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of Langdale House, Park Town, Oxford. 



founder and President of 

The English 'Dialect Society 

Editor of 
' Chaucer J ' Piers PlowmanJ and ' The Bruce ' 

The unwearied Worker in the varied Field of English Scholarship 

To whose patient industry and contagious enthusiasm 

in connexion tvith the laborious task of accumulating 

dialect material, the possibility of compiling 

an adequate 

Dictionary of English Dialects 
is mainly due 


THE Dictionary includes, so far as is possible, the complete vocabulary of all English dialect words 
which are still in use or are known to have been in use at any time during the last two hundred 
years in England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. All words occurring both in the literary language and in 
the dialects, but with some local peculiarity of meaning in the latter, are also included. On the other 
hand, words which merely differ from the literary language in pronunciation, but not in meaning, are 
generally excluded, as belonging properly to the province of grammar and not to that of lexicography. 
It also contains (i) the exact geographical area over which each dialect word extends, together with 
quotations and references to the sources from which the word has been obtained ; (2) the exact pro- 
nunciation in each case according to a simple phonetic scheme, specially formulated for the purpose ; 
(3) the etymology so far as it relates to the immediate source of each word. The work can never become 
antiquated, and, when completed, will be the largest and most comprehensive Dialect Dictionary ever 
published in any country. It will be a ' storehouse ' of information for the general reader, and an 
invaluable work to the present and all future generations of students of our mother-tongue. It also 
includes American' and Colonial dialect words which are still in use in Great Britain and Ireland, or which 
are to be found in early-printed dialect books and glossaries. After some experience it became clear 
that this plan was absolutely necessary in order to avoid admitting into the Dictionary words for which 
I had not full and reliable evidence. It is difficult enough to obtain information about the pronunciation 
and exact usage of many words in the United Kingdom, and it would have been still more difficult to 
obtain such information from abroad. Some idea of the labour involved in this respect may be gathered 
from the fact that at least 12,000 queries have been sent out from the ' Workshop ' connected with words 
contained in this volume. And yet, in spite of all this labour, it has been necessary to keep back quite 
a number of words see list on pp. xxi-xxiv for which there is at present insufficient evidence to 
allow them to be included in the Dictionary. It is intended to issue a list of such words with each Part, 
and all the friends of this undertaking are kindly invited to send to the Editor more information about these 
words, so that they can eventually be included in a Supplement. The article on the verb ' To be ' cost 
very considerable time and trouble. Copies of a printed form containing 194 points were sent to 150 
persons in various parts of the United Kingdom ; and 150 similar forms containing many queries were 
sent out about the words By, By(e. Many of the replies to these two sets of queries showed how very 
difficult it is becoming to obtain information about minute points connected with grammar. It is quite 
evident from the letters daily received at the ' Workshop ' that pure dialect speech is rapidly disappearing 
from our midst, and that in a few years it will be almost impossible to get accurate information about difficult 
points. Even now it is sometimes found extremely difficult to ascertain the exact pronunciation and 
the various shades of meanings, especially of words which occur both in the literary language and in the 
dialects. And in this case it is not always easy to decide what is dialect and what is literary English : 
there is no sharp line of demarcation ; the one overlaps the other. In words of this kind I have carefully 
considered each case separately, and if I have erred at all, it has been on the side of inclusion. 

It has taken hundreds of people, in all parts of the United Kingdom, twenty-three years to collect 
the material for the Dictionary. For the lists of Workers and Correspondents see pp. ix-xiv. In almost 


every county, competent people have been secured to assist in answering queries and in supplying any 
words that may have been omitted from the glossaries in their respective districts. Such a plan ensures 
a far higher degree of accuracy and completeness than can possibly be attained by any other method. 
In addition to the great amount of material sent in from unprinted sources see pp. xi, xii upwards 
of three thousand dialect glossaries and works containing dialect words have been read and excerpted 
for the purposes of the Dictionary 1 . Through the great kindness of the Princess, the whole of the 
MS. collections and the library of the late Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte were placed at my 
disposal for over two years, which enabled me to get many thousand words and quotations from 
hundreds of small local books not to be found in any of our public libraries. 

I had hoped to give a classification ot the Dialects in this Preface, but I now think that it will be 
better to wait until I have finished a greater portion of the Dictionary. From the words contained 
in this volume, it would be easy to give a sketch-map showing clearly those districts in which the 
Norse element is particularly strong. It is also most remarkable how in certain districts many 
French words have been preserved, which are now obsolete in the literary language. At present 
I have not the necessary leisure to work out and account for the fact that in Ireland the 
dialects of some districts are essentially Scotch whilst in other districts they agree with those of 
the West of England. Also it cannot be a mere accident that the dialect of South Pembrokeshire 
contains quite a number of words of Flemish origin. Later on I hope to work out these matters 
fully, and also to account for the special peculiarities of the Kentish dialects. It will also be easy 
to show that a great many words which are now confined to particular districts, were confined 
to those districts already in the Middle Ages, e. g. early illustrations of many words still in use 
in East Anglia are only to be found in the Promptorium ; the same applies to many modern 
Yorkshire words and the York Mystery Plays. In fact, when the Dictionary is completed it will 
be of immense value in helping to settle the dialect in which many of our Middle-English 
manuscripts were written, and it will throw a flood of light upon many problems connected with 
Old and Middle-English phonology. 

Any one who takes the pains to examine the Dictionary will find that neither time nor trouble 
has been spared in order to obtain accurate information about popular games, customs, and supersti- 
tions ; and, as far as possible, to give the literature where further information will be found. In the 
etymological part of the dictionary, it must not be assumed that where no etymology is given 
there has been no attempt made to find one. The very opposite is the case. It has often happened 
that dozens of dictionaries, special glossaries, and articles in philological journals have been carefully 
searched without any satisfactory results. In all such instances I have preferred to give nothing 
rather than a mere guess. In thousands of instances it will be noticed that there is no previously 
printed authority for the use of words in some districts. In all such cases I give the initials of 
the persons who supplied the information; and I may add that one of my senior assistants has 
spent over a fortnight in verifying these initials; so that they may be accepted as being correct. 
Several words found in printed glossaries are omitted from the Dictionary as being 'Ghost Words.' 
All such words will be collected together and printed in the last volume. 

The number of queries sent out was proportionately greater in the C-words than in A and B, 

owing to the great importance of obtaining accurate information about their pronunciation ; as it is 

of special value to students of English philology to know in which districts the initial guttural has 

remained and in which districts it has become the affricata ch. When the letters C and K are 

mshed, it will become evident that several factors have to be taken into consideration in formulating 

the laws for the normal development of Germanic initial k-. This volume contains a large number 

words which W1 11 be specially interesting to folk-lorists and English philologists, as well as to the 

>f dialects in general; e.g. Acre, Adder, Agate, All, As, At, Bandy sb.\ Banian-day, Banshee, 

the scurctwifh 


Barghest, Barley-break, Barring-out, Baum-rappil, Bcgaged, Beltane, Blin v., Blithemeat, Blue adj., Bly, Bosb.', 
Bodcv.\ Boggart sb.\ Bogle, Boit sb?, Bondage, Boneshave, Bood, Boon sb. 2 , Boorey, Bootsb. 2 , Boun, Braidv.-, 
Bride-ale, Bride-door, Bull sb.', Bungums, Bushel sb. 1 , Busk v. 3 , But prep., Buttony, Call v.\ Calve v? and sb., 
Cannv, Cantrip, Car-cake, Carlin(g}s, Carritcli, Catsb. 1 , Cattern, Char(e sb. 1 and v.\ Chilver, Clout, Cock, Come v.\ 
Coiv, Crack sb. 1 and v., Cradden, Crook sb. ! and v., Crouse, Crundel, Cuckoo, &c. 

Owing to the large number of ^4-words containing Latin and Greek prefixes, the difference between 
the number of words beginning with A and B is not great in a dictionary of literary English ; e. g. 
in Webster, A occupies 99 pages and B 81 pages. A occupies 106 pages in the English Dialect Dictionary, 
but B occupies no less than 370 pages. The statistics given below will show what an immense wealth 
of words there is in our dialects, and from them some idea can also be formed of the enormous amount of 
labour involved in the production of this volume. It ought to be mentioned that the figures do not include 
the quotations, &c., from early writers, which are placed within square brackets at the end of each article. 
Nor is any account taken of the many thousands of cross-references. This volume contains 17,519 
simple and compound words, and 2,248 phrases, illustrated by 42,915 quotations with the exact source 
from which they have been obtained. There are, in addition, 39,581 references to glossaries, to 
manuscript collections of dialect words, and to other sources ; making a total of 82,496 references. These 
figures are made up as follows: 

ABC Total 

Simple and Compound Words . 1,508 7,789 8,222 I7i5 r 9 

Phrases ...... 379 910 959 2.248 

Quotations 6.759 18,198 17,95 s 42.915 

References without quotations . 2,500 '7,54 2 '9,539 39, 581 

Total references .... 9j 2 59 35,74 37,497 82,496 

As stated on the title-page, the Dictionary is in a great measure founded upon the publications 
of the English Dialect Society. It was with this express object in view that the Society was started 
at Cambridge in 1873, with the Rev. Prof. Skeat as Secretary and the Rev. J. W. Cartmell 
as Treasurer. In 1876 the Headquarters of the Society were removed to Manchester; when J. H. Nodal, 
Esq., became the Secretary and G. Milner, Esq., the Treasurer. The Headquarters remained at 
Manchester until 1893. During these eighteen years Mr. Nodal rendered most valuable services 
to the Society, and it is not too much to say that it was mainly through his great interest in the subject 
that the Society published so many excellent County and other glossaries. From 1893 to 1896 the 
Headquarters were in Oxford, during which time I acted as Secretary and the Rev. A. L. Mayhew 
as Treasurer. After the Dictionary had been begun, it was no longer necessary to continue the existence 
of the Society, and it was accordingly brought to an end in 1896 after it had published 80 volumes, 
all of which are being incorporated in the Dictionary. 

In the year 1886 Professor Skeat raised a fund, to which he contributed nearly half the money 
himself, for the purpose of helping to defray the expenses of collecting and arranging the material 
for the Dictionary. He had the good fortune to obtain the services of the Rev. A. Smythe Palmer, 
D.D., who acted as organizing Editor for two years and a half. During this period Dr. Smythe Palmer 
succeeded in getting together and in arranging in rough alphabetical order a large amount of material. 
And I take this opportunity of expressing to him my sincere gratitude for all the valuable help he rendered 
at this initial stage of the work. In 1889 it was thought the material was sufficiently complete to 
enable me to begin to edit the work for press. I accordingly prepared several articles and had them 
printed. These articles convinced me that at least twice the amount of the material which had then been 
collected would be required before attempting to edit the Dictionary. I issued a circular stating the 
kind of help wanted, and sent it to all the principal newspapers and public libraries in the United 
Kingdom, as well as to many thousand people who might be likely to help in the work. By this means 
the number of voluntary helpers was increased to over 600. It then became advisable to form local Com- 
mittees in various parts of the country with the object of getting all the books relating to the respective 
districts read and the slips arranged in alphabetical order before being sent to me. After preparing several 
lists of books which still remained to be read for the Dictionary, I addressed many meetings on the great 



value of dialects for philological and other purposes, and succeeded in forming a number of local Committees 
which have rendered most valuable assistance. In this connexion I wish to express my best 
all the Committees and their Secretaries, and more especially to J. K. Hudson, Esq., B.A, Manchester; 
S. K. Craven, Esq., Bradford; R. O. Heslop, Esq., Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; T. C. Peter, Esq., Redruth ; 
and W H. Hills, Esq., Ambleside, who have spared neither time, trouble, nor expense in helping to make 
the material as complete as possible. I have also the pleasant task of expressing my sincere gratitude 
to all the voluntary readers, correspondents, and those people who so kindly placed their manuscript 
collections of dialect words at my disposal. From the lists given on pp. ix-xiv it will be seen that some- 
thing like a thousand people have in one way or another rendered valuable assistance in the work. In the 
Preface it is not necessary to repeat all these names, but I must specially mention the following who 
have so largely contributed to make my material what it is: Mrs. F. A. Allen, Ilminster; H. A. Barnes, 
Esq., Farnworth; Dr. G. F. Blandford, London, W. ; the Rev. G. B. R. Bousfield, M.A., London, W. ; 
Dr. T. N. Brushfield, Budleigh-Salterton ; Miss E. F. Burton, Carlisle; Miss R. H. Busk, London, W. ; 
R. Pearse Chope, Esq., B.A., Bayswater, W. ; G. E. Dartnell, Esq., Salisbury; J. W. Darwood, 
Esq., Cambridge; Prof. C. A. Federer, Bradford; Dr. Fitzedward Hall, Marlesford ; the Rev. E. H. 
Goddard, M.A., Wootton Bassett; Mrs. S. Hewett, Lynton ; J. K. Hone, Esq., Dudley; E. C. Hulme, 
Esq., F.R.C.S., S. Kensington; the Rev. Hamilton Kingsford, M.A., Stoulton ; Miss S. A. Kirby, 
London; B. Kirkby, Esq., Batley; Miss E. Lloyd, Crowborough ; the Rev. Dr. Mitchell, S. Leith ; 
the Rev. W. M. Morris, M.A., Treherbert ; Mrs. Parker, Oxford; A. Pope, Esq., B.A., Manchester; 
Dr. E. W. Prevost, Newnham, Glos. ; Miss Romanes, Oxford ; the Rev. W. F. Rose, M.A., Weston- 
super-Mare; the Rev. J. S. F. Singleton, M.A., Weston-super-Mare ; E. Smith, Esq., Birmingham; 
J. E. Sugars, Esq., M.A., Manchester; S. P. Unwin, Esq., Shipley; the Rev. Alex. Warrack, M.A., Stranraer; 
T. C. Warrington, Esq., B.A., Carnarvon ; I. Wilkinson, Esq., Skelton, Yorks. ; the Rev. G. Williams, 
M.A., Thornhill ; Mrs. Joseph Wright, Oxford ; and also the Editors of The Leeds Mercury Supple- 
ment, The Penrith Observer, Notes and Queries, and The Yorkshire Weekly Post. 

I owe most sincere thanks to my senior Assistants, Miss Partridge, Miss Hart, and Miss Yates, 
as also to the other Assistants who have helped so faithfully and excellently in the preparation of 
this volume. My special thanks are also due to Mr. Horace Hart, Controller of the University 
Press, for much valuable advice in regard to the technic of the Dictionary; and also to Mr. Ostler, 
the press reader, for the most excellent manner in which he has read the press proofs. I also express my 
deep sense of indebtedness and obligation for the bequest of the late Thomas Hallam, Esq., Manchester, 
and for the grant from the Royal Bounty Fund made by the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., the 
First Lord of the Treasury. Had it not been for this timely substantial support, the labours 
of hundreds of people, extending over nearly a quarter of a century, would have been spent 
in vain ; for I had exhausted all my own money, amounting to considerably over ,2,000. And 
lastly, to the Delegates of the University Press I owe my best thanks for their great kindness in 
providing me with a 'Workshop' at the Press at a nominal rent; but the Delegates, while offering 
me every facility for the production of the work, have no responsibility, pecuniary or other, in con- 
nexion with it. The whole responsibility of financing -and editing the Dictionary rests upon myself. 
I am therefore all the more grateful to the Subscribers who have supported me in this great and 
difficult undertaking. They may rest assured that every effort will be made to maintain the present 
quality of the work, and to issue the Parts at regular intervals of six months until the Dictionary 
is completed. 



June 1898. 


ABBOTT, R. LAMB, Esq., M.A., 113 Banbury Road, Oxford. 

ABKRCROMBY, The Hon. J., 62 Palmerston Place, Edin- 

M.A., Librarian). 

ANDERSON, Esq., Librarian). 


ADSHEAD, G. H., Esq., 94 Bolton Road, Pendleton, Man- 


AlLSA, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, Culzean Castle, 
Maybole, Ayrshire. 

AITKEN, JAMES H., Esq., Gartcows, Falkirk, N.B. [Sp.E.} 

ALCOCK, CHARLES, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., Lord Weymouth's 
Grammar School, Warminster. 

ALCOCK, S. KING, Esq., M.D., Burslem (per HENRY 

ALDENHAM, The Right Hon. Lord, Aldenham House, near 
Elstree, Herts. 

ALLBUTT, ARTHUR, Esq., M.R.C.P.E..24 Park Square, Leeds. 

ALLBUTT, Prof. T. C., M.D., Chaucer Road, Cambridge. 

ALLCOCK, C. H., Esq., M.A., Eton College, Windsor. 

ALLEN, The Rev. Canon S. W., H Belmont, Shrewsbury 
(per Messrs. ADNITT & NAUNTON, Booksellers). [Sp.E.} 

ALLIOTT, The Rev. RICHARD, M.A., Nonconformist Gram- 
mar School, Bishop's Stortford (per A. BOARDMAN, 
Bookseller, Bishop's Stortford). 

ALLSOPP, The Hon. A. PERCY, Battenhall Mount, Worcester. 
(2 copies.) 

OMAN, Esq., M.A., Librarian). 

ALMA TADEMA, Miss LAWRENCE, 17 Grove End Road, 
London, N.W. 

E. G. ALLEN, Bookseller, 28 Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden, London, W.C.). 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM, Esq., F.S.A., Scot., Arns-Brae, New 
Kilpatrick, N.B. 

ANDREWS & Co., Messrs., Booksellers, 64 Saddler Street, 

ANSTRUTHER, Sir RALPH, Bart., Balcaskie, Pittenweem, 

ARCHER-HIND, R. D., Esq., M.A., Trinity College, Cam- 

ARGYLL, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., K.T., Inveraray 

ARKWRIGHT, E. H., Esq., M.A., School House, Chigwell. 

ARLOSH, JAMES, Esq., Littlemore, Oxford. 

ARMOUR, The Rev. Canon, D.D., The School House, Crosby, 
Liverpool (per Messrs. F. & E. GIBBONS, Booksellers, 
19 Ranelagh Street, Liverpool). 

ARMSTRONG, L., Esq., Walby, Weston-super-Mare. 

ARNOLD, Prof. E. V., M.A., Bryn Seiriol, Bangor, N. Wales. 

ASHER & Co., Messrs., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 

London, W.C. (9 copies.) 

R. K. DENT, Esq., Librarian). 
ATHENAEUM CLUB, Pall Mall, London, S.W. (per H. T. 

TEDDER, Esq., Librarian). 
ATKIN, E. TH., Esq., Highbury House, Kenwood Road, 

Sheffield. [Sp.E.] 
ATKINSON, The Rev. Canon, D.C.L., Danby Parsonage, 

Castleton, Yorks. 

Esq., Librarian). 

AUDEN, The Rev. THOMAS, M.A., F.S.A., Condover Vicar- 
age, Shrewsbury. 

BACCHUS, The Rev. F., The Oratory, Edgbaston, B'ham. 
BAGWELL, RICHARD, Esq., Marlfield, Clonmel. 
BAIN, JAMES, Esq., I Haymarket, London. 
BAINBRIDGE, CUTHBERT, Esq., Leazes House, Wolsingham, 

near Darlington. 

(per J. A. JONES, Esq., Registrar). 
BANG, Prof. W., Louvain, Belgium. 
BANKS, KIRBY, Esq., Rose Villa, Burton Hill, Leeds (per 

BARDSLEY, The Right Rev. J. W., D.D., Lord Bishop of 

Carlisle, Rose Castle, Carlisle. 
BARLOW, JOHN R., Esq., J.P., Greenthorn, Edgworth, near 

Bolton, Lanes. 
BARLOW, THOMAS, Esq., M.D., 10 Wimpole Street, 

London, W. 
BARNES, HAROLD A., Esq., Crompton Fold, Breightmet, 

Bolton, Lanes. 

BARNETT, J. D., Esq., Stratford, Ontario, Canada. 

ALDRED, Esq., Librarian). 

BARTLETT, ALFRED, Esq., M.A., Loughborough, Leicester- 
BARWELL, The Rev. A. H. SANXAY, M.A., Clapham Rectory, 

BATES, E. B., Esq., Assistant Postmaster, Ottawa, Canada. 


BATSON, Mrs. STEPHEN, Welford Rectory, Newbury. 
BATTERSEA PUBLIC LIBRARY, Lavender Hill, London, S.W. 

(per LAWRENCE INKSTER, Esq v Librarian). 
BAUMGARTNER, Prof. A., Hottingen, Ziirich, Switzerland (per 


BAXTER, JAMES C., Esq., 45 Heriot Row, Edinburgh. 
BAYFORD, EDWIN, Esq., 20 Eldon Street, Barnsley. 
BAYLIS, J. W., Bookseller, Evesham (per HENRY FROWDE). 
BEALBY, J. T., Esq., B.A., Graden, Regent's Park Road, 

Finchley, London, N. 






POOLE, D.D.). 
BELJAME, Prof. A., The Sorbonne, Paris (per Messrs. BOY- 

VEAU & CHEVILLET, 22 Rue de la Banque, Paris). 
BELL, HENRY, Esq., Heathfield, Stockport. 
BELL, HUGH, Esq., Red Barns, Redcar. 
BELL, RUSSELL, Esq., Sheriff's Substitute, Campbeltown, 


BELL, W. HEWARD, Esq., Seend, Melksham, Wilts. 
BELLAMY, C. H., Esq., F.R.G.S., Brock Road, Heaton 

Chapel (per Messrs. W. N. PITCHER & Co., 49 Cross 

Street, Manchester). 

BENNION, J. A., Esq., M.A., M.Sc., County Offices, Preston. 
BENTINCK-SMITH, Miss M., Park Terrace, Beverley, Yorks. 
BEST, JOHN D., Esq., M.A., The College, Chester. 
BETHELL, WILLIAM, Esq., Rise Park, Hull. 
BICKERS & SON, Messrs., Booksellers, I Leicester Square, 

London, W. (2 copies.) 
BILLSON, CHARLES J., Esq., M.A., St. John's Lodge, Claren- 

don Park, Leicester. 

BILSLAND, WILLIAM, Esq., 28 Park Circus, Glasgow. 
BINDLOSS, Mrs. S. A., Carnforth, Brondesbury Park, 

London, N.W. 
BINNS, JTHELBERT, Esq., Wilsden, near Bradford, Yorks. 


Esq., Librarian). 
BIRKETT, D. M., Esq., M.A., Grammar School House, 

Sevenoaks, Kent. 
BIRMINGHAM LIBRARY, Union Street, Birmingham (per 

C. E. SCARSE, Esq., Librarian). 

E. COLLINGS, Esq., Mason College, Birmingham). 
BLACKBURN, Prof. JOSEPH, M. A., Roshven,Moidart, Scotland. 

Limited, 17 Stanhope Street, Glasgow). 
BLACKWELL, B. H., Bookseller, Broad Street, Oxford. 
BLAIR, ROBERT, Esq., F.S.A., Harton Lodge, near South 

BLAKISTON, The Rev. R. MILBURN, F.S.A., 7 Dean's Yard, 

Westminster, S.W. 

BLAND, R., Esq., Three Gables, Grove Park, Kent. 
BLANDFORD, G. FIELDING, Esq., M.D., 48 Wimpole Street, 

London, W. 

FRANCIS, Esq., M.A.). 

BOND, EDWARD, Esq., Elm Bank, Hampstead, London, N.W. 
BOND, J. KINTON, Esq., B.A., 13 The Crescent, Plymouth. 




BOULTER, H. B., Esq., F.R.C.S., Barnard House, Richmond, 


BOURDILLON, F. W., Esq., Melton Lodge, Great Malvern. 

BOUSFIELD, The Rev. G. B. R., 248 Portsdown Road, 

London, W. 

BOWDITCH, CHARLES, Esq., 28 State Street, Boston, Mass., 

U .S . A . 

BOWEN, H. COURTHOPE, Esq., 3 York Street, Portman 
Square, London, W. 

Esq '' Cambrid S e (P er MACMILLAN & 

BRADBURY, C. T., Esq., Riversvale Hall, Ashton-under- 


H. B. GRAY, D.D.). 

\\-OOD, Esq., Librarian). 

BRADLEY, Prof. A. C., M.A., 10 Bruce St., Hillhead, Glasgow. 
BRADLEY, HENRY, Esq., M.A., 96 Bolingbroke Grove, 

Wandsworth Common. London, S.W. 
BRAMSTON, Miss .A. R-, Witham Close, Winchester. 
BRANDL, Prof. A., Ph.D., Berlin. 

BRAUNHOLTZ, E. G. W., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., 37 Chesterton 

Road, Cambridge. 
BRENAN, The Rev. SAMUEL ARTHUR, Knocknacarry, Co. 


BRENNER, Prof. O., Ph.D., Wurzburg, Bavaria. 
BRERETON, The Rev. F. L., M.A., North Eastern County 

School, Barnard Castle. 

BRETT, CHARLES H., Esq., Gretton Malone, Belfast. 
BREUL, KARL, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., Litt.D., 19 Chesterton 

Road, Cambridge. 

BRIGG, JOHN J., Esq., M.A., Guard House, Keighley, Yorks. 
BRIGHT, Prof. JAMES W., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore, Ma., U.S.A. 

BRISTOL, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, 6 St. James's 

Square, London, S.W. [Sp.E.} 
BRITTEN, JAMES, Esq., 18 West Square, London, S.E. 

J. BURGOYNE, Esq., Librarian). 

BROCKHAUS, F. A., Bookseller, 48 Old Bailey, London, E.G. 
BROCKINGTON, W. A.. Esq., Mason College, Birmingham. 

Esq., Librarian). 
BROOKE, THOMAS, Esq., F.S.A., Armitage Bridge, Hudders- 

field. [Sp.E.} 
BROOKFIELD, Mrs., 2 Devonshire Villas, Brondesbury, 

London, N.W. 

BROWN, Prof. ALEX. CRUM, 8 Belgrave Crescent, Edinburgh. 
BROWN, Prof. EDWARD MILES, University of Cincinnati, 

Ohio, U.S.A. 
BROWN, JOHN A. HARVIE, Esq., Dunipace House, Larbert, 


BROWN, Prof. J. CAMPBELL, D.Sc., Brownlow Street, Liver- 
pool. [Sp.E] 
BROWN, ROBERT, Esq., Jun., F.S.A., Priestgate House, 

Barton-on-Humber, Hull. 

BROWN, WILLIAM, Esq., Trenholme, Northallerton. 
BROWN, The Rev. W. HAIG, LL.D., Charterhouse School, 

Godalming. [Sp.E] 

BRUCE, ALEX., Esq., Clyne House, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
BRUCE, Prof. JAMES DOUGLAS, Bryn Mawr, Penn., U.S.A. 
BRUCE, R. T. HAMILTON, Esq., 32 George Square, Edin- 
burgh. [Sp.E.] 
BRUNEL, ISAMBARD, Esq., D.C.L., Athenaeum Club, London, 

BRUNNER, Sir JOHN T., Bart., M.P., Druids Cross, Waver- 

tree, Liverpool (per HENRY FROWDE). 
BRUNNER, ROSCOE, Esq., Druids Cross, Wavertree, Liver- 
pool (per HENRY FROWDE). 

BRUSHFIELD, T. N., Esq., M.D., Budleigh-Salterton, Devon. 
BRYN MAWR COLLEGE LIBRARY, Penn., U.S.A. (per Messrs. 

BUCKMAN, S. S., Esq., F.G.S., Ellborough, Charlton Kings, 

Cheltenham (per JOHN H. KNOWLES, Bookseller, 15 

Rush Hill Road, Lavender Hill, London, S.W.). 
BiiLBRiNG, Prof. KARL D., Ph.D., Groningen, Holland (per 

DAVID NUTT, 270 Strand, London, W.C.). 
BULL, C. M., Esq., Kennett, Doods Road, Reigate. 
BULLER, The Right Hon. Sir REDVERS H., V.C., G.C.B., 

29 Bruton Street, London, W. 

BUMBY, Mr. FRED E., University College, Nottingham. 
BUND, J.W.WILLIS, Esq., 15 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, 

London, W.C. 

JOHN ALLEN, Esq., Hon.. Sec.). 
BURNSIDE, W., Esq., The Laurels, Hither Green Lane, 

London, S.E. 



BURRA, JAMES S., Esq., Bockhanger, Ashford, Kent. 

BURTT, G. W., Esq., 1 14 Manor House Road, Newcastle-on- 

BUTE, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, 22A Queen Anne's 
Gate, Westminster, London, S.W. (per RENE F. R. 
CONDER, Esq., Librarian), [i ordinary and I Sp.E.] 

BYRDE, The Rev. R. A., M.A., Allhallows School, Honiton, 

BVRNE, L. S. R., Esq., M.A., Eton College, Windsor. 

BVROM, J. LEWIS, Esq., Brookland Lodge, Delph, near Man- 

BYWATER, Prof. INGRAM, M.A., Norham Gardens, Oxford. 

CADDICK, EDWARD, Esq., Wellington Road, Edgbaston, 

Birmingham. [Sp.E.] 

DRUM, Esq., M.A., Librarian). 

M1LLAN & BOWES, Cambridge). 
CAMPBELL, J. ALEX., Esq., Stracathro, Brechin, N.B. 
CANDLISH, The Rev. J. S., D.D., Free Church College, 


PRECINCTS, CANTERBURY (per The Right Rev. the 

BISHOP OF DOVER, Librarian). 

LINGER, Esq.). 
CARLINGFORD, The Right Hon. Lord, K.P., Chewton Priory, 


HOUSE (per R. BATEMAN, Esq., Librarian). 

craig, Dolphinton, N.B. 
CARPENTER, The Right Rev. W. BOYD, D.D., Lord Bishop 

of Ripon, The Palace, Ripon. 
CARTER, Miss MARY H., The Cottage, Headington Hill, 

CARY-ELWES, V., Esq., F.S.A., The Manor House, Brigg, 

CASARTELLI, The Rev. L. C, Ph.D., St. Bede's College, 

CAZENOVE, C. D., Bookseller, 26 Henrietta Street, Covent 

Garden, London, W.C. (2 copies.) 
CECIL, HENRY, Esq., Bregner, Bournemouth. 
CHADWICK, S. J., Esq., F.S.A., Oxford Road, Dewsbury, 

CHALMERS, F. RASHLEIGH, Esq., 44 Broadway, New York, 

CHAMBERLAIN, The Right Hon. J., M.P., Highbury, Moor 

Green, Birmingham. 

CHAMBERS, Messrs. W. & R., 339 High Street, Edinburgh. 
CHAMPNEYS, A. C., Esq., M.A., The College, Marlborough. 
CHANCE, F., Esq., Burleigh House, 35 Sydenham Hill, 

London, S.E. 

Rev. W. HAIG BROWN, LL.D.). 

P CHASE, Miss ELLEN, Heath Hill, Brookline, Mass., U.S.A. 
CHASE, FRANK H., Esq., 51 Trumbull Street, New Haven, 

Conn., U.S.A. 
CHEETHAM, The Ven. S., D.D., Archdeacon of Rochester, 

The Precincts, Rochester. 

QUINN, Esq., Librarian). 

W. J. BROWNE, Esq., Librarian). 

CHETTLE, HENRY, Esq., 76 Ridge Road, Hornsey, London, N. 
CHILD, Prof. FRANCIS J., Ph.D., LL.D., Cambridge, Mass., 

U.S.A. (per B. F. STEVENS). 
CHOLMELEY, ROBERT F., Esq., M.A., St. Paul's School, 

London, W. 

CHOPE, R. PEARSE, Esq., B.A., The Patent Office, 25 South- 
ampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 
CHORLTON, THOMAS, Esq., 32 Brazenose Street, Manchester. 
CHRISTIAN, GEORGE, Esq., Redgate, Uppingham, Rutland. 




M C LEAN, Esq., M.A., Librarian). 

CHURCH, W. S., Esq., M.D., 130 Harley Street, London, W. 

CLARENDON, The Right Hon. the Earl of, The Grove, 

CLARK, CHARLES J., Bookseller, 4 Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

London, W.C. 

CLARK, Prof. E. C., LL.D., Newnham House, Cambridge. 
CLARK, E. K., Esq., 13 Well Close Place, Leeds. 
CLARK, The Rev. J. MEEK, M.A., Arborfield, Weybridge. 
CLARK, OSCAR W., Esq., M.B., Rahere, Brunswick Road, 

CLAYE, H. SANDFORD, Esq., Park Lane, Macclesfield, 

Cheshire. [Sp.E.] 

BROWN, Esq., Librarian). 

Esq., Librarian). 

Esq., Librarian.) 

CLOUSTON, TH. S., Esq., M.D., Tipperlinn House, Morning- 
side Place, Edinburgh. 

COCHRANE, Miss JANET, 10 Bondgate Without, Alnwick. 
COCK, ALFRED, Esq., Q.C., 8 Kensington Park Gardens, 

London, W. 

COHEN, F., Buchhandlung, Bonn, Germany. 
COLDICOTT, ARTHUR C., Esq., Ullenhall, Henley-in-Arden, 

near Birmingham. 

COLE, The Rev. R. E., M.A., Doddington Rectory, Lincoln. 
COMPTON, The Right Rev. Lord ALWYNE, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of Ely, The Palace, Ely.. 

STECHERT, Bookseller). 
COLLITZ, Prof. HERMANN, Ph.D., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn 

Mawr, Penn., U.S.A. (per G. E. STECHERT, 30 Welling- 
ton Street, Strand, W.C.). 

Boulder, Colo., U.S.A. (per E. G. ALLEN). 

(per G. E. STECHERT). 

CONSTABLE, Messrs. T. & A., University Press, Edinburgh. 
CONWAY, Prof. R. SEYMOUR, M.A., Redcroft, Llandaff, near 

COOK, Prof. ALBERT S., Ph.D., Yale University, New Haven, 

Conn., U.S.A. 

COOPER, Miss A. J., 50 Colebrooke Row, London, N. 
COOPER, The Rev. T. S., F.S.A., Chiddingfold, Godalming. 
COPLEY, A. B., Esq., School of Shorthand, Rutland Street, 


ALLEN, London, W.C.). 
CORNISH BROTHERS, Messrs., Booksellers, 37 New Street, 

Birmingham. (2 copies.) 

Rev. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A., Librarian). 
COSIJN, Prof. P. J., Ph.D., Leyden, Holland. 
COULSTON, The Rev. G., D.D., St. Cuthbert's College, 

Ushaw, Durham. 
COURTNEY, The Right Hon. L., M.P., 15 Cheyne Walk, 


COURTNEY, Miss M.A., Trenance, Penzance, Cornwall. 
COWEN, JOSEPH, Esq., Stella Hall, Blaydon-on-Tyne. [Sp.E.} 
CRAIG, W. J., Esq., Ardverness, Reigate. 
CRAIGIE, WILLIAM A., Esq., M.A., United College, St. 

Andrews, N.B. 

CRAMPTON, W. T., Esq., Parcmont, Roundhay, near Leeds. 
CRAVEN, E., Esq., Mulcture Hall, Eastwood, Todmorden. 
CRAWFORD, The Right Hon. The Earl of, K.T., Haigh 
Hall, Wigan. 




CREWE, The Right Hon. The Earl of, Crewe Hall, Crewe. 

\Sp.E.] (2 copies.) 

CROCKETT, S. R., Esq., Bank House, Penicuick, Midlothian. 
CROFTON, H. T., Esq., 36 Brazenose Street, Manchester. 
CROSS, The Rev. JOHN EDWARD, M.A., Halecote, Grange- 

CROSSLEY, JAMES, Bookseller, 19 Union Street, Halifax, 

Yorks. (2 copies.) 
GROSSMAN, Maj.-Gen. Sir WILLIAM, K.C.M.G., Cheswick 

House, Beal, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
CRUICK.SHANK, J. W., Esq., Coorabe Head, Haslemere, 

CRUSO, The Rev. H. E. T., M.A., Tunstall Rectory, Sitting- 

CUMMINGS, WILLIAM H., Esq., Sydcote, West Dulwich, 

London, S.E. 
CURLE, JAMES, Esq., Jun., F.S.A., Priorwood, Melrose, N.I?. 

DALE, Messrs. JOHN, & Co., Booksellers, 17 Bridge Street, 

Bradford, Yorks. 
DALTON, The Rev. Canon, F.S.A., C.M.G., St. George's, 

Windsor Castle. 
DANIEL, The Rev. W. EUSTACE, M.A., East Pennard, 

Shepton Mallet. 
DARLINGTON, T., Esq., M.A., Glynderwen, Alleyn Road, 

West Dulwich, S.E. 

BUCHHANDLUNG, Strassburg). 
DAVIDSON, HUGH, Esq., Braedale, Lanark. 
DAVIDSON, THOMAS, Esq., 339 High Street, Edinburgh. 
DAVIES, The Rev. T. WITTON, B.A., Midland Baptist 

College, Nottingham. 
DAY, T. J., Bookseller, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (per 


DAYMAN, F. S., Esq., Ashley Court, Tiverton, Devon. 
DEEDES, The Rev. CECIL, M.A., 2 Clifton Terrace, Brighton. 
DEES, R. R.,Esq.,The Hall.Wallsend, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
DEIGHTON, BELL & Co., Messrs., Booksellers, Cambridge. 

(5 copies.) 
DENNY, Messrs. A. & F., Booksellers, 304 Strand, London, 

W.C. (2 copies.) 
DENWOOD, JOHN, Esq., Morland Place, Brigham Road, 

Cockermouth, Cumberland (per AE. BINNS, Wilsden). 


DERBY, The Right Hon. the Earl of, G.C.B., Knowsley 

Hall, Prescot, Lanes, (per The Rev. JOHN RICHARDSON, 

Librarian). [Sp.E.] 



Esq., Librarian). 

DEW, GEORGE JAMES, Esq., Lower Heyford, Banbury. 
DEWAR, WILLIAM, Esq., M.A., Rugby School, Ru^by 


DICK, J., Esq., 1 1 Osborne Avenue, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
DIXIE, WALTER J., Esq., 27 Park Street, Windsor, Berks.' 
DOBLE, C. E., Esq., M.A., 21 Winchester Road, Oxford. 
DOGGETT, HUGH G., Esq., Springfield, Leigh Woods, 

Clifton, Bristol. 
DONALDSON, JAMES, Esq., LL.D., Principal of the Uni- 

versity, St. Andrews, N.B. 
DOTESIO, W.C., Bookseller, Bra dford-on- Avon (per HENRY 


EDWARD ' LL ' D " Buona Vista > Killiney, 

> Bi ingh a m (per HENRY 

(2 copies.) 

The Rev. H., M.A, Hawarden, Chester. 

^ S H L i BRA * Y > Gordon S l uare . London, W.C. 
W. H., Esq., Gorway, Walsall. 

& C " Booksellers > 37 Soho Square, 

DUNN, G., Esq., 3 Greenhill Place, Edinburgh. 

DURHAM CATHEDRAL LIBRARY (for the Dean and Chapter, 

per The Rev. W. GREENWELL, D.C.L., F.R.S., 



& Co., Durham). 
DYSON, GEORGE, Esq., Argyle Street, Marsden, near Hud- 


EARLE, The Rev. Prof. JOHN, M.A., Oxford (per Messrs. 

EASTWOOD, JOHN ADAM, Esq., 49 Princess Street, Man- 

ECCLES, Miss JANE HELEN, 3 Dean's Yard, Westminster 
Abbey, London, S.W. [Sp.E.] 

burgh (per G. B. GREEN, Esq., Librarian). 

Esq., Librarian). 

Esq., Librarian). 

EDWARDES, The Rev. DAVID, M.A., Denstone College, 

EDWARDS, TREVOR, Esq., West Riding Solicitor, Wakefield. 

EGERTON, Prof. CHARLES W., M.A., University College, 
Auckland, New Zealand. 

EINENKEL, Prof. Dr. EUGENE, 92 Hammerstrasse, Miinster, 

ELLERSHAW, The Rev. HENRY, M.A., Hatfield Hall, Durham 
(per Messrs. ANDREWS & Co., Booksellers, Durham). 

ELLIOT, ANDREW, Bookseller, 17 Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

ELLIS, Miss CHARLOTTE, The Hall, Belgrave, Leicester. 

ELLIS, F. S., Esq., The Red House, Chelston, Torquay. 

ELWORTHY, FREDERICK T., Esq., Foxdown, Wellington, 

EMERSON, P. H., Esq., B.A., M.B., North Cliff Lodge, 

EMRYS-JONES, A., Esq., M.D., J.P., Brynderw, Fallowfield, 

ERDMANN, Prof. AXEL, Upsala, Sweden. 



EVANS, H. A., Esq., 16 Manchester Road, Chorlton-cum- 
Hardy, Manchester. 

EVANS, H. E. G., Esq., St. Mary's House, Tenby. 

EVANS, J. GWENOGFRYN, Esq., M.A., 7 Clarendon Villas, 
Oxford. [Sp.E.] 

EVANS, W. H., Esq., 15 Victoria Square, Reading. 




J. MuiR, Esq., Librarian). 
FAIRCHILD, The Hon. C. S., LL.D., 46 Wall Street, New 

York City, U.S.A. 
FARRAH, JOHN, Esq., F.R.Met.Soc., Crescent Road, Harro- 

FARWELL, GEORGE, Esq., 60 Queen's Gardens, Lancaster 

Gate, London, W. 
FAUNTHORPE, The Rev. J. P., M.A., Whitelands College, 

Chelsea, London, S.W. 

FEDERER, Prof. CH. A., L.C.P., 8 Hallfield Road, Bradford. 
FERGUSON, The Rev. JOHN, B.D., The Manse, Aberdalgie, 

Perth, N.B. 

FERGUSON, Prof. JOHN, M.A., Glasgow. 
FERGUSON, ROBERT, Esq., F.S.A., Morton, Carlisle. 
FICKLING, W., Esq., M.A., St. Peter's College, Peterborough. 
FIEDLER, Prof. GEORG, Ph.D., Mason College, Birmingham. 
FINDLAY, J. R., Esq., 3 Rothesay Terrace, Edinburgh. 
FIRTH, C. H., Esq., M.A., 33 Norham Road, Oxford. 



FISCHER, Prof. HERMANN, Ph.D., Tiibingen, Germany. 
FISHER, THOMAS, Esq., Carhead, Crossbills, via Keighley. 
FLEMING, GEORGE, Esq., C.B., LL.D., Higher Leigh, Combe 

Martin, North Devon. 

FLETCHER, CHARLES K., Esq., Kenward, Yalding, Maidstone. 
FLETCHER, The Rev. GEORGE, Wesleyan College, Richmond, 

FLUGEL, Prof. EWALD, Ph.D., Stanford University, Calif., 

U.S.A. (per MAX NIEMEYER, Bookseller, Halle, a. S., 


FOGGITT, WILLIAM, Esq., South Villa, Thirsk, Yorks. 
FoOTE, S. H. WELLS, Esq., Leigham Court Road, Streatham, 

London, S.W. 
FORD, A. L., Esq., Gwynallt, Lynmouth, Devon (per JOHN 

GALWAY, Bookseller, 17 Garrick Street, Covent Garden, 

F6RSTER, MAX TH. W., Esq., Ph.D., 28 Giergasse, Bonn, 

Germany (per Messrs. ROHRSCHEID EBBECKE, Book- 
sellers, Bonn). 

FOSTER, T. GREGORY, Esq., University College, London, W.C. 
FOWLER, The Rev. J. T., D.C.L., Bishop Hadfield's Hall, 

Durham (per Messrs. ANDREWS & Co., Durham). 
FOWLER, W. WARDE, Esq., M.A., Lincoln College, Oxford. 
Fox, ARTHUR W., Esq., Albion House, The Downs, Bowdon, 

Fox, FRANCIS F., Esq., Yate House, Chipping Sodbury, 


FRANCIS, A. L., Esq., Blundell's School, Tiverton, Devon. 
FRANKLAND, M., Esq., The Grammar School, Ossett, Yorks. 
FRANKLIN, W. E., Bookseller, Newcastle-on-Tyne (per 


FRASER, H. E., Esq., M.B., 63 Church Street, Inverness, N.B. 
FRASER, JOHN, Esq., I Railway Cottages, Spekeland Road, 

Liverpool. (2 copies?) 
FREEMAN, J. J., Esq., Halliford-on-Thames, Middlesex. 


Glasgow (per W. CANDISH, Esq., Librarian). 


VERSITAT, Baden, Germany. 

FRY, Mrs. FRANCIS J., Eversley, Leigh Woods, Clifton, 

FURNIVALL, F. J., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., 3 St. George's Square, 

London, N.W. 

GALLAWAY, ALEX., Esq., Dirgarve, Aberfeldy, N.B. 

GALLEE, Prof. J. H., Ph.D., Utrecht, Holland. 

GEDEN, A. S., Esq., Wesleyan College, Richmond, Surrey. 

GENERAL- ASSEMBLY LIBRARY, Wellington, New Zealand 

GEORGE'S SONS, Messrs. WILLIAM, Booksellers, Park Street, 
Bristol. (3 copies.) 

GERISH, W. B., Esq., 3 Oxford Villas, Womley, Herts. 

GERRANS, H. T., Esq., M.A., 20 St. John's Street, Oxford. 

GIBBS, ANTHONY, Esq., Tyntesfield, Bristol. [Sp.E.] 

BROS., Booksellers, Bream's Buildings, Fetter Lane, 
London, E.G.). 

CROFT, Esq., Librarian). 

GILES, P., Esq., M.A., 10 Park Terrace, Cambridge. 

GILLIAT, The Rev. E., M.A., Harrow-on-the-Hill, London. 

GLADSTONE, The Right Hon. HERBERT, M.P., 4 Cleve- 
land Square, St. James's, London, S.W. 

GLADSTONE, The Right Hon. W. E., Hawarden Castle, 

SIMPSON, Esq., Librarian). 

HOSE & SONS, Booksellers, Glasgow). 

GOLLANCZ, L, Esq., M.A., 54 Sidney Street, Cambridge. 

GOMME, G. L., Esq., F.S.A., 24 Dorset Square, London, N.W. 

GOODWIN, D. G., Esq., Buildwas, Ironbridge, Shropshire. 

GORDON, The Rev. J. M., M.A., St. John's Vicarage, Redhill, 

GORDON, The Right Rev. Dr., Bishop's House, Leeds (per 

J. DODGSON, Bookseller, Albion Street, Leeds). 
Goss, WILLIAM HENRY, Esq., Bank House, Stoke-upon- 

Trent (per R. HEAD, Bookseller, 11 High Street, 


GOSTEKER, CH., Esq., Moorthorpe, Darwen. [Sp.E.] 

Booksellers, 33 King Street, Covent Garden, London, 

GOTT, The Right Rev. JOHN, D.D., Lord Bishop of Truro, 

Trenython, Par Station, Cornwall. 
Gow, JAMES, Esq., Litt.D., Nottingham High School. 
GOWANS, ADAM L., Esq., Hazeldean, Langside, Glasgow. 

UNIVERSITAT, Graz, Austria (per Prof. KARL LUICK, 


CARTER, Esq., Librarian). 

GREEN, The Rev. R., Didsbury College, Manchester. 
GREY, The Right Hon. Earl, Howick, Lesbury, Northum- 
berland. [Sp.E.} 

GREY, W. WILSON, Esq., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
GRIERSON, Prof. H. J. C, M.A., King's College Road, 


GROSS, E. J., Esq., M.A., Gonville Place, Cambridge. 
GRUNDY, G. BEARDOE, Esq., M.A., The Military College, 


Esq., F.S.A., Librarian). 

PITTS, Esq., F.S.A., Curator). 
GUNN, WILLIAM, Esq., Geological Survey of Scotland, 

Sheriff Court House, Edinburgh. 
GUTCH, Mrs., Holgate Lodge, York. 
GUY, RALPH C., Esq., Forest School, Walthamstow, London. 

HAGERUP, H., Boghandel, Copenhagen (per SAMPSON Low, 

MARSTON & Co.). 

KENNEDY, Esq., B.A., Librarian). 
HALES, The Rev. C. T., M.A., Aysgarth School, Bedale, 

HALES, Prof. JOHN W., M.A., I Oppidans Road, Primrose 

Hill, London, N.W. 

HALFORD, Sir H. ST. JOHN, C.B., Wiston, Leicester. 

Esq., Librarian). 
HALL, FITZEDWARD, Esq., D.C.L., Marlesford, Wickham 

HALL, JOSEPH, Esq., M.A., 189 High Street, Oxford Road, 

HALLAM, THOMAS, Esq., 25 Craig Street, Stockport Road, 


(per DAVID NUTT). 


handler, Bergstrasse 10, Hamburg). 
HAMILTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 

(per RICHARD T. LANCEFIELD, Esq., Librarian). 

(per S. MARTIN, Esq., Librarian). 
HANKINSON, G. H., Esq., 88 King Street, Manchester. 
HANSEN, Dr. ADOLF, Chr. Winthersvej 25, Copenhagen. 
HARBEN, H. A., Esq., B.A., F.S.A., 107 Westbourne Terrace, 

Hyde Park, London, W. 

NEWLAND, Esq., Librarian). 

HARRIS, The Hon. W. T., LL.D., United States Com- 
missioner of Education, Washington, D.C. 
HARRISON & SONS, Messrs., Booksellers, 59 Pall Mall, 

London, S.W. [i Sp.E.} 



HART, Prof. C. E., 33 Levington Ave, New Brunswick, 

New Jersey, U.S.A. 
HART, Prof. J. M., J.U.D., Cornell University (per B. F. 


HARTLAND, E. SIDNEY, Esq., Highgarth, Gloucester. 

TRENCH & Co.). 

HARVEY, H. C., Esq., Fern Dene, Ryton-on-Tyne. 
HARVEY, W., Esq., The Rookery, Nantwich. 
HARWOOD, JAMES, Bookseller, Derby (per HENRY FROWDE). 
HATCHARD & Co., Messrs., Booksellers, Piccadilly, London, 

W. (per HENRY FROWDE). (3 copies.) 
HAWELL, The Rev. JOHN, M.A., Ingleby-Greenhow Vicarage, 


Esq., Librarian). 
HAWKINS, The Rev. Sir JOHN C., Bart., Kelston Lodge, 

Banbury Road, Oxford. 
HAYWARD, W. D., Bookseller, 42 George Street, Croydon 

(per HENRY FROWDE). [Sp.EJ] 
HAZARD, ROWLAND GIBSON, Esq., Holly House, Peace 

Dale, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

HEADLAM, C. E. S., Esq., M.A., Trinity Hall, Cambridge (per 

Messrs. MACMILLAN & BOWES, Booksellers, Cambridge). 

HEATH, Prof. H. FRANK, M.A., Bedford College, York Place, 

Baker Street, London, W. 


(per Prof. SCHICK). 


HELME, The Rev. ROBERT, M.A., St. George's, Hassocks. 


PHILLOTT, Librarian). 

HERFORD, Prof. C. H., Litt.D., Hillside, Aberystwyth. 
HERVEY, The Rev. SYDENHAM H. A., B.A., Wedmore 

Vicarage, Weston-super-Mare. 
HESLOP, R. O., Esq., The Crofts, Corbridge, R.S.O., Nor- 

HEWGILL, The Rev. W., M.A., Milton Villas, Farnworth, 

HEYWOOD, JOHN, Bookseller, Deansgate, Manchester 

(2 copies.) 

HILL, The Rev. A. D., Downton Vicarage, Salisbury 
HILL, Miss ELLEN M., 63 Compayne Gardens, W. Hamp- 

stead, London, N.W. 
HILL, The Rev. GEOFFREY, M.A., Harnham Vicarage, 

HILL, TH. A., Esq., M.A., Normanton-on-the-Wolds, Plum- 

tree, near Nottingham. 

HILLS, WM. HENRY, Esq., The Knoll, Ambleside. 
ilND, JESSE, Esq., Papplewick Grange, Nottingham. 
HIRST, F. W., Esq., Wadham College, Oxford. 
HIRST, WILLIAM, Bookseller, 259 Monton Road, Eccles, 

HOCKLIFFE, F., Bookseller, Bedford. \Sp.E.} 

Esq " Bamborough Keep> 

' New stle-on- 

Hm T L !f w R A E T ICK i sq " The Gran & e ' Eastbourne. 

OLLIS W. A., Esq., 8 Cambridge Road, Brighton 
Messrs. HODGES, FIGGIS & Co., 104 Grafton 

HOOPS, Prof. J., Ph.D., Tubingen, Germany. 

HOPKINS, HENRY, Esq., Castle Acre. Swaffham, Norfolk. 

HORNING, Prof. L. E., Victoria University, Queen's Park, 

Toronto, Canada. 

(per RALPH C. WALPOLE, Esq., Librarian). 
HOVENDEN, ROBERT, Esq., F.S.A., Heathcote, Park Hill 

Road, Croydon, Surrey. 
HOWARD, DAVID, Esq., Devon House, Buckhurst Hill, 


HOWARD, ROBERT H., Esq., Brampton, Carlisle. [Sp.E.] 
HOWES, The Rev. A. P., Bolton Abbey Rectory, Skipton-in- 

HOWORTH, DANIEL F., Esq., F.S.A.Scot., Grafton House, 

HOYLE, WILLIAM E., Esq., Manchester Museum, The 

Owens College, Manchester. 

HUBBARD, Prof. F. G., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, U.S.A. 
HUDSON, J. K., Esq., B.A., Masson Villa, Dickenson Road, 

Longsight, Manchester. 

HULL SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARY, Royal Institution, Hull (per 

A. MILNER, Esq., Librarian). 

HULME, E. C., Esq., F.R.C.S., 18 Philbeach Gardens, 
S. Kensington, S.W. 

HUMFREYS, W. J., Esq., Hereford. 

HUTCHINGS, The Rev. Canon R. S., Alderbury Vicarage, 

MUTTON, A. H. D., Esq., M.A., Carisbrooke, Chelston, Tor- 
quay (per Messrs. MACMILLAN & BOWES, Cambridge). 

HYDE, JOHN, Esq., F.S.S., University Place, N.W., Washing- 
ton, D.C., U.S.A. 

INDERWICK, F. A., Esq., Q.C., 8 Warwick Square, London, 


INGILBY, Sir HENRY D., Bart., Ripley Castle, Yorkshire. 

OF THE, Moorgate Place, London, E.G. (per REGINALD 

B. FELLOWS, Esq., Librarian). 

JACKS, WILLIAM, Esq., M.P., Glasgow. 

JACKSON, CHARLES H., Esq., 2 Copthall Chambers, London, 

JACKSON, RICHARD, Bookseller, 16 Commercial Street, 

Leeds. (2 copies.) 

JAMESON, J. H., Esq., 3 Northumberland Street, Edinburgh. 
JAMIESON, JAMES AULDJO, Esq., 14 Buckingham Terrace, 



JOHNSON, E., Bookseller, 30 Trinity Street, Cambridge. 
JOHNSTON, JOHN, Bookseller, Linthorpe RoacL Middles- 
borough. (2 copies.) 

JOHNSTONE, JAMES, Esq., Ycoed, Stroud, Glos. 
JONES, JOHN, Esq., Central Buildings, Llandudno, Wales. 
JONES, JOHN A., Esq., 9 Granville Road, Middlesborough. 
JONES, Prof. W. LEWIS, M.A., University College, Bangor, 

N. Wales. 
JUST, W. N., Esq., M.A., St. Peter's College, Westminster. 

London, S.W. 
JUTA & Co., Messrs., Booksellers, Cape Town, Cape Colony 



(per R. MOODY, Esq., Librarian). 
KENNEDY, A C., Esq., 20 Tite Street, Chelsea, London, 

a.W. [Sp.E.} 
KENNEDY, Miss LOUISE, Fairacre, Concord, Mass., U.S.A. 

(per B. F. STEVENS). 

KER, Prof. W. P., M.A., 95 Gower Street, London, W.C. 
KIMPSTER, Miss A., Royal Holloway College, Egham, Surrey. 
K.ING, j. E., Esq., M.A., The Grammar School, Manchester. 




CARTER, Esq., Librarian). 
KIRBY, THOMAS FREDERICK, Esq., M.A., The College, 

KIRKPATRICK, The Rev. Prof., D.D., 3 Salisbury Villas, 

KITCHIN, The Very Rev. G. W., D.D., The Deanery, 


KlTTREDGE, Prof. G. L., A.B., Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

KNIGHT, A. L., Esq., 30 Basinghall Street, Leeds. 
KNOWLES, The Rev, CH., M.A., Winteringham Rectory, 


KNOWLES, W. ]., Esq., Flixton Place, Ballymena. 
KOEPPEL, Prof., Miinchen (per A. BUCHHOLZ, Buchhandler, 

7 Ludwigstrasse, Miinchen, c/o Messrs KEGAN PAUL, 

TRENCH & Co.). (2 copies.} 
KONRATH, Prof. M., Ph.D., Greifswald, Germany. 

LADELL, H. R., Esq., Englewood, Harold Road, Upper 
Norwood, London, S.E. (per WILLIAMS & NORGATE). 

H. GREVEL Co.). 

LAFFAN, The Rev. R. S. DE C., M.A., Cheltenham College, 

LAING, The Rev. R. C., St. Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, 

Manchester (per C. GOODYEAR, Esq., Librarian). 

LANDY, CHRISTOPHER H. H., Esq., 91 High Street, South- 

LANGE, RICHARD, Esq., Moika 38, St. Petersburgh (per 
Messrs. W. WESLEY & SON, Booksellers, 28 Essex 
Street, Strand, London, W.C.). 

LAYER, HENRY, Esq., F.S.A., Head Street, Colchester. 

LAWRANCE, HENRY, Esq., The Lawn, Gainsborough. 

LEA, Miss E. M., 48 Banbury Road, Oxford. 

LEADER, R. E., Esq., 41 Streatham Hill, London, S.W. 

GRANT, Esq., Librarian). 

LEARNED, Prof. MARION DEXTER, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa, U.S.A. 

EYRE, Esq.^Secretary, 24 Kelsall Terrace, Burley, Leeds). 

LEEDS LIBRARY, Commercial Street, Leeds (per FRANK 
YATES, Esq., Librarian). 

Esq., Librarian). 

LEIGH, W. B., Esq., Mersey Bank, Heaton Mersey, Man- 



LENZ, Prof. Dr. PHILIPP, Hohere Tochterschule, Baden- 
Baden, Germany. 

LEOSER, CHARLES MK., Esq., Larchmont Manor, New York, 

LEVESON-GOWER, GRANVILLE, Esq., F.S.A., Titsey Place, 

LEWIS, His Hon. Judge DANIEL, Llandrindod Wells, Rad- 

LEWIS, Sir W. THOMAS, Bart., Aberdare, S. Wales. 

ALLEN, Bookseller). 

D.C., U.S.A. (per W. O. WlNLOCK, Esq.). 



Esq., M.A., Librarian). 

A. F. ETHERIDGE, Esq., Librarian). [Sp.E.] 

LIPPINCOTT, Messrs. J. B., Company, Booksellers, 10 Hen- 
rietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

LLOYD, Miss E., Branxholm, Pine Grove, Weybridge. 

LOCKE, CYRIL L. C., Esq., St. Neots, Eversley, Winchfield, 

LOGEMAN, Prof. H., Ph.D., 136 Chausse"e de Courtrai, Ghent 
(per Messrs. WOHLLEBEN, 45 Great Russell Street, 
London, W.C.). 

LONDON LIBRARY, St. James's Square, London, S.W. (per 

(per A. MILMAN, Esq., M.A., Registrar). 

LONG, The Rev. W. S. F., M.A., Culham College, Abingdon. 

LONGSTAFF, G. B., Esq., Highlands, Putney Heath, Lon- 
don, S.W. 

LOUNSBURY, Prof. T. R., LL.D., Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 

LOWRY, H. D., Esq., B.A., Camborne, Cornwall. 

LOWTHER, The Rev. W. B., Wesley Villas, Thirsk, Yorks. 

LUCY, CHARLES F., Esq., Bank, Pickering, Yorks. 

LUNDELL, Prof. J. A., Upsala, Sweden (per Prof. ERDMANN). 

LUPTON BROS., Messrs., Booksellers, Burnley, Lanes. 

LUZAC, Messrs., & Co., 46 Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 

MACDONALD, A. M., Esq., Thornlea, Seafield, Aberdeen, N.B. 
MACDONALD, GEORGE, Esq., 2 St. Bernard's Place, Hillhead, 

MACINTYRE, P. M., Esq., M.A., LL.B., 12 India Street, 

MACKAY, The Rev. G. 5., Free Church Manse, Doune, 

Perthshire (per Messrs. MACNIVEN & WALLACE, Book- 
sellers, 138 Princes Street, Edinburgh). 
MACLAGAN, R. C., Esq., M.D., 5 Coates Crescent, Edinburgh. 
MACLEHOSE, Messrs. JAMES, & SONS, Booksellers, 61 St. 

Vincent Street, Glasgow. (2 copies.) 
MACMILLAN & BOWES, Messrs., Cambridge. (3 copies.) 
MACNIVEN & WALLACE, Messrs., Booksellers, 138 Princes 

Street, Edinburgh. (4 copies.) 

MACRlTCHIE, DAVID, Esq., 4 Archibald Place, Edinburgh. 
MADDOCKS, JOHN, Esq., Maple Hill, Park Drive, Heaton, 

Bradford, Yorks. 

Esq., M.A., Librarian). 

SUTTON, Esq., Librarian). 

Esq., M.A., Librarian). 

Free Library). 

MANFIELD, Sir PHILIP, Northampton. [Sp.E.] 
MANNING, PERCY, Esq., 46 Broad Street, Oxford. 
MANT, The Rev. NEWTON, M.A., The Vicarage, Hendon, 

London, N.W. 

MARCH, HENRY COLLEY, Esq., M.D., 2 West Street, Roch- 
MARKHAM, CHRISTOPHER A., Esq., F.S.A., Spratton, 


MARRIOTT, W. K., Esq., The Manor, Barking, Essex. 
MARSDEN, RICHARD G., Esq., Fernbank, 14 Fox Hill, Upper 

Norwood, London, S.E. 
MARSH, Prof. ARTHUR R., Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Mass., U.S.A. 
MARSHALL, Miss ADA BLANCHE, Belle Vue House, 92 

Cheyne Walk, London, S.W. 
MARTIN, A. T., Esq., F.S.A., Rodborough House, Percival 

Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

MARTIN, Prof. ERNST, Ph.D., Strassburg, i. E., Germany. 
MARTIN, The Rev. H. A., M.A., Laxton Vicarage, Newark. 

MARWICK, Sir JAMES D., LL.D., 19 Woodside Terrace, 


MASON, JOHN, Esq., M.D., Windermere. 
MASON, PHILIP B., Esq., Burton-on-Trent. 
MATHIESON, F. C., Esq., Beechworth, Hampstead Heath, 

London, N.W. 



MATHWIN, H., Esq., B.A., Upwood, Birkdale, Southport. 
MATTHEWS, ALBERT, Esq., 145 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

(per Messrs. SAMPSON Low, MARSTON & Co.). 
MATTHEWS, Miss ELIZABETH, The Hollies, Swaffham, 

MATVEIEFF, BASIL, Esq., 102 Fenchurch Street, London.E.C. 

MAX MULLER, The Right Hon. Prof. F., M.A., 7 Norham 

Gardens, Oxford. 

MAYLAM, PERCY, Esq., 9 Watling Street, Canterbury. 
McCLURE, J. D., Esq., M.A., Mill Hill School, London, N.W. 
McCoRMlCK, W. S., Esq., St. Andrews, Scotland. 
MKERROW, R. B., Esq., 227 Cromwell Mansions, Cromwell 

Road, London, S.W. 

MEDLEY, The Rev. J. B., M.A., Tyntesfield, Bristol. 
MELBOURNE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Victoria, Australia (per 

M. F. DOWDEN, Esq., Librarian). 


(per The Rev. WILLIAM BAKER, D.D.). 
MERRICK, W. P., Esq., Manor Farm, Shepperton. 

PARKER & Co.). 

METCALFE,TheRev.W. M.,D.D., South Manse, Paisley.N.B. 
MEYER, Prof. KUNO, Ph.D., University College, Liverpool 

(per Messrs. WILLIAMS & NORGATE). 

(per Messrs. H. SOTHERAN & Co., Booksellers, 140 

Strand, London, W.C.). 


M.A., Headmaster). 
MILES, Messrs. T., & Co., Booksellers, 95 Upper Street, 

London, N. 

MILL, Miss, 12 Croxteth Road, Princes Park, Liverpool. 
MILLER, A. L., Esq., Ravensdowne, Berwick-on-Tweed. 
MILLER, Prof. C. W. E., Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 

more, U.S.A. 
MILLER, HUGH, Esq., H.M. Geological Survey of Scotland, 

Sheriff Court House, George IV Bridge, Edinburgh. 
MILLER, P., Esq., F.S.A.Scot., 8 Bellevue Terrace, Edin- 

MILNE, The Rev. J., Newlands Manse, Mountain Cross, 

Peeblesshire, N.B. 


MINET, WILLIAM, Esq., 48 Gloucester Square, London, W. 
MITCHELL, The Rev. JAMES, M.A., D.D., The Manse, South 

Leigh, Edinburgh. 
MITCHELL LIBRARY, 21 Miller Street, Glasgow (per T. 

BARRETT, Esq., Librarian). 

MOCATTA, F. D., Esq., 9 Connaught Place, London, W. 
MOFFAT, ALEX. G., Esq., Swansea, 
MOIR, JAMES, Esq., LL.D., The Ash, Hamilton Place, Aber- 

MOLLER, Prof. Dr. HERMANN, 2 Mathildevei, Frederiksberg, 

Copenhagen, Denmark. 

MOLLER, J. GATMAR, Bookseller, Lund, Sweden 
MONTEFIORE, CLAUDE G., Esq., 12 Portman Square, Lon- 

don, W. 

MOORE, ALFRED, Esq., Eythorne, Dover. 
MOORE, AW., Esq., M.A., Woodbourne House, Douglas, 

Isle of Man. 

MORETON The Lord, Sarsden, Chipping Norton, Oxon. 
MORFILL, W. R, Esq., M.A., 4 Clarendon Villas, Oxford. 
MORGAN, Lieut.-Col. W. LI., Brynbriallu, Swansea. 
M ORISON JOHN, Esq., 11 Burnbank Gardens, Glasgow. 
MORRIS, Prof E. E., University of Melbourne, Australia (per 

SLADE ' Booksellt ' 

MORRISON, WALTER, Esq., M.P., 77 Cromwell Road, Lon- 

don, S.W. [Sp.E.] 
MORSBACH, Prof. L., Ph.D., Gottingen (per SAMPSON Low, 

MARSTON & Co. (2 copies^ 
MORTIMER, J. R., Esq., Driffield, Yorks. 
MOUBRAY,JOHN J., Esq., Naemoor, Rumbling Bridge, N.B. 

Upper Ma,,, 
View, Tyn, 

MOULTON, Rev. W. F., D.D., The Leys School, Cambridge 

(per Messrs. MACMILLAN & BOWES). 
MOUNT, The Rev. C. B., M.A., 14 Norham Road, Oxford. 
MUNBY, A. J., Esq., 6 Figtree Court, Temple, London, E.G. 
MURDOCH, The Rev. A. G., M.A., Free Church Manse, John 

Street, Ayr, N.B. 

MURISON, WILLIAM, Esq., 27 Gladstone Place, Aberdeen. 
MURRAY, A., Esq., 5 Meadow Place, Edinburgh (per Mr. 

MILLER, 33 So. Clerk Street, Edinburgh). 
MURRAY, DAVID, Esq., LL.D., 169 West George Street, 

MURRAY, Dr. W., Swinburne Castle, Haughton, Northum- 

MUSTERS, Mrs. L. C., Wiverton Hall, Bingham, Notts. 

NAPIER, Prof. A. S., M.A., Headington Hill, Oxford. 
NAPIER, The Rev. T. P., B.A., c/o Rev. J. STEPHENSON, 

Forton Vicarage, Gosport. 
NASH, EDMUND, Esq., M.D., 123 Lansdowne Road, Netting 

Hill, London, W. 
NATIONAL LIBERAL CLUB, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 

(per A. W. HUTTON, Esq., Librarian). 

FIGGIS & Co., 104 Grafton Street, Dublin). 

Miss MARY L. JONES, Librarian). 

NETTLESHIP, EDWARD, Esq., 5 Wimpole Street, London, W. 


NEWBOLD, ARTHUR, Esq., Parklands, Burgess Hill, Sussex. 

SOCIETY (per W. E. FRANKLIN, Bookseller, 42 Mosley 

Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne). 

ANDERTON, Esq., Chief Librarian). 

STEPHEN, Librarian). 


NICHOLSON, E. W. B., Esq., M.A., Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
NINNIS, BELGRAVE, Esq., M.D., Brockenhurst, Aldrington 

Road, Streatham, London, S.W. [Sp.E.] 
NOCK, L. F., Esq., Tutshill House, Durham Rd., Birmingham. 
NODAL, John H., Esq., The Grange, Heaton Moor, near 


NOORDHOFF, P., Boekhandelaar, Groningen, Holland. 

BRISCOE, Esq., Librarian). 

ODDIE, The Rev. J. W., Lyzwick Hall, Keswick. 
O'KlNEALY, The Hon. Mr. Justice (per Messrs. MACMILLAN 

& BOWES). 
OLDFIELD, The Rev. W. J., M.A., St. Paul's Missionary 

College, Burgh, R.S.O., Lines. 

TIONAL DEPARTMENT), Foundry Street, Oldham (per 

A. SPENCER, Esq., Librarian). 

OLIPHANT, T. L. KINGTON, Esq., Gask, Auchterader, N.B. 

PARKER & Co.). 

ORPEN, Rev. J. H. (per Messrs. MACMILLAN & BOWES). 
OTT, Dr. J. H., Librarian, Watertown, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 

(per B. F. STEVENS). 

OWEN, The Rev. ERNEST, M.A., Cathedral School, Llandaff. 
OWEN, HENRY, Esq., F.S.A., 44 Oxford Terrace, Hyde Park, 

London, W. 
OWEN, The Rev. R. TREVOR, M.A., F.S.A., Llangedwyn 

Vicarage, Oswestry. 




RHODES, Esq., Librarian). 

HARRISON & SON, 59 Pall Mall, London, S.W.). [Sp.E.} 

Booksellers, Oxford). 

PAGET, The Very Rev. FRANCIS, D.D., The Deanery, Oxford. 
PAGET, Sir R. H., Bart., Cranmore Hall, Shept on- Mallet, 

PALGRAVE, Prof. FRANCIS T., M.A., 15 Cranley Place, 

Onslovv Square, London, S.W. 
PALMER, H. V., Esq., The Yorkshire Post, Leeds. 
PARKER, GEORGE T., Esq., United States Consul, Birming- 
ham (per HENRY FROWDE). 

PARKER, JAMES, & Co., Booksellers, Oxford. (2 copies.) 
PARKIN, W. WILTON, Esq., Eastbourne, Darlington. 
PARKINSON, JOHN WILSON, Esq., 35 Winchelsea Road, 

Tottenham, London, N. 
PARKYN, Major EDWIN, J.P., F.G.S., Hon. Sec., Cornwall 

Library, Truro. 

PARRY, R. St. J., Esq., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
PATON, A. B., Esq., Irvine Bank, Crosby, near Liverpool. 
PAUL, GEORGE M., Esq., F.S.A.Scot., 38 Greenhill Gardens, 

PAUL, Messrs. KEGAN, TRENCH & Co., Paternoster House, 

Charing Cross Road, London. 
PAWSON, ALBERT HENRY, Esq., Farnley, Leeds. 
PAYNE, WILLIAM, Esq., Hatchlands, Cuckfield, Sussex. 
PAYNE-SMITH, The Rev. W. H., M.A., 10 Hillmorton Road, 


(per E. G. ALLEN). 
PEACOCK, EDWARD, Esq., F.S.A., Dunstan House, Kirton- 

in-Lindsey, Lines. 
PEACOCK, MATTHEW H., Esq., M.A., The Grammar School, 


PEARSON, Prof. KARL, M.A., University College, London. 
PEASE, HOWARD, Esq., Arcot Hall, Dudley, R.S.O., Nor- 
PECKOVER, ALEXANDER, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., Sibald's 

Holme, Wisbeach. 
PEEK, C. E., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Rousdon, Lyme Regis, 


PEEL, ROBERT, Esq., The Avenue, Wilmslow, Cheshire. 
PEILE, JOHN, Esq., Litt.D., The Master, Christ's College, 


NEIL, Esq., M.A., Librarian). 
PERCIVAL, The Right Rev. JOHN, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

Hereford, The Palace, Hereford. 
PERCY, The Right Hon. Earl, Alnwick Castle. 
PETER, THURSTAN C., Esq., Townhall, Redruth, Cornwall. 

BARNES, Esq., M.A., Librarian). 
PHILLIPS, JOHN, Esq., M.A., M.D., 71 Grosvenor Street 

London. W. 

PICKUP, P. W., Esq., 71 Preston New Road, Blackburn. 
PIERPOINT, ROBERT, Esq., M.P., St. Austin's, Warrington. 
PILKINGTON, Sir GEORGE A., C.A., Belle Vue, Southport. 
PLATNAUER, H. M., Esq., The Museum, York. 
PLATT, R., Bookseller, Wigan (per HENRY FROWDE). 

Plymouth (per GORDON GOODWIN, Esq., Librarian). 
POGATSCHER, Prof. A., Ph.D., Prague, Austria (per Messrs. 


POOLES, The Rev. C. KNOX, M.A., The Rectory, New- 
townards, Co. Down (perT. DARGAN, Bookseller, Castle 
Lane, Belfast). 

POOLL, Mrs. BATTEN, Road Manor, Bath. 
POPE, The Rev. R. W. M., D.D., Students' Delegacy, Oxford. 
PORTER, R. V., Esq., Raleigh, Beckenham. 
POTT, JAMES, Esq., 19 Radeclyffe Terrace, Pimlico Road, 

, Prof. F. YORK, M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

POWELL, J. U., Esq., M.A., St. John's College, Oxford. 

PRICE, The Rev. Canon BARTHOLOMEW, D.D., The Master, 
Pembroke College, Oxford. 

PRICE, Prof. THOMAS R., LL.D., Columbia College, New 
York City, U.S.A. 

PRIESTLEY, A. W., Esq., Reservoir View, Thornton, Brad- 
ford, Yorks. (per AETHELBERT BINNS, Wilsden). 

PRIMER, Prof. SYLVESTER, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. (per 
Messrs. MACMILLAN & Co., London). [Sp.E.} 

PROCTOR, RICHARD, Esq., Oak Mount, Burnley (per W. 
COULSTON, Bookseller, Burnley). 

PROESCHOLDT, Dr. L., Friedrichsdorf, Taunus, Germany. 

PRYOR, F. R., Esq. (per Messrs. MACMILLAN & BOWES). 

PUTNAM'S SONS, Messrs. G. P., New York, U.S.A. (20 

QUARITCH, BERNARD, Bookseller, 15 Piccadilly, London, W. 

[l ord. and I Sp.E.} 

MEISSNER, Librarian). 

RAMSAY, The Hon. Charles M., M.P., 48 Grosvenor Street, 

London, S.W. [Sp.E.] 
RANDELL, The Rev. THOMAS, D.D., The Rectory, Sunder- 

land. (2 copies.) 

Dublin (per The Rev. P. S. WHELAN, M.A.). 

Esq., Librarian). 
REICHEL, H. R., Esq., M.A., The Principal, University 

College, Bangor, N. Wales. 
RENSHAW, WALTER C., Esq., Q.C., 39 Queen's Gardens, 

Lancaster Gate, London, W. 
REPTON SCHOOL LIBRARY, Repton Hall, Burton-on-Trent 

(per The Rev. W. M. FURNEAUX, M.A.). 
REYNOLDS, LLYWARCH, Esq., B.A., Old Church Place, 

Merthyr Tydvil. 
REYNOLD'S LIBRARY, Rochester, New York, U.S.A. (per 

RHYS, J., Esq., M.A., LL.D., The Principal, Jesus College, 


RICHARDS, F., Esq., Kingswood School, Bath. 
RICHARDSON, The Ven. JOHN, Archdeacon of Nottingham. 

ALBERT A. BARKAS, Esq., Librarian). 
RIDLEY, THOMAS D., Esq., Coatham, Redcar. 
RlPON, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, K.G., 9 Chelsea 

Embankment, London, S.W. 

ROBARTES, The Right Hon. Lord, 29 Park Lane, London, W. 
ROBERT, Sir OWEN, F.S.A., D.C.L., Clerk to the Cloth- 
workers' Company, Clothworkers' Hall, London, E.G. 
ROBERTSON, J. DRUMMOND, Esq., 6 Park Road, Richmond 

Hill, Surrey. 
ROBY, HENRY J., Esq., LL.D., c/o ERMEN & ROBY, Patri- 

croft, Manchester. 

Lane, Rochdale (per A. B. SILVERWOOD, Esq., Secretary 

Educational Department). 

ROCK, R., Esq., Oak Mount, Burnley (per W. COLSTON, 

Bookseller, Burnley). 

ROGERS, A. G. L., Esq., M.A., 49 Beaumont Square, Lon- 
don, E. 

ROGERS, Prof. L. J., M.A., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
ROGERSON, JOHN J., Esq., LL.D., Merchiston Castle, Edin- 

ROLFE, R. A., Esq., Hurst Lodge, Coombe Road, Croydon. 
RONKSLEY, J. G., Esq., 8 Sale Hill, Sheffield. 
ROSENTHAL, Dr. F., 3 Sallstrasse, Hanover, Germany. 
ROSS, Major-General A. G. (Indian Staff Corps), 16 Hamil- 
ton Road, Ealing, London, W. 
ROSS, DAVID, Esq., M.A., B.Sc., LL.D., The Principal, 

Training College, City Road, Glasgow. [Sp.E.'] 
ROSS, The Rev. JAMES C., Wadworth Hall, Doncaster. 





C. C. TANCOCK, M.A., Headmaster). 

ROSSITER, WM., Esq., 65 Peckham Road, Camberwell, 

London, S.E. 

Esq., Librarian). 
ROUNDELL, CHARLES S., Esq., M.P., 16 Curzon Street, May 

Fair, London, W. 

New Zealand (per SAMPSON Low, MARSTON, & Co.). 
ROWLEY, JAMES, Esq., Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
ROWNTREE, JOHN S., Esq., Mount Villas, York. 

Square, London, W. (per E. CLARKE, Esq., Secretary). 

EDINBURGH (per J. M. SHAW, Esq., Librarian). 

Fields, London, W.C. (per J. B. BAILEY, Esq., Librarian). 

Miss GUINNESS, Librarian). 
ROYAL INSTITUTION, Albemarle Street, London, W. (per 

HENRY YOUNG, Esq., Librarian). 

RENCE, Bookseller, Rugby). 
RUTHERFORD, The Rev. W. G., M.A., Westminster School 

(per JAMES BAIN, Bookseller, Haymarket, London, S.W.). 
RYE, WALTER, Esq., Frognal House, Hampstead, London, 


RYLE, The Right Rev. J. C., D.D., Lord Bishop of Liver- 
pool, The Palace, Liverpool. 

SADLER, M. E., Esq., M.A., 31 St. Margaret's Road, Oxford. 

SAINTSBURY, Prof. GEORGE, M.A., Edinburgh. 

SANDERS, The Rev. FRANCIS, M.A., Hoylake Vicarage, 

SANDFORD-BURTON, H., Esq., F.L.S., 50 Cornmarket 

Street, Oxford. 
SCARTH, LEVESON, Esq., M.A., Elms Lea, Cleveland Walk, 


SCHICK, Prof. Dr. J., Munich. 
SCHROER, Prof. Dr. ARNOLD, Thalstrasse 36, Freiburg, i. B., 


SCOTT, JOHN, Esq., Gargrave Road, Skipton, Yorks. [/..] 
SCOTT LIBRARY, THE, St. Peter's College, Westminster, S.W. 

(per the Rev. G. H. NALL, M.A., Librarian). 
SCOTT, WILLIAM, Esq., Oakfield, Bolton Abbey, Yorks. 

SELINCOURT, ERNEST DE, Esq., B.A., University College, 

SENIOR, The Rev. EDWARD, M.A., The Grammar School, 


SEPHTON, The Rev. J., M.A., 90 Huskisson Street, Liverpool. 
SEYMOUR, Prof. T. D., Yale College, Newhaven, Conn.,U.S.A. 

(per W. SALT BRASSINGTON, Esq., F.S.A., Librarian). 
SHAW, JAMES BEGG, Esq., 7 The Beeches, Didsbury, Man- 
SHAW, The Rev. W. FRANK, B.D., F.S.A., St. Andrew's 

Vicarage, Huddersfield. 

D. PARKES, Esq., Leopold Street, Sheffield). 

Esq., Chief Librarian). 
SHELDON, Prof. EDWARD S., A.B., Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

SHELLY, JOHN, Esq., 20 Princess Square, Plymouth. 


Esq., M.A.). 

SIEVERS, Prof. E., Ph.D., Leipzig. 
SINGLETON, The Rev. JAMES S. F., Theale Vicarage, 

SIGN-COLLEGE, Victoria Embankment, London. E.G. (per 

W. N. MlLMAN, Esq., Librarian). 

SLATER, JAMES A., Esq., 38 Mecklenburgh Square, London, 

SLICER, JOHN, Esq., London and Yorkshire Bank, Idle, 

near Bradford. 

SLINGSBY, JOHN ARTHUR, Esq., Carla Beck, Skipton, Yorks. 
SMITH, B. WOODD, Esq., F.S.A., Branch Hill Lodge, Hamp- 
stead Heath, London, N.W. 

SMITH, EDWIN, Esq., 33 Wheeleys Road, Birmingham. 
SMITH, The Rev. R. TRAVELS, D.D., The Vicarage, Clyde 

Road, Dublin. 

SMITH, The Rev. T. N. HART, M.A., Epsom College. 
SNOWDON, J. KEIGHLEY, Esq., M.J.I., 62 Francis Street, 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, Burlington House, London, W. 

(per W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Esq., M.A., Assistant 



POPE, Librarian). 

SOTHEBY, Major-General F. E., Ecton, Northampton. 
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SPEIGHT, ERNEST E., Esq., B.A., Beechcroft Road, Summer- 
town, Oxford. 
SPEIGHT, GEORGE, Esq., Belmont, Park View Road, Bradford, 


SPENCER, Prof. F., M.A., Ph.D., University College, Bangor. 
STAMP, ALFRED E., Esq., Public Record Office, Chancery 

Lane, London, W.C. 

Esq., Librarian). 

STANTON, The Rev. Prof., D.D., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Wis., U.S.A. (per HENRY SOTHERAN & Co., 140 Strand, 

London, W.C.). 

STEAD, RICHARD, Esq., B.A., The Grammar School, Folke- 
STEPHENS, The Very Rev. W. R. W., D.D., The Deanery, 

STEVENS, B. F., Bookseller, 4 Trafalgar Square, London, 

W.C. [l ord. copy, I Sp.E.~\ 
STEVENSON, W. E., Esq., Grosvenor House, Bath. 
STEVENSON, W. H., Esq., M.A., Exeter College, Oxford. 

STEWART, Prof. Sir T. GRAINGER, M.D., 19 Charlotte 

Square, Edinburgh. 

WELL, Bookseller, Oxford). 
STOCK, ELLIOT, Bookseller, 62 Paternoster Row, London, 

E.G. (per HENRY FROWDE). [Sp.E.] 
STOKES, WHITLEY, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., 15 Grenville Place, 

London, S.W. 

STRANGE, HAMON LE, Esq., Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk. 

BUCHHANDLUNG, Strassburg). 

STRIDE, Mrs. ARTHUR I., Bush Hall, Hatfield, Herts. 
STRUTHERS, J., Esq., H.M.I.S., Corstorphine, Midlothian, 

STUART, H. A., Esq., Mostyn House, Brooklands Avenue, 


SUTTON, CH. W., Esq., Free Reference Library, Manchester. 
SWAEN, A. E. H., Esq., Wierdensche Str. 32A, Almeloo, 

SWAN, ROBERT, Esq., 2 Belsize Terrace, Hampstead, 

London, N.W. 

SWANN, J. N., Esq., M.A., The College, Malvern. 



TAMSON, Dr. J. G., Gottingen (per Messrs. SAMPSON 

Low, MARSTON & Co.). 
TAYLOR, The Rev. R. F., Gomersal Vicarage, Leeds (per 

JOHN SIDDALL, Bookseller, Cleckheaton). 
TAYLOR, The Rev. R. V., B.A., Melbecks Vicarage, near 

Richmond, Yorks. 




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AFTER making many experiments, it has been found advisable to devise a plain and simple phonetic alphabet 
to represent the approximate pronunciation. An elaborate transcription is useless to people who have not 
had a practical training in phonetics. And it can all the more easily be dispensed with in giving the pro- 
nunciation of the dialect words in the body of the Dictionary, because the phonological introduction which 
I hope to write when the Dictionary is finished, will contain the exact pronunciation of all the common words 
in everyday use. It is impossible to attempt this part of the work alongside of the Dictionary, as it will require 
some years of patient toil to collect reliable material and to digest it. In the meantime I must ask philologists 
to be contented with the brief resume given at the beginning of each letter of the alphabet for the vowels, see 
e.g. pp. i, 2. On comparing the results given there with those arrived at by Karl Luick in his excellent book 
Untersuchungen aur englischen Laulgeschichte, it will be found that we differ in a few minor points. After a 
careful perusal of his book, I now think it would have been better to have used the word usual instead of 
normal on p. i of the Dictionary. 


The only consonants which require to be specially mentioned are : 

tj like the ch in cheap. 

p th thin. 

$ th then. 

q n think. 

Note : (r) is only sounded when the next word in the same sentence begins with a vowel. 

dg like the j in just. 

g s pleasure. 

X ch Germ. Nacht, ich. 

J sh ship. 


a like the a in Germ. Mann. 
ae a Southern Engl. bat. 

B U lip. 

e e wen. 

i i bit. 

o mob. 
u u full. 

9 e Germ. Gabe. 

a a father. 

e e Germ. Reh. 

1 ee feet. 

5 o Germ. Bole. 

9 aw law. 

u oo food. 

9 i bird. 

oe 6 Germ, mogen. 

u u Germ. Gute. 

Note: (i) No attempt is made to distinguish between close and open e. (2) The first element of oa is 
a very close sound closely approaching u. (3) The stress is always on the first element of diphthongs, unless 
the contrary is indicated in the Dictionary. (4) Vocalic m, n are written am, an. (5) A point after a vowel 
(no'bad) indicates that the vowel bears the chief stress in the word. 

ai like 

the i in 


au .. 



ei . 





the s. dial, pronun. of mouse. 

ea ,. 

? " >5 













low (with the first 

element more open). 


)) O ,, 

bone (dial, pronun 

. ofw.Yks.). 



all (n. dialects). 

ui ,, 


food (n. dialects). 



adj. adjective. 
adv. = adverb. 


= impersonal. 
=a imperfect. 

pf. perfect. 
phr. = phrase. 

advb. = adverbial, -ly. 


= Indicative. 

pl.,/>/. = plural. 

AFr. = Anglo-French. 
Amer. American. 


= indefinite. 
= Infinitive. 

pop. i= popular, -ly. 
pp. = past participle. 

app. = apparently. 
arch. = archaic. 


= interjection. 
= intransitive. 

ppl. adj. = participial adjective, 
pred. = predicative, -ly. 

assoc. = association. 


= Irish. 

pref. prefix. 

attrib. attributive, -ly. 


= Italian. 

prep. = preposition. 

c. = circa, about. 


= language. 

pres. = present. 

Cf. = confer, compare. 


= Latin. 

pret. = preterite. 

cogn. w. = cognate with. 


= Low German. 

Prim. sign. = Primary signification. 

colloq. - colloquial. 


= literary. 

priv. <= privative. 

Comb. Combinations. 


= literal, -ly. 

prob. = probably. 

comp. = compound, composition. 


= Middle Dutch. 

pron. = pronoun. 

compar. = comparative. 


= Middle English. 

pron. = pronunciation, pronounced. 

conj. = conjunction. 


= meaning. 

prov. = proverb. 

const. construction. 


= Middle High German. 

prp. present participle. 

contam. = contamination. 


= midland (dialect). 

q.v. quod vide, which see. 

contr. = contracted, contraction. 


= mediaeval Latin. 

reg. = regular. 

Dan. = Danish. 


= Middle Low German. 

re __ I representative, representing, 

dem. = demonstrative. 


= modern. 

= j represents. 

der. = derivative, -ation. 


= nautical. 

Rom. = Romanic, Romance. 

dial., dial. = dialect, -al. 


Northern French. 

sb. = substantive. 

Diet. = Dictionary. 


_ ( New High German, 

Sc. = Scotch. 

dim. = diminutive. 

( modern German. 

sing. = singular. 

Du. = Dutch. 


= northern (dialect). 

sp. spelling. 

Dy. = Daily. 


= Norwegian. 

spec. = special. 

E. = English. 


= object. 

subst. = substantively. 

e.midl. = east midland (dialect). 


= obsolete. 

suff. = suffix. 

equiv. = equivalent. 


= obsolescent. 

superl. = superlative. 

erron. = erroneous, -ly. 


= occasional, -ly. 

Sw. = Swedish. 

esp. = especially. 


= Old Danish. 

s.w. = south-western (dialect). 

etym. = etymology. 


= Old Dutch. 

trans. = transitive. 

fig. = figurative, -ly. 


= Old English ( = Anglo-Saxon). 

transf. = transferred sense. 

Flem. = Flemish. 


= Old Flemish. 

unkn. = unknown. 

Fr. = French. 


= Old French. 

v., vb. = verb. 

freq. = frequently. 


Old Frisian. 

var. = variant of. 

frequent. = frequentative. 


= Old High German. 

var. dial. = various dialects. 

Fris. = Frisian. 


= Old Irish. 

vbl. sb. = verbal substantive. 

G. = German. 
Gael. = Gaelic. 


= Old Norse (Old Icelandic). 
= Old Northern French. 

v. r. = various readings. 
v. sir. = verb strong. 

gen. genitive. 


= Old Northumbrian. 

v. w. irr. verb weak irregular. 

gen. general, -ly. 


= original, -ly. 

wd. word. 

gen. sign. = general signification. 


= Old Saxon. 

Wei. = Welsh. 

Gl. = Glossary. 


= Old Swedish. 

WGer. = West Germanic. 

gloss. = glossaries. 
Goth. = Gothic ( = Mceso-Gothic). 
imp. Imperative. 


= Old West Saxon. 
= passive, -ly. 
- person, -al 

Wkly. = Weekly, 
w.midl. = west midland ^dialect). 
WS. = West Saxon. 

Abd. = Aberdeen. 
Agl. = Anglesea. 


= Connaught 
= Cornwall. 

e.Yks. ^ East Riding of Yorkshire. 
Fif. = Fife. 

Ags. = Angus. 


= Cork. 

Fit. = Flint. 

Ant. = Antrim. 


= Carlow. 

Frf. = Forfar. 

Arg. = Argyll. 
Arm. - Armagh. 
Aus. = Australia. 
Bch. = Buchan. 
Bck. Bucks. 
Bdf. _ Bedford. 
Bnff. = Banff. 
Brk. = Brecknock. 
Brks. = Berks. 
Bte. = Bute 


= Cromarty. 
= Carnarvon. 
= Carmarthen. 
= Cumberland. 
= Derby. 
= Devon. 
= Dumbarton. 
= Dumfries. 
- Denbigh. 

Frm. = Fermanagh. 
Gall. Galloway. 
Glo. = Gloucester. 
Glw. = Galway. 
Gmg. = Glamorgan. 
Hdg. = Haddington. 
Hmp. = Hampshire. 
Hnt. = Huntingdon. 
Hrf. = Hereford. 

Bwk. = Berwick. 


= Donegal. 

Hit. = Hertford. 


= Dorset. 

I. Ma. = Isle of Man. 

Cav. = Cavan 


= Dublin. 

Inv. = Inverness. 

Cdg. ^ Cardigan. 
Chs. = Cheshire. 
Cla. = Clare. 
Clc. = Clackmannan. 



= Durham. 
= Down. 
East Anglia. 

Ir. , Irel. = Ireland. 
I.W. = Isle of Wight. 
Kcb. = Kircudbright. 
Kcd = Kincardine. 

Cld. = Clydesdale. 
Cmb. - Cambridge. 


- Elgin. 
- England. 
- Essex. 

Kco. = King's County. 
Ken. =. Kent. 
Ker. = Kerry. 




= Kildare. 


- Newfoundland. 


= Selkirk. 


-- Kilkenny. 




= Sligo. 


- Kinross. 


= Northampton. 


= Somerset. 


= Lancashire. 


= Nottingham. 


- Stafford. 




= Norfolk. 


= Sutherland. 


= Leicester. 


= New South Wales. 


= Suffolk. 


= Limerick. 


- North Wales. 


= Surrey. 


= Lincoln. 


= North Riding of Yorkshire. 


= Sussex. 

= Longford. 


= New Zealand. 


= South Wales. 


= Lanark. 

Or. I. 

= Orkney Isles. 


= Tipperary. 


= Linlithgow. 


- Oxford. 


= Tyrone. 


= Leinster. 


- Peebles. 


= Ulster. 


= London. 


= Pembroke. 


= United States. 


= Louth. 


= Perth. 


= Wales. 


= Lothian. 


= Queen's County. 


= Warwick. 


= Leitrim. 


= Radnor. 


= Wigtown. 


= Meath. 


= Renfrew. 


= Wiltshire. 


= Merioneth. 


= Ross. 


= Wicklow. 


= Middlesex. 


= Roscommon. 


= Westmoreland. 




= Rutland. 


= West Meath. 


= Monmouth. 


= Roxburgh. 


- Worcester. 


= Moray. 




= Waterford. 


= Montgomery. 

Sc. I. 

= Scilly Isles. 


= Wexford. 


= Munster. 

Sh. I. 

- Shetland Isles. 


= West Riding of Yorkshire. 


= Mayo. 


= Shropshire. 


= Yorks. 


= Nairn. 


= Stirling. 



Shetland . 

Orkney . 










Buchan . 




Perth . 

West Scotland. 

Argyll . 


Fife . 

Kinross . 

Clackmannan . 

Stirling . 

South Scotland 



Renfrew . 

Ayr . 

Lanark . 


Lothian . 




Berwick . 

Peebles . 

Selkirk . 


Dumfries . 


Kirkcudbright . 













































North Ireland . n.Ir. 
Ulster . . Uls. 
Antrim . . Ant. 



Londonderry . 


Tyrone . 


Donegal . 








Armagh . 


West Ireland . 




Leitrim . 






Galway . 


Roscommon . 


East Ireland 


Leinster . 




West Meath . 






Dublin . 




Kildare . 


King's County 


Queen's County 


South Ireland . 




Carlow . 


Wexford . 


Munster . 

















Durham . 


Cumberland . 








Isle of Man 

I. Ma. 



Wales . 


North Wales . 


Flintshire . . Fit. 

Denbighshire . . Dnb. 

Carnarvonshire . Crn. 

Anglesea . . . Agl. 

Merionethshire . Mer. 

Staffordshire . . Stf. 

Derbyshire . . Der. 

Nottinghamshire . Not. 

Lincolnshire . . Lin. 

Rutlandshire . . Rut. 

Leicestershire . . Lei. 

Northamptonshire . Nhp. 

Warwickshire . . War. 

Worcestershire . Wor. 

Shropshire . . Shr. 

Montgomeryshire . Mtg. 

Herefordshire . . Hrf. 

South Wales . . s.Wal. 

Cardiganshire . . Cdg. 

Radnorshire . . Rdn. 

Brecknockshire . Brk. 

Glamorganshire . Gmg. 

Carmarthenshire . Cth. 

Pembrokeshire . Pern. 

Gloucestershire . GIo. 

Oxfordshire . . Oxf. 

Berkshire . . Brks. 

Buckinghamshire . Bck. 

Bedfordshire . . Bdf. 

Hertfordshire . . Hrt 

Middlesex . . Mid. 

London . . . Lon. 

Huntingdonshire . Hnt. 

East Anglia . . e.An. 

Cambridgeshire . Cmb. 

Norfolk . . . Nrf. 

Suffolk . . . Suf. 

Essex . . . Ess. 

Kent . . . Ken. 

Surrey . . . Sur. 

Sussex . . . Sus. 

Hampshire . . Hmp. 

Isle of Wight . . I.W. 

Wiltshire. . . Wil. 

Dorsetshire . . Dor. 

Somersetshire. . Som. 

Devonshire . . Dev. 

Cornwall . . . Cor. 

Scilly Isles . . Sc.I. 


ABLACH, sb. An insignificant person (Abd.). 

ACCIDENCE, sb. A slip [of memory] (Ayr). 

ACHE, v. To walk hurriedly (w.Yks.). 

ACTION, sb. The game also called Baccare, q.v. 

ADDER-STINGER, sb. A large dragon-fly (Hmp.). 

AESOME, adj. Single (Sc.). 

AFLOCHT,/^/. adj. Agitated, in a flutter (JAM.). 

AFLOITS, adv. In confusion (Yks.). 

AFORE THE STEM.^/zr. A large sleeping bunk in a 
ship (Sc.). 

AGOY, int. A form of oath (Lan.). 

AIRIE, sb. A hill-pasture; a level green among the 
hills (Sc.). 

ALLOW, v. To order (n.Irel.). 
ALMANAC, sb. A diary (Yks.). 

ALMARK, sb. An animal addicted to breaking fences 
or trespassing (Sh.I.). 

ALWAYS, adv. Still, at the present moment (Sc.). 
AMAUNGE, sb. A muddle, confusion (Lan.). 
AMBUSH, v. To hide (Yks.). 

AMEND, v. In phr. amend me, a mild oath (Oxf. or 

AMIND, v. To consider, bear in mind (Irel.). 
AMOVET,//. Moved, roused (Sc.). 
ANCHOVY-DUCK, sb. ? (Sc.) 

ANGLE, sb. A large hook fixed into the ceiling (Lan.). 
ANGLER, sb. The fish Lophinus piscatorius (dial, 

ANKER, sb. The angular end of a scythe-blade, bv 
which it is attached to the pole (Wm.). 
APPLE-CHAMBER, sb. A spare bedroom (Suf.). 
APPLE-TWELIN, sb. An apple-turnover, q.v. (e.An.) 
ARCELL, sb. A kind of lichen, Omphalodes (Cum.). 
ARGUE, v. To talk to oneself, to muse (Yks.). 
ARICH sb. The morning (s.Wxf.). 

ARMED BULL-HEAD, phr. The fish Aspidophorus 
europaeus (dial, unknown). 

ARMED GURNARD, phr. The fish Peristedion malar- 
mat (dial, unknown). 

ARN-LOIN, sb. Straightened circumstances (Lan ) 
ARTDLLERY, sb. Baggage (Yks.). 
ARUM, adv. Within (s.Wxf.). 

ASHEAPLY, adj. Senseless, stupid (Not). 

ASSART, sb. Land cleared of trees (Hrf.). 

ASS-KIT, sb. A portable tub for removing ashes 

ASTID, conj. As well as (Sc.). 

ASTRID, adv. Inclined (Suf.). 

AUDISCIENCE, sb. Hearing, attention (Abd.). 

AUMA, sb. A kind of pancake (Hrf.). 

AWID [sic], adv. Anxious, eager (Sc.). 

A-WTTTTNS, in phr. meawittins, without my knowledge 

AYVISH, adj. Babyish, foolish (Wil.). 

BAAKER [sic], sb. A wood-louse (Som.). 

BABBLE, adj. Half-witted (Sc.). 

BACHILLE, sb. A small piece of arable ground (Sc.). 

BADDERLOCKS, sb. The Hart's tongue fern (Sc.). 

BADGER, sb. A heavy fall in sliding (Not.). 

BADGER-SNAIL, sb. A large snail (Not.). 

BADLINS, adv. Out of health, unwell (Sc. Nhb.). 

BADOCK, sb. The Arctic Gull, Lams parasilicus ; also 
the common Skua, Stercorarius catarrhactes (dial, 

BAFFLE, sb. A portfolio (Sc.). 

BAL, sb. A quarry (Cor.). 

BALEEN, sb. Whalebone (Sc.). 

BALL AND CAT, phr. A game played by children. 
Obs.1 (Lon.) 

BALLANT-BODICE, sb. A lady's bodice made of 
leather (Sc.). 

BALLER, sb. An implement for breaking clods of 
earth (n.Dev.). 

BALLION, sb. A reaper who assists those who are 
falling behind in the work (Sc.). 

BALLOON, sb. A cylinder for drying warps (w.Yks.). 

BALLY-ACK, sb. In phr. to knock a man to bally-ack, 
to give a sound beating, to get the better of a fight 

Also the following word, which was accidentally 
omitted, and will be dealt with in the Supplement. 

A-BONES, in phr. to fall a-bones of a person, to assail, 
'fall upon '(s-Chs. 1 ). 



A I. Apart from the influence of neighbouring sounds, 
. the normal development of OE. ae in closed syllables 
is as follows : 

1. a in Sc., all the northern and midland counties to 
n.Hrf., Won, n.Glo., n.Brks., Oxf., se.Hrt., s.Cmb., nw.Nrf., 

2. The sound ae has remained in all the other counties 
except the parts of counties named under 1, and the parts 
of the country named under 3, 4. 

3. It has become a 1 , a sound closely approaching ae, in 
e.Suf., ne.Nrf. and parts of Hrf., Ess. 

4. It has become e in Mid., se.Bck., s.Hrt, and sw.Ess. 
II. The normal development of OE. ae and a in open 

syllables is : 

1. Long close e in Bnff., Frf., Lothian and Fif., se.Arg., 
s.Bte., n.Ayr., e. and s.Dmb., Lnk., Rnf., m.Nhb. (Whitting- 
ham), s.Yks., Lan. (see 4, 5, 7), ne.Chs., Stf. (see 3, 4, 8), 
Der. (see 2), Not., Lei., ne. and sw.Nhp., e.War., s.Wor., 
n., me. and se.Shr., nw.Brks., nw.Hrt., s.Cmb., nw.Nrf., 
e.Suf. (Orford), w.Cor. 

2. Long open in Nai., Mry., Abd., Kcd., Per., s.Ayr., 
w.Dmf., Kcb., Wgt., Dur. (Berwick-upon-Tweed, Lanches- 
ter), se.Yks., w.Yks. (Huddersfield, Halifax), nw.Der., 
Rut., m.Nhp., Hrf. (Ledbury), Brks. (Hampstead Norris), 
m.Cmb., ne. and s.Nrf., n. and w.Suf., e.Suf. (Framlingham), 
Hmp.(Andover), e.Dor., s.Som.(Montacute), n.Dev. (North 
Molton), s.Dev. 

3. Long T in nw.Fif., Chs. except ne., Stf. (Stretton, 
Burton-under-Wood), Shr. (Market Drayton). 

4. e3 in e.Dur., m.Nhb. (Rothbury, Embleton), w.Yks. 
(Dewsbury, Leeds, Bradford, Keighley, Skipton, Craven, 
Upper Craven with Upper Nidderdale), e.Yks. (S. Ainsty, 
Holderness), n.Lan. (Furness and Cartmel), s.Stf. (Dar- 
laston, Willenhall), Lin., sw.Nhp. (Badby), m.Nhp. (see 
2), War. (see 1), n.w. and e.Wor., n.Hrf., s.Shr., se.Brks., 
Bck., m.Bdf., Hrt. (Arderley), e.Suf., nw. and e.Ken., 
ne. and s.Sur., w. and e.Sus., n. and sw.Dev., w.Som., 

5. ia in Rxb., Slk., e. and m.Dmf., s. and sw.Nhb., n.Cum., 
Dur. ( Weardale, Teesdale, Stanhope), n. and e.Yks., n.Lan. 
(Coniston), Hrf. (Much Cowarne, Eggleton), Glo. (Vale of 
Gloucester, Shenington), Oxf. (Banbury), se.Hrt., n.Ken. 
(Faversham), e.Sus. (Selmeston), I.W., Wil, e.Dor. (Cran- 
borne, Winterborne Came), e.Som. 

6. ie in m.Nhb. (Snitter, Harbottle, Warkworth). Dur. 
(Annfield Plain), Wm. (Crosby Ravensworth, Temple 
Sowerby). In se.Nhb. (Stamfordham, Newcastle, North 

VOL. i. 

Shields), Dur. (South Shields), Cum. (Carlisle), the diph- 
thong seems to be j6 rather than ie. 

7. la in Dur. (Sunderland), Wm. (see 6), Cum. (see 5), 
n.Yks. (Muker, Hawes), w.Yks. (Howgill, Dent), n.Lan. 
(Lower Holker-in-Cartmel). 

8. ei in s.Stf. (Walsall, Wednesbury), m.Nhp. (Lower 
Benefield), e.Shr. (Shiffnal), Bck. (Buckingham, Chack- 
more, see 4), Bdf. (Ridgmont), Hrt. (Hatfield, Harpen- 
den), Hnt. (Great Stuckley). 

0. eei in Mid., Ess., and parts of Hrt., se.Bck. 
III. The normal development of OE. a is : 

1. Long close e in Abd., BnfF., Mry., Nai., w.Dmf., Frf., 
Kcb., Wgt., se.Arg., s.Bte., Ayr,e. and s.Dmb., Lnk., Rnf., 
Lothian and Fif. 

2. Long open f in Per., Frf. (Dundee), Kcd., Cai. (Wick). 

3. Long close 6 in m.Nhb. (Warkworth, Alnwick, Whit- 
tingham), se.Nhb. (Stamfordham), Dur. (Sunderland), 
se.Lan. (Oldham, Rochdale), w. and m.Chs., nw.Der., Stf. 
(see 5.), Not., Lei., Rut., Shr., n. and e.Hrf., w.Oxf., m. and 
s.Cmb., nw. and ne.Nrf., n. and w.Suf., n.Dev. (Iddesleigh), 
s.Dev., w.Cor., e.Cor. (St. Columb Major). 

4. Long open 5 in m.Nhb. (Rothbury, Snitter, Wooler), 
se.Nhb. (North Shields), sw.Nhb. (Hexham), Dur. (Lan- 
chester), se.Yks. (Sutton), ne. and m.Nhp., s.Nrf. 

5. Long u in s.Chs. (Farndon), wm. and e.Stf., Der. (see 
3.), e.Suf. 

6. es in m.Yks., e.Yks. (Holderness), w.Yks. (Washburn 
river district, Skipton, m.Craven, Upper Craven and 
Upper Nidderdale), n.Lan. (Broughton-m-Furness, Lower 

7. oa in se.Nhb. (Whalton),w.Yks. (Hurst), I. Ma., e.War., 
n.Wor., Hrt. (Welwyn), n.Cmb., e.Ken. (Wingham), e. and 
w.Sus., s.Sur., I.W., e.Som. 

8. 93 in Dur. (see 3), ne.Yks. (Skelton), se.Yks. (Goole), 
n.Lin., m.Nhp., Won (Hanbury), Hrf. (Ledbury), Glo. 
(Tetbury), Oxf. (Banbury), se.Brks., Bck. (Chackmore), 
Ess. (Great Dunmow, Maldon), nw.Ken., ne.Sun, e.Dor. 
(Handford), e.Cor. (Camelford, Cardynham). 

9. U3 in m.Nhb. (Embleton), sw.Nhb. (Haltwhistle), 
ne.Yks. (Danby, S. Ainsty), se.Yks. (East Holderness), 
w.Yks. (Giggleswick, Doncaster, Halifax, Keighley, Brad- 
ford, Leeds, Dewsbury, Sheffield), Lan. (see 3, 6, 10), Chs. 
(Pott Shrigley), s.Stf. (Dudley), n. and e.Den, m. and s.Lin., 
sw.Nhp., w. and s.Wan, e.War. (Atherstone), Glo. (Vale of 
Gloucester, Forest of Dean, Shenington), Bck. (see 8), Hrt. 
(see 7), Hnt., n.Ken. (Faversham), e.Sus. (Marklye), Hmp. 


(Andover). Wil., e.Dor. (Cranborne, Winterborne Came), 
w.Som., e.Som. (Axe-Yarty), n. and sw.Dev. 

10. ia in Cum. (Langwathby, Ellonby, Keswick, Clifton). 
w.Cum., Wm. (see 11), n.Yks. (Muker), nw.Yks. (Hawes, 
Dent, Howgill, Sedberg), n.Lan. (Coniston). 

11. ie in sw.Nhb. (Knaresdale), Wm. (Crosby Ravens- 
worth, Temple Sowerby), Cum. (Bewcastle). In the 
Teviotdale, Nhb. (Newcastle), Dur. (South Shields), Cum. 
(Carlisle), the diphthong seems to be ie rather than ie. 

12. ia in Rxb., Slk., e. and m.Dmf., s.Nhb., Cum. (Bramp- 
ton, Holme Cultram), Dur. (Weardale and Teesdale), 
ne.Yks. (Whitby), nm.Yks. (Lower Nidderdale, South 
Cleveland), nw.Yks. (Upper Swaledale, The Upper Mining 

13. 911 in Stf. (Darlaston, Codsall, Willenhall), m.Nhp. 
(Lower Benefield), e.Ken. (Folkestone). 

14. Eeua in Chs. (Tarporley, Middlewick), s.Chs. 

For further details see The Phonological Introduction, 
and Ellis, E. E. Pr., v. passim. 

A. Although the following examples of A are for the 
most part merely the dialectic pronunciation of common 
literary words, they are here included so as to facilitate the 
understanding of the numerous meanings of what is written 
a in the quotations throughout the Dictionary. 

[Pron. I, II, V, VIII, IX a; III stressed form a, 9, un- 
stressed a; IV a; VI (1) a, (2, 3) e, a; VII (1) 5, (2) a; 
X a, when strongly emphasized e; XI (1) a, e, (2) e.] 

I. A, indef. art. Van dial. 

1. Used redundantly with sb. or adj. 

Sc. Not worth a sixpence, Monthly Mag. (1800) I. 238. Ken. 1 
A bread and butter, a piece of bread and butter ; Ken. 2 A good 
hair, good hair. w.Som. 1 I sh'll be back about of a dinner-time, 
Introd. xxiv. 

2. Used in place of an before a vowel or h mute. 

Nhb. 1 Not a oonce. n-Yks. 1 Top ov a awd rain waiter tub. 
w.Yks. 2 A idle, ill-tempered gossip. Sur. 1 Half a hour agoo. 
Wil. 1 The article an is never used. Gie I a apple. w.Som. 1 He's 
same's a old hen avore day. 

3. Before numerals, and nouns of multitude and quantity. 
Ir. We'll be givin' them a boil in a one of the little saucepans, 

BARLOW Lisconnel (1895) 61. N.Cy. 1 A many, a great number. 
Nhb. 1 Thor's amany at dissent knaa. Thor's not a-one on ye dar 
come. Yks. Ye've each on ye gotten a two or three childer, 
TAYLOR Miss Miles (1890) i. w.Yks. 1 A many. sw.Lin. 1 There's 
a many as can't raise a pie. Nhp. 1 A many. Sur. There be a 
hundreds of 'em, JENNINGS Field Pat/is (1884) 37; There be a 
plenty of 'em, ib. 44. Sur. 1 w.Som. 1 We shall have a plenty o' 
gooseberries. There was about of a forty. Purty nigh of a fifty. 
Som. A dree or fower children, LEITH Lemon Verbena (1895) 45! 
nw.Dev. 1 'Bout a nine o'clock. 'Bout a vower or vive miie. 

[There's not a one of them but in his house I keep a 
servant fee'd, SHAKS. Much. in. iv. 131 ; And up they 
rysen, wel a ten or twelve, CHAUCER C. T. F. 383.] 

4. Used with nouns in pi., to denote quantity. 

Nhb. 1 What a bairns thor is [what a number of bairns! What 
a picturs he hes iv his hoose. 

II. A., num. adj. One, when standing before sb.. but not 
absolutely, in which case ane or van is used. In Yks 
Lan. bom and occas. so written in other dialects. 

ne-Yks 1 A one. w.Yks. 2 They're just about a size. neXan. 1 
i. 1 Same s the crow zaid by the heap o' toads, They be all of 



( 1859) II "28 f f Ur H kee P">S f kinds of goods, RAMSAY 

s^SSfiS MS? "- -- -- 

RNS ,;<,' rto 9 ( 4 o y H^T?" 118 .^ 8 wd for a ' that > 

And soon fill a' our creels, Coquet Dale Sngs. (1852) 46; Aw've 
suppd a' the milk an' wine, ROBSON Evangeline, &c. (1870) 6. 
Wm. 1 Tha were a there. Lan. There is na a fractious choilt i' a' 
ar yard, BANKS Mancli. Man (1876) i. Chs. It's worth a' the brass 
to yer that, BANKS Forbidden (ed. 1885 ;, xiv. 

IV. A, pron. I. In Irel. n.Cy. and some of the midl. 

N.I. 1 A'm sayin'. Dur. 1 A'l, I will. Cnm. 1 Wm. A caant reetly 
tell ya, Specimens Dial. (1885) pt. iii. i. Yks. A wish a'd been 
theer ! GASKELL Sylvia (1863)'!. v. w.Yks. A've card him call em 
legs, PRESTON Poems, &c. (1864) 3. e.Lan. 1 w.Wor. A dunna 
think it (W. B.). 

V. A, pron. Used for the third pers. pron. in sing., and 
occas. in pi. 

1. He. Very widely distributed through the dialects (see 
quot.), but not found in those n.Cy. districts where the 
aspirate is retained. 

w.Yks. 1 Lin. The amoighty's a taakin o' you to 'issen, my 
friend, 'a said, TENNYSON N. Farmer, Old Style (1864) st 7. Nhp. 12 , 
se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 A wuz all of a dither ; Shr. 2 There a comes.' 
Pern. 1 A's coming tereckly, a's shoor to kum. Brks. 1 If zo be 
as a zes a wunt, a wunt [if he says he won't, he won't], Suf. 1 
Hmp. I low a will [expect he will] (H.C.W.B.) I.W. 12 n.Wli. 
A do veed amang th' lilies, KITE Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) ii. 16. Som. 
Moi zowel vailed when a' speaked, BAYNES Sng. Sol. (1860) v. 6. 
w.Som. 1 The doctor've a-do'd hot a can [done what he can]. Dev. 
In a com [in he came], PETER PINDAR Key. Visit Exeter (1795) 156. 

[A fair knyjt a was to see, Sir Ferumbras (1380) 250.] 

2. She. In a few midl. and sw. counties. 

A wanted me to go with her, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M ) 
Nhp. 12 , se-Wor. 1 Shr., Hrf. Did a do it? BOUND Prov. (1876). 
Wil. 1 A zed a 'oodden bide yer no longer, fur ef a did her'd 
never let un gwo. Dor. A's getting wambling on her pins [shaky 
on her legs], HARDY Tower (1882) 124, ed. 1895. 

3. It. Often used of inanimate objects, when it probably 
represents he applied to things as well as to persons. 
Chiefly in w. and sw. counties. 

w.Wor. 1 W'ahr bin a' ? may mean either Where is he, she, or it.' 
se.Wor. 1 This tree a got a good crap o' opples on 'im, aant a ? 
Hrf. 12 , Oxf. 1 , w.Som. 1 Dev. He've a got a great venture on hand, 
but what a be he tell'th no man, KINGSLEY W. Ho! (1855) 120, 
ed. 1889. 

4. They. Lin. Shr. 

Lin. Doctors, they knaws nowt, fur a says what's nawways true, 
TENNYSON N. Farmer, Old Style (1864) st. 2. Shr. 1 Whad wun a 
doin' theer ? Shr. 2 Whire bin a ? 

VI. A, v. Occas. used for are, has, hath ; very general 
in place of have, sing, and pi. 

1. Are. 

e.Yks. 1 What a ya a deea-in on there? [What are you doing 
there ?] 

2. Hath, has. 

Shr. 2 He a got none. w.Wor. 1 'Er a gon' awaay. Hrf. 2 Him 
a gone away. 

3. Have. 

Sc. Often used, in vulgar language, as an abbreviation of ' hae ' 
JAM.) ; For they were a' just like to eat their thumb, That he wi' 
her sae far ben should a come, Ross Helenore (1768) n. Cnm. 
I waddent a hed sic a cloon (M.P.). w.Yks. 1 You mud as weel 
a dunt as nut. neXan. 1 , Chs.i Lin. I moant 'a naw moor aale, 
^EtmvsonN. Farmer, Old Style (1864) st. i. nXin. 1 , Nhp. 1 w.Wor. 1 
A done, ool ee ! Shr. 1 We mun a this oven fettled. Now, Polly, 
yo'n a to gCO. Glo. When a man's owld and a-weered out, and 
begins to 'a a summat the matter, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
(1890) 7. Sur. Plagued if I builded a house if I'd 'a a front door 
to ee, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) II. i. Hmp. 1 w.Som. 1 Have, 
when followed by a consonant, sometimes written ha, but seldom 
aspirated. This is the commonest of all the forms, and it is 
occasionally heard even before a vowel. Dev." Wull yu come an' 
a yer brekzis, Betty? 

VII. A, adv. Seldom found, except in sense 1. More 
usually written ae, ah, aw, ay. 

1. Ay, always. 
N.Cy. 1 , Cum. Gl. (1851). 

2. How. 

w.Yks. Wei az a wa se(a)in, -sud tel ja, a, wiar on wen sa fan 
d rukij and at sa koalz ar uzbn [Well, as I was saying, she'd tell 
you how, where and when she found the drunken hound that she 
calls her husband], WRIGHT Gr. Wndhll. (1892 172. 


VIII. A, prep. In very general use. 

1. At, denoting place. 

w.Wor. 1 'E were a chu'ch o' Sund'y. Hrf. 2 Suf. 1 'A live a' bin 

2. Of. 

Win. T'lass hersel war \ t'saame way a thinkin', JACK ROBISON 
Aald Tales (1882) 3. w.Yks. 1 If she nobbud could git a bit 
a naturable rist. n.Lan. T' beams a our house are cedar, PHIZAC- 

BKERLKY Sng. Sol. (1860) i. 17. Lin. 1 Out a work. nXin. 1 Th' 
fraamc a' this here door. Nhp. 1 Out a doors. Suf. 1 . I.W. 1 
A lig a mutton. w.Som. 1 What manner a man. The tap a the hill. 
Dev. Lets drink drap a ale, NATHAN HOGG Poet. Lei. (1847) 49. 

3. On ; in. 

N.Cy. 2 A this side. Nhb. 1 Wm. 1 Et wes a Monda mornin. 
n.Yks. 1 To'n (turn) doon a that hand. w.Yks. 1 I'll gang wi the 
a Tuesday. Lan. I don't think every one would grieve a that 
way, GASKELL M. Barton (1848) v ; Lan. 1 He went a-horseback. 
ne.Lan. 1 Stf. 1 1 shall go to Litchfield a Tuesday. Der. 2 Dow it a : 
thissens. He's allys a' thatens. n.Lin. 1 Lei. 1 A the t'oother soide. 
Shr. 2 A Wednesday. Snf. 1 We'll go 'a Sunday. Sur. 1 Croydon 
Fair is a' Monday. w.Som. 1 They be all a pieces. Let-n vail out 
a thick zide [on this side]. 

4. To. 

w.Som. 1 Down a Minehead. I be gwain in a town. 

5. With. 

Wor. I'm goin' a Bill Saunders to Redditch tu-night (J.W.P.). 
Nhp. 2 Cam in a me [came in with me]. 
[Cf. athin, athout] 

IX. A, conj. Occas. 

1. And ; also when used in the sense of if. 

Suf. 1 I'll gi' ye a dunt i' the hid 'a ye dew so no more. Dev. 
Chem a laced well-a-fine aready [well-a-fine = well and fine, i.e. 
finely] Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 81. 

2. Or. 

Suf. 1 Wutha 'a wool 'a nae [whether he will or no]. 

X. A, affirm, part, in cotnp. A-but, Aye-but. In n. 
counties to Lin. and Chs. Also Shr. Not in midl. and 
s. gloss. 

n.Yks. 1 A ! but, that was a big yan. e.Yks. 1 Abud. w.Yks. Ah'll 
bensil him ! A" bud he happen weant let theh, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. 
(1865). nXin. 1 A! But Charlie is a big leear, an noa mistaake. 
Shr. 2 A but. 

XI. A, int. In n.Cy. Chs. Lin. Lei. 

1. Ejaculatory ; oh ! ah ! 

N.Cy. 2 A ! man alive ! n.Yks. 1 A ! man : that was a yarker ! 
w.Yks. A' tha duz lewk bonny, BINNS Wihden Orig. (1889) I. i. 
Lei. 1 A, moy surs ! 

2. Interrogatory; eh? 

N.Cy. 1 A? what? What do you say? Cum. Gl. (1851). w.Yks. 24 , 
nXin. 1 

A, pref. 1 Before prp. and vbl. sb., repr. OE. an, on. Sc. 
Irel. Not found in Eng. counties n. of Pern. Shr. War. 
Nhp. Rut-n.Cam. Nrf., exc. in e.Lan. n.Lin. Lei. (Belgrave 
and Waltham); also not found in Hnt. nw.Nrf. e.Ken. 

1. Before prp. or vbl. sb. used with vb. to be to form con- 
tinuous tense. 

Ir. I'm a-thinkin', BARLOW Bog-land (1892) 52. Lin. Git ma my 
aSle, fur I beant a-gawin', TENNYSON N. Farmer, Old Style (1864) 
st. i. n-Lin. 1 A consumptive person is said to be awearin'. Rut. 1 
I'm a-goin' whum. Nhp. 1 How they are a-talking ! s.War. 1 We 
are a-coming directly. Wor. I don't know how they'm a-going 
now (H.K.). se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Bin yo agwine? [going]. Glo. 1 
He'll be a puggin' all as he can ; Glo. 2 , Oxf. 1 Brks. 1 Thaay be 
a-vightin. Bdf. ' Is she a-going? ' he said, WARD Bessie Costrell 
(1895) 8. Ess. Who is a goin' to buy ? DOWNE Ballads (1895) 7. 
Ken. 1 She's always a making mischief about somebody or another. 
Sur. I've been a-draining this forty year, HOSKYNS Talpa (1852) 16. 
Sns. 1 I am a-going. I.W. 1 n.Wil. Who's thus a comen out o' th' 
weaste ? KITE Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) iii. 6. Wil. 1 They wasa-zaayin'. 
Dev. Who'm a-gwain for to kill'e? BLACKMORE Christowell (1881) 
ii ; I know what I'm a-saying of, O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 23. e.Cor. 
The mutton is a-roasting, Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 421. 

2. Before vbl. sb. 

Sc. They hae taen Yule before it comes, and are gaun aguisarding 
[mumming], SCOTT Guy Mannering (1815) xxxvi. e.Lan. 1 Gone 
a-working. sw.Lin. 1 The birds, they start a-whistling of a morn- 
ing. Hrf. 2 Measter's got seventeen on 'em out a yacorning [pigs 
feeding on acorns]. Glo. 1 A-chatting, picking up chats or small 

A,pref. 2 Before pp., repr. OE. ge-. In all the sw. counties, 
including Wil. Dor. Som. Dev. Cor. ; also in Pern, and parts 
of Wor. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Sur. Hmp. 

se.Wor. 1 ' I was a-dreamea" for ' I dreamt.' Glo. Ye and William 
Stretch be so easy a-gallowed [frightened], GISSING Both of Ms 
Parish (1889) I. 117; It be a-rooted on his side of the bruck, 
ib. 287 ; Me and Mary have a-bin-a-doing arl us can for 'er, 
BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn (1890) iv. Oxf. You see, ma'am, all 
this time she is adreamt between sleeping and waking (HALL.). 
Brks. 1 I've a zed what I've a got to zaay. Sur. Your charity 
have a-outrun your discretion, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) III. vi. 
Hmp. Ye must be nigh famished, and afrore [frozen] too, VERNEY 
L. Lisle (1870) xxiii ; I'm better than I have abeen (H.C.M.B.). 
n.Wil. You've a got dove's eyes, KITE Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) i. 15. 
Dor. The zun have a-burnt me so dark, BARNES Sng. Sol. 
(1859) i. 6; I've a took, YOUNG Rabin Hill (1867) 3; I misdoubt 
if the hatches be a-hcven [lifted] down yonder, HARE Vil. Street 
(1895) 95. Dor. 1 Thy new frock's tail A-tore by hitch en in 
a nail. How you, a-zot bezide the bank. Som. Th' cooin o' th' 
turtle-doove be a-yeard in th' Ian', BAYNES Sng. Sol. (1860) ii. 
12; My vingers be all a-vraur, JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869); 
Avroze, frozen. W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 There's a good 
many chores [pieces of work] I 'ant a put down at all. The 
gutter's a-stapped again. Dev. Sweel out thickee glass avore 
'e's a-flsed again, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892). n.Dev. A-slat, cracked 
like an earthen vessel, GROSE (1790). s.Dev. My bread's a-clit 
[made heavy] (F.W.C.). Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 

A, pref. 3 Repr. the OE. prep. on. It is very common 
as a prefix of state or condition. In var. dial, of Sc. 
Irel. and Eng. (For distribution, &c. of some of the most 
general instances of words having this pref. see Aback, 
Aboon, Agate, Aneath, Astead, &c.) 

Sc. At length when dancing turn'd adwang, BEATTIES Parings 
(1801) 14; The best-laid schemes o' mice an' men Gang a"ft 
a-gley, BURNS To a Mouse (1785) 1. 39 ; A-grufe, ' flat or grovelling' 
(JAM.). S. & Ork. 1 He fell dead asoond [in a swoon]. Ir. The 
air was a-flutther wid snow, BARLOW Bog/and (1892) 70 ; When 
th'ould master had tore it wid his hands all a-shake, ib. 14. Ant. 
The chimney's alow [on fire] (W.J.K.). N.I. 1 Abreard [of corn, in 
the blade]. Wxf. 1 Aveel , abroad [in the field). Agether, together. 
N.Cy. 1 Acow, acaw, crooked. Nhb. Enough to rive atwee the 
heart, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) pt. ii. st. 17 ; Nhb. 1 He couldn't 
run acas on his bad foot. ' Stan aby there ' is a familiar shout 
in a crowd when a way is to be cleared. It com atwo i' me hand. 
Dur. Let's see ift veyne flurrish, whedder t'tender grape's aseat, 
MOORE Sng. Sol. (1859) vii. 12 ; Whe's this 'at cums up frae 
t'wilderness, leanen atoppiv hur beluved ? ib. viii. 5 ; Dnr. 1 Tek the 
cows afield. Cum. He's nut been varra weel leately an' so he's 
a-bed (E.W.P.) ; Nancy sed she wad set off for Cockermuth market 
afeut, FARRALL Betty Wilson (1886) 145 ; Cum. 3 Acoase they think 
he kens me. Wm. 1 Thoo canna gan afeut. n.Yks. His shoes is 
trodden a-cow. Lift it up a-height. Old John gans sair astoop 
(I.W.) ; n.Yks. 1 Marget an" her man hae getten aquart [at variance] 
agen ; n.Yks. 2 Acant, leaning to one side. Apeeak, in a peak. 
e.Yks. Ah's varry tired; Ah've been afeeat all day, NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp. (1889) 89 ; e.Yks. 1 Is kittle aboil d'ye think ? w.Yks. 1 Our 
lad's quite bobberous, an aw a roav [on the rove, stirring about] ; 
w.Yks. 5 He wur afront an' we wur aback on him. Tak t'umbrella 
wi' thuh achonce it raans. ne.Lan. 1 It went awheels. e.Lan. 1 
Aback o' th' hill. s.Chs. 1 Get atop o' th' bauks. Not. 1 A-two, in 
two. n-Lin. 1 It's that mucky and torn, it's abargens what becums 
on it. Squire Heala an' him got atwist. Th' wall's nobut a brick 
abread. Lei. 1 [Work is done] a-great, by the piece. Nhp. 1 The 
house is afire ; Nhp. 2 Wheer's maester ? Up afield. War. Afire. 
Afoot (J. R. W.). s.War. 1 Abed. Wor. I can't sleep anights 
(H.K.). w.Wor^'Er's a bed mighty bad, wi' a paayn a top o' 'er 
yud. Shr. 1 Fund it a-top o' the cubbert shilf. Glo. Down er 
went on ers back arl a-mullock, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn (1890) 
vii; Agig, giggling, excited (F.H.). Oxf. 1 They be come afresh. 
If thee beginst any o' thy eggerevatin' ways yer, I'll cut tha 
clane a-two-in-the-middle. Brks. 1 A copse is said to be ' amove 
wi' gaayme." Thee get on avront o' I, ther yent room vor us 
bwo-ath in the paath. e-An. 1 1 saw Mr. Brown a'top of his new 
horse yesterday. Suf. 1 Ta crumble all 'apieces. Ken. 1 The pig- 
trade's all asprawl now. Sur. 1 Abed. Hmp. 1 His head is all 
agoggle [i. e. of a person with palsy]. Wil. 1 Put the door ashard 
when you goes out. Som. When a hen is sitting on her eggs 
she is said to be abrood, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 
w.Som. 1 The primroses be all ablow up our way. The grass is 
shockin bad to cut, tis all alie. Thick there bisgy stick's a put in 

B 2 



all atwist. Dev. Zes I tu a chap, 'What dee cal thic a-head?' 
[overhead] NATHAN HOGG Poet. Let. (1847), 'Bout tha Balune; 
Like a 'ouze avire, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 48; Polly ought tu 
bring out 'er chicken til-day ; her'tha zot a-brood vur dree weeks, 
ib. 153. nw.Dev. 1 Alie, in a recumbent position. Cor. 1 She rode 
ascrode ; Cor. 2 The door's a-sam. 

A, pref.* Equiv. to of. In a few words retained in var. 
dial. See Alate, &c. 

Sc. Adoun, adown, down, poet. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 
w.Yks. Akin, related by blood (S.P.U.); w.Yks. 1 Alatt, of late, 
lately ; w.Yks. 5 Pleaz mother may I goa out adoors a bit ? 
ne-Lan. 1 Alayat, of late, lately. n-Lin. 1 You're alus clattin' in 
and oot a-doors. Nhp. 1 He's gone out a-doors ; Nhp. 2 Athirst. 
se.Wor. 1 A-hungry. A-late, lately. Glo. Affurst, athirst, thirsty, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) Brks. 1 I be a-veelin' ahungerd. 
Cor. Nor drive too fast adown the hills, TREGELLAS Farmer Brown 

(1857) 22. 

A, pref 5 Equiv. to at. 

Sc. I'll hae naething ado wi't, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Lan. 
There's no peace i' th' world iv there's no peace awhoam, WAUGH 
Sngs. (1859) Jamie's Frolic. Chs. 1 Oo made much adoo abait it. 
Stf. 1 Is the doctor a-whum ? War. 2 Awum. Nhp. 1 They always 
make such ado with me, whenever I go to see them. 

A, pref? Repr. OE. a-, earlier ar-, orig. implying motion 
onward ; hence used as an intensive pref. See Afeard, 
Agast, Agone. 

Sc. To come alist, to recover from faintness or decay (JAM.); 
But well's my heart that ye are come alist, Ross Helenore ( 1 768) 15. 
N.Cy. 1 Agrote, surfeit, cloy, saturate. Nhb. 1 ' Let yorsel alowse ' 
[loose], was the exhortation of a pitman to a friend who was 
batting stiffly at a cricket match. n.Yks. 2 Akest, cast or twisted 
to one side. e.Yks. It's all akest, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 50 ; 
e.Yks. 1 It was agin [given] to me. Lan. To aright a boat (F. H. ). 
Glo. Very many years agone, GISSING Vil. Hampden (1890) I. iv. 
Brks. 1 Thaay've a-bin agone this dree hour. n.Dev. Agush'd and 
Gush'd, used for Agusted, dismayed, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 
Dev. 3 The frost agives. w.Cor. He went to Africa some time 
agone (M.A.C.). 

A, pref? Repr. OE. and, against, opposite. See Along, 

A, pref? Repr. OE. an, one, in oblique case. See 

A, pref? Repr. an int. A ! 

Sc. Aweel, it's the worst thing I ken about, SCOTT Rob Roy 
(1816) vi. S. & Ork. 1 Alake ! alas ! Gall. ' Aweel, aweel,' soli- 
loquised the considerate Baillie, ' this is a matter that requires 
management,' NICHOLSON Hist. Tales (1843) 68. w.Yks. 4 Alack ! 
Snf. 1 Alawk, alawkus ! w.Som. 1 Alack-a-day ! [A-God-cheeld ! 
Exclamation, God shield you ! God forbid ! GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (P.)] 

A, pref. 10 Of uncertain origin ; in many cases due to 
analogy with one or other of the above prefixes. 

Sc. Await sheep, one that has fallen down, so as not to 
be able to recover itself (JAM.). S. & Ork. 1 To go a-gaairy, to 
leave one's service before the term day. Ir. Poor Mick grabbed 
a-hould of me, BARLOW Idylls (1892) 214. N.Cy. 1 Amackally, 
in a manner, as well as one can. Wm. T'poor fello's pluck 
he amackily roosed, BOWNESS Studies (1868) 80. n.Yks. God 
a-rest you, merry gintlemen, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 6' 
n.Yks. 2 A-craz'd, wrong-headed. Black-aviz'd, dark complexioned! 
ne.Lan. 1 A-warrant, to assure, to warrant. nXin. 1 John'll cum hoam 
drunk agean to neet I'll awarrant it. Wor. It be a lot nigher this 
away [way] (H. K.). se.Wor. 1 Be yer 'onds acaowd ? come ether 
an warm urn. I sh'll come afrawl [a + for all] thee. Shr. 1 An old 
man . . . speaking of his schoolmaster, said, ' 'E used to amaister 
me, Sir. Glo. 12 Adry, thirsty. Brks. 1 I be a-veelin acawld 
Ess. John was a-dry CLARK /. Noahs (1839) !8. Sur. I'd like to 
know, not a-wishful to be prying, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) III 
'; W ' ,?!, Wl !. T- Wi ,' the g n a .K er t em Pty]. Goo into 

-- ------ . 

dtheold woman, MADOX-BROWN 

A suff. Occas. used redundantly after a word merelv 
euphonic 'A is sometimes used fn songs and 

g ut a line ' without add ' n s to 

Ir. Is it that-a-way he went, did you notice ? BARLOW Lisconntl 
(1895) 207. w.Som. 1 You never ded-n ought to a went-a. It is very 
commonly heard after proper names when shouted . . . [or] when 
calling out to urge on horses or oxen by their names. Dev. The 
Devonians often introduce a vowel into words, as Black-a-hook, 
for Blackhook, BRAY Tamar and Tavy, I. 121; GROSE (1790) MS 
add. (M.) 

A, num. adj. Sc. n.Cy. Yks. Lan. Written ae in Sc. ; 
this spelling also occurs in n.Cy. Nhb. 1 Cum. n.Yks. 2 
Also written ya Cum. 1 Wm. Yks. w.Yks. 1 Lan. 1 ; yah 
Wm. n.Yks. 2 ; yaa Wm. See below, [e.] 

1. One. 

Sc. Ae swallow disna mak a simmer (JAM.) ; Ae good turn 
may meet anither, if it were at the brigg o' London, RAMSAY 
Prov. (1737); And no ae halfhour to the gospel testimony, 
SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xi. Gall. The ae legged chuckie wull be 
clocking, CROCKETT Moss Hags (1895) 217. Bwk. Till said to 
Tweed, Though ye rin wi' speed, and I rin slaw. Where ye 
drown ae man, I drown twa, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 27. 
n.Cy. Ae, one, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (D. A.). Nhb. 1 Cum. Fra 
ya week end till anudder, FARREL Betty Wilson (1886) 41. Wm. 
Let us alaan yaw wee bit, HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 1. 242. 
n.Yks. 2 Ae, Yah, one. e.Yks. Yaa, one, with the subs, expressed : 
as yaa man, yaa horse. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). w.Yks. Price 
a penny, Dewsbre Olm. (cover) ; Ea, one, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale 
(c. 1882) ; w.Yks. 1 He didn't knaw his awn mind fray ya minute 
to another, ii. 294. Lan. 1 Sooa ya day, ther' wos sich a noration 
as nivver wos seen, MORRIS Invasion o' U'ston (1867) 4. neXan. 1 
Aa cow (s.v. An). 

2. Only. 

Sc. Thou kill'd my brethren three, Whilk brak the heart o' my 
ae sister I loved as the light o' my ee, Jacob. Rel. (1819) II. 33. 
Ayr. I am my mammie's ae bairn, BURNS Pm Owre Young. 

3. Used with superlatives in an intensive sense QAM.). 
Ayr. The ae best fellow e'er was born, BURNS Elegy on Capt. 

Matthew Henderson. 

4. Comp. Ae-beast-tree ; -fur, -fur-land, see below; 
-haunt, single-handed (JAM.); -pointit gairss [grass], 
sedge-grass, a species of Carex. 

Or.I. Ae-beast-tree, a swingle tree by which only one horse 
draws in ploughing (JAM.). S. & Ork. 1 Ae-beast-tree. Clyd., Slk. 
Ae-fur, having all the soil turned over by the plough in one 
direction ; Ae-fur-land, ground which admits of being ploughed 
only in one direction (JAM.). w.Sc. They wadna be a jiffy 
o' gripping ye like a gled, they're no sae ae-haunt, Saint Patrick 
(1819) I. 220 (JAM.). Sc. Carex, ae-pointit gairss, blue-grass 
(B. & H.). Lnk. Ae-pointit-gairss. Sedge-grass, a species of 
carex, single-pointed grass. The reason why this tribe of plants 
is denominated Ae-pointit Gairss, is because the points of its blades 
are sharper and much more stiff than those of rich succulent 
grass QAM.). 

[In Sc. ae is used before a sb. whether beginning with a 
cons, or a vowel. Occurring absolutely ane is the form. 
OE. an.] 

A, sb. Wil. Som. (?) Apparently obs. except in comp. 
A-harrow or -drag. 

s.Wil. Ais or As, harrows or drags, DAVIS Agric. (1813), quoted 
Archceol. Rev. (1888) I. 34. Wil. 1 This term for a harrow was still 
occasionally to be heard some thirty years ago, in both Somerset 
and Wilts, but is now disused. 

Hence comp. A-drag. 

Wil. For some years a very heavy triangular machine was used, 
called an A-drag, with its tines so fixed on its three sides, as that 
when drawn by one point, it made parallel furrows eight or nine 
inches apart, DAVIS Gen. View Agric. Wil. (1811) vii. 52-3. The 
late Mr. Jas. Rawlence, a great authority on agriculture, told me 
it [word A-drag] was still in use in s. Wilts, though no doubt it 
would be an improved form of the machine (G.E.D.); Wil. 1 
A-Drag. Still used in s.Wilts for harrowing turnips before the 
hoers go in. 

[This term is derived from the triangular shape of the 
drag, resembling the letter A.] 

A, AA, see Ea. 

AA, see Owe. 

AAM, sb. e.An. Also written aim e.An. 1 The chill ; 
only found in phr. to take the aatn off. 

e.An. 1 Just set the mug down to the fire, and take the cold aam 
off the beer. Suf. To take cold aam off the beer is occasionally 




heard (J. H.) ; The cold aam of beer is cold sharpness or sting. 
Only a few old people now use the word (F. H.). 

[This is prob. a Flem. word; cp. w.Flem. aam = adem, 
breath (Dr. Bo); so in Saxony aam = athem (BERGHAUS). 
For a similar expression as applied to beer see Air, sb. 4.] 

AAM, see Harm. 

AAN, see Own. 

AANDORN, see Undern. 

AAR, see Arn. 

AARNIT, see Earth-nut. 

AARON'S BEARD, sb. A name applied to several 
plants (i) Hypencum calycinum (Bwk. Rxb. Nhb. n.Dur. 
Shr. Glo. Ess. Dev.) ; (2) Linaria Cymbalaria (Edb.) ; 
(3) Orchis mascula (Bwk.) ; (4) Saxifraga sarmentosa (Dev.) ; 
(5) Spiraea salicifolia (Lin. Lei. n.Bks.). [e'ranz-biad, n. 

n.Lin. 1 . Lei. 1 Aaron's Beard, Spiraea salicifolia. Shr. Aaron s 
Beard, St. John's wort (G. E. D.). 

[The name contains a reference to Ps. cxxxiii. 2.] 

AARON'S ROD, sb. A name applied to several plants 
(i) Solidago Virgaurea (Shr. War.) ; (2) A garden species 
of Solidago (Hrt.) ; (3) Verbascum Thapsus (Sc. Lin. Glo. 
and the midl. counties), [e'ranz-rod.] 

Bnff. 1 Aarons-rod, mullein, Verbascum Thapsus. Lin. 1 Aaron's 
Rod, Verbascum Thapsus. Shr. 1 Aaron's-rod, Solidago Virgaurea, 
common golden rod. Glo. 1 Aaron's Rod, Verbascum Thapsus. 
Var. dial. Aaron's Rod, from the tall straight stem, and connected 
with Aaron because his rod, like his beard, is familiar from its 
mention in Scripture. 

[The name contains a reference to the account of Aaron 
in Numbers xvii. 8.] 

AB, sb. Or. I. [ab.] 

Or.I. Ab, check, hindrance, impediment QAM. Suppl.}. Not in 
S. & Ork.i 

AB, v. Or. I. 

Or.I. To Ab, to hinder, keep back, place at a disadvantage ; also 
to pain, cause pain (JAM. Suppl.}. Not in S. & Ork. 1 

ABACK, prep, and adv. In Sc. and all the n. counties 
to Lin. and Chs., Stf. War. [aba'k.] 

1. prep. Of position : behind, to the rear (usually with 
prep. of). 

Nhb. 1 Howay aback o' the hoose an' aa'll show ye. He com' 
in at the finish just aback on him. Dur. 1 Cum. 2 Aback o' the 
fells. Wm. As t'sun sank doon aback o' t'hills, WHITEHEAD Leg. 
(1859^ 17, 1. 4. n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 It popp'd oot aback o' t' stee. 
e.Yks. Up-stairs a-back o' bed, Sike a riot as niwer was led, 
NICHOLSON Flk-Specch (1889} 40; e.Yks. 1 w.Yks.s Think o' the 
divil an' he's sure to be aback o' yuh. Lan. 1 Just as aw coom up 
he wur hidin' aback o' th' hedge. ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Aw seed him 
aback o' th' edge. s.Chs. 1 [with meaning of beyond] Aback o' 
Nantweych (Nantwich). \ln_flg. sense] Owd Dan tells some awful 
lies, bu' yo conna ger aback on him. Stf. 2 n.Lin. 1 It's aback o' the 
beer barril. War. (J.R. W.) 

2. adv. Behind, to the rear. 

Ayr. The third that gaed a wee aback, Was in the fashion 
shining Fu' gay that day, BURNS Holy Fair (1785) ver. 2. 

3. Of motion : back, backwards. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Hadaway aback, aa tell ye. Ye've com" ower far 
on ; gan aback ti the road end. 

4. Of time : ago, since. 

Abd. Eight days aback a post came frae himsel, Ross Helenore 
(1768) 37. 

5. Aback o' Durham, delayed, thrown back from the be- 
ginning ; aback frae, aloof from ; to take aback, to surprise, 
astonish (in gen. use). 

n.Yks. 2 All aback o' Durham together. Ayr. O would they stay 
aback frae courts, An' please themsels wi' countra sports, It wad 
for ev'ry ane be better, BURNS Twa Dogs (1786). Frf. This took 
Sam'l, who had only been courting Bell for a year or two, a little 
aback, BARRIE Licht (1888) 159. n.Yks. Ah wer rayder teean 
aback when it com, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 62. n.Lin. 1 
I was ta'en clear aback when she tell'd me on it 

6. Aback-d '-behind, (i) in the rear, behind; (2) behind- 
hand ; (3) far away, remote. 

(i) N.Cy. 1 Aback-a-behint where the grey mare foaled the fiddler 
[that is, threw him off in the dirt]. Nhb. 1 Aback-a-behint the 
set [the very last wagon]. Get up aback-a-behint [get up over 

the horse's rear]. Cum. Aback o' behint, behind, in the rear, 
LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 295. w.Yks. Aback o' behind, Hlfx. Wds. 
ne.Lan. 1 Aback-a-behint, very far behind or in the rear, (a) Dur. 1 
Behind hand, too late. (3) Lan. 1 Wheer does he live? Eh! aw 
know no'; aback-a-beheend, wheer nob'dy comes. 
7. Aback-o' -beyond, (i) 'the other end of Nowhere/ in the 
far distance ; (2) of work : behindhand, delayed, thrown 
back ; (3) behind, in the rear of. 

(i) Nhb. 1 Aback-a-beyont, far away behind out of ken. Cum. 1 
Nowhere, lost in the distance. 'Whoar t'meer fwoal't t'fiddler.' 
n.Yks. 2 They live aback o' beyont, where they kessen cawvs and 
knee-band lops [christen calves, and bind the fleas by the legs]. 
ne.Yks. 1 Ah wadn't mahnd if they was all aback o' beyont [at 
Jericho]. ne.Lan. 1 Aback-o-beyont, at a very great distance 
away. n.Lin. 1 \_ftg. use] A man is aback o' beyont his sen, when 
he is, through his own fault or ignorance, unable to perform what he 
has undertaken. (2) n.Yks. 1 We were all thrown aback o' beyont 
the day through [could never recover the ground lost by delay 
in the morning]. e.Yks. That slaw beggar's awlas aback-o-beyont 
wiv his wahk, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 49. (3) e.Yks. 1 Where's 
Jack ? He's just geean aback-o-beyont there [at the back of yonder 
house or stack]. 

[They drewe abacke, as halfe with shame confound, 
SPENSER Sh. Cal. June. ME. Therwith-al a-bak she sterte, 
CHAUCER Leg. G. W. 864. OE. on bcecc.] 

ABACK, adv. n.Irel. [aba'k.] Of the position of a 
weight or load : contracted form of ' on the back.' 

N.I. 1 When a cart is loaded, the load can be arranged so as to 
press very lightly on the horse, this is having it ' light-a-back ' ; 
when the chief weight is towards the front of the cart, and 
therefore presses on the horse, the cart is ' heavy-a-back.' 

[A-, on + back.] 

ABARGAINS, phr. n.Lin. [aba'ganz.] Of no value or 

Lin. Among Lincolnshire phrases one may hear, ' It's a bargains 
on it!' or 'Oh, a bargains on (or of) him!' when one would 
depreciate a man or a thing, N. & Q. (1865) 3rd S. vii. 162. 
n-Lin. 1 It's that mucky and torn, it's abargens what becums on it. 
It's abargens whether he cums or no noo. 

[A-, on -f bargains, q.v.] 

ABASING, vbl. sb. w. and s.Sc. QAM.) [abe'sin.] 

w. & s.Sc.Abaising, abaisin, abasin, abusing, hurting, ill-treating 
by word or act. 

[Abais(s)e, v., is a northern form of AFr. aba'iss (whence 
E. abash), prp. stem of abair, OFr. esbair (mod. e'bahir).} 

ABATE, v. Nhp. [abe't, abea't.] To uncover; to 
clear away the superincumbent soil preparatory to 
working stone in a quarry. See Bate and Unbate. 

Nhp. 1 . To make bare ; to uncover. [In e.An. uncallow ' is the 
corresponding word.] 

[OFr. abatre, to beat down.] 

ABATE, adv. n.Lin. [abea't.] Accustomed to, in the 
habit of doing anything. 

n-Lin. 1 He's gotten abate o' drinkin'. 

ABAWE, v. n.Cy. [abijr.] To daunt, astonish. 

N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 

[ME. abawen. Found in R. BRUNNE Handlyng Synne 
and CHAUCER. See M. & S., HALL. See HATZFELD, and 
Skeat's note to CHAUCER Duchesse, 614.] 

ABB, sb. Glo. Wil. Som. n.Dev. Also written ab 
Glo. ; ob Glo. n.Dev. [aeb ; Glo. w.Som. ob.] 

1. The weft, woof, yarn woven across the warp. 

Glo. Ab, Ob, trama, substramen, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 
w.Som. 1 Abb, weaver's weft. 

2. In wool-sorting, one of two qualities of wool known 
as coarse abb and fine abb respectively (C.D.). 

w.Cy. The wool of the sheep's back is finer, and makes, in 
druggets, the thread called abb, LISLE Husbandry (1757). w.Som. 1 
Abb, the name of a particular sort or quality of short-stapled wool, 
as sorted, usually from the belly part of the fleece. 

3. Comp. Abb-chain, a carded warp ; -wool (C.D.). 
w.Som.l The abb is nearly always spun from carded wool, and 

hence a carded warp, such as that used in weaving blankets, 
is called an abb-chain, in distinction to one spun from combed 
wool, such as that used in weaving serge, which is a worsted 

[OE. aweb (oweb, ab). A cognate OE. form was awef, 
owef, whence E. woof.] 




ABBAR, ABBER, see Aye bat. 

ABBEY, sb. Som. The abele or great white poplar, 

Populus aiba. 

Sam. The great white poplar: one of the varieties of t 
Pofulus alba, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825); W. & J. Gl. 
(1873' ; Abbey-lug, a branch of the abele tree (G.S.). 

ABBEY-LUBBER, sb. Yks. Som., also naut [arbi-leba, 
n. a'ba-lobair).] An idle person, a loafer. 

Yks. A term of reproach for idle persons, WRIGHT. Som. A 
lazy, idle fellow, JENNINGS Obs. DiaL w.Eng. (1825); W. & J. 
Gl. 1873). Hant SMYTH Sailor's Wd-Bk. (1867). Colloq.. From 
deans and from chapters who live at their eases . . . And lie like 
abbey-lubbers stewM in their own greases, Libera nos, Domine. 
Jacob. ReL (1819) 393. 

\Archimarmitonerastique, an Abbey-lubber or arch-fre- 
quenter of the Cloyster beefe-pot or beefe-boyler. Ils 
estqyent a table aises comme Peres (a phrase whose author 
by Peres meant Abbey-lubbers), COTGR.; An Abbey- 
lubber, fucus . . . Fucus, a Drone, Sluggard, an Abby- 
lubber, COLES (1679) ; Abbey-Lubber, a slothful loiterer 
in a religious house under pretence of retirement and 
austerity ('This is no Father Dominic, no huge over- 
grown abbey-lubber; this is but a diminutive sucking 
friar,' Dryden Sp. />.), JOHNSON.] 

ABBUD, ABBUT, see Aye but 

ABBY, sb. S. and Ork. [a'bL] 

1. The sea-gilliflower. 
S. * Ork. 1 

2. Contp. Abby-root, the root of the sea-gilliflower. 

S. ft Ork. 1 

ABC, also in pi. In gen. colloq. use. 

1. The English alphabet ; to be able to say one's A B C, to 
be able to read. 

w.Yks. Can he say his A-B-C's ? BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). 
nw.Der. 1 w.Som. 1 Dhee urt u puur-tee skau'lurd, shoa-ur nuuf: 
wuy kas-n zai dhee ae-u. bee, see [thou art a pretty scholar sure 
enough, why thou canst not say thy A B C]. Pop. rhyme. Dunce, 
dunce, double D, Can't say his ABC. 

2. A B C Book, a book for beginners containing the 
alphabet ; in A B C fashion. 

w.Som. 1 ABC Book, the book from which infants are first 
taught ABC Fashion, perfectly ; applied to things known, as 
a trade, a lesson, &c. A man would be said to know his business 
or profession a-b-c faar-sheen i. e. as perfectly as his alphabet 

[L To sigh, like a school-boy that had lost his A B C 
(i. e. his book containing the alphabet), SHAKS. Two Gent. 
11. i. 23. 2. And then comes answer like an Absey book, 
ib. K. John, i. i. 196.] 

A-BE, Sc. Nhb. Lan. Chs. Stf. Oxf. See below, [abr.] 
L In phr. to let a-be (rarely, to leave a-be), to leave undis- 
turbed, to let alone ; let a-be, not to mention. Cf. let-alone. 
Sc. A wheen kilted loons that dinna ken the name o' a single 
herb or flower in braid Scots, let abee in the Latin tongue, Kob 
Roy (1817) xxvii: Get up! I wadna rise out of my chair for 
King George himsell let abee a Whig minister. RAMSAY Remin. 
(ed. 1859) ist S. 93. Nhb. Av' let a' useless sticks a-bee, 
ROBSON Evangtline (1870) 363 ; Nhb. 1 Let's away and he* some 
yell, and let sic things abee man. The Keelman's reasons for 
attending church, ALLAN'S Collection (1863). Lan. I niwer wanted 
to see yore face again. Leave me a-be. BURNETT Loarrus '1877) 
rrii; Aw would o lett'n it obee till th' weddin' wur o'er, Abrum 
o Fluf's Quortin' (1886) 8. neXan. 1 Let me abe. let me alone. 
Cbs. 1 Let that choilt a-be. wilt ta. s^tf. Let him a-be. PINNOCK 
Bit. Cy. Ann. (1895! s.Oxf. Let 'im a-be, 'ee 'ave made 'is bed, 
an ee d best lie on it, ROSEMARY Chilterns \ 1895) na. 
2. so. Forbearance. 

Sc. Ill gie you let-a-bee for let-a-bee. like the bairns o' Kelly 
HENDERSON Prop. (1832) 123 ; I am for let a-be for let-a-be, as the 
boys say, SCOTT Pirate (1822) xxxvii ; Let-abe for let-abe, mutual 
ice. Let-abe maks mony a loon [forbearance increases 
the number of rogues] (JAM., s.v. Let). 
[The prefix a- is difficult to explain. N.E.D has ' prob 
*t be, early northern infinitive=to be,' but there is no 
evidence of the existence of the phrase, or of the con- 
struction of let with at in ME.] 

ABEAR, v. Widely diffused through the dialects. Also 

written abeear e. Yks. ne. Lan. 1 ; abeare ne.Lan. 1 See 
below, [abeav), abia'fr).] To endure, tolerate : usually 
with the verb can and a negative. Cf. abide. 

Jfhb.l She couldn't abeer to sit aside him. Wm. 1 A cannot 
abeer et. n-Yks. 1 ne.Yks. 1 Ah can't abeear stooryin.'. Lan. 1 
I conno' abear th' sect on 't. s^tt I can't abear the sight on 
him, PINNOCK Bit. Cy. Ann. (1895). Hot 1 s.Not Non of uz 
can't abear non o' them (J. P. K.). Lin. I couldn abear to see it, 
i TENNYSON If. Farmer, Old Style 1860) st 16. swXin. 1 I hate 
smoke-reek'd tea, I can't abear it. They could'nt abear her ; they 
rantanned her out at last. Lei. 1 Oi cain't abear 'er. Nhp.i 
s.War. 1 I can't abear it. w.Wor. 1 'E's 'ad the tuthache that 
desprit till 'e couldn't scahrcely abar it Snr. 1 The missis toud 
me I wuz to sarve them pigs an' I canna-d-abere it. Hrf. 2 
GIo. The townsfolk be got so 'nation fmnicking, thaay can't abear 
a bit o' nize, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn {i6f/o)v\. Oxf. 1 Brks. 1 
I can't abear zuch a vool as he be. n.Bck. Abear or abeer, to 
tolerate (A C.). Mid. I can't abear it, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) 
Hnt (T. P. F. ) Ess. I earn abear it when the salmon's done, DOWNE 
Ballads (1895) 9. Snr. 1 1 can't a-bear their goings on. Sus. 1 
I never could a-bear that chap. Hnip. 1 WU. 1 1 can't abear to 
see the poor theng killed. w.Som. 1 1 can abear to see a riglur fair 
stand-up fight, but I can't never abear to zee boys always a naggin 
and a quardlin. Uur keod-n ubae'ur vur tu pae'urt wai ur 
bwuuy [she could not bear to part with her boy]. Dev. Get thee 
gone out o' my sight, Noll ! I can't abear the daps o' thee, 
MADOX- BROWN Dwale Bluth (1876) Introd. v. Cor. 1 1 caan't 
abear what I caan't abide; Cor. 3 Abear, not always used nega- 
tively : I don't knaw how thee cust abear un. 

[OE. dberan, to endure, suffer. Although the word is so 
widely diffused in the dialects, it apparently was of rare 
occurrence in the literary language at a very early date. 
The latest quotation for the word in Matzner is fromj the 
Ancren Riwle (c. 1230).] 

ABED, adv. Widely diffused throughout the midland 
and southern counties, [abe'd.] In bed ; confined to bed 
by illness, &c. Cf. slug-abed. 

Com. If I is abed, its better nor being in bed-lam. CAINE 
Hagar (1887) I. 31. s-War. 1 se.Wor.' 'Ei^s a bed mighty bad, 
uv a bwile a top uv 'er yud. Brks. 1 If a lez a-bed o' marnins a 
wunt never graw rich. Ken. 1 . Snr. 1 , Sus. 1 . Hmp. 1 Dev. I were 
forced to lie abed. O'NEILL Idylls (i892 s , 87. 

[You have not been abed then ? SHAKS. Oth. HI. i. 33 ; 
I would have been abed an hour ago, ib. R. &*J. HI. iv. 7. 
ME. Some wolde mouche hir mete alone Ligging a-bedde, 
CHAUCER TV. -> Cr. i. 915. The word occurs in P. Plow- 
man B. v. 395, 417. OE. on bedde, Luke xvii. 34.] 

ABEFOIR, adv. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Formerly, before. 

Sc. Abefoir is frequently used in this sense in ... Pitscottie, 
i.e. Lindsay's (of Pitscottie) Chronicles of Scotland, 1768. 

[A-, on + before.] 

ABEIGH, adv. Obs. w.Sc. Also written abeech (JAM.). 
Away, aside, aloof. 

Sc. The wise auld man was blythe to stand abeigh, Auld Gray 
Mare (c. 1707) in Jacob. Rel. (1819) I. 69. Ayr. Town's bodies 
ran, an' stood abeigh. An' ca't thee mad. BURNS To his Auld 
Mart. Kcb. The lasses turned skiegh man, They hid themselves 
amang the corn To keep the lads abeigh, man, DAVIDSON Seasons 

[Pref. A-, on + -beigh, the etym. of which is uncertain; 
it may possibly be identical with Norse beig (beyg) fear. 
(So N.E.D.) Cp. ON. beygr fear, beyeja to bend, bow, cogn. 
of OE. bugan to bend, to yield, to flee.] 

ABEIS, prep. Fif. Also written abies. [abrs.] In 
comparison with OAM.). 

Fit London is a big town abeis Edinburgh. 

[Prob. Abeis=al-, att + beis, be as, to be as; see Beis.] 

ABER, adj. S. & Ork. Also written aaber, abir. 
[a - bar.] Eager, anxious. 

S. & Ork. 1 Anxious to obtain a thing. ShJ. Abir, eager (Coll. 
L.L.B.). Aaber UAH.). 

ABERZAND, see Ampersand. 

ABEUN(E, see Aboon. 

ABIDE, v. In gen. use in Gt. Brit, and Irel. Not in 
glossaries of e.An. (Forby, Nail, Moor, Charnock) or Cor. 
Also written aboide Der. a Freq. by aphaeresis bide, q.v. 



1. To stay, remain, tarry. 

Sc. Abaid, abade; abode, stayed, GROSE v I 79) MS. add. (C.) 
Gall. He abode to see what should happen, CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle 
(1895) 45. e.Dev. Yeue. mai dove, that abaid'th in th' gaps o' th' 
rocks, PULMAN Sag. Sol. (1860) ii. 14. 

2. To wait for. 

Sc. I wad e'en streek mysell out here, and abide my removal, 
SCOTT Antiquary (1616) xxi. [Abide, [to] expect or wait for (K.).] 

3. To endure, tolerate. (Used nearly always with the 

Per. The stour is mair than onybody can abide, IAN MACLAREN 
Brier Bush (1895) 117. Ir. My belief is it's left something at the 
bottom of his mind that he can't abide the looks of, BARLOW Kerrigan 
(1894) 125. Nhb. 1 Aa canna abide him. It is generally shortened 
to Bide. Cum. 1 I caa-n't abide sec wark. Yks. Yo' have a' the 
cow's hair in. Mother's very particular, and cannot abide a hair, 
GASKELL Sylvia (1863) II. i. n-Yks. 1 e.Yks. Ah can't abide to see 
yo' like that, WRAY Nestleton (1876) 52. Lan. I can't abide the chap, 
FOTHERGILL Probation (1879) vi ; Lan. 1 He wur soa ill he cudn't 
abide. ne.Lan. 1 Abode, Abidden, endured. s.Chs. 1 It's noo use, 
we shan ha' to abide it. s.Stf. Her could never abide red-haired 
chaps, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Der. 2 I conna' aboide 
hur. Not. 1 s.Not. There's not many folk I can't abide, but her 
I can't. Werkin' a Satdy's what ah niver could abide (J.P. K.). 
n.Lin. 1 I can't abide no bairns nobut my awn. Lei. 1 , s.War. 1 
w.Wor. 1 Mother, 'er never could abide that thahr mon. Hrf. 2 , Glo. 2 
Brks. 1 1 can't abide such me-un waays. Ken. 1 , Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 Wil. 1 

1 can't abide un nohow. w.Som. 1 I never can't abide they there 
fine stickt-up hussies. Dev. I can't abide the notion of lying in 
my coffin in thiccy coarse black stockings, O'NEILL Idylls (1892) n ; 
Dev. 1 1 coud'n abide her vather, a shoul-a-mouth'd, hatchet-faced, 
bandy-legg'd wink-a-puss. 

[Falstaff says, ' Never, never, she would always say she 
could not abide Master Shallow,' SHAKS. 2 Hen. IV, in. ii. 
215; Ye cannot abyde the hearynge off my wordes,TiNDALE 
John viii. 43. OE. abidan, to abide, tarry.] 

ABIER, adj. w.Som. [abia'r.] Dead, but unburied. 

w.Som. 1 Poo'ur saul! uur mae-un duyd uun-ee but tuudlrur dai, 
un naew uur luyth ubee-ur [poor soul ! her man (husband) died 
only the other day, and now she lies dead]. 

[A-, on + bier.] 

ABILITY, s*. Sc. Oxf. [abi'liti.] Wealth. 

Sc. Nobility without ability is like a pudding without suet, 
RAMSAY Prov. (1737). Oxf. 1 Gentility without ability is like a pud'n 
without fat, MS. add. 

ABIN, conj. Hmp. |abrn.] Because. 

Hmp. 1 

[A- pref. (OE. e) + bin, been, pp. of be. Cp. : You loiter 
here too long, being you are to take soldiers up, SHAKS. 

2 Hen. IV, n. i. 199.] 
ABIN, v. S. & Ork. 

S.&Ork. 1 Or. I. Abin(G. P.); Aabin is to halve the sheaf between 
man and beast (JAM. Suppl.}; Aabin, abin, to half-thrash a sheaf 
before giving it to horses. The sheaf being held in the hands is 
raised upwards ; then, by a sudden downward stroke, against 
some fixture, the bulk of the best grain is knocked off (ib.}. 

ABIN, see Aboon. 

ABIR, sb. S. & Ork. ; cf. abin. 

S. & Ork. 1 Or. I. Abir, a sheaf thrashed for giving to horses (G.P.); 
Aabir, aaber, abir, a sheaf of grain half thrashed (JAM. Suppl.). 

ABITED, pp. Obs. Ken. Of linen: mildewed; of wood: 
rotten, decayed. 

Ken. Abited, mildewed, LEWIS /. Tenet (1736); Abited, GROSE 
(1790); Ken. 1 

ABLACH, sb. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) See Aploch. 

1. A dwarf; an expression of contempt. 

2. The remains of any animal that has become the prey 
of a dog, fox, polecat, &c. (Abd.) 

3. A particle, a fragment (Rnf.). 

Sc. An' a" the ablachs glowr'd to see A bonny kind of tulyie 
Atweish them twa, SKINNER Christmas Ba'ing (1805). 

[Gael, ablach, a mangled carcase, carrion, the remains of 
a creature destroyed by ravenous beasts (M. & D.). Gael. 
abhac, a dwarf (M. & D.). Ir. abhlach, a carcase ; abhac, a 
dwarf, pigmy, manikin, a sprite ; abhach, the entrails of 
a beast (O'REILLY).] 

ABLE, adj. Sc. and all the n. counties to Yks. and Lan. 
Also in Lin. Lei. War. Hrf. Rdn. Som. Also written 

aiable ne.Lan. 1 ; abable n.Yks. 1 ; yable Dur.'Cum. 2 Wm. ; 
yabble Cum. 3 Wm. n.Yks. 2 m. and e.Yks. Lan. ; yabbable 
n.Yks. 2 See below, [e'bl, ea'bl, ye'bl, yea'bl.] 

1. Of sufficient means, well-to-do, rich. 

N.Cy. 1 Able, wealthy : an able man. Nhb. It was plain as 
a pike-staff that he wad syun be won (one) o' the yebbilist men 
i' the country side, Keeltnin's Annewal (1869) n; Nhb. 1 Obs. 
Dur. 1 Able, possessed of large pecuniary means. Cum. 3 Yan o' 
t'yablest men i' thur parts. Wm. A varra yabble man i heeh life, 
CLARKE Spec. Dial. (1868) Jonny ShipparcCs Junta. n-Yks. 1 
Nanny B. is nane sae needful ; she's a yabble body eneugh. 
e.Yks. 1 Yabble, somewhat wealthy, ' Bob's a yabble chap ; he can 
live wfoot wahkin (working),' MS. add. (T.H.) w. Yks. Able, 
wealthy, an able man, Hlfx. Wds. ne.Lan. 1 Aiable, wealthy. 
ne.Der. 1 War. (J.R.W.) Hrf. Able, a Herefordshire word 
meaning wealthy, as 'An able man,' BOUND Prov. (1876); Hrf. 1 ; 
Hrf. 2 Able, well-to-do in money matters. Rdn. Able, rich, well- 
to-do, MORGAN Rdn. Wds. (1881). 

2. Of objects: substantial. 

n.Yks. 2 A yabble pie-crust, one of substantial construction. 

3. Able for, fit to cope with. 

Ir. Ah, he'd never be able for the attornies, Paddiana (1848; 
I. 28; (G.M.H.) 

4. Fit, subject, liable. 

Sc. If found liable or fit for being received at a college, Parish of 
Mortlach Statist. Ace. xvii. 433 (JAM.). Cum. [He] is noo yeble to be 
beggared if folks hevamind, LINTON Lizzie Lotion (1866) III. 116. 

5. To spell able, to perform a difficult task in fulfilment 
of a boast. (Cf. Amer. to spell baker.) 

N.I. 1 Can you spell able ? [are you sure you can do what you 
are bragging about ?] Cum., Wm. A defiant rustic jeer, at boast 
of future achievements, was, 'Thou mun spell yable, i'urst' (M.P.). 

Hence Ableless, adj. incompetent, careless, listless, 
awkward. Ablement, sb. (i) ability, mental power; 
(2) bodily strength. Ableness, sb. strength, agility. Able- 
some, adj. wealthy, well-to-do. Ablisb, adj. somewhat able. 

w.Yks. 2 A poor abeless thing. Lin. Abless, careless and 
negligent, or untidy, or slovenly in person (HALL.). ii.Lin.' 
Abless. w.Som. 1 A plain-tee u ae-ublmunt baewt ee [a plenty of 
ability about him]. [In pi. tools, gear] We should ha finished 
avore we corned away, on'y we 'ad-n a-got no ablements 'long 
way us. I 'sure ee, mum, I bin that bad, I hant no more 
ae-ublmunt-n u chee'ul [strength than a child]. Saunvfeen luyk 
u fuul'ur, sm-ae-ubl-nees baewt ee [something like a fellow, some 
strength in him]. n.Yks. 2 They're varry yabblesome. A yabblish 
lot, people of wealth. ne.Lan. 1 Rather able, of tolerable pecuniary 
means. niin. 1 He's an ablish chap for a little un, but he can't 
hug a seek o' wheat aboard a vessil. Lei. 1 Ablish, tolerably 
strong. w.Som. 1 U ae-ubleesh soa'urt u yuung chaap [an active, 
industrious kind of young fellow]. 

[1. Able (wealthy), opulentus, COLES (1679); To be able 
or rich, Estre riche, avoir dequoi, SHERWOOD (1672) ; It was 
the child of a very able citizen in Gracious Street, PEPYS 
(N.E.D.). 3. Be able for thine enemy, SHAKS. All's Well 
\. i. 74. 4. A sowe, er [before] she be able to kyl, FITZHER- 
BERT Husbandry (1534) 75 ; To fortune both and to infortune 
hable, King's Quair, 1. xiv. OFr. able, Lat. kahilis, fit, able.] 

ABLE, v. m.Yks. Written yabble. [yea'bl.] To enable. 

m.Yks. 1 Yabble, to enable. 

[ME. God tokneth and assigneth the tymes ablynge hem 
to nir propres offices, CHAUCER Boethius i. m. vi.] 

ABLET, sb. Obs. Wm. (HALL.) The bleak, Leuciscus 

Wm. On the auth. of Hall., but not found in any Wm. books, and 
according to our correspondents unknown. 

[Ablet (a local word), the bleak, a small river fish, ASH 
(1795). Fr. Ablette, a little blay or bleak ; . . . Able, a blay 
or bleak fish, COTGR. Ablette occurs in a Fr. text dated 
1317; see HATZFELD, and GODEFROY Suppl. Fr. able, Rom. 
albulum, means ' the little white (fish) ' ; so HATZFELD.] 

ABLINS, adv. In Sc. n.Irel. and all the n. of Eng. to 
n.Yks. and n.Lin. ; not in gloss, of Lan. Chs. Also written 
aiblins Sc. N.I. 1 Nhb. 1 Lin. ; able, ablis Sc. (JAM.) ; aeblins 
Wm. & Cum. 1 See below, [e'blinz, ye'blinz.] Possibly, 

Sc. She may aiblins hae been his honour's Squire Thorncliff's 
in her day, SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xviii; Kippletringan was dis- 
tant at first 'a gey bit' ; then the 'gey bit' was more accurately 




described as ' ablins three mile,' SCOTT GuyM. (1815) ' Abd. We'l 
ablins get a flyte, and ablins nane, Ross Helenore (1768) 142 
Ayr. O wad ye tak a thought an' men' Ye aiblins might, BURNS 
Address to the DM (1785). Gall. Ye may aiblins come to a 
mishap, CROCKETT Moss Hags (1895) 386. N.I. 1 N. Cy. 1 Yables 
yeblins, yeablesae, yebblesee ; N.Cy. 2 Yeable sea. Nhb. 1 Wey 
aa aiblins hed twee, or aiblins hed three glasses o' whisky. Cum 
Aiblins I wool, and aiblins I woonot, LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 295. 
Wm. Whya thull aiblin ma ha forgitten, GIBSON Leg. and Notes, 
(1877) 66. n.Yks. 12 I ablins might. ne.Yks. 1 He'll aablins man- 
nish. n.Lin. Aiblins I shall do it, bud belike I shan't, I really 
doant knaw (M. P.) ; nXin. 1 

[Able + -lings (suff.).] 

ABLOW, prep. Sc. [sbloir.] Below. 

Sc. A troot ablow the big stane, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush 
(1895) 141. Gall. I pat it ablow the clock, CROCKETT Stickit Mitt. 
(1893) 67. 

[A-, on + below,} 

ABLOW, adv. w.Som. [abloir.] Blooming, in flower. 

w.Som. 1 The primroses be all ablow up our way. 

[A-, on (the prefix of state or condition) + blow ; cp. blow, 
v., to bloom.] 

ABOARD, adv. Lin. Dev. Tabua'd.! 

1. Drunk. 

nXin. 1 He's sum'uts aboard to-daay ; he could nobud just sit e' 
his gig as he cum'd fra Brigg market. 

2. Aboard on, up against, in contact with ; to be aboard, 
to be in confusion ; to fall aboard, to attack, assault. 

n-Lin. 1 He runned aboard on me as I druv doon Ranthrup Hill, 
an' I thoht he'd a' tekken a wheal off. Her things is ail-aboard. 
Dev. 'Tez a glide job yu corned when yu did, or I shude a-valled 
aboard aw'n in quick-sticks, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1893). 

[1. Aboard, drunk. This means he has got more than he 
can carry in the way of drink. The phrase was used to 
me by a Bottesford labouring man who had just seen a 
neighbouring farmer drive by, coming from market, who 
had great difficulty in sitting in his gig. It may originally 
have been a sailor's term, but is widespread now. 1 have 
very often heard it, and there is no sign of its dying out 
(E. P.). 2. Antiochus Epiphanes would often . . . fall 
aboord with any tinker, clowne ... or whomsoever he 
met first, BURTON Anal. Mel. (1621) 351 (ed. 1836). A-, 
on + board.] 

ABOIL, adv. Sc. Yks. [aborl.j Boiling, in or into a 
boiling state. 

Sc. Aboil, to come aboil, to begin to boil. By the time it [the 
pot] comes aboil, Agr. Sun. Kincard. 432 QAM.). n.Yks. 2 Com- 
ing aboil, bubbling up. e.Yks. 1 Is kittle aboil d'ye think ? 

[A-, on + boil.] 

ABOK, sb. w. & s.Sc. QAM.) 

w. & s.Sc. Abok, Yabok, a name given to a gabbing, talkative, or 
impudent child. 

ABOON, adv. and prep. In Sh. and Or. I. Sc. n.Irel. and 
the n. counties to Chs. Der. Not. Lin. In Wxf. and 
sw.Irel. Dev. and Cor. the -n has not survived. Also 
written abun e.Cum.; aboun Nhb. 1 ; abune S.&Ork. 1 Sc 
Dur. 1 ; abeun Cum. n.Yks. ; beun Nhb. 1 ; abeune Cum 8 - 
abeyun, abyun, byun Nhb. 1 ; abuon Wm. & Cum. 1 ; oboon 
w.Lan.; abouDev.; aboo Wxf. w.Som. 1 Dev. Cor. abew 
Dev. Cor. See below, [abu-n, abih] 
1. adv. Of position : overhead; in the sky, aloft; up- 
stairs. Alsojfcg-. 

Sc. Aboon, above, MACKAY. NiAbin, aboon, above. w.Ir He 
was murthered ... and threwn into the lake abow, LOVER Leg 
,1848) I 40. Wxf. 1 Aboo, above. N.Cy.i Aboon, abuin, above 
overhead Nhb. She a'ways keeps maw heart abuin, WILSON 
Pern's Pay (!8 43 ) 13; Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Abune. Cum. 1 Abeunn c 

S^T' TJ Ab w?' "' N S ' Wm - L rd aboon knaws > HuTTON Via'. 
Storthand Ams>d e (^f, } 1. 47. n . Y ks. She's aboon ith Chawm- 
ber, MERITON Pr aise Ale (1684) 1. 252 ; n.Yka.a Gang I'll aboon 
f?K "^ VE- T ; lark ^oon an' them below, BaimslaAnn. 
(1862)7; w.Yks.3 The Man aboon. neXan. Th'Almeetv's name 

re raor c e h ds rn ^ hoile than !t is up aboon ' *^* 

rewts An I H ' 'I Dev ' A dwalin drumble-drone i> th' 
?!E^ ab u' MAD X -B*WN Dwale Bluth (1876) 
Abew, above, MS. add 

ok v 
bk. iv. n. 


thar- u > Peror o, g 

than , fig. exceeding, higher than, superior to, beyond. 

; above > su Perior to, higher 

Sc. A mile aboon Dundee, Scorr Redg. (1824) ii. (Old Song); 
As lang as our heads are abune the grund, ib. Midlothian (1818) xi. 
Ga). Some buiks o' Tammas Carlj'le . . . hae garred ... a farmer 
body lift his een abune the nowt an' the shairn, CROCKETT 
Stickit Min. (1893) Trials for License. Kcb. Wi's bonnet trigg 
aboon his ear, DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 15. Nhb. His flag abeun 
us wis love, ROBSON Sng. Sol. (1859) ii. 4. Dur. 1 Cum. A 
girt flag Happen abciin his heed, DICKINSON Cumbr. (1875) 5. 
Wm. 1 It's clean away abooan Kendal. n.Yks. 1 The Queen's 
aboon us all. e.Yks. ' Nay, baya, that's aboon me,' said a mother to 
her child, who had asked a question the mother could not answer, 
NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889). w.Yks. A deal better nor some 
'at reckons to be aboon me, BRONTE Shirley (1849) v. Lan. Set 
hee aboon want or danger, CLEGG David's Loom (1894) xxiv. 
e.Lan. 1 n.Lin. 1 If he duzn't feal paain o' th' turpe'tine aboon paain 
o' th' inflammaation it'll be to no ewse. Dev. 1 O dear me ! 
the bread and butter that many a poor soul woud a jump'd abou 
ground vor, lied smeeching and frizzing in the vire, pt. i. 4; 
I told en, but that whether a know et or no, that my dame was 
abu doing ort in hugger-mugger, ib. pt ii. 13. 

3. More than, exceeding in quantity or number. 

Sc. He canna get it wrought in abune twa days in the week at 
no rate whatever, SCOTT Waverley (1814) ix. Nhb. 1 An' ower abyun 
this band o' men, HORSLEY The Cuddies an' the Horses (1881). 
Wm. & Cum. 1 . Wm. For aboon twenty years I hev duly tented 
the flock of my allotment, HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 
1. 20. n.Yks. Ah's abooii eighty year awd, TWEDDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (1875) 39. ne.Yks. 1 There'll be aboon a scoore. w.Yks. 1 
He's gaan aboon two howers sin. Lan. Mark an' oi, an' abooii 
twenty moor'ull be nigh yo, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) 
I. 168 ; Lan. 1 Wheer hasto bin wortchin at? I've druvven for 
Owd Copper Nob aboon nine year, WAUGH Sancho's Wallet in 
the Sphinx (1870) III. 90. sw-Lin. 1 They'll not get aboun two 
loads offen it. It's aboun a twelvemonth sin'. Not. 2 The ramper 
is not aboon a mile off. w.Som. 1 Dhur waud-n beo- zab-m u-laf 
[there were not above seven left]. 

4. In phr. Abune a', beyond reason ; aboon-a-bit, exces- 
sively; aboon the breath, across the forehead; abone-broe, see 
quot. ; aboon grees, upstairs ; to get aboon hands, to become 
supreme, get the ' upper hand ' ; aboon with oneself; aboon 
plum, drunk ; ower (over) and aboon, (i) entirely, alto- 
gether, (2) into the bargain. 

S. & Ork. 1 Abune a'. Sh.& Or.I. & Sc. Abune a' QAM. Suppl.). 
w.Yks. That pleased me aboon a bit, TREDDLEHOYLE Trip ta 
Lunnan (1851) 7. neXan. 1 T'meer dud kick aboon a bit. nXin. 1 
It raain'd aboon a bit last Brigg fair. Sur. Poor chap, thee do 
look abon a bit hot, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) I. i. ii. w.Som. 1 Ee 
gid ut tiie un ubeo- u beet [he gave it him above a bit]. Bwk. 
Some o' thae hags they burn'd to dead And some aboon the breeth 
did bleed, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 59. Sc. Abone-broe, 
aboon-bree, above water. Of a person in difficulty, or one who has 
a very small income, it is commonly said, ' He can hardly keep his 
head abone-broe ' (JAM. Suppl.). n.Yks. 2 Aboon grees [upstairs]. 
They've gitten sair aboon hands [much beyond control} He's 
varry far aboon hands [he has abilities beyond his teacher]. 
Cummer gat aboon hands on 'em [debt became their master]. 
Cum. 1 Abeunn wid hissel, rejoicing beyond reasonable control. 
nXin. 1 Aboon plum, drunken. Yks. I isn't ower an' aboon satisfied, 
WRAY Nestleton (1876) 50. Cor. Over and aboo, into the bargain , 
Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 421. 

5. Comp. Aboon-head, (i) upper, (2) of the weather, &c. : 
up above, overhead. 

n-Yks. 1 It wets aboon-heead ; n.Yks. 2 They live in a boon-heead 
pot [an upper room]. niin. 1 It's do'ty under foot, but dry aboon- 

[ME. abuven (aboven), A-, on + buven, OE. bufan (above)= 
be + ufan, cp. G. oben.] 

A-BOOT, adv. Sc. Into the bargain. 

Rxb. Aboot,toboot, the odds paid in a bargain or exchange (JAM.). 

[A-, at + boot, q.v.] 

ABOUT, prep., conj. and adv. In gen. use. See below. 
abu-t,aba-t, abet, abetrt] 

1. prep. Without ; to get about a person, see below. Also 
conj. unless : usually by aphaeresis Bout, q.v. 

w.Yks. Ah wor rairly off abaght it, TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla 
Ann. (1860) 39; 'E's tekken t'dthrink w'ile 'e can't do about it 
F. P. T.). Lan. Aw cannot tell lies abeawt aw say 'at he's a 
pratty un, WAUGH Owd Bodlc 255. Chs. 8 To get about a person, 
s to get without him, to get rid of him. Stf. 1 Abawt. 



2. Nearly, almost ; of number, quantity : near to, ap- 

e.An. 1 Is the horse worth 40? Nothing about it. Is he a mile 
off ? No, nor about it. Nrf. 1 Nrf., Suf., Sus. HOLLOWAY. 

3. Upon (the person). 

w.Som. 1 Aay aa'n u-gairt u vaardn ubaewt mee [I have not a 
farthing about me]. Dhee-s au'rt u ae-u dhu stik ubaewt dhu baak 
u dhee [thou oughtest to have the stick (beaten) upon thy back]. 

4. For the purpose of. 

w.Som. 1 Dhush yuur haar-ti-feesh ul, ud'n neet u bee't lik geo-d 
oal raat'ud duung, ubaewt gifeen voa'r uv u kraap wai [this new- 
fangled artificial (manure) is not nearly as effectual as good old 
rotten dung, for the purpose of securing a crop]. That there's 
a capical sort of a maunger 'bout savin' o' corn. 

5. adv. Unfinished, in process, on hand ; to be about, to 
be engaged upon, occupied with. 

Nhb. And what the de'il folks war aboot, WILSON Pitman's Pay 
(1843) 113. n.Yks. About, in hand, in the doing, on hand (I.W.). 
n.Lin. 1 We'd a three-weaks' wesh aboot that daay. Chs. 1 What's 
Marydoin'? Oh! oo's about th' butter. About th' beds [making 
the beds]. Nhp. 1 Applied to the domestic and other culinary 
etceteras resulting from a pig being killed for family use : We've 
got a pig about this week. War. (J.R.W.) w.Som. 1 While the 
harvest is about. Shockin hand vor to keep work about. Cor. 3 
What are you about now ? 

6. Moving, esp. applied to the resuming of bodily activity 
on recovery from an illness. 

Lin. 1 He will soon be about again. Not. 1 Mester's a nice bit 
better, he's getting abaout agen. Wil. Before the second child 
died, two more fell ill on the same day. Only Abel and Jan were 
still about, EWING Jan of Windmill (1876) xxv. Wil. 1 My missus 
were bad aal last wick wi' rheumatiz, but she be about agen now. 

7. Near at hand. 

Not. 1 Lei. 1 An' a shillinswuth o' arringes, if yo've got any abaout. 

8. Intensive or otiose in about now, about right, about what, 
and just about. 

Wm. You're aboot right there, sir, WARD Elsmere (1888) bk. i. 
vii. e.Yks. 1 It's tahm ti set taties aboot noo, MS. add. (T. H.) 
w.Yks. Abaht reight, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). n-Lin. 1 He's a 
straange good hand at tellin' taales an' hinderin' uther foaks walkin' 
wi' lis>tenin' to him, an' that's aboot what he's fit for. Hmp. 1 She 
war just about mad. Wil. 1 'Twer just about cold s'marnin. [Amer. 
To do a thing about right is to do it well. I fell foul of the old mare, 
and if I didn't give it to her about right, then there's none o' me, 
that's all, BARTLETT.] 

9. About nowt, good for nothing ; about of, 'bout house, 
see below ; about what, the upshot of an affair ; all about, 
(i) nearly, (2) in confusion, disorder, (3) lightheaded ; all 
about it, the whole matter ; to be about, to stroll idly ; to 
have nothing about one, to be useless ; to put about, to upset, 

n.Yks. He's aboot nowt (I.W.). Glo. 1 About of zixteen. 

I.W. 2 Bout house, on the floor or on the ground. Don't dro the 
things'bout house. He up vist and I vound myself bout house. 
Cum. 1 They bodder't t'poor lad, for they wantit to git shot on him, 
and that's about what, and nowder mair nor less. e.Yks. 1 Maisther 
bullyragg'd ma aboot nowt at all ; bud he wants te be shut o' ma, 
an that's aboot what, (i) w.Yks. Ah've all abaht eniff apple-trees 
i' t'gardin (^E.B.). (a) n.Yks. All about, scattered, in disorder 
(I.W.). w.Wor. 1 To think as the missis should come to see me. 
an' my 'ouse ahl-about like this ! Hrf. 2 Our 'ouse be all about just 
now. Glo. 1 All about, in a state of confusion. Hmp. I'm all about 
the place [my house is untidy] (H.C.M.B.). w.Som. 1 Dhai bee 
ugoo' un laf' dhur dhingz au'l ubaewt [they are gone and (have) 
left their things (i.e. tools) scattered about]. (3) War. (J.R.W.) 
Hrf. 1 To get all about in his head, to become light-headed ; Hrf. 2 
n-Lin. 1 1 weant gie the anuther farden. so that's all aboot it. w.Wor. 1 
Thee canna go to-daay ; thee mun stop at oaiim, an" that's ahl- 
about-it. Hrf. 1 That's all about it. w.Som. 1 Lae'uzee fuul'ur, ee-z 
au-vees ubaewt [lazy fellow, he is always idly strolling]. Necf 
uun-ee aay kud yiiez mee an-, aay sheod-n bee ubaewt [if only I 
could use my hand, I should not be walking about idly]. sw.Lin. 1 
When a woman has nothing about her, it's a bad job for a man. 
Not. 1 I wor that put abaout I didn't know what way to turn. 

10. Bide-about, (i) to loiter, (2) to be given to drinking ; 
lie-about, drunken ; run-about, (i) adj. wandering, rest- 
less, (2) sb. a pedlar, itinerant trader, a gossip, (3) v. to go 

(i) w.Som. 1 Leok shaarp-n neet buyd ubaewt ! [make haste, and 
VOL. I. 

do not loiter]. (a) Ee du buyd ubaewt maus aul dhu wik laung 
[he stays drinking in public-houses nearly all the week long]. 
Dhai du zai aewe e-z u tuur^ubl luy-ubaewt fuul'ur [they say 
how he is a terribly drunken fellow], (i) Aay-v u-yuurd aew 
ee-z u tuurubl urn-ubaewt fuul-ur [I have heard that he is a very 
roving fellow]. (2) Aay niivur doa'un dae-ul war noa urn-ubaewts 
[I never deal with pedlars]. We be ter'ble a-pestered way urn- 
abouts. Uur-z u rig-lur urn-ubaewt [she is a thorough gossip]. 
(3) Her do urn-about most all her time. 

ABOUTEN, adv. and prep. Irel. e.Yks. Suf. Sus. Hmp. 
[abe'tan, abetrtan.] About, in its various lit. senses. 

Wxf. 1 Abut, Abouten, about e.Yks. 1 Abootan, around, round 
about, MS. add. (T. H.) Suf. Obsol. Only in phr. as 'Abouten ten ' 
(F. H.). Sus. 1 1 was abouten going out, when Master Noakes he 
happened along, and he kep' me; Sns. 2 Hmp. 1 Abouten, about, 
near to. 

[ME. abouten, abuten, OE. a-, on-butan. Hence E. about, 
which is merely a contracted form. Abouten occurs in 
CHAUCER and P. Plowman (see SKEAT'S Glossaries).] 

ABOVE, prep. Van dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. [abu'v, 

1. In addition to, after ; too much for, beyond. 

Edb. Couple above couple dating the day of their happiness, MOIR 
Mansie Wauch (1828) n. Lin. She had a sleeping-draught, but 
the pain was above it (R. E.C.). 

2. Above of. 

Som. The 'urd rhoofs . . . peepen' above the apple orchards, an' 
a bit o' the grey church tow'r rhisen' above o' them, LEITH Lemon 
Verbena (1895) 92. 

3. Above-a-bit, more than a little, exceedingly, to a great 

Lan. I'm above a bit behind hand, GASKELL M. Barton (1848) 
v. Chs. 1 Eh, Polly! aw do love thee above a bit. s.Chs. ', 
Stf. 1 , War. 2 Wor. When we came out of church, it peppered 
down above a bit, I fancy it rained all church-while (H.K.). 
w.Wor. 1 These 'ere bad times werrits me above-a-bit, thaay do; 
I dunno w'at to do, no more than the dyud. se-Wor. 1 , s.Wor. 1 
Shr. 1 'E fund as 'e'd got all the work to do 'isself, so 'e off wuth 
'is smock an' went into it above-a-bit. Hrf. 2 I like that man above 
a bit. Glo. 1 , Oxf. 1 , Brks. 1 Sur. You do look above a bit better, 
BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) III. xvi. w.Som. 1 Maister let-n 'ave it 
s-morning 'bove a bit, but I widn bide to hear it ; I baint no ways 
fond o' the vulgar tongue. [Aus., N.S.W. He could handle the 
ribbons above a bit, BOLDREWOOD Robbery (1888) II. xvi.] 

4. Above bank. 

Nhb., Dur. Above bank the surface, NICHOLSON Coal Tr. Gl. 

[ME. above(n), abuven; OE. abufan=on + be + ufan (cf. 
G. oben).] 

of Symphytum ojfficinale (N.O. Boraginaceae), as well as of 
other plants having different shades of colour among the 
flowers on the same stem. 

n.Lin. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Borago orientalis; n.Lin. 1 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, (i) the Garden Comfrey, Symphytum 
ojfficinale, (2) Pulmonaria officinalis, (3) Borago orientalis. 

ABRAID, v. 1 [abre'd.] To reprove, upbraid. 

n.Yks. 2 

[I abrayde one, I caste one in the tethe of a matter, 
PALSG. 415. The same word as below.] 

ABRAID, v? Cum. Yks. Lin. [abre'd, abrea'd, abria'd.] 
To rise nauseously in the stomach. 

N.Cy. 1 Abraid, to rise on the stomach. Cum. Abraide, to have 
the acid, LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 295. Yks. The grossness of the 
food, as some say, upbraids him : properly it abraids, HAMILTON 
Nugae Lit. (1841) 340. w.Yks. This term is applied to articles 
of diet, which prove disagreeable to the taste, and difficult of 
digestion, WILLAN List Wds. (1811). Lin. 1 

[ME. abreyden, to wrench, to start; OE. abregdan, to 
twist, to draw a sword. The dialect sense is found in 
ELYOT'S Castel of Helth : An appetite to eate or drynke 
mylke, to the extent that it shal not arise or abraied in the 
stomake (N.E.D.).] 

ABREARD, adj. n.Irel. [abria'd.] 

N.I. 1 Abreard , the condition of a field when the crop appears. 

[A-, on + braird, q.v.] 

ABREDE, adv. Sc. and the n. counties to Yks. and 
Lin. [abre'd, abrrd, abria'd.] 




1. In breadth ; to spread abrede, to expand. 

Ayr. Spread abreed thy well-fill'd brisket, Wi' pith an' power 
BuRNs(ii&riTofiisAuMMare. N.Cy. 1 Abrede, in breadth. Nhb. 1 
n.Yks. 2 Quite full abrede [sufficient in breadth]. The wall was onlj 
a brick abrede [a single brick in thickness]. ne.Yks. 1 T'wall was 
nobbut a brick a-brede (s.v. Brede). e.Yks. 1 Abreed. n-Lin. 1 Tlv 
wall's nobut a brick abread. 

2. In a loose or scattered manner ; spread or cast about. 
N.Cy. 1 Abrede, spread out. Dur. 1 Cum. Sad wedder, an' 

sea mickle hay liggan abreed (M.P.). Win. 1 T'rain hes catch'd 
t'hay abreed. Tha mun scale that muck abreead. n.Yks. 1 [Ol 
corn not yet shocked] When Ah passed i' t'moorn, 'twur liggin' 
abreead ; but 'twur led afoore neeght. w.Yks. 1 T'hay's abreed. 
ne.Lan. 1 His hay is o abrede. 

3. Apart ; in pieces, asunder. 

Rxb. Haud your legs abreid till I creep through QAM.). Cum. 
T'pye-dish is flown abreed i' t'yubbem (M.P.). 

[ME. a brede, on brede (CHAUCER) ; OE. on brcede, in 

ABREDE, v. Sc. Cum. To publish widely. 

Sc. Abrede, to spread abroad (JAM.). Cum. 2 Abreed, to spread 
or extend. 

[ME. abreden, OE. abrcedan, to broaden, expand.] 

ABRICOCK.s*. Chs. Som. [ea'brikok.] The apricot. 
See Apricock. 

Chs. 13 Abrecock, an apricot. Som. (B. & H.); w.Som. 1 Our 
abricocks 'out be fit to pick vor another fortnight. 

[Malus armeniaca is called in Greeke, Melea armeniace, 
in highe duche Land ein amarel baume, in the dioses of 
Colo Kardumelker baume, in frech Vng abricottier, & 
some englishe me cal the fruite an Abricok, W. TURNER 
Names of Herbes (1548), 52 ; The fruit is named ... in 
English, Abrecoke, Aprecock, and Aprecox, GERARD 
(1636) 1449. Port, albricoque, Sp. albaricoque, It. albercocca, 
albicocca, Arab, al-burquq, Gr. trpaiKuKiov (Byzantine /3epi- 
KOKKia, pi.}, Lat. praecoquum, early ripe.] 

ABROACH, v. Yks. [abrua'tj.] 

n.Yks. Commonly used in Cleveland (R. H. H.) ; n.Yks. 2 
Abroach'd, set afloat as a report. 

[ME. abrochen, to pierce a cask so as to let the liquor 
flow out ; also, to give utterance to. So in Allit. Poems, 
i. 1122 : Then glory and gle watz newe abroched. OFr. 
abrocher, to broach a cask.] 

ABROAD, adv. Sc. Irel., gen. throughout the midl. 
and s. counties, but not in gloss, of n.Cy. [abroad, 

1. Out of doors, out in the air, away from home ; up and 
about ; out to sea. 

Frf. He was seldom seen abroad in corduroys, BARRIE Thrums 
(1890) no. Gall. He went less frequently abroad, CROCKETT 
Bog-Myrtle (1895) 236. Ir. God save you, Mrs. M'Gurk ; you're 
abroad in great ould polthers, BARLOW Idylls (1892) 95. War. 2 
Drive them chickens abroad. Shr. 1 That peckled 'en's al'ays about 
the door 66th 'er chickens ; I wish 'er'd tak' 'em abroad awilde. 
Glo. When a man's owld, . . . and can't get abroad as er'd used to, 
BUCKMAN Dai-he's Sojourn (1890) ii. Brks. ' A farmer is sometimes 
described as gone abro-ad when walking in the fields. e^n. 1 
Abroad, out to sea, outside the house. Suf. There's a rare waterpot 
abroad [it was raining heavily] (C.T.). Sur.i We wants a torn 
turkey very bad ; perhaps when you're abroad you may hear of 
one. Dev. You don't mean, carrier, that you surmise it's the ' old 
gentleman abroad, O'NEILL Told in Dimpses (1893) 43. Slang. 
When a boy returned to school work after sick leave, he was said 
to 'come abroad,' Winchester Sch. (L.L.S.) 

2. Lying scattered, spread about ; in different directions 
dispersed ; ail-abroad, in great confusion. 

Brks. 1 Corn or hay is said to be layin' abro-ad when scattered 
about, and neither in cocks nor zwaths. Sur. 1 Sus. 1 Abroad, in 

hnn' H" S ' a ^ ab ^ (&V - Abusefu "y) He threw abroad all her 
shop-goods Hmp. 1 Scattered. w.Som. 1 Dee -ur, dee-ur! dhu 
raayn-z u kaunreen, un aul dh-aay-z ubroa-ud [dear, dear' the 
ram is coming and all the hay is lying loose 1 and scattered! 

draw they 

3. In pieces, asunder. 
Carria 8 e has 


ah a. Glo. The brim's broke 

abroad m a please or two, look'ee ... but what I says is Never 
buy no new un | wear th'owld un till the crownd draps' omon 

un; wear un till the zides vail nbroad, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
(1890) iii. Dor. 1 The vu'st time he [a wagon] 's a-hauled out 
in the zun, he'll come all abroad. w.Som. 1 V-utir u-teokt dhu 
klauk ubroa-ud? [has he taken the clock to pieces?] Ees ! keodn 
diie noart tiie un, voar u wuz u-teokt aul ubroa-ud [yes, (he) could 
not do anything to it, until it was taken all to pieces]. Shauk-een 
bwuuy vur braik ubroa-ud-z kloa-uz [shocking boy for tearing his 
clothes to pieces]. Dev. 'Tez a bit ov mutton ; I've a bowled it 
an' I've a bowled et, I've a chowed et an' I've a chowed et, me an" 
my ole man tu, an' us cOdden git et abroad, chow za hard's us 
cilde, HEWETT Pens. Sp. (1892) 62"; Jelly so stiff that if you were 
to throw it over the house 'twouldn't fall abroad, SHARLAND 
Dev. Village (1885) 54. nw-Dev. 1 Abroad, in pieces. w.Cor. I ca-ant 
mend this ' umberella ' afore its taken abroad (M.A.C.) ; I'll tear it 
abroad, Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 421. 

4. Open, apart. 

w.Som. 1 My head's splittin abroad. I.aur Jiin ! dhee frauk-s 
aul ubroa-ud [law, Jane ! thy frock is all unfastened]. Dev. Yd 
mid be zartin Brownie want val coming down hill. Dreckly 'er 
veel'th 'erzel a-slipping, 'er spraddleth 'er legs abroad and stapp'th 
dead-still! HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 126. nw.Dev. 1 Abroad, un- 
fastened, open. Cor. Why I never heard et at all, but I kept my 
eyes abroard, FORFAR Kynance Cove (1865) 43 ; Cor. 1 The door is 
all abrawd. 

5. Confused, mistaken, ' astray,' wide of the mark, esp. in 
all abroad. 

Nhp. 1 All abroad, an expression used when any undertaking has 
failed, and the person is at a loss what fresh steps to pursue; 
equivalent to 'all at sea.' Mid. He isn't off his head, exactly, but 
you know that we all get a little abroad, when we lie on our 
backs so long as not to know our legs, BLACKMORE Kit (1890) II. ii. 
Cor. 2 He's all abroad there. Colloq. All abroad, wide of the mark 
(FARMER). [Amer. Abroad, confused, staggered (FARMER).] 

6. Boiled, cooked, or squeezed to pieces, to a mash, or 
liquid condition. 

w.Som. 1 Skwaut ubroa'ud dhu ving-ur oa un [squeezed his finger 
quite flat]. Dhai bee fae-umus tae-udees, dhai-ul bwuuy -ul ubroa-ud 
sae-um-z u dust u flaawur [those are splendid potatoes, they will 
boil to a mash like a dust of flour]. Dev. ' Be they tatties a ctlked 
'et?' "Ess.' 'Well, than, drain urn off or they'll be bowled all 
abroad,' HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 55; Ef theyse yer tatties do 
bowl inny longer they'll val awl abroad, ib. 45. w.Cor. The sugar 
is gone abroad (M.A.C.). 

[1. Abroad (in the open air, from home, or not within), 
fan's, sub dio, in publico or aperto. As, they often sup 
abroad, forts saepe coenanl. There must be a fit place taken 
abroad, Idoneus sub dio sumendus locus. He lay abroad 
all night, pernoctavit in publico, COLES (1679) ; I am glad 
to see your lordship abroad (not confined to your sick- 
chamber), SHAKS. 2 Hen. IV, \. ii. 108. ME. For thorw his 
breth bestes wexen and abrode jeden, P. Plowman (B.) xiv. 
60. 3. ME. His brayne fyl alle abrode, CAXTON G. Leg. 165.] 

ABROAD Y, adv. Nhp. Oxf. A child's word for abroad, 
out of doors. 

Nhp. 1 Come, let's go abroadey, or ' all abroadey.' Oxf. 1 [Said to 
children] Come an' go abroady along o' I. 

ABRON, adj. Obs. Shr. Auburn. 

Shr. 1 'Er wuz a sweet pretty babby, 66th nice abron ar, but too 
cute to live. 

[This is a i6th-cent. form. Cp. A lustie courtier, whose 
curled head With abron locks was fairly furnished, HALL 
Virgidemarium (1597) III. Sat. v. 8. ME. aborne, OFr. 
auborne, Lat. alburnus.} 

ABROOD, adj. w.Som. Dev. [abroe'd.] In the act of 

w.Som. 1 Uur zaut ubreo-d uur veol tuym [she sat on her eggs 
her full time]. Dh-oa-1 ain-z ubreo-d tu laas [the old hen is sitting 
at last]. Still the common word used. Dev. When tha ducks a 
brood wis zot, NATHAN HOGG Poet. Let. (1847) 52, ed. 1865 ; Polly 
ought til bring out 'er chicken tu-day ; her'th a zot a-brood vur 
dree weeks, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 153. 

[A-, on + brood.] 

ABSENT, <K# Stf. Obsol. Intoxicated. 

Stf. Monthly Mag. (1816) I. 494. 

ABUD, see Aye but. 

ABUNDATION, sb. In Chs. Shr. Stf. Wor. Hrf. 
Glo. Also written bundation, Glo. 1 Hrf. 2 [abunde-Jan, 
abBnde-Jan.] Abundance. 



Cns. 1 Abundation. in frequent use at Middlewich thirty-five 
years ago. s.Chs. 1 There'll be very fyow (few) turmits this 'ear. 
bu' we shan have abundation o' teetoes. Shr. 1 Stf. 1 Abundation. 
a large quantity. Wor. PORSON Quaint Wds. (1875). Hrf. 1 , Glo. 1 

[A late dialect formation, composed of abund- (in abun- 
dance) + the suffix -ation. The word does not seem to have 
been used at any time in the literary language, although 
the formation has the perfect analogy of inundation.} 

ABUSEFUL. adj. Yks. Lin. War. Shr. Hrf. Glo. 
[abiirsful, abiu'sfslj. Abusive. 

n. Yks. 2 Abuseful, insolent. m.Yks. 1 . iLLin. 1 , War. (J. R.W.), 
Shr. 1 Hrf. 12 Abuseful, abusive. Glo. 1 Abuseful, abusive. 

Hence Abusefully, adv. in an abusive manner. 

Sus. ' As my missus was a-going home a Saddaday night, she met 
Master Chawbery a-coming out of the Red Lion, and he treated 
her most abusefully, and threw abroad all her shop-goods. 

[A late formation. Abuse, sb. +full. The word was not 
uncommon in I7th cent, literature ; for instance, it occurs in 
BARLOW'S Remains (1693) 397 : He scurrilously reviles the 
King and Parliament by the abuseful names of Hereticks 
and Schismaticks (N.E.D.). It must have been but rarely 
used by later writers, for it does not appear in Gouldman, 
Coles, Bailey, or Johnson.] 

ABY, v. Obs. Sc. n.Cy. Also written abie, N.Cy. 1 To 
pay (dearly) for an offence, to expiate, atone. 

Sc. I trust he should dearly abye his outrecuidance, SCOTT 
Waverley (1814) I. 58. N.Cy. 1 Ye shall dearly abie it, 

[If I catch him in this company ... he dearly shall abye, 
SPENSER F. Q. in. vi. 24 ; Lest to thy peril thou aby it dear, 
SHAKS. M.N.D. in. ii. 175. ME. abyen, to buy, purchase ; 
OE. abycgan.'] 

ABY, adv. Nhb. Wm. [abai'.j On one side. 

Nhb. 1 Aby, aside, that is, a-by or a-oneside. ' Stan' aby there ' 
is a familiar shout in a crowd when a way is to be cleared. Wm. 1 

[A-, on + by.] 

ACABO, p/tr. Nrf. Suf. [ake'bo.] 

Nrf. That would puzzle Acabo, COZENS-HARDY Broad Nrf. (1893) 
68. Suf. It would puzzle Acabo (F. H.). Slang. He beats 
Akeybo, and Akeybo beat the devil, HOTTEN Slang Diet. (1865). 

ACAMY, sb. adj. Sh. & Or. I. and w. & s.Sc. A diminu- 
tive thing ; also altrib. diminutive. 

Sh.I. Often used for a weakly young creature of any kind (K. I.). 
Or. I. (G.P.) S. & Ork. 1 Or. 1., w. & s.Sc. Acamy, applied to any 
small, diminutive person or animal. Acamy, acamie, small, diminu- 
tive (JAM. Sltppl.). 

[Prob. the same word as atomy, a diminutive being ; so 
in SHAKS. : Drawn with a team of little atomies Athwart 
men's noses, R. &J. i. iv. 57.] 

ACANT, adv. n.Yks. [aka'nt.] 

n.Yks. A box is acant when it is not level with the ground 
(G.W.W.); n. Yks. 2 Acant, leaning to one side. 

[A-, ou + cant, edge, slope.] 

ACAST, adv. Yks. [aka'st, ske'st] Crooked, twisted, 

n.Yks. 2 Akest, cast or twisted to one side. e.Yks.It's all akest, 
NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 5 I e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) 

[A-, on + cast.] 

ACAUSE, conj. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. Der. Not. Lin. 
Lei. Brks. Sus. Dev. [akcrs.] Because. Also in phr. 
acause on, because of. 

Nhb. 1 He wadn't gan acas he wis (laid. He couldn't run acas on 
his bad foot. Cum. 3 For noute at o' else but acoase they think he 
kens me. n.Yks. Akaws t'sup o' milk's getten scattert, TWED- 
DELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 36. ne.Yks. 1 Acoz. ne.Lan. 1 Acos. 
e.Lan. 1 Ocose. Der. Happen I'm slow acos it's an owd, owd tale 
wi' me, and you're quick acos it's a new story to you, GUSHING 
Voe (1888) I. ix. Not 1 n.Lin. 1 Acos. Let 1 Acoz. Brks^Awunt 
come acause thee bist yen Sus. Acus all de family be troubled 
wud sich bad eyes, LOWER Tom Cladpole (1831) pt iv. Dev. Her's 
a pining acause you be so long away, BARING-GOULD J. Herring 
(1888) 325. 

[A-, on + cause.] 

ACCABE.zVz/. s.Pem. [a'kabl.] An expression of disgust. 

s.Pem. Accabe ! there's a doorty owld shanty Maary keeps 

[Prob. of LG. origin, the expression being due to 
the Flemish colonists in Pembroke. SCHUERMANS gives 

(s.v. Aak) ake-puu ! The Holstein Idiotikon (s.v. Akkeu) 
has akkefi.' akkefu ! an expression of disgust employed 
by nurses to dirty little children. So alike puf in the 
Bremen Wtbch.] 

ACCASPIRE, see Acrospire. 

ACCESS, sb. Sc. Nhb. Ken. Sus. Also written aixies, 
exies Sc. N.Cy. 1 ; axes S. & Ork. 1 Ken. ; axey Sus. 

1. An ague fit. 

Sc. The cookmaid in the trembling exies, SCOTT Br. of Lam. 
(1819) xi; Shiverin an' shakin wi' the trem'lin aixies, HUNTER 
/. Inwick ( 1895) xvi. S. & Ork. 1 , N.Cy. 1 Nhb. GROSE ( 1790^ Ken. 
N. &> Q. (1885) 6th S. xi. 308. Sus. 1 

2. Hysterics. 

Sc. Jenny Rintherout has ta'en the exies, and done nothing but 
laugh and greet, SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xxxv. 

[The access of an ague is the approach or coming of 
the fit. ... In Lancashire they call the ague itself the 
access, as 'such a one is sick of the access," BLOUNT (1670). 
The word occurs as early as Chaucer in the sense of an 
ague fit: A charme . . . The whiche can helen the of thyn 
accesse, Tr. &- Cr. n. 1316. Fr. acce's, cp. un acces defievre 

ACCOMIE, sb. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Also written accumie. 
A species of mixed metal. 

Sc. His writing pen did seem to me to be Of harden'd metal, like 
steil or accumie, SCOT (of Satchell) Hist. Name of Scot (1776) 34. 

[This word is a form of alchemy, used in the sense of a 
metallic composition imitating gold, as if by the art of the 
alchemist. In byrnist gold and finest alcomye, DOUGLAS 
Aeneis xn ; Alkamye, metalle, alkamia, Prompt. ; Alca- 
namy, corinthium, Cath. Angl. The form ockamy (or 
occamy) was also once in use. Skinner says : Ockamy, 
Metallum quoddam mistum, colore argenti aemulum, sed 
vilissimum, corruptum a nostro Alchymy. Steele mentions 
'an occamy spoon,' Guardian, No. 26; see NARES.] 

ACCORA-EARTH, sb. n.Cy. w.Yks. ne.Lan. Also 
written accorah- n.Cy. w.Yks. ne.Lan. ; acora- w.Yks. 
[a'kara-iajj.] Green arable earth ; a field. 

n.Cy. Accorah-earth, green arable earth, GROSE (1790) ; HOLLO- 
WAY. w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781); LUCAS Stud.Nidderdale 
(c. 1882) 228. neXan. 1 

ACCORD, v. Sc. Wor. Hrf. [ako'rd, aka'd.] To agree, 
come to an agreement. 

Sc. Proceed as we accorded before dinner, SCOTT Waverley (1814) 
xix ; The Queen accorded with this view of the matter, CARLYLE 
Fted. Gt. (1865) X. 57. w.Wor. 1 'Im an' 'er can't accard together 
no waay. s.Wor. 1 Hrf. 2 

[My consent and fair according voice, SHAKS. R. 6r>J. 
1. 11. 19. ME. acorden, to agree : If evesong and morwe- 
song acorde, CHAUCER C. T. A. 830. OFr. acorder.] 

ACCORDING, adv. Wor. Glo. Som. and van dial, 
[akoa-din, aka'din.] Comparatively, in proportion to; 
dependent upon (in gen. use). 

se.Wor. 1 It's as much bigger accardin' as my fut is nur that 
there young un's [it is as much larger comparatively, as my foot 
is than that child's]. Glo. 1 He's the biggest according [i. e. in 
proportion to his age]. w.Sora. 1 D-ee dhingk ee-ul bee ae-ubl vur 
kau-m? Wuul, kaa-n tuul ee nuzaa'klee, t-aez koa-rdeen wuur 
aayv u-fun'eesh ur noa [Do you think you will be able to come? 
Well, (I) cannot tell you exactly; it is dependent upon whether I 
have finished or not]. 

ACCORDINGLY, adv. Yks. Lin. [akoadinlai'.] In pro- 
portion. See According. 

n.Yks 2 . e.Yks. 1 Thoos deean varry lahtle (little), an' thoo may 
expect to be paid accoadinlye. This word is hardly ever heard in 
the sense of consequently. w.Yks. Jack's tallest, but Tom's taller 


Oh, they're a lot cheaper accordingly. It's accordinglyas they do it. 

ACCOUNT, in phr. Sc. Brks.Sus.Wil.Dev. [Sc.akirnt; 

To lay one's account with, to assure one's self of, make 
up one's mind to, to reckon on ; to make account of, to 
value, esteem ; to set account by, to value ; to take account 
of, to pay attention to, value. 

Sc. I counsel you to lay your account with suffering, WALKER 

C 2 




Peden. (1827) 56 QAM.); You may lay your account with oppo- 
sition, Scotic. (1787) 51. Brks. ' Most young men would have 
been crippled for life by it.' 'Zo 'em would, the young wosbirds ; 
I dwon't make no account on 'em,' said Simon, HUGHES T. Brown 
Oxf. (1861) xxxiii. Sus. They don't seem to make much account 
of parsons up here, sir, EGERTON Flks. and Ways (1884) 106. 
Dev. 3 I dawnt zit no account by 'n, 'e idden vit vor much. n.Wil. 
She do take a turrible deal o' 'count o that viewer as you give her 
(E.H.G.). nw.Dev. 1 Doan ee take no 'count o' 'n, my dear; he 
waan't aurt ee. I caan't tell ee 'ow many there waz ; I did'n take 
no count o' min [i. e. I did not observe them closely]. 

[I must lay my account with such interruption every 
morning, SMOLLETT R. Random, I. 176; To make great 
(little) account of, magnifacio, parvi aut nihili pendo, COLES 
(1679) ; Estimer, to set by, make much account of, COTGR. ; 
Or the son of man, that thou makest account of him, 
BIBLE Ps. cxliv. 3 ; A Icon in his rage Which of no drede 
set accompt, GOWER C.A. HI. 267 ; I set it at no more accompt 
Than wolde a bare straw amount, ib. u. 286.] 

ACCOUTREMENTS, sb. pi. w.Cor. [aku'taments.] 
Things strewn about. 

w.Cor. Pick up your accouterments (M.A.C.). 

[In SHAKS. accoutrements is used of a person's dress, 
apparel : Point-device in your accoutrements, As You, in. 
ii. 402 ; In habit and device, exterior form, outward ac- 
coutrements, K.John, i. i. 2ii.] 

ACCROSHAY, sb. Cor. A kind of leap-frog. 

Cor. 1 A cap or small article is placed on the back of the stooping 
person by each boy as he jumps over him ; the one who knocks 
either of the things off has to take the place of the stooper : the 
first time he jumps over the boy says ' Accroshay,' the second 
' Ashotay,' the third ' Assheflay,' and lastly ' Lament, lament 
Leleeman's (or Lelena's) war ' ; Cor. 2 MS. add. 

[On inquiry of some of our Board School boys I learn 
that here (at Redruth) they occasionally play leap-frog 
with the 'pillar boys' arranged in two lines, boys starting 
on each line simultaneously, and this they call ' Crossy,' 
as my informants the boys say, from crossing each other 
continually (T. C. P.).] 

ACCUSE, ZA w.Som. [akii'z.] To appoint, invite,inform. 

w.Som. 1 Uvoar uur duyd uur ukeo'z dhai uur weesh vur tu kaar 
ur [before she died she appointed those she wished to carry her]. 
Ee wuz maa-yn jul-ees kuz ee waud-n ukeo-z tu dhu suup-ur [he 
was very jealous because he was not invited to the supper]. Dhai 
wu zukeo'z uvoar an-, un zoa dhai wuz u-prai-pae-ur [they were 
informed beforehand, and so they were prepared]. 

[Cf. Fr. accuser, 'signaler, rendre manifested 'J' accuse la 
reception de votre lettre.' See HATZFELD.] 

ACCUSSING, see Hackaz. 

ACE, sb. Nrf. [e's.] In ace and douce, wholly, entirely. 

Nrf. He baat the 'Merricans ace and douce, SPILLING Giles's 
Trip (1872) 23. w.Nrf. Bate it ace an' douce if yow can find it, 
ORTON Beeston Ghost (1884) 9. 

ACELET, see Harslet. 

ACH, int. s.Pem. In phr. ach upon you. 

s.Pem. Ach upon you, LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 419. 

ACHANCE, conj. w.Yks. [atjb'ns.] In case that, for 
fear that, lest. 

w.Yks. Achonce, in case that, Leeds (F. M. L. ) ; w.Yks.5 Let 
me tak care on't achance tuh loises it. Tak t'umbrella wi' thuh 
achonce it raans. 

[A-, on + chance.} 

ACHE, sb. 1 Chs. Shr. Written aitch. [etj.] A sudden 
pain or attack of illness ; paroxysms in an intermittent 
disorder. Cf. access. 

Chs. 1 Hot aitches are flushings in the face ; fainty aitches are 
fainting fits. [Also] Fainty haitches, slight indisposition ; Chs. 2 ; 
Chs a Used to express a paroxysm of an intermitting disorder. 
s.Chs i. 1 I ye had some despert bad feenty (fainting) aitches leet- 
wheiles (lately). Hot aitches are flushings of heat. Shr 1 'They 
tell n me as poor owd Matty Roberts is mighty bad ' ' Aye 'er^s 

fa S in t tina t itc e hes aitCheS ^^ SP "" S *"' fa ' L> ' du " na lik * these 

[OE. cece, ache, pain.] 

ACHE, sft Cor. [ek eak.] A large and comfortless 
place ; used of a room or house. 

Cor. 2 MS. add. [Perhaps a special sense of Ache 1 (T.C.P.).] 

ACHE, sb. 3 Cor. [etj, eatj.] A plant-name, Bryony. 

Cor. 2 Ache, bryony. Ache-mor, bryony root, MS. add. 

[In BRITTEN HOLLAND'S English Plant-names ache ap- 
pears as the name of the three following plants : (i ) Apium 
graveolens, L. (2) Ranunculus sceleratus, L. ; in Turn., Lib., 
from its celery-like leaves. (3) Fraxinus excelsior, L. ('This 
seems to be its meaning in the Plumpton correspondence, 
p. 188,' Hall.) The application of the name to bryony 
seems to be peculiar to Cornwall. COLES (1679) has ache 
for smallage (herb), apium. ME. ache, smallage ; OFr. 
ache, celery ; Rom. apia (for Lat. apium}.} 

ACHE, v. Ken. Sus. 

1. To be weary, tired. 

Sus. 1 I am afraid you'll ache waiting so long. 

2. To long for, desire anything. 

Sus. 1 Nancy just will be pleased, she has ached after a dole I 
don't know the time when. 

Hence Aching-tooth, comp. 

Ken. 1 To have an aching-tooth for anything, is to wish for it very 
much. Muster Moppett's man's got a terr'ble aching-tooth for our 
old sow. 

[To have an aking tooth at one, Indignor, infensum esse 
alicui, COLES.] 

ACHE-BONE, see Aitch-bone. 

ACHER, see Icker. 

ACK, v. A mistaken form for Rack, q.v. 

ACKADUR, v. S. & Ork. To persevere, endeavour. 

Sh. or Or. I. Akkadur, to persevere (Coll. L.L.B.). S. & Ork. 1 
Ackadur, to endeavour. 

ACKER, sb. Sc. Nhb. Yks. e.An. Also written aiker, Sc. 

1. A ripple or dark streak on the surface of water, a 
' cat's paw ' or ' curl.' 

n.Cy. Sailors at sea name it when seen on a larger scale by the 
expressive term 'cat's-paw.' The North-country peasant, how- 
ever, knows it by the name ' acker,' implying, as it were, a space 
ploughed up by the wind, Cornh. Mag. (July 1865) 34 ; N.Cy. 1 , 
Nhb. 1 , ra.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 e.An. 1 Aker, a turbulent current, a com- 
motion of a river. 

2. The break or movement made by a fish in the water 


[This word occurs in ME. in the sense of a strong cur- 
rent in the sea : Akyr of the see flowynge. impetus man's, 
Prompt. ; An aker is it clept I understonde Whos myght 
there may no shippe or wynd wyt stonde, MS. poem 
(c. 1500), quoted by WAY ; Aker of the sea whiche pre- 
venteth the flowde or flowynge, impetus man's, HULOET.] 

ACKER, v. Nhb. Cum. Yks. [e'kar, a-ka(r).] 

1. To ripple, curl, as water ruffled from wind. 
N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 295. 

2. Of the hair. 

m.Yks. 1 The hair is said to acker when in wavy outline. 

[See Acker, sb.] 

ACKER, see Acre. 

ACKEREL, sb. w.Yks. Not. An acorn. 

w.Yks. Hlfx. Wds. ; Ackerils [in Calder Vale], Yks. N. & Q. 
(1888) II. 13; Ackeril was in general use when I was a lad, in 
Halifax and district. . . . Not very often used now (Letters, per 
S.K.C.). Not This word is still used (S.O.A.). 

ACKERMETUT, sb. w.Yks. Liquid manure. 

w.Yks. 2 Ackermetut, Ackermetoota, Ackermantut : the word is 
well known to old farmers about Sheffield. 

ACKERSPRIT, see Acrospire. 

ACKNOW, v. Obs. n.Cy. To acknowledge, confess. 

n.Cy.Acknown, acknowledged, GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 

[ME. aknowen, OE. oncnawan.] 

ACKNOWLEDGE, v. e.An. [aknolidz.] To give a 

e.An. 1 Acknowledge, to tip. Nrf., Suf. I hope you will acknow- 
ledge me (F.H.). 

Hence Acknowledgement, pecuniary gift, without re- 
ference to services rendered (F.H.). 

ACKWARDS, see Awkward. 

ACLITE, adv. Rxb. Nhb. [aklai't] Out of joint, 

Rxb. Aclitc, ackleyt, awry to one side (JAM.\ Nhb. 1 Newcastle's 
now a dowly place, all things seems sore aclite. For here at last 




Blind Willie lies, an honest, harmless wight, GILCHRIST Blind 
Willie's Epitaph (c. 1844). 

[A-, on + elite, q.v.] 

ACOCK, adv. 1 Yks. Lan. Glo. [ako'k.] 

Astride ; Jig. elated, triumphant. 

w.Yks. 5 Acock o' t'horse. Acock o' t'bezom. Acock'n a raal. 
Glo. To get a-cock of the house, and sit a-cock, GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (M.) Colloq. Ride acock horse To Banbury Cross, Nursery 
Rhyme. All-a-cock, highly elated, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) 

Hence A-cock-horse, adj. triumphant. 

ne.Lan. 1 

[A-, on + cock, a heap, a hay-cock.] 

ACOCK, adv.* Colloq. To knock (a person) a bit acock, 
to disable him ; hence, fig. to surprise, discomfit. 

War. 2 Colloq. I can remember axin' my feyther how it was as 
some folks was rich an' some was poor. It knocked him a bit acock, 
my axin' him that, MURRAY Nov. Note-bk. (1887) 2 59- 

[A-, on + cock. Cp. cock used in the sense of an upward 
turn, as in a cock of the eye, a cock of the nose, a cock of 
a hat.] 

ACOLD, adj. Won Brks. Cmb. I.W. Som. [akou'ld, 
akoird.] Cold. 

se.Wor. 1 Be yer 'onds acaowd ? come ether an' warm um. 
Brks. 1 1 be a-veelin acawld. Cmb. (M. J.B.) I.W. 1 Acoolde, very 
cold. w.Som. 1 I be a-cold sure 'nough z-mornin. 

[A- (pref. 10 ) + cold. This word is sometimes used as a 
quasi-archaic word by the poets of the igth cent. : The 
owl for all his feathers was a-cold, KEATS St. Agnes' Eve. 
The word is best known from its occurrence in SHAKS., 
Tom's a-cold, K. Lear, HI. iv. 59. ME. Thus lay this pouer 
in great distresse Acolde and hongry at_the gate, GOWER 
C. A. in. 35. Perhaps the repr. of OE. acolod, pp. ofacolian, 
to cool.] 

ACORN, sb. Lan. Chs. Lin. Lei. War. Won Hrf. Hmp. 

1. In phr. right as an acorn, honest, fair ; sound as an 
acorn, without a flaw, free from imperfection ; a red pig 
for an acorn ; a horse foaled by an acorn, the gallows. 

Lan. Come, aw think o's reel an' square. Reel as a hatch-horn, 
WAUGH Besom Ben (1865) i ; Lan. 1 Lan. An' seaund as an achurn, 
BRIERLEY _/<-o (1878)9. Chs. 1 As sound as a atchern. w.Wor. 1 
' As sound as an ackern ' is a local proverb, applied to everything 
from a horse to a nut. Hrf. 2 Chs. 1 A red pig for a atchern. 
Slang. A horse foaled by an acorn, the gallows, GROSE Diet. Vulg. 
Tong. (1811), (FARMER) ; As pretty a Tyburn blossom as ever was 
brought up to ride a horse foaled by an acorn, LYTTON Pelham (1827) 

Hence, of pigs, Yackery, adj., q.v. 

2. Comp. Acorn-mast, acorns, or acorns mixed with mast ; 
Acorn-tree, the oak. 

Hmp. Akermast, a collective name for acorns and mast, WISE 
New Forest (1883) 82 ; Hmp. 1 n.Lin. Acorn-tree, Quercus Robur; 
n-Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 , War. 3 

ACORN, v. Chs. War. Shr. Hrf. Brks. Sun Hmp. Wil. 
Also written ackern War. ; yacorn, atchorn Hrf. ; see be- 
low. To pick up acorns ; to feed on acorns. Usually in prp. 

Chs. 1 ; Chs. 2 The pigs are gone o' aitchorning ; Chs. 3 To go 
atchorning is to go picking up acorns. s.Chs. 1 I've sent the 
children a-atchernin. War. (J.R.W.) Shr. 1 The childern bin 
gwun achernin ; Shr. 2 The pigs gween a akkering (or o' aitchorn- 
ing). Hrf. 1 ; Hrf. 2 Measter's got 17 on 'em out a yacorning [i. e. 
pigs in the woods]. Brks. 1 When the acorns fall pigs are turned 
into the woods aaykernin. Sur. 1 Pigs when turned out in the 
autumn are said to be akyring. Hmp. 1 The children be all gone 
akering. Wil. The old country proverb, ' Ah, well, we shall live 
till we die, if the pigs don't eat us, and then we shall go acorning,' 
JEFFERIES Hdgrow. (1889) 65. 

Hence Akering-time. 

Hmp. 1 Akering-time, the autumn, when acorns fall, and are 

ACOW, adv. n.Cy. Yks. Also written acaw N.Cy. 1 
[akair.] Crooked, askew, awry ; alsoyfp-. 

N.Cy. 1 n.Yks. Hisshoes is trodden a-cow (I. W.); n.Yks. 2 A-cow, 
on one side, twisted. His mind's a-cow, he is crotchety. 

[A-, on + cow ; see Cow, v.] 

AC9UAINT, ppl. adj. Sc. n.Irel. I.Ma. [akwe'nt.j 

Sc. He is weel acquent wi' a' the smugglers, thieves, and banditti, 
SCOTT Midlothian X i8i8 xv. Inv. Acquent, acquainted (H.E.F.). 

Ayr. John Anderson my jo, John. When we were first acquent, 
BuRNsyoA;; Anderson. Gall. The lassie micht no be acquant wi' 
the name. CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle ^1895) 173. N.I. 1 I'm well acquant 
with all his people. I.Ma. But James and me Was well acquent, 
BROWNE Doctor (1887) 28. 

[ME. aqueynt. With such love be no more aqueynt, Rom. 
Rose, 5200. AFr. aqueynt. OFr. acoint, personally known.] 

ACQUAINTANCE, sb. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Glo. 
[akwe'ntans.] A sweetheart. 

War. 2 , s.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Molly, do you know that Miss F is 
going to be married ? ' Well, sir, I thought I sid 'er 66th an 
acquaintance.' Hrf. 2 , Glo. 1 

ACQUAINTED, ppl. adj. Rut. Hrf. Nrf. [akwe'ntid, 
-ad.] To be acquainted, to be ' keeping company.' 

Rut. 1 Acquainted, in the first stage of courting. Hrf. 2 They've 
been acquainted a good while. Nrf. Acquented with, engaged 
to be married (E. M.). 

ACRAZED, pp. n.Yks. [akri'zd.] 

n.Yks. 2 A-craz d, wrong-headed. 

[From OFr. acraser (mod. e'craser), to break in pieces. 
The E. erase is probably an aphetic form of acrase.] 

ACRE, sb. ^Various dial, uses in Great Britain and Irel. 
See below, [e'ka(r), e3'ka(r), ya'ka(r).] 

1. Any piece of land, arable or tilled, a field ; chiefly con- 
fined to names of fields, whatever their extent may be. 

w.Yks. 1 Acker, fine mould. Nhp. 2 Fields of much larger extent 
than an acre are called by this name, as Green's-yacker, Rush-yacre. 
Nrf. Acre, a field, as Castle Acre in Norfolk (K.). 

2. A measure of land, differing in various parts of Great 
Britain and Ireland from the normal statutable piece of 
40 poles long by 4 broad =4840 sq. yds. This variation 
sometimes coincides with the different nature of the crop, 
&c., which the land yields. 

Sc. A Scotch acre commonly - 6084 square yards, ROBERTSON 
Agric. in Per. (1799) (N. E. D.); The Scotch acre was nearly one 
acre, one rood, two perches of Eng. measure, Libr. Agric. (1830). 
Ir. 121 Irish acres do make 196 English statute acres, PETTY Pol. 
Anat. (1691) 52. Wm. The acre [has] 6760 yards (C. D.). s.Lan. 
Chs. 1 The acre is 10,240 sq. yards, and is still in constant use 
amongst farmers, especially in the northern half of the county, 
and in s.Lan. Chs. land measure is as follows: 64 square yards 
= i rood (i.e. rod), 40 roods = i quarter, 4 quarters = i acre. Lin. 
Among the customary English acres are found . . . 200 [perches] 
for copyhold land (C.D.). Lei. The acre has 2308! yards (C.D.). 
Wales. A Welsh acre is usually two English acres, WORLIDGE 
Syst. Agric. (1681) ; In Wales different measures, the b erw, the 
stang, the paladr, are called acres (C.D.). Cor. [5760 yards] Libr. 
Agric. (1830). Var. dial. An acre sometimes is estimated by the 
proportion of seed used on it ; and so varies according to the 
richness or sterility of the land, WORUDGE Syst. Agric. (1681) 
321. Among the customary English acres are found measures 
of the following numbers of perches 80 or 90 (of hops), 107, no, 
120 (shut acre), 130, 132, 134, 141, 180 (forest acre), 212, 256 (of 
wood) (C.D.). 

3. A lineal measure. 

Not. Acre is 28 yards running measure (W.W.S.). ; Not. 1 The 
word ' acre ' is occasionally used by elderly men here instead of 
' chain ' 22 yards for the measurement of hedging and ditching, 
but it is not in common use, nor is it known as a lineal measure 
by the majority of country people in this district. n.Lin. 1 Acre, a 
measure of length. An acre-length, 40 poles or a furlong. An 
acre-breadth, 4 poles or 22 yards. Midi. Acre, a species of long 
measure, consisting of 32 yards ; four roods, MARSHALL Rur. 
Econ. (1790) II. Lei. Acre is 24 yds. running measure (W.W.S.) ; 
Lei. 1 In addition to its ordinary meaning, [acre] is used as a 
measure of length in two distinct senses. In one it is equal to 
220 yards : in the other it is equal to four rods of 8 yards, or 32 
yards. In measurements of hedging, ditching, and draining it is 
. . . used in the latter sense. 

4. In his acres. 

Cor. 1 In his acres, in his glory. 

5. Comp. Acre-breadth, see 3 ; Acker-dale, applied to 
land apportioned in acre strips ; Acre-length, see 3 ; 
-mould, finely tilled earth, see 1 ; -painting, easy paint- 
ing of which a great quantity can be quickly done ; ' 
-stones, field stones, see 1 ; -tax, see below. 

Sc. Wad Phillis loo me, Phillis soud possess Sax acre-braid o' 
richest pasture grass. Pickcn Poems (1788) 104 (JAM.); Gillmer- 
toune . . . being all of it acker-dale land. Somcrvills Mem. 




I. 168 (JAM.). N.Cy. 1 Acker-dale lands, common fields in which 
(Mill-rent proprietors Imlil portions of greater or less extent. 
Nhb. 1 Acre-dale or acre-deal lands, land apportioned in acre strips.^ 
nXIn. 1 Acre-length. w.Yks. 1 A nice birk at grew atop o' th 
Ealand, on some acker moud ; w.Yks. Ah'm dewin' a bit o' acre- 
p.-imiin' .KB.'. nw.Dcv. 1 Acre-stones, loose stones, such as are 
picked up in fields. n.Lln.' Acre-tax, a draining tax on the An- 
cholme Level [for maintaining sea-banks]. 

Hence Ackery, adj. abounding in finely tilled earth. 

w.Yks. 1 Ackery, abounding with fine mould. 

[OE. cecer, field + <//, a portion, share.] 

ACRE, v. Sc. To make payment at a fixed rate per 
acre the basis of any transaction, csp. to pay labourers 
at this rate to gather the harvest in. Of a labourer : to 
work under these conditions. 

Sc. Acre, Ackre, Aikur, to buy, sell, let, deal, or work ... at a 
fixed rate per acre (JAM. Sttf>pl.\ Bnff. 1 Ma ain servan's arc nae 
t'wirk at the hairst wark this hairst : a'm gain' t'ackre 'ta'. A'm 
nae gain t'fec this hairst : a'm t'ackre. 

Hence Acrer, one who acres ; Acreing, the act of 
harvesting grain-crops at a stated sum per acre. 

Bnff. 1 Ackrer, one who undertakes to harvest crops at a fixed 
sum per acre. Sc. Acrcin', Ackrin' (JAM. Suf>j>l.}. Bnff. 1 Ackran. 

ACRE, see Icker. 

ACRE-A-BUNG, sb. S. or Ork. 

S. or Ork. Acre-a-bung, fog grass, holcus mollis (Coll. L.L.B.). 

ACRER, sb. s.Sc. A very small proprietor (JAM.). 

s.Sc. The provincial name of acrerers, portioncrs, and feuars, 
Agr. Sun. Rxb. 15 (JAM.). 

ACRIMONY, sb. Lei. War. [a-krlmonl.] The deli- 
quescence of putrefying animal matter. 

Lei. 1 The acrimony run out o' the jintcs o' the coffin all down me. 

[The effect of the acrimony of the putrid blood, ABER- 
NETHY (N.E.D.).] 

ACROOKED, adj. Yks. Lan. Also written acreeak't 
n.Yks. ; acreak'd nc.Lan. 1 [akriu'kt, akrn'kt] Crooked, 
twisted, awry, askew. 

n.Yks. 2 A-crewk'd. e.Yks. 1 Acrewkt, askew. w.Yks. Thi billy- 
cock's akrewkt ! (^C.B.) ; w.Yks. 1 Acrook'd, awry. ne.Lan. 1 

[A- (pref. l )+ crooked.} 

ACROSPIRE, sb. 1 w.Yks. Also written accaspire. A 
kind of stone. 

w.Yks. Accaspire, a sort of hard stone containing particles of 
flint, Hlfx. IVtis. ; Accaspire, Acrospirc, Acklespire, Ochrcspire, 
used in Halifax district, to denote hard nodules of unworkable 
stone, occasionally met with in the rock of the lower coal-measures 
from which the Yorkshire stone is quarried. Called Iron-stone 
round Bradford (W.H.V.). 

[Etym. unknown.] 

ACROSPIRE, sb? Sc. n.Cy. Lan. Stf. Der. Lin. Nhp. 
c.An. Also in the form ackersprit N.Cy. 1 Der. 1 Lan. 1 ; acre- 
spiren.Lin^Nhp.'Nrf^Suf. 1 [a-kr3spaie(r),a-kaspaia(r).| 

1. The sprouting of corn ; csp. of barley in the process of 

Sc. When [barley] shoots at the higher extremity of the grain 
... it is the acherspyre that forms the stalk (JAM.). N.Cy. 1 Der. 1 
Corn shooting at both ends ; Der. 2 n.Lin. 1 The sprout of corn 
before the cars come forth. Nhp. 1 We restrict the use of this 
word to the germ of barley in the process of malting the chitting 
or sprouting at that end of the grain from which the stalk rises. 
>. A II. 1 Acre-spire, or Acre-spit, the sprouting or ' chicking' of barley 
in malting. Nrf. 1 The sprouting of barley. Suf. 1 The sprouting or 
chicking of barley in the process of germinating into malt. 

2. Of potatoes or turnips : premature sprouting. 

n.Cy. Ackersprit, a potato with roots at both ends, GROSE (1790); 
N.Cy. 1 The premature sprouting of a potato. Lan. 1 A potato, 
turnip, or other root, with roots at both ends. Stf. 1 Akerspirl [sic], 
the shoot of a potato. e.An. 1 Acre-spire, or Acre-spit, the sprout- 
ing or 'chicking' of . . . stored potatoes. 
[1. Acherspyre, in making of Malt . . . Dicitur de liordeo, 
ibt in praeparatione RVVTJS seu Brasii niniium, Sf ab utraque 

extretnitate, gerntinat, SKINNER (1671) L 111 2. Cp. JOHN- 
SON : Acrospire, a shoot or sprout from the end of seeds 
before they are put in the ground (' Many corns will smilt 
or have their pulp turned into a substance like thick cream, 
and . . . send forth their substance in an acrospirc,' Mortimer 

Husbandry). Etym. doubtful. Prob. spin repr. OE. spTr, 
a spike, blade. 

ACROSPIRE, v. Sc. n.Cy. Chs. Wor. Shr. Suf. Also 
written ackerspier N.Cy. 2 ; ackerspyre Chs. 1 ; ackerspire 
vv.Wor. 1 

1. Of barley in the process of malting : to send out the 

first leaf-shoot. 

Sc. Barley is said to acherspyre when it shoots at the higher 
extremity of the grain, from which the stalk springs up (sec Come). 
In the operation of malting, ... it shoots first at the lower end, a 
considerable time before it acherspyres JAM.). N.Cy. 1 For want 
of turning, when the malt is spread on the floor, it comes and 
sprouts at both ends, which is called to acrospyro. MORTIMER 
Husbandry; N.Cy. 2 Used when the blade in mault growes out at the 
opposite end to the roote. Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 When the malting pro- 
cess is too long continued and both root and sprout are visible, the 
barley is yakkerspircd and injured for malting. Chs. 121 

2. Of potatoes : to sprout or put forth fresh tubers pre- 

w.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 I doubt the tittoes'll ackerspire wuth this wet 

Hence Ackerspired, Ackersprit, />/>/. adj. having sprouts 
or acrospires. 

Chs. 1 Potatoes are said to be ackersprit when the axillary buds 
on the stem grow into small green tubers, as is often the case in 
wet seasons ; Chs. 2 ; Chs. 3 The potatoes were very generally 
ackcrspriL s.Chs. 1 Shr. 1 Potatoes are ackcrspired, when after 
a dry season heavy rain sets in, and the super-abundant moisture 
causes them to put forth new tubers, instead of increasing them in 
size, thus spoiling the growth. Suf. 1 Acre-sprit. 

ACROSS, prep, and adv. Yks. Lin. Brks. Dev. Also 
written acrass Brks. 1 [akro's.] 

1. prep. Of time : about. 

e.Yks. 1 He awlas cums across tea time. 

2. adv. On bad terms, unfriendly, at variance. 

e.Yks. 1 Jim an me's rayther across just noo, MS. add. (T. H.) 
sw.Lin. 1 They'd gotten a little bit across. Brks.'Gaarge an' his 
brother hev a-bin a bit acraas laaytely. 

3. Hence, to fall, get acrass, to disagree, quarrel. 

Dev. 'Why, pity on us!' said a little cattle-jobber with a squint, 
' when folks who look straight before them fall across, how am 
I to keep straight with my eyes askew ? ' BARING-GOULD Spitttr 
1,1887) vii ; The two who have got across, ib. 

ACROUPED, ppl. adj. Dor. [skru-pt] Crouched. 

Dor. [The pheasants] are a-croupied down nearly at the end of 
the bough, HARDY Woodlandcrs (.1887) I. ix. 

[OFr. s'accnwpir, to crouch : Les poults s'accroupissent 
pour dorntir.] 

ACT, sb. w.Yks. A practical joke ; cf. act, v. 2. 

w.Yks. Thowt he'd hcd a act, Dewsbrt Olm. (1865) 4. 

ACT, v. Irel. Yks. Stf. Der. Not. Wor. Oxf. Brks. Cmb. 
Suf. Ess. Ken. I.W. Som. Cor. [akt, sekt] 

1. To do, perform (usually the action is of a reprehensible 

s.Stf. Wot bin ycr actin' at wi my tculs? (T.P.) s.Wor. 
F.W.M.W.) w.Som. 1 Haul bee aa-kteen oa? [What are you 

2. Hence, to act mischievously ; to tease, play tricks ; to 
act on (? of) /'/, to do wrong. 

s.Not Act, to behave skittishly. A driver will say to a skittish 
horse, ' Now then, what arc yer acting at?' (J.P.K.) Brks. 1 
Zo you bwoys hcv a-bin actin on't agin, hev 'e ? Suf. Don't act 
[of a person, or animal, such as a horse, creating a disturbance 
or acting in an unusual manner] (C.T.) ; Leave off acting with me 
VF.H.). I.W. 2 Act, to play tricks. 
8. To set about any work. 

nw-Der. 1 Act, to ' shape ' or ' frame,' either (i) at a particular job 
of work ; or (a) at the duties of a new situation or calling. How 
docs he act? O, very weel. Ess. Gl (1851). 

1. To behave in an affected or artificial manner; to 
'show off.' 

Hrf. a Acting (of children), showing off. Oxf. 1 Thar Mary do 
act, scnce "er 'a lived at Oxford. I.W. 2 Dedn't he jest about .(. 
5. To pretend, simulate ; to act lame, to sham lameness ; 
in this sense in gen. use. 

Brks. 1 w.Som. 1 EC aa'k bac-ud un zoa dhai lat un goo [he pre- 
tended to be ill, and so they let him go]. [Of an old dog wliicli 
was going along limping] He idn on'y acting lame; he always 
do, hon he reckonth he've ado'd enough. 




8. To act Dan' I, to keep one's own counsel, to ' lie low'; 
lo act about, to act oneself, to play the fool. 

s.Stf. He could hardly help loffin' out, but he kep on actin Dan'l 
all thru, PINNOCK Bk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Ken. 1 He got acting-about, 
and fell down and broke his leg. w.Cor. He was tipsy and acting 
himself fine (M.A.C.). 

Hence Acting, vbl. sb. ; gossoons' acting, children's play, 
or ' make-believe.' Action, sb. unruly or ' skittish ' be- 
haviour, pretence, conceits, see 2, 4. 

w.Yks. Drop your acting, and come here (F.M.L.). s.Not. 
A mother will say to a wilful child ' Stop that acting, and be off 
to bed with yer like a good gell' (J.P.K.). Cmb. None of your 
acting [rough behaviour] (J.D.R.). Oxf. 1 Na then! lens 'a no 
actin'. Ir. It's only gossoons' actin'. Suf. None of your actions 
(C.TA Cor. He's like a merry antic full of his actions (M.A.C.). 

ACTIONABLE, adj. Cum. [a'kjanabl.] Of a horse : 
having good action, agile. 

Cum. A nice actionable pony (M.P.). 

ACTION SERMON, sb. Sc. The designation com- 
monly given in Sc. to the sermon which precedes the 
celebration of the ordinance of the Supper (JAM.). 

Sc. I returned home about seven, and addressed myself to write 
my action sermon, IRVING (,i(5 2 5) in OLIPHANT Life, I. xi. Per. 
About the middle of the 'action' sermon, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bnsli 
(1895) 57- 

AD, see Od. 

ADAM-AND-EVE, sb. [a'dam-an-iv.] 

1. A name applied to several plants : (i) Aconitum napel- 
lus (Nrf.) ; (2) Arum maculatum, Cuckoo-pint (Yks. Lin. 
Lei. Som.); (3) Orchis mascula (Som. Dev. Cor.); (4) Pul- 
monaria offidnalis (Cum. Wm. Hmp.). 

(i) Nrf. Adam and Eve, Aconitum napellus. On lifting the hood of 
the (lower, the upper petals appear as two little figures, (a) n.Yks. 
Adam-and-Eve. The dark spadices represent Adam, and the light 
ones Eve. 1 Lei. 1 Adam and Eve, lords and ladies, the 
flower of the Arum maculatum. w.Som. 1 (3) Ib. Adam and Eve, 
the plant wild orchis O. mascula. Dev. Adam and Eve, the male 
and female-handed orchis, if I conceive rightly, Monthly Mag. 
(1808) II. 421. Cor. The dark flower-spikes represent Adam, and 
the pale ones Eve. w.Cor. (M.A.C.) (4) Cum. Adam-and-Eve, 
Pulmonaria offidnalis ; from the two-coloured flowers. Wm. 1 The 
flowers are red and blue, and the country folk call the red Adam 
and the blue Eve. Hmp. Lungwort, called Adam-and-Eve by gipsies 
and others about the New Forest, no doubt from the two colours 
in its flowers (G. E.D.). 

2. The tubers of Orchis maculata (Yks. Lan. I.Ma. Nhp.) ; 
the tubers of Orchis mascula (?) (Nhb.). 

w.Yks. 1 Adam and Eve, the bulbs of Orchis maculata, which have 
a fancied resemblance to the human figure. One of these floats in 
the water, which nourishes the stem, the other sinks and bears the 
bud for the next year. ne.Lan. 1 I.Ma. The tubers of O. maculata 
(spotted orchis). Nhp. 1 The two bulbs of the O. maculata, one of 
which nourishes the existing plant, the other the succeeding one. 
Nhb. 1 Adam and Eve, the tubers of O. latifolia; the tuber which sinks 
being Adam and that which swims being Eve. Cain and Abel is 
another name for these tubers, Cain being the heavy one, JOHNSTON 
Bot. f. Bord. (1853) 193. (Prob. meant for O. mascula, B. & H.) 

3. A particular pair of legs in a shrimp (Lin. Wor. Ess.). 
nXin. 1 Adam and Eve, a particular pair of legs in a shrimp, so 

called from a fancied resemblance to two human figures standing 
opposite to one another. Wor. (J. W.P.) Ess. There's an Adam 
and Evein every brown shrimp, BARING-GOULD Mehalah( 1885) 296. 

ADAM'S ALE, sb. Dial, slang in gen. use. [a'damz-el, 
-eal.] Water. 

Var. dial. HOLLOWAY. 

[A Rechabite poor Will must live, And drink or Adam's 
ale, PRIOR Wandering Pilgrim (DAV.).] 

ADAM'S FLANNEL, sb. [a'damz-nanil.] A plant- 
name applied to (i) Dipsacus sylvestris (Lei.) ; (2) Ver- 
bascum thapsus (Yks. Chs. Lin. Nhp. War.). 

Lei. Adam's flannel, teasel. (2) w.Yks. 1 Adam's flannel, white 
mullein, Verbascum thapsus. It may have obtained this name from 
the soft white hairs with which the leaves are thickly clothed on 
both sides. Chs. 1 3 , nXin. 1 Nhp. 1 Adam's flannel, great mullein. 
War. (J.R.W.) 

ADAM'S NEEDLE, sb. Nhb. [a'damz-nidl.] A plant- 
name : Scandix pecten veneris, so called from the long 
needle-like fruits. 

Nhb. 1 Edom's needle, Adam's needle, or Shepherd's needle, the 
Srandix pecten veneris. Called also Witch's needle, and Deil's 
darnin needle. 

ADAM'S WINE, sb. Dial, slang in gen. use. [ a'domz- 
wain.] Water. A cant phrase for water as abeverage (JAM.). 

n-Lin. 1 w.Som. 1 Adam's wine, water, never called Adam's ale. 

ADAPTED, ppl. adj. Hmp. [adae'ptad.] Accustomed 
to, experienced. 

Hmp. 1 A man adapted to pigs, i.e. experienced in the breeding 
and care of swine. 

AD ASHED, ppl. adj. Yks. [ada-Jt.] Put to shame. 

m.Yks. 1 1 felt fair [quite] adashed. 

[Adashed, ashamed, COLES (1677).] 

ADAWDS, adv. Obs. Yks. Also written adauds. In 

Yks. ' To rive all adauds,' to tear all in pieces (K.). n.Yks. Ise 
seaur weese rive up all adawds, MERITON Praise Ale ( 1684) 1. 104. 

[A-, on + daw d, q.v.] 

A-DAYS, adv. Obs. e.An. and var. dial. At present, 

e.An. 1 Flour sells cheap a-days. I seldom see Mr. Smith a-days ; 
e.An. 2 I never heard this word used, as given by Forby, in either 
Norfolk or Suffolk. Var. dial. A-days, now, abbreviation of now- 
a-days, HOLLOWAY. 

[In TOONE (1834) s.y. A, the word adays is cited among 
other words containing the pref. a-, in which it is still 
retained by the vulgar.] 

ADBUT, see Headbut. 

ADDER, sb. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Lan. Chs. Lin. Shr. 
Wil. Cor. Also written ather, edder, ether ; see below, 
[a'da(r), also e'da(r), etSa(r).] 

1. In dial., besides the usual meaning of adder, the use of 
the word is extended to any kind of snake. 

Shr. 2 Edder, ether, of general application for any kind of snake. 

Comp. Adder-bead, the stone supposed to be formed by 
adders (JAM.) ; -broth, broth made from the flesh of an 
adder; -pike, the fish Trachinus vipera : (CD.) ; -stone, a 
perforated stone (see below) ; -stung, bitten by an adder ; 
-thing, a serpent. 

Dmf. [Adders are said to] assemble to the amount of some hun- 
dreds in a certain time of summer, to cast off their sloughs and 
renew their age. They entwist and writhe themselves among 
each other until they throw off their last year's sloughs, half 
melted by their exertions. These are collected and plastered over 
with frothy saliva, and again wrought to and fro till they are con- 
densed and shaped into an adder bead, Rem. Nithsdale Sng. m 
(JAM.). nXin. 1 Hetherd-broth, a broth made of the flesh of an 
adder boiled with a chicken. A specific for consumption. It was 
till about fifty years ago the custom for certain wanderers to come 
yearly during the hot weather of summer from the West Country 
(q.v.) to search on the sand-hills for hetherds which they said they 
sold to the doctors for the purpose of making hetherd-broth. Sc. 
Adder-stane, the same as adder-bead (JAM.). The glass amulets or 
ornaments are, in the Lowlands of Scotland, called adder-stanes, 
TOLAND Hist, of Druids (ed. 1814) Lett. I. 16 (JAM.). Rnf. [A 
family was] in possession of a so-called adder-stone and four 
Druidical beads, some of which, or all conjunctively, had been 
efficacious in curing various complaints, but more particularly those 
in cattle. . . .[The adder-stone] is not unlike, in form and size, to 
the whorls which, in conjunction with the distaff, were, only a 
century or two ago, in general use in spinning yarns, ./V. &Q. (1873) 
4th S. ix. 155. N.Cy. 1 Adder-stone, also called self-bored stone; 
a perforated stone the perforation imagined by the vulgar to be 
made by the sting of an adder. Nhb. A charm'd sword he wears, 
Of adderstone the hilt, RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk. (1846) 
VII. 164 ; Nhb. 1 Adder-styen, a stone with a hole through it [hung 
behind doors and in fishing boats as a charm]. And vain Lord 
Soulis's sword was seen, Though the hilt was adderstone, The 
Cout of Keeldar. n.Yks. 2 Addersteeans, the perforated fragments 
of grey alum shale, the round holes [of which] tradition assigns to 
the sting of the adder. As lucky stones they are hung to the 
street door-key, for prosperity to the house and its inmates, just 
as the horse-shoe is nailed at the entrance for the same purpose. 
Suspended in the stables, as are also the holed flints that are met 
with, they prevent the witches riding the horses, and protect the 
animals from illness. nXin. 1 Hetherd-stone, that is, an adder- 
stone, an ancient spindle-whorl. It is still believed that these 
objects are produced by adders, and that if one of them be sus- 
pended around the neck it will cure whooping-cough, ague, and 




adder bites. Hetherd-stung, bitten by an adder. When a swelling 
suddenly arises upon any animal without the cause being known 
it is said to be hetherd-stung. Hedgehogs and shrews are also 
said to bite animals and produce all the symptoms of the sting' 
of the hetherd. Dur. She let some kind ov an etherthing venom 
'er, EGGLESTONE Betty Podkins' Let. (1877) 8. 

[Adder-stung, said of cattle when stung with venomous 
reptiles, as adders, scorpions, or bit by a hedge-hog or 
shrew, BAILEY (1721).] 

2. A slow-worm. 

Wil. It is curious that in places where blindworms are often seen 
their innocuous nature should not be generally known. They are 
even called adders sometimes, JEFFERIES Hdgrow. (1889) 201. 

3. A newt. 

Cor. 1 The newt is so called in the neighbourhood of St. Mellion 
[e.Cor.] ; Cor." MS. add. 

4. A dragon-fly, or large fly ; also called flying adder, &c. 
N.Cy. 1 Tanging-nadder. Nhb. 1 The dragon-fly is called Bull 

ether, or Fleein ether, flying adder. m.Yks. 1 Ether, a large light 
kind of fly. eXan. 1 Edther, the dragon-fly. 

Comp. Ather-bill, Adder-bolt, -cap, the dragon-fly ; 
-feeder, the gad-fly ; -fly (C.D.), -spear, the dragon-fly ; 
Ether's mon, -nild, a large, long-bodied dragon-fly. 

Cld. Ather-bill (JAM.). Lan. A chapter on the natural history 
uv cockroaches, edderbowts, un crickets, STATON B. Shuttle Boviton, 
64 ; Lan. 1 It'll sting like an edder-bout. Chs. 1 Edther Bowt, the 
dragon-fly. Fif. Ather-, or natter-cap, the name given to the dragon- 
fly (JAM.). Chs. 1 Edder feeder, a common name for the gad-fly. 
[The ploughboy next knocked down what he called a ' gurt adder- 
spear,' that is, a dragon-fly, Standard (Aug. 23, 1887) 3.] Shr. 1 It 
is believed that this dragon-fly [ Cordulegnster annulatus\ indicates 
by its presence the vicinity of the adder, whence its local names 
Ether's-mon and Ether's-nild [needle]. 

ADDER-AND-SNAKE PLANT, sb. n.Dev. Silene in- 
flafa (Bladder Campion). 

ADDERCOP, see Attercop. 

ADDER'S FERN, sb. Hmp. Pofypodium vulgare. 
Hmp. It will be observed that most of the plants connected with 
the adder appear in spring, when snakes are most generally seen ; 
Hmp. 1 Adder's-fern, the common polypody ; so called from its rows 
of bright spores. 

ADDER'S FLOWER, sb. The name given to (i) Lychnis 
diurna (Hrt.) ; (2) Orchis mascula (Hmp.). 

(2) Hmp. O. mascula, early purple orchis, probably from the 
spotted leaves (G.E.D.). 

ADDER'S GRASS, sb. The name given to (i) Orchis 
maculata (Nhb.) ; (2) Orchis mascula (Nhb. Chs.). 

Nhb. 1 Adder-grass, the spotted orchis, O. maculata ; called also 
Hens, Hen's-kames, and Deed-man's Hand. (2) Chs. 1 The orchis 
which Gerard distinguishes as adder's grass is O. mascula; Chs. 3 

ADDER'S MEAT, sb. A name given to several plants, 
most of which are poisonous : (i) Arum maculatum (Dev. 
Cor.); (2) Mercurialis perennis (Hrt.); (3) Stellaria holostea 
(Cor.) ; (4) Tamus communis (Som. Dev.) ; (5) a kind of 
fern (Som.). 

(i) Dev. 4 Adder's meat, Ammmaculatum, applied, not to thespathe 
in its early stages, but when the bright red colour of the berries 
shows itself. The same name is applied to other red berries . 
regarded, whether correctly or otherwise, as being poisonous ; as 
for example the fruit of Tamus communis. (5)Som. Fern, commonly 
known as Adder's meat, and accordingly feared and avoided bv 
country children, PULMAN Sketches (1842). 
ADDER'S POISON, sb. Dev. Tamus communis. 
n.Dev. Adder's poison, Black Briony. Dev. 4 
ADDER'S SPEAR, sb. Sur. Sus. Ophioglossumvulgatum. 
Sur. & Sus. Adders-spear ointment is made from it in parts of 
Sur. and Sus. 

ADDER'S SPIT or ADDER-SPIT, sb. The name given 
to (i) Pteris aquilina (Sus.) ; (2) Stellaria holostea (Cor.). 

ADDER'S TONGUE, sb. Also written edder- Cum. The 
name given to several plants : (i) Arum maadatum (Som 
SwU (2 ) G% a ? ium Robertianum (Ess.) ; (3) Listera ovata 
( Wil.) ; (4) Ophtoglossum vulgatum (Cum. Dev.) ; (5) Orchis 
mascula (Chs.) ; (6) Pteris aquilina (Brks.) ; (7) Sagittaria 
sagtttifoha (Dev.) ; (8) Scolopendrium vulgare (Dor. Dev.). 

w.Som. 1 Adder's tongue, wild arum, A. maculatum. (3) Wil The 
Tway-blade is at Farley Adder's tongue, Sarum Dioc. Gas. (Jan 
1891) 14, col. 2; WiUAdder's-tongue.LKifcra ovata, Twayblade." 

(4) Cum. Edder's-tongue, Ophioglossum vulgatum. Dev.* (5) Chs. 1 
(6) Brks. 1 The leaf of the common bracken. (7) Dev.* The old 
people say that a cupful of tea every day made of nine leaves of 
this plant [Sagittaria sagittifolia] ... is a good strengthening 
medicine. (8) Dor. Adder's tongue, Scolopendrium vulgare, Hart's- 
tongue (G.E.D.). Dev.* 

ADDER WORT, sb. Wil. [ae'dawat] 

Wil. 1 Adderwort, Polygonum bistorta, bistort. 

ADDICK, sb. Som. Dev. [ae'dik.] Adder. 

w.Som. 1 Whether this means adder or haddock, or what besides, 
I do not know, but it is the deafest creature known. ' Su dee-f-s 
u ad'ik'is the commonest superlative of deaf. n.Dev. Thart so 
deeve as a haddick in chongy weather, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 123. 
nw.Dev. 1 Deeve's a addick. 

ADDLE, sb. 1 and adj. Sc. and widely diffused throughout 
the Eng. dial. See below, [a'dl, Nhb. ; also ya'dl, e'dl.j 

1. sb. Putrid or stagnant water : usually in comp. Addle- 
dub, -gutter, -pool, see below. 

Sc. Adill, Addle, foul and putrid water (JAM.); Aidle, ditch- 
water, MACKAY. Ayr. Then lug out your ladle, Deal brimstone 
like adle. And roar every note of thedamn'd, BURNS Kirk's Alarm 
(1787). Nhb. 1 Eddie, putrid water [applied specially to the liquid 
manure drained from a dunghill (R.O.H.)]. Sc. Addle-dub, a 
hole full of foul putrid liquid. He kens the loan frae the crown 
o' the causey as weel as the duck does the midden hole frae 
the addle-dub, HENDERSON Prav. (1832) 76, ed. 1881. Dev. 1 The 
ale was worse, ... a had as leve drink the addle-gutter, ii. 13. 
nw.Dev. 1 Addle-gutter, a stagnant or putrid gutter or pool ; [as in] 
Addle-gutter mud. s.Pem. Addley pulke, a stagnant pool, LAWS 
Little Eng. (1888) 419. s.Cy. Addle-pool, a pool or puddle near a 
dunghill, for receiving the fluid from it (HALL.). Cor. They carr'ed 
Nick hum . . . and thrawed un in the addle pool, TREGELLAS Tales 
(1868)88; Cor. 12 Addle-pool, a cesspool. 

2. Cf. addle, v. 1 B. 

Rnf. The urine of black cattle (JAM.). 

3. An abscess containing pus, a swelling, tumour; a blister. 
Som. Addle, a swelling with matter in it, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. 

w.Eng. (1825) ; It all come up in addles [blisters] (G.S.). w.Som. 1 
Ee-vu-gaut u guurt ad-1 pun uz nak, su beg-z u ain ag [he has a great 
tumour on his neck as large as a hen's egg]. 

4. adj. Rotten, putrid, esp. applied to a decayed or 
barren egg ; cf. 1. 

Cld. Addle, foul, applied to liquid substances (JAM.). Lan. Addle, 
rotten, DAVIES Races (1856) 226. Shr. 1 I've 'ad despert poor luck 
66th my 'en's this time. I set three 66th duck eggs an' two 66th 
thar own ; an' three parts on 'em wun aidle. Hrf. 2 I be most 
afeared as the eggs be all adle. Ken. 2 Sus. 1 Eddel, rotten. 

5. Fig. Weak in intellect, confused : esp. in comp. Addle- 
cap, -head, -headed, -pate, -pated. 

Ken. 1 My head's that adle, that I can't tend to nothin'. e.Sus. 
Adle. weak orgiddyinthe head. I am very adle to-day, HOLLOWAY. 
Hmp. 1 Addle, stupid. Slang. Addle cove, a foolish man, an easy 
dupe, FARMER. n-Lin. 1 Addle-cap, Addle-head, a weak, silly 
person. He's such a waffy addle-head, he duzn't knaw blew fra 
red. w.Som. 1 Addle-head. N.Cy. 1 Addle-headed. e.Yks. 1 Addle- 
heeaded, of obtuse intellect. ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 He's a addle-yedded 
think. Der. 2 War.(J.R.W-) Brks. 1 Sus. 1 He's an adle-headed 
fellow. w.Som. 1 , Dev. 1 Wm. My addle paate, HUTTON Bran New 
Wa> k (1785)!. 88. nXln. 1 Addle-pate. Cor." Dev. 1 Addle-pated, 
doltish, thickheaded. 

[1. OE. adela, liquid filth, foul water ; cf. G. adel, mire, 
puddle. 2. Cf. OSw. adel in ko-adel, cow-urine. 5. Cf. 
HOOKER: Concerning his preaching their very by-word 
was Aoyos (t;ovd(vr)/j.eiios, addle speech, empty talk, Eccl. 
Pol. in. 101 ; Thy head hath bin beaten as addle as an 
egge for quarreling, SHAKS. R. &>J. (159 

ADDLE, adj. Hrf. e.An. Ken. Sur. S 

1. Ailing, unwell. 

e.An. Adle, unwell (HALL.). Ken. 1 Adle. Sus. 1 Adle, slightly 
unwell. My little girl seemed rather adle this morning, so I kep' 
her at home from school. 

2. Tumble-down, loose, shaky. 

Hrf. Adle, loose, shaky, applied to a paling (W.W.S.). e.An. 
Adle, unsound (HALL.). Ken. The word is used to denote anything 
that is in a ricketty or shaky condition. Dat waggin be turrbul adle 
(P.M.). Sur. 1 Adle, weak, shaky, said of a fence the posts or 
pales of which have become loose. You shan't have that idle thing 
i.e. an old gate] any longer (s.v. Idle). 
[OE. Ml, MLG. adel, disease.] 

2) in. i. 25.] 



ADDLE, si. 2 Nhb. w.Yks. [a'dl, e'dl.] Earnings, wages, 
usually with in ; in good addle, receiving good wages. 

Nhb. 1 Eddie, money earned. Savin's good eddle. w.Yks. 1 A 
poor daital. wheea's i' naa girt addle, ii. 340; He's i" good addle. 

ADDLE, sb? Nhp. An adding or addition. 

Nhp. 1 Two pence and three pence, is five pence : and two groats 
and two pence is ten pence. This specimen of village arithmetic 
is called ' the old woman's addle.' 

ADDLE, v. 1 In gen. use. 

A. To make abortive, as eggs, by allowing to get cold 
during incubation ; fig. to confuse, muddle. 

Ir. They had also lost a fat pig, and had a clutch of eggs addled 
in an August thunderstorm, BARLOW Idylls (1892) 45. Yks. It's 
no use addling your brain with so much learning, it won't make 
the pot boil (M.N.). ne.Lan. 1 Addle, to coagulate. Not. Addle, 

make putrid (T.H.B.). Ken. Dang'd ould hen as addled dem 
heggs (H.M.). Som. 1 Hens which sit badly are said to addle 
their eggs. Nauyz unuuf vur t-ad'l uneebau'deez braa-nz [noise 
:nough to addle one's brains]. Dev. 'Twas the hard times addled 
his brains, O'NEILL Told in Dimpses (1893) 116. 

[See Addle, sb. 1 4.] 

B. Sc. To water plants. 

Rnf. Toaddle,to water the roots of plants with the urine of cattle 


[See Addle, sb. 1 2.] 

ADDLE, v? In all the n. counties to Chs. Stf. Der. 
Not. Lin. ; also in Rut. Lei. Nhp. War. e.An. ; not in Sc. 
Not in gloss, of s.Chs. and Shr. Also written adle N.Cy. 2 
Lin. SKINNER ; aadle Suf. 1 ; eddle N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 3 
w.Yks. WILLAN; yeddle Chs. 123 ; aidle N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 
Cum. Lin. 1 e.An. 1 ; aydle c.Cum. ; eddil Nhb. ; adel Cum. 
e. and w.Yks. [a'dl. Besides a'dl there occur e'dl in Nhb. 
Cum. ; e'dl in Nhb. c.Cum. Lin. e.An. ; ye'dl in Chs.] 

1. To earn, acquire by one's labour. 

N.Cy. 12 Nhb. 1 He addles three ha'pence a week, That's nobbut 
a fardin' a day, Song, Ma Laddie. Dur. 1 Cum. 3 I's gan to eddle 
me five shillin' middlin' cannily. s.Wm. Ye dunnet addle as mickle 
ta day, HUTTON Dia. Storth and Arnsiile (1760) 1. 29. Wm. 1 A'd 
better git a nag wi panniers an addle mi brass thet wa-a. Yks. 
They say he addled his brass i' jute, KIPLING Soldiers Three (ed. 
1895) 16. n.Yks. 1 Ah's nowght bud what Ah addles; n.Yks. 2 To 
addle oneself heat [to grow warm with exercise]. ne.Yks. 1 He 
addles a good wage. e.Yks. 1 Ah haint addled saut (salt) ti my taty 
this mornin. w.Yks. When he'd addled his shun, BLACKAH Poems 
(1867) 13 [said of a horse when he falls upon his back and rolls 
from one side to the other. When a horse does this in Hmp. or 
Sus. he is said to earn a gallon of oats, HOLLOWAY] ; It isn't 
what a chap addles, it's what a chap saves 'at makes him rich, 
HARTLEY Budget (1868) 43; w.Yks. 1 We mun teugh an addle 
summat. Lan. Colliers addle'n their brass ; an' they'n a reet to 
wear it as they'n a mind, WAUGH Chimney Cornet (1879) 56 ; 
Give a mon a chance of addling a livin', WESTALL Old Factory 
(1885) 21.4 Lan. 1 m.Lan. 1 A mon's heead may be addled, an' his 
wage may be addled. n.Lan. 1 Chs. [Aw con] yeddle my sax- 
pence ivery day, CLOUGH B. Bresskittle (1879) 16; Chs. 12 Stf. 1 , 
Der. 1 s.Not. I've nothing whativer coming to me but what I addle 
(J.P.K.). Not. 12 Them line-men addle a sight; Not. 3 Lin. 
SKINNER (1671) ; Mun be a guvness, lad, or summut, and addle 
her bread. TENNYSON N. Farmer, New Style (1870) St. 7 ; An addlin' 
th' rent. PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes (1886) 135 ; Lin. 1 , nXin. 1 
sw.Lin. 1 I'm a disablebodied man. and can't addle owt. Rut. 1 
Lei. Shi kaint ad-1 moar- nur te-oo ur thrai shil'lin (C.E.); Lei. 1 
Oi ha' addled my weej. Nhp. 12 , War. 3 , e-An. 1 

2. To gain, procure ; to bring in by labour. 

Yks. My kyes' milk addles most of my brass, FETHERSTON 
Farmer, 71. Lin. Grows i' the wood, an' yowls i' the town, An' 
addles its master many a crown. Answer, a fiddle (of which the 
strings are catgut), N. & Q. (1865) 3rd S. viii. 503. Lei. 1 A doon't 
addle his maister his weej. 

3. To save, lay by a portion of one's earnings. 

Yks. My father had addled a vast in trade, And I were his son 
and heir, INGLEDEW Ballads (1860) 259. ne.Yks. 1 He's addled a 
deal o' brass. w.Yks. Wi' a bit o' trouble ah addled thegither five 
pun' (W.B.T.). n.Lin. Addle, to lay by money, SUTTON Wds. 
(i88O. e-An. 1 At last I have addled up a little money; e.An. 2 

4. Of crops, trees, &c. : to grow, thrive, flourish. 

n.Cy. Addle, to grow or increase in size, TOONE. Lan. 1 Addle, 
formerly used in the sense of to grow, to increase. Chs. 123 
e-An. 1 That crop addles. Nrf. 1 Suf. 1 Fruit, corn, &c. promising 
VOL. i. 

to ripen well, are said to aadle: Ta don't fare to aadle. Ess. Where 
luie imbraceth the tree verie sore, kill luie, or else tree wil addle 
no more, TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) HI, st. 6. 
Hence Addled, pp. earned ; Addling, vbl. sb. Cf. 4. 
n.Yks. 2 A ready addled penny [money easily earned]. w.Yks. 5 
It's weel addled. Ess. Ivy will, by the closeness of its embraces, 
prevent trees from addling, that is, growing or increasing in 
size, MAVOR, note to TUSSER Husbandrie (ed. 1812). 

[To adle [earn], solarium vel praemium mereri, COLES 
(1679) ; To addil, demerere, LEVINS Manip. (1570) ; To 
adylle, commereri, adipisci, Calh. Angl. (1483) ; Hu mann 
mihhte cwemenn Godd & addlenn heffness blisse, Ormu- 
lum (c. 1205) 17811 ; patt mihhte gilltenn anij gillt & add- 
lenn helle pine, ib. 17544. C P- ON. ^37,_refl. Qillask, to 
acquire (for oneself) property, cogn. with ddal, property.] 
ADDLED, ppl. adj. In gen. use throughout the dial. 
Also written aiddled Shr/ GIo. 1 See below, [a'dld, 
e'dld.] Rotten, putrid ; muddled, confused. See Addle, 
sb. 1 and ad;. 1 4, 5. 

N.Cy. 1 Addled-eggs, addled, decayed, impaired, rotten. ne.Lan. 1 
An addled egg. m.Lan. 1 One's varra likely to ged wrang wi' this 
word iv they're nod keerful, because a mon's heead may be addled, 
an' his wage may be addled. Th' fost o' these fits th' payson an' 
th' last doesn'd mony a time. Not. 2 You cannot blow addled 
eggs [i. e. partially hatched]. Nhp. 1 War. (J.R.W.) s.Wor. 1 
Shr. 1 Aidled. Shr. & Hrf. Addled means corrupted, as 'an addled 
egg,' one in a state of putrefaction, or one left or forsaken by the hen 
after sitting, BOUND Prov. (1876). Hrf. 2 AdIed. Glo. 1 w.Som. 1 
Addled eggs are those which have been sat upon without producing 
chickens. Colloq. We have learned to bottle our parents twain in 
the yelk of an addled egg, KIPLING Brk. Ballads (1893) Conundrum 
of Workshops. 

ADDLING, sb. Rarely sing. See Addle, v 1 See below, 
[a'dlin.] Wages, earnings ; savings. 

. N.Cy. 1 Addlings, aidlings, wages received for work. Nhb. 1 He's 
had good addlins this quarter. Dur. 1 Cum. 1 Aydlins, c. adlins,sw. 
Wm. Addlings hesbeen far better, GIBSON Leg. and Notes (1877) 67 ; 
Wm. 1 The usual form is addlins. Yks. Mah wayges is altegither 
oot of all measure wi' me addlings, WRAY Nestleton (1876) 41; 
Short harvests make short addlings, SWAINSON Weather Flk-Lore 
(1873)18. n.Yks. 1 Poor addlings. Hard addlings. Saving's good 
addling. ne.Yks. 1 Hard addlins an' nut mich when deean. e.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. 5 Whoas a better house an' I hev ? an' av getten it together, 
stick be stick, an' ivvry bit on't, wi my awan addlings. Lan. 
Eaut of his own addlins, CLEGG David's Loom (1894) v. ne.Lan. 1 , 
Chs. 123 , Stf. 1 Der. 2 Addlings, savings. nw.Der. 1 Addlings, savings. 
Not. 1 , n.Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 I doubt he wears all his addlings in drink. 
Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 3 

ADE, sb. Shr. [id.] A reach in the Severn. 

Shr. 1 This term is applied by navigators of the Severn to reaches 
where there are eddies in the river, as Sweney [sic] Ade, Preen's 
Ade, &c. ; Shr 2 . Boden's Ade, Preen's Ade, Swinny Ade, near 
Coalport. This signification is confined to bargemen, owners, and 

ADE, v. Shr. [ed.] 

Shr. A word peculiar to Shropshire, meaningto cut a deep gutter or 
ditch across ploughed land, BOUND Prov . (1875) ; Shr. 2 Ading down 
in the follow. 

[See Aid.] 

A-DEARY ME! int. In var. dial., and colloq. use. 
[! diari mi.] See Deary. Exclamation of sadness or 

w.Yks. Noabody pities them 'at laups aat o' th' fryin' pan into th' 
fire, an' it's a easy matter to miss it. Aa, dear o' me ! aw think it 
is ! HARTLEY DM. ist S. (1868) 115. Lin. A deary-me, Mrs. Cox, 
who'd ha' thowt of seeing thee, N. & Q. (1865) 3rd S. vii. 31. 

ADEE! int. Wxf. [adr.] Ha! 

Wxf. 1 

ADER, see Arder. 

ADIDGE, see Arris. 

ADIST, prep. Sc. Also written adiest Ayr ; athist 
Dmf. [adi'st, atSi'st] On this side. 

Sc. I wish yow was neither adist her, nor ayont her [spoken of 
a woman one dislikes], Prov. (JAM.) ; Hegbeg [nettle] adist the 
dyke, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes (1870) 109. 

[Adist, at/list, prob. equiv. to on this (side).} 

ADLAND, see Headland. 





ADMIRE, v. In Irel. Wm. Yks. Chs. Lei. Nhp. War. 
Oxf. Som. [admai-a(r), Lei. admoi-a(r).] 

1. To wonder at, notice with astonishment. 

(a) Used simply, or with dependent clause. 

Wm. Van wad admire how yau gits sec cauds [colds] (M.P.). 
e.Yks. 1 There is plenty of macreuse in the markets all Lent, that I 
admire where they got so many, Dr. M. LISTER of York (1698). 
w.Yks. Admire, wonder, Hlfx. Wds. Som. This . . . contented chap 
had had a longish nap, Ta zlape away tha winter, I shoodent much 
admire, 'AGRIKLER' Rhymes (1872) 31. [I admire it escaped Mr. 
Fuller in his collection ol Local Proverbs,' MORTON Nat. Hist, of 
Nhp. (1712). Amer. To wonder at ; to be affected with slight sur- 
prise. In New England, particularly in Maine, the word is used 
in this sense, BARTLETT.] 

(b) With ace. 

e.Yks. An when Ah gat there ; oh, this Ah did admeyr, Ti see 
so monny lusty lads, asitting roond the fire, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. 
(1889) 49. Chs. 1 Ah could na but admoire him, he looked so 
fresh ; and he's turned seventy. War. (J.R.W.) Oxf. She told me 
her husband was looking so ill I should quite admire him, N. <5r= Q. 
(1868) 4 th S. ii. 605. 

(c) With at. 

Lim.'Tis to be admired at such a long distance traversed between 
Ireland and America so fast (G.M.H.). 

2. To be pleased, to like very much. 

Lei. 1 Ah should admoire to see er well took-to [I should be de- 
lighted to see her well scolded]. Nhp. 1 The child admires to go 
a-walking. I should admire to go to London to see the Queen. War. 3 
[Amer. I should admire to see the President, BARTLETT (1848).] 

[1. (a) Hear him but reason in divinity And all-admiring 
with an inward wish You would desire the king were made 
a prelate, SHAKS. Hen. V, i. i. 39 ; Wonder not, nor admire 
not in thy mind, why I do call thee so, Twelfth Nt. in. iv. 165. 
(b) How can we sufficiently admire the stupidity or mad- 
ness of these persons? Sped. No. 575. (c) These lords At 
this encounter do so much admire, SHAKS. Temp. v. i. 154.] 

Hence Admirable, surprising, wonderful. 

Wm. It is admirable [remarkable, wonderful] ; used by old per- 
sons (M. P.). w.Yks. Admyrable war his gambols, CAUVERT Slaad- 
burn /-aw (1871) 14; w.Yks. 3 

ADO, v. and sb. Sc. Chs. Nhp. War. [adu-.] 

1. v. To do. 

Sc. I'll ha'e naething ado wi't, GROSE (1790 MS. add. (C); 
I have nothing ado, Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 436; Had nae mair 
ado, but to get awa, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) iii. w.Sc. There's 
little ado in the market to-day (JAM. Suppl.}. 

2. sb. Bustle, confusion; stir, excitement, 'fuss'; Sc., 
in pi., difficulties. 

Sc. I had my ain adoes [peculiar difficulties] (JAM.). Lth. I 
had my ain adaes wi' him, for he was just a very passionate man, 
STRATHESK Bits Blinkbonny (1891) 135. Chs. 1 Oo made much adoo 
abait it. Nhp. 1 Ado, a familiar expression of hearty welcome ; ex- 
cessive, officious kindness. They always make such ado with me, 
whenever I go to see them I can hardly get away. War. (J.R.W.) 

[1. Ado is for at do in the sense of ' to do ' ; see At. The 
constr. is found in the Paston Letters : I woll nowt have 
ado therwith, Lett. 566. 2. Much Ado about Nothing, 
SHAKS. ; We[ll keep no great ado a friend or two, R. &*J. 
in. iv. 23. ME. Ado or grete bysynesse, sollicitudo, Prompt.] 

ADONE, int. phr. Sc. Lan. Stf. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor. 
Shr. Glo. Brks. Hnt. Sur. Sus. Hmp. I.W. [edu-n, adirn.] 
Cease, leave off. 

Sc. Ane spak in wordis wonder crouse, A done with ane mis- 
chance! Old Song (J AM.). ne.Lan. 1 Adone, cease, be quiet ! s.Stf. 
Adone, will yer, I want to be quiet, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). 
n.Lin. 1 Thoo awkerd bairn, a-dun wi' thee ! Lei. 1 A doon, will 
ye. Nhp. 1 , s. War. se.Wor. 1 Adone 06t! [Have done, will you !] 

A j n w w ' en J spake ' Gl - 1 Brks. 1 A girl would say 

Adone then ! or ' Adone ! ' or ' Adone now ! ' on her sweetheart 
attempting to snatch a kiss. Hnt. (T.P.F.) Sur. 1 Havea-done 
there. Sus. 1 Oh ! do adone. Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 

[Adone ! is for Have done ! The expression occurs freq. 

i bHAKS. : An if thou couldst, thou couldst not make him 

live Therefore, have done, R. & J. ,. v . 73 ; Therefore 

ha done with words, T. Shrew, in ii. 118] 

ADONNET, si. Obs Yks. A devil. (The correct form 

B PS ' ' 1>V - J"K ks ' J ne sometim es hears the saying, 
Better be in with that adonnet than out ' (HALL.). 

Yks. I do not remember ever hearing the word Adonnet. 
Donnet, however, is a very commonly used word (B. K. ). 

ADOORS, adv. w.Yks. Lan. Lin. Nhp. War. [adoa'z.] 
Without the door or house, outside ; esp. in out-adoors. 

w.Yks. 5 It's warm out adoors to-daay. ne.Lan. 1 Out-adoors. 
Lin. Truly my brother will be flung and thrust out adoores by head 
and eares with this gift, BERNARD Terence (1629) 120. n.Lin.' 
You're alus clattin' in and oot a-dOOrs. Nhp. 1 He's gone out 
a-doors. War. (J.R.W.) 

[But what, Sir, I beseech ye, was that paper Your Lord- 
ship was so studiously employed in When ye came out a- 
doors? B. & F. Woman Pleased,\\.'\ ; Nowe shall the prynce 
of this worlde be cast out a dores, TINDALE/O/W xii. 31.] 

ADOW, adv. Sc. (JAM.) [adair.] Worth. 

Rxb. Naething adow. 

[A-, ol+dow, q.v. Cp. nocht o' dow, of no value, or 
nothing of worth (JAM., s.v. Dow).] 

ADOWN, adv. Sc. Hnt. Cor. [adirn, adetrn.] Down. 

Sc. His gorgeous collar hung adown, Wrought with the badge 
of Scotland's crown, SCOTT Marmion (1808) v. st. 8 ; Adown we 
sat, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 18. Hnt.(T.P.F.) Cor. Nor drive too fast 
adown the hills, TREGELLAS Farmer Brown (1857) 22. 

[An home of bugle small Which hong adowne his side 
in twisted gold, SPENSER F. Q. i. viii. 3. Adoun ful softely 
I gan to sinke, CHAUCER Leg. G. W. 178. OE. ofdune, 

ADRAD, ppl. adj. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Afraid. 


[Adradd, afraid, much concerned, BAILEY (1721). They 
were adrad of him, as of the deeth, CHAUCER C. T. A. 605. 
OE. ofdrcedd, frightened, pp. of ofdradan, to dread.] 

ADREAMED, ppl. adj. Wor. Oxf. [adri'md, adre'mt.] 
Dreaming, dosing. 

se.Wor. 1 ' I was a-dreamed ' for ' I dreamt.' Oxf. You see, ma'am, 
all this time she is adreamt between sleeping and waking. Ap- 
plied to an infant (HALL.). 

[I was a Dreamed that I sat all alone, BUNYAN P. P. 
(1693) 66 ; Hee is adreamd of a dry sommer, WITHAL 
(1634) ; I was adream'd that I kill'd a buck, LUPTON 
(NARES). Deriv. of dream, v. The pref. a- is prob. due to 
analogy. If the word adreamed were originally a west- 
country word it would be natural to assume that the 
a- represents OE. ge- ; see A- pref. 2 } 

ADREICH, adv. Sc. [adrr x .] At a distance. 

Sc. On painting and fighting look adreich, HENDERSON Prmi. 
(1832) 134, ed. 1881. n.Sc. To follow adreich, to follow at a con- 
siderable distance (JAM.). 

[Throw ane signe that Quincius maid on dreich, the 
Romanis ischit fra thair tentis, BELLENDEN T. Liv. 213 
GAM.). ME. He bad tham alle draw tham o dreih, BRUNNE 
Chron. (1330) 194. A-, on + dreich. 

ADREICH, adv. Sc. Behind, at a distance. See Dreich. 

Sc. The steward . . . stood behind, adreich, A. SCOTT Poems 
(1808 99 ; The word, though not common, is still in use ,G.W. . 

ADRY, adj. Glo. Brks. Cmb. Ess. Ken. Sus. Hmp. Wil. 
Som. [adrai-.] Thirsty. 

Glo. 1 Brks.Ubeadry. Cmb. (M.J.B.) Ess. John was a-dry,CLARR 
J. Noakes (1839) 18. Ken. 12 , Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 Wil. Who lies here? 
Who do 'e think, Why, old Clapper Watts, if you'll give him some 
drink; Give a dead man drink? for why? Why; when he was 
alive he was always a-dry, Epitaph at Leigh Delamere, ELWORTHY. 
w.Som. 1 

[You may as well bid him that is sick of an ague, 
not to be adry, BURTON Anal. Mel. (1621) 278, ed. 1836. 
A-(pref. 10 ) + ary.] 

ADVANCE, v. Som. Dev. [adva-ns.] Used refl. ; to 
push oneself forward. 

w.Som. 1 Waut shud ee- udvaa'ns ee-z-zuul vaur ? [what shovild 
he push himself forward for ?] A good singing-bird was thus 
described : Ee due udvaa-ns uz'zuul su boal-z u luyunt [he does 
come forward (in the cage) as boldly as a lion]. Dev. A woman 
is said to advance herself when she sets her arms akimbo and gives 
one a bit of her mind (P.F.S.A.). 

[Avaunce yourselfe to aproche, SKELTON, Bowge of 
Courte, 88 (N.E.D.). OFr. avancer, to set forward.] 

ADVISED, ppl. adj. Obs. n.Cy. Nrf. With of: ac- 
quainted with, aware of. 




n.Cy. I am not advised of it, I am not acquainted of it, HOLLO- 
WAY. Nrf. I an't advised of it, I can't recollect it, or am ignorant 
of it, GROSE (1790). 

[But art them not advised ? (i. e. haven't you been in- 
formed ?), SHAKS. T. Shrew, i. i. 191 ; Advised by good in- 
telligence Of this most dreadful preparation, ib. Hen. V, n. 
Prol. 12. Fr. aviser, to advise, counsel, warn, tell, inform, 
do to wit, give to understand (CoxoR.).] 

ADVISEMENT, sb. Sc. Advice, counsel. 
Sc. There came never ill after good advisement, RAMSAY/V0t/.(i737). 

ADWANG, see Dwang. 

AE, see A, All, Aye, Ea. 

AEFALD, adv. Sc. Also written afald. [e'fald.] 
Simple, honest, without duplicity or deceit. 

Sc. I was aefaald aye wi Him, WADDELL Ps. (1891) xviii. 23. 
S. & Ork. 1 

Hence Aefaldness, sb. honesty, uprightness, single- 
ness of heart (C.D.). 

[Aefa/d is the Sc. form of the older northern anfald, 
single, simple, sincere, found in Ormulum and Cursor 
Miinii'i. OE. anfald, an, one+fatd, -fold.] 

AEHY, int. Nhb. [ei 1 .] Oh ! ah ! 

Nhb. 'Ae-hy, ae-hy,' kih she, 'azesueraws reel,' BEWICK Howdy 
(1850) 9. 

AERN, see Erne. 

AETH-, see Eath-. 

AF-, see Off-. 

AFEAR, v. Obs. Nhp. To frighten. 

Nhp. 2 That dwant afear ma. 

[And ghastly bug does greatly them affeare, SPENSER 
F. Q. n. iii. 20. The word is of freq. occurrence in P. Plow- 
man. OE. afceran, to terrify.] 

AFEAR(D, conj. In gen. use in van dial. Also by 
aphaeresis feard. Lest, for fear. Cf. afraid. 

Nhb. In common use (R.O.H.). Yks. (J.W.) e-Lan. 1 s.Chs. 1 
Go an' tine them gaps, feared lest the key [cows] getten in. ne.Wor. 
Don't you go there, afeared the bobby should see you (J.W.P.). 
Ess. We didn't stop . . . Afear the Owd un sh'd come out, DOWNE 
Ballads (1895) 19. Ess. 1 Do you bathe ? Ny, zir. Why not ? 
Feard a bin drownded. 

AFEARD, adj. In gen. dial, use throughout Sc. Irel. 
and Eng. See below, [afia'rd, afia'd.] Afraid, frightened, 
struck with fear or terror. 

Sc. Afeir'd, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.). Ir. The bit of a house 
there does be that quite and lonesome on me . . . that I'm afeard, 
troth it's afeard I am goin' back to it, BARLOW Idylls (1892) 153. 
N.I. 1 Wxf. 1 Aferdth. Nhb. 1 Aa was afeard ye warn't comin'. 
Cum. 1 Afear't (not often heard). Wm. 1 ne.Yks. 1 Ah's sadly 
afeai'd on't. e.Yks. 1 Afeeahd. w.Yks. Ize nane afeard, DIXON 
Craven Dales (1881) 180. Lan. I'm much afeard there's but little, 
GASKELL M. Barton (1848) v ; Lan. 1 Get on wi' thee mon ; what arto 
afeard on ?- Chs. 1 Come on ! who's afeart ? s.Stf. I bai' afeard o' 
thee. PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Stf. 1 2 Der. He was afeard on 
the Governor too, LE FANU Uncle Silas (1865) II. 50; Der. 2 s.Not. 
Ah'm non afeard o' him (J.P. K.). Not. 1 n.Lin. The good woman 
was nearly as much afeard as you were, PEACOCK R. Skit-laugh 
(1870) I. 49. n-Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 Afeard, a good old word still 
current amongst our villagers. War. 123 , se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Yo 
needna be afeard o' gwei'n through the leasow, they'n mogged 
[moved] the cow as 'iled poor owd Betty Mathus ; Shr. 2 Hrf. 2 
I'm a'most afeared. Glo. Ur were flitting about i' the night 
afeared most despert, GISSING Vill. Hampden (1890) I. vi; Glo. 1 
Brks. 1 'E bent aveard, be 'e ? [You are not afraid, are you ?] n.Bck. 
(A.C.) Hrt. Who's afeard? (H.G.) Hnt.(T.P.F.) e-An. 1 Nrf. 
I'm afeard that flour will be hained [increased in price] again 
next week (W.R.E.). Suf.(C.T.); Suf. 1 Afeard is still much used. 
Ess. Why they wornt afeared I ne'er could understand, DOWNE 
Ballads (1895) 22; Ess. 1 , Ken. 1 Sur. You shall have a glass, 
donna be afeared, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) I. i ; Sur. 1 Sns. 
Every man has got his soord upon his thigh, cause dey be afaird 
in de night, LOWER Sng. Sol. (1860) iii. 8 ; Sus.^Hmp. 1 I.W. I was 
afeard to goo in and lay down and leave the yowes, GRAY Annesley 
(.1889; III. 173; i.w.i : Wil. 1 Dor. 1 I bcn't afeard To own it, 302. 
w.Som. 1 Waut be ufee'urd oa ? [what are you afraid of?] Dev. 
Whot's aveard o' now, yii stupid ? Dith zim he'll bite thee ? HEWETT 
Peas. Sp. (1892) ; Dev. 1 Cor. I shoudn't be afeerd to travel oal 
hover London, Jimmy Trebilcock (1863) 10 ; Cor. 1 I'm afeard of my 
life to go upstairs arter dark. 

[I am afeard you make a wanton of me, SHAKS. Ham.v. 
ii. 310 ; So wys he was shejwas no more afered, CHAJUCER 
Tr. & Cr. in. 482. OE. afcered, frightened, pp. of afceran ; 
see Afear.] 

AFER, see Aver. 

AFFBEND, v. Sh.I. [a-fbend.] To remove the furni- 
ture from a peat-pony. 

S. & Ork. 1 

[Aff, off + bend, used in the sense of harnessing a horse 
to a cart : Then Joseph bended his charett fast (juncto 
curnt, Vulg.), COVERDALE Gen. xlvi. 29. OE. benaan, to 
fasten, to bind.] 

AFFEIRING, prp. Sc. [afia'rin.] Appertaining to, 

Slk. It's no sae ill, affeiring to [said of any work done by a 
person who could not have been expected to do it so well] (JAM.). 

[Prp. of affeir, to belong, pertain ; also written effeir. 
Under great sums effeiring to their condition and rank, 
Act Council (1683) in WODROW Hist. Church Scotland (1721) 
II. 318. AFr. afferir, to belong, pertain ; Lat. ad, to +ferire, 
to strike, hence, to affect. Cp. COTGR : Afferant (the par- 
ticiple of the Impersonal affiert], beseeming or becoming ; 
also, concerning or belonging to. See Effeir.] 

AFFLUDE, v. Sh. I. To injure the looks or appearance 
of anything ; disguise. 

Sh.I. To change the appearance, to disguise ; of clothes, to be 
unbecoming (W.A.G.). S. & Ork. 1 

[Cp. Dan. lod, colour.] 


1. Without book, offhand. To repeat anything 'afflufe' is 
to deliver it merely from memory QAM.). 

2. Extempore, without premeditation. 

Sc. Whene'er I shoot wi' my air gun, 'Tis ay affloof, DAVIDSON 
Seasons (1789) 183. Per. Afflufe. in two words, are still commonly 
used. e.g. Aff lufe speaking, extempore speaking (G.W.). Lnk. 
How snackly could he gi'e a fool reproof, E'en wi' a canty tale 
he'd tell aff loof, RAMSAY Poems (ed. i8oo N II. n (JAM.). Ayr. 
I shall scribble down some blether Just clean aff-loof, BURNS 
Epistle to John Lapraik (1785). 

3. Forthwith, immediately, out of hand (JAM.). 
[Aff-, off + loof, q.v.j 

AFFODILL,s6. Chs. Also in the form affrodile Chs. 123 ; 
haverdril Chs. 1 [a'fadil, a'fradil.] The daffodil, Narcissus 

Chs. Affrodile, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, but the Cheshire word 
is really Havrdril ; Chs. 12 ; Chs. 3 ' Flower of Affadille ' is, in an old 
Lincoln Cathedral manuscript, recommended as a cure for madness. 

\Affrodille, th' Affodille or Asphodill flower. Hache royalle, 
theAffodille orAsphodillflower; especially (the small-kind 
thereof called) the Speare for a king, COTGR. M.Lat. 
affodillus (Prompt.}, Lat. asphodilus, Gr. dff^ooVXdr.] 

AFFORDANCE, sb. Cum. [afua'dans.] Ability to bear 

Cum. Quite right, if you are of affordance [if you can afford it]. It's 
beyond my affordance [more than I can afford] (W. K. V n.Cum. Not 
known round Coniston ; but in the district round Wigton and the 
wideand isolated district ofthe Abbey Holme the word 'affordance' 
is well known and generally used (T.E.). Cum. 1 Affwordance. 

[A deriv. of afford, v. (OE. geforcfian, to advance, per- 
form) + -ance, a Fr. suffix.] 

AFFRONT, v. Sc. [afru'nt.] To disgrace, put to shame. 

Gall. At your time o' life, to dress up for a young man ; I'm 
black affrontit, CROCKETT Raiders i 1894; xxxiii. 

AFFRONT, sb. Sc. Disgrace, shame. 

Per. He hasna an affront [he cannot be put to shame, ' past 
feeling '] (G.W.). 

Hence Affrontless, adj. 

Abd. Not susceptible of disgrace or shame (JAM.). Per. He's 
affrontless [shameless, past feeling] (G.W.). 

AFFRUG, sb. Sh. I. [afrtrg.] A spent wave receding 
from the shore. 

S. & Ork. 1 Affrug of the sea ; Affrug or Aff-bod, MS. add. 

[Lit. a pull-back. Cp. Dan. a/, off + ryk, a hasty pull or 
movement ; ON. rykkr, cogn. with rykkja, to pull roughly 
and hastily.] 

AFFURST, see Athirst. 

D 2 




AFIELD, adv. Sc. Irel. Dun Nhp. War. Brks. [afi'W, 
avi-ld.l Abroad, out in or into the fields. ,.,..,, 

Ayr. My only pleasure At hame, a-fiel', *^. *"**& 
Davit. Wxf.iAveel( fa.). Dur.i Tek the cows afield Nhp^The 
master's gone a-field; Nhp. 2 Wheer'smaester?-Up afield. War. 
He's gone afield [on the farmlands]. Brks. 1 A farmer .s said to be 
' gone avield ' when he has gone to walk about his farm. 

\A-, on + field.] 

AFIRE, adv. Nhb. Wm. Chs. War. Dev. [afara(r), 
avai'a(r).] On fire. 

Nhb. 1 Ma keel's aa afire, ma fortin's aa spoiled, CORVAN Keel 
Afire (z. 1865). Win. 1 , Chs. 1 War. (J.R.W.) Dev. Urn, Zue, 
vatch zom zalt! Tha chimbly's avire ! HEWETT Peas. Sf, (1892). 

A-FLAT, adv. Sc. Flat. 

Fif. There a jumper falls aflat upon the mould, TENNANT Anst. 
Fair (1812) xxvii. 

AFLAUGHT, adv. Sc. GAM.) [sfla'xt] Lying flat. 


[A-, on +flaucht (flaught), q.v.] 

AFLEY, v. Sc. Obsol. To dismay, discomfit. 

Sc. Afley, in pp. dismayed, frightened ; still used. The herds 
would gather in their nowt . . . HafBins afley'd to bide thereout. FER- 
GUSSON King's Birthday (c. 1774) 2, ed. 1845 (N.E.D.). 

[OE. qfliegan (Merc, aflegan), to put to flight ; see Fley.J 

AFLUNTERS, adv. w.Yks. In a state of disorder. 

w.Yks. Aflunters, disarranged, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Apr. 18, 1891); 
Her hair all aflunters (B.K.). 

[A-, on + flunter, q.v.] 

AFOOT, adv. Sc. Cum. n.Yks. [afi't, n.Yks. sfia't.] 

1. Up and about ; esp. able to stand and walk after an 


Wm. & Cum. 1 What ailsta, Jammy, Thou's sae soon a-fit, CLARK 
Seymon and Jammy (1779) 1. i. n.Yks. 2 It'll be a whent while 
afoore he's affeeat ageean [a long time before he is well]. 

2. Fig. to get afoot, to make a start or beginning. 
n.Yks. 2 Hae ye getten afeeat wi' t' job ? 

[Mischief, thou art afoot. Take thou what course thou 
wilt ! SHAKS. /. Caesar in. ii. 265 ; To pleye and walke on 
fote, CHAUCER C. T. F. 390. A-, on +foot.] 

AFORCE, v. Nhb. [afur's.] 

Nhb. To hole a board into an adjoining board unintentionally, 
GREENWELL Coal Tr. Gl. (1849) ; 

[The word occurs freq. in HAMPOLE'S Psalter in the 
sense of 'to constrain.' AFr. aforcer, OFr. esforcier; Rom. 
exfortiare, to force, constrain ; deriv. of Lat./orfe, strong.] 
AFORCED, ppl. adj. e.Yks. Forced, compelled. 
e.Yks. 1 Ah was afooaced tl gang alang tl gaol, 19. 
AFORE, adv. ,o>/.and prep. Ingen. use in var. dial, of Sc. 
Irel.Eng. Also written afoor Nhb. Cum. Lan. Suf.; afooar 
e.Yks. Wm. ; aforne e.An. ; atvore Glo. ; avore, avoore 
sw. counties ; avaur, avaurn Som. [afoa'fr), avoa'(r).] 
1. Of time : before, ere. 

Sc. [He] wan there afore the time (JAM.). Abd. Wer ither herd 

thol't aye afore To lie ayontthe byre, Goodwife (1867) ver. 8. Edb. 

Afore I was fifteen years old, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) ix. Gall. 

Afore they could let him gang, CROCKETT Stickit Min. (1893) 24. 

Ir. They'll be gettin' oodles o' money on at the fair afore Lent, 

BARLOW Idylls (1892)57. N.I. 1 Nhb. We'll hae anither fishing bout 

Afore we're taen awa', Coquet Dale Sngs. (1852) 59; Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 

Cum. 3 We teuk a gud leuk at him afoor anybody spak, i. Wm 

Afore we com, Knitters e' Dent (Doctor, ed. 1848) 560. n.Yks. 

Ah niwer knew t'rooad . . . seea shooat . . . afooar, TWEDDELL 

Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 64. ne.Yks. 1 He'll mebbe cum afoor neet. 

e.Yks. He hadn't geean monny yards afooar he fell ower summat, 

NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 33. w.Yks. A've dubbled t'neiv, afoar 

ta day , PRESTON Poems, &c. (1864) 4 ; w.Yks. 1 That niwer com across 

my brain afoar, ii. 324 ; w.Yks. 5 I sal be off afore long. Lan. Afore 

the week wur eawt, BANKS Munch. Man (1876) viii ; I've hed things 

stown afoor to-day, BOWKER 7afcs(i882)65; Lan. 1 Chs. Awcannot 

tell yo' very much afore, YATES Owd Peter, i. 8 ; Chs. 12 Stf. 1 

nw.Der. 1 Three year afore [three eeu-r ufoau-r]. He went an hour 

afore us [ee went un)aawurufoauT irz]. s.Not. Ah seed it afore yo 

(J.P.K.). Lin. An' 'e maade the bed as 'e ligs on afoor 'e coom'd to 

the shire, TENNYSON N. Farmer, New Style (1870) st. 7. se.Wor. 1 

w.Wor. 1 Come an' see we afore yu goes awaay. s.War. 'Ebe a 

wik fool az gits up afore egooas t'bed, Why John (G.H.T.) (Coll. 

L.L.B.). Shr. l 'E's bin theer afore I know, so dunna tell me 

Shr. 2 Afore lung, before long. Hrf. Thou hadst ought to a come 

afore, Flk-Lore Jrn. ^886) IV. ,66. Glo [I] lukkd at thaay 
ateers avore y yad mi ta, BUCKMAN Darkei ; Sojourn (1890 ,136. 
Brks. He made his braags avoore he died HUGHES Scour. White 
Horse (1859) vii. Mid. Afore you takes your snooze, DICKENS 
Mutual Friend (1865) bk. iv. i. Hnt. Afore long (T.P.F.). Nrf. 
The year afore that he kinder did for my tunnips, JESSOPP Arcady 
1887) iii 82 Snf. I'll goon him such a hidm' as he niver had 
afoor, e.An. Dy. Times (1892). Ess. You 'ont want to be there 
ong Afore you say my wahrd is right, DOWNE Ballads (1895) '! 
Sur > Sus. Afore I know'd what I was about, LOWER Sng. Sol. 
(1860) vi 12 n.Wil. What the men call the dark days afore 
Christmas,' JEFFERIES Wild Life (1879) 98. Dor. Avore we git to 
Temple Coombe. YOUNG Rabin Hill (1867) 22 ; Dor. 1 Avore the 
east begun to redden, 57. Som. If his veace was beautivul avore, 
LEITH Lemon Verbena (1895) 51. Dev. It mad 'em laugh more 
than they did avore. Reports Provinc. (1886) 90. n.Dev. Ad ! chell 
ream my heart to tha avore Ise let that tha lipped, Exm. Scold. 
(1746) 1. 17. Dev. 3 Her's like a duck avore day. Cor. Our boy, 
tie wor to school a bit afore aw pitched to bal, FORFAR Pentowan 
(1859) i. 7; Cor. 1 He took me up afore I were down [corrected 
me before I had made a mistake]. 

2. Of preference : rather than, in preference to, better 

w.Yks. 5 Afore al du that al heit haay wi a horse ! nw.Der. 1 '. 
clem afore I'll work for that muney [au)ll tlaem ufoau-r au)ll 
wuur-k fur dhaat- mimi]. swXin. 1 There's nothing afore bramble- 
vinegar [vinegar made of blackberries] fora cough. I reckon there's 
nowt afore spring waiter. Wil. Gie I a English shartharn afor a 
Alderney, ' AGRIKLER ' Rhymes (1872) 20. w.Som. 1 Avore I'd be 
beholdin to he, I'd work my vingers to bones. 

3. In front, before, in the presence of. 

Sc. He ran on afore GAM.) ; He wad hae liked ill to hae come 
in ahint and out afore them this gate, SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xxxvi. 
Ayr. Ae Hairst afore the Sherramoor, I mind't as weel's yestreen, 
BURNS Halloween (1785). Nhb. Wi' canny care she claps't 
afore them, GRAHAM Maori. Dia. (1826) 6 ; Nhb. 1 Can on afore. 
Wm. 1 It's reet afooar tha. n.Yks. 2 Ahint an' afoore, behind and 
before. w.Yks. Mah vaineyird 'at is maine, is afoor mah, LITTLE- 
DALE Craven Sng. Sol. (1859) viii. 12 ; w.Yks. 5 Gehr afore him an' 
keep afore him. Lan. 1 Now, Sally, gan thi ways afore me, an' 
oppen t'door, WAUGH Jannock (1874) iii. s.Chs. 1 s.Stf. He 
come an' stood right afore me, PINNOCK Bk. Cy. Arm. (1895). 
nw.Der. 1 He's a mile afore me [ee)z ii mahy'l ufoau-r m6e]. 
Where is Sam? He's afore [weeu-r is Saarn' ? 6e)z ufoau-r]. 
Der. 2 Doff thy hat mon, afore thy betters. Shr. 1 Theer wuz the 
child right afore the 'orse. Brks. 1 Avorn is ' before him.' Avoort 
is ' before it.' Sur. He's afore you entirely, HOSKYNS Talpa (1852) 
183. Wil. Vootsteps did rouse my pensive ears, An he avore 
I stood, SLOW Rhymes (1889) 21. Som. Get avaur un, stoopid, 
JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). w.Som. 1 A little knot of flowers 
avore the house. Captain's the best oss to go avore. n.Dev. And 
whare a wou'd be ovore or no, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 14. 

4. Until. 

w.Som. 1 Us can wait avore you be ready, sir. Uur oan lat-n 
uloa'un uvoa'ur ee-z u-broakt [she will not leave it alone until it 
is broken]. n.Dev. Th'arst always a vustled up ... avore zich 
times as Neckle Halse comath about, Exm. Scold. (1746) ! Io8 - 

5. Comp. Afore all, nevertheless ; -fit, indiscriminately, 
all without exception (JAM.) ; -hand, aforran, before- 
hand, ready ; -long, shortly ; -time, formerly ; yene, over 

n.Dev.Yeet avore oil, avore voak. tha wut lustree, Extn. Scold. 
(1746) 1. 291. Frf. Some says ye mak them up aforehand, BARRIE 
Thrums (1889) 39. n.Cy. Aforran, in store, in reserve (HALL.). 
Nhb. 1 Nowt aforran, nothing ready. Cum. 3 It's o' settl't afoorhan'. 
n.Yks. Bill axt ma afooarhand what Ah thowt, TWEPDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (1875) 66. e.Yks. 1 Ah likes ti gan tl chotch a bit afooar- 
hand. Noo, get on wi' thi wahk; Jack's afooarhand o' tha. MS. 
add. (T.H.) w.Som. 1 Mind you get em in readiness avore-hand. 
Aay wuz uvoa-ran'z wai un, vur au~l u wuz zu kluvur[I outwitted 
him (or got the better of him), notwithstanding that he was so 
clever]. Dur. 1 See y'agen afore lang. n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Riddy 
for off afoorelang [ready to set out soon]. It'll happen afoorelang 
gans [it will happen at no distant period]. nXin. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 
I shall go afore long. Glo. It's you as ought to go before the magis- 
trates, and will do afore long, GISSING Vill. Hampden (1890) I. 
Som. Come it did, sure enuff, avore lang, LEITH Lemon Verbena 
( l8 95) 3 8 - n.Yks. 2 An aud afooretimes body, an antiquated per- 
sonage. ne.Lan. 1 n.Lin. Thaay was big foaks afooretime (M.P.); 
n.Lin. 1 Som. Afore-yenc, over against, directly in front of (HALL.') 




6. Phr. to live afore the friend, to live on the charity of 

w.Yks. A chap hez a deal to swallo when he'z livin' afore t'l'riend 
J. R. 

[If I do not . . . drive all thy subjects afore thee like a 
flock of wild-geese, SHAKS. i Hen. IV, n. iv. 152. ME. To 
hem that riche were afore, GOWER C. A. n. 88. OE. on- 
fomn, before.] 

AFORWARD, adv. Glo. Forward, in front. 

Glo. Get the wurk avorard, carnt ee ! (S.S.B.) ; A shepherd 
would tell his dog to ' go avorard,' meaning ' get ahead of the 
sheep' (J.D.R.i. 

\_A-, on + forward, q. v.] 

AFRAID, conj. Irel. and var. dial, [afre'd.] Also for 
afraid, and, by aphaeresis, fraid. Lest, for fear that. 

Ir. I put it there, afraid you should find it. I wouldn't go out 
to-day afraid I should miss you (A.S.P.) ; I wouldn't undertake 
to say for fraid I'd tell a lie, YEATS Flk. Tales (1888) 187. Dub. 
Run indoors, God bless you, for afraid the cows 'd run over you 
[said to a child by a man driving cows] (G.M.H.). nXin. 1 She 
weant goa by trip-traains for fraaid o' sum'ats happenin'. ne.Wor 
I'll just go with you part of the way, afraid you shouldn't find it 
J.W.P.). Suf. I shall put on my hat afraid I shall catch cold 
(Common. ' For afraid ' is less common) (F.H.). 

{Afraid (conj.), contr. for ' being afraid.' For afraid is 
due to association with the phr. ' for fear.' Afraid is pp. 
of affray, vb. to frighten, AFr. affrayer, OFr. effreer, esfreer.] 

AFRAWL, prep. Won Suf. [afrp-l.] For all, in spite of. 

se.Wor. 1 ' Now, Billy, thee cossn't come this a-road.' Billy : ' I 
sh'll come afrawl thee.' Suf. Afrawl, for all, in spite of (HALL.). 


AFRESH, adv. and adj. In gen. use. [afre'J.j 

1. adv. Over again. 

Brks. 1 Thee hast done the job zo bad thee mus' do't avresh. 

2. adj. Unknown before, new, fresh. 

Stf. 2 It's naut afresh far im ta bei drunk. Brks. 1 A be a-doin' 
things in the parish as be quite avresh. 

[1. Dead Henry's wounds Open their congeal'd mouths 
and bleed afresh, SHAKS. Rich. Ill, i. ii. 56. A- (prob. = of, 
as in anew) + fresh. 2. As an adj. afresh is prob. not 
exactly the same word as that above ; the a- representing 
in this case not of, but the pref. surviving in western 
dial, from] 

AFRIST, adv. Sc. QAM.) [afri'st] On trust or in a 
state of delay. 

Sc. All ills are good afrist, Prov. 

[A-, on + frist. ON. frestr, OE. fierst, space of time, 
respite. ME. Do bou nouth on frest, Hav. 1337).] 

AFRO, v. Sh. I. To dissuade. 

Sh.I. (W. A.G., Coll. L. L. B.) S. & Ork. 1 

[Dan. afraade, to dissuade (cp. G. abraten) ; Dan. of, 
off+raade, to advise; ON. rafta, OE. rcedan.] 

AFRONT, <&. Yks.Lan. War. Brks. [afnrnt, avnrnt] 
In front. 

w.Yks. 5 He wur afront an' we wur aback on him. ne.Lan. 1 
War. (J.R.W.) Brks. 1 Thee get on avront o' I, ther yent room 
vor us bwo-ath in the paath. 

[A-, on + front.} 

AFRORE, ppl. adj. sw. counties only. Hmp. Dor. Som. 
Dev. Also written avrore Dor. 1 Dev. ; avraur, avroared 
Dev. See below, [afroa'(r), avroa'(r).] Frozen, stiff with 

s.Hmp. Ye must be nigh famished, and afrore too, VERNEY L. Lisle 
(1870) xxiii. Hmp. 1 Froar, Vrore. Dor. 1 Som. My vingers be 
all a-vraur, JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). n.Dev. Tha chield's 
avroared, tha conkerbells Be hangin to un, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) 
5 ; Or whan 'tes avore [misprint : 1771 has avrore] or a scratcht, 
Exni. Scold. (1746) 1. 123 ; Avrore, frozen, frosty, Exmore, GROSE 
(1790). Dev. 1 'Twas so hard avrore that the juggy-mirc was all 
one clitch of ice, pt. iii. 18. nw.Dev. 1 

[OE. gefroren, pp. offreosan, to freeze.] 

AFT, adv. n.Yks. [aft] 

1. Backward, in fig. sense. 

n.Yks. 2 They went aft, instead o' forrat [met with reverses 
rather than things favourable]. 

2. As super/. 

n.Yks. 2 Aftest, the hindmost, the laziest of the lot. 

AFT-CROP, A*. Sc. Written eft-, eff.. 
1. After-crop, also called tail-crop, i.e. the grass that springs 
up among the stubble after the crop is cut (JAM. Suppl.). 2. 
A crop of the same kind as the ground yielded last year (ib.). 
3. Aft-crop is the same as aftermath. 

Gall. (A.W.) 

AFT-CROP, v. Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Written eff-. To 
after-crop, i. e. to take two successive crops of the same 
kind from a field. 

Per. Tenants were restricted not to eff-crop the infield [not to 
take two successive crops of oats], ROBERTSON Agric. (1799) 23. 

AFTER, prep., adv., v., and adj. (in comp.) Var. dial. 
uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. See below, [a'fto(r), e-fta(r).] 

1. prep. Of place : following the course of, alongside of. 
Alsojig. following, in accordance with. 

aLin. 1 \_Fig. sense] He said his peace wo'd for wo'd efter th' book. 
Nhp. 1 Go arter the hedge. Glo. 1 Go athirt that ere ground, and 
you'll find the path after the hedge. Som. After, along (J. S. F. S. ) ; 
W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

2. Behind. 

Ir. I left him after me (G.M.H.). 

3. Of time : used instead of ' past ' when speaking of the 
time of day. 

s.Oxf. I'll mash the tea as soon as ever it goes 'alfaater three, ROSE- 
MARY Chilterns (1895) 181 . Suf. (M. E. R. i Dev. I stap'd thare til haf 
arter zix I shudespose, NATHAN HOGG Poet. Let. (1847) 15, ed. 1865. 

4. adv. Even with, keeping pace with. 

w.Som. 1 Dhu ee'njiin wain zu vaa-s, wuz foo'us vur t-ae-u tue- 
vur t-an- dhu shee-z wairn keod-n nuuth'een nee-ur keep aup 
aa'dr [the engine went so fast, (we) were obliged to have two 
(men) to hand the sheaves one could not nearly keep up after 
i. e. the supply even with the demand], 

5. (i) Following a v. of motion : to fetch. (2) prep, used, 
the v. being understood. (3) prep, used as a v. pure and 

(i) Nrf. I'll go arter it (E.M.). w.Som. 1 With any verb of motion 
[after] means to fetch. Zain aa'dr, goo aa'dr, uurn aa'dr [send, 
go, run to fetch]. (2) n.Yks. He efter Betty ageean, TWEDDELL 
Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 13. ne.Yks. 1 Ah efther him. w.Yks. They 
teld her whear he'd goan, soa shoo after him (a very common form 
of expression), HARTLEY Yks. Xmas.Ann. (1879) 12. (3) w.Yks. 
Iwery dog thear wor in it [the village] afterd us, TOM TREDDLE- 
HOYLE Bairnsla Ann. (1854) 35. Nhp. 2 He got the start, but I 
preshus quick atter'd him. Bdf. BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. 
(1809). s.Hmp. What did that fellow Ned mean by aftering me 
like that, VERNEY L. Lisle (1870) xxv. 

6. When used with a progressive tense it indicates: 

(1) that an action is about to take place ; (2) completed 
action, cf. Fr. venir de ; (3) present action ; in the last 
sense it is freq. otiose. 

(i) Inv. I will be after telling him [I willtellhim](H. E. F.). Chs. 3 
He's after taking another farm. e-An. 1 The hen is after laying. 
Suf. I now after fetching it (C. G. de B.). (a) Inv. I am after 
telling him [I have just told him] (H.E.F.). Ir. She told them in the 
prisoner's presence that he was after hanging her up against the 
door with a rope, Dublin Dy. Expr. (Mar. 26, 1891) ; I am after 
dining [I have dined] (G.M.H.); Jos was after balragging the 
priest, KENNEDY Even. Duffrey (1869) 81 ; They were after hangin' 
a lad up at the jail, BARLOW Lisconnel (1895) 169. s.Ir. It is not 
every lady that would be after making [would have made] such an 
offer, CROKER Leg. (1862) 220. Wxf. Yes, indeed, sir, and I only 
after composing a new prayer to-day, KENNEDY Banks Bow (1867) 
186. (3) Ir. Then it's fitter . . . for you to be after putting your sign 
there in your pocket, BARRINGTON Sketches (1830) I. xvii ; Is it 
Lanigan you'd be afther comparin' me to ? LOVER Leg. (1848) I. 225. 
s.Ir. I would not beafter sayingsucha thing. CROKER Leg. (1862)291. 

7. To be after: (i) to court, to be in love with ; (2) to be 
in pursuit of, to follow ; (3) to be engaged upon ; (4) to 
aim at ; (5) the word also conveys the idea of a state or 
condition in the immediate future, and (6) of a recently 
completed action. 

(i)Inv. I am after so and so [I am in love with so and so] (H.E.F.). 
n.Yks. (I.W.) Chs. 1 1 expect he's after our Polly. War.(J.R.W-) 

(2) Inv. I will be after you [I'll follow you] (H.E.F.). n.Yks. 
(I.W.) Chs. 1 The policeman's after him. War. (J.R.W.) (3) 
n.Yks. (I.W.) Chs. 1 What are you after ? Lin. He'll be efter ye 
soon, I'll uphowd it, PEACOCK R. Skirlaugh (1870) I. 189. n-Lin. 1 
I could tell what he was efter, though he kep' very squat. War. 
(J.R.W.) Nrf. What are you arter there (E. M.). (4) sjr. Is 




that what you'd be after, you spalpeen ? CROKER Leg. (1862) 269. 
Colloq. ' Look here ! Dunham,' said Staniford sharply, ' what are 
you after?' HOWELLS^TOOS/CO* (1883) xii. (5) Ir. The child is 
after the measles. (6) I am after my dinner (G.M.H.). 

8. After long and last, at the end. 

I.Ma. That's where we'll all be after long and last, CAINE 
Manxman (1894) pt. n. xv. 

9. Comp. After-burden, after-birth (placenta); -butter, 
that made from after-fleetings, q.v. ; -cast, consequences, 
effect, what may ensue (JAM.) ; -cleckin, -clep, -cletch, 
see below; -come, consequence, what comes after; 
-comer, a stranger, visitor, ' follower ' ; -daylight, -end, 
-feed, -fetch, see below; -fleetings, cream from milk that 
has been twice skimmed ; -gang, to follow ; -grass, -held, 
see below; -leavings, slime containing ore ; -leys, -mead, 
-most, -shear, -shot, -smatch, -temsings, see below; 
-temsing-bread, bread made from coarse flour, the refuse 
of the sieve or temse ; -wald, the outfield, arable land 
which is not manured, but cropped until it is worn out 
(JAM.) ; -winding, see below. 

Lin. After-burden, after-birth, STREATFIELD Lin. and Danes 
(1884) 3 J 5- n-Lin. 1 The afterburden should oht to be alus putten 
upo' kitchen fire-back at neet when foaks hes gone to bed. Bck. 
That which is afterwards skimmed makes what is called an after- 
butter, MARSHALL Review (1817) IV. 546. Rxb. He durst na do't 
for fear o' the aftercast (JAM.). Dur. 1 Efter-clecking, one of a 
second brood. ne.Yks. 1 Efter-clecking, a brood of chickens, &c., 
hatched after the first brood of the season [also in pi. applied to 
the brood]. Them fahve geslins is eftthercleckins. n.Yks. 2 Efther- 
clep, the brood that happens to come after the usual breeding 
time. Dur. 1 Efter-cletch, an after or second brood in the same 
year. s.Sc. And how are ye to stand the aftercome ? Brownie of 
Bodsbeck, ii. 9 ; I fear she is ruined for this world, and for the 
aftercome, I dare hardly venture to think about it, ib. ii. 48 (JAM.). 
Gall. He wad like to dee but for the thocht o' the after-come, 
CROCKETT Moss-Hags (1895) xxiii. n.Yks. 2 Efther-comers, 
followers. e.Yks. 1 Efther-cummers, visitors, strangers. e.Lan. 1 
After-dellit, night [after daylight]. n.Yks. 2 Van's efther-end 
condition [one's state after death]. n-Lin. 1 After-end, the 
autumn; more commonly [called] the back-end or fall. Oxf. 
Afterfeed, the grass that grows after the first crop has been 
mown, and generally fed off, not left for an aftermath, as in some 
other counties (HALL., WRIGHT); Still in freq. use (K.B.). Cum. 1 
Efter fetches, after-thoughts or actions. Ess. Butter which 
is made from the after-fleetings of the milk, MARSHALL Review 
(1817) V. 164. Abd. They . . . gae a nod to her to aftergang, 
Ross Helenore (1768) 86. w.Som. 1 After grass, the grass which 
grows after the hay is gone. It is not a second crop to be 
mown, but to be fed. Wgt. After-heid, grass springing up in 
the stubble after the crop is cut (A.W.). Cor. 2 After-leavings in 
washing tin (s.v. Loobs). Brks. After-laies, After-leys, aftermath 
or rowinge (K.). Hrt. Our after mead, or second crop, ELLIS 
Mod. Husb. (1750) IV. i. 95. e.Yks. 1 Bill's awlas efther-most on 
'em all, MS. add. (T.H.) Hmp. 1 After-shear, the aftermath. 
Dor. Another person claims a right to the after-shear, MARSHALL 
Review (1817) V. 261. Sc. In the process of distilling whisky, the 
strong spirit which comes away first is called the foreshot or fore- 
shots; and that which comes last, the aftershot or aftershots 
(JAM. Suppl,). n.Yks. 2 Efther-smatch, the flavour of anything 
after it is swallowed. Dur. 1 Efter-temsings, coarse flour. m.Yks. 1 
After-temsins. w.Yks. 1 I hed some efter temsin breead i' t'Aumry. 
Cai. Afterwald, that division of a farm which is called outfield in 
other parts of Scotland. The outfield land [provincially after- 
wald], Agric. Surv. of Cai. 87 (JAM.). nw.Dev. 1 Arter-wmding 
or Arter-winning, small or light corn [after-winnowing]. Cor. 1 
After-winding, waste corn. 

AFTER, v. Yks. (?) Stf. Der. To take the last milk 
irom cows. See Afterings. 

Yks. I have only heard this word once in Yks. (M.F.) Stf. 1 
After, to extract the last milk of a cow the second time ; Stf. 2 
rak ois Iitl kan, an gu an after th' kai. Der. After the youths had 
milked the cows, I aftered them, getting a pint or so from each 

. ARE, adj., prop. phr. Sc - Uniform, equable. 
Sc. bne s nx t my lot maist after ane, COCK Simple Strains (1810) 
69 (JAM.). Bnff. 1 Ye canna gang wrang t'him : for he's eye efter- 
ane : an he niver sehns awa ony ane wee a sair hairt 

[Syne eftir ane my toung is and my pen, DOUG. Virg. 
45 3 > 3-J 

AFTERCLAP, sb. Sc. Yks. Chs. Stf. Der. Lin. Lei. 
War. Shr. Glo. Oxf. Ess. I.W. Wil. Som. Dev. Cor. Not in 
gloss, of e. An. [a'ftatlap, a'ftaklap.] 

1. Ulterior and unexpected consequences, generally un- 
pleasant : evil consequence (JAM.). 

e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 2 s.Chs. 1 Unpleasant consequences ; e. g. of the 
results of over-indulgence in eating. Stf 2 Dunna crow too soon, 
wait till th' afterclap. nw.Der. 1 I want it sattled ; I dunno want 
noo afterclaps [au) waan't it saat-'lt; au) diin'u waan-t ndo aaf-- 
turtlaap-s]. Der. 2 War. (J.R.W.) ; War. 2 Shr. 1 It's al'ays 
best be earful an' sen' some one as knows thar business an' 
then theer's no afterclaps ; Shr. 2 The consequence, issue, result, 
generally received in malam partcm. Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 After conse- 
quences, a relapse. Ess. Which being descried, take heede of 
you shall, For danger of after claps, after that fall, TUSSER Hus- 
bandrie (1580) 107, st. rf. Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892); Wil. 1 Som. 
SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). Cor. 1 Something happening 
after the cause is supposed to have been removed. 

2. Anything occurring when it has ceased to be expected; 
a sequel, anything that comes after ; an after-thought. 

n.Yks. 2 Efther-claps, incidents which arise after matters were 
thought to be concluded. w.Yks. BANKS Wkfld. Was. (1865). 
s.Chs. 1 A sequel, anything that comes after ; e. g. a prayer meeting 
after a preaching service, a distribution of bread after a tea meet- 
ing, &c. n.Lln. 1 Rachel Taylor's 'e a fine waay ; she hed her tent 
bairn nine year sin, an' noo she's fallen doon wi' twins ; it's a sore 
after-clap for her. Lei. 1 Way'n got a affter-clap o' winter this 
turn (in reference to a frosty week in April). I.W. 2 I don't want 
noo aaterclaps. w.Som. 1 Arriere pensee. Au'nur bruyt un noa 
aa'dr-klaaps [honour bright and no afterclaps] is a constant ex- 
pression in contracting bargains or agreements. Dev. And it [yet], 
'tis best as 'tis, perhaps ; We mert a catch'd zom arterclaps, PETER 
PINDAR Middlesex Elect. (1816) IV. 206. Cor. 1 After-clapses, after- 
thoughts. [Amer. An attempt to unjustly extort more in a bargain 
or agreement than at first settled upon, FARMER.] 

3. In pi. superfluous finery. 

Cor. 1 I caan't manage the after-clapses. 

[What plaguy mischiefs and mishaps Do dog him still 
with after claps, BUTLER Hud. i. iii. 4 ; For had he been a 
merchant, then perhaps Storms, thunderclaps, or fear of 
afterclaps Had made him long ere this the food of worms, 
TAYLOR Life of Old Parr; He can give us an afterclap 
when we least weene, LATIMER Serm. (WRIGHT) ; It was a 
sorry happe, (he) doubted him of an afterclappe, PERCY'S 
Fol. MS. (MATZNER). After + clap, a slap, blow, q.v.] 

AFTER-CROP, see Attercop. 

AFTER-DAMP, sb. Tech. Nhb. Dur. w.Yks. [a'fte- 
damp.] The noxious gas resulting from a colliery explo- 
sion (WEDGWOOD). 

Nhb. & Dur. After-damp, carbonic acid, stythe. The products 
of the combustion of fire-damp, NICHOLSON Coal Tr. Gl. (1888). 
Nhb. 1 After-damp, the noxious gas resulting from a colliery explo- 
sion. This after-damp is called choak-damp and surfeit by the 
colliers, and is the carbonic acid gas of chymists, HODGSON A 
Description of Felling Colliery. w.Yks. The after-damp completed 
their death, N. & Q. (1876) sth S. v. 325. Miners' tech. Carbonic 
acid gas, or choke damp, which the miners call after-damp, CORE 
(1886) 228. 

[After + damp, q.v. ; cp. choak-damp.] 

AFTERGAIT, adj. Sc. QAM.) 

1. Seemly or fitting. 

Lnk, That's something aftergait. 

2. Tolerable, moderate, what does not exceed. 

Rxb. I'm ill o' the toothache; but I never mind sae lang as it's 
ony way aftergait ava. I'll be there if the day's ought aftergait. 

[After + gait, way, i. e. after, not out of the ordinary way.] 

AFTERHEND, adv. and prep. Sc. n.Cy. Afterwards, 

Sc. Mark ye me, friend, that we may have nae colly-shangie 
afterhend, SCOTT Guy Mannering (1815) xliv; Get the ferm, an' 
efterhand that, ye may kiss, LUMSDEN Sheep-Head, 270 ; It lookit 
as if the craytur had gotten its ain back afterhand, ROY Horseman's 
Wd. (1895) i. n.Cy. Afterhend, Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) 

[Marshall did sweare afterhend that he had not fylled 
him at all, Hist. Kirk 1634-46 (N.E.D.) ; Then is he wise 
after the honde, GOWER C. A. n. 31. After+hand; cp. 
beforehand, behindhand.] 

AFTERINGS, Sc. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. Lin. 




. Shr. GIo. w.Cy. Also in the form afterlins w.Yks. 1 
See below. [a'ftarinz.J 

1. The last milk that conies before a cow's udder is 
empty ; locally called strippings, drippings, or strokings. 

Sc. Till she frae her the massy aft'rins draw, MORISON Poems 
(1790) 185 (JAM.). s.Sc. More generally known as jibbings or 
dribblings, N. & Q. (1882) 6th S. vi. 54. Dmf. [Jane] furnishes 
butter and afterings (jibbings) for tea, FROUDE Thomas Carlyle 
(1882) II. 27. Yks. It were only yesterday as she aimed her leg 
right at t'pail wi' t'afterings in ; she knowed it were afterings as 
well as any Christian, GASKELL Sylvia (1863) xv (DAY.). w.Yks. 
Afterings, the last milk of a cow. Also called strippings, Hlfx. 
Wds.; w.Yks. 1 Afterlins, the last milk of a cow. Lan. 1 Jem, let 
owd Mally have a quart o' aftherins for a custhert or two. e.Lan. 1 
Chs. 1 2 Afterings, the same as strokings ; Chs. 3 The last milk 
(generally considered the richest). So called because in all well- 
managed dairies, a milker follows after the others to make sure of 
the afterings. Stf. 12 Der. The strokings, or last of a cow's milk, 
GROSE (1790); Der. 12 , Lin. 1 n.Lin. 1 Afterlings [are] said to con- 
tain the most butter. War. (J.R.W.) Shr. 1 Afterings, cf. Drip- 
pings. Glo. 1 w.Cy. MORTON Cycl.Agric. (1863). 

2. The surplus, remainder in a more general sense (JAM.). 
Fif. The aft'rins o' a feast. 

3. Fig. Outcome, results, consequences QAM.). 

Ayr. The bloody afterings of that meeting, GILLHAIZE, iii. 88. 
[2. These are the iorepjjuoTa, afterings of Christ's suffer- 
ings, BP. HALL Serm. (N.E.D.)] 

AFTERMATH, sb. Very widely distributed in midl., 
e.An. and s. districts ; but not given in gloss, of Sc. Dev. 
Cor. Also written efter-math n.Yks. 2 ; attermath Glo. 2 ; 
aftermeath Ken. 12 [a'ftamajs n. and e.Yks. e'ftamajj, 
se.Wor. a'ta-, Glo. ae'ta-.] The second crop of grass which 
grows after the field has been mown. Freq. used in pi. 

n. & s.Cy. Aftermaths, the pasture after the grass has been mowed, 
GROSE (1790). n.Yks. 2 Efther-math, the second mowing of grass 
yielded by a field in one season. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 4 After-maths, 
after mowings, the grass in the meadows, that grows after the 
mowing the eddish. Stf. 1 n.Lin. 1 The grass that grows when 
the hay is cut, more commonly called eddish. Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 In 
strictness aftermath is the second or latter mowing ; but with us 
it is equally applied, whether the second crop be mown, or eaten 
off the ground ; Nhp. 2 War. (J.R.W.) ; War. 3 Sometimes used in 
wider sense. He cannot expect much aftermath now, he has had 
two crops off the meadow this season. se.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 , Pern. (E.D.) 
Glo. There was not much hay this year, but the aftermath has been 
good (A. B.): Glo.^Brks. 1 Bck.N. &Q. (1853)151 S.viii. 102. Hit. 
ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) IV. ii. 76. e.An. 1 Nrf. Yow can mow 
the grass, ye know, and than (then) let the aftermath for $ (W.R.E.); 
Aftermath eddish, same as aftermath, N. & Q. (1853) Ist S. viii. 
229 ; Nrf. 1 The feed left on meadows after having been mown. 
Suf. 1 Ken. 1 Aftermeath, the grass which grows after the first crop 
has been mown for hay; called also roughings [usually called 
rowens in e.Ken.] ; Ken. 2 Aftermeath, aftermowth, i. e. that which 
comes and grows after the mowing. Sur. 1 Called also rowen. 
Hmp. 1 Called also lattermath. I.W. 1 n.Wil. The aftermath in the 
meadows beneath will not grow, JEFFERIES Wild Life (1879) 21 ; 
The feed left on meadows or grass-land after having been mown. 
Also called lattermath, BRITTON Beauties (1825). w.Som. 1 

[After + math, OE. mizd, a mowing; cp. G. mahd, OHG. 
mad. The word occurs in FITZHERBERT Husbandry 63, 
WORLIDGE Diet. Rusticum, BAILEY (ed. 1721), LISLE Hus- 
bandry (Aftermass).] 

AFTERNOON, adj. Lin. Wor. Glo. Hrt. Mid. Nrf. Sur. 
Som. Dev. See below. Late in performing any work, 
procrastinating ; dilatory, slow. 

sw.Lin. 1 1 call him nobbut an afternoon farmer ; he got no seed in 
last back-end. War. 3 s.Wor. 1 An afternoon farmer, [one] who takes 
things easily. se.Wor. 1 Atternone-folks, people who are in the 
habitof beginning work late in the day. Glo. (A.B.) Nrf. No, no; 
he's no business man. We call him an arternune farmer (W. R. E. ). 
Hrt. In Hertfordshire we call [declining farmers] afternoon farmers, 
ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) III. ii. 4. Mid. N. & Q. (1894) 8th S. 
v. 153. Sur. 1 He's pretty much of an afternoon man. w.Som. 1 
Purty arternoon farmer, sure 'nough (s.v. Arrish). nw.Dev. 1 
Colloq. The ram and snow have come too soon fora few ' afternoon 
farmers,' who have not yet put in all their wheat, Standard (Nov. 
28, 1889 , 2, col. i. [Amer. Afternoon farmer, . . . one who pro- 
crastinates, or who misses an opportunity. ... It is only slang 
when used figuratively apart from agricultural pursuits, FARMER.] 

AFTERNOONING, sb. w.Yks. [a'ftanuinin.] 

w.Yks.Afternooinin, refreshment between dinner and tea, BANKS 
Wkfld. Wds. (1865). Afternooning is still heard round Wakefield 
but is rapidly becoming obs. (W.F.) 

AFT-HANKS, sb. Sh.I. [a'ft-haijks.] That part of a 
boat where the bands come together at the stem and stern. 
See Hank. 

s. & Ork. 1 

AGAIN, prep. Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Eng. 
Also written agaan, agean, agen, agin, agyen. See 
below, [agia'n, age'n, agi'n.] Used for against, in most 
of its mod. meanings. 

I. Of position. 

1. Near, beside. 

n.Yks. Just ageean t'pleeace where Ah wur bred, Broad Yks. 
(1885) 27 ; n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 Oor spot ligs agaan Helmsla. e.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. Nelly always sits again John (F. P.T. ) ; Poor Bill, he wur 
leynd ageean t'wall, PRESTON Poems, &c. (1864) 24. Lan. 1 Agen 
th' heawse-eend wur a little cloof o' full o brids and fleawrs. 
Chs. 1 He lives agen th' chapel ; Chs. 3 Stf. 1 2 sw.Lin. 1 They've 
taen a farm agen Eagle Hall. Rut. 1 Agen the hedge. Lei. 1 It's 
close again Bosworth. Nhp. 'Tis agen the running brook, CLARE 
Poems (1820) 140, ed. 1873 ; Nhp. 1 He lives agen me. s.War. 1 He 
lives just agin us. Shr. 1 Lave that bouk agen the pump w'eer 
I put it ; Shr. 2 Shut 'em agen the backside o' the house. Brks. 1 
I left the prong over agin the staayble door. e.An. 1 She stood 
again the door. If she stood very near the door, it would be more 
correct to say ' close again,' or ' right again ' ; if facing it, at some 
little distance, ' over again.' Nrf. Agin our gates are all mander 
o' plasant fruits, GILLETT Sng. Sol. (1860) vii. 13. Cmb. 1 It's up 
to your boot-tops in mud agin the Brick Clamp. Ken. 1 He lives 
down de lane agin de stile. Sur. 1 Sus. 1 He lived up agin the 
Church. n.Wil. Veed yer kids agen th' shepherds' tents, KITE 
Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) i. 8. 

2. In contact with, touching, resting against. 

Nhb. When Dicky's corf was fill'd wi' sic, He let his low and 
stuck't agyend [again it], WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) 27. Cum. 
Stand aboot int' lonnin, or lig ageann t'dykes, DICKINSON Cumbr. 
(1876) 6. e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Th' ladder were rared agen th' waw. 
Lin. Ay, roob thy whiskers agean ma, TENNYSON Tiresias, &c. (1885) 
Spinster's Sweet-arts ; Sa I runs to the yard fur a lether, an' sets 
'im agean the wall, ib. Owd Rod (1889). Oxf. 1 'Ee's alen'in 
[leaning] agen your warnut tree. Dor. Did fondly lay agean your 
zide His coal-black nose an' russet ear, BARNES Poems (1863) 2. 

3. Opposite to. 

Shr. 1 Oud it up agen the light an' then we shan be able to see 
w'eer the faut is. Glo. 12 e.An. 2 Over agin the gate, opposite 
the gate. 

II. With v. of motion. 

1. Against, in violent contact with. 

Nhb. 1 The keel went bump agyen Jarrow, An' three o' the bullies 
lap oot, Little Pee Dee. Yks. He came wi' a crack again t'chap, 
BARING-GOULD Oddities (1874) 1. 240. e.Yks. He tummel'd ageean 
t'bucket, an cut his heead, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 49. w.Yks. 
When one o' my mates shoved another chap ageean her, CUDWORTH 
Dial. Sketches (1884) 2 ; w.Yks. 1 He ran agaan him. ne.Lan. I geet 
my yed jowled agen th' frame o' th' loom, MATHER Idylls (1895) 
317. Lan. 1 An then he's hardly wit enough to keep fro runnin 
again woles i' th' dayleet, WAUGH Sketches (1857) 28. Der. 2 Oi'll 
jowl thy yed agen a stoup. Not. 2 He joled his 'ead agen a balk. 
Nhp. 1 They ran again me, and knocked me down. Glo. How the 
rain do druvagin one ! BUCKMAN Darke' s Sojourn (1890) x. Cmb. 1 
When I want to write, there's allus one o' y'r a-joggling agin the 
table. Sur. And then he run agin' a man at the bottom of the road 
here, JENNINGS Field Paths (1884) 165. Sus. 1 He's hind leg flew 
up and het agen t'other horse, EGERTON Fits, and Ways (1884) 
26. I.W. 2 He veil agen it. Som. The wind 'twas beaten' the 
drops vrom the chestnut leaves agen' my veace, LEITH Lemon 
Verbena (1895) 47. w.Som. 1 Ee droa-vd au-p ugiin dhu gee'ut [he 
drove against the gate]. Dev. The bellows banged agin' the wall, 
O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 26. 

2. Phr. to come, go again, to come, go to meet (see 
Against, 2); to run again, to meet by chance. 

s.Pem. I went again him, down so far as to the bridge. Father, 
he'll come again me (E.D.). s.Stf. I chaunced to run agen Steve 
Hodgkiss, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895) 5. Sur. 1 To run agin' any 
one is to meet him. 

III. Of opposition or resistance. 
1. Against, in resistance to. 

Sc, In case mine enimie say, Thae prevailit agayne him, RIDDELL 




Ps. (1857) xiii. 4. Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 Ageann t'hand, inconveniently 
placed, interfering with progress. w.Yks. For strength, I prayed, 

yo (J.P.K.). 

Why there Almighty ceare mid cast A better screen agean the 
blast, BARNES Poems (1863) 68. Som. It ain't no use a runnin' 
agin the law, PALMER Mr. Trueman (1895) 141. Dev. Ha gid min 
power agin onclayn spurrits, BAIRD St. Matt. (1863) x. i. 

2. Averse to, in opposition to, in depreciation of; with 
obj. of person. 

Sc. Deacon Clank, the white-iron smith, says, that the Govern- 
ment folk are sair agane him, SCOTT Waverley (1814) Ixiii ; Fortune's 
been sair agane him (JAM.). Frf. She was ane o' the warst agin 
me at first, BARRIE Thrums (1889) 120, ed. 1895. Ir. Cross she 
was too, if anythin' went agin her, BARLOW Kerrigan (1894) 
43. Nhb. What have ah dune that folkes sud set theirsels' again' 
me, CLARE Love of Lass (1890) I. 72. Com. 3 Hev ye gitten owt 
agean me? 12. e.Yks. Ah dooant kno what theyr sa mitch 
ageean ma for (W. H.). Lan. Th'wust witness agen hissel, 
BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) vi. Chs. 1 We'n nowt agen th' chap. 
Der. You hanna towd us why t'other two were agen him, GUSHING 
Voe (1888) III. vii. swXin. 1 He seemed to tak' agen the child. 
I've nowt agen him, but I've heard a many say a deal agen him. 
Lei. 1 Oi doon't knoo nothink agen 'im. Bdf. Saunders was talking 
agen him, WARD Bessie Costrell (1895) 2 4- s.Hmp. We mustn't 
go agin him, VERNEY L. Lisle (1870) xxii. 

3. Opposed to, averse to, contrary to ; with obj. of thing. 
Gall. Cleg Kelly was again ' tracks,' CROCKETT Stickit Min. (1893) 

166. Yks. I was agin it, I was agin it my mind misgave me, 
BARING-GOULD Pennyqks. (1870) 54, ed. 1890. w.Yks. It's agean 
orders to tak onny passengers, but tha can come as commodore, 
HARTLEY Seets (1895) iii. Lan. We spoke up again' it, GASKELL 
M. Barton (1848) ix ; Aw connot tak' money fur savin' a choilt's life. 
It's agen' mi conscience, BANKS Manch. Man (1876) i. Chs. 1 1 were 
allus agen his goin' : Chs. 3 Agen the marriage. s.Chs. ' I'll see [say] 
nowt agen that. Not. A've nowt to say agen it (L.C.M.). Lin. An' 
i' the woosto' toimes I wur niveragin the raate.TENNYsoN A'. Farmer, 
Old 5/7/^(1864) st. 4. Lei. He were always again it (C.E.). Wor. 
Tom's very bad to come to school, 'e's bitter agen it (H. K.). 
Shr. 1 'E wuz agen the weddin' altogether ; Shr. 2 I'm totally agen 
it. e.An. 1 I am not for it but again it. Stir. I should like to 
hear from your own lips what you've got to say agin it, HOSKYNS 
Talpa (1857) 172. 

4. In exchange for ; as an equivalent for. 

n-Lin. 1 1 sattled his bill, an' he gev' me three an' six agean a 
sov'rin. Sur. I'll back Common Sense agin' Chemistry any day, 
HOSKYNS Talpa (1857) 1 7 2 - 

Hence, of a change of clothes : in turn with, in succession. 

s.Not. Ah'll knit Mm another pair o' stockings, then 'e can wear 
won again tother (J.P.K.). 

5. In dealing with, as regards. [Cf. 'he is a match for it.'l 
Hrf. 2 He [watchmaker] 's a pretty good un up agin a clock. I 

dunna know what a' might be agin a waatch. 

6. In comparison with. 

s.Not. Yo can faight a bit, but noat again our Bob (J.P.K.) 

IV. Of time. 
1. Before, against, by, towards. 

Sc. Sicken a blythe gaedown as we had again e'en ! SCOTT Guy 
Mannering (1815) xxii ; It'll be ready agane Saturday (JAM.). 
Ir.And will you be gettin' married agin Shrovetide? BARLOW 
Lisconnel (1895) 24. Cum. Dalston singers come here agean Sun- 
day, ANDERSON Ballads (1808) Nichol the Newsmonger. Lan. All 
customers are expected bi seven o'clock, agen which time the beast 
will be kilt, Rossendel Beef-Neet, 6. Chs. 1 Our pump allus maks a 
mze agen rain. s.Chs. 1 My leg's auvay woss agen [on the approach 
of] reen [rain]. nXin. 1 Th' herse collars is al'us as weet as muck 
agean raain. Nhp. 1 1 shall be ready agen to-morrow Shr. 2 Agen 
to-morrow ownder. Hrf. 1 1 will do it agin next Sunday Hrf. 2 He'll 
come agin Christmas. Glo. 2 I'll be ready agen zhip-zhearing. 
Luk for t agen Mi-elmas. Oxf. 1 1 au'lus 'as a new cwut agen Wis- 
suntide. Dor. An' deaisies that begun to vwold . . . Aeean the 
night, BARNES Poems (1869) 14. 

2 r' " An im 5 foi Y n view of > in readiness for, any future event. 

Ir All this while I had a right to be doin' me messages at 

Hanlon s, and the flour and salt a-wantin' agin the supper, BARLOW 

Ke'J'gan (1894) 66. sir. That the poor beast may be rested 

again the fair, CROKER Leg. (1862) 42. Cum. A youthfu' pair . 

'r/'V T invited Agean that dav ' STAGG *** p '* 

The Bndewam. w.Yks. Thah mun get mi shooin soil'd 

agean to-morn o' t'neet (JE.B.). Shr. 1 If I start now I shall get 
theer agen the onder. Brks. 1 I hev a-got money put by agin 
a raainy day. w.Som. 1 Mus sae-uv dhai gee-z giin Kuursmus [(I) 
must keep those geese in preparation for Christmas]. 

3. Until. 

w.Som. 1 Aay kaa-n paay ut gun Zad-urdee nait [cannot pay it 
until Saturday night]. 

[I. 3. He stired the coles til relente gan The wex agayn 
the fyr, CHAUCER C. T. G. 1279 ; Than taketh the cristal 
stoon ywis Agayn the sonne aYi hundred hewes, ib. R. Rose 
1577. II. 1. Lyk betyng of the see ... again the roches 
holowe, ib. Hous F. 1035. III. 4. And do good ajeyn 
uvel, P. Plowman (A.) xi. 150. IV. 1, 2. Ageyn this lusty 
someres tyde This mirour . . . He hath sent, CHAUCER C. T. 
F. 142. OE. Otlgtgit, cp. G. entgegen.} 

AGAIN, conj. and adv. Sc. Irel. and var. dial, of Eng. 
Not in gloss, of e.An. 

A. conj. 

Of future time : by the time that, before, until. (Cf. 
Again, prep. IV. 2.) 

Nhb. 1 Aa'll be there agyen ye come. Dur. 1 Agane (i.e. the time) 
he comes hame. n.Yks. Ageean I come yam [home] (I.W.). 
w.Yks. Have it ready agean I come back, Hlfx. Wds. s.Chs. 1 
I shall be theer agen yo bin started. Stf. 1 Again, by the time. 
s.Not. That'll last yer agen I'm back (J.P.K.). sw.Lin. 1 1 got their 
teas ready agen they came home. Nhp. 1 I shall be there agen 
you come. Shr. 1 Mind an' 'ave the oven whot agen I come wham; 
Shr. 2 Agen a mon's paid for iviry thin it taks a dhell o' money. 
Glo. 1 I'll have it ready agen you come back. Mid. I also destroy 
black beedles with a composition which I always keep with me 
again it's wanted, MAYHEW Land. Labour (1864) III. 17. Wil. 
Mother, cut I 'nother bit 'gin I done this, AKERMAN Tales (1853) 
30. Dev. 1 , Cor. 1 

B. adv. 

1. At a future time, by-and-by. 

Sc. Again, at another time; used indef. This will learn ye, 
again, ye young ramshackle. Reg. Da/ion, I. 199 (JAM.). Ir. I didn't 
do it yet, but I'll do it again (G.M.H.). War. 2 Shr. 1 1 hanna got 
it now, but I'll gie it yo' agen. Wei. I'll pay yah again. When 
will yah come then? Oh, again [not now, next time] (W.M.M.). 
s.Pem. I thought as how you'd done with'n, but I can fetch'n again. 
Not you trouble to move, I can get it again (E. D.). 

2. Phr. to and again, to and fro. 
s.Chs. 1 To an' agen. Stf. 2 

3. To one side ; back ; gen., esp. in phr. turn again, to 
turn back. 

s.Not. Ah'm tired, granfayther, let's turn agen. Auve again, 
Oieet again, Come again, and Gee again, various commands to the 
horse to turn either to the right or the left. [Within the last few 
years] ' gee again ' has been replaced by ' gee back' (J.P.K.). [Turn 
again, Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor of London! Pop. Tale.} 

4. Of reciprocal action : in return, back. Hence in inten- 
sive sense (cf. 'to ring again'). 

Nhb. She aye gives ye tweyce as gude aghayn, BEWICK Howdy 
(1850) 12. w.Yks. It fair dithered ageean (JE.E.}. Der. 1 He 
snored again. Lei. 1 A let 'im 'ave it loike nothink agen [he gave 
him a sound thrashing]. 

5. Comp. Again-call, to revoke (JAM.) ; -calling, recall ; 
Agane-say, to recall (JAM.) ; -wards, towards ; -ways, by 
the roadside. 

S. & Ork. 1 Sc. Again-calling, recall, revocation (JAM.). n.Yks. 2 
It Hew ageean wards o' me [to the place where I was standing]. 
[Agen ward, back again, COLES Eng. Diet. (1677).] n.Yks. 2 Ageean- 
ways, by or against the roadside. 

[A. His cap and pantofles ready . . . And a candle again 
you rise, MASSINGER City Madam (1632) in. i. ME. 
Ajeyn this cachereles cometh, Pol. S. 151. Cp. the use of 
ajeines in P. Plowman : Ajeines thi greynes . . . bigynneth 
for to ripe, B. xix. 314. B. 1. I will not again curse the 
ground any more for man's sake, BIBLE Gen. viii. 21. 2. To 
and again, i.e. to and fro ; see Autobiog. of Sir S. D'Ewes 
H. 353 (NARES). 3. Nay, come again, Good Kate, I am a 
gentleman, SHAKS. T. Shrew n. i. 217. 5. Ane amerciament 
of ane fals dome againe said in the Justitiars court, is ten 
pounds, SKENE (N.E.D.).] 

AGAINST, prep, and conj. Freq. in Som. Dev. Cor.; 
occas. in other counties (see below), but usually replaced 
by again, q.v. [agi'ns, agi'nst.] 




A. prep. 
Near, beside. 

Not. 1 You sit against me. 

2. In a contrary direction to ; hence, to go towards, to 

w.Som. 1 A young man speaking of a young woman said : Aay 
waint ugins ur [I went to meet her]. Dev. I am going out against 
him, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; Jane is late home til-night . . . 
I wish, Jimmy, yii'd go against her! 'Tez gitting dark; us 'ad 
better go aginst Jenny, or 'er'Il be a skeard out ov 'er life, HEWETT 
Peas. Sp. (1892) ; Tom Wheedon was sent against me with a horse, 
O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 21. nw.Dev. 1 As I waz komin' back-alung, 
I zeed min komin' aginst ma. 

3. To go against, to inform against. 

Dev. Squire Stephens tanned Dick Carter last night up tfl tha 
Cat and Fiddle, and I be summoned til-day tu go against un, 
HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1893). 

4. In exchange for ; in payment ot. 

Dev. Silver against a guinea, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.); I 
wanted that money bad enough to go against the boys' boots, 
O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 40. 

Hence, of a change of clothes : in succession, in turn with. 

s.Not. I shan't let him wear his flannel shirt till I've made him 
another to wear against it (J.P.K.). 

5. In competition with ; compared with. 

s.Not. I'll mow an acre against any man in the place (J.P.K.). 
Dev. Young against him, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 

6. Of time : before, near the time of. 

e.An. 1 Close against thunder; i.e. thunder is in the air. Cor. 3 
I'm happy against my birthday. As dazed as a duck against [on 
hearing] thunder. 

7. In readiness for, in time for. 

w.Yks. I'll go against Sunday (J.T.). Som. One of the puddings 
kept over from Christmas against sheep-shearing, RAYMOND Gent. 
Upcott (18931 60. 

B. conj. By the time that (of past or future time). 

Dev. Against she had finished her broth, all the items were 
packed away in her head, O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 9; Against I got 
there it was night, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) nw.Dev. 1 You 
waan't ha' time vor do't, I tell ee ; 'ginst you've had dinner, twull 
be time vor go home again. 

[A. 1. Against the Capitol I met a lion, SHAKS. J. Caes. i. 
iii. 20 ; Against this fire do I shrink up, ib. K. John, v. vii. 
33. 2. Agayns his doghter hastilich goth he, CHAUCER 
C. T. E. 911. 4. And do good ajeines yvel god hymself it 
hoteth, P. Plowman (B.) x. 199. 5. Hir paroch-prest nis 
but a beest Ayens me and my company, R. Rose, 6875. 
6. The whyte swan Ayeins his deeth begynnyth for to 
synge, CHAUCER Leg. G. W. 1356. 7. Against this coming 
end you should prepare, SHAKS. Son. 13. B. Urijah the 
priest made it against king Ahaz came from Damascus, 
BIBLE 2 Kings xvi. n ; I'll charm his eyes against she do 
appear, SHAKS. M. N. D. in. ii. 99. Against, ME. ajeinst (in 
P. Plowman), a development with a parasitic t of ajeins, 
a)eines, formed from ajein (again, q.v.) with the adv. gen. 
ending -es.] 

A-GAIRY, adv. Or.I. [age-ri.] 

S. & Ork. 1 To go a-gaairy, to leave one's service before the term- 

AGALD, see Haggle. 

AGAR, adj. Cor. [ae'ga(r).] Ugly. 

Cor. 12 [Cornish, hager, ugly, foul, naughty, fierce (ROGERS).] 

AGAR, int. Obs. ? Dev. A form of oath. 

n.Dev. No agar, zeys I, vor th'art too ugly to be made a pretty 
vella, Exm. Crtshp. (1746) 1. 350 ; There are so many forms of the 
exclamation By God ! that Agar is quite likely to be still in use. 
The forms generally heard at the present day are Begar ! Begur ! 
Begor! Begorz ! (R.P.C.) 

AGARIFIED, ppl. adj. Suf. [aga'rifaid.] Having ague. 

Suf. May be heard frequently. Rather, every one knows it and 
uses it at times (F.H.). 

AGAST, ppl. adj. Irel. Som. Dev. Also written egast 
Wxf. 1 ; ageest, agest, agush'd Dev. [aga-s(t), agrs(t).] 
Terrified, afraid. 

Wxf. 1 Egast, fear. Egasted, frightened. w.Som. 1 I be agast 
'bout they there mangle ; I verMy bleive the grub'l ate every one 
o'm. n.Dev. Agest, terrified, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.); Cham 
agest hare'll dra en into a promish wone dey or wother. Exm. 

VOL. I. 

Crtsh/i. '1746) I. 584 ; O Gracey ! I be all ageest, ROCK Jim an' Nell 
(18671 '5 ! Agush'd and Gush'd, for agasted, dismayed, GROSE 
(,1790) MS. add. (H.) Dev. 3 Agushed, confounded with fear. 

[This is a common word in ME. But thei weren affraied 
and agast and gessiden hem to se a spirit, WYCLIF (1388) 
Luke xxiv. 37; Ne how the ground agast was of the light, 
CHAUCER C. T. A. 2931. Agast is the pp. of ME. agasten, 
to terrify (found m_P. Plowman), agesten (in Ancren Riwle). 
OE. a- (pref?) +gcestan, to frighten.] 

AGASTMENT, sh. Dev. [agae-stment.] Also in the 
form agushment. Sudden terror. 

Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. ;H.) ; Dev. 3 Agushment, consterna- 
tion. Agastment, terror. 

[This terror and agastrnent, NASHE (1594) (N.E.D.). 
Agast (see above) + -ment.] 

AGATE, sb. War. Oxf. Brks. Mid. Som. [ae-gat.] 
The best kind of playing marble, made of glass with 
variegated colours. 

War. Now obs., but in occas. use about thirty years ago (W.S.B.V 
Oxf. 1 MS. add. Brks. (M.J.B.) Mid. Aggy marbles were known 
round Hammersmith some years ago (F.W.L.). Som. (H.G.) 

AGATE, adv. Sc. and all the n. counties to w.Lin. 
n.Shr. ; also in Not. War. Wor. Glo. Cor. Also written 
agaitSc. n.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 ne.Yks. 1 Lan. Lin. 1 ; agyetNhb. 1 ; 
ageatCum. 2 ; ageatt Cum. 1 ; agaate Yks. n.Lin. 1 ; ageeat 
e.Yks. 1 [age't Nhb. Cum. Wm., also agia't. Besides age't 
there also occur agia't in the n. and e., and agest in 
w.Yks. ; s.Chs. agye't.] 

1. On the way, afoot, astir, going about (as opposed to 
lying down, confined to house or bed). To gang agate, to 
go on the way, make one's way, proceed. 

Sc. Agait, on the way or road. Ye're air agait the day (JAM.). 
N.Cy. 12 I am agate. Nhb. 1 Aa's pleased to see ye agate agyen. 
Cum. 12 Wm. 1 Aa's glad to see em ageeat agen. [Also] set 
loose, as a horse in pasture. n.Yks. Let's gang agait into t'field, 
ROBINSON Sng. Sol. (1860) vii. n; n.Yks. 1 Thou's early agate this 
morning. m.Yks. 1 He's always agate. w.Yks. She wor awlus 
ageeat, BLACKAHPoms(i867) 37. ne.Lan. 1 Chs. I am agate (K.); 
Chs. 1 Is Jim at work yet? Oh, aye! he's getten agate again ; 
Chs. 3 Sometimes when you ask after a sick person you are told 
' He's agate again ' ; s.Chs. 1 Not. 3 He's been laid up for weeks, 
but he's agate again. Lin. How the doctor switched Bob Robinson 
for saying he'd been agate early, FENN Dick o' the Fens (1888) viii. 
s.Wor. 1 Glo. Agate, moving, occurring, BfcvLisDial. (1870); Glo. 1 
Cor. 1 p. All agate, descriptive of earnest attention ; iv. Agait, very 
attentive, earnest ; Cor. 2 All agate, full of expectation, all eye and 
ear, on the qui vive. 

2. Said of disease or the like : going about, prevalent. 
Lan. There's a deal of mourning agait, GASKELL M. Barton (1848) 

xxv. w.Wor. 1 Thahr's a dill o' fevers agate this 'ot weather. 

3. Of a machine or the like : going, in motion, in action. 
w.Yks. Wen th' railway gets fairly agait, Haworth Railway (1867) 

7, ed. 1886 ; Captain sooin hed wun squirt agate playing at t'glass 
winder, Pudsey Olm. (1887)20; w.Yks. 3 T'bells is agate [ringing]. 
Lan. Gooin intu o Factri, wi o steym ingun ogate sumwheer, Sam 
Sondknocker, 14. s.Chs. 1 Is the machine agate yet ? Stf. 2 n.Lin. 
When's a uven nota uven ? When she's agaate, PEACOCK Talesand 
Rhymes (1886) 120. 

4. Of an operation, process, business, affair: going on, 

Nhb. What for sud ye gan, lad ? ... What's agate ? CLARE Love of 
Lass(iSgo) I. 124. w.Yks. There is naught agate that fits women 
to be consarned in, BRONTE Shirley (1849) xviii ; w.Yks. 2 The 
washing is agate ; w.Yks. 4 The business is agate. Lan. Sin they' rn 
so mich sodiering ogate, ORMEROD Felley fro' Rachde (1864)!; 
What have they agate at th' owd mill ? WAUGH Besom Ben (1865) i. 
Chs. 3 At the time of the last comet's appearance some one 
observed ' There's a comet agate. ' s.Chs. 1 I've gotten my hee [hay] 
agate yet. Stf. 2 Der. We have brewing a-gate, washing a-gate, 
GROSE ( 1 790) MS. add. (P. ) Not. 3 What have they got agate now ? 
sw.Lin. 1 It was a long time agate, but he got master on it at last. 
War. 2 Wor. It's bin agate a long time (H. K.). w.Wor. Thur 
be summat agate, S. BEAUCHAMP Grantley Grange (1874) II. 162. 
se.Wor. 1 What's agate now ? s.Wor. 1 , Glo. 1 

5. Started, set to work ; to get agate, to begin ; to set agate 
wi', to start with, get on with ; to set one agate, to start him, 
set him on ; to be agate o' or on, to tease, plague, assault ; 
to be, go, take, agate, go agate with, to accompany. 





agate ; 

ageeat wi' pleewing. 

Flk-Sp. (1889) 50. w.Yks. It's easy enuff to ramble after yo ve once 
started, but its this gettin' agate 'at's soa mich trouble, HARTLEY 
Budget (1871) 125; w.Yks. 1 m.Lan. 1 Iv he were to tek a lass 
agate when hoo were gooin' hooam, an' he coom to a gate, id 
wod be for him to ged agate o' oppenin' thad gate. s.Chs. 1 
There'll be noo stoppin thee, nai tha't gotten agate. s.Not. As 

get agate my 

job, as soon as yo'n a mind. Cum. I set him ageat, RICHARDSON 
Talk (1886) 2nd S. 33 ; Ctun. 3 Whatever schemes yel set ageeat 
'ill widder. Wm. 1 Tha set oop a hullybaloo an set t'horse ageeat. 
ne.Yks. 1 He'll set 'em all agate. m.Yks. 1 He was set agate of it. 
Lan. Betty set ogate o scrikin ' Murder ! ' LAHEE Owd Yem, 8 ; 
Th' injin set agate o' goin, Widder Bagshaw' s Trip (c. 1860) 7 ; You 
can find him something to do, Jim ? Oh ay, I'll set him agate, 
WESTALL Birch Dene (1889) I. 303. ne.Lan. 1 Stf. 2 Der. To set 
anything a-gate, is to begin it, or set it a-going, GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (P. ) ; Der. 1 Not. 3 Set him agate with the weeding o' that plot. 
m.Yks. 1 He's been agate o' him again. w.Yks. Awlus agaate o' 
sumbody, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865) ; A child will come crying to 
its mother and say somebody has 'been agate on him,' Yts. Mag. 
(1871) I. 30 ; w.Yks. 5 Agaat on his poor wife agean ! [beating her]. 
Lan. 1 Mother, aar Jem's agate on me. e.Lan. 1 The boys are agate 
of one another [teasing one another]. Chs. 1 Oo's [she is] allus 
agate o' me. Stf. 2 'Er's got a temper like a red-'ot iron, 'er's agate 
o' iverybody. e-Lan. 1 I went agate with my friend [I went a part 
of the way with him]. Chs. 2 I have been agate a woman [direct- 
ing her in the road]. 

6. Of a person : going on with work, busy, occupied, en- 
gaged upon. 

Wm. T'nebbers hard him agaet wi his screeapin' (t'fiddle), 
Spec. Dial. (1880) pt. ii. 45. n.Yks. To watch us all agaat, MUNBY 
Verses (1865) 65. ne.Yks. 1 Ah's kept agate. e.Yks. 1 He's ageeat 
on a theakin job. w.Yks. 1 What's 'to agait on ? w.Yks. 3 Who's 
been agate o' this? Lan. Get forrard wi what thae'rt agate on just 
now, WAUGH Besom Ben (1865) viii ; Aw went an wur soon at 
th' Potteries, an ogate, Abrum o' Flup's Quortin' (1886) 12. ne.Lan. 
Yo'd nobbud been agate seven-teen year, MATHER Idylls (1895) 
331. Chs. 2 I am agate a new cart. Stf. 2 Not. 3 He's agate of a fresh 
job now. n-Lin. 1 All's gooin' on reight ; she's hed twins and is 
agaate yit. When he's agaate on oht noht'll stop him. w.Wor. 1 
Owd Jem's agate now uv 'is taay'ls ; thahr'll be no stoppin' un. 
Shr. 1 Whad han yo bin agate on ? 

7. When used with a gerund, with or without o', it is 
almost otiose, or indicates continuance of action. 

Yks. This set ma agate a roaring agean, BINNS Tom Wallop 
(1861) 4 ; They kept me agate teaching other folk, TAYLOR Miss 
Miles (1890) i. n.Yks. 2 It keeps ageeat coming. m.Yks. 1 He's 
agate o' breaking sticks. w.Yks. Men are agate making new 
limmers, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) v; w.Yks. 1 He then 
gat agait o' fabbin me, ii. 293. Lan. They were'n olez agate o' 
feightin, WAUGH Chimn. Corner (1874) i8,ed. 1879; 'At set mi e'en 
agate a runnin', Lan. Sngs. (1867) n; I hope thou'rt not got 
agate of meeting-going, FOTHERGILL Probation (1879) vi. s.Lan. 
Anoethertoyme, when aw're agatefeyghtin,BAMFORD Walks(i&w) 
The Traveller. e.Lan.' We are now agate of working. It keeps 
agate of raining. Chs. Bill agate o' 'ammering the last nail, 
WARBURTON Hunting Sngs. (1860) 91 ; Her father treated her 
mother very cruelly ; he did not beat her, but was always 'agate' 
calling \\z<c,Altrinch. Guard. (Apr.24, 1895) ; Chs. 1 Agateo' thrashin. 
If tha'lt git agate o' getting ait a bit, tha'l git better; Chs. 2 He is 
agate marling, or ploughing. s.Chs. 1 Agate o' mowin'. Der. I was 
agate o goin' to Yewdle Brig, GUSHING Voe (1888) I. ix. s.Not. 
They've got agate o' mekking paraffin artificially (J.P.K.). Lin. 
She'd keep one man agate o' mendin' creddles, PEACocKR.Skirlaugft 
(1870) ii; To get a-gait o' coughing, STREATFIELD Lin. and Danes 
1,1884) 315. sw.Lin. 1 They've gotten agate a-reapering. 

8. Apace, briskly. 
N.Cy. 1 The fire burns agate. 

9. Agate o' (?), along of, in course of, by reason of. 

I.Ma. Child screwed agate o the teethin', BROWNE The Doctor 
(1887) 4. 

[A-, on+gate, way, path, road; ON. gala; see Gate. 
Some of the mills . . . were set on gate by reason the 
streams were so hugelie augmented, HOUNSHED (N.E D ). 

ME. He dijt him deliverly and dede him on gate, Win. of 
Pal. 1119.] 

AGATEWARDS, adv. n.Cy. Yks. Der. Not. Lin. Also 
written agateurse n.Lin. 1 , &c. [age'tadz, agea'tadz, 
agi'taz.] On the way towards home ; to gang agatewards 
with any one, to accompany part of the way home. 

n.Cy. I will set you agates, or agateward, I will accompany you 
part of the way, GROSE (1790). w.Yks. To go a-gatewards was 
to conduct a guest towards the high-road, the last office of 
hospitality, necessary both for guidance and protection, when 
the highway lay across an uninclosedand trackless country, amidst 
woods and morasses, Hlfx. Wds. ; w.Yks. 1 1 gangs agaitards wi 
him ; w.Yks. 4 To go agatewards with any one is to go part of 
his way home. Der. Let's gang agate'ards [go home] (H.R.). 
nw.Der. 1 Agatart [ligyai-turt]. Not. 8 It's time I were getting 
agatesward. To go agatesward or agatehousing [agatessing] is to 
go part of the way home with a friend. Lin. 1 n.Lin. 1 If thoo'll 
nobbut waait a bit I'll go agateus wi' thee o' th' waay hoam. 

[Agate + -ward, with -5, -es the adv. gen. suffix, as in 
towards. In agatesward this adverbial s is transposed.] 

AGE, v. Van dial. Not given in any s. gloss, except 
w.Som. 1 [edg, w.Som. eadgi] To show signs of age, to 
look old ; to cause one to seem old. 

n.Cy. He begins to age, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) Nhb. 1 , 
Dur. 1 , Cum. 1 e.Yks. 1 To show signs of the infirmities of old age. 
w.Yks. 1 My daam ages fast. Chs. 1 He's agein' very fast. Stf. 12 
Der. 2 He ages fast. Not. 1 , n.Lin. 1 Lei. 1 It's eeged 'im very 
sadly, his loosin' on 'er. Nhp. l He ages apace, i.e. looks older in 
a short space of time. War. 12 Shr. 1 The maister's beginnin' to 
age oncommon fast, an' 'e inna whad yo' met'n call so owd, about 
fifty, or fifty sa'one. Brks. 1 Mother's a-bin aaygin vast laaytely 
ater her cawld at Kursmas. e.An. 1 To grow old, to assume the 
appearance of age. Suf., Nrf., e.Sns. He ages very much, that is, 
he grows old very fast, HOLLOWAY. w.Som. 1 Siinz uz wuyv duyd, 
ee du ae'ujee maa'ynlee [since his wife died he ages mainly]. 
I was a frightened to zee how the old man d'agy. 

AGEE, adj. and adv. Sc. Irel. and the n. counties to 
Lan. and Lin. ; also Dev. Also written agye n.Cy. Wm. 1 ; 
ajee Sc. Yks. 1 23 Lan. ; ajy Wm. & Cum. 1 [adgi'.] 

1. Crooked, uneven, awry. 

Sc. His nose aye lay On's cheek a-jee, DRUMMOND Muckotr.achy 
(1846" 40; Heaven kens that the best-laid schemes will gang 
ajee, SCOTT S/. T?OK<IH (1824) x. Inv.Agee, off the straight (H.E.F.). 
Rxb. His hat was set awee ajee, RIDDELL Poet. Wks. (ed. 1871) 
I. 89. N.I. 1 n.Cy. To look agye, to look aside, GROSE (1790) ; 
HOLLOWAY ; N.Cy. 1 It went all agee. Nhb. 1 Hae ye seen my 
Jocker, comin' up the quay, Wiv his short blue jacket, and his 
hat agee? NUNN (d. 1853) Jocker. Dur. 1 Cum. Wardle's [world] 
sadly gean ajy, GWORDIE GREENUP Vance a Year (1873) 27 ; Aa's 
war'nt ta things'll nit be sa far ajye efter o', DICKINSON Joe and 
Geol. (1866) suppl. 4 ; The parson' wig stuid aw ajy, ANDERSON 
Ballads (1808) Worton Wedding. Wm. It mud a bin o' a jie, fer 
it tummalt slap ower a top et flewer reel afooar ma, Spec. Dial. 
(1885) pt. iii. 5. Wm. & Cum. 1 Our lot of leyfe's not far a-jy, STAGG 
New Year's Epistle, 159. Wm. 1 Yeeat hings agye. Yks. 'To look 
agye,' to look awry, to look on one side (K.). n-Yks. 1 It was all 
agee, quite crooked ; n.Yks. 23 , e.Yks. 1 , m-Yks. 1 w.Yks. When 
you've missed attending to things two or three times they go agee 
(F.P.T.). n.Lan. T'ian's streit, an t'udar's nat far ajai (W.S.). 
ne.Lan. 1 , nXin. 1 , Dev. 1 [Amer. To have one's hat ajee, BARTI.ETT.] 

2. Of a door or gate : half-open, ajar. 

Ayr. But warily tent, when ye come to court me, And come na 
unless the back-yett be a-jee, BURNS Whistle, and Til come to you. 
Edb. When the door was pat ajee, MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) x. 
Wm. 1 Set t'dure agee. w.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 Tint dur ; its ajee. 

3. Of mental states : agitated, disturbed, slightly deranged. 
Sc. It is sometimes applied to the mind, as expressive of some 

degree of derangement His brain was awee agee, but he was 
a braw preacher for a' that (JAM.). Lan. 1 An" when aw meet wi 
my bonny lass, It sets my heart ajee, WAUGH Sngs. (1859) Sweet- 
heart Gate. 

[A-, on + gee. Cp. the gee.' orj'ee/ of a wagoner calling to 
his horse to move to one side. Hence the primary sense 
of agee, on one side.] 

AGENT, v. Sc. [e-dgant] To manage, whether in a 
court of law, or by interest, &c. (JAM.) 

Sc. I'll employ my ain man o' business to agent Effie's plea, 
SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xii ; The Duke was carefully solicited to 
agent this weighty business, BAILLIE, I. 9 (JAM.). 




[Agent, sb. (in the Sc. sense of a solicitor for the Court 
of Session or other courts), used as v.] 

AGER, see Eagre. 

AGEREVER, sb. Obs.l Cor. A fish-name ; the Pollack. 

Cor. 3 In common use with the fishermen of St. Michael's Mount 
and Marazion. 

AGESOME, flrf/. Obs.J Sur. Elderly. 

Sur. I should say he's somewhat agersome, N. & Q. (1883) 6th 
S. vii. 165 ; Sur. 1 [Quoting the above, adds] I have never heard the 
word in this part of Surrey. 

AGEST, see Agast. 

AGETHER, adv. Obsol. Irel. Together. 

Ir. Agether is becoming obsolete ; hardly ever used by the 
peasantry (S.A.B.). Wxf. 1 

[OE. ongeador, together (in Beowulf).] 

AGG, sb. Sh. I. [ag.] 

(i) S. & Ork. 1 A short breach of the sea. (2) Sh.I. A collection 
of light floating articles, such as morsels of straw, scraps of sea- 
weed, &c. , found drifting between the string of the tide and the 
backwash from the shore ; usually met with on a calm day or 
when there is a slight swell (K. I.). 

AGGERHEADS,s6.//. Yks. [a'gariadz.] Loggerheads. 

m.Yks. 1 

Hence Aggerheaded, adj. 

w.Yks. 2 ' He's an aggerheaded fellow ' means he is a dull, stupid 

AGGL, v. Sh. I. [a-gl.] To soil, to defile. 

S. & Ork. 1 

AGGUCKS, sb. Sh.I. [a-guks.] A kind of fish, the 
same as awmucks. 

S. & Ork. 1 

AGHENDOLE, see Eightindole. 

AGHT, see Out. 

AGIF, conj. e.Yks. [agi'f.] As if; although. 

e.Yks. It was twenty year last Cannlemas, bud Ah mind it like as 
agifit was nobbut yisthada, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 96; e.Yks. 1 
He ramped as-a-gif he was mad. Ah likes a bit o' fun agif Ah is 
awd, MS. add. (T.H.) 

[A-, all +#/(OE. gif) if; see Algif.] 

AGIG, adj. Glo. See Gig. [agi'g.] 

Glo. Agig, giggling, excited (F.H.); Used by school-children 
when racing with one another. He's getting agig [getting first or 
foremost] (S.S.B.). 

AGIN, conj. Yks. and n.Lan. [agi'n.] As if. See Gin. 

n. Yks. 1 ; n. Yks. 2 It leuk'd agin it was asleep. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 
I can tell agin't wor yusterday, sin thou hed as nice a long waist 
as onnybody, ii. 297. ne.Lan. 1 

[A-, all +gin, if, prob. a contraction of gie'n, given, i. e. 

AGIST, sb. Yks. Lan. Der. Not. Lin. War. Suf. Not 
in Sc. gloss. Also written gist, jeist, joist (see below), 
[dgaist, dgais, Lan. Lin. Der. also dgoist.] Pasturage let 
out during the summer for cattle at a fixed price per nead. 
Also used adjectivally. 

Yks. Gisk \sic~\, pasturage, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). n.Yks. 2 
Gist money, the payment for pasturage of cattle that are agisted, 
or fed at a stipulated price. ne.Lan. 1 Gist [cattle], cattle taken' 
in to depasture at a stipulated price. Der. 2 Joist, a cow's summer 
eating. Not. He takes in a lot of joist beast (L.C.M.) Not. 3 
Joist, agistment. sw.Lin. 1 We've a lot of jeist beast down here 
now. War. Joist (J.R.W.). Suf. Joist cattle, CULLUM Hist. 
Hawsted (1813) J 4- 

[See Agist, v.] 

AGIST, v. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Der. Not. Lin. Rut. 
Lei. Nhp. w.Cy. Also, by aphaeresis, gist, joist, &c. ; 
see below. To receive cattle to graze for a fixed sum ; to 
put out cattle to pasture. (The same as Tack, q.v.) 

w.Yks. 2 Jiste, to feed cattle for hire. Ajist, to take cattle in 
to pasture for hire ; w.Yks. 3 Jiste, to 'agist' or feed cattle for 
hire: used chiefly in the participle 'jisting.' e.Yks. 1 Ajist, to 
rent a right of pasturage. Jeyce, to agist, or pasture cattle at so 
much per head. Lan. Joyst, to summer grass feed ; to let out for 
another's stock, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863) ; Lan. 1 Gise, Gist. 
ne.Lan. 1 Gise, Gist, to pasture cattle on hire. Der. Them two 
sheep as is in the croft to joist, VERNEY Stone Edge (1868) ii. 
Not. To joist, to take in cattle to feed for hire, BAILEY (1721); 
Not. 23 Agist. Lin. Each agists his cow at is. 6d. per week, Ann. 
Agric. (1784-1815) ; Lin. 1 Joist, agist, or to hire for a season 

certain pasturage for feeding cattle. M.Lin. 1 Giste. They are forced 
to sell their heeders, and joist their sheeders in the spring, YOUNG 
Lin. Agric. (1799) 325. sw.Lin. 1 They tak' in beast to joist. We've 
joisted them out by the Trent. Rut. 1 It's on'y some ship [i.e. 
sheep] he's got a-joisting. Lei. 1 Joist, to take or send in to ' ley ' 
or 'tack.' Nhp. 2 Joist. The word is still in every-day use, and 
is a Nhp. word of some two centuries standing. w.Cy. To joist, 
LISLE Husbandry (1757). 

Hence Agisted, ppl. adj. 

Cum. Joistered, pastured, LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 306. Wm. 
Cattle may be kept through the months of summer upon joisted 
fields at a cheap rate, Agric. Suru. (1793-1813). 

[To agist signifies to take in and feed the cattle of 
strangers in the King's forest, and to take money for 
the same, BAILEY (1721) ; To take in and feed cattel of 
strangers in the King's forest, and to gather the money 
due for the same for the King's use, BLOUNT (1681) ; Glan- 
dager les porceaux, to agist, or lay, swine in masty woods, 
COTGR. OFr. agister, to lodge, to make to lie, a+gister, 
Rom. jacitare (deriv. of Lat. jacere, to lie), cp. Fr. giter: 
avoir son gite, ou lieu ou ton trouve a coucher, HATZFELD. 
The following illustrations of the aphetic forms may be also 
quoted : To gise ground, is when the owner does not feed 
it with his own stock, but takes in other cattle to graze in 
it, BAILEY (1721); To gise or juice ground, is when the 
lord or tenant feeds it not with his own stock, but takes 
in other cattel to agist or feed it (K.) ; To joist or jeist 
horses, i. e. equos alienos certo et condicto pretio inpascuis suis 
alere, vox agro Line, usitatissima, SKINNER (1671) Ddd 2.] 

AGISTER, sb. Yks. Not. Lei. Nhp. Hmp. Also written 
joister Nhp. 2 &c. [adgoi'sta(r), Yks. adgai-sta(r).] An 
animal fed by ' agisting. 

w.Yks. 3 Jister, the animal so fed [i. e. by agistment]. Not He's 
got no stock of his own, only joisters (L.C.M.). Lei. 1 Joister, an 
animal taken or sent in to joist. Nhp. 2 

[Agist, vb.-^-er. This word seems to occur only in the 
dialects. It should be distinguished from agister, AFr. 
agtsfour, an officer of the royal forests who takes charge 
of cattle agisted.] 

AGISTING, sb. n.Cy. Lan. Rut. War. By aphaeresis 
gisting Nhb. 1 &c. See below, [adgai'stin, adgoi'stin.] 

1. The pasturage or ' keep ' (q.v.) ofcattle put out to graze. 
N.Cy. 1 Gisting, pasturage of cattle, in some places Gisement. 

Nhb. 1 Gisting, the agistment ofcattle (ois.). w.Yks. 5 The ' gisting- 
day' is the day whereon pasture-owners have agreed to take in cattle 
at a stipulated price per head to feed. The times of agistment are 
advertized in the local papers by some of the principal landowners 
in the neighbourhood. Lan. 1 Gistin. ne.Lan. 1 Gisting. s.War. ! 
What must I pay for his joisting ? 

2. Payment for pasturage. 

Rut. 1 Ajoisting, a payment for feeding and depasturing of cattle. 

AGISTMENT, sb. Yks. Lan. War. Hmp. Wil. Also 
written egistments RAY. [adgrstment] The feeding of 
cattle at a fixed rate ; pasturage ; the right of herbage ; a 
tithe. (In the two latter senses, a legal term.) 

N. Cy. 1 The tithe due for profit made by such gisting, where neither 
the land nor the cattle otherwise pay anything, [is] agistment. 
w.Yks. Agistment, Fryston Park. Gaits to let for cows at 2 each, 
from May I3th to November ist, 1889. Good water and shelter. 
Excellent grass, Advi. in Leeds Merc. (May 4, 1889). e.Yks. 1 
Ajistment, a right of herbage. ne.Lan. 1 The feeding of cattle in 
a common pasture for a stipulated price. War. (J.R.W.) s.Cy. 
Egistments, cattle taken in to graze, by week or month, RAY (1691). 
Hmp. 1 Wil. Agistment, the taking in of cattle to keep by the 
week or month, DAVIS Agric. (1813). 

[Gisement (a contraction of Agistment), foreign cattle so 
taken in to be kept by the week, BAILEY (1721) ; Agist- 
ment, Agistage, the function of taking cattle into the King's 
forest, &c., the herbage or feeding of cattle in a forest, 
common, &c., ib. ; Egistments (agistments), cattle taken in 
to graze, or be fed by the week or month, WORLIDGE 
Syst. Agric. (1681) ; Glandage . . . th' agistment or laying 
of swine into mastie woods, COTGR. OFr. agistement, deriv. 
of agister.} 

AGIVE, v. Dev. [agi'v.] To be pliant, yielding. See 

Dev. 3 The frost agives. 

E 2 




[That they [hops] may cool, agive, and toughen, WOR- 

LIDGE Svs/. Agric. (1681). OE. iigifan, to give up, to yield.] 

AGLE. see Aigle, sb. 2 

A-GLEG, adj. n.Yks. [agle'g.] Asquint. 
n.Yks. 2 

AGLET, sb. Sc. Cum. Yks. I.W. Also written yiglet 
Cum., aiglet Sc. (JAM.) [a'glat, e'glat.] 

1. The metal end or tag of a bootlace, &c. (Cf. aiglet, sb? 
Sc. Aiglet, a tagged point (JAM.). Cum. 8 Aglet, the metal end of 

a bootlace, &c. n.Yks. 3 To an aglet, to a nicety, to a tittle. It fits 
to an aglet. 

2. An icicle. 

I.W. Haglet, an icicle (J.D.R.) ; I.W. 2 

[Aglette, bracteolum, LEVINS Manip. ; Affiquet, a little 
brooch, flower, button, aglet, COTGR. ; An aglet [tag of 
a point], Aeramentum ligulae; also, an aglet [a little plate 
of metal], bractea, bracteola, COLES ; Aglet, the tag of a point, 
a little plate of metal ; also a substance growing out of 
some trees before the leaves, BAILEY (1721). Fr. aiguillette, 
a point (COTGR.), dimin. of aiguille, a needle ; see Aigle.] 

AGLEY, adv. Sc. Nhb. Cum. n.Yks. Also written 
aglee Sc. [aglr.] 

1. Obliquely, aslant, turned to one side. 

Sc. Let faction gang fairmaest and right gang aglee, The People 
(June 16, 1889) 13, c. 3 ; Why sud I be like til ane wha gangs 
agley frae the hirsels o' thy frien's ? HENDERSON Sng. Sol. (1862) 
i. 7; Whare has thy belovet gane agley ? i. Lth. Yet bunkers 
aften send aglee, Altho' they weel did ettle, STRATHESK More Bits 
(1885) Curler's Song, 274. Ayr. The best-laid schemes o' mice 
an' men Gang aft a-gley, BURNS To a Mouse (1785). N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 
His neet-cap thrawn on all aglee, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) 
46 ; Nowt holy ye can find in hor, she's bewty g'yen aglee, ROBSON 
Evangelim, &c. (1870) 361. Nhb. 1 Cum. 2 Sae fine she goes, sae 
far aglee, Thatfolksshe kenned she cannotsee, BLAMIRE Poet. Wks. 
(1842) 192. 

2. To gang agley, to err. go wrong. Used in a moral sense 

Rnf. Wehaenamenselike cruel man; Yet tho" he's paukier far than 
we, What reck ! he gangs as aft aglee, PICKEN Poems (1788) I. 67. 

[A-, on+gley; see Gley, v. (to squint).] 

AGNAIL, sb. n.Cy. Lan. Not. Lin. Lei. Nhp. Nrf. Cor. 
Also called angnail, angernajl, hangnail, nangnail, 
gnangnail. See below, [a'gnel, a'rinel, na'nnel, Yks. 
ne-rjnel.] See Nangnail. 

1. A loose piece of skin at the base of the finger-nail. With 
great variety of names in the dialects, e. g. backfriend, step- 
mother's blessing, idle wheal, fan-nail, idle-warts, idle- 
welts, thang-nail, warty- wheals (Nhp. 1 ). 

Nhb. 1 Anger-nail, a piece of skin at the side of the nail which has 
become semi-detached and gives pain. Cum. He had a trouble- 
some backfriend or agnail, at which he often bit, LINTON L. Lorton 
(i867)xxiv; Cum.iAngnails, Anger-nails, jagsround thenails- nails 
grown into the flesh. w.Yks.' Hang-nails, skin over-lapt finger- 
nails. Not. 1 nXin. 1 Nang-nail, a partly detached piece of skin 
beside the finger-nails, which gives pain. Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 A trouble- 
some and disagreeable little piece of reverted skin at the side of 
thefinger-nail; more frequently called Idle Wheal. Nrf. Hang-nails 
shvers, which hang from the roots of the nails, and reach to the 
tips of the fingers, HOLLOWAY. 

2. A corn, bunion ; ingrowing toe-nail. 

Cum. Ang-nails, corns on the feet. GROSE (1790); HOLLOWAY 
N.Cy. 1 Ang-nails, corns on the toes. w.Yks. Nangnails. Opinions 
are divided as to this word : i. Ingrowing toe-nails, 2. corns, * 
bunions (S.K.C.) ; Being troubled wf corns and nangnails shoot 
not fit for mich walkin' at present, HARTLEY Seets (i8 9 s) ii 
w.Yks a Gnang-nails, corns on the toes. neian. 1 Angnail a corn 
the toe. nXin. 1 Nangnail, acorn, a bunion. There is a black 
toSrc^rS^ 8 ^ 8 ^ UnderthC of Nangnai, salve 

3. A whitlow. 

Cor. 2 Agnail, a whitlow. 
[1. Ane-nail, a sore or imposthumation under the nail of 

of ananZY 7 (l ? o) \ ^T? a sli P of skin attheroo 
BLOIT ^T V I72I) - 2 " A S naiI > a corn u Pn toes, 
toes rW ! *#"$*> a ,. corn or a S ne 'e in the feet or 
toes. Garret, an agnail or little corn upon a toe COTGR 
Agnayle upon ones too, corret, P ALSGR . P 3 . A 
Ptengtum, COLES (1679). The Yks. and Lin. 

is for an older ang-nailwhh the n of the indef. art. prefixed. 
OE. ang-ticfg/, the original meaning of which seems to have 
been a corn on the toe or foot, a compressed, painful, round- 
headed excrescence fixed in the flesh like an iron nail. OE. 
angncegl, ang- compressed, tight (cp. ang- in angmod 
anxious, angness anxiety, angstim narrow, Goth, aggwiis) 
+ ncegl, an iron nail, clavus. Meanings 1 and 3 are due to 
a popular association of the word with na.i\ = itgiiis.] 

AGO, pp. s.Irel. and Dev. Also written ee-go Wxf. 1 
[ago', agua'.] Gone, finished. 

Wxf. 1 Hea's ee-go. Dev. Awl tha tatties be ago. missis ; there 
idden wan a-layved, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 45 ; They be all ago, 
there idn oneo'm a left, Verb. Prov. (1886)89. n.Dev. There's Dame 
an' Maister's chair ; Wi' thick I zem they ba'nt a-go, ROCK Jim an' 
AW/ (1867) 28; The blue of the plum is ago, zure, Monthly Mae 
(1808) II. 421. 

[ME. For now is clene a-go My name of trouthe in love 
for ever-mo ! CHAUCER Tr. &> Cr. v. 1054 ; And thus ar 
Tisbe and Piramus ago (i. e. dead), ib. Leg. G. W. 916 ; My 
lady bright Which I have loved with al my might Is fro me 
deed, and is a-goon, ib. B. Duchesse 479. OE. agan, pp. ot 
agan, to pass away. See Agone.] 

A-GOG, adv. Yks. Som. Dev. [ago'g.] On the move, 

w.Yks. 5 Gee him a sup o' drink an' he'll soin be agog on't, 
alluding to a hobby of a tale that a man is in the habit of telling. 
[Of a child on a moving rocking-horse] There, now he's agog ! 
Som. Off we started, all agog, PULMAN Sketches (1842) 25. n.Dev. 
When tha art zet agog, tha desent caree who tha scullest, Evnt 
Scold. (1746) 1 228. 

[Six precious souls and all agog, COWPER John Gilpin ; 
On which the saints are all agog, BUTLER Hud. n ; The 
gawdy gossip when she's set agog, DRYDEN Juv. Sat. vi. 
OFr. agogiie. In a poem of the I3th cent, occurs the phrase 
tout vient a gogue \ HATZFELD). Cp. COTGR. estre en ses 
gogues, to be frolick, lusty, lively, wanton, gamesome ; all- 
a-hoit, in a merry mood.] 

A-GOGGLE, adv. Brks. Hmp. [ago'gl.] Trembling, 
shaking with palsy. 

Brks. 1 An old man was spoken of as being agoggle; he was the 
terror of little children from this involuntary shaking of the head 
at them. Hmp. 1 His head is all agoggle. 
[A frequent, of agog. See above]. 
AGONE, adv. Irel. Shr. Glo. e.An. Ken. Hmp. I.W. 
Som. Dev. Cor. [ago'n.] Ago, since. 

s.Ir. We started three days agon, LOVER Leg. (1848) II. 291. 
Wxf. 1 Shr. 2 An archaism very common at Wenlock. Glo. They 
have told me as 'e be dead twelve months agone, GISSING Both of 
this Parish (1889) I. 14 ; Glo. 1 , e.An. 1 Nrf., Snf. HOLLOWAY. Suf. 1 
Tis three months agon. Ken. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) Hmp. 1 
Ten years agone. I.W. 1 Som. We should a-bin' out o' parish 
years agone, RAYMOND Loveand Quiet Life (1894) 193 ; W. & J. Gl. 
(1873) ; w.Som. 1 Twas ever so long agone. Zabm yuur ugau-n 
kaum Kan-lmus [seven years ago next Candlemas]. Such phrases 
are quite familiar to all West-country folk. Dev. When old fayther 
died, two weeks agone, BRAY Desc. (1836) I. 3 a ; 'Twas zome time 
agone herwent up til gert ouze, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 45. n.Dev. 
They say ' time agone ' for ' some time since,' JEFFERIES Red Deer 
(1884) x. Cor. Some years agone, TREGELLAS Rural Pop. (1863) 8. 
w.Cor. He went to Africa some time agone (M.A.C.). 

[Oh, he's drunk, Sir Toby, an hour agone, SHAKS. Twelfth 
JVt. v. i. 204 ; For long agone I have forgot to court, ib. 7 wo 
Gent. in. i. 8s; A while agon, GOWER C.A. (Tale of the 
Lowers, 9) ; Nat longe agon is, CHAUCER C.T. D. 9. OE. 
agan. See Ago.] 

AGONIES, sb. pi. Pem. Glandular swellings (?). 
LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 419; Never heard [agonies] in this 
sense. I he word is used for any great pain. Swelth is the word 
for glandular swellings (W.M.M.). 
AGRAFT, v. e.An. Suf. [agr a -ft, agravft.] 
e.An. To lay in, of a tree put into the soil so as to just cover its 
roots. Suf. To graft a stock below the surface of the ground. An 
old gardener says it is nearly obsolete, and known in no other 
sense than the above (F.H.). 

AGREAT, adv. Lei. Nhp. Also written agret Nhp. 1 
[agre-t, Nhp. also agre-t.] Of work : done by the piece. 

Lei. Nhp. 1 By the great, work taken or let out to be done by 
quantity instead of by the day. 




[Agreat, by the great, by the job, ASH (1795) ; To take 
work agreat, i.e. by the piece, BLOUNT (1681) ; A-great, 
universe, COLES (1679); A-great, by the great or lump, 
COLES (1677) ; Agreat or altogither, universe, BARET ( 1580). 
A-, on + great.} 

AGREE, v. Sc. GIo. [agrr.] Agree with, agree to. 

Sc. I do not agree with it, Monthly Mag. 1^1800) I. 324. Inv. 
Used all over Scotland, and very common about Inverness (H.E.F.). 
Glo. 1 Agree with, to put upwith. What! be you washing the dumb 
animal [i.e. a dog] ? a' seems to agree with it very well. 

[Agree with his demands, SHAKS. M.for Meas. in. i. 254. 
OF r. agreer ; Rom. aggratare, to make pleasing.] 

AGREEABLE, adj. In gen. colloq. use. [agria'bl.J 

1. Acquiescent, compliant, willing. 

w.Yks. 1 I's parfitly agreeable tul't, i. 4. Chs. 3 He is not agree- 
able [refuses his consent]. n.Lin. 1 Robud ax'd me if I would hev 
him. and I says, ' Well, Bob, I'm agreeable.' Nhp. 1 I'm quite 
agreeable to it. Oxf. 1 MS. add. Brks. 1 1 be agra-able vor um to get 
married if um be agra-able on t'other zide. e-An. 1 1 am agreeable 
[agree to your proposal]. Sur. 1 1 ast "un to come along of us, but 
he didn't seem noways agreeable. w.Som. 1 Wau-d-ee zai tile u 
kwairrt? Aay bee ugrai'ubl [What do you say to a quart? I am 
willing to join you]. 

2. Convenient, suitable. 

s.Stf. We'n expect yer when yo con mak' it agreeable to come, 
PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). 

[1. Agreeable or conformable, consentiens, concurrens, 
ROBERTSON (1693) ; Agreable . . . consentyng to a thynge, 
agreable, PALSGR. 305. 2. Agreeable or convenient, con- 
sentanens, conveniens, aptus. He hath a nature agreeable . . . 
and suitable to all things, ROBERTSON (1693) ; consenlanens, 
agreeable, meet, convenient, RIDER (1649). OFr. agreable, 
deriv. of agreer. See Agree.] 

AGREEN, sb. Cum. [agrrn.] Plant-name, Senecio 
Jacobaea (Common Ragwort). 

Cum. 1 [Also called] Booin, Grundswathe, Muggert, Grunsel. 

AGROUND, adv. Lan. Wor. Hrf. Glo. Brks. [agreu'nd, 
Lan. agnrnd.] 

1. On the ground. 

ne.Lan. 1 Agrund, on the ground. 

2. On foot. 

s.Wor. Known in this sense in Stoulton (H.K.). Hrf. Going 
aground [on foot], heard some time ago in the Ledbury district 
(H.K.). Glo. Commonly used in Vale of Berkeley. Are you going 
to Dursley in the cart ? - No, I'm going aground. [Also] used by 
an old gamekeeper, at Snowshill (near Stanway) thirty years ago 
(J.D.R.) ; Glo. 1 

3. Of a fox : to earth. 

Glo. (J.D.R., Brks. 1 The vox be gone aground. 

4. Fig. in phr. to run aground, to slander, depreciate. 
s.Wor. (F.W.M.W. 

[A-, on + ground.} 

AGUE, sb. e.An. [e'giu.] Swelling and inflammation 
from taking cold. 

e.An. 1 An ague in the face is a common consequence of facing a 
Norfolk north-easter. Ague-ointment, an unguent made with elder 
leaves for ague in the face. Suf. Ague, or swelling in the face, 
e.An. (1866) II. 325. 

[A vehement ague causing an inflammation in the mouth, 
emphysodes, ROBERTSON (1693). This is a peculiar use of 
E. ague, a feverish attack followed by a cold and shivering 
stage. OFr. ague, MLat. acuta, an acute fever.] 

AH, int. In gen. use throughout the dialects. Also 
written eh. [e.J Interrogative exclamation = What ? What 
did you say ? See Ay. 

Nhb^Aah! Eh-ah ? n.Yks. 2 A-ah, said you ? w.Som. 1 Eh ? 
Used interrogatively and alone, it means ' what dp you say ?' at the 
end of an interrogative sentence repeats the question. Wuur-s 
u-biin- tiie, ai ? [where hast been, eh ?] 

AHEAD, adv. Dev. [a-e-d.] Overhead. 

Dev. Zes I tu a chap, ' What dee call thic a-head ? ' Zes he, 'Aw 
that air's tha balune's little maid ' [a small pilot balloon sent up 
before the large one], NATHAN HOGG Poet. Let. (1847) 19, ed. 1858. 

[A-, on-f head.} 

AHEIGHT, rft>. Yks. [a-ei't] On high, aloft. 

n.Yks. [Of a ball, &c.] Shy itupaheight (G.W.W.) ; Lift it up 
-height (I.W.). 

[Look up a-height ; the shrill-gorged lark so far Cannot 
be seen or heard, SHAKS. K. Lear, iv. vi. 58. A-, on + height.} 

AHENT, see Ahind. 

AHIND, prep, and adv. Sc. n.Irel. and all the n.counties 
toChs. and Lin. Also in Lei. Nhp. War. Glo. Also written 
ahint Sc. Nhp. 1 ; ahinSc. N.I. 1 Seebelow. [Sc.Nhb.Cum. 
Wm. o-hi-nt ; Lin. a-ai'nd, a-i'nt ; Lei. a-ornd, Ir. a-hi'n.] 

1. prep. Of place : at the back or in the rear of; also fig. 
Sc. Vich Ian Vohr and ta Prince are awa to the lang green glen 

ahint the clachan, SCOTT Wawrify (1814) xliv ; Hide yoursell ahint 
ta Sassenach shentleman's ped, ib. Rob Roy (1817) xxii ; Snawlies 
ahint the dyke, SWAINSON Weather f Ik-Lore (1873) 12 ; A woman 
cam' ahint him, an' touchet the hem o' his garment HENDERSON 
St. Matt. (1862) ix. 20. Frf. Gie the door a fling-to, ahent ye, 
BARRIE Licht (1888) 173. Per. There's something ahint that face, 
IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 25. Bwk. Ahint the kye, HENDER- 
SON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 79. Feb. Here he comes with the dog 
running ahint him (A.C.). Gall. He canna shut them ahint him, 
CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle (1895) 367. N.I. 1 Ahin, behind. Nhb. Ahint 
the bush that bauds the thrush, Coquet Dale Sngs. (1852) 116; Nhb. 1 
Ahint yor hand [to have some one to look after your interest in 
your absence]. Dur. Behowld, he stands ahint our wo, MOORE 
Sng. Sol. ( 1859) ii. 9. Cum. ' You oald donkey,' sez a fellow ahint 
me, Mary Drayson (1872) 16. Wm. & Cum. 1 A stomach fit to eat 
t'horse ehint t'saddle, Borrowdale Let. (1787) 131. Wm. 1 It stands 
ahint t'dure. ne. Yks. 1 It's nut mich ahint t'uther. w.Yks. 5 Cloise 
ahint him. ne.Lan. 1 Chs. Lookingk at th' sarvant wench ahint 
mi back, CLOUGH B. Bresskittle (1879) 7. n.Lin. An' reaper, 'at's 
swingin' ahind 'em, PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes (1886) 80. n.Lin. 1 
Lei. 1 Ahent, Ahind. Nhp. 1 Ahint. Not frequent, and confined I 
believe to the northern part of the county ; Nhp. 2 Ahent. 

2. Of time : after, behind. 

w.Yks. 5 Tha't awlus ahint thee time, ah think. 

3. adv. Of place : in the rear, at the back, behind ; fig. 
concealed ; ahind afore, hind-foremost ; to walk ahind afore, 
to walk backwards. 

Sc. Here heids had humps ahint that, tow'rin', seemed A fairy 
helmet, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 65. Per. A' mind him gettin' a tear ahint, 
and the mend's still veesible, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 240. 
Gall. The reed lowe jookin' through the bars, and the puir, puir 
craiters yammerin' ahint, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) xvii. N.Cy. 1 
To ride ahint. Nhb. Ah canna rightlys mak' him oot noo ! There's 
somethin' ahint, Ah doot ! CLARE Love of Lass (1890) I. 50; We 
stagger'd a hint se merry-o, A^. Minstrel (1806 -7) pt. iv. 81; Nhb. 1 
Come in ahint [the familiar cry of the drover to his dog]. Wm. 1 
Tha's alias ahint like a coo's taal. n.Yks. 1 He's close ahint. 
w.Yks. 2 To ride at-hint [to ride behind another person on the same 
horse]. War. 3 Why bless me, child! you've put your hat on ahind 
afore. Glo. But this 'ere time I'd a 'ad to leave Willum a-hind, 
BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn (1890) 60. 

4. Behindhand ; backward (of the state of vegetation). 
n-Yks. 1 I'm afraid I'm late? Nae, thou's nane sae mich ahint; 

n.Yks. 2 All's a-hint w.Yks. Ahinthand (JE.B.). 
B. To be ahind, (i) to be in error, (2) to come out of an affair 
at a disadvantage ; to come in ahint one, to take the ad- 
vantage of one ; to fall ahint, to be disappointed in one's 
expectations ; to get on ahint one, see below ; not to be 
ahint, to be equal with respect to retaliation or revenge ; 
cf. to be even with. 

(i) Sc. Ahint, expressive ol error or mistake in one's supposition 
in regard to anything (JAM.). (2) n-Yks. 1 They say Josey's come 
badly on ? Nae, he's not that far ahint. Sc. 'Had M'Vittie's folk 
behaved like honest men,' he said, ' he wad hae liked ill to come 
in ahint them, and out afore them this gate,' SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) 
xxxvi ; Ye've fa'n ahind there. To get on ahint one, to get the 
advantage of one in a bargain, to take him in [said to allude to the 
practice of leaping up behind an enemy on horseback, and holding 
his hands]. I shanna be ahint wi' you (JAM.). 

t4-, at (pref. s ) + -hind (cp. behind). Cp. ME. at-hinden, 
cet-hindan : Se cyning ferde him aet-hindan, the King 
went after them, Chron. A.D. 1016.] 
AHM, see Harm, v. 

AHOME, adv. prop. phr. Sc. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. 
War. Shr. Wil. Written a-whoam Yks. Lan. ; a-wham 
Shr. 1 ; a-whom Der. ; a-whum Stf. 1 ; a-wom Chs. 1 War. 
[Sc. s-he-m ; Lan. &c. a-wo'm, a-wirm.] Within doors, 
at home. 

Ayr., Gall. Ye better bide ahame the day (JAM. Suppl.). Yks. 
I felt almost a-whoam, FETHERSTON Farmer, 5. Lan. I ax thur if 



Mr. Justice wur o Whoam, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 27 
ed. 1806 ; Lan.l For there's no peace i'th world iv there's n 
peace awhoam, WAUGH Sags. (1859) Jamie's Frolic. Chs. 1 
Stf. 1 Is the doctor a-whum ? Der. You sitten a-whom here, an 
thinken, HOWITT Clockmaker, i. nw.Der. 1 Awhom. War. (J.R.W.) 
War. 2 Awum, s.v. A, pref. Shr^'E wunna-d-a-wham. Wil. The 
Headborough shud not ha kept them a whome, Masque (1636; 9. 
[A-, at (pref?) +home.] 
AHOMEL QAM.), see Awhummel. 
AHORSE, adv. n.Cy. (HALL.) Not found in any 
n. gloss, or books ; doubtful whether any such wore 
exists. On horseback. 

[ME. They scholde him sende al the knyghtis That on 
hors ride myghte, A/is. 2611.] 

A-HUH, adj. Cum. Yks. Lan. War. Nhp. Shr. e. An. Sus. 
Hmp. Som. With great variety of forms. See below. 
[a-5', 3-5', w.Yks. awoir, a-iu\] 

1. Awry, lop-sided, aslant, esp. in ntt-a-huh, all-of-a-huli, 

Cum. A-heh, to one side (J. P. ). n-Yks. 1 All-ahuh, all on one side, 
awry, askew. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. [Of a faulty knife] Ah, I see, it's 
all awow (S.O.A.). ne.Lan. 1 Ahuh. All-of-a-heugh, all on one 
side. Nhp. 1 You've put your shawl on all ahuh. If the word 
is preceded by the pronoun ' one,' the a is dropped, and it is said to 
be ' all of one huh ' ; Nhp. 2 The luoad's all ahoh. War. Ahuh, all- 
of-a-heugh (J.R.W. ). Shr. 1 All-a-yock, all awry ; Shr. 2 Ayoh, 
Ahuh, Aumph, All ayoh. Brks. 1 A rick is said to be all-a-ho when 
settled out of the perpendicular. e.An. 1 Ahuh, better Ahoe, and 
sometimes All-of-a-hugh ; e.An. 2 That is not flush, it stands all-a- 
one-hoh. Sns. Ahuh, HOLLOWAY. Hmp. 1 All-a-hoh. I.W. 2 All 
of a hoogh, out of shape, or place. That ere wut rick is all of 
a hoogh. Wil. 1 All-a-huh, All-a-hoh, unevenly balanced. That 
load o' earn be aal-a-hoh ; Wil. 2 All-a-hoh. w.Som. 1 Why, thee's 
a got the rick all a-ugh ; he'll turn over nifdus-n put a paust toun. 
An' wunt yer onner ha that wee-wowy auld olive down ? I do 
zim he do grow all a huh like. Dhik-ee pau's uz au-1 uv u uuh 
[that post is quite one-sided]. Poor old fellow, he is come to go 
all of a ugh. Tech. Slang. Why, 'tis all-a-hoh like a dog's hind- 
leg [in printing, of matter made up ' out of the straight '] (W.W.S.). 
2- Fig. (i) Wrong, not 'straight,' straightforward, or open ; 
cf. Agley, 2 ; (2) upset, vexed, anxious. 

( i) Yks. It was all ahug on 'em to deu that way ; they wanted to 
deceive 'em (W.H.). (2) Hmp. 1 He was quite a-hoh because a 
shower came^on, he thought 'ud spoil his hay. 

[OE. awoh, aslant, wrongfully, comp. of woh, crooked, 
awry ; cp. Goth, wahs (in unwatts, blameless).! 

A-HUNDRED-FALD, sb. n.Cy. [a-vrndadfald.] Ga- 
hutn verum, Our Lady's Bedstraw. 

n.Cy. As the flowers are exceedingly numerous and clustered our 
common people call the plant A-hundred-fald, JOHNSTON Bot e 
Bord. (1853) ioo. 

A-HUNGERED,//. Brks. [a-u-ned.] Hungry. 

Brks. 1 I be a-veelin' ahungerd. 

[He was afterward an hungred, BIBLE Matt. iv. 2 (Alt the 

last he was an hungred, TINDALE). In P. Plowman occur 

the : forms an hungred (c.) x. 85, ahungerd (-s.) xix. 123. OE 

V-fyngroct wof of-hyngrian, to be excessively hungry.] 

5 UI *GRY, ao). Wor. [a-B'rigri.] Hungry. 

se.Wor. 1 A-ongry, hungry. 

JPSF** a ' tends vou - sir. I am not a-hungry, SHAKS 
M.Wves i. ,. 280. The prefix is perhaps duf to the in- 
fluence of a-hungered (above) ; see A- Wn 

AL, see A-, Oa-, Ou-, Ow-. 

AIBLINS, see Ablins. 

. Obs. Sc. (J AM .) An echo. 


Sc ' 

To echo. 

s aiken - 

si A e M of^cL, uled forTa?^"' * 
[Etym. unknown.] 

frae bank to 

. "ot 

AICHEE, sb. Glo. Also written akee. [ai'kl, a'ke.] 
The hedge-sparrow. 

Glo. 1 

[Perhaps forms of 1 key, familiar form of Isaac (hedge- 
sparrow), probably by popular etym. for ME. /leysugge 
(hedge-sparrow) in CHAUCER M. P. v. 612, and Owl & N. 
505. OE. hegesugge. See Haysuck.] 

AID, sb. Shr. Also written ade Shr. 2 [ed.] A gutter 
or ditch cut across a ploughed field. 

Shr. 1 Aid, a gutter cut across the'buts'of ploughed lands to carry 
off the water from the 'reans' ; Shr. 2 I imagine it means simplvan 
aid for the water to escape. 

[Perhaps the same word as Ade, q.v.] 

AID, see Hade. 

AIDEN, see Eident. 

AIFER, sb. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) 

Slk. Aifer, a term used by old people in Ettrick Forest, to denote 
the exhalations which arise from the ground in a warm, sunny day : 
now almost obsolete. 

[Etym. unknown.] 

AIG, sb. Obs. or obsol. n.Cy. Sourness. 

N.Cy. 1 Aig, sourness, in a slight degree. The milk has got an aig. 

[Cp. Fr. aigre, sour ; see Aigre.] 
AIG, ad' 

, Jdj. w.Yks. [eag.] Eager. 

'.Yks. 5 Speaking of a profitless occupation, a man says that he 
isn't so aag after that business. 

[Fr. aigre, eager ; see above.] 

AIGAR, sb. usually in pi. Obs. or obsol. n.Sc. Also 
written aiger, egger, egges. See below. 

n.Sc. Aigars, grain dried very much in a pot, for being ground in 
a quern or handmill (JAM.). 

2. Comp. Aigar-brose, Aigar-meal. 

n.Sc. Aigar-brose [is] a sort of pottage made of [aigar] meal. 
Aigar-meal is meal made of grain dried in this manner (JAM.). 
Sc. I have met with only one person having heard of aiger-meal. 
She had many times heard her mother with several old people tell- 
ing that when children [came] running in hungry at dinner-time, 
it would be said to them, ' You are coming in for your aiger-meal ' 
MACDUFFSC.M 6- g. (1891) IV. 78; Others made use of egger meal, 
consisting of equal portions of oat, pease and bear meal. It took 
rise from the beggars mixing different kinds in the same bag, 
RAMSAY Sc. in Eighteenth Century (1888) II. 202. Per. It is known 
to many old people in Thornhill, but the word [aigar-meal] is not 
now used because the mixture oatmeal and pease meal, the larger 
proportion being pease meal is no longer made (G.W.). 

[Etym. unknown.] 

AIGH, v. w.Yks. [e.] 

Aigh, to frighten, to control through fear, or awe,' Hlfx. Wds. 

[Cp. ME. aighe, eighe, OE. ege, cege, fear, dread, Goth. 
agis ; related to ON. agi, whence lit.E. awe.] 

AIGHINS,s6.//. n.Sc. (JAM.) Owings ; what is owing 
to one ; esp. used as denoting demerit. 

n.Sc. I'll gie you your aighins [used in threatening to correct a 

[Aighin, vbl. sb. of aigh (lit.E. owe], OE. agon, to possess.] 
AIGLE, sb. Midi, counties, Shr. Also in Dev. Also 
written agle S.Wor. 1 [egl.] 

1. An icicle. 

Midi. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1790). Lei. 1 Aigle, Iggle. War. 3 
3 ron. iggle. w.Wor. 1 See ahl them aigles 'angin' to the thack; 
tis mighty teart this marnin'. Shr. 1 It must a bin freezin 'ard 

the neet, theer's aigles o' ice 'angin' from the aisins. 

2. A spangle, tinsel ornament. ? Obs. 

Shr. 1 Aigles, obs. ? Han 'ee sin Bessy Pugh sence 'er'scomen back 
nrom Lunnun ; 'er's got a bonnet as shines all o'er like aigles on 
i showman ; Shr. 2 Aigle, Aiglet, a spangle, the gold or silver tinsel 
irnamenting the dress of a showman or rope dancer. 

3. Scintillations such as appear on the surface of iron pots 
when removed from the fire. 

Shr. 1 Aigles ... are supposed to be lamillae of salts of iron, 
aused by the decomposition of the pots by the gases from the fire. 
Mind w eer yo' put'n that marmint aw'ilde the aigles bin on it. 

4. Comp. Aigle-tooth, a tooth sharp and pointed like a 

n.Dev. Stiverpowl George, wi' th' aigle tooth, ROCK Jim an' Nell 
1867) 31. 

[Fr. aiguille, a. needle, also used of various things termi- 
nating in a point (HATZFELD). See Aglet, Haggle-tooth.] 



AIGLED, ppl. adj. Shr. Covered with ' aigles.' See 
Aigle, 2. 

Shr. 2 He's aigled all o'er. 
AIGRE, adj. n.Cy. w.Yks. Lan. Dor. Obsol. 

1. Sour, tart. 

n.Cy. Eager, Aigre, sour, tending to sourness, sharp, GROSE ( 1790) 
MS. add. (P. 1 ) Cum. GROSE (1790). Yks. Aygre . . . still in use 
(HALL.). w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 Aagar beer, turn'd sour with, or by 
reason of, the thunder. n.Lan. It's a lile bit ower aigre [said of 
vinegar] (W.H.H.). Dor. Eiger, BARNES Gl. (1863). 

2. Of wind: sharp, cutting. 

Cum. Eager, Aigre, sharp, sometimes applied to the air, GROSE 
1,1790). n.Lan. '.W.H.H.) 

[1. It doth posset And curd, like eager (aygre, 1602) 
droppings into milk, SHAKS. Ham. i. v. 69 ; Aigret, some- 
what tart, sharp or eager, COTGR. ; Breed Kneden with 
eisel strong and egre, CHAUCER R. Rose 217. 2. It is a 
nipping and an eager ayre, SHAKS. Ham. i. iv. 2. OFr. 
aigre, sharp, keen, sour.] 

AIGRE, see Eagre. 

AIK, see Hake. 

AIKER, see Acre. 

AIKERIT, adj. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Also written aikert, 

Twd. Aikerit, eared. Weil aikerit, having full ears ; applied to 

[A deriv. of OE. cehher, eher (Nhb.), ear (WS.), an ear of 
corn ; see Icker.] 

AIKIE GUINEAS, sb. pi. Sc. (JAM.) 

Rnf. Aikie guineas, the name given by children to small flat 
pieces of shells, bleached by the sea. 

AIKRAW, sb. s.Sc. The Lichen Scrobiculatus (JAM.). 

s.Sc. L. Scmbiculatus, pitted warty Lichen, with broad glaucous 
leaves: Anglis. aikraw, LiGHTFOOT/YoraS>ftaj(i792)85o-i(jAM.). 

[Aik, oak + raw. For raw, cp. Stane-raw, a name of the 

AIL, sb. 1 Yks. Hrt. Hmp. Som. [eal, el.] An illness, 
ailment, or complaint. 

Hrt Staggers and other ails, ELLIS Mod. Husb. (1750) III. i. 69. 
Hmp. The ail or complaint layalong th' chine, WHITE Selborne(l^8S) 
280, ed. 1853. 

2. An evil. 
n.Yks. 2 Ails, evils. 

3. Comp. Quarter-ail. 

Som. Ail, ailment, disease in the hind-quarters of animals, quarter- 
ail, W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

[An ayl, an illness, sickness, BAILEY (1721) ; Aile, tnor- 
bus, COLES (1679). ME. The word occurs in the form 
tile, meaning pain, in Ancren Riwle (c. 1230) 50. OE. egle, 
troublesome, grievous. Cp. Goth, agio, distress.] 

AIL, sb. 2 Rarely sing. Nhp. War. Won Hrf. Glo. Brks. 
Hrt. Ess-. Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. I.W. and all sw. counties. 
Also written aile Wil. Cor. 1 ; eyle Wil. 1 ; ile War. Hrf. 2 
Ess. 1 Ken. 12 Wil. 1 w.Som. 1 Dev. Cor. 1 ; oil Sus. 1 Hmp. 1 
Dev. 4 ; oileCor. 1 ; hail Wil. ; hile Dev. Cor. 1 ; hoilDor. 1 ; 
hoile Ken. 1 See below, [ail, m. oil.] 

1. The beards or awns of barley or any other bearded 
grain ; rarely, the husk of any corn. 

Nhp. 1 Ail, or Ayl, the beard or awn of barley. Pile is synony- 
mous in Stf. and Wor. War. Ails, or lies (J.R.W.). se.Wor. 1 
Hrf. 2 lies, awns of barley, cone wheat, &c. [see Spiles]. Glo. 
Ails, called awns in the north, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) ; Glo. 1 
Ails. Hrt. Tails, or Ails, ELLIS Mod. Husb. (1750) VI. iii. 71. Ess. 
Ails, see Awns, RAY (1691). Ken. 12 , Sur. 1 , Sus. 1 I.W. 12 Aails, 
beards of barley, called barley aails. Wil. 1 The black knots on the 
delicate barley straw were beginning to be topped with the hail, 
JEFFERIES Gt. Estate 1^1880) i. Dor. 1 w.Som. 1 Ails, the beard of 
barley when broken off from the grain. These little spears are 
always called baar'lee aayulz. The individual husks of any corn 
are also called aayulz. The term is only applied to the separated 
spear or husk never when still attached to the grain. Ee-v u-gau -t 
u aa-yul u daewst een dh-uy oa un [he has an ail of dust i.e. a 
husk in his eye]. Dev. Yu can't use barley-dowst vurbedties, 'cuz 
tha iles wid urn inttt 'e, HEWETT Peas. Sfi. (1892) s.v. Barley-ile. 
Cor.i Hile, Aile, Ile. 

2. Comp. Barley-ail. 

Brks. 1 Barley-oyles. Hmp. 1 Barley-oils, the beard or prickles. 
Dev. Barley-ile, the beard of ripe barley, HEWETT Peas. Sp. ^1892,. 

Hence Aily, adj. 

Nhp. 1 If any of the awns adhere to the corn after it is dressed for 
market, it is said to be ally. 

[Ails, beards of wheat, BAILEY (1721) ; An oile (beard 
of corn), arista, COLES (1679); Iles, or Giles, WORLIDGE 
Syst. Agric. (1669) ; Areste, the eyle, awme, or beard of 
an ear of corn, COTGR. ; These twice-six colts had pace so 
swift, they ran Upon the top-ayles of corn-ears, nor bent 
them any whit, CHAPMAN Iliad (1603) xx. 211. OE. egl; 
occurs in Gospels, Hwi gesihst J>u ba egle on bines brobor 
eagan ? Luke vi. 41.] 

AIL, v. In gen. dial, use in Sc. and Eng. Also written 
eelieSc. [el.] 

1. To aftect with pain or uneasiness ; to trouble. 

Sc. What's ailin' ye, Peter? IAN MACLAREN Auld Lang Sync 
(1895) 122. Wm. & Cum. 1 What ails ta Jemmy, CLARK Seymon 
and Jammy (1779) 1. i. n.Yks. 2 That's in 'em that ails 'em [persons 
have naturally the kind of temper they usually exhibit]. ne.Lan. 
Whatailsthee? MATHER/rfy//s(i895)258. e-Lan. 1 Not. 2 What ails 
thee ? Nhp. 2 Dunna kneow what ealt him. Glo. What ails you ? 
BAYLIS Illtts. Dial. (1870). [What aileth you ? (K.).] 

2. To be unwell or suffering in body, to have something 
amiss with one ; to ail away, to dwindle. 

Sc. The strangirs sail eelie awa'. RIDDLE Ps. (1857) xviii. 45; 
Ane skaddaw that eelys awa', ib. cii. i r. n.Cy. (W.W.S.) Nhb. 
Ailiet away (R.O.H.). Cum. She's varra ailing, LINTON Lake Cy. 
(1864) 295; Gl. (1851). w.Yks. It niver did ailowt at aw know 
on, HARTLEY Budget (1867) 20. e.Yks. 1 Hoo's thy wife, John ? 
Whah, shee's nobbut ailin'. Wor. Mr. Jones enjoys a very 
fair share of health ; he's allus ailding (H.K.). w.Wor. 1 This 
casselty weather dunna suit the owd folks; grandad's but aildin' 
like. Ess. More stroken and made of when ought it [a calf] 
doo aile, More gentle ye make it, for yoke or the paile, TUSSER 
Husbandrie (1580) 81, st. 31. 

3. To have cause for dissatisfaction against, to object to. 
Sc. What ails ye at them as they are, OLIPHANT Lover and Lass, 

ix. Yks. What does ta ail at him (S.P.U.); What do you mean 
about a new chapel, Sammy ?' What ails ye at t'oud 'un ? TAYLOR 
Miss Miles (1890) ii. Dev. Somebody eales me, or is railing at me, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) 

4. To hinder, prevent. 

Sc. What suld ail me to ken it? SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xviii. 

[' What can the fool mean ? ' said old Richard, ' what 
can he ail at the dogs ? ' HOGG Tales & S6. 288. What 
ayled the O thou see that thou fleddest, COVERDALE Ps. 
cxiv. 5. OE. eglan, to trouble, afflict.] 

AILDY, a<#. Yks.(ofe.) Nhp.Hnt. [el'di.] Ailing, poorly. 

n.Yks. Ise grown seay healdy, I mun gang to bed, MERITON Praise 
Ale( 1697) 1.246. Nhp. 1 1 be very aildy to-day. Hnt. Aildy (T.P.F.). 

[A pronunc. of aily, ail, vb. + -y.] 

AILE, see Aisle. 

AILER, see Helen 

AILING, vbl. sb. Sc. Yks. [e'lin.] 

Sc. Ailin, sickness, ailment (JAM.). w.Yks. 5 A long-standing ill- 
ness is an ailing. 

[See Ail, v.] 

AILING-IRON, sb. War. Som. [e'lin-aian, ea'lin- 
aian.] An implement for breaking off the ail or spear 
from barley, sometimes called a piling iron or barley stamp. 

War. Ailing-iron, hand implement for hummellingbarley, MORTON 
Cyclo. Agric. (1863). w.Som. 1 See Barley-stamp. 

[A deriv. of Ail, sb. 2 ] 

AILSA-COCK, sb. Sc. n.Irel. [elsa-kok.] The Puffin, 
Fratercula arctica ; so called from its breeding about Ailsa 
Craig in the Frith of Clyde (C.D.). See Puffin. 

Sc., Ant. Ailsa Cock (so called from its favourite haunts), the 
Puffin, SWAINSON Birds (1885) 220. N.I. 1 See Puffin. 

AILSA PARROT, sb. Sc. Ant. The Puffin. 

SWAINSON Birds (1885) 220. 

AIL-WEED, see HeU-weed. 

AIM, sb. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. War. [em.] An idea, 
conjecture ; a like aim, a shrewd guess. 

Lan. I don't know, but I have a like aim (H.M.). Chs. 1 Do 
you know who did it? Now, bur aw've getten a loike aim. 
s.Chs. 1 I shall have a better like aim, if yo'n tell me yur price. 
Stf. 2 Used by old people in the Audley district. Bles dhi, 
wensh. oiv nu loikaim Der. 2 Aim, attempt nw.Der. 1 Aim, idea, 
comprehension of any matter. War. (J.R.W.) 




[But fearing lest my jealous aim might err, And so un- 
worthily disgrace the man, SHAKS. Two Gent. in. i. 
See Aim, v. 2.] 

AIM, v. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Der. War. Wor. Hrf. 
Glo. Dor. Som. Dev. See below, [yam, iam, earn, em.] 
1. To plan, intend, purpose ; to attempt, endeavour. 

Cum. I nobbet aim't 1 11 ha' kiss't her, GILPIN Pop. Poetry (1875) 
64 Cum. 1 He aims to be a gentleman. Cum. & Wm. ' Now 
mistress,' said a hospitable farmer to his wife when a friend called. 
'if you aim us owt, give us't suin'[if you intend to give usaglass, 
do it at once] (M.P.). Wm. Aaiming to hev a good conscience, 
HUTTON Bran New Work (1785) 1. 24. Yks. 1 Ah dizzint seea hoo 
thoo yams tu keep a wife when thoo's gitten her, MACQUOID 
D. Barugh (1877) xxii. n-Yks. 1 Ah's seear he aimed o' coming. 
w.Yks. Ah hedn't aimed hevin' ony (J.R.) ; w.Yks. 5 Whear's 
tuh aam going to morn ? Lan. 1 Hoo'd ha made a rare wife 
for onybody 'at had ony sense hoo would that ! Awd aimt 
her dooin weel, and hoo met [might] ha done weel too, 
WAUGH Owd Blanket (1866) iii. Der. 2 Aim, to attempt. War. 2 
I aim to do my best for him. I aim and scheme, but nothing 
goes well. Wor. Aim to, to intend to (H. K.). w.Wor. 1 'Er aimed to 
pick it up, but 'twere too 'eavy fur 'er to 'eft it. Hrf. 2 You bain't 
haimin to muv. I did aim to come. Glo. 1 I aimed to come to 
Gloucester last wick. Dor. Aiming to arrive about the breakfast 
hour, HARDY Tess (1891) 204, ed. 1895. w.Som. 1 Niivur muyn 
dhur-z u dee-ur, ee daed-n aim t aa-t ee [never mind, there's a 
dear, he did not intend to hit you]. Ee du aim tu bee mae-ustur, 
doa-unur? [he intends to be master, does he not?] Be sure 
nobody widn never aim vor to break in and car away your flowers 
[' carry away ' is a common euphemism for steal]. Dev. 3 He aimed 
to kill his missus, and then he cut his own droat. 

2. To suppose, conjecture ; to anticipate, forecast, expect. 
Yks. Ah aims there's shops in Steersley, MACQUOID D. Barugh 

(1877) bk. i. i. n.Yks. 1 What o'clock is it, aim you? I never 
aimed he wad ha' ganned yon gate ; n.Yks. 2 I aim'd varry badle 
[I acted on mistaken views]. w.Yks. 5 Whears tuh aim o' going 
tul . . . when tuh dies if thah cheats a body an' leuks 'em it't faace 
i' this waay ? 

3. To aim for, to have : designs upon; of a road, &c., to aim 
to, to run in the direction of. 

e.Yks. Ah'Il yam fo' sum rich farmer sun, Spec. Dial. (1887) 10. 
ne.Yks. 1 Yon rooad yams ti Whidby. 

4. To prepare to throw, to throw. 

w.Yks. He's aimed a stoan at mi heead (S.K.C.). War. 2 Don't 
you aim at me. Glo. 1 Aim, to throw stones. 

[1. The ground which we aim to husband must be fat, 
WALKER (1680) ; That never aim'd so high to love your 
daughter, SHAKS. Per. n. v. 47. 2. Heli therfor eymyde 
hir dronken, WYCLIF (1382) i Sam. i. 13 (gesside, 1388) ; 
Ah, Nell, forbear ! thou aimest all awry, SHAKS. z Hen. VI, 
n. iv. 58. OFr. aemer, aesmer, to esteem, consider ; Rom. 
adestimare ; Lat. ad+ aestimare.} 

AIM, adj. Yks. Chs. Stf. Der. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Ess. 
Also written earn, eem Chs. 1 ; erne Shr. 12 [em.] 

1. Of numbers : even. 
w.Yks. 3 Odd or aim, odd or even. 

2. Straight, direct, near, close, of distance, &c., esp. in an 
aimer gate, a more direct road ; so, a nearer way Fig 
nearly akin, related. 

w.Yks. Eym-anent, directly opposite, GROSE (1790) MS. add. 
(P.) Chs. This is the heamest road. Come heamer (E.F.) ; Chs. 1 
You mun go dain th' aimer gate. He lived aimer this way afore 

: took yon farm ; Chs. 2 Eamby, close by, at hand ; Chs. 3 Are 
yow going to Knutsford by the road ? No, au knows an aimer gate. 
s.Chs.i They liven eeam by the chapel. Stf. 1 Aimer, Aymer ; Stf. 2 
1 hat big sojer theer wur aimer to th' target nor ony on 'em. Put 
s ' e P s a bit aimertowart. Der. & Stf. Aimest road (J.K.). Der. 2 , 
nw-Der. 1 Eighmer. War. 3 w.Wor. 1 The emest waay is across 
the crafts. Shr. It is quite eem here, not a mile away (E.P.) : 
Aimer is a well-known word here (W.W.S.) ; They bin too erne 

'" 01 ' (G ' FJ - ) ; Shnl Cross them filds. it's the 
Th ls road is full as erne as the tother. Hrf. 2 


fi863)'ll I'sT' 
3. Fig. mean, stingy, ' near.' 

Tmns - 

[1. Possibly wehaveazw in the sense of 'even' in COTGR 
Jouez vostrejeu, play an aim cast (at bowles) ME emne, 

em- (in compounds), as in emcristen, i.e. even-Christian, 
fellow-Christian ; OE. efn (emn) even, cp. ON. jamn.] 
AIMATION, sb. n.Yks. [erne-Jan.] Guesswork. 

n.Yks. 2 We shall get it by aimation. We rooaded it by aimation 
[took the road we supposed to be the right one], A soort of aima- 
tion [a piece of guesswork]. 

[Aim, vb. (see 2) + -ation ; a late analogical formation.] 
AIMES. see Hames. 

AIMLESS, adj. Stf. Der. [e-mlas.] Senseless. 

Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 Oi wor moiSard till oi wor emless. Stf. & Der. J.K. 
Der. He's a gawky, aimless sort of chap (H.R.). 

[Aim, sb. (purpose) + -less.] 

AIMSOME, adj. Yks. [I'msam, ye-msam.] 

n.Yks. 2 Aimsome, ambitious, speculative. m.Yks. 1 

{Aim, sb. (purpose) + -some.] 

AIMSTART, sb. n.Yks. [e'mstat.] A starting-point. 

n.Yks. 2 This mun be your aimstart. 

[Aim, sb. (purpose, object) + start.] 

.AIMY, adj. Chs. [e'mi.] Shrewd. 

Chs. 1 Ee wur a aimy sort o' chap, ee wur. 

[Aim, sb. (purpose) + -y.] 

AIN,sb. Yks. Not. Lin. Also written ane w.Yks. 8 ; 
hane Lin. The awn or beard of barley or bearded wheat. 

w.Yks. So called in Keighley district (J.R.) ; Hlfx. Wds. ; w.Yks. 3 
Not. 3 Lin. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). 

Hence Ainded, ppl. adj. having awns or ' ains.' 

w.Yks. (J.R.) ; w.Yks. 2 Ainded wheat, wheat with bearded chaff. 

[Anes, awns, spires or beards of barley and other 
bearded grain, BAILEY (1770) ; Flaxen wheate hath a 
yelowe eare, and bare without anis, FITZHERBERT Hus- 
bandry (1534) 40. OE. cegnan, pi., chaff (Corpus GL, 1526).] 

AIN, see Hen. 

AINS, see Even. 

AINT, see Anoint. 

AIN'T, see Be. 

AIR, sb. 1 In var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. and Ens fir 
ea(r), vea(r).] 

1. The sky, clouds. 

Chs. 1 The air broke red [of an aurora borealis]. It shows for 
rain, the air is so low. War. (J.R. W.) 

2. A current of air in a mine. 

Nhb. &Dur. Air, the current or volume of air circulating through 
and ventilating a mine, GREENWELL Coal Tr. Gl. (1849). 

3. Air of the fire, the heated atmosphere surrounding a 
fire ; to take an air of the fire, to warm oneself. 

Don. Come in, good woman, an' tak' an air o' the fire, Cornh. 
Mag. (Feb. 1877) Fit-Lore. Cav. Take an air of the fire this 
snowy day (M.S.M.). Con. Won't ye take an air of the fire, 
O'Toole ? LUCAS Romantic Lover in Chapman's Mag. (Oct. 1895). 
s.Chs. 1 Come thy wees (ways, within air o'th fire, fur raly tha 
looks heef starved jeth [half frozen to death]. 

4. The chill, in phr. to take theair off the drink. (In e.An. 
they say to take the aam oflf the drink. See Aam.) 

Shr. 2 To take the chill from beer is usually denoted by the 
phrase ' tak the hair off the drink.' Its coud, jist out o' the cellar, 
yoden [you hadden] better tak the yare offit 

5. A small quantity of anything ; a ' whiff' ; a taste. 
S.&Ork. 1 Apeerieair, a mere tasting. Air, a very small quantity. 

Or.I. Ere. JEr, a very small quantity (S. A.S.). Bnff. 1 Gee me an air 
o' yir mill. Tack in by yir chair, sit doon, an' tack an air o' the 
pipe, an gee's a' yir uncos. 

6. pi. Fits of ill-humour; fretfulness. 

Cum. 1 He's in his airs to-day. nXin. 1 She's in her airs to-daay. 
Vhp. 1 Let us have none of your airs [applied to the humoursome 
retfulness of children]. e.Ken. She has just got her airs, and when 
saucepans fly I walk out G.G.). 

7. Comp. and attrib. Air-bleb ; -box; -course; -crossing; 
gate, -head, in mining : a passage for ventilation ; -peg ; 

n.Yks. 2 Air-blebs, (i) bubbles ; (a) unsound schemes. n-Lin. 1 Air 
>leb, a bubble. Nhb. 1 Air-boxes, tubes of wood used for ventila- 
lon in a pit where there is only one passage or opening, Min. Gl. 
Newc. Terms (1853). Nhb. & Dur. Air-box, a square wooden tube 
used to convey air into the face of a single drift, or into a sinking 
:, GREENWELL Coal Tr. Gl. (1849) ; Air-course, see Air-way, ib. 
Nhb. 1 Air-crossing, an arch built over a horseway or other road, with 
a passage or air-way above it, Min. Gl. Newc. Terms (1852). w.Yks. 
Air-gate, a road or way driven in the coal for purposes of ventilation 




(S.J.C.). s.Stf. Air-head, a channels feets inches bysfeeteinches, 
driven on a level with the topof the gate-road [i.e. the passage along 
which the coals are carried]. Mining G/.(i852). n.Lin. 1 Air-peg,the 
vent-peg of a barrel ; also called spile-peg in Nhp. Nhp. 1 Nhb. 1 Air- 
way, a passagealong which the current of air travels in acollierj'. Nhb. 
&Dur. Air-course or Air-way, GREENWELI. Co/ Ti: Gl. (1849). [Air- 
ways, headings or passages in a mine along which there is a constant 
circulation of fresh air between the down-east shaft, the working; 
places, and the up-cast shaft, Gl. Lab. (1894";.] 

[1. Where should this music be ? i' the air or the earth : 
SHAKS. Temp. i. ii. 387 ; When the sun sets the air doth 
drizzle dew, ib. R. Sr J. in. v. 127 ; Nicholas . . . ever gaped 
upward in-totheeirjCHAUCERC.J 1 . A. 3473. 6. Hoity! toity! 
cries Honour, Madam Is in her airs, I protest, FIELDING 
Tom Jones, viii ; You will get cured of all these whims and 
airs of yours some day, BLACK Madcap V. v. 41. This usage 
in the pi. is of Fr. origin ; cp. HATZFELD, Prendre, sedonner 
des airs, affecter une certaine maniere d'etre. Fr. air, Lat. ae>:] 

AIR, sb. 2 Or. and Sh. I. Also in Wm. and Lan. [er, 
es(r).] A sandbank, or ridge made by the action of water; 
a beach. 

Or.&Sh.I. They have some Norish woods . . .such as air, a sand- 
bank, BRAND Zetland (1701) 70 (JAM.); Most of the extensive 
beaches on the coast are called airs ; as Stour-air, Whale-air, ED- 
MONSTON Zetl. (1809) I. 140 (ib.). Or.I. By beach and by cave. . . 
By air, and by wick, and by helyer and gio, And by every cold shore 
which the northern winds know, SCOTT Pirate(iB22} xix. S. fcOrk. 1 
Aer, a sandbank or beach ; sometimes a stone aer. Aer, applied 
to several places having extensive ' Aers ' or smooth beaches near 
them ; ex. the Aers of Sellivoe, the Aers of Strom. Wm. 1 Ayr, 
a low headland. ne.Lan. 1 Aire, land warped up by floods or tides, 
and liable to be overflowed by them. 

[ON. eyrr (mod. eyri), a gravelly bank, a small tongue of 
land running into the sea; cp. Dan. ore, Sw. or, found in 
Helsing-6'r (Elsinore).] 

AIR, adj. and adv. Sc. [er.] 

1. adj. Early. 

Sc. Come it air, come it late, in May comes the cow-quake, 
RAMSAY Prov. (1737) ; Air day or late day the fox's hide finds 
aye the flaying knife, SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xxvii; An air winter's 
a sair winter, SWAINSON Weather Flk-Lore (1873) 8. Abel. You 
wou'd na hae kent fat to mak o' her, unless it had been a gyr-carlen, 
or to set her up amon' a curn air bear [early barley] to fley away 
the ruicks, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 2 (JAM.). 

2. adv. 

Sc. What brings you out to Liberton sae air in the morning, 
SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xxvii ; Let us awa' air til the vineyairds, 
ROBSON Sng. Sol. (1860) vii. 12. Rnf. Vext and sighin' late and air, 
WILSON Watty (1792) 9, Newc. ed. Ayr. I'm weary sick o't late 
and air! BURNS To Dr. Blacklock (1789 . Lnk. She jeers me air 
and late, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (1725) I. i. e.Lth. Blinkin' like an 
air-up hoolet, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895) 105. 

Hence .Airness, sb. the state or condition of being early 

Sc. The airness of the crap. 

[Quha is content rejoycit air or lait, DOUGLAS Pal. Hon. 
n. xxix ; O^er ich hit do ungledliche, oer to er oer to 
late, Ancren Riwle, 338. OE. cer, adj. and adv., former, for- 
merly, early.] 

AIR,j;. Or.andSh.I.w.Yks.Lan.Der.War. Shr. [ea(r).] 

1. To warm, ' take the chill off.' e.An. aam is used with 
the same meaning. 

e.Lan. 1 Air, to warm moderately, as drink. When excessively 
cold it is aired at the fire. Shr. 2 Hair. 

Hence Aired, ///. adj. 

Yks. You must use aired water for the tea-cakes (F.P.T.). Der. 2 
Aired water, water with the chill taken off. War. (J.R.W.) 

2. To taste. 
S.& Ork.i 

[1. This is a specific use of the vb. in the usual sense 
of to warm, applied usually in lit. E. to the drying of 
damp linen. See Air, sb. 1 4. 2. See Air, sb. 1 5.] 

AIR, see Ere. 

AIRD, see Ard. 

AIREL, sb. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) 

1. An old name for a flute ; properly applied to a pipe 
made from a reed. 

Arg., Slk. 


2. Musical tones, of whatever kind. 

Rxb. The beetle began his wild airel to tune And sang on the 
wynde with ane eirysome croon, Wint. Ev. Tales, II. 203. 

[Probably a deriv. of air, Fr. air, a tune, sound or air in 

AIRESS, see Hairif. 

AIRF, AIRFISH, see Argh. 

AIRISH, adj. Sc. n. and e.Yks. [e'rij, ea'ri/.] Chilly, 

Sc. Airish is still commonly used all over Scotland for chilly 
(H.E.F.). n.Yks. Airish is used in the dales, but not commonly 
(R.H.H.). e.Yks. The mornings are airish, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 
18; (S.K.C.) 

[This word is found in CHAUCER, but only in the sense 
of aerial, belonging to the air : (I) beheld the eyrish bestes, 
Hous F. 964. Air+-ish.] 

AIRTLING, see Ettle! 

AIRUP, see Hairif. 

AIRY, adj. Cum. n.Lin. [i'ri, ea'ri.] Breezy. 

Cum. 1 It's rayder airy to-day. n.Lin. 1 

[O'er airy wastes to rove, POPE Windsor F. 167. A ir + -y.] 

AISE, see Ash. 

AISH, sb. Dor. [aif.] One of the strata of Purbeck 

Dor.Though associated with the Burr, this bed [aish] from its fissile 
or slatycharacter iseasily separated from it, DAMON Geol. Weymouth 
( 1860) 98. Dor. The tops of the longer stumps of trees pass through 
the burr into the aish, the uneven surface of which often serves to 
indicate the presence of trees beneath, ib. 115, ed. 1884 ; The aish 
bed is above the soft burr and under a bed of clay (J.H.M.). 

AISH, see Arrish. 

AISLE, sb. Sc. Yks. Lan. Chs. Wil. Som. Amer. [ail.] 

1. A space for passage in any building ; esp. the central 
thoroughfare in a mill, shop, &c. Cf. alley, sb. 1 1. 

w.Yks. Aisle is used in Keighley for any passage between pews in 
a chapel, and the alley past the ends of looms ; the interval where 
the weaver stands when at work being known as the gate (J.R.) ; 
Aisle, a passage between seats in any building. Aisle, Alley, are 
also used for the principal thoroughfare in a workshop, and must 
not be confused with loom-gate, nor with gangway (the thorough- 
fare between two buildings built overhead), nor with passage (a 
narrow way between two buildings). Gangway, passage, aisle, and 
alley have distinct meanings in our vernacular (B. K.). Lan. The 
passage between pewsina church is always called an aisle(S.W.) ; 
I have heard the space between the counters of a shop called the 
aisle in Liverpool, ./V. & Q. (1890) 7th S. x. 53. s.Chs. Any pas- 
sage between pews (T.D.). w.Som. 1 Aisle, the passage between 
the pews in a church or chapel. No distinction is made between 
nave and aisles ; but there is u aa-yul to every church : see Alley. 
[Amer. Instead of shopping they trade, and while thus engaged 
recognize a friend across the aisle, N. & Q. (1890) 7th S. ix. 406.] 

2. A projection from the body of a church, one of the 
wings of a transept. 

Per. (G.W.) 

3. An enclosed and covered burial-place, adjoining to a 
church though not forming a part of it. 

Sc. Donald was buried in the laird of Drum's aile, SPALDING 
Hist. Troubles in Sc. (1792) II. 282 (JAM.). Abd. & Per. The burial- 
place of the laird's family is frequently called the aile (G.W.). 

4. Double rows of wheat-sheaves set up to dry. 
s-Wll. MARSHALL Review (1817) V. 218. 

[1. As up the ayle with mind disturb'd, I walk, RICHARD- 
SON Pamela (N.E.D.). Fr. aile, Lat. ala, a wing. For the 
sense cp. BAILEY (1755) : Isle, a long passage in a church 
or public building. This is the same word as ME. tie (yle], 
Fr. He, often Latinized as insula in legal documents. E. 
aisle owes its spelling to Fr. aile, and its pronunc. to Fr. He.] 

AISLE, see Hazzle, v. 

AISLE-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 

AIT, sb. 1 Var. dial. Also written eyot. See below, 
[ait.] An island in a river ; an osier-bed. 

s.Not. The osier ait above the weirs, Not. Guard. (Aug. 8, 1895) 7. 
Wor.Ait, Nait, Eyot, island. Also applied to an osier-bed, whether 
an island or not (H.K.) ; The island now called the Neight at 
Deerhurst on the Severn, ALLIES Antiq. (1840) 188. s.Wor. 1 
se.Wor. 1 Naight, an eyot, an osier bed. Brks. 1 Ait, or Aayte, a river- 
island, or flat on the bank with osiers growing. Mid. Fog up the 
river where it flows among green aits and meadows, DICKENS Bleak 





House(i&53) i. Hmp. They roosted in the aits of that river, WHITF 
Selborne (1788) 31, ed. 1853. 

Hence Eyoty, adj. Of the nature of an ait or island. 

Hmp. 1 That eyoty piece near the ford. 

[He enjoyed a party of pleasure in a good boat on the 
water to one of the aits or aislets in the Thames, EDGE- 
WORTH Patronage (1814) xix (DAV.) ; Ait, a little island in 
a river where osiers grow,_BAiLEY (n2i)_. Merc, egeofi, 
OE. ~igeocf, an islet, deriv. of ig, teg, Merc, eg, island. The 
termination with / is prob. due to French influence ; cp. 
Fr. -et, -of.} 

AIT, sb? Obs. (?) Rnf. A custom, a habit ; esp. used 
of a bad one (JAM.). 

AITCH, sb. w.Yks. [eat/.] A mantelpiece. 

w.Yks. The universal name for a mantelpiece in the villages about 
Wakefield and towards Leeds (S.O.A.). 

[Possibly this word is a peculiar use of the name for the 
letter ft.] 

AITCH, see Ache. 

AITCH-BONE, sb. Yks. Der. Lei. Nhp. War. Mid. 
Hnt. Suf. Ken. Sus. Hmp. Dev. [e'tj-bon.] The bone 
of the rump of beef ; the meat which this bone includes. 

w.Yks. 1 Nache-bone. Der. 1 Nhp. 1 The extreme end of a rump 
of beef, cut obliquely. Lei. 1 War. 3 While there is no joint called 
aitch-bone cut from the carcase of the sheep, the haunch-bone in 
a haunch of mutton is by butchers also called the aitch-bone. Mid. 
Ache-bone, part of y rump, RAY (1691) MS. add. (J.C.) Hnt. 
(T.P.F.), Suf. 1 Ken. 2 Ach-bone. Sus. 2 Hmp. 1 Aich-bone. Dev. 
A saddle of mutton at one end, and an aitch-bone, not over-boiled. 
at the other, BLACKMORE Kit (1890) III. x. 

[The proper form, being that identical with theorig. Fr, 
is nache. The 'nache' in some writers, also the 'tail- 
points' by others, YOUNG (BRITTEN, 97) ; Upon the hue 
bone and the nache by the tayle, FITZHERBERT Hush. 
( J 534) 53- The dial, forms have mostly lost the initial 
n through coalescence with the indef. adj. an, hence ache, 
aich, aitch. The earliest example of the word found with- 
out the n is in Bk. St. A/bans, where hack boon occurs ; see 
SKEAT, 777. The ache bone, os coxendicis, COLES (1699). 
The word does not occur in JOHNSON in any form. OF 
nache, a buttock ; Rom. natica, adj., from natis, a buttock.] 

AITCHORN, see Acorn. 

AITCH-PIECE, sb. Cor. [e-tj-pis.] The catch or 
tongue of a buckle. 

Cor. 12 

[Named from the shape, like that of the letter HI 

AITEN, sb. Obs. Slk. (JAM.) A partridge. 

[Prob. ait, oat + hen. Many names of this bird contain 
some equiv. of hen as the latter element of the comp cp 
Sw. rapphona, G. rebhuhn, feldhuhn, Du. rap-hoen, EFris 

AITH,sb. Obs. Sc. QAM.) 

Frf. Aith or Aiftland, that kind ofland called infield, which is made 
to carry oats a second time after barley, and has received no dung 

AITH, see Earth. 

AITHER, see Arder, Either-. 

AITNACH, sb. Obs. Sc. Also in the forms etnach 
' '' 

.u' .umperernes. 

Abd. [She] spies beneath a buss of-what-ye-ca't ? Ay, etnagh- 

berries i [ist ed. eatin-], and yeed down the brae, And there she 

a thiiri Ac o- Mil, iT , ,. L-"-""J >*"" 6*c Her ua 

26 (JAM) S<! Wud ' TAYLOR Poems 

C P- &/, juniper (M. & D.).] 

Shn GI - Also written 

1. A madcap frolic, a foolish prank. 

or Tthe'r. ' Wamnd *' bin ff now on some wild aitredan 

V T f ntri !, m XT* noisv quarrel, a fuss. 


' ^ 3nd adj ~ SU - Cold ' bleak weather ; also 
S. & Ork. 1 ; Aitrie, Aittrie (JAM. Siippl.}. 

AIVER, see Eaver, Havour. 

AIVERIE, adj. Sc. [e'vari, ye-vari.] 

Abd. & Per.Aiverie is a very well known word meaning not very 
hungry, but eager to get at food, &c. They are a' yevery to be fed. 
Dinna eat sae yivvery like [greedily] (G. W. ). Rxb. Aiverie, very 
hungry; a term nearly obs. (JAM.) 

Hence Yevrisome, adj. 

Dmf. Yevrisome, having an appetite perpetually craving (JAM. 
s.v. Yevery). 

[Aver, goods, possessions {Apr. aveir, Lat. Jiabere) + -y. 
So avery would mean covetous, hungry, ' eager to have.'] 

AIVERING, prp. Sc. Written yivverin' Abd. 
[i'varin, yi'varin.] Eager for, hungering,y?g r . 

Abd. I'm yiverrin' sair for a kiss (G.W.). 

AIVRDJ, sb. Sc. [e-vrin.] The larboard. 

Bnff. 1 In the deep-sea-fishing boatsthereareeight fishermen, each 
of whom has his own seat in the boat. The skipper holds the 
aivrin hank ; the second man, the aivrin mid-ship ; the third, the 
mid-aivrin boo ; and the fourth, the foremast-aivrin boo. 

[Aivrin, aifteran, prob. for after-hand, near the hinder- 
part of the ship.] 

AIVY-KAIVY, see Havey-quavey. 

AIWAL, see Awald. 

AIXES, see Access. 

AIX-TREE, see Ax. 

AIYAH, see Near. 

AIZAC, see Haysuck. 

_ AIZAM- JAZAM, adj. and adv. Stf. War. Wor. Shr. Glo. 

1. adj. Equal in weight, size, or value. 

Shr. 1 Theer wuz fifteen faggits i' one lot, an' sixteen i' the 
tother, an' I put 'em little an' big together, to mak' 'em as 'asam- 
jasam as I could. 

2. adj. and adv. (i) Fair and square, equitable ; (2) in an 
equitable manner. 

Stf., War., Wor., Glo. Ayzam-jayzam. ' Upright and downstraight' 
is an old term of the same meaning, NORTHALL Flk-Phr. (1894). 
War. 2 ne.Wor. Aizam-jaizam, honest, ' jannock.' [Of a dishonest 
bargain] That job's not quite aizam-jaizam (J.W.P.). (a) Stf., War., 
Wor. I shouldn't care if he'd only act hasum-jasum with me (H.K.). 

[Prob. a colloq. formation from lit. E. easy. For ' easy ' in 
the sense of equal, even, cp. the familiar phrase in Whist, 
' Honours easy.'] 

AIZE, sb. Sh.I. [ez.] A large blazing fire. 

S. & Ork. 1 Aze. 

[ON. eysa,^ glowing embers, cognate with usli, a confla- 
gration ; OE.ysle, embers.] 

AIZIN', see Easing. 

AIZLE, see Hazzle, v., Easle. 

AIZLE-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 

AJY, see Agee. 

AKE, sb. Cor. [ek.] 

Cor. 1 Ake, a groove in a stone used for an anchor (peculiar to 
Cornwall) to receive a rope or iron band to prevent it from slipping. 
Mousehole fishermen ; Cor. 2 

AKERATE, v. Lin. [a'karet.] 

1. To rust as iron does. 

n.Lin. 1 We fun' sum shackles sich es thaay ewst to put upo' 
prisoners e' ohd times. Thaay was o'must all akeraated awaay, 
bud oor Squire thoht a great deal on 'em. 

2. To blight. 

nXin. 1 His crops was that akeraated last year [1879] thaay was 
wo'th, in a waay of speaking, noht at all. 

AKERMAST, see Acorn-mast. 

AKETHA, int. Dev. Cor. Also written akether. 
[ake-'Sa.] Quoth he ; forsooth ! indeed ! 

Dev. Akether, bin ma kit's ago, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) st. 68 ; 
' Giggling akether ! ' shrieked the old woman, wild with resentment, 
'giggling akether!' MADOX-BROWN Dwale Bluth (1876) I. i; 
Dev. 1 An zo you zim a is maz'd, I'll warnis ; no more lookee- 
dezee than you be. I say maz'd akether, pt. i. 3 ; Dev. 3 n.Dev. 
Bet es tell en, Marry a-ketha, Emi. Crtshp. (1746) 1. 456; GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (C.) Cor. Thee baan't St George, no moore than 
me ; St. George aketha ! J. TRENOODLE Spec. Dial. (1846) 55 ; Cor. 1 2 

[? r ob - * e 9 uiv - to ' Ah ' I* 10 '* 1 he. With keth cp. ME. 
cwed,qued, koth, pret. of quefon, OE. cweSan, to speak. For 
the final a see A (pronunciation V. 1 & 2).l 





A sullen person, 
gloomy, and MDu. akel, 

AKKA-MANNAA, see Cakka-man-ah. 

AKKER, sb. Pern, [a'ka(r).] 

s.Pem. Akker, a boat used for carrying limestone on the Cleddy, 
LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 419. 

AKKERN, see Acorn. 

AKLIN, sb. Sh.I. [a'klin.] 

S. & Ork. 1 

[Cogn. with Du. akelig, dull 
grief, n arm.] 

AL, see Alley. 

ALABLASTER, sb. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Der. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Won Oxf. Also written ali- 
blaster Dur. 1 Wm. 1 ne.Lan. 1 nw.Der. 1 Oxf. 1 ; allablaster 
Chs. 1 ; alleyblaster Nhb. 1 ; allyblaster se.Wor. 1 ; all- 
plaister w.Yks. 1 [a'lablasta(r).] Alabaster. 

Nhb. 1 , Dnr. 1 Cum. Sally's just like allyblaster, Her cheeks are 
tweerwosebudsinMay,ANDERSONBrtAWs(i8o5)i6. Wm. 1 w.Yks. 
During a fall of snow, children often sing 'Snow, snow faster, White 
alablaster ' (S. K.C.); 'E's as fair as alleyblaster (F.P.T.) ; w.Yks. 1 245 , 
ne.Lan. 1 . Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. 1 Thaay fun alablaster at Gainsb'r 
when thaay dug railroad, bud it wasn't wo'th oht. It's a straange nist 
bairn, it's skin's that clear it's like alablaster. Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 3 
s.Wor. Her dear flesh was allis as white as halablaster, PORSON 
Quaint Wds. (1875) 23. Oxf. 1 DhaaT bent noa guod'luok'n gyuurlz 
ubuuwt -nuuw; wen -uuy wuz yoor aij uuy wuz uz faa'r uz aH- 
blaa'stuur [Thar ben't no good-lookin' girls about now ; when I 
was your age I was as fair as aliblaster]. 

[Why should a man whose blood is warm within Sit 
like his grandsire cut in alablaster, SHAKS. M. Ven. i. i. 
84 ; Albaster, allablaster, Albastrin, white as allablaster, 
COTGR. ; Alabastrine, made of alleblaster, FLORIO (1611). 
In an inventory, temp. Hen. VIII, of the furniture of St. 
Martin's at Dover is the following entry : Item, ij imagees 
ofwhytealleeblaster, jWoas/.IV.542(BoucHER). The form 
alablaster is found in SYDNEY'S Arcadia, 319 (ed. FRISWELL). 
ME. An alablaster, alablastrum, Cath. Angl. This was 
the gen. spelling of alabaster in the i6th and lyth cents. 
The bl- is doubtless due to sense-association with bleach, 
blanch, and other W-forms denoting whiteness.] 

ALACK, int. Sc. n.Cy. Yks. Som. Also written 
alacke, alake, allake. bla'k. I 

1. Alas ! 

S. & Ork. 1 Alake, an exclamation denoting sorrow or regret. 
Sc. He says how now how now Childe Maurice, Alacke how may 
this bee, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) Childe Maurice. Ayr. 
Alake, alake, the meikle Deil Wi' a' his witches, BURNS To Mr. 
Mitchell (1795). Lnk. Alake ! poor pris'ner, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. 
(1735) 38, ed. 1783. n.Cy. Alake, alas. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) 
w.Yks. Alack, a form of 'alas,' Hlfx. Wds. ; w.Yks. 4 [Allake, a 
sigh, bitter exclamation (K.).] 

2. In comp. Alack-a-day,an exclamation of grief or distress. 
w.Yks. AJack-a-day,aformof'aIastheday,'////i. Wds. w.Som. 1 

Alack-a-day ! an exclamation of sorrow or regret. Alas-a-day ! or 
Alas ! are not heard. 

[Nay, what's incredible, alack ! I hardly hear a woman's 
clack, SWIFT (JOHNSON) ; Alack the heavy day, That I 
have worn so many winters out ! SHAKS. Rich. II, iv. i. 
257; She's dead, deceased, she's dead ; alack the day ! ib. 
R. & J. iv. v. 23. Perhaps A (int.) + lack, failure, fault.] 

A-LADY, adv. phr. e.An. [ale'di.l On Lady-day. 

e.An. She gan her missis notidge last A'Lady, A'. & Q. (1855) 
ist S. xi. 184 ; e-An. 1 e.Nrf. A-Lady (in common use), MARSHALL 
Rur. Earn. (1787). Suf. 1 A'l go out of 'as farm next a-Lady. 

[A-, on + Lady (for Lady-day).] 

ALAG, adv. Nhb. Cum. n.Yks. [ala'g.] Not suffi- 
ciently upright ; too horizontal, as in placing a ladder. 

Nhb.It'sallalag,outoftheperpendicular(R.O.H.). Cum. 1 n.Yks. 
It lies alag. T'stick laid alag ageean t'wall [sto 

[stood at an angle of 

The sporting term for a 
Also written alare. A 

ig ageean 
45] (I. W.). 

A-LAG, sb. Cum. [ala'g. 
flight of geese (W.K.). 

ALAIRE, adv. Obsol. w.Cor. 
short time ago. 

Cor. N. & Q. (1854) ist S. x. 178 ; Cor. 1 
ALAKANEE, int. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Alas ! 
Rnf. The cheeriest swain that e'er the meadows saw ; Alakanec ! 
is Robin gane awa' ? PICKEN Poems (1788) 20 (JAM.). 

ALAMONTI, see Allamotti. 

ALANGE, see Elenge. 

ALANNAH, sb. Irel. Also written alanna, alanah, 
alana. My child ! A form of address, a term of endear- 

Ir. Miss Betty, alanah, LEVER H. Lorr. (1839) iii ; Whose then, 
alannah ? ib. Ch. Cf M alley (1841) iii ; He's well enough that's it, 
alannah, CARLETON Traits Peas. (1843) I. 95 ; Well, alana, I could 
not help it, Flk-Lore Rec. (1881) IV. 117 ; Have ye all now, ma'am ? 
I have, alanna, God bless ye ! FRANCIS Frieze (1895) 21 ; Alana, 
properly ' my child ' ; used as a friendly or affectionate word of ad- 
dress, especially to the speaker's junior (G.M.H.). s.Ir. Whisht ! 
alanna. . . . There's no fear of you, CROKER Leg. (1862) 28. 

[Ir. a leanbh (prop, a leinbh) my child !] 

ALANTOM, adv. Obs. Nhb. Yks. Also written 
alantum, alantem. Freq. used with off. At a distance. 

n.Cy. I saw him at alangtum. I saw him alantom off K. ) ; N.Cy. 12 , 
Nhb. 1 w.Yks. 1 1 spies alantum off two shooters, ii. 296. 

[Some of our lads b'ing very kind, Alantom followed 
me behind, STUART Joco- Serious Disc. (1686) 72. Alantom 
prob. repr. Fr. en lointain, in the distance.] 

ALARM, sb. Irel. Wil. [ala'm.] A cry of a bird or 

Wmh. What soort of alarm has an otther ? (S. A.B.) 

Hence Alarm-note, the note of a bird when startled. 

n. Wil. If you should disturb the blackbird he makes the meadow 
ring with his alarm-note, JEFFERIES Wild Life (1879) 163. 

[Fr. alarme, excitement caused by the approach of the 
enemy ; OFr. a farme .' the cry to arms.] 

ALARMING, adv. Suf. Wor. [ala'min.] 

1. In an unusual manner. 

Suf. He went on wholly alarmin', i.e. acted or spoke out of the 
usual way, not necessarily greatly, e.An. Dy. Times (1892). 

2. Extensively, very, exceedingly. 

w.Wor. [It] grows in woods alarmin', S. BEAUCHAMP Grantley 
Grange (1874) II. 104 ; They bin orl good uns. most alarmin' good 
uns, ib. N. Hamilton (1875) I. 127. 

ALARUM, sb. n.Yks. [ale-ram.] Disturbance. 


[A blanket in th' alarum of fear caught up, SHAKS. Ham. 
ii. ii. 532. See Alarm.] 

ALAS-A-DAY, int. Obsol. Yks. and Som. Alas! a form 
of pitying. 

Yks. THORESBYZ.?#. (1703). w.Yks. 4 Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. 
w.Eng. (1825). 

[Alas a day ! you have ruined my poor mistress, CON- 
GREVE Old Bachelor (JOHNSON) ; Alas the day ! I never gave 
him cause, SHAKS. Oth. in. iv. 158 ; Alias ! that harde day ! 
CHAUCER C. T. F. 499. OFr. a las (mod. Mas), orig. Ah, 
weary ! Cp. It. ahi lasso, Lat. lassus, weary.] 

ALAS-AT-EVER, int. Obs. Yks. An exclamation of 


Yks. THORESBY Lett. (i7O3\ w.Yks. 4 

[Equiv. to alas that ever /] 

ALASSEN, conj. Dor. Also written alassn. [alavsan.] 

Dor. Gl. (1851); Dor. 1 Alassen I mid want to stay Behine' var 
thee, 79, 

[Equiv. to on less 'en for on less than, whence lit. E. unless. 
Onlesse this be done, si ce nest que cela se face, PALSGR. 
882. OE. on Ices banne, lit. on a less supposition than.] 

A-LATE, rt<fo. Yks. Lan. Wor. [ale't, alea't] Lately. 

w.Yks. 1 Alatt, of late. ne.Lan. 1 Alayat. se.Wor. 1 

[Alate, nuper, COLES (1679). The form occurs in ME. as 
in Destr. Troy (c. 1400), 4176. A-, of + late.] 

ALAU, sb. Cor. [alair.] Nymphaea alba, or water- 

ALAWK, int. Der. War. Suf. [al'k.] An exclama- 
tion of sorrow ; alas ! 

Der. 2 , nw-Der. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Suf. 1 [Hence] Alawkus. 

[A-, ah ! + lawk, q.v.j 

ALAY, see Ally. 

ALBUIST, conj. Obs. Abd. Though, albeit. 

Abd. An' our ain lads, albuist I say't my sell, But guided them 
right cankardly an' snell, Ross ffelenoi-e(i']68) 62 (in the edd. 1789 
and 1812 ' although' is printed instead of 'albuist'). 

[Etym. unknown.] 




ALD, see Old. 

ALDER, sb. [o-lda(r).] Besides its usual meaning 
(Alnus glutinosa), the name alder in comb, is applied to 
several other trees, (i) Death alder, Euonymus europaeus 
or spindle-tree (Bck.) ; (2) Wild alder, Aegopodium poda- 
graria (Lin.). 

n.Bck. It is thought unlucky to bring it [Death alder] into the 
house. s.Lin. Wild alder. Alder = elder, from the superficial 
resemblance between the leaves. 

[OE. a/or. The form aller is still gen. in dial.] 

ALDER-CARR, sb. Der. Lin. War. Nrf. Sut. Also 
written owdaker nw.Der. 1 A piece of bog- or fen-land 
overgrown with alder-trees. 

Der. 2 Alder-carr, a plantation of alders; carr being common for 
a plantation in a low or flat situation. nw.Der. 1 Lin. Alder-carr, 
an islet overgrown with 'the waterside tree,' N. & Q. (1873) 
4th S. xii. 297. War. (J.R.W.) Nr Wet pieces of land in the 
marshy districts planted with . . . alders, and hence called . . . 
alder-carrs, N. &> Q. (1874) 5th S. i. 132. Suf. A moist wood of 
alders, e.An. Dy. Times (1892). 

[Aldyr-kyr (Alder-kar in Pynson's ed.), Alnetum, viz. 
locus vbi alni et tales arbores crescunt, Prompt. Alder + carr, 

ALDERLING,s6. Obs. Suf. A fresh-water fish which 
haunts that part of the stream overhung by alder-trees. 
See Aller-trout. 

Suf. No longer used, but still known to very old people here 
(F.H.). Not known to any of our correspondents in other parts 
of the country. A kind of fish said to be betwixt a trout and a 
grayling (HALL.). 

ALE, sb. 1 Var. dial. See below, [el, eal, yel.] 

1. A liquor brewed from malt and distinguished from 
ordinary beer by its strength. In Cum. and Som., how- 
ever, ale is weak beer brewed from the malt after the beer 
has been extracted from it. 

Cum. (J.Ar.) Brks. 1 Ooll'ehevaglasso'aayleora glass o' beer? 
Som. A liquor brewed with a proportion of malt from about four to 
six bushels to the hogshead of 63 gallons; ifitcontain more malt it is 
called beer ; if less, it is usually called small beer, JENNINGS Obs. 
Dial. w.Eng. (1825). w.Som. 1 Ale is usually sold in the public- 
houses at half the price of beer ; at Burton this is precisely re- 

2. A country festival, in which ale-drinking forms the 
chief part of the delight. 

N.Cy. 1 A merry meeting of country-people, a rural feast, bride- 
ale, church-ale. ne-Lan. 1 Oxf. The Whitsun ales are common in 
Oxfordshire, WRIGHT. 

3. Comp. Ale-bink, -brains, -brewis, -brussen.see below ; 
-Conner, -finder, a manorial officer whose duty it was to 
look to the assize and goodness of bread and ale within 
the precincts of the manor ; -feast, a public festival gener- 
ally held at Whitsuntide ; -jawt, -master, -peg, see below ; 
posset, a curd made by pouring old ale over boiling 
milk ; -scalp, see Ale-brains ; -score, a debt at the ale- 
house ; -settle, see Ale-bink ; -shot, see Ale-score ; 
silver, -soaked, -soaker, see below; -sop, (i) a refection 
consisting of hot strong ale and toast or biscuits, (2) a 
drunkard ; -spinner, -stake, see below ; -stalder, the stool 
on which casks are placed in a cellar ; -stall, -swab, -swat- 
tier, -swizzler, see below ; -taster, an officer appointed to 
prevent the adulteration of ale, see Ale-conner ; -Tuesday, 
Shrove Tuesday; -weean, see below; -whisp (obs.), the 
bush hung in front of an inn to show that ale was sold 
there ; -wife, (i) a woman who keeps an inn, (2) a local 
name of the Allice-shad, Alosa communis ; -wort, an in- 
tusion of malt; -yottler, -yottling, see below. 

n. Yks. 2 Yal-bink, also called Yal-settle, an ale-bench ; like those 
:n front of country inns for outside smokers. Yal-brains, one who 
has to take his glass before he can set his wits to work. Yal-brewis 
ale-posset stiffened with bread. Yal-brussen, distended pr ' blown 
up with ale or liquor. n.Lin.i Ale Conner. Ale-feast (obsol.), a 
public drinking usually held at Whitsuntide. Cum.i Yal-jaw't 
sickened by drinking ale. nXin. 1 Ale-master, the chief man at the 
ale-feast. Ale-peg, the vent-peg of a cask. Lan. There's some 
nice bacon-collops o'th hob, An' a quart o' ale-posset i'th oon, 
WAUGH Come Whoam (1859). mXan i He's ne'er hed a sup o ! 
.le-posset, hesn d mi pertner. Fooaks' givin' o'er suppin' id for 
a varra good reeason ; there's nooan so mony wimmen con mek 

id gradely. s-Chs. 1 Snr. 1 Jack, you had better take care of that 
cold, I'll make you an ale-posset to-night. Thank yo', Missis, 
that'll tak car o' me, nod the caud. Lan. 1 Hast paid thi ale-score 
at th' Blue Bell yet ? Stf. 2 'E's got a ale-score on at that ale-us. 
n-Lin. 1 Ale-score, the debt for drink at an ale-house recorded 
with chalk marks on the door. Shr. 1 Turn's a cliver workman 
an' gets good money, but agen 'e's paid 'is ale-score every wik 
theer inna much leP to tak wham. Lan. 1 He's an ale-shot at th' 
back o' th' door yon, th' length o' my arm. [Ale-silver (obs.}, 
a rent or duty annually paid to, the Lord Mayor of London by 
those who sold ale within the City, BAILEY (1721).] n.Yks. 2 Yal- 
sooak'd, full of beer, drunk. Yal-sooaker, an ale-bibber, a sot. 
Sc. Ale saps, wheaten bread boiled in beer (JAM. s.v. Saps). 
Ken. Tea biscuits are sometimes soaked in strong ale and called 
ale-sop or beer-sop (P.M.) ; Ken. 1 Ale-sop is customarily partaken 
of by the servants in many large establishments on Christmas Day. 
w.Yks. 2 Ale-sop, a drunkard. Slang. Ale-spinner, a brewer or 
publican, FARMER. [Ale-stake (obs.), a may-pole, GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (P.)] e.Sus. Ale-stalder, or stolder, stillion, HOLLOWAY. 
Suf. 1 Ale-stall, the horse or stool on which casks of beer, wine, &c. 
are placed in cellars. I do not recollect the word stall applied to 
any other description of horse or stool. n.Yks. 2 Yal-swab, -swattler, 
-swizzler, an ale-bibber, a sot Chs. 1 At the court leet for the 
manor and lordship of Over, held Nov. 1880, ale-tasters were 
elected for each of the townships of Over, Marton, and Swanlow 
(see Warrington Guardian, Nov. 20, 1880). n.Lin. 1 The ale-taster's 
oath is given in Sir William Scrogg's Practice of Court Leet (1714) 
15. w.Som. 1 Ale-taster, an officer still annually appointed by 
ancient court leet ; at Wellington his duties, however, have entirely 
fallen into disuse. Dev. The last day of the carnival would be 
the ' wettest,' and might well be called Ale Tuesday. Every 
parish had its church-ales on several anniversaries, of which that 
at Shrove-tide was usually one, Reports Provinc. (1893). n.Yks. 2 
Yal-weean, the female publican. nXin. 1 Ale-whisp. the bush which 
was suspended in front of a public-house to indicate that drink 
wa.s sold there (obs.). A bush of ivy or other evergreen was for 
ages the sign of a tavern both in England and the neighbouring 
continental lands. There is an engraving of a mediaeval inn with 
a bush hanging before it in Cults' Scenes and Characters of the 
Middle Ages, p. 543. [Ale-wife, Alosa communis, SATCHELL.] 
Yks. If you have any ale-wort near you, make strong tea of it, 
KNOWLSON Cattle Doctor (1834) 84. n.Yks. 2 Yal-yottler, an ale- 
bibber, a 'sot. Yal-yottling, given to pot companionship. 

[1. Ale and beer have been in common use as names for 
the same intoxicating drink among the various tribes of 
Germanic people from the earliest times. The Alvismdl 
says : 'Tis called ale (67) among men, beer (bjorr) among the 

S)ds ; ' beer ' being the Southern, ' ale ' the Northern 
ermanic word. 2. For information about country ales, 
esp. the Whitsun-ale, see BRAND Pop. Antiq. 1. 2^9. DOUCE 
says that Ale means a feast or merry-making, as in 
the words Leet-ale, Lamb-ale, Whitsun-ale, Clerk-ale, 
Bride-ale (whence Bridal), Church-ale, Scot-ale, Mid- 
summer-ale, &c. (BRAND, I.e.) Lesfestes du village, wakes, 
ales, ploughmens feasts, or holy daies, COTGR. OE. ealu 
ON. 67, ale ; also, a feast, a banquet, freq. in comps., as in 
ON. erfi-6'l, a wake, a funeral feast ; OE. oryd-ealu, a bride- 
feast, the marriage feast, a ' bridal.'] 

ALE, see Old. 

ALE-BERRY, sb. Cum. [ye'lbari.] A dish consist- 
ing of ale boiled with butter, sugar, and bread. 

Cum. 1 Yel-berry, formerly given at funerals for dinner. 

[Aleberry, a beerage or kind of food made by boiling 
ale with spice, sugar, and sops of bread, or with oatmeal, 
BAILEY (1755). ME. Albery vel alebrey, alebrodium, 
Prompt Ale + berry. ME. bery for brey, bre, OE. briw, 

ALE-DRAPER, sb. Obs. Yks. Lin. An innkeeper or 

n-Yks. 1 Ale-draper, a term now obs., but occurring in the Whitby 
parochial register a century ago. n-Lin. 1 July 8th (1747) Thomas 
Broughton, farmer and ale-draper, Scatter Par. Reg. Burials. 

[Ale-draper, a seller of malt-liquors: an alehouse- 
keeper or victualler, BAILEY (1721) ; No other occupation 
have I but to be an ale-draper, CHETTLE Kind-Harts Dreame 
( I 59 2 ) ; Two milch maydens that had set up a shoppe of 
ale-drapery, ib. (NARES). Ale + draper (humorously ap- 
plied to the alehouse-keeper's business).] 




ALEER, ad]. I.W. |>li3-(r).] Empty ; unladen. 

I.W. 1 Goo whooam wi' the wagon aleer. 

[A- prob. repr. OE. ge ; cp. gelcere, empty ; or the pref. 
may=on (the pref. of state or condition). See Leer.] 

ALEGAR, sb. Obsol. n.Cy. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Stf. Der. Not. Lin. Lei. Won e.An. Also written allekar 
Wm. 1 ; alliker n.Yks. 2 ; elliker w.Yks. 1 : elekar w.Yks. 5 ; 
aliker e.Lan. 1 ; allegar Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 Stf. 1 ; allecar, alle- 
kur n.Lin. 1 Vinegar made from ale ; malt vinegar ; sour 
ale used as vinegar. 

N.Cy. 1 , Cum. Gl. (1851). Wm. Ya drop o alligar may be an 
ocean to sic tiny inhabitants, HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 1- 9 1 i 
An gav him sum alleker, WHEELER Dial. (179) 5 6 ! Wm. 1 w.Yks. 
Elekir, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (Mar. 16, 1889) ; Fetch a pint of allica 
(F.P.T.) ; Born wi' soa mich eliker i' ther blooid, HARTLEY Puddiif 
(1876) 258 ; Her face turned as sahr as elliker, Saunterer's Satchel 
(1879) 21 ; T'privates is allaud rost mutton, an a bottle a helligar 
an waiter, wha wine they call it, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla 
Ann. (1847) 46 ; Sittin astride of a barril at we used to mack 
helliger in, ib. M. Muffindoaf '(1843) 35 ; Salt an pepper, mustard 
an helliker, Pudsey Olm. (1888) 14. Lan. Deeds _as sharp as 

m.Lan. 1 

an' co' for a gill o' ale fresh drawn. Chs. 1 Allegar, vinegar, origin- 
ally such as was made from ale, but now applied to all kinds of 
vinegar. Wilbraham says the word is generally used with the 
adjunct 'vinegar' allegar-vinegar, but it is not so used now at 
Macclesfield. s.Chs. 1 Key's shedden my drop o' allegar. Der. 2 , 
Not. 1 Lin. 1 That pancheon is chock-full of alegar. n-Lin. 1 Alegar, 
sour ale used as a substitute for vinegar. Lei. 1 Alegar is to ale 
what vinegar is to wine. ' Malt vinegar ' is perhaps its modern 
equivalent Wor. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) e-An. 1 , Suf. 1 

Attrib. in Alegar strikers, thin gruel flavoured with 

Chs. 1 s 

[Alegar, sour ale ; a kind of acid made by ale, as vine- 
gar by wine, which has lost its spirit, JOHNSON ; Alegar 
(q.d. Ale-eager), sour ale or beer, a sort of vinegar, BAILEY 
(1721) ; Aleger, the vinegar made of sour ale, BLOUNT 
(1681) ; Alegar, quo nomine rustici agri Line. &* per totum 
Angliae Septentrionalis tractum Acetum cerevisiae non lupu- 
latae appellant, q.d. Ale Eager, vel Eager Ale, i. e. sour ale, 
SKINNER (1671) ; Soure and tarte thynges as venegre and 
aleger, BOORDE Dyetary (1542) 296 ; With venegre or 
eysel or with alegere, Cookery Books (1430) 28. Ale + egre 
(Fr. aigre, sharp, sour).] 

ALE-HOpF, sb. Yks. Shr. Sus. Dev. Cor. Also written 
ale-hoove in Shr. and Sus., alliff in e.Sus. [el-uf, 
i'l-uv.] The ground ivy, Nepeta Glechoma. 

w.Yks. 2 At Eyam it is, or was, used in the brewing of ale instead 
of hops. Shr., Sus. Ale-hoove, i. e. that which will cause ale to 
heave or work \_sic\. DeV. Where ale-hoof and the borage, too, Held 
forth their gems of blue, CAPERN Ballads (1858) 128. Cor. Jack 
would take the children and collect bitter herbs to make the beer 
keep, such as the ale-hoof (ground-ivy), mugwort. ... and pellitory, 
HUNT Pop. Rom. w.Eng. (1865) I. 44. 

[Ale-hoof, ground-ivy, so called, because it serves to 
clear ale or beerHedera terrestris, L., BAILEY (1721) ; 
Ale-hoof (herb), Hedera terrestris, COLES (1679) ; Patte de 
chat, Cat's-foot, ale-hoof, tune-hoof, ground ivy, Gill 
creep by the ground, COTGR. (1611) ; ' The women of our 
Northerne parts, especially about Wales and Cheshire, 
do tunne the herbe ale-hoof into their ale ; but the reason 
thereof I know not : notwithstanding without all con- 
trouersie it is most singular against the griefes aforesaid : 
being tunned vp in ale and drunke, it also purgeth the 
head from rheumaticke humors flowing from the brain, 
GERARD Herball (1597) 11.856. Ale + hoof; hoof repr. an 
earlier hove (Prompt. 250), OE. hofe, the ground ivy. In 
ME. the ordinary name for the plant was hat-hove (houe) ; 
see Voc. 786. 29, Prompt, (notes) 250, and Meals and 
Manners (E.E.T.S. No. 32) 68.] 

ALE-HOUSE, sb. Widely diffused throughout the 
dial. Also written aalhouse Wxf. 1 ; ale-hus Nhp. 1 ; 
ale'us w.Yks. 2 ; alus n.Yks. 1 Ken. 1 ; al-hoos ne.Yks. 1 ; 
yalhoose n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 ; yale-hus Nhp. 1 ; 


yalus n.Yks. 1 ; yelhus Nhp. 1 ; ellus e.An. 1 [e-las, ea'las, 
ye'las.] A house where ale is sold. 

Sc. Na, sir, I never gang to the yill house, Scorr Rob Roy (1817) 
xiv. Edb. We jogged on till we came to the yill-house door, Mom 
Mansic Wauch (1828) xiii. Wxf. 1 Yks. Wi' lads, te t'yal-house 
gangin', INGLEDEW Ballads (1860) 227. n.Yks. 1 2 ne.Yks. 1 Ah seed 
him i t'yal-hoos suppin yal. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Ale'us, Wkfld. Wds. 
Nhp. 1 Alehus, a small public-house, or beer-shop. e.An. 1 w.Nrf. 
Shaking off the ashes from his short black pipe on to the clean 
sanded floor of the al'us, ORTON Beeston Ghost (1884) 4. Ken. 
An' dare was aluses by swarms, MASTERS Dick and Sal (c. 1821) 
st. 63. Sus. De butcher kipt a aluss too, LOWER Tom Cladpole 
(1831) st. 54. Som. Yal'house, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 
e.Som. W. &J. Gl. (1873). 

[Would I were in an ale-house in London, SHAKS. 
Hen. V, in. ii. 12. ME. The word ale-hus occurs in Horn. 
ii. n. OE. eala-hus (Laws of Ethelb.).] 

ALEING, si. O*5. Ken. An entertainment given with 
a view to collecting subscriptions from guests invited to 
a brewing of ale. 

Ken. 1 ; Ken. 2 An aleing, i.e. wheremirth, ale, and music are stirring ; 
'tis a custom in West Kent for the lower class of housekeepers to 
brew a small quantity of malt, and to invite their neighbours to it, 
who give them something for a gratification ; this they call an 
aleing, and they do it to get a little money, and the people go to 
it out of kindness to them. 

[Aleing or aling, vbl. sb. from ale (taken as a vb., see 
Ale) + ing.} 

ALENTH, adv. n.Sc. GAM.) In the direction of the 
length. In phr. to come alenth, to arrive at maturity ; to 
vaefar alenth, to go great lengths ; to be far alenth, to be 
! ar advanced, to make great progress or improvement. 

[Alength, at full length, along, stretched along the 
ground, JOHNSON ; Alength, in longum, COLES (1679). A-, 
on + length.} 

ALEXANDER(S, sb. Sc. Cor. Written allsanders 
Cor. 12 ; alshinder, elshinder Sc. A plant-name : Smyr- 
nium olusatrum, or Horse-parsley. 

Sc. Dear me ! there's no an alshinder I meet, There's no a whinny 
bush that trips my leg . . . But woos remembrance frae her dear 
retreat, Donald and Flora, 82 (JAM.). Cor. 1 2 

[Alexandra, the herb great parsley, Alexanders or 
Alisaunders, COTGR. ; Herbes and rootes for sallets and 
sauce : Alexanders at all times, TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) 
94; Alysaunder herbe or stanmarche, Macedonia, Prompt. 
OE. alexandre (in the Leechdoms) ; also AFr. alisaundre, 
the horse-parsley. Fr. alisandre (PALSGR.). The MLat. 
name was Petroselinum Alexandrinum.} 


e-An. 1 Alexandra Plovers, Kentish plovers (Aegialitis cantiana], 
so called by Breydon gunners, E. T. BOOTH in Rough Notes. 

Wm. Yks. Chs. Der. Lin. ['l-get, 9'1-geat, Nhb. 9'1-giat, 
Wm. 9'giat.] 

1. In every way, by all means. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Aa've sowt ford all gyets (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 Aa've 
been up and doon aallgates. Wm. 1 Augeates, in all ways. n.Yks. 2 
They tried all geeats to get it. Chs. 1 Obs. Der. 2 Lin. All-gates, 
all means, STREATFIELD Lin. and Danes (1884) 315 ; n-Lin. 1 

2. However, at all events, at any rate. 
Nhb. 1 

[1. Algates, by any means, BAILEY (1755) ; Wyll you 
algates do it? levoulezvousfaire tout a force? PALSGR. 829; 
Algatys or allewey, Omnino, omnimodo, penitus, Prompt. ; 
So that, algates, she is the verray rote Of my disese, 
CHAUCER M. P. xxn. 43. 2. Algate, notwithstanding, COLES 
(1677) ; Algates, for all that, KERSEY ; Algates songes 
thus I made Of my feling, myn herte to glade, CHAUCER 
M.P. in. 1171. The older form was alegate, i.e. allegate, 
in every way ; see Gate.] 

ALGERINING, sb. Chs. The act of prowling about 
with an intention to steal ; robbery. 

Chs. It were nobbut that algerining gallows-tang, Joe Clarke, 
CROSTON Enoch Crump (1887) 14 ; Chs. 1 He goes about algerining 
and begging [often said of a tramp] ; Chs. 3 

[Prob. from Algerine, an inhabitant of Algiers, 
greatest commerce of the Algerines consists in the mer- 




chandize which they obtain by the piratical plunder of the 
Christians over the whole Mediterranean, BAILEY (1755).] 

ALIAN, sb. Obs. Hrt. 

Hrt. A sheep suckling a lamb not its own, or a lamb suckled by 
a sheep, not its dam, ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) IV. i. 115. 

[For alien, that which belongs to another.] 

ALICE, sb. Nrf. Dev. [ae'lis.] In plant-names : (i) 
Saucy Alice, Polygonum persicaria (Nrf. Yarmouth) ; 
(2) Sweet M\ce,Arabisalpina, Alyssum maritimum (Dev.). 

Dev. 4 Sweet Alice, Alyssum maritimum. Alyssum or Allison 
has been changed into (i) Anise . . . and (a) Alice. 

[Alyssum, botanical Lat. for alysson (PLINY), Gr. Xwow, 
the name of a plant ; Skvams, curing madness, d (prev.) + 
\vatra (madness) Cp. COLES (1679) : Alysson, Alyssum, 
wild hemp or madwort ; Alyssus, an Arcadian fountain 
curing the biting of mad dogs.] 

ALICK, sb. Ken. [ae'lik.] Smyniium olusatntm ; 
also called Alexanders, q.v. 

Ken. [At Dover] men, women, and children, sailors and country- 
folk, all call it by one name Alick. 

ALIE, sb. Sh. and Or.I. A pet, a favourite. See 
Alie, v. 

S. fcOrk. 1 An alie lamb. 
2. Comp. Alye-caddie. A pet lamb. 

ALIE, v. Sh.I. To pet, to cherish. 

Sh.I. (W.A.G.) S. & Ork. 1 

[Supposed by some to be connected with ON. a/a, to 
bear, to nourish, spec, used of the rearing of a pet Iamb, 
but the form is difficult to account for.] 

ALIE, adv. Som. Dev. [alai-.] In a recumbent posi- 
tion, lying flat. 

w.Som. 1 The grass is shockin bad to cut, tis all alie. Zend out 
and zit up the stitches, half o'm be alie way this here rough wind. 
nw.Dev. 1 

[A-, on -f- lie, sb. from lie, vb.,to be in a horizontal position.] 

ALISON, see Elsin. 

ALIST, adv. Obs. Sc. To come alist, to recover from 
faintness or decay ; used with regard to one recovering 
from a swoon (JAM.). 

Sc. But well's my heart that ye are come alist, Ross Helenore 
(1768) 8. 

[Perhaps repr. OE. alised (y, le) freed, let loose, pp. of 

ALIVE, adj. Cor. [slai'v.] 

Cor. 2 When a mineral lode is rich in tin, copper, &c., it is said 
to be alive, in contradistinction to deads, q.v. 

ALK, see Auk. 

ALKIN, phr. used attrib. n.Sc. Yks. Chs. Also 
written allkyn, alkyn (JAM.) ; allkins n.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 
Of every kind. 

Sc. They still say 'aw kin kind ' (JAM.). n-Yks. 1 Of all sorts, 
various and intermingled. m.Yks. 1 . Chs. 13 

[ME. alkyn. pere schall bou alkynne solas see (solace 
of every kind), York Plays, 493; Alkyn crafty men ( = 
craftsmen of every kind), P. Plowman (B.) vi. 70 ; more 
commonly alkynnes (see P. Plowman, glossary). OE. 
ealles cynnes, of every kind, gen. of eall cynn.] 

ALKITOTLE, sb. n.Dev. Also written alkithole 
(HOLLOWAY). [alkittwtl.] A foolish fellow. 

n.Dev. Go, ya alkitotle ? ya gurt voolish trapes ! Exm. Crtshp. 
(1746)1.470; Go, ya alkitotle, why dedst tell zo? 16. 1.577; I mind 
an alkitotle o't Avore a month had got a-quot, ROCK Jim an' Nell 
(1867) St. 61. 

[I am an oaf, a simple alcatote, an innocent, FORD 
Fancies (N.E.D.).] 

ALL, adj. and adv. Van dial. Also written a' Sc. 
[931, 91, 9, Sc. a.] 

1. adv. Entirely, quite, fully. 

w.Yks. 2 He fell down and all dirtied his brat. Sur. 1 It's all ten 
year agoO j [meaning ten years and more]. Som. I should want all 
vivepoun toboot,RAYMONDSawarfSaAi'a(i894)6o; w.Som !Her 
gid n all so good's he brought. Her and he be all o' one mind about 
\ T- , 7 USed fret ) uent 'y as an augmentative, as ' all abroad.' 

2. With sb., having the taste or smell of. 

W A r if G This pan is a " onion s- What is this bottle all ? 

3. All, not implying totality, but the completion of a 
series ; therefore equivalent to last, final. 

w.Som. 1 Plaise, sir, all the coal's a finished i.e. the last of it. 
Aay shl dig au-1 mee tae-udeez tumaar'u [I shall dig all my pota- 
toes to-morrow i.e. I shall complete the digging]. This would be 
perfectly intelligible, even if the speaker had been digging con- 
tinuously for weeks previously. So, ' I zeed em all out ' means not 
that I saw the whole number depart, but the last of them. 

4. All, adj., followed by a noun in the sine. : every. 

Sc. Ane couldna hae een to a' thing, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xv ; 
I thought you were named Robbie A Thing from the fact of your 
keeping all kinds of goods, RAMSAY Remin. (1859) II. 128. w.Sc. 
The world lay besotted, and swalteringin all sorte of superstition, 
Blame of Kirkburiall, xiii. In Scotland even when 'the' is used, the 
noun that follows is in the singular, as ' He has all the kin' o' things 
needed.' The English structure is, however, also used (JAM. 
Snppl.\ Frf. He was standin' at the gate, which, as a' body kens, 
is but sax steps frae thehoose,BARRiE Thrums (1889) 211, ed. 1894. 
Ir. Is that generally believed ? It is by a' man (W.J.K.). 

5. Comp. and phr. 

I. All-a-bits, in pieces or rags ; about, see below ; 

abroad, acock, see Abroad, Acock ; afloat, in 
disorder ; ahuh, see Ahuh ; ains, see Even ; along, 
(i) continuously from the first, (2) at full length ; along 
of, along on, see Along of ; among, mingled con- 
fusedly together; -a-muggle, disorderly, untidy; and 
some, one and all ; as is, the whole of the matter, all that 
remains ; as one, the same thing ; as one as, just like ; 

at a bang, at a slap, all at once ; at home, quite sane ; 
-aveer, altogether ; -a-yock, see Ahuh ; b'ease, easily, 
quietly; but, (i) except, (2) almost; ends and sides, 

(1) all around, in every direction, (2) unreliable, scatter- 
brained ; evers, hyperbolical phrase meaning for a long 
time, for all occasions ; -fare, for good and all ; fives, 
a game of cards ; -fore ; for nothing, in vain ; -heal, in, 
see below ; in a charm, all singing or talking at once ; 
-in-all, very intimate ; in a lump like a dog's breakfast, 
an Ir. comparison ; in a muggle, see all-a-muggle ; in 
a piece, stiff with cold or rheumatism ; -in-one, at the same 
time ; intents and purposes, the best of one's ability, as 
much as possible ; -in-the-well, a boy's game ; makes, all 
kinds; manner, (i) all sorts, (2) see below, (3) in an ex- 
traordinary way ; manner o' gatherins, manner o' what, 
see below; -manners, all sorts, all kinds (gen. used dis- 
paragingly) ; my eye and Betty Martin, an expression of 
incredulity ; my lone, alone ; my lime, my best exer- 
tions ; nations, profusion ; naught, of no value or 
importance; -- of, used with sb. in a quasi-adjectival 
manner ; of a hot, suddenly, unexpectedly ; of a huh, 
see Ahuh ; of a kidney, much alike, of the same kind ; 

- of an upshot, unexpectedly ; of a piece, (i) of an 
eruption or sore : almost entirely covered, (2) stiff, crip- 
pled by rheumatism, (3) evidence to prop up a false story ; 

of a pop, swampy ; ofaquob, see below; of a rattle, 
at once; ofarow, a child's game; ofasken, (i) dazed, 

(2) oblique, awry ; of a swim, very wet ; of a twitter, 
trembling; on, continually, without stopping; one, 
all the same ; one as, just like ; one for that, not- 
withstanding, in spite of; on end, (i) eager, expectant, 
(2) in confusion; on for, in earnest for; -over, -over- 
back, -sales, see below ; -same, of no consequence ; sainf 
time, nevertheless, notwithstanding ; serene, quite satis- 
factory ; shirt-neck, see below ; -sides, all together ; -so, 
corruption of all-save, except ; so be, all the same, 
however ; so be as, although ; sorts, (i) a scolding, 
(2) very much ; that, to that, more of the same nature ; 

that ever, barely, only just ; that's in it, merely; the 
birds in the air, the fishes in the sea, two games played 
by children in Suf. ; the go, in the fashion ; the one, 
the only one ; there, of competent understanding ; the 
same as, like, even as ; the wear, fashionable ; -to, see 
below ; to a muggle, see -a-muggle ; together like 
Brown's cows, an Ir. comparison; to naught, (i) quite, 
completely, altogether, (2) see below ; to nothing, see 
all to naught (i) ; to one side like the handle of a jug, an 
Ir. comparison ; to smash, ruined ; under one, at 
the same time ; up, all over, ended ; upon heaps, 
in disorder ; -ups, within itself, see below. 




Dur. 1 All-o-bits, broken. n-Lin. 1 He brok my cheany tea-pot wi' 
John Wesla' head on it all e' bits, an' then said a metal un wo'd do 
for a ohd thing like me. A man who has become a bankrupt is 
said to have tumbled all e' bits. Brks. 1 A carriage badly smashed 
by an accident is said to be all in bits. w.Yks. All about, nearly; 
also close at hand. Ther'd be all abaht a score o' fowk at t'funeral. 
Whear's yahr Jim ? Aw, he's all abaht [near by], Leeds Men. 
Siippl. (May 9, 1891) ; It wor all abaht twenty thahsand 'at he 
failed in (J.R.). War. 2 All about, in a state of confusion. We're 
all about, we've got the painters in the house. All about it, the 
whole matter. Yo'r Joe hot our Lizzie, an' 'er tank'd 'im agen wi' 
th' broom, an' that's all about it. Hrf. & Shr. In the county of 
Hereford, to get all about in one's head, means to become light- 
headed, muddled, confused. That's all about it, BOUND Prov. 
(1876). Oxf. 1 MS. add. w.Yks. 3 All afloits [all afloat], all in dis- 
nrder. (i) w.Yks. 2 You have all along been my friend. Stf. 2 nXin. 1 
Iv'e gone on that foot-trod all along ony time this tho'ty year. Th' 
Hea runs all-long o' west side o' Ketton Parish. Lei. 1 A wur a- 
callin' of 'im all along. Shr. 1 'E's bin comin' all alung ; Shr. 2 This'ns 
all alung. w.Som. 1 Aay toa'uld ee zoa airl ulau-ng [I told you so 
throughout]. T-u biin shau-keen saar'us wadh-ur au-1 ulau-ng 
[it has been shocking harvest weather without change from the 
commencement], (s) s.War. A-la-in out all alon' on the flur, Why 
John (G.H.T.). w.Som 1 . Ee aup wai uz vuys un aa-t-n au'l ulau-ng 
[he up with his fist and hit him down flat]. Aay eech me veot un 
vaald au'l ulau-ng [I caught my foot and fell at full length]. Lin. 1 
All-amang-pur, mixed confusedly together. Brks. 'Hev'ee seed 
aught o' my bees?' 'Ee's.Iseenem.' ' Werbe'em then?' 'Aalamang 
wi' ourn in the limes.' 'Aal amang wi' yourn !' exclaimed the 
constable, HUGHES, T. Brown Oxf. (1861) xxiii. I.W. 1 When 
different flocks of sheep or herds of cattle are mixed together, they 
are said to be ' aal amang one another.' Wil. Allemang, HOLLO- 
WAY ; Wil. 1 Zweethearts, an wives, an children young, Like sheep 
at vair, be ael among, SLOW Smilin Jack. w.Som. 1 In a muddle, 
confusion. Uur /mud au-1 tiie u muug'l, poo-ur soal, aa-dr ee duyd 
[she seemed all to a muggle, poor soul, after he died]. n-Lin. 1 
All and some, one and all. Lei. 1 Oi'll tell yer missus on yer, an' 
that's all as is. War. 2 If yo' don't like it, yO' can lump it, and 
that's all as is. w.Wor. 1 The pot's purty nigh emp, but I'll give 
'ee ahl-as-is. Shr. 1 Now Turn, all as is is this ; if yo' dunna stop 
a-wham an' be tidy I mun lave yo' ! so now yo' knowen. Wil. 1 
Aal as is as you've a-got to do be to volly on hoein' they turmuts 
till I tells 'ee to stop ! e.Yks. Pay which of us you lik, we're all as 
yan (W.H.). s.Stf. It's all as one whichever did it, PINNOCK Blk. 
Cy. Ann. (1894) ; Stf. 2 ri.Lin. 1 It's all's one to me whether you paay 
me noo oro' Setterda' neet. se.Wor. 1 Thee cunst g66 ar stop, Bill ; 
it'sall asonc. Shr. 1 It's all as one to me. Som. Gen'le-volkor poor 
volk, 'tis all as one, RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life (1894) 194. Ir.The 
clergy lived upon the best footin' among one another, not all as one 
as now, YEATS Fit-Tales (1888) 195. s.Ir. At last he became all 
as one as tipsy, CROKER Leg. (1862) 247. w.Yks. T'stuff went 
dahn o' t'flooar all at a bang [or slap], Leeds Merc. Suppl. 
(May 9, 1891). nXin. 1 He's all at hoame when ther's oht to do, 
but he talks straange an' random when he's sittin' by th' fireside. 
Wxf. 1 Aul-aveer, altogether. Shr. , Hrf. He's going along all b'ease, 
BOUND Prov. (1876). Rdn. All-bease, gently, quietly : put for ' all 
by ease,' MORGAN Wds. (1881). (i) w.Yks. 2 I've got 'em all obbut 
six. Lan. All dacent folk can laugh, obbut buryin chaps [under- 
takers], CLEGG TH Derby (1890) 36 ; Aw cuddent be moore cum- 
furtublur o whome, obut iv thee un me wer'n wed, ORMEROD 
Felleyfro Rachde (1856) 43 ; Lan. 1 ' Aw've finished,' said Dick, ' obbut 
polishin off wi' summut,' BRIERLEY Irkdale (1865) 244, ed. 1868. 
(2) Nhb. 1 When want has aabut owertyen us, She aaways keeps 
maa heart abuin, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) 13. n.Yks. 2 Chs. 1 
He's awbur done 'is wark. (i) n-Lin. 1 Gether them things up, 
thaay're of all ends an' sides. (2) She's alus of all ends an' sides, 
we can niver fix her to noht n.Yks. He was for all iwers in 
finishing it (I.W.). w.Yks. 5 Tawak abart brass ! he's brass eniff fur 
awalivvers! n-Lin. 1 He's books enif e' that room for all-ivers. 
ne.Yks. 1 He's gone for all-fare. Slang. The customers are fond of a 
' hand at cribbage,' a ' cut-in at whist,' or a 'game at all fours,' or 
' all fives,' MAYHEW Land. Labour (1864) I. 267. w.Som. 1 All- 
vore, the wide open or hollow furrow left between each patch of 
ground, ploughed by the same team, at the spot where the work was 
begun and finished. Dev. All-vore, a trench left in ploughing, the 
result of two furrows lying away from each other (opp. to By-vore) 
in the final ' pitch.' It is produced by ' throwing abroad,' Reports 
Provinc. (1884) 32, s.v. Throw-abroad. Oxf. 1 Twuz all for nuthin', 
MS. add. m.Yks. 1 All-heal, a miner's term for a new working. 
w.Yks. 4 All in, the cry by which school children are summoned 
from their playground to their school business. . . . Ringers 

still ring ' all in ' as their last peal before the commencement 
of Divine service. n.Wil. The birds was all in a charm this 
mornin' (E.H.G.). Brks. 1 All in a charm, a confused noise 
as when children are talking and playing together around one. 
Nhp. 1 All-in-all, very intimate. n.Lin. 1 All in a piece, stiff with 
rheumatism, frozen, coagulated. I'm all in a peace like a stock- 
fish. nw.Der. 1 Aw-i-one, at the same time. s.Wor. Farmer J 
was a bad mon, he cussed me to all intents and purposes, PORSON 
Quaint Wds. (1875) 23. Nhb. 1 All-in-the-well. A circle is made, 
termed the well, in the centre of which is placed a wooden peg, 
with a button balanced on the top. Those desirous of playing 
give buttons, marbles, or anything else, for the privilege of throwing 
a short stick, with which they are furnished, at the peg. Should 
the button fly out of the ring, the player is entitled to double the 
stipulated value of what he gives for the stick. The game is also 
practised at the Newcastle Races, and other places of amusement 
in the North, with three pegs, which are put into three circular 
holes, made in the ground, about two feet apart, and forming a 
triangle. In this case each hole contains a peg, about nine inches 
long, upon which are deposited either a small knife or some copper. 
The person playing gives so much for each stick, and gets all the 
articles that are thrown oft so as to fall on the outside of the holes 
(HALL.). ne.Lan. 1 O-i-t-well, the game ' three throws a penny. ' 
Nhb. 1 They he' fornitor, an' crockery, an' byuts, an' shoes, an' 
aamacks o' things. Wm. I'd fun ev o' macs, Bayth cooartin', en' 
feytin'. BLEZARD Sngs. (1848) 33. w.Yks. A common phrase is 
' all maks an' manders,' Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 9, 1891) ; 'E'll 'ev 
au maks o' toys at 'cam to laake wi' (F.P.T.). m.Yks. 1 I went in 
to buy a bonnet-shape, and he showed me au maks. Chs. 1 Oocon 
mak a dinner o' aw macks ; oo con mak one aht o' a dish-clout. 

(1) nw.Der. 1 That shopkeyper's aw mander a things e his shop. 

(2) Glo. 2 He came and did all manner [of insolence or injury]. 
Sus. 1 All manner, undefined goings-on of a discreditable nature. 
There's been a pretty start up at the forge this morning ! Fighting 
and all manner. (3) Wor. I've been very bad, and the t'other night 
a was a talking all manner, and a didn't knaaw what a was 
a saying (H.K.). Nrf. All mander o' gatherins, all mander 
[manner] o' what, omnium gatherum (E.M.). Suf. All manner o' 
what, all sorts of things (C.T.) ; All manner a wot, indiscrimi- 
nate abuse (WRIGHT). Brks. 1 Thaay was a-zaayin' all manners o' 
things about her. I.W. 1 I zid aal manners of folks. Dur. 1 All my 
eye and Betty Martin, a familiar expression used to show that, as 
regards some particular transaction, there has been some deceit, im- 
position, or pretence : it is thought to have had its origin in the begin- 
ning of the old Romish hymn O mihi beate Marline. Cant. AH 
my eye, All my eye and Betty Martin. First used as a contemptuous 
parody on a popish penitential prayer, Life B. M. Carew (1791). 
Slang. As for black clothes, that's all my eye and Tommy, POOLE 
Hamlet Travestied, i. I (FARMER). All my eye, All my eye and 
Betty Martin, All my eye and my elbow, All my eye and Tommy, 
All nonsense, rubbish, FARMER. Gall. Oh, Patrick, do not faint 
away again and leave me all my lone, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) 254. 
N.I. 1 All my lone, A' my lane, or All his lone, alone. [Amer. All 
of my lone, a negro vulgarism for ' alone,' FARMER.] w.Som. 1 1 can 
zee very well t'll take me all my time vor to get over thick job. 
w.Yks. 3 There were all nations of things on the table. All nations 
enough, superabundance. w.Yks. If a person is telling a tale to 
another, and this latter knows it to be untrue, he would probably 
exclaim, ' Aw, that's all nowt ! ' It is also said when persons use 
arguments (in advancing an opinion) which are of no, or little, 
weight, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 9, 1891). Lei. 1 All of a heap, 
All of a dither, All of a mess, All of a puther, All of a tremble. 
Oi wur struck all of a heap. Som. A witness came on the prisoner 
all of a hot, Spectator (Feb. 16, 1895) 230. w.Som. 1 All of a ugh. 
Jimp. All of a kidney. Said of two people or two families whose 
habits, tempers, or tastes agree in most things, ' Oh they are all of 
a kidney,' with a certain amount of depreciation and mild con- 
tempt (H.C.M.B.). Cor. All on a nupshot, unexpectedly, in a 
great hurry, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) 66. (i) w.Yks. 
His face war a sad seat, it war all of a piece (J.R.). n-Lin. 1 Her 
legs is all of a peace wi' harvist-bug bites. (2) He was a nim'le 
yung man twenty year sin', but he's all oi a peace noo, and walks 
wi' crutches. (3) Tha'z no 'keyshun to say no more it's all of 
a piece (J.R.). Shr. 1 That theer end o' the yord's all of a pop 
wuth las' neet's rain. 76. All of a quob. This expression, often 
used when speaking of boggy land, is sometimes also employed 
to denote that peculiar condition in the body of a calf or sheep 
which has been struck, i.e. died of a kind of apoplectic fit, where 
the extravasated blood can be felt under the skin by pressure 
of the hand on the parts affected. Cor. An' then she dried up 
all of a rattle, an' snorted brave, FORFAR Wizard (1871) 38, 1. 7. 




Suf.Allofarow,achild'sgame(HALL.); 'Allofarow.' Theleader 

111111. 1 II LI I III ill Lll L<J LUG i ignij 111C11 I'l ill 111 111 I II i ICllj til C 11 

'All ofa row,' when the game ends (F.H.). Lan. (i) When aw got 
up aw wur o' of a sken, CLEWORTH Da/tie Dick (1888) so; (a) All 
of a sken is applied to anything awry, whether lit. or Jig. (S.W.) 
Stf. 2 It's been reenin' cats and dogs, an th' feld's aw ofa swim. Lan. 

us an one wneiner ye oo or wnetner ye aoant. w.som.* wur 
aay goo-us, ur wur aay doa-un, t-aez au-1 waun tu mee [whether 
I go, or whether I do not, it is just the same to me]. Ir. Father 
Corcoran whispered all one as a mass . . . into Mrs. Dempey's own 
ear, BARRINGTON Sketches (1830) II. v. Sus. Wearing it was all 
one as if you had your head in the stocks, EGERTON Flks. and Ways 
(1884; 131. n.Wil. Simmin to I these here vlawers be all one as 
moondaisies (E. H.G. ). Wil. 1 1 be'tirely blowed up all one as a drum. 
Glo. 2 All's one for that [notwithstanding your objection, the case 
remains the same]. Wil.Mt medn't be true all one for that. (i)Som. 
All on een, on tiptoe, eager, W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; w.Som. 1 The writer 
heard in reference to an exciting local trial : We wuz au'l un e'en 
tu yuur iie'd u-kaa'rd dhu dai [we were eagerly anxious to hear who 
had carried the day, i.e. won the trial]. (2) Stf. 2 What a muck mess 
the'st gotten th' hais into, it's aw on end. War. 2 Don't call to-day, 
we're all on end. Shr. 1 Them things bin all on end agen, I see. 
w.Yks. He's all on for dewin' his best to get Ben Tillett inta Parlia- 
ment this next time, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 9, 1891). Slang. 
All-over, a game. The games appertaining to the playground con- 
sisted of prisoners' base, . . . all-over, WICKHAM Blue-Coat Boy 
(1841) x. w.Yks. 5 All-ower-back, a juvenile game. Suf. 1 All-sales, 
all times. w.Som. 1 Taez au-1 sae-um tu mee, aay tuul ee, wuur 
yiie du buy un ur noa [it is of no consequence to me, I tell you, 
whether you buy it or not]. Aay zaed aay wiid-n, au-1 sae-um 
tuym, neef yiie-1 prau-mus, &c. [I said I would not (do it), 
nevertheless, if you will promise, &c.] w.Yks. 'All serene,' 
said Sammywell, HARTLEY Sects (1895) x. Colloq. All serene 
all right, all's well. 'You're all serene, then, Mr. Snape,' said 
Charley, 'you're in the right box,' TROLLOPE Three Clerks (1857) 
xlv (FARMER). w.Yks. All shirt-neck, cutting a great figure 
CUDWORTH Horton (1886). I.W. 1 Goo down to plough, allsides- 
I.W. 2 We be gwyne to begin dreshin allzides to-morrow mornin.' 
Hrf.& Midi. Ail-so. A Herefordshire woman stated in my hearing that 
by 'three months ail-so a fortnight ' she meant 'two months and two 
weeks ' N. & Q. (1866) 3 rd. S. ix. 450 ; Hrf. 1 Sixpence also two- 
pence [i.e. all but twopence] ; Hrf. 2 That row o' taturs was all rotton 
ail-so these few. Have you finished ? Yes, also that [i.e. all but that] 
Dev. Loose me ... I'm not in love with you. I like you, all so be 
MORTIMER Tales Moors (1895) 22; I wouldn't back myself to vind 
un, all zo be as I know the moor as well as here and there a one 
tb. 200 ; ' Maybe, you'm better hand nor me,' said Granfer, testily ; 
all zo be as you wornt borned afore me,' ib. 289 NI i (i) She 
gave me all sorts for not doin' it. (2) She was cryin' all sorts It 
was raining all sorts. w.Ir. Let alone the two towers, and' the 
bishop, and plmty o' priests, and all to that, LOVER Leg (1848) I 
91. Cum. 1 She fand it varra sweet an' good an o' that. Sc'. 
Can you lift that ? It's a' the teer [that e'er] ( JAM.). Sus. Folk do 
s . e i y a . st . a " n ' 1 alt - sinitdis .jACKSON5otta.flrrf// (i8 94 -i 1.338 Sus i 
Alltsimt [al that's in it], merely. nw.Der. 1 AH the bfrds'in'he 
air, a Suffolk game. w.Yks. Broad-brim'd hats is all fgoa wi't 
voThVv"? w h ' ^ N - KS W , kfld - Wds ~ (l865 ^ HJ ' 1 Is this th" ol 

frtte I. S ^ ya " UV hCr mflddV ' R'CHARDSON Sng. Sol 

I 5 I it^ c S- Tha raves an> storms at sich a ra'e, As if tha 
sZ? V u f ^ ENCER P emS ' 249! W ' Yks ' 2 He>s no a there 
af vo J g ? y u !; m u *,Teddy. Yer needn't let everybody know 
as you re not all there, PRIOR Rente (1895) 222 n Lin. 1 He talk. 

Sffi<lMfti? h f e ' S a " 5-2S3L ^e wants oht 

tion, 1522, Almondbury Ch. : W a crown of thon My hed all to 
torn. w.Som. 1 Where in other dialects they say 'all of or 'all 
in,' we say ' all to.' Aay wuz u streokt airl tiie u eep [I was 
struck all of a heap]. All to a muck, All to a sweat, All to a shake, 
All to a miz-maze, All to a slatter. (i) Myo. Sure the mare wants 
a rist, an' it'll shute her an' me all to nothin', STOKER Snake's 
Pass (1891) iv. n.Yks. 1 Ah aims yon's t'best stirk, Jooan. Ay, 
man, it beats t'ither all to nowght. e.Yks. 1 Ah can beeat him 
all nowt at walkin, MS. add. (T.H.) Chs. 3 He's all to nought 
the best man. n-Lin. 1 In theage wet years top-land beats warp 
land all to noht. (2) n.Yks. 1 All to nought, a phrase imply, 
ing an approach towards nothingness more or less real and 
effectual. He has gone away all to nowght, he has wasted away 
to a mere shadow ; n.Yks. 2 An all-to-naught concern, a hollow 
speculation. w.Yks. All to nowt, with no definite aim or re- 
sult (J.T.). [It will be all to one a better match for your sister, 
AUSTEN Sense and Sensibility, xxx.] N.I. 1 All to one side like the 
handle of a jug. Lan. Maister, maister, dam's brossen and aw's to 
smash (HALL.). Brks. 1 All to smash, totally wrecked. w-Som^Au-l 
tiiesmaa-rsh. [Amer. All-to-smash. This expression is often heard 
in lowandfamiliarlanguage, BARTLETT.] w.Som^Tidnworthwhile 
to go o' purpose vor that there hon I comes up about the plump, 
can do it all underone. n-Lin. 1 It's all up wi' them fine fine-weather 
farmers that keaps the'r carriages. Quite well at ten, Had a few 
friends to sup with me ; Taken ill at twelve, And at one it was all 
up with me, Perversion (1856) II. 38. Oxf. 1 'Tis all up wi'n this 
time safe enough. Slang. A-double 1, all, everything, a cobbler's 
weapon ; u-p, up, adjective, not down ; S-q-u -double e-r-s, Squeers, 
noun substantive, a educator of youth. Total, all up with Squeers, 
DICKENS N. Nickleby (1838) Ix ; It's all up, thinks I, Raby Rattler 
(1845) v. e.Yks. 1 All uppa heeaps [all upon heaps], in a state of 
disorder; used in reference to the furniture of a house, &c., MS. 
add. (T.H.) [All-ups, a mixture of all qualities of coal, excepting 
fine stack raised from one seam (CD.).] Sc. A lodging all within 
itself, with divers easements [a house, from top to bottom, and 
having several conveniences], Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 436. 
Phr. II. For all, in spite of, notwithstanding; for all the 
world, exactly, precisely ; for good and all, for ever, alto- 
gether ; like all that, very well, very quickly. 
^ Ayr. The rank is but the guinea stamp, The man's the gowd for 
a' that, BURNS Fora' that (1795) st. i. w.Yks. O waint say there 
wornt some stooans shifted for all that, Shevvild Ami. (1848) 7 ; 
w.Yks. 1 I'll doot for all ye. e.Yks. 1 Ah wadn't gan, for all maisther 
said Ah was, MS. add. (T.H.) Lei. 1 Fur all a's a paa'son, adoon't 
justly knoo 'aow to tackle an o'd wench loike may [me]. She would 
for all anything go for a little walk. Nhp. 1 I'll do it for all you. 
Oxf. 1 For all thee, in spite of you. w.Som. 1 Her's a-got about 
again nice, thankee, and her's a-go to work again, for all twadn 
but dree weeks agone come Vriday, the cheel was a-bornd. Vur 
au-1 yiie bee su kliivur, yiie kaa-n kau-m ut [notwithstanding that 
you are so clever, you cannot accomplish it]. Aa-y du yuur waut 
yiie du zai, bud vur au-1 dhaat, aay ziim t-oa-n due [I hear what 
you say, but nevertheless, I seem (am convinced) it will not do]. 
s.Ir. It came on ... mighty dark all of a sudden, for all the world 
as if the sun had tumbled down plump, CROKER Leg. (1862) 285. 
Ir. Shut of them I'll be for good and all, BARLOW Lisconnel (1895) 
205. w.Yks. 1 He's gaan for good and all. Hnt. For good and all 
(T.P.F.). w.Som. 1 Ees, shoa-ur! uur-v laf-m naew vur geod-n 
au-1 [Yes, sure ! she has left him now for ever]. n.Lin. 1 To do 
anything ' like all that ' is to do it very well or very quickly. 

[1. It is all full of lies and robbery, BIBLE Nahum iii. 
i ; This gallant Hotspur, this all-praised knight, SHAKS. 
i Hen. IV, in. ii. 140. 2. Like Niobe, all tears, ib. Ham. 

Dt'-/ 1 * 9 ' 4 ' Do a11 tnvn S e without murmurynge, TINDALE 
Phil. n. 14 ; Vndire his lordship and his myght thou has 
kasten all thynge, HAMPOLE Ps. viii. 7.] 

ALLAGRUGOUS, see Malagrugous. 

ALLAGUST, sb. Obs. Sc. Suspicion. 

Abd. Fan they saw us a' in a bourich they had some allagust 
that some mishanter had befaln us, FORBES Int. (1742") 16 ; GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (C.) 

[Prob. due to a phr. in i6th cent. Fr. Cela a le goust 
(mod. gout), that has the smack, the taste, the 'soupfon.' 
Goust, the taste ; also a smack or savour. Gouster, to 
taste, also to have some experience, a little insight, mean 
knowledge in, COTGR.] 

ALLAMOTTI, sb. Or.I. Also written alamonti ; ala- 
mott! S. & Ork. 1 The Storm Petrel, Procellaria pelaeica. 
Or.I. SWAINSON Birds (1885) an. S. & Ork i 



ALLAN, sb. Cum. [a'lsn.] 

Cum. 1 A bit of land nearly surrounded by water ; an island. 
ALL-ANERLY, adj. and adv. Also written alanerlie, 
allanerlie, allenarly, allenarlie. 

1. adj. used as sb. Only, sole. 

Sc. My doo, my unfylet ane is but ane, she is the all-anerlie o' 
her mither, ROESON Sng. Sol. (1860) vi. 9. 

2. adv. Only, solely. 

Sc. Who are accustomed to pay to their own chiefs, allenarly, 
that respect, SCOTT Leg. Mont. (1830) iii. Edb. Scotland ... is 
not like Goshen in Egypt, on whilk the sun of the heavens and of 
the gospel shineth allenarly, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xxxviii. 

[1. James our second and allanerlie son, HOLINSHED Scot. 
Chron. (1587) II. 51, ed. 1806 (N.E.D.). 2. That the licence 
granted to beneficed persons to sett tacks be restrained 
either to life rent tack or to a nineteen yeare tack allanerlie, 
Row Hist. Kirk Scot. (1650) 218, Wodrow Soc. AII+ 
anerly, q.v.] 

ALLAN HAWK, sb. Or. and Sh.I. Sc. Irel. Also 
written holland hawk Ayr. N.I. 1 ; oilan auk Ant. 

1. The Great Northern Diver, Colymbus glacialis. 

Ayr. SWAINSON Birds ( 1885) 213. N.I. 1 Ant. Oilan auk. Allan 
or Holland hawk is used by those who are ignorant (S.A.B.). 

2. The Red-throated Diver, Colymbus septentrionalis. 
N.I. 1 

3. Richardson's Skua, Stercorarius crepidatus. See 

e.Sc. Allan hawk, the aulin, so called on the shores of the 
Solway Frith (JAM. Sufpl.). N.I. 1 The skua was called allan-hawk 
in Mourne, co. Down. 

ALLAVOLIE, ALLEVOLIE, adv. and adj. Sc. QAM.) 

1. adv. At random. 

Sc. I spoke it quite allevolie. 

2. adj. Giddy, volatile. 

Sc. An alle-volie chield, a volatile fellow. 

[Repr. the Fr. phr. a la voile, in full sail. Cp. COTGR. 
(s.v. Voile), Navire friand a la voile, an excellent sailer.] 

ALLECAMPAGNE, see Elecampane. 

ALLEE-COUCHEE, phr. Cor. Also written alley- 
couchey. [ae'li-kufl.] To go to bed. 

Cor. Look ere, I'm a-goin' to allee-couchee ef et lasts like this, 
' Q.' Troy Town (1888) v ; About ten, as we was thinkin' to alley- 
couchey, there comes a bangin' on the door, ib. Noughts and 
Crosses (1891) 211 ; Cor. 1 

[Fr. aller (se) coucher, to go to bed.] 

ALLEGATE, v. Irel. [a'liget] To argue, dispute. 

Ir. They'll bicker and allegate about every hand's turn, BARLOW 
Idylls (1892) 180. 

[Why, belike he is some runagate, that will not show 
his name. Ah, why should I thus allegate? he is of 
noble fame, PEELE (1599) III. 68, ed. 1829. A by-form of 
allege, to -adduce, to bring forward, formed from the ppl. 
stem of Lat. allegare.] 

ALLEGATION, sb. Ldd. A dispute, quarrel. 

Ldd. The country people would say ' No more of your alligations' 

ALLEGOGER, vb. Ess. 

Ess. Allegoger, to go out to a ship to sell provisions, Ess. Arch. 
Soc. (1863) II. 183. [Failed to obtain further information about 
the word. ] 

ALLEKAY, sb. Sc. ? Obs. Also written allakey, 
allekay, alikay. The bridegroom's man, he who attends 
on the bridegroom, or is employed as his precursor, at a 
wedding (JAM.). 

Sc. The bridegroom appoints two male attendants, termed ex qfficio 
allekeys, Edb. Mag. (Nov. 1818) 412 GAM.) ; On Friday next a bridal 
stands At the kirktown : I trow we'll hae a merry day, And I'm to 
be the alikay, The Farmer's Ha., st. 51, 53 (JAM.). Frf. 

[Prob. the same word as OFr. alacay, a term applied to 
crossbow-men in the isth cent. See DUCANGE (s. v. 
Lacinones). Hence Fr. laquais, a valet, a body-servant, a 
lacquey. See LITTRE (s.v.).] 

ALLELUIA, or ALLELUIA PLANT, sb. [aelilu'ya.] 
(i) Genista iinctoria (Shr.) ; (2) Oxalis acetosella (Dor.). 

Shr. 1 Alleluia, Genista tinctoria, dyer's green-wood. Dor. Wood- 
sorrel at Whitchurch is Alleluia Plant, Samm Dioc. Gas. (Jan. 
1891) I 4 ;(G.E.D.). 
VOL. I. 

[Allelujah, the herb wood-sorrel, or French sorrel, 
BAILEY (1755) ; Allelujah, wood-sorrel, Oxys, COLES (1679). 
Fr. alleluia, plante de lafamille des Oxalide'es, qui fleurit au 
temps pascal, HATZFELD. The plant was so called because 
it blossoms between Easter and Whitsuntide, when in 
the Catholic Liturgy psalms ending with 'alleluia' were 
sung in the churches. The plant bears the same name 
in G. (SANDERS), Fr. (LITTRE), It. (FLORIO), Sp. aleluya 
(BARCIA). From MLat. alleluia, the 'Hallelujah' season. 
Heb. hallelu-jah, i.e. praise ye Jah (or Jehovah).] 

ALLEMAND, v. Obs. Ayr. To conduct in a formal 
and courtly style. 

Ayr. He presented her his hand and allemanded her along in 
a manner that should not have been seen in any street out of 
a king's court, GALT Annals (1821) 308. 

[A vb. formed from Allemande, a name given to various 
German dances. These outlandish heathen allemandes, 
SHERIDAN Rivals, in. iv. 130. Fr. allemande, (i) Air lent 
a quatre temps, (2) Danse a deux temps d"un mouvetnent vif 
(HATZFELD). Allemand, a native of Germany ; Lat. Ala- 

ALLEMASH-DAY, sb. Obs. Ken. See below. 

Ken. 1 Allemash-day, the day on which Canterbury silk-weavers 
began to work by candlelight. This word is certainly obsolete 
now [1895] (P.M.); GROSE (1790). 

[GROSE (1790) suggests that allemash repr. Fr. allumage, 
a lighting ; from allumer, to light, set on fire.] 

ALLEN, see Old-land. 

ALLER, ALLER-TREE, sb. 1 Widely diffused through- 
out the dialects. Also written ellar Cum. 1 ; eller s.Sc. HAM.) 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 n.Yks. 18 ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 15 n.Lan. 1 
ne.Lan. 1 Sus. 1 ; owler w.Yks. 12345 ne.Lan. 1 e.Lan^Chs. 12 
s.Chs. 1 Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. 1 Shr. 1 Hrf. 1 ; owlder w.Yks. 2 ; 
oiler Nhb. 1 Wor. ; ollern Shr. 1 ; olerChs. 1 [e-la(r), o'la(r).] 

1. The alder, Alnus glutinosa. 

Bwk. He used no coals, but a few green allers, HENDERSON Pop. 
Rhymes (1856) 8. N.Cy. 1 Aller, the alder-tree. Nhb. Beneath the 
allers, darktin', Coquet Dale Sngs. (1852) 120; Nhb. 1 w.Yks. Yon's 
an owler-tree, doon by t'beck (F.P.T.). Lan. Th' poke wur . . . 
i'th' tip top un o' hee owler-tree, BUTTERWORTH Sequel (1819) 13 ; 
My foot is on my native heath once more, barring that there are 
two inches of solid owler intervening betwixt the two, BRIERLEY 
Marlocks (1867) 6; There is an old rhyme which mentions 
peculiar boughs for various tempers, as an owler [alder] for a 
scolder, HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 238 ; Aw could 
mak one eawt of a lump o' owler any day, BRIERLEY Irkdalc 
(1865) xiii. Chs. As dreesome as Bostock's drumbo that th' owlers, 
meetin' across, made dark at noonday, CROSTON Enoch Crump 
(1887) 12 ; Chs. 1 Der. Roland . . . clutched at a friendly oler-tree, 
VERNEY Stone Edge (i868~> v. Shr. 1 There is a place near Wem 
called ' The Owlers.' Dor. 1 By black rin'd allers An' weedy shallers, 
140. w.Som. 1 , Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 

2. The soles of clogs ; so called from being made of alder- 

Nhb. 1 He has on a pair o' new allers. Lan. I'd some'at to do to 
bant him, but I leet him taste o' mi owler, now and then, WAUGH 
Chim. Corner, Manch. Critic (Aug. 14, 1874) ; Lan. 1 Owler [is] used 
metaphorically as a synonym for clogs. He up wi' his foot an' gan 
him some owler, i.e. kicked him. 

3. Comp. (a) Black-aller, (i) the buckthorn, Rhamnus 
frangula, (2) the alder, Alnus glutinosa ; Whit-aller, the 
common elder, Sambucus nigra. 

(i) I.W. Black-alder, a translation of the old Lat. name,^/s nigra. 
w.Som. 1 Black-aller. Often so called to distinguish it from the 
whit-aller or elder. nw.Dev. 1 Cor. Black-aller, Rhamnus frangula 
(berry-bearing alder). (2) w-Som. 1 The common alder is occa- 
sionally called the Black-aller. Whit-aller, the elder. 

(b) (i) Aller-bed, see below ; (2) -bur, a knot or knob 
in the alder-tree ; (3) -bury, see below ; (4) -float, a kind 
of trout ; (5) -grove, (6) -trout, see below. 

(i) nw.Dev. 1 Aller-bed, a marshy place where alders grow. 

(2) Nhb. 1 Aller-burs, or knots, the turner makes into snuff-boxes. 

(3) Dev. Aller-bury, a plantation of alders, Monthly Mag. (1808) 
II. 421. (4) N.Cy. 1 Aller-float, species of trout frequenting deep 
holes of shady brooks under the roots of the aller. (5) w.Som. 1 
Aller-grove, a marshy place where alders grow ; an alder thicket. 
The term always implies marsh, or wet land. ' U rig'lur aulur 
groav' would mean a place too boggy to ride through. (6) Nhb. 1 




Aller-troot, the small brandling trout or ' skegger,' called from their 
habit of haunting the roots of alder-trees that grow by the side of 
the stream. OLIVER Fly-Fishing (1834) 17. 

[The alter, oiler, owler forms repr. OE. alor, the alder. 
Ellar (eller) repr. ON. 6'lr (elri-) ; cp. OHG. elira, erila 
(mod. eller, erle). Aulne, an aller or alder-tree, COTGR. ; 
Judas he iaped with luwen siluer And sithen on an eller 
honged hym after, P. Plowman (B.) i. 68.] 

ALLER, sb. 2 Dev. [o'la(r).] A boil, carbuncle, 

Dev. Aller, a pin-swill, a whitloe, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 
n.Dev. Suke died . . . A-cause her aller wanted letting, ROCK Jim 
an' Nell (1867) 31. Dev. 1 Aller, an acute kind of boil or carbuncle, 
so called from the leaves of the aller being employed as a remedy. 

[Etym. unknown ; but see word below.] 

ALLERNBATCH, sb. Som. Dev. jWlanbEetf.] A 
boil, a botch or old sore. 

w.Som. 1 Allernbatch, a boil or carbuncle. Pinswill is the com- 
moner term. n.Dev. Dame, 'e've a-tiched a allernbatch, ROCK Jim 
an' Nell (1867) 23 ; Ner the allernbatch that tha had'st in thy 
niddick, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 24 ; Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 421 ; 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (M.) Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 

[The relation between this word and aller (a boil) is un- 
certain. It may be a comp. of aller, or aller may be a 
shortened form of allern-batch, with latter element sup- 

ALLEY, s*. 1 Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. Lin. Lei. 
Nhp. War. Shr. Ess. Ken. Som. Dev. [a'li, ae'li.] 

1. The aisle of a church. 

Cum. Oh how my heart would lowp for joy To lead her up the 
ally, RELPH Misc. Poems (1747) 76. Wm. When she . . . woked up 
t'ally, first yan, an then anudther glooard at her, CLARKE Spec. Dial. 
(ed. 1877) P l - i- J 9- w.Yks. 1 Wid getten hauf way daan t'middle 
alley, when Billy turned back, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. 
(1853) 35. ne.Lan. 1 nXin. 1 A woman from Kirton-in-Lindsey in- 
formed the author that she never heard the passages between the 
pews in churches called anything but alleys, until the Puseyites 
began to make people particular about 'them soort of things.' 
The north aisle of the choir of Lincoln Minster was formerly called 
the chanters' alley. Lei. 1 Alley, a gangway in a church. The 
various alleys are distinguished as 'side-alley,' 'middle alley,' 
'cross-alley,' &c. Nhp. 1 War. 3 Work about y door & alles, 
SI. 155. $d., Aston Ch. Ace. (1714). Som. We poor voke be alwiz 
foc'd to zit in the alley, PULMAN Sketches (1842) 76, ed. 1871 ; 
w.Som. 1 Miss F. said her seat [in church] was on the left side of 
the middle alley. Dev. 1713 p d for stones to mend y allier is., 
E. Budleigh Chwdn. Ace. (T.N.B.) 

2. A pathway down the middle of a large room (as in a 
factory between the rows of machines). 

w.Yks. A passage past the ends of looms in a weaving-shed is 
known as ' t'broad alley ' (J.R.) ; Alley, a central or main roadway 
in a room, usually down the middle of it (F.R.). 

3. A pathway in a garden between flower-beds, or 
between the rows of hop-bines in a Kentish hop-garden. 

Shr. 1 Yo' can play i' the gardin if yo'n mind to keep on the alley, 
cause yore faither's dug the ground. Ess. Sawe dust spred thick 
makes alley trick [neat, tidy], TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) 33, st. 35. 
Ken. (i) The space between two rows of hop-hills. (2) By associa- 
tion of ideas, also a row of hop-hills, e.g. the Lew-alley is the 
outside row planted rather closer together to serve as a ' lew ' to 
the garden (P.M.). 

Hence Alley-budge, -wagon. 

Ken. Alley-budge, or Alley-wagon, a kind of barrow on four 
wheels for conveying and distributing manure into a hop garden, 
constructed in such a manner as to pass up the alleys between the 
hills, when the bines are grown (P.M.). 

4. See below. 

,, C '? s '';. The gangway between tw o rows of cows, which in very 
old-fashioned shippons stand tail to tail. War. (J R W ) 

5. Fig. A way, means, device. 

Der. Polks knows as thou'lt be for t'parish, and t'poor folk, and 
none o these crooked alleys for raisin' t'wind, so thee go in, Wkly. 
feleg. (Dec. 22, 1894) 12, col. i 

.It* T r e th ead u an u timbers of reat P ar t f the north 
Y I f m h r^ ch Was broke ' n ' p M- T . (1731) 

XLI 229 (N.E.D.). 3. An alley in a garden, HybetKra 
subduhs, ambulatio COLES (1679); Thlse dosVr alleys 
must be ever finely gravelled/ BACON Essay (Garden) 

I am the flour of the feeld and the lilie of aleyes, WYCLIK 
Sng. Sol. (1382) ii. i. 5. The same fig. sense is found 
in Fr. : Apres bien ties alle'es et des venues on est tombe 
d'accord, HATZFELD. Fr. alle'e, a passage, ppl. sb. of aller, 
to go.] 

ALLEY, sb. 2 n.Cy. Dur. Wm. Yks. Nhp. [a'li.] A 
limit or ' ring ' in games (see below) ; the line marking the 
goal in a game of football ; the conclusion of the game 
itself when the ball has passed the boundary. 

N.Cy. 1 Alley, end of a game at football. Dur. 1 At the end of the 
game of football, shinny, &c. , the ball must pass a certain line or 
mark, which is called the alley. Wm. 1 The circle marked on the 
ground in games of marbles is called an alley ; so also, in burn-ball, 
the circle or space in which the ' pitcher ' stands. Put thi marbles 
in t' t'alley. w.Yks. 1 Nhp. 1 The space between the two stones 
which mark the goal in the game of football. 

Comp. Alley-mouth. 

Lan.iElly-mouth, a bound orgoal in thegame of football. ne.Lan. 1 

[A special meaning of Alley, sb. 1 ] 

ALLEY, sb. 3 Cor. [ae'li.] Local name for the Alii 
shad, Alosa vulgaris. 

Cor. 1 Alley, theallis-shad ; from its bony nature sometimes locally 
called chuck-childern ; Cor. 2 

[A form of allice (or allis), also allowes. Fr. alose, Lat. 
alausa, a kind offish, the same as Clupea.] 

ALL-FIRED, adj. and adv. Brks. Amer. 

1. adj. Enormous, excessive. 

[Amer. A low expression ; probably a puritanical corruption of 
hell-fired, designed to have the virtue of an oath without offending 
polite ears. The doctor will charge an all-fired price to cure me, 
BARTLETT.] Colloq. ' Look at that 'ere Dives,' they say, ' what an 
all-fired scrape he got into by his avarice with Lazarus,' HALIBURTON 
Clockmaker (1835) ist S. xxiv ; You've been an all-fired time . . . 
in selling those jars, PAYN Thicker than Water(iS&^) xvii (FARMER). 

2. adv. Exceedingly, intensely. 

Brks. ' I be so all-fired jealous I can't abear to hear o' her talkin' 
to ' ... To me, you were going to say,' HUGHES T. Brown Oxf. 
(1861) xl. 

Hence All-flredly, adv. Enormously. 

Amer. Rum does everything that is bad ; wonder if it is rum 
that makes potatoes rot so all-firedly, BARTLETT. 

ALL-GOOD, sb. Hmp. ['l-gud.] Plant-name for 
Chenopodium Bonus- Henricus. 

Hmp. 1 

[All-good, herb Mercury, Good Henry, COLES (1677) ; 
Algood groweth . . . about waves, and pathes, and by 
hedges, LYTE Dodoens, 560 ; Bon-Henry, the herb, Good 
Henry, Good King Harry, and All-good, COTGR.] 

ALL-HALLOW(S, sb. Cum. Lan. War. Shr. Hrt. Hmp. 
Also written Alhalon, Alhollan, All-hollan, All-hollands. 
[9'1-alaz, 5'1-alan.] 

1. All Saints. The festival of All Saints. 
ne-Lan. 1 All Saints' day (Nov. i). War. (J.R.W.) 

2. In comp. (i) -cakes, a special kind of cake made at 
All-hallowtide ; (2) -day, All Saints' day, the first of 
November ; (3) -eve, the eve of All Saints, see Hallow- 
e'en ; (4) -tide, the season of the festival of All Saints. 

(i) s.Hmp. In some places plum cakes are made on this day, 
and for some weeks afterwards, which are called All-holland 
cakes, HOLLOWAY. Hmp. 1 All-holland cakes, cakes cried about 
on All Saints' day. (2) Hrt. Allhollandy, ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) 
VI. ii. 40. Hmp. All-hollands' day, HOLLOWAY. (3) Cum. Aw- 
hallow-even, All Saints' eve, Gl. (1851). (4) Shr. 1 Alhalontid, 
obs. Hrt. All-hallows-tide, ELLIS Mod. Husb. (1750) VI. ii. 40. 

[All-hallow, -s, repr. All + hallow (later hallows), prop._pl. 
forms of an adj. ME. halwe, OE. halga, wk. form ofhalig 
(whence holy), (a) The OE. pi. hctigan passed througji 
the forms_halwen, halowen, halowe, halowes. (b) The OE. 
gen. pi. halgena (with dceg, fid) became halwene, hallowen, 
hallown, hallon, holland. 1. (a) All-hallowtide, the term 
near All-Saints, BAILEY (1755) ; Toussaincts(la Toussaincts) ; 
All- Saints day, All-hallow day, COTGR. ; Betwixt Alhallow- 
tide and Christmas, MASCALL Plant. 16. 2. (a) Displeasant 
to god and to all hallowes, MORE Heresyes, II. 196 (N.E.D.). 
(b) Alhollantide, the first day of November, BAILEY (1721) ; 
Lincoln is kept in close imprisonment from All-hollantidc 
till the end of Christmas, HACKET Life of Williams, II. 131 


[43 1 


(DAV.I; Farewell, All-hallown summer! SHAKS. i Hen. 
IV, i. ii. 178 ; Alhalowen tyde, la tous sainctz, PALSGR. ; 
Of j>at tyme for to an-oj>er tyme of halowene, Eng. Gilds, 

ALL-HEAL, sb. [6'1-ial, 9'1-il.] (i) Pnmella vitlgaris 
(n.Yks. w.Chs.); (2) 1/iscum album (Sc.). So called from 
their supposed medicinal value. 

Chs. 1 . Chs. 2 Pi-mulla viilgaris has several provincial names re- 
ferring to its real or supposed healing qualities. 

[(i) Priint'lla, the herb Self-heal, COLES (1679) ; Oing- 
tereule, Self-heal, Hook-heal, Sicklewort, Brunei, Prunel, 
Carpenters herb, COTGR. (2) They call it (Mistletoe) 
in their language All-heale, HOLLAND Pliny, I. 497. 
Also in the Herbals as follows : All-heal, or Clown's 
All-heal, Panax coloni, HILL Herbal (1812) ; All-heal, 
Panax, JOHNSON ; All-heal, Panax, COLES (1679) ; Clownes 
Woundwoort, or Alheale, GERARD Herbal, 851.] 

ALLICA, see Alegar. 

ALLICOMGREENYIE, sb. Gall. A game played by 
girls at country schools, similar to ' Drop-handkerchief* 
in England. 

Gall. They form into a circle ; one goes round on the outside 
with a cap, saying ' I got a letter from my love, And by the way 
I drop'd it, I drop'd it.' She drops the cap behind one of the 
party, who runs out and in and across the circle as quickly as 
possible. If the follower breaks the course, she fails. Then the 
one caught, or the one who fails, stands in the circle, and the other 
goes round as before (JAM. Suf>pl.~}. 

ALLICOMPAIN, see Elecampane. 

ALLIGATOR'S BACK, sb. Glo. Som. A serrated 
ridge of tiles. 

Glo., Som. The house is built with a roof sloping two ways, 
and surmounted by an ornamental erection known in the building 
trade as an ' alligator's back "... which runs the whole length of 
the roof, Bristol Times and Mirror (Apr. 26, 1889) 5, col. 6; 
The three or four instances in which I have met with the word 
all belonged to the Bristol district (G.E.D.). 

ALLIGOSHEE, sb. War. Shr. Glo. Also written allee- 
go-shee Glo. [aligo-Ji.] A game in which children link 
arms and skip backwards and forwards, singing verses as 
given below. 

War. All-i-go-shee, alligoshee, Turn the bridle over my knee, 
GOMME Trad. Games (1894) I. 7. Shr. Betsy Blue came all in 
black, Silver buttons down her back. Every button cost a crown, 
Every lady turn around. Alligoshi, alligoshee, Turn the bridle 
over my knee, BURNE Flk-Lore (1883) 523. Glo. Barbara, Barbara, 
dressed in black, Silver buttons all up your back. Allee-go-shee, 
allee-go-shee, Turn the bridle over me, GOMME Trad. Games 
'iSg^ I. 7. 

ALLIMENT, see Element. 

ALLISTER, adj. Obs. Rxb. (JAM.) Sane, in full 
possession of one's mental faculties. 

Rxb. He's no allister, he is not in his right mind. 

[Alastair is Gaelic Alexander. If from the personal 
name, I should think it would be, ' he's no the Allister' ; 
cf. ' he's no the Sandy ' or ' the Sam.' I do not know the 
word (G.W.).] 

ALLONGE, adv. Obs. Sc. Som. Also written all 
anys (JAM.). Together. 

Sc. All anys, together ; in a state of union (JAM.). Som. Let's go 
allonce, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 

[All + once. ME. ones, anes, enes, formed from ene, OE. 
aene (once), with -s advb. gen. suff.] 

ALL ONLY, adv. n.Yks. [q-lianli.] 

n.Yks. 2 Alleeanly, or Allonely, solely, or without exception. 

[I sey not this al-only for these men, CHAUCER Tr. fi- 
Cr. v. 1779: Out-take Richesse al-only, ./?. Rose, 5819. 
All + onto (OE.anltc).] 

ALLOT, v. Obsol. Nrf. Suf. Amer. To anticipate, look 
forward to, intend. Gen. constr. used with on or upon. 
In pass, to be pleased. 

Nrf. I am allotted [glad or pleased] to see you. So, 1 am told by 
a man of 75, used to speak his grandmother and other old folk 
(F.H.). Suf. I allot on seeing him [shall have pleasure in, &c., 
count on seeing him] (F.H.). [Amer. I allot upon going to Boston. 
Used by uneducated people in the interior of New England, 

ALL OUT, ac/v. 1 Sc. Irel. Yks. Lan. Not. Lin. Nhp. Aus. 
1. Completely, altogether, fully. 

Sc. All out, in a great degree, beyond comparison (JAM.). Ir. 
He's now in his grave, and thank God, it's he that had the dacent 
funeral all out, CARLETON Traits Peas. (1843) II. 102; Glory be 
to God ! but thaf s wonderful all out, ib. I. 2 ; Not far from sixty 
[years of age], if he was not sixty all out (G.M.H.X w.Ir. I'm 
not sich a gommoch all out as that, LOVER Leg. (1848) I. 164. 
n.Yks. 1 Yon's t'best, Joss. Ay, all out. w.Yks. 3 It is almost, 
if not all out, as bad as thieving. s.Lan. They'r dun oleawt, 
BAMFORD Dial. (1850) 208, ed. 1854. Not. 1 sw.Lin. 1 She's very 
gain on five, if not five all out. Your Bill's nearly killed, if not all 
out. Nhp. 1 It's not all out as good as I expected. [Aus., N.S.W. 
Now she was nineteen all out, and a fine girl she'd grown, BOLDRE- 
WOOD Robbery (1888*1 I. xv. ] Slang. All out the best, FARMER. 

[So are we to take notice of the good (gifts), though not 
all out so perfect as St. James advisetn us, ANDREWES 
Serm. xcvi. (1628) 749 ; Fowling is more troublesome but 
all out as delightsome to some sorts of men, BURTON 
Anat. Mel. (1621) II. ii. 4, ed. 1836. ME. Whan he had 
doon his wil al-out, R. Rose, 2101 ; Now have I ... declared 
al-out, ib. 2935. Af/+out.] 

ALL OUT, adv.* and sb. Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. 
and Eng. 

1. adv. Mistaken. 

Bnff. 1 For ass diver's he iz he's a'-oot in that opingin. Slang. 
All out, to be in error ; quite wrong, FARMER. 

2. Too late. 

Bnff. 1 Y're a'-oot, man, the meetin's a' our. 

3. Disappointed. 

Bnff. 1 Fin he saw it he wiz a'-oot [or oot], he geedintillan unco (list. 

4. Finished, used up. 

w.Som. 1 Plai-z-r dhu suydur-z au-1 aewt [please, sir, the cider is 
all finished, i.e. the cask is empty]. Dhu woets bee au 1 ! aewt 
[the oats are all finished]. 

5. sb. Interval for play, as in phr. all-out time. 

w.Yks. All-out, time for recreation, play time (J.T.) ; All-aat-time, 
playtime at school, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 9, 1891). 
ALL-OVER, adv. Wm. Yks. Lin. 

1. Over the whole body, in every part, completely. 
Wm. Thoo's fair o-ower, my luv, RICHARDSON S^. Sol. (1859 

iv. 7. e.Yks. 1 He's his fayther bayn all-ower. 

2. Everywhere. 

n.Yks. (I.W.) n-Lin. 1 Taaties hes faail'd oil oher to year. 

[1. He is all-over mistaken, BENTLEY Phalaris (1699) 130. 
2. A south-west blow on ye And blister you all o'er ! 
SHAKS. Temp. \. ii. 324. Cp. ME. ouer-al (in P. Plowman), 
ouer alle (in Cath. Angl.), everywhere, passim.} 

ALL-OVERISH, adj. Lan. Der. Lin. War. Brks. Som. 

1. Slightly out of sorts, but with no particular ailment. 

ne.Lan. 1 All-overish, neither sick nor well. Der. a War. All- 
overish, queer-like (J.R.W.). w.Som. 1 

2. Nervous, with a sense of apprehension. 

n.Lin. 1 Brks. 1 All-overish, feelingconfusedorabashed. Cor.There's 
a kind o'what-I-can't-tell-'ee about dead men that's very enticin',tho' 
it do make you feel all-overish, ' Q.' Three Ships (1890) iii. Colloq. 
When the mob began to gather round I felt all-overish, MAYHEW 
Land. Labour (1864) III. 52; The elder of the brothers gave a squeal, 
All-overish it made me for to feel, GILBERT Bab Ballads (1869) 184 ; 
All-overish, an indefinite feeling which pervades the body at critical 
periods, when sickening for an illness, or at a moment of supreme 
excitement, FARMER. 

[All-over, q.v. + -ish. The suffix doubtless suggested by 
' feverish.'] 

ALLOW, v. Irel. Glo. Ess. Ken. Sus. Hmp. I.W. 
Dor. Som. Dev. Cor. Amer. [alau 1 , aletr.] 

1. To suppose, consider, be of opinion. 
Glo. I 'low as 'tis time mother wur a-got downstairs, BUCKMAN 
Darke's Sojourn (1890) xi. Ken. 1 He's allowed to be the biggest 
rogue in Faversham. Sus. She cry'd an 'lowd tud braak ur hert, 
LOWER Tom Cladpole (1831) st. 18. Hmp. If you ask a peasant 
how far it is to any place, his answer nearly invariably is ; I allow 
it to be so far,' WISE New Forest (1883) 280; Hmp. 1 I.W. She doos 
well enough Zundays and high-days, . . . but I 'lows she's most 
too high vur work-a-days, MAXWELL GRAY Annesley (1889) I. 164. 
se.Dor. (C. W. ') w.Som. 1 1 do low eens there's dree score o' taties in 
thick there splat. Uw muuch d-ee-Iuw dhik dhae'ur rik u haay? 

G 2 




[how much do you consider that rick of hay ? i. e. how much it con- 
tains]. Dev. I do not allow myself to reckon like you [I do not suppose 
myself capable of calculating as quickly as you can], Reports Provinc. 
(1877) 127. Cor. Paul an' me allowed to each other that we'd set 
up in fine style at Kit's House, ' Q.' Troy Town (1888) iv. [Amer. 
The lady of the cabin seemed kind, and allowed we had better stop 
where we were, BARTLETT. U.S. Some thought Barnes must've 
swallowed a tadpole, . . . while others allowed that may be he'd 
accidentally eaten frogs' eggs some time and they'd hatched out, 
MAX ADELER Elbow Room (1876) v.] 
2. To advise. 

Uls. N. & Q. (1874) sth S. i. 245 ; I allow her to come (M.B.-S.). 
Cav. I don't allow you to sell your pig at a loss to yourself (M.S. M.). 
N.I. 1 Doctor! A wouldn't allow you to be takin' off that blister yet. 
Ess. This point I allow For servant and cow, TUSSER Husbandrie 
(1580) 74, st. 30. w.Som. 1 I d'allowee vorto put thick there field 
in to rape, arter you've a-clain un, and then zeed-n out. 

[1. The Self-Tormentor of Terence's, which is allowed 
a most excellent comedy, Spect. No. 512 ; The principles 
which all mankind allow for true are innate, LOCKE 
(JOHNSON) ; To alowe, to declare to be true, approbo, 
BARET. 2. The sense of ' advise ' is developed from the 
old meaning once common 'to approve of, sanction.' 
Truly ye bear witness that ye allow the deeds of your 
fathers, BIBLE Luke xi. 48. OFr. alouer, to praise, com- 
mend ; Lat. allaudare.] 

ALLOW, int. n.Yks. Brks. A cry used in setting dogs 
on to the chase. 

n.Yks. (I.W.) Brks. 1 Allow, allow! thus shouted twice to a dog 
to incite him to chase anything. 

[From allow, vb., in the sense of ' to sanction.' The cry 
means ' We allow (the chase) ! '] 

ALLOWANCE, sb. Sc. Irel. Yks. Wor. 

1. Permission. 

N.I. 1 There's no allowance for people in here. 

2. A limited portion of food or drink allowed to work- 
men between meals. 

Yks. He was going homewards as soon as he had finished his 
'lowance, FLETCHER Wapentake (1895) 190. ne.Wor. When are 
you goin' to have your 'lowance ? (J.W.P.) 

3. Phr. at no allowance, at pleasure, unsparingly, un- 

Edb. Vagrants in buckram and limmers in silk, parading away at 
no allowance, MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) vii. Slang. I found 
Dawes junior pegging into Dawes senior no allowance, and him 
crying blue murder, READE Jack of all Trades (1858) i. 

[1. Permission, a permission, leave, licence, allowance, 
COTGR. 2. His allowance was a continual allowance given 
him of the king, a daily rate for every day, BIBLE 2 Kings 
xxv. 30. Hence phr. ' at no allowance,' without limitation. 
His people pluck him at no allowance, CARLYLE Fred. Gt. 
III. vin. v. 42. Fr. alouance, allowance (PALSGR.), deriv. of 
OFr. alouer, see Allow, v.] 

ALLOWED, ppl. adj. Som. [aleu'd.] Licensed. 

w.Som. 1 Dhik-ee aewz waud-n nuvur ulaewd [that house was 
never licensed]. 

[There is no slander in an allow'd fool, though he do 
nothing but rail, SHAKS. Twelfth Nt. i. v. 101 ; An allowed 
cart or chariot, HOLLYBAND. Allowed, pp. of allow (vb.), 

ALLS, sb. pi. Dur. w.Yks. n.Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor 
Also written awls Dur. 1 ; nails s.Wor. 1 se.Wor. 1 folz 
ealz.] Belongings, goods and chattels, especially work- 
men's tools. 

Dnr. !' To pack up his awls' is spoken of a person departing in haste 
w.Yks.s Pack up thee awals an' tramp. n-Lin. 1 ' Pack up your alls 
and slot off is a common form of dismissal, used by masters to work- 
men. Lei. 1 Alls, a workman's tools and appliances : often used for 
personal luggage generally. Nhp. 1 , War. 2 , s.Wor. 1 se.Wor 1 'Pick 
up your nails and cut' is a form of ordering an objectionable person 
to leave. 

[It is doubtful whether alls in the phrase ' pack up your 
alls is all used as a sb. in pi., or whether it repr .awls 
Perhaps orig. the phrase contained the word awls which 
was changed by a humorous pun to alls. So N E.D 

bid me 

ALLS, see Aries. 

ALLS-, see Halse-. 

ALL TO PIECES, adv. phr> Der. Wor. Amer. Aus. 
Thoroughly, altogether. 

Der. 2 He ca'd me a' to pieces. s.Wor. It's too hot all to pieces, 
PORSON Quaint Wds. (1875) 29. [Amer. I beat him last night at 
pokerall topieces, BARTLETT. Aus., N.S.W.If we fell offhe stopped 
still and began to feed, so that he suited us all to pieces, BOLDRE 
WOOD Robbery (1888) I. i.] 

[We'll bend it to our awe, Or break it all to pieces, 
SHAKS. Hen. V, i. ii. 225 ; I bid thy master cut out the 
gown ; but I did not bid him cut it to pieces, ib. T. Shrew, 
iv. iii. 129.] 

ALL TO PIECES, adv. phr? Nhp. Som. Broken 
down in health or finances ; exhausted, collapsed. 

Nhp. 1 A person who has failed, or been sold up, or in a state of 
bankruptcy, is said to be all to pieces. w.Som. 1 Poo-ur oa'l blid, 
ee-z au'l tiie pees'ez wai dhu riie'maat'iks [poor old blood, he is 
quite done up with the rheumatism]. Aew-z dh-oa-1 au's ? Oa ! 
au'l tiie pees'ez [How is the old horse ? Oh ! quite knocked up], 
Colloq. Fifty thousand pounds . . . won't come before it's all 
wanted ; for they say he is all to pieces, AUSTEN Sense and Sensi- 
bility (181 1) xxx. Slang. The Oxford men were now all to pieces ; 
their boat was full of water, Echo (Apr. 7, 1884) 3, col. i. 

ALLUM, see Aum. 

ALL-UTTERLY, adv. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Also written 
alluterlie, alluterly. Wholly, completely. 

[So whan she saw al-utterly That he wolde hirof trouthe 
faile, CHAUCER Hous F. 296. All (ME. al) + utterly.} 

ALL- WORKS, sb. Ken. A man employed on a farm 
to do odd jobs. Used adjectivally, of horses : doing odd 
jobs, not in the regular team. 

Ken. Yes ! he's the all-works on our farm. Tell All-works 
it's his place to do that (D.W.L.); The horses not sufficient in 
number to make up a team are called the odd or all-works horses, 
and are looked after by the odd man, oddie, or all-works (P.M.) ; 
Ken. 1 ; Ken. 2 An ' all-works ' is the lowest servant in the house, 
and is not hired for the plough or the wagon particularly, as the 
other servants are, but to be set about anything. 

[With this word cp. the common phr. ' a maid-of-all- 
work.' The comp. is formed in the same way as ' Great- 
heart,' and many of the names in BUNYAN P. P., in which 
the name of the quality or characteristic (consisting of 
adj. + sb.) designates the possessor of the same, the stress 
always being on the former element of the comp.] 

ALLY, sb. Nhb. Wm. Dur. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. 
Der. Not. Lin. Lei. Nhp. Wor. Shr. Oxf. Brks. e. An. Sus. 
Hmp. Som. Cor. Also written alley N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 
Wm. 1 e. Yks. 1 w.Yks. 245 Stf. 2 nw.Der. 1 Lei} Nhp. 1 Shr. 12 
Oxf. 1 Brks. 1 e.An. 1 Hmp. 1 w.Som. 1 Cor. 2 ; alNhp. 1 ; olley 
Chs. 1 [a-li, se'li.] 

1. A boy's marble made of alabaster, fine white stone, 
marble, or glass. See below. 

N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 , Wm. 1 w.Yks. Real marbles, i. e. globes 
made of marble, not clay. Also those moulded from china clay. 
The latter, often covered with small circles, were sometimes called 
bull's-eyes or bullies (J.T.); w.Yks. 2 , e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 When streaked 
with red, it is called a blood-alley. Stf. 2 Lei. 1 A marble made 
either of white marble or alabaster. If streaked with red veins 
it is called a blood-alley, if not so marked, a white alley. Nhp. 1 
Al, or Alley, used by boys for shooting at the ring ; deriving its 
name from the term alabaster, as erroneously applied to the 
varieties of carbonate of lime which constitute marble, instead of 
restricting it to sulphate of lime or gypsum. These marbles are 
generally. denominated white als, or alleys, but when they exhibit 
any of the red veins they are called blood-alleys, and are doubly 
prized by the possessor. se.Wor. 1 , Shr. 12 , Oxf.' MS. arfrf. , Brks. 1 , 
e.An. 1 , Hmp. 1 w.Som. 1 A boy's marble, generally valued at from 
five to ten common marbles according to its quality. Cor. Bright 
blue et was, suthin' the colour of a hedgy-sparrer's egg, an' shiny- 
clear like a glass-alley, ' Q.' Troy Town ^1888) xi ; Cor. 2 [Amer. 
Alley, an ornamental marble, used by boys for shooting in the ring, 
&c. , BARTLETT.] 

2. Hence Ally, v. 

e.Yks. 1 To place the marble in the hole in a game of marbles, 
and thus score a point against an opponent 

3. Comp. Ally-taw. 

ne.Yks. 1 Ally taw, playing marble, as distinguished from 
' steeanies ' and ' potties,' i. e. stone or baked clay marbles. sXan. 




lley-taw, a large or' shooting-marble' (T.R.C.). Brks.His small 
private box was full of peg-tops, white marbles (called' alley-taws' 
in the Vale) . . . and other miscellaneous boy's wealth, HUGHES 
T. Bmwn (1856) iii. Colloq. Inquiring whether he had won any 
alley-tors or commoneys lately, DICKENS Pickwick (1837) 281, 
ed. 1847. 

(The word occurs in DE FOE'S Duncan Campbell; see 
N.E.D. Ally, a dim. of alabaster.} 

ALLYCOMPALY, see Elecampane. 

ALLY -LONG-LEGS, sb. Stf. The ' Daddy-long-legs,' 
or crane-fly. 

stf. 2 

ALMANAC-MAN, sb. n. Lin. 

n.Lin. 1 Almanac-man, the surveyor of the Court of Sewers, so 
called because he sends notices to the dwellers near the Trent of 
the times when high tides may be expected. 

ALMANIE-WHISTLE, sb. Obs. Abd. A flageolet of 
a very small size used by children QAM.). 

[Almanie repr. ME.Almaine, OFr.Alemaigne, Germany. 
In the i6th and i7th cents, almani was in common use 
for a kind of dance-music in slow time, introduced from 

ALMERY, see Ambry. 

ALMOND, sb. Glo. A gland of the ear or throat. 

Glo. 1 The almonds of my ears came down. Colloq. Almonds : 
this term is applied popularly to the exterior glands of the neck 
and to the tonsils, HOBLYN Diet. Med. Terms (and ed. 1844). 

[Almonds of the throat are a glandulous substance, re- 
presenting two kernels placed on each side of the uvula, 
at the root of the tongue, KERSEY ; The almonds of the 
ears, Glandulae, COLES (1679).] 

ALMOND-FURNACE, sb. Obs. Cdg. A furnace used 
by silver-refiners, in which the refuse of litharge is re- 
duced to lead by being heated with charcoal. 

Cdg. Almond furnace, in which they melt the slags or refuse of 
the litharge (not stamped) with charcoale only, RAY (1691) ; (K.) 

[Alman, or almond furnace, a furnace used by refiners, 
and called a sweep, for separating all sorts of metals from 
cinders, &c., BAILEY (1721). Alman or almond repr. 
OFr. aleman (mod. allemand), i. e. German.] 

ALMOND-NUT, sb. Cor. An almond. 

Cor. I've got ferrings and sweetmeats anow. . . . Dest a like 
men [them] with ame-nuts or zeeds best inside ? J. TRENOODLE 
Specimens (1846) 28; Cor. 12 

ALMOUS, sb. In gen. use in Sc. Irel. and n. counties 
to Lan. and Lin. FAIso Sus. Dev. Also written almisse, 
almose n.Yks. 1 ; alomes Wxf. 1 ; aamas Cum. 2 n.Lan. 1 ; 
aamus Nhb. 1 ; aumas m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 5 n.Lan. 1 ; aumous 
Lin. 1 ; aumus n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 ; awmoss w.Yks. 4 ; 
awmous sw.Lin. 1 ; awmus N.Cy. 1 Wm. 1 n.Yks. 12 e.Yks. 1 ; 
omas Cum. 1 ; omus Nhb. 1 [a'mas, - mas.] 
1. Money or food bestowed in charity, gifts offered to 
a child on its first round of visits. 

Sc. Almous, Almows (JAM.) ; The silly friar behoved to fleech, 
For aumus as he passes, SCOTT Abbot (1820) xv. Ayr. An extra 
neaveful to their wonted weekly almous, GALT Sir Andrew (1822) 
iv. Gall. Gaun off like a beggar wi' his awmus on Monday mornin', 
CROCKETT Stiekit Mm. (1893) 57. Wxf. 1 , Nhb. 1 Dur. It is still 
customary to present a baby with three articles ' for luck ' the first 
time it is taken into a neighbour's house. This is termed the 
' bairn's awmous,' that is, alms. The articles usually consist of a 
piece of bread, a pinch of salt, and an egg, but matches are some- 
times substituted for the last, N. & Q. (1878) 5th S. x. 37. Cum. 
The gift to a regular beggar was sometimes in money, but more 
frequently in victuals. Regular beggars carried bags (pokes) 
rolled up in their apron for the accommodation of meal, a handful 
of which was always an acceptable awmous (M.P.) ; Cum. 1 Omas, 
in former times a handful of oatmeal or a slice of barley bread, 
and in later times a halfpenny or a penny. Wm. The mendicant 
. . . departs with his awmus of meal, GIBSON Leg. and Notes 
(1877)17. ne.Yks. 1 What awmous a'e ya gotten ? w.Yks. Awmoss, 
an alms, THORESBY i#. (1703) ; w.Yks. 1 Hedto a poor neighbour 
at com daily to thy door for an aumus ? w.Yks. 4 An awmoss. 
Lan. Pretty Mrs. Marg'ret . . . hes always yet an awmas for 
Bess, ranty an' feckless o' body as she is, THORNBER Penny Stone 
(^45) 15; Lan. 1 He lives o' aumas. n.Lan. 1 The following quatrain 
is still remembered by some of the old inhabitants of Furness, 
as the usual address of beggars soliciting alms : ' Pity, pity 

paamas, Pray give us aamas ; Yan for Peter, two for Paul, Three 
for God 'at meead us all.' e.Sus. Almcs, HOLLOWAY. s.Dev. 
Omes, alms, Fox Kingsbridgc (1874). 

2. A small portion ; a definite quantity. 
n.Yks. 1 In Cleveland a messenger sent to a shop for a shilling's- 
worth of such and such an article, and returning with what 
seems to the purchaser a very small proportionate quantity, is 
greeted with the remark, 'Why, what an ommus thee has getten ' ; 
as if, like alms, it had been sparingly or grudgingly doled out ; 
n.Yks. 2 I think I've got my aumus, i. e. the number of articles 
I bespoke. A dear aumus, very little for the money. e.Yks. A've 
coonted this money, and that's thy awmus ; e.Yks. 1 Is that all 
bacon we're gannin te hev te bray-cast ? what a awmus ! m.Yks. 1 
There, that's thy aumas ; thou'll get no more. One holding a sack 
to be filled will cry out when the sack is full, ' Hold on ! I've gotten 
my aumas.' w.Yks. Awmous, a helping (B.K.) ; Awmous, a cart 
load, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 59. Lin. When a labourer 
has been filling a cart with manure, corn, &c. , he will say at last 
to the carter or wagoner, ' Haven't ya got your aumous?' (HALL.); 
Lin. 1 They gave me such an aumous of provender. swXin. 1 Oh, 
what an awmous ! said ironically of a small gift of corn on St. 
Thomas' Day. 

8. A meritorious act. 

Sc. It wou'd be an aumous to gie him a weel-payed skin (JAM.) ; 
Those who leave so good a Kirk, it were but alms to hang them, 
Scotland's Glory, &c. (1805) 44 QAM.). 

4. In comp. (i) Aumas-dish, a beggar's dish for alms ; 
(2) -house, an alms-house ; (3) -loaves, bread distributed 
to the poor in church after Divine service ; (4) -woman, 
a woman supported by charity. 

(i) Ayr. While she held up her greedy gab, Just like an aumos 
dish, BURNS Jolly Beggars (1785). (2) w.Yks. Amus-hahses, 
BANKS Wkfld. IVds. (1865) ; w.Yks. 5 Aumas-houses. (3) n.Yks. 2 
Aumus-leeaves, charity loaves. (4) w.Yks. 5 

[Almose, eleemosyna, LEVINS Manip. ; Lefsir,parc/iarite', 
Wit sum almous thou help me, Metr. Horn. (Spec. E. E. II. 
94) ; God . . . jelde ow for oure almus that je jiven us 
here ! P. Plowman (A.) vn. 120 ; Ilk dai man him )>ider bar 
For to bide his almus bar, Cursor M. 19052 ; Almus, messe 
and bedes, HAMPOLE P. C. 3722 ; An almus doer, elimosi- 
narius, Cam. Angl. ; Almesse or almos, elimosina, Prompt. 
ON. almusa (also olmusa), an alms, charity, an allowance 
to scholars in Icel. grammar-schools ; Rom. alimosina 
(whence OFr. almosne, It. limosina). Cp. OE. oelmysse 
(-esse), whence lit. E. alms.] 
ALODDIN, adj. Cum. Wm. [aio'din.] 

1. Not engaged, unemployed, on offer. 

Cum. I hard Ritson's lass was aloddin, sooa I went and saw her 
an hir't her. Does te see the bonny lass wid a rose in her breast ? 
She's aloddin. Richardson is going to build a barn, sooa there 
will be lots o' jobs aloddin. Jenkinson has a new-cult cow 
aloddin [for sale]. How Hall has been a long time aloddin' [to 
let] (J.A.) ; Cum. 1 She's still aloddin ; Cum. 2 , Wm. 1 

2. Lost, missing. 

Cum. They say Thomsons of Brier Holme hev six ewes a-loddin. 

[Prob. repr. ON. afldftun, on invitation, still open to an 
invitation (to marry). Cogn. with ON lafta, to invite, OE. 
laclian, G. laden, to summon.] 

ALOGHE, see Alow. 

ALONE, adv. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. e.An. [ale'n, alia-n.] 

1. Used with pronom. adj. 

Cum. As I was walking mine alane, SCOTT Minstrelsy (1802) 120, 
ed. 1839. 

2. In phr. (i) all-a-living alone, left in a helpless condition 
(used of a sick person) ; (2) let alone, to say nothing of, 
besides ; (3) let me alone, let him alone, phr. expressive of 
superiority or acknowledged excellence. 

(i)e.An. 2 We have the odd phrase 'all-a-living-alone,' i.e. quite en- 
tirely alone, spoken compassionately ofa sickpersonleftimproperly 
in a helpless condition. (a)s.Ir. He ate a whole village, let alone the 
horse, LOVER Leg. (1848) II. 435. Nhb. 1 Thor wis three on them, let 
alyen his fethor. Cum. 8 I's cum't ofa stock 'at niver wad be freetn't 
toshowafeacetilla king, let aleanan oald newdles. (3)Edb.Letme 
alane for whilly-whaing an advocate, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xi. 
Ir. Can he swim? O let him alone for that! He can swim 
like a fish (A.S.P.). s.Ir. Ned Sheehy was a good butler, . . . and 
as for a groom, let him alone with a horse ; he could dress it, or 
ride it, or shoe it, or physic it, CROKER Leg. (1862) 281. Cum. 
Let Bobby alone for that, FARRALL Betty Wilson (1886) 7. 




[1. I ame myne alane and poore, KING Catech. (N.E.D.) 
ME. All him alane the way he tais, BARBOUR Bruce, n. 
146 ; Walkyng myn one (v.r. al myn oone), P. Plowman 
(A.) ix. 54. ME. at, all + ane (OE. art) ; see Lone. 2. With 
the phr. ' let me alone for that ' we may cp. SHAKS. : Let 
us alone to guard Corioli, Cor. I. ii. 27 (the phrase im- 
plies an ironical prohibition to help a man who is able 
to manage the affair himself) ; JOHNSON (s.v. Alone).] 

ALONG, adv. 1 Var. dial, uses in midl. and s. counties ; 
also Lan. Also written elong. [alo'rj, ala'rj, slas'q.alu- 

1. Slanting. 

n.Dev. Twel zet e-long, Exm. Scold. (1746) ; Along, for end-long, 

obliquely, slanting ; GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.1 

Comp. Along-straight, lying at full length. 

Dor. She vow'd she zeed en wi her own eyes a-lyen all along 

strait upon the groun, Why John (Coll. L.L.B.X Som. Why 

zomebody must ha' zot on un [kitchen clock] when he wur down 

along-straight, RAYMOND Gent. Upcott (1893) 22. 

2. At full length, lying flat, generally used with all; see 
all along. 

Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.); 'Along' now means flat, all 
along (F.W.C.). 

3. During a period of time, during the past. 

w.Som. 1 We've had middlin' luck along, like. Dev. It is quite 
usual to speak of anything being done ' along in the winter,' or 
other season, and rather conveys the idea of repeated or continuous 
action than of indefiniteness as to time, Reports Provinc. (1889). 

4. In company, as well, into the bargain. 

Wor. Mary is going, and Fred will go alung (H.K.). Sur. 
Taking the eggs to market and the hen along, HOSKYNS Taipei 
(1852) 139, ed. 1857 ; I'm blest if I don't think they got their own 
price and ours along, ib. 150. 

5. Forward, on; send along, to send home. 

Lan. Bring the kayther alung, BANKS Manch. Man (1876) i. Stf. 2 
Th' liver inna ready yet, but wfin send it yu alung. War. 3 
' I will send it along directly ' is an everyday expression now in 
Birmingham. Shr. 1 Shall I send the mutton alung now, ma'am ? 
[Amer. Mrs. Trollope has the following words : ' We must try 
to get along, as the Americans say.' Lover also was puzzled to 
discover what the young American lady meant by saying that she 
was so unwell that she ' could not get along,' BARTLETT.] 

6. In phr. (i) along of, (a) with, together with ; (b) in 
pursuit of; (2) along with, with. 

(i) (a) s.War. 1 Come and go along of father. GIo. ' Does 'ee 
zell th' owld genelman 'long o' this lot?' says one, BUCKMAN 
Darke's Sojourn (1890) vii. Ess. Las' night I passed them housen 
by along o' Tom an' Jack, DOWNE Ballads (1895) !9- Wil. 1 Here, 
you just coom whoam along o' I, an I'll gie 'ee summut to arg 
about. Som. She'd garn t'school alang of us, LEITH Lemon Verbena 
( l8 95) I0 7- Dev. Now and again he comes and stops along of 
his granny for a bit, O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 86. Slang. I walks in 
my brown gaiters along o' my old brown mule, KIPLING Brk. Ballads 
(1892) Screw Guns, (b) Cor. ' Tez Farmer Tickle, I tell'y!' I shouted, 
'and if you axes again, I'll come along ofyou with mystick/BARiNG- 
GOULD Vicar(i&i6] vi. (2) Sc. Mak' grit the Lord alang wi' me, 
RIDDELL Ps. . (1857) xxxiv. 3. Brks. 1 When a young man is accused 

He lived along with the squire for ever so many year. Sus. He's 
our father, he lives along wi' us, EGERTON F/fcs. and Ways (1884) 
26, 27. w.Som.i I zeed'n gwain 'long way Bob Milton. 

[2. He laid himself down along upon the bed, indinavit 
sem lectum, ROBERTSON (1693); Under yond yew-trees 
lay thee all along, SHAKS. R. fr J. v. iii. 3. 3. I have all 
along declared this to be a neutral paper, ADDISON Sped 
No. 463. 4. Demetrius and Egeus, go along, SHAKS. M.N.D. 
i. i. 123. 5. Let's along, And do the murther first, ib. 
Temp. iv. i. 233 6. You, Capulet, shall go along with 
me, ib. R ' & J i. ,. Io6 . OE. andlang, along, by the 
side ; cp. G. entlang.] 

ALONG, adv.' I.W. Dor. Som. Dev. [alo-n, ahe-n ] 
Used as a suff. to advbs. It has the force of -wards. ^ 

I.W. Up along, Down along (J.D.R.). w.Dor. I'm going up 
a ong, down along, home along (C.V.G.). w.Som. 1 In-along up- 
a ong, down-along, here-along, there-along, along yonder out- 
along. A man said, ' I be gwain zo vur-s Holy Well Lake and I 
can t stap now, but I'll call in back-along ' [on my way back] Dev 

' Along 'isone of the common as well as most expressive of our west- 
country suffixes Down-along, here-along, there-along, in-along, 
yon-along, Reports Provinc. (1887) 3; Tellee whot 'tez, yo'd best- 
ways git tha lewzide ov tha hadge gwaine 'omc-along, HEWETT 
Peas. Sfi. (1892)97 ; Awl-along, up-along, down-along lee, ib. 140. 
ALONG, prep. Dev. In the course of, during. 
Dev. It was along September month, Reports Provinc (i88g\ 
[Sprinkled along the waste of years, KEBLE Chr. Year.] 
ALONG OF, ON, WITH, prep. phr. Irel. All n.coun- 
ties to Shr. Glo. Brks. Hnt. Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. Wil. 
On account of, owing to. 

Ir. Where along o' the weed-dhrifts an' shells there'd be grazin' 
most whiles for the goats, BARLOW Bog-land ( 1892) 5. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 
Ah wouldn't have yc troubled along of me, CLARE Love of Lass 
(1890)1.79. Dur. 1 , Cum. 1 Yks. It were all along of them soirees 
that the first flood came, BARING-GOULD Pennyqks. (1870) 57, ed. 
1890. ne.Yks. 1 It warn't along o' me. e.Yks. 1 It was all-Iang-o Bill 
that Ah went. w.Yks. 124 ; w.Yks. 5 It worrant longa me, it wor 
longa thee, soa doan't saay nowt. Lan. It wor aw along o' that 
theer black jackass, WESTALL Birch Dene (1889) II. 287; Because it 
wasawlung with you, GROSE (1790) ; Lan. 1 , eXan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 
Sanshum fair ! . . . au aw'd cleean forgetten aw along o' this kink 
i' my back, CLOUGH ; Chs. 2 Aw long of such a one ; Chs. 3 Awlong 
o' ould ooman, we couldna come. s.Chs. 1 It's aw alung o' gooin 
alt i' the reen. s.Stf. It was all along o' him meetin' her at the 
chapel soo often, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895). Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 
Theer, th' milk's shed, an' it's aw alung o' thee, metherin. Der. 2 , 
nw.Der. 1 , Not. 1 Lin. An' all along o' the feller as turn'd 'is back of 
hissen, TENNYSON Owd Roa (1889). nXin. 1 It was along on a 
letter missin' 'at my mare got kill'd. It was all along o' drink 
'at he ended his sen e' that how. swXin. 1 It was all along of him 
that I happened this. Rut. 1 He come downstairs sheddering, an' 
went oop back'ards along of his rheumatiz. Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 It's all 
along of you that this happened. War. 12 s.War. 1 It was all along 
of that Bill Hancox' fancies, that the master kep' me in school. 
Shr. 1 It wuz all alung on 'im as 'e wuz i' the public; Shr. 2 This 
comes alung o gween wi' sich a chap as he is. Glo. 1 Brks. Afore 
he got his place along of his bugle playing, HUGHES T. Brown Oxf. 
<i86i)xxxvi; Brks. 1 Ut be all alang o' that ther coortin' as a dwoant 
do no work o' no account. Hnt. To-day I found him digging in his 
garden, having been cured ' all along o' that goose-grass,' N. & Q. 
1866) 3rd S. x. 268. Ken. It's all alongof you that I'm in this mess 
H.M.) ; I have heard the expression ' It's all through long ofyou' 
P.M.). Snr. 1 To the question, 'How did sin come into the world ?' 
a lad replied, ' It was all along of Eve eating of that apple.' Sus. 1 
Master Piper he lost his life all-through-along-on-account-of drink. 
Hmp. 'Twur all along o' they lawyers, Foresters' Misc. (1846) 162. 
Wil. 1 'Twer aal along o' she's bwoy's bad ways ashertuk to drenk. 
Slang. All along of muzzling the bobbies, MAYHEW Land. Labour 
(1864; I. 36. 

[And long of her it was That we meet here so strangely, 
SHAKS. Cymb. v. v. 271 ; You, mistress, all this coil islong 
of you, ib. M. N. D. HI. ii. 339 ; I am longe of this stryfe, 
Je suis en cause de cestestrif, PALSGR. 427 ; On me is nought 
along thyn yuel fare, CHAUCER Tr. Sf Cr. n. 1001 ; Al is on 
miself along, GOWER C.A. n. 22; On hire is al milif ilong, 
Rel. Songs (STRATMANN). OE. gelang, belonging, de- 
pending ; gelang on, gelang at, because of, owing to. Cf. 

ALONGSIDE OF, ON, prep. phr. Lin. Sus. Dor. Dev. 

n-Lin. 1 The stee's alongside on the fother stack. Sus. I'd lie 
down and go to sleep alongside of it any day, EGERTON Fits, and 
Ways (1884) 33- Dor. I did bide alongzide o' he till the church clock 
a' het twelve, HARE Vil. Street (1895) '39- Dev. A man and his 
missus can bide alongside o' one another till death do 'em part, 
O'NEILL Told in Dimpses (1893) 26. 

[Along (adv. 1 ) + side.] 

ALONGST, prep. Cum. Chs. Ken. Som. [alo'nst, 
3lae-rjs(t).] 1. Along. 

Cum. 1 Alongst, used in old deeds. Chs. 1 Alongst the road. 
2. adv. and prep. Lengthwise. 

? Ken. 1 [I do not remember ever hearing this, and after much 
nquiry can find no one who has (P.M.)] ; Ken. 2 Alongst it, on 
the long side of it, SOMNER Gavelkind, 120. w.Som. 1 Alongst, 
used very commonly in contrast to ' athwart ' or ' across.' You 'ont 
make no hand o' thick there field o' ground, nif he idn a guttered 
both ways, ukraa-s-n ulangs [across and alongst]. 

[It was concluded they should come alongst Berwick 




Bridge, BAILLIE Letters, I. 325 (BOUCHER) ; The herald 
flew From troop to troop alongst the host, CHAPMAN 
Iliad, iv. 227. Alongst is formed fr. along with the advb. 
suff. -es + parasitic /, as in against.] 

ALOOSE, adv. Nhb. [aloirs.J Loose, free. 

Nhb. 1 ' Let yorsel alowse,' was the exhortation of a pitman to 
a friend who was batting stiffly at a cricket match. 

[A-, on + loose (ON. lauss).] 

ALOUD, adv. Wil. Som. [aleu'd.] See below. 

Wil. 1 That there meat stinks aloud [smells very bad]. w.Som. 1 
As in polite society we hear of ' loud colours,' so in our lower 
walk we talk of 'loud stinks.' Dhik rab'ut fraa'sh ! ee stingks 
ulaewd [that rabbit fresh ! he stinks aloud]. 

[The stuff, to quote the trenchant expression of an 
onlooker, ' stank aloud,' Dy. News, Feb. 1872 (N.E.D.). 
A-, on + loud.] 

ALOW, adv. 1 and prep. Sc. s.Irel. Lan. I. Ma. Ess. 
[alou 1 .] Below. 

Gall. Silver Sand . . . never glanced either aloft or alow, CROCKETT 
Raiders (1894) xi. Wxf. 1 Aloghe, below. Lan. Monthly Mag. 
(1815) I. 127. I. Ma. Where am I? alaw or alaf ? BROWNE Doctor 
(1887) 30. Ess. As fleeting ship, by bearing sayl alowe, With- 
standeth stormes when boistrous winds do blow, TUSSER Hus- 
bandrie (1580) 216, st. a. 

[Alow, in a low place, not aloft, BAILEY (1755) ; And now 
alow and now aloft they fly, DRYDEN (JOHNSON) ; Why 
somme (briddes) be alowe and somme alofte, P. Plowman 
(B.) xn. 222. A-, on + low.] 

ALOW, adv. 2 Sc. n.Irel. Nhb. Yks. Also written 
alowe. [alou 1 .] Ablaze, on fire. 

Sc. To speak to him about that . . . wad be to set the kiln a-low, 
SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xlv ; Sit down and warm ye, since the 
sticks are alow, ib. Pirate (1822) I. 103. e.Lth. Tod-Lowrie had 
set the heather a-low, HUNTER J. Inuiick (1895) 122. N.I. 1 Alowe, 
lit, kindled. Ant. The chimley's alow, Ballymena Obs. (1892 . 
Nhb. Come and ye'll see a sight. Vender's the Fairy Hill a' alowe, 
Denham Tracts (ed. 1895) II. 137 ; Nhb. 1 It wis aall iv alow iv 
a minute. n.Yks. 2 

| It kindils on (a)lowe, Wars Alex. 4177. In Ormulum 
16185 there occurs o lo^he (in flame). A-, on + low, q.v.] 

ALP, sb. n.Cy. Lan. e.An. Also written olp e.An. 12 
Nrf. 1 Suf. 1 ; ope, awf Suf. 1 ; alf, ulf e.An. 1 Cf. also Hoop, 
Mawp, Nope, Pope. The bullfinch, Pyrrhula europaea. 

n.Cy. Alp, a singing alp, GROSE (1790). Lan. 1 , e.An. 12 Nrf. 
Alpe, GROSE (1790) ; Nrf. 1 Suf. Our gardeners slay the bullfinches, 
which eat the fruit-buds of currants and gooseberries 'mischief- 
ful alps,' as they call them, e.An. Dy. Times (1892) ; Alpe, or alfc 
(F.H.); Snf. 1 [AJp, the old name for the bullfinch, SWAINSON 
Birds (1885) 66 ; MORRIS Hist. Brit. Birds (1857).] 

[An alpe (bu\nnch),Rubidlla, COLES (1679)'; A\pe,Fice- 
dula, Prompt. ; Alpes, finches, and wodewales, CHAUCER 
R. Rose, 658. The forms ending in / (ph) appear mostly 
in compounds, and are perh. due to want of stress. See 

ALPUIST, conj. Obs. Sc. Also written allpuist, 
apiece, apiest. Although. 

Sc. We had been at nae great tinsel, apiest we had been quit o' 
her, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 14 ; We cou'd na' get a chiel to shaw us 
the gate, alpuist we had kreished his liv wi' a shillin, ib. 16 ; A 
bodie wou'd nae car'd to meddle wi her, apiece they had been 
hir'd to do't, ib. 17 

[See Albuist] 

ALRICH, see Eldritch. 

ALTER, v. Brks. Som. [o'lta(r).] To change for 
the better (as in phr. to alter the hand) ; to improve in con- 
dition, gain flesh (used of live stock). 

Brks. A man alters for the better, but changes for the worse 
(M.J.B.). w.Som. 1 Neef ee doan au'ltur uz an, ee ul zeon bee een 
i baemd wai [if he does not change his course (alter his hand) he 
will soon go to the bad altogether]. Dhai stee-urz-1 au-ltur, muyn, 
een yoa-ur keep [those steers will alter, mind, in your keep]. 
Dhai au-gz bee au'lturd shoa-ur nuuf [those hogs arc altered sure 
enough !]. 

ALTERATION,^. w.Yks. Hmp. [o'ltarei/an.] Differ- 
ence. Also used as adj. Of the weather : changeable, 

w.Yks. See what an alteration between me an' Wiseman ; he 
likes baths, an' 'ud fair cry if'c missed ? em, an' I can't abide 'em 

(F.P.T. j. Hmp. I'm always much worse in alteration weather 
(W.M.E.F. . 

ALTERING,^'. w.Som. [o'ltarin.] Likely to improve. 

w.Som. 1 Auctioneers constantly wind up their advertisements 
of cattle sales in the local press with, ' The whole of the stock is of 
the most altering description.' 

ALTER Y,adj. Brks. [o'ltari.] See below. 

Brks. The weather is said to be a bit 'altery' when it ' tokens 
for rain ' (M.J.B.). 

[Alter, vb. + -y ; the form prob. suggested by ' rainy.'] 

ALTOGETHER SO, adv. phr. w.Som. [^'ItageSa zoa.] 

w.Som. 1 Altogether so, just to the same degree. Bill's all thumbs, 
and Jack's altogether so vitty handed. 

ALUNT, adv. Sc. [alirnt.] In a blazing state. 

Sc. Hence, to set alunt, (i) to put in a blaze, (2) fig. to kindle, 
to make blaze. For if they set the taxes higher, They'll set alunt 
that smoostin' fire Whulk ilka session helps to beat, An when it 
burns, they'll get a heat, HOGG Pastorals, 16 ; Sweet Meg maist 
set my saul alunt Wi' rhyme and Pate's disease, A. SCOTT Poems 
(1811) (JAM.). Gall. That reed-heed o' yours to set them a-Iunt, 
CROCKETT Sunbonnet (1895) ix. 

[A-, on + lunt, q.v.] 

ALWAYS, conj. Sc. n.Cy. Notwithstanding, however. 

Sc. The remonstrants would have opposed it (the coronation of 
Charles II), others prolonged it as long as they were able. Always 
blessed be God, it is this day celebrated with great joy and con- 
tentment to all honest-hearted men here, BAILLIE Lett. (1775) II. 
367 (JAM.). N.Cy. 1 

[I will not contende . . . who is the best. . . . Alway I 
would advise him not to deteine the childe, ELYOT Gov. 
(BOUCHER) ; How be it that he had grete pyte . . . alwayes 
he ... went his wayes, CAXTON Eneydos, xxi. 74.] 

AM, see He. 

AMACKALLY, adv. n.Cy. to Yks. and Lan. Not in 
Sc. gloss. Also written amackily Wm. & Cum. 1 ; amackly 
Wm. Lan. 1 [ama'kali, ama'kli.] To some degree ; in 
some fashion ; as it were. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790); HOLLOWAY; N.Cy. 1 Amackally, in a manner, 
as well as one can. Nhb. 1 Obs. Cum. Did you get your money ? 
Aye, we dud amackaly. There wasn't time, but we gat it duin, 
amackily (M.P.). Wm. & Cum. 1 I send te thisan, to tell thec 
amackily what dreedful fine things I sicw,Borrowdale Lett. (1787). 
Wm. We leeve in yan o thor deeals up amang t'fells a fell heead 
spot amackly es yan ma say, CLARKE Spec. Dial. (ed. 1868) "TRtysh 
Beearin ; Fert neets an daes wer amackily o alike, Spec. Dial. 
(1885) pt. iii. i ; T'poor fello's pluck he amackily roosed, BOWNESS 
Studies (1868) 80; Wm. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Cams (1781) ; 
Amackly, almost, just about (R.H.H.). Lan. 1 , n.L.-ui. 1 . ne.Lan. 1 

[Amackally may be thus analyzed : Amack=a mak (for 
on mak), in a fashion ; to this the advbl. suffix -ly has 
been added, hence the gen. mg., in a manner ; see Mack.] 

AMAIN, adv. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. [ame'n, amea'n.j 

1. A coal-trade term ; in full force, violently, at full 
speed, quickly. 

Nhb. & Dur. Wagons or tubs are said to run amain if they get by 
accident over an incline bank-head without the rope being attached, 
or through the rope becoming detached or breaking, NICHOLSON 
Coal Tr. Gl. (1888). Nhb. 1 Cum. Fwok cud lock t'wheels ov a 
waggon to hinder't o' runnin' amain, DICKINSON Lamplugh (1856) 7. 

2. Fig. to get amain, run amain, to get beyond control, 
run riot. 

Nhb. As if maw wits had run amain, WILSON Pitman's Pay, &c. 
(1843) 23. w.Yks. T'fire on t'fell got amain (JE.B.). 

[Amain, vehementer, valde, strenue, COLES (1679) ; Cry 
you all amain, ' Achilles hath the mighty Hector slain,' 
SHAKS. Tr. &> Cr. v. viii. 13 ; Brave warriors, march 
amain towards Coventry, ib, 3 Hen. VI, iv. viii. 64. A-, 
on + main (OE. mcegn).] 

AMAISTER, v. Obs. sw.Shr. To teach. 

Shr. BOUND Prov. (1876) ; Shr. 1 An old man near Leintwardine, 
speaking of his schoolmaster, said, "E used to amaister me, Sir.' 
Now [1876] rarely heard ; Shr. 2 I'll amaister it to you. I insert 
this word on the single authority of a man from the neighbour- 
hood of Cleobury Mortimer, who assured me that he had repeatedly 
heard it in the above sense. 

[How ich myghte a-maistren hem to ... laboure For 
here lyflode, P. Plowman (c.) ix. 221. OFr. amaistrer, to 
master, to teach.] 




A-MASKED, ppl. adj. Obs. Wil. Bewildered, lost. 

Wil. Met with in old Wil. documents (G.E.D.) ; Wil.* 

[Philosophy is darke, Astrology is darke. . . . The pro- 
fessors thereof oftentimes runne amasket, JEWEL Holy 
Script. (N.E.D.) Atnasked, prop, covered with a ' mask," 
blindfolded . A- (pref. l ) + masked. Cp. masked in FULLER : 
Leaving him more masked than he was before, Holy 
War, in. a.] 

A-MASSY, int. Dev. [a-ma'si.] 

nw.Dev. Massy I A-massy ! A-massy well ! A-massy me ! are 
aIlcommon(R.P.C.). e.Dev. An' when 'twas done (a-maacy wull!) 
PULMAN Sketches (1842) 25. 

[Repr. Have mercy .' Heaven have mercy on me ! 
SHAKS. Otli. v. ii. 34 ; Have mercy, Jesu ! ib. Rich. Ill, v. 
iii. 178.] 

AMATON, sb. Sc. QAM.) 

1. A thin, bony person. 
Gall. (JAM. Suppl.) 

2. A foolish person ; one yielding to anger. 

AMAUNCE, AMAUNGE, see Maunce. 
AMAZE, sb. Wxf. Written amize. Amazement, 

Wxf. 1 

[But soon our joy is turn'd Into perplexity and new 
amaze, MILTON P. R. n. 38.] 

AMBER, sb. Ken. Sus. [ae - mba(r).] A plant-name : 
applied to (i) All Saints' Wort, Hypericum androsaemum, 
from its smell (s.Ken. Sus.) ; (2) St. John's Wort, Hyperi- 
cum per/oratum (Ken.). Perhaps so called from its pale 
yellow flowers. 

AMBER, YELLOW, see Yellow Ammer. 

AMBLE, v. Nhb. Not. Oxf. Also written aumble 
Nhb. 1 [o-mbl, o-ml.] 

1. To walk. 

Nhb. Obs. (R.O.H.); Nhb. 1 

2. To walk clumsily, to trample. Cf. shamble. 

Not. She's an omblin', shomblin' sort o' lass (W.H.S.). Oxf. 1 
Amble about, to tread standing corn, &c. about 

AMBRY, sb. Sc. n.Cy. to Yks. and Lan. ; also Der. 
Also written aumrie Sc. ; aumry w.Yks. 1 Lan. 1 aumery 
w.Yks."; aumbry N.Cy. 12 ; almery Nhb. [a'mbri, -mri .] 
1. A chest, cupboard where food is kept, pantry. 

Sc. Steek [close] the amrie, lock the kist, Else some gear may 
weel be mist, SCOTT Donald Caird (1818) ver. 4; The only furni- 
ture, excepting ... a wooden press, called ... an ambry, ib. Waverley 
(1814) xxxvii; He has broken his face on the ambry [is fat 
cheeked], HENDERSON Prov. (1832) 114, ed. 1881 ; Ambry, cupboard 
GROSE : (1790) MS. add. (P.) Abd. That grim gossip, chandler- 
chaftedwant, With threed-bare claithing, and an ambry scant Ross 
ffelenore ( I? 68) i. Bwk. He kept his money in an old aumrie of 
very black oak, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes ( 1856) 87. n.Cy. GROSE 
(1790); N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy. 2 No sooner up, but the head in the aumbry 
and nose in the cup. Nhb. 1 Cnm. Ton's welcome as may be My 
purse and my ambrie to share, ANDERSON Ballads (1808) 01 Now 
seldom used except in reference to old buildings, or as a tempta- 

Amh t? VM y p^ of ld , furniture in advertisements-' An ancient 

Ambne (M.P.). Wra. 1 Yks. Gang to your aumbrie, ifyou please 

And fetch us here some bread and cheese, Denham Tracts (edTiSgs 

97- m-Yks. 1 w.Yks. Aumery, a cupboard where provisions 

are kept Nearly obs., Hlfa. Wds.; w.Yks. 1 1 hed some efter 

asm breead i t aumry, ii. 300; w.Yks." Lan. We'n tarts an' 

1^\ ?" \ - W ^ Saddle ' mutton '' t>aumr y y n . WAUGH 
Jannock (1874) ; Oppenyon drawer i' th' aumrie, KAY-SHUTTLE- 
WORTH Scarsdale (1860) II. 283 ; Lan.i, ? Chs. 1 , Der. 1 

umrie ' r muckle aumrie, a very stupid person. 

Fn hi but wh t % contem P t to * clumsy person who has nothing 
in mm but what the spoon puts in (G W ) 

press r' cupboard, probably 
VCSSels used at mea ^ (JAM.). 

....^e plate and utensils for House- 

a cupboard to keep victuals in, WORLIDGE ; An ambrey 
(pantrey), Cella pennaria, COLES (1679) ; Ambry, vox jaw 
fere obsoleta ... a cupboard's head, SKINNER, Bb 2 ; Al- 
moire, an ambry, cupboard, box ; . . . Armaire, a cup- 
board, ambrie, little press, COTGR. ; An almery, scrininiii, 
almariolum ; ... An armorie, armarium, LEVINS Manip. 
Almery of mete kepynge, cibutum, Prompt. ; Avarice hatli 
almaries and yren-bounde coffres, P. Plowman (B.) xiv. 
246. OFr. almarie, armarie, MLat. amtariutii, a place for 
implements, ' arms.'] 

AMBURY, see Anbury. 

AMEL, sb. Obs. Sc. Enamel. 

Sc. The amel of her eye, when she smiled, it was impossible to 
look steadfastly on, Winter Ev. Tales, II. 8 (JAM.). 

[Amel, encaustum, COLES (1679) ; Esmail, ammel or 
enammel, COTGR. ; Ammell for goldesmythes, esmael, 
PALSGR. ME. Grene aumayl on golde, Gawaine, 235. 
OFr. esmail (mod. email).] 

AMELL,/**/). Nhb. Cum. Yks. [anvel.] 

1. Among, between, amidst. 

n.Cy. Amell one and two o'clock, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) ; 
N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy. 2 Some pronounce it ' ameld.' Nhb. 1 Amell them twa 
to drive a bargain, Joco-Serious Discourse, 29. Cum. 2 Nearly, if 
not quite, obs. n. &e.Yks. A-mcll tweay steauls the Tail may 
fall to'th grand, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 90. n.Yks. 1 They 
cam' amell seven and eight o'clock. ' Chop in amel],' direction to 
a colley or sheepdog. He fand it amell t'shaffs [sheaves] ; n.Yks. 2 
ne.Yks. 1 The form ' mellem ' is, or was recently, used at Staithes, 
where the fishermen divide the fish ' mellem yan anoother.' Amell 
tweea steeals. e.Yks. Amell six and seven o'clock, MARSHALL Rur 
Econ. (1788). 

2. Comp. Amell-door, a door midway between two 
others ; -doors, a passage ; -times, -whiles, -way, see 
below. See Mell-doors. 

Cum. 2 Amell-door, or Mell-door, a door between the outer door 
and that of an inner room. n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Amell-times, or Amell- 
whiles, intervals. Amell-way, in a middling way, as we say of 
a person's health. 

[Amel, among, betwixt, Sc., BAILEY (1755); Amell, 
among, betwixt, COLES (1677) ; Erthe is vayne and voyde, 
and myrknes emel, York Plays, 6. STRATMANN has the 
forms a melle and * melle. See Mell.] 

AMEN, in comp. ( i ) Amen-chapel, see below ; (2) -clerk, 
(3) -curler, a parish clerk ; (4) -wallah, a chaplain's clerk. 

(i) Slang. Amen-chapel, the service used in Winchester School 
upon Founder's Commemorations, and certain other occasions, in 
which the responses and Amens are accompanied on the organ 
(E.F.). (2) Shr. 1 Amen-clerk, obs. Entry in the Parish Register 
of Hopton Castle, Shropshire : ' Anno Dofiii, 1636. Richardus 
Beb Amen-clericus sepultus maij primo.' Var. dial. Clerk, called 
Amen-clerk in some places, PEGGE Ante. Eng. Lang. (1803) 318. 
(3) Slang. LifeB. M. Carew (1791). (4) In the army the chaplain's 
:lerk is called an Amen-wallah [Hindustani for man or person], 

AMENDEN, int. Obs. ? 
disguised oath. 

e-An. 1 Suf. 1 A sort of oath, equivalent to ' a plague,' or a more 
gross word, now disused. Where amenden ar yeow a goen? 
Amenden take you. [Not known to our correspondents 1 

AMENDMENT, sb. Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. Also 
written mendment Ken. 1 Sus. 2 Hmp. 1 [ame'ndmant] 
Manure laid on land. 
w.Ken. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) Ken. 1 , Sur. 1 Sns. 1 You 

down to the ten-acre field, and spread that amendment abroad ; 
Sus. 2 , Hmp.i 

[Chalk, lime, and other sweet soil and amendments, 
EVELYN Acetaria (1699), ed. 1729, 156. ME. Yet sawe I 
neuer tree that wold nought . . . receyuen tylthe and 
amendement, LYDGATE Pylg. Sowle(N.E.D.). Fr. amende- 
went, manure ; see LITTRE (s.v.), DUCANGE (s.v. Amenda- 
mentum). Used in this sense also in Flem. ; see BROEC- 
KAERT Bastaardwoordenboek (s.v.).] 

AMENDS, sb. Der. Not. War. s.Wor. [ame'nz.] Phr. 
'o make amends, to return a compliment or obligation. 

Der. Still commonly used (H.R.). nw-Der. 1 s.Not. Ah thanked 
im for the tunnips, an' told 'im we'd mek 'im amends when our 
peas corned in (J.P.K.). War. (J.W.R.) s.Wor. PORSON Quaint 
Was. (1875) 20 ; (H.K.) 

e.An. An interjection or 






[To make amends, in the sense of to make a return for 
something good, seems to be peculiar to the dialects. In 
lit. E. one always 'makes amends' for faults committed 
or damages incurred.] 
AMENG, see Among. 

AMERICAN, adj. Comb. ( i ) American breezers, a kind 
of potato (Oxf.) ; (2) creeper, Tropaeolum Canariense 
(Dev.) ; (3) lilac, CentrantJius ruber(Dev.) ; (4) rake, 
a machine for raking hay ; (5) waterweed, (6) weed, 
Anacharis alsinastrum (Lin. Glo.). 

(i) Oxf. 1 (2) Dev. 4 In Som. this handsome climber is called 
Canary creeper. (3) Ib. American lilac, Red Valerian. (4) nw.Dev. 1 
American rake, the turnover machine hay-rake. (6) Lin. The 
plant has received other trivial names, such as ... the American 
weed, MILLER & SKERTCHLY Fenland (1878) x. 
AMEVE, v. Obs. Irel. To move. 

Crl. Freq. used by old persons twenty years ago (M.B.-S.). Wxf. 1 
[Whan she had herd al this, she noght ameved, Neither 
in word or chere, CHAUCER C. T. E. 498. Ameve, OFr. 
ameiiv-, stressed stem of amover, amouvoir.] 

AMINDED, />/>/. adj. Stf. War. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Som. 
[amai-ndad.] Willing, disposed, inclined. 

s.Stf. Her con afford to put a good spread on the table when her's 
aminded, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (1889) 63. War. 2 Do as you're 
aminded. Glo. 1 You can do about that as you've got aminded. Oxf. 1 
I'll go when I be amindted. If I'd amindted I shall do6t, an' if 
I ant amindted I shant. Brks. 1 If a beant aminted to do what 
I axes e, e med vind a plaayce zome'er else. Som. An' then you 
shall goo, if you be a'-minded, RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life 
(1894) 124. w.Som. 1 I be gwain to vote eens I be aminded, and 
I baint gwain vor t'ax nobody. 
[A- (pref?}+ minded, q.v.] 

AMISS, in phr. amiss of. Suf. [ami's.] Amiss with, 
wrong with. 

Suf. What's amiss of John, that he doesn't go to work ? Some- 
thing's amiss of the lawn-mower. In everyday use (F.H.) ; 

AMITAN, sb. Sc. (JAM.) A weak, foolish person ; one 
yielding to excess of anger. 

[Gael, amadan, a fool.] 
AMMAT, see Noon-meat. 

AMMER-GOOSE, sb. Sc. The great northern Diver, 
Colymbus glacialis. 

Abd., e.Lth. Ammer,or Emmer-goose, SWAINSON Birds (1885) 213. 
AMMIL, sb. Dev. [ae'mil.] A kind of hoar-frost. 
Dev. There is one peculiar atmospheric phenomenon seen upon 
Dartmoor, which is of rare occurrence, . . . known to the moor-folk 
as the ' ammil.' . . . Under certain conditions a body of thin trans- 
parent ice encloses every tree, twig, leaf, or blade of grass, PAGE 
Explor. Drtmr. (1889) i ; The ammil continued for two nights and 
days, ROWE Peramb. Drtmr. (ed. 1896) 431 ; Duee lukee ; zee 
tha trees be Hiking butivul's marning. LOkes'z ef they wuz 
covered wi' dimonds. Us dawnt offen zee tha ammil za thick, du 
us? HEWETT Peas. Sfi. (1892). 
[Prob. a fig. use of amel, q.v.] 
AMMUT, see Emmet. 
AMON, sb. Obsol. Ken. A child's game. 
Ken. A trial of skill, in which the players endeavour to see who 
can get over the most ground by means of one hop, two steps, and 
a jump. The game is still practised, though the word ' Amon ' is only 
known to old people. Will ye try a' amon widme, Jack! Playin' 
at amon does'n wear a youngster's boots out like hop-scotch does 
(A.M.) ; Name obs. round Ramsgate, but a workman has seen the 
game played on the sands under the name of Fling (D.W.L.) ; 
Ken. 1 " 

AMONG, prep. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. Also 
written amang Sc. Irel. Cum. n. and e.Yks. Lan. Lin. ; 
ameng w.Yks. ; imangs, imangis Sc. [ama'rj, arne'rj.] 

1. Between ; used with reference to only two things. 
Chs. 3 ' Beat her among her een,' a suggestion from a drover to 

make a ' curst ' cow go the right way. [Arner. The money was 
divided among us two, BARTLETT.] 

2. In, into ; together with ; esp. in phr. to mix among, 
put among. 

Sc. There's a mote amo' the milk (G.W.). Inv. To put some- 
thing among milk or water is to add something to or put something 
into it (H.E.F.). Abd. Noo, Mrs. Birse, ye wull not pit fusky in 
VOL. I. 

amo' my tae [put whisky in my tea], ALEXANDER Johnny Gibh (1871) 
132, ed. 7. Per. Mix them a' amons ane anithcr [in one mass] 
(G.W. ). w.Yks. 3 Often used without noun, as ' There's a flock of 
geese and ducks amang.' 

3. In phr. (i) among them, in their own hands ; (2) among 
them be it, let them settle it among themselves, it is their 
affair ; (3) to be among the hands of, to be in the hands 
of, to be treated or used by. 

(i) w.&s.Sc. Imangs them, imangis themsells, in their own hands, 
together, in common (JAM. Suppl.). (2) Sc. Amangyou be't, priests' 
bairns ; I am but a priest's oye [grandson], HENDERSON Prov. 
(1832) 101, ed. 1881. NJ. 1 Among ye be it, blind harpers [settle 
it among yourselves : said to persons quarrelling], e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 
If anyone caame to tell 'er taales abaht oother foalk, sha'd listen, 
an' then say, 'Amang 'em be't' (F.P.T.). (3) Per. It's amo' your 
hands. In common use (G.W.). 

[2. Vinello's . . . are much used among chocolate to 
perfume it, DAMPIER Voy. I. 235 (N.E.D.) ; Bawme helde 
Among a basket ful of roses, CHAUCER Hous F. 1687. 
3. The vessel that the potter made off claye brake amonge 
his hondes, COVERDALE Jer. xviii. 4.] 

AMONG-HANDS, adv. Sc. Irel. Cum. Yks. Lan. Der. 
Not. Lin. Also written amongans sw.Lin. 1 

1. Said of work or any undertaking : done conjointly, by 
mutual help or joint action. 

e.Yks. Oor fooaks is undher-handed rayther then ower-handed, 
bud they'll mannish amang-hands, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 91 ; 
e.Yks. 1 They'll manish te dee it amang-hands. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 5 
When there is a task of some difficulty to do in a workshop and none 
to whose lot it falls particularly, any unpleasantness is speedily 
got rid of by agreeing to do it ' ameng-hands.' A matter o' sixty 
lawyers hed been consulted . . . soa ameng-hands the property was 
declared under the cognizance o' the High Court o' Chancery, ib. 93. 
n.Lin. It's a orphan, bud w6 mun git it broht up among-han's 
(M.P.) ; n-Lin. 1 Thaay doan't keap a sarvant lass noo, but thaay 
get thrif th' hoose-wark tidy enif among-hands. Th' bread's sad, 
but I weant thraw it i' to swill-tub ; we shall get thrif it among- 

2. Between whiles, in the meantime. Of work: done at 
odd moments, conjointly with other things. Cf. atween- 

Ayr. Had he no dee'd among hands . . . I'm sure I canna think 
what would hae come o' me, GALT Entail (1823) xxxii. Ant. A'll dae 
it amang han's [after working hours, on wet days, &c.], Ballymena 
Obs. (1892). N.I.iHe'll daet amang bans, i.e. he will get it donesome- 
how, by dividing the labour, and finding spare time for it. n-Yks. 1 
n.Yks. 2 We can do't amang hands. w.Yks. Trottin a bit nah an 
then ameng-hands when t'road suits, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla 
Ann. (1848) ; w.Yks. 1 2 , ne.Lan. 1 , Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 swXin. 1 There's 
a woman as does the work, and waits of her among-hands. The 
men have two lunches a day, and they want beer among-hands. 

3. Between, amongst other things. 

w. & s.Sc. Imang hands, at hand, at command, in process, on 
the anvil (JAM. Suppl.). Cum. We've roughness [plenty] amang 
hands, we've kye i' the byre, ANDERSON Ballads (1808) The Aunty ; 
They wad ha kilt meh amang hands, an what couldei ha deunn 
wih sooa menny o' them, SARGISSON./OC Scoap (1881) 178. n.Yks. 2 
Oor cart's i' t'market amang hands [along with similar vehicles]. 
w.Yks. 5 A farmer will cut up a stack of bad hay and truss it off 
ameng-hands, i.e. mix it up with trusses of good hay and send it 
thus to market. Not. A've given away a many o' them flowers 
amongans (L.C. M.). swXin. 1 We've setten some larch with spruce 

4. Of land : belonging to different proprietors intermixed. 
w.Yks. This word is still used, but much more rarely than formerly 

(M.F.) ; w.Yks. 1 

AMOO,s6. Wil. Children's name for a cow. See Moo. 

WU. Aumoo, cow or bullock (now almost obs.), N. & Q. (1881) 
6th S. iv. 106 ; Ahmoos, used by nurses in talking to children, on 
the borders of Wil. and Som. (G.E.D.) ; Wil. 1 Used by mothers to 
children, as ' Look at they pretty ahmoos a-coming ! ' 

AMOTH, sb. Irel. A big soft ' gossoon ' who would cry 
for nothing (S.A.B.). 

NJ. 1 A blirton amos [sic], a big soft fellow who weeps for a slight 

[Ir. amad, a simpleton, a foolish silly person, a fool.] 

AMOVE, adj. Brks. [amu'v.] Moving with, full of. 

Brks. 1 A copse is said to be ' amove wi' gaayme.' 

[A-, on + move.] 




AMP, sb. Sh.I. [amp.] Fear, terror. 

Sh.I. (W.A.G.), S.&Ork. 1 

[Norw. dial, ampe, trouble, troublesome work. It is 
freq. used about the trouble with babies (AASEN). Cp. 
Sw. dial, ampen, angry, anxious (RiETz).] 

AMPER, sb. e.An. Ken. Sus. Hmp. Dor. Som. Dev. 
[a-mpa(r), ae-mp3(r).] 

1. An inflamed swelling, pustule ; a varicose vein ; 
matter, pus. 

e-An. 1 A sort of inflamed swelling. Nrf. 1 Suf. e.Ang. (1866) 
II. 325. Ess. Amper, a swelling (P.R.) ; A rising scab or sore, allso 
a vein swelled w th corrupted blond (K.) ; Ess. 1 Ken. 1 A tumour or 
swelling. Sus. 1 Hmp. Prick it, an' let th' amper out (J.R.W.); 
Hmp. 1 Dor. 1 The chile is all out in an amper. Som. A small red 
pimple, JENNINGS Obs. Dial w.Eng. (1825); W. & J. Gl. ; Mostly 
used as to gatherings on the fingers when ' proud flesh ' swellings or 
yellow-heads come. I have amper on one of my fingers (G.S.). 
w-Som. 1 A blotch on the face. n.Dev. Ampers, red spots and 
inflammation on the skin, particularly upon the veins of the legs, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 

2. A defect or flaw in cloth. 

Suf. (P.R.) Sus. A fault or flaw in linnen or woollen cloth, 
RAY (1691) ; GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) ; Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 

[Amper, Ampor, a swelling; also a flaw in cloth, 
BAILEY (1721) ; Amper vel Ampor, vox Rusticis agri Essex, 
usitatissima, quae tumorem vel phlegmonem designat, 
SKINNER ; An amper, ampor, tumor, COLES (1679). 
ME. pri ampres were an mancyn XT his to-cyme, Horn. I. 
237. OE. ampre (ompre), ' varix,' a swollen vein.] 

AMPERED, adj. Ken. Som. [ae'mpad.] Poisoned, 
feste ed ; decayed. 

Ken. Ampred chees (K.). Som. SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

AMPERLASH, sb. Chs. Saucy, abusive language. 
See Camperlash. 

Chs. I'll have none o' thy amperlash, soo I tell thee, Sheaf "(1879) 

I. 168 ; Chs. 1 

AMPERSAND, phr. In var. dial, of Sc. and Eng. 
Also written ampassy Cum. 1 Dev. 1 Cor. 12 ; amsiam Oxf. ; 
anpasty e.An. 1 ; anparsy Dur. 1 w.Yks. 2 ; anparse 
w.Yks. 1 ; anparsil w.Yks. 5 ; epse-and Lin. 1 ; empassy on 
Shr. 1 ; empus-and Suf. 1 ; passy Cor. 12 ; passy-and Lin. 1 ; 
parcy-and N.Cy. 1 ; parseyand e.Yks. 1 See below. The 
sign &, formerly written at the end of the alphabet in 

S. & Ork. 1 Aberzeant, et cetera. Abd. Usually called Eppersyand, 
N. & Q. (1880) 6th S. i. 500. N.Cy. 1 In the old dames' schools it 
was made a twenty-seventh letter ' X, Y, Z, and parcy." Dur. 1 , 
Cum. 1 n.Yks. 2 Amparsy, or Amplezant. ne.Yks. 1 Anparsy, in 
rare use ; sometimes Parsy-and. e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. X, Y, Z, and 
parcel, goa ta bed, Flk-rhyme, Yks. N. & Q. (1888) II. 14 ; Children 
sometimes conclude the alphabet by saying ' X, Y, Z, and parsil," 
Hlfx. Wds. ; w.Yks. 125 Chs. & per se and. On battledores 
furnished to the free-school at Nantwich about the year 1820-1, 
N. & Q. (1871) 4th S. viii. 468. n.Stf. He thought it had been put 
there to finish off the alphabet though ampus-and would ha' done 
as well, GEO. ELIOT A. Bede (1859) xxi. Not. 1 Epsey and. Lin. 1 
nXin. 1 ' From A to andparcy ' is equivalent to ' from beginning 
to the end.' Lei. 1 Ampus-and. War. 3 Shr. 1 Zad an' expassy and 
[ek'spu'si'and] is heard about Worthen, In/rod, xxiii. Oxf. 1 Brks. 1 
Amsiam : always thus called by children, and named after the letter 
Z when saying the alphabet. e.An. 1 Cmb. 1 Ab-er-zand, commonly 
used in the dames' schools at Wisbech. Suf. Beside [Ampersand, 
Anapasty], & is called here Anapaster and Amperzed, e.Ang. (1866) 

II. 363; Suf. 1 e.Sus.,Hmp. Amperzed, HOLLOWAY. Som. Anpassey , 
W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). w-Som. 1 Our 
alphabet always ends with 'aek's, wuy, zad, an'paa'see.' Dev. 
Ampassy, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) ; Dev. 1 , Cor. 12 Cor. 3 In Red- 
ruth usually An-passy-an or Am-passy-an. Colloq. Any odd shape 
folks understand To mean my Protean ampersand, Punch (Apr. 17, 
1869) 153. 

[Repr. ' and per seand,' i. e. ' & by itself=and.'] 
AMPERY, <#. Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. Som. [se-mpari.] 

1. Covered with blotches or pimples ; gathered. 

Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; My finger is getting ampery (G.S.). 
w-Som. 1 Aanrpuree fae-usud [blotchy faced]. A very common 
description of persons, but it would not be spoken of animals. 

2. Of things, esp. of cheese : rotten, beginning to decay. 
Ken. An amprey tooth, GROSE (1790) ; Almost equivalent to ' adle.' 

Said of an old wagon in a rickety state and out of repair (P.M.). 
ne.Ken. Applied to a creaking table, decaying cheese, or to a loose 
blade in a knife (H.M.). Ken. 12 Sur. 1 That cheese is middlin' 
ampery. Sus. The doctor opened Jim's mouth . . . but seem naun 
amiss an not won ampre ang, JACKSON Southward Ho (1894) I. 
251 ; Sus. 1 Especially applied to cheese. Hampery. out of repair ; 
Sus. 2 Ampre-ang, a decayed tooth. Hmp. 1 
3. Fig. of persons : sickly, unhealthy. 

Ken. Ampry, LEWIS I. Tenet (1736). e.Ken. 'A ampery 'apoth 
of cheese,' applied to any one ofa weakly constitution (M.T.). Ken. 12 
e.Sus. HOLLOWAY. Sus. 12 , Hmp. 1 

[Amper, q.v. + -.?.] 

AMPLE, adj. Shr. Also written imple Shr.' [a'mpl.] 
Complete, perfect. 

Shr. Very commonly used (M.L.) ; Shr. 1 It wuz all in ample order 
agen they comen back. 

AMPLEFEYST, sb. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) 

1. Applied to persons or animals : a sulky humour, a fit 
of spleen. 

Lth., Rxb. A horse is said to tak the amplefeyst, when he be- 
comes restive, or kicks with violence. He's ta'en up an amplefeyst 
at me. 

2. Unnecessary talk, long stories. 

Rxb. We canna be fash'd wi' a' his amplefeysts. [Not known 
to our correspondents.] 

AMPLUSH, sb. Irel. s.Pem. [a'mpluf, u'mpluf.] A 
disadvantage, non-plus, state of unreadiness. 

Ir. He was driven at last to such an amplush that he had no other 
shift for employment, CARLETON Traits (1843) i. w.Ir. There was 
no sitch thing as getting him at an amplush, LOVER Leg. (1848) 
II. 472. s.Don. Amplush, a fix, a difficulty ; used also in Munster, 
SIMMONS Gl. (1890). s.Pem. I did'n expect it, a took me all on a 
umplush (W.M.M.). 

[Repr. non-plus.] 

AMPLUSH, v. Bnff. Irel. To reduce to a dilemma, con- 
fuse in argument. 

Bnff. 1 w.Ir. He'd have namplushed me long ago, LOVER Leg. 
(1848) II. 510. 

[See Amplush, sb.~\ 

AMSCHACH, si. Sc. A misfortune, accident. 

Sc. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Bnff. The vricht [wright] fell 
aff o' the reef o' the hoose, an got a gey sehr namschach o' the head 
(W.G.). Abd. But there is nae need To sickan an amshach that 
we drive our head, Ross Helenore (1768) 284. 

A-MULLOCK, adv. s.Wor. Glo. Untidily ; in a con- 
fused heap. See Mullock. 

s.Wor. Very commonly used (H.K.). Glo. Down er went on 
ers backarl a-mullock, BUCKMAN Dai-he's Sojourn (1890) vii. 

[A-, on + mullock, q.v.] 

AMY FLORENCE, sb. Obs. Nhp. 

Nhp. 1 Any female loosely, untidily, and tawdrily dressed. She 
is quite an Amy Florence. Now nearly obs. [Not known to our 

AN, pron. Sc. n.Cy. ; also Shr. Also written ane Sc. 
See One and Yan. [en, an.] One. 

Per. A bad ane, a good ane. Mony a ane thinks his neighbour 
a coorse ane [coarse person] (G. W.). e.Lth. An' whan the warlock 
bodies cuist doun their staves, an' they turned into serpents tae, 
Awron's ane stude up on its hint legs an' devoored them a', 
HUNTER'/. Inwick (1895) 1102. Edb. The weeane(J.W.L.). Cum. 
Git up, my leuvv, my fair an, an" come away, DICKINSON Sng. Sol. 
(1859) ii. 10. s.Wm, A dunnan [dun an] and a black an, HUTTON 
Dia, Storth and Arnside (1760) 1. 23. n-Yks. It wasn't t'reetan, 
TwEDVELLClevel. Rhymes (i8T$)3T. w.Yks. 1 He's a bad an. That's 
a good an. Shr. 2 A bad an. 

AN, num. adj. Sc. Nhb. [an, van.] The same, 

Gall. They were fast comrades, being of an age, CROCKETT Moss 
Hags (1895) 322. Nhb. Ki Geordy, We leve i' yen raw, weyet, 
I' yen corf we byeth _gan belaw, weyet, N. Minstrel (1806-7) pt 
iv. 76. 

AN, prep. Sc. [an.] By, about the time of, often im- 
plying before. 

w. & s.Sc. I'll be back an gloaming. It'll be a" by an ye come back 
(JAM. Suppl. ). Per. An, before ; not used so frequently as ' gin' or 
'gan.' I'll be there an an hour (G.W.). 

[Prob. an unstressed form of Sc. agane (see Again), 
I'll be back agane gloaming QAM.).] 



AN, cow/. 1 Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. n. and w.Yks. Lan. 
Der. Also in Nhp. Glo. e.An. Sur. Hmp. Som. Dev. 
Written ant Der. 1 [an, an.] 

1. If; found also in comb. Antle, if thou wilt. 

Sc. Ye may gae hame an ye like, HENDERSON Prov. (1832) 58, ed. 
1881 ; You'll wash my bluidy wounds o'er and o'er, And see an 
they'll bleed nae mair, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads (1806) The Twa 
Brothers; An they had ever had the luck to cross the Firth, SCOTT 
Midlothian (1818) xi ; I fore-ran A wee wee wife and a wee wee 
man ; And sae will I you an I can, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes (1870) 
86 ; The biggest salmon in the river couldna gie Jonah lodgings 
an it had been willing, DICKSON Auld Min. (1892) 105. Abd.An it 
had been a tyddie pennyworth, I might hae chanc'd to get a mens 
[civility] o' her, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 15. Frf. Twenty year syne 
we began life taegither, and an it please God we can begin it again, 
BARRIE Minister (1891) xxvi. Per. Ye may lauch an' ye like, 
neeburs, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 278. Twd. February, 
an ye be fair, The hoggs'Il mend, and naething pair [lessen] : 
February, an ye be foul, The hoggs'Il die in ilka pool, SWAINSON 
Weather Flk-Lore (1873) 39. Gall. Whene'er we meet wi' liquor 
guid, we'll drink an we be dry, NICHOLSON Hist. Tales (1843) 107. 
n.Cy. Antle, an thou wilt (W.W.S.). Nhb. 1 An yer gannin the 
morn, will ye tyek us wi' ye ? Cum. Tou couldn't mend laws an 
tou wad, man, BLAMIRE Poet. Wks. (c. 1794) 210. Wm. 1 An tu dus 
aa'l [I'll] whack tha. Yks.Antle, GROSE (1790) Suppl. ; He'd a gaed 
hame that neight an' thou'd a let him, HOWITT Hope on (1840) xi. 
n.Yks. 12 , m.Yks.* w.Yks. 1 An he were. Antot'hed, if thou hadst. 
Antul, if thou wilt. It's nout at au, antul believe me, bud a blind, 
ii. 297 ; w.Yks. 5 An thah doesn't let that aloan al hagel thee rig for 
thuh. Lan. 1 Aw'll warm thee, an thae does it. ne.Lan. 1 He'll 
cum an a sed sooa. Der. 1 Ant like yo (pbs. 1890). Glo. An, if, but 
often joined with ' if.' An he comes here, I will rattle him, GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (H.) e-An. 1 An I do. Sur. When skulemaster 
talked o' teachin' 'em drawin', I up and told him, an" 'ee did it my 
old man should draw more lines on 'ee's back than ever the laads 
did a' paper, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) I. xiii. Hmp. 1 An I were 
back, I'll pay you. w.Cy. The western man saith ' Chud eat more 
cheese an chad it,' BLOUNT (1656). w.Som. 1 An yiie plaiz [if you 
please]. Dev. 1 Colloq. If ifs and ans were pots and pans there'd 
be no trade for tinkers, Prov. 

2. Although. ? Obs. 

Sc. Get enemies the mastery over Christ as they will ; He will 
ay be up upon them all, an they hadsworn't, GUTHRIE Sermon (i 755) 
1 1 GAM.). 

3. An if, if. See Nif. 

Nhp. 1 An if I did, what of that? w-Som. 1 An if, the regular 
form of if." In rapid common speech itis nearly always contracted 
into ' nif.' Neef aay wuz yiie, aay-d zee un daam fuus [if I were 
you I would see him d d first]. 

4. An as if, as it were. 

n.Yks. An as if the getherin' o' tweea armies, ROBINSON Whitby 
Sttg. Sol. (1860) vi. 13. 

[1. This word is mostly written and in the old writers, 
and is identical with lit. E. and, OE. and (ond) ' et.' The 
forms and and an both occur in SHAKS. (in old edd. 
mostly and] : Ay, my lord, an't please you, J, Caesar, iv. 
iii. 258 ; And I were a pope Not only thou, but every 
mighty man . . . Sholde have a wyf, CHAUCER C. T. B. 
3140. The word and in the sense of ' if ' does not seem to 
have come into use bef. the beginning of the i3th cent. 
The earliest instance in MATZNER is fr. Laymton, I. 355. 
2. An thou wert a lion, we would do so, SHAKS. Love's 
L. L. v. ii. 627. 3. An if freq. in SHAKS. : It is not lost ; 
but what an if it were? Oth. in. iv. 83 ; An if your wife be 
not a mad-woman, M. Ven. iv. i. 445.] 

AN, conj." Sc. Wm. Yks. Lan. Glo. Oxf. e.An. Som. 
Also written and Not. [an.] Than. 

s. & w.Sc. Its mair an ye deserve (JAM. Suppl.). Wm. Warse 
an that, BRIGGS Remains (1825) 182. n.Yks. 1 Less an hau'f nowght. 
e.Yks. 1 That's waase an all. n.Lan. The lov's better an wine, 
PHIZACKERLEY Sng. Sol. (1860) v. 2. ne.Lan. 1 Not. No more and I 
(J.H.B.). Glo. Ale seems more solider 'an cider this cold weather, 
GISSING Vill. Hampden (1890) I. vi. s.Oxf. Six 'ear younger'n 'im 
you was, ROSEMARY Chilterns (1895) 125. e.An. 1 Little more an a 
half. Nrf. We'll remahmberyar love more 'an wine, GILLETT Sng. 
Sol. (1860) i. 4. Som. I don't know any maid I'd sooner zee 
about my house . . . an' I would you, RAYMOND Sam and Sabina 
(1894)49. w.Som. 1 Noauudh'ur waiz-n u naafurul [no other than 
a natural(fool)]. Dev. More an that, MOORE Hist. Dev. (.1829) I. 353. 

AN, see Anon. 

AN-, see On-. 

ANA, sb. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Also written anay. A 
river-island, a holm. 

Sc. The stones at the head of the anay. Rib. The Ana, or island, 
opposite to the library, was many feet under water, Caledon. Merc. 
(Jan. 29, 1820). 

ANACK, sb. Obs. Hit. A kind of bread. 

Hrt. Six several sorts of [oatmeal bread] may be made ... as 
your anacks, janacks, &c., ELLIS Cy. Hwf. (1750) 205. 

[Anack, a sort of fine bread made of oatmeal, BAILEY 

ANAN, see Anon. 

ANATE, adj. s.Irel. 

Wxf. 1 Anate, prepared. 

ANATOMY, sb. Sc. Irel. and in gen. use throughout 
dial. exc. in se. counties. Also by aphaeresis natomy, 
notomy, atomy. The latter form occurs in Nhb. 1 w.Yks. 2 
ne.Lan. 1 n.Lin. 1 nw.Der. 1 Der. 2 War. se.Wor. 1 Hrf. 12 
w.Som. 1 Dev. Cor. 13 ; ottomy w.Yks. 14 Nhp. 1 ; ottomy 
Irel. Chs. 1 Der. 1 War. ; otomy w.Yks. 4 Hrf. 1 Glo. 1 ; nottamy 
n.Cy. 1 nw.Der. 1 Shr. 1 ; notomize n.Yks. 12 w.Yks. 6 War. 
se.Wor. 1 ; ottimaze, ottimize Chs. 1 War. See below, 
[ana'tami, a'tami, no'tami, o'tami, -aiz.] 

1. A skeleton. 

Sc. Attamie (JAM.). N.Cy. 1 Wm. Wor thor giants alive? . . . 
they er net whick I racken, they er what they coo otamys, WHEELER 
Dial. (1790) 98, ed. 1821. n-Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 Notomise, Notomy. 
w.Yks. 12 ; w.Yks. 5 He use to goa through a trap-door intul t'cellar 
ivvry daay to luke ar it [his money], an' one daay t'trap-door fell 
ower him an' clickt him in, an' monny a year at after he wur fun a 
notomize. Lan. An gooin obeawt stretes loike o lot o 'notamies, 
ORMEROD TK Felleyfro Rachde (1851) i. e.Lan. 1 Notomy. Chs. 1 , 
Der. 2 Rut. Yon lad's got a good ottamies, 'e 'asn't got a sprained 
bonein'isbody(F.P.T.). Nhp. 1 , War.(J.R.W.) se.Wor. 1 Atomize. 
Hrf. 1 , Glo. 1 Hnt. Nottomy, Nattomy (T.P.F.). e-An. 1 

2. A very thin, emaciated person or animal, a ' bag of 
bones,' also at/rib. 

Sc. She is wasted to a fair anatomy, ROY Horseman's Wd, 
(1895) vi. Nhb. 1 He's just a bit atomy. She's gyen tiv a fair notomy. 
Cum. 1 She's dwinnel't away til a atomy. n.Yks. 2 He's pined tiv 
a notomize, there's nought left on him but a few beeans an a trifle 
o' bowels. Chs. 1 The child that she carried on her arm was sup- 
posed to be witched, for it went into a nottymaze and died 
(s.v. Witched). s.Chs. 1 Eh, what a nottimize yo bin ; yo dun look 
badly. Der. 1 , nw.Der. 1 An-otomy, Nottomy. n-Lin. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) 
Wor. 'Er was that wasted, 'er 'ad got to be a complete natomy, or 
frame o' bwones (H. K.). s.Wor. 1 Nottomy. se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 A cer- 
tain faddy mistress ' werrited the poor girld [her maid-servant] till 
'er wuz a rael nottamy.' Hrf. 2 He's gone to an atomy. Glo.'Natomy, 
BAYLIS Illus. Dial. (1870). Oxf. 1 Natomy, Notomy. 'Er little un's 
nuth'n but a natomy [Uur lit'l unz nuth-n bt u nafumuuy]. Suf. 1 
He's wasted to a nottamy. 'Tis nawn but a nottomize. Wil. 1 
Natomy, Notamy, Notamize. Dor. Lookzee didst ever zee zich a 
leedle notomy(F.P-). w.Som.iPoor blid ! [blood, i.e. body]her idn 
no otherways'n nottomy, her can't make use o' nort. A proper 
old nottamy [oa'l nau'tumee]. Atomies, worn-out, wretched 
creatures. Dev. ' And pray,' said the bishop, ' were you at all 
inconvenienced by keeping the body [a baby] a day longer?' 
' Not a bit o't, my lord ; us might have kep' un till these day 
'twas but a poor atomy thing,' Memoir Russell (1878) ix. Dev. 3 
Mary Ann's babby is a wisht atomy cheel, and by awl tullin' 
'er idden long vur thease wordle. Cor. He's thin as a natamus 
(H.D.L.) ; Cor. 1 Anatomis ; Cor. 3 Notomy, a little dried-up man. 
Cant. That old dried-up otomy, who ought to grin in a glass case 
for folks to stare at, AINSWORTH Rookuiood (1834) bk. in. ii. [Nfld. 
Poor John is reduced to a natomy (G.P.).] 

3. A pigmy, diminutive person, a small thin ' slip of a 
fellow.' Cf. accamy. 

wJr. The half of what the dirty little ottomy wasreadin', LOVER 
Leg. (1848) II. 475. s.Wxf. (P.J.M.) Lan. Thou little otty-motty ! 
BRIERLEY Waverloui (1863) 17, ed. 1884. Brks. 1 Dost think any- 
body 'ud mind a natomy of a chap like thee ? 

4. Used contemptuously, of a man. 

Lth. He's a big, saft, low-bred, useless anatomy o' a man, 
STRATHESK More Bits (1885) 283. War. Though what could make 
her take up with a poor notomise of a parson, as hasn't got 
enough to keep wife and children, there's One above knows 
I don't, GEO. ELIOT Amos Barton (1858) vi. Dev. A native of 

H 2 




Torcross spoke derisively of the caravan-folk who came to the 
regatta as ' a passel of old atomies,' Reports Provtnc. (1883) 80. 
5. A small portion ; a particle of anything previously oi 

larger bulk. 

n.Yks. 2 There's nobbut an atomy on t left. 

[1. An anatomy, sceleton, COLES (1679) ; Scelete, the 
whole coagmentation of bones in their natural position, 
also an anatomy made thereof . . . which we call a 
skelton or skeleton, COTGR. ; Death, death, O amiable 
lovely death ! . . . that fell anatomy, SHAKS. K. John, in. 
iv. 25, 40. 2. One Pinch : a hungry lean-faced villain, 
A mere anatomy, ib. Com. Err. v. i. 238 ; Thou atomy, 
thou ! Come, you thin thing, ib. 2 Hen. IV, v. iv. 33. 
The forms in -ize, as ottimize, notomise, are prob. due to 
anatomise, vb.] 

ANAUNTERS, conj., adj. and sb. Usually in pi. In 
n. counties to Yks. and Lan. Also written enanters 
N.Cy. 1 n.Yks. ; anaunter Nhb. 1 ; enaunter w.Yks. 1 ; 
ananters Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Cum. Wm. n.Yks. w.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 ; 
ananthers Wm. n.Yks. 12 ne.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 ; enanthers 
n.Yks. 12 [ana-nt3(r), a'ntar.] 

1. conj. Lest, in case that. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Ananters aa get well home. Dur. 1 Cum. & Wm. 
' A'll just put in a few garden seeds, ananters,' said a village shop- 
keeper in sending an order to a customer in the spring (M.P.). 
Wm. Step in tae see yaur nebbors en ant er they will be vexed, 
WHEELER Dial. (1790) 85, ed. 1840. n.Yks. Ah'd better drop, in 
anters 'at Ah gi'es tha ower mitch ov a gud thing, TWEDDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (1875)50; n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Ananthus. I'll take my cloak, 
ananthers it should rain. ne.Yks. 1 Thoo mun stop here ananthers 
he cums. m-Yks. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781) ; w.Yks. 1 
Ananters he does lick us. To mack a girt bloaz, ananters they 
spy aleet i t'other beacons, ib. 31, ed. 1834. neXan. 1 

2. adj. Applied to ' company' dishes. 

Cum. & Wm. Ananters pudding, an extra Sunday dish to be used 
in case of the arrival of company (M.P.). 

3. sb. comp. Poke-anaunters. 

Wm. The nickname ' poke-ananthers ' was given to a good-for- 
nothing who always carried a bag in case he met with anything 
worth picking up (J.M.). 

Hence Anaunterscase, conj. lest it should be the case. 

N.Cy. 1 Nanterscase. n.Yks. 2 Nantherskeease. ne.Yks. 1 The 
form ananthers case was frequently used near Northallerton some 
years ago ; but now obsolete, or very nearly so. 

[Anger nould let him speake to the tree, Enaunter his 
rage mought cooled be, SPENSER Sh. Kal. Feb. 199 ; With 
them it fits to care for their heir, Enaunter their 
heritage do impair, ib. May, 77 ; An aunter hit nuyede 
me, P. Plowman (c.) iv. 437 (an auenture, (B.) in. 279). 
An, on+aunter (auenture), OFr. aventure, Lat. adventura.} 

ANAUNTRINS, conj. Obs. Nhb. Yks. ; nantherins 
n.Yks. 2 If so be, peradventure. 

n.Cy. (K.) ; N.Cy. 2 Nhb. GROSE (1790). n.Yks. 2 Nantherins. 
w.Yks. 1 

\Anauntrins, if so be, COLES (1677). A naunter +-ings, 
advb. ending ; see above.] 

ANBURY, sb. Yks. Lin. Nhp. e.An. Also written 
hanbury Nhp. 1 Nrf. Suf. 1 ; nanberry n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 8 
Freq. ambury and anberry. [a'nbari, a'nibari. | 

1. A spongy swelling on the bodies of horses or oxen. 
n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 3 Nanbury, a kind of wart formed on the bag of 

a cow. n.Lin. 1 Nhp. 1 Anberry, a small excrescence at the end of 
a horse's nose. . . . We occasionally apply it to a wart on the heel. 
e-An. 1 Anberry, a small swelling, or pustule, to which horses are 
subject on the softest parts of their bodies. Nrf. The hanbery, 
a distemper in a horse's heel, which was a watry excrescence, 
that would sometimes grow to the bigness of one's fist, LISLE 
Husbandry (1757). 

2. A disease affecting turnips and other allied plants, 
popularly supposed to be due to the puncture of an insect. 

n.Cy. Anbury, GROSE (1790) Suppl. Nhp. 1 , e.An.i Nrf. That 
common destructive turnip disease ... in the sandy grounds of 
Norfolk . . . [which] is there called anbury [called also fingers-and- 
toes], ELLIS Mod. Hush. ( I75 o) IV. i. 27. e.Nrf. The anbury is a 
large excrescence, which forms itself below the apple [i.e. root of 
turnip]. It grows to the size of both the hands ; and, as soon as 
it is ... brought to maturity, it becomes putrid, and smells very 
offensively, MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1787). Suf. 1 

[1. Ambury (Anbury), a bloody wart on any part of a 
horse's body, JOHNSON ; A disease in horses breaking out 
in spungy swellings, BAILEY (1721) ; The ambury (in 
horses), Verruca spongiosa sanguine plena, COLES (1679) ; 
Ambury, Morbus equontm, SKINNER ; Moro, a mulberry- 
tree, also a kind of wartle in some horses, called an 
anberry, FLORIO. Prob. a variant of Angleberry.j 

ANBY, adv. Wil. Dor. Som. Also written amby 
w.Som. 1 [anbai-, ambai'.] Presently, by and by ; anby 
night, to-night. 

Wil. 1 I be main busy now, but I'll do't anbye. Dor. Anby 
(W.W.S.). Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). w.Som. 1 
When be gwain ?- Oh amby, can't go avore. Umbye, used with 
' night ' in the sense of 'to-night.' Nif you want to catch'n, look in 
to Half-Moon umbye night, 'bout of a nine o'clock. 

[Perh. for 'by and by.' At Yatesbury, n.Wil., the 
form used is (or was) present-an-bye, which seems to com- 
bine presently and by and by (G.E.D.).] 

ANCE, v. Sh. and Or. I. 

1. To heed, care for. Usually with negative. See Ant. 
Sh.I. (Coll. L.L.B.); Never anse him. Will du no anse me? 

[pay attention] (K.I.)* 

2. To have regard to, to concern. 
Or.I. It is little anced to you (K.M.). 
ANCH, see Hance. 

ANCHOR, sb. Yks. Lin. Lei. Nhp. Glo. Hmp. Also 
written anker w.Yks. 24 [a'rjka(r), e'rjka(r).] 

1. The chape of a buckle, the part by which it is attached 
to the belt, strap, &c. 

N.Cy. 1 e.Yks. 1 MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks.s 
Enchor. Glo. GROSE (1790) ; Anchor, so called from its holding 
fast the strap inserted in it, HOLLOWAY. e.An. 1 The part of a 
buckle . . . put into a slit in the strap ; so called from some resem- 
blance in shape to an anchor. Hmp. 1 Wil. The anchor is the 
part by which [a buckle] is first fastened : opposed to the tongue 
which holds it when fixed, BRITTON Beauties (1825) ; Wil. 1 

2. The tongue and swivel of a buckle, the part which 
pierces the strap and keeps it in place. 

w.Yks. 24 , n-Lin. 1 Lei. 1 The piece of metal [called also Anchor- 
piece] is shaped something like an anchor. The hole in a buckle 
through which the strap passes is called the ' mouth ' ; the ' long ' 
and ' chape ' represent respectively the ' tongue ' and ' chap,' or 
' cheek,' of the buckle. Nhp. 1 Anchor, the transverse piece of a 
buckle which attaches to the chape. 

3. An iron tie in a building. 

4. Comp. Anchor-piece, see 2. 
Lei. 1 

ANCHOR, v. e.An. Of tree-roots : to anchor out, to 
hold fast like an anchor. 

e-An. 1 

ANCHOR-FROST, sb. Lei. Nhp. (i) A frost which 
causes ice to form along the bed of a running stream ; 
(2) Anchor-ice, q.v. 

(i) Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 This frequently occurs in the neighbourhood of 
a mill-stream, and I remember once hearing a miller say, 'We had 
a sharp anchor-frost last night, for my pole would stand upright 
in the water this morning.' (a) Lei. 1 

[Bright enough to thaw an anchor-frost on the mill- 
wheel, WHYTE MELVILLE in Fortn. Rev. (Nov. 1867) 588.] 

ANCHOR-ICE, sb. Lei. Ice formed far below the 
surface of the water in a running stream ; ground ice. 

Lei. 1 

ANCHOR-STOCK, sb. Obs. Sc. A large long loaf 
of rye, or more rarely of wheaten, bread. 

Sc. Anker-stock has been supposed to be so called from ' an 
anchorite's stock, or supply for some length of time ' ; or, more 
probably, ' from some fancied resemblance to the stock of an anchor,' 
SIBEALD Chron. Poetry (1802) (JAM.). Edb. Before Christmas in 
Edinburgh large tables of anchor-stocks [appeared] at the head of 
the old Fish-market Close. These anchor-stocks, the only species 
of bread made from rye offered for sale in the city, were exhibited 
in every variety of size and price, from a halfpenny to a half-crown, 
Blackiv. Mag. (Dec. 1821) 691 ; A Musselburgh ankerstoke to 
slice down for tea-drinkings and posset cups, MOIR Mansie Wauch 
(1828) vii ; I have heard my grandmother speak of the anker- 
stock loaves she used to buy in the High Street of Edinburgh 




ANCIENT, sb. 1 Som. Naut. [se-nfant.] The ensign or 
national colours. 

[Ancient, the flag or streamer in the stern of a ship. Probably 
from end-sheet (for seamen call the sails sheets), the most likely 
name for the flag in the stern : they corruptly speak ' Anshent ' 
(K.I.] w.Som. 1 The Union Jack of a British vessel. In the Bristol 
Channel this is the usual term among the fisher-folk. How can 
anybody tell what her is, nif her ont show her ancient ? 

[Ancient, the flag or streamer of a ship, and, formerly, 
of a regiment, JOHNSON; Ancient, or Anshent, a flag or 
streamer set up in the stern of a ship, BAILEY (1755).] 

ANCIENT, adj. and sb, 2 Sc. Irel. Yks. Chs. Not. Lin. 
Shr. Suf. Som. Dev. Cor. Also written encient N.I. 1 
[e-njant, e-nfsnt.] See Old. 

A. adj. 1. Old, advanced in years. 

Ir. An ould ancient man, BARLOW Bog-land (18931 80. [The 
younger brother is the ancienter gentleman, RAY Prov. (1678) 
85.] Suf. 1 A very ancient man. Dev. 'Auncientl' she ex- 
claimed ; ' I'se warrant he's as old as Adam,' BRAY Tamar and 
Tayy (1836) II. 4. Cor. ' Ancient ould ' and 'ould ancient' are 
often used in conversation. He's an ancient ould fellow (M. A. C.). 

2. Cunning, clever. 

N.I. 1 A sea gull's a very anncient bird. 

3. Of children : staid, demure, precocious. 

Per. An ancient bairn (G.W.). s.Chs. 1 Hoo's an ancient little 
thing. s.Not. The lass can mek noise anoo when she likes, for all 
she looks so ancient (J.P. K.). Shr. 1 Patty wuz a mighty nice 
little wench, 'er went about things so stiddy an" ancient. Such 
children are said to be ' too ancient to live.' 

B. sb. An old man ; quaint, old-fashioned person ; in 
pi. ancestors. 

w.Yks. 1 Antients. n.Lin. 1 Well, old ancient, what did Adam 
saay when you last seed him? w.Som. 1 Well, my old-ancient, how 
b'ee ? Her's a proper old-ancient, her is. 

[A. 1. This ancient ruffian, sir, whose life I have spared 
at suit of his grey beard, SHAKS. K. Lear, n. ii. 67. 2. The 
duty of old women is ... to be sober, sage, and ancient, 
BECON Chr. Relig. (1564) 521 (N.E.D.). B. Those that 
lived in old times were called ancients, JOHNSON ; Can 
a man . . . brag of the vertues of his auncients if his 
owne life be vitious ? CROSSE Vertues (1603) 21 (N.E.D.). 
Cp. Fr. les anciens, (i) the nations of old time, (2) the old 
writers, esp. of Greece and Rome.] 

ANCIENTNESS, sb. Sc. Antiquity. 

Sc. Ancientness, s. v. Ancientry (JAM. Suppl.). Edb. Great folk 
pretend to have histories of the auncientness of their families, MOIR 
Mansie Wauch (1828) 5. 

[Ancientness, ancientry, antiquitas, vetustas, COLES 
(1679) ; Anciennete, ancientness, oldness, COTGR.] 

ANCIENTRY, sb. Sc. Lan. Also written auncientry Sc. 

1. Antiquity. 

Cld. They claim great ancientry o' name and bluid(jAM. Suppl.). 

2. Precocity. 

Cld. The ancientry o' that bairn I dinna like ; he talks like a 
gran'father (JAM. Suppl.). 

3. Old things, antiquities. 

Lan. It's o' cromfull o' ancientry, An' Roman haw-pennies, 
WAUGH Sngs. (1866) Eawr Flk. ; Lan. 1 

[Ancientry, the honour of ancient lineage ; the dignity 
of birth, JOHNSON ; Wronging the ancientry (i. e. the old 
people), SHAKS. Wint. T. in. iii. 63. Ancient + -ry.] 

ANCIENTY, sb. Cor. Antiquity. 

w.Cor. That [a cromlech] 's a reg'lar piece of ancientey (M.A.C.). 

[Ancienty, ancientness, KERSEY ; Ancienty, eldership, 
COLES (1677) ; Ancienty, oldenesse, eldertyme, olde con- 
tinuance, BARET ; A gret stane . . . That throu the gret 
anciente Was lowsyt, BARBOUR Bruce, vi. 252. AFr. 

ANCITER, see Aunceter. 

ANCLE-BAND, sb. Yks. [a-rjkl-band.] A strap for 
low shoes ; a shoe with a strap round the ancle. 

n.Yks. (J.T.); n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Ankleband, a strap attached by 
its middle to the back of the shoe with the ends meeting in front 
of the instep and buttoning upon it. ne.Yks. 1 m.Yks. Ah want 
a pair o' ancle-bands. Ah've brokken strap o' mv ancle-band 


ANCLE-BELT, sb. Yks. Lan. [e'qkl-belt.] A shoe 
for children, nearly like a slipper with a strap round 
the ancle. 

w.Yks. Ankle-belt in this sense has a very wide use (B.K.). 
Lan. Ancle-belt is a familiar word in North Lonsdale (J.R.). 

ANCLE- JACK, sb. Cum. Wm. Lan. Nhp. War. Oxf. 
Hrt. Dor. Colon. See below. 

1. A heavy boot coming above the ancle, sometimes used 
in Lan. of laced clogs. 

Ctun.(J.P.) Wm. Obsol. (H.D.R.'i Lan. His feet were sheathed 
in a pair of clinkered ancle-jacks, WAUGH Besom Ben (1865) i ; 
Lan. 1 , neXan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 Nhp. 1 Anclee-jacks or ankle-Johns. 
John, or Johnny, is a common generic term for rustics by whom 
these articles are worn. War. 3 Oxf. 1 Ankley-jacks, shoes, strong, 
but not water-tight, MS. add. Hnt. (T.P.F.) Dor. He wore 
breeches and the laced-up shoes called ankle-jacks, HARDY Madding 
Crowd (1874) viii. Colloq. He changed his shoes and put on an 
unparalleled pair of ankle-jacks, DICKENS Dombey (1848) xv. 
[Aus., N.Z. In a few months' time you come across him on the 
gum field in ankle-jacks and ragged shirt, picking up a scanty living, 
HAY Brighter Britain (1882) II. 24.] 

ANCLE-STRAP, sb. Van dial. See below. 

w.Yks. Ankle- strap, a kind of children's shoes, nearly like a 
slipper, with a strap to go around the ankle to keep them on the 
feet(B.K.); In Keighley the child's shoes fastened with a semi- 
detached strap, buttoning in front, are called ancle-straps (J.R.). 
Lan. (A.C.) [' Ancle-strap ' I have met with as far south as Bristol, 
and I fancy it is common in the Midlands (R.S.).] 

ANCLET, sb. Nhb. Wm. Yks. [a-rjklit, e-rjklit] A 
gaiter, a short stocking. 

n.Cy. Anclet, a gaiter (HALL.) ; N.Cy. 1 Anclet, Ancleth, a gaiter. 
Nhb. 1 Wm. 1 Obs. w.Yks. 3 A short stocking or sock. 

ANCLIFF, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Lan. Chs. Nhp. War. Wor. 
Shr. Pern. Glo. Oxf. Sur. Sus. Dor.; not in gloss. ofe.An. 
and sw. counties. Also in the forms anklet N.I. 1 N.Cy. 1 
Nhb. 1 ; ankley s.War. 1 se.Wor. 1 Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 w.Sus. ; an- 
cleth Sc. N.Cy. 1 ; anclief N.Cy. 1 ; anclif e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 ; 
anclee, Nhp. 1 War. 2 ; ancley Sur. 1 Sus. 1 [a'rjklif, a'rjklat, 
a'rjklit, a'rjklsb, a'ljklii.] 

1. The ancle. 

Sc. Hancleth, SIBBALD CArox. Poetry (iSoa) QAM.). N.I. 1 n.Cy. 
GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Te see them hirplin 'cross the floor 
Wi anklets shawd, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1843) a 4 i Nhb. 1 Lan. 
E aktilly pood [pulled] o seek gradely oer his yed as reycht welley 
deawn to his ancliffes, ORMEROD Felleyfro Rachde (1864) v ; Lan. 1 
Yore Jack's knockt his anclef out wi' jumpin. eXan. 1 , Chs. 1 
Chs. 3 Th' neatest ancliff as ever oi seed. Nhp. 1 War. 2 Ancler. 
se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 The maister's bin laid up above a wik 66th a kench 
in 'is ancler, an they sen as it'll be a wik or nine days lunger afore 
'e'll be about agen. s.Pem. Ankler, LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 419. 
Glo. 1 , Oxf. 1 , Sur. 1 Sus. Turnen he's ancliff, JACKSON Southward 
Ho (1894) I. 433 ; Sus 1 , Dor. 1 

2. Comp. Ancliff-bone. 

Sns. 1 e. I have put out my ancliff-bone [sprained my ancle]. 

[The forms ankley, anclee, go back to OE. ancleow ; cp. 
OHG. anchlao, MDu. anclau, Du. enklawe and aenklauwe 
(KILIAN). This type is prob. due to form-association 
with the word ' claw ' ; see Clee. With the forms anclif, 
anclief, cp. MDu. anclief (VERDAM), OFris. onklef (RicHT- 
HOFEN), the phonology of which has not been explained. 
The forms ancleth, anklet, are possibly developed fr. the 

ANCOME, sb. n.Cy. [a'nkum.] An ulcerous 
swelling. See Income. 

N.Cy. 1 Ancome, any swelling or other infirmity not traceable to 
any cause, or which has formed unexpectedly. Cum. 2 

[Ancome, a kind of boil, sore, or foul swelling in the 
fleshy parts, KERSEY ; An ancome (felon), furunculus, 
COLES (1679) ; Vijt, an ancombe, or a sore upon one's 
finger, HEXHAM ; An ancome, adventitius morbus, BARET. 
In ME. oncome is used of the plagues of Egypt : pe to]>er 
oncome atte him felle Was froskis, Cursor M. 5927. Cp. 
ON. dkoma, arrival, visitation, eruption on the skin.] 

ANCONY, sb. Stf. Sus. (obs.) and Tech. A term for 
a ' bloom,' or roughly wrought piece of iron of a parti- 
cular shape ; also comp. Ancony-end. 

Sus. Ancony is a bar about 3 feet long : at both ends a square 
piece [is] left rough to be wrought at the Chafery, RAY ^1691). 




Stf. A Bloom [has] two square knobs at the end, one much less 
than the other, the smaller being called the ancony-end, (K.) ; Stf. 1 
[At the iron-works, in the forge call'd the Finery, they work the 
metal by the hammer till they bring it into Blooms and Anconies. 
A Bloom is a four square mass of about two foot long w ch they 
afterwards by heating and working bring to an Ancony, the figure 
whereof is in the middle a barr about three foot long of that shape 
w^ they intend the whole bar shall be after made, leaving at each 
end a square rough piece (K.).] 

AND, sb. ? Obs. Sc. Yks. Also Nrf. Also written 
eind Sc. ; eynd e.An. 1 Nrf. ; yane Yks. 

1. The breath ; to take one's einds, to take a breathing 
space, pause in any employment. 

Sc. His stinking end, corrupt as men well knows, WATSON Coll. 
Poems (1706) III. 24 (JAM.) ; Aynd, breath, GROSE (1790) MS, add. 
(C.) Abd. And a' were blyth to tak' their einds And club a pint 
o' Lillie's Best ale that day, SKINNER Poems (1809) 12, ed. 1859. 
Per. Eind. This word is not common (G.W.). n.Cy. I am out of 
eand (K.) ; N.Cy. 2 Eand. Yks. Yane (K.). n. & e.Yks. A base 
stincking yane, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 564. 

2. Sea-mist, ' water-smoke.' 

e.An. 1 Nrf. The eynd, or water-smoke, as it is called, occurs 
mostly between spring and autumn. All at once a damp cold mist 
sets in from the sea and spreads at times many miles inland. 
Sometimes it remains the whole day, at others not more than an 
hour or two, then gradually vanishes. It has a faint smoky appear- 
ance, as if entirely distinct from ordinary fog, WHITE c.Eng. 
(1865) I. 176 ; Though a resident for nearly half a century in 
Norfolk, I never heard the well-known trying fog called eynd, or 
by any name like it, N. & Q. (1866) 3rd S. ix. 361. 

[He na mocht His aynd bot with gret panys draw, 
BARBOUR Bruce, iv. 199 ; Myn and is short, I want wynde, 
Towneley Myst. 154 ; An ande, anelitus, Cath. Angl. ; pis 
under wynd him gis his aand, Cursor M. 541 (v.r. ande, 
ond, onde). ON. andi, breath.] 

AND, v. Sc. (JAM.) Obs. Written eind, eynd. To 
breathe, whisper, devise, imagine. 

[Spiral, ergo vivit, as I wald say, he aindes, ergo he lives, 
Ress. betw. Knox and Crosraguel (JAM.) ; ON. anda, to 

AND, adv. Yks. [an.] In phr. with comparatives 
and . . . and=the . . . the. 

Yks. An' more he saw, an' worse he liked it, TAYLOR Miss Miles 
(1890) xv. 

AND, conj. Sc. Irel. Yks. Chs. Stf. Lei. War. Won GIo. 
Oxf. [and, an.] 

1. Connecting two adj. or an adj. and a ///. it gives to 
the former an advb. force. 

e.Yks. 1 Fine and [i.e. exceedingly] pleased. Awful and tired, 
vexed, unfortunate, &c., MS. add. (T.H.) s.Chs. 1 Fine an' vexed. 
Stf. 2 I'm afeart ar Mary Ann's got lost, 'ers foine an late ony road up. 
That apple-pai wur raer an good. Mi feidharz [father's] foin an 
drunk taneit. Wor. This table is beautiful and smooth (J.W.P.). 

2. To introduce a nominative absolute, sometimes with 
ellipsis of v. 

Sc. Could I go against my father's orders, and him in prison, in 
the danger of his life? STEVENSON Catriona (1893) x. e.Lth. It 
wadna be seemly, an' me a deacon, HUNTER J. Inarick (1895) 38. 
Ir. See all the people and they laughing ! How could I say it an' 
me an me oath ? [said by a witness before the Times Allegations 
Commission] (G.M.H.). Kid. I walked in the garden, and hid [it] 
in bloom [it being in bloom], Oral ballad (G MM.}. 

3. (i) Between two ordinal numbers (the first of which 
would be a cardinal in lit. E.) ; (2) in phr. expressing 
strong affirmation ; (3) connecting every member of a 
clause, and is redundant. 

(i) Sc. When Paris was in his twentieth and fourth year, 
three goddesses are said to have waited of him, Scotic. (1787) 115; 
The twentieth and first verse of the hundredth fortieth and fifth (2)Lei. J At public meetingsparticularly it isafavourite 
form of expressing assent' And way wull,' ' And it is.' War. 2 ; 
War. 3 This is common enough in Birmingham but I do not 
remember it in rural Warwickshire. (3) Sc. And in and at her 

signed an' sealed and ever so, ROSEMARY Chilterns (1895) 6 

4. And is sometimes omitted after vbs. of motion. 

Bio. 1 11 go look, GISSING Both of this Parish (,1889) I. 3. 

AND ALL, adv. and conj., prop. phr. Sc. Irel. Nhb. 
Cum. Win. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. Not. Lin. Rut. Lei. 
War. Wor. Glo. Oxf. Som. Dev. Written an', [an a, 
an o, an ol, an 93!.] 

1. adv. "And everything (else), et cetera. Hence : also, 
besides, in addition. 

Sc. Woo'd and married an' a', BAILLIE Sng. Dmf. The red, red 
rose is dawning and a', Rem. Niths. Sng. no (JAM.). Bwk. He 
ran to the smith, he ran to the sutor, He ran to the cooper an' a', 
HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 133. Nhb. 1 An aa, An aal. The 
folks was gaun in, so aw bools in an' a', ROBSON Sngs. of Tyne 
(1849). Cum. 1 We'd breed, an' butter an' cheese an' o', an o' 
maks o' drink. Wm. When she saw me she wept ; I wept ano', 
HUTTON Bran New Work (1785) 1. 378 ; Wm. 1 He's gitten et ano. 
n.Yks. An' there's sum canny bit lasses annole, TWEDDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (1875) n ; Tack them reeaks [rakes] wi tha, an' thoo'd 
better tack't forks an' all (W.H.). e.Yks. He had ti clame wall ower 
wi tar, an he clamed his-sen anole, an neeah mistak, NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sf>. (1889) 94 ; e.Yks. 1 Bill and Tom went an all. m.Yks. 1 
Ah's going an' a'll. w.Yks. Whoy, we'n all been up an darn 
anole ! BYWATER Sheffield Dial. (1839) 27 ; w.Yks. 1 There's Tommy 
come an au ; w.Yks. 2 Recovering he found himself in a warm 
bed, And in a warm fever an' all. Lan. Hoc wanted to kiss 
theean' o, WAUGH Sngs. (1866) 8, cd. 1871. ne.Lan. I make nowt 
o' poor folk apein th' quality, and when they're deead and all, 
MATHER Idylls (1895) 19; ne.Lan. 1 An-o. Chs. 1 Mun ol come an 
aw ? Sometimes reduplicated, ' An all an all.' s.Chs. 1 The Lord 
do so to me, an more an aw, Ruth (1887) i. 17. s.Stf. Yo'd better 
tak me an' all wi yer (T.P.). Stf. 2 If the't gooin to th' concert, oi 
shud loike ar Turn fur goo an aa. Der. 1 An6 [old unoa', mod. unau']. 
nwJDer. 1 An-aw. Not. 1 ; Not. 2 An' he did it anall. Lin. She beald 
' Ya mun saave little Dick, an* be sharp about it an' all,' TENNYSON 
Ovid Rod (1889). n.Lin. Fer he'd sawn wheat agaan that year an' 
all, PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes (1886) 70 ; n.Lin 1 He wants sendin' 
to Ketton [Kirton- in-Lindsey prison], an' a-cat-o'-nine-taails an'-all. 
Rut. 1 He's not very well, and the weather's rather inferial and all. 
Let. 1 Let the b'y coom an' all. War. 2 Bring your sister and all; 
War. 3 Have you got your pipe and all and all. se.Wor. 1 Ower Tom 
a got a good place ; 'e gets five shillin' a wick, un 'is fittle an 
all. Glo. Joice'll be there an' all, GISSING Vitt. Hampden (1890) 
iii. w.Som. 1 1 'sure you, sir, I've a beat-n and a-told to un, and a- 
tookt away 'is supper an all, and zo have his father too, but tidn 
no good, we can't do nort way un [a truant's mother's answer 
to chairman of School Board]. Dev. It had to be all clean and 
polished then, kettle and all, O'NEILL Idylls (1892) 49. Colloq. 
Down comes the baby and cradle and all, Nursery Rhyme You talk 
o' better food for us, an' schools, an' fires, an" all, KIPLING Brk. 
Ballads (1892) Tommy. 

2. Expletive or emphatic. 

Ir. An you full as a tick, an" the sun cool, an" all an" all, KIPLING 
Plain Tales (1891) Private Ortheris; And I thramped afther thim, 
. . . carryin' the baskets an' all, BARLOW Bog-land (1893) 45. sJr. 
Grand company coming to the house and all, and no regular serving- 
man to wait, CROKER Leg. (1862) 285. Cum. We must be off, or 
they'll likely be finingme and aw, fornotbeingatt'meeting,///z//y 
in Coriifi. Mag. (Oct. 1890) 380. Lei. 1 Way'd such a coomin' o' ege 
an' all an' all [i.e. such rejoicings at the coming of age of the young 
squire]. Rut. 1 Who should come by just then but the Honour- 
able and all [though the Hon. A. B. who came up so inopportunely 
was unaccompanied]. s.Oxf. She thinks the world an' all o' that 
boy, ROSEMARY Chilterns (1895) 38. 

3. Truly, indeed. 

Cum. It s that dog of Ritson's. ... I thowt he'd [the dog] give it . 
back to Watson's yan this time, and, by gocks ! he hes an' aw ; seast 
tha Watson's dog goas upo' three? Helvellyn in Comh. Mag. (Oct. 
1890) 392. ne.Yks. 1 Did you enjoy yourself? Ah did an" all. 
w.Yks. He's a reet un an' all (G.B. W.). s-Chs^The Tories binna 
gotten in, bin they ? They bin, an' aw. Stf. 2 Mester inna jed, is i' ? 
He is, an aa. 

4. conj. Although. 

n.Yks. (I.W.) w.Yks. An' allAhsayitmisen, ther' isn't abetterlad 
livin' ner ahr Johnny (JE.B.) ; The use in the sense of 'although' 
is unusual (G.B.W.). 

[1. And you and all, & te quoque etiam ; ... He had 
lost his faith and all, Perdidisset fidem quoque, ROBERTSON 

ANDER, sb. Sh.I. 

ShJ. A porch before a door (W.A.G.). S. & Ork. 1 

[ON. ond (gen. andar), a porch, lit. the place over 
against the door (and-dyn), (VicFussou).] 


[55 1 


ANDERN, ANDERS, see Undern. 

ANDERS, sb. ? Obs. e.Yks. 

e.Yks. Drift ice in extended masses brought up by the tide and 
stranded along the beach. The word is said to be in common use 
by fishermen and others at Spurn, Lin. N. & Q. (Apr. 1891) 180. 
[Not known to our correspondents.] 

ANDIER-DOGS.sZ-.//. I.W. Andirons. 

I.W.' Anjur-dogs, kitchen utensils for the spit to run on. 

[For etym. see Andirons, and cp. An-dogs.] 

ANDIRONS, sb. pi. Yks. Lan. Also written end-irons 
w.Yks. 5 [e'ndaianz.] 

A pair of movable iron plates to contract the fire- 

n.Yks. Endirons (I.W.). e.Yks. Rur. Econ. (1641) 175. w.Yks. 5 
Lan. 1 Put them endarns in, an id'l nod [it will not] brun so monny 

[In the dial, the word is understood and pron. as if it 
were end-irons, the irons at the ends of the fireplace. 
The lit. E. andirons had already been altered in form from 
association with the word iron. Andiron, from a chimney, 
sustentaculutn ferreum, BARET. The older form of the 
word was andier : I lacke a fyre pan and andyars to bere 
up the fuel, HORMAN. AFr. andier (Moisv), OFr. andier 
(mod. landier).} 

ANDLE, sb. Der. [a'ndl.] An anvil, stithy. 

Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 [GROSE Pegge Suppl. (1814).] 

[Repr. ME. forms of ' anvil' (OE. onfilti), with change 
of prefix from an- to and- : They smyte on the stythye 
or andvell, CAXTON G. Leg. 358 ; Golde . . . bitwene j>e 
andfelde and )>e hamoure strecceb in to golde foyle, TREVISA 
Earth. (N.E.D.) Cp. SHERWOOD : An andvil, voyez, an anvil.] 

AN-DOGS, sb. pi. Shr. Glo. Som. Dev. [ae-ndogz.] 
Andirons, the bars which support the ends of logs on a 
wood fire, or in which a spit turns. 

Shr. 1 Andogs, 0*5. Glo. An-dogs, so called from the dogs' heads 
with which they were anciently ornamented, GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (H.) Som.(F.H.) w.Som. 1 [Andogs] are still very commonly 
used in farm-houses, and others where wood is burnt. They are 
well described in the old-fashioned riddle, ' Head like an apple, 
Neck like a swan, Back like a long-dog, And dree legs to stan.' 
In large old-fashioned chimney-places it was usual to have two 
pairs of irons. The dogs, which were the most used, were at the 
middle of the hearth, and bore the fire always. The andirons 
stood on each side, and were only needed when an extra large 
fire was wanted. The latter, much larger and heavier, usually had 
some ornamental finish, as a brass head, a scroll, or a knob, and in 
kitchens the upright part of the iron was furnished with a row of 
hooks, one over the other, on the side away from the fire. On 
these hooks rested the great spit on which the meat or poultry was 
roasted. Both 'andirons 'and 'dogs' have now become ' hand-dogs ' 
(s.v. Hand-dogs). Dev. 'Andugs, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 46. 
n.Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 

[Another common name for ' andirons ' was ' fire-dogs ' 
or ' dogs.' An-dogis prob. a contamination of these two 
words. Cp. Fr. chenet (der. of Men, dog), an andiron. See 

ANDOO, v. Sh.I. Also written andow. To keep a 
boat stationary by gentle motion of the oars. 

Sh.I. (Coll. L.L.B.); (W.A.G.) S.& Ork. 1 Andoo, to keepaboat 
in position by rowing gently against wind or tide. 

[ON. and-of, a paddling with the oars, so as to bring 
the boat to lie against wind and stream.] 

ANDORN, see Undern. 

ANDRA, see Undern. 

ANDRAMARTIN, sb. Irel. A silly trick ; nonsense. 

Lns. In use all over this district, Dublin included (P.J.M.). 
s.Wxf. Oh, musha, Mick, don't be goin' on with your andra- 
martins ! McCALL Fenian Nights in Shamrock Mag. (1894) 428 ; 
Don't think your andramartins can be carried out unknowns! to 
every one, ib. 453. 

ANDREA FERRARA, sb. Obs. Sc. A Highland 

Sc. Basket hilts, Andra Ferraras, leather targets, SCOTT Rob Roy 
(1817) xxiii ; There was risk of Andro Ferrara coming in thirdsman, 
ib. Midlothian (1818) xxiv. Edb. With a weel-sharpened, old, High- 
land, forty-second Andrew Ferrary, MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) 36. 

[The blades are commonly marked Andrea on one 
side and Farara or Ferara on the other. The swords 

known by this name among the Scotch Highlanders 
were basket-hilted broadswords. It is asserted by 
Italian writers that these were made at Belluno in 
Venetia by Andrea Ferara and his two brothers (CD.).] 

ANDREN, ANDREW, see Undern. 

ANDREW, sb. Yks. Suf. Ess. 

1. St. Andrew's Day, Nov. 30 ; also allrib. Obs. See 
Saint Andrew. 

w.Yks. In candles for ye Ringers ringing at ye Income of Andrews 
ffare, i*, Ace. Bradford Prsh. Chivardens (1683). Ess. From April 
beginning, till Andrew be past, So long with good huswife, hir 
dairie doth last, TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) 106, st. 19. 

2. A clown, mountebank. 

Suf. Andrer (F. H.). Ess. Then the Andraas play'd sich tricks, 
CLARK /. Noakes (1839) 23 ; Ess. 1 Andraa. 

[2. See Merry-Andrew.] 

ANDREW MASS, sb. Sc. Yks. Lin. The festival of 
St. Andrew. 

Per. The name of Andirmess market is still given to a fair held 
at this season in Perth (JAM.) ; Andirmas [Anermas] market was 
not held last year [1895] on St. Andrew's Day. All the fairs 
were upset by the public auction of cattle at populous centres 
(G.W.). e.Yks. The best time for frost and snowe is about a week 
afore St. Andrewmasse, BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 76. w.Yks. 1 
Andersmas. n.Lin. 1 Andremas, obs. 

[For the servese bouke at Sant Andrames vij 8 , Kirton- 
in-Lindsey Ch. Ace. 1581 (ap. n.Lin. 1 ). Andrew + mass.] 

ANDRUM, see Undern. 

ANDSELL, see Hansel. 

ANDURION, sb. Lan. (Ormskirk). Eupatoriutn canna- 
binum, hemp agrimony. 

ANE, see Awn. 

ANEAN, prep. Lin. [ania'n.] Beneath. 

Lin. My wife a life she leadeth me Like a toad anean a roll, 
E. PEACOCK John Markenfield (1874) !' 8 4- n.Lin. Anean th' esh, 
M. PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes (1886) 74 ; nXin. 1 You'll find th' 
almanac anean Bible up o'th parlour taable. 

[A-, on + nean, ME. necfen, OE. neooan, below.] 

ANEAR, adv. and prep. Irel. Nhb. Stf. Lin. Lei. Nhp. 
War. Wor. Glo. Som. Cor. [ania'(r).] 

1. adv. Close by, near. 

Ir. But anear or afar on the win' comes a flicker of the crathur's 
cry, BARLOW Bog-land (1893) 181. Stf. 2 Th' doctor niwer come 
anear aw that day. Lei. 1 Anear, not as common as ' anigh.' War. 2 
Yo' ain't anear when yer wanted. He never came anear all day ; 
War. 3 , Glo. 1 

2. Nearly. 

nXin. 1 s.Wor. 'E 'an't anear done it (H.K.). 

Hence Anearly, adv. nearly. 

n.Lin. J 

3. To the point, esp. in phr. What's anear? 

Cor. 2 What's anear, MS. add. ; Cor. 3 What's anear ? [what has 
that to do with the question ?] That's naught anear. 

4. prep. Near, close to. 

Nhb. 1 Dinna gan anear the waiter. The kettle's boilin' ; dinna 
gan anear'd. s.Stf. Do' let him come anear me, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. 
Ann. (1895). Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 Don't come anear me. War. 2 Don't 
go anear him. s.Wor. I dus'n't come anear 'im (H.K.). Som. 
JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). Cor. She is so cross I'm afeard 
to go anear her (M.A.C.). 

[1. Now seems it far, and now a-near, SCOTT Last 
Minst. v. xxxi. 2. The lady shrieks, and well anear Does 
fall in travail with her fear, SHAKS. Per. in. Introd. 51. 
A- (pref. w ) + near.] 

ANEARST, prep. Wor. Glo. Oxf. I.W. Som. Dev. 
[ania-st.] Near, close to. 

Wor. Ow con 'ee live anearst thot 'ooman ? OUTIS Vig. Man. 
mWor.Jm. Glo. 2 Annearst Oxf. 1 I.W. 1 Don't goo aneerst 'em ; 
I.W. 2 Don't goo annearst the mare, she med fling at ye. Som. 
SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). n.Dev. I will not go anearst him, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 

[A- (pref. 10 ) + nearest.] 

ANEAST, prep. Sc. Wor. Glo. Som. Dev. Cor. Also 
written anest, aneest, aneist Cor. 1 [ania-st, ania's.] 
Near, near to. 

Ayr., Rxb. The auld wife aniest the fire She died for lack of 
snishing, Herd's Collection (1778) II. 16; Off I sets for the gray 
stone anist the town-cleugh,.B/acAa<. Mag. (Nov. 1820) 201 (JAM.). 




Wor. I could not get aneist him (W.A.S.). Glo. 'Er never bin 
aneist I sinz, BUCKMAN Darkens Sojourn (1890) 120. Som. Aneast 
en, near him, JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; An' she right 
down aneast the ricks, RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life (1894) 209. 
w.Som. 1 Twaud-n ee% ee nuvu'r waud-n unee'us-n [it was not he, 
he never was near him]. Used only with vbs. implying motion. 
It would never be said ' The house is aneast the road ' : ' handy ' or 
' home beside o' ' would in that case be used. In the example 
above, ' never was near ' implies ' never went near.' Dev. Best 
hire ma? Come aneest me, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 80 ; I won't go 
aneest en, MOORE Hist. Dev. (1829) I. 353. n.Dev. They'm close 
aneest the yeat, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) St. 47. Cor. I'd not go 
anes en to gat the King's crown, J. TRENOODLE Spec. Dial. (1846) 
43; Cor. 1 1 caan't bear him to come aneist me; Aneest, some- 
times Anest, Anist. 

[A- (pref. 10 ) + nearst (nearest), superl. of near.} 

ANEATH, prep. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Lan. Der. Brks. [anr}>, 
ania-jj.] Beneath. 

Sc. Aneath the auld portcullis, SCOTT Redg. (1824) xi ; I was 
a wean aneath her art, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 24 ; I sat down aneath 
his shadow, ROBSON Sng. Sol. (1860) ii. 3. Sh.I. Anaeth da fit o 
iron-shod Despair, BURGESS Rasmie (1891) 118. Abd. Then sat 
she down aneth a birken shade, That spread aboon her, Ross 
Helenore (1768) 67, ed. 1812. Frf. Mistress Ogilvy aye lookit on 
Chirsty as dirt aneath her feet, BARRIE Thrums (1890) 16. Per. 
It wud be a heartsome sicht taesee the Glen a' aneath ae roof aince 
a week, IAN MACLAREN Auld Lang Syne (1895) 33. Gall. It was 
a new sermon o' his granfaither's, daecent man, him that lies aneath 
the big thruch stane in the wast corner o' the kirkyaird, CROCKETT 
Stickit Min. (1893) 102. Bwk. Aneath the soughin hawthorns, 
HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 83. Nhb. 1 Where's the maister? 
He's aneath the steeth. Cum. But I cower aneath their look, 
GILPIN Ballads, 3rd S. (1874) 203. neXan. 1 Der. Drive him 
aneath th' tawest whoke tree, CUSHING Voe (1888) I. ix. Brks. 1 

[A-, on + neath (in beneath)^ 

ANEEND, see On end. 

ANEK, see Neck. 

ANEMT, see Unempt. 

ANENT, prep. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Stf. Der. Lin. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Rdn. Glo. Brks. 
Ken. Hmp. Wil. Also written anant w.Wor. 1 se.Wor. 1 
anont Glo. 1 Wil. 1 ; anunt Hrf. 12 , Glo. 1 Wil. 1 The form 
anenst, too, is used in Sc. and all the n. counties of Eng 
to Der., also War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Glo. Brks. Ken. Also 


1. Opposite, in front of; in comparison with. 
Sc. Set them up on this bit peat Anent the cutchack, BEATTIES 
Panngs (1801) 3; The Farmer sits anent the light An' reads a 
piece o' Wallace wight, it. 26 ; And syne the mare through the 
wall anent her set up sic a scraichin, Roy Horseman (1895) 336 ; 
Is naething anent them ava ah na, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 278. Gall. 
The bonny corn that had grown so golden on the braes anent the 
isle, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) vii. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Till nenst aa'd 
Lizzy Moody's, Monthly Chron. n.Cy. Lore (1887) 377; Nhb. 1 , 
Dur. 1 Cum. 'Anenst' is more common than 'anent' (M.P.). 
Wm. & Cum. 1 Anenst it, about a styan throw aff, 128. Wm. 
Ameeast anenst Parliament Hooses theear was a girt whappan 
kirk, CLARKE Spec. Dial. (1868) Jonny Shippard. s.Wm. Annent 
aur Hause Dur, HUTTON Dia. Storth and Arnside (1760) L 34. Yks. 
But when he comes anent her Shoo gies him sich a smile, Garl. 
(1873) la. n.Yks. 1 Set your name in this spot, anenst his [over 
against his]; n.Yks. 3 , m.Yks.' w.Yks.GROSE (i 19 o)MS. add.(C.)\; 
If thear happans ta be a vacant seat anent yo, doant put yer mucky 
teet up on ta it, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. (1861) 7 ; 
An umberella cummin wi t'point fair anent yo-is a thing ta mind, 
10. (1873) 53 ; Maks ya feel as small as thieves Anent a magistrate 
PRESTO* ,Natterin Nan (1872) st. 5; Does ta think tha could domeabit 

llcTs a &^ fi 7', H , ARTL o EY ClockAlm - ('873); Anenst'church, 

bCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) ; w.Yks. 1 1 prisently spies him i" 

ouer hay claas, onf heeadland, anent waw, ii. 295. Lan. Reetanent 

w eanenst Ollinorth,5m Sondknocker, 

3- Lan. 1 We stopt anenst th'yate. Chs. 1 " s.Stf. He had it al 
there anunst him bodily, MURRAY Rainbow Gold (1886) 80 A house 
right anunst the Bull's Head, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. '(Xf Stf. 1 
Der. GROSE (1790) ; Der.*, nw.Der.i n-Lin. 1 I was anent to him. 

War. (J.R.W.), s.War. 1 Wor. GROSE (1790); I lightened ov 
'im anonst 'is 'ovel, OUTIS Vig. Man. in Wor. Jrn. w.Wor. 1 Thaay 
lives right anenst we. se.Wor. 1 Put them there faggits down 
anant the door. s.Wor. 1 Shr. Suddenly the horses stopped short, 
right anunst the witch's house, BURNE Flk-Lore (1883) 152 ; Shr. 1 
If yo'n follow the rack alung that green leazow, yo'n see a stile right 
anunst yo'. Hrf. Hur swore as hursid him . . . down in th' ditch ov 
the road anunt his oawn door, Why John (Coll. L.L.B.); Maister, 
be I ur gwoy-in ter orrer th' pens anunt th' voller vild ? (Coll. 
L. L.B.); Hrf. 2 I took a front seat, [in church] right up anunst the 
turkey [i.e. the brass eagle lectern]. Glo. Enunty, over against, 
over anent, directly opposite, GROSE (1790) MS, add. (M.) ; ' How 
far off?' I asked. 'Why, here, just close anent 'ee, BUCKMAN 
Darke's Sojourn (1890) xviii ; Glo. 1 2 , Ken. 1 2 , Hmp. 1 , Wil. 1 

2. Against, near, in proximity to. 

Sc. Fodder thy lammies anent the shepherd's shielins [tents], 
ROBSON Sng. Sol. (1860) i. 8. Ir. Butshureyou can stop anent the 
town at the blacksmith's an' have it set right, McNuLTY Misther 
O'Ryan (1894) iv. n.Yks. Yan o' t'lads gat hissel' croppen oop 
closeanenstlathe-deear,ATKiNsoN^/oor/. Parish (1891) 55; n.Yks. 1 ; 
n.Yks. 2 I sat close anenst 'em. ne.Yks. 1 , e.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 
Anenst, against. w.Yks. I sat me down anent him, BRONTE Agnes 
Grey (1847) xi ; A passenger at sat anent ma, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE 
Manch. Exhibition (1857) ; Awst throw me daan anent her feet, 
HARTLEY Puddiri (1876) 63 ; Aw dooant envy th' Queen on her 
throoan when awm sittin anent thee, ib. Seets (1895) ii ; w.Yks. 5 
That tree anent t'church. He's cloise anent him. neXan. 1 War. 
He run right anunt the wall (J.B.) ; War. 8 Stand anent the hedge. 
In common use near Stratford-on-A von. w.Wor. Helives,sur,anant 
the church, S. BEAUCHAMP Grantley Grange (1874) I. 31 ; w.Wor. 1 
Put down them faggits anant the door. s.Wor. Ananst, Anunst, 
against (H.K.). Hrf. 12 . Glo. Where did you leave cider and tot ? 
Anont thick ash tree (J.D.R.) ; Glo. 1 

8. Side by side with, in a line with. 

Sc. Trail'd by horses at a slow jog trot Scarce fit to haud anent 
an auld wife on her foot, ANDERSON/ 3 (W>5(i8i3) 71 (JAM.). w.Yks. 3 
A cricket-ball in a line with the wicket is anent it ; w.Yks. 5 Soldiers 
abreast are ' anenst ' each other, or 't'oan anenst t'other,' as it would 
beexpressed. Rdn. Anent, alongside of, MORGAN Wrfs.(i88i). Glo. 1 

4. About, concerning, with regard to. 

Sc. Summonsed all the neighbouring princes to a conference, 
anent the injury done by Paris, Scotic. (1787) 116; GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (C.) ; To see what can be done anent your affairs, 
SCOTT Rob Roy (1817) xxii ; To raise scandal anent them, ib. Mid- 
lothian (1818) ii ; Touching that round monticle . . . anent whilk I 
have heard, ib. Leg. Mont. (1830) ii. Gall. The black dog was 
sitting heavy on him at the thought of the fine anent harbourers of 
rebels, CROCKETT Moss Hags (1895) 84. N.Cy. 12 Yks. Anenst 
(K.). n.Yks. 2 What say you anent it. w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. Nidder- 
dale (c. 1882) 229. Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 I know nought anent him. 

5. Towards, by way of contribution to. 

N.Cy. 1 The cash was paid nenst her year's rent. n.Yks. I'll give 
you something anenst that [to help you to buy it] (I.W.) ; n.Yks. 2 
I gav a pund anent it [the subscription]. 

6. In competition with. 

Sc. Could modern heads, wi' philosophic wit, Wi' argument 
anent an auld wife sit, ANDERSON Poems(iSi3) 73 (JAM.). w.Yks. If 
tha drinks, I'll drink anent tha (S.K.C.) ; w.Yks. 3 A lass dresses 
anent a lady in trying to rival her. 

7. In turn with. 

e.Lan. 1 If Jack works at a machine in the forenoon and Jim 
works at the same machine in the afternoon, Jack and Jim are 
said to work anenst each other. s.Stf. The mon what works 
anunst me [i. e. the man who does at night the same work which 
the speaker does in the day-time, or vice versa], PINNOCK Blk. Cy. 
Ann. (1895). 

8. With. 

w.Yks. We'll tak'a sack anent us, GRAINGE Nidderdale (1863) 225. 

9. By such a time. 

Lan. THORNBER Hist. Ace. Blackpool (1837) 106. 

10. Nearly, thereabouts ; also used as adv. as in phr. 
anenst about the matter. 

Glo. They use ' anent ' in place of ' or more,' meaning ' nearly, 
close upon,' ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 65. Brks. When they 
would say 'nearly' or 'thereabouts,' they say 'anenst about the 
matter,' NICHOLS Bibl. Tofog. Brit. (1783) IV. 56, ed. 1790. Hmp. 
Nens as he was. Pretty nens one [pretty much the same], JV. & Q. 
(1854) ist S. x. 120; Hmp. 1 [Anenst the matter (K.).] 

[1. A brothir with brothir stryveth in dome, and that 
anentis unfeithful men, WYCLIF (1382) i Cor. vi. 6. 




2. Anent, juxta, COLES (1679); Gawlistoun That is rycht 
evyn anent Lowdoun, BARBOUR Bruce, vm. 124. 3. Him 
on efn lige> ealdorgewinna, Beowulf, 2903. 4. Anent 
(concerning), De, COLES (1679) ; Anentis men this thing 
is impossible ; but anentis God alle thingis ben possible, 
WYCLIF (1388) Matt. xix. 26. OE. on efen (efn, etnn), 
on even (ground) with, whence, side by side with, oppo- 
site, in view of.] 

ANERLY, adv. and adj. Sc. Yks. Also written yan- 
nerly n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 [a'narli, ya'narli.] 

1. adv. Alone, lonely, solitary. 

Sc. Anerly, Anyrly (JAM.). n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 He left her all 
yannerly at home. Whya ! yoor maistther's geean doon ti 
Whidby ; you'll be quite yannerly. 

2. Comp. All-anerly, quite alone. 

Sc. The next time that ye bring ony body here, let them be 
gentles allenarly, SCOTT Bride of Lam. (1830) xxvi. 

3. adj. Fond of retirement, shy. 

Sc. (JAM.). n.Yks. 2 Annerly ways, unsocial habits. m.Yks. 1 
Yannerly, unyielding, rudely retiring, or unsocial in manners. 

4. Selfish, absorbed in one's own interests. 
n.Yks. 2 A yannerly soort of a body. m.Yks. 1 

[1. Thai said that he ... duelt . . . With a clerk with 
him anerly, BARBOUR Bruce, n. 58 ; Thai . . . That saw 
him stand_thair anerly, ib. vi. 132. Anerly, der. of Sc. am, 
one, OE. an(e); the -eris prob. due to compar. formations ; 
cp. formerly, latterly.] 

ANERY, Sc. A term occurring in a rhyme of children, 
used for deciding the right of beginning a game. Several 
versions are still current. 

Per. A version of this rhyme ' Anery, twarie,' is quite familiar 
(G.W.). Lth. Anery, twaery, tickery, seven, Aliby, crackiby, 
ten or eleven ; Pin-pan, muskidan, Tweedlum, twodlum, twenty- 
one, Blackw. Mag. (Aug. 1821) 36. 

ANES, see Even. 

ANEW, prep, and adv. Obs.'i Sc. QAM.) Below, 

Abd. [Not known to our correspondents.] 

ANEWST, prep, and adv. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Ken. 
Sus. Hmp. I.W. Dor. Wil. Som. Also by aphaeresis newst 
Glo. Wil? ; neust Brks. I.W. 1 Wil. 1 ; neoust, noust Wil. 1 
Also written anoust Glo. Wil. 1 ; annaust Glo. ; enewst 
Glo. 1 ; aneoust Hrf. 1 Glo. Brks. 1 Wil. 1 Som.; aneust 
Glo. 1 Brks. Hmp. 1 I.W. 1 Wil. 1 ; newse (K.). [anhrs, 
aniu'st. | See below. 

1. prep. Of place : near, hard by, over against. 

Hrf. 1 Aneaoust. Brks. 1 I zin 'in aneoust the chake pit [saw him 
near the chalk pit]. Ken. 1 , Sus. 2 , Sus. & w.Cy. RAY (1691). 
Som. Dwon't ye come anuost yer zister ta vessy wi' er, JENNINGS 
Dial. w.Eng. (1869) 143. 

2. Nearly, approximating to, almost. 

Glo. Anaust a handful or spoonful, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 

3. adv. Of manner or degree : nearly, approximately, 

Hrf. 1 Neaous. Glo. 1 Near anoust. Oxf. Neaust, Newse, Aneus. 
There or there aneus (K.). Brks. GROSE (1790) ; Brks. 1 , Ken. 2 
Sus. RAY (1691) ; Sus. 12 Hmp. Anybody med newst so well be 
made love to by a owl, MAXWELL GRAY Heart of Storm (1891) I. 
192 ; Hmp. 1 I.W. Tell me aneuse the time of the day, MONCRIEFF 
Dream in Gent. Mag. (1863) 1. 32 ; I.W. 1 Neuce the seyam ; I.W. 2 
She do goo on ... jest as if she was missus. D'ye think the wold 
man's married to her 1 I dunno, but I louz "tes anewse the saame. 
Dor. 1 Anewst the seame. Wil. 1 What is it a clock ? A newst one. 
Which of the two is oldest ? They are newst of an age. Which 
of those things are best ? They are anewst alike. Som. SWEETMAN 
Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

4. Resembling, like. 

Glo. 'Ee's a bit aneist 'is feyther (S.S.B.) ; Glo. 2 
6. In phr. anewst of anewstness, ' much of a muchness,' 
nearly alike ; anewst the matter, nearly right ; near anewst. 
Glo. GROSE (1790) Suppl. MS. add. (P.) ; Glo. 1 Brks. ' Neust of 
a neustness," an expression very current, RAY Prov. (1678) 225. 
ed. 1860. Wil. BRITTON Beauties (1825); Wil. 1 Which of these 
things are best ? They are a newst of a newstness. Oxf. Neaust 
the matter (K.) ; (M.W.) I.W. 1 Neuce the matter ; I.W. 2 Anewse 
the matter. Glo. Near a neawst, near ye matter, RAY (1691) MS. 
add. (J.C.) 108. 
[1. Arente, aneust, very neere unto, FLORID (1611) ; 

VOL. I. 

Waes 'Saer on neaweste hus, BEDA, v. 14. 2. Anewst 
almost, COLES (1677). Anewst=A-, on + newsl; OE. neah- 
zvist, nearness, neighbourhood ; cp. ON. na-vist, presence, 
OHG. nah-wist.} 

ANG, sb. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. [an, erj.] The 
beard of barley or wheat. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; HOLLOWAY ; N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Cum. MORTON 
Cyclo. Agric. (1863); Cum. 2 Wm. FERGUSON Northmen (1856) 
169 ; Wm. 1 T'barley angs sticks tew mah. w.Yks. HUTTON Tour 
to Caves (1781). Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

[This form is prob. ofScand. origin, ant* representing an 
older agn, by metath. of g ; cp. Sw. ag?z,"ON. ogn, an awn.] 

ANG, see Ampery. 

ANGALUCK, sb. Sh.I. An accident, a disaster. 

Sh.I. Angaluck (JAM. Suppl.). S.&Ork. 1 

[Cp. Du. ongeluk, misfortune.] 

ANGEL, in comp. and comb, (i) Angel-fish, a fish of the 
shark family ; (2) -maine, see Angel-fish ; (3) Angels' 
eyes, the plant germander speedwell ; (4) -shark, see 
Angel-fish ; (5) Angel's pincushion, a plant, the Devil's 
Bit, Scabiosa succisa ; (6) -swaine, see Angel-fish. 

(i) Cor. 2 ByArtedicalledtheMermaid-fish,M5.rtrfrf. [Angel-fish, 
-maine, -shark, -swaine, Squatina angelus (SATCHELL).] (2) Cor. 1 2 
Angelmaine, the Monk fish, Sqtiatina angelus. (3) Dev. The sweet 
germander speedwell, . . . here, most poetically, named by the 
peasantry Angels' eyes, GOSSE Dartmoor in Intell. Obs. (1863) 318 
(N.E.D.); Around her hat a wreath was twined Of blossoms 
blue as southern skies ; I asked their name, and she replied, We 
call them Angels' Eyes, Garden (June 29, 1872); Angels' eyes, 
Veronica chamoedrys. (5) Dor. Angel's pincushion, the Devil's Bit 
scabious (G.E.D.). 

[An angel-fish (scale), Squatina, COLES (1679).] 

ANGER, sb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. [a'na(r).] 

1. Inflammation. 

Cum. & Wm. That finger 'ill gedder, ye'll see. Ther's a deal o' 
ang-er and heat aboot it (M.P.). n.Yks. 2 My leg's full o' anger. 
wYks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 16, 1891). n.Lan. (W.H.H.) 

2. Rashness. 

n.Yks. 2 They should hae had mair wit i' their anger. 

[1. Rawness and anger (in that dialect, wherein we call 
a sore angry), HAMMOND (1659) On Ps. Iviii. 9 (N.E.D.) ; 
I made the experiment, setting the moxa where the first 
violence of my pain began, and where the greatest anger 
and soreness stifl continued, notwithstanding the swelling 
of my foot, TEMPLE Misc. (JOHNSON).] 

ANGER, v. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Dev. 

1. To vex, irritate, make angry. 

Sc. I couldna but laugh, though it sore angered my mother to 
see me do't, WHITEHEAD Daft Davie (1876) 139. Wxf. 1 Angerth, 
angered, angry. Nhb. Me muthor's bairns gat angort at us, ROBSON 
Sng. Sol. (1860) i. 6 ; Nhb. 1 n.Yks. Mah mother's bairns were 
angered at mah, ROBINSON Whitby Sng. Sol. (1860) i. 6. w.Yks. 2 
Dev. Tain't safe to anger she, O'NEILL Idyls (1892) 23. 

2. To inflame, irritate (of a wound). 

n.Yks. 1 Hoo's Willy's leg t'morn ? Whyah, it's nae better. It's 
desput sair and angerd ; n.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 Yon lad's foot gets no 
betther; he's bin walkin' this mornin', an his stockin' mun 'a 
angert it. m.Lan. 1 When yo're towd nod to anger a soore place. 

[1. 'Twould have anger'd any heart alive To hear the 
men deny't, SHAKS. Macbeth, HI. vi. 15; Beware howe 
you anger hym, garder vous de le corroucer, PALSGR. 
2. Itch most hurts when anger'd to a sore, POPE Donne 
Sat. iv. 119. ON. angra, to grieve, vex.] 

ANGER-BERRY, see Angle-berry. 

ANGERIE.s*. Sh.I. (JAM. Suppl.} A crowd, multitude. 

ANGERLY, adj. n.Yks. [a-rjali.] Fierce, raging. 

n.Yks. 2 

[The word is very rare in E. as an adj. Byron so uses 
it : (He) was angerly, but tried to conceal it, MOORE Life 
(N.E.D.). Anger, sb. +-fy. Cp. ON. angrligr, sad.] 

ANGISH, sb. and adj. Irel. 
1. Poverty. 

Wxf. 1 Lim. I have heard this word used in the sense of poverty, 
wretchedness, misery , by the very common people. Seldom used at 


2. adj. Poverty-stricken. 
Ir. The poor man is angish enough (J.F.M.F.). 




Hence Angishore, a poverty-stricken creature. 

sJr. 'Angishore" was and is in very common use ; a miserable 
creature in poverty and wretchedness, almost exactly equivalent 
to what we mean by our epithet, ' a poor devil ' (P. W.J.). s.Wxf. 
Give the poor angashore a chance, Humour oflrel. (1894) 391. 
3. Sickly, unhealthy. 

Ir. A delicate, pale, miserable-looking child would be called 'an 
angish creather' 'J.F.M.FA Wxf. Angish, very poorly (J.S.). 

[This word is due to a Gael, use and pronunc. of lit. 
E. anguish in the s. of Irel. aingis.] 

ANGLE, sb. 1 Yks. Der. [a'nl.] 

1. A small hook. 

m.Yks. 1 A small hook, as a fishing-hook. 

2. Comp. Angle-rod (obs.), a fishing-rod. 

Der. 1 

[1. Go to the see and cast in thyne angle, TINDALE 
Matt. xvii. 27 ; Gang to sere sae and wurp Sinne angel 
fit, OE. vers, (ib.) OE. angul, cp. ON. 6'ngull, a fishing- 
hook. 2. He makes a May- fly to a miracle; and furnishes 
the whole country with angle-rods, ADDISON Sped. No. 
108 ; An angle-rod, Pertica Piscatoria, COLES (1679); 
Before you undertake your tryal of skil by the angle- 
rod, WALTON Angler (1653) 170.] 

ANGLE, sb* Som. Dev. [ae'rjl.] A worm used in 
fishing, an earthworm. 

w.Som. 1 U buunch u ang-lz wai wiis'turd driie um-z dhu bas bauyt 
vur ee ulz [a bunch of worms with worsted through them is the 
best bait for eels]. You be bound vor togie em [larks and thrushes] 
a angle now and then. Dev. ' Fishing with an angle" is by more 
people understood to be fishing with a worm than what it really 
is fishing with a hook, Reports Provinc. (1889). s.Dev. (F.W.C.) 

[Prob. for Angle-twitch, q.v.] 

ANGLE, sb. 3 e.Yks. n.Lin. A name given to the holes 
or runs of vermin, such as badgers, field-mice, &c. 

e.Yks. MARSHALL Rnr. Econ. (1796). n-Lin. 1 Angles, artificial 
burrows used for capturing rabbits in warrens. 

ANGLE, v . Som. [as'rjl.] To loiter or ' hang ' about a 
place with some design ; to intrigue. Also used as sb. 

w.Som. 1 Wau-d-ur kau'm ang-leen baewt yuur vaur ? [what does 
he come loitering about here for?] Aay au'vees kunsiid urd eens 
ee wuz ang-leen aa-dr Mils Jee-un [1 always thought he was 
angling after Miss Jane]. Aay kaa'n ubae-ur-n, liz au-vees pun dhu 
ang-1 [I cannot endure him, he is always upon the angle, i. e. 

[She knew her distance, and did angle for me, Madding 
my eagerness, SHAKS. Alts Well, v. iii. 212. Fig. use of 
angle, vb., to fish with a hook, to use an angle (see 
Angle, sb. 1 ).] 

ANGLE-BERRY, sb. 1 Sc. n.Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. 
Glo. Also written annle-, see below, [a'rjl-bari.] The 
same as Anbury, 1. 

Sc. A fleshy excrescence resembling a very large hautboy straw- 
berry , growing on the feet of sheep, cattle, &c. (JAM.). N.I. 1 Angle- 
berries, large hanging warts on a horse, sometimes about its mouth. 
Nhb. 1 Anger-berry, or Angle-berry, a warty excrescence growing 
on the umbilicus, or scrotum, or teats of an animal. These are 
highly vascular and easily hurt. Cum. 2 Yks. Before the angle- 
berries or warts grow strong, you may pull them up, KNOWLSON 
Cattle Doctor (1834) 98. w.Yks. 1 Nannle.berries. ne.Lan. 1 Angle- 
berry, a sore under the hoof of an animal. eXan. 1 Handle-berry. 
Glo.i [Angle-berry, a sore or imposthumation under the claw of a 
beast (K.).] 

[Prob. for an earlier "ang-berry OE. ang-, pain, anguish 
(as in ang-seta, carbuncle) + berry. For berry used in this 
sense, cp. strawberry as applied to a birth-mark, and the 
use of It. moro for a mulberry-tree and a wart on horses 
(FLORIO). See Anbury.] 

ANGLE-BERRY, sb." n.Cy. Lathyrus pmtensis. 

n.Cy. Angle-berry, the common wild vetchling, from the angles 
of its pods, Poetry Prov. in Comh. Mag. (1865) XII. 34 ; N.Cy. 1 
Nhb.i Among old people angle-berry is the name of a vetch prob- 
ably because it angles or catches hold and clings to plants or 
shrubs stronger and taller than itself. 

[Angle (Fr. angle) + berry.] 

ANGLE-BOW, sb. Glo. Som. Dev. A running knot, 
a snare with a spring noose, a gin for birds or fish 

Glo. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) w-Som. 1 Angle-bow, a running 
noose, a shp-knot, especially a wire on a long stick for ctch nf 

fish ; also a springle for catching birds. The poacher's wire is 
always an angle-bow. Dev. Applied to any running noose (F.W.C.). 

[Angle (Fr. art%le) + bow (a single-looped knot).] 

ANGLE-BOWING, vbl. sb. Som. Dev. 

1. Poaching for fish by means of an angle-bow. 
Dev. (F.W.C.) 

2. A method of fencing the enclosures where sheep are 
kept, by placing bent sticks into the ground ; also the act 
of fencing in this manner. 

w.Som. 1 n.Dev. Chell tell vautlfer o't zo zoon es ha comath hum 
vrom angle-bowing, don't quesson't, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. aia ; 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) Dev. 1 

[1. Vbl. sb. of angle-bow, q.v., used as a vb. 2. Vbl. 
sb. of angle-bow, vb.', deriv. 01 Angle (Fr. angle) + bow (the 
weapon for shooting arrows).] 

ANGLE-DOG, sb. Dev. The earthworm. 

Dev. At Culmstock a farmer, speaking of loose straw on pasture, 
said, ' You'd be surprise how zoon th' angle-dogs'll draw it down,' 
Reports Provinc. (1889). 

ANGLE-EARED, adj. Dev. Mischievous. 

s.Dev. Angle-yeared (used of children); orig. ' with outstanding 
(pointed) ears,' such as Puck is represented with. Angle-yeared ? 
that's when boys be artful. You angle-eared young toad ! 

[Angle (Fr. angle) + eared.} 

ANGLE-TWITCH, sb. Gmg. Pern. Dev. Cor. Also 
written angle-titch nw. Dev. 1 ; angle-ditch Cor. 2 ; -touch 
Wei. [ae-rjl-twitf.] 

1. The earthworm. 

Gmg., Pern. COLLINS Cower Dial. Trans. Phil. Soc. (1850) IV. 222. 
Dev. Reports Provinc. (1895.) n.Dev. Jim, go and zarch vor angle- 
twitches, ROCK Jim an Nell (1867) 35. Dev. 1 You drumble-drone- 
dunder-headed-slinpole, ... I'd twack thee till I made thee twine 
like an angletwitch ; Dev. 3 , nw.Dev. 1 Cor. GROSE (1790) MS. add. 
(C ) ; The king's highway ought not to be twisting and turning 
like an angle-twitch, HUNT Pop. Rom. iv.Eng. (1865) 33 ; Far as 
I cu'd see you've done naught but fidget like an angletwitch, ' Q.' 
Three Ships (1890) vii ; Turnin' an" twestin' like a' angle-twitch, 
PEARCE Esther Pcntreath (1891) bk. i. iv ; But aw twingled like an 
angle-dutch, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) 24 ; Cor. 1 Wrig- 
gling like an angle-twitch ; Cor. 2 

2. A slow-worm. 
Dev. 3 

3. In phr. to have an angle-twitch in the bonnet, to be not 
quite sane. 

Dev. Eh, daddy says t'ers an angle-twitch till her rewdon, 
MADOX-BROWN Dwale Bluth (1876) bk. iv. ii. 

[See NARES (s.v. Angel-touche) His baites are Tag- 
wormes, which the Cornish-English term 'Angle-touches,' 
CAREW Cornwall (1602) 26. ME. Greyte wormes bat 
are called angel twycches, MS. in Prompt. 279. OE. 

ANG-NAIL or ANGER-NAIL, see Agnail. 
ANGOLA, sb. w.Yks. Cotton and fine wool mixed 
in the fibre, spun in the same way as wool, the feel of 
wool thus being obtained, while the cotton prevents 
shrinkage by washing or perspiration (J.F.). 

Hence Angolas. A term used in the rag trade for 
underclothing made from cotton and wool, but chiefly 
cotton (M.F.). 

ANGRY, adj. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Stf. Der. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor. Oxf. Hnt. Cmb. e.An. 
Sus. Hmp. Som. [a'nri, a-rjgri, ae-nri.] Inflamed, red. 
Used with reference to a wound or sore. 

Nhb. 1 Me fingr's beeldin' aa's flaid it leuks se angry. Dnr. 1 , 
Cum. 12 , Wm. 1 , n-Yks. 1 , ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. (J.T.) ; w.Yks.s, Lan. 1 , 
m.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 That thumb o' hisn's looks main angry. s.Chs. 1 
Stf. 2 That bad pises on thoi 'and links very angry. nw.Der. ' Lin. 
STREATFIELD Lin. and Danes (1884) 315. n-Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 It's 
a bad wound; it looks so very angry. War. 2 Rub a little ointment 
on that sore, it has an angry look ; War. 3 ne.Wor. A wound or 
sore place ' looks very angry' (J.W.P.). Oxf. 1 MS. add. Hnt. 
(T. P.F.) Cmb. 1 That there cut on your finger's rare and angry 
you'd better put a hutkin on. e.An. 1 My kibe is very angry to-night 
Nrf., Snf., Sns., Hmp. A person, when angry, generally looks red ; 
so does the inflamed part of the body, HOLLOWAY. w.Som. 1 He 
was getting on very well till s'mornin, but now the leg looks 




[This serum . . . grows red and angry, WISEMAN Surgery 
(JOHNSON) ; I have rubb'd this young quat almost to the 
sense, And he grows angry, SHAKS. Oth. v. i. 12 ; Pedigndni, 
angrie kibes, chilblanes, FLORIO (1611).] 

ANGUISH, sb. Sur. Hmp. Cor. [ae'rjwij.] 

1. Inflammation. 

Sur. It's nice and cooling is that Elder ointment I made ; it keeps 
off the anguish, N. & Q. (1880) 6th S. i. 238. Hmp. 1 Of horses 
it is said, ' If we foment it, it'll take the anguish out of it.' Cor. 3 
There is a deal of anguish in my finger. That is the anguish 
coming out [said of water running from an inflamed eye]. 

2. Pain felt at a distance from the actual wound or seat 
of disease, commonly known as ' sympathy.' 

Cor. 3 My hand is swelled and I've got a swelling too in my arm- 
pit, but that is from the anguish of it. The pain that arises in one 
tooth from sympathy with another corresponding one in decay is 
called anguish. 

[OFr.angoisse, anguish, agony of mind or body (CoxcR.).] 

ANGUISHED, ppl. adj. Lin. Pained, troubled. 

n.Lin. 1 1 was straangely anguished in my joints all thrif Thomas 
th' wizzard. 

[My soule was angwishid in me, WYCLIF (1382) Jon. 
ii. 8. Anguished, pp. of anguish, vb. I anguysshe, Je 
angoysse ; This wounde anguyssheth me, ceste playe me 
aiigoysse, PALSGR.] 

ANGUISHOUS, adj. Lan. Chs. [a'rjwifas.] (i) Pain- 
ful, causing pain. (2) Sorrowful, oppressed with pain. 

(.0 Chs. 1 2) Lan. 1 He lookt quite anguishous, an aw felt sorry 
for him. 

[(i) Ful anguisshous than is, god wool, quod she, 
Condicioun of veyn prosperitee, CHAUCER Tr. & Cr. HI. 
816. (2) For I was al aloon, y-wis, Ful wo and anguissous 
of this, CHAUCER R. Rose, 520. OFr. angttissus, Fr. angois- 
seux (PALSGR. 305).] 

ANIE, sb. Sc. A small one. 

Abd. Gie's a bonny anie. It's but a wee little anie (G.W.). 
Knr. Anie, a little one QAM.). Edb. A mother speaking of the 
youngest of her children says ' The wee ane ' or ' The wee anie.' 
What bowl [of porridge] willye tak. Jamie? The wee anie (J. W. M.). 

[Dim. of ane, n. dial, form of lit. E. one. Ane + -y.] 

ANIGH, adv. and prep. Stf. Lei. Nhp. War. Wor. Shr. 
Glo. Oxf. Brks. Sur. Sus. Hmp. I.W. Som. Aus. [anr, 
onai' ; Lei. anoi'.] 

1. adv. Near. 

Lei. 1 Oi'll gie ye a clout if yo coom anoigh. War. 23 Shr. 1 
The doctor never come anigh. Glo. 1 , Sus. 1 

2. prep. Near to, near ; gen. with vb. of motion. 

s.Stf. Do' let him come anigh me, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. (iSgsX 
Stf. 2 Ei nivgr kum anoi mi for 3 wik. Nhp. 1 He lives anigh 
me. s.War. 1 Don't ye go anigh him. se.Wor. 1 Don't you get 
anigh them osses. Oxf. 1 , Brks. 1 Sur. 1 And for all that I was 
bad so long he never come a-nigh me. Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 w.Som. 1 
Used with vbs. implying motion only. Dhur aewz uz nuy dhu 
roa'ud, bud aay niivur diidn goo unuyum [their house is near the 
road, but I never went near them]. [Aus., N.S.W. We mustered 
the cattle quite comfortably, nobody coming anext or anigh us 
any more than if we'd taken the thing by contract, BOLDREWOOD 
Robbery (1888) I. xi.] 

ANIGHST, prep, and adv. Der. Wor. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. 
Brks. Sus. Hmp. Wil. Dor. Cor. Also written anist 
Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 Cor. 12 ; anyst Cor. 2 [anai'st, ani'st.] 
1. prep. Near, near to ; gen. used with v. of motion. 

Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 Wor. I 'oodn't live anighst her wotever, OUTIS 
Vig. Man. in Wor. Jnt. s.Wor. 1 Hrf. 1 They never come anighst 
me. Bio. I never cud get anist un (S.S.B.) ; Master Michael . . . 
oodn't let un come anighst the house, GISSING Vill. Hcmtpden 
(1890) II. v; Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 A said 'twas I as 'ut 'im, an' I never 
went nooer anighst'n. Brks. Blessee, child, doantee go anigst it, 
HUGHES T. Brown (1856) 37 ; Now thou'rt like to get th' lotment 
thou'lt not go anyst 'un, ib. T. Brown Oxf. (1861) xix ; 
Brks. 1 Best not come anighst that ther hoss, med be he'll kick "e. 
e.Sus. HOLLOWAY. Hmp. 1 Wil. The miller zeed it ael, but 
couldn't come anighst un, AKERMAN Spring-tide (1850) 48 ; Wil. 1 
Nobody's bin anighst us since you come ; Wil. 2 Dor. 1 Don't goo 
aniste en. Cor. Don't you come anist my door agen for a bra' 
spur. FORFAR IVisard ^871 j 54 ; They durstn't ha' gone anighst 
a shop, PARR Adam ami Eve (,1880; I. 276. w.Cor. So take and 

go the west [way] home and dos'en aw come anist me, THOMAS 
Rant/igal Rhymes (1895) 7. Cor. 2 Don't go anist him, MS. add. 
2. adv. Nearly, almost. 

Dor. You've said anighst all, HARDY Tower (1882) 327, ed. 1895. 

[A- (pref. w ) + nighest, superl. of nigh.] 

ANIGHT(S, adv. War. Wor. Som. [anai't] At night, 
of a night. 

War., Wor. I can't sleep anights (H.K.). s.Wor. 1 w.Som. 1 You 
can't never do it by day, but you can zometimes anight. 

[Bid him take that fof coming a-night, SHAKS. As You, 
ii. iv. 48; Though I him wrye a-night and make him 
warm, CHAUCER C. T. D. 1827. A-, on + night.] 

ANIND, see Onhind. 

ANISE, sb. A plant-name applied to (i) Afyssum 
maritimum (Dev.) ; (2) Koniga maritinta (Dev.) ; (3) 
Myrrhis odorata (Dun). 

Dev. 4 Anise, the same as Sweet Alice. 

[Dial, uses of anise (Pimpinella antsum), Fr. ants, Lat. 
ariisum, Gr. avlaov.} 

ANK, v. Lan. To be of opinion, to assert em- 

Lan. ' Con aw ? ' cried Jimmy ; ' aw ank a con,' STANDING Echoes 
(1885) 24. e.Lan. In common use among the natives of the Tod- 
morden valley, and in Burnley (F.E.B.). 

[Etym. obscure. Perh. the same word as hank (to 
fasten), q.v.] 

ANKER, sb. Sc. Nhb. Cor. [a'rjkar, ae'rjka(r).] 

1. A liquid measure : ten imperial gallons. 

Sc. I had whiles twa bits o' ankers o' brandy, SCOTT Rob Roy 
(1817) xviii ; Anker, a liquid measure formerly in use in all districts 
that traded with the Dutch (JAM. Sitppl.}. S. & Ork. 1 Danish 
anker, 38 Danish quarts, 10 imperial gallons. Nhb. About ten 
ankers of gin, RICHARDSON Borderer's Tablc-bk. (1846) VII. 175. 

2. A small cask adapted for carrying, and containing 
about four gallons. 

Sc. Tun, anker, and cag, DRUMMOND Muchomathy (1846) 66. 
s. & w.Sc. A small barrel used by smugglers for carrying their 
brandy on horseback, &c. ; also the small barrel open at one end 
used for holding the oatmeal in daily use. Still so used in se- 
cluded districts of the s. and w. of Scotland, and is a big or a wee, 
a muckle or a little anker, according to its size or capacity (JAM. 
Suppl.}. Frf. Some bring, in many an anker hooped strong, From 
Flushing's port, the palate-biting gin, TENNANT Anster (1812) viii. 
Cor. We'll drink it out of the anker, my boys, DIXON Sngs. Eng. 
Peas. (1846) 160, ed. 1857; Cor. 1 ; Cor. 2 'Free-traders' imported 
their ' moonshine ' in such ankers when the nights were dark. 

3. A dry measure. 

S. & Ork. 1 An anker of potatoes, one-third of a barrel. Or. & Sh.I. 
A dry measure similar to the firlot, for measuring potatoes (JAM. 

[1. Anker, a liquid measure chiefly used at Amsterdam. 
It is the fourth part of the awm, and contains two stekans : 
each stekan consists of sixteen mengles ; the mengle 
being equal to two Paris pints, CHAMBERS Cycl. (1788) ; 
A few anchors of right Nantz, SMOLLETT Per. Pick. (1751) 
I. ii. io. Du. anker, a measure of wine, the fourth part 
of an awm (aani) ; also a cask holding the above quantity; 
the word is also used in the fish-trade (DE VRIES). G. and 
Dan. anker, Sw. ankare (SERENIUS) ; MLat. anceria (OFr. 
ancere) ; see DUCANGE.] 

ANKERLY, adv. ? Obs. Sc. Unwillingly. 

Slk. GAM.) [Not known to our correspondents.] 

[Perh. a deriv. of anker (OE. ancor], an anchorite, in 
ref. to his unwillingness to join in the society and pleasures 
of the world.] 

ANKLING, see Rankling. 

ANKOR, sb. Nhb. [a'rjkar.] The bend of a scythe 
or adze. 

Nhb. 1 Some men prefer the angle at which a scythe-blade is set 
from the handle to be more or less acute. Hence the direction in 
fixing a new handle is ' Give 'or a bit mair ankor,' or ' A bit less 
ankor,' as the case may be. The same direction is given in fixing 
a new handle to an adze. 

[Perh. a use of anchor, with regard to the angle made 
by the fluke with the long shank.] 

ANKSOME, see Anxom. 

i 2 




ANLET, sb. w.Yks. [a'nlat] A mark in the shape of 
an annulet, or small ring. 

w.Yks. 1 Anlet, the mark on a stone, being an ancient boundary 
in this neighbourhood. 

[Annelet, a little ring for the finger ; any annelet or 
small ring used about apparel or armour, COTGR.] 

ANNAUST, see Anewst. 

ANNET, s*. 1 Nhb. s.Pem. Cor. Written anny s.Pem. 
The Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. 

Nhb. 1 s.Pem. LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 419. Cor. RODD Birds 
(1880)314. [FoRSTERSzfa//ozi'(i8i7)92 ; SWAINSON Birds (1885) 

[See Annet, sb. 2 ] 

ANNET, sb. 2 Nhb. Lan. [a'nat] 

1. The common Gull, Larus canus. 
Nhb. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 208. 

2. A ' gull,' a silly fellow. 

Lan. That eendless annul o' thoine's keen bitter, SCHOLES Tim 
Gamwattle (1857) 39. 

[Perh. equiv. to ON. dnd (gen. andar), a duck, Dan. and, 
cp. OE. ened.] 

ANNOY, v. Yks. Lan. War. Shr._ Ess._ (obs.) Som. 
Also by aphaeresis noy w.Som. 1 [anor, noi.] 

1. To hurt, trouble, damage. 

War. 3 It does not annoy my memory [to write down dialect 
words], Shr. 1 That theer bit o' roche 'as annoyed my spade. 
Ess. Leaue oxen abrode for anoieng the spring [shoots of under- 
wood], TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) 105, st n. w.Som. 1 Don't you 
believe it, he widn noy you 'pon no 'count in the wordle. 

2. Hence (i) Annoyance, sb. offence, damage ; (2) 
Annoisome, adj. hurtful ; (3) Annoyment, sb. intent to 
injure, malice ; (4) Annoyous, (5) Annoyful, adj. trouble- 

(i) w.Som. J Nif you'll plase to let us put up the ladder in your 
garden, we'll take care not to make no noyance. (2) w.Yks. 2 No 
man shall put any scabbed horse to the common whereby they 
maie be annoysome or troublesome to his neighbours (obs.). (3) 
w.Som. 1 1 knows em purty well, 'tis all a-do'd vor noyment. Lan. 1 
(4) Anoyful. (5) Yo're varra anoyous ; give oer. 

[1. I noye or hurte one, Je nuys, PALSGR. ; It dooth no 
good . . . but anoyeth, See ye nat, lord, how mankinde it 
destroyeth ? CHAUCER C. T. F. 875. AFr. anoyer (mod. 
ennuyer). 2. Annoyance. Suffrance suffreth swetely all 
the anoyaunces and the wronges that men doon to man 
outward, CHAUCER C. T. i. 655. Annoyful. Alle tarying 
.... anoyful, ib. B. 2220. Annoyment. I warrant she 
neuer fele anoyment, Play Sacr. (MATZNER). Annoyous. 
Ony thing That anoyus or scathfull be, BARBOUR Bruce, 
v. 249; Thilke thinges shullen ben unjoyful to thee or 
elles anoyous, CHAUCER Boeth. 11. v. 95. Annoysome. Cp. 
the aphetic lit. E. form noisome: The noisome pesti- 
lence, BIBLE Ps. xci. 3.] 

ANNUAL MEADOW GR ASS, phr. Sus. Poaannua; 
called also Causeway grass, q.v. 

Sus. The annual meadow, vernal, smooth . . . seem to be best 
adapted for the feed of sheep, MARSHALL Review (1817) V. 489. 
ANNY, see Annet. 

ANOINT, v. Nhb. Wm. Yks. Chs. Der. Nhp. Shr. Hrf. 
Glo. e.An. Ken. Wil. Dor. Som. By aphaeresis 'noint 
Win. n. Yks. 1 w.Yks. 2 3 Chs. 1 * s.Chs. 1 w.Som. 1 ; nint Wil. 1 ; 
ninte Shr. 1 ; again corrupted to oynt Suf. 1 ; aint e.An. 1 
Nrf. 1 Suf. 1 ; aaint Nrf. 1 Suf. 1 [anoi'nt, noint, naint, aint.] 
1. To thrash, chastise by word or act, ' to baste.' 
Nhb. Aw'd peel her te the varry sark Then 'noint her wiv a twig 
o' yeck, WILSON Pitman's Pa_y(i843) n. Wm. Maister's nointed 
me to-day for talking in class (B.K.). n. Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 2 ; w.Yks. 3 
Au'll noint thee. Chs. 12 , s.Chs. 1 Shr. 1 Billy, if yo' dunna come 
back and get on wuth that leasin' I'll ninte yore 'ide fur yo'. 
Shr. & Hrf. Neint, to beat, BOUND Prov. (1876). Hrf. I saw Bill 
Jones 'ninting the parson, N. & Q. (1865) 3rd S. viii. 547. e-An. 1 , 
Nrf.i Suf. 1 I'll aaint yar hide for ye. Ken. 1 Wil. 1 I'll 'nint ye 
when I gets home ! Dor. Anoint, to beat (W.W.S.). w.Som. 1 
Jimmy! tumm'ld down again and dirt yer pinny ! you bad boy, I'll 
noint your bottom vor 'ee, I will, you young rascal ! 
Hence Anointing, a thrashing. 

Wm. He gat hissel a good nointing for his pains (B.K.). s.Chs. 1 
They gen [gave] him a pratty nointin'. Nhp. 1 You'll get a good 

nineting, young lad. Shr. 2 Shr. &. Hrf. I'll give you a neinting, 
BOUND Prov. (1876). Glo. 1 
2. To run, hurry away. 

w Yks 2 A man said of his mare, ' You should see her nant up 
them hills.' Now, lad, noint it. He did make us nanty. nw.Der. 1 
Shr. 1 They wun comin' alung as fast as the pony could ninte. 
Shr. Hrf. How that horse did neint along, BOUND Prov. (1876). 

n' I'll anoint him with a cat-and-nine-tails, SMOL- 
LETT Rod. Random, v. ME. The kyng away fly, Which 
so well was anoynted (Fr. si bien otngt) mdede, Rom. 
Partenay, 5653. 2. The sense 'to hurry along' is a 
development from sense 1 ; cp. the use of beat, pelt, in the 
sense of hurried movement.] 

ANOINTED, ppl. adj. In gen. dial, use in Irel. and 
Ens Also by aphaeresis, nointed n.Yks. 12 m.Yks. 1 
Chs 12 Lin x Rut. 1 Lei. 1 w.Som. 1 nw.Dev. 1 ; nineted Nhp. 1 
se-Wor. 1 Shr. 12 Hrf. 2 I.W. 2 ; niented I.W. 2 

1. Of persons: thoroughly bad, wholly given up to evil 
courses, notorious. 

Wxf. ' Why, you anointed rogue,' says he, KENNEDY Banks Bow 
(1867) 287. n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 A nointed youth. s.Lan. The ex- 
pression a ' neignted yung rogue ' was common in this district some 
years ago. It is seldom, if ever, now heard, Manch. City News 
(Feb. 8, 1896). Chs. 12 Lin. He's a 'nointed one, THOMPSON 
Hist. Boston (1856) 7 1 6. Rut. ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 256. Lei. 1 
A'sa'nineted'un,ais. Nhp. 1 Wor. Called him an 'anointed young 
vagabond,' ./V. & Q. (1865) 3rd S. viii. 452. se.Wor. 1 'E's a nineted 
un, 'e is. s.War. 1 He's an anointed young rascal. Shr. 1 E's a 
nineted pippin [said of a vicious youth] ; Shr. 2 Hrf. 2 Ninetedum, 
corruption of 'anointed one.' Him's a ninted yarb. Hnt. He's 
the most anointed young hound I ever met in my life, N. & Q. 
(1865) 3rd S. viii. 452. Nrf. We commonly hear a very bad boy 01 
man called ' an anointed willain,' ib. (1867) 3rd S. xii. 237. Suf. 
(F.H.) Ken. Anineted, nineted, audacious, fast (A.M.); Ken. 1 He's 
a regular anointed young dog. The devil's own anointed young 
rascal. I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 Don't hay nothin to do wi' that feller, he's 
a nineted rogue. w-Som. 1 There idn nit a more nointeder young 
osebird in all the parish. Dev. He is an anointed wretch, Reports 
Provinc. (1882) 7. nw-Dev. 1 Cor. Aw, he was an anointed old 
rascal, ' Q.' Troy Town (1888) xi ; That boy'd end badly, for aw was 
a most anointed lem, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) 3 ; Cor. 1 2 

Hence Ninety-bird, one who is given up to evil ways. 

se.Wor. 1 

2. Very great, terrible. 

w.Som. It was an anointed shame, ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 22. 

[Anointed in this sense is prob. conn, with anoint, vb. (to 
thrash). An ' anointed scoundrel ' would mean a scoundrel 
who has deservedly been well thrashed.] 

ANOINTER, sb. Yks. Chs. Stf. War. Wor. Glo. Oxf. 
Bck. Wil. Som. Also written nointer Yks. Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 ; 
nineter War. 2 Glo. 1 Wil. 1 ; neinter Chs. 1 

1. A scapegrace, a mischievous fellow. Also used as adj. 
w.Yks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 31, 1884) 8. Chs. 1 s.Stf. He's 

a reglar nointer, I'd believe anythin' o' him, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. 
(1895). War. NORTHALL Flk-Phr. (1894). w.Wor. That lad's a 
nineter, sir, he is. He'll fight like a robin, Berrow'sjm. (Mar. 10, 
1888). s.Oxf. David Loveday names his dog ' Nainter' because it is 
troublesome, barking at the wrong time, and sometimes worrying 
the sheep, Flk-Lore Jrn. (1884) II. 188 ; ' She allus were a reglar 
nineter,' said her father with a delighted chuckle. ' Whatever's a 
nineter, uncle?' asked Sam. 'A nineter? Why, a nineter's a reglar 
Bedlam,' answered Tom, ROSEMARY Chilterns (1895)162. Bck. He's 
a nice young nineter, he is! (A.C.) Wil. 1 A nineter young rascal. 

2. A trickster, a sharp, crafty person. 

w.Wor. He be a nipper and a nineter, he be (W.B.). Glo. 
Som. Nineter, SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

3. An energetic, pushing person. 
s.Chs. 1 Hey's a nointer, that mon. 

4. A miser, a skinflint. 
Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892) ; Wil. 1 

5. Of things : causing perplexity or surprise ; a ' puzzler.' 
w.Yks. That's a nointer (G.B. W.) ; (B.K.) 

[Anoint, vb. (q.v.) + -er. The word means prob. one 
who deserves an ' anointing," i. e. a thrashing. The use 
of the suffix -er (of the agent) is remarkable.] 

ANOINTING, adj. Bck. Mischievous. 

Bck. Aint he a nineting young rascal ? (A.C.) 

[See Anointed.] 




ANON, adv. Dev. [ano'n.] To-night. 
Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Dev. & Cor. Monthly Mag. 
(1808) II. 621. Dev. 3 Yii shet away 'ome Bill, us'll volleree anon. 
Midden be airly, tho' tweel be avore owly-light [midnight]. 

[This sense is due to the earlier use of anon in the 
sense of soon, in a short time. I am gone, sir, And anon, 
sir, I'll be with you again, SHAKS. Twelfth Nt. iv. ii. 131. 
OE. on an, into one (moment).] 

ANON, int. Widely diffused throughout the dial, of 
Sc. Irel. Eng. Amer. Also written anan N.Cy. 1 Chs. 123 
s.Chs. 1 Der? e.An. 1 I.W. 1 Wil. 1 Cor. 12 ; non n.Yk. 12 ; 
nan Nhp. 2 Hrf. 1 Glo. 1 e.An. 1 Hmp. 1 I.W. 1 Wil. 1 Dev. 1 
nw. Dev. 1 Cor. 12 ; name. An. 2 ; a'an e.An. 1 ; annan Dor. 1 
[ano'n, ana'n, non, nan.] An interrogation. What did 
you say ? A mode of expressing that the hearer has failed 
to catch the speaker's meaning. 

Sc. The brute of a lad puzzles me by his ' anan,' and his ' dunna 
knaw," SCOTT Redg. (1824) v. Ir. ' Anan ! ' said she, not under- 
standing hisquestion, LEVER Martins (1856) I. 195, ed. 1872. Dur. 
Traveller. ' Pray which is the road to Durham ?' Clown. 'Non!' 
(J.H.) n-Yks. 1 Anon or anan is an interjectional sound of doubting 
inquiry, similar to the utterly inexpressible (by letters) sound of 
assent or attention which is employed by many Yorkshire people 
when listening to a narrative or a remark where verbal observa- 
tions are unneeded. w.Yks. 1 , Chs. 12 ; Chs. 3 Anan, what's that? 
s.Chs. 1 I have never got the word at first hand, and think it died 
out with the last generation. Der. 1 Obs. (1890). Nhp. 2 Wor. 
Anan, what do you say ? PORSON Quaint Wds. (1875). Hrf. 1 , Glo. 1 
e.An. 1 Often contracted to A'an, or N'an. Nrf-Anan? An? N.&Q. 
(1850) ist S. ii. 217. Ken. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) w.Sus. 
Anan, Nan. This interjection has the same sense as the word 
' hay ' in Hampshire, HOLLOWAY. Hmp. 1 , I.W. 1 Wil. 1 Anan, 'Nan. 
Used by a labourer who does not quite comprehend his master's 
orders. Dor. 1 Som. Anan, Nan, eh ! what? W. & J. Gl. (1873). 
Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 Cor. Anan. An interjection used by old people 
within remembrance, though now extinct, QuiLLER-CoucH Hist. 
Polperro (1871) 172; Cor. 12 [Amer. Anan, how? The word 
is common in Pennsylvania, BARTLETT. We have in Philadelphia 
' Anan,' interrog. what ? N. & Q. (1870) 4th S. vi. 249.] 

[See Anon, adv.] 

ANONSKER, adj. n.Yks. [ano-nska(r).] Eager, 
desirous, set upon a thing. 

n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 They've setten him anonsker o' t'sea [anxious 
to become a sailor], 

[Of ON. origin ; cp. Dan. an, on + ijmske, wish.] 

ANOTHER, in comp. (i) -gates, (2) -guess, (3) -kins, of 
a different kind ; (4) -when, another time. 

(i) Lan. 1 (2) Lei. 1 Shr. 1 Another-guess sort, generally taken 
in the sense of 'better.' Ah! the poor toud missis wuz another 
gis-sort o' body to "er daughter-law. Glo. Thelikeo'webeanother- 
guesssortoffolk,GissiNG.So</!q/W,s.ProA(i889)I. 117; Glo. 2 You 
are another guess-sort of a man. (3) n-Yks. 1 He was anotherkins 
body te t'ither chap ; n.Yks 2 That's anotherkins teeal [a different 
version of 'the story]. m.Yks. 1 That plum's of anotherkins sort. 
(4) Ken.' 

[Another-gates. When Hudibras about to enter Upon 
an othergates adventure, BUTLER Hud. i. iii. 42 ; He 
would have tickled you othergates than he did, SHAKS. 
Twelfth Nt. v. i. 198. Another-gates, i.e. of another gate, 
of another way; see Gate. Orig. an adv. gen. in -es, 
a late analog, formation. Another-guess. At present 
I am constrained to make another guesse divertisement, 
Com. Hist. Francion (NARES). This is a form of another- 
gates, which was also pron. another gets. See Othergates.] 

ANOUST, see Anewst. 

ANOW, see Enow. 

ANOWER, see Inower. 

ANPARSE, ANPASSY, see Ampersand. 

ANSEL, see Own-self. 

ANSELL, ANSTIL, see Hansel. 

ANSH, see Haunch. 

ANSWER,!/. 1 Chs. War. Som. [ansa(r).] 

1. To last, endure. 

w.Som. 1 That there poplar 'out never answer out o' doors, I'll be 
a ratted in no time. 

2. With prep, to, (i) to succeed with ; (2) to be easily led. 
Chs. 1 (i) It is said that clay land easily answers to bones. (2) He's 

a soft sort o' chap ; he'll answer to owt. War. (J.R.W.) 

ANSWER, sb. and v? Irel. 

1. 56. A bite (in fishing). 
Wmth. Did you get ere an answer? 

2. v. To bite (of fish). 

nJr. Are there many fish there ? Yes, because they answered 
them many a time (S.A.B.). 
ANSWERABLE, adj. Sus. Som. Dev. [avnsarabl.] 

1. Durable, lasting. 

w.Som. 1 A man said to me of a draining tool, ' Dhik-ee soa-urt 
bee dee'urer, but dhai bee moo'ur aan'surublur ' [that sort are 
dearer, but they are more answerable, i.e. cheaper in the end]. 
Dev. 'Twas good answerable reed [for thatching], Reports Pro/vine. 
(1887) 3 

2. With prep, to, corresponding to. 

Sus. They did pretty middlin' answerable to their size, EGERTON 
Flks. and Ways (1884) 85. 

[1. Answerable, consentaneus, COLES (1679). 2. The 
daughters of Atlas were ladies who brought forth children 
answerable in quality to those that begot them, RALEIGH 
Hist. World (JOHNSON).] 

ANSWERING, prp. used as prep, and conj. 

1. prep. Corresponding to. 

Cum., Wm. Answering this time last week [at the correspond- 
ing time], SULLIVAN Cum. and Wm. (1857) 90. 

2. conj. Provided that. 

Cum., Wm. Answering he conies, SULLIVAN Cum. and Wm. 
(1857) 90. 

ANT, v. 1 Sh.I. [ant.] To show attention to, respect, 

Sh.I. Ant, to pay regard to (Coll. L.L.B.); Freq. used with 
negative, ' Never ant him' (K.I.) ; An prickin nerves ant no da 
will's intent, BURGESS Rasmie (1891) 118. S. & Ork. 1 

ANT, v. 2 Chs. [ant] A method of ploughing. 

Chs. 1 To plough out a small subsoil furrow from a reen. 

ANTELUTE,s6. ? Obs. Shr. [a'ntilut] A tea-party. 

Shr. 1 Now then, girls, if yo'n look sharp an' get yore work done, 
yo' sha'n g66 to the antelute. 

ANTER, see Aunter. 

ANTERIN, see Undern. 

ANTERS, ANTHERS, see Aunters. 

ANTHILL-GRASS, sb. Midi, counties. Festuca syl- 

Midi. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1790) 107, ed. 1796. 

ANTHONY OVER, sb. Gall. A child's game at ball. 

Gall. The bairns vexed his soul by playing ' Antony Over ' against 
the end of his house, CROCKETT Stickit Min. (1893) 99 ; Throwing 
a ball over a house, from one party of children to another (S.R.C.). 

ANTHONY-PIG, sb. Chs. Der. Hrt. Ken. Hmp. Dev. 
Also written Tanthony-pig Chs. 12 

1. The smallest pig of a litter, the favourite one supposed 
to be dedicated to and under the special protection of 
St. Anthony, the patron saint of swineherds. 

Der. 2 Anthony-pig, the ruckling of the litter ; nw.Der. 1 Hrt. 
We call a poor starved creature a Tantony pig, SALMON Hist, of 
Hrt. (1728). Ken. The favourite pig of the farrow, GROSE (1790) ; 
The word Anthony is by analogy used as a diminutive generally 
(P.M.); Ken. 1 Hmp. Tanthony-pig, N. &Q. (1851) ist S. iii. 429. 
Dev. 3 Anthony's pig is also called nessel tripe. 

2. Fig. One who follows close at heel. 

Chs. 1 ; Chs. 2 To follow anyone like a Tantony pig, is to stick as 
close to him as St. Anthony's favourite is supposed to have done 
to the saint. 

[He will follow him like a St. Anthony's pig. St. A. 
is notoriously known for the patron of hogs, having a pig 
for his page in all pictures, FULLER Worthies, II. 56. 
Tantony repr. St. Antony. The form occurs in SWIFT: 
Lord ! she made me follow her last week through all the 
shops like a Tantiny (sic) pig, Polite Conv. I.] 

ANTIC, sb. and adj. Van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Dur. 
Lan. Der. Brks. Som. Dev. Cor. Also written hantic, 
hantick, hanteck. See below, [a'ntik, arntik.] 
1. sb. Gen. used in the pi. Manoeuvres, movements, 
odd ways and tricks. 

Sc. Antick, a foolish ridiculous frolic (JAM.). Dur. 1 Lan. Tom 
oth-Grinders an Owd Lurry wi him, laighin', dancin, an playin 
o maks o antiks, Abrum o' Flap's Quortin' (1886) 13. nw-Der. 1 , 
Brks. 1 w.Som. 1 Hot ailth the mare ? her's all vull o' her hantics. 
Dev. I niver did zee nobody za vull ov hantecks as 'er is, HEWETT 




Peas. Sp. (1892) 86 ; Dev. 1 What hanticks a had ! naddling his 
head, drawing out his hands, and blasting up his ees to the gurt 
oaks. Naut. After this, we had a little few more ' antics,' as the 
sailors call them, moving from columns of divisions with the ships 
in line ahead into other formations in line abreast, then by sub- 
divisions and so forth, Standard (Aug. 12, 1889) 3, col. i. [Anticks, 
gesticulations such as Merry Andrews employ, GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (C.)] 

2. A fool, a buffoon or clown. 

Cor. 1 You dunderheaded old antic, lave that to the musicianers, 
' Q.' Three Ships (1890) i ; Cor. 1 I never seed such an antic in my 
born days ; Cor. 2 Such an antic. 

3. adj. Droll, grotesque. 

NJ. 1 He's very antic. Antickest [most funny]. 

4. Frantic with excitement, mad, unmanageable. 
w.Som. 1 Hantic. n.Dev. What's the matter? . . . what art tha 

hanteck? Exm. Crtship. (1746) 1. 620 ; Hantick, wanton and unruly, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add (M.) ; Dev. 1 

[1. Antic, he that plays anticks, JOHNSON ; To dance 
anticks is to dance like a Jack-pudding after an odd and 
ridiculous manner, KERSEY. 2. Antick, a buffoon or 
juggler, KERSEY ; Jugglers and dancers, anticks, mum- 
mers, mimicks, MILTON S.A. 1325; There the antic 
(i.e. Death) sits, Scoffing his state, and grinning at his 
pomp, SHAKS. Rich. II. HI. ii. 162. 3. The prize was to 
be conferred upon the whistler that could go through his 
tune without laughing, though provoked by the antick 
postures of a Merry Andrew, ADDISON Sped. No. 179 ; 
He came running to me . . . making a many antic gestures, 
DE FOE Crusoe (1719) 183. It. antico (ancient), a term 
applied in the i6th cent, to the grotesque work found 
among the ruins in Rome, and ascribed to the ancients.] 
ANTIOUS, adj. Pern, [e'n/as.] Ancient, beautiful 
with age, rare. 

s.Pem. ' 'Tis an antious old place," said of a somewhat ruinous 
building (E.D.) ; The idea of ' beautiful ' is always associated with 
that of ' old ' or ' ancient.' It is difficult to know which of the two 
is uppermost in the mind of the speaker. It is certain that the 
word is never used when mere age is considered. This chist [chest] 
is a very antious one. Oh, here's an antious set of china ! This 
pictier [picture] is owld an' hansom, David, deed, it's antious 

ANTLE, see An, Hantle. 

ANTLE-BEER, adv. Dev. fae-ntl-bia(r).] Cross- 
wise, irregular (the form of two uprights and one cross- 
piece, like a door-frame). 

n.Dev. Et wel zet arter tha antlebeer lick the dooms of a door, 
Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 274 ; GROSE (1790). 
Hence fig. cross-grained. 

Dev. They only thought it was my ' appurted witherful develtry ,' 
as they called it, and Nurse added that I was ' antle-beer,' MADOX- 
BROWN Dwale Bluth (1876) bk. iv. i. 
ANTLING, see Hantling. 

ANTONMAS,s6. Sh.I. St. Anthony's Day, a festival 
held Jan. 29, twenty-four days after Christmas (old style). 
Sh.I. Jan. 29. By oldest people called St. Anthony's Day. now 
Fower-an-twenty Day, and UphellyA. Yule ends, Manson's Aim. 
(1893) 16; Antonmas is observed here yearly as the last day 
of Yule-tide. In the country districts the young people meet and 
have a dance, but in Lerwick there is generally a torchlight 
procession of guizers, who afterwards make a bonfire of their 
torches and then proceed to the houses thrown open for their 
entertainment where they have fiddling and dancing (K.I.); 
Antinmas. St. Anthony's Day in the calendar [new style] is I7th 
January (JAM. Suppl.). S. & Ork. 1 

[Anthony + mass (a Church festival).] 
ANTRIMS, sb. pi. Wm. Yks. Chs. Der. War. e.An. 
Also written antrums e.An. 1 Suf. 1 ; antherums n.Yks. 2 
[a'ntrimz, a'ntramz.] 

1. Airs, whims, caprices, with an implication of temper. 
N.Cy. 1 Wm. Antrums, tantrums, flightiness, airs that one gives 

oneself, GIBSON Leg. and Notes (1877) 91. Chs. 1 At your antrims 
again; Chs. 23 , Der. 2 , nw-Der. 1 , War. (J.R.W.), e-An. 1 , Nrf. 1 
Suf. 1 'As in 'as antrums this morning. 

2. Doubts, hesitations. 

[Etym. unknown. See Tantrums.] 
ANTRUM, see Undern. 

ANT-TUMP, sb. War. Won Shr. Hrf. Also written 
anty- tump War. 2 Shr. 1 Hrf. 1 ; anti-tump w.Wor. 1 [an'ti- 
tump, a-nt-tump.] An ant-hill. 

War. 2 , w.Wor. 1 , s.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 'E raved an tore like a bull at 
a anty-tump. Hrf. 1 

[Ant + lump, q.v.] 

ANUNDER, adv. and prep. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. 
Wm. Yks. Som. Dev. Also written annundher N.I. 1 ; 
anonder n.Sc. QAM.) Cum. 1 ; anuner Nhb. 1 ; anoner 
Abd. UAM.); in-under Nhb. 1 h.Yks. 2 w.Som. 1 nw.Dev. 1 ; 
innundher N.I. 1 ; in-onder n.Yks. 2 [anu-nda(r), anu-na(r).] 

1. adv. Beneath, under (of actual position). 
NJ. 1 , N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Aa's gan anuner. nw.Dev. 1 

2. prep. Under, underneath. 

Sc. As a hen gathereth her chickens anunder her wings, HEN- 
DERSON Matt. (1862) xxiii. 37. Sh.1. He aims me a lick just anunder 
da belt, BURGESS Rasmie (1891) 15. Abd. A lamb anoner Nory'scare, 
Ross Helenore (1768) 12, ed. 1812. Ant. Anondther, Anonder 
(W.J.K.). Nhb. His left han's anunder me heed, ROBSON Sag. Sol. 
(1860) ii. 6 ; Anunder his care, ib. Bk. of Ruth (1860) ii. 12; Nhb. 1 
The boxis inunder the bed. Dnr. Ah sat doon unnonder his shaddow 
wih greet deleyght, MOORE Sng. Sol. (1860) ii. 3. Com. En onder 
them he said was two lile princes buried, Mary Drayson (1872) 
13 ; Com. 8 If I stopt anonder ya tree i' t'wud, I stopt anonder 
twenty, 23. At keeps o' he cares anonder ya hat, 55. Wm. An 
buried him snugly an-under some trees, WHITEHEAD Leg. (1859) 8 ; 
Ye'll be best anonder t'blankets. I isn't in anonder t'least doubt 
about it (M.P.). n.Yks. Ah sat me down on t'binch in under t'awd 
yak tree, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 48. w.Som. 1 Dhai vaewn 
un tu laa-s aup-mdhu taal-ut, een uun'dur u buun'l u aa-y [they 
found him at last up in the tallet, underneath a bundle of hay]. 

3. Beneath in command, in subjection to. 

n.Yks. 2 He was in-onder t'other man [in office]. w-Sora. 1 Our 
Bill's a go to work to the brew-house, in under Mr. Joyce the 

[ME. Ther nis non betere anonder sunne, K. Horn, 567. 
An, on + under.] 

ANVIL, sb. Ken. [ae'nvl.] In comp. Anvil-clouds, 
clouds of the shape of an anvil, supposed to betoken rain. 

Ken. 1 

ANXOM, adj. Yks. [a-nksam.] Anxious. 

e.Yks. He'd monny a anksome lewk at his store, NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp. (1889) 42 ; e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) 

[A form of anxious, contam. with the suff. -some ; cp. 
fearsome, q.v.] 

Hence Anxomness, anxiety. 

e.Yks. 1 ATS. add. (T.H.) 

ANY, adv., adj. and pron. Van dial, uses in Irel. and 
Eng. See below, [e'ni, o'ni.] 

1. adv. At all. 

n.Yks. It dizn't dry onny (I.W.). ne.Yks. 1 It didn't rain onny. 
s.Not. Ah don't see as she's improved any (J.P.K.). swiin. 1 He's 
not worked any sin' June. She can't sit up any. Wor. If I 
leaves it till to-morrow it won't hurt any (H.K.). s.Oxf. They be 
Sunday does . . . and scarce wore any, ROSEMARY Chilterns (1895) 
76. Suf. He tell them brick every now and agin to see if they've 
wasted any (C. G. de B.). Snr. 1 The cuckoo don't sing this year 
scarce any. Slang. You don't want bein' made more drunk any, 
KIPLING Badalia (1890) 7. 

2. pron. One of two things indifferently, either. 

Wm. 1 Ther's nobbet twoa left will ta hev onny on em ? Ay, aa'l 
tak onny on em thau likes to gie ma'. s.Lan. John, fetch me one 
of those two pairs of trousers out of my wardrobe. Which shall I 
bring ? Oh, any of them will do (S.W.). 

3. In phr. (i) Any bit like, tolerably good, used with 
ref. either to the weather, health, or behaviour; (2) - 
body, an indef. pers. pron. also construed as pi. ; (3) end 
up, in any case, at any rate ; (4) make, any kind ; (5) 
metre, for the future ; used in positive, as well as 
negative phr. ; (6) more than, only, but that ; (7) - 
road, anyway, anyhow ; (8) road up, in any case ; 
(9) thing, at all ; (10) way for a little apple, easily 
persuaded ; (n) way up, in any case ; (12) wise, in 
any way. 

(i) ne.Yks. 1 Wa s'all be leadin' ti-moorn if it be onny bit leyke. 
e.Yks. 1 Ah could ha putten up wiv her if she'd been onny-bit-leyk. 
w.Yks. Noa two fowk owt to be moor comfortable if tha'd be 
ony-bit-like, Clock Aim. (1878) 48; w.Yks. 2 I'll come and see thee 



to-morrow, if it's onnv-bit-like. Lan. 1 If th' weather's onny-bit. 
like. nw.Der. H.R. 2 n.WU. 'Tis cowld enough to vriz anj'- 
body. Anybody caant do nothin now wi'out bein took up far't 
;E.H.G.). w.Som. 1 Un-ee bairdee keod-n voo-urd-u due ut, neef 
dhai diid-n due ut nai-tuymz, keod ur ? [one could not afford to 
do it, if one did not do it night-times, could they?] (3) s.Cbs. 1 I'll 
send ye a chem [team] anny end up. Stf. 2 I dunna know when 
ar J ack's cumin whom , bar oi'll let yer know ony end up. (4) m. Yks. ' 
Onnymak, any shape, form, or sort. (5) nJr. A servant being in- 
structed how to act, will answer ' I will do it any more ' (G.M.HA 
6 War. 2 I wouldn't a-gone any more than I promised to buy Dick 
a trumpet. Wor. I wouldn't do it any more than I've got so 
much else to do H.K.X s.Wor. 1 I should be sure to go to church 
any more than I've not got a gownd to my back. n.WU. I shouldn't 
trouble to pick them apples to-day, any more'n might be wet to- 
morrow (E.H.G.;. Wil. 1 He's sure to come any more than he 
might be a bit late. (7) w.Yks. (J- w -) s - stf - An y ">ad, you tell 
'em that. MURRAY Rainbow Gold ( 1886^ 137. [Aus., N.S.W. I don't 
want to blow not here, any road but it takes a good man to put 
me on my back, BOLDREWOOD Robbery (1888) I. i.] (8 s i Stf. 2 
I dunna know when ar Jack's cumin whom, bur oi'll let yer know 
ony road up. (9) swJJn. 1 He's never ailed anything. 10 
N.Cy. 1 Ony way for a little apple, (n) Stf. 2 Oi'll let yer know ony 
way up. (12) Sur. I knowed you ha' time enough to wait at this 
plaace, anywise, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) III. iv. 

[1. Cp. the use of ' any-thing ' in CHAUCER : For if hir 
wheel stinte any-thing to tome, Tr. &* Cr. i. 848. 2. And 
if that any of us have more than other, Lat him be trewe, 
and parte it with his brother, ib. C.T. D. 1533.] 

ANYESDER, sb. Sh.I. A sheep in its second year. 

S. & Ork.i 

[An, one+yesier (yearster), repr. year+suff. -ster.] 

ANY KIN, adj. Obsol. Yks. [o'ni kin.] Of any kind 
or sort. 

n.Yks. D'ye knaw ov onny kin things like them ? I decant think 
I hev onny kin things like them (I.W.) ; n/Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 

[Noe, for anikins chanse Sal I noght take sli a no|>er 
venganse, Cursor M. 1941.] 

ANY WAY(S, adv. phr. Irel. Cum. Yks. War. Oxf. 
Sur. See below. 

1. In any way, in any respect, by any means. 

e. Yks. 1 Was he onny ways put oot? MS. add. (T.H.) War. 
If the child ever went any ways wrong, GEO. ELIOT S. Afarner 
'1861) xiv. s.Oxf. I'll go if I anyways can, ROSEMARY Chiltrrns 
(1895) 17. Sur. 1 We can't make anyways sure. 

2. At all events. 

Ir. I may be poor, but any way I'm honest (A.S.P.). n.Yks. 
Anyways I'm mista'en if he is, LINSKILL Behv. Heather and N. Sea 
(1884) i. w.Yks. Onnyway, thah'rt noan bahn wi' us (./E.B.). 
[Amer. Block Island is rather a wisht kind of a place any way, Flk- 
LoreRec.(iS8i)lV. 93.] 

3. In every way, in all respects. 
Cum. 1 This is enny way as good as that 

4. Carefessly, confusedly. 

n.Yks. He thrust them tegither onnyway (I.W.). e-Yks. 1 Onny 
ways, MS. add. (T.H.) 

[1. All those who are any way concerned in works of 
literature, ADDISON Sped. No. 529; All those who are any 
ways afflicted ... in mind, body, or estate, Bk. Com. Pr. 
(Prayer for all conditions of men).] 

ANY WHEN, adv. Lin. Bdf. Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. 
I.W. Wil. Dor. At any time. 

niin. 1 I'll goaony-when you like, if nobbut it duzn't raain. Bdf. 
(F.H.), Ken. (P.M.) Sur. I can come the first week in November 
or any when from Nov. i, N. & Q. (1881) 6th S. iv. 367 : Two- 
pence is good enough for eggs any when, ib. 542 ; Sur. 1 Sus. 
' Anywhen ' may be heard any day and every day, A^ & Q. (1853) 
ist S. vii. 335 ; Sus. 1 , Hmp. 1 . I.W. 1 , WU. (W.C.P/i Dor. If I was 
quite sure, I would go any-when, HARDY Tess (1891) vi ; Dor. 1 

[He giveth not himself to wildness any when, Hist. 
Jacob 6- Esau (1568), Dodsley's Old Eng. Plays, II. 196 
(ed. HAZLITT).] 

APACE, adv. Lan. [ape's.] By degrees, steadily. 

Lan. A man who was making headway in his business quietly 
without much show would be said to be ' getting on apace ' (S. W.). 
ne.Lan. 1 He will get on apace. 

[The word now means in lit. E. ' at a good pace. ' The 
dial, meanings are nearer the usage of CHAUCER, where 
it often implies a slow pace : In lasse whyle Than thou 

wolt goon a paas nat but a myle, C. T. c. 866 ; And forth 
she walketh esily a pas, ib. F. 388. Fr. a pas. Cp. pas a 
pas, step after step, COTGR.] 

APAST, prep, and adv. Yks. Stf. War. Hmp. Wil. Som. 
[apa'st, apa'st,] 

1. prep. Of time : after, past. 

s.Stf. Ten apast seven by the clock, PINNOCK Bit. Cy. Ann. 
\ ' 1895). Hmp. 1 WU. SLOW Gl. (1892). 

2. Of place : beyond, past. 

w.Yks. Ah've getten apast Sarah Alice at summin' [arithmetic], 
Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 23, 1891). Hmp. 1 Som. JENNINGS Obs. 
Dial. ui.Eng. ( 1825). 

3. adv. Of place : past 
War. 2 He's just gone apast. 

[ME. apassed (pp. of apassen) in Allil. P. I. 539, and 
CHAUCER Boeth. 11. v. 35. OFr. apasser, to pass on.] 

APE, sb. Yks. Lan. [ep.] 
L A mischievous, troublesome child. 

m-Yks. 1 Thou young ape, get out of the road with thee, before I 
pick thee over. ne.Lan. 1 
2. Cotnp. Ape-faced. 

n.Yks. 2 Yap-feeac'd, pug-nosed, monkey-faced. 

APEAK, adv. n.Yks. [apia'k.] In a peak. 

n.Yks. 2 Belt apeeak ; built up to a point or pyramid. 

[A-, on +peak.] 

APEN, see Open. 

APERN, see Apron. 

APESOME, see Apish. 

A-PICK-A-BACK, see Pick-a-back. 

APIECE, adv. n.Cy. Der. [apl's.] Severally, to each 

n-Cy. Now lads ! here's healths apiece (HALL.) nw.Der. 1 

[Neither have two coats apiece, BIBLE Luke ix. 3. A 
piece, for each one piece, hence severally.] 

A-PIECES, adv. phr. Lan. Lin. Nhp. War. e.An. 
[aprsaz.] In pieces, to pieces. 

Lan. I fund foak bizzy knokink the'r heaws sides epeeses. 
WALKER Plebeian Pol. (1796) 7, ed. 1801. ne.Lan. 1 . Lin. 1 , Nhp. 1 , 
War. (J.R.W.), e-An. 1 Sul 1 Ta crumble all 'apieces. 

[What so many may do, Not being torn a-pieces, we 
have done, SHAKS. Hen. VIII, v. iv. 80. A-, on +pieces.] 

APIEST, see Alpiust. 

APISH, adj. n-Yks. [ye-pi/.] 

n.Yks. 2 Yapish, Yapsome, impertinent. 

A-PISTY-POLL, adv. Dor. Of a child : carried on 
the back or shoulders. Cf. pick-a-back. 

Dor. Gl. (1851) ; Dor. 1 A mode of carrying a child with his legs 
on one's shoulders, and arms round the neck and forehead. 

APLACE, adv. Cld. (JAM.) Conveying the idea that 
one is present, as opposed to that of his being absent ; 
as ' He's better awa nor aplace,' i.e. it is better he should 
be absent than present. 

[Things abused to idolatry . . . are farre better away 
then aplace, GILLESPIE Cerent. (1637) in. ii. 22 (N.E.D.) ; 
To telle How such goddes come aplace, GOWER C. A. 11. 
152. A-, on + place.} 

APLOCH, see Ablach. 

APOD, see Uphold. 

APONTED, />>>. Dor. [apo'ntad.] Tainted. 

Dor. 1 Decs vish is a-ponted. 

[A- (pref?) + panted, pp. ofpont (to bruise), q.v.] 

APPARATUS, sb. 1 w.Cor. [aepare-tas.] A kitchen 

w.Cor. The cooking stove in the kitchen is so called (T.C.P.) ; 
I have never heard this word in Penzance, but several times at 
Falmouth (M.A.C.). 

APPARATUS, sb. 2 Nhb. Dur. See below. 

Nhb.. Dur. Apparatus, machinery at the surface for separating 
the small coals (screened out from the round) into nuts and duff. 
The small coals, which have passed through the screen, are drawn 
up either a vertical or an inclined framing, in a tub called an ap- 
paratus tub, which teems itself at the top of the frame, and is passed 
over two or more screens, NICHOLSON Coal Tr. Gl. (1888). 

APPEAL TO, v. Sur. [api'L] To approve of, find 
benefit from. 

Sur. 1 How do you find the whiskey suit you ? I appeal to it 
very much. [Unknown to our other correspondents.] 




APPEAR, sb. Glo. [api-a(r).] Appearance 
Glo. Often used in the neighbourhood of Bisley (H.b.H.) ; Glo. 
[Which she on every little grass doth strew . . . against 
the Sun's appear, FLETCHER Faithful Shepherd (c. 1610) v. i. 

APPEAR, v. n.Irel. Of ghosts : to ' walk,' to haunt 


n.Ir. Ghosts still ' appear' in old churchyards, or when a murd. 
of a particularly striking kind has been committed (R.M.Y.) ; N.I. 1 

[And many bodies of seyntis . . . apperiden to many, 
WYCLIF (1388) Malt, xxvii. 53.] 

APPEARENTLY, flafo. m.Yks. [apia'rantli.] Seebelow. 

m.Yks. 1 In freer use as an affirmative response than is usual in 
ordinary speech. We's ganging to t'feast, ye see, apparently. 
It's boon to weet, appearently [it is going to wet (or ram)]. 

APPELL, v. Obs. Sc. QAM.) To challenge. 

Sc. There were many Southland men that appelled other in barrace, 
to fight before the King to the dead, for certain crimes of lese- 
majesty, PITSCOTTIE (ed. 1768) 234. 

[ME. I appelle hym for trouthe broken, Rowlands?* (Jl. 
(1400) 343 (N.E.D.). Lat. appellare, to call upon.] 

APPERIL, sb. s.Irel. Risk, peril. 

s.Ir. Don't be out of her on your apperl, LOVER Leg. (1848) II. 289. 

[Faith ! I will bail him, at mine own apperil, B. JONSON 
Magn. Lady, v. x ; Let me stay at thine apperil, Timon, 
SHAKS. Timon, i. ii. 32. A- (pref. lo )+ peril.] 

APPERNTLE, sb. Chs. Shr. [a-pantl.] Anapronful. 

s-Chs. 1 A apperntle o' tatoe-pillins for th' pigs. Shr. 1 W'eer'n 
'ee bin laisin, Peggy? I' the paas'ns piece; I've got whad yo' 
sin, an' a good apparntle o' short ears. 

[Appern, apron + -tle (suff.); this is a common suff. in 
the Shr. dial. ; cp. cantle, hantle, bucketle, pochette. It is prob. 
an equiv. of-ful; see Shr. 1 (gram, xliii).] 

APPETIZE, v. Sc. Nhb. In pp. : having appetite for 

Sc. I am well appetized for my dinner, Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 
436 ; Supper for which I feel rather more appetized than usual, 
SCOTT Monastery (1820) 39, ed. 1879. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 

[A deriv. of appetite (Fr. appetit), formed on the analogy 
of vbs. in -ize.] 

APPING, see Happing. 

APPLE, sb. 1 

1. The cone of Finns abies (Lin. Won). 
Wor. (H.K.) 

2. Comb, (i) Berk apple, Pinus sylvestris (n.Yks.); (2) 
Deal (e.An.), (3) Fir (nw.Cum. Lin. Sus. Hmp.), 
(4) Pine (Hrt. Nhp.), the cone of P. abies. 

(4) Nhp. 1 Pie-apple or Pur-apple, the cone of the fir. Hrt. Cones, 
or what we call pine-apples, ELLIS Shep. Guide (1750) 134. 

[The fir-cone was formerly called a pine-apple, q.v.] 
APPLE, sb. 2 [a-pl, se'pl.l Pyrus malm. Irel. Mr 
Lin. Nhp. Wor. Shr. Hmp. Wil. Som. Dev. Cor. 

1. Comp. (i) Apple-bee, a wasp ; (2) -dumplings, plant- 
name, the great hairy willow herb ; (3) -headed, see below ; 
(4) -meat, pies, tarts, &c., made with apples ; (5) -mill, a 
machine in which apples are crushed in cider-making; 
(6) -pear, a variety of pear ; (7) -potato, a certain kind of 
potato ; (8) -scoop, a scoop or spoon, made of bone, used 
to abstract the cores from apples ; (9) -shrub, the plant 
Weigelia Rosea ; (10) -wife, a woman who sells apples. 

(i) Cor. MonthlyMag. (1808)11.421. (2) Nhb. 1 Apple-dumplins, 
Epilobium hirsutum. Called also Corran-dumplin. (3) Nhp. 1 Apple- 
headed, a term applied to a low, stunted oak with a round bushy 
head. (4) s.Dev. (G.E.D.) (5) nw.Dev. 1 (7) Myo. First and fore- 
most there's no better than the apple-pratees, HARRINGTON Sketches 
(1830) III. xvi. (8) nXin. 1 Apple-scohp, an instrument made of 
a sheep's metacarpal bone, sometimes carved, dyed green, &c., used 
for taking the cores out of apples. ne.Wor. (J.W.P.) Wil. 1 Apple- 
scoop, made from the knuckle-bone of a leg of mutton, and used for 
eating apples, the flavour of which it is supposed to improve. (9) 
w.Som. 1 Apple-shrub, the Weigelia Rosea, no doubt so called from 
the likeness of its flowers to apple-blossom. It was only intro- 
duced from China in 1855. It is now one of our commonest 
flowering shrubs. Dev. We call it the apple-shrub, Reports Provinc. 
(1885) 87. (10) Nhb. 1 He sent the apple-wives to mourn, A month 
iv wor awd cassell, OLIVER Local Sngs. (1824) 15. 

2. Comb, with attrib. adj., applied to plants or fruit- 

(1) Cane Apple, Arbutus unedo or strawberry-tree (Irel.) ; 

(2) Coddled , Epilobium hirsutum or willow herb (Lin. 
NnoV (q) Morris , see below (Hmp.); (4) Scrog , 
q.v; (5) Scalded- Lychnis diurna (Shr.) ; (6) Well 

see below (Hmp.). 

(3) Hmp. 1 Morris-apple, an apple with very red cheeks. (5) 
Shr. 1 Scalded apple, Red Campion. (6) Hmp. 1 Well-apple, a light 
yellow apple. 

APPLEv. 1 Lin. Wor. To gather fir-cones or apples. 

Lin. The poor people supply themselves with very good fuel by 
gathering the fir-apples ; you will sometimes see twenty children 
in my plantation appleing, as they call it, YOUNG Agric. Sun*. 
Wor. (H.K.) 

APPLE, v. 2 Lin. Nhp. Hrt. Used of roots. To form 

into tubers. 

n-Lin. 1 Apple, to bottom, to root. Spoken of potatoes, turnips, 
and other bulbs. s.Nhp. Unless the soil has some mixture o sand 
the turnips do not apple, as they call it : that is, do not bottom well, 
MORTON Nat. Hist. (1712) 487. Nhp. 1 Turnips apple well, when 
the roots swell, and assume a bulbous form. Hrt. [Turnips] did 
apple or bottle well, ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) IV. iv. 70. 

APPLE-BIRD, sb. Dev. Cor. The Chaffinch, Frin- 

gilla coelebs. 

Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Cor. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 
63 ; Cor. 12 

APPLE-BLOWTH, sb. Dor. Som. [ae-pl-bliib.] Apple 
blossom. See Blowth. 

Dor. When the apple-blooth is falling and everything so green, 
HARDY Tess (1891) 159. Som. To inspect the apple-blooth and 
hear the birds sing, RAYMOND Gent. Upcolt (1893) 105. 

APPLE-BOUT, sb. n.Wil. [ae-pl-beut] An apple- 

Wil. 1 

APPLE-CART, sb. Nhb. Yks. Der. Lin. Som. Used 
metaph. in various ways. 
1. Of the human body. 

n.Cy. Down with his apple-cart [knock or throw him down] 
(HALL.). n.Yks. He'll sharpen thy apple-cart for thee [he will 
thrash thee, if thou dost not take care] (I.W.). nw.Der. 1 . Lin. 1 

leying ' . 

2. Of anything carried, chiefly in phr. to upset the apple- 

Som. Don't upsit th' apple-cart ! That is, be careful you do not 
let fall anything carried, PULMAN Sketches (1842) 77, ed. 1871. 

3. Of a plan, project. Also in phr. as above. 

Nhb. 1 That's upset his apple-cairt for him, aa think [that has 
completely stopped his project]. 

APPLE-DERN, sb. Cor. [arpl-dan.] 

Cor. 2 Apple-dern, the dead and dry stock of an apple-tree, MS. 

APPLE-DRANE, sb. Som. Dev. Cor. A wasp. 

w.Cy. Apple-drone, a wasp ; a terrible devourer of apples and 
more especially when they are beaten or ground to make cider 
(HALL.). w.Som. 1 Common, but not so much used as ' wapsy." 
Dev. Leek bullocks sting'd by appledranes, P. PINDAR Royal Visit 
(1816) III. 365 ; An' apple-dreane an' a drumble-drone Wert aw' 
ther' wert ter zee ; Th' drumble-drone lay dead i' th' snaw, Th' 
yapple-dreane i' th' dree ! ' MADOX-BROWN DivaleBluth (1876) bk. 
iv. ii ; I dreamt there wor an apple-drain buzzin', PEARD Mothei 
Molly (1889) 145 ; There's a appledrane's nist down in the cassia- 
tree moot, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 47 ; Appledrane, a wasp or bee, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Cor. 1 Apple-drain, a drone, a wasp. 

[See Drone.] 

APPLE-FOOT, sb. War. Shr. Glo. An apple pasty or 

War. 3 An apple turnover of clumsy shape. Shr. 1 The plural 
form of the term is ' applefit.' They are often given to the men 
for their ' bait.' Now, Dick, bin yo' gwei'n to get any bayye [sic] ? 
W'a'n 'ee got? Apple fut. Glo. NORTHALL Flit. Phr. (1894). 

APPLE-GARTH, sb. Obs.*. Yks. [a'pl-gab.] An 

n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 Still preserved in Apple-garth looan a lane 
at Bridlington which led to the orchards of the monastery, previous 
to the dissolution, MS. add. (T.H.) 

[An applegarthe,/owan'M, LEVINS Manip. ; An appelle 
garth, pometum, Cath. Angl. See Garth.] 




APPLE-GOB, sb. Shr. A boiled apple-dumpling. Cf. 

Shr. 1 

APPLE-JACK, sb. e.An. Apples sliced and sugared, 
and baked in a pastry crust. Sometimes used of apples 
pared, and baked whole inside the dough. 

e.An. 1 A homely sort of pastry, made by folding sliced apples with 
sugar in a coarse crust and baking them without a pan. Also called 
flap-jack, apple-hoglin, crab-lanthorn, turn-over. Nrf. We shall 
have roast-beef and apple-jack for dinner to-day (P.K.E.); Nrf. 1 
Apple-John, sugared apples, baked in a square thin paste, the 
two opposite corners flapped, or turned over. Suf. An apple jack 
contains only one apple, whole and pared (F.H.) ; Suf. 1 Apple-jack, 
or Apple-John, sugared apples, baked in a paste, with two opposite 
corners turned over the apple, or flapped so as to form a ' three 

APPLE- JOHN, sb. Chs. War. e.An. 

1. A special kind of apple. 

Chs. War. WISE Shakespere (1861) 97. e.An. 1 Apple-John, 
John-apple, a species of apple. 

2. See Apple-jack. 

[1. John-apple, a good relished apple that lasts 2. years, 
KERSEY ; Nor John-apple, whose wither'd rind entrench'd 
By many a furrow aptly represents Decrepid age, PHILLIPS 
Cider (NARES) ; I am withered like an old apple-John, 
SHAKS. i Hen. IV, in. iii. 5. This apple is so called because 
it is ripe about St. John's Day (June 24).] 

APPLE-OWLING, sb. Wil. The custom of knocking 
off from the trees the useless fruit remaining, after the 
apple-harvest has been gathered in. 

Wil. 1 Apple-owling, knocking down the small worthless fruit, or 
'griggles,' left on the trees after theapple crop hasbeen gathered in. 

APPLE-PIE, sb. Yks. Chs. Glo. Hrt. Suf. Ess. Name 
given to various plants : (i) Artemisia vulgaris, or mug- 
wort (Chs.) ; (2) Cardamine pratensis, or lady-smock 
(Yks.) ; (3) Epilobium hirsutum, or great hairy willow 
herb (Yks. Chs. Glo. Hrt. Suf. Ess.) ; (4) ? Lychnis 
diurna (n.Yks.). 

(i) Chs. 1 Apple-pie. (3) n.Yks. Apple-pie, from time immemorial 
the name for the hairy willow herb, from the scent of its flowers 
strongly resembling the smell of warm apple-pie (G.M.T.). Chs. 3 
The great hairy willow herb is called Apple-pie, the smell re- 
sembling that of the apple. Glo. 1 Hmp. 1 (4) n.Yks. Apple-pie, 
? Lychnis diuma (I.W.). 

APPLE-PIE BED, sb. Gen. colloq. use in Eng. A bed 
made by way of a practical joke with one sheet so folded 
as to make entry impossible. 

Nhp. 1 Apple-pie bed. A bed is so called when it is made with 
a single sheet, one end tucked under the pillow, the other turned 
over at the top, which doubles the sheet in the middle, and pre- 
vents the longitudinal extension of the occupant. Colloq. Some 
' evil-disposed persons ' have already visited his room, made his 
bed into an apple-pie, plentifully strewn with hairbrushes and 
razors, Sat. Review (Nov. 3, 1883) 566, col. 2 (FARMER) ; The 
servants, who. to begin with, thought nothing more amusing than 
the young gentlemen's apple-pie beds and booby-traps, have 
reached the verge of mutiny by the fifth week, Standard (Aug. 3, 
1889) 5, col. 2 ; Apple-pie bed, so called from the apple turnover, 
a sort of pie in which the crust is turned over the apples, N. & Q. 
( t 8 94 ) 8th S. v. 347. 

APPLE-PIE FLOWER, sb. n.Hmp. See Apple-pie (3). 

APPLE-PIE ORDER, sb. Gen. dial, use in Eng. Phr. 
expressive of perfect order and regularity. 

w.Yks. 8 A room with everything tidy and properly placed is 
pronounced to be ' in apple-pie order.' Lin. 1 The house was in 
apple-pie order. Oxf. 1 MS. add. Colloq. I am just in the ' order ' 
which some folks though why I am sure I can't tell you would 
call apple-pie, BARHAM Ingoldsby (1864) Old Woman in Grey. 

APPLE-PIE PLANT, see Apple-pie (3). 

APPLE-PUMMY, sb. Som. [ae-pl-pumi.] The pulp 
of apples remaining after all the cider has been ex- 

w.Som. 1 While full of juice and in process of cider making, 
the ground apples are simply pummy. I've a-drawd a load o' 
apple-pummy up in the copse ; I reckon they [the pheasants]'!! 
zoon vind it out. 

[Water wherein a good quantity of apple-pomice hath 
been boil'd, EVELYN Pomona (1664) 95 (N.E.B.).] 
VOL. i. 

APPLE-RINGIE, sb. Sc. Also written apple-ringy, 
apple-riennie (B. & H.). The plant Southernwood, 
Artemisia abrotomnn. 

Sc. Would you like some slips of apple-ringy, or tans}' or thyme ? 
Petticoat Tales (1823) I. 240 (JAM.); The aipple-ringic and the 
sweet brier, OCHILTREE Redbtirti (1895) ii. Ayr. The window 
looked into a small garden rank with appleringy , and other fragrant 
herbs, GALT Sir Andrew (1821'; 1.44. Lnk. Here is plenty of apple- 
ringy, FRASER Whatips (1895) i. 

[Apple-ringie may prob. be a corn of AFr. averoine 
(WRIGHT Voc. 554. 14); cp. Fr. aurone. Aiironnr, the herb 
Southernwood, COTGR. Lat. abrotonum.] 

APPLE-SHEELY, sb. Nhb. The Chaffinch, Fringilla 
coelebs. See Sheely. 

Nhb. 1 

APPLE-STUCKLIN, sb. Nrf. Suf. Sus. Hmp. I.W. Also 
written -stucklun I.W. 1 ; -stucklen I.W. 2 [ae-pl-st^klan.] 
Apples sliced or whole, sugared, and baked in a paste. 
Cf. apple-turnover. 

Nrf., Suf., Sus., Hmp. A homely sort of pastry, made by folding 
sliced apples with sugar in a coarse paste, and baking them with- 
out adish or pan, HOLI.OWAY. I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 Apple-dumpling baked. 

APPLE-TERRE, sb. Obs. Sus. An orchard. 

e.Sns. HOLLO WAY ; Sus. 12 

[Apple + Fr. terre, a piece of ground.] 

APPLE-TURNOVER, sb. Lin. Lei. Wor. A kind of 
apple-tart baked without a dish. 

n.Lin. 1 Apple-turnover, an apple puff. . Lei. 1 Apple-turnover, a 
large puff, made with a circular or oval piece of paste doubled 
over, and containing apples. Wor. (J.W.P.) 

APPLE-TYE, sb. Sus. A loft where apples are kept. 

Sus. 1 

[See Tye.] 

APPLETY-MOY, sb. Wm. [a'plti-moi.] Apples 
stewed to a pulp. 

Win. Applety-moi consists of apples stewed until soft and then 
crushed to a pulp (E.W.P.) ; Bobby browt oot a girt weyshin pot 
full a applety-moi, Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 10. 

[Cp. ME. applemoyle (also pomesmoille in gloss. Cookery 
Bks. (E.E.T.S. 91) ; appitlmoy in Form of Cury, 79. May, 
moyle, repr. Fr. mouille, moistened, soaked.] 

APPROBATION, sb. Rut. [aeprabe'Jan.] An authori- 
tative opinion. 

Rut. 1 I can't make out what's wrong wi' her ; so I shall send for 
Clark, and get his approbation of it. 

[An old meaning of this word was the action of authori- 
tatively declaring good or true ; hence the dial, sense 
' opinion.' By learned approbation of the judges, SHAKS. 
Hen. VIII, i. ii. 71.] 

APPROOF, sb. Yks. Som. [apru'f.] 

1. Approval, praise. 

w.Yks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (June 7, 1884). m.Yks. Speaking of 
Hungarian flour, an old farmer used words after this fashion 
' Such rubbish as that gets no approof of mine' (W.B.T.). Som. 
He may crack about his dairy as much as he do like, but 'e see 
the judge giv" he no approof (W.B.T.). 

2. Obsol. Courage, pluck tried by experience. 

w.Yks. I like Jack better nor Tom ; there's more approof in 
him (W.B.T.). 

[This word is noted as old in JOHNSON. 1. One and the 
self-same tongue, Either of condemnation, or approof, 
SHAKS. M. for Meas. n. iv. 174. 2. A soldier and of very 
valiant approof, ib. Alts Well, n. v. 3. OFr. aprove, proof, 

APPURTENANCES, sb. Cor. The heart, liver, and 
lungs of an animal. 

Cor. 2 

[An appurtenance of a lamb, viscera, pantices, COLES 
(1679). This word is freq. found in its aphetic form 
purtenance, q.v.] 

APRICOCK, sb. n.Cy. Lan. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. Shr. 
Hrf. Som. [e'prikok.] The apricot. See Abricock. 

N.Cy. 1 , n-Lan. 1 , nXin. 1 , Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 3 , Shr. 1 , Hrf. 1 Som. 
JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 

[Apricot or apricock, a kind of wall-fruit, JOHNSON ; 
An apricock, Malum praecoquum, COLES (1679) ; Abricot, 
the abricot or apricock plumb, COTGR. ; Yond dangling 





apricocks, SHAKS. Rich. II, HI. iv. 29 ; Of trees or fruites 
to be set or remooved, i. Apple-trees ... 2. Apricocks 
TUSSER Hush. 76. Port, albricoque. See Abricock. | 

APRIL, sb. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. Chs. Der. War. 
Comp. (i) -errand, an errand upon which a person is sent 
on the first of April, as a practical joke ; (2) -gawby, 
(3) -gob. (4) -gobby, (5) -gowk, (6) -noddy, various names 
for an April fool. 

(i) n.Cy. This ... is called a ' gawk's errand,' ' an April errand,' 
'hunt the gowk,' Fit-Lore Rec. (1879) VII. 85. (2) Chs. 1 April 
gawby. War. (J.R.W.) (3) Chs. 1 April gob. nw.Der. 1 April gob. 
an April fool. (4) Chs. 1 April gobby. (5) n.Cy. We in the North call 
persons who are thus deceived, April-gowks, BRAND Pop. Antiq. 
(1777") 400 ; April gowks are past and gone, You're a fool and I am 
none [i. e. after midday, the person who attempts the joke is called 
the fool], Flk-LoreRec. (1879) VII. 85. Nhb. 1 The cuckoo has become 
synonymous with jest and joke ; gowk is cuckoo. Boy : ' Hi, 
canny man. see what ye've dropt.' The canny man turns round to 
see, and is hailed with a yell, ' O, ye April-gowk ! ' as the boy 
runs off. Cum. One of these gentlemen we hope to send back 
to London as our representative in Parliament, and the other as 
an April-gowk [speech of a political West Cumbrian gentleman, 
Apr. i, 1879] (M.P.); Cum. 1 n. Yks. 2 April gowk, an April fool. 
The old custom of making April fools is said to have proceeded 
from letting insane persons be at large on the first of April, when 
amusement was made by sending them on ridiculous errands. 
April day is here called ' Feeals' haliday,' fools' holiday. (6) n.Lan. 1 
Apple-noddy's past an' gone, An' thou's a noddy for thinkin' on. 

APRIL-FOOL, sb. Lei. One upon whom practical 
jokes are successfully played. 

Lei. 1 A person may be made an April-fool of at any time of the 
year. Ah suppose a wanted to mek a Epril fule on me. 

APRILLED, ppl. adj. Dev. [apri'ld.] Sour, on the 
point of turning sour, applied to milk or beer. Also, 
fig., to a person's temper. 

Dev.Aprill'd, turned sour, MOORE Hist. Dev. (1829) I. 353. n.Dev. 
Why, than tha wut be a prilled, or a muggard [made sour, or 
sullen], Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 194; Aprilld, soured, or beginning 
to turn sour, when applied to milk or beer, GROSE (1790) MS. add. 
(H.) ; Bin 'e wur aprilled hours ago, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) 4. 
Dev. 1 Why, the ale was worse ; that was a-prill'd, was maukish, 
dead as dishwatter, pt. ii. 12. 

[A- (pref?)+ prilled, pp. of prill, q.v.] 

APRON, sb. Van dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. Also 
written apern se.Wor. 1 w.Som. 1 [a'pran, a'pan.] 

1. The diaphragm of an animal. 

e.Yks. 1 nXin. 1 The inner fat of a pig and the fat of a goose 
are called the pig-appern and the goose-appern. se.Wor. 1 Apern 
or Apun, the midriff of a pig. e.An. 1 Apron, the cawl or omentum 
of a hog. Dev. He drove his long brow-antler up to its hilt in 
the hound's side ; and then, in withdrawing it, brought out that 
portion of the interior known as ' the apron ' Memoir Russell 
(.1878) xiii. 

2. The skin covering the belly of a roast duck or goose. 
n.Lan. 1 Sus., Hmp. Apron, the flat, skinny covering of the body 

of a goose or duck, HOLLOWAY w.Som. 1 The skin between the 
breast-bone and the tail of a duck or goose when sent to table, is 
called the apern. 

3. The abdomen of the brachyurous . . . crustaceans, as 
crabs ; so called because it is folded under and closely 
applied to the thorax (CD.). 

Bnff. 1 e.Yks. 1 Appron, the hinge-like appendage of a crab's 

4. A strip of lead on a chimney. 

e.An.2 The upper part of a chimney opening above the grate. Suf. 
A piece of lead or zinc fastened to the front of a chimney where it 
the" roof r tPreVenttherain """""& down th e chimney through 

5. Comp. fij Apron-man, a tradesman, a mechanic 
(2) -piece, (3) -string farmer, see below ; (4) -strin K - 
wo' PTOperty held in virtue of a wife ! (5) -trad!, 



(2) eXan. 1 Appron-piece, the front part of a fire- 
range which supports the oven. (3) s .Wor. Apron string farmer, 
an effeminate town-bred farmer (H.K.). (4) Hrt. A man being po s : 
sessed of a house and large orchard by apron-string-hold, felled 
almost all h,s fruit-trees, because he expected the death of his sick 
wife, ELLIS Mod. Hush (nioWI 
traade oal petch'd to scraim/r V 

^ r- - 
$ ^ 

[2. Apron of a goose, in popular language, the fat 
skin which covers the belly, BAILEY (1755). 4. The 
aprons (of lead) round the chimney-stalks, LOUDON, 935 
(N.E.D.). 5. You have made good work, you and your 
apron-men, SHAKS. Cor. iv. vi. 96; We answered the 
apron-man (the wine-drawer), ROWLEY Search for Money, 
1609 (NARES, s. v. Aperner). The dial, form apern was 
common in the i6th and i7th cents. Apernes of mayle, 
STOW Survey, XII. 103; Semjcinctium . . . Tablier, a womans 
aperne, an artificers or handicraftsmans aperne, Nomeit- 
clator (NARES). 

APROPO, v. Som. To match, resemble. 

w.Som. 1 Dhik'ee dhae-ur aa'breepoa-z muyn nuzaak'lee [that one 
resembles, or matches, mine exactly]. I heard this spoken of a 
canary. By no means uncommon. 

[Fr. a propos, fitly, just pat (CoTGR.).] 

APS, sb. War. Glo. Hrt. Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. Wil. 
Som. Dev. Cor. Also written apse Sur. 1 Sus. 1 Hmp. 1 
w.Som. 1 nw.Dev. 1 ; eps Ken. 1 [aps, aeps, aps.] Theaspen- 
tree, Populus tremula. See Asp. 

War. Aps, or Apse, the oldest form of asp or aspen. Glo. 1 Hrt. 
ELLIS Mod. Hush. (1750) VII. i. 101. Ken. May 7, 1787. For 
32 feet Epps Timber at io d per foot i 6s. 8d., Pluckley Overseers 
Ace. (P.M.) ; Eps, an asp tree (K.) ; Ken. 1 ; Ken. 2 Sur. 1 A field in 
Titsey parish is called the Apses field. Hmp. 1 Made out of apse 
[made of aspen wood]. Wil. 1 Always so called by woodmen. w.Som. 1 
The wind Ve a blowed down a girt limb o' thick apse tree. nw.Dev. 1 

Hence Apsen, made of aps or aspen wood ; comp. 
Apsen-tree, the aspen. 

Sus. They must be taken without the patient's knowledge . . . and 
put into a hole in an apsen tree, EGERTON Flks. and Ways (1884) 112. 
Som. JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). Cor. 1 Severing [shivering] 
like an apsen-tree. 

[OE. ceps, the aspen-tree (in Leechdoms and dLlfric 

APS, see Haps. 

APSE, sb. Som. Dev. Cor. Also written aps. [aps.] 
An abscess, tumour. 

w.Som. 1 Her 've a got a apse 'pon her neck. Dev. N. & Q. 
(1857) 2nd S. iii. 240. s.Dev. Fox Kingsbridge (1874). Cor. Apse 
is with us an evident corruption of abscess, ./V. & Q. (1857^ 2nd 
S. iii. 240. 

[A corruption of abscess.] 

APSE, int. Chs. Also^ written arpse Chs. 13 ; yaps, 
yahpse, yeps s.Chs. 1 [yaps, yeps.] An exclamation of 
surprise or reproof, as in phr. apse upon thee.' 

Chs. 1 Apse upon thee ! or Arpse upon thee ! If a man took up a 
piece of iron which he unexpectedly found was too hot to hold he 
would, very likely, in dropping it, make use of the exclamation; 
Chs. 3 Apse, or Arpse upon thee ! An exclamation often used in 
scolding a child for some peccadillo ; like ' Out upon thee!' s.Chs. 1 
Yaps upon yO! 

APT, adj. Irel. [apt] Of persons: certain, sure. 

Ir. They'll be apt to keep her in it all's one. BARLOW Lisconnel 
(1893) 8; Ay, he's a terrible big man, isn't he? Apt to knock the 
head off himself he'd be, if he was offering to come in at our door, 
ib. 86. n.Ir. If you go out to-day you'll be apt to take cold. If you 
cut the loaf that way you'll be apt to cut yourself (W.H.P.). 

Hence Aptly, certainly, without fail. 

Ant. Will you be drawing turf for me to-morrow? I aptly will 

APTISH, adj. Yks. [a-pti/.] 

1. Skilful, useful, accurate. 

n.Yks. 1 

2. Intelligent, quick-witted. 

Yks. I have heard an old country schoolmaster speak of a lad 
as an aptish pupil, but I do not fancy the word is generally known 
(R.S.). n-Yks. 1 He's eptish at his book-lear ; n.Yks. 2 

{Apt, prompt, ready to learn + -ish.] 

APTYCOCK. Dor. Cor. Also written aptcock. 
[ae-pti-kok, ae'pt-kok.] A clever little fellow. 

Dor. I have heard ' aptcock ' (T.C.P.). Cor. 1 Well done, my little 
apticock ; Cor. 2 

[Apt, intelligent, quick-witted -I- -cock, the well-known 
suff. in surnames, as in Alcock, Badcock ; prob. fr. the 
use of ' cock ' as a familiar term of appreciation for a man 
who fights with pluck and spirit] 




A-PURPOSE,rtflfo. Nhb.Wm.Lan.Oxf.Brks. [aparpas, 
apa pas.] On purpose, deliberately, with intention.] 

Nhb. 1 He's deund aporpose to myek hissel leuk clivvor. Wm. 1 
Lan. O purpus fur to let foke get o seete on um, ORMEROD 1'elley 
fro Raclide (1851) i; 'An accident done a-purpose,' chimed in 
Mrs. Clowes, BANKS Manch. Man (1876) xiv. Oxf. 1 He done it 
a-purpose, MS. add. Brks. 1 A drow'd [threw] I down a-purpose 

[A-, on + purpose.] 

APURT, adj. and adv. Som. Dev. [ap5't.] 

1. adj. Sulky, sullen, disagreeable. 

n.Dev. B'ant hur well, Nan ? Is our Nell apurt. ROCK Jim ati Nell 
(1867) st. 55 ; GROSE (1790) ; Apurt, with a glouting look, Monthly 
Mag. (1808) II. 421. Dev. 1 BET. I can't go, zure. RAB. Wull, 
verywull. BET. You bea-purtnow, pt. i.g; 'Ot,' quotha to dame, 
' glumping eet ? zo it sim you are a-purt with your meat,' pt. ii. 13. 

2. adv. In a sulky manner ; disagreeably. 

w.Som. 1 Her tookt her zel off proper apurt, and no mistake. 
nw.Dev. 1 

[A- (pref?)+purt(io sulk), q.v.] 

APURTED, adj. Dev. Sullen. 

Dev. They only thought it was my ' appurted witherful develtry,' 
as they called it, MADOX-BROWN Dwale Bluth (1876) bk. iv. i. 

[A- (prtf. 2 )+ purled, pp. ofpurt, see above.] 

AQUABOB, sb. Ken. An icicle. 

Ken. GROSE (1790) ; I have never heard this, and on inquiry 
cannot hear of it ; it looks rather like a fabrication (P.M.) ; Ken. 1 

AQUART, adv. Yks. Also written aquairt n.Yks. 2 
[akwe'rt, akwe't] 

1. Across, athwart 

ne.Yks. 1 Used of motion across. T'beeos ran a-quart t'staggarth. 

2. In a state of disagreement, at cross purposes. 
n.Yks. 1 What, then, Marget an' her man hae getten aquart agen? 

Ay, they's had another differing-bout ; n.Yks. 2 There's nought to 
get aquairt about. w.Yks. (yE.B.) 

[A-, on + quart, vb. (q.v.).] 

AQUAT, adv. 1 Dor. Som. Also written aquott. 
[akwo't.] In a squatting position. 

w.Dor. ROBERTS Hist. Lyme Regis (1834). e.Som. Aquat, sit- 
ting flat, likeabird on its eggs, W. & J. Gl. (1873). w.Som. 1 Steed 
o' tendin' the things, there was he a-quat down in by the vire [s.v. 

[A-, on + quat, vb. (q.v.).] 

AQUAT, adv. 2 Dev. Also written aquot Dev. 3 
[akwo't, akwa't.] Full to satiety. 

Dev. 'Chave eat so much 'cham quit a-quot [I have eat so much 
that I am cloyed], RAY (1691). n.Dev. I mind an alkitole o't Avore 
a month had got a-quot, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) st. 61 ; Aquott, 
weary of eating, GROSE (1790). Dev. 3 Willee 'a zome moar tii ayte, 
missis ? No thankee, vather, I be aquat now; purty nigh vit tu bust. 

[A- (pre/. 2 ) + quat, adj. (q.v.).] 

AQUEESH, ACQUEESH, see Atweesh. 

AR, see Air, adj., AIT. 

AR-, see Ear-. 

ARADJ, sb. Dur. Yks. Lan. Der. Not. Also written 
arran Dur. 1 n.Yks. ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 ; aran 
n.Cy. w.Yks. 3 ; arrin Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; arrand, arand, 
arrant w.Yks. ; arrian w.Yks. 2 [a'rand, a'rant, a'ran, 

1. A spider, a cobweb. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Yks. At public worship the composure 
of a lady near him is much disturbed by an arrant, HAMILTON 
Nugae Lit. (1841) 316; Arran, the long-legged outdoor spider 
(S.P.U.). n.Yks. Sweep'th Arrans down ; till all be clean, neer 
lin, Els he'l leauk all Agye, when he comes in, MERITON Praise Ale 
(1684) 1. 437. w.Yks. Arran is used in this parish for spiders of 
every size, WATSON Hist. Htfx. (1775) 531 ; You never heard of 
Bruce, perhaps? And th' arrand? BRONTE Shirley (1849) v; w.Yks. 1 
Thou hed as nice a lang waist as onny body, as slim an as smaw, 
eigh, as an arran, ii. 297 ; An arran or an Espin leaf wad a flaid him 
out of his wits, ib. ii. 306 ; w.Yks. 234 , ne.Lan. 1 Der. 1 The word 
arion was common in living memory, but has not been heard so 
much of late years ; Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 Not. Arain, used only for 
the larger kind of spiders, RAY (1691). [According to correspon- 
dents the word is now obs. in Notts.] 

2. Comp. Arain-web, Aran-web, a cobweb. 

N.Cy. 1 , Dur. 1 , n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 Arran-web, rarely used. w.Yks. 
It's better to be a bit blustcrin an rough an have summat to show 
for it nor to caar in a corner wol th' arrand-webs stick to yo, 

HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1896) 9 ; She had hair colour o' gowd, an' 
fine and silky as an arran-web, DIXON Craven Dales (1881) 189 ; 
w.Yks. 3 The infection of some fevers would stop in an arrinweb 
for seven years ; w.Yks. 5 

[Arain, large spider, COLES (1677) ; Oure jeris as the 
arane sail thynke . . . The erayn makes vayn webbes, 
HAMPOLE Ps. Ixxxix. 10 ; Oure ;eris schulen bithenke as 
an yreyn, WYCLIF ib. ; Aranye or erayne, aranea, 
Prompt. OFr. araigne (iraigne), Lat. aranea, a spider.] 

ARB-, see Herb-. 

ARBITRARY, adj. Hrf. Ken. Sur. Also written 
arbitry Hrf. Ken. 1 [a'bitri.] 

1. Independent, impatient of restraint. 
Hrf. (W.W.S.) Sur.' 

2. Hard ; greedy, grasping. 
Ken. 1 

ARBOUR-TREE, see Harber. 
ARBY-ROOT, same as Abby-root, q.v. 
ARC, see Ark, sb. 2 

ARCG, see Argue. 

ARCH, sb. 1 Sc. QAM.) An aim. See Arch, v. 2. 

Abd., Rxb. 

ARCH, sb. 2 Cor. Tech. A piece of ground left un- 
worked near a shaft. 

Cor. Mining Gl. (1852). 

ARCH, v. Sc. Som. Cor. [e'rtj, atj.] 

1. To make or cause to be convex. 

w.Som. 1 Thick there road must be a-arched a good bit more eet, 
vore the water'll urn off vitty like. 

2. To take aim, to throw or let fly any missile weapon 
with a design to hit a particular object. 

Sc. Shoot again, and O see to airch a wee better this time, 
Brownie ofBodsbeck, I. 155 (JAM.). Abd. Airch, to throw, is still in 
use. It is [so called] from the curve described by a missile (G.W.). 
Rxb. (JAM.) 

Hence Arched, ppl. adj. curved, convex, see 1 ; 
Archer, sb. (JAM.), one who throws, see 2 ; Arching, adj. 
convex, see 1. 

Cor. The roads in a mine, when built with stones or bricks, are 
generally arched level drifts, Mining Gl. (1852). Tech. The roads 
in a mine, when built with stones or bricks, arc sometimes called 
arched level or arched ways, WEALE Diet. Terms (1873). Abd. 
Archer, a marksman. w.Som. 1 He idn archin enough by ever so 

[OFr. archer (mod. arquer), to arch, to curve in the form 
of a bow (arc) ; a deriv. of arc.} 

ARCH, see Argh. 

ARCHANGEL, sb. [ake'ngal.] 

1. A name applied to several species of Dead Nettle 
and allied plants : (i) Lamium album (Lei. Glo. Dev.) ; 
(2) Lamium galeobdolon (Som.) ; (3) van species of 
Lamium (Glo.). 

Glo. 1 Dev. The harmless nettle is here [Dartmoor] called arch- 
angels, BRAY Tamar and Tavy(ed. 1879) I. 274 ; Dev. 4 w.Soin. 1 
Archangel, the yellow nettle, often called weazel snout. [Our 
English archangels and a few others are yellow, Cornh. Mag. (Jan. 

2. Red Archangel, Lamium purpureum (Nrf.) ; Yellow 
Archangel, Lamium galeobdolon (Lei.). 

[Archangel, the name of a plant, called also Dead 
Nettle, JOHNSON ; Archangel (dead nettle), Lamium, COLES 
(1679) ; Ortie blanche, the herb Archangel, Blind Nettle, 
Dead Nettle. Ortie puante, a kind of Archangel that smells 
most filthily, COTGR. ; Lamium album, White Archangel!. 
Lamium luteum, Yellow Archangell. Lamium rubrum, 
Red Archangell, GERARDE (ed. 1633) 702 ; Deffe nettylle, 
Archangelus, Prompt.; Archangelica, the blynd netel, 
WRIGHT Voc. 565. 15.] 

ARCHES, sb. pi. Tech. The first ' bungs of saggers,' 
or piles of clay boxes containing ware put into the 

Tech. In the pottery trade arches are the bungs which stand 
nearest to the fire and between the fire-holes or mouths, Lab. 
Gl. (1894). 

ARCH-HOLE, sb. Cum. 

Cum. 1 Arch-whol, a vent-hole in the wall of a barn. 

ARCHIE, see Urchin. 

K 2 




ARCHILOWE,s6. Sc. Also written -logh. The return 
which a guest, who has been previously treated, makes 
to the tavern company. 

Sc. I propose that this good gentleman . . . shall send for a tass o' 
brandy, and I'll pay for another by way of archilowe, SCOTT Rob 
Roy (1817) xxviii. Lth., s.Sc. When [the guest] calls for the bottle 
he is said to give them his archilagh (JAM.). 

[It is prob. that this word contains Du. gelag, share, 
scot, score at a tavern. Cp. Gelach, a shot or a score, 

ARD, adj. n.Cy. [erd.] Of land : dry, arid, parched, 
used of soil on high-lying land. 

N.Cy. 1 Aird. Cum. Gl. (1851) ; Cum. 12 

ARDAR, sb. Obs. Cor. A plough. 

Cor. 12 

[A Celtic Cornish word, prob. Lat.aralrum, plough, 
cogn. w. Gael, ar, plough, and Goth, arjan, to plough.] 

ARDENT, adj. used as sb. Sc. [e'rdant.] Whisky. 

Bnff. 1 Will ye tack a glass o' wine ? Na ; a'll tack a drop o' the 

[Cp. phr. ardent spirits, in which ardent refers to their 
fiery taste.] 

ARDER, sb. usually pi. The n. counties, e. and s.Cy. 
(RAY) Sus. (K.) Also written ader Dur. n.Yks. ; aither 
N.Cy. 1 n.Yks. 12 e.Yks. ; ather N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 n.Yks. 2 
[i'Sar, a'tSar.] 

1. A ploughing, esp. the fallowing of vacant land. 

n.Cy. Arders, fallowings or plowings of ground, RAY (1691). 
n-Yks. 1 I believe the meaning to be restricted to the ploughing or 
furrowing. e.Yks. The first or second aither ; the same as ' airth ' 
of some places, and ' earth ' of others, MARSHALL Rur. Econ. ( 1 788). 
Sus. (K.), s. & e.Cy. RAY (1691). (Obs. Not known by any of our 
correspondents in these parts of the country.) [WORLIDGE Syst. 
Agric. (1681).] 

2. Fallow or ploughed land. 

Cum. Arden [sic], fallow quarter, Gl. (1851). m.Yks. 1 Aither, 
furrowed ground. e.Yks. When we come to sowe olde ardure, 
BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 132. 

3. Lands divided according to the crops they bear in the 
customary rotation ; hence, the order or rotation of crops 
in husbandry. 

n.Cy. Aither, a course of cropping, or portion of the rotation, 
MORTON Cycl. Agric. (1863) ; N.Cy. 1 In husbandry the arders are 
the divisions of tillage land set apart for regular courses of crops 
in successive years. Nhb. 1 Before the commons enclosures, the 
tillage land was divided into ' fields.' Each field consisted of a 
great number of scattered strips or ' yard lands.' The ' East field,' 
' West field,' 'North field,' &c. , represented groups of different 
freeholds each owner having yard lands in all the ' Athers,' or 
' fields.' The object of this was to arrange for a rotation of crops. 
Thus, the East field being fallow, the West field would be under 
oats, the North field under wheat, and so on in annual rotation. 
Obs. Dur. What is here called four aders, viz. wheat, clover, oats, 
and fallow, Rep. Agric. Surv. (1793-1813). n.Yks. 2 Arders, partsof 
a field. ' A field in aithers.' These words signify portions set 
apart for different growths, as 'an aither of wheat,' 'an aither of 

4. Thickness of soil to work among. 

n.Yks. Soil laid on a field macks mair ader (I.W.). 

[1. Arders, the fallowings or ploughings of ground, 
KERSEY ; Arders, fallowings or ploughings, COLES (1677) ; 
Who can expect to reap much from a single ardour, 
or once ploughing? ROBINSON Treat. Faith (1688) 117 
(N.E.D.). Prob. ON. arSr, plough.] 

ARD-SREW, sb. Nhb. Also written erdsrew. 
[e-rd-sriu.] The common shrew-mouse. See Harvest- 


ARDUR, sb. Obs. Cor. 

Cor. 1 

[A Celtic Cornish word ; cp 
agricola ' (DAVIES). See Arder.l 

ARE, see Ear, v. 

AREADY, adj. Som. [are'di.] Ready. 

A ploughman. 

W. arddwr, 'arator, 

-A i j. s^ " , ' 5weuere, ib. (B.) 

v. 192. A- (pref?) + ready, cp. yreiiie, Horn. (c. 1250) 239.] 

To grant rest 
gintlemen, TWEDDELL 


Nhb. 1 Yen's retherairfish 

AREAR, adv. 1 Ken. [aria'(r).] Reared up, upright. 

Ken. To stand arear (K.) ; Arear, Arere : much used in certain 
districts, not all over the county (A.M.) ; Ken. 1 

[A-, on + rear, vb.] 

AREAR, adv. 2 Obs. Der. Backward, behind. 

nw.Der. 1 

[But when his force gan faile his pace gan wex areare, 
SPENSER F. Q. in. vii. 24 ; Thanne gan he go ... Som 
tyme asyde and som tyme a-rere, P. Plowman(c.) vn. 405. 
OFr. arere (mod. arriere).} 

AREAR, int. Cor. Also written areah Cor. 1 

1. An exclamation of surprise. See Arrah. 

Cor. Arrear then Bessy ly aloane the backy, Cornwall: A 
Western Eclogue, in Gent. Mag. (1762) 287 ; Arrere, GROSE (1700) 
MS. add. (C.); ' Arreah ! thon,' replied Mrs. Brown; 'that's the 
way the maggot do jump, es et?' FORFAR Wizard (1871) 8; 
Cor. 2 Arear ! Oh, strange ! wonderful ! 

2. Comp. Arrea-faa. 
Cor. 1 

AREAWT, see Arout. 

AREND, v. Sc. [e-rand.] To rear. 

Fif. [The horse] arendit, he stendit, He flang an' he fam'd, MS. 
Poems (JAM.) ; I asked ' a Fifer' if he knew what an arend horse 
was. ' A rearer,' he replied, ' because he is in danger of falling back 
o'er end ' (G.W.). 

ARESS, see Hairif. 
AREST, v. Yks. [are'st.] 
n.Yks. God a-rest you, merry 
Rhymes (1875) 6. 
[A- (pref. 
ARF, see Argh. 
ARFAL, see Arval. 
ARFISH, adj. Nhb. Dur. Yks. [e'rfi/.] 

1. Timid, fearful, apprehensive. 
N.Cy. 1 I'm rather arfish about that. 

aboot eet. Dur. 1 n.Yks. 2 I felt arfish i' t'dark. ne.Yks. 1 Ah 
felt a bit arfish. e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788). w.Yks. 
Harfish, timid, as horses on bog-land, HAMILTON Nugae Lit. (1841) 
356 ; Mither, I'se arfish, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 230. 

2. Unwilling, reluctant. 

Nhb. 1 e.Yks. 1 He's nobbut very arfish to begin. 

[Arf+ -is/i. See Argh, adj.] 

ARG, adj. Sh.I. [arg.] Eager, fierce. 

Sh.I. Arg is used regularly in Isle of Foula in the sense of keen, 
very anxious (equiv. to ' aber ' in the North Isles) (J.J.). S. & Ork. 1 

[Dan. arg, wicked, bad; cp. G. arg.] 

ARG, see Argue. 

ARGAN, see Organ. 

ARGE, see Argue. 

ARGERIE, sb. Sh.I. [a'rgari.] A crowd, multitude. 

Sh.I. ' Argerie ' I take to be the right form and not ' angorie ' ; 
I have heard the former (although very rarely), but not the 
latter. Argerie is rather a derogative word (mob, rabble) (J.J.). 
S. & Ork. 1 

ARGH, adj. and adv. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Lin. Also 
in Sus. Also written (a)arf N.Cy. 12 n.Yks. 12 ne.Yks. 1 
m. Yks. 1 w.Yks. Lin. 1 ; arf(e n. and e.Yks. w.Yks. 1 ; airf 
Nhb. 1 ; erf Sc. ; earfe Nhb. 1 Dur. ; awf e.Yks. 1 ; arth 
Nhb. 1 ; airth N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 n.Yks. 2 ; airgh, ergh, erch, 
arch, airch Sc. ; auch Bnff. 1 ; arrow Abd. ; yar Sus. 
[af, erf, erj>, erx, a-ra.] 

1. adj. Timorous, apprehensive, afraid. 

Sc. In kittle times when foes are yarring We're no thought 
ergh, BEATTIE To Mr. A. Ross, in Helenore (1768) 3, ed. 1812 ; 
And fearfu' will it be to me, I'm erch, or a' be o'er, JAMIESON Pop. 
Ballads (1806) Doitul and Evir. Bnff. 1 Abd. I have an eargh 
kind of feeling on hearing the owls (G.W.). N.Cy. 1 He was airth 
to do it ; N.Cy. 2 , Nhb. 1 , Dur. (K.) n.Yks. I'se varra arfe, Shee'l 
put, and rive my ood Prunella Scarfe, MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 
1. it ; n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 I was airth o' gannin. ne.Yks. 1 Rooads is 
seea slaap ah's arf o' travellin'. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. ' Ise arf to do 
it,' generally implies difficulty, LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) ; 
w.Yks. 1 Lin. 1 I'm arf you've hurled the bunny. It's nobbud the 
soldiers come to defend the ' old women,' who are arf. Sus. 1 2 

2. Hesitating, reluctant, ' swithering.' 

Bnff. 1 Abd. An' rogues o' Jews, they are nae arrow, Wi' tricks 
fu' sly, ANDERSON Poems (1813) 116 (JAM.) ; Ye're ergh to file 
your fingers [unwilling to work] i,G.W.). Fit, Lth. Erf to do 




anything JAM.)- Nhb. 1 A condition of mind in which it is neces- 
sary to proceed with great caution. n.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 Arf, unwilling; 
indisposed ; disinclined. m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 

3. Scanty, insufficient. Cf. 4. 

Lth. Ye hae na made the line of that side o' the road straight ; 
it juts out there, and here it is ergh (JAM.). Slk. Airgh, hollow ; 
used when anything is wanting to make up the level (ib.). Rxb. (ib.) 

4. adv. Insufficiently, not fully or enough ; nearly, 
approaching to. 

Lth. I canna eat that meat ; it's ergh boiled. That meat's airch 
dune. Rxb. What time is it ? It's erfe twal o'clock (JAM.). 

[1. Arghe, pusillanitnis, Cath. Angl. ; Arwe or ferefulle, 
timidus, pavidus, Prompt, ; If Elinus be argh and ournes 
for ferde, Dest. Troy, 2540; His hert arwe as an hare, 
R. GLOUC. 457. 2. A ! lorde, I trymble her I stande, So 
am I arow to do bat dede, York Plays, 176. OE. earh 
(earg), cowardly ; cp. ON. argr, G. and Du. arg.] 

ARGH, v. Sc. Also written arch, ergh, erf. [erx, erf.) 
To be timid, fearful, to feel reluctant from timidity, to 

Sc. I airghit at keuillyng withe him in that thrawart haughty 
mood, Wint. Ev. Tales, II. 41 (JAM.) ; Argh, to dread, quake or 
tremble with fear (ib. Suppl.). Lnk. Dear Jenny, I wad speak 
t'ye, wad ye let ; An' yet I ergh, ye're ay sae scornfu' set, RAMSAY 
Gentle Shep. (1725) 71, ed. 1783. 

[Yet when I had done all I intended, I did ergh to let 
it go abroad at this time for sundry reasons, BAILLIE Lett. 
( I 775) I- 36? (J AM -) > penne arjed Abraham, and all his 
mod chaunged, Allit. P. (B.) 713. OE. eargian (ergian), to 
be timid.] 

ARCHNESS, sb. Sc. Yks. 

1. Timidity, superstitious fear. 

Abd. An erghness creeps over me in going through a churchyard 
by night (G.W.). 

2. Reluctance, unwillingness. 

Sc. We must regret their archness to improve such an oppor- 
tunity, WODROW Hist. Ch. Scotland (1721) I. xxxii. n.Yks. They 
had some arfness about starting wark (I.W.). 

[Arghnes, pusillanitnitas, Cath.Angl.; Arjnesse alse me 
thynkth ys hard, Fore hit maketh a man a coward, MS. 
in HALL. Argh, adj. + -ness.] 


Rnf., Ayr., Lnk. Argie-bargie, a contention, quarrel. 

ARGIE-BARGIE, v. Sc. Also written arguy-barguy. 
To argue, bandy words, dispute. 

Frf. I'se nae time to argy-bargy wi' ye, Davit, BARRIE Licht 
(1885) 35, ed. 1893. Fif. (JAM.) Gall. It was no time to argie- 
bargie about words and sayings, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) xv. 

Hence Arguy-barguying, vbl. sb. 

Sc. There was eternal arguy-barguy in' about this plea, ROY 
Horseman (1895) xxxix. 

ARGISGME, adj. Lin. Nhp. Bck. [a'gisam.] Con- 
tentious, inclined to argue or dispute. 

n.Lin. A argisum bairn maks a awk'ud man (M.P.) ; n-Lin. 1 It's 
the argisumist bairn I iver did see. Nhp. 2 n.Bck. (A.C.) 

[Argue, vb. + -some. For suff. cp. handsome, winsome."} 

ARGLE, sb. Lin. [a'gl.] An argument, a dispute. 

sw.Lin. My wife and she had a bit of an argle about it (R.E.C.). 

[See Argle, v .] 

ARGLE, v. Der. Lin. War. Won Also written argal 
se.Wor. 1 ; argel Lin. [a'gl.] 

1. To argue, dispute, contend, esp. in making a bargain ; 
to argle out, to have the last word with one's opponent in 
an argument. 

Lin. They argell'd for awhile, at last He thirteen for a shilling 
got, BROWN Lit. Laur. (1890) 74. n.Lin. Thaay stood an' argled 
a peace, PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes (1886) 90 ; n-Lin. 1 Come 
maister, it's no use to argle. se.Wor. 1 Er argald me out, as your 
new shawl was blue, un it's green now, yunt it ? 

2. Hence Argling, vbl. sb. 

Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. I thowt she'd a' bitten me wi' real down 
force o' arglein', PEACOCK J. Markenjuld (1874) I. 135 ; n-Lln. 1 
What's the good o' arglein' about what folks is worth. War. 


[I will never stand argling the matter any more, Hay 
any Work (1589), ed. 1844, n (N.E.D.). A perversion of 
argue, vb., fr. the influence of freq. vbs. in -le.] 

ARGLE-BARGLE, sb. Lin. An argument. Cf. 
n.Lin. 1 

ARGLE-BARGLE, v. Sc. Lin. A frequentative of 
argie-bargie, q.v. 

Per. Ye maist needs set him up tae arglebargle wi' a stranger 
minister at the Free Kirk, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 214. 
Ayr. It's of no use to argol-bargol wi' me, GALT Sir Andrew (1822) 
xii. Lnk. But 'tis a daffin to debate, And aurgle-bargin with our fate, 
RAMSEY (1727) I. 335, ed. 1800 (JAM.). Lth.(JxM.) Edb. Me and the 
minister were just argle-bargling some few words on the doctrine of 
the camel and the eye of the needle, MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) 
45. n.Lin. 1 

Hence (i) Argle-bargler, sb. a caviller, contentious 
person ; (2) Argle-barging, -bargling, vbl. sb. 

(i) Ayr. As the arglebarglers in the House of Parliament have 
threatened, GALT Legatees (1820) iv. (2) After no little argol- 
bargling with the heritors, ib. Ann. Parish (1821) vii. e.Lth. Let's 
hae nae mair argle-bargin', HUNTER J. Inwick (1895) 39. Edb. 
James and me, after an hour and a half s argle-bargling pro and con, 
MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) xi. 

[A reduplicated rhyming form of argle, vb.] 

ARGOL-BARGOLOUS, adj. Sc. Quarrelsome, con- 
tentious about trifles (JAM.). 

Ayr. No doubt his argol-bargolous disposition was an inherit 
accumulated with his other conquest of wealth from the mannerless 
Yankies, GALT Provost (1822) 194. 

ARGOSEEN, sb. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Unknown to any 
of our correspondents. The lamprey. 

Ayr. Argoseen, the lamprey, according to the old people. 

ARGOSIE, sb. Obs. Sh.I. Anger. 

S. & Ork. 1 

ARGUE, sb. Sc. Stf. Der. Shr. [a'rgi, a'gi.] Also 
written argy Stf. 2 nw.Der. 1 Shr. 12 
1. Argument, assertion ; dispute, contention, quarrel. 

n.Sc. He is said to keep his ain argie, who, whatever be said to 
the contrary, still repeats what he has formerly asserted. Cf. ' to 
keep one's ain threap ' (JAM.). Stf. 2 We'd a ret good argy about th' 
state of church last net. nw.Der. 1 Shr^Argue,)*. We'ad'nafine 
argy 'bout it, 'im an' me ; Shr. 2 Getting into an argy. 

[Argue, vb., used as sb.] 

ARGUE, v. In gen. dial. use. Also written argy Nhb. 1 
Cum. 13 Wm. 1 Chs. 1 n.Lin. 1 War. 2 Shr. 1 Brks. 1 Sur. 
nw.Dev. 1 Cor. 2 ; argie Sc. Lan. ; argay N.I. 1 ; arg Nhp. 2 
War. 2 Hrf. 12 Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 Sus. 1 Hmp. Wil. 1 Dor. w.Som. 1 
Cor. 12 ; arge Glo. ; arcg Cor. (GROSE, C.) ; erger, erg 
Pem. [a-rgi, e'rgi, a-gi, ag.] 

1. To contend in words, often with a strong sense of 
contradiction involved ; hence, to dispute, wrangle ; to 
arg out, to get the last word in an argument ; cf. down- 

Rnf., Ayr., Lnk. Ye'll argie ither fra morn ti' nicht ; ye're never 
done wi't (JAM. Suppl.). N.I. 1 You would argay the black crow 
white. Nhb. 1 Cum. 3 I know hoo you mak o' fwok argies, 132. 
Wm. 1 e.Yks. Ah sudn't begin to arguy wiv him, WRAY Nestleton 
(1876)69. n.Lan. 1 Tourist: 'It's a fine morning.' Rusticc'Why, 
dud I say it wosn't ? dus' ta want to argie ! ' Chs. 1 He argid till he 
wur black i' th' face. nXin. 1 Nhp. 2 Them two be ollas argin. 
War. 2 Don't argy so. You'd arg anybody out o' their wits. 
se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 It dunna si'nify talkin' ; I 'ate to 'ear folks argy 
throm mornin' till night about nuthin'. Hrf. 1 2 He would arg me 
that it was so. s.Pem. LAWS Little Eng. (1888) 420 ; From mornin' 
to night he's ergin' av her, BROWN Haverfordwest (1882) 56. Glo. 
Well, then they arged for iver so long, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
(1890) ii ; Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 I teld'n 'twas, but a arg'd I out 'twasn't. 
(An argument is seldom more than a succession of statements and 
flat contradictions; as, ' I knows 'tis'; ' I knows chent.') Brks. 1 
Sur. Well I can't argy it, not being a scholard, JENNINGS Field 
Paths (1884) 137 ; Sur. 1 Sus. 1 These chapelfolks always wants 
to arg. Hmp. They'd harg me out o' my Christian name (J.R.W.). 
Wil. 1 Dwoan't 'ee arg at I like that! I tell 'ee I zeed 'un ! w.Dor. 
ROBERTS Hist. Lyme Reg. (1834). w-Som. 1 He wanted vor t'arg 
how I 'adn agot no right vor to go there, but I wadn gwain vor to 
be a downarg by he. n.Dev. Lord, dame, doant agg an' argy 
zo, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) St. 6; nw-Dev. 1 Cor. 1 He's all'ays 
ready to argee ; Cor. 2 

2. To be of weight or account in an argument ; hence, 
to signify. 

Cum. See how blue the sky is. That doesn't argy. It might be 




better with never a blenk of blue, CAINE Hagar(i6&i) L 45 ; Com. 1 
It doesn't argy. nJ>ev. Ott dith et argy. Dame, to roil. ROCK Jim 
a* 1 Aa/(i867)st8a. 

3. To show-testiness, be ill-tempered, or contentious ; to 
be self-willed 
Sns. To arg. to want one's own way. Don't arg. don't be cross. 

4. To grumble. 

Som. V G.AW.) 

Hence Arging, vbL sb. and ppl. adj. arguing. 

Der. 2 . War. 2 

[L I'll are. as I did now, for credance againe. HEYWOOD 
Spider &> Flit (NARES) ; Quath Actyf fo al angryliche 
and argueynge as hit were, What is pouerte pacient? 
P. Plowman (c.) XVIL 115.] 

ARGUFICATION, sb. Nhp. Shr. Hrf. [agifike-pm.] 

1. Dispute. 
Shr. 2 

2. Significance, import. 

Nhp. 1 There's no argufication in that. Hrt 1 Of no argufication. 

3. Investigation. ? Obs. 

Shr. 2 [Not known to our correspondents.") 

[Deriv. from argufy, q.v., with suff. -ation. after the 
analogy of signification from signify.] 

ARGUFY, v. In gen. dial. use. Also written argify 
Wm. 1 w.Yks. 8 Chs. 1 Stf. Lin. War. 4 seWor. 1 GIo. 1 Bdf. 
Nrf. Ken. Sur. 1 Sus. 1 Dor. w.Som. 1 Dev. 1 nw.Dev. 1 ; 
arguify Sus. a ; argeefy Cor. 1 ; argnefy Ess. Som. See 
below, [a-rgifai. a'gifai, a'gifoi.] 
L To argue, dispute ; to wrangle. 

Gall. But we talked to him an' argufied wi' him, CROCKETT Popish 
Parson (1896). IT. You might as well be argufyin' wid a scutty- 
wren. BARLOW Lisctnuut (1895) 151. Wm. 1 . n-Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 
Wheniwer I've argified wi' em, ii. 319 ; w.Yks. 2 Lan. Hoo's a 
rare un fur gab when hoo taks th' notion, an' I'm noan so mich 
i' th' humour t'argufy mysen to-day. BURNETT Lowrie's ,i877 x ii. 
Chs. 1 What, tha wants for t'argify. dost ta ? Stt 2 Oi wunnar 
argifoi wi ys, mester, bar oim sartin oim reiL Hot. 1 . n-Lin. 1 . Lei. 1 
Nhp. 1 Don't argufy with me any longer. War. (J.R.W. V ; War. 23 
Shr. 1 It's no use yo' to argufy, for yo'n never mak me believe to the 
contrairy. Glo. I be'unt the man to argify with *e about a body. 
GISSIXG BoOi of this Parish (1889) I. 19, Hut (T.P.F.) Ken. 
My poor old aed's dat addle I can' argify, not no sheap ! Ef erra won 
6v my little uns want to argify [dispute my authority] I jest gin 
'im a tidy spat, an' dat shets "im up an' done wid it : A. M. ) Sos. 2 
s.Hmp. Well, we needn't argufy it, VERSEY L. Lisle ^1870) viiL 
w J)or. ROBERTS ffist. Lymt Ktg. ( 1834 . Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. 
a:Eng. ^1825% w-Som. 1 Tuumbl fuul'ur t-aaTgifuy, ee oa'n 
niivur gee ee*n [terrible fellow for arguing, he will never give in]. 
More frequentative than ' arg.' Dev. 'Tidden no use tu argify no 
longer. I tellee 'tez. then, an' there's an end o't : HEWETT Peas. Sf>. 
1.1892 ; Dev. 1 . nw.Dev. 1 , Cor. 1 [Amer. BARTLETT.] 
2. To prove, be of weight as an argument ; hence, to 

Wm. 1 e-Yks. 1 That ahgifyes nowt w.Yks. 1 , neJLan. 1 . Mot 1 
n-LJn. It duzn't argify what foaks says. I mean to ware my awn 
addlin's just as I like V M.P.}; nlin. 1 It duzn't argyfy what his 
faayther was es long es he's a punct'al man. Lei. 1 That doon't 
argifoy nothink. Nhp. 1 What does that argufy? War. J.R.W.\ 
War. 3 . se-Wor. 1 Shr. 2 Whod argufies a haggling a thisn. Hrf. 2 
It does not argufy. What thee says don't argufy. Glo. 1 ; Glo. 2 It 
don't argufy. Brks. 1 What a chap like that ther zes dwoant argivy 
nothun'. Bdf. It argifies nothing [it is a matter of no consequence], 
BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lan. (1609. Hnt V T.P.F.' eJ^n. 1 What 
does that argufy Ess. Month. Mag. 1,1814 I- 49 s - Snr. 1 It don't 
argify much which way you do it Sns. 1 I do'ant know as it argi- 
fies much whether I goos to-day or whether I goos to-morrow ; 
Sns. 2 , Hmp. 1 Colloq. What argufies snivling and piping your eye ? 
DIBDIS Poor Jack c. 1800' 2, ed. 1864. [Amer. BARTLETT.] 

Hence (i) Argufying, vbl. sb. disputing, arguing ; (2) 
Argufyment, sb. an argument, dispute. 

( i } Ir. She admonished her friends to come in wid themselves and 
never mind argufying, BARLOW Idylls 1,1893) 101. n-Yks. 1 He's 
ower fond o' argufying ; n-Yks. 2 Nrt It's no use argifying with 
a wumman. SPILLING Molly Miggs (i873"> 13. [Amer/I listen to a 
preacher, and try to be better for his argufying. BARTLETT.] (a) Ir. 
Folks risin' argyfyments about blathers and nonsinse, BARLOW 
Idylls ,1893' 197 : I believe they'd raise an argufyment about the 
stars in the sky. A. 180. 

[L I have no learning, no, not I, Nor do pretend to 
argufy, COMBE Dr. Syntax, II. v ; For my peart, measter, 
I can neither see nor hear, much less argufy, when I'm 
in such a quandery, SMOLLETT Sir L. Greaves, viii. 
Argue, \b. + -fy, prob. fr. assoc. with signify.] 

ARGY, sb. Shr. Mtg. [a'gL] An embankment to 
protect low-lying waterside meadows from floods. 

Shr. 1 A place near Kinnersley a raised bank with a plantation 
of poplars and other trees, having a small brook, the ' strine.' on 
one side, and a ditch on the others-is called by the people of that 
neighbourhood ' the argy ' : Shr. 2 Argy. an embankment betwixt 
Melverly and LJanymynech, which was constructed as a pro- 
tection against the overflowings of the Severn. ... It is five feet 
across the top, and varies from ten to twenty feet in height above 
the average level of the meadows on the waterside. Mtg. The 
argy extends along the Severn from Pool Quay to Melverly. and 
unless it gives way, the adjoining meadows are preserved by it 
from being swamped when the Severn is in flood (J.S.L.). 

[W. argot, a stoppage, a dam.] 

ARIGHT, adv. Sc. n.Yks. [wi- x t, wit] Rightly. 

Sc. His hame Pegasus, held wi* straw-raip reins, Aye jogged 
aricht an' kept his name frae stains, ALLAN LMts (1874) 143. GalL 
He was aware that all men did not act aright on even.- occasion, 
CROCKETT Stidai Mia. (1893) 12. n.Yks. An ondersteead areet, 
CASTILLO Poems ,1878) 52. 

[A-, on 4 right, sb.] 

ARIGHT, v. Lan. [arit.] Of a boat : to right, to 
cause to recover its proper position. 

Lan. Heard at Liverpool ^F.H.). 

[A vbl. use of aright, adv.] 

ARISE, adv. Nhp. [arai's.] Crosswise. 

Nhp. 1 A square piece of wood cut diagonally would be said to be 
' cut a-rise." 

[This is the same word as arris, q.v.; for the advb. use 
cp. arris-wist, so as to present a sharp edge, diagonally, 
ridge-wise (N.E.D.).] 

ARISH. see Arris, Arrish. 

ARK, sb. 1 Sc. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. 
Der. Lin. Also in Hrt. Also written airk Cum. 1 ; airc 
Nhb. 1 [erk, ark, ak.] 

L A receptacle, usually a large wooden chest, made to 
contain flour, corn, fruit, clothes, &c. 

Sc. My auldest brither Sandy was a' but smoored in the meal ark 
hiding frae thae limmers, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes 1870 72 ; Good- 
wife gae to your butter ark. And weigh us here ten mark, & 
168 : What are we to eat ourselves . . . when we hae sent awa 
the haill meal in the ark and the girnel ? SCOTT OU Mortality (1816 
xix. Lnk. He had an old meal ark before him as a table, FRASEK 
%/ys.i895 N viii. N.Cy. 1 2 Hhb. 1 A meal-ark is still the name given 
to a meal-chest in country places. Arks were made of oak. and con- 
tained the family dresses. The front was often ornamented with 
carved borders and joined with wooden pins. Cum. 1 A meal ark. 
Wm. [Black arks] are often used as repositories for haver cakes, 
Drnham Tracts (.ed. 1895) II. 96 : We hae baith meal en maut ith 
ark. WHEELER Dial. 1 7001 40 : A think he'd bed his heead i't meeal 
ark. CLARKE Spec. Dial. (.1868; 16, ed. 1877 ; Wm. 1 Yks. The black 
ark was a ponderous piece of oaken furniture about six feet in 
length and three in depth ; the inside was usually divided into 
two parts [formerly used to hold clothes, now flour, &c.]. If you 
go to the black-ark, bring me out x mark, Ten mark, x pound, 
throw it down upon the ground. Hagmena Song in Drnham Tracts 
^ed. 1895) II. 9& n-Yks. 2 Meeal-ark. or meeal-kist, the flour bin. 
Formerly seen as a fixture in Urge old farm-houses, built of stone 
slabs on the ground-Door. DC. Yks. 1 Obs. e-Yks. Ark, a sort 
of moveable granary, MARSHALL Rtir. Eton. ^1788 . m-Yks. 1 
w.Yks. GROSE 1790; MS. ado. (P.) ; A meal-ark, dothes-ark 
J.T.' ; w.Yks. 1 Meol, at I fetch'd out o't ark, ii. 300 ; w.Yks. 23 
Lan. 1 Apple arks, HIGSON Gorton Hist. Recorder 1852' 12 ; 
She had secreted a small quantity of tea in her meal ark, *. 14. 
Go an treyd t'meal into th' ark. neXan. 1 Chs. 1 The chest in 
which oats are kept in a stable is always called a ' curn-ark ' ; Chs. 3 
Ark, formerly called a standard ; a flour ark. These arks are 
often elaborately carved, and sometimes contain secret drawers. 
s-Chs. 1 A compartment in a granary. Often called ' curn-ark.' Stf. 2 
A large oblong box or chest, divided into compartments, generally 
two, for keeping corn, meal, &c. Goo an fatch nK a hantle u com 
out uth* ark. Der. Just get off o' that art . . . She lifted up the 
great carved lid, VERKEY Stone Edgt 1868) ii; Der. 1 ; Der. 2 Ark. 



a chest ; hence the name of Arkwright. nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. Obs. or 
obsol. (E.P.) ; n-Lin. 1 Apple-ark, Ark. Hrt ELLIS Cy. ffsuf. (1750). 

[Ark, a country word for a large chest to put fruit or 
corn in, KERSEY ; An ark, a large chest to put fruit or corn 
in, WORLIDGE Syst. Agric. (1681) ; Coffre, a coffer, chest, 
hutch, ark, COTGR. ; Quen this corn to the kniht was said 
He did it in an arc to hald, Metr. Horn. (c. 1325) 141. 
OE. earc, Lat. area.} 

ARK, sb? Rut. Hrf. Ess. Also written arc Hrf. 12 
Ess. [ak.] Clouds in lines converging to two points on 
opposite parts of the sky. See Noah's ark. 

Rut. 1 They say when you see the hark it mostly tokens rain. 
Hrf. BOUND Prov. (1876); Hrf. 1 A mare's-tail cloud; Hrf. 2 Seen 
in the morning and evening only on rare occasions. Found only 
in Upton Bishop among very old people. Ess. The ark worn't out, 
no clouds appear'd, CLARK J. Noakes (1839) n ; Gl. (1851); Ess. 1 

ARK, sb? Sc. The masonry in which the water- 
wheel of a mill moves. 

Abd. This name is in common use (W. M.). Per. At the foot of 
the ark, where the water leaves the wheel, we used to be certain 
of trouts when guddling (G. W.). 

ARL, sb. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Rdn. Glo. Also written 
orl s. Wor. 1 Shr. 2 Hrf. 2 Rdn. Glo. 1 ; aul Hrf. 1 ; harrul Glo. 1 
[51, ol.] 

1. The alder, Alnus gluiinosa. 

w.Wor. 1 , s-Wor. 1 Shr. 2 Orl, exclusively confined to Hrf. side. 
Hrf. 1 When the bud of the aul is as big as the trout's eye Then that 
fish is in season in the river Wye ; Hrf. 2 Rdn. MORGAN Wds. 
(1881). Glo. 1 The berries of [the arl or orle] are used medicinally 
for boils and gatherings. A quart of berries is stewed in two or 
three quarts of water and simmered down to three pints. A little 
more liquorice is added to give an agreeable flavour. The dose is 
a wineglassful in the morning. 

2. Comp. Arl-timber, the wood of the alder, also attrib. 
tree, -wood. 

Hrf. The gardener says the wood is called arl-timber (S.S. B.). 
Glo. Orle-timber, coppice wood, border wood (H.T.E.) ; The maid 
servant from the Cotswolds says that certain trees are known as orl- 
timber trees, and when cut down are known as orl-timber. She 
says the alder is not called orl-tree, but orl-timber tree (S.S.B.). 
Hrf. Arl-tree (ib.\ Glo. Orl-wood, the timber of the alder (ib.). 

ARLE, v. Sc. n.Irel. Nhb. Yks. Also written earle 
Yks. ; yearl Nhb. 1 ; airle N.I. 1 [erl, yerl, L] 

1. To bind by payment of money, to give earnest-money 
as ' clincher ' to a bargain, to engage for service, secure. 

Sc. Arle, to put a piece of money into the hand of a seller, at 
entering upon a bargain, as a security that he shall not sell to 
another, while he retains the money (JAM.). Per. Are you feed, 
lassie? Yes, I was erled an hour ago (G.W.). NX 1 Nhb. Aw 
move that when wor Vicar dees, the place for him be arid, OLIVER 
Local Sngs. (1824) 9 ; Nhb. 1 What did the misses arle ye wi ? She 
ga' me two shillin'. Yks. To arle or earle a bargain, to close it, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) 

Hence Ailing, vbl. sb. 

Per. The custom of arling is common here (G.W.). 

2. To earn. 
w.Yks. 2 

3. Ironically : to beat severely, cf. arles, 3. 

Bnff. 1 

[She arled him for her groom, bridegroom, She arled 
him for her groom, Broom, Green Broom (Nhb. 1 ). Deriv. 
of arles, sb. (q.v.).] 

ARLES, sb. Sc. Irel. and all the n. counties to Lan. and 
Lin. Also written airlesN.I. 1 ; arls w.Yks.*; alls N.Cy. 1 ; 
erles Nhb. 1 Lin.; erls Yks.; earls Irel. w.Yks. 4 Lan. 
n.Lin.' ; carles N.I. 1 N.Cy. 12 Dur. Cum. Yks. n.Yks. 3 
w.Yks. 1 Lan. ; erl, earle Wm. ; yearles N.Cy. 1 Lan. ; 
yearls Cum. ; yerls Cum. Wm. ; arless w.Yks. [erlz, 
eralz, yerlz, alz.] 

1. Money paid on striking a bargain in pledge of future 
fulfilment, esp. that given to a servant when hired ; earnest- 
money ; also^o-. 

Sc. A piece of money put into the hands of a seller . . as a pledge 
[that he] shall not strikea bargain with another, while he retains the 
arles in his hand JAM.\ Aries ran high, but makings were naething, 
man, HOGG Jacob. Rel. (1819) 1. 102 ; He had refused the devil's arles 
(for such was the offer of meat and drink), SCOTT Redg. (1824) xi 
Inv.(H.E.F.) Rnf. Jack was selling Pate some tallow ' Done ' 

quo' Pate, and syne his erls Nail'd the Dryster's wauked loof [palm], 
WILSON Watty and Meg (1792) 7, Newc. ed. Ayr. An' name the 
arles an' the fee In legal mode an' form, BURNS (1786) 132 ; Their 
demeanour towards me was as tokens and arles of being continued 
in respect and authority, GALT Proms/ (1822) xxviii. Lnk. He turn'd 
his rosy cheek about, and then, ere I could trow, The widdifu' o' 
wickedness took arles o" my mou, MOTHERWELL Sng. (1827) 242. 
e.Lth. It's no ower late for him to tak back his arles to the tither 
side, HUNTER J.Inwick (1895) 194. Gall. Here's a silver merk, 
I'or the King's arles, and here's Sergeant Armstrong's file wi' 
twal unce o' the best lead bullets, CROCKETT Raiders (,1894) xliv - 
Ir. Where's my footin', masther? Where's my arles? CARLETON 
Fardoroiigha (1848) i. Ant. In hiring a servant, for buying a cow, 
load of hay, &c., you give a shilling or half-a-crown as 'earls,' to 
make the bargain sure, Ballymena Obs. (1892). N.I. 1 , N.Cy. 1 2 
Nhb. 1 In hiring servants, any bargain made between master 
and servant was accounted void, before entry into servitude, 
if arles had not been offered and accepted. Nhb. & Dur. Aries, 
earnest money, formerly given to men and boys when hired 
at the bindings, GREENWELL Coal. Tr. Gl. (1849). Cum. & Win. 
Servants return the arles, when, after being hired, they change their 
mind. What ! she's sent t'yerls back ! (M. P.) Wm. In Appleby 
within recent years the Wrings were opened by the charter being 
read at the Cross, after which bargains clinched with the 'yerls ' 
were binding on man and master (B.K.). Yks. Give me earles 
[or God's-penny](K.). n.Yks. 1 Aries, or Festing-penny. ne.Yks. 1 
Aries, money, [ranging] from as. to 5*. w.Yks. HUTTON Tout- 
to Caves (1781); w.Yks. 1 Butcher Roberts put eearles into my 
hand, an bad me ten pund neen for him, ii. 289; w.Yks. 2 
Erles, money given to a clergyman when first engaged ; w.Yks. 4 , 
Lan. 1 , ne-Lan. 1 , Lin. (K.) n.Lin. 1 Aries (obsol.). [This money is 
returned by the seller of farm produce to the buyer on payment] 
as luck or ' to'n-agean ' (s.v. To'n agean). Thomas Sheppard, 
John Oxley, and David Hill took 12 acres 2 roods of wheat at 
85. 6rf. per. acre, and as. 6d. for earls. Northorpe Farm Ace. 1789. 

2. A gift to servants from a visitor ; a ' vail.' a ' tip.' 
Yks, (K.) 

3. Phr. to give any one his arles, to give any one his 
deserts, freq. applied to a beating. 

Inv. To gie ane his arles (H.E.F.). Bnff. 1 A'll gee ye yir arles, 
my boy, gehn ye dinna haud yir tung. 

4. Comp. Aries-penny, Arral-sbilling. 

Ayr. Your proffer o' luve's an airle-penny. My Tocher's the 
bargain ye wad buy, BURNS My Tocher's the Jewel 1794). Lnk.. And 
this is but an arle-penny To what I afterward design ye, RAMSEY 
Poems (1721) II. 561, ed. 1800 (JAM.). N.Cy. 12 , Wm. (B.K.) 
n.Yks. 1 Aries-penny, God's penny, Festing-penny. w.Yks. 1 , Der. 2 , 
nw.Der. 1 w.Yks. Arral-shilling is common where statute hirings are 
held iJB.K.). 

[1. Argentum Dei . . . Money given in earnest of a 
bargain : in Lincolnshire called Erles or Aries, BLOUNT 
Law Diet. (1691) ; pis ure lauerd jiueS ham as on erles of 
be eche mede bat schal cume berafter, Halt M. (c. 1220) 7. 
4. Aries penny, earnest-money given to servants, or in 
striking any bargain, BAILEY (1755) ; Aries penny, 
earnest-money given to servants when they are first hired, 
BAILEY (1721); Glossographia (1707).] 

ARLICH, adj. Sc. (JAM.) Also written arlitch. Sore, 
fretted, painful. 


[Arr (a scar), q.v. + -lic/i (Eng. -fy).] 

ARLIES, int. Chs. [a'liz.] 

s. Chs. I f one boy were chasing another, and the latter cried ' arlies,' 
he would expect to be allowed a little breathing space before the 
chase was resumed (T. D. ) ; s.Chs. 1 

ARLING, sb. Nhb. Earnest-money. Cf. arles, sb. 1. 

Nhb. He' ye getten yor arlin ? Hoo much hes she gi'en ye for 
arlin? (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 The arlin is sometimes called 'the bond- 
money ' (s.v. Arle}. 

[A vbl. sb. fr. arle, vb.] 

ARLY-BONE, sb. Brks. The hip-bone of a pig. 

m.Brks. The ' arly bwun ' is known in all farm-houses. It is 
taken off the ham before the latter goes to be cured, and is 
roasted soon after the pig-killing (B.L.). s.Brks. Here the name 
' early bone ' is in common use (M.J.B. \ Brks. 1 

ARM, sb. 1 Chs. Lin. Nhp. War. Wor. e.An. Wil. Dor. 
Som. Dev. [am.] 

1. The axle, the iron upon which the wheel of any 
vehicle turns. 



Chs. 1 Formerly the arms were simply a continuation of the 
wooden axle ; now they are invariably made of iron and are let 
into each end of the thick wooden axle. n.Lin. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 
(J.R.W.), se.Wor. 1 Suf. A wooden axle-tree with iron arms. 
An axle-tree of iron, arms and all (F.H.). Wil. MORTON Cyclo. 
Agric. (1863). Dor. Off came the wheels, and down fell the carts ; 
and they found there was no linch-pins in the arms, HARDY Wess. 
Tales (1888) II. 186. w.Som. 1 Dhu weel km oa-f, un dh-aa-rm oa un 
wuz u-broa-kt rait oa-f [the wheel came off, and its axle was 
broken right off]. nw.Dev. 1 

2. The spoke or radius of any large wheel ; the beam of 
a windmill to which the sail is fixed. 

w.Som. 1 [The arm of] a water-wheel, or the fly-wheel of a steam- 
engine. The entire motive power of a windmill i.e. each of the 
four great beams, with all the apparatus fixed to it is called the 

3. A trowel. 

e.An. 1 

4. Comb, (i) Arm by arm, (2) arm and crook, (3) ann-in- 
crook, (4) arm-in-link, (a) arm-in-arm, freq. applied to 
the walking together of couples in the courting stage ; 
(b) on familiar terms, cf. ' hand-and-gloye ' ; (5) bend of the 
arm, the elbow ; (6) hand-in-arm, arm-in-arm ; (7) to bend 
the arm, to drink, cf. ' to lift the elbow ' ; (8) to make a long 
arm, to reach ; (9) to wish your arm from your elbow, see 

(i) Lin. Lots o' lads and lasses, all agrm by a6rm, BROWN Lit. 
Laur. (1890) 9. (a) Dor. Tidden no good vor a ma'id to walk arm-an'- 
crook wi' the likes o' he, HARE Vitt. Street (i8g$) in. Som.'Tessaid 
theydowalkarman'crookup'pon hill a'most every day o' their lives, 
RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life (1894) 208. Dev. 3 (3) Dor. Then 
they went arm-in-crook, like courting complete, HARDY Madding 
Oozfrf(i874)xxxiii. (4) Chs. 1 (a) He's goin arm- i'-linkwi'ahr Polly. 
(4) He's arm-i'-link wi' him. (5) w.Yks. ' Bend o' t'arm ' is common 
for elbow-joint, Leeds Men. Suppl. (May 2, 1891) ; Bend of the 
arm, common in Ossett (M.F.). (6) w.Yks. 3 Hand i' airm. (7) 
Slang. He was busy arm-bending in the public-house when the 
tattoo sounded (A.S.P.). (8) w.Yks. 3 To mak' a long airm. (9) 
n.Yks. 2 They'll shak ye by t'hand an wish your airm off by t'elbow 
[will give you the hand, but with no good will at heart, as hollow 
friends do]. 

5. Comp. (i) Arm-bend ; (2) -lede, the direction of the out- 
stretched arm ; (3) -load ; (4) -poke, the arm-pit ; (5) -rax, 
see Arm-twist; (6) -set, the setting of the coat-sleeve, the 
arm-pit ; (7) -shot ; (8) -skep; (9) -skew, see Arm-twist; 
(10) -strength, the muscularity of the arm ; (n) -stretch ; 
(12) -twist ; (13) -wrist, the wrist. 

n.Yks. 2 (i) Airm-bend, the elbow-joint. (2) This mun be your 
way by airmlede [by the road to which I am pointing], (3) Airm- 
looad, Airmleead, an armful. (4) Suf. Under the left arm-poke 
place a swaler's hart and a liver under the rite, Garland (1818) 9. 
n.Yks. 2 (5) Airmrax. (6) It nips at t'airm-set. (7) Airmshot, 
arm's length. m.Yks. 1 n.Yks. 2 (8) Airmskep, a coarse twig 
basket without a bow, carried under the arm. (9) Airmskew, 
a sprain of the arm. (10) Foorced by airm strength, (n) Airm- 
stritch, the effort of the arms, as at a rowing match. (12) 
Airmtwist, a sprain of the arm. (13) w.Som. 1 He tookt hold o' 
my arm-wrist. Dev. Whot's the matter wi' tha babby ? I can't 
ezackally say, but 'e zims tu be a-scrammed in's arm-wrist. 
Luketh's ef 'e'd a-broked 'n, HEWETT Peas. Sf, (1892). Cor. 1 

[2. Les rayeres d'un moulin a eau, the arms, or starts 
of a wheel of a water-mill, COTGR.] 

ARM, sb. 2 Sh.I. The end, as of a line. 

S. & Ork. 1 

ARM, v. Irel. Som. Dev. [am.] To conduct by 
walking arm-in-arm with ; to walk arm-in-arm. 

n.Ir. Arm is frequently used facetiously, ' I'll arm you,' i.e. give 
you a lift, set you on your way, though the necessity for help may be 
imaginary and assumed (M.B.-S.) ; N.I. 1 Ant. There they go arm- 
ing along (J.S.). w.Som. 1 Zo your Jim's gwain to have th' old 
Ropy's maid arter all. No, he idn. Oh, idn er? well, I zeed-n 
a-armin o' her about, once, my own zul, last Zunday night as ever 
was. nw.Dev. 1 

[To arm her to her lawyer's chambers, WYCHERLEY 
Plain Dealer (1675) (N.E.D.).l 

ARM, see Haulm. 

ARM-HOLE, sb. Yks. Chs. Stf. Not. Lei. War. Won 
Oxf. The arm-pit. 

Yks. In gen. use (J.W.). Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 Stf. 2 MoicOt dunnafit 

very well under th' armhole. Not. 1 , Lei. 1 . War. 3 , Wor. ;J.W.P.\ 
Oxf. 1 MS. add. 

[Arm-hole, the hollow under the arm, BAILEY (1755) ; 
The arm-pit or arm-hole, ala, axilla, ROBERTSON (1693) ; 
Armehole, aiscella, PALSGR. ; Gemini (hath) thyn arm- 
holes, CHAUCER Astrol. i. xxi.] 

ARMING-CHAIR, sb. Cum. An arm-chair. 

Cum. When he'd gotten hissel clappt doon iv a grand armin-chair, 
SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 188. Wm. & Cum. 1 This armin chair 
I'll meake my seet, 294. 

ARMSTRONG, sb. Sus. A name for the plant 
usually called knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare. 

[So called] from the difficulty of pulling it up. 

ARMSTRONG, adv. e.An. Arm-in-arm. 

e-An. 1 

ARMTLE, sb. Chs. Stf. [a'mtl.] An armful. 

s.Chs. 1 ! brought dain a hooalarmtle o' ballets to boot(s. v. Deck). 
s.Stf. Oi went a-lizin [i.e. gleaning] dhis mornin an got a armtl 

[For the suff. -tie cp. apperntle.] 

ARN, sb. Sc. The alder-tree. 

Sc. (JAM.), Bnff. (W.M.) Abd. The name ' arn ' is better known 
perhaps than the alder (G.W.) ; There was a place called Ferniord, 
from fearna-ord, the height of the alders or arns, these trees 
being still remembered by old people as growing at the place, 
MACDONALD Place Names in Strathbogie (1891) 192. Edb. (J.M.) 

[The aller or arne ... is also found in marshy places, 
NEWTE Tour (1791) (N.E.D.). Prob. repr. OE. celren, adj., 
fr. alor, alder.] 

ARN, see Awn, Urn. 

ARNACK, see Neck. 

ARNARY, see Ordinary. 

ARNBERRIES, sb. pi. Yks. Obsol. Raspberries. 

n.Yks. 2 

ARNOT, sb. 1 Sc. Also written arnit, arnet A 

Abd. Arnot is well known here (W.M.) ; Or on the Inches rant 
and sport on ilka verdant spot, Or fish for bandies, arnits, eels in 
ilka wee bit pot, CADENHEAD Flights of Fancy (1853) Our Auld 

ARNOT, sb. 2 Sc. [e'rnat.] In phr. lea arnot, a stone 
lying in the field (JAM.). 

Abd. ' Be ye gweed deevil, be ye ill deevil," cried Fleeman with 
much indignant energy, ' I'se try you wi' a lea arnot,' and com- 
menced to pelt the 'archangel ruined,' Jamie Fleeman, 51, ed. 

ARNS, sb. Obs. n.Cy. Earnest-money. 

N.Cy. 1 

[The Hooli Goost of biheest, which is the ernes of oure 
eritage, WYCLIF (1388) Eph. i. 14. Cp. Wei. ernes (' arrha '), 
borrowed fr. E.] 

ARNUT, see Earth-nut. 

ARON, sb. Plant-name applied to (i) Arum macu- 
la/urn (Sc.) ; (2) Richardia aethiopica, or Arum lily (Wei.) 

Rxb. Aron, the plant called Wake-robin, or Cuckoo's pint (JAM.;. 

[(i) Aron, Wake-Robin, Cuckoe-pint, COLES (1677) ; The 
roots of aron, and mixt with wheat-bran, BURTON Anat. Mel. 
(1621) 462, ed. 1836 ; Aron, the herb Aron, Cuckoe-pint 
. . . Pied de veau, Calves-foot, Ramp, Aaron, Cuckoe-pint, 
COTGR. (2) Take Aron roote, Gabelhouer's Bk. Physic 
(1599) 183 (N.E.D.). Gr. 3pov, cp. Lat. arum, the herb 
Wake-Robin, COLES (1679).] 

AROUND, adv. and prep. Wm. Stf. Suf. Gny. Slang. 

1. adv. About, here and there in no fixed direction, 

Wm. 1 A seed em gangen aroond. Stf. Just walking around 
a bit (A.P.). Suf. He does nothing but hang around, doing 
nothing (F.H.). Slang. On the day this 'ere job come off Chris 
comes around to me, Dy. News (Jan. 4, 1895) 3, col. 7. [Amer. 
That's a 'cute little copy of Keats to carry around (M.D.H.) ; Sam 
is around in New York, BARTLEIT.] 

2. prep. Round. 

Gny. It goes around the room (G. H.G.). 

3. In phr. around about, round about. 

Suf. I am not going by that around about way, but across the 
fields (F.H.). 




AROUT, adv. and prep. Lan. Chs. Stf. War. Alsojn 
Hrt. Also written areawt Lan. 1 ; areat Chs. 1 [are't, 
area't, areirt.] 

1. adv. Without, outside, out-of-doors. 

Lan. I'r no sooner areawt boh a threave o' rabblement wur 
watchin on meh at t'dur, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 58 ; GROSE 
Suppl. (1790) MS. add. (P.) ; When aw should foind thee areawt 
awd kiss thee, STATON Sng. Sol. (1859) viii. i ; Alone to-day 
Areawt i' th' broad, green fields aw've come, RAMSBOTTOM Phases 
of Distress (1864) 59 ; Thou're noan fit to be areawt sich a day as 
this, WAUGH Chimn. Corner (1874) 142, ed. 1879 ; Lan. 1 Chs. 1 
Was he i' th' haise? Now, he were areat ; Chs. 3 , War. (J.R.W.) 

2. prep. Without. 

s.Stf. I to'd him we could du arout him any time, PINNOCK Blk. 
Cy. Ann. (iSgsX Hrt. If yer can't do arout picklicking you'll 'a 
'ter do arout grub altogether. So mind that, Miss ! N. & Q. (1870) 
4th S. vi. 328. 

[This is a pron. of without through the stages wi-, *-, r-.] 

AROVE, adj. Obs. Yks. Up and stirring. 

w.Yks. 1 Our lad's quite bobberous, an aw a roav, ii. 305. 

ARPENT, see Orpine. 

ARPIT, adj. Shr. Obsol. Quick, ready, precocious. 

Shr. 1 'Er wuz sich a mighty arpit little wench, I never thought 
'er'd live ; it's sildom as they dun, w'en a bin so cute ; Shr. 2 
Arpit at his laming, saying as how he's so heavy o' hearing. 

ARR, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Also written aar, aur, aurr, awr (JAM.) ; err Cum. 1 ; arrh 
Chs. 28 ; are. Yks. [er, an] 

1. A scar or mark left by a wound. 

Sc. While the cut or wound is healing the mark is called a scar ; 
when it is completely healed the mark is called an aur (JAM. Suppl.'). 
N.I. 1 Ant Ballymena Obs. (1892). N.Cy. 12 Nhb. 1 He hes an arr 
on his finger. Cum. The healen plaister eas'd the painful sair The 
arr indeed remains but naething mair, RELPH Misc. Poems (1747") 
Harvest, 1. 26 ; GROSE (1790) ; Gl. (1651} ; Cum. 12 Wm. It's a sad 
arr (M.P.) ; Wm. 1 , n.Yks. 1 n.Yks. 2 I'll gie thee an arr thou'll 
carry t'thee grave ; n.Yks. 3 ne.Yks. 1 He's gitten an arr ov his 
back. e.Yks. NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 50 ; MARSHALL Rur. 
Econ. (1788) ; e.Yks. 1 Of every-day use in n. Holderness, MS. add. 
(T.H.) m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781) ; WILLAN 
ListWds. (1811) ; LUCAS Stud. Nidderdalc (c. 1882)231 ; w.Yks. 15 , 
Lan. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , Chs. 123 [Ar, HOLLOWAY.] 

2. A spot or freckle ; also used attrib. 

w.Yks. SCATCHERD Hist. Morley (1830) 168. [Term of abuse, 
as] arr toad, Yks. ff. & Q. (1888) II. 13 ; w.Yks. 5 An arr-toad 
[freckled toad]. 

3. A guilty recollection, leaving an impression on the 

n-Yks. 1 It's nobbut a black arr, thae deeings o'thahn [thine] wi' 
t'aud man [the way you dealt with the old man must have left a black 
mark on your conscience] ; n.Yks. 2 An arr on the conscience. A 
black arr, a stain on the character. 

4. A grudge, ill-feeling. 
Or.I., Ayr. (JAM. Suppl.) 

Hence Arred,///. adj. marked with scars ; esp. of the 
marks left by small-pox. See Pock-arred. 

Sc. (JAM.) N.I. 1 n.Yks. 2 Arr'd, branded or imprinted. Lan. 1 
He wur arr'd o' ower wit' smo-pocs. 

[Arr, a scar, BAILEY (1770) ; Cicatrix, a nerre, WRIGHT 
Voc. 680; Cicatrix, ar or wond, MS. isth cent, in HALL. ; 
Thai ere brokyn myn erres (=corruptae sunt cicatrices 
meae), HAMPOLE Ps. xxxvii. 5. ON. orr, Dan. ar.] 

ARR, v. 1 Yks. Chs. To scar, scratch ; to beat. 

n.Yks. 2 I'll arr your back for you. ne.Yks. 1 In rare use. w.Yks. 
Take care not to arr the steel fender, HAMILTON Nugae Lit. (1841) 
357. Chs. 1 Cum ait o' that hedge wilt'a, or tha'lt arr thee. 

[Though my face . . . was not at all pitted or (as they 
there [i.e. in Lan.] call it) arred, but in time as cleare and 
smooth as ever it was, Life of A. Marlindale (1685) 19. See 
Arr, sb.] 

ARR, v? Sc. Lan. Der. Also written yarr Sc. e.Lan. 1 
[er, yer, a(r), ya(r).] Of dogs : to snarl, growl, also^Sg-. 

Sc. In kittle times when foes are yarring, BEATTIE To Mr. A. 
Ross in Helenore (I^68) 132, ed. 1812. Lan. Yerin 'em hanch and 
arre at us bi way o thanks, CLEGG Pieces Rock. Dial. ',1895) > Lan. 1 
Co' that dog in, dost no' see how it keeps arrin' at yon felly. 
e.Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 

[A dog is ... fell and quarrelsome, given to arre, 
VOL. i. 

HOLLAND Plutarch's Mor. (1603) 726 (N.E.D.). A word 
imitating the sound of a snarl.] 

ARR, v? Nhp. [a(r).] To egg on, incite to quarrel. 

Nhp. 2 

[Thei eggiden him in alyen goddis,and in abomynaciouns 
to wraththe arreden, WYCLIF (1382) Deut. xxxii. 16. Cp. 
MDu. errert, to provoke to anger (VERDAM).] 

ARR, see Har. 

ARRAH, int. Irel. Cor. Also written araa Cor. 1 ; 
yarrah Irel. [a'ra, ya'ra.] An exclamation of surprise ; 
freq. used in accosting a person, or in calling attention. 
See Arear. 

Ir. Miss Betty, arrah, Miss Betty, LEVER H. Lor. (1839) iii ; 
Arrah, an' the devil a taste I'll be drowned for your divarsion, ib. 
Ch. O'Malley (1841) viii ; Yarrah, didn't I spake that speech before, 
CARLETON Traits (1843) I. 315. w.Ir. Arrah ! what brings you 
here at all? LOVER Leg. (1848) I. 50. Qco. Arrah! run for 
the priest, BARRINGTON S/Wcfe (1827-32) I. ii. s.Ir. Arrah ! what 
souls, sir? CROKER Leg. (1862) 202. Wxf. Arrah, Puekawn, me 
boy, KENNEDY Evenings Duffrey (1869) 57. Tip. ' Arrah, sweet 
myself! ' said a youth after making a good hit at cricket, as he 
thought, unheard (G.M.H.). Cor. 1 

ARRALS, sb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Also written 
arles Wm. w.Yks. [a'ralz, alz.] Pimples ; a rash or 
eruption on the skin ; esp. applied to ringworm. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Cum. HOLLOWAY. Wm. He has the arles 
on his hand, copperas will poison it. The complaint is frequently 
met with in the North, and is probably due to the work of tending 
cattle (B.K.); Wm. 1 Used in Ambleside for nettle-rash, and in 
Appleby for any kind of ringworm, perhaps especially that which 
appears in young cattle. w.Yks.(B.K.) ; WILLANZ.IS* Wds. (1811) ; 
HUTTON Tour to Caves (1781). ne.Lan. 1 

ARRALS, see Aries. 

ARRAN-AKE, sb. Sc. The red-throated Diver, Cofym- 
bus septentnonalis. 

Dmb. SWAINSON Birds (1885^ 214. 

ARRAND, see Arain. 

ARRANT, adj. Dur. Wm. Yks. Lan. Der. [a'rant.] 

1. Downright, usually in a bad sense. 

Dur. 1 Arrantest. Wm. Thae wer arrant lagets and tastrils, 
CLARKE Spec. Dial. (1865) 15. n.Yks. She wor t'arrantest scahd, 
Broad Yks. (1885) ai. w.Yks. Her sister gat wed to an arrant 
neer-due-weel, PRESTON in Yksman. (1881) 122. Lan. Arron owd 
lant. TIM BOBBIN Turn, and Meaty (1740) 16; Lan. 1 He'sanarran' 
thief, and as big a rogue. e.Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 

2. Comp. Arrand-poison, -smittle, exceedingly poison- 
ous, or infectious. 

w.Yks. 3 It is foolish to let the children go there, for it is arrand- 
smittle. Common in w.Yks. 

Hence Arrantly, entirely, thoroughly. 

Lan. 1 1're arronly moydert, TIM BOBBIN Wks. (1750) 58. 

[The moon's an arrant thief, SHAKS. Timon, iv. iii. 440 ; 
We are arrant knaves, all, ib. Hamlet, in. i. 131 ; A errant 
traytoure, FABYAN, v. Ixxx. 58 (N.E.D.). The orig. mg. of 
the word was wandering, vagabond. Fr. errant (cp. juif 
errant), prp. of errer, see HATZFELD.] 

ARRA WIGGLE, see Erriwiggle. 

ARREARAGE, sb. Sc. Lin. Arrears of payment. 

Sc. Ah ! these arrearages ! . . . that are always promised, and 
always go for nothing ! Scorr Leg. Montr. (1830) vi. n-Lin. 1 He's 
gotten fower years arrearages o' his highwaay raate on, an' I can't 
get noa sattlement. 

[Arrierage, an arrearage, . . . that which was unpaid, or 
behind, COTGR. ; An arrerage, erreragia, Cath. Angl.} 

ARREDGE, see Arris. 

ARRIMAN, sb. Shr. [a'riman.] The newt, Triton 

Shr. 1 

ARRIS, sb. Sc. n.Irel. and all the n. counties to Chs. 
Der. Lin. ; also in War. and Hmp. and in tech. use. Also, 
with various forms, arras, arress Sc. ; arish Dur. ; orris 
Chs 1 s-Chs. 1 nw.Der. 1 ; horris nw.Der. 1 ; arrage Nhb. 1 ; 
arridge Cum. 1 Wm. 1 n.Yks. 12 ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. w.Yks. 12 
ne.Lan. 1 n.Lin. 1 ; arredge Wm. w.Yks. ; harridge e.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. ; adidge Yks. ; awrige (JAM.), [a-ris, a-rij, a'ridg, 




The angular edge of a block of stone, wood, &c. ; hence, 
the edge of anything. 

Sc. The rebbets [jambs] of that window would hae look't better 
gin the mason had ta'en off the arras (JAM.), w. and s.Sc. The tips 
of the little ridges laid by the plough are called the awrige of the 
field (.). Ir. The arris of a dyke, or of a furrow (J.W. ff.). 
N.I. 1 Arris, the sharp edge of a freshly-planed piece of wood, or 
of cement, or stone-work. Nhb. 1 Arrage, a sharp point or corner, 
Mining Gl. (1852). Dur. ATKINSON Clevel. Gl, Cum. T'toon 
geaat was oa peaavt wih wood peaavin steaans ... an t'arridges 
was haggt off, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 93 ; Cum. 1 Arridge, an 
angular edge, arris in architecture. Wm. Guide to the Lakes (1780) 
288 ; Wm. 1 Et left an arridge reel alang. n.Yks. Arridge, the cut 
edge of cloth in distinction from the selvedge or woven edge (J.T.) ; 
n.Yks. 1 Arridge, the edge or selvedge of a piece of cloth or cotton ; 
n.Yks. 2 Arridges, the edges or ridges of stone or furniture. 
ne.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. A ' sharp arridge ' on a horse-shoe is 
the projection in front to enable the horse to keep on his feet 
when drawing, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865) ; ' Tak th' arredge off 
this stone ; you need not polish it quite smooth ; only tak th' 
arredge off it.' A knife, not smooth-edged, is said to have an 
arredge, Hlfx. Wds. ; w.Yks. 1 This staan tacks a fine arridge ; 
w.Yks. 2 Harris, a swage or bevel at the back of a razor-blade. 
It also means roughness. ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 A joiner who planes 
off the angles of a square pole to make it octagon is said to 
' take off the orris.' s.Chs. 1 When a furrow is made too flat, it 
is said ' there's noo orris on it' nw.Der. 1 Th' orris is welly worn 
off. n-Lin. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Hmp. 1 I'd better take the arris off 
ut [i.e. a piece of stone, &c.]. Tech. Arris, in joinery and masonry, 
the line of concourse, edge, or meeting of two surfaces, WEALE 
Did. Terms (1873). 

[Fr. areste (mod. arete), cp. COTGR. : Areste, the small 
bone of a fish ; also, the eyle, awne, or beard of an ear of 
corn ; also, the edge or outstanding ridge of a stone, or 
stone-wall. The forms arridge, arredge, &c., may be due 
to a popular association with ridge, edge.] 

ARRIS, v. Yks. Lan. Chs. War. [a-ridg, Chs. a-ris.] 
To take or plane off the arris, to make flat. 

e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 2 , ne-Lan. 1 Chs. 1 'John, orris them jeists.' 
War. (J.R.W.) 

ARRISH, sb. e.Yks. Also Ken. Sur. Sus. Hmp. I.W. 
Dor. Som. Dev. Cor. Also written aish Hmp. 1 ; arish 
Dev. Cor. 1 ; ash Sur. 1 I.W. 1 ; airish Dev. ; errish Som. 
Dev. Cor. 12 ; ersh(e Ken. 12 Sus. Hmp. 1 Dev.; hayrish 
Cor. 1 ; herrish Som. See also Eddish, [a f, aTif, Sur. a f, 
e.Yks. a-rij (a'varij?).] 

1. A stubble field ; stubble of any kind after the crop has 
been cut. 

e.Yks. He's tentin' pigs i' averish. Near Beverley they would 
say ' Ah've a bit o' arrish Ah sail ton them few geese inti ' (R.S.) ; 
e.Yks. 1 Haverish. Ken. 12 s.Sur. Farmers would leave one 
shock of corn in the harvest field ; as long as it stood no outsiders 
might enter, but on its removal the field was called ' ersh ' and 
any one might lease, the corn gathered being called ' leasing grist ' 
(T.T.C.) ; Sur. 1 Ash is not so commonly used as ' gratten.' Sus. 
Ersh, stubble ; applied also to the after-mowings of grass, GROSE 
(1790) MS. add. (P.) ; Sus. 1 A wheat earsh ; a barley earsh. Hmp. 
Wheat or oat aish, GROSE (1790); Earsh, HOLLOWAY ; Hmp. 1 
I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 Bwoy, drave the cows out into the wheat ash. Dor. 
Errish, N. & Q. (1883) 6th S. vii. 366 ; Now obs. (H.J.M.) Som. 
W. & J. Gl. ; [Pheasants] wander . . . especially towards barley and 
barley stubble, called barley harrish in Red Deer land, JEFFERIES 
Red Deer (1884) x. w.Som. 1 Bee'un, woet, tloa'vur uureesh 
[bean, oat, clover stubble]. Not applied to any grass except clover, 
and then only when the clover has been mown for seed, so as to 
leave a real stubble. Purty arternoon farmer, sure 'nough why , he 
'ant a ploughed his arrishes not eet Auctioneers and other 
genteel people usually write this ' eddish.' Dev. Amongst the 
harrishes in September, O'NEILL Told in Dimpses (1893) 151 ; 
The geese . . . found their own way in the golden earidges, ib. Idylls 
1,1892) 97 ; To bid the skylark o'er the arrish roam, CAPERN Poems 
(1856) 72; They've agived tha chillern holiday tii-day, to go 
leasing upen Squire Poland's arrishes, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 
96 ; The fezens be out in tha errishes feeding ; there'll be rare 
gilde sport vur squire in October, ib. 76. n.Dev. We've . . . torned 
pegs ta arish, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) 3. Dev. 1 , nw.Dev. 1 Cor. 
An old rhyme in reference to the clergy of the past generation 
begins : ' Here comes the passon of Philleigh Parish, He's got 
his rake to rake his arish,' Dy. Chron. (June 18, 1895) 3, col. 6 ; 
farmers are very busy ploughing the arishes by this time, Mark 

Lane Express (Feb. 2, 1880 . w.Cor. When I took en aw was in 
barley arish, THOMAS Randigal Rhymes (1895) 6 ; Cor. 1 Turn them 
into the arishes ; Cor. 2 

2. Comp. (i) Arrish-field, a stubble field ; (2) -goose, one 
fed in stubble fields ; (3) -mow, a small rick of corn set 
up in a field from which the crop has been cut ; (4) -rake, 
(5) -turnip, see below. 

(i) Cor. Ricks of corn left to stand in the ' arrish fields,' Flk-Lore 
Jrn. (1886) IV. 248; Cor. 1 (2) Dev. Arrish geese feed into plump 
condition for Michaelmas by picking up, from between the stubble, 
the corns which fell from the ears during reaping and sheaving, 
./V. &Q. (1851) ist S. iii. 252. Cor. 12 (3) w.Som. 1 In a showery 
harvest the plan is often adopted of making a number of small 
stacks on the spot, so that the imperfectly dried corn may not be 
in sufficient bulk to cause heating, while at the same time the air 
may circulate and improve the condition of the grain. Called 
also wind-mow. Dev. Arrish-mows, [or] field stacklets. The 
arrangement of the sheaves of corn as a square pyramid, during 
a wet harvest, MARSHALL Rut: Econ. (1796) ; One of the most 
remarkable singularities of harvest in the West, is the ' arish-mow,' 
MOORE Hist. Dev. (1829) I. 299 ; Dev. 1 Cor. Arrish-mows, from 
their different shapes, are also [called] ' hummel-mows ' and 
' ped-rack-mows,' Flk-Lore Jrn. (1886) IV. 248 ; Arish-mow, 200 
sheaves in a circular rick, MORTON Cycl. Agric. (1863) ; They were 
building up the ' arish mows,' where the difficulty of carting away 
the harvest had yet to be faced and overcome, PEARCE Esther 
Pentreath (1891) bk. n. vi ; Cor. 1 2 (4) w.Som. 1 Errish rake, a very 
large and peculiarly shaped rake, used for gathering up the stray corn 
missed by the binders ; now nearly supplanted by the horse-rake. 
Dev. 1 , nw-Dev. 1 (5) w.Som. 1 Errish-turnips, a late crop of turnips 
sown after the corn has been taken. After an early harvest good 
crops of roots are frequently grown. Aay aa'n u zee'd noa jis 
wai-t uureesh tuurmuts, naut-s yuurz [I have not seen any such 
wheat errish turnips not's (these) years] (s. v. Es). 

Hence Arrishers, the second set of gleaners. 

Dor. It is customary, after carrying a field of corn, to leave 
behind a sheaf, to intimate that the families of those who reaped 
the field are to have the first lease. After these have finished, the 
sheaf is removed, and harissers are admitted, ./V. & Q. (1850) 
ist S. ii. 376. 

[Ersh, stubble, KERSEY ; Ersk, stubble after corn is cut, 
BAILEY (1721). OE. ersc (in ersc-hen), a stubble field.] 

ARRIVANCE, sb. Shr. Ken. [arai'vans.] 

1. Origin, birthplace. 

Ken. A guardian of the poor informs me it is often used to signify 
settlement by birth (P.M.) ; I say, mate, which parish do you belong 
to ? I can't justly say, but father's arrivance was fram Shepherd's- 
well [Sibbertswold], WRIGHT ; Ken. 1 He lives in Faversham town 
now, but he's a low-hill [below-hill] man by arrivance. 

2. Arrival, arrival of company. 

Shr. ' There has been an arrivance,' said occasionally when a baby 
is born or company comes unexpectedly (J.B.) ; Shr. 1 I spec' 
they'n be wantin' yo', Betty, to 'elp 'em a bit at the owd Maister's, 
I sid an arrivance theer as I wuz gwei'n to 'unt some barm. 

ARROW, see Argh, Yarrow. 

ARROWLEDE, sb. Yks. [aTalld.] 

n.Yks. 2 Arrowlede, the path of the shot arrow. 

ARROW-ROOT, sb. Dor. Arum tnaculatum. 

Dor. The starch prepared from its tubers is known in I. of Port- 
land as ' Portland Arrow-root,' from its resemblance to the arrow- 
root of commerce. 

ARROY, sb. Pern, [aroi 1 .] Disorder, confusion ; also 
used with an advb. force. 

s.Pem. One pickt upon t'other, an things went oorser and oorser 
my dear man ! there was an arroy. They be in a big arroy there 
[a confusion in a crowded meeting]. These 'ere bags be shifted 
since I put am 'ere, they be all arroy naw (W.M.M.). 

ARSCOCKLE, see Esscock QAM.). 

ARSE, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. 
Der. Lin. War. Wor. e.An. Hit. Ess. Ken. Hmp. Som. 
Dev. Also written ass Ken. Som. ; erse Sc. ; yess Dev. 
[ers, ars, as.] 

1. The buttocks, fundament of a person, rump of an 
animal ; hence, the bottom or hinder part of anything, as 
a sheaf, cart, &c. 

Sc. A sack-arse, the bottom of a sack QAM.) ; The erse of the 
plough or the plough-erse (ib. Suppl.}. n.Cy. Have one of these 
pears they are all ripe ; I have just been pinching their arses 
(C.G.B.). Nhb. Set the poke down on its arse. Cairt-arse. The 




Cat's Arse, the name of a small bay on the shore of the river Tyne 
(R.O.H.). Yks. Ahse(W.H-). ne.Yks. 1 T'shaff arses is as wet 
as sump. Stop, mun ; t'cart arse has tumml'd oot. e.Yks. To 
set nine of the sheaves with their arses downe to the grounde, 
BEST Rur. Econ. (1641) 45; The arse of a cart or a plough, 
NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 50. nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. 1 Billy Ration puts 
o'must as many heads in his sheaf arses as he duz e' th' top end. 
War. 3 Arse, the tail of a cart ; also applied to shocks on which 
' caps ' are placed, i.e. covered by two sheaves with the straw end 
upwards. Wor. Go round totheerseof the mill (E.S.) ; se.Wor. 1 
Arse of a waggon. Hrt. The arse or tail of the plough, ELLIS Mod. 
Hush. (17501 II. i. 44. e.An. 2 Arse, part of atree, opp. to the Tod. 
Suf. The arse of a tree is the rough root-end after the roots have 
been chopped off (F.H.). Ess. Cast dust in his [a sheep's] arse, 
thou hast finisht thy cure, TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) in, St. 4. 
Ken. The ass, the butt-end of a sheaf (P.M.). Hmp. The arse of 
a door (H.C.M.B.) ; Hmp. 1 The bottom of a post ; the part which 
is fixed in the ground. The upward part of a field gate to which 
the eyes of the hinge are fixed. w.Som. 1 Puut'n uup pun dh-aas 
u dhu wageen. The ass of the sull. The ass of the waterwheel. 
The ass of the barn's door. 

2. Phr. (i) arse over head, head over heels, topsy-turvy ; 

(2) to go arse first, to have bad luck ; (3) to hang an arse, 
to hang back, be cowardly. 

(i)w.Som. l A timid old workman said of a rickety scaffold : I baint 
gwain up pon thick there till-trap vor to tread pon nothin, and vail 
down ass over head. What's the matter, William ? Brokt my 
arm, sir. Up loadin hay, and the darned old mare, that ever I 
should zayso, muv'd on, and down I vails ass over head. (2) Wm. 
I've always gone arce first. A confession of one who failed in life 
through his own habits (B. K.). (3) n.Lin. To hang an arse ; lobsol., 
but used by a native of the Isle of Axholme who died in or about 
1826 (E.P.) ; nXin. 1 

3. Comp. (i) Arse-band,the crupper 5(2) -bawst (-burst); 

(3) -board ; (4) -bond ; (5) -breed (-breadth), the breadth 
of an arse, i.e. of contemptibly small extent ; (6) -end, the 
bottom or tail-end of a tree, the butt; alsoyjg-. ; (7) -end- 
up; (8) -first; (9) -jump; (10) -loop; (n) -up; (12) -up- 

(i) nXln.i (2) Stf. 1 Ars-bawst, a fall on the back. (3) Sc. Arse- 
burd of a cart, the board which goes behind and shuts it in (JAM.). 
Cum. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 , Stf. 1 2 , nw.Der. 1 , n-Lin. 1 War. Ars- 
boord (J.R.W.). (4) s.Chs. 1 Arse-bond, a strong piece of oak 
forming the hinder extremity of the foundation or bed of a cart. 
(5) Cum. 1 His heall land's nobbet a arse-breed. (6) n.Yks. 1 Pick 
thae stocks adoon, and let t'arsends o' t'shaffs lig i' t'sun a bit 
Chs. 1 The ars-eend of a ' later ' is the end by which it is attached 
to the stalk or thread. s.Chs. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Suf. A house, 
barn, hamlet, &c. , if in a very sequestered spot, is said to be at the 
arse-end of the world (F.H.) ; A labourer never speaks of the ' butt' 
of a tree, but always of the 'arse-end.' The arse-end of a cannon 
gave nomore offence than breech doesnow(C.G.B-). (7) Nhb. Arse- 
end-up, upside down. (8) Arse-first, backside foremost (R.O. H.). 
(9) n.Lan. It was the custom in the Furness district in harvest 
time to place on the breakfast table a little round of butter, about 
a quarter of a pound in weight, to each person. It was a difficult 
matter for those unused to this luxury to take it. If however 
any man or boy failed to eat his share he was taken by the arms 
and legs, and the lower part of his body was banged against 
a wall. This was called arse-jumping (J.A.). (10) Nhb. 1 Arse- 
loop, a seat or wide loop in a rope or chain in which a man is 
slung when repairing or working in a pit-shaft, (n) e.An. 1 Ass- 
upping, hand-hoeing, to turn the docks and thistles end upwards, or 
to cause the posterior to be the superior part of the body whilst 
stooping in the act of hoeing. (12) Nhb. Arse-upwards, upside 
down (R.O.H.). Snf. ' Arse-uppards ' is a usual term for many 
things lying bottom up (C.G.B.). 

[An Arse, podex, anus, LEVINS Manip. ; Ars or arce, 
anus, culus, podex, Prompt. CHAUCER has the form ers, 
C. T. A. 3755. OE. ears; cp. G. arsch.} 

ARSE, v. Sc. Lin. 

1. To kick upon the seat. 

n.Lin. 1 If thoo cums here agean loongin' aboot, I'll arse th wi' 
my foot. 

2. To move backwards, to push back ; cf. arsle, 1 ; fig. 
to balk, defeat. 

Abd. Arse back yer horse a little. I was completely arsed 
(G.W.). Gall. Arset (JAM. Suppl.}. 
Hence Arsing, vbl. sb. Shuffling, evading. 
Abd. Nane of that arsin" noo 'G.W.\ 

3. To back out of fulfilling a promise, &c., to shuffle ; cf. 
arsle, 2. 

Abd. He arsed a bit. I heard he meant to arse oot o' his promises 

ARSE-FOOT, sb. Obs. Colloq. (i) The great crested 
Grebe, Podiceps cristatus ; (2) the little Grebe, Tachybaptes 
fluviatilis ; so called from the backward position of the legs. 

SWAINSON Birds (1885) 215, 6. 

ARSELING(S,arfv. Sc.e.An. [e'rslins, a-slins.] Back- 
wards, also attrib. 

Abd. Sik a dird As laid him arselins on his back, FORBES Ajax 
(17431 9. Per. We always use (not arset, but) arselins (G.W.). 
Cld. (JAM.) Rxb. Arselins coup, the act of falling backwards on the 
hams ('*.). e.An.' Nrf. Trans. Phil. Soc. (1858)146. Suf.Arseling 

[Arse + -ling (-s). OE. earsling: Syn hi gecyrde on 
earsling ( = avertantur retrorsum,) Ps. xxxiv. 5 (c. 1000). 
Cp. Du. aarzeling (-s), G. drschling (-s) ; see DE VRIES.] 

ARSERD, ARSEUD, see Arseward. 

ARSESMART, sb. Also written ass-smart. A plant- 
name applied to (i) Pofygonum amphibium (Hrt.) ; (2) P, 
hydropiper (Cum. Chs. Lm. War. I.W. Wil. Som. Dev.) ; 
(3) f- persicaria (Lin. Wil.) ; (4) Pyrethrum parthenium, 
or fever-few (w.Yks.). 

(i) Hrt. Arsmart, ELLIS Mod. flush. (1750) III. i. 47. (2) Cum. 1 
Arse-smart, the pepperwort. Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 Also called Knot-grass, 
Lake-weed. n.Lin. 1 , War. (J.R.W.), I.W. 1 , Wil. 1 w.Som. 1 
Aa 'smart, water-pepper. Dev. 4 ; nw.Dev. 1 Yes-smert (3) nXin. 1 , 
Wil. 1 

6(2) Curage (Outrage), the herb water-pepper, arse smart, 
ridge or culerage, COTGR. ; Arse-smart, or water- 
pepper, an herb, KERSEY ; Arsmart, Hydropiper, GERARDE, 
445- (3) Arsesmart, Persicaria, COLES (1679) ; Dead or 
spotted arsmart, Persicaria maculosa GERARDE, 445.] 

ARSE- VERSE, sb. Obs. or obsol. Sc. Yks. A spell 
written on the side of a house to ward off fire. 

s.Sc. Known by old persons some years ago (G.W.M.). Rxb. 
Arse'-verse', most probably borrowed from England (JAM.). w.Yks. 
Aase-verse, a spell on a house to avert fire or witchcraft, Yks. N. 
&Q. (1888) II. 13. 

[Arse-verse, a spell written on an house to prevent it 
from burning, BAILEY (1721). Arse, fr. Lat. ars-, pp. stem 
of ardere, to burn ; cp. Fr. arson, arson, wilful burning.] 

ARSEWARD(S, adv. and adj. Cum. Yks. Der. Lin. 
War. Wor. Also in Dev. Also written arserd w.Yks. 1 ; 
ars'erd, ars' erds n.Lin. 1 ; assud War. 2 se.Wor. 1 ; arseud 
se.Wor. 1 ; ass'ard Dev. ;_ arset Sc. nw.Der. 1 ; arsed, 
arsard nw.Der. 1 [a-sad, a'sadz.] 

1. adv. Backwards ; hind-before. 

Cum. GROSE (1790) ; Brekbackan a ewards hurry, STAGG Misc. 
Poems (1805) Bridewain ; Cum. 1 An early Methodist preacher in 
Workington used to enlighten his hearers with ' Aa wad as seiin 
expect a swine to gang arsewurts up a tree and whissle like a 
throssle, as a rich man git to heaven.' n.Yks. 1 m.Yks. A cask 
or other package in the forepart of a cart, required to be moved 
to the afterpart, would be said to be moved arseward, as that latter 
part is termed the ' cart arse.' A horse is said to come arseward 
when it backs (G.W.W.). w.Yks. 1 His skaddle tit ran arser'd 
'geeant mistow nookin [against the corner of the cow-house], ii. 
303. Der. The landlord put him out arsuds first (H.R.). n-Lin. 1 
Go ars'erds, cousin Edward, go ars'erds. Dev. At Okehampton 
Station a horse was rather frightened at entering a horse-box ; a 
porter who was assisting said, ' You 'ont get'n in, I tell 'ee, vore 
you've a-turn un roun' and a-shut'n in ass'ard.' Joe, I zim you 
d'an'le things all ass'ard-like, jis the very same's off all your vingers 
was thumbs, Reports Provinc. (1889). 

2. adj. Perverse, obstinate ; unwilling. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb; Sae take some pity on your love And do not still 
so arseward prove, STUART^ Joco-Serious Discourse ( 1686 130. Now 
probably obs. (R.O.H.) n.Yks. 2 Der. Don't be arseward (H.R.). 
nw.Der. 1 , se.Wor. 1 

3. Comp. Arseward-backwards, hind-before ; also attrib. 
War. 2 He went out assud-backuds. That's an assud-backuds 

form o' diggin' taters. se.Wor. 1 

[Rebours, a rebours, arseward, backward, COTGR. ; Bot 
if je taken as se usen arseworde this gospel, Pol. Poems 
(Rolls Ser.) II. 64. Arse + -ward.] 

AR-SHORN, see Hare-shorn. 




ARSLE, v. Cum. Yks. Lan. Also in e.An. [a'sl.] 

1. To move backwards. 

Cum. (E.W.P.1 e.An. 2 He [a timid boxer] kept arseling back- 
wards, and durst not meet his man. Nrf. 1 

2. To move when in a sitting posture ; hence, to shuffle, 
fidget ; alsoyfj-. 

n.Yks. 2 They arsl'd out on't [they backed out], n Lan. l e.An. 1 
Come, arsle up there. Nrf. 1 Suf. To keep arseling about (F.H.). 

[MDu. erselen (arselen), Du. aarzelen, to move backward 

ARSLING-POLE, sb. e.An. [S'slin-pol.] 

Nrf. 1 Arseling-pole, the pole bakers use to spread the hot embers 
to all parts of the oven. 

[From arsle, vb., to move backwards, used in trans, 

ARSY-VERSY, adv., adj. and sb. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Chs. 

Stf. Der. Lin. Lei. War. e.An. Also in Som. Dev. Also 

written arsey-warsey N.Cy. 1 ; arsy-farcy w. Yks. 3 e.An. 1 ; 

arse-versy Lin. SKINNER ; and freq. arsy-varsy. 

L adv. Upside-down, head over heels ; fig. in confusion. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. (R.O.H.), n.Yks. 12 , ne.Yks.', 
e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 Lan. Deawn coom I arsy-varsy intoth wetur, 
TIM BOBBIN Turn, and Meary (1740) 21. Chs. 12 , Stf. 1 Der. Down 
came Tit, and away tumbled she arsy-varsy, RAY Prov. (1678) 225. 
ed. 1860. Der. 12 , nw.Der. 1 , n-Lln. 1 , Lei. 1 , War. 12 , e.An/ w.Som. 1 
Hon I com'd along, there was th' old cart a-turned arsy-varsy right 
into the ditch, an' the poor old mare right 'pon her back way, her 
legs up'n in [up on end]. Dev. 3 Ivvery theng es arsyvarsy. 

2. adj. Fanciful, preposterous ; contrary, disobedient. 
w.Yks. 3 Of a woman dressed peculiarly, ' Sho dresses in an 

arsy-farcy way.' To a disobedient child, ' Tha a't varry arsy- 

3. sb. Deceit, flattery. 

n.Yks. Old wives have a lot of arsy-farsy about them, saying 'at 
t'bairn is so like its father (I.W.) ; (R.H.H.) 

[Stand to 't, quoth she, or yield to mercy, It is not 
fighting arsie-versie Shall serve thy turn, BUTLER Hudi- 
bras, i. iii. 827 ; Cul sur pointe, topsie-turvy, arsie-varsie, 
upside down, COTGR. A rhyming comp. from arse + Lat. 
versus, pp. ofvertere, to turn.] 

ART, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Also 
written airt Sc. Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Cum. Yks. ; airth, aith 
Sc. e.Yks. ; ete Wxf. 1 [ert, eart] 

1. The quarter of the heavens, point of the compass ; 
esp. of the direction of the wind. 

Abd. That gate I'll hald, gin I the airths can keep, Ross Helenore 
(1768) 59, ed. 1812. Fif.Thewind isaffadryairt, ROBERTSON Provost 
(1894) 19. Ayr. Of a' the airts the wind can blaw, I dearly like the 
west, BURNS Jean 1^1788) ; My plaidie to the angry airt, I'd shelter 
thee, it. Cauld Blast. Lnk. [Trees that] stand single Beneath ilk 
storm, frae every airth, maun bow, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. (.1725)37, 
ed. 1783. Slk. Let them blawa' at ance fraea' the airts, CHR. NORTH 
Nodes Ambros. (1856) III. 3. Gall. Frae every airt the wind can 
steer, NICHOLSON Hist, and Trad. Tales (1843) 235. NJ. 1 What 
art is the win in the day ? Down. The wind's in a thawy art 
(C.H.W.). Wxf. 1 What ete does the wind blow from! Nhb. 1 
What airt's the wind in thi day ? Dur. 1 Cum. T'wind's cauld this 
spring whativer art it blaws fra (E.W.P.) ; T'wind's iv a bad art, 
I doubt we'll hae rain (M.P.). Yks. The wind is in a cold airt 
(K.). n.Yks. 2 The wind's frev an easterly airt. ne.Yks. 1 T'wind's 
gotten intiv a cau'd airt. e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788 . 

2. A direction, way ; locality, district. 

Sc. She so speers and backspeers me ... that I darena look the 
airt a single woman's on, WHITEHEAD DaftDavie (1876) 130. Ayr. 
If that he want the yellow dirt, Ye'll cast your head anither airt, 
BURNS Tibbie. Lth. He'll never look the airt ye're on, STRATHESK 
More Bits 1885) 249. e.Lth. Just you pit the maitter fair afore them, 
an' showthem the richt airt, HUNTER J. Intvick 1,1895) 22. Dmf. Fowk 
stoiter'd frae a' airths bedeen, MAYNE Siller Gun (1808) 70. N.I. 1 
It's a bare art o' the country. n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) ; 
N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Wooers cam' frae ilka airt, RICHARDSON Borderer's 
Table-bk. (1846) VIII. 161 ; Nhb. 1 What airt ar' ye gan thi day ? 
A stranger who cannot very well comprehend the country people 
when directing him what airts to observe, will be very liable to 
lose his road, OLIVER Rambles (.1835) 9. Cum. Frae ivry art the 
young fwolk droove, STAGG Misc. Poems (1805) 119. Wm. Bet 
theear wes leets frae beeath arts, Spec. Dial. (,1885) 8. n.Yks. 1 

Did ye hear t'guns at Hartlepool, John ? Ay, I heerd a strange 
lummering noise. I aimed it cam' fra that airt ; n.Yks. 2 They 
come frev a bad airt [place of ill-repute] ; m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 

[Angellis sail passe in the four airtis, LYNDESAY 
Monarche, 5600 (N.E.D.). Gael, aird, a point, also a 
quarter of the compass.] 

ART, v. Sc. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Written airt Sc. Nhb. 1 
n.Yks. 2 ; ert Sc. 

1. Of the wind : to blow from a certain quarter. 

Sc. What course ships or boats' would take . . . would depend 
upon the mode by which their progress was actuated . . . and as 
the wind was airted, STATE Eraser of Fraserfield (1805) 192. Bnff. 1 
The ween's gain' t'airt frae the east. 

2. To incite, egg on. 

Lan. He arted me on or I shouldn't have done it (S.W.\ 

3. To point put the way to any place ; to direct ; to turn 
in a certain direction. 

Sc. I may think of airting them your way, SCOTT Redg. (1824 
xiii ; To permit me to keep sight of my ain duty, or to airt you to 
yours, it. Midlothian (,1818 )xviii ; He erted Colin down the brae, 
DAVIDSON Seasons (1789) 51 ; Lay them open, an' airt them east 
an' west (JAM. Sttppt.). Bnff. 1 See, lads, it ye airt the stocks richt. 
Rnf. Ah, gentle lady, airt my way, TANNAHILL Poems (1807) 147. 
Ayr. An' her kind stars hae airted till her A good chiel wi' a pickle 
siller, BURNS Lett, to J. Tennant ; But yon green graff now, Luckie 
Laing, Wad airt me to my treasure, ib. Lass of Ecclefechan. e.Lth. 
What a skill he had o' liftin' ye aff your feet an' airtin' ye roun' frae 
north to sooth afore ye kent whaur ye were, HUNTER J. Inwick 
(1895) 118. n.Yks. 2 Sic mak o' luck was nivver airted mah geeat. 

4. To tend towards, aim at. 

Sc. He's dune weel, an's airtin to the en" o' his wark. I airtit 
hard to get awa wi' the laird (JAM. Suppl.). n.Yks. 2 What's thoo 
airting at 
6. To find out, discover. 

Rxb. I airted him out (JAM.). Nhb. 1 I'll airt it oot. 

ARTAN, vbl. sb. Sc. fe'rtan.] Direction ; placing 
towards a certain quarter of the heavens. 

Bnff. Hoot-toot, ye gummeril, the airtan o' the stocks is a' 
vrang. Set them aye t' tual o'clock (^W.G.) ; Bnff. 1 

[Vbl. sb. otarf, vb.] 

ART AND PART, phr. Sc. Irel. Dur. (i) As obj. of 
v. : share, portion. (2) To be, become, art or part in, with, 
to be concerned in, be accessory to. 

(i) NJ. 1 I had neither art nor part in the affair. Ant. I know 
neither art nor part of it, GROSE (1790 MS. add. (C.) (a) Sc. 
Whan thou sawist ane reyffar, than thou becamist airt an part wi' 
him, RIDDELL Ps. (1857) 1. 18. Gall. For aught I know they may 
be art and part in supplying undutied stuff to various law-breaking, 
king-contemning grocers, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) v. Wxf. I'll 
be neither art nor part in their doings, KENNEDY Banks Bow (1867) 
295. Dur. 1 

[(i) The old man which is corrupt . . . who had art 
and part ... in all our Bishops' persecutions, RACKET 
Abp. Williams (c. 1670) II. 86 (N.E.D.). (2) Gif evir I wes 
othir art or part of Alarudis slauchter, BELLENDEN Crott. 
Scot. (1536) xn. viii (JAM.). The jingling phr. art and part 
arose fr. such an expression as ' to be concerned in either 
by art or part' (by contrivance or participation).] 

ARTFUL, adj. e.An. [a'tful.] Clever, intelligent. 

e.An. 1 Of our Lord in His mother's arms : ' How artful He do 
look.' Suf. (F.H.) Ess. I have a strong impression that I have 
heard a cottager say of her little boy : ' Yes, he's an artful little 
fellow for his age ' ^A.S.P.). 

ARTH, see Argh. 

ARTICLE, sb. Yks. Der. Lin. Lei. Nhp. War. e.An. 
Sus. Hmp. Som. |a-tikl.| A term of contempt for an 
inferior or worthless person or thing. 

n.Yks. He's a bare article (,I.W.). w.Yks. He's a bonny article 
[spoken of a person exhibiting eccentricities of conduct of any kind] 
(J.R.). nw.Der. 1 nXin. 1 He's a sore article to be a parson ; 
he's nobud fit to eat pie oot o' th' road an' scar bo'ds fra berry- 
trees. Lei. 1 A's a noist airticle, a is ! Nhp. 1 A pretty article he 
is ! War. 23 , e-An. 1 e.An. 2 He is a poor article. Sus., Hmp. 
Generally used with the adjunct ' poor.' That is a poor article, 
HOLLOWAY. w.Som. 1 More commonly used of things. Of a bad 
tool a man would say : Dhush yuurz u purtee haartikul shoa-ur 
nuuf [this is a pretty article sure enough]. 

[The contemptuous use of the word is due to its 




common use in trade for an item of commodity, as in the 
phr. ' What's the next article ?' of the mod. shopkeeper.] 
ARTIFICIAL, adj. Lei. Som. [atifi-Jl.] 

1. Used as sb. Artificial or chemical manure of any kind. 
w.Sora. 1 Tidn a bit same's use to, way farmerin, they be come 

now vor to use such a sight o' this here hartificial. Darn'd if I 
don't think the ground's a-pwoisoned way ut. We never didn 
hear nort about no cattle plaayg nor neet no voot-an-mouth avore 
they brought over such a lot o' this here hartificial Goa'an-ur 
[Guano] or hot ee caal ut. 

2. Artistic ; having the appearance of being produced 
by art. 

Lei. 1 The word artificial is rather eulogistic. 

[2. Artificial, elaborates, technicus, affabre facias, COLES 
(1670) ; Artificial, artful, done according to the rules of 
art, BAILEY (1770).] 

ARTISHREW, see Harvest-row. 

ARTIST, v. Sur. [a'tist] To paint. 

Sur. I never could artist a bit mysen, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) 
I. xiii. 

Hence Artisting, vbl. sb. 

Sur. 1 dunno' approve o' this artistin' . . . it's only another naSme 
for idling abouilt, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) I. xiii. 

[From lit. E. artist, sb. a painter.] 

ARVAL, sb. Sc. Cum. Win. Yks. Lan. Obsol. Also 
written arfal KENNETT; arvel N.Cy. 1 w.Yks. 14 ; arvil(l 
n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. m.Yks. 1 ; averill n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 

1. A funeral repast, usually consisting of bread or cakes 
with ale. Also applied to funeral ceremonies in general. 

Rxb. Arval, arvil-supper, the name given to the supper or enter- 
tainment after a funeral (JAM.). n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 1 , 
Cnm. 12 Wm. 1 Is ta ter be arvel at t' funeral? The custom is still 
observed. n.Yks. Come bring my jerkin, Tibb ; He to'th arvill, 
MERITON Praise Ale (1684) 1. 419 ; n.Yks. 1 The company assembled 
and the bidding is usually for an hour preceding midday the 
hospitalities of the day proceed, and after all have partaken of a 
solid meal, and before the coffin is lifted for removal to the church- 
yard, cake, or biscuits, and wine are handed round by two females 
whose office is specially designated by the term ' servers ' ; n.Yks. 2 
Heard thirty years ago, but now obs. ne.Yks. 1 Obs. w.Yks. HUTTON 
Tour to Caves (1781) ; Now heard only in remote places like the 
Haworth valley (S.P.U.) ; T'avole will be at t'Ling Bob (C.F.) ; 
w.Yks. 14 Lan. After the rites at the grave, the company adjourned 
to a public-house, where they were presented with a cake and 
ale, called an arval, HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 270 ; 
Lan. 1 , ne.Lan.' 

2. Money given to hunters, at the death of a fox, in 
order to buy ale. 

ne.Lan. 1 

3. Comp. Arval-bread, -cake, the bread or cake pre- 
sented to guests at a funeral ; -dinner, -supper, the 
funeral entertainment. 

n.Cy. GROSE Sufpl. (1790) N.Cy. 2 Cum. The Dale Head stores 
of small cake-loaves or arval-bread, and the like, had been generous, 
LINTON Lizzie Lotion (i867)xxix; Cum. 1 Wm.Everypersoninvited 
to a funeral receives a small loaf at the door of the deceased . . . 
the people call it arval-bread, GOUGH Manners (,1847) 23 ; 
Small loaves of fine wheaten bread were distributed amongst the 
persons attending a funeral ; they were expected to eat them at 
home in religious remembrance of their deceased neighbour (J.H.) ; 
Wm. 1 n.Yks. He called them, not funeral biscuits, but averil 
breead, ATKINSON Maori. Parish ^1891) 228 ; n.Yks. 1 Confectioners 
at Whitby still prepare a species of thin, light, sweet cake for such 
occasions ; n.Yks. 2 Averill-breead, funeral loaves, spiced with 
cinnamon, nutmeg, sugar, and raisins. Lan. 1 , n.Lan. 1 Wm. Pre- 
senting each relative and friend of the deceased with an arvel cake, 
Denham Tracts (ed. 1895) II. 55 ; Wm. 1 , m.Yks. 1 n.Lan. The arvel 
cake is still handed round on funeral occasions, N. & Q. (1858) 2nd 
S. vi. 468. Wm. Among the rich, the custom of distributing arvel 
bread gradually yielded to a sumptuous arvel-dinner, Lonsdale 
Mag. 18221 III. 377. ne.Lan. 1 Arval-dinners, given to friends who 
attend a funeral from a distance ; common in Cartmel. n.Cy. 
Arvill-supper, a feast made at funerals, GROSE (1790) ; (,K.) ; N.Cy. 2 

[Arval, or Arvil, burial or funeral solemnity, hence 
arvil-bread, loaves distributed to the poor at funerals, 
BAILEY (1755). Dan. arve-ol, ON. erfi-6l, a wake, funeral 
feast, comp. of erfi, a funeral feast, and 67, an ' ale,' a ban- 
quet, feast (see Ale). ON. erfi is cogn. with erfd, 

ARVIE, sb. Sh.I. The common chickweed, Stellaria 

Sh. (K.I.), S. & Ork.i 

[Dan. arve, chickweed ; cp. OE. earfe, a tare.] 

AR-WO-HAY, int. Nhb. 

Nhb. 1 Ar-wo-hay, a cartman's term to his horse to steady. 

ARY, see Harry. 

AS, rel. pron. Var. dial, of Eng. Not in Sc. Nhb. 
Cum. n. and e.Yks. (see At) w.Sorrt. Dev. Occas. in Dur. 
Wm. w.Yks., where the usual rel. is at, q.v. [az.] 

1. Used as rel. pron. in all genders, sing, and pi. 

Dur. You mean him as Miss T. is going to marry (A.B.). Wm. 
A par o' shoes as he'd been makkin, Spec. Dial. (1880 pt ii. 33 ; 
Wm. 1 Nowt as I knaa on. w.Yks. Her as ah once hed call'd mi 
queen, BINNS Yksman. Xmas, No. (1888) 23 ; w.Yks. 1 Whea's 
sheep's them, as I sa yusterneet ? Lan. Every lad and every wench 
as went, HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 270. n.Lan. 
I luk't for him as me sowl lovs, PHIZACKERLEY Sng. Sol. (1860) 
iii. i. e.Lan. 1 He as buys stuff as is wanted. Chs. 1 He's the chap 
as did it; s.Chs. 1 Wen-shiz fiz ktin mil-k [wenches as can milk], 
Introd. 70. s.Stf. The mon as did that disappeared, PINNOCK Blk. 
Cy. Ann. (1895) ; Stf. 2 Der. Them two sheep as is in the croft, 
VERNEY Stone Edge (1868) ii. n.Der. Let a mon stick to his station 
as is his station, HALL Hathersage (1896) vii. Lin. Proputty's 
ivrything 'ere . . . fur them as 'as it's the best, TENNYSON N. Farmer, 
New Style (1870) st. n : Lin. 1 ; n.Lin. 1 Whose cauves was them 
as I seed i' Messingham toon streat ? Lei. Itz won az wuz gev 
[given] mi (C.E.1. Nhp. 1 War. Ready to kiss the ground as the 
missis trod on, GEO. ELIOT Amos Barton (1858) vii ; War. 2 A lad 
as could kill a robin 'd doanythink ; War. 3 w.Wor. His butty, as, 
he said, had fettled his osses, S. BEAUCHAMP Grantley Grange 1 18741 
1. 30. Shr. 1 I'm sartin it wuz 'im as I sid comin' out o' the ' George ' ; 
Shr. 2 Those as liken. Hrf. 1 ; Hrf. 2 The man as told me. Glo. 1 In 
gen. use. Oxf. 1 The mummers say, ' Yer comes I as ant bin it [yet], 
Wi' my gret yed, an' little wit [Yuur kuumz uuy uz aa'nt bin it, 
Wi muuy gret yed, un lifl wit]. Brks. 1 It was he as tawld I. 
Bdf. Field's cart as takes Louisa's things to-morrer, WARD B. 
Costrell (1895) 21. e-An. 1 , Hnt. (T.P.F.) Nrf. The song o' songs, 
as is Sorlomun's, GILLETT Sng. Sol. (1860) i. i. Ess. Buie that as 
is needful, thy house to repaire, TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) 57, st. 
47. Sur. They pore crethurs as has to moil, BICKLEY Sur. Hills 
(1890) I. i ; Sur. 1 Som. Doant put a muzzle on tha ox as draishes 
out the corn, 'AGRIKLER' Rhymes (1872) 75; In e.Som. 'as' 
is used for the relative, but in w. we should say 'dhu mae'tin waut 
[what]dued ut,' ELWORTHY Gram. (1877) 41. n.Wil. TeSke us th' 
voxes, th' leetle voxes, as spwiles th' vines, KITE Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) 
ii. 15; Wil. 1 Dor. (H.J.M.) Cor. 3 He's the man as did it (in common 
use). [Amer. Nobody as I ever heard on, BARTLETT.] 

2. As +poss. pron. used for gen. case of rel. 

s.Chs. 1 That's th' chap as his uncle was hanged, Introd. 70. 
Sur. A gentleman from India, as you see his name writ up, 
JENNINGS Field Paths (1884) 22; Sur. 1 That shepherd we had as 
his native were Lewes. 

3. In phr. (i) as ever is; (2) as was (in gen. colloq. use), 
formerly, ne'e ; also used redundantly ; (3) all as is, the 
whole matter, the whole. 

(i) Dor. Last Monday as ever wur (H.J.M.). Dev. 3 I'll come an" 
zee 'e the next Monday as-ivver-is. (2) s.Not. Ahve just seed Miss 
Wright. Miss Wright as was, ah should say Mrs. Smith. Iwor 
coming across Tomkins' orchard as was i J.P.K.). Lin. Only last 
Soondayas was, FENN Cure of Souls (1889) 7. (3) Lei. 1 Oi'll tell 
yer missus on yer, an' that's all as is. War. 2 All as is, is this, I sid 
'im tek th' opple myself. w.Wor. 1 I'll give 'ee ahl-as-is. Shr. 1 
All as is is this ... so now yo' knowen. Wil. 1 

[Nor will he ... wish his mistress were that kind of 
fruit As maids call medlars, SHAKS. R. & J. n. i. 34 ; Those 
as sleep and think not on their sins, ib. Merry w. v. v. 57.] 

AS, adv. In var. dial, uses in n. and midl. counties ; 
also Sc. Irel. e.An. Ken. Sus. Som. [az.] 
L Used redundantly. 

e.Yks. 1 Ah can't think as hoo it's deean, MS. add. (T.H.) w.Yks. 
We stopt wi' Jane Ann as nearly an hahr (^E.B.). Lan. I hope 
as that ye'll nut be vext, HARLAND & WILKINSON Fit-Lore (1867) 
60 ; We hannot had a battle i' this heawse as three year an' moor, 
WAUGH Owd Bodle, 253. Stf. 2 My feyther died as twel' months 
come Monday. nw.Der. 1 Not. It'll be Goose Fair a fortnight as 
yesterday (L.C.M.). nXin. 1 He hesn't been here sin a munth as 
last Bottesworth feast. awXin. 1 A week as last Monday. Nhp. 1 
I expect him as next week. War. 2 I'm gooin' to my uncle's as next 




Sunday. Shr. 1 'E toud me they wun gwei'n theer as nex" Saturday ; 
Shr. 2 Glo. We expected him as yesterday, N. & Q. (1878) 5th S. 
ix. 256. s.Oxf. Wot might you be thinkin' o' doin' about that now ? 
As how? [in what way ?] ROSEMARY Chiitems : 18951 168. Mid. 
Don't you remember me, as how I was squeezed and scrouged 
into your little back room, GROSE Olio (1796) 105-6. e.An. 1 He 
will come as to-morrow. Ken. 1 I reckon you'll find it's as how it 
is. Sus. I can only say as this, I done the best I could, N. (f Q. 
(1878) sth S. xi. 288. w.Som. 1 He promised to doun as to-morrow. 
You zee, sir, 'tis like as this here. 

2. In phr. (i) as how, however; (2) as to, towards, with 
regard to ; (3) as what, as where, whatever, wherever. 

(i) w.Yks. He couldn't find a lass to suit him, as hah he lukt aht, 
HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1887) 40. Lan. I mun do this house up th' 
first, as how, WAUGH Sphinx 1,1870) iii. (2) Ir. How the devil can 
a man be stout as to a man, and afraid of a ghost ? HARRINGTON 
Sketches (1830) I. viii. (3) w.Yks. Decide at yo'll be happy as what 
happens, HARTLEY Clock Alm.( 1888) 4 ; He'z a better breed nerthee 
ony daay, az where he comes thro', ECCLES Leeds Olm. (1879) 23. 

[Before how it is sometimes redundant, but this is in 
low language, BAILEY (1755), s.v. As Whanne thei 
hadden rowid as fyue and twenti furlongis, WYCLIF (1388) 
John\i, 19.] 

3. How. Obs. ? 

Sc. See as our gudemither's hands and lips are ganging . . . 
she'll speak eneugh the night, SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xxvi. 

AS, conj. Sc. Irel. and in gen. use in Eng., but rarely 
in sense 2 in those districts where at (q.v.) is used, [az.] 

1. After comparative : than. 

Sc. Very common in s. counties. Better weir schuin as sheets, 
MURRAY Dial. (1873) 169 ; I rather like him as otherwise, SCOTT 
St. Ronan (1824) xxvi ; I wad rather see them a' ower again, as 
sic a fearfu" flitting as hers ! ib. Antiquary ( 1816) xl ; Nay, more 
as that, they cut out his hair, Scotic. (1787) 119 ; I would rather go 
as stay, ib. 8. N.I. 1 I'd rather sell as buy. Yks. Better rue sell 
as rue keep, Prov. in Bn'ghouse News (July 23, 1887) ; Better hev 
a maase i' t'pot as nae flesh, ib, (Aug. 10, 1889!. n.Yks. (I.W.1 
w.Yks. I'd rather break steeans by t'rooad as dew so, LUCAS Stud. 
Nidderdale (c. 1882) 231. [U.S.A. I would rather see him as you, 
Dial. Notes (iSgsl 376.] 

2. Introducing subord. clause : that. 

Yks. I'll see as he wants nowt, WESTALL Birch Dene (18891 I. 
232. w.Yks. Tell Jack ah'm bahn to Bradforth to-morn, so's he 
can go wi' mha, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (May 30, 1891) ; Ah've heeard 
as Fred Greenud an' Polly Scott wor bahn to be wed sooin (JE.B.}. 
Lan. It's nowt o' th' soart ; dunnot yo threep me doun as it is, 
BURNETT Haworths (1887} ixvi. ne.Lan. 1 He said as he wod. Stf. 2 
Is it true as your Bill's bin put i'th 'ob ? [prison]. n.Der. They 
do say as his carpenters, havin' built th' ark, . . . weren't let enter 
in, HALL Hathersage (1896) vii. s.Not. I don't know as I can, 
PRIOR Renie (1895) 36. Lei. If you'll bring me any proof as I'm 
in the wrong, GEO. ELIOT S. M artier (1861) 40 ; Lei. 1 Almost a uni- 
versal substitute for ' that.' War. 2 w.Wor. 1 You don't think as 
I've took that spoon? (s. v. Hurt). Shr. 1 They sen as the cranna- 
berries bin despert scase this time. Glo. I war'n as th' owld 
squire must a' felt quite proud o' hisself, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn 
(1890) 6; Glo. 2 He took his woath as I layed a drap. s.Oxf. I 
don't know as I can, ROSEMARY Chiitems (1895) 41. Snr. History 
do tell as a high tide came up, JENNINGS Field Paths (1884) 3. 
Hrap. 1 I don't know as I do. Wil. I seed in the paper as the rate 
is gone down a penny, JEFFERIES Gt. Estate ( 1880) ix. n.Wil. 
Come back, as we med look upon 'ee, KITE Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) 
vi. 13. Dev. I couldn't say as I knowed the rights of it, O'NEILL 
Idylls (1892) 22. 

3. As how, as why, before subord. clause : that. 

Cum. 1 He said as how he wad nivver gang near them. w.Yks. 
Ah doan't knaw as hah Ahs'll goa ageean (.lE.B.l. Lan. We have 
heard say as how he's coming home, FOTHERGILL Probation (1879) i. 
Stf. 2 I toud 'im as 'ow he'd cum too late. He said as why he 
couldna come. There is even the construction ' He said as how 
as why he couldna come.' Not. He said as how the fox ran clean 
past him (L.C.M.) ; Not. 1 n.Lin. 1 He said as how he was a loongin' 
tneaf. Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 He said as how he'd come. War." Shr. 1 

1 card the maister tellin' the missis as 'ow 'e wuz gweln to 
Stretton far ; Shr. 2 Saying as how he is an oud mon. Brks. 1 A 

;elled muh as zo his ship was sheared las' Tuesday. Hnt (T P F ) 
Ess. She shoollymightersin as how the booy warnt right, DOWNES 
Ballads (1*95) 23. Hmp. I knows as how he did it (H.C M B 1 

4. With or without anteced. as, and ellipsis of can be 
expressing superl. degree. 

n.Yks. As salt as salt (I.W.). w.Yks. As heait as heait [hot], 
LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 18821 231 ; Hard as hard, very hard. 
Hot as hot, as hot as possible, BANKS Wkfld. Wds. (1865). Chs 
As happyas happy, CLOUGHB. Bresskittle (1879) l6 - s-Stf. Ashot as 
hot,PiNNOCKB Cy.^.(i895). Lei.(C.E.); Lei. 1 One of the com- 
monest descriptive formulas. War. He'll come back as ill as ill, 
GEO. ELIOT Janet's Repent. (1858) viii ; War. 2 ; s.War. 1 As lusty 
as lusty [in excellent health]. s.Wor. 1 As black as black, and 
so with other epithets. Glo. (A.B.) s.Oxf. Once a fortnight 
I bakes reglar, an' that keeps as moist as moist, ROSEMARY 
Chiitems (1895) 98. Oxf. 1 MS. add. Ess. There's no mistaike, 
Bill, he's as owd as owd, DOWNES Ballads (1895) 34. Som. His 
hair, 'twas as black as black, LEITH Lemon Verbena 1,1895) 50. 
Colloq. The sea was wet as wet could be, The sand was dry as 
dry, CARROLL Through Looking-glass (1872). 

[1. Ther can nocht be ane mair vehement perplexite as 
qu hen ane person, &c., Complaynt of Sc. (1549) 71. Cp. 
(j. mehr als. 2. That the Fop . . . should say as he would 
rather have such-a-one without a groat than me with 
the Indies, Sped. No. 508.] 
A-SAM, adv. Obs. Cor. Of a door : ajar. 
Cor. 2 The door's a-sam. 
[A-, on + satn (half), q.v.] 
ASCANT, adv. n.Yks. [aska-nt] Oblique. 
n.Yks. 2 

A-SCAT, aav. Dev. [askas't.] Broken like an egg. 
Dev. GROSE (1790) ; Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 422 ; HOLLOWAY. 
[A-, on + scat; see Scat (to scatter).] 
A-SCRAM, adv. Dor. [askrae'm.] Of a limb: 
shrunken, withered. 

Dor. She reluctantly showed the withered skin. 'Ah ! 'tis all 
a-scram ! ' said the hangman, examining it, HARDY Wess. Tales 
18881 I. 117 ; It would be normal to say ' His arm is all a-scram,' 
though if attrib. ' He has a scram arm ' (O.P.C.). 
[A- (pref. 10 ) + scram, q.v.] 

ASCRIBE, adv. Som. Cor. Written ascrode Cor. 1 

Som. Nif he'd ... a brumstick vor'n to zit ascride, JENNINGS 
Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825") n8. Cor. 1 She rode ascrode. 
[A-, on + scride (prob. a pron. of stride).] 
ASEE, sb. Or.I. The angle contained between the 
beam and handle on the hinder side of a plough. 
S. & Ork. 1 Or.I. Also called Nick JAM.). 
ASELF, see Atself. 

A-SEW, adv. I.W. Dor. Som. Cor. Also written 
assue Som. ; azew Cor. 1 ; azue Cor. 2 [azoV.] Of 
cows : dry, no longer in milk. 

I.W. The cows were assue, MONCRIEFF Dream in Gent. Mag. 
^863) ; I.W. 1 The wold cow's azew ; I.W. 2 I wants moor milk 
than I got, ver near all the cows be gone azew. Dor. In common 
use round Dorchester (O.P.C.); I don't want my cows going 
azew at this time of year, HARDY Tess (1891) 139 ; Dor. 1 Som. 
A cow is said to have ' gone a-zue,' PULMAN Sketches (1842) 77 ; 
I'll zell your little sparked cow that's gone a-sue, RAYMOND Sam 
and Sabina (1894; 43 ; W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; JENNINGS Obs. Dial. 
w.Eng. (i825\ w.Som. 1 A cow before calving, when her milk is 
dried off, is said to be azue, or to have gone 'zue.' Cor. 12 
[A- (pref. 10 ) + sew, q.v.] 
ASGAL, see Asker. 

ASH, sb. 1 In van dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. Also 
written ass, ess ; see below, [as, es, aef.] 
1. Collective sine., usually written ass or ess : fine ashes, 
usually from coal See Axen. 

Sc. What wad ye collect out of the sute and the ass ? SCOTT 
B of Lam. (1819) xi ; While I sithurklen in the ase, RAMSAY Tea- 
Table Misc. 1 1724) I. no, ed. 1871. Fif. It'll no dae to sit crootlin' 
i' the ace a' yer days, ROBERTSON Provost ^1894) 72. Ayr. In 
loving bleeze they sweetly join, Till white in ase they're sobbin, 
BURNS Halloween (1785) st. 10. N.I. 1 Aas. N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 
Cum. GROSE (1790) ; Gl. (1851) ; Meeting a boy with a good- 
looking ass drawing a cart laden with coal, he called out, ' Stop, 
you boy. Whose ass is that ? ' ' It's nut ass at o', it's smo' cwol,' 
DICKINSON Cumbr. (1876) 298. Wm. 1 n.Yks. 1 Clamed wiv ass, 
smeared over with ashes ; n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 Put a bit o' ass 
uppo t'trod, it's sae slaap. e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. 11788) ; 
e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Swept all t'ass of t'crust, PRESTON Moorside Musins 
in Yksman. (1878) 59 ; w.Yks. 1 I hev nout to do, but riddil ass, 
357 ; w.Yks. 2 Coke ass ; w.Yks. 3 * Lan. Ewt o' th' ass un 
dirt i' th' asshoyle, PAUL BOBBIN Sequel (1819! 41. n.Lan. Piat as 




iz nat bad till [manure]. Lan. 1 Come, lass, sweep th' ess up, 
an' let's bi lookin' tidy ; neXan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 Chs. Skeer the esse, 
separate the dead ashes from the embers, RAY (1691); (K.); 
Chs. 1 2 Stf. ' Esse ' are only the ashes of turfs when burned for 
compost (K.\ s.Stf. This coal mak's a nasty white ess, PINNOCK 
.Blk. Cy. Ann. (1895"!. Stf. 2 Oi waz gettinS' es up Sis mornin loik 
an barnt mi and wi sum ot sindarz [I was getting the ess up this 
morning like, and burnt my hand with some hot cinders]. Der. 12 , 
nw.Der. 1 , War. (J.R.W.), War. 3 , w .Wor.' Shr. 1 Yore garden 
seems to be a very stiff sile, John ; if I wuz yo' I'd sprade some 
ess an" sut on ; Shr. 2 . Hrf. 2 

2. Comp. (i) Ash-ball, obs., see below ; (2) -board, 
a wooden box or tray to hold ashes ; (3) -brass, money 
obtained by the sale of ashes ; (4) -cake, a cake baked on 
the hearth ; (5) -card, a fire-shovel ; (6) -cat, (7) -chat, 
one who crouches over the fire ; (8) -cloth, (9) -coup, 
see below; (10) -grate, (n) -grid, a grating over the 
'ash-hole'; (12) -heap-cake, (13) -lurdin, (14) -man, 
(15) -manure, (16) -mixen, (17) -muck, (18) -mull, (19) 
padder, (20) -peddlar, (21) -pit, (22) -rook, (23) -water, 
see below. [See further s.v. Ash-backet, -hole, -midden, 
nook, -riddle, -trug.] 

(il Shr. 1 Balls made of the ashes of wood or fern damped with 
water ; afterwards sun-dried . . . and used for making buck-lee. 
Put a couple o' them ess-balls i' the furnace an' fill it up 60th 
waiter for the lee. Ess-balls were sold in Shrewsbury market in 
1811, and prob. much later on. (a) Cnm. Asbuird, GROSE (1790) 
MS. add. (D.AO ; He's but an as-buird meaker, ANDERSON Ballads 
(1808) Wully Miller. Wm. & Cum. 1 Wi' th' ass-buurd for a teable, 
aoi. Wm. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 (3) w.Yks. Ony wumman differin abaght 
dividin' t'hass-brass sal pay one penny, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE 
Bairnsla Ann. (1847) 29. (4) Dev. 3 When the hearthstone is very 
hot the ashes are swept off and the ash-cake laid on it. A sauce- 
pan cover is then set over, and the ashes carefully replaced on the 
cover. (5) n.Yks. 1 Ass-card, Ass-caird, a fire-shovel for cleaning or 
carding up the hearth-stone (see Card) ; n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. MARSHALL 
Rur. Econ. (1788) Suppl. m.Yks. 1 (6) Lan. 1 Ass-cat, a term of 
contempt applied to lazy persons who hang habitually over the fire. 
Dev. Why you be a reg'lar ash-cat sitting over the fire, Reports 
Provinc. (1887) 3 ; An axen-cat is one that paddles or draws 
lines in the ashes with a stick or poker. Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 
422. (7") Dev. 3 Ashchat, a person who leans over the fire, with 
elbows on knees, in a dreamy attitude. t,8) Ken. P 4 for an Ash- 
cloth for the Workhouse, 6s. 6d., Pluckley Overseers' Ace. (1796) 
iP.M.). Sus. 1 Ash cloth, a coarse cloth fastened over the top of the 
wash-tub and covered first with marsh-mallow leaves and then with 
a layer of wood ashes [through this the water was strained by 
washerwomen in order to soften it]. (9) n.Yks. 1 Ass-coup, a kind 
of tub or pail to carry ashes in (see Coup 1 ; n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 
In rare use. (10) Cum. Ass-grate, the grated cover over the hollow 
beneath a kitchen fireplace where the ashes drop (M.P.^ ; Cum. 1 
ne.Wor. In this district the word Ass or Ess is used only in the 
comp. Ess-grate, the cover to the ' purgatory ' (J.W.P.). ( i i'i Chs. 1 
Ess-grid.^ Stf. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) (12) n.Lin. 1 Ash-heap cake, a cake 
baked on the hearth under hot wood embers. (13) s.Chs. 1 Hoo's a 
terrible ess-luruin, auvays comin' croodlin' i' th' fire [cf. Ass-cat]. 
(14) n.Yks. 2 Ass-man, the dustman, scavenger. (15) n-Yks. 1 Ass- 
manner, manure, so called, of which the chief constituent is ashes, 
especially peat or turf ashes. ne.Yks. 1 In common use. (16) 
s.Chs. 1 Ess-mixen, the mixen or heap upon which the ashes are 
thrown. (17) n.Yks. ' They'll be all clamed wiv . . . ass-muck,' in 
other words, smeared over with peat-ashes and such other refuse 
as is thrown into an ordinary moorland ash-pit, ATKINSON Maori. 
Parish (1891) 120 ; n.Yks. 2 (18) ib. Ass-mull or Turf-mull (q. v.), 
the ashes from a turf fire. (19") Dev. Ash-padder, or Pedder, also 
called Axwaddle, q.v., GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) ; Dev. 3 Ash- 
padder, a person who goes from cottage to cottage collecting wood- 
ashes, which are bought by farmers to mix at sowing time with 
seeds. (20) Som. Axpeddlar, a dealer in ashes, W. & J. Gl. (1873:. 
(21) Sc. Ane o' the prentices fell i' the ase-pit, CHAMBERS Pop. 
Rhymes (1870) 83. Chs. 3 Ash-pit, the general receptacle of the 
rubbish and dirt of a house. [In gen. use.] (22) Chs. 1 Ess-rook, 
a dog or cat that likes to lie in the ashes. Shr. 1 This kitlin' inna 
wuth keepin', it's too great a ess-rook. (23) Ken. To have . . . 
usefull utensils to wash with, to make bucking, ash water, &c., 
Pluckley Vestry Bk. (Feb. 1787); Ash- water is hard water made 
soft for washing clothes by pouring it through an ash-cloth (q. v.). 
The process is still in use (P.M.\ 

[1. The litle cloude as aske he sprengeth, WYCLIF 
(1382) Ps. cxlvii. 16 ; Which . . . spredith abrood a cloude 

as aische, ib. (1388) ; Kloude as aske he strewis, HAM- 
POLE Ps. cxlvii. 5. OE. asce, ' cinis.'] 

ASH, sb." In var. dial, uses throughout Sc. Irel. Eng. 
Also written esh Nhb. 1 n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 2 n.Lin. 1 ; eisch 


leaf ash. 

1. The leaf of an ash -tree ; in comb. Even-ash, Even- 

N.I. 1 Even ash, an ash-leaf with an even number of leaflets, used 
in a kind of divination. The young girl who finds one repeats 
the words' This even ash I hold in my han', The first I meet is 
my true man.' She then asks the first male person she meets on 
the road what his Christian name is, and this will be the name 
of her future husband. Nhb. Even-esh is a lucky find, and is put 
into the bosom, or worn in the hat, or elsewhere, for luck 
(R.O.H.); Even-ash, underthe shoe, will get you a sweetheart. Itis 
placed in the left shoe, Denham Tracts (ed. 1895) I. 282 ; Nhb. 1 It 
is considered as lucky to find an even-esh as to find a four-leaved 
clover. w.Shr. [Used for divination, as in Irel.] in agreement with 
the well-known rhyme ' Even ash and four-leaved clover, See 
your true-love ere the day's over,' BURNE Flit-Lore (1883) 181. 
Wil. 1 On King Charles' day, May 29, children carry Shitsack, 
sprigs of young oak, in the morning, and Powder-monkey, or 
Even-ash, ash-leaves with an equal number of leaflets, in the 
afternoon (s.v. Shitsac). nw.Dev. 1 A haivm laiv ash An' a vower 
laiv clauver, You'll sure to zee your true love Avore the day's 
auver, In trod. 20. 

2. Comp. (i) Ash-candles, (2) -chats, (3) -holt, see below ; 
(4) -keys, the seed-vessels of the ash (see Keys) ; (5) 
plant, an ash sapling or stick ; (6) -planting, a beating 
with an ash stick ; (7) -stang, (8) -stob, (9) -stole, (10) 
-tillow,see below ; (n) -top,a variety of potato; (i2)-weed, 
AZgopodium podagraria, or goutweed. 

(,i) Dor. Ash-candles, the seed-pod of the ash-tree, Gl. (1851) ; 
Dor. 1 (2) n.Cy. Ash-chats, or keys, GROSE (1790) s.v. Chat, 
q.v. (3) n.Lin. 1 Esh-holt, a small grove of ash trees. 14) Sc. 
I have seen the ash-keys fall in a frosty morning in October, 
SCOTT Bk. Dwarf (1816) vii. Nhb. Ash-keys is the common term 
for the seed of the ash (R.O.HA w.Yks. 2 An old farmer in Full- 
wood affirmed that there were no ash-keys in the year in which 
King Charles was put to death. Lan. 1 Let's ga an' gedder some 
eisch-keys an* lake at conquerors [i.e. the wings of the seed are 
interlocked ; each child then pulls, and the one whose ' keys ' break- 
is conquered]. e.Lan. 1 , Chs. 13 , Not. 1 , n-LIn. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 The 
failure of a crop of ash-keys is said to portend a death in the royal 
family. War. 3 , Sur. 1 Dev. 4 Also called locks-and-keys, shacklers. 
[The fruit like unto cods ... is termed in English, Ash-keyes, and 
of some, Kite-keyes, GERARDE (ed. 1633) 1472.] (5) w.Yks. 2 An ash 
stick is usually called an esh-plant. s.Chs. 1 Tha wants a good ash- 
plant abowt thy back. Stf. 2 If the dustna let them cows be, I'll 
lay this ash-plant about the. n.Lin. Cuts hissen a esh-plant to 
notch doon all the fools he fin's on, PEACOCK Tales and Rhymes 
(1886) 63 ; n-Lin. 1 There is a widespread opinion that if a man 
takes a newly cut esh-plant not thicker than his thumb, he may 
lawfully beat his wife with it. War. 3 An ash-plant is an article 
that no well-furnished farm-house and few schoolmasters would be 
without. Dev. On the leeward side of a stiff bulwark of newly 
bill-hooked ashplant, BLACKMORE Kit (1890) II. i. (6) n.Lta. I'll 
gie ye an esh-plantin' ye weant ferget, PEACOCK Taales (.1889) 89. 
(7) n.Yks. 2 Esh-stang, an ash-pole. (8) ib. Esh-stob, an ash-post. 

(9) Wil. Hares . . . slip quietly out from the form in the rough 
grass under theashstole [stump], JEFFERIES Gamekeeper (1878) 31. 

( 10) Hmp. Ash-tillows are young ash-trees left growing when a 
wood is cleared, MARSHALL Review (1817) V. (n) Ess. Those on 
the right are ashtops, BARING-GOULD Mehalah (1885) 154. (12) 
Shr. Ashweed, perhaps from casual resemblance to the leaf of the 
Ash. Wil. 1 , w.Som. 1 

3. With adj. used attrib. in plant-names: (i) Blue ash, 
Syringa vulgaris, lilac (Glo.) ; (2) Chaney ash, Cyiisus 
laburnum (Chs.) ; (3) French ash, C. laburnum (Der.1 ; 
(4) Ground ash, JEgopodium podagraria (Chs. Lin. War.) ; 
Angelica sylvestris (n.Cy.) ; (5) Spanish ash, Syringa wd- 

goutweed. Usual name. 

[Esch key, frute, clava, Prompt. ; Ash-weed, Herba 
Gerardi, COLES (1679) ; Ayshwaede, Herbe Gerard, or 
Goutworte, MINSHEU (1617).] 




ASH, v. Yks. Lin. Written esh. [ej.] To flog, beat ; 
cf. to birch, hazel. 

e.Yks. So called from the esh [ash] plant being the instrument 
used by the castigator, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 26 ; e.Yks. 1 
w.Yks. (JE.B.) nXin. 1 If we catch boys gettin' bod nests we 
esh 'em. 

ASH, see Arrish. 

ASHARD, adv. Glo. Wil. [afa'd.] Of a door : ajar. 
See Ashore. 

Glo. 1 n.Wil. (obsol.) The door's ashard (G.E.D.). Wil. 1 Put 
the door ashard when you goes out. 

[A- (pref?) + shored (propped).] 

ASH-BACKET, sb. Sc. Written ass-, ase-backet 
(JAM.). A small tub or square wooden trough for holding 

w. & s.Sc. Dimin. of assback, a back or tub for ashes (JAM.). Abd. 
Aise-backet, the common name for what in Per. is called a backie 
(G. W. V Gall. The aristocratic avenues of the park, bordered with 
frugal lines of 'ash backets' for all ornament, CROCKETT Stickil 
Min. (1893) 155. 

ASH-COLOURED LOON, sb. The great crested Glebe, 
Podiceps cristatus. Also called Ash-coloured Swan. 

SWAINSON Birds (1885) 215. 

Tringa canutus. 

IT. So called from the sober tints of its feathers in winter, 
SWAINSON Birds (1885) 195. 

ASHELT, advb. phr. Obs. Yks. Lan. Perhaps, 

w.Yks. WATSON Hist.Hlfx (1775)531 ; CuDWORTH//otfo(i886); 
w.Yks. 4 Lan. Cou'd ashelt sell hur eh this tother pleck, TIM 
BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 29. ed. 1806 ; DAVIES Races (1856) 270; 
Lan. 1 

[As + helt (likely), q.v.] 

ASHEN, sb. Lan. Chs. Der. Obsol. Written eshin. 
A kind of pail, used for carrying milk. 

n.Cy. (K.) ; Eskin [sic], GROSE (1790); N.Cy. 2 w.Lan. Bring 
th' eshin here (H.M.). Chs. 1 Wooden milkpails are still in occas. 
use. Often pronounced Heshin, and [sometimes] so spelt in 
auctioneers' catalogues ; Chs. 2 These pails are, I believe, always 
made of ash wood. Der. 1 Obs. 

Hence Eshintle, an ' ashen ' or ' eshin ' full. 

Chs. Get a eshintle o' th' best Jock Barleycorn, CLOUGH B. 
Bresskittle (1879) 16; Chs. 12 

[See Ashen, adj.] 

ASHEN, adj. Lei. War. Shr. Glo. e.An. Ken. Sus. Wil. 
Dor. Som. Cor. [a'Jan, ae'Jan.] 

1. Made of the wood of the ash ; belonging to the ash. 
Sus. 1 Wil. SLOW Gl. (1892). n.Wil. I wants a aishen stake 

(E.H.G.). Dor. The moss, a-beat vrom trees, did lie Upon the 
ground in ashen droves, BARNES Poems (1869) 87. w.Som. 1 Su 
geod u aa-rshn tae'ubl-z uvur yiie zeed [as good an ash table as 
you ever saw]. Cor. Charm for the bite of an adder ' Bradgty, 
bradgty, bradgty, under the ashing leaf,' QUILLER-COUCH Hist. 
Polperro (1871) 148. 

2. Comp. (i) Ashen-faggot, a faggot of ash-wood ; (2) 
keys, the fruit of the ash ; (3) -plant, an ash sapling ; 
(4) -tree, the ash. 

(i) w.Som. 1 Aa-rshn faak'ut, the large faggot which is always 
made of ash to burn at the merry-making on Christmas Eve both 
Old and New. We know nothing of a yule-log in the West. It 
is from the carouse over the ashen-faggot that farmers with their 
men and guests go out to wassail the apple-trees on old Christmas 
Eve (Jan. 5). The faggot is always specially made with a number 
of the ordinary halse binds, or hazel withes. (2) Ken. 1 Ashen- 
keys, so called from their resemblance to a bunch of keys. (3) War. 2 
Ashen-plant, an ash sapling cut to serve as a light walking-stick 
or cane. Shr. 1 Whad a despert srode lad that Turn Rowley is, 
'e wants a good ashen-plant about 'is 'ide ; Shr. 2 Lay a good 
eschen plant across his shouthers. (4) Lei. ' Ashentree, Ashentree, 
Pray buy these warts of me.' A wart-charm. A pin is stuck into 
the tree, and afterwards into a wart, and then into the tree again, 
where it remains a monument of the wart which is sure to perish, 
NORTHALL Gl. (1896). War. 2 Glo. 1 , e-An. 1 , Snff. (C.T.) Dor. 

[By ashen roots the violets blow, TENNYSON In Mem. 
cxv; At once he said, and threw His ashen spear, 
DRYDEN (JOHNSON) ; Ashen keys, Fmctus fraxineus, 
lingua avtculae, COLES (1679). Ash, sb. 2 + -en, adj. suff.] 

ASHER, adj. Yks. [e-Jar.] Made of ash wood. Also 
used as sb. 

n.Yks. Ah teeak a esher, an'gav t'dog a good threshing (I.W.) ; 
mYks. 1 An asher pail. An asher broom. 

[Ash (the tree) + -er, of doubtful origin.] 

ASHET, sb. Sc. Nhb. [a'Jet] A dish on which a 
joint is served ; also used for a pie-dish. 

Sc. Scotic. (17871 9 ; GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; Gie me here 
John Baptist's head in an aschet, HENDERSON St. Matt. (1862 xiv. 8. 
S. & Ork. 1 MS. add. Inv. (H.E.F ) Bwk. What sort of a plate, 
or ashet, or server it was placed upon, HENDERSON Pop. 
Rhymes (1856) 24. Slk. You're a dextrous cretur, wi' yourashets 
o' wat and dry toast, CHR. NORTH Nodes Ambros. (,ed. 1856) III. 
95. Nhb. Heard on the n. borders, but not in gen. use, and prob. 
introduced by immigrants from Scotland (R.O.H.). 

[Fr. assiette, a trencher-plate (COTGR.).] 

ASH-HOLE, sb. Sc. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. Lin. 
War. Wor. Shr. Dor. Also written ass-, ais(s- Sc. ; ass- 
hooal n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 ; -hwole Nhb. 1 ; -hoil 
w.Yks. 8 ; ess- Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. War. Wor. Shr. ; ess- 
hwole Nhb. 1 ; axen- Dor. 1 [a - s-, e's-51, -oal, -oil.] 

1. A hole to receive ashes, beneath or in front of the 
grate. Also called Purgatory, q.v. 

Sc. The cat [was] in the ass-hole, makin at the brose, Down fell 
a cinder and burnt the cat's nose, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes (1870) 
27. Per. Ais-hole (G.W.). e.Lth. The wumman that tint the sax- 
pence, an' soopit oot her hoose but an' ben, an' rakit oot the aiss- 
hole, HUNTER J. Inuiick (1895) 21. Edb. Throwing the razor into 
the ass-hole, WlomMansieWauch (1828) 42. Nhb. 1 , n.Yks. 1 , ne.Yks. 1 , 
e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. He threw it into t'ass-hooal, 'EAVESDROPPER' Vitt. 
Life (1869) 7 ; w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 8 Tell'd her a hunderd times niwer 
to put t'poaker i' t'ass-hoil. Lan. Deawn he coom o' th' harstone, 
on his heeod i' th' esshole, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 52, ed. 
1819; Thou'd rayther sit i' th' hesshole, brunnin" thy shins i' 
th' fire, than stick to thy loom, BRIERLEY Cast upon World (1886) 
25 ; Lan. 1 m.Lan.' ' Dusta think as a ass-hoyle is a place to put a 
jackass in ? ' aw axt him. He dud ! Chs. 1 Often used metaphorically 
for the fire itself. Ah set wi' my knees i' th' ess-hole aw day long ; 
Chs. 3 Oo's rootin in the esse hole, aw dee. s.Chs. 1 To ' root i' 
the ess-hole ' is a common expression for staying constantly by the 
fire. s.Stf. We roasted tayturs in the ess-hole, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. 
Ann. (1895). Stf. 2 , nw-Der. 1 , n.Lin.', War. (J.R.W.), w.Wor. 1 
Shr. 1 Common ; Shr. 2 Also called the Purgatory. Dor. 1 

2. An outdoor ash-heap or dust-hole. 

Sc. A round excavation in the ground out of doors, into which 
the ashes are carried from the hearth (JAM. . n.Yks. 1 2 w.Yks. 
Leeds Merc. Suppl. 'May 30, 1891). n.Lin.' 

ASHIEPATTLE, sb. Sc. Irel. Also written aessie- 
pattle S. & Ork. 1 ; ashiepelt Irel. [e'si-patl, aji-pelt] 
A dirty child, that lounges about the hearth; also applied 
to animals. Sometimes used adjectivally. Cf. ashcat. 

Sh.I. Still in common use ; applied occasionally as a term of 
contempt to any of the young domestic animals, such as pigs, 
kittens, &c., which are often found lying at the fireside in a country 
house (K.1.1. S. & Ork. 1 Sc. (JAM.) n.Ir. Obsol. (M.B.-S.) 
Ant. Ashipelt, Ballymena Obs. (1892). Dnb., Dr. Common here, 
but seldom heard n. of the Boyne (M.B.-S.). 

[Prob. a der. of ash-pit. See Ash, sb. 1 2. Cp. G. aschen- 
puttel; see GRIMM Myth. 107 (SANDERS).] 

ASH-MIDDEN, sb. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Lan. Chs. Der. Written ess- Chs. Der. ; ass-, ais- Sc. 
[a - s-, e's-midan.] An ash- heap. 

Per. (G.W.), N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Dnr. 1 Cum. & Wm. Thou's niver 
been five mile frae an ass-midden [a comic banter] (M.P.). n.Yks. 12 , 
ne.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. When t'ship lands on t'ass-midden 
[referring to an unlikely contingency], Prov. in Brighouse News (July 
23, 1887) ; Fotch a soop up, for we're all three as dry as a ass- 
midden, HARTLEY Puddin' (1876) 46; w.Yks. 1 He then com ower 
t'ass-midden to t'door, ii. 293 ; w.Yks. 2 * Lan. Aw'd dee upo' th' 
fust hess-middin ut aw coom to, BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) xi ; 
n.Lan. I nivver went mair 'an a mile frae me an ass-midden, 
PIKETAH Fomess Flk. ( 1870) 34. ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 He'll never get 
a mile from a ess-midden, Prov. nw-Der. 1 

ASH-NOOK, sb. Yks. Written ass- Yks. [a's-niuk.] 
1. The space beneath the grate where the ashes fall. 

n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. A great bahncin ratten [rat] jumpt aht at 
asnook, BYWATER Sheffield Dial. (1839) 8 ; Bang went eggs, col- 
lops, an' t'plate, reight intut ass nook, Dewsbre Olm. (1866) 14 ; 
w.Yks. 2 3 s 




2. The chimney-corner, ' ingle-nook.' 

w.Yks. Com' sit in t'assnook wi' me (W.F.) ; He sat hissen 
daan i' th' assnook, an' Mally gate him a gill o' hooam brew'd, 
HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1887) a ; Common in Wilsden, Leeds Merc. 
Suppl. (May 30, 1891). 

ASHORE, adv. Wor. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. Wil. Also 
ashare Won See Ashard. [ajoa'(r), aja'(r).] Of a 
door : ajar, half-open. 

Wor. Leave the door a little ashore (H.K.) ; ne.Wor. Ashare 
(J.W.P.). Hrf. 1 , Glo. (A.B.), Glo. 1 , Oxf. 1 , Wll. 1 

[A-, on + shore (a prop).] 

ASHOTAY, see Accroshay. 

ASH-RIDDLE, sb. Yks. Chs. War. Also ass- Yks. ; 
ess- Chs. [a's-, e's-ridl.] A sieve or ' riddle ' (q.v.) for 
sifting ashes. 

w.Yks. Gaay an' teach thi granny to sup milk aht o' t'ass-riddle, 
Prov. in Brighouse News (July 23, 1887) ; Yo wor ta be presented wi 
a hass-riddle, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Bairnsla Ann. (1847) 51. Chs. 1 , 
s.Chs. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) 

Hence Ash-riddling, divination from riddling ashes, on 
St. Mark's Eve (April 24). 

N.Cy. 1 n.Yks. 1 On St. Mark's Eve the ashes are riddled on the 
hearth, for the superstition still lingers, that if any of the inmates 
of the house be going to die within the year, the print of his, or 
her, shoe will be found impressed in the soft ashes (cf. Chaff- 
riddling) ; n.Yks. 2 What has survived of this custom seems more 
common in our country-places, where the fire burns on the hearth. 
m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 

ASH-TRUG, sb. Cum. Written ass- Cum. 1 [a's-trug.] 
A wooden scuttle-shaped vessel for carrying coal or 

Cnm. Billy cawd it ' asstrug,' ' SILPHEO ' Billy Brannau (1885) 4 ; 
GROSE (1790) ; HOLLOWAY ; Gl. (1851) ; Still in common use 
(W.K.); Cum. 1 

ASHYPET, sb. Sc. Irel. Also written assypet Sc. 

1. A child or animal that lounges about the hearth. See 
Ashiepattle, Assypod. 

Dub.. Dr. A dirty or neglected child would not be called 'ashipet ' 
unless also lazy and useless. Applied also to dogs and cats, which 
lie lazily by the fireside (M.B.-S.). 

2. An idle or slatternly woman ; a ' Cinderella,' engaged 
in dirty kitchen work. Occas. applied to a man. 

Ayr. Nobody to let me in, but an ashypet lassie that helps her 
for a servant, Steamboat (1822) 259 (JAM.). Lnl. Easter Whitburn's 
assy pets, CHAMBERS Pop. Rhymes (1870) 246. Dr. A lazy man 
or woman is called 'ashipet' (M.B.-S.). 

ASIDE, adv. and prep. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Stf. Der. Lin. War. Shr. Ken. Sur. [asai'd.] 

A. prep. 

1. Of place or position : near, by the side of. 

Frf. The watchers winna let me in aside them, BARRIE Minister 
1 1891) iv._ Per. Ye 'ill just get up aside me, IAN MACLAREN Brier 
Hush (1895) 167. Rnf. Maggie, now I'm in aside ye, TANNAHILL 
Poems (1807) 'S3- Gall. Climb up there aside the other four, 
CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle (1895) 214. Nhb. Ye shanna gan aside us, 
N. Minstrel (1806-7) pt. iv. 76; Feed thaw lams aside the ship- 
ports' sheels, ROBSON Sng. Sol. (1859^1 i. 8 ; Nhb. 1 Sit doon 
aside us, hinney. Cum. O that down aseyde her my head I could 
lay, ANDERSON Ballads (1808) Cocker o' Codbeck ; She met me ya 
neeght aside Pards'aw Lea yatt, GILPIN Ballads, 3rd S. (ed. 1874) 
72 ; Cum. 1 Parton aside Whitten ; Cum. 8 Oald Aberram lies 
a fine heap or two leggan aside Kirgat, 9. n.Yks. Feed thah kids 
aside the shepherds' booths, Whitby Sng. Sol. (iS6o) i. 8; Just 
think what things thou promist mail Asahd t'awd willow tree, 
TWEDDEI.L Clevel. Rhymes (1^5 } 30; n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 Ah'll sit 
aside Tom. Greenwich's aside Lunnan, MS. add. iT.H.) Stf. 1 , 
nw.Der. 1 , n.Lin. 1 , War. 2 Ken. 1 1 stood aside him all the time. Sur. 1 

2. Infig. sense: beside oneself, distracted. 

ne.Lan. And he's aside liissel, cose yo've cracked up his playin, 
MATHER Idylls (1895) 48. 

3. Compared with. 

Frf. Adam was an erring man, but aside Eve he was respectable, 
BARRIE Minister (1891) x. Per. Naething tac speak of aside you, 
Kirsty, IAN MACLAREN Auld LangSync (1895) 127. 

B. adv. 

1. In addition, moreover, besides. Aside o', in addition to. 
w.Yks. You'll be wondrous cunning if you get any aside, BURN- 
LEY Skcltlies( 1875 131. Lan. She knowcdawthc boiblc through, 
VOL. I. 

asid o' th' hymn-book, BURNETT Haworths (1887) vi. Shr. 1 Poor 
young 66man, 'er's got the pipus [typhus] faiver the fluency 
[influenza], an' 'afe a dozen plaints aside. Ken. 2 Very common at 
2. Aside of, on the side of, beside. 

Cum. 3 Aside o' t'wide stair heead, 98. w.Yks. Paster thay 
kids asaide o' t'shepherds' tents, LITTLEDALE Craven Sng. Sol. 
(1859)1.8; Shoofotched me a dander aside o' t'earhoyle, HARTLEY 
Clock Aim. (1874) 42 ; Two chaps used to work aside o' me, ib. 
(1879) 19 ; w.Yks. 5 Cloise aside on't. Lan. I wur tan aside o' th' 
yed wi' a sod, Rossendel Beef-neet, 12 ; Thou sid aside at t'Park 
wood yett, HARLAND & WILKINSON Fit-Lore (1867) 60 ; Lan. 1 
Eawr Mally stood aside on me while th' rushcart were gooin' by ; 
in. Lan. 1 A jerryshop aside o' wheer aw live (s.v. Alicker). s.Chs. 1 
Sit thee dai'n aside o' me. Stf. She sat doun a-side of the daughter, 
Flk-Lore Jrn. (1884) II. 41 ; Stf. 2 'E fatched im a bat aside o' is yed 
as med is yed stng. 

[A, oh + side.] 

ASIDEN, prep, and adv. Nhb. Yks. Nhp. War. Shr. 
Hrf. Also, by aphaeresis, siden. [asardan.] 

1. prep. Beside, near. 

Nhb. 1 She wis sittin' asiden him. e.Yks. 1 Ah've sitten asiden 
him monny a tahm (only used in a past sense), MS. add. (T.H.) 
m.Yks. 1 

2. adv. On one side, awry. 

Nhp. 1 Often used without the prefix. How siden your bonnet is. 
War. (J.R.W.) ; War. 2 That post's set asiden ; War. 3 That gate 
has been hung all asiden. Shr. 1 Common. Yo' hanna put yore 
shawl on straight, the cornels bin all asiden ; Shr. 2 All asiden 
like Martha Rhoden's two-penny dish. Hrf. 1 [All asiding, as hogs 
fighting, RAY Prov. (1678) 49, ed. 1860.] 

[Repr. the phr. a side on, on the side of, by the 
side of.] 

ASIDES, prep. phr. and adv. Yks. War. Sur. [asai'dz.] 

1. prep. phr. Of place : beside, near. 

m.Yks. 1 Aside has commonly 5 added. w.Yks. 5 Aside's o' 
t'church. Whear's tuh live nah like ? Haw, aside's o' ar Tom. 

2. In addition to, moreover, beside. 

w.Yks. 5 Whoa went asides him ? Ther's forty aside's that. 
War. 3 I arns three shillin' a wik [week] asides my vittles. 

3. adv. Moreover, in addition. 

Sur. A lot more as I knows on as gave a goodish bit asides, 
BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) III. vi. 

[ME. asides, only in the sense of ' aside, on one side,' 
see WYCLIF (1388) Mark vii. 33. Der. of aside with advl. 
suff. in -5.] 

ASIDING, see Asiden. 

ASIL-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 

ASING, sec Easing. 

ASK.sA. 1 Sc. Irel. n.Cy. to Chs. and n.Lin. Also 
written esk N.Cy. 1 Cum. w.Yks. ne.Lan. 1 ; aisk n.Yks. 2 
e.Yks. m.Yks. 1 [esk, ask.] A newt ; a lizard. See Asker. 

Sc. He brought home horse-leeches, asks, young rats, SMILES 
Sc.Natur. (1879)1; It seems to be a general idea among the vulgar, 
that what we call the ask is the asp of Scripture. . . This has probably 
contributed to the received opinion of the newt being venomous 
'JAM.). Gall. The yallow-wymed ask, HARPER Bards (1889) ao6. 
Crl. (P.J.M.) N.Cy. 1 Ask, Esk, a water-newt, believed by many 
erroneously to be venomous. Nhb. The pert little eskis they curlit 
their tails, RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk. (1846) VII. 142: 
Dry asks and tyeds she churish'd, ROBSON Sngs. of Tyne( 1849) 148 ; 
Nhb. 1 The newt is usually called a waiter ask, as distinguished from 
a dry ask. Dur. 1 Cum. (J.Ar.) ; Cum. 1 Wm. There's an ask in 
the pond (B.K.) ; Wm. 1 More frequently called a wattcr-ask. 
n.Yks. 123 ne.Yks. 1 In common use. e.Yks. MARSHALL Kin: 
Emit. ' j 788 . m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. LUCAS Stud. Nidderdale (c. 18821 
231 ; WILLAN List Wds. ( 181 1 ). n.Lan. A fand o wator-ask i' dhat 
dub. ne.Lan. 1 , Chs. 123 n.Lin. 1 1 was once tanged wi' an ask 
among the brackens e' Brumby Wood. 

[Tassot, a newt or ask, COTGR. ; Magrdsio, an eft, an 
nute, an aske, FLORIO (1611). OE. affexe, lizard; cp. G. 

ASK, sb? Sh.I. Also written aisk (JAM. Suppl.). 
Drizzle, fog. 

Sh. I. A haze or unclear state of the atmosphere generally 
preceding bad weather ; we speak of there being ' an ask up da 
sky' when ithas clouded over and looks unsettled (K.I.\ S.ftOrk. 1 
Sh. &Or.I. Small particles of dust, or snow 'JAM. Su/>pl. . 





ASK, sb. 3 Sc. (JAM.) The stake to which a cow is 
bound by a rope or chain, in the cow-house. 

Cai. [Not known to our correspondents.] 

[Prob. a spec, use of ON. askr, an ash, also applied to 
many things made of ash ; see VIGFUSSON.] 

ASK, sb* Sh. and Or. I. Also written aisk. A wooden 
vessel or dish. 

Sh.I. Used for carrying butter, milk, eggs, &c. It has a lid and two 
small projecting bits of wood below the rim to serve for handles 
(K.I.). Sh. &Or.I. (JAM. Suppl.) 

[ON. askr, a small vessel made of ash-wood.] 

ASK, v. 1 Var. dial, uses in Sc. and Eng. Also in the 
forms ax, ex, see Ax. [as, aks, aks.] 

1. To publish the banns of marriage ; to be asked at, in, or 
to church, to have one's banns published. 

Abd., Lth. Also called ' cry ' (JAM.). Nhb. 1 , Dur. 1 Cum. 1 To be 
ax't at church is also called ' Hung in t'bell reapp,' ' Cry't i' the 
kirk.' Wm. 1 Axt [older form Ext] at church. n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 
Ask'd at church. m.Yks.', w.Yks. 1 w.Yks.s Thuh wur ast at 
church last Sunday. Chs. 1 s.Chs. 1 Han they bin as't i' church 
yet? (Ax is less common.') Stf. 2 Owd Dick Taylor's lad and 
Martha Jones wun axed i' church. n.Lin. 1 , sw.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 Nhp. 1 
Being axt to church. War. 2 , s.Wor. (F.W.M.W.) Brks. 1 Thaay 
was asted at church laast Zunday. e.An. 1 I.W. 2 Bob Gubbins 
and Poll Trot was axed in Atherton Church last Zunday. Wll. 
We'll be ax'd in church a Zunday week, SLOW Rhymes (1889) 
Zammy an Zusan. w.Sotn. 1 Her's gwain to be a-ax next Zunday. 
nw.Dev. 1 Cor. 2 T'es most time for'ee to have me axed, MS. add. 
Colloq. They were asked in church the Sunday following, MARRYAT 
Frank Mildmay (1829) xxii. 

2. Hence, to be asked out, asked up, out-asked, to have the 
banns published for the last time. 

Dur. 1 Cum. I reckon some one that's here is nigh ax't oot by auld 
Nick in the kirk of the nether world, CAINE Shad. Crime (1885^ 
33. Wra. 1 Wiah, thoo'I be ext oot a Sunday. n-Yks. 1 , ne.Yks. 1 
Ax'd oot. e.Yks. 1 Tom and Bess was ax'd up at chetch o' Sunday. 
w.Yks. 1 2 Ax'd out. Chs. 1 They were axed out last Sunday. Not. 1 
Out-asked. n.Lin. 1 Theare's many a lass hes been axed-up ... 'at 
niver's gotten a husband. sw.Lin. 1 To be asked up, or asked out. 
Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Shr. 1 To be axed up. e.An.iAxt- 
out, or Out-axt. Sus., Hmp., Ken. On the third time of publication, 
the couple is said to be out-asked, HOLLOWAY. w.Som. 1 Dhai wuz 
aakst aewt laa's Ziin'dee [they were axed out last Sunday]. Cor. 
I be axed out ! keep compa^' ! Get thee to doors, thee noodle, 
J. TRENOODLE Spec. Dial. (1846) 41 ; Cor. 12 

3. Phr. (i) to ask at, ask of (on), to ask ; (2) to ask out, 
to cry off, be excused ; (3) ask up, to speak out. 

(i) Sc. I asked at him, Monthly Mag. (1798) II. 435 ; Ask at the 
footman, MACKIE Scotic. (1881) 14 ; Very common idiom (G.W.X 
Stf. 1 s.Hmp. He'd do anything you asted o' him, VERNEY L. Lisle 
(1870) xvii. (2) w.Yks. Willn't ya come? No, I'll ax aht <J.R.~); 
(3) Stf. 1 

[1. The phr. ' to ask the banns ' is found in ME. : Aske 
the banns thre halydawes. Then lete hem come and wytnes 
brynge To stonde by at here weddynge, MYRC/S/. (1450) 
203. 3. Heo aschede at Corineus now heo so hard! were, 
R. Glouc. (1297) 16.] 

ASK, v? Sh. and Or.I. Also written aisk QAM.) ; 
esk. To rain slightly, drizzle. 

Or. I. (S.A.S.) Sh. & Or.I. (JAM. Suppl. 

ASKER, si. 1 Yks. Lan. Chs. Dnb. Stf. Der. Nhp 
Wor. Shr. Hrf. Glo. Dor. Also asgal Shr. 2 Glo. 1 ; askard 
w.Yks. 15 ; askelHrf. 1 ; askern w.Yks. [a'ske(r); a-skad, 
e-skad ; se'zgl, arskl.] A newt, lizard. See Ask, sb. 1 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 2 w.Yks. Feyther were liggin' by 
t pond fest asleap, an' one o' them offal askards crep in at 'is ear 
(W.F.^ ; An' lile bonny askerds wad squirt amang fling, BLACKAH 
Poems (i 867^ 38; Dryaskerd,alandlizard. Watteraskerd.anewt, 
Yks. N. & Q. (1888) II. 14 ; w.Yks. 2 In Rivelin valley are three 
kinds of askers : the running asker, the water asker, and the flying 
asker, which is thesmallest ; w.Yks.^'s Lan. 1 He went a-fishin' 
an cowt nowt nobbut askerds. ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , Chs. 12 s Chs i 
Ihis plcm s as rotten as an owd asker. Dnb. Askol (E.F.). Stf. 
(K.) ; Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 Used only in the expression, ' Its kaud anuf for 
.. Der ,' 4,. nw ' Der - 1 . Nh P- 1 s.Wor. Nazgall, or 

starv askarz tad!.' 

s'posed ; Shr. 2 Shr. & Hrf. Asgal, or Ascal, BOUND Prov. (1876). 
Hrf. 1 ; Hrf. 2 Askal, a water animal, a kind of newt with rough hair 
like fimbriae [?]. Glo. Both forms, asker and asgal, are known 
i^W.H.C.) ; Glo. 1 , Dor. 1 

[Asker, a newt, KERSEY ; Asker, a sort of newt, or eft, 
Salamandria aquatica, BAILEY (1755). Der. of ask, sb. 1 , 
with suff. of uncertain origin.] 

ASKER, sb? Som. Slang. Euphemistic name for a 

w.Som. 1 A respectable servant-girl in reply to her mistress, who 
had inquired what the girl's young man did for his living, said : 
Please-m he's a-asker, and tis a very good trade indeed-m. Slang. 
The ' askers ' selling their begged bread at three halfpence the 
pound, READEAutob. Thief (1858) 37. 

[Elles he wolde of the asker delivered be, R. Rose, 6674. 
Ask, vb. + -er.] 

ASKEW, adv. Ess. Som. Cor. [askG-.] 

1. Of the legs: extended awkwardly, wide apart. 
Som. (H.G.); (G.S.) 

2. Crosswise, diagonally. 

Ess. To plough a field askew is to make furrows obliquely to 
the cross-ploughing (H. H.M.). 

3. To go askew, to be troublesome, do wrong actions. 
Cf. to gang agley. 

Cor. Likewise a thong to thock thee, ef Thee d'st ever go 
askew, FORFAR Poems (1885) 7 ; Cor. 3 A local preacher exhorted 
his audience not to go askew even if their aims were good. In 
fairly common use. 

[A-, on + skew, q.v.] 

ASKEW, prep. Obs.l Ess. Across. 

Ess. I seigh him a-coming askew the mead, A rchaeol. Soc. Trans. 
(1863) II. 181. [Not known to our correspondents.] 

ASKING(S, sb. In gen. dial, and colloq. use. Not in 
gloss, of Som. Dev. Cor. Also in the forms axingls Cum. 
Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. Shr. I.W. Dor.; exing 
Cum. [a'skinz, a'ksinz, e'ksinz.] The publication of 
banns of marriage. Usually in pi. 

Cum. Axin' (or Exin') at church (M.P.). Wm. She mud gaa 
awae et yancc an hae t'exins put up et kirk, Spec. Dial. (1880) pt 
ii. 20. n.Yks. 2 In some of our moorland churches, after the asking, 
the clerk was wont to respond with a hearty ' God speed them 
weel.' e.Yks. 1 They'r boon te be wed at last ; they'v put up axins. 
m.Yks. 1 He's agate o' reading t'askings. w.Yks. Wether they 
wer struck wi t'assin ... ah dooant naw, bud ah naw this they 
leak'd hard at me, Nidderdill Olm. (1870) ; T'day wor fixed an 
t'axins put in, an t' parson spliced them reight off, Yksman. Comic 
Ann. (1878) 17 ; Will ye gang on wi' t'axins, an' wed our Marget? 
DIXON Craven Dales (1881) 399 ; w.Yks. 1 Also called Spurrings. 
Lan. I put th' axins up about a fortnit sin, WAUGH Chinm. Corner 
(1874) 20 ; I ha no' yerd o' th' axins bein' co'ed o'er, BRIERLEY Cast 
upon World (1886) 213 ; Lan. 1 Well, thae'rt for bein' wed at th' 
lung length ; aw yer thae's getten th' axins in. e.Lan. 1 m.Lan. 1 
When aw put th' axins up, me an' th' lass as were mixt up i' th' 
job stopt away fro' th' church for three Sundays just abeawt thad 
time. Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 Oo had the axings put up ; s.Chs. 1 Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 
Tummas is goin' get married nex' month ; he's put th' axins in. 
Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 n.Lin. 1 Did ta hear Bessie's askin's last Sunda' ? 
Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 23 Shr. 1 They ad'n thar axins put up i' church 
o' Whi'sun Sunday. Sur. Fee preferred being married by 'asking,' 
as the good Surrey folk call it, BICKLEY Sur. Hills (1890) III. xvi. 
Sus. An occasional interest is given to the ceremony of asking 
by the forbidding of the banns, EGERTON Flks. and Ways (1884) 93. 
I.W. 1 , Dor. 1 

[The publication of banns (popularly called 'asking in 
the church') was intended as an expedient to prevent 
clandestine marriages, CHAMBERS Cycl. (s.v. Banns).] 

ASKLENT, adv. and prep. Sc. Irel. Nhb. [askle-nt.] 
1. adv. Aslant, on one side, obliquely. 

Sc. Frae bush to bush asklent the bank he scours, DAVIDSON 
Seasons (1789) 26 ; Read what they can in fate's dark print, And 
let them never look asklint On what they see, GALLOWAY Poems 
(1788) 102. Ayr. Maggie coost her head fu' high, Look'd asklent 
and unco skeigh, BURNS Duncan Gray (1792). Rxb. The hames 
that sent the reek asclent, RIDDELL Poet. Wks. (ed. 1871) I. 144. 
n.Ir. Ballymena Obs. (1892). Nhb. [Of a ladder resting end up 
against a wall] Ye he'd ower straight up ; set it a bit mair asklent. 
[Of a high chimney] It'll be doon if it's not seen tee ; it's lyin mair 
an' mair asklent (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 




Applied to action or conduct : dishonourably, not 
' straight.' Cp. agley. 
Ayr. Sin' thou came to tlie warl asklent, BURNS Poet's Welcome 

3. prep. Across. 

Sc. An' ilk ane brought their blads asclent her, A. SCOTT Poems 
(1808) 45. 

[A-, on + sklent, q.v.] 

ASLASH, adv. Yks. Lin. Not. Lei. War. Also written 
aslosh n.Lin. 1 Lei. 1 War. [asla'J, aslo'J".] 

1. Awry ; obliquely. See Slosh. 

n.Lin. 1 Ther's a foot-pad runs aslosh toward a steel ther' is e' 
th' plantin'. He'd getten his hat on aslosh. 

2. On one side, out of the way. 

w.Yks. 2 Come stan' aslash. Not. (J.H.B.) Lei. 1 Stan' aslosh, 
wool ye ! War. 3 

ASLAT, ppl. adj. Dev. [aslae't.] Of an earthen vessel, 
piece of furniture, &c. : cracked, split. See Slat, v. 

Dev. GROSE (1790) ; Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 422 ; HOLLOWAY. 
n.Dev.Yer, [IJeetle Bobby's plate's aslat, ROCK Jim an' Nell ( 1867) 7. 
Dev. 3 Thickee plate's aslat. Dawntee zit 'pon thickee form, 'e's 

[A-(pref.*)+slat, q.v.] 

ASLAT, see Harslet. 

ASLEEP, adv. e.An. Naut. [aslrp.] 

e.An. 1 Sails are asleep when steadily filled with wind. Suf. 
Used of sails in a calm (F.H.). Naut. The sail filled with wind 
just enough for swelling or bellying out as contrasted with its 
flapping, SMYTH Sailors' Wd-bk. (1867). 

ASLEN, adv. Som. Dev. Also written aslun Som. 
[asle'n, asla'n.] Slantwise, diagonally, ' out of the 

Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; 
w.Som. 1 Au'kurd vee-ul vur tu pluwee een ; aay shud wuurk-n 
rai't usliin- [awkward field to plough in ; I should work it right 
across diagonally]. Thick post is all aslen [not upright]. Dev. 1 

[A-. on + slen (adj.), q.v.] 

Cum. Yks. La. Not. Sus. Som. 


ASLEW, adv. 
written aslue e.Lan. 1 Som. [ashr, aslur.j 

1. Aslant, obliquely, awry. 

e.Yks. 1 n.Lan. Thoo munnet mak it aslew (W.H. H.). e.Lan. 1 
Not. 2 He's ploughing aslew. Sus. HOLLOWAY; Sus. 12 Som. W. &J. 
Gl. (1873). 

2. Amiss, out of course. 

Cum. There's nowt so far aslew, Bobbie, but good manishment 
may set it straight, CAINE Shad. Crime (1885) 19 ; Cum. 3 There's 
nowte sa far aslew, but gud manishment med set it streight, Prov. 
An' t'Clay-Dubs isn't far aslew when t'wedder isn't wet, 47. 

3. Tipsy. 
e.Yks. 1 

[A-, on + slew (vb.), q.v.] 

ASLEY, sb. Sh.I. Used only in phr. 

Sh.I. (KA. ) S. & Ork. l Horses in asley, horses belonging to 
different persons, bound firm one to another. 

ASLEY, see Lief. 

ASOL, see Hazzle, v. 

ASOON, adv. Dev. Obsol. Written azoon. Anon, 

n.Dev. [Used in] Exmore, GROSE (1790) ; Fegs, they'll be yer 
azoon, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) 3 ; Certainly not in common use 

[A- (pref. 10 ) + soon.] 

ASOOND, adv. Sh.I. [asu'nd.] In a fainting fit. 

Sh.I. In very common use (K.I.). S. & Ork. 1 He fell dead 

[This word is due to a mixture of two forms of asivoon 
(ME. on swoune), and swooned (ME. yswowned, CHAUCER), 
pp. of swoon, vb.] 

ASOSH, see Aswash. 

ASP, sb. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Chs. War. Wor. Hrf. 
Wil. Also written esp N.I. 1 Nhb. 1 Cum. w.Yks. 14 [asp, 
1. The common aspen, Populus tremula. See Aps. 

N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 Cum. Thur lass noo began teh shadder and trim- 
mel like esp leaves, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 20; Cum. 1 He 
trimmel't like an esp leaf. w.Yks. 1 4 , Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 Shaking like 
a asp. War. (J.R W.) se.Wor. 1 , Hrf. 1 Wil. Woodmen always 
call the aspen the ' asp,' JEFFERIES Gl. Estate (1880) 16. 

2. Comb. Quaking esp, Populus tremula. 

N.I. 1 

[Asp or aspen-tree, KERSEY ; Populus tremula ... in 
English aspe and aspen tree, GERARDE (ed. 1633) 1488; 
Tremble, an asp or aspen tree, COTGR. ; An espe, trettiulus, 
Catli, Angl. OE. eespe.] 

ASPAIT, adv. Sc. [aspe-t.] Of a river : in flood. 

Sc. Commonly used of a river or burn (J.W.M.). Cld. I' the 
mirk in a stound, wi' rairan' sound, Aspait the river ran, Mar- 
maiden of Clyde in Blackw. Mag. (May, 1820) (JAM.). 

[A-, on + spait or spate, q.v.] 

ASPAR, adv. Cum. [aspa-r.] Stretched out, wide 

Cum. When a man puts himself in fighting attitude, with legs 
and arms spread out, he stands aspar (J.P.) ; Cum. 1 He set his 
feet aspar. 

[A-, on + spar (to box), q.v.] 

ASPARAGUS, sb. Comb. Bath, French, Prussian, 
Wild asparagus, the young flower-scapes of Ornithogalum 
pyrenaicMtn (Som.) ; Foxtailed asparagus, Eqiiisetum 
maximum (Glo.). 

Som. Bath asparagus, tied up in bundles, and sold in Bath market. 

ASPEN, sb. Hit. Populus alba. 

The name is generally applied elsewhere only to Populus 

ASPERSEAND, sb. Irel. A term of abuse : a wretch. 

w.Ir. The ould dhrunken asperseand, as she is, LOVER Leg. 
(1848) I. 198. 

ASPLEW, adv. ? Obs. Som. Of the legs : extended 
awkwardly, wide apart. 

Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873). [Unknown to all our correspondents.] 

ASPODE, adv. n.Yks. Of the legs: wide apart, 
stretched out. 

n.Cy. Aspaud (HALL.). n.Yks. He stood with his legs aspodc 

ASPOLE, adv. Cum. Of the legs : wide asunder. 

Cum. 1 [Not known to our correspondents.] 

ASPRAWL, adv. Brks. Ken. Hmp. [aspr^'l, aspra-1.] 

1. Headlong, sprawling. 

Brks. 1 Falling down with legs and arms helplessly extended on 
the ground is said to be ' vallin' all aspraal.' Ken. The horse fell 
down and we were pitched all asprawl on to the road (P.M.). 
Hmp. 1 He fell all asprawl. 

2. In confusion, gone wrong. 
Ken. 1 The pig-trade's all asprawl now. 
[A-, on -f sprawl, vb.] 

ASPROUS, adj. Lei. War. [a-spras.] Of the weather : 
raw, inclement. 

Lei. 1 It's a very asprous dee. War. 3 

[Fr. aspre, sharp, harsh, rough (CoxGR.) + -ous.} 

ASQUAT, adv. Lan. War. Dor. [askwo't.] In a 
squatting posture, squatting. 

ne.Lan. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Dor. 1 A gay-tongued lot of hay- 
miakers be all a-squot, 122. 

[A-, on + squat, vb.] 

ASQUIN, see Aswint. 

ASS, see Ash. 

ASSAL, see Axle. 

ASS'ARD, see Arseward. 

ASSEGAR, see Assinego. 

ASSEL-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 

ASS(EN-HEAD, sb. Yks. [a-s-iad.] A blockhead. 

e.Yks. 1 Assen-heead, MS. add. (T.H.) 

ASSHEFLAY, see Accroshay. 

ASSIDUE, sb. w.Yks. [a-sidiu.] 

1. Thin brass tinsel of a bright gold colour ; a kind of 
Dutch metal. 

w.Yks. [At the Scotland feast (May 29) in Sheffield] garlands 
are composed of hoops, . . . with foliage and flowers, . . . ribands, 
rustling with asidew, HONE Evety-day Bk. (1827) II. 1262 ; A thin 
knife-blade is said to be as thin as assigew [sic] (S.O.A.) ; w.Yks. 2 
Mummers at Christmas, not being able to afford gold leaf, decked 
their bright and coloured garments with the thin metallic leaf. 
People speak of ' working for assidue ' as equivalent to working 
for nothing. Also contemptuously, ' as thin as assidue ' ; w.Yks. 4 

M 2 


[8 4 ] 


2. Copperas water used for blacking the edges of boots. 

w Yks 2 

fAre you pufft up with the pride of your wares .'your 
arsedine, B. JONSON Earth, fair, n i (NARES). Etym. 
and even the orig. form unknown. The word is spelt in 
various ways in lit. E. : arsowde, orsidtie, orsady; see 

N ASSILAG, r fb. "'sc. The Storm Petrel, Procellaria 

so called in the Hebrides, SWAINSON Birds (1885) 21 1 ; (JAM.) 
ASSIL-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 
ASSINEGO, sb. Obsol. Dev. Cor. Also in the forms 
assneger Dev. Cor. 12 ; asnegar Dev. ; assegar Dev. 1 

Dev^osses and marcs, assnegers, moylcs, PETER PINDAR Royal 
Vis. (1795) St. 4 ; GROSE (1790) MS. add. ,'C.) n.Dev. My ould 
asneger'll doo vor put Into a little gurry-butt. KOCK Jim an Nell 
11867) st 74- Dev. 1 Polwhcle (Hist. Dev.} says that the common 
appellation of [the ass] is assegar, but I have never heard this 
term. Cor. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 
2. A fool, simpleton. 

Cor A term of reproach, not much in use, is ' Thee arc an as- 
sineger' ( W.S.) ; Cor. 1 Do 'ee be quiet, thee assneger ; Cor. 2 

fl We jogged leisurely on upon our mules and 
asinegoes, HERBERT Trav. (1634) 127 (N.E.D.). 2. All 
this would be forsworn, and I again an asinego, B. & I-L. 
Scornf. Lady (NARES); An assmego (ed. 1606, asinico) 
may tutor thee, SHAKS. Tr. 6* Cr. n. i. 49- Sp. asnico, 
a little asse, MINSHEU.] 
ASSLE, see Axle. 

ASSOILYIE, v. Sc. Also written assoilzie, see 
below. To acquit, free from a charge (in law courts) ; to 

Sc. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; (JAM).; The defender was 
assoilzied, SCOTT Waverley (1814) xlviii; 'God assoilzie her!' 
ejaculated old Elspeth, 'she was a hard-hearted woman,' ib. 
Antiquary (1816) xxvi. 

[ME. assoilen, to absolve. I yow assoile, by myn heigh 
power, CHAUCER C. T. c. 913. AFr. assoiler ; cp. que Dieu 
assoillef ( = Lat. quern Dens absolvat.'), a prayer for the 

ASSOL, sb. Irel. [a-sl.] An ass. 

Ir. Guiding and whipping the poor assol, KENNEDY Fireside 
Stones (1870) 93. w. & s.Ir. Occas. heard (J.S.). 
[Ir. asal, an ass.] 
ASSUD, see Arseward. 

ASSYPOD, sb. Sc. Nhb. [a'si-pod.] A dirty, 
slatternly woman. See Ashypet, Ashiepattle, 2. 

Bwk. The assy pods o' Blackhill, Will neithur sing nor pray, 
HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 38. Nhb. Get away wi" ye ! yor 
nowt but an assipod (G.H.T.). 

[Assy for ashy, adj. der. of ash, ashes +pod (a person of 
small stature), q.v.] 

ASSYTH, v. Sc. Also written assyith, syith, sithe 
(JAM.). [asi')>.] To make a compensation, to satisfy. A 
legal term. 

Sc. Still used in courts of law (JAM.). 

Hence Assythement, sb. compensation, satisfaction, 
atonement for an offence. A legal term. 

Sc. The blood-wit was made up to your ain satisfaction by assythe- 
ment, SCOTT Waverley (1814) xlviii. 

[From ME. asith, satisfaction, compensation. Whom I 
begylyd to him I will Make a-sith agayne, York Plays, 
215. This is the n. form of aseth. Hit sufficith nat for 
a-seth, P. Plowman (c.) xx. 203. OFr. aset'm the phr./ere 
aset, ' satisfacere.'] 

ASTEAD, adv. n.Cy. to Yks. and Chs. ; also Stf. Sur. 
Also written isteed Nhb. 1 ; asteead Wm. n.Yks. e.Yks. 1 
w.Yks.; asteed w.Yks. ; astid s.Chs. 1 Stf. 2 [astrd, 
sstia'd.] Instead. 

Nhb. 1 Dur. Asteed o' putt'n' 'er i' Kitty, EGGLESTONE Betty 
Podkins' Let. (1877) 8. Cum. Astead o shuttan snipes, DICKINSON 
Lamplugh (1856) 8 ; Cut intull me finger astead ev t'taty, Willy 
Wattle (1870) 7 ; Cum. 3 Asteed of Amen, I say, ' m'appen I may,' 
38. Wm. An waare ote [all the] bit a brass thae hev for im asteead 
a gittin t'pooar wife an t'baarns summut tu it, CLARKE Spec. Dial. 
(1868) pt, iii. 31. n.Yks. Asteead o' bein' thenkfull, TWEDDELL 

Clevtl Rhymes (1875; 36; Astead ' S cttin S awa J'- Broaii Yks - 
'i88si ^ eYks.' w.Yks. He thowt fdicky wor to be used 
asteed of a 'shirt. CUDWORTH Dial, and Sketches .1884} 28; 

'a bin all reel, a stead o' bein creackt, ' 
New Year (1888) 10. Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 s.Stf. I axed him to let the 
rent stond but astid o' that he put the bums in, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. 
Ann (1895) Stf. 2 Mother went, astid o mC. Sur. 1 canna give 
vou a present, but I'd loike 'ee to taike this ride astead, BICKLEV 
Sr. Hills (1890) III. iv ; Only used by old people ,T.T.C.X 

[A-, an + stead (OE. stede, place). ME. on stede. And 
he toe him on sunes stede, Gen. &* Ex. 2637.] 

ASTEEP, adv. Sc. [asti'p.] To lay, set the brain 
asleep, to ponder, revolve in the mind, make a mental 


Sc. I daresay you couldn't guess, though you set your brains 
asteep, SETOUN Sunshine (1895) 272 ; In common use. I'll lay mi- 
brains asleep ower it (J.W.M.). Lnk. I dinna wonder at them 
layin' their brains asleep to fin' oot, FRASER Whaups fiSgs) xiii. 

[Laying it asleep in ... quickening meditation, RANEW 
in SPURGEON Treas. Day. (1672) xxxix. 3 (N.E.D.). A-, 
on + steep (to soak in a liquid).] 

ASTEER, adv. Obsol. Sc. Yks. Moving about, 
active, bustling. 

Sc. Ye're air asteer the day (JAM.) ; My minny she's a scalding 
wife, Hads a' the house asteer, RITSON Sngs. (1794) I. 45 (JAM.) ; 
Ere Martinmas drear set the Factor asteer, THOM Rhymes (1844) 
107; The haill Hielands are asteer, SCOTT Leg. Mont. (1830) vi. Ayr. 
Wha was it but Grumphie Asteer that night ! BURNS Halloween 
(1785). w.Yks. 1 Country foak war au asteer, ii. 359. 

[A-, on + steer (stir, commotion). ME. on steir. That 
lord and othir var on steir (were astir), HARBOUR Bruce 
xix. 577.] 

ASTEL, sb. Cor. Also written astull, astyllen. 

1. A board or plank, an arch or ceiling of boards, over 
the men's heads in a mine, to protect them (WEALE). 

Cor. 2 

2. A ridge or dam to stop a stream in a mine, or to bank 
off ore from rubbish at the mouth ; a wall underground, 
to prevent the giving way of the ' deeds,' q.v. 

Cor. 2 MS. add. 

[Astelle, a schyyd, Teda, as/ula, Prompt. OFr. astelle, 
der. of aste, a stick, a splint, Lat. hasta.] 

ASTHORE, phr. Irel. A term of endearment : my 
treasure ! 

Ir. Don't ye rest aisy, Michael asthore ? Spectator (Oct. 26, 1889) ; 
Molly asthore, I'll meel you agin to-morra, TENNYSON To-morrow 
(1885). Wxf. Shut your eyes, asthore, and go sleep, KENNEDY Even. 
Duffrey (1869) 49. 

[An Ir. phr. A- (sign ol the voc.)-f-s/o>, store, 
treasure. Cp. ME. stoor, OFr. estor.] 

ASTITE, adv. phr. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Yks. Lan. Also 
written asty N.Cy. 1 ; astit w.Yks. 1 ne.Lan. 1 [ss-stai't.] 
Of preference or comparison : as soon, rather. 

Ayr., Lnk., Dmf. I would astit rin the kintry [would rather 
banish myself]. Astit better (JAM.). n.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 12 
Nhb. 1 Aa wad astile slop where aa is. Ye'd astite gan wiv us. 
Dur. 1 n.Yks. 2 I'd as tite nut gan. w.Yks. THORESSV Lett. (1703) ; 
WRIGHT Gram. Wndhll. (1892) 50; Common in Wilsden, Leeds 
Merc. Suppl. (May 30, 1891) ; w.Yks. 1 Ye mud astile at yunce 
hev eshed for our laithe, ii. 293 ; w.Yks. 4 Lan. 1 1 can go aslile as 
him. ne.Lan. 1 [Aslide (K.).] 

[Astite, as soon, anon, COLES (1677). ME. Antenor 
alstite amet to speike, Dest. Troy, 11693. As + tite 
(quickly), q.v. The phr. means lit. ' as quickly as possible.'] 

ASTLEY, see Lief. 

ASTOGGED, see Stog. 

ASTONIED, ppl. adj. Nhb. Nhp. Obsol. Astonished, 
in consternation. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Still in use, but rare (R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 , Nhp. 1 

[And anoon al the puple seynge Jhesu, was astonyed, 
WYCLIF (1388) Mark ix. 14; For so astonied am I that I 
deye ! CHAUCER Tr. & Cr. n. 427. OFr. estoner (mod. 
e'tonner), to astonish.] 




ASTOOP, adv. Wm. Yks. [astirp.] Of an aged 
person : bent, stooping. 

Wm. (B.K.) n.Yks. Old John gans sair astoop (I.W.). n.Yks. 2 
e. Yks. Awd man gets ti gan varry mitch astoop, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. 
(1889) 89. e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) w.Yks. He gooas varry 
mich astoop (B.K.). 

[A-, on + stoop.] 

ASTORE, adv. Brks. I.W. Wil. Also written astoor 
Brks. 1 ; astour I.W. 1 [astua f (r).] Speedily, shortly, 
very quickly. 

Brks. 1 I.W. The duck's [dusk] coming on ; I'll be off in astore, 
MONCRIEFF Dream in Gent. Mag. (18631; I.W. 1 Wil. 1 An ex- 
iletive. She's gone into the street astore. 

[A-, on + store (quantity).] 

ASTOUND, ppl. adj. Chs. War. Astonished. 

Chs. 12 , War. (J.R.W.) 

[With staring countenance sterne as one astownd, 
SPENSER F. Q. i. viii. 5 ; Ase a mesel ther he lay Astouned 
in spote and blode, SHOREHAM, 88 (MATZNER). ME. 
astounien (astunien), OFr. estoner, see Astonied. | 

ASTRADDLE, adv. Sc. Cum. Yks. Lan. Lei. War. 
Oxf. Brks. Hmp. Som. Also written astroddle War. 
Lei. 1 Oxf. Som. ; astraddle Cum. [astra'dl.] Astride ; 
with legs wide apart. 

Fif. Astraddle on their proud steeds full of fire, TENNANT Attsier 
(1812) 32, ed. 1871. Ayr. The tongs were placed astraddle in 
front of the grate, GALT Entail (1823) xxvi. Cum. We pot t'winn- 
lass astruddle eh t'wholl, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 224. w.Yks. 
That young lad wot thah seed jump into't sea, an get astraddle on 
a piece a powl, Shevvild Ann. (1849) 5. ne.Lan. 1 . Lei. 1 , War. 
(J.R.W.), War. 3 , Oxf. 1 MS. add., Brks. 1 Hmp. Astraddle a harse 
( H.C.M.B.). Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873) ; Agian my feavorite hobby 
I'm gwain to mount a straddle on, ' AGRIKLER' Rhymes (1872) 10. 
w.Som. 1 Neef aay diid-n 2ee ur ruydeen dh-oal au's aup ustrad'l, 
sae'um-z u guurt bwuuy [if I did not see her riding the old horse 
up astride, like a great boy]. 

[Astraddle, Varicitus, COLES (1679). A-, on + straddle, q.v.] 

ASTRE, sb. Obsol. n.Cy. Der. Stf. Lei. Shr. Ken. 
Also written aster nw.Der. 1 ; aister nw.Der. 1 Shr. 1 ; 
aistre Stf. ; easter n.Cy. ; ester Lei. The back of a 
chimney or grate. See Back-aister. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790); (P.R.) ; N.Cy. 2 , nw.Der. 1 , Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 
S bro(> blobard S3 fast Sis mornin Sat S'seistor's 5 squatid wi 
gris. Lei. 1 My hay was over-heated, and is as black as the ester. 
Shr. 1 Wy look 'ow y'on collowed yore face ! as if yo'd newly 
comen down the chimley and kissed the aister. ' As black as the 
aister ' is a phrase employed to express any sooty, grimy appear- 
ance. Ken. O65. (P.M.) ; Ken. 12 [Easter (K.).] 

[Astre, that is to say, the stocke, harth, or chimney, for 
fire . . . which, though it be not now commonly under- 
stood in Kent ; yet do they of Shropshire and other parts 
reteine it in the same signification till this day, LAMBARDE 
PerambrKent (1576) 562, ed. 1596. OFr. astre (mod. dtre), 
a hearth ; cp. G. estrich, a pavement, It. dstrico ( FLORID).] 

ASTREES, sb. Or. I. The beam of a plough. 

5. & Ork. 1 Or.I. (JAM.) 

ASTRIDDLE, adv. Nhb. Cum. [astrrdl.] Astride ; 
with the legs wide apart. 

Nhb. 1 

Hence Astriddling, ppl. adj. sitting astride. 

Cum. Astriddlin' cocked o th' hallan,GiLPiN Pop. Poetry(i8-]5)6s. 

[A-, on + striddle, der. of stride.] 

ASTRIDE, adv. Yks. [astrai'd.] Phr. to be, seem astride 
of, (i) to make progress with, be master of; (2) to hold a 

(i) w.Yks. He hez ta hev it done i' two month, and he seems 
weel astride on't (M.F.) ; (J.T.). (2) (J.T.) 

ASTROUT, aafr. Nhp. I.W. Dor.Som.Dev. [astretrt.] 
Stretched out stiffly. 

Nhp. 1 I.W. 2 My vingersbe all astrout wi' the coold. Dor. The 
players' pockets wer a-strout Wi' wold brown pence a-rottlen in, 
BARNES Poems (1869) 102 ; Dor. 1 He jump'd about, Wi' girt new 
shirt-sleeves all a-strout, 206. Som. Vailed down wi' her lags all 
astrout, RAYMOND Gent. Upcott (1893) 85 ; SWEETMAN Wincanton 
Gl. (1885). Dev. 1 

[A-strowt, turgide, Prompt. 480; A-, on + strout, q.v.] 

ASTRUT, adv. Yks. Lin. Nhp. [astnrt.] Stretched 
out; projecting. 

n.Yk8. 2 Said of the legs in a state of expansion. m.Yks.> 
n.Lin.i Jutting out, as a buttress does. Nhp. 1 It stands astrut. 

[Theyre belyes standinge a strutte with stuffing, MORE 
Confnt. Tindale (1532) 589 (N.E.D.) ; Astrut, turgide, 
Prompt., ed. Pynson (see Way, 480). A-, on + strut, q.v.] 

ASTULL, see Astel. 

ASTY, see Astite. 

ASTYLLEN, see Astel. 

ASWAIP, adv. Sc. Yks. faswe-p.] Aslant, on one 

Slk. (JAM.) n.Yks. It lies aswape (I.W.). 

[A-, on+swape (to place aslant), q.v.] 

ASWASH, adv. e.An. Also in e.An. 1 asosh, ashosh. 
faswo'J, aso 1 /.] Awry, aslant. 

Nrf. (A.G.), Nrf. 1 , e.An.i 

[Guingois, de Guingois, slovenly, unevenly, awry; 
also huffingly, swaggeringly aswash ; . . . Chamarre, a. 
loose and light gown that may be worn a swash or skarf- 
wise, COTGR. ; A sosshe as one weareth his bonnet, a 
gyngoys, PALSGR. A-, on + swash (vb.), q.v.] 

ASWIM, adv. Sc. [aswi-m.] Afloat, covered with 

Sc. The soldiers sleeping carelessly in the bottom of the ship, 
were all a-swim, through the water that came in at the holes and 
leaks of the ship, SPALDING Hist. Troubles (1792) I. 60 (JAM.) ; 
Commonly used in this sense (J.W.M.). 

[A-, on + swim.] 

ASWINT, adv. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Also 
written aswinDur. 1 w.Yks. 14 ; asquin w.Yks. 1 [aswi-nt, 
aswi'n.] Awry, crooked, obliquely. See Swin. 

Dur. 1 , Cum. 1 , Wm. 1 , n.Yks. 3 e.Yks. Put blind right, it's all 
aswint. Obsol. in Holderness (R.S.) ; e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 Lan. 
Commonly used in Burnley some years ago. Of a footpath 
across a field, ' It goes aswin,' Manch. City News (Mar. 21, 1896). 
n.Lan. This boord' gitten aswin wi liggen i t'sun (W.H.H.). Lan. 1 
He geet it aswint, an cudna set it straight hissel. ne.Lan. 1 

[Prob. the same word as lit. E. asquint, used only with 
ref. to looking obliquely.] 

ASWIR, adv. ? Obs. Lan. Diagonally, aslant. 

e.Lan. 1 

ASWISH, adv. Yks. Not. Lin. [aswi-J.] Aslant, 

w.Yks. 2 Now don't cut that truss of hay all aswish. Not. 2 s.Not. 
Straighten that table-cloth ; yer've laid it all aswish (J.P.K.). 
sw.Lin. 1 You see it's aswish way ; it's not straiet, it's aswish. 
Two pair of cottages recently built at Whisby slantwise to the road 
have received popularly the name of ' The a-swish houses.' 

[A-, on + swish (vb.), q.v. The mg. of the adv. is devel- 
oped fr. the use of swish, yb., in the sense of making 
a movement slantingly as with a whip or scythe.] 

AT, prep. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. Eng. Amer. [at.] 

I. Obsol. Used instead of to as the sign of the infini- 

Cum. 1 I's gaan at git my poddish ; Cum. 2 Aw wad leyke at gan 
to Carel ; Cum. 3 An' ivery mak' o' pains they teuk ut git 'em 
druven away, 99 ; An priss them hard the'r bit o' land ut swap, 95. 
Wm. Parliament's gaan et meak a la' et thear's to be full moon for 
three months, BRIGGS Remains (1825) 217; A woman cam fra' 
Dent at see a nebbor. At larn at knit, SOUTHEY Knitters e' Dent 
in Doctor (1848) 558 ; Wm. 1 Ets nowt at dow [it's of no use]. 
He's nowt at dow [he is good for nothing]. n.Yks. 1 What's at 
do, now ? Now rarely used. n.Lan. Hev I at gang t3 t'markot 
tade ? (W.S.) ne-Lan. 1 I don't like at see it. 

II. Of place or position. 

1. Used redundantly to denote rest in a place, dwelling, 
position. In gen. use. 

Cum. It's a varra sensible thing and aw, . . . that sheep should know 
theer oan ' heafs.' We could niwer ken whar sheep was at if they 
didn't, Helvellyn in Cornh. Mag. (Oct. 1890) 383. Wm. 1 Whar is 
t'at ? n.Lin. 1 He's left Croasby an' I doan't knaw wheare he's at 
noo. Nhp. 1 Now his mother's dead where is he at ? He does 
not know where to be at now. Wil. 1 Th' rwoad be all up at hill 
[uphill]. [Amer. Where is he at ? (BARTLETT).] 

2. Referring a condition or sensation to a particular 
place : in, about. 

Cum. What seesta' at hur, GRAHAM Gwordy (1778) 1. 53. n.Yks. 
(I.W.) I. Ma. He has ... no bowels of compassion at him, CAINE 
Manxman (1894) pt. II. i ; Lies with a stink at them, BROWNE 




Doctor (i88i) 3. Chs. 1 ; Chs. 3 A pain at her stomach. War. 

3. Phr. to be at. (i) With obj. of person : to demand of, 

to importune. (2) With obj. of thing : to do, set about, 

esp. of bad or mischievous acts. (3) With vbl. sb. : in the 

act of, at the point of. 

(i) n.Yks. 1 Well, I was at my lord agen laast neeght, an' he said 

he wad nae hev it sae. Ah was at t' priest about it, but 'twur te 

na use. (2) Yks. What he'd be at, MUNBY Verses (1865) 66. Not. 

I don't know what they'll be at next (L.C.M.). n.Lin. 1 Oor Jack's 
oot o' Ketton [prison] once moore ; I wonder what he'll be at next 
to get his sen putten in agean. Nhp. 1 What are you at ? What arc 
you going to be at ? is often said when any one is mischievously 
inclined. Hnt. (T.P.F.) n.Wil. What be at thur? (E.H.G.) 
w.Som. 1 Yuur-z aa't ut [here's at it], a very common expression 
on beginning or resuming work. Aa-1 bee aa't ut, fuus dhing 
maa'ru mau'rneen [I will be at it, first thing to-morrow morning]. 
(3) Cor. The beef is at roasting, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; The 
water is just at boiling (M.A.C.). 

4. Motion to, arrival at a place or condition. 

Ir. To call at [visit a person] (G.M.H.). Cum. Old people used 
to say ' they were gaun at church ' (M.P.). Wm. He cam at a 
coffin, liggen, Lonsdale Mag. (1821) II. 267 ; Wm. 1 Aa's gang at 
sea [I'm going to sea]. Yks. At an' thro", at an' for'ard [to and fro] 
(C.C.R.). e.Yks. It's a spot I never gans at (^E.B.). n.Lin. 1 When 
ye cum at th' big elmin-tree ye mun to'n to th' reight. It'll all 
be th' yung Squire's when he cums at aage. 

5. In phr. to come, go at. (i) With obj. of person: to attack, 
contend with, compete with ; freq. with ellipsis of v. of 
motion. (2) With obj. of thing : to attack, set about, do. 

(i) w.Yks. If ta duz, il [he will] at >3. I up [he was up] an at 
im i' nua taim (J.W.). e.Lan. 1 Go at him. At him with your feet. 
Chs. 1 If tha says that again, I'll at thee. Stf. 2 Weet till th' bobby 
cums at him, he'll may 'im goo. Dor. 1 We dree'll at you dree. 
Som. I'll at you in a game, PULMAN Sketches (1842) 77, ed. 1871. 
Colloq. Up, Guards, and at 'em [saying traditionally ascribed to 
Wellington, on the day of the battle of Waterloo, Tune 18, 1815], 
(a) Not. (L.C.M.) Nhp. 2 What are ye gwain at ? 

6. Fig. Of feeling towards a person. 

Sc. Angry at him, Scotic. (1787) 8 ; A hatred at him (G.W.); 
He was the last to hae an ill-will at ony ane, ROY Horseman 
(1895) viii. Ayr. Ye just hae a spite at the bairn, GALT Entail 
(1823) viii. Yks. A wor that mad at im wol a cudn't bide (J.W.). 
ii.Lan. Me muther's childer were mad at ma, PHIZACKERLEY Sng. 
Sol. (1860) i. 6. Not. Was ragged [wrath] at him (W.H.S.) 
s.Not. I wor mad at 'im (J.P.K.). 

HI. Of time or occasion. 

1. Time when ; often used redundantly. 

Sc. When I got home last Monday at e'en, WHITEHEAD Daft 
Davie (1876) 131. w.Yks. 5 When's he boun? Haw, to-morn at 
neet [to-morrow at night]. He's coming at Setterda neet. 

2. In phr. (i) at long, finally; (2) long and at last, in 
the end ; (3) the first onset, at first ; (4) the long 
length, at last ; (5) time and time, at various times. 

(i) Ayr. So at long . . . Miss Jenny was persuaded to put her 
name to the paper, GALT Legatees (1820) i. (a) Ant. At lang an' at 
last, Ballymena Obs. ( 1892). (3) Hrt. (H.G.) (4) Lan. At th' lung 
length aw geet him laid still, WAUGH Sngs. (1866) 8, ed. 1871. 
(5) w.Yks. Thease not a bairn e all Pogmoor but wot ive nurst at 
time an^' time, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Trip ta Lunnan (1851) 15. 
Lan. Th' pranks 'at it's played abeaut this plaze at time an' time! 
HARLAND & WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 62. 

IV. Of agent or action. 

1. Of agent : by. 

I.Ma. You must have been found in the bulrushes at Pharaoh's 
daughter and made a prophet of, CAINE Manxman (1894) pt. v. 
xviii ; It's never been worn at me, ib. pt. vi. i. 

2. Denoting the person from whom a thine is received 
from, at the hands of. 

e.Yks. 1 Ah weeant tak sike sauce at him. w.Yks. 2 Alice took 
the milk at him. Lan. The new bride to tak 'em at him, 'EAVES- 
DROPPER Vill Life (1869) 9. I.Ma. I'm hearing the like at some of 
them, CAINE Manxman (1894) pt. i. iv. nw.Der. 1 ' Tak it at him ' 
applied to taking or reaching something from a person who stands 
on a higher or lower level, as on a cart, &c. 

3. With v. of listening, asking, &c., denoting the person 
or source from which information is received 

Sc. I asked at him, Scotic. (1787) 9 ; After some weeks she sought 
an opportunity of inquiring at himself by visiting him, WHITEHEAD 

Daft Davie (1876) 149 ; To ' ask at ' is an everyday Scoticism. Ask 
at, inquire at, the footman. Apply at the gardener (G.W.). Frf. 
The bairn juist aye greets when I speir at her, BARRIE Thrums 
(1889) xxii. n-Yks. 1 T'maaster wur here a bit syne, an' he wur 
speirin at me about apples. w.Yks. Listen at it, LUCAS Stud. 
Nidderdale (c. 1882) 231. Not. ' Listen at ' is familiar, though 
' listen ' itself is little used colloquially, ' hark ' being the common 
verb. Just hark at him [expressiveofastonishmentandincredibility]. 
Hark at what I'm going to say (W.H.S.). 

4. Phr. to do something at. (\) With obi. of person : to 
molest, interfere with. (2) With obj. of thing : to see to, 
mend, alter. 

(i) n.Yks. 1 What did he do at thee? ne.Yks. 1 What hez sha 
deean at t'bairn ? Lan. Aw'll pay yon mon off for what he did at 
me tother day, WOOD Hum. Sketches, 15. Chs. 1 Tak care or 
he'll do summat at thee. Stf. 2 Tak' care o' th' kid and dunna let 
nobody do nuthin at 'im. Not. What's he done at the child? 
(L.C.M.) sw.Lin. 1 What have you been doing at the bairn ? 
Lei. 1 Whatiwer are ye a-doin' at him ? War. 2 What are yo' 
adooin" at the lad ? War. 3 Shr. 1 Yo' needna be afeard, I amma 
gwein to do nuthin at yo' ; Shr. 2 'A binna yable to doa anything 
at him. (2) Cum. 2 Ah can dui nought mairat it. n-Yks. 1 Ah caan't 
dee owght mair at it [spoken by a workman of a job of work he 
had been labouring at]. w.Yks. 2 What will you do at it? ne.Lan. 1 
Hey ta done ouht at it? Not. 1 Nhp. 1 Your house will tumble 
about your ears soon, if nothing is done at it ; Nhp. 2 Wants doin' 
summat at. War. (J.R.W.) Shr. 2 This road ull be daingerous 
jist now, if a dunna doa sommat at it. Hnt. (T.P.F.) 

V. Of cause, relation, or condition. 

1. Used advb. denoting reason : for. 

Nhb. 1 What are ye stannin' thereat? [My informant confirms the 
use of the ex. given above, but thinks it quite a casual expression, 
certainly not of frequent use. I do not know of its occurrence 
elsewhere than in Newcastle (R.O.H.).] 

2. In exchange for, on ; at nought, on no account, on no 

_ n.Yks. Ah didn't like't at nowt (I.W.). w.Yks. Ah wodn't be 
i' his shoes at no consideration, Brighouse News (Aug. 10, 1889) ; 
Ah wodn't diu sitch a thing at nowt. Ah wodn't like to live 
yonder at nowght (JE.B.). n.Lin. 1 I wo'dn't hev sich an aidled 
bairn at noht. 

3. Phr. to think at, to think of, about. 

e.Lan. 1 Didn't think at it. Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 Ar mester iz 3 toidi 
chap ; ei thinks nuthin at lendin ya eifakrain an nivar aksin for 
it bak agen. Shr. 1 'Er thought nuthin at it, Introd. Ixxxii. 

VI. Phr. (i) at all, used in positive clauses: absolutely, 
altogether; (2) all at all, emphatic form of at all; (3) 

ane mae wft, at the last push ; (4) a' will, to the 
utmost that one could wish ; (5) back on, behind ; (6) 
gaze, staring; (7) the head on, in celebration of; (8) - 
least ways, least wise, at least ; (9) odds, at variance; 
(10) one end of, mixed up in, connected with ; (u) - 
oneself, sound, healthy in mind and body ; (12) outs, at 
enmity; (13) play, unoccupied, keeping holiday ; (14) 

thee, here's at thee, I agree, here you are ; (15) yonder, 
yont on, beyond. 

(i) Sc, (JAM.) Ir. And what at all have you got there, BARLOW 
Lisconnel (1895) 262 ; It's the greatest fun at all (G.M.H.). I.Ma. 
Is the woman mad at all? CAINE Manxman (1895) pt. u. i. (a)Sc. 
I canna gang there at a', at a' ( J AM. Suppl.). Ir. Would there be e'er 
a funeral iver goin' black on the road at all at all ? BARLOW Lisconnel 
( l8 95) 3 a i But whin we got up to him, who was it at all at all 
but Maurice. . . . An' shure he havn't the colour av a Christian at 
all at all, Spectator (Oct. 26, 1889). w.Ir. Who are you, at all at all ? 
LOVER Leg. (1848) I. 6 ; Divil the taste of a burn was an it at all 
at all, ib. 41. Lim. (G.M.H.) (3) Sc. He looks as he were at ane 
mae wi't, Perils of Men, i. 310 ; As to the storm I can tell you my 
sheep are just at ane mae wi't, Blackw. Mag. (Mar. 1823) 313 (JAM.). 
(4) Sc. (JAM.) (5) w.Yks. Pitched us tent just at back on it, 
Shewild Ann. (1854) 2 ; At back on him wor sum pillars an' flaar 
stands, TOM TREDDLEHOYLE Fr. Exhibition (c. 1856) 28. (6) When 
they had stood at gaze for about a minute, SCOTT Leg. Mont. (1830) 
ii. (7) w.Yks. Aw wor wed last Monday. .. an aw'd a treeat 
at th' heead on't, HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1891) 30 ; Shoo wor foorced 
to laff too, an' they left th' childer to laik bi thersen, wol they went 
to get a drop o' summat at th' heead on it, ib. (1890) 21 ; A man 
finds people feasting or drinking and asks, ' Hullo ! what's this 
at t'head on ?' The answer may be, ' It's at t'head o' nought,' 
which means they are feasting for feasting's sake (S.P.U.). (8) 




Lei. 1 , War. 3 n.Yks. 2 At-least-wise it seems to be seea. (9) 
Der. 2 , War. (J.R.W.) (10) Chs. 1 If he's not at one eend on it, 
it'll be done wrong. If there's to be anny o' that work goin on, aw 
mun be at one eend on it mysel. (n) Abd. Hallach'd anddamish'd, 
and scarce at hersell, Ross ffelenore ( 1768) 23, ed. 1812. N.I. 1 He's 
no at himsel [he's not well]. Ant. A haeny [have not] been 
at mysel', Ballymena Obs. (1892). (12) Der. Him and me are at 
outs (H.R.) ; Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 (13) Stf. To be 'at play' is most 
commonly used by workpeople who are in a situation but are 
keeping a holiday: Wei shan bei at pli neks wik [we shall be at 
play next week]. Occasionally, but more rarely, the phrase is 
used to express ' out of work ' : Oi bin at pli far threi munth an 
oi konnar get a job nuwier (A.P.) ; Stf. 1 (14) w.Yks. Jim, seein 
he wor nobbud a little chap, said ' Hauf-a-craan, mi lad.' ' Here's at 
tha,' said little fella, thrawin daan his brass, Dewsbre Olm. ( 1866) 5. 
(15) n.Yks. 2 It's at yonder on't [it's at a distance further from it]. 
[I. He ioyid as geaunt at ren the way, HAMPOLE Ps. 
xviii. 6 ; Braste out at grete, Wars Alex. 8va (Ashmole 
MS.) ; He bat stibest wenes to stande (Vesp. MS., at stand), 
Cursor M. 61. ON. at (with inf.), at vita, to know. II. 2. 
I am pale at my heart, SHAKS. M. for Meas. iv. iii. 157 ; 
Glad at soul, ib. Oth. i. iii. 196. 4. Hit plesit wele the 
pepull at Parys to wende, Dest. Troy, 2674. OE. Ge ne 
comon set me, Matt. xxv. 43. 5. Have at thee, Jasoun ! 
CHAUCER Leg. G. W. 1383. IV. 1. I have be shriven this 
day at my curat, ib. C. T. D. 2095. 2. Thenne gan Gyle 
borwe hors at meny grete maistres, P. Plowman (c.) HI. 
176. 3. Aske at Alexander, Wars Alex. 1670; I axed this 
at hevene king, CHAUCER C. T. G. 542.] 

AT, rel. pron. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. 
Lan. Der.(?)Lin. Also written ute.Lan. 1 ; et nw.Der. 1 [at.] 
1. Who, whom, which, that. 

Sc. 'At is gen. used (G.W.). Per. Him 'at wrote Judas Iscariot 
the first Residuary, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 201. 
Wxf. 1 He at nouth fade t'zey [he that knows what to say], 90. 
Nhb. ' As ' is not used for a rel. pron. ; we should inevitably 
say ' Last Monday at ever was.' That varry day it he cam hyem 
(R.O.H.) ; Nhb. 1 Them at's gan up. Dur. Him 'at went to 
foreign parts (A.B.). Cum. He gat helpt up on a plank at was 
laid cross two barrels, DICKINSON Lamplugh (1856) 5; T' watch- 
men 'et went about t'toon fand ma, ib. Sng. Sol. (1859) v. 7 ; Yan 
o' t'best mowers 'at ivver was i' this country, RICHARDSON Talk 
(1871) 58, ed. 1873. Wm. Let me net wish ought at's bad, 
HUTTON Bran New Wark (1785) 1. 151 ; T'sang o' sangs, 'at's 
Solomon's, RICHARDSON Sng. Sol. (1859) i. i ; Where stands a 
mansion newly built Et cost a sect o' brass, WHITEHEAD Leg. 
(1859) 7. Yks. If ye'll find me a fine lady 'at's been t'boarding 
school 'at addles more nor I do mysen, I'll go servant to her 
again, TAYLOR Miss Miles (1890) i. n.Yks. Then ther was a 
spot . . . 'at's called Fairy Hill, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (1875) 
45 ; T'druffen tyke at shoo calls ur maister, Why John (Coll. 
L.L.B.). n-Yks. 1 Is there naught at Ah can dee ? Nowght, at Ah 
can tell ; n.Yks. 2 ne.Yks. 1 There's nowt at ah knaws on. e.Yks. 
Especially folks 'at's never me'lled wi' you, LINSKILL Exchange 
Soul (1888) iv ; Ah deean't want neean o' yer boodin-skeeal 
lasses at plays pianners, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889)90; e.Yks. 1 
That's man at sthrake [struck] him. w.Yks. T'little foxes, at 
spoils t'voincs, BYWATER Sng. Sol. (1859) ii. 15 ; T'wor then at 
someat did tak place, At made wer chairman pale his face, At made 
him sigh, and squeeze his side, An' pool his face al ta one side, T. 
Toddle's Aim. (1875) 2; Mally wor dahn o' one fooit 'at rayther 
spoilt her walking, CUDWORTH Dial. Sketches (1884) 13 ; w.Yks. 12 ; 
w.Yks. 3 Them 'at Au catch ; w.Yks. 5 It wur him 'at did it ! Lan. 
He used no drug ut strengthens or ut soothes, RIDINGS Muse (1853) 
9 ; Then wur aw in his een as one ut fun fawur, STATON Sng. 
Sol. (1859) viii. 10 ; Thoose 'at knew th' owd lad, WAUGH Old 
Cronies (1875) vii ; Simon o'th Pump, lad, 'at went off his yead, 
CLEGG David's Loom (1894)!. ne.Lan. 1 Him at left it? e.Lan.'. 
nw.Der. 1 ? In Edale. n.Lin. I'd gie him biggest hidin' 'at iver ony lad 
hed, PEACOCK Taales (1889) 93. Lin. 1 It's a tale 'at's true, 229 ; 
n.Lin. 1 Them at steals geese should hide the feather poake. Th' 
sod wall at I maade was to noa ewse at all to keap them rabbits oot. 
2. Followed by the pass. pron. : forming the gen. case, 

Sc. The aald man, hym at hys laeg was broken, cam hyrplan oot. 
The man at hys cuot's tuorn, MURRAY Dial. (1873) 197. 

Ipai turnyt to here tenttes with tene at bai hade, Dest. 
Troy (c. 1400) 9881 ; Thai armyt thame, all at thar war, 
BARBOUR Bruce, xv. 5 ; For to bis palais at was sua rike, 

Cursor M. 415. ON. at, an indecl. rel. pron., with initial 
b lost., Goth, pat-ei.} 

AT,dem.pron. Nhb. Cum. Yks. [at] That ; used after 
an assertion, and introducing a clause with the construc- 
tion inverted, giving emphasis to the assertion. 

Nhb. 1 Cum. 1 Aa's cum to advise tha', 'at is ee. It's gay bad 
wark, at is't. n.Yks. 2 You weeant, at weeant ye. He was a good 
man, at was he. You will, at will ye [you will of a certainty do so 
and so]. They were, at were they. w.Yks. 1 As fine a man as 
ivver E clapt my een on, at wor he, ii. 309. 

[A special use of ON. at, rel. pron. See At, above.] 

AT, conj. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Der. [at.] 

1. Introducing a subordinate clause : that. 

Frf. There's nae doot 'at he's makkin for the minister's, BARRIE 
Thrums (1889) n, ed. 1895. Wxf. 1 At skelpeares an slaugheard- 
hes mye leeigh aar oer vill [that the piglings and pigs may laugh 
their overfill]. Nhb. It's well kent 'at Mark Teasdale canna 
manish to leave Williamston, CLARE Love of Lass (1890) I. 7; Nhb. 1 
He's se strang at he can lift a seek o' floor. Cum. 3 We ken at guid 
stuff Laps up i' lal bundles, an' she's lal eneugh, 38. An' said, 
whyte nateral, 'at he wantit somebody to ga wid him on t'fells, i. 
Wm. He'd med up his mind et he wad hev her, JACK ROBISON Aald 
Taales (1882) 3. n.Yks. Ah'll nut saay 'at Ah've seen her, LINSKILL 
Betw. Heather and N. Sea (1884) i ; n-Yks. 1 Ah said at Ah wad, 
an' Ah ded. Weean't ee ? Bud Ah'll see at thou diz ; n.Yks. 3 
ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. Ah wish fra me heart at ah yet wor a lad, LUCAS 
Stud. Nidderdale (c. 1882) 231 ; w.Yks. I knaw, I knaw, 'at I'm i' 
t'gate, PRESTON Poems (1872) 9, ed. 1881. Lan. We've towd 
t'meausturs at we winnot clem, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale 
(1860) I. 85 ; Mony a toime at neet aw've dreamt ut hoo wur ta'en 
away, BEALEY Eawr Bessy, 2. n.Lan. Blah on me garden, at t'spices 
may run owt, PHIZACKERLEY Sng. Sol. (1860) iv. 16. ne.Lan. 1 Der. 1 
He said at he wou'd. 

2. In phr. at how, that. 

Der. 1 He said at how he wou'd. He said at how he went. 

[And at it be swa, rise lord, HAMPOLE Ps. iii. 6 (com.) ; 
He persauit weill At thai war strange men, BARBOUR 
Bruce, ix. 688. ON. at, that. See At, rel. pron.} 

AT-AFTER, advb., prep, and conj. phr. n.Cy. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Stf. Der. Lin. War. Shr. Also written at-eftir w.Yks. 1 

1. adv. Of time : after, afterwards. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 All things 
in order, ploughing first, sowing at-after. ne.Yks. 1 Obs. e.Yks. 
At efter, THOMPSON Hist. Welton (1869) 169. m.Yks. 1 I's boon 
[going] at-after. w.Yks. Thah kno's they're better at after for it, 
BYWATER Sheffield Dial. (1839) 195, ed. 1877 ; He'd managed to 
save as mich brass as ud keep him as long as he lived, an' leave a 
gradely bit for th' childer at after, HARTLEY Yks. Xmas. Ann. 
(1879) 10 ; We went to Tom's first an' to Bill's at after, Leeds 
Merc. Suppl. (Dec. 13, 1890) ; w.Yks. 1 I'll finish my wark, and at- 
after I'll gang wi' the haam ; w.Yks. 2 , w.Yks. 4 ; w.Yks. 5 Shoo 
does her bit o' work at after, when iwry body else is i' bed. 
He luked ar him fur two minnits at after wi'art speiking, 68. Lan. I 
cried many a night at after, GASKELL M. Barton (1848) iv ; Who's to 
tent thee at after, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) II. 282; 
Ta'en to honest ways at afther, BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) vi ; 
Cowd ale afore supper an' aught at yo'n a mind for at after, 
WAUGH Owd Cronies (1875) iii ; Aw seed Polly i' Blegburn toothrey 
toimes ut after, FERGUSON Dick Moudywarp, 26. ne.Lan. 1 , 
e.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Shall you come nae or at after ? Chs. 2 I'll be with 
ye at after ; s.Chs. 1 Stf. 1 ; Stf. 2 It was many a while at-after then, 
afore oi sed 'im. Der. I towd him at-after, o' th' tale Luke ad set 
agoin', GUSHING Voe (1888) I. ix ; Der. 12 War. (J.R.W.) 

2. Of place : at the rear, after. 

Chs. Off he cut, an Jock Carter an aw their chums at tatter 
[sic], CLOUGH B. Bresskittle (1879) 13. 

3. prep. Of time : after. 

w.Yks. It's my turn at-after thee, Leeds Mere. Suppl. (Dec. 13, 
1890) ; w.Yks. 3 Lan. 1 Ay, it is a bonny neet, for sure, at-after 
this storm, WAUGH Sneck Bant (1868) 14. Chs. 1 Stf. 2 An' so 
at after dinner Turn went and did a bit o' ploughing. n.Lin. 1 He 
com in at after afternoon chech an' set wi' me maay be a quaarter 
o' a nooer. 

4. Of place : behind, after. 

Lan. Th' noise ov a toothrey crows close at after mi heels, 
BOWKER Tales (1883) 50. 

5. conj. After. 

e.Yks. 1 That happened at efther Jack had geean heeam. MS. 




add (T H ) Lan Nat lang at efter t'sun set, HARLAND & 
WILKINSON Flk-Lore (1867) 60. Stf. 2 At after 'ed bin awee foive 
hours, 'e turned up jed drunk. Shr. 1 A good wilde at-after 
yo'd'n gwun to bed. 

[At-after diner daun John sobrely This chapman took 
a-part, CHAUCER C. T. B. 1445.] 

ATCH, v. Stf. [atj.] To sneeze. 

Stf. 2 S'lodzar'z gotn sum soup ift'z nuz, an is atsm up an dam 

[The word is doubtless onomatopoetic.J 

ATCHERN, see Acorn. 

ATCHESON, sb. Obs. Sc. n.Cy. Yks. Also written 
atchison. A copper coin struck in the reign of James 
VI, worth two-thirds of an English penny. 

Sc. A billon coin, or rather copper washed with silver, of the 
value of eight pennies Scotch JAM.) ; They will ken by an 
Atchison if the priest will take an offering, RAMSAY Prov. (ITS?)- 
n.Cy. A Scots coin, worth four bodies, GROSE (1790). Yks. (K.) 
n.Yks. They're nut worth an Atchison or twenty sike, MERITON 
Praise Ale (1684) 1. 400. 

[Atchison, a Sc. form of Atkinson, name of an English- 
man, who was assay-master of the Scottish mint in the 
reign of James VI (James I of England). Mr. Pinkerton 
calls the coin 'Atkinson,' Essay on Medals, II. in (JAM.).] 

ATCHORN, see Acorn. 

ATELIN, see Yetlin. 

ATHATN(S, adv. phr. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. Not. Lei. 
War. Wor. Shr. Also written athaten(s Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; 
athatans War. 2 ; athatness Lan. 1 [atSa't3n(z.] 

1. In that way, in that manner. 

Lan. 1 An' o' thattens their little tongues ran Bo sich prattlin 
o" went agen th' grain, RAMSBOTTOM Rhymes ( 1864) so; Makkin 
game o' thi poor owd Ant a thattons, Widder Bagshaw's Trip (c. 
1860) 6. Chs. 1 Dunna do it a-that'ns ; you should do it a-this'ns ; 
sithee ? Chs. 3 s.v. This'n ; s.Chs. 1 Dhaa mun taak uwt)n it 
ii)dhaat-n [tha mun tak howt on it a-that-n]. n.Stf. What dost 
mean by turning worki day into Sunday a-thatn ? GEO. ELIOT A. 
Bedc(i859) xx. Stf. 2 What art cuttin th' 'edge athatns fur? Der. 2 
He's allys a'thatens ; nw.Der. 1 A-thaten. Not. (L.C.M.) Lei. 
I know he has got a very dirty lane to go down for serving me 
a-that-ens, N. & Q. (1858) and S. vi. 187 ; Lei. 1 Yo' mutn't dew it 
athatns. War. 23 se.Wor. 1 Thee artst to be ashum'd o' theeself 
til byut [beat] the bwoy athattens. Shr. (E.F.NO ; Shr. 1 

2. To that degree or extent. 

s.Chs. 1 Mi aa-rm sweld u)dhaafnz dhun ahy thuwt)th bliid 
miis) bi peyznd [my arm swelled a-that-ns than (till) I thowl 
th' blood must be peisoned], 

[A-, on + thatn, q.v.] 

ATHATNING, prp. s.Stf. [atSa'tnin.] Acting in 
that way. 

s.Stf. When I was a dairymaid, a dairymaid was I, An' o' thisnin', 
an' o' thatnin', an" o' thisnin' went I, Children' s play-song (T.P.). 

[A vbl. der. otathatn, see above.] 

ATHEL, sb. Obs. ? Sc. A prince, a noble. 

Sc. Childer, wham thou mayist mak athils, RIDDELL Ps. (1857 
xlv. 16 ; Pitna your trust in athils, ib. cxlvi. 3 ; Athill, Hathill 

[Sone as cure athils be-hind saje bar he entred, Wars 
Alex. 1433 ; The here of bat hathell was huet as j>e fire, 
Dest. Troy, 3857. OE. cedele, noble.] 

ATHER, see Arder. 

ATHER-, see Adder-. 

ATHERT, see Athwart. 

ATHIN, adv. and prep. Nhp. Shr. Brks. Sus. Hmp. 
Wil. Som. Dev. Also written adin Sus. 12 [atSi-n, adi-n.] 

1. adv. Within. 

Nhp. 2 , Shr. 1 Brks. 1 Be the mc-uster athin ? Naw, he be 
just gan avield. Sus. 1 , Wil. 1 Som. Ees, a be a-thin, JENNINGS 
Dial. ai.Eiig. (1869) ; Aal day long athin, or athout, ' AGRIKLER ' 
Rhymes (1872) 48. nw.Dev. 1 

2. prep. Within. 

Shr. 1 Sus. Lik a bit of a pomegranate be yer temples adin yer 
locks, LOWER Sng. Sol. (1860) vi. 7 ; Sus. 2 Hmp. HOLLOWAY ; 
Hmp. 1 n.Wil. You've a got dove's eyes athin yer locks, KITE 
Sng. Sol. (c. 1860) iv. i. w.Som. 1 1 zeed where the shots went 
to ; they wadn athin dree voot o' the hare. Not used as an adv. 

[For the pron. of unstressed with- as ath- cp. athout.] 

ATHIRST, adj. Obs. Nhp. Glo. Thirsty. 

Nhp. 2 Glo. Affurst, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 

[Master when sawe we the anhungred or a thurst, 
TINDALE Matt. xxv. 44 ; My soule is a thurste for God, 
COVERDALE Ps. xlii. i. OE. offyTst for oflynted, pp. of 
offers/an, to suffer thirst. See A- (pref.*).] 

ATHIRT, see Athwart. 

ATHISN(S, adv. phr. Wm. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. 
Not Lei War. Shr. Also written athisen nw.Der. 1 ; 
athisness Lan. 1 [at$rsan(z.] In this way. 

Wm. If thoo gaas on a thissans, as varra seean net hev a single 
thing left aboot t'hoose, Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 6. Lan. 1 Th' 
owd felly kept waggin his yed, th' fust a-this'ns and then a-that'ns. 
Athissn we went into th' leath [barn], COLLIER Wks. (1750) 71. 

said one who was teaching me how to use a scythe. War. 2 Don't 
mow a-that'n, do it a-this'n ; War. 3 Get out, ye will never get 
to Amerikey a this'ns. se.Wor. 1 Do it athissens. Shr. 1 Canna 
yo' put the nild [needle] through the stitch athisn an' nod be'ind 
it athatn ? 

[A-, on + thisn, q.v.] 

ATHISNING, prp. s.Stf. [atSrsnin.] Acting in 

this way. 

s.Stf. When I was a housemaid, a housemaid was I, An' o' this- 
nin' an' o' thatnin', an o' thisnin' went I, Children's play-song 

[A vbl. der. of alhisn, see above.] 

ATHOF, conj. Yks. [atSo'f.] Used with rts : as if, as 

e.Yks. It was as fast as athof it had grown theear, NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp. (1889) 36 ; e.Yks. 1 It lewks as athof it wad brust. 

[This is a pron. of although. Althofe he fonde coloura- 
bill wais to serve his entent, SHIRLEY Dethe of James 
(1440) 7 (N.E.D.).] 

ATHOL BROSE, sb. Obsol. Sc. Honey or meal 
mixed with brandy or whisky, used in the Highlands as 
a specific for colds. 

Sc. The captain swallowed his morning draught of Athole brose, 
and departed, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) xlviii ; An aye since he wore 
tartan trews He dearly lo'ed the Athol brose, Neil Gow (MACKAY) ; 
A powerful mixture, that no one but a Highlander can safely 
indulge in (ib.) ; Athol brose was commonly used thirty years ago, 
but is now rarely, if ever, heard of (H.E.F.). 

ATHOUT, adv., prep, and conj. Sc. n.Irel. Cum. Wni. 
Yks. Lan. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Nrf. Suf. 
Sus. Hmp. Wil. Som. Dev. Also written athoot, a'oot 
m.Yks. 1 ; adoot Cum. 3 m.Yks. 1 ; avout N.I. 1 ; uthout 
w.Som. 1 nw.Dev. 1 [. atSu't, adu't ; s. atSeu't.] 

1. adv. Without, outside. 
Fif. JAM.', Suf. (F.H.), WH. 1 

2. prep. Without. 

Cum. Fwok 'at can't keep fra't adoot signin' t'pledge, GWORDIE 
GREENUP Yance a Year (1873) 18; Cum. 3 He tok off his specks, 
an he glower't at me adoot them, 13. Wm. It's true, adoot a doot 
'. M.P. ). Yks. He can't guide his own bairn athoot shutting him up, 
MACQUOID Don's Barugh (1877) xlv; I hevn't watched thee . . . 
athoot seein' 'at thee never thinks for thysel', LINSKILL Exchange 
Soul (1888) liv. n.Yks. 1 2 . m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Niwer a year adoot 
a summer, Niddcrdill Olm. (1874) ; Ye'll knaw adoot me telling 
you, ib. (1878) ; He did it adoot a grummal, LUCAS Stud. Nidder- 
dale (c. 1882) 329 ; w.Yks. 5 Am barn athout him ! Shoe's athout 
owt tul her fortun'. ne.Lan. 1 I'se goan athout it. s.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 
Hrf. Im'z a week fool az tawks aathout reazon, Why John (Coll. 
L.L.B.). Glo. 1 Oxf. An tcl e strayt awf too, athowt much to-doo, 
Why John (Coll. L.L.B.). s.Oxf. Athout spilin' th' old un, ROSE- 
MARY Chilterns (1895) 77. Nrf. Athowt luking either to the right 
or left, SPILLING Molly Miggs (1873) i. Sus. Maidens adout 
number, LOWER Sng. Sal. (1860) vi. 8. Hmp. 1 I.W. Vorced to 
zet wi" clane hands from morning to night athout zo much as 
a bit of vittles to hready. MAXWELL GRAY Annuity (1889) I. 159. 
Wil. 1 He's gone athout his dinner. Som. Noa man eswisc athout 
a wife, ' AGRIKLER ' Rhymes (1872) i. 

3. conj. Unless. 

N.I. 1 I could not tell avout I saw it. ne.Yks. 1 Wa san't be able 
ti lead ti-morn, athoot wa git a bit o' wind. e.Yks. 1 MS. add. 
(T.H.) War. 2 I sha'n't go, athout yo' do. Shr. 1 Yo'n never scrat 




a grey yed athout yo' tak'n better car' o' yoreself, Introd. Ixxxii. 
Brks. 1 I wunt go athout thee comes too. w.Som. 1 Yue kaa'n git 
good dhing-z udhaewt yiie bee u muyn tu paa~y vaur ut [you 
i annot get good things (stock) without you be a mind to pay for 
it]. I on't come, athout you'll come too. nw.Dev. 1 

[Another form of this word is Arout. See also 

ATHRAW, adv. Sc. [a}>ra.] Awry. 

Edb. The gable end o' that house is athraw (J.W.M.). Dmf. 
Shouther your arms, O had them on tosh And not athraw, M AYNE 
Siller Gun ( 1808) 20. 

[A-, <m + //iraw (to twist), q.v.] 

ATHURTENS, adv. Chs. [atJa'tanz.] Athwart, 

Chs. 13 

[A der. of athwart, q.v. Formed after the analogy of 
such forms as Athatnfs, Athisn(s.] 

ATHWART, adv., adj. and prep. Sc. Wm. Yks. Lin. 
Wor. Shr. Glo. Oxf. Brks. e.An. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Dor. 
Som. Dev. Cor. Amer. Also written athert Glo. 12 I.W. 2 
Wil. 2 ; athirt s.Wor. 1 Oxf. 1 I.W. 1 Dor. 1 ; athort Sc. 
e.An. 1 ; athurt Brks. 1 Shr. 2 limp. 1 w.Som. 1 Cor. 12 ; adirt 
Dor. 1 [aj>3-t, aSa-t.] 

1. adv. Across, crosswise. 

Sc. Athort (JAM.). Wm. A star fell directly athwart, HUTTON 
Bran New Wark (1785) 1. 368. Yks. It was knee-deep in snow, 
but I got athwart (C.C.R.). s.Wor. 1 , Shr. 1 Glo. As cross as two 
sticks athurt (F.H.) ; Glo. 2 I.W. 2 Be you gwyne athert [across 
the Channel] to-day ? Wil. Athwart, across a field at right angles 
to its sides, ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) V. 47. Dor. I was just coming 
athwart to hunt ye out, HARDY Greenwd. Tree (1872) I. 16 ; Won't 
he come athirt? No, he's beyond the brook, BARNES Poems (1869) 
134 ; I went athirt from Lea to Noke, ib, g. w.Som. 1 Dhu pees 
u klaa'th wuz u-kuut rai't udhuurtn ukraa's [the piece of cloth 
was cut right athurt and across]. n.Dev. Athert, GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (H.) Cor. Athart, Monthly Mag. (1808) II. 422 ; Lookin oal 
athurt, for he had a purty squenty, Tim. Towser, 6; Cor. 1 He 
looks athurt [he squints] ; Cor. 23 

Hence Athurt-eyed, squinting. 

Dev. 3 A person who squints is said to be thurt-eyed. 

2. Abroad, far and wide. 

Sc. There goes a speech athort . . . dissuading the King from 
war with us, BAILLIE Letters (1775) I. 83 (JAM.) ; Athwart an' 
vvyde abresede haes thrawn the banes o' him, RIDDELL Ps. (1857) 
liii. 5 ; He'll gang athort. I have heard this used, but only by very 
old people (J.W.M.). Abd. A'wye an' athort [everywhere], is a 
common phr. (H.E.F.) 

3. adj. Crossing, cross-cut. 

Nrf. 1 Winterton lighthouses, whose lights intercross, were de- 
scribed on the spot as ' thowt lighthouses,' and appeared on the 
map, soon after, as ' the Thought Lighthouses.' Thowt pegs are 
the pins between which the oars of a boat are confined. Som. 
A cross-cut saw is an athirt saw, SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. (1885). 

4. prep. Of position or motion : across, over. 

Sc. Strange looks athort my winnock pass, JAMIESON Pop. Ballads 
< 1806) 233. Abd. Athort the morn's gloamin', ALEXANDER Johnny 
Oibb (1871) xxxii. Frf. Athort his godship's trusty naig, BEATTIE 
Arnha (c. 1820) 10, ed. 1882. Ayr. Athort the lift they start and 
shift, BURNS Vision. Yks. I was going athwart a close (C.C.R.). 
Lin. One night I wur sittin" aloan, Wi' Roaver athurt my feeat, 
TENNYSON Owd Roa (1889). w.Wor. 1 Bring 'er athirt the river, 
Bill. Glo. Blow your clouds, ... If thurs nun athirt the sky, 
Leg. Peas. (1877) 25 ; Glo. 1 He lives athert the park. Oxf. 1 
Athirt the road. Brks. Stretched athurt the varmer's zaddle, 
HUGHES Scour. White Horse (1859) vi ; Thaay've a bin and gone 
off somweres athert the wall, ib. T. Brown Oxf. (1861) xxiii ; 
Brks. 1 I zin 'in run athurt the pe-us o' turmuts. e.An. 1 Hmp. 
He went athurt th' vield (H.C.M.B.); Hmp. 1 I.W. Goo on 
athirt them turmuts, MAXWELL GRAY Annesley (1889) I. xcii ; 
I.W. 1 ; I.W. 2 The hare ran right athert the ground. Wil. There 
always wur a path athwert thuck mead in the ould volk's time, 
JEFFERIES Gamekeeper (1878) 170, ed. 1887; And jogged along 
athirt the plaain, SLOW Rhymes (1889) 103. n.Wil. He come 
athertthicground(E.H.G.). Wil. 2 Dor. Withik girt pain athirt thee 
brow, YOUNG Eclogue (1862) 4; But zent noo va'ice, athirt the 
ground to me, BARNES Poems (1869) 61 ; Athirt the chest he 
wer so wide As two or dree ov me or you, ib. 136; Dor. 1 At the 
road adirt the wide an' shaller vuord, 73. Som. Ver lan's athurt 
th' sey, PULMAN Sketches (1842) 32, ed. 1853 ; Athirt the cadger's 
VOL. I. 

ling direction 

showlders ran Hes wallet, villed wi swag and scran, ' AGRIKLER ' 
Rhymes (1872) 71 ; Put 'em up in stacks athurt the street to stop 
the traffic, RAYMOND Love and Quiet Life (1894) 25. w.Som. 1 Ee 
vaa-Iud rai't udhuurt dhu aj- [he (the tree) fell right across the 
hedge]. Cor. He took the cheeld athurt the back, TREGELLAS 
Tales (1860) 15; E wor goin' athurt that saame field, HICHAM 
Dia. (1866) 12 ; She were athurt the planchin, and could'n die 
till we did put her right along it, N. & Q, (1871) 4th S. viii. 322. 
[Nfld. Atert the road, PATTERSON in Trans. Amer. Flk-Lore Sac. 

5. Across, from corner to corner, diagonally. 
se.Wor. 1 Dev. 3 When ploughing a field in a slantin 

the man is said to plough athurt the field. 

6. Through. 

Sc. Posts went athort the whole country, BAILLIE Letters (1775) 
I. 32 (JAM.). Per. A man that has visited every house in a 
parish or town would say, ( I have been athort the hale parish, or 
town ' (G.W.). 

7. In phr. to come or nin athwart a person, to meet acci- 

Shr. 2 Corned athurt on him. Hmp. Just let me come athert 'un 
agin, ' COUNTRYMAN ' in Forest. Miscell. (1846) 164. n.Dev. Nif tha 
com'st athert Rager Hosegood, Exm. Seal. (1746) 1. 198. Dev. 3 
Two persons are said to run ' athirt aitch other." 

8. In phr. (i) athert and across, interwoven, trellis- wise ; 

(2) athurt and alongst, phr. used to imply double dealing, 
' holding with the nare, and running with the hounds'; 

(3) athwart asquint, from one corner to the other diago- 
nally opposed to it. 

(i) Dor. I made a pen o' sticks, athert and across (C.V.G.). 
(2) n.Dev. A proverbial expression when reflections pass back- 
wards and forwards between neighbours, GROSE (1790) MS. add. 
(H.) Dev. 3 1 tellee yii be a proper chayte [cheat]. Yu urn'th athurt 
and alongst as the maggot biteth. (3) Wll. They brought him all 
athwart asquint of farmer Pike's field, ELLIS Pronunc. (1889) 
V. 46. 

[The form athirt occurs in Rom. Partenay (c. 1500) 169. 
A-, on + thwart, q.v.] 

ATICAST, sb. Sh.I. [a'ti-kast.] One who through 
physical unfitness and general incapacity is thrust aside, 
rejected, and possibly ill-treated. 

Sh.I. In common use (K.I.'!. S. & Ork. 1 Aticast, a silly, helpless, 
odd sort of person. 

[It is prob. that the orig. mg. of aticast was ' one 
rejected, an outcast,' and that the word is Norse. Ati- 
(Norw. dial, atti- again, AASEN) + cast, pp. of cast (ON. 

ATISSHA, v. Yks. To sneeze. 

n.Yks. (I.W.), e.Yks. 1 

[An onomatopoetic form.] 

ATO, adv. Or.I. w.Sc. Also written atoo, atae, atto. 
[atoe - , ate\] Of motion: to, towards. 

Or.I. Quite commonly used everywhere here (K.M.). w.Sc. 
Come in atae, come in towards (the fire). Draw the door atae (JAM. 

ATOMY, see Anatomy. 

ATOP, adv. and prep. phr. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. 
Lan. Chs. Stf. Lin. War. Wor. Shr. Glo. Oxf. Brks. e.An. 
Som. Dev. [ato'p.] 

1. adv. On the top. 

Ir. An' the furzes an' brooms in a ruffle a-top, BARLOW Bog-land 
(1892) 108. ne.Lan. 1 Dev. Warm, thick cob walls, and a fine 
thatch of straw atop (S.A.A.). Colloq. They laid a sheet to the 
door, With the little quilt atop, KIPLING Brk. Ballads (1892) Gift 
of the Sea. 

2. prep. phr. (a) Atop of, upon, on the top of. Also 
fig., invested in. 

Ir. As the car grated past below their perch atop of the haggard 
wall, BARLOW Kerrigan (1894) 14; 'Twill be much if you land 
home afore its atop of you, ib. Lisconnel (1895) 46. Nnb. 1 What 
he' ye atopa yor heed ? Dur. Whe's this 'at cums up frae t'wilder- 
ness, leanen atoppivhur beluved? MOORE Sng. Sol. (1859) viii. 5 ; 
Lewk nut atoppa mah, becouse a' as black, becouse t'sun hes lewk'd 
atoppa mah, ib. i. 6 ; Dur. 1 Cum. A'top o' the greenwood tree, 
GILPIN Ballads (1874) 178 ; I know better nor tread atop o' your 
bonny happins, Denham Tracts (ed. 1892) I. 178. n.Yks. When 
t'last leead was a-top o' t'cart, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes (,1875) 4 ; 
Yah hea neea wealth ner gear at all Bud t'cleeas atop o' yer back, 
ib. 42. e.Yks. He saw a fellow stanin atop ov a teeable, NICHOLSON 




I'lk-Sf. ( 1889) 35. w.Yks. Noa livin soul a'top o't earth Wor tried 
as ah've been tried, PRESTON Poems, &-*c. ( 1864) 6 ; w.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 
Aw took him straight a-top o' th' yed wi't sich a cleawt, WAUGII 
OwdBI. i 1867; iii. Chs. 1 He's a-top o' th' stack. A woman who 
had lent her savings to the trustees ofa Wesleyan chapel said, ' I've 
got all my money a-top ofa chapel.' s.Chs.' Get atop o' th' banks 
[hay-loft] Stf. 2 Just chuck this timber atop o' th' ruck owt o' th' 
road. War. (J.R.W.) ; War. 2 Wor. Ketchin' that cowld atop of 
the t'other (H.K.X se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 I've bin lookin' that cork-screw 
up an' down, an' fund it atopo'the cubbert shilf after all: Shr. 2 One 
atop o' the tother. s.Oxf. ' Why, if there ain't the letter stickin' 
atop of your 'ed ! ' cried Rosamond, ROSEMARY Chilterns (1895) 107. 
Brks. 1 Get atop o' the taayble. e.An. 1 I saw Mr. Brown a'top of 
his new horse yesterday. Som. Leanen' his two brown arms 
atop o' our low stone wall, LEITH Lemon Verbena i 1895 1 6r. 
(b) Atop on, upon, on the top of. 

Nhb. 1 Atopon an aad hoose. n.Yks. 2 , e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Sa munot 
lig atop on am(J.\Y.). n.Lin. 1 Glo. I've a-heard folks say as it's a 
fine place when you be atop on't. BUCKMAN Darhis Sojourn (1890 

ATOUR, see At-ower. 

ATOWARDS, prep. Yks. Lan. Also written atort 
ne.Lan. 1 [atotradz, ata'dz.] 

1. Towards, in the direction of. 

e.Yks. Bob wer ower anenst Cross Keys gannin atowads chotch 
when ah seed him (J.N.) ; e.Yks. 1 He was gannin atowards Hull, 
MS. add. (T.H.) ne.Lan. 1 

2. In aid of, in contribution to. 

e.Yks. He ga' ma fahve shillins atowads beeldin' a new pig- 
stye (J.N.) ; e.Yks. 1 He ga ma a pund atowards a new 'oss, MS. 
add. (T.H.) w.Yks. I [he] ga ma sumat atadz it (J.W.). 

3. Approaching to, close upon. 

e.Yks. 1 Awd man's gannin atowards a hundhad, MS. add. 

[A /+ towards.] 

AT-OWER, prep, and adv. phr. Sc. n.Cy. Yks. Also 
written atour, attour, attowre Sc. [atoar.J 

1. prep. Of position or motion : across, over, out-over. 
See also Out-ower. 

Sc. Syne he has gane far hynd attowre Lord Chattan's land sae 
wyde, RAMSAY Tea-Table Misc. (1724) I. 228, ed. 1871 ; Wi' un- 
kempt hair, grey, rank, and weedy, That 'neath a croonless hat 
waved reedy Atour his shouthers, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 2. Frf. It's 
weel worth yer while to ging atower to the T'nowhead an' see, 
BARRIE Lie/it ^1888) 164. e.Lth. It took him a fortnicht afore he 
was able to win atour the bed, HUNTER/. Inwick 1^1895) 241. Edb. 
Or spend a nicht attour thebrod [draughtboard] Or in some howff, 
MLAREN Poems (1892) ; Gin ye dinna stop greeting this meenit I'll 
come attour ye wi' the tawse [strap] (J.W.M.). Slk. The plaid was 
atower ma shouthers, CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) IV. 60. 
n.Cy. Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) 

2. In spite of. 

Rnf. I'll do this attour ye (JAM.). Slk. I'll do it atower ye 

3. adv. Of quantity, degree : over and above, beyond, 

Sc. An' mair attour, I didna care to bachle my new sheen, 
FORBES/>-. (1742) 16. n.Yks. 2 I had rather pay at-ower than at- 
under [pay above my debt than not pay at all]. 

4. Of place : at a distance, away. 

Sc. Lat's rive their thirlbans syndry, an' fling atowre their tows 
frae us ! WADDELL Ps. (1891) ii. 3 ; To stand attour, to keep off; 
to go attour, to remove to some distance (JAM.). 

5. In phr. by and at-ower, over and above, into the 

Sc. Both Aberdeens were ordained to furnish out (by and attour 
the footmen) the furniture of six rick-masters, SFALDING Hist. (1792, 
I. 230 (JAM.) ; She is ... younger than the like o' me, bye 
and attour her gentle havings, SCOTT Redg. (1824*1 x ". Lnk. By and 
attour, ten lambs at spaining-time, RAMSAY Gentle Shep. ( 1 725) 65, 
ed. 1783. 

[1. And he him-selff atour the lave, BARBOUR Bruce, 11. 
368 ; To the castell he can hym hy, And clam out-our the 
vail of stane, ib. ix. 316 ; Out-ouer bat well ban lokes he, 
Cursor M. 1319. 2. How the Pechtis crownit ane king 
attouir forbidding, STEWART Cron. Scot. (1535) II. 12 
(N.E.D.). At- (the unstressed form of out) + over.~\ 

ATRY, see Attery. 

ATSELF, adv. Irel. Also written aself. [atse'lf, 


1. Actually, really. 

Ir. If you don't hit him atself, V.OVT.R Handy Andy (1843% 

2. Merely, even, only so much as. 

Ir. It's a good thing to have a pound a month aself (A.S.P. : 
A guest declines some cold beef. His host presses him to sonn- 
lighter fare. Take some apple-pie aself,' i. e. at all events take 
that, if nothing else. A farmer's daughter expresses a hankering 
for a pair of silk stockings : her mother ridicules her with, ' Silk 
stockings, aself! ' If I had it [a new dress] aself I wouldn't wear 
it at the Smiths', N. & Q. (1885) 6th S. xii. 513. Tyr., Arm. 
Well, it's a pity he can't read atself (D.A.S.). 

[A/self is a pron. of itself. The word is used to imply 
(i) the thing 'itself; the very actual or real thing; 
hence, as adv. 'actually, really' ; (2) the thing 'by itself,' 
i.e. taken alone, the mere thing ; hence, as adv. ' merely, 
even, only-so-much-as ' (D.A.S.).] 

ATSET, Sh.I. [atse't.] The turn of the tide, when tlic 
ebb begins. 

S. & Ork. 1 

ATSTEAD, advb. phr. w.Yks. [at-stia'd.] Instead. 

w.Yks. Ah've corned atsteead o' mi fadher (J.R.) i Atsteead a 
bein' t'cart it mud ha' been t'donkey, BINNS Orig. (1889) i. 4. 

[At+stead (OE. stede, place).] 

ATTACH, v. Hit. [atae-tj.] To be subject to. 

Hrt. My husband has been attached to rheumatics from his 
youth (H.G.). 

[I ... am my self attach'd with weariness, SHAKS. Temp. 
m. iii. 5. Fr. attacher, to tye, fasten, bind, COTGR.] 

ATTACK, v. Hrf. [atae-k.] To undertake. 

Hrf. 1 I mean to attack the journey. 

ATTACT, sb. and v. Nhb. Lin. War. Wor. Ess. Som. 
Dev. Dial, pronunc. of attack. 

1. sb. 

nXin. 1 Oor squire's hed a bad attact o' asmy ; I thoht he'd ha' 
deed. Ess. He'd ov the gullion [colic] an attact, CLARK/. Noakes 
(18391 27 ; Ess. 1 

2. v. Esp. used in past tense and pp. 

Nhb. 1 Attackted is very commonly used in Newcastle. n.Lin. 1 
He attackted him like a wild fella'. War. (J.R.W.), se.Wor. 1 
w.Som. 1 Used by the uneducated above the lowest class, such 
as small tradespeople. If you plaise, sir, I must ax you vor 
to keep thick dog a-tied up ; he attackted me wilful, gwain on the 
road. Dev. Reports Provinc. (1885) 87. 

ATTEAL DUCK, sb. Or.I. Also written attUe. 
The Pochard, Fuligula ferina. 

Or.I. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 160. S. & Ork. 1 

ATTER, sb. Sc. Yks. Lan. Chs. e.An. Sus. [a'tar, 

1. Obs. ? Poison, venom. 
Cld. (JAM. Suppl.), Lan. 1 , Chs. 12 

2. Morbid matter from an ulcer or wound ; proud flesh. 
Abd. Attir (JAM.). n.Yks. 1 Whyah , Willy's han's brussen then '! 

Ay, an' a strange vast o' bloody atter's coomed frae it ; n.Yks. 2 , 
ne.Yks. 1 e.An. 1 s.Cy. RAY (1691). Sus. Attar [is] corruption 
ofa sore or wound (K.). 

3. Epithelium produced on the tongue, in cases of fever, &c. 
n.Yks. 1 Mally's varrey dowly teday ; her tongue's a' covered 

ower wiv a thick white alter ; n.Yks. 2 , Nrf. 1 

Hence Attered, adj. Of the tongue : furred. 
m-Yks. 1 

4. A scab, a dry sore. 

n.Yks. His head is all in a alter (I.W,). 

Comp. Atter-scar. 

n.Yks. 2 Atler-scar, the place of an old sore with an occasional 
exudation or discharge. 

[1. And alle the other ther it lyth, enuenymeth thorgh his 
attere, P. Plowman (B.) xii. 256; Neddren beore alter 
under heore tunge, Horn. (c. 1250) 51. 2. Alter, corrupt 
matter, gore, snot, BAILEY (1721) ; Alter, vox agro Lin- 
colniensi usitatissima, pus, sanies, SKINNER (1671) Cc 2 ; 
Attyr, fylthe, sanies, Prompt. OE. at/or, ator, poison, 
venom, cp. G. eiter.] 

ATTER, v. Yks. Lan. 
1. To venom, sting. 

Lan. Said ofa toad, and ofa fish called bull-Joan or bull-head, 
Manch. City News (Apr. 25, 1896;. 



2. To discharge, as a sore; hence to clot, to curdle, to cake. 
See also Hatter. 

n.Yks. 2 It atter'd weel. Our cream's all atter'd. Also, as the 
flesh is scabbed or mattered. Lan. 1 He's fair attert wi' dirt. 

[Same as alter, sb. (q.v.).l 

ATTER, see Hatter Natter. 

ATTER-CLAP, see After-clap. 

ATTERCOP, sb. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. 
Chs. Also Wil. Also in the forms attercap N.I. 1 ; atter- 
cob N.'Cy. 1 Wm. 1 n.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 ne.Lan. 1 Chs. 12 ; attercrop 
c.Lan. 1 m.Lan. 1 ; aftercrop e. Lan. 1 ; nattercop ne.Lan. 1 ; 
eddercrop Lan. 1 ; edthercrop Lan. 1 ; ettercap, ethercap 
Sc. ; ottercop Nhb. 1 [Sc. a-tar-, e'tar-cop ; a-ts-cop.] 

1. A spider ; henceyfrg-. a small, insignificant person. 

Sc. As haul' as ony ettercap, FORBES Jrn. (1742) 14. Or.I. 
Ettercap (S.A.S.). Wxf. 1 n.Cy. Attercob, the venomous spider. 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 296. 
Wm. 1 n.Yks. 12 Obsol. ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. HUTTON Tour to Caves 
(1781); Who's going to stop me? Not a hatter-cropper 
like thee ! WESTALL Birch Dene (1889) II. 28. Lan. Ettercrops, 
GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) ; No moore nur e they'd bin us 
mony eddicrops, Eggshibishun (1856) 24 ; Aw met weel foind o' 
eddercrop creepin' o' mi cwoats, SCHOLES Tim Gamwattle (1857 
15 ; Iv E'd bin o greyte eddycrop hoo cudn't o bin moore taen on, 
ORMEROD Felley fro Rachde (1864) ii ; Lan. 1 Th' wimmen lace 
thersels up so, they look like attercops. Th' edges are full o' 
edthercrop neesus [nests] ; ne.Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 ; m.Lan. 1 One o'th' 
kings o' Scotland, when i' prison, were wonst watchin' a atter- 
crop as were i' th' same cell. Chs. 1 2 , Wil. 1 

2. A spider's web. 

N.Cy. 12 , Nhb. 1 , Cum. K. , Cum.' w.Yks. 1 Her hair au full 
of attercops, ii. 288. Lan. 1 Th' blackberries wur o' covered wi' 

Hence Attercop-web, a spider's web. 

Wm. The trust of the evil-doer shall be an attercob-web, HUTTON 
limn New Wark (1785) 1. 392. n.Lan. oz drai az an atarkopweb 

3. The ant. 

Sc. 1 know the ant as the ettercap. A nest o' ettercaps (G.W.\ 

4. Fig. An ill-natured, petulant, malignant, captious 

Sc. A fiery etter-cap, a fractious chiel, As het as ginger, and as 
stieveas steel, SCOTT Waverley (1814) Ixiv ; Never an auld carle 
but was a bit o' a ettercoup, ROY Horseman (1895^1 xxi. Sh.I. 
Coll. L.L.B.) Per. Gin a' hed imagined what the ettercap wes 
aifter, a' wud hae seen ma feet in the fire afore they carried 
me tae the Free Kirk that nicht, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1894, 
215; He's juist an ettercap, ib. Auld Lang Syne (1895) 319. Ayr. 
But that ettercap. . . is flying through the town. GALT Legatees 
(1830) vi. Lnk. It's dafter like to thole An ethercap like him 
to blaw the coal, RAMSAY Gentle Shcp. (1725) 86, ed. 1783. N.I. 1 
Ya cross attercap, ya. Ant. Yon crabbed attercap, Ballymena 
Obs. (1892). N.Cy. 1 F-dder-cap, a shrewish woman. ne.Lan. 1 
Natter-crop, a peevish person. 

[1. The webbis of an attercop, WYCLIF (1382) Isa. lix. 
5; Attercoppe and fule vlije, Owl & N. (c. 1225) 600. 2. 
Addircop or a spinners web, amignee, PALSGR. 4. Thow 
irefull attircop, Pilate, apostata, KENNEDIE Flyting (c. 1505) 
523 (N.E.D.). OE. attorcoppe, a spider, from ator (attor), 
poison, see Atter, 1. For coppe cp. kop in Flem. spitme- 
kop, spider (SCHUERMANS).] 

ATTERIL, sb. Irel. Yks. Also written atheril, 
attheril e.Yks. ; attril w.Yks. 2 ; ottrel w.Yks. 2 ; hatterel 

1. Poisonous matter from an ulcer or wound. 

n.Yks. 12 A thick yellow atteril. ne.Yks. 1 Mi mooth's all iv a 
atteril. e.Yks. (H.E.W.) ; e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks. 1 

2. A scar or cicatrix with a rough surface ; an eruption. 
Sec also Hatterel. 

N.I. 1 He's all in a hatterel. w.Yks. 2 A man with a pimpled face 
from drinking is said to have his face ' all in a ottrel.' 

3. A shapeless, dirty, or entangled mass ; a complete 

e.Yks. Poor fellow ! he was smaslit all tiv [to] a atheril, 
XICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889 50; e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 2 'It wur all 
in a attril.' said of clover growing in a thick mass, entangled 
together, anrl not uniformly as it should. The fleeces of wool in 
scabbed shuep are said to be ' all of a attril.' 

ATTERING, ppl. adj. Lan. [a-tarin.] Poisonous. 

Lan. 1 

[On face and hondis thei had gret navies And grette 
homes and atteryng taylys, Visions of Tundale (c. 1440), 
ed. TURNBULL ( 1843) 6. Altering, prp. of alter, vb. (q.v. ).] 

ATTERMITE, sb. Obsol. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lin. 
Also in form attramite Lin. [a-tar-mait, a'ta-mait.] 

1. A venomous fly much used in fishing. 

Wm. 1 A'll gie tha a handful o' attermites aback o' thi neck ! 

2. Fig. An ill-tempered, spiteful person. 

Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 296. w.Yks. 1 Lin. Your ears 
are dinned, where'er you budge, Wi' little attramites o' bairns, 
BROWN Lit. Laur. (1890) 56. 

3. One who resembles his parents. 

Wm. 1 A chip of the old block, or, in the words of my informant, 
' a lad as is up to o' maks o' tricks like his fadder afore em," or 
' a lass as lies seeam weaas es her mudder.' 

[1. Prob. a comp. of alter (poison) +mite (the insect). 
See Attercop.] 

ATTERN, adj. Lan. Glo. [a'tan, ae-tan.] Venomous. 
Of persons: cruel, fierce ; ill-natured. 

Glo. GROSE (1790) ; Glo. 1 

Hence Attern-temper, an irritating, malignant temper. 

Lan. People often call a bad temper an ' attern-temper,' GASKELL 
Lectures Dial. (1854) 30. 

[He burh atterne drench dae'S seal ibolien, LA^AMON, 
16084. OE. (eltren, cetren, venomous, der. of attor, ator. 
See Atter, sb.] 

ATTER-PILE, sb. Obs. Lan. A small fish with 
venomous spines. 

ne.Lan. 1 

[A comp. of Atter, sb. For -pile cp. ME. pll in ilespll, 
the quill or dart of a hedgehog ; also, the hedgehog, sec 
STRATMANN (s.v. f/).] 

ATTERY, adj. Sc. Yks. Glo. e.An. Hmp. Wil. Also 
written atry Sc. [a'tri, se'tari.] 

1. Purulent, used with reference to a sore. 

Sc. Atry, attrie. applied to a sore that is cankered (JAM.). n.Yks. 2 , 
e.An. 1 

2. Of persons : irritable, fretful, grim, ill-tempered. 
Cai. An atrie wamblin [misgrown child] (JAM.). Abd. Wi' atry 

face he eyed The Trojan shore. FORBES Ajax(i-j^a] 3; Black hairy 
warts about an inch between O'erran her atry phiz beneath her 
een, Ross Helenore ,1768) 165. Glo. Ofo. SMYTH Lives Berkeley.-* 
(ed. 1885) III. 24. e.An. HOLI.OWAY. Hmp. 1 Unknown in n.Hmp. 
Wil. 1 

[ME. attry (CHAUCER), attri^ (Ornniluin), OE. cettrig 
(Leechdoms), venomous, poisonous. Alter, sb. (q.v.)-t-v 
(OE. ig).] 

AT THAT HOW, adv. phr. Lin. In that way. 

sw.Lin. 1 She was born at that how. 

AT THIS HOW, adv. phr. Lin. In this way. 

sw.Lin. 1 If the weather holds at this how. Why, you see, 
Sir, it's at this how. 

ATTICE, sb. Som. A carpenter's tool ; an adze 
( HALL.). Unknown to our correspondents. 

ATTILE-DUCK, see Atteal Duck. 

ATTIVILTS, sb. Sh.I. [a-tivilts.] Land which has 
been worked after lying one year lea. 

Sh.I. This rig is attivilts and that one lea K.I.). S. ft Ork. 1 

[Norw. dial, atti, again +feld (fellt), adapted, adjusted 

ATTLE, sb. 1 Cor. Also written attal, addal, addle, 
Cor. 12 atal. [ae'tl.] Rubbish thrown out from a mine; 
refuse, deads. 

Cor. (K.) ; Or cover't ovver 'pon the stull With attle 'tel the 
plaace es full, TREGELLAS Talcs (1860) 57, ed. 1865 ; Cor. 1 The 
Cornish tinner, in Carew's time, called the heaps of abandoned 
tin works Attal Sarazin, which he translates, ' The Jewes offcast," 
Survey ofCoi: (ed. 1769 8; Cor. 2 

ATTLE, see Ettle. 

ATTOCK, see Hattock. 

ATTOUR, ATTOWRE, see At-ower. 

ATTWOOD, sb. War. [se-twud.] A foolish fellow, 
stupid person. 

War. NORTHALL Flk-l'lir. ,1894 ; War. 2 ; War. 3 Probably a name 
of notoriety about 1830, when Thos. Attwood was threatening to 

N 2 




march on London with Birmingham reformers, and that the pay- 
ment of taxes would be refused. 

AT-UNDER, adv. phr. [at-u-nda(r).] Yks. In subjec- 
tion, under control. 

n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 They mun be kept at-under. e.Yks. 1 Shoo mur 
keep him at undher, MS. add. (T.H.) m.Yks. 1 

ATWEE, ATWEEA, see A-two. 

ATWEEL, adv. Sc. Irel. [atwi-1.] Truly, indeed, 
assuredly, of course. 

Sc. Atweel I wad fain tell him it wad do him gude to put hand 
to wark, SCOTT Antiquary (1816) xxxix ; Atweel it is my bukes. 
Atweel it is my peat, CHAMBERS Rhymes (1870) 63 ; ' It should 
soften a man instead o' harden him.' ' Atweel should it, gudeman, 
said Mary, WHITEHEAD Daft Davie (1876) 23. Abd. Atweel 
I danced wi' you on your birthday, Ross Helenore (1768) 19, ed. 
1812 ; Wha yokes wi' you's a gowk, atweel ! He needs a lang 
speen that sups wi' the deil, Guidman (1873) 40, ed. 1875. Lnk. 
Hoo am I, say ye ? Atweel I canna complain, FRASER Whaups 
(1895) i. Lth. Oh it's angersome, atweel, An' sune'll mak' me 
gray, SMITH Merry Bridal (1866) 24. Rxb. Our wa's atweel are 
waff enough, RIDDELL Poet. Wks. (1871) II. 129. Ant. Atweel 
you'l go tae the market the morn, Ballymena Obs. (1892). 

[Atweel repr. (/) wat wed, I know well] 

ATWEEN, prep. In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. Eng. 
Also written atwin e.Yks. 1 Suf. 1 ; atweun, atwane Brks. 1 
1. Between, in its var. lit. meanings. 

Sc. Auld shoon upon his feet were seen, That showed his taes 
some rents atween, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 3. Frf. I saw him put up 
his hand atween him and the Book, BARRIE Minister (1891) x. 
Per. Na, na, the grass 'ill no grow on the road atween the college 
and the schule-hoose, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 17; That's 
naething atween auld neeburs, ib. Auld Lang Sync (189$) 13. Ayr. 
There's an unco odds atween being a slave and doing a service, 
GALT Lairds (1826) xiv ; Hae had a bitter black out-cast Atween 
themsel, BURNS Twa Herds (1785). Lnk. Atween you and me, 
FRASER Whaups (1895) xii. e.Lth. Muckle may fa' atween the cap 
an' the lip, HUNTER J. Inwick (1895) 127. Edb. There was nae ac- 
quaintance atween them, SCOTT Midlothian (1818) iv. Slk. 'Tween 
the gloamin' an' the mirk, When the kye comes hame. HOGG Sttg. 
(1831) ; And aiblins atween a couple o' hams, CHR. NORTH Nodes 
(ed. 1856) III. 3. Gall. There's naebody atween Tweed an' Tay can 
come within a lang sea mile o' him, CROCKETT Stickit Min. ( 1893) 
150. N.I. 1 , N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Aa've many a time seen her haddin her 
heed atween her hands. Cum. Clwose atween my thoomb and 
finger, RELPH Misc. Poems (1743) 23 ; The water it rins merrilie, 
The grassy banks atween, BURN Poems (1885) 240; Cum. 3 A big 
beuk 'at Wiff niver so much as leukt atween t'backs on, 31. A 
gay lang nwose 'at wasn't set varra fair atween t'e'en on him, i. 
Wm. Atween tahan en t'udder, JACK ROBISON Aald Tales (1882^ 
3 ; Wm. 1 Yks. Ah cann't think theer's onny mair than likin' 
atweens [sic] yon lass an" George, MACQUOID D. Barugh (1877) 
xxv ; There need be no difference atween us, BLACKMORE Mary 
Anerley (1879) bk. n. vii. n.Yks. Ahnivver knew t'rooad atween 
t'toon an" our house seea shooat . . . afooar, TWEDDELL Clevcl. 
Rhymes (1875) 64. e.Yks. She put 'er heart atween t'bits o' brass, 
WRAY Nestleton (1876) 250 ; e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. It runs atween thee 
and thy wits, Jabez Oliphant (1870) bk. i. ii ; w.Yks. 1 Lan. Aw've 
manny a toime bin i' justsich a ' strait atween two,' BANKS Manch. 
Man (1876) xvii. ne.Lan. There's naught ever come atween thec 
and me, MATHER 7rfyWs( 1895) 261. Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , Stf. 1 , Not. 1 n.Lin. 
Common sense enif atwean 'em boath to fill my owd brass thimble. 
PEACOCK Taales (1889) 9; nXin. 1 , Lei. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. 23 . s.War. 1 
w.Wor. Git her in atween us, S. BEAUCHAMP A^. Hamilton (1875) 
I. 282. Shr. 1 Glo. There have been a continual difference atween 
'em ever since, GISSING Vill. Hampden (1890) II. v ; Where maistcr 
and men doan't quite manage to hit it off atween 'em, BUCKMAN 
Darke's Sojourn (1890) 73. Brks. Thers a sight o' odds atween 
whoam-made troubles and thaay as the Lord sends, HUGHES 
T. Brown Oxf. (1861) xxxii ; Brks. 1 Thaay haaved [halved] the 
apples atwe-un urn. e.An. 1 Nrf. Little bits 'o bread with little 
mites o' maat in atwaan 'em, SPILLING Giles's Trip (1872) 10. Suf. 
Atwin, very common (F.H.) ; Suf. 1 Sur. 1 Anywhere atween the 
two Michaelmases is a good time to get the wheat in. Sus. 1 
n.Wil. (E.H.G.) Som. There wadn't much t'choose a'tween us 
for that, LEITH Lemon Verbena (1895) 98. 

2. In phr. (i) Atween hands, at intervals, now and 
again, in the meantime ; (2) lights, the intervening 
space between inhabited houses in Sh.L; (3) times, 
(4) whiles, in the interim. 

(i) Sc. And mony a sich atween hands I wat the lady gae, JAMIE- 
SON Pop. Ballads (1806) 95. Ayr. Atween hands mak up the 
balance-sheet, GALT Entail (1823) xxiii. Nhb. Aye atween hands 
raisin'aqueerunyirthlycry, RICHARDSON Borderers Table-bk. (1846) 
VII. 137. (2) S.&Ork. 1 (3) Frf. I could bide straucht atween times, 
BARRIE 'Minister ( 1891) iv. (4) Gall. I wasdrunk every Monday nicht, 
an' that often atweenwhiles that it fair bate me to tell when ae 
spree finished an' the next began, CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle (1895) 410. 
Cum. 1 , m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 5 Brekfast at eight, dinner at twelve, an' 
plenty to heit atweenwhiles. n.Lin. 1 I hev' to be at Gaainsb'r i' 
th' mornin', an' at Ketton at neet,'bud I shall'staay a bit at Blyton 
atweanwhiles. Brks. 1 1 never smokes my pipe when I be at work, 
but hevs a bit o' baccy zometimes atwe-un whiles. 

[Had he not . . . thrown his shield atween, she had him 
done to rew, SPENSER F. Q. v. xi. 30. A-, on + (ween (in 
lit. E. be-tween).] 

AT WEESH, prep. Sc. Also written atweese, 'tweesh, 
aqueesh ; acqueesh BURNS, [atwrj.] 

1. Between. 

Sc. Glowring atweese her and the sky, BEATTIES Parings (1801) 
25. Abd. And 'tweesh them twa she liv'd a happy life, Ross 
Helenore (1768) 140, ed. 1812 ; A langairm was raxt owre atweesh 
the shouders o' twa or three, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) xviii ; 
Atweesh themselves they best can ease their pain, SHIRREFS Poems 
(1790) 33. Ayr. The deil-sticket a five gallopers acqueesh Clyde 
and Whithorn could cast saut on her tail, BURNS Lett, to Mr. W. 
Nicol (June I, 1787). 

2. In phr. atweesh and atween, only indifferently well in 
respect of health. 

Abd. How are ye the day ? Only atweesh and atween (JAM.). 

[A-, on + tweesh, q.v. See Betweesh. Atweesh is a n. 
form of Atwixt.] 

ATWINE, adv. Wm. [atwai'n.] Twisted, askew, 
awry, zig-zag. 

Wm. A road that winds up a hillside is said to be atwine ; 
a horse that takes its load from side to side instead of going straight 
up a steep hill goes up atwine ; a necktie on one side of its proper 
place is all atwine (B.K.) ; Wm. 1 T'string's gitten au atwine an 
ankled. T'stee's au atwine [the ladder is all twisted]. 

[A-, on + twine (to twist).] 

ATWIST, adv. Yks. Lin. Brks. Som. [atwi'st.] 

1. Twisted, awry, tangled. 

e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) Brks. 1 w.Som. 1 Thick there bisgy 
stick's a put in all atvvist [uteos', utwiis'] id'n no form nor farshin 
in un. 

2. At cross purposes, at strife. 

n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 Jack and me's rayther atwist, MS. add. (T.H.) 
n.Lin. 1 Squire Heala an' him got atwist su'mats aboot Ran Dyke ! 

A-, on + twist, vb.J 

ATWIXT, prep, and adv. Sc. Nhb. Yks. Lan. Chs. 
Der. Not. Lin. Lei. War. Wor. Shr. Brks. e.An. Sur. Sus. 
Wil. Som. Dev. Cor. Also written atwist n.Lin. 1 ; 
atwix Nhb. 1 [aetwi'kst, n.Lin. atwrst, w.Som. atwi-ks.] 

1. prep. Between. 

Yks. We'd a famous scheme atwixt us, BARING-GOULD Pennycqks. 
,1870) 144 ed. 1890. n.Yks. Pinned oop atwixt her knees, MUNBY 
Verses (1865) 55 ; n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. The things fullockt aboot bahn 
fleear, undher tecable an atwixt thrussle legs, NICHOLSON Flk- 
Sp. (1889) 34; e.Yks. 1 Lan. 1 He geet atwixt t'wheels ; ne.Lan. 1 , 
Chs. 1 Der. I dunna know the rights o' all that coil atwixt him 
and old German, VERNEY Stone Edge (1868) viii. Not. 1 n.Lin. 
Atwixt her faacc an' pilla', PEACOCK Taales (1889) 86; A-tryin' to 
strighten things atwixt 'em, ib. 15; n.Lin. 1 , Lei. 1 , War. 3 w.Wor. 
Atwixt the quarry and the church, S. BEAUCHAMP A'. Hamilton 
(1875) I. 3. Shr. 1 The poor chap got jammed atwixt the waggons. 
Brks. They be both middling good. There aint much odds atwixt 
'em, HUGHES T. Brown Oxf. (1861) xxxvi ; Brks. 1 He was caught 
atwixt the ge-ut an' the ge-ut-pwo-asL Suf. 1 , Sur. 1 , Sus. 1 n. Wil. 
A shull loy ael night atwixt my breastes, KITE Sng. Sol. (1860) i. 13. 
Som. Atwixt the two forrels of the hymn-book, RAYMOND Love and 
Quiet Life (1894) 109. w.Som. 1 Didn Jimmy Zalter look purty 
then, way the darbies on, atwixt two policemen ? Dev. Jist take a 
pinch between yer vinger an' thumb there, jist atwixt tha eyes 
aw'n, an' gie un a jit upwards, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 92. 

2. prep, and adv. In phr. atwixt and atween, (i) between, 
betwixt ; (2) in an intermediate condition ; (3) shuffling, 
full of excuses. 

(r) Sc. GROSE (1790" MS. add. (C.) Nhb. 1 He was atwix an 
atween the twee. e.An. 1 A common expression, (a) n.Yks. 2 1 feel 




nobbut atwixt an atween [only in a middling way, or not very 
well]. n.Lin. 1 It was nohtto speak on, nayther good nor bad, just 
atwixt an' atwean. Cor. 1 ' Neither the highest nor lowest ; but 
atwixt and atween,' says Bucca. (3) n.Lin. 1 He's alus atwixt and 
atween, soa I can't get the reight end o' noht. 

[A-twyxyn (atwyxt, Pynson), inter, Prompt.; Gret love 
was atwixe hem two, CHAUCER R. Rose, 854. A-, on + 
hvixt; see Betwixt. Cp. Atweesh.] 

ATWO, adv. Sc. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. Lan. Not. Lin. 
Lei. Nhp. War. Won Shr. Oxf. Brks. Ess. Hmp. Wil. 
Also written atow N.Cy. 1 ; atwee N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 ; atweea 
n.Yks. 2 ; atweah Dur.* In two, as in phr. a-two in the 

Cld. Atwa (JAM.). Nhb. Enough to rive atwee the heart, WILSON 
Pitman's Pay (1843) 24 ; Nhb. 1 Wey, it com atwo i' me hand, man. 
Dur. We cannot git it here, withoot cutt'n'd atwee, EGGLESTONE 
Betty Podkins' Lett. (1877) J 4 '. Dur - 1 Brak't atweah. Cum. The 
parent's heart atwee, GILPIN Ballads (1874) 191. n-Yks. 2 ne.Lan. 1 , 
Not. 1 nXin. 1 I'm sewer I didn't break missis's cheany bowl ; it caame 
a'two 'e my hand. Lei. 1 Please,' m, it com a-two. Nhp. 1 2 . War. 2 3 , 
se.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 The jug fell a two jest as I wuz 'angin' it up. 
Oxf. 1 If dhee biginst' en i u dhuuy eg-urivaitin waiz yuur, uuyl kut 
dhii klain u too in dhu mid'l [If thee beginst any o' thy eggere- 
vatin' ways yer, I'll cut tha clane a-two in the middle]. Brks. 1 
Cut the taaytersatwo avoor 'e plaants 'um. Ess. A short saw and 
long saw, to cut a too logs, TUSSER Husbandrie (1580) 36, st. 9. 
Hmp. 1 Wil. What be them bellises at? here they be slat a-two, 
AKERMAN Tales (1853) 138. 

[Quikliche cam a cacchepol, and craked a-two here 
legges, P. Plowman (c.) xxi. 76. OE. on twa, into two 

AU, see Ea. 
AU-, see Aw-. 
AUCH, see Argh. 

AUCHAN, sb. Sc. QAM.) Also written achan. A 
species of pear. 

Sc. Red pears. Achans, and Longavil. REID Sc. Gard'ner (1683) 
88, s. v. Longueville ; The auchan sometimes receives the epithet 
of grey or red ; it is an excellent pear, said to be of Scottish origin, 
NEILL Hortic. Edin. Encycl. (1817) No. 113. 

AUCHIMUTY, adj. Sc. (JAM.) Also written aughi- 
muty. Mean, paltry. 
Lth. An auchimuty body. 

{Aucht(aught), property, possession + mootie (niggardly), 
q.v. For auch-= audit cp. auchlet. | 
Fif. Auchindoras, a large thorn-tree at the end of a house. 
AUCHLET, sb. Sc. A measure of meal. 
Sc. The auchlet . . . contained two pounds more than the present 
stone, Caledon. Merc. Nov. i, 1819 (JAM.) ; To Four Auchlet of 
Ait Meal, 35. 4</., SCOTT Old Mart. (1829) Introd. Abd. (JAM.) Gall. 
Auchlit, two stones' weight, or a peck measure, being half the 
Kcb. bushel (ib.). Wgt. (ib.) 

[Auchlet, der. of audit, eight, the measure being the 
eighth part of a boll. The suff. -let is prob. for lot, a part ; 
vp.firlot, the fourth part of a boll.] 
AUCHT, see Aught, Owe. 

AUCTION, sb. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Also written 
hoction w.Yks. 5 ; oction Lan. [o'kfan.] A dirty or 
untidy place, room ; a disorderly crowd. 

w.Yks. Ah nivver seed sitch a auction i' all mi life as their hahse 
is ; t'furnitur'sonnyvvheearbut whear it sud be, Leeds Merc. Suppl. 
(June 13, 1891); w.Yks. 8 Abart as scarce a material i' this here 
hoction as a white crawah, 33. Lan. Very common. It were a 
rare owd auction (R. P.) ; Hoo leet a scroid eawt on her ... an 
hoo kept at it till aw wiir fain to clear that auction an' get eawt 
o' th' heawse, LAHEE Traits (1887) n : Theaw gets a bit o' sun i' 
this oction sometimes, aw reckon, BRIERLEY Irkdale (1865) 139. 
Chs. It's the dirtiest auction I ever put my head in (E.M.G.) ; Chs. 1 
A dirty auction [a dirty, muddy place]. A rough auction [an unruly 
crowd]. s.Chs. 1 A dirty house might be described as a ' rough 
auction ' or a ' pratty auction.' There's a pratty pautament o' 
rubbitch to be wedden ait i' yander garden ; yo never seid sich a 
auction. Stf. 2 When oi got theer ur wtir duin ur spring cleenin 
an a foine auction Cir'd gotten. Get ait o'th ocshun an' let me du it. 
[The dial. mg. refers to the dirt and disorder occasioned 
by a public sale or ' auction.'] 
AUD-, see Old-. 

AUDACIOUS, adj. and adv. Not. Lin. Rut. Lei. War. 
Hrf. e.An. Ken. Sus. Hmp. Wil. Som. Also in the 
forms oudacious Not. 1 Rut. 1 Lei. 1 War. 3 e.An. 1 Ken. 
Sus. 1 ; outdacious Lin. w.Som. 1 ; owdacious sw.Lin. 1 
War. e.An. 1 Hmp. WiL Som. ; outdacious Lin. e.An. 1 ; 
alldacious e.An. 1 [pde'Jas, oude-Jas.] See 'Dacious. 

1. adj. Impudent, shameless, incorrigible. Of things : 
very bad, shocking. 

Lin. Ya wouldn't find Charlie's likes 'e were that outdacious 
at 'oam, Not thaw ya went fur to raake out Hell wi" a small-tooth 
coamb, TENNYSON Vill. Wife. sw.Lin. 1 They' re such an owdacious 
lot. Rut. 1 Them oudacious boys ! War. (J.R.W.) Hrf. 1 e.An. 1 An 
owdacious liar or scoundrel. ne.Ken. (H.M.) Wil. SLOW Gl. 
(1892). Som. SWEETMAN IVincanton Gl. (1885"'. w.Som. 1 1 sim 'tis 
the outdaciousest weather we've a-zeed 'is purty while. 

2. adv. Used intensively: exceedingly, uncommonly, 

Not. 1 Lei. 1 Oudacious coold it is, sure-loy ! War. 3 Sus. (F.E.) ; 
Sus. 1 We doant want the rain too oudacious yeasty [s.v. Yeasty]. 
Hmp. I am not owdacious strong (T.L.O.D.). 

AUDIE, see Noddy. 

AUDOCITY, see Docity. 

AUF, see Awf, Ought. 

AUFFOL, see Offal. 

AUGER, sb. Yks. Lin. [o-gs(r).] A three-pronged 
instrument with serrated edges and a long shaft for 
spearing eels. 

e.Yks. 1 , nXin. 1 

[Contus, an algere. Fuscina, a hqke for fysshe, an algere, 
Medulla (in Prompt. 186). OE. eel, ee\+gar, spear; cp. 
Du. aalgeer, an eel-spear ; see DE VRIES.] 

AUGHT, v. Sc. Also written aucht Abd. [axt.] 

1. To own, possess. 

Sc. I am answerable for her to those that aught her, SCOTT Bit. 
Dwarf (1816) ix; It drives the poor man mad that aught it, ib. 
Redg. (1824) i ; He that aughts the cow gaes nearest her tail, 
HENDERSON Prov. (1832) 49. Abd. (JAM.) 

2. To owe, to be indebted to. 

Sc. We aught him the siller, and will pay him wi' our con- 
venience, SCOTT Nigel (1822) v. Abd. Fat was auchtin you for fat 
ye laid oot, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) xlv. 

[2. We remember quhat aythe we have maid to our 
comoun-welthe, and how the dewtie we aucht to the sam 
compellis us to cry out, KNOX Hist. 164 (JAM.).^ Formed 
fr. aught, pret. of awe (to owe), OE. ahte, pret. of agan. See 

AUGHT, pp. Sc. Yks. Written aucht Sc. ; owght 
n.Yks. 1 Possessed of. 

Sc. Quheae's auwcht that doag ? Quheae was auwcht the syllcr 
'at ye fand ? Quheae'll bey auwcht them a hunder yeiraefter thys, 
MURRAY Dial. (1873) 193. Abd. Faa's aicht that, ib. 193. Ayr. 
Whase aught thae chiels maks a' this bustle here ? BURNS Prologue 
(1790). Lnk. ' Will ye daur to threep a lee doon my very throat?' 
says I. ' Wha's aucht that? ' FRASER Whaups (1895) xiii. e.Lth. 
The haill question cam to be Wha's aucht the siller? HUNTER 
J. Inwick (1895) 163. Gall. Let me see wha's aucht the sheet, 
CROCKETT Moss Hags (1895) x. n.Yks. 1 Wheea's owght thae 
beeas? Wheea's owght yon cauf? 

[This is a late constr., and a new gram, use of aught. 
Aught as a pret. is common. See Awe, Owe. It can 
only be used with the interrogative and relative, and some 
indefinite pronouns.] 

AUGHT, sb. 1 Sc. Irel. Also written aucht JAM.; 
acht S. & Ork. 1 ; aght Irel. [axt.] 

1. Property, possession. 

Sc. The old Lord was the surest gear in their aught, SCOTT Q. 
Dm ward (1823) vii ; The auld dog maun die in somebody's aught, 
RAMSAY Prov. (1737) ; Better saught wi' little aught than care wi' 
mony cows, HENDERSON Prov. (1832*1 49 ; The Kelpy's putten't by 
bein' mistaen whose aught she's intil, ROY Horseman (1895) 
I haif na a bawbee in aw my aucht (JAM.). S. & Ork. 1 Abd. 
The best fairm i' the leird's aucht, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) 
x. Ayr. A new lack of the warst land in the town's aught, GALT 
Provost (1822) vii. 

2. Applied to persons, often contemptuously. 

Sc. Bad aught, applied to an obstinate ill-conditioned child (J AM..L 
Abd. Ay auntie, gin ye kent the bonny aughtl 'Tis true, she had of 




warld's gear a fraught, Ross Helenore 1,1768) 36, ed. 1813. Ant. 

You're a dirty aght. Begone, you aght you, Ballymena Obs. (1892*1. 
[Bitwene his childre he delt his aujt, Cursor M. (c. 1300) 

3395 ; We hauen . . . gold and siluer, and michel auchte. 

Havelok (c. 1280) 1223. Cp. OE. agan, to own, possess.] 
AUGHT, sb. 2 Sc. Sus. [axt, ot.] Duty, place, 


Ayr. It's far frae my aught to say, but I hae a notion they're no 

overly pleased about something, GALT Sir Andrew (1829) xcviii. 

Sus. 1 I'd no ought to have said what I did [s.v. Unaccountable]. 
[A sbl. use of ought (pret. of owe). ' My aught' = What 

I ought (to do).] 
AUGHT, pron., sb. 3 , adj. and adv. Sc. Irel. and all the 

n. counties to Chs. Stf. Not. Lin. Also in Rut. War. GIo. 

Suf. Dor. Som. Dev. Also written aucht Abd. ; ought 

Nhb. n.Yks. 12 ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 4 ; owt N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Cum. 3 

Wm. n.Yks. 12 e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 233 Lan. 1 e.Lan. 1 m.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 

Stf. Not. 1 Lin. 1 sw.Lin. 1 Rut. 1 Glo. ; owte Cum. Lan.; 

owght n.Yks. 1 ; out n.Cy. Wm. w.Yks. 1 ; oat Not. Lin. 1 ; 

oht n.Lin. 1 ; ort War. Dor. w.Som. 1 nw.Dev. 1 ; owse 

Nhb. 1 [t, out.] 

1. pron. Anything ; any conceivable quantity ; any- 
thing of worth or value ; in phr. or aught it is sometimes 


Abd. Nedder aucht nor ocht [one thing nor another], ALEXANDER 
Johnny Gibb(i8-]i) vi. Wxf. 1 Geeth hea [doth he get] aught? n.Cy. 

A man may spend and a man may lend And always have a friend If 
his wife be aught, Denham Tractsied. 1895)!!. 37; N.Cy. 1 Nhb.Wi' 

hearts, poor things, it now was clear, Ower full by far owse [owt, ed. 

1843] much to say, WILSON Pitman's Pay (1829; pt. iii. st. 62 ; Hae 
yeseen owto'.him 'it maw sowl luves? ROBSON Sitg. Sol. (1859) iii. 3 ; 
Nhb. 1 If ye de owse mair ye'll spoil'd. They niwer i' thor lives gat 
owse better. Cum. If he stop here owts [i.e. owt as is] lang he'll 
mak tudder fellas as bad as his-sel, SARGissoN/of5coa/>(i88i) an. 
Wm.Theears fourteen barns i't'hoose, mare or less, if owt (E.W.P. . 
n.Yks. 1 He's up tiv owght. Mair by ought. n.Yks. 2 He's either 
ought or nought [he follows no particular calling or profession]. 
It's owther ought or nought [it's a mere trifle]. ne.Yks. 1 A'e ya 
seed owt of oor Dick ? e.Yks. 1 , m.Yks.' w.Yks. Folk ses owt 
when ther i' drink, HOWSON Cur. Craven (1850) 116 ; Owt i' t'pot 
line, think ye? (F.P.T.); w.Yks. 1 How isto? Deftly asout; w.Yks. 2 ; 
w.Yks. 3 Afore owt's so long [before long] ; w.Yks. 5 Some fowks 
al saay owt bud ther prayers, an' them they whistle, 108. Lan. 
To mitch of owt's good for nowt, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 
8, ed. 1806 ; Hadna aw bin kirsened Simon, aw moight ha' bin 
a cobbler, or a whitster, or a wayver, or owt else, BANKS Maitcli. 
Man (1876) iii ; Ah ne'er see nocht like it ! this gerse is as toch 
as ocht! (F.P.T.) ; Lan. 1 A laconic morning colloquy in the Oldham 
district is: Mornin' [good morning]. Mornin' [the reply]. Owt? [is 
there anything new ?] Nowt [not anything]. Mornin' [the fare- 
well]. -Mornin' [the reply]. e.Lan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 Chs. 1 Han you 
getten owt? Stf. Owt to better mysen, SAUNDERS Diamonds 
1,1888) 29. s.Not. Not as it's oat to me. but a thrupcnny tram 
fare, PRIOR Rente ^1895 250. Not. 1 Lin. Woa then, wiltha ? 
dangtha ! the bees is as fell as owt, TENNYSON N. Fanner, 
New Style (1870) st. 10 ; Lin. 1 n-Lin. 1 When ther's oht, it maks 
noht, an' when it maks oht, ther's noht [when there arc good 
crops, prices are low, and when prices are high there is nothing 
to sell]. Thoo'd better do oht then noht. sw.Lin. 1 They let him 
down [into his grave] as nice as owt. I'll stick to it, whether I've 
owt to yfiat or nowt. Rut. 1 1 don't owe owt. War. (J.R.W.) 
Glo. I'll jist step down thur a bit an' see if I can yere owt, BUCK- 
MAN Darkc's Sojourn 1,1890 , x. w.Dor. ROBERTS Hist. Lyme Kegis 

home]. . .. 

anybody was a forced to go, or ort, when they 'ad'n a-got no money 
or ort. n.Dev. Nif tha beest a zend to vield wi tha drenking or ort, 
Exm. Scold. 1 1746; 1. 197 ; And zo tha merst by ort es know, ib 
1. 10. nw.Dev. 1 

2. Everything. 

Chs. 1 It caps [exceeds] owt. Lin. ' That caps owt,' says Sally, 
an saw she begins to cry, TENNYSON N. Cobbler. 

3. sb. 3 Of aught, of importance or consequence (JAM.). 
Ayr. A quiet succession of small incidents, though they were all 

severally ot aught somewhere, Ann. Prsh. Dalmailine (i8 3 t, 200 

4. ad). Any. 

SU- 'uX er b " y Ught such thi "8s as you have ^C.G.B.V, < 
. H,j 

5. adv. At all, 'anything like,' in any degree, to any 
extent ; also in phr. (i) aught bit like, in a tolerable state ; 
(2) aught-likt, anything approaching to suitability or fit- 
ness, satisfactory, favourable ; cf. nought-like. 

Cum. 3 He ola's speaks that way when we're owte sa thrang 
[busy], i. n.Yks. Diz t'almanac tell t'weather owt reel ? (I.W.) ; 
n.Yks. 1 If my knife prove ought sharp. Lan. One young lady uts 
owt like yo', BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) viii ; Two leadd o' meeal 
wos nin ooer Hie for owte like "a spot, R. PIKETAH Forness Fit. 
(1870) 30. (i) w.Yks. An' just to keep it owt bit like He tew'd 
aboon a bit. HARTLEY Clock Aim. (1871) 43. (a N . Cum. 1 Ought- 
like. n.Yks. (I.W.) ; n.Yks. 2 Is she ought-like or nought-like? 
[pretty or otherwise]. I'll come if t'weather be ought-like. 
ne.Yks. 1 Ah's nobbut badly yit, but ah'll gan if ah be owt leyke. 
e.Yks. 1 Owt-like, gen. used of the health, or weather. w.Yks. 2 Do 
you mean to sell that house? Ah, mun, if t'price is owt like. 
Lan. 1 Is it owt-like of a job ? Aye, it'll pay well enoof. e.Lan. 1 
Hence Aughtlins, adv. Usually written oughtlins, 
see below. In any degree, in the least degree. Also used 
as sb. 

Ayr. The hizzies, if they're aughtlins fawsont, BURNS Address of 
Beelzebub (1790") ; Ifhe was grown oughtlins douser, ib. in, Globe 
ed. Lnk. But gin ye be nae warlock, how d'ye ken? DoesTamthe 
Rhymer spae oughtlings of this ? RAMSAY Poems (1727) I. 53, ed. 
1800 ; Had I been thowless, vext, or oughtlins sour, He wad 
have made me blyth in half an hour, ib. II. 6 (JAM.). 

AUGHT, sb* In gen. dial. use. [t, out.] A cipher 
in arithmetic. 

n.Lin. 1 A man doing an addition sum said, ' Ort an' ort's ort, an' 
that's noht." ne.Wor. In reply to the reproof You ought not to 
do that,' a saucy child sometimes says ' Ought stands for nothing' 
(J.W.P.). nw.Dev. 1 Aughts and crosses. 

[The same word as naught (nought), with loss of -; cp. 
adder, orange, onc/ie.] 
AUGHT, see Owe. 

AUGHTIKIN, sb. Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Also written 
auchtigen. The eighth part of a barrel, or the half-firkin. 


[Aucht, eight + i+kin. For the suff. -kin in names of 
measures cp. firkin, kilderkin.] 

AUGHTS, pron. in pi. Cum. Wm. [outs.] Anything, 
a considerable quantity, with of. 

Cum. If you're owts of a droll, GILPIN Ballads (1866) 533; 
Cum. 1 Is't owts of a good an ? [a pretty good one]. This word is 
commonly used as an interrogatory. Hes ta gitten owts o' fish 
to-day ? Nay, nowt 'at is owt [not many] ; Aughts o' clash en 
reeane [showers and rain] (W.H.H.). Wm. 1 Aughts o' brass. 

AUGHTS, see Orts. 

AUGUST-BUG, sb. Ken. [p-gast-bBg.] A beetle 
somewhat smaller than the May-bug, or the July-bug or 

Ken. The term is used but very loosely, and I think no two 
persons would agree upon a definition (P.M.); A large black 
beetle appearing in August ^ D.W.I..) : Ken. 1 

AUK, sb. Or.I. The common Guillemot, Lomvia troile. 

Or.I. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 318. S. & Ork. 1 

[ON. alka, the auk (Alca impennis).} 

AUL, see Art. 

AUL-, see Old-. 

AULAVEER, adv. Wxf. 1 Altogether. 

AULD, adj. Sc. e.Cy. 

1. Eldest. 

SC.QAM. Sufpl.} Abd. Very rarely used (G.W.). Per. In these 
parts an oldest son, daughter, brother, or sister is usually spoken 
of as my auld son, daughter, brother, or sister: the 'auld son' 
may be a child (<*.). Ayr. My auld son Charlie's a fine callan. 
GALT Entail (1833) xii. Lnk. Auld is commonly used about Glasgow 
in this sense (ib.'}.' 

2. The first or best, a phr. used in games (HALL.). 
e.An. That is the auld bowl. Nrf. Here, where the game of 

bowls is much in favour, the term Aul' bowl, or bowl closest to 
the 'jack,' is extremely common (H.C.-H.). 

3. In phr. Auld Chiel, see Auld Thief; aul' day, the day 
after a merry-making, when no work is done ; Auui 
Hangie, Auld Smith, Auld Thief, jocular names for the 
devil ; auld wife, auld woman, a revolving iron chimney- 




Per. The auld chiel' or the auld ane is a common name for 
he devil (G.W.). Bnff. 1 A met Mm o' the go ; he's haudin' the 
aul" day. Ayr. Hear me, auld Hangie, for a wee, BURNS Address 

thr Deil (1785). Abd. Tak' an order o' the auld smith, an 
ye like, ALEXANDER Johnny Gilili (1871) 49. Sc. Their faces 
were by this time flushed with shame, that they should be 
thus cuffed about by the auld thief, as they styled him, Perils 
of Men, III. 38 (JAM.). Auld wife is so called on account of its 
likeness to an old woman's head enveloped in a flannel cap. 
During high winds old-wives and pig-taps [i. e. tops of chimney- 
cans] are apt to be thrown down, and street walking is dangerous. 
Hence the severity of a storm, and one's courage in braving it. 
canit- to be represented by the expression, ' raining auld-wives and 
pig-taps,' which became corrupted into ' raining auld-wives and 
pikestaffs ' (JAM. Snppl. ). Slk. There goes an auld woman frae the 
chumley-tap, CHR. NORTH Nodes (1834) IV. 178, ed. 1856. 
4. Comp. (i) Auld-auntie; (2) -father ; (3) -headit 
(JAM.) ; (4) -mou'd (ib.), sagacious, crafty ; (5) -uncle. 

(i) Cld. Auld-auntie, the aunt of one's father or mother (JAM.). 
Ayr. (G.W.) (2) w.Sc. Auld-father, grandfather (JAM.). Ayr. 
(G.W.) (3) Cld. Auld-headit, shrewd, sagacious (JAM.). (4) Abd. 
She looks ill to ca', And o'er auld mou'd, I reed, is for us a', Ross 
llflenore (17681 97. ed. 1812. (5) Cld. Auld-uncle, the uncle of 
one's father or mother (JAM.). Ayr. (G.W.) 

AULD-, see Old-. 

AULD GIBBIE, sb. Sc. Morrhua vitlgaris. or common 

Sc. SATCHELL (1879) 8. 

[Cibbie, a familiar form of the name Gilbert.] 

AULDLANGSYNE,j*//r. Sc. Nhb.Cum. Also written 
aud- N.Cy. 1 'Old long ago,' a phrase referring to by- 
gone days ; the ' good old times.' 

Sc. God be wi' auld lang syne, when our gutchers ate their 
trenchers, RAMSAY Prov. (1737) ; Johnny Mortheuch might hae 
minded auld lang syne, and thought of his old kimmers, SCOTT 
Bride of Lam. (1819) xxxiv. Per. Wull ye no come wi' me 
for auld lang syne ? IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 289. Ayr. 
We'll tak a cup o' kindness yet, For auld lang syne, BURNS Auld 
Lang Syne (1793). Bwk. Where in the days o' auld lang syne 
The wives were witches a', HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 52. 
N.Cy. 1 Aud-lang-syne, a favourite phrase by which old persons 
express their recollections of former kindness and juvenile enjoy- 
ments in times long since past. Nhb. I dreamed of auld lang syne. 
Keelman's Ann. (1869) 5. Cum. Wish for times like auld lang 
seyne. ANDERSON Ballads (1808) 144. Wm. &Cum. 1 The gladsome 
page of auld lang seyne, 167. 

[The phr. means ' the old long since ' ; see Lang syne, 
and Syne.] 

AULD LIGHT, phr. used a/Mb. Sc. Said of ministers 
and people who are content with the ' Old Light,' the old 
way of looking at theological questions, orthodox, con- 

Frf. There are few Auld Licht communities in Scotland nowa- 
days, BARRIE Lie/it (1888) ii. Ayr. Some auld-light herds [pastors] 
in neebor towns, BURNS To William Simpson (1785). 

AULD-WIFE-HUID, sb. Cum. The Monkshood, 
Aconitum napellus. 

[This name of the plant is der. fr. the manner in which 
the flowers grow' at the top of the stalkes, of a blewish 
colour, fashioned also like a hood,' GERARDE (ed. 1633)971. 
Hence many other of its various names, such as Face- 
in-hood, Granny's Nightcap, Turk's Cap, Monk's Cowl, Old 
Wives' Mutches.} 

AULIN, sb. Or. and Sh.I. e.Sc. Also written allan. 
1. The Arctic Gull, Richardson's Skua, Stercorarhis 
mpidatus also known as Dirty Aulin and Weese Allan 
See Oilan Hawk. 

Or. & Sh.I. Dirten-allan, NEILL Tour (1706) 201 (JAM. Suppl.). 

Lth. An Arctic Gull Hew near the boat. . . . The boatmen styled it 

the dirty Aulin, PENNANT Tonr in Sc. (1679) 78 (ib.). Or.I. Weese 

allan. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 210. [FORSTER Swallow (1817) 91.] 

1. Comp. Aulin-scouty, Scuti-aulin. 

S. & Or.I. There is a fowl . . . called the Scutiallan . . . which 
oth hve upon the vomit . . .of other fowls, BRAND Zetland(noi) 
109 (JAM.) ; S. & Ork. 1 Aulin-scouty. 

. Sc. Also written awm Bnff. 1 fpm.l Alum 
m coinp. Aum-leather, -paper. 

Sc. Aum leather, called also white leather QAM. Snppl.). Bnff. 1 

Avon-leather, the same as awm't leather. Awm-paper, paper 
soaked in a solution of alum and water, and used as tinder. 

[A pron. of alum, OFr. a/uii.] 

AUM, v. Sc. Lan. Also written awm Sc. Bnff. 1 ; 
alluin Lan. 1 
1. To dress or prepare skins or paper with alum. 

Sc. (JAM.) ; Aum that skin (G.W.). Bnff. 1 Awm, to soak paper 
in a solution of alum and water to make tinder. 

Hence Awm't, ppl. adj., see Aum, sb. 

Sc. Awm't leather, white leather (JAM.) ; Alm'd leither tu fasten 
ye cover to ye brods, DICKSON Elder at Plate (cd. 1892) 56. Bnff. 1 
Z. Fig. To thrash, beat soundly ; ' tan a person's hide.' 

Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Bnff. 1 Awm. Abd. I'll aum yer hide for ye 
(G.W.). Lan. 1 Well, Joe, what did th'mastersay to tin for playin' 
truant? O, he dudn't say varry mich, bod he allum'd me reel weel 
for it. 

Hence Awman, vbl. sb. a thrashing, chastisement. 
Bnff. 1 

[The same as aum, sb. Cp. Fr. aluner (fr. alim), to 
impregnate with alum ; aluner une e'tqffe, ' la tremper dans 
une dissolution d'alun, pour y fixer des couleurs ou pour 
la rendre impermeable ' (HATZFELD).] 

AUM, see Haulm. 

AUMBLE, see Amble. 

AUMER, see Owner. 

AUMERIL, 56. Sc. A stupid, unmethodical person ; 
also a mongrel dog. 

Sc. That lassie's waur than glaikit, she's an aumerial (J.W.M.X 
Slk. (JAM.) 

AUMLACH, sb. Irel. A small quantity. 

Ir. If a person were expecting a ' gawpen ' of meal, and he only 
got a small handful, he would say that he got an aumlach (R.M.Y. i. 
N.I. 1 Aumlach, a small quantity. 

AUMLUCH, ^'. and adv. Irel. Also written aumlach. 

1. adj. Awkward, ungainly. 
Ir. He is very aumluch (J.W.ff.). 

2. adv. In an ungainly manner, awkwardly. 
Ir. It was done very aumluch (J.W.ff.). 
AUMOUS, see Almous. 

AUMOX, see Hommock(s. 

AUMPER, v. Obs. Dor. To foster. 

Dor. N. & Q. (1883) 6th S. vii. 366. 

AUMPH, see Ahuh. 

AUMRY.a^'. Yks. [9'inri.] Shady. 

w.Yks. HOWSON Cur. Craven (1850) 112. 

[Aumer (the shade, see Owner) + -y.} 

AUMRY, see Ambry. 

AUN, see Awn. 

AUNCEL, s6. Irel. Yks. Also Som. Cor. Also written 
ancell Cor. 2 ; ounsells w.Yks. 2 ; ounsel Irel.; andsell, 
handsale w.Som. 1 [o'nsl, a'nsl, ae'nsl.] 

1. The weighing balance called the steelyard. 

Tip. An ounsel would be a most essential requisite to this house, 
Proc. of Clonmel Union in N. & Q. (1856) 2nd S. i. 377. w.Yks. 
An auncel consists of a long straight bar of steel with a sliding 
weight and a scale of weights engraved on the bar (S.O.A.) ; 
w.Yks. 2 w.Cor. (M.A.C.), Cor. 2 

2. By pop. association with ' hand,' by handsale weight. 
w.Som. 1 Any article purchased by poising it in the hand without 

actual weighing [is said to be sold by] handsale weight. How 
much a pound d'e gee vor they? I can't tell nezackly ; I bought 
em out-an-out by an'sl wauyt. 

[The pound that hue paiede hem by, peysed a quarter 
More than myn auncel, whenne ich weied treuthe, r. Plow- 
man (c.) yn. 224. Awncell weight, as I have beene 
informed is a kind of weight with scoles hanging, or 
hookes fastened at each end of a staife, which a man 
lifteth up upon his forefinger, or hand, and so discerneth 
the equality or difference betweene the weight and the 
thing weighed. ... It was forbidden anno 25 Edw. 3 ... 
yet a man of good credit once certified mee, that it is still 
used in Leaden Hall at London among butchers, &c. . . . 
It may probably be thought to bee called awnsell weight, 
quasi hand sale weight because it was and is performed 
by the hand as the other is by the beame, COWELL Interp. 
This explanation of the word, suggested by Cowell in 




1607, appears in COLES (1677) and BAILEY (1721). But 
the word is of French origin : AFr. aunselle, auncelle, prob. 
for launcelle (the /- being taken for the def. art.), MLat. 
lancella; cp. It. Imicella, a kind of measure (FLORIO).] 

AUNCETER, sb., usually in pi. Yks. Lan. Der. Also 
in the forms auncetre w.Yks. 24 ; anciter Lan.; onsetter 
Lan. e.Lan. 1 Der. 2 [a'nseta(r), o-nseta(r).] An an- 

w.Yks. 24 Lan. I'd fain ha' yo belov'd, Sur, in yoar turn As aw 
yoar anciters before ye wurn, BYROM Poems (1773) I. 118, ed. 
1814 ; An' so did their on-setters afore 'em, WAUGH Birthfl. Tim 
Bobbin (1858) v ; Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , Der. 2 

[Aunters ... of aunsetris nobill, Dest. Troy (c. 1400) 5 ; 
So schaltow gete god los ... as han al bin aunceteres, 
Win, of Pal. (c. 1340) 5133. OFr. ancestre, Lat. ante- 

AUND, pp. Cum. Yks. Lan. Also written awned 
n.Yks. 1 ; owned Cum. [nd.] Fated, destined, ordained. 

N.Cy. 12 Cum. It's own'd, it seems to be, And vveel I wake 
what's own'd yen cannot flee, RF.LPH Misc. Poems ( r 747) 97 ; Yon 
fause man he's aund to rue, POWLEY Echoes (1875) 144. Yks. I 
am awn'd to ill luck (K. \ n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 At our house we are 
aund, I think, to ill luck. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Hun ON Tour to Caves 
(1781); w.Yks. 1 I's aund oot. ne.Lan. 1 

2. Forewarned. 

n.Yks. 2 If I had been aund. 

[Aud (prob. error for 'aund') ordained, BAILEY (1721). 
A pp. of a vb. which repr. ON. autina, to be ordained 
by fate ; cp. ttuar, fate, destiny. Nonv. dial, aiiden, 
ordained, determined (AASEN).] 

AUNDER, see Undern. 

AUNE, sb. ? Obs. Written awln. A French measure 
of length. 

Ken. 1 The awln is 5 ft. 7 in. ; and is used in measuring nets. 
[Not known to our correspondents.] 

[Fr. aune. Aulne, an ell, the measure so called ; the 
measure varied in different parts of France from two 
foot and a half at Dijon to tour foot and (very near) 
a half at Bourdeaux, COTGR.] 

AUNT, sb. Lin. Also in Glo. Ken. Som. Dev. Cor. 
Also written aint, an' Cor. 1 ; ount Dev. ; naunt w.Som. 1 ; 
un Cor. 1 2 [ant, ont, ant.] 

1. A term of familiarity or respect applied to elderly 
women, not necessarily implying relationship. 

Ken. Now, Sal, ye see, had bin ta school She went to old 
aunt Kite, MASTERS Dirk and Sa/(c. 1821)51.56. w.Som. 1 Poor old 
aunt Jenny Baker's a tookt bad ; they zess her ont never get up 
no more. Well ! just eens I was comin' along, who should ees 
meet but th' old Naunt Betty, so I zaid, s'l, Well, naunt, and 
how d'ye sim you be ? ' n.Dev. Vor than Ount Annis Moreman 
could ha blessed vore, Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 25. Cor. It is com- 
mon to call all elderly persons Aunt or Uncle, prefixed to their names, 
Gent. Mag. (1793) 1083 ; They were wont, on the Tamar side, to 
call the Mother of God, in their loyal language, ' Modryb Marya,' 
or ' Aunt Mary ! ' BARING-GOULD Vicar (1876) vii ; Cor. 1 Too 
fine, like An Betty Toddy's gown ; Cor. 2 Aunt or Un are often 

used instead of Mrs. , in speaking of an aged Cornishwoman : 

Cor. 3 In Redruth district Un is always followed by the Christian 
name, as Un Betsy, Un Jenny. 

2. A grandmother; also attrib. in phr. aunt grandmother. 
Glo. One person will taunt another by telling him to go and 

complain to his aunt grandmother. If you do that again I shall 
whip you. Then I will tell mother. Which mother ? your aunt 
grandmother? (S.S.B.) ; Glo. 2 

3. A bawd ; (rarely) a prostitute. 

n-Lin. 1 

[3. SHAKS. uses this word for a loose woman ; CD. Wint 
T. iv. iii. ii.] 

AUNTER, sb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Also written 
anter n.Cy. 1 Cum. ; awnter n.Yks. 2 ; onter w.Yks. 2 Gen 
used m pi. [a'nto(r), o-nta(r), 9'nta(r).] 

1. An adventure, misadventure ; a story of adventure an 
unlikely story. 

N.Cy.i Cum. That was nobbut an oald wife saunter foe] 
SARGISSON Joe Saw?(l88i) 201. Cum. & Wm. Auld-wife's anters 
(.M.P.i. Wm. Granfadthre's teeals aboot em wer nobbet aald 
w.fe santres [<:], CLARKE Spec. DM. (1885) pt. iii. 31. n.Yks. 2 
w.Yks. 1 He s ollas tellin some girt aunter. ne.Lan. 1 

Hence Auntersome, bold, daring, adventurous. 
n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 Dinnot be ower auntersome. ne.Yks. 1 Now 
superseded by ' venturesome." w.Yks. 1 

2. A strange or unusual deed ; anything unusual or out 
of the way. 

n.Cy. Auters [misprint for anters], strange work, GROSE fi79oX 
n.Yks. Thou macks sike anters thou'l mistetch my cow, MERITOM 
Praise A le (1697) 1. 14 ; n.Yks. 2 Flowtersome ainiU-rs, high-flown 
deeds or notions. 

3. A pretence, needless scruple, excuse, hesitation. 
n.Cy. Aunters, doubts and uncertain resolutions (K.I ; He made 

aunters about it, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) ; N.Cy. 1 ; N.Cy." 1 Ic 
is troubled with aunters. Yks. Many enters, TIIORESBV /.-// 
'i703\ n.Yks. 2 , m.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 2 

[1. In the tyme of Arther thys antur be-tydde. Anturs 
of Artlier (c. 1420) I. I ; Fel auntour that this enfermcr 
was sek, Metr. Horn. (c. 1325) 192. 2. In a cuntre was 
cald Colchos by name, Was an aunter ... a wonderfull 
wethur, Dest. Troy (c. 1400) 153. AFr. aventttre, Lnt. 

AUNTER, v. Sc. Written anter. [a'ntar.] 

1. To venture, to chance. 

Sc. GROSE ^1790) MS. add. (C.) Abd. Bat be guid luck we 
anter'd browliesupo' the rod, FORBES Jin. ^1742) 16; Howanter'd 
ye a fieldward sae your lane, Ross Helrnore (1768) 160; But 
though it should anter the weather to bide, ib. 284. 

2. To walk, to saunter. 

Sc. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) 

[1. And bid him enter into England and awnter him 
selven, The Scottish Field (c. 1600), Chetham Soc. (1856) 
xxxvii. ME. pen auntred Ulexes and his erund said, 
Dest. Troy (c. 1400) 4985 ; And after auntrede god hym- 
self and tok Adam's kynde, P. Plowman (c.) xxi. 232. 
OFr. avenliirer, to adventure.] 

AUNTERCAST, sb. Obs. ? Sc. Written anter-. A 

Sc. GROSE (1190) MS. add. (C.) Abd. Never min', Nor at sic 
woeful antercasts repine, Ross Heletiorc (1768*1 107, ed. i8r2. 

AUNTERIN, vbl. sb. and ppl. adj. Sc. n.Cy. Also 
written antrin Bnff. 1 [a'ntrin.] 

1. vbl. sb. An occasional one. One here and there. 
Bnff. 1 Antrins are staivrin' aboot through the girs. 

2. ppl. adj. Occasional, rare. 

Sc. Thou kens I'm but an antrin chiel, ALLAN Lilts (1874) 116; 
' Ane antrin ane,' one of a kind met with singly and occasionally, 
or seldom ( JAM.). Sh.I. Aa ye finn in antrin neuks, BURGESS Ras- 
mie (1892) 83. Abd. Yet thir, alas ! are antrin folk That lade their 
scape wi' winter stock, FERGUSSON Poems (1785) II. 31 ; She never 
takes Glendronack [whisky] 'Cep' at an antren time, Good-wtft(iS6tf 
st. 10. Fif. Except at antern times I haena kenned him going to 
the kirk, ROBERTSON Provost '1894) 160. Lth. For small parcels, 
and to occasional or anterin' customers, James was a ready-money 
man, STRATHESK More Bits (ed. 1885) 66. e.Lth. But that was but 
an auntern ane here an' there, HUNTER /. Inwick (1895) 23. Rxb. 
An' Phcebus gies an anterin glowr O' doubtfu' light, A. SCOTT 
Poems (ed. 1808) 223. 

3. Different. 

n.Cy. Antrin, Border Gl. (Coll. L.L.B.) 

[Deriv. of anter, ME. auntren, to come by chance, to 
happen, befall. There auntred horn oft onsware to haue, 
Dest. Troy (c. 1400) 2862. See Aunter, v.] 

AUNTERIN, see Undern. 

AUNTERS, adv. and conj. Usually in pi. Nhb. Cum. 
Wm. Yks. Also written anthers n.Yks. 1 ne.Yks. 1 
m.Yks. 1 ; anter Nhb. 1 ; anters N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Cum. Wm. 1 
n.Yks. 3 w.Yks. 1 ; antres Wm. w.Yks. 

1. adv. Perhaps. 

n.Cy. Awnters, GROSE (1790). Cum. Or anters in yon mouldering 
heap, STAGG Misc. Poems (1805) 54, ed. 1807. 

2. conj. Lest, in case that. 

N.Cy.i, Nhb. 1 Wm. Antres a git a job, CLARKE Spec. Dial. (ed. 1868) 
JonnyShippard'sJoimia; Wm. 1 Anters he cums. n.Yks. 1 I weant 
be far anthers he comes : n.Yks. 3 I'll tak my greeat cwoat anters it 
sud snaw. ne.Yks. 1 Anthers. In use at East Ocklam a few years 
ago. e.Yks. MARSHALL 7?;<>-. Econ. (1788). m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. We 
must have it ready, anters they come (H.F.S.) ; Gang an' fetch him 
antres he tummel (R.H.H.); w.Yks. 1 I mun endays, anters neet 
be omme. 




[Aunters, peradventure, COLES (1677). ME. For oon 
the beste knyghtes art them That in thys londe ys levyd 
now Awnturs ferre or nere, Syr Eglatnort (c. 1450) 213. 
Aniiler, adventure + -s, advb. suff.] 

AUNT HANNAH, sb. e.An. Arabis alpina, or white 

e.An. 1 

AUNTIELOOMIE, sb. Lin. [antilu'mi.] A children's 

Lin. The children join hands, and dance in a circle, with a front 
step, a back step, and a side step, round an invisible May-pole, 
singing, ' Can you dance the Auntieloomie ? Yes, I can ; yes, 
I can.' Then follows kissing, GOMME Games (1894) 9. 

AUNT MARY'S TREE, phr. Cor. The holly, con- 
nected in folk-lore with the Virgin Mary. 

Cor. Now, the holly, with her drops of blood, for me : For that 
is our dear Aunt Mary's tree ! BARING-GOULD Vicar (.1876) vii ; 
Science Gossip (1881) 267. 

AUNTY, sb. Sc. Lan. 

1. A term of familiarity, see Aunt, 1. 

Lan. Come, fye, Naunty Grace, come, fye, an' ha' done ! Yo'ast 
ha' th' mare or money, whether yo' won, HARLAND Ballads 
(1865) 122. [Amer. BARTLETT.] 

2. Cf. aunt, 3. 

Sc. Aunty, a vulgar name for a loose woman, one who keeps a 
brothel (JAM. Suppl.}. 

3. A name for the ' bottle ' ; a debauch. 

Sc. But makin' ower free wi' our aunty Is sure to bring trouble 
the morn ; For aunty's a dangerous kimmer, Whistle-Binkie (1853) 
II. 237 (JAM. Suppl}. 

AUNTY, adj. Chs. Lei. Nhp. Wor. Shr. Also written 
anti- Chs. 13 [a'nti, o'nti.] 

1. Of persons : ready, bold, venturesome, high-spirited. 
See Hanty. 

Lei. 1 Shr. 1 'E's a aunty little chap is our Turn, theer inna much 
as 'e fi6nna-d-'ave a try fur. 

2. Of horses : frisky, restive. 
Lei. 1 , Nhp. 2 , ne.Wor. (J.W.P.) 

Hence Aunty-paunty, -praunty, adj. (i) Of persons : 
proud, high-spirited. (2) Of horses : restive. 

(i) Shr. 1 'E's a aunty-praunty fellow, is young John, 'E 66nna 
bar to be put upon. (2) Chs. 13 s.Chs. 1 This hoss is too aunty- 

AUNUT, see Earth-nut. 

AUPWAY, see Opeway. 

AUR, see Arr. 

AURNIT, see Earth-nut. 

AURRUST, see Harvest. 

AUSE, see Oss, v. 

AUSKERRIE, sb. Sh.I. A scoop for baling out a boat. 

Sh.I. (K.I) ; (JAM.) S. & Ork. 1 

[Norw. dial, auskjer (Dan. jsekar). ON. aus-ker, for 
<utst-ker, austrs-ker, a scoop, pump-bucket. Austr, the 
act of drawing water in buckets (der. of ausa, to pump, 
esp. a ship) +ker, a tub, vessel ; cp. Goth, kas.] 

AUSNEY, see Halseny. 

AUST, see Oss. 

AUSTERN, adj. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Also written 
asterne, astren. 

1. Austere. 

Rxb. Whow, but he's an austern-looking fallow. 

2. Having a frightful or ghastly appearance. 

Slk. Astren is often applied to the look of a dying person. 

[The form with -n is found in the i4th cent. I dredde 
thee, for thou art an austerne (a sterne, 1388) man . . . 
I am an hausterne man, WYCLIF (1382) Luke xix. 21. 
This passage seems to show that the form is due to assoc. 
with stern.] 

AUSTROUS, adj. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) Frightful, ghastly. 

Cld. And a dowie sheen frae his austrous een Gae licht to the 
dismal wane, Blackw. Mag. (May, 1820) Marntaiden of Clyde. 

[A corr. form, made up of austr- (fr. austere] + -ous, as 
in disastrous.] 

AUSTRY RODS, sb. ? Obs. Ken. Osier rods used 
to bind billet wood for the London market. 

Ken. Rep. Agric. Su>: (1793-1813). 

[The word austry seems to be the same as ostry found 
VOL. i. 

in Greene's works. Think, mistress, what a thing love 
is : why it is like an ostry-faggot, that once set on fire, is 
as hardly quenched as the bird crocodile driven out of 
her nest, GREENE Looking Glass (1594) (DAV.) ; Your 
small pots and your ostrie-faggots, GREENE Quip for Up- 
start Courtier (Harl. Misc. V. 413) ; Ostrey-faggots and 
faire chambring, Defence of Coneycatching (1592), ed. 
Halliwell (1859) 19. Prob. a comp. of osier (ausier, e.An. 1 ! 
+ tree.] 

AUTER, see Aunter, Halter. 

AUTHOR, sb. Sc. Glo. The person on whose au- 
thority a statement is made, an informant. 

Abd. (JAM.) Per. I'll gie you my author. My author for saying 
so is A. B. (G.W.) Glo. 1 Mr. C. is my author. 

[I tell you what mine authors say, SHAKS. Per. i. 
Prol. 20 ; Myn auctor shal I folwen, if I conne, 
CHAUCER Tr. <&-> Cr. n. 49. So in Fr. : Citer son auteur, en 
parlatit de celui de qui on tient une nouvelle, HATZFELD.] 

AUTLANDS, see Outlands. 

AUTORITY.sA. Obs. w.Yks. Authority. 

w.Yks. 1 Naabody theear hed onny autority, ii. 320. 

[Health honoure worshepe frendes and autorite, TIN- 
DALE Obedience (1528), in Spec. E. L. XVI. 253. OFr. 
auctorite (mod. autorite'), authority.] 

AUVE, see Hawve, Helve. 

AUVEN, see Hoven. 

AUVER, see Hover, Over. 

AUVISH, see Awflsh. 

AUWIS-BORE, see Awf. 

AUX, see Hocks, v. 

AUX-BIT, sb. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) 

Ayr. Aux-bit, a nick, in the form of the letter V, cut out of the 
hinder part of a sheep's ear ; cf. Back-bit, Lug-mark. 

AV-, see Af-. 

AVA, adv. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Also written eva' Nhb. 
[ava-.] At all. 

Sc. The ill ne'er plantit ava, WADDELL Ps. (1891) i. head; Dinna 
sweer ava, HENDERSON St. Matt. (1862) v. 34. Frf. She'll hear it 
first frae his ain lips if she hears it ava, BARRIE Minister (1891) xl ; 
' I dinna haud wi' that ava,' he said, ib. Thrums (1895) v. Per. 
She was na feared ava, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush (1895) 126. Flf. 
I've nae doubt ava, ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 21. Ayr. I've aften 
wonder'd . . . What way poor bodies liv'd ava, BURNS To/a Dogs 
(1786). Lnk. There'll sune be nae leevin' for canny dacent bodies 
ava, FRASER Whaups (1895) i. e.Lth. Nae dou't a frail stoup's 
better nor nane ava, HUNTER J. Imirick (1895) 64. Edb. When 
they arena able to prove that ever there was a bairn ava, SCOTT 
Midlothian (1818) iv. Bwk. Folk are no ava as they were lang- 
syne, HENDERSON Pop. Rhymes (1856) 83. Slk. Scarcely seen, 
no heard ava, CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) IV. 220. Gall. There's 
no a Dutchman i' the pack That's ony guid ava, man ! CROCKETT 
Raiders (1894) vi. N.I. 1 A dinna ken ava. A'll hae nane o' that 
ava. Nhb. An' dread that they've come by their death, Ere they 
kent thirsells stricken ava' ! Newc. Fishers' Garl. (1844) 168; I could 
seenaethingava, RICHARDSON Borderers Table-bk. (1846) VII. 137 ; 
Ne doubt eva' they'll tak their corning ? GRAHAM Moorland Dial. 

[Ava repr. of all.] 

AVA, see Awa. 

AVAIL OF, v. Irel. Amer. [ave'l.] To take advantage 
of. Used without the reflexive pron. 

Ir. He availed of the opportunity (P.J.MO ; Used freely in all 
newspapers (G.M.H.) ; (J.S.) [Amer. An offer was made but not 
availed of, BARTLETT.] 

[But how of this can she avail ? SHAKS. M.for Meas. in. 
i. 243.] 

AVAL, see Awald. 

AVAL-CROOK, see Ewil-cruik. 

AVANG, sb. Dev. Also written eavang nw.Dev. 1 
[avae-rj.] A leather strap on a saddle to which the girth 
is attached. 

Dev. A strap, or stay to which the girt is buckled ; a whang ; 
the iron strap under the lap of the saddle to which the stirrup- 
leather is fastened, WRIGHT. nw.Dev. 1 

AVAST,/>Ar. Yks. Lan. Naut. [ava'st.] Stop! stay! 

n.Yks. 2 Avast hauling ! Lan. Come, come ; avast with that story, 





GASKELL M. Barton (1848) xxviii. Colloq. The Captain muttered 
a feeble ' awast ! ' DICKENS Dombey (1848) 1. 

[Avast, hold, stop, it is enough, ASH (1795) ; Avast, 
brother, avast! sheer off! SMOLLETT R. Random (1748) 
Ixiv (ed. 1800, I. 438). 

AVEEL, see Afield. 

AVE GRACE, sb. ? Obs. Sus. Ruta graveolens, or 
common rue. Also called Herb Grace, q.v. 

[In allusion doubtless to the angelic salutation to the 
Virgin, Ave gratia plena (VuLG. Luke i. 28).] 

AVEL, sb. and v. Glo. e.An. Also written havel 
e.An. 2 ; avil Suf. [e'vl.] 
1. sb. The beard or awns of barley or bearded wheat. 

Glo. 1 e.An. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863) ; e.An. 12 , Nrf. 1 Suf. 
RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 287, ed. 1849 ; Suf. 1 
2 v To take the awns off barley or bearded wheat. 

Suf. (F.H.) 

Hence (i) Aveller, 5*. a machine for dressing barley ; 
(2) Avel- or Havelling-machine, sb. a machine for 
removing the avels ; (3) Avelly, adj. used of corn when, 
after being dressed, the awns stick to the grains. 

(i) Glo. 1 , Suf. (F.H.) (a) Suf. RAINBIRD Agric. (1819) 287, ed. 
1849. (3) e-An. 1 , Nrf. 1 

[Prob. repr. an ON. cogn. of OE. egl, the ' ail ' or awn 
of barley or other corn ; cp. Dan. avn, Sw. agn, OHG. 
agana, the ' awn ' of corn.] 

AVEL, see Awelt. 

AVELING(S, adv. and adj. Obs. Nhb. Suf. Also 
written avelling Suf. [e - valin(z.] 

1. adv. In an oblong or oval shape. See Avelong. 

Nhb. 1 

2. adj. Out of the perpendicular ; not ' square ' ; as in 
comb. Avelling work. 

Suf. Reapers or mowers approaching the side of a field not 
perpendicular or parallel to the line of wall will have an unequal 
portion to do, the excess or deficiency of which is called avelling 
work, RAINBIRD Agric. (1849) 287. 

[Half a yarde of lyninge clothe cut avelinges, Durham 
Wills (1577) 14, ed. 1860 (N.E.D.). Formed fr. avelong, 
q.v., with change of suffix to -ling(es, OE. -ling, as in 
hading, backwards.] Wm. [e'valinz.] Refuse, the useless 
portion of any material ; what is left over or rejected. 

Wm. 1 What a lot o' avelins thoo's left ! 

[Prob. a der. of avel, q.v. -f -ing.] 

AVELONG, adj. Yks. Lin. e.An. Also written avelang 
w.Yks. 1 ; avellong e.An. 1 Nrf. 1 Suf. 1 [e'valor).] 

1. Elliptical, oval ; oblong. See Avelings. 

w.Yks. 13 ; w.Yks. 5 Aside o' t'Grime-cabin cloise a aavelong 
piece o' grund it is. 

2. Oblique, slanting. 
n-Lln. 1 

3. Comb. Avellong work, mowing or reaping lying out 
of the perpendicular, as on the sides of a field. 

e.An.I, Nrf. 1 , Suf. 1 

[Warpyn, or wex wronge or avelonge, as vesselle, 
oblongo, Prompt. Oblongus, auelonge, Medulla (in 
Prompt. 17). ON. aflangr, oblong.] 

AVEN, 56. Shr. [e'van.] A latent promise; that 
which contains in itself the element of some special 
excellence or usefulness. 

Shr. BOUND Prov. (1876) ; Shr. 1 A thriving colt would be a good 
aven of ahorse ; a stick growing naturally in the form of a scythe- 
handle a mighty good aven of a sned. Tother day as I wuz gwein 
through Brown's Coppy, I sid a famous aven of a sned ; Shr. 2 
The aven of a fine cowt. 

[ME. efite, euen(e, material, stuff, ability; ON. efhe, 
whence Sw. cemna, Dan. evne. Of himself he toke his 
euen fiat he of wroght both erth and heuen, Cursor M. 
(c. 1300) 335.] 

AVENAGE, sb. Obs. Yks. 

Yks. Avenage, a certain quantity of oats paid by a tenant to his 
landlord as a rent, or in lieu of some other duties, Wkly Post 
(June 9, 1883). 

[Avenage, or an homage of oats, ROBERTSON Phraseol. 
Gen. (1693) 5 Avenage, oats paid to a landlord for some 

other duties, COLES (1677) ; OFr. avenage, ' Prestation en 
avoine que les paysans fournissaient a leur seigneur,' 

AVENLESS, adj. Wor. Shr. Also written evenless 
w.Wor. 1 [e-vanlas, rvanlass.] Awkward; shiftless, 
without any faculty for contriving. 

w.Wor. 1 Let that cow be, yu e'enless thing, you 11 be the ruina- 
tion of everything. Shr. 1 'Er's a poor avenless wench 'er is. 

\Aven (ME. euen(e, ability, natural powers), q.v. + -/?ss.] 

AVER, 5*. Sc. Nhb. Yks. Also written aiver Sc. ; 
afer Nhb. 1 ; haver, hawfer n.Yks. 2 [e'var.J 

1. A beast of burden ; a horse, esp. a cart-horse, or worn- 
out, worthless animal. 

Sc. An inch of a nag is worth a span of an aver, RAMSAY Prov. 
(1737) ; Wi ' ilka aiver lean and scra e> DKUMMOND Mnckomachy 
(1846) 9; The foreman to their carts and creels did yoke the 
aivers a', ib. 10 ; The carles and the cart-avers eat it all, SCOTT 
Pirate (1821) iv; Peghing [breathing heavily] like a miller's 
aiver, ib. Bride of Lam. (1819) xxiv ; Caff and draff is gude aneuch 
for aivers, HENDERSON Prov. (1832) 104, ed. 1881 ; MORTON Cyclo. 
Agric. (1863). Ayr. Yet aft a ragged cowte's been known to mak 
a noble aiver, BURNS Dream (1786). N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 In later 
usage, an old or worthless horse. n.Yks. 2 

2. Fig. A stupid person. 

Bnff. 1 

[Aver, a labouring beast, BAILEY (1755) ; Aver, among 
husbandmen, a labouring-beast, KERSEY (1715) ; ' A 
false aver,'a sluggish horse or lazy beast, Northumberland, 
KENNETT Par. Antiq. (1695). AFr. aveir (aver), Fr. avoir, 
property, stock, cattle ; cp. It. avfre, /tave're (FLORIO).] 

AVER, adj. Nhb. Peevish, fretful. 

Nhb. On authority of Hall. ; but unknown to our correspondents. 

[Prob. a spec, use of aver, sb., q.v. (esp. sense 2).] 

AVERAGE, sb. Nhb. Yks. Lin. Also the form 
averish occurs N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 e.Yks. 1 [a'varidg, a-varij.] 

1. The pasturage of corn-fields after harvest, stubble ; a 
stubble-field. Cf. arrish. 

n.Cy. (K.) ; GROSE (1790) ; N.Cy. 12 , Nhb.i e.Yks. Ah sail turn 
them pigs into averish (R.S.); MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788); 
e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 Aut average, seea cowarse an roody, ii. 289. 

2. Land that is ' fed ' in common by the parish as soon 
as the corn is carried. 

n.Lln. 1 

[Average, in husbandry, pasturage or fodder for cattel, 
KERSEY (1715) ; In the North they use average for what 
in Kent we call the gratten ; in other parts the eddish, .. . 
the roughings, the stubble and pasture left in corn-fields 
after the harvest is carried, KENNETT Par. Antiq. (1695) ; 
Average, pasturage, COLES (1677) ; Average, the feeding 
or pasturage for cattle, especially the edish or roughings, 
WORLIDGE Syst. Agric. (1669) ; In these monthes after 
the cornne bee innede it is meete to putt draught horsses 
and oxen into the averish, Archaeologia, XIII. 379 (HALL.). 
Conn, with arrish, q.v. Prob. the form is due to confusion 
with average (Sc. arage), a service done by the tenant with 
his ' avers ' (see Aver, sb.).] 

AVERAGE, v. Yks. Also the form averish occurs 
e.Yks. To eat the pasturage after harvest. 

n.Yks. Still in common use, esp. in the n. Riding (M.C.F.M.). 
e.Yks. Not common (R.S.). 

[The same as Average, sb.] 

AVERILL, see Arval. 

_AVERIN, sb. Sc. Also written aiverin GAM.). 
[e-vrin.] Rubus chamaemorus, or cloud-berry. 

Bnff. 1 Abd. And spies a spot of averins ere lang, Ross Helettore 
(1768) 25, ed. 1812. Per. Picking up here and there a plant of 
the . . . averan, CLUNIE Statist. Ace. (c. 1795) IX. 237 (JAM.). 

[Etym. unknown, but perh. cogn. w. everocks, q.v. (with 
diff. suff.), with which cp. Gael, oighreag, a cloud-berry 

AVERISH, adj. Wm. Greedy, avaricious. 

Wm. A child who was eating or drinking greedily would be told 
1 net ta be sea averish ' (B.K.). 

[For averous, q.v., with change of suff. (-ish for -ous).] 

AVERISH, see Average. 

AVERN, adj. Nhp. Bdf. Also written avan Nhp. 




1. Uncouth in person, dress, and manners. 

Nhp. 1 Applied exclusively to the lower order of youthful females. 
A slatternly overgrown girl, or a strong, muscular, slovenly servant 
would be called ' agreat avern thing.' Bdf. BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. 
Lang. (1809). 

2. Filthy, squalid. 
Nhp. (HALL.) 

AVEROUS, adj. Stf. [a'varas.] Avaricious. 

n.Stf. Averous is still common among the miners (J.T.). Stf. 2 

[Nether theues, nether auerouse men, WYCLIF (1388) 
i Cor. vi. 10 ; Auerous men and chynches, that gifes froit, 
hot when it is rotyn, HAMPOLE Ps. i. 3 (com.). AFr. 
averous. Thiebaut . . . mult ont chastels e viles, e mult fu 
avcrous, WAGE Rom. de Rose, 4408 (Moisv). OFr. averus, 
der. of avet'r, possession ; see Aver, sb.] 

AVIL, see Awald, sb. 

AVIS, adv. Irel. Also written aves N.I. 1 Perhaps, 
may be ; but. 

N.I. 1 Avis a'll gang there on the Sabbath. 

AVISE, sb. Sc. Lan. Also written avyse. Advice, 
counsel ; opinion. 

Sc. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (C.) Lan. 1 I offered him avyse, 
and he wodn't hev it. 

[Seyeth your avys, and holdeth yow apayd, CHAUCER 
C. T. A. 1868. OFr. avis, opinion, advice.] 

AVISE, v. Sus. [avai'z.] To warn, caution ; inform. 

Sus. I should avise ye not to goo. I 'ull write and avise 'im of it 
(F.W.L.) ; So at lass dey greed atween um on a contraption fer 
to avise one anuder uf summut wur loike to maak a pucker, 
JACKSON Southward Ho (1894) I. 338. 

[My wand he bad, in thi present, I shuld lay downe, 
and the avyse How it shuld turne to oone serpent, 
Towneley Myst. (c. 1460) 61 (MATZNER). Fr. aviser, to advise, 
counsel, warn, tell, inform, do to wit, COTGR.] 

AVISED, ppl. adj. 1 Sc. e.An. Sus. Also written 
avized e.An. 1 Suf. 1 [avai-zd.] Informed, aware of. 

Sc. Are you well avised of the way? SCOTT Nigel (1822) xxxvi. 
e.An. 1 1 am not avized of it. Suf. I a'nt avized of it, CULLUM Hist. 
Hazvsted(i8t3); Suf. 1 Ar yeowawized ont? Sus.H'm well avised 
that John spent all his wages at the Barley-mow. 

[Advised, by good intelligence, Of this most dreadful 
preparation, SHAKS. Hen. V, n. Prol. 12. ME. avised, pp. 
of avisen. See Avise, v.] 

AVISED, ppl. adj. 2 Wm. Yks. Also written avized 
n.Yks. 2 [avai'zd.] Complexioned ; featured. See 

Wm. Dark-avised, light-avised, GIBSON Leg. (1877) 91. n.Yks. 2 

[Cp. Fr. avise, pp. of aviser, to heed, see,, look to, regard 
with circumspection, COTGR. See Avise, v.] 

AVOID, adj. Wor. Hrf. [avoi'd.] Empty, void. 

s.Wor. This house is a-void (H.K.). Wor. & Hrf. It be shut up 
now, sir, ecos you see it's a void (W.B.). 

[A- (pref. 10 ) + void. The pref. is prob. due to theanalogy 
of words with A- (pref. 2 ).] 

AVOIRDUPOIS, v. and sb. Wor. Hrf. Suf. To consider, 
weigh mentally ; be in doubt. 

w.Wor. 1 Father an' me, we've avverdepoyed it over, an" us 
thinks as our 'Liza 'ad best go to service. Hrf. 2 I'm all avoirdu- 
poised. Suf. I'm wholly on the averdupois [in doubt] (F.H. ). 

AVOIRDUPOIS, adv. Wor. e.An. Also in the forms 
haverdepaise, haverdepaze Wor. ; hobble-de-poise e.An. 1 

1. Evenly balanced ; straight, correct. 

w.Wor. 1 e.An. 1 If we had rocking stones in our country, we 
should describe them among ourselves as standing exactly hobble- 

2. Undecided, in doubt, wavering in one's mind. 

Wor. (H. K. ) s.Wor. I be quite haverdepaise about sending 
Jane to service, PORSON Quaint Wds. (1875) 27 ; s.Wor. 1 , e.An. 1 
Nrf. Old King be dade, and we are all averdupois as to whether 
he shall be crowned or no [as to whether there shall be a coroner's 
inquest] (W.R.E.). 

AVORE, see Afore. 

AVOUT, see Athout. 

AW, sb. Shr. Ess. [.] An ear of oats. 

Shr. 1 Eels are in season when oats are in aw. Prov. heard 
about Aston Botterell. Ess. The oats swelled for the haw, YOUNG 
Agric. (1813) I. 197. 

Hence Awed-put, phr. of oats : in ear. 

Shr. 1 The ofiats i' the uvver fild bin awed out, I see. 

[Prob. cogn. w. awn, ail, ear (of corn), without cons, 
suff. ; cp. OHG. ah, an ear of corn, see KLUGE (s.v. 

AW, see All, Ea, I. 

AWA, inf. Sc. Also in form ava, aava ne.Sc. Ex- 
clamation used in banter, ridicule, or contradiction : 
nonsense ! 

Sc. Hoot, awa' man ! ye're clean wrang (JAM. Suppl.). Bnff. 1 
Aava ! ooman, dinna say that. 

[A spec, use of Sc. awa, lit. E. away ; cp. colloq. Jire 
away .'] 

AWAKED, ppl. adj. Dor. Som. Awake. 

Dor. 1 Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825). 

[ME. awaked, roused out of sleep ; OE. awacod, pp. 
of awacian, to awake.] 

AWAKKEN, ppl. adj. Yks. [awa-kan, awo'kan.] 

e.Yks. John wad oft keep Awakken for hoors, NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp. (1889) 42 ; e.Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) 

[OE. awacen, pp. of Swacan, for onwacan, to awake.] 

AWALD, sb. Sc. Also in forms awal, avil, awart, 
awat (JAM.). The second of two crops of corn, in the 
' shift ' or rotation of crops. Also used attrib. 

Sc. It was when it came to the awal, or second crop after bear, 
that the contest between the crop and the weeds . . . became most 
serious, ALEXANDER Northern Rural Life (1877) 27. Abd., Kcd. 
When it came to the awal, or second crop after bear, ib. Per. 
(G. W.) w.Sc. An avald crop is thesecond white crop in succession 
on the same land, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). Gall. Awal land 
is ground under a second crop (JAM.). 

AWALD, ppl. adj. Sc. Irel. Also written aiwal N.I. 1 ; 
aval, await Sc. 

1. Of a sheep or other animal : ' cast,' lying on its back 
and unable to move. Cf. award, awkward, awelt. 

Rxb. Sheep are most apt to die awald when it grows warm after 
a shower, Essays Highl. Soc. III. 447 QAM.). N.I. 1 

Hence Aval-thrawn, overthrown, cast prostrate. 

Gall. And ne'er be aval-thrawn by dearth, HARPER Baids 
(1889) i. 

2. Phr. to fall awald, to fall helplessly to the ground ; 
to roll awald, to roll on the ground, unable to rise. 

Abd. A woman in child-birth is said to have fa'en awald (G. W.). 
s.Sc. To fa' await, originally applied to a sheep, hence to a person 
who is intoxicated (JAM.); In common use (S.R.C.). Gall. 
Whane'er they fin 1 a ewe fa'en aval, Gallov. Encycl. (1824). 

[Prob. the best form is await. A- (pref. e ) + wait. ME. 
wait, pp. ofwalten, to roll ; OE. wealtian; cp. G. walzen. 
See Awelt.] 

AW ALT, see Awald. 

AW AND, see Awarrant. 

AWARD(S, adv. Sc. Nhb. Nhp. Written auwards 
N.Cy. 1 Nhp. 1 ; auwerts, awert, Nhb. 1 Of an animal: 
' cast,' lying on its back unable to rise. Cf. awald, awk- 

Per. Awart, MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (1863). N.Cy. 1 , Nhb. 1 , Nhp. 1 

AWARRANT, v. Yks. Lan. Der. Lin. Also written 
awand e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 35 ; awarnd Yks. ne.Lan. 1 ; awarnt 
w.Yks. 2 [awa-nt, awa'nd, awp-nd.] To vouch for, 
warrant, assure. Used always with fut. tense. 

Yks. ' Keep ma oot, if ye de-arr,' saith he ; ' Ah'll awand here's 
the tail o' it,' BLACKMORE Mary Anerley (1879) xxxiii ; I'll awand 
we'll know the hand That did it, MUNBY Verses (1865) 17. n.Yks. 
What Ah'll awand thou's gahin' t'seeam geeat? TWEDDELL Clevel. 
Rhymes (1875) 60. ne.Yks. 1 In common use. Ah'll a-wa'nd ya. 
e.Yks. 1 Ah'll awand tha thou'll see it. w.Yks. Why-a Jinny ah'le 
a-wand ta we sal hev a rare day on't, Nidderdill Ohn. (1868) ; There 
was nea grass grew under his feet I'll awarnd ye, Girlingtoii 
Jrn. Aim. (1875) 45; Tha'llnoane hae t'chonce to cheat me ageean. 
Ah'll awand tha(^E.B-); w.Yks. 23 ; w.Yks.s When a child tells 
its mother that it cannot perform the task which it has been set 
to, she makes answer, ' I'll awand thuh, my lad.' Lan. It'll be o' 
reel, I'll awarnd you, WAUGH Hermit, ix. ne.Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 
n.Lin. 1 Gen. used sarcastically. John'll cum hoam drunk agean 
to neet I'll awarrant it. 

[Some writers awarrante your matter, Chester Plays 
(c. 1400) 3. A- (pref. 10 ) + warrant, vb.] 

o 2 




AWART, see Awald, Award. 

A WAT, adv. Sc. Truly, indeed. 

Abd. Awat he len'it a hantle, ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) x ; 
aweit he wiz in gweed order [well dressed] (P.G.). 

AWAT, see Awald, sb. 

AWAY, adv. Var. dial, uses in Sc. Irel. n.Cy. to Lan. 
and Lin. ; also Stf. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf L Glo. Oxf. Bdf. 
e.An. Wil. Som. Written awa Sc. |awe-,awea',awia'.] 

A. Denoting motion. 

1. Forward, along ; in the direction of. 

Sc. Awa' is in common use for ' along,' in numerous idioms. If 
a person were falling behind in a walk with you, you would say 
' Come awa', now.' Of a stream : It runs awa' bonnily. Say 
awa' and eat [get along with the grace and begin the meal]. A 
teacher in Aberdeen was known as ' Ca' awa ' [push along] 
because he thus admonished the boys to industry (G.W.) ; ' Come 
awa, Bawbee,' says Dauvit, takin' a hand hold o' my airm, SAL- 
MOND My Man Sandy (1894) 168. Frf. He cried up the stair, 
' Come awa' doon,' BARRIE Thrums (1889) iv. Cum. Call to a 
colley dog: Sharp, hie! git away by below [on the far side], 
SARGISSON ./ Scoap ( 1881) 22. n.Yks. He went by the mill away 
[the road past the mill] (I.W.). n.Lin. 1 You mun gOa to Ferry by 
Had'ick Hill awaay. 

2. With ellipsis of v. : go away, go. 

Sc. She's o'er the border, and awa' Wi' Jock o' Hazeldean, 
SCOTT Sng. (1816); James he's awa to Drumshourloch fair, it. 
Guy M. (1815) i. Frf. He'll be awa to Edinbory, BARRIE 
Thrums (1889) ii. Ayr. The de'il's awa' wi' th' exciseman, BURNS 
Sng. (1790). N.I. 1 Away and throw moul' on yourself [go and 
bury yourself]. Away and divart the hunger aff ye [said to 
children who are troubling and crying for a meal before it is 
ready]. Nhb. But we'll awa' to Coquet-Side, Coquet-Dale Sngs. 
(.1852) 46 ; Nhb. 1 Aa mun away. Let's away. Cum. Let them 
swine away amang ther muck, SARGISSON Joe Scoap (1881) 102 ; 
Cum. 1 I'll away to t'church. n.Yks. Ah'll away ti t'mill. Ah'll 
away write [begin to write] (I. W.). e.Yks. 1 Ah'll awane [or away] 
heeam. w.Yks. Ah'll awaay heeam. n.Lin. 1 I'll awaay to chech 
this mornin'. Bdf. This week away [gone, i. e. last week], 
BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. (1809). 

3. Away with, to endure, put up with. Usually with 

Dnr. 1 Cum. 1 It's a lee and I can't away wid it. nXin. 1 I can't 
awaay wi' blash like that. s.Stf. It's a thing as I cannot away with, 
MURRAY Rainbow Gold (1886) 97. War." In common use. Wor. 
We wants some dry weather, but we gets all sorts and we must 
away with it (H.K.). Hrf. 2 I can't awaay with it. Glo. 1 Have 
you enough sugar in your tea? Well, 'twould away with a bit more. 
My 'ead's bin that middlin, I don't know 'ow to away with un ; 
Glo. 2 Oxf. 1 My daatur a 'ad a lot a trouble and 'er can't away 
wi't. MS. add. Wil. 1 Her's that weak her can't away with the 
childern at no rate ! A wur allus a terrible voolhardy zart of a 
chap, an' I niver coudden away wi' a lot o' that 'oondermentin', 
tb. 214. Colloq. I cannot away with that horrible din, That six- 
penny drum and that trumpet of tin, BARHAM Ingoldsby (1864). 

4. Comp. Away-going, -ganning, adj. departing, out- 
going ; sb. death. 

Sc. Awa-gain, -gaun, death, departure (J A M. Suppl.). Nhb. 1 
Away-gannin crop, the cereals belonging to the outgoing tenant of 
a farm. Dur. To secure to the tenant a quiet possession of the 
farm, and of his away-going-crop, MARSHALL Review (1808) I. 
145. n-Yks. 1 Away-gannan crop, away-going crop, the crop of 
corn which an outgoing tenant is entitled to sow and reap on his 
ate farm, in consideration of, and in proportion to, the quantity of 
land duly fallowed and manured by him during the last summer of 
his occupancy. The rules which regulate the proportion of land 
thus appropriated vary slightly, I believe, according to the district 

P aUWmie ' S ' Wa ' annin cr 


oV? M ' aj ' tog > be off > 8 awa y> awa y he went. 

War." Now, then, away to go. Shr. Tak' this an' away to-go. 
A young kitchenmaid, describing the depredations of a man- 
servant on the pastry-shelf, said, ' It wuz Lucas, ma'am, 'e comen 
in out o the all an' took some o' the fancy pies an' away to-go.' 

B. Denoting position or state. 
1. Mad ; unconscious ; dead. 

Sc. When one cannot avoid a reference to the departed ... it is 
usual to speak of 'them that's awa'.' My dochter was lang awa' 

& * n n] Wh ^ ShC Cam af 5 ain ' She tauld us - Black*. 
Mag. (Dec. 1818) 503 (J AM .). Fif. They're baith dead an' awa, 

four year syne, ROBERTSON Provost (1894) 182. Edb. 'Your 
mither is awa,' said the builder ; ' it's a release,' CROCKETT Cleg 
Kelly (1896) xi. Rxb. Awa' i' the head JAM.). N.I. 1 Away to the 
hills, Away in the mind, gone mad. 

2. Wearing away, reduced in strength. 

Sc. He's awa to skin an' bane (JAM. Suppl.}. Bnff. 1 He's unco 
sair awa wee't sin' a wiz in scein' him last. 

3. To be away with, deprived of, bereft of prosperity ; 
rid of. With ellipsis of v. : to get rid of, spend, squander. 

Sc. He's clean awa wi't noo ; naebody trusts him [of one broken 
in credit] (JAM. Suppl.}. Bnff. 1 He ance cairrit on a gey stir ; bit 
sair awa wee't noo. Yks. When he does earn money, he aways 
with it in drink (C.C.R.). n.Yks. 2 I thowt I was clean away wi't 
[said of a complaint or illness]. 

4. Intensive : considerably, at any rate, certainly. 
n.Yks. 2 She's further than me by age, away. I wouldn't stint 

it for size-away. e.Yks. Ah's weel aneeaf off fo' cleeas [clothes] 
away, bud Ah's badly off fo' money away. Weather's varry mahld 
fo' tahm o'year away, Leeds Merc. Suppl. (June 20, 1891) ; e.Yks. 1 
Up bi knees away. n.Lin. 1 He's ohder than her by aage awaay, 
bud she looks fit to be his muther. 

5. Comp. (i) Here-away(s, hereabouts, in this direction; 
there-, (2) in that direction, (3) approximately, there- 
abouts ; (4) where-, where, whereabout. 

(i) Ayr. Here awa, there awa, Wandering Willie, Here awa, 
there awa, haud awa name, BURNS Wandering Willie. Edb. I be- 
lieve he came to some untimeous end hereaway about, MOIR Mansic 
\Vauch (1828) 82. Gall. I didna ken he was hereawa', CROCKETT 
Bog-Myrtle (1895) 38. Ir. I saw the smoke coming out of the 
bog hereaway, when I passed th' other day, Paddiana (1848) I. 
108. Nhb. The vera last fairy that ever was seen hereaway, 
RICHARDSON Borderer's Table-bk, (1846) VII. 37 ; That's a gran' 
tien ye've been playin'. It's not kent, here-away, CLARE Love of 
Lass (1890) 1. 34 ; Nhb. 1 In these collieries here-a-way, I am 
affraid, there are not many dare venture of it, Compleat Collier (1708 , 
29. Cum. Do ye live hereaway (E.W.P.) ; Cum. 1 , e.Yks. 1 Lin. 
Sequere hac me intus. Follow me in this way, or hereaway, 
BERNARD Terence (1629) 94. n.Lin. 1 ! hevn't seen him hereawaays 
sin' Jewne. e-An. 1 Hereaways. Som. JENNINGS Obs.Dial. w.Eng. 
(1825). (2) n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 Watther raze aboot up ti there 
away, MS. add. (T.H.) w.Yks. 1 n.Lin. 1 I doan't knaw reightly 
wheare he lives noo, bud its aaither at Spittle, or somewheare 
theare awaays on. Lei. 1 , I.W. 1 w.Som. 1 You can't zee the 
church herefrom, but he lies out there away. (3) Sc. Kipple- 
tringan was distant . . . four mile or thereawa, SCOTT Guy M. 
(1815) i. s.Ir. Twenty-five miles. Aye, something thereaway, 
LOVER Leg. (1848) II. 405. Som. JENNINGS Dial. w.Eng. (1869). 
Cor. A sturdy fellow of fifty or thereaway, BOTTRELL Trad. 
( l8 73) 9 a - (4) Edb. Some parish or other; but where-away, 
Gude kens. MOIR Mansie Wauch (1828) 5. 

[A. 1. Come away, come away death, SHAKS. Twelfth 
Nt. ii. iv. 52 ; Wi> be kyng he jode away, Cursor M. (c. 
1300) 8067. 2. For ' get you gone ' she doth not mean 
' away ! ' SHAKS. Two Gent. in. i. 101 ; Awaye fro me, ye 
wycked, GREAT BIBLE (1539) Ps. cxix. 115. 3. The 
calling of assemblies I cannot away with, BIBLE Isa.i. 13; 
I can nat away with my wyfe, she is so needy, je ne 
puts poynt durer auecques ma femme, elk est si testue, 
PALSGR. 475 ; All men can not awaye with that sayinge, 
TINDALE Matt. xix. ii. The phr. is to be explained 
by ellipsis of a vb. I cannot away with=' I cannot get on 
the way (or along) with.' B. 1. Rachel mournynge for 
hir children, and wolde not be comforted, because they 
were awaye, COVERDALE Jer. xxxi. 15.] 

AWAY-GEEAT, see Way-gate. 

AWD, see Old. 

AWE, v. Sc. Irel. Nhb. Dur. Cum. Yks. Also 
written owe N.I. 1 Dur. 1 ne.Yks. 1 ; aa Sc. Nhb. 1 [a, ou.] 
1. In interrog. phr. Who's awe? foil, by direct obj.: who 
is possessed of? to whom belongs ? See Aught, Owe. 

Sc. Quheae's aa thyr duiks ? Quheae was aa thys hoose afuore 
yee bowcht it ? This construction can only be used with the inter- 
rog. and rel. and some indef. pronouns, as sumbodie, neaebodie, 
oniebodie, quheaever, MURRAY Dial. (1873) 193. n.Ir. O boys, 
here's a funeral ! Whose owe it? N. & Q. (1873) 4th S. xii. 159. 
N.I. 1 Who's owe it ? Nhb. Here is a glove, whose owe it ? N. tf Q. 
(1873) 4 th S. xii. 6 ; Nhb. 1 Whee's aa the handkersher ? [s.v. Owe.] 
Whee's aa'd ? Dnr. 1 Whose owe it ? Wheah's awe this hat ? Cum. 2 
Whee's awe this? n-Yks. 1 Whceas o' thee!' is the question 




commonly put to unknown children, meaning, who owns you? 
' Wheea's aw"t?' is absolute, 'Wheea's owght? ' takes a case after 
it; n.Yks. 2 Whceas ow't ? m.Yks.'Whea's o'thee? [whom do you 
belong to?] 

2. Who's owes, by confusion with the construction v.<lu> 
owes (owns). 

ne.Yks. 1 Only used interrogatively in such expressions as 
'Wheea's owes it?' 'Wheea's awes t'box?' m.Yks. 1 Whca's 
owes this ? 

AWE-BAND, sb. Sc. Also written awbun. [a'-band, 
9 - -bun.] 

1. A rope or band for fastening cattle to the stake. 

Sc. Wull never tak the awbun frae her neck, OCHILTREE Red- 
burn (1895) viii. Lnk., Lth. QAM.) 

2. Fig. A check, restraint. 

Sc. The dignified looks of this lady proved such an aweband on 
the giddy young men, that they never once opened their mouths 

[2. Awebands (not much used), a check, ASH (1795) ; 
An awe-band, a check upon, BAILEY (1721) ; The thenis 
tuk sic feir, dredand that the said castel suld be an aw- 
band aganis thame, BELLENDEN Cron. (1536) XII. 15 (JAM.). 
Awe in sense of ON. agi, discipline, constraint + band.} 

AWEBOUND, ppl. adj. Sc. Yks. Also written aw- 
bund JAM. ; awebund n.Yks. 1 ne.Yks. 1 m.Yks. 1 ; awbun 
n.Yks. 2 [a-bun, p'bun.] Under restraint or discipline, 
submissive to authority. 

Rxb. ( JAM.) n.Vks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 They're sadly ower little awbun 
[too slightly disciplined]. They were awbun nowther wi' God 
nor man [they disregarded all laws, human and Divine]. We were 
awbun te t'spot [we were thrilled with the solemn effect of the 
place]. ne.Yks. 1 In fairly common use. Ah nivver was awebun' 
tiv him. m.Yks. 1 

[Awe + bound, pp. of bind.} 

AWEE, see Wee. 

AWEEL, int. Sc. [awrl.] Ah well ! well then ! 

Sc. Aweel, it's the worst thing I ken aboot, SCOTT Rob Roy ',1817) 
vi ; Aweel, the sum of the matter is ... that I would hae amends, 
Hi. Midlothian (1818) iv. Fif. Aweel, wha was daunderin' doon 
the . . . Canongate . . . but my auld frien's. M'LAREN Tibbie and 
Tarn (1894) 28. Gall. Aweel, aweel, this is matter that requires 
management, NICHOLSON Hist. Tales (1843) 68. 

[For lit. E. Ah well! Cp. Fr. eh bien.'} 

AWEERS, adv. Sc. In phr. to be aweers of, to be on 
the point of, about to. 

Abd. She wiz 'at provokin' 'at I wiz aweers o' giein' 'er a skelp 
o' the lug (P.G.) ; It was aweers o' foalin' Sarnie, ALEXANDER 
Johnny Gibb (1871) xl. 

AWELT, ppl. adj. Sc. Nhb. Wm. Also written 
awelled, avel Sc. ; aweld Nhb. 1 Of a sheep : lying on 
its back and unable to move. Cf. awald, award, awk- 

Dmf. MORTON Cyclo. Agric. (,1863). Gall. To assure himself 
that there were no stragglers lying frozen, or turned avel in the 
lirks of the knowes, CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle (1895) 280. Nhb. 1 
Some cauld mornin they'll fin' ye, I ween Lyin awelt and frozen 
by Wa' bittle Dene, ARMSTRONG Anither Sang(iS^). Wm. 1 Yan 
o' t'hogs awelt in t'garth. 

[A- (pref. l ) + welt, pp. ON. velta, to roll, set rolling; cp. 
Goth, wait/an. See Awald.] 

AWES, sb. pi. Sc. HAM.) Also written aws. 

1. Of a mill-wheel : the buckets or projections on the 
rim which receive the shock of the water as it falls. 

Sh.I. The water falls upon the awes, or feathers of the tirl, Unst 
Statist. Ace. V. 191. 

Hence Open-awed, adj. 

Fif. When the water is applied to a wheel abreast the axle and 
the floats are flat, that sort of wheel is called an open-awed wheel 

2. Of a windmill : the sails or shafts. 

Jl. Aubes, the short boords which are set into the out- 
e of a water-mills wheel ; we call them ladles, or avc 
boords, COTGR.] 

AWESOME, adj. and adv. Sc. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lan. 
Lin. Nrf. Also written awsome (JAM.) N.Cy. 1 n.Yks. 2 
w.Yks. 5 ne.Lan. 1 n.Lin. 1 ; awsom Cum. 1 ; aasome Nhb. 1 
[a'sam, o'sain.] 

A. adj. 

1. Awful, appalling, terrifying. 

Sc. He was sic an awsome body, that naebody cared to anger him, 
Scorr Redg. (1824) xi ; Sic awsome language as that I ne'er heard 
out o' a human thrapple, ib. Rob Roy (1817) xxx ; During these ex- 
clamations the awesome din resounded muckle mair, Blackzv. Mag. 
(Nov. 20, 1820) 146 (JAM.). Ayr. This is an unco awsome house 
for you tolive in, GALTSirA. Wylie ( 1822) Ix. Rxb. The awsome 
whirl-blast seemed to fill The whole creation, RIDDELL Poet. Wks. 
(1871) I. !9O. N.Cy. 1 The lightning was awsome. Nhb. 1 The 
sect on't wis aasome. Cum. This awesome thing is like to turn 
the lad's heed, CAINE Shad. Crime (1885) 103; Cum. 1 n.Yks. 2 
He let flee an awsome curse [he swore tremendously]. m.Yks. 1 , 
ne.Lan. 1 nXin. 1 A woman speaking of a burning oatstack said, 
' Treas look'd bewtiful when leet fra stack shined on 'em at neet, 
bud it was real awsum, it was.' w.Nrf. T'war an awesome sight, 
ORTON Beeston Ghost (1884) n. 

2. Susceptible to fear, terrified. 
w.Yks. 5 An awsome barn. 

B. adv. Very, exceedingly, extremely. 

Gall. She's an awesome still lassie, CROCKETT Bog-Myrtle (.1895) 
39; I wad like awsome well to sec the chap, ib. Popish Parson 

[A we + -some.] 

AWF, sb. Sc. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. War. Shr. Rdn. 
Also written auf s.Chs. 1 Stf. 2 War. 3 Shr. 1 ; aufe n.Yks. 2 ; 
naufShr. 1 [?f.] 

1. An elf, fairy. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). n.Yks. 12 , Lan. 1 Der. GROSE (1790), 
nw.Der. 1 

2. Comp. (i) Awf-bore, a knot-hole in a board, sec 
Elf-bore; (2) -shot, -shotten, (3) -strucken, see below. 

n.Sc. According to vulgar tradition, an auwis-bore has been made 
by the fairies (JAM.). n.Yks. An awf-bore [is] a hole in deal-board- 
ing occasioned by the dropping out of a shrunken knot, ATKINSON 
Maori. Parish (1891) 66. (2) n-Yks. 1 Awf-shot, an arrow-head 
of flint, or other like material, of prehistoric origin, but alleged 
by popular superstition to have been fabricated and used in 
malice by the elves or fairies ; n.Yks. 2 To cure an awfshotten 
animal, it must be touched with one of the arrows or ' aufshots,' 
and the water administered in which an arrow has been dipped. 
(3) n.Yks. 2 Awfstrucken, equivalent to Awfish. 

3. A foolish person, simpleton. 

n.Yks. 1 Lan. Yon cankard awf, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scars- 
dale (1860) II. 163 ; Lan. 1 What an awf wur I to pretend rime well 
yo, TIM BOBBIN Eawther an his ( 1 750) 36. e.Lan. 1 s.Chs. 1 
Tha grat auf, tha't fit for nowt bu' root i' th' ess-hole. Stf. 2 
Der. 1 Used adjectivally. Wor. 3 You gret awf, what are you 
cuffin' that little 'un for ? Shr. 1 'E took me for a nauf, but 'e fund 
'is match. Rdn. MORGAN Words (1881). 

[1. Say that the fayrie left this aulfe, And took away 
the other, DRAYTON Agincourt, &>c. (1627) 119 (N.E.D.). 2. 
Auff or elf, a fool, or silly fellow, KERSEY (1715) ; An 
auff, stultus, ineptus, COLES (1679) ; Though he be an 
aufe, a ninny, a monster, BURTON Anat. Mel. (1621), ed. 
1836, 229. OE. (elf, an elf; cp. ON. alfr.] 

AWF, see Argh. 

AWFISH, see Awvish. 

AWHEELS, adv. Lan. War. [awrlz.] On wheels, 

neXan. 1 It went awheels. War. (J.R.W.) 

[The world runs a-wheels, BEN JONSON Vision of Delight 
(1617)118. A-,on + wAeel(s.] 

A-WHICHN(S, adv. and pron. phr. Chs. Der. 

1. adv. In which way. See Whichns. Cf. athatns, 

s.Chs. 1 Tha mun look at it a-this-n. A-which-n ? 

2. interrog. pron. Which ? 

Der. Give it to the lad. A-which-'ens ? The little one (H. R.). 

[A-, on + which + 'n(s (en(s). The n is the same suff. as 
appears in his'n (=his one). 

AWHILE, adv., prep, and conj. Yks. Stf. Not. Lei. 
Nhp. War. Wor. Shr. Hrf. Glo. Oxf. Brks. Also written 
awaal, awhahl Yks. ; awhilde Shr. 1 [awaH, awoi'l.] 
1. adv. As yet. 

n.Yks. 2 I can t do it a-while. 




2. phr. With can or cannot : to have time, be at leisure. 
w.Yks. (S.K.C.) s.Stf. I can't awhile just yet, PJNNOCK Bit. 

Cy. Ann. (1895). Not. 1 Lei. 1 Ah cain't awoil asyettus [as yet- 
ways]. Nhp.You couldn't awhile to speak tome, Melia's Mag. (1896) 
149 ; Nhp. 1 I'm so busy I can't awhile. War. I must go down 
again, for I can't awhile to stay, GEO. ELIOT Mr. Gilfil (1858) 
xvi. s.War. 1 ; War. 2 I'll attend to you when I can awhile ; 
War. 3 Wor. (H.K.), se.Wor. 1 s.Wor. 1 I can't awhile to stop 
now ; I got my washin' agate. Shr. 1 Can yo' awilde to draw 
the drink ? The men bin gwein to the fild. Hrf. 1 : Hrf. 2 When 
I can awhile. Glo. (A. B.); Glo. 1 Oxf. 1 I will do it when I can 
awhile, MS. add. 

3. A short time ago. Also in the form awhihs. 
Brks. 1 He was yer awhiles, but 'ood'nt waait no langer. 

4. prep. Until. See While. 

ne.Yks. 1 He ligged i bed awhahl dinner tahm. e.Yks. An varry 
few fooaks gat ti bed awhahl three, NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 41 ; 
e.Yks. 1 Ah sail stop awaal Maatlemas. 

5. con/. While. 

War. 2 Lay the cloth awhile I make the tea. Shr. 1 Now then, 
be sharp an wesh them tuthree things awilde I get the batch i' the 

A WHILST, j*re/>. n.Lin. [awai'lst] Until. 

n.Lin. 1 

A-WHOAM, see A-home. 

A-WHUMMIL, adv. Sc. Also written a-homel QAM.). 
Turned upside down : applied to a vessel which lies 
bottom upwards. 

Per. A-homel, a-whummel, are used, but are not general ; 
whummel is quite common (G.W.). Rxb. (JAM.) 

[A-, on + whummil (to overturn), q.v.] 

AWK, sb., adj. and adv. Obsol. or Obs. Yks. e.An. 
s.Cy. Also written auk N.Cy. 12 , (K.), GROSE. 

1. sb. A stupid, clumsy person. 

w.Yks. WILLAN List Wds. (1811). [Not known to our corre- 

2. adj. Of persons or things : awkward, untoward. 
N.Cy. 1 Ess. Ill husbandry drowseth at fortune so auke, TUSSER 

Husbandrie (1580) 140, St. 13. s.Cy. GROSE (1790) ; RAY (1691) : 


3. adv. Of bells : inverted, confused. 

e-An. 1 Bells are ' rung awk ' to give alarm of fire. This is the 
only connexion in which the word is used among us. Nrf. 1 

[1. Auk, untoward, COLES (1677) ; Awke or angry, 
contrarius, bilosus, perversus, Prompt. 2. Ringing as awk 
as the bells, to give notice of the conflagration, LESTRANGE 
Fables (1694) ccci (N.E.D.). This word is found in many 
Germ. dial. : Kurhessen afk, afk (also abich), perverse 
^LMAR) 5 Saxony afke, a silly, stupid woman (BERGHAUS) ; 
KFns. afke, a stupid person (KOOLMAN).] 

AWKIR, sb., usually pi. Sc. In phr. to ding, knock, 
drive to awkir, or awkirs, to break to atoms, dash in pieces. 

Abd. (JAM.) Bnff. 1 He dreeve doun the leukin'-glass. an' 
dang t in awkirs. Not used in the sing. 

AWKWARD, adj. In gen. use in n. and midl. counties ; 
also Hmp. Wil. Som. Also written aakert Nhb. 1 ; 
aukert Wm. 1 ; akard w.Yks. 1 ; akwert n.Yks. 1 ; okard 
m.Lan.'; ockerd Hrf. 2 See below, [p'kad, p-kat 

1. Of persons or animals : perverse, obstinate, difficult 
to manage, bad-tempered. 

Nhb. 1 , Wm i Yks. Na, doant be awkward ; let's agree while 
we real it, Yks. Wkly. Post (June 9 , l8 8 3 ). n.Yks. (I.W?) ; n.Yks. 1 
He s bad to do with : he's as awkert as awkert ne.Yks. 1 He 
wer varry okkard aboot it. w.Yks. Well, yo'v no keishun ta bi 

TT j ' v y- j j "**- . c.j^aii.-, ni.i*an. iNot. 

He turned very awkerd when they wanted to take away that bit 
o land. His horse turned 

h,s- ar as awar can be, PEACOCK Taales (.889) 66 ; 

this , sid< : "'.Hell 'at's warse thenlivin' 

o ae away at t 

o land. His horse turned awkerd and he couldn't get him past 
the lane end (L.C M.) ; Not. 1 n.Lin. Soa he falls tomakkin' on 
h,s-sen as awkard as awk'ard can be, PEACOCK Taales (.889) 66 ; 

' '' 

omicidal tendencies. War. 2 He's an 

awkward man to reason with. A bull's a okurd bruteto meddle 

with ; War. 3 Oh let 'im aloan, e's a very awk'ard child, 'e'll goo 
and do it by' an' by', when I want 'im to be doin' summut else. 
s.War. 1 , s.Wor. 1 Shr. 1 Oukit folks. Hrf. 2 Maister be very arkard 
this morning. Glo. 1 What's the good of you bein' so ockurd ? 
Oxf. 1 MS. add. Hmp. 1 He's rather an orkard horse. She's rather 
orkard if anything upsets her. Wil. I'll be just as akkerd as ever 
I knows how (E.H.G.). w.Som. 1 Nif he don't vind Jim a awkard 
customer vor to 'an'le [handle], you tell me, that's all. 

Hence Awkwardness, Awkwards, sb. perverseness, 
obstinacy, impracticability. 

n.Yks. 1 Ah niwer seen nowght like his awkertness. w.Yks. 
(J. R.) nXin. 1 Th' lad's up to his awk'ards to-neet. Thoo's as full 
of awk'ardness as thoo can stick ; sw.Lin. 1 It's nothing but a bit 
i >f awkwardness. 

2. Of things : perverse, unfavourable. Of the weather or 
crops : uncertain. 

n.Yks. Awkud weather (I.W.) Lei. E az sich u auk'erd 
temper (C.E.). s.Wor. 1 , Hrf. 2 Glo. 1 Taters has been rather 
ockurd this turn. 

3. Backward, back-handed. 

Cum. Graeme gae Bewick an ackward stroke, GILPIN Ballads 
(1866) 468. 

[1. Pervers, perverse, cross, aukward, froward, COTGR. ; 
Awkwarde, frowarde, peruers, PALSGR. 2. Twice by 
awkward wind from England's bank Drove back again, 
SHAKS. 2 Hen. VI, HI. ii. 83. 3. I rynge aukewarde, as 
men do whan houses be afyre, or whan ennemyes be 
comyng, PALSGR. Awk, q.v. + -ward, formed like backward, 

AWKWARD, adv. Dur. Yks. Also in form ackwards 
n.Cy. Yks.; akward Dur. 1 ; awkud n.Yks.; akwerd, 
akwert ne.Yks. 1 [-kad, p-kat.] Backwards; said of 
animals lying on their backs and unable to rise. Cf. 
awald, award. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Dur. 1 A sheep is said to be ' laid akward.' 
Yks. (K.), n.Yks. (I.W.) ne.Yks. 1 In fairly common use. Ah 
fun yan o' Simpson yows laad akwert. In Cleveland ' rigged ' is 
the usual word. 

AWKWARDLY, adj. Cum. Yks. [^kadli.] Awk- 
ward, troublesome, clumsy. 

Cum. An awkwardly job (W.K.); He's a girt awkwardly 
fellow (J. A.) ; A girt awkertly fell-heed daal lad, WAUGH Rambles 
in Lake Cy. (1861) 175. w.Yks. THORESBY Lett. (1703) ; w.Yks. 4 

[Awkward+-ly (adj. suff.), OE. -tic.} 

AWL-BIRD, sb. Cor. [p-l-bad.] The green Wood- 
pecker, Gecinus viridis. 

Cor. Also called Wood-awl, Hood-awl, SWAINSON Birds (1885) 
100. [FORSTER Swallow (1817) 70.] 

[Comp. of aw!, the tool for piercing holes.] 

AWM, see Halm. 

AWMOUS, see Almous. 

AWMUCKS, sb. Sh.I. A kind of fish found upon 
sandy beaches. Also called Aggucks, q.v. 

S. & Ork. 1 There are ' ling-awmucks,' ' skate-awmucks,' and 
' shell-awmucks ' ; they possess the power of inflating their bodies. 

AWN, see Own. 

AWNDER, see Undern. 

AWNED, see Aund. 

AWNTLINGS, n.Yks. [-ntlinz.l The bristles 
of barley. 

n.Yks. 2 

[Awn (the beard of corn or grass) + -ling, with epenth. /.] 

AWNY, adj. Sc. Cum. Also written awnie. [a'ni, 
9'ni.] Of barley or wheat : having awns or beard. 

Sc. In shaggy wave, the awny grain Had whiten'd owre the 
hill an plain, PICKEN Poems (1788) 144 QAM.). Ayr. An' aits set 
up their awnie horn, BURNS Sc. Drink (1786). Cum. (E.W.P.) 

[Awn + -y.} 

A-WORTH, aav. Som. Dev. [awa-J>.] Worth. 

w.Som. 1 Almost invariably so used, even in such common 
phrases as ' Tidn a-wo'th while,' ' He wad-n a-wo'th tuppence.' 
Dhu sprang-kur lid-n u waeth main-deen [the watering-pot is not 
worth mending]. nw.Dev. 1 

[A- (pref. 10 ) + worth.} 

AWP, sb. 1 Sc. [ap.] The Curlew. Also called 
Whaup, q.v. 
Sc. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 200. 




AWP(S, sb. 2 and adj. Dur. Yks. Lan. Written aup 
N.Cy^Dur^ne.Lan^so. ; hawps GROSE, ne.Lan. 1 adj. [p.] 

1. A wayward, mischievous child. 

N.Cy. 1 , Dur. 1 w.Yks. 1 As soon as t'lile aups hed clapt his een on 
this fine fellow, ii. 292. 

2. A stupid, clumsy, ' gawky ' person ; also used as adj. 
w.Yks. Hlfx. Wds. Lan. GROSE (1790) MS. add. (P.) ; ne.Lan. 1 
Hence Awping, adj., Awpish, adv. clumsy, awkward. 
w.Yks. A gurt awpin' lad (JE. B.) ; What are you doing, you 

great, awping fellow ? He looks rather awpish, Hlfx. Wds. 

AW -PUCK, sb. Obsol. se.Wor. The will-o'-the-wisp. 

se.Wor. Most of the older people in Little Comberton know this 
name for the ignis fattius , which is also called Pinkit, Hobbady- 
lantern, and Jack and his lantern. Awpuck was supposed to be 
the most malicious species (J.S.) ; se.Wor. 1 

AWR, see Arr, Hour. 

AWS. see Ox. 

AWSE, see Oss. 

AWT, see Out. 

AWTE, sb. Sc. The direction in which a stone or 
piece of wood splits ; the grain ; a flaw in a stone. 

Sc. In common use. That awte i' the stane macks't o' nae eess 
[use]. The tree is hard i' the awte (W.G.). Mry., Nai., Abd. (JAM.) 

AWTER, see Halter. 

AWTHER, adj., pron., adv. and conj. Yks. Lan. Der. 
Also written auther w.Yks. ; orther w.Yks. 5 ; other 
w.Yks. 2 Der. 2 nw.Der. 1 ; ather w.Yks. 2 ; oather s. and 
e.Lan. nw.Der. 1 [9'tSa(r), o3'tSa(r).] See Other. 

1. adj. Either ; each. 

w.Yks. Tak auther one, Hlfx. Wds. ; w.Yks. 2 Lan. 1 The s. and 
e.Lan. form is ' oather.' nw.Der. 1 

2. pron. Either. 

w.Yks. WRIGHT Gram. JVndhll.(i8ga)4$, 126; w.Yks. 2 ; w.Yks. 5 
Tak orther on 'em, which yuh like ! Orther o' them two did it. 
Lan. ' Oather'll do,' said the joiner, BRIERLEY Irkdale (1865) xviii. 
Lan. 1 Which is the right pronunciation of either is it eether or 
eyether? Oather will do [said to have been a schoolmaster's 
answer to the question of his pupil]. nw-Der. 1 

3. adv. Either. 

Yks. She's noan fit for t'serve swine, nor yo' other, mester, 
GASKELL Sylvia ( 1863) II. i. w.Yks. Havvin abaht a dozen gret 
fat brussen gamkeepers at as heels o'ther, BYWATER Sheffield 
Dial. (1839) i. 2. 

4. conj. Either, as correl. to or. 

w.Yks. 5 Orther goa ur let me goa. Lan. Aw'd oather ha' 
Jamie or noan, WAUGH Sngs. (1866) 23 ; It wur oather Sladen 
or t'dule, KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH Scarsdale (1860) II. 315 ; Aulus 
oather rain or dust here, BRIERLEY Cotters, xv ; Lan. 1 Der. 2 I'll 
Other mak coals or slack on it ; nw.Der. 1 

[Of all be prisuns bat bar was bat ober (v.r. auber, or) in 
prisun war or band, Cursor M. (c. 1300) 4437 ; All bat met 
hym . . . auther dyet of his dynttes or were ded wondit, 
Vest. Troy (c. 1400) 6528 ; Yf bpu fynde awdir lande or 
tree, York Plays (c. 1400) 52; Outher he dyes for thaim 
or thai perisch fra him, HAMPOLE Ps. xxx. 8 (com.). OE. 
awder, d-hwceder, either.] 

AWTHET, int. Obs.l Cum. A term used to direct 
horses to turn to the left (E.W.P.). 

AWTS, see Orts. 

AWVER, see Over. 

AWVISH, adj. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. Der. War. Also 
written auvish n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. 1 s.Chs. 1 ; awfish n.Yks. 1 2 
w.Yks. ; hawfish n.Yks. 2 Stf. [9'viJ, 9'fiJ.] Silly, dull, 
clownish, mischievous. 

n.Yks. 12 w.Yks. 1 ; w.Yks. 5 ' Nobbut a bit awvish by t'seet on 
him,' is said of a staring, stupid-looking countryman. Lan. 
I little thawt ut th' felle . . . wur pleyink sich un awvish, ill- 
mannurt trick, BUTTERWORTH Sequel Dial. (1819) 25 ; They han 
sich awvish ways in a country place, WAUGH Tattlin' Matty, 325 ; 
Lan. 1 Keep out of his road, aw tell thi ; he's an awvish nowty 
felly ; e.Lan. 1 Chs. He's so awvish when he's in drink. Go and 
do your work, and don't be so awvish (E.M.G.); Chs. 1 , s.Chs. 1 
s.Stf. [Of feigned stupidity] He took on himself haufish-like, but 
he was loffin' in his sleeve all the while, PINNOCK Blk. Cy. Ann. 
(18951. nw.Der. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) 

Hence Awvishly, adv. stupidly, queerly. 

Lan. 1 When he coom in ogen, he glooart awvishly at Mezzil 
fease, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 53, ed. 1819. 

[ME. aluisch (elfish) occurs in Gawaine (c. 1340) 681. 
Hence the form awvish. Awfish is a new formation. 
Awf, q.v. + -is/i.] 

AWVISH, adv. Dur. Yks. Also written awfish 
n.Yks. 2 w.Yks.; hawfish n.Yks. 2 ; haufish e.Yks. 1 
[g-vij, 9'fiJ.] 

1. Slightly unwell, out of sorts, ' seedy.' 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Dur. (A.B.) n-Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 I feel 
myself queer and awfish, nowther seik to lig nor weel te gan. 
ne.Yks. In common use (M.C.F.M.). w.Yks. BANKS Wkfld. Wds. 
(1865) ; w.Yks. 5 A person feels awvish when he has been up all 

2. Reluctant, undecided. 

n.Yks. 2 , m.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 Ah thowt o' gannin tl Hedon tc-day, 
but this rain maks ma varry haufish aboot it. 

[Prob. for halfish. Half+ -ish.} 

AWVISHNESS, sb. Lan. [^vifnas.] Disagreeable 
behaviour, perversity. 

Lan. We'rn driven to it bi his hawvishness, MELLOR Uncle 
Owdem (1867) 25 ; Conduct she described as being ' downreet 
auvishness ' on our part, BRIERLEY Cast upon World (1886) 198. 

[Awvish (adj.), q.v. + -ness.] 

AX, sb. 1 Sc. Nhb. Also in Nhp. Wor. Glo. Ken. Sur. 
Sus. Hmp. I.W. Wil. Dor. Som. Dev. Also written eaxe, 
yax Ken. 1 ; yex Ken. Sur. ; ix Sus. 12 Hmp. 1 ; ex Sc. 
Nhp. 1 Glo. 1 Suf. 1 I.W. 2 Wil. 1 Dor. 1 Som. Dev. ; aix Nhb. 1 
[aks, yaks ; eks, yeks.] 

1. The axle or axle-tree of a cart, wagon, &c. 

Glo. 1 Ken. De yex is broak (H.M.) ; Ken. 1 Sur. A labourer 
told me that the snow was up to the yex of the wagons, N. & Q. 
(1866) 3rd S. ix. 80. Sus.", Hmp. 1 , I.W. 2 , Wil. 1 , Dor. 1 Som. 
JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825); SWEETMAN Wincanton Gl. 
(1885). Dev. GROSE (1790) MS. add. ^M.) 

2. The axis of a wheel. 

Glo. 1 , Dor. 1 

3. Comp. Ax-tree, an axle-tree. 

Sc. (JAM.) Nhb. 1 , Nhp. 1 , se.Wor. 1 , Suf. 1 

[2. OE. cex, 'axis,' Epinaland Corpus Gl. (SWEET O.E.T. 
36 and 43) ; cp. G. achse. 3. Heav'n's huge ax-tree, 
DRAYTON Mooncalf (NARES) ; Axis, an axetre, DUNCAN 
App. Elym. (1595) ; Axis, an ex-tree, COOPER Thes. (1565) ; 
Exultre, or Ex tre, Prompt. OE. cex-treo.] 

AX, si. 2 Yks. [aks.] A question. 

n.Yks. 2 There need be neea ax about it, 

[The same word as Ax, v.] 

AX, v. In gen. dial, use in Sc. Irel. and Eng. Also 
written ex Cum. Wm. n.Yks. 1 w.Yks. Lan. 1 se.Wor. 1 Glo. 1 
Som. [aks, eks.] To ask, in its var. lit. meanings. See 
also Ask, v. 1 

Sc. He axet lifie o' thee, an' thou giefist it him, RIDDLE Ps. 
(1857) xxi. 4 ; The peeple axet, an' he broucht quails, ib. cv. 40. 
Ir. I was on'y axin' what was in it, BARLOW Lisconnel (1895) 
235. s.Ir. I am often axed to tell it, sir, CROKER Leg. (1862) 141. 
Nhb. Gan to Newcassel and ax the reel nyem, GILCHRIST Sngs. 
(1824) n. Cum. 1 ; Cum. 3 Kindly ex't to t'Kersmas feeast, 82. 
Wm. A feal ex'd wha is my neighbour, HUTTON Bran New Wark 
(1785) 1. 139. Yks. Ax an' hev', Prov. in Brighouse News (Aug. 
10, 1889). n.Yks. Ah nivver axt him, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes 
(1875) 65 ; n.Yks. 1 e.Yks. They gat it all up, an then axt Ned, 
NICHOLSON Flk-Sp. (1889) 34. w.Yks. He axes her some sooart ov 
a gaumless question, HARTLEY Budget (1867) 4; 'E exed fifty or 
fifty-five poond for t'tit (F.P.T.) ; It's for mother's sake I axes ye, 
MACQUOID Doris Barugh (1877) xvi. Lan. Afore Au've axt a 
blessin, BRIERLEY Layrock (1864) iv ; Go and ax after them, 
GASKELL^/. Barton (i848)xxv; Lan. 1 A slonkin sooart of achapext 
for a leet job, BARBER Forness Flk. (1870) 21. Yo're noan shaume- 
faced ; yo axen [or ashen] for anoof. Stf. 2 Mary sed her'd 'a 
married Jack 'ersel if e'd ony 'a axed her to. Not. 2 He axed me 
summut as I knowed nowt about. Lin. Summun 'ed hax'd fur 
a son, an' 'e promised a son to she, TENNYSON Owd Rod (1889). 
n.Lin. Oot cums his wife an' axes him what aails him, PEACOCK 
Tales and Rhymes (1886) 61. Wor. I didn't ax 'im fust, nor never 
don't (H.K.). Glo. If yu'l only ex ur, Why John (Coll. L.L.B.). 
Mid. What's the good o' that, I arx you ? KIPLING Bndalia (1890) 
7. Ken. 1 I axed him if this was the way to Borden. Sur. He 
axes if we's nuthing hot to keep 'ee from starving, BICKLEY Sur. 
Hills (1890) I. i ; Sur. 1 He was axing on us the other day. I.W. 2 
He axed me to litter-up vor'n. Wil. 1 The doctor axed un how 




a wur, 211. Dor. An' who, you mid ax, be my praYses A-meaken 
so much o'? BARNES Poems (1869) 14. Dev. Tharewiswan purty 
gal, . . . Who ax'd mer ta gie hur a bit uv a zwing, NATHAN HOGG 
Poet. Lett. (1847) 8, ed. 1865 ; Gie ta hee thit axith thee. BAIRD 
St. Matt. (1863) v. 42. Cor. In th' day when she shall be ax'd for, 
NETHERTON Sng. Sol. (1859) viii. 8; Cor. 2 Ax en [him]. Colloq. 
Though the sacristans now are 'forbidden to ax' For what 
Mr. Hume calls a ' scandalous tax,' BARHAM Ingoldsby (1840) 19. 
[Amer. Now considered a vulgarism. I ax'd the postmaster if 
there was anything for me, BARTLETT.] 

[It is axed at the mouth of the wyse, COVERDALE (1535) 
Ecclus. xxi. 17 ; Axe, and it shalbe geven you, TINDAI.E 
(1526) Matt. vii. 7 ; How sholde I axen mercy of Tisbe, 
CHAUCER Leg. G. W. 835 ; Whanne he schal axe, what 
schal Y answere to hym? WYCLIF (1388) Job xxxi. 14. 
OE. acsian (dxian), to ask. See Ask.] 

AX, see Ash, Ask. 

AXABLE, adj. Ken. Of an age suitable for marriage. 

Ken. (A.M.) 

AXE, FLOWER OF THE, phr. Dev. Lobelia urens. 

Dev. Applied by the country-people about Axminster to this 
rare flower, which grows on Kilmington Common, near that town. 

[Named fr. the river Axe.J 

AXEN, sb. pi. Obsol. Pern. Glo. Hmp. Wil. Dor. 
Som. Dev. Also written acksen Wil. 1 [a'ksan, ae'ksan.] 
Dial, form of ashes. 

Glo J s.Pem. Maary, drow that axen into the axen-pit. Obsol. 
(W.M.M.) Hmp. & w.Cy. GROSE (1790). Wtl. 1 Dor. 1 His lips an' 
his feace Wer so white as clean axen cood be, 230. Som. Here 
niaaid, tccak show! and d'up axen, W. & }. Gl. (1837). Dev. See 
Ash, sb. 1 Z. 

[Erthe and axen felle and bone, Pol. Songs, 203 
(MATZNER) ; Holi axen a palm sunedai, Horn. (c. 1250) II. 
99; On hjeran and on axan. Gospels (c. 1000) Matt. xi. 21. 
OE. axan, ashes, pi. of axe, for asce. See Ash, si. 1 ] 

AXES, AXEY, see Access. 

AXE-WORK, sb. Nhp. [a-ks-wsk.] 

Nhp. 1 Axe-work is building with stone that is prepared with 
an axe, in contradistinction to ashler or chiselled stone. It is 
the usual mode of building in this county. 

AXLE, v. Yks. Written assle. [a-sl.] To furnish 
with an axle-tree. 

n.Yks. He's assled me my cart, and it gans as weel as a new 
un (I.W.). 

AXLE-HEAD, sb. Cum. The back portion of the jaw 
which contains the molars or ' axle-teeth,' q.v. 

Cum. It meaad ivery teuth eh me assel-heid chatter, SARGISSON 
Joe Scoap (1881) 18. 

AXLE-TOOTH, 5*. Sc. and all the n. counties to 
Yks. and Lan. Also written axel- N.Cy. 2 ; axil- 
ne.Lan. 1 ; axxle- w.Yks. 1 ; assle- Rnf. Lnk. n.Cy. Dur. 1 
n.Yks. 123 e.Yks. 1 ; assal- Lnk. Wm. 1 Lan. 1 ; assil- N.Cy. 1 
Nhb. 1 aYks. 1 ne.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 5 ; assel- Cum. Yks. ; asil- 
Rxb. ; aisle- Rnf. Lnk.; aizle- w. and s.Sc.; azzle- n.Yks. 
[a-ksl-, e-zl-, a-zl-, a-sl-.] A molar tooth. 

w. & s.Sc. (JAM. Suppl.) Rxb. Asil, asil-tooth (JAM.). N.Cy. 12 , 
Nhb. 1 Dur. A nut ed thoo canna crack, even wu the assle teeth, 
EGGLESTONE Betty Podkins' Let. (1877) 5 ; Dur. 1 Cum. Hoo many 
assel teeth may a sheep hev oa tegidder ? SARGISSON Joe Scoap 
( 1 88 1 ) 76; Cum. 2 Cum. & Wm. Assle-tooth. Aa wadn't part wi't 
as suin part wi' my assel tuith (M.P.). Wm. That's wi ther 
assal teeth bin edget wi ittan apples, Spec. Dial. (1885) 10 : Wm. 1 
Yks. Her grinding teeth, commonly called axle-teeth, KNOWLSON 
Cattle Doctor (1834) 3. n.Yks." e.Yks. MARSHALL Kur. Econ. 
(1788) ; e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 1 Lan. 1 Some co'n em wang an' others 
assal-teeth. ne.Lan. 1 

[Axyltothe, molaris, Cath. Angl. ON. jaxl, a jaw-tooth, 
grinder ; cp. Dan. axel-tand, Sw. oxeltand.] 

AXLE-TREE, si. In addition to the ordinary pronunc. 
of the word, the following forms occur : aizle-tree N I J 
^*iSJS- ls ass el- Wm. 1 n.Yks. 1 ne.Yks. 1 ; assil' 

, y ' a Nh ?; ne - Lan - 1 Nhp- 1 ! assle- n.Cy. (GROSE) Dur. 1 
n.Yks. 3 e.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 1 Sus. (HOLLOWAY) ; eshle- Lan J 
ne.Lan. 1 ; yexle- Ken. 12 ; accles- Suf 1 

AXLEWORTH, sb. Obs. ? Chs. A grinder. 

Chs. 13 [Not known to any of our correspondents.] 

AX-WADDLE, sb. Obs. Som. Dev. Also written 

-waddler Som. Dev. 1 One who collects and deals inashes ; 
hence, one who crouches over the fire, a dirty person. 

w.Som. Wood ashes are no longer to be had and so the ax- 
waddler's trade is extinct (F.T.E.). n.Dev. Thee wud ruckee, 
and squattee, and doatee in the chimley coander lick an axwaddle, 
Exm. Scold. (1746) 1. 144; GROSE (1790); I doan't lick gurt ax- 
waddle Sal, ROCK Jim an' Nell (1867) 12. Dev. 1 

[The same word as ax-waddle (vb.), q.v.] 

AX-WADDLE, v. Obs. Dev. 

1. To wallow on the ground. 

2. To draw lines in the ashes. 

n.Dev. Aliquando etiam designat lineolus in cineribus ducere 
stipite ligneo, vice Poker, GROSE (1790) MS. add. (H.) 

[Ax, see Ash, sb. 1 + waddle (vb.), q.v.] 

AY, int. 1 Sc. Yks. Lin. Also written eh n.Lin. 1 [e.] 

1. An exclamation of surprise or wonder. 

Sc. Monthly Mag. (1800) I. 324. n.Cy. GROSE (1790) MS. add. 
(D.A.) w.Yks. Ay ! bonny little buttercup, what are ta dewin' 
heear? BINNS in Keighley News(Mzr. 16. 1889) 7. n.Lin. 1 Eh, but 
she was a bonny lass, th' flooer o" 'em all. 

AY, inf.' Var. dial. Usually written eh ; also eigh 
N.Cy. 1 Dur. 1 [e.] An interrogative particle : what ? 
what did you say ? See Eh. 

N.I. 1 , N.Cy. 1 , Dur. 1 , w.Som. 1 

AY, int.' Dev. Also written hy. A call to attract 
attention ; to have a hy to everybody, of a bold, forward, or 
gossiping woman : to be ready to talk with a chance 

n.Dev. Enny body that deth bet zey Ay to tha, Exm. Scold. 
(1746) 1. 234 ; Thee wut ha' a Hy to enny kessen soul, ib. 1. 232. 

AY-DI-ME, int. phr. Sc. Nhb. An exclamation of regret 
or pity ; cf. a-deary me. 

Sc. (R.O.H.) Nhb. 1 Ay-di-mi ! is often heard as a sigh by old 

[Corruption of Ah, dear we/] 

AYDLE, see Addle, v* 

AYE, adv. 1 Sc. Nhb. Wm. Also (?) Der. Lin. War. 
Also written ay Frf. Ayr. N.Cy. 1 [e.] 

1. Always, ever ; continually. 

Sc. Be thou well, be thou wae, thou wilt not be aye sae, RAMSAY 
Prov. (1737); The bairn aye held an unca wark wi' the Super- 
visor, SCOTT Guy M. (1815) xi ; But aye she loot the tears down 
fa', ib. Jock of Hazeldean ( 1816). Bnff. Weel, I canna be aye at his 
heels, SMILES Sc. Natur. (1879) I. 9. Abd. She has aye some 
bizziness or anideron han', ALEXANDER Johnny Gibb (1871) xxxii. 
Frf. A man canna be aye washin' at "imsel, BARRIE Thrums 
(1889) 21, ed. 1895 ; That was ay Rob's way, ib. Minister (1891) 
iv. Per. He aye seemed beyond man, IAN MACLAREN Brier Bush 
(1895) 39. Ayr. It's aye the cheapest lawyer's fee To taste the 
barrel, BURNS Sc. Drink ( 1786). Slk. I aye gied as gude's I got,CHR. 
NORTH Nodes (ed. 1856) III. 189. Gall. He's aye sing, singin' at 
his hymns, CROCKETT Stic/tit Min. (1893) 14. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. But 
aye the warst cast still comes last, RITSON N. Garl. (1810) 49. 
Wm. 1 ' Aye ' still used here, though ' allus ' [always] is gradually 
taking its place. He's aye tellin t'seeam teeal. He's aye waren 
t'brass [spending money]. Der. 12 Lin. SKINNER (1671). Obs. 
War. (J.R.W.) 

2. For ever and aye, for ever and ever. 

n.Cy..Nhb. GROSE (1790). Der. In common use (H.R.) ; Der. 12 , 
War. (J.R.W. 1 ) [(K.)] 

[My synn is ay agayns me, HAMPOLE Ps. 1. 4; His 
libertee this brid desireth ay, CHAUCER C. T. H. 174 ; He 
that hath holy writ aye in hus mouthe, P. Plowman (c.) 
xn. 31. OE. a, ever ; cp. ON. ei (ey).] 

AYE, adv. 2 Sc. Irel. and all the n. counties to Lan. 
Stf. Der. Not. Lin. Also in Lei. War. Won Glo. and in 
Sur. Sus. Hmp. Som. Dev. Cor. Also in forms ay Irel. 
n.Yks^w.Yks. 1 Not. n.Lin. 1 ; I N.I. 1 Sus. Hmp.(HoLLOWAY) 
Som.; ai Nhb. 1 ; aay nw.Der. 1 ; ai Nhb. 1 ; aey n. and 
s.Cy. (GROSE) ; eigh N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Dur. 1 Cum. Wm. w.Yks. 1 
Lan. 1 ; ey Wm. e.Yks. n.Lin. 1 ; ei w.Yks. ; eye n.Lin. 1 ; 
eyeh Nhb. ; eyh Wm. ; ah Not. nw.Der. 1 Lei. 1 s.War. 1 
w.Som. 1 ; eea, eeah w.Yks. ; a Som. ; aw Stf. War. 1 
Won Con; hey n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. 1 n.Lin. 1 ; hei w.Yks. 1 ; hi 
w.Yks. Lan. 1 e.Lan. 1 ; oi Sun; wyah n.Yks. 2 e.Yks.; 
weyey e.Yks. [ai, ei, oi, ia.] 




1. Yes. 

Gibb (1871) 42. Frf. What, no little Jeames 'at ran awa? Ay, 
ay, but he's a muckle stoot man noo, an' gey gray, BARRIE Thrums 
(1889") xiii. N.I. 1 S.IT. Well, where was I? Oh, ay! CROKER 
Leg. (1862) 247. N.Cy. 1 Nhb. Is thee muther shoutin out eyeh 
that she is, BEWICK Howdy (1850) 10 ; Clap on the kettle, hinny. 
Aye, aye, aa'l clap't on (W.H.H.) ; Nhb. 1 Dur. Is ta gaaen te 
wark? Aye, aye, sartenly I is! (W.H.H.); Dur. 1 Cum. I axt 
them if we gat oot here, and they sed eigh, SARGISSON Joe Scoaf> 
(1881) 19. Wm. Different spots have their different pleasures, 
eigh and difficulties tea, Bmn New Wark (1785) 1. 10; In the 
vernacular 'yes' as an affirmative is practically unused (B. K.); 
Wm. 1 n.Yks. 2 e.Yks. MARSHALL Rur. Econ. (1788); e.Yks. 1 The 
word ' yes ' is seldom heard in Holderness. w.Yks. Are you the 
housekeeper ? Eea, aw keep th' hause, BRONTE Wuthering Hts. 
(1847) xxxii; 'Hei!' says mouse wi' a gurn, 'Bud folk ses owt 
when ther i' drink,' HOWSON Cur. Craven (1850) 116; w.Yks. 1 
Wor the gentlefoak ? Eigh, be ther talk they wor, ii. 296 ; 
w.Yks. 3 Lan. Hoo cou'd naw opp'n hur Meawth t'sey eigh or 
now; boh simpert an sed iss, TIM BOBBIN View Dial. (1746) 
27, ed. 1806; Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 .Stf. (J.A.L.) Der. 2 Aye, Mester, 
I'm welly clemmed (s.v. Clam). nw.Der. 1 s.Not Did yer graft 
'em yoursen ? Ah (J. P.K.). n-Lin. 1 Did you voate for th' school 
board ? Eye, all five for th' chech an' noht at all for th' chapil. 
s w.Lin. 1 It is common to hear parents correct their children for 
saying Aye and Nay (though they must doubtless have learnt it 
from the parents themselves), and tell them they should say Yes 
and No. But there seems to be no distinction made in their use, 
whether as answers to questions framed in the affirmative or in 
the negative. Lei. 1 ' Ah ' is sometimes stronger than ' yes.' ' You' 
leave them?' and he says 'Yes,' he says, 'yes, I'll leave them.' 
'Yes be blamed,' I says, 'will you or won't you? Say "Ah, for 
sure.'" War. 1 , s.War. 1 , s.Wor. (H.K.) Glo. GROSE (1790) MS. 
add. (H.) Sur.Oi,minesterdidnamean it,BicKLEYS>-..//i7fe(i89o) 
I. v ; Snr. 1 Ay ! it be an ungain place, I can tell 'ee. Sus. HOL- 
LOWAY. Hmp. 'Ay 'is occasionally heard, but 'yes 'is more common 
(T.L.O.D.). Som. JENNINGS Obs. Dial. w.Eng. (1825) ; w.Som. 1 
Bee'ul-s u-ad dhi naivugee'un? Aa'U [Bill, hast had thy knife 
again? Yes]. Cor. Aw, my deer, so you shall, FORFAR Jan's 
Crtship. (1859) st. 5. 

2. Aye and like, yes, certainly ; aye-an'-tye, yes, if you 
wish ; aye why. 

Let 1 Did you dine there to-day? Hoy an' loike, Oi did. an' 
all! (Cf. the cockney 'I believe you, my boy.') War. 3 Dev. 3 
Midden I go til church, mawther? Aye-an'-tye, but mind yii'm 
'ome airly. n.Yks. 2 Ay why, Eh why, very well ; yes, yes. 

[(a) Ay, yes, BAILEY (1755) ; Ay, answer that if you 
can, Sir, ADDISON Sped. No. 568. (6) I (yes), imo, maximi, 
COLES (1679) ; / for yes is used in a hasty or merry way, 
as / Sir, I Sir, GREENWOOD Eng. Gram. (1711) 159 (N.E.D.) ; 
If he be slain, say ' I,' or if not, ' no,' SHAKS. R. &* J. in. 
ii. 50.] 

AYE BUT, conj. phr. Nhb. Wm. Yks. Lan. Chs. Stf. 
Der. Lin. Also written abbut Nhb. 1 w.Yks. 235 ne.Lan. 1 
m.Lan. 1 ; ah but n.Yks. ne.Lan. 1 ; a-but n.Yks. 1 n.Lin. 1 ; 
abbud w.Yks. 5 ; abud e.Yks. 1 ; aa bud ne.Yks. 1 ; abber 
Yks. Lan. 1 nw.Der. 1 ; abbur w.Yks. 3 Chs. 1 ; habbad 
w.Yks. ; ebbat Wm. ; yabber w.Yks. [ai'bad, a- bod, 
a'bst, a-ba(r).] 

1. Yes ! but , but ; expressing dissent from a previous 
speaker, or qualifying what has been already said ; also 
used as int. to denote admiration or surprise. 

Nhb. 1 Abbut aa'll not let ye. Wm. Ebbat, ses he, thoo mun gaa 
a gae bit fardthre, Spec. Dial. (1885) pt. iii. 31. n.Yks. (I. W.) ; 
n.Yks. 1 A! but, that was a bigyan. ne.Yks.'Aa ! bud them's bon- 
nie'uns. e.Yks. 1 Aye-bud Ah wadn't gang if Ah was thoo. w.Yks. 
I'se happen manage. Abbud I woddant if I wor thee, Saunterer's 
Satchel (1875) 38 ; Yabber o have, thah'cl as weel say o'm a loiar, 
BYWATER Sheffield Dial. (1839) 18; w.Yks. 23 *; w.Yks.* Let muh 
catch thuh thearagean an' al goa tell thee fatther an' he'll gie thuh 
a sound hiding! Abbud he weant! Lan. 1 Thae'll not goo, Jim, 
belike? Abberaw will, shuse what thae says. ne.Lan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 , 
Chs. 1 nw.Der. 1 Tha winno' goo, belike ? Abber aw will. n.Lin. 1 
A ! but Charlie is a big leear, an' noa mistaake ; he'd lee thrif a 
three-inch deal. [Wil. I but you shud ha done that before, Masque 

(1636) 12.] 

2. A' bur the? bur, aye-but though but, an intensive 
expression of dissent. 

VOL. I. 

Stf. 2 Thi tell'n mS6 as theer's a lot better harvests when th' 
Tories are in. A' bur tho' btir, they dunna loike th' poor folk, 
thc'd nivver give yer three acres an a cai. Oi dunna think as 
theer's ony chap livin as could lift this ere stoon. A' bur tho' bur, 
theer is tho. 

[I would resort to her by night. Ay, but (Folios ' I, 
but') the doors be lock'd, SHAKS. Two Gent. in. i. in ; Ay, 
but she'll think that it is spoke in hate, ib. in. ii. 34. See 
Aye, adv. 2 ] 

AYE-GREEN, sb. Wm. Lan. Also written aigreen. 
[e'-grin.] Sempervivum tectorum, or House-leek. 

Wm. Pou up them hay-greens, CLOSE Satirist (1833)159. Lan. 1 

[Ay-green, an herb always green . . . House-leek, 
ROBERTSON Phras. (1693) ; loubarbe, Houseleek, Seagreen, 
Aygreen, COTGR. ; lovis barba . . . Housleeke, Aygreene, 
GERARDE (ed. 1633) 511. See Aye, adv. 1 ] 

AYE-KELD, sb. Nhb. A perennial well. 

N.Cy. 1 Akeld is the name of a fine well, village, and township in 
the parish of Kirknewton. Nhb. 1 

[Aye (adv. 1 ), q.v. + fold (a spring), q.v.] 

AYE MARRY, phr. Yks. Lan. Lin. Also written ay 
marry n.Yks. 2 Lan. n.Lin. 1 [ai'mari.] An expression 
of assent ; yes, indeed. Cf. nay marry. 

n-Yks. 1 What, they've forgiven you, Mr. Dale, and asked you to 
go and see them again ? Aye marry! Theywantsma' brass, ye ken ; 
n.Yks. 2 It's coming on rain. Ay, marry ! it is. ne.Yks. 1 e.Yks. 1 
Aye, marry, it's time they was wed. m.Yks. 1 w.Yks. 3 : w.Yks. 5 
Then he's sure to goa then ? Aye marry is he. Ironically, as in : 
Missis! [in a stentorian voice, from a short distance.] Well?- 
Gi'e us a pennorth o' 'bacca wi'that youngster d' yuh hear muh ? 
Aye marry. Lan. Wed ! ay marry ! that wou'd I, Abrum o' Flup's 
Quortiri (1886) 14. n.Lin. 1 Let's hev anuther pint o' aale, Jim. 
Aye, marry, that we will. 

[Aye (adv. 2 ) q.v. + marry, q.v.] 

AYE-NO-BENT, sb. Glo. The perennial rye-grass, 
the alternate seeds of which are made to denote ' aye ' 
and ' no ' in telling fortunes. See Bent. 

Glo. 1 

[See Aye, adv. 2 ] 

AYE SURE, phr. Yks. War. Dev. An expression of 
assent, occasionally equivocal or slightly interrogative. 

n.Yks. 1 Well, Josey, I am going to be married. Aye, seear? 
Than thou's gannan to get wed, after all, Jeeams ? [With a sly 
smile, perhaps] Aye, seear [which means, you are at liberty to 
suppose so, if you like]. w.Yks. 5 Is tuh bown yonder then ? 
Aye-sure. Noan o' thee aye-stires ; tell us reight if tuh means to 
goa ? War. 3 It's a fine morning. A' sure. Dev. Aye zure, BOW- 
RING Lang. (1866) I. 27. 

[See Aye, adv. 2 ] 

AY -GRASS, see Eegrass. 

AY-LA, int. phr. Yks. An exclamation of surprise or 

e-Yks. 1 MS. add. (T.H.) 

AYLE, adv. Obs. Nhb. All along, always. 

Nhb. 1 And ayle I whistled as I came, STUART Joco-Serious Dis- 
course (1686). 

[SKINNER (1671) X xxx ; Ayl, alwayes, COLES (1677).] 

AYMER, see Aim. 

AYND, see And, sb. 

AYOH, see Ahuh. 

AYONT, prep, and adv. Sc. Irel. and all the n. counties 
to Yks. Also in Der. [ayo'nt.] 

1. prep. Of place : farther than, on the other side of, 

Sc. For the sake of the auld wife ayont the fire at Stuckav- 
rallachan, SCOTT Rob Roy (i8i7)xxiii; By the way o' the sea 
ayont Jordan, HENDERSON St. Matt. (1862) iv. 15. Per. Places 
o' learnin' ayont the sea, IAN MACLAREN Auld Lang Syne (1895) 
218. Rnf. Watty . . . sayne ayont the fire sat doun, WILSON 
Watty (1792) 3, Newcastle ed. Ayr. Wi' you mysel, I gat a fright, 
Ayont the lough, BURNS Address to the Deil (1785). Lnk. I winna 
dout mine ain gude knicht Tho' he's ayont the sea ! MOTHERWELL 
Poems (1827) 203, ed. 1881. Slk. Daunderin by himsel ayont 
the loneliest shielin amang the hills, CHR. NORTH Nodes (ed. 
1856) III. 3. Gall. The brimstane flaming blue ayont the bars o' 
muckle hell, CROCKETT Raiders (1894) x. N.I. 1 N.Cy. 1 Far ayont 
the hill. Nhb. He comes from Hexham Green and that's ten 




miles ayont Hell. Denham Tracts (ed. 1892) I. 279. Dur. GIBSON 
Up. Weardalc Gl. (1870). Cum. Born ayont the Gerse-dyke, 
Denham Tracts (ed. 1892) I. 178. Wm. & Cum. 1 A boggle's been 
seen with twee heads . . . ayont Wully' carras [cart-house], 221. 
n.Yks. 12 

2. Fig. In excess of, beyond. 

Fif. Mortified ayont description, M'LAREN Tibbie and Tarn (1894) 
32. Lnk. This gangs clean ayont me, FRASER Whaups (1895) xiii. 
Nhb. Frae toil and pain ayont conceivin', WILSON Pitman's Pay 
(1843) 32 ; Nhb. 1 

3. Of time : after, later than. 

Sc. Ayont the break o' day, ROY Horseman (1895) i. Ayr. Some 
wee short hour ayont the twal, BURNS Death and Dr. Hornbook. 

4. adv. Of place : farther, beyond. 

Abd. A burn ran in the laigh, ayont there lay As many feeding 
on the other brae, Ross Helenore (1768) 49, ed. 1812. m.Yks. 1 
He's ayont yonder [s. v. Beyont]. Der. Thow shall not go one 
foot ayont, JF.WITT Ballads (1867) 69. 

5. From yonder place. 
n.Yks. 2 

[A-, on +yond, q.v.] 

AYROM, sb. Nhb. (?) Wm. An unpleasant upstir, 
display of temper, ' tantrums.' 

Nhb. Is thee muther shoutin out eyeh that she is ayrms aye 
by George ! for aw heard her, BEWICK Howdy (1850) to. [? Mis- 
print. The quotation, in this form, is not understood by dialect 
speakers (R.O.H.).] Wm. 1 What an ayrum thoo's makken agen ! 

AYVER, see Eaver. 

-AZ, suff. Chs. A termination of vbs., corresponding 
to the frequentative suff. -le. 

s.Chs. 1 The change of le final into as is quite regular and not 
infrequent; cf. dongaz, dangle; fummaz, fumble; goggaz, goggle; 
scrammaz, scramble ; yaggaz, yaggle. Hey fummazed in his 
pocket for a ha'penny, s.v. Fummaz. Dongazin about the lanes of 
a neight, ib. s.v. Dongaz. To scrammaz up a bank, ib. s.v. 

AZURINE, sb. Leudscus caeruleus. 

SATCHELL (1879) 7. 

AZZALD, sb. and adj. Yks. Lin. Also nazzald 
w.Yks. 5 ; nazzle w.Yks. n.Lin. 1 ; nassel w.Yks. [a'zld, 

1. sb. A peevish, wayward, mischievous child. See 
Azzard, Azzy. 

w.Yks. Tha nazzle, tha, Leeds Merc. Stiff!. (Jan. 3, 1891); Hlfx. 
Wds. ; w.Yks. 5 A child who has been guilty of deceptive practices 
is termed a ' little nazzle.' Never applied to the male sex. 

2. A silly, insignificant, mean person. 

w.Yks. SCATCHERD Hist. Morley (1830) 170, ed. 1874 ; w.Yks. 5 , 
n-Lin. 1 

3. An ill-tempered person ; an habitual fault-finder. 
w.Yks. As nasty tempered a nazzle as yo'd find between here 

an' Sandy Loin boddom, Saunterer's Satchel (1881) 28. 

4. adj. Bad-tempered, irritable. 
w.Yks. HAMILTON Ntigae Lit. (1841) 357. 

Hence Nazzly, adj. rude, mischievous; bad-tempered. 

n.Lin. 1 Yisterdaay when th" sun was oot atwean twelve an' 
one o'clock them nazzly childer, thaay cum an' brogged a duzen 
hoales e' oor causey if thaay maade one. 

AZZARD, sb. Cum. Wm. Yks. Lan. Also nazzard 
Cum. Yks. ; nazzart Wm. [a'zad, na'zad. | 

1. A peevish, wayward, mischievous child. SeeAzzald, 

w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

2. A silly, insignificant, mean person. 

n.Cy. GROSE (1790). Wm. & Cum. 1 Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. 
(1864) 296. Wm. Didta iwer see sic a wurm itten nazzard i" thi 
life ? JACK ROBISON Aald Taales (1882) 13. 

Hence Azzardly, adj. poor, ill-thriven. 

w.Yks. 1 

AZZLE-TOOTH, see Axle-tooth. 
AZZY, sb. Yks. Lan. A wayward child. See 
Azzald, Azzard. 
w.Yks. 1 , ne.Lan. 1 

AZZY-TREE, see Hazel. 


B. In gen. use. In phr. not to know a B from a bulfs 
foot, to be quite ignorant and illiterate. 

w.Yks. He doesn y t knaw a B thru a bull fooit, BANKS Wkfld. 
Wds. (1865). sw.Hn. 1 w.Som. 1 Ee doa-noa B vrum u Beolz 
veot. Dev. He's so hignorant's a hound, a don't know a B from 
a bull's foot, Reports Provinc. (1882) 8. Slang. He's one of those 
uncultivated brutes we get here occasionally, that doesn't know 
B from a bull's-foot, MAYHEW Prisons (1862) 258 ; There were 
members who scarcely knew a B from a bull's foot, BRACKEN- 
BRIDGE Mod. Chiv. (1846) 43 (FARMER). 

[I know not ... a B from a bole foot, Pol. Poems (1401) 

II. 57 (N.E.D.).] 
BA, see Ball. 

BAA, sb. Sh.I. A half-sunken rock, covered by the 
tide, and only visible at low water. 

ShJ. Da shore o Life, Wi shaalds an baas it's bund, BURGESS 
Rasmie (1891) 128 ; Ba (Coll. L.L.B.). S. & Ork. 1 

BAA, v. Sc. Also written baw. To lull to sleep. 

Sc. Baa the bairns wi' an unken'd tune, NICHOLSON Hist. Tales 
(1843) 82; They baw it, ... thay brace it, WATSON Coll. (1106} 

III. 21 QAM. s. v. Baw). 

BAA, int. Nhb. An exclamation of surprise or 

Nhb. 1 A sailor chep conies up, tyeks the beast bi the horns an' 
torns hor reet ontiv hor back, 'an aall the people ses ' Baa ! ' 

BAA, see Ball. 

BAACHLE, see Bauchle. 

BAAD.'see Bide. 

BAAGIE, sb. Sh.I. The greater Black-backed Gull, 
Larus marinus. 

Sh.I. SWAINSON Birds (1885) 208. 

BAAKER, see Balker. 

BAAKOOZE, see Backhouse. 

BAAKY, see Backie. 

BAAL, see Bold. 

BAA-LAMB, sb. In gen. use. [be'-lam, ba'-leem.] A 
child's name for a lamb ; sometimes also extended to sheep. 

ne-Lan. 1 , nw.Der. 1 , n-Lin. 1 , Nhp. 1 , War. (J.R.W.), War.", 
Oxf. 1 MS. add., Brks. 1 , e.An. 2 Cmb.VAnd there's such a heap of 
baa-lambs a-coming down the road. Suf. 1 

BAALIE, sb. Sh.I. A thin cake of oatmeal hastily 
baked or underdone. 

Sh.I. (K.I.) S. SOrk. 1 

BAALONED, see Belloned. 

BAALTY-BRAINS, sb. Cor. [bea'lti-brenz.] A 
stupid person. 

Cor. (F.H.D.); Cor. 3 Still in use, but by no means frequent. 

BAAM, see Barm. 

BAAN, see Bonn. 

BAARGE, see Barge. 

BAAT, see Bout. 

BAA-WAA-BODY, sb. Nhb. A silly or insignificant 

Nhb. 1 Hadaway ! he's oney a baa-waa-body. 

BAAYSTE, see Baste. 





BAAZ, sb. Obs. ? Sh.I. A large, fat, clumsy person. 
See Barge. 

S. & Ork. 1 [Not known to our correspondents.] 
BAB, sb. 1 Yks. Lan. Chs. War. e.An. [bab.] 

1. An infant. 

w.Yks. Aw've a little nest misel. An' two young babs, aw'm 
praad to tell, At's precious too. HARTLEY Dili. (1868) 18 ; w.Yks. 1 , 
ne-Lan. 1 , e.Lan. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) 

2. A child's name fora picture of any kind. See Babby. 
w.Yks. Hlfx. Wds. Lan. Aw've a book full o' babs, WAUGH 

Come IVhoam (1856) ; Lan. 1 There's a bab o'er lev [over the 
leaf] ; e.Lan. 1 , Chs. 1 , e.An. 1 

[1. Alas, my bab, myn innocent, Towmley Myst. (c. 1460) 
149. 2. The mg. ' a child's picture ' is prob. developed 
fr. the mg. ' puppet, doll,' once very common : Babe 
that children play with, pouppee, PALSG.] 

BAB, sb? Lm. A flat-bottomed boat, used for re- 
moving the mud from drains. See Babbing. 

n.Lin. 1 The bab or babbing-boat is dragged along, so as to dis- 
turb the warp, which is carried by the current into the river Trent. 

BAB, v. 1 Sc. (JAM.) To dance. 


BAB, v. z Ayr. (JAM.) To close, to shut. 

Ayr. He could na' bab an ee, TRAIN Poet. Rev. (1806) 100. 

BAB, see Bob. 

BABA, int. Yks. [ba'ba.] A word used as a warning 
to children not to touch or taste anything hurtful or dis- 

w.Yks. If a child picked up a piece of alum and was about to put 
it in his mouth its parent would exclaim, ' Ah, babbah ! babbah ! it's 
babbah ! throw it away,' Leeds Merc. Stippl. (July 4, 1891) ; Come 
away, ba-ba (H. L.). 

BABALOOBIES, sb. pi. s.Pem. [babalu-biz, ba'ba- 
lubiz.] Water-worn limestones used to decorate walls 
or houses. 

s.Pem. Not the ordinary round or pebble stones ; they are curvi- 
linear (W.M.M.) ; (E.L.) 

BAB AT THE BOWSTER, phr. Sc. Also written 
babity bowster, babbity bowster. An old dance 
similar to the ' Cushion Dance ' formerly performed at 
the close of festive gatherings, weddings, &c. ; now a kind 
of singing-game played by children, sometimes with 
a handkerchief instead of a cushion. 

Sc. The words sung by the company while dancing round the 
individual bearing the ' Bowster ' were, ' Wha learned you to 
dance . . . Bab at the Bowster brawly ? ' to which the ' Bowster- 
bearer ' replies, ' My mother,' &c. After which, throwing down the 
cushion before one of the opposite sex, they both kneel upon it, 
and kiss, N. & Q. (1851) ist S. iii. 45 ; A dance on the hunkers. 
Wha learned you to dance Babbity Bowster, Babbity Bowster ? 
CHAMBERS Rhymes (1870)36; The verses are sung by children 
at their sports in Glasgow. It has degenerated in s.Brit. to the 
ordinary ' Drop Handkerchief games of kiss-in-the-ring, GOMME 
Games (1894) n. 

[The phr. means ' Bob (curtsy) at the bolster.'] 

BABBING, vbl. sb. Lin. [ba'bin.] The process of 
stirring up the deposit of mud in drains by means of 
a ' bab,' so that the current sweeps it all away to the 
river, and the drains are thus kept clear. 

nXin. 1 

Hence Babbing-boat ; see Bab, sb.* 

Lin. When a deposit of mud has been carried, by leakage of tidal 
water from the Trent, into the land-drains, it is removed by the 
process of babbing, for which purpose a babbing-boat is used. 
This is a square, flat-bottomed boat, provided with boards which 
are lowered into the drain and serve as a kind of dam. As the boat 
is dragged down towards the river, the mud is stirred up by the 
boards and carried into the tideway (A. A.). n.Lin. 1 
BABBISH, adj. Yks. Also written babish n.Yks. 1 

1. Childish, puerile. 

n-Yks. 1 

2. Weak, helpless, faint. 

n.Yks. 1 ; n.Yks. 2 I felt babbish enough to be knocked down with 
a feather. 

[1. Babish, childish. If he soon blush, they call him 
a babish and ill brought up thing, ASCHAM (BAILEY). 
Bab, sb. 1 + -is/t.] 

BABBLE, sb. 1 e.Yks. [ba'bl.] A leathern bag with 
a stone inside, attached to a string. See Babble, v. 1 

e.Yks. 1 

[Bable, pegma, LEVINS Manip. ; Babulle or bable, 
libnlla, pegma, Prompt. MLat. pegma is thus described 
in ' Catholicon ' : Pegma, ' baculus cum massa plumbi in 
summitate pendente, et ut dicit Cornutus tali baculo 
scenici ludebant' (cited in Prompt.).} 

BABBLE, sb. 2 Wm. Yks. Lan. [ba'bl.] 

1. An idle, foolish story ; gossip. 

n.Yks. 1 Babbles and saunters [aunters, q. v.]; n.Yks. 2 , ne.Lan. 1 

2. A lie. 

Wm. Never tell your mother a babble (B.K.). 

3. The noise made by hounds when they give tongue 
before being sure of the scent. 

ne.Lan. 1 

BABBLE, v. 1 Obsol. e.Yks. To go round the village 
on the eve of Nov. 5 striking the cottage doors with 
a ' babble,' in accordance with an ancient custom. 

e.Yks. 1 Now confined to Ottringham, Keyingham, and a few 
other villages. 

Hence Babbling-night, the night of Nov. 4. 

e.Yks. 1 

BABBLEMENT, sb. Nhb. Cum. Yks. Lin. [ba'bl- 
ment.] Noisy, foolish chatter. 

N.Cy. 1 Nhb. 1 Thor myekin" sic a babblement 'at ye canna hear 
yorsel speak. Cum. 1 w.Yks. 5 Generally used in regard to 
children. n.Lin. 1 [HoLLOWAY.] 

[Deluded all this while with ragged notions and babble- 
ments while they expected worthy and delightful know- 
ledge, MILTON (JOHNSON).] 

BABBY, sb. In gen. dial, use in all the n. counties to 
Der. Also in War. Won Hrf. Glo. Dev. Cor. [ba-bi, 

1. (a) A baby. 

n.Yks. Ah hev a little babby there, TWEDDELL Clevel. Rhymes 
(1875) 28. w.Yks. Shoo let ma lewk at t'babby, CUDWORTH 
Sketches (1884) 9 ; w.Yks. 4 Lan. A poor little babby fur thi to 
tend, BANKS Manch. Man (1876) i; Them big eyeso' hers most 
loike a babby's, BURNETT Lowrie (18771 xi. ne.Lan. 1 , m.Lan. 1 , 
Chs. 1 , nw.Der. 1 , War. (J.R.W.) Wor. He was blartin away like 
a babby, Why John (Coll. L.L.B.). Hrf. 1 Dev. Jinny Parr's 
babbies . . . be tfl twins, HEWETT Peas. Sp. (1892) 115. 

(b) In comp. (i) Babby-boilies, food for babies boiled 
with milk ; (2) -boody, a bit of broken crockery or glass 
used as a plaything by small children ; (3) -clouts, clothing 
or napkins for babies ; (4) -house, an arrangement of 
stones or bits of china made by children to represent the 
ground-plan of a house ; (5) -job, a midwifery case ; (6) 
rags, small bits ; (7) -wark, insignificant doings ; used 
sometimes in contempt for things bearing fine names. 

(i) Cum., Wm. (M.P.) (2) N.Cy. 1 Nhb. A whirlwind cam an' 
myed a' souse, Like heaps o' babby boodies, MARSHALL Snfs. 
(1819)4; Nhb. 1 (3) Ayr. Whamybabie-clouts will buy ? BURNS, 
213, Globe ed. Cum. LINTON Lake Cy. (1864) 296. (4) Nhb. 1 A 
babby-hoose is made preferably with pieces of china [boodies] or 
shells [chucks]. Dur. 1 , Win. 1 , Chs. 13 (s)Glo. Mun be sommat queer 
as calls 'er 'way such a night as this. 'Tain't no babby -job, is't? 
'Er've a-give that there babby-job up some time now ; 'er be t'owld 
fur that there, BUCKMAN Darke's Sojourn (1890) x. (6) Cor. 12 
(7) Cum., Wm. (M.P.) 

2. (a) A doll, puppet ; any model of the human figure. 
Dur. In my childhood porcelain figures, statuettes, dolls, and 

even statues, were familiarly called babbies. A house in Monk- 
wearmouth used to be called ' The Babbies ' because of two 
statues of haymakers in the garden (W.H.H.); Dur. 1 , Wm. 1 , 
ne.Lan. 1 , n.Lin. 1 

(b) In comp. (i) Babby-clouts, rags of different colours 
given to children to dress their dolls with ; (2) -house, 
a doll's house. 

(i) Dur. 1 (2) n.Lin. 1 Thaay've the grandest ohd babby-hoose 
that I iver seed. Parson plaays aboot wi' chech like a bairn wi" 
a babby-hoose. 

3. (a) A child's name for a picture. See Bab, sb. 1 
Dur. 1 Used in pi. to denote prints. n.Yks. 3 , e.Yks. 1 , w.Yks. 2 

w.Yks. 3 Children, guessing whether there were an illustration on 
the next page, would say, ' Babby o'er the leaf? ' n.Lin. 1 

P 2 




(b) In comp. -cards, picture or court cards. 

e.Yks. 1 Babby-cayds. 

4. The reflection of oneself seen in the human eye, or 
any other small reflecting surface. 

n-Lin. 1 A lady . . . saw some little children gazing intently at a 
door-knob of polished brass. She asked what they were doing, 
and the reply was, ' 'Pleas'm' we're looking for babbies." 

[2. A baby or puppet that children play with, ROBERT- 
SON Phras. (1693) ; A childs baby, pupus, pupa, COLES 
(1679) ; It was the part of children to fall out about babies, 
BACON Henry VII ( 1622) , ed. Lumby, 145. 3. More pleased 
with babies in books than children are, FULLER Hist. Camb. 
(1655) 39 (N.E.D.). 4. When a young lady . . . Looks 
babies in your eyes, MASSINGER Renegado, 11. iv.] 

BABBY-LAKER, sb. Yks. [ba'bi-lekar.] One who 
entertains foolish speculations. 


[See word below, and Laker.] 

BABBY-LAKIN, sb. Dur. Cum. Wm. Yks. [ba'bi- 
lekin, -lekan.] A child's toy; hence a trifling thing, 
a triviality. 

Dur. 1 Wm. & Cum. 1 Here's baby-laikins, rowth o" speyce, 
190. Wm. 1 , n.Yks. 2 w.Yks. Leeds Merc. Suppl. (July 4, 1891). 

[Cp. BARET (1580), s.v. Babie : A laykin babie, puppet, 
or trifles given to children, Craepundia. Poupee on 
petites chases donnes aux enfants. Babby (sb.) + lafcin (sb.), 

BABBY-LAKIN, vbl. sb. Playing with pictures, 
drawing for amusement. Cf. babby, sb. 3. 

w.Yks. 3 A boy seeing his tutor teaching Euclid with diagrams, 
expressed his idea of the study by remarking ' Its babby lakin' 
yon ! ' 

BABES-IN-THE-CRADLE, phr. Wil. Scrophularia 
aquatica, or Water Figwort. 

Wil. 1 

BAB-HOUSE, sb. Yks. Lan. [ba'b-as, ba'b-es.] 

1. A child's toy-house. 
w.Yks. (S.P.U.) 

Hence Bab-housing, child's play, nonsense. 
Lan. To owd Sam wi' th' French Revolution, and o' sich like 
bab-heawsin, BRIERLEY Irkdale (1865) 14. 

2. Applied in contempt to any ugly, useless, clumsy thing 
made by hand. 

w.Yks. (S.P.U.) 

BABIES' SHOES, sb. Wil. Ajuga reptans, or common 

Wil. Babies' Shoes is a quaint fanciful name for the Bugle, Sarunt 
Dioc. Gaz. (Jan. 1890) 6 ; WiH 

BAB-NET, see Bob-net. 

BABY, see Babby. 

BABY-BOT, sb. Yks. The Lady-bird, Cocdnella 
septempunctata. Also called Coo-lady, Lady-cow. 

n.Yks. 2 The small scarlet black-spotted field-beetle. 

[See Bot] 

BACCARE, sb. War. A boy's game. 

War. 2 The players, at the call ' Baccare ' of their leader, leave 
sanctuary, and attempt to cross a certain space to another sanc- 
tuary. The space is guarded by a boy who may make as many 
prisoners as he can, and these must mount guard with him. The 
guard has various tricks to induce the leader, or one of the party, 
to give the starting word : e. g. [to the question] ' What does your 
father smoke ? ' an unwary boy would reply ' Bacca,' and perhaps 
get one of his party caught. 

[The exclamation Baccare! means ' back ! stand back ! ' 
and is found not unfrequently in the dramatists and other 
writers of the i6th and rrth cents. Backare, quoth Mortimer 
unto his sow, CAMDEN Rem. (1636) 293 ; Baccare ! you are 
marvellous forward, SHAKS. T. Shrew, n. i. 73; Both 
trumpe and drumme sounded nothing for their larum 
but ' Baccare, Baccare ! ' Golden Aphroditis (1577) (HALL.).! 

BACCOBOLTS, sb. pi. I.W. Typha latifolia, or 
common bulrush. 

I. W. So called from the spikes resembling a roll of tobacco. 

[See Bolt.] 

BACH-, see Bauch-, Baugh- 

BACHAL, see Bauchle. 

BACH(E, sb. Yks. Chs. Der. Won Som. Also written 
bage w.Yks. 2 Der. a ; batch Wor. Som. [batj, baetf.] 

1. A river or stream ; the valley through which a stream 


Chs. 1 There is a small piece of water near Chester called the 
' Bache Pool ' ; and at Rainow there is a spot called the ' Black 
Patch,' or ' Black Batch,' through which a dark and deep stream 
flows. Prob. only used in place-names. Chs. 3 Cf. Sandbach. 
n.Wor. Several fields are called Batch (e. g. Little Batch) in the 
neighbourhood of St. Kenelm's valley (J.W.P.). 

2. A ditch, or a sunk fence with a ditch, dividing one 
field from another. 

w.Yks. 2 

3. A flat piece of ground, usually moorland. 

w.Yks. 2 A tract of moorland between Dore and Hathersage is 
called Bage. Der. 2 , nw.Der. 1 

4. A sand-bank or small hill lying within, or near a 


Sora. HERVEY Wedmore Chron. 1,1887) I. 116; (J.S.F.S.); In 
the names Churchill-batch, Chelvey-batch, W. & J. Gl. (1873). 

5. Comp. (i) Duck-batches, land trodden by cattle in 
wet weather ; (2) Emmet-batch, an ant-hill. 

Som. W. & J. Gl. (1873 X 

[Blostrede forth as bestes ouer baches and hulles 
(bankes and hilles, B ; valeyes and hulles, A), P. Plowman 
(c.) viii. 159. The word has never been much used 
except as forming the second element in place-names. 

Cou-bache me chpede bis valeye, Si. Kenelm (c. i 
244 ; Under be born of Coubage, ib. 289 (MATZNER). Ut. 
bcec, see KEMBLE Cod. Dipl. III. 380.] 

BACHELL, see Bauchle. 

BACHELOR, sb. 1 Irel. Wor. e.An. Dor. Nfld. 

1. An admirer, suitor. 

Ir. I hard thim Molly Magee wid her batchelor, Danny O'Roon, 
TENNYSON To-morrow (1885) ; Commonly used in this sense (J.B.). 

2. Used as title. 

e-An. 1 Elderly single men of a better rank are mostly so styled. 

3. Used attrib. in comp. (i) Bachelor-bird, (2) -finch, 
the chaffinch ; (3) -man, an unmarried man ; (4) -woman, 
a spinster. 

(i) Wor. Bachelor-bird, the chaffinch, so called because the 
females leave in November and the males remain, Wor. Jrn. (Mar. 
3, 1888). (2) [The bright bachelor-finch stands out from his 
pure setting, and the Daws look black against the snow, WATSON 
Natureand Wdcraft. (1890) xx.] (3) Dor. Did ye know en, shepherd 
a bachelor-man ? HARDY Madding Crowd (1874) viii. (4) [Nfld. 
Bachelor woman is common, spinster being unknown (G.P.).] 

[1. Broom-groves, Whose shadow the dismissed 
bachelor loves, SHAKS. Temp. iv. i. 67.] 

BACHELOR, sb. 2 Yks. A stone slate 27^ inches long. 

w.Yks. (T.H.H.); A bachelor may be any width (J.F.) ; (H.V.) 

BACHELOR COAL, sb. Sc. GAM.) Dead coal which, 
instead of burning, turns white in the fire. 


1. Applied to many plants having a round or button- 
shaped flower: (i) the double garden variety of Achillea 
ptarmica (Nhp.) ; (2) Aquilegia vulgaris, common Colum- 
bine (Wil.) ; (3) the flower-heads of Arctium lappa, 
Burdock (Dev.) ; (4) the double variety of Bellis perennis, 
Daisy (Lin. Shr.) ; (5) Centaurea cyanus, blue Cornflower 
(Yks. Der.) ; (6) Centaurea nigra (Irel.) ; (7) Centaurea 
scabiosa (Glo.) ; (8) Core/torus japonica (Wil.) ; (9) Coty- 
ledon umbilicus (Dev.) ; (10) Geranium lucidum, shining 
Crane's Bill (Lan.) ; (n) Geranium robertianum (Sus. Dev.); 
(12) Lychnis diurna, red Campion (Cum. Yks. Lan. Nhp. 
War. Wor. Suf. Ess. Ken. Sus. Dev.) ; (13) Lychnis flos- 
cuculi, Ragged Robin (Sus.) ; (14) Lychnis vespertina, 
white Campion (Yks. Sus.) ; (15) Pyrethrum parthenium, 
Feverfew (Wm. Nrf.) ; (16) the double variety of Ranun- 
culus acris, meadow Crowfoot (Cum. Lin. Lei. Oxf. Mid.) ; 
(17) Scabiosa arvensis, field Scabious (Glo. Brks. Wil. 
Som. Dev.) ; (18) Scabiosa succisa, Devil's bit (Glo. Hmp.) ; 

(19) Stellaria holostea, common Stitchwort (Bck. Suf.) ; 

(20) Trollius europaeus, Globe flower (Glo. Cor.); (21) a 
small rose (Lin.). 

(i) Nhp. 1 So called from the resemblance which the numerous 
and closely set petah bear to a neatly worked button. Bachelor's 




buttons were formerly supposed to exercise a secret influence 
over the fortunes of rustic lovers. (3) Dev. 1 The burrs or flower- 
heads of the common Burdock ; called also Beggars' or Cuck- 
holds' buttons. (4) Shr. When flowrets cluster round the parent 
blossom, the name Bachelors' button gives place to that of Hen-and- 
chickens. (8) Wil. 1 (12) w.Yks. 2 , ne.Lan. 1 , Wor. (J.W.P.) (16) 
Cum. 1 (i7 1 )Brks. 1 ,WiU 119) Bck.,Suf. Also called Shirt-buttons, 
from its button-like capsules. (20) Glo.(S.S.B.), Cor. 3 (21) n.Lin. 1 
2. Comb, (i) Little Bachelor Button, Geranium Robertt- 
anurn (Sus.) j (2) Red, Lychnis diurna (War. Suf.) ; 
(3) White , Lychnis vespertina (War.) ; Ranunculus 
aconitifolius (Ayr) ; (4) Yellow , the double-flowered 
variety of Ranunculus acris (Ayr). 

(2, 3) War.3 

[Now the similitude that these floures (Lychnis diurna) 
have to the iagged cloath buttons anciently worne in this 
kingdome gaue occasion to our gentlewomen ... to 
call them bachelours buttons, GERARDE (ed. 1633) 472 ; 
Thereby I saw the batchelors' buttons, whose virtue is 
to make wanton maidens weepe when they have worne 
it forty weekes under their aprons for a favour, GREENE 
Quip for an Upstart Courtier (1620) (NARES) ; Bassinets, 
the flower Crowfoot, . . . that which we call Batchelors 
buttons is one (the double one) of them, COTGR.] 

BACHRAM, sb. ? Obs. Sc. (JAM.) 

Dmf. A bachram o' dirt, an adhesive spot