarded as identical with 
veratrine. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It forms salts 
with the acids, which are bitter, acrid, and poisonous. In small doses 
it causes ptirging. 

COLCHICUM, Medical tua of. In a small dose, colchicum causes 
an increased flow of lu-ine, and more frequent evacuations from the 
intestinal canal, and occasionally augmented secretion from the skin ; 
in larger doses, frequent evacuations from the intestines, accompanied 
with pain and tenesmus, and desire repeatedly to empty the bladder. 
Still larger doses cause increase of all these actions, with vomiting and 
sense of burning in the throat, insensibility and stiffness of the tongue, 
escape of blood into the intestinal canal, vomiting of blood, ;ind a 
flow of bloody urine. Great disturluuice of the nervous system is 
likewise observed, .as in other cases of poisoning with acrid sub- 
stances. The same appearances are fotmd in the intestinal canal, if 
the poison be injected into the veins. Even the milk of cattle 
which have eaten the meadow-saffixin becomes capable of causing 
death. (Vogt.) 

In a moderate dose, colchiciun seems to increase the quantity and 
improve the quality of all the secretions of the intestinal canal and the 
collatitious visoeis, especially the liver; but it likewise exerts a 
sedative .action on the heart. Chelius says that in twelve days it 
doubles the quantity of uric acid found in the urine, a circumstance 
which explains its utility in gout and rheumatism. 

The diseases in which colchicum is most useful are, dropsy, when a 
small dose is prescribed ; gout, in which Urger are used ; an<l rheuma- 
tism, in which its beneficial influence is firat felt on the Uver (which is 
almost always disordered in these diseases), and afterwards on the 
kidneys, from which a Urger portion of uric acid is excreted, and the 
formation of gout-stones (urate of soda) in some degree prevented. As 
acid in the stomach renders the action of colchicum more violent, 
magnesia is usually given along with it. The acetate and acetous 
extract are the best forms of administration. 

COLCOTHAR [Ikox, fkmuioxide of.] 

COLD. [Catabkh; Heat.] 

COLE, COLZA, a cultivated state of the Bnuttea napus, which 
does not form a close head, like cabbage, but has sessile heart-shaped 
leaves. It is cultivated for its seeds, from which an oil is expressed, 
which is much used for burning in lamps, and in the manufacture of 
leather and soap. 

There are two varieties of cole, one with white flowers and another 
with yellow ; the latter is the hardiest, and consequently most gene- 
rally cultivated. 

It requires a good loamy soil, well manured, to produce a good crop 
of cole seed. In rich land lately broken up from pasture, or fenny 
land newly drained, it grows luxuriantly and gives a great return. It 
is thought to be a great exhauster of the soiL Half a gallon of seed is 
drilled in rows 1 4 or 1 6 inches apart about the end of July, and left 
thinne«l out until the following year, when it is cut in June and July, 
yielding 20 to 30 bushels of seed, which is sold at from 8<. to 1 Oa. a 
trasheL An oil is expressed from it, and the refuse, a rape cake, is 
made as food for sheep or cattle ; being worth for that purpose more 
than its comparatively low price, 61. per ton, when oil cake is 10/. to 
\iL a ton, would indicate. In a rotation, cole is considered as a good 
crop to precede wheat. Like rape, which is another variety, it is 
sometimes sown to be fed off by cattle and sheep on land which is not 
BO well adapted to the growth of turnips. [Rape.] 

COLIC (from Ku\or, colon), dolor eolimt, called by Sydenham and 
the old English writers tiie dry belly-ache ; a disease attended with 
severe pain of the bowels, remitting and recurring at intervals, with 
constipation, and without fever. The seat of this malady is conceived 
to bo chiefly, if not entirely, in that portion of the large intestines called 
the colon, and hence its name. It arises from a great variety of causes. 

and assumes a corresponding variety of forms, many of which have 
received distinct names ; but pain and constipation of the bowels, with 
the absence of fever, are common to them .ill ; and this concurrence 
of symptoms is essential to the medical notion of colic. 

The pain in colic often most distinctly follows the course of the 
colon, while the morbid distension and contraction of the bowel (for 
these two morbid states alternate with each other, and attack succes- 
sively different portions of the intestines) often become visible to the 
eye. The colon receives all that portion of the food which is not con- 
verted into chyle, together with all those portions of the pancreatic, 
biliary, and intestinal secretions, which do not form component parts 
of the chyle. Consequently it has a considerable mass of matter to 
carry downwards and convey out of the system. It is provided with 
muscular fibres, very much larger than those which belong to the 
small intestines. These fibres form three large bands, which are 
placed in a longitudinal direction along the intestine, and which 
produce the effect of dividing the inner surface of the colon into folds, 
so disposed as to form little distinct apartments called cells. In these 
cells the feculent matter, which should be slowly but progressively 
carried downwards, is sometimes collected and closely impacted, so 
that when at length rejected it has the form of those cells constituting 
hard rounded balls, tei-med scybalce. The natural stimulus to the 
muscular fibres of the colon is the resinous portion of the bile [Bile, 
Nat. Hist. Div.], together with the non-nutrient portion of the 
aliment. It is easy then to conceive how a loss or diminution of the 
contractile power of these fibres may occasion the constipation incident 
to colic, attende<l with the retention of the feculent matter in the 
cells of the colon ; how a suppression or au altered condition of the 
bile may contribute to the same effect ; and how an .acrid quality of 
the bile and of the non-nutrient portion of the aliment may produce 
the irritation and pain incident to colic. The colon then, both from 
its structure and function, it is ob\"ious must be peculiarly predisposed 
to such an affection as that to which, from the frequency with which 
it is the subject of the malady, it has given a name. It is perhaps 
desirable that the term colic should be restricted to the designation of 
a disease of a definite character, seated in the colon ; and some medical 
writers do so limit the use of the term, tho\igh others give it a more 
extended signification, .and with less propriety include under it 
diseases which do not arise primarily in the colon, but in some neigh- 
bouring organ, the colon being only secondarily and sympathetically 

CoUc, properly so called, is attended with severe griping pains in 
the bowels, which often follow very accurately the course of the colon ; 
sometimes having their seat in one portion of it and sometimes in 
another. These pains remit for a time, affording intervals of ease ; 
but they soon return with increaaed violence. They are often relieved 
by pressure, a character by which they are distinguished from pain 
occasioned by inflammation, the latter being alw.ays increased by pres- 
sure. The i>ain is usually attended with a greater or less degree of 
flatulence. The flatus sometimes collects to such an extent as to 
occasion a prodigious dilation of the bowels, greatly increasing the p<ain. 
When the digestive process is jwrfectly natural, it is always attended 
with the evolution of some portion of gas; in disordered states of 
digestion, the quantity of gas is often very much increased. While 
one portion of the intestine is thus pretematurally distended, another 
portion is in a state of preternatural contraction, from the irregular 
spasmodic action of the muscular fibres of the colon, excited by the 
irritating cause — whatever it may be — which produces the disease. 
These irregular spasmodic contractions of the colon are always present 
when this disease is severe, and are intensely painful. The constipation, 
which is BO constant as to be a diagnostic character of the malady, is 
often long continued and obstinate, .and the consequent accumulation 
of feciUent nuitter is very great. To the preceding train of symptoms 
is very frequently superadded vomiting, which is often urgent and 
most distressing ; and in cases of the greatest severity, the action of 
the whole intestinal tube above the seat of the disease is inverted, and 
the fajces are mixed with the matter voraite<l. Occasionally there is 
hiccough, and very often the griping pains are attended with loud 
rumbling noises in the interior of the intestines. 

It is unnecessary in this place to enter into the details of the 
varieties of this malady to wliich physicians have assigned distinct 
names, since these varieties are merely modifications of the same 
disease produced by different causes. The preceding account will bo 
sufficient to give to the general reader a distinct conception of the 
nature of the malady, and of the causes which produce it ; and it is 
only necessary to observe respecting the treatment, that the two great 
principles on which the cure depends are the complete evacuation of 
the intestines, and the strict regulation of the diet. It is indispensable 
that the evacuation of the intestine of its accumulated and irritating 
contents should be complete, .and this is best effected by an alternation 
of mild and unirritating aperients, with opiates. After the intestine 
has been fully relieved of it« load, it is necessary to persist in a course 
of mild aperients for a considerable time ; because the bowel long 
remains in an irritable state, and very slight causes are apt to occasion 
a relapse. For the same reason only the most bland and unirritating 
sul^stances shovild be taken as food ; all acid and acrid matters in the 
solid and all stimulating matters in the fluid aliment should be most 
carefully avoide<l. 




ThaaoeidMtal introdoctioa o< lawl 

I ruMfnhliiy thoM of anliiiu7 oolic [PAnrrn's Oouc.J 

into Um ■3r>t<a> oftao |«t)duoai 
»f ^ ^ t^l«.■^■■« rwnmhllM tboa* o( ardiiiu7 oolic [PAnrrn' 
COLISEru. OR COLOSSKUM. [Amfhitbeatrs.] 

0>LI-ATKKALa. [('oxnAXOiixrrT. 


CULLATIO, or LEX DRI, b s eonpihtion. probably made in the 6th 
ceotury of our en. It mniltta ot • eonpaiuoa between the Law of 
Moaai and the Roman Law, in dsteao ttUea. Eaeh title baa certain 
1^ mlaa at the bead from th* Law of Xoaea, beaded thua, " Moeea 
didt ;' to wfaioh are aubjoiiMd, bj way of compariaon, nilaa of Roman 
law takaa ttcn the fire Roman juriata — Papinian, Paulus, tiaiua, 
(Tlnian, and Modeatinua — and from the three oompilationa which pre- 
ceded that of Juatiniaa — the Oragorianua Codex, Hennogenianua 
Codex, and Theodoaanua Codes. The ralue of the CoUatio oooaiBta 
■oMy in the extracta which it containa from the aouree above men- 
tioned. The laat and beat edition of the Collatio ia by Blume, in the 
Bean edition of the 'Corpua Juria Ant*-Justinianei,' and in the 
aapanta edition of 1833, Sro. The firat edition ia by P. Pithou, 
Tmt, 157S, 4to. It ia alao printed in Sohulting'a ' Juriiprudentia Vetus 
ante-Jnetinianea,' Leyden, 1 TIT- 

COLLE'OICM, or CONLEtilUM, from the word eoOiyo, " to coUect 
or bring together," literally aignifiea any aaaodaUon or body of men ; 
but a *ji<*nWl meaning waa attached to it, namely, tluit of n number 
of peraooa joioad in aome offloe or employment, ur liWng by common 
mlaa. The word Corpua waa alao uaed m the aame aenae (D. 50, 6, 5), 
and thoae who were membera of a ooUegitun or oorpua were hence called 
ooiporati The word Univeraitaa waa aometimea uaed aa equivalent to 
CoUflgium or Corpua, but it had alao the more general aignification of 
" oommunity," or " collective body of citizena." In the Roman polity 
ooUagiom aignified any aaaociation of peraona lueh as the law allowed, 
requiring confirmation by apeoial enactment or by a senatua conaultum, 
or aa imperial conatitution, in which oaae it waa called CoU^um 
Lagitimum. A collegium neceaaarily oonaiated of three peraonB at 
leaat (Dig. 50. Ut. 16, L 85.) 

In geiietml, any aaaociation or collegium, unleaa it had the sanction 
of a aenatxia cowultum, or of the emperor, or were established by a 
lex, waa illegal (illicitum) ; and on proof of such illeoiality, might be 
diaaolved by imperial letters (mandatig), constitutions, and senatus 
ooomHa; and when diaaolved, the membera were allowed to divide the 
p « o pai tj of the aiandaHon according to their reapective sluu-es. (D. 
47, 32, 8 pr.) The members of a collegium were called sodales ; the 
terma and object of their union or association might be any that were 
not illegal. 

A gnat variety of collegia (many of them like our companiea) 
exiated at Rome and in the empire, as we see by ancient writings and 
inacriptioDs, such as the Collegia Fabronim, PiHtorum, Pontificum, 
Fratrom Arvalium, Vin>rum Kpulonum, Augurum, &c. Some of 
theae, aach aa the colleges of Pontifices and Augurs, w^ero of a religious 
ehancter. Theae collegia poaseased property as a corporate body ; and 
in the time of the Emperor Hadrian, if they were collegia legitima, 
they could take a legacy or beqtiest (C. 6, 24, 8) in their corporate 
capacity. Collegia ware allowed, as a matter of course, to have a com- 
mon cheat, and an actor, syndicua or attorney, to look after their rights 
and intereata, and appear on their behalf. Plutareh ascribes the origin 
of ooUagea, aa a political institution, to Numa Poropilius; and Diony- 
ana mcntioaa aa ancient law, paaed by Taniuiii the Proud, for the 
poipoae of putting down the aocieties and colleges which were then in 
exiitooee at Rome. That the institution waa often perverted to 
improper enda, we have proof not only in the writings of the Roman 
atrtbara (see, among others, Cicero, 'Pro Sextio,' c. 16), but in the 
repeated enactaaents that were aimed at the colleges from time to 
time. (See Suetoniua, ' Juliua Ca».,' c. 42 ; and ' Augustus,' c. 32.) 
(D. S, 4, 1, 1.) The maxima — that what waa due to a university was 
not due to the individual members ; and that the debts of universities 
were not the debts of the individual members ; and that even though 
all the memben were changed, the university still existed — compre- 
beod the as a miti i l notion of a corporation as understood by the law of 

In England, a Colueob ia an decmceynary lay corporation, of the 
aame kind aa an hoapital, existing aa a corporate body eitlier by pre- 
■cription or by the giant of the king. But as regarda Christ's Church, 
Oxford, that haa been hdd to be a apiritual body, as being, not a 
college, but a dean aad diapter. (Fiaher's caae, Bunbury, 209 ; and in 
Pitt V. Jamea, Hobart, 1 22. ) Trinity College, Cambridge, waa expressly 
held to be a spiritual corporation, under the Stat. 1 & 2 Phil, ft Mary. 
A college ia not neoeanrily a place of leaniing. An hoapital, alao, ia not 
Daaeaikrily a mere charitable endowment, but ia sometimes a place of 
laaniiog, aa Christ's Hospital, L<indan. lU particular form and con- 
alitatioii depend on the terms of the foundation. (Phillipa r. Bury, 
1 Lord Raymood S; and Skinner, 447.) A college conaiata of a bead, 
eaDed bjr the varioua namea of provost (pncpoeitua), master, rwctor, 
nindpal or warden, aad a body of fellowa (aocni), and of achoUrs also, 
baaidM varioua oOoera or aervanta, aooordiiig to Uie peculiar nature of 
the lonadatiaa. A ooDMa ia wholly subject to the laws, statutes, and 
ordioMMaa which the founder makea, and to the visitor whom he 
appuiala, aad to no others. All elections, and tlM general management 
of a coUage, mnat b« in ocoformity with such itatutea or rulea. If a 

oollege doea not exceed ita juriadiction, the king's courts have no 
oogniaaaoe, and expulaion of a member is entirely witliin its jiuis- 
di^ioa, and therefore, in general.a maadamua cannot be had to reotore 
a faOow to his fellowship (Comyn's Oigeat, ' Visitor,' a. 15) ; nay, more, 
whore a eoUege,aa viaitor, had removed an individual from a mastership 
in a school, not only baa a mandamua been refused (Craford's caae, 
Stylea, 457), but the Court of Chancery refused to interfere by injunc- 
tion (Whiston r. Dean and Chapter of Rocheater, 18 Law Journal, 
Chonoeiy, 478). If there ia no special viaitor appointed by the founder, 
the right of visiiation, in default of the heirs of the founder, devolves 
upon the king, who exercises it by the great aeol ; and in such oaoe it ia 
to be exercised by the crown cyprAi (or as near as possible) to the 
manner in which it waa exercised by the founder and his heirs. (R. r. 
St. Catherine Coll., 4 Term Rep. 243.) When the king is founder, his 
suooeaaors are the visitors. 

The general power of a visitor ia to judge according to the statutes 
of a ooUese, to expel and deprive for just reason, and to hear appeola. 
Hia preetie powers are determined by the fotmder's statutes, and if 
there are any exceptions to his power, the juriadiction in such excepted 
cases devolves on UM king. Certain times are generally named in the 
statutes for visitation, but the viaitor may visit whenever he is colled 
in, it being incident to his office to hear complainto. So long aa a 
visitor keeps within his jurisdiction hia acts cannot be controlled, and 
there is no appeal from him, as waa decided in the above-mentioned 
case of Phillips r. Bury. The visitors are not bound to any particular 
forms of proceeding, and, in general, want of jurisdiction is the only 
grouml on which tliey are liable to prohibition. If a visitor's power is 
not limited or defined, he must use his best discretion. If a ix>wer to 
interpret the statutes is given to any person, as to the bishop of the 
dioceee, this will constitute him and lus suooeaaore visitors. The heirs 
of a founder cannot alt«r the statutes, unless such a ]K>wer is expressly 
reserved ; and it appears, that where the king is founder, his succassora 
cannot alter statutes without the consent of the college, unless such a 
power is reserve<L But as to the power to alter statutes, it must be 
observed, that in the case of the crown at least, it has not unfre- 

^ltly been done, though such a power might now possibly be 
uted, unless expressly reserved to the fomder and his heirs by his 
original statutes. In Attorney-General r. Archbp. of York (2 Russell 
& Mylne, 468), Lord Brougham said, " No man can doubt what the 
powers of a visitor are. In practice they are perfectly uncontrolled, of 
removal, new appointment, variation, and alteration. They arc, in 
truth, of a most extensive and arbitrary nature." Hut Lonl Mansfield 
has expressed strong doubta whether a visitor can rei)eal or alter 
statutes without an express power given by the founder. (1 Burro\vg, 

Whenever a visitor is appointed, the Court of Chancery never inter- 
feres with the internal ntaiiagement of a college ; how far it exerciaea 
jurisdiction in matters itertaining to the management of the funds, on 
the ground that as to the funds of a college, those who possess the 
legal estate are in the situation of trustees, is a doubtful point. 
Certainly, in the case of charitable foundations, where the governors 
or visitors are trustees for the charity, and are fotmdto be making a 
fraudulent use of their powers, the Court of Chancery can and will 
interfere on information (see 15 Ves. 314) ; and even where the 
founder has left directions in his will vesting the sole government and 
management of the charity in the visitors, the Court of Chancery will 
exereise control, where »ttcA rhilon art alto truttea of the charity 
estates. It is said, however, that such interference of Chancery with 
VLsitora, is only where both the legal estate and the receipt of the 
rents ore vestwl in the visitors. (Att-Oen. v. Middleton, 2 Ves. sen. 
328 ; see Oreen v. Rutherforth, 1 Ves. sen., 473 & 475.) In colleges, 
when a new foundation is engi^ifted on an old one, it becomes part 
of the old one, and subject to the same visitorial authority, unlesa 
in the indenture of .annexation by which the college takes the additional 
found.ition a difference in the matter of visitation ia expressly declared 
(R. V. Bishop of Kly, 1 W. Blackstone, 70) ; unlesa new statutes are given 
with the new foundation, in which caae the college accepting tho 
foundation will be liound in all respects by the new statutes, for they 
take the benefit rum onere. (See the cases collected in Grant on 
Corporations, 542, u.) 

The validity of all elections in colleges must be determined by the 
words of the founder's statutes or rules. In the disputes that have 
arisen on elections, the point has generally been, whether the master's 
concurrence is necessary, or whether a bare majority of the electors, of 
which electors the master is one, is sufficient. (See, as to this, Orant 
on Corporations, 532, 538, 639.) In Catharine Hall, Cambridge, fellows 
must Iw elected " communi onniium consensu ant «.alteni ex consensu 
mngistri et majoris partis commuuitatis ; " and it %vas held by Lord 
Eldon, upon these woixls and another clause which follows, that no 
election was valid in which the master did not concur. 

The statutes of Clare Hall, Cambridge, require " that the election of 
a fellow shall be by the master and the major part of the fellows 
present ; " and here it was held, on reference to the chancellor, the 
Duke of Grafton (a.d. 1788), that a valid election might be made 
without the concurrence of the master. But this interpretation is 
obviously wrong, and is referred to with disapprobation in the case of 
Queen's College, Cambridge (5 Uussell, 97), in which caae the lord- 
chancellor, Lord Lyndhurst, in declaring his opinion with referepi>« to 





the college then before him to be that the concurrent voice of the 
president was necesary in all elections of its fellowships, expressly 
rested his decision on the judgment of Lord Eldon in R. v. Catharine 
Hall, 4 T. R. With reference to the subject of election to and tenure 
of_fellowahip8, two modern cases are deserving of notice as bearing upon 
the construction which the Court of Chancery puts upon college statutes : 
these are In re St. Catharine's Hall (1 McNaght. & Gord. 467), and 
exparte Edleston (1 De Gex, McN. & Gord. 742). The latter case is 
important as luaiutaining the principle that new statutes embodying 
old ones do, in the absence of any express intention to the contrary, 
get rid of dispensing (or remedial) irtatutes. Before dismissing this 
topic, it should be noticed, that the whole matter is now (1859) in 
a transition state, the statutes of the different colleges being under the 
revision of a committee appointed by the government for that (among 
other) purposes. 

Colleges (13 Eliz. c. 10) could not grant leases of their land beyond 
twenty-one years, or three Uvea ; and in such leases the accustomed 
yearly rent, or more, must be reserved, payable yearly during the 
term. By 18 Eliz. c. 6, in all leases made by colleges in the uni- 
versities, and by the colleges of Winchester and Eton, one-third of 
the whole rent must be reserved in com. By a very recent statute 
(21 4; 22 Vict c. 44), the subject of college leases and powers to 
sell and exchange has been materially affected. The Act enables 
the three universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham, and 
their colleges, and the colleges of Winchester and Eton (a), to sell, 
enfranchise, and exchange lands, (i) to grant leases for agricultural, 
building, and mining purposes, and (c) to deal with the interests of 
lessees. Under the first head they are empowered to sell, enfranchise, 
and exchange throuj^ the medium and with the consent of the 
copyhold commissioners; under the second to grant agricultural 
leases for a term not exceeding 21 years at a racki-ent, buUding and 
repairing leases for a term not exceeding 99 years, and mining 
leases for a term nut exceeding (>0 years ; and under the third, to 
purchase the interests of lessees, either by payment of a gross sum of 
money or by an annual charge upon the lands : at the same time power 
is given them to raise the necessary sum or sums by mortgage, with 
the consent of the copyhold commissioners. Power is also given them 
to raise money for other purposes, such as the erection and improve- 
ment of imiversity and college buUdings, and of the buildings on their 
estates (§ 27); and the Act is expressly declared to extend to lands held 
by them in tnist or for special endowments. The Mortmain Act 
of 9 Geo. IL c. 36, which has put considerable obstacles in the way of 
gifts of land or money to be laid out in land in England for charitable 
purposes, does not extend to the two universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, or to colleges in the two universities, nor to gifts in favour of 
the scholars of Eton, Winchester, and Westminster. This statute 
contained a restriction as to the number of advowsons which a 
college in either of the universities was allowed to hold ; but this 
restriction was removed by 45 Geo. III. c. 101, having been found, 
as the preamble to this statute sets forth, injurious to learning. These 
colleges can therefore now purchase and hold as many advowsons as 
they please. 

A collegiate church is a church that has a college or chapter of 
canons, but no bishop, and yet is under the' authority of a bishop. 
(See AyUBe's ' Parergon,' p. 167.) These collegiate churches are some- 
times simply called colleges. In the case of Manchester College, a 
mandamus was directed to the Bishop of Chester, as warden of Man- 
chester College, to admit a chaplain. The bishop happene)! also to be 
visitor of the college. It was held by the King's Bench, that in the 
case of a spiritual corporation the jurisdiction was in that court, unless 
there was an express visitor appointed ; and the court interposed in 
the present case because there was no separate visitorial power then 
existing, owing to the union of the wardenship and visitorship in the 
same person. (Strange, 797.) This case was afterwards provided for 
by an express Act, 2 Geo. 11. c. 29. 

As to the relation between the English universities and the colleges 
within their limits, and the nature of a college in the English uni- 
versities, considered simply in itself, see Univebsitt in this Divisio.n ; 
and Cambrldoe and OxroBO, in the Geoorapbical Division. 

The statutes of all the old colleges in England are in Latin ; and, 
indeed, with the exception of some comparatively modem endowments, 
probably all college statutes are in Latin. Those of Eton College, of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
which may serve as specimens of the statutes of such foundations, are 
printed in the Education Reports of the House of Commons, 1818; 
and now the old statutes of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge have 
been printed by the commissioners for enquiring into the two uni- 
versities, the former in 1853, the latter in 1852. For the early history 
and privileges of the universities, see, among others. Wood's ' Historia 
Anti'). Oxon,' Ayliffe's ' State of Oxford University,' and Dyer's 
' Privileges of the University of Cambridge.' 

Meinera (' Oeschichte der Enstehuug tmd Entwickelung der Hohen 
SchuUen,' Ac., Gottingen, 1802, vol. i.) has given an interesting chapter 
on the origin of colleges in universities. The colleges in the University 
of Paris were the first institutions of the kind in Europe, though it is 
a mistake to suppose them older than the imiversity itself. 

The terms college and university have been often confounded in 
modem times, and indeed are now sometimeg vised indiscriminately. 


Some of the incorporated places of learning in the United States, 
which confer degrees, are called universities, and some are called 
colleges, though there is in fact no distinction between the two. Some 
of these institutions called colleges contain the schools or departments 
of arts, law, medicine, and theology ; and some that are called univer- 
sities contain only those of arts, law, and medicine. Some of these 
colleges are more limited as to the objects of instruction, but still 
confer degrees. If we look to the origin of colleges, and their con- 
nection with universities, it will be evident that the indiscriminate use 
of these terms is incorrect, and tends to lead to confusion. When an 
incorporated college, such .as the College of Surgeons in London, is 
empowered to confer a degree or title after examination of candidates 
in a single department, some other name would be more appropriate. 
The word Academia, which is the most modem of all the terms applied 
to places of higher instruction, has been most usually applied to 
endowed corporate bodies which have for their object the improvement 
of some particular science or some particular branch of knowledge, in 
some cases with the power to confer degrees in such particular science, 
&c., and sometimes without this power. Yet the terms academia and 
university have also often been used, and now are used indiscrimi- 
nately. (Meiners, vol. iv., ' On the Different Names of High Schools ;' 
Huber and Newman, ' The English Universities,' vol. i. ; and 
Savigny's ' Oeschichte des Rcimischeu Rechts im Mitteliilter,' vol. iii., 
ch. 21. 

The history of the Scotch universities shows that the terms college 
and university were, both at the time of the foundation of these 
institutions and subsequently also, used with little discrimination ; and 
this carelessness in the apphcation of the terms had led to anomalies in 
their constitution, and no little difficulty in comprehending the history 
and actual constitution of these bodies. (See the ' Report of the Royal 
Commission of Inquiry into the State of the Scotch Universities,' 
printed 1831 ; and Maiden's ' Origin of Universities,' Loudon, 1835.) 

In France, the term college signifies a school, though the constitution 
of a French college is very difi'erent from that of our grammar-schools. 
It comes nearest, perhaps, to a German gymnasium. Of these colleges 
there are about 320, every large town having one of them. They are 
maintained by the towns, their heads and professors being paid out of 
the revenues of the communes. They are all under the superintendence 
of the University of France. There are also about 40 imperial colleges, 
in which the directors (adminittraleiirg) and professors are paid by the 
state. The College Imp^riale of France, founded by Francis I., 
above twenty professors, who lecture on the various sciences and the 
Oriental languages. (See 'Journal of Education,' No. III., 'On the 
State of Education in France.') 

On the subject of colleges, from a legal point of view, the reader is 
strongly recommended to peruse an admirable argument on the rights 
of the fellows of Harvard University by the late Mr. Justice Story 
(' Miscell. Writings,' p. 294). 

COLLIDINE (C,,H„N). An oi^ganic base found in bone oil. It is 
isomeric with xi/lUline. 

COLLIMATION, ERROR OF. In most instruments the line of 
sight is supposed to have a certain reLition to other parts. Thus in a 
transit telescope it ought to be perpendicular to the horizontal axis, in 
a circle or quadrant it should be in a horizontal or vertical direction 
when the reading of the limb is 0° or 90°. When this is not the case, 
the difference between the existing and required positions is called the 
error of collimation, which must be carefully ascertained, and be cor- 
recte<l -or allowed for, or eliminated in the mode of conducting the 
observations. This will be particularly explained as each instrument 
comes under our notice. Many readers will have a general notion of the 
error of collimation from the mode in which a workman tries the truth 
of his square, or of the mason's level, which in principle is nearly 
allied to the methods of astronomers. When the telescope was 
originally applied to astronomical instniments, the mystery of ascer- 
taining the tme direction of a, line wliich could not be mechani- 
cally examined, presented considerable difficulties to some observers. 
Hevelius of Danzig never could be induced to apply telescopic sights to 
his sextants or quadrants, and in consequence of this prejudice much 
of the labour of his long and active life was completely wasted. 

COLLIMATION, LINE OF, the line of sight in any .-istronomical 
or geodesical instrument. [Circle.] AVhere a telescope is used, 
this name is given to the line joining the centre of the object-glass 
and the intersection of the fine wires or spiderwebs in its focus, this 
being the direction of any object which is there seen bisected by the 

COLLIMATOR, the name given by Captain Kater to his con- 
trivance for determining the eiTor of collimation in any principal instru- 
ment, without the reversal of the instrument itself. This reversal, 
troublesome in all largo instruments, and in mural circles and 
quadrants, is forbidden by their construction. We shall give a sketch 
of Captain Rater's collim,itora and those antecedent to his invention, 
and a drawing and description of a kvel collimator, which on the whole 
we think liest suited for common use. Where the adjustments, &.C., 
mentioned are not described, the reader will find them in the article 

On referring to the description of each instrument, it will be seen 
that the determination of the error of collimation requires — 1. A well- 
defined object, of which the direction remains unchanged ; 2. A re- 






I of tha iartnunMt, dmihr to that of tb* nMonaWrtl; 3. For 

Mgokr iniUuuirat*, • poww of tUtanniaing the rtbtion o( the dinc- 
liiMi «t that objwt to • rartioU Um. Now » Mar objaot OMUiot bo 
MM •■ Iko wm of * talawopa wbao thojr ■>« in tb« foeua of Iha 
o1>j«ri (hi. Mkl • diftant ubjoot U ^nj MUam (ufflciootlv (tcatly or 
■harply daAaad. ThU want may ba nippUed by a aaoood taloMOM, 
hani^ ili asia patallel to Uta axi* of the teUaoop* undar a i a m i n a t fon 
aod BMiiy i« tte aaina ri(ht lina, whiah baa oroaa-wiraa in ita fooua ; 
Um odJaoVgiaaMa baing towania aach othar. Aa parallel laya falliog 
ott «• objaot-fU* oosvaiga to the fooua, ao faya diTersing from the 
Imm bacoua pMallal afiar rafraetion at the object-glaaa, and ameige aa 
iltlMgroamabaaaraalobjaatatan infiniut diataaoa ; baoca tba croaa- 
wiraa U tha agnplaroamanr or coUiuiating talaaoopa will ba aaan dia- 
tiaedy in tha ifuwiwa of tha Una joining the oroaa and tha oantn of 
tha objaot-gkMa, in whatarar part of the cylindar of iaauing tm tha 
o*« ma* ba plaead. Oraat oara ia raquiaite in adjusting tha wiraa of 
Iha iwrlfimn'ing talaaoopa axaoUy to fooua, eapeoially if a ahort talaaoopa 
ha iMMd ; but tha azaa of tha two telaaoopea need only bo approzi- 
■utaly in a ii(^t Una. 

In many of tha privata obaerratoriea in Eng^d, a matal plata with 
ahaip linea or dota angraTed upon it, ia flnnly aeourod to an outaida 
atone and riawed through a lena fixed in the wall of the obaerratory, 
thediataiioa betwaan tha lana ami the mark txung equal to tha fo<»l 
•tii^iti— of tha lana. It ia evident that hucIi n mark may be uaed for 
dalaraiining tha arror of culliuutiuu in altitude of a ravaraible circle, 
and in all caaea where merely a diatiuct and distant object ia required. 
If the poaition of the mark tw permanent, and the focal length of the 
lena be considerable, this may be advantageously used aa a HMrufuin 
Morl- [Tbaxsr] ; but than the lena should have a separata support 
within tha obaarratory, and the positiuu of the mark should be 
jaaloualy watched and verified. Dr. Rittenhouse first made, use of 
thia substituta for a distant mark (' American Philosophical Trans- 
aotiona,' voL ii. p. 181) ; and we believe Dr. Maakelyne at one time 
uaad an adaptation of the same principle, namely, a cap with a lens of 
long focus, slipping over the object ond of his transit telescope, to 
view tha south meridian marie at Greenwich, which was too near the 
ofaaarratoiT to be aaan distinctly. 

The oollimating tdaaoope and ita croas-wirea are thus made to 
supply the want of a distinct, distant, and immovable object. In the 
' Astnmomische Nachrichten,' Na 48, Profeaaor Qausa, sifter enuncia- 
ting the optical pruperty above mentioned, used it for meaauring the 
intervals between the wires of a transit telescope by a theodolet, which 
Tiawad them through the object-^laaa of the transit. In No. 61 of the 
aame work, Profeaaor Beaael appked the same principle to a still more 
important purpose, that of determining the horizontal flexure of the 
teleacope of his meridian circle. After taking out the object-glass and 
aye-piece of this instrument (or the instrument might have been 
raised out of the way), he placed two oollimating teleaoopea, one to the 
north and the other to the south of the circle, looking into each other, 
and nearly in the horizontal line which passed through the centre of 
hia instrument These be adjusted to have their cross-wires appa- 
rently upon each other, when the two object-gjannon and the two 
eiiiMui are evidently all in the same right line. The object-glass and 
eye-pieoe were then replaced in the circle telescope, and the angle 
Mtween the two dDsaes of the collimator measm^, which would have 
been exactly 180*, without flexure; hence the difierence from 180° 
waa the double horizontal flexure of the circle telescope. Beasel 
further remariu, that a vertical teleacope turning freely round in its 
coOan,ai)d having a oroaa level attached, might be used for deter- 
mining the true zenith point of any instrximent, without reversing the 
latter. The date of this publication ia July, 1824. 

Captain Kater, who had not heard of eiUier of these memoirs, gave, 
in the 'Philosophical Transactions,' 1825, p. 147, a description and 
figure of a horitotUal jlotUing colUmator. This is a telescope laid 
horizoDtally upon a block of cast iron, which floats in a vessel filled 
with mercury. This ooUimator waa designed for determining the 
:xnitk point of mural and other irreversible circles. The cross of the 
oolUmatiug telescope is observed by the circle teleacope in one direc- 
tion, suppuaa to the north, and the divisions read oft The trough of 
meratuy with the collimator floating in it, is then transported to the 
aouth of the circle, the croaa again Uaeoted, and the divisions read off 
aa before. If the angle which the lina of sight of the coUimating 
talaaoopa makea with the horizon be supposed to be imchanged by thia 
t^aiifa of PJaoa, it ia clear that half way between the means of the two 

aats of readings ia tha reading C'lr— '--^.^ to the vertical p<Mition of 

tha circle tel e aoope. Again, aa t' .c of the north and south 

mean readings would equal 180^ i mating teleacope were truly 

horizontal, half the exoeas of this cUtt'erenoe above 18U*, or half the 
defect from 180% will bo the angle which the coUimatiiig teleacope 
makaa with the horizon. We baUeve however that, in addition to the 
trouble of moving such an apparatus, the permanence of the poaition of 
the oollimating teleacope could not be raUed upon if at all disturbed. 

In tha ' PhUoaophical Tranaaotions,' 1828, p. 2S7, CapUin Kater 
paopoaed a vei^ much-improved form of thia instnimant, which he 
oallad the miuxU floating culUmatur. The iron float is hero a ring 
swimming in an annular trough, and the tolaaoope, which is pUced 
vaitieally, baa a olaar view throogh the oentre of the float and trough. 
This collimator may be pboad below the inatniment to be esadiined, 

whan tba ooUimatiag telaaeapa will have ita objaot-glaaa upparmoat, or, 
aa ia moat uaual, above the inatniment, when the oollimating tele- 
aoope looks downwards. A amooth rotatory motion upon rollets oan 
be given to the annular trough, when it is evident the line of sight of 
the oollimating telesoope will uither ba and continue tu be vertieal 
(auppoaing the poaition of the float to be perroaneut), or will flaaoribe a 
oonioal aur&oe of which the axis is varticaL Hence, if tba croaa be 
biaaoted in two opposite poaitiona of the oollimator by the teleacope of 
a droular instrument, the mean of the two readings will be the reading 
of the zenith of the inatrument. 

It will, generally speaking, be convenient to adjust the axis of the 
cullimating teleacope truly vertical. To do this first obaerve the 
position of the croaa by a circle or transit telesoope, turn the colli- 
mator half round, and uoto the poaition again ; tlien, by placing a 
small weight upon the float, bring the cross half way between Uie 
two observed poaitiona. Turn the collimator a quarter round and 
perform the aame adjustment for this and ite reveraad aituation. Tha 
axis of the coUimating teleaoope ia now truly verticaL From aome 
triala, which however we must admit were not made under favourable 
droumatances, we do not think the vertical floating ooUimator capable 
of giving reaulte aa accurate aa may be obtained by other means ; but 
it ought also to be atoted, that there is a good deal of difflnence of 
opinion among practical aatronomers upon this point. 

In the aocompanying figure we have represented a mora portable, 
and perhaps a more accurate instrument for determining the error of 
collimation, and also the poaition of the horizon, than either of the 
floating collimators. 

The three parte of which thia collimator oonaiste have been sepa- 
rated from each other for easier comprehension. The teleeccme o ■ 
reste with ite ground cylindrical collars, a a, b b, in the rectangular r'a, 
A, B of the stand. These coUara shoiUd be truly cylindrical, and, if 
poasible, exactly equaL There aro croaa-wires which must first of aU 
be placed correctly in the focua of the object-glaas, when the screw c is 
to be tightened. To adjust the croaa-wirea bring the intersection of 
the cross to bisect any distinct and immovable object (the wires of 
another telesoope, for instance), turn the telescope half roimd in ite 

Level ColUoutor, Trooghton and Sinuiu. 

y's, and then, by releasing one of the four adjusting screws (the heads 
of which are seen near b b), and screwing up ite antagonist, bring the 
cross half tcay back to coincidence, and complete the coincidence by 
screwing s. When this has been done satisfactorily, adjust the cross 
in the transverse direction by the other two screws, and it will then be 
found that the telescope can be turned round, without any apparent 
change of place in the cross-wires, that is, tlie line of sight is in the 
axis of the collars or paraUel to the axis. The reflector B, which is 
merely to throw the Ught of the sky or a lamp upon the wires, may now 
be put ou. 

The coUimator being thus adjusted, is to be set to the north or squth 
of the circle under ex.iminatiou, and at the same height aa the ceutro 
of the telescope, when the axis of the coUars is to be made horizontel 
by the reversible level LI, and the foot screw s. When the cross of 
the coUimator is bisecttxl by the wires of the circle telescope, the 
telescope is horizontal, and the mean reading of the circle microscope is 
the reading of the horiztmtal point, which, if the circle reads altitudes, 
should be 6°, and if zenith distances, should be 90°. The difference 
from these values ia the error of coUimatiun. By setting the collima- 
tor to the other side of the instrument any error of flexure may be 

We have said that the cyUndrical coUars should be perfectly equal, 
but it is not easy to make them so. The difierence is easily ascer- 
tained by reversing the telescope in iU r's, end for end, and again 
applying the level. Suppose the level to have shown perfect hurizon- 
tality before reversing, and that afterwards the reading towards o 

exceeds that towards B, by m'. It will easily be seen that — must 
alwayi be nibtr«et«l from the indications of the level towards o. It ia 




equally evident, that if, after the above correction ia made, the object 
end o appears too high by n", that the true angle with the vertical is 
90 + «", or that the reading of the circle should show n" of depres- 
sion. The different cases which may occur present no difficulty. If 
the collars are truly cylindrical and the level a delicate one, such a 
collimator should show the true horizontal point within 1". The 
telescope shotdd not be very small, not less than 12 inches. 

It would scarcely be just not to notice imder this head an instru- 
ment by Roemer, which has as much merit, as an invention, as any of 
these which we have described. It consists of two equal lenses fixed 
in a tube at a distance somewhat exceeding their focal length, with a 
system of wires in the focus of each, between the glasses. By applying 
the proper eye-piece at each end, the near wires, and consequently 
objects through the most distant object-glass, are made visible. The 
two object-glasses and the crosses of the wires being all adjusted in 
the same straight line, it is evident that, on looking in at each end of 
the tube, objects 180° apart will be seen on the crosses. Roemer called 
this tube an amphioptron, or reciprocal teleicope, and used it for the 
transit adjustment in coUimation of his rota meridiana. (Horrebow, 
' Basis Astronomise,' p. 97.) 

For further details, see Pearson's ' Practical Astronomy,' vol. ii. p. 
446, plate xxi. 

jiart of Dynamics in which are contemplated the effects arising from 
the striking against each other of two bodies, one or both of which are 
in motion, and answers to the choc dtg corpe of French treatises. 

It is usual to treat the first principles of this subject by supposing 
the bodies in question to be spherical ; and for the following reason : 

K When a body receives a blow, if it be free to turn as well as to move 
forward, a rotatory motion is, generally speaking, produced, as well as 
a motion of translation. But if the direction of the blow be in a line 
which passes through the centre of gravity, no rotatory motion is pro- 
duced. Now if two equal spheres move upon a plane, it is obvious 
that when either strikes the other, the directionjof the blow passes 
through the centre of gravity. Making use then of equal spherical 
balls, of the same or different weights, moving ujwn a level jjlane, let 
it be remenibere<l that all conclusiong apply etjually to Ixxlies of any 
form, having no rotatory motion, and striking each other in such a way 
that the line joining their centres of gravity passes through the |x>int 

L of contact at ihe moment when they strike. 

I The simple mathematical theory of impact proceeds, like other 

■ mechanical theories, upon suppositions which can only be approxi- 
H mstely obtained in practice. For instance, if in the preceding supjiosi- 

■ tion uie level plane and the balls exercise any friction on each other, 

■ the consequence will be that the balls will begin to roll on the table, 
f eren though the blows which set them in motion pass through their 

centres. To the existence of this friction are due many phenomena 
which a game of billiards will present, and which will not result from 
the common theory. Let the table, then, be supposed to exert no 
friction on the balls, »o that one of the latter, struck by a blow the 
direction of which passes through the centre, will move along the table 
without rolling. 

Let us now suppose the ball a to be impelled directly towards an 
immovable obetacle, such as an upright ledge at the end of the table. 
On striking this ledge, the ball will, generally speaking, recoil more or 
leas. Some anbatancea will hardly give any recoil, while others will 
send the ball back with nearly the same velocity as that of its approach. 
This spring or elasticity is more easily measured than exphuned ; it 
arises in the following manner : At the moment of impact, the ball 
compresses the part of the obstacle against which it strikes, which 
pressure continues until the reaction of the obstacle has destroyed all 
the velocity of the bail. At the same time the parts of the bail close 
to the point of impact have been compressed in a similar manner. If 
then there were no effort in the parts of the obstacle nor in those of 
the ball to recover their former position, the ball would remain at rest, 
close to the obstacle. If the recoil were complete, that is, if the parts 
of both bodies endeavoured to recover their position with a force equal 
to that which disturbed them, the recoil would rapidly but gradually 
create in the ball a velocity equal to that with which it approached. 
These two cases are the theoretical extremes which it is most probable 
no material bodies attain : in the first case they are said to be wholly 
inelastic, and in the second the elasticity is said to be perfect. But if 
only a fraction e of the velocity of approach be restored, then e is said 
to be the measure of the elasticity of the bodies. 

In treating of the theoretical effects of impact, many authors have 
.iscribed to bodies the hyjwthetical property of perfect hardness or 
inoompressibility. This, however, is quite gratuitous, for Mr. Hodg- 
kinson has not found in the course of his experiments (see ' British 
Association Reports," vol. iii. p. 634), any maUer perfectly fulfilling 
these conditions. Hence the value of t for all known substances is a 
poajtiTe proper fraction, which represents the ratio that the force of 
restitution bears to the compressing force, that is, — 

force of restitution. 

force of compresaioiL 

This quantity « must not be confounded with the modidui of dai- 
ticity. [ELASTiciTy.] 

The value of € for some commou substances is as follows : — 

























If the striking bodies have spherical forms so that the contact may 
take place, at the first instant, in a point, their surfaces abovit that 
point will have their figures changed ; and if the bodies have diiferent 
degrees of hardness, an indentation may take place *n that which is 
the least hard, the other penetrating to a certain distance in it. When 
the bodies are soft, like balls of wet clay, the change of figure produced 
by collision ia manifest ; but when two balls possess an elasticity which 
is nearly perfect, they so far recover their original figure after impact, 
that the change is not perceptible : it may be rendered evident, how- 
ever, by covering one of the spheres with ink and suffering it to 
impinge on the other, the latter then receives a stain which, instead of 
being a jwint, is a circle of sensible magnitude ; and this proves that 
the surfaces must have been flattened at the point of impact. 

Impact has been termed a " pressure of short duration ; " but practi- 
cally there is a great difference between the effects of pressiue and 
impact : thus, a very large weight mil be required to press a nail into 
a block of wood, which may be readily driven into it by a small ham- 
mer ; and the reason is, that a longitudinal compression of the nail 
towards the head takes place, which is followed by restitution, and 
these actions follow each other successively, and the nail enters by a 
kind of vermicular action, like that of a worm progressing through the 

Also, when im)Ktct is employed to communicate niotiou to one body 
relatively to another, the effect jiroduced depends greatly on the imirm- 
bility of the latter ; thus, many more blows will be required to drive 
a nail into a loose board, than would suffice if the latter were fixed ; 
although, in certain cases, as in the bre.aking of minerals, &c., the effect 
of impact is diminished by a firm support. Here, probably, the effect 
of momentum on the successive particles is interfered with by a con- 
trary momentum generated by restitution. 

In order to account for the effect of percussion in impelling a body, 
a wedge for example, being much greater than that of mere pressure, — 
it may be observed that both effects depend on the jjroduot of the mass 
of the impelling body and its velocity : but, when a body moves in 
consequence of pressure, the velocity is extremely small ; therefore, in 
order that the effect of simple pressure may be equal to that of per- 
cussion, the mass imposed must be very great. It is evident, however, 
from what has been said, that the two forces are of the same nature. 
It should be added, here, that the shook produced in a material, when 
dividetl by a wedge, or penetrated by a nail, either of these being driven 
with a force produced by a sudden blow of a hammer may, by dis- 
placing the particles of the material, diminish their cohesive power ; 
and this may be, in part, the reason that the effect of percussion often 
exceeds that of a weight nuiny hundred times greater than that of the 

The force of elasticity is very different ia different bodies : spheres 
of glass are those in which the force of restitution (after impact) 
approaches nearest to the force of compression; and, in such spheres, 
the ratio between the forces isa8l5tol6:in spheres of ivory the 
ratio is as 8 to 9 ; and in spheres of steel, as 5 to 9. 

The bodies upon which experiments on collision are usually made 
are generally of a spherical form ; in order that when they impinge 
upon one another flirectly it may be indifferent at what jmrt of the 
surfaces of the bodies the contact takes place : the boilies are usually 
suspended by a string or rod from fixed points ; and they are made to 
impinge upon one another while describing circular arcs, in a vertical 
plane, about the point of suspension. The absolute momentum, or 
quantity of motion in a bixly, is represented by the product of its mass 
and the velocity with which it is moving : but the effects of the col- 
lision of two bodies depend on their relative velocity, or that with 
which they approach to, or move from, one another; this is con- 
sequently the sum of the absolute velocities when the bodies, in 
approaching each other, move in opposite directions, and the difference 
when they move in the same direction. 

The principles upon which are determined the velocities after impact 
of different balls which strike one another are as follow : — 

1. If two perfectly inelastic balls move towards each other in 
opposite directions, and with velocities inversely proportional to their 
weights or masses, they will destroy each other's velocities and remain 
at rest. Thus if A were twice as heavy as B, but if B moved twice as 
fast as A, there would be no motion after impact. [Momentum ; 
Motion, Laws of.] Let a be the velocity of a, and 6 of B ; then a 
and B being expressed in the same units of weight, and a and b in the 
same units of length and time, the preceding condition is fulfilled when 
Aa = Bi. 

2. If the same velocities be added to or taken from both balls, so 
that their rate of approach is not altered, the forces exerted in the 
shock will not be altered, nor wiU the rate of recess after the shock. 
Thus a cann(m-ball rebounding from a wall, both having the motion of 
the earth, strikes with the same force and reboimds in the same manner 
as it would do if the motion of the earth were taken from both, or if 
the earth were at rest. 



Mmr, npiMM tiM bdl a (wbioh b ao onaU U»t ite aae may b« 
' 1) to uifiraa^ obUqiMir toward* the olaUd* XT, mj in the 
CD. Lit CO b* tiM wlooHr, or kngth BooTod over in one 
Thaa [Yblocitt] tb* raloefty CD ii «iuivalaDt to the two 

X K 

valoeMaa ck and kd. TIm firrt U dMtroyed, and then puiially ro- 
■tortd by the impact ; the Meond remain* unaltered, except by the 
H i IbUou at the momait of impact, which we do not conaider. If then 
«• take DL equal to kd, and draw \m perpendicular to XT, and in 
la^jth raeh a nactioo of kg a* < ia of 1, the ball will more after im- 
nael with the reioeitiaa dl and Uf , that ia, with the relodty dm in the 
(beetion dm. If the lyatem were perfectly inelaatic, the ball would 
p roceed aloi^ DL ; if pmectiy elaatie, ml would be equal to ck, and 
DM and CD equally inclined to XT. If the aize of the ball be taken 
into account, xt moat be anppoaed to be a line parallel to the obatacle, 
and diatant from it by the radiua of the baU. 

Dinel impaet €tmd aUiiUm, Let the maina of the two Ixilla or 
material partide* be m and m', and let them move with uniform 
veloeitie* r and v* in the aame direction along a atraight line, v being 
graater than r*, ao that ai overtakaa at'. Let « be the common velocity 
of the two balla when the c o m pi ea a ion at the moment of impact i* a 
maximum ; let r be the momentum spent in producing thia com- 
preaaioD, and «r the momen tu m acquired during the restitution of the 
lonn of the bodiea, • being the coefficient of elaaticity. Let v and v' 
be the Telodties of the ball* when colUaion oeaaea. Hence, we have 
the three following 

(I.) mt'B momeatom of ai at the beginning of colliaion. 
p a momentum apent in producing oompreaaion. 
mtk = momentum of »i, when oompre a aion ia a max. — 

.*. «»r=»m + p. 

(2.) m'r's: momeatom of «' at the beginning of colliaion. 
aa'a = momentum of m', when oompreaaion ia a «MLr. — 

.•. m'r'=iH'«— p. 
(3.) At the inatant when collision ceaaes, we have aimilarly, 
m V =in It— (P. 
to' v' = !»'» + « p. 

from which equation* we ahall get 

at -I- III' in + m' 

V = ___- (r-r-) 

■t+M M+«l' M + m' « + »«' 

CtHque impact and alUnon. In oblique impact we assume that the 
mutual action of the balls during colliiiiun is along the lino joining 
their centrea at the instant when coinjiressiun is a maximum, and along 
that line only ; that is, we aasume the balls to be perfectly smooth. 
Hence, if a smooth ball impinges obliquely on a smooth plane, the line 
of raactioo of the plane will be perpcndicuUr to it* aurface, and the 
momeotum of the impinging boll will be affected along that line 

In /g. 1, let the baU c impinge at D, and be carried away to M ; let 
» and v' be the Telodtiea before and after impact, and which are there- 
fore p r o p or ti oned to cd and dm. 



yc Dx 
mk' dp 





sin 9* 

ain 8 
sin 9' 


The equationa for the impact of two smooUi balls are Biinilarly 
fanned, and may be eaaily undentood from their analogy to those 
given above for dirert impact. Thus, suppose two balls a and B to 
mo*^ directiona obltqiu to one another, and to strike each other. 
DaoM^oae the vekidty of each ball into two, one in the lino joining 
the MOtn* at the moinent of impact, and the nther jwrpcndicular to 
"*■ IjfP^ o* wkwitiee parp«>dicular to the oontral lino will not be 
altered br the impact; and aa far aa the remaining velocities are con- 
o*nMd,tb*eaaeiaprHii*iytheaiie*lra*dy8olTed. Find the velocities 

in tite central line a* altered hj the impact, compound them with the 
p erpendicular vdodtiea wUoh remain unaltered, and the resulting 
velooitiea and directiona will be those with which the balls will pro- 
ceed after the impact. 

To take the most simple case, auppose the ball A, moving in the 
direction xc, and with the velocity RO, to atrike the ball B, which is at 
real Join D and c, the o«atrea of the baUa, and decompoae BC into PC 
in the line joining the eentraa, and xr perpendicular to it. Then a 


will only strike the ball B with the velocity rc. Sup|K>se that by the 
preceding rules it ia found that a, striking B at rest with the velocity 
FC, \vill be thrown back with the velocity Co, while B is struck forward 
with the velocity dk. Then B will receive this velocity, and this one 
only ; as to a it haa after the impact acquired the velocity co, which it 
combinea with the velocity ol, equal and parallel to kp ; so that 
CL repreeents the velocity and the direction of the motion of a after 
the impact. 

In every case of impact, when the balls approach one another with 
uniform velocities, the centre of gravity of the balla moves uniformly, 
and in a straight line. After the impact, though the directions and 
velocities of the balls may have changed, yet their centre of gravity 
still continues to describe the same line, and w^ith the same velocity 
as before. Thia proposition is proved in all works on elementary 

The following conclusions will now be readily deduced by any one 
who understands the preceding results : — 

1. If two inelastic balls move in the same direction, they do not 
separate after the impact, but either move on with a common velocity, 
or are reduced to rest. If both move in the same direction, the 
velocity after impact is ( ao ■^ bA)-i-(a + b) ; but if they move in different 
directions, the motion after im]>act is in the direction of that ball of 
which the momentum (\a or sh) is the greatest, and the velocity is 
(ao — BA)-^(A -f B) or (b6 — ao)-i-(a + b). When the momentaare equal, 
there is no motion after the impact. If 6 = 0, or if one of the b^s be 
at rest before impact, the velocity after impact is Aa-i-(\ + n). To 
deduce these results, make e=0 in the formula!, and give the velocities 
their proper signs. 

2. If two perfectly elastic balls move in the same direction they 
separate after the impact, the velocity of the foremost being augmented 
from b to b + 2(a — 6) A-r(A + b). But the velocity of the hindmost is 
either retarded, altogether destroyed, or made to change its direction, 
the algebraical formula for the velocity after impact being a — 2{a — 6) 
B^A -t- B). This is nothing when B exceeds a, and when A is to a as 
B — A is to 2b. And according as 6 is to a in a less or greater ratio 
than the preceding ratio, a's velocity is or is not altered in direction. 

If two perfectly elastic balls move in oppoute directiona, that of a 
being called positive, the velocities of a and B after impact are deter- 
mined in magnitude and direction by the formula) 

2b 2a 
a—(a + b} and— 6 -f (a -I- i) 

A+B A+B 

4. If two perfectly elastic balls be equal m magnitude, the velocity 
of each after tiie iniinct is that which the other liad before the impact, 
both in magnitude and direction. 

5. In all cases perfectiy elastic balls recede from each other after 
impact with the same velocity with which they approached before 
ini]iact ; since if e = 1 , r — H = a — b. But in every other caae the rate 
of recess after impact is the same proportion of the rate of approach 
before impact which < is of 1. 

6. The rit n'ra, or product of the mass and tquare of the velocity, of 
a couple of perfectiy elastic balls is the same before and after impact ; 
in every other case it is less after impact than before. 

For further mathematical developments and deductions from these 
general formulm, we may refer especially to Professor Price's trcitise 
on 'Infinitesimal Calculus," vol. iii. c. 8 and 10; to Golding Bird's 
• Natural Philoeophy ,' p. 1 34, et toj. ; and to Professor Walker's treatise 
on ' Mechanics,' c. viL p. 173. 





COLLISIONS AT SEA. The accidental contact of vessels which 
traverse the ocean and the numerous channels and roadsteads of 
Europe, is a painfiJ feature of commerce ; because the extension of 
commerce must increase in fearful ratio the chances of calamities which 
are known as collisions at sea. 

These calamities present to lis danger to human life in a new aspect. 
Its novelty consists not so much in the j:icculiarly frightful nature of 
accidents of this class, as in the causes which produce them. In the 
olden time, or even within the memory of the present generation, when 
ships ran foul of each other, it was seldom that loss of life attended 
these mishaps ; and in the Channels the amoimt of damage would 
frequently extend, perhaps, to the loss of an anchor or two, the start- 
ing of a butt-end, or, perhaps, a crash not difficult to patch up until 
some port could be gained. The form of om* shipping in those days 
wag rather adapted to the carrying of burthens than for speed ; and 
consequently, from the fuller lines of the bow of the ship the blow 
was distributed over a greater surface of timber, when ships were, 
moreover, built with greater strength. 

Now, however, not only do ships, as a general rule, possess increase 
of speed, but their lines are so adjusted as to present the least possible 
resistance in their forward end, and their bows are absolutely wedge- 
like. Nor is this all ; for instead of the fore-part of the stem-piece 
itself being 12 or 14 inches in thickness, many iron steamers of thou- 
sands of tons burthen present no more breadth of stem at the fore-part 
than belongs to a London wherry. Hence, in these times, circum- 
stances seem to conspire towards the increase of danger in collisions ; 
and from the combined influences of increased speed and the sharpness 
of stems, ve8.sels at sea are really and daily in danger of being literally 
cut in two. In reading tales of chivalry, our horror may have been deep 
at the description of prowess and strength which would cleave a man 
to the brisket : shall we be unmoved now, when we hear of a fine 
ship being in like manner, and without any warning, cut through 
timbers and bulkhead, and windlass and deck, almost to the fore-mast 
itself ? Yet such hat occurred, and is always threatening. In the col- 
lision between the Mail and the Excelsior, off Birkenhead, in 1856, 
even worse than this happened, for the whole of the unfortunate 
passengers who were sleeping forward were in one instant crashed, and 
mangled, and destroyed in the general wreck, from the culting-down 
blow of a sharp stem ! 

Thus collisions at sea must be viewed as evils of very gre,it magni- 
tude, refiuiring energetic and watchful legislation for their prevention ; 
for, in addition to the changes in the mere forms of shipping refeiTe<l 
to, another element of mischief is looming in the fast-diminishing 
di8tance,^t is the increased size of shipping. Collisions, it is true, 
have onli/ hitherto sent dozens of our fellowKireatures suddenly into 
eternity ; but the period is at hand when these dozens may become 
hundraU, perhaps tfunuandt, imleas some more powerful influences are 
called into more active operation to prevent it. It is peculiarly the 
duty of a Cyclopaedia to grapple impartially with any question in arts 
and sciences resulting from progreu, and to examine the various subjects 
of its contents, in order to detect new features which menace, or to 
watch known aspects which indicate changes; and this subject will 
accordingly receive our proper attention. 

The great difficulty of the question of collision is perhaps the pre- 
vailing erroneous idea that it is merely a nautical question ; while, in 
reality, it affects directly the whole community, as passengers of ships 
are the members alike of coast-resident and inland families ; and it 
is remarkable that ships carrying only their ordinary crews seem to 
have been less liable to the accidents under consideration than those 
carrying passengerx. 

An extraordinary fact'h-is been elicited from the careful investigation 
of accidents which occurred in 1856. One would naturally have 
expected to And that collisions would especially occur during the time 
of fog or haze, or certainly in the hours of darkness ; but the editor of 
the ' Nautical Magazine ' has produced a statement or abstract in that 
valiuible periodical, in which we find the following table of the col- 
lisions in 1856. (• Nautical Mag.,' Nov., 1857) :— 

BrAn or WiiTnEK. Bt Dat. 

Bt Niobt. Total CoufsiOitB. 

(0 a.m. toe r. 

..) (6 


to 6 A.*.] 

Dark .... 



Dark and clear , . i 



Very dark ... 



Hazy . . . . IJ 



Cloody . . .9 



Thick and foggy . . S 



Clear . . . .86 



Unknown . , . 2 






From the above it actually appears the ijreatcr number of collisions 
occur in clear weather, and the least number in dark or thick weather. 
To whom, then, can we, in a spirit of impartiality, impute culjiability ? 
When mariners themselves are so seriously implicated, we can only 
turn imploringly (as in the cause of humanity) to the authorities 
tbenUclves. It is easy to accuse even these of neglect, but it would 
really bo difficult to convict them even of indifference. The collection 
of materials for the above table is of itself a proof that the government 

of the country is alive to the importance of the question, that the 
naval heads of the Board of Trade are an.vious to remedy this crying 
evil, this standing blot upon our seamanship and vigilance. The only 
inference an impartial public can draw is, that the onus and odium of 
the fault must rest, in a great measure, with the officers of ships them- 
selves. It is well to consider if the comparative exemption of ships 
of war from collision arises from better discipline — better look-out. 
From the above it is evident that, 

1st, More attention is called for on board merchant-ships generally ; 

2nd, The rules of the road by daj/ may be defective ; 

3rd, The rules of the road by niyht may be defective also. 

Probably legislation can only partially present a remedy for tho 
defect first mentioned. Surely it is beneath the dignity of a British 
sailor, either to run into or be run into by any craft that floats. There 
was a time when vigilance formed the very key-stone in the character 
of the English seaman ; it is hoped the present generation will main- 
tain this character. It may be that the changes from sailing to 
steaming have unsettled the habits of seamen, and that, in the con- 
fusion, accidents, for a time unavoidable, may occur ; but is it not 
reasonable to expect that every merchant vessel should have at least 
one able seaman in each watch whose duty and responsibility should be 
to prevent collision ? Surely precautions and responsibilities which 
attach to railway officials, might without hardship be enforced on, 
and attached to, officers of the mercantile marine, where such very 
serious interests of life and property are at stake. But legislation may 
be greatly assisted by some conventional, better-understood rules 
among ship-masters themselves ; .is for instance, larger steamers, being 
often difficult to steer readily, and drawing more water, should claim a 
proper consideration from smaller ones. A few examples made by the 
Board of Trade, in the salutary pimishment of obstinate or unyielding 
masters of small craft, might, in river or estuary navigation, partially 
remove danger. 

As regards the second assumption, namely, defective rules of the 
road by day, it is extremely difficult to know where to place the limit 
between stringent law and freedom of judgment. Nay, it may even 
be demonstrated, that compliance with any known law or rule as to the 
movement of the helm, iiTcspeclire of the judgment of the helmsman, 
would prove in many ca^es disastrous ; and those who attempt by 
diagrams to illustrate any proposed rule, ought to remember that, in 
order to render their illustrations acceptable and useful, the vessels 
must not only be supposed to answer their helms with equal readiness, 
but their speed must be precisely similar. A discretionary power in 
commanders, by day, seems to be more valuable than all regulations, 
excepting such good old ones for sailing-vessels as starboard tack hold 
on, port tack give way, &e. ; and for steamers, a good looh-out, a 
good man at the litlm,a,nd passing each other on tlie port side, tOc, ought 
to be enough. 

In crowded rivers or channels, something might be done towards 
the greater safety of navigation. Something is, in fact, called for, on 
account of the various customs which prevail in certjvin districts ; but 
a knowledge of them seems to be confined to the localities. And com- 
mittees and others who have approached the question of collisions at 
sea, all seem to have neglected to give due prominence to the want of 
attention to that which is the root of evil, — namely, that when ships 
are approaching in opposite or oblique directions, no collision would be 
hkely to take place if one commander knew vhat the other was about to do 
with his helm. Positive safety hinges on this. 

So little however is this precious hint known or sought for in general, 
that, absolutely, a man-of-war steamer navigating the Thames, and 
meeting a river steamer, would use signs to her helmsman having 
opposite significations in e,ich vessel ; that is to say, for instance, the 
naval commander extending his hand to signify to his helmsman 
port, might be understood by the river steamer's rule to be about to 
starboard the helm. There is no rule of the road as enforced by 
law to prevent this : if any exists, the WTiter distinctly assures the 
public that it is not generally known, and even n.aval offlcei-s are left to 
their own judgment in this matter. And again, as if still further to 
complicate this serious question, a commander in each service will give 
his order by hand, acconiing as he is fitted with a wheel or a tiller ; for, 
as an example, motion of the hand generally indicates the direction in 
which motion is to be communi&vted to the part of the steering appa- 
ratus which is touched by the hand [Stekring Apparatus], and the 
spokes of the wheel move in a direction contrary to that of the tiller. 
Without the aid, therefore, of some further legislation, can we hope to 
prevent collisions ? It may, moreover, be remarked, that if two persons 
are meeting carelessly on a pavement, collision is only avoided by one 
of the two knotting in proper time what the other is about to do. The 
same remark applies to shipping : a ready means of knowing in time 
the intended motions of an opponent seems indispensable to safety. 
Some such rule, therefore, as the following is much wanted : When a 
commander (throughout the world, if possible), seeing another vessel 
approach, extends his right arm horizontally, let it signify to his own 
helmsman — starboard the helm ; let the extension of his left arm 
signify to his own hclmsmiin — port your helm. His opponent, seeing 
this, could act on the moment, .ind would know what to do accordingly. 
If in a steamer and about to stop her, let both his arms be held up 
while he gives the word. Accidents bij dag could, under such simple. 
rales, scarcely occur. 



In i«BMtrkiii( upon Um third asumption, Uuit tlie rule* of the road 
by B^t may ba dafoeUtre, w« enUr u|>oii a widor flek) of inquiry ; 
and altbou^ we porpOM gains aomewhat fuUjr into the queatjou of 
lighU at «• in Ha pnmr ptoee in thin wurk'[LioBTS AT Sra], we 
mnark bare bow vary jpttinly the talralar abatnwjt giTeo in a previotia 
othmtn abo««, that If any ayaten of lighting faii iil a uD<ler wny >)i<i 
aiiat in ISM, that ayatam required amandment Some conaitleniMe 
imfroTanent baa indeed been made, after long and elaborate inveatiga- 
tioM, by the Board of Trade, through ahip-maatara, pilota, boatmen, 
ttc, and erideDce from all porta of Oreat Britain ; yet we can ahow that 

rat defecta aliU mar the perfect working of the new reaiulatioDa ; and 
ia probable that the crater number of accideota by night from 
eoUiiiaa will atill (aa in 18M) abound on the parts of the ooaat wliich 
an beat lighted, auch aa Dungeneaa, Beaehy Head, the Start Point, &c. ; 
for it ia ranaonable to auppoae, that the more veaada congregate at 
thoae headlanda, the mora muat the oonfuaion of lights inoreaae, aa 
ther are at |««aeot ordered to be used by aailing- and steam-Teaaela, 
each ataamar having three and esdi aailing-Yeaael two lights. To dia- 
tlwyiJA a steamer tnm a aailing-TCaael, the law wisely requires the 
ataamer to carry a white tight «a the mmt, bauU* the green and red 
Uriila, one oo each aide; while the niliDg-Teaael carries only the 
sw wir ed lighta, exoppt when at anchor. Now, imagine a veaael 
BOddsnly entering a channel much frequented t^ steuners; every 
atsam-Tcaael iu sight will cause anxiety to every sailing or steam 
master, because the white light is seen all round, and the intensity 
of the various-coloured lights is so uncertain, especially in hasy weather, 
that a ship near at hand may exliittit coloured lights which are scarcely 
viaible, while one more distant may show strong ones. Now, con- 
forion and anxiety would, it is evident, be caused to a mariner mainly 
by the number of white lights indicating iteamen, each of which lights 
would require scrutiny to ascertain its connection or otherwise with 
coloured lights of a vessel under way; but what is now proposed 
would completely remedy this. 

The following improvements, exceedingly simple in themselves, and 
very easy to be adopted, are submitted as a perfect and unobjectionable 
night system ; — 

1. Ltt a rkite lighl oiirays be contidered a danger light. 

2. Let steamers and aaiUng-veawls carry the acreened coloured lights 
as at present ; namely, green on the starboard side, red on the port 
side. But let these lights be placed abreast the ; at present 
they are often fixed u]K>n the quarter, and con«e<iuently become shut 
in too soon. 

8. IaA all vessels, sailing or otherwise, when within soundings, carry 
also by night a white light. 

4. Let steamers carry their white light at the most, or kiyh on the 
fore-stay ; and sailing-vessels carry it at the bowsprit end, or somewhere 
lorn as convenient amidships. 

6. Let all vessels at anchor carry a white light, showing all round, 
but not placed so high as to be mistaken for a steamer's : the absence 
of the coloured lights will always, aa at present, show that it is only a 
veaael at andior. 

8. Ltt alt Khite UijhlB of rexeb under nay be to Jhxd and screened at 
onltf (o be Ken viihtn a tpaet of ttco poinU on either bmr ; and in case of 
a net veaMi overtaking a slower one, and in her wake, let all white 
li^ts of veaaels under way be screened so as to be visible from abaft 
inthin one point of the line of keel astern. (This con easily be done.) 

These precautions being adopted, no confusion can embarrass a 
master mariner, because on entering a port, if a hundred vessels l>e 
there under aail or steam, he, so for as regards danger of being run 
into, need only notice the white or danger lights ; these being " shut 
in," and there being a good average and trusty look *out forward, 
confidence will not forsake a shipmaster or pilot, and the safety of his 
veaae l will be in his own control ; at pretent it it not, although the 
preaent system of shutting in a coloured light is good to far as if (/net. 
In using, however, the danger light, some assistance can l>e given 
similar in effect to that produced by day, having for its object the 
power of immediately indicating and ascertaining vhat each matter it 
about to do. 

1. L«t it therefore be a law that each commander or pilot has, 
between sunset and sunrise, always a hand-lantern ready lighted and 
■fnading on the paddle-box or near him, as meet convenient ; and being 
of one wick, having three faces (such are used on railways) ; the 
centre light being white, the left-hand one red, and the one on the 
right band green. On seeing a danger-light near, if he intends to keep 
straight on, let him flash or swing his bntem with his white light 
towards his opponent's; if he is about to starboard his helm, let 
him exhibit his green light ; if to port his helm, let him show his 
red light. 

A few additional precautions or modifications may to some appear 
neoeanry ; but the principle of a danger light is in our sea sen-ices 
iMoesaary to the public safety ; and while our object in giving to the 
public the actiul state of the question ia rather to luggett than to 
dietatr, it is fully believed that, by attention to some such system as 
the above, collisions at sea may be rendered nearly impoaaible both 
by day and night, except from eulpailc negligence. 

Another very important suggestion as to collisions at sea was 
published in the ' Nautical Magazine' in 1857. Mr. Oeorge Herbert, as 
already noticed under the word Scots in this work, proposed to so 

arrange or dispuee of the traffic in the English and St. Oeorge's 
C h an n e l s aa to give to maritime commerce what in its nature approxi- 
mates olosdy to a tram-road system. The smile of incredulity and 
doubt is too readily raised in nautical men, nor can we be astonished 
if the minds of those who were trained in the old sea school are as 
yet imprepared for the great efaanget which every day's experience 
render more than probable. But we mnst be guarded, and not encourage 
rooted preindioee on subject) which require all our wisdom and vigi- 
lance. It u acarody a reproach to the present age, that the sdieme of 
penny ^postage, the screw steamer, the electric telegraph, ttc., met 
with distrust In this instance it is enough for us (and with that 
impartiality which ought to influence statements of the preaent con- 
diUon of arts and science) to record the beginnings of a change which 
may take years to perfect ; to make known suggestions, which, if it be 
found possible to be carried out, may greatly facilitate the transit of 
passengers and merchandise through the moat perilous parts of a sea 
voyage, and prevent collisiuns, fifty-eight of which occurred in the 
English Channel alone in the year 185S, eight being attended with 
total loss. 

Mr. Herbert's proposition seems to be founded on a remarkably simple 
assumption ; namely, that we almost never hesr of a vessel runmng 
foul of the Kddyxtone Lighthouse. He propoaes, therefore, to moor 
light-veesels of a jieculiar form (a general sketch of which haa been 
given under the word Buoys) in the English Channel, precisely in the 
generally received line of hurway, and to catve all sbiiie and vesseU 
bound down Channel to keep to the northward of this line, and all 
bound up Channel to navigate on the south side of this limit. To 
place light-vessels along this fainvsy line from Duugenees to just 
beyond the Scilly Islands, each light-vessel to be moored on the 
meridian of a degree of longitude. By this means the Itght-shipe would 
in the latitude of the Channel be only about 38 miles apart, and c-vch 
would be marked with a conspicuous niunber indicating its longitude. 
Vessels in the fairway track could never in fair weather be far out of 
sight of some one of those lights after sunset. 

That some such plan as the above would be a boon to shipping can 
scarcely admit of a reasonable doubt ; b>it when we remark, further, 
that Mr. Herbert's plan is extended to highly interesting details.— such 
as having a store of provisions and water at the westernmost light-ship, 
for the relief of those so frequently detained by adverse winds for 
several weeks, and to relieve whom, at present, the Admiralty are 
obliged occasionally to send ships of war ; to have effective fog-signals 
at each light-vessel ; to have a submarine telegraph to the westernmost 
light, in order that arrivals may be announced, — these, and various 
other ingenious and valuable suggestions, seem to be worthy of an 
unpartial investigation by the Board of Trade. In the cause of 
humanity, as having reference only to the question of collision iii 
the EngUsh and St. Oeorge's Chaimels, surely the endeavour to prevent 
accidents to life and property on so great a scale should not be imjieded 
by merely speculative and perhaps visionary obstacles, and possibly by 
the unfounded disparagem>nta which noreltiet, as such, too often 

The responsibility of introducing some such scheme as the above 
would weigh lightly when placed in the balance with the responsibilities 
which far more heavily attach to supineness and indifference. 

COLOCYNTH, or as it is called on the Continent, coloquintida, or 
bitter-apple, an annual plant [CcccMis, in Nat. Hist. Div.] Re- 
ferred in ' the London Pimrmacopoeia,' to the genus CitriJlat (Schrad.), 
the fruit of which is about the size of, but rather lighter colour than, 
an orange ; the rind smooth ; when the rind has been removed, a white 
spongy pulp or pith is found within, which constitutes the officinal 
jMrt, or the colocynth, the seeds being rejected. The rind is generally 
removed before reaching Europe, except the larger variety from 
Mogadore, used for exhibiting in show-bottles in druggists' windows. 
One hundred parts of decorticated apples consist of twenty-eight parts 
of pure pith, and seventy-two parts of seeds. 

The active principle is a peculiar bitter principle (Colocynthin), 
which is of a resinoid nature, more soluble in alcohol than water ; its 
BolubiUty in water is much increased by union with extractive, com- 
bined with which it exists in the pulp, so that nearly all the virtues 
are yielded to a watery extract, which is generally employed for its 
administration. The compound extract, in the formation of which 
proof spirit is used, and t<i which are added other purgative .sultstances 
and aromatics, is, however, preferable, and it is thereby rendered 
milder yet more certain ia its action. 

It is a purgative in very constant use, either alone, or more com- 
monly united with mercurial purgatives : it is employed for the 
removal of constiiation and visceral obstrucUons ; at the commence- 
ment of fevers and other inflammatory complaints it is of decided 
utility. As an overdose has all the poisonous effect of a vegetable 
acrid, it must be used with caution. 

COLOMBIC ACID (C„H„0„ »). An acid, little known, containe<l 
in Colombo root {CocciUut palmatut). 

COLOMBIN (C„H„0,.?). The active principle of the Colombo 
root It is neutral, crystalline, and only slightly soluble in cold water, 
alcohol, or other. 

COLONEL, the commander of a regiment or battalion of troops ; 
he is the highest in rank of those called field ofiicers, and is imme- 
diately subordinate to a general of division. 




The derivation of the word is uncertain. It is supposed to hare 
been given originally to the leader of a body of men appointed to 
found a colony ; or to have come from the word coronarius, indicating 
the ceremony of investing an officer with the command of a corps ; or, 
finally, from the word columna, denoting the strength or support of an 

The title of colonel-general was, for the first time, conferred by 
Francis L, about the year 1545, on officers commanding considerable 
divisiona of French troops, though, according to Brantome, it had been 
given to the chief of an Albanian corps in the service of France at an 
earlier period. When the troops of that country were formed into 
regiments (the infantry about 1565, and the cavalry seventy years 
afterwards), the chiefs of those corps were designated Mettres de Camp ; 
and it was not till 1661, when Louis XIV. suppressed the office of 
colonel-general of infantry, that the commanders of regiments had the 
title of colonel. 

In England, the constitution of the army was formed chiefly on the 
model of the French military force; and the terms regiment and 
colonel-general were introduced into this country during the reign of 
Elizabeth. It must, moreover, be observed, that in the regulations 
made by the citizens of London for forming the militia in 15S5, it is 
proposed to appoint colnneh having authority over ten captains ; and 
that both colonels and lieutenant-colonels are distinctly mentioned in 
the account of the army which was raised in order to oppose the 
threatened invasion of the country in 1588. Before the time of 
Elizabeth, it appears that the commanders of bodies of troops 
equivalent to regiments had only the general title of captain. 

The duties of colonels formerly are described in Ward's ' Animad- 
versions of Warre,' which was published in 1639. The colonelcy of a 
regiment is now an honorary title carrying a certain emolument with 
it. See ' Hart's Army List.' The colonels of regiments have little or 
nothing to do with the actual command of the regiment, but are 
generally general officers, who receive the colonelcy of a regiment 
either l^ seniority or for distinguished service. The emolument above 
referred to was derived formerly from the colonels providing the 
clothing of a regiment, and being allowed the difference between 
the price at which the contractor furnished the clothing and the 
Biun allowed by government. This has now been changed to a 
fixed emolument, and the clothes are provided by government. 
Colonels take precedence of one another according to the dates of 
their conuniwons, and not according to the aeniority of their 

The lieutenant-colonel is in rank immediately under the fuU coloneL 
He has the whole command of the regiment, and is responsible for the 
drill and discipUne. 

The annual pay of a colonel is, in the Life Quards, 18002. ; in the 
Orenadier Ouards, 12002. ; in the Coldstream and Scots Fusilier Quards, 
10002. ; in the 1st Dragoon Ouards, 1000/. ; in the cavalry regiments 
generally, 9002. ; and in the regular infantry, 500/. The doily {>ay of a 
lieutenant-colonel is, in the Life Quards, 1/. 9(. 2<2. ; in the Foot 
Guards, 12. 6*. 9(2. ; and in the infantry, 1 7«. The price of a lieutenant- 
colonel's commission is, in the Foot Guards, 9000/. ; in the Life and 
Hone Ouards, 72502. ; in the Dragoons, 61 7S2. ; and in the infantry of 
the line, 46002. For further particulars of rates of pay, &c., see 
' Hart's Army List,' pay tablaa. 

COLONNADE, a general term for any range of columns supporting 
an architrave. The term peristyle is often applied in the same sense, 
yet somewhat inaccurately, since it denotes a range of columns con- 
tinued quite round a building or court, aa in a peripteral temple, the 
Town Hall at Birmingham, or the Botutw at Paris. The covered way 
at the Quadrant, Regent Street, was a good example of a colonnade ; the 
most familiar existing examples are the colonnade at the Italian Opera 
House in the Haymarket, and the columned front of the British 

CCLONY (in Latin eolouia, a word derived from the verb Colo, 
eolere, to till or ctiltivato the ground) originally signified a number of 
people transferred from one cotmtry or pace to another, where lands 
were allotted to them. The people themselves were called Coloni, a 
word corresponding to our term colonists. The meaning of the word 
was extended to signify the cotmtry or place where colonists settled, 
and is now often applied to any settlement or land po s s e ssed by a 
sorareign state upon foreign soil. Thus Ceylon and the Mauritius are 
called British colonies, though they are not colonised by Englishmen, 
the former being inhabited by natives, and the second by French or 
descendante of French colonists. The proper notion of the word 
" colony " (as determined by the general use of the term) seems to 
be a tract of land, either wholly or partly colonised, that is to say, 
poeseased and cidtivated by natives, or the descendants of natives, of 
another eonntry, and atanduig in some sort of political connection with 
and subordination to that country, which is then called the mother 

The formation of colonies is among the oldest occurrences recorded 
in history or handed down by tradition. Maritime states, such as 
those of Phoenicia and of Greece, possessing only a scanty territory, 
would naturally have recourse to emigration as their population 
increased. In both these ooimtries the sea afibrde<l a facility for trans- 
ferring a part of their superabundant citizens, with their families and 
moreables, and their arms, to some foreign coast, either uninhabite<l or 

thinly peopled by less-civilised natives, who, by good will or by force, 
gave up to them a portion of their land. The emigration might be 
voluntary or forced ; it was no doubt in many cases the result of civil 
contentions or foreign conquest, by which the losing party were either 
driven away, or preferred seeking a new coimtry to remaining at home. 
The report of some remote fertile coast aboimding in valuable produc- 
tions would decide others. Lastly, the state itself having discovered, 
by means of its merchants and mariners, some country to which they 
could trade with advantage, might determine upon sending out a party 
of settlers, and might establish a factory there for the purpose of sale 
or exchange. In fact, commercial enterprise seems to have led both to 
maritime discovery and to colonisation aa much as any one single 
cause. Such seem to have been the causes of the numerous Phoenician 
colonies which, at a very early date, were planted along the coasts of 
the Mediterranean. Tyre itself was ar colony of Sidon, according to the 
Old Testament, which calls it the " daughter of Sidon." Leptia Magna, 
near the great Syrtis, was also a colony of Sidon, according to Sallust 
('Jugurth." c. 78). Hippo, Hadrumetum, Utica, and 'Tunis, were 
Phoenician colonies, and all of greater antiquity than Carthage. The 
Phoenician colonies extended along the north coast of Africa as far as 
the Pillars of Hercules (the Straits), and along the opposite coast of 
Spain, as well as on the Balearic islands, and Sardinia and Sicily. 
Those on the Sixinish coast seem to have been at first small settlements 
or factories for the pui-pose of trade between the metropolis or mother 
coimtry and the natives. Several of them, however, such as Qades, by 
d^rees took the trade into their own hands, and became independent 
of the mother country. The foundation of Carthage was an instance 
of another kind. It resulted, according to tradition, from an emigra- 
tion occasioned by the tyranny of a king of Tyre. There is another 
confused tradition of a Phoenician or Canaanite emigration to Mauri- 
tania, occasioned by the conquest of Palestine by Joshua, and men- 
tioned by Prooopius and Suidas, as well as by some Jewish commen- 
tators. [Berbers, Geoo. Div.] The Phoenicians very early settled in 
the fertile island of Cyprus, which lay opposite their own coast. Of 
their settlements in the isUnds of the ..Sgeau Sea we have only traditions 
referring to times previous to the war of Troy, and mentioned by 
Herodotus, and after him by Thucydides, who says that the Phoonicians 
and the Cariana inhabited most of the islands, and carried on piracy, 
until Minos, king of Crete, drove them away, and planted new colonies. 
Herodotus says they had once a settlement in the island of Thasiis, 
where they worked the gold mines. They also had a settlement on the 
island of Cythera (Cerigo), which lay conveniently for their trade with 
the Peloponnesus. Thucydides (vi. 2, &c.) also mentions that the 
Phoenicians formed establishments on the promontories and small 
islands on the coast of Sicily, from which they traded with the native 
Siculi ; but that when the Greeks came to settle in great niunbers in 
that island, the Phoenicians abandoned several of their posts, and con- 
centrated themselves at Motya, Soloeis, and Panormus, now Palermo 
(which last probably had then another name), near the district occupied 
by the Elymi or Phrygian colonists (who had emigrated from Asia 
after the fall of Troy, and had built KnteUa and Egesta), trusting to the 
friendship of the latter, and also to their proximity by sea to then- 
countrymen of Carthage. These three Phoenician settlements, how- 
ever, merged afterwards into Carthaginian dependencies. The Phoeni- 
cians appear also to have occupied Melita or Malta, and the Lipari 
islands, one of which retained the name of Phoenicusa. Of the 
Phoenician settlemento in the south part of Sardinia we have the report 
of Diodorus (v.) and a fragment of Cicero pro Scauro, published by 
Mai. The Phccnicians and Libyans are said to have been the earliest 
settlers in Sardinia, and to have founded Caralis (Cagliari) and Sulci. 
A Phoenician inscription was found in a vineyard at Ca^je Pula, belong- 
ing to the monks of the order of Mercy, and was explained by 
De Rossi, ' Efi'emeridi Letterarie di Roma,' 1774. But the undoubted 
field of Phoenician colonisation was the north coast of Africa. There 
the Phoenician settlements seem to have been independent, both of the 
mother country and of each other. W^e have the instance of Utica 
and Tunes, which continued separate communities even after Carthage 
had attained its great power ; Carthage only exercising the hegemony 
or supremacy. This seems to have been the case among the original 
Phoenician towns ; Sidon, Tyre, Aradus, &o., each a distinct common- 
wealth, forming a sort of federation, at the head of which was the 
principal city, at first Sidon, and afterwards Tyre. A feeling of mutual 
regard seems to have prevailed to the lost between the various Phoeni- 
cian towns and colonies, including Carthage, as members of one com- 
mon family. 

The colonies e.stablished afterwards by the Carthaginians in th^ 
interior aa well as on the coast of Africa, Sicily, and Spain, were upon 
a different plan from those of the Phoenicians : they were made through 
conquest and for the purpose of keeping the coimtry in subjection, 
like those of the Romans [Cabthaqe, Qeoq. Div.], with the re- 
markable exception of the emigration colonies taken by Hanno to the 
west coast of Africa. 

The earlier Greek colonies appear to have owed their origin to the 
same causes, and to have lieen foim^led upon the same plan as those of 
the Phmnicians. Thucydides (i.) says, that " after the Trojan war, 
and the subsequent conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, Greece 
being restored to tranquillity, began to send out colonies. The 
Athenians, whose country wan overflowing with people from other 





|«rti o( OiMM, «rbo had floakad tUtlMr for netirity, ba^a to (and 
•at <H«tiili<— into looU and to many of the ialanda; Um PaloponooaUiu 
■MM UMin to ItiOy. Sisily, and aouM paita of OiMoa. But all tiieaa 
ooiodaa wara aant aAar tha Trojao war." Tha Doriana from Magaria, 
Arfoa, Cotiotli, and otbar plaoaa, onion iaad aoma of tlie Urgar iabodi, 
uit of CreU, Rbodaa, Conyim, aa wall aa .^Bcioa, Cua, Ac. They 
founded th» UaxjwoUa on the aouth-waat ooaat olCaria, in Aaia Minor, 
whieh diibiei took frocn ttiam the name of Doria. A colony of Iju»- 
■*--«^»— fouadad Crraoe. Tha Magariaaa foundad Chaleadon, 
Bfnatiam, Sdymbria, Hanelaa, and othar plaoaa on tha coaata of tha 
Boiiaa. Hieily alao waa oUaAy ool oniaa d in Doriana. Byraouaa waa 
* OorinthiaA oolooy, whidi aflarwarda foiwdad Aora, Camarina, Ac , 
Oala waa a ooloiiy of Rhodiana and Oatana, and Afrigentuiu waa a 
eoloiqr tram Oala. Tha Magariana foundad Setinua. The C h a l n idi a na 
built Nazua, whieh waa tha firat Ora^ aettlement in Sicily, and after- 
waida took Leootini and X^atana faon the Biouli. For a more detailed 
aeoonnt of tha numaroua Dorian ooloniaa, aee K. O. Hullvr'a ' Hiatory 
of tha Doric Baea.' ~' 

Tha looiana from Attioa, another great bianch of the Hellenic (took, 
after tha death of Codrua, the hut king of Athena, emigrated to 
tha waat ooaat of Asia Minor, which to^ ita name from Uiein and 
wtaMiahH there twelve citiea or communities, which quickly roae to 
a hi^ degree of proaperity, and formed a kind of federal union. About 
tUtttj T<aia before, the .itColiana and Adueana, two nearly allied raoea, 
bang miTeo away from i'eli>|>onneaua by the Dorians, had emigrated 
to the ooaat of Asia Minor, where they formed colonies from Cydoua 
OD the Propontia as br aouthwarda aa the Hermus. Phocaa was the 
most northern of the Ionian towns on the borders of .lEolis. The 
.Aolians alao colonised the islands of Leabos, Tenedos, and others in 
that part of the .£gean. Thaae emigrations were posterior to the 
time of Homer, who mentions other peode as occupying that coast. 
The Athenians at a later date coloniMd Euboea, where they fuuiulcd 
Chalds and Eretria, and they alao sent colonies to Naxus, to the inlauda 
of Ceca, Siphnos, Seriphoa, and other islands of the /Wginan. Many of 
thaae ooloniea having thriven and increaaed, became eoloniaers in weir 
turn. The enterprising mariners of Phocoa formed various colonies, 
the moat celebrated of iriiich is Maaailia on the south coast of QauL 
The Chalcidians of Euboea founded Cunue, on the west coast of Italy, 
in the oountiy of the Opid. Piratea from Cumae founded Zancle, but 
a frcah colony of Samiana and other loniana escaping from the Persian 
invasioD, in the time of the fint Darius, UxA. Zaude, and were after- 
wards in their turn dispoaaeaaed by Anarilaw, ^rant of Rhegium, who 
called the town Meaaene (now Measina), from the name of his original 
country in the Pdoponnesus. The .£oIians founded Dicscarcbia, 
afterwards PuteoU, and they with the Cumieans are believed to have 
founded Parthenope (Naples). Ionian colonists settled on the coast of 

Tha Qreek colonies on the east coast of Italy, setting aside the oon- 
fnaed traditiona of Arcadian immigrations, Pela«gian, £c., supposed to 
have taken place before the Trojan war, consisted chiefly of Dorians 
and rt rh—nn from the Pelononnestis. Croton, Sybaris, and Pandosia 
wera odooiea of the latter. Tarentum waa a colony of Laoediemonians, 
and Loeri Epicephyrii of the Loctiana. Greek ooloniea were settled 
both on tha north and eaat aidaa of the Pontus (Black Sea), and also 
on tha north coast in the modem Crimea. [Bosporus, in Qeoo. 


As to the relations subsisting between the colonists and the natives 
or prior inhabitants of the oountriea which they occupied, it was 
widoabtedly in most oaaea strictly in accordance with the right of the 
stroogaat. Either the nativea withdrew into the interior and left the 
ground to the new occupants, as the Siculi did in several instances, or 
th«y raaiated, in which case, when overpowered, the men were ex- 
tarminatad or reduced to alavery, and the conquerors kept the women 
for thamadres. In aome inatanoes the older inhabitants were reduced 
to the condition of aerfs or bondmen to the new settlers. The records 
of authantlo hiatory do not preaent na with an instance of any colony 
htiag settled in a country where there were not previous inhabitants. 
TIm oaoaaquence of the immigration of a new race, who seek to poaaeas 
thwy^'** of the land, must lie the extennination or gradual decay of 
tlia prior laoa, unleaa the old inhabitants are juade slavea. Bo &r aa 
we trace the history of Greek ooloniea in the scattered fragments of 
antiquity, auch were the consequences of their colonial settlements. 
On tha ooaat of Italy it would appear that the Greeks pursued a more 
hnnana or more politic coume. They are said to have aUied them- 
adraa to and intermarried with the natives, and by their sujwrior 
dviliaation to have acquired great inflneace. It may here l>e remarked 
that tha Qreeka, ao tar from being averse to foreign intermixtures, as 
MOM have said, nungled their blood freely with that of all the nations 
with whom thay came into contact, and thus the civilisation of the 
Halianic atodi waa gradually introduced among nations less advanced 
in tha useful arts. 

What were tha relatione between thaae Qraak ooloniea and the 
mothar country, and batwaan tboaa cokmiaa that wara of a kindred 


Thia may ba gather*] pretty dearly from Thucydidea. Kpidainnus 
waa a colony of Ooroyra ; but tlie leader of the colony {oUurriit), the 
founder of the colony, or the penon under wfaoao conduct it was 
settled, was a Corinthian, who was called or invited, says Thucydides, 

from the mothar dty (eallad by the Qreeka the metropolis, ^irrp^raXtt, 
or parent atate), aooording to an andant usage. Thus it appears that 
if a oolooy wiatiad to aeod out a new colony, this was properly done 
with tha aanction of the metropoUa. Some Corinthiaui .and other 
Doriana joined in tha aettlement of Bpidamnus, which became a thriving 
community, and governed itself independently of both mother countries. 
In the couno of time, however, dvU diaaeaaions and attacks from the 
neidkbouring barbariana induced the Kpidamniana to apply to Coroyre, 
aa Uiair matropolia, for aaaistanoe, but their pn^'eri were not attended 
to. Being hard p r essed by the enemy, they tunu-<l themselves to the 
Corinthians, and gave up their town to them, iw being the rt«l foundeni 
of the colony, in order to aave themselves from destructiuu. The 
Corinthians accepted the aurrender, and aent a fredi colony to Kpi- 
damnus, giving notice that all the new settlers should be on an equid 
f<K>ting with the old settlen : those who did not choose to leave home 
were allowed to have an equal intereat in the colony with those who 
went out, by paying down a sum of money, which appeara to have 
been the price of allotmenta of land. Thoae who went out gave thdr 
services ; those who atayed at home gave their money. " Thoae who 
went out," says Thucydides, " were many, and thoae who paid down 
their money were alao many." For the moneyed people it was in (act 
an afbir of pure apeculation. The Corcyneans, themsdvea originally 
a colony from Corinth, having become very powerful by aea, sughtetl 
their metropolis, and " did not |>ay to the Corinthians the customary 
honourx and deiferenoe in the (mblic solemnitiea and aaorificea, as the 
other colonies were wont to pay to the mother country." They 
accordingly took ofience at the Corinthians accepting the surrender 
of Epidiumnus, and the result was a war between Corcyra and Corinth, 
(i. 24.) 

Agam, the Corcynmn deputies, who were aent to court the alliance 
of the Athenians against Corinth, stated, in answer to the objection 
that they were a colony of Coriuth, that " a colony ought to re8)>ect 
the mother country as long as the latter deals justly and kiudly by it ; 
but if the colony be injured and wrongly used by the mother couutrj-, 
then the tie is broken, and they become alienated from each other, 
becauae, said the Corcyra»ns, colonists are not sent out as subjects, 
but aa free men having equal rights with those who remain at home." 
(i. 34.) This shows the kind of relation as understood by the Greeks 
between the metropolis and its colonies. The colonies were in fact 
soverdgn states, attached to the mother coimtry by ties of sympathy 
and common descent, so long as those feelings were fostered by mutuid 
good-will, but no further. The Athenians, it is true, in the height of 
tiieir power, exacted money from their own colonies aa well as from 
the colonies of other people, and punished severely those who swerved 
from their alliance, such as Naxos ; but this was not in consequence 
of any original right of dominion as supposed to bdong to the mother 
country over the colony. Many of the colonies, especially the earlier 
ones, which were the consequence of civil war or foreign invasion, were 
formed by large parties of men under some bold leader, without any 
formal consent being asked from the rest of the community : they 
took their families, their arms, and their moveables with them, to 
conquer a new country for themselves ; they left their native soil for 
ever, and carried with them no obligations or ties. Those that went 
ofiF in more jieaceful times, by a common underst-onding of the whole 
commonwealth, went also avny (or ever, and freely and voluntarily, 
though under a leader appointed by the' parent state, to seek a country 
where they could find an easier subsistence than at home. In either 
case it was a complete separation o( a member (rom the body. When 
the Athenians, in later times, took possession of parts of Euboea 
(Thucyd. i. 114), and of .£gina (ii. 27), of Melos (v. 116), and shared 
the lands among their own citizens who went there, the relationship 
thus formed was of a diS'crcnt kind. In the case of .£gina the whole 
population, which was of Hellenic stock, waa turned out, and a body 
of Athenians occupied their place, with the express object of being as 
a body or community subordinate to the state of Attioa, in order to 
prevent the annoyance to which Attica had long been subject by the 
proximity of an independent island so well situated both for the pur- 
pose of annoying Attict and for self-defence. 

That the colonieH of a kindred race should feel a common interest 
in opposition to those of a rival branch is natural, and is proved among 
other instances by the oaae of the deputies from Egesta in Sicily, who, 
while requesting the assistance of the Athenians against the Syracusans 
and SeUnuntians, urged as an additional plea that the Leontmes, who 
were originally Chalcidians, and therefore akin to the Athenians, had 
been expelled from their town by the Syracusans, and showing that 
it was the intereat of the Athenians to assist a kindred people against 
the prevailing power of the Dorian colonies in Sicily. (Thucyd. vi.) 

Before we paas to the Roman colonies, we must say something of 
the system of colonisation among the other inhabitants of the Italian 
peninsula in the ante-Roman times. The Etruscans extended their 
conquests north of the Apennines in the great plain of the Po, and 
founded there twelve colonies, the principal of which was Felsina 
(Bologna). They afterwards, having defeated the Umbrians, many 
years before the assumed foundation of Rome, extended themselves 
mto E^t and 8outli Italy, peuetratod into Latium, and took Campania 
from the Oscans, where thoy founded likewise twelve colonies, the 
prindpal of which waa Capua. The Etruscans, being skilled in archi- 
tecture, surroimded their towns with solid waUs built of massive 






Btoneg without any cement ; they were also well versed in agiicniture 
and hydraulics, and several of the earliest drains and canals in the 
Delta of the Po are attributed to them. They subjected, but at the 
same time necessarily civilised, the people among whom they settled. 
Their colonies seem to have formed independent communities, though 
allied by a kind of federation. The Etruscans also founded colonies 
in the Picenum, such as Hatria [ATM, in Geoo. Div.], and Cupra 
Montana and Cupra Maritima. They took from the Ligures the 
country around the gulf now called Delia Spezia, and founded the 
city of Luna. They Ukewise sent colonies to the islands of Elba and 
Corsica, for the Etruscans were a commercial as well as an agricultural 
people ; they navigated the sea, and in the sixth century before Christ 
they defeated the Phocseans, and drove them out of Corsica. The 
Etruscans civilised Italy by means of their colonies ; but, unlike Rome, 
they did not keep them united under a central power. 

The Sabini, an agricultural and pastoral people, living in a moun- 
tainous country, sent colonies in very remote times to other parts of 
Italy. It was their custom, after the lapse of a certain number of 
years, to celebrate solemn sacrifices in the spring season, and to con- 
secrate to the gods a number of young men, who were to quit their 
native land, and proceed under the auspices of Heaven to seek a new 
country. In this manner the Piceni and the Samnites are said to have 
been colonies of the .Sabini The Samnites in their turn sent out 
other colonies, and the Lucanians were one of these. The Samnites 
as well as the Sabini were entirely given to agricultural pursuits. 

Home, in the earliest ages of the repubUc, adopted the system of 
sending out colonies to the conquered countries. But the Roman 
colonies were different from those of most other people, inasmuch as 
they remained strictly subject to the mother country, \vho8e authority 
they were the means of enforcing upon the conquered nations. They 
were, in fact, like so many garrisons or outposts of Rome. Servius 
{JEn. i. 1 2) gives the following definitions of a colony, taken from 
much older authorities ; " A colony is a society of men led in one 
body to a fixed place, furnished with dwellings given to them under 
certain conditions and regiUations." Again, " Colonia ia so called a 
colendo ; it consists of a portion of citizens or confederates sent out to 
form a community elsewhere by a decree of their state, or with the 
genenl consent of the people from whom they are departed. Those 
who leave without such a consent, but in consequence of civil dis- 
aenaiom, are not colonies." The notion of a Roman colony seems to be 
this : the colonists occupied a city already existing ; and this, with 
perhaps one exception or two, was the general character of the Roman 
colonies in Italy Proper. When the Romans afterwards extended 
their conqueats into countries where there were no regular towns, or 
where the population being fierce and hostile, the Roman settlers must 
be ever on their guanl against them, they built new towns in some 
favourable |>08itiou. Such was the case in several parts of Gaul, Ger- 
many, Dacia, &c. But the Roman colonies in Italy consisted of 
Roman citizens, who were sent as settlers to fortified towns taken in 
war, with land .issigned to them at the rate of two jugera of arable 
land •T plantation for each man, besides the right of pasture on the 
public or common land. The old inhabitants were not ejected, or dis- 
posaeaaed of all their property ; the general rule was, that one-third of 
the territory of the town was confiscated and <li»tributed among the 
coloniats, and the rest was left to the former owners, probably subject 
to some charges in the shape of taxes or services. The colonists con- 
stituted the fuipHltt* of the place ; they alone enjoyed political rights 
and managed all public offices, the old inhabitants being considered as 
the plebs. The ownership of the publicum or public projierty, in- 
cluding the pasture land, was probably also vested in the new settlers. 
It is natural to suppose that for some generations at least, no great 
sjinpathy existed Iwtween the old and the new inhabitants, and hence 
we fre<iuently hear of revolts of the colonies, which means, not of the 
colonists against the mother city, but of the old inhabitants, who rose 
upon and expelled the colonists. But these events generally ended by 
a second conquest of the place by Roman troops, when the old inhabits 
ants were either put to the sword or sold as slaves, or, under more 
favourable circumstances, lost at least another third of their pro)x!rty. 
In later times, during the civil wars of Rome, new colonies were sent 
by the prevailing i>arty to occupy the place of the former ones ; and 
the older colonists werw then diapo sncaae d of their proi>crty, cither 
wholly or in part, just as they hod dispoaaeaaed the original inhabit- 
ants. Hence the saying, "Veterea migrate coloni." Sometimes 
colonics, especially at a great distance from Rome, having dwindled 
away, or V>eing in fUngcr from the neighbouring populations, .^Bked for 
a reinforcement, when a fresh colony w.ia sent, to whom the old 
colonists gave up one-third of their property. E.ich of the older 
colonies, it is observed by Gellius (xvi. 13), was a Rome in miniature ; 
it had its senators called Decuriones, its Duumviri, yEdiles, Censores, 
Sacerdotes, Augurs, &c. 

A distinction must here bo made between the Roman colonies .and 
the Latin colonies. The former had all or nearly all the rights of the 
citizens of Rome, although Sigonius and some others pretend that they 
had not the jus suflragii; and yet, in v.irious i>as8ages of Livy and 
otheis, colonists are styled cives and liomx censi. The Latin colonics 
hadn&t the jus Qiiiritium, but only the jus Latii. All those, however, 
who filled magistrates' offices in Latin colonies became Roman citizens. 
Such was the case with Tibur, Prwneste, 4c. The towns of Trans- 


padanc Gaul, .as a reward for their fidelity to Rome, obtained the rank 
of Latin colonies without any colouista being sent to them. 

There were also military colonies, which consisted of soldiers, to 
whom land was given instead of pay and provisions, as a resting-place 
after their campaigns. Sulla appears to have been the founder o£ 
these, and Ccesar and Augustus added greatly to their number. These 
colonies are distingiiished by having military ensigns on their coins, 
while the Colonia; Togatse, or citizen colonies, have a plough on theirs. 
(Heineco. ' Antiqu. Roman. Syntagma.') The coins of some colonies 
have both marks, which means that the original colony consisted of 
citizens, after which a second was sent, composed of military. In 
Tacitus (' Annal.' i.) the veterans complain that, after their long 
service, they were rewarded only with uncultivated lands, situated in 
the neighbourhood of the enemies of the empire. 

The system of colonies adopted by Rome had a double political 
object, — to secure the conquered countries, and to satisfy in part the 
claims of its own poorer citizens, and to get rid of turbulent characters. 
The importance of the Roman colonies to the empire is well expressed 
by Cicero, who calls them " propugnacula imperii et specula jxipuli 
Romani." Such they doubtless were, and at the same time they were 
the germ of the civilisation of Northern and Western Europe. A 
nation of civilised conquerors, whivtever evils it may inflict to gratify 
its own cupidity, confers on the conquered people unintentionally still 
greater benefits. By their colonies in Spain, Gaul, on the banks of the 
Rhine, and in Britain, the Romans established their language and their 
system of administration. The imprint of their empire is indelibly 
fixed on the existing nations of Europe. 

The difference between Colonia .and Municipium is, that the latter 
was a town of which the inhabitants, being friendly to Rome, were 
left in imdisturbed possession of their proi)erty and their local laws 
and jx)litical rights, and obtained moreover the citizenship, 
either with or without the right of sufirage ; for th^e were several 
descriptions of Municipia. [Municipium.] The colonies, on the con- 
trary, were all governed according to the Roman laws. The municipia 
were foreign limbs engrafted on the Roman stock, while the colonies 
were branches of that stock transported to a foreign soil. 

Under the Later Roman emperors, the difference between colonia 
and municipia became obliterated, and all were governed alike accord- 
ing to the Roman law, and a uniform system of administration. 
Augustus gave the right of Roman citizenship to all Italy. Antoninus 
Caracalla bestowed it upon all freemen, subjects of the empire. (For 
the Roman colonies, see Niebuhr, vol. ii. ; Manutius, ' de Civitate 
Romana ; ' Sigonius, ' de Ant. Jure Ital. ; ' Heineccius, ' Syntagma,' &c.) 

The northern tribes who overthrew the western empire did not 
found colonies ; they overran or conquered whole provinces, .and esta- 
blished new states and kingdoms. The sivme nuay be said of the Saracen 
conquests in Asia and Africa. But, after a lapse of several centuries, 
when Europe hatl resumed a more settled form, the system of coloni- 
sation was revived by three maritime Italian republics, Pisa, Genoa, 
and Venice. Their first settlements on the coasts of the Levant .and 
Egypt were mercantile factories, which the insecurity of the country 
soon induced them to convert into forts with gsirrisons, — in short, into 
real colonies. The Genoese established colonies at Famagosta in Cyprus ; 
at Pera and Galata, opposite to Constantinople ; at Caffa in the Crimea, 
foundwl in 1266. They .also acquired possession of a considerable 
extent of coast in that peninsula, forming a district subject to Genoa 
under the name of Gazaria. Another tract, on the coast of Little 
Tartary, called Gozia, was also subject to the Genoese, who had then 
the colony of Cembalo. In the Palus Msotis they had the colony of 
La Tana, now Azof. On the south coast of the Euxine they possessed 
Samastro or Amastri. They had also a factory with franchises .and 
their own magistrates at Trebizond, as well .as at Sebastopolis. These 
colonies were governed by consuls sent from Genoa, and the order and 
justice of their administration have been much extolled. In the 
archives of St. George, .at Genoa, there' is a valuiible unpublished manu- 
script containing the whole colonial legislation of the Genoese in the 
middle ages. 

The Pisans, having taken Sardinia from the Moors, sent colonies to 
Cagliari and other places. Their settlements in the Levant were mere 
commercial facU)rie.s. 

The Venetians established colonies in the Ionian Islands, Candia, 
and Cyjinis. Their system resembled that of Home : they ruled, by 
means of their colonies and garrisons, over the people of those islands, 
whom they left in possession of their municipal laws and tranchises. 
These were not like the settlements of the Genoese, merely commercial 
establishments — they were for conquest and dominion ; in fact, Candia 
.and Cyprus were styled kingdoms subject to the rei)ublic. The 
Venetians had also at one time factories .and garrisons on various 
points of the coasts of the Levant, but they lost them in the Morea, 
Eubcca, Syria, .and the Euxine, either through the Genoese, or after- 
wards by the anna of the Ottomans. We can h.ardly number among 
their colonies the few strongholds they once poHscssed on the coast of 
Albania, such .as Butrinto, Prevesa, Parga, &c., any more than those 
possessed by the Spani.aril8 .and Portuguese on the coast of Barbary, 
Oran, Melilla, Ceuta, &c. They were merely forts with small garrisons, 
with no land attached to them. The name used in the Mediterranean 
for such places is presi4ii, find they are often used as prisons for 






dh wmcT o( Amnkm Bro Ju ead » gnat oluii(a in the lyatem of 
tiop. HMmHo, whaUiar th* eoloay lud beat pUatad by foroe 
or hf trM^, the wi l nnlti on the whcd* were not gra^ adTanoed in 
etriUaatiao bayead the cMaati poaaa»nni ; and whether they reduced 
them to eabiaetiaa or aina%imated with them, than waa no eaa " ' 
^WH -"- d race ; for avoB tba aarij ookmiaa of the Portugal 

AlHaa w«ra eithar at nlaeaa inhabited by the dTiliaad Araba, or in 
apota where they merely i^ted a military garriaon to defend Uieir 
tnMle. The Spaniarda were the ftrat who eatabliahed eolonioe in 
Aiaariea, and they wen rapidly followed by nearly every Eun>ixau 
But amoiv theae aatkwi there waa a great rariety in tiie 
d the aeqnUtion, the obieeta aought io be attained, an<l the 
•( giinilinwl in the oolooiee, both looally and with reference 
k> that of the notiier eoontry. It eoon beoame evident that nut nil 
I were eqoaOy qualiAed to beoome enooeaaful coloniats; to be ho 
to raqnfaw fai the eoiaoiata, capital, auperior knowledge and 
„jaee, iadoatnr, and firm rewlution. The Spaniards, landing 
^the asmi-eiTiliaad natiow of South America, poaaaaaed the stipo- 
rinr int«>nigaiee and the unoonquerable reeolution. They suooeeded in 
miUliiing the nativaa; but they brouj^t ncr capital, and the^ erinced 
no induitry. Prom the beginnimr, they sought only to muoch them- 
adm and their coontiy by deqxiiui^ the natiTee, and by forcing them 
to wetk, while the commerce of the aettlement was obstructed by 
bnrdenaome and injurious reetrictions. The consequence has been 
that the populatioo, liec»ming a mixed one, treated as inferiors by the 
new Spanish acoeaaious, and feeling their own strength, have tbiun-n 
off their allegiance. 

An c^ential qualification of a colony is that it should have and 
eultirata land, and conaist at least in part uf civilians. When a colony 
is sent to a country occupied by a few hunting tribes, as waa tbo caise 
in part of NiTthAmcrica at the time the English 8ottl»l there, and nn 
was also the cAe in Australia, tlio ttking possession of i>art of the land 
for the purpose of cultivatiou is attended with the least (Hissiblc injury 
to the aborigines, while, at the same time, it h.xs in its favour the 
extension of civilisation upon a new ehore. The mvnges generally 
recede before civilised man ; a few of them adopt civilisation, .ind the 
reat become gradually extinct. When the limits aro confined, the pro- 
gress towards extinction is exceedingly rapid. The aborigines of Van 
Diemen's Land are now reduced to a very small num))er. This, how- 
ever melancholy in one point of view, has been from the earliest times 
the great law of the progress of the human race. But the case is much 
altered when the natives are Jiortly civilised, live in domestic societies, 
hare settled habitations, and either cultivate the land or feed their 
floeks upon it. The colonists ih such case do what the Romans did in 
their colonies ; they take part of the arable land, or the whole of the 
common nr pasture land, and leave to the natives just what they please, 
and if the bttcr resist, they kill tliem. \\niether this }k justice every 
man may ask himself. The case may be one of greater or less 
oppreaaion, aoeording as the land is either enclosed and cultivated, or 
merely naed for paatme or the chace, and according as the natives are 
more or lese numerous in proportion to the land, colonisation may pro- 
ceed on a milder or harsher system. Still the question of justice 
remains the same, unless the natives be willing to part with their land 
by amicable arrangement. This system of purchase from the natives 
has been pmctised both by the Knglish iind Anglo-Americans in North 
America ; but though it has the specious name of bargain, it has often 
been nothing ni>ire than a fraud, or sale imder compulsion. The man 
of EuroiH! lias In-i-n long accustomed to regard the [xissession of the 
Boil as that which binda him to a place, and gives him the most secure 
and least doubtful kind of projierty. His habits of accumulation, nru\ 
of transmitting to his children a permanent posaossion, make him covet 
the au<{uisition of laniL In whatever country ho has set his fo<it, and 
once got a dominion in the soil, neither contracts, nor mercy, nor 
feelings of humanity, nor the rvUgion which he carries with him, have 
prerented him from seizing on the lands of the owners, and pimishing 
their reaistance with death. 

When the Portuguese firat began their voyages of discovery in the 
ISth centurjr, they took poaaeanon of some isLuids or points on the 
coasts of Africa and of India, and left there a few soldiers or sailors 
under a military commander, who built a fort to protect the trade 
with the natives, and afterwards also to keep those natives under a sort 
of subjection. In Brazil, settling among a people who were less ad- 
Tanoed in^riliaation than the Mexicans and PeniTiana, and inhabited 
a country laM densely populated, they effected their colonisation some- 
what mors peaoefully, and maintained their empire with much leas 
harshness. Braail baring no gold or silver (or none of much value), 
and the diamond mines occupying but a small space, the forced labour 
when employed waa chiefly agricultural, and therefore Iosh injurious. 
The wricnlture produced commerce, and theae united brought a con- 
iManble number of arttler* ; but the commerce waa uf a restrictive 
diaMCter, and the natire Portuguese were a privileged class. The 
aatim, to a oonaiderable extent, remained roving and indeiKMulent ; 
the colonial popobtioo, confined to a few porta anil the HumMiiiiliiig 
districta, where sugar, coffee, tobaoco, and a few other products are 
grown, became discontented ; and had not the political circumstances 
of Eurune compelled the royal tunlly of Portugal to retire to Brazil, it 
is probaoU the colony wotdd have revolted. I(y that step, however, 
the colony became an empire ; the miagovemnicnt by fon-ignem ceased, 

a more enlightened ayatam of oommeroe waa adopted, and it has ahice 
grown rapidly in wealth and importance : but it has ceased to be a 
colony of PortugaL 

The Dutch, with far higher qualifications for colonising than the 
Spaniards, followed almost a like system in their conquests of the 
Cape of Oood Hope, the Moluooaa, and in Java ; but their object waa 
to increaaa and to monopolise their trade. To this purpose all their 
efforts were direottd, and for a time they suooeeded to a oonsiderable 
extent, but they did not attempt to draw any diraot revonue from their 
de|iendescles. Powerful rivalry, however, and the diaaatiafaotion occa- 
sioned by the reatriotiaiia, altogether doprived them of aomo ol their 
best colonies, and leaaenad the value of the remainder. 

The French coloniaed Canada, and on the whole in • humane manner. 
But though ill their rdationa with Uie nativea they were not very 
successful in establishing themselves, they made the colonies too much 
of military settlements, and the civil oolooial population increased very 
slowly. They kept troopa and tiiey ruaed fortifications, and both 
proved useless when put to the test ; Louisiana they bought of Spain, 
nude little prograaa in it, and sold it to the United States. 

The Enghsh colomos have been acquired in almost every poarible 
variety of manner : by aettlement, by conquest, by treaty, by exchange. 
The North American colonies were the consequence of emigration, 
eiUier voluntary or produced by religious persecution and civil war at 
homo. The Puritans went to New Engbuid, the Quakers to Pennsyl- 
vania, and the Cavaliers to Virginia. They formed communities under 
ch.'u-ters from the crown, adid had local legislatures, but were still 
subject to the sovereignty of the moUier country. The mt>thcr 
country sent its governors, and named, either directly or indirectly, 
the civil funolicinaries. The precise amount of oliedicncc that the 
colonics then owc<l t<j the mother country cannot be exactly defined. 
The American revolution only showed tluit it did not extend to a certain 
l>oiut, without showing how f.-ir it did extend. Australia was found 
almost a desert, and with the exception of .1 few incidental comlwits 
waa jwacefully settled. The Cai>o of Oood Hojh) taken from the 
Butch ; Jamaica and other AVest India islands from the Spaniards, 
French, and Dutch. The East Indies (wliicli, lunvever, is scarcely a 
colony, for until within the last few years Englishmen were not allowed 
to settle in it) has been obtained by treaty, by conquest, by succession, 
in an almost continued growth, without any violent desire for acquisi- 
tions, but from an impulse of self-preservation. The colonies have, as 
a general nde, local legislatures, elected by the people, and a governor 
and council named by the sovereign. The foreign commerce of these 
colonies is regulated by the sovereign authority of the mother country, 
and put on such a footing as generally to allow some of their products 
admission into British ports on more favourable terms than those 
of other countrios. To the amount of this protecting duty, the colonies 
have the advanttge of a partial monopoly in the markets of the mother 
country. The old strict colonial system, of excluding foreign countries 
from direct commercial intercourse with the colonies, had the double 
object in view of securing all the supposed iidvantages of the exchange 
of British for colonial products, and giving employment to the British 
merchant navy. The rigour of this system however has gradually 
relaxe<l, and given way to clearer views of self-intereet. StiU the 
colonial system, as maintained by Oreat Britain, presents in many 
instances examples of foreign possessions which are expensive to the 
country without any apparent corresponding advantages. The expendi- 
ture in most of the colonies for the purposes of administration and 
protection is beyond the means of the colonial revenues to meet, and 
the deficiency must of course be supplicil by the ixircnt state. That 
this is no tritte may be seen from the returns of the costs of thev,wiou8 
British colonies for 1858. The total was 4,11,5,7.^7/., exclusive of the 
E.-wt hidies, and that was a less sum than in any of three previous 
years ; and although a few may bo considered rather as military or 
naval stations, yet the items show that none of the colonies are self- 
supjiorting, though many are large contrilmtora to their own expenses. 
Gibraltar cost 423,689/.; Malta, 44-2,7-22/.; Capeof G.mmI Hope, 682,015/.; 
Mauritius, 74,881/. ; Bermuda, 158,061/. ; St.Heleiu,0-J,<i4(W. ; Heligo- 
land, 1274/. ; Ionian Islinfls, 19i»,47(V. ; Falkland IsLinds, C523/. ; and 
Hong-Kong, 303,736/. ; the foregoing are all more or Iciw military or 
naval stations. Of the Australian settlements. North Australia cost 
6666/. ; Western Australia, 94,769/. ; South Australia, 9940/, ; Victoria, 
44,118/,; New South Wales, 69,646/.: Tasmania, 96,936/. ; and New 
Zealand, 112,895/. Of the other plantations and settlements, Jamaica 
cost 198,711/. ; Bahamas, 62,046/.; Honduras, 88,802/.; West Indies, 
806,981/. ; Canada, 286,484/. ; Nova Scotia, 154,605/. ; New Brunswick, 
9430/.; Prince Edward's Island, 1500/.; Newfoundland, 20,114/.; 
Vancouver's Island, 210/.; West Coast of Africa, 126,089/. ; Ceylon, 
119,279/. ; Labium, 12,445/. : and sundry other colonies, 71,737/. The 
immense patronage which colonial possessions put at the disposiil of 
the government is naturally one reason why colonies are looked uiKin 
as )>rofitable things by thoee who participate in the advantages of jiosts 
and pliiw-s in them. On the other hand, thoee who only eontriljute to 
these exiicnses may not unreasonably ask for some proof of solid 
advantage to the nation in return for this annual outlay. Setting 
aside tJie interests of those concerned in the a<Iministmtion of the 
colonies, it is asked, in m-wy cases, what a<]vantage doea the rest of 
the nation receive t So far as colonics may be desirable posts for pro- 
tecting British ooBimeree and shipping, the advantage of maintaining 





them may be fiilly equivalent to the expense ; and the settlement and 
jirotection of a colony by the natives of one country cannot fail to 
introduce the customs, the habits, and the wants of the country whence 
they come, which, consequently, will be in the best position for 
acquiring and maintaining possession of the commercial intercourse as 
it grows; this has been remarkably the case in regard to Canada, 
Avwtralia, and the Cape. It is hardly possible to suppose that if they 
had been abandoned as too costly, the commerce would have assumed 
the ■rast importance which it has done. The protection of the mother 
co\mtry also gives a sense of security to intending emigrauts, and the 
emigration is facilitated ; it affords a most beneficial outlet to a super- 
abundant population, removing a source of weakness and expense at 
home by the vohmtary transfer of labour-power from where it has no 
value to a spot where it is of the greatest value ; and, while it reUeves 
the mother-country from a burden, it necessarily strengthens the bond 
of alliance, and contributes to the commercial prosiwrity of both parent 
and colony. Another prospective advaut.'^ge is, the friendly relations 
that must necessarily enst from blood relationship, similarity of customs 
and feeUngs, and sameness of language, when the time arrives that the 
colony has grown powerful enough to maintain its own independence, 
and to assume the character of a state. Still, in every particular 
instance, the question as to the value of a modem colony to the mother 
country (omitting, as before mentioned, the value of the jiatronage to 
those who confer places in the colonies and the value of the places to 
those who receive them) is simply this : what advantage is this said 
colony to the productive classes of the country, and to those who con- 
sume the products of the colony ? a question not always easy to 
answer ; but this ia the question, the solution of which must decide 
whether a colony ought to be maintained or not, if we look only to the 
interests of the mother country. If we l(K)k to the interests of the 
colony, it may be in many and certainly is in some cases, the interest 
of the colony to remain as it now is, mider the protection and sovereign 
authority of the mother country. But again the question recurs, what 
is the advantage to the mother country .' If some advantage cannot 
be shown, the maintenance of a tueless colony is a pure act of national 
benevolence towards the colony and to those few of the mother country 
who have places in it. If our present relation w^ith a colony such !^.<^ 
Jamaica or Canada entails any expense on the mother country, we may 
aak whether all the commerciiU advantages that result from this 
relation would not be equally secured, if only the free commercial 
relation existed, and that of atuninistration were to cease. In support 
of this view, it is shown that the commerce of Great Britain with the 
United States, now free and indefiemlcnt, has increased most wonder- 
fully since the separation, and probably more rapidly than it would 
bave increased under the colonial system. This being the case, a 
similar increase might be anticipated in the trade with all those foreign 
possessions whose trade is really of any importance. This argument, 
to which it is difficult to reply, is met by saying that if wo give up 
those colonies that cause expenditure on the part of the mother 
country, some of them at least would be a prize for other nations, who 
would exclude us from the commerce of those former colonies, or 
allow it only on unfavourable terms ; or that these colonies would 
throw themselves into the arms of foreign nations, and the same residt 
would follow. To this it is replied, that no other nation is in a con- 
dition to take on itself the management of expensive colonies, especially 
when not in a condition to avail themselves to the fullest extent of the 
advantages of their commerce ; nations, like individuals, will, if let 
alone, biiy where they can buy cheapest, and sell where they can sell 
dearest. Sjiain, for instance, could derive no advantage from the pos- 
session of all Australia ; she could draw no direct revenue from it ; she 
could not use the colonial products, except the gold, which she could 
not buy, as she has no manufactures with which to effect the {lurchasc. 

The coloni-U administration of the British colonies is an important 
department of the general administration. At the head of it is the 
principal colonial secretary, who is one of the principal secretaries of 
state, assisted by two imder secretaries. 

A new featute was introduced into modem European colonisation, 
that of penal colonies, which was an extension of the principle of the 
presidii on the coast of Barbary, already mentioned. Convicts were 
sent by England first to North America, and afterwards to Australia 
and the Cape of Qood Hope, by France to Guiana, by Portugal to the 
coast of Angola, by the Dutch to Batavia, and Utterly by the French 
to Cayenne and to Lambessa in Africa. They were either employed at 
the public works or hired to settlers as servants, or were established in 
various places to cultivate a piece of land, for which they paid rent to 
the government. The policy of penal colonies has been much dis- 
cussed. They may afibnl a relief at least temimrary, but at a great 
cost to the mother cotmtry, by clearing it of a number of troublesome 
•nd dangerous cliatocters, especially ho long as criminal legislation and 
^stem of prison discipline continue as imperfect as they are at 
in moat countries of Europe ; but with regard to the convicts 

emselves, and the prospect of their reformation, everything must 
'deprnd upon the regulations enforced in the colony by the local 
a ~ Although the system had its advantages as regarded the 

I 'itry, and perhaps as regarded the convict, yet the colonics 

an iiiirv increased in wealth and numbers, felt it to be an intolerable 
grievance to be continually flooded with the criminal refuse of the 
parent state. Tlie system was opposed in the English colony at the 

Cape of Good Hope to the verge of an insuri'ection, but England gave 
way to the voice of justice, and ou the remonstrances also of the 
Australian colonies, the system has been altogether abandoned, and 
only a few criminals are now sent to Western Australia, to Bermudix, 
and to Gibraltar, merely as to convict prisons, to be employed ou 
public works. 

We subjoin a list of the principal colonial possessions of the various 
European states ; but of all the important ones accounts will be found 
under tlieir proper heads in the G ego. Div. 

The colonies of England consist of British North America, British 
West India Islands, with the Rihamas and Bermudas, and British 
Guiana in S. America ; Sierra Leone, Cape Coast, and Cape of Good 
Hope in Africa ; the islands of St. Helena, Mauritius, Ceylon, Prince 
of Wales Island, Singapore, and Malacca ; various settlements on the 
coasts of Australia, and Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land. The united 
population of the whole of these colonies is estimated at 7,148,000. 
The vast possessions of Great Britain in India, as we have already 
stated, are not to be considered as colonies, though they are de- 
pendencies ; they contain a popidation of 180,367,148 pei-sons. 
Gibraltai-, Malta, and Heligoland, military stations, have a jiopulation 
of 146,591 persons. 

France has the islands of Guadeloupe, St. Pierre, and Miguelon, 
and French Guiana in America ; Senegal and Goree on the Coast of 
Africa ; the island of Bourbon ; Pondichery, in the East Indies, with 
two or three trifling dependencies ; the Marquesas islands. New Cale- 
donia, with Tahiti and Wallis islands, under protection, in the Pacific ; 
and the important acquisition now being colonised to a considerable 
extent, of Algerie ; the total has a population of 3,506,218, of which 
2,880,383 are in Algerie, the European population in January, 1857, 
being 167,670. 

Spain has lost her vast dominions in Mexico and South America, 
b\it has retained the fine islonrls of CuUa and Puerto Rico, and the 
Virgin isUnds in America; in Asia she has the Philippine islands; 
in Africa she has the Presidios and the Guinea isLinds, the old system 
still prevails ; slave labour is employed ; and the Spanish colonies are 
now perha])s the only ones that yield a direct revenue to the mother 
countr}' ; though it is probable that the United States makes a gi'eater 
profit with them by its commerce, than Spain does by its taxation. 
The population of the whole of the colonial possessions is estimated at 

Portugal has lost the Brazils, but it has still numerous settlements on 
the coast of South and East Africa, at Angola, Benguela, Loango, and 
on the Mozambique ; but these settlements are the most degenerated of 
all European colonies. In ludia the Portuguese retain^oa ; they 
have a factory at Macao ; and a settlement on the northern pait of tho 
island of Timor. The population is estimated at 2,756,379. 

The Dutch have the islands of Curasao and St. Eustache and 
Surinam in Guiana. In Asia they have the great colony of Batavia 
with its dependencies, various settlements on the coasts of Borneo, 
Sumatra, Celebes, Timor, and the Molucca islands. The population is 
estunated at 16,488,761. 

The Danes arc possessed of the islands of St. Cruz, St. John, and 
St. Thomas in the West ludies ; and Christianburg, near Accra, on the 
Guinea coast ; the popuKation of the whole is only 37,187. 

The Swedes have the island of St. Bartholomew in the West Indies ; 
population about 18,000. 

A society of North American philanthropists foimded about 1821, 
on the Guinea coast, east of Cape Mesurodo, a colony of emancipated 
negroes, who have been transfeiTed thither from the United States. 
The colony is called Liberia. The total population, including natives, 
may be about 60,000. 


COLOPHENE. [Turpentine.] 


COLOPHONY. [Resin.] 

COLORINE. [Madder, Colourim/ Mailers of.] 


COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, a canonical epistle of the 
New Testament, addressed by St. Paid to the Christians of Coloseac, a 
city of Phrygia. The date generally assigned to this epistle by the 
commentotors and critics is a.d. 62. (' Tablettes Chronologiques,' par 
I'AblxS Lenglet Dufresnoy, tome ii. p. 211. Dr. Adam Clarke's 'Suc- 
cession of Sacred Literature,' vol. i. p. 89.) Some say a.d. 63, or tho 
9th of Nero. In the Dissertations on the Harmony of the Gospels, by 
the Rev. Mr. Greswell (vol. ii. pp. 63-66), it is shown that the 
E]ii»tlcs to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, and to Philemon, were 
written by St. Paul at the same time as the one to the Colossians, 
namely, in a.d. CO, nearly at the torminatio'h of the apostle's first 
imprisonment at Rome ; and Epaphroditus in Philemon is considered 
by Mr. Greswell to be the same person as Epaphras in Colossians. 
There is a great similarity between this epistle and that to tho 
Ephesians, the one being a commentary on the other, as Michaelis 
observes. From the expressions in ch. i. ver. 4, 7, 9, and ch. ii. 1, 
where he says, " for as m.any as have not seen my face in the flesh," it 
is inferred by some that St. Paul himself was unknown to 
the Christiaiw of Colossa; ; for though he travelled twice to I'lirygia, 
it appears from Acts, chs. xvi. and xviii., that he visited the northern 
parts, while Colossas was in the southern part. Others, especially Dr. 



v. LlHiMr (' Croililiility a<m.'), who argiios on the ■tatammiUi of 
TlMoiLint (torn. iii. |>. 842), Maart thU St IVtiil (>r»ch«d »nJ planted 
Uto clitircli >t thU city. AoconliOK t« Ktuebiiu, thU city wu one of 
thrw wluch, in the 10th yew <>( Nero (that U, a year after the recep- 
tion iif thu eiiutle), weni totally deatroyed by an earthquake. The 
eliiuf <>>>ject of 8t Paul in thia epiatla uipaara to hare been to exhort 
the ChrwtiaiM of CuioMa to adhere itedfiutly to the doctrines whioh 
ha tMaght, and to rejool the opiniao* of the Jew* and the Pagan 
phOaaopben. The ooooludiiiK eeatenoe of tfie fourth chapter itatea 
tiMt the coarevanoe of thi« adilrea waa oamniitted to Tychicua and 
Onaamua. (uchbom, Michaelia, Home.) 

COLOUR (in Optica). [Light] 

COI.OrR (in l-"ine Arta). [PAi:m!Cu.] 

COLOURING MATTERS. Kach of the three great natural king- 
doma, the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral, abound in aubatanoes 
the chief peculiarity of which u, that they poeaeaa colour. Fur the oauaa 
of thk OMOor aea the article Lioht ; Colour. At preacnt it will onlv be 
neeaMWy to mention these colouring matters, claaaify them, state their 
nnaral pro|N<rties, ami direct attention to the ao\ircn whence more 
Mtailed information may l>e derived concerning thorn individually. 

Colouring matters arc either orijanir or ia<»7/nnii", tliat is derivc<l 
from orgmniaed bodies, such as aniinaU or vogetiblcK, or from unor- 
ganiaed aubatancea, namely minenilK. Organic colouring matters are 
usually more complex in composition, and more liable to alter in tint 
than the inorganic ones ; indeed the latter are for the most jurt 
definite compounds of metals, while the former are often mixtures of 
several proximate principles, and have always a tendency to be decom- 
poaed into mure simple forms of matter. 

In uUIition to the oilours that occur ready formed in nature, the 
ttttdy of chemistry h-is brought to light many artificial ones. 

The great point of interest connected with colouring matters is the 
employment of them in the decorative arts. Scarcely one can be men- 
tioned provided it can be obtained at anything like reasonable cost, 
■ad is poaseaaed of beauty and durability, which has not been employed 
by the calico-printer, paper-stainer, painter, Ac. 

For the s-ike of convenience the following colouring m.ttters will be 
treated of without reference to their organic or inorganic origin, but 
will be grouped together according to their similarity in appearance. 

Yellow CoLOuniNO Matters. 

AnoUo.- [Absotto; Bixin; also Bix a, in Nat. Hist. Drv.] 

CSIlroaw-yrMuic occurs in twenty shades, and under as many different 
names, each celebrated for ita particular tint ; thus prefixed to the 
word J^tjP we find, Alltnbur;), Cahlaer, Citron, Cutnyne, Ootha, Leljuic, 
Pari; Zwndcau, <tc. [Lead, Chramate of.] 

Futlie or tieUoic icood. The wood of a tree. [Fustin ; also Rnus- 
coTurcs, in Nat. Hist. Dn-.] 

Gamboge. [Oamboge; also Qarcinla, in NaT. Hist. Drv.] 

Oe4re occurs native in various shades, and is met with under the 
ToaaeB of !/elloK ofhrt, gold yelluK, gold tarlh, gold oehrt, yellow tienna, 
Ckimof t^Mow. It is composed of hydrated oxide of iron with alumina, 
lime, Ac. [Ocbre.] 

Orpiment, OHriptgnitntHm, Persian or king't yeffoir. [Arsenic, 
SiJj^ide of.] 

Portia* berries, or A vlgnoH grains, contain ckryto-rkamnin. [Rbauncs 
iSFKCTORics, Nat. Hist. Drv.l 

Pturret, or Indian yetloa. [Pcrreic acid.] 

QuercilroH, the bark of a tree. [QuERCrTRlx; also Qdercus 
TiKCTORU, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Rhubarb ytUow. [Chrtsopbamic acid.] 

Saffron, the internal part of a flower. [SArrRAKiN; also Crocds 
SATivi'S, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Turmerie. The root of a tree. [TrnMEnic; CuBCCms; alao 
Ci'RcrMA LosoA, in Nat. Hist. Drv.] 

^Yt^d. A dried plant [Luteolix; also Reseda luteola, in Nat. 
Hist. Div.] 

Chrome orange is, as the name implies, a colour between yellow and 
red. [Lead, ^/iroiaa/e o/.] 

Ued Coloi:rin-g Matters. 

Altanel red, sometimes called Hrhnaji't violet. A spirit colour pre- 
pared from the root of a tree. [Ancrusio Acid; also Ancuusa 
TWCToRiA, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

BnaU-rooil late occurs under the names of Hall all-e, Berlin red, 
Flar aM m t lair, imrpU, jiink or crimmm lake, and mulling red. [Brazil- 
wood, OUoHring Matter of ; also CjMALFimA, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Gmmabar, or Chinese rtd, vermilion, and Paris red. [Mercurt, 

Chrome cinnabar, a very basic chroinate of lead. [Lead, Chro- 
mates of.] 

Corhineal, a dried insect. Pre|xkred as a l.ike, it occurs under the 
name of earmime. Many terms, such as Paris lake, Vienna lake, 4c., 
are applie<l indiacriminately to tlie colouring matters of Brazil wood 
and cochinaaL [Cabmlis; alao Coccidji, and Cocuineal, in Nat. 
Hist. Uiv.] 

O'aranein, prepared fnmi ma<1der. [Oaranci.v.] 

Madder, the root of a tree. [Madder, Colouring Hatters of; also 
RcBu TiscroBCM, in Nat. Uut. Dry.] 

Htd leatl, minium, or mrsMiV. [Lead, Oxides of.]. 

Rtd oxide of iron ia found native. Its ahadea vary from a light to a 
brown-red. The common namea of it are Armenian Imie, Reriin rtd, 
eoleolhar, English red, retl oehrt, bnml oehrt, ml earth, terra di sienna, 
mitural pmrple, slone rtd, Indian ml. [Iron, Oxides of ; Oi'iniK.l 

Smidat iMod, or Saunders' wixxl, fumisbea what is oallett ri<ilet 
tamuUrt, the wood of a tree. [Sa.ntalin ; alao PrBROOARrus san- 
TALinoB, in Nat. Hist. Dtv.l 

Si^^l(nMr,6(u<anfa^^K,drledflowen. [Cabtraui!!; alaoCABTBAJius 
TiNCToRins, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Lac-dye, very similar to cochineal. rSHELL-LAc] 

Logwood furniabes to acids a valuable red. [Hjiuatoxvli.<( ; also 
Ujuiatoxtlox caiipbacblaxum, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Red enamel colours, for glaaa-staining, Ac., ore pivrjJe of castius 
[Gold], and rerf oxide of n>i>itrr. [Coim'kb, Oxides of]. 

Aloes also furnish a red colouring matter. [CuHVSAtimo Acid.] 

Blue Colourinq Matters. 

Cobalt Uue, TMnard"/, J/opfner's blue, cnballie ultramarine, oxide 
of cobalt precipitatetl along with alumina or phosphate of lima. 

S Cobalt.] Stiuttt, Saxun blue,, King's^ blue, a cobalt glass powdered. 

Copper blue, mountain blue, English or J/ambro' blue. [Copper, Cur- 
bonate of] 

Indigo is the base of several blue colours. [Indioo; Iwdiootis ; 
also Indkiofera, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Lichen blue, litmus, turnsole, orchil or arcJiil, and cudbear, are colours 
furnished by many lichens or liverworts. [See the respective names ; 
also LicBKNS, Colouring Matters of; also Lichens, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Prussian blue, Erlangen, Louisa, Saxon, Paris, or Berlin bine. [Iron, 
Cyanides of] 

ritramarine, lapis lazuli, mure blue, Vienna, Meissner, and Nuremberg 
ultramarine. [Ulthamarink.] 

QUss and enamel are coloured blue with cobalt oxide. 

Green Colourinq Matters. 

Arsenical greens occur under between forty and fifty different names, 
including Brunsiciek, Srheele's and Schweinfurth green. [Copper, 
Acetate and Artenite of] 

Chlorophyll, or leaf green, from grass, leaves, ftc [Chloropbti.l.] 

Sap-green, buckthorn, regetaite, or bladder green, [8af-Gheex; also 
RHAUNt:s, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Blue and yellow arc fro<iuently mixeil together to form green 
colours. Green ultramarine [Ultramarine] also bids fair to ecli|>.io 
the arsenical greens. 

Glass, ]x)rcelain, &c., arc coloured green by oxide of chromium 
[CuuOMiuu] and oxide of copper. [Copper.] 

Brown Colouring Matters. 

Umber, sienna or chesnut brovn, is found native. By heat it assumes 
a darker tint, and is then known as burnt umber. It is chiefly oxide of 
iron with silica and alumina. [Ocbre.] 

Sepia, a dried fluid contained in the cuttle-fish. [Sipia orriciKALls, 
in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Catechu, an extract prepared from the wood of a tree. [Catecbu; 
also Acacia, Catechv, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Black Colouring Matters. 

Black lead, a crystalline form of carbon. [Graphite.] 
Charcoal, under various forms. [Bone-Black ; Lamp-Black.] 
Burnt sugar is used to colour brandy, confectionery, and in the 

kitchen. [Caramel.] 
Indian ink. [Ink.] 
Black dyes are produced in many other ways, all having for their 

object the formation of tannate and gallate of iron. 

White Pigments. 

White lead, or flake white. [Lead, Carbonate of] 

Zinc white. [ZiNC, Carlionate of] 

Chalk. [ Calcium, Carbonate of.] 

Plaster of Paris, or gypsum. [Calcium, Sulphate of] 

Ileary while. [Bauiim, Sulphate of] 

French chalk, or tale. [Steatite, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

Pearl while. [Bismuth, Hasie Nitrate of] 

Starch alone is supixweil to bo U8e<l by confectioners as a ililueut of 
the sugar, flavouring .igeut, and colouring matter. 

Glass is rendered o^nque white by oxides of tin and zinc, or by phos- 
phate of lime. 

In the arts and manufactures, all varieties of colours, tinti, and 
shades are produced by mixing those already enumerated with each 

Manre is the n.irae of a very delicate and beautiful puq>le or lilac 
colouring matter, recently discovered l)y Mr. Perkins. (Much of the 
niduve colour now keen is, however, o))tnine<l from Archil by a new pro- 
cess.) The colours produced by it are quite |>ennancnt. Its applicatiun 
to dyeing purposes has been jnteuted. Mauve is so called on account 
of ita colour being similar to that of the petals of the common mallow 





{ifalva lylveslrU) ; mallow lieing rendered in French by the word 

The colouring matiert of fiouxrs are owing, according to Fremy and 
Cloez, to two principles, eyanine and xanthine. The blue tints are 
protluced by eyanine ; the rose tints by eyanine in the presence of an 
acid. Xanthine furnishes the yellow shades, becoming brown in the 
presence of alkalies from formation of xantheine. [Cyx^use, and 

The dark eolouriiu/ matter of the eye is said to be due to a substance 
called melanine. [Melanine.] 

Colouring matter of blood. [Hjiuatosin.] 

For the methods of fixing colours on fabrics, see Dyeing and 

COLOURS. The word colour is used in many different ways. 
Besides its original meaning, in relation to the tints of r.iys of light, it 
has gradually come to be applied to the substances by which those 
tints are imitated. 

Painter's colours, for house-painting and similar purposes, are mostly 
prepared from mineral substances (white lead, red lead, umber, ochre, 
Ac.) ground up with linseed oil and turpentine to the state of a thick 
liquid. It would, perhaps, scarcely be supposed that ' Painters' 
Colours ' appear in the Board of Trade tables, as an article of export, to 
the value of 150,000/. to 200,000/. annually. 

The oil colours for artists are more carefully prepared than those 
for house-painting. They used to be sold tied up in small bladders ; 
but an ingenious and more convenient arrangement is now adopted. 
Mr. Winsor's envelopes for colours, patented in 1840, consist of small 
metal or glass tubes, open at both ends, and provided with elastic 
pistons or plugs of cork or some similar material. The piston has a 
worm or nut in its centre, which corresponds to a screw attached to a 
handle rather larger than the tube. The open ends of the tube are 
covered with small metallic plates having holes in their centres. 
When the colour is placed in the tube, the arrangement of the appa- 
ratus is such as to keep the air from acting on it ; and when any is 
required to be used, the screw is turned round, the piston is pressed 
down, and a httle colour exudes from the lower end. These envelopes, 
like those of bladders, have however been superseded by a very in- 
genious contrivance, which has been generally adopted by artists, Mr. 
Rand's Collapsible Colour-tubes. These tubes were made the subject of 
a p-atent in 1842; the objects of which were to introduce a mode of 
punching out by dies the thin pieces of tin of which the tubes are 
made ; and to m.ike a screw cap at the mouth of the tube, to prevent 
leakage. These little tubes, by a gentle squeeze, are made to yield the 
colour at one end just in suJBicient quantity for use. 

Water-colours for artists include both vegetable and animal as well 
as mineral substances, and like the oil colours, are prepared with very 
great care. [CoLOuniso Matters.] They are prepared dry in cakes ; 
in a slightly moist state in small cups of porcelain, gutta-percha, or 
tin; and in the collapsible tubes at first only used for oil-colours. 
From the care required in their preparation, water-colours of good 
quality were only obtainable at a comparatively high price, but the 
London Society of Arts has been instrumental in inducing manufac- 
turers to produce shilling boxes of water colours applicable to the 
wants of students in schools of design, and other persons in humble 
life, of a character equal to those previously obtainable at a much 
higher rate. 

Mr. Smith of Blackford communicated to the Royal Scottish Society 
of Arts, a paper showing that when chronute of lead is mixed wiUi 
muriate of ammonia, and subjected to the action of heat, a sub- 
stance is obtained of a different colour from either of the matters used. 
If the proportions of the substances be varied, and different degrees of 
heat appked, distinct oolonrs and tints will bo the result. Thus, 
when 6 parts of chromate of lead, and I [mrt of muriate of ammonia 
•re heated to redness in a crucible, a red colour is obtained ; a blue 
colour is formed by heating 10 parts of muriate of ammonia, and 1 part 
of chromate of lead to ebullition ; and a green is produced when the 
laat mixture is heated nearly to redness. By employing various pro- 
portions of the substances, and different degrees of heat, a great variety 
of tints are formed — scarlet, orange, brown, blue, purple, green, yellow, 
and others. It is conceived by the discoverer that these properties 
vay'UtA to useful applications m the arts. 

The progress of chemistry naturally enlarges the list of subst.inces 
from which colours can be obtained ; and we find numerous patents 
bearing on this subject. A few years ago it was hoped that pigments 
for house-pointers might be obtained from tb* residutmi found in 
galvanic batteries, after the decomposition of those metallic compounds 
concerned ia producing the galvanic action ; the pigments are cer- 
tiunly produced, and batteries have been used expressly to this end; 
but the electro-colouis, as they are called, have scarcely become a 
marketable commodity. 
COLOURS ACCIDENTAL. [Accidental Coloi;b8 ; Lwht.] 
COLOURS COMPLEMENTARY. [AccidbstalColodrs; Light.] 

COLT.SFOOT, the name given, owing to the shape of the leaves, to 
the£ompound indigenous plant, called by botanists Tunilago Farfara. 
Its Latin name his reference to its reputed virtues as a means of 
driving away cuuglis. If it be, as conjectured by Dr. Sibthorp and 
others, the Btix'"*' of the Greeks, its fame descends from a very remote 

period ; but its sensible properties do not seem to justify its character. 
The flowers and leaves are used in almost every way and means possible, 
both fresh and dry. The flowers are slightly odorous, and very slightly 
bitter, the leaves are more bitter ; the latter somewhat mucilaginous. 
These when young, boiled, form a good spring vegetable, which might 
be more frequently used, especially by the poor. 

No analysis (quantitiitive) of coltsfoot has been miide, but the chief 
constituents are : mucilage, bitter extractive, tannic acid, colouring 
matter, salts, and woody fibre. 

The properties are feebly tonic, demulcent, and emollient ; on the 
latter account the leaves are sometimes used as an external application 
for poultices or fomentations. The vaunted properties of coltsfoot 
find no credence with the educated, and it only retains its reputation 
as a popular remedy. Hence it is chiefly sold as a nostrum, in the form 
of lozenges, which, when harmless, have their virtues increased by 
adding extract of liquorice and other demulcents, but which are often 
rendered hurtful and even destructive by morphia and other powerful 
narcotics. Essence of coltsfoot is a stimulating compound of balsam 
of tolu, compoimd tincture of benzoin, with a double quantity of recti- 
fied spirit of wine. Most improper at the beginning of colds, the root 
deserves attention as an astringent of considerable power. 

COLUMBA NO'ACHI (constellation), the dove of Noah, a con- 
stellation formed by HaUey, close to the hinder feet of Cauis Major. 
The foUow^ing are the principal stars in this constellation ; — 

No. in Catalogue 

of Britisti 
















COLUMBATIIUM, a place of sepulture used for the ashes of the 
Romans after the custom of burning the dead had been introduced 
among them. It is usually a square or oblong room, the walls of which 
are pierced with small cells or niches for holding the urns which con- 
Plan of Columbariom, discovered in the gardens of the Villa Doiia PamflU at 




Columbsrium B .to 
a larger scale . 


Section ot Columbarium n. 

tained the ashes of bodies which had been subjected to burning. The 
word columbarium signifies a dovecote; and its application to the 



■Ml Dlae«« of int<nD«iit baa uiMa from Um rMMobUao* botweon 
■nul arclinl holv whieh eoaUin Uie Mimlohnl uma uxl tlie 
MCMM* f(«iiM<d for the dom in ■ d«rccot«. 

Thii apiiiieatioa of Uie won) cuIumliariuiD ii proved bjr ancient 
iBMriptiaw, but we are not awara that the term is uaed in thi» eenae 
l>y wy Mtaat Latin writer. 

In tha ViUa Duria PamAli at Bona waa diaoovwvd. in 18S3, a rerv 
•otaiiriTaaaluniharium, or rather an aaaamUaga of oolnmfaaria, wliioli 
are ahown on the aooompanyiiiK plan. It waa aurrounded by a wall, 
with a triple eatnaea, foraed tj two ooUiiiiiik. Tlio culuniKiria, 
wliich are oa a very dimimitiTe aoale, are ]>Uciy| without any ragu- 
larity. Uoe buiUing, a, aaparior in workinanahip to the othera, 
appear* to hare been a email temple in antis, built with red brioka, aet 
with rmj delieate jofaita, and rubbed on the eurfooea. The ohambera, 
B, •, B, ce., were auperior eohtmbaria, with Urge niohea, which con- 
tained double oOa or vaaea for the aahea of the dead, with email 
tablata let into the wall below each niche. The snuill stnictiuree at o, c, 
whloh moat reaemble the dorecotee, are auppoaed to Iiato been the 
aapuIdiTea of the alaroL They are built with reticuktod work, and 
are tiled with aeveral rowa of pigeon-holea, whicb contain olloi : they 
luTe no inacripUona. The brickwork of these ct>hinibiu'ia is of soveral 
datea, if we may judge from the diversity of coiutniction. The 
chamben B 6, B A, have atone doorways, Egyptian iu character. The 
interior of theae little structures, and the temple, have been stuc- 
coed and ornamented with reliefs, and paiut«fl. In the columinria 
of wealthy faniilice a considerable amount of decoration was some- 
timea expended. In tlio immediate neighbourhood of the Columba- 
rium, in the Villa Dorin Pamfili, are numerous inticriptions, tablets, and 
monumental unm, which brlouged to tliiw Kepulclire.s. hut having been 
removed from the ollic, they lose part of Uiuir iutvreiit. There arc 
several columbaria in the neighbourhood of Rome, among which tliat 
of the family Pompeia is remarkable for its tablets and urns. There is 
another and very fine sepulchral chamber, discovered in the year 1746, 
near the gate of San Sebiutian at Rome. 

COLUMBIN (C„H„0,f), the supposed active principle of the Co- 
limiba root. The root contains, according to Buclmer — 

Bitter subsunce with rciin ll-l 

Rniaotu colouring matter 6-0 

Wax -2 

Gum 4-7 

Starch 25-0 

Peclia 17-1 

nbre 22-6 

Watrr, ulU, and Iom 12-9 


Cctumbin is obtained from the alcoholic extract of the root, and 
crystallises therefrom during spontaneous evaporation. It is purified 
by 6Itering its alcoholic solution through animal charcoal, and it then 
possesses the following properties : It cnrstallises iu bitter, inodorous, 
colourless rhombic prijmiB, possessing neither acid nor alkaline reaction. 
Boiling alcohol of -835 dissolves from i, to ^j of its weight. It is also 
soluble in caustic alkalies. Taken internally it is poisonous. 
^ COLl'MBIU.M (Ta) Tantalum. A metal found in 1802, iu two 
Swedish minerals, tanlalite and yttrotanlaUU. The first, somtimes 
called also Columiilf, occurs amor])hous and nodular, and also crystal- 
lised in the form of a right rhombic prism. The massive variety is 
either granular or comi>act : the crystals are grayiah-black : fracture 
uneven ; liardneas, 6 : s]). gr., 6088 j lustre, imperfect metallic ; it is 
o|>a(|ue. It contains about 80 per cent, of oxide of columbium, 12 of 
oxide of iron, and 8 of oxide of uumganese. The yttro-tantalito con- 
tains oxide of columbium, yitria, anil 8.iine other substances. 

CUasiiiHat is obtained with great difficulty. BcrzcUus procured it 
by heating potassium with the iMtasso-fluoridc of columbium. It is a 
black powder, which by the burnisher actjuires the colour and bistre 
of iron. The 8[>ccific gravity is about 6. It is nearly insoluble in 
adds. When heated in the air it' is oxidised, and converted into 
columbio scid. 

_ Oxygen and Cofunii um combine in two proportions, forming colum- 
bic acid and oxide of columbium. 

Culumbic arid mav be obtained liy burning the metal in the air ; it 
is colourioss, inmiiid, and does not act ui>ou vegetable blue colours. 
WTien heated wiUi charcoal it is reduced to the state of oxide. If 
heat4sd with iron it loses oxygen, and on alloy of iron and columbium 
iVi"™* Columbic acid combined with water forms a very white 

hydnite, which reddens vegcUble blues. It combines with salifiable 
bMes to fonn salU which are called colttmbata, but no one of them is 
of anv importance, or applied to any porpose whatever. 

Oobimbie add is composed of — 

3 cquivalenta of oxygen ... 24 
1 equivalent of columbium . . 185 

Equivalent . 209 

Ojtide o/C'Jumliinm is obtafaied by boating columbic acid to wliite- 
liess in a ooverwl crucible. It ia of a grayish black colour, very hard 
and almoat infusible. 

Oxide of columbium oonsista of — 

2 equivalents of oxygen . . 16 

1 equivalent of columbium 185 

Equivalent . . 201 

Columbium combiiMa alao with chlorine and sulphur, Ac., but ' 
compounds arc little known and of no importance. 

CULUUM, frvm tha Latin eofaaMa. The oolumn is a shaft of wood, 
stone, or iron, m the form of a tnmcated oone, a little swelled from the 
straight line at about one-third ila hwsfat from the lower oxtmmity : 
this swelling ia oaUad the antasia. I^ oolumn is fumuhed with s 
base at the foot and a capital at the head of the shaft. Columns are 
of various proportiooa and Unda : eireukr on the plan, and rarely 
polygonal. The Romaoa had five models of columns, which wan 
called orders ; but the Qreeka, from whom the Itomana appear to have 
derived their architecture, only three. The Kgy]itians used columns, 
but they were very different in their form ami proportions from both 
the Roman and Oreek examples. Very different again from all theae 
were the columns in Assyrian architecture. [Niketbii, ABOBiracTORB 

[EgxpUan Oolomn in the British Museum.] 

The elliptical Ogurcs arc the cartouches on the column, drawn to a larger 
scale. The height of the column is 13 ft. II] in. 

The five Roman orders arc the Corinthian, Ionic, and Composite, 
which is a mixture of the two former, and the Doric and the Tuscan, — 




two orders very similar in appearance and character to each other, i The proportions o£ the orders vary slightly in almost every example of 

[Roman Architecture.] ; antiquity; but the distinguishing features are the capitaLs. The bases 

The Greek Corinthian, Doric, and Ionic differ from the Roman, l also vary in proportion, and sometimes in the profiles of their mould- 

[Bair the Corinthian capital of the 
Temple of Vegta, at Tivoli.] 

ingB ; but this is not »o apparent to .in ordinary obsen-er as the difference 
in the capitals of the orders. 

The Ciirinthian capital consista of the leaves of the. acanthus [Acaii- 
TBCs] with two spiral horns at each of the four angles of the abacus. 
In the centre between these horns are two smaller spirals attached to 
the bell of the capital ; under these are two rows of acanthus leaves 
regularly disposed, eight being placed in each row, and eight large double 
leaves supporting the angular horns, called also volutes. These are the 
leading features of the Corinthian capital, although some are more 
ornamental than others, and have enriched details alxmt the abacus and 
the bell, which others have not. The most striking difference between 
the character of the Greek and Roman foliage of the Corinthian 
column is this : the leaves of the Greek have angular points, and are 
almost straight on the sides ; the Roman are rounded on the sides ; the 
section of the hollow of the Greek is angular, while the Roman is 
either a segment of a circle, or formed of two segments of a circle 
meeting in the centre of the hollow of Uie points of the acanthus 
leaf. The Greek leaves may be said to have more of the natural 
character of the acanthus, or the thistle, while the Roman is more arti- 
ficial, and consequently less like the model from which the Greeks 
drew their capital. There are examples gf the Greek Corinthian 
capitals, although much mutilated, in the Elgin collection in the 
British Museum ; and casts of the Roman exmnples from the temple of 
Jupiter Stator, Mors Ultor, and the Pantheon, also in the British 
Museimi. The bell of the Corinthian capital may be clearly under- 
stood from the annexed drawing of the mutilated single Corinthian 

[naif the Corinthian capital from the 
monument of Ly#icrate8, at Athens.] 

capital, as we meet with tho latter in the Temple of Jackly near 

[Ben of a Corinthian Capital, a tngmmt from the Temple of Apollo, at Ila«!c. 
From tho 4th vol. of Stuart's ■ Athens.'] 

capital^oimd in tho Temple of ApoUo .it Basscc, near Phigaleia ,' and 
the accompanying drawings of Egy]>tian dpitals, from the French work 
• >n EKypt, will show better than any elaborate description the strong 
resemblance of the Egyptian capital to the bell of the Corinthian 


[Egyptian Capitals.] 
Mylasa, and the Choragic monument of Lysicrates at Athens. The 







onler of the Temple of Vesta at Rome, which very much resembles the 
order of the Temple at Jackly, was most probably copied from it. 
Among other poculiaritie.s, it has the same defect of the leaves pro- 
jecting beyond the line of the shaft, and is the only building of the 
Corinthian order in Rome which haa a Greek chanicter. Some Greek 
Corinthian capitals have only one row of acanthus leaves, and are 
without the horns under the abacus, the bell being decorated with 
fiat leaves called water-leaves, aa in the Tower of the Winds at 

The Ionic column is characterised by the two large spirals or volutes 
on two of its faces, connected under the abacus. The other sides con- 
nect these faces at right angles by a kind of baluster placed horizontally. 
Beneath this baluster and the astragal surmounting the top of the 

[llalf the Ionic capital of tlie 
order employed in the cella of 
the Temple of ApoUo at Basuc.] 

[Hair of the capital of the 

shaft of the column is the neck of the capital, which in some Greek 
examples is richly decorated ; the baluster i» also occasionally enriched. 
In some Ionic capitals all the faces of the volutes are conjoined at the 
extremities, the faces being curved inwards aa in the Temple of ApoUo 
at Baaaa!. Ionic columns placed at the angles of porticos have some- 
times the volute ingeniously formed at the angle, so aa to present a 
voluted tace either ranging with the volutes of the portico, or with the 
volutes of the column at the side of the portico. The angle column 
of St. Pancras Church, London, has the angular faces curved. The 
angular volutes in some Roman examples are formed of two half 
volutes placed at right angles to each other. The Uises ^of the Ionic 
vary jwrhaps more than any other order. In Roman examples the 
Attic base is employed. 

The Compnsito column, aa its name implies, is a compoumL It is 
formed of the Corinthian and Ionic, but partakes more of the Corinthian 
character and proportions. 

The Roman Doric and Tuscan columns are shafts with moulded 
capitals and bases, the Doric only having a slight decoration of rosettes 
and buds in the neck of the capital, and some trifling ad<litional 
mnuldings. The Doric lUffcrs from the Roman Ixjth in pro- 
jx>rtion and in the mouldings of the capital, in the ilutings being 
without fillets, and in ita being almost always without a base. 

An order included the column with the whole of the entablature, or 
the superstnicture raised on it, which is divided into architrave, frieze, 
and cornice. 

All the great architects of the cinque cento, and after them those of 
the Liter ItJian and French schools, have differed in the proportions 
and details of the orders, but for the most part in a trifling degree. 
The proportions of the five Roman orders which we have adopted here 
,w our rule are those laid down in Sir William Chambers's ' Archi- 
tc-cture,' and which are generally employed by the English architects 
of the present day. The proportions of the orders used by the Greeks 
arc from the authority of Stiurt. The measure by which the pro- 
portions of the orders are detennjned, is the diameter of the base of 
the shaft of the column, which is divided into two parts called modules, 
and each module is divided into 30 parts calle<l minutes. This scale is 
in general use in all cotintries which derive their architecture from the 
Greeks and Romans. 

Thus the height of the shaft of the Tuscan order, from the upper 
line of tlfe fillet of the base to the upper line of the astragal of the neck 
of the column, is 12 mixlulesor semicUameters high ; the base, including 
the plinth, is 30 minutes ; the capital, 30 minutes ; the architrave, 314 
minutes; the frieze, 314 minutes; the cornice, including the bed-mould 
or ogee, 42 minutes ; and the projection of the cornice, 42 minutes. 
The shaft of the Doric order is 13 modules 28 minutes; the base, 
30 minutes ; the capital, 32 minutes ; the architrave, 30 minutes ; the 
faieze, 45 minutes ; and the cornice, 45 minutes. The projection of 
the cornice is 57 minutes. The shaft of the Ionic order contains 
16 modules 9 minutes ; the base, 80 minutes ; the capital, from the 
upii«r line of the astragal, 21 minutes; the architrave, 404 minutes; 
the fri&e, 404 minutes; and the cornice, 64 minutes. The projection 
of the cornice is 54 minutes. The Corinthian order h.-ia the shaft 
18 modules 20 minutes ; the base, 30 minutes; the capital, 70 minutes ; 

AttTS Aim «CI. DIV. VOL. HI. 

the architrave, 45 miuutes ; the frieze, 45 minutes ; the cornice, 60 
minutes ; and the projection, 58 miuutes. The Composite order is 
similar in its general proportions to the Corinthian ; and the columns 
of the Roman orders diminish in diameter about one-sixth ; that is, are 
50 minutes at the upper diameter of the shaft. But by a reference to 
the proportions of some of the columns of ancient edifices at the end of 
this article, some variations from this proportion will appear. 

The Greek Doric varies very much in its proportions. The Doric of 
the Parthenon has the shaft and capital 10 modules 8 min\ites high, 
and the entablature 3 modules 15 minutes. For a scale of the pro- 
portions of the leading features of some of the best known examples of 
antiquity, see the end of this article. 

The Tuscan order, which is simple in its desigu, has a base formed 
of a plinth or squai'ed piece of stone as a foundation, and a torus above 
it, surmounted with a fillet. The shaft is terminated with a fillet and 
an astragal, on which the capital is set, consisting of a necking (a pro- 
longation of the shaft) and an ovolo moulding supporting the sq\iared 
abacus, which is surmounted with a fillet. The architrave i.s a plain 
face with a broad fillet. The frieze .also is a plain face. The cornice 
consists of an ogee, a fillet, an ovolo fonning the bed-mould of the 
cornice, which consists also of the corona and fillet, surmounted with 
a cymatium. ^ 

The Roman Doric, resembling in some particulars the Tuscan, is 
however very much richer. The Doric base consists of a plinth, a 
torus, a hollow moulding with a fillet above and below it ; on the 
upper fillet is another torus and fillet, from which rises the shaft, 
curved where it springs from the fillet : the lower diameter of the shaft 
of a column is always mea.sured from the point where this ciure ends, 
and is joined to the straight hne of the shaft. This is the Attic base, 
which is most commonly used in all the orders except the Tuscan. 
The shaft of the Doric is terminated like the Tuscan, and from the 
summit springs the capital with a neck enriched with rosettes and buds. 
Above the necking .are three flat annular rings or fillets, then an ovolo 
moulding surmounted mth the abacus, which is finished with a small 
ogee moulding and fillet. The architrave is a plain face, with a flat 
band {tcenia) and a fillet under the triglyph, with six guttae or dropj 
under the fillet. The frieze is divided into compartments with a triglyph 
over each column and one or more between, according to the width of 
the intercolumniation. The triglyphs which project slightly from the 
face of the frieze are chivnnelled with angular cLannels and two half 
channels at the sides of the triglyph. The metope, or space between 
two triglyphs, is squ<-iro or nearly so ; this, however, depends on the 
intercolumns. The trigly]ihs are bound together by a f.aoia, sur- 
mounted by a small fillet under the bed-mould of the cornice, which 
is an ovolo moulding or an ogee. Over this ia the niuttile band with 
the mutules, square in form, projecting over the triglyphs ; an ogee 
sumioimta the mutules and the mutule band. The mutules support 
the cornice, consisting of the corona, an ogee and fillet, and a cavetto 
or hollow moulding. The soffit or under-hide of the cornice is some- 
times enriched with i>anneU, ami guttaj are placed under the mutules. 
The Doric of the theatre of Marcellus at Rome has dentils with an 
ogee be<l-mould in the cornice m lieu of the mutules ; and the basilica 
by Palladio at Viccnza ia without either mutules or dentils, h.aving 
instead of them a bold ogee and ovolo moulding, and the architrave 
divi<led into two facijc. 

The Greek Doric differs considerably from the Roman, being .almost 
always executed without a Ixase. The flutings of the shaft are twenty 
in number without fillets ; some examples are fluted only .at the upper 
and lower extremities. The capital consists of a solid-looking abacus 


[Hair the capital of the Parthenon at Athens.] 

without any moulding above it, but supported by a very elegantly- 
curved cchinua-moulding, which swells out of the lino of tlie 
sh.aft, Ijeing bovmd round by three annulets or rings near the top of 
the shaft, and on the under extremity of the echinus. A jiart of the 
shaft is also cut off by a sinking, or cliannel, cut into the sh,aft, fonning 
the necking of the capital. The features of the entablature are very 
simple. [UitEEK Architecture.] The triglyi)hs are not very dis- 
similar in the Roman and Greek Doric, except in the setting them 
off on the frieze. In the Roman they are invariably set over the centre 
line of each column, the angle of a building being terminated by a 
portion of a metope. In the Greek the triglyph is invariably com- 


I at Uie angle ol the buUding, and not over the oantn line of 
tlM oolumn geaonlly. 



■ame, and thev diffitT but aligbtly iu their mooldinst and enriehmanta. 
Tho Uae vi U>Ui Curinthian aud CumiKwite is the MUc The autmga 

[Grctk Doric orilor of ihe 

[Ionic otder of tlie Ereetheum 
ot Athens.] 

The Roman Ionic baa an Attic base. The capital is formed with 
two volutes on two faces, and the volutes are connected 1>y liorizontil 
lines, though »omctime«, like the Greek, the curve<l line U cmploytHl. 
The abacus it formnl of a fillet and an ogee. Under the horizontal 
lines connecting the volutes ia an echinus and astragal or bead-moidd- 
ing enriched. The architrave is divided into two faciic : the up])or 
face is sumioimtod with a fillet and ogee enriched, and the lower with 
a amall echinus, also enriched, having a narrow fillet imdemeath it. 
The frieie is usually plain, though the teiu]>lu of Koi-tuna Virilis at 
Rome has a meagre decoration. The coniice is supixirted hy an t>g<'C 
moulding and dentils surmounted with a fillet, a bead moulding, and a 
large enriched echiinis moulcUng. The cornice itself consists of a 
c<iroiia with a small ogee and fillet, on which is pLice<l a cymatiuni. 
The volutes of the capital are connected at the sides by a pulvinus, or 
cushion, commonly called the baluster of the Ionic order. The Greek 
Ionic varies in proportion, and is superior in beauty to the Roman 
example. Tlie method of drawing the Roman volute ojiUcd Goldnum's 
volute, is described in Sir Willmm Chambers's Architecture. 

The following is a very accurate method of drawhig the Greek vobite 
aimilar to the form of the volute of the Ereetheum or Minerva VoMaa 
at Athena. Divide any perpendicular height, a b, into 12 equal parts. 
Through the 7th division </ from the top, draw the line c D at right 
anglea to a b. Then upon the line c d, from the centre ;/, set olf 
toward! o aiz of the seven divisions between a and g. Draw the lines 
a n and k f, at angles of 46 degree* to the lines a b and c o respec- 
tively. Bisect the line joining A and c by 6 a, and produce it till it 
cuts E r in (f. Then from d, as a centre, with the radius rf a or d c, 
daacribe the quadrant A c of the volute. Then join c d, cutting the 
line o B in e ; from the point e describe with the nulius e c or e B the 
quadrant c B, passing through B, the extremity of the line a b ; and 
proceed in tUs manner with all the quadrants till you touch the 
etutn. The oentrM of the segments ▲ o, c b, b D, &e., are always 
found on the diagonal lines s F and o b. 

The best examples of the Roman Ionic order are fluted, with twenty- 
four flutina, or semicircular channels, divided by a narrow fillet, which 
is part of the stu'fsca of the shaft of the column. Some Greek exam- 
ples, as at Baaan, have only 20 flutings, and are without fillets. 

The general proportions of the Corinthian and Composite arc the 

[Method of drawing the spiral forming the volute of the Greek Ionic of lbs 
Ereetheum ond Minerva I'olias Temples, at Athens.] 

of the shaft are, aa in the Ionic, twenty-four, and divided by fillets. 
The capital is composed of two rows of acanthus leaves, oiglit in each 
row, and the upper row is placed between and over the divisions of the 
lower row. Four spiral volutes in each face rise out of two bunches of 
the acanthus leaf, and two of them are connected at the angles, and 
support the abacus formed of a oavetto and fillet, and an ccliinus, 
which are, except the fillet, sometimes enriched. The face of the 
abacus is formed of the segment of a circle, whose extremities are 
supported by the spiral horns or volutes. The connected ends of the 
abacus form a narrow face, round which the mouldings are contuiued, 
although in some rare instances these ends are pointed by the inter- 
section of the two curved faces of tlie abacus. The leaves and volutes 
are carved round what is a continuation of the shaft, fonned into the 
slmpe of a bell revcrsetl. The lower row of leaves generally follows tlie 
line of the shaft, which ia considered the best system of setting them 
off round the bell, although the Temple of Vesta at Rome has the 
leaves projecting beyond the shaft, and Inigo Jones has a<lopted this 
system in the Hanqueting-house at Whitehall. The Corinthian archi- 
trave is divided into three faces, tlic Composite into two. The upjier 
face is sui-mounted with an astragal and ogee enriched with a fillet ; the 
middle face has above it a small enriched ogee, and the lower face .in 

[A UodiUion or Console of the cornice of the Temple of Jupiter Stator at Borne,] 

enriched bead. The frieze is enriched with figures or om.amenta. Tlio 
cornice is distinguished by its modillions and dentils ; the latter .ire 
supported by an ogee and astragal enriched ; the former by on enriched 





echinus and astragal. The modillion, which is set .it mtervals under 
the corona, will bo better understood by the tinnexed view of a 
modillion of the Temple of Jupiter Stator, showing also the soffit, or 
imder-side of the corona, with the enriched paunel between the modil- 

lions. The modillions support the corona, which is terminated with a 
cymatium, imd this moiUding, in the example before us, is decorated 
with lions' heads. 

In the Composite order, mutules are sometimes employed instead of 



[Half the Corlnthbui capital, from Sir Wm. Chambers.] 

[Half the Compofito capital, firom Sir Wm. Cliambers.] 

the Corinlhian modillion. The orders .are sometimes set on pedestals, 1 a deep plinth. The die is surmounted with mouldings forming a 
ooudBtiog of a square shaft, called the die, with a moulded baae set on j capitiU, but lu reality resembling more the cornice of an entablature. 






[Attic Base.] 

[Ionic Baae at the 
rrojiylmk of Eleuaia.} 

[Base of (he Ereetbeom.l 

[Base of the [Base of tho 
Mincrvii Poliaa.] order of tho 
Temple of 
Apollo Didy- 


[Profile of the bases of tho 
columns employed in the 
Temple of Minerva Polias, 
at Priene.] 

Chamber* allows, for tho proportion of tho die of the Tuscan pedestal, I minutes ; tho louio, throe modules, eighteen uiiuutes ; .and the Corln- 
two modules, twenty-four minutes ; for the Doric, three modules, six | thian and Composite, four modules. The bases and capitals are 




fH|iwtiTe)T— TuaoMi, ban tw«at7.«ight mintitam capital (ourtern 
Miautw : Dock, imu thbrty-tvo, mud upiul (ixteen rninuto* ; Ionic 
liMe tUrty-ttz, and osfital eightow minuVM; aod CoriDthian, bwie 
forty, and M^iitil tmn^ mlnotot, 

Onck mowMh^TMyfrom tha BamHi, uxl ue ranukaUo for iwiiig 
•baoat iavMMily drawn bjr the hand, nnd ma foroMd, aa in tha 
Roaoaa aiamplaa, at paila of eiroiaa ataiick with tlie oomnaaaaa. 

The flutintpi of ««Jnimf«« ruj in tlie dopth and (orm of their eurrea ; 
aume, aa in the iKiric ordera, are tat aegmenta, without fiUeta between 
them, other* are daao aegnanta and aamicirelea, and othen are aeiui- 
dliptieal. and a u mat a uaa more than aerai-eUiptieal, on the plan, aa in 
the Jupiter Stator. Some cdnnuia of antiquity are deoonted with 
afifaal Bntaa, and aome with learaa, aa in the Temple of CUtumnua, and 
in a tr^maot in the Britiah Muieum. 

The method of drawing the antaaa of the column* employed in 
Ituman architecture ia deaeribed by Chambers, p. ii. of the Pretaoe. 
It ia dona by meana of a eliding rule, cnllod Uie rule of Nicomedaa. 

SooM aooount of the entaaia of colimiDK, by Mr. Jenkins, is given in 
the 4th Tul. of Stuart's ' Athrnn,' with compariaons of the entaaia of 
aerenU culunin*. and inuro fully and elaborately in Mr. Penroae's 
treatise on the rarthenon, puljli«hed by the Dilettanti Society. The 
Greek eotaas is much mure subtle than the Roman. 

We may here obaenre, ii^nerally, that the principle of a base is 
support, which ia admirably shown in the Attic base, where the two 
tori are proimrtionod and arranged, with the graoefid sweep of the 
cavctto or hoUow moulding betwetn them, to sustain the shaft. The 
boUuw-mnulding givee adiUtiunal height to the base, and the profile is 
in no part witlua the perpendicular line of the sliaft, which would 
give it a wedt appearance. The annexed variety of baiiBS, from Greek 
«i^»mpVi« (see preceding page), present some of the beaotiea and some 
of tiis defsoto even of Oreek architecture. The baae of the ApoUo 
Didyiunia shows weakness, and the torus of the Minerva Polias, at 
Priene, ^ipears too heavy for the delicate astragals and cavettos beneath. 

Seme oolumna, instead uf bt>ing fluted the whole height of the shaft 
are, for .ibout oncthinl from tlie liase, made polygonal, each side being 
the width "< tlie Hute. This is {larticularly the case at Pompeii, where 
tlic Itoric ciilunins are ofton very slender. In the internal OTder of the 
I'autheun, the flutings are filled with cabling about one-third of their 
height CaliUng is a carved bond prujecting out of the fluting. 
ritoroRTioxB or some or the coli;iu«8 emploteo is ahcie:(t 




Diameter Upper 

Height of 


of diameter 



Base, of Shaft. 


ft in. 


in. ft. in. 

ft. in. 

Temple of Japltcr Olympiot at 

Agritentam , . . .1 61 9 


10 6 

24 9-24 

Ditto of llcrculM St Agrigcntum . S3 24 


0-4 4 10 

Ditto of Apollo Kpicurius at llauc. 

new riiiiiitleU .... 

19 8-8 

7-7S 2 10-44 

8 41 

Ditto tl Csdachio, in Corfu . 

11 8-24 

1 6 

8 10-74 

Ditto of Minerva at Athau, eallcd 

tke PaitbtBCa . ... 

SI 4t 


4 9-74 

10 10-40 

Ditto of Tbnfui .... 

18 7-18 


1 6-63 

6 4-9 

Ditto at Corinth . . . . 

23 8 


4 4-10 

Doric rorlioo at Athena 

26 IS 


3 4-6 

7 4-48 

(Bdurt'a ' Atbcnii.') 

Trsjan'a Colnmn, Boman Doric 

07 9-1 



10 8-8 

AntonbM Column, ditto . . ii7 S-| 



11 fl 

Tenple of Jupiter UeUeniua, in 

wKfina 17 425 


I 4-04 

8 1004 

Ditto of Minerrs at Suninm . .1 19 9-l» 


S 8-64 

6 8 

Ditto of Jupiter Ncmnua between' 

Arges and Corinth . . .| S3 11-2 


4 3 

8 1-85 

rroprUca at Klcuata . 


a 1008 

9 414 

Tenple of Ceres at Kleoal* , . 


4 4 

12 8-90 

Ditto of Diana )>rop]:la>« at Eltnals 


1 0-74 

4 0-74 

Dittoof KimnUatltbanmoa . 13 S'iS 


1 10 








Entabla- ! 


of Shaft. 

ture. 1 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. In. 

Temple of ApoUo Eplcnrlu* st 


3 I-« 

1 9-4 

3 9-31 

Dluo of Ereclheua, Athens . . 

21 7.40 

1 3-8 

1 11-2 

4 1114 

Aqocdoet of Uadrian . 

19 1-94 

1 1-34 

1 11-1 

4 2-90 

Templeon thaDiaraa . . . 

14 8-300 

I (-4 

1 8-1 

S 7-281 

Templt of Fortans VlriUa at Borne 


* 1 

1 8 

6 8-6 

Temple of Daechna at Teas . 


8 36 

8 1-8 

1 4-4 

Minerva Poliaa at I'riene . . 

, , 

4 2-8 

8 8-4 

ApoUo Didrmmis near Mlletns . 


6 S-2 

t 4-8 

3 4-3 

PiepylM at Eleoils . . 

• • 

3 4-e 

1 •■24 


Diame- Upper 



tor of diameter 



Bow. of Shaft. 



ft. In. 

ft. U. 

ft. in. 

ft. U. 

Incantada at 8.iloniea . 

23 88 

1 49 

4 7-74 

Trnpleofthe Winda (without base) 

13 8-84 

I 7-4 

Moawncnt of L]:Mct«tea at Athena 

11 7-64 

1 1 


1 8118 

1 Stoo, or Portioo, at Athena . . 

28 0-434 

2 11-3 

3 8-64 

4 68 

, Arab of Trajan, Ancona 

23 2-7 

3 4-24 2 0-24 

4 6-8 

1 Ditto of Oonataottne . . . 

27 4-1 

1 111 

3 9 

7 1-3 

1 Portico of Pantheon at Home 

46 4-2 

, 4 10-4 

4 8-4 

10 11-8 

1 Interior of the Pantheon at Rome 

34 10-4 

3 8! 

8 3-S 

8 3-9 

Temple of Anloninua and Faustina 

46 7-7 

4 10-3 

4 1-8 

10 0-1 

Ditto of Vesta at Tlvoll . . . 

IS 6 

1 4 

1 1-8 

4 8 


! Ditto of Jupiter Tonans 

46 6-2 

4 8-3 



' Ditto of Jupiter Slatiir . . . 

48 40 

4 10-3 

4 3-4 

13 lo-l 

Ditto of Veata at Bomo 

84 7-2 

3 3-4 

3 8-1 

Ditto at Jaekljr, near Hjriasa, in 

1 AsU Minor, the snppooed site of 

1 Labranda 

n 1-8 

2 10-34' 3 3 

4 6-6 

; Ditto of Mars Ultor at Boms 

47 11 

nearljr 4 l'< 
6 ft. 1 

S 10-4 

Arch of Titus , . . . 
Septimius ScTcnu . . . . 

Height 1 Diameter 

of of 
Column. Base. 

of Shaft. 

Height 6f 



ft. in. 1 ft. in. 
20 8-4 2 0-3 
37 10-4 2 10-6 

ft. In. 
I 9-4 
3 6-J 

ft. in. 
4 4-4 

6 7 

Vitrurius makes the height of the Doric (Boman) seven times the diameter; 
the Ionic, 8} ; and the Corinthian, two-thirds higher than the Ionic, or nine 
diameters and ene-sixth. The proportions of Palladio and VIgnola differ ; the 
latter are, we believe, preferred by the French scbool. Sec tlic Architecture 
of Palladio and Vignola. The proportions of the columns gircn above are 
from Stoort'a 'Athens;' Taylor and Crossy's 'Bomc;' 'Ionian Anliquitirs;' 
' Unedited Antiquities of Attica,' &c. 

In studying theac works the student should be guided by the Hgures denoting 
the dimensions rather than by the outlines. 

COLUMN. This term is applied to any formation of troops in which 
the diviflions are placetl l>eUiud one another exposing a narrow front to 
the enemy. Thtia a column of l>attalioii8 is foruiod by a number of 
successive batt<ilions being deployed close l^eluud one another ; while a 
battalion is B.iid to be in column when the comivmics of wliicli it is 
compo8c<l arc deployed in rear either of ono of the flank coni|vuue8, or 
in rear of the two centre corap-miee or two centre sulMlivisiuns. A 
battalion is said to be in open column when the distance between the 
companies is such as to admit of their wheeling into line ; and to bo 
in close coluom when the front rank of one company is within a few 
jnces of the rear rank of. the one before it, whUe the half distance 
column is intermediate between the two. 

The formation of the Greek and Horaan .-uTnies was almost wholly in 
colunm, both for attack and defence. And it was only on the intro- 
duction of fire-arms and field artillery that, from the ravages com- 
mitted in dense maases, s more extended formation was adopted. 
Gustavus Adolphus was one of the first to employ a more open 

In the wars of the French Revolution, at the dose of the 18th 
century, the dense column was universally employed, almost of nccesgity, 
.18 the raw levies were not sufficiently tminwl to bo easily liandled m 
any other formation, and the loss of life eutaile<l was not considered by 
their generals, to whom success, however dearly purchased, was the 
only obligation. From these victories and those of the first Napoleon, 
who also employed ver^ dense colimms in attack, it restUted that (Uoae 
columns came much mto repute, and their advantages as compared 
with other formations arc raucli contoBt«d points among military writers, 
especially l-ctwecn Hnglisli and foreign authors ; the fonner i>riuci|ially 
upholding the formation in line, whicli had been so successfully applied 
by the Uuko of Wellington in the Peninsula and at Waterloo againrt 
the columns of the French. Still we must not blind ouraelves to 
the fact, that a formation which can be applied with troope of such 
morale as the English may not be the best with others. Jomini, 
when diaousaing this question in his ' Prdcis de I'art do la Guerre ' 
remarks, " Dis lora quelle serait I'armde Europ<$ene (si Ton rxcepte Ics 
An glais), quo I'on pftt se haaarder h deployer en lignos sur deux range." 
And as a three rank formation makes a column too dense, and it 
would be next to impossible to change from a three to a two rank 
formation, according as a deployment or colunm waa required, he 
reconmieuds the constant employment of small columns of attack on 
a two rank formation. 

From the groat advantage that the formation in column gives in 
the movement and handling of troo|w, and the impoasibility of con- 
ducUng extended inovem«nt« in line, even if there were any object 
in attempting it, the column will always in some shape or other be 





employed in all the preliminary dispositions of a battle, and it is only 
when within raiige that the question arises as to formation. For the 
offensive, the objeota to be kept in view in the fonnatiou of troops, are 
mobility combined with solidity and impulse ; while for the defensive, 
solidity should be united with the greatest possible amount of fire. 
Now the column, if not too deep, combines the former qualities in the 
highest possible degree, and in an attack firing is not required ; indeed, 
if the men once commence to fire, the attack will in all probability fail, 
for the impulse and impetuosity of the charge being lost, if received by 
a steady fire from the enemy, they soon get into confusion and retire. 
At the same time it must be remembereil, that the deeper the forma- 
tion the greater will be the carnage, especially if artillery be employed 
in the defence of the position attacked ; and therefore, if the troops are 
sufficiently steady and well disciplined to be managed under fire in 
line they wUl have a great advantage. The deployment from the column 
into line for attack, should not however take place at too great a 
distance from the point attacked, as, especially in moving over rough 
ground, troops in line soon lose their formation ; whilst on the other 
hand, if the deployment is too long deferred, and the column while 
deploying ia received with a heavy fire, it is likely to be thrown into 
disorder, and if then promptly charged, (as at Waterloo), will probably 
be routed. 

Jomini, while condemning the formation of troops in large masses, 
as at Waterloo, argues in favour of battalion columns, formed on the 
two centre companies, with two companies as skirmishers, thus making 
the depth only six ranks, as a good general formation for attack. For 
he says, that although at Talavera, Busaco, Fuente d'Onor, Albuera, 
and Waterloo, heavy columns, (in one case twelve battalions deployed 
behind one another, or a depth of thirty-six ranks,) had been annihilated 
by the fire and attack of the English infantry in line, on front and 
flank, yet that this is no proof .igainst small battalion columns, which 
have not been sufficiently testecL And for defence, he considers the 
first lino should be deployed, and the second in battalion columns. 
The success of the line or column will, however, depend upon its 
proper api>lication by the general, according to the modifying circum- 
iftances of ground, whether broken or even, of discipline and of morale. 
And no general rule can be laid down, though the Duke of Wellington 
appears to have almost always deployed his columns before attacking. 

COLURES {at KiXovpot, colari). The term originally applied to any 
great circles of the sphere paaaing through the jwles, but came at last 
to mean only the circles which also pass through the equinoxes and 
the solstices, which are distinguished as the equinoctial and solstitial 
coliu-cs. These terms are now of very little use, as the fact of a star 
being upon either circle is attended with no remarkable phenomenon. 
Astronomers would describe a star on the equinoctial colure as having 
cither no right ascension, or twelve hours of right ascension, according 
as it is on the vernal or auttmmal half of the circle ; and a star on the 
solstitial colure as having either six hours or eighteen hours of right 
ascenmoD, according as it is on the summer or winter side of the 
heavens. If we say that the sun is on the equinoctial cohu-e at the 
quarter-days of March and September, and on the solstitial colure at 
t^ose of June and December, we rather elucidate the term cohu°e than 
derive infommtion from it. 

The solstitial colure passes through the poles of the ecliptic also, 
and might be called an ecliptic colure ; but the other circle, which 
paaaes through the equinoxes and the poles of the ecliptic, has no 
distinct name, and would be best described as the circle from which 
celestial longitude is reckoned. 

COLZA, OIL OF. The seeds of the Brattica campotris oUifcra 
yield by expression about 39 per cent, of a yellow oil, which possesses 
a specific gravity of '0136, and solidifies at 21° Fahr. It is a mixture 
of the glycerine compounds of two acids, namely Brastic acid 
(C,,H,,0,). The other acid resembles oUic acid, but does not seem to 
be identiokl with it. Colza oil is used both for lamps and in cookery. 

COMA, a Greek word (kuiul), signifying profound sleep ; a morbid 
condition of the brain, attended with loss of sensation and voluntary 
motion, the patient lying as if in deep sleep. 

It can scarcely be considered a primary or idiopathic disease ; it is 
rather symptomatic of that condition of the brain which, when in 
sufficient intensity, produces apoplexy. If it be regarded as a positive 
disease, it must be considered as a milder form of apoplexy. It exists 
in different degrees of intensity; several of which degrees, as they arc 
attended with some variety in the symptoms, and are dependent on 
some modification of the patliulogical condition of the brain, so they 
have ac(iuired distinct names. Wlien there is a state of mental and 
physical torpor, indicated by an almost constant tendency to sleep, and 
great inaptitude for muscukr exertion ; when the patient is sensible 
only as long as he is strongly exciter], and as soon as the 
stimulus is withdrawn, lapses into a state of forgetfulncss, the affection 
is called Lethargy. When no distinct consciousness returns, however 
the patient may be roused or stimulated, though there BtUl remain 
some indication of feeling on the application of mechanical irritatiim, 
as on being pricked or pinched, the affection is called Cams. But 
when the insea^iliility is so great that the imtient indicates neither 
sen^tion nor feeling, whatever mechanical stimulus be applied, this 
stat^is often called, by way of eminence. Coma. This comatose state 
invariably accompanies apoplexy ; and, as has been stated, coma, when 
intense, passes into apoplexy. 

The abolition of sensation and voluntary motion (aniuial functions), 
which constitutes coma, is always attended with a greater or less 
disturbance of the organic functions. The circulating system is dis- 
ordered ; the pulse at one time is slow and full, and at another quick 
and small. The respiration is laborious, and is commonly preter- 
naturally slow. The power of generating animal heat is almost always 
diminished, the skin being cold and clammy ; though there are cases 
in which the temperature is elevated somewhat above the natural 
standard. The countenance is usually pale and sunk; the pupUs 
dilated, but in the worst cases contracted ; the position of the bo<ly is 
supine ; in the worst cases there is a constant tendency to sink down in 
the bed ; the limbs are motionless ; and the evacuations, if not wholly 
retained, which is usually the case, are passed without consciousness. 

In coma there is an exhaustion or suppression of the sensorial I'owers, 
in other words, an abolition of the cerebral functions. This state of 
the nervous is alwiiys attended with a morbid condition of the vascular 
system. There is either a congestion of the capillary blood-vessels, 
occasioning obstructed circulation of the blood through the brain, or ' 
there is too rapid and violent a flow of blood through tlie cerebral 
vessels; or an inflammatory condition of the blood-vessels; or an 
extravasation of blood, or an effusion of serum into the cerebral sub- 
stance. In addition to its disordered motion, there is also sometimes 
a depraved quality of the blood. There is reason to believe that to 
some morbid ch.inge in the constitution of the blood, the coma incident 
to bad types and advanced states of fever is mainly owing. 

The morbid condition of the brain, on which coma depends, may be 
induced by any of the which have been enumerated as consti- 
tuting the predisposing and exciting causes of apoplexy. [AroPLEXT.] 

COMA BERENI'CES (Constellation), the hair of Berenice, placed 
among the stars by the astronomer, Conon, in memory of Berenice, the 
wife of Ptolemy Euergetes. (B.C. 246.) The legend is, that she had 
de<licated this hair to Venus, in case of her husband's safe returu from 
Asia, and that it dis.ippeared from the temple in which it was placed, 
and W.18 never seen again till found in the stairy heavens, where it now 
is, close to the tail of the Lion, and passing the meridian about .iu hour 
before ArctiuTis. [BEnhNiCE.] Gcminus attributes the constellation to 
Callimachus, who mentions it, as do Catullus and Pliny. Ptolemy 
does not place the stars now belonging to this constellation by them- 
selves, but in the fciil of the Lion ; and Hygiuus makes no separate 
mention of it. It was constantly mentioned by writers on the sphere, 
but not figured or catalogued separately, as far as we can find, till the 
time of Tycho Brahe. 

Tlio constellation Coma Berenices will be found shut up in the 
triangle formed by the three bright stars, Arcturus, j8 Leouis, and a 
Canum Venaticorum. It contains no stars of conspicuous magnitude. 
COMB MANUFACTURE. Combs are generally made of a thin 
plate of wood, horn, tortoise-shell, ivory, bone, or metal, which may be 
either flat or curved, having one or two of its edges indented with 
narrow slits, which divide the substance of the comb into long, fine, 
pointed teeth. Combs employed in the woollen manufacture are de- 
scribed in the article relating to that subject. Curry-combs, used in 
dressing horses, consist of a number of iron plates notched on one edge 
to form saw-Uke teeth,imd attached by the other edge to an irou back, 
in panJlel lines, so as to form an instrument the action of which is 
between that of a scraper, a comb, and a brush. 

In the mode of cutting and shaping the plates of which combs are 
formed there is little call for remark ; but in the act of comb-cutting 
much ingenuity has been called into exercise. The hand-method is by 
means of a dotible saw, consisting of two separate fine saws, placed 
parallel with each other, and adjusted to such a distance as to embrace 
a tooth of the required fineness between them. These two saws are bo 
arranged that wliile one cuts into the comb to the full depth required, 
the other cuts only about half that depth ; by this contrivance the 
uniformity of the comb is secured ; because, while the deeper saw is 
completing the first cut, the shallower one is forming the commence- 
ment of the second ; and when, on the completion of the first cut, the 
deep saw is put into the second cut to complete it, the shallower one 
immetliately commences a third. The cuts thus formed are subse- 
quently enlarged and rendered smoother by means of a very thin 
wedge-shaped file, which also points the teeth. With such accuracy ' 
may these operations be performed, that delicate ivory combs, with 
from fifty to sixty teeth in an inch, are produced in this way. Though 
this method of comb-cutting is still practised, a superior and much 
quicker mode by means of circular saws and revolving cutters for 
pointing the teeth has been long i» use. 

By the above-described modes of comb-cutting all the material of 
the interstices between the teeth, is lost or destroyed; but by the 
operation knoAvn as the parCoiij of combs such loss or waste of material 
may be avoided in the manufacture of combs of tortoiseshell, horn, or 
any other tough material ; two combs being, by this process, made out 
of one piece, the teeth of one being cut, by the pressure of chisel-like 
instruments, out of the interstices of the other. Mr. Lyne's nmchine, 
for this purjiose, is worked by the alternating action of a lever handle. 
The piece of tortoiseshell or horn is secured upon a traversing carriage, 
which is capable of motion iu a direction perpendicular to that of the 
teeth of the comb. This carriage is made hollow, to receive .an iron 
heater, the heat of which softens the horn, and thereby renders it more 
easy to cut. Between each movement of the carriage the cutter, 

coHBAT, saravB. 


iririah ta • ehtel aqod ill broMth to tk« l««th of the iotMidad teeth 
of Um eomb, U brooght down with MifloiaDt taro* to eut oompietely 
Ihroi^ the bom or tortoiaMheU. A* the teeth are not required to he 
pvfcotljr pamllel, bat in a alight degree wed g e aliaped. the mieccMive 
eota el the «UmI oraat faicUne a 


i VMt obUoaalr, Ant in one direction, 
r, (or wfaieh prwrUan m made bj an arrangement 
fcr a l l iw li ^y ehagiiig the poaitioa of the entter during ita deaoent. 
A Mir of ytfj nemw whiaala nMMmtad at right aagka with, and at the 
enoa of, the long eutlar, aam, by their altenate deaeeot, to connect 
eaeh pair of euta at their conTarging esctramitiaa, ao m to detach the 
•nda of the teeth. In Mr. Rogera'a madiine for the aame mirpoae, 
erarything ia eflbetad bj the oootinaoaa tnming of a winoh, which, )>y 
maana of a eimnk, worfca a doable eutter, the two e h ja a l a of which arc 
eapaUe ot adjulmeat aeeording to the aiie of the teeth, wliile tlie 
•MVW for noriag the bed or carriage ia tnmed by meana of a oog- 
w h ea l upon Ha azia, worlciag into another on tiie ada of the winoh. 
The aortant of motioa between eaeh operatioa of the cutter ia regulated 
by varyfaig the retatire liaea of theae eog-wheda. 

Among recent novehiaa in oomb-niAking in Mr. Orifftth's curioiu 
patent, in 1853, for 'galvanic oomba," of which the tooth nrc nlt«r- 
nately of ooppor and sine, while the hiuifllo ix hollowed into a chamlior 
fcr containing a roll of flannel moistened in acid solution. Tho in- 
ventor aeema to expect a beneficial galvanio action by comliing tlic 
hair with thia apparatus. A more promiaing novelty is the appli- 
cation ot the very tough substance called TuloaniMtl india-rubber 
[CAOCTcnouo MAXtJrAcrtTRKs] as a material for combs. 


COMBINATION LAWS. Tho laws known by this name were 
r e pe aled in 1824. Till then any coIn))in.^tion of any two or more 
maatera, or of any two or more workmen, to lower or raise wages, or to 
inereaae or diminish tho niuu)>cr of hours of work, or quantity of work 
to be done, was punishable at common law aa a misdemeanour : and 
there were also thirty-five statutes in existence, most of them applying 
to particular trades, pruliibiting combinations of workmen ngninat 
maatera. The Act passed in 1824 (5 Geo. IV. c 06) repealed all the 
■tatote and common law against combiiiittions of masters and of work- 
men ; provided a snmmary mode of conviction, .ind a punishment not 
exceeding two months' imprisonment for violent interference with 
worfanen or masters, and for combinations for violent interference ; 
and contained a proviso with regard to combinations for violent inter- 
ferenee, that no law in force with regard to them should be altered or 
afieeted by the Act. But all the common law against combin.ttion» 
being repealed by tho Act, this proviso was considered as of no force ; 
and the Act also went lipyond the intentions of the framers in legalising 
eombin.itinn.t im.itten<le<l with violence for the jiurposo of controlling 
masters in the mode of carrying on their trades and manufactures, as 
well aa peaceable combinations to procure advance of wages or reduction 
of houra of work. The Act was passedafter an inquiry into the subject 

5r a committee presided over by Mr. Hume, which re|)orted to the 
onse the foUowing among other resolutions : — 

" That the maatera have often tmited and combined to lower the 
ratea of their workmen's wages, as well aa to resist a demand for an 
faiereaae, and to regulate theu- hours of working, and sometimes to 
diai^arge their workmen who would not consent to the conditions 
offered to them ; which have Iwen followed by suspension of work, 
riotous proceedings, and acts of violence. 

" Tliat proaecutions have frequently been carried on under the 
statute and the common law against the workmen, and many -of them 
have Buffered diSerent periods of imprisonment for combining .ind 
eonapiring to raise their wages, or to resist their reduction, and to 
regulate their honra of working. 

" That several instances have been stated to the committee of prose- 
cutiona against masters for combining to lower wages, and to regulate 
the hours of working ; but no instance has been adduced of any master 
having been punished for that offence. 

" That it is the opinion of this committee that masters and workmen 
ahould be free from such restrictions ax rcgnnl the rate of wages and 
tile hoars of working, .ind Iw left at perfect liberty to make such 
agraements as they may mutu.illy think proper. 

" That therefore tho nt,itnte laws which interfere in these particulars 
between masters and workmen should be repealed ; and also that the 
common law, under which a peaceable meeting of masters or workmen 
nuy Ijc prosecuted as a eonspmtcy, should be altered." 

Immediately after the passing of this Act a number of widely 
oiganiasd and formidable comUnationa arose In various trades and 
manolaeturea for the purpose of controlling the masters as to the way 
in which they should condoct their busineas ; and the extent to which 
the Act had repealed the common law being doubtful, and the Act 
having cleariy gone b<7ond the resolutions on which it waH grounded 
in legalising combinations, Mr. Huakisaon, then President of the Board 
of Tnde, moved early in the sesaioa of 1 825 for a ctrmmittee to con- 
aider the effects of the Act S Oeo. IV. c. 95 ; and a committee was 
r tinted with Mr. ^afterwanls Lord) Wallace, then Vice-President r>f 
Board of Tnde, for ita chairman. Thia committee recommcndt-d 
the repeal of the Act of the previous seaaion, and the enactment of 
another ; and in consequence of their recommomlntion the Uco. IV. 
c. 129, waa paaMd, which is tho Act now in force relative to combi- 

Thta Act repealed tiie 6 Oeo. IV. o. »5, and aU the atatatea wfaidi 
tliat Act had repealed. It relieved from all proaecntion and punish- 
ment parBOOB m 'fMflg aolaly to eonsult upon rate of wages or liours of 
work, or antering into any agreement, verbal or written, on theae 
pointa. And it provided a pumahnMnt of not more than three montha 
Unptiaooment, with or without liard labour, for any one using violsaee, 
or thraata to make a workman leave hia hiring, or return work un- 
finished, or refuse to accept work, or belong to any club, ur contribute 
to a common fund, or pay any fine for not belongmg to a olub, or con- 
tributing to a common fund, or refusing to conform to any rules made 
for advance of wages or leaaeningof thenoura of work, or regulations of 
the mode of oanying on any buaineaa, and for anv one uaing violeaoe 
to make any master alter liia mode of carrying on his buaineaa. 

Bt the Act S Qea IV. c. 1S9, tha«fore combi nations of maatera and 
workmen to aettle as to rate of wages and boun of labour are made 
legal and freed from ail puniahment ; but the common law remains aa 
it was as to combinationa for otherwise controlling masters. Althotigli, 
therefore, workmen may conspire together not themselves to work 
under certain wagaa, tiiey must carry out their object by lawful means, 
and cannot intimidate or prevent masters from employing, or workmen 
from taking employment, at any wagea those other workmen may 
agree for. (IW. v. Rowlands, 2 l3en. C. C. 864.) 

By 9 Oeo. IV. o. 31, aanuilts in purauance of a combination to raise 
the rato of wages are made punishable by in^iriaonment and hard 

bination is usually meant any selection which can be made out of a 
number of different objecta without reforenoo to tho order in which 
they are placed ; while by a permutation is meant a combination in 
which different orders of position are to be considered as constituting a 
specific difierence. Thus abed, acbd, dacb, are all the same com- 
bination of four out of the olpliabet, but different permutations of four. 
The investigation of questions relating to combinations, Ac, in the 
priucip.ll mathem.itical part of tho theory of prolx-ibilitic^and was fir«t 
considered in detail, with reference to that science, by James Bemouilli 
and Montmort (see Library of Useful Knowledge : ' Probability ') ; 
but Uie common rules had previously found their way into arithmetical 
treatises. The enormous number of different amingemeota of which 
objects are susceptible, even when their number is not lai^, drew 
early attention to the subject. We sh.ill give some of the most simple 
rules, and a help to calculation for high numbers. 

I. The number of permutations having x in each, which can be made 
out of X tilings, is the product of .r terms of the aeries, 

X, X — 1, X — 2, X — 3, Ac. 

Thus, out of 10 things, there are 10 x 9, or 90 permutations of two ; 
10 X 9 X 8, or 720 permutations of three; 10 x 9 x 8 x 7, or flOiO 
permutations of four ; <iud so on. Finally, the number of different 
arrangements which the whole ten will admit of, say the number of 
dmngcK which can bo rung on ton bells, is 

10. 9. 8. 7. 6. 6. 4. 3. 2. 1. or 3,628,800. 

II. When the whole number of things, X, contains a which are 
alike of one sort, 6 which are alike of another sort, Ac., the total num- 
ber of arrangements of the whole is not the jiroduct of X, X — 1, Ac, 
down to 1, but that product divided by the product of 1, 2, 3. . . . up 
to a, then by that of 1, 2, 3. . . . up to 6, Ac. Tliis result can be most 
easily formed by striking out common factors from the numerators and 

III. In the lost case, the number of permutations of x out of X 
being r©quire<l, no simple rule can l>e given, but each case muHt l>o 
solved by it»cU. For instance, how many i>ermutations of three can lx> 
formed out of 

a a a b b e. 

(1.) All being different, 3. 2. 1. or 6. (2.) Where a is repeated 
twice, wo have 6. (8.) Where a is repeated three times, one only. 
(4.) Where b ia repeatoil twice, we have 6. In all, 19. 

IV. Tho number of combinations of a; things out of X, all 
different, is 

prod, of X terms of X, X — 1, X — 2, Ac. 

divided by 

prod, of X terms of 1, 2, 3, Ac. 

TIiUH out of 10 things, tlie number of combiuotiuns of four is 10. 9. 
8. 7. clividc<l by 1. 2. 3. 4, or 210. Tho hest way of arriving at this 
result is by destroying common factors, which shows it to be 5. 8. 2. 7. 
Observe also that wo may shorten this prooeas, when x is greater 
the half of X, by finding out, not how many selections con bo token, 
but how many remainders can be left Thus the number of combina- 
tions of 25 out of 80, is the same aa the number of combinations of 5, 
for 26 can only be taken in as many ways as 6 can be left. 

V. TTio number of combinations of x things out of X, ony repetition 
being allowed, in 

prod, of * terms of X, X + 1, X + 2, &c. 

divided by 

prod, of X terms of 1, 2, 3, Ac. 

VI. The number of ways in which n places may be filled up from x 




letters, allowing any letter to be repeated in all or or any of the places, 
is af , or the product ol x, x, x, . . . . {n factors in all). This is the 
number of permutations of n out of ./*, allowing repetition. 

VII. The number of ways in wiiich n different letters can be distri- 
buted into X boxes, all possible modes of distribution being equally 
allowable, is x^. 

VIII. The total number of combinations of all sorts out of x things, 
from one at a time up to all together, both inclusive, is 2', or 2. 2. 2. 
. . . (x factors in all) diminished by 1. Thus out of 4 things, there 
are 2* — 1, or 15 different sections : they are 

abed, bed, acd, abd, a be, ab, ae, ad, be, bd, cd, 
a, b, e, d. 

Among the curiosities of this subject, it will suffice to mention tho 
following ; The number of all possible arrangements of letters, repeated 
or not, and capable of Ijeing pronounced or not, up to words of 24 
letters, is of the following order of magnitude : Take a million of 
■ millions ; repeat it a million of million times : the result is between 
1391 and 1392 millions of such numbers. As an inst-ince of the manner 
in which the dropping of con.sonants and confusion of vowels may per- 
mit possible alterations of spelling, M. de Mairan computed that the 
word JUatnaut might be spelt in 2301 different ways, so as to be 
pronounced iu the 8;une way by as many different Frenchmen, or very 
nearly so. 

The most useful proposition in the higher part of the theory of 

combinations is the reduction of the formula 1. 2. 3 (x — 1) a: to 

a very close approximation, which can be easily cilculated by logarithms. 
It affords at the same time a useful lesson to those who have not 
studied mathematics at all, or very little ; we have seen ignorance 
com{>ort itself vrith laughter more than once at the idea of the pre- 
ceding product being found by employing the proportion which the 
circumference of a circle bears to its diiuneter. But let r = 3 ■! 41693 
be this proportion ; « = 2 •718282, the base of Napier's logarithms : 
then we have 

1.2.3 <«— 1) x= Vn~x (—) very nearly. 

which is a little too small, but the error is only about the 12j--th part 
of the whole : less than 1 per cent, even when :>: is so low as 10. The 
expression can easily be cilculated by logarithms. Tables of the loga- 
rithms of this product will be found at the end of the article ' Tlieory 
of Probabilities,' in the ' Encyclopa;dia Metropolitana.' For an instance 
of the computation, see the Library of Useful Knowledge ; ' Examples 
of Arithmetic' &c., p. 45. 


COMBINING VOLUME. [Atomic Volume.] 

COMBUSTIBLE. In its more restricte<l and usual sense, this term 
signifies a body which is capable of combining with oxygen, with the 
evolution of so much heat as to Ijecome luminous or incandescent. 


COMBUSTION is a term usually restricted to describe the pheno- 
menon that ensues when chemical action is sufficiently intense to pro- 
duce light and heat. The burning of coal, wood, paper, candles, oil, 
or coal-gas are familiar illustrations of combustion. Less common, but 
mure brilliant, instances of combustion are seen in the explosion of 
gunpowder, or fireworks, or in the burning of steel-wire, charcoal, or 
]iho><]>horuB in oxygen gas. 

In the ex.imp1es of combustion above alluded to, the action lies 
l>ctwcen the burning bo<ly on the one hand, and pure or diluted oxygen 
on the other ; and inasmuch as our world is enveloped in an atmosphere 
«f which the most imp<jrt<'mt constituent is oxygen, it follows that all 
orilin.ary instances of combustion are owing to the rapid oxidisation 
of bodies at a high temperature. It would be wrong, however, to 
snppoee that the word combustion expresses no other actions than 
thoiie indicated. Many substiinccs bum equally well in atmospheres 
from which oxygen is excluded altogether, and in some cases even 
bum more readily than they would under similar circumstances in 
pure oxygen. For instance, when the metals arsenic or antuuony are 
finely powdered and thrown into an atmosphere of chlorine, they 
instantly ignite, and bum with evolution of light and heat ; in fact, 
literally imdergo combustion. 

CottunutibUi, and stipporlert of eombiulion or non-eombitttillet, are 
terms used to designate two distinct classes of substances. Air, 
oxygen, chlorine, &c., are non-combustible, that is, in the common 
acoeptetion of the word ; they do not bum, but they support the 
oombostion of other substances, such as wood, coal, &c., which latter 
are called combustibles. The phraseology is, however, purely con- 
Tentional, and only applicable so long as the circumstances under 
which it is applied remain tho s.-mie. For instance, common coal-gas 
bums in atmospheric air, and under these circtunstances the gas is 
called the combustible and the air the non-combustible or supporter 
of combustion. But change the conditions, fill a j.-u* with coal-gas, 
introduce a jet of common air and ignite tho latter, perfect com- 
bustion will then go on at the jet : the .lir may now with equal pro- 
jiricty be said to be the combustible and the gas the non-combustible, 
for Vae gas just as much supports the combustion of the jet of air as 
in the former case the air BU]ip<irtc<l the combustion of the jet of gas ; 
in fact, both are equally combustible, and both equally support the 

combustion of each other. In like manner a jet of mercury vapour is 
combustible in an atmosphere of chlorine, .and a jet of cMorine is 
combustible iu an atmosphere of mercury. In these and otlier 
similar instances the chemical action between the two bodies at their 
line of contact with each other, is sufficiently intense to produce light 
and heat, and consequently it is at that line that the phenomenon 
of combustion ensues. 

Spmta7ieotis eombiislion is combustion th,it is set up between two 
bodies at common temperatures, without any application of artificial 
heat. Thus, the bimiing of arsenic and of antimony in chlorine, 
previously referred to, are examples of spontaneous combustion. In 
kindling a lucifer-match friction is necessary to produce a temperature 
at which the exposed phosphorus will ignite ; but a piece of phos- 
phorus, exposed to the direct rays of the sun on a warm day, will 
inflame spontaneously. Tow or cotton waste, moistened with oil and 
exposed to the air, frequently undergoes spontaneous combustion, on 
account of the attenuated state of the oil produced by the fibre being 
a condition favourable to the chemical action of the oxygen of the air 
upon it ; on this account great care should be taken in factories where 
oily machinery is cleaned with cotton waste, to prevent the accumu- 
lation of materials of that description. 

The spontaneous combustion of the human body is a subject that 
projierly belongs to the past century ; nevertheless, as some iguorant 
people at the present day believe that excessive and long-continued 
drinking of ardent spirits sets up a condition of system imder which 
sjiontaneous burning of the body may ensue, it may be .is well to notice 
here that, before the causes of combustion were investigated, it was 
customary when any person was found burnt to death and the origin 
of the fire could not be discovered, to assume that combustion had 
occurred spontaneously. The hyjiothesis has, however, long since been 
found to bo untenable, and, amongst intelligent persons, is now only 
held by a few who have not taken the trouble to acquaint themselves 
either with the laws of heat or the causes of the phenomenon of 

The term combustion is sometimes used to describe cei-tain chemical 
actions in which heat is evolved but no light. Thus the heat of the 
body is sometimes spoken of as being caused by the combustion of the 
carbon of the blood \rith the oxygen of the air. Occasionally, the word 
is used to denote particular chemical actions where not only no light 
but even no sensible heat is evolvetl ; thus, the decay of animal and 
vegetable matter is said to be due to slow combiLstion. It is, how- 
ever, far more convenient to e\>eak of such as phenomena of oxidation, 
and restrict the term combustion to tlie meaning given to it at the 
commencement of this .irticle. 

COMEDY. [Drama.] 

COMENAMIC ACID. [Meconic Acid.] 

COMENIC ACID. [Meconic Acin.] 


COMETS. This term has been applied to bodies of a nebulous 
aspect which appear in the heavens, accompanied in the 
more conspicuous cases by a long train of light called the tail. The 
principal part of a comet's structure, in contriulistinction to the last- 
mentioned appendage, is denominated the head. The outline of the 
head is hazy and ill defined ; hence the origin of the term comet 
()fo^))T1'> from wi/iTj, hair). The head gradually increases in brightness 
towards the centre, where it assumes a planet.ary aspect. In some 
instances it exhibits a small bright central point, bearing a resemblance 
to a star. This point is calle<l the nuekiu. The head of a bright 
comet is usually shrouded in a p.araboloidal envelope of light, the pro- 
longation of which forms the tail. The tail is turned in the direction 
opposite to the region in which the sun is situate. Its outline is gently 
curved, being convex on the side towards wliich the comet is travelling. 
This remarkable appendage frequently extends over a considerable arc 
of the heavens, imparting a grand and mysterious aspect to tho object 
with which it is connected. Nor is the length of the tail merely 
apparent ; on the contrary, it not unfrequently extends to an enormous 
distance in space. Thus, for example, the tail of the great comet of 
1843 attained a maximum length of 150 millions of miles ; while the 
tail of the great comet of 1858, at the time of its gi-eatest development, 
did not certainly fall short of 50 millions of miles in length. 

The tail, however, must not be considered as forming an essential 
part of the stnicture of a comet. Multitudes of bodies of this cl.ass 
have been observed in modem times, which exhibited merely a round 
nebulous mass of light without the slightest vestige of a tail. Such 
bodies are generally visible only by the aid of the telescope ; but even 
in some instances of comets of conspicuous magnitude, no trace of a 
tail has been discovered. For example, the comet of 1585, observed 
by Tycho Brahd, is said ti3 have exhibited neither tail nor coma, but 
appeared perfectly round like a planet. (" Planfe rotunda extitit ; nee 
uUam caudam aut barbam in unam magis quam in aliam partem 
portendebat." *) Cassini relates a similar fact with respect to the 
comets of 1665 and 1682. 

The appearance of a great comet in the heavens has in all ages 
strongly attracte<l the attention of mankind. During the earlier 
periods of history, bodies of this class were generally contemplated with 
superstitious dread as omens of divine displeasure, and were regarded 

* Epiat. ad I.andgrav, p. 13> 



I QiUmit* to the bunuui nee. Bv«n in Um 
praraltot among the nid«r natioiM of ths 

mUm {VKunon of 
fweat d»y Uii» ooinfaa b , 

•uih. Tbe intaUlgMM* brought by the OrerUnd mail rei|WOtinK the 
tamir eauHd threaghDot Bigrpt and India hy the groat oomet of 1858, 
moat be fiwh in tka raeoUMtion of every reader ; and «» may eaaily 
faUar bom tUa aireomalaiioe what muat hare been the impraaafoD ptx>- 
doead on tha aliO ruder trlbea of Central Afrioa by the Mme myatenoiu 
obJMt dwiag the eoune of iti rapid paaaige towarda the aouthrm 
Tf 1**!*— ~ TIm aaaent philoaophaf* bilod to arrive at any nut 
uaiiliialnaa iii>o>lng the nature or movenMnta of eomela. Aooording 
to Arialotla, eiwiata are mareiy bodiea of tarraatrial origin, which are 
(■Ntntad fan the npoar ngiona of the atmoa|diera. This opinion leenu 
to hara bean gananUy entartained by aatronomera Aown u> ttie time uf 
TWio Br«h<, wlio, by a diaouaaion of the obaerrationa of tlie cumet uf 
1677, finally a u ceeaded in damnnatiatiag that it muat tiave been situate 
beyond the mooo'a orbit. Henceforward cometa aaaumed their true 
place a* bodiea of eeleatial orig^ It (till remained to discover the 
nature of the patha whidi they deicribed in the heavena, and to unfold 
the lawa of their movvmenta. Tyeho Brahtf imagined that cometa 
move in atiaight lines ; and Kepler seems to have entertained the same 
opinion. Heveliua waa the first who conjectured that the path of a 
oomet might be onrrilinear; and Doerfel (1681) showed that the comet 
of 1680 actually described a parabola having the son in the focus. 

It was reserved for the immortal Newton to discover the real nature 
of the movements of comets, and to demonstrate that, like the planets, 
they are mainly regulated by the attractive furoe of tbe sun. In the 
course of his researches on the principle of gravitation, this great 
philosopher had found that a body which receives an impulse in free 
niace, iad is subjected to the attractive force of the sxm, will necessa- 
rily revolve in a conic section having the sun in the focus. The orbit 
actually described by the body may be either a circle, an ellipse, a para- 
bola, or an hyperbola, but it mutt be one or other of those curves. Uy 
a rigorouB investigation, founded on Flamsteed's observations of the 
comet of 1680, Newton discovered thst the orbit of that body was a 
parabola having the sun in the focus. He moreover succeeded in 
denMnstnting Uiat the radiux vector of the comet described around 
the Bun equal areas in equal times, conformably to Kepler's itecond law 
of the planetary movements. Nor did his researches stop here : he 
also invented a method by means of which it would be possible from 
three observations of a comet to determine the elements of its orbit. 
In this investigation, be supposed the species of orbit described by the 
comet to "be a parabola. His opinion was, that all such bodies revolve 
in elliptic orbits of great excentricity ; but according to the doctrine of 
conic sections, the curvature of a veiy excentric ellipse does not sensibly 
diflhr from that of a innibola. He therefore adopted the parabolic 
assumption, which has tlie advantage of facilitating the solution of the 

Newton's method for determining the orbit of a oomet, supplied the 
means of ascertaining aU the elements if the orbit was a |iarabola ; and 
all the elementa except the major axis if the orbit was elliptic. In 
regard to the latter supposition, the adoption of which, as already men- 
tioned, aooorde<l with Newt4)u'8 views, the author of the ' Principia' 
itmiarked, " I leave their axes and times of revolution to be determined 
from the comparison of comets which retiun in the same orbits after 
long iicriods." (' Princip.' lib. iii., prop, xii, Ist c<lit, 1687.) 

Hallcy, who was one of the earliest supporters of the theory of 
gravitation, resolved to reduce to practice Newton's ideas on the theory 
of comets. He accordingly collected together all the reconlod observa- 
tiom of those bodiea extending down to the year 1700, and with in- 
er«diUe labour calculated the parabolic elements of their orbits in 
every inT**"^' wherein trustworthy data were available for such a 
parpoae. The comets whose orbits were thus colcidated amounted to 
twenty-four in number. They appeared in the following years : — 

1317 U80 1SS2 1680 

I47I 1»8S 1661 1681 

1811 1890 1064 1688 

1881 1806 1068 1084 

1880 1007 1071 1086 

1877 1018 1677 1608 

A comparison of the orbits of the comets of 1.531, 1()07, and 1082, 
cUttrly indicated to Halley that they referred to the some comet. Tliis 
will n-.-Mlily apjioar from the following statement of their elements, 
extractvil from Halley '« table : — 

Comet of Comet of Comet of 

1831. 1007. 1681. 

I^OBRitode of MCfBiliog node 40'' 18' 80" tl' 81" 10' 

Inrllnation of orbit . . 17" SO' 17° 1' 17' 80' 

Longitude of peribrlion . 301° SO' lOl" 16' 301^81' 

that of the »rlb being l) * *" ' "« « "» 

PtribeUoa paiaig* . Aag. 14 Oct. 10 fs«pt. 4 

»«««• I"" P""»"«nj ,„,„. ,og. y ,„.„, 

to ussadiaf Boda . .) 
Motion , . . • Betrogrsds Betrofnule HetrDgrade. 

Upon comioring the intervals between two consecutive |>erih<nion 
piisig,M. it will be found tliat while for tlie comets of 1531 and 1607 
the intCTval amotmta to 19 years and S3 di^-s; the corresiMndiiig 

intervU for the camels of 1607 and 1082 amounts to only 74 years and 
S83 days. The diflfaranee b e t w'sa u the two intervals amounts to 1 year 
and 9S days, or aomewhat more than 15 montlis. But according to 
the theory of gravitation, a body revolving in on elliptic orbit around 
the sun in virtue of the attractive fbroe of the Utter, ought to return 
to its |>erihelion at successive intonrals of equal magmtude ; <ir, in 
other words, ought to perform its succassiva revolutions in c<|iud times. 
Halley, however, flid not fail to perceive the origin of this npiarniit 
discordance. He remarked, in fact, that the disturbing action exerciae<I 
by the larger planets upon the oomet could not fail to acoelorate or 
retard the passage of the perihelion, as the case might be, and would 
thereby dennge the equality in the times of revolution which wmdd 
otherwise ensue. He found in tlie summer of 1081, when the 
comet was approaching the pcriheliun, it passed so close to tlie pLinet 
Jupiter that it must have been powerfully disturbed by that body, 
and be clearly perceived that the effect of such a disturbance would 
have been to retard the arrival of tbe comet in the perihelion. 

Adopting the interval which elapsed between the perihelion pas- 
sages of 1631 and 1607, the comet ought to return to the perihelion in* 
November, 1758 ; on the other hand, the adoption of the corresponding 
interval between 1607 and 1082 would fix the passage of the peri- 
helion in the month of AugUKt, 1 757. Halley very sagaciously inferred, 
from a rough estimation of the eQ'ect which would bo produced by the 
disturbing action of Jupiter (for in bis time there existed no methods 
for rigorously calculating the amount of such perturbations), tliat the 
comet would not be visible before the end of 1758, or the beginning of 
1759 ; and he ap|>ealed to posterity not to lose sight of the fact, tlutt if 
the comet should really return about the year 1 758, the prediction of 
such a result was due to an Knglislimon. 

The ' Ajstronomi<c Cometica: Synojwis,' containing Holley's reaeorchos 
on Comets, was published in the ' Philosophical Transactions' for 1 70.'!, 
and again at the University press at Oxford, and also in an Englisli 
translation, published in London in 1705, which was reprinted in 1 706, 
in the ' Miscellanea Curiosa.' It was again reprinted in the second 
edition of Gregory's ' Astronoiny ;' in an Engliui e<lition of tlie some 
work, 1715; in Le Honnier's '"Theory of Comets;' and was finally left 
for publication in an augmented form by Halley himself, and was pub- 
lished with his 'Astronomical Tables,' in 1749. 

During the period which elapsecl between the publication of Halley's 
researches on comet.iry orbits, and the time anuounce<I for tlie return 
of the comet of 1682 to the (lerihelion, an imi>ortant step liod been 
mode in the application of analysis to ]>hy8ical a-itronomy. Methoils 
for solving by an a|>proximative process the i>robleiii of ]il.iuetary 
j>erturbation were invcnteil, independently of e.icb other, by Euler, 
Clairaut, and D'Alembert, and were successfully used in computing the 
inequalities of the moon's motion. As the time fixed by Halley for tin- 
return of. the comet to the (leiihelion drew nigh, the Kiibject of itx 
motion, which was calculated to exercise on important iniluoncc on the 
Newtonian theory of gravitation, naturally excite<l a lively interest 
throughout every country. in Europe. Clairaut un<lerto<ik the aniuous 
task of com)>utiug the cITects of pL-mctary ]>erturb.itioii. He was 
assisted in his calculations by LaUnde, who luul just conunenccd liiK 
astronomical career, and also by Madame Lepaute, the wife of a well- 
known watchmaker of tlie day. The principal disturbing bodies in 
this case wore Jupiter and Saturn. It was found that both pkincts 
tended to retiu^l the ]>assage of the comet through tbe )ierihelion. 
According to Clairaut's calculations, he found that the comet would be 
retarde<l 518 days by the action of Jupiter, and 100 days by the action 
of Saturn. Taking these circumstances into consideration, he fouiiil 
that the time of revolution would be 76 years, 211 days; and since the 
comet had previously passed the perihelion on the 1 4th of September, 
1682, it followed that the next passage of the perihelion would take 
place on the 13tb of April, 1759. Clairaut, however remarke<l that the 
omission of many small quantities, which wns unavoidable in the 
ment of so iutricate a question, might cause the real time of the 
comet's jxissoge of the perihelion to differ as much as a month from the 
calculated time. 

The comet was first observed on tlie 25th of December, 1 758, by 
Politsch, an amateur astronomer of Saxony. It jioased through the 
perihelion on the 13th of March, 1759; the time waa consequently 
within the limita assigned by Clairaut. Having revised his calcu- 
lations, the French geometer found tliat the error in the computcil 
time amounted to only twenty-two diiys. 

The return of this comet, conformably to the results of calculation, 
established Iwyoiid doubt the truth of Newton's theory of comets, and 
adde<l fresh lustre to the renown of Halley, by whose name it lias since 
been justly designated. Before proceeding to give some account of tbe 
circumstances connected with its |>criheUon jKissage in 1835, we shall 
present the reader with a brief statement of some of the more retwirk- 
able comets recorded in history. 

871 B.C. In this year there apiHuired a comet of groat splendour, 
which is alluded to by Diodonis Sictdus and also by Aristotle. The 
former of these writers states that tbe phenomenon was supposed by 
the inhabitants of Oreece to have presaged tbe deMruction of the 
Achaian cities. Helix and Buns. According to Aristotle, the tail 
extended over a third of the heavens, or in other words, over an arc 
of 60°. 

134 O.C. Justin states that there appeared in this year a splendid 




comet, which continued visible 70 days. The tail is said to have 
covered a fourth part of the heavens, and occupied four hours in 

43 B.C. In this year, during the celebration of the games held in 
honour of Venus, a great comet appeared at Rome, which was visible 
before smiset. This celestial prodigy was supposed to have some con- 
nection with the departed soul of Julius Caesar, whose assassination had 
shortly before occiured. 

389 A.D. There appeare<l a comet, which is said to have almost 
rivalled Venus in brightness. The tail, which was of immense length, 
was curved like a scimitar. The appaiition of so extraordinary a phe- 
nomenon excited universal terror. 

891 A.D. Contemporary European »vriters aUude to a great comet 
which appeared in this year. In the Chinese annals, wherein allusion 
to it is also to be found, it is stated that the tail was 100° in length. 

1106. A gi-eat comet appeared, which was visible over all Europe. 
The tail is said to have resembled a fiery beam. According to Matthew 
Paris, it was visible in the day-time. 

1264. This year was distinguished by the apparition of a magni- 
ficent comet, which is alluded to by several European writers, and is 
also mentioned in the Chinese annals. The tail is said to have attained 
a length of 100°. 

1 402. Two comets of extraordinary splendour appeared in the coiu-se 
of this year. The first became visible in the beginning of spring, and 
towards the close of March was so bright as to be visible in the 
day-time. The second comet of the year was not less conspicuous than 
the first, if we are to believe the statements of contemporary writers. 
The tail is said to have extended from the horizon to the zenith. It is 
stated, also, as in the caae of the first comet, to have been visible in full 

1456. A magnificent comet was visible throughout all Europe. The 
tail is said to have been 60° in length. The apparition of the jiheno- 
menon excited universal terror, in consequence of its being simul- 
taneous with the capture of Constantinople by the Turks. With the 
view of averting the evil influence of its presence. Pope Calixtus II. 
ordered prayers to be offered up in all the Western chiu-ches ; he also, 
in a famous bull, anathematised at once the Turks and the comet. It 
bag been satisfactorily established in modem times that this was one of 
the early apparitions of Halley's comet. 

1472. The comet of this year was undoubtedly the most splendid of 
the century. Towards the end of January it was visible in full daylight. 
In Europe Regiomantanus observed it. In China its successive posi- 
tions with respect to the stars were also carefully recorded. 

1531. An early apparition of Halley's comet. ObserN-ed in Europe 
by Peter Apian, at Ingoldstadt. An account of this apparition is also 
to be found in the Chinese annals. 

1532. A comet appeared this year, which is stated by Cardan to have 
been visible in full sunshine. 

1556. Apparition of a great comet, which has been supposed by some 
astronomers to be identical with the comet of 1264. 

1577. The comit of this year is memorable in history from having 
furnished the data which enabled Tycho Brah^ to demonstrate that the 
regions traversed by oometary bodies in general lie beyond the moon's 

1607. An apparition of Halley's comet. The phenomenon was ob- 
siTved on the Continent by Kepler and Longomontanus, and in 
England by the celebrate<l mathematician, Hariot. The head is said 
to have equalled in size the planet Jupiter, but to have shone by a pale 
and wateiy light. The tail, which was of a very conspicuous bright- 
ness, was about 7° long. 

1618. The third comet of this year was one of the most splendid of 
which history makes mention. Longomontanus states that the tail was 
100° long. 

1 652. Apparition of a conspicuous comet, which is minutely described 
by Hevelius. 

1664-5-8. Each of these years was distinguished by the apparition of 
a comet of considerable brightness. 

1680. The comet of this year is, for several reasons one of the most 
remarkable of ancient or modem times. It was first seen by Godfrey 
Kirch, at Coburg in Saxony, on the 14th of November. After its 
passage of the perihelion on the 20th of December, it shone with great 
splendour, the tail ap|>earing in some places to extend over an arc of 
90°. This comet approached nearer the sim than any other comet 
recorded in history, with the exception of the great comet of 1843. It 
has been already stated that the observations of this comet furnished 
the data by means of which Newton was enabled to demonstrate that 
the orbits of comets are conic sections, having the sun situate in their 
common focus. 

1744. This was the most brilliant comet of the 18th century. It was 
discovered .it Haarlem by Klinkenberg, on the 9th of December, 1743. 
On the 7th of February the tail was 20° in apparent length. On the 
1st of March, when the comet passed the perihelion, it was seen in full 
daylight. Remarkable physical changes were observed to occur in the 
head of this comet, on the occasion of its approach to the i)erihelion. 

1759. An apparition of Halley's comet. 

1768. This comet is memorable for the immense tail by which it was 
accompanied. Its paaaage of the perihelion took place on the 8th of 
October. On the 10th o? September its tail appeared at Paris to be 


60°. According to Pingr^, the apparent length of the tail in tropical 
countries measured 97**. * 

1807. The comet of this year was very conspicuous to the naked eye. 
It was first discovered at Castro Giovanni in Italy, on the 9th of Sep- 
tember, by Parisi, an Augustine monk. The passage of the perihelion 
occurred on the 19th of the same month. This comet was carefully 
observed by Sir William Herschel, who, in a paper published in the 
' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society' for 1808, has recorded 
many interesting facts respecting it. 

1811. The first comet of this year is in many respects one of the 
most remarkable of modem times. It was discovered by M. Flaguerges, 
at Viviers, on the 26th of March. The passage of the perihelion took 
place on the 12th of September. From that time till the end of the 
year it formed a very conspicuous "object in the heavens, the eflfect 
being enhanced by the circumstance of its apparent path lying so near 
the North Pole that it always remained above the horizon. It was 
last seen in Siberia, by Wisniewski, a Russian astronomer, on the 17th 
of August, 1812. 

1835. An apparition of Halley's comet. 

1843. One of the most splendid comets recorded in history. It was 
seen with the naked eye, close to the sun, in Italy, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and America, ou the 28th of February, the day of its passage of 
the perihelion. In some places the tail wivs obser\'ed to extend over an 
arc of 65°. It generally dlsapi^eared from observation about the begin- 
ning of April. This comet is remarkable for having approached nearer 
the sun than any other comet of modern times. 

1853. A very fine comet .appeared in the autumn of this year. 
Throughout Europe it was distinctly visible to the naked eye shortly 
after sunset. 

1858. The comet discovered by Donali on the 4th of June in this 
year, is one of the most splendid of which history makes mention. It 
first became generally visible to the naked eye on the 5th of September. 
The jKissage of the perihelion took place on the 30th of that month. 
The comet attained its greatest slendour about the 10th of October. 
The tail then appeared to extend over an arc of about 40°. The comet 
ceased to be visible in Europe abotit the 20th of October, but it con- 
tinued to be observed by Mr. Maclear at the Cape of Good Hope till 
the beginning of March in the following year. 

Theory of the Movements of Comets. 

The theory of the movements of comets resolves itself into two great 
subjects of research. One of these relates to the determination of the 
orbit of a comet from a definite number of observed positions, sup- 
posing it to revolve in a conic section around the sun ; the other takes 
cognisance of the effects of plauetary perturbation upon its motion. 
Newton's method for determining the elements of a comet's orbit was 
founded on the hyijothesis of its revolving in a parabola. His opinion 
indeed, that all comets revolve in very elongated ellipses ; but he 
remarked, that in any of such cases the orbit near the perihelion does not 
deviate sensibly from a parabola. By supposing the path of the comet 
to be parabolic, the investigation of its elements is cousiderably sim- 
plified ; but even with this assumiition the problem is one of the most 
difficult in astronomy. It is plain, also, that the parabolic hypothesis 
cannot assign the major axis of the orbit, nor consequently the time of 
revolution. Newton, as already stated, remarked that the time of 
revolution might be found by comparing the intervals which elapsed 
between the apparitions of comets having the same parabolic elements. 
For this purpose, it is necessary to form a cat.ilogue of the elements of 
all those comets the orbits of which have been computed ; then, when 
a new comet has been observed, and its parabolic elements calculated, 
a reference to the catalogue will serve to indicate whether it has been 
observed on any former occasion ; and if the newly Ciilciilated elements 
should thus turn out to be identical with those of any comet in the 
catalogue, the interval between the passages of the perihelion will give 
the time of revolution, supposing the two apparitions to be consecutive. 
In this way Halley determined the time of revolution of the comet 
which bears his name ; and the same mode of ascertaining the periodi- 
city of a comet is, in consequence of its easy application, constantly 
practised in the present d.ay. The method most commonly used for 
computing the parabolic elements of a comet is one invented by the 
German .-wtronomer Olbers, towards the close of the Last century. 

It is plain that the determination of the elements of a comet's orbit 
ujjon the parabolic hypothesis, is subject to the defect of not giving the 
major axis by direct investigation. lu order to ascertain this element, 
it is necessary that the comet should have been observed at two con- 
secutive passages of the perihelion. Nay, it may happen that, although 
the comet has been observed on more than one occasion, the apparitions 
may not be consecutive ; and yet there exists no criterion by which a 
definitive conclusion on this point may be arrived at. Geometers have 
accordingly investigated metho<ls for computing the elements of a 
comet's orbit, independently of any hypothesis with respect to the 
species of conic section in which it may be revolving. In this branch 
of research, Laplace and Gauss have laboured with eminent success. 
According to the method devised by the latter geometer, the six 
elliptic elements of a comet's orbit may be derived from three (in some 
cases four) observed positions of the body. 

When a comet has once been discovered, three observed positions 
generally suffice, by the aid of Olbers's method, for ascertaining the 



ol Iti orUi If Ih* iOmh <aleulatcd from Umim 
lii wi ti mOtIr all the nibaMiMat dbnrred pkoa* of tli* eoowt within 
Um Hmiti of tba arran of ofaMrvittkia, or if th« obMrnUioiH cu ba 
■ Hrfml by any pooibb eorrwtioD of th« original ahmwti. it maj be 
WMirtwW that tlM eaoMt reToIra in aa orbit which ia aanaibljr par*- 
heUo. But if tha obaarrod pUeoa exhibit a ijrtwiMllii daTiation from 
the eorraapomliBg raauha aaagniid by tha panboUe elaoMiita, an indi- 
eatioo b tbarabj aflbrdad that the oomat naUy moraa ia aa ellipie or 
an hnaibola, and the orbit may ba inrartigatad (it naao by maana of 
Ommb a method. Ia thia way tha aix alUptie alamanta of a oomet may 
baat eaea obtained, by a prooaaa founded oa maraly three obaerred 

Tha aarlieat genoal method for eomputiiic tha affeota of plaaetaty 
parturbatioa oo Um morementa of oomata ia doe to Lagrange. The 
proeeai dariaed by that geometer ia founded on the ajiplication of 
maehanical quadratuna to the theory of the variation of elementa. 
The orbit of the eomat ia divided into a number of diatinot aeotiona, 
and tht? intluenoa of pbaetanr perturbation upou the elementa ia aepa- 
ratrly computed (or the iodivldaal area. In applying thia prooeaa to 
eeoh an, fraah elementa are obtained which are emfdoyed in the oom- 
putationa of the an immediately following. In regard to many cometa, 
the inHuenoe of planetary perturbatioo ia aenaible only in the vicinity 
ol the perihelion, and in auch caaea it ii only there that the application 
of the method beoomea aeceaaary. It may be remarlced that Laxrange'a 
theory of oometary pertorbation haa aenred aa tha bans of w aubae- 
queat reaearohea on the aubject 

Periodic Oometi. 

i (1) ComeU kAiVA hate returned to their periJuila nnce the ettaUiA- 
ment of their periodieitf. 

Haiej^i OmmC — An aooount haa already been given of the circnm- 
ataaoea oooneotad with tha perihelion pannge of thia (amoua oomet in 
1759. The next return to the perihelion oocured in the year 1885. 
In I SI 2, the Academy of Soiencea of Turin propoaed the inveatigation 
of ita perturhationa aa the aubject of a prixe. Damoiaeau, an eminent 
French geometer, waa on thia oocaaion the auooeasful competitor. He 
(bund that the oomet would paaa through the perihelion on the 4tb of 
Kovember, 1835. 

In 1829 M. De Pontdooulant obtained the prize of the Academy of 
Sciences of Paris, for his reseerchea on the same aubject. The result 
of his first inveatigation indicated that the oomet would paaa the peri- 
helion on the 7th of November, 1885 ; but on subaequently tuing 
into aooount the disturbing action of the earth, and employing more 
accurate values of the maasea of the other disturbing bodies, he found 
that the passage of the perihelion would take pUce on the IQth of 

The perturbations of the oomet on the ooeaaion of the same peri- 
helion passage, also formed the subjeot of elaborate investigations by 
Rosnnberger and Lehinann, two Oerman mathematicians. Rosenberger 
found that the comet would pass through the |>erilielion ou the 11th 
of November ; according to LMimann the passage would take place on 
the 26th of the same month. 

It waa expected by aatronomers that the oomet would become visible 
about the beginning of August Thia oonjeoture received a aatisfaotory 
ooDfirmation. The comet waa first discovered on the Sth of August, 
at the Ofaaervatorr of Rome, by MM. Diunouchel and De Vico. 
Towards the end of September it became visible to the naked eye. It 
attained ita greataat brilliancy about the middle of October. Tlie 
head then reaembled a star of the second magnitude. The toil exlii- 
bited an apparent length of about 20° in the countries of Northern 
Europe, but in southern climates it waa observe<l to extend over an 
aro of 80*. The comet was not much seen in the northern hemisphere 
after the middle of November, having been shortly afterwards lost in 
the sua'a rays. Early in the following year it was seen at the Ope of 
Oood Hope, by Sir John Herschel and Mr. Maolear, and continued to 
be obaerved tUl the 12th of May. 

The most complete investigation of the elements of the comet, 
founded on all the most trustworthy observations made in 18SS-6, is 
due to Westphalen, a German astronomer of great promise, who 
shortly afterwarda died at an early age. In oHer to exhibit the 
aoourdaaoo which existed between theory and observation in this 
Inataoca. we subjoin the elements of the comet as assigned respectively 
by PonUiooulant and Westphalen. 

Font^ooulanU WeatpbaUn. 

'TV.Or^wSr^'!":}"". >*-• "O' '",, Nov. ».95 

LoBgllwleor lbs prribellon t04'' 11' 11" 304° 31' 33" 

Lo^jUod. of U» .«s«,ding I 44- ,y 1 J, j,, „. j^ 

laeUaatloB .... 17* U' 68" IT' 43' 6" 

Exeratriolty . . . O-M7tS07 0-9«7S909 

Meaa dMaaee . . ll-OOWl 17-»«iao 

It haa been already maatiuaed that the comet of U^>S was an 
apparition of Malley's oomet The discovery of this fact is due to the 
French astronomer Pingrd. It haa been recently aaoertaised by the 
late M. Edward Biut, that a conspicuous comet waa obaerved in China 
in the year 1378, and M, Laugier haa eatabliabed beyond doubt that 

Time of nerolntlon 
in daj». 

thia WM abo an apparition of Hallay'a eomat. Tha following are the 
timea o( revolution corraaponding to tha iniiaam of the perihelion 
which have been deduced from the recorded obaervatiuna : — 


1S7«— U5« 77-38 

1430—1381 73-11 

1331— IS07 78-13 

1607—1681 74 81 

1881—1738 ;a'49 

1738— 18U 7608 

The mean of theae periods is 781 years. The deviationa from this 
result repreaent the effecta of planetary perturbation. 

Rtete'i Comet.— TUa comet, aa in the case of the famous oomat of 
Hallqri bad been obaerved on several occaaiona of ita return to the 
nerihelion, before ita periodicity waa established. On the 26th of 
November, 1818, a comet waa diaoovered by Pons at Marseille, the 
parabolic dements of which were soon afterwards found to resemble 
those of cometa observed in 1805, 1795, and 1786. M. Eacke waa 
induced by tliis circumstance to investigate an elliptio orbit for the 
cometa, and he found the timo of revolution to be aomewbat more than 
1200 da}-8. In 1822, tm the occasion of its next return to the peri- 
helion, it was rediscovered by M. RUmkcr, at Paramatta, in New South 
Wales. Uf>on tracing back ita motion it waa found to bo in reality 
identical \nth the comets of 1805, 1795, and 1786, but a comparison of 
the earlit-r with the mora recent perihelion passages seemed to indicate 
that the time of revolution was gradually becoming ahorter. Profeasor 
Bncko was induced in consequence to suspect the existence of a re- 
sisting medium, and adopting such an hypothesis, he calculated before- 
hand the perihelion passage of 1825. The results were found to present 
a satisfactory agreement with those derived from observation, and on 
evei^ subsequent occasion of the comet's return to the perihelion, ita 
motion has been successfully computed beforehand by Professor Encke, 
on the sup|>oaition of a resisting moUum. The following tabic, ex- 
tracted from a paper by Profeasor Encke, exhibits the gradual shortening 
of the time of revolution, a>i indicated by observ.ition. This remark 
does not apply to the [wrihelion passages corresponding to the perioda 
1786-95, 1795-1805. and 1805-19, which were not observed, and are 
therefore necessarily the results of calculation. 

Tear of Pertbelioa 

1786 .... 

1789 1311-79 

. 1791 1313-67 

1793 1312-33 

1799 1213-44 

1802 1313-93 

1805 131213 

1809 1311-10 

1811 1313-00 

1815 1311-89 

1819 1311-78 

1813 1311-86 

1833 1311-33 

1839 1311-44 

1833 1311-.13 

1833 1211-33 

1838 1311-11 

1843 1310-98 

1843 1310-88 

1848 1210-77 

1852 1310-63 

1853 1310-33 

1838 1310-44 

These results indicate tliat tha times of the successive revolutions are 
gradually shortening at the rate of about I'J^ths of a day, or somewhat 
mora than two hours and a half. No other comet lus hitherto ofi°ered- 
any evidence of a similar shortening of the time of revolution. Tho 
existence of a resistiug medium cannot therefore be considered as 
established beyond doubt. 

It might be supposed tliat the efiect of a resisting meditiin '• '-' <>» 

to lengthen the time of the comet's revolution, rather than t 

as observation indicattis. It ia true, indeed, that the <lir i 

such a resistance is to retard the orbitil motion of the coiiiel, iuid m 
far to prolong the time of revolution ; but on the other liand, this 
diminution of the tangential motion allows the central body to act 
with greater etBoaoy in drawing the oomet towards the centre. Now, 
according to the theory of oentnil forces, the nearer a body approaches 
the centre of force the less must be the time of a complete revolution. 

The following ara the elements of this comet corresponding to the 
perihelion paaaage of 1868 : — 

MasB longitnde 137° 39' 18" 

Asoending node 834° 38' 84* 

Mean snomalx 8° 1' 48''.0 

lasUnaUon 13° 4' 13".0 

I^ongUudo of peribeUon .... 137*t7'S0'' 

Hsan daUy msMga 1074".0S 

Available for ISfiS, Oct 1$'5, Berlin mean time and meaa eqiilnus. 




Bieta'i Comet. — This comet was discovered on the 27th of February, 
1826, by Biela, an Austrian officer residing at Josephstadt, in Bohemia. 
Parabolic elements of its orbit were shortly afterwards calculated, and 
the results are foimd to bear a strong resemblance to the elements of 
comets observed in 1805 and 1772. This circumstance induced 
Gambart, the director of the observatory of Marseille, and Clausen, 
assisting astronomer at the observatory of Altona, simultaneously to 
compute elliptic elements of the comet's orbit. The results obtained 
by those two astronomers presented a satisfactory agreement with each 
other, and represented the observe<l places of the comet much better 
than the elements originally computed. The time of revolution was 
found to be nearly 6'6 years. Professor Santini of Padua computed 
the effects of planetary pertiu-bation for the next return to the peri- 
helion. By a discussion of the observations made subsequent to the 
discovery of the body, he found that it passed through the perihelion 
on the 18th of March, 1826, and that the corresponding time of revo- 
lution was 2455176 days. Computing, then, the disturbing forces of 
the Karth, Jupiter, and Saturn, he found that the effect of their com- 
bined influence would be to shorten the time of revolution by 10"023 
days, and that the comet would consequently pass through the peri- 
helion on the 27th of November, 1832. It is a curious fact, that this 
comet, a little before its arrival in the perihelion, passes through the 
descending node of its orbit at only a very short distance from the 
earth's orbit. Great fears of a collision of the two bodies were 
consequently entertained, when it was announced as the result of 
astronomical calculation, that at the instant of the passage of the 
comet through its descending node on the 29th of October, the earth 
would be travelling in the same region. However, an exact com- 
putation of the earUi's motion relatively to the comet had the effect of 
dispelling these apprehensions; for it was found that, although the 
comet would pass from the north to the south of the ecliptic on the 
29th of October, the earth would not arrive in the same heliocentric 
longitude before the 30th of November. 

The comet, on the occasion of its re-appearance, was first perceived 
on the 23rd of August by the observers of the Collegio Romano at 
Rome. Its passage through the perihehon took place within a few 
hours of the time fixed by the calculations of Professor Santini. The 
next passage of the perihehon took place in 1839, but the circumstances 
of its motion being imfavourable for observation, the comet passed 
unperceived. The results of Professor Santini's calculations showed 
that the next perihelion passage would take place on the 11th of 
February, 1846. On this occasion the comet did not pass unobserved. 
It was re-discovered, independently, on the 28th of November by 
Profeaor Encke, at Berlin, and Signer De Vico at Rome. During 
the interval of its visibility it underwent a singular change, having 
separated into two distinct fragments which continued to travel together 
at s distance of 3' or i' from each other. This singular phenomenon 
appears to have been first unequivocally obserred on the 12th of 
January, 1846, by Lieut. Maury, of the Obaerratory of Washington, 
(U.S.). One of the comets was considerably fainter than the other. 
Both bodies were seen for the last time on the 16th of April, 
1846. Professor Plantamour computed the elements of the orbit 
described by each comet, taking into account the perturbations pro- 
duced by the Earth, Jupiter, and Man. The places of the two 
bodies when computed from these elements, were found to agree 
rety nearly with the observed places. Professor Plantamour de- 
termined the mutual distances of the two bodies, and obtained the 
following results : — 

Date. Uatatl Diitancc, 

181« Febraary 10 . . . . \ 149,820 mUu. 

.. " "S.S30 „ 

„ „ »6 lJ6,64n „ 

„ March S 197,230 „ 

„ „ 16 1S9,790 „ 

„ „ 3» 154.210 „ 

The comet was again observed on its return to the perihelion in 
1862. The appearance which it presented on that occasion continued 
to afford evidence of the disruption which it suffered in 1 846, both 
fragments being still visible. Circumstances do not seem to have been 
favourable for its re-discovery at the time of the perihelion passage 
of 1859. 

Fai/e'i Comet. — On the 22nd of November, 184.1, a comet was dis- 
covered by M. Faye, at the Royal Observatory, Paris, the observations 
of which it was found impossible to satisfy by a parabolic orbit. Dr. 
Qoldschrnidt was induced by this circumstance to compute an elliptic 
orbit for the comet, and obtained results which agreed very well with 
the observed motion. The time of revolution is 2718 days, or 7°44 
years. The comet has been re-observed on the occasions of its return 
to the perihelion in 1851 and 1853. 

Bronen't Comift.— On the 26th of February, 1846, M. Brorsen dis- 
covered at Kiel, in Denmark, a small telescopic comet, which was 
speedily found to revolve in an elliptic orbit, the time of revolution 
being about 66 yeaxn. It was not observed on the occasion of the 
pasM* of the perihelion in 1851, but it was found at the next return 
to the perihelion in 1857. 

DAmtit Cornel. — This comet was discovered by Professor D' Arrest, 
at Leijwio, on the 27th of June, 18M. It was speedily found to 

revolve in an elliptic "orbit, the period being about 6-4 years. The 
circumstances of the next perihelion passage were calculated by M. 
Villarceau, of the ImperiEd Observatory, Paris ; and by the aid of an 
ephemeris, due to that astronomer, the comet was re-discovered at the 
Cape of Good Hope by Mr. Maclear, on the 5th of Decembe, 1857. The 
comet continued to be observed till the 18th of January, 1858. During 
the whole period of its visibility it presented a very faint aspect. 

§ (2) Cornels which hare been found to vei'olve in elliptic orjitt, but 
u'hich hare not been re-obsened since the discorery of their period 'v. 

A considerable number of comets in addition to those contained in 
the foregoing list, have exhibited traces of a deviation from parabolic 
motion, and elliptic orbits have in consequence been calculated for 
them, the results derived from which have been found to satisfy 
the observations with a greater or less degree of precision. We 
proceed to notice briefly the results relative to the periodic time 
which have been obtained for a few of the more interesting of those 

Comet of 1680.— Halley was of opinion that this comet was identical 
with comets which appeared in the years B.C. 43, a.d. 531, and 1106 ; 
and he hence inferred a period of 575 years. Professor Encke, how- 
ever, has found by an investigation, based upon all the recorded obser- 
vations, that the most probable value of the periodic time is 8800 years ; 
but he remarks that in consequence of the large probable errors of the 
data, the observations of the comet may be tolerably satisfied by an 
ellipse with a period of 805 years, or even by an hyperbolic orbit. The 
observations of Flamsteed and Newton alone indicate a period of 3164 

Le.nirs Comet. — This comet was discovered by Messier in 1770. 
Astronomers having been unable to satisfy the observations by para- 
bolic elements, an elliptic orbit was computed by Lexell, who found 
the periodic time to be somewhat more than five years. The comet 
was carefully searched for on the occasion of the next two expected 
returns to the perihelion, but it was not discovered in either instance, 
nor has any trace of it been ever since obtained. Lexell endeavoured 
to account for this cvirious circumstance by remarking that previous 
to 1 770 the comet had always been invisible, but that having passed 
very close to the planet Jupiter in the year 1767, it was thrown into 
a new orbit, and rendered risible; and that, in 1779, having again 
approached very near to the same planet, it was thro^vn again into a 
new orbit, and thereby rendered inr^isible. The researches of Lexell 
were subsequently confirmed by Laplace, but Le Verrier has in recent 
times called in question some of the data on which they rest. 

Comet of 1811. — The orbit of this famous comet has formed the 
subject of an elaborate investigation by Argelander, who found it to 
revolve in an ellipse, with a period of 3065 years. This result must 
be understood, however, as corresponding only to the time of the 
perihelion passage. Argelander has shown that the disturbing forces 
of the planets must exercise a very considerable influence on the time 
of the next perihelion passage. By computing the perturbations up to 
May, 1827, he foimd that the time of revolution would be shortened 
from that cause to the extent of no less than 177 years. 

6'ome< of 1815. — This comet was disooveretl on the 6th of March, 1815, 
by the celebrated astronomer Olbers. Bessel subjected the obsei-va- 
tions to a thorough discussion, when he found the comet to revolve in 
an ellipse, with a period of 74 years. Taking into account the effects 
of planetary perturbation, which he found would accelerate its 
movement to the extent of two years, ho finally ascertained that 
the comet would again arrive in the perihelion in the month of 
February, 1887. 

De Pico's Comet. — On the 22nd of August, 1844, De Vico discovered 
at Rome a comet which was found to revolve in an elliptic orbit, with 
a period of about five and a half years. It was carefully searched for 
at the perihelion passages of 1850 and 1855, but in neither instance has 
it been discovered. 

Peters' Comet. — This comet was discovered by Dr. Peters at Naples, 
in 1846, and was found by him to revolve in an elliptic orbit with a 
period of 12'85 years. According to this result the comet ought to 
have returned to the perihelion in the year 1859, but hitherto it has 
not been found. 

Winnecke's Comet. — On the 8th of March, 1868, Dr. Winnecke dis- 
covered a comet at Bonn, which he found to revolve in an elliptic 
orbit with a period of 5'549 years. He also established its identity 
with a comet observed in the year 1819. Supposing it to have made 
seven revolutions since that year, the time of a complete revolution 
would be 6'541 years, a result agreeing almost exactly with that 
obtained by a direct investigation of the elliptic elements. 

Donati's Comet. — The observations of this famous comet appear to 
be best satisfied by an elliptic orbit. According to Professor Stampfer 
of Vienna, the period of revolution is 2141 years. However, until the 
totality of the observations shall have been subjected to a complete 
discussion, it will be impossible to arrive at any definitive result on 
this point. 

Number of Comets. 

It is impossible to form any opinion with respect to the number 
of comets which are liable to visit our system. Multitudes of those 
bodies, whether from their faiutuess or the circumstances of their 
movements, will doubtless for ever elude observation. Arago gives 





th* iollewiag aaunMntion of tba numbar of ooomU whoae orbits h»Te 
bMB e>loal>t«d dowa to Um cIom of the jeu ISiS : — 
7 »pp»ritioiu of RiUtift eooMt. 
1 1 »p|j»ntioi>* of EdoIm'* comet. 
•ppuitioaa of Bieb'e oomet 
S appwitioat of Faye'e oomet. 

48 appaiitioBB of oometa raTolniig in ^ptio orbiti,or of which two 
paaaagea of tha patiheikiB may pariiapa have oeourred. 
151 apparitioiia of ooomU rrrMring in paraboUe orbits. 

Tha foUowincstatemaot of the progreas of cooMtarr disooverr during 
the flra yaan whioh haro elapsed subaaquaatl^ to the year 1853, will 
anaUa tha raadar to form an opinion with rtapeetto the activity which 
porradea thia department of astron o mical aoience :— 

Numlier of ComeU 
Tear. diMOTcred. 

l»U 3 

IIU 1 


lur 7 

UU « 


It is to be remarked that the for^ioing list ineludea four re-diacoveries 
of periodic comets, namely, the re^discoveries of Brorsen's and D'Arreat's 
comets in 1657, and of Locke's and Faye's comets in 1858. 

DimemioHi of Comett. 

The head of a comet is frequently a body of immense magnitude. 
The following are some of the results which have been obttmied by 
the aid of microqietnc measurements : — 

DUmeter of the Head. 
The great comet of 1811 .... 1,170,000 miles 

Bsllejr'n oomet (1836] 337,000 „ 

rtnt comet on;80 .... !6;,300 „ 
Oomet of UxcU, 1770 . . . . 204,000 „ 
Doasti'i oomet 100,000 „ 

Sir William Herschel found the diameter of the envelope of the great 
oomet of 1811 to be no less than 643,000 miles. 

The nucleus of a comet, in many instances not distinguishable at all, 
ia generally of inconsiderable dimensions. The following are some 
reaults of micrometric measurement : — 

Diameter of N'uclena. 

Comet of 1799 373 miles 

1807 S18 „ 

„ 1811 3037 „ 

DoDSti'f oomet (October 6, 18S8) . . . . 800 „ 

The tail of a comet sometimes attains an enormous length, as the 
following numbers will show : — 

length of Tail. 
Comet of 1680 96,000,000 miles 

Co<B«iori;69 38,000,000 „ 

Cooiet of 1811 (October li) .100,000,000 „ 

Comet of 1843 I.'i0,000,000 „ 

Grest comet of 1838 (DonsU'i) . . 31,000,000 „ 

Phytieal Conitituiion of ComeU. 

The substance of which a oomet is composed appears to be of remark- 
able tenuity. This has been abundantly proved by the circumstance 
of the smallest stars being seen through their structure without 
tmdergoing any sensible diminution of light. Sir John Herschel, in a 
paper on Biela's comet, published in vol. vi. of the ' Memoirs of the 
Astronomical Society,' has mentioned a fact which aSbrds a striking 
illustration of the tranalucency of cometic matter. The comet having 
passed over a small duster of stars of the sixteenth or seventeenth 
magnitude, the appearance presented was that of a nebula, partly 
rsaolvable into stars. The moat trifling fog would have efihced the 
stars ; but in the present instance they still continued to be visible, 
although the cometic matter interposed between them and the observer 
most have been at least fifty thousand miles in thickness. 

The question whether the nucleus of a comet is in any caae a soUd 
body has been often disctisaed, but no definitive conclusion has been 
arrived at. The paaaage of the nucleus of a comet over a star might 
be supposed to supply a useful criterion for deciding this point, but no 
instance of the actual occurrenoe of stioh a phenomenon has ever.been 
satisfactorily established. Newton waa of opinion that the nuclei of 
oometa must neoeaaarily ha solid bodies, since otherwise they would 
in many oases ba diaaip^ed in space by the intense heat to which they 
are subjaotad on the paaaage of their perihelia. 

But whathar the nuclei of oometa be aolid or not, it is certain that 
their masses must be very inconsiderable. This is evident from the 
circumstance of their producing no sensible derangement in the motions 
of the planets, however near they approach them. In' the year 1779 
Lexell s comet passed through the middle of the system of Jupiter's 
siteUites, but none of those bodies appeared to be in the aligbtest 
degrea affected by ita attraotive force. 

Alltuion haa been made to tha great haat which many comets must 
undergo on thair {laasaga of tha parihalion. Tha following table of 

pariHaUoa distanoea will show bow near oometa in soma inataiioea 
approach the sun : — 

Date of Apparition Pefihdioa 

of the Camet. DIstsiwe, 

1841 473,000 nUlcs 

16*0 370,000 

1689 1,900,000 

IS16 1,363,000 

1847 , 3,990,000 

1816 4,360,000 

Kewton foimd by calculation, that the oomet of 1680, on its passage 
of the perihelion was subjected to a heat 2000 times greater than tlut 
of red-hot iron. The great comet of 1848, whioh approached nearer 
the aun than any other oomet recorded in history, must have been 
expoaed to a heat of still greater intensity. Laplaoe, avaiUng himaelf 
of Black's beautiful discovery of the principle of latent caloric, con- 
sidered that the heat abstnoted by the cometic partiolea in the course 
of passing into the vaporous state would serve to moderate the elTeot 
of the solar heat at the perihelion, and upon this ground he concluded, 
that the nucleus of a comet is not necessarily a solid body. 

When one of the more conspicuous comets is advancing towards the 
periheUon, it is seen to undergo a succession of changes in the head 
and toiL These singular phenomena, whioh are evidently due to the 
action of the aun, i^pear to have been first remariced by Hooke in the 
course of his observations of the comets of 1680 and 1682. The 
following extract from his observations of the comet of 1682 (an appari- 
tion of Ualley'a comet), will enable the reader to form some idea of the 
changes to which we refer. It is right to state that the comet passed 
through the perihelion on the 15th of September : — 

" August 26. At seven in the evening I delineated the figure and 
shape of the comet, exactly like that I saw through my fourteen-feet 
telescope, which will appear more plain by the fifth figure than I can 
otherwise well express it.* It had a pretty bright round nucleus, and 
about that was an atmosphere of thinner light which was terminated 
towards the sun with a round figure. That part of this halo, or lighter 
atmosphere towards the sun, was not so bright or radiant as another 
kind of light which seemed to issue from the nucleus or star both 
ways at right angles with the axis through the suu, which lighter 
issuings bent into a kind of parabolic figure, within the former halo or 
atmosphere, and waa terminated within it, and seemed to form, as it 
were, a second parabolical termination towards the sun, in the apex of 
which parabola was the bright nucleus, and this brighter parabolic line 
of light seemed as gross or thick as the nucleus itself. This issued on 
both sides, but that on the right hand, or the northernmost, was much 
more conspicuous ; insomuch that that on the left hand, or towards 
the south, was to be seen but sometimes, but that on the other side 
was very plain and conspicuous, and seemed like a stream of flame 
blown out of a candle by a blowpipe, ascending or bending upwards, 
just ns such a blown flame of a caudle will do, if it be made by a 
gentle blast. This I remarked ve^ carefully, to see whether I could 
find, by any succeeding observations, any alteration of the magnitude, 
figure, brightness, or position, in respect of the comet's axis. These 
two bright spoutings of Same or light turned or bent upwards from 
the sun, and after a short space seemed to unite into the axis or 
middle of the blaze, and form the shape of the outside of a flame of a 
candle tapering to a point : the fainter part also without it seemed 
to taper much in the same manner. I saw also aeveral coruscationa 
or flashings of the flame, shooting out to a great distance into the 

Phenomena of a similar nature were remarked by Heinsius in the 
course of his observations of the great comet of 1744. In more recent 
times, Halley's comet (1835), and the great comet of 1858, exhibited 
analogous changes previous to their passage of the perihelion. It haa 
been already stated that Halley's comet passed through the perihelion 
on the 15th of November. Previous to the 2nd of October, the ap- 
pearance which it presented was that of a round nebulous disk, with a 
faint nucleus in the centre. On that evening, however, the nucleus 
became exceedingly bright, and there was seen to issue from it a cone 
of light, which first extended a short distance in the direction of the 
sun, and then bent back as if impelled by some intense force in the 
opposite direction. This outstreaming cone of light continued to be 
seen until the 22nd of October, subject however to violent chatiges 
when observed from night to night. It is worthy of remark that 
simultaneously with these changes the tail was observed to increase 
gradually in length. The phenomena observed during the ap|>arition 
of the great comet of 1 858, were of a still more complex nature than 
those which characterised any previotu comet, but it would be out of 
place here to enter into any minute details. On the ICth of September 
there commenced a series of luminous emissions from the nucleus, 
which continued till the paaaage of the periheUon at the end of the 
month. These were followed by a succession of envelopes of a para- 
boloidal form surrounding the head, and which were seen in greater or 
less number at the various observatories throughout £iut>pe and 
America till the disappearance of the comet about the 20th of October. 

The development of tha tail when a comet is advancing towards the 
perihelion affords also a striking indication of the action of the *un« 

* Tbtss drawings sr« given in Hooke't ■ Fotthomou* Works.' 





although the mode in which it is exerted continues to be involved in 
great mystery. The following results of micrometric measures of the 
progress of the tail of the great comet of 1858, executed at the obser- 
vatory of Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S., will furnish an apt illus- 
tration of our remark : — 

Apparent length 

Absolute length 


of TaU. 

of Tail. 



29 . 


14,000,000 miles 





16,000,000 „ 

12 . 


19,000,000 „ 





10,000,000 „ 

23 . 


12,000,000 „ 





12,000,000 „ 


2S . 


17,000,000 „ 




18,000,000 „ 


28 . 


26,000,000 „ 




26,000,000 „ 



2 . 


27,000,000 „ 




33,000,000 „ 


6 . 


45,000,000 „ 




. SO 

43,000,000 „ 

10 . 


51,000,000 „ 



39,000,000 „ 



15 . 


14,000,000 „ 



The shortening of the tail between the 12th and 17th of September 
is due entirely to the effect of moonlight. To the same cause may be 
partly attributed the change from the 10th to the 15th of October, 
but it is no doubt mainly due to the rapid diminution of the bright- 
ness of the comet, 

Kumerous theories of the origin of the tails of comets have been 
proposed from time to time, but as they are all open to serious ob- 
jections we do not think that any useful purpose would be served by 
giving an accoimt of them on the present occasion. It is plain 
from the observations of the more conspicuotis comets, that the tail is 
fed by the matter nused from the nucleus by the action of the 
gun. There would appear to be in this case two forces acting upon 
the cometic particles, independently of the force of gravitation. First, 
we have indications of a force violently ejecting the particles to a short 
distance from the nucleus ; and secondly, we have equally clear evi- 
dence of a repulsive force of great intensity directed upon the comet 
from the sun, and driving the particles so ejected to an immense 
distance in space. The most probable view of the nature of these 
powerful forces is that which attributes them to electrical agency, but 
no satisfactory theory of the subject has yet been advanced by any 

IMI'TIA. Comitium originally signified a place of meetmg, as the 
name imporU. Varro, ' DeXing. Lat.' I. v., s. 155. Plutarch ('Romulus,' 
xix.) says that the plain where the Romans met the Sabines, in order to 
agree on the terms of a treaty, was called " comitium," and Niebuhr, 
' History of Rome ' (i. 291, ed. 1851), in narrating the history of the 
union of the two towns of Roma and Quirium, and accounting for the 
steps by which the union was effected, mentions the old l^end of a 
pkce of meeting for the Roman and Sabine kings and senates, called 
comitium from the fact of its lying between the Palatine and Capitoline 
hills. WTiether it was intended to preserve a record of the old place of 
meeting, or was simply used aa a topographical description miist be 
left to conjecture. The word was retained and applied to a particular 
part of the Forum, where for many a day the remembrance of the old 
rivalry was preserved by the two statues of Romulus and Tatius that 
were erected in it. The plural "comitia" denotes general assemblies 
of the Roman people, convened by the constitutional authority of some 
magistrate, in order to enact or repeal anything by their suffrages. 
One set of comitia was named " calata," from the old word calare, 
to call or convene (A. Oellius, 15, 27), where the people were sum- 
moned to be witnesses to certain solemn acts, or certain things then 
announced to them. 

There were three kinds of Roman comitia : — 

1. 6'ariafo, so called because the people met and voted in curia;. 
Romulus, it is said, divided the whole Roman people into three tribes, 
and each tribe into ten curiae, which were subdivided into decads, 
being, as Niebuhr contends, the same an houses, so that each curia 
containing 10 houses, the 3 tribes numbered 300 in all. Now, as no 
houses but those which composed the three ancient tribes were 
essential parts of the state, in conse(iuencc of which the patricians 
could boast that they alone (gentem habere) had a house (Livy x. 8), 
this division, so essential to the patrician order, was in close con- 
nection with it, and therefore, when the political importance of the 
plebeians rose, the curias sank and, except in the continued observance 
of their sacra, for some years after their political degradation, fell 
into oblivion. The word curiie is derived from curare, to take care 
of or superintend civil and rehgious affairs (Varro, ' De L. L." v. 165, 
and vi, 46) ; though another and somewhat plausible etymology is 
that which connects it with the Sabine word Quiris or Curis. (See 
Smith's 'Latin Dictionary,' luh verba.) Each curia formed a sepa- 
rate community for the celebration of sacred rites, for which purpose a 
particular priest, called curio, was attached to each curia, and a decurio, 
or eaptain and burgess to each decad or house. But all the curias 
were under ths superintendence of a curio maximus. A separate place 

which was also called curia, was assigned to each curia for performing 
its sacred rites. The members of a curia were called ouriales. 

There is some obscurity and doubt about the ancient constitution of 
the curia; and comitia curiata. However, it seems certain, that the 
curisB had the superintendence of sacred matters, that all the public 
power was united and centralised in the comitia curiata, and that the 
patrician order mxist have possessed a great preponderance in them. 
(See Niebuhr's ' Home,' vol. i., ' on the Curies.') In these comitia 
laws were made or repealed, peace or war declared ; (as to treaties of 
peace, however, see ' Diet, of Gr. & Rom. Antiq.' Comitia, p. 332 b),the 
affairs of the curia; and gentes or houses decided, capital crimes judged, 
and the king as well as the other chief magistrates of the state elected. 
The place of meeting (comitium) was in the forum, and in its northern 
comer were the rostra. There was no fixed time for the meeting of 
the curiae, but they met as business required, and were held in the 
presence and under the protection of the priests, their president being 
the king, or an interrex in the ante-republican times, and some high 
patrician magistrate, a consul, prsetor, or dictator, under the Republic, 
while none but the populus or the patrician members of the curiae had 
a right to take part in these assemblies. 

Servius TuUius having instituted the comitia centuriata, and the 
phibeians becoming powerful through the comitia tributa, the comitia 
curiata gradually lost almost aU political power. However they still 
passed enactments under the title of leges euriattc, which, before the 
institution of the comitia centuriata, denoted every law made by the 
comitia curiata ; but aftenvards that term was limited to express a few 
political rights, still reserved to the latter comitia, particuLarly that of 
granting military power (impcrium) to those magistrates who were 
elected in the comitia centuriata, which could only confer civil power 
{poteatat). Finally, the political influence of the comitia curiata was 
reduced to a mere formality, and represented, in Cicero's time, by thirty 
lictora. Still, a shadow of the old institution was preserved in the con- 
tinuance of the patrician comitia calata used principally for the adro- 
gationes. Though their political power was lost, the curia; retained 
their religious functions till the last times of the republic, and always 
elected the curio maximus and the flamens. Their number was never 
augmented, as was the case with the tribes. Before proceeding to 
the second class of comitia, a few words on the subject of a 
peculiar authority possessed by the comitia curiata will not be in- 
appropriate, for a more full accoimt of which the reader is referred 
to Niebuhr's ' Hist,' vol. i. ch. 21. The election of the kings was, it 
is known, in the hands of the curies, but in addition thereto, to 
this body belonged the conferring the imperium (Cic. ' De Rep.' ii. 13) : 
hence they not only could elect, but they could annul that election : 
the first it is said was done by the populus, the second by the senate 
or patres, and to effectuate that second decision, a law was passed by the 
patres, called by Cicero lex curiata de imperio, and by Livy, auctoritas 
pitrum (Livy i. 17). The conclusion that Niebuhr draws from this 
identity of the auctoritas patrum, and the lex curiata de imperio is, 
that the comitia of the curies and the assembly of the patricians were 

2. Centuriata. Servius Tullius, according to tradition, in order to 
diminish the power of the patricians, and. to elevate the plebeians 
without giving them any power, made a new division of the Roman 
people into six classes, which were subdivided into centuries or votes. 
There has been much dispute about this division and the number of 
the centuries ; and the controversy scarcely admits of decision, as the 
ancient writers (Livius,i. 43, Dionys. Halicam., ' Antiq. Rom.,' i. 19-22, 
and Cicero, ' De Republica,' ii. 22) are of different opinions. But the 
nature of the institution is not so doubtful. According to the more 
probable opinion (that of Dionys. Hal), the 6 classes contained 193 
centuries. The first class consisted of 18 centuries of knights and 80 
centuries of those (ditimmi) whose fortune amounted to at least 
100,000 ases; the second class (ditir/res) contained 22 centuries, and 
consisted of those who possessed at least 75,000 ases; the third 
(divitet) 20 centuries, and consisted of those who had a property of 
50,000 ases at least ; the fourth class (medioercs) 22 centuries, of 
those who possessed 25,000 ases at least; the fifth class (modici) 30 
centuries, of those who possessed 12,500 ases ; the sixth class contained 
but one century of capite censi, that is, persons counted by head and 
not by estates : they were also called proletarii, or a;rarii. 

According to this division the Roman people met in the comitia 
centuriata, in order to vote in centuries on public matters ; that is, a 
decree of the assembly was made by counting the votes of the centu- 
ries. As the first class alone contained more centuries than all the 
other classes together, it may be said that, as KomiUus had created an 
aristocracy of birth by his division of curia;, so Servius Tullius created 
an aristocracy of fortune by his new division. In order to prevent tliat 
disadvantage, when the plebeians had obtained more power, the 
century which was to give its suffrages first was appointed by lot. 
The century upon which the lot fell was called pnerogativa. The other 
centuries voted according to the order of their classes, and were called 
jure vocatae. The decision by lot being regarded as a divine omen, the 
centuriae jure vocata; commonly followed the vote of the centuria pras- 
rogativa ; and thus the power of the first class was balanced in some 
measure. A contest however sometimes arose whether a matter was to 
be decided in the comitia centuriata or tributa. 

Eveiy Roman citizen in the best sense of the words {civU optima jure) 




iMd th* right of giTiag Ut wflhig* ia th* ei Uiri >t. IIm magistniUi 
who WW* eampattBt to «kn Umm eookltk war* Um oomdI, Um pnetor 
ia th* t h M ne e of Um eoaml, um) U>« diotator, or his rvprannUtiTe the 
m«gfail<r equitum. Th* maciatimla who preaided mi on tba mIU 
enruUa. On hoMay* (Jtriir) oomitia were not bwful ; the day* cm 
which they could b« held were called dies eomitialea. The place of 
meeting was the Ounpua Xartios, iriiere were placed the aepta for the 
TOtara, or iadaauraa into which Bliaaa* were admitted one after the 
other, the nraaident^ tahemaouhim, sad the rilla publics for the 
angias. Baiore the buaiaeaa began the auapieea were token, and if 
wij were not tarourable the meeting waa deferred to another day ; 
bat if no ohctaele appeared, the bn ain eaa waa opened with the standing 
formula, nlilu,J»haiH$ Quirilt* 1 by reading eitlicr the nainea of the 
eandldataa, or the proposition of a law (ngalio). Originally they gave 
their auftagea aloud (riril roer), but afterwards \ij tij>leta, or ballot; 
irtlMl mode of Toting was eatabUnhcd by the legea tabellariK, in order 
tOMoar* the freedom of election. It waa not till after a long contest, 
OoauMBoed by the tribune Qabiniua, B.O. 140, that the plebeians 
ohtabied the protection of the ballot. 

As the comitia curiata originally poaaeaaed the aorereign power, ao, 
after the time of Senritu TuUiua, tt came into the hands of the comitia 

In the first place all legialatian belonged to these comitia, and the 
enactments nude by them only were called legea (laws), being obliga- 
tory upon all the Romans. A Itx diSered both from a decree of the 
aeoate («nia<d«-CDS«ai/fMm), and from an enactment of the comitia 
tributa (jpUbitcihin), which only bound the respective estates of the 
patriciana and the plebe. If a law was to be proposed to the comitia 
eenluriata, it waa to be promulgated (pronutlgata), that is, notice of it 
waa to be given on three market<lays before tiie day of assembly. The 
proposed law being accepted by the people, which they exprraaed by 
the term " perferre," waa, after being confirmed by oath of the people, 
engraved on a public tablet and deposited in the lerariiim. See Ulpian, 
tit. i. a S, andD 85,2. 1. 

Bencef urward all magistrates, both ordinary and extroordinaiy, were 
elected at these comitia, as constils, prtetois, cenaota, decemvirs, and 
military tribunes. Those who sou^t for office appeared in a white 
toga (toga Candida, and hence they were called eandidati) before the 
people on three previous market<laya. The candidate who was 
elected waa proclaimed by the pneco, or crier ; and if this formality 
was not observed the election was nuU. Until the magistrate elect 
entered upon his office he was called " designatus." 

The comitia centuriata were also the court for the decision of war, 
and probably for accepting and cuufirming trxaities, as well as the court 
of the people (judirium populi), for jud^ng public crimes (crimina 
puMca) of a grave kind, which were immediately directed against the 
state or people ; as for example, attempts upon the freedom of the 
people, attempts of individuals to seize on the sovereign power, insult 
to or the murder of a tribune. Such a crime, which waa called crimen 
perduellionia, waa different from the crimen majestatis. (Cicero, ' Ue 
Hepub.' il 86 ; ' De Legit,' Ui., 4 ; ' pro Sext.,' 30, 34 ; and Heinecc., 
' Antiq.,' iv. 18, 46, and 47.) 

3. The Cosufta tribula were the comitia wherein the Roman people 
met and voted according to tribes. The plebeians having acquired 
considerable power in the state, these comitia achieved their first 
important victory B.C. 471, by the Fublilian law, which secured to 
them the right of electing the tribunes, and eventually the other 
inferior magistrates ; while their second great power was gained by the 
law of Valeriua Publicola, B.C. 449, whidi, giving them the right of 
originating measures, raised their decrees to the same position as a lex, 
beUig again extended by the Hortensian law, ao that " Flebiscita omnes 
Quirites tenerent" Neither birth nor fortune gave advantage in 
these comitia, as was the case in the other comitia. Every Roman 
citizen who waa classed or registered in a tribe was permitted to 
vote in them. The place of meeting was not fixed, but ordinarUy it 
was the Campus Martius; sometimes also the forum or capitol, or 
Circus Flamininus. The same minute formalities with respect to 
the auspices were not necessary as at the comitia centuriata. The 
Msemblies were called by a tribune, who also presided, if tribunes or 
■dilea were to be elected ; but at elections of other magistrates, or if 
laws were to be made, consuls and protots alao might presidei 

Soon after tliese comitia were establiabed, all inferior magistrates, 
ordinaiy and extiaordinarr, were elected in them, aa tribunea, aidiles, 
quteatore, proconsuls, and propnetora; the election of the pontifex 
maximus, and of varioua other religioua functionaries, waa made in 
these comitia. They alao sat in judgment in certain inferior oaaes ; 
but for capital pimishmenta the oomiUa centuriata only had competent 
authority, and the trial of Coriolanua, aa tha story has come down to 
ua, must be regarded aa an anomaly and an illegal act. 

It baa been already mentioned that enactments made by the comitia 
tributa wore called plebiacita, and at first bound only the plebeians. 
Bat aa the power of the plebeians became enUiged by degrees, the 
filefaisaita, after many contest* between the plebeiana and patricians, 
were made equal in raeot to tha l*g**, by th* lex Hortensia, B.C. 288. 
(Oaius, i. 1.) From ttiii time the** oomitia po*aa***d tlie complete 
legislative power, thoroughly independent of the aaData. Accordingly 
anactmenta fur nuking war or peace, or granting a triumph, were fre- 
quently r*wnrl against the will of the senate. 

Ja th* kter time* of the republic, the management of the comitia 
became an important objeot both for ambitious aspirants to power, 
and for those who pro f »s*ed to maintain the ri^ta of the people. 
Caaar, after being mad* perpetual dictator, Tirtuuly concluded theh' 
authority by luniself appomUng consuls, and luuning half uf the other 
magistntea, Finally, the eteolions of the comitia became a men 

(Sigoniua, d« Antiq. Jar. Gr. Horn. i. 17.; Xia Qruchii, lib. iii. <fe 
Comil. Sim. in Tha. Antiq. Sam., ed. Qtasvius, tip. CSl, seq. ; Dr. 
Smith's Dietitmarfi of Ortdc and Soman Antiquititi, articles " Comitia," 
" CuriiB," " Lex," " ricbiscitum.") 

COMMA, in Music {xintia), is the difference between two sounds 
whose ratio is 81 : 80 ; or, the difference between the major tone, 
c DO) and the minor tone, D I (2,). Practically considered, the comma 
is the ninth part of a major tone. Ptolemy thouj^t ao amali an in- 
terval inappreciable : Salinaa asserts the contrary. Maxwell (' Easay 
on Tune') agreea with the latter, and givea tlie following rule for 
tuning the comma : Obtain (i, stopped as the octave to the open fotirth 
string (on the violin), and the dilierence between that note and the 
same taken aa the greater sixth below the first open string, must be s 
comma. We refer those who wish to go deeper into this matter to 
Smith's ' Harmonie*.' But the clearest and fullest information <>n the 
subject is to be obtained from the ' Th^orie Acuustico-Musicale ' of 
M. Suremain-Missery. ' 

COMMANDERY, a species of benefice attached to certain foreign 
military orders, ustully conferred on knights who had done them some 
especial service. According to Furetiire, these commanderies were of 
ditterent kinds and degrees, as the statutes of the different orders 
directed. The name uf oommandery iu the order of St. Louis waa 
given to the pension which the king uf Frauco formerly assigned to 
twenty-four commanders of tiiat order. The order of Malta had com- 
manderies of justice, which a knight obtained from long standing; 
and others of favour, of which the grand master had the power of 

in England, commanderies were the same amongst the Knights 
Hospitalien as proceptories had been among the Knighta Tempurs, 
namely, societies of those knights placed upon some of their estates in 
the country under the government of a commander, who were allowed 
pro[)er mainteuauce out of the revenues under their care, and accounted 
for the remainder to the grand prior at London. At the dissolution of 
religious houses, in the time of Henry VIII., there were more than 
fifty of these commanderies in Englsjid, subordinate to the great 
priory of St. John of Jerusalem. A few of these held productive 
estates, and hod even the appearance of being separate corporations, so 
much so aa to have a conunon aeal ; but the greater part were little 
more than farms or granges. The Templan' term of preoeptory waa 
as frequently used to designate these establiahments aa the term com- 
mondvry. In Germany the provision for the vicars of a cathedral is 
also called a oommandery. (Fureti&re, ' Dictionnaire Universel ; ' 
Tanner, ' Notitia Monastics,' edit. 1787, prof. p. xvii. ; Uugdale'a 
' Monasticon AugUcouum,' last edit., vol. vL, pp. 786, 800.) 

The title of commander has also been adopted to designate the 
second rank of the Knights of the Bath, who are linights Comiuandera. 
[Bath, Kkiqbts or the.] 

COMMENDAM, from " commends," a term of the canon law, which, 
according to its original signification, was applied where the custody of 
a void ecclesiastical benefice was, during the avoidance, committ d by 
the bishop or other superior to a person who was to discharge the 
spiritual duties attached to the benefice without meddling with the 
profits. The person to whose charge these duties were couuuitted waa 
said to hold the benefice in eommendam. In time, this practice dege- 
nerated into an actual perception of the profits, and the device of 
holding livings in commauUun wss found by the ecdesiaatics of the 
middle ages a useful method of evading the provisions of the canon law 
against pluralities. [Benefice.] By the Uw of England no benefice 
can be held t'n eommendam without a licence from the crown. This 
prerogative ha* been most frequently exeroiaed where the parson of a 
parish has been made biahop of a see, the revenues of which were 
insufficient to support the dignity of the station. For the only way to 
prevent the avoidance of a t>enefice by promotion to a bishopric, is to 
grant a licence to retain it in eommendam, commonly called a com- 
mendam recinen. This Ucence is granted before consecration, or 
before confirmation, iu the case of a tranalation ; another kind of dis- 
pensation, called a commeiufam eapere or ncipert, enables a bishop to 
take a benefice after conaeoistion or confirmation. The consent of the 
patron of the benefice waa essential to the validity of a oommendun. 

Mot only dignities and benefices, but headships of colleges and 
hospitals, might be granted in comswiKfam, Ac 

Licence to hold in commeiKfam might be temporary or perpetual ; but 
the learning on this subject has now become of little practical value ; 
for by statute 6 & 7 Will. IV., c. 77, s. 18, it is enacted, that no eccle- 
aiastical dignity, office, or benefice, shall be held in costmsiK^am by any 
biahop (unless he then held the same); and tliat every coi»si«n(ia)n 
thereafter granted, whether to retain or to receive, and whether tem- 
porary or periHitunl, shall be abaolutely void to all intenta and purposes. 

CUMMKNiSUKABLE, Two magnitudes are commenaurablo which 
have a common measure. The peculiar part of this subject belongs to 
IxcoilMlHSUBABLU, Thsoby OF, and I'liopORTio.v, which see. 






COMME'RCIUM EPISTO'LICUM (commerce of letters), a name 
which was at one time frequently given to published collections of letters, 
such as were common about the end of the 17th century and the be- 
ginning of the 18th. Thus we have the ' Commercium Epistolieum' 
of Wallis in the second and third volumes of his works (1693 and 1S99); 
that of Kepler (though his name does not appear in the title-page), 
published in 1718 ; and that of John Bernoulli and Leibnitz, published 
in 1745. 

But the name by itgelf is generally understood to apply to the cele- 
brate! collection published by the Royal Society in 1712, in vindication 
of their decision upon the dis|)ute lietween Keill and Leibnitz as to 
the right to the invention of the Differential Calculus, or Method of 
Fluxions. We have not space here to enter upon the subject-matter 
of the quarrel itself, but only to give some account of the ' Commer- 
cium Epistolieum ' [referring for the rest to Flcxions, Method of]. 

In the year 1703, Newton and Leibnitz being then both alive, Keill, 
an astronomer, now better known by his concern in this matter than 
by his writings or discoveries, inserted in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
.ictions' (No. 317) an article in which he defended Newton against the 
editors of the Leipsic Acts, who had spoken of Newton's ' Quadratura 
Curvanmi ' as a secondary work in comparison of the previous writings 
of Leibnitz. He asserted that the method of fluxions was first invented 
by Newton, and that Leibnitz, changing the name and notation, had 
inserted' it in the Leipsic Acts : his words will bear the construction 
that he conceived Leibnitz to be a plagiarist, but not that of his being 
an independent inventor. Leibnitz, on the receipt of this volume 
(March, 1711), complained of the accusation in a letter to Dr. Sloane 
(then secretary of the Royal Society) ; reminded him that on a similar 
accusation having been made a few years before by M. Fatio de DuiUier, 
the Society and Newton himself ha<l disapproved of it ; pointed out 
the dishonourable stigma impUed by Keill (whom he presumed to be 
innocent of all bad intention), and requested the interference of the 
Royal Society to induce him to disavow the intention of imputing 
fraud. Keill (in a letter to Dr. Sloane, May, 1711,) denied that he 
meant to charge Leibnitz with having known the science of Newton by 
name and notation ; but asserted that Newton had explained his 
Fluxions in two letters to Oldenburg (then secretary of the Royal 
Society), which were transmitted to Leibnitz; and that the latter 
either did draw, or at least could have drawn, the principles of Differ- 
entials from thence. On this subject he wrote a long detail of what 
he considered to be the proof of bis assertion. Leibnitz, in another 
letter (December, 1711), complains that the charge was now more open 
than before ; that he and bis frien<U had never contested the inde- 
pendent invention of Newton ; and that he appealed to the Royal 
Sooiety and to Newton himself. The Royal Society accordingly ap- 
pointed a committee, which collected and reported upon a large mass 
of documents, consisting mostly of letters from and to Newton, Leib- 
nitz, Oldenburg, Wallu, Collins, &c., &o. Their rep<jrt was to the 
effect that Leibnitz was in London at the beginning of the year 1073, 
from which time to September, 1676 (when he visited London before 
returning to Hanover), he was in correspondence with Collins and 
Oldenburg ; that when first in London, he was in possession of a 
differential method, which was no other than that of Houtou ; and 
that he never mentioned any other till he wrote a letter of June, 1677, 
being a year after a copy of Newton's letter to Oldenburg, of December 
10, 1672, had been sent to Paris to bo communicated to him, and four 
years after Collins began to communicate the contents of that letter. 
Also that by a former letter of Newton, of June, 1676, it appeared that 
he had been in possession of his Fluxions five years before ; that Leib- 
nitz's method is in fact the same as that of Newton, with a difference 
of name and notation ; finally, that Newton being the first inventor, 
Keill, in asserting the same, had been no ways injurious to Leibnitz. 
This report, preceded by a large mass of letters or extracts, appeared 
in the year 1712 ; and again with a ' Hecensio,' &o., prefixed, and some 
other additions in 1722 ; this reprint was also issued wiUi another title- 
psge in 1725. It was translated into French, and was also published in 
a journal at the Hague. Leibnitz only protested in private letters 
against the injustice of the proceeding : he declared that he would not 
answer a reasoning so weak ; and it appears moreover that he had on 
bin mind an impression that the acrimony excited against him in Eng- 
land was political. He was in the service of the Elector of Hanover, 
the health of the queen was declining, and many of the men of science 
were Jacobites, 

With regard to the 'Commercium Epistolieum,' and the Report 
att.iched, it is obvious that the final oonclusion was not to the point. 
Thi' quettion was not whether Newton was the first inventor, but 
wh'lher Leibnitz had stolen the method. The committee did not 
attempt to prove that Leibnitz had received the letter which was sent 
to Paris to be sent to Hanover : nor do they formally venture to assert 
their beUef that Leibnitz was a plagiarist ; but, with a subterfuge 
wholly unworthy of them, they conclude that because Leibnitz might 
have seen Newton's letter, Ac., which they could not prove, Keill did 
him no injustice in asserting the priority of Newton's invention — 
which was not the matter of complaint. Moreover, they published 
iiini.h of their evidence in the form of extract, and their omissions are 
not always justifiable. It does not appear on the face of the report 
itself that Leibnitz knew of the appointment of the committee, or had 
any opportunity of stating any objections he might entertain to its 

members, or of furnishing auy documents relating to the question 
under consideration. There runs throughout the extracts a desire of 
proving Leibnitz guilty of more than they meant positively to affirm. 
The latter acted wisely in appealing to posterity ; for though party 
feeling long adopted the conclusions of the Report in England, it is 
now nearly, if not quite, the opinion of those who study the matter, 
that Leibnitz really was an independent inventor. The contemporary 
supporters of Newton, and their followers down to the present day, 
have chosen to regard the committee as a judicial body, and their 
report as a decision. But this was not the case. The committee was 
avowedly counsel for Newton, though the form of their report gave 
countenance to the mistake just mentioned. Faulty as they were in 
more points than one, their unfairness was that of advocates, not of 

The part which Newton himself took in the matter at the time was 
not very well knowTi till lately. In the first edition of the ' Principia ' 
(1687), he stated (book ii. Scholium to Lemma 11) that ten years 
before (the Scholium must probably have been written in 1686 at the 
very latest) he had communicated in cipher a single sentence to Leib- 
nitz as a key to what he informed him was a method of drawing 
tangents, &o., and that Leibnitz not only wrote in reply, that he had 
fallen upon a similar method, but actually communicated it, and that 
he (Newton) fonnd it to be the same as his own, except in notation 
and symbols. No doubt it was upon the strength of this scholium that 
Leibnitz confidently appealed to Newton himself : and we might have 
imagined that the question of the divte of this letter would have formed 
a part of the inquiry. But we cannot find it alluded to : the publica- 
tion of the ' Principia ' is mentioned in its proper place, without a, 
word as to this scholium ; nor con we find any allusion to it. We wish 
we could end here : but we are compelled to add, that this scholium 
was omitted by Newton in the third edition of the ' Principia' (1725), 
and its plaoe supplied by auotlier, iu which the name of Leibnitz is 
not mentioned, but on account of what Newton had written to Collins 
in 1672 begins and ends in nearly the same words. But it must be 
remembered that between 1687 and 1725, Newton had suffered that 
illness which perhaps impaired the powers of his mind, and certainly 
altered his disposition, perhaps even his memory ; for in a letter pre- 
served by Raphson, February 26, 1715-16, he gives an account of the 
letter of Leibnitz differing iu several i>articulaiis from the printed 

The ' Commercium Epistolieum ' will be found complete in Horsloy'a 
edition of Newton, accompanied by additional letters extracted from 
Raphson's ' History of Fluxions,' London, 1716. The appendix con- 
tains the additional letters. 

An edition of the ' Commercium Epistolieum,' with valuable notes, 
and the most recent information, has been published by MM. Biot and 
Lefort, Paris, 1856, 4to. To what precedes we may add the following 
facts, recently established. 

1. The reprint of 1722 contains some small additions and omissions, 
though it professes to be nothing but a reprint. Some of these altera- 
tions are important, and of a highly unfair character. (' Phil. Mag.' 
June, 1848.) 

2. The letter actually sent to Leibnitz has been found among his 
papers at Hanover, and a draft of it in the archives of the Royal Society. 
It does not contain the mathematical part of CoUins's letter of 
December, 1672, but only the description given by Newton of the 
character of his results. This makes little difference ; 'because the 
mathematical part of Newton's letter contained nothing sufficient, and 
nothing but the like of what hod been printed before ; but the dis- 
covery convicts the committee of extreme carelessness on the most 
im|Kirtant point. (' Comp. Aim.' 1862.) 

3. Sir D. Brewster, by his recent examination of Newton's papera, 
has found that Newton himself is fully responsible for the contents, 
both of the ' Commercium Epistolieum,' and the reprint. This has 
very often been denied. 

4. It has recently been proved, both by internal evidence and by 
the Newton papers, that Newton himself, a fact always strongly denied 
by his supporters of this century, wrote the account of the ' Com- 
mercium Epistolieum,' which ajjpears in the ' Phil. Trans.' No. 342 

COMMINATION, THE OFFICE OF, a service in the Liturgy of 
the Church of England. It is called " A Commiuation or denuuciation 
of Qod's anger and judgments against sinneis, " from the Latin word 
commiuaiio, a threatening or cursing. The Protestants at the Refor- 
mation introduced the reading of this comminatory service as a sub- 
stitute fur the ancient and still continued Catholic ceremony of 
sprinkling the head, and making the sign of the cross on the forehead 
with ashes, on the first day of Lent, hence denominate<l Ash Wednes- 
(liy ; but though it is ordered especially to be read on this day, the 
rubric adds, — " and at all other times as the ordinary shall appoint." 
From Archbishop Qrindall's VLiitation Articles, published in 1576, it 
appears at that time to have been used on four days in the year, 
namely, on Ash Wednesday and on the third Sund.ay before Easter, 
Whitsuntide, oiid Christmas. The origin and object of the service 
will be best explained by the following extract from its commence- 
ment. " In the primitive church there was a godly discipline that at 
the beginning of Lent such persons as stood convicted of notorious sin 
were but to open penance and pimishmeut iu this world, that their 






aeub misht be nred in the day of the Lord, and that othrr.". )K-ing 
admoiUaEed by their example, might be the more afraid tu uffeud. 
Inetcad whereof (until the laid diioipUne may be reetored again, which 
it much to be wiahed) it ii thought good that at thia time (Adi AVed- 
naeday) ahoold be read the general aanteooe* of Qod'a euraing agitiiut 
impamtent liaonnJ' The form of the coauninatioa aeeuiK Uy be 
defined from Deutaronomy xL S<(-SO and zzriL 1-26, which wm 
aftarrrarde atriol]y obeyed, aa ralated in Joahiu viii. 33-34, in the 
aolamn rehaanal of a aeriM of twelve cunee from Mount KIkU by the 
LeTitea, with a raaponae to each by the people. It may be observed 
that in thia oamminatiaa, the church diH» not pray that the sinner 
Bay be ouraed, nor do the people ofBnu the curse by reph-ing nineu. 
Tfca aeta are «tat«l which are curse<l by the law, and the jieople 
•aknowladge ita truth. The bleaaing with which the Ber\'icv concludes 
waa not added until the last reviaal of the Prayer Book. 

COMMISSAKY, an officer who is delegated by a bishop to act in a 
particular part of the diooeee. to exerciae jurisdiction similar in kind 
to that exercised by the chancellor uf the diooeee in the consistory 
court of tha diooese. A comissary has, generally speaking, the autho- 
rity of ofBeial principal and vicar-general within his limitx. An a|ii>eal 
Uea from his decisions to the metropolitan. In some dioceses there is 
a eommianiy coiu-t for each archdeaconry. The commisaarial courts 
wan eataUiahed for the convenience of the people in parts of the diocese 
remote from the consistory oourt. A commiaaaiy must be learned in 
the civil and eccleaiaatical law, a master of arts or bachelor of law, not 
under the age of twenty-six, and he must subscribe the Thirty-nine 
artidaa (Canon 127). 

In Scotland the same classes of questions which in other parts of 
Europe were arrogated to the ecclesiastical judicatories came under the 
authority of the bishops' courts while the episcopal polity continued, 
aodsubsetiuently devolved on special judges, who were called com- 
misaariea. The four commissaries of I^nburgh constituted the 
Supreme Commissary Court, which had jurisdiction in ciuestions of 
divorce, and of declarators of the existence or noti-cxixtence uf mar- 
riage. The district commissaries had the administrative authority uf 
coniSniung executors to persons deceased, a function resembling the 
granting of letten of administration in England. By 4 Geo. IV. c. 97, 
the functions of the provincial commissaries were vested in the sherifls 
of the respective counties, who, before the passing of that Act, were 
usually appointed the commissaries of their districts. By 11 Geo. IV. 
and 1 Wm. IV. c. 69, the jurisdiction of the commissaries of E<Un- 
btirgh was vested in the Court of Session. 

COMMISSION, in military afiairs, is the document by which an 
officer is authorised to jierform duty for the service of the state. 

Anciently, in this country, the regular mode of asembling the 
national army, either to resist an invading enemy, or to accompany 
the king on a foreign expedition, was by sending a royal command to 
the chief barons and the spiritual lords, that they shuuld meet at a 
given time and place with their due proportion of men, horses, &c. 
properly equipped, according to the tenure by which they held their 
estates ; and these tenanit in capite appear to have appointed by their 
own authority all their subordinate officers. But comnussions were 
also granted by our kings to individuals, authorising them to raise men 
for particular services; thus, in 1442, Henry VI. gave one to the 
governor of Mantes, by which the latter was appointed to maintain 50 
horsemen, 20 men-at-arms on foot, and 210 archers, for the defence of 
that city. According to P6re Daniel, the commission was written on 
parchment, and, that it might not be counterfeited, the piece was 
divided by cutting it irregularly, into two portions, of which, doubt- 
less, each party retained one. 

Commissions of array, as they were called, were also issued by the 
crown, probably from the time of Alfred, for the purpose of mustering 
and training the inhabitants of the counties in military discipline ; and 
in the reign of Edward III. the parliament enacted that no person 
trained imdcr these commissions should be compelled to serve out of 
his own county except in the event of the kingdom being invaded. Of 
the same nature aa these commissions of array was that which, in 1572, 
when the country was threatened with the Spanish invasion. Queen 
Elixabeth issued to the justices of the peace in the different counties, 
authorising them to muster and train persons to serve during the war. 
Those magistrates were directe<l to make choice of oflicers to ooniiimnd 
bodiaaof 100 men and upwards; and such officers, with the consent of 
the na^strates, were to ap|>oint their uwu lieutenants. This privilege 
of granting commissions to the uHicers of the national militia continued 
to bs exercised by the«uteiiant(i of counties, the king having the 
power of confirming or annulling the appointuients ; and it was made 
law in the reign of Charles II. It appeora, however, that before the 
Revolution, the lieutenants and ensigns were recommended for com. 
miamons by captains of the companies. 

In the French service, between the reigns of Francis I. and Louis 
XIV., we find tliat the sovereigns reserved to themselves the nomina- 
tion of the principal comnianden only of the legiona or regiments, and 
that the Utter were (wnuitted to grant commiisionB under their own 
signature and seal to the subordinate officers, who were charged with 
the duty of raising the troops and instructing thcui in the use of arms. 

In the British regular army, as well as in the navy, all the com- 
miations of offioera are signed by the sovereign. In the navy, in the 
rogimant of aitillary, aud in the corps of engmeers and marines, the 

commissions ore oonferiad without porohaaa ; as also a large proportion 
of the oonunissioos grantad to offioera of the line. Those cadets who 
have oompletod a course of military education in the Royal Collage at 
Saodhunt and pass suooeafally, are gatetted without purchase. Such 
is the case also with those who paas their examination before the 
Military Commissionara ytry wdl, and with the sons of ofKcers who 
have fallen in the service, or in any case which the commander-in-chief 
may consider merits it. In other cases, gentlemen obtain leave to 
enter the army by the purchase of an ensigncy, the prices of which, in 
the different rUs s o s of troops, are regulated by authority ; and they 
proceed to the higher grades on paying the difierence between the price 
of the grade which they quit and of that which they enter. 

The commissioned officers of a Inttalion of infantry are ss follow : 
Field-officers — colunel, Ueutenont-colonel, aud major. Regimental 
officers — ca)>tains, lieutenants, and ensigns. StaiFofficen— Chaplain, 
adjutant, quarter-master, and surgeon. 

For a statement of the prices of commissions, see ' The Queen's 
Regulations and Orden for the Army.' 
COMMIs^">v ' \oknt; Bbokeb; Factor] 
COMMI , LOKD.S. [AssKST, RoTAl, ; Admibalty.] 

CUM.M1^ :._.S OF BANKRUI'TS. [BASKnurr.] 
COMMllTEK, of either house of parliament, may be either of the 
whole House or of a certain number of the memben selected from 
the rest. When the House resolves itself into a committee of the 
whole House, the Speaker in the Commons, or the Lord Chancellor or 
whoever else is the ordinary Speaker in the Lords, leaves the chair, 
and the Chairman of Committees, a salaried officer, being one of the 
members, who is appointed by the House at the commencement of 
of every i>arliament, takes bis place. In the Commons the mace, which 
usually lies on the table, is at the same time placed under it. In a 
committee members are not restricted to a single speech on the question 
under consideration, but each may speak aa often as he pleases. 
Another distinction in the Commons was, that the committee divided 
by the Ayos merely going to the one side of the room and the Noes to the 
other, instead of one of the two {wrties going out into the lobby, as in 
divisions of the House. But the modem practice of publishing the 
names having become general, there is now no practical difference 
between the two modes. By the standing orders or established 
practice of both Houses, there are certain subjects that can only be 
brought forward in a committee of the whole House. For instance, 
all meiisurcs relating to the Church must be bo introduced ; and in the 
Commons all propositions for the grant of money for the public 
service must be first made in such a committee, called a Committee of 
Supply ; and all propositions for raising the money so granted, by 
taxes or loans, or othemise, in another committee of the whole House, 
called a Committee of Ways and Moans. No committee can consider 
of any matter except that referred to it by the House ; nor can a com- 
mittee adjourn ; therefore, when the busmess lasts more than a day, a 
motion in made and agreed to that " the chairman do report progress, 
and ask leave to sit again ; " and when the business is concluded, the 
cli.\irman is directed to report the resolutions, or he may be directed to 
bring in a bill. No vote of a committee is of any force until it has 
been reported to the House, and the reiwrt received. The Committees 
of Supply, and of Ways and Means, always meet for the first time 
immediately after the commencement of the session, and arc couiuionly 
continued verj* nearly to its close Viy leave to sit again being reiwatedly 
granted by the House. Instructions directing, or otherwise to a 
certain extent controlling, their proceedings, are frequently issued to 
committees by the House, to which, of course, they ore bound to 
attend. All public bills in both Houses are also considered in com- 
mittees of the whole House, after the second, and before the third 
reading. Private bills cannot be introduced into either House, until 
the petitions of the parties interested for leave to bring them in have 
been referred to select committees; and every such bill is again 
referred to another select committee after the second reading. The 
memben of select committees are commonly appointed by the open 
nomination of each, that is, in effect, by the vote of the House ; but 
those of committees for trying contested elections in the House of 
Commons ore appointed by secret ballot. The investigation of any 
subject whatever that is brought before |>arliament may be referred to 
a Select Committee, and the procce<Uiigs of such committees are 
usually conducted in public ; but sometimes a Committee of Secrecy, 
which takes evidence and deliberates with closed doors, is appointed, 
when the public safety or other reasons are considered to make that 
precaution expedient. A committee is generally empowere<l to 
summon witnesses, and to call for papera ; but no committee of either 
House can administer an oath. A witness con only be examined on 
oath at the bar of the House of Lords. 

There are some instances in former times of all the memben of both 
Houses meeting together, at the request of one of the Houses, and 
such a meeting is described as a Committee of the Lords and Commons. 
What is called a Joint Committee of the two Houses, composed of a 
certain number of memben selecte<l from each, was furmerly not 
unusual. The time and place of meeting were always .ipiKjinted by the 
Lords ; and the practice was for that House to appoint only half the 
number of memben appointed by the Commons, A joint committee 
had the power of examining witnesses on oath ; a privilege possessed 
by the Peera, but not by the Commons. It hod, however, no power to 






report anything more than the evidence taken by it, and as the nvune- 
rical superiority of the members of the lower House gave them an 
.idvantage distasteful to the Lords, the custom ha.s sunk into desuetude, 
and there has been no joint committee during the hist century and a 
half. In cases in which a joint committee would formerly have been 
appointed, the method that has been taken is for separate committees 
to be appointed by the two Houses, with power to communicate with 
each other. (Hatsell's ' Precedents,' and J. E. May's ' Law, Privileges, 
Proceedings, and Usage of Parliament.') 


COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETy,.Comit^ de Salut PubUque, 
the name given to a committee of members of the National Conven- 
tion, who exercised a dictatorial power in France for about fifteen 
months, which is known by the name of the Reign of Terror. After 
the successful insmrection of the 31st of May, 1793, when the Moxm- 
tain or terrorist party in the Convention gained the victory, by means 
of the armed multitudes of Paris, over their fellow-deputies of the 
Gironde party, Robespierre and his friends monopolised all the power 
of the Committee of Public Safety. " The committee concentrated 
itself at last in three of its members : Robespierre, who was the re,al 
chief, though half-concealed from view; and Couthon and St. Just. 
There was perfect tmanimity among these three do^Ti to the moment 
of their fall ; and there is reason to believe that they had resolvetl to 
perpetuate their power by establishing a supreme council of three 
consuls, in which Robespierre would have had the perpetual pre- 
sidency, with the departments of justice, exterior, and finance ; 
Couthon, that of the interior ; and St. Just, the war department." 
(' Histoire pittoresque de la Convention Nationale,' par un Ex-Conven- 
tional, 4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1833.) After a career in which every step 
was marked with blood, the national feeling revolted against such a 
tyranny, some of Robesi>ierre's old associates, whom it is said he was 
about to sacrifice, impeached him before the Convention, and he and 
his few friends fotmd themselves alone, without any military man to 
support them. Even in the Committee of Public Safety, Collot 
d'Herbois and Billaud Varennes turned against Robespierre. On the 
9th Thermidor, July 28, 1794, Robespierre, Couthon, and St. Just 
were executed. 

A reaction had now taken place in the popular opinion, which pur- 
sued the agents of the proscriptions at the bar of the Convention, when 
their former accomplices, being obliged to give them up, endeavoured 
to throw the whole blame upon them. Many of them were guillotined, 
and several of them, among whom were Barri^re, Collot d'Herbois, and 
Billaud Varennee, were transported to Cayenne. 

COMMODORE (commeudador), in the royal navy, is the officer 
commanding a small number of ships of war, when detached for any 
particular service from the fleet. In the British navy, commodores 
are of two classes : Those of the first are distinguished by a red, broad, 
su allow-tailed pendant at the mast-head; those of the second class, by 
a blue one. The former are considered flag-officers, and rank and com- 
mand next to a rear-admiral, and are allowed to change their broad 
pendant from one ship to another as occasion may require. The 
service rank of a commodore is equal to that of a brigadier-general in 
the army. The title is sometimes given to the senior captain in a 
fleet of merchant ships. 

In the French service, the commander of a detachment of ships is 
called Chef d'Etcadre ; and in the time of Louis XI II. the commander- 
general of the fleet was so called when be had not the rank of 

COMMON LAW. In its most general signification the expression 
common law denotes the ordinary law of any country ; when used in 
this sense it is called common, as prevailing generally over a whole 
country, in contradistinction to partkidar btws, the operation of which 
is confined to a limitetl district. In this sense the phrase is used in 
many countries which have a<lopt«d the civil law. But in England 
the definition is scarcely applicable, the common law with us com- 
prising many particular laws, confined to districts, such as the law of 
gavelkind, the laws of stannaries, and the laws of every manor in the 
country. For in English jurisprudence by the common law is under- 
stood that body of customs, niles, and maxims which have acquired 
their binding power and the force of laws in consequence of long 
usage, recognised by judicial decision, in contradistinction to the law 
contained in statutes now extant. The common law is tlierefore called, 
in early periods of our legal history, the " lex et consuetude Anglite," 
and at the present day the appellation is always used to denote the 
"lex non scripta," in opposition to the " leges scriptso," or statutes. In 
addition to customs and usages, whose particular origin is unknown, 
many portions of the common law undoubtedly consist of statutes 
passed before the time of legal memory, namely, the beginning of the 
reign of Richard I., and which, though known historically to have 
been acts of parliament, have no authority as laws in that character, 
but derive their obligation from immemorial usage, recognised by 
judicial decision. The provisions of the common law are, however, i 
quite as binding upon the subjects of England as acts of the legislature, 
being, as already said, impressed with the character of law by force of 
judicial decisions. In very early times the system of rules which com- 
posed Vhe common law was probably wholly traditional. Aa civilisa- 
tion advanced, the decisions of the superior courts of ja'stice were 
recorded, and that became the authoritative evidence of such customs 

and maxims as formed part of the common law, in precise analogy to 
the rule of the civil law, that what the emperor had once judicially 
determined was to serve as a guide in all like cases for the future. 
In iiddition to these recorded judgments of the courts, technically 
called precedents, the treatises of learned men, called by Blackstone 
"the sages of the law," such as Bracton, Fleta, Britton, Stauudforde's 
' Pleas of the Crown,' and Coke's ' Commentary upou Littleton,' have 
long been acknowledged as depositories of the common law. Of the 
whole system the judges of the superior courts are the expositors ; 
they declare the law by applying its rules and principles to cases which 
come before them for judgment; but they have no power to add to or 
vary the law itself. 

Learned writers have indulged in much speculation respecting the 
origin of the common law of England, though Sir Matthew Hale says 
it is " as undiscoverable as the head of the Nile." It seems, however, 
to be well ascertained that the customs which in ancient times were 
incorporated with it, were of compound origin, and introduced at 
various times in conformity with the poUtical vicissitudes of the 
country ; some being Saxon, others Danish, and others Norman. It is 
also quite evident, from the adoption Ol the Roman terms of art and 
several Roman provisions, that many of the rules and maxims which 
the common law has adopted were derived from the civil law. The 
greater part of our modem mercantile law is unquestionably derived 
from that source. Again, many parts of the common law have 
gradually arisen from the necessary modification of its ancient doc- 
trines and principles, in order to render them applicable to new states 
of society produced by enlarged commerce and advancing civilisation. 
From this cjiuse some branches of our sj-stem of jurisprudence, and 
notably our law merchant, have wholly sprung into existence in 
modern times. The whole of the law of evidence for instance, now 
perhaps the most important part of our practical jurisprudence, has 
appeared as part of the common law so lately as the time of the Com- 
monwealth. But perhaps the most remarkable instance of the flexibi- 
lity of the common law, and its capacity of adapting itself to circum- 
stances, is presented by the history of our trial by jury, which may be 
traced through all its gradations, from a rude kind of trial, in which 
the jury were merely witnesses called from the neighbourhood in order 
that they might declare the truth to the judge, to the present artificial 
system, where the jury themselves decide upon the truth of facts by 
the testimony of witnesses examined before them. On the other hand, 
many rules and provisions of the common law have wholly disappeared, 
having either become obsolete from disuse, or been gradually abrogated 
by decisions of the judges as they became inai>plicable to the altered 
state of society. So great has been the alteration of the common law 
which these accessions and abstractions have occasioned, that it can 
scarcely be termed with propriety the same body of laws that it was 
600 years ago, unless it be upon the principle upon which Sir M. Hale 
maintains its identity, namely, that the changes have been only partial 
and successive, whilst the general system has been always the same, 
" as the Argonauts' ship was the same when it returne<i home as it 
was when it went out, though in that long voyage it had successive 
amendments, and scarce came back with any of its former materials." 
(Hale's ' History of the Common Law ; ' Blackstone's ' Commentaries,' 
vol. i. ; Reeve's ' History of the Law of England,' vol. i. ; Hallam's 
' Middle Ages,' vol. ii. , on the origin of the Common Law.) 

COMMON MEASURE, any magnitude which is contained an exact 
number of times in two other uiaguitudes. Thus in the case of num- 
bers, 7 is a common measure of 56 and 700. The method of finding 
the greatest common measure is precisely the same both in the science 
of arithmetic and in that of concrete magnitudes. The proof may be 
briefly stated as follows : let A and B be two magnitudes, of which B 
is the less. Let A contain B m times, with a remainder R, or A = m 
B + R. Then it is easy to show that every magnitude which measures 
(or is contained exactly a number of times in) A and B both, measures 
m B and A — »i B or R ; and also that every magnitude which mea- 
sures B and R measures m B and j» B -h R or A. That is, all measures 
common to dividend and divisor are common to divisor and remainder, 
and all measures common to divisor and remainder are common to 
dividend and divisor. Therefore, the greatest of the common measures 
of either pair is that of the other. Now, cany on the division as 
follows until there is no remainder, which suppose to happen at the 
fourth step : — 

Let A = mB + R Ris less than B 

B = bR + R' R' „ R 

R = i)R'+ R" R' „ R' 

R'= jR" 

Then R" measuring itself, and also R' or '/ R", must be the greatest 
measure common to both, for nothing greater than itself can measure 
R". But the greatest common measure of R" and R' has been shown 
to be that of R' and R, which has been shown to be that of R and B, 
which has been shown to be that of B and A. 

In the case of two numbers or fractions, a common measure must be 
found ; for two whole numbers it must be a whole number, 1 at least, 
if not higher ; for two fractions it must be a fraction. But in con- 
crete magnitudes the process may continue without end, which indi- 
cates that the magnitudes are Ixcomhensurables, (which see for 
proof.) Hence the necessity, iu all correct reasoning, of treating 





nu^itudM in Um muuter Uid down in tha fifth book of 

In Alfabn Om eoRMpoodiiw prooaw do«t not •toertain Ui« srMiaat 
•onunon meMura, whidi dapmiu upon tha nwoiflo valuM of the letten; 
but only ih« hi^Mt oommoo hotor, or toai which bw tho higbnt 
diniciuioiu. Tbu lort of algsbra i* (rai)UODt)y rendered iiinKiil^rly 
obioure by the *|>i>liuatiuD of the uithioatiakl word. Thua, tlioiigli 
the higben •Igebnuod (kotar of a* — j' Mid (^ — x^ita — x ; thin Ia»t 
is not the greatert oonunon ueMura in nil coaee, u tho reader may try 
by anppoiing a and jr to be 8 and 6. 

OOMlfON PLEAS, COUBT OF, one of tha auperior oourt* of 
raeord, baring original juri«diction over England and Wal<^ in all 
ooBunon pieaa or aivil actiona oonuuenood by aubjeot againat aubject. 
It ia at present oompoaed of five judgeaj one of them being chief justice 
and the other four ii»i*M juatioea. 

During the exiat«noa at the Aula or Curia Regia, astabliabed by the 
Oonqaaror in the hall of his usual residence, the palace at Westminster, 
that tribunal esenowid supreme jurisdiction over all temporal causes, 
which were adjudicated upon by tho principal officers of the royal 
household, often aasisted by persons learned in the law, called the 
king's justiciars. In this state of thing), the poorer cUsa of suitors in 
the oonunon pleaa, between man and man, laboured under the heavy 
inoonvenienoe of either attending the frequent and distant progrosses 
of the court, or of losing their remedies altogether. This evil, as well 
aa tha jealousy entertained by the crown of the ascendancy of the 
chief justiciar, whopresided over the whole Aula Kegis, occasioned the 
artide in Magna Charta, that common pleas Bhuuld not follow the 
king's court, but be held in some certain place. This court of Common 
Pleas thereupon became gradually detached from the Aula Kegis, and 
aanuned ita present separate form. It has ever since continued its 
sittings, without removal from the palace of Westminster or its 
immediate vicinity, except on a few occasions, in time of plague or 
oontagioua disease. 

This court haa by its constitution, an exclusive jurisdiction in all 
thoae actions, which, as they concern the right of freehold or realty, 
ar« called real, and on this account it is styled by Coke the " lock and 
key of the commun law." The great mass of real actions kavo been 
abolished, and of tlie only three remaining — dower, right of dower, 
and quare impedit — this court has still exclusive jurisdiction. The 
Court of Common Pleas had originally also an exclusive jurisdiction 
in suits between subject and subject ; but in these personal actions 
the Queun's Bench and Exchequer of Pleas have long exercised con- 
current authority. 

Before 1830, tjie appeal from the judgments of this court was by 
writ of error to the justices of the King's Bench ; a vestige of superiority 
resulting to the latter as constituting the remnant of that Aula Kegis 
from which this court as well as those of Chancery and Exchequer 
have been gradually carved out. But now by statute 11 Geo. IV. & 
1 Will. IV., c 70, the judgments of this court can only be reviewed by 
the judges of the other two superior courts of law, foitning a eourt of 
error in tho Exchequer Chamber ; the further ajipeal thence is to the 
Booae of Lords. 

Besides its ordinary jurisdiction, this court exercises a summary 
exclusive and final jurisdiction over railway and canal companies, 
under the statute 17 It 18 Vict. c. 81, and is ako a court of appeal 
from the dedsion of the revising barristers. [Eleotton.] 

The only persons admitted tu audience as advocates in the Court of 
Common Pleas during its sittings in term were, till 1884, serjeants-at- 
law. [Sbiubant-at-Law.] By a royal warrant in April of that year, 
the right of audience was directed to oease to be exercised exclusively 
by the serjeants-at-law ; and other counsel were to have an equ^ 
right with them so to practise there. Doubts having subsequently 
arisen as to the authority of the crown to abolish the privilege of the 
aerjeanta.the act 9 & 10 Vict. c. 67, was obtained to etl'eot that object. 
<Saokst. ' Comm.,' Mr. Kerr's ed. vol. iii. pp. 29, 44.) 


COMMON, RIGHT OP, in Uw, is the right of taking a projjj in the 
land of another in mntimMi with him, whence the name arins. Such a 
r^ht enjoyed in exclusion of the owner of the land seems not to be 
properly common, Uiough Iwlonging to several persons together. 

The profits which may be the subjects of common are the natural 
produce of land (or water, which is included in the legal signification 
of laud) ; such as grass and herbage, turf, wood, and fish. The com- 
mons relating to these subjects ore accordingly called common of 
pasture, turbary, estovers, and piscary. Other things which cannot be 
called products of land, but rather part of the land itself, aa stones and 
minerals, may also be the suVnects of common right. Rights of way 
•nd other aocommodations in the land of another, though enjoyed in 
oommon, do not bear that name, but are called toMmenti. 

Of all commons, that of pasture is the most frequent. It is tho 
right of taking grass and herbage by the mouths of grazing animals. 
It differs from that general property, which may exist in the mture or 
vigetable produce of the land, without any property in the land itself, 
and which is a corporeal hereditament ; whereas all commons are in- 
corporeal, " as appears," says Blackstone, " from their very definition," 
an iooorporaal hereditament being "a right issuing out of a thing 
corporate, or ooooeming or annexed to tho same." (2 Bl. ' Cora.' ch. 3.) 
The same remark a|>]>Iien to other commons, tho subjects of which — as 

for instance woods and mines— may belong as corporeal hereditaments 
to one, while the land generally belongs to another. 

Common of turbary Is the right of taking turf for ' < - i common 
of astoTors is the right of taking Kxxxi for fuel, ai^ ryuxn of 

houses, fenoes, and miploments of husbandry. Tli of wood 

are called fire bote, house bote (which includes i . plough 

bot«, and hedge or hay bote. "ThcMu? ratorom i: . also be 

taken by every tenant for life or > himself 

occupies, but they are not tlieu tl. 

Common of piscary is the right <>i junrry m rivi'rs uoi navigable ; 
tho right of fishing in the sea and in navigable rivors being common to 
all the subjects of the realm. 

The extent of rights of common depends very much upon the (■'(/« 
to them. There are fotu- titles on which such rights way be founded ; 
common right (which seems to be nearly the same thing aa the oonunon 
law), prescription, custom, and grant. 

llie title by common right arose with the oreation of manors, when 
land was granted out in fee tu be kdd at the grantor as lard. As such 
grants wen- • .i i.|i -i by the statute 'quia t>iiplon»'.{\6 Edw. I., c. 1), 
it foUowD I Limons appendant now existing must have lieen 

create<l bti of that statute. Tho law allowed to every 

such grantee, of euurse, and of oonunon right, common of pasture, 
turbary, estovers, and piscary in the tniste of the lord, or that port of 
his lands which was neither token by him into his tUmttnc or actual 
occui>ation, nor grant4xl out by him to others. These implied rights 
of common however were allowed no farther than necessity seemed 
to require, and rights of common thus originating are still confined 
nearly within their ancient limits. Springing from grants of land, 
they were considered as inseparably afipendunt to the land, so that they 
could not be severed from it without extinguishment. The common 
of pasture was confined to the purpose of maintaining, from seed time 
to harvest, the cattle of the commoner which were used by him in 
cultivating hiis land, and which that laud would maintain through the 
winter, or which were, as the law styled it, Iciant and ruuiJianl upon it. 
Horses, oxen, kinc, and sheep, used either for tilling or immuriug land, 
were the commoHalile cattle. The laud to which the common was 
appendant must have been originally arable, though the subsequent 
change of arable into meadow, tc., does not extinguish the right. 
Common of turbary appendant was confined to the puq>ose of supply- 
ing fuel for the domestic use of the tenant ; and so strictly must this 
right be still coufine<I witliin its ancient limits, that it roust be appen- 
dant to an ancient messuage, and no more turves can be taken tmder it 
tlian will be spent in the house. Common of estovers appendant gives, 
as it gave originally, only the right of taking wood for the rejiair of 
ancient fences and houses. Common of piscary ap]H!udant was only 
for supplying the tenant's own table with fish, and it must be still 
limited to this purpose. 

Commons olaime<l by prescription (which sup)K>8es a grant) may be 
as varioiu as grants may be. A right of common thus founded may 
be either annexed to land (when it is said to l>e appurtenant), or alto- 
gether independent of any property in land, when it is said to be in 
groit. If common of pasture, it may be for any kind of animals, 
whether commonable or not, as swine and geese. The number of 
animals may be fixed, or absolutely unlimited, and they need not be 
the commoner's own. 

Common appurtenant may be severed from the land to which it was 
originally annexed, and then it becomes common in gross. 

'The title to common by custom is peculiar to copyholders, and may 
also give the commoner various modifications of right. 

Bight of common of pasture may also be claimed because of vicinage, 
or neighbourhood. This is where two wastes belonging to different 
lords of manors adjoin each other, without being soparate<l by a fence. 
The cattle Lawfully put ui>on the one common may then stray, or 
rather are excused for straying, into the other. 

The rights of the owner of the soil over which a right of common 
exists, are all such rights as flow from ownership, and are not incon- 
sistent with the commoner's rights. 

Rights of common are conveyed, like all other incorporeal heredita- 
ments, by deed of grant. When they are annexed to land, they will 
pass with the land by any assurance adapted to tnmsfer the latter. 

Rights of common are liable to l)e extinguished in several ways, and 
often contrary to the intentions of parties. It ia a rule, that if the 
owner of common appurtenant purchases avy pari of the land over 
which the right extends, the right of common is o^^M/etAer extinguished ; 
it is the B.ame if he release his right over any part of the land. This 
unreasonable nde however does not extend to common appendant, 
though that will be extiugtiished if the commoner becomes the owner 
of ail tlie land in which he has common, and partial extinguishment of 
the common will follow from acquisition of part of the laud. Tho 
enfranchisement of a copyhold to which a right of common is annexed 
extinguishes the right. 

The most common mode of extinguishing rights of common in 
modern times is by inclosure under act of parliament, and these opera- 
tions have been systematised by the general inclosure acts, under 
which commissioners have been apiminted for the pur|>ose of super- 
intending inclosures, and the process rendered much less difiicult and 
t'Xfwnaivc than it formerly wi>». (See Inclosdre ; also generally on 
this subject Woolrych, on ' Rights of Common ; ' Comyn's ' Digest,' 




iat., Common; and Blackstone's 'Commentaries,' Toi ii. p. 84, Mr. 
Kerr's edit.) 

COMMON, TENANCY IN, is one of the modes in which property 
may be held by several persons together. It comes the nearest to 
separate ownership, from which it differs in little else than that the 
shares held in common are not actually divided or marked out. As to 
alienation, transmission by descent, and other incidents of property, 
the law of undivided and of divided shares is the same. From the 
blending, however, of the shares, there necessarily arises some pecu- 
liarity in the mode of their enjoyment. When the profits of the thing 
held in common are partible (as com growing in a field), they are 
generally actually divided among the tenants, and then the property of 
each most closely resembles separate property. It frequently happens, 
however, that this cannot be done ; in which case the thing held in 
common must either be used alternately by the tenants (as a horse), 
or they must join in using it, as tenants in common of an advowson 
are require<l by law to concur in presenting to the church. 

The shares of tenants in common may be either equal or unequal, 
and the quantity of their interests may be either equal or unequal. 
All may be tenants in fee, tenants for a term, &c., or one may be tenant 
in fee, and another tenant for a term, &c. It is necessary, however, 
that the possession of all be contemporaneous ; successive interests are 
not a tenancy in common. 

A tenancy in common may be created in several ways. It a joint- 
tenant, or coparcener, aliens his share to a stranger, the latter is a 
tenant in common with the remaining joint tenant or coparcener. If 
the sole owner of property aliens an undiWded part of it, and retains 
the rest, the grantor and grantee are tenants in common. As to the 
words which, in a transfer of property to two or more persons, create 
a tenancy in common, or a joint-tenancy, many nice distinctions exist 
in the law. At common law, a conveyance of land to two simply, and 
without other words, made them joint-tenants, and not tenants in 
common ; except in a few particular cases. (Litt., 283, 284.) This 
rule of law was founded on the feudal policy, which favoured the mode 
of holding property in joint-tenancy rather than in tenancy in common, 
because the former afforded room for the reunion of the property by 
survivorship (which is the characteristic incident of joint-tinancy) in a 
■ingle individual, who might more effectually perform the duties 
belonging to the feudal tenure than several persons among whom the 
same burden was divided ; and it is probable therefore that in the 
times of feudalism the intentions of grantors were fulfilled by implying 
joint-tenancy rather than tenancy in common. For a long time past 
however the courts have endeavoured, whenever they could, to raise 
by construction tenancies in common rather than joint-tenancies. But 
a tenancy in common might always be created by express words, and 
no technical expressions being necessary for the purpose, the courts 
Lave been enabled to lay hold of any words in a deed or will which 
appeared to them snfilciently expressive of a tenancy in common, in 
<mier to establish one. The misfortune however is that they have 
assumed greater latitude in this respect in the construction of wills and 
uses and tnuts, than in the construction of common-law conveyances ; 
so that the same wortls, as for instance the words " ecjually to be 
divided," often have different effects in different instruments. 

The Courts of Equity have decided that in certain cases a simple 
conveyance to two or more makes them in equity tenants in common, 
and not joint-tenante, unless there is an express declaration to the 
contrary. This is the rule where a mortgage is made to two or more, 
and when an estate purchased by two or more is conveyed to them in 
unequal shares. This doctrine is sometimes in practice found very 

A tenancy in common ceases as a matter of course, when the owner- 
ship of the several shares exists in a single individual ; it can also be 
destroyed by partition made by the tenants. Any one of the tenants 
may compel the others, by suit in equity, to make partition of lands 
or houses held in common, except when the subject is in its nature 
not partible, as in the case of a living animal for instance. 

Notwithstanding its many inconveniences, tenancy in common often 
occurs, being frequently created by wills and settlements in which 
property is given by suitable words to classes of persons together, as to 
chiiilren, or to a numljer of Individuals by name. (3ee Blac^. ' Comm.' 
vol. 2, n. 186, Mr. Kerr's ed.) 

COMMONS are wastes and p.-wture8 which have never been exclu- 
sively appropriated by any individual, but used in common by the 
inhabitants of a parish or district. Where extensive common rights 
exist, the mode of cultivating the inclosed land is greatly affected by 
it. All the cattle being maintained on the commons for a great part 
of the year, less land is laid down to grass, and only so much is kept in 
meadow as will pro<Iuce hay to feed the cattle in winter weather, and 
when the commons will not sustain them. The consequence is, that 
the arable land is not well cultivated, Uttle manure is made in the 
yards, and the rent is paid by the stock which nms on the commons, 
and which increaaea and grows without any exjiense to the owner. 
But it is a wasteful disposition of the Land. Common pastures are 
never improved ; no one will drain or clear them of weeds, still less 
manufe Uiero. The stock kept upon them is not by any means so 
nimierous as could be kept on the same surface divided and improved. 
Hence most of the commons and common fields in Great Britain have 
been divided and inclosed within the last fifty years. Wherever an 

inelosure has taken place the public has gained, even when the indi- 
viduals immediately connected with the land may have suffered some 
loss, by not receiving an equivalent for the profit they had from the 
cattle which they contrived to keep on the commons. 

The soil of commons within a manor belongs to the lord ; if there is 
no manor, it belongs to the king. The herbage belongs in genei-al to 
the tenants and other inhabitants of the manor or districts, according 
to fixed rules. Where commons are very extensive there is sometimes 
no restriction on the number of cattle which may be turned out on 
them. This is called common without stint. 

The usual proportion given to the lord for his right in the soil on an 
inelosure is one-sixteenth. The remainder is divided among those who 
have a right of common in proportion to the land they possess, and on 
which their right depends. 

Common fields differ from commons, in that they are divided for the 
purpose of cultivation ; but as soon as the crop is off the ground, the 
cattle of all the proprietors, or of all the parishioners, as the custom 
may be, have a right of pasture over the whole in common. This 
system is incompatible with an improved husbandry, and common 
fields have been very generally divided and inclosed by particular acts 
of parliament. The General Inelosure Acts of late yeara have greatly 
facilitated these inclosures, and the number of common fields is pro- 
bably not now very great. 

COMMONS, HOUSE OF. The object of this article is to present a 
distinct though compendious view of the history and actual state of 
the House of Commons as a part of the Imperial Parliament of Great 
Britain and Ireland. In considering the history of the English borough 
system, it must be borne in mind that the municipal organisation of 
the Anglo-Saxons, though not confined to the towns, was best re- 
membered in them ; and when after the Norman invasion, the towns 
became subject to a royal bailiff, who levied taxes almost at his 
pleasure, of which only a small portion reached the royal exchequer, 
the oppression was severely felt, and strong efforts were made to 
relieve themselves from it. Very early the towns, by offering better 
terms than were obtained from the bailiff, obtained the power of 
electing their o«-n mayor, or port-reeve. For this purpose charters 
were granted, and self-governing numicipalities were re-formed. It 
was natural, when the chief object of the assembling of a parliament 
was taxation, to apply to these municipalities. They represented con- 
siderable bodies of people already united for a somewhat similar pur- 
pose, and they already raised tolls and imposed several taxes. The 
original Ijasis of the representation, however, in the time of Edward I., 
was very different from what we must suppose it would have been 
made, had the crown and its advisers at that period contemplated in 
this arrangement any such thing as the composition of a legislative 
assembly. The very large proportion of the whole number of its 
members that were sent from the towns, at a period when the popu- 
lation and general importance of the towns, ajs compared with those of 
the counties at large, were vastly less than they are now, was mani- 
festly a circumstance repugnant to all the political notions and 
tendencies of the government of that day. Under Edward I. the 
town representatives bore so large a propoition to tho.'ie of the shires 
as 246 to 74 ; and under Edward III. as 282 to 74. The reason why, 
on the first settling of the representative system into regularity and 
permanency, each constituency was uniformly summoned to elect tico 
members, without regard to its known or presumed proportion of 
wealth or populousness, seems to have been very simple and very 
natural. So long as the parliamentary voice of the commons was 
confi]ied to matters of taxation merely, the only thing that appears to 
have been seriously regarded in fixing the number of delegates was the 
secuiing such a delegation from each constituency as at the smallest 
inconvenience and expense to the latter should have full power to 
treat of the pecuniary business in question ; and two, being tho 
smallest niunber compatible with the important conditions of mutual 
consultation and joint testimony, was fixed upon as the number that 
imposed the smallest burden on the constituents, and was also most 
convenient for avoiding a too crowded assemblage of representatives. 
And thus it seems to have been that the periodical and frequent shire 
and borough courts presenting the most natural and convenient modes 
and occasions of appointing the parliamentary deputies of the several 
communities, two representatives, and two only, were summoned in- 
differently from the shire as from the borough, and from the largest 
shire or borough as from the smallest. 

When the power and authority of the commons in parliament hatl 
become so firmly consolidated under the first three Edwards as to 
exercise an effective control over all the great measures of government, 
the composition of the representative body was an object of constant 
attention and solicitude to the crown. As the number and names of 
the counties entitled to send members admitted neither of doubt nor 
of dispute, the right of the borought became the first object of attack 
from that quarter. The parliament having in 1297 (25 Edward I.) 
procured the passing of the act calle<l " Statutum de tallagio non con- 
cedendo," which enacts that "no tallage or aid shall be taken or 
levied by us or our heirs in our realm without the good will and assent 
of the archbishops, bishops, earls, barons, knights, burgesses, and other 
freemen of the land," it became important to influence the borough as 
the most numerous body. 

The great instruments of the crown in influencing the composition of 




Ut« popular i >pr«— n toti oB, aip« i e i «1 1y of thr borough portion of it, 
», Uie Jurifi of the MTcnl oountiea returning niemb«n, of irhich, 

in the time of Edward I., there were thirty-seven ; Durham »nd 
Cheshire having then palatinate parliaments of their own, and Mon- 
mouthahire being purt of Wales, which was not yet legislAtively incor- 
porated with Engbnd, nor even eflectirely subjected t» the Knglixh 
crown. It was as the king's hailif, that is, ss local supcrintcudmt and 
collector of the crown reranues, that the precqita for election uf knights, 
citizens, and burgesses were addressed to this officer ; he was to make 
returns for every city and borottgh in his baUitcitt — another mark of 
the original purpose for which the popular representatives were con- 
TOMd, that of taxation only. So long as this continued to be the sole 
object of their convocation, and so long as the delegated burgesses 
tiMoiselTes had little voice in fixing the rate of impost to be levied on 
tiMir oooatttuenta, it is not surprising that the smaller boroughs in 
particular should often have petitioned to be excused from the sending 
of delcsatea on these occasions, which added to their share of the 
puUie burden, the expense, to them considerable, of the wages which 
by royal writ they were to pay their representatives during theu- absence 
on this parliiuiienUr)- M-rvice, and which were fixed at two xliillings 
each per day, being one half the amount appointed to be paid by the 
county freeholders on the like occasion to a knight of the shire. As 
the king's writ addressed to the sheriff specified no particular city or 
borough, but required him in general terms " to cause to be electre<l 
two citizens for each city, and two burgesses for each borough in your 
bailiwick," a sort of discretionary power seems to have rested with the 
sheriff of determining what towns were qiuilified to send repreeentatircs. 
Thus we find the returns made by those ofiBcers concluding sometimes 
with the words " there are no more cities or borough in my bailiwick," 
though there were in fact more boroughs ; and Bometimea ending with 
" there are not any other cities or boroughs within the coimty from 
which any ritizena or burgesses can or are accustomed to be sent to 
the said parliament, by reason of their decay or jtOYerty," Immateri.%1 
as this circumstance in the original framing uf the parliamentary writs 
might appear at the time, its results bare been momentous. It must 
have been remote indeed from the contemplation both of Simon de 
Montfort and of Edward I., that in convolung so lai^e a number of 
delegates from towns, in order to tax them with greater facility and 
uniformity, they were laying the foundation of a separate house of 
legislature, wherein the representatives of that part of the population 
most alien to the feudal organisation should vastly preponderate. They 
evidently looked not so far, nor suspected any titent danger in the 
generality of the terms in which these precepts were couched. But 
when the commons came to assert and establish their claim to a 
full and free leijitiativc voice, and it consequently became of the 
highest importance to the crown to secure to itself any and every 
means of influencing the composition of that assembly, there was one 
expedient to which it was too late to resort, that of singling out 
boroughs for representation, or omitting them at pleasure. The con- 
trary precedent was firmly established — that, through the sheriff, 
every city and borough was to be summoned ; the original terms of 
the writ were grown into an inviolable constitutional maxim ; and in 
the fifth of Kichard II., the Commons were alre.'uly sufficiently 
powerful to proctu^ statutory enactments imposing a fine on any 
sheriff who should not literaUy obey the writ, and subjecting dtUmt 
tmd biirrjtutt, as well as others having p.irliamentary summons, to be 
" amerced or otherwise punished " for non-attendance. And although 
notorious inability, from devastation by war or other calamity, to pay 
the parliamentary wages of representatives, continued long after to be 
admitted as a valid plea of exemption from electing in the case of in- 
dividual boroughs, the great principle of the r'ujht of every municipal 
town to be summoned, and its duty to return members, if capable, was 
constantly and firmly maintained. 

In like manner, statutes were passed in the three following reigns to 
restrain the corrupt and irregular proceedings of the sheriffs both in 
county and in borough elections. 

Hitherto, however, the parliamentary determinations of the com- 
mons, as regarded the constitution of their own house, had constantly 
tended to maintain the political rights of their constituents against 
invasion on the part of the crown. But that firm and lasting esta- 
blishment of their own power as a distinct legislative body, which may 
be dated from the great revolution that first brought the house of 
Lancaster to the throne, seems, by that very additional security which 
it gave them against royal encroachment, to have tended to embolden 
the house, not, as formerly, to maintain the elective franchise to the 
utmost with the same zeol with which they upheld their own interest 
and independence as a legialative chamber, but to commence a sort of 
naction against the constitnent Indies hj narrowing the basis of the 
suifrnge itself. The earliest of these disfranchising enactments, and 
one of the most remarkable, is that of the 8th Henry \'I., restricting 
the county franchise, formerly possessed by oil freeholders, to such 
only whose freeholds were worth clear forty shillings a year, a sum 
at feast equal to twenty pounds of the present day. The next remark- 
able instance, though very different in its nature, of legislative enact- 
ments respecting the constitution of the commons' house, appears in 
the parliamentary incorporation of Wales and Cheshire in the reign of 
Henry VIII.. whjoh brought an accession of sixteen county and fifteen 
borotigh members. 

The boroKyh representation in general vras still the great object of 
attention to the Crown in undermining the independence of the Hotise 
of C'xinunons. The development of that part of its policy was diligently 
pumuod under the later reigns of the Tudors, and carried to the utmost 
limit by the Stuarta; 1st, by creating or reviving parliamentary 
boroughs, and at the same time remoulding their municipal constitu- 
tions according to the views of the court ; '2nd, by proceeding to 
assimilate the municipal constitutions of the old parliamentary 
borousha to those of this newly-created cUss. The last addition to the 
Engliah representation previous to the changes made by the Reform 
Act, was, under Charles II., the enfranchisement by statute of the county 
and city of Durham, and the creation by charter of the parliamentary 
borough of Newark. Nur must we forget to mention that James L, by 
virtue of his royal prerogative, hod conferred the right of electing two 
members upon each of the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
quite independent of the city and borough representation of those 
places already existing : thus introducing an anomaly, as well as 
novelty, into the representative system, a sort of forced alUasoe 
between learning aiui politics, emanating from the i>eculiar mental 
constitution and training of that prince. 

Those who conducted the revolution of 1688 made much more effec- 
tual provision against the return of Roman Catholic ascendancy than 
they did for the purification of the representative system. The Bill of 
Rights does, indeed, express, " that the election of members of par- 
liament ought to be ine ;" but this vague declaration seems to have 
amounted to nothing more than an indication of the prevailing public 
opinion on the subject. We find another strong proof that the public 
attention now begun to be directed, not merely, as in former times, 
to upholding the authority of the Commons' House as constituted in 
parliament, but to the natm« of the relations, on the one hand between 
the house and the constituent body of the nation, on the other between 
the several members and their individual constituencies, in the enacting 
of the statute commonly called " the Triennial Act," which deprived 
the crown of the power of continuing the some House of Commons for 
a longer period than three years. The Triennial Act of 6 ft 7 William 
and Mary, c. 2, was an enactment wholly on the side of electoral free- 
dom. The discretionary power previously exercised by the crown, not 
only of dissolving, but of continuing at pleasure, was highly favourable 
to any such view, on the part of the crown, as that of forming a tacit 
comjiact Avith a corrupt or servile majority of the Commons' House, 
and was therefore, as bad been lately seen tmder Charles II., exceed- 
ingly convenient both to king and commons, when the latter happened 
to be sufficiently pliant. So strongly, however, was the popular 
opinion on this point expressed at the period in question, that it com- 
pelled the commons to persist in the measure in spite of King William's 
refusal of assent to the bill after its first jMssing the two houses, so that 
on the second occasion his assent was reluctantly yielded. The some 
activity of the public opinion of that day respecting the composition of 
the commons, produced the several Acts of that reign which disiiuolify 
various classes of placemen for seats in the house. 

In this place we must notice the legislative uoion with Scotland, 
effected in 1707 by statute 6 Anne, c. 8, only to mention that it 
brought an accession to the English (which thereby became the British) 
House of Commons, of thirty members for counties, and exactly half 
that number for cities and boroughs; exhibiting between the nume- 
rical amount of the county and that of the borough representation a 
proportion quite the reverse, not only of that which existed in England, 
but of that which hod previously appeared in the Scottish {larliamen- 
tai^ representation. 

The some reign presents us with an enactment of the British House 
of Conmions respecting its own future constitution, totally different in 
character from those of Williiim III.'s time just referred to. This is 
the very important Act (9 Anne, o. 5), which established the qualifi- 
cation of landed property for English members, whether for counties 
or boroughs. In the reign of Henry VI., which gave birth to the 
enactment disfranchising the smaller county freeholders, was passed an 
Act, in the same spirit, restricting the choice of those freeholders who 
still retained the franchise. The very terms of tliis statute imply, that 
in the case of the counties, as in of the boroughs, there was 
originally no legal distinctinn between the (|ualification of the electors 
and of the elected, but that the former were simply called upon to 
return two of their own number acconling to their own best discretion. 
The circumstance, too, of the daily expenses uniformly paid under legal 
obligation by the constituents to cich representttive while absent on 
parliamentary duty, may in this place be properly mentioned as a 
striking evidence of the fact, that the qualificitlou of considerable 
property, how iimch soever it might be regarded in the judgment of 
the constituents, was, originally, not at nil contemplated by the law. 
The statute in question (23 Henry 6, c. H) declares, that thence- 
forward the coimty representatives shall be '' notible knights of the 
same counties, or shall be able to be knights," that is, shall have free- 
hold to the amount of 40^ per anniun, and that no m.%n shall be 
eligible " that stands in the degree of a yeom.on or under." On this 
le(^ footing the county representation remainc<l until the ninth year of 
Queen Anne, when not only was the landed property ipialification re- 
enacted for the counties on a scale nearly proportioned to the decrease 
in the value of money, but an unprecedented step was taken, 
by including in the very same claitse of the same Act a provision, 





that while every knight of the shire should possess a freehold or copy- 
hold estate of clear 600/. per annum, so also erery citizen, burgess, or 
baron of the Cinque Ports should have the like landed qualification to 
the amount of 300?. per annum. The statute of the 1st Geo. I., com- 
monly called the Septermial Act, which extended the legal duration of 
parliaments from three years to seven, how cogent soever might be the 
political motives of the chief promoters of the measure, is another 
memorable instance of the lengths to which the House of Commons 
could now venture in dealing in a wholesale manner with the elective 
rights of its constituents. 

One of the most important operations of the British House of Com- 
mons during the period above mentioned, was the enacting of the 
statute, passed in 1800, and taking effect from January 1st, 1801, by 
which it incorporated the parliamentary representation of Ireland with 
that of Great Britain. For the previous history of the Anglo-Irish 
representation, and the degree of alteration made in it by the Act of 
Union, we refer to Pakliament of Ibelaxd. Sixty-four members for 
counties, thirty-five for cities and boroughs, and one for Dublin imi- 
veraity, were thus added to the number of the British House of 
Commons. In this instance, as in that of the Scottish union, the 
ancient proportion between the city and borough representation was 
reversed, and an additional weight consequently thrown into the scale 
of the coiinty representation of the United Kingdom at large. 

It is needless to encumber our pages with a list of the places now 
rettiming members of parliament, since these may be seen, with the 
names of the members, published annually in a variety of shapes ; and 
it is the less necessary, as a bill for reforming the constitution of the 
House of Commons is promised to be introduced by ministers in 1860, 
which will, if carried, in all probability considerably modify the 
existing arrangements. 

Eleelive Franchise. Cuimtiea. England and Wale». — Until the Reform 
Act, the parliamentary franchise in counties had remained without 
extension or alteration, as limited full three centuries before by the 
statutes of the 8th and 10th of Henry VI., the former of which con- 
fined the right to such " as had freehold land or tenement to the value 
of 40». by the year at least above all charges ; " the Utter to " i)eople 
dwelling and resident within the county, &c., whereof every man shall 
have i^eehold to the value of 40«. by the year." In order to render a 
man a freeholder, and complete his (pialification for voting, it was 
necessary, not only that he sho\ild have a freehold interest in his lands 
and tenements, l)ut that he should hold them by freehold tenure : 
consequently copyholders, holding by what is technically termed base 
teniu^, as well as termon, having only a chattel interest in their estates, 
were excluded from voting. Doubts having been raised as to the right 
of copyholders, it was expressly enacted by the 31 George II. c. 14, 
that no person holding by copy of court-roll should be thereby entitled 
to vote. The Reform Act extends the franchise by admitting not only 
copyholders, but leaseholders, and even occupiers, under certain limit- 
ations ; and abridges it in some cases of freeholds not of inheritance, 
u also in all cases of land situate in a city or borough, and which being 
occupied by the proprietor would give him a parliamentary vote for 
that city or borough. In establishing the right to the county franchise, 
questions of tenure and interest have become of comparatively little 
importance, except as they are connected n-ith value ; for now what is 
commonly, though improperly, called a tenant at will (that is, from 
year to year) occupying land of the annual rent of 50/. has a right to 
vote for a county, without reference to the tenure by which the lessor 
holds the land, or the interest that he may have in it. By 18 Geo. II., 
c. 18, B. 5, it was enacted, that no person should vote for a county unless 
he had been for twelve calendar months in actual possession of the 
rents and profits to hjs own use, except in particular cases. But by the 
statute of 1832, by s. 26 it is enacted, that no person shall be regis- 
tered as a freeholder or copyholder, unless he was in actual jrossession 
of the rents and profits for six months previous to the list day of July 
of the year wherein he claims to be registered. Leaseholders and their 
assi^ees, and yearly tenants, must have occupied for twelve months 
before the same )>eriod, except in the cases excepted by the above- 
mentioned statute of George II. Value, therefore, has now become 
the criterion upon which, in many cases, the right of voting wholly 
depends ; and in all cases it is a most material subject of inquiry, in 
order to determine in what cb.'U-acter, whether aa freeholder, copy- 
holder, leaseholder, or occupier, an elector shovdd make his claim to be 

1. If lands or tenements are held at a yearly rent of 50/., bare occu- 
pation, as tenant from year to year, is sufilcient to qualify ; no further 
interest in the lands, &c., Iteing necessary, and it tjcing immaterial by 
what tenure they arc held. 2. So also is the occupation of Kinds, lie, 
of 50/. yearly value, as sub-lessee or assignee of any under-le.ise created 
originally for a term of not less than 20 years, bow small a portion 
■oerer of the original term may remain unexpired. 3. The original 
leasee of a term created originally for 20 years, of lands of 50/. yearly 
value, or the assignee of such term, is entitled to vote in like manner, 
whether or not he is the occupier of such lands. 4. The occupier of 
lands of 10/. yearly value, as sub-lessee or assignee of any uuder-lcxse 
of a term of not less than 60 years. 5. So likewise the original lessee, 
or t£e assignee of such a term of the lands of 10/. yearly value, is 
entitled, whether occupying or not ; nor is the nature of the tenure 
material in any of the above coses; but twelve months' possession 

previous to the last day of July is required in all. 6. The being seised 
of an estate — whether of inheritance or for a life or Uvea — whether 
freehold, copyhold, or of any other tenure, to the like yearly value of 
10/., entitles. 

Freehold lands or tenements of 40s. yearly value are stiU sufiicient 
to give a vote in the four following cases ; — 

1. If it be an estate of inheritance. 2. If not an estate of inherit- 
ance, but only an estate for life or lives, if the elector was seised pre- 
viously to the 7th of June, 1832 (the d.iy on which the act received 
the royal assent), aud continues so seised at the time of registration 
and of voting. 3. If acquired subsequently to that day, if the elector 
be in actual and bond fide occupation at the time of registi'ation and of 
voting. 4. Or if acquired subsequently to that day, if it came to the 
elector by marriage, marriage settlement, devise, or promotion to any 
benefice or any office. 

Of freehold or copyhold estates six months' possession, and of lease- 
hold estates twelve months', is requiretl, previously to the last day of 
July, in the year of registration, except they come by descent, succes- 
sion, marriage, marriage settlement, devise, or promotion, &c. 

Now, also, it has become material to consider how the lands or 
tenements are locally situated : for if they are freehold within a city or 
borough, and in the freeholder's own occupation, so as to confer a 
right to vote for such city or borough, — or if copyhold or leasehold, 
and occupied by him or any one else so iUi to give the right of voting 
for such city or borough to him or any other person, — they cease to 
qualify fur a coimty vote. 

However, by the 16th section of the act, an express reservation is 
made of all e-ritting rights of suffrage possessed by county freeholders, 
provided they are duly registered according to the provisions of the 
act itself. 

Scotland. — Under George II. enactments were made which rendered 
the proving of the old forty-shilling votes yet more difficult, so that 
many more of them disappeared, and at the close of the last century 
very few remained. Although the Scottish .act of 1681 enacted that 
the right of voting should be in persons publicly infeoffed in property 
or superiority of lands of 40a. old extent, or of 400/. Scots valued rent, 
thus making a distinction, it should seem, between property and 
superiority, yet it was constantly interpreted to mean that superiors, 
that is, tenants-in-chief, or persons holding immediately of the crown, 
were alone entitled to vote. Thus proprietors of estates, of whatever 
value, holding from a subject, were excluded from the franchise. It is 
computed tliat in several counties nearly one-half the lands were held 
in this marmer, and in the whole kingdom one-fifth of the lands were 
so held. The class of landholders thus excluded comprised not only 
the middling and smaller gentry, and the industrious yeomen aud 
farmers who inherited or acquired some portion of landed pro- 
perty, but also some men of estates worth from 500/. to 2000/. per 
annum ; while many persons, who had not the smallest actual interest 
in the land, possessed and exercised the elective franchise. When a 
person of great landed property wished to multiply the votes at his 
command, his course was, to surrender his charter to the crown, to 
appoint a number of his confidential friends, to whom the crown par- 
celled out his estates in lots of 400/. Scots v,ilued rent, .and then to 
take charters from those friends for the real property, thus leaving 
them apparently the immediate tenants of the crown, and consequently 
all entitlefl to vote. This oi)eration being open as well to peers ivs to 
great commoners, they availed themselves of it accordingly, thus de- 
preciating or extinguishing the franchises of the smaller proprietors. 
This legal fraud began in the Last century, and was chiefly practised 
subsequently to the accession of George III. Among the various 
modes by which it was performed, the most common were by life-rent 
charters, by charters on iradeet or mortgage, and by charters in fee. 
The iKirliamentary representation of the Scottish counties therefore 
had, according to the expression of a learned lord, " completelj' slid 
from its basis." The total number of county voters, as compared with 
the number of persons directly interested in the property of the soil, 
was extremely small, and of these the number of real votes scarcely 
exceeded that of the fictitious ones. 

The basis of county suffrage was, by the Reform Act for Scotland, 
to be assimilated, as closely as the difference between the mod«3 of 
possessing and occupying brnds, &c.,iu the two ooimtries would permit, 
to the system established for England and Wales. While the old class 
of rights to the sufl'rage was presei-ved to the individuals in actual 
possession of them before March Ist, 1831, provision was made against 
their perpetuation ; while the body of electors newly admitted consisted 
of owners to the value of 10/. a yeiU', — of leaseholders for 57 years or 
for life, whose clear yearly interest was not less than 1 0/. — of leaseholders 
for 19 years where such yearly interest was worth not less than 50/., — of 
yearly tenants whose rent was not less than 50/. per annum, — and of all 
tenants whatsoever who had i>aid for their interest in their holding 
an amount not less than 300/. The same difference was made as in the 
English act, between the freeholder and the mere occupier, as to the 
*/.(■ months' proprietorship required in the former case and the twelve 
months' occuiKiucy hi the latter; and the like exceptions from this 
condition as to the length of possession in favour of cases wherein 
either ownership or lease came to a person by inheritance, marriage, 
marriage settlement, " mortis camd disposition," or appointment to any 
pKace or office. 




frtlanJ. — The kot ol union um]* no allenitian In Uio : 'ly 

mMrme o( the Iriih oountiea. The qualifloation of * i 
inaioed the Mme M before, » dear uuiiul fortyahillinK iutcrcat Uir ■ 
life : and u it wai ciutomary in Ireland to grant Icwca on lives, fre«- 
holdaa were tho* oretted whoee Tolea, from their extreme poverty, 
•nd ooneequent inability to diecbarge their lenl obligationi to their 
landlard, «r«rt dispnaaMe br him aa a matter of oourae. Thia practice 
of multiplying frerholda for election purpoaea merely waa carried to 
an exceeaive and moat miachieronn PTfrnt, reduoing the franohiw 
almoat to univtTaal nufTnige, «ip ' liiala who, by the very 

Inatmment by which they were ; made free, were roducetl 

to the moat abject atate of political innuiage. Thiu many of the 
eooatiea, in diooaing their repreeentativM, lay timlcr tho nbaoliite 
dielBtion of 'aome great t«rritOT<al proprietor ; and there were few in 
\)Uoh a ooalition of two or three of the princi|>al Inndownera would 
not determine the election according to tlieir own wishee. Under 
these circnmstancea, the provirion of the Homnn Catholic Emanci- 
pation Art of 1A-><>. which ntiaed the freehold qualification in the 
. ' iOt. to lOf., can hardly be regarded as a 

\ it. 

^janisition of Ireland haring been introduced 

ilhitly 11. 'HI K;u' ml. nnd the system of temires in particular being 
till' smu i!i !• 'Ill coMntriea, the provisions of the Irish Reform Act 
will' h liive reference to the territorial franchise are more strictly';.- 'US to those of the act for Englanil than those of the Scottish 
act cuuUt well be made, at least in appcanincc. The existing freehold 
rights being preserved here, as in the other two divi.sions of the empire, 
to their individual poasegsors, and the lOf. freehold franchise being 
already eetabliahed by the above-mentioned provision of the act of 
1839, the claaaee of the electors newly created were ; 1. The 10^. copy- 
boldera. 2. Leaseea or assignees havmg a clear yearly interest of 10/. 
in a leasehold created originally for 60 years or upwards, or of 201. in a 
leaaehold of not less tli.iii 14 years, whether in their actual occupancy 
or not. 8. Sub-lessees or assignees of any underle.'use in either of the 
two oases just mentioned, actually occupying. 4. Tlie imme<liate les- 
sees or sangnees, and they only, h.iviiig a 10/. yc-irly interest in a 20/. 
lease, and actually occupying. The like jjrovision is made as in the 
English act, against any title to the county franchise being derived 
from any holding whatever that would entitle to vote for a city or 

Cltiet and Borough*. England and Wala. — The want of any 
uniform basis of suffrage in the parliamentary boroughs, the endless 
diversity of the claims to its exercise derived from the various 
political aa well is local influences that had operated upon them in the 
course of ages, — a diversity which the numerotis, various, and often 
conflicting decisions of election committees of the House of Commons 
had additionally complicated and confused— was one of the most 
grievous defects of the old representative system. The generally pro- 
vailing custom, too, that the non-r&sidence of borough voters entailed 
no distjualification, was one of the nuwt serious evils comprised under 
this head. The Reform Act prepared the way for sweeping off all the 
claims to the franchise founde<l ou the old and long-abused titles to 
borough freedom, by establishing a uniform qualification, resting 
chiefly on the basis of inhabitancy. 

It provided, that in every city or borough which shall return 
memlicrs, every nude person of full age and not subject to any legal 
incapacity, who shall occupy, within such city or borough, or within 
any place sluring in elections with it, as owner or tenant, any house, 
waronouse, counting-house, shop, or other building, cither separately or 
jointly with any land, of the clear yearly value of not less than 10/., 
shall, if duly registered, as directed in another p.irt of the Act, be 
entitled to vote in the election of members for such city or borough ; 
provided always, that no such person shall be so register^ in any year, 
unless he siiall have occupied such premises for twelve calendar months 
previous to the last day of July in that year ; nor unless such person, 
where there shall be a rate for the relief of the poor, shall have been 
rated to ail rates for the relief of the poor made during such his occu- 
pation ; nor imlees such person shall have paid, on or before the 20th 
of July in the same year, all the poors' rates and assessed taxes due 
from him previously to the 6th of April preceding ; provided also, that 
no such person ■hall be so registered unlc^^s he shall have resided for 
six calendar months previous to the lost d'\y of July within the city or 
borough, or within tlie place sharing in the election, or within seven 
miles thereoL The premises in respect of the occui>ation of which any 
peraoQ shall be entitled to be registered as a voter, need not be always 
the same premises, but may be different premises occupied in imme- 
diate Buooession by such person during the twelve calendar months 
imrious to the last day of July : such ])er8on liaving paid, on or liefore 
the 20th of July, all the poors rates and assessed taxes due before the 
0tli of April preceding, in reii]>ect of all such premises so occupied by 
him in succession. Furthermore, when any premises in any such 
city or Itorough, or place sharing in the election, shall Iw jointly 
occupied by more persons than one, each of such joint occupiers shall 
be entitled to vote, iu case the clear yearly value of such premises shall 
be of an amount which, when divideil by the numl>er of such occupiers, 
shall give a sum of not less than 10/. for each occupier. And in every 
city, brjrough, or place sharing in the election, it shall be lawful for 
any person occupying as above specified in any parish or township in 

which there shall be a rate for tho relief of the pour, to claim to bo 
rated ; and u|>oii sui-h orciipler so ohumlng, and actually |wying or 
tendering the full f the rates, the overseers are to put the 

name of such w i the rates; and in ease such overseers 

shall neglect or n-io'M- ko to do, such occupier shall nevertheless be 
deemed to have been rated. 

The formerly anomalous position of cities and towns which are 
counties of themselves, as regards the iwaaession of the elective fran- 
chise, was rectified by the Act. 8uoh counties of citiee and towns are 
now included, for the purposes of county elections, in the several 
counties at Urge, or divisions of counties, in which they are locally 
situated — with this restriction only as regards freeholds for life ;— that 
no person shall be entitled to vote in the election of knights of tho 
■hire, or of members for any city or town a county "f •i—^' •■■ .— ..,.t 
of any freehold whereof such person may be seised f r 

for the life of another, or for ally lives, except such i ui 

the actual occupation, or except the same shall have come by mnrriago, 
marriage settlement, devise, or promotion to any benefice or to any 
oflice, or exi ' ic shall be of the clear yearly value of not leas 

than lot I- r |)rovided that in every city or town being a 

county of it.-w,. ,,. .Ue election f !■•■■'■ '-•'■tvlders or burgage 

tenants, either with or without an. tilication, had pre- 

viously a right to vote, every such n i^ige should 

be entit]e<l to vote, if duly registered : imt no such ijorsfm t^i lie so 
registered in respect of any freehold or burgage tenement, unless he 
shall liave been in actual possession thereof, or in receipt of the rents 
and profits for liia own use, for twelve calendar months previous to tho 
last day of July (except where the same shall have come to him, 
within such twelve months, by descent, succession, marriage, mar- 
riage settlement, devise, or promotion to any benefice or office), nor 
unless he shall have resided for six calendar months previous to the 
last day of July within such city or town, or within seven miles of it ; 
— the limits of such city or town a county of itself, being, for the pur- 
poses of thia enactment, those scttlwl by the j>arliamentiry 
Boundary Act for England and Wales. Similar provision as to length 
of occujKUicy, Ac, is made in the case of persons having a previous 
freehold qualification to vote for any of the boroughs of Aylesbury, 
Cricklade, East Retford, or New Shorehara. * 

Such are the provisions which constitute what is popularly called, 
by reference to then- most prominent feature, " the ten-pound house- 
holder qualification." 

But as in the settling of the places which were then. ' " t.i 

elect, and in apportioning the members, the new Act ; ^o 

compromise with the old system, so .ilso it made no ii '.i 

one, for a season at least, in sparing to a certain extent thf .; 

parliamentary franchise grounded on the old titles to boron. i:i. 

In all such cases, however, it imposed the very important comlition of 
residence. It provides that every jierson who would have been 
entitled to vote in the election of members for any city or borough an a 
burgess or, or in the city of London as a freeman .ind livery- 
man, shall be entitled to vote if duly registered ; and that every other 
person having, previous to the Act, a right to vote in the election for 
any city or borough by virtue of any other qu.ilificatiou than those 
already mentioned, shall retain such right so long as he shall be 
qualified as .-m elector .iccording to the usages and customs of such city 
or borough, or any law in force at the passing of the Act, and shall be 
entitled to vote if duly registered ; but in both of the above cases it is 
enacte<l that no such person shall l>e so registered unless he sliall, on 
the last day of July, be qiiolifietl in such manner as would entitle 
him then to vote if such day were the day of election ; nor unless 
for six calendar months previous to that day he shall have reaide<I 
within such city or borough, or within seven miles from the place 
where the poll shall heretofore have been token, or, in the case of 
a contributory borough, within seven miles of such borough. Aa 
regards the second class of voters last mentioned, it is further 
enacted that every such person shall for ever cease to enjoy such 
right of voting if his name shall have been omitted for two successive 
years from the register of parliamentary voters for such city or 
borough, unless he shall have been so omitted in consequence of his 
having received parochial relief within twelve calendar months previous 
to the last day of July in any year, or of his absence on naval or 
mihtary service. 

The expedient to which, to serve party purposes during the ngritation 
of the Reform measure, many of tho governing bodies of corporations 
had re8ortc<l, of admitting \inu>«ially Large numbers of freemen, occa- 
sioned the following limitations of the above reservation of the elective 
franchise of freemen to be intriKlucod into the Act, namely : That no 
peivon who shall have been electee!, m.ade, or admitted a burgess or 
freeman since March Ist, 1831, otherwise than in resi)ect of birth or 
servitude, or who sluill hereafter be so, shall lie entitled to vote ; that 
no person shall bo entitled as a burgess or freeman in respect of 
birth, unless his right be originally derived from or through some 
person who was a burgess or freeman, or w-os entitled to be admitted 
aa such, before the i<aid 1st of March, 1831, or from some person who 
since that time shall have become, or shall hereafter become, a burgess 
or freeman in respect of ser^'itude; and that no person shall be 
entitled to vote for any city or borough (except it be a county of itself) 
in respect of any estate or interest in any burgage tenement or free- 




hold which shall have been acquired by such person, since the same 1st 
of March, 1831, uiJess it shall have come to such person previously to 
the passing of this Act, by descent, succession, marriage, marriage- 
settlement, devise, or promotion to any benefice or oflBce. 

It ako prwided in general, that no person shall be entitled to be 
registered in any year as a voter for any city or borough who shall, 
within twelve calendar months previous to the last day of July 
in that year, have received parochial relief or other alma which, 
according to the previously existing law of parliament, disqualified 
from voting. 

Scotland. — Owing to the previous absence of all popular sufi&age in 
the Scottish boroughs, the revolution made in their parliamentary con- 
stituencies by the Eefomi Act of 1832 wets effected simply, completely, 
and at once. The franchise was taken from the members of the town 
councils and their delegates, in whom as such it was before exclusively 
vested, and a 101. qualification, by ownership or occupancy, substituted 
in its place, with the like conditions, as in the English Act, of twelve 
months' previous occupancy, payment of assessed taxes, registration, 
and non-receipt of parochial relief. 

Irdauil. — In the Irish cities and boroughs, the change immediately 
worked by the Parliamentary Eeform Act was relatively greater than 
in England, on-ing chiefly to the fact that the municipal corporations of 
the former country existed in a state yet more thoroughly anomalous 
and corrupt than those of the latter. Here, again, the actually existing 
and the inchoate titles to the parliamentary sui&age being reserved, as 
in the English Act, on condition of residence within seven miles, and 
honorary freemen created since March 30, 1831, being excluded, the 
10/. ownership or occupancy qualification was established as the new 
basis of suSrage, on condition of registration with six months' previous 
occupancy and iiayment of all rates due for more than one half-year. 
Reservation was also made, as in the English boroughs, of rights by 
freehold under 10^, when accruing before the passing of the Act, by 
descent, marriage, te. The clause of the Catholic Emancipation Act, 
which raised the freehold qualification in counties at large to 10/., left 
it at the old amoimt of i\ii. in the several counties of cities and towns ; 
but the Reform Act raised it there to the same scale as in the counties 
at large (only reserving for life the existing 40<. rights), and at the 
same time gave the parliamentary franchise for such corporate coimties 
to the same classes of leaseholders, and on the same conditions, whom it 
admitted in the counties at large. 

Univerutia. — In the two English imiversities the parliamentary 
stifTraoe is independent of residence, property, or occuiiaucy, being 
vested in the doctors and masters of arts of Cambridge and Oxford 
respectively, so long as they keep their names on the boards of their 
reqiective colleges. In the University of Dublin, in like manner, it is 
poaaeased by the fellows, scholars, and graduates of Trinity College, on 
the like condition. 

The establishment of a general and uniform system of registration 
of voters, calculated to ob>'iate much of the inconvenience of contested 
returns, is another very important feature of the Reform Acts ; for the 
various and rather complicated details of which we must refer the 
reader to the Acts themselves. 

Having thus given a view of the qualifications for exercising the 
(nrliamentary franchise as now established throughout the British 
Islands, it remains to notice the principal of those le^ disqiultfications 
which are of a personal nature, and operate independently of aU pro- 
prietorship or oocupsncy. 

Every woman, of whatever age, and however independently situated 
as to property and social relation*, is as much excluded from voting 
as from being elected. As to age in male persons, the only exception 
is that which excludes all minors ; that is, all who have not completed 
their twenty-first year. The exception which regards alient is so 
natural and obvious that the bare mention of it may here suffice, as 
this is not the place in which to examine the various difficulties that in 
many cases have arisen, and still arise, in strictly defining who are 
aliens and who are not. By the ancient " law of parliament," which 
forms an integral portion of the common law, lunatics are very reason- 
ably incapacitated, as also are paupers in city or borough elections. It 
was resolved by the House of Commons in 1699 (14th December), that 
" no peer of parliament" has a ri^t to vote for members of that house. 
After the Union with Ireland, this resolution, which was usually 
repeated at the beginning of every sewion, was altered into the follow- 
ing form : " That no peer of this realm, except such peer of that part 
of the United Kingdom called Ireland as shall for the time being be 
actually elected, and shall not have declined to serve, for any county, 
city, or borough of Qreat Britain, hath any right to give his vote in 
the election of any member to serve in parliament." The vast increase, 
since the commencement of the last century, owing to the establish- 
ment of so many new branches of revenue, in the number of persons 
employed immediately by the crown as revenue-collectors, occasioned 
the enactment of several statutes of exclusion from the parliamentary 
franchise. Thus the 22nd Qeorge III. c. 41, excludes every class of 
officers concerned in the collection or management of the excise, cus- 
toms, st'inip duties, salt duties, window and house duties, or in any 
flppartiiient of the business of the post-office. By 8 Qeorge IV. c. 56, 
K. 14, it was flrat enacted that no justice, receiver, surveyor, or constable, 
nppointed Vjy that Act at any one of the eight police-offices of the 
Kiiglish metropolis, shall be capable of voting for Middlesex, Surrey, 

Westminster, or Southwark ; and by 10 George IV. c. 44, which esta- 
blished the new system of police in certain districts of the metropolis 
(the operation of which has since been extended to meet the local 
extension of the police system), it was enacted that no justice, receiver, 
or person belonging to the police force appointed by virtue of that 
Act, shall be capable of voting for Middlesex, Surrey, Hertfordshire, 
Essex, or Kent, or for any city or borough within the metropolitan 
district. Persons legally convicted of perjury or subornation of perjury, 
or of taking or asking any bribe, are thereby for ever incaixicitated 
from voting. 

As regards religious grounds of disqualification in general, it should 
be observed, that as no oaths are now required to be taken, nor declara- 
tions to be made, as a preliminary either to registration or to voting, 
all such disabilities as might have arisen from refusal to take or make 
them are of course removed. 

Qualificatioiis of Candidates and Memhers. 

Of the close relation so long subsisting between the grounds of the 
elective franchise and of eligibility to be elected, and which had sprung 
from their original identity, we find distinct traces in the similaiity 
between the heads of disqualification in either case. Women, minors, 
aliens, and lunatics are, of course, excluded in the latter case as well as the 
former. It would be needless to remark, that peers of yiarliament — that is, 
actual members of the House of Lords — are ineligible to the House of 
Commons, except in order to point out this distinction : that any Irish 
peer, not being among the twenty-eight sitting in the House of Lords 
for the time being as representatives of the Irish peerage, and being, 
therefore, though a peer of the realm, not a peer of jxarliament, is 
eligible to represent any constituency in the United Kingdom, although 
such is not the .case with Scotch peers who are not representative peers. 
No person concerned in the management of any duties or taxes created 
since 1692 (except commissioners of the Treasuiy), nor any officer of 
the excise, customs, stamps, &o., nor any person holding any office 
under the crown created since 1705, is eligible. In like manner, ])en- 
sioners under the crown during pleasure, or for a terra of years, are 
wholly excluded. Any member, however, who accepts an office of 
profit under the crown existing prior to 1705, though he thereby 
vacates his seat, is capable of being re-elected. Contractors with 
government are ineligible ; and it is enacted, that if any person so dis- 
qualified sliall sit in the House, he shall forfeit 500/. per day for so 
doing ; and that if any person having a contract of this nature admits 
a member of the House to share in it, he shall forfeit 500/. to the 
prosecutor. Again, by 3 Geo. IV. 0. 65, no police justice of the 
metropolis can sit in (larliament. 

The twelve judges for the time being are disqualified, though, as 
judges, they are occasionally summoned to, and sit in the House of 
Lords, but have merely a consultative voice there. The vice-chancellor, 
and the master of the rolls, the judges of the Admiralty, Probate, 
and Matrimonial Causes courts, and those of the County courts, are 
also excluded. The exclusion of ecclesiastics from seats in the Com- 
mons' house, seems not only to have been a natural result of tho 
presumed urgency of their pastoral duties, but to have reference to the 
period when their share of those general contributions to the extra- 
ordinary exigencies of the state, the business of settling which, as we 
have already seen, first gave form and consistency to the parliamentary 
representation in general, was yielded by them as a distinct body. 
Sberif& of coimties, and mayors and bailiffs of boroughs, as being 
themselves retuming-officers in parliamentary elections, are ineligible 
for the several districts respectively for which it is their duty to make 

The repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts in 1828, and the passing 
of the CathoUc Emancipation Act in 1820, have worked one very im- 
portant alteration in the constitution of the Commons' House, by 
removing nearly altogether the widely-operating religious disqualifi- 
cations which previously existed. The engagement, " on the true 
faith of a Christian," which the latter act substitutetl for the oath and 
declaration formerly required, had no effective operation, except 
against individuals of the Jewish race and creed. This may now be 
dupensed with in consequence of the passing of the act, 21 & 22 Vict. , 
c. 49, by a resolution of the house of coumions, and Jews now sit in 
the house. 

The property qualification for an English, Welsh, or Irish member 
was continued by the Reform Acts, namely, for a county member an 
estate of 600/. a year, and for a city or borough member, of 300/. The 
only j)ersonal exceptions from this condition were in favour of the 
eldest sons of peers or of bishops having seats in the House of Lords, 
and the eldest sons of persons legally qualified to be county members. 
As regards the Scottish part of the representation, it is worthy of 
especial remark, that the property qualifications enacted for England 
within a very few years after the union with Scotland, had never been 
extended to the lattt^r portion of the kingdom ; and that consequently 
the conditions of suSrage and of eligibility have remained there acconl- 
ing to the original constitution of the representative system in both 
countries, one and the same, excepting only the anciently essential 
condition of residence, which has long been done away with throughout 
the United Kingdom without any reservation or limitation whatever ; 
and excepting also that the Scottish reform act of 1832 rendered 
unnecessary for county members the qualification of an elector 



foHMify i«qtiired. Bj Um aet 21 Viet, e. M, pMMd oa the 28Ui of 
JoM, 1858, til the aete nauiring any property qualifleation in 
a e ui bew of perlianwot were altogetEer rspeded, 

lmm»9 nf Wriltfvr a GtmenJ Btflion ; EUciioH Proettdingi 
amd Kttani, 

An aawtiHtl and mrj important part of the repreee nt a t ire machinery 
ia that which renrda the due traoamUiiioii frum the centnl to the 
local authority of the (ummoiM to elect, the superintendence of the 
election proceeding*, and the due return from the local to the central 
authority of the namea of the individual* choaen. When the Lord 
Chaaoelior, the highait offloer of state, ha* received the written ooin- 
naod of the aOTereign in council for the aummoning of a new por- 
UaoMat, ha (h«raapoD aaoda his wamuit or order to the bigheat 
ministerial oAtoer acting under him, the clerk uf the urown in chan- 
cery, to prepare and issue the rriu, or written authorities fur that 
purpose, to the sereni iherilft, whether of counties at large or of 
oountiei corporate. 

In the early periods of our history, when the shire-motes, or county 
courts, were held regularly once a month, and the borough courts 
onoe a week or once a fortoij^t, there was no need to incur the trouble 
and inconvenience of a special meeting of the members of those courts, 
that ia, of the freehoMers in the former case and the burgesses in the 
latter to elect the parliamentary representatives ; and accordingly the 
sheriff was simply required to cause the election of the county members 
at the next county court, held in the regular course, or at an adjoiuned 
meeting of that court, in case such adjournment were necessary in 
order to allow time for giving due notice of the election. It was not 
until the importance of the county courts declined, that a different 
arrangement became necessary ; nor was it until the 25th of George 
III., that it was enacted that the sheriff, on receipt of the yrnt, should 
call a $ptnal county court for the purpose of the election. 

The writ, thus addressed under the great seal to the sheriff of a 
county at large, requires him not only to cause the election of the 
county representatives, but also of those of ^ach city and borough 
within his jurisdiction. And accordingly, on receiving this command, 
he issues a prttept under his own seal to the head of each municijiality 
enjoying the elective francbiHe, which precept ia to be returned to him 
within a limited time, together with the name of the person or persons 
chosen;* in like manner as he himself is bound to retxini, before a 
certain day previous to that on which the parliament is sumuioned to 
assemble, to the clerk of the crown, from whom he received it, the 
writ, with the names of the persona chosen, whether as county or as 
Dorough members. Such, in brief, as regards the retuming-officers 
and responsible conductors of elections, has been the system from the 
commencement of the general representation. 

In the parliamentary boroughs which had already a municipal or 
other chief civil officer or officers in whom this function could be appro- 
priately vested, it is so entrusted by the Reform Act. As regards the 
others, it is provided, that the sheriff of the respective counties shall, 
in the month of March in each year, by writing under his hand, to be 
delivered to the clerk of the peace for that covmty, mthin a week from 
its date, and be by him filed with the records of his office, appoint for 
each of such boroughs a fit person resident therein to be the retuming- 
officer until the nomination to be made in the March following. In 
case of such person's death or incapacity from sickness or any other 
sufficient impediment, the sheriff, on notice thereof, is forthwith to 
appoint in his stead a fit person, resident as aforesaid, to be the 
retuming-office for the remainder of the year. No person so nominated 
as retuming-officer shall, after the expiration of his office, be com- 
pellable thereafter to serve again in the same office. Neither shall any 
penon in holy orders, nor any churchwarden or overseer of the poor, 
be so appointed ; nor shall any person so nominated be appointed a 
churchirorden or overseer during the time be shall be such retuming- 
officer. Any person qualified to serve in parliament is exempted from 
audi nomination as a retuming-officer, if within one week after his 
receiving notice of such appointaient he make oath of his qualification 
before any justice, and forthwith notify the same to the sheriff. In 
accordance, however, with all previous usage, it is provided that " in 
case his majes^ shall be pleased to grant his royal charter of incorix)- 
ration to any of the said boroughs named in the schedules of the Reform 
Asty which are not incorporated, and shall by such charter give ])ower 
to elect a mayor or other chief municipal officer for any such borough, 
then and in every such case such mayor or other chief municipal 
officer for the time being shall be the only returning-officer for such 
borough ; and the provisious hereinbefore contained with regard to the 
nomination and appointment of a retuming-officer for such borough 
shall thenceforth cease and determine." 

The division of both counties and boroughs into convenient polling- 
districts, — the shortoiing of the time of polling in contested elections, 
from the old period of fifteen days to one day in England, Wales, and 
Sootland, and to five in Ireland, — the restriction of inqtiir}- at the poll 
into the elector's right to the ascertaining the identity of name and 
qualification with those contained in the register uf voters (thus 
aboUshing the olil tediouiily litigious practice of election scrutinies), 

* In the uniTtrsitirs, tb« vice-obaaesUor, as r*tamln( officer, rtcelves and 
rctonii the iherUrs prttept of elccUon, 

and the limitation of the necessary expense of election proceeding*, 
borne by the candidates or their propoaeis, — are among the more im- 
portant of the recent improvementa. 

Having thus given, we believe, a tolerably just though succinct 
view of the history and present state of the representative system of 
the British empire, so far aa it can be diatincUy shown wiuout con- 
tinual reference to the other branches of the legislature, we refer for 
an account of the organisation and operation of the Commons, " in par- 
liament assembled,'' to a subsequent volume of this work. TPaBLU- 
MEXT, Imfkhial.] There too may be the fit ocoasion for offeringsome 
indications of the future changes in the relative position of the House 
of Commons aa a branch of the legislature, to which the alterations in 
its internal constitution commenced in 18S2 must eventually lead. A 
word as to the progress of this internal revolution itself must conclude 
the present notice. 

We have seen how the popular representation arose, first as a con- 
venient, then as a necessary appendage to the feudal parliament of the 
Anglo-Nurmana. We have seen how, as early at least as the parlia- 
mentary settlement of the crown upon the house of Lancaster, that 
popular representation, under the title of the House of Commons, had 
become an efbotive, integral, inde|)endent, and solemnly recognised 
branch of the legislature. We have traced, from that ]>eriod down- 
wards, the twofold operation, of the crown in undermining this equal 
and sometimes preponderating inde|>endt'nce of the Commons' House, 
and of that House itself in contracting the limit« and abridging the 
righta of the constituent bodies, until the original constitution of the 
representative body itself was absolutely subverted. And lost of all 
we have seen that which, in the present day, it is most interesting to 
consider, — the re-action of an eulaived and enlightened public opinion 
on the legal constitution of the house. In an historical view it ia 
tai leas important to examine the merita of the measures of repre- 
sentative amelioration in detail, than to mark the maturity of a new 
political element which they indicate, and the new line of constitutional 
progression which they commenced. No matter that the Reform 
Acta, as they are called, made but a compromiiie with the exceed- 
ing corruptions and anomalies of the old system, and left some of 
them untouched ; no matter that the Commons' House, which in the 
dayu of its pristine vigour was democratic in the fullest sense of the 
tenu, is still, though somewhat popularised by the recent changes, a 
highly aristocratic body : we do not the Inss find in these changes a 
successful effort of the national intelligence and will, not so much to 
replace the legislative representation on the basis on which it stood at 
the close of the 14th century, and which, from the causes we have 
previoiisly stated, was fixed without any scientific or symmetrical 
pro]x>rtiouing even of the number of representatives to that of consti- 
tuents, but to mould it into some shape more accordant with the 
present advanced state of general inform.ation in the great body of the 
[leople ; to render it, in short, a popular representation in fact as well 
as in name. 

COMMONS, IRISH HOUSE OF. [Pabliambst of Ibelaxo.] 

COMMONS, DOCTORS'. pocTOBs' Commons.] 

COMMUNION (the Latin cummunio, the (Jreek xoiruvla, loiiidnla) 
is used to designate the uniformity of belief by which a number of 
l>er8ons are united in one denomination or church, as the Roman 
Catholic, Anglican, or Lutheran communion. Communio is employed 
repeatedly in this sense in the canons of the Council of Elvira (Illiberi- 
tanum) a.d. 813. For the examination and comparison of scriptural 
)>as8ages, containing the words Kotyuvla and Koivuviir, the Greek Con- 
conhmces of the New Testament may be consulted. 

Communion is used more especially for the common or public act of 
sharing or participating in the sacrament, eucharist, or Lord's Supper. 
Of the origin and use of the word communion in this sense an account 
is given by Casaubon, ' Eiercitat.' 16, g 30. During the first three 
centuries the communion was celebrated ever}' Sunday. (Bingham's 
' Origines Ecclesiosticie,' vol. v. c 9.) It was subsequently administered 
only three times in the year, namely, at Easter, Whitaimtide, and 
Christmas. By the general council of Lateran, in 1215, it was decreed, 
in order to check the apinrent incliiution in many to n^lect it entirely, 
that every one should at least communicate at Easter, that is, once a 
year. This injunction was afterwards renewed by the council of Trent. 
For an ample account of the ancient communion service, ' Missa Fide- 
liuiu.' OS well as of the ante-comnumion service ' Missa Catechume- 
norum,' we refer to Bingham, vol. v. cc. 1 to 9. There was one form 
for the clergy, a second for the laity (vol. vi. co. 2 and 8), and a third 
and lowest form for strnngers or foreigners. Degrailatiiin of the clergy 
to the lay form of communicating in one kind, that is, witli broad and 
no wine, appears to have been an ancient mode of canonical punish- 
ment. (' Apoat. Can.' c. 14.) The bread appears never to have been' 
omitted : the difference between communicating under one or two 

rciea or kinds, as it is termed, being solely in the omission or inclu- 
1 of the wine. The communion in two kinds seems to have con- 
tinued in the Latin church until the end uf tlie 11th century ; fur in 
1099 Pope I'oschtU II. decreed that little children only should omit 
the wine, and that the wine alone should be given to those who, from 
extreme illness, could not swallow the bread. After this period the 
custom began to prevail of taking the wine by sopping it int<j the bread 
instead of drinking it out of the chalice. A letter by Erniiliihus, 
bishop of Rochester, who died in 1124, commends this expedient for 





several reasons, one of the quaiutest of ■which is, to avoid the profaua- 
tion of wasting the consecrated wine by the dipping of bushy beards 
into the chalice. The communion under one species, that is, with 
bread alone, was authorised in 1415 by a decree of the council of Con- 
stance, and was confirmed by the council of Trent in 1562 : but, with 
the exception of the Latin church, all the various sects of Christians 
have retained the communion under two species. During the first 
seven centuries the mixing of water with the wine was very generally 
considered as indispensable to the proper and efficient performance of 
the eucharistic rite. Justin Martyr, in his ' Apology,' written probably 
about the end of the 1st or beginning of the 2nd century, observes 

^that the mode of communicating was with a chalice of wine and water. 
It is unnecessary to quote passages from the subsequent fathers 
in confirmation of this fact. They all appear to have believed the 
water to be an essential ingredient; and sevei-al (Cyprian, ' Epist.' 63, 
and Athanas. ' in Psal.' 74) assign as the reason of it, that the pure 
wine of the mystic chalice represents the unmixed nature of God ; the 
pure water represents the nature of faithful Christians ; and the com- 
mixture of the wine and water represents the union of God and the 
faithful. A decree of the CEcumenic council, a.d. 691, denounces the 
Armenians as heretics for celebrating the communion with wine 
immixed with water ; and the 32nd canon of the council of Trullo 
decrees the deposition of every bishop or priest who shall omit the 

^ water. From the writings of Germain, patriarch of Constantinople ; 
of Cabasilas; of Simeon of Thessalonica ; of Balsamon, patriarch of 
Antioch ; of Goar, in his Euchologia ; and from the Greek Ritual, it 
appears to have been a long-established custom in the Greek church to 
dilute the eucharistic wine with hot water, and to administer the mix- 
ture hot. To these remarks on the matter of the eucharist, we may 
add that Epiphanius (' Hscres.' c. 49) and Augustin (' H^eres.' c. 28) 
speak of an ancient sect of Christians in Phrygia, followers of Mon- 
taous, who were called Artotyrites {&pTos, rvphs), because in the com- 
munion, they used not bread and wine, but bread and cheese. (Pluquet. 
' Diet, des H^r^sies.') Others, the followers of Tatian, in the second 
century, made use of bread and water without mne, and hence were 
called Aquarians, and Hydroparastai. (Epiphan. ' de Hxres.' 47 ; Au- 
gustin 'de Hserea.' c. 25; Cyprian, 'Epist.' 63.) This sect is also 
spoken of by Clemens Alexandrinus, and Chiysostom, and in the 5th 
century it was revived, with a declaration of motives of sobriety. 
There appears to have been a custom of communicating with conse- 
crated bread and milk, for it is condemned by the council of Braga, in 
Spain, A.D. 675. The prevalent report in the first centuries, tliat the 
Christians celebrated the communion with flour which was kneaded 
in or with bread which was dipped in ^he blood of infants, slain or 
punctured for this purpose, appears to be applicable only to the 
Christian sects included under the denomination of Gnostics and 
Montanists ; at least several of the Catholic fathers, in repelling the 
accusation from the orthodox, distinctly fix it upon these heretical 

k sects. (Epiphan. ' Hteres." 26 and 48 ; Philastrius, ' Hares. Bib. Patr.' 
torn. 4, p 13 ; Cyril, ' Catech." 16, p. 178 ; Augustin, ' Hseres.' c. 26 ; 
TertuU. L 2, 'ad Uxor.' c. 5; Baronius, 'Annales,' 120-129.) Until 
the 7th century the commimion bread was that commonly used for 
food ; a particular kind began then to be prepared exclusively for the 
purpose, of a circular form, and impressed with the sign of the cross. 
The Greek church adopts a leavened bread, but the Roman church has 
it unleavened ; and this difference hus been the cause of much con- 
troversy, though it seems easy to decide which kind was used by Jesus, 
the last supper having been on one of the " days of unleavened bread," 
when no other kind could be eaten in the land of Judiea. It has been 
a subject of still greater contention whether the proper posture of 
communicants is that of sitting, reclining, kneeUng, or standing. In 
the 3rd century standing appears to have been the usual posture. See 
Euseb. ' Hist.' 1. vii. c. 9 ; Tertull. ' De Orat.' c. ult. ; Chrysost. torn. i. 
' Horn.' 22, p. 260, iropairT^vcu tj Itp^ Tpoxt'^!)- It is also a subject of 
dispute whether the ancient Agapse (ai iyarai), which some modem 
sects continue under the name of love-feasts, were identical with the 
celebration of the eucharist. Probably these friendly repists, so 
zealovisljr continued throughout the four first centuries, were com- 
menced or terminated by the act of commtmion ; for they often took 
place in the churches until a.d. 360, when they were excluded from 
the churches by the council of Laodicea, on account of their having 
become scenes of indecorous conviviality. TertuUian, in his ' Apol.' 
c. 39, minutely descrioes the proceedings of one which was conducted 
with propriety. The fathers frequently speak of the consecrated ele- 
ments being carried home by the communicants, who gave them to the 
sick, or kept them deposited in their coffers as a charm against evil 
"pirits, or bore them as a viaticum about their persons in travelling, 
nd in voyages by sea. (Cyprian, ' de Caps.' p. 176 ; Basil. ' Epis.' 289 ; 
.\mbrose, ' de Obit Satyri," t. iv. p. 315 ; Cyprian, ' de Spectac.' p. 292 ; 
Justin. Mart ' Apol. 1 ; Baronius, ' Annales,' 57, n. 151.) Among the 
many purposes to which the sacramental symbols have been applied, 
we may notice an instance related by St. Aug\istin (' Contr. Julian.' 
1. iii. c. 164) of a child bom blind who was perfectly enabled to see, 
after his mother had put upon his eyes a poultice made of the 
eucharistic bread and wine. In the first centuries it was customary to 
bury the eucharist with the dead ; and though, by the council of 
Carthage, A.D. 419, and the CEcumenic council in 691, the custom was 
condemned, it still continued to prevail ; and St. Cuthbert and many 
ARTS Ainj SCI. Drv. VOL. m. 

others were entombed vdth the consecrated bread on their breasts, as a 
safeguard against the molestation of demons. To heighten the in- 
tensity of a solemn asseveration, a few drops of " the vivifying blood" 
were sometimes put into the ink with which the signature was ^vritten. 
Thus, in the eighth council of Constantinople, all the bishops signed 
the deposition of Photius with a pen " dipped in the blood of the 
Saviour." Thus Pope Theodore signed depositions ; and thus Charles 
the Bold signed treaties of peace. (Biironius, 'Annales,' 648.) It 
appears to have been always required that, after the serving of all the 
commimieants, any portion of the consecrated elements which might 
be left shovild be immediately eaten by the officiating priests ; and by 
the council of Toledo, in 693, the consecration of a prudent and mode- 
rate quantity is enjoined, in order to prevent repletion from eating all 
that remained. Hesychius (in ' Levitic' 1. 2, c. 8) says, that, in the 
church of Jerusalem these remnants were burned; and Evagrius 
(' Hist.' 1. iv. c. 35) informs us that, in the churches of Constantinople, 
the priests sent for a school of children to eat up any large quantity of 
fragments. To the work entitled ' An Inquiry concerning Infant 
Communion in the first Ages of Christianity,' we must refer for in- 
formation on that point of the .subject (vol. ii. p. 75) ; and also to the 
' Essays on the Eucharist,' by Pierce and Waterl.and. In the 5th cen- 
tury the communion was sometimes administered by women, and they 
continued to officiate at the altar in Italy and France until after the 
10th century. (Pope Gelasiu.s, ' Epis. 9 to Bishops of Lucania ; ' ' Epis. 
Ratherius, Bishop of Verona.') In the 2nd century the eucharist began 
to be celebrated in the churches with closed doors, with the exclusion 
of all but the initiated, on which the Pagan philosophers accused the 
Christians of having adopted the Eleusinian mysteries of Ceres and 
Bacthus, bread and wine. (Augustin. ' Contr. Faustum,' 1. xx. c. 13.) 
" The fathers," says the Rev. Mr..Abthorp (' Lettere on Christianity,' 
p. 365), " adopted the language of the Eleusinian mysteries, and most 
incautiously appUed it to the Christian worahip ; especially to baptism 
and the eucharist." Many learned writers have noticed some remark- 
able points of resemblance in the Eleusinian mysteries and the Eucha- 
ristic rites, such as their being commemorative, and designed to effect 
a moral regeneration (iroAiT^ei'tffio), or new birth. See Abthorp ii6i 
nupra ; and Casaubon ' in Baronii Ann. exercit.' xvi. p. 478. On the 
different sorts of communion, see Albaspinicus ; Du Pin ; Anton. 
Dominicus ; and the very elaborate ' Histoire de I'Eucharistie,' by 
COMPANIES, JOINT-STOCK. [Joint-Stook Companies.] 
COMPANIES, or GUILDS. It is necessary to recollect the nature 
of the relation subsisting between the English boroughs and the 
Norman kings in the period during which they successively purchased 
their civil redemption, in order to be convinced that the local comfort 
and welfare of the burgesses were objects of little solicitude to those 
monarchs — that their primary aim was the securing of the regular, 
pimctual, and willing payment of the stipulated rent, and the ensuring 
in each locality of so much internal peace and order, at least as to 
them might seem requisite for enabling the community to perform 
this stipulation with exactness. Further than this they concerned 
themselves not .it all about the internal regulations of the municipality. 
Its whole community, now rising again from one and the same level of 
civil nullity, were at liberty to adopt either the ancient customs and 
usages of the place as existing before the Conquest, or such others as 
they might think proper to establish in accordance with the common 
law of the land. The charters were constantly addressed to "the 
citizens," " the burgesses," or " the men " of such a city or borough ; 
and the siun of the description of a burgess, townsman, or member of 
the community of the borough, as Madox, in his ' Firma Burgi,' ob- 
serves, was this : " They were deemed townsmen who had a settled 
dwelling in the town, who merchandised there, who were of the bans or 
guild, who were in lot and scot with the townsmen, and who used and 
enjoyed the liberties and free customs of the town." The municipal 
body, in short, consisted of the resident and trading inhabitants, 
sharing in the payment of the local taxes and the performance of 
the local duties. This formed substantially a household franchise. 
Strangers residing temporarily in the town for purposes of trade had 
no voice in the affairs of the borough nor any liability to its burdens, 
which, at common law, could not be imposed upon them without 
admission to the local frjinchise. The titles to borough freedom by 
birth, apprenticeship, and marriage, all known to be of very remote 
antiquity, seem to have been only so many modes of ascertaining the 
general condition of established residence. The title by purchase was 
a necessary condition for the admission of an individual previously 
uncomiected with that particular community, in those days when such 
admission conferred peculiar advantages of trading ; and the right of 
bestowing the freedom on any individual by free gift, for any reason 
to them sufficient, was one necessarily inherent in the community, for 
the exercise of which they were not responsible tt> (my authority what- 
ever. The freemen's right of exclusive trading too had some ground of 
justice when they who enjoyed it exclusively supported the local 
burdens. Edward III.'s laws of the staple authorised the residence of 
non-freemen in the staple towns, but at the same time empowered the 
community of the borough to compel them to contribute to the public 
burdens ; and under these regidations it is that the residence of non- 
freemen appears first to have become frequent. 

The progress of wealth, popuLition, and the useful arts, produced, 





in nukny of the gnttar towoa, the tubdirUioD of the g«a«nl eotnmunity 
into imUiU of putioular tiadw, called, in nwny initMioee (ince tlie 
Nomum en, eompamia, which thus became aveoues for admiaaion to 
the general frenchiae of the mnnioipality. In their greataat proaperity 
theae fratonitiea, more eapeoially in ttie metropoUa, Deoune important 
bodies, in which the whole community was enrolled; eaoh bad ite 
diatioet oommon-hal], made bye-lawi for the regulation of ita particular 
tnde, and had ita common nroperty ; while the rights of the indiriiliiala 
oonpoang them, as memlMrs of the great graeral commtmity, re- 
msinad the same. 

Kesriy thirtr reus after the express reoognition by charter, of 
the 16 Edward III., of the power in the citizens of London to 
make bye-lawii, it was, by consent of all the oommons of the city 
ordained that each of the myUriet, that is, each of the trachng coupa- 
nias, dionld choose certain peraons to assent to itnd ortlatn, with the lord 
mayor and aldmnen, whatever they ahonid deem advisable ; to elect 
the mayor and ahertlBi ; and to give counsel in all cases where it was 
fbnneriy sought of the commons. This was in the 48 or 44 Edw. III., 
and waa oonfirmed in the fiOth of the same reign : but the common- 
hall or ooivt of hustings of the whole community still retained the 
right of re-modelling the municipal legislature ; and in the 7 Richard 
ir, the common-council was pboed on its present footing by on act of 
common-hall, passed in the presence of the " immense community ," to 
the effect that, as in such large assemblies things had been done more 
by clamour than by reason, Uie aldermen, when, on St. Gregory's day 
in each year, they were appointed for Uie year ensuing, should be 
firmly charged, fifteen days after the said day, to assemble Uieir respec-^ 
tive wards, and, by good deliberation, charge them to choose four of 
the most sufficient persons in their ward, to be of the common-council 
for the year msuing, 4o., proi-ided that of the whole number no more 
than eight should be of one myttety. Except as to the prescribed 
nimibers, which were not strictly adhered to, this act of common-hall 
took full effect ; the whole admmistratiTe powers of the community 
were transferred to the legislative body, composed of mayor, aldermen, 
and common-councilmen, all subject to annual election ; and the ancient 
hustings-court fell into comparative desuetude ; although, on one sub- 
sequent occasion, in the 28 Henry VII., we find the mayor, aldermen, 
common-council, and commons, acting together as one great common- 
hall, in accordance with the original constitution. 

Such was the natural origin of the courts of aldermen and common- 
council in the city of London ; and how cloeely analogous was their 
rise in other communities, is abtmdantly testified by existing docu- 

In those instances where the whole of the citizens or burgesses were 
numbered in the several trading companies, these, for convenience' 
sake, sometimes formed the basis of the internal polity of the com- 
munis, and the election of borough officers and members of the 
common council became rested in tiiem. London itself presents at 
this day a remarkable instance of incomplete progression from the 
household franchise to the adoption of that of the guilds ; the inha- 
bitant freemen elect the aldermen and common-councilmen ; while the 
liverymen, or members of the several companies (so denominated from 
the distinguishing peculiarities of costume adopted by each fraternity), 
resident or nun-resident, elect the mayor, sherifls, chamberlain, and 
other offloers. But, in many boroughs, this basis of the guilds wholly 
superseded the original scot-and-lut franchise, and in the changes of 
society which have gradually reduced the guilds from their original 
position, that thorough substitution has been one constantly growing 
cause of unfair exclusion. The richest and most influential persons, too, 
being generally chosen by the inhabitants at large to the highest places 
in the municipal councils, were often tempted to seek the perpetuation 
of their authority without the necessity of frequent appeals to the 
popular voice, and even to usurp powers which it had not delegated at 
all. Such usurpations however were often vigorously resisted by the 
community at lai-ga ; and the contests were sometimes so violent and 
obstinate as to lead to bloodshed. But in course of time, the Crown 
itself, so long indifferent to the details of municipal arrangements, 
found sufficient motives for aioouraging these endeavours of internal 
parties to form close ruling bodies, trresponaible to the general com- 

In many towns, as still in London, it was necessary, in order to 
complete bis title, that the party should be first admitted a member 
of certain guilds or trading companies of ancient institution within the 
borough, and still preserving various degrees of connection with, and 
subordination to the municipal corporation ; a practice which seems to 
have been formerly still more prevalent. The derivative title con- 
ferring a right of admission to these guilds was usually of Uie same 
kind as that by which the municipal corporation itself was entered. 
These guilds were also accustomed to adimit by purchase ; but such 
ponhsaen neither acquired nor could convey any absolute right to 
admiision into the municipal corporation. Occasionally, an incorpo- 
imtad guild has continued to exist after its connection with the muni- 
cipal corporation has been almost or wholly dissolved. 

The titles from birth, marriage, and apprenticeship, were very various 
in different places. In some, uie right by birth was enjoyed only by 
the children of freemen bom within the borough ; in oUiors, by child- 
ren of freemen wherever bom; in some, the father's admission at any 
time conferred the inchoate right on all his children wherever born ; 

in others, only on those bom after, and in many, only on the first son 
bom after his admission. Less variety is found in the nature of the 
title whidi a freeman's d«ighter or widow must possess, to enable her 
to oonrm the priTilage. The right by apprantioeahip has usually 
accrued by sarrioa unider indaotures for seran yaan to a frssman 
within the borough : serriea at aaa has generally been ooosidared in 
the light of servwe within the borough where the Teasel bdooged to 
its port : in some boroughs having traiding companies, the binding and 
service must be to one of the company in the trade peculiar to that 

COHPANT, in military aflhirs, is the body of men which constitutes 
one of the principal divisions of a battalion of infantry, and which 
oorrespundK to the troop in a regiment of cavalry. The strength of a 
company in the regiment of artillery is 120 men, in the guards and line 
80 men. In each battalion there is one which is called the grenadier 
company, and another the light company ; and these are caUed flank 
compames from their stations, which, ^hen the battalion is drawn up 
in line, are at its extremities. The grenadiers acquired that denomi- 
nation from the grenades, or amall shells, which they were trained to 
throw by hand into an enemy's works; and the light companies were 
BO called from their being required to act as the skimushers of the 
battalion. Every company of the line and militia is commanded by a 
captain, under whom are a Ueutenant and an ensign, besides the non- 
commissioned offioera ; formerly in the regiment of Artillery, the Rifle 
Brigade, the corps of Royal Engineers and Marines, and Uie Fusilier 
rq^ents, each company hod, instead of an ensign, a second lieutenant. 
The rank of second lieutenant has now, however, been done away 
with, being changed to that of ensign in the case of the Rifle Brigade 
and Fualier Regiments ; and to that of lieutenant in the Royal Artil- 
lery, Royal Engineers, and Marines. The rank, however, doee not carry 
the pay of lieutenant with it to any besides the established number ; 
those who would under the former regulations have received the pay 
of second lieutenant, still only receive it. 

In France, the first formation of bodies of men under the denomi- 
nation of companies, may be said to have taken place in 1373. 
[Cavalrt.1 But the institution in that country of what approaches 
nearer to the present signification of the word, occurred in 15S7, when 
Henry II. divided a French legion into fifteen bodies of 400 men; 
each of which, except the two first divisions or companies, was com- 
manded by a captain, a lieutenant, and an ensign, besides two Serjeants 
and eight corporals. Those two companies were considered as being 
immediately under the command of the colonel himself, and therefore 
had no officer of higher rank than lieutenant. This regulation seema 
to have been followed in the British sennce, since formerly in each 
regiment there were two, called the colonel's companies, which were 
commanded by lieutenants only, who, however, were by courtesy 
entiUed captains. 

It is observed by Orose, that probably from the time of the Conquest 
the English infantry was divided into corps, consisting of 1000 men, 
which were subdivided mto hundreds and tens. And be remarks that 
in the list of the army engaged at the siege and battle of St. Quentin, 
in 1557, each company is stated to constst of 100 men, and to be com- 
manded by a captain, a lieutenant, and an ensign, as at present, besides 
a Serjeant, a harbinger or quartermaster, and a drummer. 

COMPASS, HISTORY OF THE. The knowledge of the directive 
power of the magnet was unknown to the Greeks, the Romans, and to 
European nations generally till late in the 12th century; and does 
not appear even then to have been brought into common use fur 
nautical purposes. It has however been so known and so used in China, 
Japan, India, and Ai^abia from periods of high antiquity. Doubts, 
indeed, have been often expressed of the validity of the claims of the 
Chinese, and of the authenticity of the dates attributed to the notices 
of it in the grand annals of their empire; but the most careful exami- 
nation of the Cliinese claims does not warrant our scepticism on one 
point or the other. The Jesuit missionaries who went to China in the 
i>eginningof the 17th century, were of course little likely to admit the 
high antiquity claimed by those annals without rigorous inquiry ; nor, 
without evidence of great force, to give up in any degree, even 
implicitly, the chronological authority of the Vulgate Scriptures : yet 
this waa not only the case, but upon their return they unanimously 
agreed in the conviction that those records were authentic, and several 
of them published that conviction to the world, at no small degree of 
risk to their reputation for orthodoxy. Ko exact translation into any 
European language of the p.issages from which they ilrew their 
accounts of the directive proijcities of the ma^et, had, however, been 
given till the year when Klaproth published his 'Lcttre ti M. H. Hum- 
boldt sur rinvention de la Bouasole,' at Paris ; and a translation of the 
passage in question bos been again given in English by Mr. Davies 
in his ' Early History of the Mariner's Com|)as8,' publiHlied in the 
' British Annual for 1887.' The circumstance, from its incidental 
mention, seems to give greater authority to the passage. It relates to 
Uis date 2684 years before our era. 

" Houang-ti punishes Tchi-yeou at Tchou-lou. 

"The Wai-ki said: Tchi-yeou bore the name of Khiaug; he waa 
related to the Emperor Yan-ti. He delighted in war and lurmoiL He 
made swords, lances, and hirge cross-bows to oppress and devastate the 
empire. He ciUed and brought together the chiefs of provinces : his 
grasping disposition and avarice exceeded all bounds. Yon-ti-yu- 






wang, unable any longer to keep him in check, ordered liim to with- 
draw himself to Chao-hao, in order that he might thus detain him in 
the weat. Tchi-yeou nevertht^less persisted more and more in his 
per\erse conduct. He crossed the river Yang-choui, ascended the 
Kieou-njK>, and gave battle to the Emperor Yan-ti at Khoung-sang. 
Yan-ti w.-is oblige<l to retire and seek an asylum in the plain of Tchou- 
lou. Hiuan-yuan (the proper name of the Emperor Houang-ti) then 
collected the forces of the vassals of the empire, and attacked Tchi- 
yeou in the plains of Tchou-lou. The latter raised a thick fog, in 
order that by means of the darkness he might spread confusion in the 
enemy's army. But Hiuan-yuan constructed a chariot fi/r indicating 
the aouiJij in order to digtiwpiisK the four cardinal poind ; by means of 
which he pursued Tchi-yeou and took him prisoner. He caused him 
to be ignominiously put to death at Tchoung-ki. The spot received, 
from this circumstance, the name of the plain of the broken curb." 

Other Chinese accoimts vary as to language and as to circumstances 
relating to the personal character of Tchi-yeou ; but they all agree in 
the statement respecting the Tchi-nan (or chariot of the south) being 
constructed by the emperor on that occasion ; and it is remarkable 
that the very name by which the instrument is denoted, like every 
thing else Chinese, is retained almost unvaried from the earliest period 
of their history down to the present times. 

Though numerous other passages of various dates speak with equal 
ezplicitoess of the use of the compass for land purposes, yet no mention 
of the use of the magnet for narigation occurs in any of their books 
that have come to the knowledge of Europeans, till the dynasty of 
Tsin, which lasted from the year a.d. 26a to 419. It is in the great 
dictionary Poi-wen-yeu-fou ; ajid it is there stated that " there were 
then ships directed to the south by the needle." Mr. Davies contends 
that this (laaBage rather refers to the magnitude of their ships and the 
extent of the voyages which they performed, than to the introduction 
of the needle into ni.irine affairs. In the 9th oentury two Mohammedan 
travellers travelled into Arabia, an account of whose journey was pub- 
lished from an Arabic manuscript (which bears internal marks of being 
written as early as the close of the 11th century) by Kusebius Renandot, 
at Paris, in 1718. In this it is stated, that the Chinese at that period 
(the 9tb century) traded in ships to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea ; 
and though the compass is not mentioned, it is utterly improbable 
that the Chinese should have known the directive property of the 
magnet, and have natd it on land for thirty centuries, and yet not have 
employed it at sea. It was known on the Syrian coast before it had 
come into general nse in Europe, as is obvious from the following 
peaaage from a niannacript witten in 1242, by Bailak Kibdj,iki. which 
is very explicit in its description of the nautical compass : " We have 
to notice, amongst other properties of the magnet, that the captains 
who navigate the Syrian .Sea, when the night is so dark as to conceal 
from view the stare which might direct their course according to the 
position of the four cardinal points, take a basin full of water, which 
they shelter from wind by placing it in the interior of the vessel ; they 
then drive a nee<lle into a wooden peg or a corn-stalk, so as to form the 
■bape of a cross, and throw it into the basin of water prepared for the 
purpose, on the surface of which it floats. They afterwards take a 
loadstone of sufficient size to fill the palm of the luuid, or even smaller; 
bring it to the surbce of the water, give to their hands a rotatory 
motion towards the right, so that the needle turns on the water's 
sur&ce ; they then suddenly and quickly withdraw their hands, when 
the two points of the needle face north and south. They have given 
me ooolar demonstration of this pnicess during our se»-voyage from 
Syria to Alexandria in the year 040 " (of the Hegira). An older passage 
than this might have been quoted, did the limits of our article allow of 
amplification ; but this has been chosen on account of the distinctness 
of the description. When we consider the jealousy with which all 
knowledge was guarded by its possessore, eepeoially that of commerrial 
value, we cannot but admit that the use of the conifiass must have 
been very common at a period when a passenger was initiated into the 
complete knowledge of the mode of magnetising the steel needle, as 
well as the mode of using it. 

In 1260, when Marco Polo returned from his travels in Catha'f, he is 
believed to have brought a knowledge of the compass, as well as other 
Chinese inventions, back to Europe with him ; but there is no kno\vn 
authority for this opinion that can lay claim to authenticity. It is 
certain, however, that before the close of the 15th oentury, when 
Vasco de Gama found his way round the Cape of Good Hope, the 
pilots of the Indian Seas were expert in the use of sea-charts, the 
astrolabe, and the contpaaa. 

A passage extracted from the ' Laadnamabok ' of Are Frode, who 
lived about the cloae of the 11th century, has been brought forward by 
Profe»or Hanateen to prove the use of the magnetic nee<lle for pur- 
posea of navigation at least as early as that date, in Norway ; "for in 
<AoK ttma leamen had no loadttone in the northern coanlriet." But this 
passage is moat probably an interpolation by the continuatc of the 
chronicle, which ^-iew is supported both by the remark of the editor, 
Finieus, of the chronicle itself, as well as by the circvtmstance of 
the wb )le passage not being found in three different manuscripts. 
Its authentic origin cannot reach higher than the 14th century. 
(' Brit. Ann.,' p. 296.) 

The mariner's compaas is, however, minutely describetl by Guyot de 
I'rovius, who wrote hia satire entitled ' La Bible,' about the year 1190. 

This has usually been assumed to contain no indication that the 
mariner's compass was a recent discovery or only little known in 
France at the time of the composition of the satire ; but Mr. Davies 
considers that the minuteness of the description itself, as well as other 
collateral evidence, proves clearly that it was an instrument at that 
time not only not much known, but a total novelty. Guyot, a minstrel 
by profession, had probably seen it in use during the Crusades, to one 
of which most likely he haid previously attached himself. At all events. 
Cardinal de Vitry and Vincent de Beauvais, both Frenchmen, and both 
Crtisaders, writing at a later period by a quarter or half a century than 
Guyot, speak of it as a great curiosity which they saw in the East, and 
as a thing perfectly new in Europe would be spoken of. There is not 
hence the slightest foundation for the belief that it was used by 
European seamen at so early a period, though there can be but little 
doubt that by the middle of the 1 3th century it had come into partial 
use and into general knowledge ; since, in one of the songs of Gauthier 
d'Epinois is an allusion, which no one would have made hsid not his 
auditors been familiar with the magnetic needle. 

It was long contended, that the inventor of the compass, as a na"tical 
instrument, was Flavio Gioja, a native of Amalfi, near Naples, and the 
date given by the ItaUans is from 1300 to 1320. It will be obvious, 
from what we have already said, that there is no foimdation for this 
opinion ; and independently of this, the authority of the statements 
themselves is invalidated by an appeal to the facts which are affirmed 
in proof of it, as may be seen either in Klaproth's letter or in the 
' British Annual.' Before this assigned period, even the ' Tr<?sor ' of 
Brunette Latini (the master of the Divine Dante) bears evidence that 
the compass was not a rarity. It is, however, highly probable that 
Gioja greatly improved the compass, either by its mode of suspension, 
or by the attachment of the card to the needle itself, or in some other 
important particiUar. 

■The French have laid claim to the discovery of the compass, or at 
least to the attachment of the card to the needle, from the circumstance 
of the north point being marked with the fieur-de-lia ; but in the absence 
of all distinct evidence on this point, it is much more probable that the 
view taken by Mr. Davies is correct, — that the figure is an ornamented 
cram, and originated in devotion to the mere symbol ; though, as he 
observes, as the compass undoubtedly came into Europe from the 
Arabe, the fieur-de-li« might poesiVjly be a modification of the mouagala 
or dart, the name by which the Arabs called the nee<lle. 

The discovery of the variation of the needle was generally (before 
the appearance of Cavallo'a ' Treatise on Magnetism ') attributed to 
Columbus, but since that time it has been assumed as being very early 
known. [Declination of the Needle.] 

The dip of the needle, or its inclination, vr^ the undoubted discovery 
of an Englishman, Robert Norman, a nautical instrument maker at 
Wapping, who published an interesting account of the course of his 
experiments in 1594, under the title of the ' New Attractive.' [DirplNC 
Nekdle ; Magnetic Intensity.] 

The variation of declination is also an English discovery, having been 
made, as is well authenticated, by Stephen Burrowes, of Limehouse, 
and fully determined by Gillebrand, profertor of geometry in Greaham 
College ; and the diurnal variation of the declination also unques- 
tionably belongs to another Englishman, Mr. Graham, about 1719. 

England, in the person of an intrepid and accomplished navigator 
and marine surveyor, Capt. Flinders, claims .inother discovery of great 
and enduring Importance. In his memorable but unfortun,ate voyage 
in the " Investigator," he first detected the cause of errors in the 
variation of the magnetic needle as dependin;; on the direction in azi- 
muth of the ship's head. The value of this has been extensively felt 
among nautical men, and considering that the annoimeement of his 
discovery w.-is made (' Philosophical Tr-ansactions ' for 1805) during the 
six years he was unjustly imprisoned and detained <it the Mauritius by 
the French governor, De Caen, and that on his release, with greatly 
impaired health and pecuniary resources, the numerous experimnta 
maide trader his directions at Sheemess, Plymouth, and Portsmouth, 
fully confirmed his original views, the name of Flinders will stand 
forth prominently in nautical history .as one of the most persevering 
(though unrequited), aa he was one of the most accurate, among 
modem surveyors, and scarcely second to Cook among modem 

COMPASS, AZIMUTH, is a compass with plain sights, and with 
vertical wires attached to it in such a manner as to be moveable round 
a vertical axis independently of the compass-card. A pointer shows 
angle which the position of the telescope, or sights marks out on the 
card, that is, the bearing of the object towards which the sights are 
directed. This angle is the azimuth of the object, when the correction 
for magnetic variation is m-ade. But when the bearings of two objects 
.are measured, the correction need not be applied in merely deter- 
mining the difference of bearings, since the error affects both equally. 

When observations in azimuth requiring greater accuracy are taken, 
an instrument called a Theodolite is used. [Azimoth ; Theodolite ; 

COMPASS, THE MARINER'S. A magnetic needle balanced on a 
pivot will, subject to corrections for the variation of the magnet on 
account of terrestrial influence, point out the true direction of north 
and south. A card bearing the points of the compass, and unalterably 
attached to any apparatus, such as a globe, will therefore afford the 




et a^joitioK it aortli and louUi, if the oantra of th* card he 
I tha pivot of a mMMlie neodle. In Um mariner'i ooapaa, liow- 
. jr, it it usual to affix the ncadla to tha card, pointing towards itii 
north and aouth point, so that the card traveU with the naedle ; anil if 
a pointar (Azad with respect to the ship) mark out the point on tlie 
edge <^ the oard which Uea in the line drawn thruugb tbo pivot parallel 
to the plane whidi aymmetrioaUy hisecU the ship, the bearing of the 
■hip'a h«d b abown hj the part of tha card to which the pointer 
diraeta for tha time being. Instead, bowerer, of a pointer being used 
oo board abip, it is usual for a mark to be drawn upou the inner 
■orhoa of tha oompaaa-bowl, a line between which and the centre of 
Um eonpaai being alwaya parallel to tha ahip's keel. To ensure the 
harizontality of the oompaarcard, the cylindrical box or bowl in which 
it ia andoaad, is supported in a hoop at opposite jwints, by pins pro- 
jwliiw from it, so as to allow the box to revolve inside the hoop. This 
MMOM s up por t ed in the same manner on pivots, the line of which is at 
lig^ aiwlea to the first pivoU ; so that between the rotation of the 
flfmiraM Vt in the hoop, and tha hoop itself, the former can always 
lad ttepoaition of equilibrium, which is the horizontal position. The 
■naU oadllations of the ap[>anttus arc immediately destroyed by the 
friction. The apjiontus is then said to be supported on gimbles, ur 

By whom the suspension now generally used was invented, is alto- 
gether unknown from any document or other evidence. The suspension 
of the whole machine itself on two circles, whose suspending diameters 
are at rij^t angles to each other, is, however, on all bands admitted to 
have been English, though we are still ignorant both of the person who 
invented it or the period of the invention. It appeuv to be traditional 
evidence on which the opinion rests ; but a tradition in which rival 
nations agree, bearing on an invention which would be honourable to 
any one to have a power to claim, can hardly be supposed an erroneous 
one. Voltaire, in his essay on ' Universal History," seems to confirm 
the F"g''«>' claim, when he admits that " the first who certainly made 
use ofUie compass were the English, in the reign of Edward III." He 
q>eaka of a Cannelite friar of Oxford named Liima, an able astronomer 
of thcae days, having sailed as far aa Iceland, when he drew charts of 
the North Seas, wluch were afterwards made use of in the reign of 
Henry VI. But Voltaire should have applied his assertion to an 
improved form of it, rather than to the circumstance of its use for the 
first time. Still, even in England, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, the 
construction was very rude in its execution. 

The mecb<inigm of the compass is a subject affecting so largely the 
commercial interests of Great Britain, that not only does the safe 
transit of tbu goods of the merchant depend on its proper adaptation 
to the principles on which magnetism can be available to the sailor, but 
much of the safety of ships of war, in particular, will be involved in 
the accuracy of working shown by these instruments. Our uunautical 
readers will easily understand the importance of a correct manufacture 
of the compass when the following case is assumed in illustration : Let 
two ships of war, of equal size, shape, and fittings, and commanded 
req>ectively by pilots of equal sldll, attempt, in hazy weather, to enter 
the Thames or some other estuary difficult of ^proach. Let their 
oompaaaes be from the same maker and alike, and of ordinary con- 
struction, as now used in H.M. navy. It is quite possible that one 
ahip may reach her port in safety, while the other may suffer total 
wreck ; for the secret of the safety or Ines of the Bhi|>8 may even have 
depended on the following simple oircunutance : In the one case, the 
wary old quarter-master at the " coo binnacle " shall have attached a 
piece of packthread to the compass-rim, by lightly jerking which occa- 
sionally the compaat-card will have been kept more "alive" on its 
needle point, or have moved more freely on its pin ; while the quarter- 
master in the other ship may have thought such precaution uncalled 
for, and the sluggishness of the compaiis have caused an erroneous 
impression as to her courses. Some remarks, therefore, as to form and 
manufacture are called for, having fur their object the development 
of a compass system calculated to avert not only existing inconve- 
niences, but those calamities which the introduction of iron into ship- 
building in the merchant service, and the increased armament with 
heavy ordnance (and especially the adoption of Armstrong's steel gun) 
into her Majesty's service afloat, would, if imheeded, entail upon the 
navies of the maritime kingdoniK of the world. 

So much haa been written and said upon the compass of late years, 
■o many of our ablest philiMiiphcm have devoted Uieir attention to the 
improvement of the mariner's compass, that, seeing the results of their 
labours in the complexity and variety of form which have still further 
complicated the question in the eyes of the unscientific, it will be well 
to review slightly the past, taking, however, the present condition uf 
tha eompaasaa this best and moat profitable subject mr our consideration. 
A alight ^ance at the history of the compass will assist us in our con- 
dosions, inasmuch as the experience of centuries will liave its bearing 
upon and oonaiderably influence them. 

The must simple and primitive form of the compass appears to have 
been either the magnetiaed needle thrust transversely through a com- 
■talk, and left floating in a screened basin of water [Compass, History 
or THc], la used on the Syrian shore ; or the small Chinese needle, 
resting, jtut below its centre of gravity, upon a needle-point fixed on a 
wooden stand. The greatest amount of steadiness on the one part, and 
activity of the naadla on the other, seem to have been obtained, so fur 

aa regards mere form. (We, for the present, leave intensi^ out of the 
question.) But it must be remembered, that steadiiieaa might amount 
to aluggiahneas, and activity might merge into inconvenient oscillation. 
A moa&ed form, therefore,— one combming both qualifications, — has, 
through many centuries, been the navigator's dakUratam. It is curious 
to notice how varied have been tha attempts to produoa a good and 
unobjectionable compass. Still more are wo astonished and humbled 
to see in the most recent (so-called) "improvement " the very principle 
of the floating oompaases, as described in 1242 by BalUk Kibdjaki ! 

Scaroely any modification of form had oocuned, certainly for the 
three centuries previous to the time of Richard Norman of Limehouse, 
in 1690. Norman appears to have introduced some change, in what, 
however, one would imagine his only im/>roreai«ii< to have been, the 
adding of a counterpoise to the ancient IThinese form of needle, ren- 
dering it, by means of a weight sliding on the needle or bar, suscep- 
tible of adjustment in removing it from one {aart of the earth's surface 
to another. [DiF.] Probably few suooesaful attempts had, tall very 
recently, Iwen made to examine the magnetic conditions and changes to 
which the needle was subject, or the advantages of one form of the 
needle itself ova- another. The only improvements seem to have 
been those which insured greater nicety of construction. Our country- 
man Michell subsequently increased the efficacy of the needle by his 
invention of what was called the double touch, which sj-iiimetrically 
diffused the magnetic influence in the two arms of the needle; and 
early in the present century. Captain Kater directed his attention to 
the imparting of the greatest amount of directive intensity by experi- 
menting largely on the form and temper of the metal of the bar. 
Several men of science, and among them Professora Barlow, Lloyd, 
Arago, Faraday, AVheatstone, Airy, Ac., and also Messrs. Biot, Hafiy, 
Coulombe, Dr. Oowan Knight, Dr. Scoresby, Sir Wm. Snow Harris, and 
others, from the delicacy, b^uty, and success of their exparimenta, 
created an intei-est in the matter never before felt; but theee researches 
were, with some exceptions, rather confined to the properties of the 
bar or needle than to ihe precise form of compaas to be used on ship- 
board. It is however proposed to limit our considerations in tlus 
article rather to the mechanical form of compaas than to abstract 
principles, which will be referred to in their proper place under tixe 
word Maonetish. 

While it is admitted by many (and among them by Sir Wm. Snow 
Harris) that the sensibility and delicacy of the primitive tmaU needle 
of the Chinese are quite surjirising, and while Miuhell and many othen 
approve of the rn-y tiglu steel ban of the Chinese to be used as 
compass-needles (because msgnetic power increases in a less d«graa 
than the friction arising from increase of weight), it is singular that 
those now in use are quite of op|>o8ite construction. As many as, or 
more than, four or five bars being now attached to the same card, and 
resting on the same needle-point, their weight, aa might be expected, 
uicreaaing friction to such a degree that even agate caps soon wear out 
and become useless. Mr. Stebbing, an eminent optician at Southamp- 
ton, partially obviates the inconvenience of this by substituting the 
ruby. Few individuals gave more attention to magnetism and to the 
accuracy of form in the needle than the late Dr. Scoresby ; but it 
appears that no improvement in Bha)>e resulted from bis long 
continued labours. Dr. Oowan Knight, the first appointed principal 
librarian of the British Museum, a man of persevering research in science, 
who wrote a century since, described the form of compass-needle used 
in his day by the merchant service as formed of two steel plates bant 
at their centres and meeting at tlieir ends, and forming the two poles, 
in this manner : — 

Hi. 1. 

But he found that when the temper of the metal in each piece differed, 
the directive intensity was not in tlie axial-line of the maas, nor did 
polarity at all times exist precisely at the endt of the needle. At the 
same period be describes the form of bar as used in H.U. navy to 
have been an under : — 

Klf. :. 

In this he detected a ca]>al>ility of its liaving no less than dx poles, 
while the greatest available directive force can only exist when there 
are two. His investigations of the question established the still 
admitted fact, that the form of needle best adapted to the mariner's 
compass was the regular parallcIopii>cd, being a Btraij^t bar with its 
narrow dimension placed vertically. Dr. Knight also found that the 
mode of suspension adopted by the Cliinese, — namely, the suspension 
of the needle at a point a little below its centre of gravity, — was the 
t)est, as conducive to sensibility. He moreover recommended the 
use of such a needle xeWioiil central perforation. Dr. Knight's form of 
needle was for a long time adopted in H.M. ships ; and, as Sir Wm. 
Snow Harris, with undoubted propriety, in his excellent ' Manual of 
Rudimcntar}' Magnetism,' suggests, " it is still worthy of serious 
attention." Perhaps in so one branch of science has more v.iluablo 





time been bestowed in the construction of an instrument than in the 
attempt to perfect the needle and mariner's compass. Sir William 
Snow Harris has, in a form of compass which bears his name, adopted 
the suggestions of Normau in 1590, as regards the comi>ensating slides 
on the bar, and also the opinions of Dr. Knight in 1750, with reference 
to the form of needle ; but its chief excellence is in the amount of 
directive force imparted to it. He also adopts the light form of needle, 
but not to the extent found in a Chinese instrument. 

Enough has been said to show that the precise form and arrangement 
of the mariner's compass has long been a question of public anxiety ; 
and still more must its consideration press upon us when to the new 
armament of ships and the increased use of iron afloat (as already 
noticed), must be added the increased amount of iron earned as cargo, 
and the circumstance of increased speed of ships which brings them 
more suddenly into danger; these beset navigation with difficulties 
only to be surmounted by a well-founded confidence in the form, and 
simpUcittj in the mode of u»inrj a well-made compass, and this can only 
be attainetl by cai-eful investigations and unfettered and disinterested 

It is worthy of remark here that to such an extent ha.s the public 
mind at times become embarrassed with this consideration, that in 
1854 a panic on the Liverpool 'Change nearly excluded for several 
days the iron ships of the port from freight engagements. It arose 
from the following circumstance : The late Rev. Dr. Scoresby, with 
that honesty of purpose and plainness of elucidation for which he was 
remarkable, informed the merchants of Liverpool of various discoveries 
as to the causes of local disturbance in iron ships, such discoveries 
having however a tendency to cast doubt and distrust around that on 
which hitherto the sailor had relied as his faithful conductor through 
the pathless oceans of the globe. [Local Attbaction.] The insidious 
workings of the magnetic influence, then for the first time made known 
to the commercial world, and this too imder the sanction of a meeting 
of the British Asxociation, naturally alarmed the ship-owner, appalled 
the merchant^»ptain, and lent its aid towards general confusion. 
Although the discoveries of Dr. Scoresby are of absorbing interest to 
the philosopher, and have assisted others in their laboratories, yet 
to the mariner or the ship-owner these subtle workings of the mag- 
netic current ought to have presented very little real difficulty, 
as was promptly shown in a published address by Mr. Saxby to the 
ship-owners of Liverpool, and also by the judicious and timely appeals 
to them by Mr. Grantham, a very eminent marine engineer of that 
town. The effect of this on the compass question was, the almost 
immediate production of such a variety of forms of the instrtmient as 
were calculated, it was supposed, to pacify the ship-owners ; but it 
actually left the ship-captain burdened and bewildered with novelties 
and perplexities which even now, in a great measure, render the cor- 
rection and use of the compass, notwithstanding its importance, the 
least satisfactory, the most anxious, and the most tiresome of all his 
work at sea. This competition, however painful in its early operation, 
had, in a national point of view, a salutary effect. It loudly evoked 
the hidden talent of otBcers in the mercantile marine. It aroused their 
energies, and demanded of them something beyond attention to the 
mere routine in which they had been trained. Ship-captains soon 
found among their ntmibers many men of sufficient talent to grapple 
with the compass question, and that large and respectable body, relying 
on themselves rather than on men of reputed science, began to judge 
for themselves as to the merits of the various toys placed into their 
binnacles by credulous owners ; and many an absurd, though pre- 
sumptuous and specious form of compass has already been by them 
consigned to oblivion ; many ingeniously contrived instruments, good 
in themselves but totally unfit for tailors' me, have gradually sunk or 
are yet gliding visibly into disrepute. With that promptitude, however, 
which characterises Liverpool merchants, soon after the announcement 
made by Dr. Scoresby, a Compass Committee, seconded by the autho- 
rities at the Board of Trade, was formed, and a vast collection of facts 
speedily poured in from those who were interested, and measures were 
taken to assist navigators, which will be clearly and more properly 
detailed under the head of Local Attbaction in this work. But 
nothing resulted from their really praiseworthy and indefatigable 
investigations, calculated to modify the generally existing form of 
mariner's compass : nothing neio appears to have been suggested by 
that body indicative of real improvement in the instrument. 

Although we must not in this article enter far into the qviestion of 
local attraction, yet as its causes have led to some mo<lifications in the 
form of compasses to facilitate corrections for deviation, Ac, it is 
neceasary to notice that the Astronomer Royal, having long turned his 
powerful mind to the question, announced to the world a theory of 
local attraction which involves the necessity for soft iron as a part of 
the compass-correcting arrangement. No greater proof of the difii- 
culties which surround the mariner's compass as a nautical instrument 
can be adduced than the fact, that, although now some few years have 
passed since Professor Airy first gave to the world his really simple 
and elegant theory for correcting by magnets and soft iron, his opinion 
remains unseconded and unadopted by the Admiralty, by whom cor- 
recting magnets are rejected altogether, from extreme and iiTcpre- 
hensi^le, but possibly overstrained, prudence. It is not improbable 
that a number of the fallacious methods of correction of the compass 
produced of late, have Bo deluged the authorities at the Admiralty 

with suggestions thereupon, as to somewhat blunt the intelligence, 
and thereby obscure the truth, even ichai offered bij the Astronomer- 
Royal himself. It must also be remembered, and indeed it ia a f.aot 
well-known to the writer, that many merchant-captains who have 
hatl their compasses corrected in port by the use of fixed magnets, 
have found such error and inconvenience arising therefrom (on account 
of subsequent changes in the magnetic condition of the ship), that 
rather than endure the annoying discrepancies and perplexities con- 
sequent on their use, they have pitched their correcting magnets over- 
board altogether ; preferring to encounter the magnetic dangers of the 
voyage with a single well-made compass which they did imderstand, to 
tampering with changeable and vacillating agents and appliances 
which were above their comprehension. Such may account for the 
authorities at the Admiralty rejecting the use of correcting magnets 

Taking even Professor Airy's theory of moveable adjusting magnets 
and soft iron as an instance, how few merchant-captains, unaided by 
a mechanically convenient correcting apparatus, could follow a learned 
discussion on so intricate a science as that of magnetism (however 
valuable in itself) ; much less could they use the mathematical formula; 
necessary for its application to the mariner's compass. It remains to 
state that a practised compass-maker, a Mr. John Gray, of Liverpool, 
an optician of talent well known in all the principal ports of Europe, 
after study and experiment on an extended scale in which he believed 
he could coiToborate physically the theoretical assumptions of Pro- 
fessor Airy, contrived a compass arrangement which, apart from all 
invidious selection, and from a of public duty, finds an illus- 
tration in this article. Several other forms for correction of the 
compass-needle exist, and each has its advocates, but the following 
sketches of Gray's compass arrangement give an idea of the form in 
which the Astronomer-Royal's suggestions are being carried out. 

B, Outer! bowl, containing fluid, in whicli, b 2, inner bowl is floated ; h anit 
K 2, Kims of outer and inner bowU ; v s, Springs to keep the bowls ia 
central position with each other ; t s, Tangential screws to adjmt the 
bowls to their centres ; o and o 2, Guides to prevent rotatory m"tion ; 
L, Lubber's point; n, Elastic discs; 8, Spiral spring; c. Chain boxes for 
soft iron ; o 3, Gimble. 

The above has, moreover, an interest from being the form 'of appai'atua 
used ou boai'd Her Majesty's yachts ; and without compromising that 




IwlUfnilwirn of Utougfat and rigid impartiikUty which ought to chano- 
tariM this work, wo may ninarfc that it ia aaid by the Attronumor. 

I, Cylindrr eoataintnic rertieal magnet ; 2, Keya to nUe aad lower the 
mafrnct* ; 3, Frame in which the matmpts nrc placed ; 4, Magnets ; 
5, Venical screws for raUing and loveriof; the mafrnet frame ; 6, Screws 
to prevent the vertical screws altering their position ; 7, Guides to the 
magnet frame. 

Koyal publicly to be " perfectly correct," aa to the principles under 
which it i» constrtioted, and " entirely satisfactory " to him. The one 
property which (while there might seem to be some complexity in the 
mode of sufiwnsion) distinguishes this apparatus from others, is the 
laoility with which the adjusting magnet can, vmder very simple 
printed inatnictions from the maker, be altered in position, so as to 
oompenaate the changes produced from alteration in the magnetic con- 
dition of the ship. 

Nothing is intended boron to disparage the beautifully constructed 
and excellent compaasea made by those whose names have been men- 
tiuned as some of the principal makers of this eoimtry. A very 
degant form of compass, in which the magnet is attached to a vertical 
metallic zone, and the whole inclosed in a ^bias ^obe, has been inrented 
recently by a Mr. Gowland, of Liverpool It is for practical men to 
satisfy themselves thoroughly if the three grand daUbnla of the 
compass be fulfilled iu any one inatniment; these are : — 

1. Steadiness, without sluggishness. 

2. Activity and sensibility, without oecillstion. 

8. Facility for correction under local attraction, without complication. 

COMPASS CORRECTION. Under the word Beabdio, some notice 
has been taken of the most recent improvements in the method uf 
using the compass for nautical purpoees. 

It is ordinarily supposed by landsmen, that with a well-made com- 
pass, and a knowledge of the variation thereof, as depending on ter- 
restrial changes [Vabiatio.n], nud thin to be apfdied on either hand of 
any given point, according as the magnetic acedle deflects towards the 
cost or WMt from the true pole of the world, or the meridian, a 
navigiktor might find his way to distant parts of the earth ; but the 
need of correction from other causae, daily or hourly in some ships, 
gave rise to and constitutes what has l>eun so long called and agitated 
as the compass question. 

The navigator's desire at sea is simply to know on what angle from 
a mtritUan, or true north and south line. Ait Mp i< tadling. But before 
he can arrive at a satisfactory conclusion as to his correct coiu'se, the 
Tirious chaimels through which l(x»l attraction affects his compass 
have to be estimated; in other worxls, he must free bis compass 
bearing from all casual local magnetic influences ; and this constitutes 
the work of eomptm correction. If such were essily performed, on 
merely knowing the deviation [DEVtATloN], an ordinary additive or 
sublnctive operation would suffice ; but it unfortunately happens that 
the qtUBtity of iron tised about a ship, and aspeciaily in a steamer, 
preseati a oombtnatioB of disttirbiug forces so in tri oate in their rela- 

tions, that M aw> ^ txptrioket »koiM ntf <m ang wttr* I0 $lim ^ 
uMtrsswiOaf rorrseltoit, ind tf tmieM </ lutmil dtitervoXUm tf • t s assa /y 
hfodg, much Isss will he rsly toUf on a oorrecting card, or oorreeting 
masneta. It may bare be well to explain so olaorly the preeent state 
of things, that the difficulties which have hitherto clouded the brow of 
the nutftor mariner, plunged him into uncertainties and uuneoessaiy 
labour, depriving many a weather-bea ten and stgrm-toased mariner of 
his nightly rest, may, m those whoee intelUgenoe really befits them tat 
their duties, be MaUji tet a$idt: and that ships may haoeeforth be 
navigated with a oon&dance and sectuity prufltalue alike to their owners, 
their crews, and the publia 

The system of oorreotion at present adopted in Her Majesty's navy 
is the following : A line-of-batUe ship, having on board nearly 600 tons 
weight of iron Kuns, shot, and shell, being moreover a screw steamer, 
with all her massive machinery, an immense iron funnel, iron watsr 
tanks, iron anchors, iron cables, &o., is fitting for sea, off one of Her 
M^esty's dockyards, say for example, Sheemeea, either before or after 
the usiud trial trip (generally before), and it is thought neoeaaary to 
swing her for compass correction. Where no distant sod conspi- 
cuous object is in sight, this is done by sending a trusty officer on shore 
at an assumed station, say at the lale of Grain, with an aaimuth com- 
pass. The ship is then turned about, ao as to bring her head to every 
point of the compass, and by comparing simultaneous ofaeervationa 
(made during the time of swinging) between the ship and the station, 
and the station and the ship, some notion con be formed of the local 
attraction on board : thua. if the officer on board at a certain moment 
sees (for example) his assistant at the station on shore bearing due west 
by ship's compass, and the assistant on shore at the same time seea the 
officer on board bearing, not east, the opposite point, but E.S.E., there 
must be, in one or both instruments, a total deviation of two points, 
or 22° 30' ; but as the compass on shore is carefully placed, so as to be 
beyond the influence of any local attraction, the deviation is always 
attributed to some magnetic disturbance on board. These deviationa, 
OS found on each point, are carefully noted and coUected, aad form 
what is generally called a correcting card. Various methods have 
been proposed for the registering of these deviationa ; perhaps nothing 
more simple and ingenious has been ottered than the one by iSir Archi- 
bald Smith, in the form issued by the Admiralty to each of Her 
Majesty's ships. The swinging of a ship, then, is nothing more than a 
mode of fiw«iing the error of her eompaas at a certain moment ; but as 
there are other methods of aeoertaining thia so important a (act, it is 
necessary to consider iMirA of tAe mamy U the wtoil accurate, timpte, and 
convenient in application and practice. 

The swinging of a line-of-battle ship is a work of labour, time, and 
expense ; it often occupies three or four days, the employment of about 
300 men, the n-ear and tear of two, three, or four bawanrs, the letting 
go and weighing two or three heavy kedge anchors ; — all this is aeee s 
sary in swinging a ship of the line. But the advantage of ascertaining 
precisely the state of such ship is paramount, and we should spare no 
time, labour, or money, if a permanent result ootild thus be obtained. 
It unfortunately happens, however, that any ehange which may occur 
in the magnetic condition, or even position of the iron on board, aoch 
as the training of a gun, the firing of a broadside, lighting the fires of 
the engine, moving the ponderous funnel up or down, and various other 
tmavoidable operations on shipboard, may so aiKct the compass as to 
render a correcting-card, obtained at one time with so mudi labour, 
totally useless at another. It is true that some ships have been found 
to undergo very little changes dviring long periods ; but, on the other 
hand, it is equally well known that steamers which have pre s e r ved a 
remarkably equable state of magnetic condition for years, have saddenly 
shown disastrous changes. To mention oidy one case out of himdreds, 
in support of this assertion— aa iron steamer, belonging to one of the 
principal companies of Liverpool, which had shown great uniformity 
as to local .ittnictiun fur several years, waa, in 1857, proceeding down 
Channel, under the comiimnd of a distinguished officer, who was on his 
73rd voyage past that coast. It was a pleasant, calm, haay evening, and 
the commander supposed, from her standard compass, that the ahip 
waa heading fairly for the Longship's light. But just after sunset a 
cry suddenly arose from the leok-out man, of " Rocks ahead t" and to his 
amaaement the experienced commander found himself nmning stem-on 
to the Stones in St. Ive'a Bay. It was aftenv.ards found by the writer 
of this, tliat the local attraction on board must have varied 1(J degi-eae 
after leaving Liverpool The ahip and crew were barely saved from 
destruction ; an instance of the high importance of the subject now 
under our consideratioa ; for we have no Meoiw ef c u e trl a imny tA« 
amount »/ liability in any partieabm Mp to vary Mr eomMion, hence 
the doubt fid ralite of ami/ correeting-cttrat whatever. The subtle dis- 
turbing element m.ay at any moment, from unforeeeen causee, accumu- 
late in this gun, nr that range of sht^ or in some particular irou knee, 
or chain, or iron stanchion ; so that the wary master or commander 
may suddenly, and at any time, be deprived of that in his so-called 
correcting-card, the loss of which would necessarily entail much 
anxiety, until opportunity presented itself of checking the state of the 
compass by a celestial observation. 

As on important pubUc question is deeply involvM in this scrutiny 
of the practice of swinging a ship, aa operation shown to be not only 
expensive and troublesome, but abtokUeljitkmgrrom if too much reliance 
be ptaeed upon it, it may reasonably be awed why we permit f^Ulocies to 





exist in our system. In such a cause, it behores every man of science 
who would assist the navigator to cast aside all prejudices and mere 
" customs," and, taking the simple facU of the case, attempt a total 
revision of the subject of compass correction. 

But what of the check referred to, as deduced from celestial 
observation ? The question of correction must be viewed under two 
aspects, namely, the accuracy and labour in the means employed. As 
a question of spherical trigonometry, its acciu^cy is mathematically 
sufficient; and, as regards labour, there are two ways of working, 
namely, by logarithmic calculation and by comtriiclion. The calcu- 
lation of an azimuth is the resolution of a spheric triangle, in which 
certain things are given to find others : as in the following example, in 
which it was possible to use the horizon. 

Suppose a ship to be in latitude 51° 30' N., when the altitude of the 
sun's centre was 40° 25', the sun's declination at the same moment 
being 20° 2' N. : required the sun's true bearing and the error of the 
compass, the bearing of the sun by compass being S. 79° 39' W, : — 

San'« declination 



. 20" 2' 






secant . . 

cosine . . 

sine square 

Sun's Polar distance 
Latitude . . . , 
Suu's altitude 

. 69 68 
51 30 
40 35 



i Sum .... 

Diir. between \ Sum and P. 

. 161 63 
. 80 56^ 
10 68| 

39' W. = 
39 W. 


The tmc azimuth . S 
Uy compau . • . S 


Error of compasf . 



Or supposing the horizon obscured, and an altitude impracticable, 
take the following example : — 

A ship in latitude 10° 20* N.; sun's declination, 22° 14' S.; the time 
of day, Ih. 44m. 178.; the sun's bearing, N. 162° 3' West : required the 
true azimuth and compass error ? 

Hair . 

a. x. s. 
1 44 17 

52 8 cotangent 0-63543 

cot. 3-63948 

90' 0" 
Sun's declination 22 14 

Polar diitance . 112 14 

90' 0' 
Co. Lat. 10 20 

79 40 

Sunl . 

} Sum , 
\lAtt. . 

•ccant 0-g>439 
CO*. . 0-98211 

88" 34' tan. 
180 00 


CO. tec. 0-00235 
•tne . 9-44776 






Sam, N. 

91 16 
60 67 


3 W. = True azimuth. 

3 W. = Siui'i bearing bjr compus. 

30 W, Error of compass. 

Such are the calculations in each case, and they are shortened when 
altitude and time are both known. Better even would it be to use in this 
manner a few extra logarithms daily, than to depend on a correcting- 
card. But there is another and more simple method, not generally 
known, of solving a spheric triangle with sufficient accuracy for an 
azimuth, where the nearest degree is enough, because one cannot steer 
a ship to within less than a degree or two : it is by coiutruction of the 
spheric triangle. This process, however, would have its inconve- 
niences, although it requires only a plane scale and a pair of dividers 
or compasses. But these inconveniences have of late been totally 
obviated by the invention of the spherograph [Spberograph], in which, 
having any three elements of a spheric triangle, the others are found 
without any calculation, and in a very few seconds ; indeed, the Astro- 
nomer-Royal has given his written opinion "for the tpedal purpose 
of determining azimutht to correct a compau, he Ihinia the tpheroijraph i» 

In anticipation of the word Spberorraph, a sketch of the instru- 
ment as it appears when finding an azimuth will in this place be 
sufficiently illustrative. 

In «the annexed figure the sun is represented as being just on the 
hi.riz.)!], the dark lines of the drawing represent the upper sphere, and 
til ■ ■littcrl ones those of the under sphere as seen Ihrough. the upper 
ti tii,[..iicnt one, both spheres being moveable on the centre c, 

Suppose the latitude, say 60° N., to be represented by PR (equal to 
the height of the north pole of the heavens above the north part of 



the horizon), and the oblique circle p o s to represent the hour circle 
for 7 P.M., and the small circle D Q?) o M to represent the sun in its 
distance from the equator (eq), or, .as it is called, the declination. For 
all nautical purposes the line D ^ o M may be called the sun's path in 
the heavens for that day. Now, the part of the circle It must have been 
moved on its centre c so as to place it 50° (the required latitude) 
from P : on the under sphere no other movement is required : but we see 
at a glance that the sun wotild be at M at midnight, at o when rising 
or setting, and at D when on its meridian. Hence, the degrees being 
all printed on the spherograph so as to enable all distances to be read 
offy no further measure or construction could be required, and we 
should in this instance find that c o on the horizon would niea-sure the 
rising amplitude and o R the rising azimuth ; and c being the east 
and R the north part of the horizon of the instrument, the sun 
would rise at .ibout N.E. by E. Suppose it were required to correct 
the compass at any time of the d.iy, say at 9 a.m., I should select the 
9 A.M. hour circle P0 s, as drawn on the under sphere of the sphero- 
graph, and notice where it crosses the parallel of declination dm at f9 ; 
and any vertical circle (suppose Z(^n) which, passing through the 
intersection, cuts the horizon (as at x), would show the bearing iu 
azimuth as measured at n s ; and as n is at the south part of the horizon 
and c is at the east, c x would be very nearly east by south : if the 
compass showed by it that the sun was at the same time (for instance) 
E.S.E., the compass would have an error of one point. 

It seems then that a possibility exists of totally avoiding accidents 
dependent on compass errors, and by a means sanctioned and approved 
by the Astronomer Royal ; and although changes in magnetic condition 
cannot be foreseen and prevented, we in reality seem to be able, 6.y 
merely tumini/ a transparent card an its centre, and at any time, or at 
any part of the world, and by a process which occupies about ten 
seconds of time, when any heavenly body is visible, and iinthout 
requiring any observation for altitude, to place an effectual check upon 
a compass. 

In order therefore to put the question in a plain and available 
form for mariners, the following is proposed as a system .applicalile at 
all times to any compass, and on board any ship, be her m,agnetic 
condition whatsoever it may : iind as this method of ascert,iining a true 
azimuth from celestial observation is totally independent of the horizon, 
it is available in a few seconds whenever any heavenly body is visible, 
even in hazy weather, and is therefore much more convenient and 
expeditious, as it must be more accurate, than any swinging of a 
ship: — 

1, As a mariner always knows his latitude and declination to the 
nearest degree, and his apparent time to the nearest minute or 
two, let him, when desirous of merely checking his compass, 
find at once the sun's true azimuth [Bearing] by the sphero- 
graph (or by construction or calcul.ation, at pleasure), and 
compare the result with his compass bearing of the sun's centre. 
If his ship be at anchor, and he wishes to examine into her 
general local attraction, let him, while sheis swinging with the tide, 
take the bearing^ of the 8hi|)'s head as she comes to the several 
points of the comp.i83, noting against each observation the 
apparent time at which it was taken : then let him seek against 
each of times in the spherograph the corresponding true 
azimuth of the sun (the whole is done by one movement of the 
upper card of the spherograph on its centre), and by comparison 
the whole condition of the ship for that day or period is shown, 
and that too without the labour and expense and deten- 
tion of the vessel dm-ing compass correction. As many as 300 





bwrinn lure been taken by tba lit* MenUi7 of Um Compui 

Cominittoo at Ufmrpoo\, while • ahip ht* bem iwingiDg with 

the tide errn in ao quick Mid etroDg • rirer u tbe Money. 

S. Either register the error to found in one of the •dmiralty forma 

of graphic delineation (Sir A. Smith'a), or adjurt the tihifting 

magnala aiid aoft bron by the aatronomer royal'a method, by 

the Maiatanoe of Gray'a ur any other a{tparetua for effecting 

tliia object. [Compass, Tbk Mariiccr's.] 

3. Let the ahip oocMionallT yaw a few pointa from her oourae at 

laaat onoe a day, using the ispherognipii, and in ease of auspected 

bad weather, up to ^e last moment at which a beavenly body 

U visible. 

By following the above plan the oompaas need no longer be a aource 

of anxiety U> an officer of a ship ; for instead of his having, aa at 

prtaent, to depend on an enoneoua syatem of adjustment made in port 

perhaps many months before, or by the working of an azimuth, for 

which he cannot always get an altitude, he con dispense with both 

these methods, and avoid all calculations or complexitiea whatsoever, 

whenever any heavenly body is visible. If by night, he would use 

the star's distance in time from the meridian of the place as if it were 

in the spherograph apivu-ent time. 

From the extreme simplicity, infallibility, and rapidity of the above 
method, it may be suggested that, in passenger over sea steamers, 
the oompaas ought to be checked omet in evert/ miteh ; for this 
purpose a common compass, fitted with Captain Robertson's patent 
" deviation detector" [BBAimG], would, with the spherograph, be all- 

COMPASS, NOTATION OF. The notation of the mariner's com- 
pass is very simple. If we divide a circle into four equal ports, each 
of the points which separate those pai-ts may be called cardinal. Pliny 
called one of .these the eardo muttdi, or the pole of the world, meaning 
the north pole. Another ancient author speaks of the cardo e(fli, or 
the pole of the heavens, meaning also tbe north pole ; while Quintilian 
speaks of the /our as the guatuor cardinet mtindi. Hence, by common 
consent, the nurtb, east, south, and west are called " cardinal points." 

The formation of the compass card will be essily understood by the 
following : — 

Let N.E.S.W. represent the cardinal points. The point midway 
between them is formed by combining the letters ; thus, taking the 
quadrant or quarter of a circle which lies between N. and E., the 
intermediate point will be called N.E. If we halve this distance, 
N. and N.E., we coll tbe middle point N.N.E. If we halve now the 
distance, N. and N.N K., we call it N. b. E. (or north by east, or north 
Uneardt east, for any further combining of letters would be incon- 
venient). In like manner we divide N.E. and E., and the intermediate 
point will of course be E.N.E. (the nearest cardinal point iilways stands 
first when we combine the letters) ; and again, halfway between E.N.E. 
and E. would be E. b. N. (or east towanb) north). It need only to be 
remembered that the cardinal points, and the midway points between 
them, such as N.E., S.E., N.W., S.W,, always have the word " by" or 
" b." in the pointa next to them. The other three quadrants are 
formed in precisely a dmilar manner. We tlius find tlie ciixle divided 
into 32 parts or points; and as the whole circumference of a circle is 
divided into 860 degrees, 360 divided by 32 will give 11° 15', or 11{ 
dtgrtet, as the angle which each point mokes at the centre of the 

1^ When using a compass card, the observer should always consider 
himself wtatlke etntre of U, and not outside the circle ; for the centre 
of the compass card represents the point of tbe earth on which he is 
standing, and the visible bori/.on may be C'lisidereil to be represented 

by 'the outer rim of the card, on which the decrees on ganorally 
The direction in which an object lias is called its bearing. [Biabiko.] 
COMPASSES. This term we suppose to be synonymous with eoat- 
paam, instruments by which we compass or go round a space. We 
shall here only give such a general notion of diftbrenf kinds of oon- 
structions as will perhaps suggeat tbe most oonvenient for any par- 
ticular purpose. 

1. Commim Omnpatiet, or Z>>ri<f<n,— Theae are simply two pointed 
legs on a common pivot, fur transferring distances. For drawing a 
circle the lower end of one of the legs is removed, and its place 
supplied by a holder for a pencil, or by a steel pen. 

2. Ifair Compattts. — One of the legs has a part attached to the upper 
part by a spring, so that by means of a acrew a very small motion may 
be given to the lower end. It is convenient for very accurate dividing, 
but must be used with care. 

3. TViaiiffular Compauet. — Theae have three legs and two pivots, so 
that the three points of a triangle can be at once transferred. This is 
useful only in rough work, aa the instrument is difilcult to handle. 

i. Pi-opuiiional Oompattet. — These consist of two dividing compasses 
with a common pivot, which, when open, present vertically oppoaite 
angles ; consequently, the intervals between the points of one and the 
other are in the same proportion as the legs of one to the legs of the 
other. The pivot is a clamping screw, which can be transferred along 
tbe interval between the pairs of points, and a scale points out how to 
adjust the instrument so as to alter any line, or surface, or solid, in a 
given proportion. These oompassea sometimes have an apparatus for 
alight adjustment; but on the whole we consider it as an instrument 
for rough work. 

5. Beam Compattet. — This instrument is a cylindrical bar, perpendi- 
cular to which, with clamping screws, slide a point and a pencil. The 
use of it is to describe large circles, or to measure large distances, the 
common compasses being very liable to slip when opened very wide. 
It is a safe and sure construction. 

6. There is a method of describing a small arc of a very large circle, 
as follows : An elastic rod of met#l is furnished with a rigid bar, on 
which it can be drawn up by screws, so that the rod shall form an arc, 
the chord of which is a part of the l«ir. This may be adjusted so as to 
pass through three given points nearly in the 8.-uue straight line, and 
though the curve then described by guiding the point of a pencil along 
the rod be not exactly an arc of a circle, yet, for all small flexures, it 
will come sufficiently near for practical purposes. 

7. Caliper Compasaei, or cilliiiers, are comi>as8e8 intended to measure 
the calibre or diameter of round bodies, and are formed with curved 
legs, knobbed instead of pointed. Being opened until the body to be 
measured can only just pass through them, the distance between the 
two internal extremities of the knobs is of course the diameter of 
the body. 

Many other species of compasses have been constructed, but the 
above are the principal ones in common use. [Elliptic Compares.] 

COMPLEMENT, that magnitude which, with another, makes up a 
given magnitude. This is the general meaning of the term ; but the 
most usual specific uses are as follows : Complements of the parallelo- 
grams about the diagonal of a parallelogram : through a point in the 
diagonal draw parallels to the sides ; the whole is then divided into 
two parallelograms on the diagonal, and two which only touch the 
diagonal at one angle. The latter pair are called by Euclid comple- 
ments to the former. 

The complement of an arc or angle is the arc or angle by which it 
falls short of a quadrant or a right angle. 

The complement of a logarithm is the number by which a logarithm 
foils short of 10 : thus conip. log. 2 is 10 — -30103 or 9-69897. 

The arithmetical complement of a number is the number by which 
it falls short of the next higher decimal denomination. Thus, ar. co. 
936 is 1000 - 936, or 64 ; orith. comp. of 83 is 100 - 83, or 17. 
Beginning from the left, subtract every figure from 9, up to the last 
significant figure, which subtract from 10. 

For the comiilement of life, see Ds MomsK's Hypothesis, 





COMPOSITION. In the gradual progress of mathematicd Im- 
guage, this word has acquired a general meaning, as follows : Any one 
magnitude is said to be compounded of two others, when it produces 
the same effect as tbe otlier two put together. For instance, if we 
increase a length in the proportion of 8 to 7, and then increase the 
result in the proportion of 2 to 6, the original line is increased in the 
proportion of 3 x 2 to 7 x 6, or of 6 to 35. llenue the proiwrtion of 
to 35 i» said t<i be the proportion compounded of (out of ) the pro- 
portions of 3 to 7 and 2 to 6. 

The effects of which it is in our pow-er to form a distinct conception 
are of two kinds : 1. Those in which there are only two kinds imagi. 
noble, and those two diametrically opposite, with one neutral inter- 
mediate state. 2. Those in w-bicli the diametrically opposites have an 
infinite number of intermediate gradations. Loaa or gain of money is 
an instance of the first ; change of direction of the second. If, at the 
rote of an inch to a shilling, gains were measured northward from a, 





given point, and losses southward, we could immediately make it a 
necessary consequence that the balance, if any, is represented by a line 
northward or southward, according as it is for or against. But draw a 
line eastward, and it will readily be admitted that such line wiU not 
present itself in any necessary connection with a sum lost or gained, 
or neither lost nor gained. For if the latter, why shoiJd a line eaatwai-d 
be preferred to a line westward, or in any other direction ? 

An immense number of modes of composition Avill readily suggest 
themselves, in which addition and subtraction are the processes by 
which composition takes place. If I go three miles northward, and 
then two miles farther, I go in all 3 + 2, or 5 miles northward. Other 
modes, as in the instance first given, will suggest themselves, in which 
multiplication and division are the compounding processes, and so on 
ad infinitum. These are all cases in which magnitude only is con- 
cerned ; but whenever we have both magnitude and direction, it is 
plain that we have now both magnitude and direction to consider in 
the effect. If I go a mile northward and then a mile eastward, the 
whole effect, as to direction, will be, that I go tojhe north-east ; as to 
magnitude, that I go not two miles, but only •/ 2 miles, or 1'414 miles 
very nearly. Here is an instance in which the components are repre- 
sented in magnitude and direction by two sides of a triangle, while the 
total effect is similarly represented by the third side. In the article 
Centre will be found various instances in which the meaning of that 
term implies the point at which a single action must take place, which 
will produce the same effect as a number of different actions produced 
on a number of points. 

In mechanics, we have to consider the combined effects of different 
velocities, pressures, momenta, rotations, &c., communicated at the 
same moment of time to the same body. In all, the law of composition 
is found to be as follows :— 

In what sense soever the actions at p can be represented in magnitude 
and direction by P A and p B, in that same sense can the joint effect be 
represented by P c, the diagonal of the parallelogram, in both magni- 
tude and direction : or p a and A c being the actions (a c being equal 
to p B in magnitude and direction), P c, the third side of the triangle, 
is the imited action. Thus, if at the same instant we communicate 
motion to P in the directions V .v and p B, with velocities p a and p B 
per second, we thereby merely communicate to p a velocity p c per 
second, in the direction P c. The same holds of momenta and pres- 
sures ; and even if we give P two separate rotations, which would 
separately carry it round the axes p a and p B in angles per second 
which are in the same proportion as p a and P B, the joint effect is a 
rotation round the axis P c with an angle per second which is to the 
angle of P a (or p b) as p c is to p a (or P b). 

We have here not to prove these things, but only to illustrate the 
word composition. But this we must remark, that our preconceived 
notions wUl never allow us to say that A is the effect of p and Q, and B 
of B and s, unless the application of p, q, R,and s together will be the 
same in effect as that of A and B together. We shall show that this 
necessary condition of our notions of cause and effect is preserved 
in the method of comiKisition just described. Let p x, B Y, and c z be 
]»rallel to each other ; then, if ovu- law of composition be general, 
p B is the effect of p X and p Y. Therefore P X, P Y, and P A should be 
together equivalent to p c. But a z is equal to p T, and P z is therefore 
equivalent to P A and P Y. Therefore A c should be the effect of p z 
and P X, which we immediately see it is, being as much the diagonal of 

As another, and a very curious instance of comiKisition, we shall 
notice the following : Supiiose .r and y are to be measured, and both 
are subject to error, every error entailing loss in proportion to its 
magnitude, and causing e<iual loss, whether it be an error of excess or 
an error of defect. Suppose also that the errors are of such a kind that 
the average of any number of measurement is more probably right 
than any other. Let o and b be the sums which iVwould be e(|uitable 
to pay for insuring i and y, that is, which should be given to any one 
who would agree to bear the loss on x and // separately. The sum 
which should then be given to one who would bear the total loss 
arising from the possible error in ./ + y is not a -^ 6, as might at first 
appear, but Va' -f li', or the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle of 
which a and h are as the sides. 

Our limits will not allow us to enlarge on this subject ; we shall add 
the two following remarks. 

1. The fact of the law of composition being the same both for 
velocities and pressures, has caused many writers on mechanics to 
confound the two, as if the one proved the other, which is neither true, 
nor eyen xtry probable. And other writers on mechanics, while 
proving this general law, that actions which cm be represented by the 
two sides uf a triangle produce an action which can be represented by 

the third side, have restricted the proposition, and seem to imagine 
that what they prove is true of furca only. This, with great deference 
to such a wTiter, we conceive M. Poisson to have done in the well- 
known proof at the beginning of his mechanics, a work which we may 
take this opportunity of saying, we hold in higher estimation than any 
other elementary mathematico-physical work whatsoever. 

2. The difficulties of negative quantities in algebra arose from a want 
of generality, which gave rise to the attempt to express composition by 
addition only or by subtraction only, where either addition or sub- 
traction might be requisite ; and the difficiUties of impossible quanti- 
ties arose out of a similar deficiency, bearing the most complete 
analogy to trying to compound in magnitude only, in cases where 
both diversity of magnitude and of direction should have been con- 

COMPOST. [Manure.] 

COMPOUND, that which results from composition. [Composi- 



COMPOUND QUANTITIES [Arithmetic], quantities in which 
more than one unit is employed, as in 2 pounds, 3 shillings, and 6 
pence ; 2 miles, 3 yards, and 4 inches. 

COMPOUND RADICALS. A term applied in chemistry to those 
combinations of elements which act towards oxygen, hydrogen, and 
acids, as simple elements. [Organic Radicals.] 

COMPOUND RATIO. [Composition; Ratio.] 



COMPURGATOR. In the middle ages a practice prevailed, 
derived from the canon law, of permitting persons accused of cei-tain 
crimes to clear themselves by purgation. In these cases the accused 
party formally swore to his innocence, and, in corroboration of his 
oath, twelve other jwrsons, who knew him, swore that they believed 
in their consciences that he stated the truth. These twelve persons 
were called compurgators. (Ducange, ' Juramentum.') This proceed- 
ing appears to have existed among the Saxons, and, in process of time, 
it came into use in England in civil cases of simple contract debts. 
[Wagek of Law.] The ceremony of canonical purgation of clerks- 
convict, which was nothing more than the formal oath of the party 
accused, and the oaths of his twelve compurgators, continued in 
England until it was abolished by the stat. 18 Eliz. c. 7. [Benefit 
OP Clergy.] (Blackst. ' Comm.,' Dr. Kerr's edit., vol. iii., 364 ; iv., 

COMPUTATION. We need not tell those who are acquainted with 
the existing treatises on arithmetic, that in no one instance do they 
pretend to give any mode of forming good habits of computation. 
The beginner, after receiving instructions as to what is to be done in 
the several great rules of arithmetic, is allowed to manage the details 
as he can. 

The mere mechanical art of computation, apart from arithmetical 
reasoning or application to subjects of interest, is no very lofty exer- 
cise of the mind. A wonderful degree uf proficiency in it can be 
attained by many who find connected reasoning almost an impossibility ; 
and on the other hand, some of the first among mathematical dis- 
coverers have hardly arrived at more than the expertness of an ordinary 
schoolboy. It is one of those arts among many which are accessible 
to all who begin with a determination to conquer difficulties, and a 
power of arriving at methodical habits : no person who, after begin- 
ning in the tight way, is obliged to confess a total failure, has any 
■ ground to suppose that he could master a common manual art : he 
may be a genius, but nothing could make him a weaver. That we 
may not frighten any one of the thousands who are miserable computers 
after going through years of school discipline, and whose minds are 
too well made to allow them to flatter themselves that they were 
above it, it is but fair to say that very few are allowed to begin in 
the right way. Every merely mechanical business must be learned 
by a sufficient repetition of the most purely elementary steps. A 
discipline of the mind may be taken up at the wrong place, and still 
be a discipline, though not so perfect as it might have been. But in 
what is merely art, nothing can compensate for the want of habit of 
operation duly learned at the proper time. Now computation is only 
an art : its elements are a small number of acts of memory : its details 
consist in a still smaller number of operations, each of which, by 
itself, is of the utmost simplicity. 

Many readers will suppose us, in speaking of the elementary rules 
of arithmetic, to mean addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, 
as given in the books : but we should as soon think of saying that 
the elementary operations of a journeyman tailor's business are the 
making of coats, waistcoats, and trowseis. The rules just named are 
the perfection of computation, not its commencement : he who can 
do them all with ease and accuracy is a calculator. The fundamental 
operations of which we speak are to those elaborate processes just 
what threading a needle and drawing a stitch are to the making of a 
coat. We can carry the comparison still further ; and its justice is 
not accidental, but the necessary consequence of the resemblance of 
all mechanical operations We do not s,iy that a workman who is 
capable of joinini; two pieces of cloth together with stren;<tli and neat- 
ness is a finished tailor : he cannot therefore choose cloth, cut out 






«lotlt, imiute tiahioiia, but he oan follow dirKtiooa, and be ie the nuui 
who aotually makes the ooet Nor do we meen that the penon who 
can merely perfonn the (our nilee is a complete arithmetician : bo 
oaanot know how to apply tboae rule*, he hai not learned how to 
think of their uaes. But, under diractioDa, he can really manage the 
laat and ezeoutive proeeie o( any mathematioal inquinr. Until he 
la enmethlni batter, he is but a tool in the hands ol others, but 
no oo* thiua the less of tools beoauae they oanuut work of tham- 

Is this then, we shall be saked, all that you propose, namely, to 
dasoribe addition, aubtraotion, multiplication, and division > We 
answer, yes, and on these simple grounds, that oothing more ia wanted, 
and that in what we have to say upon them, we ahall touch the reaaou 
why so many persons are incapable of and diasusted with arithmetical 
prooess. There are but few who find much difficulty in comprehend- 
U^ what is to be done in a que«tion uf arithmetic : but there are 
many who find tlut, however clearly they may sec the way, there is a 
heavy and broken ascent between them and the answer. The figures 
will not come right, there is nothing but mistake after mistake : and 
though everything elae is gained, the result ia not Few of those who 
tta uitis perplexed are aware that nothing is wanting but attention to 
the elementary processes with a better method than a beginner invents 
for l.i»n— 'I* : •vai7 on* knows that books and teachers give no method 

The following tjtbem of exercises constitutes the whole of what is 
necessary. The degree of attention with which each is to be practised 
must depend upon the circumstances of the leamer'a case. Kaoh one 
containa a difficulty which most persons will suppose they could avoid,'' 
some in one manner, some in another. Their neveral suppositions are 
true ; and it is just sa true that the trouble and risk with which an 
infant learns to walk upon its feet could be avoided ; some could con- 
tinue to crawl, others could contrive to walk on their knees ; all would 
get on in a certain manner. Any person who is determined to succeed, 
and who has reason to know that his method has not answered as yet, 
should try our plan with the faith of a learner. But we con promise 
him no success unless he will make up his mind, from the outset, 
entirely and at once to abandon every habit which we condemn, and to 
adopt every mode which we prescribe : and this, though it »hould seem 
to him that what he has to take up in mure difficult than what he is to 
Ickve oC He may take any time, and must not be discouraged by 
gnHing that the new operations are at first longer than the old ones. 
He must continually attempt more and more rapidity, remembering 
that quickness of operation will never come of itself by practising with 
deliberate caution. Slow and sure is better than quick and wrong, no 
doubt, if one or the other must be the end of it; but quick and lure 
must be the motto of an arithmetician. All very correct computers 
that we have seen have been rather rapid workers : wa believe the 
reason to bo that those who cannot acquire rapidity give it up in 

1. Presuming that the learner can count one, two, three, &c., as fast 
sa he can speak the words, he must then try if be can do the same 
backwards, as fifty, forty-nine, forty-eigfat, forty-seven, tc. He must 
then practise counting forw-ard — by two at a time, as in 2, 4, 6, Ac, 
1,8, 6, Ac— by three at a time, as in 1, 4, 7, &o., 2, 5, 8, Ac., 8, 6, 9, 
Ac. — by four at a time, as in 1, 5, 9, Ac., 2, 6, 10, Ac. — and so on up to 
11 or 12 at a time. The same should be done backwards, as in the 
following by sevens, 90, 88, 76, 69, Ac In doing this he must not use 
any description, either vocal or mental : it must not be 22 and 6 are 
28, 28 and are 34, Ac. ; but 22, 28, 84, Ac. These various processes 
should b« cairied to or from 100 at least. 

2. Proceed to form with rapidity the number which must be added 
to a given number to make up the next nxunber which ends with a 
given digit. Thus, one of the questions asked, at its fullest length, is 
" Given 38 and 4, how much must be added to 38 to give the next 
number that ends with 4. " But all that must be repeated, orally or 
mentally, is "88 and six are forty-/oMr." Write down a row of 
numbers, as in 


and practise thus :— 72 and 7 are 79, 29 and 7 are S6, 96 and 7 are 103, 
63 and 9 are 72, Ac. ; taking 72, 29, 96, Ac., for the successive lesser 
numbers, and 9, 6, 3, &o., for the successive imit figures of the greater 

8. Endeavour occasionally, in the exercise Immediately preceding, 
and in tboae which follow, to fix the thoughts particularly U|X>n the 
lem of the result It will gi-nerally hnjipen that the tmits are imme- 
diately to be written down and discarded, while the tens are to be 
Ntained in memory. Practise repeating a number, so as while repeat- 
ing it to write down the units and think of the tens : thus, in 76, at 
the moment of writing down 6, think of 7. 

4. Learn the multiplication table up to 12 times 12, but not with 
the ustial practice of wording all the results, as in " 7 times 8 make 
K," " 4 times 6 sre 20," Ac. The table idbst be so learnt tliat the 
two factors suggest the product instantaneously. Thus, 8 and must 
give 72 the instant they come together in the mind ; and so on. Take 
a row of numbers as befors, and looking at the successive pairs, repeat 
the products. Thus, 2 9 8 7 4 8 S, Ac., is to suggest 18, 72, 56, 28, 12, 
15, Ac., i>s fast ns the words can be Hi>uken. Those who have been 

accustomed to loam th« multiplication taUe from the half of it, always 
putting either the grsatar factor first, or else the leaser, must now 
accustom themaelves to the whole : i and 9, or 9 and 6, must suggest 
45 with equal ease. 

5. Augment the last exercise aa follows : — Having three digits learn 
to pass in thought immediately to the product of the first two aug- 
mented by the third ; thus 7, 9, and 8 must lead to 7 times 9 increased 
by 8. or 71. Take a row of figures, as before, say, 2497103. ko . which 
must be made the means of suggesting immsdiately 17, 43. 64, 13, 9, 
Ac. The usual repetition, " twice 4 are 8 aad 9 are 17," Ac., must not 
be t4^1erated for one moment. 

6. Aoquiru the power of combining the fifth and second exercises as 
follows :— Having four digits, learn to add the third to tlie product of 
the first and second, and to |iaas un to the next number which has the 
fourth in ito unit's pUoe. Thus, with 7, 8, 6, and 0, think of 61 ( 7 
times 8 and 5), as in the last exercise, and as in the •eocod, get " 61 
and 'J ore 70." Kepeat only as much aa is in the Isat phmse, dealing 
with the first three numbers by the habit aoquired in the last exercise. 
Thus, with the row of numbers 19728663, ic, should be rapidly sug- 
gested— 16 and 6 are 22, 65 and 3 are 68, 22 and 4 are 26, 54 and 9 are 
63, Ao. 

7. Having four numbers, deal with the first three as in the fifth 
exercise, and then repeating the result, add the fourth. Thus, from 
2, 7, 5, S, get 19 and 8 ore 27. Thus, the row of figures 7984361, Ac., 
must give— 71 and 4 ore 75, 76 and 3 are 79, 85 and 6 ore 41, 18 and 
1 are 1!>. 

8. Having a digit and a number of two places, learn to arrive 
speedily, aud with few words at the number of times which the 
second contains the first (when nut more than 9), and at the remaindar. 
Thus, " 7 in 53, 7 times and 4," " 8 in 29, 3 times and 5," Ac. 

A person who really desires to become a good computer mtut arrive 
at the ]>uwer of performing these exercises easily, quickly, and accu- 
rately. It is poesible to dispense with them, and it is possible to dis- 
jiense with rules and numerals altogether and to use pebbles. But we 
are very confident that when these exercises are once made very rapid 
and safe, the computer has gone through nine parts out of ten uf his 
training: he can walk, and will soon learn to find his way. The 
common error lies in imagining that learning to find the way is learn- 
ing to walk. 

We now Uike the four rules, insisting un the details of the tuode 
of performing each of them, aud presuming the usual process to be 

Numeration. — Learn to distinguish tcus, hundreds, Ac., not by the 
places in which their digits come, but by the numbers of places which 
come after those places, instead of connecting thousands in the mind 
with the fourth place, connect them with thru place* cut off. Thus 
17ti493 has 1764 hundreds, 176 thousands, Ao. 

Addition. — Add an in exercise 1 ; thus, if the figures were to be 7 2 
3 4, Ac, it should not lie 7 and 2 are 9 and 3 are 12 and 4 ore 16, Ac, 
but 7, 9, 12, 16, Ac. Dwell >ipon the tens to be carried, in writing 
down the units. In the following question, every word that should be 
repeated, orally or mentally, ia written down, and each figure that is 
to be WTitten down ia marked with an accent ; each ten that is to be 
dwelt on for a moment is in italics : — 







8, 17, 22, 80, 86, /uWj/-five' 

10, 19, 20, 27, rAirt»-one' 

11, 18, 24, 27, 29, Ihirij/-bv9' 
8, 6, 9, 18, (Hwity-five' 
8, 7, nine' 

Let the method of verification be simply taking the columns in the 
opposite order, or downwards, as 9, 15, 23, 28, 37, /orfy-five', &o. 

Subtractum. — Let the several subtractions be made by mental re- 
covery of additions as in exercise 2 : not " 7 from 16 leaves 9," but " 7 
and 9," not repeating 16, which is unnecessary, inasmuch as when 9 is 
found, 16 is done with, and the carriage of one is all that is to be 
remembered. The following detail has every word of the process : — 

8 and 9'; 6 and 6'; 10 and 8'; 9 and 2'; 2andl'; 
3 and 8'; 5 and 9'; 10 and 7' ; 1 and 1'. 



According to even recent books the computer should say, " 8 from 
7 1 cauuut, but 8 from 17 and there remaina 9, set down 9 and carry 
one," &c. It would be shorter than this to say, " 8 from the next 
higher numlwr that ends with 7 leaves 9." Our plan is the abbrevia- 
tion of " 8 and 9 make up the next number that ends with 7 " repeating 
only the firat three words. 

Multiplication. — Apply the exercise* 4 and 5 to the usual process. 
Here, as before, the detail given has every word which need be 
repeated. The figure* to be written down are accented; all others are 





7296 1 54', 86', 26', 6'5'; 30', 48'. 14", 3'6'; 48', 76,' 23', 5'8 ; 
859 i'; 6'; 8, 16, 22'; 8, 12, 17'; i, 10, 16'; 9, 12'; '6. 



The usual process of catting out tlie nines, as it is called, though not 
an absolute verification, is a useful one. Without entering upon its 
demonstration, we describe it. 

Casting out the nines, means adding together the digits of a number 
and throwing out 9 as fast as it arises. Thus in 26647895 we have — 2 
and 6 are 8 and 6 are 14, throw out 9 and 5 remains ; take in the next 
figure 4, giving 9, throw out 9 and remains ; then 7 and 8 are 15, 
throw out 9 and 6 remains ; pass over the 9 and take in 5 which gives 
11, on which two remains. All that is necessary to be repeated is 2, 
8, 14, 5, 9, 7, 15, 6, 11, 2. Cast the nines out of both factors, midtiply 
the results, and cast out nines ; the answer should give the same figure 
as the reputed product gives when the nines are cast out. Thus 7296 
and 859 give 6 and 4, the product of which is 24, giving 6 : and the 
reputed product 6267264 also gives 6. This is a high presumption 
that the result is correct : the error, if any, lies in this, that the figures 
of 6267264 which are too great are exactly compensated by others 
which are too small. Now it is very unlikely that this exact com- 
pensation of errors should exist ; and in this unlikelihood consists the 
strong premmiption of verification which the rule of casting out the 
nines afi'urds. 

It may be observed that this rule applies to all operations, thus : — 
Do with the result of casting out the nines the same as was done with 
the numbers from which the nines were cast out ; the answer, with its 
nines cast out, should give the same residt as arises from casting out 
the ninra of the reputed answer. Thus in the previous example of 
addition, the nines cast out from the several numbers to be added give 
1, 6, 2, 2, 0, 5, the sum of which, with nines cast out, is 7, the same as 
from the reputed answer 95515. In subtraction, it may be necessary 
to take in a nine before subtracting. 

Dirinon. — This rule is considerably shortened, and (in our opinion, 
though we think many would differ from us) increased in safety, by 
performing each subtraction without setting down the multiplication. 
As a preliminary, suppose it required to subtract 7 times 29398 from 
410843. Beginning with 7x8 instead of putting it down as 56, look 
at 8 and paM from 56 to 63, writing down the 7 and carrying the 6 
tens just used. Take these 6 tens and 7 times 9, giving 69, and make 
them up to 74, putting down the 6, and carrying 7. All that need be 
repeated is as follows, dwelling on the tens carried : — 

Prom 410848 i 56 and 7' make 63 ; 69 and 6' make 74 ; 

Take 29898x7 


28 and 0' make 28 ; 65 and 6' make 
21 and 0' make 21 ; 2 and 2' make 4. 


Suppose 8293614820 is to be divided by 47698. Instead of the 
luual plan, write the divisor on the left, or the quotient on the right : 
at any rate, the divisor and the quotient should be near one another. 

Divisor 47698)3293614829 
Quotient «90fll 431734 


20231 remainder. 
The work is as follows : — The first quotient figure being 6, subtract 

6 times 47698 from 329361, thus : 48 and 3' are 61, 59 and 7' are 66, 
42 and 1' are 43, 46 and 3' are 49, 28 and 4' are 32. The 4 being 
brought down, and 9 ascertained to be the next quotient figure, we 
have 72 and 2' are 74, 88 and 5' are 93, 63 and 4' are 67, 69 and 2' are 
71, 43 and (unnecessary) are 43. 'Then 8 and 2 are brought down, 
and 5 written as quotient figures, and 40 and 2' are 42, 49 and 9' are 
68, 35 and 7' are 42, 39 and 6' are 45, 24 and are 24. The last 
quotient figure is 1, and 8 and 1 are 9, 9 and 3' are 12 ; 7 and 2' are 9, 

7 and 0' are 7, 4 and 2' are 6. 

Casting out the nines, the products obtained from the divisor and 
quotient, increased by the result of the remainder, ought, after casting 
out nines, to agree with the dividend. Hero the divisor gives 7, the 
quotient 3, and the remainder 8 : 7 times 3 and 8 is 29, giving 2 ; the 
dividend aUo giv» 2. 

We have put down every step of the work in all the rules. The 
very basis of this method is the acquisition of such expertness in the 
previous exercises as will enable the computer to dispense with a large 
quantity of the ordinary halting-places. We need not enter upon the 
rules for the extraction of the square and cube root [Sqdahe], or of 
the solution of eciuations [Is volution and Evolution], at length; 
but we shall annex an example of each, leaving the reader tu apply the 
seventh exercise in its proper place. In the contracted part of Homer's 

t method, we add to the method of the last article cited, a provision for 
m a k i ng the first figure on the right of the vertical hne of contraction 
M ourreut as the process will allow it to be. last process (Homer's 
netLod) is the best exercise of computation. It involves all rules in a 

First, we put down the process for the extraction of the square root 
of 167. 

22 67 
245 1300 
2502 7500 
25049 249600 
250589 2415900 
2506986 16059900 
25059924 102398400 
2505992808 21587040000 
26059928166 153909753600 
250599281721 355018460400 
2505992817224 10441917867900 
2505992817228 417946599004 













Now let it be required to find the positive root of a" + a:" - 
12 = 0. 

■12x — 





12(8-4641 016151377546871 















In both these examples the result is carried to about three times as 
many figures as are usually wanted. But this is what should be done 
in computing for exercise. No one does his very highest with ease or 
with certainty ; and a person who can safely and rapidly knock off the 
seven or eight figures which are generally requisite must be one to 
whom a much larger amount of correctness is, or has been, familiar. 

It is necessary to insist particularly upon acquiring the habit of rapid 
computation by attempts at rapidity. Taking any exercises which 
verify one another, as a multiplication and a division, or a raising of a 
square and extraction of the square root, the learner who has acquired 
a little familiarity with the rules should tiy them at the top of his 
speed. If the verification be attained ; if the division, for instance, 
reproduce the multiplier for a quotient, without remainder, it is 
thousands to one that the whole process is correct. But if there 
should be a failure, as may, and almost certainly will at first, happen 
several times running, there is no occasion to examine closely into the 
reason of the failure. The whole question should be thrown aside, 
and another should be taken. In this course it will soon appear that 
the attempts become more and more nearly correct, until at last failure 
is the exception, and not the rule. There must be no fear of error, 
whether there be cause for it or not. The young calculator should 
proceed as boldly as if he were infallible ; for he may depend upon it, 
that it is not inacomicy which is to be avoided by precaution, but 
accuracy which is to be obtained by habit. 

With regard to minor points, every one must decide for himself 
whether actual vocal repetition of the words and numerals necessary 
to the process does or does not tend to accurate working. Some 
persons cannot compute without repeating to themselves ; but it is 
worth while to give silence a fair trial. It would also be of assistance 
to some persons to invent a habit of signifying the multiplier, which 
is in actual use, by some arbitrary position of the left hand. Thus, 1, 
2, 3, and 4 might be signified by placing the corresponding number of 
fingers of the left haad on the paper, 5 by placing the thumb only, 
and 6, 7, 8, and 9 by the thumb, with a corresponding number of 

In all those parts of computation which relate peculiarly to fractions, 





•onuuoD or (leuinukl, we know of no guida but raaaoo. The ultimata 
proeea, the iu;tual at«p for tb* tiuw being, must be either ulditioo, 
•abtnetion, multiplioation, or dirioon ; and aocunicjr may be ac<i\iired 
mecihaniflally. Howorar doiinble it may be that the Icanirr nliouUl 
damonatiate thaie nruciMaea, bia power of performing them d<«a not 
depend upon hia being abla to do ao. It ia otoerwiae with regard to the 
new and diatinct prooaaaea introduced in queationa wliich require 
faaotiona ; and which are in foot, not themaelvea proceaaea, but direo- 
tioiM for aelaotion of prooaaaea. 

The general run of oommerrial calculationa hardly neada any diatinct 
praliminanr exeroiae. Thero i» ono great improremeot of which ordi- 
nary methodn are auaoeptible, namely, the expreaaion of the parte of a 
pound decimally, instead of by siiillinga, pence, and tarthiuga. Until 
a decimal coinage ia obtained [Standard], any peraon with a moderate 
knowledge of decimal fntctiona may procure fur himaelf moat of ita 
•drantages, by the rulcn which are given in INTEREST, together with 
what we here aubjuin. The clemonstration will be eaay enough to 
thoae who consider the fmctiun which one farthing is of a pound, 
•001041«6««6 , or 001 04i. 

To write down any fraction of a pound decinvdly, proceed aa 
follows : — 

Fill up the Jlrtt jAaet of decimals with 1 for every (lair of shillings ; 
and the iteond and lAird jJacts with 50 fur the odd shilling, if any, 
and 1 for every farthing in the pence and farthings, with an additional 
1 if these amount to sixpence. Thus, .is far as three places of deci- 
mals, 8». is ••!/., and 9». U -450/. ; 9«. 3(1. is -462/., 9t. 64</. is -472/., 9*. 6d. 
ia -475/., 9f, 8frf. is iiU. 

Fill up the fourth and fifth place* with 4 for every farthing above 
the last sixpence, and an additional 1 for every three halfpence. Thus, 
as far aa five pUces of decimals, 9«. 8(f. is -46250f., 9s. 6^d. is -47291/., 
9s. 8]<f. is -48(145/., 9f. lO^if. is -49270/. 

Fill up all the remainini/ places with the decimal fraction derived 
from the number of farthings above the last three halfpence fur a 
numerator, and 6 for a denominator. Thus, 9<. S<f- is completely ex- 

preaied in -4625f., 9«. SJrf. is -472916666 /., 9». 8}rf. u •4864583333 

/., 9». low. is -492708333 /., 10s. Ofrf. is •608126f., S». Skd. is 

■164583333 I. 

For the most part three places are sufficient ; and it is rarely that 
more than five are wanted. The inverse rule, namely, that for reading 
off a fraction of a pound into shillings, pence, and farthings, is done 
from the first three places, within a farthing, by allowing a pair of 
shillings for each unit in the first place, another shilling for 50 (if there 
be so much) in the second and third places, and a farthing for each 1 
that is left in the second and third places, deducting 1 if 25 or more 
be left Thus -12345/. is 2s. 53<f., -29933/. is 5s. ]2rf.* or 6t., -267/. is 
6t. i^d. 

These rules look repulsive at first. None but those who have 
practised them until the transformation is easily made, can have any 
idea of the amount of labour which they save. They are in fact us 
good as a decimal coinage to those who have mastered them. Those 
who doubt of it may try the following question in the usual way, and 
compare it with the decimal mode. 

When the government, for ease of calculation, proposed seven pence 
in the pound instead of 3 per cent., as an income tax, how much tax, 
to a farthing, did they give up on 100 millions of income ? On one 
pound 3 per cent is -03, and seven i>ence is -0291666666 . . . . , which 
falls short of the former by -0008883333 . . . : and this, taken 100 
million of times, is 83333'333/., or 83333/. 6<. Scf. 

Some development of the reasons for the plan which forms the 
main part of this article will be found in the ' Companion to the 
Almanar ' for 1844. 

A curve or surface is concave on the side on which straight lines 
drawn from point to point in it fall between the curve or surface and 
the spectator ; that side is convex on which the curve or surface falls 
between such lines and the spectator. A surface may be either 
entirely concave, as the inside of a sphere, or entirely convex, as the 
outside ; or concave in some directions and convex in others, as the 
surface of a dice-box, or that made by the revolution of an hyperbola 
about ita minor axis. 




CONCENTRIC, having the same centre ; thus, concentric circles 
are those described about the same point. 

CONCERT, in music, a performance of several pieces of either vocal 
or instrumental music, but commonly of both, by different voices, and 
on various instruments. The earliest concert of which wo find any 
record ia that of the Pilarvumici, at Vicenxa, which must have been 
founded previously to 1685; for in that year another society, thp 
Jnealenall, was joined to it But to England is due the credit ot 
having instituted the first regular series of concerU, under the title of 
T^Aeadtmg of Anient Miuic, which had iu birth in 1710, and con- 

• When 4« Is left In the sMond and Ihird places, this mode t\rti the »mc 
as wli-n »0 is Ic ft. The direct rule irirei. the exact truth or > little Iru ti,e 
latmr lole nlrr« the ruct Uotli or a UUle more j about on* fuMnt more in 
the case hert bcfose ns. 

tiauad to exist upwards of eighty yaaia. The Gmetri ffpirilnel of 
Paris waa indebtwt for ita origin to an alder broMiar of Philidur, the 
well-known composer and renowned chess-player, w-ho in 1725 obtained 
a lioenoe for the performance of saored music during I.ent. This pro- 
ceeded without mterruption till the French Kevolution. The year 
1776 is distinguished in musical history by the institution of the 
Connrt qf AMlient J/imc, which became the asylum of classical com- 
pooitions at a time when faahion threatened their extinction, and has 
ever ainoe proved a school of music of inestimable value, by keeping 
alive a taate for the fineat productions of the old masters. In 1791, 
Salomon, the celebrated violinist, commenced a aariea M subacription 
concerts at the Hanover Square Rooms, for which he engaged Haydn, 
not only to write thoae twelve grand syuiphonios wliich are among the 
glories of the art, but to come to London to conduct their performance. 
These concerts continued to be given until 1796, when they ceased ; 
and with them seemed to die away all relish for grand instnunental 
compoaitiona But in 1818, a party of eminent professors, with a view 
to rescue orchestral muaio of the highest class from the neglect into 
which it had fallen, formed themselves into a body under the title of 
the Philhaniumie Siicietjf, and during that s eaaon they gave eight sub- 
scription concerts, the succeas of which, both as re^irds the main 
design and the support they received, was without any parallel. They 
constitute an era in the art, and by their continiunoe act powerfully 
in promoting the advance of music. 

Our space will only allow us to name some few other concerts which 
have risen up in the British metropolis, flourished for a time, then 
fallen to decay. Bach (John Christian) and Abel, in 1768, eatabUahed 
subscription concerts, which flourished for twenty years. These were 
succeeded by The Profemonal Concert, which, after a struggle, yielded 
to the enterprise and ability of Salomon. The Vocal Concert* of 
Harrison and Knyvett began in 1 792 at Willis's Rooms, and were dis- 
continued at the end of the season of 1794. They were revived in 
1801 by Messrs. Bartleman, Harrison, Knyvett, and Qreatorex, and 
were conducted on a much larger scale. Their success at first was 
great, but they gradually fell off', and in 1821 were finally abandoned. 
In 1808, and two following years, Mrs. Billington, Mr. Braham, and 
Signer Naldi had subscription concerts at Willis's Rooms, and were 
opposed by Madame Catalani at the Hanover Square Rooms. In 1828, 
a weak and futile attempt was made to estabUah British Concert*, for 
the performance of music by native composers. For the same purpose 
a society was founded in 1834, under the name of the Society of Britith 
Mutidant, but it has entirely failed in accomplishing its object In 
1833, a Vocal Society of thirty professional members sprang up at the 
Hanover Sqtiare Rooms, and gave six concerts, consisting almost entirely 
of vocal music, ancient and modem, of every school They were con- 
ducted on a principle so laudable that every lover of the art felt an 
interest in their success. 

Among the more permanent concerts are thoae given by the pupils 
of the Royal Academy of Music, at the Hanover Square concert rooms, 
to which the public are admitted. Exeter Hall, Strand, is much used 
for performances of various kinds of music, chiefly sacred. The Saertd 
Harmonic society, established in 1832, holds its meetings in this hall, 
as does also the London Sacred Harmonic society, an ofbhoot of the 
former. The oldest society in Loudon for the practice and performance of 
sacred music is the Ce(Man society, estoblished in 1 785. There is also 
the Choral society, established in 1791. The Jioi/al Society of Alimcian* 
was established in 1738, Handel being one of its earliest members and 
benefactors. It waa incorporated in 1790, and its object is to relieve 
decayed musicians, their widows and orphans, which it does by means 
of a fimd raised at various times by donations and bequests, and also 
by the proceeds of concerts and an annual festival given by the society. 
In 1889, the Society of Female Muxiciaii* was established for the relief 
of its decayed members, and the first concert for tlie benefit of the 
charity was given in June, 1840. We may also mention the Madrigal 
Society (1741 ), which has an annual festival in January in the Freemasons' 
Hall, with monthly meetings during the season for the performance of 
madrigals, motetts, &c. There is also the Western Madrigal Society 
(1840) ; the Nobleman and Gentleman'* Catch Clab (1761) ; the Glee Club 
(1787); the MeloditI*' Club (1825); the PnrceU Club (1837); the 
Bound, Catch, and Canon Club (1848) ; the Abbey Glee Club, founded 
in 1841, by some gentlemen who had received their musical education 
in the choir of Westminster Abliey ; the Adclphi Glee Club, so named 
from having been founded in 1 833 by two brothers. There is also the 
Choral llarmtmist*' Society ( 1 834) ; the Amateur Musical Society (1846) ; 
the Musical Union (1845). Concerts are also given at the Crystal 
Palace, St. Martin's Hall, St. James's Hall, and other places in the 
metroiwlia ; while there is scarcely a town in the kingdom that has 
not its musical societies, which occasionally give concerts. Birmingham, 
Liverpool, Bradford, Leeds, and Manchester, have their music halls, 
their organs, their resident performers, and choruses. Even so remote 
a town as Aberdeen has a new hall, an organ, and 600 chorus-singers. 
This success is in great measure due to the foreign method of training 
singers in large maases which was introduced into this country about 
twenty yean ago, under government patronage, and ably carried out 
by Mr. John Hullah. In this method, not only is a rudimeutal muaical 
education given, but vocal part music is taught in large classes. 
Teachers of the method have been scattered all over the land, so that, 
aided by the publication of cheap music, a wide-spread taste for good 




music has been diffused among the working-claBses, and the teaching 
o£ music is permanently established in charity schools. 

CONCERT PITCH, in Music, is the pitch— the degree of acuteness 
or gravity — generally adopted for some one given note, and by which 
every other note is of course, governed. Concert-pitch h.aa frequently 
much varied, and musicians have hitherto (with one exception) made 
little if any effort to obtain a fixed standard, though so desirable, and 
BO easily established. Many years ago, Fischer, of Berlin, ascertained 
that the number of vibrations per second in the pitch note A, in four 
celebrated Continental orchestras was as follows ; Berlin Theatre, 
^"i-ToO' "'^ Grand OpSra Franfals at Paris 431-^%, Opira Comique, 
427-i'oij' ^^^ Opera Italien, 4'24-|-'„'n, which would give for the pitch 
note c adopted in this coimtry, 524-yJ»o, SlT-j-Vjr. SlS-yJj^, and 509 
vibrations per second respectively. The Philharmonic c used in this 
country, is equal to about 500 vibrations per second. Some years ago, 
when Mr. Hullah introduced the Wilhelm method into this country 
imder the patronage of government, he applied to Mr. Charles Tomlin- 
son to adjust a standard tuning-fork, for the regulation of his clai<ses. 
It was recommendetl that the natural c represented by 512 vibrations 
per second be adopted as the stindard, that number being preferred 
from its being the power of 2, and, moreover a good mean between 
the 524 vibrations of Berlin, and the 500 of the Philharmonic Society. 
This recommendation was adopted, and during the last eighteen years 
many thousand tuning forks have been issued, all of which have 
passed through Mr. Tomlinson's hands. Hence it may be safely 
asserted that a uniformity of pitch has been attained throughout the 
country in the numerous classes taught on Mr. Hullah's method, 
such as has never before been approached or attempted. At the 
time we are writing, the Society of Arts, London, apparently quite 
imaware of what Mr. Hullah had been practising for eighteen years, 
have formed a committee of distinguished individuals, to ci>nsider the 
whole subject of concert pitch and to report thereon. The result of 
their deliberations, if any, will be given under the article Tuning. 

COXCERTI'NA, a musical instrument invented by Professor 
Wheatstone, the principle of which is explained under Accordion. 
The concertina, in its simple form, claims priority of the accordion in 
point of date, though the former, in its highly improved state, and as 
now generally in use, was more lately introduced. 

This instrument is composed of a bellows, with two hexagonal 
dees or ends, and on these are placed the various stops or studs, by 
the action of which air is admitted to the lamimc (or tongues, or steel 
bars) producing the sounds ; and hereon are also fixed the thumb-straps 
and finger-rests. The finger-stops are in four rows, the two middle 
ones confined to the notes of the natural scale, the two external rows 
to the flats and sharps. Each sharp and flat is placed by the side of its 
corresponding natural note, and the instrument has, in addition to a 
complete chromatic scale, two other notes in each octave, whereby the 
chords in different keys are rendered more perfect than on the organ 
or piano-forte, and by which also the fingering of the various scales is 
rendered equally easy. 

The concertina, when the bellows is extended, is twelve inches in 
length, and the sides are about six inches wide. Its compass is three 
octaves an I three notes, commencing at g. the fourth space in the base, 
and thence ascending. Some instruments, however, are made with a 
higher, some a lower, scale. That which we here describe is called the 
d'juble-arii on concertina, because two springs, or tongues, are given to 
each note, in order that the same sound may be produced, whether the 
bellows be pressed in or drawn out. The timjle-actiun concertina has 
but one spring, or tongue for each note, and it yields a sound only 
when the bellows is moved inwards ; that is, pressed. But it is pro- 
vid-d with a self-acting valve, in order that the bellows may collapse 
in.'^tantaneously, which closes while the latter is presased, and opens to 
a<lmit air when it is expanded. 

There are also tenor and base concertinas : the compass of the first 
from c, the second space in the base, to c the second additional line 
above the treble : of the last, from the second additional line below 
the base, to the third space in the treble. [Harmonium.] 

CONCERTO, in Music (an Italian word adopted in our language), a 
composition in which many performers play in concert, that is, in 
unison, but in which some one or two instruments take rather a more 
prominent port than the others. Such are the concertos of Corelli, 
Handel, Oeminiani, A^■ison, ftc. But from the latter part of last 
century the term has been applied to the species of composition written 
for one principal instnunent, with accompaniments for a full orchestra. 
Of this description are the piano-forte concertos of Mozart, Dussek, 
Cramer, Beethoven, &c, ; and the vioUn concertos of Viotti, Rode, &c. 
It must be observed, however, that in the concertos of Mozart and 
Beethoven the orchestral parts are so full and eo essential, that those 
compositions may, if the expression is allowable, be designated as 
symphonies with a piano-forte part ofibiiyato. 

CONCHIOLIN. An azotised organic substance little examined, 
found in some species of shells. 

CONCHOID {KoyxofiH}', resembling a shell). This name was given 
by Nicomedes (in the 2nd century) to a curve, by which he proposed 
the finding of two mean proportionals, and the duplication of the cube. 
It 19 found in the commentary of Eutocius on the sphere and cylinder 
of Archimedes, and in the fourth book oi Pappus. 

This curve is described by a revolving line, which passes through a 

fixed point, and is always produced to meet a certain fixed line. On 
the revolving line, from the point at which it meets the fixed line, set 
off a given line both ways. The two points thus laid down trace out 
the upper and lower conchoid, two branches of the same curve. The 
lower conchoid has two points of contrary flexure, a cusp, or a loop, 
according as the given line is less than, equal to, or greater than the 
perpendicular from the pivot of revolution to the fixed line. Taking 
the pivot of revolution as the origin, and the perpendicular just named 
as the axis of x, the equation of the conchoid is, 
{x^ + y)(x- bf = a2 x2, 

where a is the given line, and i the distance of the pivot from the 
fixed line. 

CONCINNOUS INTERVALS, in Music, are the various concords. 

CONCLAVE (a Latin word, which signifies a private room) is the 
name given to the assembly of cardinals when they meet for the pur- 
pose of electing a pope. [Cardinal.] The day following the last of 
the funeral of the late pope, the cardinals, after hearing a solemn mass 
de Spiritu Sancto, proceed to one of the pontifical palaces, generally the 
Vatican, where rooms have been prepared for each of them, and where 
they remain shut up till the election has taken place. The keys of the 
palace are left in the care of a prelate, chosen previously by the 
cardinals, and who is styled governor of the conclave. Each cardinal 
has with him a secretary, called conclavista, and two domestics. They 
meet once a day in the chapel of the palace, where a scrutiny is made 
of their votes, which are written and pl.iced in an urn : this is re- 
peated every day till two-thirds at least of the votes are in favour of 
one candidate for the pontifical chair, who is then considered as duly 
elected. Each cardinal in giving his written vote accomp-anies it by 
his name, written in a separate sealed paper, which is not opened till 
the pope is elected, when the names of the voters are made known. 
When the election is strongly contested, and the cardinals grow weary 
of being shut up in conclave, negotiations in writing are carried on 
between the leatlers, and a compromise is entered into by which two 
or more parties, not being able singly to carry the election of their res- 
pective candidates, join in favour of a third person, who is acceptable 
to them all, or at least not obnoxious to any of them. This often 
gives an unexpected turn to the election. During the conclave the 
ambassadors of Austria, France, and Spain, have a right to put their 
veto each upon one particular cardinal, whose election would not be 
acceptable to their respective courts. The new pope being elected, and 
his assent being given, he proceeds to dress himself in his pontifical 
robes ; after which he gives his blessing to the cardinals, who give him 
the osculum pacis (kiss of peace). After this the name of the new 
pontiff is proclaimed to the people, from the great balcony of the 
palace, and the castle Sant' Angelo fires a salute, and all the bells of the 
city of Rome ring a merry peal for one hour. (Calindri, ' Saggio Geo- 
grafico Statistico dello Stato Pontificio,' 1832.) 

Regulations for the conclave, and the mode of election, have been 
issued by several popes, beginning from Nicholas II., iu the council of 
Lateran, in 1059, down to Gregory XV., by his bull of 1621, and 
Urban VIII. in 1625. In times of war or civil disturbance the con- 
clave has been held in other places besides Rome ; that in which Pius 
VII. was elected was held at Venice. Accounts of particular conclaves 
have been given by numerous writers who have treated of the history 
of the popes. (Meuschen, ' Cajremoniale Electionis et Coronatiouis 
Pontificum Romanorum,' Frankfort, 1732.) 

CONCORD, in Music, two combined sounds which are universally 
agreeable to the ear. It is commonly held, that the more frequently 
the vibrations of two strings coincide, and — which amounts to the 
same thing — the lower the terms iu which the proportions of vibra- 
tions are expressed, the more pleasing the concord ; but the 4th, an 
interval much less agreeable than either the 3rd or 6th, is a formidable 
exception to those rules, proving their fallibility by the test of ex- 
perience. Rousseau is of opinion — and we agree with him — that the 
pleasure afforded by concords is attributable to their source, namely, 
the perfect chord [Chord], which is itself the product, or combination, 
of nature. This, and its inversions, furnish us with all the concords. 

Concords iire the 8th (or octave), 5th, 3rd, and 6th. Their ratios are, 
2:1, 3:2, 5:4, 5:3. The two first are called perfect, because, as 
concords, not liable to any alteration by sharps or flats. The two last 
are called imperfect, because alterable. 

The 4th has always proved a stumbling-block to writers on harmony, 
for the reason above alluded to ; but as a component part of an inver- 
sion of the perfect chord, it has some claim to be admitted among the 
concords. A great and recognised authority of the modern BYench 
school, says, that it is treated as a cUscord in relation to the bass, as a 
concord in relation to the middle and upper parts. M. Catel, however, 
has not in this instance proved as correct as usual : except in the 
chords of } and J, the 4th, as an inner part, is, and can only be, treated 
as a discord. 

CONCORDANCE, "a book which shows in how many texts of 
Scripture any word occurs." (Dr. Johnson). More particularly, it is a 
dictionary or index of all the important words in the Bible, alpha- 
betically arranged for the purpose of finding passages and of com- 
paring the various significations of words. To critical interpreters this 
class of books is justly considered of the greater^ utility, as furnishing 





IB faatraineot hj whieh the d«t«Tniinatioii of tlw meaning of obaenre 
mm iwi uiM mttj be greatly facilititetl bjr Tcferenoe to all the parallel 
fMMgea. " A good eone oiO ance." ht* Dr. Oeddea (' Proaprotu*,' 

L71), ** I* undoubtedly the beat maana of understanding the Hebrew 
riptnraa." While the Bible remained in manuaeript, and wm not 
dirided into dupteta and veraaa, indioee of the worda and phraaea 
oould neither be fomed nor uaed ; but aa aoon aa tbeae diriaiona bc^an 
to be made, the giaat imnortaaea of oonoordancea, or alphabelinl 
indioaa, waa at oooa perMTed, and aereral laamed men emiilf>Ted 
modi time and labour m oonatruoting tharo. The compiler uf tliv first 
eooeordanoe in any 1 inguage waa Hugo de St Caro, or Cartlinal Hugo, 
who died in 1202. The evlieat eoooordaaea of the Hebrew text ia by 
Bahbi Mordecai Nathan, printed at Venice in 1528. lU Hebrew title 
in, ' The Light of the Way.' It containa all the Hebrew roota, branched 
into their various aignifioatioos, and la said to be the prmluce of ten 
yaara of incessant labour. A more correct edition was published at 
Basil in 1581, and a Latin translation by Keuchlin in 1556 ; but both 
ft* Latin snd the Hebrew editiona are extremely inaccurate. The 
arron are, for the most part, corrected in the work by Calasitis, which 
aetnMnea the bboura of Nathan and Reuchlin. It is entitle«l ' Con- 
eardanti» Saer. Biblionim Hebr. et Lat,' 4 torn. fol. 1621. The addi- 
tions by Calaaiiis consist of rery learned and laborious etymological 
fwnarts The reprint of this ponderous work in London in 1747-9 
eontains among ita subacribera all the crowned heads of Europe, in- 
oloding the Pope. The work by the elder Buxtorf, ' Concordantite 
Bibliurnm Ebiaicn nova et artiftciosa methodo dispoaitts,' Ac, fol. 
1632, is more correct than Nathan's ; but the references are made by 
Hebrew letters, and to the Rabbinical diTiaions of tho Old Testament. 
An abridgment of it, by Raviua, is entitled, ' Fons Zionis, sive Con- 
oordantic Hebr. et Chald.,' 8to. 1677. Dr. John Taylor, under the 
patronage of the English and Irish bishops, published, in 2 vols. fol. 
1754, ' A Hebrew Concordance, after the manner of Buxtorf, adapted 
to the English Bible.' It is a complete and useful book for the 
Engliah scholar. The ' Concordantia; Particnlanini Ebnco-Chaldai- 
earum,' foL 1675, and 4to, 1679, by Noldius, Theological Professor at 
Copenhagen, ia rery valuable for the explication of passages dependent 
on the Hebrew particlea, a comparison of which is made with the 
Greek. The best edition is that of Jena, in 4to, 1734, with a Lexicon 
of Particles, by Michaelis, extremely useful to the Hebrew critic. There 
is also the ' Concordantite Librorum Veteria Testament! Hebraicso 
atqne Chaldaicn ' of J. Fuerstio, fol.. Lips. 1840. 

With respect to concordances of the Greek Septuagint, we may 
notice especially, Kircheri ' Concord. Vet. Test. Ortecn, Ebraiis vocibus 
r«spondente8,' 2 torn. 4to, 1607 ; but the Hebrew being placed first, it 
ia more useful for consulting the Hebrew than the Greek text. "The 
moat complete and accurate work of this description is Trommii 
'Concord. Grtecis Versionis dicta: LXX,' 2 torn. fol. 1718. " I wish," 
says Michaelis, " this Concordance were in the hands of every theolo- 
gian." It contains Hel>. et Chald. Indices ; but the book of Daniel is 
omitted, the Septuagint vendon of it being at that time unknown. 

The moot important concordances of the Greek New Testament are, 
Betuleii ' Concord. Oncae Nov. Test,' fuL 1546. This is the first 
which appeared : it is now extremely scarce. ' Concord. Grroco-Latina) 
Nov. Test ab Hen. Stephano Concinnattc,' foL 1594, 2nd ed. 1624, is a 
work unworthy of so distinguished a man, on account of its great 
inaccuracy. Schmidii ' Nov. Test Oneci rofutior,' fol. 1638, revised 
ed. 1717 at Ootha, was beautifully reprinted in 2 vols. 8vo, at Glasgow, 
1819. It is much more correct and valuable than that by Stephens. 
The ' Lexicon Anglo-Orteco-Lat. Nov. Test ,' by Andrew Sytnson, fol. 
1658, is a work of prodigious labour, but rendered almost useless by 
its bad arrangement. The 'Concordance to the Greek New Testa- 
ment,' with the English to each word, by Dr. Williams, 4to, 1767, is 
sufficiently complete for ordinary purposes. A very valuable work is 
C. H. Bruder's ' Omnium Vacum Novi Testament! GrSBci,' 4to, Lips. 
1843. The first concordance to the Latin Vulgate is that by Cardinal 
Hugo, entitled, ' Concord. Biblionmi et Canonum,' fol. 1479. After 
the revision of the Vulgate by Pope Sixtiw V., a new and amended 
edition of Hugo's work appeared at Antwerp in 1617,and subsequently 
at Geneva in 1625, and at Paris in 1683. There have since been a great 
number of reprints. The best is that of Avignon, 2 vols fol. 1786. In 
compiling the original MS. it ia said that the cardinal engaged the 
services of 500 Dominican monks. 

The first Concordance to the English New Testament was " im- 
printed by Thomas Oybson" previous to the year 1540. The first to 
the entire Bible is by " Jhon llarbeck," London, in folio, 1550. Sub- 
sequent to these there have been several, the principal of which are. 
Knight's ' Concordance Axiomatical,' fol. 1610; Cotton's Concordance, 
fol 1618; Nen-man's large and complete Concordance, fol. 1643; 
Bernard's ' Thesaurus Biblicus,' fol. 1644 ; Wilkins's Concordance, 4to. 
1847; Powell's, 8vo. 1671; the 'Cambridge Conconlancc," fol. 1689; 
Bntterworth's, 8vo, 1767. But by for the most complete and valuable 
is the one by Alexander Cruden, the merits of which are too well 
known to require any remark, The first edition was in 4to, 1737 ; but 
the most correct is that of 1810. An 8vu. e<lition, beautifully printed, 
appeared in 1824. We mu<t notice finally the ' Concordance of Paral- 
lels.' by the Rev C. Crutwell, 4to, 1790. It is a work of great v.ilue, 
compiled with immense labour from a multitude of Bibles and Com- 
mentaries in the Hebrew, Latin, French, Spanish, and other languages. 

Pe^ farther details respeoting the Cnneordsncee here mentioned, and 
several others, see Watt's ' Bibliotheca Britaimica ;' Orme's ' BibUo- 
tlisea Biblioa,' and DarUns's ' Cyclopaedia Bibliographica.' 

The word has come to he used in a similar sense as applied to other 
works. Twiss snd Ayaoough each published a Concordance to Shaka- 
pere, but they have been completely niperssded by the excellent one 
oompiled bv Mrs. K. Cuwden Clarke in 1847. 

CONCOKOAT is the name given to a formal agreement between 
the see of Rome and any foreign goremment, by which the eodesiaa- 
tioal discipline of the Roman Catholic clergy and the management of 
the churches and beneBoes within the territuiy of that government are 
reguUted. It is, in Itot, a diplomatic negotiation and treaty oonoeming 
eoclesiastiaai affairs, inolndmg also tempoimlities belonging to the 
Church. The frequent disputes between the popes and the various 
states of Europe touohing the riglit of npj minting to vacant sees and 
benefices [Bcxkpicbs], and also about the claims of tlie see of Rome to 
part, or in some cases the whole, of the revenues of vacant sees and 
livings, and of the first fruits and tenths of thcae which it had filled, as 
well as the immunities claimed in various times and coimtries by the 
clergy and supported by Rome, such as exemption from taxation, and 
from the jurisdiction of the secular oourts, the right uf asylum for 
criminals in the ehtuches, and other similar claims, the |>articulars of 
which are found in the history of every country in Europe;— all these 
have given occasion to concordats between the popes and particular 
state!!, in order to define the rights of each party, to draw a line 
between the secular and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, and thus put an 
end to controversy and scandal By the concordat of 1516 between 
Leo X. and Francis I., the king abolished the right exercised by the 
chapters of electing the respective bishops, a right assured to them l^ 
St Louis and by the states of the kingdom imder Charles VII. in 1438. 
Tho parliament refused for two years to register this concordat, a.1 
contrary to the spirit of the general councils and the liberties of the 
Gollican Church ; it registered it at last, March 19, 1518, " by expreai 
and repeated comnruuids of the king." (Gregoire, ' Esmi Historiqua 
sur les Libert^s de I'Eglise Oallicane.') Concordats became most fre- 
quent from about the middle of the 18th century, an epoch from which 
the European governments have made themselves more independent 
of the ecclesiastical power, and the popes have been for the most part 
men of on enlightened and conciliatory spirit Benedict XIV., by a 
concordat with the King of Sardinia, in 1741, gave up to the latter the 
right of nomination to benefices in various provinces of the Sardinian 
monarchy, which the see of Rome had claimed till then, aa well as the 
temporalities of the same during a vacancy. A concordat was made 
between the pope and Charles, king of Naples, about the same time, 
by which the property of the clergy became subject to taxation, and 
the episcopal jurisdiction in temporal matters was greatly limited. By 
another concordat between Clement XIV. and the King of Sardinia, 
the right of asylum to criminals in tho churohes was much restricted, 
and full power was given to the respective bishops to expel and give 
up to the secular power those guilty of heinous offences. But the 
most celebrated concordat is that agreed upon between Cardinal 
Consalvi, in tlie name of Pius VII., and the first consul Bonaparte, in 
July, 1801. By it the head of the state had the nomination to the 
vacant sees, but the pope was to confer canonical institution, and the 
bishops had the appointment to tho parishes and their respective 
dioceses, subject however to the approbation of the government. The 
clergy became subject in temporal m.itters to the civil power, just like 
laymen. All immunities, ecclesiastical courts, and jurisdictiuns were 
abolished ; and even the regulations of the public worahip and religious 
ceremonies, and the pastoral addresses of the clergy, were placed under 
the control of the secular authorities. Most of these provisions remain 
in force in France to the present day. Other concordats have been 
made with some of the Italian states. By that of 1818 with Naples, 
tho king proposes the bishops, subject to the pope's scrutiny, and the 
pope consecrates them ; the bishops have the right of censorship over 
the press ; and the ecclesiastical courts are re-established for matters of 
discipline and for ecclesiastical causes as defined by the council of 
Trent. Appeals to Rome are allowed. It appears from the ,tbove 
facts, that the ecclesiastical authority and influence in Roman Catholic 
countries vary considerably according to the concordats, if there be 
any, entered into with Rome, or areordinj; to the civil regulations 
adopted and enforced by the respective governments towards the clergy 
an towards laymen. The most recent concordat is that with Austria 
in 1 855, by which the papal power was widely extended over all the 
Austrian dominions, and a large amount of jurisdiction was granted to 
it over all institutions for purposes of education, aud over works issued 
from the press. In Sept. 18a9, however, an imperial patent relieved 
the Protestants, both Lutheran and Calvinistic, of Hungary, Croatia, 
Servia. and Tnmsylvania, from all subjection to Roman Catholic au- 
thorities, and provided for the ecclesiastical and educational regula- 
tion of their communities by consistories of their own choosint;. 

CONCRETE, cuncrilum, in philology and metapbyaics, is an epithet 
applied to the conception or exjM-emion of a quality which refers to or 
implies some particular subject in which the quality exists. It u used 
to denote a term having a naturally implied union with a subjcot ; in 
other words, it signifies a quaUty occ >m|>anied with its particular sub- 
ject, without any mental aeparation or abstraction, as Ic-irned, long, 
wise, round. It ia therefore directly opposed to abttraci, which denotes 

12 S 




a quality conceived generally and sep.irately, without reference to any 
object to which it belongs, as learning, length, wisdom, roundness. 
Thus the namea of cLiseeB are abstract, and the names of individuals 
concrete ; and from concrete adjectives are made abstract substantives. 
Concrete numbers are subject to the same explanation, being such as 
indicate or directly imply a subject, as two men, five shillings, in con- 
tradistinction to abstract numbers, which denote a conception of the 
aggregate of two or five units. Concrete terms, in the scholastic 
phraseology, are called paronyma. The following remark is from 
Locke's ' Essay' (b. 3, c. 8, § 1) : " This distinction of names shows us the 
difference of our ideas ; for if we observe them, we shall find that our 
simple ideas have all abstract as well as concrete names, the one a 
substantive, the other an adjective, as whiteness, white, sweetness, 

CONCRETE, an artificial conglomerate used by builders, princi- 
pally in foundation works, when the subsoil is of a damp, or of a com- 
pressible nature ; it is usually made of lime, sand, and gravel or broken 
stone, and its useful action in the cases above cited consists in the 
perfection with which this conglomerate forms a solid, homogeneous 
maSR — a species of monolith, in fact, able to distribitte the super- 
incumbent weight over the whole surface it covers. Sometimes con- 
crete is used as a backing to quay or retaining walls, and then its 
successful application depends on the degree of hardness or solidity it 
may attain, and to its powers of resistance to the transmisjion of 
water. Occasionally, also, concrete is used as a walling material by 
ramming it into moulds, which have, as matrices, the forms the 
concrete itself is intended subsequently to represent in relief. Accord- 
ing to the purposes the material is thus required to fulfil, it is neces- 
sary to adopt more or less care and skill in its fabrication ; and Indeed, 
in some cases, the differences in the style of manipulation adopted are 
•o great as almost to render necessary the introduction of the French 
word betm, to express a mode of making concrete which is essentially 
unlike the one usually adopted in the greater part of England. 

The habitual mode of making concrete adoptetl in the south-east of 
England, is to mix the fjrouniUlotie lime obtained from the calcination 
of the chalk marl (a species of argillo-calcareous stone, in which the 
silicate of alumina is present in proportions varying from 8 to 1 4 per 
cent, in the best varieties) with icreened ballatt, or shingle, in the pro- 
portion of one of ground-lime to 7 or 9 of ballast, measured in bulk ; 
and to perform the operation of slaking, or of supplying the quantity 
of water required for the svibsequent crystallisation of the lime, simul- 
taneously with the intermixture of the above ingretlients. The lime 
and ballast are then, after being frequently turned over, thrown into 
the place they are intended to occupy, and in well-executed works they 
are rammed carefully into all the comers of the foundations. In those 
parts of England where the more decidedly argillaceous limestones are 
used for the purjiose of obtaining lime, greater precautions are how- 
ever used, and are required; for that class of materials absorbs watier 
tmder such very different conditions from the gray-stone lime, that the 
slaking would not take place satisfactorily, if a longer time and a 
more intimate contact between the lime and the water, than is admis- 
sible in the case of the stone lime, were not allowed in the cases of the 
use of the blue lias, or of the other limes possessing similar properties 
to it The precise nature of these properties will be discussed under 
haa ; but it is advisable here to state, that the philosophy of the 
action of that material is, simply, that it shoiUd form a binding or 
cementitious substance, which should in its turn form the gangae of 
the other materials it is intended to connect. This is effected by pre- 
senting to the caustic lime (deprived of its water of crystallisation and 
of its natural dose of carbonic acid by calcination) the quantity of water 
requisite to enable it again to resume a solid form around any given 
object ; but it is found that the purer varieties of lime do not soUdify 
with sufficient rapidity, or in a sufficiently permanent nuinner, to allow 
of their being used in building operations ; whilst the varieties which 
contain certiin pro|x>rtion8 of clay (silicate of alumina) yield limes which 
are able to set with rapidity, and even to resist the action of water 
after a short time. It is on account of this power of resisting the 
action of water, that some limes are called hydraulic, and the others 
which do not possess it are called wm-kydraulic ; but the hydraulic 
limes also have these oharscteristic differences from the non-hydraulic 
ones, namely, that they absorb the dose of water requisite for their 
crystalUsatioo very slowly; that they do not sensibly evolve much heat 
in fixing the water ; and that they do not increase much in volume : 
whereas the non-hydraulic limes absorb water rapidly, and begin at 
once to decrepitate with a marked increase of voliune, and a copious 
evolution of heat and vapour. 

Now, the differences to be observed in the modes of making concrete 
de|«nd on these respective properties of limes. When the moderately 
hydraulic limes are used, the o|ieration of slaking takes place so 
rapidly, that it may often be desirable to hurry the operations con- 
nected with its mixture with the materials it is intended to unite ; 
and at any rate there seems to be little danger of a subset^uent 
slaking, when ground stone lime is used, and a fair quantity of water 
is at once presented to it. But in the use of hydraulic limes, this 
careless mode of treatment would be fatal to the successful result, for 
with tkem it is wsmtisi that every particle of the lime should take up 
its dose of water, and that the whole of the mechanical changes in 
the lime should be completed before the conglomerate itself is 

placed in its definitive position. It follows, therefore — and herein 
practice and theory agree — that the more decidedly hydraulic a lime is, 
the more perfectly must the operation of hydration be performed ; and 
conseqiiently, iu all cases where the hydraulic limes are used, it is 
customary to mix them with the quantity of sand which would be used 
to make ordinary mortar, under edge -rcllers, and then to mix the 
mortar so prepared with the screened ballast. This process is, in fact, 
neither more nor less than the execution of rubble masonry with very 
small materials ; and the resulting material is the one to which it 
appears to be desirable to apply the term h^inn, by way of contra- 
distinction to the more imperfect and less valuable subsfcijice called 
ordinarily concrete. The proportions of lime, sand, and ballast to be 
used in the formation of beton must depend on the quality of the 
lime ; it being always understood, that the more hydraulic a lime is 
the less sand will it carry, but that, at the fame time, this very same 
quality renders its use more advisable for foundations to be executed 
in water, or in damp situations. 

A very objectionable practice is sometimes adopted by * he London 
builders, when they use concrete in damp situations, of mixing ground 
stone lime and ballast without slaking the lime at all, and of leaving 
it to absorb the requisite quantity of water from the ground, or other 
position in which the concrete is to be placed. Now, in such cases the 
slaking must take place irregularly and unequally, and the changes of 
volume thus produced must tend to disintegrate the mass. In fact, 
whatever be the description of lime used, it is essential that the hydra- 
tion should be completed before the concrete or beton is put in place. 

CONCUBINAGE is the cohabitation of a man with a woman, to 
whom he is not united by marriage. Among the Romans, concubinage 
was in use before the time of the Emperor Augustus, yet without 
being formally permitted by law. Augustus, with the view of pre- 
venting celibacy and encoviraging marriage, a.d. 10, caused the famous 
law called Lex Julia and Papia Poppa;a to be passed, which may be 
considered as much an ordinance of moral police as a- measure in 
favour of population. This law contained several conditions advan- 
tageous for those who had the greatest number of children. By the 
same law, concubinage was legally allowed to unmanied men, with the 
restriction that not more than one concubine could be taken, and she 
must be a woman with whom marriage was not permitted, as women 
of mean descent, freeilwomen, &c. The concubine did not enjoy the 
same rights as a wife, and the children begotten in concubinage were 
not con.sidered as legitimate, but were called natural (naturales), a 
distinction which was of importance as to the right of succession. 

Concubinage being inconsistent with the principles of Christianity, 
the Emperor Constantine the Great enacted laws against the institu- 
tion, and it is now in all Christian countries considered unlawfid. Yet 
in Germany, among the reigning families, a left-handed or morganatic 
marriage (Trauung an die linke hand or morganatische ehe) still 
sometimes occurs. This kind of marriage resembles the Roman 
concubinage, as well in its conditions as its consequences. 



CONDENSATION. [Expansion.] 

CONDENSER is the name given to any piece of apparatus tiaed for 

cooling heated vapours, with a view of causing them to assume a liquid 

In the ordinary process of distillation, the condenser most commonly 
empluyud iii the wunn-luii. Thia consists of a metal pipe usually 





twisted into • spiral fonn, for the ake of oompaotiMM, and to SxmI in 
• tub tlut • faw inolMi of on* end of the pipe nuy pass through, and 
■eountely fit, a hole bored near the bottom of the tub. By this 
means the nxital ooU eaa be kept nrwistantly surrouiidtHt «ith cold water, 
ao that Tapours eoaing fratn a boilar or other distillatotyapF*'*^"* ^il" 
eActually nnwlensad The aoper portions of the r^fngmtart, as this 
apparatus is ■ometines ealled, wiU neoeaaarily beoome heated first, 
and as hot water is lighter than oold, an anangement should be made 
whereby a stream of cold water oiui enter at the butlum of the tub 
and the hot water pass off near the top. 

ImU^$ ntuJamr is the form most frequently employed in chemical 
labotatories, and for experimental purposes generally. Its construe- 
tioo, and the methtd of using it, are iweu in the annexed figtire. 

Tlie glaai tube, a a, through which the vapours pass, is usually 
about three-fourtlu uf an inch in diameter, and is nirrounded by 
another tube, 6, cummouly made of tin-plate ur zinc, about two inches 
fai diameter, and having at each extremity a neck through which the 
tuhe a passes. The ends of the necks of the external tube, and a 
■mall portion of the g^sss tube near them, are ooonected together by 
means of a strip of sheet caoutchouc carefully bound round. An 
a^Mrture near the lower part of the external tube odmite a current of 
oold water, and a similar aperture near the top allows the heated water 
to flow off. The inner tube is thus constantly surrounded with cold 
water, and heated vapoun passing through it are perfectly cooled and 


CONDIMENTS. [Abomatics'.] s, 

CONDITION. Two possible events, A and B, may be so related, 
that (1) when A becomes event or effect, B also shall become event or 
effect : (2) or so that B being already event or effect, when A becomes 
event or effect, B may either cease to be event or effect, or may be 
diminished as to event or effect, or enlarged as to event or effect. 
This kind of relationship may be expressed by the term, condition, 
and the words by which this condition is made, may be any that are 
free from ambiguity. In case (1) where A must happen before B can, 
this may be caUed a condition precedent. In case (2) where B, already 
being event or effect, is extinguished or modified by the subeequent 
event A, this may be called a condition subsequent. The events may 
be more than two, and the condition which expresses their relation 
may be more or lees complicated, but the general nature of the 
relation will still subsist. The application of thin principle to legal 
questions is simply this : Conditions precedent are conditions annexed 
to any gift of an estate or interest which at law must be strictly 
performed, before such estate or interest can vest in the j>erBon 
designated by the gift. Conditions subeequent are when the estate 
or interest is already vested, but its continuance in the person in 
whom it is vested dejwnds on the breach or i>er{ormance of the 

Coses may arise, and in construction of agreements and particularly 
of wills often do arise, in which it is not easy to say whether the 
condition is precedent or sultsetpient ; but in general, the difficulty 
arises rather from certain technical rules of law applicable to the con- 
struction of instruments, than from the bore terms in which conditions 
are expressed. 

Littleton's description of an estate upon condition is this : (825) 
" Estates which men have in lands or tenements upon condition, are 
of two sorts, viz., either they have estate upon condition in deed, 
or upon condition in law, &c. Upon condition in deed is, .ts if a man 
by deed indented, enfeoffes another in fee simple, reserving to him 
and his beires yearely a certaine rent (layable at one feast, or divers 
feasts per annum, on condition that if the rent be behind, &c,, tliat it 
shall be lawful for the feoffor and his heires into the same lands or 
tenements to enter, &c. And if it hap]>en the rent to be behind by a 
week after any day of payment of it, or by a moneth after any diiy of 
payment of it, ur by half a yeara, &c., that then it shall be lawful to 
the feoffor and his heires to enter, &c. In these cases, if the rent be 
not paid at such time, or before such time limited and specified 
withm the condition comprised in the indenture, then may the feoffor 
and his heires enter into such lands and tenements, and them in his 
former estate have and hold, and tlie feoffee qiute ouste thereof. And 
it is called an estate upon condition, because that the estate of the 
feoffee is defeasible if the condition be not jjerformed," &c. 

An estate thus given is liable to be defeated, tliat is, the gift u]>on 
non-performance of the condition may be resumed by the giver, ur his 
heirs : this is a condition subsequent, that is, subsequent to the vesting 
uf the estate in the feoffee or grantee. 

The following example from Littleton will show the difficulty which 
has been introduced into the construction uf conditionH by the peculiar 
chancter of the laws of England (Litt. 35U) : " If land be granted to a 
man for term of five yeares, upon condition, if he \ay to the 

Sintor within the two first yeares, forty maikes, that then he shall 
ve a fee, or otherwise but for term of the five yeares, and livery of 
■eiain is made to him by force of the grant, now he hath a fee-simple 
oonditionall, &c. And if in this c.-u<e the grantee do not |>ny to the 
grantor the fortie markes within the first twu yeares, then ininiodiiitely 
after the first two yeares past, the fee and the freehold is and shall be 
adjudged in the grantor, because that the grantor cannot after the 
said two yearas presently enter upon the grauntee, fur that the 

graunt«e hath yet title by three j 

to have and oooupie the land 

grauntee Uatli yet Utle bj three yaares to Have and oooupie tbe land 
by force of the same grant. Ana so because that the condition of the 
|iart of the grantee is broken, and the grantor cannot enter, the law 
will put the fee and tha fr«ehold in the grantor." 

On this Coke remarks, tliat many are of a different opinion from 
Littleton, because tha fee simple is to commence upon a condition 
precedent (of which elsss the condition in the case put by Littleton 
clearly is), and yet " here Littleton, of a condition precedent duth 
(before the performance thereof) make it subsequent" And yet 
Littleton is nght, for the legal effect of the livery of seisin is to |iaas 
a present state of freehold. 

It is a rule of law that none but the grantor and his heira can have 
the benefit of a condition ; and that any conditions are good which 
are not unlawful, impossible, immoral, or absolutely inconsistent with 
the nature of the estate given. An instance of the last kind of con- 
dition (Littleton, 860) would be a feoffment, or a devise in fee, upon 
condition that the feoffee or devisee should not aUen the land to any 
person ; such a condition, being inconsistent with the estate given, 
is void. 

Before the Statute uf Westminster 2, Vt Dona Cimdit'wnalibiu, if 
lands were given to a man and the heira of his body, as soon as he had 
issue of his Dody, this fee-simple conditional became for somepurposea, 
and among them, for aUenation, an absolute fee-simple. Tlie effect 
of this statute was to convert conditional fee-simples mto estates taiL 
[Tail, Estates.] 

Conditions in English law were of feudal origin. The rents and 
services of the feudatory were considered as conditions essentially 
annexed to his fief, and were called conditions in law, or implied 
conditions. The neglect of these conditions was a forfeiture of tlie fief 
to the lord of whom the tenant held his lands. Kxpressed conditions, 
or conditions in deed, were subsequently introduced, but as we have 
already shown, they savoured of their origin in this, that the donor's 
remedy for breach of conditions was limited to him and his heirs. 
But the doctrine of conditions has long ago been extended to all such 
cases as the complicated relations of a rich and i>opulous countnr 
require, and, as in the Roman law, so now in the law of England, 
conditions may form a part of every written instnmient by which 
men regulate their mutual deaUngs, or dispose of their property. 
These conditions, and the construction of them, voir with the nature 
uf the instrument of which they form a part ; and the construction of 
such conditions is further subject to some variations, owing to the 
different aspects under which they are regarded by courts of law and 

Those conditions which are of most practical importance, ore the 
conditions of Bonds, Leases, Mortuages, and Wills. The last head 
includes conditions annexed to portions and Legacies, which have 
given rise to a great number of disputes, and to numerous and nut 
always consistent judicial decisions. 

As to conditional limitations of real )>ropcrty, and the difference 
between them and remainders and cuncUtions (this being a matter 
l)urely technical), the reader is referred to Feame's ' Essay on Con- 
tingent Remainders ; ' and Butler's note on C^. LitL, note 91. 


CONDITION (Mathematics) is used in nearly the same sense as in 
common life. Thus the proposition, to describe an equilateral triangle 
upon a given straight line, is not to describe any triangle, but a tri- 
angle under the following cutidilioHt ; that it must be equilateral, and 
that it must have a given line for its base. 

An etiualioH of condition means an equation which will not always 
be true, but requires certain conditions to be satisfied ; and is dis- 
tinguished from an identical equation, or one which is true independ- 
ently of all conditions. Thus, x + x=2jc and {n+j-) (a—x) = a'— a-' 
are identical equations : they are true fur all values uf x and a. But 
.r -t- 2 — 3, and Ix — x* = 3are equations of condition: the fine cannot 
be true unless x= 1, nor the second unless jr = I, or .r = 8. 

But the term equation of conditi^m has a more technical meaning in 
the application of mathematics to the sciences of observation. Suppose, 
for example, that x, y, and z are certain quantities to be found, but 
which cannot be observed directly : they are, however, connected with 
each other by an equation, say a x•^ 4 y-K'i = A, whore, a, i, r, and ^ 
are different at different times, or for different circumstances of obser- 
vation, but still are so connected that the preceding equation must be 
true ; and where a, b, c, and h can either be observed, or computed 
from ubservatiuns. Let n,, i,, r,, and A, be the results of a firet o1>- 
Ber>-ation ; a,, li,, kc, of a second ; then for n different observations, 
we have the n following e<iuations :- 

a — 1™ • 

a,x + b,y + r,t = h, 
o,ir + b^y + c,2= h„ &c. 

If the observations be all correct, any three of these will give the s.iuie 
values of .r, y, and t ; but if, as must happen, there be errors in every 
observation, the results of each triad will differ slightly from those 
of tbe rest. For tbe method of solving the whole set, so as to pro- 
duce the most ]>robable result, see Least Squares, Metroo of. 'Thit 
is what is c;\lli'd the formation uf eqnatioat of condition. 

CONDOTTIE'RI, a word in the Italian language signifying captains, 
chiefs, or leaders, but most usually cm]>loyed tu designate soldiers of 
fortune, who raised corps of cavalry and infantry at their own expense 





and engaged with princes and goveruments lor their services as merce- 
naries. The practice of employing these mercenaries, which commenced 
in the early part of the 14th century, originated in the Italian princes 
and republics commuting the personal services of their subjects iu war 
for pecuniary payments, with which they were enabled to hire merce- 
naries. As early as 1 225, Genoa took the Count of Savoy into pay 
with 200 horse. Florence retained 500 French lancers in 1282. After 
the expedition of the Emperor Henry VII. in 1310, many soldiei-s of 
fortune remained in the service of Milan, Horence, and other states. 
Pisa appears, in 134.3, to have disbanded a corps of German mercenaries, 
whose leader, Guamieri, refusing to lay down his arms, levied contri- 
butions throughout the Italian states. In 1353, a band under the 
command of Fra Moriale, afterwards of Conrad Lando, called the Great 
Company, appeared in Italy, and extorted money from many of the 
Italian states. During the long and bloody wars between our 
Edward III. and France, foreigners from different parts of Eiu-ope, 
attracted by his fame and liberality, and allured by the hope of plun- 
der, flocked to his standard. They were for the most part men of 
desperate fortunes, or unable to live at home according to their wishes. 
At the conclusion of the treaty of Bretigni in 1364, which restored 
peace to England and France, these soldiers, unable to relinquish a 
course of life to which they were accustomed, and being without other 
means of subsistence, were dispersed into the several provinces of 
France, where they possessed themselves of castles and fortresses, and 
associating themselves with the banditti of their vicinities, levied con- 
tributions on all within their power, and under the names of companies 
or companione * they became the terror of the peaceable inhabitants of 
the country. These ruffians formed altogether a body of 40,000 men, 
.-md were headed in many instances by some of the most experienced 
leaders of the time. They fought pitched battles with the troops of 
France, in which they gained victories. The misery which they occa- 
sioned only 8ervc<l to increase their numbers ; for poverty and despair 
drove their victims to their standard. Even their excommimicatiou 
by the pope produced no abatement in their ferocity and rapine. At 
length the war between Henry de Transtamare and Peter the Cruel 
for the succession to the crown of Castile furnished an opportunity to 
rid France of this scourge. De Guesclin proposed to Charles V., king 
of France, to enlist these companies into big service and lead them into 
Castile. They accordingly engaged in this expedition, and in their 
way forced the pope, then residing at Avignon, to give them a sum of 

From this time war became a trade in many parts of Europe, par- 
ticularly in the Italian states, in which needy and desperate adventiu'ers 
raised forces either by their pecimiary means or by their personal 
influence and reputation for conduct and courage, and engaged them 
for hire without the least consideration for the real or supposed jastice 
of the cause in which they embarked. These forces were recruited 
from the refuse or the vagabonds of every state in Europe. The idle 
and profligate found in joining their bands a way of life which flattered 
their indolence and gratified their rai)acity. The mode adopted for 
assembling them was by contracts with nobles who had authority over 
the loose and disorderly inhabitants of their estates, with captains 
whose address or bravery could allure adventurers to their bannei-s, or 
with individuals whose poverty or choice made them offer themselves 
to princes or governments. In their discipline, though it was far from 
exact, and in courage and conduct in war, they were superior to the 
troops which could be then raisetl under the powers of the feudal 
sj-Btem. Besides the profit which they gained on the ransom of their 
])risoners, their jKiy, according to the then value of money, appears to 
have been high (assuming them to have been as well paid as the other 
troopsl, and that of the private soldiers to have been at a much higher 
rate in proportion to the commanders and ofiicers than in modem 
times. At the siege of Calais, in 1346, Edward, prince of Wales, for 
himself and retinue, for his wages of war, had 20». a day. The pay of 
Henry, earl of Lancaster, for his " wages of war," was 6». 8rf. a day ; 
II bannerets, 4». a day ; 193 knights, 2«. ; 512 esquires, 1». ; 46 men- 
at-arms and 612 archers on horseback, each 6rf. a day. From the 
known rapacity of these mercenaries, it is not likely that they would 
have accepted lower terms than the other troops engaged in the same 
enterprise. According to Villani, they frequently demanded and 
received double pay, with a premium or bovmtyraoney of a month's 
pay, on their engagements. But their chief inducement to serve was 
the plunder of the towns or castles which they took, the contributions 
they levied, and the ransom of the prisoners. From this motive they 
were induced not only to spare their own men as much as possible, 
but to give qviarter to their enemies. This rendered some of their 
liattles nearly bhxxlless, a ludicrous instance of which occurred in one 
of the Italian wars. Piccinino advanced to attack Florence with an 
army of several thousand men. The place was defended by Capponi 
with another body, principally composed of mercenaries. The two 
armies engaged at Anghiari, a short distance from Florence. The 
battle lasted foiu- hours. Piccinino was totally defeated, and fled to 
Borgo San Sepolcro with abo«t a thousand men. The rest were made 
prisoners ; only one man was killed, and this owing to the accident of 
his falling from his horse and being trodden under foot. Capponi, 

• ThiTr w»re ■ometimoii called cot»lli, probably a cormption of colttlli, from 
their t>earinf( kniTCw, or Urire diiggert. 
ARTS A!(I> SCI. DtT. VOL. lit. 

however, was unable to follow up his success, and his troops refused to 
advance till they had secured their plunder. Several other battles, 
equally bloodless, were fought in the wars of this period. 

The Condottieri were notorious for bad faith in their engagements 
with the states they served. Their rapacity was equal to their bad 
faith ; besides their pay, they exncted gratifications for every success. 
Such was the terror they inspired, that some of the Italian states paid 
them large sums not to pass through their territories. "With the 
improvement of artillery and the introduction of musqueti-y the con- 
dottieri declined ; but it is difficult to state the period of their 
extinction. Our countrj-man, Sir John Hawkwood, is said to have 
been the last, as he was beyond comparison the most eminent for his 
skill in military affiurs. Sir John died at Florence in 1393 at an 
advanced age, and was buried with gi'eat pomp by the Florentines. 
There is a cenotaph to his memory iu the church of Sible Hedingham, 
Essex, where he was bom. 

(Froissart ; Villaui ; Machiavelli ; Aretin.) 
CONDUCTOR OF HEAT. [Elrctricitt ; Heat.] 
CONDUIT, the artificial channel in which water is conducted from 
the point of supply to the place of delivery or of outfall. It may be 
either circular or polygonal in section, open or closed, of earth, 
masonry, or metal, and in each particular case the formation of con- 
duits gives rise to the application of special law's of construction and of 
calculation. For the purposes of discussion, it would be more con- 
venient to consider the various questions co;jnected with the flow of 
water in channels of a circular section under the head of Water Pipes, 
even when it may not run iu them " full bore ;" and at present it is 
therefore proposed to treat solely of channels or conduits with 
polygonal sections, such as are usually employed iu canals, cuts, 
mill-races, &c. 

Practically (that is to say, with reference to the mode of bidldbif/ 
the channels, and assuming that word to apply to the use of all kinds 
of constructive materials) the system of constructing a channel must 
be regiUated, firstly, by the purposes for which the water it is 
intended to conduct is subsequently to be applied ; and secondly, by 
local circumstinces connected with the choice of materials or the 
economy of execution. For the purposes of navigation, open channels 
of a trapezoidal form in earthwork are suSicient, provided the requisite 
degree of impermeability in the bed be secured ; and even for a water 
supply such channels may be admitted, if the water should flow in the 
open air of the country, where it would not be exposed to take up 
atmospheric impurities. But if the earth of which the banks are made 
should be liable to be removed, or if it be essential to reduce the 
sectional area of the water-way to the minimum, as when a canal has 
to be carried upon an aqueduct; or if it be necesary to protect the 
water from contamination by soot or dust, then the channel must be 
made of masonry, and, as a general rule, of a rectangular form, though 
for ceriain theoretical reasons the portion of the section normally 
filled would be more satisfactorily made in the shape of a regular half 
hexagon, whose complete diameter should be the water-line, and be 
equal to twice the depth. 

In earthen channels it is essential to observe that the bottom velocity 
must never excee<l that which would be required to remove the 
materials of which the bed is formed. A certain velocity is at all 
times necessary iu the stream, in order to prevent the growth of the 
peculiar vegetation which asually grows in earthen channels ; but if 
the velocity should exceed the rates indicated in the following table, 
the permanence of the channel may be dangerously affected. It is 
usually considered that the minimum velocity to be given to the 
waters of any artificial open conduit should be from 10 to 14 inches 
per second, or from 50 to 60 feet per minute, in order to avoid the 
dangers of interference with the discharge from the above-named 
cause ; namely, the growth of plants. It is usually considered, how- 
ever, that the bottom velocities should not exceed the rates of 

25 feet per minute in soft alluvial beds. 








soft clayey beds. 

sandy and silty beds. 

gravelly beds. 

strong gravelly beds. 

shingly beds. 

shingly and rocky beds. 

rocky beds, or in smooth masomy. 

In open masonry conduits, wherein the water flows without pressure, 
the transverse section must depend upon the uses to which the stream 
is to be devoted ; because the draught of canal boats may, for instance, 
render it necessary to modify the ordinary relations of width and 
dejAh ; or, in an aqueduct, the effects of ordinary frosts may render it 
adW-sable to increase tUe theoretical depth. In closed conduits the 
choic;e of the tran.sverse section vdW be influenced by the consideration.s 
arising from the quality of the waters, and from the precautious 
necessary to maiutain in it a constant flow. As it is usually possible to 
regulate the admission of the water, it would seem that the form which 
would most commonly be adopted would be the semicircle, because 
in a channel of that form the wetted border would be the least in 
proportion to the volume discharged. But it is found that it is easier 
to execute a long artificial channil with the requiilte degree of regu- 
larity of outline and of fall, when its section is made nearly rectangular 





in tha immadUto ohanoel ; and it b oa thii acoount that tha Croton 
•ad tha RoquafaTour aquaduols wan made of tha pradaa leotioiu 
adopted to tbair rapaotiva cum. 

Notwithatanding the improrament* wUoh hare lately taken place in 
tha application of iciaioe to the purpoaea of building, it ia not poaaible 
to taggmli any matarial impruvement upon the ajratem adouted by 
the Boman engineen in tha eonitruction of their covered conauita fur 
town (uppliea. They kept the extradoa of the covering of the vault 
at leact two feet below the ground, or thev covered the vault with 
with of the aame thickneta when the conduit was raised above the 
•ur&ce ; men holea were, however, left for the purpose of examination 
and repair, and from diatanoe to diatanoe chimniea for ventilation were 
btroduoed. Oreat naini were taken to enaure the impermeability and 
the solidity of the sides and bottom of the conduit, nnd the depoiut of 
any accidental imiiurities the waters might oontiin. The Croton 
■quaduct waa almost a literal copy of the old Roman works of the 
■na daaoriptioa ; and if we except the construction of some very 
naneoeasary bridgea, instead of using the modem system of oast-iron 
rever s e d ^yplunis, in passing some of the deep valleyg, the whole of 
this work may be referred to with satisfaction. It may be added, that 
the Croton aqueduct is covered throughout its whole length, a pre- 
caution which ought almost always to be adopted in executing the 
conduits of town supplies. 

The dimensions to be given to a channel for conveying water, 
merely by the velocity due to the fall of its entire length, are ascer- 
tained on the prinuiplea that the mean velocity ia to the maximum 
Telocity in the centre of the stream as 0'81 to I'OO, in the case of 
small channels, and as 0-835 to 1-00 in Urger ones. Then as the area 
of the stream must be equal to the volume divided by the velocity, or 

•a S K - , provided the mean velocity be known, the area of tlie traus- 

I section required to deliver a certain quantity of water may easily 
ha ascertained. It generally happens that the width of a conduit is 
Bxed by the peculiar circumstances of the cose, as, for instance, in a 
mill-tace, it will be affected by the width of the stream allowed to fall 
over the shuttle ; in a canal, by the beam of the barges ; and in a 
vrater supply, by the necessity for examination and repairs. As the 
beat depth ia that equal to twice the width, to some extent the only 
unknown element in the above equation is the velocity ; and inasmuch 
as some of the conditions which limit the minimum velocity have 
been already stated, it may be as well here to add, that for a town 
water supply it is considered that it is desirable, in order to maintain 
a proper aeration of the waters, to secure a velocity of from 2 feet 
8 inches to 3 feet per second. 

In fact, it thus api>ears that the whole of the conditions, as to the 
section and fall of a channel, may be ascertoined by the mean velocity 
of the water flowing in it, and tliat the formula given by Mr. Beard- 
more for calculating that velocity will, by transposition, furnish the 
elements of the other unknown quantities. His fonnula may be 
e:q>res8ed thus : calling h the hydraulic mean depth in feet ; >', the 
inclination of the channel, in feet per mile ; and v, the velocity of the 
stream, in feet per minute ; then v = 55 \^A. 2 i. Of course this quantity 
multiplied by the sectional area in feet gives the discharge in cubic 
feet per minute. The hydraulic mean depth, it may be adde<l, is 
obtaine<l by dividing the sectional area of the channel by the wet 
border. [Utdrudynamics.] 

CONE (Mathematics). In the most general sense, a cone is a sur- 
face formed by the motion of a straight line indefinitely extended 
in both directions, and which always ])a8ses through one given point 
(called the vertex). Any curve in space may be a guiding liue (or 
directrix) through which the moving straight Ime may be mode to laaa. 
But in common language the term cone is only applied to those 
general cones in which the directrix is a circle. Of these there ai-e 
two kinds : the Miiue cone, when the vertex is not in the axis of 
the directing circle (the axis being the perpendicidar drawn to the 
plane of the circle through its centre) ; the right cone, in which the 
vertex is in the axis. The most prominent distinction between these 
two kinds of cones is this : that the oblique cone has two cUstinct 
seta of circukr sections, whose planes are not parallel to each other 
[SUBCOSTB.vBv], w-hile the right cone has only one set of circular 
sections, all jiarallel to the directing circle. 

The right cone is an infinitely extended surface, or consists of two 
cones (according to the most common notion) joined together by the 
vertex : but out of mathematics a portion of such oono is colled a 
cone contained between the vertex and the directing circle, then called 
the btue. In the rest of this article we sliall use this meaning of 
the word. 

Tha stuiaoe of a cone (in the oommon sense) is one lialf the oir- 
Gomference of ita base multiplied by the distance from the vertex to 
the circumference of the hue (called the itanl fide). TLus the dia- 
meter of the base being 10 inches, or the circumference 31-416 inches, 
and the slant aide being 20 inches, the surface of the cone i» 4 « 20 x 
81'41S, or 314-10 square inches. The cone unrolled gives a sector of 
• cirola, the angle of which, in theoretical units [Amule], is the oir- 
cumfereaoe of the base divided by the slant side. Thus in the pre- 
ceding instanoe 81-41S-r20 or 1-5708 is the angle of the um^)Ued cone, 
which is a right angle. 

The solidity of a cone is one third of the product of the area of 
the baae and the perpendicular distance of the vertex from the axis. 
In the preceding instance the perpendioular aforesaid is 

V (alaut aide > — (nd. of hue) >, or V 400—25. 

or V875, or 19-8849 inches. The area of the base is 81416x35, 
or 78'S4 iquare inches ; and this multiplied by one third of 19'3649, 
or 8'455, is 606-976, the number of cubic inches in the cone. 
The centre of gravity of a cone is in the axis, at a distance from the 
centre of the baae equal to one-fourth the diataiuse of tha vertex. 

CONFECTIONS; CONFECTlOXAnY. Confections, caUed also 
CodSfrrw, are formed of fresh, generally succulent, vegetable s>ib- 
stancea, in a few instanoM with prepared chalk, as in Uie aromatic 
confection, preserved by means of sugar or honey. Theae confections 
were formerly much more numerous, and were examples of the poly- 
iihunii.iey prcv^ilent among our ancestors : the number might be still 
beneficially reduced. The quantity of sugar required to prevent them 
from spoiling is lO great as to disagree with delicate stomachs. In 
several instances the ingredients are ordered to be kept apart, or if 
associated in a dry state, the water or syrup is to be iMdded when the 
preparation ia intended to be used ; as in the case of the aromatic, 
opiate, and almond confection. This is especially necessary in regard 
to the last ; for if bitter almonds should be accidentally introduced, 
the presence of water might produce deleterious combinations. 

When astringent subs^ces such as roses are to be pounded, this 
process must be conducted in marble, not iron, mortars. The quantity 
of sugar is better to be excessive than deficient ; and more is required 
in wet seasons than in dry. The conserves should be put into several 
small pots, rather than one large pot, which should be glazed with salt, 
as in Bristol wore, not lead. They should then be well dosed, and 
kept in a dry cool place. Patent jare, of a very useful kind, are now 
manufactured for this purpose. 

The chief confections are those of acorns, alkermee, almonds, bark, 
cassia, catechu, copaiba, hemlock, hops, ipecacuanha, jalap, succory, 
nitre, opium, orange fiowers and peel, pepper, peppermint, resin, rose, 
rue, scammony, senna, &c. 

Confection* are generally medicinal ; but eonfettiotmry mostly com- 
prises sweetmeats having no relation to the medical art. The making 
of this confectionary may be regarded as one of the domestic aits, 
practised by highly paid persons in the mansions of the nobility and 
other wealthy families; but it is as a distinct trade that we hero 
view it. 

Suyar is the basis of all confectionary ; and the processes of boiling, 
clarifying, candying, crystallising, refining, bleaching, and otherwise 
treating this important substance, must be well understood by a con- 
fectioner. The boiling is carrrietl to nine or ten different degrees or 
stages, technically knon-n by the curious names of the " small thread,"' 
the " large thread," the " little pearl," the " largo i>earl," the " blow," 
the " feather," the '- ball," the " crack," the " caramel," &c. ; each stage 
is applicable to a particular purpose in confectionary ; some for syrup, 
some for candy, &c. These processes are ouly an exemplification, on a 
email and delicate scale, of those which the reader will find described 
under Sugar. The ti/rupt form an imiwrtant section of the con- 
fectioner's art. They are either the juicea of flowers, or a decoction or 
infusion of the leaves, flowers, or roots of vegetables, impregnated with 
a sufficient quantity of sugar for their preservation in a liquid state. 
Many of these ore made only for medicinal purposes ; but others 
belong properly to confectionary, and comprise the agreeable qualities 
of raspberry, currant, cherry, mulberry, lemon, gooseberrj-, orange, 
liquorice, violet, piuk, rose, marshmallow, coltsfoot, ginger, almond, 
pistachio, or other vegetable substance. Insteail of 8jtu|>s, a change 
in the mode of procedure will [iroduce Minli(*, in wliich the vegetable 
juice, decoction, or infusion is crystallised or granulated into a hard 
substance. A third mode of treatment produces crachs, so Ui-mied 
from eating short and crisp, and including bailey-sugar, sugar drops, 
kisses, acid drops and sticks, brandy bolls, rock, hutlU^e, &c. Another 
variety compriaee lozmga ; these consist of loaf sugar in fine powder, 
mixed with various substances, made into a paste with dissolved gum, 
rolled out into thin sheets, and formed by means of tin cutting-tools 
into snuUI oval, square, round, or other shaped pieces. The substauoe 
chosen to mix with the sugar is the juice or some other extract of 
pepiHjrmint, rose, cinnamon, clove, lavender, ginger, nutmeg, rhubarb, 
tolu, saffron, marshmallow, vanilla, catechu, &o. Patlite drupi are 
com]>ounds of refined sugar w-ith some kind of aromatic spirit, made 
into drops. Comjili mostly consist of seeds, such as those of the 
caraway, conander, celerj-, or cardamom, enveloped in sugar ; but some- 
times the inner substances thus treated are ft-agments of cinnamon, 
almonds, barberries, preserved cherries, orange or lemon [mjcI. Another 
deivirtment of the confectioner's art is that of making jtUia ; tliese 
are the juices of mucilaKin^us fruitf , coiubiiml with sugar, rendered 
clear by filtering through a flannel Img, and lioiletl to the well-known jelly- 
like consistency ; they are made from a largo number of different 
fruits. Marmaladet and janu ore presen-es of orange, lemon, apple, 
pear, quince, plum, or other friut; the pulp of the fruit is boiled with 
sugar to the required thickness. P(uU$ are a simitar kind of .marma- 
lade or jam, but with an additional quantity of sugar, which ]iermits 
of the substance being crystallised or candied into rings, knots. 





Ac. ; these are much more numerous in kind than marmalades or 

Besides the compounds mentioned in thelast paragraph, there are many 
others to which the attention of the confectioner is directed. Preserved 
fruits consist of the scarcely ripe fruit, boiled with sugar until the pulp 
has become thoroughly saturated with the saccharine agent ; apricots, 
peache.<!, nectarines, fi^'S, greengages, damsons, gooseberries, melons, 
lemons, oranges, pineapples, cherries, grapes, currants, barberries, 
raspberries, pears, quinces, Ac. as well as cucumbers, gherkins, orange 
or lemon peel, angelica, eringo, and ginger, may be thus treated. 
Cmnpdln bear some resemblance to the preserved fruits just noticed. 
Brandy fruitt are fruits in which brandy as well as sugar is employed 
as a preserver. Bottled fruits are preserved in wide-mouthed bottles, 
and have undergone a careful procesi?, by which air and moisture have 
as much as possible been removed from them. Fruit waters, for 
beverage, such as lemonade, raspberry-water, &c., in most cases consist 
of the juice of the fruit, treated with water, syrup, and lemon-juice. 
Icet are sweetened compounds which have been exposed to the action 
of a freezing mixture ; they are made from a large variety of fruits 
and vegetable substances, and are classed into ice-creams and ice-waters, 
according to their consistence — some few being ice-custards, A good 
deal of apparatus, and much practical skill, are required for making 
ices. Essences — such as those of lemon, orange, bergamot, allspice, 
clove, vanilla, &c. — consist of the volatile or essential oils of fruits and 
other vegetable substances, extracted by means of spirits of wine, with 
or without distillation. A skilfitl confectioner possesses a wide range of 
knowledge in the treatment of liquids. He can distil or obtain spirit 
from various vegetable substances ; he can extract the essential oils ; 
he can prepare distilled waters, such as rose-water, cinnamon-water, &c. ; 
he can make the numerous liqueurs, such as maraschino, kircbwasser, 
cura?oa, &c., by a peculiar application of spirit of wine to vegetable 
substances; or ratafias, which differ from liqueiuB chiefly in being 
filtered and sweetened instead of distilled. 

A peculiar part of the confectioner's trade is that which appeals to 
the eye, not to the sense of taste. He has to prepare table-ornaments, 
that may present much grace and, beauty though cheap in the materials. 
He must know how to make gum-paste for ornaments ; to prepare a 
paste that will bear to receive gold or coloiu-s on its surface ; to form 
papier-m&chd into rocks for a piece mont<5e, or into vases, &c.; to 
design complicated table ornaments, in which some knowledge of archi- 
tecture and of sculpture may come to his aid ; to lay his plans so that 
the parts of his temples, &c., not intended to be eaten may be made of 
cork, papier mftch^, flock, paper, or gum paste, while the rest may 
comprise any of the sweetmeats which it is his trade to produce. The 
confectioner must also know how to prepare colours, and to combine 
them with his confections in proper kind and degree. 

When the confectioner makes cakes and other articles in which 
flour is used, and which require the process of baking in an oven, he 
does so as a pastrycook, not as a confectioner. 

The cheap confectionary now so largely sold in England has long 
been suspected of being adulterated ; the price at which it is sold not 
being strGBcient to pay for an honest course of dealing. Plaster and 
other substances are often used with the sugar ; and poisonous dye- 
ttaSa or pigments afe used as colouring agents. Cases have been re- 
ported by medical practitioners, of children being poisoned by eating 
such sweetmeats. Towards the close of the year 1858, about twenty 
persons died, and two himdred were more or less injured, in and near 
Bradford, in Yorkshire, by eating sweetmeats ; the maker thought he 
was using " daff," an adulterating preparation of plaster of Paris, as a 
cheap substitute for sugar ; instead of which, through a mistake at a 
druggist's shop, he was using white arsenic. 

An ingenious machine for making lozenges has lately been introduced 
by Messrs. Chase of Birmingham. A ball of prepared sugar, flavoured 
with the vegetable ingredient which may be selected, is worked up to 
the consistence of soft dough, and rolled on a board to the thickness of 
ordinary pie-crust. It is then laid upon a band, which carries it 
between a pair of rollers, after which it is flattened and passed through 
other rollers, until reduced to the thickness of a lozenge. The tlun 
layer goes again upon the band, and is by it conveyed underneath a 
row of stamps. These stamps bear a motto, name, or other device, 
as may be chosen. The layer is then punched out by circular or other 
shaped cutters, which throw off clean glossy lozenges. The machine 
can produce three hundre<l pounds weight of lozenges in an hour. 

CONFE.SSION means a solemn acknowledgment of some principle 
or tict. Hence the early Christians, who suSered imprisonment and 
other penalties from the Roman magistrates for having publicly de- 
clared their belief in the gospel, were called confessors. Others, in 
later times, acquired the same title from having embraced a life of 
austerity, or retired to some solitude or convent to do penance for their 
sins. Confession thus became synonymous with penitence, in which 
sense both words are understood by the Roman Catholics. The prac- 
tice of confessing one's sins, either in pubUc before the congregation of 
the faithful, or privately to a priest, dates undoubtedly from the 
earliest ages of the Church. In those times the Christians, scattered 
about U>e Roman world, and exposed to persecution, formed m.iny 
small communities, living under the discipline of their presbyters, who 
knew every individual of their respective flocks, the members of which 
watched carefully over each other's conduct. Any gross irregularity, 

or any compliance with heathen rites by one of the flock, was sure to 
be known to the rest, and the offender was thereby subject to inter- 
diction from Christian worship and communion. If he wished to be 
re-admitted to the communion of the Church, he must publicly 
acknowledge and repent of his guilt, and submit to the penance 
imposed by the presbyter. This appears to have been the original mode 
of confession. It does not seem to be clearly determined when the 
practice of private, or "auricular," was substituted for pub x, con- 
fession. Cyprian, who lived towards the middle of the thir ( • . ntury 
(' Epist.,' Rom. 12), defines several kinds of sins for which penance 
ought to be done before the transgressor could be admitted to the 
coramimion ; and in his treatise, ' I)e Lapsis in Persecutionibus,' he 
exhorts those who have fallen into heathen practice.^ to confess their 
sins to the ministers of God, and thus luiburthen their souls of their 
weight, " because this satisfaction and the remission by the priest are 
acceptable to God." Tertullian, who lived at the beginning of the same 
century, says (' De Poenitentift,' ch. ix.) that penitence consists of three 
parts, confe3.-iion, contrition, and satisfaction. In the eastern churches 
the custom of confessing sins before the assembled congregation was 
prevalent down to the fourth century ; but the practice having led to 
scandal, especially on the occasion of a lady revealing that she had been 
seduced by a deacon, Nacterius, patriarch of Constantinople, abolished 
the custom, and removed the poenitentiarius or priest (' qui propositus 
erat jxenitentia! ') by whose advice the revelation had taken place. 
(Sozomen, ' Histor.,' lib. vii.) Some passages in Chrysoatom have been 
urged against the obligatory practice of confession. In Homily 11, he 
says, " God commands that to him alone we should give account of our 
conduct, and to him we should confess ;" which agrees with the prin- 
ciple and practice of the Protestant and reformed churches. Yet in his 
Homily of the Samaritan woman, he says, " He who blushes now to 
reveal his sins to a man, and will not confess, at the last day will be 
arraigned, not before one or two persons, but before the whole world.' 
In the fifth century. Pope St. Leo I., called the Great (' Epist.' Rom. 
Ixxx., ch. v.), says that the priests ought not to enforce " public con- 
fession of secret sins," but that it is enough if the penitent confess 
them privately to a priest. This passage seems to throw some light on 
the transition from public to private confession. When, and under 
what circumstances, confession, either public or private, was deemed 
absolutely necessary for the remission of sins, is another subject of 
controversy. Innocent III., in the foiu1.h Lateran council, a.d. 1215 
(Canon 21), made confession (meaning auricular or private) obligatory 
upon every adult person once a year, and that continues to be one of 
the rules of the Roman Catholic church to the present day, which 
numbers penitence among the sacraments. The Council of Trent, in 
its catechism, defines it to be " a declaration by the penitent of his 
sins, made to a priest, in order to receive the penance and absolution." 
Penitence, therefore, consists of four parts, confession, contrition, abso- 
lution, and penance ; and it is a positive doctrine of the same Church, 
that without the conciu-rence of all these parts or conditions, the sacra- 
ment is null and void. The penitent is also oblige<l to confess all the 
sins that he can recollect having committed and not confessed before, 
at least all the mortal sins, for Roman Catholic dogmatists draw a dis- 
tinction between mortal and venial sins. By contrition it is meant 
that the penitent should fully repent of his guilt, and form at the same 
time a firm resolution not to sin agam, without which repentance and 
resolution the absolution of the priest is of no avail, being always con- 
ditional upon a corresponding disposition on the part of the penitent. 
It is not therefore true, as it is often erroneously stated, that the priest 
can absolve from any sins by merely pronouncing the words, " Ego te 
absolvo," Ac. ; it is the penitent who, by his contrition and trust in the 
merits of the Saviour only, can give effect to the words of the priest, 
and in this respect the principle is common to all the Christian 
churches, except the formula of the absolution, which differs in some, 
while others omit it .iltogether. [Absolution] The indispensable 
condition for obtaining absolution is often explained .and inculcated 
from the pulpits and chairs of theology in Roman Catholic countries, 
though it happens of course that ignorant or weak people overlook or 
misconceive the absolute necessity of inward contrition, and think that 
by merely confessing their sins and reciting the formula of repentance 
with their lips, they have acquitted themselves of their part, and that 
the priest can do the rest. Again, the priest absolves " ii culpa, sed non 
h poenft ;" he removes the guilt, biit not the punishment, here or here- 
after; and accordingly Roman Catholics a<lmit a purgatory. The 
penance which the priest imposes consists generally of satisfaction to b« 
given if the penitent has injured any one in his property, honour, Ac., 
in a manner that can admit of reparation, and also of prayers, absti- 
nence, or other reUgious practices to be performed. The secrecy im- 
posed on confessors is strict and unconditional ; whatever be the crime 
of which a penitent may accuse himself, they are solemnly bound to 
keep it secret, under the most severe denunciations and penalties, both 
here and hereafter, that of excommunication ipso facto includefl. Not- 
withstanding the number of individuals who have exercised the office 
of confessors all over the Roman Catholic world, and the manifold 
temptations to which they are exposed, there are few authenticated 
instances of their having betrayed their trust. That there m.ay be 
other inconveniences likely to result from private confession, is another 
question, which it is not our business to discuss. Every priest is not a 
confessor, although every incumbent of a parish is. The qualifications 





of t^ft, itadiM, elutfaetar, ke., required in > oodidate for tlie ofllee of 
oonfcMor, tha loieinii tBgngementi he enters into, and the formalitie* 

with which he it oooMoralad by the biihop, nuj be Men in the profee- 
<ional worlu of dieripline of the chiireh of Rome, and, unonx other*, 
in the ' BibliotUqoe Smaia ' dee Vint Richard and Oiraud, Paris, 
183S. art. " ConlesMoo " and " Confeseear." 

The box in which the priest aita in the church to hear the penitent 
is called the confessional But the act of confession may be pwformed 
out of ehurdi, in private houses, in the field, in any place in short, 
prorided it be not within hearing of any person except the priest and 
the penitent 

The Greek Church retains the practice of auricular confession, but 
differs from that of Rome in the form of the absolution. The Pro- 
testant and Reformed Churches, including those of England and Soot- 
land, do not admit the practice, but recommend every one to oonfest 
his sins to Ood, and to repent iu order to obtain forgironeas. 

Coofeasioo is also the name given tn the solemn profession of faith 
of Tarious Chriatian churches which dissent from thit of Rome, such as 
that of the Reformed churcliex of France, in 40 articles, signed by 
Benry, king of Navarre, the priuce of Condi<, Culigiiy, and others, and 
presented to Charles IX. in 1561 ; that of the Helvetic reformed churches 
proclaimed in 1566 [Zwinoli, in Bioo. Drv.] ; that of the churches of the 
Ketherlaads, consisting of 37 articles, publi^ed in 1562, afterwards 
approved and signed by the members of the synod of Embden in 1571, 
and laatly examined and confirmed in 1691 by the synod of Dordrecht, 
or Dort, which condemned the five articles of Arminius. [ARMiNrDS, 
in Bioa. Dit.] ; and also that of the Protestant churches of Polandi 
printed in 1570 at Debrzin, and afterwards approved at the synod of 

The moat oelebrated is the Confation of Augibur^, the name given to 
the profession of faith of the Protestant Lutheran Church, which was 
drawn up by Melanothon, with Luther's approbation, in order to be 
laid before the Emperor Charles V. at the great Diet held at Augsburg 
in June, 1530. It was on that occasion Boleninly read in the German 
language by the Chancellor of Saxony, after which two copies of the 
Confession, one in German and the other in Latin, were delivered to 
the Emperor, bearing the signatures of John Electoi of Saxony, George 
Harquis of Brandenburg, Ernest Duke of Luneberg, Philip Landgrave 
of Hesse, and Wolfgang Prince of Anhalt ; besides those of the free 
town of Nuremberg, and other cities. The Confession was immediately 
afterwards printed, and, being translated into various languages, was 
spread over Europe. It has ever since continued to be the rule of the 
Lutheran Church in matters of faith. It consists of twenty-eight 
articles, twenty-onn nf which state the belief of the Lutherans on 
the principal tenets of religion ; and the other seven consist of refu- 
tations of certain points of either dogma or discipline as maintained by 
the Roman Catholic Church, and on account of which the Lutherans 
separated from the communion of Rome. Zwingli and the other Swiss 
and French reformers did not subscribe to the Confession of Augsburg, 
as they diUered from it on several jMints, particularly about tho Lord's 
Supper. The style of the Confession is clear and fluent ; the matter 
was chiefly supplied by Luther in the seventeen articles of Torgau, 
which he had present^ to the Elector of Saxony the year before. 
Melancthon, while drawing up the Confession, had frequent conferences 
with Luther, who was then staying at Coburg, not far from Augsburg. 
The Papal theologians, headed by Faber, wrote a confutation of the 
Augsburg confession, which was likewise read before the Diet in 
August of the same year. Melancthon answered them in his ' Apology 
for the Augsburg Confession,' which was published in 1531, and which 
constitutes one of the books of authority of the Lutherans which were 
published, including the Confession, at Dresden, in 1580. Ernest 
Solomon Cyprian has written a good history of the Augsburg Con- 
fession, and Webber a ' Critical History' of the same, Frankfurt, 1783. 
(Schrceckh's ' Kirchengescliichte ;' Mosheim's ' Ecclesiastical History, 
and Notes,' by Dr. Murdoch ; and Neander's ' Church History.') 

Some sepulchres of martyrs have been styled by antiquaries con- 
fessions ; for instance, the subterraneous chapel, in which are the 
sepulchres of St. Peter and St. Paul, under St. Peter's at Rome, is 
called " the Confession of St. Peter." 

CONFIRMATION U, according to the Church of England, " the 
rite of laying on of hands upon those who have been baptised, and are 
come to years of discretion. ' Such only are qualified to be confirmed 
M can say the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Tun Commandmeuts, and 
the Church Catechism ; to the end that children having learned what 
their god&thers and godmothcm promised for them in baptism, tboy 
may themielves ratify and confirm the same ; acknowledging them- 
■elves "bound to believe and to do " all which those persons undertook 
for them. It is affirmed in the sixtieth canon of the AngUcan church, 
that confirmation is " a solemn, ancient, and laudable custom in the 
diurch of God, continued from the apostolic times." On the other 
hand, among the Protestant Dissenters it is regarded merely as the 
rsmnant of a Popish ceremony; with the assertion, that there is no 
more authority for that which is retained of it than for that which is 
rejacted. The paosagM of scripture which are always adduced in 
support of this episcopal imposition of hands are the three following ; 
namely. Acts viit 14-17; Acts xix. 6, and especially Heb. vi. 1, where 
iiti9iai\ x"P"i " t >e impoiitim nf liandii," appears to be mentioned as 
an important rita of the Chiistian religion. But Dissenters disallow 

thb mode of nroviog the propriety of the impoaition of episcopal 
hands. They deny it to be a legitimate inference from the minctilous 
act of inspired Apostles to the act of modem bishops. What warrant, 
they ask, has a bishop to declare that God has given unto an 

blage of several hundreds of individuals " the forgiveness of all their 
ams,* because thev can say the Church Catechism F (See on this 
question, Towgood a ' Letters on Dissent ;' De Laune's ' Plea fur the 
Nonconformists,' ftc) Dr. Whitby obaerves that, unless the AposUaa 
laid hands on sill who were baptised, it makea nothing for oooflrma- 
tioo ; and that if thar did, then Simon Magus received the Holy 
Ghost The early father* certainly believed the Holy Ghost to bo 
indeed conveyed hy the impoaition of hands. " W^en we come 
out of the water, says TertuUian (' De Baptismo,' c. 7, 8), 'we 
are anointed with the hol^ chrism (perunguimur bmedicta unctione), 
then we have the imposition of hands, which calls down the Holy 
Ghoat (trodit Spiritum Sanctum Paracletum)." (' De Resurrec. Car- 
nis,' c. 8 ; Hieron. ' advers. Lucif.,' torn. iL, p. 47 ; Cyprian, ' Epist' 
73-74 ad Jub., and 7? ad Staph.) Confirmation was originally thus 
administered immediately after baptism, of which it formed the con- 
cluding rite or complement, and was called fit^mrit ; that is, con- 
firmation ; nor wis there any exception to this time of administering 
it in the case of baptism in infancy. In the Greek church, and in 
Asia, it still accompanies baptism. The remonstrance of the Pro- 
testants at the Reformation caused the rite to be disoontinued to 
infants, and to be administered only to adults; and afterwards the 
Council of Trent altered the time for confirmation to the seventh 

The earliest mention, by the Fathers, of the use of chrism or sacred 
ointment in confirmation is believed to be in the passage of Ter- 
tuUian ' de Baptismo,' already quoted (Bingham, b. xii., c. 3) ; but the 
church of Rome adduces the authority of the Epistle of James v. 14. 
The anointing the forehead with this holy unction, which was composed 
of oil and balsam, constituted the first act of the ceremony of con- 
firmation. The consignation, or signing with the sign of the cross, 
was the second; and the third and last was the imposition of the 
bishop's hands, with the invocation of the Holy Ghust The person 
was Uien qvtalijfied to partake of the eucharist. Confirmation in the 
Greek church is named iivpiy, " ointment ;" xpiffM". " unction ;" tiuphir 
ToS xp^aiuxios; c^payls, " the seal ;" and imaifpiyMiia. In the Roman 
church this rite is one of their seven sacraments, and it consists in 
the bishop's anointing the forehead of the person, saying, " A. B., I 
sign thee with the sign of the cross, and confirm thee with the 
chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost." The bishop then gives a slight blow on the cheek, 
and concludes with pronouncing the words Fax tecum, " Peace he 
with thee." 

Lord King, in his 'History of the Primitive Church,' p. 91, has 
shown that confirmation was originally the same thing as absolution, 
and that it was frequently repei^ed on the same individual. On the 
reiteration of the rite, see also Morinus ' De PoenitentiA et Ordi- 
natione,' 1. 9. 

The Puritan contempt for the hierarchy occasioned confirmation to 
become greatly neglected after the Protestant Reformation in England 
(Hooker, 1. 6, 66 ; Bishop Hall's x«P<>^«'''<>) ; but subsequent to that 
period the Church of England has observed the rite with much more 
strictness than the Lutheran or any other church. In Germany it was 
not generally adopted till the middle of the 1 8th century. 

Du Pin (' Study of Divinity,' p. 216) gives a numerous list of 
writers on the subject (Bingham's ' Origines Eoclesiasticic,' vol. iii., 
p. 286, et teq. ; Hammond ' De Confirmatione ;' Bishop Parker ' on 
Confirmation ;' Goar's ' Euchologia,' p. 868 ; Gratian, ' Concordantia 
Discordantium,' part iii.) 

CONFIRMATION (in Uw). [Deed.] 

CONOfi DESLIRE (or D'ELIRE), a term in Norman French, lite- 
rally signifying " leave to elect," which is appropriated to the king's 
writ or license to a dean and chapter to elect a bishop, at the time of 
the vacancy of the see. The right of nominating to bishoprics was in 
most countries of Europe enjoyed by the temporal sovereigns, with 
little opposition from the ecclesiastical authorities, imtil the 11th 
century, when a contest began between the popes and the monarchs of 
Europe, which, in the next century, ended in tho latter being com- 
pelled to surrender this important privilege to the clergy. Father 
Paul ('Treatise of Benefices,' c. 24), says that between 1122 and 
1145, it became a rule almost everywhere established, that bishops 
should be chosen by the chapter. In England, by the constitutions of 
Clarendon, in 1164, the election was vested in the chapters, subject to 
the king's approbation of the object of their choice. The right of 
election was afterwards formally surrendered to the chapters by a 
charter of King John, by which however he reserved to himself, 
among other things, the right of granting a cong^ d'eslire, and of con- 
firming the choice of the chapter. This grant of freedom of election 
was expressly recognised in Magna Charta, and also by a subsequent 
statute, 25 Ed. III., stat. 6, which was passed for the purpose of pre- 
venting the popes from interfering with the elections to dignities and 
benefices in England. 

So the law stood until the passing of 25 Henry VIIL, c. 20, which, 
though repealed in Edward the's rdgn, was aftenvarfU revived, 
and by which epiRCopal elections nre regulated at the prmoiit ilny. By 






this Act it is provided that upon every avoidance of an archbishopric or 
bishopric the king may grant to the dean and chapter a license under 
the great seal to proceed to the election of a successor, and with the 
license a letter missive containing the name of the person whom they 
are to elect. If the dean and chapter delay their election above twelve 
ilays after receiving the license, the king may, by letters patent, 
nominate any person whom he pleases to the vacant see ; if they delay 
the election beyond twenty days, or elect any other person than the 
candidate recommended by the king, or do anything else in contra- 
vention of the Act, they incur the penalties of a prsemunire. Bi8ho{> 
rics in Ireland are donative by letters patent, without a conge d'esUre. 
('IrishSUt.,'2 Eliz., c. 4.) 

CONGESTION, a preternatural accumulation of blood in the ca- 
pillary vessels of the sanguiferous system, attended with disordered 
fimction of the organs in which such iin accumulation takes place. 
The main functions of the sanguiferous system are performed by the 
ultimate divisions of the blood-vessels, called, from their hair-hke 
minuteness, capillaries ; the office of the main trunks and the larger 
branches of the blood-vessels being merely to convey to the capillaries 
the material acted upon by them in the various processes which they 
perform. In the natural and healthy state of an organ, the arterial 
capillaries in which the arterial trunks that supply it with arterial 
blood terminate, receive a certain quantity of blood ; retain that blood 
a given time ; and then transmit it with a given imi^etus into the 
venous capillaries, which in their turn convey it into the larger venous 
branches, and these to the heart with a given degree of velocity. 
Upon this transmission of the blood to and from the organs in a given 
quantity and a given time, depends the balance of the circulation ; 
upon the due balance of the circulation depends the healthy condi- 
tion of the organic processes ; and upon the healthy condition of the 
organic processes depends the soimd performance of the animal func- 

Of the mode in which the balance of the circulation is disturbed by 
the preternatural accumulation of blood in the capillarj' vessels, some 
conception may he formed by obser^-ing the phenomena that take place 
when a mechanical or chemical irritant is applied to a transparent part 
of the animal body ; and when such a part is brought under the field 
of the microscope, so that the circulation in the minute vessels can be 
distinctly seen. In this case, the first phenomenon observable is a 
quickened circulation in the jwrt, .and the consequent determination to 
it of a greater quantity of blood ; next, after a time, the blood-vessels 
are seen to dilate and to become turgid with blood ; and in the third 
place, the flow of blood through these distended vessels is manifestly 
retarded ; and ultimately, if the irritating cause continue to operate 
with a certain degree of intensity, the circulation is wholly stopped. 
The quickened circulation, the first phenomenon that takes place, is 
occasioned by the action of the contractile power inherent in the 
coats of the capillary vessels, excited in an inordinate degree by the 
application of the unusual stimulus. The dilatation of the capillary 
vessels, the subsequent event, arises from a diminution of the vital 
power of the coats of the vessels, from the over-excitement produced 
by the irritating cause. 

The blood-vessels in this state are commonly said to have lost their 
tone ; to be debilitated or weakened. The consequences of this loss 
of vital power in the living tissues that form the walls of the blood- 
vessels, are the engorgement of the vessels, the impeded, retarded, or 
abolished circulation of blood through them, and the disordered or 
suspended function of the jmrt affected. 

From the preceding statement, a distinct conception may be formed 
of that morbid condition of the blood-vesseb, to the designation of 
which the term congestion is commonly applied. How greatly such a 
condition of the bloofl-vessels must disturb their natural functions, 
.ind consequently how powerful an agent it must be in the production 
of disease, it is also easy to conceive. But pathologi.?ts have hitherto 
made but slight progress in determining with precision the nature of 
the morbid changes which take place, either in the blood-vessels them- 
Relves, or in the tissues in which, as a consequence of this affection, an 
alteration of structure is sometimes ultimately superinduced. 

From an observation of the phenomena connected with the state of 
congestion, it is usually distinguished into passive and active. When 
there is merely an accumulation of bloo<l in the distended and debili- 
t.atcd capillaries, without any other manifest morbid phenomenon, the 
state is called simple congestion ; and this state of congestion is com- 
monly said to be passive. But when to this accumulation of blood 
there are superadde<l certain phenomena which accompany and which 
characterise another morbid state, n.amely, inflammation, the conges- 
tion is tcrme<l active. In active congestion, the blood-vessels them- 
selves are in a state of excitement ; the preternatural quiintity of blood 
they contain is determined to them by their own inordinate activity ; 
they are in a condition not of diminished but of exalted vital energy. 
In passive congestion, on the contrary, the coats of the vessels are 
destitute of their natural tonic, vital resistance ; yield readily to the 
current of blood which is determined to them, or unable to pass on 
the current they receive, the blood accumulates in them and distends 
them. Active congestion, according to this account, however, can be 
distin juished by no certain and even no appreciable character from 
inflammation, a state which is always supposed to be different from 
congestion. [Iktlaumation.] 

The tissue of the body in which the state of congestion is most apt 
to occur, is the cellular, and more especially in the lax and little 
cohesive condition in which this tissue forms the parenchyma of the 
different internal organs, as the brain, the lungs, the liver, the spleen, 
the kidneys, and so on. A congested state of their blood-vessels is 
also peculiarly apt to occur in the mucous membranes, and more 
especially in the mucous membnmes of the bronchi and air vesicles of 
the stomach and the alimentary canal, and of the ovaria and uterus. 
But besides these, other and less yielding structures, as the serous and 
fibrous membranes, the skm, and even the muscles, may be affected 
with congestion, after the operation of causes which have exhausted 
the -idtal energies of the system in general, or which have diminished 
the vital cohesion of these structures m particular. 

Congestion, when present to any considerable extent, and when cou- 
tinuing for any length of time, disorders the function of the organ in 
which it takes place. The signs of this disordered function are signs 
from which it is inferred that congestion is present. If, for example, 
the blood-vessels of the brain be in a state of congestion, the activity 
and energy of the cerebral f\mctions will be diminished, indicated by 
dulness, heaviness, forgetfulness, inaptitude for mental laboiir, giddi- 
ness, lethargy, and so on ; and if the congestion be in great intensity, 
it may produce all the symptoms of coma and even of apoplexy. [Apo- 
plexy ; Coma.] If the blood-vessels of the Uver be in a state of con- 
gestion, the secretion of bile will be disordered ; .altered in quality, 
diminished in quantity, or entirely suppressed. If the blood-vessels of 
the mucous membrane of the air passages be in a state of congestion, 
it will occasion vmeasiness in the chest, difijculty of breathuig, 
cough, &c. 

Congested states of these and other organs are exceedingly apt to 
occur in the progress of other diseases, more especially in the different 
tyjies of fever, the character of which they modify, and the severity 
and danger of which they always gi'eatly increase. There are fevers, 
indeed, and those of the very worst kind, that is, the most intense and 
the least under the control of any known remedies, in which a high 
degree of congestion of the blood-vessels of the brain, of the lungs, of 
the liver, or of the mucous membrane of the intestines, is among the 
vei-y first appreciable morbid conditions of the system ; but in general 
such a congested state of the blood-vessels is consequent ujiou pre- 
cefUng morbid conditions of the organs ; conditions by which the vital 
energies of the blood-vessels have been exhausted. 

The appearances presented by congested parts after death, vary with 
their structure and with the degree and dtiration of the affection. The 
ca))illary arteries and veins .are turgid with blood ; the blood they 
contain is of a darker colour than natural ; hence the colour of the 
organ, the seat of the congestion, is darker in proportion to the inten- 
sity of the affection ; it is also commonly more or less swollen, and the 
cohesion of its tissues is diminished, so that they are more readily 
torn than when in a healthy condition. In some organs, indeed, as in 
the Uver and the spleen, when the congestion is in an extreme degree, 
tlie cohesion of the comimnent tissues is so much lessened that the 
organs are broken down on the slightest pressure. 

Anything may be the cause of congestion which diminishes the vital 
energy of the capillary vessels; or which changes, beyond a certain 
limit, the quantity and quality of the blood they contain. If the vital 
energy of the capillaries be diminished, they cannot maintain the 
tension necessary to prevent distension of their parietes, and a con- 
sequent preternatural accumuLation of blood. If the quantity and 
quality of the blood they contain be altered, their natiu'al stimulus 
may be so deficient as not to excite, or so excessive as to exhaust them. 
For the treatment of congestion, see iNFLAiiMATioif. 

CONGREGATION most commonly signifies an assembly of persons 
for the purpose of public worship and religious edification. It denotes 
more particularly a number of ecclesiastics constituting a legislative 
and executive body ; and in this acceptation it is applied chiefly to 
certain boards of administration consisting of cardinals and of prelates, 
or .aspirants to the cardinalship in Rome. These congregations serve 
as a check on the papal authority ; for though their proceedings are 
usually sanctioned by the pope, he cannot, without alleging the 
weightiest reasons, put a veto on them. The whole number of these 
congregations is twenty-one ; that is, fifteen for spiritual and six for 
temporal purposes. Congregation is also used to designate a comijany, 
society, or fraternity of monks forming a subdivision of an order, as 
the congregation of the Oratory, or of Cluny among the Benedictines. 
The Congregation of the Lord was an appellation .assumed by the 
Scotch Presbyterian Reformers, who called the Church of England the 
congregation of Satan. They appeared first in 1557, under the Earl of 
Argyle, and were subsequently led by .John Knox. 

VoiigregatiunalislK are those who compose the congregations which 
assume an independence not only of the ecclesiastical control of the 
established hierarchy, but of all .authority extraneous to the consti- 
tuency of the congregation itself. They may therefore in general be 
said to be identical with the Independents. They are said by some to 
have appeared first in 1616, under the conduct of Mr. Jacob. (Evans's 
' View.') But they are generally considered to be of the same origin 
as the Brownists, who appeared in 1600. [Brown, RoBKnT, in BiOG. 
Drv.] The real founding of this sect is attributed to Mr. Robinson, in 
1640, and the following passage from his ' Apology ' (o. 5, p. 22) is 
adduced as their leading maxim : " Cietimi quemlil>et iiarticularem 





MM toUm, intagnm at paribetem MdMiaiB, tx «uii partibiu ooiMtui- 
tarn immodUti et imla|MDd«it«r tub ipw Chriito. It i* aaid that 
tbqr adopted tba Dama of aoagragMtcnM farathno, and ooogregntional 
ohurohM, to aToid tha odium ot aadition and anarehr whioh wm 
chargad upon them m tha Puritan ragioidM of CharlM I. CrouiwvU 
mada um of them m a politioal ohaek on the PreabTtenan party. (See 
'DaeJaiBtinn of the Faith and Order owned and praotiaed by the C»n- 
gi^atioDal Chuivhoa in England,' 1458.) In the aix New Kn^lnnd 
atatM of North Amerioa.wU^ were ooloniaad by the Eogliah I'uritann, 
tha Consragationaliata are rery Dumeroua ; and in Mrerml other parta 
of the Union their numben are much larger than thoM of other aectM. 
Their creed and the rulM of tlieir democratto goremment are given 
fully in their < Platforma of DiMjipline.' They believe iii " Tiio 
Trinity; Predeatination ; Total Dopravi^; Particular Redemption; 
BflMtual Oraoe and Final PorMTeranoa; and maintain that " Every 
cOB g m ta tion of risible aainta, fumiabed with a paator, ii under no 
oUtar ecnleaJMtical juriadiotion whatever." 

(Moabeim, oent. 17, g il part ii. ; Neal'a Ilitt, Pitritaiu; Burnet's 
JKn. Om ISma; Adam'a Viei. of Kdii/im.) 

CONGRESS, an aHembly of onvoya delegated by different courta 
with powets to oonoert meaaures for their common good or to adjust 
their mutual concerns. The term is given also to a meeting of sove- 
reign princes which is held for the like purpose. The delentes from 
tha AsMmbliM ot the British colonies who met at New York, 7th 
Oetobor, 1766, to consider their grievancM, called their assemblage a 
CongraM. A second congress, which assembled in June, 1 774, and sat 
for eight weeks, published a Declaration of Rights. Another congress^ 
met in Hay 1775, which proceeded to organise the military and 
finwn^i'^l reaources of the colonies ; and thus these assemblies of dele- 
gates exercised the functions of a supreme goTemment, and under their 
authority the war of independence was brought to a suooeasful termi- 
nation. In 1 789 the constitution was re-organised, and a congress of 
two houMs was formed. [llNrrED States of North America, in 
Oeoo. Drv.] The meeting of envoys or plenipotentiaries which pre- 
oadM a treaty of peace is sometimes called a Congress ; but the term Js 
more generally applied to such meetings when they have to settle, 
either before or after the peace, an extensive plan of political armnge- 
ments and re-organisation. This was the business of the Congress of 
Vienna in 1816. Sometimes a meeting of sovereign princes or pleni- 
potentiaries takes place to concert a certain line of political action, 
and this is also commonly termed a Congress. Examples of these 
are furnished by the Congress of Ou-lsbad, 1819; of Troppau and 
Laybaeh, 1820, and of Verona, in 1822. 

CONIA. The active principle of hemlock appears to be an alkaloid 
termed conia, which, unlike most vegetable alkaloids previously known, 
is not fixed and crystalline, but volatile and oleaginous. It has been 
obtained both from the leaves, and fully developed but still green 
fruits. Its activity is increased by tmion with acids, both mineral and 
vegetable; a circumstance which shon-s the impropriety of giving 
vinegar as an antidote in cases of poisoning by hemlock, when any of 
the substances is yet present in the stomach. Conia is sparingly 
soluble in water, to which it imparts its odour and taste. It also 
combines with about a fourth of its weight of water to form a hydrate 
of conia. The salts of conia are very soluble in water, but rapidly 
undergo decomposition, so as to become innocuous ; water is therefore 
an improper vehicle for their exhibition. When exposed to the air it 
quickly contracts a dark brown colour, and is slowly resolved into a 
rMinous matter, with the disengagement of ammonia. This change 
takes place more promptly under the co-operation of heat ; but even at 
common temperatures it is so apt to enshe, that unless the alkaloid 
be kept very carefully excluded from the air, discoloration will take 
place in a few hoiu^. Though conia exists in the plant in combi- 
nation with ooniic acid, which may render it less alterable, yet its 
proneness to decomposition is so great, that either by time or the 
application of a considerable degree of heat, it may be entirely dis- 
sipated ; which accounts for the inertness of old leaves, and of most 
extracts which have not been prepared with the greatest care. Qeiger 
Mjs that the dried leaves do not contain conia ; a statement which, 
if correct, leads to the conclusion that conia, though the most powerful, 
U not the only efficient agent in hemlock. 

Conia appears, from the experiments of Geiger and Christison, to 
be a deadly poison to all animals. It nets with the most extraordinary 
rapidity ; but if it f.iil tn kill, itx injurious action passes quickly away, 
and perfect recovery follows. It acts through every texture of the 
body where absorption is readily carried on. It acts as a local irritant; 
but its ultimate and fatal energy is chiefly exerted on the spinal chord, 
to which its influence is conveyed by entering the blood and pro- 
ducing on the inner membrane of the blood-vessels a peculiar nervous 
fanpresaion, which is instantly conveyed by sympathy along the nerves 
to the organ remotelv and ultimately affected. " It exhausts the 
nerroua energy of the spinal chord, producing general muscular 
piualysis and asphyxia from ■relaxation." The heart, however, is 
exempt from this general paralysis, contracting vigorously for a long 
time after all motion and napiration and other signs of life are ex- 
tinct. It is, therefore, extremely probable, as sugg«ited by Dr. Chris- 
tison, that where a dose is not so large as to produce immediate death, 
the carrying on of artificial respiration and administering vital Ktimu- 
laots, might nve the life of the patient, especially as the action of 

the poison if ao timniient, and ino^pable of producing a permanently 
injurious imnressioii. 

Infusion of galls, or strong black tea, if speedily administered, might 
prove au anticlute. 

CUNIC SECTIONS, the ourvM formed by the intersection of a 
circular oone and a plane, either oblique or right. 

Though the name ot oonio eeotions still remains, yet the interest 
which a tt eo h M to theM curvM, and the method of treating them, hM 
no longer any reference to the aocidont from which they derive their 
name. The Orsek geometers, in pure speouli^on, occupied themselves 
with the diffiarent methods in which a oone may be out, simply beoauM 
the conical surface (with the cvlindrical and spberioal) came within the 
restrictive definitions under which they had placed geometry. [Qso- 
MiTBT.] The works of Apolloxiub and AncaiXBon rBioo. Dtv.] are 
the firxt in which these sections were treated ; and tkeir subsequent 
history is nothing but that of the addition of a few remarkable pro- 
perties, imtil the diaoovery that the path of a projected body in an 
unresisting space is a parabola, and that of a planet round the stm an 
ellipee. [Oalileo, and Kepler, in Biuo. Div.J Since that time we 
might as well attempt to write the history of mathematics and physics 
as that of oonio sections in their results and conaequencM ; and from 
that time we have nothing to aay of them merely as rante teetimu. 

Some sections of a cone are considered in elementary geometry ; for 
a plane may meet a cone in a point, or in a single straight line, or in 
two intersecting straight lines, or in a circle. But the curves which 
are peculiarly conic sections are, the oval made by a pLme which cuts 
the cone entirely on one side of the vertex, called the Ellipse ; the 
indefinitely extended modification of this when the plane becomes 
parallel to any one slant side of the oone, called the Parabola ; and 
the curve which is partly on one side and partly on the other of the 
veftex, formed by a plane which cuts both surfaoes of the cone, called 
the Hyperbola. To these names we refer for the specific propertiM 
of the sections. 

Algebraically considered, the ron«> terliom are the enrret of the meemd 
degrte, meaning the curves belongingto such equations between co- 
ordinates are of the second degree. Thus, x and y being oo-ordinatea, 
oblique or rectangular, the general equation 

a a?■^6 « y -fc a?-Kf y-K! ar-h/=0, 

may, by properly assuming a, h, t, Ac, be made the eqiution of every 
possible section of a cone by the plane in which the co-ordiiiates are 
measured. As very many elementry works do not fully discuss the 
conditions under which the preceding equation represents the difierent 
sections, we subjoin the following from the ' Camb. Phil. Trans., 
vol. v., p. 89. In the following fist, 9 means the angle made by the 
co-ordinates : — 

Let v,=o+c— icos 9 V,=4oc— 6»; 

, ccP-fo *•—&<{« . 
6*— 4oe 

and in the case where v, and c d? + a <?—b de,are both=0, let 



In the following table, p means either sign, -t- or — , but in the same 
line, n means the other sign ; a dotted line means that the sign of the 
expression at the head of the column need not be considered. The 
word line by itself means straight line. 





Kame of the Section. 










• — 




, , 



, , 




Intemecting lines. 








Parallel liaea. 








Thus If w' and v, both have the same sign, and v, be positive, the 
equation cannot be satisfied at all ; but if w' and v, be ot different 
signs, and if v, be positive, the equation is that of an ellipse. We 
may add that V, = 0, indicates an equilateral hyperbola. [Htper- 


The general properties of the sections are numerous and interesting, 
but we shall only mention one, because it is the most convenient as a 
general definition of the eurvM, combining them at once with each 
other, in a manner to which algebra is easily applied. If a point move 
in such a way that its distance from a given point (called the/onu) 
always is the same fraction of its perpendicular distance from a given 
right line (called the direehri-r), then the curve traced out is an ellipse, 
parabola, or hyperbola, according as the given fraction Ui less than, 
equal to, or gre.iter than, unity. Wo .are convinced that no method of 
deducing the properties of these cun'ea can be very successfully ajiplied 





in the case of beginners, unless it involve the foci in the definition. 
The properties of these points do not readily show themselves either in 
the deduction from the cone or from the general algebraic equation. 

CONICAL PROJECTION, a method of describing a representation 
of a part of a sphere upon a plane. A sphere cannot be unrolled into a 
plane, as can every cone or portion of a cone. If a cone be described 
which touches a sphere in a small circle, and if the several points of 

Itiie sphere be then projected upon the cone by lines drawn through 
the centre, the parts adjacent to the small circle of contact will be pro- 
jected into figures very nearly similar to the originals. If the degrees 
of latitude, which are very nearly equal, be made actually etjual, no 
injurious effect will be produced on the map. Suppose, for instance, 
it is required to draw the map of a country contained between two 
given longitude circles, and two given parallels of latitude. 

Take any radius fur the sphere, and let s a be the radius x cotan- 
gent of the middle latitude of the map. From A set off A B, AC, &c., 
equal to the arc of one degree (or whatever the distance may be 
between the parallels which it is desired to draw) on the great circle of 
the sphere chosen. Let L° be half the total longitude contained 
between the extremities of the map, and take the angles asp and 
A s Q, equal to L° x the sine of the middle latitude. Divide the angle 
g 8 p into as many part« as there are degrees (or other required inter- 
vals of longitude lines) in L ; then Q B T p is the map required, and 
y X y z such a portion as is usually exhibited on a sheet of pajwr. 

If, instead of the tangent cone, it be rec[uired to project upon the 
cone formed by the revolution of the chord which joins the two 
extreme points of the map on the sphere, let I and I' be the least and 
greatest ktitudes, and let 

8 R = radius x cosJ' -!■ sin 4 (l + l') 
8 Q = radius x cos I ■i-a'm\(l + 1') 

the rest Is as before. 

There are two modifications of this principle which it will be 
convenient here to notice, — the projection used by Flamsteed, and 
that adopted by the French government in their recent maps. In 
Flamsteed's projection the degrees of latitude are equal, and the 
parallels ol latitude are peqwndicular to the middle longitude circle, 
which is a vertical right line. But the degrees of longitude are made 
in every parallel to bear the same proportion to the degree of latitude 
as on the globe; so that the meridians are, in fact, curves, the ordinates 
of which are ta the cosines of the abscissa). 

In the French government maps the same plan is adopted, with this 
exception, that the parallels of lititude are the circles of the conical 
projection, and the degrees of latitude are all equal (the oblateness of 
the earth may be allowed for, if thought necessary) ; the degrees of 
longitude are then set off on the parallels of latitude in the same 
proportion as in Flamsteed's projection. 

CONINE, C'rmicine, Conia, Conicina (C^HijN). An alkaloid obtaine<l 
from bemlock {Conium macuJatum), It is procured from the seeds or 
fresh leaves of the plant by distillation with water holding some potash 
in solution. When pure it has the following properties : It has the 
appearance of a oolourlcti.i volatile oil, and is lighter than water. 

its specific gravity beiug 0'89. Its odour is powerful, difl'u.sible, and 
repulsive, somewhat like that of hemlock itself. It is intensely acrid 
to the taste. It has a strong alkaline reaction on turmeric paper. It 
combines readily with and neutralises acids ; and some of the salts 
which it forms with them have been obtained in a crystalline state. It 
is sparingly soluble in water, and what is remarkable is, that it is more 
soluble in cold water than in hot. It imparts its odour and taste to 
water. Alcohol mixes with it in all proportions ; and it also dissolves 
readily in ether. With about one-fourth of its weight of water it forms 
a hydrate. By exposure to the air it quickly becomes of a dark 
colour, and spontaneously decomposes with the evolution of ammonia. 
Its boiling-point is 370° Fahr. It distils, however, with boiling water, 
but suffers partial decomposition. 

It is one of the most virulent poisons known, destroying small 
animals by a very small quantity and in a very short time. 

Hemlock also appears to contain a second base, metkyl-conine 
(CisHjjN) ; whilst, by acting upon conine with iodide of ethyl, a third 
base, eth;/l<onine (C„„H,„N), may be obtained. 

CONJUGATE. This word is used in several branches of mathe- 
matics in a sense which (with one exception, and that might easily be 
abolished) may be described as follows : Two points, lines, &o., are 
called conjugate, when they are considered together in any property in 
such a manner that they may be interchanged without altering the 
way of enunciating the property. Thus, if a c be to B as A D to 
D B, c and D are conjugite points with regard to this property. 

If we write D where now is, and c for D, the property is still 
expressed in exactly the same way. We have other instances m 
conjugate diameters, conjugate hyperbolas [ElxiFBE ; Htpebbola], 
conjugate foci [Lens ; Mirror]. 

The instance of exception is the conjugate point of a curve, meaning 
a single point lying by itself, whose co-ordinates satisfy the equation of 
the curve, without it^ actually being on any continuous branch of the 
curve. [Curves, Theory of.] It would be better to caU this point 
conjunct than use a term which destroys the generaUty of language. 
But the best term, in our opinion, would be evanescent oval. [See the 
article already cited.] 

CONJUGATION of a verb is a term in Grammar, denoting the 
addition of suffixes or prefixes to the crude, or elementary form of a 
verb, for the purpose of denoting respectively, person, number, time, 
state, mood, and what is generally understood by voice. In the 
English language prefixes are commonly used for these purposes, and 
these prefixes are not printed in connection with the verb, though the 
voice presents them in one mass. Thus, I ghall hace heard, as pro- 
nounced, is not less one word than the Latin audi-v-er-o. In this 
example, therefore, f, shall, have, are virtually prefixes, and the letter 
d, a contraction fn)m ed, or rather de, is a suflix attached to the 
simple verb or crude fonn hear. In the ancient languages, such as 
Greek, Latin, and Sanscrit, suffixes are commonly but not exclusively 

The suffixes which denote the penont are the personal prouoims 
more or less corrupted. Thus, in Latin, egomct is the full form of the 
pronoun which signifies /; but as three syllables would be too long 
for a term in such frequent use, and this inconvenience in the present 
instance would be aggravate<l by an .appearance of egotism, the word 
was shorn of its exterior letters, and at the utmost the three middle 
letters, ome, were attached to the verb. AVe see them in the Greek 
form t>ipt-ome-», or tupt-ome-n, " we strike." In the Latin, the vowels 
were corrupted, so that instead oit)me, either «»m or iinu occur, as in 
-umu'Sf " we are;" pugs-umti-s, " we are able;" scriO-inm-s, " we write." 
The old German has nearly the same suflix in u-ar-time-g, " we were ; " 
hir-ume-s, " we be." Again, the three letters, ome, deprived of the last 
vowel, became om, as Greek, tupt-om-ai, "1 strike myself;" «m, as 
Latin, sum, " I am ; " poss-um, " I am able ; " also am, as seen in inqa- 
am, " I say ; " and on, as Greek, e-tiipt-on, " I was striking." But the 
first vowel might disappear instead of the last. Thus, me is the form 
which appears in the Greek eg-me-n, or es-m£-s, " we are ; " mi is used in 
ei-mi, ei-mi, " I am ; " di-do-mi, " I give," &c. Sometimes the ni is all 
that appears, as scribeba-m, " I was writing." In Greek, this final m, 
by a principle constantly observed in that language, becomes an n, as 
e-n, " I was ; " etetuphei-n, " I had struck." Another form of the suffix 
is 0, instead of om, which is common both in the Greek and Latin, — as 
Greek, tupt-o, " I strike ; " Latin, icrib-o, " I write." Finally, all trace 
of the pronoun at times disappears, and the defect ceases to mislead 
because the other persons have their characteristic terminations. Thus 
the Greek tenses, etupsa, " I stnick," tctupha, " I have struck," and 
etetiiphai, " I had struck," contain no remnant of the pronoun. In the language there are some slight traces of the personal suffixes, 
which existed in full perfection in some of the older forms of the 
Teutonic languages. The word am, for example, has a remnant of the 
first person suffix in its final m. 

The second person in the Greek and Latin languages was «« or tu ; 
in German, rfit ,- and in English, " thou." Accordingly, we find a 
sibilant attached to the verb to denote the second person, as in the 
Greek, fs-«i, " thou art ; " oistha, " thou knowest ; " tupt-cs-ai, " thou 
strikcgt thyself ; " in the Latin, tcrib-ii, " thou writest ; " and , in the 





PMli.ti UtrtniiMtion at in biamml, itrikat. But u the Lktin fiim ba* 
• < uwt«s<t of ou <, (« not w, w th« I ooeMdonalljr *pp<>n m iii (Jroek, 
Utft-<U, " you stiik* ; " Latin, tcribili-t, " you •n-rito ; " and in the 
Kngliah, arr, " thou art." 

The third penon ia an indefinite tenu, aixl the auffix which denotea 
it ia doriTad from to, ligiatjiag lAu, which ui the full furui of the Greek 
artiola ; and again appaan, oo the one hjuid iu LAtin, in the ilerivatiree 
lam, lal'u, tamfmt, M, («« ; and on the other, in the liuglish the, Otit, 
lo^af. It ia therefore aa general aa the Kngliah article Ihf, aud niay 
denote iodiflerently, iMc auia, (A< irmaaa. lAe Mny ; in other worda, he, 
Jtt, it. It a|>|H»ra aa a aul&x in the Oreek m^ti, " he ia " (Sonacrit, 
M-(i) ; Tvrr-rr-ai, " he atrikea himaelf ; " in the Latin, tt-t, " he ia ; " 
terib-il, " ho writea ; " and in the obaolete form of the Engliah language, 
wall-ttA, now oomipted into tnUt. 

Suffix of aaaiicr. If a aign be employed to denote plurality, the 
•baeoca of that aign will be a auffident mdication of the singular. Now 
the auffizea of plurality in Engliah are t and e», aa in do;/; oxrn. The 
aama are employed in Greek and Latin, aa, first penon, Greek, nnrr-oMf-f, 
or r»>T-«^*-i' ; Latin, «TiAimH-< ,- aecond person, Latin. «ri6i>i-t. The 
Greek faiis dropped the <, aa iu TvirT-(T<, a corruption probably of 
T«rr-iTi-f ; just aa the L-atin imperative trriblte uuat l>e l>x>ke<l upon 
as ret1uce<l from tcribttif. For the third person we must hare in view 
the older form, /aa(i (^ovri), " they say ; " or rather /an/iw, for this 
final a is an essential part of the word, imd not, as is commonly taught, 
a meaningleas addition. Thus the four letters ifli» represent the suffix, 
of which the final letter denotes plurality, and the remainder is but a 
variety of the article to, " this." The change of the ( to » in this pr(V 
notm ia not rare, as may be seen in tbo Latin nam and niini (nunc), 
which in origin are but varities of tarn and <Hni (tunc) ; aud if n ami ( 
an interchangeable, a fortiori ia r( interchangeable with either. 

TViiK or tense (Fr. (mipt) divides itself into past, present, aud future, 
where again the idea of present time will not require any peculiar dis- 
tinotion, if the ideas of past and future have their proper aymbola. 
The |iwt time appears to have hud for its cUaracteriatic either the 
prefix, (, or the suifiz, a. The former appears in the Greek, e-tujtl-on, 
" I was striking ; " t-iup-ta, " I struck ; " e-tttnph-ta, " I had struck." 
The aecond appeara in two of the Greek forms just enumerated, and in 
the Latin tenbeb^-nt, " I was writing ; " tr-a-m, " I was." A very dis- 
tinct example of a future sufiix appears in those European languages 
which are derived from the Latin. Thus, in the French, (<rir-ai, we 
have really two distinct words, the infinitive, (crirt, and ai, the present 
tense of oroir, forming altogether, (crtr-ai, " I have to write," that is, 
" I shall write." This origin of the French future is placed beyond a 
doubt by a comparison with the Spanish and Italian. (See Key's 
' Alphabet,' p. 123, &c.) 

By the terra. itale, which stands forth in the series of suffixes which 
have been included in the definition of conjugation, it was intended to 
denote the notions of perfect and imperfect action. Here again one 
■affix is sufficient, and the notion of completeness is variously marked : 
Ist. By a doubling of the verb upon itself. The piu-eat example of this 
ia presented in the Gothic, as laia, "I laugh;" 2aiM, " I laughed ; " 
itauta, "I strike;" ttaittatU, " I struck." The Greek have |>erfects 
formed uppn this principle in te-tupha, ge-grapha ; the Latin in te-tnl-i, 
dt-d-i, ig>o-pond-i (for the less easily pronounced »i)0-tpond-i). Aud in 
our own language there is strong reason for believing that such is the 
origin of did, the perfect of do. Out of the same principle grows the 
formation of the jwrfect by a long vowel, rfnl being probably a con- 
traction from rr-irn-i. 2nd. By adding the sinijile tensen of the verb 
&, " be," with an interposed », which by a bold yet highly probable 
theory may be regarded as the ordinary gcnitival suffix uignifyiug 
" from." Thus, tcrlp-i-eratn would be '■ I was from writing," or " I had 
>vritten ; " icrip-t-ero, " I shall be from writing," or " I shall have 
written." So tcrip-tittii {ittit for estit), " ye are from writing," or " ye 
liave written." As * is a letter very apt to vanish from langunge, we 
must not be surprised at its non-appe-irance in such words as ven-eram. 
Again, the r, which presents itself in so many perfects of the Latin 
language, as amaveram, nwnaerum, is probably but the old ir, which 
once formed a part of the verb «, " be ; " witness the German wa-en, 
" existence," and our own icat. 

The suffixes of the moods could not be placed in a distinct point of 
riew without a detailed investigation. It may be sufficient to point 
out that to ia distinctly obaer\'ablo as a suffix in one portion of the 
Latin imperative. That the suffixes of the potential, subjunctive, and 
optative moods, in the Greek and Latin, were origiually distinct woniM, 
and perhaps verbs, like our own may, ran, &c., is probable from general 
principles, and ia confirmed by the appearance of the separate particles 
ken, it, an, in the Greek Unguage, which are used to denote a sort of 
potential mood, and bear a marked resemblance to our own rax. 

The last suffix for consideration is that wliich denotes the mice. 
The Greek grammarians acknowledge a middle or reflective voice ; but 
the Latin unguage in fact poaeases the same, as, for instance, in 
aceiwjor, " I gird myself for the contest ;" »iito-r, " I support myself;" 
laeo-r, " I wash myself," " I Inthe." And in both languages the middle 
voioe is the parent of the passive. This may be illustrated by such 

Ehraaes as the French la biu t rendnt ici, " stockings sell themselves 
ere," that is, " are sold ; " the Italian n diet, " it is said," strictly it 
$ay$ it4clf. Now, the suffix of the Latin posaive appears in the various 
forms »r, m tnontt-Mr, er as moncri-er, r Bl numeo^; but the attentive 

Latin student ia ever ready to suqiect when he luevtH with an r, that 
an older form of the word contained an < / and iu fuct we find an > in 
the form mvmer-it, where, moreover, the first jtart taoacr is another 
example of the corruption in question, for it supplies the place of 
mo»€t. If, then, < ia the original consonant of this suffix, we are forth- 
with directed to the reflective pronoun §e; nor ought we to be stopped 
by the fact that this pronoun in Litin is confined to the third perion. 
In the Huasian and other Sclavonic languages, still more m the 
Lithuanian, the connection of all which with the Teutonic languages 
aud with those of Greece and Rome is indisputable, the reflective pro- 
noun, containing in fact the very same root as ae, is appUcable alike to 
all the persons ; and indeed there waa nothing in the nature of things 
to limit the Latin pronoun aa to penm, when it ia oonfMaedfy 
unlimited as to gender and number. 

The division of verbs into several conjugations depend! upon the last 
vowel or consonant of the verb in its simple or crude state. Thus, in 
the Latiu language, all verbs ending in a are said to be of the first con- 
jugation, all Uiat end in r of the second, those in a eonmmant or h of the 
third, and those in i of the fourth or last ; for it accidentally hi^pens 
that the Latin htnguage po ss eas aa no verhs in o, except the fragmentary 
forms ijHori, gnotiu, potiu, ityrotut, which appear to imply the existence 
of stems iu o, namely, 9110 (iu English, " know "),po (com|>are the Greek 
pe-po-ka), irijro. The Greek language is not without a class of verUi 
having n for the final letter, as rfux/o, " enslave," tie. The division of 
verbs into conjugations is founded u|mu the fact that the union of the 
final letters in the crude form of the verb with the initial letters in the 
suffixes leads to changes dependent upon these letters. We will uot 
enter here into the origin of these letters, a, e, i, as offlxotl to verbx. 
That they form no eesenUal part of tlie root is clear, and a writer in 
the ' Transactions of the Philological Society ' contends that they have 
all one common origin in a suffix agh, still found iu the Gaelic lan- 
guages with an iterative power, or what may perhaps be better 
expressed by the Latin paidatim. We will here merely note that 
such verVw are often called by grauimariana vieak verbs, in opposition 
to the simpler or strong verbs. As specimens of these, we may give 
the Latin ton-ert (obaoL) and tona-re. 

CONJUNCTIONS. Under this term grammarians commonly in- 
clude several classes of words which have little similarity of meaning, 
and which, in their etymological origin, may be verbs, substantives, 
adjectives, or pre|K>sitionH. The old definition of a conjunction, that 
it was a word which connected sentences together, will certainly not 
apply in all cases, if at least the word " and " is to be included. It in 
true, as Horue Tooke observes, that " the sentence ' You and I and 
Peter rode to Loudou ' may be resolved into three : ' You rode,' ' I 
rode,' ' Peter rode.' But try some other instances : ' two and two are 
four;' 'AB, BC, CA form a triangle ; ' 'John and Jane are n hand- 
some couple.' — Does AB form a triangle ? — Is John a couple ?— Are 
two four « " (' Diversions of Purley,' Taylor's edition, i. p. 210.) 

On the etymological origin of conjunctions, which is a distinct question 
from their use, some remarks will presently be made ; in reference to 
their emploj-ment in the construction of a simple or compound sen- 
tence they may perhaps be divided into the following claasee : 1. Con- 
junctions which unite either individual words, or phrases, or sentences, 
without, in the last case, implying any suboixUnation of one sentence to 
the other. Such are the worda : and, or, nor ; or the double forms : 
both — and — , tilher — ur — , tchetlier — -or — , neither — nor — . With 
respect to this class it may he useful to point out the great advantage 
which the Greek, and more particularly the Latin, language poaaeesed 
in the variety of their forms for and : as k«u, rt in the former, et, (/nc, 
atqiic or ac in the latter. This sui)eriority over moderu languages, 
simple as it is in itself, gave to the longest Latin sentence a ]>erspicuity 
of arrangement, which in a great mea.sure 8U|>er8ede<l the necessity for 
a cuml)ereome punctuation. (' Journal of Education,' vol. iv., p. 135.) 
2. Conjunctions, which in themselves simply meaning llilf, being pre- 
fixed to a secondary sentence or phrase, direct the attention to that 
secondary phrase as a unit, and thus prepare it for subjection to some 
precerUng word. This usage of the pronoim is aa nearly as possible 
equivalent to the use of the bracket or vinculum in algebra, which 
connects the separate elements of any compound or polynomial term, 
and subjects it as a new unit to the algebraical operation, the sigu of 
wliich is uttichcd to the vinculum. Hume Tooke, in his remarks upon 
the so-called conjunction that, furnishes many examples : as, " I wish 
you to believe tliat I would not willingly hurt a fly," which is resolved 
by him into " I would not willingly hurt a fly ; 1 wish you to believe 
thai." A mathematician would have expressed it by " 1 wish you to 
believe [I would not willingly hurt a fly]," where the words within the 
brackets must be considered as a compound accusative or object after 
the verb beliert. The Latin Ht and (/ifxl in their origin are merely 
neuters of the relative, and the original meaning of the relative, it 
must be recollected, waa Ihit. [AnilCLE.] Hence they too are used 
in the same w.iy as the English that ; for example : tuadeo ut abca», 
" I recommend thit, you should go away ; " Uetatur quod rtdierit, " he 
rejoices at tlii», you have returned." Other examples may be found in 
the use of the Greek Ini, which is again the neuter of a relative, as : 
Aryw iri rcA^iiicf , " I say (Au ; be is dead." In Greek there is some- 
times a double accusative after the verb, one of which simply denotes 
the object of the verb, and the other points to the condition or state of 
the object, as explained by the words that follow it : thus, 6fut at iu 




Kttxas TcwrxfiJ, literally, " I see you this (that), you are sujfering." 
This employment of the pronoun is more particularly to be noticed 
after prepositions. Thus, in the Latin language, if a simple noun be 
the object of a preposition, all that is required is to put that noun in 
a certain case, as post ecenam, " after dinner ; " but if a verb with its 
.iccessories is to be subject to a preposition, it is common to interpose 
the vinculum r/uam, "this," as, poslqitam cum fratre sua coeiiarerat, 
" after he had supped with his brother." Even in English we might 
say : " after that he had," &c. Examples of this usage are abundant 
in the forms antequam, prtrterquam, extra quam, pro'ter quod, proiit ; 
and the word this is sometimes doubly expressed, as in pro eo ut, ad-eo 
lit, propter-ea quod, ex eo qnod, prater quam quod. The German idiom 
agrees precisely with the Latin, as may be seen in nacJi-dem, in-dem, &c., 
as opposed to the employment of the simple prepositions nacli, hi, &c. 
The French, too, have their pendant-que, &c., puia-que, &c., and the 
• English their besides that, &c., note that, &c., and the old beiug 
that, &c. 3. The pronoun in the several languages thus employed as a 
vinculum is frequently attached as an enclitic to the preceding word, 
and grammarians, not observing the distinction between the governing 
word and the pronoun, have often given the name of conjimction to 
the compound, as poitquam in Latin, Sum in Oree\i,pul«qne in French, 
narhdem in German. 4. The vinculum, however, is not essential in 
those forms, and is therefore frequently omitted ; but in case of this 
omission the governing word must immediately precede the 
which is dependent upon it. This governing word, which expresses 
the nature of the connection between the subordinate and,the superior 
sentence, is also called a conjunction, but here the term is used in a 
different sense. The words which signify this, of which we previously 
spoke, found their claims to the title of a conjunction upon the fact 
that they unite the several elements which follow into a whole, ^\^len 
the governing particle is so called, it is because it binds the one sen- 
tence to the other. 5. There is a class of words which correlate with 
conjunctions : such as to in connection with a» or that, yet with 
although, therefore with m'nce or because. These words are often called 
adverbs, but as they too serve to connect sentences, they deserve like 
the rest the name of conjunctions. They bear, in fact, the same 
relation to the other conjunctions that the so called antecedent does to 
the relative. And that the antecedent and relative have the power of 
conjunctions is proved not merely by their use, but by their old and 
appropriate names, the postpoeitire and prepodtive articles (articiUi, 
that is, " little joints "). 

We have alr»dy said that conjunctions belong in their origin to all 
the leading parts of speech. Examples of verbs so employed are seen 
in the English if, formerly written ffif, that is, r/iie. (Home Tooke, 
as before, p. 103, &c.) The Latm lic^t, " although," is evidently a verb 
signifying " it is allowed." So too rel, " or," appears to be an im- 
perative of ro/o, " choose," but si " if," older form sin, instead of repre- 
senting sit, as is often said, is of pronominal origin ; and indeed akin 
to our own so and such, so far as regards the first element of this 
adjective (so-lirh, German). The EngUsh while is a substantive signi- 
fying " time." " Either " and " whether " are of course pronominal 
adjectives, and " or " is a corruption from " other," as is evident from 
the Gemum equivalent oder. And a similar analogy seems to lead to 
the derivation of the Latin aut — ant, from niterum — alterum. Con- 
junctions of a participial and prepositional character have occurred in 
the examples already quoted; but the relative form appears to be 
specially fertile in Uie production of this class of words, as, in the 
Latin, quam,quando, quamquam, quamris, ubi, unde, ut, quia, quod ; 
and the English Khen, hour, as, where. 

Many of the conjunctions defy all attempts at analysis, and certainly 
Home Tooke, notwithstanding the acuteness and truth of his gener^ 
views, has occasionally erred in the details of derivation. 

CONOID (like a cone), a term sometimes applied, but in this coun- 
try only, to the surface generated by the revolution of a conic section 
about its axis. [Spheroid, Htperboloid, Paraboloid.] 

CONSANGUINITY, or KINDRED, in hw, is the relation subsist- 
ing between persons who are of the same blood, or, in other words, who are 
descended from the same stock or common ancestor. Consanguinitj-, 
in this sense, is either lineal or collateral. The former subsists between 
penrons who are related to each other in the direct ascending line, .is 
from son to father, grandfather, great-grandfather, &c. ; or in the 
descending line, from great-grandfather to grandfather, father, and son. 
Collateral kindred are those who, though they h.-ivo the same blood, 
derived from a common ancestor, and are therefore consanyuinei, do 
not descend one from the other. Thus brothers have the same blood, 
and are descended from a common ancestor, but they are related to 
each other collaterally, and the children and descendants of each of 
them are all collateral kinsmen to each other. The canon law and the 
civil law have adopted different methods of computing the degrees of 
collateral consanguinity. According to the former, which has been 
followed by the law of England, we begin at the common ancestor, and 
reckon downward to the persons whose degree of consanguinity we 
desire to ascertain, counting each generation as a degree ; and the 
degree of consanguinity in which they stand to each other is the 
degree iq which both of them, or the more remote of them, stands to 
the common ancestor. Thus (to use the example given by Sir William 
Blackatone), Titius and his brother are related in the first degree, for 
from the father to each of them is counted only one ; but Titius and 

ARIg AND 8C1. BIT. rot. HL 

his nephew are related in the second degree, for the nephew is two 
degrees removed from the common ancestor, namely, his own grand- 
father, the father of Titius. On the other hand, in this supposed case, 
the civilians would place Titius and his nephew in the third degree of 
consanguinity, for they count all the degrees from one given person 
upwards to the common ancestor, and downwards from that common 
ancestor, whose degree of relationship to the first person it is the 
object to establish. Thus they would count from Titius's nephew to 
his grandfather two degi'ees, and one more from the grandfather to 
Titius. By the law of England, all persons related to each other by 
coni5anguinity and affinity, nearer than the fourth degree of the civi 
law, are prohibited from marrying excepting in the ascending or 
descending line (in which the case is hardly possible by the course 
of nature) ; and by Stat 5 & 6 Will. IV., c. 54, sec 2, it is enacted, 
" that all marriages celebrated after the date of that Act between per- 
sons within the prohibited degrees of affinity or consanguinity, shall be 
absolutely null and void to all intents and purposes whatsoever." 
Under the statute of distributions, 22 & 23 Car. II., c. 10, in making 
the distribution of an intestate's personal estate among the next of kin, 
the computation of degrees of kindred is according to the civil law. 
('Novell.,' 118, and Intestacy; Blackstone's 'Essay on Collateral 
Consanguinity,' and Blackstone's ' Commentaries,' vol. ii., p. 534 ; 
Mr. Kerr's ed.) 

The question of consanguinity is the question of relation between 
two given persons, aa explained above. If one of these persons i 

called I A I, all his lineal ancestors will be found in (a) the ascending 

line above him, and all his lineal descendants in the descending line 
below him. His collateral relations mil be found in the parallel lines 
(b), (c), (d), &c. Tlie Roman numerals denote the respective degrees 
of consangiiinity in the canon, and the Arabic those in the civil law. 
Thus III, in the ascending line is A's great-grandfather, and III. in the 
descending line his great-grandson. In the ascending and descending 
lines the computations of the civil and canon laws, as already ex- 
plained, is the s,arae : in both laws the great-grandfather and great- 
grandson are respectively m the third degree from A. No. III. in line 
(6) is A's great imcle, who, according to the mode of reckoning already 
explained, is in the third degree of consanguinity to A by the canon 
law ; and in the fourth, as denoted by the Arabic numeral 4, plnced 
under III., by the civil or Roman law. 

The following are the names for consanguinity in the Roman law. 
In line (o), ascending from A : 1, pater, mater ; 2, avus, avia ; 3, pro- 






V. . 

5 ' • . 


4 ■•. 



3 ■•. 

■ IV. 


■ III. 

■ IV. 

1 ■ • . 

3 ••. 

■ • III. 
a ' • . 





'■ II. 


' ■ III. 






















avus, pro.ivia; 4, abavus, atevia; 6, atavus, at.ivia ; 6, tritavus, tri- 
tavia : all above 6 are included in the gc-.iai al n.ime " majorcs." In 






Hat {a\ dcMcudiDg fieai A : 1. filhui, AIm : 8, i>«po*, nrptii ; S, pro. 
iiep<w,pnai(ipih; ^.abBapu*, kbuentu; 6, aUwpiM, •tDPptia ; 6. trioepo*- 
trtne^.'U* : kll bdow 6 an incliHicd ia the genenl name of " poateri or 
" |K*terior««." 

In line (6), beginning with S and anending : 3, fruter, aoror ; 3, pa- 
tnius, amila (uneU nod aunt on the fcther'a ude) ; avunculua, uiat«rtera 
(dittA on the mothet'a); 4, ]>atn>ua nagnua, ainiU magna, avunculiu 
nii^iis. inaterten magna ; ft, pro{i«truua, prauuita, proavunculus, 
nron>^t..rti.m ■ It nliikitnuia. abaniita. afa^Tunoulua, abmatert^ra. 

I n-itli S and detoending, the names are, 3, 

frnt i !.•», and so on. 

In (<•), Uitiuuing wi l« i »nd aaoending : 4, oonsobrintia, consolirina, 
which are the general temu, but proixrly aignify thoae born of two 
iditen (c(tMMi eonaororini) ; sona bom of two bmtliura are properly 
lalled frstrea patmelee ; danghtera, aorore* patmeles : S, prupiur or 
^or Bobrino, propior sobrina, the aons and daughters of the i>atruuR 
mM^UTU, amita magna, ftc. (See Tacit ' AnnaL,' xiL 64.) 

Some of the Latin writcra need " nepoa " to express a brother's or 
drter'a aoD. 

It ia iinneoesaaty to go farther. (' Institut/ iii. tit. 6, ' De Orad. 
C.1, ■ •) 

I NCE, COURTS OF. AH the Courta of Consdenoe, 

Com I..-, "i i.tA|ue«t, and other similar tribiuialH were abolished in 1846, 
ly flie stfttuto 9 ft 10 Vict. c. 1)5, on the creation of the new County 
dourt«. [Coi'NTY CornTs.] 

COKSCRIPTION is the name given to the mode of recruiting the 
French army. Under the old monarchy the army was recruited chiefly 
by voluntary enlistment, and the soldiers were taken mostly from the 
peasantry, by whom the change from the condition of a daily laboiu«r 
to that of B soldier was conRidercd as nn improvement The officers 
were appointed from among the higher or educated classes. When the 
revolution commenced the old army w,Ta broken up, the whole nation 
waa called to arms, and volunteers were found in abundance. But as 
the soldiers were bound by no permanent obligation, a system of 
requisition was enforced, by which every district was bound to furnish 
a certain number of men for the regular army. But even this proved 
insufficient, and tlie Executive Directory found itself iu want of 
soldiers to supplj* the numerous armies on the frontiers. In 1798, 
General Joiu-d.'»n presented to the Council of Five Hundred a project 
of a law for a new mode of recruiting, under the name of conscription. 
This project was approved by the legislature, and passed into a law 
6th of September, 1798. After setting down as a principle that every 
Frenchman is bound to defend his country when in danger, the law 
went on to say, that independently of danger to the country, every 
Frenchman from the age of twenty to twenty-five is liable to be called 
out to serve in the regular army. Every year lists were made in every 
department of the young men of the age above stated, divided into 
five claaees, the first being those between twenty and twentyK>ne years ; 
ihe aecond from twenty-one to twenty-two ; and so forth. The number 
of men required for that year being made known by the government, 
and voted by the legislature, a distribution was made among the 
departments and districts of the quota which each was to furnish. 
The number required waa then taken by lot from the first or junior 
class, and when tbat was exhausted from the second, and so on. Tbi.s 
operation was repeated every year. The first levy by conscription in 
1790 was 2u0,000 men. Bonaparte, when first consul, found the system 
already established, and he applied himself strenuously to render it 
more eSective, and carry it to the utmost extent. 

By i'n arti le of the Charts in 1830, a new law of conscription was 
provided. This law was promulgated 21st March, 1832, and it declares 
that the army is be recruited only by voluntary engagements and by 
the "appel," which term signifies a choice by the drawing of lots 
amongst the young men of each canton who have completed their 
twentieth year during the year preceding. The following persons are 
exempt from the " appel : " any or|)han with younger brothers or 
tdaters; an only son or grandson, and the oldest sou or grandson of a 
widow or blind father, or of a father above sixty, but if Uie eldest sou 
or grandson in either of the last-mentioned cases is blind or infirm, the 
youngest is exempted. There are also some other exceptions, as 
persons engaging in public instruction, or who are preparing for the 
Church or the ministry in any religious denomination which is paid by 
the state, alao students who have obtained certain prizes. There ia an 
appeal to a council of revision for those who conceive that they ought 
to have been exempted. The period of service is seven years. Persons 
who have drawn lota which render them liable to serve may obtain a 
■ubatitute, who must be above twenty and not above thirty years of 
age, or thirty-five if he has already served in tlie army, or between 
eighteen and thirty if the brother of a person liable. Substitutes must 
not V>e married, or widowers with children. A person under the age of 
thirty cannot be admitted to any civil or military office unless he has 
fulfilled the of the law of 21st March, 1832. Napoleon 

admitted in | >' procuring of substitutes, and even defended 

H in the Couiii u "> .-u.ue. as necenaiy " in the present state of society, 
which waa very different from that of Sparta or Rome ; " but he after- 
wards surrounded it- with ao many dilBcultiea, that substitut.s became 
extremely aoaroe and expensive. 

In Prunis, all men able to beer arms from twenty to twenty-five 
Mong to the itaading army ; they serve Utree yeara, and ore then dis- 

ebH<g«d for two years, during which they are liable to be called out as 
the reserve. All thoae who have served in the standing army belong 
to the landwehr of the first ban, from the age of twentyaii to tliii-ty- 
two inclusive. This bou, in time of war, is liable to serve abroad as 
well OS at home. It is cailed out every year to exercise. The aeoond 
ban ia called out only in time of war, and includes all men capable of 
bearing aima till the age of thirty-nine. All older men fit for 8er\'ice 
belong to the landaturm. For an account of the Hruasian military 
ayatam, aea Laing'a ' Notes of a Traveller.' [Militia.] 

CONSECHATION U-oim, era tiu), tlie act of sanctifying or making 
holy, cuusistn iu tlie soleum ap|iri>[iriation or dedication of auytkiug to 
the service of the Deity. In uiu<Iem times the oonaecration of men is 
usually called ordination, except in tlie c^isu of kings and biahops, when 

the ix-rformance of the rites of siinct.ficatiou isBtill •■•■■■—' :tion. 

When a|>]>U»l to temples, cUuix-hvs, anil altars, i uied 

liedicatiiiit. It iii sufficient to advert to the ri .a of 

India, Egypt, Juda'a, Chaldsa, Greece, Hume, and oi the (Joitii; Uruids 
in Britain and Kuroi>e in general, t<^ tfkow the antiquity of conse- 
cration. At the commenoeiuent of the Mosaic dis|iciusatiou all the 
first-born of man and beast were consecrated to tlie Lord. (Exodus 
xiii. 2, 12, 15.) Suboetjuently the whole tribe of Levi was thus conse- 
crated instead of the firet-bom (Numbers iii. 12, 4.'i ; viii. 10, 18) ; and 
Aaron and his sons, who were Levites, were more esjiocially consecrated 
to the priest's office. (Exodus xl. 13.) The dedication or consecratiou 
of the tabernacle and altar is described in the book of Numbers, ch. vii. 
Uf the dedication of the first or Solomon's Temple, a description is 
given in 1 Kings viii. S ; and of the aecond tem|>le iu Ezra vi. 10. 
Under the Jcwidi theocracy not only mrai and beast.s were consecratc<l 
to the Lord, but houses, fields, and the walla of Jerus;ileui. (Leviticus 
xxvii. ; Nehemiah xii. 27.) At the -commencement of the 4lh century, 
when Christianity, under CoUHtantine, became the established i-eligion 
of the Roman state, anil Christian temples began to vie in niagniUceuce 
with those of the Pag-an deities, they were consecrated with great 
jwmp ; for instouce, the church of Jerusalem, built by Constantino 
over the supposed site of the Holy Sepulchre, when the ceremony was 
iwrfonned by a full synod of all the bishoiis of the East. (Euseb. * Ecc. 
Hist.,' I. 10, c. 46 ; Gratian, ' Cuncordimtia Diseordantiuiu,' \na-l 3.) 

The following are the princiiiol parts of the rite of couseci-ating a 
church according to the Roman Otholic i>outifical : Previous to the 
ceremony three croeaea are painted on each wall of the church, and 
over each cross is placed a lighted candle. The bishop, in his jxjntifical 
vestments, proceeds to the church door, attended by bis clergy reciting 
the seven penitential psalms ; and after a solemn procession ruuud the 
external walls, which are copiously Bprinkle<i, in tho name of the 
Trinity, with a kind of brush dim«d in coui(ecratcd water, the bibhop 
knocks loudly at the door with Lis pastoral stafl'. repeating from the 
24th Psalm, " Attollite portas, et introibit Rex Oloriuj ; " to which a 
deacon, who is within the church, replies, " (^uis est istc Rex Oloriie f" 
The bishop responds, " Dominus fortis et potens, Doniinus potens in 
prtelio," &c. ; then signing the door with the figure of the cross, he 
exclaims, " Ecce crucis sigiiura ! fugiant ph.intasmata cunota." On 
the admission of the bishop and clergy the ' Veni Creatfir ' is chanted, 
iuid ashes are strewn on the floor iu the form of a cross, in which tho 
bishop, with his staff, traces some alphabetical char-icters. After 
several prayers, the altar is consecrated by sprinkling it with a mixture 
of water, vrine, salt, and ashes, in the name of Jesus Christ. The 
solemnity closes by depositing in the altar a vessel containing relics 
and incense, with a parchment inscribed with the name of the Lishoj) 
and the dote of the consecration. The chimih on this occasion is 
richly decorated, and the altar is illumined with a prolusion of large 
tapers. (Broughton's ' Hist. Die.,' vol. i., p. 811.) Churches are not 
recognised as such by tho law of England until they are consecrated by 
a bishop. The form used by the Chimjh of England is given at lengtli 
in B.ahop Gibson's ' CoAex juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani,' pp. 1459-14ii3; 
see also Bishop Wilkins's • Concilia Mognie Britannia?,' vol. iv., p. 668 ; 
and Bum's ' Eccles. Law, Churches,' sec. 2. The present fuim has 
been used since 1712 ; ond in 1799 it was adopted, with some slight 
modification, by the EpiseoiKil Church in America. One of the prin- 
cipal charges on which Archbishop Laul was arraigned before the 
Commons was, that ho endeavoured to revive the Roman Catholic 
ceremonies in the consecration of churches and altars, with all their 
costly luniiture. Still the Protestant form of consecration, as well as the 
Roman Catholic, is an inijiosing ceremony ; and the 21 stat. Henry VIII. 
c. 13, states as the reason for allowing a bishop six chaplains, that this 
number is re<juisite for the consecrating ot churches. The_ vill ge 
feasts which are still celebrated iu many jiarts of England commence 
on the anniversary day of the consecration of the parish church, and 
are said to have been substituted by Pope Gregory the Groat for 
similar festivities appertaining to the Dnuilical religion. (Bingham, 
b. 8, 0. 9.) Church-yards, when, as was usual, they odjoined the 
church, were consecrated at the same time ; but since the establish- 
ment of cemeteries they are consecrated separately, and a part is left 
unconaecrated for the use ot dissenters from the Church of England. 
Deacons and priests arc likewise consocratetl before entering on their 
holy oUice, and the form of their consecration, or ordinotion, as it is 
ther« called, is given in the Prayer Book. Consecration is geiieral.y un- 
derstood tg change not the nature of the thing consecrated, but merely 
tho iw( of it; and m this opinion the Roman Catholics appear to acquiesos, 






with regard to numerous objects which they usually consecrate, as 
church belJs, candles, water, oil, crosses, pictures, &c. ; but tt-ith respect 
to the consecration of the eucharistic bread and wine, they maintain 
that a complete change is effected in the thing consecrated. — the body 
and the blood of Jesus Christ, by the change of the bread iuto his 
body, and of the wine into his blood, being believed to be really present 
by virtue of the words of consecration. This is what is termed tran- 
subetantiation. (Brunet, ' Parallile des Religions,' 4to, 1792, tome iii., 
p. 310;' Exposition de la doctrine de I'Eglise Catholique," par Bossuet.) 

The consecration of animals was very common in ancient Egjpt, 
where birds, beasts, and reptiles were privileged, as in modem India, 
to live unmolested, and even to receive adoration. Athenjeus and 
.'Elian speak of sacred fishes, adorned with necklices ; so the sacred 
crocodile in Egypt was decorated with earrings. (Herodotus, ii 69.) 
Consecration is a name given to the apotheosis of the Roman emperors, 
and coins and medals commemorating these events have the inscription 
** Consecratio." See an account of these funeral honours in the article 
Apotheosis, and the medal with the legend " Consecratio " in the 
article AuBELrcs, in Bioc. Div. 

CONSERVATORS OF THE PEACE, before the comparatively 
modem institution of justices of the peace, were officers who by the 
common law of England were appointed for the preservation of the 
JJhblic peace. These conservators, whose powers were far inferior to 
those of modem justices of the peace, consisting almost entirely of 
the authority to take sureties for the peace and for good behaviour. 
were of several kinds. In the first place, certain high fimctionaries 
were general conservators by virtue of their offices. Thus the king, 
the lord chancellor or lord kecf)er, the judges of the court of King's 
Bench, and the master of the rolls, were intrusted by the common law 
with the general conservancy of the peace throughout the realm, as 
incidental to their several offices. Other officers again were conser- 
vators only in special places ; thus the judges of the common pleas and 
harons of the exchequer were conservators of the peace only within 
the precinctH of their several courts. In like manner, judges of assize 
and gaol-delivery within the places limited by their commissions; 
coroners and sheriffs within their several coimties, and constables and 
tithingmen within their hundreds or tithings, were all conservators of 
the peace at common law , and all the officers above enumerated retain 
their authority at the present day. But besides these official conser- 
vators, there were others who were expressly intrusted with the 
charge of the peace, either by prescription, election, or tenure. Thus 
it is said that the owner of a manor might have prescribed that he and 
his ancestors, whose estate he had, were entitled to be conservators of 
the peace within such manor. So also as sheriffs were formerly elected, 
and as coroners still are elected, by the freeholders of the county, 
certain persons were, before the reign of Edward III., elected con- 
servators of the peace in dilferent coimties. There were also instances 
in which lands were granted by the king to hold of him by knight's 
■ervice, and also by discharging the duties of conservation of the pnace 
within the county where the lands lie. Besides these, there were con- 
servators of the peace appointed by letters patent from the crown, in 
coses oE emergency, to defend particular districts, where breaches of 
the peace were apprehended in consequence of foreign invasion or 
intestine tumult. AH the different kinds of conservators of the peace 
above noticed, excepting those who have the duty ca«t upon them as 
incidcntil to other offices, were entirely superseded upon the establish- 
ment of the system of justices of the peace in the early part of the 
reigii of Edward III. [Ji-sticks of the Peace.] (See also full details 
uixin this subject in Lambard's Eirenrireka, book i., cap. 3.) 

CONSERVATOR OK THE STAPLE, in the law of Scotland, an 
otHcer in the nature of a foreign conijiU, resident at Campvere, iii» the 
Netherlands. See the Act 1503, c. 81. The office has long been obsolete. 

CONSERVATORY. The airaes given to the garden buildings 
employed for preserving plants in an artificial climate, are applied with 
so little precision, that it is almost a matter of indifference which to 
select for the purpose of explaining the principles that ought to be 
oliserved in the coustmction and man.igement of such houses. We 
sh.-ill therefore reserve for the article Obee.v-House what we have to 
say u|ion that head, and briefly dismi-a the others as their names occur. 
In illustration of this remark we may observe that the term conser- 
va»..rv, which, as its meaning shows, was originally intended for build- 
iug-i in which plants were preserved during winter, hai come to be 
\ise<l, firstly for glasshouses in which plants are cultivatwl by growing 
them in the open border, and subsequently for all such glazed buildings 
wliaf -i^wver. A conservatory, properly so called, is a brick building 
li I'td by artificial means, having its whole southern part closed by 
lar),'.' glaztrd s'lshes, which may be opened or shut at pleasure. Its 
floor i-i tjencrally of stone, and a part of it is occupied by a stage on 
which plants in pots can Ije placed. One of these buildings, but in a 
ruinous sUte, may be soon in the physic garden at Chelsea ; others arc 
not uncommon In gartlens that were laid out forty or fifty years ago, 
but they arc falhng into neglect and distuie — in our opinion un- 
deservedly. Such a conservatory was intended to preserve during the 
v.'i.;. 1 '.r 1 _•■ t; fM, myrtles, American aloes, and similar plants, which 
.1 .! 11^ -Ij. 11 lucr will flourish in the open air, but which require in 
'■ jrotected against the inclemency, or, to speak more 

iHtthe cold and wet of the Engliih climate. Such plants 
; luring winter; their rest begins with that of our trees, and 

it is easy to prevent a renewal of their growth at too early a time ; to 
preserve them against too much wet and from severe cold, especially in 
the spring, is all that is requisite for them, and these objects the old 
conservatory answered perfectly well. It had moreover the advantages 
of being spacious without being excessively costly ; of being ea.sily 
heated, and of requiring the smallest possible amount of l.ilour for the 
plants preserved in it. Persons however, gradually forgetting the 
original object of a conservatory added to it numerous species requiring 
a very different treatment in winter from those it was contrived for ; 
and what wan far worse, they attempted by humidity .and high tempera- 
tvu'e to keep the plants in a growing state through the winter. The 
necessary consequence of this was, that those plants which formerlv 
succeeded in the conservatory became uuhealthy, the new comers 
disappointed the expectations of their cultivators, and the class of 
building itself fell into discredit. The reason of this is suSiciently 
obvious. Plants when iu a growing state require an abundant supply 
of light : a conservatoiy is particidarly ill calciUated, on account of its 
solid roof and sides, for the admission of light, and consequently a con- 
servatory is not suitable for plants in a growin;^ state ; but plants when 
torpid, as in their winter season, require a very moderate supply of 
light, and this a true conservatory is sufficiently calculated to admit. 

A house of this kind is best suited for gardens of considerable 
extent, where a large number of plants is required during the summer 
for the ornament of the flower garden and shrubbery Under such 
circumstances we strongly recommend the erection of conservatories a.s 
the cheapest, the efficient, and the most ornamental mode of 
prese^^ing in a healthy state during winter not only oranges, myi-tles, 
and similar plants, but iu general all the species which are natives of 
countries that, without experiencing severe frost, are cold enough 
during winter to suspend the vital energies of vegetation. It will be 
perfectly within the gardener's power to keep the earth in which con- 
»er%'atory plants grow sufficiently damp during winter to enable them 
to accumulate by the return of spring an abundant supply of new sap ; 
and this is all that he need be particularly reminded of, if he under- 
stands his business scientifically ; if he does not, advice to him would 
be only a waste of words. [Gbeen-House.] 

CONSERVES differ from confections in minor details only. They 
are formed of flowers, herbs, roots, fruits, and seeds, all recent an 1 
fresh, beaten up with powdertd sugar to the consi-itence of a stiff 
paste, — as a means of preserving the distinctive qualities of the jilant in 
a fresh state. The range of sub.-itances thus treated is very extensive. 

CONSIDERATION. This is a Latin word, cmisiderulw. which, as 
well as the verb covtidero, » as used by Cicero and others to express 
" careful observation," or "reflection," or "deliberation before action." 
It has nothing to do with looking at the stars, as the Latin grammarian 
Festufl states ; but it implies something which is nearer to the business 
of common life than star-gazing : it implies the sitting down of a man 
in a place alone or with others. The word consideration means 
" deliberation " iu the English langtuige of common life. 

But the term consideration has also a legal and technical meaning, 
independently of its prim.iry and common meaning ; namely, the 
recompense which a party who enters into a contract gets for making, 
or the motive or inducement which he has to make, the contract in 
question ; and such consideration may be either e.rpi-eas or iiiqflied. 
Tho following are exam|)le3 of expresn consideration : If a man agrees 
to sell his land to another for lOOA, the 100/. is the consideration for 
which he, the former, agrees to part with his land ; or if a man 
promises to give 1000/. to another if he will marry his daughter, the 
fact of the latter miurying the daughter is the consideration for the 
agreement of the former to pay the 1000/. But there may be an 
implied consideration in many cases where none is expre-sstd : for 
example, a man may undertake to do a piece of work for another with- 
out any express bargain that he shall be paid ; but if he does the work 
according to his agreement, the other man may be compelled to pay 
him, because the law implies a promise on his part to pay if the work 
is done ; and the implied consideration for this promise is the under- 
taking of the workman to do the work in question. 

Contracts not under seal cannot be enforced if made without a 
consideration. A man may promise verbally or in WTiting to give 
another 1000/. ; but the promise cannot be enforced unless there is a 
consideration for it ; that is, some cause or reason which moved the con- 
tracting party to enter into the contract. But with regard to contracts 
under seal, the rule is difl'erent ; for the law assumes such a contract 
to have been entered into with due deliberation, and binds the con- 
tractor to his engagement, whether he received a consideration for it 
or not. 

Considerations are sometimes divided into raliiaUe considerations 
and good considerations. Marriage is a valuable consideration ; money, 
or any other thing which is of the nature of property, and has a com- 
mon value, is a valuable consideration. If a man parts with his estate 
for a valuable consideration, the transaction is valid, and he who gets 
the estate has, so far as the consideration is concerned, a good title. A 
good consideration, on the other hand, is not sufficient to maintain tho 
validity of a conveyance of property against the claim of a subsequent 
purchaser for a valuable consideration. Thus, if a man after his 
marriage settles an estate upon his wife and childrdh in consideration 
of natural affection, and then sells the estate for money, the purchaser 
will have the estate, and not tho wife and children (Hill v. Bishop of 




Eaator, a TMut 09),— «ueh • MttlMMBt attar mKrri»g» Iwiac h«M to 
bsToiunUiyorgratuHoaa. But • HttlaoMBt of pro|Mt^ made in ooo- 
ddmtiua of a future marriMe, wUA afterwarde taxee phoe, U • 
■ettlamoDt fur valuable oaaakteimUon ; and ao b an actual lettlement 
after mairiage, if it ia made purauant to a written agnetamt entered 
into before marria^ But the diatinction juat pointed out between 
gooif and nbutbU oonaiJeimUaiw eziata only in the oaae of cootracta 
mnUr «m(. In the oaae of contraota not muter taU, no oonaideration is 
good which ia not alao valuable. 

80 bj the Statute IS Elia. o 5, the object of which Ui to prevent 
ptwoaa from cheating their creditura by diapoaing of their real or 
pmmami property, it ia declared that the provtaiona of the Act do nut 
•stand to eatatea or intarea t a made or ocoveyed " upon good cunniilera- 
ttoo and homi JUU ; ' and the term good oonaidaratinn here ban been 
bdd to be equivalent to what haa been above defined to be a valuable 

He Acta 27 Kliz. c. 4, and 30 Eliz. c. 18, § S, made void, as against 
■ubaequent purvhaaers, all conveyanoea, &c, of real pro|)erty which are 
made for the |>ur|K><iai of defrauding such purchaaers, unleaa " upon or 
for good consideration and bonA jfiie." Thia statute baa received a 
aingular interpretation ; for it haa been decided that it makes void a 
previous conveyance, though not made to defraud any one, if the oon- 
inderation ia not such aa the atatute intenda ; and accordingly, as in tlie 
eaaa juat atated, if a nian settles hia Umd after marriage on his wife and 
chi}<b«n, and then aelU it, the prior aettlement ia void aa a fraudulent 

A voluntary conveyance by a luan who is at the time insolvent is 
not valid against hia creditors ; but if a man is not insolvent at the 
time, a voluntary conveyance — that is, one where there is no valuable 
oonaideration — ia valid against future creditors. (13 Eliz. c. 5.) A 
conveyance for valuable consideratiun, such as marriage, is a valid con- 
Tqyanoe, even if a man be inaolvent at the time. An inaolvent may 
therefore cheat his creditora by settling his property on a woman with 
a view to marriage, and then marrying her; but in certain casea, such 
■ettlementa are not valid against creditors when made by a ]>eraon who 
ia subject to the bankrupt laws. A voluntary conveyance is not valid 
against a future purchaser for good considvntion : it is a fraudulent 
transaction accordmg to the oonatruction of the 27th of Eliz. ; and as 
anch ia declared void against the purchaser. If the purchaser knew 
that there waa such a voluntary prior coureyauce, that makes no 
dUTer^nce ; his purchase ia valid against such conveyance. 

It appears from these instances that Uie fact of there being a good 
consideration may be evidence that there is no fraud ; and uiat the 
absence of it may raise a presumption of fraud. 

Every deed, therefore, or instrument by which property ia conveyed 
to another, ought to show some consideration for which the person 
conveys such property ; for though a deed is valid between the parties 
to it when no consideration is expressed, it may be invalid with respect 
to other peraons who are not parties to it. 

There is no absolute amount of consideration which can be legally 
required ; but if the amount were very small, this might in some 
cases raise a prestunption of fraud ; although, even if the amutmt of 
oonaideration should be the full value of the thing conveyed, it might be 
neceaaary in aome ca s es to inquire whether the consideration expressed 
ma aot<ully paid. 

In the case of a contract or agreement to give or settle property, the 
neceaaity for a consideration is obvious, boui for the protection of the 
giver, and of others to whom he ia indebted, or whom it is his moral 
duty to provide for. No such contract can be enforced unless it be 
made as a sufficient legal consideration. An agreement to settle pro- 
perty on a lawful cluld may be such consideration ; the cose of an 
illegitimate child is not such a consideration. An illegitimate child is 
viewed as standing to his supposed father exactly in the aituation of a 

Many curious legal questioiu have arisen on the doctrine of con- 
aideration, as, for instance, in the case of one man ]>romising to (my the 
debt of another. But the rule is, that a promise to pay a debt already 
inetured by another is not binding, imleea it lie made on some con- 
sideration : — for example, the agreement by the creditor to forbear 
proceedings against the debtor to recover it ; or unless such debt was 
originally incurred at the request of the party making such promise. 

Of course any contract made in consideration of the doing of a 
fraudident or illiwal act, is void. 

COXSl.STOKY ia the court christian, or spuitual court, formerly 
held in the nave of the cathedral church, or in some chapel aisle or 
portico belonging to it, in which the bishop presided, and liiid goniii of 
his clergy for aasesaora and assistants. But this court i» now held by 
the bishop's chancellor or commiaaary, and by archdeacona and their 
officiala, either in the cathedral church or other convenient place in 
the diooeae, for the hearing and determining of matters of ecclesiastical 
oonuaanoe happening within that dioceae. 

By atat. 24 Henry VIII. c. 12, an appeal lie* from thia court to the 
court of the archbishop of the province ; but as proceedinipi againat 
the beneficed clergy now tak/e pUco under the Church Diacipline Act, 
8 ft 4 Vict. c. 86, and againat curates \mder stat. 1 ft 2 Vict..c. 106, 
and procewUnga againat Uymen are almoat unknown, the functions of 
the conaiatory court are rarely called into action. 
CONSOLS, a term familiarly uaed to denote a conaiderable iioi-tion of 

the- public debt of the United Kingdom, more correctly known aa the 
three par cent consolidated annuitiea. Thia (Kirtiuu uf the debt originated 
under an Act 25 Geo. II., whereby various jieqictual and lottery 
annuitiea then outstanding, and which from the time of their creation 
had res]iectivBly borne an interest of S per cent., were brought under 
one head in the public aooounta. Vanoua additions have from time 
to time been made to tlie amount of these annuitiea ; and, on the other 
hand, aome diminution haa been efl°eoted by the operation of tlie sink- 
ing-fund and the application of surplus revenue. The capital out- 
standing and unraduemed imder this head, on the 5th of January, 
1859, amounted to 407,202,8551., of which 6,378,0441. waa on aooount uf 
the Itiah debt. The whole bean an interest uf 8 per cent, per annum. 

CONSONANCE, in Muaio, a term which haa, we think, often been 
explained with too atrict a r«gard to its et^-mological meaning. That 
it aignifies one »o»nd heard trith aitother la undeniable, but the two 
aounds must, in our opinion, be concords. [Concord.] dnuoiuiMt 
and dumuince are words which, in music, ought to be oonaidared aa 
sj'nonyma of ameord and ditcord. 

CONSONANT. [Alphabkt.] 

CONSPIRACY. Every conspiracy to do an milawful act which is 
injurious to individuals or to the public, is a misdemeanor at the 
common law of England. Many frauds afiectiug individuals, which 
cannot be made the subject of proaecution as such, become indictable 
when they are effected by the oo-operation of several confedei-atea. 
Thu.'<, where several |iersona agree by indii-ect means to impoverish a 
third person, ."u by circulating oilumnies injurious to his character or 
credit, the ofience is punishable as a conspiracy, though the concerted 
acta alone, when committed by individuals, could only have formed 
the subject of a civil action by the injured party. Another instance of 
this is, the case of a conspiracy among journeymen or servants to raise 
the price of wagea, by molesting those who work under a certain price. 
In funner timea, persona convicted of conspiracy at the suit of tlie 
king (the nature of which otbnoe is very doubtful), were liable to 
receive what was called rillaiiwus judgment, by which they were ren- 
dered incapable of acting as jurors or witnesses, their lands and gooda 
were forfeited for life, and their bodies committed to prison. This 
judgment was never however inflicted upon peraons convicted of con- 
spiracies of a leas aggravated kind at the amt of the party ; and in 
modem times, the vmainoiia judgment having become obsolete by long 
disuse, the puniahment of conspiracy haa been by fine, imprisonment, 
and sureties for good behaviour, at the discretion of the court. (Itusaell 
on Crimet and M'ademeamm, vol. ii.) 

CONSTABLE. This word is supirosed by Ducange, Spelman, 
Cowell, and other legal etymologists, to be corruj)ted from coma ttabuli, 
which was another name forthe<ri6«niM staliUi or prepofitiia equoram, a 
kind of master of the horae, frequently mentioned as an officer of 
state in the middle ages. (See Ducange's ' Glossary,' mf rocem' Comoa 
Stabuli.') Sir Edwiu-d Coke, Selden, and several other writers, insist 
upon another etymology — from two Saxon words, kuniinj, a king, and 
itajid or ttahtl, a stay or supjiort — jiuurt eolumen rtijU. Both these 
derivations are etiually remote from the description of the office of 
our modem constable ; but the former appears to be far the more pro- 
bable ; and in accordance with it, the constable of Franc-e was an im- 
portant officer of the highest rank in that country, who had the chief 
command of the army, and h-td judicL-U cognisance of military ofiences ; 
and whoso duty it was to regulate all matters of chivaliy, such aa 
tilts, tournaments, and feats of arms. This office was suppressed in 
France by an edict in the year 1607 ; it was revived by Napoleon, and 
constituted one of the six grand dignities under the French empire ; 
and was finally abolished upon the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty 
in 1814. 

Immediately after tho Norman conquest, we find in England an 
officer of the crown called the Lord High Constable, whose duties, 
powers, and juris<liction were in most respects strictly analogous to 
those of the constable of France. The oflloe waa one of great dignity 
and power, both in war and peace, the coiiatable having the command 
of the army and the regulation of all military affiiira. He waa the 
supreme judge of the court of chivalry, in which character his en- 
croachments upon other courta were ao heavy a grievance in early 
times, that the stat IS Rich. II. c. 2, n-as passed to reatrict his juris- 
diction to " cjntracta and deeds of arms and things which touch wai-, 
and which cannot be discussed or determined by the common law." 
The office for several centuries after the Conquest, passed by inherit- 
ance in the line of tho Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Eaaex, and after- 
wards in the lino of their lieira-general, the Staffords, Dukes of Buck- 
ingham, ill right of certain iiiaiiorn held by them by the feudal sen'ice 
of liuing constibles of England. The fees of the office were extremely 
burdenaome to the crown ; and the {loeseaaiou by a aubject of the 
hereditaiy right to command the militia of the realm, independently of 
any royal a|>|xiintiuent, waa an unusual and frequently a dangerous 
power; ami on this account Henry VIII., in the early part of his 
reign (1514), conaulted the judges resiiecting the mcina of alydishing 
the tenure. He was advised by them, that as the iiRlivi<lual!< huMing 
the manors were only compellable to exercise the office ail vulmiliUtm 
rtgii, he had the |K)wer of discharging the feudal service altogether ; 
and acting upon this opinion, the king abolished the office, by dia- 
cUiming to have the services any longer executed. (See Dyer's 
' Reiwrts,' p. 282 b.) The effect of tliis was, that Edward Stafford, 






the last Duke of Buckingham in that line, the hereditaiy high constable 
of England at the time of this resolution, held the manors after this 
period discharged of the service of being constable. All doubt which 
might have been suggested respecting the legal extinction of the 
office by this means, was removetl eight yeiirs afterwards by the 
attainder of the Duke of Buckingham for high treason, upon whicli 
e%-ent the manors in question were forfeited to the crown. Since that 
time, the office of high constable has never been granted to any subject 
excepting jirn hdc rice, upon great and solemn occasions, such as the 
king's coronation or trials of peers. 

" Out of this high office," says Lambard, in his ' Duties of Con- 
stables,' " the lower constableship was first drawn and fetched, and is 
(iis it were) a rerie finger of that hand ; for the statute of Winchester, 
which was made in the time of Edward I., and by which the lower 
constables of hundreds and franchises were first ordained, doth, 
among other things, appoint that, for the better keeping of the peace, 
two constables in every hundred and franchise should make the view 
of armour." He then concludes, in justification of his etym<jlogy of 
the t^rm, that " the name of a constable in a hundred or franchise 
doth mean that he is an officer that supporteth the kmg's majesty in 
the maintenance of his peace." This derivation of the office of a 
common constable seems very improbable, esjwcially as it is the better 
opinion that these officers were known to the common l.iw before the 
statute of Winchester. (See Hawkins's ' Pleas of the Crown, book ii. 
cap. 10.) An ancient judicial authority, chief justice Fineux, in the 
reign of Henry VII., gives a more reasonable account of the matt«r. 
He says that w^hen the superintendence of the peace of a county was 
found too great a task for the sheriff, hundreds were formed, and a 
conservator of the paace under the sheriff appointed in cich, who was 
vailed a constable. This was the high constable, or constable of the 
hundred. In process of time, as population increased and towns grew 
into existence, it was found expedient to make a further subdivision 
for the preservation of the peace ; and accordingly, conservators were 
appointed for manors, vills, and tithings, who were then called petty 
constables. (See ' Year Book,' 12 Henry VII., pi. 18.) 

Following this account of their origin, which is confirmed by many 
of the minute incidents of the two offices, constables, in the 
acceptation of the term at the present day, are of two kinds ; constables 
of hundreds, who are still called high constables, and constables of vills 
or tithings, who are called either petty const-ibles or tithingmen. Both 
high and petty constables were formerly chosen by the jury at the 
court leet, and were sworn in and admitted there by the lord or his 
dtevrard; but afterwards the high constables were usually chosen by 
the magistrates at the quarter-sessions, and now, under the 7 & 8 Vict. 
c. 33, by the justices at special sessions of the division held for hearing 
appeals from the parish rates. 

The petty or fiarish constables who had been from ancient times 
appointisd to their office yearly by the court leet, are now, by virtue of 
the 6 & 6 Vict., c. 109, amended by the 7 & 8 Vict., c. 52, and the 
13 Vict., c. 20, appointed by the justices at special sessions held for the 
puTjiose yearly, between the 24th of March and the 9th of April, from 
lists prepared by the overseers of each parish, of persons qualified to 
serve ; but the choice of the justices is not restricted to such lists, and 
their appointment is valid if it be of a person duly qualified, though 
his name is not on the overseers' list. "The qualification includes every 
" able bodied man resident within the parish, between the ages of 25 
and 65 years, rated to the relief of the poor, or to the county rate, on 
any tenements of the nett yearly value of 4/. or upwards ; " but this is 
subject to a very numerous list of exemptions given in the act, and 
also to the distpialification of all licensed victuallers, and persons 
licensed to deal in any exciseable liquor, or to sell beer by retail, or 
gamekeepers, and all persons who have been attainted of any treason 
or felony, or convicted of any infamous crime. 

But the insufficiency of the ancient means of police coming to be 
increasingly felt, as modem society advanced in civilisation. Sir Robert 
Peel, when Secretary of State for the Home Depirtment, in 1829, was 
enabled by parliament under the 10 Geo. IV., c. 44, amended by the 
2 & 3 Vict., c. 47, to establish the metropoUtan police force, under the 
regulation of two salaried justices or commissioners, to whom is en- 
trusted, subject to the approbation of the Secretary of State, the 
ap|K>inbnent, control, and regulation of the jwlice of the metropolitan 
district. This was fnllowetl by the Municiiial Corporations Act (5 & 6 
Will. IV., c. 7ft). which i)rovided, sec. 76, for the ap)x)intment of con- 
stables by the Watch Committee, to keep the peace within the cities 
and boroughs of England and WiUes. Many large towns and cities, 
including the city of London, have their poUcc appointe<l imd regulated 
under local statutes, obtained for the purpose, and many others have 
availed themselves of the general powers contained in the Town Police 
Clauses Act, 1847, the 10 & 11 Vict., c. 89. As the same sense of in- 
security gradually expanded into the niral districts of the country, 
provision came to be made by the 2 & 3 Vict. c. 93, and the 3 & 4 
Vict., c 88, for the appointment of additional constables for counties 
or districts of coimties, in accordance with the report of justices in 
quarter sessions, or sessions of the liberty, to the Secretary of State, 
respea^ng the necessity and number of such constables in the district 
or county. But this power was used so sparingly by the country 
justices, and burglaries and crimes with riolence became so frequent 
in the ucglectcl districts, that parliament, by the 19 d, 20 Vict., c. 69, 

made it compulsory ou the justices at the general or quarter sessions, 
next after the 1st of December, 1856, to establish a sufficient police 
force in every county or residue of a county, where no such sufficient 
force existed when the statute wa.s made. The statute provides for 
annual returns connected with the state of crime in the country, and 
for a contribution from the consolidated fuud, of one-fourth of the 
expeuse for pay and clothing of the police of counties and boroughs, 
established under that or the two previous acts already mentioned, if 
such force is approved as efficient by the Secretary of State. 

Besides the coustiibles and police already mentioned, two or more 
justices of the peace, upon information that disturbances exist or are 
apprehended, are authorised by the 1 & 2 Will. IV., c. 41, amended by 
the 5 & 6 Will. IV., c. 43, to appoint special constables; and by the 
83rd section of the Municipal Reform Act, magistrates in boroughs are 
authorised to swear in as many inhabitants as they think fit, to act as 
special constables when called upon. 

With regard to the powers and duties of these officers, it is enacted 
by the Metropolitan Police Act and the Reform Act that the 
constables to be appointed under those statutes respectively " shall 
have all such powers and privileges, and be liable to all such duties and 
responsibilities, as any constable has within his constablewick by virtue 
of the common l*w of this realm ;" and hence it becomes of great prac- 
tical importance to ascertain with precision the common-law incidents 
of the office of constable. 

1. By the common law constables are said to have been conservators 
of the peace ; and in consequence of this character probably every 
constable has undoubted authority to arrest all persons who oonuuit an 
affray, assault, or breach of the peace in his presence, and keep them in 
safe custody until they can be brought before a magistrate. It is said 
also by ancient authorities, that by virtue of his power as a conservator 
of the peace, he may him.self, on view of a bre.ach of the peace, take 
surety of the jwace by bond, though he cannot do so by recognisance, 
being incompetent to administer an oath. But as his duty is to pre- 
serve the peace, and not to punish for the breach of it, it is doubtful 
whether he can arrest by his own authority and without a warrant, 
upon the information or charge of a third person, for an affray com- 
mitted in his absence. (See the case of ' Timothy v. Simpson,' 
1 Crompton, Heeson, and Roseoe's ' Reports,' p. 760.) By sect. 9 of 
the Meb'opoUs Police Act, and by sect. 79 of the Municipal Corpo- 
ration Reform Act, and sect. 8 of the Rural Police Act, the 2 & 3 Vict. 
c. 93, constables appointed under those Acti are expressly authorised, 
in charges of petty misdemeanour in the night-time, to take bail by 
recognis.ince for the appearance of the offender before a magistrate 
within a limited time. 

2. A constable having reasonable cause to suspect that a felony has 
been committed, may arrest and detain the supjwsed offender until he 
can be brought before a magistrate to have his conduct investigated ; 
and he will be justified in so doing, even though it should afterwards 
ap|)ear that in fact no felony was committed. In this case there is a 
(Ustinction between the authority of a constable and that of a private 
l>erson ; the former may airest if he can show a reasonable gi-ouud of 
suspicion that a felony has been committed '; but a private person, in 
order to jiistify himself for causing the imprisonment of another, must 
prove, in addition to the reasonable suspicion of the individual, that a 
felony has actually been committed. A constable is bound to arrest 
any person whom he sees committing a felony, or any person whom 
another positively charges with having committed a felony ; but, gene- 
rally 8(ieaking, he has no authority to arrest for a misdemeanour, either 
upon his own reasonable suspicion or the chaise of another person, 
without a magistrate's warrant. AVith respect to the authority of a 
constable to arrest for felony or breach of the peace, Mr. Justice Buller 
is reported to have said, that " if a peace-officer, of his own head, tikes 
a person into custody on suspicion, he must prove that such a crime 
was committed ; but if he receives a person into custody on a charge 
preferred by another of felony or breach of the peace, then he is to be 
considered as a mere conduit ; and if no felony or breach of the peace 
was committed, the |)er8on who prefened the charge alone is answer- 
able." Lord EUenborough (m the case of ' Hobbs i: Branscomb,' 
3 Campbell's ' Reports,' 420), said that " this rule appeared to bo 

3. Constables were authorised by the common law to arrest such 
" strange persons as do walk abroiid in the night-season." (See Lam- 
bard, ' Constable," p. 12.) This authority, which was perhaps suffi- 
ciently definite in times when the curfew was in i)ractice and watch 
and ward were being kejrt, is at the present day of so vague a nature, 
that a peace-officer could scarcely act under it without imminent 
danger of an action in every jxirticuLir instance. It is, however, obvi- 
ously essential to the efficiency of any system of police, that con- 
stables should be anned with some general authority of this nature, 
especially in towns. By the 7th section of the Metropolitan Police Act, 
it is provided that " any man belonging to the police force appointed 
under that Act may apprehend all loose, idle, and disorderly peraons 
whom he shall find disturbing the public peace, or whom he shall have 
just cause to suspect of any evil designs, and all jiersons whom he 
shall find between sunset and the hour of eight in the forenoon lying 
in any highway, yard, or other place, or loitering therein, and not 
giving a sttisfactory .account of themselves, and deliver them to the 
constable in attendance at the nearest watch-house, to be (iocured until 





they on b* brought Iwfore • mmUtnto.'* The HunioipiU Corc'nitiiN 
Act oontains » umiUr but la* oompmbeoaivs pruvuion, aulborisii' 
" u\y noiMtable appaiiitad uadar that Act, while uo dutjr, to apprcheuti 
all idle and diaoraarij pavom witbia th« borough whuia ha ahall find 
diaturbinc the puUie twaa, or whooi bo ahall have juat cauaa to auapaot 
of intantioo to oommit a feluny." Boaidaa thaa* apeoifio outboritiea, 
however, which apply only to the metro|>olitiUJ police diatrict iind the 
borou^M aflacted by the U unieipal Corpurat^ona Act, there ia no doubt 
that in general a cvuatable, by virtue of hin oonuuon-Uw auUiority, 
inay atop any paraoa Dairying by night a bundle or gooda under cir- 
ouinataiieaa of reaaooable auauiouMi ; and if, upon examining hiui, hia 
^Hfif^jnii. are not remurad, he may detain him in hia ouatody. A 
eooatablo has alao a gvoeral auUiority to n|>preheDd for oflTencea againat 
the Vacrsnt Act, 4 & 5 Qeo. IV., c. 83, or agiunat the Laroeoy Act or 
the Italicioua Injuriea Act, 7 ft 8 Goo. IV., c. 29 and 30. 

4. In the execution of a warrant a constable acts no lunger oa a 
ocoaervator of the peace, but aa a ministerial officer to the niagiatrate 
who aigna it. He ia the proper officer to a juatioa of the peace, and ia 
boimd by bw to execute his warrants, and may be indicted for dia- 
obeying them. It ia hia duty to execute the warrant of a magiatrate 
•• aoon aa it cornea to hia luuida ; and where he arrasta ot diatraina, or 
does any other act within his preuinct, though it is not abeolutely 
neoeaaaiy by law that ho ahould show bis warrant, be ought alwaya to 
give notice of it, and he will be wise to produce it ia all cases where 
it ia demanded. II, however, he act out of hia precinct, or be nut 
sworn and commonly known, he must show his warrant if demAaded ; 
but aa the warrant couatitutea his justification, he is not required to 
part with it out of his posseadon. If the oonatable has a legal warrant 
to arrest fur felony, or even breach of the peace, be may break open 
doors after having demanded admittance and given notice of liis 
warnuit ; and if, after such notice, be is resisted and killed, it will be 
murder If a warrant be directed to a constable by his name of office 
merely, he is tuUAarUtd by the 5 Oeo. IV., c. 18, to the some extent as 
when tlie warrant is addreeaed to him by his own personal name, to 
execute it out of his own uunstablewick, provided it be witLio the 
jtihadiction of the magistrate who signs it ; but he is not bound to do 
so, and may in all caaea make his election whether be will go beyond 
his own procincta or not. 

5. The Uw has made several provisions for the indemnity and pro- 
tection of constables in the proper discharge of their duty. Thus by 
the Stat. 7 Jac. I., c 5, if an itction be brought against a constable for 
anything done by virtue of his office, he may plead the general issue 
and give the special matter in evidence; and if he recovers, he is 
entitled, by the 5 4 6 Vict., c. 97, to full costs. Formerly if a magis- 
trate granted a warrant in a matter over which be bad no jurisdiction, 
the officer who executed it was liable to an action of tree^Kiss for so 
doing ; but by the 24 (3eo. II., c. 44, s. 6, it is enacted that no action 
shall be brought against any constable for anything done in obedience 
to the wommt of a justice of the peace, unless be bos neglected or 
refuaed to show his warrant on being required so to do. And if, ufter 
he haa shown his warrant, any action is brought against the constable 
alone, without joining the justice who signed the warrant, the 
defendant, on producing the warrant at the trial, is entitled to a 
verdict, notwithstanding the defect of the justice's jurisdiction ; and if 
the action be brought against the constable jointly with the justice, 
the constable is entitled to a verdict on proof of the warrant. By the 
8tli aeot of the same statute, all actions against constables fur anything 
done in the execution of their uffiuo must be brought within six mouths. 
For the further protection of constables, the stat. 9 Oeo. IV. c. 31, s. 25, 
enacts that i>er8ons convicted of asciaulte upon jieace-officers in the due 
execution of their duty may be imprisoned with hard labour for two 
years, and be fined or required to find sureties for keeping the peace. 

For the guidance of the metroix>litan police force, the commis- 
aioners deliver to each of the men printed clirectious, which contun an 
accurate and perspicuous summai7 of the laws relating to the duties, 
liabilities, and indemnities of constables. In those boroughs which 
have adopted a new system of police under the Municipal Corporations 
Act, similar codes of instruction have been issuetl to the constables. 
(For fuller information upon the whole of tliis subject, see Viuer's 
' Abridgment,' Bacjn's ' Abridgment,' Bum's ' Justice,' title ' Constable,' 
and Blackitone's ' Commentaries,' by R. M. Kerr, LL D., vol. i.) 

century we find the office in poKsession of Hugh de Siorvill, of the 
lamily of the De Morvilles, Uirons of Burgh, co. Cumberland, con- 
temporary with one Edward, Conestabulus ; himself constable of 
ScotUnd, and the poaseasor of vast estates in Toviotdale, Lauderdale, 
Lothian, Clydesdale, and Cuninghnuc. He died iu 1102, and the 
office was enjoyed by his dci<cendantH till it came to John Comyn, enri 
of Btichan, who was deprived of it in the year KluS for his atlherenco 
to the Baliol interest. Sir Cilliort de Hay, of Krrol, was then made 
coostable of Scotland during pluwure ; and in 1311 the office was 
be»t<)we<l on David de Stratbbogic, carl of Athipl, in like manner 
during pic.-wure ; but ho being soon afterwards outIawe<l for espousing 
the c:iu''a of iialiol, Sir (iilbert do Hay, before mentioned, got the office 
in fee and heritage iu the year 1314 ; since which time the constable's 
staff, then put into his lumls by Bruce, has remained in the Errol 

The office and jurisdiction of the lord high constable of Scotland 

I ..-, 

,,m those of the like officer in England. No formal u' ' " 
IKiwera of the lord justiciar of Scotland, such as t 
.-^ .itjaking up of the aula recia of EngUud, was over i' 
former kingdom ; nor when in toe course of years this h- 
Uw onoe laige powers of the justidar pass to the like officii 
oountiy as in the other. On the new modelling of the juiluial |julity 
of EogUnd by King Edward I., the constable and mareschni were net 
over a oourt of chivalry, with jurisdiction in matters of I 1 

arms. But in these, the constable of Scotland never had 
His jurisdiction was of the nature of that in England, \ 
Henry VIII. c. 12, in the lord steward of the king's hour i 

his absence) of the troosurer, comptroller, and steward of 1 1 1 1 

see; for according to the Leges Male. II , he judged jointly with the 
mareschal in all transgressions o immitted within certain limits of the 
king's court. But even this jurisdiction seems to have been exercised 
in ilict by the lord justiciar ; the constable only jmitestine against the 
interference with his powers. In the reign of King Cbanea I. a com- 
mission was issued to inquire into the nature and extent of the con- 
stable's jurisdiction ; and they rejnrted that it extended to all slaughters 
and riots committed within four miles of the king's person, or of the 
parliament or privy council. No alteration was made at the Union ; 
and l» the act 20 Gbo. II. c 43 — which swept away so many other 
heritable jurisdictions — the office and jurisdiction of the lord high 
constable of Scotland were expressly reserved. 

CONSTANCK, COUNCIL OF. [Councils of the Chuiich.] 

CONSTANT, a quantity which remains the same throughout a 
problem. Thus iu the question, required that point of a circle which 
IS at a given distance from a given straight line, the radius of the 
circle is a constant. If the [iroblem require the use of twenty difibreut 
points of the circle, the radius is the some for all. 

A constant may be determinate, or it may be indeterminate or 
arbitrary. Thus the proportion between the circumference and dia- 
meter of a circle is a determinate constant, being 355 to 1 1 3 very 
nearly ; but in the problem, required the relation which exists between 
the abscissa and ordinate of a circle, the radius of that circle ia on 
arbitrary constant. 

The term constant is frequently applied to any remarkable or veiy 
necessary number wliich enters a question, as follows : By the fnittaut 
of aberration is meant that one constant by the determination of which 
the aberration is obtjtine<l from its known laws at any given time ; iu 
this case it is the maximum aberration, or about 20^". [ABEBnATloK.j 
Thus we have the constant of nutation, the constant of friction, &c. 

Nothing is more common in works than the term 
rai-iatimi uf coruslantt, which appears a contradiction. But its mwming 
is as follows : A quantity which upon one supiMsitiou would remain 
constant, becomes variable by the introduction of another supposition. 
Thus, taking into account the earth's attraction only, the longitude of 
the moon's notle is constant ; but by the attraction of the suu and 
planets, its place is slowly changed, ia this case one of the constants 
is said to vary. 

CONSTELLATION (a putting together of stars), the name of one 
of those groups of stars into which the whole heavens are divided, and 
to each of wluch is imagine<l to belong the figure of a man, an animal, 
or some other object, natural or artificial. 

The history of the constellations is a matter of mythological antiquity, 
the most curious features of which are connected with the twelve signs 
or constellations of the Zodiac, or the sun's apparent ye.-uly track. It 
is sufficient for us here to say, that it is certain wo derive our constel- 
lations for the most part from the Greeks, and that it is nearly as 
certain that they derived them from the East, though it is highly pro- 
bable that they altered the legends to suit their own mythology, and 
in some instances even the figures. Their firmament, if it confined 
itself to recording the vast and striking events of their mythic system, 
as in Argo or Hercules, might liear an external presimijjtion of origin- 
ality, whicli it wants altogether while so prominent a constellation as 
the Great Bear represents nothing but the unimportant and irrelevant 
story of Callisto. But while we are just in possession of sufficient 
knowledge to deny the original formation of the constellations t*! the 
Greeks, luid jwrhaiw even to the Egj'ptians, we have not enough to say 
in what nation they were first con8tnicle<l. 

The method of fig\iriug the conste'lations, though ui many instances 
it gives groups which are striking to the naked eye, is one of the worst 
which could have been invent<;d for the modem purposes of astronomy. 
A dragon winding round three-qu,->rter8 of the globe, and a man 
extending his arms and legs between half a dozen other figures, cannot 
connect their included stars in any manner which will lead to useful 
combin.itions. So that iu our modem catalogues, though K Dmconis 
and : Di'acoiiis arc said to be in the same constellation, the contuclion 
ia lutri'ly one of names, .and suggests no ideas of relative position. 
There are even instances iu which stars bearing the name of one con- 
stell.ation are situated in another. 

Wo shall proceed to describe the methods by which the stars in a 
constellation are distinguished, and the plan we have adopted in the 
present work. The letters of Bayer are genei-ally adopted for all the stars 
in his maps. The stars were ranged by him in order of brilliauoy, as 
they appeared to the nailed eye, about the year IfiOO. The Greek letters 
were first used, and afterwards the Italic sm.-vll letters. Thus, a is the 
most brilliant star in a constellation occoi-diiig to B;iyer, while p, q, &c.. 




are comparatively faint. Other astronomers have since carried on the 
lettering of Bayer, and we have latterly (in this worli) distinguished 
the letters added since Bayer's time by parentheses in all those con- 
stellations which were partly lettered by Bayer and partly by -others. 
But in all cases the extent of Bayer's letters may be ascertained by 
reference to the article in the BlOG. Div. heade<l by his name. The 
letters liad been adopted, however, previously to Bayer. [Piocolomini, 
in BioG. Dtv.] 

The next step in the arrangement was that of Flamsteed, who retained 
the old method of describing stars by their situation in the figure of 
the constellation (as in the leg, in the head, &c.), but placed the stars 
of each constellation in order of right ascension, or in the order in 
which they come on the meridian. Succeeding astronomers described 
each star by the number which it stood from the beginning in the 
constellation, and calle<l it Flamsteed's number. Thus 7 Draconis 
means that star of Draco which comes on the meridian the seventh of 
all the stars observed by Flamsteed in that constellation. Mr. Baily, 
in his new edition of the British Catalogue, introduced new stars 
from Flamsteed's pa[)er3, but has allowed them to stand n-ithout dis- 
turbing the estabhsbed numbering, and they are easily identified by 
the general niuubering of the new catalogue. Thus, there is a star in 
Capricomus between 12 Capr. and 1.3 Capr., which may be described 
as 2786 of Mr. Baily's edition, that is, the ■2786th from the equinox of 
1690 of all the stars observed by Flamsteed, both of those which are 
in the 'British Catalogue' of .\.D. 1725, and those which have been 
since drawn from Flamsteed's papers. 

The numbering of Piazzi is on a different and inferior principle. 
The whole heavens being divided into twenty-four hours of right 
ascension, the stars are numbered in their respective hours of right 
ascension. For instance, (303) Can. Maj. is, accortUng to Piazzi, a 
star in Canis Major, not the 303rd of that constellation, but the 303rd 
of the hour of right ascension in which it fell in the year 1800, count- 
ing the first star of the catalogue which passed after the sidereal clock 
had marked the hour as 1, the second star as 2, &c., and affixing to 
each the name of the constellation in which it is. If the equinox were 
fixed, this method would be a good first correction of t^ vagaries of 
the constellations ; but as it is, some stars which were in one hour of 
right ascension when Piazzi formed his catalogue are now in another, 
such as 12 Cancri, 15 Argus, Ac, which were in 1830 on the borders 
of the 7-8 hour of right ascension. 

In most other catalogues, such as those of Bradley, Lacaille, Mayer, 
Fallows, &c., the stars are usually numbered in their order from the 
beginning of the catalogue, the order being that of right ascension. 

The recognised makers of constellations are Aratus, Ptolemy, Bayer, 
Hevelius, and Lacaille. But Tycho Brahd, Lemonnier, and Poczobut 
have each added one constellation in the following Ust, and Halley two. 
The names without any letter are all in Aratus. (Remember, however, 
that Libra is only the clam of the Scorpion, both in Aratus and Pto- 
lemy ) [Libra.] Three additional ones in Ptolemy's Catalogue arc 
denoted by P. : Bayer's by B. ; Hevelius's by H. ; Lacaille's by L. ; 
Tycho Brah^'s by T. ; Halley's by Ha.; Lemonnier's by Le.; and 
Poczobut's by Po. 


AntUa Hn4*am8tica, L. 

Apiwraiui SculptorU, L. 

Apiu, ■ B. 








Celam Scalptoria, I.. 

Cftio»loparclftlii, II. 


Cunea Vi-natici, H. 

CanU Major. 

Canli Minor, P. 






Chaiiialcon, B. 

Circinu., L. 

Clf |ie<» ^iubltski, H. 

Culumba. Urn. 

Coma Ocrt'Dic^s, T. 

Corona AU'tralia, P. 

Cctona RuroalU. 


Cruz, Ba, or by 
Koycr, from Hal. 
Icy'a obaerrationi, 



Dorado, B. 


Equnlcus, P. 

Equuleus Pictoria, L. 


Fornax, L. 


Gnu, B. 


H irologium, !■. 


Bvdra ct Crater.f 

Utdro^ B. 

Indua, B. 

Laceria, H. 


Lro Minor, H. 




Lynx, H. 


Microscoplum, L. 

Monoerroa, B. 


Korma, L. 

Octanx, L. 



Para, B. 



Phenix, B, 


Piftcis Australia. 

Pi-cis VoUna, B. 

Pixia Nautica, L, 

Reticulua, L. 


Bag turioa. 



Bexuna, B. 

Soliurius, Le, 


Taurua Ponlatoiraki, Po. 

Telescopium, L. 

Tiianirula || 

Triangulum Aoitral*, B. 

Tucan, B. 

Uraj Major. 

Ursa Minor. 


Tnlpecula (at Anaer], H. 

* The Aria Indieaof Bayer. [Correct A/Hi Indlca In BiTtn, Bioo. Drv.] 

-f Criit«r i<* a ieparatc eonatellation in i'tolemy. The nciglibouring stars on 
tha body of Hydra were conaidered by Flamatced as part of tiiis oonsielljition. 

X 1 hi* i» the Apia of Bayer, oaU«t Muafla by Lacaille ; there in, however, a 
conateiUtion Muaca, formed by Bode, we believe, and situated close to Aries, 
the suia of whioh are usually conaidered as belonging to Aries. 

i A part of Aqnila In Aratua. 

H Only one In Aratm and Plulemr. Another added by nerclius. 

There are many other constellations formed by different individuals ; 
but these are not now generally admitted. Such are the Autinous of 
Tycho Brah^ ; the Mons Mieualus and Cerberus of HeveUus ; the Oak 
of Charles II. and the Cor Caroli of Halley; the Table Mountain and 
the Nubecula Major and Minor of Lacaille (the latter being not clus- 
ters of distinct stars, but large nebulse) ; the Reindeer of Lemonnier ; 
the Reaper of Lalande ; the Honours of Frederic, the Sceptre of Brau- 
denburgh, Herschel's Telescope, the Balloon, the Mural Quadrant, the 
Cat, and the Log Line of Bode ; and George's Harp of Hell. Many 
others, we believe, have been proposed, but there would be little use 
in reviving their names. In fact, half a century ago, no astronomer 
seemed comfortable in his position till he had ornamented some 
httle cluster of stars of his own picking with a name of his own 

lu the large maps of the stars, published by the Society for the 
Dittitsion of Useful Knowledge, the constellations are figured precisely 
as described by Ptolemy, and the additional ones are not drawn, which 
will therefore render them useful to the readers of Greek astronomical 

CONSTIPATION, an undue retention or an imperfect evacuation 
of the faeces. The alimentary canal, considered physiologically, may 
be divided into two portions ; one appropriated to the conversion of 
the aliment into nutriment, and the other appropriated, among other 
functions, to the separation and discharge of the refuse matter of the 
aliment. The first constitutes the apparatus of digestion, and the 
second that of fiecation. Independently of the organs appropriated to 
the performance of the preparatory operatioas of prehension, mastication, 
insalivation, and deglutition, the apparatus proper to digestion consists 
of the stomach, the duodenum or the second stomach, the jejunum, 
and the ileum, the three latter portions of the alimentary canal forming 
the small intestine.?. It is in these grent digestive chambers that the 
processes of chymification and chylification are performed ; processes 
by which the multifarious substances taken as food are converted into 
an homogeneous substance analogous in its composition to the blood. 
The requisite changes on the food are effected partly by secretions 
formed by the walla of the digestive chambers themselves, aud partly 
by secretions elaborated by distinct organs and conveyed into the 
digestive chambers by separate tubes. These auxiliary organs are the 
pancreas and the liver, the fluids secreted by which perform a most 
important pa: t in the function of digestion. The chyle, the ultimate 
result of the action of these digestive fluids, is absorbed, as it is formed, 
by a set of vessels termetl the lacteals, spread out upon the walls 
more especially of the jejunum and ileum, upon the surface of which 
they take their origin by open mouths. 

But a considerable portion of the substances taken as food is in- 
capable of being converted into chyle ; this is separated from the chyle 
partly in the duodenum, and still more perfectly in the jejunum aud 
ileum, aa it flows over the walls of these extended chamoers. More- 
over, a considerable portion of the digestive lluiJs them-selves does not 
enter into the composition of the chyle, but is separated from it and 
mixed with the refuse matter of the food. Again, the whole extent of 
the alimentary canal, from its commencement to its termination, is 
lined with a membrane which secretes a peculiar fluid, termed mucus. 
This fluid which defends the delicate and sensitive vessels that are 
crowded on every point of the digestive chambers, and which maintains 
those chambers m a state of suppleness wd moisture, is constantly 
formed, removed, and renewed. That portion of it which has served 
its office, and which has become effete, is mixed with the refuse 
matter of the aliment and of the digestive fluids. All these substances 
mixed together in a common mass are transmitted to the second 
portion of the alimentary canal, which consists of the large intestines ; 
namely, the cuicum, the colon, and the rectum, by the operation of 
which the second p:irt of the digestive function, that termed ficcation, 
is performed. This function consists of two procusses ; first, of that 
by which the common mass of excreme.ititious substances is brought 
into a state fit for its discharge from the body ; and secondly of that 
by which a force is generated adequate to Citect its (Uscharge. The 
chief agent by which these substances are brought into a state fit for 
their discharge is the bile. [Bile ; in Nat. Hist. Div.] The agent 
by which their actual discharge is etfected is the muscular coat of the 
intestines, which is excited to contraction, and thereby to the generation 
of the force requisite to the accompUshment of the object, by the 
stimulus of the bile. 

It is obvious, then, that the matters to be discharged from the 
alimentary canal do not consist, as is vulgarly supposed, merely of 
the refuse portion of the food ; this constitutes only a small part of 
those matters; an essential part of it consists of the refuse matter 
of secretions which have performed most important offices in the 
economy. * -■ 

There is manifest in the performance of certain functions of the 
body a tendency to periodicity. The most remarkable of these are the 
return, at regular periods, of the necessity for sleep, of the appetite for 
food, and of the command to remove from the body the excremoutitious 
matters prepared in the alimentary canal. Whatever may have first 
led to the formation of habits, and however they may be varied 
by circumstances which operate at an early period of life, they cannot, 
after having been once formed, be materially and frequently interrupted 
without danger to the health. The interruption of one of these habits 




bj the raUntion of the teoe* bejroiid • detenninete period, uunrlj, the 
period o( twenty-four houn, oonetitutea the diieaie termed oooitiivation ; 
• dinaie often dkreguded, generally oonaidenxl of little imiwrtancc, 
■Jwejre productire of mieoUtf, Mid very frequently tenninnting in a 
fatal reeult 

The alit^tar degrees of eooitipatioa, when, m ia lometunee the oaae, 
they are attended with no appreciable diaturbanoe of any fnnotion, can 
ioarealy be oonddered aa morbid ; but, in general, a retention of the 
fiooea beyond the period of twenty -four boun. it attended with nianifeet 
ditorder. Thia diaorder ii commonly inoreaaed in pmporiion as the 
retentioD i< protracted beyond that determinate period, and in propor- 
tion to the frequency with which auch retention recuni. The anioimt 
o< the diaonirr thim induce<l ia, however, a good deal influenced by 
oonatitutional peculiarity ; for there are individnalii whom ficcal 
evacuation* are not more frequent than once a week, or onoe n fort- 
night, or even once in three weeks. Such an habitiul retention of 
the taiOM, in the few oaaea in which it oocuni, geoerally happeus in 
famalea who lead a aedentaiy life, and who take little food and lem 

The immndi«<^ eflecta of constijiaUon, when this disease oocnrs in 
its usual degree, in ordinary habits, is the production of some one or 
more of those painful states, the signs of which are generally groupe<l 
together under the common name of dyspepsia. There is disordered 
i^ipetite, which is either deficient, capricious, or voracious ; a dry, 
coated, or clammy tongue ; thirst, or some disagreeable taste in the 
mouth ; dulnesa, heaviness, confusion, giddiness, or pain in the head ; 
physical and mental torpor ; dry and hot skin ; ami List, though 
not least, an irritable temper, and a capricious or a desponding 

The remote efTects of constipation are far more numerous and serious 
than is commonly understood. It is impossible to enter into a full 
detail of them in this place. But among the most obvious may be 
mentioned, the origin of various diseases of the skin. 

Moreover, headache and giddiness existing aa severe and permanent 
affections, and the distinct diseases called coUc [Colic], chorea TChorka], 
epilepsy, chloroiiis, hysteria, hemorrhoids, and many others, have their 
most frequent origin in an habitual and protracted retention of the 

The usnal termination of constipation when severe, frequent, and 
obstinate, is in inflammation of the intestines, which commonly assumes 
the form either of ilius [luusj or enteritis [Enteritis], and which 
rapidly proves fatal. 

There is, without doubt, a greater tendency to constipation in some 
temperaments than in others ; in the melancholic, for example, than in 
the sanguineous, and in certain individual peculiarities of constitution. 
But thia tendency would appear to be capable of being s\iperiii- 
duced by the habitual use of certain kinds of indigestible food ; such 
OS imperfectly fermented bread, heavy pastry, as dumplings, 4c. ; 
indigestible vegetables, as cucimibers, melon.?, &c. The tendency thus 
superinduced may be greatly increased by the use of astringent and 
stimulating beverages, sedentary habits, long indulgence in sleep, &c. 
The immediate causes of constipation ore: 1. an impaired or tor^iid 
action of the liver, in consequence of which there is either a deficient 
or a vitiated secretion of bUe. It has been stated that one portion of 
the bile [Bile, N.vt. Hist. Div.] mixes as on essential constituent with 
the chyle, by which the nutritive port of the food is assimilated to the 
constitution of the bloo<I ; the other jwrtion of the bile consists of 
excremeutitioiis matter, princi]>ally of a resinous nature. It is this 
resinous portion of the bile that constitutes the proper stimulus to the 
colon and rectum, whose office it is, by the contraction of the fibres 
which form their muscular coat, to remove the fascal matters from the 
body. A certain change in the quantity or quality of the bile must 
therefore neceas.irily diminish 'the action of these organs, by depriving 
them of the stimidus on which their action mainly depeucU. 2. Torpor 
o{ the muscular coat of the aUmentory canal itself, and more especially 
of that portion of it which constitutes the large intestines. 8. The 
production and accumulation of flatus in these organs, by which their 
thin parietes ore distended, and even a mechanical obstacle is afforded 
to tlie passage of the foioes. 

The treatment of constipation should always have in view two 
objects : 1. The immediate removal of the impacted feeces ; and 2. The 
change of the pathological condition of the system in general, or 
of the alimentary canu in partictUar, on which the fscal retention 

CONSTITUTION, a term often used by persons at the present day 
without any precise notion of what it means. Such a definition of a 
constitution, if it were offered as one, might be defended as equally 
good with many other definitions or descriptions which are involved 
m the terms used whenever a constitution is spoken of. 

The constitutions which are most frequently mentioned are the 
Kagliah constitution, the constitution of the several states composing 
ilie North American Union, the federal constitution, by which these 
Mm* itatea are bound together, and various constitutions of the 
European continent, which have hardly been permanent enough to be 
sutautted to an accurate invcNtigntion. 

The vagiu notion of a constitution is that of certain fundamental 
rule* or lan-s by which the general form of administration in a 
giren oountry ia regulated, and in opposition to which no other 

fundamental nilea or lawa, or any rule* or lawi, oan or tnfjbi to he 


Theejntel notion of a oonatitution cannot be obtained without first 
ubtoiiiing a notion of aorereiga power. The aorereign power in any 
state is that power from whiiA afl Uws properiy ao oidled proceed ; it 
ia that |iower which commands and can enforce obedience. Such a 
power, being sovereign or aupreme, is subject to no other power, and 
cannot therefore be bound by any rulea laid down, either by ihoae 
who have at any prerious time enjoyed the aovereign power in the 
same community, or by any maxims or rules of comluct practised or 
recommended bv ita predaceasora in power, whether those ndea or 
nuucims be merely a matter of long uaage or solemnly recorded in any 
written instrument The aovereign power for the time is supreme, 
and can uiake what laws it pleases without doing any illegal act, and, 
strictly s|>caking, also, without doing any unconstitutional act. For 
this word constitution, token in ita strongest sense, can never mean 
more than a law made or a usage sanctioned by some one or more 
poaaeesed of sovereign power, which law or usage has for many 
generations been observwl by all those who have successively held 
the sovereign power in the same country. To nio<lify or destroy such 
a rule or law might be imwiae, as being an act in opposition to that 
which many suoceaaive generations had found to be a wise and useful 
law ; it might be dangerous as being opposed to that to which the 
prejudices of many generations had given their sanction ; and it might 
lead to resistance on the part of the governed, if either their own 
interest or their pissions were strong enough to lead them to risk a 
contest with the sovereign power. If (aa would generally be admitted) 
the a£8enible<l parliament of Oreat Britain and Ireland poeaeaa the 
aovereign power, there is no act which they could do which would be 
illegal, as every body must admit : and further, there is no possible 
act which they could do which would be unconstitutional, for such act 
would be no more than repealing some law or us.ige baring the force 
of law which the mass of the nation regarded with more than usual 
veneration, or enacting something at variance with Ruch law or usage. 
For example, if the next ossembl^ parliament should abolish the trial 
by jury in all cases, except criminal mattern, or where the crown is 
the prosecutor, such an act might be called by some illegal, uncon- 
stitutional, and unwise. But it would not be called illegal by any 
person who had fidly examined into the meaning of the word liw ; it 
would not be called unconstitutional by any man who, having called it 
illegal, wishetl to be consistent with himself : it could only properly 
be calle<l wise or unwise by those who had reflected sufficiently on the 
nature of the institution and its operations to know whether such a 
modification would do more good or harm. 

The words constitutional and unconstitutionid appear to be only 
strictly applicable to such a case as the following : where the sovereign 
power being invested in one, or two, or five hundred, or all the moles 
of an indejiendeut political community who are above a certain oge, 
or in any other number in such a community, lays down certiin rules 
to regulate the conduct of those to whom the sovereign jMiwer intrusts 
the legislative functions. Such .ire the Constitutions of the several 
states composing the North American Union, and such is the Con- 
stitution of the Federation of these several states. In these several 
states the people, in the mass, and as a general nde, are the aovereign. 
The people assembled by their delegates, named for- that especial 
purpose, have framed the existing Constitutions ; and they change the 
Constitutions in the same way whenever the majority of the people, 
that is, when the sovereign, chooses to make such change. 

These Constitutions lay down certain nUes, according to which the 
legislative, executive, and jtidiciol functionaries must be chosen ; they 
fix limits to their several powers, both with respect to one another, 
and with respect to tlie individuals who compose the sovereign. 
They do ordain and declare the futiiro form of government For 
example, the Constitution of Virginia of ir7t>, declares "that all 
ministers of the Gospel of every denomination shall be incapable of 
being elected members of either House of Assembly, or of the Privy 
Council." The some rule, we believe, forms a part of the recently 
amended Constitution of the same state. If the Virginia legislature 
were to pass an act to enable clergymen to become members of the 
House of Assembly or of the Pri>'y Coimcil, such an act would be 
unconstitutional, and no one would l>o bound to obey it The 
judiciar}-, if such a matter came before it, would, in the dischai^ of 
its duty, declare it unconstitutional, and such co-called law coidd 
have no further effect than if any imauthorised body of men had made 
the rule. 

A constitution then is nothing more than an act of the sovereign 
power, by which it delegates a part of its authority to certain pereons, 
or to a body, to be chopen in a way prescribed by Act of Constitution, 
which at the same time fixes in a general n-ay the powers of the body 
to which a part of the sovereign power is thus delegated. And the 
sovereign power changes this Constitution whenever it pleaaea, and in 
doing BO acts neither constitution<illy nor imconstitutionally, but 
siniiuy exercises its sovereign power. No body can act unconsti- 
tutionally b\it a body which received authority from a higher 
power, and acts contrary to the terms which fix that a\ithaiity. 
Wherever then there is a sovereign power, consisting either of one, 
as the Autocrat of Bussia, of three members, king, lords, and connnrns, 
as in England (prorided these three m-'-^'-Ts do iKMsccfs the comi lete 



sovereign power), or of all the males bom of American citizens and of 
a given age, as in most of the United States of North America — such 
sovereign power cannot act unconstitutionally. For to act uncon- 
stitutionally would be to act against a rule imposed by some superior 
authority, which would be a contradiction. 

A constitutional government may be either purely democratical, 
an those of the United States of North America, or it may be 
repubUcan, that is, a government in which the sovereign power is 
simply defined as not being held by one person. It may be of 
snch a kind that it shall approach very near to a monarchy, if 
the king or other head of the state is by the constitution invested 
with very great powers, or such powers as may enable him to over- 
power, overawe, or render incapable of action, the other limbs of the 
Constitution. A constitutional government may be of the aristocratical 
kind, as England, where the power of the crown is now very limited 
in practice, and is in effect wielded by the small number who for the 
time obtain the direction of affiiirs by means of being able to get a 
majority of the House of Commons ; for this body, though elected by 
the people, cannot yet be considered as a really popular body. The 
French king, under the Charter, had greater powers than the English 
monarch has m fact, though in theory it may seem otherwse. The 
King of the French presided in his own Cabinet ; the English Cabinet 
deliberates without the presence of the sovereign, whose ^vishes, in 
opposition to those of the Cabinet, can never be carried into effect. 
The Cabinet consists of the responsible ministers ; they are the king's 
servants, but so long as they are in office they act as they please. 
But whatever variety of form there may be in constitutional govern- 
ments, the essentixtl element to a constitutional government, as here 
understood, is an assembly of representatives chosen by all the people, 
or by a considerable proportion of them. This is the body on which 
a constitutional government depends for its strength, its improvement, 
and its existence. This is the element out of which ought to come all 
the ameliorations of the condition of the people which can be effected 
by legislative measures. The limb or member of a constitutional 
government, which is composed either of hereditary peers, or of peers 
named for life by a king, is from its nature an inert body. It may 
resist tmwise and hasty change, but it is not adapted for any active 

The policy of having a constitution in s state where the sovereign 
power is in the hands of all the citizens may be defended on general 
grotinds of convenience. When the community have settled that 
certain fundamental maxims are right, it is a saving of time and 
trouble to exclude the discussion of all such matters from the func- 
tions of those to whom they have by the constitution intrusted 
legislative power. Such fundamental rules also present a barrier to 
any sudden and violent a.ssumption of undue authority either by the 
legislative or executive, and oblige them, as we see in the actual 
workings of constitutions, to obtain their object by other means, 
which, if not less dangerous in the end. are more slow in their 
operation, and thus can be detected and are exposed to be defeated by 
similar means put in action by the opposing party. There are disad- 
vantages also in such an arrangement. Constitutional niles when once 
fixed are not easily changed ; and the legislative boily when once esta- 
blished, though theoretically, and in fact too, tmder the sovereign 
control, often finds means to elude the vigilance and defeat the wishes 
of the body to which it owes its existence, and from which it derives 
its power. One of the great means by which these ends are effected is 
the interpretation of the written instrument or constitution, which is 
the warrant for their powers. The practice of torturing the words of 
all written law, till in effect the law or rule is made to express the 
contrary of what seemed to be at first intended, appears to be deeply 
implanted in the English race, and in those of their descendants who 
have established constitutional forms on the other side of the Atlantic. 
The value of all written in.'rtruments, whether called constitutions or 
not, seems considerably impaired by this peculiar aptitude of men to 
construe words which once seemed to have one plain meaning only, so 
that they shall mean anything which the actual circumstances may 
require, or may seem to require. 

It is beside our purpose to discuss the advantage of a Constitution 
in a community where the sovereign is one. Being supreme, the 
- Mvereign may change the Constitution when he pleases. It may be 
-aid that if the constitution is good, and has been allowed to stand by 
several successive possessors of the sovereign power, it obtains an 
apparent prescriptive authority, which is the more binding on the 
sovereign, as the mass of the nation habitually regard this same 
Constitution as something which even the sovereign cannot touch 
with impunity. It would shock common prejudice if the actual 
■overeign were to violate that which has been sanctioned by his pre- 
decessors, and is recommended by an apparently higher antiquity than 
the power which, in the actual sovereign's hands, appears to be of 
more recent birth. The precise meaning of what is called the English 
Constitution must be got from the various writers who have made its 
origin and progress their ttudy. In reeling them it may not be amiss 
to bear in mind that the woid Constitution, as used by them, htm not 
the exact, but the vague meaning as explained above. 

States where there is a king, or other person with corresponding 
name and power, are now most usually distributed into the two classes 
of monarchies and constitutional monarchies. The term Monarchy is 


a proper term to express a form of government in which one man has 
the sovereign power, as in Russia. The term Constitutional Monarchy 
is not an appropriate term, because the word monarchy is not capable 
of a limitation of meaning without the implication of a contradiction 
in term.s. Still the expression is used, and it is understood to express 
those states in which the kingly power is limited or defined by a 
written instrument, which also lays down certain general rules affecting 
the form of government and the condition of the people, which are 
not to be varied by any legislative act. Such an instrument was the 
French Charte [Charte], under which France, instead of being a 
monarchy, as it was once, became a constitutional state, or, as it is 
called, a constitutional monarchy. This act, which proceeded from 
the king (Louis XVIII.), could not be revoked by any future king con- 
sistently with good faith ; and its attempted violation by Charles X. 
produced a revolution. 

When a nation has reached a certain point in its social progress, a 
participation in the sovereign power becomes a universal desire. It 
does not follow that a nation will be better administered because the 
people participate in the sovereign power, but they will not be satisfied 
till they do participate in it ; and that is the important matter for an 
absolute power to consider. The representatives may often, and will 
certainly sometimes, enact laws which are mischievous to themselves ; 
but that is an incident to, or an accident in, a constitutional system, 
not its essential. The essential of a constitutional system is, to call all 
men into political activity as members of a state, to secure the highest 
degree of individual freedom that is consistent with the general inter- 
est ; to establish a real national character, by making each man a 
potential and living member of the body corporate ; and, above all, to 
keep a tight and steady hand upon the public purse ; to see that no 
more taxes are raised than are necessary for the due support of the 
administration, and to see that they are raised in such a way as to 
bring the largest sum into the treasury with the least detriment to the 
individual. Freedom of publication, or, as it is usually called, the 
liberty of the press, is in modem times indispensable as a means of 
maintaining constitutional freedom where it exists, and of attaining it 
where it does not. In Prussia it is restrained by a censorship; in 
France it is checked by severe enactments, together with a system of 
warning, and a power of suspending the publication of newspapers. In 
England the freedom of the press is amply secured both by law and 
usage. In the actual state of Germany, in which political life hardly 
exists, the establishment of a tnie constitutional government in Prussia 
would be the commencement of a new era for the Germanic nation. 
The Russian subjects of the Czar of Muscovy, or of the greater part of 
his dominions at least, may be at present as contented and as well 
governed as they would be imder a constitution ; for a constitution, in 
order to be beneficial, must be founded upon a representation of a 
whole nation which has poUtical knowledge, or of a majority so large 
that the minority shall be insignificant when compared with it. 

In the article Chahte an account is given of the constitution of 
France ; and of that of the United States of North Amekica, in 
OEOa. Drv., under that head ; America and England enjoy a higher 
degree of constitutional freedom than any other states. Since 1848 
Sardinia has possessed a representative constitiition, and has stiB more 
recently acquired a free press The struggles of Prussia and the 
results will be foimd in the Geoo. Div., imder Prussia. Spain has 
made extraordinary efforts to obtain the advantages of a constitution. 
[Cortes.] Some of the smaller states of Germany have constitutions, 
as Wurtemberg, Hanover, Baden, Hesse Darmstadt, Cassel, 
Nassau, &c. The European States which have no constitution are 
Russia, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, Naples and Sicily, the Papal 
States, Grand Dukedom of Tuscany, Dukedom of Parma, Dukedom of 
Modena, Dukedom of Lucca, &c. The constitutions of Mexico and of 
the Republics of South America resemble, in some respects, that of the 
' United States, but have not yet acquired stability. Brazil has a con- 
stitution and a representation. 

For the nature of a federal government, which necessarily implies 
the notion of a constitution, see Federation*. 

James I., in the first year of his reigu in England, by his writ directed 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, summoned and called the " bishops, 
deans of cathedral churches, archdeacons, chaptere and colleges, and the 
other clergy of every diocese within the province of Canterbury," to 
meet in the cathedral church of St. Paul in London, to " treat, consent, 
and conclude upon certain difficult and urgent affairs mentioned in the 
said writ." The persons so summonetl met in convocation, and " agreed 
upon certain canons, ordere, ordinances, and constitutions, to the end 
and purpose " by the king " limited and prescribed unto them ; " to 
which the king, out of his " princely inclination and royal care for the 
maintenance of the present estate and government of the Church of 
England by the laws of this realm now settled and established," gave 
his royal assent by letters patent, according to the form cf the statute 
of the twenty-fifth year of King Henry VIII. The king, by his prero- 
gative royal and supreme authority in causes ecclesiastical, commanded 
these said canons, orders, and constitutions to l)e diligently observed, 
executed, and kept by his loving subjects of the kingdom, both within 
the provinces of C.-interbury and York, in all points wherein they do or 
may concern every or any of them ; and the king also commanded that 
every minister, by whatever name or title soever ho be called, shall in 






th* p4ri«h ohuroh or ehapel whar* b* hath charge read all the laid 
oanon*. oni«r«, ordioaoaaa. aod oonatitution* ooo* vnry jrcar, upon Bome 
Sundays or hnlydi^, in the afternoon before divine terrioe. 

Tbe'cuiona and oooatitutioni m» be divided into fourteen beads, 
which trmt aa follow : 1. Of the Church of Ensland. 8. Of divine 
■arvice, and adminiitration of the aaorament*. S. Miniatere, their ordi- 
aation, function, and charge. 4. Sohoolmasten. 6. Thinga appertain- 
ing to churohea. 6. Churohwardaos, or queat-men. and aide-men, or 
aMiataats. 7. Parish elerka. 8. Eooleaiastical oourta belonging to the 
■rehbiahop'a iuriadiotion. 9. Eecleeiaatinal courto belonging to the 
iwiadiotiflii of biahoiia and ardkleaoona, aod the proceed in ga in them. 
10. Judgaa eoolaeiaatioal and their surrogatea. 11. Prootora. 12. Re- 
giatnua. 13. Appariton. 14. Authority of synods. The number of 
aaastitutiona is one hundred uid forty-one. The authority of these 
eMMDa ia binding on the clergy, but not on the laity, except so far aa 
it atalad under the head Casior. The authority of Canon 77 may be 
doubted ; it ia this : " No man shall teach, either in public school or 
private hotise, but such as shall be allowed by the bishop of the 
llooaeo. or ordinary of the place, under his hand and seal ; bMn found 
SMat aa well for hts learning and dexterity in teaching, as for sober and 
hoiiaat oonvetsation, and uso for right understanding of Ood's true 
religion; and also except he shall subscribe to the first and third 
artidea afore-mentioned simply, and to the first ten clauses of the 
•aoond article." The 78th Canon providea that " curatea desirons to 
taaoh shall be licensed before others :" and the 79th declares " the duty 
of achoolmaaters." The Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical were 
printed by the Society fur Promoting Christian Knowledgp, London^. 
1841, together with the Thirty -nine Articles of the Church of 

code of regulations, attributed by some ecclesiastical writers to the 
Apostles, and said to have been collected by Clemena Romanus. The 
oollection consists of eight books, containing a great many precepts 
and rules oonoeming the discipline, doctrine, and ceremonies of the 

Beaidaa the gospels, epistles, and apocalypse, which now compose the 
Tcdume of the New Testament, there were, in the earliest ages of 
Christianity, numerous writings bearing the name of the apostles and 
apostolical men, of which some are extant at the present time ; and it 
is generally considered that two among the first in order of time are 
the eight books of Apostolical or Clementine canons, and the Consti- 
tutions which are the subject of the present article. That the latter 
once constituted a part of the New Testament, is evident from the lost 
of the apostolical canons, which states that " The holy and venerable 
Bible consists of the Old Testament (of which the several constituent 
books are enumerated) and the New Testament, which consists of the 
gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John ; 14 epistles of Paul ; 2 of 
Peter ; 3 of John ; 1 of Jamea ; 1 of Jude ; 2 of Clement, and the 
Coottitutiotu for you that are bishops, published by me Clement in 8 
books, which are not to be divulged to all, because of the mystical 
things contained in them ; and the Acts of the Apostles." (Labbei, 
' Collect. Concil.' tom. i.) One of the epistles of Clement, and part of 
the other which is attributed to him, are included in the Alexandrine 
KS. Epiphanius (a.D. 400) cites the Constitutions not only sa the 
week of an honest Catholic Christian, but as the divine word and doc- 
trine ; yet in his catalogue of canonical books they are not included, 
and it is contended tiiat the constitutions now extant are not identical 
with those from which Epiphanius cited. 

The authenticity and date of this work have been a subject of much 
learned contention ; ar.d though by far the greater number of critics 
have pronounced it tu be a pseudonymous compilation, made in the 
third or fourth century, there have been "ome who support the opinion 
of ita apostolical origin. (See Tillemout, ' H^moires pour I'Hist. de 
r£glise,' vol. ii. ; Mosheim, cent, i,, part ii. ; and Neander, ' Oenetische 
Entwickelung,' &c. 

CONSTITUTIONS, ROMAN. The word constitutio (from con- 
stituere, that is, to set up, to establish) signifies any disposition or ap- 
pointment ; for example, in Dig. iv. 2, 1. 9, § 8, an interlocutory decree 
of the prator is called constitutio ; whilst in D. 45, 1. 91, 8 and 4, the 
•spreaaion " quod veteres constituerunt " is used to signify a legal rule 
or maxim in uae among the old Roman lawyers. The decrees and 
4aciaions of Roman emperors are also called constitutiones, and, 
•ooording to Oaius (i. 6), an imperial constitution is what the emperor 
daclarea by a decree, or an edict, or a letter. That modem signification 
of the term, which denotes the fundamental law of a state, was not in 
use among the Romans ; yet Cicero (' De Republica,' i. 46; employs the 
word to express a similar notion. 

During the republic the Roman law was made or developed by 
daoraaa of the people in the comitia (leges and plebiscita), by decrees 
of the aenata, and by the edicts of various magistrates, as the prators 
•ad Kdilas. '[Roman Law.] After the great internal change and 
revolutions had taken place in the Roman state, and Au^istus bad 
united in himself the powers of all the branches of guveniment, with 
the direction of the aenate, and of the aasembliea of the people, the 
imperial authority was firmly eatablished. The emperor not only had 
the right of issuing edicts, as the magistrates of the republic had done, 
but he could propose and make entirely new laws. Propositions of 
iaws from the emperor to the senate were called orationes principum. 

Thns arose the imperial eonstitutioni, with the supramaoy ol Augustus. 
But as the arbitrary acta of Sulla, Pompeius, and Julius Cieaitr wera 
ratified and confirmed by the people, both in their lifetime, and after 
their death, this may be considered as the beginning of the system of 
constitutions. As the institutions of the republic only gradually 
merged into the imperial autocracy, the voice of the people in the 
oomitia and the decrees of the senate were still reapected in form, 
though not in substance. But after a. D. 24, during the reign of Tiberius, 
the legisUtion of the people, and 2U0 years later the decrees of the 
sonata also, totally caaaed. From that era laws wera made only br 
the amporora ; and from the time of Constantine the Great, th« oonsti> 
tutions wera properly called legea nova, or new Uwa. 

The impenid constitutions occur under difierent denominations ; aa 
adicta (leges edictales), or decrees addressed to and binding on all 
R o m an subjecta ; decreta or rescripts, which are decisions in particular 
oaaes, upon questions proposed to the emperor by public functionaries 
or private persons ; these decisions also were universally binding. Wa 
find the terms epistoUe also used, when the decisions ware answers to 
magistrates, and litters, when given in reply to private persons. Im- 
portant single constitutions were often entitled from the emperor who 
made them, as, for example, " lex Anastasiana." 

In course of time the number of these constitutions became so great, 
that to prevent confusion collections were made, and called oodaa. 
The first collections mode by private persons were the codices Orego- 
riani and Hermogeniani, of which we know very little ; it being evaa 
uncertain if they wera two separate oodes or only one. Tet it seems 
that the first collector was Oregorius, and that Hermogenes continued 
the work. Opinions vary also aa to the time when these compilers' 
lived ; Blume fixes on the raigns of Diocletian and Maximian, as tha 
period when Oregorius or Gregorianus flourished, resting his hypothasia 
on a mutilated inscription found in one of the rescripta in his code, in 
which Blume traces the words " Diodetianus et Maximianus Domini 
NostrL" (See Irving's ' Introduction to the Civil Law,' p. 28, n. 29.) 
Hugo thinks it probible that both these lawyers flourished during, 
or a little after Diocletian's reign ('History of the Roman Law,' 
book 2, § 379> : in a note to that section he mentions as a curious fact 
that in an old treatise, the ' Consultatio veteris Jurisconsult!,' an 
extract from the corpus Hermogeuiauum is ascribed to the reigns of 
Valentinian and Valens, nearly 100 yeara later. Their collections, 
which contained the constitutions from the time of Hadrian to Dio- 
cletian, are lost, and we have only some fragments, which were first 
edited by Jac. Sichardus (Basil, 1528, fol.), together with the Codex 
Theodoeianus. The fragments are in Schulting's ' Jurisprud. Vet, 
Ante-Just.,' Lugd. Bat 1712, and in the ' Jus Civile Ante-Just.,' BeroL 
1815, purporting to be taken ex Breviario Alariciano; but a more 
recent and a very valuable edition of these constitutions has been pub- 
lished by Hiinel, at Bonn, 1835,entiUed ' Codicis Qr^riani et Codicis 
Hermogeniani Fragmenta.' In connection with the Theodosian code a 
remarkable document discovered by Clopius deserves mention, the 
' Qesta in Senatu Urhis Romn de recipiendo Theodosiano Codice,' con- 
taining the announcement to the senate of Rome by the consul 
A. A. Glabrio Faustus of the emperor's legislative enterprise, and the 
other's concurrence, " Quam rem astemus princeps duminus noster 
Valentinianus, devotioue socii aS'ectu filii coraprobivi," together with 
the approbation with which that announcement was received Nor 
should the student of this portion of the ante-Justinianean Roman 
law omit to refer to a work of much research and sound learning for 
an admirable illustration of the history of the Theodoeian era, in 
Bishop Miiller's ' Commentatio lustorica de Genio Moribus et Luzu 
i£vi Theodosiani.' 

Another and more important collection was made in the reign of 
Theodosius II., by public authority. The emperor having nominated, 
in the year 435, a commission of eight persons, including Antiochus, 
who was their director, for the purpose of collecting the constitutions 
from the time of Constantine the Great, three years afterwards (a.D. 
438) the new code, called Codex Theodosianus, was confirmed by the 
emperor, and published in the Eastern empire. It contains sixteen 
books, divided into titles, in which the separate constitutions are 
arranged, according to their subject-matter, in such a way that many 
of them are subdivided. Some additions, called novellie, were after- 
wards made to the collection of Theodosius. The first five books were 
lost, but portions of them have been recently discovered at Milan, 
by Clossius (Cloasii ' Theodos. Codic. Genuin. Fragments,' Tiib. 1824); 
and at Turin, by Peyron, (' Codic. Theodoa. Fragm. Ined.,' Tur., 
1823-4). The best edition of the Theodosian Code is that by Jac. 
Gothofredus, tom. vi., Lugd., 1665, who also wrote an excellent com- 
mentary on it, which was published, together with the text, by Ritter, 
Leipzig, 1736-54. A copy of this code has sppeared in the Berlin 
edition (1815) of the ' Jus Civile Ante-Justinianeum.' 

In the year 506, Alaric II. made an abridgement of the Theodosian 
Code, adding to it the excerpts from the codices Or^;oriani and Hermo- 
geniani, and the works of the Rom.Tn lan-yers Oaius and Paulus, for 
the use of the Romans then living in the empire of the Visigoths ; the 
collection is called ' Breviarium Alaricianum,' and ii also known by the 
title ' Aniani Breviarium.' 

The last and mi>st important collection of Roman constitutions was 
made by the order of Justinian. [Jcsthcian's Leoislatios.] 

CONSTRUCTION (Geometry). All formation of lines, figures, *c.. 




which is not absolutely implied in the hypothesis of the problem or 
theorem in question. Thus, in the proof of the theorem, " the square 
on the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the 
squares on the sides," the formation of the right-angled triangle and of 
the squares is not technically considered as part of the construction, 
the latter term being only used to imply all the additional formation 
of figure necessary to the proof. 

A question is frequently said to be solved by construction, when it 
is only meant that a geometrical method of solving it is adopted, as 
distinguished from an algebraical solution. An equation is also some- 
times said to be constructed, in the sense inverse to that in which it is 
said to be solved ; that is, when the roots are given, and the equation 
i> required to be found. 

CONSUBSTANTIAL (Consubstantialis) is equivalent in expression 
to co-essential, and is the translation of the term dpioovalo!, homoousios, 
which, in the conjmencement of the 4th century, was the subject of so 
much zealous contention among the Trinitarian and Unitarian sects of 
Christians. The Arians and Eusebians, who asserted the second person 
of the Trinity, and the adherents of Macedonius, who asserted the 
third person , to be different and distinct in nature from the first, were 
strenuously opposed by the Athanasiana, who, at the council of Nice 
(a.D. 325), adopted as the pass-word of their party the term i/xoovalos, 
eonsubstantial, or, as it is Englished in the Nicene creed, " Of one 
tuiitance with the Father." There were three conflicting denomina- 
tion? : those who held the three persons to be of the same substance, 
ifioovaioi ; those who asserted them to be of a similar substance, 
6fU)iova'tot ; and those who contended that they were of a different sub- 
stance, ivoiiolo^. Between these parties the dispute was carried on 
during several years with great violence ; and successive councils, 
composed of hundreds of bishops, continued to meet for the purpose 
of altering creeds and reciprocating anathemas. In modem times 
the iyofuiTos doctrine has been advocated by Dr. Bury in his ' Naked 
Gospel,' a work which, though condemned and burnt by the University 
of Oxford, was approved and adopted by Locke, Clarke, and Whiston, 
The circum-rtantial particulars of the ancient controversy may be found 
in the various histories of the councils of that period, and its modem 
revival in the numerous works on the Unitarian doctrines. See espe- 
cially the article ' Arianisme,' in Plugnet's ' Diet, des H^r^es.' 

by the Lutheran Church to designate ita doctrine of the Eucharist, in 
contradistinction to the transubatantiation of the Church of Rome. 
Luther, after separating from the Roman Catholic communion, still re- 
tained the doctrine of the real presence ; but instead of teaching, as the 
Ronianists do, that the priest's pronunciation of the words of conse- 
cration at once deprive the bread and wine on the altar of their natural 
qualities, and transform them into the real body and blood of Christ, 
he taught that after the consecration of the bread and wine, they are 
mysteriously aecompanied with the real body and blood. In short, in 
tramiibitantiatim, the divine body and blood is present without the 
bread and wine ; and in conmhttantiation it is present vnth the bread 
and wine : the former effects a change of nature, the latter a change of 

The Lutheran doctrine of consubstantiation was first introduced 
into the church by John, sumamed Pungens Asinus, a doctor of Paris, 
at the end of the 13th century. His work on this subject, entitled 
' Dcterminatio F. Joannis Parisiensis de modo existendi Corpus Christi 
in Sacramento Altaris,' was republished by Allix in 1886. 

CONSUL (a word of the same family as anuukre, to consult), was 
the title of the highest ordinary magistrate in the Roman republic. 
King Tarquinius Superbxu having been expelled from Rome for his 
tyrannical conduct, by the joint emirta of the patricians and plebeians, 
B.C. 409, a republic was established. Instead of kings, two func:ion- 
aries called consuls (consules, in Greek thraroi) were appointed to 
administer the republic. The first consuls were Lucius Junius Brutus 
and Lucius Tarquinius CoUatinus (or M. Horatius, according to Poly- 
bius, iii 2*2). The consuls were annually elected in the Comitia Cen- 
tnriata, and at first were only chosen from the patricians. 

As the consulship was established in the place of the kingly 
office, the consuls also were invested with the same power that the 
kings had. (Niebuhr's ' History ; ' Gibbon's ' History,' i. 3 ; Cicero, ' De 
Leg.' iii. 3, who ascribes to them " regiam potestatem "). The consu- 
late was, with the exception of the dictatorship, the highest, and, 
before prsetor, tediles, and censors existed, the only superior admi- 
nittrative office in Rome. The consuls were at the bead of the whole 
repnbUc ; the judiciary (jurisdictio), the military (imperium), and the 
executive powers were all united in them. According^, we find them 
also called prsetores, and judices, and imperatores. "rhey presided in 
the senate, where they bad an elevated seat, and the business in the 
comitia curiata and centuri.ita was conducted by them. The consuls 
created the quaestors of the public treasury, and thus had great in- 
fluence in the administration of the treasury, the quaestors being 
dependent on them. They could also conclude peace and make 
alluuices. They were the supreme judges in all suits and criminal 

The oopauls poaacMed the same external inmgnia of honour as the 
kings, except the golden crown and the trabea (purple cloak), which 
latter they were only allowed to wear in a triumph. They hiid a 
•ceptre of ivory, with an eagle at the end. In the assemblies of the 

people they sat on the sella curulis (an ornamented chair) ; and like 
the other senators they wore the toga prsetexta. Twelve liotors, with 
the fasces and axes, as the symbol of the consuls' power over the lives 
of the citizens, preceded each of them at first; but P. Valerius, called 
Poplicola, a name which implies his respect, or affected respect, for 
popular rights, limited the power of the consuls, and curtailed the 
external symbols of their authority. In the city, the axes were taken 
from the fasces, and only one of the consuls was preceded by the 
twelve lictors. From their sentence appeals to the people were allowed. 
From this time they were deprived of their former power of condemn- 
ing citizens to death in Rome, and the power of scourging them only 
remained. But while they were at the head of the army out of Rome, 
they retained the axes in the fasces and all their former rights. The 
consul who, according to the settlement of Valerius, was not preceded 
by the twelve lictors, had a public slave, railed accensus, to precede 
him. The right to the twelve lictors and the supreme authority in 
matters of administration were enjoyed by the consuls alternately 
from month to month. 

The patricians, after expelling the kings with the help of the 
plebeians, designed to transfer the royal power to themsel ^es, which 
they accomplished by securing the election of both consuls out of 
their own body. The consuls therefore being invested with the 
supreme power, the struggle of the people with the patricians was 
at the same time a struggle against the consuls. Their power sustained 
a great shock by the institution of the tribunes of the plebs. Each 
of the tribunes, whose number at last amounted to ten, had the 
right of putting his veto on the measures of the consuls. In 
order to prevent arbitrary acts of the consuls, the tribune Terrentius, 
B.C. 461, made a proposition for a code or collection of laws, and in the 
year B.C. 452 ten men (decemviri) were named for this purpose, who 
were invested with full powers, and all other functionaries for the 
time were suspended. The consulate being re-established, the tribunes, 
B.C. 444, proposed that the people should choose consuls from the 
plebeians also, a proposal which gave rise to a long and violent contest. 
The consulship was again suspended, and tribunes of war (tribuni 
militares) with consular power were appointed, to which office ple- 
beians also were made eligible. At last, B.C. 366, the first plebeian was 
elected consal. (Liv. vi. 42; vii. i. 2, 21-6.) Afterwards both con- 
suls were on several occasions plebeians. 

In the mean time the extension of the state made it impossible for 
the consuls to perform the increased duties of their office, and new 
functionaries were created. In B.C. 442, the censors, and B.C. 365, the 
praetors, were created, which latter had the judicial functions pre- 
viously attached to the conmilate. In relation to these new magistrates, 
the consul was called magistratus major, or superior magistrate. 

Though the consular power was thus much diminished, it was still 
very great. All the officers of the state, except the tribunes, were 
under the consuls ; they summoned the meetings of the senate, re- 
ceived all despatches, and gave audiences to foreign ambassadors. In 
time of war they were commanders-in-chief, and the election of the 
military officers partly depended on them^. In critical times the 
consular power was made unlimited by the decree of the senate, 
" videant consules ne quid respublica detrimenti capiat " (they should 
take care that the republic sustained no barm). Under such circum- 
stances they eould require the strictest obedience from all the citizens ; 
and they resumed their right to condemn to death without appeal. 

The imperium or military command was granted to the consuls by 
the lex curiata [Comitia], whereby a province (pruvinna) was assigned 
to them. The term prvcincia originally denoted the power given to 
discharge some public duty out of Rome, particularlyJhe command o£ 
the army in conquered countries ; and these countries themselves were 
called provinciiB (provinces). When a consul, after the expiration of 
his term of office, was appointed to govern a province, he was called 

At first no particular age was a necessary qualiPcation for the con- 
sulate. But by the lex Annalis, proposed by the tribune L. Villiua, in 
the year B.C. 181, a certain age was required for each magistrate; and 
the consul must be forty-three years of age. But this law was not 
always observed ; M. Valerius Corvus was elected consul in his twenty- 
third, and Scipio Africanus in his twenty-eighth year. No one could 
legally be re-elected till after an interval of ten years ; but M. Valerius 
Corvus was re-elected six times and Marius seven times. 

The candidate for the consulate was requii ed to be at Rome when 
the election took place in the comitia centuriata, a rule which was also 
sometimes not regarded. The elder of the two consuls first received the 
fasces, until the Emperor Augustus prescribed, by the law called lex 
Julia and Papia Poppaia, that he should take them first who had most 
children. The time of election varied at different periods of the 
Commonwealth ; but they were always chosen some time before they 
entered on office, and were called designati. The time of entrance on 
office likewise varied ; but about B.C. 154 it was fixed that they should 
always enter on their office on the 1st of January. The years were 
named after the consuls, and annual registers were kept for that 
purpose, which were called Fasti Consulares. When the consuls 
entered on their office, they went in a solemn procession to the capitol 
to sacrifice to Jupiter Capitolinus ; and after this ceremony the senate 
held a solemn session. Within the five next days they were to take 
the oath to administer the republic according to the laws ; and at the. 






wd of thair tirai of oiBoe (bey took » niraiUr oath. ThoM who bxl 
4iielu>s«d the oOob of eoMoI wars called eonauUm, iu>d enjoyed • 
kind of pro-eadneooe in nak oxer the other aeuator*. 

Cotwular Mtdal of U. Agrlppa. 
Brillih HoMiua. Actuliin. Bronte. Weight, US grttnt. 

From the time of Sulla and Caaar, who were elected perpetual 
dietatorf, the coiwulato gradually loat all ita powers, and under the 
emperors it sunk to a mere shadow and a name. Tet consuls were 
aitll annu.ill]r elected by the people, until the time of Tiberius, who 
ordered that they should bo chosen by the senate. The number of 
the conanla was muoh augmented by the emperors ; and several kinds 
of consuls were made, as consules ordinarii, after whom the years still 
were called ; consules sufiecti, elected by the emperors ; and consides 
honorarii, who had title and rank, but no power. In the reign\>f 
Commodus there were as many as twenty-five consuls in one year. 
Constantine, however, restored the custom of appointing two consuls 
only in the year, one for Constantinople, and one for Rome, who were 
alone to act as supreme judges under the emperor. The last consul 
at Constantinople, after whom the year was denominated, was Basilius, 
junior, in the year 1294 A.D.C. or 541 a.o., in the reign of the Emperor 
Justinianus. The last consul at Home was Theodorus Paulinus, in 
the year x D. 536. 

CONSUL, an ofBcer appointed by a government to reside in some 
foreign country, in order to give protection to such subjects of the 
goremment by whom he is appointed as may have commercial desilings 
in U>e country where the consul resides, and also to keep his employers 
informed concerning any matters relating to trade which may be of 
interest or advantage for them to know. To these duties are some- 
times superadded others having objects more directly political, but 
into this pirt of a consul's duty it is not necessary to enter at present, 
as such functions are assigned to consuls not as such, but in the 
absence of an ambassador or other political agent The duties of on 
E n gl i sh consul as such, cannot perhaps be better described than by 
giving the substance of the general instructions with which he is fur- 
nished by the government un his appointment. 

His first duty is to exhibit his commission, either directly, or 
through the English ambassador, to the authorities of the country to 
which he is accredited, and to obtain their sanction to his appointment : 
the document whereby this s.'uiction is communicated, is called an 
exequatur ; its issue must preceile the commencement of his consular 
duties, and its possession secures to the consul "the enjoyment of 
such privileges, immunities, and exemptions, as have been enjoyed by 
his predecessors, and as are usually granted to consuls in the country 
in which he is to reside " It must be the particular study of the 
consul " to become convetBant with the laws and general principles 
which relate to the tnule of Great Britain with foreign parts : to make 
himself acquainted with the language and with the municipal laws of 
the country wherein he resides, and especially with such laws as have 
any connexion with \he trade between the two countries." It is the 
consul's principal duty " to protect and promote the lawful trade and 
trading mter^ts of Great Britain by every fair and projier means ; " 
but he is at the same time " to caution all British subjects against 
carrying on an illicit commerce to the detriment of the revenue and in 
violation of the laws and regulations of England, or of the country in 
which he resides ; " and he is to give to his own government notice of 
any attempt at such illicit trading. The consul is " to give his best 
advice and assistance, whenever called upon, to her Uajesty's trading 
■ubjecta, quieting their differences, promoting peace, harmony, and 
good- will amongst them, and conciliating as much aa poesible the 
Bubjecta of the two countries uiron all pomts of difference whidi may 
fall under his cognisance." Should any attempts be made to injure 
British subjects in person or in property, he is to uphold their rightful 
interests and the privileges secured to them by treaty. If, in such 
caaee, redreas cannot be obtained from the local administration, he 
moat ^ply to the British minister at the court of the country in 
which he resideK, and place the matter in his hands. The consul must 
transmit to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affiiirs, at the end of 
Uftaj year a return of the trade carried on at the different ports within 
his consulate, according to a form preaoribed. He is also required to 
•and miarterly an account of the market prices of agricultural produce 
in each week of the preceding three months, with the course of ex- 
change, and any other remarka which ho may consider necessary for 
properly explaining the state of the market for com and grain. It is 
further his duty to keep hia own government informed as to the 
appoaniKe of any infectioiu diaeaae at the place of his residence. The 

consul is reauired to afford relief to any distreated British aaamen, or 
other Britisn subjects thrown upon the coast, or reaching by ohanoe 
any place within nis district, and ho is to endeavour to procure for 
such persons the moans of returning to England. He is to furnish 
intelhgenoe to the commanders of queen's abips touching upon the oout 
where he is, and to obtain for them, when required, supplies oi water 
and provisions, and he is to exart himaeU to recover all wTecka and 
stores belonging to queen's ships when found at aaa, and brought into 
the port where he reaidea. 

In most caaea conaula are subjects of the state by whom they are 
appointed, but this is by no meana an invariable rule, and they are 
sometimes the subjects of the country in which they reside, or of 
some other country foreign to boUi. ui some of the leas important 
plaoea, vice-consuls are selected for filling the office from among the 
meroantile class, and it occasionally happens that they are engacad in 
commercial purauit^at the port where their official reddsDce unzed. 

Consuls or vioe-oonstUs are appointed by the English government, at 
all the chief porta with which the nation has commercial relations, but 
the precise ntunber ia always vaiying. The salaries paid vary not only 
in the manner above stated, but likewise according to tiie particttlar 
circumstances attending the appointment, a residence in some countries 
being necessarily more expensive than in othen. In adilition to th^ 
salaries, consuls are in the receipt of fees on «igning various documents, 
but these fees are of small amount. 

CONSUMPTION, PULMONARY. [Phthisis Puluokaus.] 


CONSUMPTION, in political economy, is the end of production; 
the use, the expenditure, of articles produced. It is lumooessary hers 
to enter upon any examin<ition of the theories of jiroductite and kr- 
productive consumption, which have so largely occupied the attention 
of writers upon political economy. We have stated the general prin- 
ciple under the head Capital. The natural relations between pro- 
duction and consumption appear very unlikely to be greatly diBturt>ed 
in any condition of society in which there is freedom of labour and 
security of property. The most injudicious and extravagant consump- 
tion on the part of the few is, in its degree, a stimulus to a mora 
strenuous production on the part of the many ; and under these cir- 
cumstances there is sure to be that excess of production over con- 
sumption which constitutes capital. The creation of capital shows 
that the production has been greater than the unproductive consump- 
tion. A judicious and well-regulated expenditure on the part of the 
few would doubtless afford a mora certain encouragement to the 
industry of the producers, and the excess of ])roductiou over consump- 
tion would, in the long run, be greater. Whatever injury the im- 
provident consumption of individuals may cause to themselves, it ia 
quite clear that the producing class of society will always repair the 
waste of the spending class : that in point of fact there will be an 
excess of production over consumption, wherever the course of industry 
is not impeded by bod laws, or by a wastefid consumption on the part 
of a government. Whenever a government engages in the ruinous 
consumption incidental to war, for example, a very powerfiU stimulus 
may indeed be given to particular branches of industry ; but other 
branches of industry that would have been encouraged had their 
money remained in the pockets of the tax-payers, will projiortiouately 
be depressed. The compensating power of production that is called 
forth in all cases of private consiuoption must be deranged, or un- 
equally and therefore imperfectly excited, by the consumption of the 

CONTACT (Geometry). Two lines, one of which at least is curved, 
are said to be in contact when they have a common point, and recede 
from that point in such a way that the deflection of the one from the 
other will, if a sufficiently small departure be taken, become as small a 
fraction as we please of that departure ; that is, if there be no Umit to 
the smallness of the ratio which p q may be made to bear to o x, as we 
approach the point o. The subject will be fiut.her discussed mathe- 
matically in Ta>-oext ; Curvatubl ; Cckves, Tueoby of ; and we 
shall at present confine ourselves to pointing out the connection 
between the preceding definition, which is refined and mathematical, 
and the obvious ocular .phenomenon, by perception of wliich we imme- 
diately admit a marked difference of character between contact, as 
shown at 8, and simple wlenectioH, as shown at n. 

All our perceptions of lines being ocular and physical in the first 
instance, there is a minimum vitibile, or least visible custimce, at which 
lines will run into each other. Now if pq and o N always preserve 
such a ratio to each other that the vunima ritibilia of these Unes arrive 


nearly together, PQ will not be lost to sight before OK, and the currati 
will continue dist.nct up to the very point of meeting. But if PQI 
diminish so rapidly aa compared with o x, as to be lost to sight whila ' 





o N is still visible as a length, the two curves will appear to coincide 
for a visible length, which forms the principal ocular f e vture of contact. 
But this practical contact is not admitted in geometry, a science of 
reason, in which no length is considered as invisible ; so that contact 
is only said to exist where the ratio of p Q to o N diminishes — not 
merely very much — but without limit. Let o :« and P Q be the 
fractions x and v of a linear unit. If then v diminish without limit 
when compared with x, but always retain a finite ratio to x-, the 
contact is said to be of the first order ; if » also diminish wituout 
limit when compared with x^, but always retain a finite ratio to x^, the 
contact is said to be of the second order, and so on. These di Jerent 
orders of contact exhibit nothing to the eye but a closer approach, 
the higher the order of contact ; except in this, that contacts of an 
even order are always accompanied by the intersecting coincidence 
shoivn at s, while contacts of an odd order make the curves tan- 
gent to each other in the sense in which the word is used by Euclid, 
as at T. 

CONTAGION, THE MATTER OF, a poison which, on entering 
the blood, produces a definite train of morbid phenomena, and which 
communicates to the blood the property of generating a similar poison, 
capable of producing precisely similar morbid phenomena. Considered 
aa a morbific matter sui generis, contagion, then, is an agent which 
produces a disease of a definite nature, one of the distinctive charac- 
ters of which is that in its progress a peculiar matter is secreted from 
the blood, which, when introduced into the blood of another indivi- 
dual, produces precisely the same disease. The term contagion is also 
in common use to denote the actual propagation of diseases of a 
specific nature from person to i)er8on. Such diseases, so propagated, 
are called contagious ; and the matter by which they are propagated is 
called contagious matter or contagion. 

The disease called small-pox exhibits a series of morbid phenomena 
peculiar to itself. These peculiar phenomena constitute it a distinct or 
generic disease. The pustules formed in its progress, the formation of 
which is one of the series of morbid phenomena distinctive of it, 
contain a peculiar secretion, a specific poison, wliich, on being intro- 
duced into the blood of a person previously in sound health, as by 
inoculation, produces in that person small-pox. This disease, then, 
presents all the characters of a contagious disease. 

According to the etymological signification of the term, the propa- 
gation of disease from person to person by contagion depends on the 
actual contact of the body which receives with that which communi- 
catee the poison. But direct contact is not indispensable to the pro- 
pagation of a contagious disease. There are contagious diseases 
which are absolutely incommunicable without direct contact ; but 
there are others which are capable of commimication both by contact 
and without it. A particle of the matter of small-pox, for example, 
placed in direct contact with the body, will produce smallpox ; but 
the matter of small-pox is likewise capable of being dissolved or 
suspended in the air ; and the air thus Imded with small-pox matter, 
on coming in contact with the body, is capable of producing small-]x)X. 
Hence contagious diseases are divided into two great classes ; into 
those in which the contagious matter acts only by positive contact of 
person with person, and into those in which it acta both by positive 
contact and through the medium of the air. Contagion may therefore 
be said to be immediate or mediate, contactual or remote. 
Contagion is carefully to be distinguished from infection. [In- 


CONTEMPT. A contempt in hw is a disobedience of the rules, 
orders, or process of a court of justice, or a disturbance or interruption 
of its proceedings. Contempts by a contiuuacious resistance to the 
process of a court, such as the refusal of a sheriff to return a writ, are 
punishable by attachment ; but contempts done in the presence of the 
court, which cause an obstruction to its proceedings in administering 
the law, may b« punished or repressed in a summary manner by the 
commitment of the offender to prison or by fining him. The power of 
enforcing their process, and of vindicating their authority against open 
obstruction or defiance, is incident to all courts ; and the means which 
the law intrusts to them for that purpose are attachment for contempts 
committed out of court, and commitment and fine for contempts done 
in facie curia. [Attachment.] 

CONTENT (contentus, contained), the quantity of space contained 
in any portion of space, measured by the number of times which some 
arbitrary unit is contained in the space. Thus, linear content is 
simply Lesoth ; superficial content is Area or surface ; solid content 
(in which sense the word is principally used), also called volume, is the 
number of solid units contained in a space. These solid units are 
always cubes, described on the unit of length. Thus, when the inch 
or foot is employed in measuring lengths, the cubic inch or cubic foot 
is always employed as the measure of solid content. 

The solid content of a rectangular parallelopiped (or figure like a 
box) is fotmd by multiplying together the units in the lengths of its 
three dimensions. Thus, 3 feet of length, 24 feet of breadth, and 4 
feet of height, give 3 x 24 x 4, or 80 cubic feet. 

The solid content of any cylinder or prism is found by multiplying 
together the number of square units in the base and the number of 
lineaf units in the altitude ; and one-third of a similar product is 
the content of a pyramid or a cone. The content of any irregular 
•olid bounded by planes must be found by dividing it into pyramids. 

Weight is thus connected with content accurately enough for 
common purposes. Multiply the number of cuoic/ee< by 1000 times 
the specific gravity ; the result is the number of ounces avoirdupois. 
Roughly, multiply the number of cubic feet by the specific gravity, 
and five-ninths of the result is the mimber of cwts. Thus, the specific 
gravity of brick being 2, a cube of bricks 20 feet long every way 
weighs I of 20 x 20 x 20 x 2, or 8889 cwt. 

To find the solid content of a sphere, take ^'/tli^ "^ t^6 ^^^- x 
rad. X rad. Thus, the radius of a sphere being 4 feet, the number 
of cubic feet contained is 4 x 4 x 4 x 377 -i- 'JO, or 268 1. 


CONTINUED BASE, in Music, is the figured base of a score used 
throughout, and so called to distinguish it irom the vocal base, as well 
as from the base staves assigned to particular instruments. The term 
is only to be found in very old music, and is now become obsolete. 

CONTRABAND. [Customs Duties.] 


CONTRACTION, in Surgery, an abnormal and permanent alteration 
in the relative position and forms of jjarts, arising from various causes. 
Under the heads Anchylosis, and Distortion, some of the more 
remarkable results of contractions have been pointed out. In thi.? 
article we shall describe the nature of club-foot and wry-neck, and 
point out the recent mode of treating these contractions by surgical 
operation, which has been remai'kably successful. 

Club-foot, Talipes, is the term which has been applied to all kinds of 
distortion of the foot. Four species have been described: talipes 
varus, distortion of the foot inwards ; talipes vali/us, eversion of the 
foot; talipes eriidnus, forced extension ; and talipes calcaneus or talus, 
extreme flexion of the foot upon the leg. Till within a recent period 
it was a generally received opinion, that all forms of club-foot con- 
sisted in a malformation of the bones of the tarsus, more particularly 
the astragalus, and this malformation was traced to a diseased con- 
dition of the bones. It is a curious fact, however, that Hippocrates 
attributed club-foot to the imnatural contraction of one set of liga- 
ments and the elongation of another. Whether this be the original 
cause of the distortion may be doubted, but there can be no doubt as 
to its being a result, and that the only malformation which exists in 
the parts ia removed by relieving the contraction of the ligaments. It 
is, however, to Delpech in modem times that we are indebted for a 
sound view of the nat\ire of club-foot, and more jrarticularly for sug- 
gesting, though himself imsuccessful, the modern operation for its 
reUef. Two cases of club-foot, which had been produced after the 
bones had attained their full development, led him to regard the 
irregular action of the muscles as the cause. To this conclusion also 
Stromeyer of Berlin was led, by an inquiry in which he engaged, on 
the occurrence of paralysis in the muscles of inspii'atiou. The follow- 
ing are the various soiu-ces of distortion dependent upon irregular 
action of the muscles, according to Dr. Stromeyer. 

1. Stnictural changes in the muscles, inflammation and wounds, 
TOth loss of substance. 

2. DebiUty and inactivity of antagonists, produced either by wounds 
of tendons or the bellies of antagonist muscles, or by paralysis of the 
nerves of antagonist muscles. 

3. Diminution of voluntary power in the entu-e limb through which 
the flexors or extensors preponderate over the extensors or flexors liy 
the constant organic contraction of the muscles. 

4. Painful attections of the part, restraining or prohibiting motion, 
such as that from inflammation of a joint. 

5. Increased energy in the muscle, morbid contraction or motion in 
the muscular fibres, tonic spasm. 

The various modes of treatment of club-foot formerly pui-sued indi- 
cated the want of a definite knowledge of its nature. They were 
mostly mechanical, and seldom effected the object they had in view. 
The mode of treatment now more generally pursued is the use of 
mechanical means after the performance of a surgical operation. The 
operation consists in dividing the tendons of the contracted muscle, 
which admits of the restoration of the malformed parts to their normal 
position, and the sjiace between the divided ends of the tendon is filled 
up with new matter, and the function of the muscle is noimally per- 
formed. This operation, simple as it is, wa.s never performed till the 
year 1784, when Lorenz, a surgeon at Frankfort, divided the teudo- 
achiUis for the cure of a case of club-foot, under the direction of 
Thilenius. The same operation was afterwards imsuccessf ully resorted 
to by Sartorius and Michaelis. In 1816 Delpech again attempted it, 
and upon more philosophical principles than his predecessors, but he 
also failed. This did not prevent Stromeyer from repeating the opera- 
tion in 1831, which was perfectly successful. In 1833 and 1836 he 
published two memoirs, containing six successful cases. It was speedily 
performed again by several surgeons in England and on the Continent, 
and the value and utiUty of the operation are now universally admitted. 
The principal rule to be observed in the operation is not to cut through 
more parts than is necessary, and to divide the tendon of the con- 
tracted muscle. The division of the tendo-achUlis is however only 
calculated to relieve talipes equinus and the sLghter cases of varus. 
But in the severer forms of varus, the tendons of the tibialis posticus, 
flexor longus poUicis, and sometimes of the tibialis posticus, require 
division. In valgus the tendons of the peronei as well as the tendo- 
achillis require division. The principal part of the treatment takes 





•fter the opanlion, uid ooniiaU o( applying VMrinui meobuiical 
I for Um rwtontioD of the pvt* to their normal poaition. Thia 
trMtmant ia generally oommeoced from two to (our dayi after Uie 
operation. A great Tariety of appnmttu hare been deai^ied for the 
porpoee, but each oue requiree a peculiar adaptation of the means for 
iflaoting tlw rsduotion of the parta. 

Club-nand doe* not occtir ao frequently aa club-foot, but the diitor- 
tion ia of preeiady the tame nature, and requirea for ita removal the 
^npjication of the lame meaaurea. 

Wry -nook iOtpul oiaAjpiaN, TVb'-coUu) is a disease of the same nature 
•a the preceding, and moat frequently ariaea from the imequal con- 
tMOlion ct the muselea of the neck, originating in some one of the 
preriooaly meotioaed. The conaequenoa is that the head is 
Dtly inoUnad towards one of the ahouldera. Sometimea this 
riaea from rtinraan in the vertebrgs or from the contraction of 
cieatrioca after seTere wounds and bums of the neck. In the former 
ease the wry-ueck can seldom be rrmoved, but in the latter the cicatrix 
may aometunes be adrantageously divided, and the wound allowed to 
haal again with the head in ita natural position. Where it depends on 
eontraetion of the musoles, the came operation may be bad recourse 
to aa is used for the relief of club-foot and dub-hand. It is a curious 
&ct that the operation for dividing the musclee in wr}--neck had been 
reoommeuded and practised long before it was found to be generally 
i^>plicable to tht treatment of contractions. When it is determined to 
treat wry neck by mechanical means without operation, the beat appa- 
ratus is that uf Jorg. It consists of a pair of leather stays, and of a 
band or fillet which goes round the head. To the sta^ is attached ■ 
pulley, over which runs a band to the baok of the ear, in the direction 
of the muscles of the neck, and which can be tightened by means of a 
screw. It thus acta on the bead as the miudes would do if they were 
in action. 

Dr. Little of London has recently published a work on the applica- 
tion of the Stromeyerian operation to contractions depending on what 
is called pirtial ankyloais. These ankyloses depend upon some organic 
or functional lesion of tendon or muscle, arising from one of the fol- 
lowing causes : 1. Prom sloughing or adhesion. 2. From spasmodic 
eontraction. 3. From organic contraction through paralysis of antago- 
nist muscles. 4. From contraction owing to long-continued rest of the 
limb. When this kind of ankylosis has not existed for a great length 
of time, or occurs in young persons, a division of the contracted muscle, 
and a careful extension of the limb afterwards, is very often followed 
l>y a complete restoration of the function of the nnkylosed joint. 

The same causes which produce the above-named diseases give rise 
to the irregular action of the eye called squinting, and the operation 
of Stromeyer has been found perfectly suoceasful in this deformity. 

(Little, (M Ankflotii; Little, On Club- Fool ; Cooper's Sttrgieal Dic- 
tionary ; Cooper, Pint lAna of Suryery ; Articles ' Anchylosis ' and 
' ClubFoot," d/doprrdia of Suri/tTi).) 


CONTRART and CoNTRAUICTORY. Two propositions are com- 
monly said by logicians to be contrary when the one denies every pos- 
aible case of the other ; and to be contradictory, when one being 
oniversal, the other denies some of the things asserted in the iirst. 
Thus, the contrary proposition to " every A is B " ia, " no A is B," and 
ha contradictory is, " some As are not Be." 

Contrary propositions may be both false, but cannot be both true ; 
as in " all angles are equal," and " no angles are equaL" But of con- 
tradictory propositions one must be true and one must be false ; either 
" all angles are equal," or " some angles are not equaL" One of the 
most common fallacies of conversation and debate (and occasionally of 
written argument) is fixing the assertion of the contrary upon one who 
simply contradicts. And, on the other hand, nothing is more common 
than to assume a contrary as proved upon grounds which establish only 
the contradictory. 

The most easy way of establishing general propositions is, in many 
' oaaea, the refutation of the contradictory ; and here is another source 
of error, since the refutation of the contrary is frequently supposed to 
have the same effect. 

In common language, the two words are used in the same sense ; 
persons are said to maintain contrary sides of an argument, when their 
conclusions are not the technical contraries of the logicians, but only 
contradictory of each other. The common question, " Have you any- 
thing to say to the contrary ! " always means, " Can you contradict 


CONVENT, from the Latin convenlia, an assembly or meeting 
together. This word is used in a double sense, first, for any corpora- 
tion or community of religious, whether monks or nuns ; and secondly, 
lor the house, abbey, monastery, or nunnery in which such monks or 
nuns dweU. Shakq>ere usee it in the first sense, when he says of 

"At Uit, with euy ra*d>, he came to Lricntrr, 
LiMlited In the abbey ; «hrre the reverend ebbot 
With all hi* oonvtat hoooarably meivcd him." 

Hen. VUl., set Iv., so. i. 

Addison uses it for the building : — " One seldom finds In Italy a 
spot of grotud more agreeable than ortlinary that is not covered with a 

Furetiite, who wrote hi* diotiooafy in the time of Louis XIV., says 
there were no fewer than 14,000 convents formerly in Franca. 

Convent, aa related to the foreign military orders, meant the prin- 
cipal aeat or head of the order. Fureti^ aava, " La Comraandeiie de 
Boisy, prte d'Orleana, est le Convent g<n<ral da I'Ordre de St. Laiare." 

The earliest inhabitants of oonvanta ware termed Caenobites, from 
the Oreak words aeu^t and fil»t, aa living in community. They dwelt 
chiefly in Kgypt. Fleury (' Hist. Eoolea.,' ito, torn. v. p 14, Paris, 
1720,) datea their institution aa early as the days of the Apostle* ; 
others, probably with more correctness, give them a later origin. 
St Pachomius, abbot of Tabenna, on the banks of the Nile, who was 
bom at the close of the third century, is believed to have been the 
fir«t person who drew up a rule for the Cicnobitea. (Uoreri, ' Diet 
Uistor.,' torn, viit) [Houastert.] 

CONVENTION, MILITARY, a treaty made between the eom- 
mandera of two uppoaing armies concerning the terms on which a tem- 
porary cessation of hostilities shall take place between them. It i* 
tisoally Bolicited by that general who haa sufler*d a defeat, when his 
retreat is not aeeure and amall chance is left of maintaining his position ; 
and it is seldom refused by the victor, aince without incurring the nn- 
avoidable loss attending an action, his force become* immediately dis- 
posable for other operations. 

In 1 7S7 the Duke of Cumberland, when in danger of being sur- 
rounded, entered into a convention with the Duke de Richelieu, 
through the medium of Denmark, by which, on consenting to disband 
all his auxiliaries, he was allowed to retire n-ith the English troops 
across the Elbe. And in 1799, when the Anglo-Rusaian army failed in 
the attempt to deliver Holland from the French power, the Duke of 
York made a treaty with General Bnme by which the invading force 
was allowed to re-embark on condition that 8000 French and Dutch 
prisoners of war in England should be restored. 

After the battle of Vimeira in 1808, the Duke of Abtantes, having 
been defeated, and fearing a general rising in Lisbon against him, sent 
General Kellerman to the quarters of the British commander-in-chief, 
to request a cessation of arms, and propose a convention by which the 
French troops might be allowed to retire from Portugal. This being 
granted, it was finally arranged in the convention that they should not 
be considered as prisoners of war ; and that, with their property, public 
and private, their guns and cavalry horses, they should be transported 
to France : on the other band, all the fortresses which bad not capitulated 
were to be given up to the British, and a Russian fleet, then in the 
Tagus, wraa to be detained in English ports till after the conclusion of 
a peace. This is the celebrated convention which was made at Lisbon, 
and is generally but improperly called " of Cintra." It excited much 
dissatisfaction both in Portugal and England. (Napier, vol. i.) By the 
appointment of a committee consisting of one individual of each of the 
three nations, all causes of complaint were, however, finally removed. 

CONVENTION PARLIAMENT. Two days after the abdicat on 
[Abdication] of James II.,' the Prince of Orange invited the lords 
si<irituiil and temporal, to the number of about ninety, who had taken 
their places in the House of Lords, together with such persons as had 
sat in Parliament in the reign of Chu-les II., to the number of about 
a hundred and fifty, with the aldermen of London, and fifty of the 
common council, to meet him, and be requested them " to consider the 
state of the country, and to communicate to him the result <.i their 
deliberations." They did so, and the recommendation was that be 
should sumuion a convention of the estates of the realm. The prince 
accordingly despatched circular letters to the several counties, univer- 
sities, cities, and boroughs, for the election of members. The con- 
vention, or parliament, as it was afterwards declared to be, passed the 
Act of Settlement, which declared the throne vacant, and conferred 
the crown, with constitutional limitations to its power, on the Prince 
and Princess of Orange jointly. The Convention Parliament was dis- 
solved 29th January, 1691. (See " Popular History of England," by 
Charles Knight, vol. iv., p. 443, et ttg.) 

CONVENTION TREATIES. These are treaties entered into 
between different states, under which they each bind themselves to 
observe certain stipu'ations contained in the treaty. In 1848 two acts 
were passed (6 & 7 Vict. c. 76 and c. 76) for giving eflect to conventions 
between her Majesty and the King of the French and the United 
States of North Ameriea for the apprehension of certain offenders. 

The act relating to France (c. 75) legalises the convention entered 
into with the government of that country for the giving up of oH'enden 
who may escape from France into England. On requisition duly made 
by the French ambassador, a warrant will be issued for the apprehen- 
sion of fugitives aoctised of having committed the crimes of murder 
(as defined by the French code), attempt at murder, forgery, or 
fraudulent bankruptcy; and any justice before whom they may be 
brought is authorised to commit them to jail until delivered up pur- 
suant to the ambassador's requisition. Copies of the depositions on 
which the original warrant was issued, duly certified as true copies, 
are to be received as evidence. But no justice is to issue a warrant 
for the apprehension of any French fugitive unless the party applying 
is the bearer of a warrant or document, issued by a judge or com- 
petent authority in France, authenticated in such a manner as would 
justify the arrest of the supposed offender in France upon the same 
charge. The secretary of state will order the person committed to be 
delivered up to the person or persons authorised to receive him. If 





the prisoner committed shall not be conveyed out of her Majesty's 
dominions n-ithin two months from the time of his committal, any of 
her Majesty's judges, on application made to them, and after notice of 
such application has been sent to the secretary of state (or to the acting 
governor in a colony), may order such person to be discharged, unless 
good cause shall be shown to the contrary. The act is to extend to all 
her Majesty's present or future possessions, and to continue in force 
during the continuance of the convention. 

The act relating to America (c. 76) is similar in its nature and 
purposes to the one relating to France ; but the crimes specified in- 
clude, in addition, piracy, arson, and robbery, and do not include 
fraudulent bankruptcy. Difficulties, however, have arisen as to the 
jurisdiction of either country as to crimes committed at sea. A 
murder may be committed on an English subject on board an American 
vessel (or vic^ versd). and in whichever country it arrives it is unde- 
cided whether either country has jurisdiction over the case. 

In 1841 a case occurred of a fraudulent French bankrupt who had 
escaped to England, and the French government demanded that he 
should be given up under the Convention Treaty. He was arrested 
and taken to prison ; but before the surrender could take place he 
applird for writ of habeas corpus, on the ground that fraudulent bank- 
ruptcy was an offence unknown to the law of England, and that there- 
fore it was contrary to law to arrest him or keep him in custody on 
such a charge. The warrant of commitment did not specify that the 
prisoner should be given up on requisition duly made according to the 
act, but the words were, " until he shall be deUvered by due coiu-se of 
law." In consequence of the defective application of the Convention 
Treaty in this particular case the prisoner was discharged. 

GENCY. When a series of numbers proceeding without end, has 
which diminish in such a manner that no niunber whatsoever of 

em added together will be as great as a certain given number, the 
£8 is called convergent. But when such a number can be added 

igether as will surpass any given number, however great, the series is 

'led divergent. Thus, of the two following series — 
, 111 . ,,111. 

'the first is convergent, for no number of its terms, however great, will 
amount to 2 : the second is divergent, and the sum of its terms may be 
made to exceed any number. By going a mile, then half a mile, then 
a quarter of a mile, &c., two miles could never be completed : but by 
going a mile, then half a mile, then one-third of a mile, &c., a hundred 
million of miles, or any greater number, could be stUTmssed. 

The subject of the convergency of series is one of fundamental 
importance in the whole of the mathematics ; but it is only recently 
tlu^ it has been treated, in works on algebra, in the manner which its 
importance requires. Algebraical writers once imagined that a series, 
however obtained, is safe and fit for use, whether convergent or diver- 
gent. This opens a question which haa caused much discussion, and 
on which we &uinot here enter. We shall state the results of investi- 
gation on the subject, together with the references to sources of 

1. Series of increasing terms are certainly divergent, 

2. Series of decreasing positive terms are divergent, unless the terms 
diminish without limit. 

S. Of series of positive terms which diminish without limit, a test 
of convergency or divergency may frequently be given as follows. Let 
a, b, c, d, t, &c., be the terms of the series : form the new series 

bed e f . 
-, 1, -, J, -, 4c. 
a b c d t 


then, if there ever arrive a term of the series (A), from and after which 
all the terms are not only less than unity, but tend towards a limit 
which is less than unity, the series is certainly convergent : but if the 
terms aforesaid become greater than unity, and continue so from and 
after a given term, the series is certainly divergent : and if the limit in 
the first case be not less than unity, but unity itself, the series may be 
either convergent or divergent, and each particuhu- case must be 
examined by itself. Instances of both sorts can be given. 

4. Series of the form a-Ybx\ ex' + dx' + ex' + &c., can always be 
made convergent by giving a sufficiently small value to x; except only 
in the case where the temu in the series (A) increase without Umit 
from and after any term. If they do not increase without limit, let 
L be the limit ; then the preceding series is convergent whenever hx 
is less than unity, is referable to the preceding case when hx is equal 
to tmity, and divergent when hx is greater tliln unity. But if L = 0, 
th.! preceding is always convergent. 

5. Series whose terms are alternately positive and negative, are 
always convergent when the terms diminish without limit, and the 
error committed by taking any number of terms to stand for the 
whole value, is never so great as the first term thus rejected. For 

instance, if the answer to a question bel — -+;— - + 4c., then 1 

is not wrong by -,1 — - is not wrong by -, 1 

2 -h J IS not wrong by 

6. When such a series as the last has its terms not diminishing 
without Umit, but towards a finite limit, the sum of any number of 
terms, increased by half the limit, is never wrong by so much as the 
first-rejected term differs from the limit. 

7. When series produced by algebraical development have their 
terms alternately po.sitive and negative, the error committed by 
stopping at any term is never, in any case which the student will meet 
with, so great as the first rejected term, even though the series become 
afterwards one of continually increasing terms. If, then, such a series 
have the first few terms rapidly diminishing, a close approximation 
may be made by means of them to the real value of the expanded 
function. For instance, in the series 1 - 2j; -H 2 . 3x- -2.3. 4*^ -r . . . . 
(m which an attempt to calculate from the whole series would be 
utterly futile, since, however small x may be, there must be terms of 
every degree of magnitude) when x is small, an approximation may be 
made to its value from the terms which decrease. Thus if .-c = •!, in 
which case the series is 

1 - •2-I-- 06-- 024 -h -0120- -00720 -H&c, 

(and the first term which surpasses that preceding, is 2 . 3 11 x-^) : 

the aggregate of the terms up to 2 . 3 9x' inclusive, will not differ 

fiom the true value of the expression by so much as 2 . 3 10*", or 

•0036288. The proof of this curious proposition, in the vaat number of 
cases in which it is true, may be deduced from L.igrange's Theorem on 
the Limits of Taylor's Series. (' Lib. Useful Knowledge,' — Diflerential 
Calculus, p. 73.) 

Series which are functions of x may be divided into — 1. Those which 
are sometimes convergent, and sometimes divergent, such as the deve- 
lopment of (1-1- a:)'. 2. Those which are always convergent at last, 
but in which the appearance of divergency (increasing tirms) may be 
continued as long as we please, such as the development of t'. 3. Series 
which are always divergent, but to which a similar appearance of con- 
vergency can be given, such as 1 + 2^ -^ 2 . 3.c= + , and the like. 

4. Series which are always convergent or always divergent, and never 
can be made to exhibit any symptom of approach to the other state, 
such as 

1 / 1 \ X a? 

x-^--\-la? +-A + . . . and r-— ; + :;—: + 


1+^ ' 


2' 2 " '8 

', and so en. The results are alternately too great and too small. 

^^^T |_»u6;eoJ |_c()pu/aj [_ 

The series which are always convergent, both in reality and appear- 
ance, and upon which, therefore, an arithmetical algebraist would 
reckon with most security, do, in fact, ofl'er difficulties of a very 
peculiar character. They are the only ones in which the usual alge- 
braical generaUsations would lead to absolute error (so far as has yet 

On this subject generally, see Peacock's 'Algebra,' and 'Report- on 
Analysis' ('Rep. Brit. Assoc,' vol. ii.); Cauchy, ' Cours d'Analyse;' 
Grunert, ' Supplemente zu Klugel'S Worterbuche der Reinen Mathe- 
matik,' in the article ' Convergenz der Reinen ;' ' Encyc. Metrop.,' 
article ' Calculus of Functions.' See also Series. 

CONVERSE. We here state the ordinary theory of the lopcal 
converse. Converse, in logic, means a proposition which is formed 
from another by interchanging the subject and predicate, thus : the 
converse of " Every A is B " is " Every B is A." But care must bo 
taken to put the proposition m its usual logical form before conversion. 
Thus the converse of " Every A has a B " is not " Every B has an A." 
For the proposition first stated is 

:liing which has a B~| 
jyredicate. _J 

and the converse is " Every thing which has a B is an A." 

Of the four forms to which all assertions can be reduced, namely 
(A) "Every A is B"; (E) " no A is B " ; (I) "some As are Bs"; 
(O) " some As are not Bs ", the logical converses (so called) are those in 
which the new subject appears with the same degree of generality of 
assertion as the old one. Thus the converse of " Every A is B ", is 
" Ecery B is A.' Consequently in the first and fourth forms, or the 
general affirmative and the particular negative, the logical converse is 
not necessarily true. Thus " Every A is B,' does not give " Every B 
is A " necetsaribj , but only " some Bs are As'. The latter is called by 
writers on logic conversion per accideiis, a term which, as Dr. WallU 
has declined to explain it, we shall leave as we find it, adopting the 
phrase diminished or limited conversion, and calling the first kind 
simple conversion. The only other method of conversion which has a 
definite name is that in which the subject and predicate are made 
contradictory to the former ones, as when we convert the proposi- 
tion, " All equilateral triangles are equiangular triangles," into " All 
triangles not equiangular are triangles not equilateral." This is called 
conversion by contra-position. Restricting oiu-selves to converses which 
are necessarily as true as the direct propositions, we have the 
following rules with respect to A, E, I, and O above. 

E and I are simply convertible. 

E and A are convertible by diminution. 

A and O are convertible by contra-position. 

. Nothing is more apt to make a begiimer believe that "Every A is 

B " yields " Every B is A," than the study of geometry without close 

attention to the meaning of terms and the force of the parts of an 

assertion. For as a majority of the earlier propositions have their 






rimpl* eo B TeitM tnie, tha itadMit doM not mifficiratly reflect upoo 
thia beinc eoDtingMit Mad not neoeewry. 

In n»taam«tieal pmpoaition* there i« • qxeiee of eonTaraion which 
hM no name, eoMiBtiiig in the interchange nf the predicate with a port 
onfar of tha aabjaet. Thtu if I', Q. R, an<l S be four circumatancee, of 
whtoh the irriafimna of any thrre niakm the fourth nlao exiat, we aay 
obaarra thia apeeiea of cooveraiou in paaaing from the first to the 
aeoood of the following propoaitiona : — 

Emy (thing which girea P, Q, and R> ia (a thing which givea S). 

Erery (thing which girea P, Q. and S) ia (a thing which gives R). 

Thua of the following aet of oircumatanoea : 1. That two figures be 
paimllelograma ; 2. That they be equiangular ; S. That the aidea about 
equal angles be reciprocally proportional ; 4. That the areaa be equal : 
•shibit the poaaibility of thia oonveraion. For (1) (2) and (8) give (4) ; 
(1X8) and (4)give (8) ; (1) (8) and (4) give (2). 

The subject of convene is discussed by Aristotle, 'Analytic. 
Prior.,' L cap. 2, tec See the editions of the ' Organon/ by Paciua, 
16»7, Ac. 

CONVERSION. [Tbovek.] 


CONVEYANCE (in Law) ia a deed or inBtnimcnt in writing which 
pMMa real or personal proiMirty. The only couveyaucea us«l in the 
eariier periods of Rngliah history seem to have )>een feoSinent« and 
grants, though leases were soon used to pass a limited interest. The 
poaseaaion of land, aa well aa moperty of a moveable nature, pussed by 
tradition or actual transfer. The possession of land was given sym- 
bolically, by the delivery of a twig, a turf, &c., the charter of feoffment 
being the evidence merely of the transaction, and not essential to its 
validity. Hence, in the charter of feoffment, the operative words, or 
thoee which expressed the gift or transfer of the property, were used in 
the past tense, halh ;.imi, kc. : these terms are still used by some 
practitioners, although the reason for them has long since passed away. 

A grant was applied to the conveyance of incorporeal hereditaments 
which did not admit of actual ddivery into possessinn. From this 
difference in their .application, a diversity was supposed to exist in the 
innate qualities of the two mixles of conveyance, the feoffinent being 
used to convey the actual possession of land, and operating upon the 
poaeasion without any regard to the estate or interest of the feoffor ; 
the grant to transfer the right of the grantor to the grantee : the 
former was formerly defined as a tortious, the latter a rightful con- 
veyance. This definition however was not always recognisefl by the 
eourte (see Goodright r. Forrester, 1 Taunt, 613). The stat. 8 & 9 Vict. 
c. 106, formally abolished a distinction which often led to inconvenient 
consequences, and now no feofiinent can have a tortious operation. 

Sir William Blackstone distinguishes conveyances as original or 
primary, which are those by means of which the benefit or estate is 
created, or first arises; and derivative or secondary, whereby the 
benefit or estate originally created is enlarged, restrained, transferred, 
or extinguished. This division however is of little practical import- 
ance. Conveyances operate either according to the rules of the common 
law, or under the statute of uses. Conveyances may be further 
divided into tboeo made by matter of record and by deed. As ex- 
amples of thoee by matter of record, we may mention private acts of 
parliament, and the queen's grant; and, until those modes were 
abolished by the statute 3 & 4 Will. IV., c. 74, fine and recovery. 
Those by deed are by feoffinent, grant, bargain and sale, covenant to 
stand seised, lease, release or confirmation, exchange, surrender. Con- 
veyances simply transferring personal property are called assignments. 

By the statute 13 Eliz., c. 5, voluntary or fraudulent conveyances of 
real property are rendered void, as against the creditors of the party 
making the transfer : and the 27th Eliz., c. 4, extends similar, and in 
some instances more extensive, relief to subsequent purchasers of the 
same property, although they may have hud notice of the prior con- 
veyance. The bankrupt and insolvent laws also provide for the 
relief of creditors against certain conveyances of real and personal 
property in derogation of their claims, or made within a specified time 
previous to the bankruptcy or insolvency. 

The old system of conveying by lease and release has been effectually 
uprooted by the simple enactment of the statute 8 & 9 Vict, c. 106, 
to the effect that " all corporeal tenements and hereditaments shall, as 
n>gards the immediate freehold thereof, bo deemed to lie in grant as 
well as in livery." 

In many of the states of North America a simple bargain and sale is 
the usual mode of conveying real property. In New York it is called 
a grant ; and the conveyance by feoffment and livery of seisin, and 
also the statute of uses, are expressly abolished by the legislature. 

Conveyances in Scotland are made according to the strict principles 
of the feudal law there established, which imparts to them the appear- 
ance of far greater speciality and quaintness than those used in modem 
En^iah practice. 

(BL Comm. ; ButL Co. lAU. ; Kent's Camm.) 

Conveyancing is the business of preparing conveyances of real 
or penonal property, of investigating the title of the vendors and pur- 
diasers of projierty, and of framing those multifarioiu deeds and 
contracts which govern and define the rights and liabilities of families 
and individuals. It is carried on by barristen, or by members of the 
Inn* of Court, who having kept twelve terms, obtain a certificate 
according to the provisions of the 9 0«o. IV., c. 49, and are called 

oettifioated oonveyaooers. rBARRisTER ; Inns of Court.] The in- 
eresaed number of tnuMaetions in this branch uf the law has rendered 
a diviaioo of labour and a special oouias of study necessary. 

'There are two opposite systems, by which the transfers and tnna- 
actions of the owners of real property are capable of being carried on ; 
and Iwtween the extreme pointa of which, in some portion or other of 
the intermediate ground, all existing systems must arrange themselves. 
In one of these systems, as in the present sytem of England, every 
t rsn ss rt j o n is acoomfdiahad and evidenced by means of instruments in 
writing, varying infinitely, and governed by a scientific and ascertained 
mode of construction. In the other, the effect is accomplished some- 
what like the transfer of stock, by a comparatively mechanical opera- 
tion, a procces of book-keeping, of which the evidence is to be kept, 
not in private muniments, but in the ledger-books or registers of the 

The respective objects of these systems are, in the one, to protect 
the rightful owner; in the other, the innocent purchaser. In the 
latter the State takes upon itself the duty of seeing to the title of the 
owner whom it admits to registration, and consequently takes upon 
itself the risk of being deceived ; in the former, it leaves the parties to 
concert titles and transfers in secret and in silence, leaves them un- 
restrained and unchecked to transact with one another, but compensates 
this wont of interference by the alternative of following the right, by 
its jucUcial machinery, against all parties, however ignorant, however 
innocent, who mjy have had the miaforttme, at any time subsequent 
to a defective traoaaction, or wrongful succession, to become the ownera 
or purchasers of the property ; limiting that restoration or suooesaion 
only by reference to certain durations of adverse possession. (Parke's 
' Lect.') 

In the time of the feudal law, and the period immediately succeeding, 
restraint was placed on every sijecies of alienation ; landed property 
was rarely the subject of barter. Every transfer of land took place in 
open court, that is, on the Land itself coram paritmt (before the pares 
or peers), who were the other tenants of the feudal lord, and who sub- 
scribc<l the instrument of investiture as witnesses (Sulliv. ' Lect.,' 
p. 58) ; so that, in the words of Lord Mansfield, it was as notorious 
who was feudal tenant de faelo, as who is now de facto incumbent of a 
living, or mayor of a corporation. I^and was " of a stubborn nature," 
money portions were unknonm, and personal property did not exist in 
sufficient quantities to be made the subject of settlement, and con- 
sequently conveyancing transactions were few and simple. But the 
devices of the ecclesiastics to evade the statutes of mortmain, the 
invention of uses and trusts, and Bubs<.-<)ucntly the (vtssing of the 
statutes of uses and wills, wliich enabled the possessor of land to 
provide for the contingencies which might occur in his family, and to 
mould his estate .'According to his whim or fancy, controlled only by 
the laws from time to time established to guard against the abuse of 
the privilege, the |>ower of devising real estate, and the multifarious 
wants of a isarge and wealthy |x>pulation. laid the foundation of the 
system of modem conveyancing. " l!y means of this system," says a 
late eminent professor, " there is no device, arrangement, settlement, 
or disposition which imagination can c^tnceive, or ingenuity construct, 
which the machinery of the law of England cannot carry into effect 
with certainty. There is no conceivable purpose to which property 
may not be applied or rendered instrumental ; no event, or combi- 
nation of events, which can pitssibly happen in a family, of whatever 
rank or number, which may not be providwl for and met, by a family 
settlement framed by a master of his art." 

Moilom conveyancing is conducte<l on principles which in general 
are well defined and accurately settled. Uf this a remarkable proof 
was afforded by a statement in Mr. Parke's ' Contre-Projct to the 
Uumphreysian Code,' p. 199, upon the authority of Mr. Preston, that 
of the cases which came before him (averaging thirty a week), three 
per cent, only went on to judicial litigation. 

The great endeavour, from the earliest times, on the part of the 
owners of property, has been to bo enabled to effect sales and dispo- 
sitions with secrecy and dispatch, without incurring that publicity 
which it was the policy of the common law to enforce. Whether it be 
desirable, for the sake of mercantile credit, to f.-ivour secrecy, or pro- 
mote publicity, in the sale and disposition of property, has been lately 
much discussed ; a general registry has been pro|iose(l, and bills for 
establishing it have been from time to time introduced and thrown out 
of the House of Commons. [Kkoistbation.] 

CONVICT. [Pbsal Servitude ; Tbansportatio.n.] 

CONVICTION. [Justice of the Pe.\ce.] 

CONVOCATION. The assembling of the clergy of the Established 
Church, in obedience to a writ from the crown, which issues on the 
meeting of every «e>o parliament. In former times, the archbishops, 
bishops, and the most considerable abbots, were an integral part of the 
great council of the nation, and as such took their seats with the barons, 
with whom they were classed. The bishops who now sit in the House 
of Lords do so by the same prescription. When the burgesses were 
summoned to assemble by Edward 1., to aid in providing supplies for 
the public service, the inferior clergy were also called upon to do the 
same, but they objected to do so under the writ of the king, lest they 
should acknowledge thereby the authority uf the temporal power of 
the sovereign. The expedient was therefore devised of directing the 
writ to the two archbisnops, so that they might compel the clei^ to 

the burgea^ea ^ a diatiLVdS^and Weby 0^^ t^^^^ "' 

parliament, the archbishops of York and &nJrl^rl! *f^*yP« "^ °^^ 

OntC^l ?ommonIy called the statute of pncmunire) was enacted 
.?nd York 1r o^b^ '""T °.7 parliament the ar'chbkhops of CWbut 
ana Y ork, m obedience to the writ from the crown, convoke the bishom 


tTen after a ?ew ^.1'''"^''' ''°.*?' " ^''^' '^^ oon.o^uJaZ 
rcomm^mcat witHh "'"" T'"'^'^' t''*? ''•^o select ^rolooX^ 

^^5S £fr^- tS^^= ^^ 
^d^bV of eacCrc;.\t'rt:; rs : 'rt:::'^ 

^.1^f^°"^""' "''•'' "" *'«=*«<1 ^""n the incumbent d^ The 

» Procter,/ In tht itr of' Nor^rThrtroTrcM *"° '"'^°? 
S^Sth-e^ott^h"^" T ^^^^'' -<^ "-ro'f'^Sranl 
S^^e^oTeL of ckii^^VTJ"''' '"•""""'^''> " »''<' "'""-^ adopted 

aequejUly it ia generally prorogued frx,mtime Hi^e w'ti. Se 

Jfum.Iike "Ubatance/obtained frWlXp roit"cofr)S- "^^ ''"** 
aUghtly soluble in water, inaoluble Khe^ but riublTln" ^? Tf 
Although ita alcohoUo aolution alightly browM tnr^l^ '^''''''"'.'■ 

ha« no baaiequalitiea. It may hi il^Xdhvl^^Z-^^''' T^ " 
centrated sulphuric acid, in 'which it^aS^^vS '^'''" rlV"™; 
Mn«ranth-red colour which diaappeara afterTel^,! / '^"^'f"! 
ConvoWulin ia the ^rtive princE S, ^d U^^hlvT^r"- 
even in very amaU doseii. '^ nigUy purgative 

CONYOT, m the mUitary aervice, ia a detachment of troop.. 

* '^rr:.77ou,>r':"ro:::J!'- '''"^'' '^^"^ -"'"""<' -«--• i 

S befng^co^ytd^ra" ilnTt"^^'' '''-'""-«''". P^-sions, &c., 
through aiuntr7L^*"hic\ W adrg^^-thaVs" cr^''^-''^'^ '¥' 
TnletavV th ''^'''^ "^ }^^/^'' ^^^ tt'ei^^ "'' "'' ''^ 


Tcet^lof ^ufduHtriS^^Tr '^ ^^■'•'^'' F™^"- ^-^"^ "^ 
which produce the mntnl ^r °''^°"= f"°<=tiou8, and those 

theaniSt^^'oL.TamTyTc^rol^ The'liItT"" "' °°^ °^ 
iDliuence; tor S thene^n^^lnfl l^ depsndent ou the uprvous 

tr^ttn''r'eUher'2?e'^ii"n?' ' ^''" "'"""'•■^' «- '^'"««"'-r <=- 
than natill! that iT when ° t doeT n"?'' ''i'?'^' "' ^""^'^ """'"'""d 
alternate state of relaxattn tt „ * ,^"''* .'" P""?'"" *™« '° "^^ 

thus affected, the dle^fis usual'lv t^rmp I "^^"'""i?,--? -""ti™. are 
is not inde-d invariAhW ,«H • ^ n™f ' '^°*'"- ^l^'^ distinction 
but it vvn,!u J,°''*"*'''y and universally observed by medical writers • 

o? the c[..nictint"but inst^d'o ^^^i:^ t^Tlflnfl "^ 

or *vne of dispaso Tn fhja !„** '"'"".•constituting a distmct form 

V oluntary muscles are far more frequently the seat nf pm,„„i • 
properly so called, than the involuntlry mu«Ues Thl H^^ "'' 

nitltinn 7 P convulsive action, in some of the forms of oal- 

pitation, for example; but in genend, when the organs of ™e orga^nt 







life, M Ui« bronehi, th* tloniMh, th* intMtlBw, the urinuj bladder, 
tb« utcnia, &0., are ■ttaalnd with ao •Aotiflo o( thii kind, it i* much 
more cloeelj allied, M baa been atat«d, to the nature of spaim than of 

Of the Toluntaiy miuelM, whether Ihoae approprLited to locomotion, 
or thoae deatined to act on forrign bodiea uudcr the command of the 
will, and alao of certaiu nitiicle* which, thuugh not under the direct 
OOBuaand of the will, itill twiong to the aniinal life, having a close 
lebtian either to aenaation or motion, there i< not one which may not 
b* the aeat of conmliion, ringly, or conjointly with mauT others. 

The muielea of the eyialidx, the muacle* that more the ball of the 
tljt, the muscular fibres of the iris, the muiKdes of the faos, and more 
Mpacially of the lips, ths muaoles of the tongue, the muscles of the 
^barjnx, the muscle* of the jaws, and particularly of the lower jaw, 
the muscles of the neck, the muscles of the obeet, back, and abdomen, 
and the muscles of the upper and lower extremities, may be severally 
attacked singly or in combination, simultaneoualy or in suooesaion, 
vith erery degree of convulsion, from the most violent tonio con- 
tnetions to the slightest clonic tremor or twitching. The particular 
araseles affected, the particular combinations of the muscles affected,. 
iha particular order in which the muscular affections succeed each 
other, may be indicative of specific diseases of the nervous system or 
of dinifasas seated in particular parts of the nervous system. The study 
of these convulsive affectiona is therefore most important in a practical 
point of view, as indicating, at one time, the near approach or the 
actual existence of highly dangerous disesses, having their primary seat 
in the brain or in the spinal cord ; and at another time pointing to no 
less formidable diseases of the brain and spinal cord excited by diseases 
of some distant organ. At the same time it should always be remem- 
bered that these affisctiona may be purely functional, and not dnpend- 
ent on organic diseaae at all. 

When convulaions attack a single muscle, or a particular set of 
muscles, the convulsions are called partial or local ; when they attack a 
great number of muscles simultaneously or in rapid successiou, they 
an oallad generaL 

The secession of an attack of general convulsion, whether local or 
geoaral, is commonly, though not invariably, preceded by premonitory 
■igna. which should be carefully looked for, that me^tsure:) appropriate 
to the particular nature of the caw may be promptly taken to prevent 
an occurrence of the attack. 

In the actual paroxysm, the features of the face are sometimes 
hideously distorted ; the eyeballs are prominent, staring, vacant, wild, 
and are rolled in every diraction ; the teeth gnash ; the mouth foams ; 
the tongue protrudes ; and the action of inspiration from the passage 
of the air through the clenched teeth, is attended with a hissing sound. 
So violent are the contractions, that occasionally the teeth, and some- 
times even the bones of the extremities are broken by the force. 
When the muscles of inspiration are involved, and the respiratory 
function is much obstructed, the face becomes tumid, bloated, and of 
a dusky or purple colour ; and sometimes oven the entire surface of 
the body assumes a leaden hue, from the obstructed circulation 
throu^ the lungs and the imperfect aeration of the blood. Such is 
the obataole to the progress of the blood, that the blood-vessels some- 
timns give way, and the blood bursts from the nose, or is effused ex- 
tensively beneath the skin, the effusion probably preventing irreparable 
miaohief to the brain. At other time^ the face, instead of bein^ red, 
h pallid and sunk, and then the pulse is feeble, small, and contracted ; 
at in the former case it is f>ill and strong, and attended with a violent 
beating of the carotids. The violent contractions of the muscles act 
upon the bUdder and rectum, and e.xpel the contents involuntarily 
and with force. In alt the c-ises in which the current of tlie blood is 
much obstructed, the functions of the brain are proportionally im- 
paired, the general sensibility is diminished, and there is sopor, or even 
ooma ; at (Aher times consciousness is but little affected, and the 
violanoe of the contractions produces severe pain. 

The duration of the paroxysm varies from a few minutes to as many 
hours. The moment the convulsions subside, the patient commonly 
fcUi into a long and profound sleep, from which he awakes suddenly, 
•UogeUier nnoonacious of what has happened. The attack is generally 
1 by languor, lassitude, sickness, and a disordered atate of the 

The paroxysm commonly returns at uncertain intervals, preceded by 
the premonitory symptoms just enumerated. But sometimes it proves 
{atal at the very first attack, by producing apoplen or asphyxia; and 
not unfrequcntly it leaves behiwi it either paralysia or some definite 
and permanent form of ounvulaive disease, as epilepsy, chorei, and 
•a on. TIm fiequent recurrenca of the fito invariably impairs, and 
■omatiinM wholly destroys, tho mental faculties. 

In aama peculiarly nervous and irritable tcniperamenta, instead of 
the languor and lassitude which ordinarily follow a severe convulsive 
paroxysm, the exhaustion is so extreme that the patient falls into a 
state of profound qrnoope or fainting, which oontmues for so long a 
period as justly to ezoito alarm ; and sometimes the patient actuuly 
diss in thu fainting fit, th* brain never recovering its functions. At 
othar times, the animal life ia completely suspended, and the action 
of ths organic life appears to have eaaaed, but the latter is not wholly 
•xtinguished, though its functions are performed so feebly aa to aSurd 
no indication of their existence ; consequently, to all outward appear- 

ance the patient is dead ; yet be may be only in a state of lethargy or 
torpor, and may ultimately revive. 

The preceding aooount of a paroxysm of convulsion, is the description 
of it only ss it exists in its severest form. In general oven the tonio 
aeisure is a much more mild attack ; the convulxions bein^ not violent ; 
aflboting only a few muscles at a time, and rather passing m suooassion 
from one set of muscles to another, than nttanking a great number 
simultaneously. In general too ths oouvulaions are imattended with 
the obstruction of respiration ; are without the abolition of sensation ; 
in short, are without tne permanent and dangerotu interruption of any 
function, organic or animial. And more especially when the paroxysm 
is of a clonic character, the muscles are not rigid, the contractions are 
not vehement and long-continued, the face is not swollen and livid, 
but rather pole and sunk, the features are littie distorted, the pulse is 
feeble and rapid, and the extremities are cold. 

Convulsions are frequently excited in the progress of other diseases, 
towards the termination of continued fevers, for example, in which 
they are almost always of bad, and sometimes of fatal omen ; at the 
commencement of eruptive fevers, aa small-pox, measles, loarlet fever, 
&c , when, though generally indicative of a severe form of disease, they 
are not so alarming as at the close of continued fever ; in inflammatory 
affections of the brain; in hooping-cough; in cramp; in disordered 
states of the reproductive organs, uid more especially of the uterus, 
and in long-continued suppression or imperfect performance of the 
catamenial function. 

The causes of convulsions are exceedingly ntunerous and varied. 
There is, without doubt, a constitutional predisposition to such affeo- 
tions. They occur far more frequenUy in the nervous temperament 
than in any other. The distinctive character of the nervous tempera- 
ment is muscular mobility combined with nervous irritability. The 
muscular fibre is relaxed, deUcate, and weak ; the nervous fibre is 
peculiarly sensitive, while it is proportionally without energy. Uther 
powerful causes are, peculiar conformation of the body, namely, a 
feeble frame, with a largely developed bead : a relaxed and deUcate 
fibre ; a fall and plethoric habit ; a constitution often manifestly pro- 
pagated from jiarcnt to child ; all circumstances capable of producing 
over-excitement, or in any other mode of inducing debility, physical or 
mental ; an idle and luxurious mode of life ; too much indulgence in 
sleep ; neglect of regular and active exercise, and, as would ap|>ear, 
certain electrical conditions of the air, by which the nervous system is 
rendered more susceptible of impressions, and its vital energy is more 
rapidly exhausted. 

The exciting causes are thoae which act either upon the animal or 
upon the organic portion of the nervous system. It has been stated 
that contractility, though a property inherent in the muscular ihn, 
can be excited only through the agency of a stimulus derived from tiia 
nervous system. All the muscles which ore under the control of the 
will, or which depend on an act of volition for the exerdse of their 
function, derive their nervous stimulus from a particular portion of 
the nervous sj-stem, namely, the spinal cord. Modem physiology has 
demonstrated that the nervous fibres which supply the stimulus necei> 
sary to voluntary muscular motion are different from the nervous 
fibres which communicate sensation. Tho first, the motive nerves, 
communicate with a particular portion of the spinal cord ; the second, 
the sentient nerves, communicate with another portion of the spinal 
cord. Now, it is found that whatever disturbing influences act imme- 
diately upon the motive nerves, or upon that portion of the spinal cord 
with which the motive nerves are in direct communication, constitute 
most powerful exciting causes of convulsions. But there is so clota a 
8ym|>athy between the sentient and the motive portion of the spinal 
cord, and between the spinal cord and the brain, that any disturbing 
infiueuco which acts powerfully on the one is rapidly commimioatod to 
the other. It ia indeed seldom that it is possible to trace the laat of 
the irritating cause either to the motive or to the sensitive portion of 
the nervous system exclusively ; that would imply an accuracy and 
oompleteuesa of kuowledje which pathologists are at present far from 
possessing. All that the present state of knowledge almoat ever 
admita of is to traoe the seat of the irritating cause to some portion of 
the spinal cord or brain ; and this, which is nearly all that can be don* 
in any other case, is sufficient to connect the morbid condition of the 
orgiu with its disordered function. There are then morbid conditions 
of tho spinal cord and brain which are clearly ascertained to be imme- 
diately connected with that disorder of their functions of which con- 
vulsions are the result. 

Such are, 1. A disordered state of the cu-culation of the blood 
through these organs. One of the conditions, the most essential to the 
due iHsrforiuaiiue of the functions of the nervous system is, that ths 
spiuol cord and brain receive a certain supply of arterial blood. It 
the quantity of bloo<l which flows to these oigans be deficient, synoops 
will be induced, with a diminution or loos of muscular power : of this 
state convulsioiiH, always of a clonic character, are a constant result. 
If the blood transmitted to the spinal cord and brain do not circulate 
through tho blood-vessels with a certain impetus and velocity, but bs 
retained either in the capillary arteries or veins, or in both, the stats 
termed congestion [Cohoistion] will bo induced, of which convulsions, 
also in general of a clonic character, are a constant result. If the 
blood sent to the spinal cord and brain be in preternatural quantity, 
and if it circulate with preternatural energy, the state of inflammation 





will be induced, o£ which convulsions, always uf a tonic character, are 
a constant result. Whether, then, the balance of the circulation be 
disturbed by deficiency or excess in the quantity of the circulating 
blood, or deficiency or excess in the motion of it, it will prove 
alike an exciting cause of convulsions. 2. Precisely the same results are 
produced if there circulate through the blood-vessels blood vitiated in 
quality, blood too much venalised, or too much arterialised, or impreg- 
nated with poison. The character of the convulsions induced by ex- 
citing causes of this class vary essentially according to the nature and 
extent of the vitiation of the blood and the kind of poison with which 
it may be imbued. 3. Extravasation of blood upon the surface or 
into the substance of the spinal cord and brain, by the rupture of the 
bloodveasels ; or the effusion of the serous portion of the blood, occa- 
sioning direct pressure on the nervous matter. 4. Organic changes in 
the constitution of the nervous substance, as a preternatural softening 
or a preternatural hardening of it. 5. Morbid growths within the 
nervous substance, forming tumours of various natures and sizes. 
6. Mechanical injury of the nervous substance, from the irritation 
occasioned by the deposition of bony matter on the investing mem- 
branes of the nervous substance, or from spieulae of bone growing out 
from the inner table of the osseous cases that inclose it. 7. Mech^ical 
violence directly applied to the nervous substance, as from a blow or 
fall, by which a shock, exhaustive of its vitality, may be communicated 
to it, or its substance injured, or its circulation disturbed. Such are the 
more powerful exciting causes which act directly on the animal 
portion of the nervous system. 

But convulsions may be equally induced by the action of an irritating 
cause on the organic portion of the nervous system. The irritation 
excited in the organic nerves is transmitted to the communicating 
branches of the spinal and cerebral nerves, and is by these communi- 
cating branches conveyed to the spinal cord or brain. It is in this 
manner that irritating substances in the stomach or in the intestines 
induce convulsions, as indigestible or acrid substances taken as food, 
or acrid matters generated or evolved during the digestive process, or 
retained by long-continued constipation [Cokbtipatiom] in some part 
of the alimentary canal ; or the accumulation of acid, or the presence 
of worms, 4o. Many other noxious agents which act upon one or 
other of these nervous circles, or upon both conjointly, might be 
enumerated as the exciting causes of convulsions ; but tho.^e which 
have been stated may suffice to indicate the kind of noxious agents 
which induce this affection, by disturbing the functions of the nervous 

The treatment in every case of convulsion must be directed to the 
subduing of the paroxysm and to the prevention of its return. There 
are certain things proper to be done the instant a person is seized with 
» fit of convulsions, with a knowledge of which it is desirable that 
every one should be familiar. The patient should be immediately sur- 
rounded as completely as possible with fresh cool air. If he be seized 
in a small heated and crowded room, circumstances of themselves 
sufficient to produce a paroxysm in a person strongly predisposed to 
it, he should be removed into a spacious apartment, the windows of 
which should be thrown open, and every one whose assistance is not 
absolutely requiredehould be excluded bom the room. In the male, 
the neckcloth should be immediately untied, and the face, neck, and 
bosom freely exposed to the air; in the female, the stays should be 
unlaced, and every thing tight about the body should be removed. 
If the skin be cool, and the face pallid and sunk, the patient should 
be placed in the horizontal posture ; if the skin be hot and the face 
flushed, he should be sustained in the sitting or the erect posture, in 
order, in the former case, to favour the flow of blood to the spinal 
cord and brain ; and in the latter to retard it. 

The remedies employed to put an end to the fit must of course 
depend on the nature of the exciting cause, and on the pathological 
oondicion of the nervous system. 

COOKING APPARATUS. If cookery be raised to the dignity of 
a chemical art (and 'there is no good reason why it should not), we 
ought to regard cooking vessels as chemical apparatus. It is, however, 
chiefly in the mode of applying and economising heat, that such appa- 
ratus calls forth the exercise of ingenuity. 

Of the ordinary cooking vessels we need say nothing ; their sim- 
plicity has rendered them familiar to ail ; but of the modem cooking 
stoves and apparatus, many examples evince skilful arrangement. 

In the so-called " bachelor's kettles," of which Spiller's is one spe- 
cimen, the problem seems to be to determine in how short a space of 
time, and with how little trouble, can a frugal meal for one person 
be prepared. Spiller's apparatus consists of a kind of saucepan, with 
• small opening on one side to admit air, and a flue fixed in the oppo- 
rite side to let ofi' smoke. A very shallow tea-kettle forms the cover 
to this saucepan. In the middle of the saucepan is a small iron 
grating, and on this grating is placed one of those small net-work 
arrangements of sticks which constitute " patent firewood," and which 
nre now sold so cheaply at one farthing each. This wood being 
kindled, and the kettle placed over it, the heat Is so confined as to 
make the water in the kettle boil by the time the wood is consumed. 
With some of these contrivances a kind of small frying-pan is sold ; 
and by Wng a larger piece of patent firewood, time is allowed for a 
small dish of savoury cookery after the water has boiled : the kettle 
being quickly replaced by Uie pan, Thers is a certain amount of 

usefxilness in the contrivance which makes it available for others 
besides the " bachelors " whom the patentee seems to have had in his 

Many varieties of gas cooking-stoves have been introduced, in which 
gas jets are made to yield heat sufficient for the processes of boiling, 
stewing, roasting, baking, frying, &c. Among others is Defries' 
" Economic Gas Cooking-stove," which is made to suit either large or 
small culinary wants. Mr. Boggett's gas stoves, for which a patent 
was taken out in 1850, comprise many varieties, differing from each 
other chiefly in the mode of making the heat practically available. 
There is one form called the Liverpool gas-stove, in which separate 
departments ai'e provided for roasting, baking, broiling, frying, boiling, 
stewing, and steaming. For many of these purposes the g-as is supplied 
in a ring of jets. On a festive occasion at Exeter, the late M. Soyer 
cooked a monster joint of meat by means of this apparatus ; the meat 
weighed 565 lbs , and was cooked in a gas oven in five hours, with an 
expenditure of about five shillings' worth of gas. 

The kitchen ranges and other stoves and grates in which coal or coke 
is burned, are for the most part contrived both for warming apartments 
and for cooking ; but some are designed especially for cooking. The 
"cottager's stove," manufactured by Messrs. Bailey, of Holborn, consists 
of a square iron case suppoi-ted on four legs. Inside this case, and 
near one end, is a fire-pot, the top of which opens into a flue to carry 
ofl" the smoke ; the rest of the vacant space constitutes an oven ; 
while the top, being flat, is available for many cooking processes. la 
some of these stoves a boiler is attached to that end which is nearest 
to the fire. It has been shown that, in one of these stoves, 100 lbs. 
of meat and 115 lbs. of vegetables, can be cooked with an expenditure 
of 20 lbs. of coal. 

The cooking apparatus of Messrs. Burbidge and Healy is founded 
on the plans of heating developed by Mr. Sylvester. There are, as in 
many other similar kinds of apparatus, a large range, an oven, a boiler> 
a hot-plate, and various subsidiary parts ; but its chief featui es consist 
in the economising of fuel, and in lessening the amount of radiation 
sent into the middle of the room. This radiation is an annoyance to 
the persons present, and involves a loss of some of the heat produced ; 
and it is unquestionably an improvement, other things being equal, if 
nearly the whole of the heat produced can be appUed to the purposes 
for which it u primarily intended. 

Among the many forms of cooking apparatus, that of Mr. Brown is 
distinguished by having the whole kitchen range, with its oven, boiler, 
hot-plate, &c., set in a framework which may be placed in any sized 
fire-place, however large, without setting. The throat, or opening to 
the flue, is formed in the iron-work of the range itself, so as to be at 
once determinate in shape and size. With this range is used an auto- 
maton roasting jack, arranged in a singular way. In front of the 
range is placed a sort of semi cylindriual oven, with the usual hooka 
and dripping-pans for roasting. A hollow tube projects from th« 
lower part of the oven ; and when the oven and range are arranged for 
cooking, this tube is thrust into an c pening beneath the fireplace of 
the range. While the contents of the oven are exposed to the actioa 
of the fire, a current of air is continually drawn through the tube into 
the oven ; and this current seta in rotation a vane-wheel to which the 
suspended hooks are attached. 

Remington's roasting apparatus is, as the name imports, adapted to 
roasting only. The meat is suspended from or below a jack. There 
are concave reflectors above and below, which reflect the heat so as to 
act on the upper and lower surfaces of the meat. The centre of both 
reflectors is hollowed ; the fat which drips from the meat passes 
through the hoUuw in the lower reflector into a sort of cup beneath, 
and is from time to time poured into another vessel, which is perforated 
and placed over the hole in the upper reflector. The inventor hence 
calls his apparatus not only a roaster, but a " self-acting baster." 

M. Soyer devised a pretty and scientific cooking stove, in which spirit 
of ivine is the fuel used. A lamp is so placed as, by its, to boil 
spirit placed in a vessel above ; the steam or vapour of this boiling 
spirit has no outlet, except through a tube which gradually becomes 
so narrow as to resemble a blow-pipe ; this blow-pipe is placed opposite 
to a second spirit-flame, and the blowpipe wafts such a constant stream 
of spirit-vapour into this flame as to heat it greatly, and to make it act 
rapidly on small cooking vessels placed above it. There is a good deal 
of chemical ingenuity shown in thus ferding one spirit-flame by vapour 
derived from another ; but the apparatus is somewhat costly. 

Mr. Norman has devised a mode of using steam as well as interior 
radiated heat, in a cooking apparatus. There are two vessels, one 
within the other, having a space of about three-quarters of an inch 
between them at top and bottom : this space is partly filled with water. 
There is a tray for meat, and another tray, perforated, for vegetables, 
&c. When the vessel is heated, the staam from the water is received 
by two small pipes, and projected upon the contents of the lower 
tray ; after which, the steam ascends through the perforations to the 
upper tray. 

A leciure delivered at the Royal Institution in 1867, by Captain 
Grant, of the Royal Artillery, gave much useful infoi mation on the 
important subject of cooking in the British army— a subject to which 
that officer has devoted considerable attention. Captain Grant draws 
attention to the much neglected fact, that all stoves or grates im- 
bedded in a mass of brick- or stone-work, occasion great waste of fuel 


COOLER, cootmo. 



hf alaorbiDg aome of Um htat unproAUblr, and bv Moding n further 
portion uauMd up the ohiimtmr. Tba poliuwd (ted fitting uf modem 
firepUcoi reflect much be«t into a room which would oth«rwiae be 
)o«( ; but uofurtunately thoM coatly artielee are unattainable by the 
poor, who are most interested in econumy. Hence the detached 
stOTM, wbeliisr calhd Dutch, Bnueeln, or nuy other name, render more 
■srrioe tliaa (bed gntes, although they may not to an eoiuil degree 
[Mrnwil IIm efaserful aspect of an open fire. For cooking, toe masonry 
MttillC is aUIl more improvident of heat ; and it is mainly on this 
r oond that so roaor portable stores, gas stoves, steam kitchens, Ac, 
Eare been introduoed. 

At the North- West Rsformatory in the Euston Road, some of the 
penons bensAtted were emplnyed to construct a cooking stove fur 
thair kitchen. It was a dftiched |iortalile cooking Apparatus, in which 
foci was used so aoonomically that in 1867 it was fouud that cooking 
«ou)d be eileoted for eighty-two persona at a cost of sixpence per day. 

Tht great sufl°erings of the troops outside Sebastopol, in the winter 
«l 1854-5, from cold, privation, and fati^nie, were aggravated by the 
imperfect arraoKvmeuts for military cookery. Since that time many 
inprareinents have l>een introduced On the suggoHtion of Captain 
Giant, when Aldcmhott Camp was first formed, a new kind of cooking 
raiaratus was adopted, primitive in character, but suited to teach 
•oWers how to cook for themselves more effectively than they have 
hitherto done. A trench was cut in the ground, and over it was 
placed a covering of thin iron plates, having a central hole in each laige 
enough to receive an ordinary camp-kettle. A chimney was formed at 
one end of the trench of sods piled up tu the height of three feet ; and 
at the other end of the trench was the fire-place. By this very simple 
apparatus several regiments cooked their provisions during mauy 
months. The next improvement related to battalion cooking-kitchenB, 
when the camp at Alderahott assumed a more complete form. The 
same principle of the trench was adopted, with modifications ; and for 
two years many of the regiments had their cooking effected in this way. 
The consumption of fuel requisite for this system is about half a pound 
of cool per man ]>er day ; and the cost is a halfi>enny per man per week 
for three daily meals. 

It is a subject for much regret, that English soldiers have never 
been accustomed to meat cooked otherwise than by boiling. Medical 
men well know, and on all fitting occasions urge, that this is not the 
beat mode of developing the nourishing qualities of the food. Ro-^sting, 
baking, frying, and broiling, are procesi>es not adopted in military 
kitohens in connection with our armies ; whereas French soldiers 
manage to prepare many savoury rations by eucb means. If soldiers in 
our barracks wish for a change from the never-varying boiled meat, 
they club together a few pence, and send their meat to a public bake- 
house. Captain Grant, like many other intelligent officers, believed 
that this defect might be overcome by the exercise of a little ingenuity. 
He baa contrived an oven to be introduced in the chimney of lus 
trendi-kitchen ; and as he makes one chimney serve for two trenches, 
the oven becomes surrounded by the heated air of two flues. He thus 
eoonoaiiaes heat, and prepares a baked dinner for his men. W.thout 
the addition of a single pound of fuel, he found that he could bake 
250 lb. at once in a large chimney. So effective is this said to be, that 
a battalion of a thousand men may be cooked for by two small fires 
18 inches square and 6 inches deep. 

Captjn Grant haa still more recently planned a further extension of 
Us simple ^>paratus, in such form as to enable troops to bake, slew, 
•ad steam their food vhitt aetiuUly in the fidd. In June, 1 S59, he 
made experiments on this subject at Woolwich, in presence of Colonel 
Tulloh and other officers. The apparatus is fixed to an ordinary four- 
wheeled advance-waggon, to be drawn by two or more horses, as 
cireamstances might render expedient. The operation of cooking goes 
on while the vehicle is in transit. A furnace at one end of the appa- 
ratus beats the water of a boiler, the steam from which is the cUef 
cooking agent Steam-pipes communicate from the boiler to a perfo- 
rated steamer, oven, stew-pan, &c. Each apparatus is calculated to 
oook food for about 200 men, by means of a very small amount of fuel. 
The boiler being filled with 120 gallons of water, can have its steam 
raised in ten minutes, and the cooking can then be conducted while 
the vehicle is actually in motion. Another apparatus, similar in prin- 
ciple but different iu details, has been planuotl by CapUin Grant for 
inaking »oup instead of cooking joints of meat. It will be an immense 
boon to the British soldier if these excellent inventions should prove 
to be as effective in practice as they have been in preliminary trials. 

COOLER, COOLING. Various contrivances have been adopted by 
b re we ra and distillers for cooling their worts. This has been done 
by exposing the hot liquor in shallow wooden ve.'tsels to the air, and 
by the use of stirrers or fans to keep the liquor in motion, and thus 
expose fresh surfaces to the air. The plan has also been adopted of 
IwiiiiiH qxring-water, which in deep wells is usually about 52' even in 
Mmnier time, through metal pipes placed in the Uquor to be cooled. 

Wine-ooolen are made of porous earthenware, which being soaked in 
and Mtorated with water, by its gradual and copious evaporation occa- 
■ions cold ; and in Spain, water-coolers, colled a/carraza; arc mode on 
the same principle. Coolers of this kind, mode of porous cK-iy, lightly 
baked, sod rather thin, are also common in Egypt, where they are 
often represented on the ancient monuments in a form very much 
resembling both those now used in Egypt and such aa we see in use at 

Cadb and other pboea in the south of Spain. On the monuments of 
Egypt we aometiinas obeerre a man fiummg these earthen vaasels with 
a palm-leaf, in order to promote the evaporation. The Arabs of ^ypt 
are well aoqiuunted with tlie practice of fanning their earthen Teasels 
to quicken the cva]x>ration. M. Coataa, when in Egypt, made the 
following exiH-riment »n the refrigerating power of these earthen 
vessels The thermometer in the shade, but exposed to the air, marke<l 
110*75 Fahr. during the greater part of the day. At sunset the Nile 
water waa S2*-6 ; an earthen vessel filled with this water was plaoed on 
the deck of the boat in which M, Costai passed the ni^t on the Nile. 
At day-break the temperature of the river was the same, but that of 
the water in the jars was only 61*-25, and more than half of the water 
waa evaporated. 

A remarkable mode of cooling liquids was introduced in 1848 by 
Mr. Lillie of Manchester. It depends on centrifugal force. The liquid 
is placed in a bowl or colander, either pierced with minute holes all 
round the sides, or having sides made of wire gauze. Through the 
intervention of a vertical shaft, this bawl is nuule to rotate rapidly. 
The water first rises all round the sides, and then rushes out through 
the perforations or mexhes in a multitude nf small streams; these 
streams, ooming in contact either with the ordinary atmosphere in an 
outer vessel, or still more effectively with artificiid currents of air, 
become rapidly cooled. 

Professor Smyth, of Edinburgh University, has suggested a method 
of cooling the au- of rooms in sultry weather. It depends on the prin- 
ciple that air, when compressed, shows a higher temperature than it 
had before, but resumes its initial temperature on the pressure being 
removed. The Professor conceived the idea of comprexsing air, and 
cooling it while under pressure, in order that, on regaining ita 
original bulk, the temperature should bo lower than that of the 
external air. 

COOPERAOE, COOPERING, or the making of casks, barrels, 
butts, puncheons, hogsheads, tubs, &o., is among the very old mechani- 
cal arts. It is supposed that the wine-growers of ancient Italy invented 
the mode of buUding up from small pieces of wood vessels which 
would contain liquids. The coopers of London were incorporated 
many centuries ago. There is extant a record, under date 1396, in 
which the Mystery of Coopers applied to the lord mayor for an ordi- 
nance, restraining those of the mystery from making vessels for beer 
or other liquors out of oil- or soap-tuns, whereby the flavour of such 
beer or other liquors might be injurtd. This was accordingly ordained. 
There was another ordinance in 1 407, relating to the proper material 
and workmanship of casks, and to a record of the trade-marks of all 
the master coopers in London, forty-six m number. By an Act of 
1 532, brewers were forbidden to make their own casks ; and as there is 
an entry in the books of the Coopers' Company, of a payment of 
"three ]x>unds, six shillings, and eightpeuoo, for a pipe of Gascony 
wine th<tt the speaker of parliament had," it has been conjectured 
whether that curious gift had anything to do with the (tossing of a 
statute which threw the whole caak-moking trade into the hands of the 
master coopers of that day. 

The trade of cooperage is divided into several distinct branches, — 
dry coopers, wet coopers, white coopers, general coopers, and back- 
makers. Dry coopers make the casks for containing sugar, currants, 
flour, and other dry goods ; the work is of a common kind, and is paid 
for at a low price. Wet coopers make the chief varieties of casks for 
liquids ; the vessels are classed into " large work " and " small work," 
done by different bodies of workmen. White coopers make tubs, pails, 
chums, &c., the cleanest and lightest kind of work. General coopoi-s 
practise all the branches of the trade, without acquiring a high degree 
of skill in any one. Back-makers, who fabricate the enormous vessels 
used in breweries, scarcely rank among coopers ; they build up pieces 
of wood in a manner not recognised by regular coopers. 

A short description will suffice of each of the above kinds of 

Small dry mtrl: — Small casks for dry goods are usually made of 
Quebec oak and of old ship timber. The wood is sawn into lengths, 
and these into narrower pieces called codlingt. The codlings are litted 
or chopped with an axe, to moke them narrower iit the ends than iu 
the middle ; and then clrfi. into stave-pieces by a cleaving-knife and a 
maul. The staves are next thared or dre&ed, a cutting instriinient 
being employed to moke them convex on one side and concave on the 
other. They are then jointed ; that is, every piece is so shaped on all 
sides, and from end to end, that all the staves together may make a 
symmetrical whole, with water-tight joints ; in this, the workman 
relies almost wholly on his accuracy of hand and eye, — an accuracy 
which nothing but long practice wul produce. The cosk-heoda are 
usually made of one or two pieces each, properly shaped, and then 
glued together. By means of temporary circles called triu»-koopi, the 
several staves for making one keg are brought together in their projier 
places, all touching edge to edge at the bulge or widest part, but not 
yet closed in at the ends. The staves are heated, to enable them to 
bend without cracking, and the hoops by which they are to be held 
together are driven on. A groove is cut round the inside of the two 
ends of the keg, to receive the head and the bottom. The trnta-hoopt 
at first used are made of iron, and are merely intended to hold the keg 
together until the head and bottom ore put in ; they are afterwards 
removed, and wooden hoops used, made of haeel, birch, willow, ash, or 





other tough wood. These hoops are bent, notched, and fitted by work" 
men who carry on this operation alone. 

Small icet work. — The smaller casks or kegs for containing liquids 
differ from those just described chiefly in the greater care necessary ; 
every part is more accurately adjusted, and iron hoops are frequently 
used instead of wood. 

Large dry work: — Large casks for dry goods are made of beech, ash, 
or oak. The staves are savyn to the proper length ; listed or chopped 
narrow at the ends ; slightly dressed or shaved on the side which is to 
be outwards ; jointed or bevelled so as to fit accurately side by side ; 
and thus prepared for building up or putting together. The large 
casks are more diiEcult to put together than those of smaller size ; but 
it is done nearly in the same way, by the aid of temporary hoops, 
within which the staves are adjusted side by side. One man can make 
a small cask ; but it requires two or three to hoop together the staves 
which are to make a large one. The chime, or smooth curved surface 
of the cask, is produced by a dexterous use of the adze. The perma- 
nent hoops, which are to supersede the temporary truss-hoops, are 
made of birch, hazel, or ash, and are partially prepared before they 
reach the cooper's hands. The hoops are secured partly by notches 
and partly by naik. 

Large icet icork. — Wet work and tight work mean the same thing in 
the cooper's vocabulary ; they refer to the making of casks with the 
joints so close as to be fitted for the retention of liquids. Rum- 
puncheons and other kinds of large wet work are made of oak — Quebec, 
Virginia, Dantzig, Hamburg, or English ; the first two are found to be 
the best for spirit-casks, and the last three for beer-casks. Quebec is 
the closest-grained, toughest, and most phable ; English is the hardest, 
most durable, and most expensive to work. The oak is too tough to 
be split into stave-pieces ; it is cut by the saw ; and according to the 
mode in which this sawing is effected, the pieces are called slabbed 
staves, tongued staves, straight-cut staves, or doublet staves. The suc- 
cessive processes by which a cask is made — the listing, jointing, back- 
ing, shaving, head-making, dowelling, firing, trussing, grooving, heading, 
hooping, tc. — are analogous in general character to those for large dry 
work, but more precise at every stage, and requiring more skill in the 
workman. The making of the sides or edges of the staves requires 
peculiar care. Let it be supposed that a beer-barrel ia to be made 
Not only must the joints be made so smoothly and acciu^tely that 
when the staves are brought together they must be perfectly water- 
tight, but as the cask must hold precisely 36 gallons, and as the staves 
may vary in thickness, the cooper must so manage his exterior curve 
as to preserve symmetry, and yet retain a uniform mternal capacity. 
The oval casks, which occasionally adorn the bar of a modem gin-palace, 
are the mo^t difficult part of a cooper's work ; two circular casks of 
diCferent sizes are partially made and taken asunder, and the staves of 
tlie larger are so adjusted as to produce the broad sides of the oval, 
the ends being formed from the staves of the smaher. 

imie work. — White cooperage comprises open vessels, such as tubs 
and pails, generally larger at the top than the bottom ; and, unUke 
casks, such vessels are smoothed on the inside as well as the out. The 
timber mostly employed is either oak or ash. Almost the whole of 
the cutting is effected by the instrtimcnt called a shave, something like 
the wheelwright's spoke-shave in its mode of .iction, but used by the 
cooper in a great variety of ditlcrent forms. The building up of the 
vessel requires great neatness of handling ; but not so much practiced 
skill is needed as in large wet woi k, owing chiefly to the circumstance 
that such accuracy of dimensions is not needed. 

Back-making — The large brewing vessels called backs are thus made : 
The bottom is usually set up first The staves are fitted m and pegged 
to each other, without reference to any particular proportion between 
them, some being wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, or vice 
vertd. The workman can bring all into symmetry by adjusting the size 
and form of the pieces last put in. HL> work is. In fact, carpentry rather 
than cooperage. 

Duck-work. — In addition to the above, there is a kind of cooper's 
work done at the Docks, to filled rather than to empty casks. Sugar 
comes over in hogsheads, containing from 1000 to 15U0 pounds each. 
These are thin and slightly made ; they are subjected to rough treat- 
ment when the sugar is packed into them, and to rougher on ship- 
board. As a consequence, the hogsheads are distorted in every 
imaginable way, when landed at the docks in London, Bristol, Liver- 

Cl, or elsewhere. It is a custom, perhaps a necessity, that these 
^siieads should be brought into something of a symmetrical shape 
before the sugar is sold to the dealers. 'This is <liificult work to 
accomplish with the sugar remaining in the hogsheads, for it frequently 
happens that several of the staves and some of the hoops have been so 
shattered as to require removal and replacement by new pieces. Casks 
containing wines and spirits are always examined at the docks, to test 
their soundness; and any defective places are repaired by piecing. 
When such casks are landed in such a damaged state as to be tmsate, 
the wine or spirit is racked into other vessels, and the damaged cask is 
remade out of the old materials ; this is done, not simply to save the 
expense of new wood, but because the old and well-seasoned wood is 
less likely than new to impart a bad flavour to the liquor. It is gene- 
rally ruAi-puncheons, made by negroes in the West Indies, which 
require this process of remaking. 

When we consider how matheioatically exact all the angles and 

curves must be, cask-making would seem to be a branch of manu- 
facture peculiarly fitted for the application of machinery. Accordingly, 
we find that patents are frequently taken out for cask-making machi- 
nery. Some of these we shall describe. 

One patent, by Mr. Brown, obtained thirty years ago, relates to a 
system of machinery, of which one part outs the edges of the staves ; 
another part outs the gi-oove or chime for receiving the head ; a third 
part cuts the head into a circidar shape ; a fourth bevels the edge of 
the head ; and a fifth gives a smooth circular surface to the exterior of 
the cask. 

Davison and Symington's patent respecting casks, taken out in 1844, 
relates to the value of a rapid cun'cnt of heated air, not only in drying 
wood, but in removing fungous impurities which often accompany 
damp wood. They recommend that, in making a cask, instead of 
drying the wood in the ordinary way before using, hy which it ia 
diilicult to bend without bUstering, it should be cut up quite green, 
and shaped into staves and heads, due allowance being made for 
shrinkage. The pieces are easily bent in this state, and being tempo- 
rarily fastened together, they are exposed to a rapid current of heated 
air, which carries off all the moisture, and shrinks the pieces to the 
proper size. 

The same patentees also use hot air to cleanse casks after using : a 
method which they consider to be more efl'ectual and cheaper than the 
use of steam, which is ordinarily employed in the great breweries. In 
order lo remove from the interior of the cask any fungus or impurity 
which cannot be removed by the heated air, the patentees use a 
peculiar kind of chain, which enters at the bung-hole, and is worked 
about by means of machinery. 

Mr. Robertson, a cooper of Liverpool, took out a patent in 1849 for 
a series of machines of rather complicated character, for making casks 
and similar vessels. One piece of apparatus is intended to plane at 
one time, both sides of the staves which are to form the curved part of 
the cask ; giving a convexity to one surface and a concavity to the 
other surface of tach piece of wood. A second piece of apparatus 
planes the edges of the staves, giving to each edge the iiarticuiar slope 
necessary for the staves to assume a circular arrangement when placed 
edge to edge. A third machine compresses all the staves together in a 
circular form, and forces the ends within the hoops which are to bind 
them together. Another machine presses together the pieces of wood 
which are to form the head of the cask, cuts them into a circular form, 
and bevels the edges. A fifth piece of apparatus cuts the groove in 
which the head is fitted to the cask ; and another punches the holes in 
the iron hooi«. Thus, according to the patentee's plans, every part of 
a cask is made by machinerj'. 

Mr. Samuel Brown patented in 1840 a mode of making metallic 
casks. The cask is formed of a parallelogiam of sheet iron or other 
metal, turned up into a cylindrical form, with an ordinary lap joint. 
The head of the cask ia formed of a circular piece of metal, cut out and 
turned up all round the edge ; this being forcibly driven into the 
cyhndrical barrel, has rivets placed at intervals of four or five inches all 
round, which are rivetted through the barrel and through the turued- 
up edge of the head. The other end of the cask, called the moveable 
head, is made like the first, but attached in a ditlerent manner ; in this 
case, projecting ears of metal are rivetted at proper intervals around 
the cylinder ; and the heads of these rivets being within the cylinder, 
serve as stops to prevent the head of the cask from being driven in too 
far. This second head being forced into its place, the ears are bent 
down upon the edge of the cyliuder, and over the raised edge of the 
head, thereby retaining it firmly in its place. The joints are to be 
made fluid-tight with any of the ordinary paints or cements. 

In 1852, Messrs. Fox and Henderson devise^J a mode of making iron 
casks, for the palm-oil trade ; they produced casks 43 inches in length 
by 38 in bulge, containing 214 gallons each. 

In the same year, Messrs. Duucan and Mutton took out a patent for 
machinery for giving form to the jointing-edges of wood-planks for the 
staves of casks ; producing edges to the pieces for forming the cask- 
heads ; drilling the holes for the dowels used in putting together the 
heads ; giving form to the outer edge or circumference of wood-planks 
for heads ; hollowing and bevelling the ends of the staves ; forming the 
grooves to receive the heads; and putting together. 

Perhaps the most complete system of cask-makiug machinery ia that 
of Mr. Grist, recently patented. It comprises several highly ingenious 
pieces of apparatus. One is a machine for bending wood to form the 
staves. The piece of wood to be bent is first satmuted with hot water 
or steam, and is then placed upon the outside of a hollow metal case, 
shaped exactly as the stave is intended to be shaped ; the case is made 
hot, and a lever, pressing on the piece of wood, keeps it in position 
until it has permanently acquired the desired form. A second machine 
gives the proper shape to the edges of the staves. Each stave is held 
firmly in a frame, and is urged forward at a particular angle to meet a 
saw and a cutter ; the saw cuts the edges of the stave to a right line, 
and at the proper angle for the radius of the cask, and after this the 
cutter smoothes or planes each edge. A third machine builds up the 
staves into the form of a cask. A framework is built up of wood, cor- 
responding on its exterior with the intended dimensions of the cask, or 
rather, having an expanding and contracting power, to suit it lor casks 
of diS'erent dimensions. The staves are placed against this frame, and 
held there temporarily ; after which, truss hoops are fixed on, and the 




fruM uid belts i«moT«d. A fourth maobin* prrform* th« opentioni 
of chiminx •nd oreuah^ The eatk, or rsthar the itave wi>rk which U 
to furm lU priooipal put, U mada to rvUt« bonaontally in « Utha, 
whiJe cuttinK-chtMU or other tooU trim the eo(U in the mode* which 
ooopera o»U «-hitniii g 4Bd oreusinfc, to MUtbla the (tavee to fit into the two 
■Mb ol tb* eaik. A llfth maehiiM outa the ends or beads of the caaka. 
Hm piaeM of wood tn form the heada and bottom are pboed together, 
and brouriit under the actiou of a circular nw, which givea the re<^ui- 
Bta eiivubr form, and at the aame time givea the bevel for adjuating 
the bead to Om itarea ; by a ulight adjuatioent nf the mechaui ui, the 
btad may be made oral instead of round. With two of the »li.iping 
■Aobines, one man can shape the edges of the stax'ea for a hundred 
hOfilMMla in a day. 

Many modea are adopted for cleansing casks which have become fouL 
They are washed with dilute sulphuric add, or with a solution of 
ohloride of lime ; or are exposed to the mingled fumes of sulphur and 
Mltpetie ; or an< whitawaabed with freah milk of lime ; or are charred 
by a fire of shavings ; or are affected with a sort of charring action l>y 
nrf atrang sulphuric acid applied to the wood when f>er{ectly dry ; or 
an •sposed to bigfa-preasure steam ; or are filled with a mixture of 
flbareoal and water, frequently agitated ; or ore soaked with a lye of 
paarlaah, lime, or alum. After any of these proniisiiw the cssks require 
to be well rinsed with cold clear water. 

COORDINATES mean lines, angles, Ac ranged in order. The 
notion from which the word nose was this, that when the poeitions of 
eonsecutiTe points on a curve are referred to given points or lines by 
means of lines (ss in Abscissa) or angles, those lines or angles present 

• sueceasion of arraitited data, by which the several points of the curve 
may be tzvatad mi erdsr. It was Descartes who iinit used coordinates 
in the seoond book of hit geometry, and the words in which this now 
all-pervading method of expression was announced are as follows : — 
" Eligo rectam aliquam lineam, veluti a B, ut ad diversa ejus puncta 
raferam omnia puncta hujus curvn linen c E ; deinde eligo etiiun 
puoctum aliquod in a B, veluti a, ad ordiendum ab eo oalculum." We 
do not find the word in Schooten, Beaune, or others of the immediate 
school of Desoartea. Do Witt calls the abscissa rrut paliftis, .ind the 
ordinate enu tfideta. Coordinates (so called) are used in the writings 
of John Bernoulli, but in Newton the phrase for them is " linese 
ordinatim applicatio : ' in later times the use of the word has become 
universal Coordinates either determine the position of a point in 
spaee, or in a plane which is understood to contain all the figure 
imder consideration, as in the first six books of Euclid. They deter- 
mine position either by stmigUt lines only, or by a straight line and 
sngles : in the Utter case they are called polar coordinates. 

1. Rectilinear coordinates in a plane. In the given plane draw two 
straight lines meeting in a point o (called the ori. tn). From any 
point P draw parallels to the two lines just unraed : the parts inter- 
cepted between P and these lines (called axet) are the coordinates of 
the point. When the axes are at right angles, the coordinates are said 
to be mtantfular ; when at another angle, obli>[ue. [Abscissa.] 

2 Rectilinear coordinates in space. Through any point o (the 
origin) draw three planes which intersect in right angles (the axes). 
Through any point P draw parallels to the axes : the parts intercepted 
between p and the coordinate planes (three in number) are the ooordi- 
natea of P. 

8. Polar coordinates in a plane. Choose any point o in the piano, 
•ad any right line o a passing through o. Then taking any pomt p, 
the distance o P (called the radivt veetor) and the angle p o a (which 
has no distinct name, but might be called the rectorial angle) are the 
polar coordinates of P. 

4. Polar coordinates in space. Clioose a plane (m), a point o, and a 
line o A, in the plane K. Take any point P above or below the plane, 
and let fall P B, a perpendicular on (u) meeting (u) in B. Then tlie 
radius vector o p, and the angles p o B and boa are the polar ccmrdi- 
nates of p. In astronoany, if o be the earth's centre, o a the lino 
passing through the equinox, and (m) the plane of the ecliptic ; then 
B o A it >be longitude of p, and p o B its latitude But if (>i) be the 
plane of the equator, then B o A is the right ascension of P, and p o B 
ItM declination. 

COPAIBA or COPAIVA, an oleo-reain or turpentine (incorrectly 
termed a balsam, since it is destitute of benzoic or cinnamic acid), h 
nxieured not merely from the Copaifcra nffldnalit (Willd.), a native of 
Venemela, also naturalised in the Antilles, but from ten to twelve 
q)eciea, chiefly natives of Brazil. It varies in appearance and qualities 
•eoording to the species from which it has been prociired, and likewise 
according to the age of the tree and the time of the year. Incisions 
art made in the tree, from which flows a Uquid differing little in con- 
■latenee from thick sap. It is collected in calahnnhcs, after which the 
incisions are closed with wax or clay. The incisions are repeated in 
general three times earh season. The fluid is brighter or darker in 
colour, mure or less rich in voUtilo oil, more acrid or more bitter, 
• to circtunstaaces. It la mostly of a light velluw colour, 
d ar and transparent, seldom turbid or cloudy; odour |>oculiar, 
Tolatile ; taste uily, mild, slightly aromatic, at last acridly hitter. 
Spedflc gravity 0°f66 to 0997, according to its age. Exposed to heat 
in a platinum spoon, it is entirely consumed with a white smoke. In 

• State of purity, it consists of a volatile oil, in the proportion of 
40 per cent, and SO per cent, of an acid ctTstallisable resin (copaivio 

add), with a soft brown radn. The oil may be separated by distillation, 
or by means of mixing eqiud parts of copaiba with «loohol of apeoifio 
gravity 0'8S7, ahaking them diligently, then mixing lUO parts of the 
cupaiva which haa been so treated with 87) parU of a ley of oaustie 
soda, to be again well ahaken ; after which 160 parts of water are to be 
thoroughly agiuted with it, and the whole left to rest The spedfio 
gravity of the oil thus obtained is 0'900. A slight difference exists 
between the oil thus procured and that by distillation. Both are used 
in medicine; indeed the oil is the active principle of oopaiva, the 
resin being of very secondary impartance. The oil ia destitute of 
oxygen, and may be employed for the preaarvatioD of potaauum. 

Cupaiva is fraquently adultarat«d : the presence of any extraneous 
matters may be known by the manner in which the suspected portion 
conducts itself towarda solvents and re-agents. Copaiva u ooeasionaliy 
mixed with castor-oil, almond, poppy, nu<.-oil, and the finer sorts of 
turpentines. All fixed oils (except oastur-oil, the preaanoe of which 
may be detected by sulphuric add, but tlie accuracy of this test is 
callod in question by Brandaa) separate from it by being allowed to 
remain at rest. Oood oopaiva should be perfectly soluble in alcohol of 
90 per cent It is soluble in all known ethers, sjid in the volatile and 
fixed oils. Three parts of cupaiva with one of caustic ammonia of 
specific gravity 0-9{K> form by agitation a olear soap. The simplest 
test of the purity of oopaiva is to heat a small quantity in a watch- 
glass, when, if good, a hard brittle reain remains, which has con- 
siderable analogy with styraoin. The crystals which form in this reain 
are six-sided prisms, and have the property of polarising light 

A kind of copaiva is obtained in St Domingo from the CroUm 
origamfoUat (Lamarck); in Java and elsewhere the juioe of the 
Canarium commune (Linn.) is found to possess «ipiil«r properties. A 
wood oil from various species of Diplerocar/iut, e^tecially D. turinnatus, 
is obtained in Moulmein, in the East Indies, and imported into 
England (Royle). 

Copaiva acts oa a stimulant to the mucous surfaces, especially of tha 
rectum and urino-genital passages : when the dose is small, it infiusnoea 
the kidney and turethra ; but if large, the rectum. It ia chiefly uaed 
to lessen increased disdiargea from those organs, and if judiciously 
employed, generally effects this object ; but if given prematurely or in 
too large a dose, it seldom fails to aggravate tha complaints and 
occasion other serious symptoms. It has likewise been beneficially 
given in affections of the mucous membrane of the lungs, such as 
chronic bronchitis, which must be carefully distinguished from true 
phthisis pulmonalis or consumption, a disease in which it cannot fail 
to prove injurious. It sometimes oocadons a singular eruption, 
something lUce measles, and also a swelling of the joints resembling 

Various means have been devised to conceal the disagreeable nauseous 
taste of co|iaiva without impairing its qualities. Calcined magnesia 
thickens it, and permits it being made into pills ; an etherial or alkaline 
solution will also retain the virtues, and lessen the repulsive tasta. 


COPAL, a resin possessed of peculiar properties, the produce of the 
Shm cop