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O R, A 





Tracing the Ettholooy of thofe Eholish Wokd9> that arc derived 

I. From the G R E E K, and LATIN Languages ; 
IL From the S A X O N, and other Northern Tongues. 


V O S S I U S. 


S P E L M A N, 

S O M N E R, 

M I N S H E W, 









By the Reverend G E O R G E WILLIAM LEMON, 

Reftor of Geyttnthorptt and Vicar of Eafi Walton^ Norfolk. 

Mulca renafcentur, quasjamcccidSre; cadentque. 
Quae nunc funt in honore vocaiula -, Q volet ufus ; 
Quern [irnes arbitrium eft^ ct jus, et norma loqucndi. Art. Poet. 70. 

EP/moUgiA conttnet autem in fe multam eniditionem ; five ilia ex Gracis orta tra£temus, quajuni 
flurima, pnecipueque Melicd ratione (cui eft fermo mfttr fimillimus) five ex hilloriarum veterum 
nocitift nomina Hominum, (Rerum) Locorum, Gentium, Urbium requiramus. 

QuiNTiLiAH. Cap. I. Sec. 6, 


Printed for G. R O B I N S O N, in Pater-hoster Row. 


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N. B.-— A fmall d is placed after the Names of thofe who hare died finco 
the Subfcription was opened. 

H« Grtcc FREDERIC, l«te LonJ Archbilhop of CANTERBURY, d. 

THE Right Rfvercnd Jonathan Shipley, 
D.D. Lord Bifhop of St. ASAPH 
John Addey, Efq; Aldcrmaa of Narwicb 
Joha Alcock, Eiq; Hetheringford 
Maxey Allen, Efqj Mayor of Lymtt Kerfolk, 

Roger Akham, L.L.D. DtBors Comment 
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near Norwich 
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Cambridge^ for the Library 
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Right Reverend the late Lord Bt/hop of 
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The Revd. Mr. James Backhoufe, Fellow of 

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Collegti -CatnBri^e 
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in Suffolk 
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Cawhridgi. d.. - • 

Philip Caft, Efq; Lynn 
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Lynn ■ 

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Recorder of the City of Norwich 
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'friaity College, Oxford 
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^r'ougb Street 
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College, Cambridge 
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Peter Colombine, Efq; Norwich 
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David Colombine, Efq; Norwich 
. Revd, WilUam Cooke, D.D. Provoft of King's 

College, Cambridge 

Mr. John Cook, Norwich 

Revd.- Samuel Cooper, D.D. Minifter^of Greaf^ 

•Tarmottih . , . 

Revd. Mr. William Cooper, Fellow of Clafe 

Hall, Cambridge 
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Edward Cuthred, Efq; Hants 
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Right Reverend Edward Smallwell, D.D. Lord 

Bifliop of St. DAVIDS 
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^een's College, Oxford; andReftor of Bixley, 
' in Norfolk 

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of the.Diocefe of Canterbury 
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Revd. Geo. Home, . D.D. Vice Chancellor of 

Oxford, and Dean of Canterbury 
Mr. Henry Hughs, Bedford Row, London 
Revd. Mr. Richard Humfrey, Thtrpe^ near 

Revd. Thomas Hunt, Reftor of Bafely 

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Church, Oxford 
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£dward Jerningham, Efq; Grofvenor Square 
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' 'and Regius Profeffbr of Civil Law, Cambridge 
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Church, and Regius Profcffor of Hebrew,- 

; Jeremiah 

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P R E F A C E 



AN D T H £ 


^TTTORDS are the elemental; and conftituent parts of every language, made 

' ' polite, to exprefs their various ideas to each other, and give names 
and appellations to the different objedts around them. ' 

Nay, eveii in the Vigitablt ia«, tho' not indued with the powers of utterance 
and articulation, yet even in them are to be found the wonderful powers of 
communicating their different affeftions and influences to each other j for we often 
find in plants and flowers a fympathy and antipathy, working by mternal m- 
«uence ; as may he obfcrvod in that mod amazing plant called the Smfiuye, to 
whatever caufe it may be owing ; which has been placed as it were by Providence 
in a middle fcale of ejtiftence. between plants and animals ; fuperior indeed to the 
former, but inferior to the latter: fome treii mi SArai/ likewlfe feem to de- 
clare a mutual love and affeaion for each other j elfe, why does the vme fo 
cordially embrace her elmj and why do the ivy and the eglantine fo eagerly 
enclafp their oak f others again, exprefs a horror and deteftation m their growth, 
when planted in the neighbourhood of obnoxious fociety j elfe, why docs the 
olive-tree deteft the yewi and why the pear, the pine f— is it not bccaufe 
the former enjoy the kind and friendly fupport, w.>ile the latter avoid and 
ihun the baleful influence ? 

If now thefe reciprocal fenfations arc communicated and imparted by the ve- 
getable race, and trees of ftatelier growth, to each other ; how much more vifibly 
are they perceived in the aflions and paffions of InfiSs, and AnunaU;Jxam the 
provident' ant, up to the half-reafoning elephant f who have not only the powers 
of fenfation imparted to them in an eminent degree by their beneficent Creator, 
but the powers of reafon likewife, in 1 limited degree j elfe, why do we fee the 
ant fo bufily employed ; or why do we find the bee fo wifely induftrious in her 
hive?— are thefc no marks of rcifon ?— yes, and they ate great ones tooj they 

' J flievr 

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ii _P. -R..E .F A. C E, 

i&fiW^thaf GOD, who at fir A diTphycd his goodncis m the creation, ^did notcon>^ 
fine the operations of reafon, and the powers of communicating it> to any onfr 
particular tribe of creatures ; but has given them all a variety of utterance, and 
expreflion, accor^g to their, various ^i|;ences j— to all, excc^^ t&e numirtHu la- 
bahihmu of the ^rHit Deep :^9itiA yet, ev*i there, «»-doubt, tflo^ have fom6 me- 
thod of communicating their ideas to each other, fufficient to fupply their own 
wants ; to propagate their own fpocies ; ,apd tci provide; for their own fafety and 
defence : for we cannot but fuppofc, that even the mute inbabitant in bis JheU, 
the' having neither eyes to fee, nor ears to hear, nor tongue to give him ut- 
teclfce; is ^vefth^lefs ^intiitfd ^th pt>werfanoferdfiioi^ toTcothi^ump&e his 
fvints, his tears, his apprehenfions, ind his jo^s,* tdotners'of his owh rbrma- 
tion :— fo wonderful are the ways of Providence, ruling in thoie darlc and gloomy 
manfions of filence and obfcurity I"; . (,;.:.. 
From thefe dumb and deaf creatures, to whom 

Nottdaturacyeras'oA'd^xi^ettvS^ttt^mceU ■" j 

let us turn our thoughts to tbe Featbered tribe', among whom we (hall find a moft 
exquifite and amazing modulation of voice, which certainly by hr exceeds all 
inurumental found; and by -far-fuipuiiin ^)iumaii hjimony ! and yet, even here 
we find no articulation of fpecch i for amidft all this variety of found, there is 
a famenefs of cxpreflion, giyen to e^very individual of |the,faiiije Ipeoiea.r 

But to Man is given, hot orily a .variety of expreflion, tut Jikewife" a vaft 
variety of thought : how wonderful is that variety t no tWo authors whatevrf, tho' 
writing on the fime fiibjed, and, in the' fame langgag;^, pan poflibly make ufeof 
the fame identical manner.of cxpreffiop, throUgfcoyt.a. whole worki there may 
be indeed a fimilariiy of thought in fomc few inftaaccs,, but there will ic^ce be 
a fimilarity, of expreilion even in- thofe few; lio, there will be a variety in that 
famenefs ; (if it does not found too much like contradi<fHon to fay fo) Recording. 
as thofe dij^rent authors kn pofTefled of a greater copioufnefs of words, and a 
greater variety of phrafcs : this variety will be ftill farther increafed, if we only 
fuppofe our two authors writibg on the faine fubje(!!t in different languages j 
then indeed the variety h triily amazing I ' : . 

Ifhe different tongues and languages that arc fpoken iii difio'ent parts of the 
habitable globe, and likewife the mutual connexion wC' find between theantient 
and modern, between the living and dead languages, are fubje4^s that will always 
deferve the admiration and attention of a contemplative mind. 
, Who fhall be able to account for die origin of language; or who fliall fay 
which was the original of all P fiich an attempt would be a taik too difficult for 
mortal man to accomplifh, and far beyond the abilities of any human creature to 
perform : as well might he pretend to write a hiftory of his own origin, and 
attempt to give an account of thofe ideas and feniations he. felt operating in 
his own mindj during his fliatc of infancy, and before he wa$ able to utter a word 
in bis own mother tongue :— ;whp then fliall be hardy enough. to affirm, that any 
language, now at prefent made uie of in any nation, is the very fame, unaltered, 
and unvaried language, that has been fpoken on that very fpot, ever fince the 
creation F — who mail be vain enou^ to fay, that his language has continued pure 
and uncorrupt, unmixt, an.d uncontamihated, from the e'arlieil ages down to the 
prefent ? * 

. Pn 


P K E F A C B. ill 

On the contrary, who will not be caodid enough to acknowledge, that his 
native tongue has undergone a number of changes t and has proceeded daily in 
improvement, tiU it has arrived at its prefent degree of perfection ?*-at leaft, 
tbj£ muft be acknowledged with regard to all moudern European languages, and 
particularly our own. . ■ ■., ,, .. ; 

Let any one but read, the hiflcry of our <)wn nation,' writtfqonly a century or 
two paft, and he will prefenitly be flruck with the uncouth appearance, both in 
Aile and ortbograpby, made vktif by Jus.gpod-oldaaceJjDr?. 

Mankind, as they have advanc^al. ui the knowledge (^ things, and as they have 
4nade a greiiter progicfs in tl^ arts 4«d icionces, have been .obliged to invent, or 
to adof^, n«w jiames, .^yid^vf new terms to new idea$> 4iid thus in time hav.e 
acquired new knowledge, and anew langui^e. 

This gradual advancement in Science, and this acquired improvement in Ian- 
^age, has in a great meafure artien fromthat mutual conncpdon and communis 
catioji« which commerce has introduced imo the world, by opening new channels 
.of knowledge to mankind) a«d t^us, by fn^porting and adopting the improved 
accomplishments of other nations, they h^u^e enlarged their own former Aockj 
jind have incceafed in kaowledge, a» they have increaj^d in trade. 

By travelling into foreign parts, ^nd there obferving the cuftoms, manners, 
flfid ieafning of other nations, -they have been able to bring away a certain por- 
tion of ijieir wifdom, as well as a certain portion of the produce of their 
climate * : whereas, had they Aever travelled, nor removed from their native 
Jiabitation«, both.iiiey, and we ourielves, might have continued, as ignorant, and 
MB barbarous, as the nrUk iahabitavts of our itUnd, or c^ ai^ other place^ muft 
naturally be fuppofed to have been; «r at leaft, if either they, or we, had ar- 
rived at any 4egxee of kD0w^e4ge, or made any toJeratJe improvements in the arts 
4|bd fcienc«^,i iKitho)it travel it inuil: have been, like that of the inhabitants of 
Otah,ekit by thp mere dint of application, tiiro' neceffity, APd the acquired ex- 
perience of uARumbered ages. 

Such cruift naturally be the ilate of every nation and language that pretendv 
to originality : it muft be confelTed indeed that original languages, or thofe 
.which are -properly fo called, feem to have one advantage over their defcen- 
dents, or derivatives ; viz. that they can iay, they, are the fource from whence 
.^e moderns have fprung: but this is only a fmall and trivial advantage, to what 
a -modern language, and ibe EngUJh in particular, is endowed with; notwith- 
Aanding both that, and all. other modern languages, labour under many incon- 
veniences, which the originals were intirely free from ; I mean the fuperabundant 
u& of particles, and the almoft total want of declenfions in their nouns, and of 
conjugations in their verbs : thefe, and ibme others, are ;thc ^nponyciiiences and 
difadvantages which all modem languages labour .under, and in which the origi- 
■ nals have fo jufl: a title to clame the fuperiority j but then, thefe ought not to be 
^magnified .too high, nor modern languages, our own efpecialty, be decried too 

* Y-Th^frcStur.A ctja^ nDnUvisffepelinguaTummutatio oritur : ourteum fiqujdem non minus verba, 
ct loquendi modus, quam alias merces ab una Vegione in aliam .cxportare eC importare foletit : 
Sbning. Pref,— ;Lcc meoaly obfeivc, that notwithfUndiog the liinilarity of thought jn boiti pafTaget, 
this Preface was written, l«ngbefoff I was favoured with ^ij the authorities,' which will hereafter be 
quoted fcom this author. ' 

' a 2'"" ' ■ ■ low/ 

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low, and held in that mighty contempt which fome foreigners, nay, which cvdn 
fome among ourfelves, have {hewn for it. 

The Englijb language ! fay fome foreigners (as remarkable for their vivacity, as 
their impertinence j and who are more fit to lead the way ,in the mode of a 
ruffle, or trip of a minuet, than to reafon on the ^rength,- the genius, and thd 
compofition of the Engltfb language j which, fay they) is only a hotch-potcbt com- 
pofed of all others*. 

Thefe are. nothing more than the trifling and tnlignificant . objections of pert- 
nefs and vanity, and ought to be pafled. over with that fcorn and contempt they 
ib jnftly deferve : others however muft not be intirdy pafled over in fileace, fincc 
"they are not the falfc opinions of foreigners, but the prqudices of even ibme 
of our own countrymen, and have ftood againft our language ever fince the time <^ 
good old Verftegan, who wrote about two centuries ago, i. e. early in the reign 
of James I. j and being an author of fome credit in antiquity and etymology, I 
ihall detire leave to quote his own words, in his Seauventb Chapter of the ancient 
Englifh Tovngi (which he would have to be purely Saxon) where he iaysV 
p. 204, *' Since the tymc of Chaucer, more Latin and French hath bin mingled 
with our toung, then left out of it ; but of late wm haue falne to fuch borow- 
ing of woordes from Latin, French, and other toungs, that tt had bin beyond 
.all ilay and limit; which albeit fome of vs do lyke wel, and think our toung 
thereby much bcttred, yet do ftrangers therefore carry the farre lefie opinion 
thereof; fome faying, that it is of itielf no language at all, but the fcum (—it 
may now furely with greater propriety be called the cream—) of many lan- 
guages *(■: others, that it is moil barren; and that wee are dayly faine to bor- 
row woords for it, as though it jnt lacked making, out of other languages to 
patche it vp withal j and that yf wee were put to repay oar borrowed fpeeche 
back again to the languages that may lay ckime vnto it, wee Ihotild be left litle 
better than dumb, or fcarfly able to fpeak any thing that fhould be fencible." 

So much then for the obje(£t;ions of foreigners ; let us now hear his own : 

** For myne $ivn partem (quoth he) / hold them deceaued that think our J^cb 
fettered by the aboundance of our iayly borrowed •woords j for they beeing ofzn other 
Hature,' and not originally belonging to our language, do nef, nettber can they^ in our 
.toung heare their natun^ and true derynatims: and Aerefore as wel may ^c fetch 
woords fro the Ethiopians, or Eafi or Wejl Indians, and thrufi them into our Ian-' 
guage, and baptize Uiem a/I by the name of Engli/h, at tbofe which we d^ly take 
. from the LaUn, or other languages thereo« depending : ^d hccc-hence it cameth, as 

* C^auJiui Durttnt tantam lingua Jngjieena viHtatem iMelTe contendit, nt ab onnitna aKii gentitSus 
coDtemni, fperniqne folcat; (ftys Sheringham ib his Prcfzo) fcripfit iHe tibrum lingua Galficfl, cui 
titulum fecit, Trijiir difbi/toirt dt^imguti d* at univtrs-; i\\xo iti linguam nofiram aarbc et contumeliosd 
invehitur : ** Cttu lakcuk Ahgioisx, i/K^uic, tjl ft pen tjltmit dti iftrangersy qui veni tn Anglittrn, 
fu' il y tn a teu aui veulmt ft piner Jt rappretiiire, tt de la parltr, fi fi nt ftnt lis ftrvilturs, »u fiStttrt 
four tttfagt aet chefts utIUs tt ntctffhirer a la vit UfyutUtL dtptndtnt in mnt ftupliy qui ntftaU pmntr auir* 
icngut:" — Nobis difficile non eil paria convicia, pariaque mendacia in alias j^ntes excogiurc :— the 
band/ome aad polite compliment, paid likcwife to our natioa by Janus Caeciliui Frey, medicus Pa- 
lifienlls, (as mentioned by the fame author, p. 16} ought not to> be forgotten ; NuUi funt ia Angli& 
lupi ; et tamen ipfi maximi lupimtfiait mtrihut. 

f UnS cum Grammatics dirceputionem gnoque enrittere ftatui de atitiquitate, progreiTu, et prasflantii 
Ttngaa Anglican^ (fays Sbertnghim, in his rnhct) M eorum eonvicia diluom, qui nobis linguam' 
Bt^ram unpropefant,. camque lingiMrum oainiamfpumam rocant, quia ex aliit Unguis decerpta q^ucdam. 
twihiila aah'a iu ufu. 6io.t ^ ct <iuia lingua uffirff. mtdtitvf ai mtijui dtaUH^ dt^xtriu 

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by often experience it is found, that fame Eng/i/hmm difcour^g together, others 
hecing ftre/ent, and of om own- nation, and that naturalfy ^eak the En^ijh toung, 
are not able to vnderfiand what the others fiy, netwithfianding they call it Engli/h that 

He then proceeds to giye two examplee of the fantafticalnefs of writing and 
/peaking in technical terms, or terms of affeded quaintnefs and innovation ; but 
as the fame abfurdity has been more elegantly cxpofed by Addifon, I flhall de- 
cline tranfcribing them ; and only obferve, that notwithftanding this good old 
Anglo-Saxon has thus nobly flood up in defence of what he judged to be hia 
mother tongue, (the Saron) ;^et all thofe words in the foregoing quotation, which 
have been here purpofely printed in ItoUcs, are neither Engliih, nor Saxon, but 
uodonbtcdW derived from the Greek. 

It would therefore almoft make one fmile, to hear him abufe the Engliih lah- 
goage, for having lent him words to abufe it with ; and which are now become 
fo numerous, and confequcntly fo powerful, that it is not the writing of a 
Verftegan will ever perfume the prefcnt race of Englishmen to revert back agaia 
to the antient Anglo-Saxon tongue, any more than an antient Anglo-Saxon lady 
could prevail on any of her modern Englifh fair country-women at this day to 
adopt the manner of her garb j or, if any one, merely thro' frolic, fliould bs 
hardy enough to attempt it, I believe (he would not venture in that habit to 
walk openly in our public ilreets : fuch a drefs might perhaps be admitted at a 

Our language therefore, even in the time of Verftegan, and undoubtedly long 
before him, had afluredly been bettered by the aboundance of our d^ly borrowed 
woordes, and had received great ftrcngth and vigor from fuch firm ingrafting8> 
as th^ may be called, of Greei and Latin, into the main ftock, and ftrong 
branches of our antient Celt-Engli& tongue : whenever, therefore, we may in- 
future hear any one complain of the weaknefs and poverty of the Enzlijb lan- 
guage, it may well raife a fcruple, whether that complaint ought not ramcr to be 
attributed to a deficiency in the complainant, than .to any deficiency in the 
language itfelf *. 

The Englijb language, in the hands of good authors, like keeneft weapons in 
the hands of fkilful artifts, is much more powerful than what thofe complainants 
are aware of ; witnefs the immortal writings of our beft authors :— your b^ 
authors } which are they ?— we have many noble and fublime writers j ia who& 
works, altho' there may be fome little imperfoSions, and inaccuracies- of cac- 
prcflion, yet certainly there are no defefts of fuch mighty prevalence* as aither 
to depreciate thofe writings in point of ftile, whatever there may be in point of 
thought J or give fuch doughty pedants any j.uft occafion to calumniate our 
own tongue. 

It is true indeed tht Bnglijb language is not an original one ;r— but wiiat 
then ? — an original language ought not furely to be admired^ merely on account 
of its originality; for the firft inventors of names,, and letters, muft. unavoidably 

femiliterati quidam. nobis ab aEta- ITogiiii cfcrumpta. vocabutaj_ vartafque ringuas 
:xprobrent, iuam infcitiam pcvdmt ;, poffiioiuf^ue nos viciffim aliarum gentium ler- 
Hjrbridai, Proteofqtie vocwe i cum-vixulla fie cotius Europe, que- 

* Quod autem feiniliti 
noftise mutationei exprob 

monn par! rationc Hjrbri___, _, , _ . _ , . 

noa magit q^uam noftra cum.aliix. lio^uis gerouxu,^, tt Bon 9eq,ue ctiani tniUatalit:- Saeting. rref^ 


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have labol'ed under many difficulties ; as may be observed from the paucity of 
their primitive roots * : and therefore to admire them only on account of their 
antiquity, (if there were no other excellence in them) would be as prepoderous 
and abfurd, as to prefer the appearance of a naked Pi^^ or Indian chief , with only 
bis leathern, or his feathered clndlure round him, or one of our antient Brifith 
chieftains, (before the arrival of the Romans) with his ikin punctured in a variety 
of grotefque figures, and then Aained with woad to make him appear the more 
horrible in war, to a modern prince, or potentate, drefled in all the enligns of 
rty^lty :— 'the native nakednefs of the former might infpire an idea of terrors 
but the comely dignity, and majeftic appearance of the latter, will always ftrikc 
its beholders with veneration and refpea. 

Others then may admire the flimfinefs of the French^] the neatAefs of tht tiaUanf 
the gravity of the Span^^ my', even the native hoarienefs ajid roughnefs of the 
Smxon, High Dutch, Be^, or I'eutonic tongues ; but the purity and dignity, and 
all the graceful majefty, which appears at prefent in our m$derH Kngtifij language^ 
will certainly recommend it to our moft diligent refearches ; and it will be ibund 
on a clofe examinatioD, that our ian^tage is conftru^ed chiefly on the balis of the 
Greek tongue i but not on that alone, for it has been enriched and adorned by tKe 
adoption of the Latin, and many other foreign words likewife; and thus in a 
manner have we been taught at length to ipedk a tangut^e not our own. 

This noble compofiticm therefore ought ib far from being looked on as a dif- 
grace to our mother tongue, that thofe adoptions (hould- rather be eftcemed at 
the Decus et tutamen, the Ornament and defence, of the EnzUJb language ; and are 
like fo many graceful decorations to a nobk building, tney add both flrength 
and beauty to the edifice. 

In nations, cultivated and improved by letters, the works of thofe eminent 
men, the Greek writers, will always be read, and regarded with pleafurej foe 
even now, at this diftant period, when the authors themfelves have long ago 
ceafed to inflrud mankind, their writings conftitute the bafis, and are become 
the foundation of aU that knowledge and learning, which can cultivate and adorn 
the human mind ; for, what is all the knowledge and learning, which at prefent 
fnbfifts among us ? what is it all, but a knowledge of the works, and the labors, 
which thofe truly gteat men have tranfmitted to pofterity j and which have been 
fo happily, and fo fuccefsfully adopted by our,beft Einghjh -writers : for the Greeks 
and Romans have been ibofc happy men, I mean in the more virtuous and re- 
fined periods of their commonwealths, who fpent their lives and their talents in 
the ftudy of nature, and the various operations of the human heart ; they de- 
voted their hours to the iVect enjoyments of ftudy, and employed their whole 
kifure, not in folly, and diiTipation, but in the perl'uit and contemplation of what 

* Thus, fat Infhmce, alir Sixon anceftort had not namee in their own tongue for feveral things ; 
thkt is, they had the things, but-chey had no appellations foi them, and therefore were forced to ex- 
prefs their meaning by a circum locution, which, tho' fome may admire on account of the fignificancy 
of the compofition, yet certainly fuch modes of exprcflion betray at the fame time great poverty «f 
language : as for example, our aaxon anceftors had GRAPES ; but, having no name for them, they 
were oblfged to call them ffitu-berriet: they likewife had GLOVES ; hut, having no name for them, 
were obliged to call them Hand-fiioti ; as the High "Dutch do to this day : and, to mention only one 
more, they had the article of BUTTER amohg their delicacies ; but having no name for it, they po- 
litely catted it Kunfmur-, i. c> Cow-fmttr, or that unguent, which the cow afforded, and which they . 
fmttrtdoa their bread. 

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Pti$ g6od, what was Jnft, what was honeft; and thefe delightful fubje^s they 
delivered in language fv exalted, and in fentiments To truly rnUime, that tfa!e 
ftudy of their works is become^ as it ought to be, the darling delight of our 
younger years, and the more ferious employment of our maturer hours j and the 
inan, who engages himfelf in the riper periods of his life in the contemplation 
of their works, will always enrich his mind, and improw his ideas, in propor-* 
tion to the progrefs he in their writings ; they being the ibndard of true 
eloquence, atid the criterion of refined tafte : the fchools which the Romans un- 
doubtedly planted among us, and the &minafies which they founded, tbo' now 
utterly unknown, wece, as I may call them, the cradles and nurferies of ou^ 
twn tongiK. 

Whoever then does but confider «uf ^gaage^, as being thus compiled from all 
the ■ elegances- ttf the Greek and Latin poets, orators^ and hiftorians, cannot 
but admite and efteem it the more, for being thus beautified 'and embelliihcd 
with every ornament of antiqMty, and modem polite literature j and as England, 
it the LanJ of liherty, fo is her language the Voice of freedom ; and (he need not 
doubt but it will make a confpicuous figure in the province of letters, and fliine 
with «T1 thfe fplendor and perfpicuity of writing, and be read, and ftudied, fa 
long as Uiere are meiS of learhingj and med of reading in the world *. 

*rhc many noble and bold cbihpoiinds ; the ftrong and impetuous flow of 
fepithets ; the fttblime ufc of metaphors ? and the conftant flight of poetical 
figures, which our language fo readily admits of, and feems to be fo peculiarly 
adapted for; and above all, the infinite number of words, that have been fo glo- 
riouily borrowed from the politeft nations of the world, both antient and modern, 
in all the arts and fciences j have given it fuch a fluency and rapidity of ex- 
pteffion, as may be very juftly compared to a noble and majeftic river, enlarged 
and augmented by all the numerous ftreams that flow into it, and render it capa- 
ble of conveying and diffufing fertility and plenty, over thole extenfive regions 
thro' which it may diretfl its courfc. 

' So far then from complaining of our EngHJh language, for being thus com-- 
|(OUnded of fo many others, we acknowledge it the peculiar happinefs of our 
tnotber tmgve, that it- has been thus adorned and enriched with fuch an infinity 
of words, adopted and tranfplanted into her native foil ; where they have floriflied 
fo long, and profpered lb much, where they have taken fuch ftrong hold, and 
caught fuch deep root, that they are in a manner become her adopted fons,- 
and ought not any longer to be looked on as foreigners, and as aliens. 

Nay, it would not be any oftentation to affirm, that our m^em Englijh lan^ 
guage by far excells the modem Greek, as it is at prefent ipoken, and written, if 
indeed written at all, in its own native country ; which is now inhabited by a 
race of men, who, tho' defcended from their great progenitors,- and dio' living in- 
the very fame climate, yet are now reduced to fuch a wrettAed Hate of ignorance 
and flavery, being in fubjeGion to thofe more than fevage barbarians to all litera-* 
ture, the Turks, that they are not able now to fpeafc their own mother tongue 
ctaffically, having intirely loft all conceptions of grammar, 

* Ego interea loci, [Cays Maildunenfif, in Shcring. 39S.] ftrcnue caufam mexpatrix derendarn, et 
famatn cjufdem motlis quibus poffim ooioibut promovcbo, augcb^ ornabo. ' 


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yiii PREFACE. 

Such is the mighty change which that noble language, the Oreek» has under« 
gone in its x>vm cUmate ; 

Tantum xri longinqua valet matare vetuftas I 

and £o tnte as the obfervation> that it has fared with languages, as it has iiared 
wiih ali the other arts and fciences ; they have had their infancy and minority^ as 
weU a« their maturity and manhood ; and then, after having endured for a cer- 
tain f>eTiod in their moft florifhing and profperous ilate, they have declined and 
fallen asay, till at lad they are become in a manner exftin(^, and may now with 
true ^aropj-iety be called the dead languages j for even thofe two moft noble 
tongues, that ever yet graced the dignity of human elocution, the Greek and 
Latin, liave been in all thefe di^rent ilates ; as may be eafily feen in the writings 
of their anticnt laws and records ; in thofe of a maturer date ; and in their pre- 
fent ilate of barbarifm : and yet, what is Aill more extraordinary, both tho(e 
languages are, continued down to us, even to this prefcnt time, with the utmoft 
purity and perfedlion, I mean in the writings of their poets, orators, and htfto- 
rians, notwithftanding they have fo long outlived their primitive pronunciation : 
ibr the works of thofe eminent Greeks and Romans are totally different from thoie. 
two languages, as now fpoken by the prefent inhabitants of thofe countries. 

Such furprifing revolutions have thofe two tall jnllars, thofe firm and graceful 
fiipporters of tjbe EngHJb ianguagtt undergone ; not indeed as to their internal and 
original Arudure, but as to their prefent pronunciation in the modern diale(% 
of their own climates : for, whoever were now to vilit the (battered remains of 
thofe cities, where once they ilorifhed in fo much perfedion ; whoever were 
now to go to Sparta^ where Lycurgus wrote ; or to liitbms, where Demofibenet 
pronounced his thundering orations } whoever were now to vifit imperial Ramtt 
where Tulfy, and where Ftrgil^ and where Horace lived ;— would be aftonilhcd at 
the mighty change, which has happened in thofe places, and to thofe languages, 
within that Hiort fpace of time. 

. But, without going fo far from home, let any one but confider what a mighty 
alteration has been wrought, and what a wonderful change has been produced, 
in the original language even of this our own ifland : with this only dif- 
ference, that in the former inftances, the change has happened for the worfe ; but 
in the latter it has happened for the better; and ihews the improvement which 
has been made in the original language af Britain: — the original language did I 
fay ? which was that ?— we have had fo many invaders, and been opprefled by to 
many intruders, that it would be ditHculc to fay, which was the iuL& and origi- 
nal language fpoken on this iiland. 

Let the firll however have been whatever it might, it is certain there is but 
very little, if any, of it remainiBg at this day; and what at prefent pretends to 
that originality, is found to be fo harfh, fo difron?nt, fo rough, and ib dif- 
'irprdant, as fcarce to be underdood ; and that the very little of it which is 
iatelligihle, is fo far altered and transformed, that was an antient Briton to riie 
up among us at this period, he would not be able to underfland his own mother 
tongue ; and with refbcft to our modern Englijh, he would be at a ftill greater 
ilofs, and unable to alx for any .of the common and ordinary, conveniences of 
life i nay, he would be as utter a ftranger to our preltnt language, as we ourfelves 

J ihould 

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ihould b« to any of the Indian dia1e£ls, were we on a fudden conveyed to one of 
the remoteft babitatidns on either continent of America. 

Not only the language is changed, but the drefs, the food, the agriculture, 
the arts, the arms, the architeaurc, of this little fpot of earth, have undergone 
as great an alteration ; nay, the very face and appearance of the ifland itfclf has 
been changed as much ; and our great progenitor above mentioned would be as 
much perplexed to find now the fpot of his own habitation, as the five Indian 
chiefs, who lately made-us a vifit from the Cherokees^ would have been to have 
found the way to their own lodgings without the help of their guide. 

Since then our language has moft certainly undergone this mighty alteration for 
the better, and this great improvement has* been intirely owing to the numberlefs 
words that have been adopted into it from the Greek and Roman languages, 
(other adoptions are but trivial in comparifon with them) as Englifhmen, and as 
Icholars, let us cultivate the ftudy of tnofe two languages, and we fhall prefently 
find, that by having acquired a greater degree of knowledge in them, wc ihall 
have acquired at the fame time a greater degree of knowledge in our own ; by 
obferving the wonderful connexion, and the clofe conformity there is between 
all three. 

Having faid thus much on the general texture of the EngUJh tongue, it may 
now be proper to give an hiilorical account of thofe feveral languages, which 
chiefly conllitute the bafis of the Englifh in particular ; an inveftigation that 
may prove the more entertaining, as it will in Tome meafure enable us to account 
for that great variety of expreffion, which is to be found in modern EngSJh writtnT, 
both poetry, and hiftory, beyond that of any other modern tongue ; becaufe it is 
compounded of more. 

The bails then of tbe EngHJh language having been founded chiefly on the fix 
following i viz. 

I. The Hebrew^ or Pbaenician i ■ ■ 
H. The Greek j 
in. TheXtf//o, QT Italian i 
IV. The Celtic, or French i 
V. The Saxont 'Teutonict or German ; and, 
VI. The Icelandic, and other Northern dialeSls ; 

permit me to fay fomething on the antiquity of thefc feveral languages, and fliew 
the connexion, which the different nations and people who fpoke them, have 
had with this our iiland : And, 

I. Of the Hebrevi^, orPHOENiciAN Tongue. 

The very few words in our language, that are immediately defcended to us 
from the Hebrew or Phcenician tongues, would fcarce have judified me in rank- 
ing thofe languages among the iix that principally confUtute the bails of our 
own ; but, fince the Pbcenicians trafficked very early in this ifland, no doubt 
there have been a great number of their words adopted into our language, thrp' 
the channel of other nations ; but not being myfelf converlant enough in thoie 
or the oriental tongues, to difcover all of them, let me hope, that whenever the 
reader may happen to meet with any, he will be fatisficd with my having traced 
the etymology of them up to the Greek language, without taking any notice of 

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the Hehrcas or Pbanictan, any more than I do of the Egyptian^ Coptic^ Arabic, 
SyriaCf or Chaldaan languages ; from every one of which, no doubt, the Greeks 
took many words, and tranfplanted them into their own tongue * : whatever 
connexions therefore we may have had with the Hebrew, Pboetiidan, or with any 
other of the Eajlern nations, they have been derived to us thro' the channel of 
thofe traders, and the Greek and Raman writers. 

Let me then only add a few reflexions on the antiquity of the Hebrew tongue. 

Whenever we ipeak of the Hebrew, we mean the language, unconnefted with 
writing j for undoubtedly the language itfelf, like that of all others, muft have 
been many centuries prior to the invention and ufe of thofe letters, or marks, . 
that charafterife the writings of their authors ; becauft we muft naturally fup- 
pofe, that the firft ages of mankind could fpeak, before they could write -j*. 

Now it is generally fappofed, that the Hebrew is the moft antient language/ 
but how it can clame a priority over the Chaldean, Syrian, and Egyptian, would 
perhaps be no very eafy taik to fliew %. The carlieft mention made in fcripture 
of the Hebrews is in Gen. x. 21, where Sbem is called the father of the childrea 
of Bberi i. e. the Hebrews were defcended in the third generation from Sbem^ 
who was the great-grandfather of Eber, who muft confequently. have beea 
defcended from Noab in tbe fourtb generation % viz. i. Shem, being the fon of that 
patriarch; z, Arphaxad, the ion oi Sbem; ^. Selab, the fon of Arphaxad j. 

• Meric Cafauhonic Quatuor linguir, p. 19, quotes Iiis father I faac in-thel^ worcFs j "Nos autem 
obfervamus, inantiqu'llCtnis quibufquc Grxcorutn fcriptoribus, multa vocahulaHebraica, quK pof^ca 
vel defierunt effc in ufu, vel admodum funt nriutahi: obfervaRius etiMn Afiaticoa Gra^coc magis 'EjSfBl^nr, 
quam Europxos:" — and Sheringham, in his Preface, fays, " initio quidem ipfa Grxca Ijtigua rudij^ 
inopbue fuit, fed decurfit tempons, ab Hebr^E, aliifquc gentibus mutuatis vocabulis exculta eft." 

f Thus, for example, wc Itnow that the kingdom of Egypt was founded by JhTzraim, fo early ae the 
year 2288 before Chrift ; bat v^e do not find that the Egyptians had any letters among them, till they 
were faid to have been invented by Mtmtuwin 1812, i. e. 466 years after the founding of their mo- 
narchy : but can vre fuppofe, that they were all that time without a language f certainly not; — thus 
likewife we find that Greece was colonized from Egypt, under ^^W#ai, in the year 2079;. but let- 
ters were not brought info Greece by Cadmus from Phtenicia, till the year 1450, i- e. 629 years after 
their EUahlininienc : and la (11 y, with tefpc£t to the Hebrewt^ we fin<l that Ebtr was barn 2281 yeafs 
before Chriil ; but we do not find that they had any letters till ths time of Mofcs^ who was born in 
1^7 1, ar.d was 80 years old at the Exodus; after which, he received the two I'ables of the Uw on 
Mount Sinai; i. e. from the. birth of Ebtr, 790 years. — But Sammcs, p. 428, fays, " I am fure, 
' Scaligcr, Voflius, Grotius, and the common confent of the critics, make the pre^int Hebrev: cl>araa*r 
of no higher date than the days of Efdra:" — now Efdra is known to have lived in the time of 
JrtaxerxtSi i. c. only 457, or, according to Rollin, 467 years before Chrift j which is ik» lefs than 
1100 years after the bitch of 3/s/>J j— then in what charafter and langHage did Molee write his 
Pentateuch t particularly after he himfelf had been brought up in all the learning of the Egyptians ; 
among whom the Ifraelitet had fo^ourned for 4^0 years before he condufted them out of the laiid of 
Egypt • : nay, what is ftill more remarkable, fiammes tells us, in p. 149, that " Sarm, the third kirg 
of the firicains and Celts in this ifland, reduced the laws and conftitucions of his father and grand- 
father into one volume ; and is faid to have eredtcd public places for fludtncs :"— -this Saron be tclb us 
died 1936 years before Chrift, which is 114 years befoiv letters are faid to havi been invented by 
Mtnmm ; 365 before Mofes j and 1460 before the times of Hfdras-t if there be any truth inSaniines' 
author, who is quoted likewife by Seldea. 

I Cxterum, fays Cafaubon, p. 413, de primnvS ilU lingud, ut pauca quaedam etiam hie dicam : 
jninime eorum proba mihi videtur fencentia, qui Htbraieam banc fuiAe Jtatuunt; a qua illi, non modo 
omnes alias per totum terrarum ocbent lingius, fed noftcam qutx^ue Gerroanicam, i. e. Celticam, 
dr; iyatam arbitrantut. 

■ Tb folic ihii paint, C*rMk»ii, p. itj, Ityt, " HthKa cnte in jCgypta per Irttimttt fiti mint nwv, primo borpiici, dnnde fctrl, 
pfopriam lioguim, puram, illlbaMin()iie (uno rorTifTc, am ilicro nrba, q iu> llngaan faiFn locufleRruDi, eic*pts) cnnfcrnntnl i"^di1 
Ihcq, wlwch u ^vj rimiilubk, bE iranalUlcl^f idd^ '* iidem in BibilBuia im tmii nmma nml afHiJ, iJm fUhMl lia(>MK dadicnoai, 
U latct^iciibut, good » fjtii dilcimui tudviia, of ui habcicDt, nUn Hcbnn IsgeKiu." 


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P R £ P A G B. xl 

and, 4. E&er, the fon of ScUh : — but Mizraim, the founder of the Egyptian 
monarchy, was defcended likcwifo from the fame patriarch in only tbefecond^e- 
nerafiorti viz. t. Ham, being another fon of NoAj and, 2. Mizraim, the Ion 
of Ham: — nay, even Nimrod, the founder of the Babylonian kingdom in 
Chaldea, was prior to ^tr ; fbf be was def*^nded lifctwiA from the ume pa- 
triarch, in only the third geueraiioni vlSS. i.^ip^ being the fon of Noah; 
2. Cujhf the ion of Ham j and, 3. Nimrodr ^ fon of CuSi : fo that their gene- 
rations and eftablifhmentt may be ihore vifibty dedtcced ^m the four following 
Tables, taken from the chionoloj^al index to fhe Holy Bible. 

T A B t E 

iffS- 90. 70. 6 J. rti, <j. 1 17. lU. 4oo. 

i.S«du *. EiHN. }■ Ciina. 4. N&halaltd. 5. Jtred, t. XddcIi. 7. Mcthulclik. S. LaoMch. $. Moak. 

Before ChriJ 4348. — Ntah — in wbofe time Ac Flood fiappened. 

His firft fon was — 1. Jophttb — from whom were defcended 



. Gemtr 1—2. Magtg ; — 3. yavan 

1. Afl>ktna%, 

2. Rifhathy 



who fettled in 

Hi)!her Jfia, 

to the Eafl of the 

Cajhian ; 



fettled in 

Tariary j 








1. Eiifia, 

2. Tar/hijbt 

3. KittiiBf 

by thcfe were the 
ifies of the Gen- 
liUt divided \m. 
theiT lands; every 

one after his 
tongue, aftcrthcfr 
families^ in their 
generations : 
Gen. X. 5. 
from thefe like- 
wife came the 
"jatrui, or /stm, 
who fettled in 

Ltfftr Afia^ 
AtUca^ Phtciif 
GrtKty Italy t 

and the 

— 4. fiffcrf; ■ 

- 5- Mefick J — 6v TTrgf. 

who islikewife 1- — y* 

called Tirax, 



»ai h faid M 
bave planted 


who fettles 



Befon ChxisTi 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Before Chrift 1348 ~ N»ab — la wbofe tune the Flood bi4)peiied. 
•X.- Shtm ; — vho two yeirs after the Flood begat 

His lecood Ion was •'— 
Bef. Chrift. 


in the year 2346 — ArfbaMd i — who at 35 begat 
in*- 2311 — - SiUh-t — who at 30 begat 
in — aiSi — "EBlER; — who at 34 begat 

in — 2247 ■- Pilig i — • who at 30 begat 

* «— ^ 

in — 2217 — Rtu J — who at 32 begat 

) -V— -^ 

in — 2185 — Serng\ — who at 30 begat 

io — 2155 — Nahor \ — who at 29 begat 

in — 2126 — Terabi — who at 130 begat 

in — 1996 — ABRAHAM ; who at 76 goes ipto Egypt, about 1920 jeac* 
before Chrtflj or 368 after Jlfizraifli bad founded that monarcby *. 


Before Chrift 2348 ^ N»ah — in whofirtime thsFlood- happened. 
His third ^ was — 3. Ham j — from whom were descended 

I. Cufli. — 

Sbebah, Havilab, 

Raamaht and Sahiieahi 

and Cufit likewife 


Nimrtdt who 

built the cities of 

Babyltiif Erecb, Atcad, 

and Cttltttb in Sbiwar i 

from whence came 

jfjbitr, who built 

Ninfveby RtMatb, 

Calahy and Rtftn ; 

Gem, X. 10. 


2. Mizraim. — 3. Phut. — and 4. C 

SiHin, Hilby 

^tbufite, Emarilt^ 

Gir^afitt, Arkitti 

Sinitt, Aruadite^ 

Ztmaritty and. 

Hamathkt ; 

from Siden to Gtrar, 

and Gaza^ to Sedem 

and Gtmgrraby and 

Admab and Zthtim j 

even unto Lafiab : 

G$H. X. 15. 

* Rcifkiui, die cDniDCDtatar on CImtri ^a^,{*'jt,"3^httm*i NoKhi flinm, qui prinm gniiinm Grwanm conditar, ipnd 
\i EgjpHts, ipli* Gnecii innotuit, Tuiito piulum nomine I«viVr aut muttto:"— but Jgpbitb ii ■limned by all 
UllaruBi to hive peopled Euraft, dm l^ru», in which Eg^ft ii fituite i it rccmi tberefere more pnibibte, tint Mhurmm, the 
lounger Cm of /tos, wii ibe founder of Bg^-, ind SM yt^htth | for Has, and hi* poftcritjr, pMolcd dfr'ua, of triiith 
Japtt or the land of Hajm, i* a £rindpal part { and Jtfbtti, and hit pgftcritj, peopled Mmvft { DccwitUUiidiDg the finailHirr 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

PREFACE. xiii 

The conntriea noyr, which thefe di^rent defcendeiits, nations, and people, are 
^d to tuve inhabited, and fiiA of all colonized^ may be ieen in the following 


Before Chrift 2348 — NaaSi whofe tKree font were 

1. ^phetb, — 



bv tbefe were the tflei of the 
Gentiles divided in tbeir 

luKh: Gen.x. 5. 

• ^ - ' 

Jftkauoh RJpietbf Ttgarmah. 

Gen. X. %. 

\ ^ » 

Tmtattt, Tbavt, Thtt, 

Dutbt Duicby tujifit 


v_ „ *■ 

GtmtTt Germany, 


^094. before Cbri^r 

under Samctha :— 

XXVj before Chrifi;, 
' tinder. Brutus*. 

AalA. Bef. Chr. 
Jrfbaxai — ^l*fo' 

Stiah —2311. 

£B£R born - 2l8u 

from whom 
were defcendedi 

the Htbrewt i 
wbo inhabited* 


Thus have we feen that Eber^ ftoin whom the Hebrrm are defcended^ is alinoft' 
equal in time, tho' fomething inferior in defcent, to Nimrod, the founder of the 
Chaldean race ; and. much inferior to Mizratrnt the founder of the Egyptian 
monarchy :: which makes ic the more remarkable, that fome editions of the 
Bible ffaould tell us in the chronological dates, placed in their margins, that 
Nimrod began to exalt himfelf, cira'ter, about 22.1 8 ; which is only one year, be- 

. fore the birth of Reu, in22i7> but this is moft probably a tranipojition of the 
prefs; viz. zzi8 inftead of 2281, the very year in which EitTj the grandfather 

; of i2rt(,^was born ; for it is fcarce poflible to fuppofe, that a perfon of fo haughty 
and afpiring a dil^Htion as Nimrod (the third in defcent) is always reprefented, 
ihould not have given Come earlier proofs of his ambition, than to have deferred 
the time of his beginning to exalt himfelf, till Eiier (the fourth in defcent) 
fhould have been 63 years of age. 

But the misfortune is, there is but little dependence to be had tn the chronology 
10 of . 

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liv P R E P A C B. 

of event* fo very rcmoLte • : 9nd ^Q-coavinee u» ftill farther of the truth pf this 
affcrtiw, we find that £*tfr was bora in they«arft«Si before Chrifti bwt tfiofe 
authors tell us* that the kingdom of Egypt was founded by Mtzram in aiS?, 
which is no lefs than 93 years after the birth of Eier: that date therefore for the. 
foundation of Egypt is very probably wrong ; though ft is the fame with the 
date given by Monf. RoIUn : for we cannot fuppo^is, that Mizraim, the fecond 
in descent, ihould not have been able to have eilablifhed a kingdom in thofe 
early ages of the world, when he had nobody to oppofe him, till Eber, the 
fourth in delcent (or as the index aflerts, the fifth in defccnt) {hbuld have been 
93 years of age : nay, what is ftift more remarkable is, that the Oxford quarto 
Bible of 1712, tad the Cambridge quarto Bible of 1762, in the chronological in- 
dex, fliould £idl Mizraim the grand/on of Ham \ whereas H eagbt to have been 
printed cither JI4«(r<MJW, the fon of Harm or Mizraimt the gftand^nof ^oab. 

The time then for his fettling a colony in Egypt, could not poffibly have been 
fo late as the year 2188 ; for that Would be only three yea*» before the birth of 
Serug in 21 S5, who was the grcat-great-grcat erandfon flf Arphaxad, thfc grand- 
fon of Noah ; which Arfhaxad is in the iame degree of defcent from that 
patriarch with Mizraim- himfelf ; Arfhaxad being the Ibn of Sh^mt and Mizraim 
the fon of Ham; that date therefore ought perhaps to hare been printed 2288, 
not 21 88 ; and then the Egyptian monarchy would have been founded by Mizraim 
about 7 years before Nimrod began to exalt himfclf, or 41 before he built 
Babylon ; and not 59 years after it, according to their account; particalarly when 
we coniidcr that Mizraim, the founder of Egypt,- was uncle to Nimrod^ the 
founder of Babylon j and therefore the nephew can fcarce be fuppofcd to have 
eftabliflied a kingdom 30 years before his uncle, though he might abottt 4-1 years 
after him. 

From the Hebrew, let us now turn our thoughts on the antiquity pf the Greek 
language. - 

JI. Of the G R E E K- 

We find by the chronological Tables to the Univerfal Antienf Hijiory, that the 
Egyptians, about the time of Abraham, colonized Greece, under JEgialeus, who 
founded the kingdom of Sicyon fo early as the year 2079 before Chrift, which is 
about S3 before jhe birth of .Abraham, in 1996 ; or 159 before his defcent.into 
~ pt in 1920+: — and that they feht another colony into Greece, undtr Inacbus, 

• As the fludiea of Gngraphy and Aflrtmmj ought to be conjoined ; fo ought tJiofe of Mifturj and 
Chrmulfgif to walk band in hatu^ fotfaA wtthaut^<r ace at heft hut unadbfyiog infinidiooj thu^ 
foT inflance, to tell us that fuch a tnnlaftion was perfurmed, or that Cach aa event h^pened, without 
idling us at the fame time the ptriad when it was performed, and tht datt vihtn it happened, is rsaJly 
. giving us but very flcnder information : it is thro' the want of attending to this ufcful part of writing 
in our eulifift Ultorians, that w» Iin4 Cix great aitfifiereilce in, the account of {ubfe<]uent writers { thus 
feme have affinned, that an eminent perfon perfocmed fuch an exploit, or invented fuch an art] wit))- 
oiit telling us the time whcLn, or the place where : others tell us that fuch an event happened, or fuch 
a bftttle waa fought ; without ever mentioning the date of either ; and if the dates are mentioned, they 
fometimes dif^r fo widely, as to render tte truth of tbofe events very much fufpefted, or the veracny 
of the authors thamfelves very much doabted : but by fixing the chronology of any afliwi, and, tdlt&g 
us the precife time, when fuch an event happened, they give as it were a-fandtion to their narcation, ano 
ftamp it with the authority of time, 

+ Urbem ipfam Sicnntm Abraham! temporibua conditam narrat hifloria i— Poftremb ; quam variis 
aati aftdi cladibiu efibot SLyami, ip&m urbena terra molus ad Jolitudincm. et uftitastm. sedegit.— 
Bmun in Cturei:, 410. This city antieotly flood to the Weft of Co(iBtb. 


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P R. B F A C . E. XV 

to Af^fiJ, about the year i8c6. — That Ogygrs likewise founded Thefts lA Smotist 
ta the year foUowlng, viz. 1055 :— and that a third colony from Egypt, under 
Cecrops, eftablilhed the kingdom of ^/ifltf in 1582, fome fay 1571* or rather, 
according to others, 1556 years before Chrift. 

It would be impoffible to fay what the Greek language was at thoie early 
periods ; but, whether it was fpoken (it certainly could not be written) with' 
chat elegance, purity, uid perfection, which is found in the writings of their 
arators, poets, and hiftorians, after the taking of Troy, may be very eafily con- 
jectured { and moft probably it was not; but niis we may without any controreriy 
be aflured of, that at the times of Homer, which was about 1000, or 900 years 
befcre Chrift, or ayj after the iiege of Troy, it was then undoubtedly fpoken,. 
and we find it undoubtedly written, or left to be written* by that great poet; 
with fuch fublimity and elegance, as have rendered his works fo julHy aditured 
even to this very day. 

To convince us then of the great antiquity of the Greek language, let us juit 
-take a review of thia argument : — Homer is faid to have lived about 1000, or 
goo years bdfare Chrift ; therefore it can hardly be fuppoied, from what has been. 
here advanced, that the Greek language was then in its infancy j finee his writings 
are allowed to be the ilandard of Greek epic poetry : that language then muft 
have fub6Aed for many centuries^ before it could have arrived at ^at perfc^on of 
ftile, that harmony of numbers, and that loftinefs of cxpreflibn, which are to 
be found in the writings of Homer j two or three centuries only before his own 
times would cariy us op no higher, thMi the period of thofc tranfa<^ions, which 
are the great fubjcdts of his Iliad and Odyffey ; the taking ^ Trty, and fie adveip' 
turet of Ulyfes, after that catajiropbe ; which happened about 277 years before his 
oufn birth: but the kingdom of Sicyon had been founded in 2079 before Chrift, 
which is 895 years before the taking of Troy, or ir72 before Homer; fo that 
1^ arrangement of thefe numbers wlU appear thus :. 

Bef. Cbiiff. 

From the founding the kingdom of Sicyon, to the fiege of Troy — f 895 

Frwn the fiege of Troy to the times of Homer — 
From Homer to the birth of Alexander — — 

From the Inrth of Alexander to tliat of ChriH: — 

The year in which Troy was tftken r— Ll 184 

!om of Sicyon to the birth of Chi 
Che prefent age — 

Total number «f years from Sicyon to the prefent times 

From the founding the kingdom of Sicyon to the birth of Chrift — 2079 
From the birth of Chrift to Che prefent age — — 1783 

So long a period has clapfed, fince Greece was firft of all colonized : — now, let 
any one of our antiquaries,, or etymologies, point oiit to us a period earlier than 
the taking of Troy, pr than even the times of Homer, in which the Celtict 
Gaulijh, Weljh^ Saxon, Teutonic, or IcelanMc tongues, were fpoken, or written with- 
greater elegance, purity, and perfcflion, than the Greek was, at either of thofe 
early periods : nay, even tho* a maoufcript might at any time hereafter be found, 
5 writtea 

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written in any one -of thofe polite languages, and dated five hundred years before 
Homer ; ftill would the kingdom of Sicyon have fubfifted above fix hundred years, 
before the date of fuch a manufcript. 

Perhaps here it may be aflted, by what channel, and at what period, can we 
fiippofc the Greek language ihould have made Its way into Britain f— -to this it 
may be anfwered, by means of the ]j{ruidst Celts, and Gauls i concerning whom, 
tho* we have no authentic hiftory before Ca/ar * j yet, that there were a people 
who inhabited this illand for ages prior to the coming of Cafar, is a fail that is 
founded on truth j for the Romans at their landing faw it was not only inhabited, 
but inhabited by a people of a very warlike race ; as we ffiall find prefently iri 
the Fourth article : — but let us firft endeavour to trace out thofe inhabitants, and 
fee, whether they were the firft men, who ever peopled this illand. 

That thofe inhabitants of Britain, whom the Romans found here, were a race 
of Celtic Gauls, is a fuppofition very probable ; but it is very for from being pro- 
bable to fuppofc, that thofe Celts were the firft fct of men who inhabited this 
country, notwithlUnding their proximity to it: and Cafar himfelf acknowledges 
thus much -f*, becaufe we do not find, nor indeed do^we know enough of thcfe 
antient Britons, or even of thofe Celtic Gauls, to affcrt, that in thofe early ages of 
the world, they had any kind of ftiipping, or made ufe of any fort of vcffcls, to 
carry on the Icaft kind of trade or traffic, by navigation, with other diftant parts 
■of the world ; for we do not read that the Britons, Celts, or Gauls, for any long 
period before Cafar's time, were mariners ; they might have had barges, and 
fm all craft enough to crofs over to each other: but the Fbcenidans, Greeks, and 
ether Eqftern nations, are known to have been early navigators, and to have made 
long voyages : therefore, what MUton fays in the beginning of his Hiftory of 
England, before the arrival qS x\it:, Romans, is undoubtedly juftj that ** relations, 
often accounted fabulous, have been afterwards found to contain in them many 
footfteps and reUcks of fomething true :" — this fomcthing therefore is the only 
fadl required :— permit me then to proceed with his narration. 

** This ifland," fays he, p. 8, •* might have been inhabited before the Flood; 
at leaft this we are aflurcd of from foripture, that Gamer and yavan, two fbns of 
■Japheth, the eldeft fon of Noah, journeyed leafurely from the Eaft, and peopled 
the Wcftern and North-wefterq climes :" — for by their defcendents were the iflcs 
of the Gentiles divided j as we have juft now feen in Tables I. and IV. 

The moft early part of our fabulous hiftory, though it does not look up Co 
high, as to any period before the Flood, yet, according to Sammes, 14.8, we find 
this ifland peopled, very foon after the Flood, by Mefech, the 5th fon of J^hcth, 
who is furnamed Samotbes and Dis: he is faid to have begun his reign m this 
ifland, wlxich from him was called Samotbea, about 2038 years before Chrift, or 
3JO years after the Flood. 

* De primis Britanniae incotis, nihil certum ;" fays Sheringhun, p. 7.— With regard to the name 
of Britain, fee the work itfelf, unUcr the article BRITArN : Gr. 

t Bricannix pars interior ab iis incoHtur, quos natos in inftila 'memcrii proditum affirmant: 
tnaritims pars ab iis, qui przdae, ac belli inferendi caufi, ex' Bclgio (Gallico) tranlieranC. And 
Sheringhamlikewife obferves, fub temporibus Cxfuis, colonic aliquot e'Belgio (Gallico) migravcranC, 
«t ad loca quxdam marftima habiubant ; in mediterranets, antiqui Btitanni ; qui fe indiginaot gcntem 
patabant, p. 7. 


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-PR E F A C E. 

Samoihes is Aippoied to have reigned — 

Magus his fon ^^ - — — ■ 

Saron his ion -■ — . ■ 

Z)rtf/f his Ion ■.■ .■ ' ■ 't^ 

Bardus his fon - " ■ - — — 

in all . — »47 

In the days of this Bardus^ we are told, that the ifland was fubdned by Albm* 
- who called it Allien after his own name ; about 674 years before the coming of 
'Bnitus, the Trojan, who is fuppofed to have arrived here in the year 11 17, be- 
fotc Chrift; ■as we fhall fee prcftntly *. 

, " Hitherto," continaes Milton, pages 10, 1 1, " the things thcmfelves have given 
us a warrantable difpatch to run them foon over; but now of Brutus and hts 
line, with the whole progeny of kings from him defcendcd, to the entrance of 
yuliui CafoTt we cannot be fo eafily difcharged -f- : defcents of anceftry, long 
-continued laws, and exploits, not plainly feeming to be borrowed or devifcd^ 
(are fa£ts) which on the common belief have wrought no fmall impreffion ; been 
defended by many, and utterly denied by few J :"— ** nay, though Bruiiu, and the 
whole Trepan pretence were yeelded up, yet thole old and inborn names of fucceflive 
&ings, never any to have bin real perfons; or don in their lives at leaft fom part of 
what {o long hath bin remembered, cannot be thought, without too ftrifl: an 
incredulity: Bruiut then at length paiTed the Araits of the Mediterranean, and 
landed in Afut'taifif or South Gau/i which, after many adventures, he departs 

• ^t roe b«re only obfeprtf, that tbofe four lafl names above-mentioned, vii. Magui, ' Saran., Drultt 
and B^rdui^ Teem all to be the oaoies, not of |ierrons, but of o£cc ; they'bcine all of the fame import, 
and itgnifying tht Druidi; particularly the three Erft, which arc all Grui : for Sammu hinifcif, 
p. 149, acknowledges, ** that the Sarmldtt (fo called from Siren) were but another name for tit 
Druidi, as appeareth by the derivation of their name from JUtfimt, being the fame with &fv«, quercut; 
an eak; as liicewife by the JefcrJption Diadarui gives of them ; viz> that without iht Sarwidet, no fa-; 
orifice, either public or private, could be rightly performed : which is the very fame that Cafar writes 
of tbt Druidi .-"—which by the way (hews liow early the opinion of tb* Druidi was eftablifhed in this 
ifland, — Sammes, 14.9, imagines " tht Druidt took their origin from the Oaks that grew in the plain of 
Afaniri in Phcenicia, under which thofe religious men, to whom the office of prieilhood was com- 
mitted, lived moll devoutly ; and that it was a holy place, we read in Gen. xiv. 13; and xviii. i, 4 ; 
that Abraham dwelt in the plain of Mamrt, where three angels appeared unto him, and he feaftcd them 
.under a trie: from ihefe Oaks of Mamre fprang the original fe£t of the Druidi :" — about 1936 years 
before Chrift : after which, we may fuppofe, the Greek philofophers came and fettled bete; and in 
time, by mingling among the Drmidty became one and the lame with them. 

t Brutus was the fou of SHviut ; he of jtfeaniui % whofe father was Sneas, a Trojan prince 1 
Milton, p. 12. — con(cnaenl]y a Greet. 

X " Si^cbertus Gemblafenfis, Gallui, circiter annot centum ante Galfridum (Monemuthenfem) 
claruit ; is de advcntu Bruti, et Trajanerum in Britanniam; deque eorum etiam traafitu per Gallias ; 
de urbe a Bruta conditi ; de eHifdem viciffim a Gallic difcefiu ; de introitu felici in infulam dellinatam, 
proat ab oraculo fatidico vaticinium sccepcrat, mentionem facit; atque. hxc omnia in antiqua Bri- 
tannix hiiloril extitiife teflatur :" Shering. o: — Geoffry lived about the year 1156, after ChriA, in 
the reign of king Stephen ; and confcquently Sigebert muft have written in the time of Edward the 
Confcnbr, aboaMo years before the Norman Conqueft, in 1066: — with regard to the inhabitants, 
which Brutus may be fuppofed to have found on this ifland, at the time of his landing Shering. p. 19, 
imagines they were fome of the defcendents of Cham ; *' pauci ex pefteritate Cbaiity juxtaBritannicam 
hiftoriam, quifaus gigantes imperaverint, cum Brutus primum appulit, iafulam incolebant; quos ille 
omocs opprcffit, et ab infula funvit : id li verum Tit, vix dubitari poffit, quin Phoeniccs fucrint :"— 
.Sammei, 148, as we bsTc (kxl wovCi fupp<^ei they were the defcendenu of Mt/eth. 

Q from. 


xviii 5? k E F A C fe. 

from, and fleering ftill more Northward (towards .AJ&t^nJ yvkh. an eafy courre, 
.arrives at a place, fince_ca.lled Totnefs, in Devonfliire, p, 19:" — about 1117 
years before Chrift;. and 67 after the taking of Troy *. 

** After this," feys Milton, ** Brutus, in a chofen place, builds New Trw, or 
^roja .Nova (contraded in after times to Trinovant _; by Tacitus called Londmum, 
. now London: — ) about the time of Saul and Jonathan, or 1060 years before 
Chrift J i. e. about 1 24 years after the taking of Troy -f ."* 

" The lynage of Brutus," fays Stowe, p. 24, *' continued to gouern this 
nalme by the Ipace of 616 years J." 

There is however, another fad mentioned by Stowe, p. 21, that defcrves fome 
attention, becaufe it belongs ib immediately to our prewat fubjed ; and that i» 
the fai5t he relates, concerning " Bladud (founder of Bath, and fon of ^udhud^ 
brafs) who about the year 980 before Chrift, buildcd the temple o£ jipelh in 
Bath %" . 


* ** Ipfi Cambro-Brltanni fe \ Trojants faros, idque ab antiquis Bardis traditum, refertint : SrutmiT 
JilmirUDi £nt^ pronepotem, in Grzci^ exulalle, atque cum reliquis Trc^axioriim [U'ofugis, oracirii 
nwnitu, Jnde in JSritanniam venifTc tradunt:" Shcring. 8 : — Sammcs affirms, p. 74, "that the GreelU 
were Uur than the Phceniclang on thefe coafts, where," he fays, " tlicy arrived not above 160 years, 
or thereabout), before Cxfar's lime, under PhiUvs Tturaminius ; as Mr. Camden, out of Atbenxus, fecnts 
•ojntimate :"->tb«t the Pbceniciam were very early traders to this coiuftiy mull be allowed j and that the 
Grecits, particularly under this leader, might have fucceedcd them, as merchants, may perhaps be al- 
lowed likewifc^ but that thefe were the firlt Greeks who ever arrived on this ifland, will fcarce bc 
admitted ; fince it is evident that there muft have been fome of that nation fettled bero, as inhabitants 
and as philofophcrs, among the Druids, long before the period, here mentioned } for, what arf 160 ync» 
only before Cnfar's timerthey amount to only six years-befgre Chrifl: but we Ihall fee, at the clofe 
of the Sixth article, that we. had the names .of Greek deities given to feveral temples, built here by the 
defcendcnts of the Trojans, i. e. ourantient Britifh anceftors, goo or 1 000 years before Cbrifl, or about 
aoo after the talcing of Troy ; nay, what is more extraordinary is, that Sammes fiiould begin his bifiory- 
with thefe very words; "£r/>tf(Jt, the molt renowned illand of the whole world, waS called by the ancient 
Greeks aabiiik :"— now, how antient mull this name have been, when he acknowledges, as wc have juft 
now feen, that it was called Atiian, in the days of Bardai, in whofe time it had been conquered by one 
jflbiim, who called the ifland after his own name t this event is fuppofed to have happened about the 
year 1796 before Chrill, or 679 before this arrival of Bruiut :~-lf At^mt then be a Greek name, as all our 
etymologies do allow, the Greeks muft have been acquainted with this ifland (I do not fay by what 
means, nor at what time) for ages immemorial before the Trojan war ; which will carry us up 10 at 
leaft 1796, i. e. very near 1800 years before Chrift, inftead of only 160 : — the name of yfltian will 
receive a diBercnt derivation in the work itfelf, without having recourfe to giants, prodigies, or mon- 
fters, or any of the aids of fuperftition, or fabulous hiftory : fee ALBION, ALBIFY, or aLPS : Gr. 

t Rapin, perhaps with greater probability, follows t5eoffrev of Monmouth, who fays, " Brutu» 
landed hereabout fixty years after the taking of Troy, or 1118 before Chritl :"— therefore 1060 Teems 
to be rather too late a date j for that would make Trinovatit to have been built above 70 years after the 
landing of Brutus ; which is rather too much. Let mc add from Sherin^. p. 12, " narracioni autcin 
huic non modo veterum teftimonia, fed ipfa etiani ratio favet ; nonleveenim hujus rei indicium eft, 
quod urbs Britannia: capitalls olim TrinevenUSt Cefari Trrnebatttft, aliis Tr»i-H»vattum, i. e. Treja 
nova vocaretur :" — and in p. 97, he adds, " nequeunt porri ullam idoneam caufam excogiwre nupcri, ciir 
capitalis urbs Britannia: Trhwanlum, 1. c. Neva-Troja^ nifi in Vettrii Troj^ memoriam, appcllaretur : 
aut cur a temporibus Cxfaris, Trlnevanii nomine dcpofito, Luddhumt Hve LunJinum (nunc LentUnum) 
vocaretur, fi hifloria: Britannicse fidem minuant : nam quod aiunt nomcn i Saxonibus mutatum, infcituqi 
tommentum eft." 

J But if the lineage of Brutut, according to Sammes, continued to the coming of CafarV they muft 
have governed (Tiis realm for the fpace of 1088, or rather 1164 years; which is almoft double the time 
here mentioned by Stowe. 

$ This temple is 'rendered remarkable for the death of its founder; for Sammes, 1(4, and Milton, 
aj, tell us, that Bladud w^ a man of great invention, and taught (or rather perhaps ftudicd} necro- 
nancy; till, having made himielf wings to fl/i he fell down on the temple of jfftllt in Triatvaat :■*' 

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P R E P A C B. six 

-'■^l^hWMHuii'* conttriues 5t{»re, " is affirmed toihafe'IongftUdfcd it ^iwarf 
(by'w))atftvtr mtems' he formed connexions with that bmbeht ieat of learning t ) 
and to have brought with him from thence four philofophers to keep, fchool'in 
Britain j for the which (in the 17th year of his reign) he builded Stamf^d, anii 
made it a univcrfity ; (about 863 years before Chrift) wherein he had great nom- 
beits of fcbolafs^ ftiidyihg in all the feven liberal fciences j which univerfity durtii 
to Ae coining of Sti Auftin ;"--in the ye4r-tf 00 after Chrift :-*nay, it rouft have 
Mured much longer ; iince, according to other hiftorians, on a feceflion at Oxford, 
- in the 29th of the reign of Edward III. 1356, many of the fcholars retired from 
thence to Stamford i^^XzX. this article likewiie be confidercd by others, and treated as 
a fad> not altogether fabulous, and without foundation, bat only wanting fufficient 
teftimony, and confirmation o;f records, which it is ablblutely impofllble ever 
DOW to, obtain J £nce the records of thele events, if ever they were committed to 
writing, have been all loft and deftroyed in the general devailations of war and 
hlooddied, which have followed thofe more happy times -^ : neverthelefs there is 
an undeniable, and as it may be'juftly called, a living teiUniony of the truth of 
thefe fefts ;— a proof, nwre ftrong and prevalent, than the authority of monks, 
or the memoirs of any legendary writers whatever » and that is, the language of 
the people proves it ; that language which the Greeks i^oke, and that very Ian* 
guagc which we ourfelves now ipeafc, even to this day, curtailed, transformed, 
transfigured, and transpofed, in io wonderful a nianner, by the hardi, difcordant* 
and unpolished dialers of Celts^ Gauls, Weljh, PiSs, ScoiJ, Saxtais, Dams, Nor-> 
mans, Germans, and Dutch, as have almoil intirely eifaced the primitive purity of 
the. Greek tongue, which was ondoubtedly f^ken very early on this ifland. 

The people then, who veiy early vifited this country, having been Pbasnkiaiu and 
Greeks; and thoie philoTophers who were eilabliHied here by Bladud having been 
Greeks likewjfe, it is no wonder that the Druids (whofe very name is Greek, tho^ 
not derived as is commonly imagined) fhould have underftood, and fpoke, and 
wrote that language J. 

When it was faid that the Druids wrote Greek, it is to be underflood in a limited 
fenic ; for, as Milton from Caefar obfervcs, they did not commit the facred 
jnyftcries of their religion to writing ; (for they were the priefts, as well as the 

jisw JV^miffltr-'ahbty :" — but here thefe great hiftorians fcem to have been mified by Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth ; for it is fcarce probable to fuppolc, that Bkdudvfou\A have travelled from Satb to Trinovan^ 
or Lendttt merely to fliew his dexterity in the art of flying ; tho' perhaps his ni»cfty might have had 
vanity enough to have eroded the whole ifland in order to difplay his whimfical feats of adivity : and 
yet no doubt he could have made, and no doubt he did make, the fatal experiment from the top of his 
own temple ef jfpolle iit Bath .-—and therefore good old Mafter Stowe, in p. 22, it rather in this point 
to be attended to, who faith, " that Bbdud Acc}ixA himfelfe in feathers, and prsfnmed to flte, but by 
^liog on hit own temple (of Apollo in Bathe) he breake his neckc when he had raigned twentie 
yearea." • _ 

* *< Commercia certe nuIJaantiquis Britanhts cum Grsecis tntervenerint, nee cum ipfis Ronums, 
qui multo quam Gneci viciniorcs erant : funt tamen, qui affirmant Sladudttm, Britanniae rcgcm, 
Mhenat perluflralTe, atque ibi Grxcis dirciplinis inftitutum : quod, C ita fa^m fit, btftoriac utcum- 
que Britaniiicx iidcs indc confirmatur: Trojanorum enim adieus In Britanniam, ct regum paritcr 
omnium res geflse a Bruto ufque Caefarem, innjori, quam Bladudi iter in Grxciam, a'uthoritate nituatui:** 
Shering. 97, 8 : — true^ butftillcven thofe authorities do not invalidate theaceouiit»of"Bladud. 

t *' Folt tantos pnefcrtim annorum curfus ambitufque, quibus antiquorunv fcripta bells, (acendia, 
temponfque injurii, maxima ex parte pcrierunt :" Shcring.' 122. 1 

% "■ Grxcas autem literas illic (in Britannia} ante Cxlaris adventiun, ia ufa (mSe, if^ Cvfiir tcfti» 
eft :" Shering. 99 ;— as wc fliall fee prefently. ' ■ ' . ' . 

c 2 ~ prewpton 

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W, ]P. R E F A C E* 

precepton of die aaticta) but all their public and privoM tranfaai<iau vera 
Wfietch in Greek* is Cfls£u- himfelf acknowledges j wha found thefc DruiJs fub*' 
filling both in Gaul and Britain, even down to thoiie ve^ times, when he wi^ hia 
forces landed fixft 00 this iHand *. * 

'Thefc fada then moft undoubtedly prove, that the Greek language was at 
that time, ahd confeqi^ently long before, knovrn, written, and perhaps fpok/^ 
among the Jiehetih to the Kaft of . Qaul i at MarfeilUtt to the South ; in Spaiti^ 
more South flail ; and: in Britain^ aipong the Drutdt and Ceiis^ to the North-weft 
of Europe -{■. 

Many arguments might have been here produced to prove, that thefe Druidt 
were not at firft natives of Britain, but really and truly Phosnictans and Greeks j 
fuch as the articles of their religious fj(ftem> their manners, .fuj^oms, /itfcipline ; all 
of which do plainly fljew, that they were n^% the growth of this, i^and;; but 
brought and tranfpUnted hither from time immemorial J : and if at Oxiar's ar- 
rival they entertained any religious notions and ceremonies, different frpm theii* 
great anceftors of Phoenicia and Greece, it mufl undoubtedly have been owing tq the 
length of time, which had elapfcd frpm their firft coming hither, to that of CsBfar> 
invafion ; or to the various mixtures of other nations, whtj might in.aftex-timcs 
have incorporated with them, during fo long a period, which might ,no: hav? 
been lefs than 1900 years ; or, if not altogether fo much, they might have been 
brought hither by Bladud, 980 years befoce Chrifti or perhaps they might have 
migrated hither from MaifeiUei, which we kqpw waa built by ,the Phweoftt, a 

* *' In omnt Gillia, eorum homintim, qui aliqao Cuat numero, afque boRore, geaerz funt. duo l 

atterum eft DruiJumy alterum cquitum: — dijciplitix in Britannii reperta, atque in'de in Galliun 
tranflata efi< exiOimatur: — neque fas cfle ca Uteris mandare ; quum In rcliquis fere 'rebus, publicis 
■privatifque rationibils. Greets tiltrii utuniur :" Bell. Gall. lib. Vl. fee. r3, 14. :— tho' Shcring. p. 143^ 
' feems to be rather of opinion, that the Gauls came over to Britain, or at IckA Tent thtir youth over 
bithfr, in bqiidtrudcd; and gives thii rcafon to fupporc his conjcfiure ; ** aCque hincfa^um 
ubitror, qtiod Galli poftea in Briunntam ad difciplinam qiucrendam fe contulerunt; quia Trojanorun 
optimates et prxcipuos duces, pnecipuos ctiam dicendi magidros, et difciplinarum, artiun>que prv^ 
ceptores, Tecum Brutus in Albionem adrexit :" — and Cicur, in his Firft Book, fee. 29, has thefe 
remarkaUc words, " in caftris Helvetionim (« people of Switzerland) tabulx reperta: funt Grtetu 
Ubrit canfteiiB, ct ad Cxfarem pcrtatse:" — Vcrftegan, 125, affcrts, "that thefe Hehtiii were the 
Vytt!^ or yutis, that went and inhabited among the mountaines that deuyde. Germanic from Italy ; (and 
at lall came over with the Saxons into Britain, and in time fettled in the ifte of ff^ght, Vtlihy or 
.yitii i) and the German name of S'uitfirtt or Swltxerst doth aUb heerunto concurre } for the / beeing 
Jet before tlie v, or w, is often in the Teutonic vfed for abreuiatlon of the article the ; as fimnur, for 
the vrinttr j" &c, — bift Sammes, 418, with greater probability, derives the Sultftrs from the Suevi. 

f '* Porro autem libcnter a nuperis qucfiverim, undc Graeca: litene in mitanniam advedic; unde 
Gr«ca item lingua, cum antiqui Britannica ita permixta fit, nifi antiqui Britannt ex Grzcia, ubi 
Brutus cum fuia cploniis diu habitafie dicitur i aut a Trojanis, quorum, ut etiam totius AAz minoris, 
lingua yereacula cum Grxck plurimutn mixta ct confufa fuit, eafdcin in infulam fecum adduxi(I«nt :" 
Sherutg. 97. 

X " Nuperis tnfuper drfficile erit explicare quomodo Grascorum difciplina, confuetudines, et ipfa 
Aiiam rcliKioin Britanniam adve^lit, quibus per omnia fere cum Gnecis convenit: ant'mas ab- aliis 
in alios migrare vctus «rat Gnecorum opi^o ; apud Britannos ctiafn Druidei eadem opinione inftituti, 
atque imbuti funt : habiicruntGrzci fuos^M/«i, ATn/ar^, et rMfVff^arci, qui carminibus exequias, con- 
Jugiai tlluftrium virorum res geftas^'et deorum laudes, publice data occalionc, coram populo cclebm- 
bant, et decantabant, quos miAk, itt^ahn, et ri;^t fua lingua vocabant ; habuerunt ctiatn Britann^ 
fuos canttreiy «t rtcitaivrtt* quos fui lingul Bardot vocabant ; quibus mos erat codcm modo carmina 
.ad populum referre :" Shenng. 105 : — and in p. 127, he adds, *' mulu Drjadtif ut author eft Czfar, 
de fidcribus, atque eorum motu, de mundi, atque terrarum magnitudinc, de rerum naturft, de Dcorum 
-immortalitat«, vj, et poteftate, difpuubuit, et juvcntuti tradebaotj nam ut literas, ita difciplinas illas 
a Griccts coropar'afie videntur." 

S Greek 

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Crreefcpcopfef abcmt 6oo:]rean befbre Ckriftj w ijxrm. fame of the deTcendefits-of 
Meratk*, who, as we ihall £ee prcfeadyv conquered Spain, i few years befbre the 
t^iftg tff Tt^07 1 and in fubreqneht. generationr, their poflerity migjtt have 
come into Britain} even before me Celt? and Ganli bad an^ cbitoexions with thiir 
ifland ; and might perhaps have been the very peoplo, who, after a long and 
violent ftruggle, bad. been at laft fubdued by tiiole CeU& and Gauls, whofe 
pofterity retnained In poiTeiBon of this kingdom, at the coming of the Romans ; 
for, tha^ there had been a continued leries of wars, carried on between the 
Britons and Gauls, long before the Romans arrived here, is evident from hiftoiyj 
for Milton tells ns> p. 31, *' that all Gallia, or Gaul, or France, was overrun 
by Breftnuty a British king, the turbulent younger brodler of Be/mus, who built 
9din/s-gaie, now BUling's-gatet in Lcmdon, about theyear 400 before Chrift:"-^ 
and then, after mentioning a few more ftort reigns, he concludes his firft book, 
hi his noble manner of writing, p^ 37, ^ith thefe words j *' by this time, lika 
one who had fet out on his wa^ by night, and travailed thro* a region of fmootk 
and idle dreames, our hiftory now arrives on the confines, where daylight and 
truth meet us with a cleer dawn ; reprefenting to pur view, though at a farr 
diftance, true colours and Ihapes :"~pcrmit me however only to add, that where 
there is io much vapor, there muft be fome internal warmth ; and where there 
is ib much fume, there muft be fome latent fire i and to convince us that thefe 
names and tranfaftions are not altogether fabulous and fictitious, we (hall find 
tliis very Brennur, the former of thefe two ^ritifli kings, making dreadful ravage* 
in the next article but ofte. 
Let u& proceed' now to the coinfideration of the Lafm language. 

Ill, Of the LATIN, ot Italian tongue. 

1. *' If what they iay be true, (fajrs Dionyfius of HalicamafiiiSf ift his FirAv 
Book of the Roman Antiquities, fee. xi.) the firft inhabitants of Acifoia, whp 
left their country many generations before the Trojan war (about 286 years) were 
Greeh ; and could be a colony of no other people, but of diofe who were dien 
Called Arcadians i for thefe are the firft of all the Greeks, who crofled th0 Ionian 
gulph,. under the condud of Oertotrust the (on of Lycaon, and fettled in Jtafy :" 
ii— about 1470 yeax% before Chrift. — This colony is mentioned likewiic by Virgil: 

Eft locus HeJPeriam Graii cognomine dicunt. 

Terra antiqua, potens armis, atque ubere.glebs} 

Oenotrii coluere viri; nunc fama minores 

ItaHum dixifie; ducis de nomine genKm. Mu, L 534. 

2. And in fee. xvii. Dionyfius fays, ** afterwardi fooK of the PnE^f, who 
inhabited Tbejfafyt fettled anwng the Aborigines j (or natives of Itafy), this 
colony was conduced hy Pela/gusi and landed dt one of the mouths of the P0, 
Called Spines i .and were alfo a Greek nation, antiently of Pehpannejus, fettled firft 
in Tbejafy, and from thence removed into Italy*, 

* It would too much interrupt the connrxion of there articles, were I in this piKce to take into 
co»fidcruion CteUnd's 9rgiinent| to fliew that tbe .tcia Pf/f/^' is a Celtic deDonuauion for inbabttantt 
»f. a hill-wmtty : Vooab. lot, 

3. Theii 

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': '^, Then again, in fee. xxxL he menfidns *• another c6\oay'e{ Greekft' vfhcn 
landed in haiyy from Pallzntiutn, a towo -of Anadia i about thrccfcwre years 
before tI;eiTrojan war ; ii. e. about 1244 before Chrift) Uiis coloay wm led hj- 
Evantkr:'' — and is mentioned likewile by Virgil : 

Arcades his onSf g/caas'kPaSajtf e pToft&am, 

., Qui regem Evd»(»TW« cotnites, qui figna fccuti, . ' ; ■ 

' ,, .": Delegare locum, et pofuere in montibus utbem,' ' ! 

"' Pallantii proavi de nomine TaUanteum. .^n. VIII. 51; 

\. And in fee. x^cxiv. he fays, ** a few years after the Arcadians, another colony 
<^ Greeks came into Itafyy mnder the command of Hercules^ who was jufl returned^ 
m>m the conquell of Spain, and of thofe parts that extend to the Wellern. 
(joean:" — even to the itraits of Gibraltar, from that event callisd Hercules'' 
pillars J about 1116 years before Chrift ; or 3a before the taking^of Troy: this 
colony likewife is mentioned hy Virgil : 

• — — poftqiiam LaurentJa vi(3or 

Geryone extin<5to, Tirynthius attigit arva, 

S^rrirtiMjue boves in fluminc lavit /(5^/-(jj. ^n. VII. 661. 

5. And at the clofc of the forty-fourth feflion, Dionyfius fays, '.* the fccond 
generation, and aboat the fifty-fifth (or rather perhaps the forty-fifth) year after 
toe departure of Heicules, LatinuSf the fon of Hercules, and reputed fon of 
Fatinus, was king of the Aborigines, and in the thirty-fifth of his reign, when 
the Trojans (who were Gre^, and with Mneas had fled from Troy, after it was, 
taken) landed at Laurentum, on the coaft of the Aborigines, lying on the Tyrrhene 
fea, not far from the mouth of the Tiber :"— about 1181 years before Chriil; 
and 3 after the taking of Troy i the arrival of Mneas in Italy is a faft fo well 
eAa%)ilhed in a Diflertatlon -by the Jafe learned Mr. Spelman, that it will be futfi- 
cient only . to ^xfer to It, at the end of the Firft Book of his Tranilation of 
Dionyfius.. ." 

This now' being tihe fifth colmy ef Greeis, who migrated into Jtafy ; and not 
only fettled there, but became kings and fovereign princes of that country j it is 
no wonder that there fiiould .be fuch a prodigious number of Greek words 
adopted iako the Latin, language : and yet it is very remarkable, that when in 
fucceeding ages the Romans conquered Greece, they knew no more of the na- 
tive inhabitints, and their language, than our own Saxon anceftors (who probably, 
fay fome hiftorianS, were defcendents of Ta colony from Britain, and fettled in 
Germany) knew of England, when they were invited over by prince Fbrtigern, 
after the departure of the Romans from this ifland. 

■ But', before-ite fpeak of the departure of the Romans, let us firft inquire into 
the cavtie. c^ their coming hither it and this will naturally lead us to inquire 
into thejfiMiaXDoa.of affiiira, that brought us firft of all acquainted with the 
Roman power ; and ^ho thofe inhabitants were, that had the poiTefiion of this 
ifland, when Cxfar firft landed here, 

IV. Of the C E L T I C, or French tongue. 
That thofe people, who inhabited this ifland, at the time of Csefer's invafion; 
vere a mixture of native Brltilh, and the Celtic Gauls, is an article beyond dilute .: 

o but 

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PREFACE. xxiii 

but whothofe Celts were, or what w4« the perfeftion of their langOi^> at or 
rather before that time, we have no authentic account *. 

Moft of the intelligence we have received concerning the Celti* Gaulst Brttetis,^ 
Druids^ and Germans, is coUeded cither from Cajar himfelf^ about 5a yefirs be- 
fore Chrift, or from Tacitust about 100 years after Chrift; iind fince what (hey 
fay of them, and particularly CsE(ar, may be reduced to a very fmall compafs, it 
may not be amifs to tranfcribe fome part of it : — GEcfar.then begins. hi» hiftoiy 
of the Gallic wars (quorum pars ipfe magna fmt) wiA " GaUia eft ppuiisr divifa 
in partes tresj quarum unam incolunt Btlgeei aliam AquitMi', terHaoj^ .qui 
ipforum lingu^ Celta, noftr^ G<i///appellantur." 

The Celts and Gauls then were one and the &me people ; and that thefe peo- 
ple were mixt by conqueils and intermarriages with the inhabitants of t)iis idafid, 
when the Romans firft landed here under Caefar, is the more probabJcr becaitffe 
he farther tells us in his BcU. Gall. IV. 2i» that there was at th^t timC; great 
intercourfe and traffic between the Britons znd Gauls i infomuch that the Gaultf 
merchants gave the Britons their firft intimation of Cafar's dcfign to invade 
them : ** interim, confllio ejus cognito, et per mercatores perlato ad Bri- 
tannos, &c." 

The deiign of his invafioa was not, as fome authors imagine, merely thro* 
ambitioa, and a thirft of .glory.; it was not a defire of enlarging the koftnds of 
empire injpiredbim initb a £fign tf extenSng bis conquefist and bringing tbe .Britons 
under tbe dominion of tbe Romans i as Rapin has obferved j neither was it altogether 
for the rcafon given by Cleland, one of the greateft etymologifts on our language^ 
and a gentleman very well known in the literary world for his Vocabulary on tbe 
Celtic tongue ; who has difcovered in that work a great depth of knowledge in 
Britilh antiquity ; and of which work he has been plealed to grant mo fuU per* 
miflion, which I have accordingly made great ufe of in the following nndertaking* 
and there is no doubt but the reader will often wifli I had made ufe of it mora 
frequently : it Would therefore have given me the greateft fatisfadion> if our 
opinions hod coincided in this firft article before us : but this gentlemifp in- hi« 
Celtic Vocabulary, p. 177, fays, 

" By the bcft lights I could obtain, it was prccifely a violation of the right, of 
&n(3:uary that paved the way for the invafton by Julius Caefar: Imanuentius, a 
chancellor of one of the London alburys, bad been murdered for his attempt to 
defend the jurifdi<^ion of his coWtg^ z^ixn^ Cadfallan fCaJivelaunus J a military 
officer, or general, for fo the name imports, who had invaded his diftriift upon a 
quarrel about tbe cognizance of a murder : his fon Mandubratius fled upon this to 
Cxfar ; and tbe Londoners, cxafperated againft the general, did jiot fail to recom- 
mend the protcftion of the injured party to Cafar, who was ready enough to fcize 
.fofair a pretext of intermeddling witb tbe affairs of tbis ijland-f" 


• Saimnes, 145, gives us a lift of 23 Celtic kings, ftoin Samathtt (who at firft named this ifland 
Samethta, about 2094 years before Chrift) to Phranieuit in whofe days king Brutus is fuppofed to 
have entered tbis ifland in 1216, (or rather 1117) before Chrift; i.e. a fpace comprehending 878, 
or rather 978, years : after which, he gives us another longer lift of 74 kings, from Brvius to 'Juliut 
Cafar ; i. e. according to the different periods of their reigns in his account, 1088 years ; but, unfor- 
tunately for BafiHifisai, tbe hiftorian whom he follows, this is 76 years too fhort j for this malcea 
Cxfar arrii'e in Britain 128 years before Chrift i whcreaS all chronologers allow that Ctrfar firft landed 
here in the year 52 only before Chrift. 

^ The fiory is thus related, with fomt fmall variations, by -Sammes, 180, from count Palatine, 


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KKiv PR E F. A C E* 

Graodng now -to this gentleiwui the whtfle force of his argument; that Here 
had been a mirder committed in a quarrel abtntt the cognixaux g^-tf murder i ftill 
this foams to liore beeii but a very weak pretext indeML to ha^e juIUfied an in- 
vafion J and ff&s fcarce a fufficient reafon to have induced a Roman general to 
have intermeddled with the British affairs^ tho' twenty chancellors had been mur- 
dered : there feems to have been feme weightier caufe, which neither Rapin nor 
this gentleman hare ib much as hinted at s but is evident enough from the very 
iituation of a^irs betwebn Cafar and the Britons, long before the^ two murders 
hqd been committed ; and appean rather to have been this : 

The inhabitants of this illand had long intermeddled, and perhaps from their 
clofe connexion and natural amity with the Gauls at this prefent jundure, could 
not have avoided intermeddling, with the Roman af&irs in the Gallic wars, which 
had been but £q lately a^d fo fully concluded by Cxfar. 

■ It is not thro' a defire of juftifying the' conduA of the Romans in any of 
Htheir politicid meafures, more particularly in this their invasion of my own coun- 
-try* that I have thus far entered on this fubjeftj but truth and impartiality 
ou^ht to have tbeir due influenct; in every debate ;. and eveiy one ought to write 
according to unbiafled principles ; for the public alone will deterpiine on whjch 
iide the freatdr truth, or at leaft the greater probability, appears : it can be but a 
matter of very, little moment at the prefent age, what were the cauies that moved 
defar to Ihew inch a readinefs in this expedition j but let me with all impar- 
tiality obferve, that both Britons and Gauls, under Brennus I. a Britifh king, 
might, if they pleafed, have avoided intermeddling^ and dreadful^ intermeddUngt 
twice Vfith the affairs of Itafyt about three hundred years befare Ciefar's time : 
uStWi former of thele irruptions was, when the Gauls, about the year 384, or 378 
before Chrift, without any caufe, without the leaft provocation, or the leaA 
recommended invitation, ravaged all Italy j and without any other prete?tt, than 
that Qi plunder znA J^iU (as bad, if not a worfe, caufe for the invafion of any 
country, than either .j«^/Vwb or ghryj they befieged, fackcd, burnt, and pillaged 
Rome itfelf : an injury fo heinous, fo unprovoked, and fo unprecedented, we 
may be fure would call for vengeance on any future convenient occalion j for 
we find it made fo ftrong and fo lafting an impreflion on the minds of the 
Romans, that even to the times of Auguftus, about 350 years after this greedy 
and mercilefs treatment, it continued to rankle fo deep, that Virgil has imprefled 
the ficge of the Capitol by the Gaulst on the fliield of jEneas : 

Atque hie auratis volitans argentcus anfer 

Forticibus, Gallos in limine adelTe canebat; 

Gain per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant, 

Defenfi tenebris, et dono no&xs opacs. &t\, VIII. (t$$. 
This fierce, cruel, and unjuft irruption happened in the time of Camillus, and 
Caius Manlitu, about 380 years before Chriil:'— and the fecond irruption hap- 
pened about 63 years after that; viz. about 315, or 20 before Chriftj when 
Brennus II. a Gaultfi kingt joined his forces to thofc of Acithorms, a Pannoniail 

who telli ui, that *^ Lud was firoamcd Jmmmaunsiut., and was ilain by hU brother Ceff^Ian at 
TrtjfnvvMt i and that his eldeft ion Andregntt was firnamsd Mandtikratiut ; and was the Tarae prince 
of the 7'rintbanttt, whom we find in C^tfar't commentaries to have fled into Galiiat and to bare put 
hintfclf and«r the bfoIc^oo of CaSu," 


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Preface. «v 

chief •} and witTi an army of 1 50,000 men, and 1 5,000 horfe, ravaged not only 
all Italy, but Greece likewife ; and would have ranfacked and plundered the 
temple at Delphi j which was aftually rifled and burnt down in the year 277 
before Chrift ; about 40 years after this irruption by Brenmts tU which defla- 
tion happened in the time of Antigonus Gonatas, and Antifater ; as mentioned in- 
the Supplement of Livy, lib. xxxviii. fee. 16, or rather under So^beaetj aa 
mentioned by Rollin, vol, vii. p. 227 to 234 ** 

Who now invited thefe Brittjb, Gaulijhj and Pannonian chiefs, to make all this 
cruel devaftation ? and what rational caufe can be afligned for the Britoas and 
Gauir thos dre^ulhf intermeddling with the affairs of Italy ? 

Cae&r therefore having now by his Gallic wars at lail fubdued the defcendcnts 
of thofe fierce and favage barbarians, and fully avenged the unprovokied injuries 
of his bleeding c<Mintry, was determined likewife to chaftize the inhatntants of 
firieain* who had not only joined the Gauls in their former ravagings and plun-' 
derings of Italy, but had now recently joined them, and aflifted them with their 
£>rces, in thefe late GaUic wars againf): Cxfar himfelf; and therefore it was but 
natural for him, after having fubdued the Gauls, to turn his eyes againft the 
Britons, their aiSbciates : accordingly, in book iv. fee. 20, he fays, " exigua 
parte leAatis reliqai, Caefar, ttB in iis locis, ' qahd omnis Gallia ad feptentrionen 
ver;git, matune lunt hiemes, tamen in Britanniam proficifci contendit ; qubJ, 
omnibus fere Gallicis Bellis, hoftibus noftris indi fubminiftrata auxilia intellige- 
hat I'—iecaufi he ibund, that in almofl all the Gallic wars (particularly as he 
advanced the more Northward) the enemy drew their chiefeft aids from thence :-— 
and indeed it is but natural to fuppofe, that the Britons aflifted the Gauls ^ainft 
CsEfar; not only from their proximity of iituation, but from their mutual con- 
nexions, and rc^nable apprehenfions, that if they did not, the Gauls might at 
laft be fubdued by the Roman power; they therefore aHifted themj but, not- 
withftanding all their afliftaftce, the Gauls were vanquiihed ; Oefar dierefore, 
noyr being at leifure fropi his Gallic wars, feems to have refolved on his expedition 
againft Britain. 

Since this was the real lituation of things, in order to ^cllitate his approach, 
he lent a veffel beforehand to reconnoitre the coaft j and the firft Roman on re- 
cord, who ever faw Britain, was Folufenut» *' vir et coniilii magni, et virtutis :"j 
lib. iii. 5, 

Every thing now being in readlnefs, (lib. iv. 21) ** ipfe cum omnibus copiia 
in 3f(»r;B<w proficifcitur, qu6d inde erat breviilimus in Britanniam transjeftus-f-:" 
■^there ke ibortly after embarked his forces, and the whole fleet weighing 
anchor (from Partus Icctus^ late Viffant in Picardy, between Calais and Amhleteufe, 
in France) he prcfently arrived on the Britifli (hore, near Deal in Kent, about 
ten at night, on the 26th of Auguft j where, notwithilanding the recommendations , 

• " 3 Cimbfis tota ferj Gallia, ut Cxfar narrat, fubafta eft; qid Indc in Ital'tam, Srenno duce, 
CKCuTFcntes, 'Romam diripuerc j et nifi Cimbri beMum cauponari voluiflent, jam inde de Romano 
imperio aftum fuifiet: — inde vero in Graetam; et poflrcmi in A/iam denuo tendentes, magnl' 
PhrygiK parte potiti fuiit, qua ab ipfis Gallo-Grxcia, five Galatia^ difla eft:" Shering. 451,2;—' 

a i'avage nation may conquer, and a brutal race of men may forcibly talce poflellion of, and give name* ' 
'm any ceuntry' whatever ; but it is Juftice alone can fanflinr conqucIV, 

t fo; a derivation of the name of thefe people, fee the Work itfelf, under the article MARINER : 

Or. : the Marini being a pcopje who lived on the fta'Caafl of Gaul j lately called ViJ/imt ; and now 
Stkgnt in France. 

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«vi P R E F A G ^. 

he mjgia have rtctivedfrom the J^ondanertt his reception was very far from Beum 
an amicable one ; for he himfelf tells us, (lib. iv. 23) that as foon as f* cutn 
primis navibas Britanniam attigit, in qmnibus colUbus expoiitas hoitiym copias 
annatas conrpexit :"•— he faw on all the hills armed troops of emrnits^ drawn up in 
teadinefs to receive him j and his reception was a warm one in th* military fcnfe f 
£sr he hiinfelf acknowledges if was '* pugnatom ab utrifque acriter •" Jivtttfy fought 
on both fdes : his landing however, after ion^ di^cul^, was made good ; thou^ 
not for any long continuance *. 

CsE&r was obliged to pay Britain, a iecond vifit, the year following j and then 
indeed he penetrated fomething farther into their territories j but even y^ he 
could not advance to any great di^lance from the coaA ; Verulam-, at St. Alhans, 
Sesxas to have been the fartheft of his progrefs Weftward -f- : . nay, ths Romans 
knew vay little more than the outikirts of this iilaf>d, for fevenl years after 
Caeiar had been af£i0in«ted ; and did not ib muoh as usually and axperhnentally 
know that Britain was an ifland, till the time ai Agriooktt who was the iirit 
Romaa that ever iailed iatirely rouod it ; wluch was performed by fadm.- in the- 
84th year after Chrift : i, e. above 130- after Ccfar^s iirft landing. 

Having thus far efUbliihed the Ronww on this illand, it is fufficient: for oar 
prefcnt porpojCe, thus to have fhewo, hofv we came at iirft acquainted with the 
Roman power in Britain : — it would not be consilient with die bounds of a 
Preface, to fpeak more fully of their a&irs, during their connexions with this 
ifland, which were carried on with a great variety of fuceefs^ for the fpace of 
i^yxt foot. hundred years ^XK%Osti^\hv^ iuvafion; viz. to the time of the em- 
peror Valentiman ; when the a^rs of the Roman cmjpire became fo entangled, 
and were reduced to fo miferable a flate, by the irruption how of jfttthtt king of 
the Huna, Goths, and Vandals, tbat the Senate were obliged to recall .Gulic^' 
and all the Roman forces from Britain ; which eveat happened about 447 years 
after. Chrift; a period long enough to have eibiUiJ^ed the Roman /daguage, though 
not the. Roman ilifcipline, aoaong the inhabitants of thu iflaod. : ... 

* Sberingham, p. 14, obfervet Trom Ticitus, that ** antiquoi Bribnitos in MIo QaIIi« feroclont ■ 
fuifte ; quoa et Czfar cxpcrtus eft, ab iifdem in primo congreflu fuo vj^us : quam claden, tp|s \itit 
Cxfar filentio prictcrit, atque alii tninuant, Lucanus dare iimtiit his vetbis, ' 

Territa qiixGtis ofteijdjt terga Britannis ; 
And toth'' Invaded Britons turn'd his back i" • ' 

Jic expcfled to have found a few undifciplined favagcs j he met with foldier* both brave and numeroas : 
—by the very particular manner in which Cafar (lib. iv. 5^4, and 33) defcribes the method, in which 
the Britons attaclted him with their #^dfa, or <ABrfe/5flrni^,^tt'i'(A/c(V,&f, any one might fuppofe, at the 
cpmmentators in the Variorum edition have fuppofed, that>(0a^ cbarhtt were either of Britifh or Gauli& 
invention : *' fi Servio credimus (fays D. Voff.) tn Belgio imiehta funt tjfeda ,■"— if by invtnta he ipeant 
only vjerefeund in ufe^ ir might pafa j but if he mcanty^iui^ tut, or invtnttdy they were fo far from it, 
that Rollin, in his Antient Hiftory, vol. ii. 14, in fpealcingof AT/mbj, (who lived 2120 years before 
Chrift,) fays, " after he had finiflied the building of Nineveh, he refumcd hii expedition againft the 
Baflrians ; bis army, according to the relation of Ctefiai, confifted of a million fevcn huadred thoufand 
foot, and two hundred thoufanahorfe t and about fixteen thoul^d chariots armtd v/ithfcythti •'"—if fucb 
a,prodigious army is not rather too large for thofc very early ages of the world. 

t *' Strabo, et Euflathius ad Dionyflum," fays Shcring. p. 14, " Cafarem bis in Britaattiam tri- 
lecifTe, et brevj infeflo negotio lecefliiTc, neque longiiis in inAilam penetxaflt^ q^miit : ^iJt. fm^p 


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- So 'that now we muft come to fpeak of thofe times, and of thoie people, who 
fucceeded the ^Romans in the governmeat of Bfitain ; and they were th« Saxoru*, 

V. Of the SAXON, TEUTONIC, or German tongue. < ' . 

No fooner had the Romans quitted this illand, than the Briton!:, who had Co 
long been difufed to arms, and indeed had no occaiion for them, while ihey 
continued under -the proteftion of the Romans, who were, as wc obfervcd, no 
iboner withdrawn, than the Britons were overwhelmed with an inundation of 
Pitfbs and Scots, who came pouring down Ufmn them from the Northern parts 
of the kingdom, and brought defolation and deftruition with them wherever 
they roved : in this deplorable fituation, exhaufted of their heft forces, which ■ 
had been drawn off by the Roman* in their diftant colonies, aduated by their 
•owD fears, fenfible of their own inability to defend thenifelves ^gaiaft fuch ^ 
torrent of calamity, and induced by the counfels of fortigerrt, tiioir prince, who 
it feems was both wicked and unwarlike, they fent a deputation to the Saxms, a 
nation of Germany, (not claming aay relationfliip with thofe people ; which we 
might naturally fuppofe they would have done, had there ever fubfifted any itich 
alliance between Saxony and Britain j but it feems they only defired them) to 
come over to their affiftance +. 

* From Aia time we imift bM adieu to all the nfined laag:nage of Grttet and Romt; we muft now 
tto longer be delighted with the powers of cloquerKc; but inftead of the noble, open, suid fonorous lan- 
KH>^ of thofe people, we muft titiW hear of nothing but the harib, dlfcordant, guttural uttenuice df 
the diffisrmt Teuttnic 4/HiltSi ; inftead of the fmooth and eafy vowels of the Southern climates, our can 
Muft n«w be tortured -and tormented with the ride, nugh, rugged confonants of all ihe Northern 
regions ; and in this mnfy ftate did our language continue, till the times of the Reformation ; when 
iBur princes arid nobllitf began once more t« ftwdy Greek, under thofe two able mafters, mt JobB 
Okeke, and Roger Afdiam, irtio lorifliod under £d«rard VI.' Q. Elizabeth, and the Lady Jane Gre/; 
•hich is generany kaown by the period of itt Revival tf itttmng and Ittttrt ; for about that time wa» 
the noble nt of Printing invented, in 144a } i. e. from the departure of the Romans about a thoit- 
Cuk) years. 

t Verftegan, iiS, fiMf*, ** heer by the way it may be noted, tiAt it was but fomewhat more than 
twentle yeares, before the coming of the Saxons into Britain, that tkt Franka^ beeinfr a people alfo of 
Gernnttntc, boi^ring neighbours vnto the Saxons, and fpeaking in KfkSt -one fame language with them, 
dM, vflderFannnnil, their leader and slewed king, enter intotheeountrey of the Am^j; where they 
feated tbemlelues, and became in fynethe occsfion that the whale couiitrey, after their nameof /'rosi/jy 
Was cafHed Pranktnrjt^ thK is to fay, the kingdome or poAelBon of ^ Franhs, and finoe by abbreuia- 
tion, Frvnu:" — now here it is very remarkable, and what perhaps would have greatly furprifed this 
good old Anglo-Saxon very much, to have heard it affirnled, that the names of frtmet, and Franit^ 
and FrvMch, are Greek. : for, in ihe fame manner as the name of Smxm was given to thofe people, on 
account of t1)e weapons they wore ; fo lituwife tbr French fetim to have acquired their name from a 
fimibr circtiniflance ; as may ba fcen under the article FRANKS, in the Work itfclf ; — as to this ar- 
rhral of the Saxant, it miift be obfervcd here, that notwithftanding the filcnoe of all modern hiftorians, 
this was very far from being the firft time, that any of that nation had landed on this ifland ( for our 
early writers tell us, that there had been great tntercourfe between the P/fli, Sntt^ and Saxans, in their 
feveral incurflons and depredations, fo high as in the time of Dittltfian j about the year 285 after Chrill j 
and of VaUnlinian I. i« 366 after Chrift, or about 80 years before the reign of Vortigtrn i and again 
in the time of Hmmiti when Stilico gave them many defeats ; i. e. 3^5 after Chrift ; or in all, about' 
165 before the prefcnt period of their being invited over :— as to the" people themfelves, it is allowed 
that the Saxtm were natives of Scjthia^ and migrated from thence, about Mount Taurus, to the 
Cimbrica Cherfonefus : the period of their migration ts faid to be about the time of Woden, i. e. 
2910 years before Chrift: under what appellation they were known, from that period to the time of 
Ptolemy, is uncertain; but Cafaubon tells us, that " Ptolemeus, qui primus, aut inter prjinos, illos 
memorat j in Cimbrici Cherfonefo (quK nunc DaniaJ ct Balthici maris oris conflituit :"— but 
Ptolematii lived about 140 after Chrift ; which makes a period of above 3000 years from Woden to 

d a Accordingly, 

Digitized by 


^utvfii PR E F A C B. 

Accordmgly> tftiout the year 450 after ChrUi, and in the fourth of king Vorti- 
gcrn, the Saxms to the nambcr ofjxtteihinmdred men, according to fome writers, 
came ovw to Britain : but Vcrftcgan and others tell us, that their furces 
amounted to the number of -rtyne tboufand men, who, under the command of two 
brethren, Hmgtft and Horfst lauded at Ippedsjket^ now Ebbesftet, or WeobesjUeS^ in 
the ifle of Thanct, in Kent *. 

Let m- now attend to thele new adventurers, if they may really be termed 
new, who it fccms were called SaxonSy only from the Seaxes^ or weapons they 
■ wore-f'} which will likewife be found to be another Greek appellation in the 

• There are two or three things in this article, that dcfcrve a more full confideration ; viz, tbtnumhtr 
ef tretpt aad Jbipi\ tht nanus of their ieaderi ; and ihi place ef their landing: — with refpcft to their 
numbers, fome authors mention on\y Jixtien hundred^ which, confidering that they were called over t& 
repell the fury of an enemy, who attacked the Britons for the fake of plunder ; and confequenCly couU 
expe£t no more, than what they could win by their fwordsi the number of ^.t/wn huMdrtdiae.miUt\x by 
much too fmall for fuch a purpofe : VerftcKan,Baker,and others, iherewe, have with greater probability 
made their numbers amount to nynt ibetujand; but then, both they, and Milton, 131, make ufe of only 
three Jonggallies, cyula, or kyules (i. c. keth) to tranfport »Ti«/As«(/&Krf men j— great and long indeed muft 
they have been to contain three ihou/axd men each : — but if q,ooo men came over in three keeles, them 
120,000 more muff have come over with Occa and Ebija, who fhortly after arrived with ftrtjpinnaui: 
—fuch credit is due to thefe exaggerated accounts ! — Now as to the names of their leaders, Htngljf and 
Hsrfa : (who are fuppofed to be defccnded from Wtden^ in the third degree : — but to (hew the abnirdity 
of uich a fuppofilion, it will be fufficient to obferve, that Wcden is faid to have fioriihed about igio year» 
before Chrift ; to which muft be added, 450 for the time of thefe two heroes \ confequntly they are 
diftant from their fuppofed progenitor 3360 years t and therefore their three intermediate anceftors muft 
hare each of them been 1 120 years old : J — it appears fometbing remarkable, that the Saxons dould have 
had two names for the fame animal, when fometimes we find, that they had not even one name for many 
other things ; but here we are told, that Henpft^ or rather Htngfi^ is S»on for a htrfe; and that Harft 
fignifies the fame thing ; this might lead us to fuppofc, that Hengfty and Herfa,^ were only fynonymout 
terms for one and the fame perfon ; but the antientanoals of the Saxons put this out of doubt j for 
they write thus, *' Htngifi and Herfa^ in the year +55, fought againU Vtriigtrn (Vartimtr rather, ac- 
cording to Speed) at EgelUhrip, now Aylesford, in Kent, where H«r/a was Aain, leaving his name to 
Horded, the place of his burial :" Sammes, 472 : — however, whether thefe two names. belong to one 
and the fame perfon, or whether they are difTerent appellations for thefe two different chteftaini, thougf) 
£gnifying the fame thing, is a point nqt material enough to detain us ; but our firitifli anceilors have 
given us another convincing proof <^ their knowledge in the Greek tongue, in a tranflation, of their 
own, refpe£ling the name or name* of tbefc two Saxon leaders ; and that is in the appellation they 
gave to the place whtrt they landed c—VerAepnt 117, tells us, thai " the firft anceters of Eoglifli men 
came out of Germanie into JBritaine, and aryucd at Ippedsfieet, now called Ebsfitet, in the ifle of 
Tanet, in Kent:" — Baker, in his Chronicle, p. 4, writes it WipptdsJUeti which is no more thaa 
prefixing the digamma before a vowel ; many inlfances of which may be found in our language } 
thus, what the Greeks wrote 'iAh, or FuVi we write tvei ; what the Greeks wrote Ai,1«(, or FaiiL*, 
the Latin^ wrote ventus, and we write wind, itc. &c. : thus likewife the place where Hengji or Hti^iJI 
landed, was from that circumftance denominated Ippedsfittly or ff^ippedtjSeet, contrai^ed to EbijUet \ to 
account for which, the authors on whom Milton, ana Sammes, 472, rely for intelligence in this 
point, have been fu obliging as to kill us another Saxon chief, in order to nx his name to this place, 
** near to which in a battle one IVipped, a Saxon earl, loll his life :"— now it would have been worth 
while, if either they, or VerAegan, or Baker, or any of our Saxon etymologies, bad inquired into 
the reafon, why it received that appellation ; inftead of (o conveniently killing that gentleman : the rea- 
son then {eems rather to have been this i our anceftors underllanding Greek, gave the name of IppedsJUtt 
to this place, vrhere. Hewg/l their deliverer landed, becaufe 'iwwt was Greek for a Htrft; by a happy 
allufion to his name. 

. t According to the good old jingle of the learned Engelhufius, as quoted by Blouot, in his Gloflaryj 
Quippe brevis gladius apud ilTos Saxa vocatur } 
Unde libi Sax§ nomen traxilTe putatur. 

For, a fhort fword by them Sean was named ; 
Whence for the name of Saxens they've been famed. 
** Aventinus fub Neronis tempore Saxoniz gentes appellati Saxonum enim et SaxoniE nomen in 
Septcntrionalium gentium annalibus longe ante ilia tempora occurritj inter Grsecos et Latinos fcrip- 
lores licet nemo ante Ptolemxum eorum meminit : Saxtntt enin fub Cvlaritsvo Clmhrerum nomine 
potiffimum aoti fuot :" Sbering. p. 30. 

Digitized by 


PREFACE. xxix 

Wort itfelf; tho* Camden, and Milton, 1 29, tell us, that the " Saxons are thought 
by good writers to be defcended of the Saca^ a kind of Scythian in the North 
of Alia i thence called Sacafons^ contradled to Saxontt or fans of Saca, who with 
a flood of other Northern (Afiatic) nations, came into Europe, and ufing piracy" 
from Denmark all along thofe feas, pofTelTed all that coaft of Germany, and the 
Netherlands^ which took thence the name of Old Saxony" 

Probable as this opinion may at fird fight appear, it does not feem to be the true 
onCi for, ** to examine the lykelyhood of this," fays Vcrftegan, 18, *' wee are to 
note, that the Saxons did neuer wryte, or call themfelues Saxons, but anciently 
Seaxen j and the iyllable en, at the end of woords, doth fcruc inftead of j, to 
fignify the plural number ; as in ^r^-Mren, cBiltircti, oxen:" — and then in p. 21 
jlnd 2, he endeavours to (hew, that they were the Aborigines, or natives of 
Germany ; which is only confeffing his ignorance of their origin ; but however 
he admits, that they received a different appellation from their neighbours in 
the Cimbrica Cherfonefus, and, for the fake of diftindlion, were called Saxons 
from the weapons -they wore : only here again, as we obferved above, the appella- 
tion is Greek} as will be found in the Work itielf. 

To prove now the fliort-lived tranquillity of human affitirs, when they rely for 
protection on foreign arms, and call over foreigners to defend them, the Saxons 
from being protciftors, very foon became invaders, and prefently fenl over for 
five thoufand more of their countrymen j and then entering into an alliance 
with the Pi£i;s and Scots, thofe very people whom they came over on purpofe to 
drive out, turned their fwords againft the Britons, thofe very people whom they^ 
had been invited over to defend ! — To folve this intricacy, Verftegan fecms to 
faint, that ** the Britons were grown into great auerfion from their kyng, and no 
le& hatred vnto the Saxons j feeing that kyng Vortiger, a Britifli kyng, had 
married Rowena, a Saxon lady, and neice to one of their generals, and had left 
)kis lawful Wyf *". 

This indeed would have been provocation enough to have juftified a revolt in 
the Britons, and for them to have joined the Pidts and Scots againd: the Saxons; 
or at leaft an inducement futHcieotly ftrong to have prompted tne Saxons to have' 
adhered to the intereft of their hoft, united to them now the more firmly by the 
bonds of wedlock j and confequently to have fupported his caufe againft that of 
his rebellious fubjedls : on the contrary, the good old gentleman himfelf tells us, 
p. 1 30, that " on May day, both Vortiger and Hengifi: met on Salifburie plaine, 
either of them accompagncd with his chiefeft lordes and followers j and there 
kyng Hingijiui prepared for them a feaft ; and after the Britans were Wcl whitled 
with wyne, he fell to taunting and gir'ding at them ; whcrevpon blowes infued j 
and the Britifh nobillitie there prefent, beeing in all three hundreth, were all of 
them flainej as William of Malmelburie reportcthi tho* others make the num-y 
her more." 

Whatever truth there may be in this narration, the conduft of the Saxons ap- 
pears rather "perfidious, and feems to wear the face of treachery : perhaps the 
Saxons at this entertainment might have defpifed the weaknefs both of prince and 
nobles ! and con&quently might have looked on this as a proper opportunity 

• Ncnn'ius, William of Malmelbury, Henry of Huntingdon, Geoffry of Monmouth, Speed, and 
Sammet, with much greater probability, call Rotutna the daugbttr of Hengifl: and Shering. 14, «ldi_ 
yet another mfoa for this revolt j viz* ** quod debitum militibus ftipendiuin son perlblvcraDt." 


y Google 

XXX P R E F A' C E., 

for rc-afcrting their native right, and for reviving their artlert heredlMpy. ctame 
to this ifland i if they were Icnfihle of any fuch title j — but let theif.clame or 
th^ir title have been ever fo jufl, this certainly iixtift have }■ i.:, ;i very unjuftifiable 
method of vindicating it ; and let the reafon for this maflrt.rc have been whatever- 
it might, the confequences of it were very dreadful to thf iiation ; for this is nn 
undoubted fadt, that for near two hundred years following,, this kingdom was a 
continued fcene of defolation and confufion : the Saxons however prevailed in the 
cyid; and the few Britons, who furvived thofe troubles, hetoolf thpmfelves for 
refuge to the wild and craggy mountains of Cornwal and of Wales- 

But, notwithftanding the Saxons had thus gained firm footing and fure efta- 
Uifhment on this ifland, fuch an event ought not certainly to have been deemed a 
fufficient foundation for Verftegan to aflert, as he does in p. i88, that " the 
Saxon or Teutonic remains the ground of our language, and that it has had for 
ijts original no other fourcc :" — in which affertion ho is moft probably miftaken; 
for if conqueft alone be a fufficient argurnent for the eftabiiOiing of any lan- 
guage, it -might be worth while to alk him, and all our other Saxon advocates, 
what language they can fuppofe, and allow, that the inhabitants of this iiland 
^ke, after they bad been converfant with the R'^mans for five hundred years be- 
^re the Saxons were invited over to Britain '. — what could it have been, but tbo 
J^itiHi, iny)roved by the Roman ? for, as Milton acknowledges, p. 60, " the 
Romans beate us into, fom civilitic :" and, to bring the argument nearer to his owft 
times J if the Saxon or Teutonic was the ground of our language, becaufc they 
^ov:e^ out the Britons, then in his own times the Norman muft have been the 
gicoi^nd pf our language, becaufe the Normans drove out the Saxons : in &ort» 
itbc langvage of this ifland is a mixture of all thefe ; being compounded of theie,' 
^)4 maey others : but the grotjnd-work of our modern EngUih tongHe is Greek; 
^4 fo it was even in the days of Verftegan. 

If then there are any words in our language, at this day to be found likewilc 
ifl- the Saxon tongue, they Ceetn probably to be fuch, as they found hetv, efta- 
bliflied and manumifed long before their arrival, and perhaps ^Veee adopted by 
^lemfelves afterwards i and what makes this fuppolition the m^rt pfdbablc tfr 
that moft of thofe words, which other etymologifts have imagined to be Saxon, 
and many of the Saxon words themfelves, are really in the courfe of this Work 
found to be Greek * i and therefore, that thofe ctymologifts, who would derive 
^ofe words only from the Saxon tongue, do really Hop ihort of thfir true de- 
luvation by at leaft two thoufand years : for what Cafaubon fays in p^ 378, is moft, 
juftly true : " ut dicam libere, quod fentio : pauca puto vere et genuine AngHca 
five Saxonica, 1. e. Vetera, reperiri ; qu£ (ils exccptis que Latinas funt originis) 
i) rite, et diligentcr expendantur, non poflint ad Grascos fontes revocari." 

Whoever is acquainted with that intricate and unaiFcdting part of our Englilb 

• Aito the ftru£hire of the Saxon tongue, Cafaubon, p. 139, |>ofitive]y aflerts, "earn vel GrKca:, 
fed ab ultima origine, propaginem fuiHe ; vel certe ab eadem, qua et Gra:ca, origin^ ui i Grxca fola 
diflert dialcfSo, profluxifTe :" and Spelman, in his GlcOary, under the article VvtV, acknowledges the 
fame I " Saxonicse didtiones frcquenttus Graecis refpondeant, quam Romanis :"— and not the Saxon only, 
but the German likewife ; for Cafaubon, ai8, fays, " ultinnim nunc fuperell argumentum j quod ab 
biftoria, et rerum geftarum mennona : ego fic cenfeo : fi funditus periilTet lingua Germanica, ut nullum 
ex verbis argumentum duci po£Bt; ex ipfarum tamen rerutn geflarum, qux mcmorix mandatx funt, 
clrcumllantiis probabiliter infcrri poSe, linguam GermJnita/n dt GraeJ multum Iraxije, el ex Hid partim 

3 "hiftoiy. 


PREFACE. ixxi 

IjUfory, vhicli treats of the SaXon Kcptarchy, will prefcntly allow, that the man- 

ricrs of the men were as rude as their language ; and that the whole race of kiiig^,- 
as they ar< called, frorii Hengiji to Egbert^ a fpace of time comprehending 345 
or 350 years, were a race of the moft lavage and brutal kind of men, and were 
really as uncivilised as the wild Indians in America : and that even after the 
Hept^chy was diffolved, and all the Swaa. crowns were united on the head of 
Egleri,. in 800 after Chrift; yet even from him to Harold II. i. c. 266 years 
more, they wprc very little better j unlefs the building of monafteries, making 
pilgrimages to Rome, and kings and queens turning monks and abbefles, could 
atone for the 0iedding of human blood by aflaflination : for their whole hiftory, ex- 
cept that of Alfred the Greattznd two or three others, is tskcn up with very little 
morcy than the narrations of battles, and murders, arid maifacres, with poift)tt- 
ings, and r»pes, and incefts, and adulteiries; ** altai% defiled with perjuties ; 
cloiHers violated with fornications ; the land polluted with the blood' of their 
princes i civil dil&otions among the people; and finally, all the fame vices, which 
the mournful Gildss alleged of old to lave ruined the Britons :" Milton, 22 i :— 
and yet . it is from thcfe very people that we have received a fet of the vHfeli 
UvK, and a conftitutjon of the be(l government, that is to be found at thisday 
fubfifting on the face of the earth ?-*pcrhap» their very vices were conducive to 
the eilabliihing of thofe laws ; vt^ich have continued, with feme fmall variation, and 
a very great addition, from Hetigijt the firft king of Kent, in the year 455 after 
Chrifti -to the prKent timci ; i. e. tAxyvc 1300 yeu-s. 

,'■ Neither did Egbert and his £uccci3br6 «njoy a quiet poil^f^On j for the Danes made 
feveral defperatc defccnts ron this iflind, fo early as the ytar 787, and continued thiir 
inhuiQan'aad bloody moleflations forabove two hundred year«, wheh Canute^ a 
Dane, feiafsd the whole kingdom in 1017 j- however their domination of 25 years 
ended in 1042, when the Sajmn line was again reftored^ but continued only 24 
years longer; wbeo' WilHa^t-^lac Norman, commotvlyi oiXltdWUliam the Conqueror, 
becajnefolemonarpb of. this kiogdonitin 1066. ■ . ' 

Sp that oow we-wiU look tAwands JftfiSwtt^. ■ '' 

VI. Of the ICELANDIC, and other iNbr/^r» didefts. 

Haying mentioned; the G?rflftf»j, Sanota, and Danrt, it may be jttoper now to 
fay fomcthing. on /,6f /«ZtfB(/(V tongue; finec feme etymologifh have endfeavourdi 
to, deduce many of our words from that, and the other Northern tongues, which 
arc only fo many different dialedtsof the Germanic nations. 

'■ Some have imagined, that when Chriftialiity began to prevail in this iihtnd, tiie 
every where perfecutcd i3ra(<jlc retreated, as :to- meir fureft place of refuse, to 
Iceland : — this opinion is either wrongi or this pcrfccution could not have beeni 
carried on againft them by the Chriftiansj for Chriftianity was hot known, or if 
Ipnown, did not bear any great prevalence in this nation, till the times of Auflin 
the monk; about the year 600 after Chrift: it is true indeed we find mention 
made In the early part bf our biftory, that,yfl/5/i of ArimatBea canie over into this, 
ifland, fo early as the year , '3 1 after Cferift ; and th»t Lucius was the firft^Chriftian 
king, about the year 200; and thafC(W;?tf»/mi'puWickIy declared hiili'fclfa con- 
vert to the Chriftian faith, about the year 320 : but the perfeciitipn of the Druids 


txAJi P R. E F A C E. 

was commenced lolig before that- rety 'period hjPaulmus Suetonius, in the year 
6 1 after Chrift *. 

On the other hand : if the Druids, thoie adepts in all the learning, both civil 
and religious, which was known in thofe early times, had a£tuiliy retired to 
IceiaTtd, when they were forced to ^trcat from Britain, it is fomething remark- 
able; that the fcicnces in Iceland {hould have been but in a flate of infancy lb late 
as the yejM" 1056, .which is" only ten years before the Norman conqueftj' while 
Britain hjul enjoyed :the benefit 6f letters above i lob years, and the benefit of 
the Gofpel above 450, or,-according to others, 736 years before that period : for 
Dr. Finnaus, the learned bifliop of SkalUolt, in his Ecclefiaftical Hiftory of 
Ice/and, publifhed in 1772, compares the ftate of the Sciences in Iceland to the 
Four .ages of human life : " their infancy" fays he, " extended to the year 1056 j 
when the introdudiion of the, Cbrtfbian religion produced the firft dawn of light: 
— they were in ^^vc youth till 1 110 ; when fcnools were firft ellabliihed, and 
the education and inftru£tion of youth began to be more attended to than be- 
fore: — the manly age laded till about the middle of the 14th century; when 
Iceland produced the greateft number of learned men t—^ld age appeared towards 
the end of the fame century j (fhort duration !) when the fcienccs gradually de- 
creafed, and were almoA: intirely extinct; no works of any merit appearing; 
biftory now drooped her head } poetry had no relifh j and all the other fciences 
were enveloped in darknefs ; the fchools began to decay t and in many places they 
had none at alf; it was very uncommon for any to underibuid Latin j «nd few 
priefts could read their breviary and rituals fluently :"— fuch is the account which 
this learned bifliop has given us of the ibite of learning in Iceland 'Y- 

Whether or no there has been a refufcitation of learning in Iceland, mthin 
,tiiefe two or three centuries laft pail, as we very happily find there has been in 
our own nation, I have not as yet been able to learn ; but this is a truth that 
may be very fafely admitted, that if there are any number of word* in our lan- 
guage, in common with the inhabitants oi Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sueden^ 
Germany, or any of the other Northern dialeSh, it will be evidently' found, in the 
courfe of confulting the following Work, that they are either all, or mod of 
them, derived, both to them, and to ourfelves, thro' the medium of the Greek 
and Latin language ; thofe two being the origin or chief compofition of moft 
European tongues^ except in fome few particulars ; and it is from thofe two 
languages- chiefly, that we are polTefled of all that copioufnefs of exprefOon; and 
all that fluency of words, which are to be found in the writings of our beft 
poets, apd the foccches of our beft orators : .and indeed it is no wonder that thefe 
two Ihould be the main fources of the Englijh language, fince, as we have feen, 
the Romans, had been fuch powerful a<ft6rs in the Britifli affairs, for five hundred 
years before the arrival of the Saxans j and that very probably the Greeks had' 
been here at ieafl a thouland years before the Romans. 

* And yetStowe, p. 38, mentions the convertion of msnf of the Druydes to the Cbritlian faith 
iii the time of Lucius about 179, or rather 200 after Chiift. • 

t It is much to be feared, this melancholy reprefentation of the date of the fciences in letianJ may be- 
apptied much nearer home j for they do not hav^' been ill a more floriihing fiCuation, even 200 

Sars after that, nry period, in our own iJland ; for that would fall in Very nearly with the times of 
cnry VIII. wbea an old monk, wh* bad ConAan^y in, hii breviary read ^kw^/wh/, Domim, for 
Sumpfimuj, was admoniihed to correfl hi»abfurd exprellioni " No," fays he, " no; I have read it fo 
for above thefe fifty years paft) and fliall not now 'change iny good old Mumpjimuij foe your new 
fangled Sian^fimus" 

^ Whenev«. 

Digitized by njOOQIC 

PREFACE. xxxiii 

Whenever therefore we find any words at jpreicnt fiib£fting in our language, 
limilar in ibund, but undoubtedly die fame in ugnification» or very nearly Co, with 
others in the Greek tongue, why .fhouU we at all hefiute to deduce their origin 
from thence ; or be afliamed as it were at find4Dg our mo^n EngUjh derived from 
fo antient and fo honourable a nation ?— why then do our etymologills flop 
ibort of this great fouotaiq, and endeavour to deduce their derivations from the 
muddy dialects, and impuix hianches of all the harfh, grating. Northern tongues, 
inilead of tracing, following, and perfuing their etymologies thro' the main 
courfe of that mofl noble language, the Greek, which would infallibly lead them 
to the true origin of their own ? 

The Audy and cultivation therefore of the Gr^ek and Roman languages 
would be a far more rational, and a far more advantageous employment for 
Engliflimen, as Englishmen, than the addreiling themtelves fo much to the 
French tongue ; which has arifen (rf" late to fo great a degree, that they have in 
a manner almoft totally negle^ed the cultivation of their own mother tongue, to 
adopt that of foreigners:— this fondnefs for the French, even fo high up as the 
times of Edward the Confejir, in 1051, was carried to fo great a height, that it 
actually paved the way for the Norman conquefiy as Milton obferves in p. 330; 
** then began the EngliHi to lay afide their own antient cuftomes, and in many 
things to imitate French manners ; the great peers to fpeak French in their hou&s ; 
in French to write their bills, and letters, as a great piece of gentility, afliamed 
of their own j a pre&ge of their fubje^on ihortly to that people, whofe faihions 
and language they aftedted fo llaviihly :" — how :^tally applicable may this pre- 
diAion be to ourfelves, even at this prefent period ! — *• if thefe were die caufes," 
continues he, p. 357, " of fuch mifery and thraldom to thoie of our anceftors, at 
the Norman conqueft, with what better clofe can be concluded, than here in fit 
feafon to remember this age, in the midft of her fecurity, to fear from like vices, 
without due amendment, the revolution of like calamities !" 

To fum up this argument ; let us juft take a fhort retrofpedive view of the 
foregoing events, and their dates ; which will moft evidently prove the great 
antiquity of the Greek tongue ; and at the fame time fiiew us the periods very 
aearfy when the other European languages commenced in this ifland : 

I, The EGYPTIANS colonized GREECE, under die following leaders : 

B<r. CbriC. 

V 1. M^aleust who founded the kingdom of 5/V)V« 2079 

2. Jnacbus, who founded the kingdom of Argos • 1856 

3. Ogygest who founded the kingdom of The&et in Baotia 1855 
and, 4. Cecrops, who founded the kingdom of Athens — — 155A 

IT. The GREEKS colonized ITALY, under die following leaders : 

ScT. Ctrift. 

1. Oenotriu, from ArcaMa -■■ ■ — - 

2. Pelafgus, from ^hejafy — - — — 

3. Ev^ider, from Pallantium in Arcadia — ' 

4. Hercules, firft landed in Spam •» then next in Italjf y • • 

5. Mneas, from Troy, landed at Laurentum -— ' ^- 
ttd. 6. The Phwceanti who built MarfeUks in Fnmct — 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

jffiuir P R. E F A C Ei. 

III. ORE JEKS fettled in BRITAIN. " . ' 

Bcf. ChriR. 

1. The Druids, long before Brutus — -— .^— 2000 

2. Brutus, from Trvy \b Spain ; from i^ii»r to Britain — — 11 17 

3. .R^W brings four-Grcelc philofophiers from Athens- ■ — 980 
.. — — ahd afterwards bailds his univerfity of jS/cw/w"*/ 963 

4. Temples*- buUt in Britain to Greek deities- — — — 962 

IV. ROMANS fettled in BRITAIN. 

Bcf. Chdft. 

. . I* C^^rV Invafion , 1 ■■ '» * — — — 52 


2. Claudiui Drufus comes into Britain, • ' • ' 55 

3. Trajan ■ ■ — . ■- 100 

4. Adrian builds a wall in Britain - - ■■ " - — — ' 124 

5. 5fv^ttj likewife ; and afterwards dies at-J^ri "— - ■■ ' ■ ' 2i i 

6. Conjiantius too dies at Tori ■ ■■ "t ■ ■ ■ ~— 306 

7. Qonjians — _ ■'■■■■^ __ ^54 

8. The Romans leave Britain - — _ 4^7 

V. The SAXONS begin tp moleft BRITAIN 285 

' . ■ are invited 9vei by Vortigern' " »-■>■ 450- 

Vj[. The DANES begip their cri;?! ravages tt^ 787 

VII, The NORMANS invade ENGLAND • .1066 

And, VIII. Learning floriflied in ICELAND ^ 1350 

Notwith {landing then all tbe partiality, th?t ^y 9f our etymologies may b9ve 
defired to ihew, for their different fayourite fyilems ; ^s. Cklond for the Celtic } 
VerjiegaUi Juniuf, sind Ray, for the S^xvi % Skinner for the, Beigic and Teutonic'-, 
and Lye £oT t\\e JceJflndic, An(^ othet Northern tongups ir—it. is not ppfljble to fup- 
pofe, becaufe it is not poifible to conceive, that the Greeks and Romans, (the 
Greeks more efpeciAlly) \vhofe prigin bas. bgen tr^ed up to the earlieft account of 
things, lliould not have had language till they borrowed it from the Celts, 
or Gauls i nor a religion, till they borrowed it from the Druids in Britain :• as well 
might we fuppofc, that learning IhouM have been the offspring of ignorance; and 
politcnefsoi barbarifm: (Ml the contrary, it fcems to have been far more likely, 
that thefe latter people themfelves, bsFbarous in their manners, and rude in their 
dialedt, vfere -taught both to refine the one, and polifh the other, by the con- 
nexions, which they formed in many fubfequent generations, by war, by 
commerce, by intermarriages, or by fome other means of communication, with 
thofe lyra more polite nations : and perhaps it may not be altogether unreafonable 
. to fuppofe, that they were brought to fome degree of i:e6nem<;nt by the Druids 
themfclye^ ; who, a^ we have dready liint?d, plight havA been qt Sjft fome Greek 
philof(?phers, or at leaft fome Gref^, crnigrants, v(ho fettled, here very early in 
this njt'oa : foe this is certain, that ^ong before the. arrival of the Saxons, the 
Drrnd^ bpth undecdood a^^ wrote the Grecl^ letters : ^qd 90t the DruitU only, 


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f tk t t A fi. i*xsV 

for SanaftW,' J»ij, teJIslis', <ftM ftet^^ieii th» *iM*8'rf" Caligula dhd Drufiis, 
*• HdtHiniUi; A** ftw:*rtd'<on'?tf GilrfoMlhVftaAfc* tb biVfc bcfen i-klhg iibotft 
Ibe y<af'4-4afte^-*GhFm, by'ah^ttftsUrrtffc^frf, vAA'Aia'-lftteripttoh'* in Cirrtik j '' 

- ■■: ■ i- .'MHTpbijOMS^ETMNAIOf |PA^ ' ;. :'.'\ 

this coin then muft have Wn ftru'ckabdct 400 yeart'bcibfe thb coming oVci- olF 
the Saxons j and" 96 afteV th'^ "h^d feten acquahitci! with fhe Rottiatia. ' 

This opinion, that bur British inceftofs Undtritood Grfedk Ipng btfortf the 
arrival of either komans ot SaXons, will receivfe i yet filllet' 'doittfirmitibft ftom 
the natnts of the feveral temples that Were b6flt b/ tHe Bh'tifh Itirtgs, long 
before Cafar i as mentioned hy our ahticnt hiftofians, particularly Stowe, p. 2», 
where he tells us, that ^* Ebrahke bayldeti i templii to Diana m Torke^ about 
t)62 years btfore Chrift ; that BlaSudj p. 42, made a (ettiple \o jipdlb in ^atbe, 
853, before Chrift,. i. e^ 800 years before thfe Romans ; ever faw Britain: and 
that Lear, his fon, made a temple to' Janus in 'LekeJ^, 844 bfcfore Chfiftj 
and that ConeJagus, grandfon of Lear, made a ttrnple to Mars at Perc&e (now 
Perth) J another to Mmer*va in Bangor ; and a thitd to Mercury in Cornwaf, 
about 8go years before Chrift, or 52 before even 'the butldine of Rome. 

From whence how can it be: fuppofed, that they acquired thofe names f — not 
From the Romans certainly: — if it fliould be faid, that th^fe were Celtic natiies, 
and that the Greeks adopted theni from the Celts and'Dtuids i let me only o'tfet 
in reply, that it may be very eafily Ihewn from the writings of the Greek poets, 
and hiftorians, that thefe Very'names were in common ufe among the Greeks, 
long before the times of the Trojan war ; Which is many ceiituries before it cail 
be proved, that the Celts had any Connexion with Ae Greeks, 6r the Gtqek& 
.with them ; nay, if it muft be granted that they had any, then it is far mori 
likely, that the Celts borrowed thefe names froni the Greeks, thart thfe Greeks 
from the Celts j notwithftanding that Father Pezron, and Cleland, would have 
both the Greek and Latin language^ come frotA the teltic j in which opinion, I 
believe the whole ftream of clalfic fcho!ars will unitt to a man againft them •. 

■11. On the U/e o/ZTYM O L Q G Y. 

LET me now fay fomething on the U/i of Etymology in general, , 

There are two branches of knowledge in the attaining of every language, botH 
antient and modern : the iirft, becaufe the moft eafy and obvious, is the fimpld 
JignifiCation^ or meaning of the common and ordinary words, which conftitutc that ^ 
language j and this is attainable by the moft ignorant and illiterate j for there aror, 
thotffands of our oWn countrymen, who can neither read, nor write, much lefr 
fpell, who yet are able to maintain a decent converfation ort rriany intricate fub-: 
jed:s: but then, what is the knowledge of fuch illiterate perfons, compart to 
the knowlolge of thofe, wh6 have acquired a ftill farther inlighi into the powers 

* Sheringham likewifa is of the fame opinion, that the teari)!Ag.of thn Greeks, in a great mesfufe 
vas derived from the GeUc, or Gotht; for thefe are his own words in p., i^, .where he fayB,/',t<4 
<^rte hcroe^ artiuoi et fcicntiarum invcntores, fama cc|ebreg, et' rcruoi expcrienti^ do^, iatcf Qetas 
cxftitcrint, ui ab Ulis Grtcci inagnfl ex parte literis ac difciplinis infbuAi funt." 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 

xxxvi PREPACK. 

of our Itmgaage, by haviitf read otfr beft ftuthorfr, bodi of antienc aad modem 
times } it it hardly poffib^e to ffopofe, that » yet greater iiiiid con be opened to 
the minds of fuch readers^ «rho ieem to be already fraught* with all the know* 
ledge that the Engjijb language Is capable of beAowing ; and yet there is another 
branch of fcience in the ftudy of ottr own tonpte, that may afford even them, if not 
a farther infight into it, at leaft may afford them ibme amufemcnt in the perfuit 
of it ; and particularly ]£ novelty has any cffed : and it is etymoh^ will fiirniib 
us with this new difcovery ; for there are numberleis words, that are familiar to 
curves, familiar to our ears, familiar to our tongues; but, notwithllanding all 
this caSy familiarity, we may not perhaps know from whence they are derived ; 
and why they carry that particular meaning, preferably to any other; or why 
perhaps they fometimes, tho' but feldom, carry a different meaning, and wear a 
difl^rent appearance from the original language : ^ye all know that things are 
called to and fo ; but do we know why they are called fo ? — it is etymology will 
inform us, by giving us the original. 

This knowledge will fnrely afford us the greater pleafure, becaufe it will afford 
us as it were a double infight into the powers of each word j viz. the common 
acceptaikn, and the derivative fenfe ; that is, the fenfe it borrows from the original 
language ; and from this comparifon will fometimes arife a new idea of that 
word ; which, if we had not acquired before, muft give a new pleafure to the 
imagination : many inftances of which might be here produced, were it not for 
fear of lengthening this IntroduAlon too far : one however ihall juft be men- 
tioned ; viz. the word Coroner^ or, as it is commonly called crooner, which hais 
been fuppoftd by (bme to lignify an officer belonging to the crov>n, or appointed by 
therrowBj and undoubtedlyderived from the Latin word wrona; acrswn^ or coronet : 
but (to fliew the powers of etymology) let me obfcrvc, that the words crowner 
and coroner, have no more connexion with a crown, or a coronet, than with a 
nigbtingaie, or a ilackbirdi as will be moft evidently ^ewn in the derivation o£ 
the word Coroner in the Work itfelf. 

A* to 'he former of thefe two branches, which concerns the definition ofwordi^ 
our beft EngliHi dictionary-writers are certainly the beft guides : but when they 
attempt any thing beyond the meaning of a word, and pretend to give the dert- 
vatioH- of it, they attempt a province they have but too often failed in j they caiL 
ftadily inform us what it is, but they feldom inform us truly whence it is ; for 
their derivationt are generally cither very erroneous, or very defcftive ; they either* 
give us a falfe derivation., or derive it from a language, which was itfelf but a 
derivative ; they fcem to have aimed at only pointing out the neareft language,, 
from which they fuppofed we took it ; not confidering that that very langu^^e itftif 
<ook it from feme other, which took it from a third -, and confequently was not: 
-^ original, but only die derivative of a derivative : and therefore certainly they 
•ought n9t to have ftopt, in fo indolent a manner, at the 6rft language they could 
conveniently catch bold on •, but to have traced it fomething ^ther« and hav& 
given us, if polUble^ the original. 

Let the channel or channels then (for there undoubtedly are many) thro*' 
whi,ch the words of our tmdern Engli/h have been derived to us, be whatever 
they may, Roman, Gothic, Celtic, Saxon, teutonic, or Icelandic, ftiU it is- the Greek 
alone that is the true baixs of the Englijh tongue ; for it matters not, as we ob- 
ferved above, from whom we borrow any wordj if Aofe, from whom we 


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borrowed it; borrowed it from thoie, who borrowad from the Romans, wbo bor* 
rowed it from dte Greeks j then confequently the Greek i< the only radix of 
chat word j notwithftanding the various dialers it may have pafied thro', before it 
came to be adopted by our&lves *. 

Every Englifhman undoubtedly thinks he ondn'ftands the EngliA language* 
becaufe he fpeaks it, and is able to make ufe of it for all the purpo&£ of com* 
mon life ; and this may, and docs anfwer all his exigences ; and that is enough 
for him : be it fo. Many then may content themfelves with the bare Jmowledge 
of a word, and think it a fufficient acquiiition if they know t&e generai meaning 
of it ; and indeed fuch a knowledge is fully fufficient for their contraded ^here : 
—but an etymologift is not fatisficd with the bare, &mple JSgn^caf ton of a word, 
he would wilh to know the radical formation of it ; he will not content himfelf 
with the mere knowledge, that any -word^gni^t fuch or fuch a thing j he would 
be glad to know fomething farther ; he would willingly be informed, whether it 
bears any connexion with the original idea : nay, it may be confidently aflerted,. 
that no perfon can thoroughly underfland the power and energy of tie Englijb' 
tongue, who does not trace it up to the Greek.- — thus, for inftance, every one knowr 
tie meaning of the following words, being part of a lady's drefs, :viz. her caf* 
bandkercbieft apron, ruffles, lace, rowrt, and Jacques or the following, being part 
of the furniture of her work-ba/ket, rappertjlk, thready fciffkrs, neeMes^ pirns .f— 
thus every one knows tie meaning of thefe expreilions, tie duce take ity fudk a 
thing Kjpick andjhan new ;-^veiy one knows tie meaning of thefe words* hridlti 
fttddle, fitrrops, vsiip, boots, J^urs, and journey } but does every one know tie diriva^ 
//m of thofe words } and that all, and each of them are Greek j as will. be. found 
on confulting every one of them under their proper articles,- among manyv hua* 
drcds more in the compilation of the following work. 

Bat there are many words in our language ^t continue to wear fb itruige, and- 
uncouth an appearance, as #auld require more thsui an Oedipus to devek^ 
and difentangle them from their prcfent intricate and enigmatical difgui&s :^-thu»^ 
the exprefiions iot-cockks, fcratci-cradle, link-bay, boggle-boe, iaut-goCt, bm-m$t, 
kici'Jiawtt crutcied-Jriers, and innumerable others, can only be explained-by their 
etymology :— every one of which is Greek. 

Another great ^ of etymology is, that it will fcrvc to fir thz-ortbograpfyi or true 
method of writkig each word ; by keeping as near as poHible to the original^, 
without deviating too far from the general method that has prevailed thro' ctiftom. 

Whoever is engaged in a work w this nature, will prefently find, that there are 
many words, the orthography of which is ftill very far from being eftabUfhed : 
this is a fubjed, which has defervetfiy employed the thoughts and pens of feveral 

• Ittieed no wonder (hat our r«nguage Should be conftru^4 ** muchou' the btfis of ifc* Gteelt: 
•oneue \ ioF, notwitbftandiag we fecm to have bad x clofer connexion, and a more intimare ac^ 
q^alDUnee with the Northern, than with cither the Southern or the Eaftern nations i yet this difficulty 
will prercntly be removed, when we confider that thofc very Northern nations tbemlelves, I mean th« 
Gtibts yanJek, Saxant, and Germam, had a much more early connexion with the Greeks, than what is ge- 
nerally imagined : for Sbering. p. 270, fayi, "- majcna tamen Gtthii amicitia, et neceffitudo cua) 
Trojania intervencrit, qui et Myfiam, Phrygi* partem Troadi conterminam, in fuam poteftattm 
tempore belli Trojani redegiflent : Telephus cnim, Gothorum in Myfii rex, Aftyoch'am, Priatni 
fororem^ uxorem duxtt ; Eurypylufque filius ejus, in bello ilto cecidit :" — and again, in p.- 2 8 8, he 
obferves, **art« et fu peril itiones iftaa magicas, Wodenut, ut vcriiimtle eft, a Graecis, aliiCque ia- 
Afi^ A&icVet Eufopi circwnjacentibus (epulis, cwnparavit." 


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Kx»riii P. R E F; A C. S. 

of OUT bed -writers, fiarticvl^rly Steele* Addi)[b<ik and Swjft, who hitve codcA*- 
totued to . ^ve a permanency to I3ur latiguftge, by endeavouttng to fix .' tfw 
trthogrdphy 'of.itt *nA yet in how 4(t£tu«dng a ^te doQs it remaiik even to 
this day ; and how much room is there ftill ieft for refomMttoA 1— for wbii* 
w: hare foniany words in our "laaguage ■derived to us fronj the afttietit Fracuco- 
Oallic, and the modern French ■, and fo lonig as we will fervilely continue to copy 
d^raaannor of writing thofe words, ."Weinqft be wrtjng; Tot there; are no people 
in EuropQ who have deviated mcH'e front the Greek and HpnifUi writfcrs in theif 
inanner of orthography, than the Gallic nations : innamerahle examples^f which 
will be met with, in confulting the following Work: — ntot that. I would be thought 
to inean^ that France has never produced any men of genius, whofe writinj^ 
have not difplayed both great learning, and depth of reafoning * ; but that theit 
language and orthography is moft faiilty and erroneous j becaufe it confradifts 
etymobgy, in departing the ftrtheft from the great originals ; which hiakes theif 
writings appear in many inftances as diftorted, as an oratioa of Tully would be, 
if tranflatcd into French by any iHiterat<b perfon, and didated to him by another 
equally as" learned, with his nofc full of fOuff, or properly toned in the true 
Gallic twang: in fuch diftortions therefore let us not follow theihj but' it is fin- 
poffiHe to fix on any certain method of writing, that may be admitted by ail, 
till ibme fociety of gentlemen, of fufficient authority and abilities, VhcJfe 
example might be prevalent enough to recommend their method to pra^ce» 
would undertake this arduous ta&; for it is hot' the labors of one pen alone 
eifi be adequate to fo great an undertaking. 

. While there ftill then continue, even in our beft difliionarie?, fo many words 
wliich^areei^erfalfely derived, badly explained, or whofe orthography contra- 
di&s derivation, the fureft method of reforming them, and againft which even pre- 
judice itfelf could not raife anobjoAion.wouldbe, to c^onvince ourown couritrytheh, 
that Jttymkgy rfAiXf would be the fafeft guide, by attending diligently to ihe ori- 
ginal word ; and in what ihapc foevw that appears, to let the derivative wear "the 
fame appearance, and hie clothed as near, as poifible in the fame ;-lettcrs :— this 
would, ftamp a fan£tion on our orthograjAy ; would becooie the ftand:ird method 
bf writing ; and be appealed to, as the dernier refort in all cafes of doubt and 
difficulty: — thus, for example, many fcem to doubt whether (hey ought to write 
ailum .withiwo llsy or with one; whether they ought to write Itnnen with three 
tmtUj or with .two ; and whether they ought to write cin*^, or eicriy ; firat^igem, 
arjiraicgemi — ithcn etymohgy would eafily Ifix the propriety: — again; we often 
fee the word Catbtrme in the- works of men of learning i but this method is 
doubly wrongj for it.isa Greek word, and the Greeks, had noCj neither did 
they write the fecond fyllable with an e -, as the etymology of it plainly ihews. 

If any of our etymologifts do but meet with a word that wears the leaft on- 
common appearance, they have immediate recourfe to the SaXon, or fome othet 
barbarous Northern dialed:, for the original j thus the word Aretumes has bv fome 
of them been miftaken for a Saxon exprcffion, tho' they have explained- it by 
fuppellex gravior, quae difficile movetur ; or, omne utenfilp robuftius, quod ab 
3edH)us non facile revcllitur; eoqne ad Haredtm tran^t tanquam membrum 
Hareditaiis -, and confequently ought to have been written betr-loomSt or rather 

* i^'Ego non adimo 'cri.itoriblis Gallb t)o<tuentiHi, non adimo &rinonis nitonrm, non adino ictrnen 
yigcnii } fed habemus ros quoque fcriptorcs Anglos, qilCis'cuin -G^liV^urqiiivte alia genti conicrri 
'p^jOcjure, et finefaKu (.X dimcm:" Shering. Prcf. 

f bar- 

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P R B F- A <3f B. xxxix 

i«iv--/OT^ ; and thf p tbey might have feen that it was evideatljr Greek>-aad not 

$axoR ) ais wi)l he ibund in the Work itielf. 

Only ooe inftance-iuore fhall be produced from A Lift of Eiigliih weeds, de« 
Fived from the Greok tongue, and publiihed by Dr. Nugent at the end of his Port 
Koyal Greek Primitives ; in which he has given us this word Eu^q/Sa^ with an^ 
^nd then imtne4ia^y after has prodaced the Greek word Eu'$--pA»«c,, which 
he tells, us originates from the primitiv* root «>pi)i*, me/u ; the otm*/.-— then let roc 
obferve, that fince the original is written with a (^^ ^^ derivative ought ta have 
aflumed a pb : but what makes it ftiJi more abfurd is, - that in the vecy next page 
the Dr. tells us» that " ^U'phr^^i (now he writes it with a fb) is the name of 
an herhi which \^ laid to be good for purifying the brain, and clearing iSe 
^it-'"'— then it were to be wiftied. Tome {kilful hand had but admiaiUcred a iinaU 
dofe of this iiiaz fight- clearing herb to the Dr. as an etynxobgift, that he might . 
have feen the abfurdity of writing the felf-fame word, in the fclf-feme article-, 
t;wO diiFe^cnt ways, and giving at the fame rime the original word, and its deri- 
vative, both which bear IJjcU palpable evidence againft him-; and, yet it ii poffiblc 
^ab his firft OEthqgrapby may be right, tho' not according tq- his own GreeJ^ 
pr.i«Htiv« : fee this word in the Work itfelf : — it iS: true indeed the Greek (p, and 
t)ie. Latin ^i$, do bqth of tbem found with us like any"i but (iirely it would b« 
phhicfj/f phoo/i/b, and ^haatafiic^ to wriie the propex nanie FiV/JA with an F j aiui 
^n immediately tell m, it was derivqd from Pht/if.fius in Lario, with. a. pit i. as 
thftt. a^ia. is derived from, <P~iXi^nns in Greek, with a ci> :— this puts- me in- miadt 
<}( a,i:)f:cum(liW(;e that happened to an hioeeft N'Orfolk ihepherd, who once faund 
k ii:ray iheap iri his dock!,, andi on ebfefving that .it was marked with an^ E- ?i 
began to reppJJeil the names of all the farmers round him ; but could not ^d, 
afly Qnp, whofe name, began with thole two Wters ; unlels, it belonged, to 
Fti. ParieUi accordingly he went to Mr. Parletii but never was- more afboniftieA 
m all hi& life, th«n to. iind, that he would not acknowledge the flray, tho' he faMA 
it was marked witli hie own name :— I tell yon no, fays Par-letc,F P does noit 
fland for my name Phi/ip Far/ett, for then it it would have been markad P P :— . 
how can that be ? fays Tom i; i$ not your name F;>?— well then, fays Par4ett^ - 
ftot to puzzle yourfclf any longei;,- carry your ftray to Mr. .fVanqis Piggc, and h*' 
will fet all to rights again : — Tom went,, and was fotisfted. 

Apoth« ufi refulting from the ftudy of etymslogy.t. and which deferwqs- ^t, leafli 
to be mentioned, tho' an article of no very great moment, but meri,ts.. fonw at-« 
Hentionj and that is /^^^rc^fr <//v^wgfwarJ/, bath in printing. and writing ; (he 
aegled of which betrays either great carclcifnefs, or grofs inattention :; who, foX' 
inH-ance, can endure to fee the words d^y or dipb-tbongy and pro^nc/Iis^ cutj 
in pieces, and hacked in fo cruel and unwprkmanlike a miixinct }r^d'p' tbpmg isi 
dqubly falfe j falfe in orthography, and f^tlfe inidivifion ; for it ceptainly is.neithcr 
dip^ nor diph-tbmgy there being no fuch ws>rds j but di~pbtbong:. neither ought 
the other word to have been divided thus, prog-mfik \ but thus, pro gmjik ;■, a* 
tiieir etymologies moft. evidently fliew:— let others then dip and ^rijf in thp dirt 
4S muflh. as they pleafe ; they ought only to be fent, for a fuller eonvicftiqn, to. 
an equally learned infcription to be met with on a country grave-ftone, which 
curioufly inforaw us that it was. erefled In meoiory of John and: Jq«i fuuh*i^one, 
and- alfo two of their cb t •^Jdren. 

Etymology is certainly onft of the faireft fountains of golitc literature;, it .not 


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^\ PREFACE. t 

only leads us to the meaning of every word, but gives us at (he fame time the 
pleafure of tracing that word, thro' feveral other languages, which had adopted 
it before us, till we arrive at the great original, from which all took it ; and 
thus by exploring and fearching the derivation of each word, we are broiight at 
krt to the true fountain head ; and in this fcarcli, it is etymology will l«id us 
fure, by fhewing us the connexion, and (if it may be fo called) the confanguinity, 
that fublifts between the original, and its derivathe ; between the mother, and her 
Oaughferi between the parent, and her offtpring. 

Then let not this be looked on as a vain and trifling ftudy, or only a harmlefs 
and innocent amufement ; it is more * : it is a ftudy, in which the wifcft men, 
jn all ages, and nations, have taken a pleafure to invedigate ; fuch as Arijiotk, 
Plato, Julius Pollux, Suidas, Hefycbius, Pbiloxenus, Euftatbtus, and many others in 
Greek: Marcus Terentius Varro, Sextus Pompeius Feftus, Cato, Cicero, ^ntilian, 
Jof, and y, Caf. Scaliger, Ifidorus, Johannes Fungerus, Ger. and If. VoJJius, Fahian, 
Hefner, Henry and PMert Stephens, Meric Cafaubon, the learned Francifcus Junius, 
and among our own countrymen. Sir Hen, Sfelman, Rajr, Somner, SheringSam, 
jf£cies, 'dinner, Tbwmtes, and Lye, in Latin : Cafaubon and Junius indeed were 
foreigners, and therefore excufable for writing on the EngUJb language in Latin f 
;but for Spelman, Rm, Somner, Sbering&am, Hickes, Skinner, Thwaites, and Lye, 
who were all BAgSJbmen, to write on the Englijb languagein Latin, is really fome- 
thing unaccountaUe, and unnatural ; for they have by that means in a great 
mealure defeated the very intention c^ their works, by confining them in a man- 
ner to the reading and inftrudion of only a few learned men, who fcarce ftood 
ita need of their afllftance, inftead of diffuflng their writings into the hands of 
<everv Englifhman ; and thereby rendering thnr labon of public utility. 

Now, tho' it be impoilible in a work of this nature, to avoid giving the words 
•of the ieveral authors, who have been, and mu(l be confulted in fuch an under- 
;taking, in the different languages they themftlves wrote; yet care has been taken 
thmugbout this work, to give the meaning and interpretation of almoft every 
article m EngUjh. 

From hence will naturally arifc another utility in cbnfulting the following 
Work; and that is, the great variety oi ^nonymous expreffions that have been madfc 
oife of, in order to explain any article under conlideration : but let it always be 
remembered, that fynonymus terms and definitions are very far from amounting 
(to derivations. 

Works of this nature are certainly never intended for perufal j for no man would 
Avillingly^ fet himlelf down to read, much lefs to write, a didionary ; but only to 
confult it» whenever a word may occur in reading, writing, or in converfation : it 
is the duty therefore of every dictionary compiler, and particularly of an Etymologi- 
cal Dictionary, to give the reader all the information and fatisfatftion in his power. 

The office of a mere di^ionaiy writer is often but a very irkfome tafk ; and it 
may well be wondered, how fuch men of genius, as fome of thofe gentlemen, and 
fi:holars, who have been already mentioned above, could poiTibly employ themfelves 
and -their -talents in fuch undertakings ^oinlcfs the dcfire of improving their own 

-'-'^Nec novs htec qucftio-eft," (ays CafaUb. 146, ** fed jam multis retro Txcults, non inter granunati- 
^«M-tant&m, fed et philoibphoi, agitata ; an verlmruBr fit etymologia vcre fcilket et io rebut ipfis ', as 
.▼CFOint fit arMr«r«]Kt ct imagiiuria, qiue fole cooftat namiae : — aallam puto cfle tun certain artcm, 
vel fcientiim ( cujiu vel vanius, rel iucertitudo, ^ qaii ui agat, multii aon poflU vetbU exagitari/* 


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fond of:k«owledge, by tracing the true origin of words, and the pleafure of 
leaving the 'fruit of- their labors to pofterity, in fome meafure compcnfated all the 
trouble arid pains they might have bcftowed in fuch very intricate refearches. 

Permit me to clofe my obfervations, with mentioning only one thing more ; in 
■which the reader will in tirely agree with me; viz. in cenfuring without referve 
that total: want of -decency and decorum, which the compilers of many diftiona- 
ries, and etymologies, have Ihewn, in firft of all colleaiog, and then afterwards 
explaining, tho''in Latiii, and fometimes in plain Englifh," many words which 
they muft unavoidably have met with, and which are to be found in every language 
under the fun, but which convey fuch ideas of indelicacy, as would have been much 
more prudent, and commendable in thofe writers intirely to have omitted, inftead 
of endeavouring to trace their etymology, and explain their meaning, which 
wanted ho explanation; for, fromobjefls, and from words, of obfcenity and tur- 
pitude, not only the eyes and ears, but even the thoughts and imaginations too, 
ooght to be kept pure and untainted : 
] Immodeft words admit of no defence j 

For want of decency is want of fcnfe *. 

Readers of fuch a caft ought to be fent to writers of a iimilar difpoiition ; and 
indeed there are but too many of that ftamp in every language; examples of 
which might have been here produced, were it. not for the defire of avoiding 
that very error, into which they have already but too grofsly fallen : let me then 
here aiTure thofe Ladies, who have done me the honor of their names to this Work» 
and others who' may be pteafed at any time to confult it, that there is not an 
article in it which can give the leaft offence ; but that every one has been carefully 
attended to, and .rendered fuch, as might entertain a modefl eye, and pleafe the 
chaileft ear ; fucl^, in (hdrt, as might gain and preferve their liberal approbation r 
hoping likewife, that . in ' many, if not in moft, of the following articles, even- 
the learned reader, may rectivB fame fatiafadtion j leaving all to the fuperior. judg- 
ment of thofe, who may be more happy in linding out the real derivation of any 
word in queftion ; and in the mean time wifhing that probability may pleafe, or 
any failure on my fide be pardoned by the more learned part of my readers* both ia 
hiftory, language, and etymology. 

Let me then, with all humility, recommend the fuccefs of this undertaking 
to the candor and impartiality of the Public : or, as honeft Holyoake lays, " iie 
moleilus, leftor, tibi fim, Bnem jam faciam, fi prius exoravero, ut mendas typo- 
graphicas plurimas, qux in hoc irrepfcrunt, humaniter indulgeas, et hos meos 
etymologicos labores,. mihi fatis moleftos, (mihi auxem JucwidosJ s:({xu bonique 
confulere digneris:" — or rather, as Cafeubon-; p. 406, has more elegantly ex- 
preifed himfclf, thus ; " gaudebo certe, li alii noftro exemplo incitati, quod 
nds inchoavimus, melioribus ipfi aulpiciis, et neceflariis ad tantum opus praifidiis 
inftrudtiores, perfecerint." 

With regard to the plSn, which has been obferved in compiling, this Work„ it 
has been divided into Two Alphabets : in the former (which is by much the larger) 
are contained all thofe words, moft evidently derived either from the Greek, or 

• A (imilar thought occurs ; Cum formofa prxtercunte puelU Pericles rxcIamaJTer, O Jtrmam. ^vli- 
ekram ! dixit ei Sophocles, Etcnim iwnjatutn huru^ fed itiam «u/0j„ habere abflioeates decct. 

y Google 

%\n P X E F A C E. 

Laiift kfi^agest thoie from the Latin purdy. am inched but verf fo« in number;' 
becauie moll of xhofe, which Teem to have been adopted from tfae Latins, the 
Latins themfclves adopted from tha Greeks: and in the latter Alphabet are: 
contained all thole words, moft probably derived from the Saacett, aod other 
Northern tongues ; tho' even many of thofc are doubtful : by tMs divifion vm 
are able to fee, how much we are indebted to each particular languigo i a Hitls- 
fadlion which other etymologies, who have blended all derivatioos ti^tber,i 
have not been able to afford us ; but now, by their having beeb thus kept 
feparate, we are able to fee the whole force and power of the B^HJb language ; 
and know how much the greater part of it has been condruAed on the Southern) 
than on the Northern tongues ; as indeed the very great difference of bulk between: ' 
the two Alphabets will fulficiently prove. 

To thefe two Alphabets is added an Index of tbofe words which, being butdn^ 
plicfltes, or collaterals to fome ri^dix^ for brevity's fake are omitted ta the Work, 
itfelf, in order to avoid repetition; and ther^ are many other words derivod frqnu 
fources fo widely different from what th^ appear to be, that the reader would not 
eafily know what article to find them under : thus, for inftance, the word ANT 
cannot be found in either of the Alphabets ; but, if it is fought for in the Index, _ 
it will be eafily found, and refers to the article EMMET in the Sax, Alph. :— thiw 
likewife the words 

enfuing •) rSEQUENT 

commerce [ \MERCHANT 

eolh-Jhwer Vare referred to ^CAULI-FLOWER 
oBleaatm \ ] DELICACY 

th/igation, &C.J CLIGATURE, &c. 

and moft of tbofe words, which being compounded of others, and omitted in " 
the Week itfelf, will be found in the Index, either under tfae fimple fonn» or 
ibme of its collateral branches, and referred each to its proper radix* 

■ I- 


Digitized by njOOQIC 


Add. - 

Aiafa. — 

Aim. — 

An«. — 

Ann. — 

Art — 

Aug. ^ 

Btlg. — 

Dor. — 
Epcnth. — 
Ecym. ^ 
E^FraoL '^ 
Euftath. • 
Fr. GaU. 

Gcfin* "^ 
Henfc. - 
UeTjtcb. -* 
Iccl. — 
ft. -* 

— ' Addendit 
-» foltcum 
—» Ainfworth 

— AltVMnk 
— Antiquum 

— Article 
— AugmentattTe 

— Belgicum 

■ ^ftRlOl*^ ISnCttUUcUITt 

— Meric Cft(i»d>otiut 
.» — Celtic 

— Qeland 
■■•■ DsnicuRi 

— ^- perivacion 

•w Porici 

— - Epeathe&i 

■^ Etymology' 

-.-^ Etytnelo^ft 

— Euftithius 

— Extraftioa 

— Franco-GaUicum 

— GalHcum 

— Oerardus Yofllus 
-^ Geraianicuni 

— Henfliaw 

— HcfycMut 

— — HomenM 
-t- IceUndicum 

— fti»i 

— — lonicc 

ir. Voff. ,— — Ifaacus VoIIius 

Ifld. — — ' Ifidorus 

Jun. — — Junius 

Lat. — — Latinum 

Lib. vett. — Libris TCteribus 

Lttt. — — Litdnoa 

Metach. — -^ Metathefin 

Minlli. — < — Minfliew 

N. — — Note 

- Neg. — — Negative 

Nug. . — — Nugent 

Obfol. - — — Obfoletum 

Odyff. — — Odjrflfey 

Orcfaogr. — . ^ OrtlH^T'^f 
Pennut. Ik. de Permuutione literanim 

Prancrit. med. Pnetericuin medium 

q. d. •-« — quafi di£tum 

Quint. — — Qumtiliia 

R. — — Root 

Sax. — — SasoB 

fc. ^— — fcilicet 

Skinn. — — Skinner 

Spelm. .— Sic Heary Spelman 

Suec. — — Suecici 

Sued. «- ^ Suedicum 

Teut. — *— Teutonicim 

Verft. — — VeraegjHJ 

Voc. — — Vocabulary 

Voff. — — Voffigs 

Upt. -» — Upton 
W^ i» W^ taTbing&lqt W«rd» 



A SPECIMEN of the different ALPHABETS. 





Englifli. 1 



























X ■ 





Ch ■ 










! d 

E H 


. E 




. E 

. e 






' f 
















■ h 



• I 

i - 

I ■ 









T 5 




k . 






L , 




L ■ 


a a 









1 3 


. ■ . ■ 









o ■ 





. S 




■ P 








. PI . 


Ph — 








Pp- - 

pr ■ 










r T 

p _ 








' D 


■ c-f 


f s. 

S ' 




, ^ 











■ 3 "■ 



T . 






:^ ■ ■ 



Th . 




































Y ■ 













Bdb, Google 


O R. A 




ThoJe Words printed with an Afterirc^ are of doubtful Origin. 

A B 

From Greek, and Latin. 

A B 

j^ driving-eff cattle by herds or fiecks. 

AB- ALIENATION, AxAor, aUus.: a term 
in the old Roman law, fignifyiBg a Jimpk fait ef 
the goods ef one citizen to another. 

A-BANDON, fome of our ctymol.' fuppofe, 
that this word comes from the Sas. or Celt, word 
Ban; to denounce imprecations : but Spelman, with 
much greater judgment tells us, that Bandum, 
Banderium, et Bannerium, \%^gnum ducis, quod 
media acic Jpeaatiffimus quisTerebat: vexillum; 
a banner : and hence to abandon any thing» is to 
defert it ; or as wc might fay in a military fcnfe, 
to run away from his colors, i. e. to abandon his 

-A- BASE, BaiTit, fundamen i the foundation, or 
Itweji part of a building j figuratively fignifying 
to bring down, or debafe the pride, or haughty fpirtt 
of man. 

A-BASH, " AC«>e»it, vel AC»g, (hmc, mutus j ex 
^, non J et Ba^w,- lequor: Sappho, apud etymol., 
AC«)CB rw 9(i» t^v. Horn. Odyff. A. 249. Ot' 
y «P«x»nray v»vrii, llli auiem omnes tacuerunt j they 
alL flood abafl)ed, or ftlent j Silens, cui ereptus eft 
ufus kqutndi. Upt." It muft be acknowledged. 

this gentleman has produced great authorities for 
this etym. (and that of Cafeub. might have 
been added) ; but neither Tun. nor Skin, give 
us any fuch deriv. Junius, indeed, under the art. 
abafbed, quotes Suidas for explaining Aj3ft^*c by 

cui ereptus eft ufus loquendi ; this, it is true, is 
the fenfe Upt. has here contended forj but un- 
der the art. ba/hful, he quotes* Hefych. for 
deriving that word from B»ra, i Air^vn, pudor ; 
verecundia j fhamefacedHefs .-—this certainly ap- 
proaches nearer to the idea of our words abided, 
and btt/bful, 

ABATE, Xlairtu, Bttriw, battto; to heat down 
the value of any article to be fold; to make a dimi~ 
nution j to leBen : vel a BaSe;, B«(rif, profundus i 
(iffufy'xngtodeprefs, demeftH, degrade. 

ABBOT, Aj3j3», pater; father ; monachorum pra- 
fes ; the head or chief g^vtrmr ef a monaftery: pro- 
perly a Syrian word. 

AB-BY i from common appearance, any 
perfon might fuppofe it was derived from the 
foregoing word jibbot; becaufc it was the 
manfion of the head ruler, or governor of the 
monksi but Clel. voc. 52', writes ic " Habbyy 
B or 

A B 

From G R E E K> and L a t i k. 

A B 

or Hah-boik-i whichi difmifTing its afplrate h, 
means the appropriate reftdence of a bead preftjfor 
of Uarning" AU this might have paflcd for a 
pure Celt, deriv. if we had not been informed 
in p, 141, that " Hah, Haf, or Heff, and in p. 156, 
that Coff (or rather Kepb) fignified the bead:" then, 
if fo,.ihey all originate a Ke^-ixXn, cap-vt, the 
head : the latter part of this compound, Clel. 
tells us, fignifies hade j confequently, will take 
the lame deriv. as BIDE, i. e. Abode. Gr. 

AB-DICATION, AdK*.;*., Adxkvw, declare i a 

ABU-OMEN, At<iJi/«i/ai-w/*)iv, abdo-omentum, 
unde abdomen, ct ahdo j to hide -, the fat of the lower. 
part of the belly ; becaufe the fat hides, or covers 

AB-DUCTED, " Auxvufx., Ai.x», Ay«, ducoi 
Voir." to lead away. 

" A-BETT, Sax. Beran j Bclg. beteren-, Teut. 
lefferen: all which are evidently the fame with our 
■word better ; and confequently derived, not as 
Skin, fuppofes, from any one of thofc tongues ; 
but from B£\T£fof, mdior i httter : this word abeit, 
therefore, muft be either of Greek origin, or elfe 
YC muft refer it to the Sax. Alph. 

J^B-JECT, " Affo ri Id* »x'^' '^bjicio; to caji 
down: vel fimplicius deduxcris ab iw, five Uf^t, 
ieu a prxfcnti loiri, feu aorifto, E(ck«, vel laxx, 
J«xiw, Jaceo i to ceift. Voff." 

ABILITY, A^u, babeo, habililas; ahlenefs, power. 

AB-JURE, Ziuf, jusijuro; jurejurando aliquid 
effirmo ; to vouch ariy thing on oath : hence to ab- 
jure, to renounce. 

AB-LATIVE, ^ffUjfero, latus ; aufero; ahla- 
iivus ; to take, or tarry away. 

AB- LEGATION, Aiyw, dico i a banijhing, or 
fending out of a city. 

A-BLEPSY, ApAfif-i*, ex A, non; et BAorw, vi- 
deo ; n blindnefs of mind, want of forefigbt. 

AB-NORmOUS, T^ia^Ms^a., norma', a fq^uare, 
ufed by builders -, alfo a law. or prefcript. 

A-BOGEN J Vcrft. fuppofes, " a bffw taketh 
its name heerof, becaufe it is made abogen, or 
bowed ; a bough of a tree is alfo fo called for bee- 
ing apt to bee abegen, or bowed ; and bowes at the 
very firft inucntion of them, were made of bowghs 
ef trees :" but we fliall fee hereafter, that a bew, 
whether the injirument, or the branchy or bough of 
a tree, is Gr. 

AB-OLISH, OAAupi, AflreXAu/**,' ferdo, vafto -, to 
iefiroy, lay wafie : though, if we follow the com- 
pofition of this word, it might be better to de- 
rive it a Ahw, ko, quod eft, fays Voff. leve, et 
glabrum reddo -, pro Anu, ct Aaw, aetem AtMmu 
dicitur; utrumquc a Aiwv, Uvis: et Hefych. ex- 
■ ponit Aaxmrtii, Aii»t{«, • iJ»AiipiT(»i, Ct "Aimww, 

deleo : quia autem mguenlo aliquid lavigatur, indc 
fad:um, ut leo, levi, lini, ^iricAtivTiKUf iignificarit 
line, ungo : quamvis autem hac notione leo in prie- 
fenti amplius in ufu non fit, remanfic tamen prs- 
teritum levi, quod lino ab obfoicto leo mutuatur : 
a leo eft ab-ole'o, qua: a Nonio exponuotur, aaculo; 
to ftain, or blot out. 

AB-OMINATE, O^, es ; ofcto, i.e. ofcito ;. 
unde ofcimen ; iindc omen ; hinc eminer,. et ab. 
ominor; unde ab-eminofus, ^ro ominofus -, ominous^ 
bad, inaufpicious -, to be deprecated, detejled, 

AB-ORTiON, ex A, non; ct 0(m*i, eridr,ex^' 
citer i. to rife, appear i to be born ; the prepoCtion- 
ab here is negative. 

AB-OVE, " Sax. bupan ; Belg. Bsven ; fupra :. 
utrumque a Sax. upan. Skin." — then they both, 
are the fame with Up; i. e. are derived ab 'Tjt-m^ 
fuper; above; quafi Tf-iw, Bupan. 

AB-OUND, *TJ*i, vel 'rh>^, quafi "!C»Jwf, undap 
hinc ab-andoi to overflow ; figuratively to pt^efs; 
much, to be in great affluence: 

A-BRIDGE, " Bf«x"f' brevis ; fiiorti according; 
to Feftus the Gramm. Brevis is formed'by chang- 
ing the Greek ;^ into the Latin v j thus Bf«;^of„ 
brevis ; as M«Aixxn» malva j mallows. Nug." 

A-BROAD. « BafJfli, «.' *OJo,, w«f« r«A«T«,f :: 
Hefych. Jun."— After which,, under the art. broad,. 
he fays, " ubi tamen viri dofti pro aX 'oin feli- 
cifTime reftituuntAo.Jo." (or rather oi'nJ(i.,ftf«/er«;;, 
" bardus Gallis cantalor appellatur;-" and indeed the- 
miftake is evident enough ; .for 'B»fSot can certain- 
ly have no connexion with nl'Kihi, though it may 
with cl Slim ; and the commentators on Hefychiu* . 
plainly (hew, that he meant tie poets, not the roads:. 
with regard now to the word nbread. Skin, fup- 
pofes it intirely Sax. but if bpah, or bjiabe, figni- 
fies latus ; wide, broad ; forinfetiu, foris, in latiorl 
extra demum fpatio, fub die, in aperte aire -, beyond' 
the limits tf the houfe, in open air-; then with 
Cafaub. both bjiab, and abroad, may originate i". 
nA«T-uf : for the n, and che B arc cognate liters j 
the X often converts into Jt, or r ; and the t, and' 
the b, or dr are related likewife; fo that the Sax.. 
bjiab, and EngUfti broad, or abroad, may have 
been formed very eafily from nA«r-iij nA«T-n«j, 
latus, platea ; broad, Jpacious ftreets. ' 

AB-RUPT, 'Pnycuiut, rumpo; abruptw; a break- 
ing-off, ending blunt. Jun. in the art. trumpet, haj 
derived rumpo a 'Purn, impetusrerum proJeffarum,.et 
folo allifarum j inferto m : and then he proceeds to 
give many inftances. *. 

ABSCESS, Xa^w, y^eiiw, recede j to retire into ^ 
recefs, ov fecret place i alfo an impojhme, bred in- 

AB-SCIND. S^.^, ^x"'". fitdo; to cut off. 

ABS-CON-Di A«*,^ft> AifTo.^, a treble com- 

A B 

From Gresk, and LATitf, 

A C 

'pound of ahSf con, and Jo j to bide, or keep clofe : 
though with If. Voir, we might rather derive 
tondo, pro ahfcondo, a KauJuiKiii, i.-e. l/LnTo-ivvitv, 
wnde Kteiio^Mj/k^ire ; to go under cover ; to he con- 

AB-SENT, E.fii, /«w, ahfum ; at a difiance j 
r-emoved far from. 

AB-SOLVE, Aoujfohs; to remit : — this word 
oarriea with it many different fcnfes ; thus the 
terms of a propofition arc faid to be taken abfolute- 
fy, \.t. for granted, or without relation to any thing 
e^e : a prince or king is faid to be abfolute, when 
he makes his own will a law : and fometimcs it 
is underftood conditionally ; as when we fay, God 
does not forgive men their ^ns abfolutely ; but on cer- 
tain conditions; fuch as repentance, &c. : and fome- 
timcs pqfitively ; as when we fay, an incident is ab- 
folutely true. 

AB-SORB, -'PoipiM, forieo % to fup up -, to carry 
away violently and fwallovo down j as in the ftream 
of a whirlpool, or eddy. 

ABS-TAIN, T«»«, Tuu, Ion. Tivt^, teneo ; unde 
abs-tineo j to keep from, to refrain from. 

ABS-TEMIOUS : from the fame root : not 
given to excefs. 

ABS-TERGENT, « Tijo-m, ^ol. pro Tnf«, 
quod fignificat ^ri^acna, _^cco, fane ut Plaucus duo 
hsc lavantur, el terguntur conjungit. Voif." tergo, 
vel tergeo ; abftergeo ; to wipe clean. 

ABS -TRACT, AfOMnrwi ti^^ayZ, traho -, to draw 
afide i to be loft in thought ; alfo to deduSI one num- 
ber from another, &c. 

ABS-TRUSE, Touw, trudo j to thrufi away ; 
alfo figuratively, hidden, concealed, myfierious. 

AB-SURD, " Xof^iiTiitot, fordus, pro furdus ; 
muti enim et furdi Temper confunduntur. Voff." and 
Hefychius likewile explains lojiTir/ior, by to ^r, 
xaflagwf J(«X(yf<rfl(M, nroi *EAA»ii.i^(ik ; proprie Itaque, 
(continues Voff. under the art. abfurdus) abfur- 
dum dicitur, c{\3>od furdis auribus audiendum -, to be 
deaf, or di^eult of hearing : we ufe this word, 
however, ina -differeor fenfe, viz. ridiculous, 

AB-USE ; E6w, /o/w; fieSa, iimB*, unde oitor, 
et oifus J nunc utor, et ufus -, ufe, cufiom ; and con- 
fequently, to abufe any thing, is to put it pafi its 
itfty or ufe it contrary to cuftoa. 

,A-BUT, ^uit^tiv, Hefych. ^a.xknv, trudere, 
arietare ; atque adeo confines terr£ adverts veluti 
frontibus videnlur concurrere -, hinc etiam Belg. 
aenjiooteude landen appellantur terra contigu^ ; or 
lands which border en each other, and as it were 
contend with butting horns. 

A-BYSS, " Af3«ff<rot, aby/us ; a bottonilefs pit : 
R. BjSos, a bottom : Nug."— rthe Dr. is undoubt- 
edly right tis to the etym. of this word -, but then 

he has not afibrded us that fatisfaJflon whicli 
Voffius has given us, under the art. abyjfus, and 
a/inus i wherein he obfervcs, that lones pro I!u9«r 
dixeruntBua-B-or, utide A^vrre( : nempcS fxpe con- 
vcrtitnr in <r : BwSot vero fundus -, itaque A;3utrflof, 
vel A|3u(r<ro(, idem fonat ac quod tarn profundus 
fit, ut quafi funde careat -, whenever Any thing is fa 
deep, as really or apparently to have no bottom. 

ACADEMY, " AxaJiijxja, a public place at' 
Athens, planted with trees ; and fo called from 
Academus, who made a prefent of it to that city. 
Nug." — to which, give me leave to add from' 
Voir. Proprie ita dicebatur nemorofus extra 
Athenas locusi in quo philofophlam primus docuit 

A-CAKIA, " the name of a fan:iily at Paris, 
fo denominated from Acakia, phyfician to Fran- 
cis I. who changed his French mmc fans malice, 
viz. without malice, according to M.. Menage,'iii 
his origins, into that of Acakia, which bears 
the fame fignification in Greek : R. ex A, nonf 
and xiwco;, malus -, xoKta, malice ; axuxi*, a mind 
free from malice. Nug." — but without all this dif- 
play of learning, it muft be granted, that this 
French family-name, hellenized, ought not to' 
have been introduced by the Dr. into a colleftion 
of Englifli words, derived from the Greek :— 
befides, according to the Greek, it ought to have 
been A-kakia with a k, not Acakia, with a c. 

A-CATA-LEPSY, AxaToAm^ia, intomprehenfi- 
bilily, ex A, nen; kuxcc, com; and Ao^ftvu, capita' 
non comprehendo ; that cannot he comprehended, or 

AC-CEDE, X«^M, x«Jw, cede, accedo -, to ap- 
proach, draw near. 

AC-CENSION, Xtxm, XiuvTo, candcntia, accendo, 
ab antiq. aft. cando ; to burn. 

AC-CENT, Kowcfls, canna ; unde cano ; accentus, 
ab acdtis ; fx ad, et cano ; legitima pronumiatio, 
quafyllaba. vel attolUtur, vel deprimitur : accenluiii ; 
a tone of voice -, alfo, thofe marks, which are ufed' 
to figntfy the elevation or deprejfton of that tone ; 
and nut, as fome grammarians have fuppofed, to 
exprefs the length or fiiortncfs of thofe fyllablcs, 
over which they' appear ; bccaufe they are placed ■ 
over long and (hort fyllablcs equally : the true 
antient ufe of them, therefore, having been long 
ago loft, the moderns begin to print Greek with- 
out them ; except in fomc few inftances, jutt for 
diftinftion's fake. 

AC-CEPT, Karlw, flss-ojfj^tffflw, Hefych. capio, 
accepto ; to take, or receive. 

AC-CESS, Xai^i), cedo, accedo; unde acceffor,' 
oris; he who comes to, or makes one among others : ' 
to approach unto, or draw nigh: alfo tofucceed to 
the throne, ^-, _, 

B 2 ),y,tized fe^llni^H©^^ 

A C 

From Grzbk> imd Latin, 

A C 

AC-CII9ENCE7 Koru, diorfum j unde cado, | 

AC-CIDENT laccido s R. K«t«, deorfum ; 
quod cadere nihil aliud lit, quam deorfum ferri ; 
to Jlipi or fall down j to happen Ay chance. 

AC-CUVITY, TLkiTtt, dectivitas ; a Jlantingt 
erfioptng downward. 

AC-COM^PLICE, nxiKw, pUco^ compUcatus j 
4 complice, an accomplice ; conjuratus ; qui in eddem 
eonjwatione faderatus i in eedem f^dere, ac periculo 
compUcatus: a confederate, or companion, embarked, 
engaged, entangled in the fame fcheme, hazard, 

AC-COM-PLISHMENT, mwr, plenus j p/eo, 
inufit : compleo -, to complete, bring to perfedion ; 
endued with the graces. 

AC-CORD l^io^, cor \ the heart i the 

AC-CORDINGLYJ aind; to he of one mind; 
to aS in concert. 

AC-COST, Swirfljut, confto ; unde cofia; parum 
deflexo fenfu lalus Jignat ; q. d. latus Uteri jun- 
gere ; to approach, draw near ; walk Jide by fide : 
alfo tofalute any one. 

AG-COUNT, Clel. Voc. 114. n. obfervfs, 
that " the analogy of numbering by the head, is 
very ftrikingj «»feo, and ««fus, include the tell- 
ing by the head :"— rind in p. 141. n. he farther 
obferves, that " Kw is one of the old Celt, words 
for head :" — then they may all originate % Tur- 
efAM, unde TiR-vau. unde Kt» : unde gign-o, gen- 
ero; to be, to beget, to be the head, or fountain- 
caufe of origin, and generation; and, here made 
ufe of to fignify unity, or the reckoning by in- 

AC-CUMBENT, Kuwlw, K>.l3«, cuA>bo, cube; to 
lie down. 

AC-CUMULATION, Kvf«», fiuHus, quafi 
- acervus aqua, cumulus ; a heap, or pile -, that which 
is over and above meafure. Voflius derives it ra- 
ther from XufiiK, tumultus effufie ; and then adds^ 
Non video unde melius deducas, qu&m fi dicas 
elTe vToitegirixo* ab obroleto cumus -, hoc autem clTe 
i prKpofitione cum quK eongeriem notat : but If. 
Voff. thinks it may be derived from 0«|it»f, cumu- 
iasi a heap; which Hcfych. explains by Zw^o; 
ft^viit, a fiack of corn, which is always raifed by 
atcumulation, or beeping up. 

AC-CURACY, Kia^-wuf, cura; 'quafi cor ura 
qudd for Kfn/ jet uro, ^w^.tgnis; primoquodfuit 
hnro i poftca uro ; whatever is done with . care, 
eauSion, diligence. 

AC-CU^"AT1VE 7 A.T.«,Am(wfl«,fflff/a; unde 
AC-CUSE \accufare; to accufe, blame, 

reprimand; hinc aceufativus cafus, qui ct caufalivus, 
ct'Jaudativus dtcitur; ut per quem, vel acof/amw, 
vel taudamus ; the attufativt \afe among gram- 

ACE, "Elf, unasi «ne j the old Latins ufed a$s in 
the fame fenfe ; which they borrowed from the 
Sicilian Aif, vel ht. Upt." 

ACELDAMA. Clel. Way, 1 9, obfervea, that 
" this word, which in Afts i. 19. is faid, in the 
proper tongue of Jerufalem, to fignify a field of 
blood, has precifely the fame fignification in the 
Celtic : a very learned man denies the word 
aceldama to be Hebrew, and forces it from the 
Syriac : without pretending to decide that point, 
acelddam, literally tranflated, is, the field of 
murther :" — but, if this word is co be pronounced 
hard, as if written akeldama, then it may pro- ' 
bably be defcended from the fame root with kill, 
or quell; as if it was written akWdama ; confe- 
quencly Gr. though even then, it might be dif- 
ficult to Ihew how the termination dama fhould 
fignify afield, 

ACERBITY, AjHf, acies, acer 1 fear, fhart^ 

ACERVATEDj Axtj, ■ acfrvaj; an heap; ut 
propric fic dicatur rerum minuiarum congeries fafii- 
giata, five in acumen definens : " Vel ab Aytm^t, 
quod Hefych. Ai^onnr interpretatur ; nempe «»•- 
va ayfffHi-, quod eft colligere -, to colleS, and heap 
together: Voff." 

ACHE, " Axes, dolor; pain: II. B. 694. x«t 
eij(tav, jacebat marens; zh Ap^tu, doleo; to grieve^, 
vex, torment, Upt." 

ACHE- RON, ab Aj(jn, dolor; ct 'Foot, fiuvius i. 
the river of forrow j one of the poetic rivers in 
hell i and often put for the grave, or manfiens of 
the dead. 

ACID, Uxit, ades % vel ab Ofuj, aeutus, act- 
dus; fliarp; both as to form, and tafte. 

ACME, Axfta, acies j figuratively ufed to fig- 
nify fios atatis, firma atas, juventus } maturity, 6r- 
theperfeBion of time, ox fubftance. 

ACOLYTE, " AxaXaSor, a companion, or fet~ 
lower; an inferior- church officer i others derive it 
from AxMXuTOf, formed from A, non; and xaXvu,. 
arceo, impedte ; the acolyte being the highcft of the 
minor, or Icffer orders, and who has thence a. 
right to approach, or wait at the altar. Nug."— ■ 
Does this latter interpretation agree with the lat- 
ter derivation, viz. arceo, and impedio? 

ACONITE, Axo*iTo», ex Axu*, ctroi, Jaculum, . 
telum ; feu pottus herba venenata, qua- tv rxtV 
Axofixif, in cautibus nafcttur; ex Axafq, cos ; a rock, 

ACORN, AxpoJf not, fruSius arboret, et propric 
f^\iexi\ qui putamen lignofum habent; the fruit of 
trees -, particularly thofe that have a hard fbell ; as 
acorns, nuts, dates, &c. R. Ax^of, fummus, pra- 
ftantiffimus, perfe^us ; et Afuj, quercus j vel 
arbor quavii ; an oak, or aay other tree. — ^Accord- 

A D 

From G R E E R> and Latin. 

A D 

Ing to the etym. we ought to write it acrm, not 
aeonn but cuuom has eltablllhed the tranfpoGiion. 

ACOUSTICS, Axsuy audhi mtdtcintSt or in- 
firuments made ufe of to help the bearing. 

AC-QUAINT 7rtv««tM, egnefcO; q.d. 

AC-QUAINTANCES ad-cogmtus, notus -, a 
toell-inovon, familiar friend. 

AC-QUESTS} EfofMEii £^«raw, Ef«, quaere, ae- 
^kiro i to purchafe, or e^taiu j purcbafes made, or 
things bougbt. 

AC-QUIT, Artxw, ahftineo ; to ahftain from, 
to reUafe: R. ttwu ec i^vt babeo, ttneo: Skin, has 
perhaps more judiciou fly derived our word acquit 
from quietem dare ; quafi adquietare ; but then in 
diis, as well as in many other etym. and with 
many other etymologifts, he has flopt fhort, and 
left this word as if derived ultimately from the 
Lat. whereas the Lat. words themfelves are both 
of Greek cxtraft : and evidently derived either 
from Kii^M} quiefco, quits i or elfe from Kiw, 
quieo i to tie down, to be at reft. 

ACRE, Ayfof, ager; afield, or land, or mea~ 
fure of land : Verftcgan fuppofes it to be Sax. 

ACRID 7 AxK , Axn, edes^ ammonia ; 

ACRlMOt^Y I Jbarpnefs, vehemence, eameftnefs. 

ACRO-STIG, Axfof, fummus, extremus ; et 
rijtot, verfus, ordo j a word, or name, read acct^d- 
ing to the initial, or final letters of the verfes. 

ACT, Ay«, ago ; to do; properly transferred 
to the mind. ^ . 

ACUTE, Axif , actis ; a needle, a point ; Jbarp' 
tned : or elfe from Axc^Hf, acuo : R. Axn, acies ; 
tbe edge, or point of a weapon. 

A-CYRRED, or KYRED. Verfteg. fays, "wee 
vfe for this the French woord turned:" — then moft 
probably it is derived a ruf-o?, gyr-us -, a «r-cuit, 
or n'r-cle, i. e. tmy thing turned round. 

AD-ACTED, Ay», ago -, to do; dueo ; to lead, 
or drive gently. 

ADAGEl, AvJMxiei', ab AuJw, vel AuJix^w, ida- 
gium J a proverb. 

ADAGIO, Ayv, ago% to leadgentbf: a term in 

A-DAMANTINE, Ai»i*»s, arrtt^ adamas, 
sntfi i lapis duriffimus ; a diamond t not .eaff to be 
cut : R. A, non j et ^xfta-u, dome, are ; tofubdue. 

ADD, A«, AiJw/Jit, do, adde i to give, or add 
by airy means whatever. 

AD-DENDA, from the fame root ; being ar- 
ticles to be added, or joined to fome others, and which 
had been emitted. 

ADDER : Anj of, noxius j ab Art, nnxa j At«w, 
noceo i hurtful, deadly, poifonous. Verftcgan fup- 
pofes it to be Sax.Clel. Voc. ijp.fuppofcs " naid- 
tir, or naidr, to be Celtic for a fnake."—Naidr 
fecms va be only a contr^uftion of an adder it\xt 

particle an being abbreviated, and joined to the 
fubftaniivc, thus, a nadder, uadenaider, or naidr:- 
confequently Gr. as above. 

ADDLE, AjAief, mifer ; Aflxtw, laboro i cor- 
rumpo J quafi ovum agrum, feu cvrruptum-i a 
decayed egg : Verftcgan fuppofes it Sax. 

AD-DRESS, Af;^w, rego, dirigo -, q. d. addi- 
reilare; to direh,-to apply to : or elfe from Of(»f, 
reilus j right on, fir ait forward. 

ADEPT: fee APT; Gr. ufed to fignify «- 
pert; adeptus, qui aut natura, aut inftitutione 
earn ingenii morumque eft temperationem confe- 
cutus, ut fui aliorumque rel, loci, temporis, mo- 
di, et calleat, et habcacrationem : qui contra fe 
babet, ineptus appellatur; to gain, to acquire a 
competent knowledge of any fubjeS ; aperfeSt fcbolar. 

AD-HERE, A.fiw, bareo; to jlick, fix, or fallen. 

AD-JACENT i " ab E.«x«, vei Uxk, fit loxu : 
ab laxu, letKiw, jaceo ; Voir." to lie along ; to be 
fituated near. 

AD-JECTIVE, " «»e tJ \m »xH,jacio : Voff." 
adjicio i to place, join, or couple. 

A-DIEU, Zfui, Deusi ad Deum, vel Deo, te 
commendo ; I commend or commit you to God : a 
farewel faltttation. 

AD-JOURN, A«of , dies ; ad diumum tempus ; to 
poftpone to a future dayi thanks to the-Frcnch for 
this fine word : fee JOURNAL. Gr. 

AD-JUTANT, I«w, I«F«, lMi>.m,juvo,jutum; 
to help, fuccour, or ajjift. 

ADMIRAL, " Aiit»if«f, Nug." which he fays 
has been formed from the Arabian amir, or emir j 
fignifying lord, according to Monf. Menage, in 
his French origins : to this the Dr. adds ; or from 
'Ax/*ir«f;^of, ruler, or chief of the fta : — perhaps 
he meant ruler, or chief at fea ; *' R. 'Ahi, ixtt, 
the fea, or fait; from whence comes 'AA,|*uf*f, yi//- 
ed, or what relates to fait ; and wf^"' h"^t "f 
«»j»awii.-"— this feems to be the better deriv. 
fince it is highly probable there is no fuch word 
in Greelc as Aji*»if<«t : at leaft my lexicons afford 
me no fuch word. , 

AD-MIRE, Mtfo, eculi \ nempe quia qui mi' 
rantur, rem attente afpiciunt j fereque non fine vo- 
luptate, ac ftupore % line miraculum, et mirus ; any 
thing wonderful, that is apt to caufe afienipment, 
andftaring in the beholders. 

AD-OLESCENCY i " AxJw, extrito i, eft alo, 
augeo : fane hoc fi vcrum, proprie alo, unde ado- 
lefco, erit incrementum do ; (ru*fx/flx"'"t autem de 
nutrimento animatorum dicetur : Voff," — However, 
with regard to etym. the puVpofe is anfwered 
either way ; provided it does but fignify to in- 
creafe : Voflius has given us likewife two other 
derivations of alo ; viz. an ab AX(», hoc eft caler, 
quo opus, ut plants, atque alia, almur : an ab 

A E 

From G K s E Kj and L a t 1 1*. 

A F 

Ax««f, r. e. farina frumenti % quod ab A?.i«, 

AD-OPTiON ■" among the Romans was per- 
formed by purcbiife," faya Clel. Voc. 2iOj n ; 
" archaically written, a'dopare would be adcop- 
tare :" — cpirfeqaently will take the fame deriv. 
with COPE, or%; i.c. Gr. or elfc fee OP- 
TTON. Or. 

AD-ORE, 'Piw, hoc eft Efiw, dice ; unde 'Phtw^, 
■orator, adoratio j to prty to, entreat, or worjbip. 

AD-SCfTITIOUS, Xirxw, Uy,(,.i, fcio, afcititius; 
.added, admitted, ajfociated; siio far-fetched, ufurped. 

AD-VERSARY ] Tjt^w, quafi ni^lw verto -, 

AD-VERSE > adverjitas ; to turn againfi ; 

AD-VERSITY j *' oppofite, contrary to. 

AD-VERTISEi from the fame root; fig- 
Jiifying fomething to he turned to, or attended 
sot in either a puhli£, or private manner ; an ad- 

AD- VICE, Ei^io, video ; quafi advifare, vel 
■advifere ; i. e. vel vifum, vel oculas proxime ad- 
movere j to counfal, to inJiruB. 

ADULATION, 'Hfvx.^c, 'H^, dulcis, faavis; 
et Xoyi^oi*xt, lequor ; to footb with blandijbments -, 
io flatter with fair fpeeches, / 

AD-ULT, AAJtf, alo, adolefco; to grow, increafe, 

ADULTERATE7" HJuXA.iTii: nam HJwX.- 

ADULTERER X ir*», o-uceiriaffat : idetti quod 
Adulator i aut faltem ejas originisj ac 'HJo?, dukis : 
VoiT." we ufe it in a contrary fcnfe, for debauched, 
defiled i alfo counterfeit, faife, and bafe. 

AD-UMBRATE, " «to t2 0/»f3f «, umbra, im- 
her i quod imbres obfcurant fslis lucem ; a jhadow, 
a cloud : VoJT." alio ajketch, or draught. 

AD-UNCOUS, Oyxou uncus; crooked, booked. 

AD-VOCATE ; " Omnino eft vox a voco j et 
voco, k Bow, inferto x ; quafi Eox«, voco ; quomodo 
& Zariof e^ fpecus : Voff." — unlefs we chufe to 
admit of 'a^^tu, H^u, voco ; advoco ; to call, to 

AD-VOWSON: from the fame root; fignify- 
ing now adiocatio i a confuliation, a convention, a 
■ cempaSi. 

AD-USTION, nuf , unde bare, uro, ajium -, to 
hum, ti parch. 

ADZ, AgivJi, afcia, quafi odfcia; an ax, or 
hatchet, that cuts horizontally, and to the perpendi- 

AECER, or AEKER, " a eornfeild, or come- 
land : wee now vfe the woord aker for a certaine 
fpace, or meafure of grovand : Verft.'*— but we 
have fecn already that ACRE is Gr. 

jEDILE, Oixoiaftiu, ifdijjco : or rather from 

AiToc, ades; quod idem notat: Euftathius enim 

exponit Bvh-xiTVfix, habitatio, domicilium: but 


VoQius derives " ades from fedes %" if fo, then 
we muft look for the origin of both thofe words 
in the verb E^o/*«i, fedeo; to fet dtwn, to fix -our 
habitation ; to fettle our abode is any place : adet 
fignificB likewifc a temple, or any large buildi,:g% 
and antedile was the fuperintendent of buildings, or 
public works. 

jEGYPT, Aiyoirlou ySgyptus ; regio Africa 

AELC, or AELK : " Wee have fince made ic 
EACH : Verft."— but each is evidently Gr. 

AELSWA: " Wee now write, and pronounce 
it alfo : Verft."— but we ftiall fee prefeijtly that 
ALSO is Gr. 

ENIGMA, Amy/AJK, quod ab Ait^sf, di3uni 
fabulofum i a perplexed, or ohf^ure fpeecb -, a riddle i 
a dark fentenee : R. Amfaoftctt, obfcurS loqtttr ; ta 
talk obfcurely. 

^OLIC, AidXoj, Molus,deus ventorum : varius 
etiam, et multiplex ; the winds, or any thing re- 
lating to them, 

ffiOLO-PYLE, AkAii, JEsU; ctwvXcii, porta i 
an injlrument in the form of a tea-kettle; to fbew 
the force of rarified water and air, 

^RA, ?nm, tevwn : an age i or fome remarkable 
period, from which cbrenologers reckon : — There is * 
a remarkable account of the origin of the word 
tera, produced by VoflT. " Qua:ritur unde ara 
ilia appellatio habeat: Johannes Sepulveda, Cor- 
dubenfis, libello, quern fcripfit de corrcdione 
annij mcnfiumque, cenftt, primitus fie brcvitatis 
causa fcrlbi folltum A. ER. A. id autcm notaOe 
^nnus ER^X. ^ugufti : pro ea facit, quod ara in- 
cipit ab eo anno, quo calcndarium Romanum rc- 

AERL\L, Arf, a'e'r; the air ; Isfty ; aeretu ; airy. 

^SOP, Aiff-wirei, ex Aiflw, etmM, fjtlgeo ; te fbine j 
et wj/, awoi, oculus, vultus ; the countenance -, a fa- 
mous writer of fables ; by birth a Phrygian. See 
ESOP. Gr. 

^THER, Aiflnf, A.flw, ardeo, fplendeo ; the Jky, 
OT firmament : vel ab Aa huy. Ariftotle. 

A-FED; ^' fed, or, after the French, »i?i/i.r.^- 
ed : Verft." — how unfortunate this good old 
Saxon is in this art. for both fed, and murifb 
are Gr. 

AF-FABILlTYi *««,$:, Ob^., for, faris, 
fatur } dffabilitas ; courteous fpeaking, mild ut- 

AF-FAIRj *jw, fio, ajicio i quafi adfacere 
illud fc. ad quod faciendum obUgatus, feu adftriStus 
fum 1 vel quod faciendum mihi incumhit ; fomething ■ 
that lam obliged to do -, fomething of confequence. 

AF-FECT, ^w,fio, affeaatio; affeSednefs -, over- 
much care, and diligence ; an over-doing, over- 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 

A G 

From Greek, and L a t rw. 

A H 

AF-FIANCE, Titi^vifdOi fides; cojifidcnce, faith, 

. AF-FIDAVIT J from the fame root; fignify- 
m^ fides data, tejiificatio, vel tefiimonium cum jute- 
juretido datum -, an affirmation on oath. 

AF-FINITY; ^Mw,fie, affinis ; neighbouring, Bor- 
dering upon ; of kin by marriage, alliancCy or 

AF-FIRM, EffjMor, firmus, firmum facio j a fo- 
lemn teftimony to any falf. 

AF-FLICT, *Ai^w pro ©xt|3<i., fiigo ; to beat, 
er dajb againfi the ground ; to vex, torment ; teaze. 

AF-FORD, ITof i^«, fuppedito, eopiam facio ; to 
iend ajfiftance. 

AF-FRONT, *(fw, ferot frons, tis ;, the fore- 
head, aferendoi quod indicia animi pra fe ferat -, and 
a pcribn is faid to give an affront, when he affirms 
any fcandal or falfehood againft his adverfary to 
his face, and meets him /re»/ to front: Shake- 
ipear, in \i\% Hamlet, acl iii. fc. i. has made ufe 
©f this word in the plain fimple fenfc of only 
meeting a perfon accidentally j 

"King. Sweet Gertrude, leave us- too j 

For we have clofely fent for Hamlet hither. 
That he, as 'twere by accident, may here 
./^ro«/ Ophelia: 

that is, may meet with her, as hy accident. See 

AF-GOD ? « an idol, and idolatrie : Verft." 

AF-GODNESi —but thefc are evidently de- 
rived from GOD ; and confcquently Gr. 

AFTER, " AiJT«f, pojiea -, afterwards." Upt. 

AFTER-MATHS; "tbtpajlure after the grafs 
hath been mo-wed; in many places called reughings : 
Ray." — This is only explanation ,- this is not tell- 
ing us from whence the word after-math is de- 
rived ; which feems to come from the two Greek 
words Avraf - «/*«w, poft-meto, quali pefi-meffum ; 
after-mowing; a fecond-crop. 

A-GAINST, " Sax. On-jean; centra : J*un. and 
Skinn."- — but lUean is no more than an, with 
the Sax. initial De prefixed to it ; and therefore 
an is vifibly derived ab Ak-n, contra -, againft^ 

Agaric, "Ayofntoi-, a root that comes from 
Agaria, a province of Sarmatia, Nug." 

AGATE, A^stTyii, achates; agate; a fpectes of 

A-GATE; Ray fuppofes it Cgnifics_/a^^5/»^ j 
as, I flffl- a-gate. : gate, in the northern dialeit, 
fignifying a way j fo that a-gate is, " Sam at, or 
upon the laay:" — then it may originate from the 
fame fource with our word GAIT. fccGO. Gr. 

AGE, Ab, femper, ovum, atas ; ary long du- 

AGENE, or EAGEN i " own, proper : Verft." 
— thefe words fccm to be only a different dialcft 
for the word own ; and therefore we need not 
fcruple to derive them all from the fame root. Gr; 

AGENT, Ayw, ago, agens; doing, alting for 
any one. 

AG-GRANDIZE» Kjw«of, J^tjAw : Hefych^ 
grandis ; great, large, or powerful ; meaning /* 
augment, or increafe the pojfejjtons, or power of a- 
perfon, already too powerful ; and is generally uii- 
derftood in a bad fcnfe. 

AG-GREGATE, "Aywfw, Ayt^m, grex, prE- 
cifa principe litera j ut ab- A(*iXyw, mulgea ; Voflf."' 
a flock, or company gathered together. 

AG-GRESSOR, "X>e«.f«, l>txipiT%,TKt(%,falio^ 
gradior, quia gradus fuferierem in inferiorem geranf,. 
vel infcriorem infuperiora: VofT." — unlefs we chule 
rather to follow the opinion of Servius, as quotedt 
by Voffius himfclf under the art. Gradior; " Sed' 
addit et alterum etym. a K^ajenvim ; ejus verba i- 
Gradivus Mars appellatus eft a. gradiendo in bella^- 
ultro citroque: — this would certainly be by much 
the beft deriv. if the- word KjoJaiMi* bore fuch. 
a lignification ; which I have not as yet been able 
to find : ^. Kfeiin, machina tieatrah's. » 

AGILtTY, Ayw, ago, agilis; qui facile agiti. 
aSiive,. nimble, lively. 

AGITATION, Ayu, ago, agitc; ti drive, fhaksy. 
or top. 

A-GNATION, Tw^aw, Tni>^»i, vel r»y*Df*«i,. 
gigno, nafcor, natus, vel gnaius -, to be. born of, de-^ 
fended from, of the fame kindred. 

A-GNlTiON, r^wirxw, nofco, agnitus; known',. 

AGONIZE, AytvitK^a, trepido i to'trembJe; R.. 
Aywv, certamen j any confiiEi, centeji, orjlruggle. 

A-GOTEN, " Povvred out; gofers, otherwifc 
gutters are accordingly fo called.: Verft." — but 
GUTTERS are Gr. 

AGREE, Xaf If, gratia, gratus ; pUafant,fuitable. 

AGRICULTURE, Ay^a, ager; afield; rural; 
the country -, ruftic : and cultura,, i c^lo,- cultus ; to 
till, ploiv,. improve^ 

AGRIMONY, agrimnia ; the herb fo called. 

AGUE, Axif , acies, acutus ; acute ; parp ; " nihil 
nempe ufitatius eft quam acutas dicere febres : acu- 
tus, quodammodo morbus eft, et aculis doloribur 
exercet :" — It is very obfcrvable, that thefe are- 
the words both of Jon. and Skin, and yet both 
thofe gentlemen have gone no farther in the etym. 
of this word ; and have taken no notice at all. 
.of acale in its proper place ; as if there had been 
no fuch word in our language at their, times ; for 
they have both left it out. 

AH! A! a word, or rather fouod of /arpr/zej. 
grief, or admiratioBi 

A I 

From G R s E K, and L a f i k. 

A I 

AHAH: from the fame root j exprefling a 
furprize at meeting with a hollow, or funk trench, 
guarded with pallifades, net difcoverable till you are 
juji upon it, which admits an extetifive froJptSl of 
the country, but ohftruSls all farther progreft. 

A-HILD, *" hidden j wee alfo deriue for this 
from the French woord couered: Verft." — thus 
this good old gentleman fuppofes it to be Sax.} 
but it is Gr. fee HEIL. Gr. 

AID, Ifltat, I«E«, juvo, adjuvo i to affifi^ help, 

AIGLET, " A.yXfl, Ayxsn^u,fplendeOi tojbine: 
afpangU. Upt." 

AIL, " Ti AXynt, what ailetb thee? ^id doles? 
or from AAufi*, tncerore cottfici j to he affeUed -with 
grief. Cafaub. and Upt." Clel. Voc. 5, fays, 
that " Tay is a Gaulilh word, which fignifies 
equally a beanie or an ailment of the tje \ une te^e 
en /V/'/;"— but if the GauHQi word /'ay be the 
fame with the modern French ay, an inteijeftion 
of pain, it is undoubtedly derived from Ai, heu, 
ebeu ; alas, oh me ! or if it be the fame with the 
modern French word taye, or taie, the etym. 
muft be traced fomething farther.' No Greek, or 
Latin word ever came from the hands of the 
French without being fo transformed, as to ren- 
der it almoll impofSblc to trace its origin : taye 
then, or taie, fignifies a pearl, beam, or web in the 
eye ; this web might lead us to fufpeit that taye 
is only a diftortion of l^t-yu, tego, texo; ut a 
'vebo, vexo : a texo, textura, tegula, tela taila, taie, 
fignifying properly a web; and fecondarily, a 
film, that grows over the eye, which in a manner 
covers the fight. 

AILES of a church, commonly written and pro- 
nounced ifles : Lye in his Addenda writes it ijlof 
a church \ but what that fhould mean, would be 
difficult to fay; particularly after Ainfworth has 
told us, that, the ijles of a church are templi femitte 
inter fedilia fa3ie : Lye calls them in Latin alte ; 
nam ala appellaniur columnarum ordines ad la- 
tera jedis. Clel. Voc. 70, is of opinion, that 
" hal, cat, al, ar, heil, in the ftnfe t>f fehool, is 
the true etymon of our word tjles, or ailes, for the 
txedra, or out places of the great court, or kirk 
in thefc were probably the cells, or places of in- 
JlruSion of youth .-"—and to this day wf find little 
Jchools eftablifhed in many country towns round a 
chancel, over a church-porch, and fomciimes 
over the doiftcrs of a cathedral : and in p. 139, 
he likewifc obferves, that " thcfe ijles, ailes, heils, 
jor halls, were fomecimes tranflated ala \ becaufe 
they fignified the out-buildings of any place; 
fhe ivings as it were of any edifice:" — but then it 
would be Gr. as under the art. ISLES of a 
thurch ;— but, how the word ijle can be tortured 

by other writers to figaifyjemit^t woidd perplex 
the moft fublil etymol, ft would be as difficuli; 
as to conceive )\(ytl anijlatid ft>ouldJignify a^fireight, 
or a frith:'— OUT word ailes at prefent feems to 
be a contraction of alley^ or allies ; and in that 
fcnfc they would cxaftly anfwer the definition 
given by Ainfw. of being tea^Hfemita inter fedilia 
faSa i parages, or paths, made hetween the pews 
in a church:— &ccor^in^ to that idea, wc might 
trace the etym. of that word under the arb 

AIM, " corruptedly from ^ing: Cld. Way. 
3 1, to take an eyeing, or aim :"— but EYE is Gr. 

AIR, " to breathe i Aitf , air j the fig, or aAw^ 
fphtre: Nug." »wo « Ab ftiv. Clel. Way. 79, 
is of opinion, that air takes its name from the 
circumftance of its being what we breathe arotmd 
us i and obferves in p. 76, that " in the Celtic fyU 
lable ar, er, ir, or, and. ur, you will find among itt 
other fenfes the idea of roundne/s .•" — and then 
proceeds to give many inftancesi among which- 
Hands ni^i, circa; around. 

AIR, or dry at the fire : Skinner has very pro- 
perly explained this word by " non aeri fim- 
plici, fed igni exponcre defignat ; nee tamen ab- 
furde, fed ingeniosa, ut mihi videtur, metaphorS; 
exficcandifenfu; »h^t.aridus, et arefacere :" but 
there the Dr. flrops; and we might have flopped 
too, if areo had been the original word : but 
areo, aridus, and arefacio, are undoubtedly derived 
ab A^«, ficco, arefacio ; to dry, or gently warm any 
thing at the fire. 

AIR, or manner j by the help of our very good 
friends the French, this word is fo changed - in ■ 
appearance, that no wonder our dictionary wri- 
ters, and etymol. Ihould be fo perplexed in ex- 
plaining, and tracing its deriv. it fignifies, ac- 
cording to Skinn. " fymmetria quasdam lineamcn- 
torum vulcusi item gratia, decerus, blandus, et 
illex afpeSus -, a Fr. Gall. <wr, idem fignante : hoc 
non, ut prima fronte videri pofler, ab aJtcro «/r, 
aeri fed fumpta ab accipitrariis metaphora"— 
in which opinion, as I do not agree with him, I 
Ihall not proceed : neither can any farther fatisfac- 
tion be gained from the other etymol. I>t me 
therefore defire leave to oiFer another conjcfture ; 
that air, when it fignifies mannert grace, and dig~ 
nity, or even any of their contraries, may be de- 
rived ab Af (-Id, virtus, gratia, modus % a grace, 
manner, or mode of aSion. 

AIRY, iigh, and lofty-, ab Auj, aer, aereusi 

AIRY /or iflw^j, is an inflance of the ftrange de- 
generacy of words, when they pafs through many 
languages, and fuch languages as the Northern, or 
any modern tongues : the orthogiv^f this word is 


A L 

From Gr£sk, and Latik. 

A L 

far from being (ixt : Sk'inn. writes ic ayry \ others 
^yryi Jun- airie; and Spelman aerea, tyeriei the 
Thcotifcans «', et ey ; the Anglo-Normans, eye-, 
theTeutones try; pi. eyr; the Sax. ejhe; and the 
Fr. Gall, worft of alU and moft degenerate of 
all, aire j and we to be fure muft imitate them, 
and write it atrj, when both this, and all the reft 
are derived ab Cioi', pi. rd a,a, ova; eggs-, it be- 
ing the neft, or breeding-place, for eagles, hawks, 

AKENNED, or ** acenned-, for that *, and c, 
faith Verft. are in our anticnt language pro- 
nounced alyke, figniReth brought f earth, Gxhorne: 
wee yet fay of certaine beafts that they have 
kenled (he means kenneled) when they have breugbt- 
foorth their yoHg ones," — True; butiif«»e/is Or. 

AL; CJel. Voc. 70, tells us, that " al, call, 
hal, in Celtic fignifies college, or fcheol:" — confc- 
quently are all derived ab AuX-n, aula ; a hall, or 
college: it likewife bears another fenfe; for in 
p.6g, hejuft nowtold us, that " «/ fignifies the 
deep feat" — and in that fenfe it fecms to originate 
ab Ax-f, mare ; tbefea, or ocean, 

ALABASTER, *' AX»j3«ff«, a vtjfelfor keep- 
ing perfumes, or the ftene whereof it is made. 

ALACRITY, AJaxf ur, non trijiis, quaii AA«xf wt, 
elacris ; merry, brijk, gladfome. 

AlAN ; Camden in his Remains, p. 51, fays, 
" I would feek it rather out of the Bririfh, than 
Sclavonian tongue; and will believe with an an- 
tient Britan, that it is corrupted from jElianus, 
. i. e. Sunne-Mgbt :" — then it would have been 
more reafonable to have believed with a more 
antient Greek, that it was corrupted ab "Hxiof, 
Jbl; the fun. 

ALARM, Off*«B, Afftoj, arma; arma propne 
olim acceptum fiierit de quiritatu vocantium cives 
ac populares fuos ad fuccurrcndum libertaci la- 
boranti ; the call to arms en any imminent danger. 

ALAS, EX/Aiu, interjeSio lamentantis \ ab EAian, 
miferari, cmmiferari ; ah me I ab, woe is me ! 

ALBANY? Clcl. Voc. 184, tells us, " the level, 

ALBION S or comparatively level, country 
of this ifland, and efpecially South Britain, was 
called Jlbuin, or Albwean -, whence our word Al- 
bion, which being a diminution of alb, high, fig- 
nifies comparatively un-higb, i.e. low-lanJ :"— 
and confcquently all feem to be derived ab AxJ- 
iw, alo*attgee, do increment umi to increafe, grow to 
a height ; unde alt-us, high ; or elfe they may 
al) be (lerived as in the following art. 

ALBID IClcl. Voc. aoS.fuppofcs " alhus to 

ALBIFY i ■ be derived ^ KoAsf, pultbtr ; fair, 
•while, beautiful ."•—but it feems more natural to 

derive it ab Ax^'k, albus ; white ; and VoiBuSi 
as we Ihall fee prefently under the art. ALPS, 
will tell US} that albus fignifies non eolerem tan- 
turn, fed et altitudinem. 

AL-BURY, fays Clcl. Voc. 7 1, " means a be- 
rough, bury, or precinS of a college^ or fchoel; for 
al, cal, hal, lignify a college, or fchool :"^-and 
confequcntly derived ab AwX-a, aula; a hall. 

ALCAIC, AAxKier, Alcaus ; alcauum carmen ; 
a meafure in poetry ; fo called from AUaus, the 
inventor; confifting of two da^yls, and two 
trochfei ; as, purpurei metuunt tyranni : Hor. — this 
Greek poet lived in the 44th olympiad ; his poems 
were ftrong, concife, and well laboured. 

AL-CHEMY; Xnfxtx, vel Xa/m.*, written ly 
Nug. Alcbymy, and derived " from al, an Arabic 
article ; and Xuftaa, and an alchymijt from Xu/<inif, 
a founder, d Xiw, and Xvw, fundo ; to pour out, to 
caft, to melt:" — rthis appears a very plaufiblc dt- 
riv.i but unfortunately, neither Xuf*H«,norXuji*ir»i', 
arc to be found in our lexicons: neither is 
chtmiji, or cbymifl, derived from X<w, or Xvw, 
fundo ; but is a word intircly Arabic, or Coptic; 
and is written by our beft authors, particularly 
Milton, not Alchymy, but ALCHcMY t and is 
derived by Boerhaave, the greaceft profefTor in 
that feicnce " from the Arabic word, written iii 
Greek Xn^ia, which fignifies fomething bidden, 
occult, myfterious" though this Greek word is not 
to be found in our lexicons likewife : and he ob-> 
ferves in the firft volume of his Chcmiftry, p. 5, 
" that Egypt, from the exceeding black colour 
of its foil, is even to this day called in Coptic, 
the land of Cemi :"~-'Znd therefore what we read 
in the cvth pfalm, that Jacob v/as a flranger in the 
land of Ham (meaning Egypt) fliould have been 
the land of Cham, or Chemi : — fo that the words 
alchemy, and cbemijiry, arc not of Greek, but 
Arabic, or Coptic extraftion ; and fignify a myfte- 
rious fcience. Clcland derives it from the Celtic. 

AL-CORANi another Arabic word; as ap- 
pears from the article AL ; Alcoranum, and Alco- 
ranus % lex Muhammedis -, et koran, leSio ; cum ar- 
ticulo AL. i, e. the book of Mahomet's law.. 

AL-COVE; either from Kot)j,Mol. Kv«i,eavus; 
iollew; meanings hollow, retired place, in which 
a bed^ couch, or chair is fometimes placed : or 
elfe with Clel. Voc, 142, we muft fuppofc that 
boffyCeff, or cove, fignifies /,&< head; and al, ingh; 
i. c. high, overhead: — now both are Gr. for al 
comes from Aa-^w, unde al-tus ; al-titude ; and 
cof, or ieph, comes from Kt^-oXq, caput; the 

AL-CUIN( Cic!. Voc. 68, lays, that alCig- 

nifies college; and quin, or «/», fignifies head: 

C " when 

y Google 

A t 

From Greik, and Latih. 

A L 

"when Oiarlemagne (adds he in his note) fent to 
England for a head of a toUtgt to furnilh a model 
for the imilrrficy of Paris, the appellation of the 
perfon, who went over in this fervice, was the 
al-cmn, in quality of a bend of a ttUtge : this 
does not abfolutely imply Alcuin's name not be- 
ing a proptr name j but it fcems very reafonablc 
to think it was rather his name of office :" — but 
whatever the word may fignify, it is undoubtedly 
Gr. i for al, as we Have fecn, is Gr. and quin, 
euin, eoningi and KING> are the fame. 

ALDER : Vcrft. acknowledges that this word, 
when ufed in compofition, fignifies " of allt and 
fccmeth as abridged of the woords of all that 
are; and is ufcd in the fuperlative degree j as 
for example, alder- heft, iar hejt of all; aldtr-trft-, 
jirftof all; alder-left, laft of aU; alder-Uefeft, heft 
heloved of all; alder-piei^, meft of all; alder- 
fair eft, fair eft of all; alder-eldeft, oldeftofall:" — 
but then this good old Saxon could not fee that 
aU, and every of thefe words, are Greek j as 
may be found under their fevcral art. 

AlJ?ER-MAN, 'EftAor, 'E»x<3i(«, old, older; 
iJd, elder j the ftniors, or fenators of a city : it is 
a wonder that neither Jun. norSkinn. ihould fee 
the affinity of this deriv. particularly the latter, 
who acknowledges that the Englifh word alder- 
man is derived from the Sax. 6alboji-mani but 
Calb, and Ealbop, are evidently derived from 
Olb i and Olb, he acknowledges afterwards from 
Cafaub. is derived from EnXaci veius, antifuus; 
but confcffes, that if he was to derive it from the 
Gr. it Ihould be from fixSm, AaA», augeo : here, 
however, it fcems he chofe neither : — " an ealdor- 
man, which wee now call an alderman," fays 
Verft. 326, "was fuch in efFcft among our an- 
fcciers, as was trihunus plehis with the Romans; 
i. e. one that had chief jurifdiftion among the 
connons, as becing a maintaincr of their liberties 
and benefits .-" — confequently Gr. as above. 

ALDER-tree; alntu. 

AL-DRED 7 Verft. 245, allows that thefe 

AL-DRIDGEJ proper names fignify dreaded 
of all: — but then he never imagined rfiat both 
thofe words ALL, and DREAD, were Gr. 

ALE, " Aa«. Hefych. a Cyprian -word. Upt." 

AI^£MBIC> ex AA-A/*f3>£, alemiiau, vel aim- 
hicum i ttftill. 

Ali^RT, A/o»i»uf, quafi AA<wtju(> tilaeriSf vel 
slater ; merry, hriflc, gladfome. 

ALEX-ANDER ; ** AAigt*, to drive atttay, to 
fepulfe; ct Atte, Mi(t(,a man ofcouragei u e.ftrtis 
auxiliateri a brave or bold defertder. Nug." 

AL^Xl-PHAR^ICS, Plk%1», depeUa ; ct »»;- 
^ftK*»f vtntnum i an antidote to exptlpoifeih 

AL-GEATS, " euety wdy, or bovv~tuer-it- 
bee i &c. Verft." — this word feems to be derived 
from the fame root with our word GAIT ; and if 
fo, then Gr- 

ALGEBRA, A^throy aritbmetica fptciefa j the 
art of literal arithmetic. 

ALGID, Axyiw, doleo ; unde geUdus ; or rather 
from ti\», Tit^itt^fopy 'I'^x^o*! g^Ht geJidus ; fo be 
cool, or chill. 

AL-IBI, AXAeflt, alicubif alibi ; fomewhere elfe i 
a term in law, by which a perfon endeavours to 
clear himfelf of acrimc, by proving chat he was in 
another place, at the very time; when the offence 
was affirmed to have been by him committed. 

ALICANT wine ; vimm regionit lUciana. 

ALIEN, AxA»f, aUiis, alienusi another-, a fo* 
retgner, a ftranger ; one v/he emu from another 

ALIMENT 7 Aai«, calon quo opus, ut plant jt, 

ALIMONY S atque alia aUntur : vel ab 
Axmoe^, i. e. farina frumenti, quod ab Aaw, mtlto : 
vel potius ab Akiu, ale, extrito t ; afcendo j nfun 
qu^ aluntur in altitudinem afurgant i nutria, augeot 
to aouriftf, feed, increafe : with regard to the latter 
part of this compound, mony, (for we have many 
other words ending with it, as tnatri-meny, parci- 
motty, Jan^i-mety) Clcl. Voc. 52, very juftly 
obfervcs, that they « all refpeftively denote per- 
manenty, and habit:" — confequendy Gr. See 

ALL, "' *OA»f, tottu integer. Upt."— ^erhap» 
this word 'Oao( may have given origin to our 
word all, through the Sax. Dal ; whole ■„ but it 
has more vifibly given origin to our word whole ; 
and yet neither Upt. aor Nug. fow that evident 
deriv. ; or, if they faw it, neglcfted it i. for they 
have both left it out. 

AL-LAY, Aiyti, tube, eubare facio; to lay 
down : or elfe from Aunt, cortex, levis, allcvare i 
to lighten, a^itage, alleviate. 

AL-LECTATION, A««, A^xw, lacio^ alUaoi 
to allure. 

AL-LEGEj this word ia commonly written 
with a ^i but it would be difficult to fay, how 
the letter <j fiiould gain admiffion. into a word de- 
rived either from Aiym, dice; tofpeak, a^m \ or 
from hgo, Ugare, allegatio ; to impute a crime^ or 

ALL-EGORY» *' AxiAywn, a figure of lbeech> 
by which one thing is fail, and another meant : 
R. AAA*;, aUui ; and A^^ «, the bar, an harangue, 
or jpeech : ande Ayoj t um, to harangue, or fpeak in 
public. Nug." 

AL-LEGIANCE ; either from A*y«, lego ; 
uildc Ux, legatit i our lawful duty to eurjevereign: 

Digitized by 


A L 

JFrom OribKj antJ Latiit., 

A L 

or eire from Auyw, i^, vinei* j to bind; the duty, 
wbicbbiMdstbefubje^totbefivertigH: both Junius 
aad Skinn. irould carry xhis ctym. no higher than 
the Latin lang. fee LIEGE. Gr. 

ALL-EN TVerft. a46j fayi» " bj vulgar pro- 
ALL-IN S nuntiatioHi the name of AUen, or 
jSUUt IB come from Alwin'e, or beloved of ail :" — 
it foems rather to be derived from all, and xoin ; 
or one who vnns all men's affeflioas ; who cen- 
quers all men's prgudices : howeverj in both cafes 
it is Gr. 

AL-LEVIATION, Awk, cortex, qui tfi Jevis, 

ftriori correpta j eoque fortafle Horat. refpexit, 
ib. iii. Od. 9. 

^uamquamjidere pukbrieir 
/mt efi i tu levior corticc : 

bat when levis is ufed by the Latin poets with 
the firft fyllable long, it ligniBcs irigbl, pelijhed ; 
and then originates i Atit;, JEo\- AnFB;, levis, or 
rather Levis : in our prefent fenfe it originates i 
Afirif) cortex, UviSf unde leva, allevc ; to lighten, 

ALLET ; a contrafUon of tmhulare i to walk ; 
an alky hiitg only a narrevr path to wM in : am- 
bule is derived from AnuweXw, cireumire, redire; 
to walk backwards, and forwards : pro Avair«Au 
dicitur Ajun-sXuj aiHhule; to walk, fee I^LES of a 
church> Gr. 

AL-LIANCE J AuT-K, lige^ viticio j to bind : 
Jtates united together by covenant ^ Uague^ or friend- 

AL-LTGATION : from the (ame root. Gr. 

AL-LIGHT, «ir«-AAA*/M», folio, defiU* \ to 
leap ^wn from a hoffe, to difmount: or elfe it may 
be only a contraction of alligbten ; i. e. to lighten 
the weight of a herfe's burden, by getting e^ bis 
back : and then it will take the fame root with 

AL-LITERATION, Ahk, Ah«.»«, Uno, Ax«»- 
T»^te* y^K^Mt : Hefych. : a pen, or any infirummt 
to make letters with t litera -, a letter ; here ufed to 
iignify many fucceffive words beginning with the 
fame letter ; as in thefe remarkable lines applied 
to cardinal Wolfeyi 

£egot bj ^eheri, ^ut by ^ilhops ^d. 
Bow haughtily b\i i^bneft iokU h\& bead ! 

AU-ONS, AAAff*M, folio i to Jkip, or jimp 
tMtay : perhaps this gave origin to the French 
verb oUtTi to goi from whence oor word is 

ALr-lX>W, Ae;c»f' ^^*'» oUocare ; ut jurif- 
pcriti noftri cxpomiot adiocarci i.e. utendum et 

faciendum aUquid dare \ to let^ to hire f h grant 

AL-LOY, Atvtt, cortex -, levis 1 to lighten, to dc' 
bafe the value of the coin. 

■ AL-LUDE, Aii/*^«, ludo, alludo ; to play, or 
J^ert with one ; to fpeak to another fubjeS, 

AL-LUVION, A»«, lavo, alhtvies i to wajb; 
alfo a land-flood. 

AL-MANAC, " from al, an Arabic article ; 
and /A«k«x*;> a iunary circle, in Vitruvius : R. 
MtiM, the moon : — unleis wc chufe to derive it from 
the Hebrew manacb, according to Covarruvias : 
Nug." — perhaps it might more properly be de- 
rived from lAw, men/is ; a month ; which how- ' 
ever originates & lAim. Vcrftegan^ who looks ^ 
on this as intirely 5axon> fays> p. 0, " The 
Germans vfed to engraue vpon ccrtaine fquared 
flicks, about a foot in length, the courfes of the 
moons of the whole yeare ; and fuch a carved 
ftick they called an al-mon-agbt, i. e. al-moon-beed j 
to wit, the regard, or obferuatien of all the moons ; 
and heer-hence is deryued the name of alma- 
nac .-"—but all of them are evidently derived i. 
Mtit, menfis ; a month ; vel i Unn, lund; the moon. 

ALMOND, " Aii.uyi»kn, and Aftvytet^ef: R, 
A/tvy^(«Xfa, an aln^pnd-tree, Nug." 

ALMONER ?"Ex»i/*onPMi, mifericordia -, fiips 

ALMS S irogata paapmbns i omru ben^- 

cium, que calamitofos profequimmr : Vpt-"— a giv^ 
of money to the poor j alfo a dole. 

A-LODIALi alawterm, bearing feveralfenfes : 
" alodium vero," fays Spelman, "quod per omnem 
hxredum feriem difcurreret, et cuivis i popido 
(etiam reclamante domino) dari poflet, aut ve- 
nundari : propterea etiam alodium dici a Sax. TT, 
et leob I quafi populare ; "K enim ad^ vel ufjue 
figniiicat ; et leob, populum :" — confequently Gr. 
^ Am»t, popttlus : " dicatur etiam," continues he> 
" alodium, ab A, privativo ; ct leob ; Gall, leud; 
provaffaloi <{\ii^ fine vaJfaUagie i vel Jme oner e ; 
quod Angli hodie load appelTamu&."— but cveii 
ftill it may be Gr. fee LOAD. Gr. 

ALOES i " Verifimile eft ab Aaj, mare t quia 
in locis maritimis ere/cat : fed fine dubio eft ab 
Hebrfcos, quibus dicitur ^Wc/rt; habes earn vo- 
cem, Cant. iv. 14 { ubi interprecca vertunt Axen, 
et in quibufdam aaw4, quod cootra£tum ex aba-^ 
loth : ab incegro ahalotb viderur e£e AyiAX»j(/ft, 
^allocbus, qam eft alte aromatiati tbtprmt of a 
very bitter fhruh. Voff." 

A-LOOF, "AfTTtt, certext'kvis, eievo; tmiuus, de 
longi : JuQ." »c proprie IbrulTe qu&d taumus, ac- 
que exfilte, can^icie«dum fepreWti ut fit ejuf- 
dcm origiaiis cum algft, «r /e//y ;— thia is « 
much better dcriv. than with fikian. to t^U us ^t 
C a U_ 

Digitized by 


A L 

From Greek, and L a t i tf . 

A L 

IS derived from all and off ; without acquainting 
U3 from whence off is derived j for he has left 
"it out. 

ALPHA-BET, Axp»-BiT», alpha -heta; the 
two firft letters of the Greeks. 

- ALPS ; Clel. will not permit the Italians, or 
Romans, to remain in quiet poireflion of this 
word; for in his Voc. 211, he fays, that '^ the 
Gauls, Celts, Alps, and Weljb, are but dialectical 
variations of a word, at bottom, conveying the 
fame principal idea, but more or lefs extenfive, 
according as it is pregnant with acceflaries :" and 
in p. 206, 7, he contends, that " all thofe words 
in their primitive idea flgnify hilh, mountains, 
eminences :"-'—novf , this is the very idea that Voflius 
has given us from Bucananus, that antiquis alius, 
five alpus, non celorem tantum, fed ct altitudi- 
nem notalTe ; indequc ctlm alpibus nomen impo- 
licum, turn Albieni, ob montium altitudinem : de 
alpihus favet, quod glofTx alpes interprecantur 
cjn v^\x, quodque Indorus ait Gallorum lingua 
alpes monies alti vocantur : " interim, fays Vofl". 
album ab AXfov venire certum eft :" — nay, even 
according to Cteland's own explanation, that al, 
el, il, el, and ul, are of the fame power, the 
vowel being indifferent ; and chat al lignifies 
cal, cell, bel, or hiU ; ftill alps would even then 
be Gr. for cal, cell, and coll, are no more than 
contraftions of «//-w, which is derived iKsA-wru, 
eollis i a hill. 

AL-READY. If the word already be com- 
pounded of all, and read;/, as Skinn. himfelf allows j 
and if read^ be derived i 'PtitJiot, facilis, eajy, as 
Jun. himfelf allows, and Skinn. likewifc would 
have allowed, if he had not his 'favourite Sax. 
Cepxbian in view, and which, together with 
the Dan. reder ; the Belg. ghereed; and the 
Cimbr. bradu, or hradar j quj^ omnia (fays he) 
Fr. Jun. mere fuo dcducit I 'Petitvot, vel & 'VtiAtiv, 
vel i '?niSm: — if this be truly the cafe, the Dr. 
ought to have given his obje£tion ; and Jun. 
ought not to have omitted this word. 

AL-SATIA, •' a place in London," fays Clel. 
Voc. 55, and 179, " fomnerly fo called, is derived 
ab alfwytb, to ngntfy al, a hall, or college ; and 
farftb, a feat :" — but al, bal, cal, or col, originates 
ab AuA-n, aula ; a ball, court, or college ; and Jwytb 
fcems to be but a barbarifm of fedes ; a feat^ a 
fityftb; and confequently derived ab t,^9fMii, fedeo } 
to fit i whence yiii/ j or the feat of a head college. 

AL-SO : the fame method of arguing might 
here again be made, with regard to this word, 
as was ufed in the foregoing art. ; for Vcrft. and 
Skinn. both allow, that alfa is compounded of all^ 
aadfo i and the Dr. knew very well, that Jun. 

(mere fuo) had derived y^ froth ilt, fie, ioverfumt 
and yet he would have (more fuo) his Sax. Belg. 
and Teut. give origin to our word fo i — and Jo 
let it be. ■ 

ALT-AR: Axiu, alo, altus, altare -, certc ab 
altitudine -, nam altare diis fuperis ; ara terref- 
tribus ; ct focus, five fcrobicu^ iakris, dicatur : 
an altar, raifed of a«f materials, on fobicb tbcf fa- 
crijiced to the gods above. — Clel. Way, 7^, and 
Voc. 133, fays, *' the jambs, or jambages of the 
anticnt cromlechs, were the upright, or fupport- 
ingftoncs, on which the parties, taking an oath, 
or claming faniftuary, laid their hands ; and were 
called in Latin ara -, as the bigh-Jione, or top-Jioae, 
was called the alt-are, which was too high to be 
reached ; but it was the ara, or jambs they 
touched : ' 

Arafque tenentem. ^n. iv. 219. 

Tango aras. ^n. xii. 196." 

It is very , remarkable, that Virgil, in his firft: 
JEn. 113, ftiould have made ufe of the word 
ara in the fenfe of recks; for, in defcribjng the 
ftorm raifed by ^olus, at the requeft of Juno^ 
he fays, that three fiiips of .^neai* fleet were 
driven in faxa latentia, 

Saxa, vocant Itali medits qua: fluftibus arar. 

— If now the alt-ar figniSed the high-fione, thofe 
words feem to be Gr. (or ah is undoubtedly the 
fame with the Latin alt-us, high; and we Ihall 
fee prcfently, that ALTITUDE isGr.; and ar, 
coTt or fitfr, feem to be no: more than a tranfpo- 
lition of 'P«, i. e. 'Pa;^-!*, rti^es \ a rock; or of 
'P«;^-K, dorfum terra, et mentis ; flsy large emi~ 
nence, or mountain, which is generally 01 fione>. 
or a ftony fubftance, the digging, of which, is 
called the car, cbarry,. or quarty. 

ALTER JAAXeTfffls, ^ol. AAXoroiof, 

ALTERATION! irifot, AXAat, alius, alter, 
altere ; to vary, or change. 

ALTITUDE, AaJb, extrito t, alo, altitude ; 
nam qua aluntur in altit(fdinem Jurgunt ; height, 
or depth. 

ALVEARY; AuXor, alvtts, aheare; a bee- 

ALlfM, AAr, K\ts, a^men ; falfugo terra ; a 
foffil fait : quibus alumen, Axuftixct, pro Jalfagine 
terra celcbratur; lilli non inepte ab rjn AXfUM, 
alumetr, quod falfiigi?um, muriam, JalfilaginemaotAX, 
derivant. U-* 

AI>WATS, At, AKt^femper; continually, perpe- 
tually, for ever: — this is a better deriv. than with 
Jun. and Skinn. to fuppofe that it is cornpoundcd 
of d//, and ways -, for that would Hgiufy by all 


A M 

From GaBZK> and LATrn. 

A M 

meoBSt hy every metbed; but tdipofs rdatrs ratlier 
to length of time, or to ccnfiancf of Juration ; for 
one and the fame thing may be done for a per- 
petuity of time, without any alteration of me- 
thod ; i. c. be always the fame : n^, were we 
ev«n to allow thefe gcDtlemcQ their own deriva- 
tion, (till we might affirm, that alwi^s would 
even then be.of Gr. extra£tioni for the wordwiij' 
is Gr. as we ihall fee hereafter. 

AM, " £ifM, fitm ; Ian : Upt." " am plerique k 
Gr. JLiftt dede^untj" fays Skinn. always expreffing 
an unwillingnefs to admit of aGr. deriv. in pre> 
judicc to his favourite Saxon *' Gom,ftm:" — but 
from whence does his Sax. €om originate i — gn- 
doubrcdly from the Gr. E>f*-t : uniefs the Greeks 
borrowed from the Saxons, 

A-MAiN, MAi«Ct menus i mambus, pedibufque; 
teitb might and main : or elfe we may derive it 
fiom iAtyxt, magnus; great, powerful : or, laftly, 
with Somner, as quoted by Skinn. (who both avoid 
Greek deriv.) wc may derive it % particula otiosa 
a, and Sax. CDaejeo, potentia : — if OD^jen itfelf 
is not derived a Mtym, magnust potens. 

A-MANDATION, MavuM, mando, manu-do -, 
to commit to one's charge -, to give orders i alfo to 
difmifSf to difcbarge. 

A'MANUENSIS, Mki>iiw, indieo ; hinc maniis 
fervus i a fecretary, notary t fcrivener. 

A-MARANTH, ex A. am, et Ma^Airo/iMi, 
wiartefco j afiovoer incorruptible. — Clel. Voc. 170, 
does not admit this word to be of Gr. extraction, 
but Celtic i ' and yet the fignification in both 
languages is the fame ; for he fays, '* Anarantb 
• a a name given to the fiovier-gentle from its ne- 
ver-wtbering : it is currently derived from A, 
- privadve -, and fta^fw, to fade, or wither -, a 
. deriv. fo agreeable to fen&, feems to reft it there) 
but there occurs to me (till a more plaufible one ; 
the tcrminative anth is fo obvioufiy the Gr. «»(»;, 
fiower^ that I rather fufped the etym. to Itand 
• a, privative; 

ft«[(, the Celtic word for death ; whence f«a(«uMi>. 
a fading, or tending to death. 

«»flot, flower. uH-dying-^ower. 
a -mar -anth." 
—that the one was taken &om the other, there 
can be no doubt. 

A-MARITUDE, Aa/m^vc, AXf^ufvs, amarus 
hitter i from the Hebrew word> no marab 

A-MASS» " AfMLa^m, eelUgere, aecumulare ; aut 
metaphoricfe A(*^», neSere ; to bind together,,beap 
Kp: Upc"— or perhaps fromM*^«> m^ai a lump, 
-or heap. 

AMATORY, " A^|[*», vinculum : vel ab '^xf*?, 
atnori ubi /, in A sbit j ut il iiya, tango : nifi 
magis placet amo, efle ab 'Ajuo, fimul; qudd amor 
eft afpetitusunionis: YoS,"'~-to love ; alio a charm 
to promote love. 

A-MAZONS, " the name of a nation of 
brave women, who ufed to burn their left brtafis, 
in order to render themfelves fitter to Ihoot their 
arrows : from Amu M«^ii, without a breaft : R, 
Mft^or, mammilla: Ngg."— now, though the Dr. 
is right with refpeft to the deriv. of this word 
Amazons ; ret he certainly is wrong with re- 
fpeft to the bre&fi, which thefc women arc fup- 
pofcd to have burnt, or cut off*; he fays it was 
the Uft hreafi i but Juftin, drfcribing the Ama- 
zons (lib. ii. itc. 4.) fays, Virgines in eundem ipfis 
morem, noH otto, neque lamficio, fed armit, equis, 
venatitnibus exertebantyinufiis infantium dexteriori- , 
bus mammis, (their right hreojts) ne fagittarum 
jaSus impediretur. 

AMB-AGIOUS, Apfii, eircam > et A^w, ducot 
full of turnings and windings ; lot^ tedious fiories, 
and preambles. 

AMBER Xambra, amber, amiarum » 


AMBI-DEXTER; A/*f.-Ji£.«r: ex A/^^x*, ambo; 
both; and tt^m, dextra-, the right hand; one whs 
egualbf makes ufe of either or both bands : Nug." 

AMB-IENT, Aft^t, (ircum ; around ; and 
Eu, Btpi, eo, vado I to go i to take a cen^afs ; to 
^rafp at all things. CkL Way, 81, fays, " am 
IS another Celtic radical for Jiirrounding ; it is 
in the Gr. Afj.-fi, in the^bire." — and Icems 
moft probably derived from them. 

AMB-IGUITY, A/*^i, cireum -, around ; and 
Ayu, ducB ; to lead round about: tofpeak uncertainly^ 
doubtfully i orelle it may be derived from Ap^iyvg^i 
quod duas habet manus -, a kind of ambidexter t 
one who can treat an argument two ways^. 

AMBLE, " Aftp^uf, languidus, remiffus -, to re- 
tard, or break one's pace : uniefs we chufe to- 
derive it from ambulare: Nug." — hutambulare is- 
no Gr. word i. though indeed it draws its origiii 
from thence j, as we have feen under the art. AL- 
LEY I and therefore the Dr. ought to have traced 
that word to its true fource. 

AM-BROSE, " A/*;3joe-.fle, immortalis ; ex A,- 
non; etfigom, mortalis ; from whence alfo comes 
AMBROSIA, the drink, or liquor of the gods : 
Nug."; — amhrofia was not properly the drink, or 
liquorf but the poetic /«c^ of the gods ; as neSar 
was their fuppofed drink : amirofia, cibus eft deo- 
rum i neSlar veto petus ; fays VoiT. Grasci tamen 
interdum id difcrimcn nrgligunt ; nam et A|uj3f9- 
«-iav pro tuffaret ct N»l«f pro amhrofid^ ponunt. 

Digitized by_ 


A- M 

From G « E 1 K, and L a t i h.. 

A M 

AM-BULATE, A^xfu-vd^iM, ambuUt amhie; 
logo, towalkahut: "neXii^ eftidemacZrfi^H*, ac 
interdum abfolutcruoiitiir pro «r»rfifiirfl«(. iU$\itv, 
i tfx, Av»f^Kpa{t-ivi^ ■ diciiurquc ctiam de homini'- 
bus hue illgc itantibus, uti pafcentes folent, dum 
pecus errans fcquuntur ; eft igitur hfj urBAfi^, obire, 
five circumire : AvxvoXtiv, ire, ac redire, recipro- 
care greffum ; pro Atrasa-D^w autem ^ol. dicicur 
AjKxoXw, unAc ambulo: Romani cnim folent Tcqui 
^olcs, ac Dores. Voff." 

AM-BUSCADE?"Bc<rx«) i>^«} und« Ital. 

AM-BUSH S bofeo; Hifp. bo/qneijy ha, 

Fr. Gall, embufcher -, Ital. imbojcare j Hifp. embof- 
carje ; inftdias tendere \ fed proprie, et primario, 
Jalttt, nemore, feu dumeto Jt ab/condere ; lit infidi- 
antesjolent : Skinn," — to lie hid among bujbes, trees, 
&c. in order to Jurprifi an ptemf. 

AMEN, A^ii», amen \Jo be it : properly of He- 
brew extra6tton. 

A-MENABLE: termedcpalais, qui veut dire, 
traitable, Joufle, docile-, en parlant d'une femmc 
mariee : none of our etymologifta have taken the 
Icaft notice of this word ; and I have been ob- 
liged to] adopt this explanation from Boyer j 
as for the derir. I have not as yet been able to 
trace it. 

A-MERCED 7Mu<r«fB;, hoceftM.«fer, 

A-MERCIAMENT \ mifer, mifertcardia; mer- 
cy; fined ; a pecuniary punilhmcnt, impdfed on 
fuch offenders as are left to tbt mercy of the 
court: fines xtre pattiflments certain; amerciaments, 

A-METHYST, « A^jflvroc : ex A, nan j et 
Miflu, vinum temelum ; a -precious fione that prevents 
intoxication. Nug." 

AMI-ABLENESS, Ap^ia, vintulum-, vel ab 
*J)*if Of, amor^ amabilis ; to love -, to be worthy of 

AMMES-ACE} Sft^-w, ambas-ajfes -, both the 
aces, at pltcy. 

AMIVIONIAC, **A/a|it&i»iono(: as «Ar Aju^unaxef, 
Jal Ammomectts -, Jal /fmmoniac -, becaufe of its be- 
ing found in the fands of AfHc, near Jupiter 
Afnmoris temple : Nug."— the Dr. however has 
not given us any conjecture, why it ihould be 
found more thcrc» than in any other part of the 
globe J but the general opinion rs, that it is form- 
ed from the ftale of the camels, belonging to the 
numerous caravans that rclbrt co that temple. 

AM-MUNITION, Af*uj«, tueor, defertdo ah 
injuria; unde mcenia, munio ; to fortify yjirengtben. 

A-MNESTY; •* A/iVflria : from J^non; etM*«o- 
/i«t, memoror, recorder ; an eci of grace, or ohliviott 
»f former offences, among the Athenians, by which 
they obliterated the' remembrance of alipnfi h^itries, 
and crimes comsUlted agaJnJl ibefiaie. Nug." 

. A-MONG, Mi^uEtv, mitcM % to minglij or miM 
together : both Jun. and Skinn. derive among from 
the Sax. T^manj, and Gemanj, inter ; et hoc i 
verbo Elcmenjan ; Belg. ct Teut. mengev, mifcerti 
to mingle; and yet, when they come to fpeak of the 
word mingle, they acknowledge that it originatei 
a Miyvuu, vel Miy*ujLti, mijceo ; to mix, or mingle. 

A-MORT, Mepof, vei Maip», mors ; death i 
" All amort, ut dicimus de viro pr» nimis pfo^ 
fundis cogitationibuj quafiobftupefceote, et esftali 
abrepto: morti exfiinguere, vel, ut nunc loquimui^ 
mertificare -, fays Skinn."— and yec he would not 
take one ftep farther. 

AMOUR, Afiftet, vinculum; vei ab 'lf*t(«f, 
quafi Ajuif d;, amorj amatarius ; to love -, or be ad'- 
dialed to love. 

AMPHI-BIOUS ( Aju^p..!, ex A^^., quafi 
A/*f*>, ambo J et Bwf, vita-i in terrd, et in aqud 
vivens ; a creature who lives both en land, and in 
■water j who has as it were a twofold life, terref- 
trial, end aquatic. 

AMPHI-BO-LOGY, " Af^i^koym, a triple 
compound, o( x/jt^t-^afAu, ctAs^of, drtumamhiger^ 
/ermonem ; a word Jufceptible of two different 
me^ningSt or a. double entendre :■ Nug."— or rather 
a circumlocution. 

AMPHIS-BiENA, A,«^,f, utrinque j et Batiw, 
gradior; qudd €\ utrd^ue parte pregrediatur; quia 
utri/que extremitatibus acuminatis gignitur j a 
ferpent which Jeems to have a head at each endt 
and to be able to go either way. 

AMPHI-SKIANS, written by Nug. and othm, 
<i«pijfcians, as if it came from/ofl ; but derived 
ab 'Aji*^iffxo(, ex A/*^t, circum; et £«»«, umbra: 
inhabitants between the tropics, who have their 
Jhadcw thrcswn fometimea to the north and fonae- 
times to the /w/i, according as the fun happens 
to be either to the fouth or to the north of thetn j 
and confequently in the compafsof a year their 
fhadowt travel quite round them. 

AMPHI-THEATRE, "Ap9.Mfw: cxA,*^, 
circum; et Btxnfini, Jpeilo ; to look at; a place Jet 
routed with Jcaffelds, in order to look at public 
games. Nug." 

AMPHI-TR-ITE, Clel. Voc. 128, doetnot 
admit this word to be Gf. though, even accord- 
ing to his owndta-ivsttiwir it carries all th« marks 
of a Gr. etym. " As to Ampbitrite," fays he, 
" whom the fable has married to Neptune, no- 
thing is io plain as ihe deriv, of it : not moft 
certainly from tero, tritus ; quod terram marc 
tfndique terat ; but from its aftuaL encompalling 
Ae earth i 

Ampbii rmttdA 

Tir i earth. > . , ,■ » 

I'e . going. {"rcHm-terram^affihens." 


Digitized by 


A M 

From GftZBK, tnd Latih. 

A N 

^-but aU thefe words are pare Gr. aixfii plainly 
derives from Af^ft, drcum j ttr^ ab Ef«, term % 
and iffi ab £«, eo, ivi, itum ; to go. 

AMPLE, nexuf, pius, ati^lus; more, large, 
fiaiely i Jpacitus : Voffius has given us a much 
better dcriv. j viz. amplus, ex 0/»Trv«(, or rather 
Opi*»«f, or O^-wtmu dives, magfius, R. Oft-nn, fruc- 
tus cereahs: — and yet there is another dcriv. 
which feems to be more natural than either of 
diefe ; viz. amplus ex A^KTAter, quod Attice 
AiMTrXtttt, /uper-plevKS, refertus i ever-full, Jufer~ 

AM-PUTATION, Km-7«. /cindo, quafi upto, 
Indcputo, amputo, i. e. purum reddo, purgo ; fic 
qui futat arbores, eas purat facit; a cutting off, 
topping, or pruning. 

AMULET, Afivm, defenJo ah injuriii amuU~ 
turn, quod corpori noxam omnem munitur ; a charm, 
to dijptl vjitchcraft, &c. 

A-MUSE, Msr«, mufe; Mitn«, mujam medi- 
tart } to mujt, to meditate ; alfo to divert the ima- 
gination, relax ittteufenefs of tbeugbt, &n6give a re- 
lief to the mind. 

ANA, " »nfy, or alone : Verft." who fuppofes 
it to be Sax. j but it feems to be no more than a 
different dialeft for ONEj confequentlyGr. 

ANA-BAPTIST, A»«/3«»1.pK, ex A»«, rurfus j 
sgaini et B«»1i^«, baptize-, to baptize-, a rebap- 
tizer; who holds a repetition ofbapti/m, 

•ANA-CHORET, " by contraclion aaftprrf j 
txAt^ifeorfim; etXufiw, recedo; Nug." — areclu/e; 
one who retire^ to a foUtary place : and yet Ciel. 
affirms it to be of Celtic origin i as will be feen 
in the Sax. alph. 

ANA-CHRONISM, Ava, et Xfewt, tempus ; 
time J an error in chronology, either with reJftB to 
dates of fa^s, or events. 

ANACREONTIC, A»tx^tm, Anaereon ; a mod 
delightful Greek poet ; alio verfes leritten after 
his manner. 

ANA-DI-PLOSIS, A»*JnrJ.wffifj reduplicatio ; 
All*, rurfus; et AiwXau, duplico i a 6gure in rhe- 
toric; when the laft word, or words, of the former 
verfe, is repeated immediately. in the next; as 
'—— timidifque fupervenit ^gle; 
^gle, ndiadumfukberrima. Eel. vi. 20. 

ANA-GNOSTIC, AvayiPMrar] Avat-yiuwoittu, ag- 
nofce, lege, leSor, cujus monus eft legere alicui 
fcriptum quodlibet : one who read hiftory, or 
ether books, to divert ©r inftruft the gucfts at 
table, which might give occafion to fomc ufcful 
€>r learned difcourfc, or any amufcment : better 
thaA drinking of healths, or giving of toafls. 

AN-AGOGICAL, k»aeyKfH) ex Ac, A»iu, ebjque; 

et Aywfif, ductus, adduBioi ab Ayw, ^luvi unahk 
to be traced, infcrutable, unfearcbable. . 

ANA-GRAM, A*i»vf«w*», ex Ar», ct T^xfu, 
fcriba; to write, to tngravo; the finding out of 
a new word, only by a tran/po^tion of letters. 

. ANA-GRAPH, Awtyj wfn, fcriptio, (tmmenta-' 
rius i a regifiering, a cemmeniary on an; /ubje^ : 
derived from the lame root. 

ANA-LECTS, A>»Mitl», A»«Aiy«, toUigo, tol- 
leSanea ; coUeSions of writing, like materials for 
hiftory, &c. 

ANA-LOGy» *'A»»Xayim,A»yot,fermo, defttiitioi 
« relation, refemilance,fimilarity, eenformity. Nug." 

ANA-LYSIS lAnaiMrn, Aum, Jelvo ; diffolutio 

ANA-LYTICj alicujus eomp^ti ; refclving a 
di/ceurfe into its confiituent parts. 

ANA-PHORA, *' A*»<ft^u,referei to bring backi 
a figure in writing, when in the beginning of every 
verfe the fame word is repeated. Nug." 

AN-APO-LOGETICAL, A»-«To-A»ynI«, ejt 
Ac, Aww, et HToAoyig^Mi : R. tart, cc Aoy«{, Jermo i 
defends fermane ; exeufe -, without ixcufe, inexcu- 

AN-ARCHY. A9»ix,'»* <? **«"» ^kfi*^'' ** 
Afxij principatus, imperium ; ftatus corum qui 
dominatore carent; ubi nullus eft magiftratus ; want 
of government, diforder, mifrule. 

ANA-STASIUS, " Ai-«r«ffK, iw : ex Ac., rur- 
fus; et Ipi^i, fio; to fiand; to rife again; a rO' 
furreifion. Nog," 

ANA-THEMA, " Am(»ji*», or »^«-: ex Ai-o,, 
furfum i TtfliifAi, pone j donarium, et perfona deo con- 
fecrata, ac dicata ; an offering, or gift, hung up i» 
the temples: it Cgnifics likewife an execrable per- 
fon, one devoted: alio the fentence pronounced againfi 
fucbperfen: Nug." — but there is a difference ia 
the deriv. and meafure of this word anathema, 
according to thefe two different fenfcs: '*A*(»fliip«,. 
priori porreifta aliud fuerit quam AcoSi/**, priori 
correptS; AveAnfi^ fignificat donarium numini di- 
catum, inque temple fufpeufum -, nempe eft ab 
h*A%M»%, quod fignificat deditare, confecrare : at 
AcaSi/** eft ab A»«flnr<«., fignificante removere, 'fe- 
parare ; quomodo dicimus AcaBipa x^a xi X^oi^ 
feparatum i Cbrip. VolT." Clel. Way, 112, and 
Voc. 4., rays,'*that this feema to be an old druidicat 
term Grecifcd : an, privative j and aiih -, faith;. 
fomething liable to be turfed, or being contrary to 
the religion of the country :" — this will point out a 
new dcriv. viz. aitb, »nd faith feero to be very 
nearly related ; and therefore we need not helitate 
to derive them both from the Gr, fee FAITH, 
and MAR-AN-ATHA. Gr. 

ANA-TOCISM, A»«Im.^«, A*«I<.xiir/wf, ufur^ 
renevatio anniver/aria -, ex Am, rurfus;, ct T»>mc 

Digitized by 


A ,N 

From G R B B K, ud La t t h. 

A N 

afura, fama ; the annual ittereafe, or inter^ cf 
money, whether ftrnpltt tr confound. 

ANA-TOUA, « or NATOLIA, To^, A.«- 
riAAw, oriri facie -, utjol, ut l»na : the country called 
Afia the Le/s, and now the Levant, from AfoloXnj 
the rifinx of the fun, or the Eafi. Nug." 

ANA-TOMY, " Ak«7o;n.«, Ans^ofm, T(f**M : 
perfe&um medium TiltiAK, Jeco i anatome : to cut, 
divide I ineifion, dijffHien. Nug," 

AN-AUNTRiNS, " if Jo be : I know not what 
the original of this ftiould be," fays Ray ; ** un- 
lefs it be -from an, if; and auntrins, coniTA&ed 
fronfi peradventure : — quafi adventurings ; and 
then, according to the barbarous cuftom of ab- 
breviations, funk to auntrins :" confequently Gr. 

AN-CASTER j Ckl. Voc 67, derives " An- 
cajier from Mancbefier, Minkifier -, all which words 
ftrongly indicate thofe places to have been the 
feats of antient Britifli fanftuarics :" — let me only 
obferve, that the word CASTER may however 
take a different deriv, but ftiil Gr. 

AN-CESTORS: Xa^5, x'^^^t '^^o, antectf- 
for ; anceftors ; he that goeth before, or precedeth 
. another. 

ANCHOR 1 If the word anchor, or rather ankor, 

ANCOR > be derived, as it undoubtedly is, 

ANKOR J from Ayxuf*, which gives origin 
to ancera -, then certainly the h in the word anchor, 
ought to be difcardedi otherwife it looks as if it 
came from x«f» manus ; but there is no ;^ or cb, 
in Ayicuf*, confequently thofe letters oughc not to 
appear in our orthography j fince they are not 
in either the Greek or Latin words ; Vofllus how- 
ever fays, " Mihi fit magis verifimile ab Oyxi\, 
quod uncum, five hamum Jigtiat, venire turn 
AyxuXa;, cum Ayxupa, turn oyuvor, tum ctiam 
Latinus «»fHj:"— all and every one of which are 
written with a x, or c ; not x> or cb. 

AND : Skinri. fuppofes this word to be derived 
" a Lat. addere -, q. d. adde -, ct tum interjefta per 
epenth. n; ut in reader, a reddo :" — but if this 
fee the true etym. then his Sax. deriv. falls to 
the ground; for both addo, and reddo, are of 
Gr. extraAion, with the Latin prepofitions «(/,*and 
re, joined to do, which is evidently derived & 
&iia>f/.i, Au, do i addo, reddo. Cafaubon derives 
and ab Ei1«, pojiea -, infcrto v : but Jun, feems to 
have vlvanced nearer the truth, and led us up to 
the Gr. by a different route j for he has acknow- 
ledged, that the Germ, und i the Bclg. ende ; the 
Sax. Anb ; and the Almann. indi,jeh, end, tnti, int, 
ande, are all derived ab Eli, interjedo v; E7ii 
quafi E»7i) adhuc, pr^terea, ettam, qutntfiam, in- 
fuper ; hefides, alfo, likewtfe, moreover. 

AND-IRONS, " quafi end-irons ; A,i!!»», perfi' 
cere,fimre, finis -, an end; et Xih^es,ferrum ; iront 
Fr. G^. landier; fubex focarius, fulcrum focariump 
ferreum nempe inftrumentum ferenMs lignerum 
extremitatibus idoneuiH : Jun." /rea-i/ofj (fo called 
perhaps from having dogs' beads, or being made 
in thefiape of dogs) to fupport the ends of thofe 
billets, laid on the h'orth io bum. 

ANDREW, " A»Jf Mf, Avtip, tf Of, Jf Of, vir j a 
man -, implying a fiout, brave, courageous man, 
Nug." Clel. Voc. 62. n ; 102, and 177, tells us, 
that an-drew figmfics a head, or chief druid, or 
divine ; thence it was that the Chriftians, by way 
of exploding the Druids, turned them into ridi- 
cule in their feaft, or holiday of fools, when 
one of the buffoon perfonages was a merry. 
an-drew:" — but in p. 133, he tells us, <jh fignifics 
the head, or chief; and in p. 171, anth, and 
Afflos, fignify the fame ; confequently Gr. and the 
word DRUID we fliall find hereafter to be Gr. 

ANDRO-GYNE, Avi^oyvvK, Awif-ywM, vir pa- 
riter ac femina, femivir ; an herm-aphrodite. 

AN-EK-DOTE; commonly vntitn anecdote^ 
though derived from AtnS^o%, nen editus, Tton vul- 
gatusi a private occurrence, an incident that has 
never been publijhed : R. Aw, non; and ExJoTor, 
editus; which is again derived from Ex, et 
A( Jm/i*i, do i given out, publijbed abroad. 

— '- - ' ■"" "* Lye writes it according to the 
fecond article an-eled, and 
derives it from the Sax. 




AN-NEALED V TCnelan, i. e. ab TCn, pro on, 



et ele ; oleum : but then 
he ought to have added, ct 
AN-OYLED J c/(f«/B abEXtfjw;— according 
to this deriv. we fhould read that ever memora- 
ble paffage in Shakcfpcar's Hamlet, thus : 
Unhoufeld, u^iappnnted, iinaneled j 
otherwife, if we were to read it, as it appears in 
fcveral editions, 

Unhoufeld, unanointed, unaneled, 
it would be mere tautology, fmcc unaneled Cg- 
nifies unanointed: if however we are to follow 
this latter reading, then it ought to be printed 
thus: , , 

Unhoufeld, unanointed, unanealed; 
and then unanealed would lake quite a different 
meaning, and originate from quite a different 
root, viz. NEAL, or purify by fire ;, alluding 
perhaps to tha fire of purgatory : ftill Gr. 

ANEMONE, Aotftuvn, AnfAot, ventus, anima; 
breath, wind, air; a flower of but fivrt duration. 
I ANENTi "'S.vm\E»xv%w, eppofitumy i regiene, 


Digitized by 


A N 

Frbih G K. £ E e, md L A 1 1 h. 

'A N 

rtlJMHlai Vox Ibng^ niagis Scotis, quam nobis 
ufitata: fed quo commercio Gracci Scotis, totms 
EuropaS longitudine difGtis, Tocabula impcrtirc 
potumint ? mallem igitur deducere i Sax. Nflsan 
(it ftould have been Naaji, as he himfclf wfiteS 
it afterwards) prepe, addita particuld initiali oti- 
osS A."— thus has Skinn. rcafoned on this word j 
and Ihould fuch reafoning hold-valid^ it would 
be as ftrong againfl: his own derivation from the 
Stat, as it fcems to be againft the Scots : for what 
commerce had the Saxons and Greeks toge- 
ther?— the commerce of n«ions, and the com- ' 
mameation of language, is abfolutely iinac- 
countaUC} and impombie to fix, cither as to time, 
mode, or circumftance ; and therefore, to rejeft 
any dertv, merely becauft we are unable to folve 
the difficulty of aOcrting, how the knowledge of 
flfat word came into ulc among any people, is 
the efFcft of prejudice and' partiality, not of found 
judgment, and reafoning. 

ANGEL \ " Ayythpf, anzeltu, nuncius ; a 

ANGELfCA j meffenger : R. AytXku, fays 
Nufr" — but that mult be an error of the prefs ; 
for It ought ca have been printed AyyfXXw, nun- 
cio \ to puhlijb, or divulge any news, to carry a mef- 
^agti to do the bebejts of afitperior. 

ANGER, Ofyji, /r<J( vjratB: or elfc from 
Ayygtlu, irritCt dolore adficio: Ayyjif, doior i to 
frevoke, to make angry. 

ANGINA, Ay^ta, jtrangulo, Juffoco ; adifeafeof 
the throat, called the /quinancy, or qvinjy -, an in- 
Jlantmation of the Jaws, caujtng fiiffocation. 

ANGLE, or corner j Ayxu^of , AyxvXn, angulus, 
incurvatio cubiti, curvus, tortuofus j the bending of 
the elbow ; a comer, or turning of a Jireet : alfo 
the' mathetnatical point in which two lines meet.' 
. ANGLE to catch fi^ j Ayiurm, hamus ; a hook -, 
or from Oy;tof, uncus; eroekea; hccauk all hooks 
are formed bent. 

AN-GLE-SEAj from the Common ortho- 
graphy, no one, ,buc fuch an etythol. as Clcl. Voc. 
55, and ly^, could unriddle this word, which he 
has very fatisfaftorily explained by " Lan-cal~fuidtb, 
or an-eal-fee i a bead college, or univerfity ; it hav- 
ing been undoabtedly fuch in the time of the 
Vruids:" — confequently all Gr. j forii», ban, kan, 
km, ketang, may^all originate from the fame root 
with KING : Cal, al, hal, from Aux-tij itidfutdlb, 
fxoyth, fea, QT fee, is only a diiferent diale£t for 
fedes; a feat: confequently Gr, 

ANG-NAIL; Ayx^, ango; angutjb; andOkuJ, 
unguis; the nail; apiece of Jkin, which feparates at 
the bottom of the nails, and caufcs great pain : both 
Jun. and Skinn. give this interpretation, and yet 
neither of them have gone any farther than the 
Sax. lang. for z dertv. of thia word. 

ANGUINEOUSj «Ex«: mihi, ut et Seal, 
^maxime placet, anguts elfc ab Ay^t, Dor. pro 
^x'Ct inferto », quafi Ev;^ic, (vel potius cum y, 
Eyx'fj anguts) quomodo ab Hebr. fadin c^^adon; 
a xiJtD^kBc, ciacinhuS j I ^^X"*' ^*n^* j et i <'"X'^'*» 
fcihdo : Voir." a fnake. 

ANGUISH, Ayj(w, ango, dolore a^io; to caufe 
pain, or grief. 

ANGUST } Ay;^u, ango, angujtus ; narrow^ con- 
traSledi choaked. 

AN-HELATIONj X«Xm, halo» aHhelans; a 
puffing, Mowing, panting, wheafing. 

ANlLlTY, Enat'fof, quod tv i«w7u, in fe redeat; 
unde annus ; i. e. anulus ; qu6d in fe redeat : full 
of years ; aged; dealing. 

ANIM-AD-VERT, Ani*ot, animus i et Tf nr« 
quafi tlfplv, verto, odverto ; an obferving, attending 
to, giving heed to. . ■ 

ANIMAL lAnftot, animus i the mnd, the 

ANIMOSITYi ""'"'"A rational part of a man: 
the life, Jtrengtb, vigour of any creature. 

ANISE, A¥iirn, anifum ; an herb, and feed f$ 
called J of which' they make a very agreeable liquor. 

ANKLE, AyKuAe;, angulus, incurvatio -, a Joints 
lending, turning. 

" AN-LYCNE3. Verflj." a Hkene/t. Gr. 

" AN-LYFEN. Verft." 4 /tvm^, «/rv*fy-.&(W Gr. 

ANNALS, E*t((u1«, quod a i«u]y, in/e redeat ; 
annus; ayeari becau/e the year rolls round into it' 
/elf: a writer of annals, or the political occurrences 
of the year ; chronicles. 

ANNATES, Ekiwuloc : from the lame root ; 
now ufed to fignify primttio! ; the firft-fruits, paid 
out of Jpiritual benefices i or a compojtion for the 
produce of the tithes of the firfi-year. 

AN-NEX, Niw, neSo, odneBo j to tie, knit. 

ANNI-VERSARY, E».«>.1o(, annus i et T^m. 
quafi tltflu, verto ; an annual return. 

AN-NOUNCE, Nwf, novuj, nuncio i to deli' 
ver a mejfage, introduce ajlranger. 

AN-NOY, " KbAow, noceo, per metath. et A in 
n abcuntc, ut fiepc fit ; quafi Nsxijew, noceo : 
Voir."-^though we may rather lake his former 
defiv. a»f«i ut proprie fit necare, vel quafi ne~ 
care ; and then have derived nex, necis, unde neco, 
a Nfxu,-, quod idem ac Nwf of, mortuus ; cadaver j 
a dead body : injure, hurt, difiurh. 

ANNUAL, EwKnloi, annus; a year, the annual 
orbit, or circle of the year -, a ring that rolls round 
into itfelf, 

AN-NULLi Elf, /*(«, "E*, unus, ullus, nuUus j 
to make void, abrogate, render of no effeii. 

AN-ODYNE, " Otuvn, AmSvvK, abfque dolore i 
a remedy for afuaging, or removing any great pain .* 
Cliit, w»i, lahur-pains. Nug." 


A N 

From Greek, and Latin. 

A N 

AN-OMALOUS, " AvufAcAot, ammahts -, irre- 
gular : R. '0/*«Ao(, planus -, plain,/moeth, regular. 

A-NON, Nu», nunc -, now j fer/hioith, quickly. 

AN-ONYMOUS, A»wvvf^t>!, Am, ah/que ; « 
Otofi*, namen ; without a name ; a work unfubfcribtd 
by the author. 

AN-OPSY, Avoyj'ut, A»u, •ab/qu^ ; et OtJ-oi., ep- 
fonium, eibus ; withoutfoed, fajiing ; famijbed. 

ANS-WER, Sax. Anbn>ajiian, antppajicj re- 
fponderey refponfum j to make a reply, a refponfe : 
even the Sax. teems to be a derivative, or at leaft 
a contraction of the Teut. antworten ; or the 
Belg. antwoerten j and they feem to be com- 
pounded of ant I contra ^ and woort, a word in 
retumy i. e. a reply ; and if fo, they arc of Gr. 
orig. for A*I-i is contra j and Eija, Ejim, dice, feems 
the original o( word, quafi Ff^Aw, dico i to fpeak 
a word. 

AN-SYNA, orAN-SYNE: '' On-feen, or any 
thing looked on j wee" vfe for this the French woord 
face. Vcrft."— it happens rather unfortunately for 
this good old Saxon, that both SEEN, and FACE, 
are Gr. 

ANT- AGONIST, Mi-ttymtm, A*!., advcrfus ; 
et AywKt^ofioii, contendo ; an opponent, literally^ or 

ANT- ARCTIC, ASl-»^xf'Mt, Ail>> adver/uj ; et 
Ae)c7a;, ur/a ; a bear ; in aftronomy it dgniBes a 
point oppojite to that confiellation. 

ANTE-CEDENT, A»7«, ante; et X«^«, x«^«, 
code, antecedo -, to go before, precede. 

ANTE-DATE, At-Ta-AiJw/*!, Aw, do, datum; 
to date before the real time of writing. 

ANTERIOR, Ail*, coram, ante ; before, for- 
mer, prior. 

ANTE-DI-LUVIAN, Ai.1«, ante-, et Aiw, lavo, 
diluvifs i deluge ; a patriarch, living before the 

ANTE- LOPE, " AtxwoMi, ve\ AiiotrXoi ■. (per- 
haps AvitfraXa) quam tamen vocem in nullo lex. 
'nvenio ;" fays Skinn. '• fit fides penes autorem 
Gefnerum: propter tamen viri magni gravita- 
tem, eoquc meritam apud omnes aulhoritatem, 
facile crediderim has voces Gra:cis rccentioribus 
in ufu efle : ft in tenebris palpare vellcm, poflem 
deflefterc ab A»1i, adverfus; et Ae^ot, cervix; quafi 
caper, qui inverfos comuum apices bahet .'—credo 
tamen vocem rcvera Arabicse effe orig. quia ani- 
mal ipfum in folis iis regionibus, quz Arab^ 
ling, utuntur; invenitur :" an Arabian animal, 
fmaller than a deer, but larger than a goat, 

ANTE-MERIDIAN, Ait»-Mitry^B,a, anti- 
meridies ; meridies, i. e. mediusdies; mid-day, before 
mi- 'day -, ■ oon ; before- neon. 

ANTHEM, " Jntiphonai from Ai-ltfaww, to 

anjwer on the oppefitefiie ; R.' *mmi, vox \ voice, or 
found : Nug." — furely the Dr. could never intend 
this for the etym. of our word anthem} if he 
did, there never was a wider deriv. than to fup- 
pofe that anthem could polBbly come from ^un, 
vox : Junius however has given us the fame ex- 
planation, and confequcntly no derivation ; for 
derivation, and explanation, are two different 
things i as in this example before us j an anthem 
may be very properly explained by Ac1i^w*ia, anti- 
phonia; but it can never be derived from thencej 
and therefore with Skinn. we may rather fuppofe, 
that anthem was derived " ab Ativii.tif, quia red- 
procis, altemantibus modulis cantatur :" a hymn, or 
piece of pfalmody, fung by alternate voices: R. A*l(, 
recipreci j et 'T|uwf, hymnus ; in compofition A»rfl- 
ujuMc, an anthem. 

ANTHO-LOGY, A»««-Aoy.(«, Affi«, /« j et 
xtyu, dice i vel Aiy«, lege, colligo j a treattfe wrtttett 
en the cultivation of flowers ; alfo a colle^ien of 

f i1«i, AfS^wiTBf, homo i a man ; et Mo^ ^n, forma : 
baretici, Deo bumanam formam tribuentes: Nug." 
Heretics who afcribed corporeal form to the Deity. 

ANTHROPO-PHAGI, '»A,e.<«rev, heme; et 
ftiyot, vorax ; bominum vorater : Nug." a deveurer 
of men j a canibal. 

ANTI-CH AMBER, A»[»-*a.^^», ante-camera ; 
a chamber before another apartment ; an anterior, 
or introductory room. 

ANTI-CHRIST, " Adl.-Xj irer. A*?., contra; et 
Xgifsf, un^us : R. Xjiu, unge : Nug." again^ the 
Lord, and againfi bis anointed. 

ANTI-CIPATION, Ai,7«-x*t7«: fane K«t7««, 
«ToJi;^fir9«i, anticipatio ; ante, et capio ; to take be~ 
forehand, to ferefial, prevent. 

ANTICKS, Ai'7«-fiiwt>, ante-avuMy antiquum i. 
inepte faltare, antiquo modo ducere choreas j to 
dance, or Jkip absut in the antienc method, in a 
fantafiical manner. 

ANTI-DOTE, « a;].-Ww : A*7., centra-, et 
AtJw^t, de, datum ; antidotus ; a counter-peifon, ad- 
mimjleredagainfi the dreadful effeSs efpoifon. Nug." 

ANTI-£NTi Ay[»-eum, ante-avum, antiquum ; 
commonly written ancient, after the affefted French 
orthogr. : but if the French are fuch barbarous, 
innovators, as to tranfmute letters, without eithec 
fenfe or reafon, let us not be fo perverfe as to 
follow them in their writings, whatever we may; 
do in their faflitons. 

ANTI-GALLICANi, with regard to- the for- 
mer part of this compound, it is. evidently Gr. 
the latter is fo likcwife: only obferving that 
Anti-Gallican is properly an enemy to- France ; as. 
France is always the natural enemy to England. 


A N 

From G R E s K> and L a t i w. 

A N 


Mf, feUts \ et Afxij mperium -, monarchia -, aHtitnen- 
archiai a government ereiied in opfefitien, or againft 
menarcbieal government, or the rule of a Jinglt po- 

ANTI-MONY, Ai'1i-Mo»«x*^ anii-monacbus i 
concra£ted to antimotrium, fiiiium i ufus ejus eft 
mulieribus in fucandil facie; quod quia dedecet 
homines rcliglofbs, eo Italis antimonio videtur 
nuncupari, ab A»%, contra; ec Ital. moine, mena- 
cbus: anlimotiy, a fort of pigment> which may 
not improperly be tranflated into our language 

ANTI-NOMIAL, Aiil.-»|u.«, A*\ advtrfus -, et 
NsfiAf, lex : legit ; adverfus legem repugnantia; legum 
contrarietas ; the clajbing of two laws. 

ANTI-PATER, '*Atl,-w»l(cs, A*% pro; et n«1«f, 
pater j one who fitppUes the place of a father. Nug." 

ANTI-PATHY, " Ai{t-woAa», A»1i, contra j et 
iratvx<*> patior i iraAcij paffio'; a fecret repugnance -, 
an eppt^tion between two things. Nug." — a natural 

ANTI-PERI-STASIS, "Ai7i-i«f i-r««t, a triple 
compound ex AiTt-irfft-rnip, circum-ob-fifienHai 
dicitur in humano corpore> quum e loco fuperiore 
fpiritus ceercetur infra i aut contra ; — when heat, 
or cold, being actuated by its contrary quality, be- 
comes the more intenfe. Nug." 

• ANTI-FHRASIS, Ai.1i-ff«ff.;, A»1., contra; et 
f{«^«, dice ; oppojitio, 6gura grammatica, qua 
contrarium dicitur : — when a word has a meaning, 
contrary to its etymology ; if there be any fuch, 
fays Ainfw.— there are many fuchj the verb m- 
eludo in Latin figni6es to open, unbar, unlock ; in 
. EngliQi it fignifies to lock up, feclude, retire j and 
even in Latin he himfeif has faid vita & rebus 
mundanisfeclufa, (or a reclufelife: our vord fairies 
is another exaniple of the fame nature. 

ANTI-PODES, " Afl(-»eJ«, A»1., contra; et iraf, 
■reiot, pes, pedis ; people dwelling in the other 
hemifphere, or on the other fide of the earth, 
oppoflte to us, with their feet direftly againft us: 
Nug." — if the Dr. had underftood Geography, 
he would have known that England has no J/nti- 
podes : he ftiould therefore have faid, oppejite to 
each other. 

ANTIQUITY, AS\at-atmv, ante-ovum; antiquus, 
antiquarius -, Jludieus of antiquity ; a copier of old 
books and writings ; a fearcher after entient and 
remote periods, &c. 

ANTI-STROPHE, A.1.-rf<»pn, Ai-1., adverfus; 
ct rf t^, verto i conver/io, fchema dramatis, et odic 
Pindarics pars \ a turning of the chorus the con- 
trary way. 

ANTI-THESIS, " A^l.-Smf, A»7t, contra; et 

t»6k^, poHo ; a rhetorical fiourifl) ; when contrariet 
are eppofed to each other. Nog." 

ANTI-TRINITARIAN, A.7., contra; itT^uu 
tres, Trinitas ; Antitrinitarius j one who entertains 
a difbeUef of the Trinitarian doSrine. 

ANTI-TYPE, Aiii-r»-zw, Av7., pro ; et Tinr«, 
forma \ exemplum ex alio exprejfum ; that which 
anjwers to, or is prefigured by a type; as the Pafcbal 
lamb was the type, to which Jefus was the antitype. 

ANT-OIKI, A*\t- O.XIW, A*li, adverfus j et e.xtc, 
habito; commonly written Antiaci; and fome- 
times Antoicbi ; but the true orchogr. is Antciki ; 
namely ftich inhabitants of the earth who live on 
contrary fides of the equator, but at equal difiances 
from it, under the fame meridian. 

St. K^TO^Y's fire; "ignis SanSfi Antonii, 
Eryfipelas ; fie diftus, tum quia tumor valdc 
igneus eft, impendio fc. calidus \ tum quod Sanc- 
tum Antonium, credo Pataviniim, peculiari qua- 
dam virtute hunc morbum fanare vulgo credi- 
tor : — notum autcm eft, fupcrftitiofum vulgus 
certis morbis fanandis ccrtos, et appropriates 
SaniSos deftinare ; ut Sanftam Luciam, ophthal- 
mia, et lippitudini ; Sanflam Apolloniam, odont- 
algia J Sanftos Macarium, et Roccum, pefii ; - 
Sandum Hubertum, rabiei: Jun." — it is a pity 
they did not invent one faint more, to cure an 
empty purfe. 

AN-VIL: " Sax.Xnplr, Skinn. Anplr, Jun." 
ab aed; ad, fuper; et Bcelben j Teut. bilden; 
/«n»«r* :— commodius defleiti poflunt ab an, 
pro fuper; on, or upon; et feallan; eadere ; to 
fall i quia malleus crebro in incudcm cadif ; the 
on-fall; becaufe frequently Jiruck by the falling 
on of the hammer .--^but FALL is Gr. 

AN-WYRED, "or yArworJ; Verft."— per- 
haps anwyrded; but anword, and anfwired, fecm 
to be of the fame orig. with WORD ; if fo, it 
is Gr. 

ANY : both Jun. and Skinn. have endeavoured 
to deduce ihis word from the Sax. Siiij, Anir ; 
and both have acknowledged that the Sax. is oc- - 
rived from an ; unus ; and both of them likewife 
have rejected Evi»(, though it fignifies aliqui^ 
quidam, nonnulU -, but it Teems " Abr. Mylius 
deducit any, ab E>i9i, ingeniofius fane-, quam 
verius:" — [ince then this gentleman has not had 
the good fortune to pleafe them, let me endea- 
vour tb do it, by giving them another Gr. word 
for unus, which they acknowledge as the root of 
their Sax. an : unus itfelf then, according to Voff. 
is derived ab Oi^e?, en, tutt, one : — however, if the 
word any derives from unus, there can be no diffi- 
culty in deriving unus immediately from Etj, jwm, 
"El-, uti i one, an-y. 

D 2 ^A-ORIST, 


A P 

Frqnt QaisK, and LatiHi 

A P 

aonftus i'a tenfe amoog the Greek grainm. of vn- 
certajjft or indeterminate duration j bping fome- 
times made ufe of to fignify every time except 
the prefent j but utijettled -whether it be a long 
or a Port time. 

A-PACE: again Jyn. and Skinn- a^? perfuing 
their former method : they can both of them 
fee the propriety ^f deriving pace from paffm -, 
but they fecm to have had no fufpicion that 
fajfus could be derived from *aiw, thus ; *«ivu, 
^pivuj quaQ ^mSm, pando, pajfum, pajfus; quia fit 
pedibus paj/is ; becaufe ajiep, or pace is m^tde with 
expanded, or dijiended feet j and therefore when 
aiiy thing comes on apace, it approaches bajiily, 
- with large Jirides ; pedibus pajfts. 

A-i'ATHY, Airaeii*, A, nm j et flraSsf, ad- 
feSus animi : R, riar;^*!, patter ; uticoncernedne/s, 
indifference, infenfibility, ftotci/m. 

A-PERIENT 7*ifa), pario, aperio ; to open, 

A-PERTUREi to bring forth: Aioany wide 
tri^ce : there is another deriv. in Vofliusj viz. 
aperio, ab Ah^w, affigw, i. e. proprie /ar/wp, veJ 
in con/peSlum tgllo -, as when any thing is difplayed 
to view, laid open, raifed en high. 

APH-jERESIS, A^aifinc, A», d, abs -, et 
Aifiw, capio, tollo : a 6gure in grammar, by 
which a letter, or fyllable is taken away, or cui 
fff, from the beginning of a word, 

AP-HELION, AfjiAwiF, Awo, abi from-, et 
ixuu fol i tbe/un : a term in aftronomy, to c%- 
prcfs the earth's, or ar^ other planet's greateji 
d^ancefrom the fun. 

AP-HORISMS, " Afegtir^e., A(»f.^«, delego, 
determino : R. 'Ojof, terminus; a boundary i fen- 
tences which comprise in few words the properties 
of each thing. Nug." 

APIARY, ApHs, ix"^: Hcfych. Ap«it, proO^K: 
volatilia quoque appellantur o^iic Hefych. in 
Oiocw : afes -, a bee ; apiarium ; a hee~flall, or 
fiatisn, where their hiifes are kept clean, dry, and 
fecured from winds. 

APO-CALYPSE> " A;irex«AuiJ^f, Ave, de J et 
xffAun-ld), occultOi tego ; to hide j negatively unhid- 
den, i.e. revealed; revelation. Nug." 

■APO-COPE, Av9Mity\^ abfcijjio ; Atto, ex ; et 
yuvlu^ fcindo i to cut off: a grammatical figure, 
which takes away^ or cuts off, the laft fyllable ^ or 
letter of a word, 

APO-CRYPHAL, " A«-«xf«^e, Ax«, abs j et 
xfuirTw, condo; to hide; it fignifies thofe books in 
the church, whole origiR and authors were 
unknown to the fathers ; and confcquently read 
enly in private, not publicly. Nug." 

APO-G^UM, Awtytm, Axo, ab i frsm ; et 

yM»t vd VH, terra ; the earth ; that point in the 
orbii of the moett, or awf ^ the planets, which is 
farthefi from the earth. 

APO-GRAPHE, Ajrtyexfn, ctnfus ; an inven- 
tory i et Aveyfct^of, exempium libri, vel taiulte ; 
a copy of a record : R. T^»^, fcribo ; to write^ 

APO-KEPHAUZE, Axow**a.^«, ^«//p, de* 
capita i to cut off the head, to behead. 

APOLLO : it is rather hard, that Clel. Voc. loj • 
and 91, will not permit the Greeks and Romans 
to remain in quiet poflelTion of this word j- but 
would extort it out of their hands, ^nd force it 
into the Celtic tongue; as if Homer, and no doubt 
the Greek writers long even before bis time, had 
been acquainted with the Celtic language, and 
borrowed their AraWwy from Xphuil, ngnifying 
the/upreme eye, or /«« ; but Volt under the art, 
Sol, tells us, that " Apollo received his name, act 
cording to Servius, «to tv AvoAtiV, hinc etiam 
et Homerus Apallinem tarn peftilentia dicit, qulm 
/alutis, auilorem:" — this might lead us to uace 
it up to AiroAAu/ii, per^, vafto. Though indeed, 
according to Cleland's own orthogr, it fcems ra- 
ther to be only a different dialeft of ap-helios ; 
from the Celt, .ap, hab^ haf, hoff, eeff, or rather 
keph, a Eif -aXu, caput -, the bead, ot/tiprtme j and 
ii?^ff,fol: thejkn. 

APO-LOGUE, " AiroXoyof, h-wa,et\ty9t,/ermot . 
narratio lenga, et verbofa ; item feiula, narratio 
fiSa i a fable, orfffion. Clel. Voc. 1, fays, that 
'* the French word for a fable (t^ogue) does 
not, with all its air of a Gr. found, derive from 
An>.tyM, but from the Celt, habul-laigb ; a 
fabU in verje :" — but under the art. FABLE, 
and LAY, we fhall fee that both thofe words 

APO-LOGY, " AreXtyia, Awo, et >^ayi>t,fermOy. 
def en/10, excufatio ; a defence, an excuje, an anjwer 
to a charge, or that which is alleged in our de~- 
fence : R. A*yw, loquor. Nug." 

APO-PHTHEGM, "AirofSiyjua, diffum/enten- 
tiofum, et breve; afbort, but remarkable Jentence t 
R, Awo, et f Siyyo^i, loquor. Nug." 

APO-PLEXY, " ATTOffAiigia, A»8, et»Annr«r 
percutio; to wound, or Jirike: R^ Tlxnyn, plaga ; tr 
flroke ; a fudden /urprize ; or fiunning of the bodfr 
or mind, caufing inftant death. Ni^," 

A-PORIA, Airoftos, A, non ; et irejar, via ; 
Ave^io, inopia confilii, res dubite, et perplexa j 
doubting, hefitatioa ; a figure in rhetoric, when a. 
per/on is at a fiand, in a perplexity, dilemma. 

APO-STATF, •* AitofMu^ Aire, « i7»,u., fto; 
xfienfit. «irer«(rif, defeSlio, AJceffiQ ; a revolt, de- 
Jerting of a party. Nug." 

APO-STEME, A«-«p./«, ab/ceffuii afwelling^ 

Digitized by 



A P 

From G R X B R> and L a t i M. 

A P 

commonly called tm impo/tume : R. Afirnfn, ahf- 
ctie, Jeeedo ; to retire, defart. 

APO-STLE, " An-eroAec apoftolus ; qui hue il- 
lueve mtti/olet ; on embaffador, me^enger, envoy ; 
R. rliAAM, mitto i to/end. Nug." 

APO-STROPHE, . " AxBrfof", aver/to -, the 
mark or _fign of a vowel that has been cut off at the 
fndof a word: R- rifi^u, verto; to /«r». Nug." 

APO-THECARY, " A«(.*jix«, apotheca; Ab-o, 
cC finxn, eenditorium, loculus -, a box, or chefi of 
drawers: R. TiOm/**, pono i to Jay up. Nug." 

APO-THEQSIS, Aweflfwffif. relatio inter deos -, 
A'Oi ctSui^deus; Ajroiiufjtati, deus fio ; an enroll- 
ing great men among the gods -, a canonization. 

APO-ZEM, *' Awo^(|i*». decoEfum ; a decoction ; 
Ato, et ^(u, ferveo, to boili to caufe an efftrve- 
fcente. Nug." 

AP-PALL, ^inn. admits that this word is de- 
rived from pallefcere, qu<e pallorem contrabunt -, 
and yet would not trace it to the Gr. lang. for 
paUee, paUefco, and palltdus, are all raanifeftly 
derived either from IIizAuw, albefacio j to whiten, 
to make whi/e with- fear: or elfe from IlfXioc, It- 
■uidus, luridus ; wan, livid. —There is, however, 
another dertv. given by Ainfw. viz. a n«AAiu, 
trepidfi i pallidus eft enim color timentinm ; unde 
HftUw fw|3kt, dixit Sophocles ; pale with fear, 

AP-PARATUS, niipow, paro, apparatus j pre- 
pare, preparation -, any thing made, or got ready. 

AP-PAREL: Both Jun, and Skinn. have traced 
this word no higherthan the Latin; viz. "apparel, 
ab apparatus -, Fr. Gall appariliare, apparare ; 
hxc & Lat. ad; ctparilis; q. d. appariliare, i. e. 
ita a'ceonunedare; ut omnia optime invicem quadrent, 
tt cencinne refpondeant : Skinn."— but then, let me 
here obferve, that the Dr. has committed a fa]- 
. lacy, though perhi^s undefignedly ; for in the 
iirfi place, he tells us that apparel is derived 
from apparatus ; which is compounded of ad, and 
pare ; which originates from nu^eua, -witfa, conor, 
tentor: vcl it Tlofu, Ilefi^u, prabeo,fuppedito : but, 
in the next place, he has explained apparatus, ap- 
pareiller, and appafaret by " hsec 4Lat. ad, etpa- 
riSs .'"—this is the fallacy j (or panlis is derived 
from quite a different root ; viz. & !!«(«( jnxta ; 
par, paris; parilis. 

AP-PARENT, n»(»j»i, adfum i to be prejent, 
to appear j hence pareo ; quafi poT'to ; from the 
old verb Eu, futn, adfum. 

AP-PARITION ;from the fame root; figni- 

AP-PARITOR J fying an appearance^ or onr 
wboferyei the procefs for appearance in thejpiri- 
tual court. 

AP-PEAL ?'• Axo/3«AA(f, appelh ; to 

AP-PELLATION S drive, qx remove i which 
Ainfworth derives from Airt».u, txtkdt } A ini- 

tial! aUacoi nt ab A-^X^, »m»/|'w .* 'Voflius :" 
AvtAAtw, ' ««-«xAuiu : Hefych. This latter would 
be a very good dertv, but it is derived rather 
from \in0»k\u, as above, appelh, abjittoi the re' 
moving a caufe from an inferitr $0 a fuperior 

APPEASE, Hfl-iar, placidus, mttis.-, gentle, 

AP'PB^TiAG^lappendens -, ad, et pendee, 
AP-PENDlX i pendo : R. pondus ; attf 
or weight, body that hangs down. 

AP-PER TAIN JT.IW, T»5, Ion. Tt* 

AP PER-TENENCESi m«, /wrwj quooiani 

qua arile tenemus quodammodo tendimus ; pertineo j 

to pertain j to belong to 

AP-PETENCY (n»e*«, ToSi, peto : vcl potiu* 

AP-PETITE $ ab E»«.1i«, Eir«.15, peto ; to 

feek, defiret requefi^ 

APPLE /»M/; **AiraXflf,/flMr.' Grzculus quivift 
audaz fie deHe£leret, et tamen fatis Jcita eft al- 
lufio : Skinn." — fo hard is it to gain a Gr. deriv. 
from this honeff Saxon j though Virgil has called 
them mitia poma ; ripe- apples j foft, mild, and 

APPLE of the eye; according to our method 
of writing this word,, any pcrfon would fuppofc, 
that by the apple of the eye we meant the ball of 
the eye: but, notwithftanding the apparent ron- 
nexion between thofe two ideas, the apple of the 
eye means quite another thing j at Icaft the deriv. 
points out a different meaning; for the Gr. and 
Lat. words, from which we have taken our ex- 
prefiion, do really ftgnify quite a different thing 
from the ball of the. eye j the Gr. words are n«f- 
fiffot, K<p*t, and noTf, and the Lat. word \% pu- 
pilla i fdl which fignify what is commonly call- 
ed the bird of the eye : let Us confider only the 
word n«K, from whence pupilla is thus derived- 
naTc, IlaTf, n<t\\\c<;, itoPiXXof, pupilla ; the pupil 
of the eye j which fignifies that little opening, or 
round hole, that admits the rays of light ; and 
through which is refteflied from the bottom of 
the eye that little image, that little boy or girl, 
that puppet (pupilla) which is difcemed by every 
perfon, who looks attentively into the eye ; and 
is nothing more than the reflexion of his own 
image : the apple of the eye therefore is only a 
diminutive of papple, or pupil, or puppilla, or ITo- 
Ptxxec, or puppet in the eye : — this explanations 
lias been the more clofely Mtcnded to, becaufc 
it was defigned as an explanation of chat paffage 
in Xenophon, which is quoted by Longinus, and 
cenfured by that great critic : the pafiage is in 
the fourth feftion of Longinus, where he fays,. 

(St»f wV AtyM» Mt* nA<3ww») it»t1w y ix tw Xwxfa- 

A P 

From GkE8k, and Latiw, 

A R 

Ik; ov?c< Tr»X»if^»!, 0|Ueo; iiK ra slut juix^o^fc^ni lasulu* 
iroli (inAa»6«i'0j1«i' 'O fjitu ys tv T» A«KiJ«ifiDv(t>ti> yf*- 

(tiJu/xoKfrifSf iJ"«K (kuIkj iIy»ir«io' luti »ijISv tuv n reiV 

o?9«X;uoi5 iT(<fSfv<5iF. The whole paffage feems to 
iky, that the Lacedemonian youth behaved them- 
J'Jvfs nnore modeftly than even the very puppets, 
or liffle images in their eyes ; or /» fhe eye : — 
there is indeed a prettincfs in the expreflion, but 
certainly no error in the text, as many of the 
commentators would have us fuppofc. 

AP-POINT, nuyku/Ai, punge, punSus ; feint- 
ed ; marked down, fettled, determtjud. 

AP-POSITE, utSAw, dono; ita a 0w, pono, 
fojitus J appofitus ; putt placed -, convenient. 

AP-PREHEND ?X«yJ«»M, hendo-, inufit: fed 

AP-PRENTICES undc prebendo ; to take, 
feize, lay held on : alfo to bind to any trade. 

AP-PRETIATE, n.B-f»<rKW, -r^^wrw, nfoclwe, 
feu Ilf *1»B», vendendum -, unde pretium, quod ven- 
denti, vel vendtteri, datur j the value, ot worth of 
any thing, to fet a high ejieem on any thing. 

AP-PROACH, Hfo, pra, propi, approximare ■, 
$0 come near, be near at band, advance, 

AP-PROPINQUATION (n^. i^cSmv, ante 

AP-PROPRIATION S pedes, prope; quod 
prop} fit, quod quis peffidet j unde proprius, pro- 
prietas i property', right of poffefjion. 

AP -PULSE, A^aifrw, ApiiXM, ab ant, AwiXAb, 
pello; appulfus ; a coming to, approaching, advanc- 
ing, drawing near* 

A-PRICATION *(pw, pario, aperio, apricus, 
open to the fun j warmed by ins rays. 

A-PRICOCK, " Gall, alricot, Bif.xow*. fo 
Suidas interprets x«xxv/«>iXx: Diafcorides, Il^ftixoxite, 
i.e. pr^cocia pema: Calphurnius, Eel. ii. In^ta 
pracocibus fubrepere perjicaprunis: precox, ex pra; 
ct ceqHO } foon, or early-ripe fruit : Upt." — but 
coquo is derived from the Gr. fee COOK. Gr. 

A-PRIL, *ifw, pario, Aprilis ; quod omnia 
t^eriat : 

Aperit cum cornibus annum 

Taurus. -Geo. i. 217. 

APRON : Jun. Skinn. and Minfhew acknow- 
ledge, that apron takes its name from being 
worn before one ; and the Dr. tells us, that the 
Sax. Fr. Tcut. Belg. Dan. and modern Teut. 
words fignifying before, " forte omnia a Lat. 
porroi" — but farther than this he was refolved 
not to go i although he mufthave known that the 
Lat. originated from the Gr. na^/w. It feems 
however more natural to fuppofe that the word 
apron was derived a rifo, ante, coram, pra -, notans 
io compofitione prioritatcm temporis, digniiate. 

loci : fo that an apron is veflis praetenta, qux 
reliquas anterius tcgit j a covering worn befort 
all the r(ft,- to keep them clean. - 

A-PRCiPOS, commonly pronounced appropo, 
and fuppofed to be intirely French, but happens 
to" be intirely Greek : for, '\( propos be the fame 
as propofal, or purpofe ; and if apropos fignifics 
without purpofe, without defign, without intention ', 
to exprefs any thing coming to pafs merely by 
accident : then the exprefljon is intirely Gr, 
fee PRO-POSE. 

APSIS, A«-7*j»iw, «4«>*«*> tango ; vel A»1w, neSio; 
vel A»^w, accendo : apfis, idis j the -apfides are 
tbefe two points in the orbit of a planet, the one of 
which is the fartheft from, and the other the nearefi 
to the fun. 

APT, AjtIw, apto, junge -, to join ; that eaftly 
unites; alfo, a readinefs, ot quicknefs of apprehen-' 
fion : ATowIjt*, convenire : Cafaub. 

A-PTOTE, A-»Wof, indeclinabilis : A, nom 
et XdvTtx, cafus % an a-ptote, or indeclinable noun ; 
or a noun without cafes. 

AQlJA-fortis J A;^oa, « X»ai, J Xtu,ftmdo: vel 

AQUE-DUCT S ab A*, a-wni/** u'Jiflef : Hefych. 
ex A«, Ax», unde aqua ; water; a liquid element that 
may he poured out, or conduSed from place to place. 

AQUI-LINE, A«w, Aiw, Aiua-w, AxuAin;, acu- 
tus vifus; unde ct a leo dudtus aquila: — addam ct 
aliam etym. fays Voflius, -quam verifllmam cen- 
feo : plane enim adfentio doftiffimo Angelo 
Caninio, qui aquila efle putat ab Ar<>p, vel Ayup, 
quomodo avis ea Cypnorutn dialedo vocatur» 
telle Hefych. : — eamque fententiam amplexus 
et PctriK Nunnefius ; j converlb in/; quomodo 
it xanBnAie; , eft cantbenus ; a rXtyyit, firigHis j d 
xa.yyjt.'Ki'iy Hetrufcum, ganghero ; et Hmilia : the 
eagle; fo called from \t&Jharpnefs of fight : — alfo 
the expreflion, an aquiline nofe, is taken from 
the beak of that bird. 

ARABLE, A^eiD, aroy arabilts; to plow-, land 
fit to be plowed. 

ARACHNE, Ap«;^wi, araneus j afpider. 

ARAIN : " a Lat. aranea : — it is ufed for the 
larger kind o( fpiders : Ray,"— but it feems to. 
be derived from the fame root with the forego- 
ing art. i for Voflius fays, araneus, et aranea, 
ab Afccxfri^, omiflb ;^, quafi Afeim. 

ARAY, A/)M, apto,.ne£loi toft, io arrange, to 

AR-BITER 1 '* Af«, imprecatio, preces, 

AR-BITRARY > ara ; ct B«^^, B»I.«, 

AR-BITRATION \ eo ; arbitrarius, arbiter -, 
nam arbitri, quafi ante aram arbitrio fuo litem 
finire debent]; an umpire ; a Judge ; who ought al- 
ways to give his fentence as folemnly as before 
the altar:" — :his is the deriv. of Ainfw. but 


A R 

From Greek, and Latin. 

A R 

we may very much doubt the deriving the former 
part of this word from aray an altar j it is much 
more probable that Jun. the father-in-law of Voff. 
has given the truer deriv. : — " verifimilius multo 
focer meus Franc. Jun. (fays Voff.) putabat ar- 
biter venire ab anliquo ar^ pro ad ; unde arferioy 
arcejfei fimiliaque)' et antiq. B«ivu, B«1tM, bito^ 
pro eo ; unde ptrbitertt pro perire : pro eo eft 
(continues Voff.) propria et vetus fignificatio ar- 
bitri, qua infptSoremt ac tefiem fignijicat j unde arbi- 
trari, pro in/picere \ erbitrium, pro in/peHione :" ont 
who examines^ and mnutefy infptSs into ary bufinefs. 

ARBOUR : " Aipu, attoUOj evebo ^ ec Beirif , 
dbus% fane cum reliquus e terra, vel in terra, 
nafcens cibus manibulque proximus lit, folus lUe 
arborum, plurimum longe e terra, atque oculis 
noftris attollitur .—quod fi etymon hoc fubti- 
lius quam verius videatur, non difpliceat origo a 
Chalda'ico aber^ infertp r, arbor ; ut bevba ^ Chal- 
dai'ca htba., itidcm r infrrto j eft vero btba, viror, 
frimum plants germen : Voff." — as either of thefe 
etym. may, according to his own confeffion, be 
more fubtil than true, we may rather acquiefce 
in his next conjeihire, which is, — " fortaffe ex 
K«f$»t, vel K«fTr«f, arbor^fruStts ■," — bccaufe that 
feems to have been the very definition of a tree, 
given by Mofes himfelf in Gen. i. ii. where 
Ipeaking of the creation of trees and plantj, he 
has thefe remarkable words : " And God laid, 
Let the earth bring forth grafs, the herb yield- 
ing feedi and the fruit tree yielding fruit after bis 
kindy wbofe feed is in ilfelf, upon tbe earth : and it 
toasfo :" — now, fince Mofes has not faid that the 
grafs, and the herb yield fruit ; but that the 
tree yieldetb fruity and is therefore fometimes 
called tbe fruit-tree, \t would be moft natural to 
fuppofe that arbor is derived from K«pirof, not 
only from the fimilarity of found, but from the 
identity of ligniBcation, when compounded j 
for arbor Ognifies a tree-, and Kx^n-^c iignifies 

ARCANUM : Afx£w, areee, area ; to drive off; 
to bide upt to keep ckfe j a name given to ftrveral 
chemical preparations, at firft kept fetret by their 
euthorsy or inventors. Voftius has added another 
deriv. area ab Ei^ytii', Eifyn, et Efxer, ** areeo, ex- 
dudo I feptuitii retia ■" — ar^ tbing that enchfes^ 
confines, or contains another \ i& a chefi to lock up 
at^ tbing, and keep it fecret from the eyes and know- 
ledge of all men. 

ARCENAL, commonly, and vulgarly written 
etrfenal ; but is derived from Afxjw, areeo i to 
drive off, protest from barm -, -and hence arx, arcis ; 
a tameTy citadel, ar fortified place; but more par- 
ticularJy a rep-jitor) Jgr ar- s a',d the regalia if a 
^ate\ Jt^b^a^ aplace of firen^.h: " propius.vcro 

abfuot," fays Ainfw. " qui ab Axf« t3» tfup, faf- 
tigium, promontorium \ unde et Ax^sb-oXh. Axjmm- 
fivfiof, &c. deduftum putant ;" Re£tius forte, 
fays Littleton, arx abEfxottfepttim Incus mamtusi 
afortrefs built on an emnenee ■, as all caftles were 
antiently ; in order to command a greater extent 
of profpe^ft, and to render all approach of an 
enemy the more diificuk : an enclofedP^' ^f ^- 
fence. Clel. Voc. 167, has veryjuftl^lhewn that 
" the termination nal, or rather indecdJbi whole 
word arcenal, is but a contraftion of the arx na~ 
valis of Venice^ quafi arce-navale ;** — but then that 
learned gentleman ought to have confidered 
that both arxy and navalis were Gr. 
AKQH-angel larcb, whenufed in compofition, 
AKCli-bift>op\ plainly derives ab Af^i., 'cl 
Afp^ftw, ab Afx«» by tranfpoGtion Po-x"' ^'i^f "*" 
ptrium oblineo, princeps ; tbe bead, cbi^f, fupreme : 
whenever therefore this word is prefixt to any 
title, it adds to its former power ; as angeK 
arcb-angel ; written by Nugent A(;^«»'yiXo(t,-out 
even his own lexicon could not have afforded 
him any fuch word: it ought to have been writ- 
ten Aoj^a,yytX»t' 

ARCH of a circle \ Kjfxof, areus ; a vaulted 

ARCHAISM ; Afx«'<rfw{, peteruMy feu prif- 
cerum imitatio ; afondnefs foramient cuftoms, an- 
tiquated phrafes, obfolcte words, &c. &c. &c». 
R. Afp^n, principium. / 

ARCHE LAUS, " Afx</««. quafi Ajx»c '^■'r* 
princeps pepuli i a ruler of tbe people ; R. Afxfl* 
principium ; and A*ot, populus. Nug." 

ARCH 1- PEL AGtJS, " kPx^-^iK^y*u Arcbipe- 
lagus i tbe great fea, which falls from Conftan- 
tinople into the Mediterranean; known to mo- 
dern navigators by the name oi tbe arches: R, 
■AfX"' principium ; et niAasyw, marg. Nug" 

ARCHI-TECT, " Afxtlo^"". arcbiieUm, nr- 
chiteHiu i a mafterxaorktnaa, a chief builder, or 
profeffor of building : R. A^^.^, principium; eiTfxJw*, 
fiber, fiiricator, Nug " 

ARCHI-TRAVE,. " AfX'lf**^?. architrabs, in 
architcfture fignifies the moulding next above the 
capital of a column \ alfo tbe principal beam in A 
building : ex A^yw, principium: et Tj«wiig, trahsp. 

ARCHI-TYPE, AgxiJu^M. arcbetypum ; a pri- 
mitive co/y of an original tvriting, or of the original 
■writing itfelf : R. Aj-xi. prinetptum \ et Tuw»,-, ex- 
emplar I a cofy. 

ARCHIVirS, " Ajxf"^ archhum, tabularium, 
publicum 1 a rtpofitory of public a£is : alfo the re- 
cords them/elves : R. ^fx^, pri/icrpatus- Nug." 

ARCTIC, A^^Bf, urjus, urja ; fi^num calejfe i- 
ibi great tear. n^n 

Digitized by Lj^^OyT^ 

From Greek, and L a t f v 

A R 

ARCTO-PHYLAX", A^^cfvx^^, arSopfylaxi 
eufies urfa: \ fidm qpod et Bootes t the bear^vardt 
or keeper of the bears ; alfo the waggoner: R. Ajxlot, 
urfa ; et ♦ux»|, eufioj ; et *ux«tJ», enfioJio i to 
keep, to guard. 

ARCT-URUS, Afwlnjof, ex AjKlsr, urfa -, et 
Oufof, «(/foj, infpe^er j afixt fiar of the firfi mag- 
nUude, in thejkirt of Bootes. 

ARDENT ? A^w, arrfw, aridss \ dry^ hoty 

ARDOR V burving. 

ARDUOUS, Efl.f, Kf n/»«f : Hefych. vel ab A.f m, 
Af Sftf, fttblatusy eve^us ; ibf^;ft, elevated ; di^cult, 

AREA, AAuai, urM I quando A in r* faepc 
commutatur i et ob fimilia, loca in urbc pura, 
area funt } any veidfpaee in a cityy free from build- 
ings % a court-yard j or bamfloor^ &c. 

AREO-PAGITE, A^Mv»yei, Jret^agita j one 
of the Albenian judges \ fo caJled from Ajtjt, 
Mars ; et II«y«;, coltis i Mars's-hillt a place in 
Athens, where they fate by night, not refpeiSing 
the perfon, but the caufc ; they wrote down 
their fentencc, without declaring their fuf!rafi;es; 
whence this court was famed for its impartiality, 
and fecrecy. 

ARGENT, ** AjyufBf, et Apyufwn, argentum ; 
Jilver. Nug.'* 

ARGU-tX)US, AfyiXXef, et AfyiAof, argiila ; 
itrra alba, et pura ; white clay^ or patterns earth. 

ARGO, Afy«, jrgo i navis Jafonis j et fidus 
quoddam J tbefhip in which Jafon failed to Colchis, 
to fetch the golden fleece: about la, or 1,300 years 
before Chrift : there is fo curious an interpretation 
given by Suidas, quoted by Bocrhaavc in his 
chemiftry, concerning this expedition o( the ^go, 
that I Ihall defire leave to quote it j the Dr. 
then, in p. 6, obfcrves, that " Suidas, who lived 
in the tenth century, tells us (under the word 
Xn/x(i«) that Dioclefian, who reigned the twenty 
laft years of the third century, gave orders that 
all the books relating to, the art of chemiftry, 
fiiould be inquired after, and burnt; becaufe 
the Egyptians were plotting againft the Roman 
government ; but under the word Aigeti, Suidas 
carries the affair ftill a great deal higher, ex- 
prefsly aflerting, that the golden fleece, which 
Jafon and the Argonauts brought away, when 
they failed through the Pontic fea to Colchis, 
was only a book written on parchment (or fljeip's 
Jkin) teaching -V^e method of making gold, ha. 
Xr,(, by the chemical art" — there is another 
palfage in Cicero's Tufc. Queft. Lib. i. fee. 20, 
concerning the name of this^i^, the Argo, fo cu- 
rious that it deferves quotation : Qua; nominata 
eft Jrgo, fays he, quia 

— ■ Argivi in eddtle^i vtri 

Ve^i pttebant pellem tnauratam arietis : 

Thefe lines, fays Dr. Darti, in his annotation on 
this paflagc, Ennii funtvcrfus, ex Euriptdis Meded^ 
K€t i. V. 4, tranflati, 

IIeXI^ |UfT7|X0». ' - ■ ' II-.— 

where however it is obfervable, that what Euri- 
pides has exprefled by Anlfuv «pir«v, Ennius has 
very properly tranflated by deleili viri i but then 
what becomes of Argivi ? there is no authority 
from Euripides for luch an exprcflion, unlcfs he 
bad faid AtffZr Apynv*, inftcad of A>Jj)wv oftrHr i 
yet even then, the like difficulty would have oc- 
curred, viz. to account for deUHi viri. 

ARGO-NAUTIC, A^yotxylnf, Argonauta \ ii 
qui cum Jafbne profefti funt « j<r_ffl aavi :— 
whether it was from the tedioufnefs of the vcyage, 
or tbroi^hjbe unflcilfulHefs of the navigators, who 
performed it, would be difficult to lay } but it 
feems as if the derir. of the word A^ya pointed 
out fi>me fuch fignification ; viz. ex A^y«tt tners, 
piger i and there is an epigram in Martial, 
Lib. iii. 67, de pigris natttis, in which he either 
alludes to fuch a fignification, or puns on the 
word Argo t 

At vos tarn plaeidas vagi per undat 

Tutd luditis otium carind i 

Non Nautas puto vos, fed Argonautas. 

ARGUE, Ayo^mu, concionor, lo^uor j to ha- 
rangue, difcourfe. Littleton and Ainfworth de- 
rive argue, ab Agyeu clarus, mamfeftus ; but our 
lexicons give us no fuch word in that fenfe; 
they have indeed 'B.m^ytn, and "RvK^yn*, in the 
fenfc o( clarus, evidens, and evidentia ; which Sig- 
nify (.learnefs, brightnefs, perfpictdty; however, fince 
all arguments, and methods of arguing, do not 
dcferve that title, we might, rather prefer the 
former deriv. ab Aya^nu. 

ARGUTE i from the fame root : Gr. — now 
Littleton and Ainfworth have given us another 
fcnfe of the word A^ysr, nempe celer, argutuj i 
quia argumenium cito invenit ; quick, witty, fliarp: 
— but Af T-of properly fignifies y^^BM, piger % duU^ 
ftupid, heavy. , 

ARID, A^M, areo, aridus i to be dryi parched. 

ARIElS, A^'£i "■(^X,'*^^ undc Afip^a, etffn v^o^uftut 

Hefych. ab A(i£, igitur abjefto x, fit aris, five 
ares, five aries ; nam in plerifque, e et * promif^ 
cui ufurpabant vcteres ; a ram ; alf» a conftellatien 
in the heavens called Aries, or the ram, 

ARIST-ARCHUS, " Af.r«f>;()f, Ariftarchus j 
ex Af ir«rt oftimus ; the beft -, as much as to fay, a 
mofl excellent prince : R. AjAf, Mars i et Afx»f» 
princeps ;■ Nug."^— we may rather prefer the 

Digitized by Cj^RISTO- 

A R 

From Greek, and L a t 1 1*. 

A R. 

ARISTO-BULUS, " AfirspKX«f, j&ijle^ulus ; 
tptimus cortfiliarius ; a meji excellent cmnfeller : R. 
A^is-os^ eptimia j ec BhAd, con/iUum ; befi court/el. 

ARISTO-CRACY, « Af*i-«f«l.«, Jriftecratia ; 
Af ifoc, eptimuj ; et Kjolia, impwo i /tf command, 
or bear rule: R. Kfalw. rebur ; Jirengtb, or power: 
Nog."— a republic governed^ tie nobility, or /«(/- 

iff/ IBfS. 

ARISTO-TLE, "Af.r«i1rt«, Arijleleks ; Ajir«, 
4iptimus ; ct TcAor, ^n/j i /£f j^ mi/» or u/m, 
which a ptrjon propefes. Nug." 

ARITHMETJC, ". Aj.e/tnlwti, arithmitica ; 
Api9jM(, numerus ; /if ar/ cf counting, or cafiing up 
numbers : ^ug."-^ibe performing axy numerical ite- 
rations h figures* 

ARK, Af Ktu, arceo } ana ; quod arceat \ i. e. 
contineat res ei creditas \ a hox^ cbefi, cr drawer ; 
atrf large, or fmall vejfel that contains another. 

ARLES i " from the Lat. arrha ; an arles 
penty, an earnefi penty : Ray." — but arrha origi- 
nates ab Aff»^i> : Affff, et A^;^«, Afpa^tcy, Heffch. 
pignus fpondere i to lay down a pledge ; to give fome- 
tbing infurety of a bargain or engagement. 

ARM> or limb, A^y,oi, campages, ariiculus ; a 
joint ; R. Ajw, apto ; to fit, Join> unite ; as the arm 
is united to tbeflioulder' 

ARM of the fea \ Oja/afet, ramulus i a brancb, 

Arm for war T Ofp««, in^tu feror ; vel ab 

ARMADA I Af/*o(, articulusi as in the 

ARMAMENT > former art. R. Ajw, apto j to 

ARMI-GER I // mafuit of armour: Ifi- 

ARMI-STICEJ dorus (fays Voff.) addit, 
poffe ec arma fic difla videri a^a' t5 Afiej, hoc 
€& Matte ; quod longe pofihabentbm cenfeo pri- 
ori : — among all thefe words there is only one 
that deferves a little farther attention, viz. 
ARMI-STICE, compounded of O^^ou, vel A^/«<r, 
et Zraa, vel Imfti, fio^ fifio ; arma-fifio ; to flop 
arms, or the operations of war ; to agree to a truce % 
4t conclude a citation of befiiliiies. 

AROMATIC, '* AgufAoliitQi, aromaticus ; edo- 
rgHpTJ ; R. Af ow, (c^w, are ; to nltivate odoriferous 
/JSIBr, and trees : A^wpM, a7«F, rl, aroma \ a fine 
fcA or odour. Nug." 

aRR, oAly a contrat^ion of efsbar, or fear \ as 
Ray feems to hint } and confequencly is Gr. fee 
SCAR. Gr. 

AR-RAIGN, " reum aftre, ad tribunal egere ; 
fays Jun." and Skinn. admits the fame interpreta- 
tion ; but VofT. deduces reus, a Xj «(, vel Xf iwf : 
Tjnde XfuK, iremfef, culpa ebnoxtiu: vel a res, i. e. 
a 'p(^u, 'ftSv, '?tviu. Dor. et 'Pi^«t, to be culpable ; 
and confequently liable to be called to an account, 
or brought to /r;a/.— CM. W^y. 7, tells us, that 

** arraign is derived from at-ray-in ; which comes 
from the ray, which was /A? circle, drawn round 
perfons arrefted, or arraigned in the name of 
jufticci out of which r(?)i, or circle it was the 
higheft of all crimes to efcape, or tranfgrd's the 
bounds of it :" — this might lead us to two deriv. 
both Gr. either from 'Po^Joe, ra-dius ; the wand 
with which this circle was drawn : or from As-yw, 
dicojusdicere; thence ey, ay.,Tey, I'ay, or law: " this 
(y, the law" fays he, Voc. 84, "receives theprof- 
thefis of various letters ; oi B \ whence bey, or 
begh : of D J whence dtj : of R; whence rey, 
rcy, rex i ay, and ray :" — and confequently Gr. 
as above. 

ARRANT rogue -, *' ut ubi dicimus, an ar- 
rant thief \ Sax. Ape, or Belg. «r i honor, gloria; 
q. d. maxime honoratus inter nebulones ; tieiulo exi- 
mius ', nebulenum princepj; a chief rogue: Skinn." — 
According to this interpretation, we need not 
hefitate to derive our word arrant from Apirsf, 
eptimus \ the beft % but, as chat would be rather 
an abufe, and mifapplicacion of words, bcGdes 
the falfe orthography ; for both A^irer, and Ape 
have but one r in them j it is more natural to 
fuppofc, that our expreffions arrant rogue, and 
arrant thief, were derived from Affmi, c^ftwt, 
fortis, virilist robufius •$ a bold, audacious, harcbf 

ARRAS, " a metropoit Atrebatum Arras, La- 
tine Atrebata difta, nunc Artois, in qua ffptimi 
tapetes elim acu pngebantur : Atrebattca etiaa vefies 
tempore Romanorum Imperatorum clarueruMt. Skinn." 
— the city of Artois in the Netherlands, in wbieb 
the bejl tapefiry hangings were former^ made. 

AR-RAY in battle j either from the fame root 
with orrangei or elfe from Affnxfat, tnfraSus i uth 
broken ranks, embodied in clofe order, R. 'Pw-rw, 
frango ; to break. 

AR-RAY, clothing ; ab Ajw, tiptoi to fit, fiat, 

AR-REARS, "Fr. Gall, arrierage, yc\arriere\ 
retro, poft i q. d. adretro ; Skinn."«— j» account 
which looks back to the time pafi : but re, retro, and 
retrorfum, are all Latin words ; and confequently. 
our word arrears is not derived from the Fr. 
Gall, ultimately; but from the Latin. 

AR-REPTITIOUS, 'Af»««, 'Afwft^ij, rapio\ 
dragged, or hurried away : alfo one who is not in his 
perfeSi mud; out of his fenfes: R. 'A{»-«g, rapax; 
one who greedily tears, and/nalches at every thing. 

AR-REST, " Af (r»», platitum ; decree, oraer j 
according to Budscus, and Hen. Stephen, t». 
Afif {(, placita, curia placita : R. Aj ib-xm to pleafe :— 
from this A^irov comes arreftare, as we meet 
with in fome of the authors tnBmx Latinitatis : 
VoOius de vttiis fermoois, lib. III. c. i, is of 


A R 

From Grbsk, and Latiw. 

A R 

the fame opinion: father Labbe chufes to derive 
it from the French word rejie-, reliquum; info- 
much that Conner un arrtft is »e rien laijftr de rcfte 
dans une affaire ; i. c. to leave nothing undecidedy or 
to leave no further room for a difpute in an affair. 
Nug." — " Hen. Spelman putat cum fimpHci r 
fcribendum, arefii ut fie a Sax. A, ad, vel ufque; 
et pcfT, mora, quits ; quura vocabulum arreft, vel 
areft, nihil aliud fignificet quam moram alieui 
irrjeSJam, ufque dutn legi fatisfecerit : — in this fenfe 
it may be derived a rete ; quafi arreliare \ a Tui-w, 
teneo, retineo ; a retineudis pifcibus. Voff." — but 
Clel. Voc. 8 1, gives us quite a different idea, 
and confequently a different deriv. : he fays, " the 
ridiculous notion of a mage being a magician, or 
forcerert proceeded principally from that wand, 
or bough, which was one of the infignia of his 
office, as judge J and by which any perfon, in 
the name of juftice, being put under the cir- 
cumfcription of a line drawn round him, was obliged 
to Hand fixt to the fpot, under the fcvercft pe- 
nalties, both fpiritual and temporal ; a mode of 
tirreft, at leaft: convenient in thofe primitive times, 
when there were no jails, no fafe places of du- 
rance, efpecially in Britain, to confine a debtor, 
or malefaftor : the religion of the circle, or raj, 
produced our word at-ray-efi, or arrrft :" — had 
this gentleman to.ld us, that the ray was the wand^ 
and not the ^circle made by that wand, the deriv. 
would have been natural, and eafy, from 'P«-/3Jof, 
ra-dius ; a wand. 

AR-RtVE, 'Pi*, quod Hefych. exponit t« df 
SwXao-a-ceir ty^t%f*aa : vel a 'Pia-ij, quod a 'Pnrja), pra- 
cipito i unde ripa, qua proprie notat pracipitem ad 
mnre locum : vel eft ripa i 'Pitb, impetus \ " quia 
ijluc impetus aims fijlitttr; q. d. adripare, ripa fe 
Bpplicart'" as Skinn. himfelf acknowledges; and 
yet would not trace thac Lat. word up to its Gr. 

AR-ROGANCE, Oftyw, 'Ptyw, rogc arrogan- 
iia; to challenge-, claim, or attribute to one's filf aty 
thing; commonly underftood in an unjuft fenfe. 

ARROW ; Afw, apto, adapto ; as we fay notcbt, 
t><[ fitted to the firing : or elfe from AjJk, arundo; vel 
arma,qu'<bus cominus, vel eminus pugnabant : "Minfh. 
deducit a Lat. arundo ; pcrperam," fays Skinn. but 
gives no reafon why: only *' mallem," fays he, 
'* a Sax. Eeajio, paratus, prarparare, apparare ; 
q. d. apparatus belUcus :'* — iiutfuch a deriv. is full 
as applicable to any other warlike weapon j an 
ex for inftancc, as an arrow. 

ARSE-NIC, " Afirivww, or rather Af<r«iitieii, 
arfenicum i according to Euftathiua : R. Appwv, or 
Afo-nii, £M5, mas, mafculus : Nug." — this is all the 
Dr. has faid oa this art. but this does not account 
.fftT the latter part of the compofition, if ic be a 

compound, as it fcems to be ; viz. ex A^pV, vel 
Afs-Bi-, et n«of, vel mtn, vi£leria : R. Nixau, vinco\ 
to conquer, oi fubdue, all animal Ufa ; aftrong i^er- 
powerer ; a violent fubduer j a mefi pernicious feifen. ' 

ART, Af (Ik, ars, artis j arii virtue ; cunning, 
and addrefs : or perhaps from Ajoj, aritf/iWi u/eful- 
nefs i feme ifeful invention. 

ARTERIO-TOMY, Af?«fK.7./*.«, arterta dif- 
feEiio ', ex A^Ijij i«, et Tt^na, feco ; to cut an artery. 

ARTERY, '* AfTnfid, arteria, fpiritus femita^ 
feu ctnceptaculum j ab Ai{«, ct tb((h-, becaufe it 
fliuts up, or keeps enclofed the fpritsi Nug." — vel 
ab AofTu, vena; a vein of the fmallefi fize. 

ARTHRITIC, AfSfilixof, et Afflfixe?^ artscula- 
ris^ articulis laborans ; podagrus ; the joints, pains 
in the joints ; joint-racking rheum. 

ARTI-CHOKE, « kf^U», fruHus ctnara : 
R. Afuu, cendio; to feafon : Nug." — this deriv, 
was given by Skinn. who has likcwife added ano- 
ther from Salmaf. viz. Af1.>c«xlo(, K«x1*t autem 
Athenaeo eft cardut fpecits ; a fptcies of thijile t 
which accounts better for the latter part of our 
word /ar/»-CHOKE, than any hitherto given t 
but neither does this, nor any other deriv. ac* 
count for the former part of this compound ; 
thefe gentlemen can explain one half of a com- 
pofition, and then leave the other to explain it- 
felf ,- and indeed if it wants no explanation, it is. 
very well ; but that is not the cafe at prefcnt ; 
Nugent has told us, that Aojwlix*, comes from- 
Afluw, condiS; and leaves us to help ourfelves to- an 
explanation of the word CHOKE r Salmafius- 
tells us, that AfJi-K«xJoe is compounded of Aolt, 
and Kax1o;, ca^dui fpecies \ but takes no notice of 
Afli : which perhaps is no more than the adverbs 
Afji, modo, nunc j and which in cempofitione notat 
perfanionem, brevitatem, vel noviiatem ; and in this 
laft fenfe it may be ufed to exprefs, the new im- 
proved tbiflle, now, or latefy cultivated in gardens. 

ARTICLE, *• Af 9f ey, arlus, mAnbrum ; a mem-- 
bery part; or portion; a feilion. Nug." — alfo ta 
utter diftinftly, article by article. 

ARTILLERY; ifwhatSkinn.obferves be true„ 
that artillery h derived from the Fr. GalLffr////frt 
or from the Ital. attillare ; ornare, jufto erdine 
difponere; and if, as he likewlfe ac|f now ledges, 
the Ital. attillare may be derived £ diminutivis 
Lat. verbi aptare j— it may be wondered much, 
that he would not go one ftep farther, and ac- 
knowledge that apto,\s derived (com A«\a,jungo\ 
to fit, or put in order. 

ARU-SPICESj Afa, frecesy ara; et Zxtitu^ 
fpecie i to behold ; ab extis infpiciendis in ara ; a 
Jeothfayer, a diviner. 

ARYNDRAGA; "j« errandharer: Verft."-;-. 
but ERRAND is Gr. 


A 8 

From Grzbk, and L at ttt* 

A ^ 

AS, at, fie ; like as : but when it fignifies as 
feen as, it may be derived & K«i, by tranfpofition 
diV, i. e. 0C 1 vtfimul act aque ac ; ice. 

A-SBESTOS J AT(3(r«, ajbeften j a fpecies of 
ftoiKi of the fibres of which they make a cloth, 
that is cleanfed hfburmng in the fire : R. A, mn j 
et zp^^iiupi, exfiinguo ; inexjiitiguibilis j Mnexfiingut/b- 
abkt unquenchable : i. e. unhurt by fire, unburnable. 

A-SCEND, 2x»if M, fcando ■, afcendo \ to climb, 
mount upwards : hence defce/id, quaft dt-fcando \ to 
tlivA dovotnuards. 

ASCETIC, Aa-Kiffixof, ai exercitatienem eomfa- 
t-atus i fapienti^ ftudiofus \ a-pra£iitioner ; a fivdiotis 
monafiie perfon : R. Arxiw, extrceo ; to exercife the 
mind, ht converfant in anyjtudieus employment, 

ASCLEPI AD, >i<r)txitfl-iiif, Afdepias, et JEfcu- 
laptKS i earmen Aftlepiadeum j an Afclepiad, or Chor- 
iambic verfe, confifiing of a penlhemimery and two 
da^lt; as 

Durum, fed levius fit patl^ii. Hot. 

A-SCITITIOUS, commonly written adfdti- 
fi<MH lirxth file, afi:ifi:o i to call, or fetch in aid; 
far-fetcbt; artificial, not natural. 

ASH-tree i " Auw, Awrw, crematile \ efi tmm pr<e 
reUquis lignis accenfu facillimum, ebque focis valde 
accommedum ; a wood, the mofi ready to be kindled ;" 
—this deriv. has been introduced by Skinn. fomc- 
thing farcaftically ; miror Hcllenillas noflroF, 
fays he j nondum deflexifle a Grxco Auw, «ua-», 
Oicendo ; to kindle \ and it ia as much to be won- 
dered that the Dr. (hould rcjcdt that deriv. after - 
he had acknowledged, that the afb was a wood, 
accenfu facillimum ; fo very inflammable, fo very eafy 
to he kindled. 

ASH-fyednefdm^denved as in the following art. 

ASHES, " A(a,fulige i ferdes ex ignis fiammd 
adharentes camino ; properly /oe/ : A^*, i. e. Kew(, 
puhis^ duft: Hefych. Schol. Theocr. idyl. V. 109-; 
or from Aa-n, i. e. Kom, limtu, fordes, cccnum : fee 
Hefych. Hom. H. B. 461. kamn Ku^mi: ubi 
Schol. a Tw lAub^i Tow^ : Ao-if, i. e. Kovi(, feu lAut : 
Upt."— this latter interpretation, however, may 
hftSr^ry much doubted ; for Homer is fpeaking 
dftbc march of the Greeks, and comparing their 
nombers to thofe of geefe, or cranes, or fwans, 
that feed the meadows of Afius, or the Afian 
mead, around CayJIer's fireams .'—and to convince 
us, that Affitj! IV Ait/*S*i is a proper name \ and not 
the fimple, plain epithet of <j muddy fen, or marfijy 
meadow, Virgil has literally adopted this, 
in the fenfe of a proper name : 

Jam varias pelagi volucresy et qute AGa drcum 

Dulcibus infiagnis rimantur prata Cayfiri. 

Geo. I. 383. 
-Now, in whatever fia^e .the di0'erent interpreters 

of Homer may underftand his exprefion Ariu » 
MifiSvi, as Ramus has tranflated it, Umafo inpratox 
yet it is evident that Virgil did not underftand (t 
in that fenfe, fince he has tranllated it, Afia 
prata ; which mull be a proper name ; for every 
one will allow, that afius in Latin does not Hg- 
nify muddy ; ac leaft we ntver meet with it in that 
fenfe; and confcquently it ought in both poets 
to be underftood as a proper name \ notwithftand- 
ing the authority of fcholiafts, commentators-! 
and etymologifts. 

ASK, fo-Kw, fcio, afcifco ; to call for, to inquire 
after, in ordtr to gain knowledge: Jun, and Ski nn. 
have derived it from Ao-xiw, txerceo ; vel adhuc 
melius ab A^iau, pei0,poflulo\ to require: and this 
laft deriv. ought rather to be preferred to the 
two former. 

A-SKIANS, A(rxi«(, Aficii \ commonly writteA 
Afciant, as if it was derived ^fcio\ inftead of that, 
it is derived ex A, non \ et Zma, umhra \ i. e. 
umbrd carens ; without fbadofa ; people living be- 
tween the tropics, overwhofe heads the fun cul- 
minates vertically twice every ycarj at which time 
their bodies caft nefiiadow. 

ASP, " AffiTK, afpis; ferpentis genus : it is alfb 
taken for zfhield : Nug." — forte, fays Ainfworih, 
ex A, non ; et Zirt^w, extende ; quod non fit ob- 
lot^a, fed rotunda, fc. in orbesjuos cenvoluta : fed 
nihil certi de etymo ftatuendum. Vodius adds 
another deriv. "ex A, non-, ct ^i^u, fibila ; quia 
nonfibilet; becaufc // cannot hifs :" — fhould'this 
circumftancc be true, it bids the faircft for being 
the right deriv. 

A-SPARAGUS, " ATirx^xyr. Nug." i 2:»«.f«, 
X^a^xyet, X^xfetyi^u : afper ; quod ex afperis vir- 
gultis legitur ; vet qufid crefcit in Iscis afperis \ 
becaufc it grows chiefly in rough places ; or per- 
haps becaufe, when firft it (hoots out of the 
ground, it has the appearance of <j rough plant : 
Junius, under the article _^ffii^f, fays, de voca- 
buli origine, hsec habct If Cafaub. Varro virguia 
divina/^ariifaj pro ofparegis dixit} oleum in lu- 
cubrationem fervavimusj quod \n fparagos ttit^xn 
legitime vertamus : fie enim in Nonii codicibus 
fcribitur locus ille ; rcfte : neque alTenticndum 
aliter proniintiantibus: "Littt^xyn itaque, pro 
A<rir»g»y<i(, dixit vir undccunque doftiflimus; ut 
2^*X"*> P*"" Arttx^t' et * verbo Zir«a> dedudta 
ZirasXaflsf, AirwdiAitftof ; Sfl-«A«£, Aiirxhm.^ : indc CC 
"Evx^xyn fecundum quofdam, quia trabendi vim 
habent, venlrem molliens, atque urinam ciens. See 

A-SPECT, OiJ.if, vultus,fpecies oris, fades; the 
countenance : — tho' we may rather derive afpeSus, 
afpido, and fptdo, from lx(*l*/«»i, or from Zit«iriM, 
fpecio, video j to fee, behold. f^ , 

•^ E 2 jiizaih>LTCASPEN- 

A S 

From Greek, and Latin. 

A S 

ASPEN-fco/; A9-»<nfw, falpito, tremo j to trem- 
hltf fi>ake : why Skinn. fliould rejeA this dcriv. 
in order lo make room for his favorite Sax. Bclg. 
jnd Teut. etym. when they fignify the fame 
I King, could have been only the effeft of preju- 
dice, and partiality. 

ASPER : whenever gramm. make ufe of the 
terms a/per, and ajpirated, they ftem to under- 
fland it in the fenfe of 2«-«t^w, fpiro ; to hrtatbt\ 
quamvis hoc potius dicitur, fays Vofl*. de ani- 
malibus moribundis, cum palpitant, ct trmunt, 
extremum editxra fpiritum : however fuch nice dif- 
tin<5lions are not always attended to by etymol. 
and gramm. 

ASPERITY, Anropn, a/per i rough : — ^vera au- 
tem a/peri etym. eft, fays VoiT. quam in vulga- 
tis Icxicogr. legas ; aiunt enim efle ab Afir«fot : 
caufam appellationis, quam reticent, affertjul. 
Seal, afperum voccm elTc prifcorum agriColarum 
fumtam ^ terra, qus cultui eft tnepta, ««pa to 
Mm sTHftr^oit ; quia haec (A faxa, et fqualorem 
partes babet iti^equales j quae proprie eft afperitas ; 
4t rough, uncouth foil. 

A-SPERSION, Zn-opMo-c-tf, tiTBifya, fpargo, a- 
fpergo 1 to fprinkUy be/patter; to eafi unjufi reflexions. 
ASPHALTUS, Afl-^ixXIof, jf/pbaltites; bitumeni 
•a kind sf earth} pitch \ it was ufed formerly in- 
ftcad of lime, or mortar j. and likewifc inftead of 
oil in lamps. 

ASPHODEL, Aff^eJiAft(, afphodelm; the daffo- 
itl. See DAFFODEL. Gr. 

A-SPIRATE, 2«-«<pa, vei potius 'Ptirt^v, fpiro; 
to breathe : among gramm. it fignifies a vowel, 
and /ometimes a cenfoaant fpaken with a breathing. 

A-SPIRE : from the fame root ; and now ufed 
in the fenfe of to reach afttr^ to attain unto ; to 
pant after glory and fame. 

ASSi A, f-fpiiTiKw, et Ziwf, noxa; ut dicatur 
Afinus^ quafi A-o-twi;, qua voce Homerus, et SX- 
chylus, ufi pro innocuo: ita ingeniosc Heinfius 
in erudita, et feftivi laude jffini .— fuit, cum fu- 
fpicarcr efle ab antiquo afnas, interjeito i j hoc ab 
Owe, / inferto, ex more veterum j quomodo 
dixcre cafna, pro cane ; duftnui, pro dumus ; pcefnOy 
pro peena \ Cafmilla, pro Catnilla ; nee fcntentiam 
hanc damoo. Voff. — this word in Latin carries 
three diiFcront fcnfes j it fignifies a heafi of bur- 
den \ a block-head; and the upper mill-flone. 

AS-SAIL lAMiOfteii, faliOj infuUo; quafi aj~ 
AS-SAULT J /«/;«*, inva^oi an attack, or 
fudden invafien. 

ASSASSIN J Skinn. affirms, vox proculdubio 
Arabicas originis; his reafon is this : " fie autcm 
tempore belli facri appellabantur tribus, feu ra- 
tio quicdam Syri«, inter Damafcum et Antio- 
ihiam iucols, qui ad impcrium principis fui. 

fine ullo fui periculi fenfu, quemns, ieu regem, 

feu alium potentem, interimcre folebant:" — per- 
haps the Dr. meant the abominable afibciates of 
the dmous Old Aflan- of the Mountain i and if the 
Gr. and Lat. languages were of no antiencer date 
than the times of the holy^ wars, we might moft 
readily have allowed his deriv. as likewire that of 
Mr. Lye, and thofe authors, whom he has quoted 
in his addenda : but, when we find that the Sax. 
words Sax, et 8eax ; the Fr. Gall, affafjiner i the 
Ital. affaffinare \ and the Lat. Jicarius, and ^ea, 
may all of them be fo eafily and fo naturally de- 
rived ab A^m, afcia j an ax, fword, or arn fucb 
edged-wiapon (which looks as if Aj^nn itfelf was 
derived ab Ax*i, acies ; an edge \ et hinc ficarius^^ 
fays Vofl".) there can no longer be any doubt 
which is the original of all the words we have 
here confidered. 

AS-SEMBLY, vel ab 'OfnAot, a^aUs ; vel ab 
'Of*ef, Jimilii j un^e "Of**, una, fimul •■, Jimilo, affi- 
mik ; to he equal, and alike, in dignitj^ eftitnationt 
Sec. : like a meeting, where all are equal. Skinner 
quotes Minftiew for deriving ajfemble " ab A^aiA.- 
Aiuwv, in manipulos colligare-, A/j-eO^a, maniftdusy 
fed more fuo nlmis violentcr :" — then let us hope . 
the former deriv. would have been more ac- 
ceptable to the Dr. and will be more fo to his 

AS-SENT, AKrOai-opai, fentio, affentio ; to agree 
to i to be of one mind. 

AS-SERT, Zfv, fero, dico; undc adfererex to 
affert ; hinc fermo, as VolTuis obfervcs under that 
art. ^uio fero antiqua lingua notafie dico \ ab Epw, 
five Epfw, quod idem fignat; s prsmiflum ut in 
Belg. ejufdem notionis verbo, quod t^ fprekett, 
a pnedico ; to fpeak, claim, challenge, or avouch. 

AS-SESSMENT ; at firft it feems as if this 
word derived ab as, affis ; a Roman coin ; but 
perhaps it is rather compounded, and derived 
from ceffmenti Gr. by changing e into s in the 

AS-SEVERATION j either from St/Sopai, ve- 
nerer ; undc feverm % affevero ; i. e. ad feverum :■ 
or elfe fi-om 'P>n"f, imde £()«►, dieere j unde vtruSy 
affevero % to affirm any thing with truth, with confi- 
dence •, for Vofl". telTs us, thaCOTr«j is derived ab 
E/>fw, dico\ quia quod dicitur, eft; quodque eft^ 
hoc dicitur i ut haec duo fint a.*arft^oi\»j nempe 
in fermone tali, qualem effe convenit : imo apud 
Horn. Eirar pro re ipfd acci(Mtur : et putat Scalig. 
res effe a refes, vel refu \ ct hoc i 'Piiir.f, MSum v 
any thing pronounced, or affirmed tenth truth. 

AS-SIDUITY, E^O|W«t, E^«i tiS, Ion. tiiw, ftdeo^ 
afjiduus', continual cuftom, cenftant application, fre- 
quent attendance ; perpetual Jilting : or elfe affidiiaus 
nuy be derived from Ain/jn, poetice pro Aiitpi*. 


From G K £ E K, and Latin. 

A T 

i. e. AA«x«)r7«f, Jim interndffifm ; without eeafing, 

AS-SIGN, « rjiv/*)i, Jismimy abjcfto 1: vcl fue- 
ric ab 'Ixf'i veftigiuM fcpc enim fptritus in s abit : 
Eixm, ab Ero-TO, unde hamim, apud Hefych. ec 
^gillum ab EtKnXon : Voff."— it would have given 
me great fatisfa^ion^ if any of thefe words could 
have been found in Hefych. bearing the fcnfe 
here intended ; but in the firft place, I cannot 
Bnd either Eikm*, or £iir<ru: in the next place, 
f lefychius indeed gives us the word IxfAToi, but 
then it is in the fenfe of Epx^w, Noita, KaOavliTou, 
Atiltu, Iitiltvjt, none of which can poflibly have any 
connexion with our prefent fubjcA : and laftly, 
there is no fuch word as Etxii^s» : Hefychius has 
explained Eikixdi', by 'OfAner, and perhaps that is 
what we ought to read in Voflius; particularly 
fince a feal is nothing more than an in:ipreffion 
Jacjimlar to the engraving ; to affign any thing 
over to another perfon, is to deliver him a writing 
under our hand and feal, invcfting him with full 
power, &c. 

AS-SIGNATION ; from the fame root ; now 
fignifying the diftribution of any thing i alfo an ap- 
potniment, or deputation. 

AS-SIMILATION Vo,Miflf,vel potiu3*Oj««- 

AS-SIMULATION j Aot. JimiUs i tike ; a 
likenefs, reftmblanc€, Jimlarity. 

AS-SISTENCE, n«f.pi/*., adfio, advento ; to 
come to •, alfo to aid, help. 

AS-SIZES, E^«f*a., fcdeoy fe$o % a ftJJioHy or 
meeting ef judges andjufiices at their quarterly affem- 
Mies held for the county. 

AS-SOCIATION, Ew/««», » in y verfo, quafi 
tquomai, fequor; unde_/fl«Wi '« fellow\ a friend, 
companion, or follower. 

AS-SUME I Aio-)fMu,peraph{crefinr_/«flw, 

AS-SUMPTIONj ajfumo •> to take ; alfo 7* ar- 
rogate la himfelf. 

ASTERISC,/' Arfj>irx«, a diminutive of Arpoi-, 
R. Afii|j, ip9f, a fiar. Nug." — a little mark in 
writing, formed like a fiar^ [*] Ihewing fome- 
thing to be noted. 

^J&STHMA, " Affjfta, ri, flatui anhilatio\ a 
^tnefs ofbreaAtb : Nug."— ^ vifible miftake for 
finrtnefs of breath ; a di^^lty of breathii^, 

ASTIEGE : ** from afiiege we deriue many 
woords of mounting vpwardst as^i^e'ropeSyV/hich 
we now proaoitacc Jii-reps, (or as it is commonly 
written ftirrups) beeing firft deutfed with cordis or 
ropes, before they were made with leather^ and 
iron faftcncd to it: Verft," — but we fli^l fee under 
the articles STILE, and STI-ROPS, that this 
whole article is Gr. 

A-STONJSHMENT, « timmi^ gemOmditrr 

triftis ; Horn. II. © 1$^^ BiXi« (w«i.7«, trifiia tela: 

vel ab Ali/^w, objtupefacioy attono j i^wfiiloe, tern- 
tru affeitusi tbunderftmek : vel a 27w, lafnllus, 
«Te?.«eaifl(i'7«, converted into fione \ fie Virgilius, 
jEn. VI. 470 i 
Nee magis incepio vultam fermone movetar, 
but without all this difplay of learning, there is 
a much more natural, and confequently a much 
more eafy deriv. of aflonijbed i viz. i Tw»e, vel 
Tgvsu, iulendo, et fpeciatim voeem, vel fonam in- 
tendo ) unde Taii» ; et a tenando quoque eji attoniius j 
io be thunderftruck-y either literally, or figura- 
tively. Voir, 

ASTRAGAL, " ArpayaXct, talut, taxillusi atir- 
tle round a pillar-, a term of architefturc. Nug." 

ASTRO-LABE, " ArpoM3«w, aftrolabium\ an 
Inftrumeat for taking dijiances ; R. Arptfn, et x«/*p«rw, 
a. 3. iha^av, to take. Nug." 

ASTRO-LOGY, " A^f«\<>yi», from the fame i 
and from xtyu, to fay, to fpeak. Nug." to tell, or 
pronounce the fate of aTty perfon by the ftars, or the ' 
courfe of the planets : — the abufeof aftronomy. 

ASTRO-NOMER, " Affo^eittf, from the fame; • 
and from Mftet, difiributio : R. Nffw, trtbuo, attri- 
btto. Nug." to dijlribute the ftars into conjlellati- 
ens .'—this deriv. the Dr. feems to have taken 
from Hcderic ; but perhaps it may be more pro- 
perly derived cither from Arp«*, ajlrum j and Nof*«(, 
lex : the taws of the flars, or the planets, comprf' 
bending their fituation, motion, &c. i or clfe from 
Afpov, aftrum -, et 0«e^M, nomen ; one who telleth 
the number of thcftarsy and calleth them all by 
their names. 

A-S-YLUM, -Ab-uXoif, afylum, locus a vielatione ' 
tutus ; infpoljatut ; a place of fecurity, free from 
•mofeftdtion^ or dijlurbancei ex A, non\ et 2uX)i,', 
fpoUum \ fpoil, or booty. 

AT, K*J«, ad; adverfus; to, or egainfi% as- 
when we fay here's ax you. 

AT-CHIEVE, Ki^ax^, caput, ad-caput dedd- 
ceri; to bring any thing to a head \ to accomplijb : 
** Fr. Gall, ehef, vel potius kef, or rather kepb ; 
caput fignificet, fays Skinn." who would npt fee 
that caput ; and chef, kef, or k^h, ought to be 
deduced from Ki^aXn : — this word is generally 
writtea achieve^ accordiog to the moft erroneous 
method of writing, the French j -but, if it fig*- 
nifies ad caput, there can beno-reafon why the t 
Ihould be left out; and the beautiful reintroduced. 

ATE, theperfeactenfeof ;EAT. Gri 

A-THANASIUS, " A9»«ff..f, Atbanajta ; im- 
mertatisji ex Ai-nom et dwoffe;, mersi death; R, 
9nifMM, morior ; to die. Nug." 

A-THEIST, ,« aImi, Jtbm > juiM De» tfi% 

Digitized by 


A T 

From Gui-EK, and Latxii. 

A U- 

ww.mfo acknotelt^gts » Gad : tJug," — one who is 
. in irnptous, irreligious fool. 

ATtiENS, " Aflwit* Atheaie; a fia port tevin 
,tf Grttu J fronii AShviii Minerva, to whom it was 
dedicated : — it was formerly calied Ax7ji, which 
fignifics-^/te ; htcmfe of the -txtent ef its length 
' aiQftg the Jbtre : ttyrci. kyut frango; becaufe of 
■ibe irenhtig tf the waves againft the Pore. Nug." 

ATHLETIC, " ABxrlflf, atbltta: R. AAflof, *, 
xeriamtH. Nug." — it ftiould have been printed 
A(A9t , (trtamen ; a conleft ; a champion. . 

ATMO-SPHERE, a7/*«, vapor', et r^aipa, 
Jfhara \ that eteutloptmeni of airy cieuds, and va- 
pors, which furrcunds the earth. 

A-TOM, Aloftoc, infeSilis, indivifibiUs j atrf 
thing fe Jmall as not to be div^ble ; ex. A> non ; 
<t TtiMiu, feco ; te cut, feparate, 

A-TROC;iOUS ; vel a Tfc%v?, trux, atrox i 
roughs crueli favage ; vel quid fi derivemus i 
?>"(«%«, quod fignificat tero, attero i fed maximc 
■omnium placet a Tptuai, i. e. faucio, vuinero i 
^fwlwi, wiKiilwf, Hefych. invulnerable, -invincible ; 
unfubdutd: in our language ic llgniScs ^^i>;0tu, 
wicked, abemnabk. 

A-TROPHY, AJfii?»«, atrophia ; an indigefiitn,- 
DT fpecies of cenfumplion., when the food converts not 
to nourifiment, but to phlegm -, from A, non; and 
Tfofn, alimmtum i nourijbntmt. 

AT-TACH, ©lyw, ®tyyeai», tango, taSum ; to 
4wch, to adhere to •> toferve with fidelity. 

AT -TAIN, Turn, Ttvu, Ion, tiww, teneoy attineo; 
to hold back ; retain ; ebtainy acquire. 

AT-TEMPER, Ti/*w*, temfus, ettetnpero j to 
make fit, to mix, or mingle together. 

AT-TEMPT, T(.»w, ^ol. Tiv»M, tendoyMtenie -, 
■io effay, to prove, ajail, endeavour. 

AT-TEND, from pbe fame root j and here 
nfed to fignify the bending of the mind ta aftj ftudy, 
■to regard, tofbaw^an -earneft diligence. 

AT-TENED, extended : Verft. Sax.— fee the 
iollQwing arc. Gr. 

AT-TENUATION, Tt,m, ttm. Ion. ti««, 
■ttneo i quia qua tenma, facile teneantur % tenuo^ at- 
Smuo \ ■■ to make thin^ or to leffen, makejlfnder, 

ATTER ; " Teut. aut Belg. eyter ; vel abejus 
-parente Sax. ZCcep ; pui^ faoies, virus. Skinn." — 
perhaps our good old anccftors meant no more 
than to tranflate mattries, or materia \ which by 
the way does not ftriftly fignify ^«/, or fames; 
.at leaft we feem not to have underftood them 
in that fenfe, fince we underftand atttr to. be 
fuSt or fanies. 

ATTER-C0R7 « Sax. , SrrcjicDpa, ammal 

ATTER-COP^ fnmme ventnofvm, arauta i-a 
. foifcaeus animal^ or nuh^ iafe&t particolarly./^c 

fpider, JRay." — under the art. Cei-w**,' Skinner 
fuppofcs -" cop to be derived & Sax. coppe; -apeiCy 
fafiigium, culmen ; quia fc. usculniinibus tedium 
plerumque fabricatur, -*/ texit .*" — ^we might rathtr 
imagine it was derived from the ibregoing art. 
as to the former part -ef this compound} and that 
the latter was deriwd, as the Dr. fayE, from the 
Sax. ci^pei but then that word is evidently 
derived from Kt^cAq, caput ; coppe : and that 
the ^ider was' in Sax. called atttr-cop, from its 
(hape, being round tike a head % and its be- 
ing .(tippofed to be fiHed with a noxious, poijonous 

ATTICISM, Aflnuffftoftfemo Attieus j an Attie 

ATT'ONE, 'Gv; wum, one ; ad unum, adunare ; 
to retOHcile, to ie at one % tc make fatisfaSion. 

AT-TRACT \AfMiruy tpuyu, trahoi 

AT-TRECTATION J to draw, drag, handle.. 

AT-TRITE, T«pM, Tif«u, Tipw, T/)ij3«, tero, at- 
teroy auriium -, rubbed, worn am^ \ dimimfbedy 

AT-TURNEY: etymology fixes the ortho- 
graphy of this word ; for both Jun. and Skinn. 
acknowledge it is derived from/»r«; utecnos 
dicimus, every man in his turn \ thefirfi, fecond, or 
third turn ; a Tpnru, quafi Tliflu, virto ; patronus, 
advocatus ; qui fc. ad turnum, i. c. ad vicem alte- 
rius, vt loquutttur ipji ferenfes, eonftitutusy dominifui 
caufas in foro fromovet, ejufque nomine refpendet \ 
a perfon employed to plead a caufe, when it comes en 
in its turn. — If therefore it is written tf«or»*j', it 
would originate from quite a diSerent root, viz. 
a Tapvof, and Toftntiy which fignifies the poliflh 
ing-wheel {-—and if it is written attoumey, it 
would originate from no root at all. 

A-TUGON, or ai^om drawn: Verft. — it 
ought rather to have been explained by our word 
tug; and derived from the fame root J which wc 
ftiall hereafter find to be Or. 

A-VAILi OvAw, valeo ; to be in healthy power- 
ful, firetg. 

AV-ANT, A»I«, ab-An?*, ante, corami ab-anfei 
unde Gallicum avanl ; begone, go before, vanifi. 

AVARICE, avee, avarus, avaritia ; covetouf- 
nefs, greedinefs :. «veo js defccnded from the. 

AUCTION, Aujif, Augd^w, aageo ; to augmenty 
increafty enlarge. 

AUCUPATION, OtwMf, aviSy aucupor; aucii- 
patien J the art of birding, fowling •, alfo to watcby 
■t$ffyy toli/len. 

•AUDACIOUSj A«i>»f, bytranlpofition, audax; 
AoHHco?, D &fwrvi, Hefych. — Juxta Nunner : eft 
.ab.AvSo&t, aUdoHy-fuperints ; daring, hattghty. 


Digitized by 


A V 

JFVom G R E B K,. and Latin: 

a V 

AUD-FARANDj "and, aid} zad farand; 
ingenium ; the humor , ot genius tf any ptrfoK : 
Rtyi" who likewife obfervcs, that *' childwn are 
faid to be aud farand, when they arc grtfiM, or 
^itty, bpfondwbat is uJUal in fuch as are of that 
flg-ff."— here now we may begin to doubt whether 
this gentleman is right in fuppofing aud farand 
to be SaKon ; for, according to thrs Very defi- 
nition, it feems to be no more than a provincial 
dialeft for eld-before-hioid, i. e. aud-farand\ wife 
(for old and wife ought to be looked on as f;^nony- 
nvy^fi^ before the proper term if years \ but oH, 
before, and bandj are all Gt. 

AUDIENCE? Atu, audio, Autn, vex,fonus, era- 
AUDITOR S tioi to hears the facxlly of 
hearing ; alfo an «_gicer appointed to bear, and exa~ 
-mine aceoitnts. 

A-VENUE; Boiw, vwi«, advenio; an approach; 
4t viftaf. a rmo of trees planted regularly teferve as 
an introduBitn, or entranee to a noble manfion : 
Skinner admitfi' thr Latin, but takes no notice of 
the Gr. etym, of this word. 

AVERAGE. " Jibe breaking up of com fields; 
eddifh, rot^bings t average in law fignifics either the 
ie^s which tenants, and vaffals were to provide 
Aeir lord with for certain femices \ or that money 
that was laid out by merchants to repair the hffes 
fufferedby fhipioreck\ and fo it is deduced from 
the old word aver (averium.) i\%miy\t)^ a labour- 
ing beafi : or avstioi, R^nifying goods t. or chatties; 
■ft-om the French verb avoir j to have,_ or pofefs : 
Ray;":— but the French wrb avoir is as undoubt- 
«dly derived from, the Greek, verb Aflw, inufit. 
- «nd that is as vndmibtedly derived from the 
Hebrew, as we fliall fee under the art. HAVE: 
and yrft the word average may be derived from 
tf*^j fignifying an equal (hare,, or dividend, 
made, and delivered on avouch, fee AS-SEVE- 

A-VERNUS^ Aepyof, avibus carens ; fluvius, 
■€iut lacus Averni ; 

^amfuper haud vWx poterant tmpune volantes 
Mjidere iter penttis ; talis fefe halitus atris 
mkucibus effundens fupira ad convexa ferebat \- 
^tde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Aomon. 
** * Ma. VI. 239. 

fo called, becaufe »9 bird could fly over it, on 
Bccoufit of its fulphureous exhalations. 

A-VERRUNCATE ; Of<^,Of>,0, ruo, i. e. erua: 
vel eft, ait VofT. ab Awt^uw*, quod Suida tefte, eft 
on-oxuXuu, prohibee, veto : vel, qUod magis placet 
■ab E^/wtw, prxmif. Digam. unde ra/Vo, runco, 
avirruMtOi to cut up, weed^ or hough the land: 
Butler in his Hudibras, Part I. Canto. I. v. 755, 
bte humoroufly introduced this word; where 

making Hudibras declare his deteftatioft of 
bear-ibaiting, he fays, 

. I with myfelf a pfeudOfpn^het ; 
But fure, fome mifchief will come of it j 
Unlefs by providential wit. 
Or force, we avemtneate it- 

A- VERSION ; Tpirw, quafi Utfia, verto j aver- 
fatio; a dijiiking, or loathing', the turning away 
from any difagrreabie ebje^. 

AUGER i Skinn. who is always more attached 
to the Saxon, and the other Northern tongues, 
than to either Greek, or Latin ; fays, " audax 
effem, fi Belg. aveger deflcfterem ab adigere j et 
tamen iftiufmodi violenta; originationes a muttis 
etiam magnis criticis paflim afferuntur:" — how- 
ever, fince there certainly cannot be -any fuch mighty 
violence in chatderiv. it hu been adopted { with 
this addition, that if adigere be compounded of 
ad, and ago, it is derived from the Greek vert> 
Ayu, and noW' bears the fenfc of penetrating, bof' 
ing, piercing, or going deep into any fubfiance. 

AUGHT : if the etymol. are able to trace any 
of our words to the next immediate language, 
■ from which they fuppofe we borrowed it j viji. 
either to the Sas. Belg. Teut. Fr. Gall. Italic, 
French, or L«in tongues, they fcldom go arty 
farther.; an inftance of which we have ntow bt- 
■fore us: " AUGHT, AWHIT, aUquid, funt 
pura puta a Sax. Auhc, Aphr, Apihr, Lye :"■*- 
and we might readily grant all he has advanced ; 
but then we ought not to flop here ; for it is evi- 
dent that Apihr is but a contraftion o( aliquid; 
aliquid ab <i/;^&(5, centrafted to aits, from whence 
came alius, which is plainly derived ab AWtt, 
alius ;■ another, any thing, or fome thing, aught elfe. 

AUGMENT, Au^wf, Av^ivM, augeo, augmen- 
turn ; an irlcreafe, addition, accumulation. 

AUGUR, OiwiFOf, Opuf, avis, augur, augurium, 
quail avigerium, i, e. quod avfs gerunt, proprie 
oritur ex avium cantk, gefiu,velpafiu, i quibusfutura 
divinantur, item quovis modeconjeSa ; — to prefage, . 
or prognofiicafe from the anions of birds. 

AUGUST, the month ; Auyurof, 2«/Wef, Au^ 
gufi, Sextilis,the/txth month, a carding to the Reman ■ 
computation ; artd called by the name Sextilis, till 
it was changed to ^ugujt, in honour of Augufius 
Cafar ; as the preceding month ^intilis, or the 
fifth month, had done before, in honour of his adopted 
father JuHusCafar : fo that though it is undoubt- 
edly a Roman name, it is however of Greek." 

AUGUST, /r/«rf^ J Ai^M-a., augeo ; unde <M(-f 
gufius; imperial, majeflic. Ovid likewife has. given 
us the fame deriv. only he has gone no-'farther 
than his own language for the etym : 

^ Saiyfta 

A U 

From G R B s KS wd L a t i k. 

A V 

Sanftavocant Augtt^a patres; Augufia vocantur 
Tenip]a, facerdotum rite dicaca manu ; 

Hujus ct augurium depcndcc origine verb), 
Et quodcunque fua Jupiter auget ope. 

Fafti. lib. I. 609. 
but we have Teen that augeo originates ab Au^okw. 

AUGUSTINE J Camden fuppofes it to be 
*' Latinc 1 and to fignify encreafing, or tnajejiieal; 
from yAfi^aj."— confequendy Gr. as in the fore- 
going art. 

AVIARY, Aj3if, 0?it, nempe Oi«wc, Onjiet, avis -, 
A bird erfowL 

AVIDITY, aveoi to covets d^re, wljb for-, 
avidus i ^eedy, 

AUK-WARD ; " Sax. "KfcjAfptrverfus, aver- 
fus : Skinn."— this very interpretation makes me 
doubt that the Sax. is not the original word, but 
derived from verfust \. e. from verte, penb'; and 
if this (hould be the cafe, then we might, by an 
eafy gradation, deduce verto^ from T/iis-w, to turn 
from, be aiterfe, aukward, and ferverfe : and what 
might coofirm this opinion is, that Skinn. admits 
that ** huic autem aukward, ec Sax. Upeji'b, 
omnino turn fenfu, tum etymo apponitur toward, 
turned toward." — permit me now to add only a 
conje^rej viz. that aukward may be derived 
from the fonner half of the word Kox-xuf, and 
the termination ward^ which (ignifying turned, 
will make the whole word to fignify turned foot, 
or driveller; become quite aukward, and ungain, 
merely through ftupidity, or foelijhnefs, 

AULIC, AuAn, i. e. area; a hall, court, or palace. 

• AUMBRYI" Skinn. and Ray fuppofc thefe 

•AUMERYi words are derived a Fr. Gall. 
attmcire, armaire, armoire; Ital. armaroi quod 
Latino armarium ; menfii, in qua arma, \. e. infiru- 
menla omnia, vafa, et qtuecunque ad convtvia cele- 
braKda adhibeniur."— hut we have already feen, 
uader the art. ARMS, that arma, armarium. Sec. 
are defcended from the Gr. : it muft however be 
acknowledged, that this word feems to be rather 
of Northern extraftion, as will be obferced in 
. the Sax. Atph. 

AUND : " forfan per contraftionem, / am 
aund to this ftate ; i. t. ordained : Ray," — but we 
fliall hereafter fee that ORDAIN i« Gr. 

AUNT, " fometimes called, and expreffcd 
nauHt, l^M*ii, i. e. junJj 01 ttitx^n, matris foror ; a 
. mother's fifier: Upt." — there is however another 
deriv. of the word aunt, which has been fug- 
gefted to me by this gentleman, under his art. 
Tart i viz. " that mide is taken from the middle 
of dvuncubw ;"— now fince this is undoubtedly 
true (for we have many other words formed in 
the fame manner) it is not improbable that aunt 
may have been taken from the beginning of 

avunculus; thus, avuHC, converted into avuul, 
and then CQntra&ed into aunt ; and confequently 
will originate ftill from the fame root, with the 
word UNCLE. Gr, 

AUNTERS J « I guefs it to be contrafted 
from adventure, or peradventure ; which were firft 
mollified into auventure-, and then eafily con- 
traiSed into aunter; Ray." — then confequendy 
from the Gr. if venio be derived from Baii^w. 

AVON* according to Clel. Voc. 168, and 
I JO, '" gives origin to Favonius; and fignifics the 
«;««»?..•"— whether jlvon gives origin to Favcnius, 
or Favonius to Avon, antiquaries may decide; but 
fince they both fignify the weft, or the evening, 
it feems but reafonable :to fuppofe that they both 
defcend from the fame root with EVE^ or EVEN- 
ING, i. e. Gr. particularly fmce Clel. himfelf ac- 
knowledges that the fun ivefting, or fetting in 
that point, gives the name of weft ; becaufe in 
the antient language weft fignifies decline :— but 
we ihall hereafteffee that WEST is Gr. 

AUR J commonly writtea in books of heraldry 
OR, CO fignify gold; but if thofc who firft gave 
that fignaturc, had but duly confidered the etym. 
of that word, they would not have written it OR, 
but AUR ; and then it would have been a proper 
contraflion either of Aurum, geld; or of AvpKi, 
fplendor, brigbtnefs, glittering,; the fbining metal. 

AURANGE, derived from the fame root ; and 
confequemiy ought Jiot to be written orange, but 
aurange ; for the -reafon given in the foregoing arc. 

AURICULAR, AuJd, vox, audio, audilus, au- 
risi the ear, or hearing: R. Avr, Ovr, ab Aii^ 
audio i unde audes, vel aufes prius di£t£ i inde ■ 
aures; the ears, the organs of bearing, 

AURIGATION j from the fame root; meaning 
now the headjlall of a bridle, which goes ever the 
ears ; hence ai(riga j a carter, a charioteer. 

AURI-GRAPHY, A^^yf«*.«, a treatift on 
the art of driving chariots. 

AUR-ORA, Auf«f Ufa, ab Aw, vel kvwjplendeo: 
aura, Civc fplendoris temput ; Av^», fplendor, ut in 
Mn. VI. ao4. auri per ramos aura refuljit ; the 
brightnefs, or fplendcr ef the morning light. 

AUR-PIMENT J commonly written orpimenti 
but derived ab Au^xt, fplender ; undc aurum; et 
*(yyw, pingg ; to paint ; auri-pigmentum, auri co- 
lorem, piSoribus utilem ; a» ochre, of the toleur 
of gold. 

AUSCULTATION, AuA., aiaris; the ear ; to 
lijien J to barken. 

AU-SPICIOUS, OiWix, Of«f, avis, aufpicium, 
avifpicium j a bird; the art ef divining, or foetb- 
faying by birds, 

AUSTER} kytn^, aufier : whether thi» word 

be of Gr. or Lat. cxtraft. would be difficult to 


A U 

From G R B E Ki and L a t i ». 

A X 

^ hnji-er , 

' f wind." 

the watery 

aflert: biit Clel. Vpc. 169, is abfolutely of opi- 
nion it is neither Gr. nor Lat. but intirely Celt, 
-and is formed as follows : 

*'~aw, water. 

ift; point of M^y?fl»«. 
ir\ air, or wind. 
then the whole compound Teems to be but a bar- 
barifm of T-iu^, ir-npi, and «iip : all fignifying the 
quarter ef the watery wind. 

AUSTERE, " AvfB^of, aufterus ; rigid, Jevere, 
barjh, Nug." — or perhaps aufiere may originate 
ab AoTctM, quafi 'Ar(», exerceo, meditor -, to exerdfe, 
or keep firiU dijcipline. 

AUTHENTIC, « Auflfv7.x«, autbenttcus -, ejta- 
hliped or proved by feveral authorities : R. Au^H^of, 
«tte's own mafier, independent. Nug."-^ind Auflivfut 
is derived ex Aulof, et Eflia, arma; five Ii(r9«i, 
mittere: Voff." 
- AUTHOR |either from the fame root 

AUTHORITY! with the preceding art. or 
elfe from Au^ir, Auffwu, augeo^ auUor ; Ainfw. lie 
enim rcfte fcribi, tarn vetcrcs grammatici, quam 
manu cxarati libri teftantur; non autor, nedum 
author i immo et Dio Caflius, lib. 55, cum fibi tpfi 
fatisfacere nequiret exprimcndo Grxce aufforita- 
tem/enatHs, vocabulum ipfum Romanum Grsccis 
dementis AuitTu^iW, non Au1w|)i1«r, dcpinxit : pro- 
prie qui auget ; quo frnfu auSrix dari fcribit 
Servius : fed et dari potuic quocunque demum 
fenfu diceretur: certe- auEierem dici otriufque 
lexus hominem apud antiquos hac etiam fignifi- 
cattone liquet : deinde, quia augere fit creando, 
efficiendo, vel injtituende aliquid^ patn'ji effeSoris, 
et in/Htuteris netionem induit : cumquc talemcau- 
fam multum pollerc oporteat, fiepc denotat, cu- 
jos virtiite, concilio, fuafu, vel teftimonio, aliquid 
fiat : properly an increafer, an enlarger j a founder, 
writer^ znAeempofer: — all this maybe veryrightj 
but ftill it feems more applicable to the words 
auction, and auBioneer, than to author, and autho- 
rity i we may therefore rather attend to Adolphus 
MckerchuSi a$ quoted by VoQius, qui yuIc au^or 
efle ab Ai^n-Tui : et fane in vett. gloOis legere eft 
miBoritas, KiAtiiien, and confequently will be de- 
rived from the fame - root with the preceding art. 
as we obferved in the beginning of this j or per- 
haps better with Littleton, to derive Mtbor ab 
Av7«nvr, qui ipfe aliquid operator : and now ufed 
to Hgnify aperfon who emits, fends forth, or puh- 
lijbes any thing from bis own band, power, or invention. 
AUTO-LOGY, AwloXfty.*, ex Aulor, ipfe; et 
Xtyvt, fermoijpeecb', the fpeaking often of one's felf, 
egotifm: aninftance of wliich will be given under 
the art. EGOTISM. Gr. 

AUTO-MATON j Au7«iuw«?k, ex Auler, ipfe; et 
fiMsf^ai, prgviptus fum,- ex fe ipfo aHqidd. fociens ; 

tidn^ alieno hnpulfu I Jpentaneui i ahreneus\ as efr~ 
gine, or piece of mefbanifm, that goes withafpring^ 
or hy clock work; and feems ta move of itfelf, to he 
a felf -mover. 

AUTUMN, Auftf, Aufaw, eugeo, BuBm,,autum- 
Hus ; quail auBitmnus, ab augendis fruBibus ; one of 
tbe four grand divifions ef the year ; tbe time of har- 
veft, and vintage j when all fruits are come to their 
full growth, increafe, and maturity. 

A-VULSION, EA», A^(A», AiptKhK, velk^ avul- 
fus i to pluck, pull, or drag aw/rf. 

AUXILIARY, Av^tt, Au|<xi'u, augeo, auxiUum, 
auxiliaris; to fuccour, fome in aid of; tofupport, 
to join forces. 

■ AWLi " B«x«Mf, GalU^ B in G, abit, quod 
et fit in glans :■— mm id contraAum eftexBt(Xav«f : 
galla quoque, turn feminam gallam, turn infirumen- 
tum futorium, quod aliter fubula, a fuendo voca~ 
tur, fignificat : Voff." a fiotmaker's injirument to 
fow with, 

AWNING, Ou^arioxs, velum, cannabinsm, quod' 
cisli, vel umbellte inftar, in calidis regionibusforir 
navis ad arcendum folem pretendittcr -, a large failf 
hung over bead, in tbe form of a canopy, or umbrella^ 
to fence off the heat of tbe fun in hot climates i and 
confequently it appears like the fky, or heavefUy 
over bead. 

AX-, A^iM, afciaiabatcbet; or AaLu,feco; ab,Axa» 
aeies; quafi ags, unde Seg, Seffg,Seax, Saxons. 
■ AXRh-tootb; Ray fuppofes this word to be 
derived " ab Ifland. Jaxel; dens molaris; a dou- 
ble tooth-:" — but we may rather fuppofe it is only 
an abbreviation of maxilla i tbe jaw-bone-, and 
confequently. is derived from the Gr. as will be 
feen under the art. MAXILLARY. Gr. 

AXICLE, Agwir, axis, axieulus; the pin tbat a 
pulley moves on. 

AXILLARY, "lxii,alai I ii>\<tf abeunte ; ut 
i &iyu, tango t Iftifies, amor: fxttir Gneci dixerc 
agmen, et peculiancer agmen equitum; eo qu6d 
circum legioncs dextra, Iiniftraque, tanquam al^t 
in avium corporibus, Ibcabantur : vel ut Hcbneum 
fit ab alah, i. c. afcendere : Hebr. elTc magis 
placet : — quod fi eft, ab ala lit uVexff i(-ik» axilla ; 
ab Hebr, eber, aber, i. e. fortis: vcrum aliter 
veteres; quippe ccnfcnt ala >t«I« (rvywirii» failum 
efle ab axilla : VoflT."— with regard to etym. it is 
no great matter, whether a'la be derived from 
axilla, or axilla from a/a ; the only objeft of an • 
etymol(^ft is to fettle thederiv. of either j and 
when that is once fixt, the. other becomes an ar- 
ticle of indifference : it muft however be ob- 
ferved, that Voff. de Permut. Lit. fqys, vocabu- ■ 
luiu etiam hoc axilla, non fa6tum cffe per dtmi- 
nuttonem ex ala docet Seal, de Caulis : in Eog- 
lifh the words ala, axilla, and axillaris, are gene- 
* F ra'ly 

1^ 4. Erom Gkeekj and La.tiv. . 9 A 

pnplUt (SaTaU) pracfuit : ita in pa^eftni UteraHS 
BaTaJurius cxpit nuivnjpari Lutctije, qui pubJJcp 
de arte quapiam difoutjffei;. Qp\. W^y.4^i and 
Voc. 49, derives it frpnfi '' bas-a^e-caller i afiho- 
l^r Hwfcf <jff ;"— confctju^ndy ftU^ Gr. 

BACKSTER j no more than a contraaion of 
n hake-beufi'ke^er^ i. ^ (^.^AJCER. Gr- 
_ BACON, l*>cnAej, «^ratm, ffa4a -y u£,propfi« 

mtelliganturf<!r»«m«/((^fi ^ hap:cst) bfig^oi, fa^tt^ 
/u/inpi which ,a,re geti^r^ly f«/,.pr_/iwj!(flt. 

BAD : " Bcjg. ^afdi_ nfolas. : c^uQea^ ft. Genu, 
originis <;redo Qr. bi^f^ BtJt^^, :quod espo/iitu^ 
«■«»« Ei>7iX)if ; Skinn." — but Jun. is of opinion, 
th^t " fbri^fle ejq(dei:ti 9ft originis cqnp kfvdi 
/««* .'"-T-if fo, then iti^ ppf G.i;. tarb. tuf ppccGr^ 

RAFFlJSi *' vidctvr 4^44^ h»bcre s^r^itart 
tern cumTcuL ha^en, \t\.blaffai -, l^trare; f^t, 
vfluti latratu alios perterrefacere, vel bt^brio ha~> 
here: Jun." " vtU pafdculaiijitiali Teut. he; and 
Fr. Gall. /ij/ ; quod effertur fan; JtuUvsi m nOs 
dicimus tc kefaol, or wa-^f « faol ef one: vel ab. 
eodem he j et vabofjouler j ^r^ cp/ft^pfpju cp>teuU 
care, et pediins pretnere : hoc autem fouler ocLr 
gincm debet Lat. fulle -, qiuja fu/Ionis eji pathos, 
calcare: Skinn." who generally admits, of every 
etym. but the Gr. for we may im^ine he would, 
not admit, that thefe Fr. Gall. Teat, a^d even. 
Lat. words, arc. all reianifcfJJy derived. **AeyoM,, 
quafi *9AyD«,/«/^Mi unde/«^,/tt^(?WJ» quipaa- 
nos fidgere facit; in or Her. to vp^icht the n^ion of 
JreadfttEtpreJ/iagtfqufezirig, are t(^uile4^,nece£aTy^ 

BAG : bqth Juq. and Skinn. allow that the 
Sax. Bclje, Beh^, and Bclj, uode verifimilc eft 
Angl. hag, are ^1 derived froffi the Lat. hulia:—- 
but then neither of theip wo.uld allpvf that hu^a 
was derived a BoAyo;, pro i^txyo^, quod Heiy^h. 
cxp.fiDaef xviuf, fafcus corin(ett^, hui^a: " MqifsMf 
in B convert^nt: fimilitex_.igitur pro Moji^of, 
BpAy^f, undc huig^ i fed quid rpp,vgn,ai, quo minus 
Galips.hancvocem dicarnu^ accepil^e a ^atTiIienfi- 
bys, qui Gfi^c? loqucbapt^ff Vpft" a pouchy 

BAGGAGE, or rather BAGAGE, bt^: Juo. 
and Skinn. fuppole, that this word is derived from 
the fame; fource with a/oldier's hag, q*. k^^J^ck-- 
— i" quoni^m vero iftiufinodi farcini^ atque irapci- 
dinicnta- plurima negotii fa9eiri^c itjncrantibusj 
ufurpari qupque.cojpit vox haggage. dc foensini 
odiole molefta, cujufque confortio, One ullo noftro 
incommodo, poffimus carere ; Juq." after which 
he addsp nifi malls ambuhajam, i. e. tinflferem 
vagofH, agarruiavii baggage dii^am ab illo BcyaiK, 
quod Hcfy-ch. ex Ly£crate affert, pro liaiauti^ 
vana, inepta, f»tilii : talis foomina, GiW.iaga^e^ 
\zA. hagafcia ;■ HoU. hagaffa nuncupatur : a» ian 
puJiBtt imtarfintttU held buB» 


Dig hz;dh> Google 

^l]t. tra{iO$ted tbe «%_ tb» arM-piti 4 mtSi* a 
^XIOMi "i^ii^i^j£t<>v,^fi>i,.4f$n.tti,meritm^ 

jnundattm j an '^ahlipea, recetve'd maxim- Nug. 
AXIS. J 4ft^ Ajflt. *WfMj tiie-axletree of a car- 
AXLE\ riage; alfo ip alirdnbmy /it^^e/w <?/ 
'i i ot rather the ajfis of the eartb. 
? for AGEi " Ab i^ifrnfer; akaaxitfor 
\ ever. Opt." 
AY, ot Tes i K«i, etii^i yth «lfot ei/enjb. 
AZIMUYHj vox Arabfca: great circles meet- 
ittg in tbe Zemtht and pajjin^ ^rotfgk dlltbe degrees 
fif. the berizo)f. 

Azure, A«^ujt«, lapls lazuUs a gr^ Jientt 
9f W^^/f, of fgrcft OT.jfy colour i wiU>^qts efgrr/. 


BABBLE, " Ba^^u* B«|3a|w, tnartitulati loquor ; 
to fpeak inarticitlately : or- from BaPwi-, a 
Syrian word, which fignifics a child ; from whetjce 
comes the Italian $amhoi and Its diminiftiye ham- 
hino; an ittfaat ; as likewife hamhelo ; whereof 
■ they have afterwards formed bambole j to fignify 
habies ; from whence the Fr. feem tp h^vc taken 
their word hahfoles ; as alfo that of himbdotiers i 
for thofe that make habies, or doll-drejfers : fee 
MopO Menagig.: others -derive it from oaiel, cen- 
fujioa : Nug. ' 

. BABE JNotiyithftanding the fceming proba- 
BA^Y \ bility which Nugent has feewJi iif the 
f^regoipg art- in dijriving the word hoby from^the 
Syrian, word Btx^uv, it may perii^ h^ve taken 
its origin from the Greek, iqterjcftion Bmflai, 
papa ! interJeSiio adrnfrantis ! bey day !■ what o^ve 
we here! an exprefTioaat feeing, any diminutive 
figure, as a doll, a baby, a child. 

BACCHANALIAN?-" B^-x"** 9*>(;;<;^w/44«, 

. BACCHUS S Saccbus, . BaccBan^Ua, 

ergia c.elfpre^ ; days ef mirth and jollity. ; R.. a«*%'(e ; 
Nug." foinetimes he is called l»xi^> ^'O'l' ^^Zi- 
Clel, Way. 4, has given us a tppft ingenious, fo- 
liation of the birch of Bacchus; " Semele," he; ob- 
fervcs, " fignifies ripencfs; and co^ in the Celtic 
is.^t onfe « ti>igb, and a wine cajki the myiho- 
Iqgy f£_ tb? birth of Bacchus ftantjs as follows : 
tq preferve t^ grape fwrn p?ri(hing by the equj- 
rpflial ftorms, abput the.vintage time m amijq;i:v 
it-is in its ripei$efs.(Semele) cut from tlie pl^nt,. 
and. lodged in a cajk- (Jupiter's tb^b) there to go 
out its tin^f M'1 fit for its hcw hirih,i. e. drinking," 

.BACHELOR, bactalaureun abaihehr of arts 
in.s univer^ty, alfo a fiagle er umnarried, nan.: 
rtwjietimcs wc fee this wprd written with a_Xi 
thuSi BaTebthn and then it feems to be deri^(cd 
ftwfii B^atfinus, G^tus . aiUe.s, qui jain fcmcl 

ft k 

tAGBAGE, or fildi&'sinap/m*'; ftohi the 
firttt root With BAG; 6r. '■ . 

BAGNIOi fx^dy^ivi fA^ii/m, five iaUetOii 

it hnk 

BAIE^ or ptrHy\ **B»xttti, ft(f>pt)ne «? tw ;^;«f ^ 
to put as it were into a f>er/pn'J hMds : (rttftl 
*hence illfrt cOrheS a hxitl : tittltft ffc dhbft to de- 
rive it from the Hebre* hutzlj ^hlch iigiilfies t'6 
^P) to h mjhr bf. Wbg." 

BAILlFFi " ^iH, tbfiJiUujH; ioUhJit, a^-vice; tj 
JUtoiitd: Nbg.'*— 'it is very tfondefful tTiat Jun. 
and Sfcihri. (hoiild take tidtictf ofbcitH theft *f)rdsi 
and yet take no notice tjf their Gh etytn. *vhe- 
thefr tfiey arc dtrivcd frotn the fatne, bt fVdrti dif- 
fertrit fourtes, as the Dr. ha^ h(!r* infbrhiftd us. 

BAIt, to catch jyb; Bielof, *;/<f?iij^ efclt,' clius -, 
foodi nokrijhmen't i fuch ^ we t^ceive *hen we 
kait ai an iitn : that Juftfus arid Skitih. Ihould 
hunt ^hls wtft-d thrfttigh at! th^ ^^^3^ ^^^ barba- 
rous orthographies of the Sax. Tcut. ind Ff. 
GaSl. totigrfts, and yet psty nti atceh'tibn ttf the 
Gr, ctym, i^ftft have tfeeri thiS effcft, nbt of ig- 
rio'rthce, iHit partiality. 

• BAIZE, or ^ne/teeze -, if derived frofn its bay 
tbhr, *ota!d be of Or. Cxrraft. it fiaToe, VeJ B«rj, 
pdrHSf rdUUi palma ; a fhdll hravcb of the palm 
tret: .but if dciived from the place whefe it 
rfas' ^Wl of i\\ rtiidi. It nmft H^ refcrfcd (6 the 
Sas. Afph. 

BAKE, B«x4f, pafiU; Phry^um lingua; feu 
Smjsat, fornax, caminus; an oveA t Junius dtrives 
idkt a B^ef, ciblis ; qudd tduTiU igne exCo£tis' 
^rurtitpie utimtfi' in cihUih : tiefych. ad hsc 
Bittyet eiponit ttxvtftA «^a, ^ jita^Jij, fruftuTh pamSj 
aut «d2*; idem quoqu^ grirhm. tradic B«y«fM 
Latonrbus diti tJ j^?.i«jov, tepiduiH j fltty /oo<i dre^ed 
in an oven. 

BA-LAI^CE, commonly proniunced ballance; 
Aixfltm, ItrngAla, lan'x ; a /ira/^, or /^^ bafon of a 
balance ; gencratiy ilndef flood as the beam to 
wbichtbey ate fii^ended i but when underftood in 
tliat fehfe, it acqnires a diffeVent root; viz. % 
Aty%^, lancea : Ffiipani hodiC^ue appellant lanfa j 
Celcje, five Franci, lance j'BclgSE, feu German! in- 
feriores /sHrtV : fed et Brita'nnis, quorum fcrmo 
itietn dHni ac Celtarurti, IduAci nminatiir : — all 
thltft vi^ord* feem to fignify a lame, or fpear; 
and frorti its ihape to have been applied afterwards 
to tbt bdlance, oV ?e<ww, to which, as we juft now 
obfciVed, the fciiei are hutig. 

BALCOlTr, a- n«r«A<.t, paluii q. d. palicust 
palito-, uride ftaficum j><3/iroj hatco-ny. 
' JiA\S> at hiite ; ^ixKax^'my cdhus, depilis i void 
of. bait. 

iRAlD, h»: " it alfo" fignlfiwh/O'/Ti; dtfud- 

frbm GRtefeK, ahd La***-; iI A 

daifte: jt^rft."— bdt fiOLb Is of (3reel; txltaCV. 
is we fliall fir* ImHtr thdt irt. 

, BALDER-DASM i . *• Sii. Sil^ -<i»<fav; 
Balfecji, dkdhcler, aaiacius ; et baj-h, fhifc^; tj. d. 
/i(7/aj «mfr^ wwAf.' Skltin.*"--^o fir tifc Dr. 
thought proper to go ( but no farther fie : ho*- 
evir we ffiallfee prfefcntly that both BOLD, %.n\ 
DASHj ar^ Gt. 

BAL-D-WIN, " afthuch to fay as citD-'^ceSti\ 
^akfi^-htd-xhiA^h; foon-vanquiJhiHg, quic^-o'b^'c6m~ 
Iftg : Verft. arid: 'Ckitld." who fuppofe thetii both 
td be Sik. but bpth BOLD, and WIN, are Gr. 

" fiALE of goedi ; both Juniusand Skinn. coiilii 
^rlve this wortf frorf^ only the Gall. B.lg. Pr'. 
Gail, br *? iut. ■ tongiics ; and yet they bonj ac- 
kriowledge that the farcina, fafcis merci'uiA hne 
convoluta, took its rife from d ^d//} in Jjit. pHa^ 
feu majfa rotunda -, and yet take no notice of the 
^ord pila, which Hefych. will help us to dfe^ive 

from ITaUific, rfixifix tK jreixiXuv vt|^a]uv irin-qiiitlirn :- 

and he had faid a little before naX.^firB«i (or 
n«M.t^iffiixi) &9»ipi^a*, a ball,fphere, or any roit'ni- 
thing to play with; and here made ufe of to fia;- 
nify any bundle of goods, hound and tied up chfe 
together in a round form, or made like a jacket^ 
trufs, &c. , - 

BALEoa/ wfl/wj " vox nautica;" fays Skinn, 

fignifi^at autem aquam per ruinas h^vis irr'ueri-' 
tern fitulis, hydriis, cancharis, et hujufmodr vafis 
exonerare : credo parum deflcxo fenfu i Fr. Galf. 
balayer, bailler; verrere, everrere; hoc autetn JiJ- 
lay fere aufim dcducerc i 'L.z.t. palete -, qua voce, 
Tub lapfom Imperii, pro y?r«»»'w utebanturj ut 
apparet in voceFr. Gw.paille; \ti\. pagHa -, ftra- 
mina autem colligata^ei^i« ufum facile prasbere 
potuerunt^" — and from this action o^fweeping, or 
fcoepingt the tenn hale out water feems to have 
taken its origin ; ahd if this be the true etym'. 
we may trace it to a much higher Iburce ; for 
Voir, tells us, that palea, according to CeC Seal, 
is dei'ived ir«p« to n«xx«», qujl ratioiie etiam 
va'nnus ab eadeiH jaftatlone, BaXAHf'; paled ergo 
a ITaAAw, quatio, moveo, vihro', to fweep, or fcoop 
out the bilged waltr. 

BALK, or beam; U»ffSitXot, palus ; q. d. pa/i- 
cus, palieo ; quafi balico.-, unde bdH ; trab's, tig- 
nitm ; a large piece of timber. 

BALK, orridgt; tither from the fame root; 
bccaiife it is a ftrip of land, whicJi feems to lie 
in the fields like a balk, or beam of timber : or 
elfc this word noi* mky be derived t porta ; quod' 
in arando extat ; fc. terra inter dues agros $ldla\ 
reliffd ; d ridge of Und, left ' unplcwed in order to 
remain as d boundary, or Unkt ; pe^ca die vur quafi ' 
porre^a; Varro lib, IV. d4 L.'L: ab' c6 qiiSa 
Fa aratri 

Lstizedliy Google 

B A 

From .Gkeek, and Lativ. 

B A 

aratri vomer JaJieUU,. /ulcus ; qu6dea terra ja£ta 
prejeffa, feu porreSa, forca : fee MEAR-BALK ; 
Gt". a ridge cf land in the fields. 

BALL, an afftmhlj ; "' B»xxi^w, trifudio ; It 
dante'i fefias choreas duco ; Upc." to lead the 
fejial danee. 

BALL) or round thing to pltry with ; " BoXAm, 
jacio ; te threw, or caji i is toffedfrom 
one to-anether : or from Ua^^up^viiroi to vibrate i 
bccaufc ic fecms to vibrate hkchwardt and for- 
toards : or elfc i>all any be derived from IliXflf, 
pila; aballf in Euftathius, Nug."— we havejuft 
now obferved, under the art. Sale ef goods, that 
Hefych, has defined HoAa* by tr9»7^u n womiAw* 
WfMl[w TrEn-BiDftrvD : and he had faid a little before, 
JL»Ai^i<re«i, (or n«AAi^£iHlai) <r(faX^ilm, a iall,fpbere^ 
or any round thing to play with, 

BALLAD, Bkaa.^v, trifudio; tsjkip^ and dance 
about i and antiently ufed to fignify a ludicrous 
fong, accompanied with odd gejiurcs : Verft. fup- 
pofcs that ballad comes from " leyd, ley, lay i a 
fong of a deed don :" — but we ihall fee that even 
in that cafe LAY would be Gr. 

BALLISTA; BaXAw, jaa'o; to hurU or throw; 
a warlike engine among the Romans, to burl 
prodigious darts, &c. 

BALLOT : " B«mik« invenies apud Hefych. 
quod YufDv, exponit ; but this fcems to be ao 
explan. rather than a deriv. ;. for there is no 
doubt but that aur word ballot originates from 
haU, u e. from BoW-w, jacio ; Juffragia mittere j 
fays Skinn. praefcrtim, ubi perpilas, vcl/pharulas, 
fortes in eledione captahtur :" — (ogive a vote by 
taJUngin a white-, or a black ball. 

BALLUSTRADE, "parvseet FOtuodae brevas 
columnie in medio pilas habentcs i quia rotunda 
iVint inftar pilarum : Skinn." — and confequenily 
will take the fanrie deriv. witli BALL. Gr. 

BALM \'&ah<pMtt«iit haljamum; a mofi fra- 

BALSAM 1 grant juice, or gum. 
' BAMBLES, n«f««oA(M, Acix«oAiM, ambulo, obam- 
hulo; to walk'aihviart, with the legs piling one 
aver the other. 

BAT>!Dof/eldiers, as the trained' bands : " from 
^Miw, fays Dc. Nug. (if there be any fuch Gr. 
word) ;. taken from the Lai pandum ; (if diere 
be any fuch Lat.' word) i and which in Suidas 
is mentioned as demoting a military eiiGgn ; or 
from the German bant (if thcrt be anjf fuch Ger- 
man woFd) J and frt>m thence comes the word 
ianner : ?^g."^— but we (hall fee prefently that 
BANNI:R is Gr. 

BAND, /a tie with iTti^v, vcl" niJatK, vincire 

BANDAGE J baltee i to bind, or iiefaji 

with a cord, rope^ &c. 

BANDOLEER, « lUtnf, vel Utifif, vincire baitet ; 
to bind, or tie with a belt % hinc Fr. Gall, bandou- 
illeres j fyrii pulveris tbeca ; a voce bande ; fafcia j 
quia fajais appenduntur : Skinn."— /»w/V leather 
cafes for guTtpewdtTf which formerly bung at the 
belts of Joldiers. 

BANDORE, n«v*of»(, infirumentum muficum j 
a mufical injlrument, now out of ufe. 

BANDS, perhaps (rom^»t»u,^tw,undcpandOf 
quafi itfwffl ) or elfe from tlilxw, pateo -, to difplay^ 
unfold^ fpread abroad -, bccaufe they are broad 
pieces of cambric, di^layed, or fpread over the' 
upper part of a clergyman^s caffoc. 

hM^UX -Ugged i 4aii>w, fMiu, unde pando, are^ 
and ere ; pandus, a, urn i quod expandit -, or elfe 
from ndivw, pateo ; to open ; to bend in the mid- 
die i to difpliTf, or open wide : fee BEND. Gr. 

BANDY words, or difpute : a EwJovj turma f 
vel totis viribus fe eppottere -, to contend; to oppoje^ 
with all the virulence of ^ech. 

BANE, BfA/jawf, vel itxmn, belenum j uiid& 
venenum ; poifon, or awy noxious drug : Skinner^ 
with fome fceming probability, has derived iane„ 
^ ^vof, ct^des i Oiw, occido i but he is rather too 
fevere on hinifelf when he fubjoins, fed et hoc 
nimis cciticum t&, 1. e. longe arceflltum j— be? 
caufe it b Gr.. 

BANG, nXtiirm,* nxoyw, flango,. quail blangVjf. 
blang, bang; to beat, knock, Jtrike : Skinner acknow^ 
ledges that the "TcaK.-bengel takes its origin front 
baculus, per epenth. tb n,. quafi banculus ; ut in 
render a reddo :" — Ihpuid this be true, then out 
word bang may be derived from BaJ^ok, bacillum^. 
bacillus i unde baculus, banculus, bang j to jirikt 
with a Jlaff^ Jid, or can*. 

BANGLE-M«iij aurespenduU, cfo^ btt^ulte^ 
bangle ; banging ears j long-ears hanging down.. 

BANK, or counter % " Ap«x«<s Nug." — but 
A|3«x«{ is only the genitive of A^a^, «^am(, aba-< 
cus J " from whence," fays the Dr. " they have. ■ 
formed baneus ; a bank, or bench ;" . at^ thing fiat^ 
as a deji, or board to write en ; and from hence: 
is derived the Bank ef Ehgland ; meaning the defky 
or board tbey write on, 

BANK-RUPT; from the feme root; A(3«f> 
A^fcxa;, a defki and 'fnytv^^yrumpo, ntptus; " ^ui 
ratiottis conturbavit, et i fore deceit ; skinnJ' who, 
writes it bankrout, and would not acknowledge 
the Gr. deriv. i but fuppofes it comes from. the 
Fr. Gall, banque-route ; let it} ^1 banque-route, 
is not the original i for bapqfte is undoubtedly 
Greek ; and route, is only the ftiocking French, 
barbarifra of rictus, S rtaapo ;. foFtaffe ^ Thegv^ 
'PtiT-^u/*!, frat^o, rumpff; to break; lb that the 
compound fignifies bank- broken- i on$ who- either by 

Digitized by 


B A 

From GuiBKj.and Latih. 

B' A' 

misfcrinnes, er mifitnduS in trade, is tmahU any 
hngtr to keip bis kdeks open j w\d confequently is 
obliged tdfliut up bis dej3t, or is dtjk-brokm. 

BANK of a river; or a mound ef eartb ; Bvmf, 
monSf coUisi a billy or rifing ground^ to refirain 
the current of a rivers &c. 

BANKET J " commonly Written, and pro- 
nounced ba7iqnett and banquetting-boufe, from the 
Fr.-Gall. btoiquti Ital. banco-, Tkmz. benek; Sax. 
Bxnce. Skinn."— in fhort, from any thing, rather 
than from A^£, «^«xe;, ahacns, fella, fcamnum ; quia 
tonviva ad menfam in orbem circumfident ; a featy 
bencby table, dejk, or aVf fucb tbing te write at, er 
eat off en, &c. 

BANN^, - ^Mm, ^ctwi, quaG' ^fttniu, pando, 
hando ; to difplay, unfold. 

BAPTISM, " Bwli^M, bapttTX -, to baptize; dip, 
or w^ : R. BdWIwi mergo-, to plunge under water ^ 
to fink. Nug." 

both figni^ judgment : and in p. 6, he had told 
ns, that bar, or poT) was alfo called (mar, maire, 
p^ 15) mage; whence ndjitr; maius, Sec." — con- 
fcquently Gr. erther from Miya;, magnus, major, 
majus, feu maim: or elfc, as he .fays, p. 83, " rf, 
or may (the initial m being purely adventitious) 
in the fcnfe of legal power, gives the word mt^us, 
which in the l^tin was foftened into maius (or 
rather mafus) ; but that m<i;fu,fignified ^ird/^f is 
iadifputable i its root was «y > tbe Am;.'*— confe- 
quendy Gr. for if we add only the article / to 
ey, and write it 7*^, as in par-Fey- mot, we Ihall 
fee it derives a At-yu^ dicf^ jusdicere: and in 
P'33, n. he faysi " the term now in ufe (br a 
ftudcnf 3 being called to tbe bar, means his dicing 
made an advoeatt, which the Greets have tranf- 
lated n»f«itXj(]«r» or paraclet; which by the Chril- 
tian divines' has received a fan£tificatton tn a theo- 
logical fcnfe t' and might have been, anciently 
written bar-cf-called, or called iff tbe bar if tbe 
lawi a barrifier in (hort." — ail Gr. 

BARBARISM) '*B«fpae.«-p«, B*^«fei, bar- 
■ BA-RBARCHJ5 J ' idrifmus, idioma barbaricum i a 
barbarous expre_0onj or rude ufe of words i ineru.- 
ditus-i rufiity clownifif, and «frf« ; Nug."— the 
word in its primary fenfe, fays Clel. Way.4, only 
meaitc a perfon bom in a dijiant country : it was 
indeed afterwards abfurdly perverted into a term 
of reproach. 

BARB. iBiiffSiij barba; a beard i tiefangof 

BARBEL > a book, dart, orjpear ; though per- 

BARBER J' haps the Bib, named a barbel, 
may be derived from 4«^c> barbulus. 

• BARD, bardur; a Britijb p^et: properly 
fpeaking, this word can beof neither Gr. nor Lat. 
cxuad. and therefore U is referred to the Sax. Alph. 

i BARD ASH ) " vox nuper civitate donata (but 
infleadof being adopted, it ought to have been ba- 
nifhed from our own, and from every other alpha- 
bet in the univerfe) i ab Ital. bardafcio; Fr. Gall; 
bardacbe; draucus, cinadus : Gr. etiam i»(ia( apud 
Hefych. ct Phavor. rcperitur y et ab utroqufr 
xiMt/a;, redditur: Skinn. fed unde inquies iftud 
Ital. bardafcie ? credo dictum quafi bardaccio ; hoc 
a bardo pro bardato, equus omatus, et inftruSus : ' 
notum autem eft equitare, apud multas gcntes 
prscipue Gallicam, lafcivo fcnlii ufurpari i et 
nemo nefcit turpes illoa amatores fua n«i#ixa,' . 
ftudiofeet ambitiofc in delicias fuas orrtare :" — 3 
tet of the molt dcfpicaUe, and dcteftable wretch.' 
es on the face of the earth ; dreffedup, znd prinked- 
out, for tbe mojt abominabU purpofes. 

BARE : both Jun. and ^inn, have traced this • 
word through all the northern languages -, and 
yet acknowledge that alludit Gr. 4«(f»r,' lucidus,- 
cenfpicuus ; a <&»«(, lux -, nuda emm luei a^fita et cm- 
fpicuafunt : to which Skinn. adds, *' fed plufquan:^ 
alludit Lsit.poree, pro t^pareo-i quia nudamaxime' 
parent :" — but pareo, pro appareo; certainly ori^. 
from ncffijut, adfum : fo that when any thing is-' 
bare and uncovered, it may really and literaHy fay,-. 
bere I am, plain and open to all wewi 

BARGAIN J " Vu GiW. barguigner i licitari,. 
licitando'cunliari i Ital.' bargagno ; pa^utn ■; bar-- 
gagnare; pacifci: zbltaX. per ; pro j et gagnarei' 
pro quadagnaret luerari -, qui enim licitatur, lu~- 
crum.qutmt ::SW\nn." — after what the Dr. has- 
here advanced, it may fcem-perhaps too violent- 
an etym. to derive bargain from Nmiw, by tranfpo-'. 
ifition Ivxt^f vincoi and yet it- has very probably* 
drawn its origin from thence ; for N*km undoubt-' 
-jedly gave bir-th to vincoi vinco as undoubtedly' 
■jgave birth to win; winAS undoubredlygave birtlt- 
to the Teat. v/oT-dgewinnen; znd gewtnnen very > 
probably being coiwraifted to gwin, might have 
.given birth to gain j and then gain, being joined ' 
'to the other past of the compound bar,' (what- 
ever fource that may be deduced fremi or whatever- 
It may. (ignify, fof I have not yet beeft- able to" 
trace it) may have given birth to our word bar-- 
gain; and if <fo, .the-latter-parcof it would ua->--^p. 

BARGE ?B««, navis, navigium t ■ a fmalti 

BARK S pip. 

BARK as a dog ; " Bf u^^awnas ru^o ; non tan~ 
turn de leombuSi fedtt aliis feris : or from B**-^*,'. 
/fl/rtfj verb umfiitum ex- voce canumj j«w» ^«ft-fl«iia-- 
«^«»;, Bi»u-B«ii:Theocr. Idyll, vi. « h BaurJ*^, pro- 
&<u^«, i^ e. ux«)il«» to brayi bawl, or barki Upt."'— " - 
or from Bf «x'^ f"^^ • ^7' tranfpofiiion bark. 

BARK of a tree; « B»(k,, barca-i cortex % tbe 
rind of a tree. Nug.**" 

, ,tizedbyG0?wfe 

B A 

From G A B B Kj end L a r i it. 

B A 

BARK-j!&ifVi Verft. 150, tells us, that "Barck- 
fi^re WM fo named of the plencie o^btarekeH trees, ot 
ai wc now call lhem&>ciffl«/r«j that there grew." — 
only he fhould have told us that BIRCH was Gr. 

BARN-ACLES, or geefe j " anftr Scoticuj^ 
{«x*y«f, vel ^wAByiMs: Ital. n. pi. bernac(hi, idem, 
credo, fays Skinn. a noflro beam ijilius, froUs j et 
Mac; quercus^ reburi et fecundario, qu£vis ar- 
bor."— 'and yec he could not, or would not, 
ko that both bear?tj and eaky were Gr. — but Ju- 
nius fays, " hue faciunt verba J. Bromron, quse 
habec, ubi dcfcribit Hiberniam (rather Scotiam) 
habet cc aves, quas barnaces vocant, aucis fyl- 
vrilribus fimiles, quas de lignts abietinis, quad 
contra naturam prcfducit, quibus viri religiofi 
tempore jejuniorum vefcuntur, eo quod de coitu, 
yei de earner minimi procreantur j" — the pro- 
du&ion of thefe creatures a one of the moH; ex- 
traordinary operations in nature, if the account 
given of them by the writers of natural hiftory 
Qiay be credited. 

BARNARD 3 Verft. fuppoles this name to be 
. BERNARDS Sax. and to fignify ^MrV-Awr/j 
(as in another inftanee we know Richard I, was 
called ceur de Iten, or IhrCs heart) i but lion, bear, 
and hearty are all Gr. 

BARNE, at ehiid: Junius writes it ifr» ; Verft. 
itarife and beam ; Skinn. team j Clel. bairn -, Ray, 
ianii and Lipfius, borne; and would have us 
deriv:e it from the Sax. Run. Dan. Goth. Tcut. 
Aloiann. Iceland, or other nroFthern tpngue»; but 
Suidas tells us, that B<tf»n figniBes 'Tor, ^lius; a 
foH; which no doubt is oefcended from the Syriac 
h^ri Simon Bar Jorta, Himen the fon of Jonas -, 
which Ibme editions of the New Teflament give 
us as a proper nanne, Simon. Barjona. Mat. xvi. 
1,7. — however let us even fuppofe with all thofc 
gentlenfKn, that our word borne is only a various 
djaleft for ^wa J i.e. derived from the Sax. B*pan, 
orBJEpne, ^(ff-erf; ilill the Sax. is not the original 
language i for Bepan undoubtedly iignifies no 
more than to bear, or bring forth j and confe- 
quently is derived 4 *ifw, fero, ferto, gero -, to 
bear, or carry in the leomb, till the time of birth. 
It is more probable however that bame, or hem, 
IS derived, as Clel. obferves, Way, 62, from 
verna; in contradi^nftion t6 liberi, who were 
free-born; hui verna was the name given to thoic 
bom injlavery: though that gentleman derives 
verna from the Celtic bairn : — but verna fcems 
to come from ver ; and ver from Id/^i, Em, unde 
E*g, ver. Voir. 

BARN-TEEMS ; this compound figniBes 
Iroods of children: fee Tl-.AM. Gr. 

BARO-METRE, Ba^ejj>tigw, barometer ; a ma- 
thematical infirument, to mca/ure the weight of the 

Mr i a word conApounded of B*^vr, grams, fM^ 
derofas \ and M«Tf »> mmfmra % majkrt, 

BARON 1 none of the etymol. give ug th» 
faci&fa£lion on this art. that Cleland affords Us ; 
though even that great antiquary has not gone 
quite far enough in the inveftigation of our word. 
baron ; he tells us only that " iar, bir, par, fifr, 
peer, mar, magi, and maire, all fignifyytt^f*.""— 
but why thofe words (hould fignify a judge, any 
nriore than a cardinal, he has kft us to trace out 
for ourfelves : there are then only two reafoni 
chat occur »t prefent } and the firft is, chat hart. 
aiid par, with all their nun^Krods dependences^ 
may flgnify a judge, becaufc, as Clel. himfelf ac- 
knowkges, p. 6, that tbe " bar, or p^r^ «^ ^o 
called mar, and mage ;" " whence," f*ys he, " the 
word magiu ) and thence certain diftrifts, m6re or 
lefs Urge, received the nanne of popu :" — now 
"pagus poflis deducerc a nai7'«s, cellii," fays Voff, 
" nempe quia primicus in calle fectiritatis causE 
sKlificia cxftruxcre;" — ^a«d therefore ajndge might 
aniicQily ha»e prefided as * baroni or head over 
his parijh, or drftrift : the fecond reafoir Why 
baron may fignify a judge is^ becaufe, as CteL ac- 
knowledges, bar, far, mar, and mage, may de- 
fcend i fvdy, matus, majus\ aU Irhich vifibly (m- 
giiwte & major, i. e. S Usyat, fHagntu t to fignifjr 
a grandee, a head, a judge in all cau&s bicweeft 
the people. 

BARON indfmme; " vox fxcialium propria, 
antiqua lir^ Fr. Gall. bafM etfemme, i. e. vir et 
femina : Skinn." — here the Dr. ftops :— we have 
fcen the etym. of barm, in the forgoing art* 
as for ftmme, vtc fhall fee that under FEMI- 
NINE. Gr. 

BAR-PENS are explained by Clel. Voc. 130, 
to be feats of the head drttid, baron, or judge i 
and in 210, he affirms, that "pen, ven, and poll, 
are radicals, fignifying the head; becaufe 6rigi- 
nally all fales or barterings were carried on by 
heads of cattle :" — confequently will take the fame 
deriv. with ve/teo, venai, and ttnde, to vend. Gr. 

BARREL; " noHem jurare «■« m( BoMt?«T«, 
i gravitate did; fays Skinn." — It were rather to 
be wilhed he had laid a profun^tat^ ;— but he 
goes on ; " mallcm igitur deflfeitcre » noftro iirar, 
vel beer ; Ital. bara ;■ feretrum :" — 'this fcems to 
be a ftrange etym. as well as ftrange orthogr. — if 
the word barrel be really of Sax. orig.' it would 
be better to d'erive it i bcpc ; hordeum, barley ; 
from whence our Wurd bar Is undoubtedly de- 
rived ; and it is common to call it a hter-bafrHi 
or vejfel to hold beer ; Saxv 

BARREN, " fometimes the privative in (or as 
it is here written en) was placed at the end of 
a word ; as in barrin, i. e, barren, or npt bear- 


B A 

From GmsKi and Latih. 

B A 

ii^: CM. Voc. 4."—" Tel forte per rflipf. ii Belg. 
^atraidei Fr, TKoQtifc. unbarigi Sax, unbe- 
jtenb i »«■ parims i baerm enim Bclgis parere 
flgnificat. Skiftn." — tbii ellipfis fccms unnatural, 
fincc th« Dr. acknowWdgM that haeren fignifics 
farere ; aod yet by the ellipfis, haerende muft 
fignify noii fartrf: nay, ftiould the Dr. ftill infill 
«B hii ellipfis, wc may nererthelefs affirm, that 
(nth the Sax. unbejienb, and the B^. haeim, 
would originated fcsw, fero, quafi iero', to hear, 
io carry, tt Mug forth y^ung, i. e. parh. 

BAR-It^ISTKR, Gommonty derived from bar, 
in the fcnfc of a pctfon's being called to tbt bar : 
b^t it feems rathtr Co be derived &om the Jame 
root with BAR-Mr> in the fenfe of a minor baron, 
o( barrtjhn : confequendy Gr. 
. BARROW} perhaps from B«pof, pondus; a 
vieigbt i a machau to cany heavy things in: or elfc 
^ooa ^w, fere, porta, bajulo ; to carry, or bear, 
OF barrew any great weight. 

BARROW-iw^ -• ** n«f X9$ Grsecum eft nomen 
antiquum, -led obfoletum ; quod nunc eum vo- 
oant XoifeK : k Ilof xo*, Lat. porcus j Gall, porceau; 
\i!l\. porco ; 'H\(p. puerco; Belg. vercken i Teut. 
barg; Sax. heap jh ; /iirr, iiper : Jun. and Skinn." 
T-this laft word aper, makes me rather imagine 
that the Teut. barg, and Sax. bcapjh, arc not 
derived from Ilisf xos, but from Kaweot : — " aliud 
aucenv Kav^s;, Tyrrhenis, aliud Grjccis ; fays 
Vd(E Tyrrhenis caprKiB notabai ; inde igitur La- 
tinorum caper : at Grfecis tranfmarinis KaTrgei eft 
aper, mt^alis, verres caftratus :" — but after all ; 
it is more probable that barrow-hig may be de- 
rived not from the Greek, but the Latin ; though 
we have followed the Greek, and not- the Ro- 
man manner of writing it ; for the Romans called 
it vtrres j and Plutarch, in Cicero's life, as quot- 
ed by Voir, fays, Bippnv y»^ ol'fufMum TO* [tti fxTfljuit 
fjctfo* : — it would have anfwered our purpofe 
better, if -we were to read it according to the 
common editions t3c tx1fl/»)i/»tt'o», cajratas ; be- 
caufij oitr barrow-hegs are fatted hogs, and confe- 
quentfy cut. 

BARROWS, or rather BARUES j bilb co- 
vered, or furrounded with trees ; both Jun. and 
Skinn. would derive it from the Sax. by giving 
us two wofds of different fignifications, and dif- 
ferent elym. and yet they both meant the fame 
thingi Jun. fays, " barrow, nemus, lucus ; maxime 
lamen ut videeurjl^/iw/a coltem veftiens; Sax. bea- 
pu, beapue, or beopa :" — and Skinn. fays, 
"barrowes, i Sax. beopr, tumulus :■' — and no- 
thing more :-T.howcver, if certainly docs not 
mean a barren, naked hill, or mound, or tumulus -, 
but one covered, or farreunded with wood, treesy 

&c. ; fince Junius himftlf has quoted Helych. 
BcMuir, J»Jf(t : trees, grove, forefi. 

BARTHRAM, nufixi(«, pyretbntm, barthram 1 
pellitcry of Spain ; fometimes called priety of tJ^ 
wall ; which word priory, and perhaps peflitoryt 
is only a contraction of parietaria, t paries :-^ 
but with regard to ourprefent word barthram. It 
is evidently derived from lluf, ignis; fire; and 
A(*w, urs; to hum ; and therefore it would be 
betler to write it bartham, and not barthram ; for 
it is Aiiit, not Aiftfar, «r#j to burn; this hcrij hay- 
ing a hot, fiery, pui^ent root. 

BASE, ** BteSui, profundus ; deep, mean, lovf, 
Nug." — if the Dr. meant by bafe, the foundation 
of a pillar, he was undoubtedly right in the 
eiym, for that is only the Englifti word iovbafis: 
but if he meant, as he feems to mean by bafe^ 
any thing low, mean, and defpicable, he is pro- 
bably wrong; for then it originates from a dif- 
ferent root, viz. Biar«, quod Hcfych. exponit 
Anr;^uk>t, dedecus, infamia, probram; difgrace, in" 
famy, dijhonefty. 

BASIL, ** BoMTiXftof, regaKs ; royal; R. B«b->- 
Mvi, rex I a king. Nug." 

BASIL of a ring : Skinn. writes it bezeill, vox 
quienon nifi apud Higginium, et Janua Lingua- 
rum reperitur : (Ainfworth writes it beztl, or 
bezil; and tranflates it the beazil of a ring;) "pala 
annuli ; forte, continues Skinn. a Fr. Gall, baj/in ; 
pehis annuli -, i. e pars annuli latior, et turgidior, . 
' cui inferitur gemma : vide bafen :" — but bafon, as 
we fhail fee prefcntly, is Gr. 

BASILIC 7" BiwiXixn, regia domus % a royal- 

BASILICA j palace, aftately edifice j but par- 
ticularly applied to churches- ereSfed to Saints,. 
'Nug."— we are told by Clel; Voc. 43, and 85,. 
that " BairiAdPf, is derived from the Celtic mace, 
or vafs ; quafi vafs-ul-eus ; the minifter of the 
»)(7ire."— the priority muft be decided fomewhcre. 

BASILISC, BwrtAio-xof, bafilifcus ; Jerpens qui- ■ 
dam i a fcrpent. 

BASIS, Bao-is, bajis, fundamen \ a prop, foun- 
dation; alfo the foot of a pillar, or pedeftal of a ■■ 

. BASK i» the Jun j " Belg. baekeren ten klndt ; 
fovere infant em ad tgnem, baekeren in dejonne, apri- 
care, captarefolem : Skinn." — who acknowledges, 
*' hsec forte a verbo to bake; quod vide j q. d. ad' 
ignem, Jen ad folem qmdantenus coquere" Lye 
aifo has given the like deriv. in his Add. ab 
Iceland. " bakaji -, Je calefacere :" — but, if both 
thefe are proper derrvl then they may be deduced 
from the Gr. as under the artl BAKE,. Gr. 

BASKET, *a*-)iX(i(, pbafeius; r.avis 6bUnga% 

an oblong boat : or perhaps it nuy with greater 


Digitized by njOOQIC 

propriety be derived a B«flTi«t»w, fafcino ; unde 
Bao-kayof, fafiinus : if the words faijcis, and /ij/iri- 
fulus may cake cheir origin from thence i a 
htaidle of Jiicks, or a fagot. Junius fays, " vidcri 
poflet vox bajket traxifle aliquid ex 'Rcifx^ia, porta ; 
to carry any thing in :" which is a very good deri- 
vation ; but not fo good as the former by Voff. 

Bason i both Jun. and Sltinn. have traced 
this word (Junius, under the art. ia/en) a Fr. 
Gall, iaj^n i Teut. Bclg. and Dan. ^ecien j Ilal. 
iacino j Hifp. hacia, bacin y and then adds, *• Mar- 
tinius rcfert ad buccinum, Jpecies concha ; unde 
cjuoquc eonca Italis eft vas loterii Jpecies, quod fit 
veluti capax quadam concha :" — if this be the true 
deriv. then we muft feck for another etym. Voffius 
quotes Suidasi " qui docet Bvxavn, huccinum, vel 
hucinusy cflc o^y»vw fAWixov, meaning the /ea JBill, 
above mentioned, of that form which is generally 
given to a Triton :" — let me only add, that Skinn. 
fays, "Covarruvias deflei5tit iafon, aB«fl«of," and 
then adds; "credo potius omnia Germ, et Goth, 
cflc briginis :" — nations which perhaps fcarcc ever 
knew what a hafon was, till of late years. 

BASS 7 Bixj-iTBi', profundier j deeper j the 

BASSOON J iower, or deeper ground-work of 
mufic : R. BftSur, profundus, magnus, gravis -, 

BAS-TARD, " Baro-aifse, a common woman, a 
harlot, flrun^et : Nug." — this appears with great 
ipecioufnefs, but that is all that can be faid for it ; 
for Skinn. has with much greater probability de- 
rived it, vel i Germ, hee/z, malus ; and aerd, vel 
art, natura : vel potius Tcut, beefz, malus ; et 
Sax. Sreojir, w/a/, editus ; one baje-born, born 
not in wedlock : fo that according to the Dr. the 
former half is Gr. the latter, Sax. : but with 
Clel. Voc. 3, we may rather fuppofc " bajtard was 
derived (rom ba/e-terred, or laid en the ground i 
becaufe fuch illegitimate offspring were not en- 
. titled to the honours of filiation, till by the fa- 
ther taken up from the ground : this ceremony 
was called in Latin tellere ; after which, the child 
was confidered as little, if at all, inferior to what 
is now underftoodby lawfully begotten," 

BASTE, or*ffl/?Sued. bafa; Iceland, beyfia, 

BASTE meat J verberare, pulfare j vel ei 
hum duw ajfalur hutyri feu adipis liquamine ungere . 
credo, fays Skinn. ^ bafi, cadere, percutere; quia 
olim cibum bacillo unHorio cotifricabant, nunc li- 
cuamm tantum eminus inftillant : alludit Gr, '&»m._ 
quod tefte Salmaf. fuftem, quo onera pertantur, 
fignat : Bwra^w, Borw, porta -, haculus enim corpus 
portat; hufuftentat: a fiick, to drip meat with. 
Lye, in his Add. fuppofes it to be Iceland. 

BASTION, " B»Hlf»^ bacultts i a pf,Jlici, or 

From Greek, and Latiw. 

5 A 

cudgel : R. B^xln^ia, the fame ; becxufe the ait- 
tient .bajiioHS, and buildings were made of poles, 
and long Jiicks, or Jlaffs : N«g."—- this explana- 
tion feems to have been mifappUed; for, though 
hxtilgov gives origin to baeulum and iaculut, yet 
it is very probable, that neither the Gr. or Lat. 
words gave origin to the .French word bafion (if 
there be any fuch word in French neither doe» 
the French word bafion, or Eoglilh.word ia^ottf 
fignify a flick, or, fiaff; whatever the antient 
bajlions and buildings might have been made of: 
the word ^aoHon, therefore has been applied to 

BASTONADA ; " B«]tl^», baculus ; a fiaff, 
fiick, or atdgel ; from the French bafion ; or the 
Ital, hafiene : Nug." — ^fo that now we have ano-- 
Cher authority to corroborate the former ; and 
yet we may perfiH in referring this word B»)ilp»,- 
to BATOON i only obferving, that according 
to all the rules of etym. if Bantl^er, and bafion 
give origin to our -word bafiien -, then this word 
ought to have been written bqfi'ionada.- 

BAT, or club j " B«x]fo», barulus : Upt." — thiS' 
gentleman is right. 

BATCH of bread, perhaps means no more 
than a baking of bread i as much in quantity as- 
the oven can contain at one baking : if fo> it 
would be Gr. 

BATCHELOR : though moft of ourdidliona- 
ries give us this word under this form, yet it 
ought to be referred to BACHELOR- Gr. 

BATE, or make-bate; n»ittffiru, n«7i», qua(i> 
Bai7(u, batuo i to beat an argument -, to bandy words} 
to held a difpule : fee to DEBATE. Gr. 

BATH, " B»tW, mergere i to dip, or plunge- 
underwater. Upt." 

BATOON i B»«7f«, baeulum \ a fiaff, fiick, or 
cudgel; but now commonly ufed to fignify a ge- 
neral's truncheon; \n YrcTich. baton i from whence- 
our word vifibly defccnds ; as baton itlelf is vi- 
fibly Gb " et Beocl^ev dicitur -ra^ct tl 'Scuvitv, quo> 
modo et *Pa{3Jo; di<^a exiftimatur ir«(« ri "Psin 
xo.m B«J.^«». Voir." 

BATTEN J " vel corruptum I fatten; vel I 
Sax. babian > to bathe ; finw volutari, inftar ju- 
menti, fevtre, pinguefactre : Skinn." — but then 
the Dr. ought to have confidered, that if we take ' 
either, or both, of thefe deriv. they are of Gi;, 
extraft. the former from ^ttlim, prffepe ; a man- 
ger, to fatten oxen at ; the latter from BaWTw j mer- ■ 
go J to dip, plunge, or roll in the mud. Let me 
then obferve, that the Belg, baete, .baetent lu- 
crum; and the Teut. batten; prodtffe; to profit, 
are evidently derived a ^d\n, prafepe; above- 


Digitized by 


B A 

Froiii GttEiK.> and Latin. 

B A 

■ BATTE!l, or bruife, Tlaliw, quafi B«J(m, calco, 
^erctttio, ferio i to heal, hruife ,' pound : from htncc 
likewifc comes 

BATTER, or mixture effour^ eggs. Sac. which 
are beaten ap together, 

BATTLE j " neHcuTffw.percutio, batuo: from 

BATTLE-(foreJ batuo they have formed ha- 
tualia, which properly fignifics the place where 
two men exercifed themfelves in fighting: and 
from hatualia comes hatalia-, from whence we 
hare taken battle: Nug." — it feems but reafon- 
able to admit of 'this derlv. and yet n«Itia, quafi 
Bodiu, unde batuo, feems to have been much, 
nearer j and perhaps n«f«<ra-» itfclf may have ori- 
ginated % n4fu, at leaft they feem to be tognata : 
with regard now to the latter compound word 
hattle-dore, Skinn. fuppofes it to be derived a 
Sax. irjico ; Fr. Gall, area, dre ; primarid arbor j 
ftd fecundario quodvis lignur>t,fujlis, kujiipes : — 
thefe Sax. Fr. Gall, and Thcotif. words undoubt- 
edly gave origin to our word tree-, and they 
ttiemfelvcs likcwife are as undoubtedly derived a 
^^\Jt, quercus, vcl qu/evis arbor. 

BAUBLES, EsiQkXicb, funt ornament a feminarum 
cirta junifuras tnanuum: Pollux, lib. V. c. i6, a 
lady's trinkets, bracelets, &c. 

BAWD ; BaJotf, mveuSt^, wf ft,uif(«f, Hcfych. 
(Which laft word by the way ought to have been 
printed with a capital letter A^c^nzf, (ince it is a 
proper name) j a male, or female baiod -, generally 
the latter : there are many deriv. of this word, 
which, as they may afford feme entertainment, I 
Ihall extraft from other authors ; and begin with 
good old Verftegan, who obferves p. ^;^2i ''•'' 
** this name of baud, now giuen in our language 
to fuch as are the makers, or furthcrers of dif- 
honeft matches, was not at the flrll of any il 
Hgnification, and therefore it is the leHe maruel, 
that it is the fumame of a woorlhipfull family in 
England, and of a marquis in Germanic ; and 
albeit the Germans leaue the u, and write it with 
«,- yet found they the a as wee do au, and fo to 
write it as they found it, it is no other then baud; 
the true meaning whereof, both with them and 
in our moderne Eng^jlb, is hathe ; and anciently 
was bade -, where the reader is to note (as els 
where I haue (hewed) that d was of our anceters 
vfcd in compofition as tb : it is alfo written in 
our old Teutonic bai-ftoue, from whence wee de- 
riued basb-ftew, or bathing-Jtewes -, where hence 
wte may perceaue that wee haue taken the names 
both of baud, and of fiewes -, and wee do alfo yet 
vfe the woord Jlewtng, when wee drefle diuers 
things with hot licor, or water: now did many 
of thcfe baud-Jle-wes, or as wee fince haue turned 
thl; name, hot-bow/es, come in length of tysie to 

bee places of fuch dilhonefty, that ihey grew into 
great contempt j the name of Jitucs becoming 
thereby to bee vnderftood for a brotbcl-ko'ivs -, and 
the laud-holder, or batb-holder, to bee accompced 
as the fadtor for incontinent people, and by vul- 
gar corruption and abreuiacion of fpeech (bolder 
bceing omitted} the keeper of fuch a hows came 
to bee called the baud: and whereas before I 
faid that a woorlhipfull family in England was 
furnamed Baud, which, as I haue fliewed, is alt 
one with bathe -, it may be that it took this name 
of fomc office belonging to the batbe, at the tymc 
of the coronation of fome king, when as the 
knights of the ifl/A are wont to bee made, &c.". 
— I have produced this long extrad, both on ac- 
count of the curiofity of its ftilc and orthogra- ' 
phy ( and becaufe Skinner has cenfured it rather 
too feverelyj without giving us a better dcriv, 
in' its room; for, fays he, "baud, a Fr. Gall. 
baude; audax, impudens; nos etian:: lafcivam fe- 
minam a bold woman appellamus : Verftegan 
longe' improbabilius dcfleftit ab Angl. bath, quo 
fenfu lupanaria, balbes and hot-houfes appella- 
mus : Salmaf. Lenones olim Gr. BaAXiuv«f dittos 
alTeri c." — I fcarce know how to add to the length 
of this art. by quoting the following paflage 
from Jun. — " hoc interim bawd, ficuti et bad, 
forte derivatafuntaCambro Britannico Bawddyn, 
homo fordidus, vilis, abjeSlus, nuUius pretHi ^ 
baw,c6:num, lutum, fiercus : fortalTe qucque ^awi/ 
(mutato, quod frequentiflimum eft, / in w,) de- 
rivatum fuit ex bald, calvus ; nam vetus comcedia 
Lenones femper cahos reprefentabat. Pollux, lib. 
IV. c. 16 5 ubi agli de perfonis comicis ; i nop»o- 

Ai>iiUfH^a.Ai«i tfii', n ifvXaoifi)^, Leno labia diftorquet, 
et fupcrcllia contrahit, et recalvafter eft, vel 
calvus :" — after all that has been faid on this 
fubjeit, it is to be lamented ' that the honorable 
profeflion, of which we have been fpeaking, is of 
much greater antiquity than any of the languages 
from which it has here been fuppofcd, by thefc 
gentlemen, to be derived. 

• BAWL aloud i vei a B«X«v(u«», quod Hefych. 
expon, Xa^wfe^wKuiffSai, altd voce tnclamare : vcl 
ut Cafaub. defleftit a Botui, clamo ; to call aloud i 
to bellow like a bull : fee likewife the Sax. Alph. 

BAY, to bark at ; Bm^u, latrare -, to bark, ts 
bay tbe moon. 

BAY color ; BaTov, parvus ramus palma; a finatl 
branch of the palm-tree ; becaufe cf tbe color : 
R. BaTf, the fame. 

BAY, or barbour : " Sax. byje ; Belg. baeye ; 
^nus : vel i Sax. byran ; fieSlere -, to bend, or ho-O) -, 
nihil enim aliud eft finus, quam litoris quadam 
fiexura, et curvatura: Skinn."— then we may won- 

^ ,l,z;dh>GO0gf? 

B E 

From G R K E K, and Latin. 

B E 

der why the Dr. would not derive it from But, 
arcus; an atcb, curvtt or bew. 
- BAY, OTjiop ; to keep a ftag at i«y : if what 
Skinner fays be right, that to hay potcft dcflefti a 
Sax. biban. IKbiban. manere, prafielarii unde Sax. 
iyan, quaG bayan, vel baybanj to fiop, to detain^ 
then it is a wonder the Dr. would not derive it 
from the- feme rooi with BIDE. Gr. 

BDELLIUM, BJfAAiflip, bdellium; a precious Jione. 

BEAD. Clel. Voc. 48, and 156, obferves, 
that "the circlet of the crowns, worn by the ba- 
rons, or judges, had only pearls, or rather Beads 
to adorn them, which were the reprefentativcs in 
miniature of that great bead, or mound, which, 
topped the crown, as well as of that which the 
judge (and now the king) held in one of his 
Kands, and which was undoubtedly the fymbol of 
peace :"— and in his note he obferves, that " bead, 
or bydb, both exprefs the idea of habitation :" 
then there might be no impropriety in deriving 
it i Biolflf, vita, vi^us, facultates 1 the means of 
livtUboodi ike place of refiience, or bidance : fee 

BEADLE J Jun. under the art. bidde, mandare, 
jubert, imperare, tells us, that the Sax. beobani 
Be^. bieden ; forte funt a Biot, vis; unde Bia^ofiai, 
jEol. Bi«J«(**i, cogo; quod fummarum poteftai 
turn imperia quandam cegendt \\m habeanc : and 
both he and Skinn. acknowledge that our word 
beadle is derived from the Sax. bybcl ; which ori- 
ginates 3, beoban, nunttare, jubere, madare ; and 
cOnfequently are all dcfcended i Bi«. 

BEAGLE, "canis venaticus w/nor j forte," fays 
Skinn. "a Fr. Gall, bngler ; mugire ; hi enim valde 
profundos, et fonoros latratiis, inftar mugituum, 
feu beatuum, edunt : poffem amcm hoc Fr. Gall. 
bigles, ct noftrum beagles, non incommode deflec- 
tere ab Ital. piccolo, q. d. cajii piccoli, 1. e. canes 
minores; funt enim refpcftu aliorum canum ve- 
naticorum /larvi ;'*■ — and this latter interpretation 
may be thp more readily adopted, becaufe that 
ingenious, though unliappy man, Eugene Aram, 
has given the true deriv. of this word : " beagles," 
fays he> " are a race of hounds, fo named for 
being /;7f&j and perfeftly agreeable to the pri- 
mary fignification of the Celtic pig, i. e. tittle: 
the Greeks have anticntly ufed this word too, 
and- in the fenfe of little, of which they feem to 
have conftitutcd their nuyftaitf, a dwarf (or 
pygmy:) it ftill fubfifts among the Irilh, and ftill 
in that language conveys the idea oi little; as 
frr pig, a little man ; ban pig, a little woman ; — 
and we ourfelves," continues he, " retain it in the 
provincial word peagles, i. e. eowfiips ; a name 
impofed on them of old from the littlenefs of their 
iowcrs."— ic is very remarkable now, that in 

our langu^ the ytatA pig Ihould be a dimioo- 
tive, and fignify UttU j and the word big Oiould 
lignify large i whatever languafc that latter word 
may be derived from. 

BEAKefabirdllltMu, ^xmm, cads, timdo; to 
and of afi»p \ beat, kiwck, peck at : or clfc 
from nuyni/*!, punro, fpdio, fiimih ; to goad, or 
Jirike with the bill, 

BE^M in the eye: what the dcriv. of this word 
may be, is very difficult to fay } but that it can- 
jnotiignify what is generally meant by the word 
beam, is evident from what Clel. has offered on. 
' this cxpreflion in Voc. 5, where he fays, " I Jhould 
.rather think the Greek writer tranflated the Gaul- 
; ilh word if 'ay, which fignifies equally a beam, and 
an ailmtnt in the eye, une taje en foeil^ into the 
flrfti but his reaibn for it I do not pretend to- 
canvafs :" — but ay, or ailment, is Gr. 

BEAM of the fun: fee BEAM. 

BEAM of timber i " BM^te,;, ara, trabs, ttpuan- 
quiaprifci inlucis facrificabant i" for which Skin- 
!ner quotes Fr. Jun. the father of the great etymol.. 

BEAN i Xlueun^faba j a puis, of the leguminous tribe. ■ 

BEAR, or beaji; B«jeir, 3»<ru, Hefych. villofum^ 
hirtum; fays Junius; but, quod nufquam invenio^ 
fays Skinn. and yet my edition of Hefych. has 
got it : ajbaggy, hairy, rough wild beafl ; " mallem 
igitur,"fay3 the Dr. "fi Gra^us effem, dcclinarc, 
flo JExX. *iif , bear ; pro Ouf , fera j a wild beafi :" ' 
— but this is too indifcriminate j belides, there- 
are many wild beafts, who have fieek, fmoatb fiint,. 
and yet are properly enjir, but not bears. 

BEAR, or bring forth -, from the fame root- 
■with bear, or carry; fignifying ^<r«r< in utero, vel- 
ex utero : and confequcntly Gr. a* in the. fol- 
lowing art. 

BEAR, or carry 1 " *if«, fere, porto j to lifty, 
bear, or carry ; by changing * into S. Upt." 
■ BEAR-BINDERS-iflBf, as Clel. Voc. 135, n. 
obferves, is an abbreviation (and a ftrange dif- 
tortion) of Bar-reich-mynder's lane, i. ^.the lane 
oftheparifii juftice of the (mynd) peace: — all Gr. 

BEARD ; " rifif «etc x-D(«, gena berba, ut Tluyvv, 
quafi VDK yitnK, berba menti; ut«ve T»tta, yaMtRnf, 
fic quoque an-o Ylo^ttxt, di6ta barba^ quafi noftFa^ 
et riaftialti;, n»^tPttttit, bar^atus i BuffSq, xuSict. 
ftfixKwe;, Hefycb. Stephanus Guichartus deducit i 
TlatTwof, infcrto f, quafi n«f«-oc-: eft veto nannroc - 
lanugo, prima barba: VofT." the down en the cheekst 
thefirfi dawnings of manhood: — however, without 
all this difficulty,, our word beard, according to 
Skinn. may be more naturally derived & Barfulur, 
gravitas ; barba enim, prxfertim preiixier, virilis 
gravitatis apudmultas gentes,prafertimapudTKrcaSf 
et Graces, indicium cenfetur, 

BEAST i " B»iff<r«t, Homero SaazfaltuSt et co»- 
^^ vallts z 


Frbftt 6 R t Z K> '«ftd ]L A T I H, 

B E 

vtStSi vnAth^ai ut fit liomen nc loco, ubi' 
, plurjmum agunt : Voff." at Grarcis poftcrioribus, 
ut Codinus, ^que aliis, condna^s he, ffirieefio; 
eft qui Latinis vefiiarius; i. e. qui irhperatoris ^ 
veftej, et pretiofiflima quoque adfervaret-, an oji' 
or, Uke otir groom of tbtfiole; but with regard 
to our prefenc arc. -we muft attend' only to- the 
firmer ecym. to exprefs a -wild creatttre, who in- 
bahits-tbeforefiSf and woods, 

BEAT, ioMg, or l>rttifi i " B«x7f b», Baaiks ; tt 
Jiaff: or from batuOj and that from IloJitirfff*, per- 
cutio: Nug."— or rather from ** Boflfw, vd XlaJitai,. 
hatuo, ferio, palfo ; pedibus percutere ct eoncukare: 
Voff." tojirike, knockt or cuff: alfo to ibrehi or 
ieat quick. 

BEATI-FIC, ».«, heo, hare, heatus i hUcJtd, 
hapfj i nam B««; non rare notat divitias, ac Botta-, 
iu in the following paflage : 

; IlaAaq y*p f i^urxit>, fJu nrt oixi* tavtt. II. 2. 14. 
. BEATING with child i ** breeding, gravid: 
Ray." — had this gentleman but incjuired of any 
the Northern ladies, they would have been able 
to have given him a better definition; they might 
have told him, that beating with child meant their 
being quick with child; as when the child BEATS, 
or leaps in the womb: confequently Gr. 

BEAU \ituMu jucundus, deUcatus \ pretty, 

BEAUTY $ charming, fine: vel S BtM, heo; 
tinde forfitan beUus \ a happy man — perhaps. 

BE-BODE \"gehode, or beode (perhaps be- 
. BE-BODUN S bode) the fame as BIDDEN, 
or comwtanded, Verft ;" — confequently Gr. 

BB-BYRIGED, « buried % Verft." who then 
refers us to byrig -, which he fuppofes to be Sax. 
but we fliall fee under the art. BURY, that 
it is Greek. 

BECK, or rivulet j Xlityn, fans haud dubie ; 
Cafaub./«/«^«, {eMaquaJilieni, rivuhts; a little 
'rivulet, or ftream : or perhaps it nfiay be derived i 
Bfix'** "io> madefacio -, by only omitting the (, 
quali Bi;^w, a beck, or fmall run ef water, that dees 
Sittjufi moifien the place over which it paffes. 

BE-CLYPED, " embraced: Verft." who fup- 
pofes it to be Sax. but it only feems to be ano-. 
thcrdialeft for CLASPED. Gr. — we have many 
other words in our language, beginning with this 
Sax. prepofition BE { as bedeck, bedew, beloved, 
-tec. Sec. &c. which will be more properly found 
imder their rcfpeftive art. unlefs when the pri- 
mitives themfelves arc not in ufe; as in the fol- 
'"lowing words, when compounded. 

-B&^COMING, Ke/*/M{ ct Eorfur, comis,ematttSi 
^mee, curious, delicate, adornei : vel a Mmf, M(7fie;, 
"Hudusi towimodiu ; -cemmediftts, detent. 

7 " Nimis eflem criticus, fi forma- 
DJ rem ab ] 


BED-RID I rem ab Ei<K, /edej, fella, leHus; 
addito fc. Digam. quafl Ftht : Skinn.": — (o very 
cautious is the t)r. of admitting a Greek de'riv. 

hBt> fif'inftice : this exprelTion is a pure bar- 
barifm, into which we have been milled, as 
Glel. Way. 72, very juftly fays, by the French, 
" whofc antient language (the Gaulifii, or Cel- 
tic), being oblirerated, or loft to them, thefcnfc 
of rtiis tfxprcfliort uri lit de Jujiice, among others, 
is n,ow out. of memory i thence that barbarous 
pleonafni, tenir une tit de jujiice (as if the /:/ here 
was derived from leHus -, a bed; inftcad of lei, 
loit. Hi i law i) to hold a law cf jujiice ; or a court 
of jujiice ; i. e. court leet -, not a bed of juftice ; 
unlefs for her taking a nap on tt,'*. 

BEDE *' is a truly Saxon name," fays Verft. 
and obferves, that " it was the name of our firft 
famous Englilh wryter, known now by the name 
of the Venerable Bede : bede, or bead, fignifying 
prayer:" — this interpretation may be very much 
doubted: ^fa^ feems rather to fignify thoft , glo- 
bules, or little round bodies, by which they num- 
bered their prayers, and not the prayers -diem- 
felves : confrqucnily Gr. : fee BEAD. Gr. 

BEDLAM ? "Sic autem nunc nobis Xeno~ 

BEDLEMITE J dochium maniachorum dicitur, 
a Teut.^ betteler, mendicare -, betteler, • mendicus j 
q. d. betteler-bam, vel bettel-ham, i. e. mendicerum 
manjio, feu domus-, U%-xa\^»pHw, the beggar'-s-bome : 
Skinn." — and both the Dr. and Jun. acknowledge 
that the Teut. bettelen orig. from the Belg. hitten, 
or bidden; the Sax. bibban, o'T the Germ. piitan, 
or pieten j and Jun. adds, " libens deduxerim i 
Hvit^xttfJiM, njufio/iEti, vel -nuGo|U«i, peto, rogo, ' ro^ 
gito:" — lb that at firft. Bedlam was only a rtc^- 
tacle for beggars ; but converted now to a much 
better purpofe, a retirement for lunatics, who art 
deprived of all power of taking care of themfelves, 

BEE, Aj3«f, f^ftit vel of«f, volatilia : Hefych, 
inOiBkoi: Anacreonet Theocritus flfK /aMuiI-i jujxf ot : 
this however feems to be only the poetic name 
for o bee, and does not fully anfwer the purpofe 
of an ctymol. and therefore with Ifidorua and 
Virgil, as quoted by Voff. they were called apes^ 
from their hanging together eonneiled by their feet, 
at the time of fwarming ; " quod Mafo ait - 

— — P edi bus connexx pendent : Geo. ly. ajy, 
nam fi connexa coherent, atque (ut Ilidorum di- 
cere audimus) fe pedibus invicem alligant ; quid 
prohibet deducere ab antiquo apio, i. e. neSo, 
lige ? Voff." — it were to be wifticd he had added 
that this bbfolete verb apio, which feems to have 
given place to apto, was very probably derived 
from the Gr. verb AW]w, ntSOijungo; to join, /♦. 
' G a mitt 

Digitized by 


-B E 

From G&EiKjand liATit 


unile tsgJther, in that rtmarkahk manner of the. 
has, as mentioned iri the former part of this art. 

BEECH i *iiyef , Dor. *«y9i, fagus -, hucens ; 
Sax. hece: the beech-tree: " ncc ullo motjo ab- 
furdum eft, cOm omncs liters cognatx fint. 
omnia hxc, prxfertim Sax. bece^ et hoc i et Dan. 
bog ab eodem fagus, ^ya;. Dor. 4«yoc. deBec- 
tere: Skinn." — thus *»ysf, fagus, quad ^a^of, 
uride iig-, ^oc, ^co-t, ^«f ; beech. 

BEEF i Bat, bos, boves j undc beeves, and beef: 
an ex, bull, or cow. 

BEESOM : "Sax. bej-m ; Teut. baejent; Bclg. 
hefem ; fcopa : nefcio an il Lat. verfum, verfare -, 
elifB. propter euphon. afpera canina litera r; et 
V confona in cognatum i mutaca: Skinn."— we 
might rather fuppofe that verfum ought to have 
been deduced from verro, not from verfare : verro, 
according to Voffius, may be derived fromEppvxw, 
verrunca ; unde verro ; nam verrentes avertunt et 
avcrruneant ferdes fcopis : he likcwife mentions 
B(/pw, feu Ti.ffia, quod interdum notal i/f/«, ^wi^ffi 
/* fa>eep, or bruflj away. 

BEESTINGS, " IIwtf-M, cego, coagulot cohf- 
trum, vel colojira^ lac coagulatum :" — this deriva- 
tion of Skinn. itiay perhaps be right ; but the' 
Hiio-irw fignifies co^o, or ceagulo ; yet beefiings are 
very far from being what he has explained them 
hf lac coagulatttm ; for lac coagulatum is pi:opet\y 
either cheefe, or curds ; but heelings are nothing 
more than the jirft thick milk, which is common 
after birth ; net coagulated, and run into curds and 
vihey, which is always done by means of fome 
acid J but fiich milk, as is of a thicker conjijence, 
than the common and ordinary Jart. 

BEET i Bnfiv, beta -, a very agreeable root, both 
of the red and white fpecies i notwithftanding both 
Ainfw. and Nug. and mod of our didionary 
writeES, call it an unfavojtry herb: but in the Arfl 
place,, we may deny that the beet is. tmfavoury j. 
and in the next place, it ought not to be ranked 
among the fpecies of herbs j for it is na more an 
herb- than aft^fn^^ or a carrot i for it is of that 
tiibeof roots. 

BEETLE^ or mallet; perhaps it would be 
more proper to write it beatle, Qnce it ftcms to 
originate from UaTao-^, rr«7(«, qijafi B«1t«, batuo; 
ft beat; malUus,percu£hrium; a large wooden^ hammer. 

BEG, R^ojudti, EgitfTvW) Egw, " ^Utero,quitrens ; uodc 
ger^en, ie-geren, dcjiderare, appettre; q. d. begerer;. 
petitor, rogator ; a petitioner, eatreater t Skinn." — 
only now the Dr. ftiould have traced in up lothe 
Greek,, and down to the Engfifh j— it is- howsvcr 
a better dcriv..than. thai given- by Jun. via. " a 
-BaytMtt) hac iltac vagari, et oberrare.; infi'ar eo~ 
rum, ^ui' Jiipem imendicat'uri dijcurrunt ; nam ita 
S«Y'<^ Suids expooitUTa vAwqltuH.; ct BK^nfot 

Hefychii funt Ei«x(iwi«i :"— thcfe arc great au- 
thorities, and deferveattention. 

BE-GET 1 evidently derived ^ T-mau, r«i«t 

BE-GIN j riMf(«i, Vtytvi^M, gigno ; to heget t 
fee GET, and KINDRED. Gr, 

BE-HALF J "O^of, totus ; the wbohi unde Sax. 
pal; totus, integer i and Of:; ah,de,txi quod fc. 
ex, vel de, vel abs toto decifum, vel -dimidium efi : 
(quafi hdl-ef, half) hinc he-half, q. d. pro me^ 
dimidie, vel . portione ; Teut. meini halb ; meine 
halben, pro mea parte, meo namine: on my account^ 
for my Jake, in my favor. 

BE-HAVE, A^, habeo, gerere fe ; to etary, or 
demean bimfelf. 

BE-HOLD, " to be-huil, OT he-oeild : Cleland 
Way. 84;"— but it is Gr. fee EYE. Gr. 

BEIGHT. Ray fuppofes this word to be tb 
fubftantive, formed from the prieterp. terfc ot 
the verb bend; as bought of bow: ihould this be- 
right, it would then be derived from the Gr. as 
we (hall fee prefently under the art. BEND and 
BOW : in the mean time, let me only obferve- 
from him, that the height of the eibtw iignifiea- 
the bending of the elbow ; and w<^ have a nauticak 
exprcflioD, the height of the anker, meaning the 
curvature, or bending of itsfooks, or arms. 

BEKER, " Bi»B5, vas vinarium ; a wine vejfel'i. 
or cup: Upt." — this deriv. we might very rea- 
dily admit, if Hefych. had not explained Bix«{by- 
STId/xKor wl* «x**) which is rather a pitcher, nrn^ 
jar, or cup, having two bandies; which a beker 
has net ; for, according to our acceptation, a- 
beker is a large glafs, or ^er tap without han- 
dles: however, not being able to trace a better 
ctym. it muft rcll here. 

BE-LAG. Skinner derives this from the Belg.. 
beleggen, vel beladen ; o/terare ; q. d. . luto, vet 
aqua obfefus, feu eneratus:" — leaded, or foaked> 
with viater: and confcqucnily Gr..i fee LADE,- 
LADEN. Gr. '- 

BE-LEAWD, " betrayed: wee yec caH »•- 
noughty pcrfon a leawd fellew,vih\ch by the righc 
fignificatujn of the woord is afmueh to fay as. 
a trvthleffe, or perfidious fellow: Varft." — which. 
' by the right dcriv. of the word-iS'Gc. as may be- 
fccn. under the act. LEWD. Gr. 

BELIVE i " towards night \ by the eve ; thi*- 
mollifying the- into le, or- li, being frequent in. 
the Noctb y as, to la mill, ta the mill:- Kay." — 
this however is. not attempting at a detiv.of ihct 
wh&le compound;, for ie. does am explain the- 
tcrmination VEs or IVE,. which we might, 
fuppofe was Gr. becaufe it is undoubtedly an ab- 
breviation of EVE» or EVENING, Gr.. 

BELL; Ilixos, pelvis,, infcrto digara* ut,.abi 
"Jaii, Jylvai «t a xeos, Uvis : pelvii diciiur, ^ pe- 

Digitized by 


B E 

From G R s £ K, and L a t i h. 

B E 

Jiius lavandit^ quafi ftdthit ; Tel \ pelliutnic ; 
quail felluvu, contraoe fehis ; a firt of vtjfel, 
in mbich tbtj wafited tbt feet j a hafon : — for, be- 
fore the invention of Sells, not only pieces of 
/ounJing ira/s, and hi^onst but flatej of iron aiout 
half an inch thiik, Uke the fellies, or rather the 
Jtreaks of a cart vbeel, fufpemed, loere jangled tO' 
getber: a curious account and reprefcntation of 
wliich may be feeo in Tourncforc's voyage to the 
Levutc, 8vo, vol.' i. p. i£j ; where he has given 
a place of chofe miferable machines^ which are 
made iife of by the monks to this day. For a 
curious inccrpFCtation of a bell, fee the next arc. 

BELLE> EM«, ayoflflf ; or from "Fna^, hnus, 
ienus, kellus, unde Fr. Gall. belU ; pretty^ cbam- 
i>^,M'' velaBwi^Mi toble/s. ThisFr.Gall. 
word belle has unluckily given our countrymen 
an opportunUy of inventing one of the moft non- 
fcnfical hieroglyphics chat has ever yet appeared : 
the French have very properly applied their words 
belle fattvage to a beautiful wild Jfrican voeman; 
and have as properly reprefcntcd her as having 
been found in fome of thofe woods (if ever 
found} : but, when an Engliih painter would 
reprefenc this incident, hedraws us a beautiful black 
woman ftanding near a bell! and to this day there 
is a noted inn, called the bellfavage inn, on Lud* 
gate hill, which formerly bore that ienigmatical 
fign ; but of late the favege has difappearcd ; 
and nothing now remains buc a large gilded bell 
in the yard, to amufc us with that figmferant em- 
blem of beauty ; fuch poor conceits are fit only 
for a book of heraldry, or a new edition of 
Quarlcs's emblems. 

BELLI-GERENT : " nrA(^« fit bellum -, war ; 
hiec eft opinio Angcli Caninii, qui in Helle- 
nilmi alphabeto putac bellum fa^um ex IIoArjuac 
quod etymon fcio (faysVoff.-) ridebunt? indo£li : 
fed cenfuit vir ille do^iOimus, quem et Nunnef. 
ia gramm. fcquituri i BaXi^or fieri hanc vocem 
abje£ta et mutata.; n in*mediam B ; ec abje<fta 
terminatione «T, quomodo ab in-o-ctl J^i ab uVu, 
fub; ab «Tr», ubi; i iruppof, burrus:" — now,, though 
Voff. feems to depart from this etyns. afterwards, 
and to prefer duel/urn to it j yet he acknowledges 
that GtofT. vetc. dtallum, UtXifi-vt, tif^euvt : — 
with regard to the latter part of this compound 
gerent, Voflius has evidently derived it from X«f, 
ab ohliquo ejus Xtfo^-, fadlrnn ger^; ut prbpric 
itt manum. adminiftrare ; fo tliat the whole com- 
pound conftitutes the verb if/i^w*j to makt^ or 
wage wt^ i foyers voho are a8ually engaged in war: 
R. n«Afjui)f, bellum ; war-, and Xf^or unde gera ;. 
t0 carry on. 

BELLOW, Uke an cx; Bcw, B«au, baS ; to lew, 
u tvat lend :. <* veL a UtiXi^tt, bellmvy unde bellua i. 

quia helium genmt inter fe, et pleraque etiam eum 
hominibus : Vofl*." — from whence it is fomething 
remaricable that the Latins did not form a verb,, 
wlien they might fo eaGty have done it, viz. 
belluo ; to exprefs at^ ^ the aSiens erfaj^ns of 
a brute animal. 

BELLOWS, a reduplication of blow with the , 
wind; and confequently originates ^ IIhd, j?i} i to- 
blew a blafi. 

BELLY, Oft^aXat, Ma\. 'Tn^mXes, HM-bili-OKJ ; 
the navel \ fo that our word btlly feems to be 
taken from the middle of che word Htnbilim;; as 
may be obfecved in many other examples : Skin- 
ner derives- our word ielfy from the " Sax. 
bclij, bjehj, bjclje j uter, bulga -," — and there 
is great probability in this deriv. ; but then the 
Dr. has not gone far enough ; for he ought to 
have fliewn that btdga ttfelf was derived a "RoXytt, 
.Sol. pro MsXysf, quod Hefychio tefte eft Be««c 
««tiir, faccus coriactus -, a leather bag, budget, or any 
fiecb capacious wallet. 

BE-LOKED, or "belecud; locked; or fafi-fiutr 
Verft." — then he ought tohave confidcrcd that 
LOCK was Gr. 

BELT, BtiM.u,Jaeio, tircumjieio; vnde batteumf 
and balteus ; a fiudded girdle -, fo called becaufe ir 
is tafi, or bound round the body : but Voflius fup- 
' pofes " balteum re£tius elfc % 'Ba.kailtw, zonam- 
quatenut netat ; qua et lulg^ loco tft j et fmul' 
gladiumfert:"—b\it in his trcatlfe de Permot. lit., 
he gives us- this deriv. " balteum vocabanc «>tfa- 
lum I eerie- bulhtlum -," — if this be die true origin^ 
then we muft trace this word up to us fourc«,> 
if we can, for there Jeemy to be fotne dJfficulty- 
in fixing the true etym. of bulla,, which is de- 
rived either fro.-n " ♦abm, quod t&ftrve0, bullk^ 
ebuUio ; et xWl« ftiU^^Kv bulla aliis- rebus tribu- 
itur,. nam in ofliis bulU appellantur umhetlata: 
clafverum capita, quibus ditierum feres. exernaban~ 
tur:" or perhaps bulla may be only a contraftioin 
oi fibula J by. cutting oflF the firfi fylfable,, and- 
doubling the IL; and then it may be dcrivedi- 
from *if3A», fibula j dicta autem fibula, quia: 
neilit veftium fihrMS\ hoc eft fimbrins., feu extre— 
mitatei: vel quia ^efii infigatur ; ua.m ux. i tere,, 
terihulum; etper (y.nco^p. Jributi4i»;.^c-^figo, ^i- 
bula;. et per fyncop. fihila ; then l^ coniradlioni 
again bula -, unde bulla: onlynow we have gained^ 
another root Lviz. Ilttywrp, /^(^ j to fix, or fajleny. 

BENCH,. J*P«H, abacus, tabula ;.cuivafa im- 
fonunhir i aboard, table, caunttr; alfo a dejk ton 
write at i -whence tbe- Bank' tf Et^land* 

BEND, B(*rt ancuSi an arch', or bcw : or elfc- 
from 4m»«, Omu) unde fando, are-, la bend,, to/ 
bo!V!. (/pfflfl.i— and ytt. Aiufwonh.daivev^WBiiK-f'j 

Digitized by 



fi E 

From -GliiEK, and Latiit. 

B •£ 

hv«d, hentjdotnpando, lre,t\nod fe.faniit i which 
bears quite another ftmfe, and claiitv quite ano- 
ther deriv. as we (hall fee under the art. EX- 
PAND- Gr. 

BENDUN, «iWw: Verft,'*— but as he feems 
19 have intended iands to tie with, it is Gr. 

BENE-DICTION, Exxon, «y4M, hllut, benm; 
«eJ a ¥»*t(, bonus J unde /«»*; and Anxi'u/*!, Jhk»w», 
jn^w, unde dice, diSlus ; benedico, betudiSus i a 
hlejfing, or wiping well. 

BENIGN 7 EAXoy, w>'<»eo», *f//w, *«w : vel 
• BENIGNITY J a F.o«(, bonus -, good. 

BENI-SON> conlraaed from bene, aad foHus ; 
gptd-found^ i, e. ^oo(/ fdme, gecd report i in op- 
fpoHl^on to mallijon : bothGr> 
■ BEOM ; " a tree j wee vfc the name now for 
the tree, when it is iqufled out, calling it a 
beam- of timber, whereby is meant a tree fw buyld- 
ing i for iimbring in our old EngHlh is buylding : 
Verft."— arid if this good, old Saxon had properly 
confidered, he would have found that BEAM 
was Gr. as We have feen under that art. 

BEORG : Vcrflegan allows this word to take 
its deriv. from the fame root v/ith Syrige i that 
is bury : — then confequently it is Gr. 
: BERBERRIES, berteris ; the fruit ef the white 
thorn ; and grows wild in hedges, like hips and 
haws. Skinner writes it " barberies -, and 'tranf>- 
Itttes it exyacantha. Gall. Lat. Barb, berheris credo 
Arab. orig. Androfthcnes autem apud Athenmm 
tradit lO^rram, in quo reperitur margarita ab Indis 
BtfPffi yocatum:" — that there is fuch a word as 
Bc^ift, our lexicons admtt> and that it ligni- 
fies loheba umones tontinens, they, as readily allow ; 
but. that.word ought not to have been introduced 
hfre by the Dr. becaufe it has no connexion with 
the fruit, or berry in queftion : let me however 
obferve, that the fffjier, or rather indeed, thejhell, is 
mentioned by Anacrcon in his 91ft Odci where, 
defcribing a miferable pennjlefs fellow, who hap- 
pened to have the good fortune to marry a 
unealthy young woman, (a cafe not uncommon); 
be draws his picture thus i 

Sfnin ^ Eu^virvXti fiitXm 

Jlf If [to tyin Bif^cgtMf 
£» wen' — ■'■ " 

this evidently ftiews that it can have nothing to 
do vhhtbe ierty; forArtemon it feems, though 
he was fo beggarlya fellow as to havi only a few 
■fiells or trinkets, with tattered ciotbes, and •wooden 
JhKS, yet had he married a wealthy wife. 

BE-REAVE; 'k^-wa^, rapax, rapie; rob,phm- 
■deTifpnl; uodc Sax. bejicjrao ; Teut, ^«r«»^fff. 

■ BERGENA7 Verft. adtno^edgei this -art. to 

BERGUN S bedefcended from *)>«^^ which 
is no more than bury ; and confequently Gr. 

fays Clel. Voc. 135, n, " were a kindof ^or/tty^A/, 
barpens, or eminent /(f<l/j, or benches o{ Jtt/iicei 
ihc Jeats of the parijh juftice. of peace :" — <:onfo- 
quently all Gr. : fee BAR, REICH, MYND, 
and SWYTHS. Gr; 

BERRY, or frmt-, X-mkik, baeea; berry-; any 
fmall fruit ef trees, or fiirubs : though perhaps it 
might be better to derive our word berry, ii ^t^w, 
fero, ferre ; unde " Sax. bepij j Belg. bere^j 
berrie; namftcgenimina vinett appeliantur. Juti."^— 
Clel. Way. 79, derives ■" hehy from- ber-wee i 
atry /mall round fruit :" — but i*r feems to origf- 
nate as above from ^t^-v, fero ; to bear fruit : 
and wee, or ee feems to come from t-x»irvti», mi- 
nor; little, fmall, 

BERRY, •' or tbrejh out j J. e. to beat pttt the 
berry, or grain i hence a berrier, a threjber j and- 
the berrying-fiead, the tbrejhing'jloor : Ray."— and 
confequently will be derived ^om the nmc root 
with the former art. Gr. 

BERYL, Bflfux^sf, beryllus i apreeieusftone. 

BE-SCEAWUD i « ouerlooied, furuiewedi or 
beheld: wee fay, yet fomtymes that OBf looket 
a/ceaw : Verft." — and if he had not looked 
a/ceavj, or a/kew, he might have found that this 
word originated from the !««»;, ebliquus; oblique^ - 
athwart, fquintixg : fee SKEW. Gr. 

BE-SCYLDIGED, " accufed of default, or 
eryme: Verft."-*-who looks on this word asun- 
doubCedly Saxon } whereas ic is nothing more 
than a various diale6l of befcolded, or -chidden \ 
confequently Gr. : fee SCOLD. Gr. 

BE-SEECH, Zffliw, ,quter6, requiro j to entreat, 
require ; to Jupplicate -, olim bejeek j q. d. pofi»* 
lat* J to requefi. 

BEST, " BiXl<f«T, fppmus, Jun." the mofi eX' 
cellent.; mefi eminent. 

BET, or wager: fee A-BETT, oxjupport our 
opinion with a pledge. Gr. 

BETONYj Betmicai an herb, or firuh /> 

BE-TRAY ; A.*Bf*., da, trado j to deliver up 
treacberoufly -, to Surrender- traiteroi^y. Clel. Voc 
1 1 9, fays, " readily granting that our word tret^en 
comes from trabijeny as that from trainr -, tv 
betray ; all that I contend for is, that treafen, or 
betray does not come from trdditio ; but from 
the antienc Gallic or-ay, and with the common 
Celtic/, ('-PT-jijr; thence /raij'r J 

/; prepofitive. Itoray, tray, 

W( tranfgreffive. V trahir, 

tf)-, QX aw, fbe faitht'oe the iaw.] to htray" 

Digitized by Google 

B I 

From Grebr^ and La.tiw. 

B t 

^— but «P feems to be no more than over, beyond ; 
i. e. trattfgreffive ; confcquently derived ab iwi^, 
avert ttiovt, koyend : and ajt, or aw origiaates 
from Aff»,- Vef, Faw, lex, law : both Gr. 

■ BETTER J " BtiOiftSt mtlior, sntliuSy msre 
foed. Upt." 

BE-TWEEN, Atw, duo -, two, twain -, inter 
Jtipt i between two. 

BE.VER, animall*' ^i^tt, fihris, fiber; quod 
BEVER, bat J vocabulumpofterioribusde- 
mum feculis irrepCt ; levicula mutationc behrum, 
tex.fibri yocc corruptum j the cafton R- 6i(3f«, 
^uod inter alia notat melle, Hefych. cnim 0(|3(o» 
interpretatur », rgv^t^tt, xtc^ti, nit*t* : uci 

Si^ffiv, fi\9»9rf*0¥, d^feiliKV, CxtptfKtmi I Si molUtie 
igitur crintum nomen acceperit ; nam ex.,fibro, 
€t lutTie cR: mollior plumd pilus : VoS." the bever; 
fa cailed/hm tbe/oftnefs of ilsfitr. 

HBVER liquor I niMt, biho, biberei to drttA; 

BEVERAGE \ " pcfimeridtanos, ve/pertinef- 
'{(w boHjiHs. in eoUegiit academiconm, tt juri/peri- 
tantmyoczat Angli beversz Jun." — beverage \i\ic- 
'wife is cufiomary money, paid at the putting on a 
mew Juit of. clothes, &c. i. e. giving the maker 
Jometbing to drink : it alfo ngnifics any kind of 
agreeifbU miscture to drink : To that the ex- 
preOion is evidently derived from bibert i be- 
verage. Gr. 

. BEVY J " Ital. beva, perditum ttrnio -, forte qu6d 
fc. fimul bibere folenti ab Ital. bevere-, bibere : 
Skihn." — and confequently would then be derived 
from the fame root with the above ; which how- 
ever feems to be but a vague deriv. fince part- 
ridges eat, as well as drink together ; neither 
would it be eafy to prove how a bevy Ihould 
fignify fpccificallya leafe, ox rather a brate and 
a half of birds, any more than two brace, or a 
wbeit covey : it feems rather to fignify a company 
of any indefinite number i fince Shakefpear.has 
^d-it in that fenfe. 

BE-WRAY, " prodere', tradere ; to bewray 
himfelf, tfi tarbata, veilicanttfque con/cientia fiimu- 
lis prodere feipfum : Jun." — confcquently it bears 
the fame deriv. with BE-TRAY. Gr. 

BEY,. or iff*: if what Clcl. fays, Voc. 84^bc 
right, that **■ thc£ is only aprofthcfis to the- word 
OS or lawi which ty- indtfputably gives origin 
to maius \n the fenfe of judge j" — ftUl the whole 
art. is Gr. as will be more fully fliewn under the 
au. MAY. Gr. 

BEZOAR s Bezoar j a pretieus fione, 

BIAS J '* via ; q. d. viatio ; quia fc. glebi /«- 

foriiviamt curftm, {eu iter dirigit : Skinn." — the 

Dr. is.undoubtedly right with regard to the fig- 

nifieation of this wtml , buc then he ought to 


have conGdered that via ia not an original word, 
but derived ab Om, via -, by giving a direSien to 
tbepaffage of the bowl, 

BIBBER 7 nw, ntcM, rtiira, bibe, bibax, bibaeis ; 

BIBBLEV item " fudarium peffori infantum 
pratentum ; ^ Lat. bibere ; quoniam praterlabentes 
liquores combibit : Skinn." — who feldom goes bo- 
yond the Lat. — given to drink : alfo a napkin,- 
pinned before children to/oak dp the drivelling meif- 
ture, or any liquid that might be fpilled upon their 
clothes. Clel. Way. 63, fays, that " ib, or ibh, 
fignifies drinking: (but ihVoc. 121, this very 
ibh fignifies privation, direction) being the ra- 
dical of bibo ; of ebrius ; of yvre in French j and - 

of our word bibber at fecond hand from bibo ;*.' 

and yet all may be Gr. as above. . 

BIBLE, " Bi^kin, liber ; a book' ; the Scrip- 
ture has been fo called from the general word j 
as if one were to fay THE BOOK, per excel- - 
lentiam. Nug." 

BIBLIO-THECARIAN j -B,^3^»niMbliothe^- 
carius i a librarian: R. Bi^im, liber; a books and - 
enxn, dwctfli', repofitoriam: R. TiS«/ti, ponot toUy ■ 
up, to ftore, to keep. 

BICKERING, nmtw, peSo, earpo; to pick, or- 
peck as a bird; unde pickeer, pickereons; unde bicker, . 
and bickering -, to fignify thofe who ere akeays quar- 
relling, and canteuding. with, themjebaes, and.witb • 

BID bis beads 1 In ^i»m, jttbeo i voce urgssy. 

BID, command^ 'impelb; to order, or commandi 

BID, invite J alfo to invite to an entertain" 
ment .- to pray, to entreat. 

BID for atty thing- ; naiofuu, pete-; to -bid tbt.- 
value; inlerroge; eniciv proprie eft fadta fponfione-: 
petere, vel interrogare an pro pretio oblato liceat : 
auferre j tieitnri : to cheapen any goods j or to offer - 
more money for arvf article at. an auSion. 

BIDANCEJ" Sax. Byan j babitare : .(i fatia- 

BJDE J Grjecus clTem," fays Slcinn. " de- 

flefterem a nawr»-j cejfare, manere, morari z"~- 
to continue, or remain for atry time : this indeed ■ 
is the fenfe of bidancCj and bide ; but n»w is ra- 
ther too diftant in found to have given origin to-- 
thofe two words : Clel. Voc. 48) n,- .tella-us, that 
" bead, or bydb expreifes the idea of habitation :" ' 
and in p. 52, hcfays, that ""habifby, or bai-bode, . 
means the appropriate refidenct. of a head pro- 
felTor of learning :" — then, fince all thefe word* ; 
exprefs living, rtmaining, being, and continuing \t\ -. 
any place for a length of time,- and means o{ fup- 
port, and livelihood-^ there can be no impropriety 
in deriving bidonce, hide, abide, abode, &c. a Bis1«r,;. 
Biof, ct Biiw, viiluSrVitOi vivoi to livty or. abide • 

•" "^f""- BIER., 

Digitized by 


B I 

From G R E s K, and Latin. 

ff I 

BIER, *ffw, firo ; unde feretnm -, JandapUa -, 
a biety to hear, or carry the dead on. 

BI-FARIOUS, *««, ifiy for, fatus ; hifarius j 
that which may htjfoken two ways. 

BIG i perhaps from Uvna, riuxiM;, denfits,/pif- 
fus; thick, bloated, magnijied : vel ^ Bayxta«, quod 
-Hcfych. exponit ftiyxi, woAut, vay^ut, magnus, 
eraffus: Bayioy, quoque idem Gramm. paulo poll 
exponit (Ji-tytv, magnum ; great, huge in Jize. 

BI-GAMY; Aiyo^ioc, fectinda, vm iterata nup- 
tLe i ex -An, bis j twice j et Ta^w, nupti-e. Hc- 
dcric— " a pcrfon's having been twice married : 
Nug." — it means rather a pcrfon's entering a fe- 
cond time into the ftate of matrimony ; which was 
a crime of fo violent a nature, that according to 
the antient ccclefiaftic law, thofe were deprived 
of the benefit of clergy, who entered into a fe- 
cond marriage, even after the death of the firft 
-huJband, orwife: but by the firft of Edward VI. 
thit law was abrogated; and now thofe only are 
guilty of bigamy, or rather indeed of po^gamy, 
who confummatc ajecond, or third marriage, dur- 
ing the life of the nrft hulbandj or wife, 

BILE, XeXn, fel, bilis ; the bileychoier, anger. 

BILti of exchange 7B«XA»r, pro Si(iXK,Tiher, 

BILL of parliament i tibellMS, rejcfta initiali 
firllaba J a written, or printed paper : or perhaps 
from BicXn, cottcilium; a diploma. OeL Voc. ^i, 
fuppofes, that " the Celtic w;'//, or bill, is probably 
the etimon of the Gr. BsAn : and certainly fo of 
the Pope's bull ;"— we might rather fuppofc the 

BILL, or hatchet, \li>.~nw,/ecuris,faht i an ax, 

BILLET, or &««■ Ifrom the fame root 

BILLETI^IAUX J- vtizh^llJL of exchange. 

BILLET for /oldiers] Gr. 

BILLET of wood, Hup, rii^*, pyra j a pile j as 
a funeral pile, raifed of wood. 

BILLIARDS, HdAAa, a-^or^KiK veiKiXuv rnpiKluv 
fl-iTeiTi^»n, a hall, or any round thing to play with. 

BILLOW, 4Xuw, bullie ; to boil, or bubble, to to/s, 
like the wffoes eftbefea. Clel. Way. 7 1, analyfes 
this word thus -, " B is a common entative ; in il 
lies the power of altitude, or idea of height : it is, 
in its various permutations of vowels, radical to 
hill i to coUis i to knell, or ken-all, the tip of a 
hill i to vAfl J to fylva ; to holt, fignifying a wood j 
to building ; to Cybele the guardian of buildings 
(cy, guardian ; bel, buildings) and to innumerable 
other words : low, or Tow, is water ; fo that the 
word fo7-/'tf«> gives the \Aca. of a watery mountain:" 
but ow, or as the French write it eau, is evidently 
derived ab v-Suf, unda, quafi ^»-iu!f, water. 

BIN-ARCHY, Aif, bis, bin! ; two ; et Agxi, 

imperium, binarchta ; 'the fway, or government <f 
two i a double magifiraey. 

BIND, EkJtw, illigo \ to tie I or fafien; though, 
according to Voff. it would be much better tn 
derive our word bind from Utisi*, ve! Utifv, vin- 
cire balteo ; to confine any thing with a BAND, 
OT fillet. Gr. 

BINN, Ko^iMf, corbis; unde dcnominatus eo- 
vinus, maStra, area panaria j a cupbuard, clofet, 
or locker : Verftegan fuppofes it to be Sax. 

BI-NOMINAL, Aif, bis; et Om>/*«, nomen, bi~ 
nominis ; one who has two names. 

BIO-GRAPHY, B*iiyp«pn, biographia ; the writ- 
ing of lives : R. Btof, vita ; life j and Vfafn, ferip~ 
tura I Tfa^, fcribo 1 to write. 

BI-PEDAL, Uxi, vtSpt, pes, pedis, bipes, bipe- 
dalis ; an animal having two feet. 

BIRCH >" Dalccampius in notis Theophrafti 

BIHK S Iiift<3riam una cum animadverfioni- 
bus Julii Scaligeri, fufpicatur betulam, quafi batU' 
lam i battttndo diet, quia ejus viminibus pueri 
CKdantur : Voff." — fliould this be true, it is un- 
doubtedly of Greek estradtinn ; fince batuo ori- 
ginates ^ B«l«», et nolMT, " pedibus percutere, con- 
culcare : If. Voff." — the ufe of this is too well, 
known to need defcription, only in that ever me- 
morable line of Virgil ; 

Infandum, regina, jubes renovare dolorem, 
^n. ii. 

BIRD, "ltlt(<», voluaris, apud Homerum ; unde 
bird, elidendo r, ut in Kltftu, pema : Cafaub."— 
Skinner fuppofes it to be derived from the Sax. 
bijib, et bjubbe j pullus avis ; k bpeban j fovere\ 
to breed, or brood by hatching. 

BIRTH, Sax. beoriK, a n»f*^, pater, patro, 
partus; quafi bartb, birthi to bring forth young: 
Verftegan -fuppofes it to be Sax. and writes it 
birt, beorth, and gebirt : or clfe from *(f«, fert^ 
to bear, or bring forth : hence BORN. Gr. 

BIS-CUIT Ithe firft of thefe orthographies 

BIS-KET ^ ought to be preferred; bccaufe 

BIS-QUETJ bifcuit Teems to be derived from 
Aic-xuxiu, bis coquo, bis-coSus ; twiee-baked ; fo 
crifp, as to appear twice dreffed in the oven. 

BI-SHOP 7EwMrxoirot, tpifcopus, infpeBor 

BI-SHOP-RIC$ eccUfia-, a chief dignitarj in 
the church ; an overfeer of the clergy ; R. Sxeiriw, 
video ; to fee, or obferve : our word bifiop ieems 
to have been formed by a contraction both of 
the beginning and ending of Evmovet, thus, 
i-niXKOn-ef, or in the fame- manner from the 
Latin epi/copus, thus, f-PISCOP-wj BISHOP. 
— With regard to the termination RIC, in the 
word bifi^opnc, it is only an abreviation of reg- 
num; a kingdom, a province, juriCdiSioni and con- 

Digitized by 


B I 

From Gk£bk> and Latiit. 

B L 

fequently Gr. though Verftegan looks upon ric, 
or rye to be intirely Sax. Clel. Way. 15, derives 
HJbopftamb'ey'S'gp; the prefident ef relipon : but 
in his Voc. 15, he obfervcs* that " the divine fer- 
vice was called mifs -, whence the Romanics 
. adopted their word mijfa; a mijfal; it is univocal 
to ma/ty and mejfe : now, as the b and m, were 
unqueftionably convertible of old, I vehemently 
fufpc& that the prefidcnt of thofe fpiritual func- 
tions was ftiled the bif-bef, or mif-beff, the bif- 
hep, or head of the mafs : which was enough to 
fumifli the handle for that Celt-Helienifm, E-»»f- 
x»w-<t i" — but ftill this gentleman has not got rid 
p( the Gr. for both MASS, and HOFF, are Or. 

BISON, commonly written ^f^»} but derived 
from Bto-M», bi/en, feri bovis genus -, a fpeeles of 
wild bull. 

BI-SPEL i " Sax. Big^-pel, et Bifpel j partf- 
iola, prcverbium ivfed to ugnify«w toho is known 
to be fo great a rogucy that he is become a proverb : 
Ray." — but this gentleman ought to have confi- 
dered, that /pel is very probably Gr. as will be 
fliewn under the art. GO-SPEL. Gr. 

BIS-SEXTILE, E£, fix, fextilis, bifextiUs ; 
intercalaris quarto quoque anno dies : the Jixtb of 
the kalends of Martb, or the twenty-fourth of 
February, vobtcb was reckoned twice every fourth 
yearjin order to regulate the computation of 
time i from which intercalation, ot inferting this 
day twice in that year, this word took its origin, 
and that day, and even that year, on account of 
having this inferted day, was called bi/scxtilis. 

BIST, or '* bee-iji j as thow bift, for tbow arte : 
Verft." — but ifi feems to originate from Ei/*<, «ij, 
unde ifi; es; thou art. 

BIT of a bridle 1 Bi«1oc, viiius ; food to be eaten, 

BIT, OT part > bitten, at chewed; airf thine 

BITE J put into the mouth to Fe 


* BITCH, " Btpta, Gall, ^wi^quod cervam fig- 
nificat. Anglis autcm canem feemininam : Cafaub." 
—-a female dog : or elfe It may be Saxon. 

BITTER, " Ilixfsf, by changing w into|3, apud 
Macedoncs BiKfot, pro n»Kfef, amarus, acerbus ; 
Upt." — hrackifb, harfh, and rough. 

BITTERN, " Belg. bir/teur j vulgo bojiaurus 
dicitur, ob immanem quem edit mugitum : Jun." — 
this common appellation might lead us to ima- 
gine that bittern is but a variation of Biiir-r«ufo{ : 
if we tranflate the Latin namc'for this bird buieo, 
it muft be ranked under the art. BUTTAL. 

BITUMEN, nilr*, n.lTos), n.lT«/»«, Htumen i 
fat clay, or Jlime, like pitch, that was ufed by the 
Babylonians ivftead ef lime, or mortar : it was al- 
fo ufed for oil in tkeir lamps. 

BIZEND, or rather bifind-t Skinner writes it 

beefen, or bezen, or bifon j from by, fignifying 
befides; and the Dutch word _^», fignifying /flf/^j 
q. d. **fenfu omnium nobiliffimo erbatus : Ray."-—' 
both thefe gentlemen fliould have gone a little 
farther, and traced the Lat. word fenfus, as will 
be done under the art. SENSE. Gr. 

BLAB, BAce)3u(i«, Hcfych. KxmoXeyti*, temera- 
ria loquacitis ; rafi, incenfiderate talking, that 
difcevers what it meant to conceal. 

BLABBER-^>/, " A«ju^«w, A«^«», labium, 
vel labium, its enim tibum apprehendimus : Vofl*." 
" labio, labiofus omnino utcarum partium magni- 
tudincm notant j vtfronto, eapito, &c. Skinn."— 
a perfen who has targe, tUimfy, thick lips. 

BLACK, BA«yif, Laconibus, Hefychio tefte, 
K&. KtiXif, macula i a fpot, or fiain : hence to blake 
herrings, to make them red, or dark with fmoke : 
Cafaubon fays, black and blue Is derived a riAvf, 
vel ntWios, offer, fufcus ; black : idem TliXtt, fub- 
niger, lividus ; unde feu Gallicum, feu Angli- 
cum blue fluxit: Angli intcrdum conjungunt, ut 
cum dc fuggillato aiunt black and blue. 

BLADDER, n»w, p, fiatus, quafi blatus, 
bloated ; vejita emm facile infialur, feu inflando 
tumefcit : — ^perhaps this latter idea might fug- 
gefl another etym. viz. bladder, and bloated i 
Bxuntv, crefco j to inereafi, otfmtll by inflation, or 
blowing up with wind, or air. 

BLADE of grafs T m«7uf, latus ; bread ; 

BLADE of a knife l the breadth of ewy 

BLADE of the fbeulderf thing: but Cafaub. 

BLADF. of a fword j is of opinion that ri« 
blade of a fwerd takes a different origin, viz. 
non dubium fit, quin ri blade of a fword (it ex 
O^iXk: — 0^tX«r undoubtedly fignifies the blade 
of a fwerd; but then it feems to regard the 
length more than the breadth, from its reJembUng 
a fpit ; but it would not be eafy to find how 
0|3iAer, can give origin to blade, if blade is ap- 
plicable to breadth. 

BLAIN, Ilru, flow; blow, blown, blain; unde 
Sax. blejen ; Belg. bleyne ; puftula : vel ^ BAwrxw, 
trefco, tumefco ; eft enim, cutis quafi Germen, 
tumor, et injlatio j a Jwelling, rifing puftule. 

Bi-,AKE^berrings ; to fmoke, or dry them j fee 
BLACK. Gr. " hinc cognomen apud noftrates 
frequcns Blakelock ; vox ejufdem fere valoris cum 
nobili Fairfaxiorum cegnomine: vidcturefie variatio 
duntaxat dialefti pro black : Ray." — not that we 
are to fuppofe this gentleman meant that Hack, 
or Blake-lock was a tranflation of Fairfax, but only 
tantamount to it. 

BLAME, " BA«irIw, p. pafT Bt^xxi^xi, noceo, 
Udo ; to hurt, to offend: — or by contraft. from 
blafpheme, ^\»«^fyif»Hv. Nug," 

BLAND, BM^, «xb;, blandus, mollis; vel potius k 


B U 

From Greek, and Latiit. 

B L 

nkktttt planusy fw imp^erjgnatut: Voff." vcl a 
4>X)ttfi», ^Kxtjir, quafi BA«J^V} bland; nugari; fe trifie 
toftb, ttflattir: \i\<M^ iUndus ^ nildj gatle, cour- 
teeus : though Ckl. Voc. 85, obferves,tKat " no- 
thing was more common than the enallagcof the 
iy and m ; inftead of mtUdris, the Latins wrote 
beliari* ; for canimus they fometimes wrote cani- 
itts i and hland«s contraftedly from malandus } 
mal, or ffw/, a M(iA«>»c mitit ; fofty and gentU." 

BLANK, afionijbed ICafaub. wouldderireit 

BLANK> veidf nullity > from " A^«xiic> m«;«j, 

BLANK* w£i/f 3 tacitumus ; non babea 

quid dicam; plane ut Angli, be was vtrj bUnk:" 
there is however another dcriv. viz. blani, aBA*^, 
fictrt, JitpiHki, perculfiUt et/ubit^ ret novitate'de- 
jhtust atfui txpallefcais ; afieni/hedt firuck mute 
with emaziment ; turning pale voitb fear ; hceme 
OS nothing: Milton has uTed the word blank in all 
theJe different fctifcs, but has given us two dif-^ 
ferent orthographiesx ai if he meant to derive 
them from different roots : for in his Paradile 
LolV, Book ix. V. 890, he fays, 

. Adam, foon as he heard 

The fatal trefpafs done by Evei ama2ed> 
Aftonicd flood, and blank. 
but in Book X. v. 6^6^ he fays, 

■ ' to the blanc moon. 

Her office they prelcribed to the ^ail' moon r 

aAd in the third bbok> v. 4S> he laments his lofs 
of fi^ht> and fays> 
■^ " ; — from the chearftd ways of men 

Cut off", and for the book of Jcnowledge fair 

Prefcnted with a univetfal blank 

Of nature's- works, tome expung'd andra&'d : 
and yet in all thefe three fcnfes it may orig. from 
the fame root> whether it be from EV^«£, or from 
BAB^fofj debilis j " quod, ut plurimum, pallor 
Joleat e£e infirmitatis. indicium: Jun." we likewife 
lay tarte blanche; a blanks, or labite paper, un- 
written on i and // was a blank, a void, a nullity ; 
all befpe^ingyafyn'z^, ind paUne/s, its eonfequtnt, 

BLANKET 1 from the fame root : lodix lanea; feu 
firagula : Fr. Gall, blanchet zitai. bianchetta,panuuj 
albiduj ; according to the fccond fenfe of the word 
BLANK : Gr. though this deriv. might be more 
properly applied /« the Jbett, than to ebe blanket. 

BLARE, BAo5t*"'> pro BAix*"'. balarti to bleat y 
to bray ; to make a loud blaring neije. 

BLAS-PHEME, BAM-^n^uA, i. e. "Sktivlif-fnfimtt 
ladere-famam ; vcl a f <if*i, dico ; to /peak evil of 
a^ ent ; to injure bisfame^ or reputation. 

BLAST, or hurt; BxWIw, Udo ; to hurt, or 
infeii : vel ex Af3Adipi<, infacundus, tun germt' 
uans } not fruitful, not fpreuting : Caf. 

BLAST */ wind ; Bclg. btafin j hltwn .' R. 
H»Uj ptfiatus i quafi,^aj, blajlus ; bla^ 

BLATERATION, "B>«Iw, pro Ba»1w, quod eff 
JaSum^ feu proje3um, Anrt n BkAAmv : vel cum Fefto 
denvemus i Bfi>£, q;uomodo proprie vocatur 
pifcis inutilis ; quemadmodum Hefych. et etymol. 
docent, ac Erotianus confirmat, qui ab hoc pifce 
BAawvcn venire putat ; et per metaph. notat Bx«f>. 
Jimplicem, ftt^idum, fatuum: Voff." — hinc blatere. 
when ufed to pratty to prattle, to talk in a vague 
and wild manner : it alfo figniSes to bleats te bray, 

BLAZE . 7 " «akw, 9ko(uj quafi Bao^a^ 

BLAZING Jlar J ferveo i quod ut proprie it- 
a^ui •maUnter erumpeTtie, atqtu ebullient* ufurpa-- 
tur ; ita quoque transfertur ad tgnem j nam in 
omnibus fere linguis comptuncs loquendi modi, 
ob fimilitudincm, ab aqua, transfcruntur ad ignemi- 
Latinis certe incendium d'lckur diffundi ; et Vii^, 
Geo. I. i,-}i. Mtnam undantem dixie : Jun." te iur» 
with violence, 

BLAZE abroad, does not originate from the 
fame root with the foregoing art. but, as Lye, 
in his Addenda very jiJRftly obferves, " eft aU- 
Iceland. bla/a, i«f«aar*.-"— to-which Jetme add, 
unde Belg. blafen ; bla_fi ef wind ; as when a 
truTupet, or horn is blown : but then we ought not 
to ftop here i for neither of thofe words are the 
original; they both are defceoded i Ylvu,fit>; fia- 
tui, quafi blafusi unde blafa^ blafen-, blaze, blafi. 

BLAZON i from the foregoing root : Giv 
" unde Sax. blacf e, qua: feoindario fenfu manifefia- 
tionem, feu declaratianem fignac: quid enim aiiud ejl 
blafonner, quam fcutum gentilitium tennints arti»' 
fxcialium propriis exprimere, et indigitare t 
Skinn."— /0 explain a ctat of anus. 

BLEACH3 " vel i Ba«£,/m«-j, pallidus ; vel I 
BLEAK J BXJixg«. debilis j quod ut pluri- 
mum palUr foleac effe it^rmitatis indicium ; wan. 

pak, and white : Jun."— let, the caufe be what- 
ever it may. 

BLEAR-^<^ .• rtwo, ^ i blown ; unde blain j 
bleated, unde blotch,, blear. 

BLEAT, at a fiteep % « BAj|^«<rf«., or Ba>x«"S 
Dor. ^>.ay«i, from whence the Latins have bor- 
rowed batare:- Nug." — nifi forte a BhA*, .^I. pro- 
MdAa, oves ; ii B«^«, bale ; to bleat as a fbeep i 
Cxfar Scaliger, and VoQius. 

BLEED, Bxv^Uf/caturia, ebullio; tojprit^,ov 
gujh out. 

* BLEIT, or BLATE, " bajbful; ateompurji^ 
makes a bleit merchant ; an empty purfe makes a 
fbanu-faced mcr chant i or in other words, a poor mam 
makes but a piteous figure in afullmarket; fortafle 
& bleak^ or blank : Ray." — but theu it would be 

BLEMISH, BaWIw, l^do, neceo ; to hurt, or tn/ure. 

BLIGHT, BAwlw, Udo, nocee -, to hurt, or blafi: 
or elfe frorh B;iRl«r, «r««Aiix1atj ^dtratusi ftar- 

Ditiitized by 

B L 

From Gkeix, and Latiit. 

B O 

firuck: Ca&ub. — the root then is nxnvvu, per- 
eutio; t« ftrike, or keat. 

BLIND) BAam;, Hefych. cxponit Tu^uahf, Up- 
pas, Cfcus i dim-figbtei, or vfiia o/Jight : Caiaub. 
derives it from chc following art. 

BLlNfC-^^^i Aju/itunw, aftjvl figni6catione 
poftcrioribus Grxcis notum eft bebetare, facere 
ut aliquis CMutiat » to hood-wink, to blindfoid. 

BLISS» *' 'HAt£, iiAtxis, quod generatim atatim 
notac 1 ftrifte autem ponitur pro mtatt fiortnte : 
qua ratione feHx, et felicitas, propne fit, qui 
vegettt ejt tttaliSf corpore animoque valens : juvat 
opinionem (ranc, quod Fhiynico, Folluce tefte, 
JMveniiu .etatii femitia, MfiifiiXtl vocatar I quodque 
E^iKil dicztur Ef tt^ : erit autem ab 'KXti, felix ; 
fpiritu in F convcrfo : Voff." or clfc iU/s may be 
derived ^ A«d«f, quad BXMfsf , incolmms i et /mTm- 
^i:r7ixKft, bilariSt latus ; Voff." merry, and joyful. 

BLISTER, BX«<rx«, trefco, tumfm ell enim 
eutis qut^ gtrmtn, tumor, et infiatioi a fgoeUingy 
rifing fufiute. 

BLITHE, Aatlef, quafi BA«JI«r, Utus, bilaris ; 
jvjfuU and merry s Verftegao fuppofei it Saxon. 

•BLOCK y* Sax. \B//arM»j eiaudere : 

•BLOCKADE! Skinn."— confequently ap- 

• BLOCK-bedd ? pears to come from the fame 
•BLOCK-Wm ™ot with LOCK. Gr.: or 

• BLOCK-ap J elfc it muft be referred to 
die Sax. Alph. 

BLOOD. Verft^an fuppofcs it Saxon i but 
it is undonbcedly derired i iXv{ti,fcMtitriay thullie-, 
to faring, OTguJbmtt: with regard to the fecond 
word, **idem fignificat," fays Skinn. " quod black 
fuddif^Si q. A.fareimtnafanguinta, admifid ta^ind:" 
— — fat bleck puddings, proper food 
For warriours chat delight in blood. 

Hud. p. I. canto I. 31$. 
Upton has derived our word blood from S(il»f, 
truer; B^aTsMt, erueMtus ; bloody, by changing f 
toco l', andf intOi/. 

BLOOM, «x«f , quafi Ba«?, Jlot, fiamma ; et 
fiet, a fiovoer, quia emjcat ut fiamma : a bttd or 
bioffom, tehieb gena-aify at jfr/f appears red, and 
glowing, Ukefire. 

BLOSSOM, *Aog,/wi quafi ^opm, bloffom : 
tho' Cafaub. and Upt. derive it rather from 
Ba^»f»i/*«» germen, qu6d germinando prodiit i R. 
BAxrofWi Bxatm-h, to bkffam, to blow : A^A«nir, non 
germnatusi Uafied, bUgbttd: Skinner has derived 
bloom, and bloffom, d. BXu^m, ftaturio, pulluloi — 
but tbde are two difierent ideas 1 we ought ra- 
ther to derive our word bloffom, I BAwmu, erefeo, 
tum^co ; to |r»w, JwtU, <xtfiorifi>, 

BLOT, BA*yi(, Laconibus, HefycWo tdlc, eft 
KqAif, macula i a fpot, orfiain. 

iiioyfjWjhoiei **B«w«, Bm?Am,Jacert,fmre, 

vulnerare: Cafaub."— though we might rather pre- 
fer " BAiM> (SAhf^i. pXnlfK, BXTiyta, ilius, plaga -, a 
J^oitt or firipe: Upt." vel 3. *a«w, 9>m, pra 

BLOW as the wind: ITw, fio, fiare; to give a 
blaji : tundo j to beat, of knock violently. 

BLUE, " n«xo(, vel ritXXof, fubniger, Uvidus : 
CiXaxAi," bordering on black; and we fometimcs 
fay> black and blue : Skinn. under the art. blew, 
(as he fpells it) fuppofes it to be derived from 
Jlavus I — but Voflius tells us, that/dvw color efi, 
qui efi in fpicis maturis ; and we often hear them 
callcid tbe yellow ears of torn ; which are far 
enough from being blue: there is however an 
exprefiion in our lang. which Skinn. by the affif- 
tancc of his friend Th. Hcnfhaw, will help us 
to explain, vix. as blue as a razeur ; i. e. inquit, 
blew as aziire -, or in other words, blue as azure, 
which is itfelf a bright blue Jky-colour. 

BLUNDER, mftake; BXag, BAoweif, Jiupidus, 
fatttus: Skinner fuppofes " blunder comes from the 
Belg. Tcut. and Sax. words, derived from bla- 
tero :" but that word, as "far as it can be traced, 
fignifics only thitknefs of fpeeeb j which is a defeft" 
in nature, not a blunder, or mi/take of the pirfon j 
beSdes, a man may eemmit a tboufand blunders a 
tboufand Afferent ways, witbout /peaking -a word. 

BLUNDER-BUS, or larger gum this word is 
half Greek, half Saxon : the former part is de- 
rived i T»»iii, tono, tonitru ; unde Bag. dendor ; 
thunder i blunder; and the latter part ^«j, or ra- 
ther bi^fe, is Sax. : pro fifiula canalis j tubuS' 
tonans ; the thundering-tube j meaning tbe largef 
kind of firelock. 

BLUNT, Ait.^XMt, Ajt^wu, oblundo, ebtufut ; 
obtufe, bruijed. 

BLUR, Am>, lavo, abluere ; to wajb awtrf, wafi 
out, blot out. 

BLURT, BxW3ufw(, Hefych. «oMuoXeyi«, teme- 
r'aria lofuacitas j rajb, inconfidtratt peaking -, to 
blab out ajtcret unawares. 

BLUSH, " B\v^v, /caiurio ; quia propter pti- 
dorem, feu verecundiam fanguis in faciem, inftar 
fontis falientis./ca/nW/ .• Skinn." becaufe rfirough 
modefty or ihamefacednefs the blood ftarts, like 
a fountain, into the face. 

BLUSTER, BX9(n;f«, torvus, irueulentus i fierce 
and terrible in afpeSt. 

BOAK; BhTK^f, B««xt(, it B«^v, Bemi, dame, vetoi 
unde Bh0, vex \ 4b« voice } meaning, tfny loud neifit 
in tbe throat. 

BOAR, Kwi-ftff, ap«r\ a boar, or brawn ; a 
large hog, tame, er wild: vel ab A^fof, aper, 
/puma; quonitm apris h-ritatis 

Ferviia, cum rauce latos JMdere per armes, 
Spuma fiuit. .Ov. Metam. VHL 287._ 

H t 


From Greek, and L A 1 1 k. 

B O 

BOARD 7 If what Jun.fays be right, 

BOARDING-ycifffl/ J that hard, afer, tabula 
feSilii is formed only by a tranfpofition liccne S, 
from bread, latm -, the deriv. would be evidently Gr. 
. BOAST, Bomw, damo, undc Bur^iu, damoredico; 
to brag, or magnify aleud, del. Way. 47, fays, 
that " w for praife, was retained in Latin, in 
Ihe purcft ages of Latinity : Perfius employs it 
in that fenlc ; es populi meruife : the French, in 
the old language, by prefixing the /, or ie, made 
I'oj, frai/e ; and latis is formed on the fame prin- 
ciple : OS likewifc is radical to our word hoafi." — 
let the fenfe of any word be whatever it may, the 
derivation is all that we are concerned for -, and 
Voir, tells us, that es, oris, originates ab 0«-(r«, 
VOX; voice, fame, fraifi. 

. BOAT, K.fSiJT.f, area, cifia; an ark, or cbefi; 
fo called /rem its fhape : the perjen xobo has the 
eare of the boat is the boat-fwain. 

BOB, oTfob off; 9ti^o{, punts, impollutus-, pre- 
tending to the truth j to put one off with a fib : or 
fife it may be derived from n»^a^ahn. fabula ; a 
fib, a mere fiery, afiSitisus tale. 

DOB-tail ; " Bt)(3of-flai;X(Di, canis caudd decur- 
tatus i ex Bwpof, irtifor, tnancus, mutilus j et ^xvht», 
«f«, xtexot, Cauda: Jun." a fiiort-tailed cur i a 
dog who/e tail has been cut. 

BOBBIN, «B*^ug, wr«M; afilk-worm: Fr. 
Gall, hobine, calamus rota netilis, glomus aurei, 
veljerici fill ; k Bcii(iv^, bombyx i q. d. bombycina : 
Skinn." a ^uill, or reed, on which is wound a bot- 
tom of filk, or jam. 

. BOGASi " wee now wryte it bougbes of trees: 
Verft." who fgpperfes it to be Sax. but BOUGH, 
is Gr. 

BOGGLE-BOE, " dici poteft, quafi BaxaXci, 
bueulus, bubulcusi and B«aM, damo, beao; i.e. 
hes-heans: Skinn." though he has given neither 
of the Gr. words : " Belg. autem, continues he, 
hull-man, tL hulle, bolle, faurus -, et man : q. d. 
monfirum ex tauro, et bomine compofitum, T«uf- 
M^^itTti : voce fonora et tcrribili, qua nutrices, 
ut et fabulis de monftris invafuris et dcvoraturis 
infantes territant :"— ^^^r«, demons, goblins, and 
fuch like geer, with which nurfes frighten young 
children J and many people are terrified with 
them from the cradle to the gravej.for the fright- 
ful ftories of Jpirits and witches, which are learnt 
in the nurfcry, make fuch an impreffion on their 
minds, that they have, been unable to fiiake 
them ofF, even to the latcfl: hour of their lives j 
though they certainly arc nothing more than 
the phantoms of imagination, and the fantaftic 
creation of deluded fancy; and what proves them 
to be fo is, that we have none of thofe gpntry 
now a days i except in poetry. 

BOIL, or bubble ; " *Xuu, bullio ; to bubble : R. 
^Atu, abundo : others derive it from volvo ; which 
may come from EiAm, verfo ; by changing the 
rough breathing into v confonant ; as is ufualljr 
praftifed : Nug." 

BOIL, or/ore; " Bab, bulla; quia infiar bullae 
protuberat: vel quia fit tx ebuUitione, {eu effer- 
vefcentid /anguinis : Skinn." — but according t» 
this latter fuppofition, ic would originate cither 
from $xiiu, or EiAtd, as in the foregoing art. we 
might therefore rather prefer Bax«. 

BOISTEROUS, " Bwffiu, clamo, aliquem vo- 
ciferando, et manibus palpando, qu^ro : Cafaub." — 
this docs not exaftly anfwer our idea of the word 
beifterous, which indeed he has properly explained' 
de tumultuante, et inconditum damante : — it feems 
rather to be a different dialeft of BA«(ruf»f, boif- 
tereus, and blufiertng. 

BOKE at any one -, " to point at .arrf one-, i. e* 
to POKE at aipf one : Ray." or tbruft out the fin- 
ger at any one : — confequently Gr. 

BOLD, " n«f«p«xjL»p«i, pericUtor ; prsdpitty 
projeitdque audacid di/crimen adeo : n<tpa^oXti, au- 
dax, temerarius ; nx^x^Xtn t^yw, audax fadnus :•. 
hinc Angli contrafle, hold; brave: Cafaub."* 

BOLSTER, " AeyBM, pro quo jEoI. PuXyiFsr, 
pulpitum: If. Voff." — but what connexion either 
AoyHo*, or pu/pitum, can. have with pulvinar, or 
bolfter, would not be fo eafy to difcover:— it 
might be more natural, as. Skinner thinks, " to de- 
rive it from the Sax. bolj-reji ; Teut-^o^wj eer*- 
vical, culcita: nefclo an a Belg. poluwe, palwe.i 
fter eft cnim tantum xAjftyw)'ii, feu produftio vo- 
cabuli: peluwe autem et pulwe(zui manifefta:!. 
Lat. pulvinar :"-~(\ich. an acknowledgement is. 
indeed ingenuous enough ,-. bttt then her flibuld- 
not have ftopc there; he ought to have traced ic 
with Gcr. Voff. thus ipuhinar quafi pluminar; et- 
pulvinus quafi pluminus, k plumii, quibus farci- 
tur, Clel. Way. 72, would derive " balfier,fToak . 
poll-ftegher, or poll-ftayer ; that isJ>ead-rfupporter, 
or head'propper :" — hut poll, or pole cf the^ head,^. 
is evidently Gr. znd.fiegber., or ftayer, is as evir 
dently Gr. likewife. 

BOLT,, or flrr«o?" B.i\it, Jaculum ; a dart:- 

BOLT, or bar 5 proverb,. «/oe/V bolt isjoon 
Jbot! hence the bolt of a door,, from its likene(s:- 
or bolt may come from Sm>j.u,jacioi to^burl, cafi^, 
or throw -, Eti|3ah;, obex,- peffulus ; ab £m|3aAAH, 
adjido: Upt." — though when, it fignifies a bary 
it might more properly be derived. ab E^eAw, or' 
EfipiAoy, paxillus, obex ; a poft, or bar* 

hO'L.T-dBwn bacon 7 AtiAAw, pelh j quafi- belht . 

BOLT out I areeo j to drive, or thrufi 

down : alfo to force out. 

BOLTlNG-ffii//: Skinner has deriTcd this, 

B O 

From Greek, and L Art tt. 

B O 

word " i Belg. bttfdelen ; Teut. heutelm : hoc 
autem beutel primario marfupiuvt notat ; et nuUus 
dubito quin ortum fit 4 tiidulis :" and there he 
has ftopt ; for which we are not obliged to him j 
if he could not have gone any farther, it were 
pardonable; if he could, and would not, it were 
jnexcufable: " vidtdus, as well as marfufnum, 
0gnifies a pur/e : Martinio placet fic dici, quia 
trehTi vidtatur : vcl a via, et do f five ab antiquo 
duo ; quia in vidulo recondatur petunia, qu<e ob 
mam dalur peregrinaturis .'"—this dtriv. weak as 
it is, is better than making no attempt at all : — 
bowever it is more natural to fuppofe with If. 
Voir, that vidulus is defcended from V\h\ou which 
Hefych. explains bjr Ai^i^a, feUis,. exuvtum : 
OwAAae IldeAn, Jaccus coriactus', a leatber-bag ; and 
in this place ufed to fignify aityfack, or bag, made 
ef any fubftancet that wiU admit fnejeur to be 
Jfted thro' it, 

BOLUS,. BmAaf, bolus, gleba ; a ckdi or lumpi 
BOMB lBaf*^«, bombus i ftrepitus qui- 

BOMBASX > vijj any loud notfe.-.. alia i) 
BOMBL£-^« J vain, empty boafter. 
BQMBYZINE, B«W3''e» vtrmis;, aftlk-wi/rm. 
BOMKINi Bw^«c. trabi; a beam-, lignum; colo- 
nus infubidus, et ineptus ; ftultu* autem ctiam Lati- 
axsjjtipti, et lignum diciiur ; a country hleckbead: 
*^ Belg. boemken, arbu/cula; illis. cnim- keif, et 
nobis kin, minuit i 5kinn."^>y the Dp's. having 
left out the Gr. word Buftof, it .plainly fhsws, that 
- he undcrJiood every thing relating to this, word, 
except its derivation. Budcr haa very happily 
perpetuated this. word, in our language'^ 
But now we talk of mounting fteed. 
Before wc farther do proceed. 
It doth behoove us to- fay fomeihing 
Of that which. bo(e our valiant bumkiji. 

parti, canto I. v. 41 9. 
BON-jSrf : being derived from bonus j and^«; 
we ll^all fee that both.thofc words arc Greek; and 
here ufed to IJgniry a large fire, made on rejoic- 
ing nigbtsi 

BON-mSt i any Frenchman, or Frenchified 
Englilhmap,. would naturally attribute this ex- 
preflion to the French, and tell us, that the 
French is the original language from whence it 
was taken : — this we might readily grant, if the 
French was the original language, in which bon 
_mSt was firft of all formed ; but fo far is this 
from being true, ben mSt is purely Greek, 
and not French :. for if bon originates from bonus, 
bonus originates ab^ iEol. Pwot, quod ab inuf. 
Ori, five ab QwM, vek Onfu, hoc eft juvo ; pro- 
fum, utilitatem adferoi according to Voir.,and 
if mSt is vifibly derived i Mufct, fermo, verbum ; a 
■Jtateace, prtverb^ or f^^tfsj.theuit i^.cvidcnc. 

that Fot'ef-MuSefi (]t]afi 6«H{-Mu6a;, has been per- 
verted by the French into bo'n-mSt ; and then, 
to add to the abfurdity, they muft pronounce it 
bong-mo i and confequenily bon-mot is not French 
originally -, but they themfclves borrowed it 
from the Greeks, to fignify a good faying, a 
keen expreffion. 

BONE ; *' BwivM, venie, tncedo ; ac prim^ fu4 
fignificatione denotaverit crus; licet poftea pro 
offe frequenter Gt ufurpatum, propter illam crurum 
compagem totam fere offeam -, et quia ojfium vir- 
tutc eft TB Batwrip : Lye." — to go, to walk -, bccaufc 
it is by means of the boms, thofe ftrong and firm 
fupporters of the body, that we are enabled towalk, 

BONNET, " mallcm deduccre i Belg. bondi 
Fr. Gall, bande; rt term, dimin. q. d. bottdet, vel 
bandits i. e. fafciola ; d propter cuphoniam eJifo : 
Skinn."— but the Dr^ ought to have traced bondt 
or bandage, up to the Gr. 

BONNY, Fewc, bonus ; good, pretty, charm- 
ittg, fine. 

BOO-BY,otBOU-BYj or rather BOU-BAI; 
" Bita-«(r, a great bty : R. n«(f, puer ; a bey -, by 
changing » into p. B« is a particle expreffing 
greatnefi j perhaps from Bw, bos ; a bull : 'iwwct, 
equuj, a borje, is ufed in the fame fenfc j thus- 
'l-ntyvn^aa, qui magno efi animo; magnanimous j 
and thus we fay, a borfe-plum ; i e. a large plum : 
Upr." — to which let me add, berfe-radijb, i. e, 
the firong-root i a hor/e-laugb, i. c. a loud-laugh; 
or nearer ftill to the arc. Booby ; bull-rufbes, for 
hargt rujbes. 

BOOK J " Sax. boc j Teut. bucb -, Belg. beetk ; . 
liber: omnia forte 4 Sax. becce; Teut. buch-baum; 
Belg. beuehe-boom -, fagus ; quia fc. olim faginit 
corticibus fcribcbatur apud vctt. Gcrmanos, ut. 
apud Gtxcos tiliaceis : Skinn." — what fupincne&. 
does the Dr. fliew towards the Greek language ! : 
any pcrfon would fuppofc that he could have gone- 
no farther than thefc Northern tongues; but he- 
himfelf has gone farther, even in this art. than, 
what perhaps he at firft either defigned,. or. was 
aware of: he acknowledges here, that aU thcfe 
Northern words fignify fogus, . ttfaginis- cortici- ■ 
bus ; the beechy and the beechen-hark^ or leaves 2 
now under the art. beecb, he ha* acknowledged,, 
that bece, boc, bog, beucke, and buck, art all de- 
rived, and contraifted from 4»yfls, Dor. *«yss,. 
fagus 1 the beech-tree; butiince he has not traced 
the word book, let me do it thus ; ^xy-a^, fag-us, . 
quafi bag-US, unde Dan, bog, boc, bece, beucke; book, 

300K-fiave ;. " boc-Jlaue, or bonk-ftaf; a cha- 
ra5ier,pt letter for a book: Verft."— perhaps he 
meant V-* ^""^i ^ul even then he was miftaken; 
(orfiave is raiher a fentence, or portion; as whaa 
we iay. to/mg afiave. Gr. ^^^ 

Digitized by 


B O 

From GREEt.. and Latin. 

B O 

BOON epmpMtiM i Tmi, henus ; good, kindne/s, , 
■kenifit^ or ohligatitn, 

BOON, or favor; from the fame root: Gr. 
CIcl. Voc. 85, teiis us, that "munus, bonus, and' 
hftit, are derived from the Celtic word boon :" — 
buE boon is undoubtedly Gr. as above. 

BOOR ; " llKuiirBai, babitare, incolere, agricela; 
Belg. beer; Sax. byan j Teut: bawer; and Bclg. 
boerfchi rujiicus, agreps : Skinn."— vith regard 
to the Northern not difputc with 
him J but we msyvery much doubt the inter- 
pret, he has given in this place to naufrOei : and 
thei-efore it leems more probable that our word 
hoff is derived froni n«ufof, paucus j not in num- 
ber, but in drcimfianees, or abilities % pauper ; peer, 
lew, vulgar t and confequently ruJe, and tlowmjb. 

BOOSE; " Sax. bofib; an ox, or cow-fiaU: 
Ray." — it fcems rather to be derived, either from 
B8f, bos % an ox, or cow ; or elfe from itnu, pafco j 
te feed; meaning the jlall, or place, wbere ibg 
were fed or fattened. 

BOOT, or profit ; ** BojiSim, it beotetb nothing ; 
Ovin j3aii(ln», nibil javat : Upt." — what imll you 
give me to boot, in advantage. 

BOOT to wear; " Sax. Xburan,- circum ; 
about; quia tibias ambiunt: Skinn."— hot fo do 
tbeftockings : '* vel potius I Fr. Gall. boteau;faf- 
cis ; a bundle, or wbi/p of bay ; quia rudioribus 
illis fceculis, ut ctiamnum ruftici fafcibus ftrami- 
nis contortis, et tibiis obduftis, pro oertis ute- 
bantur : Skinn."— but boteau is no more than 
what we call « bettle^ or bundle of beey : confe- 
quently Gr. 

BOOTH: "Belg. boede, bode; Jomuncitla, cafa: 
vela Dan. booJ; tabema: illud fortaffe a Bolg. 
houwen ; adificare ; hoc a Sax. biban j manere ; 
vcl byan, babitare ; a tent, tabernacle, or any tem- 
porary ftru£lure : Skinn."— thus would the Dr. 
run through all the Northern tongues, if there 
were a thoufand more, rather than look at the 
Greek word AejMf, domus ; i. Atpw vel AcDjuaw, ex- 
Jiruo, edifice ; to build ; from whence arc derived 
likewifc ABODE, and ABIDE, Gr. 

BOOTY, " BiAM, Bj«^w, quafi biaty,' booty ; 
vim affer^, pr^da; fpoil, plunder; ai^ thing at- 
quired by rapin, and violence: Martinius, and 
MinJhcw:"— butSkinncrhas rejefted this deriv. 
with fo much difdainj quod tantum abeft, ut 
pro etymo proponam, ut vix pro allufiohc ad- 
miferim :— he then proceeds to his favourite 
Belg. and Teut. deriv. none of which bid fairer 
than the Gr. above mentioned; particularly flnce 
he lias pronounced his, quod longft probabiliui 
eft, a Belg. hatte; lucrum; Teut. batten; pr'o- 
deffe; which may be applicable 10 all profit, ac- 
quired by bonefi Mor; and is far enough from 

rapin, and fpoil: for this reafon, the deriv. wf 
Jun. has not been adopted ; viz. '*i Sax. boc, botret 
compenfationis gratid, fatisfoBio, emendatio j qudd 
heftilis agri depopulatio primitus non ab aliud ufur- 
patafutrit, quam ad refartiendum damnum ab bof- 
tibus itlatum :" — but fincc this depopulatio moft 
naturally carry violence with it, wc may ftill prof- 
fer the Gr. derivation. 

BO-PEEP i T^afaiib. derives the word ptsf 
from OwvKtw, which is the fame as Ownf\tw, and 
takes Oir7o/*«i for its root : 0«-«riu7nf, vifer, Jftcu- 
lator: Hefychius explains it by Tt^t^XiTM, «-f^- 
vKOTiu, circumfpicio : all this explains only the lac> 
ter port of this compound ; as to the former, tc 
feems to originate from Sam, clamo \ to call aloud, 
and yet peep about at tbe/ame time. 

BORAX i borax i Cbryfotella faiHtisi a the- 

BORD ajbip ; commonly written koardi as if 
it meant te ge on board ; but te hori afltip, and ta 
n OH board, are two different ideas, and orifftnate 
from two different languages: te go on beard, 
fimply,, fignifies afctnding htrfidos, and getting on 
htr deck ; but when we fpeak of bordsng a Jbip, 
we generally mean, two Jbips of war running fo 
clefe together, that their fides teuth each otbtn 
and then in that very action, while they arc thus 
along fidi of each other, the crews jump on board 
their adverfaries' finp : in this fenfe Skiniter would 
derive it, i '* Ru. Dan. iord ; Utus % the fids % 
Fr. Gall. Belg. and Teut. bard; margo, orai 
Ital. abbordare, appropinquare, appellere; navom 
con/cendere ; dum enim navis una, vet potius ejuk 
veftores, aut milites aliam navem infcendunt, et 
cominus oppugnant, unius navis Latus alterius 
luiieri quam prexime applicant .•"—then tf«t, limes, 
quafi borda, feems to be the origin of bordi 
meaning the fides, or borders of theflsips ; as we 
fhall fee in the next art. 

BORDER of a garment; Kf»r«c.-> Nugent. 

BORDER or limit; Of«f, terminus : J *' rfie 5 
comes from thcEolic Dizgamma, which fupplied 
the place of a breathing." — the Dr. indeed is right 
with regard to the lignification of Kft^rtt, that it 
GgniRes the border of a garment ; but ho etymol. 
can deduce border from Kf««-r«f : it feems rather 
probable that the border of a garment originates 
either from Xw^a, era; thefiiear, or outmofi verge 
of the land, or coaft : or, as the Dr. in his next 
art. mentions border, or limit, and derives it pro- 
perly from Ofer, terminus, limes ; but gives us no 
reafon for it ; tht reafon however feems to be, 
becaufe all lands, which are eontiguom, and 
border on each other, muft lay in contact and thtir 
fides or borders as it were touching each other; like 
the two (hips in the former art. :•— I can however 

-■initizfid by 


F <K 

Kvav G X B 1 ic« tod L a t i h. 

B O 

by no means aflent to the Dr*s. fuppofition, that 
our B comes from the Eolic Jiagamma (as he un- 
fbmmately writes ic) which he affirms fupplied 
the place of a brtatHt^ \ for the MoWq digamma 
does not anfwer fo properly to our £, as our Fi 
bbt was one of their own letters^ prefixed to a 
vowel,- which appears evidently frooi the very 
Aiape of the latter, being two r placed on each 
other, tbas,.p j and looks fo very much like our 
Fj but was nearer to our V in power: fee 
BIUDl£. Gr. 

"BORE-tbroKgh \ ^#lf•^ fart, ftrahiUs^ tranf- 
aiigff : hinc n«f«t> iroHjitus •» toftaby peirce tkrfiwgb, 
to petutraU •* or perhaps ve may derive iere from 
9wM, foriSf for9 i tt matt a iotr, opemng^ or paJTage. 

BORE lapaft tenfe, ahd participle of the 

BORN \ verb BEAR j and confequcntly dr- 

BORNE) rived from the fame root. Gr. 

BOREAS, ** in verfe for the Nertlmindi Bs^ («; , 
•tra T*- Bcfw, wm fm* qudd ventus Jit fonorus-, et 
vtetentus \ kUi0mi^, narit^ : Nug. and Voif." 

BOROUGH /ff- r»Hiu^ is very probably de> 
rived frewi ** BURY,, vel birigbe-, to lydi" ac- 
cording to Verft. " which," fays he, " may alfo 
^peer by our calling tie places for rabits to byde^ 
Mtid fiirowd tbemftlves in, rabit-beriesy or rabit- 
bitries; or burro-eoet .-"—there feems to be fonw pro- 
bability in this deriv, and yet it is poiTible it may 
originate from another idea; viz. ^tfrn/Zmr boring, 
otfcraping boUi in tbt earth : however in both ca^s 
they will be of Greek origin j as may be feen un- 
der the art. BORE,, or BURY. Gr. 

BOR-RAGE. ** Lat. Barb, horrago fcriptum 
eft pro corT«oi fic diAa,. ut Matthiolus innuit, 
quia cordia-affeftibus opitulatur: Skinn." — quafl 
cor-rego\ and confequcntly derived ^ Kt«f, ceri 
tt Afymfhy tranfpofition 'Pax^i "S"* '" govern^ 
rale, or dire^ the affeifions of the heart ; quam 
hodie^^/^M vocant. 

BQSCA-BELL j Borxu, pafco, pafcuum j paf- 
turti alio a vnood, or grove -, and Fofx , bonus, be- 
nas, beUus ; btaut^ul, pleafant; an ever memorable 
grove in the Weft of England, famous for con- 
taining the Rffjfal Oak, in which Charles the Second 
bid bimfelf. 

BOSCAGE ; -from the fame root j with only 
the termination age. ; as in pafiurage, vicarage, 
iermitage, &c. 

BOSOM,, nmiu, n«»f«^, etjfare fa(io,pauJb, pau- 
fa i unde perhaps repeft \ from hence the Sax. 
•• bof m i Belg. boefem \ Te'ut. bufem t Jinus: quia 
in Jinu infantes mtuntur : Jun. and Skino."— /« 
lay OH the befem, or lap- 

BOS-PORUS, commonly written and -pro- 
nounced hefjpiurus i but derived from Btef ««;«;, 

bovis trM^uu » tb» firsts of Cei^antimpU and 

Mae$it\ the former fo called, vi\>z\a^tbtpajfage 
^ Jupiter in tbe form of a bull Clel. Voc. 72, 
very judicioufly fuppofes *' befpborus to be de- 
rived from bif-mor, quafl bifpw » tbt tvoo-ftas \ 
unde bof'pbor, or por :" — but even then it would 

BOSS of afhield ; ^uo-*, 4m-«h, pufM^ puftda % m 
little fwelling, or r^fing. 

BOTANY, B«1(wi. berba, gramtn ; pa^Uia bei^ 
barum \ tbe art of cuSing^ and of cultivating htrbt 
and^mples: K. BtnutBeln^, BvIm*. 

BOTCH, or patch; ntrl»jun,pitiaeitim i -cloth,- 
&c. laid en like a plmfier. 

BOTCFI, oT pimple; from the iome root with 
thehofsofaftiUld. Gr. 

BOTH ; Af»^, am-bo \ bath \ tath of tbe two. 

BOT-OLPH 7 " afmuch to fay as bete-ulpb, ot 

BOT-ULPH $ help~H)-boot % helper to fati^fac 
tian ; a mediatour : Verft."— but both BOOT, and 
HELP, are Gr. 

BOTTLE •/ glafi 1 " Bifln.- Cujas ex gloff. a 
cup, or veffil to bold itnne : Nug."— perhaps the 
Dr. would not vouch for this etym.: ic feems - 
more probable to derive bottle from the fame root 
vr'ithpttMngi not that we are to fuppofe that 
the antients made paJdines in bottles ; but becaufe 
betllts at firft were veflela of leather, or wood ; , 
and intended to be .filled i therefore may be na- 
turally derived it Buw, vel iu^Uffartio, oppleo -, 
unde Bvr^, quaG htAfM^obturamtntum; unde Bu(<c- 
Avvr vel B(rW«>^> botulusi ft -bottle, or bag; a' 
fcrip, .pouch, or poke. 

BOTTLE ef bay; « -Fr.GtirAeleatufafcfcu- 
Itts; a bundle, or wbifp- of hay, or Jtrato: neftio ■ 
an corruptum-i Belg. ioBiir/.* Skinn."— but bun- 
dle is evidently derived from BIND, BOUND,' 

hOTTOM of thread % from theibtegoing root; 
becaufe wound up like a BUNDLE: Gr. 

BOTTOM of a to^; ^^o«, fovea, ferobs; a 
ditcb: vel 4 Jtyket, fundum, profundum; any deep 
place: vel ii nut^n*, iMrffunidum ; a pit. 

BOU-GAR, Bttyeum,. jaSator, nagnilocutor ; . 
R. B», valdt ; ct V<tM, glerier i « great boafitr i 
a vain talker. 

BOUGE-tfitf; "Fr. Gall, iotfff; hulga; q.- d. 
infiar bulg^e plenje, extumefeere: bouge ZMtcm £ '■ 
bulga ortum e0e, acmo adeo «/Hw«f en, ut dubi'^- 
tet : Skinn."— and his own words might be juftly 
retorted on him, thus, hulga autem a'B«Ayo;,-pro 
lAohytt (quod Hefthio tefte eft Bw>«c urMi^-faccui 
coriactut) ortum elTe, nemo adeo tfjMirvc eft, (ex-: 
cept Dr. Skinn.) ut dubitet. 
■ BOUGH if a trte-i " Sax.- ho^, bo^n, bob t 
ramus, armta: neftio an fit dt&u» ^fiexibiktatii 


B O 

. From Greek, and Latik. 

B O 

fc. re/peSu eauJuiSt feu irutid : Skinn."— he then 
refers us to BOW .; and under that art. tells us, 
Cafaub. dcAeftit I Biot, areas : fo that it is evi- 
dent all thofe words arc Gr.; Verftegan admits the 
fame fignificacion, and yet fiippofcs them Sax. 

BOUGHT tf a fiing ; from the foregoing 
root ; bccaufc It haws, or bends in that part j 
imeaning the bottom of the fling, where the ftone 
is lodged : unlefs we may deduce it i BoXyof, 
pro HoAyof, |3«««( Knott fatcus eoriaceus ; funda 
circulus, xurvatura ; becaufe it heuges, or fwtlls 
eut, when the Jiene, bullet, er lead is pul in it : 
the former however may be the more natural. 

BOU-LIMY, commonly written bulimy j BitXt- 
fua, bovintt ku ingens fames i a ravenous appetite ; 
K. Bn, valde t et Aif^oc, fames ', hunger. Mr. Spel- 
man, in his fourth book of the Expedition of 
Cyrus, calls it buUnef ; and in his note on E/3«Xi- 
fuaa-cr, fays it is a diftemper creating excejjive hunger ; 
and is thus defcribed, with all its horrid fymp- 
toms, by Gaten j *' BtcXipat in Aia0t<rir, x»fl' nv i«-i- 

^1 xai xalxvtxlDri, xat a;^«(iri, xai naSx^vy^eylmi 
rx »*(», ifn^wlm* It riy rBftsX""' •"" • rf^Yf*'^ '""' 
«vl«» oftuifot yivilfft : the bulimy is a diforder, in 
which the patient frequently craves for viHuals, lefts 
the ufe ef his limbs, falls doton^ and turns pale \ his 
extremiliet become cold, hisftomacb oppreffed^ and his 
pulfe foarce fenftble:" to which Mr. Spelman addsj 
*' the French Philofophical Tranfa£tions fpcak of 
a countryman^ who was violently afflifted with 
this diflempcr J but was cured by voiding fcveral 
worms, of the length and G?e o( a tobacco-pipe." 
BOUND, or leap \ B«ju|3ef , flrepilus ; to leap 
hack with a noife. 

BOUND, prepared ; as whither are jau bound? 
Lye fays, *' ortum traxit, ut mihi quidem vidctur, 
^ Cimbris, et paratus, quo vadis, quo iter ttndis, 
netat :" but Skinn. fuppofes it to be derived " i 
Sax. abun^n, expeditus ; hoc & verbo binban, 
Ugare; metaphora d miUtibus fumpti, qui mm ad 
iter paraii funt, farcinas mines haient colligatas, 
emnemque fupelleSIilem, ut lequuntur-, ccnvafatam : 
vel k noftro bound, fenfu forenfi, i. e. obligatus, 
metaphora ^ naucleris fumpta, qui mutux fecu- 
ritatis gratii fyngraphis obligari folent, nC fe in- 
vicem per lotum iter deferant:"— but with re- 
gard to etym. the deriv. is the fame i the one 
being a literal, and the other a figurative bind- 
ing \ confequently from the fame origin with 
BIND. Gr, 

BOUNDS, Of«, limes t unde Fr. Gall, bornes, 

frtntiersi vel 4 X*>p«, ora,fhoar^ coafi^ border^ limit. 

BOUNTY, Fb».o(, bonus, bonitas ; geodnefs, ge- 

mrofity, liberality: or perhaps it may be derived 

from fiwidti meaning, whatever a perfon be- 

ftows out of his abundance, in a bountiful, copious 
manner : though perhaps the former dcriv. may 
be preferred. 

BOUQUET:' Clel. Voc. ii. has evidently 
fhewn, *' that this is nothing more than a French 
diftortion of the word bou^, or boughet, a dimi- 
nutive of bough, or nther ' bough-weet ; a fmaU 
bough:" — meaning a Utile noftgajt or bunch of 
flowers, tied up together in the form ef a beugb : 
confequently Gr. 

BOURN 7 as a termination to many pro^ 
BOURNET S per names (fuch as Ulbourn, 
Milbourn, Sbelboum, &c.) is derived i Bdtw, by 
trajifpofit'ion Bwufi-, fcateo, fcaturio% undie Sax. 
bupn, byjinaj Belg. borne; Teut. britn, brm \ 
fons; a fountain, ov fpring ef water : but, bcfides 
this fignif. the word bourn, or boumej bears ano- 
ther idea in our language i for Shakefpear, in 
that noble foliloquy of Hamlet, aft iii. fc. 2. fays, 

. who would fardlcs bear. 

To groan, and fwcat under a weary life -, 
But that the dread of fomcching after death. 
That undifcover'd country, from wbofe bourne 
No traveller returns, puzzles .the will : 
here the word bourne, feems to imply boundary, 
or border ; and confequently may now take that 
deriv. — though perhaps it might be better to 
abide by the former deriv. meaning a river, or 
river^s bank ; and then Shakefpear might have 
alluded to the banks of the river Lethe, or of the 
lake Avernus : fliould he have meant (as is moft - 
probable) boundary, or limt, then we muft refer 
thither : however it is certain tke herb bournet^ 
commonly written burvett, pimpinella herba, forte. 
i veteri Angl. bourn, vel bum j rivus, fons, oritur ; 
quia circa rives, et /ontes fotijfimum nafcitur : if 
verft. and Skinn. be right. 

BOU-STROPHH, Surgot^ff^, verlendo, etflec. 
tendo fe, mere boum arant:um : R. B»r, hs ; et 
Zlfi^, verte : an antient method of writing, in 
which they did not begin every line afreih, as 
the moderns doj but when they came 
CO the end of a line, they continued 
the next with a rcverfed order of the 
letters; fo that the appearance of the 
writing bore fome refcmblence to the 
curved line in the margin j which re- 
prefents the traces of a furrow in the 
antient art of plowing. 

BOUY f common orthography writes it buey^ 
and buoyancy : Junius calls it the bey of an anker % 
and though Lye fays, " reflius fcribitur bet^," 
yet thefe great etymol. have not given us the 
proper deriv. j for they have derived it a " Dan. 
beie % Belg. beeye; quod ferred catend, veluti nm- 
pedt quadam ancora: fit alligata; nam ^;Belg. 
3 cA 

Digitized by njOOQIC 

B O 

Frora GxBiie, and Latiji. 

8 S 

■ eft empts :*'~^nov, if either of thefc gentlemen" 
had buc turned their thoughts fouth* inftead of 
northward, they would have found a better deriv. 
if then I might be allowed a conjefture> we 
might dertre our word hit;/ {rom fiMtt, peltis bu- 
h»la 1 am ut-hiJty which might firft of all have 
been made ufe ofj when it was fewn up ctoie» and 
filled with air, in order to nuke it float on the 
water, like a bladder, when blown: fee Oppian's 
Halieutics, on the exprefiion Nixnf «iyytx»t. 

BOW, both fttbfitaitivt and vtrh > B>«c, arens \ 
«» treby or hnJiMg. 

BOW-WOW * B«u-p««, i B»«^«, iatrt i /o hark 

BOWELLS : " Gall, l^atix: Jun." — but then 
he adds, " videntur interim Angli hanc inteftioo- 
rum denominationem defumfiffe il BOW, fieSere^ 
Jinuare^ torqutrt ; prorfiis ut Gneci uiuu dxQcz, fiuit 
iKteftinay ir«f « re Et>1»c JutMo^ai, quod inha ettnthan-- 
tur in gyrum : there is fome probability in this 
deriv. which would confcquenily be Gr. { but we 
may rather adopt that of Skinn. though there ap- 

Sears fomething ludicrous in the definition ; for 
e fays, . " bffwells., fu'te ^ Lat. hotulust bottUus ; 
quia hotuli folent ex inttfiitds cofffid ; Tie ct nos 
inttfiina nofira^ puddings vocamiu :" and here the Dr. 
flops ; but botidus is no original ; for Voll! flicws 
that it is derived Irom Bvw, Bu^ui unde BuflftXer, 
farcimtHt betulus ; an inUjiine^ fivfftd with avf in- 
gredienti. ■ 

BOWER i " Sax. byjie; Gall. i«rfl»iBelg. huers 
Dan. huuT ; qua: omnia videri pofiunt dctruncata 
ex Bvfiov, quod Hefych. exponit OixnjiM, domiti- 
Itum, tugurium \ an afbeur : Jun." Skinner fup- 
pofes it to be derived " 4 verbo to BOW, quo- 
niam ex arberibus infiexit cenfttlmtur :" — but per- 
haps, after all, bomr may be but a contraft. of 
arbor ; a tret ; for an arbmr^ and a bower are one 
end the fame thing; and therefore may be de- 
rived from the fame root. Gr. 

.BOWL to drink rjv, BtM^jaffut i ** bulla ; caliees 
eniutt pra/eriim capaciorts, bulla infiar, rotundd 
figurd a bafi afctndutit : Skinn."— thou^ the Dr. 
cakes no notice of the Gr. : Cafaub. writes it boale^ 
vas quedvis majuu fed ligntum, froprit \ labrum 
talnettorium i and derives it I IlutXoc, vel IIutXK, 
pala annul! j a large weoden vcjfel : — which latter 
deriv. may rather be preferred, 

BOW L to flay Vfitb i vel i BuXof , gleba ; a lampt 
or clod ■■, vel % B»xxw, jaSo ; to tafi, or throw. 

BOWN, **ue. /welled : Ray."— i. e. Gr. for 
hown is no more than an evident contraction of 
Bmi-tf, vibext tumultu \ a bunny^ or /willing, 

BOWSE, "Bvft., Bii^tiiimbao,iit^Uoylargiterbi- 
hn : Skmn." ttrho haa given us another very 


good conjcdure on this WQrd j quod H Gneeus 
e0*em, ortum jurarem i Awow, yi(^, infe j quia 
fc. |«i avide bibutit ^ P*in frofitaU \ becaufo they 
are as it were fwelltd wiii tiqmr. 

BOX «■ tbi ear : nwj, piigil j a fighter : Horn. 
II. r. 237, "''£ «r»'«» pii&Uatn firenum i a fimt 

BOX « Itck up i " A/3»E. abatus ; a dejky or 
etipbcard: Upt."— this it S very good deriv. but 
with Jun. we might ratherfuppofe bM, or (befi^ was 
derived 4 nv^if , pyxis ; i Hv^au buxus ■> for though, 
as Upt. afterwards acknowledges, nu£o(, bttxittt 
is the box-tree^ which certaialy has no connexion 
as to e^m. with a box to lock up aiff /bing in ; 
yet nv£tr, pyxij^ moft cenainly has ; it being that 
boitt or w^cr;. which in our own country formerly, 
and in Roman Catholic countries to this day, 
contains the bojt^ or holy wafer : fee FVX. Gr. 

BOX-/r« : " nu£o(, buxus \ R. Xlvn; den^^Jpifse i 
tUfenefs */■ grain : Upt." 

BOY, n«(, ««!(, pker\ fiysungmsn. 

BRABBLE i " Junius quotes Hefych. for 
Bfo^uXof, nht f ulii xoxv, fpecies plants mala, atfue 
inuiilis :" — which is not in the leafl: applicable to 
his own interpretation of brabble, viz. rixarif tur- 
bos dare, confunderCt mifcere^ turbare-, but un- 
doubtedly belongs to his own art. bramble^ where 
he has properly applied that Greek quotarion. 
Skinner would derive brabble a Belg. brabblUn^ 
verba tonfundere, mifcere, alttreari: bur, not fatif- 
fied with that deriv. he goes on, " nefcio an defleftere 4 verbo Lat. fequioris fasculi 
parabolare ; hoc a nomine parabola i unde orta Cix. 
Fr. Gall, parolle, parole \ Ital. parela \ Hifp. pef 
metath. palabra \ verbam, diffie •, adeo ut pri- 
marid idem fit quod verba, feu femtones mifetre :" 
—the Dr. might very truly fay, '* nefcio an tutum 
fit i" for now he has led us to the Gr. : fee PA- 

BRACE, or draw clofe \ Bf a^ivv, brachium \ 
the arm wiicb embraces., and draws any thing to it 
witb forcty andfirengtb. 

BRACE of bares: Stinner fuppofes this word 
is derived from the former ; and gives this weak 
reafon, why " numerus dualis, biga, >nd eoputoy 
fliould fignify tpo i quia eopula^ mj biga, mtpoia 
coWgata, ft autub aw^ltHuntur •" — true j when 
united together ; but a brace of harm iji elite 
field are as much a brace of htftu though diltH' 
nitcd, as when united ever fo clofe b^^er.: 
unlels therefore he could hare given 4 better 
deriv. than this, he might «• veil hire be«n 
filent ; and I muft be filent too, rill a bietter cm 
be found ; but this certainly cannot bo right % for 
this plain reafonj becaufe tbrte b»m^ t^at /mC 

Dgtzfid by Google 

B R 

From Gresk, and Latin. 

B R 

#r hound together, would then be as much a brace, 
as 'two -, which is an abfurdity too glaring for 
any fportfiiian to admit, though an etymol. may. 

BRACELET, " Bf«;ti«A(«, or Bfap^ww*. bra- 
chiale, ornamenlum j a bractr for the arm : R. Bfa- 
%im, hraehium j the arm : Nug." 

BRACHE } '* Ncfcio an 4 Bg «;tw, foao, re/em : 
cavif quidam venaticui, h fonorot ic. et alto bujus cants 
iafratu : Skinn." — whenever the Dr. treads on 
Grecian ground, it feems to be with fear and 
trembling J but he need not have doubted the 
validity of his deriv. fincc Shakejiwar in his 
Taming the Shrew, has plsunly told us from whence 
it is derived i for in aft i. fc. 2. he has introduced 
a lord with his hunting train j 
L. Huntfman, I charge thee lender well my hounds; 
Brach Mcrriman, the poor cur is imboft; 
' AndcoupleClouderwichthe^ff^-mra/iVBrach. 
or perhaps -by tranfpofition it may be derived 
from barif quafi brak, or hrache; i.e. a deep- 
barking, or, as ic is here called, a deep-meutFd hound. 

BRACHY-GRAPHY, Bfax^-rf*^"' *^«'"- 
fcriptio ; fiort-band. 

BRACK, " *P«K9f, ^ol. BfoHtef, lacera vtflii; 
ex fnytvvicu fi^it, f*y»t, a rag, or tatler'd robe ; 

BR ACKAN, " Bf«icw«, apud Hcfych. ct Suidam; 
quod exponunt tty^im A*;^«»«, filix \ fern : Skinn." 
—had the Dr. (topped here, it might have been 
well J but he goes on, " forte quia fragiiis eft ; 
vide break ■,'* — that very reference plainly proves 
that brakan cannot be derived from break ; he- 
caufe that word is derived either according to 
his own etym. from B#«x"> (repo, fono \ or we 
may rather in that fenfe fuppofe it came from 
Bfax"*' brevis ; both which words are written 
with a ^: but Bg«xME» is written with a x, and 
■confequently not derived from them : the fern, 
or brake. 

BRACKET} "ni faUorabltal. ^Mfrfrz/ff, di- 
minutivum tn braccio ; bracbium: Skinn." — being 
determined not to derive it from B(«;^i«», bra- 
ehittm: but we muft either intirely rcjeft that 
deriv. for the reafon given in the former art. or 
obferve that, according to the Di.'s prefent deriv. 
our word ought to have been written brachet. 

BRACKISH, Ilixfof, amsTui, acerius i . bitter, 
'fiiarf'.^ 'Clel. Voc. 85, has given us a much bet- 
-ter deriv,} for he fuppofes that *^ brackifb\i\»i\ 
another dialed for mar-aequifi, w fea-waterijh :" 
for he has fpllf Ihewn that the m and the b, 
cranfmote : but then he has not granted thai, mar, 
'•nd acamifi); are either Gr. or Lat. 

BRAG J S^^tty erepOj gkritr, Jaffo i to beafi, 
t^er, taikhigb* v 

BRAGGADOCIO, feems to be a compound 

of the foregoing art. and AUDACIOUS ; mean- 
ing a bold impudent boafter. Gr. 

BRAIN, K^Mie*. eaharia; tbe/kuU: R. K^am. 
caput ; the bead : or elfe it may be derived from 
Bfiyp*, finciput \ quod eft cerebri fedes j the hind 
part of the bead, where the brain is lodged. 

BRAKE, "Bft(xM>», apud Hefycb. ct Suidam,. 
quod exponunc My^iv AM;^aii«, a wild plant ; fiUn \ 
fern ; Skinn." — this is undoubtedly a better deriv. 
than that given by Jua. & ^xj(i»,fono, crepito, am 
quodam fragore ; to make a crackling neife in the 
fire } for .chat alludes only to a certain property, 
not only of that plant, but of many others % as . 
the b^, the laurel. Sec. — bcfides, as we obfervcd 
under the art. brackan, this muft a falfe deriv. 
becaufe it is falfe orthogr. 

BRAMBLE, " Bf<xpv>,a;, nJsr fvis k«xk, fpeHeS 
plantte mal^, atque inutilis : Hefych. as quoted by 
Jun." — thefe are great authorities j and yet with. 
Cafaub. ' we may rather fuppofe that bramble was 
derived a 'P<t;tva(, rbamnus ; fpinofus frulex ; fpintt 
alba, rubus ; a wild briar. 

BRAN, commonly pronounced brun \ " Ililufe*, 
furfur, bran ; by changing n into B ; and then 
by contraftion and tranfpofition : Upt." — this 
however is not (o good a deriv. as the following 
apud etymologicum, quoted by Jun. nempc' 
fi^oirpa, vcl Ar«|3f «r|U«, ri rxu/3«AK tk xuf ti, fur- 
fures tritici ; the refufe of wheat flour. 

BRANCH i " Bf(i[;^iu», bracbium -, an arm i 
branches being as it were the arms of trees. Nug." 
^-or rather from Ogajifot, ramus ; quafi ramnutt 
ahje€ti literS s } the branch of a tree -, R. 'P«0, acif 
nus \ the flone of a berry. 

BRAND : both Jun. and Skinn. derive this 
word i " Sax. bjiano, &c. &c, omnia funt i 
Teut. branden ; ardere, urere ;"— this very deriv. 
makes me fufpeft that all their northern dialefts 
are no more than a tranfpofition of letters ia 
the word burnt, with the Gothic termin. ^ or ;t 
as is evident to the ear, in the words, burnt, brant, 
or brand i and therefore we may rather derive it 
from riuf, nvgw, uro, bure ; to burn, ox to bran \ 
MTiAe brand, firebrand, &c. 

BRAND,, yitiwiil now indeed the formen deriv. 

BRANDISH > froiB. the Gr. becomes the 

BRAND-NEW j more evident; fmcc bodi 
Jun. and Skinn. have explained all thefe three 
words in the fenfe of burn ; for Jun. explains the 
firft.of them by ^-/fiii'flrf, enfis; fortafle tamen non 
tmixicrito fufpicart Uceat enfem, brand, appella- 
tum ab ardore martio bcUorum inter tiecivorum ; in 
quibus nemo non primas partes enj conc«lic, 
rcceptiflimo cpithcEO poccis di£tosy»^M« ;— bot^ 

Digitized by 


B R. 

From Guslic, and Latih 

S R 

JUin. and Skinn. explain the fccond word by gla- 
Merum concujferam vlbralione ; fc. gladii hue illuc 
vihratit inftar tiiionum ardetiiium, fplendieantt ec 
coTufcant : — and with regard to the laft, Skinner 
explains it by ujiis, et /erris ieni/us : — lb that here 
again, we muft have recourie to the Gr. etym. of 
IIiip» igiiii i fire \ atrf thing fparkling, bright, and glit- 
tering : with regard then to the expreffion brand- 
netUy or as it is commonly pronounced bran-new, 
Jun. under the art. fpan-new, fays, " modus lo- 
quendi petita eft ab arte fuUonum, pannos in 
machina quadam explicantium, dillendentium, 
Ixvigantium ; et Belgis pari fere metaphors brand- 
nieWy vel vier-nitw, eft recens \ q. d. nuperrimc 
ab offictna profeftum, a foUibus, aerariaque fornacc 
etiamnum cahns ; vier-nieie geld s numtnus a/per, 
r teenier cufus, et Jignatus ; — though no, fire is 
made ulc of in the laft a6t of minting^ or coining 
now-a-days, whatever there might have been 

BRANDLING, aliis dew-worm didus, treSia 
pifcis efca ; forte si Fr. Gall. brandiUert vatillare, 
hue illuc meveri, inftar penduii j et ternninatione 
diminutiva ling : — fo that here again we muft look 
perhaps to the Gr. 

BRANDRITH, " Sax. brandred; a brand- iron, 
or trivtt to fct any veffel on over the 6re : Ray." 
—but we have already feen that brand is Gr. 

BRASSj "' n^izo-isf, prout nempe Nic. Myrcpfus 
perhibet, arugintm etiam Vi^a.irnn dici, ob viridem 
perri ceterem, quern iinitaiur ; nam a n^xa-or, porrum, 
eft n^Ko-ivov Xfwjua, prafinus color, porraceus color, 
L e. viridis \ nunc enifti colorem exhibct as pecu- 
licri fibi rubi^ine vitialum, et virefcens : Jun." — 
" alius £ criticorum gregc," fays Skinn, " fledtcret 
noftrum brafs i. Gr. B^a^u, Stxc^u, ferveo, bullio ; 
quia ic. non nifi vehement!, et intenfo igne in 
fornacibus excoquitur, et depuratur ; fed nobis 
non licet efle tarn difertis : — by his having men- 
tioned nobody, and thrown the verhfie^eret into 
the fubjun&ive mood* this good old Saxon fcems 
to have been a little angry at the former etym. 
becaufe it was not Betg. and then raifed this 
£xt(tfia;(i{K to vent his fpleen on. 

BRAST, " pro BURST, Skinn."— and yet he 
could not, or would not, admit a fimilar tranf- 
pofition in the word brand, for burnt^ left it 
might come from the Gr. 

BRAT, or child ; " Bgw, pulMo ; unde Sax. 
brood, breed, brat; fie nobis appellator ;j<«r, yhi 
infans parentibus vilijfmis, into mendicis, naius,fpu- 
rius, expefitus \ a Sax. bjiatr : fee breed: Skinn." 
and then he fends us to brood ; which at laft he 
acknowledges to be of Gr. extraft. with only 
" alludit Gr. Bfuw, pullulo." Lye fuppofes that 
our word brat is derived from the Sax. bjiarr. 

pallium, pannicuba, lactnia ; hinc beggar's hrat^ 
qudd fit pannicuUs laceratis ebfitus :" — but perhaps 
both this and the following art. is derived from 
the Gr. as will be there ftiewn. 

BRAT, or coarfe ragged apron : " bjiarc, pan* 
niculus : hoc ^ verbo Dcbjiircan, frangere i q. d. 
panni fragmeata : Ray."— -4b that now we have 
gained another auxiliary ; and yet not one of thele 
gentlemen could find that thefe words were de* 
rived from Bf»xyu brevis j mtf thing torn, broken, 
tattered \ or elfe from 'Pctxaf, lE.o\. Bfeoi»(, laeera 
veftis ; a rag, or atrf rent clothes. 

BRAVE, " Bf^w, pramium vi3oriai the prize 
ef viHery: R. Bf«J3n;t, illcqui dat^*ffl((«M fw/a- 
minis i arbiter rcrum aliarum, et prxmia diribens. 
Nug." — Skinner quotes Jun. for deriving brave 
from Frifico berve % quietus, plaadus, pribus i et 
huic etym. plus quam Gr£cis fido; licet nee 
hoc fatisfaciat. — let me only obferve, that my 
edition of Jun. gives me no fuchderiv.} mine 
derives it ^ Belg. braef ; which he has explained. 
not as Nug. has here done, nor as Dr. Skinn. i 
but by proprie fic dicatur, qui amulis omnibus pra- 
ripuit palmam : and this undoubtedly is more 
agreeable to the common acceptation of the 
word ; and very probably took its origin from 
the Gr. 

BRAWL^ a dance ; " faltattenis, et tripuii ge- 
nus i" which Lye, under the art. broil, derives 
" ab Armor, brella ; confundere, perturbare ■" — but 
Skinner tells us It is " tripudii genus, quo corpora hue 
illuc agitantur, et varie movenlur i and derives it ^ 
Ft. Gall, branfie, branfier, trandiller, brandir ; 
vibrare, concutere :" — then it naturally refers us to 
BRANDISH, which happens to be Gr. 

BRAWN, '^ pro apro, ingcnlofc defiedit anji- 
cus quidam do^ifTimus (Dr. G. Rogers) & Lac. ' 
aprugna, fupple earo : Skinn." — it were to be 
wiflied that either the Dr. or his teamed friend, 
when they undertook to trace the etym. of a 
word, had taken a little more pains, and deduc- 
ed aprugnus from its proper foorce ; Voflius tells 
us, that aprugnus is derived from aper \ and that 
aper is derived & KaK-^et ,truncaca principe llteia : 
aliud autem KoB-paf, Tyrrhenis, aliud Graecis ; 
nam Tyrrhenis caprum notabat ; indc Latinonim 
caper ; at Grjecis tranfmarinis Kaa-fof eft aper ; 
a boar ; and hence brawny \ care enim apri maximi 
concreta, et durijjima ; terofus, lacertofus, amplis et 
firmis mufculis infiruHus ; q. d. qui tnufiuiis, infiar 
calii aprugni, fotidis, firmis, et -duris pradtlus eft ; 
mufcular, ftrong. 

BRAY, makeaneife; '^Bfxxu, fono, fomtum edo\ 
to make a noifi : others derive it from barrife ; to 
bray: Nug." — then others fliould not have in- 
troduced it into a colle£tioo of Englilh words, 
I 3 derived 

B R 

From GitsbK, and Latiw. 

B R 

dcf ivied from theGr.i unlers they had traced it 
with VoS. i B«f«(, iarrus \ the lUpbtnt \ fo call- 
ed oh gravitatem i unde barrirtt et harMre : to 
kray, or roary like an elephant : but this is rathtf 
too diftant a deriv. efpecially as we have one fo 
much nearer home i i Sfttjffi, fmot in the fcnfc 
of latro t t0 bark. \ ic being the affien of barking 
in the afi i " or elfc from B;«eua-wr», Hcfych. 
£iNM>)>yts VPtiferara : Jun." 

BRAY» or pemid m a awrtar \ " Six. bjiacan ; 
(outerere, ctOUniere: SVXaa"— to founds beat,hruifet 
or break in piects: — this laft word makes me imagine 
it may be derived ^Bfaj^vtybrevisifiort^ broken into 
fmell ^eees : whether bpacan^ and bjia^can^ be of 
the fame fignificaticm I cannot prefume to fay ; 
. but they feem to bear a very clofc analogy. 

BR£ACH> Bf«xu7, brevis ; any thing broken j 
vel 4 'Pflfit, ruptarat fraBurd % a fraSure : R. 
'fnyyjwi* frango \ to break. 

BRKAD» f B(uTw, efca \ food, nourtfiiment : 
Cafaub. and Upt."— -but good old Verft. writes it 
hreod; and fuppofes it to be Sax.^ — but, to convince 
us of the propriety of the Gr. deriv. they called 
mankind in general B^ulsi, morfalet ; nourifitd with 
f»ed\ in contradtftinftion to the immortals, who 
were nourilhed with ne&ar and ambrofia : but 
what the proper food of man is, the Pfalmift tells 
us in the civ. Pf. v. 15, " that he may hnn^ food 
out of the earth ; and toine., that maketh glad 
the heart of man 1 and oil, to make him a chear- 
ful countenance ; and breads to ftrengthen man's 
heart:" fo that man may be properly called B^w- 
la^mytfi a bread-eater % in order to diftinguilh him 
from carnivorous, or flefh-eating animals. 

BREAK 1 Bg«;(V(, brevis ; Jhcrt, brtken : vel 3. 
*P>ifK> as above : Skinner, after having thun- 
dered out about a dozen harfh northern words, 
exclamea in a fort of triumph, " quls cricicus 
non jurarec hiec omnia defluxifTe & Gr, 'Pnyvuu, 
*Piiyif«pi, rumpo \ vel i B^ ap^w, crepOy ftrepo ?" and 
then he refers us to brittle-, which he fays Junius 
derives from Bfslof : but I can find no fuch thing: 
however, under the art. break, Junius fays, " origo 
omnium eft ab ^ol. B^nyn, rjtptio, ruptura ; 4 
'Vfiyvint certe, vel 'Snytvfi.%, frango, rumpo, eft'P^yn, 
ruptio, pro quo JEoi. dixerunt Bftiyn : prorfus ut 
Bfmtus dixerunt pro 'Ptnut, lacera vefiis; Bfoctm, 
pro. 'FaiiUf facile ; Bf«J», pro 'P«/«v, rofa ; B^i^a, 
j)ro"9il», radix : notwithftanding the triumph 
t^ Skinn. therefore, we might have adopted this 
etym. of Jun. if Voffius had not Bxed on Bfa;(vc, 
as the origin oi- brevis % and not Bfoxe;, quafi 

BREAKS, or '* lands, plowed the Brft year, 
after lying fallow in the flteep's-walks : Ray,"— 
then wc might fuppi^e it iignified no more than 

land newly breke-up ; confbquently Gr. as above 
in the art. BREAK. Gr. 

BREAM, " A/3|«jMt, Cyprima iaius i Ital. abratne, 
deflexum videtur i- Lat. aMramen, ab aureo fc. 
colore : Skinn."— though we may rather fuppofe 
with Jun. that if this fi(h received its name- 
from any quality, we Ihould rather fuppofe the- 
deriv. related to breadth^ than to eolori and con- 
fequently derive it from the Belg. braeffem t or 
Alman. brejfemt ; quo: videntur dcfumpta & Sax. 
bjiaO, et bfUl)fum, latusi broadi and confequent- 
ly derived i n\c3vi : fee A-BROAD : unlefs we- 
may fuppofe that the Belg. braeffem : Teut. braffen ; 
and Atmari. hrejfemo, were all derived k n^auMn 
porraceus, forro Jimilis in virtdi colore ; and it»^ 
golden fcales have fomething of a greenijb eafi : 
but ftill it is more remarkable for its breadtbt 
than its color. 

BREAST, Tlniil*s,peSusy eompaSas ; flrong made^ 
firm: though with Jun. we might rather prefer 
Ilfaa-Bti;, anterior\ e& notione, qua n^«r4isi sWir,. 
et n^erSi* Tf«uf«W]ft, wounds received «-pa«f»,, vel 
TTfo', ante, before^ i. e. in the breaft. 

* BREATH 7 " five k B^otn, ut aqua Qtirinn 

• BREATHEJ aliquo impulfa /«/««/; vel 1. 
n^aM, ut fit fpirare vi caloris: Jun." " criticl 
fortean mc kudarent, 11 declinarem ab Axeppf"*- 
efiuo : vel a '?«?«;, ^ol. B^eSof, impetus, firepitus : ' 
ego tamen me riderem 1 fed quidni rideat, qui: 
ludit ? Skinn."'— who has therefore rather adopt- 
ed the Sax. etym. and to which- Alph. it ife 

BREECH 7 There may be two ways of de- 
BREECHESj riving the word breeches t for 
they have been called fo, bccaufc they cover the' 
breech, which is evidently derived i 'Pnyvuw, vel: 
'Pnyvvy.t, frango i to break; becaufc in that part 
the back feems to he broken, or cleft into two e 
or dft: breeches may be derived i '&ta,^«iK te^m-y 
breve vtftimentum ; a Jbert garment \ becaufe the- 
Gauls were difi^nguifhed by the Romans into the 
Tegati; and Braccati; i BraeeiSt quibus Gallic- 
Narbonenfis populi vcftiri folebant j. becaufe they 
were at firft onl^fifort, hofe trovofers, which reached^ 
no lower thm the knee. VoflitM fays, " hrac^^ 
vel braccx, fane vox eft Gall. Belg. quippe 
hodieque Belg£, five Germ, inferiores ambroecb- 
appellant j ut Cimbri brtg, five brougbesy five- 
brogues j Britanni breethes nomimint l vel, fi origo- 
eft Grzca, vocem earn accepcrint Galli a Mafli- 
lienfibus, qui GrKci loquebantur :"— but with- 
out making any difficulty as to the origin, the 
nanrw may be purely Gr. tho' applied,, or given 
to an art, or faftiion, invented even now a days-I 
BREEZE of wind; B^tyM, freino\ to make a 
gentle neife, or whifpering: Slunner.^ho writes. 

B R 

From Gr]!kk> and Latih. 

B R 

ft trifiUt fappoTes it to be deriTcd I f^ixn, bor- 
rtri 3, *pfl1(«» borreff, rige«; and we fay a cool, 
refrtjbing krtru. 

BREVIARY? Bf^x^f* ^t^^y Armarium', an 

BRIEF S ahidgemtntt or finrt accoiatt. 

BREW, Bf«^M, /(TTOw, bulHoi to boily feminU 
mixtogetbtr: fee BRUE. Gr. 

BREWESS J " Sax. bjup, jufiuhm -, et hoc i 
Tcrbo bjiijian, coquere ; et hinc Tcut. hrey-puU i 
papfOy faimeittum : Sktnn."— then they may all 
be denved i Bj «^w, ftrvet, bnUh j to boil, ceoit 
gr dre/j awf thing by boiling. 

BRIAR, " B^i»f «c, validus : Cafaub." — •* ridi- 
cule," fays Skinn, *' credo autem ^ Sax. bjix/i ; 
contraftum & bpeacejt ; verbali verbi bjieacan ; 
frangere\ idque quia franpt, i. e. lactrat turn 
tutem, turn veftes:" — but Itill he has not gnt rid 
of the Gr. for we have already fecn that BREAK 
is of Gr. extraft. 

BRIBE i " fufpicor defumptum ex B^ajSiuMr, 
pr>*mium certaminis, vel oper^ navat* tribuere : 
Caufaub. and Jun." " ^p»^etn,pramium ; muneribtts 
corrumptre \ qui enim judicem muntribus follici- 
tant fummi importunitare, ejus gratiam ambi- 
unt, etvenantur: Skinn." an illicit offering are- 
viard, or premium. 

BRICHOE, brittle : near as this word bricboe 
was to B^a;^ifc i Ray would not inform us it was 
of Gr. origin. 

BRICK, " Sfv^ct, tegula ; a tile, or brick : Nu- 
gent:" — this Bptix« muft be a word of the Dr's. 
own coining i for there is none fuch to be found 
in any of our lexicons >— neither Jun. nor Skinn. 
will allow brick to be of Greek origin : the lat- 
ter indeed allows^ that fecundum Mcnagiuni, it 
may be derived ab imbrex i imbrex it is true is 
Lat. for a gutter-tUe ; and may perhaps fignify a 
brick likewife i but imbrex plane perfuafum ha- 
beo, fays Voir, efle ab 0/^f»r quod ipfum tncftc 
TO ifi.K fuw di£tum„ quafi 'Oit'tfoot, elifa duobus 
locis vocati,, et inferto b i queinadmodum monet 
Vtymologus ; qui et alia duo etyma additi fed 
duriora : tegulx quoque cavatse, et femirotundx 
ab iabre appellantur imbrices ; quod accipiant, 
arceantque imbres ; becaufc they receive and carry 
off the rain water, during violent Jhaweri. 

BRICK-^(j; 7 the former, according to Skinn. 
BRlCK-irac/t J is explained by " later adferi- 
txdum: Th. HenOiaw dictum putat ^ no^o bricks 
fcu Fr. Gall. M'jaf, « Fr. Gall, bout \ txtremi- 
tas ;" — the latter feems to be a brick-brack^ be- 
caufe it is a broken-brick i and. confequendy will 
originate ab 0/*Pf(c~f3f(«p^vf. 

BRIDAS ; " birdes ; properly young fowlcs : 
Tccft."— but BIRDS aw Gr.. 


\" Bpvtrt, fcaturire, pJenum. 
BRIDE-GROOM 1 effe; undcEp0fyB,, infans, 
vel fgtuj adbuc implens, vel Sftendenj uterum : 
Jun," — who has from tHs word B^unii deduced the 
Sax. bjiyb, and bjtibjumaj Belg. bruydegomn ■ 
and Alman. bruti-gomo ; i. e. Jponfte vir ; nam- 
Uunna, eft vir: Lye."— but then according to 
this orthogr. it ought to be written bride, and 
bride-game; which fcems to originate i r«jui«, 
uxoremditca: it is remaritable that Cafaub. calls 
the bridt'graom, ir«f<iw-yi)ipj3pef, but that is, pro- 
perly fpcdting, the bride* s-brother; fothat if he 
imagined bride-groom was but a tranflation of 
H»^Ufa-ytn>^tai;, he was miftaken ; atleaft he has- 
great antiquity agatnft him, Verftegan fuppofes- 
the Sax. bpyb-juman to be only an abrcuation 
of bryde-good moHt or the good man eftbt brjde j— 
but this will not account for the appearance of 
the r in the word groom ; and yet in ttie very art.. 
brydgrome he calls nim the groome of the bryd \ be- 
caufe en the marriage day he feruetb, and waitetb ett 
the table of the bryde : fmce therefore wc always 
write ir, and pronounce it bride-groom, wc may 
rather adopt Skinn.. intcrpr. '*' noftrum autem: 
bride-groom fatis manifefte oritur i dido bride, and- 
groom', quia fc.yjjen/w, die nttptiarttm fpenftejaltem- 
fecttn£m merem noftrum in/ervit ;'" as Verit. juft 
now faid : fee GROOM. Gr, 

BR-IDE-WELL. •* How disfigured is th^s^ 
word,," fays Clel. Voc. 179, " from bar-reicht- 
belt, or ball; the bead ball ef the prettnB:"—^ 
confequenily all Gr. : fee BAR, REICHT, and 
HALL. Gr. 

BRIDLE,. «* BftV. ^ol. for ful^f, refinacu- 
Inm, babena \ a rein j where B fupplies the place 
of a digamma : Nug."— but as we obfcrved be- 
fore, under the art. BORDER,, though the 
.Solians fometimea ufcd the digamma p, and 
fometimes the B, before a vowel; yet what 
Hederic obferves is very juft ; " A.j-wfi/ta, duplex 
gamma; .ffiollca literai figura et vi fimilis La- 
tin« Fi fie difta, quod duorum 3? fibi fupcr 
impoQtorum formam gerat: p." SeeVolTius on^ 
the art. VIS: or the art.. VENGEANCE. Gr. 
BRIEZE 1 flftfm»tfremere,gravemurMMreder*i 
BRIMSEE > ita denominatus eft tabnau, Tct 
BRIZE J afilust vel oeftron ; et Sax. bpem- 
mza ; fremere,nt^e \ a lend buxxing gad-fiy: Vir- 
gil, in hi»<Third Geo. v. i46,hasdefcribedit thus:: 
Eft lucosSilari circa, Uicibufque virentem' 
Pluiimus Alburnum volitans (cut nomen Afi^ 
Romanum eft; tff^rra Graii vertere vooantes). 
/tfptr, aeeria fitutu :~^~~~- 
and Shakcfpear, in his jintoty mti CUopatmt. 
Aa III. fc. 7, fpeaking of the fca^fight off Aftium, 


B R 

From Greek, and L a t i w. 

B R 

and the flight of Antotiy and Cleopatra from that 
engagement, makes Scarus (ay. 

Sea. On our fide (the fight appears) like the 
tokend peftilcnce, 


(Whom Icprofyo'ertakCj) i*th' mid^o'th' fightj 

The iricze upon her, like a cow in June, 

Hoifts fail, and flies, 
had the ingenious editor of Hudthras but knownj 
and confidered thefe two paflages, we fliould not 
have had fuch ialfe orthogr, and fucH falfe anno- 
tation-writing on the two firft lines of the fecond 
canto, part III. as he has there exhibited : But- 
ler begins that canto thus : 

The learned write an inftS brteze 
Is but a inungrel prince of bees. 
That falls before a ftorm on cows, 
And ftings the founders of his houfe : 
on which the learned editor in his note obferves, 
that " breezes often bring along with them great 
quantities of infeSh, which fome are of opinion 
are generated from vifcous exhalations in the airj 
but our author makes them proceed from a cow's 
dung; and afterwards become a plague to that 
whence it received its original :" — what learned 
ftuff! what falfe philofophy ! Butler is not fpeak- 
ing o( breezes of windy thai bring infeils along with 
them : he means, and fays, an infeSl breeze^ or as 
it ought rather to have been printed an infeSI, 
briexe ; meaning that inje^, which is called a 
hUze, is but a mungrel prince of bees, bccaufe like 
them, fome think they are produced (not as this 
learned annotator fuppofes, from a cow's dungt 
but as Virgil fuppofes) from the dead carcafe of a 
cow: which equivocal generation is as falfe as 
the former. 

BRIM as afew\ " dicitur de fue marem ap- 
petentej" fays Skinn. " una voce /a^ar^; nefcio 
an a Sax. bpyne, ardohy afius ; q. d. jnaximo cum 
^eflut ut folcnt ifta .animalia, in vencrcm pru- 
rire:"— from which, we might fuppofe it came 
from the fame root with hrtne j which, fi fatis 
Griccus eflem, continues the Dr. declinarcm a 
fif"*) fcaiurio, dfffiuo, circumfluot plettus fum -, q, d. 
BfU(*«; ct fane, quid mari plenius?— but BRINE 
takes rather a different origin; as we Ihall fee 
prcfently, under that art. but ftill it is Gr. 

BRIM-STONE, " nf^flw, inceudere % to bun ; 
quafi BREN-^M« ; a Jione that will httrn ; by 
chang>ng n into B ; and then by contra<5tion : 
Upt." — this word is evidently derived from the 
Greek, through the Sax. bjiyne-jxan, quafi brenn- 
fiene,. or buming-fione i becaufe il h fo very infiam- 
mable ; we may therefore rather derive it a Xlv^, 
.ignis i unde uro ; JEoi, buro \ unde bufiumt ufium -, 
$e buroy or brea. 

BRINE : " fortafle fie di£lum eft quafi pytini 
asire t5 Ilufef, quod nimia falfuge w, iu^ar. ignis, 
adttrot: Jun." a fait picile -, pungent^ and Jharp: 
we might rather with Clel. Voc. 8c, fuppofe 
that brint was but another dialed for marine, 
mrinit brine -, for the m, and the £, tranfmute : 
but then maWwismoft probably Gr., .' 

BRINE // hither ; " various dialeft for bring it 
hither : Ray."— Gr. as next art. 

BRING. " Sax. bpinjan ; Alman ; pringen ; 
Teut. hrengaui per epenth. tS » faftum ex 
Tleipf)(ti¥, praherty afferre : Jun." 

BRINK : Sax. bpecan ; frangere ; locus praceps, 
praruptus; a Bj o!;^i;f, brevis i broken precipice. 

BRISK; " facis feliciter alludit Gr. AjSj.g, apud 
Hcfych. quod exponit EyfTtyofwf, i. e. ijigilanten 
hoc ab J, nen \ et Bji^w, dormio ; et certo Galli 
pro noftrQ brifkman aiunt un hemme efveille ; homo 
experre^us : Skinn."— /it'f/)', vigilant, and wakeful z 
Cafaub. with great fagacicy, derives bri^ S 
Sffiyaw, turgeoi item vegelusfum, et corpere bene 
habito i ul qui in fiore funt atatis ; Sff lyuynt tik 
iiAfHi«f, Jlorente et gejiienle a^tate : to be in the vigor 
of life: which latter deriv. ought rather to DC 
preferred : fee FRISK. Gr. 

BRISKET : " peBus cjrfi animalis ; q. d. hrtji- 
ket; lerminatio ket minuit: Skinn." — conlequently 
Gr. : fee BREAST. Gr. 

BR-IST-OL J" bartjl-el; head-fanBuary-col- 

BR-IST-OWi lege, bill, or wood i and kar-ift~ 
ew; bead- fantluary- town, or river : Clel.Voc.7i.n." 

BRI-TAlNj without following other etymol.' 
let me attend only to Clel. who has told us. 
Way. 54, that the terminations " tan, tain, tania, 
and tannia, all fignify land, or country ; as in 
A/aar/ cania, Z,«^-tania, ^yw-tania :" this how- 
ever does not give us any reafbn why tan, or 
tania, fhould fignify land, any more thzn water % 
the reafon feems to be becaufe Ta»«9c fignifies 
protenfusy extentus i 4 T«vum, i Tufw, txtendo ; the 
proper epithet of the eArtb, before mankind were 
acquainted with the <lcean : he then proceeds, 
and tells us, that *' ( in the original language fig- 
nified an ifiand: then there remains no more than 
Br, which prefents no fenfe in any known lan- 
guage, either ancient or modern ; but if you al- 
low a liberty of judgment, to rcftore the elliptic 
vowel Oy the word, without any violence, will give 
Bor-i, or the Northern-ijland ; t\\tnce Bori'tannia^ 
contraftcd to Bri-tannia :" — after this gentleman 
has thus given the juftell: deriv. of the name of 
our country, it is a wonder he did not go one 
ftep farther, and tell us, that Boriy Cert, Cauri, ■ 
all fignify the . Northern regions; from Bsfwr, 
Boreas; the North wind; on account of the vip' 
Unit blujleringt and cold windsi that generally blow 

,„.,<,, Google 

B R 

From Grbbk, tmd Latin. 

B R 

from that quarter: this wonder is the greater, 
becaufe he himfelf has added, " it is on ihe foot 
of this ftym. that the Druids, among their va- 
rious appellations, had that of Boreada, or per- 
haps better written Bor-ei-ad^i J^orth-ifiotiders" 
—There is only another deriv. of the name of 
Britain, that deferves to be produced, from the 
learned Bochart, who tells us» that " Britain is a 
name given to this ifland by the Phcenicians, 
■when they trafficked hither for tin, calling it Barat- 
anac\ the land of Tin \ contrafted afterwards to 
Sratanac ; and then again foftened into Bri- 
tannia .'"—this however could not have been the 
firft appeUation of our ifland j becaufe we can 
hardly fuppofe that the Phcenicians were the peo- 
ple who dilcovered thofe mines, which undoubt- 
edly had been opened by the inhabitants them- 
felvcs, for ages before the Phcenicians came hi- 
ther to piirchafe that article : Cleland's dcriva- 
tion therefore feems to be more probable. 

If we follow the deriv. of Sammes, we muft 
trace the name of our ifland from the Phoeni- 
cians, who, he fays, 39, firft difcovered this coun- 
try in the year of the world 3256, i. e. 748, 
bef. Chr. and named it Barat-anacy contrafted to 
Sratanac. 41. — as to the former part of this com- 
pound Bra/, it may be Phoenician, to fignify tin j 
but .that the latter part anac, p. 43, (hould fig- 
nify tin among the Phcenicians, may be very 
much doubted, fincc all our ctymol. contend 
that the termination tania, in Smania, or ra- 
ther, as Sammes himfelf afferts, in p. 42, «M<t, 
IS a frequent termination of countries in the 
world as Gfrm-ania, Pomw-ania, TranJylv-^M, 
Rtm-ZMA i Now if, as he acknowledges, ama is 
the fame as anac, and attae fignifies tin, then all 
thofe countries which have the fame termination 
muft have been as famous for tin as Britain and 
the Caffittridis \ which I believe no hiltorian will 
allow : it might therefore be more proper to 
fuppofe with the etymol. that tanta, or rather in- 
deed ania^ ligniBcs country, or region; and then 
it might originate from A»a^, rex-, undc ktatnau^ 
Ttgo, unde regnum, unde re^ \ a region, country, 
or difiriEi, famous for barat, tin : and from hence 
may be derived our nanre Brit-zma.-, compounded 
of haLf Pheenician, and half Greek, i. e. the "Greek 
Kim^ may be derived from the Pheenician anac. 

BRITTEN-*«/.- Ray in his preface tells us, 
that " britttH-heef fignifies to break the bones cj 
it ; from the Sax. bjiirran, frangere ;," — but brit- 
tan, was fo very near to brittle ; and' brittle to 
brickU; and hrickle to bracklt; and braeile' to- 
break ; and break to Bf «;(;yf , brevis ; Jhort, or broken 
into fieri pieces; that it is a wonder he did not fee. 
tl.c Sax. was vilibiy defccnded.from riie Gr." 

BRITTLE, quafi hrickle ; a irw*:— confe- 
qucntly Gr. I'fee BREAK. Gr. 

•BROACH, or peirce a barrel; " Bft;^w, made* 
facio, irrigo \ to pour out; becaufe a barrel, when 
breached, pours out its contents : Nug." — this deriv. 
is very doubtful ; becaufe the word broach is not 
folely applicable 10 pouring out, as the word 
^('X.'^ is, which can never be tortured fo far as 
to fignify transfigere j to peirce ; which is the fenfe 
of our word broach: it has been referred rather to 
the Sax. Alph. 

BROAD i nx4u;, latus^ amplus ; large, ample, 
wide : fee ABROAD. Gr. 

BROCK, fragmentSi or broken meat ; and con- 
fequently derived from BREAK. Gr. 

BROCK, or break wind; but not from the 
foregoing art. : now it feems to be derived from 
Bf *X«> fo»o, ruSio ; to make a noife with the throat, 

BROGLE/?r eels ; " Fr. Gall. Brouiller; per- 
lurbare, confundere ; quia fc. in aqua perturbati* 
ct corfufd, anguillx facilius capiuntur ; Skinn." — 
there certainly can be no objcftion to this deriv. 1 
only let me obferve, that brogle may come from 
the fame root with PROG; (\\ii^-i progle in the dirt, 
in the mud : and if fo, it would be Gr. 

BROIDER, "X«f«, ffrai vel ah O^a, terminus, 
limes, limhus ; a border ; hence broider %. acu pin. 
gere, flumare, opere Pbrygte vartare :■ Gall. breder\ 
Belg. borducren ; tanquam fit ^ berd, vel boord ; 
ora, extremitas, •vejiium limbus; quoniam tunica- 
rum extrcmitates ut plurimum opere Phrygia 
diftinguebant vcteres ;' Jun." fine needle-work, 
wrought on the borders, or extremities- of robes, &c^ 

BROIL, OT tumult i " Fr. Gali. Brouiller -, per- 
turbare, confundere ; to dijlurb, or caufe any co»- 
fufion i and confcquentLy may be derived from the 
fame root with BROGLE, juft above mentioned : 
or perhaps broii, and coil, meaning the fame things 
may take the fame deriv. : i. e. ftill Gr. 

BROKER.; rif (iJ]m, «-iT£«;t«,pr£et. med . a-wj ay*, 
inter alia. fignificat traSoipararii, ieuproxenet^vice 
fungor I Pranfigo pro ali^uem : " eft et nf«n«, pro 
n^auj, vel Unr^emcft, ex quo prxt. irnrfaxoi, v.ft- 
didi: J-un." "a fa£ior;anagintfor aKot/;er: CafaubJ* 

BROOCH, or, as it is fometimes vi/TittcTirbruche, 
and broucbe l a Bj ey;t»s, guttur, collum ; (c. menilr, 
torques, aurea catena : " a coilo namque iftiufmodi 
ornamentorum denominatio potiffimgm defumpta- 
eft : JuB." — a necklace^ chain,, or locket, worn about 
the neck, arm, &c. 

BROOD i S^w,, pullulo i m bring fsrlbyoang- i 
Co batch.- 

BROOK, to hear, endure \ " 3. Bj uk«, Bfuxaa, edp^ 
digertrt, concoquere rem aliquam antma gravem : 
C^aub." ita aiunt Latini devorare miferias ^ deve. 


S R 

From G ft B B K, tnd L a t > s. 

B R 

T(^t t^Jiumt Jineyxefafym¥, to Sg'fi '"V fiffronU htar 
av} misfortune. 

BROOK, or Hvultl % " Bfu*?, ^ol. pro 'P««g, 
^ rivukh fx fmalifirtam: Cafaub." " vcl i Bpe^^ii, 
fiitvia { rain i qudd iJiu/fmeM rivuii tx repentino 
imhre eeUeSiy tjufdem plmn^e imfttu intumfcant, et 
tenciteiaar : Jun." and yet neither of thcfc deriv. 
'can fo properly be called the root, as tlie Wancties 
of the verbs B^ix<«< «" '?*• : *Bd tberefcHT Upton 
iia* more properly derived a hraok, 'or rivulet, 
from Bfi^tit Bi^^9x»t to wet, or motften. 

BROOM, Bf»<», brya •» a ftHaUJbrubt with twigs, 
like hircb ; of which thty make brufiet, bromts, &c. 

BROT i " Sax. Debjiore ; fragmenta pants j 
offals : Ray." — then we might fuppofe it was 
derived either from Bf«Io»j eihus, efca^ pamt -, bread : 
or clfc from Bfit^^ut, brevis \ broken \ as when we 
iay> broken bread, broken meat, 8cc. 

BROTH, " Bfulfl*, vinum herdeaceum : Upt." 
Parley wine ; properly beer, or aty kind of liquid, 
foiled with feveral ingredients, in order le foup : 
Cafaubon and Junius derive our word broth " a 
^cir1», efca, cibus :" — but none of thofe words 
■were ever applied before to liquid foods. Skinn. de- 
Tives iretb, a Sax. bpo^ ; and that word 3. bjiipan, 
toquere : — then it feemsbut natural to derive them 
all a Be«^w, ferveo, bullio ; to boil, cook, or drefs any 
tbingjy boiling. 

BROTHEL i " by tranfpofition I Fr. Gall, bor- 
■dtl, velberdeau; Itil. bordello ; lupanarj txbord; 
margo \ ct eau ; aqua ■, quia lupanaria ad ripas 
Jfuminis ctiam apud Romanos olim conftrueban- 
tur: Skinn."^ — Ihould this deriv. be right, both 
BORDfr, and ««, are Gr. 

BROTHER J any perfon would fuppofe from 
the termination of the Greek words Tl»l~nf, pater; 
Mnl-Bf, mater; ©vy«7-tif,//M ; that our word Are- 
tber was defccnded from the Greek, through the 
Latin word frattr, derived from *f a;7nf , curialis ; 
and Cafaubon and Upton are of that opinion ; 
though indeed the former acknowledgee that 
** *f»Iwf, vel *f«1»if apud Grscos magis generale 
vcrbum, quam vel frater apud Latinos, vel bro- 
ther apud Anglos j qua tamen ex ifto commu- 
niore verbo manifle nemo dubitat ;" — but if no 
body had doubted it before his time, we muft de- 
fire leave to diffent now from this great man's opi- 
nion in this art. for ♦foJuf in Greek does not fig- 
nify brother j but one qui tfi in curia ejufdem con- 
ftrtio s me who enjoys the privileges of the fame 
tribe i or as we may fay, one of the fame brether- 
beed, confraternity, calling, trader but A/iAfc; is 
properly Greek for a brother by birth, or cenfan- 
guimty, or the being defcended from the fame parents : 
and therefore it may rather be derived from the 
Greek, through a Northern chanoel » for with 

Verft. Jua. aad Skinn. we raxf rather foppofi-, 
that our word brother was ddcended from the 
Sax. bjiolSeji ; Theotifc. bnuther-, "Adg, breeder \ 
Dan. broder } Teuc. bruder ; " credo hsc omnia," 
fays Skinn. '^ defiexa ^ verbo to breed % q. d. 
/«/w, i. e. edacatas, partus-, af the fame brood i**— 
only the Dr. ought not to have ftopc there ; for 
brudt and brood, undoubtedly originate i B^iw, 
pulkUi as he has himfelf acknowledged undir 
the arc. BROOD. Gr. 

BROUSE, BfBffwi, pafco ; to feed onfhrubs ; See. 

BROW of the eyes 1 *f e«f, vel *f a»7«, front, tit ^ 

BROW of a hill I the forehead: Skinn. quotes 
Cafaub. for deriving brow ab O^u;, fttpereilium ^ 
and Jun. had' made the fame obiervxtion i atque 
inde liquet rcliqua deriratacfie per aphseref. primte 
fyllabse, quad ftfunc, vel B^uo, a brow: and we 
may rather adopt this latter deriv. 

BROWN i " Sax. et Fr. Gall, bmn ; Belg:. 
brvfn ', Teut. brann ; Ital. brmu \ fufcus ', videri 
pofltint corrupts ex Tbifftt, rnfum, rubeum ; quando- 
quidem eoleres ifiifunt vicini ; Jun." dark red ', ber'~ 
dering ■ on black. Clel. Voc. 85, fays, that *' by 
enallagc of b for m, we have our word brown \ 
as the French their brun, and brunet, from morwin'\ 
fomewhat black,' or tending' to black : but aor feems 
to be only a contra£lion of mer-tuus, \. e. I 
Meif-a, mors ; death, deadly, difmal, gloomy, black i 
and win is only a diminutive, the fame as tveei 
ab E-\eur<niv, minor : fo that morwin, or borwis, 
contracted to brown, fignifies a/badt of black, or 
fomewhat black. 

BRUE, " to brue, or brew ; from Bftilo*, beer 
when brewd: Athenseus, lib. X. c. 13, t^i' A 
x^tSiM* oitw, x<Ei flPTTON Tiwr xotAwri* : vinum her' 
deaceum BRUTON nonnulli vocant : et hinc broth : 
Upt." — bcGdes this fenfe, we have another, in 
which the word brue is fometimes taken ; viz. to 
mix, or pour two liquors together; and then it 
feems to take its origin from B(uw, fcateo, fundo^ 
ct fcalere facio i to bubble, likeafpring; to fcatter, 
pour, flow : unlefs we chufc to derive it with 
Skinn. from $i>(vw, mifceo \ to mingle, or mix to- 
gether : tho' perhaps it might rather be derived a 
Bffi^w I hullio t to boil. 

BRUISE, '?iiynu, *PiiyKi|ui, frango \ to break, or 
bruife: we may rather fuppofe with Jun. that 
bruife was derived 4 It^iu, feco ; nifi proplus ac- 
ceideret ad illud Bf(|«, quod Hefych. exponic 
«'>'^'(, firingendo premit, impetum facere ; to attack 
with violence. 

BRUIT, Bf ifm, fremo, fremuit, quafi hrenmt^ 
unde bndt', to make awf loud noife; to report abroad; 
vel tl B^i?ii, tonitru ; thunder ; and h«c ufed figu- 
ratively to fignify/nne, that is puhlijbed to aU thr 
world. Cafaub. 20j, has fliewa that die Greeka 


B R 

From Gkeek, and Latiit. 


h^A a mvfiehi infirument, colled 'Pof^^ot ; 'Vtf^o! 

xluiroii a»o]tAj«r* ; etymologicutn exponit Munxoi- 

linde Helych. *Pe/*0flr, if^^sr, r^tfet, *ix'*> '~''*^ ' 
Sddit aucem etymologicum, idem inftrunnentum 
Bjiiliif« Mtam nuncuparum ; undc fortaflc et Gal- 
licum iruit: Angli k Gall, an Gr. acceperint, 
ne(cio : fed ec 'illi hruitt de rumore, (qui lingua 
fenus) ufurpant. 

BRUMAL; Bfo/x(»(, cognomen Bacchi : R. 
Bf (/*u, /rw/c ; to roar tit the feftivals of Bromius, 
■or Bacchus : vel refllus i Bf a;^ufi brevis ; et «/*£(«, 
^j ; qu6d breviffimus dies hi id tempus indder^t, 
in quo erant fejia Bacchi: bruma quafi brtvima; 
hrevimus pro breviffimus; the Jhartefi day cf the 
J4ttr; mid'-winterj or the winter folftice : this lat- 
ter dcriv. Clcl. Voc. 7. n, does not admit of; 
and therefore would derive it from " ber-im j 
the cold feafon : h-cer ; cold % and im j weather : 
it is from ifs, in this (enfe, that the French derive 
t4ms; and the Italians ttmforaie : terns, timet or 
dilation of timet derives differently :"— but very 
probably there is no did«rcnce as to deriv. and 
but very little as to Signification : however, let 
im, temsy and tatporale, come from any language 
on earth ; ftill bor, or b-oer moft undoubtedly 
comes from Boreas, fignifying eeld, and blufierirg; 
and confequentJy Gr. 

BRUNT, by tranfpofition from burnt ; the 
heat of aHion, the violence of the enfet: a Teut. et 
Belg. brunfi ; ardor, <alor, ajias ; hum, quafi furn, 
a rttif , ignis ; fire. 

BRUSH, f/M»i fci^ot, firidor cum Jbiloi hire 
rufcus, unde fcopafiunt, oficinis vecatur brufeu j 
aiPf thing made, at firji, of rufhes, and afterwards 
ef ether materials, to fweep, or cleanfe away duft, &c. 

BRUSH-wflcii J either from the fame root, 
to fignify fmall twigs to make brooms, &c. : or 
elfe a Iluf, unde are, peruftum ; quafi brufium j 
fafces, ex eo confefti, ob ligni tenuitatem ftatim 
aecenduntur ; fmali fagots ef underwood j which, 
on account of the fiendernejs of their twigs, eafily 
kindle; kindling-wood. 

BRUTE, a-wo tnt B«fu7f!j«e, i. e. gravitate; nam 
gravem, inrerpretatur Feftus in brutus, et obrutus, 
immobilem, ut v'tdctur ; obfiinately fxt : " Scrviusi 
quem vide ad illud ^n. X. ubi brutum interpre- 
tatur fenfu carens : nam terra a Jenfu hngiffime 
ahefi : fed per meraph. poftea vox ha:c turn tar- 
dus, ac ftupidis accommodata : VolT." a dull, fiufid, 
heavy creature ', infenfible, irrational; incapable of 
knowledge, or religion. 

BRUTTE : Ray acknowledges this to be only 
a Southern dialed: for browfe ; but BROUSE 
is Gr. 

■ BRYONY, Sfi}imci, bryoniat vitis gentis •, e wild 
vine, growing in hedges, and bearing a red berry. 

BUBBLE, B#?.fl. ja^us,'b:dla, bulhla ; a bubble 
ef water ; forte quod conJeSu !apidum, &c. -, ^uUa 
excitari foleat : ^. B»\Xm, jacio. ■• 

BUBBY; 'Tu, humeo, humeHo, unfe uber; a 
dug, or teat. 

BUBO, " BafBw, inguen ; the groin : a difcafe* 
afftSifig that pert. Nog." 

BU-CEPHALUS, Bi«i?«;iof, Bucrphalus -, tau- 
rino et magno capite praditus : an ex-headed, or 
large-hfaded horfe: the name of Alexander's 
horfe i To called a Bsf, bos \ an ox; et KifsA);, 
caput ; the head. 

BUCK, or deer^ 'i^y.^, caprea % Cafaub. : Sax.' 
bttcca ; BeJg. et Teut. bock ; bircus, caper ; ef the 
goat, flag, or deer fpectes. 

BUCKINGHAM-yWw, « fo called," fays Verfl:. 
150, " of the aboundancc of 4»t«-fr«/, that 
there grew ; or, as we now pronounce them, hea-. 
cben-trees :" — but BEECH, is Gr. 

BUCKLE, OT bend down : "Sax. Bujan, Cc- 
\iu-^zn, fleStere : vide BOW: Skinn."— tt iurve; 
ftoop, or bow down : confequcntly Gr. 

BUCK-WHEAT ; bccaufe this word happens 
to wear a different appearance, our etymol. fcem 
to have loft fight of the original dcriv. Juniu* 
acknowledges that " buckwheat is derived iDan, 
begvedt ; Belg. boeik-weyt ; and that they both 
fignify fago-pyrum; faginum frunKntumi"'-~an^ 
Lye, under the art. ^pci, and under the art. Betcb^ 
acknowledges that both thofe words are derived 
from/tfj-usi. confcquently Gr. 

BU-COUCS, " BsMAtxfK, pafioralis ; a f($Brd 
poem, in which mention is made ef Jbepherds, and 
other ruftics : R. Bkc, bos j an ex ; et xt>Xt>t, tibuSf 
fopd; a feeder of oxen, oxherds. Nug." 

BUDGET, B«^yoe, pro MeXyof, quod Hefychio 
tefte eft Bo««f ««e5, faccus coriaceus j Voff. S SoXyae 
eft bulga ; a pouch, or leather bag : Galli balgas 
facculos fcorteos appellant; hanc ,vocem Maffi? 
lienfibus accepiffe dicamus: velzUayy^yfaccuIusi 
quafi pcudget, 

BUFALOJor as Nug. and others write if, 

BUFF S ^fffif- B«f3*^«, bubalus, bes_fihef-r 
trisi a fort ef wild ox: R. Baf, bos ; an ex. Nug." 

BUFFET, or blew; na^vvrv, vebementius fpi- 
rare ; the blowing, or puffing up the ebieis to re- 
ceive blows; unde Belg. befen; et ab hoc^nyfj 
tales colaphi buffets nuncupaniur Anglis. Jun." 

BUFFOON, Ba/3o^. loqaax, nugator ; a hah- 
bling trifier; unde Belg. beffen, itteptire ; ItaL 
huffone; ex. GiW. b6ufon,fcurra, mimarius, ctfce- 
nicus ; a firewd and crafty court foal -, '* a fool ef 
plefaunce ; fuch a one as kings and gre^ tnen loved 
to entertain .; Jun." 


B tl 

Frmr Gxekk, and Latim. 

B- U- 

• BUG-BEARS J botfrjiftr.aod Skino. have ex- 
pbined the foraner part of this compound ex- 
tremely well i viz. larvte^ terricuiamentaf mandu~ 
cut ; and have as properly derived ic il pugs i ia- 
moMS : '* fed credo non quofvia," fays Skinn. " fed 
eosfolbm qui forma pucrorum fagis cc pythoniSts 
apparent, et ab iis blandimencis et obfccents of- 
ciilis, intcrdwn et Venerea coitUj tanquam amalii> 
cxcipiuntur :" — fince then they are fach la/dvieus 
£entfy, there c«0 be no good reafon why the Dr. 
mould fcruple to derive theft ff^t, or hig-bears, 
inuytit— but, "nollemdeflexum aHuyii/'fayi he, 
" hoc eninr dn^dum inuerac :" — and it is for that 
very re^n that we ought to derive them from 
Hv^n : becaufe, were the iuSt mie» and we were 
to admit of the former pan <^ the Dr's. narra- 
tion, the latter would be u caGly admiflible: 
let me only obferve however that this deriv. an- 
ftiers but to the former part of this . compound 
hug-hears %. bot to the latter, I have not as yet been 
able to fatisfy my inquiries. 

BUGGER: " nuy», cin^dus; nam Italorum 
{>lerirque fmfta ab eldem orjgine nuncupatur 
JedcmHa : iofandse hujus libidmis turpitudo Belgis 
efcgintcr nuncupatur _yj«n»if fonde, q. d. mulum 
fecc£tumi qudd illud ob enormcm fiagiriofx ii- 
toidinis impuritatem, nc quidem fas fit Di»ninare: 
Jun." tbt unj^akahiejiii. 

WJGLE-ierti: " ixgle eft honafus, the wild 
- hull ; \l^ Ml bugU'hom xwnt bonafi-contu : Lye." 
-—this does not infonn us from whence hugh is 
derived ; to trace which, Skinner will help us i 
for he fays, q. d. bucuU ; {tujuvenc^-cema -, but 
there he has ftopt -, fo thtt we muft look for 
iittula in BusXAt, huiuicut: R. Bat, hos; an ox, 
or bull J aod hngU-born quafi boukk-bontj is no 
more than a wtld-huits-bern. 

■ BU-GLOSS, '* B»y?MrB-et, buglejfus ; boragi j an 
htrb fi called, which refembles the i4ngiu of an 
9x : R. B«f, hos i an ox; and r?Mirf», lingua ; the 
tongne:. Nug^" 

BUILD i Giel.Way. 71. tells us, that in the 
fyllable il lies the power of altitude, or idea of 
height i and hence beconrics radical to hilli to 
w//;j, to knoll,, or top of a hill i to build^ and 
building: but- in his Voc. aM, he fays, that al, 
it, il, el, and ul (the vowel being in fad: indif- 
fereiit) is-perceivably the eeiimon of many words 
importing eaumnu, and height : — but il, hill, el, 
and tol, evidently originate a KoA-h»), co1-& j a 
hili, or atPf eminenae ; and here ufcd to figaify a 
^ruSttfftj, OF edifice. 

BULB,' Bi>A(3ft$, ^ifj^KT; radix quevi» rotunda 
J fialUvH J any root that is rounds and wrapped in 
manyfiini, atjilmt; as. leekfi,.tBions,' tali^ ro»ts,.at^ 
ihvts of garlic^ 


BUL-FINCHi «*Sax. |:mcjTeut.j&«*tand 

Belg. belle, buiU ; quafi. bos~fringilla ; the large 
finch: Skinn, under the art. Fincb:" — we have 
already obferved, under the art. BOOBY, that 
bull, and her/et are additional exprelHons only 
ufed to Ggnify hri'i otjirongi and therefore we 
may derive the former part of this compoun2 
bull from the Gr. and the latter part ^r« from 
the Alman. vincc ; as in the Sax. Alph. 

BULGE, BeXyflt, pro Moxysf, quod Hefych. 
exponit Boatt mrxa;, Jotcus coriaceus ; a leatherbag^ 
which fwells out like a beHy ; from whence comes 
the Sax. biliT, uter, et ima pars navis -, and a 
{hip is faid to oe bulged, bilged, or bildged, and to 
have bUged water, " quando rupi, vel anchor* 
alliditur ; eoque inBmis tabulis fra£tis, et con- 
cuflis, rimam, imo ndnam-agil i when it fprings a 
leak, and draws in much water, fo as to fink :' 
Skinn."-'but then the Dr. has not gone far 
enough j for he does not feem to have been-fenfi- 
ble that bilij originated from bulga -, and iulga 
from BtKytf. Lye in his Add. obferves, that ic 
may be derived from Belg. belgbe, bulght; or 
Sued, boelia ; or Iceland, hylia ; fiuilus ; the waves, 
or the billows ; viz. when the fhip is funk mid the 
waters ; but even then it would' be Gr. Sec 

BULK 1 Lye in his Add. derives this word " I 
bulkci Iceland, navis onus ; unde fine dubto de- 
fluxit vocabuUim :" — ^but we may doubt whether 
the Icelandic be the original word : at leaft it does 
not fignify navis onus 10 particularly, but that ii 
may be applied to weight in general; aftd then 
with Cafaub. it may be- derived ab 'OXxti, enus^ 
pendkSi hnrdtn, weight: and then to break bulky, 
is to begin to unload; not only to lighten the fbip, 
but to alleviate any ether weight: It may likewife 
in this fenfe fignify magnitude, and fize; fince they 
generally include the idea of weight. 

BULK-ieWl or rather balker i k Belg. balck^ 

BULKER i trabs j a beam ; and confcqucnt- 
ly originates from the- fame root with BALK-^. 
or beam. Gr. 

BULL, Bat, bosi an ox; qvafiboull: Skinner 
fuppofes it derived from the Belg. and Sax. bolle, 
built; buUucey diminutivum; taunts; a bull, of 
your^fieer : nollem defle€tere a HwAos, puHus ; for 
that is the young of any creature; as when we fay 
a fole; or a pullet: neither would I, with Juiu 
fuppofe-it derived a BeAn, iilus, plaga; quod 
comu-feriat ; for all horned creatures do the fame* 

BULL */ the Pope ; Bwkn, cendUum ;■ eouncil^ 
cenfaltstion : perhaps even the word BaX^ may b« 
defceaded^ fiki^as voh; Twill, it- is my opi' 
-man i. becaufe, when a perfon- gives bii opinion iit 
coumilxM declares his will : from both, thcfe deriv. 

B D 

Prom GkzeR> tnd t.AT«'w*' 

B U 

therefore die proper way of writing this word 
would be the Pope'i heuh unlefs, with Sir John 
£«eiyn, we would derive it from Biiu«> hulU ; a 
feal, fti to arrf fucb writing as a decree. 

BULXACE, " commonly called /A/ huHy-tree; 
ii BwX«(, gUha i a chd, or rstmd lump of earth, 
&c. frunum jylvffire -, fortaffc 5 nttaidttate glokoja 
fie di^um: Slcinti." 

BULLET; " B#Xii, halU; jaSus, iihu; tie 
aBim of throwing, or whatever is thrown : R. 
SnXAw, JMie J to httri, or ca/i : or from neXor, the 
fde vf the heavens, or the heed, or any round fi- 
gure: R. Ht\ii*, verta i to-torn: Nug." — this lat- 
ter leans to be rather too forced a dcriv. for tho' 
DaXoi, and n«;^(w, figmfj the pole -of the heavens i 
and to tarn round; yet perhaps that is always un- 
derilood of a cirtular motion ; but nover to mean 
glsbuiar body, like a bullet, or a cannon ball: it 
would be more natural to derive bullet from BwAofj 
kclus i a round mafs, or lump of metal, &c. 

BULLION ; fortean k B«>o{, bolus, gleba ; quia 
argentum hoc non fignatum glebarum forma con- 
fpicitur : uncoizicd filver in the mafs, or lump. 

BULLY; " vel ^ burly ; grandis, cbefulus : vcl 
hiuUke; tnagnitudoj vir liberaliori via^ probe /a- 
ginatus : vcl, q. d. bull-eyed, Bowiri;, i. e. bottinis 
ficulis, feu gran£oribuSi praditus : Skinn." — this 
>aft, tho' very applicable, yet can fcarce be called 
an ttym. however it is very well fuited to thofc bluf- 
terivg, big-boking, fierce-talking gentlemen: there 
would be no impropriety in deriving this/«m»j 
hero, the bully, direftly from *Xi;(u, bullio j to boil, 
to bubble; one whole blood is always in a ferment, 
ever boiling j or at Icaft feems to be fo. 

BUL-WARK, *' BwXAu 1 BeXifsf, or BatAnfej, a 
raptparti or v/ont of earth, thrown up : R> BaXtt, 
gleba ; a clod, or lump of clay, or -earth : Nug," — 
the root indeed is regular,- but the produftion is 
rather jejune ; for neither ioXifct, nor BmAh^o;, ap- 
pear in any lexicon : we may therefore rather 
fuppofe that bulwark was compounded of iul and 
work; buliBus, An cphhetof firengtht and here 
fignifying firong ; and ivark. Sax. peonc j Tcut. 
verck; opus; wotk; all evidently derived ab 
Efy-.!*, epui; work; the whole compound meaning 
ajtout, firong work, or fortification. 

BUM 7 derived cither from B«ef- 

■ BUM-FIDDLE J nfititMt.mons-ebfeqttens; afub- 
tnifftvt hillock of flefh: orelfefrom two Krench words, 
which we have traduced into ^am/rfi://?, whether 
with dcfign, or not, would be difficult to fay; but 
according to itsprefcnc appearance, theexpreflion 
feenu to carry neither fenfe, nor meaning; whereas 
there feema to be a little jocularity in it, if we 
fuppofe it-to be.derived from ban fiddle; meaning 
»jotd 3xuifaiti^l/nmd-t it fitre'&adfieady alfy; 

a eonfiant attendant, an infeparahle tompanion :-~ 
only nowwemuft trace imp cothcGc.j for^nsj, 
And fidelis, are derived from that language. 

BUM-PER; another evident deviation from 
the French bpn-fire ; the good-father, meaning 
the Pope, whofe health was always drank by the 
monks ^ter dinner in afullgiafs : — however ben- 
pire is derived i Fetof-walrf, bomu-pattr ; the good' 
father, meaning his holinefs. 

BUNG, n»f)M, operimentam, epiftomitm ; Bclg^ 
bomgat; Fr. Gall, iondm; the covering over Jhe 
hole of the veffel, cr ct^. 

BUNGLE; " Fr. Gall. bougonMr-, inepti rem 
aggredi: vd i Fr. Qall. bandiri refiiirei qui 
enim ine^£ rem aggreditur, fubtnde confufus; 
refilit; et tnedicabundus opus tantillum inter* 
mittit: Slcinn."— confcquently Gr.: fee 80UNI^< 
or leap. Gr, 

BUNN, Fe»(, MfA. hnust honttkui a goodi 
dainty, fine cake. 

BUNNY, Bwef, coUis,JumUnSi arifingi/meU- 
ing ground, a hilloek. 

BUNTlNG-/ar*i *' ataudafpeeiesi Fr.Gall.^- 
dir, refilire,faltitart \ quia hfec avis h.\im\ fubfili,re,t^ 
faltitare io\ct; quod eoverifimilius fit, quod univer- 
fum alaudarum genus humi nidulantur: Skinn." — 
theDr. feems to have been no very great naturalift j 
for fparrows do not build their nefts on the ground, 
and yet they fiibfiUnnt, ct faltitant : but, if his 
etym. be juft, ftill it is Gr. fee BOUND, or leap. 

BURBOT J holothuria, mufiela fiuviattlis ; Fr. 
GzlLbourbei non i barba, ye\ arunco i fed quia 
lutum, et camum roflro, aafetum modo, commo- 
vct ; hoc autem beurbe, fi Gneculus es efuriens 
(fo polite is Skinn, at prefent) potes decHnare i. 
Gr. BD^af«r: — but why this ill-natured reflation, 
fiGraculus es efuriens? — B«f|3»fe( fignifics lutum, 
aenam, limus j and if this greedy fifh delights fo 
much in mid, as moft eels do (for it is a fpecies 
of eel-pout) there reafon why <h,ii phy/tciani-' 
cuius efuriem fhould be fo averfe from admitting 
this Gr. deriv. particularly i^ter he had cold us 
that this B£b was called btmrbe -, quia lutum et camum 
commovet: it were to be wiflied that fome of hia 
old Sax. Teut. Belg. and Fr. Gall, deriv. had oot 
been more foreign. 

BURDEN, to bear : B«f«f quafi BmJw, burdut,. 
burden ; pondus, onus ; moleftia ; atrf prejfurt, neifbtt 
or trouble : Verftcgan writes it byrtinn -, and fiip- 
pofes it to be Sax. 

BURGH ? Hufyoj, quafi Bv()'-*r> hurgus, twt" 

BOROUGHS ris; a towtr, or ftreng place i 
■alfo the chief magifirate of a fortified tevm : fee 
BURROW. Gr. Verftegan ohferves, that " im- 
rough metaphdrically fignifieth a town bavit^g m 
wauoj-or/ome- kynd of (l^ure about-it : -aUb s s0k: 

"' Googie-' 

B U 

. From- Gi-tZK, and L a t i tf. 

B V 

all places that in old tyme had among our an~ 
eeters the name of bottrougb, yi^Tt places one 
way or. other fenfcd, or fo/tified :" — and yet this 
good old Saxon could not fee the true deriv. of this 
word, that it was Gr. Clel. Voc. jo, fays, *' the 
word bar admits of a very extenfive ligoi^cation ; 
a hurgber, or freeman was called a barmaiti or 
iitfr-»Ma:Jbut the word borough" he tells us, " fig- 
nifies a town haying municipal oifices, in fhort, 
of juftice:"— then confctiucnUy Gr. ft;e BAH, 

BURG-LARYi '^ vox forenftSyfed valgo nota: 
Skinn." — who has given us a longer remark than 
iifual on this word ; and though he acknowledges 
it to be •uulge nota as to the fignification,- yet has 
pralnty {hewn that he knew nothing of the true 
etym. notwithftanding his having .quoced the 
"Lat. Sax. f r.. Gall, and NoriTian, .languages : I 
fhall not go through all his tedious obfervations, 
but comment only on what he has fixt ; viz. 
*'Sax. bujijh i arx; et Normannici terminatione 
lary j iary vera in eempo^liene lalrocimum Jignififaii 
I Fr. Gal], larron ; latra ; larrecin -, latrocinium i 
q. d. arcis,{cueafteltit latrocinium; domus enim eft cu- 
JMfq^ue arx:" — all this will be mod readily grantcdj 
but then, why did he fopprefs the Gr. ctym. ? did 
he know, or did he not. know, that the Sax. bujijh 
was evidently derived from Xlufy-dj, arx, turris ? 
and did he know, or djd he not know, that the 
Norman termination Iary, which he acknowledges 
to be derived from, the Fr. Gall, larron, latro, 
was ftill farther derived i, latro; etA«?f«u- 
tm, latrccinari S if h^ did know it, and would 
not declare it, then pacnaiity to his Saxons and 
Normans- made him- fupprefs it; and if he did 
not know it, his ignorance is the more inexcuf- 
ahlc/ becauie the Gr. dcriv. was fo vifible. 

BURG-RAVE - again we have here another in- 
ftance of Skinn's. partiality or ignorance i the 
latter can^fcarce be thoi^ht ; and why a man of 
lettert^ jhould not go up to the fource of words, 
when he knows in what language it is to be 
found, would be diffieult to fay : but here he 
has derived " hurgrave, i Tcun. burggraff ; or 
Belg. hargh~graef, vel grave-i i. e. urbis, feu op- 
pidit pra/eSf vel p-afeHus : vide burougb, and 
grave :^'- — the former of thefc we. have already 
ieen Ti- Gr* then ictus- now Ihew that the latter 
is fo iikewife : " grave, or reve," fays the Dr, " ^ 
Sax. . Xjcpepa,, prafeSust e;taSer, pratpr, hoc a 
particula otiofa De, et verbo peaf lan JpoUare, 
rapere ; Dan. greffve ; Belg. gravt, graf, et 
graef I Tent, graffe, gr^ff \ omnia 2 Lat.-rtff*rtf j 
fortean quia gravii in antiq. regno German, 
cantumi ixaSeres, feu ut Jul. Capitol, vocat,. 
rationales friueipum ftteruHt, qui jam in tantam dig- 
nitatem excreveruxt :" — but furely the Dr. mwft 

have known that papan, rapere^ rapio, afid rapax, are 
all derived ab 'Afira^u, rapio j undc 'Af«-»£, rapax-t- 
fo that this word burgrave is derived not from the 
Sax. &c. but from the Gr. as its true fource. 

BURLESK, or barlefque, " Gall, burler ; Itaf.- 
burlare ; Lat. Bar. burdare eft jocare, luderey. 
bourd; jocusi hincj ut mihi cruidcm videtur,** 
fays Lye, " fit burlare, d \n I mutato ; quod' 
nonnunquam fieri patetexltal. cigla, procicada:"~ 
— " fed unde inquies," fays Skinn. " Ital. burlare f 
forte k nom. parola ; diSto^ vocabulum i-omnino ut 
diHerium, Si dicendo : vel ^Ilox. ferula ;<^.-^. feru* 
lare j i. e. fanna verberare ;"— rt ridicuk the' 
works of an autber: only now it happens a littla 
unfortunately for the Dr. that both pflrela- and- 
ferula, are Gr. 

BURLYj " grandis obe/ulas; <^-d: beOr-like f. 
agricols enim propter labores,. et inde plenum - 
viftum, corpore granMores funt : Skinfl."— but 
perhaps it might be more natural to derive burly^ 
l'Rt\s,,bulkei bulky, burly, big: onlyMJUCis Gr;- 

BURN, nvfosi., comburoy buro, incendere -, t9- 
kindle, fet on fire : R. lluf , ignis ; fire. ■ 

BURNISH : " Fr. Gall, et Hifp. bninir ; Ital.- 
brunire j expolire-, puta arma :- credo a verbo /* burna 
quia arma accurate polita, et vernifo ut loquimur 
illita, . adco jntenfej^/(«(/«/, ut quafi ardere vide^ 
antur : hinc poctis gladii micantes, -et cerrufcanteY:.' 
Skinn." — but ftill he will not allow,, thatour 
verb burn comes from uro,- quafi bura; and that- 
ure is derived from IIuj , ignis ; ^e. 

BURR, a knoby or knet j. " fic dicirup radix^ 
cornu cervi junioris, jam cornu prxjfcrre incipien* 
tis; k Fr. G2.\\. bourre; ttmemumi lam^a; qiira'. 
fc. principio eft mollis,^! quag tonuntofi : Skinn." ' 
— but perhaps burr is only a various- dial«6t for." 
knur : which is Gr, 

BURREL-J?y; " tabams ; Mu»<^V rf* gans fan*;- 
vocabulum, a Fr. Gall, bourreau-; C4mifex-i bour*- 
reler i excamiJScare, vexare-; quia fc. mifera ju-*- 
mentaasftatc txcarmftcat, et quafi in furorem adi^ 
gil : Menagius de etymo tk bourreau defpcrai, et' 
ignorantiam fafetur : qvid mihi mifdlofperan-- 
dum reftat? iion tamen magnum ftclus-el^it de— 
flederc a Lat. forulare^ pro/wwr; et inde Sax*, 
bopian; Belg. barem terebrare; quia fc. corpor*. 
damnata gladio perforat, confodit, et cencidit :' 
Skinn."— and nen tamen magnum feelus effet, if wc 
were to derive the Dr's. bopian,^ and boren, and 
boarreattifTomnttftti fero, forabilis ; hinc nep^f, 
tranfittts j to bore a bole, make a paffage with itsfiing. 

BU RROW, or " burg^y. Hu^yoi, burgus, turrit i 
or, in the Macedonian tongue, fiMya;, a tower % 
becaufc burrows ufed to he fortified towns ; Nug."" 
— or from ** nifyofca, i. e. ■Kt»{xrK u'lf^nAt: duidas. 
fic diil. it //« BWflWw i cCHv^ysfj /«mj.- Upt.'I 


Trom G R s B R, and L a t i h. 

B U 

B0t7SER, fivfr«, h^/a ; an ex's inde ; a Ua~ 
(hem pouch, hag, er/crip to hold money, Sec. and 
here ufcd to fignify thf ftewatd of a college. 

BURST afmder : " Sax. bu/ijxan, beopjranj 
ntmpere ; Belg. hurjlen ; Tcut. breften j nelcio an 
hfec omnia a Sax. bojuan. Sklnii." or elfe, as Jun. 
obferves, .wc mjty better derive burft, or bruji, i 
BgtTtMj Hciych. KfufMti, pr,€cipiiia, loca prantpta -, 
•iroken, Jhattered precipices : quod, quamvis non ex- 
hibeat nobis veramverbi originem, oftendictamcn 
utrumquc ex communi aliqua origine promanare. 

BURY the dead; Ibi^, ure, buro, unde ufium, buf- 
tum\ afitntralpiU; and nowufed to Cigniiy the place, 
where a dead ioefy is deported : there is however 
another word, from whence bury may be derived, 
vJz. fromBuw, tego, operia; to hide in the ground, 
tc cover with earth ; though indeed, as Skinn. very 
juflly obferves, nee tantum Saxones, fed ct ve- 
ceres Romani, laptdum moles, et terra aggeres in 
JepuUerum memoriam erexerunt ; and therefore the 
Sax.Fr.TheotifG. andTeut. words bifuan,.beop5, 
htrge, and bergtn, fignify /wnw/vj, acervus, mons : 
fo that to bury figniiies boch to raife a heap of 
fiones,. earth, Sk. on the dead -, and to depqfite the 
bo^firfi in the ff-ound, and then to raife tboft heaps : 
(bis cuftom muft have- been very anrient,. fince 
we find ic mentioned in JoIhua>- chap. vii. 26 ; 
andthey^ rMfed over Achaitf a great heap of fiones 
tmto this day : wherefore the name of that place 
was called the. valley ef j4chor. Clel. Way. 47, 
would derive buried, radically berried, or in the 
twrth; from w ;. whence, with the Celtic prcpo- 
ficive /,.and the Lat. termfnative a, proceeds 
tirra: the Greeks called the dead Evifw, in earth : 
—but all feem to fpring from Ef«, terra ; the earth. 
. BURY " in terminationibus urbium'; tt oppido- 
mm„idein quod burgh, vel burough denotat : Skinn." 
— *^nd confequently arc not to be derived from 
the foregoing art. -bu^ from Uv^ytt : unlefs in 
iome particidaF inftances ; as in St, Edmond's- 
bury ; meaning his plact of burial: though Ver- 
ftegan is of opinion tint" byrigt, or birighe, bifgtn, 
and byrgenum, are all Sax, words, and fignify to 
iQfd i for burying, is a hyding of the dead body in 
the earth : now bccaufe thcie byrighs, or beorghs 
Jeemed as -hills,: the name of beorgh, .or berg, 
became, all Germanic over, to be the general 
name- of a mountaim and Canterburie, SaUJbunie, 
and-the lyke,, fignifieth a high, or chief place." — 
and therefore we may fuppofe that all thefe Sax. 
and Germ, words, were but contractions of the 
Gr. word Ili/py-of, turrist arx i a high, or eminent 

BUSH i " forte k Belg. boftb; Fr. Gall, bois -, 
Ital. befco ; fvha : Junius dedeAit a Borxu, pajie ; 
ut nemus i . KifM : mallcm," fays Skina. '* cum 

viro Rev. deducere a Lat. arhuCcula j"— and I am 
willing to join him and his reverend friend ; and 
hope they would have been as willing to have 
joined me, in tracing it up to the Gr. through 
their own deriv. ; they have taken the Latin ar- 
buCcitlum, which is undoubtedly derived ex arbor^ 
rei arbes, which is derived i Kajirof, fruiJus ; a 
fruit-tree, or bujh. 

BUSHEL: " Fr. Gall, beipau ; modius ; Teul. 
buefchel, buefchlein j fafcis, . manipulus ; . hoc forte 
corruptum, ^ Lat, pugillus : Skinn." — but what 
connexion he could find between this original, and 
its derivative, would nof be cafy to conjefture. 

BUSK, " pe3orale, yti peSlorigium, i.e. lignum, 
quDpe5fus, et mag^amventris partem firmantftemin-«t 
reSli planique peSioris decorem affeilantes : 4 Gait. 
bufque, bufte : Jun." — but Skinn. though he haS 
given the fame interprcEation, yet has deduced 
it from a different,. and far more diftant etym. 
we need not confider his deriv. at prefent, fince 
it will come naore properly under the art. 
.BUST. Gr. 

BUSKlN:. from the tcrfninatibn of this word, 
it feems to be. only- a diminutive of boot; as if 
it was written boot-kin ; and then converted into 
^bus^kim or litlle boot : confequently Gr. 

BUSSr or kifs : Bomtw, tuirxun : Hefych. though 
this israchcr an interpretation, than- "a deriv. un- 
.lefs he* had given the origin oF B«ff<w : — as for 
.what he fays a lUtle higher, B«a-«,.*j«-jt''*'i) * w 
J'fOf, it is ftill.more obfcure than the former.: 
^however, fince he has explained Saffan by Mfx,"*^! 
it may perhaps have given "origin to bajium -, at 
leaft it bids as fair, .as. any of the other deriv. 
produced by VolT.- and Jun. to which Lye haa 
.added bajia corrupta fortalTe font ex Armorico 
beucher i ofculari ; boucb ; ofculum; Hibern.^tfJi 
OS, oris : — but without hunting after modem 
etynx there is no doubt buc that the Gr. or LaC 
words g«ve origin to our bufs, and ki/s. 

- BUS3, or t)*^/ ; "■ grandior navis pifcatoria, 
quahalices capiunc : Spelman putat diftum & 
Teut, buffe ; pyxis; qu6d panda alvo, .et obtufa 
prora, qiiam proxime ad Qmilitudinem^xit^ti ao-~ 
.cedat : Jun." — but ^xis ■ ii Gr<. fee PYX, .quafi' 
pufi,' unde bufs. 

BUST; '"^ ejigies hominis ufque ad iumeros,velpeC''- ' 
tus; Gall, bujtci Ital. bufto; Sax. bpeofr ; Almas. 
irajS; i«r/?.- Lye. "^—thisis undoubtedly amuchbei- 
ter explanation of the 1 tal. bu^fio, thart what Skinner f 
has given us, .under the art. bufk, which he fup- - 
pofes to- be derived a Fr. Gall., bufc, buc, .bufq,;, 
bufi-; fulcrum vejitarium faminarum ; forte ab 
\ia\. bufto ; truncus corporis ; hoc a. l^t. bitftu» i 
quia fc. trunco corporis, i. e. peBeri applicatur : ■" 
et lane mira eft fcdus tranflatio, ^ Lat. b»Ju»,\ 

■k; tizfid by VjL' 

From Greek, and Latih. 

C A 

pro loco ujtionis funehris, ad Ital. hufio ; pro trunco ; 
ideo autcm fie diftum puto, quia corpora elim urere 
felebant, quafi amiujium, fc. corpus, vel truncus :" — 
any one would imagine that the Dr. had miftakcn 
his word } for what connexion is there between a- 
hufi, and a bujk; or a woman's bujk, and a funeral 
pile I in fhort, a huft is what Jun. has very pro- 
perly defined by effigies beminis ufque ad bumeres, 
vel petlus ; fo far from being truncus corporis, as 
Skinn. calls it ; for then the bead is off, 

■ jacei ingens littore truncus, 

Avul&mque humeris caput, ct fine nomine corpus. 
^ Mxi.W. SSI- 

fincc then a hufi reprdcnts a man, fo low as the 
hreaftt it may b« derived i rifoffSiflt, anterior pars 
bominis: fee BREAST. Gr. 

BUSTARD, " Fr. Gall, biftardt, quod fatis 
apte flcfti poffit i his, et tardus \ q. d. avisvalde 
tarda -, qiioniafn pra nimia magnitudine, et gravt- 
tate difficillimg fe in aerem tollit, et fublata tardius 
>oolat : Skinn." — how happily does fuch a defini- 
tion, and fuch an explanation fu it with the genius 
of fuch an etymologift! but in the firft place, our 
word bufiard is not derived from tardus ; for the 
huftartts flight is far from being tardy ; and Mr. 
Spelman, in his firft book of the Expedition of 
Cyrus, p. 53, fpeaklng of the bufiard, in his 
notes, fays, " Wc have great numbers of them 
in Norfolk — they make flights of five or fix miles 
with great eafe \ for though the agitation, or 
ftriking of his wings be flow, yet that ftrokc is 
ftrong, and his progrefllvc motion is very fall :" 
— which makes me believe the Dr. never faw a 
bufiard fiy in bis life : and in the next place, fliould 
it be allowed him that the bufiard was a very flow 
fifing bird, we may deny that tardus would be the 
original etym. for it would then originate from 
Bf «^uc, quafi B«j Juc, tardus ; fiow. 

hVTT-end -, " BuSei, bottom j the bottom of a 
thing being the (lower) end of it : Nug." 

BUTT, or/jf6 : as this fiih is conftanily found 
at the bottom of ihallow waters, it fcems very 
probable to derive its name & Buflet, fundus ; the 
bottom of rivers, &c. 

BUTT, or puflj; B-Im^m, Hefych. n»^xii»,Ja- 
cerCy trudere, arietare -, to beat, pujh, belt againfi. 

To BUTT with horns; B«If»^«^, Hefych, 
BixXAk*, trudere, arietare ; to tbrufi,pufti, or goad, 

BUTTALj fometimes called the buttal-bump: 
^ Lat. '*«/«; the bittern, or tnire-driim ; en ac- 
count of its noife: fee BITTERN. Gr. 

BUTTER i " BWwfw, butyrum ; i B«f, bos -, 
andTUfei, cafeus; cbeefe; becaufe of its being ge- 
nerally made of cows milk : Nug." 

BUTTER-/^ i " Sax. burroji-rleo^c ; Belg. 
ioter-tUeg j papilio \ infcftum ita diftum 4 mol- 

litiebutyracel: Jun."— an infeft fo called from 
the downy or buttery foftnefs of its plumage :■ 33 
the Pfalmift likewife cxprcfics foftnefs on an- 
other occafion, by, his words werefofler than but- 
ter: — confequently derived as in the foregoing are. 

BUTTERY } either from the fame root with 
butter, becaufe of its being the place where the 
butter, and cbetfe is kept: or clfe it may be derived 
from rio/iifiDv, poeulum ; the place where the pots, 
cups, &c. are lodged: Skinner derives buttery from 
the Fr. Gall, bottter ■, ponere ; and then refers us 
to PUT, which is of Gr. cxtrad. 

BUTTOCK i " Fr. Gall, bout ; extremitas, 
extuberantia \ ahoutir; acuminari: Skinn."— this 
iaft fcems to be but a ftrange explanation, to 
fay, 2&fharp as a buttock of beef :~^uttock in our 
language feems rather to be derived ^ BuSof, 
fundus i the bottom, or lowefi part of the body. . 

BUZZ; Be^D(; botnbus; fonus quern edunt apes ; 
the noife made by the bee, or any large flying infefl.. 

BUZZARD ; " Bu^«^, vel BJff<r«», vagio, bu- 
iulo; qudd querulo gemitu bubones imitetur ; nam 
fituro-Rv proprie dicuntur bubones gemitum edentes : 
Jun." " quibufdam tinnuneulus ; a kefirel: Skinn." 

BY-BYj Baiu(3ar, dermire,fepirfifopitoriti cantin 
vox nutricum, infantes ad, femnum iavitantium : 
Cafaub. Jun. and Skinn." — the fang ofnurfes, invit- 
ing their infants to fieep : fee LULLA-BY. Gr. 

BY-SPEL, or " big-fpel ; a by-word, proverb, 
or pbrafe ef fpeecb : \crft."— but though this 
wora carries fo much the appearance of Saxon 
origin, yet we ftiall find, under the art. GO-SPEL, 
that the latter part of both thefe compounds 
is Gr. 

BYZANT, Byzantium, a capital city of Thrace, 
now called Cenfiantinople : this word Byzant is 
generally underftood of that wedge of geld, which 
is valued, fays Camden, p. 17a, at fifteen pounds, 
and is ofiered by our kings at the altar on Eafier 
day i it was formerly made of that gold which 
was brought from Turkey ; being of the pureft, 
and moft refined fort." — The reafon why ic 
was at firft made in the form of a wedge, 
might have been to reprefent the Trinity, by the 
three points, or corners ; for Camden in. his Re- 
mains, p. 173, fays, " there was two purpofely 
made for the king and qucenc, with the refem- 
blance of the Trinity infcribed." — but the refem^ 
blance alone might have been exprelTed on a cir- 
cular piece of geld, 


CABALAi cabala, vel pouvs cabbala, et ca- 
balifia ; a myfteriotts define among the Jews, 
received by oral tradicion from their fathers, and 

Gitizfid by Google' 

C A 

Front &Kt»K, «hI l«ATiir. 

C A 

noreommittod, to wriung, but tt laft compiled 
inio a bodyi called tbeir Talmud: properly fpeak- 
ii^r> thefetwx) nords are of Hebrew origin. 

CABBAGE-;/a«/ } K^kju^ii, braffica j a colly- 
fiowtr, or cabbage. 

CABBAGE, orfieal: by writing thi^ word in 
the fame manner as we write the name of the 
plant, we have rendered the deriv. of this art. 
totally inexjplicable ; but by writing it kahage, 
we ftiall eafily arrive at the true ctym. and con- 
fequently at the true meaning of that expreiTion 
the lector loves caBage ; as we (hall find under the 
iert. KABAGE, in the Sax. Alph. 

CABIN,. "Ka»r«ti, prsfepej a manger: Nug." 
CABINET, quaft tabfinet, lU^et, capfa, cifia, 
area i a cbeji, cr nt/i of drawers. 

CABLE, JCoAwf, rudensj funis nautieus ; /be 
great ropt of aft»ft to wbicb the anker is fafiened, 
in order to give it the greater {lability againft 
the force of the tides, and the waves in a habour. 
CABOSHED: " Fr. Gall, cabeche, quod qui 
al) Hifp. eaboi Ital. eapo; et tandem Lat. caput 
defccnderc tton vtdet, ctecus eji: Skinn." — and the 
Dr. muft have been as blind as his neighbours, 
qui non vidcret that caput itfclf was defccndcd a 
Kif»-A4, caput ; the headr a cabocbe being a fmall 
nsil with a great bead ; fuch as coaches, chairs, fe- 
d^s, &c. are ornamented with. 

CACH-EXY, Kiii;^!^!*, malus corporis habitus ; 
am iii habit of body : R. £«x<if, maius -, badi and 
G;^u, babte ; to have, to be. 

CACKLE. " K»x^«^", to make a mife: Upt." 
— Jun; derives it a Ki;^>i^*iir, cacbinnari : vcl a 
TLa.y)(*^H9, vel a TL»x-)(ot\Hv, effufe ridere : vel a 
Kjiypf,ff^i», gaudio efferor, latiffime gaudee ; to make 
a rejoicing ; as the hen does when Ihe has depo* 
fited her egg, with a laughing neife. ' 

CACO-CHYMY, K«xe;^u^i«, cacoehymia ; an 
iii digefiion. 

CACO-D^MON, KaaLttm^m, cacodamon j an 
efvH fpirit, a devil : R. Kmxac, malus j e^-il i and 
Ain[t.w, damon; genius. 

CACO-ETHES, Konwrftn, KeExouflwa, cacoethes, 
prava cenfuetudo ; a bad habit -, an ill cujiom -, R, 
Kaxo;, malus ; ec HSor, mos; cuftom, habit, manner. 

CACO-FOGO, a K4wtB{, malus; evil, bad, or 
wicked 1 and tpus, pw^xw, fwyM, uro j to burn ; fo 
the whole very properly cxprcflcs a wicked, or 
abominable incendiary. 

CACO-PHONY, %»ia(pmix, vox, feu fonus 
afpir, infuavis prenunciatio -, an ungrateful manner 
ef expreffion, an unharmenious, harfh, ilUjounding 
cadence : R. Kaxat, malus \ ct ^un,- vox -, voice. 

CADAVEROUS, K»l«, deorfum -, quod cadere 
nihil aliud eft quam deorfum ferri; a cado, cada^ 
veri. Acareafst a dead body falUn daiatu' 

CAD£NC£, ^mt eadenst tenmttati/^, ta^ap, 
a period i generally dofed ^ the falling ef tit 
voice into a lower key, 

CADOW, or rather cadavf, pu.temus e0e <;oin- 
politum ex (fli et daw, iKe^oitt, graculus : vel 
derivemus il Xnnu, bifce; to yawnt or gape % be- 
caufe he makes a cawing mife ; a jack~daw. 

" CADUCE0S, " Kfifuxiov, vel Knfuiu*», i (3*- 
r«^tt(rtf, 01 ir^ts^ti(, vel Ki^ukk' Kn^ u^, i irip ttn* 
fus atrtiTiKk«(i.tV6i, km to K»if uxio» f f^«v : caaucifer^ 
et caduceator :, fane nee dubium, quin Latina 
vox e Grxca originem cceperit : eL KiTfuviei', vel 
potius Kixfuxiey, five KofuxtDv (quomodo Tarentini 
dixere, et Syracufani) dbccre Lacini caduceum : ■ 
vulgo caduceum dici aiunt i cadendo -, five quia 
facit ne in eundo cadatur : five quod cadere fa^ 
ciat conteniiones, atque certamina ; quia ncmpe 
ut per feci ales bella indieebantur i h^^r taducea- 
torts finiebantur : fed fi i cadendo eHet^ primt 
corriperciur, quam Ovidius in caducifer producit: 
Voff."— this therefore is a ftrong proof that poe- 
try will always help us in doubtful cafes to the 
true etym. of a word i as in this before us ; and 
as we fhall hereafter find in the word pyramid. 
Sec. : with regard however to the prefent word 
caduceusj of whuever origin, it figniBes the 
winged fiaff, or truncbion, that Mercury carries j 
the wand which the Greek and Roman heralds, and 
embaffadors bere^ when they treated of peace. Clcl. 
Voc. 147, is of opinion that the word taducms 
is not of Gr. but of Celtic extra6tion ; and there- 
fore niu(t be referred to the Sax. Alph. 

CECITY, AoxKBt, vel potius»y.»t, auc 
KflixoAAai-. Pcrottus non tarn dici putat a carendoj ' 
quod oculis careat, qucmadmodum neque ii capi- 
endo, quod oculis captus Jit ; quam quorundam - 
fcntentiam efie aitj quam k cadendo, quod fit 
oculis concifus : 'utrumque etymon, tim inquam 
(fays Voff.) hoc a cadendo, quam alterum i carende, . 
adducii Angelus Dcccmbrius: — in our language 
Ctfcity implies blindnefs, or dimnefs of fight. 

£/-C^TERA, Y.ou'^i^K,K<tT\tf»,et alia; and ^ 
others, fomething tlfe, the reft : R. 'Ejjf «r, alius t . 

CAGE ; " Fr. Gall, cage ; Ital. gaggio, gabbia t 
omnia a I^t. cavea : Skinn." — and no further 
Would the Dr. go, though he muft have known ■ 
that cavea was derived a cavitate ; cavitas ; k 
cavus ; cavus, a Koo;, Ma\. KvFet, cavus ; any - 
hollow place, or cave -, an^lace of confinement, 

CAJOLE; "vox nupcr civitate donata a Fr. 
Gall, cagtoler, cajeler ; \ti\. .gazxelare ; primarlo ■ 
fonum edere, inftar Gracculi ; fecundario garrirt, ■ 
bldterare ; Ital. gazzola, gazza ; graccus, gracu- 
lus : Skinn." — but no farther he; — " judicio 
mco," fays. VoC . *' graciUui- eft. contraitum c ■ 



C A 

From Grbek, arid'LATijr. 

C A 

Kflpwiiat, quod gaza eft : hoc licet impenfius 
placet, addam tamen ct alteram conjeituram : 
quid fi graadus ftatuatur diminutivum i grac- 
ijis ; graccus autem deducatur ab atitiq. graxo, aut 
p-aco, quod abExp«£«, & l/if*lio> crocilo: pro hac 
Tentcntia facit, quod Ifidorus avem vocat hqua- 
cijfimam :" to chatter, or prate in one's face. 

CAITIFi " Gall, ibetif (a pretty word thisl j 
Ital. cattho (which is almoft as pretty) ;'HoU. 
catjvo i Be!g. kattiif (which is the prettieft of 
all) caterum hic prima fua acccptione captivum 
infelicem, (Sinonem; miferim fignificabant j poftea 
walanty atque twrprohum denotare caperunt ; propter 
malas artes, quibus patria Bxtorres, ac ccnfu ino- 
pes, famcm inter, cxteros propulfare coguntar : 
'Tun. and'Skinn." — yet neither of them has told 
us that captivus was derived from captus; capius, 
acapioi and w^/a, a Koorlw, aiTaitj(Cf*M : Hcfych. 
to apprehend,, take ptifoner i a miferable wreicbed 

CAKE, "HMx^f, placenta: K.VtKiavf, lattts j 
hroad, and _fiat : or eHe -wcimay derive cake a. 
Kuwa, ttiifceo; undc cpquo i (nam ad panes tranf- 
tulerunt hoc verbum plcrjeque genres) Jun."— 
to mix, cook, drefs up pny nice dijb, cake, &c. 

.QALAtMANCOj " E.xxn-p.o.i'iuytt, pulcbrum 
,tnanlum; -f annus q,uidam palliis confidents idenius ^^, 
Skion;" — a^ecies of woQllen Jtt^. 

.'CALAMINARIS, lapis calamittarisr -, ^a.fione 
efed in the cempojStion of hrafs. 
' CALAMITY; "KeSi-itcado, cadamitas, cdlami^ 
ffis i an agUflioTt that has befallen any man : or 
etl'cit may be derived kTttXAOi,-mifir, artimnofus -, 
fnijerahle, isjretcbed : "^.TitKc^, fuffcro ; to fuffcr, 
, endure : it .was alfo by the Latins ufed in the 
fenfe o( calamus -.areed, or cane; and then cala- 
mitas Cgnificd the ; hdging, OT laying of corn, by 
reafon of heavy rains, fioims of iLtnd, and bail : 
R. K«A«p« (;,<*«', Jlipt^s, vel fpicas lego, &c. 

CALLINE, KoKf, cinis i ajhes ; to reduce any 
thing to dufi, pDVL-der, &Cj 

CALCITRATE, Ax^,. calx, cakitrg ; to treed, 
kiik, or trample en. 

CALCULATF,.K«x^ti^, nxst, lapillus, calcu- 
lus J a fmall pebble, or chalk-fione -, unde calculo; 
to compute, or , cajt accounts ; which was formerly 
dcm by tie help of fmall pebble-Jiones, as now wt 
ufe counters. 

CALCULUS; from the fame root j meaning 
now tie tab:, or chalk, ox gravel ftones, Icdgedin 
tic bladder, &c. 

CALDRON, KoAfiif, c^ldarkim, caleo, calrdus ; 
.btt, fcalding, bcHing: fee CHALDRON. Gr. 

.CALE-FACTION i K»Mm, et fu«, calefio, 
caltfado, calfucio ; hot, I oiling : Vofiius derives 
tf«/« ** a. Dor. KaXow, pio;K»iA«w, or rather," fays 

he, " Jl KaXMt, pro •t.ii^tiis, quod Hcfych. expft-: 
nit K«u^Mi»( -9if/*o(, xa/«rf« i" though his inter- 
preter approves of AAm, felis calor : vcl a Kxne, 
uro i to burn. 

CALENDER, or perhaps rather calUnder I 
K,»x\vva, puhbrjtm^reddo, lavigare, polire pannum; 
to fmooth cloth, betbre hoi-prclfing : or, if it 
fignifies bot-preffmg alene, it may then be derived' 
from the fame root with CALE-FACTION ia 
the foregoing art. Gr. 

CALF, an animal : Skinner could Bnd that 
our-word^-fa/;^ was defcendcd from the5ax. Be]g. 
and Teut. tongues ; but he could not finB that all 
thofe were defcendcd from the Gr. Junius then 
will help us-:'" vox cfl^," fays he, " eft jam olim 
nota vetuftioribus Celtis qui hominem pnepinguen^ 
videntur kalb, vcl galb appellafle, a fimiUtudine. 
uituli hene/aginati : Suetonius ccrte in S. Sulpicio 
Galba, c.j. tradk eum, qui primus Sulpiciorum 
Galba diftus ^ft, ex eo iiomcn traxiflc, qudd 
fr^epinguij -fuerit vifus, qucm Galbam vocant 
GaUi :.luf]ire interim putandus, qui vitulum pat. 
tribus noftris ob hoc cenfebat kalb di£i:um, quds( 
fit quafi Ko^e^oi f3iit, non integer bos . '"-rind ycE 
ihat opinion might have been confirmed by tlic 
authority of Hefych. who has explained KoJ^jSer, 
or as he writes it KsAAt^of, by Koi-Juf, rjuix^*;, **<- 
ytfof ; (which ought to hav« been printed oXiyirsf). 
a little hull ; a fmall fieer ; a young heifer. 

CALK a Jhip: " Fr. Ga.U. calage, Jiuppa; et 
alia materia, qua refarcilur, et reparatur navis-:* 
nefcio an hoc a calce -, vel potius a cakando, i. e. 
inculcando materiam arcendaaqua idoneam ; Skinn," 
— but the Dr. ought to have remembered that- 
both calx, and inculco, are Gr. j to tread down 
herd, ram in clofe. 

CALL, " KotXiw, x«A«, €alo, antiq. voce; to call, 
or Jummon : OdylT. xiv. v. 147 : Upt." 

CALLIDlTYi according to Clcl. Way. 41,, 
we muft derive " calUdus, caltee, caller, and fcho- 
lar, all from the fame root, viz. cal, hal, al^ a 
college, or place of education :" — but all thefe are 
moft evidently derived ab AuA-«, a bell, or college 

■CALLING, or trade; not certainly from vo- 
cation, or occupation; but as Clel. Voc. 124, very- 
juKly obferves, " it originates from eal -, learning 
in general :" — and here particularly ufcd to figni^ 
the myftery of the trade ; and coolijqucncly Gr. as 
in the foregoing art. 

CALLOUS ; " ludit non femel Plautus am- 
biguTtaie vocis calleo, cum dicere vcllet quem- 
piam tolius ret intelligeniifftmum, ait eum callere : 
Voff." who allows that calko originates a calxt 
vcl calco; and cunfequeody is derived & A«g, 

^ .IzsdbyGoOgfe* 

C A 

From Greek, and Latin. 

C A 

eak i nt proprie fit durittes ea qua eunde in caUe 
pedis eoHtrabituri If. Voff. derives it rather iKiiAif, 
cicatura ; a Jcar, or aity hard future : addit « 
aliam conjefturam Martiniusj ut fit a cala, vel 
Kttxw, lignum ; ita proprie fie ligne/a (Hits, i, e. 

CALLOW i " Bclg. kaei, kaeluwe -, Suec. 
kaal i glabrio ; Sax. calup ; eahus ; calpa ; alo- 
pecia •■ Lye's Add." — all thefe however are but 
derivative*; for even the Lat. calvus is undoubt- 
edly derived ab hx^m, alhus, calvus, eapillis va- 
tff/ti; bald, void ef batTf feathers, &c. unfledged, 

CALM, ** MaXoxt*, tranquiltitas j tratiquill, 
guiet : Caef. IIL 15, converfis in earn partem 
navibus, quo ventus fercbat, tanta fubitoma/arM, 
ac iranquillitas, extitit, ut fe loco movers tion pojfet : 
calm formatur ex Max«x(« per metath. et contraift. 
Upt." — or we might rather derive m/m, i Fixx-iin, 
/erenitas ; mildnefs, gentlenefs, ferenity, and calmnefs. 

CALOYER : Skinner writes it coloier, which 
he very properly explains by " vox origine 
Grsca, fed in libris Anglicis Grsecas res dc- 
fcribentibus frcquentiflima; aGr.Barb. KaAo-ytfai, 
monachus j I TLaXw, pulcbrum -, ct Tfjaf, honor, 
pnemium; q. d. valde henoratus :" — we might ra- 
fay r({«», fenex j old, or elder ; particularly fince 
Tournefort, in his Voy^e to the Levant, vol. i. 32, 
8vo, fays, that " the monks of the convent of the 
Trinity (half a day's journey from Canea in the 
ifle of Crete) are called Caloyers, as it is now pro- 
nounced; but it ought," fays he, " to be written 
cglogers, good old men, K»Xoi,goedi and yte-uy, eld." 

CALTROPS ; though all diiftionarics write it 
io this manner; and though they all explain it 
by that warlike inftrument called a cheveau de frife, 
. yet I have never been able to meet with any one, 
which has given a tolerable deriv. of this word, 
according to the prefent orthogr. Skinner fup- 
pofes it is derived " a Sax, colrpappe j and yet 
we write it caltrop j trihulus, feu carduus ftellatus ; 
item propter fimilitudinem, injirumentum hellieum, 
que equorum pedes intercipiuntur, et vultiera/ttur :" 
—this might do very well for a diflionary writer, 
but this does not fatisfy an etymologift i for this 
gives us no more knowledge of the word with 
regard to the deriv. of it, than- we had before; 
this is giving only the Signification, not tjie 
etymology : we all knew that caltrops, or col- 
traps, were explained by tribuU -, tbiftles, burrs, 
and brambles; but do we now know what caltrops, 
or coltraps are derived from ? — had it been writ- 
ten col-traps, Skinn's. learned friend Th. Henfh. 
foeois to have given the bcft deriv. viz. cbeval- 
atlr^pe, 1. e. Grsece 'Irwuy^a, i cheval; equus;tz 
verbe attrapperi orripere, irreiire, implicart:— 

howe^fer, even now firtJ^Z-aZ/ra^/ttf is pure Greek j 
for cheval is undoubtedly derived ^ KapixAXe;, 
cahallus J and attrapper is derived a Tm«-«, verto ; 
the origin of trap ; as we fhall fee under that art. 
CALVARY ; ftrangcly written by Skinn. cal- 
vtry ; and yet he acknowledges that it is vox fa- 
cialium, erofs Calvary ; q. d. crux calvari^ ; ad 
memoriam crucis Chrifti in montem Calvzrium per 
fcalas evcftfe : and that is all : — but he ought 
to have traced this word up to the Greek ; for 
calvarium is certainly the &me place with the 
place of a fkull i i calvus ; and ftfftjiw is undoubt- 
edly derived ab AX^oi, albus, eapillis vacuus; nam 
et 4«XiiKfaf, Dor. ^xSetx^ot, ^ ^oXw, feu Ax^o;, at~ 
bus, calvus i bald, or white headed, grey beaded j. 
or even totally void of hair ; a naked fkuU. 

CALUMNY, " K«xu|3«, i. e. KwAuTrJa., tego, cat- 
vor i nempe ut calvor fit, aliquem teSe d'ecipioi. 
unde calumnia, inquit Charifius, prima corrcptff 
efFertur, venit enim 4 verbo calvor, hoc e&frii/'- 
tror : id confirmare eft verbis Prifciani, lib. X^ 
folve,folvi : voho, volvi ; calvff, ealvi j unde Sal- 
luftius in III. Hiftor; infinitum paffivi protulitr 
contra, ille calvi ratus : calvi pro decipi ; et mox ;. 
fupinum primum in turn converi^ntia, faciunt, v 
neceflario in vocalem u rcdtuntc, folvi folutumi. 
volvi velutum ; fie debet etiam calvi calutum i 
quod tamen ufu non inveni ; et puto calumniam 
ex hoc calutum efle derivatam ; VoIT." — and /row 
ai^ crafty and clandejiine interpretation of the law^ 
our word calum^ has been brought to fignify 
a malicious concealing the truth, and uttfring enly- 
a fal/e reprefentation of faSs -, a-c giving a fcan^ 
dalous account of a man's char a ^er, and publi/bing 
a fal/e accitfation behind bis back. 

CALX; X«;ti£, or rather K«;(;Xii£, calx; prius 
enim fuit calix, calicatus, calculus; chalk; otan^ 
chalky, fiorrj fubftance, found in the htadder, and' ■ 
other farts of the human body. 

CAMBRIC, " tela Camtracenfis ; mm Camera- 
cum, urbs Galliae Belgica-, qus vulgo Cambray 
dicitur, nobiHrataefihov generefubtilioris tela: Jun.'*" 

-fine linen made at Cambray in French Flanders. ■ 

CAM-BRIDGE; from the common appearance- 
of this word, it feems to be derived from- a bridge- 
built over the Cam, as is currently believed; but, 
if we attend to the deriv. of Cld. Voc. 71, we 
(hair find an etym. far more confonant to the in- 
ftitution of that place of learning, as an univer- 
fity ; he fays then, that " Cambridge is only & 
contraiSion of Cantalbureich ; cant fignifies head ;. 
al, a fchool, or college j and bureich, or retch, a- 
borough, or bitty ; the head precinll ef a college, or 
principal college-borough: there are many reafons,'" 
adds he, " to believe that Cantalbury, Cambray, or 
Cambridge, exifted in the ftale of a head cdUgiatt 

C A 

From G & E E R, and L a t i tr. 

C A 

herough, for ages before the Roman invafion." — 
the whole compound however feems to be Gr. 
for cant, can, quin,, coning, and KING, he ac- 
knowledges to be words all of the fame im- 
port, and to (ignify head; confequcntly Gr. : as 
for al, and bury, that is, hureichy they are Gr. 
likewife ; for reicb is no more i^ai an abbrevi- 
ation of region. 

CAMEL T Ka7*»ixof T camelus *l the camel 
. CAMELO-(K«/*tiA,fl- [cameh-par-lthe came- 
PARD f x«pJ«Atef itii f k-pard 

CAMLET }Kai*n>^ulr,}pelIiscameli} camlet. , 
Nugent is of opinion that camlet is made of ca- 
mels, OT goats Jkin; but, where he learnt that 
trade, or where it is manufadured, I know not ; 
but camlet is certainly not made of tbt Jkin, but 
the hair of the camel, or goat j " e pilis camelorum : 
Jun." — " conficitur autcm revera pilis caprinis : 

CAMELO-DUNUM ; "a town formed on 
the plan of a camp, or military inclofure : Clel. 
Voc. 177, n."— but both TOWN and CAMP 
are Gr. 

CAMFERD, K«|Siaf«, fornicem fignificat j for- 
n/catus, firiatus, curvatus : vel 3. Kasfurlw, feilo j 
unde camurus, K»ftjrv?i,ef, cui^us ; any thing fireak- 
ed, watered^ tabbied : Skinn. under the art. 

CAMP 7 "KofAjr-lof./ifjfaj, hac meta : La- 

CAMPAIGN S tiniiKoiy.Jltiiia.i\jntcamp/are; ut 
Frifcian. lib. X,probatifthoc Ennii>X. Anna!. Xf«- 
catem camp/ant : Ifidor, in GlolT. campfat, fieSit : 
e(t ab EicK/Ltt^a:, campfo ; ut ab Eyfa£«, graxo : 
K(i|iA«-V», vcro eft ab Hebr. t|g3 hoc eft curvare, 
incurvare,fleiltre: VoIT." — a prifco Kw/ijroi fit Ka^ir- 
uiti, quia Trtjiaiof, five campejlris, unde KajUTrstvia, 
campania; manifefte mutuata eft denominatio ii' 
campus; quod bellica exercitationes apricum pojiu- 
lent campum ; Jun," a fpacious plain inclefed for 
foldiers to pitch their tents en. 

ed from the*" Sax. camp -, firiving j and campian ; 
tojlrive" — but it rather dcfcends from the fame 
root with the foregoing art. becaufe it is afport, 
exercifed on an open plain. 

CAMPHIRE, K«puf«, caphura, qua: vulgo 
tamfora, ejl gummi arberis Indict; id quod in Chri- 
planum erbem advehitur, ex China appertatur : the 
gum of a tree in the Eafl Indies, and is generally 
fuppofed tc come from China. 

CAN, able : Skinn. has ventured fo far out of 
his ufual mcthod> as to give us a Greek etym. of 
this word ; viz. " Ixacof h^i, fufficiens Jum, pof- 
fum:" I am able; of my own power, or abilities, 
J am able. 

CANAL i " Xwflt (if there be any fuch word 

in Greek to fignify) Uatust riSut : R. X«tw, 
bifco : Nug,"— true ; but X»an, bifcot does not 
form Xtutt : at leaft none of our lexicons give 
fuch a word : in fhortf the Dr. feems to have 
miliaken cither the Engl, or ^e Gr, word ; and 
that inftead of canal, he ought to have faid cho' 
nel, or that large opening cf rivers, or friths, v/hicb 
may he derived from X«iw(, the root of which is 
X«w, hio i to gape, or yawn j and forms-. X»»f, 
hiatus, vorago -, hiatus ille cacns, et immenfus qui 
erat ante conditum orbeta : but if the Dr. meant 
really a canal^ a conduit, or pipe, as well as a lajjf, 
or refervoir of water, he Ihould have derivcdit 
not from Xnoi, hiatus (for thcrr the Eegtifh 
word ought to have been cbanal); but from 
KcaivK, vel KLtkvn, camta, Jlorea -, a pipe, reed, or 
tube } and modern orthogr. has difcarded one of 
the nn, and writes it canal, inftead of csmuU; an 
artificial conduit for water. 

CANARY-^r./ ICanartus, ct Cansma InfuU, 

CANARY-?w«* S a canibus eximiis dtSa ; R. 
Kvm, cams -, a dog j alfo the Canary IJlands. 

CANCEL: Clel. Way. 49, obfervcs, that 
" fome have forced the word cancell from canceUii 
a kind oflettiee work, made by defacing the writing 
with ftrokes of the pen drawn acrofs ; but can- 
cell feems rather to be a corruption of gain-feel, 
OT gain-feal, to dejlroy or take off the feal of a 
bond: fo thzt gain-feal is like gain-fay, import- 
ing contradiftion, or nullity :"~but this is not 
tracing it far enough : gain is no more than a 
contraction o( n-gain-Ji, which Junius derives ab 
on^ran, and Skinner from Dean : — but De in 
both inftances is only the Sax. initial; and there- 
fore an is vifibly derived abAv-lt, centra-, againjti 
and SEAL likewife is Gr. 

CANCE^R; K«fmof, cancer; animal, et/tdus ca^ 
lefle ; morbus, vinculi genus, genus calceamenti ; 
forceps ; injtrumentum quo pejjulus attellitur j a 
crab J an animal, or TAzher Jointed fiiell-jijh ; an in- 
ftrument tn raift; a bar; a conjiellation in the Eclip- 
tic, in which the Jun appears at the fummer folfiice ; 
alfo a dreadful difeafe or tumor fpreading every 
way, like the claws of a crab -, and owing its rife 
generally to a mortified gland. 

CANDID 7K«H, K«i7a, candentia, candi' 

CANDIDATES dus -, bright, fhining, white: 
candidatus -, a candidate ; a Juiter for any place of 
boner or profit : fo called from the white, or fpien- 
did garments, which were worn by the Remans en 
thofe eccafions : Hefych. gives us the word 
TcaiSt, which he explains by ^»firtt», /plendere i 
tojhine bright. 

CANDY, AtJwpt, A«, do; condo et condioi 

to bide, put up, or cover with/ugar, &c. If. Vof- 

lius derives een^o ex tmSM, . unde rmJurpc^o, 

eondimenta j 

C A 

-Rflm GuiBKy -and Latiw;, 

e A 

tattMnuMta i Kfvfteijte, U^ffiSa '. nam T»itv^M, feu 
Temitfiai, ii7(o-9ai : J-mtet-meats, or *«y candied or 
freferved fraitt, 8cc. 

CANDLE, Ksew, K.»ala, catide, candentia, tan- 
deU; to glow, to become red hot ^ to hum: fee 

CANDOR, commonly written candour : from 
the fame root with CANDID : Gr. and now ufcd 
to ^\%n\K'^ ptmty ,fineerity , plain dealing, impartiality. 

CANE, to walk with ; " Kavir*, or Kmy^, canna -, 
a reed : Nug." 

CANIBALlKwMBsf i Kvuf, canis, the pretty 

CANINE 3 modern French cbien, a dog; a 
glutton, or _ greedy devourer: this word canibal hz& 
been written casw^a/ by Nug. undcrthe art. Antbro- 

CANISTER, Kwiffon, camjirum ; a hajket, ham- 
per, or pannier made of ojiers, &c, : a hread-bajket, 
or voider : R. Kwnj, calatbus; a lady's work-bajket -, 
a cup for wine injaerifines. 

CANKER; " per quandam litcranim metath. 
defumpEum ex KofxtVof, cancer -, quod primi fig- 
nificatiooe pifcem notijimum dejlgnat : poftea vero, 
tumorem durum, inaqualem, lividum, afpeEfu tetrum, 
et vems ambitu turgentibus, cancro pijci Jimillimum : 
Jun,"* — Skinner grants it may be derived from 
cancer; but feems to hint at .another deriv. " vi- 
detur etiMn vulgo interdum gangr^nam/ignific^e; 
et tum, ni fallor, ^ gangrand ortum ducit ;" — 
but does not admit that gangrana is Gr. neither 
has he any fuch article as a gangrene in his work. 

CANN, to drink out of; £«^9«f<if, cantharus, 
fcarahaus; a beetle -, poculi genus % a /pedes of cup ; 
fo called /ra» itsjhape to that of a beetle. 

CANNEL/-«i*/; " dofto amico, cui foli ac- 
ceptum rcfero," fays Skinner, " exponitur carbo 
quidam in agro Lane, frcquens : — nefcio an a 
Sax. ceneyacer; et T^lan, feu on-alan -, accendere, 
inflammare ; i vehementi fc. igne, quern conci- 
pit ; q. d. carbo accenfu-facilis :" — a very inflam- 
tnable coal, dug in Lancalhire : — from this very 
circumftance ^the infiammabiUty of its nature, we 
might be induced to derive it I TLaa, t.»tvi», unde 
candentia ; coals eajily-kindkd. 

CANNON, OT great gun; *' K«w«, camta; Ital. 
eanene ; augmentative m canna -, becaufe it is long, 
and hollow. Hie a reed: Nug." and Junius gives 
the fame deriv. for under the art. gun, he fays,, 
** Hon longe quoque recedit cannon, termentum belli- , 
cum majus j quod 4 Katyos, canna deflcdunt ; 
propterea quod ifttufmedi tormentajint cava, longa, 
teEta; infiar canna :" — how truly poetical is Mil- 
ton's account of Satan's train of artillery,, in the 
iixth book of Paradife Loft, 573: 

A triple mounted row of pillars laid 

On wheels (for like to pillars moft they fcem'B, 

Or hollbw'd bodies made of oak, or fir, ' 

With branches ]6pt,inwoad(H- mountain fell'd)' 

Brafs, Iron, ftqny mold, had not their mouths 

With hideous orifice gap'd on us wide.' 

canoe; Ko!v9*fov, cantharus, fcarabaus 1 a iee~ 

tie i et navigii genus, fays Hederic; this deriv. has 

been adopced, rather than Ka»i«, canna -, a cane, 

or reed, with Ainfw. who explains canna by a ' 

cannoe -, but it b not written in that manner :- iii- 

deed the word canoe, or cannoe, is originally an 

Indian word; and if fo, then all deriv. from Gr- 

or Lar. ceafes. 

CANON 7 « Whoever," fays Cltl. Voc. 20,, 
CANONIZE J n. " will confidcr that the Gr. 
word Kaj-wn for a rule was never employed in a theo- ' 
logical fenfe, but in the ages pofterior to the in- 
troduftion of Chriftianity, will eafily allow, that 
the fenfe of that word is rather forced into the- 
fervicc, and employed, like many other Gr, 
words, in virtue of a faint fimilaricy of fignifi- 
cation, to difguife a purely Britilh tor Celtic 
word i to write which more etymological ly, it 
fhould be ken-hone, or kan-hone -, proclamation :" — 
and in p. 78. n. he tells us, that " this Celtic worcf 
does not come from cano ; to ftng j but from 
ken, knowledge; i.nA hone, finger, znd Jong:"—' 
it is true, we ftill make ufe of the word honing, for, 
whining; but it feems to originate a *w»-ii, vox; 
a voice :—heCides ken feems rather to Ggnify the 
head, or chief, than knowledge j the canons, or 
minor canons, in a cathedral, being Juperior to" 
the chanters, or choirifters: and confcquehtly' 
ftill is Gr. 

CANOPY, Y^mmtcmv, cenopaum ; a curtain that 
hangs about beds, made of net-work, to keep away 
fiies, or gnats : alfo an umbrella, a pavillion,' a- 
tejiem aver a bed : R. KwywJ', culex -, agnat; i.c* 
a gnat-net. Clcl. Way. 33, fays, " the commen- 
tators have moft falfcly derived it from KMoiJ-f' 
(which by the way ought to have been only K,w*m4') 
a_fiea; and would derive it from any thing fpread' 
over the bead for Jlate :" — but ean is the fame as 
kan, kin, kon, koning, KING. Gr. 
"CANT |K.ikvv«, canna-, a cane, or reed; qu6d 
CANTO 3 cannd, feu calamo canerent antiqui~^ 
tits : undc cano, cantus, canorofus ; canorous ; loudj^ 
or Jhrill found ; ftnging; alfo a poem. 

CANT-ER-BURY : Clel. Voc. 71, and 76^ 
obferves, that the " Cant, which enters into the 
word Canterbury, is not referable to Rent, or 
Cantium, as being a head land; but to its antienC 
Cant-al-bury, or Cant-ar-bury ; its being ^ hea£ 
collegiate precinSl :" — confequently all Gr. for- 
cant, kin, kirn, and koning, all originate from the 
fame root with KING i Gr. : at, and ar -, hal, and 
-L a. heih 

Digitized by 


C A 

From GRtBK> and LatiH. 

C A 

i^i/riU originate from the fannc root with 
HALL: and hvry likewife is Gr. :— but not- 
withftanding this great authority, it might be 
better to derive it frorti KEKTi otherwife wc 
ihould lofe the locality of this title; and the 
Primate of all England might have received his 
title of being arch-bifliop of Catiteriury, becaufe 
fac was arch-bilhop of a bead colkgiate-frecinU 
in Cornwall. 

CANTHARIDES i K«»9«f .c, ii»t : in/e^um ala- 
tum, virofum, caufticum i e mufcarum gtntre, vulg6 
mufca Hijpanica j the Spaniflifij, of a venomous na- 
ture, Jhining like green and gold, bred in the tops of 
ejh trees, &c, ; it is now commonly made ufc of 
to raife blifters. 

CANTLE 7'* to canton; from Ka^flBt, «, a 
CANTON \ corner of the eye: from whence alfo 
comes a canton : Nug." — never was a more ftrange 
explanation, or a more ftrange deriv. j nor would 
it be eafy to trace the original root of this word, 
which fecms to be a contract, of centuria, or cen- 
ventus J quafi cartturia, or cantus ; undc canton -, 
for both thofe words fignify a tribe, or divi^on -, 
or perhaps it may be derived from centum ; a 
hunared ; as when we fay Laundich Hundred, Fkg 
Hundred, or the Hundreds of Effex : (hould none 
of thefe be admitted, we muft then, with Cou- 
varragius, as quoted by SIcinn. derive it from 
K«/*rI«, JleSJo i to bend, turn, or -winde ; to form 
an angle i in the fenfe Shakefpear has made ufe 
of the word cantle j quafi canton j in his firft part 
of Hen. IV". aft III. fc. 3; where in the partition 
of the kingdom, he makes Hetfpuri&y, 

Methinks, my moiety, North from Burton here. 
In quantity equals not one of yours : 
See how this river comes me crankling in. 
And cuts me from the bcft of all my land, 
A huge half moon, a monftrous cantle, out : 
meaning a large portion, or difiria of land cut off 
iy the winding ana turning of the river. 

CANVAS, )*y»(3n,Jluppa; ex canna be f ac- 
tus : hemp : Nug." 

CAN-VASSING at an eleSion; Clel. Voc. 1 14, 
n, obfervcs, tb nt " cenfeo, cen/us, eapite cenfi (a 
plconafm) cattvaffing, counting, &c. all come from 
kan, ken, kin, in the fenfe of bead; i. e. from the 
ftme root wirh ken, pen, ven, ven-do, ven-ee ; to 
/f//;"__then ftill it is Gr. : fee VENAL : or per- 
haps they may take the fame origin withCOUNT, 
or numbtr -, i. e. cajling up the number of voles: Gr. 
CAP for the bead, «Aii, caput ; the head, or aty 
eevering to put on the head; being only the firft 
fyllable of tiic Gr. and Lat. words Kc^-cap. 

CAP verfes j " alternis verfibus certare -, Icelaed 
eappe -, certi men -, kteppaft -, certare : Lye's Add." 
—all which lojka as if we ought to derive every 

one of tjwfc word* the fame as to COPE, or 
contend. Gr. 

CAPABLE 7K«jr7», iwrsJ^x"^*'. Hefych. ca- 

CAPACITYi pio, ct^ax; balding, keepi^^ con- 

CAP-^-PEE, Kif aX7 »; UtiiK, I capite-aA-pedes i 
from bead-to foot ; or compUatly armed at all points, 

CAPE of a cloak; Kif«A>i, caput ; a covering for 
the bead: non nemo forte pmabit, fays Jun. hue 
quoque pertinere illud Kufuf, quod Hefychio eft 
^ijuyflf nJof, tuniqa fptcies : but our word cape_ 
relates only to apart of the coat, fir cloak; which 
is fometimes made large enough to come over the head; 
like a monk's coul. 

CAPE, or promontory ; " from the fame root ; 
q. d. caput terra, feu litoris ; quia fc. ultra reU- 
quum litlus, capitis injiar, protenditur : Skinn."— 
tho' the Dr. would not give us the Gr, deriv. 
for the world. 

CAPER, or dance j " K«jrf », ut eft apud Hefych, 
Tyrrhenis difta eft c^ra ; unde videtur Konrfi* 
nomen accepifle, quK cidem gramm. eft aiot 
"^■X^iatut, fed ivivXn, five armata, i. e. quam in 
armis Jaltabant : Jun." an armed dance^ which was 
a very antient Greek inftitution, called the Pyrrhic 
Dance; and is defcribed by Dionyfius HaUcarnaJfus^ 
book VII. fee. 72. 

CAPER, " a fruit, or berry ; Kawwafif, cap^ 
parts: Nug." a fbrub, . bearing a berry -called a 
caper ; which, according to etym. ought to be 
written capper, 

CAPILLAMENT3 n,Aor, pilus, capillus ; quafi 

CAPILLARY S capitis pilus -, the hair of 
the bead, a peruke \ a tube as fine as a hair. 

CAPITAL,Ki^«X)i,Ciiptt;j tbehead; teuchinglifci 
jt heinous crime, the chief i alfo the lop of a pillar. 

CAPITOL, Kf^a^u, caput; quod ibi heminjs 
caput cum exlrueretur inventum; (Virgil fccms to 
hint it was a horfe's head) undc capitilium, capita- 
Hum, locus capilalis, leu principalis j the temple of 
Jupiter at Rome, called the Capilol, from the head 
of a man ("or a horfe) found at a ccnjiderable depth 
in digging the foundations ; and built en the Tarpeian ■ 
hill, or rock ; as is mentioned by Dionyfius Hali- 
carnaflus, book IV. fee. 59. 

CAPITULATE, K«>r1<., «^eJ*x''6*'' Hefych. 
eapio, capius, quafi capitulatus, captivus; a captive^ 
pri/oner of war, articles of furrender, when any 
place is taken by jiipulation. 

CAPO J " Capel in old Englifh fignifies aforrj 
horfe, caballus ; a working horfe : Ray." — but 
Ka^oWiof fignifies a beaft of burden ; and no doubt 
is the original word. 

CAPON, " X.XVUV, cape ; gallus eajiratus j /» 
cut a capon, onr-o tb KvirTnr : R, Rwrlw, fcindo, fec» j 
to cut : Nug." 


Digitized by V^-iOOQlC 

C A 

From GftESK, and Lattk. 

C A 

CAPRICEj Zavftt, omnino eft i Tyrrhenis, 
quibus caper diStat Kcnrftf : Hcfychtus £««-(», 
«(f* Tu(!|;»i»9( : and from hence Junius tells usj 
cofnictt and capricieus, Rgn'ify cerebrofus, morefusi 
^ni prepriis fantqfiis nimium indulget -, Gall, caprice 
eft pbantafia; Ital. caprUcio i Hifp. capricbo i pro- 
tervMm caprerum pervicaciam tangit illud Maronis, 
Occurfare eapro, cornu fcrit ille, caveto : 
Ed. IX. 25. 
■mt generally fay of any one who is peeviih, be is 
very tricky, i. c.fiill ef tricks, or bimeurs, like a goat. 

CAPRI-CORN; K«9rf or-Kff (Bf : fed omnino eft 
4'Tyrrhcnisj as in the foregoing art. — with re- 
gard to the word capn-com, it is generally undcr- 
ftood to relate only to tbe goat -, and means tbat 
tet^elUtioH in tbe beaverts, wbicb is known by tbat 
apfellatioftt quafi caper-cernuttts \ fays Voff. ut 
Gnecis Atyexf^wc He dicitur quia fuperiori corr 
poris parte caprum refert, uti inferior! pifcem : 
capram fingitur referre, et quidcm fcandcntem, 
quia fol, ubi ad capricemi fidus pcrvenerit, iterum 
ad nos revertatur: fed cur inferior >p^ispifcis? 
quia primus tunc incipit mcnfis hybernus, quse 
tempeftas /"/awj, unde ct iyems difta; nam 'Tb*. 
f lucre; et capricorm figuram ideo inter fidera 
finxerunt antiqui, propter capram Jovis nutricem : 
—this is the very figure under which it is reprc- 
lented, both on the aniicnt cceleftial globes, and 
the modern, made by the beft opticians : it hap- 
pens unfortunately for our prefent purpofe, that 
this figure of Capricorn on the Farncfe globe, 
ITfts*(as Spence obftrves in his Polemetts, p. 172,) 
on the fhoulders of Adas; fo that only the head 
<^ Capricorn appears; by which means we lofe 
the double compofition of this confteliation, 
which was rcprcfented of old, as a creatute of a 
niixed nature ; for fo it is dcfcribcd by the antient 
poets, and painters ; tho' I have never yet Jearnt 
how this goat came to have half his body, and 
hinder parts, converted into a Jijh's tail; unlefs 
the above mentioned reafon be admitted : but it 
ij rather the tail of a (/rtf|-o«, or ferpent, accord- 
ing to the opinion, mentioned under the art. 

CAPRI-FICATION; 2ux«, ^ffaj, caprificus; 
ofiiCxcapri fcusy fays Ainfw. which is fcarce intelli- 
gible : this capri has no connexion with the 
cdpri in the' former art. perhaps we may derive 
this capri by tranTpofition a Kaij^w, ^cco^ arefa- 
cio ; Horn. Odyff. N. 39S. 

Arefaciam qtiidem cutem puUbram in Jlexibiltbus 

membris j ubi vertere poffis 
'Cax^am pulcbram cutem, ice. VoIT. 
from the wild Jig-tree they collcfled a quantity 

of £naty or fmall infeAi, and applied tliem to the 
top of their cultivated fig-trees^ fruit; and this 
operation prefcntly brought them to maturity-, 
this extraordinary method of ripening tbe fig, of 
caprification, is thus confirmed by Voff. undcf 
the art. taprificus; — i caprificus, fays he, eft w 
prificare, hoc eft, culicibus fe caprifico genitis, 
ficubus aliis maturitatem adferre : Plin. lib. XVI. 
c, 27 i fia caprificantur : et Palladius, lib. VII. 
c. 5 J nunc caprificandte arbores fici : or perhaps it 
may be contrafted from campefter-ficus. 

CAPTAIN, '* K«7«T«»of, quo nomine Graeci 
ante annos 700, fuum Calabria: et Apulia pra- 
feSium appclhbant : Skinn." fee CATIPAN : 
Gr. : but the Dr. acknowledges that word to be 
derived a Lat. caput; he fhould have faid it Gr. 
Kf^aiAii, caput; unde captain; tbe bead or cbief 

CAPTIOUS! K««-7«, «Wix«''»'' Hefych. unde 

CAPTIVE 5 capio, captus; to take amifs. 

CAPUCHIN, or cloakl" religiafirum, ut Io~ 

CAPUCHIN -frier i quuntur, ex orSne,feu 
inftituto Divi Francifci genus \ a Fr. Gall, capucini 
Ttal, capucino; hvsc forte 4 Fr. Gall, capucben; 
monacorum cucullus : omnia a voce Lat. fequioris 
fxculi capitium; hoc i caput: Skinn." — now the 
only point is to a(k, whether the Dr. knew, or 
did not know, that caput itfelf was derived i 
KjpxKn ? — we now make ufe of this word capucbin 
to fignify a Jbort filk cloak for the ladies, with a 
remarkably large bood, to cover tbe whole head drefs; 
as fomctimes the monk's boed, or coul, is draws 
over bis head in rainy weather, &c. 

CAPYL : Lye acknowledges this word to be 
derived S KutposXAor, caballus; a forry horfe, or 
beaft of burden. 

CAR, or cart ; " Kofpei. (if there be any fuch 
Greek word) carrus, currus, curro ; to run : Nug." 
— it might more properly be derived either from 
Kaip^'x, i, e. xatlx fu, eonttnuo ; continually ; becaufe 
it rolls en continually, ivttb an equable conftant 
motion : or ellc from K.«j pwv, fecundum alveum, 
(c. fiuminii; pro k«T, vel kkS', pro x«1« foon, and 
then by tranfpofition, cart .* — there is however 
another dcriv. produced by Voff. under the art. 
carmen, which may help us to the original word 
better than any of the foregoing: " vir fummus 
cenfet effe ab Caldxo carma ; hoc eft vitis, vel 
vinea, quje Hebrffiis ceremy nempe arbitratur 
vocem hanc primo fignare vitem; inde coepiffc 
accipi pro doHo -, nemfcena plaujtre impofita, unde 
tormina fundebantur :" — all this may be right, tho* 
our woi^ car originates from a different root, as 
will be fliewn prefcntly; for fince Voffius acknow- 
ledges, about the clofe of his art. carmen, that, 
porro, vetcres cum definencia in men, eciam per 


C A 

From G k £ s K> and 1^ a t t n. 

C A 

mentum cSkrrent, ut mtmtn. Momentum -, documen, 
documentttm; eciam pro carmtn, carmentam, dixiHe 
videntur: and fince he has likewife acknow- 
ledged, under the art. carpentum, that nomen effe 
a Carmentdy Eveitdri matre ; quafi carmenlum-, tho' 
he feems to reject this deriv. afterwards ; yet 
Iince alt thele things arc thus* perhaps it would 
be better to look on our words CAR, CART, 
and CHARIOT, to be of Greek extraftion ; 
particularly fioce Ovid in his Fafti, lib. I. Si^j 
has thefe remarkable lines,. 

Nam prius Aufonias matres Carpenta vehebantj 

Hiec quoque ah Evandri diSa parente rcor : 

and every one knows that Carmenta was the mo' 

tber of Evanddr, an Arcadian, and confequently 

a Greek. 

CARACH7Koif«pioi', Hifp. carabo,caravoina- 

CARACK J vigii, Jeu cymb^e genus \ navicula ; 
ajpecies of Jhipping : or perhaps it may be de- 
rived fimply from ci3r/»(j ; a Jhip : though Cle!. 
Way. 31, fays, " caraks zxz evidently derived a. 
currougbs; the veflels antiently navigated on the 
Britilh feas; being the vitilia corio circumfula 
mentioned by Pliny:" — this looks as if he had 
incended to derive it either from curro, or from 
cerium ; both Gr. 

CARAT, or cara£ls, " KwoIskj which has been 
ufed for Kift^lnf, Jiliqua ; which properly fignifie's 
a/mall hem, or hujk, Jbell, or pod of beans, peas, 
or any fucb thing; and is taken for the weight of 
four grains : R. Kij ai, certiu ; a born : or from 
X«f «»■»■«, fcalpo, imprimo ; to imprint , engrave ; the 
cara£i, according to fome, being no more than a 
teriain mark, which afcertained the degree, to 
which the gold had been refined : Nug." — then 
the word carat, or caraii, feems to be but a con- 
traftion of Xaj a^lnf, charaBeri ozAy according 
to this deriv. it ought to have been written 
tbaratf or cbarali: " or it may come," continues 
the Dr. "from Xaoal^ioi- (if there be any fuch Greek 
^ord) a .golden coin, (he means a gold coin) in 
which they ufed formerly to pay their taxes : 
for as in the divifion of the finenefs of Giver, 
they made ufc of a coin, which is called the 
denier i fo it is very probable, that in diftinguifli- 
ing the finenefs of gold, they made ufc of this 
other coin ; as when one fays of gold to 20, M, 
23 carats,, or caraits : Nug." only then again, 
according to tbis etym. it ought to have been 
written cbarats, or cbaraSfs. 

CARAVAN: whether this beintircly aPerfian 
word, or whether it be derived from caterva, is 
only a conjcfture, t^en from a hint in Jun. 
who has not given the deriv. of ic, but has only 
explained it by -mercatoref catervatim in' loca re- 
metiora fr((ficijcentts, Skimjer fays ic is " vox 

mercaeoribus omnibus^ <t qui de rebus Turclcit 
vcl Anglice legerunt, notiffima ; 3. voce Turcicij 
kervan; turba mercatorum cum prafidio militum 
peregrinantium :"■ — this kervan feems to be but a 
contraftion of caterva -, &t leaft there is Qmilarity 
both of found and of ftgoiAcation between the 
two words, whatever there may be with regard 
to dfriv. J caravan, quafi catervan, catervatim-, 
merchants travelling together in companies, by troops : 
perhaps from Tuff3ai^w, turbo, turba; a croud, .oc 
large compafy. 

CARBINE, or rather carabine ', KafoPiw, »«- 
vicula. " Spelman vocem Lat. carabus eodem 
fignificacu citat; uirumquc forte a Gr. antiq. 
KajaPof, cancer; fc. ab aliqud eancri Jimilitudine i. 
unde Fr. Gall. f(jrfl4/« J Jul. carabino -, Hifp.fia-, 
rabo i genus tormenti bellici ; Jclopetum brevius 
equejlre ; q. d. tormentum portatile, quia reliquis 
levius eft: Skinn." — after which he adds, *' ab 
Hifp. carabo; navigii genus, cui boc tormentum ob- 
lengd fud Jigurd utcunque Jimile f^:"7^whatever- 
nlay be the fhape of the Spaniih navicula, or sa- 
vigium, called carabo, if it be derived fron:i. 
Kicfjxpef, which Hgnifies a crab, it feems to be a, 
ftrange explanation, to fay that the carbine was 
a horfcman's (hort gun, oblong, like a boat, or a 
crab : — there muft therefore be fome other rea- 
fon why it received that name, which could noc 
arife from its (hape, or figure. ^. 

CARBONADE?Ko!ffw, arefacio -, fnf«ico#: a- 
CARBUNCLE S mong the different deriv. of 
this word carbg, produced by Voff. this feems to. 
be the beft j at leaft it bears the neareft affinity- 
to it : to which he fubjoins i " itaque carbones in-' 
terpretantur Ugna arida, uftulataque ;" and then af- 
terwards adds ; "I carbo, eft cariunculus -, ui ifur,. 
fiirunculus ; et ab avus, avunculus; transfertur 
etenim ad gemms genus ob ignis Jimilitudinem ^ 
dc quo Ifidor. lib. XVI. c. 13, omnium ardendum 
gemmarum principatum carbunculus habet : carhun-- 
cuius autem didtus quod fit ignitus, ut carbo ; cu- 
jus fulgor nee noftc vincitur; lucet enim in tc- 
nebris, adeo ut ftammas ad oculos vibret ;" — this- 
however may be rather doubted ; but he goes 
on, and remarks that,. " eft et carbunculus vitium 
atque arborum morbus; Plin. lib. XVII. c. 34.; 
quapropter et grando in his cauITis tntelligi 
debet, et carbunculatio, et quod pruinarum in- 
juria evenit ; hjec enim, vcrnb tepore invitatis, 
et erumperc audentibus, fatis .mollibus infidens^ 
adurit laAefcentes germinum oculos ; quod in 
6ore carbuncttlutn vocant : ha:c Plin. carbunculus 
vero, et carbunculatio vocatur, quia carbonisinftar 
adurat ; unde et Gr^cis Kavo-tj dicitur : our gar- 
deners and farmers call it froft-bitten :" — as to the 
word earbonade, Skiaa. (Hjfcrvca yery juftly, that 


C A 

Prom G R E E Kj and L a T t K. 

C A 

It fignifies with ua frufiim earnis fuper carhones af~ 
Jum (affatum) tefium ; tp broil over the coals. 

CAR-CASE i Xp«(, Xfjof, corpus; a body i 4nd 
kucTh, deorJum\ unde cado, cafumx to fall; fo chat 
tarcafe fcems to be a contraftion of corpus- 
ta/um; a fallen Body: or clfc ic may be written 
tarcafs ; and then it wo'uld be a contradion of 
corpus limine caffum; a body deprived of lift; which 
would originate % Xaliw, careo : vel, quod non 
minus placet, fays VoflT. a Xd^iuco, dejiitaer; i, e. 
xareo; unde caffe-, in vain ; meaning a dead body, 
void of life, and utterly ufeltfi. 

CARD W00/; KAfu, ixagev, caro, tondeOt carpo ; 
ut in conjeftaneis fuis monet Scaliger; unde 
carmen pro inftrumcnto peHen, quo lana pufgatur -, 
ft carendo dicitur quafi carimtn: Vdff. to comb 
wool; toJeparatCi divide, to teafe, or loafe wool, 

CARDS ought to be written cbards, a Xixflnf, 
tharta -, paper : fee CHART. Gr. 

CARDAMUM, Ka^^a/AWjuov, cardamomum -, an 
Indian Jpice. 

CARDINAL /w«/j J E.gatn, hamus; by tranf- 
pofition carde, ex quo quid fufpenditur: fane 
GermanJB limiliter cardo eft thur-angel, doer- 
at^eli deer-book, or, as we fometimcs melt them 
both together, deer-bingel -, only it muft be ob- 
ferved, that Voflius has not brought this word 
/i^r-a»_ff/ as a deriv. {torn cardo; but only as a 
fynonymous term j that, as cardo is derived from 
Efit#)i, and as ^^»it fignifies a hook -, fo the Ger- 
mans cxprefled carde by ibiir-angel, which is evi- 
dently derived from &v^»-»yiivx<it, janua angulus, 
curuus ; at^ pitte of iron crooked, like a book : 
'* carde ad varia transfcrtur j ad coeleftia, ut cum 
lie cardines appellantur cali plaga :" we have like- 
wife ufcd it in feveral fenlcs ; viz. the cardinal 
'Winds i the cardinal virtues ; &c. 

CAR-D-IN-ALe/jRcwf : this dignitary is fup- 
pofed tohavi arifcn about the time of Gregory 
the Great; but is really of much higher fourccj 
for according to' Clcl, Voc. aj, and 104, it is 
compofcd of 

** caer ; a town. "> 

d" i a prepofitive article. lcaer-ifen~ali tbefenior 
. ben; elder. ^ ruler of a town :" 

al ; rule, or command, j 
■^but ftill it is Gr. } for caer in the fenfe of town, 
h the fame as ar, or car ; meaning a ftone, or 
rock i I. c. a town having a ftone of /an^uary y or 
being built on a rock, bill, or eminence-, a 'P«-p^i«, 
vel 'p«;^-io!, by tranfpofition Af-;^i«, unde or, car, 
caer, or char : d'en, or ben, comes from Ew-«u7of, 
annus, annofus ; old, eld, or elder : and al, or ul, 
being tke ftaff of office, may defcend ab uA-n, 
fyl-va \ a wand, ftaff, or rod of power. 
■ CARE, xij«, cura ; concern, anxiety. 

CARESSES; XopiBf, cartts; earitasi endear- 
ments: the deriv. of-thisword is it feems greatly 
dilputed among the etymol. : Slcinn. cenfures 
Jun. for deriving it 3. X<Mi^ir(«t ; non ut Jun. 
invito ApoUine contendit, a Xa:fi^(r6«i : fed fatis 
manifeftc 4 Lat. earns: (but. Dr. is not carus 
itfelf derived either from X«fif, or from XofiHC, 
gratioftts ?) and Lye cenfures Skinn. for deriving 
it a Lat. caras j hon, ut Skinn. contendit, h Lat. 
carus i led ab Arm. caret i amare; amatts mm 
adblandiri foUmus :~'hoviever, we may prefer the 
Gr. before any other deriv. notwith (landing 
Cafaub. fays, demulcere, xa1aff{c~»i unde GalH fuum 
carejfer', effinxiflc mCmini alicubi legere : vulgo 
tamen (fed non ita probabiliter) ex X«fi^iirfl«i, 
quod aliud eft: but XaCft^s/jtat fignifies ^ra/z/rcr; 
which bears at leaft fome analogy to carefs. 

CAR-FAX: " vox illis folis nota, quJbus 
Oxonium innotuitj i Fr. Gall, carrefour, quarre^ 
four; quadriviuu; q.d. quatuorfora; vel fi mavis 
quattre faces j i. c. quatuor fades, profpeSus, vel 
frontifpicia: ibi cnim decuflantibus fe invicem 
duabus magnis platcis, qu£ urbem conftituunt 
in quatuor vices, eoquc totam urbem jucundus 
fatis profpedus datur : Skinn."--every one will 
allow the propriety of his interpretation, tho* 
few will admit of his etym. : for if quatuor fades 
be the true deriv. of the word car-fax, then un- 
doubtedly the etym. is Gr. : for quatuor is cer- 
tainly derived a KiTIof*, Mo\. pro niTIwas: and 
fades orig. from fade, i. e. from *u«, fto, facto, 
fades :— it (eems however more probable that the 
former part of this compound car-fax, is of the 
fame power with cbar, in Cbaring-crofs : and con- 
fequently would ftill be derived from the Gr. as 
will be feen under that art. : as for the latter part 
of this compound /oHTJ, it feems rather to come 
from fourche, a fork, adivijion; i. e. ^furca, ab 
'Tf;^»i, If' »i( *«f1i« pi^ttriii 01 ii«i(7«i : Hcfych. fo 
that the whole compound Ihould form quarre, 
vel carre-fourcbe, or carre-forcbu, contracted to 
carfax; fignifying the fpot, where a perfon can 
view the diviftons of four ftreets, forming four 
comers, crofling each other at right angles, and 
making as it were afquare, fquarre, quarre, carfi, 
in the midft of them. 

CARGO i " navis onus; ab Arm. carg ; onus j 
carga; cnerare; fortaffe 4 Celt, cdrr; unde Lat. 
carrus j quod idem ftgnificat : Lye." — but it may 
be very much doubted whether carrus be derived 
from the Celt, carr: we might rather fuppofc 
the contrary} confequently that carr, carrus, and 
currus, are all derived from the Gr. for the rea- 
fons which have been already given under the art. 
CAR : bcfides, here fcems to be rather a con- 
■fufion of ideas ; for in the firft place he tells us, 
10 ^'"S* 

C A 

From G n E I K, and L a t i Wi 

C A 

cargo Ggnifies navis otmsy and is derived from the 
Arm. cargi onus; or car^a, enerare-, then im- 
mediately after derives it from carr, and carrus ; 
but there certainly is a difference between the 
carii and its load; as well as between ibejhip, 
and her burden j the fame deriv. can fcarce be ap- 
plicable to both : but in our language {lri<5):ly, 
the cargo is the burden, not thejhif ; but here it 
is ufed ro fignify the burden only. 

CARINE, fometiniea written cetreen, or carene; 
there are two deriv, of carina given by Voff. viz. 
\ curra; which, as we ftiall fee prefently, is Gr. : 
or elfe from Kajiw, K^im, fcindere,fecare undas, 
tequora i quomodo de carina, five navigio, etiam 
Latini loquuntur; ut 

Gc ipfa fugkfecat ultima priftis 

/Equora. ^n. V. 218. 

we iindcrftand the word carine in the fenfe of 
cleaning thefiip's bottom, and newfaying, or f itch- 
ing her. 

CARIOUS, K«fw, K«fM, edo j caries ; putredo 
Sgnerum; decayed, or worm-eaten wood; alio in 
furgery any decided, or putrid limb. 

CARKING i Ufa, c«r<a, euro ; cark ; care, con- 
cern, anxiety : Junius has derived it a Ka^xa-i^u, 
refono, fonitum edo j unde Sax. ceajician j frtndere, 
firidere dentibus ; unde cark and care, eft acribus 
JoUicita mentis cutis eonfici : and this deriv. might 
have been adopted, if earking conveyed any idea of 
found, OT uttering a^ complaint ; on the contrary, 
a perfon may be very anxious, . and fellicitous, wiib- 
tut exprejfmg any loud lamentation. 

CARL, " KBfof, quafi KufA, Juvenis, intfr pue- 
rum virumque aedius; qui ut plurimiim ferociores, 
el petulantiorcs cflc folcnt : ccopi olitn (nunc 
eburle) duri agrejlifque vir ingenii ; fed et rujlicus : 
Cafaub. as quoted by Jun." who iikewife adds, 
*' Angli certc catum mafculum,a carl-cat appellant ; 
ct cannabum robuftiorem, carl-hemp :" — the words 
carl, and ceopl, or eburle, were antiently under- 
ftood in the fame fenfe ; for Stowe, in his Chro- 
nicles, fpcaking of bold Robin Hood and Utile 
John, who lived fo early as in the times of 
Richard 1. about the year 1 1 go, fays, " the faid 
Robert, (or Robin) Hood intertayned an hundred 
tall men, and good archers, wyth fuch fpoiles 
and iheftes as he got : upon who 4 hundred were 
they never fo ftronge durfte not geueihonfet} 
he fufFered no woma to be opprefled, violated, 
or otherwife moleftedj poore me's goodcs he 
fparcd, aboundantly rclcuing the w'!* that w*'' by 
theft he gate from abbeyes and the houfes of ricbe 
carles .•" — meaning rich men, who we're of fuch an 
ili-natured difpofition, and fo hard-heartedi that 
they gave awayj or beftowed nothing on the poor, 

CARMELITE, frattr Carmelita ; a CarmtUtt 
frier -, one of that order. 

CAR-MINATIVE i « fu rely not from car- 
men ; a charm ■" fays Clel. Way. 5 1 ; " but from 
car, or gar I to compell, or expell; and win-, votndi 
the w converting, as it moft frequently does, into 
the m .-—but now at leaft the latter half of thi* 
compound is Gr. ; fee WIND. Gr. 

CARNAGE 1 Kf(«f, caro, camis; ftefi>: 

CARNAL I with us, carnage fignifies 

CARNATION I Jlaughttr in battle : cami- 

CARNI-VAL f val, fays Clel. Voc. 88, 

CARNI-VOROUS fccms to be compounded 

CARNOSITY J of carni vale; bidding, 

adieu to the eating of flefh meats \ at which times 

they ufed to indulge in great . excefles : fee 


CAROL; Skinner fuppofes this word to be 
derived \ Fr. Gall, carelle-, genus JaltiU modulati i ' 
item canticum quoddam fejiivum, fraftrtim feflo 
natalis ujitatum: forte a Gr. Xa^a, gaudium; Xaifw^ 
gaudeo: — after this, it may perhaps be wondered, 
that he fliould add, " mallem tamen defle^tere ^ 
Sax. cajil, feu ceopl; rujlicus; q. d. carmen agre^e, 
feu ruJHcum :" — this can by no means be allowed ;. 
becaufe whenever Chaucer mentions the word 
carel,it'is al ways with fome commendatory epithet: 
I fawe her daunce fo comely, 
Carol, and fing Cofwetely: 
and again ; 

A lady kareled 

Her voice full clere was, and full fwete,. 
She was not rude, ne unmete, 
But couthe ynough for fuch doing. 
As longeth unto karolling, R. R. v. 743. 
CIcI. Way. 78, fuppofes carol, to be derived from. 
the Celtic word car, or cir ; a circle j becaufe it la. 
a fong fung in around: — but CIRCLE is Gr. 

CAROT ; " Kofulot, KofliK, paflinica tenuifoliay, 
apud Athena:um : nefcio an ideo fic dli5ta quia 
carum educere cdentibus^olira crcdita eft : vel i. 
faporis fuavitate KofWk, i. e. nucum Juglandium^ 
amula: Skinn." — a veryfweet taji.ed root, like a beet. 
CAR-OUSE; Clel. Way. 81, fays, '' caroufe is 
derived from the Celtic word car, or cir ; a circle',. 
becaufe to caroufe is the cuftom oi drinking round:"' . 
—but CRCLE is Gr. 

CARP at; K«Biri)(>f*OH, Kogiri^w, COTpB, he i ta, 
^nd fault with. 

CARP, a fjb i Kvirpmes, carpit ; pi/ds fluvia-- 
lis i a river, and fondfifb, 

CARPENTERS wc have already obfcrved,, 
under the art. CAR, that probably our words 
car, cart, and chariot, were derived from car- 
penta ; and that they were derived from Carmenia, 


Digitized by 


C A 

From G K z E K, and Latin. 

C A 

the mother of Evandert im Arcadian prince, and 
eonfequenthf a Greek ; and from hence the word 
tarpenter was aname given at firft to thofe who 
buiit fuch machine*! and afterwards afcribed more 
generally to 'all workers in wood. 

CARPET, TajTUf, tapci, Jiragulum variis cok- 
•rihui ittleriextum ; tapefiry, 

CARREER, 'Pw, vel "Vuu^fiuo; unde {urro, 
quafi corruo, compounded of con and ruo ; and 
then contraftcd to eurro; to run, or rujb along 
violently : " curfus equitantium concitatij^mus, fay.s 
Skinn." and he fays rightly ; but why he Qiould 
derive this 5 verbo to carry, vebere, would be im- 
poffiblc for me to fay : there may be fome mif- 
take in the prefs, and in compofing from his 
nuuiufcript the compofitor left out the former 
part of another art. j perhaps CARRIER, and 
added the latter part of it here to this. art. CAR- 
REER ; for it u not natural to fuppofe, that 
he could derive carry, a eurro; or carreer, a 
carry, vebere. 

CARRION, " Kfaf, Kff«f, caro, carnarium j 
j!^i generally dead: others derive it from Xx^mm*, 
any place which exhaled a very bad odor ; and was 
reckoned as it yitxc the mouth of Hell; but XafwKHaf 
was alfo the gate through which thr/ led malefac- 
tors to punijbment : R. K«f«», okV (if there be any 
fuch word in Gr. to fignify) the ferryman of Hell : 
Nug." — it ought to have been printed Xajw^; how- 
ever, noc to criticife upon either of the Dr's. 
deriv. our word carrion is rather derived ^ K«fw, 
K<s(w, edo; unde caries, putredo lignorum; decayed, 
or worm-eaten wood; infurgcry it fignifies any 
decided or putrid Umb ; and carrion is not only dead 
fiefij, but dead ftejb decayed ; for all dead jlefb is 
not carrion. 

CARTEL ■) " K«flKw, chartula ; a fmall 

CARTOON / book, or paper: Nug." — again 

CARTOUCHf here is a like miftakcf for 

CARTRIDGEJ there is no fuch word as 
Kopliev : it ought to have been printed Xa^licp ; 
and then, as the Dr. obfervcs, R. Xaflnt, it, I, 
ebarta; paper. 

CARTILAGE, Kjof, Kfi«t» earo, camis, car- 
nilago, eartilago ; a griftle, or tendon. Voffius de- 
rives it ^ Kf^ac, K«f1«r, KftfluAof, quoniam in eo 
eft robur offium -, becaufc in the cartilage does the 
firengtb of the bones conjift: R. Yi^ali9i;,reburiftrength. 

• CARVE meat ;- Kafraejuou, Kof ti^w, carpo, pji j 
to cut up, feparate, di-Vide : it feems rather to be 
Sax.: fee KERF. Sax. 

■ CARVER, engraver-, T^a^u, quali Va^fu, fculpo, 
incido i to engrave. , 

CASE, to contain any thing ; *' KwJ/a;, or Kiuref, 
or Km'0'oc, eaffa, or cap/a, which M. Saumaife in 
his Hiftoria Augufta, explains by loculamenia cal- 

culorum in tabula: Nug."— it were to be wilhed 
thefe learned gentlemen had produced any au- 
thority for the ufe of the words Kaif'sj, or Ka<rjii 
or K«riref, for there are no fuch words in our 
modern lexicons : Hederic gives us only K«i|'«, 
K«iJ/axti(, and Kai|«x(oc, capfa, cifla ; a cbeft, or. 
box : — "it might therefore be better to derive cnfe 
fimply a cafa ; i. c. ut a tegendo Latini turn asdi- 
ficii partem, tum veftis genus, te£Ium diccbant ; 
ita a tegendo, et veftem Kiwraw, vel K«wijv, ct do- 
mum etiam cafam efle nuncupatam : Voff." — a 
cafe, or fbeath, being only a fevering or botf/e to 
contain any thing. 

CASE in grammar i KiSn, cado, cafus ; a falling 
down; meaning a declination of a noun from the 
nominative, or primitive idea ef its appellation int* 
oblique- cafes, or failings from the original cafe, called 
by grammarians cafus reSlus, and reprefcnted by 
a perpendicular line, and all the others by obliques -, 
as in the following figure, taken from a hint in 
Harris's Hermes : 

CASE- MATE, " X<w/*«a«, hiatus; openings, or 
bellow plates under ground: the Italians read ca- 
famatta, which fome fuppofe to have been de- 
figncd to exprcfs cafa a matti, a mad-boufe, or 
pUce to put fools in: Nug." 

CASEMENT, Xaa-f^x, vel Xxri^n, hiatus, hialio; 
an opening in the walls of buildings to admit the 
air, and light ; a window : R. Xatvw, hio, hifco ; 
to gape, yawn, open wide. 

CASH, Kailxxxq;, capfa, eifia ; pecunia nume* 
rata -, money hoarded up. 

CASHIER: vel a kAm, careo, egee: vel i. 
X»tf (uw, dejiituor, careo j et a careo, eft caritum ; 
unde cafum ; unde caffdre ; et eafse ; in vain, void:, 
fruit lefs: albo militari expungere; to Jlrtke a foldier 
off the lift J render him nptrady. 

CASINGS i ^^Jlercus Jiccum jumentorum, quod 
pauperes frequenter ad ufum focorum colUgunt -, ^ , 
X(^«», ventris onus deponere : Skinn." the dried 
dung ef cattle, often gathered by the poor for fuel. 

CASK, KaJl>c, c^us i a cafk, cr barrel. 

CASKET, K<4««w;, caffula, cifiula j a cabinet. 

CASSATE?Xiif(L«,rarw, «»,et caffusfum; unde 

CASSER J cafse \ to be in want, render void, 
abrogate; an abregaior. 


C A 

From Greek, and L a t i k. 

C A 

CASSIA, " Kwffffi*, caj^a» frutex aromaticus -, 
efweetjbntb blaring a fpice, like cinnamm: Ibmc- 
times \t is written cqfia : Nug." 

CASSITERIDES, HturtrHi^wyflannumitin; the 
IJlands of Scilly, or the Serlings j from whence they 
formerly got great quantities of tin, 

CASSOC i £<>r*() f^g>*f>* : ^. cloak : Junius has 
given us a better dtriv. under the irt. Jacket, 
which he derives S Fr. Gall. Jaque, cafaque ; Ital. 
giacco, cafaco ; HiCp. Jaca,cafacai " Gcfecutn eft 
Keu-iif, cafa; quod non domum tantum, fed tt-ivef- 
tem Jignificat i prorfus uc /«^mi nunc ad tedtficia, 
nunc ad rem vejliariam referri poteft : ab hoc itaque 
ILetvni c^ cafa, kafacke; undc coffee: Voff." 

CAST, or throw down i KaJwofiw, per fync. 
xor-s^Ebi : and we have curtailed h ftill farther, 
and have kept only the flrft four letters x«f : R. 
xa^»f^u)iri)(i.i,profteme,dejicie; to caftt or throw down, 

CASTANETS j •' !:«■««, a tafianea, feu eaf- 
tana, Thejfalia urbe, dree Pineum, ubt magnus 
earum proventus : VolT." — to which let me add 
from Skinner, under the arc. caftaniettoes -, vox 
choreas ducentibus fatis notaj ab Hi^p-cajianne- 
tas ; Ital. cafiagnette, idem lignantibus ; q. d. 
parva cajianea; globulus enim ligntis, caftanearum 
fimilibus, digitis interpojitis, crepitant:" — an in- 
ftrumcnt, held in the hands of dancers, or be- 
tween their fingers, in order to beat time j and 
which formerly had the fliape and appearance 
of chefinuts.' 

CASTER : even Verft. allows, that " this is 
DO antient Sax. woord ; it is rather borrowed," 
iays he, " from the Lat. caftrtaa, betokening a 
eafile, or fertraffe ; and eafier, chejler^ and ceter, 
beeing the terminations of many places in Eng- 
land, do lignify that fuch places had cables buylt 
by the Romans (between 4 or 500 years) before 
our Englilh-Saxon anceters came into Britaine ;" 
—let me then only obferve, that the word ca^er, 
when ufed in the termination of places, as 
Bran-cajler, Hon-cafUr, Lan-cufier, undoubtedly 
fignified a place of Jirengtby or the Jituation of 
A Roman tamp: hence likewife Ci:y?i?r, now a vil- 
lage near the city of Norwich: and confequently 
derived a caftra^ which omnino eft a KarfWfi*, pro 
Kalwfwfwt, fays If. Voff. fignlfying fuperius tabu- 
latum navis, quod nautas, aut milites fuftinet i fori i 
the deck of afhip .* R. KtCofjuxjufiJ, cenftemo,fternOt 
ftratum ; attf thit^ftrewtd, or laid on the ground; 
and here ufed to fignify the ftraw, ^ins, or bed- 
ding, laid on the ground, under fame fhed, or cover" 
ing made of cloth, er canvas, called a ienty fer/el- 
diers tafteep on when in the field. 

CASTIGATION; Ktrof, Dor. Karsr, Ktiroi,. 
ttftus, hram ; a thong ; saftigo, caftum ago ; Dores 
Siculi £ar«f) diccbant, lorum ; quod leris cxde- 

banti to fcourge with a thong i to cbaften, it .cor- 
rect OT purify. 

CASTOR, "Karwf, taftor, fiber; the heaven 
an amphibious animal: Nug." — this does not ac- 
count for the origin of its name : " fome," fays 
Sir Thomas Brown in his Errors, p. 144, " have 
been deceived by deriving caftor I caftrando j 
whereas caftor is fo called, qua(i Taruft i. e. ani- 
mal vsntricofum -, from hiB Jwagging, or prominent 
bel^:" — or perhaps rather from that remarkable 
/welling under his belly, which contains the bag 
of perfume. 

CASTRATION, Kiw, Dor. Kam, eeftua 
cingulum Veneris, quod nova nttpta gerebat ; uode 
caftui ; chafte ; et caftro, quod caftum facit \ quia 
caftrando vis libidinis exftinguitur -, to cut off, abate, 
quench all defire : there is however another, and 
perhaps a better deriv. given by Voff. viz. caftro 
i ZTlff w, £l«^a:, unde Kalarct^ftv, Ct K»ffgjiv^ fteri- 
lem reddo; to render fterile, or barren. 

CASUAL, Koilu, deorfum; cado, cafus, cafurusi 
about to happen ; by chance, fortuitous. 

CAT, catus i if there be properly any fuch 
Latin fubAantive, to fignify a. cat: Skinner fup- 
pofes it to be derived i captare; to catch \ as if 
ic was contracted from that word ; and fo per- 
haps it may ; but then it would be Gr. : fee 
CATCH : Gr. — let me however juft mention 
that it is poffiblc our word cat may be derived 
from the Latin adjective catus, a, urn; wife^ 
cautious, watchful; and then Voff. cells us^ catus 
may be deduced from caveo, cautum: Gr. : as 
we fliall find prefenily, under the art. CAU- 
TIOUS. Gr.' 

CATA'CHRESIS, K^U^S^'t* catachrejsi a 
figure in rhetoric, when one word is abafively put 
for another; thus, vir gregis ipfe caper: Virg» 
qui quidem proprie eft btrcus -, neque vir ufitati 
dicitur, nifi de hemine. 

CATA-CLYSM, K<»1«tXuff^«, cstaclyfmus ; a. 
general flood, or deluge: R, HtSat, et xXu^w, abluoi 
to waft) away. 

CATA-COMBS, " TupjSof, iumba; a tmbi 
quafi tatatombs, catatumba-, taken from Stdo, or 
K(5u, infra ; which is a fubterraneeus place, whi- 
ther it is fuppefed the primitive Cbriftians retired 
during the perfecution ; and where they buried the 
martyrs; but now , it is cuftoraary to fay cata~ 
combs : Nug. under the art. Tomb." fee likcwife 
ROME: Gr. 

CATA-DUPE. KaI«JW«e, calara&a ; " a ca- 
taraB of the Nile j a fall of water, with a very 
great noife : Ko/oJimw, cumfenitu decide: R. Ajwc(» 
Jonitus, fragor : Nug." 

CATA-LECTIC, i:o3flA»xI(«», catale^icum car- 
vieOi cui ia fiae deeft fyllaba ad perfedionem: 


C A 

From Greek, and Latin. 

C A 

med renidet in dome laainar: Hor. Car. II. i8. 
w^ich, with one fyUable more, would have been 
a perfeft iambic. 

CATA-LEPSIS, K(a«x»n;-.f, cataUpfis ; invafio, 
eomprebenfio mente : morbus quidam : R. A«j^(3«v«, 
•accipio; to ferze, 

CATA-LOGUE, "K«r«Aoyot, catalogus -, a roil, 
hill, orjcroll; regifter of names, or articles: R. 
Atyi»,A.tyoi,fermoifpeecb, di/courje; mention: Nug." 

CATAMITE J Tatvfj^HSm, pro Yea-vfjuit^, a 
Tmiiv^suy quod idem eft ac Tcwvi^m, lator, gaudeo; 
to rejoice, to give pleafure : inde fuit prius Gawa- 
tniius; dtinde Gavymedes i ct poftea ftf/aw/Vaj; — 
toys retained for the vihft purpofes. 

CATA-PLASM, " KcSatv^nurfjia, a kind of plaf- 
ter: R. Uxaurau, to do J to form -, to invent: Nug." 
■^but it bcarf'a different fcnfe here; viz. il- 
lino, ohlino ; to dauh, or fpread with atrf unguent, 
Jalve, &c 

CATA-PULTA, " ILSta^iA^i, unde KaI«»-tATnf, 
tataptdta j a warlike engine, to fimot, or cafi large 
4arts, arrows, fiones, &c. : R. n«AX«, vibre, ^uatio, 
agito; to vibrate, fliake, or hurl: VoiT." — or per- 
haps 4 ^tAXm, jacio i to hurl, or c^, or throw -, 
quafi catabulta. 

CATARACT in the eye; as Clel. Voc. 5, very 
juftly obferves, ** is only a barbarous formation 
of the words cakoeroe, or cacoroco, ftill in ufc in 
the Southern parts of France i the meaning of 
■which is a^eck, or ayiy gathering over the efe :" — 
then we may reafonably fuppofc that cakoeroe, and 
eacorecot are nothing more than Gallic diftortions 
of Ktucgf-exxof, quafl Kt«ca(-«xxoc, malus oculus ; a 
malady in the eye, 

CATA-RACT of waters; " SJla^mU, eata- 
raffa; a cataraS of waters, or peels, at the gates 
ef citadels, and fortified towns t R. Afowtrw, pulfo, 
■toUido, tundo ; l^ctlai^xffe-u, the fame : or from 
'Piwvutfrango, rutnpo, vehementer ferio -, KtHo^finrirw, 
(onfringo, cum inipetu decidere facto, infono : Nug." 
--■ny, or all of which, may be applicable to 
this word; and yet there is another deriv. as ap- 
plicable, tho' perhaps not the right one ; and 
that is, K»lApp'[M, defko, decide-, R. Kolix, deor/um; 
et 'Piw, fiuo J to rufh down with violence, 

CATARRH, *'K«!a(!f<nif,and -fti\Jt,catarrbus,de- 
fkxio ; a defittxion, 01 flowing down of the burners : 
R.'Piu,fluoi to flow: Nug.'* 

CATA-STASIS, Kal«riwrij, conflilutio a'e'ris, vel 
corporis bamanii the natural conJlitution:R.Ii»6inilin, 
conflituo ; to cenjtitute. 

CATA-STROPHE, K<3«rfe*n, catafiropbe, ex- 
tremt pars fabuhe, exitut, mors ; the ijfue of an 
event, the unravelling of a plot, the winding up -of 
a ftoryt or play ; the comluflon ef an event ; death : 
R. zlji^, verto j to turn, change, die. 

CATCH,Kearlia,ctiroiixta^ai, Hefych. capio, cap~ 
tus J catch, caught ; to take, feize, apprehend. Ju- 
nius obferves, that our word catch afEne eft 
fielg. ketfen -, vehementer alicui ret injiflcre, atque 
omni niju aUquid fe£iari, quod affequi eupias : 
K»\i)(«¥, quod deiinere,obtinere,eccupare,flgniflcat: 
mutuatur fua tempora ab inuf. themate KaliWX^iV, 
unde catcb, contraftum effc nemo non videc: and 
perhajSs our word cat may likewife have drawn 
its origin from hence; though there has been 
another deriv. attempted under that article. 

CATCH-POLE, « KaI«rx"-»»^«' prehendere 
polam, verlicem, caput; Cymrseico ceif-powl eft 
liSlor, apparitor; Jun." — a bailif, who apprehends 
a perfon by feizing his pole, or the pole of bis headi 
or even by touching any part of him. 

CAT-ECHISM, *' K«7ix'r/a5t, catecbifmus j 
Kalti;^i^ai', catechizof to inftruSl by word of mouth ; 
to teach (by rote) the principles, and firft elements 
of an art, or fcience; and particularly of the Cbrif- 
tian do^ritte: R. H^of, echo,fonus, repetitia: Nug.** 
— by hearing them often repeated, refounded. 

CAT-EGORICAL, " KMldyof («, categoria, pra- 
dicamentum, apud Logicos ; it is taken for certain 
claffes, or heads, wherein pbilofophers comprize all 
things :}^yi>^tw, to Jbew, declare, mantfefi : R. 
Ayof », forum ; the bar, a market -, an harangue ; 
aflirmative : Nug." 

CATENARIAN, Kvm, cants; canis autem vin~ 
cult genus flgnificat ; unde catulus, et catena -, a 
chain, or bond : thus a catenarian arch, is fome- 
times ufed in books of architecture, to lignify 
an arch in the form of a chain ; as are feen in old 
Gothic buildings : fee CHAIN. Gr. 

* CATER 7 whether thcfe words are but con- 

* CATES J traftions of delicacies, or delicate^ 
is offered only as a conjecture by Skinn. and ftiould 
that be admitted, their etym. will be found under 
the art. DELICACY: Gr.— but Ihould that not 
be admitted, we muft then refer to the Sax. Alph. 

CATER-PILLER, commonly written cater- 
pillar ■, " Rttfet, ten/us, a Ktt^m, tondere, fcindere, 
edere -, hinc cater, opfonator, ille majoris familia; 
minifter nundinalis appellatur, qui coemptos in 
macelio cibos tradit coquo : hinc etiam patcc 
quamobrem, vohox, vel convolvulus, Anglis di- 
catur, cater-piller, qudd homlnum pecudumque 
edulia i terra enata, exteriori cortice, vel le- 
viter tantum erofo, vitiet : Jun." — this how- 
ever accounts for only the former part of this 
compound ; the latter may be gained from Skinrt. 
who lells us, dlcitur chatte-peleufe, ab bir/Ulie 
ifiius animalis, feSs flmili; q. d. felis pihfus : 
doftus Th. Henfti. diftum putat quafi chair-pC' 
leufe, i.e. caropilofa: but both explanations do 
not anfwer the former part of the compound 
M a cater ; 

C A 

From Greek, and Lattn.. 

eater -, for certainly cater can have no connexion 
cither with cat, or with caro i ve Ihoiild have 
been obliged to them for the latter, if they had 
but derived pilofus, either fiom *iWLOf, fellis ; 
xmAt filler.; or clfe from n.x«r, quo proprie fig- 
nantur 'coa£iilia, \u\go feltra ; and then it ought 
to be written cater-piler : in both cafes however 
it Signifies the hairy devourer, 

CATEK-petMt; a diftortion of aaa/wjf ; fuur: 
feeQUATER. Gr. ' ^ 

CATER- WAUL, a cat -, M waul ; " voce 
ibno fifta, felium rugitus; ^uia fc. calulientes feles 
inter imbrices borrendum ilium ejulatum edunt : 
Skinn." — the former part of this compound we 
have already traced, under the art. CAT ; the 
latter perhaps may be derived from ejule, or 
ululo; and coofequcndy of Greek extraft. as 
will be feen hereafter. , ■ ' 

CATHARTIC,, KaSaj Jixo?, catharticus,. purga- 
Jivus : K»a«fBf, puruT, mundus i R. KaSaiaUf, $iir- 
, IV, munda -,. to cleanfe^ to purify. 

CATH-EDRAL^ K«llf Jf«, catbedta -, a feat, or 
ckain an Epifcopal fee; R. K»l«, and E<ff «, fel- 
la J a feat ; ab E^«|U«., fedee ; te Jit down ; the 
place of a bifhep's rejidenct ; where be keeps bis 
• hair. 

CATHETER, Kt,li3ig, catheter; aninftrument 
in furgery ; R. K«?i«p., dmitto ;■ fc. ia veftcd -, 
te defcend, or let down into the bladder. 

CAT-HOLIC, ** KoSsXixof, cathelicuj, univer- 
falisi uHiverfal: R. 'ox.f , totus i the whole; all: 
Nug. "—meaning the whole Chrijiian cburcb. 

CATiPAN " manifefte corruptum eft a Lat. 
tapitaneus : to turn catipan-, defieere, tramfagere, 
AjToralav ; I catipanis ; qui fc. Gratceram impera- 
terum nomine olim ante 700, vel 800 annos Cala- 
bria et Apulia prafuerunt ; et propter perfidiamy 
apud vicinos omnes male audierunt : Skinn."— but 
the Dr. himfelf has acknowledged, under the 
art. captain, that the Greeks themfelvcs, about 
the year 700, called their prefeds of Calabria, 
and Apulia, K«7»ir«*cf, and that wbrd he fays, 
was derived a Lat. "SzTb. capitaneus ; which was 
again derived a Lat. f<7p«/i— which, we have al- 
ready Ihewn under the art. CAP, ia Gr. 

CATKINS of -ivalnut- trees, &c. " Belg. kat- 
teiens i TzMt. katzleins -, Fr. Gall, cbattonj ifuli 
juglandium ; a lanugine pilorum felinorum fimili 
fic difti: Skinn." — this reafon, weak as it is, will 
lead us to the Gr. fee CAT. Gr. 

CAT-OPTICS, K«7«7r7.^.., et K«7«r7p.«f, cat- 
ffptnca ; difciplina eptices, qua refieaiones depre- 
hendit : a K.<^%^1^c^, fpeculum : R. o^I-f**!, video ; 
te fee : the doctrine pf vijicn, 

CATTLE, KtfwAii, caput, eapitalia, armen- 
tum, quia ad caput, i. t.perfonam, jure pertinent : 

C A 

live ftochy reckoned among perfonal propHty ; or 

CAVALCADE] "K«(3«AAof, eaballus; a firry 

CAVALLIER } hsrfe, or beaft of burden : 

CAVALRY J Nug."— in'later times taken 

for a war-borfe ; and the fecond word cavallier 

glorloufly diftorted by the French into chevalier. 

CAUDLE, K«*Ji;Mf, K**J«u>LiiE : J. PoUuci,. 
lib. VI. recenfetur \nx.txiSvsftot[x,.ac tradit confici 
folere ex A/xuXv, x«ci Tu^, xnt TaXeiiiiit, XM Mtxi^t : 
Hefychio cQ:nti*ft»tiuSii*»v Ji« Exmh, xai- r.«A«xV,. 
xaiTufB, xauMtXi1sf_; whether thislatter receipt be a. 
good one,.and would fuit with the conftitotion -of a- 
modern Englifh lying-in lady, may be very much 
doubted: the following from Jun. is a much' 
better,, viz. ^' forbillum calidum ex vino, evis, fac-- 
eharo, cinnamomo, aliijque aromatibus confehumr 
apud Lydos quoque non abfimile edulium inufu 
fuit, Athenxo atque Euttathio tcftifaus, Kixk^^uAov' 
Tocabant: vetcris lingux Frifics tenacibus nun- 
cupatur warme-jawte ; quod tantundem eft ac G 
dicsi'ni,,calidum denum (perhaps rather calidum jus) 
kandeel'fuypen ;" warm-fuppings, given te the good' 
woman in the firaw, and to the certfpairy who cotae 
to vijit her -, and as ihefe fuppings were alwtrft 
given- warm,. Dt. Skinner has been induced ta 
crumble a Utile bread into the pefit,. and. to fop- 
pofe that eaudle is derived from Mlidus, q. d. potio ■ 
ealida, qua calida/emptr fumitur : — but this is only 
an accidental appellation, and is rather an epithet, 
than a name ; whereas KavJ'uAe;, vel KatiavXos, 
was the name itfelf of this pofet, or caudle ; wii- 
tber cold, or bet ^ unleffr we could- fuppofe- that 
KftvJiKuXe; figniiied calidus. 

CAVE 1** TXa^v, JPelunca; «»« TarA«f«r,, 

CAVERNS cavare: Upt." — perhaps it would 
be more proper to derive our word cave ^ K9»f . 
Eli«Fs{,. cavus i hollow ; particularly fince it feems. 
to be theetym. pointetl out by Virgil, .^n.IL 53,. 
when Laocodn ftruck the wooden horfe, 

Infonuere cava gemitumque dedere caventa :- 
or perhaps it would be nearer ftill to derive, it 
kXeus, XkFs;, cavus ; from X»nm, bio ; toyawa^ 
or gape i ab antiquo Xcm, inferto v : Vofl*. 

CAUGHT J the paft tenfe, and participle of 
the verb CATCH. Gr. 

• CAVIARE i r^fw, garum-i atty fait pickle: 
though perhaps this art. ought rather to be re> 
ferred to the Sax. Alph. 

CAVILL J caviller ; a caveo ; ut forhillor, 4 
forbeo : Vofll— but he had derived cavee I Xm, 
Xwiwa, for the reafons that will be given under 
the art. caution : here it is ufed to lignify a piece 
of fopbifiry ; when by degrees from evident truths^ 
notorious falfehsodi are deduced: Jet me however 
obferve, chat notwithftandiag caviller, and taveo, 


C A 

From G R £ E K, 

are derived from- the fame root j yet Jun. has 
made an excellent diftinftion between them ; 
** quemadmodum vero cavers proprium eft juris- 
confultorum } ita leguleii, ac rabiiix forcnfes 
dicebantur cavillart, cum capciolis quibtifdam 
JephifmaiiSj et variis ttrpverfationihus, conantur 
eludere inquirantes controvcrfe rei veritatem :" 
—a mere quibbler. 

CAUL, or »«wirtf«et both Jun. and Skinn.fup- 
pofe ihac caul, a Membrane, or etnentum, and caul, 
xetkubim- crinak mdlierum, originate from the fame 
root ;. but it is evident that as this word bears two 
diffcrentfenfes,itproceeds from two differentetym: 
when it fignifics the memhrantj or omentum, which 
tentains either the brain, or the bowels, it originates 
from Km;, ]Eo\. KuFo;, cavus, caveola -, a cage, or a»y 
hollow place, or thing, that contains,, hoids, or cvm- 
^rehtnds, another: but when ic lignifies reticu- 
lum, it derives as in the next art. 

CAUL far the hair J idem forte cum cowl; and 
CAUL of a wig \ confequently is now de- 
rived a KvxXew, circumagere ; quod hoc muntmentum 
capitis quaquaverfum circumegerint j atque co fe 
adverfus uttdique irruentes aeris injurias protextrint; 
quoniam etiam denotabat tunicam, non nemo 
forte putabit hue quoquc pertinere illud Ko^wn, 
quod Hefychio eft Xi%mo( kJo;, a /pedes of tloai, 
v>ith a hoed to it : this hood by the monks is call- 
ed a cowl ; cucullum ; et Salmaf. dcducit vocem cu- 
tuUus, ab iUo Koxkuc, quod Hefych. exp. Xef«t, 
xKi ilffixi^aAaia, a caul, cope^ or hood- to c&ven or 
encompa/s the bead. 

CAULl-FLOWER, K«uX«, cauUs:-r aftalk, or 
Jlem; a /pedes of celewort, commonly, written «/^- 
fiewer, bccaufe it grows on afialk, 

CAUSE, A(Ii(t, vel Aifffls, pro quo ^oles Aud-*, 
tau/a ; a de/tgn, purpo/e, inducement ; aifo- a /utt^ 
or proce/i at law, 

CAUSEY J Aal, calx, calco, callis'/irata » a 
paved wayt or read made by hand: or perhaps i 
Xflof, terra egefta; a rai/ed path, or bank. 

CAUSTIC, " Kitu7)ifto» et Kavrixoc, caufiicum, 
arendi vim habens ; a cauftic, or burning medidne, 
orin/irument j alfo the place where t^e operation is 
per/ermed : R. K»tu, fuiur. Kauo-M, uro, ufium ; to 
burn : Kug." 

CAUTION, Xa«, pro X<m»w, eaveo, cautus ; 
inferto v, quomodo, a Atof, divus; i Ami, lavis: 
vet eft ca^eo, cavus, a Koor, ^ol. KuF«f, cavi- 
tas : fed qus ratio eft, ait Seal, ut cavere 4 cave, 
cavto, dedu6tum fit ? — rationem non abfurdam 
adfert Jovian. Fontan. ita enim in Aftio fuo fcribit, 
prijci Hit, qui Lafium, d quo Latinam ej/e linguam 
/unt qui veltnt, etiam ante Aborig'mes tenuete, ple- 
rique in cavernis babitabant, qute a cavendo tfent 
di^a: its autem n/lus cavebant, it /rigova, pjera- 

and L A T I w. C E 

que etiam alia incommoda ; in illi/que /e et /ua 
cautius tutabantur : qua a re verhum caveo ab 
ii/dem ejje deduilum : haftenus Pontan. porro fa- 
verejibi nihil aliud eft, quam /ibi pro/picere, ac con- 
/ukre ; quafi in cavis, vel cavernis delite/cendo, 
latende : Voff." — to a£i with caution, by retiring, or 
retreating into caves, and caverns-, as into places cf 

CAW, K«ux»ep«'. gJarior,. exulto j to make a 
rejoicing, and exulting noi/e : or rather fiom X«(*, 
hia, apertus /urn ; to open, yawn, or gape. 

CAWELj " corsi Sax. Eapel ; calathuSf ^ua* 
lus : Ray." — but furely cawel is nothing more 
than a barbarous Northern diftortion of qualus i 
and qualus itfelf is only a contraftion oi calathusi 
and calathus is either defended from, or has given 
origin to K«A«B(.f, qualus; a /rail,.ox twigba/ket. 

QEAGEi Verftegan. explains this by key-, 
clavis \ and indeed it fcems to be but another 
dialed for key; which undoubtedly is Gr. 

CEAL, Kjiaow, celo, ab/cendo, ecculto; ti) hide^ 
muffie up i alluding to that barbarous prafticc in 
falconry, e/ /ewing up the eyeUds of a pigeon, in 
order to make her mount ; for the poor bird being 
thus blinded, is afraid of venturing in a ftrait 
progreflive motion, left ihe fliould fly againft 
fome obftacle ; and therefore continually clam- 
bers upwards, which teaches the hawk to perfiie 
her game by a fimilar motion : — our word ceal is 
only a contradion of cen-ceal ; derived as above i 
which has often made me wonder at the manner 
I in which we find this word printed in all the edi- 
tions of Shakefpear I have hitherto feen, in 
memorable paflage of Hen. IV. part. II. aftiii. 
fc. I. where he has introduced- that king thus ex- 
poftulating with fleep : 

— O gentle fleep, 
Nature's fofe nurfe, how have I frighted thee. 
That thou no morewJlt weigh mineeyelids down, 

And ftecp my'fenfes in forgetfulnefs ? 

Wilt thou, upon, the high and giddy maft. 

Seal up the ftiip-boy's eyes, &c. 

which ought certainly to be printed Ceal, or flofi 
up; but perhaps the idea of /fa/i«^^ or clojlng up 
a letter might have milled the different editors} 
nay even Shakefpear himfelf might have writ- 
ten it Seal, though he intended to allude to 
the term in falconry, which, is never done with 
wax, or by any impreffion j but a letter is never 
/ealed till fome impreffion is made on the wax, 
or wafer. 

CEAP-MAN: any pcrfon, who looks only at 
this word, would fiippofc with Verft. that it was 
Saxon i but fince he has explained it by " for 
this wee now fay chap-man, which is afmuch to 
fay a$ a mar chant, at cepe-man :"—-<iiK\c\i is af- 

C E 

From G K B E R, and L a t t ir. 

C E 

much m fay as noriiing at all -, for chU is not giv- 
ing us the root, and ctytn. of this word i which is 
Gr. as wc (hall fee under the att. CHEAPEN, 
and COPE. Gr. 

CEASE, X«^«, ^»iu, cade, eedo, cefo ; to give 
ever j to leave off. 

CEDAR, " KfJ'f Of, cedrus \ the cedar ; an oth- 
■ riferous tree: Nug." 

CEILING, KotXoy, cavum, cielu*t -, the concave 
canopy of heaven over our heads -, and therefore 
applicable to the covering of a room, called in 
Lat. taquear; a vaulted roof: as to our common 
orthogr. of the word ceiling, or ftill worfe del- 
ing, it is deduced from the barbarous French, 
who have fcarcc ever adopted; any word, but 
they have diftortcd it in fuch a manner, as would 
perplex the Sorbone to trace it up to the original 
language ; for none but a Frenchman can trace 
out any connexion between CIEL, and KotAof. 

CELEBRATION, Kaeo^, celeher-, Kx«a, «/f- 
hro, celebratio -, reputation, glory, renown : allb a 
folemnizing of matrimony : or elfe we may derive 
celebration from KiXw, o^jwiiirii, Hefycli. ab 'OfjM«», in 
rem aliquam propenfus Jkm ; paro aliquid facere ; 
to perform atty thing, to become eminent, and famous. 

CELERITY, " KiAif, JEol. pro KfAuf, celes j a 
race-horfe ; eeler, celeritas ; fwiftne/s, fpeed^ ve- 
locity ; a Ktxxai, ki»«, unde cello, antecello, excello, 
celer, celeriter, et celox : Voff." 
■ CELL 7 KoiXoiu, celo, aifcondo ; to bide up, or 

CELLAR^ conceal any thing i a place to fiere 
iaine, beer, &c, cella, cellarium, hypogaum ; alfo 
partitions in a honey-comb, called the cells y alfo 
a monk's, or nun's cell, or room of retirement. It 
it is obfcrvable, that Vofl". under the art. celo, de- 
rives it ^ KAhu, claude i to fbut up : when, un- 
der the art. ceelo, he had more properly derived 
it I K«»Ao«, abfcondo ; for he allows both calo, and 
telo, to have the fame origin, thoM;h not the 
fame fignlfication ; fie Nonius diftinguit, quod 
hoc fit tegere, et ahfcondere ; illud infculpere : ctelo, 
a KciAaw, idcnn quod TLotXtntu: fie Plutarcho KBtXav 
ttfyiifiev, aurum cxlaium-, chafed gold: fed et cum 
pro ahfcondere accipitur, et tum quoque ab efidem 
eft origine: — nothing can be plainer; and yet 
now he derives celo, abfcondo, from KXrib, claudo; 
to fbut, or lock up. Clel. Voc. 130, fays, that 
•* kil in Erfe fignified an inclofure j and thence 
it came to exprefs a cell; which is radical to 
telare :" — but they all feem to be derived il Koa- 
•w : as above. 

CELSITUDF, " KfAXu, x.»(w, five Kx.»m, 
cello, celfus, celfttudo j in ahum extollo : Voff." 
Clel. Voc. 211, fays that " cell in the fenfe of 
imitntaiH\% the etimon oi ex-ct^fits, cul-»m; tx- 
tsW-rns ; coll-ij ; end many^ otho- words, im- 

porting eminence, and height :" — but according 
even to that fenfe, it ftill would beGr. as will be 
ftiewn under the art. EX-CEL-LENCE. Gr. 
CELT-IBERIA Ion this article chiefly we 
CELTIC > may reft the whole power 

CELTS J of the argument, whether 

many, if not moft of the Gr. and Lat. words 
ought to be deduced from the Celtic tongue; Of 
whether the Celts', of Gauls themfelvea did not 
borrow thoft words from the Greeks, and then 
disfigure them in their o*n language: let m then 
take the firft of thefe words, Celt-iberia -, which 
Clel. Voc. 190, fays is&nQ:\y the PP^eflem-Celts i to 
ftiew this, he fays, p. 206, that " the name of 
Celts was convertible with that of Galli -, which 
being in feft nothing but a dialedical variation 
of found, fignifics refpeftively to Italy the fame 
as Trmnontani, except indeed Callia cis-a^ina, 
which forms upon the like principal, o( all, gall, 
or cell ; both fignifying hill, but with an obvi- 
ouQy diiFerent modification." — now in p. 211, he 
fay«, " al, el, il, ol, and ul, are of the fame power, 
the voWel in fs£t being indifferent ; and that thefe 
give origin to, or are the root ofCell, Celt, ex- 
cc\-/ks, ex-cell-ens, coll-«, cul-f»*«, Gaul, jilps, 
Weljh ; &c. they all fignifying eminence, height, 
hills, mountains, and mountaineers :" — then we 
may fafely rc^l all thefe on the derivation of 
KoXHam, coll-is, tumulus ; a bill, mount, or moun^ 
tain : now, as for the latter part of this com- 
pound, iberia; Clel. Voc. 190, fays. " it is re- 
markable that this Celtic particle of Iv, or Ibh, 
in the {enfc of privation (the fun is underftood) 
gives (origin to) the words eve, evening, Tver,. 
Iberia, Hibernia, Hebrides, Hifpania, Hefperus, 
Vefperus j &c." — but we Jhall fee, under the art. 
EVE, that it is Gr. 

CEMENT, Koirlw, esdo, cafum, camentum ; 
qudd eamenta funt farvi l^ides c-efi A majoribus j 
rubbijh, Jhards, mortar, parget. 

CEMP-fgbt, or kemp-fight :. " iwoperly," fays 
Vtrft. ** one that fightetb hand to hand -, whcr- 
vnto the name in Teutonic of kemp-fight accord- 
eth; and in French combat: certainc among the 
ancient Germans made profcffion of beeingif»p- 
fighters : whereof is dcryued our name Campion j 
which, after the French orthography, fomc pro- 
nounce champion :"— hut ve mdl fee prcfcntly 
that they all are Gr. 

CENO-TAPH, Ktvilctpw, cenotaphium; hono- 
rarium, fed inane fepulcbrum ; an empty monument, 
fet up in honor of the dead ; efpecially when they 
died abroad, and the body could not be conveyed 
home, but was buried in a foreign country. Xe- 
nophon, in his Expedirion of CyruF, about the 
middle of chc fwth botA, feys, " as forthofe 

C E 

From Greek, and Lati*. 

C E 

.vltofe bodies cpuld not be found, they ere£ted 
B large ctTutapk, y]th a great funeral pile, which 
they crowned with garlands." On whicli Mr. 
Spelman obferves, " in the fame manner we find 
in Thucydidcs, that the Athenians, in the fune- 
ral of the firft of their couotrymen, who were 
killed in the Pdoponnefian war, befides a coffin 
for every tribe, j:wricd ^fo an empty ptu in ho- 
nor to the memory of Aofe, whofe bodies 
could )>ot be found :" Virgil has tranflated the 
Greek word by tumuks inanis^ where he fays, 
Aodrom^he hsd raifed <»» empty monument to the 
manes of Hjsilor 

— ___ — , _. manefque vocabac 

Hcftoreum ad tumultm^ viridi quern cefpite 

Et geminas caufam lachrymis, facraverat aras. 
Mo. III. 303. 

CENSER, " q. d. incenfer ; tburibulum, i. e. 
incenforium ; feu vas, in quo thus incenditur : 
Skinn." — who ttten refers us to incenfe -, but on 
looking into that art. we gain no farther intel- 
ligence : Voflius however in (ondidus will help 
us to the true etym. by deriving incendo from 
candeo -, and candeo a Kow, Hve K«(w, ure -, to bum i 
magna- enim eft afHnicas vocum inter KaiflK, et 
candeniia ; hftmijtg. 

CENSORIOUS, cenfeoy cenfitra, ctnforiusi/e- 
vere, grave, folemn. CleJ. Voc. 114, n. fays, that 
*' cenfeo ; I opint, or tbinkt or judge, derives 
from kdn; the head :"—^mx kan, ken, pen, and 
ven, fecm ail to be of the fame import*; and 
confcquently Gr. as may be fecn under the art. 
VEN-AL. Gr. 

CENT per CENT ; 'Ej(«1<*, centum ; a hundred: 
a hundred for a hundred. 

CENTAUR i "K.i'laufe!, centaurusi R. K«;li«, 
to /pur ; and T»»^, « bull : the centaurs were 
originally troopers belonging to the king of 
Theflaly, who ufed to/pur their borfes in iringing 
them back to the fiahle : this word has been fince 
adopted by the poets, to cxpreia a kind ef mon- 
fier, made up gf half a man^ and half a horfe : 
Nug." — certainly this is one of the moft learned 
trifles to be met with ; for in the firft place thefe 
troopers (called centaurs) if the dcriv. of their 
name fignified any thing, ought to have been 
mounted on bulls, and then to hzvejpurred their 
homed cattje back to their fialls, or fiables j if 
even bulls can be fuppofed to have (hewn fuch a 
mighty reluctance, as to have needed the whip 
and the fpur to get them thither : and yet 
the abfurdicy conlifts in fuppoQng that thele 
troopers were obliged to fpur their horfes in bring- 
iag them back to (jbe Jiablei oaj Voflius has 

given us a much better account ; he lays, fuere 
quidam The0ali£ incolie, qui primitus veda- 
bantur tauris, unde ils nomen, quia foleant Kirlay 
raufor, jlimulis pungere tauros ; not in bringing 
them back to the ftable, as the Dr. fuppofes, but 
in breaking, in menaging, in governing them : and 
thefe cemaitrs, continues Voff. poltea aggrefli 
equos cicurare; hi equis ad Peneum flUmen vefti^ 
ubi ex advcrfoe ripse hominibus c longinquo con- 
fpe^ti, quia cqui ad aquandum caput demifificnt, 
vifi funt priori parte homines, pofteriori equi : 
haec origo fabulx. 

CENTENARY, 'ZxtSat, centum, centtnarius ( 
an hundred. 

CENTER? *' Kwlpw, centrum j a point in the 

CENTRE i middie: Nug."— how impcrfeft 
is this definition ; for this may be as applicable to 
a line, or a fquare : but the -centre is generally 
underftood of a circle -, and is a point at equal 
dijtance from every part of the circumference : R. 
^liltu, pungo, 

CENTlNELi it were tobewiihed thatcuftom, 
which has in a manner cftablifbed this orthogr. 
would be plcafed to change it, and confirm tht 
true etymology of this word, which is undoubt- 
edly derived from the Gr. as we Ihall fee under 
the proper art. SENTINEL. Gr. 

CENTI-PES, •Ex«7<.>.-«-<iJi5, centi-peda -. an in- 
fe& with an hundred feet j i. e. many-feet ; like, 
the palmer worm, or caterpHler^ 

CENTRI-FUGALi KwlfOk-fiKyw, centri-fu^oi 
the tendency of a bodf, revolving in an orbit, to fiy 
from the center of that orbit in a txingent to the- 

CENTRI-PETAL, K^lfo^-or*/?**., centripetoi 
the tendency of a body revolving in an orbit., to fly 
to the center of that orbit. 

CENTUM-VIRATE, 'K»A»-lc, centum-vir, 
vim i unde vir ; unde eentumviriUs j belonging to 
the centumviri, or hundred Judges. 

CENTU-PLE, "EHaWTAotw, centumplicatus i 
an hundred-fold. 

a captain ever a hundred feet-foldiers :■ R. 'Exolof, 
centum j et a.^x.'^v, princeps ; chief commander. 

CENTURY, "EHfilBruci centuria i a fubdivijion 
of the Roman people into centuries, or tribes of a 
hundred; alfo the fpace of a hundred years. 

CEORLE t " now wrirten \ anciently 
vnderftood' for a fiurdy fellow r Verft." — this is. 
giving ua nothing more than an eicplanation, in- 
ftead of a dcriv. of this, word^ which is only an- 
other dialed for CARL. Gf. 

CEPHALIC, KfipaiAwof, c£phaUcut % belonging to 
the head t R..Ktfz?ks» caputs the bead. 


C E 

from Grsek> and Latim. 

C H 

CERATE J Kitfilfw, I.Ki^ow, unde Knjof, cera, 
ceralum ; ctrd nbduce, oilina % a plaifter made with 
wax ; au-eintaettty &c. 

■CERBERUS, Kif|3if«(, Cerberui \ cams inferna- 
:lis JiSiiius j the infernal dog feigned to have three 
,beads : £t^|3i^or, quafi Kf(o(3cfoj, i. e. eamivorus ; 
'Ut fignificetur terra, qiLe mortua eerpera confumit : 
.fee SARCO-PHAGUS : Or. 

CERE-CLOTH, Kt,fft)7w, ceretum^ terd chduc- 
turn ; cloth covered with wax- 

<pEREMENTS, burial clothes: from the fame 
root. Shakefpear has finely introduced this word 
in the fceoe between the ghoft and Hamlet : 
Ham. Let me not burft in ignorance j but tell 
Why thy canoniz'd bones, hearfed in death. 
Have burft their cerements? A6t 1. fc. 7. ' 
CEREMONY, Kij«»w/4., Kif«»i, Kif«i*w, figu- 
lus^ mifcens ; quod ex clementari tniftione <orpora 
compofita funt.j cree, eeremeaia, religien, holinefs, 
fanSiftude ; alfo politenefs, punStualityt formality : 
though there is another deriv. in Vofl". which 
feems very near the truth ; viz. ■j«fo/*iiiri«, c^ert- 
mornat feftivi ludi j fefiive games, fports, rites. Clel. 
Voq. ji, would derive ".ceremony from cir-y-wen 1 
meaning a cufiom facrtd, or pajfed ifttfi a law by the 
jhire, or^fJWtf/;"-'"but all the whole ^compound is 
Gr. as may be feen .under their proper art. 

CERES J Clel. Voc. aog, tells us .th« " the 
name of this goddefs is derived from theOCehic 
cer i corn:** but Voffius, fays, " nonnullistamen 
• .magis placet cereo, per epenth. fieri a.ereo % hoc 
vero cflTe a .Kfwj^M, perficio ; to ripen ; ab .eodcm 
non incpte deducicqr Ceres ; quafi frugum crea- 
trix: or clfe," fays Voff. " difpiciendum oum Ceres 
fit ab Hcbrteo : the goddefs of corn.*' 

,CEROMATlC, Kiifw/Mtlowf, ceromaticus, eero- 
■mate anSus ; anointed with the wrefilers* fOil: R. 
Kii(uf*», unguentum \ ex oleo et cerd. 

CERTAIN, KfiFw, eerno, quafi crinoy judieo, 
certus fum ; fure, Jteady, faithful j fully informed i 
Jborougbly fatisfied. 

CEMyXSE- apple ■, Kjnn'w, creo., ceres^ cerevi^ ; 
i Cerere vocata ; et Ceres, i creo ; quafi frugum crea- 
trix: ale, becr^ cyder% or aay liquor mode of apples, 
fruitSy &c. 

CERUSS, commonly written cerufe \ Xjeu, 
J£fw{|fli> celeratus, ceruffay cretd ajfa : Voffius more 
juftly fuppofcs it to be derived il Knfof, Kujodf, 
.Knf«i<r(r<^, unde Kn^uira,, cerujfa % pigmenti genus \ 
auo faciem infciebant famina, ad conciliandum cando- 
rem ; a painty which the Roman ladies ufed, to beau- 
tify their complexions : a cofmetic compofition. 

CESSATION, X«^«, ;c««, cedo, cego \ to ceafe^ 
lea'ie effy to yield, or give up. 

CESSMENT; " K»i»ir«i, eenfus: Matt. xxii. 
Nug." the valuation of every man's eftate ; the re- 

giflring himfelf, his name, .age, trtbe^ family, prs^ 
pj/iott^wife, children, fervants : " or perhaps froiri 
Kljiirtf, peffej^o •, eftate : R. Kl«ft/««i, poffideo \ to pof- 
fefs: Nug." — to which let me produce another 
deriv. from VoflT. viz. cenfeo et eenfus, a Kinriw, which 
Hcfych explains by KJio-ou, K£X<u«-», Klurif, ordi- 
natio pelitica magiflratUs i et Ki^ttio-o & KiXfuw, jw 
beo : et eenfus ex Ktinro;, pro Kf^ff«f, iftud autem 
a Krx«ja«i, bortor (or rather perhaps .K-iXiuo/*«t,y»- 
bear) et inde Kii-o-im pro KiArtM, apud Hefych. 
eenfus ergo mandatum, jujfum ; a tax, .ordered, ap- 
pointed, or laid -on hy the command of the magtftrate : 
Clel. Voc. 114, n, *eUs us, that '* cenfesy eenfus^ 
include ibe telling hy the iead ; ^apite cenfi is a 
pleonafm-{ all come from if««, or tin ; the head ;** 
—but ken, pen, ven, feem all to be of the fame 
import ; and confequently Gr. as may he feen 
under the art. VEN-AL. Gr. 

CESTUS, Kirot, lorioH \ a thong, belt, girdle : 
cingulum Veneris illecebrofum, acu-fiilum : R. Kcfliw, 
pungo i tc embroider ; the enchanting girdle of VenuSy 
embroidered by the graces ; fo elegantly defcribed 
by Horn. Iliad XIV. H. an, 

CETACEOUS, Kfl1«*.tf/Kfllwef, eetaceusi of the 
whale tribe : R. Kwlpr, cetus ; vel Mn, cete ; bel* 
lua jnarmoy vel animal marinum ingentioris magnitU' 
dinis ; a buge fea animal^ or monfttr, enormous in 
his bulk. 

CHAFE i by changing ehe original letters, or 
at leaft by introducing the b into this word, we 
have totally altered the powers, found, and ap- 
pearance of it i for Cafaub. has very judicioufly 
derived our words CHo^, and CHafe a Koirlw, 
fdndo ; Kowlrff-flai, vexare, plangere \ to vex, grievey 
fret : or chafe ought rather to be derived as in 
CHAFlNG-^j(!5. Gr. 

CHAP'ER, or beetle'. Sax. ceopop ; Belg. keveri 
Teut. kaefer % fcarabaus ; a beetle : even Skinn. 
acknowledges, eft autem in nominibus kever et 
kaefer, nominis fcarab^ veftigium : and if that 
veftigium is fo dark, we have certainly nobody 
to blame but ourfelves ; for we have here again 
totally altered the Greek word ; and departed 
from thofe who departed from the original ; 
for the Greeks called this infeft K«f«(3or, the 
Latins, fcarabaus ; the Belgae kever ; and the 
Teutoncs, or Germans kaefer ; quafi kaeraber t 
but we have fo totally changed the word as to 
write it chafer, and then pronounce it foft, like 
chapel, charms, &c. 

CHAFF. "Fr. Junius longe ingeniofius, nefcio 
an verius," fays Skinn. " deficftit- i Kb? «;, levis 1 

CHAFFER i Teut. kauffen ; mere j hac enim 

dntiquiffima omnium ntgotiatio ; i KwDiAfuw, caupo- 

nor i to cbeapeny buy, or exchange any thing 1 for 


C H 

From Greek, and Latih. 

C H 

exchaKging, or trucking articles, was. the meji an- 
tient method of mercbandsfe ; particularly herds, or 
tie^s of cattle ; which was a cuHom fo ancient, 
that Clel. Voc. 210, fuppores "the word cope, to 
buy, fell., or excbangey comes frdm the Celtic word 
c^i ^gcufying a bead ; becaufe the antient traffic 
was by beads of cattle." — then it feems probable 
that i^epe, toff, or rather kepb) ■ and chaffer, are all 
derived a K«f-ftXn, caf-ut \ the bead : fee CHAF- 
FER. 'Gr. 

■. CHAFING-</i/& s K«AMf, Dor. pro KuXios, «- 
leo, calfacio ; to make hot, by rubbing, &c. 

CHAIN: "Xa^Mf for '^xiMiUjjuncus', a bulrujh, 
or cord made of bulru/hes : (which no doubt 
would make as ftout a chain, as a rope of fond) or 
from catena, quafi KaS' »«, bccaufc it gathers 
the rings (the links) of the chain one by one ': or 
elfe chain his been taken from K«(iif*a, which oc- 
curs in Pollux in this fignification, as well as 
K«flfft« in Hefych. fee Voff. etym. Nug." — let us 
examine this art. a little more clofely: with re- 
gard to X«"»of for 2^«<wi, it may give origin not 
to chain, but Jkien of filk, or thread : and as to 
c-attna, we might join ifTue with the Dr. if it 
had been his own deriv. but Voff. has obferved, 
that ** magis veriQmile lit, quia varios annulos 
jungit unitque, fic dici catcnam, quafi K«8' !»«: 
quancitas tamen pcnultimae obftare videatur;" 
after which he mentions Pollux, and Hefych. : 
againft all of whom I am' able to produce only 
the lingle authority of Plautus, as quoted by 
Ainfw. who fays chat canis fignifies a chain, or 
fetter % ut tu hodie canem, et furcam feras : Plaut. 
Caf. a, 6, 37. 

CHAIR: " KaStJf*} cathedral a feat : R. 
K^efta*, fedeo; EJ'ja, fella : Nug." 

CHALCO-GRAPHY, X*).«yf*^«, ^tis li- 
terarum notii fcribens, in as fcribens, feu in as inei- 
Jtns ; what we may now call a eoppeT'plate et^a' 
vtr ; ex XaXxof, as j brafs \ et r^a^, feribo } to 
write, or cut upon. 

CHALDRON, XaAx««, IXoXmu as, areus; 
a brazen kettle. 

CHALICE^ " KuAig, caii* ; a drinking-cup ; 
Upt." — and fince KvAij is derived cither from 
TSjiXivSuj^ox K-iAiu, volvo, volufo; to roll about, or 
tumble; from hence the idea of our word tumb- 
ler, to fignify a drittking glafs, may perhaps be 
deduced: there may however be another deriv. 
but probably not the right one, though our 
orthqgr. feems to agree with it, viz. chalice, S 
XftXK, Bacchus, vinam, mtrum; wine, 01 the vejel 
that coHtaini it. ■- 

CHALK J Xi^ig, or rather K»;^?««?, calx j chalk, 
Jime, mertan 

CHALLENGE, K»\tu, voco, provoce; to. call 
any me out. 

CHALYBEATE, XaXv^I-, f3of, cbalybs ; gtnus 
ferri duriffimi \ iron and fteel. 

CHAM^-LEON, XaspaiMwv, chamaleon, leo pu- 
miltts i a dwarf lion ; ex Xi»f*«i, burnt ; ec Awe, 
leo \ the Utile lion that creeps on the ground. 

CHAMBER 1 K«fJLa^ei,camara,{cu camera; 

CHAMBERING J. a vault, or arched roof i 

CHAMBERLAIN ) alfo a lord of the ting's 
beufebold ; and a pabliek officer. 

CHAMO-MlL : Nug. writes it camomil, and 
derives it S XftpAt/^nXov, ehamiemelon ; the herb camo- 
mil : R. XixfA»i, humi; the ground; it jwo^m, ma- 
lum ; an apple ; vel ^dPieo, an apple-tree : chamo-' 
milfmells very much like an apple. 

CHAMOISEI" Kt/*«{, dama, binnulus cervi, 

CHAMOY 1 {cufpecies eaprafylvejlris: Mid 
hence chamei-gleves, fhoes, &c. Upt." — it were to 
be wifhed that neither this gentleman, nor com- 
mon praftice had eflablilhed this orthogr. fince 
neither the Greek, nor Lat. lang. affords any 
countenance to fuch a method of writing, or pro- 
nunciation, as cbamiyy \ or as it fometimes is more 
abfurdly written, and pronounced fhammy fhoes, 
zx\d jhantmy gloves : it is furely a fhocking fliame, 
to write and talk fuch fluff: when the Greeks 
wrote it Kif^cn, and the Latins camus, the barba- 
rous French write it chamois ; and thofe fervile 
imitators of French ignorance, and French fop-' 
peries, the illiterate part of the Ehglifh nation, 
will be fure to copy them in thisj and every 
other inftancc of folly: our forefathers were wifer, 
and knew better ; for thus has Chaucer written it. 

Round was his face, and camifed was his nofe : 

. R. T. V. 14. - 
and therefore with Jun. we (hould rather write it 
cameife j though as yet there can be no reafon giveit 
why the is introduced ifmus, eutfunt rtfim.e nares, 
et depreffa fuperius ; Gr. KopTuAopiJii', the fnub-nofeJ 
ape, goat. Sec, 

CHAMP, or chew ; Konr7», avidi devoro, e^ \ 
unde etKa^ft«7«, vel K«^^iJi«, eduUa quadam "La- 
coftica, apud Athenieum, et Hefych. vel a r«ft^«t, 
malie, maxilla: vel i Ko/j^tu, ctepitum edo, qualem 
eper acuens,feu collidens denies: vel, quod verifimi- 
lius eff, S fono erepitantium, dum quis vaUde majli- 
«r, ^itfi«m ; Skinn. et Jun." 

CHAMPAIGN, Barbarous French orthogra- 
phy: fee CAMP, and CAMPAIGN. Gr. 

CHAMPION or fgbtir .■^'" Sax. ca^, et rww, 
agon, certamtn ; AlmaitJ kampa, milts, pugil, age^ • 
nijla ;'Fr. Gall, ciijwpjffiii Ital. iampione ; Belg; 
i'dfl*^', Teuc. kainpff; d Lat. campus: alkdit 
Ko««t, labors: Tun. Skinn. Lye :"T-*ut none 
N of 

Digitized by 


C H 

From GM.KZKf and L 4 t t k. 

C H 

of all thefe is the original word j particular^ the 
laft by Skinn. for they all originate, "' omnia 
plana," fays Voff". " ex fententia Jof. Seal, quam 
folam ampledlimur, ab co, qiidd drais, five Hip- 
podremusy Siculii, Hefychio tefte, Km^o; vocare- 
tur> nempe »wt t^; Katjun-nf , hoc eft, equoramfitxu \ 
unde ec ^tta ipf^t K«ju*-1nf <;, <-f^t it to I XM/twluri, 
i>ur«-«, xat K.»i*irJtif : itidem Latini a K«ju«-7t»r, dixere 
femp/are, fieStre \ unde campus^ ct tampefira : fo 
that a champtGn is one who enters the lifij^ in wrier 
for combat \ i K«fnrlM, fitUo \ not X Ka/**w, labtru. 
■ CHANCE, Kolw, unde t^do deorfim \ nam ca- 
dere niinl aliud ifi quam naturaUter ob gravitatem 
deor/umferri : vd. i. Xa^w, X"^^* "^ > cujus aor. 
adus x*'*"' • ^ <^'^') f^fit^i fit M/vf \ fortmut or 
aiff thing that falls out, \. e. happens iy (banetf ly 
eadtiue, ■ 

CHAtJCEl. ef a church V' KtyxXif, con- 
CHAtiCELLOR of a difcefel verfo > ia a i 
nam quod Grasci KtytAtu id Lat. eoHcelli : Pol- 
lux, lib. 8. Ml jui* n> TWIT Axofvpiw SufMi, KtyntXiht 
txaXailc, »( u *Pw|it(uei S.xyyAtlf»t Afffsri : i catuelHs 

eil eanctllatiMi i. e. ad modum eane^Unm ; et 
canctllarius fic diAus quia ejus fit curare, ne 
quod refcripcum, edi£tum, decretum contra jus 
auc rempublicam impetretur; quod, fi pnefen- 
ferit, id debeat caneellartt hoc eft, tranfveria linea 
fircumducere, oblincre : Voff." — this latter part 
of his interpretation is reje&ed by CIcland ; as 
we have already fcen under the art. CANCEL 
a bond : but with regard to the former pare, Vof- 
fius is undoubtedly right ; fince the ebancel of a 
ciurch is that portion, or part, which is feparated 
from the main body by a jheen^ or lattice work ; 
and the cbanetlhr of a diectfe is that dignitary, 
who is invefted with the power of feeing that the 
chancels are properly kept in repair. 

Z,er^ CHANCELLOR 7 From the ftrange ap- 
CHANCERY ««r/ i pearance of thefe 
words in our language, any perfon would fupp<^e 
that they originated from chances but it is certain 
that this great dignitary derives his title and office 
from quite a different fource ; for Clcl. Way. aS ; 
and Voc .137, and 176, gives us a double deriv.of 
this word; becaufe it figni6es two different of- 
fices: " when ic fignifies the h^d ChaneeUor^ in 
quality of the officer who holds the great feal 
of ftate, in coatradiftinflion to the privy feal, it 
manifeftly derives, " fays he (Way. a8) " from 
band-fealtTi or officer d manufigilli :" bothGr.; but 
cbanceller, in the- fenfe of judge in tlic court of 
cha»(trjy has a very difierem deriv. from can-celUi 
s, bead-rectfs^ or cell : — ftill both Gr. ; for (an, 
inv, con^ coffi heffy and keph^ are dl defcended I 
Kffra^f teput \ the bead j and ce// OHDea 

from K«iA-Mf, telo i tt lade % being « receft t» n^ 
tire into. 

CHANDELIER? here again we have followed 
CHANDLER J the abfurd French orthogr. 
and no lefs abfurd French pronunciation ) for both 
they and we pronounce thefe words fofti where- 
as both Greeks and Romans pronounced them 
hard •. as is plain from Xatilm, and camUntia, or 
candela : let me only obferve, that tallow-ehaitdUr, 
and wax-cbendleTy are evidently derived from 
hence i but from whence corncbmuUtr is derived, 
I have not as yet been able to trace. 

CHANEL, Xm«(, ft Xai^wt X«tt, hio, aptrta 
ftm ; te open i the openings or the chops of the cbanel \ 
fometimes called the pajfage between two eontitUMSti 
thus the Britijb Chanel^ St. George's Chanel. 

CHANGE, K«>7i)i|H3w, per fyncop. cambio; quafi 
chambiUng, converted into changeling : Ap«j3a^ai, 
matOj permute 1 1§ exchange^ or barter ; item pueTt ut 
vmlgus credit i dtemonibuj terreftribus fubditus, feu 
fupp^uSt loco genuini filii ab iifdem fubrepti^ eoque 
defermsy fiupidus, ac fiulius : if fuch opinions be 
abfurd, they at lealt make a handfome apology 
for thofe poor creatures ; and feem to plead the 
caufe of the helplefs. 

CHANT 7"™*^ monkilh and French 

CHANTICLIER S- barbarifm ! for all thefe 
CHANTRY J words are undoubtedly 
derived ft TLentx, eanna \ unde canoy cantum ; 1$ 
fing mafs ; and hence cbonticlier fignifies the clear- 
tonedt Jbrill-toned cock \ v/befi»gSt or crows fo laud 

CHAOS, Xoof, chaos ; a conftffion, or mafs of 
things: R. Xaira, vel Xow, biot hiatus ilU cacus, 
et immenfust qui erat ante cenditum orbtm. 

CHAP, or cbink i Kevlw, fcindo 1 to divide^ 
cleave afunder, feparate. 

CHAPE of the fcabbard \ " Gall, chape defour- 
reau j ferrum extreme vagime • Jun." — but this 
very explanation feems to point out the Gr. 
deriv. viz. a Kif^tAn, caput ; the bead^ the tip-^nd, 
cttpt wiib.iroHt &c. 

CHAPELL, capelkt faceUum\ a littU churchy 
vel ab At(Vi«i, fana, condones ; ab Av(^ft^w, et 
AvtAAos^u, eoncienor \ to preach, to harangue. 

CHAPITER, KifsAq, caputs capitellum; the top 
of a pillar. 

CHAPLET offiowers \ " videtur diftindtum 
quid effe ft eerolld rofaced: Chaucero R. R. v. ^S^^ 
Jun." who explains it likewife by corona \ and 
then immediately adds, " Gall, chapelet^ ou refaire 
de Pater nofiri : rationem dexuminationis tradic 
Menag. in cbapelet :"— it is true, cbaptlet doea 
fignify a rofarjy or fet of beads : but cbapUt^ five 
coronat in our language fignifies only, a garland. 


C H 

From GtssK, and Latik. 

C H 

at wrtaib of fiowert i and then chapeau is the 
proper French word for it; which makes me 
fufped, that the Eaglilh, and French words, are 
both of them derived & Kj^-ikXh, quafi kepbalit, 
tbefalety chaplet \ becaufe worn on the btdd. 

CHAPTER (f a book \ £if<»Aii, caput \ the 

CHAPTER of a catbtdrall bead, the cbiefi 
the fummary, or principal divijions of a book. 

CHAR-coal feems to be a pleonafm ; for char 
properly Signifies a burnt coal; k K«ff«, £n(ai»u, 
arefacio t to parch, bum, or fbrivel up % and con- 
fcqucncly ought to be written kar-coal; being 
made of burnt wood, fuffecated. 

CHAR-jTySi "Sax. cepjian, verttre; quia hie 
pifcis raptde, et celeriter fe in aqui ver/it : 
Skinn." — Ihould this interpretation be true, then 
both the Dr*!. Sax. cejvfian, and our word char 
would be only a various dialed of tvf-tu, gyrc^ 
vohOf verto in orhem % to whirl, or roll round. 

CHAR-fOMiM, " poteft defied:!," fays Skinn. 
•* i Belg. ktren, vel ketren % verrere \ i. e. muUtr 
ad everrendam Jmhhx, &c. coM^ffai afweeper:" — 
this however does not feem fo good an interpre- 
tation as the following by Ray, viz. ** chary a 
hfSneft, or ta^e, as, tbat char is thttrd ; that bu- 
Jinefs is done : Ihavt s char for jeu\ I haw fome- 
tHng for you to do." — it feems now to be only a 
contraftion of CHAR^e i con&quently Gr, 

CHARACTER, x^fwxTnp, chmraatr, m/« im- 
preffit, vel infadpta \ an impreffiMy Jtamp^ or mark ; 
R. Xof Mvw, fcalpot impriwiCt extra i to eiigrave, cut, 

CHARD 7 " a Ut. (ordiau : Skinn."— but 

CHARDON S he ought to have traced this 
word up to the Greek, " nempe i KtuK*. carire t 
quia aptuj efi ^^ends laiue % Km^h*, five ^MtMir : 
Voff." fee to CARD wool. Gr. 

CHARGE, care \ a.^ci, tura i miy thing eem- 
wuttidto our charge } tn^ 

CHARGE Afsnlthis word bears fuch a va- 

CHARGER \ riety of fenfes, that it would 

CHARGES J produce a dil^rudon, were 
we to take notice of them all i however, fince 
they all feem to temiinate in one general idea, 
we need not hefitate in deriving thnn all from 
one and the fame root } viz. from tarmentat car- 
penttty contraded to ear % unde cargo ; undc 
charge, any burden, weight, load, coft. 

CHARING-rr#/>. Somner, at the end of C«- 
faub. 6i, fays, ** Sax. Xcypjtan, avertert\ alias 
c^pan, cyppunr, avtrfio (this feems to come & 
rw{-«*, gyr-o, verto, who i to tarn rvundy as at the 
«omcr of a' ftreet] : atque hinc i viarum fc. et 
plateanim diveriifMlis, ut in compiiis, plurlbus 
spud ooftrates locb boc nomen inditumi quod 

poftea in ctrring mutatum ; tandem tranfiit, ut 
nunc dierum, in (baring ; quomodo quadrivium, 
five compicum illud nuncupatur in fuburbiis 
Londincnfibus, ab occidente propter Weftmona- 
ftcrium. Charing- crojfcy vulgo diftum ; crojfe addito 
ob erucem ibidem uc in compitis folitum, olim 
ercdlam :" — the crcfs, which was erc6ted, where 
there are three turnings of the ftrccts meeting 
together : this great etymol. gives us likewife 
another deriv. viz. " Befcypum ciiam, ut etSfcy- 
pian, feparare, item amputare, reficare; vulg6, 
to jhear :" — but even now SHEAR is Gr. ; and 
Cbaring-crefs, or indeed more properly writing, 
and pronouncing it. Sharing, or Shearing-croft 
would fignify a place, where the ftreet Mvides, 
feparatety or is cat, and parted into two, or more 
direftionsi and in which place there formerly 
was a . erofs erected, tbat continued in being 
till 1647 : fee SHEAR. Gr.j the former deriv. 
however feems to be the more probable. 

CHARITY, Xoftt, gratia, amor, effeSfU s graee, 
love, affe^en. 

Founded in reafon loyal, juft, and pure. 
Relations dear, and all the charities 
Of father, fon, and brother ■ 

Par. Loft, B. IV. 75*, 
Clel. Voc. no, fuppofes "charity is deriwd fronj . 
thar-ta0er in the defignation of every thii^ de- 
lightful to the heart \ and fignifies a banquet of 
grace, or rtconciUatioa \ from car, the heart ; and 
eafier, or feafier \ a fea^, or banquet j a love-fnffi 1" 
-^onlcquently Gr. ; for car is undoubtedly de- 
rived i. Ki«f, cor i the heart : and FEAST like- 
wife is Gr. 

CHARLATAN, Kt^xsr, circas, drcklater; Ital. 
eiariatano t et Fr. GalL charlatan -, garrire, nagarii 
to pratt, to trifle -. a drcumlecating qmbbler. 
CHARM iKof «/*«, carmen \ an ineanlation : 
CHARMS S according to Dion. Halicar. 
bookl. fee. ji, this word onpnatea from Carmenta, 
another name for the Arcadian nymph Tbtmis 1 
(the mother of Evander, an Arcaidian prince) j 
which implies the fame as 9imifiof, a propbetefi 
in verfe (unde ^bejpis) ; for the Romans call 
Citat, verfes, carmna : on which Mr. Spclmaa 
obferves in his notes, that Diooyfius, and Virgil, 
derived their accounu from the liune authori- 
ties t and then quotes, 

Mepulfam pacria,pelagique extrema fequentem 

Fortuna omnipotens, et inelu&abile fatum, 

Hispofuere locis; matrifque egere tremenda 

t Carmentit wympb^ manita, et Deus autor A polio. 

Ma. VIII. 333. 

after all this, it is no wonder that poetry, charms, 

and ituaatatms are held in fujh high venera- 

N 2 tioo. 

Digitized by 


G H 

From Greek, .and Latih. 

C H 

tion, fince they are able to deduce their origin 
from fuch illullrioiis pcrfonages. Clcl. Way. 78, 
gives us another deriv, -, for he fays, that " carmeH 
fignifies a fong in a round; and confcquently is 
derived from the Celtic ar, «ri/r, er, »r, Signifying 
Toundnefs, or any curvCt tending te roundnefs :" — and 
therefore may be derived from ruj-oi, gyr-m ; 
from the fame root with CURVATURE. Gr. 

CH ARNEL-iewyi, according to the falfe French 
method; but deduced a Kfi«f, caroy carnis i fit/b ; 
a place to put dead hones in. 

CHARTER, XiXflnf, cbarta^ paper j n map, or 
draught i alfo the great covenant of Englifij liberty : 
R. X«f«nu, fculpo i paper, or any other fuhjlance to 
lorite on : Clel. Voc. r 98, a, tells us, that " charta 
is derived from «r, fignifying_/?ea^ or metal, the 
primitive materials for receiving characters j me- 
tonimically charia for any thing ferving for the 
like ufe ; thence exarare, to write; and aralio, 
an old Latin word : it is at the bottom of y^mxlu, 
aad j(^a^m&9i*, fcalpo, /citipo \ tofcratch, engrave:** — 
but ar, fignifying>iftf«, feems to be only a tranf- 
pofttion of "?*-;(;'[«, vcl '?»-j(tt, rupes ; quaG Af-;^i», 
vel Af-^Xi a rock, or airf eminence of fiene^ 

CHARTER-i^a/f : fcarce any word has been 
more disfigured both !□ orthography, and pro- 
nunciation, than this; the beginning of which 
disfigurement came from that fountain of all bar- 
barlfm, the French language, with regard to 
etymology : let any Englifliman, or even let any 
Frenchman, who is a fcholar, look at the origi- 
nal> and its derivatives, in both thofe languages, 
and then give ua any tolerable reafon for their 
prefenc appearance : it is generally agreed, that 
this order of monks was founded by CARTHU- 
SlUS i but they have been fo confounded, tranf- 
pofed, and tranfp}anted, as to their name by the 
French, that ihey wear at laft this ridiculous ap- 
pearance, CHARTREUX ; which the Englifli, 
by endeavouring to prcfcrve fomething of the 
viciated French pronunciation, have converted 
into CHARTER-HOUSE: it has been gene- 
rally ^eed, that Carthu/ius was the founder of 
this order of monks ; but others fay, there was 
no fuch pcrfon, who bore that name j but fomc 
religious man, who took, that appeJlation> a C^- 
thttfid, monte juxta Gratianopolim Allobrogum, 
in quo Bruno, inftituti author primus, fedem fixit: 
— ic is however the lame thing with regard to 
etym. whether the order be derived from the 
name of a man, or a man who lived on a mcun- 
tain : — there is ftill another interpretation, which 
would require a different fource j but as that 
does not feem fo probable as the above, it ihall 
be only barely mentioned from Skinn. "vel fi 
mavis i Fr. Gall, cbartre, quod olim carctrem fig- - 

navitj et ^ voce carter ortunn duxit; quis ic. hi 
monachi in ccenobio fuo, tanquam in carcere cku- 
duntur, et omni fere focictate hunruni generis 
prohibentur :" — Ihould this be the true interpre- 
tation, it would ftill undoubtedly be Greek ; and 
derived from 'Efxop, 'Epjtot, idem quod Eifxln, vcl 
'£^)ca')n, Hcfych. yt^yu^x, Jirpoilnfiei'. 

CHARTER-^ar/y-, X»fi,t, charta t et *«fir»f, 
xX»rf*», pars, parlitHS ; " vox forrnOs, fed vulgo 
nota, cbarla partita i ubi fc. fyngrapha utrique 
contrahentium reciproce traditur : Siiinn."^tho' 
the Dr. has given neither of the Gr. words ': a 
counter-part of any writing, delivered to _each of 
the difputants. 

CHARY, X«f IS, feu Xx^mt, gratiefus i helovedt 
dear, choice : vel ab fl^a, cura ; care^ concerttt oae 
who fhews an anxious care, and foUcttudo. for- atif 
thing \ is ebary of her virtue. 

CHASKin the field; Skinner fuppofea -this word 
to be derived a Lat. captare ; but eapto is Gf. : 
a K«irl«t, x*oStx,iv^tu'. -Junius fays ic-was originally 
derived i. venari caffe, i. e. rete \ to hunt with 
toils ; though now it is ufed for hunting in ge- 
neral : it is alfo ufed to fignify faltus in quo aluit' 
tur fera, quibusfe obltSent venstionis cupidi. 

CHASE in gold: vel & Ew^tAu, capfula, cap/a, 
quaG cbepfa, chafa ; a fmall cup, or box '• vel i 
^xfi^a, Buxi) : VolT. and here ufed to fignify " an.- 
nuti pala, feu gemmte locuius, capfula, in qua includi- 
tur, et ah attrifu, et fordibus tufa fervatur, et in utf- 
tello munitur: Skinn.": — but according to the com- 
mon acceptation, it is generally' underftood to 
mean wrought plate. 

CHASM, " Xairjufh cbafma; a great gaping, os 
opining of the earth : R. Xa\in», vel Xtm, hio^ bifio > 
to yawn, or gape: Nug." 

CHASTE, Kirof, lerum, cinguium Veneris^ ^1 
nova MHpta gerebat : unde cefiuSt cafius; pure, uh- 
defiled, Jincere. 

CHASUBLE, ^ Kuit'iAq* aheare apum ; a hive^ 
according to VoC" of from capfa, capfula \ ac- 
cording to Spelman, who- writes it cafuta ; a little 
cope, or cbefuble: but we have feen under the art. 
chafe iagoldt that capfa may be derived aJUpi^x, 
fttixD : a monk's boodj or copi, which covers -or con- 
ceals the bead : or elfe it may perhaps be derived 
i Kar^e, tapesi ab utrdque parte viUefus i from its 
being lined with fur : Nug." 

CHAT, " KwItAAw^ garrire; to prate, to gab- 
ble. Hefiod. Op. et Dier. 373. 

MitJi ymn vt mo» •wvy^roKoi ijioxaidiit, 

Necvero niulier nates exornansteanimodccipiat, 

Blande garriens.— Upt." 

.CHATTLESi Itif«x», quafi KiTInXa, f jpa/. w- 
pitalia i bona mobiliot et immebilia; fotiffimtm tauten 


C H 

From Gksbk, ami Latin. 

C H 

«» htnwum ftirst qit^in^umaUius cenfifiit\ peeut, 
tt ermtntiM\ perJbnMt p'operly^ partittilarfy Hve- 
fieck \ as tews,- horftit btgs, tmdfuth Uki cattle. 

CHAUNDLER, " a tandUftiek: Sheffield: 
Ray." — the deriv. of this was lo evident, that it 
ik a worlder this gentleman did not give it : fee 

■ CHAW J X(M». l»o 1 to gap* i to eat nitb the 
meutb open : or elfe from the next art. 

CHAWS, or jatot: ** vel i 4aw, ^ol. 4>miu, 
unde fauces : vcl i Beau, unde Buxit, Bhpii;, unde 
B«|, vex: vtK faucibuf bsfiti Voff." the jawsy 
or chops. 

CHEAR ; lince this word ts evidently derived 
k j(fii^at,- gaudiam i to Itgnify goodchear, this or- 
th(^aphy has been adopt<^> rather than with 
Upt. to write it cheer : R. x**?") gaudeo j to re- 
jeice: or perhaps it may be derived itxiof, ccr\ 
the heart i to ftgnify'any thing that is heartemngt 
er-ftr utpl bening* ' 

■ CHEAT : t'Sax. cerra, HrtimventieHest afiutU y 
forte a Lat. cdptare: Skion." — confequenlly i 
Koorlw, ecwoSiyiifAm, capiOy excifio t to take ; to cattb 
iy craft, or guile. 

CHECK, accufe \ Kaxi{«, vituptro, opprebrits 
merarei to taunt : KdumtrM quoque Hefych. ex- 
pdnit. Katmyotcrxtj deriderei to ttprebendt modi 
fcvff-, deride.' - • ■ 

CHECK, curb * Ssiro^ e^a^ eoaflus j quaff 
eaSus \ cbecktt refiraintd, 

CHECK-fflw/r, at chefs': " fuhaStus matius^ l 
MeS]<h fu^go : Skinn." Clel. Voc. 19, fays, **ebeek- 
mate is only a corruption of cbeck-mtr/t or ma^ \ 
ibeftroke of death \Ubetk fimply is a bit, or bkw:" 
— and may perhaps be derived as in the foregoing 
art.: but both morty zad maB^ are undoubtedly 
Gr. for mort originates & Mo^e;, vel Mbij>», mors^ 
mortis ; unde mortuus ; and moB & MmTIw, maSlOt 
fubigo% tofuhdue^ or iemtMfi. 

CHECKER, « Fr. Gall, efcbecquier, tabula la- 
trunculorum : Gall, ouvrage en efcbiijuitr : Skinn." — 
but all thefe words feem to be no more than a 
different dialcft of K»y)tAi(, eancellii crofs-barred ; 
lattice work. 

CHEEK, r^uf, gena ; the cbttk } quafi eak : 
Cafaub. * 

- CHEESE : that cbeefe Ihould be derived from 
Ayw, may at firft appear impoflible; and yet it 
is undoubtedly derived from thence ; which fliews 
what ftrange appearances words put on, when 
they havegone thro' two or three languages: Ictus 
then fbew how the word cbtefe may be deduced 
from Ayu : from A7W comes ago, coago, ceaaus, 
eoaxeus, quafi caxeus, unde cajeus, cbeefe j nempe 
a ceaBo, i. e, coagulate la8e \ coagulated and com- 

preffed mUk : et frtga eo^ hStSf fays Virgil in 
his Firft Eclogue 
CHEIRO-GRAPHYt Xn(tyfatM, ebeirt^a-: 

pbia, manu-fcriptus i a ba^d-vtriling,amanu-fcripti 
written by the band. 

CHEIRO-LOGY, X«feXey(«, mnuMqutnt | 
talking by the bands, or fingers. 

CHEIRO-MANCY, " X«fej!*«ir7««. divinatio 
ex infpeilione manSs i the art ef ferettlUug, by look* 
ing into the lineaments of the bands : R. Xh^, x^f or, 
manrii; the bawd ^ znd fi»yli;ttvuefo9tbf<i^er:'Nug." 

CHEIR-URGEON, commonly written and 
pronounced furgeon ; X«f aj y»f, tbeirurgus \ one who 
performs medical operations by the band \ not by drugs, 
or medieines : K. X«^ manus \ ibs band ; and "B^yn, 
opus ; operation. 

CHEMIST, XflfiK*, vox Arabica; occulta j bid-' 
den, mffterious fcience : Clel. Way. 50, would de- 
rive it from kbeym, which, in his Voc. 158, he 
writes cbeim, and fays " it is radical to the Spanifh' 
quimar \ the Latin caminus (he might have added 
the Gr. Ki4*iiiot) and the Englilh chimney :" — but 
certainly they are all Gr. as above ; though even 
then it would be as applicable to a black/miib, as 
a cbemift : and therefore it would be better to 
derive'<fcm//? as in the article AL-CHEMY : Gr.' 

CHERRIES i K.f»««, /r»5w CeraJ\ Cerafur 
civitat efi Ponti, quam cum delefet ZmcuUus, genuS' 
hot peiui iude advtxit i brought firft from Cerafus, a 
city of Pontus. 

CHERSO-NESE, Xip^9«nr«, cberronefum, feu 
chtrfontfum, continens; apen-infula, almefifurrounded 
iy the fta : quatuor Cherfonefi ccleberritna^ Tatlricat 
Media, Cimhriea, et Tbracia : ex Xip'iJef, five Xif<rar,~ 
covtinens ; et i^c-a;. tnfula : an ijland Joined to tba 
continent iy afmall narrow neck of land \ wbicbneek 
is called the Ifthmus. 

CHER-VILj X«if«-^xxw, eb^epbyllum; gau- 
deO'folium j an herb of a grateful fmeU and tafie \ 
pleafant fcented-leaf, 

CHESS; Clel. Way. 100, fays, " the word 
ebecktbs is foftcned into chefs ; and in his noteob- 
(erves, that this game is univerfally allowed to be 
of the higheft antiquity, and probably of the 
North-Wcftem Celtic origin ; and to have been 
carried with the antienteft Celtic emigrations 
into Afia ; but it is not fo cafy to think, how it ' 
could get to Iceland i where lord Molefworth 
was furprifed to hear it was a familiar g'ame: 
now Iceland was one of the laft retreats of the 
every-where perfecuted Druids :"— with regard to ■ 
the dcriv. of the word chefs, fince this gentleman ■ 
allows,, it is foftened from ebecktbs, it Jeems to 
take the fame origin with the word CHECK, or 
curb; becaufe it probably fignifies /if bit, or 
. . . firokei 

Digitized by 


C H 

From G R E X K, aad L a t i v. 

C H 

fireht\ and hence- « tteel-mattK the fatal, or Jtath [. 
ftroke \ when a man is as it vrerc killid by che ad- t 
verfary at play : but CHECK is Gr. 

CHEST, " KifB, djia i a coffer, or icx: Upt." 
tldand Voc. 66, fays, KiJI is Celtic. 
. CHESTER, *'frequcns in terminationibusur- 
fiium ; k Sax. Cearren -, urbs ; hoc i Lat. Caflra : 
Sfcion." — but no farther he :— we have fecn how- 
ever under the art. CASTER, that it is Greek : 
or elfe we may derive .Cbefier from the Gr. thro' 
another fource. Qel. Voc. 67, would derive 
'* M'n^er^ Winchefter, Mancbtfter, Ancafier, &c. 
from the Celtic Afis-kifter :" — the former part of 
thefe compounds will be more property confidercd 
under the art. MEYNS: Gr. } the latter he now 
derives from the antient word kiji, or fi«/i which 
OgniSed keeping % ** whence," fays he, ** the Latin 
words cuftfSt and cufio^a, are derived :" — confe- 
quently all are Gr. if K;r«, tifia \ a ebe^, or boxt 
be a Gr. word. 

CHEST-NUT. K«r«»£xK. ca/lmeu$ i i Kwm», 
urbs ^beffaiia, ec Penti : a nut brougbt from Cpf- 
Una, or Otfianea^ a city of Tbeffaly, near Peneiu., 
in our language it looks as if derived from cb^> 

CHEVALIER: let any Frenchman look ac the 
quaintnefs of this word, and endeavour to trace 
dieetym. according to the orthogr. which his coun- 
trymen have here given us, and I believe it would 
perplex him to a tboufand generations ; he would 
- little imagine that this finical word Cbevalier was 
diftortcd &om C«^3NMie(, cabaUHS\ which at firft 
(that is, among the Greeks) fignifted only a forty 
htrftt or bta^ of bwien \ but by the French, thote 
refiners of the language, and manners of man- 
kind, in the dark ages of bari>arifmt it has been 
made to Ggnify 4 war-borfe^ and a ktagbt of valour. 

CHEVERIL, '* idem quod ebamois t a Fr. 
Gall, ebevereuli taper fylvefter^ capriUus, capreelus : 
Skinn."— bgt all thefe woixis are evidently derived 
a X«r««f, (u£, Tup'/nfei, Hefych. 

CHEVERON, voxfadalium: from the fame 
root : Gr. 

CHEV^IN, ** KiftAts, muUiUi icapitii ptagni- 
tudine dibits ; quafi capilo ; tbe muUtt : Skinn." 

CHICKEN, K>xx«;, gallttt ; Kmxm, gatlina t a 
ctckt and hen: Hefych. Schrevel. Cafaub. and Upt. 
but Hederic gives us no fuch words. 

CHIDEi **'&.\iii)i^tit,comntiari\'S.vtttttotivilium\ 
maUdiBum; objurgantes ctenim non raro ad op- 
probria devolvuntur : Cafaub. Jun. and Skinn." 
reproach, reproof ■, upbraiding. 

CHIEF, K(f(t^)i, caput ; tbe bead, or principal \ 
and borrowed from Che barbarous French orthogr. 
. and pronunciation. 

CHIL-BLAIN : many have fuppofed this 
word is derived from clnldi becaufe, fay they, 

ebUdrtn grefit^t&_ U tiim: but fo lUcewife afc aU 
people i and thi«. word originates not from child, 
but " tbill, ebilly, caU, i. c. from rtA«> TiAm^w, 
g^a, gelidum j caldf frefi \ -et BMnmiu, crefco, tu- 
mefco 1 pernio •, ukui frigidtim\ quoniam A frigeri 
centrabitur \ ic. atmbris a marno algore nimis pro- 
pere, et intenfe calefaSiis : .SKinn." — tho' he has 
not derivefl it irona-che Greek : but ooly refers to 
cbill, and blapt. 

CHILD, " Sax. cilto, a XtAos, pabulum t x^X^m 
certe, et j^oXw, eft pafhe^ fagino \ unde x**^"'^'^* 
Hefych. exponit. iro.jfiiwv^mt rHi^tn^m : et ^wA^m 
eidem Grammatico eft fkiyaWtStUt av^ibM : ra- 
tiooem denomioMtoraa fiild facile pedpictct, qui 
cQgitabit uoam .tSc murum fupcf prole recent 
edita foUicitudinemt ut pabuli ben^eia crefeati 
augeatur, et babttior fiat: Jun.*' — to tberi^, 
gtow, fatten. 

CHILDER-MAS-DAY : f!he day, on which in 
Roman Catholic countries, mafs isfaidfor tbtfouis 
of theft cbiidrtH that .wtn Jlmn in BetbUbemi 
Matt. iL 16. this day in our calendar is called 
Holy TuMocentt. 

CHILLY, rtx», TA»*ffw,gela, gelidim'i cold, 
Jbarp, frofty. 

CHIMERA i '* XifMMf % cMra \ a goat : Horn. 
R. ^«/M(, hyemt: Nug."--Sairevdius fays, the 
root of Xijuacifot, and Xtfu^pt, is Xnfut, bytms i quia 
capra in bytme nata tfi J~buc this b a very unna- 
tural conftru£tion ; we may rather fuppofe it wu 
called fo, beaiufe caprictrm was a winter month : 
Hederic - denves Xi/um^o from Xi/««;af, caper % 
which is very little more than telling us, that 
XijUMw^M is Xf/MM^a:— however, let us proceed with 
Nug. who tells us, that ** Xi/tM^*, Cbim^era, was 
properly a mountain of lycia, that cafi forth firt\ 
on the top of which were liens \ on the middle 
were goatt ', and at the bottom were firpeuts, ■ or 
dragons: this gave origin to the fable, which 
paints the Cbim^era as a moofter, throwing fire 
out of iu throat \ with the bead and breafi of a 
lion i tbe bod/ ef a goat t and the tail of a dra- 
gon : and becaufe Bclleropbon rendered thu moun- 
tain habitable, it has been thence feigned that 
he killed the Cidm^a: Nug." Clel. Way. jo, 
would derive it from " kbeym: or Voc, 158, 
cbeim, iignifyingjSr-f :" — but we have feen under 
the art. CHEMIST, that it is Gr. 

CHIMES, " frequentamentum tintinnabulerum 1 
harmonica nolarum agitatie : fufpicor olim," con- 
tinues Jun, " fuifle 1 cimhal, vel cimbale, vel cimbU 
: of bells I atque inde cime, aut ebime fa^m, ad 
vitanduiTv afperitatem, quam vocabulo dabant 
duricwes literse it"— Minihew has given the fame 
deriv. which Skino. condemns 1 perperam deftec- 
tit Mialh. i. Lac cimbakm; the Dr. fuppofes it. 

Digitized by 


c a 

■ Froth 'O It s e K, and Latin. 

C H 

15 derived i Fr. GM.^emme, 5 mufici voce gam- 
mulb; Arabics originis : after this, he quotes his 
friend Th. Henlhaw, who derives our word cbime 
ab Ital. cbiataare % quia ifiefonitus ad eecUJiam in' 
vitat\ feliciter fane, €t ingcniofe, utfolct: — to 
which let me only offer one conjedurcmore, that 
the word chime may perhaps be derived i tam- 
pana ; bells \ and confequently Gr. 

CHIMNEY, *' Ka^iwc, caminttSyfornox ; afieve^ 
or furnace : Nug." vel i KAiP«ms, Dor. pro 
Kfi^KHf, quod Euflath. dici vult, qualt K^ihc 
pMuwr, a baker'j even. Clel. Voc, 158, fays, that 
the Celtic " cbeim, in the fenfe oi firtt is radical 
to the Spantfh quemar^ to turn ; to caminus ; to 
chimney \ &c." — out caminus^ chimney, and cbeim 
(were they but written with a K) would all na- 
turally derive ^ £««, Kmi>7«> undc Et^iM;, airo tZ 
Kou/^oTd^^ i colore- 

CHIN, " rnuotygenttt mentum ; the letoer part ef 
the face : Cafaub." Clel. Voc. 175, would derive 
it from kirn, or Uttle, as being applicable to liitUy 
or Uffening ; for the lower part of the face is always 
fmalier than the cheeks, or upper part:" — but 
then it would be Gr. : fee KIN. Gr. 

CHIN-COUGH, " Vit^y/oi, afperi fonoi ct 
KaptUj levo, i. c. expeHero j unde Belg. kincbeUt 
iichen; anhelaret difficuUer fpirare : Skinn." afpaf. 
matic tough in children : — this looks as if Ray had 
adopted this dcriv. from the Dr, without naming 
bin>; indeed it is a compound of chin, (not of 
the face ; but rather) iini i and cough: fee KINK- 
Gr. : udIcA with Clel. Voc. 174, we may look 
On cbJH as another dialed for Htn, an antient 
word for Uttlt i it being in faA a diforder, chiefiy, 
if not cxcluiivelyi incident to children: ifnt, a 
thiUy has only received the common paragogtc t: 
—but ftiU kin, or kinl^ is Gr. 

CHINE, nmm, pinna, ^ina\ ItaX-fchtna \ Fr. 
Gall, efibine 1 chignen^ ebincn ; fptna derfi\ the 
Mds \ the batk-ione % fo called becaufe (/ refemhUs 
Parpjpikes., or tbornt: Cafaub. with greater jjro- 
bamlity, derives ebim ab k^nrK-, quod etiam 
XnK-t«i ffitia derfi, proprie in quadrupedibut i the 
back-bone, chi^ cf quadmptdt. 

CHINK, or gap ^ Xkivw, bio : Sax. cinan j to 
gape, yawn, or open. 

CHINK, or found; Ttntt, Ttm> tinnitus j a 
thkUng found, or neift \ quad tink. 

CHIRP as a Jparrow\ ^' Belg. cireken als ten 
mujfche t titiffare, inftar pafTeris: vox Eifono fada. 
Jun. and Skinn." — but it feems to defcend i 
Kji^ >\o>»w, Kftrn, tranfpofed to ci^/ff^. 

CHISEL, *' ^X'i'"* -fi"^"^ i '" f/f'^w, or cut 
afnndtr: Upt." 

CHIT, or (Wd\ Hl7««, minor ; Ital. titoipuel- 
hks I Hifp. tico \ parvus \ a little, diminutive baby. • 

CHIT-/M) J cither from the fame root; or 
from cicer \ a vetch ; et cicer eft i Kixue, rebur, 
vires, ob vim quam baiet ; folum enim ob falfilaginem 
fuam urit ; vel potius ob retunditatem ejus deduc i 
133, quo orbisfruftum notetur : Voff. 

CHIT, or ftrike root \ perhaps ab HX\w, minor% 
it being the fir fi fmall, fibrous fioot, that begins to 

CHITTERLINGS s " Teut. iutteln, veViuet- 
teln i omafum, inlefiina : Skinn." — the inwards : 
quad gutferlings : confequently Gr. 

CHIvE^S, K«vta, T» iMgfxSa, capa^ or ctepti 
afPecies of onion, without a bulb. 

CHLEYS, by fomc very properly ufed for 
dawSt XnXaii, forfices cancrorum i the arms of crabs, 
lobfters, fcerpions : this orthography, tho' according 
to common pronunciation, is undoubtedly right, 
if we follow either the Greek or Latin languages j 
for chleys anfwers to both XhAh in Greek ; and 
cheU, arum in Latin, better than claws : Virgil in 
his Firft Georgic, 33, has ufed this word in the 
Icnfe here intended j 

Anne novum tardis fidus te menfibus addas ; 

Qua locus Erigonem inter cbelafque fiquenlet 

Panditur ; 
and again in his Third Georgic, 415, he bas men- 
tioned a ferpent armed with tlaast or tl^s^ Uh 
tif fcorpien ; 

Difce et odoratam ftabulis accendere cednim, 

Galbaneoque agitare graves nidore (btiydrot- 

CHOAKj A.Yx,it, by tranfpofition Xw«y, eh«^\ 
neco,ftranguto,fuffeco \ to firangle^ fuffocate. 

CHOICE ?" Belg. kteftn-. Sax. ceopin j Fr. 

CHOOSES Gall, cboiftr; affinitatem babent 
tnim Cymr. «>^«i quarere: Jun. and Skinn."— 
but all thefe Northern words by their veiy pro- 
nunciation feem to be but various dial^s of 
quafitus; and confequently Gr.: fire QUEST. Gr. 

CHOLERIC, *«Xff«, choUra ; feiliflua feffio j 
morbus, in quo bilis, vel per vemitum, vel perfeeef- 
fum, excernitur ; a difeafe of tbefiomaeb, by which 
the bile is difcharged, either by vomit, or fiool : R* 
XoAn, bilis, fel \ gall. 

CHOP, or change j KawuXot, KaTtXranv, eaupe^ 
eauponari ; " permutalie enim antiquiffimum tom- 
mercii et emptionis genus fuit : Skinn."— without 
giving us the Greek word j /* bay, fell, or exchange': 
or elfc with Clel. Voc. aio, we may fuppofe, 
that to chop, and change, comes from the fame 
origin with to COPE, hicf, or fell; which, he 
fays, ** comes from the Celtic word e^, fignify- 
ing a head -, .becaufe the antient traffic was by 
heads, or herds of cattle :"— then they all feem 
to be derived i Kt^sXn, caput; the bead: fee 
COPE. Gr. 

^ CHOP, 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. H 

From G K E E K, and ' L a t i v. 

C H 

. CHOP, or cut; " Kan-lw, /«Wo ; to cut, or di- 
vide : Cafaub. and Upt."— cither the verb Kovlw 
is originally Gr. or elfe the Perfians con- 
ferred it on the Greeks; which is fcarce to be 
fuppofed : however Hutchinfon, in the firft index 
to his elegant quarto edition of Xcnophon's 
Cyropaideia, fays, *■* cepis, genus gladii PerficJ, 
quern multi pro fecuri habucrunt ; plurimi pro 
cultrot aut pro enfe Perfarum : Kea-it autein ex 
Gr. Koila vulgo derivatur, at muho potiorejure 
ex Pcrfico *<i/tf» i /ni/(f( derivabitur J erant enim 
cepides origine PerficEe:" — now' it appears the 
more extraordinary ihzt topides fliould be origi- 
nal ; and that Kon-lw fhould be fo too ; and yet 
that they both Ihould fignify the fame a<5t:ion ; 
viz. findere \ to cut, cleave, or chop. 

CHOPINS J " vcl ut no3 efferimns chopeens ; 
Hifp. cbapin ; foccus, feu foUa altior: Skinn." — 
a bigb-beeledfioe: " Mallemj" continues he, " ^ 
fbappa i hraSea metalli i quia fc. forte aurif feu 
argenti hraSleis orhari vel (olent, vel folebant :" — 
but how unfortunate is the Dr. ! for now he has 
made it Gr. in fpite of all his efforts, if cbapa 
fignifies bra&ta metalli -, for thefe auri^ feu argevti 
hraSea are really no more than what wc may call 
thegoldfmith's or filverfmith's CHIPS, or CHOP- 
PINGS i and confequcntly derived a Kow]w, feco ; 
to cut, or tbop : as above. 

CHOPS, or cbeekj; vcl i Kai»7«, comedo; the 
ebaps : vel 4 Kowlw, fciade \ to cut, divide, or cbexv 
tbe^meat fine. Ciel. Voc. 1 74, gives us rather a 
jocular derivation of this word j for he fays, 
" juft below that fwell, which we vulgarly call 
tbe cbopSf or jaw-upSf begin the cheeks :" — but 
even now both JAW, and UP, are Gr. 

CHORD in mafic \ Xo^Sn, intefiinum, cborda, ten- 
dicula,; tbe firing of a barp, lute^ or any otbcrfiringed 
infirument: fee CORD. Gr. 

CHORO-GRAPHY, Xw^eyp^,., regienis, vel 
regioHum defcriptio ; tbe description, or map of a 
country: R. Xwfoi, regie ; ct r^x^,fcribo. 

CHORUS, Xojof, cbarus ; a company ef fingers, 
or dancers. 

CHOUGH, or cbouje; " Ktv<f<>f, Ariftoph. 
Pluc. 904, de ftolido ac fatuo, u Kir^i : Kivfot, 
avis marina, et larofimilis : — Prince Hen. fays to 
Faiftaff in Shakefpear, i ft part of H. I V. " peace, 
Chcwet, peace:" GaXL cbeue'tte : Upt." 

CHOUGH, if pronounced like caw, may be 
derived either from X«imo, bio, bifce ; to yawn, or 
gape, in the eSlion of cawing : or from Tauu, gaudeo, 
glorior ; to ioafiy to infult ; tbofe birds being tbe mofi 
faucy, and impertinent of all etbers : or el(e perhaps 
it may be but a contraftion of Kof«f , corvus, cor- 
nix 1 4 K»f ei, niger ; black ; from its color. 

CHRAONS, commonly written er^onst ac- 

cording to the modern French, who very likely 
never law the verb Xgaws or if they had, muft 
have read it Kfotnn : but the Greeks wrote X^xit, 
coloro, tingo \ to colour^ tinge, paint ; cbraons being 
feft (balk pencils of different colours. 

CHRIMP fijb, &c. XfijajrV, appropinquo, ad- 
moveo, accede ujque ad os j to cut fifb acrofs in many 
places, down to tbe •oery. bone, in order to make tbem 
eat firmer ; - 

Ofi^ iyy(^ififi»TM ^— — — 

cufpis pertranjiii rapido impetu a^a 

jid OS appulfa. — 

__ f^g p^-^i ^nfig penetrated deep 

Down if) the bone. — — — : — 11. E. 661. 

CHRIST, Xf icjua, unguenlum, un^io, tbrifma ; 
unde Xf irej, anointed; unSien, anointing ; tbe anointed 
of tbe Lord, tbe Cbrifi. Clel. "Way. 103, n, ob- 
ftrves, that "this deriv. is extremely happy, ap- 
pofice, and in charafler of the divine perfonage, 
to whom It is confecrated ; and yet there occurs 
an etym. of not Icfs piety, and of more fimpli- 
city :" then he proceeds to fliew that ** Cbrifi 
may be derived from Kruys; a crofs ; unde Kritxfi ; 
tbe crucified Jeftis :"— but CRUCI-FY, is Gr. 

CHRISOMS, from the fame root, Gr. figni- 
fy'ing infantes ante baptifmum mertui; infants t^ing 
before baptifm. 

CHRISTO-PHER,^ofsf, Cbrifiumferens; 
carrying Cbrifi ; R. Xf ifof , Cbrifius ; et fc(u, fere 1 
to bear, or carry. 

CHROCK, XfOK, color ; to colour, or blacken 
witb feet, &c. R. X^aw, tingo, coloro ; to colour, 
tinge, or paint: fee CROCK, a« earlben veffel: Gr.' 

CHROMATIC, Xgi^iAoUtxtt, debarmonid muficd, 
quefi color ala ; a foftnefs, and deScacy ef mufic, (ts if 
it was painted, or coloured. 

CHRONIC ? " Xfofixer, ad tempus perti- 

CHRONICLESj nensi belonging 10 W.- 
Nug." Xf 9i>t«iof, vetula dvis ; an old ewe : ut docct 
Verfteganus : Cafaub. hJnc t» Xj o*ixi», cbronica, feu 
libri chronici, in quihus anne'tatur, quo tempore quid 
gefiumfit: R. Xfowj, tempus ; annals ; or awy re- 
cords of time. 

CHRONO-GRAPHY, X^<,y^^«pm, defcriptio 
temporum ; a deferring tbe times ; R. X^ovot, tem- 
Pus ; et y^K^u, fcribo \ to write. 

CHRONO-LOGY, Xfo^xoy.a, cbronologia, tem- 
porum do3rina ; tbe deifrine of time, or regulating 
and fixing tbe dates and periods of events, from ibe 
earlieft account of things : R- Xfoyot, tempus ; et 
Aeyof, ftrme'. 

CHRONY, iMYX^wi, temporis ejufdem; coata- 
nius, centemporanem ; an intimate fritnd, and con- 
temporary, coteval. 

CHRYSO-COLLA, Xfvff<,Kt-xxx,cbryfocolla,auri . 
•glutiaum \ 


* % 

^rbrti Gft^CRf aiad Latin. 

■C T 

'««r»«r; getdi and MJif^x, gluten ygfue. 

CHRYSO-GONUS, *' X-^y}<fi!yi>V'>t,chyf^OKbs: 
H.. Xftiffflj, tfSrKW I ct rowif, generatio ; ex Twi'o^*!, 
jf*; Nug.'*— ^ffW-erif. T 

CHRYSO-LYTE, Xf«o-<,x.fla<, chryfoUthos, lapis 
■dweus, feu atfrri co/ow gemma 5 a precious fione of 
a geld colour : R. Xfi;(n)f,-a(ffT»» ; tt AiSof, /dp;j. 

CHRYSO-STOM, " Xfvrot^fiit, Cbryfijtemaf% 
■Chryfofiom: R. X^vret, aurum^ gold ; ttZloi*», wji 
■/is mffa/j6 ; golden-mouth : Niig." 

CHUBBY, KfpaPiu, ffljJB/, capita^ et niftjcus, 
^itpifcisi a large-headed, jlejby-factd per/on: unlefs 
■we may look on chub as only a contraftion of 
therubt who is generally npnfenfxd ft^l -faced. 

CHUCKLE, K.xM^H», immoderati, et ej^jias\ 
'ridtre: we make ufc of it in a gentler fignifica-, 
■tion, otAj to giggle, fnigger^ titter, Jtmper, 1 

CHUFFY, " cither from the fame rootwithj 
^chtth, and chubby; or elfc "from Kuf3(3«, 5re1»fiM,| 
i'Kptf, cuppa, cyathum^e quo bibimus :Yoff."-^** certc^ 
fatis elegant! mctaph. prarfertim fi, ut fufpicorl 
primitus de ruJUcograndi, veniriofo, et tam guise,; 
quam temulentise dedito diiftum fuit : Dmniool 
'ut de Bonofo tyranno S laquco pendente lufit 
vulgus, ampboram pendere, non hcminem : Skinn." 
here bangs a gotch, not a man. 

CHUM i " ab Armor, thorny Jlmul morari, ba- 
-Htare, contubernaUs : Lye."— but the whole force 
" of the expreffion fccms to conflft in the adverb 
fimuU and the prepofition "Zw, con; i. e. cum ; unde 
- chum \ one who lives 'with another ; a compamon. 

CHURCH, Kuf let, Kvgioxec eix«(, Ku^iax»i', do- 
'tninicusy domus Dei \ a k/rkey or kirk, the houfe of 
the Lord, or the heufe of worfbip. Cleland (Way. 
-15) derives it. from the Celtic i/r, «>, w circle, 
and rock, a ftoncj like Stonehenge: both confe- 
■quently Gr. 

CHURCH-LITTEN; the church yard; or 
tnore properly fpeaking, the read, or path way 
that leads to the church : " fortalTe ^ Sax. Ixban ; 
Teut. leyten ; ducere ; via ducens ad templum : 
Skinn."'^but the Dr. ought to. have confidered 
that to lead is Gr. : fee LITTEN. Gr. 

CHURN, "Kif »«(.!, quod idem eft ac Kij awjjwf, 
Ktfienwt, mifceo; quod agitalietris violentiSy gua- 
tunque in vas ifiud immitfuntury prima confundi, et 
m'ox difclrni, atqus in fuum quoque temperamentum 
coalefcere folebant : Jun." — a vejfel, in which milk 
hting pitiy by continual agitation mixes all the parts 
together, and. at length eaufes the uniluous particles to 
unite together, and become butter : — or perhaps cbwti 
may be derived i Tuf of, Tuf ow, in erbem verto ; to 
turn round ; quafj gyrny churn, becaufe whirled round. 

CHYLE, " ^vKoty JuccuJ -y Juice '; Nug."— /ie 

CIBSDRIUM, *' Ki^Mf ii», aherium ; a veffel that 
holds the bofi : Nng."— the Dr. fcems to have 
miftakcn KtjSufiBr for Rt)3c>?Mr, 'which fignifies ar- 
cula, capfula, feriniolum j and may be applicable 
to the px, or box that holds the hofi '. but Kif3wfie», 
according to Hadrianus Junius, pro feculo ca- 
paciori accipi potejl : et twi no1»ifiB, fays Hefych. a 
cup, or wine-ve^l, fet on altars, 

CICATRIX, K.IXUW, cicatrico, vahe ; to p'ovo 
welly to heal; as a wound: though If. Voff. is 6( 
opinion it ought rather to be derived from K(- 
x«u7(f If , i KesOjuf la^w, cauttfe huro, cautere amputo : 
— but all wounds de not require the caujlic ; neither 
are 3\\ fears produced ^ burning: but all wettndsy 
when bealedy cicatrize, or fenn a fear. 

CICHORY, vulgarly written, and pronoimccd 
fuccory ; Ktj^wf u, et Kj;(;wf lov, cichorium -, the nild endive. 

CIDDE; *' chid, rtbaked; Verft."--confequent!y 
only another dialeft for CHIDE;. which is Gr. 

CIMBRI J Clel. Voc. 202, fays, " it originates 
from kym, one of the moft antient Celt, wbrds 
for a mountain -, it is a Tariation of kean ; bead :" 
i. e. ken, or pen, or ven ; the bead: and confe- 
quentiy will take the fame dcriv. with KYM-BRO 

CINCTURE, Zunvu, zinge, tingo-y to prd^ 

CINDERS,,puhisy cims, cineresi powdery 
duft, and afhes, 

CINGLE i Z«»iFu«, %ing6y cingoy ftngulim ; '^ 
girt, girdle, or belt. 

CINNABAR; Ki*f«|3«ji, vinnabari; gumtni ar- 
boris Jndica ; the gum of an Indian tree. 

CINNAMON i Ktw«f"*]i*ov, cinnamomum % fru- 
tex brevis, cujus dos emnis in cortiee efi; the cinnamon 
Jbruby whofe virtue is in the bark. 

CINQUE-PORTS i n«7£-»offl^«, quinque-por- 
tus; the five capital ports, or havensy which lie on 
the Eaft coaft of England, towards France; 
namely, Hafiings, Dover, Hitb, Rumney, and Sand- 
wich; the inhabitants of which towns have many 
privileges and immunities j they have aifo a 
governor, who is ftilcd Lord JVarden if the Cinqut 
Ports, having the authority of a lord admiral in 
places not exempt : R. UtUt, Dor. Ktmiy quinque, • 
unde cinque; five; and n!>fe/*«r, partus; a bave»y 
harbour, or frith. 

CIRCENSIAN, K.fXJiffi*, circenp i beUt^ing to 
the circus ; KukAoj, Kif xoj. 

CIRCLE, Kigxot, circus ; KuxAoc, circitlus ; a 
circumference, or circU ; every part of which is equi- 
difiantfrem the centre. Clel. Voc. 10, tells os, 
that fir, or clr, is metonymically uTed for the 
ruler of a cir, or fiire ; a Ki^xof, circus j a circuit, 
or fbi/e 1 from whence Kuj-icf, dominus, vel berus; 
and from thence likewifc may be derived the ea- 
O prcITioa 

C L 

From G & E 2 K, and Latin. 

C L 

prel&on «f a judge on his cireutt ; not certatnly 
from his journeying round in a Kt^-xof, circui ; 
« fir-cle, or dr-aiit ; but from his vi^cing the 
different Kij-xw, «Vj, J&'rw, or diJiriSj, under his 
jurifdi£tion, and of which he is the Kuficc, (/on/- 
.Mw ; beadt or fii'^ r«/*r ; fo that indeed it 
may derive a Kuj-iof, vel a Iinf-m, /cinderet divi- 
derei ajhirty country or divijien. 

CIRCUM, ufed in compofition with many 
'Words, which may be found under their refpedive 

CIST, « kiji, or kiffed: Veft." — but KISS 
is Gr. 

CISTERN, « KifB, fi/?a, cijierna\ quod in 
ed aliquid reponatur •» a refervoir ; ut a IttceOj lu- 
eerna't latec^ laiema % tehoy taberna i VofT." 

CITE, KiM, KiM, Ion. Kitw, citOy dio i tafum- 
men : vel i Sow, ciect tnoveo i to vtovtt ifiduce. 

CITTERN \ ^''*e*» citbara \ a barp. 

CITY, Xwifvat., co'to i unde civis^ avi/as i a ftaie, 
community: poQis tamen, fays Voff. et eapfc de 
caula (quod in^ unum coeuntes vivant) civis dedu- 
cere a Kta, quod eH; ee, vado \ quod nempe in 
unum veniunt caluntt tt fub legthus ii/dem vivani ; 
becau/t tbiy live tegelber infocitty. Clel. Voc. 1 14, 
n, fays, chat *' «wj, dvitas, anfwer to cbefi 
tbe bead :" — if fo, then it is, cvideHtly Gr. as he 
would have feen, had it been written kepb^ inllead 
of chef. 

CITRON, " Kilfiec, malum Citrium j a fruit 
brought from Media : Nug." 

CIVET, zibetbum, ab Hcbr. ya^uere, pUare ; 
eft cnim fuder inter bujufce animalis tejliiulos concre' 
fcem i a perfume^ like mufk : Ainfw.— the perfume 
which the animal, called a civet-cat^ produces, is 
. of the conlilience of honey, and fecms to be ex- 
trafted from certain glands, which lie between 
the coats that compofe the bag from which the 
. civet is taken> and which lies under the belly of 
that creature. 

. CLAME, commonly written, claim i S.»\iu, 
tlamOf veto, frevoco : to call aloud, a clame^ a right \ 
to tbaUtnge. 

CLAMMY, KoA;^ix, gluten \ glue : Junius 
quotes Hcfych. for the word JUofiagM, which he 
explains by irf^a,(<xt, atrim, hiitKeliamt invalidam ; 
moiftt and weak i but ncitlicr of thole words 
fcem to anfwer our idea of clammy % which is ra- 
ther gluiineas. 

CLAMOR J either from K«Ai«, xaxS, clamo, 
clamofus, quafi clamorofus : or elfe perhaps more 
properly from KAMu9|!*<ir, fletits^ ploratus ; a weep- 
ing, wailing, or any loud neife ■• fincc Hcfych. ex- 
plains OxoAuyjaot, (which properly fignifics the 
-Jbout before battle begins) by Kxauflnoi : ycc Junius, 

under the art. ehmtuTr. quocer Hclycfi. for the 
ufe of the word KA«purtiv«i, which he explains 
by Bano-M, KiK^irai, clamore^ vocare; to call aloud % 
and this perhaps may have given origin to our 
word clamor : though, under the art. trumpet, he is 
rather of opinion, that clamo is derived i K>,««, pro 
xJMVjij jUo, ejulot ploro, to make atrf waiUng noifti 
by inferting the letter m : and has given many 
other inftances. 

CLANCULAR 7 " K()taXu/*piwf, occultut j 

CLANDESTINE i buiden,/ecretiR.ti^,,^u, 
xXitIu, K\ii*[iaiov, xXf^jMi/iuf. If. VolT." 

CLA.NG)" KAoiyyn yipeiyui': Iliad.- Ill r. 7^. 

CLANKS f« CRANE : Gt: Upt." 

CLAP, a difeafe; Aayu;, lepus ; " Gall, lapiuy.. 
cuniculus i unde clapier, vivarium, feu fepium- cu* 
niculorum i unde elapiers d'ulcere, finus uluris.\. 
vox cbirurgica ; unde clapoir ; Fr. GalL bubo pro— 
pric diiius/ quia fc. in inruine oritur ; Skimier's- 
fricnd Th. Hcnfti." — as ifwe were to fay with an- 
inuendo, that gentleman keeps a private warren. 

CL.APy Jlap i Ko\««7w, tundo; EeA«^ec, alapa; 
a box on tbe ear. 

CLARENCEAUX king at. armtv this officer 
derives his name from George duke of Clarence^ 
brother to Edward IV.. j that king, on the death 
of the duke, having itiftiiuted his herald one of 
the kings at arms : — but Clarence itfelf fecms ta 
be derived a KAftot, gloria \ glory, fplendor : — with 
regard to the oiEce of Clarenceaux, fee NOR- 
ROY kitig^at arms: Gr. 

CLASH, crafii \ " Ka««, Kxa^o, kKalwy fran- 
go -, to break. Upt." 

CLASP, Air7«, k^ia, apto, tteSo, jungo % to COO' 
ne£l, bind, f often: Skinner quotes Cafaub. for de- 
riving noftrum clafps a Gr. KofiXa^n, vel Ksw-wif : 
but does not approve of that deriv. ; though he 
has not given any reafon why he rejcfJted it: — the 
rcafon why it has not been adopted here is, becaufe 
both thofe words bear too diftant a fcnfe in Gr. to 
what we conceive of the word clafps. 

CLASSIC, KetXiu, veco; to call; C]^d,^i calaffis, 
3. calando, vocando; quia Mfr^i/vj per cornu voca- 
rentur % an army, or navy ajfemhled and called toge- 
ther by tbe found of tbe born, or trumpet. 

CLATTER, KsXaJof, Jlrepitus ; YLiKA^^lo,, fire- 
pito ; to make a noife. 

CLAUDICANT, KuiXsf, claudus, claudicansi 
baiting, limping, lame, 

CLAV[-CHORDS, KA«f, clavis ; et XefJn, 
.chorda; a k^ftringed inftrument, Hke a fpinnet, or 

CLAUSE, KAflJ^w, KAnrJw, Dor. Kx«iJ«, claudo\ 
tofl}ut up ; clefe -, come to a conclu^on. 

CLAW J Tx»f», fcalpo J tofcratcb : vel potius 

I XdAii, forcepSf vel forfex ; quotes (sncrorum \ de 

f^ avium 

C L 

From G K B B K> and L a t r h. 

C h 

f^wum quoqtu unguihus dicttur : Cafaub.— but thefe 
are rather ibe talons tbtmfelvesy than the aSiicn ef 
^bafe talotts : fee CHLEYS. Gr. 

CLA.Y, X«Xjf, or rather Xii;^x»i5, ealx, talcK- 
•ius ; chalk, ciay, ham. 

CLEAN, KA«»ar, incUtuSt pr<eclarus : vel 5 
KtMt, vacuus, inanisy as he is clean gone ; Cafaub. 
" vel mallem, fi fatis Grajcus cffcm a K<iaauv», 
pulchrum^ feu vtnufltim reddo^ verro, mundo: Skinn." 
—4. K«AA«t, a KaXof, ji, ov, fulcber ; to beautify, to 

CLEAR, K?i(ot, Ka«o(, unde clarus \ gloria ; 
glory, fplendar, Jbining -, Junius derives clear ^ 
roXff «;, ferenus, fplendidus. 

CU)AVE afunder^ Kx«i*, frango t divido t to 
Areak, divide^ or cut in twain. 

CLEAVE, titfiick clofe i KoXXowi, adglutinot ad- 
jungo ; /0 adjoin, adhere. 

CLEMENCY, Ko^m*, irf(MiMi», lenio, clementem 
reddot dementia -, evennefs ef temper^ mildnefs of 

CLEPED ; " Sax. clcopan, dypian, clypan j 
'veeare, nominare, appellare : Lye." — perhaps all 
thefe words are but another dialed of KoXiw, 

voce ; Ka^rw, KaXnx*, quall KlxAflTM* coDtradcd 

to KAnira, unde cleped ; ealied, denominated, 
CLERGY ?■" KAwpet, derus; KAnfiicot, cltri- 
CLERJCAL \ cusi a lot, fartiony or inheri- 
.tanee^ the clergy were fe called, either beeaufe they 
.•were reckoned to be the inheritance of the Lord (and 
^onfcquendy had no inheritance with the people in 
-ibe promifed land) ; or beeaufe the Lord was deemed 
Jbeir portion, and inheritance : Nug."— to which 
Jet me add, that David, in Ff. xvi. 6, makes ufe 
-of this cxprcffion, the Lord bimfelf is the portion 
ef mine inheritance : R. KAitf a;, Jbrs : he goes on, 
and fays ; thou Jbait maintain my lot : i. e. mine 
inheritance i firs ; bereditas. CleJ. Way. 41, and 
Voc. 56, fays, " from cal, wc have that fo much 
diftorted word deras, (quafi callerus) the etymon 
of clergy ; but in fa£i only a barbaroufly latinifed 
contraSion of caller .-"—be it fo ; ftill it is Gr. ; 
for cal, al, bal, or hall, are no more than con- 
traftions again ofAux-q, aulai a halt, or college i 
whence, according to his own etym. bailer, ftho- 
lar, taller, callerus, clerus, clergy, 

CLEVER; " rx»ij>ufOE, Jdtus, civenufius: Plu- 
tarch, fpeaking of Cleopatra, calls her Txxt^v^n 
nt^-n, a clever woman: Upt." — there is however 
another deriv. which though not fo ingenious, 
fcems to approach nearer to the orthography of 
our word c/«)^r, viz. KXm, gloria, celehrilas, fplen- 
dor neminis; reputation, fame, renown. 

CLACK-claek, Ka«^», Jlridoy clango \ to make a 
ntife, like a clock. 
CLIENT, K»x*w, veco j to call j to cenfult with 

apatron: or elfe fromKXHwi celebro; to celebrate one's 
patron; utpotef«» cekbat patroHum : — but If. VoIT. 
derives c/r^ffj aKAuw, fjraKHur, audiens, ebediens; one 
who obeys, or follows the ceunjd of his patron, 

CLIFF, KAiTuf , .^oi. KAtB-uf, clivus, devexitas \ 
a declivity: or rather our word fM" may be de- 
rived from cleft, the participle oC cleave afunder: 
good old Verft. writes \t clyf -, and calls it a rock 
en the fea fyd, feeming deft, or cloven 1 — and yet 
could not fee that it was confequently not Saxon, 
but Gr. : a kx*m, frango \ to break. 

CLIMACTERIC, « KAtpaxJ^^.x*., fc. *1«, cU^ 
maStericus, fc. annus ; a year that afccnds by certain 
degrees ; as from 7 to 7 ; or from 9 to 9 j R. 
KAi/i«f , a gradation : Nug." — this interpretation 
is obfcure enough ; for nobody can underftand 
it; ^t\tz^ the climaSeric years do net rife, as the 
Dr. has here obfcrved from 7 to 7 s for that 
makes but 14, or 21, or 28; but from 7 to 
leven times 7, which is 49 years ) and then to 
7 times 9, which is 6^ years, the climaHeric ; and 
lailly the grand climaSeric, which is not, as 
the Dr. fuppofes, from 9 to 9 j for that is but 
18; but is 9 times 9, which is 81 years ; at all 
which periods, viz. 49, 63, and 81 years of age, 
fome dangerous fit of Ilcknefs, fbme cxtraordi- ' 
nary calamity, (it could not pofTibly be any 
lucky event ; but) even death itfelf has fuper- 
ftitioufly been fuppofcd to have atucked man- 
kind:— but all thefe fond and frightful imagina- 
tions of Chaldasan and Egyptian extraction, have 
been long fince dcfcrvedly exploded. 

CLIMATE, " KAi|i*«, «Iof, cali indinatie; terra 
tragus i the inclining, or bending of the heavens : 
R. Kxufu, incline ; bending : Nug." 

CLIMB, KAifioi^, fcala, gradus', afcending by 
fieps : a figure in rhetoric; alfo a figure in vtntr* 
ing, a pr^re^ve afcent ef ideas. 

CLINIC, " KA.m, leauii a bed; a bed ridden 
perfen : R. KAtu*, Niig." 

CLIP the coin \ KAtWJw, KXurw, clepo ; to fieal, 
or plfer ; to diminifb, or take away part of the pub- 
lic money, by fling, fweating, &c. 

CLIP, or cut ; " Belg. knippen, fnippen j re- 
fecare, pracidere \ to cut with a pair ofjbears, or 
fcijptrs : Sax. clypan ; Iceland, klipa, terquere forfice, 
ttnguibus, digitis : Lye."— but as all thefe words 
fcem to carry the idea of cutting, dividing, fepa- 
rating, they may be only various dialefts fit the 
verb 2;t*^'^» quafi Xx.mti'^, fcindo, by tranfpofi- 
iion fcnido, fcnipo, fnipo, fnip, dip. 

CLIP, enfold; "Sax. chppan, clyppian, be- 
clippan i ampleSli : Skinn." — to embrace, clafp, or 
enfold : from all which perhaps it is poHible the 
Saxons have given us only a tranfpofition of 
nxixw, plice ; qnafi dipo -, to embrace. 

C li 

Mtwi GiizBK,«a4 Latiit^' 

S L 

CLOAK, K«Xv«7u, otcuJto -, to bide, to cover, m 
^oUerrmtVfXoeatbtri unlcfs we chufe to derive it 
from XAo^uf , cblamys; inxitHm, caUfacio; unde et 
"Xxntyx, l^ena ; a JoldUr's cloke, «r cUak, to keep 
him warm. 

CLOCK> ^ EAM^Wf xXa^w, YU)Oi.ny%i unde clango, 
flame i unde deck ; from the conftant click clack 
noife of its hating, or tbe loud fomrous tone of 

* CLOD, EeAa|3ev> gloiuj-, a lump of earth : or 
elfe it may be of Sax. oiig. as will be obfcrved in 
thit Alph. 

CLOG, " Kxncti vinculum, collare canimm, 
jugum ligneim % quo ferociores cams domttantur : 
Cafaub. and Jun." — but Skinn. fuppofes it to be 
derived & leg i and log he fuppofes co be Sax. -, 
but ic will be feen under that art. that the Dr. 
himfelf acknowledges, felicinime alludit Gr. 

CLOISTER]" Kxaflfw, clauftrum-, a prifon; 

CLOSE > oranyplacey&B/a/.orawf/jjyfc/; 

CLOSET 3 R- ^^^"> '^"^° ' ^ fi»** ^ ' 
Nug. and Upt."— vel a Ka«c, clavis ; a key, to 
leek up with. Clel. Voc. 56, by 00 means ad- 
mits of this deriv.i but faya, that *' the Romilh 
monks, changing nan:)e3 and things, formed the 
word clauftrum, a cleijler, much as the Italians 
call the Grand Signer's feriu (which fignifies a 
bead manfioji) ferraglio, from the acccffary idea 
of ioclofure, or confinement, efpccially of the 
women :" — he would therefore derive cloifier 
i callfjltr i the ahode, cal, or bal, appropriated 
to the colators, calUrs, or fcbolars of colleges :— 
tMit all tbefe words feem to originate from AuA-n, 
e hallf fchtol, or college, 

CLOTH, commonly written cloidb ; but de- 
rived from KAftj(l«», nere \ tojpin ; becauft c«"igi- 
nated i KXwdu, Clotha j one of the defiimes,fupp^ed 
tofpin the thread of life. 

CLOUD, Ap^Aui, ealigOi te/tebr^ j darkntfs, 
tbfcttrity, or a?ty ehfiacle that brings afbadow, 

CLOVE of garlic. Lye very juttly fuppofes 
that Che cxpreffion clvoe of garlic is derived a Sax. 
cIeo|:an, findere -, but then he ought to have 
traced it up to the Greek; as we have feen under 
the art. CLEAVE afunder. Gr. 

CLOVE, fpice j KA«p«, JEo\. pro fcA«J«, He- 
fych. T/LXmSxv, YLXetiev, fn^itt, clava ; " unde Sax. 
clopei^fV:!, aim nucleus, caput; q.d. clavusaliii : 
Skinn." — but perhaps the Dr. is miftakcn, if he 
fuppofes that clove, tbe fpice, and a clove of gartic 
originate from the fame root : clove, the fpice, is 
derived, as he acknowledges, a clavo^ oh lu- 
eulentam fatis clavi_fimilitudirum j but a clove of 
garlic bciT% no.fuch relcmblancej and therefore 
he need not have added, vcl, fi mavis i Sax. 
cluj:c, Jpica aliii nucleus:— pow, the allii Kueleus 

is a ^fexm ibit^i W we havfr Sua in thc' 
former art. v 

CLOVER i XAM!> herhit virtiUj gramtit j 4 
grtHy herk. 

CLOUGH, Kxa«, frango -, unde Sax. cloujb, 
rima qu^dam, feu fijfura ; a cltft in a rock : a. 
kynd of breach down along the fyde of a hill ;: 
fays Vcrft. 

CLOUTED cream :. f«c CLOD : Gr. being; 
mflk, or cream thiektned tip. 

CLOUTED-/»tf; " SxK. c\\xc, pittaeiim» ftf 
tura ; jcclurob, heclouted, or patcbt : Skinn."' 
who has given us. another fignification a Fr. Gall* 
clouef, clavulus, fza parvus clavus i dimiRutivo ri 
clou, clavusi (}ui calceos parvis ciivitcojffixpshaiai" 
Jhees with nails at the bottom ;-^but this is leldoro- 
ufed in the feofe of 4 clouted Jboe -, and ihould It 
be fo, even then it is Gr. : fee CLUB : Gr. 

CLOWN, « XA»«ir, agrefiis, ferus t rude, and 
rujiici proprie;»i in virenti gramine cubare folet i 
R. XXes, gramen ; and lui^, le£ius ; a bed : Horn. 
Iliad, r, IX. J35, Upt."— or perhaps clown may 
be derived from K»xo»et, collis, tumulus, locus edi- 
tus i tne who inhabits the bills, mouutains^ or eim- 
nenees : let me juft hint another deriv. which 
may be the right one; viz. that clown may 
likcwife be only a contraction of EwXev, mem^ 
brum i unde colonia, and colonus j a hujhan^tan, 
or farmer ; one who lives in the country. 

CLOY, ** XXiM, deliciis frango; failed with- 
pleafure; a palled appetite: Upt,"— this is cer- 
tainly to be preferred before ^yyva<rtn, et EyyXu* 
it^tiv, in Caiaub. as quoted by Jun. if Cafaub.. 
did not intend that rather as a deriv. of gluti, 
as when we fay glutted wttb fwtets : Junius him» 
felf fuppofes it derived from clog i and Skinner' 
and Lye from claudere ; -but claudo is derived 
SKa««: let me only add that cloy may perhaps 
be- derived a KAoib?, which primarily figniBes a- 
log; and might afterwards have been applied to 
the idea oi filling, blocking, or choaking up, 

CLUB, or bait -, Eax{3ix, ]Eo\. pro KAa<fa, quod 
'H.cfycYi.zx'^Tiitfii^Sai, clava, clavus: KXetix, pro^- 
prie ramus ex ariore reci/us cum nodis j quaU utt 
Hercules folet j a knotty club, or battoon .- unlefi . 
with Skinn. we may fuppofc it to be contracted 
from K«A«»1«, percutio ; to beat, Jtrike, or knock. 

CLUB, or fociety -, " Sax. clcojran, cleapany 
findere j uti fc. fympofii fumptus in jequalcs por-» 
tiones, feu fymbolas finditur, feu fcinditur 7 
Skinn."— the Dr. is right as to his explanation ; 
but perhaps not fo as to his deriv. if he thinka 
that the Sax. cleopan is the original ; for it is unr 
doubtedly but a derivative from the fame root with 
our word CLEAVE, i. e. Gr. — it is very remark*- 
able that Clel, Voc. iii, n> has given us a Celr. 

c t.. 

Tfom Ciitsxi and Latii^j 

Q <y 

derir. toM>l]r different fbm tRp ibr«goiag, and 
yet conveys the fame ide^; for he fays, that 
** the fftkraa bmqucts of the antienc Britons 
vere fi}pplied>wnoiig the parties iy toymen cott- 
UikuHan :"— *wid then in his note obfcrves that 
** fuch entertainments, fo far as they depended 
on tafihfuniijBingkis part, vtrc, literally fpeaking, 
t»UatiimSj or more properly cluks ; a word of the 
lufi^eft antiqnity> though now in fuch common 
v£: ibb, in the fenfe of partitiotti or dividend, is 
radical to elut^ by contraftioa from cel-ibb, or 
meetings at which each man contributes his^(irr> 
contingent^ dividend, or quuta^' — but in p<i9ii 
he tells us, that " ibh, bei, and eve, in the fenfe of 
fepara^oa, gtree our Engtiib word every, which 
tncAas Jingle, cr feparately taken:" — and here it 
figni£es each, fefanate perfoa contributes his parti- 
cular fhare, towards raifing the whole fum : only 
now it is probable that ibb is Gr. as we Ihall fee 
under the art. EVE : and perhaps it would be 
difficult tafhew bow est, aod eon, fhould be Celtic. 

CLUCK, or rather clock, as a hen ; " Kaw^w, 
xAugv, clamo. More gracculerum : Upt." — though 
this may be the true deriv. yrt I mull defire leave 
to diSent frona this learned and ingenious gentle- 
man in this art. becaufc of the great diverfity 
of ideas : to cluck, in otir language ftgnihes tbe 
luife of a hen coiling her chickens -, but KAm^w in 
Gr. fignifies the chattering and elatttring of jack- 
daws, as it were in dmfion of tbe by-flanders ; and 
hence has been transferred to the theatre, to ex- 
prefs the fcarn and refentment of the audience : 
Eau^u, explode 2 tbeatro,_fibiio -, fays Hederic : .this 
now facing fo totally different an idea from tbe 
locking of a hen^ when fie calls her chickens, we 
may rather derive cluck, or clock, a KoAiu, zoco -, 
to call i unde KAxftuct vecatus ; called { the idea 
implying more the notion of calling, than the 
mife that is. made. 

CLUE, or bottom of , thread : KvXiw, veho^ 
veluto ; to roll, or winde round ; or perhaps clue 
may be only a different dialeft of KAwflw, glo- 
mero ; unde glomus ; a bottom of thread, &c. 

CLUMPS; Skinn. derives this word a XwXiin-iif , 
chudus (Hederic writes it XMAein-Kt, if it is not 
amiftake) ;— but what connexion XuAen-or, clau- 
dus, can have with Belg. kloule, vel pocius klompe, 
or the Teut- klump, maffa j or the Belg. lemp/cb; 
_fiMpiduf, piger j or with our word clownijh, would 
not be eafy to fay ; unlefs when wc ufe the ex- 
preflion clump-footed, for club-footed. 

CLUMPS, or knots of trees, flowers, &c. Ao^os, 
toilis, tumulus i a little Mllock -, flowers, or firubs, 
planted in patches i fo-os to have tbe appearance of 
riflng mounds, or fmail hills. 

CLUNG : by the deriv. Skinner has given of 

this vord, -tft snij^t hna^toe he. intfnfied tA 
derive ic from a different ong. to the. verb clit^tt 
for he has derived tbaig iL Sax. chnjan, marcere, . 
made eeufeitus, prtf made q^us harens j and yet 
even by this interpretation, h^erens, clung, feem» 
to be only the pail tcnfe, or participle of cling ;. 
but perhaps he meant a different word, flnce 
he explains palp-clunju, by Jem~gelatus, fame, 
feu frigore femi-morluus ; which is a different idea 
from cling, or flick clofe. 

CLUSTER : both Jun, and Skihn. have de- 
rived clufter k Sax. clyprep -, Belg. kliffen ; ceha- 
rere; ac proprie magis, lapparum inllar, mutua 
Jihi adbarefcere : however Junius adds, puto effe 
clufler a glus, i. e. gluten : if fo, then it natu- 
rally defcends a rxia, rxsisf, gluten, vifcus ; ttteg 
number of Jmall bodies adhering, like a bunch of 
grapes ; flicking together, as if glued. 

CLUTCHES : Junius explains it by bamata 
HnguU i and derives it from Belg. klutfen -, quatere, 
concutere; which arc different ideas : he then re- 
fers us to claflj J but might better have faid clafp; 
fince Shakefpear has ufed it for clafp, or grafp, 
in Mackbeib : Aft II. {c. 2, where he has made him 
fpcak to a vifionary dagger thusj 

Is this a dagger, which I fee before me, 

Th' handle tow'rd my hand i come, let me 
clutch thee ; 
let me gripe thee fafl : in this fenfe I fliould be 
glad to find the nearcft eiym. ; Lye in his Add. 
fays, Sax. panb jeclihr eft manus colUffa, ei con- 
traSa: — then it is natural to fuppofe that clihi:, 
and clutches are really no more than contraftions 
of colleSta, quafi cellutches, contradted to clutchesi 
chat is, colligo, i. c. a Atyu, quod proprie eft Zu»- 
»yv, colligo ; to collet, or clench together. 

Cafaiib. would rather derive clutter a Kj olef, pulfus, 
plaufus manuum, pedumve ; myK^ilnfiet, coitio, confpi- 
ratio J Anglis clutter ; fonus inconditus, tumultust 
— he has certainly explained it properly; but the 
deriv^ leems to be hard; for this would agree 
better with our word clatter, or noife. 

CLYPED : Verftegan fuppofes it to be Sax. j but 
it is probably only,anotherdialc6t for CLASPED: 
Gr. i unlefs we underftand it in the fenfe oi called; 
and then it orig. a Y^a.Km, voco -, to call. 

CLYSTER ; commonly written, and pro- 
nounced glyfter; " KAuruj, itXurMfio*, clyfter ; id 
quo alvus etuitur : R. KAu^w, to wuflj, or cltanfe '. 
Nug."—- ja injected purge, to rince the hotels. 

CNAPA, " a boy, lad, lackey -, heer-hencc com- 
eth our woord .^BiJw: Verft." — hui knave, as. we 
Ihail fee, is Gr. 

COACH, " Kaftr^^iof, ceroche : Upt." — fince 
COACH is but a contradlion of caroacb, and 

. ^^ earoaeh 


C 6 

From Greek, and TJ a. t t m.- 

C O 

laroacb. Is undoubtedly derived from GAR, ic is 
referred to ihac art.- ■* 

CO-ACTIONi 2ui-«y», (ogif, adtim; to aiJ toge- 
ther, to unite forces. — We have many other words in 
ourlanguage, beginning with theprepofitions CO, 
COL, COM, CON, or COR, which will be more 
properly found under their refpeftive articles; Mn- 
lefs when the primitives themfelves are not in ofcj 
as in the following words, when compounded. 

CO-A;VALi ^u»-aim, tempMS vita bomims yof 
equal-age: Voflius feys, Aiw* dicitur qnafi Am «►, 
femper-exiftem ; unde deducitur tevvtHt inferto v 
confono, more ^olum, AiFw, quomodo ab lAey, 
ovum; ab OVf , ov/jj et a Awdj, /^Wj j &c. 

GO-AGULATE, Zuv-*^, 'togo^ coaguh; to 
curdle, or congeal. 

COAL to burn j "KnXwu, Dor. pro yirMu, com- 
iuro: " malim cailefl deducere ^ Dor. KaAfot, pro 
KnXwf, quod Hefych. exponit iwur'xef, 6if/*»f, 
>,»f»irf»(, Ignis -epitheton eft apud Horn. Iliad. Z 
et- X. K«AHf vero abHebr. quod eft torrere, affare, 
uftulare j unde et Germanicum kolen ; ac Belg. 
kolen, i. e. carhonis : 'Voff." — it might be worth 
while to inquire why our Englifti word coals differs 
fo much from the orthogr. of other languages. 

CO~ALITION J AaJco, extrito J, aam, alo, 
alefcc; ajcendc; nam qua aluntur, in aldtudinem 
ajjurgunt ; a living together, bred together, and 
uniting together in the fame principles, growing to- 
gether in enejyfiem ; tbejunSlion of parties. 

CO-APT ATI ON, Anita, apto,jungOi a joining 

CO-ARCTATION, Zv»-«^tu, arceo % to drive 

COARSE, Ktffftc, carSi creaffus, creffus; grofs, 
fiefhy, hetnefy: Skinner writes it^-oiw^ (perhaps it 
■ought to have been coars) and fays, " fi Grascus 
eflcm, deflefterem a Xw«j, imultus, afper -, pro- 
pria autem I Gra^cis de /ATfldicitur} nobis de 
panao, &c." — we have another orthography in 
Jun. who writes it courfe cloth; and quotes Har- 
marus, qui putat diftum quafi cher/e a. Xtfftt, vcl 
Xffa-ec, incultusj a/per, rudis j but then imme- 
diately adds, '* fed vide annon redius permetath. 
derivetur a craffus, %wt grojus :" — he ihould have 
gone a little farther, and traced thofe two words to 
their original Gr. ; as above. 

COAST, or fltere: ** a Latino fonte, q. d. 
Utloris, feu maris ecfta, 1. e. latus : Skinn." — but 
in the firft place, eojia, as we ftiall ice, is not an 
original word : — and in the next place, we may 
very much doubt whether the word fea-^oaft be ; 
derived from the Latin word cojia : but as ; 
Junius very juftly remarks, medii xvi fcriptori- 
■bus ora maritima dicebatur coflera i the fea-Jide : 
anj yet it looks by this interpretation, as if our 

word fea-coaft did originate from cofia, in the 
){enfs of latits;ibe fia-^de: unlcfs we may fup- 
pofe that theff^-fide is only a contraction oibefide 
fbe fea, or mar tbefea, bordering on the fea :. and 
it is obl'ervable that even now there feems an un- 
avoidable connexion of ideas betwwn thefc words; 
thus the fea fide, or befide the fea-, latus, cofla, and 
co^; but neverthelcfs the dcriv. may be difti:rent, 
tho' I have not been able as yet to fatisfy my 
inquiries; for none of the etymol. accfatisfac- 
tory : this however is certain, that if rke deriv. 
of cofla be eftablilhed, we ftiall find thatx^a is 
Greek : fee COSTE. Gr. 

COAT, Xi7w», tunica -, a vefl. . 

COAX, " % Kvji*(3or, curvusi unde K\ii*(in, et 

i x«x«1«t KujUjSn: Voir." — from this word Ku/<^a 
is manifeftly derived cymba: 

Inferimus tepida Jpumantia cymbia laSe. 

^ V. 66. 
from tr^mba is derived the Cymeric word cwch-, 
and from thence the Sax. word cojje ; navigiolum j 
and from, thence cock-boat, ind cect's ftoain, for 
boatfwain : now to flicw how this deriv. is appli- 
cable to the word in queftion ; k Sax. cc^e pedc 
Kcnnetcus, non ita pridem cpLfcopus Petribur- 
gonfis L. B. eogciones : ecgge fi refte conjicio, fays 
Lye, ab hodiernis mutatum eft in cokes, feu 
coax; quod ejufdem eflc originis vult idem doc- 
tiflimus prseful : nauKC enim iftiufmodi per vicoa 
vagantes, fiSiis, fleiilibufque de naufragiis nar- 
rationibus populo nimium credulo y«^o»«r« foleot, 
ac pccunia emungere : — and from this cuftom of 
failors impofing on the credulous vulgar, has been 
derived our word to coax, or weedle, men out of 
their money, byfalfe pretences oift>ipwreck, 8cc. 

COB, or " bajket to carry upon the arm : 
Ray." — let it be carried wherever, and -however 
it may) it fccms to be but a contra^ion of«r^-isi 
which Littleton obferves, may be Gr. ; forte uc 
ab flf«(»af, erbis, ita a xejufJi, corbisi a twig-bajket, 
pannier, or Jiep. 

COB, or bird, " KffoXu, caput; nndc Teut. 
kepff-. Sax. ceppe ; the bead i -apex, culmen; tbefea~ 
cob, or fea-gail i xomense, gavia avis -• Skinn." 

COB-IRONS: "from the fame root; q.d./w- 
and-irons : Skinn." — though indeed his definition 
feems to agree more with the fpit, than the ceb~ 
irenti which in Latin are properly called crortw- 
teria; becaufe they belong lo t\tt fire- grate : the 
deciv. however may be HghL 

COBLER, Avf>^x», pellot xompello-, unde «- 
pttla : vel, i XuftwAcicK, a nAexn, five TIkokx, per 
metath. copla ; a IIaikw, plico ; Ger. VoflT. but 
Ifaac rather prefers eoafuUi <?i apifl, (inuf. pro 


€ O 

From G R z B K> and L a t i h. 

C O 

Sfh, AwU) jUMgOf ne0e ; ta joint umte, few pieets 

COB-NUT, *'Kif«Aii-^uxtif»;,rd^/-««f«m, Tel 
mat i a large-nut ; alfo lufus puertUs, q. d. nux 
pHmaria, fea viSrix : Skinn." 

GOB-WEB. Skinner tells us, it is derived 
itx)m the Belg. Teut. and Sax. tongues ; but both 
parts of this compound are Greek ; the former 
we have fceii under the art. ATTER-COB ; and 
the latter will be (ctn under the art. WEB, Or 
WEAVE, to be Greek. 

eoCH.E-NEAU " Kojw.fH3«fii«i, Lat. Barb. 
tcchiniUa; Fr. Gall. eocbenilU; Hifp. cochinillo ; 
Itat. eednigUa; q. d. eoccinula: Skinn." — but all 
cbeffl words anfwer only to the former part of 
this compound, viz. K«xKor, cache -, what the other 
is, viz. |3iKftxD, neither the Dr. nor any other 
etymol. has as yet informed mej Skinner how- 
ever has very properly defined it by grarmm in- 
feSiiirium, tinSorium; fie enim dicitur vemuVa/aj 
quidam, qui in grano tinSorie, fruSu iUds ceccigertt, 
vel potius Iff j^ctf hdica, nafcitutt quique fplendi- 
diffiwum pnrfupeum celerem exbibet -, — ftill this docs 
Qot account either for F3«fixn, or neal : Baftxq is 
Undoubtedly derived a BarTu, tingo ; to dip^ dye, 
or tinge ; and perhaps neal may be either an 
Indian termination, exprcQuig the fame thing t 
or may be only a diHerent dialeft of nevulus, no- 
vellus } new -, the new-invented, or mW'dtfcovered 
hsrry in fhe art t^ dying: and then it would be 
derived ^ Nta;. 

COCK 1 Kexjcv^M, cBccuzo, canto, ut cucu- 

CQCKEREL \ lus-y ut gallus galHnaceus \ to 

COCK'j-fflwi J crew Uks a cock : — minime in- 
terim prECtercunduin, fays Jun. quod KwxnAev, 
Hefych. exponit «Jor A^txlfuoiiot, genui gelli gal- 
Bnacei : "item crijia galii -, q. d. galli pe£f en, ct 
fane peSen incifiuris (tncijaris) fuis Jatts. graphice 
txprimit : Skinn." — and from hence, tho' with a 
diflFerent orthogr. a filly, faiB/f/iwf is fuppofed 
to have been called a COXCOMB ; as the Dr. 
likewife informs us under that art. : " verum, 
quoniam coxcomb ^ro^nc Jlultum affeSatum, et de 
fe magnifici fentientem notat ; quia fc. criftam fuam, 
infiar gain fuperbientts erigit :" — one who is as vain 
and as proud as a firutting cock, with a high 
ireEied comb. 

COCK apparel; a ftrange diftortion of the Fr. 
Gall. jM^s (quelque) appareil i aliqnis apparatus; 
or rather quaUs apparatus ! i. e. magna pompa, 
magnus fafius : " fed undc inquies quelques ? certe 
ab ical. qualcbe,\Atm fignante -, . hoc a I,at. quaUs, 
q. d. qualieus i Skinn."— -cerce- a Gr. Oi»f, Ilotor, 
quafi quoios, qnoilns-^ qualis, quelques : what kind, 
what fort .-—as for the latter word a^srely it has 

been already conGdered : fo that ceck-apparel fig- 
nifies what fine apparel! how fine it he ! 

COCK efa barrel i " 4 figura refirt, vel a^tis 
gallinacei, fiphunculus ille ex quo deprcmuntur li~ 
quida diSus efi ; the cock of the conduit : Jun."^ 
this gendeman is undoubtedly right as to the 
former part of his definitbn i but the cock of the 
conduit means a different things as will be fliewn 
under the art. COCKEY : Gr. 

COCK-heat; we have already ffiewn, under the 
art. COAX, from whence this word is derived j 
let me only obfcrve here, that Shakefpear in his 
Lear, aft IV. fc. 6 ; has called it only the cock ; 
in his admirable defcription of Dover Cliff*, which 
was fo fteep, that to look down, 

The fiHier men, that walk' upon the beach. 

Appear like mice ; and yond tall anchoring bark 

Diminifli'd to her cock ; her cock a bouy 

Almoft too fmall for fight. 

COCK of a gun -, ." parum deflexo, fc. ab ar- 
cuius veteris^militioi ad tormenta recentioris injlru- 
menta, fenfu i ab Ical. cocea j crena Jagitta ; coc~ 
care, acceccare ; fagittam arcui aptare : -S^xnn." 
to notch the arrow ; to make .ready. 

COCK of hay ; Ktp»Xn,,eqpttff apex ; bay heaped 
uptoapoint; '* hinc a cop /of hay -, quod etiEnn- 
num pro eodcm in Cantio ufurpacur, fays Skinn." 
hoc autem <r0p proculdubio oritur A Sax. coppe ; 
apex; q. d. apex, (z\\^meta fani : — he fliould have 
proculduhiod a llcde farther, and told us, that the 
Sax. coppe was proculdubia derived from caput j 
and that caput likewife was proculduhio derived 
from Kff«Aq, 

COCK a hoop : it would be difficult to inter- 
pret this exprelUon, and trace out its deriv. ac- 
cording to. the prefent orthogr. : but if it were 
to be written cock a whoop, it might originate 
from KoMcu^bj, or K.wx«Aev oiris, quod Hefych. 
exponit. ^uvn, he is all cock a whoop, i. e. he makes as 
much noife as a cock crowing, and is as proud of 
himfelf in the a£iion: Ray in his Proverbs, p. 183, 
oft^. has written it to fet (ock on hoop ; and ex>- 
plained it thus : " fpoken of a prodigal, .i. e. 
one who takes out the fpigget, and la.ys it upon > 
the barrel j drawing out the whole vcflil without 
intermifTion :" — this interpretation may be very 
much doubted, becaufe it is an a6lion, which a 
fpcndthrift, or prodigal, would hardly be guilty 
of, I mean to be fo careful about the fpiggot, as 
to lay it cautioufly and carefully upon the bar- 
rel t we might rather fuppofc, that on. fuch a 
jolly occafion, in the gaiety of his heart, he 
would throw the poor fpiggot away ; and then 
what would become of Mr. Ray's cock on hoop?'~ 
Ihould this however be found to be the true etym. 

Digitized by 


e o 

From GftiiK, .inS l^'Ati'^N. 

e o 

Tt woulct thence ifitifely 6reck: Tor ecck, as «e 
have Icen, is Gr. (^tbe iarrel-eock, vnd the Jmg- 
'hUl'Cdck, having one deriv.) and HOOP we fhall 
hereafter find to be'Gr. likcfrifc. 

coal's fwain; " cOrfuptS coxaiti, ct cosion; a' 
Sax. cojjfpain, quod compbnitur ex coj^, 
cytubd; ct fpain, yfrraj ; Lyc.";^~under the art. 
'COAX, we have fliewn that cock^ or bt^at, is Gr. : 
and we (hall fee that SWAIN is Gr. likewifc. 

COCK's-TRIDE, br rather cackS-tread, i Tjuw, 
Tf if3w, /fro, tritum j /rM<i, trodden j " eo fc. fcnfu, 
quo pro ffl//( imlu, infcenfu, et vaiered conculca- ^ 
tiom ttfurpntur : Skinn." — who could not fee the* 
'Gr. deriv. 

COCKATRICE J both Juh. and Skinn. could 
find that this word came ^ Fr. Gall, coqaatris: to; 
which Junius adds, manifeft^ hac in voce agnofcas.; 
Teut. cock; gallus; et adder; vipers.: — but (lei-i 
iher of them could fo manifcftly perceive that; 
"both thofe words were evidently Gr. : fomctimcs. 
the cockatrice is called in Latin hd/tlifcuSj regtilus 
firpens; nota eft nitnirum decantatifllma vulgo 
fabula de gain gallinaceo ]zm effceto atque ovum 
pariente, quod ferpens excludit. 

COCKER, " Kvxiu, mi/ceo, coquere; molliter'ha- 
iere, et laule aliquem educart ; Anglbrum interim , 
nutricula3, alumnis fuis blandientes, hunquam' 
non in ore habent illud fuum, my Jweet little- 
cockey : Italis quoquefowo eft diUBus, cariim ca-- 
put, e glif e il mio cacco; haheo turn in deliciis: 
Jun." — tho' he has not given us the Gr. deriv. 

COCKET, or nurfed up } " dicimus de bomine' 
valetudinario, qui jam .ftteiiufcule fi babet, et con- 
vale/cere incipit i q. d. eji, inftar galH, alacer;non 
ut prius languidus : vel I. Fr. GnW.cequeter; gleet- 
tare, injiar galli, galHttas /uas vocantis : vel fuperbe 
incedfre, injiar gulli in fue fterquilinio : Skinn." — 
in all which three inftances it takes the lame origin 
.with COCK } but perhaps it rliight be nearer to, 
derive it from COCKER, above. 
_ COCKET; or ticket: Kcnnet and Skinner de- 
Tive it from cock-boat; the Dr. however explains 
it by vex mercatoria j eft autem fcbedula, qua vec- 
tigaliiim mancipes feu pubUcani teftantur veStigal 
mtrcium A mercatore perfolutum ejfe : qvaH/cbedula^ 
■feu apocba cymha : a cujiom-boufe tickets 

COCKEY : Junius fuppofcs that the cock oftbe 
.conduit, and the cock of a barrel, have the fame 
"originj fo they undoubtedly would, if they meant 
the fame thing'; but perhaps the cock of the con- 
'.duit means what is lomctimcs called tbe cockey, 
which is only a contra<Sion of condu£fus aqua-, 
and if fo, the etym. will be found under the art. 
CONDUIT, and AQUEOUS ; meaning a fewer, 
ersonduit, t« xanduB, or lead off tbe leater, ee- 

'eajm'ed by *!> great ^djvdiin Jall-^rkik, HHh- 
ing of fnow, &c. in large cities or towns. 

COGKUE-ntefrf, ^r rStlwr eoicel, a « SaSc. *oc- 
cel ; 2/zfl«fa, hUiM : hoc credo," fays %1nA. 
** ^ vcrho cescan, acncan; cboak,ch^kili^i quid • 
fc. {egcii^ fir angulat :"—Aytit fo do all other 
weeds : " let thifties grow ihftefcd of whcftf, antt 
«fW<? infteadof barley : Job xxxi. 40." 

G'randia fspetjuibus mandavimus hbt^^a Jtikte, 
. Infelix loHum, et'fieriles iiomindntur-xnihSR. 

Eel. V. 3S. 
— if-this thereforebe the tirie deriv. it comes from 
the Gr. : fee CHOAK. Gr. 

COCKLES, Ki<x^ti, Kt^hmty cochlea ; a fielt- 
fl^;~R'.1ity(Xu, gyro,roto ; fo whirl, or tarit riHtKdi 
becaufe tbe fbells -dfrnawf fpicks cf tecktes are 
wreathed, camfered, znAflrTated, 

COCKNEY J " pretiurti opere fafturus vi- 
deor," fays Jun. " fi Cafauboni itym. adjecmm-; 
OixsytvBS, inquit vir doftus, eft domi vatus, et 
edttcatus ; watru ir^o^f« Ortoyi^nr apud Platonoti eft 
gtnuinus Athemenfts, qui in urbendtus, raro aut 
nunquam foras extra natalitia pomeeria pedem extu- 
h't ; remm omnium, pr^terquam urbanarum, plane 
expers, et ex -merd infolentid fiulius atque incredtllOs 
admirator :" one who bos never looked beyond Ibe 
•walls of bis ■own -native dty ; a mere demeflic. 

•COVf-fifb; ificfix\ii,raput; eapit6;froiii tbelar^e- 
nefsof its bead. , 

COD, or pillow i " Grjcci KtfJw kftis hyen»e 
imponebant, ct :eftate TiaSaj : aatore Laertio^ 
lib. II. in Menedemo. Nicholfon:" — notwith- 
ftanding the fimilarity of (bund, it is evident that 
the KwJia could not ftriftly fignify a^Ulow j hei- 
ther perhaps did tliis gentleman intend it fiiould j 
for KwJ.« fignify fkins, fleeces; or as we fliould 
fay, blankets, and rugs: however, fince they haw 
a connexion with the bed, and its-furpiturc, they 
niight perhaps afterwards be ufed to exprefs that 
bundle of Jkins, which riiight be rt>llcd up, and 
laid under the head, like a pillow ; and fo be 
called by the name of a codtofleep on: — itfeems 
rather to be derived a EoiJu, cubile ; a bid, or pil- 
iow belonging to a bed. 

CODDLE J Kiixrw, cequo, eoSlus ; to fethe, w 
boil: vel ab Ayw, ago,.coge, coaSus; coagulatusi 
to quail, or curdle. 

CODE ?Km*.oi', Ka^.f, i Kvf, pellis ovlna i 

CODICIL S fheep'Jkin, of which parchment is 
made ; and on rolls of which, laws were formerly written. 

CODLIN ; " malum Cydonium, vel CotoneuM j k 
tjtio diminutum videtur: Lye."— butproperly,/<w 
malum Cydonium, vc\Cotaneum,is the quince: wemay 
therefore rather fuppofe with Skinn. that oor 
word -cadlin is derived from Kwew, coquo, xoSlui j 
Digitized by njOOQIC 

c o 

From G ft X I K, and L a t i v. 

C O 

maiiim, vtlfemuifi.ceSiUi q. d. coiiulare, vei'cee- 
.tiliart i the apple that is lajihf bpiled, baked, or roafitd. 

COD-WORM, commonly c4Ued«iftf/j " vw*- 
mii troSs efca: nefcio an i Sax. cobbej pera^ 
marfttptum; fc. ab aliqud marfupii fmilitudine: 
Skinn." a Ktix, Kwc, ec in diminutivum Kut^iov,, pellii ovina viilcjd -, a pouch. 

COELESTIALi commonly written celeftial; 
i K«iAo«, C0vtmi unde caUm; the concave vault 
cf the heavens. 

COE-LIBACY; commonly written celibacy-, 
a KoiAiij', eeclehs % a Jingle, or unmarried per/en : 
R. KoiIh-Vdvu, carem-lflto ; without a bed-fellow. 

COEMETERY; commonly written cemetery ; 
a Utift^jt^itt, cinmtterium ; locus, in quo humana 
corpora mertua jactnt -, a chutch yard, where many 
human bodies JUep in peace : R. Kwjuow, dor'mire 
facie; tofleep. 

COENO-BITE, commonly written eenohite, 
*' Koii-o-pios, ctsnobium ; this word," fays Clel. Voc. 
53, *' is perfcdly proper, and very fcldom ufed; 
tho' even that word, all proper as it is, may be 
but a Hellenirm, with a variation of (cnfe, of the 
-Celtfc ken-ab-by, or principal ehhy :" — the only 
point now is to determine, whether every abby 
was not a cawbium; Kaiv«|3ioir eil vita communicata 
focietas, communis monachorum habitatie ; ex Kctroc, 
communis^ et |3»e;, liita ; a community of living, a 
moTtafiery, or cloijier, whether large, or little, whe- 
ther mean, or principal. 

CO-ERCIVE, Afxf !<i, orcee, cotrceo i to retrain, 

COERULEAN, " i K*.x«^, eeehim, cemleus ; 
the azure colour of the heavens : Graecc dicitur 
KuKV»t, a- KvocHf, quod Hefych. exponit iiJo; 
•}(j^w^a\e(t KfawftJif: Ger. Voff." — but Ilaac de- 
rives ceruleus, a Kifftt^fuhtu, gtlvus, rubeusi 

COFFER 7 Ksfircr, cophinus, corbis, qualusj a 

COFFIN i chefi, box, pannier, bafket. 

COG, arfiatteri " blaadiri, affentari ; fi re£le 
conjicio," fays Lye, '* ab hodicrjiis cogges muta- 
tum eft in ceies, et dctridc coax-, nautas .enim 
tfttiafmodi per vicos vagantes ii&is fiebilibufque 
de naufragiis narrationibus, populo nimium cre- 
doloimponerc folent, et pecunia cmuogere," — 
there is great probability in this deriv. ; and yet 
let me defire leave to produce another from 
Cafaub. 308, 9, " ut aotem vema, undc vernir 
htas, et vemaca&ts apud Latinos, pro Agirx» fxpe 
fumitur, ita et Graecum Omtynit ufurpatum olim 
videturj Anglis quoque to cegge eft adalari, 
blande et vemUiter alloqui '"-^to talk with plea/- 
ing blandiftment. 

COG the dice; Knuuv, male, vtl damne afficere: 
as indeed every branch of that honorable pro-. 
&flion, gaming, is deteJtahUt and dtjiruliive i and 

always tends to the defrment and damtge ti( the 
one party, or other. 

COGS */ a wheelt ^ Sufwyn, cogs ; io compel : 
the cogs being thofe pieces of wotxl which ftand 
up like teeth, and by which the main wheel /flr«/ 
and compelU the others into afliotii 

CO-GENT,Zuyfli'>'w, cego; to campell, force, infer. 
CO-GITATIONi from the fame root ; cege; 
cogito, nil aliudjit, quam animam agitare i ab Ayct; 
to think, mufe upon, to meditate. 

CO-GNATiON, Ti^tfMu, ymtM, na/cer, natai^ 
cognatio; kindred; relationjhip ; chie^y by blood i 
fbmetimcs by adoption. 

CO-GNIZANCE, Tnumv, cagnofco j to know, 
to have knowledge «/. 

CO-GNOMEN} Ovo^it, nfitnen; a name-, cog- 
nomen-, afumame. 

CO-HORT, Xsffoe, ut fignificet Zuy;^fl», cm- 
fepta J eodem fepto comprehenfa -, a company of mm 
united in one corps: — this interpretation natu- 
rally leads to another etym. viz. X^u;, Xf««c, 
*o]. XfwFot, et per metath. XefFos, corpus-, the 
body, a coUeHive body of men : we might however 
prdfer the former deriv. becayfe confirmed by 
Voir. " vera mco judlcio originatio eft, quam 
Hen. Stephanus, Jof. Scaliger, Juftus Lipfius, 
et Petrus Nunnefius adferunt, ut cobvs mihtaris, 
et viHfca fit a XopIo; : tralationis caufa eft, quod 
uti villica, ita milttarls etiam cehbrs, rotunda eiS& 
foleat ; quomodo et globus militu/n dicitur." 

COIF, Ki*«Mi, caput i the bead, or covering for 
the head -, a cap. 

COIL up a cable; " eonglomerare % ac proprte 
quidem fie glomerare, atque in fp&am convolvers, 
ut Koaolsc quadam, five cencavitas relinquatur in 
medio, qualis cernitur in anguibus, funihu/que is 
circttlum eontortis j X KoiXtt, concavut : Jun." tg 
roll up a cable in a circuit" planner, fq that every 
fucceeding circle Jhall lie «po» the former :— not- 
withftanding that both this deriv. and definition 
of Jun. fo exaaiy agree with the ceiling vp a ea-r 
Me i yet it feems Lye prefers the deriv, of Skinn. 
qui " reftius fortaffe defleftit a Gall, cueiller t 
Ital. cogUere; ethaec 3Lat.«%*r/:"— but colligere 
certainly does not exprefs the ceiling up a cable: 
a parcel of nuts may be colleHed, or heaped togtr 
tber; but you cannot -coil tbem «f :r— befides, 
even coUige is defcended from the Gr. jts in the 
following art. 

COIL, or tumult'. Lye fuppofes this word is 
derived "a Fr. GJl. cueiUer -, Ital. cogUere; et 
h£c ^ Lat. colligere; hinc tratatitius loquendl 
modus, to keep a coil -, fireperc, rixari, tumultuari ; 
ajirepitu qui fit glemerando :" but Skinner de- 
rives coil, or tumult, a Tcut.' Jctdlem, feu kellereni 
increpare, obj'urgare ; hoc I nomine koller, eoUm-ti 


c o 

From Grisk, and Latti^ 

1C O 

q. d. oliqKim eoUari prebtndere ; quod mmantis, et 
pugnaturientis eft :" — but, fhould either of thefe 
deriv. be right> thcfe gentlemen ought to have 
remembercdj chat colligo is derived a Atyu: and 
'that cellars is only a diminutive of collum i and 
confequcntly derived i KwX*i>, collum, cervix j the 
neck, or collar : Shakcfpear has finely introduced 
this word coil in that truly noble and poetical fo- 
liloquyof Hamlet, z£t III. fc. z. 

To die to deep:— 

To deep ? — perchance to, dream : — ay, there's 

the rub^ 
For in that fleep of death what dreams may come. 
When we have fliuffled off this mortal coil, 

Muft give us paufc. 

. COIN, Ktrlv, rvxlv, e^dc, cttdo i toheat,ftamp, 
firike : vel a Koiwe, communis j the common drudge 
'itvixl man and man, Clcl. Voc. 157, obferves, 
that ^* by the word coin, or bead, is to be under- 
ftood the obverfe, or the only fide which in the 
infancy of coining money, bore the ftamp; thence 
the Latin cuneus, from hunt, or kyn-, the head:" — 
■confequcntly Gr. ftill j fee KING. 

COINED of a wall; ** anconts in parietibus 
Grxci vocant AyKuvw;, ab Ayxuv, cubitus ; atque 
indc mutuati funt Angli hoc fuum eeints; cfuem- 
admodum et Galli denominationem anguU, quern 
■coin nuncupant : Jun." — but there is a conjefture 
in Voflius, which feems to have given origin to 
the word tutteus, from whence our word ceims is 
derived i viz. " cuneus dicitur maltitudo peditum, 
qux jun£ta acie prima anguftior^ deinde latior 
exutrinqueprocedit; quam rem milites nominant 
caput porcinum :"~-\ittra.]ly a hog's head i not the 
barrel, which we call « bogjbead \ but as If. Voff. 
adds, " refte caput porcinum ; nam cuneus diftus 
ab 'Ttvn, vel 'Tem ; nempe ab 'Tf , 'T», rojiro fuUlo -, 
k cufus jmilitudine vomer ^c dicitur :" — this may 
be called a natural deriv. but there is a more phi- 
lofophical one given by Abr. Mylius, as quoted 
■by Skinn. ",Fr. Gall, ccing deducit i Twnnt, an~ 
^ulusi" a corner; — md indeed the cuneus, or wedgi, 
' IS nothing more than the- jun^ten of two lirus in 
a point, ivbicb forms an angle, or comer. 

GO-ITION, Em, ufii, eo, ineo, coeo, immitto j 
immiffton, immixtion. 

COKE, Kfaf*{i9t'XViuv, vel Kaf^a;-xUMiAi, carh- 
co3us i » burnt coal, or fpecies of cinders made ufe 
of in drying malt, &c. 

COKES: Skinner derives it " ab Hifp. coco; 
qux eft vox, qui terrent infantes ; hinc bazer 
tocos, hoc mode terrefacere ;■ K^vnit. fc. ftultr, et 
infantes facili terrentur : vel a Fr. Gall, coebon; 
Hifp. cecbine -, porcellus. ; ec n©s dicimus a filly, 
bog : Tcl quod mihi verifimilius fit a Teut. gaucb, 

geek i ftttltus ; fl/(w/;"— this is a new fcnfc to mey 
for I never yet met with the word cokes in thii 
fignification -, it feem» to be only a different me- 
thod of writing COAX, which we have already 
fecn is Gr. 

COLANDER ; KwAuw* impedio ; inhiheo ; to 
hinder, prohibit, reprefs : this indeed is one aftioB 
of the colander ; but the other is to permit the 
fmaller, and the finer bodies to fafs tbreugh; like » 
fiive: or elfe with If. Voff. we may derive coloi, 
are, ^ XuXw, XuAi^w, fuccum exprimere -, to prefs 
out juice, or fuffer airf liquor to pajs tbrougb. 

COL-CHESTER; " it was col, or coin, gave 
origin to Col-cbefttr" fays Clel. Voc. 69, which 
afterwards gave its name to the river Col-avon, 
contrafted to Coin;" — but this whole compound 
feems to be. Gr. for col, coll, cal, call, bal, balii 
are all defcendcd ab Aua-d, aula ; a ball, or cot" 
lege : and Chejier we have already feen is Gr. 

COLD, rtXa., TtXnvi^ot, ^XX'** S'^^i gtlidumi 
numb, frozen : Cafaub. derives Cold, i K(u«$, 
Kfuffof, frigidus. 

COLET; " olim Anglis dicebatur acoktbus^ 
qui in ecclefia deHgnatus eft ab epifcopo, ut fub- 
diaconos, et diaconos, ad altaris obfequium affeSant 
iis inferviat ; «x-o tb Ax«xii6fi«, t.fequendo ; an affift^ 
ant at the altar; appointed chiefly in cathedrals^ 
and fo called from his ebfequioufnejs. 

COLE- WORT ; K«u^tf, caulis, herbarum eft 
idem, quod arborum caudex ; tbejialk, or ftem of 
an herb; the body of a tree: this however accounts 
only for the former part of this compound ; viz., 
cole, cauU, or colly : as for the latter; viz. WORT, 
in terminationibusr fays Skinner, nominum her^ 
barum, it feems to be of Saxon origin ; but we 
may rather fuppofe that wort is only a Germ, or 
Sax.'ContraAion of s/iridis, quafi verti and c&n- 
fequcntly is derived ab If, vis, vires, vireo, viri~ 
dis, vert, wort; to florifb, or look green. Verftegan. 
however has given us a different deriv. o(-cole, or 
kele; which feems to carry fome weight with irr 
in p. 59, he fays, " the Germans cilled the 
month of February fprout-kele; by kele meaning 
tbe kele-wurt, which wee now call the cole-wuri j 
for before wee borrowed from the Freeh the name 
o{pet-ig^, and herb, the one in our own language 
was called kele (or fot,) and the other witrt (or 
fprottt, or berb :) and this kek-wurt, or potage~ 
herb, was the chief winter wurt for thcfuftenance 
of the hufbandmcn :" — fo that, according to ihia 
deriv. jfe^/* feems to Cignt(y pot; but fliould ever» 
this be true, ftill it woukt be Gr. ; and originate 
from the fame root with cW-dron; viz. IXah-Mi)*^. 
^ereus, as I a brazen kettle : we nught however 
rather adopt theetynai^and fignificacioa of EauX6f> 


Digitized by 


c o 

JFrom Gx'ssK, and Latin. 

C O 

9aica»iis} becaufe Ray, under the art. cok, or> 
as he writes it, teal, has given us a proverb to 
this C&&, that 

A firm good keal 
Is half a meal : 
meaning xcff i^txw, ha0ca -, that a firm good cah- 
kage is half a dinner. 

COLIC, KuAix»ir, celicus ; ad coli dohrem ferti' 
nens i the colic pangs, or gripings : R. K»Xo», ix- 
tefiimm erejum, alvus : or elfc from KsiXitt, vm- 
ter, alvus -, the belly. 

COLICE ; KwAuM, impediOf inbibeo : vel I XvXu, 
XuXt^tt, cola, M-e; fuccum txprimere; to hinder the 
grofler, and fuiFer only the finer juices to pafa 
through 1 to prels out liquor, and reftrain the 
pulp :— according to thefc deriv. it ought to be 
written either eoUce, or cbuUce -, but Junius writes 
it eollice, and defines it by " cibus in mortario 
iiibaftus, et colo expreflus ; q. d. percolatum jufcu- 
ium : Belgis quoque kelliis dicitur ; vide tamen 
annon hue etiam perdneat illud Teutoniftx 
■iliijien, eft co^m de capone, vcl pullo fruftatim 
incifoi"— the adion however of pounding, and 
paffing through a colander, feems to have given 
origin to the name of this dilh : confcquently Gr. 

COLL i *' KeAisvlw, incido, tundo, refeco ; unde 
Cymeric goiwjtb eft fru/tum, effa -, a fragment, 
orfcrap: Jun." 

COLLAR ; *< KmAsv, csUum ; xtff tlt'^t (fays 
Nug. he meant t^oyii*) as Vofl*. Iheweth ; quod 
ifobiU illud membrum, cui factum caput innititur -, 
the neck i that noble pillar on which the bead is 

COL-LATED : *tfw, fero, confero, collatus -, 
eonferredi to be preferred to a benefieo. 

COL-LATION, *(f «, fero, latum ; to bring, 
ox join together ; a tax, or an affejfment j a benevo- 
lence, or voluntary contribution -, a rhetorical fmile : 
in our language it figniBes likewife a cold banquet. 

COL-LECT 7 Ai7«, lego, celltgo, dico; i. e. 

COL-LEGEJ literas ct fyllabas ore colligerei 
quod oculis facit, qui legit i to gather, chufe -, to 
read; alfo to pluck jUnoersi and to coafi along fhort; 
in Latin, a fociety, or number of fiudents, in a 
■univerfity. Clel. Voc. 56, 68* and jji, n, by 
no means admits of this deriv. but fays, " I have 
many reafons to fufpcA that the word collegium, 
fo currently, and fo obvioufly derived a colligo, 
is neverthelefs much more juftly, and more fenfi- 
bly, to be eveftigatcd from the antient language; 
where it would itand thus : ball-ig, call-ig, undc 
^ell-ege ; a place of inftruHion, or education :" — then 
the whole compofition feems to be Gr. ; for hall, 
and call, evidendy defcend ab AuX-n, mila -, a ball, 
court, or ccllegci and Hg as evidently dcfccnds a 
^y-it, cubo,jatec; unde A»X'^f, lofus-, a place,. 

or habitation i i. e, the place of ftudy, leerning^,, 

COLLET of a ringt KtAec, collum ; addita ter- 
mlnationediminutiv^et q. d.collulum; ftcdiAum 
quia eji pars annuU, infiar colli, vel gurgulionis 
protuberans ; the bezil, or haftl of a ring, to fet 
the diamond in. 

COL-LIMATION i Av f*ec, fordes, qu^ abluun- 
tur ; vel a A«|U«;, Aajwuv, pratum, locus irriguus, li- 
mojus : vel ex 'I\u», limo obducere; fimo oblinere; to 
daub, defile with mud, or dirt. 

COL-LISION, AuXw, iflAw, quafi Udo, colHdo, 
collijie i a beating, or dajhing againft each ether : 
Or, by celUJion of two bodies, grind 
The air attrite to fire. — Par. Loft. X. 1072. 

COL-LOGUE, A«xitt>, loquor, colloquer-, parum 
deflexo fenfu blanditiis tentare; to weedle, to flatter, 

COLLOPS ; " KoAitjSin, offula -, a little mouth- 
ful : vcl Koxxoij', *riit, cerium in dorfis boum : Upt." 
— this latter deriv. would be but a tough mor- 
fel : — perhaps it may be derived i KdAoi»1«, tundo, 
incido i to beat, or to chop ; as ftcaks generally 
are : or elfe % KoX«(3o{, a xoxuu, amputo, mutih, 
trunco; afteakcut, or fiiced off. 

COLON, E(i»Aov, colon ; mmbrum, pars periodi; 
part of a period ; a fiop. 

COLONEL; '^ duces tribuni, fcu Pbylarchm 
primtim in coloniis diili funt coloniales -, quodpofiea 
nemen in miUtum copias tradu&um e^ : Skinn." — a 
title firft given to the Trihunitian chiefs in the co- 
lonies ; and afterwards transferred to the army : but 
COLONY is Gr. 

COLONNADE, KsAwn, vel KoXewi, colurnna; 
qu6d columen fufttnet ; vel qudd domum columen 
prafiet ; a pillar, or row of pillars, 

COLONY; KoXau, decurto, amputo: or from 
KwXov, mimbrum, celonia ; a company, or number of 
people, difmijfed from the mother country, and per- 
mitted to fettle in another place ', a branch, or mem- 
ber from the body politic, tranfplanted, or ingrafted 
into another fiock, 

COLOQUINTIDA, K«AMc«rf», eucurbita j a 
wild gourd. 

COLOR, KetJ^ot, pulcber,formofus,'decorusj co- 
lor } the complexion ; the outward fhew, or beauty 
of any thing : or rather i. Xf«a, color : the f and / 
often interchanging. 

COLOSSUS ; THoT^Mcm, ftatua ingentis magnitu- 
dinis i a ftatue of enormous fize, much larger than 
the life: R. KoXoa-o-ai, Ce/oj7>, urbs Afije Minorisj 
where perhaps the inhabitants were taller thw 
uftial } or where thofc prodigious ftatues might be 
firft made. 

COLT J Tluxtt, pullus ; thefele, or young of a 

mare: Junius quotes Cafaub. for K(X«, equui 

defultorius, celer, ad curfum aptus:— which isfar 

P 2 • enough. 

c o 

From Grcik, and Latiit. 

C O 

enough from our word nff .* %inncr has derived 
it from the " Sax. co!r j fullui equiims:" — when 
Once the Dr. has tractd an EngliJh word to the 
Sax. he very feldom goes tny farther; or if he 
does, it feems to bt ftith reluftance. 

COLUMBARY, Ko^o^if, eobtmbo; a pigeon; 

or dove-cote : or perhaps columba may be derived 

^KoAu^f3f», urinore, fui aquas immergere; quoniam 

, talis eft harum avium geitus j always hewing and 

bending the btadi as if ducking, snddiving undir water. 

COLUMBINE, columbinai the Urb vervain. 

COLUMN, KoAftjMi, vel K»;\om, columna, quod 
eelamen fuftineat \ vel qi)od detnum columenprajiet; 
a pillar, or pofi. 

COL-URES, " K(^^^^fof, coluri, cii'culi duo in 
'doftrind fphfcric^, ]ccantes fe mutuo in polis 
■mundi ; et per cunfta (it fhould have been 
printed ^««i^ in Hcderic) aequinodialia et fol- 
ftitirriia cranfeuntes : ita dt£ti, quod eorum pars, 
"fc. caeda quad, fcmper fub borizonte lateat : cir- 
'cles in the fphere, whereof the one palTes thro' 
the points of the equinoAial line, and the other 
through thofe of the tropics, cutting one ano- 
ther in the poles «t right angles ; (o called be- 
■caufc there is^never more than half of them above 
t^e horizen: R. KoAtw, to cut; and »»«, af, a 
-toily extremity, end: Nug."r — this indeed is true 
in fad; but this explanation does not exaftiy- 
■ conform to their deriv. : they were called colures, 
fays the Dr. becaufe there is never more than 
half ef ibem above the horizon ; it would have 
been better if he had faid, becaufe there is one 
■half of them always below the horizon. 

COMB of a cock -, Eo/»/««r, emafus ; quia eft 
Galli ornamentum -, the ornament, or decoration of 
a cock, 

COMB of torn : if this word be derived, as 
Skinn. fuppofes (under Coom) a Fr. Gall, cemble'-, 
and if that be derived 4 Lat. cumulusi (the Dr. 
-would T>ot fay Eopx) there is fcarce any word can 
have degenerated more from the original ortho- 
graphy, and Ggniiicatioii, thsHithis ■woxAeomb: kc- 
COOM : Gr. 

COMfi, both fobftantive, Md vetb^ Ksju^^ 
tena -, the hair. 

COMB in temwnationibus freqoens t i Ko^sf, 
€avus receffus ; unde Sax. comb, cemp j Fr. Gall. 
kum; Gall, recens, («»^f J •uallis utrinque coBibus ; 
a valley between two bills. 

COM-BAT, 5:uf*^/3«I«., vel n«7»«*, eon, vel cum- 

batuo, ferio, pulfo ; to Jirike, fight, or firuggle with. 

COM-BINATION, i.f, bis, bina; combine, 

xuix 3vo ^nyvMu, to couple, or Join two together -, a 

tonjuniiien of parlies. 

COM-BUSTIBLE, lluf, unde w*, bnro, ce'm- 
buro, eombujiie i io burn, fet en firit : vel ab I 

EiMf, twru, urot 1(^1 which bears the lame fie- 

COME, EeyftfMu, venio ; to come ; to go. 
COMEDY, " l^fMuiiu, comadiai a comedy: 
the poets ufed antiendy to go about in carts from 
"jillage to viUagt, and fiog their comedies, or wt/m, 
or odes, or fongs; R. Kwfn, vicus i a village, or 
flreet; and n*i, ode^ vel oda -, afong; ex aaJW, 
ftJw, cmiOy \c\cantoi to/tng: Nug," — Cicl. Voc. 
125, fays, ** the word comedy does not owe its 
origin to Ki^»i, in the fenfc of village: it was for 
its fubjcft being tnirth, w familiar life, antithe- 
tically diftioguiflwd from trage^, which turned 
upon ferious, fublime, or moUrnful iubjeifts i 
Comus then, the deity oi pleafantry and mirtb, 
offers a very natural etym. -, and I confefs, I can- 
not fee why Voffius fhould be unfavourable to 
it :" — but Comus is Gr. 

COMELY, decent -, Mt<ret, MiT^iec, modus, torn' 
modus i commodious, becoming, decent. 

COMELY, handfome; Ke/x/wr, Cafaub, Km^;, 
mundus, comis, et ornatus -, nice, neat in drefs, per- 
fott, features. 

COMESSATION, fometimes written cm- 
mejfation, as fuppofed to be (krived from tomT- 
mede ; but more probably deduced ^ Kt^t, temu* 
lentus, according to Ainfw. the god ef rovells^ 
and banquetting. 

COMET, " Kfljwnlw, cevuta 5 a blazing fiar s 
R. Kojuii, coma ; hair ; becauje of its tat): Nug." 
— here the Dr. might have quoted the following 
patTage from -Milton : 

Incens'd with indignation Satan ftood 
Unterrified, and like a comet burn'd. 
That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge 
In th' ardtic flty, and from his horrid hair 
Shakes peftilence, uid war.— Par. Loft. II. 707. 
COM-FORTi. Skinner could find that this 
word wis derived from Fr. Gall, conforter; Ital. 
confortare ; and that ic iignified felari, cenfelari -, 
■q. d. conJUiis roborare, mumre, inftruere : — fo near 
was he towards difcovcring, but yet could not 
find that comfort originated ii <tcfu, fere ; unde*. 
fortis ; a ferendo adverfa ; to hearten, ftrengtben, 
and encourage, in order to render a perfon firong^ 
and able to fupport himfelf under t^aion, and to 
bear bis misfortunes : fee FORCE, and FORTI- 
TUDE : Gr. 

COM-ITATUS; E«t Etfu, ee, comte, comitiat 
fignifying a county, or the ajfembling what is called 
the pojfe comitates, or the whole power of a county^ 
on amy emergent eccafion : or perhaps from Kofut, 
victts ; a village; meaning all the viUagesy or towm: 
in a county. 

COM-ITIAL : from the fame root. 
COMMA» Ke/«{ub eoiama, fegmen^ fars period 


c o 

From Gribk, and Latik. 

C Q 

cp^ of the fiswttfi power : R. Knlv, fiindo; to 
tut, or divide a fentence. 

COM-MAND, M«n«, mandot commendo -, to 
gm orders. Clel. Voc. 24, n, fays, that the 
Druidicsl *' «/, oral, in the fcnfe of aftefft was 
slfi) eddied wand; and hence, fays he, to command, 
derives from cen-wandi the w, and w converting :" 
—but we fhall fee that WAND is Gr. 

COMM-ENCE 7Ew, E^t, to, com-ee, 

COMM-ENCEMENT $ cmiiia acadmica , 
4a tcademical off, on which the yearly account he- 
gigs, and the computation of refidtnce is entered. 

COM-MEND, Masnuw, mando, commendo ; to 
recommend j to introduce a per/on to favor. 

COM-MENT, M*aQfj.en, memini, meno, cem- 
mentor, tommentalor % a devi/or, inventsn alfo 
notes, or obfervations en writings. 

COM-MINATION i Mtmu, moneo, mina i 
threats, threatening. 

COM-MINUTION : Uiwtt, minor, minue, 
comrninno; to make le/s, to leffen, todimimjb. 
■ COM-MlSSARy?Mi9.«p, ex Mi7«, ct !«/*., 

COM-MITTEE J mitto, commgio; a fending 
out with power, and authority to aff, to provide 
things meejary for an army, &c. 

COM-MODIOUS, Mi«(, Milfiof, mo^us, corn- 
modus ; convenient, advantageous, profitable : vcl 
a K«/*/*of, et KotTfMf, comis, omatus ; nice, curious ; 
alfo a latfy's head-drefs. 

COMMON, KeiMt, et Koicwej, commutus -, ge- 
neral, equal; et Ouh.u, valto; to he well, unde 
welfare, weal, wealth, 

COM-MOKATIGN, M<.f», mora, commoror; td 
abide with ; to tarry, to hinder, to delay .* lAnn, 
mora, * litera inrmutata.; fic Mmhv «-eieirflfu, eft 
morari : Thucyd. 

COMPANION, Ew, E(|W(, eo, comeo, comes ; an 
affoziate : Skinner with great fpecioufnefs has 
derived companion a pagus, paganus^ cem-paganus ; 
unde Fr. Gall, cempagnie j Ital. cempagnia, ac- 
cempagnare, comitari .--—but, Ibould even this be 
true, ftill it is Greek ; though the Dr. would not 
tell us fo i for he muft have known that pagus 
was derived a n«')'0(, colUs : quia primitus in 
colle, fecuritatis eaufd, ^dificia exfiruebaut : • vel i. 
Ttnyn, Dor.'IIftyi), fons ; ut fit illerum ^iti fonte ex 
eodem bibunt % unde pagus ; a village, or country 
town : — there is however another deriv. of com- 
panion offered by Junius, under the art. Jibb, fo 
very ingenious, that it deferves to be produced: 
after fpeaking of the difFercnc degrees of rela- 
tionftiip, he fays, " videntur interim ha: non le- 
viter Grmare conjeduratn eorum, qui tocalum 
compaignon, companion, plerifque Europsis recep- 
tum, derivant a «m-^(W/j, twaHot : one who par- 
takes of the fame loaf" 

COM-PASS-A^ffffi *«ii'(4 fAfu, quaii fa»^ 
pando, pandi, pajfus ; eem-paJfuSf circum-ptffftis i 
encom^ttffed, /urrounded. 

C0M-PASS-i»«r/MO-'j j from the fame root ; 
Gr. becaufc it takes in,, or comprehends the whole 
circumference of the horizon. 

COM-PATIBLE} res quae inter fe ^mul efe» 
vel inter/e conctliari pojfunt ; whatever will beoTy 
fuffer, or endure fimilar fenfation : R. JImmd, pa~ 
tioTifuffer : fee PATIENCE. Gr. 

COMPELL i AfMiffw, x^tiXov, ab antiq. Avtx^u, 
uade pells, compello i to drive, force, or tbrufi 

COM-PENDIUM Ipondus, pendo, compen- 

COM-PENSATION S dium -, whatever bangs 
together j a condfe abridgement -, a recompenfe. 

C0M-PETENCE7ni>Si«, peto, competo ; to 

COM-PETITORJ afl:, requefi -, to fue for. 
the fame thing 1 a rival. 

COM-PILE, ni\c», pilo, compiloi to heap up, 
to bring. together, to colleH. 

COM-PLEAT 7nAii«», iti^leo : R. lUw, 

COMPLEMENT J phtusi full, «mp/«i/, 

C0M-PLEXJ0N3nMx», plico, cep^lexusifa 

COM-PLIMENTy fold mat^ times ) conp- 
tution, compejitian : " et verba quibus alienamgra- 
tiam captamus -, an ififinuilting, it^ratiating beba* 
viour J a/oft, eafy, gentle deportment." 

COM-POS metitis: Oelt, Dor. pro n«r, prope, 
juxta J quia fi quid propf nos, ad id labore con- 
fequenduiji opus non eft, fed plurimum jam in . 
noVaa. c^ petifiate; Mndepojitm, fotem,.pos; able, 
firottg, found in mind. 

COM-tOSE, Of*, poM ; ut a At*, dene ; pefs- 
tus, compofitus, compoftus ; compiling, digefiing, ar- 
ranging -, alfo a compefilien, or confound: a decent 
regularity ^behaviour, or carriage. 

COM-PRE-HEND, ?CwJ«iw, hendo, inufit: 
fed unde prehendo, prehenfus j to l^ bold on, feizi 
on i alfo to underfiand. 

COM-PUTATION, nu»9«»oju«i, n«flo/*ai, puto, 
computatie -, an account, a reckoning. 

COMUS, Koiftvo Comusi commffatiomm .d^ust 
the god of revels. 

CONATUS; Kw«y, vel Km^m, certe, are t 
vcl ad certamen me paro ; ^ Kewr, i. c. puhis, 
quo fit/fletanim corpora obducabantur : fefiinore, 
infiare, ptrfcere \ to endeavour, ftrive, attempt. 

CON-CAMERATE i K.^«^«, camara, feu 
camera; fornix, teftudo; an arch, v^ult, or ceiling. 

CON-CEPTJON, K»wV, «ireJ.x'ff*«., HefyclT. 
capie, conceplus ; to conceive, comprehend, under- 

CON-CERNING 7Kf»»«, cemo, concerned 

. CQN-CERNMENTJ tojft, tfipnguijb, per- 

'• ctivi 

e o 

From G R 1 s R> and Latin; 

C O 

ceive clearly ; hsec notio plane Barbara, fays 
Ainfw.i' but there is no reafon why it (hould be 
branded with fo hard a title ; (ince no perfon 
can (hew a concern for another's Jttuttien, without 
forming a Judgement, without perceiving, difieming, 
and dijlinguijhing bis condition, 

CON-CH.RT ; Kaw*, unde cane, eencino, con- 
eentus, quafi co»-cans; con-cent, inde con-cert; tofing 
together in tune; an agreement y concord; hence ufed 
tofignify a plotting, con/ulting, contriving toegther. 

CONCH; K«')';(,«j concha; ajbtll; akujk; apod. 

CON-CILIATE, K«AiB, x»a5, voco j to_ call; 
vndc concilium, concilio; to ittvite, or call to coun- 
cil ; to unite in opinion, affeHion ; alio to acquire, 
procure, or win favor. 

CON-CINNITY : Ew, E.p<, eo, coeoy coinus, 
coHcinnus, apte comfofitus, cemmixtus : VolT. neat, 
trim, compafi. 

CON-CISE, KbHw, velKofl-1«, xl«vu> x«iv«, eudo, 
eoido, carda, concido, concifus , cut in pieces, cut 
Jbort, or brief, 

CON-CLAVE J lUn.^w, KAtiT^w, Dor. Ka«i*5, 

C0N-CLUDE{ Claudes tojbutup; the room 
where the cardinals are Jhut up, when they are to 
el»Ei a pope : R. KAtff, elavis ; a key ; k KAau, 
claudo, to lock up ; alfo to bring any fuhjeU to a 
clofe, or an end. 

CON-COCTIONi Kh«w, mifceot coquo, eon- 
coHus J to digefi. 

CON-COM-ITANT ) Ew, E.p., eo, mmw, eo- 
mitatus, concomitatut i accompamed, attended, 

CON-CORD, Ki«p, cor -, the heart ; concors, 
tencordia ; peace, agreement, barmotrf. 

CON-CUBINE, KuV]«, caput declino j Ku/3w, 
cumlo, concubo ; to lie down with ; an harlot. 

CON-CULCATE j A«f, cabe, calco, concuko ; 
to tread down -, lay wafte. 

CON-CUP ISCENCE i Oiroiw, eoeo, concupio, 
concupifeentia ; an eager, tarneft de/tre ; a longing 
for, coveting after. 

CON-CUSSION, n*1«9-(ru, quaffo, quatio, eon- 
eu_0o i a violent Jbaking, or dajhing together. 

CON-DIGN, AfKfof, idem quod Aixlet, Atyf*i' 
n(, et Af^»o;, acceptus, gratus ; ec fufcipiens -, 
R. ^ij(Cft.M, eapio i to take ; as when we fay. 
Jet bim be taken away to Juffer the punijbment due 
to bis crimes j equitable, and deferving. 

CON-DITION, A.A,Y*'» ^«« ^0* conditio ; the 
fiate, make, or difpofttion of any thing. 

CON-DOLENCE, dx^w, doleo, iiiX»r«i griefs 
affiiSion, Jorrow. 

CON-DUCT, Afixu, Atixyuu, duco, cmtduSus; 
to lead, induce, move, perjuade. 

CONE, KwfSf, conus -, a mathematical figure, 
hroad and round at the bottom, with a Jbarp top, 
like affirm or. apgar-loaf; and ts generated hy a 

reiflangular triangle turning round its perpen^U 
cular fide. 

COKEY, Varro obfervcs, euniculi difti func 
ab eo, quod Jab terrd cunicalos facere foleani ; 
but does not tell us the etym. of this word in 
its primary fignification : *' however, 1 fancy (fayg 
Dr. Nug.) that it may be more plaufihly derived 
i Ku«, in utero gejlo i becaufe tbefe animals are- • 
very prolific j bringing forth their young ones 
oftenertban once a month:" — there is indeed great 
piaufibility in this deriv. j but that is all ; for 
Voir, concludes this art. thus ; cum autcm, Var- 
rone tefte, cuniculus ex Hifpania primum fit ad- 
veitus, non abludit a vcro, ipfum etiam nomen 
inde reportafle. 

CON-FECTIONER, ♦««, fio,faeio, tonfemoi 
chewing, digefitng ; alfo afry kind of fweet-meats 
made to help digeflion. 

CON-FEDERACY, n«fi«, fide, fides-, unde 
fadus, eenfeederatio j an agreement, league, or cove- 
nant: it feems however more naturd with Vof- 
fius to derive faedus a IvhSm, quafi ^»in», Unde 
fadus, idem quod l,vaitiv, pacifcor, fadus ineo ; to 
enter into an alliance. 

CON-FER, *(fw, fero, confero -, to bring, carry, 
beftow J or conver/e together. 

CON-FESS, **«, fM, fiifn, folof, for,fattori 
confejfio ; an acknowledging, or difclofing offaHs. 

CON-FEST { ^aivu, ^xm^ot, luceo, appareo ; 
mamfefi, open, plain-, or elfe with If Voff. we 
muft derive the latter half of this compound X 
MuKv*. M7t*uire», undc manifefium, quafi con-Mtc*. 

CON-FIGULATION, 9tyya, fingo, figulus ; 
a potter, or worker in clay. 

CON-FISCATION, " *•««, aluta ; unde 
♦aa-xwXet, unde fifcum i i. e. principis ararium : 
Voff." the treafury of a prince j or any fum for~ 
feited to the fiate, and conveyed to the exchequer. 

CON-FLICTi " *A.|3«, pro ©, fiigo, 
premo : Voff." to opprefs -, to firuggle with -, the 
violent ragings of devouring fiames. 

CON-FOUND ?2»i>J«, fundo, Uo ; to pour 

CON-FUSE i out; eonfundo; to mingle; 
confufe, and blend together ; alfo to defiroy : or elfe 
kXtu, Xvu, vel Xvm, fundo i to pour out. 

CON-FUTE, *»ai, fv, fJif*t,for,fatar; futot 
confute i to contradia, convince of error, orgainfay. 

CON-GEAL, ^ Tn, terra ; the earth; unde 
gelu ; frofi : Littleton and Ainfw."— this is rather 
too diftant a deriv. ; for cold, and frefi, affect 
water, and all other bodies, as much as eartb : 
we may therefore look on gelu as derived rather 
i. TtXa, riAw/fw, ^xe*"' fi'fS*^''^! geUdum ; cold: 

CON-GEE J *' Fr. Gall, conge ; Ital. commiato^ 
venia, Hcentia ; tond tum vejud difcedere .: omnia 
a Lat. 

c o 

From G R B I K, and L a t i h. 

C O 

% Ijit. commealus % fc. quacenus commeatus li- 
centiam hue illuc commeandi GgniBcat ; nobis, 
parum detorto fed non invenufto fenfu, quoniam 
plcrumque dcfccdentes bonorijico corporis fiexu 
amicos falutamus, tanquam veniam, feu lUeittiam, 
abeundi orantes : Skinn."-— it is to be hoped the 
Dr. did not intend this as a deriv. of the word 
coagee ; for furely he would not have us think 
■that ccngee was derived from commeatus : perhaps 
it is nothing more than a French curtailing of 
eon-genu, vcl eon-genufie£Iio ; a mutual bending of 
the knee to each other> as ladies do> when paying 
their mutual compliments : confequently Gr. ; a 
. ram, ^nu i the knee. 

CONGER i ToyyHi (ongrus; tt conger ; a fpe- 
ties of eel. 

CON-GERIES 7x«f.^», x«f, x'^ot, unde 

CON-GESTION S gere, geftum ; congero lapi- 
detf et Itgna; fienes anahillttting brought j andheap- 
■ td up by hand; any pile or ftruBure raifed by hand. 

CON-GLOMERATION, Kxwflw, glomero ; 
unde glomus; to winde ronndy a bottom of yam. 

CON-GRESS J either from AyiAir, Ay«f«, 
nyifxflt, Att. Aynyf^xM, congrego, colligo : or a 
Ttt^ytifit, Tafywifw, multipUce j dicitur de muki- 
tudine infigni : or elfe it may be derived a 
T-t^xv»t, gruSj congrex; to flock together like cranes, 
■the wifeft of all congregating fowl : or laftly, which 
may rather be preferred, a K(«J'isiv«, gradior, con- 
grejfus; a meeting, or affembling together: R. Kf«Ai, 
muuhina tbeatralis ; unde gradus -, a ftep ; mean- 
ing to walk, talk, and confult together. 

CON-GRUOUS, Yifattt, grus; a crane; unde 
€cngruo ; a. gruibus traflum, qu^e fe non fegregast, 
feot cum volant^ Jive cum pajcantur ; to come to- 
gether in flocks, like cranes, . who never feparale : 
-alfo to agree, to unite. 

CON-JECTURE, tm, U{m, unde E«««, jacio, 
tcnjeSiura ; a gutffing, imagination, conceit -, '* a 
-conjeilu, \. e. direfbione quadam rationis ad vcri- 
tacem : Quint." an aiming at truth. 

CON-J.URATIONi Ziuf, Aaj; xmAt jus, jure; 
eonjuratio i to fwear, to take an oath ; alfo to con- 
jure i to enter into a confederacy, or confpracy with 
tviljpirits, witches, demons. 

CON-NEXION, fomctimes written conneaien ; 
N(M, neSo, nexus ;. a knitting, binding, joining to- 

CONNIVENCE, fometimes written con- 
nhtnce ; N<uw, Nivr«^wi niveo, connlveo, to wink, 
not to fee a fault ; to fafi over a tranfgreffion. 

CON-QUASSATION, contracted to comuf- 
Son. Gr. 

CONQUEROR i N.x», by tranfpofitior I»k«, 
^visMi quali (onco y to cvercome, vanquifh, fubdue. 

CON-SCIENCE ; Irmjeio ; (juafi ifco ; Horn. 
I<rw», fciebat: Odyff. XXII. 31. 1. e. Im^i, feio, 
confcientia j a knowledge^ the internal witntjs of 

CON-SERT, EifM, fero^ eonfertus ; united in 

CON-SIDER, E^«, liZ, Ion. EJiw, fedeo, conji- 
dero ; q. d. mente et cegitatione defixus confsdo ; to fit 
down fixt in thought -, to contemplate. Voffius de- 
rives cottfidero ^ fidus, i. e. ab EjJw, video; unde 
fedeo, more veterum, qui fpiritum fjcpe mutant 
in 5i ut ab, fequor; Z^K^ferum ; 'Sou/udor, 
&c. fimiliter fidus ab uitt, quod eft forma, fpe- 
cies, conflellatio ; ^ fidere funt compofita ««^^(rff, 
defidero, &c." — however, the former feems to be 
the more natural deriv. 

CON-SIGN, SI.yj^B, fignum, configno; to feal, 
fign, or mark i now ufcd to fignify delivering up, 
or committing to avy perfon's confidence, or trujl. 

abiding, fiandingfafi : alfo congruous and agreeing. 

CON-SISTORY ; either from the foregoing 
root J or clfc from AAXtftai, falie, eonfulo ; quia 
qui confulunt, rationibus in unam fententiam quaji 
faliunt i and we fay to jump into the fame thought', 
in eodem confilio, et ex omni parte fecum ipfa confen- 
tiunt i a council, or affembly. 

CON-SONANT, Zujwf«»»r, Tovec, fenus, con- 
fonans t a mute, or letter which cannot be expreffed 
alone, but mufl have a vowel placed either before, 
or after it ; and therefore mufi be founded with 
another letter; thus, Mmuft be founded with an 
e before it, * M : and B muft be founded with ah 
e after it. Be : R. Lw, cum ; with j and *«»», vox ; 
vc\ Teiiti, fonus i a found; with another found. 

CON-SORT, XufM, trabo ; to draw lots-, quia, 
ex vafe aliquo, fortemjuam extrahere quifquejeleat : 
to fhare the fame fate, to draw the like condition i 
alfo a king's wife, who partakes the fame throne, 
or dignity. 

CON-SPERSION, Xui- -Zir*f«ir(riJ, <r)raf»yw, 
fpargo, confpergo -, to befprinkle, dafb with water, &c. 

CON-SPIRE, 2T«.fw, fpiro, *(rT«.f(o, confpiro; . 
to breathe together ; to confent, complel, or bandy 
together : vtJ forte a 'Piti^m, by tranfpofition 2ti- 
fi|w, contracted to _/^/>ff, /o, are; to blow.. 

CQN-SPURCATION, n7u«, in compofitione- 
Y.\ai^ju, fpuo, Jpurco ; to defile, daub, bewray. 

CON-STABLE J2:7«t-, Ir;iw., fio, conflabilis r 
_ CON-STANCY J always firm, fieady, and 
fure en the fide of jufiice, and the law, CleH 
Way. 6, n, very judicioufly obfcrvcs, that the 
antiquity of the confiable's fiaff reaches up f»; 
high as the times of Druidifrnj for, fpeaking of 
the antient manner of arreft, he fays, " *»*"= y° J 

y Google 

c o 

From Greek, and Latin. 


have alfo the moft probable origin of the magic- 
circle-, fcr, the wand of the mapcian, was nothing 
but the bouzb of the Druidj ufcd in the arreft ; a 
cuftocn preieryed to this moment, in the Jher'iff'i 
wand, and the conftable's ftaff" 

CON-STANTINE ) « Kovr«»1.«ireA.(i 

CON-STANTIN-OPLE } Cenfiantinopelis ; 
the capital city of the empire of the Eaji, taking 
its name. from the emperor Conjlanttne, who 
founded it ; and vohtu iwr, a city, Conjlaniitie's 
city: Nug." 

CON-STELLATION, vel eft id nomen plia 
& £fX«;, lumen, adjefto 1, quafi Sli^aj : vel i T«a- 
x», (unde A»«l£W.u, orior, et A»«7oAtij oriens) prse- 
pofito fibilo, quaii l^thXu, et indc- _ftella : vel 
quod imprimis placet, fit ex Art^x, quafi AfiXAct, 
■ajleri ajlar ; a cancellation being a configuration 
cf a number of Jtars, eoUeSled into feme form, in 
order to find their place in the heavens. 

CON-STERNATION j Ilofw. 5:79erwy*.. 
27fM«jjwi, fierno, conjlerno ; to Jlrow, threw down, 
firike with aftonijbment. 

CON-STIPATION; :eU^o,, Jiipo, denfum fa- 
cto; to f II up clofct Jluff, thwack, cram: " vel ^ 
^Ivipu, Jtipo : Voir." 

CON-STITUENT ; ^c^t^.lmf^i^Jlo, conjlituo; 
io appoint^ ajjign, chufe; alfo the natural difpojil ton. 

CON-STUPRATION i Zlua,, (printed by 
Ainfw. 27ow, but there is no fuch vert)) tentigtne 
lahoro ; flupro ; to deflower, to ravifl). 

CON-SUETUDE, Eu«, Euw, fueo, confuetitdo; 
a cujiem, habit, pra£iice, 

CON-SUL 7"dubitandum non eft 

CON-SULTATlONi quin confiil, et eonj- 
lium Tint ^ confulendo s « in / converlo, quomodo 
ab exttl, exilium, non exalium : confulo vero dici- 
tur i /alio -, Ger. Voff." /alio ab- Axxo^ai : but 
Ifaac is of opinion that cenful, et conjilium, are 
derived a fella, vel _0lla -, conful itaque confulis 
rmti^m, tx. conjilium^ cuwJjfiof: i:o«n/(«« vero cum 
pro ca-tu, et congregatione accipilur, eft a conci- 
endo: — but neither of thefe latter deriv, is, the 
original word ; for XcmJ^hh' originates from the 
Hebrew Sanhedrim, or affemhly of priefls : and 
concieo evidently originates a I«w, cieo; mean- 
ing here, to fummon, or caU together : if how- 
ever we are to abide by the dcriv. of fella, vel 
/lla, the Greek original verb is E^o^**, fedeo, 
unde fella; the /eat of Judgement, or the judge- 

CON-SUMPTION, Aurii^ou, per aphsrefin 
fumo, confumptio ; a wafting, declining, or pining away. 

CON-SUMMATION, 'Tirif, fuper, fupremus, 
fummus ; unde confummatio ; a perfe^ing, accom- 
plijhing; the fum total of any amount. 

CON-TACT 7 9'y«) tango, contains \ touch" 

CON-TAGIONi ed, or brought into conjunc- 
tion, or clofe union. 

CON-TAIN, Thvw, rnu. Ion. Tmu, unde teneo; 
tendo ; quoniam qua arSle tenemus, quodammsde 
tendimus -, to hold together, comprehend. 

CON-T AMI NATION, Mta.vw, tentine, eonta- 
mino ; to defile, pollute, ftain. 

CON-TEMN, TtfLtm, feco] to cut off; unde 
temno, contemns ; to contemn, /et at nought, /et 
apart with difgrace, 

CON-TEMPLATION, Tf/*|3«., ct T«pjui,^, 
honorare; unde Tcfifiuc^, Ttfttnov, templum, eontem- 
plor ; to meditate, to think, behold carefully ; " con- 
templari diftum eft a templot id eft loco, qui ab 
omni parte adfpici, vel ex quo omnis pare, 
videri poteft, quem antiqui/mp/«fs nominabantj 
(c, €0 fenfu quo templum ufurpabant augures i 


CON-TEMPORARY, erroneoufly writeen co- 
temporary i but CO is never ufed in compofition 
with a confonant ; for we write conduff, confli£ff 
connive, &c. j we do not fay co- templatioM, co- 
/tderation, co-figuration. Sec. -, confcquently then 
con-temporary is derived i T'tfAttt, i.e. divifione i 
eft enim quantitas difcreta ; tempus, centempora- 
rius ; of the fame age, time, ftanding, 

CON-TEND, Tww, Mo\. T«ko, ttndo ; to 
ftrttch, extend ; unde eontendo ; to labour, endea^ 
vour ; to quarrel, debate, difpute. 
■ CON-TENT, Tifvu, rnZ, Ion. Tmit, teneo, 
tendo i quoniam qua arBi tenemus, quodammodo 
tendimus ; to bold, keep ; eontinee, (ontentus % J 
am contented, /atisfied, well pleafed. 

CON-TERMINATION, T,fp«, termes, eon- 
terminatio; any adjoining, bordering on, abutting. 

CON-TEST ( Tn»«, .Sol. Tm«, tendo; to 
ftreicb, extend, contendo ; to quarrel, debate, di/pute, 

CON-TEXT, perhaps from T««v«, T«f«, er~ 
dine j to order, arrange ; becaufe weavers range 
their threads before they work; texo, contextus ; a- 
weaving : alfo a text, or fubJtS of a difcourfe ; or 
the conneEling of a faffage. 

CON-TIGNATION, Xliyi., tego, tignum, \ 
tegendo ; eft enim trabs, cut tt£fum imponitur j con- 
tigno, contignalio ; the raftering, or boarding of 
roofs; a floor, or ftery of a hou/e. 

CON-TIGUOUS i e.yai, tango, contiguus i 
adjoining, very near, touching each other. 

CON-TlNENT/«^^. from the fame root with 
CON -TAIN i bccaufc it corfifts of a great many 
countries, all contained in one. 

CON-TINGENCY) 9.y», tango, contingit ; to 

CON-TINGENT I happen. 

CON-TINU ATION, T«»«, rnZ, Ion. Tim^ /*- 

Digitized by njOOQIC 

c o 

Froo* :G A Z" E k, afld Latim. 

neop eontinuaiio i a joinings • ox proaedii^. without 
any interrttptiev, or breaking off. 
, CONTRA-BAND i half Greek, half Saxon i 
being compounded of Aviit vel A>1(a, cvntra; ec 
abatmaiit puhUcare ; fignifying ^0fl<z conira-tdiSium 
priiuipis advtSa ; bona edi^io-prebihita ; et fi de- 
prehendentur fifco addlcenda ; goeds prohibited, 
fmuggUd goods, goods brought into the kingdom con- 
trary to. a& of parliament. 

CON-TRACTION, Af«<rff», Af«y5, traho^ 
coittraSfus ; a bargain, ar agreement^ drawn up, or 
made between two. 

CONTRARY, Ad., ki\y,^x, quafi contera, con- 
trafted to contra -, unde contrartus i eppojitien, 
difagreement ; onoppofttejides, 

CONTRA^ VALLATION J " A»1«f«, *«Xot, 

4ttAX«;, paxillus ; Ilao-a-atAot, IIiiyKU/*!, pango, paluS, 
vallus; *itA.ot, *«Wi»r, WoS." a pale^ pallifade, fpar, 
fofii orftake. 

CON TR A'VENTION, Ay7«f «-B««, B«^,, Bw«., 
contra-venio, ventum j is counter-meeting, aSing 
contrary to, in oppojition^ 

CONTRE-i/ii«« -■ it is etymology alone that 
can eftabliih the propriety of this orthography -, 
zsfor vfrklpgitCeuntry-dance, it has neither fenfe 
nor meaning, unlcfs thofc kind of dances were 
at firft invented, and folely pradifed in the coun- 
try i but they are danced at court likewift : it 
fccms much more probable therefore to derive 
contre-dance from the French word cotftre ; oppo- 
Jite, or contrary ; bccaufe the partners perform 
fimilar movements on oppofite fidti, and dance di- 
reSly contrary to each other \ for whenever the 
gentleman crofles over on the lady's fide, the lady 
at the fame time crofles over on the gentleman's j 
and whenever the lady moves down the lady's 
fide, her partner does the fame on- the gentle- 
man's: — only now, if the French have the glory 
of giving name to this agreeable amufement, 
they muft not however aflume the origina- 
lity of the word itfelf, which is undoubted- 
Iv Or. i as may be found under the art. CON- 

, CON-TRECTATION, Aj»«, traho, eontre£ia- 
tio ; a touching^ handling ; dalliance. 

CON-TRITE ; .Tf i(3w, tero, trifum ; worn with 
woe i or what the Pfalm. has fo literally faid tn 
Pf. li. 17, the facrifice of God is a troubled fpi- 
rit I a broken and contrite heart, O God, (halt 
thou not defpife. 

CON-TRIVE, " Teut. trefen, attingere ; 
anlreffen j offendere, invenire ; to invent, find 
out i undc Gall, controuver ; excogitare, tx- 
tundere : . Skinn.'* -^ then we might fuppofc 
that all thefe words were deifcendea from [he 
Greek verb Tjipw^ tero j * quafi contribance. 


well wotn, confiiiredi amtrnor.* 

tnvi, tritum 
fidertd : 

£(i:entmviriapiensetMr«r«Vtf/(^Rtt/jn-h is rebus: 

For he is wife, and ver/ed in thefe affairs. — — 

Eurip. Medea. 686. 

CONT-ROLLER, 'PeSw, 'Po(«, unde « rota, 
retula i unde Fr. Gall, contrt-rplle, eontra-^ktre -, 
to contradiH, gain/ay, reprove ; an iwJptSor, ruler^ 
dirisier : Skinn." — who then refers us to 'rewl, 
without hinting at the Greek deriv, ; but' we 
may rather derive roll in this place, k rtgula y 
and then deduce it ab A^x*^, quafi 'P«x*4 regoi 
unde regula j rule, govern, direif. 

CON-TROVERSY, Tfi^w, quafi n»flto, vertt, 
eontroverfia % a debate, difpute, ^t/arrtl ; to con- 
tradiil -, oppofe, 

CON-TUSJON, Tu»7«, tudo, tundo i-eentiffie t 
battering, beating, hruifing. 

CO>f-VALESCENCE, OuA«, valio, cmva- 
lefco ; to recover health. 

CON-VENIENCETBn;Wi, B«r»w, Bwat, vmioy 

CON- VENT 5 eonventio -, to tome toge- 

ther: or elfe, with Clel. Voc. 61, n, we may ra- 
ther fuppofe that convent has dcfcended to us. 
from our Celtic anceftors ; for, as , he obferves, 
" if ic had <:ome from the Latin coavenio, or 
conventus, it would furely at fome time or gther 
have exifled in the Latin in that fenfe ; but tna- 
najierium and etenobtum have been conflantly the 
terms for it in that language :"— he then would 
derive it from coff-wontj: and in p. 52, and I47> 
he lays j " boff, or coff, or chief, fignifies head :"— 
confaquently Gr. a S.t^'»Kn : and " wen, mun, 
or min, arc the fame, (the / being only the com- 
mon Celtic paragogic) and fignify mavjiott, or re- 
fidence:" — confequently Gr. a M(v-«, fWdS-eo, man- 
fum, mos-fio ; a bead manfion, or chief habitation. 

CON-VERSE? Tf«r»f, quafi n(f7«, verto ; to 

CON-VERT i turn -, to difcourfe together ; to 
caufe a change, or revolution. 

CON-VEXITY7" convexum eji id, quodfupra 

CON-VEY S concavum convehiiur j fays 
Vofl"." without giving us the Greek etym. of 
veho ; which however he does afterwards from. 
O^iM, ^ol. Fa;^w, vebo ; to carry j convexity being 
a body that bos a (welling curvature carried oven 
it i alfo atry method of carriage. , 

CON-VICTION, N.xm, bytranfpofitioB Imw, 
hxu, vinco, coHviSio ; vanfuijhed, ovtreome, prov- 
ed m'anifejlly guilty. 

CON-VIVIAL s - Biar, inferto dig^mma vivo, 
quafi BiFw, vivo, convivialis ; belonging. /o life ; ta 
banket ; to partake of entertainments. , 

CON-VOCATION, Bm., votOt cutvoeaii* ;,/» 
call together j to ajfembk. > 


c o 

Ffom Gab re, and Latiit. 

C O 

CON-VOLtinON7Bi]bw, iAm. pnepoficodi- 

CON-VOLVULUSS gamma, qusfi F«a«, tw/- 
vof wbUum i to roll, to tumble i an;/ tbing retted or 
awkd up : the herb vfithy-hmd, or btna-weei, 

CON-VOY : fee CONVEY : or rather, as 
Skinner ruppofes, ab Oia, via -, unde vtr^age " in 
vi4 vel itinere ctmtari :" a man ef rear atteniing 
mflnt ef mercbatitmen on part of their wvf j ftang 
them fofarfafe on their voyage -, — though the Dr. 
has RVMded the Greek. 

CON-VULSION, " exm, AfiXa, imif. pro 
AfaifiM : vd potius ab EiAh, fire Eaaw, quod 
idem ac BtAw, hoc eft togo, coarSo i Volf."— unde 
vello^ eonvuyio ; a f lucking, or twilcbing ef the 
nerves ; i. e. the cramp, or a fpafmafic iifienfien. 

GOOK, Kvxra, mifceoi to mix, or mingle fauces, 
emd itmt£ents. 

COOM, commonly written {omhofcom;*a, 
fuffus ; quafi cumulus, vel acervus aqua j a heap, 
or file i toot which is ever and above meafure ; now 
ufed to figniff fmtr bufhels : fee AC-CUMU- 

COOM,OT valley, contraftcd, according to Clcl. 
Voc. 103, n, from ** co-bum, cenneBing two bills :" 
— confequcndy Gr. j for co is the lame as con j 
and con is the fam; as cum ■, and cum originates 
a Sv» .' bum wc OijII find to be Gr. Ijkcwifc, 
under the art. HUMMOCK : Gr. 

COOP, to change, or " ctnvp -, to chafer, or ex- 
change ', low Dutch : Ray." — but wr may rather 
fuppofc it was nothing more than a contraction of 
Kavit>.«c, or E*TtXfuH*, unde caupo, cauponari \ per- 
^utatio enim antiquijfimum commercii genus fuit ; or 
as we fay to COPE, or CHOP, and change. 

COO? for feivls i Kobj, quod ^ol. K-afm, cavus, 
fovea i a cage. 

COOPER .• "Ku|3|3<», cuppa, vel cupa; delium, 
tina ; unde cooper, victor, doliarius j a tnaktr of 
cajks : Skinn." — ihotigh Junius is rather of opi- 
nion we ought to derive cooper, a KniniTec, quod 
Hcfych. exponit Ka^a^a, n* iTi TUK di^m^ut yttof^nn, 
concameratio plaufiris fuperinduila : ut Kaf»7eii dic- 
tum fit, quafi KufiBVev, quod plauftra eitexen'nt 
vele incurvatis ziminibus inflrato : — in the fame 
manner as wc fee them made to this day, in co- 
vered-waggons, tilled-boats ; a Kw^»»>, ineurvare, 
to bend, or arch over, in order to cover them. 
Clel. Voc. 209, would tierive cooper from caupe : 
— but ftill it would bcGr. fee CHAFFER, Gr, 

CO OPTATION, 0-*», 0»1«(*«., video, opta- 
$us, ce-optatio; cboefing, eleSiug. 

CO-ORDINATE, Omu», trior, erdinoi tt 
flit in order j of equal «»*, power, or dignity. 

COP */ bay "J" alfo the top ef a thing, 

COP, or head J. Jlaniing in ^ght : Verit." 

COVPhE-crowned] — wbolooka on this word 

ts Sax. ( bvc it if eridentlr derived fttmn Kif-oXn, 
a^t i though Skinner likewlfe could get no 
fanher than deriving the Sax. cof, ^ caput i tnean- 
iBg« etek ofbery. 

COPE, or hn t Clel. Voc. no, n, fays, « the 
reader may plcafe to obicrve the analogy of wordt 
in the examples cA to cope, afvendo, andofmXnV, 
all including the idea of bead ; for eofff ven, felt, 
are the radicals, Bgnifying bead: not impoffibly 
this, from the very anticnt cuftom of carryii^ 
on trade chiefly by heads if cattle •„ long b^re, 
and fince the ufe of nrmney was known:" — but 
it ii to be prefiimed, not before K/^-oXa ligniHed 
tafnt : — however, let the cuRom have been a» 
antient as he pleafcs, Aill our word cepe may 
have been derived either from Kif-aAnt or £««•- 
n>^»: fee CHEAP, and CHEAPEN. Gr. 

COPE, contend; Cnlw, c/edo, pertaiio; tofMvef 
tofiruggle with. 

COPE ef heaven 1 KviJ^An, alveare apunff 
COPE, or beod S trabeafacerdjotalis, veftir 
COPING of a Wall] facra plnviaHs : afrits- 
garment with a hood in cafe ef rain : capfula per- 
haps originating \ KkAvVFw, cendo ; to bide, con- 
ceal, or cover ; vel a %.<**[», capie, capfula :— 
though this is the belt deriv. to be obtained fron> 
ourdiiftionaries, and etym.; yet Vt feems probable 
chat cope now is only a contra^ion of KwimiNr, 
conop^eum, quad conope, coacrafUd to copei to 
fignify the canopy ef heaven: as for thr coping $f a 
wall, Cafaub. derives it ^ Kf^icAq, caput; the headg- 
the top, the covering ef the wall. 

COPIOUS, OuiTif, vel aw.(, ops, opts, unde 
epes ; et cops, copis, copia, quafi co-epia, txtonet 
opes ; unde copiofus -, plenteous, abundant,: ahomnding, 
COPPER / "KuTf.w: Pliny calls it ^ Cy- 
COPPERASS />r7«»: R.Kuirj«f, Cyprus; the 
ifle of Cyprus : Nug." 
COPPICE/" KobK »»<iw K»»Tw, fflva ctr- 
COPSE S dv&\ leptwotd: Upt." 
COYX -knelle; or knewle ; ** the top efabiff, 
rifing like a cone : copt from caput ; and knofy, or 
knowl, a contraftion of navel: Ray."— and cgn- 
fcquently both Gr. ; though this gentleman like- 
wife will go no farther than the Saxon, or the 

COPYi " Fr. Gall, eepie; ItaJ. eofia, exan^lar; 
copier ; defcrtbere : et Vofiius-refte monet ortam 
effc hanc vbcem 1 phraG eepiam facere exfcri- 
bendi : quotquoc unquam funt experti quam fie 
KfiraJfj, vcl Ka«-Mja>, alicna verbatim dcfcribere, 
omnino judicabunt vocabulum jure meritoque 
i KMriM, labort, dafatigar j M ret fajtidiejiffima 
naufei la£itii£nem coutrabo : Jun."— but perhaps 
this is rather too diftant a deriv. to be the right 
one i bccanfc many e^es are taken with ^eafart^ 

c o 

Fiom Gkb^k* ud Lativ. 

c o 

injtead i^ wearifimeMe/s!-^l havt mc «s yet beea 
able to trace the true Ibuccc. 
. CORAL, " C^fnA&tM : Nuc." m-aUiMmt eurs- 
Uum ; i^U mdrinut rubms, i^ Hcdeiic » but 
there ia a vMttf^cutt and a grtmi vo^b grows 
in tbefta like afiruiy hut ieit^ takaeut, iecmnes 
«f bard MS ftmt : R^ K<^ «Aw, pnfilla msris ; 
4aagbter of tie fia I afia-plant, aa-aliami 

Tempore durefcit» mollia fait herba fub attdH. 
Metam. XV. 415. 
Milton ii ft) vMy poetic » to mention greves of 
corai i 

— — ■ '■ -^— part Rng^e, or with mate 

Graze the lea-weed, their pafture ; and through 

Of xoral ftray. — ^— Par. Loft. VII. 403. 

CORANTS, commonly written, and pro- 
bounced ettrranttt or currant : "K-tfttiiMteu, Corin- 
tbiac^e, fc. BWrf; cfirttnt-kerrtes ; firfi of alt brought 
from Corinth. Clel. Way. 7 9, tells us, that « cur- 
rauti are derived from corimbvt to fignify fruit 
growing in cluftcrsrbiMiJ'^o/ji J cor, round; and 
/mi, mfialk " — but xar, cor, cir, and /or, fcem to 
be derived and contraAed either from K^f-xot, 
tk-adtts i or from ruf-«t, f^-a/ t both fignify- 
ing a circle : and imb leerhs to be deriTed from 
the fame root with LIMB. Gr. 

CORD, " Xef*ti, cerda ; Nug."— if there is 
any fuch word in Latin : it ought to have been 
"written, according to the Greek orthography 
shorda ; fee CHORD: Gr/— but Dr. Newton, in 
his notes on the Characters of Theophraft. p.68, 
is of opinion, that our word {«rd is derived i 
K^f«t,genuJ lafcivit faltationij i whence KnpJtiu^w, 
laftivi faltare: ** to which fon of dante, if 
. Terence, as faith Conftantine, doth allude, when 
he filth, tu inter eas reftitn duUttans, fallahis T k 
is very likely a rope being made uje of in that 
dance^ that our Eagliib cord comes from thence ; 
as the humouf of calling a crooked man, a lord 
came from the Gr. word Ao(ht, crooked: Newton :" 
-~the paffage in Terence is taken from his Adelfhi, 
Aft IV. fc 7, V. 34; on confulting which pafTage, 
I find no interrogation point kfta faltabis : this 
fcarce defervcd notice } but there is a curious an- 
notation of Donatus on reftim duSam (as it is In 
the Var. edit.) he fays, ** lu/us tfi eh eo fune, quo 
iutrtduSus eqtius dttrius in Trejam efi \ cum nexis 
manibus fune, chorum dueunt faUantes : hoc a 
qutbuldam dicitur i fed ego puto, manu con- 
fertoa choros puellorum pueOaruaique cantantes 
refiim dutere cxiftimari : cc id maxime convenire 
ad exagiundam tmportunkatem fenisi veluti 
pueros imitantis : fimul etiam quia ifte connczus 
madmim lafcivus, ac petulam adimit diicretio- 

nem conditionis, digoicads, jctatis, inter mere-' 
tricem, novam nuptam, et fenem." 

CORDELIER » Xogin, intefiinuM, chorda % a 
firing, or rope'i qua pro cingulo ord« religiefbrum, 
divi Francifci inftitutum obfervantium, utuntur i 
tbs order of Franci/can friers, remarkahle for 
wearing a rope, or cord, infiead of a girdle i 
Or rule as futlen and ferere. 
As that of rigid CordeUere. 

Hud. part I. cant. i. i$^ 

CORDIAL, Kj«(, K)i», cor, cordi utiUi; hearten- 
ing, ftreugtbening, cbeanng. Clel.Voc. 141, telU 
us, that " the Celtic word car, for heart, u 00c 
Gr. but gives origin to SLo^Via, eer ;"— or per- 
haps they both come from Kutf, cor. 

CORIANDER ; &«.«»*», et K«fM»tr, email- 
drum : the herb and feed coriander. 

CORIER, commonly writtcni and proammced 
currier ; " K^utt, care, cerium ; qudd caro eo iegOr 
tur, quafi cariitm ; coriarius ; a tanner, or one viba 
deals in hides, or JHns :" this is Atnfw. deriv. who 
has firfl derived corium a care -, and then caro 
from Kfftf, five K^tat : but perhaps this is not 
fo good as the following from Vofl*. corium^ 
Xogtn, which Hederic explains by prima et ilia 
extima membrana, qua fatum amhit -, that membrane ■ 
which envelops tbefatus ; as thefkht, bide, or bark, 
envelops the fiefh of animttls, or the wood of trees. 

CORK i from Xagtn, cork, or bark i as in the 
preceding art. Gr. 

COR-MORANT, K»f»f, corvus; et Muf«^ 
fiuere j unde mare, marinus ; Ktfa^-i^v^iu, cor- 
vus-marinus, contrafted to cormorant ; the fea^ 
crow ; ob neiabilem voracitatem -, fo called an ac- 
count of its remarkable voracieufnefs. 

QOKti-bread ; fortaOe il Kwih, KofmvJAt, fatio, 
faturo I tejatisfy, or fill ; unae Sax. copn; Dan. 
kom i Bclg. korne ; Teut. kern ; granmrn, fruges^ 
frumentumi the fiaffoflife, 

CORN on the bands, or feet ; " Ktgat, cortNi t 
born i tuberculum in digitis et manuum, et pedum i 
clavi caput fummo fui parte teferens, et radid 
pradura a^xum : Angli vidcntur hoc nomen mu- 
tuati a corned fucitate, atque duriiie : Jun."— <Mily, 
on the bands we call them warts, and fomctimca 
wrats ; and on the feet we call them corns. 

CORNEL, or corueili K^wm, comu ; the 
cortteil t^ee of both fixes ; the female is fometimes 
called the dog-tree, or the wild cherry-tree, 

CORN-ELIAN, 0»i-E-xpi»f, «t)F*-cerff«iij the 
homy onyx : the cornelian fione \ becaufe refemhling 
bom ; though now of all colours \ red particularly. 

CORNER J Twu, genu ; the knee j unde Cym- 

nean cornel (AngH force retinuerunt comer) eft 

angulus i videtur mihi, continues Jun. con- 

fentaneum Cymrzos banc anguli dcnonainationem 

Qjt c^ petiiffe 


c o 

'F/om bktfEit, 'and -LATja. * 

C -6' 

petiilTe ex fuo com j term ; prorfos . ut Saxones 
angulum Dypn dixenint, ab bypn ; corm ; quod 
enguli finucm) flexu quodammodo rcpra^fcntcnt 
c'amura bourn eomua : we may rather fuppofe, with 
Lye in his Add. that " comer is derived to us 
either through the Armor, corn; or the Hibcrn. 
ceaitia; angulus :"— bat then thofc words arc de- 
rived either from Tew, genu, quafi r*f u** ; or 
from K(^«r, cernu; quafi cerana, tranfpofed to 
cearna : an angle, or nwy retired nook, or turning ; 
htcxak /ucb places look as if bent like the joint at 
the. knee, or form a curve, like the horns of oxen. 
' CORNET of borje ; K(f «f, cornu j a trooper 
Jh ihe wing of an army, a brigadier; from corni- 
culum i a kind of emament the general prefented bis 
foldiers with for their good fervice, to be worn in 
their, helmets. 

CORNICE, K(j«*ii, corona, projeEfura ; the brow 
of a pillar, or wall : becaufe it finds them round, 
like a crown. 

CORNISH-^oic, by many fuppofed to come 
from Cornwall becaufe a Cornwal-man is ca]]cd 
a Cornt/b-man i but a Cornijb-crow is derived from 
Kf^wM^EOf, comicus pullus ; a jpecies of crow ; a 
'S.taum, comix, corvus-: Comifti-crow therefore is 
only a variation of comix ; a crow. 

CORNU-fff^/rf', K#faf, cornu ; a horn; unde 
ccmu-copia; the hem of plenty, quafi cornu- opis; 
unde co-epia, copia ; plenty : for ccpia, fee CO- 
CORNUTED : from the fame root ; Gr. 
COR<X>LARY, Kefwt'jt, corona j unde corolla, 
eorollarium ; quod hse, cum placuerunt aftores in 
fcena, d«ri folitasi a coronet, or reward, given to 
e£lers, champions, or gladiators, when they pleafed 
tkeptephr alfo a corollary, confeifary, or appendix. 
cfORONATlON, from the fame root : Gr. 
CORONER 7" not from corona, a 

CORPH-CONNER S crown-, but coroner it- 
fclf is purely a contradtion of corph-cmnw" 
fays Clcl. V0C..121, 1, i. e. " a corpfe-injpe^or : 
torph was the antient Brittfli word for cerpfe :" — 
to ken, and to conn, he likewifes acknowledges to 
figniiy fo htew.ortake tognifance of atrf thing: 
—then, according to both thefc compounds, the 
word coroner derives from the fame origi-ii with 
■ corpus, and cagnefco; and confcquently Gr. 

CORPH-LAN, ov church-yard, feems to be a 
mixture of Gr. and Celtic, or perhaps is pure 
. Gr. — let us firft confider the former fuppofition : 
Clel. Voc. 122, and 143, fays," corpb-lan comes 
very naturally from corph, cerpfe-, and llan, in- 
clajnri :'*— and then he quotes Howell Dha's 
words, " corphlan exterius fuit atrrum, interius 
- illud-undiquaque ambiens, in quo cadavera fepe- 
liebantur j i torpb^ corpus j ct llan, feptum :" — 

(houldthisbeiirfit, corph is evidently defcended 
from the Gr. :-— but Ion, or llan, in the fcnfe of 
feptum, feems to be purely Celtic j unlefs we may 
look on it as derived frorn the fame root with 
lain, or laid-, \. e. from Acy-w, cumio, euboi where 
the dead arc lain, or laid. 

CORPORATION 7 Xf«f,l(fMf, Xj^Pef, XofF«j; 
CORPUSCLES $ corpus, corporis^ unde cor- 
.ptt^us, Sec. the bocfy i or. belonging to the body -, 
perfonal and political: Clcland, Voc. 122, fays, 
" corph was theantient Britifh word for eorpfe :" 
— then very probably derived as" above. , 

CORPS*' or company of Joldiers -, according to 
the French orthography, as if it waS; derived from 
corpus i and then, to compleat the abfurdity, they 
muft pronounce it cere -, but it ought to be writ- 
ten chers, or cohrs, being only a contraction of 
cohors; the deriv. of which has been already 
confidered under the art. COHORT : Gr. 

COR-RECTION, 'Pi^w, /joVj vel AfX"^ by 
tranfpofition 'P«x"» ^^S'^i corrigo^ correHio % aa 
amendment, alteration -, alfo corporal punijbtnent in 
order to amendment. 

COR-ROSION, 'P««-r«, feu "Pflirirw, rado^ eor-* 
rodo ; to bito, gnaWy or fret: Voffius derives ro*i» 
i Teuyv, comedo j to eat. . . 

CORSAIR, '?tu, vel 'Pvm, rue, corruo, eurfus; 
unde " Fr, Gall, eour/aire; Ital. carfare j et Gail." 
courfe : Skinn." who has avoided the Greek : 
an inror.d, an incurjion ; a piratt, ar piratical vejfelj 
which rcves, or runs about. 

CORSLET ; " manifefte eft dimmutivum no- 
minis cer/aj; Skinn." — but the Dr. would not tell 
us, that corpus itfelf was derived from the Greek,- 
as we have feen in the art. CORPORATION: Gr. 
COR-SNED, vel cur-fned; " olim forte pe^- 
culiariter acccptum vocabulum," fays Jun. " de 
iftiufmodi fynaxi facrS, ia qua reus objeftum 
crimen diluebat per euchariftiam, i. e. offamju- 
dicialem, Saxonibus cojv-j-njebe, diftam ; mihi 
hxc offa judicialis videtur coji-]"njebe, nuncupata 
a copan, probare ; et j-nsebe, offa, buccella -, ut 
proprie fignificet probafionis buccellam : credcbat 
nempe antiquitas noxios cum gravi ipcadam imprt- 
catione panem ad ,hoc cxamen confecratum,fu- 
mcntes, vel omnino non, Vel non nifi cum ingenii 
tormento, eum poffe deglutirc ; intolerabilibus 
quoque cos, qui fcientes fefellcrant, ccuciatlbus 
torqueri, ufque ad extrema vitje fii« terapora: 
Jun." — the /ry(;(f-flii>r/i/:— thus has this great and 
judicious critic kd us up to the true fenfe of this 
word^ though not perhaps to the true etym. 
which feems rather to be derived from cupj-e- 
rnsebe; the morfel that is taken under an impre- 
cation, cum gravi quddam imprecalione, as Junius 
himfelf has admitted : only now it i& intirely Gr. 


CO'' Fnm GiifiK> and Latih. 

for CURSE is Gr. and fhwAx &aa» to be only 

another dialeft for fmpt s tw^fil, orjSet »/ tmi, 
acc. cortfcqticntly Gr. Ukewift. , : , 

CORUSCATION, ^^f^>yyw,^L•f&:\tf*»ecr^^n■. 
to glitter, fparkht fitine bright. 

CORY-cMt^, commontv' writtcut and pro- 
nounced, curty-'comh ; but ludi an orthogr. would 
puzzle the profoundeft etjrmol. to trsee out: 
cory-comh, or i«her indeed k*ry*fomt, m?y-. be- 
very pi-operljr and very caTilyderiftd " i Kepw, 
verro, furgo, \. e. eqitiim defiringere, vel ftrigile 
etHundare: ^inn." under the art. Off^; though 
the Dr. feems inclinable to derive it rathert a 
curando ; however, he acknowledges alludit fatis 
feliciter Greco Emw>> virrt, pnrgo : a'tomi and 
brujh, to cUoH, or artfs a bor/e witb.- 

CO-SEN '^'^'AiftMyfattguent'vAfanguiiiTtMum 

CO-SIN > porfit videri, et tamen verum eft 

COU-SIN J ex 'AifiM MiiXagitefanguen deduct : 
Votr." — but analogical derivations arc very fel- 
dom adnnitted ; we may ntber adopt bis deiiv. 
of fanguis i X«or> faiuis r^ado-fft^iat: vel ell 
fanguis a UV hoc eft neeinumt purfiimm, qui fen- 
guinis ctler : k/aaptis, coH/swgitiMkjy coDtraified to 
eonfang; and then ch8ng<^ to cet^m of the 
fame blood, kindred, fawnif: fiir eater-cnffins, fee 

COSMETIC, K«o-pifIt«i, onundi feritm iJkiUed 
in the art of heamtifyitig, or tdcming the per/en : 
R. K««^r, mundtu, ordoy deeus, 

COSMO-GRAPHY, " Kdv^^Mf .«, cejmogra- 
fbie, dtferiptio mundi ; a defertption ef the world : 
R. Kar^er, mundui ; the werldi et P^ttf n, deftriptia% 
or Tf «fM, fcribo • Nug." 

COST, Irt/tti, STlu, tonfto\ toftandinfo miichi 
the vaUte of anf tiung i Clcl. Voc. 210, is of opi- 
nion, we ought to derive eeft from coffy purebafe; 
" from which," fays he, " we have topji-, contraft- 
ed to eeft; not impoffibly thia from the very 
antient Celtic cuftom of carrying on tradechieSy 
by beads of cattle :" — but coff, or rather kepb, the 
bead, is evidently abbreviated from Kt^«Anj caput; 
the head. 

COSTE of mutton i " Onw, Orw, quod eft 
Of ; nempe ut ab AuXti, caula i fic ab Or», cofia : 
Voir." — a rib, or bene j a breafi of mutton. 
' -COSTIVE, Xlupw, mtifit'realeo, denfjuufacioi 
■ to thwack, cram, harden. 

COTTAGE, " K«i]«ro», lujintmf4rartm (rather 
Ik/h-aferaram) KoiJ»t, eubiUi «« t5 ^oil^t^dormire: 
Cafairt).- and Upt."— this deriv. may pafs j but 
perhaps the leader will rather approve of the fol- 
lowing from Voff. " omnino, ut a tegendof tu- 

gUriumt ut et EaXu^; xt»f » ra KaAtm-liik, flC tofa 
1 nco, cafs, quod eft tegere; a qua origioe etiam 
vtdetur «^c HarUt pro lacemat live chlainyde 

C O 

efuefiri:" Kmt»e, cafd, ee^Jdt qu»Si eatt^a, node 
cottage i a but or hove/, to ttver thtm fi-om fie 
totaiber. i . » 

COX-lamhi Skinwr okHy it a ceii-Umhi and 
derives it ab Ital. caficcio, I.- eafa, domus ; t^nus ■ 
^tmi odutatm .--^an^bad he been content with 
that deriv. and explan, " we might have been con- 
;tented too) prcSvided'hc would have permitted us 
'to <dcrive >taf4, as above,,' bat he gots onj and 
fays, " aade aWeiA credo oritur i Fr. GaH'. cadel ; 
rnoUis, delkatulus ; \nnc eadeier i blonde zt delicate _ 
alere; turn, autem^ <*^<, turn tadel contrafta vi- 
;dentur a Lat. deHcatus, delicatellus ;". becaiifc 
Ibrouglit up itiore dtUtatefy than ether lambs; — but 
icven then the DK -oaght to have remembered^ 
jthat DELICACY, ahd DEJLICATE, are Greek. . 

COT-bed : apl^nafmj for KiHn 'neubiki'a 
. bed to lie on. 

COT |quafi cock-quean, vel cook- 

■ COT- QUEAN i qrcfan -, a *ind of mafier-fie^- 
\cDok : "fWenim diftum dc vJro rerfi culinSiiam 
inimis cufante, quod agitcoquum inter mulieres :' 
Skinn."-^who-colild go no farther than the Sax. 
Teut. and Fr. Gall.— but both COOK, and 
I QUEAN areGr. 

COTHURNUS, KoflofMt, cetburnusycaheamtn-- 
turn utriquepedi (tragico et comico) etuttiqiie ftxui . 
aptum : ap3oe, or bujkin, coming ever the calf «/" 
the legy worn generally In/ the attors of tragedies^' 
with a high heel, that torfmaj fiem the taller: alfo 
a choppen, or cbiopin ; a bigh-foledjboe, apantofle. 

COTTON, "fic dicitur, inquit Skinn. I fimi- 
[litudine lanuginisj qu* adhjcrct malts CydoniiSf 
quK Ital. ■ cotogni appcUantur :" — " cotogni sutem 
a Cydonie inantfejie ortum ducit : Lye." — " Cydonia 
mala, a Cydtme, Creta civitate, unde adveSa : VolT." 

COUCH-i/«y»i K-u-rh, cubo, cumbo; to lie. 
down : Kufi;», incufvare ; to bend low. 

COUCH to lie on : etymol. are not agreed as 
to the origin of this word : Junius fuppofes it to 
be derived " a Gall, csucbe ; Bclg. ieetfe, dcfiimp- 
tum ex Ital. celcare, pro cellocare -, nam celcarfi 
Italis eft conferrefe cubitum, collecarefe in le^o :" 
— according to which deriv. couch would originate 
a Atyu, Aiytfteu ; undc A(;(et, le£lus, locus cubandi : 
Skintufr fuppofes it to be derived " a Fr. ' Gall.' 
coucher; \tt\, cortcare^ colcare, eubare; 3. Lat. 
culcita, q. d. culeitare, i. e. in culciiam fe con-r 
dere :" — according to this deriv. cflacA would oh- 
ginate from Aa£, calx, calco ; nam a cahando diSla 
0ilcita, quod in edfagutn, tomeHtum^ altudve quid 
inculcabant; it is very remarkable thefeforc that 
our word, couch, if derived from either of thefc' 
fources, Ihould originate from two words fo di- 
ftant, as A«g, and Aij-w i if neither of taefc rtiould 

cr^ o) 

From GiixiKi ud' Lati Kw' 

c o 

bcr fiAnbtWd,' we thtn 'can oftly lot* towards the 
TdnigAlnji article. 

COVE, or harhur; K»r, ^ol. KuFer, nnwf, 

a^p or hat to retire into. 

CO-VENANT» Xvfj^fUtUmnhvevio, eonvaitUi 
an agreewunt,, paHion, Uagme. 

CO-VENT-^tfrJM very probably derived its 
name from fome commt, or 'iltonttfiery, which for- 
merly ftood oiit or near that i'pot, iriiere qow tbt 
gerdtHt or market, is kept ; and confequently may 
be derived from (ttrveiU, if what Clcl. Voc 6i, 
n, £iys, be right ; viz. that " eouventj or covmt, 
h die nearer orthogr. to the Celt. orig. eoff- 
vitnts .•"—but then, as we have already feen uaitr 
the art. CON-VEKT, in is Gr. 

COVER, K«aWIis cenJa, ng9 : or c\k ab A«fw, 
AFmfip aperio, unde co-opertut -, bidden, conteaud; 
tvtrvfbekmd: or elfe i Kti(3w, eabo -, Fr. Gall, cm- 
vir 1 Ital. eovare ; to cover eggs. 

COVETOUS, Orum toeo, arpiduf ; unde Ital. 
fovidigiaf quafi p^idiriai greedy, eager, deJiroKf r 
unlcfs we fhould prefer awof to covet; Ukt the 
avaritioMS maif. 

COVEY, KuvIh, caput hulinOf Kv0u, (uboi undc 
Fr. Gall, cettver ; Ital. (ovare i inatbare ; q. d. 
pt(tld ■ unius partes, feU incttbalds ; guot fc. _^ul 
tncubuntar, educantur: Skinn.*' of marrf as are 
brought forth at one batching, 

COUGH> JLt^m, Uvo, aiievoi ti Ugbten, or ta/e 
the breajt and hings by expeSoration. 

COUL, " KuKXtf, cirfMltts, unde cuchUus i a 
hood to cover, or encircle the bfa4 with, when it 
rainf i Voff." — or perhaps only a contraftion of 
K»XuTf«ii condo, tege -, fo bide, to cover. 

COULTER, " %.w^v, KcTlnp colter, cultellum : 
If. Voff." unlcfs with Gcrara we derive it ab 
Hebr. Vn ahfohere, complere, colerg terrfojt : but 
even in hac figntficationc, fays Ifaac, eft ab A>-o?», 
triturare j a knifl to fut the earth with, the plaw- 
Jbare, or rather the Ifing iron knife tf>/it is placed 
before it : it feems in this latter fcnfc to be de- 
rived from the fame root with CULTURE : Gr. 

COUNT 3Si*«^», una fum, con/uetudinem 

COUNTESS \ babeo c%m qvodam -, eo, comeo, 
f§mes\ a fompampn, knight; or friend r this is the 
common dcnv. IJyt Clel. Way, 48 ; :and Voc. 7. 
n, and 14 ; fays, " fount h^s nothing to do with 
comes; and fome French authors have juftly 
affiimrd, that in Brittany there were counts on 
equal footing with kings ; and indeed fount, kon- 
ing, kyning, and KING, are but dialeftical dif- 
ferences:" — confequcotly Gr. . 

COUNT, or number! this is another inftance, 
in which we may obferve the great difference 
between the original, and its derivative, when it 

lias paffid thrai^ tHe n-^ttch hng. fbt no one 
cduld fuppofs (Dot evm » Frenciiimn) that county 
'or numerate, could hav0. any cdnpcxion with. 
iliitlacM/Mt : and yet by the help of a litde Gdlic 
alBftance it may be done, thusi nw^cm^w, - undc 
J1vtvf»i, unde JMM, iTMi^/o i then the Fr. Gall. 
compter, center ; cwmU : — Clel. Voc. 1 14. tdls us, 
that " cenfev, cenfiu, capite cenfi (a pleonafm) east- 
vafii^f and comiting, ^I come from ken, iiu, ta 
'the ienfe of fiv btadi telling, or counting by the 
iw4^ :— periiapa they might all be more naturally 
derived from thcfamerootwithCESSMENT:Gr. 

COUNTENANCE properly ought to be writ- 
ten cmtntemnet } 'Twmi, tiv«. Ion. Timw, teueo, eon- 
tiueutia} ^* aliquantum deOevo fenfu, Fr. GaU. 
contenanee ; ojkMkt, gejhts -, q. d. continentia, Jc. . 
viUtis, <i rijk, -ait aiiis minus fsperis gefHbus, ot 
motibni: Sktnn." without the Gr. t to keep the 
face and features in a Jtead^ tou^fed manner : we 
likewife fay to cmattaupue, fwvert : vuitu k. prt- 
pitip, tifflv0abifi\fKOcn\ 9kxjm. 
, COUNTER, e^eurmy ; Aih(«. tnttra -, ajgainft, 
'athtiiart,appf/ftei—weha,vevMiny words in our 
langui^,' beginning with this prepofition, which 
will be more properly found under their refpec- 
tive arricles ; uoleft when the priinitiVes thcm- 
fdves are not in u&; <• in ^ f<rilowing words, 
when compounded. 

COUNTER, or A/J 1^ matfa cMtpntato- 

COUNTER to pUo with I riajratianma, foper 
quari) pecunf^ numerantur: Skinn." who ftiU 
could not find it was Gr, and derived froO) the 
fame root with COUNT, or mtmberi Qr, 

COUNTER-FEIT, quafi «»/«-// j made, ot 
done contrary to law, truth, or reality i and conle- 
quently is CMijpounded of 4rfl«f»-^ii», con^ra-fia^ 
to fonnterfeit. 

COUNTER-PANE, wr?ft«n by Skinn. " fme- 
ter-pain, but properly exf^ained by him, contra^ 
fchedula, antapecba; forte q. d. coatra-^poffnust 
panrnts autem facili metaptiora fcquioribus fsculia 
membranam, feu pellem, fignarc ctrpit ; «ndc or- 
tum eft fr. Gall, panne -, membrana : vide em- 
panncl /"—tnd yet the Dr, coold not fee, or 
would not acknowledge, that this word is ulti- 
mately derived i*fXXK, pellis, paanus ; aJUn, of 
roil, orftrip of parchment, en which the names of 
the jury are written,wben fnmaumedto attend a triaL 

COUNTER-POINT, commonly written and 
[Vonounoed like (omter-pane, bot is derived from 
quite A diflferent fourccj vis. k nwrrofH, pui«o, 
pun^um, " eentra-punSnm j i. e. (ontrariis, «u 
fe invicem decuffautibus futurii eom^unSum, fco 
conjktum ; injlratum, Jtragulum : Skinn." without 
the Gr. i a quilt, or coverlet of ebefker^wtrk, or 
radier, (for the Vft, defioidon is not quiu dear) 

c o 

from OftiiK, tnd Latiw^ 

tc o 

It ftilt tUt is wrmgittliffam m h^pUf.jktiat 
the cMtrmry fitU Mtfiven *MaBfy, or ttnt^vnif it 
its vppofiu ; i. e. wrought through. 

COl/NTER,* frifon: "Sax. cpejitepn, rtr- 
«f J t place of coi^nement : Ray."— but cpcfirepn 
ftems to be nothing more than a difTcFent aiale^ 
(^ career % which is itfelf only a contraftion of 
eeereee, quali carcee : and confcquendy Gr. : fee 

COUN-TRY, " Fr. Gall, centr^ ; Ital. cm- 
trada ; r«i, regie : q. d. Lac. tonterrte \ regieues 
coaierraije, i. c. traSus ierrarum proxime invicem 
fitarum : Skinn." — but terra originates ab Ep« : 
landSt whether eonttguoHS or difiant. 

COUNTRY-rfmirtr; by writing this word in the 
fame nianner with the preceding art. we have 
given fi) ridiculous an appearance to it, as would 
puzzle a dancing-mafter to give any tolerable 
fenfe to a word in his own profellion : but it is 
■ ecym. done will help us both to the true ortho- 
gra[^7i and the true meaning of this expreflion; 
which has been already given under the arc. 

COUPLE, AWTw, d^tf, unde eot^ala, eeptila i 
to Unite, Join, or tie together: vel i DAuui, ^/rfo, 
toatphce ; to fold, or join together. 

COURAGE, K.«f, con the heart ifteut'hearted- 
tufs, valonf. 

COURE doum; K.v(li>{, curvtts, ettrvare; to how, 
hendj or fioDp down. 

COURIER/" Kowfw, ffix"' curro; to run-, 

COURSE S accoraing to the etymologift : 
Nug." — but, notwitbftanding this authority, we 
may very much doubt the dcriv. f6rit feems 
rather too forced a conftra^ion, to derive either 
curro, or eurfus, froin Ktufu, a contraftion of 
Kat^M, which ^^^ni^ts fercurrere peSine telas; to 
weave : R. V.»tf9t, ticiam ; the woof about the 
hemui or the threads of thefouttle : there is how- 
ever fbrne fmall connexion between them> and 
perhaps enough for an etymot.*~it feems more 
natural to fuppofe, that curro might be deduced 
k fm, ruo, eourue, contracted to eurro ; as when 
we fay the eourfe of a river, orfiream ; thejbwing, 
or vtiocity of its carreut, 

COURT of a houfe : " X«f .., rtgio i a diJiriS : 
R. X«f«(, the fame: or from X*f1o{, which Hefych. 
explains by wif^J^n ns MXnt : Nug."— thus far 
fhe Dr. is right; but it wilt Icarce be allowed 
liim, that " court, with r0elf to a king, comes 
from eors, or eobvs, rtgia aula :" for cars, or eo- 
bors, was never afed in that fenfe ;— bcfides, evin 
theni it would originate 2 X»^»k, above » as we 
have feen under the art. COHORT. Gr. : let 
me however join iffue with him agun* when he 
fiiys, that etrs for tortisj w eobws fyt tohtrtts, 

come from K«^<r. eenta i « hafl^, « eagt, ftwn 
Mfkt, feptum (h fhoold have been printed x<^) 
which has been firft applied toiignify ajvd, «r 
plate, where geefe mid fowls etre kept ; as appom 
from this vcnc of Ovid ; 

Abftulerac multas ilia cohortit ores: 
(here again we have another fmall miibkej fiw 
it ought to have been printed, 

Abftulerat multas ilia cohortis aves. 

From this rcfemblance to the flocks of birds chat 
one fees in the yards of houfes, eompaniet affol- 
diers have taken their names of cebortts, accord- 
ing to Varro ,' and from hence alfo, fays Spelman, 
pofteri principum iamiliam et comitatum curtim^ 
feu cortem. Gall, ceur, appeilarunt. 

COURT ff/'^tfr/wBjffi/l*' comes rather from 

COURTESAN }Ku(..,aplaceatAtheM, 

COURTIER J where the magiftratea 

aflembled ; or the affembly itfelf: R. Kufsi, power, 
authority i fentence, determtnatim i Nug."— cer- 
tainly there can be no o^eftion to this deriv. if 
the thing itfelf be a faft j tho* we may rather 
fuMppofe that the word Ku(<a was derived from the 
aflembiy, than the place j bec^fe the affimbly 
was Jb called air* n Kuffm t* if^^jwofla, becaufe 
in tbofe affemblies the people confirmed and ra- 
tified the decrees of the magiftratcs ; or rather 
becaufe thofc alTemblies were held upon «^if*i 
Kufiat, or ttftr^fvai KM »0juijUM, M dtysfiatedj aud 
appointed hy law : R. Ku(i<k, pracipuus, proprius, 
antiquiffimus : as for the word ceurlefan, it may 
fecm ftrange to fee it ranked under this art. but 
ftnce Skinn. has derived it a Fr. Gall, eourjifane i 
leal, eortegiana -, q, d. aulica -, we may fuppofe he 
meant to derive it from the word court i vulga- 
tius autem pro meretrice accipitur 1 quia tSes 
urbana plerumque et ad aulices mores compofita 
funti and perhaps thofe ladies took their origin, 
as well as their denomination, from thence at 
firft, how common foever their profellion and ap- 
pellation has become fince : Cleland (Way 80) 
would derive court from the Celtic word fir} a 
circle, or enclofed place : but CIRCLE is Gr. — 
Since we have in our language many courts, which 
take their denominations from difitreot offices* 
the chief of them are here ranked. 

COURT of J^irntty, curia A^iraUtatis, Gr, 

COURT- 5flro»i curia- Barom's. Gr. 

COURT ff/ CA^firr J curia Cancellaria. Gr. 

COURT-C*rifl/aa -, curia Cbrifiianitatii. Gr. 

COURT of Common Pleas j curia Ptacitorum 
Communium. Gr. 

COURT of Cenfcience ; cstria Cou/cientU. Gr. 

COURT of Delegates ; (siria D'ttegatorum. Gr. 

COURT of Eomty; atria Mquitatis. Gr. 


6 9 


' ^/>.'Gr. . ■ '. ^ ,;; : :/ ; ..",,, . , 

■ COVRT-Leet; curia Lit urrt. Gr. ., 

COURT qf Mayorlity j curia Majeratus. Gr, 
., -CpURT of Peculiars i curia Peculiarium. Gr. 
COURT ef Requejis -, curia R-equi/itionum. Gr. 
COURT, of. Pie Powders, or rather Pie Poudre, 
according to the curious French ' orthography ; 
curia Pedis Pulvertzati .\,the deriv. of this court 
IS (o remarkable, that it has been ranged laft on 
purpofe to be ftfmething more particular in 
tracing the etym. j becaufe the name of it has 
been To ftrangtly mctamprphofed, that at firft 
light, though the reader may know the fignlfi- 
cation of this court, he will fcarce difcover the 
deriv, of it, or think that it caoie from Jtl«s, fes ; 
tbefoot; and Tiithot, pulvis, pulveroi duft, or, to 
make a duft: which two Greek words Haj-nuXef 
^ave given origin tp our Pie-Powder-Courtt thro' 
•the channel ofthe French language:, but though 
wc have gained the etym. we have not as yet 
(hewn the origin of this court i— it literally fig- 
nifics foot-daft ; and took its origin /rem tbe duft 
raijed Jy the feet of rioters, and Jquaiiela-s at 
fairs, marts, and markets, where formerly mer- 
chants ufed, to bring their goods; and where 
very frequently quarrels were made, on account 
of the exorbitant demand, or the defeat in good- 
ncfs of thofe feveral wares : this court was at 
firft ereftcd, to prevent men from literally kick- 
ing up a duft at a fair, or raifmg a duft with ibeir 
feet, during fucb fquabbles, or riots. 

COUTH J " KaBb apud Hefych. pro Aifl-e««1«., 
NoK, fintit, intelligil ; wifdem, and knowledge : 
hinc fortafle fuerit et vox /M.t>xe%t, peregrinus. 
incegnitus i hodieque vu\go uncoulb eft incegnitus, 
inufilatus ; ftrange, foreign, rude : .hxc Cafaub. 
fays Jun." — but this feems to have difpieafed 
Lye J for he adds, " originatie nimis longe petita," 
and therefore he writes it cuth, and fays, " aibil 
aliud efi quam participium. Sax. cySan ; notum fa- 
cere :" Verftegan likewife fuppofes it to be Sax. 
all which may be readily granted, if the Saxon 
word be an original, and not a derivativej which 
may be very much doubted, particularly after 
we find bim writing it Bscouth, and explaining 
it by^w/«/, rudis, novus, infuetus, alienus; Sax. 
uncu^ .eafdem habet fignificationes, et compo- 

■ nitur ex un, et cu^, quod vide in coutbe-, and 
then gives us no fuch word : fo that pow wcare 

' as much in the dark, as ever : — but ftill cu'S is 
not an original word, but feems to be derived a 
Ke9*», as above. 

^.La.tii^ fC -R 

, * eOWDt„ I-cai^nao- chtta.; Dan. h^ 
• COW-JfrJf and Belg. kt^e, qt kot, arc ^ 
- • COW-Zf/Wj&J derived 3. Kuifci^. vel Kw, vte- 
rum gero ; quod pacres noftri, quorum opes po- 
tiffimum confiftebant in gregibus a,tque armeniis, 
rem fuam familiaremex frequentiore buhuli pe- 
coris foetura ingens incrementuni caper? judica- 
rcnt :" — this conjefture, tho' extremely probable. 
Skinner does not admit of; and perhaps he is 
right: however it was worth tranfcribing. - 

COW, to daunt: *' imbellem, et timidum red- 
dere; Suec. kufwa; utrumque ab Iceland it«£«; 
fupprimere, fuhjugare ; nefcio an hue referre liceat 
cotvard; imheilis, tneticulofus ; Lye's Add." « ti- 
morous, fearful man: fee ijext art. 

COWARD, K(«fj cot,.exfors, vecers; heartle/Sf 
out of heart, courage, &c. jt coward being one (fays 
Opt. under the art. hearty) who h/ts a cold heart ; 
cut cor friget: or pefhaps it may be derived from 
Kajtoc, ignavus; a coward: though indeed there 
are feveral other deriv. produced by ojher etymol. j 
and among the reft, Junius tells us, that toward 
is derived 4 caudatus -, qu6d in canibug aliifque 
quadrupedibus, demijfa cauda indubium eft indi- 
cium animi dqefti : confequently now derives 
ab oyj«, Cauda i the tail: — it might not perhaps 
be altogether wrong, if we were to derive toward 
from the fame root with faa/wiw; meaning a 
perfon who is always afting with timidity i who 
is always on the referve ; who is fearful, and ap~ 
prebtnftve of bis own/afety: — hut if fo, it would 
be Gr. ftill, 

. COY : . juniuii, ynder the art, cot, fays, fortafle 
eft a ToHvi, fuperhio: NJcotus quoi ccnfct fcribi 
poJe, tanquam quod failum fit ex quies, quietus ^ 
undc etHifp. retmuerunt fuum quedoj Itali vero, 
licet chete fcribant, pronuntiant tamen, ac fi 
fcriptum eflct keto: coy i fuperbe faftidio/us, etqui 
pauciflimos prs arregantid ullo dignatur rcrponfo: 
— to which let me .add from Skinn. nobis merofam 
fuellam feveritatem, caftitatemque nimium prs Je 
ferentem ftgnificat I ic.qua tacituma/edet, et omni 
lofuild, g^iculatione, prafertim lafdvieri, ftudiofi 
abftinet : (et tamen amat.) but quifs is Gr, 

CRA^i " K«f o^of, carahus, animal marinum i 
cancromm genere : Cafaub." afeafbell-ftJL 

CRAB-applel" forte a Bdg. fclrabbin -, Teut, 

CRABBED ^ fcbrappen; radere,mordicare ; fc. 
a mordicante, acido, aut aufteroj^ore : Skinn." — 
fince this feems to be the true interpretation, let 
me trace the Dr's. etym. a little higher : hr ac- 
knowledges that our viorA fcrape- is derived i 
Sax,8cpeopani Zclg. fcbraef en -, Tt\M. fcbrapfen, 
fcbrappen ; omnia forte (and but a forte) zfcabmdo, 
5 .per 

Digitized by njOOQIC 

c n 

From G R £ £ (£« and L a t i 9* 

C R 

i)cr epenth. « r; from Hence then he ought to 
have proceeded to fcabo^ SLfiaipc\ fcalpo a^xAVJw, 
fedio; fc. unguibus\ to ftratcb :-^to mum now to 
the wtord frai-tf^/lri which, as the Dr. obferves, 
feems to have been called iofrom the rougbntfi^ 
and barfljntfs of its juice ^ as if it rcfped^ and /craped 
the throat j and confcquently ought to have been 
derived from the Gr. IjmstIw, and not from fcabo 
-alone :— now as to " •crahbtd, it evidently origi- 
nates a noftro erab ; quatcnus' pemum Jyhejlre ; 
({. 6. morefus, durus; metaphora fampta i dtiritie 
W nodofitate ijims ligni pra aliis : Skinn." 

CRACK fl/s«<^: "Kf«^c«, Kf«£M: Upt."— tho' 
this deriv. appears very plaufible, yet its propriety 
may be doubted; for Kf*i^*>> K^o^o, figniBes clatM; 
Tit cornixt vet ccrvus croeito: we may therefore 
jathcr derive it i Kf«Mj erepo; to make a loud 
xoifey to crackle in the fire : or perhapi with Jun. 
it may be derived i Kofayef, quod Hefych. ex-- 
ponit 6f«ffTtt (Jfofo;, «i«* *fiMe(, gravis Jlrepitttiy 
veiuti ferr^e \ to fereakt like m /aw. 

CRACKNEL : from the fame root : Gr. 

CRADLE : both Juti/and Skinn, have derived 
this word a K^atlKinu, moveo, agito ; to rock, or 
y&ji* ; but the Dr. dilliking this deriv. brcaufc it 
was Gr. fays, " mallem autem Sax, cpabclc de- 
fleftere Sl cjxaerj carrtu\ addita terminatione 
diminutival q. d. earrulm., \. e. vehiculum in/an- 
tile:" — but this is diredtly a child's caacbt not its 
eradle; which we may rather derive ««■« Tti K^ oThv, 
unde crates, quia lignum unum alterum tenet -, any 
/art 0/ twigs interwoven ; like hurdles, and uicker 
■work i 0/ which it is probable tbo/e machines were 
firfi 0/ alt madty and as th*y are Uktwi/e at prt/tnt. 

CRAFT, f«»»y»g-? Afiln, ars, art/s; a pro/effian, 

CRAFT, trade \ bufine/s, mjfiery, cunning, de- 
eat, and guile : — though with Cafaub. we might 
rather be induced to derive craft, k K(uir7«, ab- 
/eondo; any thing abflrufe, myfterioust or hidden 
from vulgar _figbt : and this derivation would be 
applicable both to trade, and to cozenage % which, 
in.many inftances indeed, have but coo ctofe a. 

CRAG 7 " 'P*x'*> ^P^^ '" """'' procurrens : 

CRAGGY i Upr."— or perhaps from Kfti/Awt, 
■pr^eceps rapes i a precipice : fefe likcwife Sas, Alph. 

CRAKE . 'i'-'^erow^and crow-berries :K7Ly." 

CRAKE-iffT/>J\ — confcquently derived from 
thcfuoie rootwithcitherCROW.oVCROKE: Gr. 

CRAM J Kofiw, /aturo, /alio; particip. pafl". 
K(Mfii/wwr, /aturatus; contracted to crammed; 
quail kecorammed. 

CRAMP "Jboth Jun. and Skinn. would 
. CRAMP-j?y& t derive thefe words folely from 
- CRAMP-zrwjJ the Sax. and Belg. kpamma 
and krampa but they may both be very caHly 

derived i Knftrlu, quafi £^«f*w7«, fieSe:, 'inci&vo, 
conirabo ; to bend, aniraS; as in the ca/eef^jpajm. 

CRANE, tte bird 1 Tt^Mttj by contraiftion, 

CRANE, if^rument ( grus ; a remarkable bird 

X^AliE, machine f in natural hi/lory : "unde 

CRA\iiE out tbe neck } va/is 'epifimaium Belgis 
kratn dicitur, quod re/irat caput grain nifi putes 
defumptum ex Kfoft, fons i quod ex iftin&nodi 
Jipbunculo dolHs immffb, hqnores, vehiti i quadam 
uberrimi /antij fiaturigine affatim prp/tlianti jiw." 
under the art cock. 

CRANIUM, SlfJtMo*, ealvaria; tie 'bone if ■ the 
bead, tbe/kull : R. K^attc, caput; the bead. 

CRAiiY,K^vn,/ens, crenai nsde aqua fidtet ; a 
chink, gap, or flit ; quoniam ex crena, vdlatiqutdam 
fonte, Hquida profiuunt ; vlvum hujus rei. exem- 
plum prffibet calami crena (the flit of a pen) ex- 
pedite devehens atramentum in chaitam Tub- 
jc&am: — the elegance and propriety of this 
thought, or rather fimile, induced ' mc to trao- 
fcribe it from Junius ; tho' Voflius had poecedcd 
him in the ufe of it. 

CRAPULA, Kf flii*<a)i, crapula ; a fitrfeit^ ieaJ-' 
ache, vertigo: hinc K^Mrxxfn, inebriare ; I0 intoxicato, 

CRASH ; fee CLASH, or CRUSH : Or, the 
R and L often interchanging. 

CRASIS, Kf«(rif, miftura ; a conftitutiont Umpe'r 
raturcy or mixture 0/ natural humors, 

CRASSITUDE; Kfi«f, «rtf( creajfus,eri^usi 
gro/s, /atyfle/hy. If. Voffius derives craffus ir^au, 
iiT^iw, eda \ to eat ; cra£itude being the natstral eon/e- 
quence of gluttony, and voracioufne/t. 

CRATCH-cMi//* J K^uIm, prebendoyaf^ebendoi 
quia lignum unum alterum tenet ; undc traiet ; a 
hurdle, rack, or manger ; a play among children, 
to reprefent, by a piece of firing woven toge- 
ther like iMri/Zi-j, the cradle 0/ our Savioia: 

CRATER, Kjtslnf, crater, vas, in que mt/cetur 
vinum ; a bowl, or goblet ; alfo tbe aperture, or 
opening of a volcano. 

CRAW, crop, or mawi K^dltu, ecMliitee% a 
ftomacb to contain the food : tho* with Skinn. we 
may rather prefer K.f»tm,- perflcio, pro conc«)«oi 
to digefl, and not contain alone the food. 

CRAWL ; Junius and Skinner have very pro- 
perly derived crawl a Belg. krielen ; and that again 
^ Lat. grallariy pro gradulari, i. e. gradatim feu 
pedetent m ire : but then this is the utmoft of their 
informations for here^they flop: Voflius how- 
ever will lead us up to the Gr. for he derives 
gradus, and gradior, a K^aJxivu, to walk, to'fitp by 
degrees, to move /kwly.- 

CRAY fl/h 1 K*jjoipo{, cancer quidam \ a- frt/b 
water //b 0/ tb: /pedes r being of he 
erab, U e lohfier, or rather indeed tbe Jhrimp tribe, 
caXXtdi a pravfH, and /ound in frefi) waters.. 

C R 

From Greek, and Latiw. 

C R 

CRAZY J 'Tntrvu, fttyZj frango, fraSus ; crackty 
Or Weken -, like poor Ralpbo's wit j 

His wit was Ceni him for a token ; 
But in the carriage crackf and broktn. 

part I. canto I. 485. 
perhaps our word crazy might more properly be 
derived ab AxfAo-m, e K^ao-Ki <\- d.-AuiDCf«1«r, m< 
temperantia, incontinentia -, a diftemptrature ef mind; 
a Mforder in tbtfenfes: and yet, when we confidcr 
that many of our words have given origin to 
fome proverb, thofe proverbs will frequently help 
tis : thus the former deriv. of craTy may be right, 
from the following proverb in Chaucer, as quoted 
by Junius; fortaflc, fays he, per metaphoram 
defutnptum, ex illo Chauceriano ; , 

I'm ficker that the pot was crafed, 

Cha. Y. pr. v, 225. 
redfi quidem, fays Lye, nam vox eo fenfu non- 
dum abiit in defuetudinem apud Devonienfes ; 
«ft aueem a Gall. ecrafer\ eliderey frangere :■— 
hut this Gall, word ts evidently derived from 
the Gr. as above. 

CREAK, or jhreak \ K^ixu, fonum melejium et 
ndisfum edo ; Upt. and Cafaub. to make a /creaming, 
Mfagruabk neije. 

CREAM ; perhaps from TUff^vh*, farina crajfter; 
the ebeicefi fart ef flour ; as cream is the choiceji 
part of milk: it is remarkable, that neither the 
'Greeks nor Romans fhould have had a word to 
exprefs what we call cream ; in Lat. it is very 
poetically ftiled ftes laSIis, et deUcia laiiea; the 
flower of milk, and milky fweets : fince therefore 
eremor is the niodern Latin word for cream, we 
may rather with Voflius derive it a Kfivw, cemo, 
fefUHgo, fepare i quia eft pingue illud quod d lade 
fecersitur j the ricbefl part ef milky that feparates^ 
and rifes to the top. 

CREATOR \K.^ixn<j,perficiOy cret; to produce, 

CREATURE 5 accomplifl},make perfeSi. 

CREDIT T^mihi autem maximc placet, fays 

CREED S Voff. effe a x^^»), creds, mutuo do; 
quod qui facit, etiam Latinis creditor vocatur : 
« ptrfon wbo places a trufl, or confidence in another. 

CREEK, or barhouri Kjokh, Uttus\ the Jbore, 
oriank, qiiam aqua maris alluit; arr/fmall nook, 
v)afbt by the fed. 

CREEP, 'EgTTu, ferpo, repo •, quafi erepo > to 
trawl; to Jlide en the ground, asferpentsdo. 

CREEPER, K-^inrn J crep-da ; a kind of patten. 
. CREEPERS, or rather creekers, " Kjf>t«, vel 
KfiKDi, inter alia (nam muka figniBcaiit) ab 
Hefychio ^rxponunlur, d^vayity k»i irxvla rti iwc 
xafj.rn, i. -e.. harpagones ; et in geiicrc quicquid 
aduncum eft: Cafaub." crooked irons, made ufe ef 
to dra^ up any thing from the bottom of wells ; Sec. 

CREET ? Kf«1i«, prehendo; qma Ugnum unam ah- 

CRETE I tcrum tenet ; unde crates % a hitrdlei 
or wattled bafket. 

CREPUSCU-LUM i K«$«r, quafi Kfij«f, 
crepus\\in^^ crepufculum; hinc crepera-Xunn, dubia 
lux i lumin ; doubtful Ught, in the evening after fun-fet a 
and in the morning before fun-rife, called ttei-liebt : 
fee TWI-LIGHT. Gr. 

CRESCENT J Kfi«i, Kifon-KUjuii ir8o\ earri. 

CRESSES J unde creafco, crefco ; to increafe^ 
to grow J a plant, and herb that quitkfy fprings. 

CREST, " KftMt, caput; the head; quafi 
Kf Kara, unde erifta i Becm." vel h Ki^xt, cornu t 
a hem ; quod in capittbus fit eomietthm, quafi 
cerifla,€.t contra^tius crifia t M. quod ipfe magis 
probo; faysAinfw. a tuft, or plione^ on the cme 
ef a helmet: but If. Vofll derives it a Kofuf,, 
Kof uro-w, galea, cajfts ; an helmet, 0^ ornament upon it. 

CRETACEOUS, cr«/« J cbalk; from KpnTa, 
the Ifland Crete, in the Mediterranean.. 

CREVICE } " Kftit«, crepe, i. c. defilie, debifcoe 
Lye." — to chink,, or gape : or perJiaps crevice may 
be derived a ertna, quafi, crenavice, contraded to 
crevice, oe creafe : et erena, fays Voff. quafi Kjnjn^ 
fens; qu'ta. tx crend, vcluti fonie, liquida fluunt j 
u£ atramentum calamo.: aa wc have hintcdundcf 
the art. CRANY : Gr. 

propTih i. fi)nus incendilus, lumultus; Cafaub." a 
ccnfufed noife, a hubbub, clutter, or croud, 

CRIB /o eat out ofi " K.aiwfi,. pr<t/epe ; a mana- 
ger: Cafaub." 

CRIB to lie in : K^iit^»1»t, vel K(«Pf3«To(, graha- 
tus I a couch, or fmall bed to carry from place to 
place : this word, aa well as many others, will 
ferve to ihew the great ufe of etymology j for it 
is not OEthography alone that can fet us right io 
the meaning of many words, becaufe orthography 
is various, and Bui^uating : it is not a fimilartty 
of letters that will conftitute true dcrjv. j for if 
we were to attend to the letters alone, m^ would 
originate a KfiPawE, but TLg^etm idem eft quod 
KAi(3«»o5, in que hordeum coquitur, fernax, caminus t 
a furnace, ftove, or oven; all which are far enough 
from the fenfe of a manger, bed, or couth ; and 
confequciHly cannot have given origin to our 
word crib : — neither, may fome objectors oppofc, 
can it be derived from Kf«^«1iic, for then it ought 
to have been written crab, not crib: to which it 
can only be replied, that when words anfwcr 
ex^SUy, or aearly to each other in fenfe, it is 
not fo abfolutely neceffary that there (hould be as 
ftrift a conformity in their manner of orthogra- 
phy i for length of time, various dialefts. a dif- 
tinftion of appearance, and a number of other 
incidents may occur, to introduce a change in the 

C R 

From G R E e Kt and L a t t li. 

C ^ 

orthography of a word ; but it js fenfe alone 
muft fix the etymology. 

CRIB, or fieal \ " Kfu*-1«i-, ahfcondtre \ vel 
£Anr7Kv, furari % from whence alfo to clip (the 
coin) : Upt." 

CRIBLE, K^r, bordetttn; harley % or bran mixl 
mtb fiour : though perhaps it might more pro- 
perly be derived from Kj it^u, cerne, cribro -, to 
Jift J unde cribrum ; a feive : becaufe it is a cear/e 
kind ef bran, Jifttd and fiparaled from the finer 
fiour : only Clcl. has derived the verb K-^mu, from 
the Celtic. 

CRICK, or creek in the neck, S Kf*xw, fino j te 
track s Jfafmus., feu tetanus levior cervicss, <J fere 
tenuit et moiili, vel a ftatu ; fie diAua forte quia 
cerviXy durante hoc dolere, videtur quafi difrumpi, et 
defiUre (fonitu) Skinn. vel a Kji^w, ftriderem edo ; 
idem ; to make a /napping, cracking noife. 

CRICKET, "Kftxwp, K^i(^,K^iyn, flridor,fono; 
Cafaub. and Upt." — a neify inje&. 

CRIME, Kfr^ix, trimm : " verum quia qui 
Judicat, h litem feparat, ac verum falfr difiinguit; 
bine fa£tum eft ut 'E^ivm, fecundarid ponatur pro 
Judicare; a qua figniftcatione eft Gnecorum K^r^**, 
pro judicie, et Latinorum crimen, pro deli£lo; quia 
ab crimen aliquis judicatur, ac damnatur : VolT." 
— flffy aSlion, er offence of ji heinous nature, that in- 
curs the cenfure of the law, and the fentence of the 
jtidge. Clel. Way. 80, fays, that the Celtic «>, 
a circle-, is radical to the Latin curia \ to crimen, 
and to the Gr. TL^mXv, radically KtemtXv, to judge, 

CRIMSON, cbermes, unde chermefini vox ; 
feu potius cbarmefinum, contracted to crimfon ; 
that beautiful red color, produced from the Ktjncsf 
^Btfixn, or dying grain : " Salmafius fane non mali 
noftrum crimfon, et Fr. Gall, cberme defleftit ab 
antiquo Fr. Gall, guermes ; hoc eft a Lat. vermes: 
vide VERMILION: Skinn."— but ^ermw, and 
Virmilitn, are Gr, 

CRINGE, Kfuvjw, eccubo ; or Kun-lw, cumbo^ 
atbo; demijfoy et inclinato corpore fervililer venerari; 
Soflocp, and meantf bow dovBti, 

CRIPPLE, Kapirlw, quafi Kf«/*»-7w, crample, 
cripple \ fieSe, curve ; to bendy ftoop, go lame, or 

CRISIS of a diflemper, Kjiitk, a Kjiru, judico : 
unde crsfisy merbi folutia, aut mutatio in melius, 
deteriujve j the precife moment of a diforder, when 
it begins to change^ and we are able to judge and de' 
ttrmine, whether it be for better or worfe : it is 
alfo ufed in a political fenfe, for an immnent 

CRISP 1 vel ^Kfis-a-er, Viir/iif; varices 

CRISPED locks- > funt vena tumid^e^ contorta- 

CRISPIN G-zz-ow J que ; 'Veins tyjtfted and en- 
. tangled together ; but If, Voff. morejuftiy derives 

it from i T« Kff« nrret, qui cHnes habit ovtum'tifi 
flar velleris ; a head ef hair, curled like a fleece of 
wool. There is however another deriv. given by 
Ger. Voff. de Permut. Ut. viz. erifpus a Khittos'; 
though I can find no fuch word ; perhaps it 
ought to have been printed Eciro;, as it-is pro-' 
perly printed in the work itfelf ; ftd fignificatid 
abire videtur, nempe concifum, abrafum : — we 
make ufe of this word in the fenfe of ftiort and 
brittle ; as when we fay a crifp cake, &c. Shake-*' 
fpear, in his Tempejl, A<5t IV. fc. 3, has given ic 
ftill another fenfe ; where he makes Tris fay. 
You nymph^ called nai'ds of the winding 
brooks, [looks. 

With your fedged crowns, and ever harnilei* 

Leave your crijp channels. ■ 

And Milton likcwife has ufed it in the fame fenfe, 
in the following paflage; 

But rather to tell how, if art can tell. 

How from that fapphir fount the crifped brooks 

Ran neftar. Par. Loft. B. IV. 236. 

CRITERION ?Kf.1tif.o», ftnfus, et pars dnimi 
CRITIC $ rerum judicatrix, et arhiira ; 

judgement, difitnSion, difcernment : R. K^iixii, jad. ce i 
to judge, determine. 

CROAK as a frog; Ko<s^, vox ranarum } apud 
Ariftoph. in. Ran. Upt." — the noife of frogs. 
CROCK "iK^uavttj oUa, tydria, vas aqua-* 

CROCKERY S rium; an earthen pot, or «»/ 
veffel madeof earth: fee CHROCK, when it fig- 
nifies color. Cafaubon derives our prefent word 
crock a Kwfuxof, pera, facculus, propric coriaceas^ 
ad (ujlodienda, et circumferenda cibaria aptus ; unde 
crock Anglis olla,in qua ctquuntur carnes \ an eartheit 
pot to boil meat in. 

CROCODILE i " Kf«xoJW«, croeodiltts (an amJ 
phibious animal of Egypt, and fuppofed to de- 
rive its name) from Kfox*?, cncus ; faffron; and 
A«Ae(, timidus J fearful; becaufe the crocodile is faid 
to be afraid of faffron : Nug." — this deriv. is ra- 
ther doubtful ; becaufe we cannot but fitppole 
that the erocodile muft have been known, in Egypt 
at leaft, and muft have had a name, long be- 
fore this antipathy againjl faffron could have been 
difcovered in bim, or before a fufficient dofe could- 
bave been adminifiered: — neither is the Dr's. fccond 
deriv. fatisfaftory, viz. " or elfe from Kfoxw, ///_ 
tus; the fkore \ becaufe the fea-croeedile is afraid 
of the Jhore:" — becaufe this is the firft time I' 
ever heard of a Jea-crocodite ; which is defcribcd 
»% a river animal of an amphibious nature, living 
fometimes in water, and iometimes on land ; fo 
far is he from being afraid cfthejhere : there may 
indeed be fome of thefe creatures, as well as alle- 
gators, found at the mouths of large rivers } but 
perhaps they were never feen at any great diftancc 
R a r^ out 

M,z dh>LnOOgIe 

C R 

From Greski and Latik. 

C R 

out at ftA \ fo far as to deferft the name of fe*- l 
(TModiUs, in contradi(tin<^ion to land-c otodiUs z 
bafides, were even this true, that the name ofj 
trctadih was given to thofe airimaU from K^mD] Hi' 
ms\ ibejbom and Attf^ts, timidus ; fearful; how 
very improper would it be to apply this very 
same to the laad-crocediie, which inhabits rivers, 
and is known to be as much on land, as in water ? 
—in Jhort, the name of crocodile feems to be in- 
tircly an Egyptian wordy or name for that crea- 
ture i and confequently that all farther fearch 
after jts Greek etym. would be fruitlefs. 
- CRCKUS, K£«os, (rem \ faffron. 

CROISADEKometimes written crafade: Kf.g, 

CROISES i )tf*Het» crux, cruHs \ undc f r. 
Gall, croifadii expeditio bellica a Papa, religi- 
onisergo, indiflai in qua quilibet miles Jignum 
cruets in tunica gejil, in tejferam facts militut : a 
military expedition^ in which tbefoldiers wore tbejtgH 
of the crofs on thiir ireafis and backs ; this expedition 
vas begun about the year 1095, thirty years af- 
ter t^e Norman conqueft, and was undertaken 
by the ^pe, againft the Turks and Sarazens in 
Palefline> at th( city of Jerufalem : and therefore 
called the holy wan which drained all Europe 
■ ^oth of men and money to no manner <^ purpofe. 

CROKE Hit a raven •, " K^»^«, crocito, ui 
etrvns; Ital. creeort ; AriftopK. Plut. 369 -, otf i 
Itf w^wT : Upc." t9 make a hoarfe rough noife. 

CRON^ KfOMtj fenex wurofus; fatuus, et deti- 
nts : an ill-natured old fellow ; ahb an old ewe. 

CROOK ?" KifKW, vel KfiKw, inter alia, 

CJRPOKEDi nam multa fignificant, ab He- 
fychio exponuntur. 'Afitwyis, n«i ir»i}» (viKopvit, 
i. e. harpagones, et in geherj, quicquid aduncum efi : 
CalautK" — but perhaps fl«r_/6fpifr(i'j crook may be 
derived cither from Kgif, k^ixo;, fr«x, truds : or 
as we might rather derive it by tranfpoAtion frcMn 
ILvfat, quafi Kguxl^fs curvus ; crooked t becaufe it 
has a croaked piece of iron, fafiened at the top^ to 
eatch thejheep with. Clcl. Way. 79, would per- 
fuade us, that crooked was entirely Celtic, quafi 
dr-ooiedi and confequently derived from the 
fame fource with cir, circle ■, meaning whatever is 
kentt or bowed in a circular form i i.e. Gr. ftill. 

CROP of corny " ^.ti^msi fruQus in gOHere quivis. 
Cafaub." all produce of the land. Clcl. Voc, 209; 
fays, -that *< er^ is 00 more dian a contradion of 
ear-ript or rather ceT'riap : cer^ the com (whence 
Ceres) and reap, to cut, or feparate ••"—this deri- 
vation can be applicable only, to a crop of com ; 
but we ufe it in general for all fruits i and there- 
fore it would be better to derive it by tranfpolttion 
*' a Ko^w^at, vel Kofri^i^ nempe a K«^v«c, quafi 
KfOT-K, quod cum junSuram mantis, tumfru3um 
Tignificat: VoJ31"— ^lut cvcngraooog this learned 

Celtic his own deriv. that crop Ihould come from 
cer-reap, ftill both thofe words are Gr. 

CROP, QT graze,'S.97c\ia, fciade i to cuty cbew, eat. 

CROP, or fumtnit jKofu^, vertex, cacumen: 

CROPPLE-freK'Hft/ S oHm troppe, faysCafaub. 
pro quavis ah AngUs fummitase ufurpatum ; arrf top, 
or fummit % perhaps what is meant now a days by 
COPPLE-fr«t>»^*/ .- Gr. 

CROSIER iKfig, Kfixof, eruxy crucis; a crofs, 

CROSS V or fljpr two pieces of wood, timber^ • 

CROSSLET 3 &c. fafitned athwart each ether. 

CROTCHET, or wbim % Kf u)r7ar, Kf uV?oi, Kf «»- ' 
%i crypta \ occalius ; hence the barbarous French 
grolefque, quafi eretej^ue ( ridicule, bizarre, exlra-^ 
vagant (with truth may it be applied) " fie enim 
di^x fculpturx, vel pt6lurie inartificiofEe, et nul- 
lis rcgulis aft:ri6i:a:, fiepe etiam ridicuU ; tales 
enim figurx olim in cryptis potiflimum fculpti 
folebant ; imo tales etiam fponce natunc, aque 
ftillicidiis faxa variis modis adedentibus, fsepe 
efformatfe funt: Sktnn. grote/k :" — zxidi from 
painting transferred to thought, with a fmallvaria- 
tion in writing it, grotefque, to crotefque, or crotchet, 
to fignify any wild humor, whim, or extravagant 
fancy; any fudden fiart of imapnation, formed with- 
out reafen, foundation, or reality. 

CROUCH (Uwn, the fame as couch down t 
KutTu, cumbo, cubo i to lie down, fquat down, floop r 
or perhaps from K^ukIw, eceuUo ; to hide, or bend 
fo low as not to befetn. 

CROUCHED /wwj, or as they may very pro- 
perly be written crutehed friers, if there were 
not too great a fimilarity between that word> 
and crutthes : but thefe friers did not go upon 
crutches ; they werefratres cruce_fignati 1 and wore 
the fign of the crofs, becaufe they attended tbf 
arnrf to the hofy war ; which has been already 
mentioned, under the art. CROISADE : Gr. 

CROUD, or fiddle, Kf»u, pulfo,ferio\ to firikf, 
or fcrape the ftrii^s : " Kf i/^iaAofs "fWf*, crembala 
pulfare; njii wSv^m xfjcw, citbM'am pulfare : IL^ifMty 
fonus qui editur cum organorum muficorum puifatione :■ 
Cafaub." hence Butler's famed Creudero, 

CROUD, or ibroMg i " JOwpw*, imprefionem fa- 
cere bofiili modo \ vtolenter trudere ; to thrufi, pi^y 
or Jhovt : Cafaub." "hoc malo," continues be> 
" quam ex Kf su, fu^a ; quod aliis placuit." 

CROW, bird ; " Km«£, quafi K^e*^, corvut, 
quafi erovMS : Upt." ** interto v confono," fays Voff. 
" quomodo ab Taa, ^Iva -, A««f, Uvis .-'i— he like- 
wifi: fuppofes that Ke^«£ itfdf is derived i Ko^of^ 
niger i black : fo that this bird receives its name 
from ita color (not its n«fe, like the frogX 

CROW, like a cock I either from K^o^w, ciamai 
or from K^Mvyn, fiamor v ">]' /mi^^ >Zr>/f noife ; to 
taU akud. 

Digitized by 



C R 

From G R E E 1^ and Latin. - 

C R 

CROW tf iron.: " i Kga<^ fulfa \ M kmfk^ or 
Break open : or elfe from Xvgtiv, impr^S*a»em faure 
hofiili me4o ; Cafaub." to make a violent attack upon. 

CROWN, or top, eftbe bead; Kt^uva., Hcfychio 
funt u'ljfliAa, alta^ celfa : poteft etiam pciitgm crown 
videri ex Kf«wo*, calvaria, vel caput : or pflr- 
haps it may be derived from the fame root with 
a CROWN te wear; as in the following art. 

CROWN to wear:— Cieh Way. 79, tells ms, 
that " carona {he might have added Kn^wtt) 
comes from fwiKi'M,. contracted to crown; notcrown 
from corona':*' and inVoc. 46, he obferves, that 
'.' the Bgure of the crown, being circular, was 
held f(k facred, that it wa« fuperftitioufly affected 
under the form of that clerical tonfure on the 
fummit of the head, which from that particular 
circumftance of its reprefenting a crown, is at 
this moment preferved by the Rumilh pricfts, 
and giyes by metonymy the general name of the 
trowtt of the bead ■" — but even, according to this 
idea, corewn may have derived its denomination 
from its, etJcotnpaffing, eneirciing, Qi furroundiug the 
head ; and confequently may come 4 ru«e;, Tu^m, 
gyrus i a circle, or ringUt of gatd : fee lomething 
remarkable concerning this word, under the art. 

CRUCIATE, Kfig, Kf.Ke(, a-uXt CTHciatts; 
trucified, tormented, put tepain. 

CRUCIBLE; from the fame root} quia in 
crucibulo, metalla quafi excruciantur \ i. e. vaUdo 
igne eliquantur ; vel, ut chemici loqui amant, caUi- 
nanlur ^ to melft torture, and torment metali ever 
ibe fire. 

CRUCI-FIXION, K^.g, xf.Mt, et Tuyw^u., crux- 
^Ot crucifixtts ; faftened, or naiied to a crofs. 

CRUDE 7 KfuttJof, KfuJoc, cntdus : JL^m, 

CRUDITY J aJgoTt rigor-, gtlu j cold, imma* 
turty ill digejiien, raw burners. Clel. Voc. 169, 
ftys, " iruid, the antienc word for green (it is to 
be hoped he did not mean itrimy as to color 
alone) and (till ufed in Germany, and other coun- 
tries, is one of thofe archaifms of which Virgil 
was fo fond, that it made him forget he was 
committing a pleonafm when- he faid. 

Jam fenior, fed cruda dco, viridif(\ae fenc6tus, 
Mn. VL 304. 
eruday and viridis are tjiere ftriftly fyooiiymous ; 
(and conloiuently not littretfy green) VrWdpucUa 
viro : all fignifying cruydy or green (but ftill not 
Uteraltf green) ( erudus has indeed other figoifica- 
tkuia :"•— and coniequeotly, may be derived as 

CRUELTY, Kf u«,/»^{w ; unde K-o«f«, /rrjt». 
Jhs \ uodc cruoTy crudiusy crudeHs ; ,ut a fdus, fdt- 
Us : critdfibs igitur qui erudit moriius i hoc eS 
favist criuremque Jitientikusi ofaxudt^favage dt^r 

^itoity like « mldheaji always revingy anitbirfiing 
for blood. 

CRU£T, Ti^Kiroiyollayphiala; a fmall glafs, to 
bold oil, vinegar, &c. fee CRUSE. Gr. 

CRUMB, or bit}" Sax. cpuma; Bcig.kruymti 

CRUJMBLE S Tcut. krueme, krummel : 
nefcio an hrec omnia i Lat. gramas .- Skinn." — 
and had-^ramtfj ever borne any idea fimilar to our 
word crumb, or bit, it might have beeri adopted i 
but when the fuppofed original, and its deriva- 
tives carry different fignificalions, then we may 
always doubt, and often rejeft fuch etym. — per- 
haps opf word" crumb; or bit, is no more than a 
tranfpofitipn ofMix^^t, qoiCi K^ep.K, parvuf ; little; 
converted firft: to cromis, contracted then to croms, 
and'changed afterwards to crumbs. 

CRUMB of o A;*/? perhaps ^grnmusi a hillock 

CRUMBY S of earth; alutUp, or tuft; 

it being a light fui^nccy wd puffed up by fermenta- 
ti^: rf8j«», Hefych. exponit £lfopiXe», 6jef*[3o;, 
locus edituj i any emijuncey or fwelling. 

CRUMP, crooked: " K«p7rV, curvo, infitSa; 
undc crump-backed, crtimp-fhouldered : Cafaub." — 
or perhaps i KufW, by tranfporuion K^uxlos, vel 
Kf ufni7of, curvus i crookedy bent, bowed. 

CRUMP, or crufh ; Kfau, quafi Kf«/*«-w, coUid?, 
frango i to beaty or grind fmall \ break between 
the teeth. 

CRUMPLE, 'V<^^i,'ruga; quod r^a culim vtl 
vejiem in plicas contrahat j corrugo ; te draw up into 
wrinkles : thefc two laft words, crump and crump- 
led, like crifp, and crifped, fcem to bear two dif- 
ferent fignificationsj particularly the former i as 
when we fay crump, or crifp. 

CRUPPER, '* K^tnr'f, bafis, ftmdamen \ unde Fr. 
Gall, eroupiere ; Ital. cropiera, creppa ; cajidale,fiic- 
eauda ; caudale enim eft quafi bajis et fundamen 
felU: Skinn." the tail. 

CRURAL, r«u, Ti-o, etrwt, crusy cruris; the 
legy the knee ; alfo tbe binder leg^ or the both of a 

CRUSADE: fee CROISADE r though in- 
deed this comes more naturally from, ctua % as the 
other from K^f . 

CRUSE i^«7i Kgwyoft oltajhydricvasfiaHe^ 
aveffel of glafs-, earth. Sec. t» contain any Itquid. 

CRUSE, or fail ; fometimes written eruifet 
.perhaps from K^tf, Kfixofi crux, cruets, curfunt 
obliquare i to crofs up and down ; b> fdh this way 
and that. 

CRUSH, fcen» to he only another dialeft for 
er^fit i and cn^ is- the fame* as elafi, which ori- 
ginates i SA^^, KAet^w, SJ>Mri», cl'i^-y tr.afit, cru/b '^ 
the / and r often interchanging. 

CRUST of bread, ^aerm^fruffum, quaUfn^JtfWt 
or ^o(a £A«7jMs q^w Efw^fc, frt^yuntum ; a\ 

C broken- 

c u 

From GJiEE-Kj and Latin. 

C U. 

gir-y-aid\ a. preacher <^ the faith of thtxhurcbt or 
ill a cburcbt has nothing to do with that forced 
Latinifm the care xsi iaoh :"— bur ftill ij is Gr. 
for cuft <ir, iirk, circle, are all derived 4 Ktjx-w, 
iirctu I a circle ; the rorm in whidi churches were 
antiently built. 

CURB, "KufPif, etKofiSaf.Athcnienfibus dice- 
iMintur tabuU irianguU fyramidales, quibus infcripta 
erant leges latie ad bemnum improHtatem reprimh- 
dam : ■ Jun." — but there is no need of -having re- 
courfe to fo diftant a Ggnification, fince both 
himfelf and Skinner have given us a much nearer 
etytn. tho' they have flopped fliort of the i>ri- 
glnat; viz. fay they, " a Fr. Gall, ctmrken cnr- 
vare \ et Hifp. ctrbsr % quse manifeftfi funt a Lat. 
turvare :" and that is moft manifcftly derived a 
Kuflof, curvus : — there is however ftitl another 
deriv, juft hinted to me by the Dr. ; for he has, 
a little before, explained cttr& by cobiiere ; this 
indeed is not produced as the enie etym. notwith- 
ftanding the apparent connexion between them, 

CURD ; by tranfpofition evidendy derived i 
Kfvflf, quail Kuf Jo{, frigus ; et Kf uipsf, frigidus ; 
unde crwr; which, (as Voflf. and-Jun. veryjuftly 
obferve under the art. cruel) differs from fanguis 
in this, *' qu6d fanguis etiam fit eutn vents infit; 
cnior autem dicatur pofiquam effufus venis, et jam 
reaguletus f— from this appearance, or rather 
conliftence of blood, when cold, and thus ceti' 
geaiej, our words curd, and curdle, have un- 
doubtedly taken their origin : we cannot therefore 
fuppofe with Skinn. that '* fortean derivari poflit, 
per metath. a verbo te crowd, i. e. premere, cogere; 
■quafi diAum crowdle ;"— if the antient, and true 
orthogr. were to be admitted, it ought to be 
CRUD, and CRUDLE j but cuftom has efta- 
■blifiied CURD, and CURDLE i and provided 
we do but know the true etym. the prefent or- 
thogr. may pafs. 

CUR-FEU-^/// J Ahjw, AFftfu, aperio, unde 
co-operio, contracted to cur\ unde cover: ti put, 
fuffKM, peayu, uro; unAc focus : cooperio-focos, d\(- 
torted by the glorious French to cur-feu : " cam- 
pana qua moxet eubitum ire, exlinSis ignthus, et 
lucevKii : Skinn." — or, as Junius has more eJe- 
ganriy defined it, " cur-fiu-hHl dicebatur olim 
eampana per oppida et civitates circa horam ofta- 
vam vefpertinam pulfata, monens oppidanos ut, 
igne uhique ebfiruSlo (ccSperio) fepultoquc, rcci- 
perent fc intra privates parietes : igni-tegium ;" — 
cover fire; a cuftom introduced after the Norman 
conqueft, in order to prevent fires, thofe dread- 
ful calamities, from io frequently happening in 
the niglit. 
• " CUKL ; Tufew, Ti-fof, gyrus, quafi gyurl; curl; 
any thing twif.ed, or turned round. 

CURRY /tfwr ,• ftmc have fuppofed this w- 
prefTion to b« degenerated from, carry-faveur, or 
carry fair; neither of which is right} for as 
Skinn. has very properly defined it, by hlandiri^ 
gratiam captare ; fo he has as properly derived ic k 
Fr. Gall. querir\ Lat. quarere : — only now it 
were to be wiflied he had as .properly derived 
quaro ab Bfoj»M, vd &f«i1«^, Efw, qUtera, orf, dico \ 
tofeek, entreat, imphre, a/kffivor> 

CURSE; *' K«1af«(rft«t, impreearii maledicere \ 
folec ri K«I*, in compofitione comrahi quafi ex 
Kftpp'(t<r4«t, aliquem extcrari ; Cafaub." to utter im- 
precations : — but Clel. Voc. 114, is of opinion, 
that this word is purely Celtic ; for he obferves, 
that '* from the Druidical word curfes can\c the 
antient Roman fentence, banifhmcnt, or interdic- 
tion, ad atjud, et igne, which was implicitly « 
kir-ifl},, curfe, or exctmmuniealion :" — here 1 am 
forry to diffent from this great and judicious 
critic in Britilh antiquities in this -point j for, 
whatever language the word eurfe may have been 
derived from, the cuftom of interdicting, ab aqui 
et igne, was eftablilhed among the Romans fo 
high as in the time of Romulus ; for after the 
ravilhmcnt of the Sabine women, Dionyfius 
Halicar. book II. fee. 30, fays, " that Romulus, 
taking ah account of their number, ic was found 
to amount to fix hundred and eighty-three i he 
(Romulus) then chofc an equal number of un- 
married men, to whom he married them, each 
according to the cufiems of their refpeftive coun- 
tries i which he confirmed by granting them* 
communication of fire and water ; in the fame man- 
ner as marriages are performed, even to this 
day :" — now, Romulus lived ^out 700 years be- 
fore Chrift J i. e. above 650 years before the Ro- 
mans knew any thfogt of Britain, or the cuftoms 
of the Celts : this^ cuftom of contraAing mar- 
riages by the ufc of fire and water, (or the com- 
mon elements of life) gave rife, fays Mr. Spel- 
man in his notes, to the interdicting a banifhed 
perfon from the ufe of fire andwaier: — it is very 
remarkable however that this compound kir-ijb 
fliould be Gr. ; for kir is evidently derived 4 
Kifxw, circus; a circle; meaning the kirk, or 
church, or feciety, to whidi the perfon belonged : 
and ip is as evidently Gr. being derived ab iSwj 
fli£>t, a 617^, Tango, taglus \ vel ab E.k«, prneteriio 
verbi h/ti, mitto; unde ico, icor, iiius ; firickcn, 
firuck, cr driven out : that is, a perfon banifijed 
out of the community, or curfed. 

CURTAIL i " Kvflof, cm-tas-i carom \ btnltjhert" 
eaed, bob-tailed: Voir." 

CURTAIN ?X«fTef, corttHa, qua einSa 

CURTAIN-/;/?tfwJ ejt cars; an enclcfure, or 
fecret place, from whence the oracles ufed to be 


c u 

From Grebk, and Latih* 

c w 

dfelivered ; and within which they arc fomeiimes 
even to this day heard : Servius fays, difta vi- 
detur cortina^ quafi certina i quod ceria illinc 
refponfa funduntur,: — but this is rather playing 
upon words, and might be as applicable to any 
other place: afterwards he derives it from corium; 
which is not quite fo diftant : but Xofl»s is un- 
doubtedly the original word ; and yet there is 
another deriv. produced by Skinn. *' poteft cur- 
tain deflefti a Fr. Gall, convert j Ital. ceperta \ 
pperimentum^; addita terminatione diminutiva, tne, 
vel ina ; contra£tum fc. a cowoertine ; Ital. coper- 
tina i q. d. a Lat. co'dperla, co'dpertina, cortina ; 
'curtain: — if now this Ihould be rather preferred, 
then we have only to (hew that ccoperta is derived 
from the Greek ; which has been already done, 
under the art. COVER : Gr. 

CURTIUEGEj curtilegium i a garden^ or piece 
of ground, behind a boufe. 

CURVATURE) Koflot, turtu$% quod^ol. fit 
CURVET I Ki^fjTof, vel KufPoj, curvus; 

henty bowed, crooked: Voff. vel curous S Tujor, 
rotundus, in orbeitt verfo. Skinn. has deduced 
earvet ab Ital. corvettare, corbettare., faltitare ; cer- 
vetta, falluj ; fie diAus ^uia equus, franum attrC' 
hetidoy ad bunc medum excitatur: — it is not derived 
from curhy or refirain^ as he feems to hint by 
fr^num atirahendo \ but. from fertwi bccaufc the 
torfe in that aflion bows, or bends down as it 
vaere : nay, tho' it ftiould be derived from CURB, 
ftill it would be Greek. 

CUSHION; " Kuircj, et Kuirrafoi, nates, podexi 
quod nalibus commode excipiendis apparentur 
puhinaria : Jun." — literally a bum-pillow j— not- 
wilhftanding the propriety of this deriv. Lye 
fccms to have been diflatisfied with it, and fays, 
" reftius fortaffe Skinn. qui omnia vult fafta i 
Lat. coxa, tbe hip ; q. d. coxina ; quia coxis^ i. e. 
natibus fuhfternitur :" — but coxts was never yet 
underftood in the fenfe of nates : belides, a cufhion 
was never defigned to be placed on the hips : nayj 
even granting that cuJhioH was properly derived i 
cexa, ftill it would be Greek j as VoHlus has 
(hewn under thai art. 

CUSTARD, " Kurifw, Hefychio funtTufi«T«., 
eafeoli: Jun."— literally Jmall ebee/es; or ebeeji- 
eakes ; ubich might be Jo called from their likenefs to 
new-made cbeefe; and tufiards, being alfo a [pedes 
of cbeefe-cakts, they might have received their name 
from thence- 

CUSTODY, " KfrfiPJt, Kfl^>f«, a K>i^ot, cura 
Knftftm, curt : If. Voflf." to have tbe care, or charge 
of any per Jen-, or thing .—but Gerard derives it h 
tort, et a^Oi quali ceefies, cujtos; tufiodia :—con- 
Icquently would then originate ab Ir>t,ui, unde 
Sv(w-«(ar«1)K : tho' Cle). Vdc, 66, is of opinion. 

that " cufios, and cu^odia, derive from HJiy or 
cheji, boXy or coffer, to lock or keep any thing 
■ :"--ftillGr. 

CUSTOM, " Euw, EuK*,- fueo, confuetus \ aecuf- ' 
tomed, frequented, reforted to : VofT." 

CUSTOM-iea/i i if not derived from the fore-' 
going root, it may perhaps originate S Kwo-o;, 
cenftts ; a tax, toll, or tribute. 

CUT, " Kairiuy fcindo; to chop, cleave, or divide: 
Cafaub. and Upt.'* 

CUT A^'EOVSliwIot, fcutum, cerium : vel I 
CUTICLE S K«J«, ..... 

rind, or covering. 

^u1«f , corpus i the JHn, hide. 

CUTH-BERT, or as it is fomctimes written • 
and pronounced Cutberd: Verftegan acknowledges' 
that " cuth fignifies cunning, knowledge \ and bert^ 
he fays, " is only an abreuiation of /o be right \ fo 
that Cutb-bert importeth afmuch as knowing ^bat 
is right ;" but both CUTH, and RIGHT, areGr* 


CUTH-RED S — halfGr. half Sax. 
.CUTLASS; fometimes written curtelafs; but 
chat orthogr. cannot be fupported ; for this word 
is evidently derived from Kaa-7M, KoTIu, k4?ii(, unde 
" culter, cultellum ; cutlafs ; q. d. cultelliacus, vel 
culiellaceus ; fea, ef0s brevier ; a Jbort fwerd : 
Skinn." — without the Gr. 

. CUTLE-^ i " I XKul»t,Jcutum, cutis, corium ; 
eft enim pifcis fere txeamis; et fangmms, et pin- 
gttidinisfimul expers ; eoque nihil itifi nuda, et fola 
cutis: Skinner;" without the Greek :;itf/t/i(-/^. 

CWELLER, " wee now wryte ^uelltr j a 
treohler, a termenter of men ; it was alfu anciently 
fomtymcs taken for a hangman : Verft." — but let 
it have been taken for whatever it might, it un- 
doubtedly originates from the fame root with kill: 
and is confequently Gr. 

CWENEj " our name queen is very ancient, 
and was vied of our Sax. anceters, though Ibmc- 
what differing in orthography ; for they wrote it 
ewen : and as king is an abreuiation of emting, or 
eyning, the mafcuHne name of chief dignity j fo 
is the cwen, now written queen, an abreuiation of 
cuninginne, or cumngina,the ancientTeut. feminine: 
Verft." — had this good old gentleman flopped 
here, aH might have been well j for then both 
king, and queen, would have originated from the 
fame root ; i. e. from the Gr. as we Ihall fee un- 
der the art. KING : but he goes on ; '* quinde m 
the Danifh toung is a woman, or a xvyf; and fo 
was anciently quena:" — but thefc two laft un- 
doubtedly derive a rucfl, mulier, uxors a woman,' 
or wife: the word queen therefore ought ratherto 
be derived from the fame origin with KING: Gr. 

CWERTERNE : had Verftegan but ftripped 

this word of its Saxon drefs, and written it cartem, 

S he 

C Y 

From G R c « E> aiid L a t i h. 

D A 

he might pcFhaps have feen that it wft$ only a 
various dialeft for earcern, i. e. evidently derived 
from career^ to fignify a prifoti, or <«y ^/ij« of 
cenjinement ; ancj is now called a counter; and 
confcquenrly Gr. : being derived, fays Littleton, 
either from^j(»f», pr Kk^ka^si, htrftny ac- 
cording to Hefych. or elfe^ coercnide; according 
to Varro, and Scalig. — only now, he QOghc to 
have informed us, thai coerc'eo is Gr. as we have 
feen under the art. CO-ERCIVE: Gr. 

CWETH I*' now quotb j as when wee fay, 

CWYTHi JKO/A i> ^itotb he: Verft."— but 
this word is Gr. 

CYCLE, " KuxXffc, circulus ; from whence alfo 
tircle : Nug." — an annual revolution. 
. CYCLO-P^DY, KuxA(»r«.J««, di/ciplina cir- 
culariSt complexu! difciplinarum, ommfque ^udf- 
tfonis, eirculo quafi, cobarentis ; the whole round of 
diffipline, compafs of education, circle of fcience : 
R. KuxAof, circulus i et Jlmftta, difciplina. 

CYCL-OPS, KukAui^, Cyclops -, ^elopes, qui 
mifum c'culum orhicularem in medio frontis haie- 
i>ant; a fabulous race of giants, fuppo/ed to have 
<inly one large round eye, in the midji of their fore- 
bead : R. KuKAof, circulus i circular, orbicular i et 
»]■, oculus i an ne. 

CYCNET) KvKMf, cfcnus, or cygnus; a young 

CYGNET \ /wan. 

CYKENUM. "chickins: Verft."— butCHICK- 
ENS are Gr. 

" CYLD, CYLD-HEYD? Verft."— the good 
CHYLD-HEYD S old gentleman 

means child, and childhood ; which are both Gr. 

CYLINDER, " KuXwJf oj, ^Hndrus, corpus teres-, 
M round body, like a pillar j R. KuXiu, and K.u\itiu, 
Volvo i to roll ■• Nug." — and is generated by a 
parallelogram revolving round one of its longefi fides. 

CYMBAL, " Kv^poiAev, cymabalum: R. Ku(*(3af, 
hollow: Nug." — a rattle, QX timbrel i or fucb like 
hiftrutnent made of brafs, a-ro t2 Kuf«p»-j3«AA«». 

CYN 1^* kynde i nature, generation : Verft." — 

CYNES but this word is evidently Gr. as we 
fcalt fee under the art. KIN : Gr. 

CYNE-HELM j " it is afmuch to fay as a 
king's crown % whereby it may appeer that the 
crownes of the moft ancient Englifti-Saxon kings 
were worne and vfed by them for their helmets 
ia warre'; and it may be that the crownes ofall 
kings were at the firft intended for their helmets : 
Verft." — this obfcrvarion is very juft, and the 
truth of it fcems to be confirmed dowftfo late as 
tie battle of Bofworth; for Richard Ill's crown, 
or helmet, adorned probably with fome remark- 
able hoop,, or circle of gold, being found among 
the fppils of the field, was, by the lord Stanley, 
placed oa the head of Ruimenil^ y/ho wa&.iauiK- 

diately faluted king Henry VIL by the whole 
army :— the only point therefore now is to deter- 
mine, whether KINO, and HELM, are not both 
of them Greek. 

CYNIC; KMHxtt, ^Kuvr, cMis; a dog: a/narkr, 
or churl. 

CYNING, " by the abreuiation of the two 
fillables into one, ii become kj)^; the name in 
our toug of foueraigne dignitie: Verft."— but the 
origin is Gr. 

CYNING-DOME?"d6both anfvrere to the 

CYNING-RYC S Latin woord regnum: ty- 
ningdome is by abreuiation become kingdomt; the ' 
addition of dome, and rye, fignifying both one 
thing; zo v/'it, juri/diilien, or dominion ; or fome- 
times riches; and whereas wee fay, a kingdome, 
they fay in Germanic, a kimngryc ; but whereas 
wee fay, a bifbopryc, they fay, a Hflsopdtme : 
Vcrft."^but ftill the whole compound is Gr, 

CYNOS-URE, Kuwe-Bf*, cams caudai urfa 
minor ; Jtdus Boreale ; the lejfer bear, having a da^s 
tail; a Northern conftellation ; the laft fiar in whoft 
tail happens fortunately to be fo very near the 
North Pole, that it has juftly given name to the 
polar-JlaT : R. Kuur, Ku^ef, canis ; a dog j and k{«^ 
Cauda ; a tail. 

CYPRESS; "K«ir«^«rmi, eyprejfus, or cuprefusi 
a cyprefs-tree : Nug." 

CYRIC ; " by abreuiation kfrk; and by thruft- 
ing in cb infteed of c, or k, it was firft alienated 
to cbyrche ; and fmce further of, by the making of 
it cburche: Verft."— but CHURCH, as we have- 
feen, is evidently Greek. 

CYSTE, " or *y/i a chejl : Verft."— tut 
CHEST we have feen is Greek. 

CZAR, a contraftion only of K«ia-«f, Ce/art 
nomcn Latinum ; an emperor, and emprefs j the- 
origin of which name, or title, is however 
Greek ;— " nam Cafares, vel C^/ones appellati ex. 
utero matris exfeUi : et a coido, unde et ssdo^ et 
cttdo, a Kollnr idem quod K«t1hip : Cafar di£tus, 
qudd Cafie mortu^ matris fua utero prolaius, edue- 
tufque futrit : vel quod cum Cdefarie natusftt; i 
quo et Imperatores fequentes Cafares. didli, c6i 
quod eomati effent : qui enim exfeSo utero exime- 
baatur, CafmeSy et C^fares, appellahaatur : VoSZ*' 
under the art.. Cajonts, 


DAB on\ •* fi iatisGrxcus eficm,""fays Skihni, 
"defle£terem a &i(tit»M,peraaio,ferio : vel i. 
Ajswtu, fragorem edexe; iHus enim,. pra^ertim va- 
Mus, fragore fimper fiipatur :" but he was dif- 
pleafed with both thefe, becsufe they were or 
Greek, exct«£tioD ;. maUcm-tameo deducae, con- 

D A 

Fran G x e B K] 

^nues h^ i noftro A ; <t Sax. up j Teut. aiifi 
per apoftrophxim i^Aiyf ; ira; j ; ut in dtm; ec 
^[p^l et nos rodem fenru dictmus, la Up/ it on: 
fee DAWB: Gr.— but both DO, «nd ON, of 
UPON, are Gr. 

DACTYL, AftxIuAec* da^ltui fes mirtcusi i 
fylliU}& longa, et duabut brevibus conftans : a 
foot in ver/tt ccnjifiir^ tf ibrie fyllahUs^ tbt firji 
long., end ibt nnct twa fittrt : the original figni- 
ficatioD of the word tta/i^ly piimarity meanB a 
fingtr\ and therefore properiy belongs to the 
iandi bat both A<utJuA«f in Greek, and Ja^jlus, 
or, which is the fame, di^tus in Latin, exprefs 
likewife tit fingers t/ the feet, i. c. tbe toes : and 
for this reiUbn, aa a verfe eenftfis, or fiands upon 
luch a number of fyllables, or rather feett a 
it^l is very properly ftiled pt metrieus i afoot 
of three fyllables. 

DADDY i TiTTa, vox qua benevolentix, aut 
honoris caufi junior fcniorem compellat ; tata % 
mdadat ot daddy, ai young children are taught 
to call their fatherst^-WBi^f fays Voff. is derived 
either & Tffli*, ut apud Horn. Tfflx yi^w* : Ttn« 
autem quafi Tlht, beneretiu : vel ex AHm, ut apud 
Horn. An« ytfo*: AlT« vero ex Chald. ^*4iiV 
siiat fater \ honoured fire, 

DA^GES-FARE; ** a day'i.fart^ or d^s 
jatrnty : Sax, Verft."-*bot both are Gr. 

pMMOa, &MfUMj ittumnt fpiritiu foiens, fed 
Dee inf trior \ afpirit, or *ng^ gfod, tr bad; but 
f:hie6y the laittr : R. Aotiw, fdo ; to knew ; and 
from hence they >re fometimes called inttlligenees. 
DiEMONIAC : from the fame root ; Aai^wi*- 
Kve, fignifying a pirfin pofepd, or ene tobo it mder 
the immediate influence of an tvil genius. 

DAFFODELj AvptStStt, afpbedtl; thulam 
dmarf older ; alfo a fiomer, mentioned by Milton 
on a very amorous occafion : 

Her hand he feiz'd, and to a fiiady bank, 
Thick over head with verdant roof cmbowr'd. 
He led hernothingloath} flow'rs were thecouch, 
PanfKs, and violets, and afpbodel. 
And hyacinth, earth'j frcJheft, foftcft lap. 

Par. Loft. IX. loj;. 
DAGGER, i *' 9it>«, Dor. ^»yv, acuo ; dagua 
annong the authors infima: Latioitatis : in Ital. 
daga : Germ, tagben : Nug.**— <» pointed weapon ; 
Jhort fword. 

DAGGUL-iaird Jluti « Dan. dng\ res; hoc 
Anglis Borcalibus Dani reliquerunt, quod origi- 
nem traxit Iceland iiff^c Lye," — they fcem rather 
to have originated from the fameroot with DEW, 
i. e. quafi dtwgie-tail'd : and a dog of rain means 
a genlU Jbowtr ; and « daggie-ttird fiut figmfks a 
common trvU, whole petticoats arc continually wtt 
with trudging about in rainy wcatikcr. . 

sod LAtlN. D A 

DAINTIES ; " A«i(, A*'7« ('mo ^<>>*<> AaPif,) 
dafts\ and 4(m?ii : Cafaub. and Upt." — and front 
henci likewife is derived Aat*, and AaiKOfw, which, 
as Upton obferves, is ufed by Homer II. A, 6oa. 

Aatvuil', vSt Ti StifMc tSvilo Aodoc fifnc 
and it is very remarkable, that neither this gen- 
tleman, nor Pope, nor any of our other Engtifh 
tranflators fliould have rendered this line pro- 
perly, though it is as beautiful a thought as any 
in Homer j 

They feaft j nor did the mind want equal food' 

DA5SEY, a«7|w, ^vido \fios divifus ; to divide;. 
the pretty little flower divided^ cut^ or netcbt into 
fmall leaves: Ciel. Way. 15, fays, *' tbe dai^ <ig" 
nifies tbe eyt of the di^t or the dafs eye \ taken 
from the form of the flower:" — but granting the 
interpretation,, ftill both DAY, and EYE, are Gr. 

DALEi e»AA»i, vireo; eft enim locus d^fifloXui, 
circumviridist et undiquaque fieridas ; a green, ftou- 
rifoivg mead, or vale: Clel. Voc. ia6, n, would 
derive " dale from the Celtic privative de, not \ 
and fl//, or bill ; to fignify net-bH^ .•"—but dale 
may take the famp dcriv. with VALEi which 
feems to be Gr. 

DALLY, play with ; " vel ^ Akx™, Hcfychio 
vcci^at, ^iviofMii ludoy delude, decipio : vet ^ AMi;; 
fMiPM' AixAAm, x«xK;r« : vel denique it Aax^u, 

uVif JiXtg :" Junius adds, " refcrri quoquc pocelt 
ad illud dfilivus, quod habet Vofl*." — this word 
he explains by fiufftis : Ofcorum quoquc HnguS 
fignificat itifamm ;, Santra vero dici piuat ipfiirrt 
quern Gricci AftAaior, \. c. propter mjus fntuitaUm 
quis mifereri debtat : affinc daHvo eft Gerrfi. ct 
Belg. del, vel dul % i. e. infenus : a fond fool, iabo 
is always tampering with tbe girls. 

DALLY the timet ^<xm& to be the fame with 

DAMAGE, " AaftM*, A«v», Hefych. vcV i 
AoTam, hoc eft fumptus, impendium ; und'e in Irb'. 
vett. legitur dan^num \ Voff." and we often uft 
the exprcflion, »^hat is my damage^ my cbar^e^ 
my cefi ? Let me however mention another dcnv. 
on account of the fingularity of its appearance ; 
viz. that damage may be derived ab E/»Bf, theuf^ 
Efttt ■mitii, emo, demo, demende, damne-, damnupi^ 
detriment, injury, whatever takes from mt^ or mine, 
by any violent, or unlawful methods, caufes fo much 
damage : Vofiius, in the art. SEED, is of opinion, 
that damnum is derived I A(Mrio/«r(, abjefto t, 
quafi Aaoftai, danmo ; to hurt, injure': arid tl^i^ 
fccms more probable, becaufe irt old writings, ^jC 
fometimes meet with dampnum. 

DAMASCENE ^/«w?A«P«««Mi'-^««if« et 

DAMASC-rofe $ rofa j brought' frorti 

S 2 XUmafau, 

© A 

From Gre£k, tnd Latiit. 

D A 

Damajius, tht nabkft city of Syria, between Je- 
rufaletn and Antioch. 

DAMASK-'cloib ; ligntov £^(t}^»!ix9t,fmcum Dal- 
maticum j ^tk of DaUnatiay belonging la Turkrf in 

■ Europe. 

, DAME ; " Ayiof, uxor x vel donana, dejw*, 
madam \ mea domina : Upt."-— there can be no 
objection to thefe derir. except to the word ^ft.¥*t 
which is not to be found in our lexicons.: the 
idea feems to originate from Aojup;, damus\,a 
baufe i whence dominus \ the lord, or mafter of a 
fami^ ; R. ii/«i, vel Ao/»iw, 4tdipeOt firuo \ to 
build : or perhaps from iufuan, firatum^ leSus ^ a 
partner of onis hed : though the former fecms to 
be the better deriv. 

. DAMN l^AfMQv, ^mn : Hcfych. horrt- 
DAMNI-FYS bilis^ terribilisi borniU, ter- 
rihU: fee DAMAGE. Gr. 

DAMOSEL1 either from A«/*or, domus, dom- 
DAMSEL 1 cella : or elfe from AHnrsiMf, 
pro £urvu¥tif dominus, dominiceUaf i. e. parva do- 
mina J a young mijirefst young lady, young gentle- 

■ woman. 

DAMP, or aiate, fcems to be a contraflion of 
dampnumi i. e. damnum ; and confequently the 
fame with DAMAGE t Gr. 

DAMP, or mci^ % " Belg. Dan. et Tcut. damp, 
demp, dampff : vapor ; Dan. damper ; Theotilc. 
tbaum -y quod videtur defumptum h medio ««*- 
GTMMM-tc, vapor, exbaUtio; it3uu, 6i>/«iaw, fuffie; 
quaft tban^, tnde damp ; moift, and wet. 

DAN ; '* contraflum et corruptum ^ dominus, 
domnus, donmts, don, dan ; Skinn, and Lye." — 
hence we read Dan Prior -, for Mr. or Mafier 
Prion and confequently dciived from the Gr. 

DANCE, '* Aai^rtr, velutatio, agilatie ; taUs pra- 
feriim, qualfs in cbortis videmus ; quum autem gyri 
fiunt faltatorii, aut pro modulerum ratione, paffm 
variantur, Grazcis hodie T**^* (quafi Aay^a) dicL- 
tvT tripodiatie : Lye." — this genteel accomplilh- 
ment may be properly defined by a graceful atti- 
tude in motion. 


DANDLE i ilaii moveOjCommoveoi ma- 

niius, lel genibus agitart; infantes eontuffiene quadam, 
atqut agitatione placare : Jun." — prat is perhaps 
no more than a flight alteration of brat i a little 
iahy danced in tbe arms, en the knee. 

DAND-RUFF ; commonly written, and pro- 
nounced Dandriff; " compounded of Sax. ran ; 
tinea ; and bpcw,, fordidus ; q. d. fcabies ferdida : 
tan autera a Lat. tinea ertum debere videtur : 
Skinh'. and l^e."— but tinea itfclf is undoubtedly 
derived i Tctivta,, genus lumbrici j unde t^nia, et 
tinea, ob Jimtlitudinem aualemcumque appellatur, when 
it bears the fignificatioa of £nf : but Uma^ and 

tima Ggnify both a leltf-worm, and a motb t ud 
£n( fignifies tinea, 'vtrmicalus v^ibus noxtMt; at 
omne id, quad_ aliqidd corrodit, reb^o, fcabies:-^ 
thus far with regard to the Sas. ran : let us next 
trace out bpof:, fordidus \ perhaps it is only a 
tranfpofition of fur-fur, quafi ruffx i Ba«^a;, 
furfur-US ;ferdes % dirt, draff: this laft word draff 
mwes me think we ought to write it dandriff^ 
meaning /^^ capilkntmfurfuracede. 

DANE-ff//: it may feem ftrangeto dertre this 
art. from the Gr. { and yet Clel. Voc. 190, wiU. 
help us to fuch a deriv. } for be tells us that '* ibb^ 
the radical of Zephjnu, and F&vetttut, for tbe 
Wefiern wind,. gives the origin of Devon, and 
Devonjbire, in which laft there is an example of 
the common quiefcencc of the v, fince it is ver^ 
frequently called Denfiiire \ fo likewiie Denmari 
is ulbd for Devonmark, fignifying a Wefiem eotin- 
try:" — fo far this great etymoL; but we fhall 
fee under the act. EVE, that it is moll: probably 
Gr.— as for J*//, it is only a various dialed" for 
GOLD ; confequeatly Gr. and is. bcK ufed for 
Dane-guld, a- tribute, psud to the Danes by our 
anceftorS] of twelve pence for every hide of land 
through the realm, for clearing the fcaa of pi- 
rates, who greatly infefted the £ngli(b fea-coafU 
in thofe days : king Ethelred was the firll who 
paid it, which amounted to- 48,000 pounds year-_ 
ly, befidea 113,000 pounds at the firlt payment 1 
this tribute was paid fbr thirty-one years, i. e:. 
from ann. ioi2',.to 104J-, when it was' aboli/hed 
by Edward the Confeffor j a., very fliort pcriodij. 
and yet continued fo long> that the name of 
Dano-gtlt found» terriblie in the ears of Engliih* 
men even to this day. 

DANGER, Aa^vM, A««air, dirum : Hefych. 
grave, p-aviter aliquid factens ; doing any tbin^ •antb ■ 
bazarai fuffenrg a lefs: Voff." vitb numquid hue 
faciat, quod Macedonibus^ telle Hutorcho. de 
poetis audiendis, mors dicebatur Aavw. 

DANGLE; Slcinner very juftly fuppofta this, 
word is only a contraftion of the Sax. dun, vel 
dune; devDn'i et panjan, banging; deorfum pin- 
detis :" — only now tl« Dr. ought to have confi-- 
dered that both DOWN, and HANG,, are Gr. 

DAPHNIS i AaifvK, Daphnis, Di^bne, Laurea%. 
a proper name, from the laurel-tret,, orbayt. 

DAPI-FER i " a-i-f, A«n<»( (imo A-Ii, AoFis). 
dopes \ and A«t7fl.: Cafaub. and Upt." — confe- 
quently the whole compound is Gr. to lignify the 
officer who carries up the Bfft difli at a feafi; a 
fewer, or fenefcbaL 

DAPPER-/e//*»ai j Tm^, et T^xUi tapper ; «V 
tijfime i a veryaSive, nimble, lively little gentleman. 

DAPPLE-^ro" ■" At«Xii(, tener, mitis :- hence 
apples in Vir^l are called, mitia pomtt % and from 

Bd by Google 

D A 

From Gk^sk, and Latim. 

D E 

tiiis anufiim to the. fnri^ a " ful^feus eqmsi ^ui 
it feutulalus dicitttrt is called in French pomele i 
in Ind: pemiSMfe y iii 'Bt^ kp^^uito^ apple- 
p-ey : Jun." — tnnining ib. if the borfi^-t Jktn was 
mottUd with round fpett^ like apph's. 

DARE: ''■^KffMt, tiLgrin, audot \ by change 
log e into D ; Cidaiib. and Upt." a MdMtfi, im- 
pliant, affurmKi.- 

DARK, Ati{xu, hvi/iHUs^ afimui,inifitU, 
eifeuri ! R. A, »o«, et Auk«, vidto j to fea : Co 
that by our having cut off tiic negstive particle 
A, we have given our «ot-d dark the ftrange ap- 
pearance of being derived from a Greek -verb 
^AffKn) which fignifies to fie : by . antiphrafis, 
.which Skinner dim^tosfo tnuch diat Ue cries out; 
** p^mi Martlnius defledit a At^xw,.per antiphra- 
£n ; quid enim c^rmoldgo, et grammatico in- 
digoiui pucriH illi figura aatiphraTi V mekm Ca^ 
£nibon dedacit ab AJt^xv, avifiiiUj .-"--.we might 
■ha« thanked the Dr. for hb p^me, and his me- 
laut if he had only removed the abfurdity, and 
Aewn Ds the difierence between Aimu, and A-/»- 
Mf :— fee TENEBROUS. Gr. 

DART, " Afiit, atjpit /rfi i ite potnt of an ar- 
row i according to H. Stephen. Nug." — but per- 
haps it might more naturally be derived a Ao^u, 
or,A«f«I»«, qu^AapInf, mij^e,Jaaikm i a/pear^ 
javelin t or any mijjwe weapoju . 

DASH vith'vsster\:^i^9yMit'^»^y Sp«rgo% 
to £vidt,J'prinkle^ fcaUer, ... . ■. . . 
' DATE atrf. writing \ AiJ^i, Au> do^ datns -. 
livem nrnUr oar band and fial 

DATES, ".A*fl^A«^ daOjlij digiti ; tbejin^ii 
along nut, rifemUh^ the fingtri : ^vi%." > 

DATIVE, Ae7wiii dativiu ; the cafe among 
grammeriani, vbtcb txpr^tt all rtlatims tending TO 
itfelft R. Ai&|Wi, dos tagivi- 

DAU-DLE feern* to be compounded, and 
contrafbed in the laaie manner as DOO-DLE ; 
fignifyiog one who doei-little^ or notbing :- confe- 
quently Gr. 

DAUGHTER,. " ^u^olnf , cyiafi Auy^Ttif, dat^a- 
ter %filia 1 by changing Q into Z), and then tranf- 
pbfition, and conttaftion dangbter : [Calaub. and 
Upt." Belg. doebttrkin i Teut. toebltrUn \ dimi- 
Kunvum tocbten JiUa i perhaps only -derived a 
^tn^tf, eontraifted to tecbler j daughter i as above. 

DAUNT en^s ceuragt a Skinn.. and Lye would 
fain derive daunt a Gatl. dmter \. dtmare % hoc 
immediflt^ 5 Lat. dcmitare ; — and this is as- im- 
SxdtaKly derived either from Aa/*M>, domo, do- 
mart \ or from Ah/lu(Ia», 
lighten, appaU, fubdue, 

■ DAW, or bir^; " vehementer fufpicor olim 
W& daxoLi fed/ finale puillacim (xmUnm ::oc- 

caflo fufpicandi ek eo qudd Sicambris- deiy vel 
dole ;,GenA. tak vel tidt, difta de mone-dula t 
fortafle i Bvojm, proeellat et moneo % qu6d prs*- 
iagje "avea inftantem imbrem prteme^ftrent, qnetief- 
tvnque grtgatim convolant, it aeutiore clamore velutt 
exultant : Jun."— we might rather fufpeft that 
daw, or Jack-daw was dcrired a &»ffiut audeo ; 
qu^daudeo, dart', it being a very ^ojU bird,. and 
not eafUy to be affrighted, but will even chatter 
in .your face, and dare you to your worft. 

DAWB : even Skinn. acknowledges that the 
Fr. Gall, dauher aliqtiid aHnttatis habere videtur 
cum T«rl«, vcl A»«ii«, vel At«)r«w, percutio, ffrio-t 
tofiriie^ or Jab en witb a dajb, or Jiroke. 

DAWN: '*;Minftew dcflcftit vcl a Btlg. 
dawtvant dt^b-; res iiei.i vel i Gr. Awu^ ecddoi 
quia exoriente Anrord, afira minora oecidimf : mal- 
leon," feys Skinn. " diftum quafi to day, or dtpen, 
i. e. die/cere ; addita tantum terminatiooe infi- 
nitivi;Germ. en: vel quod'.eodein redit, et mihi 
magis probatur, il Sax. bscjian die/cere :" — but 
then he fhould have told u», it evidently orig. 
from the next art.: and even CIcl. Way, 31, ac- 
knowledges chat " dawn is but a different dialed 
of the participle daying :" — fo that the only point 
is to -fix the ccym. of the next art.^ 

DAY, Aaoe, dies, lumen ; light : or from A«T(, 
tttda i a torch : we mi^t, however,, rather pre- 
fer the foimer of thcfe ;. becaufc Voff. de Pernrati 
lir. fays, dies .diflus quod divini fit- opens ; five 
ab Jcve ejus, ut puubant, reSlert, quern Graci Ai« 
appellant; ec fane jMpiter ipfe eft poftrS ling^i 
diejpiter, i. e. diei-pater ; father of- d^ 
, DAYS-man; " an arbitrator, um^re, Qvjudgn 
for, as .Dr. Hammond obfervcs it» his Annot, 
Heb. X. 25, the word day, in all languages and 
idioms, iimfie% judgement : fo »*ifuirii,n ap«f «, man's 
dt^i .1 Cor. iii.. 13, is tbe judgement of men ; fo 
diem, dicere, is to implead : Ray."— this is won- 
derful quotation ; for, in th( firft place, there is 
no foch expreOion in Scripture j particularly in 
the paffage here referred to, as At^^itvin n^Kf*.: 
and, in the next place, I do not fee how diem 
dicere can be introduced here, to Ihcw ttiat dies figt- 
niEes judgement.; nay* ewen Mr. Ray himfelf ac- 
knowledges, that it ligniftes only to implead ; i. e. 
appoint m.dtey^ ov fi» a time- of trial.; where trial 

DEACON;. " Aiflsicwtt diaconus, minijier, fa- 
mulus \ a minifter, or. fervant. of the altar : R. Eo««, 
fefiino, propere; tomake bafie, to be in aSion: Nug."' 
Gitl. Way. 18, fays, that. " deaton is abfolutcly a. 
Celtic tem^ dey-ton; an e^cer of tbe law^fti- 
tual or temporal^ it is what the Gallic wi. 
called ^ff|v»:!'—buLbi.modcrn.JEfcncti ./o' ' 

Digitized by 


D E 

From Orbxk, and Latik. 

D £ 

itan, not a dtdim : be^dei iPtf-eoa is Gr. ; for 
£Y we ihall is Gr. and «m, hHt tniMgy and 
KING, are Gr. likewife. 

DEAD-^Mt s ** #f«» or fervia dew for tbi 
dead i it is fonitymes alfo vied for pamamt : Sax. 
Verft."— but death is Gr. 

DEAFi Skinner, 'after having mentioned the 
Sax. Teut. and Dan; words, from which he would 
derive our Word JeJ^, iays ** toiror nullum Ger- 
manum Helleniftam falcem Teut. danh defleadfle 
1 Grseco EMfsr, pmer enim inittalem literam 
cffitera omnia facilia funt:"— we might rather, 
vith Martinius, as quoted by Jun. fuppofe that 
the Ahtiann. tosh \ Teut. dauH Dan. doff^ Belg. 
deoffi Sax. beap, and ouri word dn^i omnia 
vidert podiint abfcilTa ex Gtxco TofXat, Tvf i 
■deafi quod, licet ut pluriminn. ultirpetur pra 
■c^eo, atiqiiiando tamen etiun' furdum figcificat { 
Sutdas quoque adducit illud Sophoclis, 

Tvfhot ™ T* ^M, rtt « Wf, *» t' oj;i^«]' « : 

Non tintam captMsesaimbus^ fedet meotc, etocn- 
■ You're blindin etrs, in fenfe, and eyes : pis : 
though It founds fomething lirange in our lan- 
guage to fay a pirfm is blind in ears. 

DEAL, or difiributt *' from 4if%(iiF, dijtribturt : 
Upt."— R. AiKiftw, tmKtf^ divide ; to divide^ to 
di/perfe : Verftegan fuppofes it to be Sa». 
" DEAL-boards ; Skinner derivei this woid " i 
Belg. deyle, dtele i Teut. dith offer (a pole^ or 
rafter) fimpliciter fic diAum, quia hot lignum, ai 
ttneres pkrumque ajftres fcinditur :" — but this very 
aptitude of deal to be riven into any _fiztt or faait- 
ling, ought to have pointed tut to Jnvt the true etym. » 
which is the fame with the foregoing art. AieMfiu> 
■ttttXn, divido, findo, feco ; to divide i fpUtt rive. 

DEAN, & Afx«v««ft«(, hununiter aceipio i to re- 
xeive with be/pitality ; perhaps, according to the 
firft inftitution, he being given to liberality, and 
befpitaUty in former times. Clel, Voc. 44, de- 
tives dean " ^ d'ben,.ia the fenfe of /wwr;"— but 
ben undoubtedly originates ab Ennvitt, aanut, ait' 
mofus J eld, aged, fenior. 

DEAR ; Ki«f , tor ; the heart ; beloved • or per- 
"haps from X»f it, gratiofus ; chants ; precioaSt coftly^ 
itigbhf valued: VeriVegan writes it deerworth, or 
tleerwortb, pretious ; and fuppofes it to be Sax. 

DEARTH] Aiif««i, AmiTK, indigeo, mihi epos 
^ -, to be in want \ to fuffer fcarcity. 

DEATH ; " atidlar, mars ; nifi. a Auft*, vel 
Avrnt, merp, oceidere ; preprii de file : Cafaub." 
to die i to teafe tobe\ tofet, as the fan. 

DE : we have many wonjs in our language, be- 
ginning with this prepolition .; which will he 
more properly found under their refpeAive art. 
uolelit when the primitives chemfelves ire not in 

ufe } as in the follorwLag wards, whfea < eoiri* 

P£^£ATE/Bia«rnt,.^4fu. &iIuN iatlle^ to 
beat MM arg^idfuakt %itit Aindr werdt^io-held 4 ^pn*e, 

DE-£AUCHE£«, " "m^na vini xnguiphtioi i 
Lat. dibaichari 1 &ya-&iftn."— whieh happens td 
be<Gr. j*^" se&.ndn," centindeatheDr. "defiedi 
potelt & dis, et baucbe ; ordo lapidmH>,.:fiu taUrimet 
feditede, jtiqvici^ ifttt(£Fr.:G«ll.'^»i;M/.ctcdo 
a Lat. abncus (credo akiau gt Aj3(^, ^. dt ferfee 
lapidnm, feu lateriim juxti^pofinrUaa Toetmor* 
mis '."—-and with Us ufed to ngnify any tiuefst dif 
otdeTy (B- irtegttUrity, tocher in morals, or ^ipettte, 

DEBlUTr* ft^f bMbta, bniiUs, deiHis, cxiri 
et bttbiUt, L e. panm hMKUt ^ mak^fsintt fteblat 
maimed: Voff." ^.. 

£ME^B0N-AIR ; if thUword be cvmpoonded, 
as SktntMr: fuppofes o£ de bam mm, the modcn 
orthography is tbe more rAAai4tabie, dtbemiaire, 
hoc eft imi tiwtperawieMti, vdf imUHs : the etyioiK 
logy if evidbHtly Gr. ' 

DEBT, cA|3it, Ab^ V J^ ^f^i ^ aVb i^i» 
debeo i nam debere .-tOt it dStka Bobtrt, deiiiunt : 
to awe, to be ait^td- to amtbtr's ktHdnefs, er ^fifi- 
aneefitr than t to-ierrfWr in order tc npny: or 
rather perhaps I di*, SbL ^ten^dditum, t^tOKt 
decens % wiuitnef- ia. rtgkty oC btatming > « jt^fi 

DECAD£» i&fwc,^«^> Anri0» ^iMi 1 ^dhn^ 
fion of ten : Aix«, decern ; tea. 

D£CA^ON>^m>«V«vMc, generatio ad ds^ttm 
ufque gradum i a generaUm tt tbeiinib- dtgrtt : dib 
a matbemaiiid figure with iem,fid*/^K. At^et* dieim ; 
et r«nj generatio; vel r«% grak^ktian^^ 

DECA-LOGUE, At^^rymf, dtcalcgni t Ae de- 
eakgtte ; dettm pTtecepta \ At ten eownumdmats : 
Aixa, decern ; ten : Aay«t, verbnm ; 'a eonMand. 

DE-CANTER» Eh-;c'»' ^ff^o * ^ f<*^ "ff- 

DErCAY, KaIm. deorfum^ tado \ to fdU to de^ 
cline i as «iw ladere ; to grow old\ eafiut oceafia ; 
declining \ wafiing, dyit^. 

DE-CEASE, Xa^M, }(pMt ode, Actio v to di* 
part, vnthdraw, to die. 

DE-CEIVE, KMwbt, «nJf;^^M> : Hefych. e^, 
decipio I to eateh by craft. 

DECEM-BER : properly wcitton, it ot^t to 
be Dnodecember t foe Datmber can ne-vBr ligmfy 
tKe TWELFTH month ; from iSix«» ^tm 1 
TEN t — and yet, notwilhftandtng the ^ariJig 
abfurdicy which appears on the face of t^ de- 
rivation, itia however a truth;! and this bciog 
the firft time ve have met with an opportunity 
of expofing the abfurdity, let me deJire kaVe 
to ob&rve, that when the firft reformers of the 
calendar undsrndt ta ngaiaa xht compuutioii 

Digitized by Google 

tV B 

.From G R »c K( aad L a t i m^ 

' D B 

()f titatt md to fecilc i^ Ktura of the feafons, 
thsy did QOt iiifficieotly coofidcr, that whea they 
deputed fFom the Hwiuui method of compuc- 
i(ig tiiBC* they ought to have departed likewife 
from the names, which bad beeo adopted by the 
Romans themfehres ; or at le^ to have ranged 
our mooiiis ia a di0ereiit order i or have given 
new oaoies to twp months^ aod phced them fo, 
that Dtctmier Ihould not have been ranked at 
tbt twt^ib mMth ; when, according to the Ro- 
man method, it very properly was placed as tbtir 
limb : for they, beginning their year at the ver- 
,n«i apinax in Marc\ vtim tie Jmm tntartd Arm, 
made the names of their months coincide with 
the order in which they fuccceded : thus Stpteaber 
WOi their feventb mmlb; Oifattry their eighth ; No- 
•oemter, their mnih ; and December^ their tenth ; 
and then came January, and Fehrttary, to complete 
the year» when the fun wa< advancing again to 
.Aries ■ but the firft reformers, I fay, by altering 
the beginning of the year, and makii^ ihefirji ^ 
January cur neiv year's day, and ftill retaining the 
antient Roman names for the refl ai the monchs, 
have entailed this abfurdity.. upon us, .that now we 
very wifely call our mnih mcmth, September ; aur 
tenth, O^eber \ ear eieuenth, Nrvember %■ and 
«ar twelfth, December i when Jeeem Is Latin for 
tm: which is an al^urdity impoflible . to be 
avoided, unlefa all Europe would confent to a 
new regulation. 

DECEM-VIR, £itxM-anf, dtcewttrir., decemviri » 
ttn-men, thejkn, and appeintedfir eempil^g the tnehe 
tablet of the Roipan. laWy in tne year of Rome 39.1 i 
which they coUefted out of the writings of Solon, 
the lawgiver of Athens : tbey aMb governed the 
commonwealth,, inftead- of confaUj but their 
government lafied oi^y two yidirtr tit Decem- 
viri, were aifo fome peculiar judges, j^ipointed 
to determine any diiferesces among. the cittsens, 
cpoccrning the,freed9Ri of thscity^ , 

DECENCY, ^iKir, jus, Ju^itia^ fas ; lbw,j^iee * 
pight^ prefer : comes.! Afw*(, idem quod 
AixIk, &iyfnnu etAcx^ant,. digtau, acceptna i bi~ 
camengy worthy t or elfe from Hh, decet \ decent, it 

DEC-ENNIAL, A/xa<uuu1»{^ ^x^ dtatnms^ 
dtumaJis -l the term of ten years. > 

DE-CIDE, ]£«Vl<i> tad9, dttUa. yt9 cetogs-U 
datrmne. a (ontreverfy. 

- DECIMATION. Antu deetm, deeimaii fan 
ttaibs^ tithes: the taking every /M/^.m«». 

DECIC. edem \ Z^iiyw, tego \ ut ipfi qUqcpie 
Gneci abjiciunt £]tiale» dicente^ Tty^u pro 
X^ltytfy te&itm : unde Sax. Secan; Almann. ihetam 
Itaa^dtckt i Belg, dukm i ta ctver, drefs, adtn. 

DECK ef ajhip ; originem habes in proxime' 
pnecedente, <{mzteptz fee above. 

DE-CLENSION, Eaiw« inelim>, deeHieatit % a 
declining., bending, deelen/kn of a noun, or- conjuga- 
tion of a verb. 

DE-CLIVITYi KXiw«, vel KXir«f, at Avfat» 
v4^\n, Hefych. promntoriam ; from hence very 
probably comes the ievers leap, the lover's pro- 
montory ; not from their leaping down ; but caft- 
ing themfclves down that rock : or elfe oiir word 
declivity may be derived a KAtxoj , pro Kxdwt, eli • 
vtts V a hill, or ewiinence of gentle, and eajy afcent. 

DECORATION, A«, oportet, decet, decerusi. 
any becoming ornament. 

DE-CORTI CATION, Kjim, earo, cortex, 

camemtego ; tbeptin, rind, cr bark, to cover tbefieflj, 

fruit, OTvaoed: Aecortici>\tofiripeffthefdn, rind,&ic.. 

DECREE. Aia-xptu, deterno, dtcretum i en 

ordinance, or Jiatute, 

DE-CREPID, &*(f«;, crepMs, crepera /am vita., 
ut crepufculum : fed Scaligery^wj ait dim dierepitos^ 
tralatione petitd A lueemis, fu^ decrepare dicuntur, 
cum eethirantes arepUum eaint ; nee ineleganter k 
rebua iragi1ibu&, qua ob vetuftatem, ii motites». 
crtpant r to fnap^ and crackU, like oMe^iring taper : 
jtt be worn to the laft Jiage of l^e. 

DECL^PLE i AiMi-xAow, dtciet y /m iuvrj i. 

DE-DICATION, a<A«|M, A», dt, dUo, ded!^ 
cetet i an addrefs, a con/ecrating. ■ 

DE-DITlONi AiiufAiydoi redd»\ toftirrendtrt. 
I to gme up. 

DEED, oc^//; AitiafAt, JUauu, dagA ;. ts give». 
to bequeath. 

DEEGHT i. " Sn. bihran j parare, difponere \. 

bthron an zjienb-Tepnic,. nobis, to indite a letters 

Ray."— but we {hall iee that INDITE itfclf is Gr^ 

£)]^M. Qi^K, im, tnfiitMtiuttt juditare-, tofup- 

,pofe, or imagine. 

j DEEP ft 6))-7f\», aquasftAeo,. merge in prof undim\- 
'to dip deep: "■ videri poteft ab^ciflum- ex hi^vjt. 
*fundum, primis tribua litcrJs. tnverfis z Jun."— ^ 
, this likcwife fecms to have been the opinion of 
'Cafaub. which Skinner has cenfured thiM }. 
; "-.Obaiiib. faws violenter defleftit i.Gr. B«flui.:" — 
but Saki, and BuPor are both of the fame fig— 
i)i&eati«b> viz. profemdus-i whether they give 
origin to. our word deep, ori not. Clel^ Way. 47 i. 
and Voc. 1 26, n,. would derive ** deep from the 
Celtic privative dt, not ; and up :*" — to fignifyt' 
not-up, i._e. domnj but h^ is undoubtedly Gr. 

DEER,," &iif fc/(fr<», /«««<! i vemfon: thus Vir*- 
gil fays, 

ImpkttturTeteris Bacchi, pinguifque/trmr^: 
.£11. L zi^^Upt."' 

Digitized by 


X> E 

Prom GresA, and Latin. 

D r 

Oel, Voc. 17a, fuppofes that " the Celtic er, or 
befy is radical to our word ftfre^ i and gave ori- 
gin to the Gr, &t(», to the Lat. fera; and the 
Englifti word deer :" — the originality muft be 
acknowledged fomewhere. 

DE-F£AT; ^uu, fio, facto, d^cio; quafi A^- 
ttre } refcindere, ftrdire j i medio tollere, deftruere; 
to put to the rvttt ; put to flight, cut off, deftrtr^. 

DE-FER jOffw, /fra, differs s to delay, 

DE-FERENCEj pefipone; to behave with di~ 
fiance and TefpeSl, 

DE-FICIENCY ; *u«, fio, facto, deflm ; to 
fail; tiT break, as a brankrupt. 

DE-FILEMENT; *.a^vm, polbioi to pollute, 
maktfeuh Littleton. 

DE-FRAY; that thisword is taken from the Fr. 
Gall, defrayer, fumptus in/efufcipere, vel exfelvere, 
is evident enough : fed undc, inquies, fays Sklnn. 
frais? quid fi a \ja.t. paratus, ka apparatus : — 
the Dr. fhould have faid na^ttw, paro, paratus t 
however, as he feems^to have been mifled by 
lljs good friends the Franco Gatii, fo thofe gen- 
try feem to have miQed themfelves, or endea- 
voured CO miflead others, by giving the word 
fuch an appearance as might enable it to wear 
the face of originality ; but very probably defray 
is only a Gallic diftortion of deferre -, to bear 
ene't charges, or expences, confequently Gr. ftill. 

DE-FY J n«fl«, ».e«, jido i unde " Fr. Gall. 
deffier ; Ital. disfidare, diffidare, vel diffidtttitft i- 
prtvocare ad pugnam : Jun. and Skinn." — to dip- 
credit, and cbalUnge any one to prove the emtrary. 

DEI -FY, 9m~p»u, deus-fioy (Uvut-faSus ; made 
a faint, canonized. 

DEIGN ; though this word is evidently de- 
rived ii Aiiwot, idem quod Aixl»t, Aty^M;, et 
Acx/*»"<> acceptus ; & Af;f<)uai, capto ; unde digitus 
et dignor; and though dignus, and dignor, are 
often joined to a negative, as in^gmu, and de- 
dignor i yet when we join our negative to deign, 
we write it dt/dain ; not indeign, or dedeign, 

DEIST i 9(Mrtrtx«r, qui in unum Deum credit, 
fed a Chriftiand doBrind ahborret -, one who acknew- 
.Uiges a God, but denies Revelation. 

DEITY, « etjlac, Deitas i Godhead: R. efiOZ, 
DEUS, GOD: Nug." 

DE-JECTION, h», Uf^t, mitto ; unde E^xo, 
jacio, dejeSio i a tbrpwit^, or cafting down : a 
[finking, and eppreffion of the fpirits. 

DE-LAYj .*«fw, fero, feror, latus fum, defers, 
dilatio; a dilalorinefs, tardinefs^ loitering. 
- DE-LE, Atmtvu, lee, deleo ; imperative dele ; 
a technical term in printing, to fignify biot out: 
R.Jiuu, leo, levi et lini; to daivb, or fmear over. 

DE-LIBER ATEi/r«Jfli», and liberty of thought 
tudjiSien.- fceUBERTY. Gr- 

DE-LICACY? Littleton and Ainfworth have 

DE-LIGHT I dcr'ntd deHci^e from iacio I Md 
laeio they derive from A«x(^«, i. t.etnrtvu (Ainf- 
worth fhould nothave (zidBitir\t»u)aduler,blandia- :'■ 
Hcfych. — thateftweuw bears thcfe fenfes, Hederic 
likewife acknowledges ; but that Akki^w has any 
fuch iignificacions, he does not even hint ; for 
he interprets Aum^v hy difcindo, iacero; i Awxtf, 
and ActxK he explains by rfljfura cum crepitu fac- 
ta; fnt^m; fc. lacinia panni, laceranda avulfa; 
^ Aipuu '. and AnKtu he explains by fotu, reddo 
fonitum, refene, veeem edc, loquor; not one of 
which can by any means be applicable to the 
word deiicaey : and therefore, whenever the de- 
rivative bears a totally different fenfe from the 
word which is fuppofed to be the original, wc 
may very much doubt the propriety of fuch a 
deriv. : however, Ihould Aaau^u bear the fenfe of 
Qknriuw, aduloT, odfeutor, blandior, it would be 
fufiicient for our prefent purpofe : only permit me 
to obferve^ that Voflius has derived deiicia, pro 
delieiuM, i X^itcun, hoc eft Tgufv : uti X>iA>wr, 
T^v^ec, deUcatus : after which he adds, vel de- 
Uciis, nomen er eo, quia dtlictant, et dele&ent. 

DE-LINQyENT» A*^**, A«xi^»w« : Aijairw 
i, Atra, quod i Aawu, liuquo : vertitur w, \n q; 
quomodo nwli, qtrnquti- ITah;, quotus; n<|ef«, 
qnatuor : olim fuit Hquo : Voflv— /»«^, delinquo j 
to omit, fail in duty ; to offend. 

DE-LIRIUM, Anfof, AflfBirif, deJirtMm, iaig4-. 
tio i dotage, out of their wits. 

DELPHIC, diAfiK*, Delphiea; belonging f 
Delphi, a city of Pbocis, in Greece, where was a 
famous oracle. 

DE-LUGE; 'Amo, xXv^, lavo, diluo, dibeviumi 
an inundation j a mighty overflowing of wat&s. 

DEM-AGOGUE j dv«y*»T«*, dmagegus, eufus 
Calais popuius ohfequitur, utpote fibi gratiefi : a 
ringleadir ^ the rabble, a popular, faaiaus, and 
feditious orator: R. An^i, popuius^ tz Ay», ducoi 
to lead, 

DE-MEAN, " Fr. Gall, detaenen Ital. <&»*- 
nare, fe hue iUuc-mwert; hoc i de,axndis^i et 
minare, ducere: yel q. d. dimanaret i. e. mamu 
movere : certe non minima urbanitatis pars 4 eon- 
cinne manutim mere patdet : Skinh." — this was fo 
ingenious an explanation of the Dr. in fupport 
othis etym. that I coyld not omit it ; though 
very probably it is not the true deriv. for then it 
would have been written demainer : our word dc' 
mean, or devieanour, might rather be fuppofed, 
with Minft. and Jon. to be derived 4 Fr. Gall. 
meyen; mean, manner ; wut, modus, medium, vd 
ratio decent tr fe gerendi in rebus agendia gefius, 
hahitm, flatus ; not of the handy in particular i- 
but of the whole petfon in general, or what we 


D E 

From G R E E K^ and Latin. 

D E 

trail a frcptr decorum, and behaviour in carriage ] 
confequencly is derived from the fame fource 
■vrkh mean ; ' which is Greek : or rather, as we 
might imagine, our word demean, and demeanour, 
.Ttiay with greater propriety be derived from 
MIEN ; and then it would be purely Gall, or 
Icelandic ; and conlequently muft be referred to 
the Sfix. Alph. 

DEMEANS; fomcrimes written Am*/««} but 
more properly DEMAINS, ^ Aojuh*, tedifico; unde 
-AufMt, demtis, demnusi. " devunicum, res, quas pro- 
pria- jure aliquis foffidet, patrimontum : Jun." — 
whatever a per/on pojftjfes in bis own right, bis 

DE-METRIUS, **&i>iu^si9t, Demetrius; hekng- 
ing to Ceres : R. Mit^tig, *fof, Tjof, pro r»i-ftiiT)if , 
terra-mater ; Ceres : Nug." — mother-earth ; he- 
tauft the great produ£live parent of ^l fruits. 

DEMI; a diminutive; as demi-cannon, demi- 
■eulverin, &c. 'H^iwu, dtmidium; the half: this di- 
minutive is often cxpreflied both in Latin and 
JEngttlh by /emi ; as femitomum, jemitene ; femi- 
vocalis, femivowel. 

DE-MISE; MiSiw, Mifimf", mitto, demtttV ; to 
fend away, to di/mifs,' to die; sMo to bequeath. 

DEMO-CRACY, Aiipoitf«7t«, democratia, po- 
puli principatus, imperium pepulare, res publica j a 
•popular government -, where the people command ; a 
■commonwealth : R. Ar^er, populus ; et K^stTo;, im- 
perium ; fway. 

. DE-MOLITION, MuXa, mola, melior, demolitie; 
a mill-fteney a huge mafs of rubbijh ; to heap up in 
ruins; to puU .dowjt ; to dejirey. 
. DE-MONSTRATION, Mv»u, moneo, demon- 
firatio ; a conclufrut argument, a cogent proof. 

DEMO-STHENES, "An/xeo^tvus, Bemofibenes; 
R. A»i/*o(, populus ; et Sfliws, robur ; firengtb : 
meaning the pillar, or /uppert of the people. 

DE-MUR, Mevn, mora, demeror; to keep back, 
fiay, OTjtop, retard. 

DEMURE ; Cafaub. derives our word demure 
^ 0tfut^av, quod Hefych. expontt Ztft-vot, boneftum, 
ve^erabile : grave, venerable, fertous. 

DEN ; Au*«», into, ingredior ; to go underground, 
or enter into, any cavern, or hollow place formed by 
nature: Verft. fuppofes it to be Sax.; and Clel. 
Way. 36, tells us, that " our word den, and the 
French taniere, acknowledge the Celtic tan, in 
the fenfe oi earth; that being the habitation, 
which preceded dwellings of wood, or ftone, 
efpccially in the Weftern parrs of Europe." 

DEN-DE-LEON, OJo^Ik Atw^, denies leo : 
Jentsdelion; lio^sphangs; an herb. 

DENIER, AoM, decern, denarius ; a Roman coin, 
about eight-pen^ halfpenny of our money : alfo 

DENISON74tJ«/*t, A«j rwa-xt, eivitate dona-. 

DENIZEN S tus, civisi prejented with the free- 
dom of a city j a citizen. 

DE-NOUNCE ; Nmc, novus, nuncius, denuncio, 
quinovi aliquid affert ; to tell, to foretell; to give 
notice, or wapUng j to threaten. 

DENSITY, £i*<ni, denfus; thick, clo/e, cempaSt. 

DENT 1 " 0»m, oMi(, dens, dentis : 

DENTELS > unlcfs we chufc to fay (with 

DENTITION! Voflius) that dens comes frm 
edo i as alfo Oi»\>i from the verb BJm, edo ; to eat : 
the Eolics fay, EJo^lesf for OioHa-f, which bears 3 
good deal of relation v/hhdentes: Nug." — that the 
word dentel, is derived from Oim ; or, as the Dr. 
fo elegantly exprefies it, bears a good deal of re~ 
lation with denies, nobody would deny, except 
his anonymous critic: but that the I}r*s.'firft 
word dent, or to dent, when it fignifies dint, or 
impreffion, is derived from the fame root, fcarce 
any one will allow ; notwithftanding Jun. has 
endeavoured to eftablifh the fame, on the autho- 
rity of Cafaub. but the conOderation of that 
etym. will be more properly referred to the art. 
DINT: Gr. 

DE-NY, Afwa^i, nego, rtcufo ; to dijfent, to 
refufe, to rejeH : Nrhw, nego : VolT. 

DEO-DAND, 0£^-A*»(«, Deo-dandus ; any thing 
devoted, or confectated to the fervice of God, in 
order to expiate feme eminent hurt, mifihief, ermis-i 
fortune, which that thing, whether animate or in- 
animate, has been the immediate eaufe of. 

DE-PLORABLE: If. Voffius derives ;>&«, \ 
$A«up«(: vel. potius i TOm^»¥, idem cjuod Avfn^ 
a-infof, ^(etXiiro*, vy^n : indc Xxu^m; anSut, queru/a 
ploratrix, feu clamofa ; complaining, weeping, wail- 
ing : none of which derivations are fatisfadtory } 
and therefore muft: deGrc leave to defer it till bet- 
ter fatisfaftion can be found. 

DE-PURATION ; C^tvi**, pus ex/creo ; d^u* 
ratio; the cleanfing of a wound: or rather, a? we 
may fuppofe, ^ llufoc, elilb «■, quomodo 4 Ilofffa, 
puia : nuret, 4 nvM, unde Iluwo-if, fuppuratio ; tht 
digeflion of a wound ; unde fus, 

DES-CRY. It will be neceffary to produce 
the different etymol, in order to reftify the mif- 
t^es they have made, both as to the fenfe, and 
deriv. of this word : Junius writes it define, 
and explains it by " indtcare, deferre, prodere, 
diffdmare:" — here it is evident he has miftaken 
this word for decry: Skinner writes it dtfery, and 
explains it from Minfh. by " vulg6 detegerefim- 
pliciter, proprie elamore elate, feu Uto celeufmate 
aliquid detegere, feu Jignificare; i prjep. infep. (it 
diould have been incep.) Fr. Gall, des j Lat. dis j 
et noftro cry :"— 4bi» is no more thaa a traafcripc 

^;i,z.d by Google 

D E 

l?ram G R B z ic< ted L a 1 1 D. 

t) E 

of Mitilh. ; fo that they have each of them 
miftaken the deriv. of this word j for, what has 
crying to do with difceverit^t a» to etym. ?— they 
may give what inteqirctation they pieafe to the 
word cryt or cry out for joy i but fuch an inter- 
pretation will never lead us to the true etym. ; 
which probably comes from K^ivw, eemo, difcemo, 
or decemoj difcrevi, or, as we may write it, defcreviy 
contraftcd to defcry ; to dtfcovtr., to (Ufcem dtftinHly. 

DE-SERT, mideme/sl^Tttfit, <nr«£, fere, de- 

DE-SERTER S/tro, ut lit defer turn, 

fuod wn Jertum, xec euhum; unfown, uncultivated, 
Vfildi uiide defirto^ arti defertio; toforfitlu, abandon. 

DE-SIDIOUSi E^opw, Jtdtoy defideot defes ; 

DESIRE; Atwttt petitia i k&taiMtt, arotohfecroi 
/• implore, or earneftly entreat. 

DE-SIST : ifJifM, fto, dififio \ to leave off. 

DESK> Amer, dijcm-, tnenfa latd fud formd 
difium refert % a* and broad table to write on ; 
no matter whether round, or fauare ; the antient 
di/ats indeed vizjiat and round, like the appearance 
of the fun and nioon; but> with regard to our pre- 
Jent word, we mean by a dtfk, any thing broad 
end flat I fee DISC. Gr. 

DE-SPAIR, both fubftantivc and verb ; Ex»is, 
fpei, defpero ; out of hope, utterly given over. 

DE-SPONDENCE, ZwmJa, fpente, fponie&i 

2u6d ^ Jpondet, fud fponte promittat ; unde 
tfpondeo ; to defpair. 

DESPOTE> Afo-vels;, herus^ deminus; domina- 
tion, power. 

DESSi "tofqueeze tU/e, to deft wool, ftraw, 
&c. Ray." — it.fcems to be only a various' dialcft 
of DENSE : confequcntly Gr. 

DE-STINY ]Ir>ip.,/e, defiitutus -, determi- 

DE-STITUTEi natioa,refoiution,fixt purpefe: 
alfo to for fake, leave, difappoini, 

DE-STRAIN, to take away goods in cafe of 
non-p^ment: fee STRAfN. Gr. 

DE-SUETUDE; Eu», Eum, Jueo, de/uetudo; 
^fufe, or the abolition of a cuftom. 

DE-TAIN, T#i*w, Tfifw, Ion. Tutu, teneo, de- 
tineo; tojitrf,fiop, oj binder. 

DE-TECTION ; lltyv, tego -, to cover j detego; 
uncover, dtfcever, difclofe. 

DE-TERMINATION, T(f,*«, termes, deter- 
minatjo -, a boundary, conclufion i a final refolution, 

DE-TERR; Twfdcirw, terreo, deterreo ; to af- 
Jrigbten, difcourage. 

DE-TERSION, T«fM, rt^tu, «fM, inde Tfi^», 
iero, deterfus j wiping, rubbing, brufbing. 

DE-TRACTION -, flandering, calumniating j 
drawing from a perfon's charaftcr: fee DRAW, Gr. 

DE-TRIMENT, T«f«, Tif»», -rt^Z, inde Te<|3«, 
4tro, ■ tritum i dttrimeatum i qaod ea qua dttrita 

mineris pretii/mt j damage, lofs % becaufe things art- 
worn, rubbed, and fcoured away. 

DEUS-AN-*ft)Af ; »»f<ic,. duna; pmum dim- 
dttrandum: " vel quod magis arridet I Fr. GalL, 
deux-oHs, quia ad dues ufqut perdurat anuos r 
Skinn."— but then the Dr. ought to have fud,. 
coalequently derived from the Gr. viz. ex Am,. 
duo; two; ct Eticivla^, annus 1 a year. 

DEUTERO-NOMY, " Aiwl.f «.^,«, Deutero* 
nomiutn, tttratio iegis i DtKtertnonr/ -, one of the 
<five) books of Mefes, being a repetition, or afe^ 
^ond premutation of the law : R. Atulifestfecundusi 
et,N«|i*K, fer: Nug." 

DE-VELOP, " Fr. GalL defvelope; part, veriv 
depvekper \ explicare, evohere, extricare ; Skinn." 
who then refers ui to ivvtlop j and under that art: 
he fays, " omnia i Lat. velum .-"—but veliant and 
volvo, are different deriv. as we ftialt fiml under 
the art. VEIL, and VOLUME : but both Gr, 

DEVIL, *' AjMp«Aa(, diabelus; a flenderer, 
cheat, an accufer : Ai«Pa!XAw, calummor, crimimr ^ 
to ealummate, to render odious ; to decry .• R. BaAX% 
Jacioi to cafi: Nug." — Clel. Voc. a, and i6ay 
by no means admits of this deriv. ** for," fays 
he, " A(«|3eAef being undoubtedly no Gr. word > 
and, at belt, ftrangely forced from Ai«|3eAii, fo. 
lumny ; receives an eafy origin fronv the contracv- 
tion of the, and evil, into devil:" — let thii be- 
the true deriv. ; wc have ndw oniy to trace the 
origin of the word EVIL, which will be confi»- 
dered hereafter, and found to be very probablyGr. 

DE-VISE i EiJw, video, vifum ; " q. d. divifare, 
fc. vifum; i. c. eculos circumferre,/pecukri : Skinn.?*" 
<^to look about, to contrive. 

DEVOIR; Aiw, JEol. A(F», debitum, officium^ 
munus i decens; a due decorum, a becoming decency. 

DEVON^(«i Clel. Voc. igo, and 194, plainly 
(hews, that ibh ts radical to Ztfphi>, Fivonius, 
and Devon; all fignifying H^ejlem:" — ^but we 
have feen under the art, AVON, that EVE, or 
EVENING, is Gr. 

DE-VOTE 7 BtpdCM, voveo, devetio ; to vow, 

DE-VOTIONJ to con/ecratCi to dedicate, ta 
offer up prayers, vows, petitions. 

DEW ; to bedew, " Atu»», madefaeere, irrigare:, 
Cafaub." to which Upt. adds, 

Madebant autem lacrymis finus. 

Their cheeks were wet with tears. 

Iliad. I. 566. 
what pity it is ! that even half a line of Greek 
cannot come from any of our Englilh preflcs, 
but there muft be fomc blunder or miftake in iti 
which Ihews cither grofs ignorance, or infuffera- 
ble carelefrnefs in thofe who are concerned in fucfi 
publications i of which wc have here another 

D I 

FKxn Gkiiic, ud L*ti)r. 

« 1 

mlUnce id the vei^firfl: watQ of this qu<»atioBr 
which has been ftraagely printed diuvt-Ta : hue 
-ought to have been AiwtSr t teere wtctfientd, wet 
tttitb tears, 

DEW-LAP: I cannot, with Minlhew and 
Skinner, fuppofe that our word dewlap is com- 
pounded of dew, and lap, becaufe it haogs fo 
low, as tc /weep, or lap up the dew i which is a 
thing no farmer ever Ssm : but with Junius, 
\rouId rather fuppofe it was derived i TheotlTco 
denuen, furdeuuen -, digerere, ctmcoqHere -, eh errarem 
Vulgo hominum, tiboi ruminandos eX paleari Jkr/um 
eierif credentium: the other part of the compound 
b as judiciouQy accounted for by the fame great 
etymol. thus j " pale'ar^ Dan. degler -, Be^ 
dMwfceengeli notiUDibos defymptis a daggelen, ct 
faiugeHi agitari,.eencutii namet lie Latini^aiifdr 
-derivant u-ro ts nac>Aio-6«i, vihrari, quad, agitari : 
■gd eandem agitatitmem re/picit poftrema pars com- 
^qfiti:" — it is a wonder however that neither 
Jun. nor cither of the other Cwo etymol. Ihould 
^ave obferved the cranfpofition of letters m this 
word : the two lactA- indeed could not, becaufe 
they hare derired it i^urdly from lap: but that 
Jun. who has derived it properly from He^-Mriai, 
ftould not fee it, is remarkable; the Greeks 
wrote UcA-; and we write lap >— on the whole, 
■dew'lap feems to fignify no more than the fwing- 
dt^,' or waggliMg-gullet i becaufe it was formerly 
t^gbt to be the pejfage, or gullet, through which 
4he cud was erroneeufy fuppofed to pafs, in the aSHon 
4^ ntmiwating ; and which received the name of 
■dew-lap, from its conftant^yunff^'m^, audjhaking 
■mhOMtr darii^ the time the creature is eating. 

DEXTERITY, *'Ai^^m,dextrai the right hand: 
Nug." alfo"' &i^iIijM, de^aer-a: nempe an n 
V(xw4m.* Voff." 

DEY of Algiers; Ai^.rtj jufiitia; jufttee, power; 
meaning the judge, or potentate, who is invtfted 
with the chief authority of judging in matters 
ctvit, as well as military. Clel. Voc. 84, would 
derive this word from the Celtic " ey, the law, 
by receiving the profthcfis J, quafi ^rf -•"—but 
erf, or tey, is Gr. 

DIA-&£T£S, Aiopijhf, diahMtes; a faucet, or 
funnel : alfo a iifiemper, by which one tann$t bold 
ins water t which eonjiantly faffes through: R, 
Aitt^Mf, ex AiK, peri et Ba»w, eo ; to go, or 
fafs tbrea^h. 

DIABOLICAL, Aid(j3aX<(, diaholus, diaheUcm ; 
the devil, and devilifli : we have- already feen ano- 
ther dcriv. of this word, under the art.DEVIL:Gr. 

DIACODION, diacodioMi a fyrup made of the 
tops of p9p^ .* by the appearance of this word it 
Ihould be Greek. 

DIA-DEM 1 " AioA^Mij ^adiMa ; ariiicih or. 

wnament «/ the iead, tifeS ftnHorly kf ^'tg* "'^ 
queens : R. Aw* to tyt j Aif*«> ri: g ligature^ or 
hand: Nug." 

DI-/ER£SI$i ^iat^iw*t, di^X^s i divi/ie, di^rl- 
butio i apud gracnmaticos di^erefis efi, ubi ex u»d 
fyllabd diffe&d, jiunt dM<e % ut ewluije, pro tval-' 
viffe J « grammatical figure, of dividing a di^ 
phthong into two difiin^ vowels. 

DIETETICS, &ta*l»»>, diatom prafcrihi duett- 
tica ; fc. medieina : the firfi part of fi^lfic, that 
foncerns a regimen in diet,, 

DIA-GNOSTICS ; A>«7<wrHtKi qm eft dijudi* 
candi, et dignofcendi, peritus : R. Ai«j di ; et TumTKUf 
nefce j a cle/e, fuhtle difcern^. 

DIA-GONAL{ " AMtyuxNf yfofi/A^i a Urn 
which pages from one anglf to another: R. Aio, 
per i threi^h ; .and Trntei, MgulHS : Ni^." 

DIA-GRAlM, {^iqf(«(^t.K,,diagramma, d^eript4 
tabella, ct figura getmetriea -, a deferiptien, or 
draught of a thing : alfo a figure w geometry , to de- 
maturate any proportion : and in mufic it is called 
a proportion, or meafkre difiinguifiied by notes. 

DIAL; Atf, Atat, Dijovis, Diefpiter, i. c. diet"- 
pater; dies ; a day { an infirument to fitew the <ovrj« 
of the fun every d^: or elfc from A^Kt dits^ lument 
light: or elfe from A«cT{, tteda-, atorchi tbefwt 
being poetically called the torch of dty. 

DIA-LECTi " AMAu7«r, divleSus, modus lo- 
quendi peculiaris, idioma lingua ; 9 particular form, 
or manner of fpeakingj varyit^ from the general 
pronunciation, ■ by feme provinfial method of expref^ 
Jion : R. At«AirR>*«ti lequer, fermecinor : Ai«, et 
Aiyai, dice ; to fpeak : Nug." 

DIA-LOGUE, " a difcourfe between two, of 
mereperfons: from the fame root: Nug." 

DIA-METER; " Aw/tilfw, diameter; a Sni 
dividing aiFf figure into two equal parts i or wUcb 
cuts Mty mathematical figure through the middle t 
R.AiK, pen through i and ^i)(h, menfura; nuO" 
fure : Nug." 

DIAMOND, " Ai»fMu adamati t8e bard^, 
and mefi hrilUant of all precious fiones : . R. A, 
non i et i»fMu>, domo ; to fubdue : Nug." net eafy 
to be poU/hed, unfuhduable : our word diamond 
feenn to be only a Cranfpolition of Aietftat, quali 
adimand, diamond. 

DIA-PASM> " Aj«r«r^, diapafmat medicame*" 
» eorpori efi, Yelpottd in^erfum : Nug."— ^e- 
mander: K..&tm,peri through, zndnKTt*if_^argot 

DIA-P ASQN J " A«»»M-(w, diapafoH t per wmet, 
fc. cherdas 1 a concord of miffic of all the e^bt 
notes : Nug." — this is the firft time I was ever in- 
formed rdiat. there were A^£/ff0/» f* mafia per- 
haps N is the e^Itih.. 
XHArPENXE, AuL*t&typtr iuinque, i. e. ,chordas ; 
X 2 diapente; 

D 1 

From Grssk, and Latih. 

D I 

Sapente ; a eencord of five nttes :— the ambiguity 1 
and obfcurity ofthefc two laft art. fuiHciently I 
fiicws how vain an attempt it is for -moderns to 
endcaTour to explain the antient technical tenns 
of mufic. 

DI A-FER : " - quoniam diapre. etiam 'oarUs 
fguris diftin^tmi fignat } credo tum hoc ; turn 
noftrum diaper orta ab anttquo Fr. Gall, divairi, 
divariatusi i. e. variegalus : alludit Gr. Aikva^u, 
item Af«K-if«w, trttjicie ; q^ d. aeu trajedus : nimis 
olerem criticum fi 4 Gr. _Ai«, per ; et Fr. Gall. 
pri, pratum, formarcm : q. d. iotum pratis florenti- 
husinUxtum: fed efto faltem animi gratia allufio, 
vei potius lufus ; Skinn."— the Dr. feema to 
have been muth nearer the fource, thwi he ima- 
gibed } but he was fo full of his altufion, and 
Iport, that he did not attend to the true deriv. 
of the word diaper^ though he had it aAually 
under his eye :— but we may readily grant it may 
he derived from Ata^ joined by a pleonafm to 
the Latin tranflation of that preposition pet', as 
much as to fay through and through j becaufe it 
is a fpeaies of weaving wrought the fame en both 
fides z we fliall have many other inftances of this 
manner of compounding the original and its 
tranflation together. 

DIA-PHANOUS, " Awf «»Bf, tandem, pelluci- 
dusi elear, bright, tranfparent : Aia, per ; et ^eutv, 
ejtendo: Nug." topermit light tojhine through, 

DIA-PHORETIC, " es^mpa^^^w, diaphereti- 
eus, difcutiendi vim habens; medicines to dijfolve, 
and di/charge humors by tranfpiration : R. Aiaf e^ iw, 
difcutioy digero, rejolvor j /* digefi, dijfipaie^ or M- 
'fperfe .- Nug." 

DIA-PHRAGM, " At«^f«yi»«, diaphragma, 
int&fepimentum, quod interfepit -, membrana, qute 
tor et pulmonem a jeeore et liene diftinguit ; a mem- 
brane, which divides the heart and lungs from the 
Tower ■ inteftines : R. Atd, and f(«<rru, fepio ; to 
hedge TBundt to wrap about; to edge (it fhould 
^iave beeii hedge) to intlofe : Nug." 

■ - DIA'-PLASM, Ai«»A«»/i*!>t, formatio, conferma- 
iio i a formation, framing, eompofition .* R. Aw, and 
irXsttvu, formo, fingo ; to form, or fbape out. 

■ DIA-PORESIS, AwTOfTiinr, diaporefis -, dubita- 
tioi a figure, when the orator doubts, and con-r 
fuits wh(U tofaypfii as, ^* me vertam,judices, 
nefcio : Cicero pro Clucnt. prio, R. Ai«, « 
tnn^m ; cx A, non } , et Hefof, via, impervioiu ; en- 
tangled, and no way to get out. 

DIA-RRHCEA, *'Ai«)!po»*, R. Ai«p/iM, ex Ai«j 
ti'ftta, fiuo % tofifw^ougb; Nug "-^fituais^pro- 
fiuvium ventris ; aflu:t. 

DIARY i Aoiof , dies -, a daji diarium j a jour- 
nal to record the aHions of each day. 

DIA-STJB:MA» Awr^/w, difiasttia, interoalkm; 

a difiance, interval: in mufic it feemis to fignify 
an eSave : R, Aw, and Irn^t, fio. 

DIA-STOLEj A.,r«Xii, di^nSio, dtjientio; the 
dilatation, or difiention of the heart, in the alfion if 
returning the blood i as Jyfiole is the centraSioKt 
when it is emitted from the heart : R. Aw, and 
rltxxw, divido, expands ; to open, or dilate. 

DIA-TONE, Ajoile^ef, diotonos ; hypaten, et- 
mefoK; two notes in mufic. 

DICE;*'fortafleaAix«,y'a«>,^rfl/V«fli alea,cubuSf 
tej/ira: Jun." — hcczuie they are thrown out of a box. 

DICTATOR 7 A«wup, J«E«, ofiendo, dico; 

DICTIONARY^ nempe quia nihil aliud efi 
dicere, quam fermone eftendere animi/ui/ententiam :. 
Jof. Seal, dico, diHata, diSionarium j inJlruStions, 
orders: a chief magtfirate : an exprej^on, elocution : 
a vocabulary, Jhewing the etymology, and meaning 
of words. 

DIDACTIC, AiimrxUf doceo, erudio : infiruc- 
tiens, leffons, precepts. 

DI-DAPPER, A.« *ux7«, aquas fuheo, mergo % 
to dive, dip, plunge under water. 

DIDDYi a diminutive of W/yi or TEAT: Gr. 

DIDER; commonly pronounced didder; a A«^, 
timeOi paveo ; tofhake, tremble^ or quake, with fear, ■ 
cold, &c. 

DIESIS, Auric, diefis, divifio, tonus muficus; a 
divifion; aUoa mufical tone: R. Aiin/u, divido-, vel 
Aiqp, perfundoi to divide, or pour forth; but 
how either of thofe words can be applicable to 
mufic, mult be left to the learned. 

DIET, council; Awilau, arbitror -, judges, ehiefi, 

DIET, food f. " Ai«i]«, diata, vit^e infiitutio s 
a regimen of living : Nug." — this, relates rathei 
to ethics, than phyfic ; and therefore it would 
have been more to the Dr's. purpofe, if he had 
faid, di,eta, feu viSus ratio i medicis pr^fcripta i 
living by prefcription. 

DIF-FERENCE, A.»f«f«, diff^e, dtferen/ia i 
to vary. 

D]G : Skinner has played us rather a ilippery 
trick under this art. j for he has only referred us 
lo ditch i which he has derived a Sax. bice, bic; 
agger, foffa; vallum; after which he quotes fe- 
vcral fytKHiymoua terms, and rejefts the Greek 
(which will be confidered under the art. DITCH) 
with, " fole autem meridianq clarius eft, ortum 
eflea vcrbo to dig ;. onpnino vitfoffd & fodtendo:** 
the plaufibility of which however may be very 
much doubted ; for though a common dHcb can- 
not be made without digging ; yet all digging is 
not making a ditch ; befidesr a ditch, or as the 
Dutch call it, a digue^ may be made without any 
digging i. as mounds of wood, ftone, earth, fand. 
Sec. all compared regularly .together, form a 
tSteit ^^^i diguet. or fente^ witfaQut dig^n^: we 


D I 

From G iL I fi x> and ^L a t i w. 

D I 

may therefore with Jun. rather fuppole our word 
tfig was derived a AmiXXk, Ugo j aj^adtt ufed in 

digging the ground. 

^ DI-GAMMA, Aty«/*/*«, duplex gamma, JEo- 
lica litera ; Bgmi et vi finvilis Latina: F ; (ic 
di£ta, quod duorum gamma p fibi fiiperimpo- 
fitorum foimam gerat ; Hederic. 

DI-GESTER J Xtif, x*<(«(* undc gere, gejlo j 
digere, digejier ; a fetter in order ; a regitlator j 
alio an iron infirument ujed for concoSiion, 
~ DI-GESTS i from the fame root : fignifying 
code, or body of laws, fo called by Julian (per- 
haps Juftinian) who firfi regulated them ; fee 

DIGIT i AaxfuPiflt, digitus; a finger; ^i^o a de- 
gree, or meafure. 

DIGNI-FY; Afx*or, idem quod Aix7«ci £ityf>.tm, 
et Afx/*tco(j aceeptus, gratus, fufcipiens ; R. Ai;^«- 
fcat, capio, accipio ; afseptable^ deserving, becom- 
ing, fuitahlt. 

DI-GRESSION i " gradivus M»rj appellatus 
eft a gradiendo in hella ultra eitreque ; unde TL^»- 
iMm:" Scrvius, as quoted by Voflius : — this 
. would certainly be a very proper deriv. if K^aiaivu 
bore any analogy to gradior; but it GgniBcs only 
vihro, quajfo : R. H^aiSn, macbina tbeatralis. 

Dl-LAPIDATION : non eft a lapide, fays If. 
Voir, fed & Aairju, evacuo, exinanio ; Aavi77w, Act' 
wt^f*, jaSo J AiaXavi^u, dejicto \ to throw, or caft 
down : or elfe perhaps it may be derived from the 
fame root with our word LAPSE : Gr. j mean- 
ing to fufier any buildings to fall into decay, to 
tumble into ruins. 

. DI-LATORYi 9i(u,/ero, feror, latum; dila- 
tus; a deltrfingi 

DI-LEMMA i AtXitf*(*», dilemma ; f/lli^fmus 
ah utrdque parte feriens adver/arium ; fylle^f- 
mus cornutus; an argument that convinces an adver- 
fary both ways, pe_filivehf and negatively : a perplexing 

DI-LIGENCE; Atyu, lego, legi, diligentia; 
^diligendoftngula; car efulnefs, attention, difcretien, 
deliberate choice. Clel, Way. 47, fays, " the Lat. 
word diligens is itfelf from the Celtic di-lig; 
Mot-laxy ; di, privative J and /rg-, lazy:" — but lig 
is only a various dialed for lay -, and confequcntly 
derives fl ^Liy-w, cubo, cumho; to lay, or lie down; 
meaning nojluggard, no loiterer. " 

• DILLING i " fortafie a Tcut. dilltn j gar- 
rire, mcptl fabulari : Jun." — if this be the ori-, 
ginal word, we ought to look no farther j but 
as dillen feems to be a derivative ; and as Jun. 
himfelf acknowledges thai our word dilUng Dg- 
nifies a Utile woer, it may perhaps originate a 
jLMyu, legOf uade diliga, diligens -, ming,, wooing. 

prating nonfenft t» th girls : or perhaps it may 
be but another dialedl for DALLY : Gr. — thert 
is another deriv. in the Sax. Aiph. 

* DIM : Junius quotes Hcfych. for the word 
AtiftAwScti, fo^ttirieti, metuere ; quandoquidem Ml- 
turaUs tenebrarum metus eft : — but there is cer» 
tainly no natural fear of darknefs \ it is an artificial 
fear or dread, imprefl on the minds of children, at tht 
apprehtnfton of feme harm happening to them on 
being left alone in the dark: — it is rather referred 
to the Sax. Alph. 

DI-MICATION : *' M.xx9f, Dor. pro Miy(»t, 
parvus, mica ; unde mice, quia gladU in prteliando 
mieent ; a little fpangle, or fparkle : unlefs wc 
may deduce it a Ai(tfi«;(o^i, contendo, oppugno ; to 
fight, fkirmifh. 

DI-MITYi " A.|U.1e(, duplici lido textus: Jun." 
R. Ai;, bis i et Mi1«f, filum, quodfiamini implica- 
tur i licium j a double thread. 

DIN ; " tinnie i Skinn." — true ; but tinnio 
comes from Tons, or Tivi-i, riM, (3fu;^il«i, Hefych, 
tinnio, tinnitus i a tinkling found, or noife : and 
yet perhaps it might be better to derive din with 
Cafaub. 203, a Aivot, a-lgs^ot, n^ot '• particularly' 
when it fignifies a report. 

DINE J " Attmnv, cirnare ; to fup : for the an-r ' 
tients, according to Feftus, called cana that' re* 
paft, which afterwards has been c^\eA prandium: 
this is the etymology which moft people give to 
this word : Monf. Menage derives the French 
diner from definare i which has been ufed inftead 
of definere ; and he obferves alfo, that others de- 
rive it from the Germ, word difchi, which figni- 
fies a table : Nug." — but if either of thefe lat- 
ter deriv. be true, it ought not to be ranked 
among Englifli words derived from the Gr.— 
" others," continues he, "derive it from Qoivn, epu- 
lum ; afeaft .-"—the firft however feems to be the 
beft deriv. 

• DINT, " quod alii fcribunt dent," fays 
Cafaub. ** quafi a Lat. dens, fit ex A«»7iic : cerce ri 
AetKit cum O^uf baud raro jungi} ac idem, quam* 
vis in metaphorico fenfu, valere, certum eft:" — \%- 
muft be in a metaphorical fenfe indeed, which- 
feldom anfwers the purpofc of an ctymol. : — we 
may much rather derive dint i ®nw, ferio, per— 
culit i to beat, knock, orfirike : or refer it to the 
Sax. Alph. 

DI-OCESE; " AioixiKTu, diacefisi admini/lration^ 
government, jurifdiSlion : R. Oixpt, domus ; m houfcy 
habitation, poffeffion: Nug,"— Clel. Way. 15, and 
75, n, has with great judgement fhewji, thac 
" Cenftantine ti^TTicd with him from Britain more" 
than one Celtic, or Gaulifti expreflion ; and among 
the Te(t dieeefe feems very unlikely to be a Gr. 
word : you wil!> without apy torture, find in that 

D I 

From GftitK, and Lay in* 

© 1 

Word dii'begb*ef, the Mef jujUcf:" — but hogb 
is onl^' a various dialed for high, which is Gr. 
jind ey is the fame. 

DI0:GENES, " ^»ytnf, Jtve natus \ Jove- 
horn : R. Znt, gen. iter, Jupiter i et Thoo^mm, 
Vd ri»OjU«i,jfi!>, nafcor, natus ; ^ffrx .• Nug." 

DIP; or dive; " Avir7«>, wffyaj to plunge under 
water : Cafaub. and Upt." 

DI-PHTHONG, commonly, vulgarJjf, and 
erroneoufly written, pronounced, and divided 
dif-thong ; but what may be meant by fuch a word 
no one can tell ; our prefent word, is derived a 
t^ Ai-fBoyysf , di-phtbongus, d ktter.compoundedof two 
iiflwfZr.'R.AK, ^r'j, etOflayyaijyiwBJ; a found :'Siig." 

DIPLOMA, AurJiMfta, diploma\ Jitera princi- 
putn i vulgo patetttes j letters patent : R. AirXoof, 
duplex \ a duplicate copy. 

' DII%AS, Ai^«r, dip/as j a viper, OKJtdder, ivbich 
affeSs by A4«, fttis ; tbirfi. 

DI-PTOTE, commonly, and vulgarly written, 
pronounced, and divided dtp-totCj and trip-tote : 
.^i-ttiaa-tf, di-ptotOH.i .a noun toitb only two cafes ; 
R. Aw, bis; ec JliirV, -rittrv, quafi rlow, rado ; to 
fall, to desUne. 

DIRE, Anvor, iirus \ dreadful : VoITiUs fup- 
pofes dira to fignify -.deerum ira : but the former 
fcems to be the better deriv. 

DIRGE, ".0 Jii£j*Bf , lametttatio j a v/eepingi wail- 
ing: R. OAf«^ou, lamentoTi to Jament : Calaub. 
and Upt." but the latter obTerves, that others 
derive it from dirige, contracted to dirge ; the 
firft word of the Romilh cflfice of the dead : but 
Cafaub. difapproves of that deriv. 
■ DISABLE : fee ABILITY : Gr^We have 
tnany other words in our language,' beginning 
'with this negative prepofitioni which will be 
Inore properly found under their fefpeftive art. 
tinlefs when the primitives themfelVes are not in 
ufej as in the following words, when compounded. 

DIS- ASTER ; Auf-dnf. m/Uum ajlrum j an ill 
or tviljiar ; meaning an event happening (accord- 
ing to the abfurd fyftem of aftrology) under the 
malignant influence of an unlucky planet. 

DISC ; AiflTtst, difcust orbisfolis -, the orb of tbe 
fin : there ts however a Latin aftronomicat tcrni, 
viz. abacus fotis, which makes me apt to think 
that our word dtft of the fkn may be an erroneous 
exprelHon ; and that it ought to be called tbe 
iefk of tbe fun, from this abacus felis ; but fince 
u. difc, or quoit, is a round body, like tbe fun, and 
ufcd in Latin for a difh, or platter, the impro- 
priety of that orthogr. does not appear fo very 
vifible: but when we confiderthis Latin exprcflion 
abacus felis, and know that abacus itfelf is de- 
rived ab A|3«£, APaxoi, and find that A(3«g lig- 
nifies0 dtjk,fiate, or any fiat thing to write oHi and 

fince the fuD.«ppean to be only aflat rwaid boSji, 
abacus foUt-fhould be translated the deji, net tbe 
difi efjbejkn. 

DIS-CARDj « Xoflnc, fA«r/fl i £c. ebartas ah- 
jictre i q. d. difchartart: Skinn." to difcbarge, or 
Jirike off a lift -, to difmifs. 

DIS-CERN; Kf,»w, cemo, difcerno ; to perceive^ 
diftinguijb. Clel. Way. So, fays, that " the Cel- 
tic wordc^w, or n'r, in the fenfe of circle, is the 
radical of curia, of crimen, and of the Gr. xpitw 
(radically, fays he, Kift*«^) to Judge." — but car, 
cir, circus, circulus, circum, and circle, furcly ori- 
ginate 3. Jtifx-Bj; and crimen as furely dcfcends 5 
jtfivu, judico i to judge j meanrng one who baa 
done an evil aftion, that deferves to be adjudged, 
condemned-: and tlierefore can fcarce proceed from 
the fame root with circle. 

DISCERPTION, Kafxwfuei, K«f«-.^w. carpo,. 
difcrrpo i to tear in pieces. 

DIS -CESSION; X«^«, ^e,iZ, ,cedi>, difceda^ 
dijcejjio; a departure, a going away : alio a eer~ 
tain method tif voting, iy only joining tbe fide of thoji 
for wbtm they would vote, without expre^g their 
opinion m tbefuljeSt. 

DISCIPLEi A««, Tel A«M. (Litt. and Ainf- 
worth fay Aitu, iaMnut ; but that fignifies divido, 
more properly than di/co )i.£uiwu, vel Adiia-w, difco^ 
to learuj acquire knowUdgt; difcipuluSj afcbelan 
or elfe from AiJan**, docee -, to teach ; thougli 
that word is more applicable to tbe inftruffor^ 
than to tbe inftruSed. 

DIS-COURSE: Lord Bolingbroke, vol. t.p.ijg, 
obferves, that the word " dtfieurfe is derived from 
the Latin verb, which fignifies to run about (eurro) 
and by the motion of our legs, and the agita- 
tion of our whole body, to traverfe many diffe- 
rent grounds, or the fame ground many di&renit 
ways ; now the application of this corporeal 
image to what pafles in the mind, when we me- 
ditate on various fubjeAs, and when we com- 
municate thefe to one another, fomecimes with 
greater, and fometimes with lefs agitation^ and 
rapidity, is obvious :" — this derivation, and this 
application every one will allow to be very juft, 
fo far as it anfwered lus lord/hip's purpofe, who, 
though he might be a very great philofopher, 
yet he certainly was no very great ctymologiftj 
we find he was content to derive this word dff~ 
courfe from the Latin verb eurra -, he wanted no 
more j but this will not anfwer our purpofe ; we 
muft noV afk, from whence this Latin verb curro 
is derived ? — undoubtedly from the Greek verb 
'Piw, vel 'Pw», flue, rue, eerruo, contraifted to eur- 
ro i to run, 10 rufb, to flow, like aftream, 

DIS-CRETION 7A.«xj,»«, Ai-xfie-.t, dif- 

DlS-CRlMlNATEj ctrnt, difcriminatio -, dif~ 

n r 

From G R E E Ki and L a t i x. 

D I 

tenment, MfimSien: K* Z^im, judieo i to Judge-, 
but CUl. derives thefc words from the Celtic ; 
at we have feen under the art. DIS-CERN. 

DIS-CUSSION i n«iW«., qMp, Jifiujioi a 
fiakingy or hfating off i »lfo to Jesrtbt i/tfuire, 

DIS-EM-BOGUE ; &»£, B«<<£, Bma, Buxir, 
fanctt i unde voxt vocis ; unde quoque hucca ; 
Jtal. becca; Fr, Gall, huche ; qnde hgut^ em- 
itgue, di/ernhgue i the ^x of mighty rivers through 
the wide opmingt $f difiended channels. 

DIS-GUISE J a negative compound i mean- 
ing contrary to the common method, orgui/e ; appear- 
ing in a different form or fliape to vahat is ufual j for 
guife anfwers to wifet or rather wt^s j as Ukewife, 
Of Ukeways, like means, like manner: fee GUISEt 
«f WAY : Gr. 

DISH. " Aiff»«t, dtyetis: Vpt," a pl^te for meat, 

. DIS-HABIZJLE J A^«, haho, habitus j drefs, 
attire j and the contrary is dif-habilU, undre/s, or 
eirefs put into iiforder : it is merely for the fake 
of complying wich cviltom, that this word has 
been written with two W% j becaufe indeed thofe 
profound ctymologifts, the French, give it us, 
trimed up in this fagacious manner e^^^Ti!;. 

DI-5/:?EVELLED : more barbarous orthogr. 
into which wc have been miflcd by imitating 
thofe worft of examples in orthography, and 
etymology, the French j they write ebeveu, and 
tehevele -, and then we muft ftupidly write di~ 
fitevelled j when all ihtfe three words arc derived 
from KifaAu, caput, (not chaput) or from K«ju*u- 
As(, vcl KajuTTiiAa;; unde capiilus, (not cbapiltus) 
erifpum nempe capiUitium : If. VoiT. a curled head 
#/ hair. 

DIS-MAL, tkui-maH; dirus, terrikilis ; dread' 
/»/, terriklc : another pleonafm, or rather redu- 

DIS-MAY, feems to be acontraflion of djf-a- 
ttimate; and if fo, the deriv. muft be traced from 
Aftf^es, animus; the mind, 6x rational part of man ; 
and here uftd to fignify courage, valor, boldnefi; 
and therefore to di/m^ means to dijanimate, dif- 
hearten^ difcourage. 

DIS-PATCHj n«, pes, pedis; expeditus -, 
J^tdy, nimble ; and we fay as it were dijpeditus -, 
^fpatebt i quickly performed. 

DISBELL ; ab antiq. Aiuxku, pelle, difpeUe ; to 
irivt away, difper/e. 

Dl-SPERSION; ST«{«<r<rM, SMf.yw. fpargo, 
difpergo i to fpread abroad, Jcatter wide : or elfc 
irom 'Zxmf»,Jpargo, aor. idus Ss-Ta^ev, unde^tn*- 
g0i. to (mo, or throw the feed about. 

PIS-PLAY; without the prepofition we write 
VtfpUy, ot fplaw i but ic is certainly derived 

from nx.1ur, latus; hrwd': fo that we hare adr 
ded an s ; and the Latins have difcarded the H } 
with us, to difphf Itgnific» to expand, ^Jclofe, 9pe» 

DISSIPATION : Littleton and Ainfwortli 
deriv^this word « " dis, et antiq. .^ i i. Xtfu, 
unde Xifw, fipho, vel fifhila, i^ua aquam Matf 
i. e. jacit, et fpargit :" — there is indeed iti their 
di£t. fuch a verb as^jW, are, niarkt as an oblb^ 
Icte word ! but no lexicon will give Xtfu, as a 
verb, either antient> or modern ; but all give 
%i^m*, _fipbon, tubus, canaHs ; et herha qu^edam : now 
if this be right, dis is only augmentative : Voflius 
derives fipare, antiq. a X-notu, and diffipare a Ai*- 
n^u, difpergo } to difperfe, tefcatter abroad : and our 
word muil originate irom hence; for there cer?- 
tainly is no connexion between a Jipbon, and dif- 
fipation, as to fenfe, whatever there may be as to 

DI-STAFFi Mini^ew, Junius, and Skinner 
have given us Sax. and Belg. deriv. ; and Minlhew 
would derive difiaff " a die, or diie, femur ; the thigh; 
ind Jlaff; ucpotc quern folent mulieres/ifwor/ inter 
nendum adaptare :" — but no good woman ever 
fixed her difiaffoa the thigbi like zteledo: Skinner 
has given us a much better interpret, melius a 
Belg. touw-ftaff; hacculus ftuppeus ; the Jiaff on 
which the tow, or wool is bound for fpinmtif: 
only now, both TOW, and STAFF, are Gr.— 
permit me now to offer another Gr. deriv. not as 
a better, but only as a different conje6lurc ; vi?.' 
that dijiaff may be derived a Ai(-r«(3«, i. e. 
bis-ambulo j not in the fenfe of twice-walking, or 
walking with twojlicks; but fincc the word jlaS^ 
is undoubtedly derived a l7«(3u, ambulo, becaufe 
ufed to walk with ; a difiaff is only a fiaff, or 
fiick that is fplit a good way down, in order to ad- 
mit the wool, tow, fax, Uc. to be wound, or fafien- 
ed upon it; fo that a diftaff may fignify only a 


Dl-STICH, Aifi^ot^ difiicbon, duos ordines ha- 
bcns ; ex duobus verfibus conflans ; R. Ai{, bis ; 
et2l»x,«f, ordo, verfus; a difiicb, or couplet :~ dis 
is augmentative. 

DIS-TRACTION7Ae»ffffM, A^ayw, trabo,' di~ 

DIS-TRAUGHT S ftrahe, traxi, Iraffum; to 
draw, drag, pull afunder \ to be difordered in mind. 

DI-STRICT, 2lf*yy«, T.l^t,yyt^u>, finngo, dt- 
Jlriitus i a territory, confine, boundary ; alfo a place 
of jurifdiiiion ; a region, trait, or fpace. 

DITCH, orSke; " from T«;^ef, murus val- 
lum : Upt."— fl dike, fence, or mound; and con^ 
feqgently it is the earth that is thrown out, which- 
forms the bank, or ri^ng ground, that is properly 
called the ditch; we generally underftand it of tbf 
bfillm (4vity tbift is formed by cutting that trench i- 

y Google 

D I 

■ From G A E E R> and L a t i w^ 

but originally it was defigned to exprefs the hank, 
not the cavity i and the Dutch to this day call 
ibofi hanks or fences^ which keep out the fea, 
and preferve them from dreadful inundationsj 
dikes-t or digues % meaning the fame as our word 
ditch, or bank, i T^xofj murus j a wall ?— now 
dike in the Dutch tongue OgniBeth a rampier : 
Sammes, 420. 

■ DITHY-RAMBIC, d.euf«j«/3of, dfthyramhus i 
genus carminis in bonorem Baccbi; ex Aidufoj, hiforis j 
. et EfA^atyu, ingredior; quia Bacchus primum ex Semele 
et deinde ex femore Jovis natus-; adcoque Hs in 
vitam ingrejfus fingitur; a fong in honor of Bacchus : 
Voflius gives us the following curious deriv. of 
dittyrambus, qui olim in honorem Liberi patris 
videtur faftitatus, ad exemplum nympharum 
acclamantium parturient) coxx JoviS] Au^i f»f^i^», 
/ohe futuramV — which by the way, fcems better 
adapted to the birth of Minerva, than of Bac- 
chus, from the/«/»rs of the bead: in fliort, it 
would be difficult to fay, which was the more 
extraordinary produflion : — Clel. Way. 74, tells 
us, that " ditbirambics in Celtic fignifies a diitay 
tircularfy danced:" but gives us no ecym.: he has 
however given us a moft ingenious folution of 
this wonderful birth of Bacchus, which the reader 
will be pleafed with, under the art BIBBER. Gr. 

DITION, dominion i reddifion, yielding fubjec- 
tien : this feems to bear a double etym. either 
from Aixfl, qua ac regionem fignet, fays VoDlus, 
ubi quis AixuK, j^s, five judicium exereere fetefi j 
unde dis, ditis, divus ; rich, potent, opulent ; qu6d 
divites imperium babent : or elfe a deditio j cui 
etym. fyllabje primse quantitas favet j and then 
it originates I Ai/aifii, do, dedo; tofwrrender,fubmit, 
acknowledge fuhjtSion. 

DITTANY, AixliKjuw, vel Aixlaifxi'ai', i^'^iifflMttffl, 
feu diSamnus berba -, an herb of great efficacy in 
beating wounds i if we may credit the poets. 

DITTY ; Anxvti/ii, in^ia, ejiendo ; unde dico ; 
nihil interim aliud efl; dicere quam ojlendere animi 
ftti fententiam; dico, dixi, diifum ; unde ditty i 
carmen, canticum j apoem, canticle, or fong : — Verft. 
fays, " hecrof cometh our name of ditties, for 
things to be digbted, or made in meeler; dight- 
ing, or indighting is al(b profe fet foerth in exaSi 
order:" — but digbt, and r'ndight belongs to profe, 
whether fet forth in exa£t order, or not ; and 
therefore may originate as above. 
. DI-VARI CATION, 'fxi^ot, per metath. varus-, 
qui varicatis, et difptrfts crurtbus obambulat ; unde 
varico ; to firaddU -, divaricatus ; diflended. 

DIVE i Aii»|», merge j to dip, or plunge under 
water: Skinner, after having mentioned this 
etym. fays, '* alludit item (it^xu, quaro ; tojearch ; 
the participle of which being Aifuf^ feems to 

bear a clofe analogy to our word diving ;"— but, 
notwithftanding the fpecioufncfs of its appear- 
ance, we might be rather fcrupulous of admit- 
ting it; becaufe quarens is as applicable tofearcb- 
ing for anf thing above water, as below it ; but 
diving cannot he above water ; and confequently 
we muft abide by Auwlw, to dip, or dive under 
water -, whether we fear cb for any thing, or not. 

DI-VERGENCY, a notione ilia vergendi ubi 
notabat fundere ; Ital. vtrfare ; Gall, veffer, pro 
infundere : ut vergo proprie fumatur pro deorfum 
age : quod fi eft, conflatum videatur es Ef«, terra; 
five Egaijf, lerram verfus, deorfum; et ttya, vel 
aytlteti, ago, agor, feror : Vofl". a verge, eft di' 
vergium -, the parting of a river into twoftreams s 
the opening, or fpreading of the rays of light, &c. 
— it might perhaps be rather derived a Aij, bist 
and Tf ur«, verto, quafi vergo ; to turn two wayJj 
to go into two paths. 

DI- VERSION i either from the fame root with 
the foregoing art. or elfc from Tfi»«, quafi 
niflw, verto, verfus ago j to turn, or bend diverfly j 
to give a relaxation to the mind after intenfejiudy j 
to draw the thoughts into a different channel. 

DIVIDE; Eij/jfti, unde Hetrufcum ii/»ff, quafi 
in duo, i. e. partior ; hinc Idus, quia menfem /» 
duas partes dividunt ; to cleave afunder ; to fepa- 
rate, to part in two : but If Voff. thinks divid0 
is derived from vide, fido, findo: others derive ic 
a All, bis J et Uhv, videre -, quia qu,e divifa /unt, 
his videntur; but this laft is rather playing upon 
words J becaufe it would be rather an unlucky 
etym. if they ftiould happen to be divided into three, 
four, or more partitions. 

DIVINATION? A«f, dius, divus, divinitas, di- 

DIVINITY i vinatioi a foretelling future 
events by omens, auguries, or any method of fregnof- 
ticatien : alfo whatever bears any connexion with 
matters of religion, or religious worjhip. 

pI-VORCE( TflM-w, quafi Hwlu, verto, divertos 
anticntly written diverto, unde divortium; a turn- 
ing away, difmiffing, or parting; more particular- 
ly of man, and wife. 

DI-URETIC, Ai«f»iJwof, diureticus; vim ha- 
bens urinam ciendi % ex Ai«, et x^ta, meie-, to make 
water ; a medicine to excite urine- 

DIURNAL ; A(u>;, dies ; a day ; diumus, diu- 
turnus ; belonging to the dcrf ; a daily journal, re- 
flated day by day : Voflius derives it ««■« tJ Aiec, 
a fove J unde Diejptter, fupiter : unde forca0e 


DIUS take it : conirafted from " Ai«p»Xof, 
Dtaboljti i the devil j unde quofdam ^^moxi<adufies, 
nuncupant Galli: Jun." who has interpreted this 
expreflion the duce take it, by abi in malam rem, et 
diabelus te abrifiat; and yet hat ftrangely written it 
5 dau 


Prom Gr»b:k» and L-AT-iir*: 

I? Q 

Jeus take it ; which word was never t&kcn in a bad 
fenfe ; and therefore he ought to, have tortured 
this czpreflion into a ^ouiiuid Ihapes, rather than 
have left it in the manner he has dobe ; ii'ay, 
even our common way of writing, and pro- 
nouncing it, is better than his i if there.was but 
any fenfe in it ; but it would be very difficult to 
explain, and derive the duce is in him. 

DI-VULGE ; to fpread. abroad atnekg fheVXJLr- 
GAR : Gr. 

DI-VULSION J neither Littleton, nor Ainf- 
worth have traced the etym. of this word j.for 
Ainfw. after having quoted Mvuyio from Litde- 
ton> adds, " fed undr, tuque Hie dicit, tuque ega 
invenio ;"— but he found it afterwards ; for under 
the article "vello, he derijrcs it ab £aw, A^f M), vello, 
divello i — then confequently ' the unde of divuljio 
could have been no great myftery. 

DO i " fortaffe a vtrbo Tiii;^«, fabrieoTt Jhuo, 

5aro J to fabricate, prepare J or atcomptifb atrf thing: 
un. and Skinn." 
DOCILE } Aiixfw, ^iittmu, '. doceo, docilis, doci- 
litas i an. aptnefs to learn ; eqfitie/s to he taught -, 
readinefs of comprehenjion : Scaliger, Nunnefius, 
VofTlus, and Ainfworth. 
. DOCK/cr ^ips i " 4'»x''> 'xceptio, capacitas ; 

e of thi 

^ty(u[icii, capio, recipio i to receive, or contain 
Nug." — but Hcdcric explains Ae;^?! by epulum, 
convhium ; a feafi, or banquet j which is far 
enough from a dock to hold Jbtps ; however, he 
acknowledges that it comes from the fame root, 
viz. 6.txfi^M, accipio ; to receive. Cafaubon de- 
rives our word dock, k Aox«fn, ^xq, loculus, con- 
ditoriunt, receptaculum navium ; but does not give 
tis the root: however he adds, ^ Ao;(hw etiam 
ducere polTumus t which brings us back again to 

DOCK, or' tut fiortl" docke cR fupretaa pars 
DOCK of fcate J cauda, in equis, &c. 

ffins contigua: MmQi"-^" caudam, puta««/V, vel 
'equi, amputate ; hoc forte a Sax. roja j dux j 
\ verbo teen ; trabere; quia fc. cauda lotius cor- 
poris motum, it>ftar duds, feu gubernatoris diri- 
git : Skinn."— only it happens a little unluckily 
for the Dr's. deriv. that a genera! marches at the 
head, and not at the tail, or rear of his arnrf : 
we might therefore derive our word dock ^ A«xw, 
vei Afwu-M, duco I to lead, or rather to guide ; be- 
caufe the tail, both in birds and beafis, like the rud~ 
der, both in jiAps and boats, is the guide by which 
they Jieer their courfes. 

DOCTOR ; Aijitffxw, AiSatTxxJ^i, doceo, doSor, 
documentum j tnagijier literarum -, a mafter of Ut- 
ters: this word is now ufed only as a title; thus 
a dolior of law, pb^Ct divinity, tniijic. 

DOD-ifh»f : Junius, under the art. dodkin, tfclls 
us, th^c *' duyt, and deuta in Belg. fignjfies hilum, 
terunciuj, iota, '. triens .-" — and from hence might 
aKifethe appellacioD.6f^siii», ordadyman, given 
to the fnail ::<but ic feems as if both the Belg, 
wxAds, and our own dodman, were but a devia- 
tion of the word dot ; and that they were all de- 
fcendcd from lu\», meaning the Jmallefi, and 
BOjtf infigHificaut, or trivial letter in the Greek 
alphabet : though we generally undcrftand ic of 
a point', and it is remarkable, that the Gr. iota 
has no point, tittle, or dot over it } whereas our 
i has : fo that the Greeks meant the bottom part 
of the letttr> and #e mean the top, the dot, or 
tittle a-top. 

DOE I AsfMsf, ^ Aaf£, datna j a female deer\ 
nifi eapfe dc caufa (fays YolT) paullo faltem vc- 
riGmilius derives dama ^ Am/««, metus, terricula- 
mentum ; quod I A»Jm, timeo ; to- fear : verius 
autem damma eft k Kipf«ar, ia^naitt, nempe pro 
Kif«^«r, Siculi dixerunt T»ftfiMs, unAt dama :-~-oT 
perhaps doe may derive k Qm^, vehx, celer ; be- 
caufc all the deer tribe zvcvcry fleet, nimble creatures. 

DOG; " Aaxec, Gr^cis eft flwfltia/ ioBwWj mjJT/a 
infefians -, & Aaxrw, merdto \ to bite : Jun."— et 
hinc verbum elegantilTimum to dog, or dodge oiu i 
aliquem & tergo ideo fequi, ut qub fe confer t, fciat : 
Lye." — " hoc eft, inflar canis odorem captantis, 
hue illuc difcurfare: Skinn." 

DOGMATIC i A.y/*«, Asypotl*^*, ediSum, doc^ 
trina, injlitutum ; an ediS, dollrine, inftitution: R. 
Aexfw, video, videor, cenfeo; to think, tobe of opi- 
nion : alfo to prefcribe rules to others in a haughty 
fupercilious manner. 

DOIT, Clel. Voc. 167, tells us, that " as a 
farthing is thcfeltrlh part of a penny ; fo is a. 
doit (d^huit) the eighth part of a ftyver in Hol- 
land :" — conftquently Gr. for doit, dbuit, and 
eight feem to be but various dialects of nl-u, 
oli-o, eight. 

DOLE ; AiKiffu, AiHXoy, AtfAnv, divido, dijirt- 
buo ; a gift, or alms divided, diftrihuted, or deait 
out in/mall parcels among matty: or perhaps it may 
be derived ^ Aw^ey, quafi AwAa>, donum, munus ; 
a gift : R. AiSufAt, do, dano, to give ; confer, k.eftow. 

DOLLY : by writing this word in this man- 
ner, no wonder that Lye Should fuppofe it was 
derived a G. D. Hib. Doiligb; and then obfcrve 
that Ant. Brit. Bowly fcrtbitur : — whereas if he 
had but feen it written Doly, he might eafily have 
feen that it was Gr. as in the following art. and 
then his own interpretation would have been moft 
applicable, viz. triftis, maflus, lugubris i fad, for- 
rowfulJoUful: fee DOLOROUS 1 Gr.— DOLLY, 
as.acomradlion of DOROTHY, takes a diffe- 
rent deriv, as will be feen in that art. 


D O 

Fnxn 'Grbbk, and Latiw. 


DOLOROUS ; AiAkv, A4Xii<rif> l^edo, JIOUO % 
unde deleOt doler, doloris -, pain, grief, fmart i—aiid 
vtatrj a dfilorous grean : Milton, VI. 658. 

DOLPHIN, £^tx<fiv,delpbini a fea-jijb : "the 
eld^ fon of France bears the title oixhtDaufbint 
or Delpbinus } not immediately from the name of. 
this fiih, but from the province of Daupbiref, 
which might have originated at firft from AiXf » } 
but the reafon I have not yet learnt : the provioce 
of Diitf^^/sy however was given, or as fome af- 
firm, fold, by Hubert, Earl of Daupbitrj, in the 
year 1349, to Philip de Valois, on condition that 
for ever after, the French king's eldeft fon Ihould 
hold it, during his father's life, of the empire: 
DOLPISHlTsMf, vel Tow>«» -vocem^ vzXfomm 
DOLT 5 intende 1 unde teno, et tenitru -, 
et & tonando eft attonitus : VolT. ibunder-Jiruck -, 
" unde Teut. totlptfcb -, Hifp. tonto -, ftupidus, 
Jiultus I aftupidoaf: Skinn."— we might rather 
fuppofe that dolt originates from' the fame root 
with DULL ; Gr. 

. DOMF5T1C -jAo/Mw, ^edijieo; to build; unde 
DOMINEER " Awfwt, demus -, a boufe ; Ao- 
DOMINION finrut. pcrf. paflT. of A«>p«M, /o 
DOMINO build; R. Aij«w, tedijico: Nug." 

DON J — it would have been more 

fatisfadory if the Dr. had faid Aof«fw, or AtdjUtvu, 
inftead of A<if*av : perhaps domination, and domineer 
may rather be derived a A«pau, dome, fubigo : 
however Voflius is of opiniorr, that dominus ori- 
ginates ^ Au»'«fi«i, pojfum, valeo ; to he of power, 
influence : and If. Vofl". would rather derive it 
from AinrTPit^;, pro A(«-va(>>«f, dominus; of which 
don is only a contraction. 

DONATION} " Au^Qv, donum; donatio; a 
■ gift, or prefent : R. AnTaifti, taken from Asw, Su, 
do, dono; to give : Nug." 

half Sax. halfGr, 

DONE i the perfeft paft, and participle of 
DO : Gr. 

DOO-DLE ; a contraftion of do-little ; and 
confequently from the fame root with the forego- 
ing arc. : LITTLE likewife is Gr. 

DOOM 7 9i/*i(, lex, infiitutum, judi- 

XiOOMS-day-book J cium j Judgement, law, in- 
ftitutes : " unde Sax. do$n -, and dem-boe; liber 
tenfualis Gulielmi ViHoris j Skinn. and Jun." — tbe 
book of eftimates, or Uber valorum, compiled hy or- 
der of H^illiam tbe Conqueror. Clel. Voc. 10, n, 
explains " doom' s-day~baok by a book of dire£lion 
for the judges of tbe law, or tbe judge's law-booki 
i. e. dom's, judge's j d'ey, law, and book, book :" 
— but dom, as we have feen above, may originate 
a 0f/«-t;, juditiunit or judge % d'ey is the fame as 

Pey, lavft ^ Ai-y», dice, jus dico j and BOOK we 
have feen is Gr. 

DOOR, .*' 9uf«, janua -, a gate j by changing 
9 into D : Cafaub. and Upt." — Verft. writes it 
'* duri) or durb; iind dure-weard; now a door^ 
door-warder, .deor-keepery or porter; it is asmuch 
to fay as tbrougb ; and not improper ; becaufc ic 
is a dttrb-fare, ox tborow-fare; or paffage:" — and 
yet he could not fee that all thofe words were 
derived from 0uf«. 

DOO-TLEi " a notch made, into which the 
balk is faiftened ; quafi dove-tail ; becaufe it is 
like a pigeon's tail extended : Ray." — only now, 
unluckily, both DOVE, and TAIL, are Gr. 

DORIC i Auf >(» A«pix0f, Deris, regio Graeta ; a 
region or difirM of Greece, 

DORMANT "lAtffui, pellis ; «t» rZv Am^«- 

DORMITORYJ 7w, hpellibus, qmbus dormi- 
entes incubdbdnt : mankind in the moft renjote 
ages of the world Jlept -on tbe Jkins of tbofe wild 
heafts which they bad killed in hunting j fome of 
which they ftrewed on the ground,^ and covered 
themfclvcs with others of the fame fort: no very 
delicate lodging! — lf..Voir. thinks we ought to 
derive dormio, a Aaffl«ii, vcl AfaSB*, dermire ; to 
jleep-; but this appears to foe only a fynonymoui 

DOR-MOUSE; from the fame root; by only 
adding MiJf, mus; amoufe; called in Latin f//Ji 
being that little animal fe remarkable for Jleeping. 

DORO-THY ; ex A«pe», denum ; et Swr, Deusi 
tbe gift of God. 

DORSERi Aifu, Aa(«, i^^et, Atffn, unde dor'^ 
fum; tbe back; elitelU, dojfttavi^r ; derfers, pannels^ 
or pack-faddles, jet on tbe bath of labouring beafis^ 
or beajis of burden, that they may carry their leadt 
with the greater eafe ; and we often fee our porter* 
ufing them for the fame purpole. 

DORTOIR \ this is another noble exertion of 

DORTOURJ Gallic genius, in transforming 
a word fo curioufly, as to take away all appear- 
ance of adoption, and to give their language in 
fome meafure the form of originality j but Ju- 
nius has removed the thin dilguife, by telling 
us, that " dortour Chaucero eft dormitorium, quod 
eft commune monachorum cuhictdum" — but yet 
even be has not told us it is Gr. though he has 
referred us to' dormeufe ; and in that art. has 
quoted Voff. who derives dormio from the Gr. 
as we have already feen. 

DOSE of piyfic i Ai^jut, Saw, unde Awifj 
donum -, do, dono; a certain quantity, whether felid 
or liquid, given at a time. 

DOSE, to Jleep ; " obflupefacere^iScJg. duyfeleni 
vertigine labcrare (hut that isdizzine/s, not dcfing)t 
vel ^Sax.bpxf i Belg. dwaesi hebes^flultia (bue 


D O 

From G R X E K, and L a t i tr. 

P R 

that ii Jtupidify, not irowfinefs) j vel 2 nollro to 
iote; Belg. dotertt dutten ; delirare (but that is 
driveilingi noz Jleeping) ;, Sltin."— who, after this, 
quotes Fr. Jun. for what I cannot find, viz. Belg. 
dwaeSf et does, more fuo defieftit i Aua^ei*, quod 
Hefych. exponit ^Kvxftiv, aXoyny :"-— after thefe 
four fruitlefs attempts, I am going to add a fifth, 
viz. that dofe may perhaps have been derived i 
^■oirtt,fuhHffe; from Au«, vel £^\itu, fubes i as when 
we fay, he ngone under cover, he has crept under 
to fleep, to take a nap. 

; DOSEN, fometimes dozen^ a contra-flion of 
duodedm, AuoJiko, two and ten, i. e. twelve. 

• DOTEREL : Junius and Skinner call this 
avis, vel imitatrix ctiam in fuum exitium, otis : 
and Junius quotes Vofl*. ; but VofT. writes it 
etus J and derives it from Cflot, five Stivt, utro- 
que enim modo fcriprum inveniturj avi nyfti- 
coraci fimilis, quam Hifpania avem tardam ap- 
pellat J but does not fay whether that (ardinefs 
was figurative, or literal j perhaps the former, 
fince Skinner fays, Camdtfn dcfleftit i verfao to ' 
dote; q. d. avis ifif/ira :— if this be right, we muft 
refer to DOTARD in the Sax. Alph. 

DOUBLE ; AiirAeor, AiTrAur, duplex j ttoo-foU. 

DOUBLET, aurXfli'f, (Jet, Lenaduplicata, eklamys; 
a thick cleke, or double wrought coat for foldiers, 
failors, watchmen, &c, 

DOUBT, A-jo-)3«1ica, duo-bite, Ire ; duhito, are ; 
. in duas vias ire ; to go into two opinions : R. Bamw, 
toi to go: Asin, i poetis, Aoiin, pro Auu, undc 
A««^w, dubito ; to hejitate, to be dubious. 

DOVE i -" ut Latinis columbie ptttantur di£ft* 
«)rfl T» KoAv/apBi-, urinare, aquas fuhtre ; quoniam 
talis eft harum volucrum gefl:us j ita quoquc 
Almann. dSue vidcri poteft i AuVIwi', quod Hefych. 
txponit K.9f.vf)i§*y : Jun." — to dip, and to dive : 
which feems to be the conftant aiftion of thofe 
birds, always bowing, and bending down. 

DOUSE, cttf, orjtrike; alludit only, faysSkinn. 
Gr, Ainrer, fonus, ftrepitus ; attj loudnoi/e at aftroke, 

DOUTER, " an extinguijber ; i\m7Si do-out-er: 
Ray." — confcquently Or. 

DOWAGER ?A.^««.,A<*^., de, datum-, unde 

DOWER S Aajf, Aoo-ir, A«fe», doKum :■ vi~ 

dua nobilis, cui ufus fruUus partis bonorum mariti 

cencejfus, vel datus eft : a nobleman's widow, to 

whom is granted the enjoyment of part of her de- 

. eeafed lord's effeSls. 

DOW-GATEj Cld.Way.53,andVoc. i^i.n, 
tells U9, that " this gate received its name from be- 
ing near the water :" — then it is but reafonable to 
Aippofe, that ^ the French might have called it 
Peau-porle^ the' Celts called it D'ew-gate : and 
confequently that both are derived ab v-^, aqua-, 

DOWN] or billow, Amu, fuheo^ OCCtdo; to fub' 
fide^ or fet, as the fun. 

•DOWN of feathers; " Am*h», immergere -, qu6d 
in plumea firata, baud altter atque in aquam int~ 
mergamar: Jun." becaufe we Jink into a down 
feather-bed, ms into water .■— if this Ihould not be 
admitted, we muft then have recourfe to the 
Sax. Alph. 

DOWNS, or DOWNES j " vel a &tv, agger, 
acervtts, cumulus ; a heap, a mound, a bank of /and: 
vet a Aw(i«, ^ol. pro Bumu qui montem, colliculum, 
vel tumulum i terra eongejium vett. Gr. denotabat : 
Jun. and Skinn." — fince this is the better deriv. 
it may feem ftrange to hear of a fleet of Ihips 
moored in the Downs ; when Downs Jgnifies a mount, 
or bill : true ; but it is a mount, hill, or hank, 
under water % dorfum immane mart fummo ;— Ver- 
ftegan writes it dune, and explains it Hkewifeby 
a " hil, commonly that Jlretcheth itfelf out in length : 
they call in HoWand the /and banks which ly vpon 
the fea fydc, tbe Dunes ; the town of Dun-kerk, 
(now Dunkirk) rightly in Engiilh Dune-churche, 
hath had that appellation by beeing fituate ('« 
the Dunes, or fand-banks : wee yet in fomc places 
of England call hilles, downs." Clel.Voc. 126,0, 
would derive " Downs from the Celtic de, not, 
and owings, the point at which the waters are 
ftopt by the fand-hills: or elfe," fays he, "Downs 
(Dunes) from de, privative; and und, water;" — 
but furely und, and unda, originate ab vtug, quad 
un-iu^ : uja{, ttdus ; moi_fi, wet. 

DOWRY, Am;, Abo-k, Ait^nv, dos, donum ; a 
portion, or bejiowing of money, goods, or lands, 
given with a wife in marriage : R. AiJ*^*, do 1 
to give. 

DOXO-LOGY, AoH«Xtty.«, collaudatio, glori- 
ficatio J a praifing, or glorifying : as gloria Patri ; 
glory be to the Father, &c. 

DRAB, or common woman ; A^opa;, Hefychio 
eft riajf*, 3. A^6[M<r<rei*, t^i^m, fcortum, lupa, me- 
retrix -, qu6d foeminffi hujufmodi, corpora fua ad 
itnpuram hominum intcmpcrantiam vulgire pa- 
rats, effraftia, proftratifquc omnibus modeftia; 
rcpagulis, proterve, pctulanter, libere, ac veluti 
fijo quod am jure, omnia privata publicaque loca 
pervolitare geftiant, quo formam fuam plurium 
oculis, manibufque exponant, vcnalemque ha- 
beant :" according to junius's elegant dcfcrip- 
tlon i as indeed he always is; for certainly no 
man could have defcribed a dirty harlot more 

DRACHM, commonly written, and pronounc- 
ed "dram, Af«;^)t, dragma ; a httndful, or piece 
offilver: Nug."— this is the Dr's. orthogr. and 
explanation ; the former of which is erroneous, 
and the latter ideficient ; for dragma is a word of 
U a fuch 

D R 

'FroiiEV <S It B I K,. and L a t i h. 

D R 

fuch wonderful ^>pearance, as woutd require 
more fkill to trace out> tKan I can pretend to : 
and the explanation h deficientj became the werds 
A^apf^n and drachmay belong bath to meney and 
vMght i the Greek coin was of the fame value 
as the Roman denier, -Ot denarius,' about four 
fefterces, or feven pence of ouTtnon^: and the 
droMy or drachm, in weight, is the feventhj or 
rather the eighth pan of an otince, 84 of them 
making a pound, confifting of 1 2 ounces. 

DRAFF i " Belg. draff; the grains of malt : 
Ray." — this word however feems to be Greek, and 
derived from the fame origin with DRAUGHT, 
when the beer 1%. drawH off ^ or with DAN- 

DRAFF-^f*^ ; " iww rejicuUi credo i Sax. 
bpse|:e i expuljie -, bpjejreb j abaSlus : Skinn." — 
this is not going far enough ; for this Sax. word 
expreffes only the a£iion of driving, or driving 
away, which the Dr. himfelf, under the art. 
drive, acknowledges, alludunt Tpurw, verto; vel 
TfifSiH, tere: we might rather luppofe a draff- 
Jbeep, is a Jbeep draughted off, \. e. drawn out of 
the feck ; and derive it k A^»u, Jfetva-u, Af«yw, 

'DRAG aleug i' '^ ^fttfTti, Ac^^ «y/««i : Upt."— . 
.this is undoubtedly a juft deriv. as to the verb 
Afcta-ffu, traho; but we may doubt the ttnfc, from 
which he has derived drag } he has been obliged 
to run fo far as the perfeft. pafT. Aitfaynat, but 
it might be much more nearly derived from the 
fccond, or Attic future, a£iive -, Afayw, traham -, 
and we accordingly find that many of our fubftan- 
tivcs and verbs originate from thi& tenfe ; thus, 
conflagration, a *x«y3, the Attic future of *XiyB : 
ftigmatize, a Sl.yw, the Attic future of ZIi^m : and 
many Latin verbs likcwife take their orig, from 
this tenfe ; thus cubo derives ^ Kihtm, Att. fut. of 
Kiw7«: and «</(), a X*Jw, Att. fut. of X«^«. 
DRAG-w/, tragum: from the fame root: Gr. 
DRAGON, "Af(«x«», draco i Nug." — to this 
let me add, that Ainfworth derives it am ra 
Af«xa», a Aipxw, a^ acie acuta; from hisjharpnefs 
^fJfi^f' R- Afftw, video; vel potius Aifxo^ai:, 
poccicum: fee TRAGACANTH; Gr.:— CleJ. 
Voc. 82, 3, and 170, veryjuftly obferves, that 
** the comnion deriv, is wxo t5 Aifxsi-, from its 
quieknefs ef Jigbt ; but on referring it to the an- 
tient language, it is a contra^llon of tir-acq-on, 
or terra et ama :" — then confequently Gr. The 
reafon why the term dragon, and the eld dragt^, 
is attributed to the devil, fays Clel. Voc. 83, is,' 
becaufe the officer, who executed the Druidical 
arreft by drawit^ a circle round the delinquent^ 
was called /i* drac, or drago :" — which is pure 
Gr. i Ag«ffo-M, Ajayw, to drag, or draw a ftick 

over the ground, and thereby mark out a circle ; 
tho* in p. 82, he gives us a different deriv. % 
viz. \ tir-acht and tir-acho, (circle-makers) by 
contraftion, drac, and -draco: — but in p. 162, 
he tells us, that /«-, and tir, fignify the earth i 
and in this fenfe tir-ach may fignify earth-markers i 
maracb contracted to mark, ^ ft-n^, divide, Jigno : 
and tir, in the fenfe of ear/i, originates ab Ef«» 
terra, contrafted to ter, or tir. 

DRAGOON J from the iascic root : " Isbent* 
fub Impcrio, figni-feri qui dracones pro figno 
militari circumtulerunt, dracenarii diifti font j 
unde dragoons in recentiori militia cquires fclope- 
tarii credo fie difti, quod ab initio exitiofi fue- 
rint hoftlbus s et dracomtm inftar ignem evomere 
vifi funt : Jun. and Skinn." — confequently Gr. ; 

DRAIN ; AfftiTtru, A(<x^, traho ; to draw, or 
drag along ; becaufe whatever paffes in, or through 
a &ain,Jeems to be drawn, or dragged along. 

DRAKE and duck -, " nefcio an a Teut. ; et 
-Belg. dreck-, eemum, lutum; quia fc. lutogaudetr 
fi Stis GrKcus eOem, jurarem orcum k Tfug» 
fitces : Skinn." — becaufe, like the hog tribe, the 
duck, and drake, are very grofs feeders. 

ViKAX.'E, or fea-drake; "Ariftoteli K«I«pp'«x7>if,. 
quod ni fallor (fays Skinn.) melius fcribitur 
Kalaeaxlnt : fc. non ^ Kalat^nyfu^i, fed a Ka1«f aa-a-m^ 
ex alto irruende ful/are, tundere : fic autem didbus 
eft mergus major, quia in pifces pradam fuam^ 
infiar turbinis devolutus, ipjos pertundit, et quafi 
elidit : drake autem Angl. dicitur, quali draco 
marinus; quia mare et fiuvios, ut draco terram, 
populatur:" — but draco is quite a different etym. 
as we have fccn under the art. DRAGON: Gr. 

DRAKE, ; or war-engine-, " machina quadam 
bellica ; q. d. draco ; quia inftar draComs, ignem 
vomit: Skinn." — then confequently derived k 
AfiExuiij as we have already feen. 

DRAMA, Af«/*(», a Dor. ^fOi, agere fabel'- 
lam I faj?ula, tragtedia, vel conuedia ; the fable of 
either tragedy or comedy.. 

DRAPER J " TfWTiM, ealcare j to trample ; et 
fpcciatim »T'0j in lacu; unde Tfavnl»t, mufium : 
Tfxw^ix, eikiif, Hefych. et trapetum, tXauHv fiuxctt 
OMia^yuey, A«ic3(if3i<» : Vpff." from hence is de- 
rived our word draper ; " poTtni mercator j vel i 
Teut. trampelen; conculcare\ Dan. tramper; calco ; 
eft certe omnis pannus, priufquam vcnum expo- 
nittuT probe conculcatus, et torcularibusccmpreffus, uf' 
{•evior ebque fublilior videiur: vel a Lat. trapetum: 
Skinn." — but trapetum, undoubtedly originates i 
Tfairiw; and not, as Litt. and Ainfworth fuppofe, 
■ a TfiTw I foitaffc ■ olim fic diili (fays Junius) qui 
paanos praparabatH, vt vendertnt : Martinio, con- 
tinues he,, pannus videtur drap didtus,. a T^airtw, 
ealcare ; nam caltando eondliabantur lanum : to 
I trtadt 

From G R E s K, and Latin. 

D ft 

trtaij or trample tUthf in the eSion of tleamng it; 
al/o te frefs, and prepare ii for fale -, our. prcfcnc 
drapers only fell it. 

DRATE, " to draw out one^s words : Ray."— 
it feems tQ be only a contraAion of DRAW-ojvr 
one's words : confequently Gr. 

DRAUGHT, or potion ; ** bauftus ; eodcm 
loquendi modo utuntur et Grzci et Lacini ; po- 
eula Lefbii DUCES : Hor. I. Od. 57 ; ducere 
meSarisfuccos: lib. III. Od. 3 1 apud Athen. I. io> 
p. 455, EXwt trabe \ i. e. bibe: Eufliach. ad Odyfif. 
p. 1399: ^0-1 K«i n»u<r(M'iac, a7i AFEIN k«i 
TIIArEIN, xai «ri ri iruK» AtyiTat : Hor. Epod. I4 ; 
pocula trabere ; to draw, by changing / into d: 
Upt."— but this is deriving our words draw, and 
drauvbt, from the Latin, not from the Gr. ; there- 
fore he (faould rather have derived them % A^a^iru, 
Af»yu, unde trabo. 

DRAUGHTS; "credo," fays Skinn. "iverbo 
to draw i quia fc. latrunculi viiii bine tnde rapiun- 
tar, et auferuHtur :" — a draugbt-board, on which 
the men, as :hcy arc called, are conthtually drawn, 
and fhoved about : and confequently the original 
of this word is the fame with DRAW, which is 
Greek ; as we fliall fee in the next article. 

DRAW J Afflwffw, Af«y£, unde trabo ; to drag, 
er pull along i alfo a fmall box that is pulled out, 

DRAWL; " TfauXof, halbui,traulus; Tf«uX<^«, 
balbtttio i a drawUr, or to drawl in one's Jpeech : 
Upt." to befitate, to linger in pronunciation. 

DREAD, fear ; Cafaubon derives it i Ah<Jm, 
quad ^^nita: but Skinn. has perhaps juAly cen- 
Aired this dcriv. and fays, '* dread i Sax. bpaeb } 
pavor, timer: Minih. i tcrtia perfona /frrt/ ; ego 
potius a vcrbo territare defledercm j" — and we 
might rather derive territare itjelf a T*f«9-iru, 
perterrefacio : or elfe perhaps dread may be de- 
rived a Tf («, tremo -, to tremble. 

DREAM i Ciel. Voc. 161, 2, has, with the 
greateft fagacity,. traced out the true ctym. of this 
word dream, which he derives from the Druidical 
doftrine of afcribing them to the eartb; and 
fiipports. his opinion by a paffage from Euripides : 

Eartb, mother of dreams. 
fionfequentiaUy to which doftrine, in the Druidical 
manner of animating every thing, and every 
place with fpirils, they called thofe dreams, or 
j^irits of tbe eartb, ter-imps (whence by tranf- 
pofition ,and abbreviation, trimps;) and then 
after-age»Jeaving out the ;>, not. impoflibly might 
have formed tripis, treams,. or aVfowj;— only 
now tbe next point ihoukl be to conlidcr, whe- 
ther ter, and /frriJi. did not originate ab E^a, 
by tranfpoGtioD Mr-thj.from whence moft na- 
turall/i, e?rii according to his own fuppofition. 

the prefent orthography of the word ireams like^ 
vife feems to have fprung — the Greeks wrote 
E^st; tranfpofe thofe letters, and they form fid,- 
whence d-rt&-ms: this Druidical opinion how-^ 
ever, that dreams fliould proceed from tbe earth, 
he very Juftly explodes, and then proceeds tb 
give a far more rational account of dreams.-,^ 
which' is only too long to tranlcribe » but {hews 
at the fame rime, that he is as great a nacoral 
philofopher, 'as a learned antiquary : from all 
then that he lays on this fubjeft, we maygather 
another deriv. which is here only offered j viz. 
that dreams being really nothing more than a 
gentle fever of the mind, they may perhaps be 
derived a ^^^t, mens -, tbe mind ; dreams being 
truly the real workings of tbe mind in fleq). 

DREGS; " TfipJ, Tfuyflf, fax, faces; lees^ 
fettlings J hence a mere dn^: Cafaub. and Upt." • 

• DRENCH, Af J«», et A^Skm», quafi M^ta^ 
et AJf (UBc, irrigare, adaquare j Ilslt^**, et A^ittntt, 
afRniare, et in fermone permutabilia : Cafaub,— 
to moiften : though we may rather fu|^fc it tti 
be Sax. 

DRESS; &(M), ^xvta, facto ; to make, tvfefbion't 
or to form ; to deck out : Ciel. Way. 80, tells us» 
that " drefs is" but a contraftion oi tert/s, of 
tierefs :" — confequently Gr. as will be feen under 
the art. TIER : Gr. 

DRIFT of /now; Lye fuppofes it to be derived 
" ab Iceland, dryfa; fortafle a dryfa-, jaffari :" 
— but there can be no reafon for going fo far, 
when we have a very good deriv. much nearer 
home, from the verb drive -, a drift of /now being 
ne more tban a great quantity driven together in a 
heap by tbe wind : and confequently Gr. 

DRILL; T^t^, tero; wide terebre: vel^dfiXdj, 
terebrum ; a gimblet-; to bore a bole with .■ fee 

DRIVE; Tj»p», teroi vel a Tfow, trudt; to 
tbruft, pufh,-fi}Ove before one. 

DRIVEL, quafiriw/, k'?fw,fuoi nnderivus; 
a rivulet, a little flream ; or any moifture that 
fiewly creeps along, or gently flavers down : fome- 
times we 6nd this word written bedrivelled, md 

DRIZZLE, Afttvt, ros, mfcellus-, q..d.xoJ!if- 
lare, vel droffulare ; a gentle .rain, as fipqU as 
dew: a fog, ormift. 

DROILj " T^tfSait terOi pello, fre,quenter tret 
mediafiinus, qui adjfifa beri, et/uperiorum hue illue 
difcurrit: Skinn." without the Greek : a mere 
drudge, or errand-beartt. ' . 

DR-OLE? Ciel. Voe. 13, n, tells us, that oor 

DR-OLLS word " dtrc^ is but a contradion 
of ter-ol; round tbe pole; meaning t-he mirth of 
joyous fongs and dances, whicit were always per- 

B R 

Fn»n Grxsk, and Lativ. 

X> R 

formedi and exhibited at the tien-mettt, or aj^zes 
e^ /^ Uruids; whco all the feftivity of which 
(boTc' early ages were ftifceptible, fuch as mock 
battles, and,underthe name of tilts, charioc races, 
b^ipodromes, exercifes, with every kind of fport 
then in vogue, were celebrated :" — all this is un- 
doubtedly true; but itill the deriv. feems to be 
-Gr. ; for, whatever the former part of the com- 
pound dr, or ter, may be, the latter part eU^ or 
«//, is furely derived ab vx-*yjyha, lignum ; mean- 
ing the pvUy round which they danced and fung, 
and made merry. 

DROMEDARY, Af«^«r, Aje^aJef, eurfitans^ 
velox i uC Af»fMf x«jUt)Aef, vulgo dromedarius j a 
Perjian beafi ef hurdtn : R. A^tjuw, inufit. Tf«;^u, 
tS^AfACf : curro -, te run -, this creature having a 
fxoift pace. 

DRONE ; AJfoi'tif, quati A^ «i»i;, infirmus, langui- 
dus, iners: *' nifi quis malit a &^iam^, quafi A^uvccg, 
futusiO tee-drom: Cafaub. and Jun." — "credidc- 
rim potius c'ontrafhim a dreven, particip. verb, to 
drive; quia fc. apibus abigunlur fuci : Skinn." — 
that drones are expelled the hive is a faft too true ; 
but, that droven is a participle of the verb drive, 
will not be admitted now, whatever it might 
have been in the Dr's. time : belides, even then 
it would be derived from the Gr. as we have feen 
under the proper art. DRIVE : Gr. 

DROOP, " Afuiriinf, frullus "jam adultus, ei 
maturus ; jamjam (quippe ex Afu?, ec 7rnr7« com- 
pofitum) cafurus: hinc credibile eft Anglicum 
drop; qtted de maturis fruSlihus fiepe ufurpatur : 
fortafle ct droop, vergere deorfuntj inclinare: nifi 
potius ex "Pia-w, D prmpoCitOt/erpo j to creep along: 

DROOPISH i Skinner derives it from a dif- 
ferent root to the foregoing ; viz. h. Belg. "droef; 
which," he fays, '* comes a Tcut. trueb j animo 
iuriato tfft'" — but if this be the true deriv. he 
ought to have told us, that turbt^ are (from 
•whence both turhatm and trueb are derived) 
originates a di^ u|3(u, 9»fu^, tvrboi to be difiurbed, 
fad, or troubled in mind. 

DROP : Junius quotes Cafaub. as in the fore- 
going art. droop : Lye however does not admit 
of that deriv. but rather fuppofes, on the con- 
trary, that dro^ originates from drop, which Jun, 
after mentioning the Sax. Almann. Dan. Belg. 
and Cimbric words, fays, " videntur extrito /* 
fadta ex Sg»fi^, nam ita Icgimus Luc. XXII. 44. 

Eywila Ji i WfWf aulu, urn Gao^i mjk«7«( : this 

deriv. Minfli. had given, with the difapproba- 
tion of Skinn. qu£ male deducit Minlh. a 
Qfofj^at, grumus :" — with regard tothedifcarding 
fi, in order to form drop, Junius has given us 
iifvcral examples: quod .vero (« frequenter abjici, 

et omitti foleat, oftendit imitor defumptum ex 
Mif»it|Kai, coma ex Kngjujuxi : Scipie ^ SxtjUTw* j 
Jipho k lift^u* : venenum \ Utkiitvov, &c. 

DROPSY ; 'rif<i^, hydrops, aqua intercus \ the 
watry difeafe, gathered between the /two JHns i 
K.'Ttvf, aqua; water} eta,\^, fades, cks, (utis % 
the /tin. 

DROSS, " T.«S, Tfoyw, fax, ffcis : Skinn." 
who adds, " Kgtitx»i»li>( autem me, imo plane nu- 
gatorem, prael^rem, fi i Afoirocdefleaeremi quia 
fc. ros humefcentis aeris quafi fedimentum eft, et 
fsexr" — after fuch an acknowledgement, or rather 
cenfure, on himfelf, it would be unfair to fay any 
thing farther. 

DROUSY; Au«^«»: Hefych. fAiio^AF, oXovmv: 
— but with regard to this etym. fee DOSE^ to 
pep: Gr. 

DROZEN, feems to be but a various dialeft 
of l7if yw*, neturali quadam caritate compltSor i 
unde siof yn, amor naturalis ; natural affeSion ; t9 
be fond, loving, &c. 

DRUB; " fi Griccus eflem, defleaerem i 
AfuVlw, lacero, lanio; vel a ©fuirlt*, frango: vel i 
Tf »(3w, tero : vel i Tammu, uvas caUo : Skinn."— 
fo prodigioufly profufe has the Dr. been of his 
Greek this time ! and yet I cannot adopt any one 
of thefe deriv. but would rather derive drub S 
TuVja, verbero ; by adding the f , quafi TfuVJw, 
contrafted to drub. 

* DRUDGE i " Tfuynlflf, vindemia tempust 
quando otnnes occupatijjimi : nifi quis malit ex 
Tfu;tw, atlero, vexo ; Tfup(«/*«i, atterer-, confidor, 
repetere : Cafaub." or perhaps from T^ix"> ^>*f^^i 
one who is always en foot ; continually trudging up 
and down: and indeed it feems to be but another 
dialeft for TRUDGE: Gr. unlefs we refer to 
the Sax. Alph. 

DRUG, in the fcnfe of a mere dri^: fee 

DRUID ; Afu(, quercus ; an oak; unde DrjadeSt 
the nymphs of the groves ; and perhaps the 
Druids, who were priefts of the groves j becaufe 
they are faid to have held nothing more facred 
than the eai, which was alfo facred to Jupiter i 
whence Lucan in his Fharfalia, book VII. fays, 
— ■ — - ■ nemora alta remotis 

Incolitis lucis.- 

this is the general deriv. according to Plinyj Max. 
Tyrius, Diod. Siculus, Camden, Dickenfon, Da- 
vies, and others j but Elias.Schedius, D. Voflius, 
and Ainfworth, with greater propriety, derive it 
a Sax. dry; or dru; i. e. magus t fignifying wife 
men, or philofophers, among the Gauls, and Celts, 
or eld Britons j and Clel. Way. 44, derives " Druid 
more naturally ftill, according to the defignatioo 
of their prieftly funaion. From Dlfr-eud; the 

D U 

From Grksk> and Latin. 

man of God:" — but even ftill it is Gr. for now it 
fec'ms to dpriyc from It, w>, viniy vi, vir, Ser j 
a man', and «-y«S-oc, good', or rather Eu, hene, 
bonus; good, geud, end; and therefore it might 
liavc been more properly rendered the good-man, 
the bonus pater i the good-fatber, the pope, the 
friefi ; juft in the fame manner as we obferved un- 
der the art. CALOYER, that Tournefort, in 
his voyage to the Levant, vol. I. 31. oft', fays, 
*' the monks of the convent of the Trinity (half 
a day's journey from Canea, in the ifle of Crete) 
are called cah-yers, as it is now pronounced j 
" but it ought,"- fays he, " to be written 
ealo-gers ; good eld men -, from K«a-o(, good j and 
ytp-u*, old:" fo our Celtic anceftors might have 
cdled their religious Druids, or D'er-euds, their 
good-men, their holy-fathers ; unlcfs thofe monks 
were called calo-yers, or ealo-gers, in the fenfe of 
their being fcholars, or men of letters; quafi 
callers ; and then their name would ftill be Gr. 
as in the art. SCHOLAR : Gr. 

DRUM i Tii/»x«tro^, tympanum ; a warlike mufi- 
eal inftrument : R. Tub-bi', vel Tuwlftc, verberare ; 
to beat, orftrike. 

DRUM of the ear ; from the foregoing root j 
meaning that wonderful organ of hearing, which 
is conftantly firuck, and beaten- upon by every 
reverberation of the air, and excites the idea 
and fenfation of found. 

DRY i A^w, ficco ; " aridus ; parcbt, fere : 
Cafaub; fane miro, nee laudando artificio: fays 
Skinn." and confequently he has adopted the 
Sax. which has not been followed, becaufe Junius 
has given us a much better deriv. from Hefych. 
for he lias fald, drie k Tfuy«, ^i^xm (fnfaifd) : 
apud Nicandrum quoque in Theriacis Tpuyn fig- 
nificat ariditatem, Jiccitatem i drought. 

DRYADS ; "Aauf, quercusi an oak: iheDtyads 
were anttent priejis of the Gauls, who lived in 
ferefts: Nug." — the Dr. Ihould have confulted 
his diftionary better : the Druids were the priejis ; 
not the Dryads', they were the nymphs of the 

DUAL, AuTxoj, dualis ; of, or belonging to two 
only i as the dual number in the Greek grammar : 
R. Auo, duo \ two. 

DUB a knight ; " initiarc armis j primum 
cqueftris dignitatis gradum in aliquem conferrc, 
ac novo nomine, veluti per bapti/mum, infignire; 
flam dyppan. Sax. eft baptizare : Jun," — from 
this very deriv. it is a wonder he did not obferve, 
that the etym. of dyppan is pure Gr. though the 
fignification, and cuftom itfelf be far otherwife : 
that dub may be derived a dyppan we can make 
no doubt i as we can likcwifc make no doubt 

but that dyppan eft baptizare; and to baptize 
fjgnifies to dip; therefore all tfiefe words are un- 
doubtedly derived ^ Auwlw, mergo ; to plunge under 
water : now, though knigbtSy when they are dubbed, 
are not plunged under water, yet as their initiation 
was fomething of a religious ceremony at firft, 
there feems to be fome probability in this etytii. 
and yet there is another deriv. produced by Lye 
from Hickes, which I fliall defirc leave to 
tranfcribe: ** Norman-Sax. dubban ro pibepe, 
equitem creare, feu cenjlituere: Icelandico ab 
bubba til pibbajie: hinc dubbadr riddart; eques 
cataphraHus : doftilfimus Ol. Vereljus, at dubba 
til ridara, Suecice vcrtk ^a en tH riddare; i. c. 
pereutere aliquem in equitem (Angl. to flap airy one 
into a knight ; or, literally fpeaking, to beat, or 
drub him into knighthood:) ab dubba enini pri- 
mario fignificat cadere, pereutere, verberare; et 
quod moris erat i gcntibus Scandicis, ut opinor, 
profefti, juvenem juftse militia: candidatum gla- 
dio cinftum manu ^fl-cfl/(>»(fff, vel gladio ftrifto 
feriendo, equitem creare ; propterea creatio equitis 
per hoc verbum denotari ccepit, poft introitum 
Normannorum :" — fince therefore this ceremony 
was, and is ftill, performed by a gentlej/?roif,or 
blow,vie might rather prefer this latter deriv. and 
deduce our word dub, a Tut]*, verhero ; tojtrike, 
OT give a blow; particulariy fince Butler in his 
Hudibras, part. I, canto I. 15, has given us a 
true defcription of this ceremony j for, in de- 
fcribing the perfon of his hero, he fays, 

. A wight he was, whofe very fight wou'd ' 
Entitle him, mirror of knighthood; 
That never bow'd his ftubborn knee 
To any thing, but chivalry •, 
tior put up blitw, but that which laid 
Right worfliipful on fhoulder-blade : 
on which Grey, in his notes obferves, that-" in 
the time of Charles the Great, the way of knight- 
ing by the colaphtts, or giving a blow on the ear, 
was ufed in fign of fitjiaining future hardjbips:" — 
we may very much doubt this interpretation^ 
for as the colaphus, at the antient ceremony of 
manumiffion, was given, not in Ggn of ^Jiaining 
future hardfliips, (b we may fuppofe, that this 
blow, given at the modern ceremony of knight- 
hood, is given, not in fign of fuftaining future 
hardfliips, but in fign that he fliouid fuftain no 
future hardpip in point of honors it being the 
laji blow he fliould receive, or^ as Butter iays„ 
put up ; and confequently that he was now free 
to vindicate all affronts againft the charms of his 
fair Dulcinea-y and maintain his prowefs ^ainft 
all oppofers of his valor; knights, gi an ts^ ma- 
gicians, wizards, conjurers, and enchanters. 
DUBIOUS, Au«-P4(w, dito-bito^ ere; l. c. in 

D y 

From G K ft E K> and L a t i-m. 

D U 

duai vias ire ; to go into two opations, to hijitate-, 
to be doubtful. 

DU-CAPEj " du, vel dt; et cbappe; capi- 
tium, fericum molliu/culum -, q. d. fericum ob levi- 
tatem, capitiis aptum : Skinn." — this however is 
no( all, for he has not brought us to the true 
'origin of this word i which mult be traced a lit- 
tle farther by the helpof Vofl". who quotes VarrOj 
.lib. VI, de L. L. capitium ab eo quod capitpeHus; 
i. e. ut antiqui dicebant, indutu -comprehendic; 
and he go^s no farther j but the word capitium, 
if contra£ted from capit peSus, may likewife be 
"contrafted from the Gr. ; for both thofe words 
are derived from KawIw-B-fJtlai, or K«w]w-woxJof, to 
mean aftemacber of rich^lk, which is worn befori 
, the breaft j or which guards', contains^ and compre- 
hends the breaft. 

DUCAT, ducatus numtnus ; a coin, commonly 
called a ducket : Clel. Voc. 1,57, 8, fays, " I 
imagine the word ducat to include the radical 
ick ; to ftrike; which, affuming the prepofitive 
d, would give dicked, or ducat; money ftruck, 
moneta cufa, or mancus : — but fo likewife is all 
other money : befidcs, even then, ick, undoubt- 
edly takes the fame deriv. with iiius i i. e. Gr. : 
fee HIT. Gr. 

DUCE i " Auai, dualitas ; the number two : R. 
&wy duo; two. 

DUCHESS 7 Akkw, A«x»vw, duco,duciJfa; kdux, 

DUCHY 5 ducisi a duthefs, or confort of a 
duke; this etym. plainly ftews the impropriety of 
writing it duichefs, with a /. 

DUCK, or plunge under water ; " Auw, Sthxa, 
immergo : Upt." — vel a Auir]«, mergo ; to dive 
under water. 

DUCTILITY, Aa«w, vel A«xfuw, duce, unde 
duSuii to lead, ci^nduS ; a canal, at conduit pipe : 
alfo the expanfion of metals. 
' DUDGEON i " fortaflc eft ab Ital. dotanza ; 
Gall, douhance j dubius animi ftatus, cum y«w 
ambigit, utrumaliqufd metuendum, aut agre feren- 
dumjil : Jun." — but this is not the ultimate root 
of dudgeon; for dubtui itfclf is but a derivative} 
as we have fecn under DOUBT 1 that remark- 
able expreffion therefore, at the very beginning 
of Butler's Hudibras, 

When civil dudgeon firft grew high. 

And men fell out, they knew'not why; 

When hard words, jealoujtes zndfearst 

Set folks together by the ears j 
may be underftood in two lights, and cpnfequently 
derived from two different fources : if we under- 
ftand dudgeon, as the author himfclf feems to 
have underftood it, in the fenfc of doubis, and 

jialoufies, 2.nd fears, it may then originate-^ &.»»* 
(ieHtu, du-bito, h-e j in duas vias ire ; to go into 
two opinions : i. c. when civil Ju/picien ef men'f 
principles, both with regard to religion and go- 
vernment, grew to fuch a height, that they be- 
gan to JufpeH, and to be jealous of each other :— 
this however is not the fenfe of Mr. Grey, who- 
has explained it by to take in dudgeon i and fays 
it was altered by Mr. Butler to civil fury ; (whe- 
ther for the better or worfcj the reader, fays he, 
muft be left to judge;) — perhaps for the worfe, 
bccaufe of the cacophony in reading it 
When civil fury firft grew high: 
befides, there would be a Batnefs of exprefllon, 
and a change of ideas } for fury, jealoufy, and 
fears, are not fo fynonymous as doubts, jealoufies, 
and/MrJ;— if however it muft be underftood in 
the fenfe of fury, it will then originate from the 
following art. 

DUDGEON-Afl//,or blade; a ©nyu. Dor. ©ayw, 
acuo ; to fbarpen to a point ; '* utide Ital. daga; 
Germ, taugheu; Teut. dolkin, vel degen ; gladius : 
Jun." — and therefore Skinner fuppofea our cx- 
prefljon, to take in dudgeon, is, " q. d. ed iracundiS, 
et indignatione excipere, ut pugienem ftringas : he 
then offers another deriv. but concludes with, 
neutrum iftorum fatisfacit; mallcm igirur dc- 
fleitcre a Sax. bolj ; vulnus ; et hoc a dolendo; 
(et hoc, let me add, a AnXiw, doleo ;) qui enim 
injuriamftbi illatam exiftimat, dolorem inde concipit; 
et, ut poeta ait, vulnus alit venis :" — there was 
a much more applicable quotation the Dr. might 
have produced from the fame poet, in the be- 
ginning of the firft ^ncid, v. 12, 13 ; 

Mufa, mihi caufas memora, quo numine Ixfo, 

Quidquc dolens regina de&m, tot volvere cafus 

Infignem pietatc virum, tot adire labores 

Impulerit. — ' ' ■ 

DUE, a contraftion of debitum, ab Aj3m, habeo, 
de-habeo, debeo ; nam debere eft de alieno habere -, 
to owe, to borrow of another, to be in debt : alfo 
merit, and demerit : or rather i Aio», JEoLAiFm, 
debitum; a juft obligation. 

DUEL, Aw*, duo, two; a fight, or combat be- 
tween two • -. 

DUG, or teat : " fi Gracus eflem, deducerem 
a Ai>x«W) receptaculum, conceptaculum, i Aox^i, 
capax i quia fc. eft la^s, primigenii noftri ali~ 
menti receptaculum, et quafi cortina: Skinn." — 
this, though perhaps the true etym. did not 
pleafe Lye } who fays, " origo vocis dug, ni 
valde fallor, petenda eft ab Iceland, deggia ; lac 
prabere; quod, quam proprium fit mamms, 
nemo non videt :"— true j if deggia be not itfelf 
a derivativ*. 

Digitized by 

^ DUKE, 

o u 

Awn GtisiR^ttid I^ATin. 

P V 

DUKEj AfWH, ^MKHMit Jtuii dmt^ daiiii s 
tiadtTt inural. 

DULCET \At\mKt Aivxtt, .^uod <t nvxov 

DULCIMER $ notat j vel dickur TAvxuf, ^^ 
tis i quad ^«/»f ; /weet, delicious. 

DULL i SuiKtu Jervut % heies^ tardus ', eft eaim 
frvpria quadam Jervorum taquitia, calU^taSj et 
vafrieiti \ all which laft three feem to exprcfi 
a^vity, vivtttityy »UrtiuJs te mftbiefi &nd yfit 
both Cafaub. and Upt, underftuid A»Aec in the 
feofe oi JhvtSf vobo are eommwly ftitpid and ^l: 
however, duU may rather be derived ^ ^HXmet, 
daUvitSy faiiMStfitliduSt fiupiJusi a grefij beafVf, 
fii^idfemw i a mere doit. 

DUMBt. " Muw, unde Mw^«> mutuSt a, um ; 
unde m^ quod J. Davies cenlec i mutum inverts 
cantummodo Uteris profluxifie: Juq."— but there 
needs no tranrpofition ; for mUd is taken from the 
diree firft letters of mutWRi and dumb is taken 
from the three laft letters of the {June word 
mutum > and then changing t into ^.-. if this 
Ihould not be admitted, then with Caiaub. we 
jnay derive dun^ ab Afs/nor, muiusi unde Germ. 
fiemme ; dimb^ mtttt ffueblefs. 

DUMPISH wtife -, Amu^ /om ; a heavy neife. 

DUMPLING, quafi dimpling, or a damptn 
apd coafequently derived from the fame root 
with d t mf t or «^«/f i viz. Aojwtr, i/(iflnium;-quod 
inlib. yett. .legicur ^mpssMl a^ detriment, da- 
mage, abatement ^ meaning here an abatement of 
bungtr i becaulc being compofed of flour, and 
,catcn copiouOy, \t prevents the devouring of too 
much animal food % and coafequently t^ates that 
keencTs of appetite for flefli. 

DUMPS, MioQiew would derive it ^ domare, 
.qiu6d fC' .Aimum dtataii and Skinner would de- 
rive it from the foregoing word dumb, mutus -, 
." eft enim '<Am>P^ fixa ec Icria cogitatio, qui 
taciti ftamus, et qua& ebftuf^aSi :"~\nit this 
very laft interpretation mi^ have led. him to 
the true fource ; viz. Clm^tit fiupar ; quafi tbam- 
pifii, dampijb, dumpi/b, dumps* 

DUN for debt : both Sktuner and Lf e fuppofe 
that dun is derived ^ Sax. byn, bynan ; Jlrepitus, 
ftmitus, debiteris auribus ebfirepere % debitam pecu- 
aiam importune exigere; cujus originem vidcre 
licet in din; fenitus :—&T&ngfil that neither the 
Dr. nor this gentleman, could find that DIN 
was Gr. 

DUNCE ; Minlhew, for the fake of deriving 
it from denfus, writes it dunfe % but then has no 
.fufpicioli that cvtn detifus is derived ^ A«rv(: 
however he has explained iv by bardus, q. d. 
defffo ingemt, cranio, vel terebroj praditus : — now, 
though our words denfe, and denfity, are evidently 
derived i Atmr, yet dunte does not originate. 

from thence, tho' it feemi to Ekst a very clofc 
analogy with it: " mallem," fays Skinn, " de- 
de&ere ab Hifp. toatsi Jiu^dus, JiultuSi quod 
Covarruvias merito deducit a Lat. attonitm:" 
and the Dr. would have defervcd equal nnerit, if 
he had derived aftoxitus ^ Tavot, Twmj tono i 
unde a/toniiusi tbunderfiruek i turned feott «r 

DUN-GEON, Auvu-ym', defcendo fuh terram t tt 
go underground: — to convince usof the ufe of ety- 
mology, Mr. Walpole, in his Anecdotes on Paint- 
ing, vol. I. p. 21, 4to. edit, has given us an inr 
ftance, which one would not have mfpeftedfrom 9 
gentleman of his knowledge in writing i but in 
mentioning the ftate of painting from the reign 
of Hen. Ilk to the end of Hen. VI. he fays^ 
" no wonder that a proud, a warlike, and ign07 
rant nobility, encouraged only that branch (of 
painting on gUfs) which actcflred their dignity : 
their dungeons were rendered ftill darker by their 
pride :"— now imy common reader would fup^ 
pofe, that by talking o£ dungeons being rendered 
ftill darker, he meant their ^/otj: but that was 
far from his intention ; he meant to Anglifize a 
French word; but unluckily has committed $ 
falfe orthogr. for he intended to have written 
dongeens, or donjons, which, according to Boyer, 
fignify la partte la plus elevee d'un chateau^' k 
tower, or platform in the midft of a caftle ; e^ece 
de cabinet dans les hitimens particuliers au aejfus 
de la ceitverture ; a turret, or clofet raifed on the 
very top of tbe boufe; or what is commonly called 
the lantern. 

DUN-KIRKj "rightly in EnglifliDiwciarf**," 
fays Verft. 217, " and hath had that appellatiort 
by beeing Gtuate in tbe dunes, or fandbanks :" — ■ 
confcquently will take the fame dcriv. with 
DOWNS: Gr.- 

DUN-STANi " a name given as ic feemeth, 
in recommendation of cenftancie, or fiahiUtie ': 
dun is anciently a bill, or mountaine : ftane wee 
now pronounce ^ORf: dun-ftane is the mountaine- 
ftone ; dimoft as much in fignificatton as is in 
Hebrew the name of Peeler : Vcrft."— but both 
dun andjlone are Gr. 

DUN-WALLO I. Clel. Voc. 148, tells us, 
that " this word is a grofs perverfion of lan- 
guage, and made the name of a Britifti king, 
and legiflator -, byt dun-wallo anfwers fimply to 
a will, or bill donty or paft :" — then both are GI-. 

DUO-DECI MO, Auff-x«<-ftx«, duodecim ; twehe. 

DU-PLICITYi A.»-A«f, duplex, duplm; double, 
two-fold, two meanings. 

DURATION, Afi-t, quercus; an oak; unde 

durui, durities; bard, bardnefsi vox videtur ab 

arboiibus fampta : . but If. Voffius would derive 

X r^ ' durus 


tii w 

n-om <}»E«if, ai L»TtV. 

t A 

^a^net I— there ia a very ingenious dertv. of this 
word durable given by Jun. viz. & Anfoc, diutinus, 
diuturnus ; lafiing ; but this relates to time, rather 
than/«/idlr/y i and is derived & Aqv, </;«j along 
time ; and conlequently is more applicable to 
duratiaUf than to durable. 

DUSK, " A»inttii(, Horn, pro A«(ruirxi»f,_^(^m 
facitRS umbram: R. Aatrur, denfus ; tbitki and 
Zki«, umbra iPade : Cafaub. and Upt." — or per- 
liaps it may be derived & ^ucxu, quafi Auitxm, 
illucefcoi fearee light, either at the heginnrng, or the 
tloje of day : the former interpretation feems to 
be rather too violent for dujkifi}; which is but a 
gentle degree of darknefs ; whereas ffiffam faciens 
umbram, or denfam umbram^ is a palpable thick 
darknefs; which is a great deal mere Jbati dujkijb. 

• DUST : (here is at leaft a probability that 
this word mfty be Gr.: through the medium of the 
Lat. fang, thus ; nu^> Uv^ou, uro, adufius \ con- 
tra&ed to dufi\ exficcus, aridus -, i. e. terra adujla, 
ixficest* :■ and perhaps the Sax- bujx may be de- 
rived from hence. 

DUVAi " a done: Verft."— ic were to be 
Ttfhed that the moderns had not departed from 
the antient orthography ; for certainly dufa, dufe, 
or £tve, approaches nearer to Ai^VIu, than dove. 

nUUM-VIRATE : A.;« »»ft, vel tui^t, duo- 
vrri i a magijraqf of two rulers. 

DWAS-LICHTi " that which wee otherwife 
call the f&olifi)-fyre : Verft." — meaning perhaps 
the Will with a wifp :— but this is not ^ving us 
^e etym^ which leems to be Gr. j for dwas is 
Only a. cantt:ai5lioa of de wees,, or the little, weak, 
faint ^e ; and confcquently Gr. }, fee WEST : 
and as for lichtfit is evidentljt the fame a^LlGHTj 
confcquently Gr. 

DWELL i T(^«, fum fub- ditiene ; , fwmjub. tm- 
firioi hinc, ni fallor> fays. Cafaub. ta dwell; 
habitare, agere — we might rather fuppofe with 
Minfh. that videtur cerruttum ah AuAd, aula,ftati$, 
bakitatio : S.fMi\t^ofMi, habito ; ut Oc AiauXi^u, 
vel AiaAi^nfMit, pernaife,. dormiaj cemmoron to 
tart^i abide : neither of tbefc- etyn*. . however, 
piecing Skinn. o[ L,ye;they have recourfe to the 
Northern lang. l the Dr. fuppofcs dweliiohc: de- 
rived a Dan. duelgfir-i, morer, coumoror-: and then 
.adds,. Do&. Somner. de6e£lit a Sax. b|)eluni 
frrofe, feducere; unde Belg- dwaele/t.; errare.; 
quia ic. olim ma/iaxs nefiri errabundi im tentoriis 
habitarunt :— Ihould this be the true fource of 
our word dwell, it fhews how. greatly the fe^c 
of words alter, .'through a length ofr time t. that 
antienily dwelling fhould fignify wandering.: and 
now BgAify aldding,. ceatinmng: but wc bare fe- 

veral inftaoces in our ISDguagc, of fucli tt change 
having actually happened in other words. 

D WILE J A«x^, anciUa, ferva ; a wemanfer- 
vant i 0H ■ who is confiaiitfy employed in fweeping^ 
and cleaning. 

DYE a eolorT** Afunr, madtfacere% tingere % 

DYER 5 AwffWB.sf, tinStor: Cafaub.*f 

or perhaps & Amrlw, aquas fuheo, merge ; to dtp,, 
tinge, or plunge in watery or any medicated liquerK' 

DYE a death i " Awri-, Aui-ai-, Auprflai, mergt, 
occideret preprie de folei unde Auftfi ocddeHs : 
Cafaub." or perhaps ft AnJu, berreo; pertimeoi 
to dread ; or, fi>ake v^tb horror ; hence death is 
often ftiled the king of terms r Clel. Way. 98, 
tells us, that *^ oar Englilh word die it contrafted 
from a diflyllable, compounded of de ; privative %- 
and « J toexift .•"—but ee moft evidently derives.' 
ab lu, i. e. «-/*>> fum -, to exift. 

DYNASTY, AufajuKi, ab inuf. AuM^^iy.. 
AuvKpir, Aui«r(i», dynafta, dominalio, impenum; a 
government t feniojy, or lordfbip j particulariy amont. 
the Egyptians, 

DYRSTELYCj '^ boldly t or as wee might 
fay, durfUnghfi of one daring to do a thing of diffi^ 
cultie : Verft." — this word dyrftelyc' looked fo ■ 
charmingly ugly, that the good old gentleman' 
miftook it for a Saxon beauty ; and could not fee 
that it was derived from tHe 'fame root with 
DARE, Gr. : thus, </«-?, dares^ durfi^ dArftin^^- 

DYS-CRASY, Au«Ttfw«-i«, intemperlts ; an ill 
habit if body; a bad »n^;»A'oni "generally the 
juft acquirement pf intemperate living. 

DYS-ENTERY ; « Auw^Tif .«, pain of the ifp. 
tefiines^i'R. Av^ male; and E»V, intiu ; Eilifny. 
aa. inteftine : Nug.^—fometimes- taken ■ for tlx 
bloody flux. 

DYS-NOMY, AuMopw, malerum legum. inftt- 
tutio; the enaSii^ iad-iaws:- R. Aur, male; body, 
et Ni>|U««, lex-i » law. 

DYS-PATHY^. AvnnAkai lahtnm, et terumna- 
rum ptrpeffio \ the enduring great pains : R. Ant, 
male; etnufl*?, paffioijitferingi- 

DYS-URY ; A*i<r«yio., dyfuria i difficilis urime - 
excretio ; urin^e Juppr^o ; a detention of urine, of 
'■a dijiculty in difcharging it: R. Avi,.malli et; 
Ovfof, urina ; . anw,. 

■ , , E.. 

EACH'; ^EKoim, Jnguli, unuj^uij^ue: Cafaub.^* ' 
individualt; everymeinpartieulan Verftegan- 
.fuppofes-it to-be Saxon. 

EAGAN i . " g»r» J- ^jiwi now in the Nethcr- 
■lands, (yi« ;. Verft."-^but iry' is Gr. 

EAGER: there arc two^fei^fes. given -to this 

* .hzBdbyGoOgTc 

? A 

From Greeki and Latih. 

E.- A 

nord, ant^each originates (tata a different root ; 
for we fay eager in the pcrfuit of glory ; and we 
fay eager, j!)arp, or faur i as vttuager, &c. when 
we mean the former, ic originates from Axn> 
eujpis i unde Axtt, nn»> tff^ ; J0/<^> ftrenuous : 
but when we mean the tatteri it originates ab 
Aif^v, ager, vcl agrotus fum j according to the 
common opinion, that winet or ^«rj w^ turned 
four, is in a^fickly, vapid flatt j not chat all acids 
are vapid; on the contrary, many of them ope- 
rate with the greateft vigor and aftivity, fo as 
to change the texture and conGftence of other 
bodies; and in this fenfe Shakefpear in his 
Hamlet, aft I. fc. 8, has ufcd our word eager; 
in that account, which his father's ghoft gives of 
his having been poifoned with the Juice of 

■■ - - ■■■ whofe effeA 

Holds fuch an enmity with blood of man> 
That fwift as quickfiWer it courfes through 
The natural gates and allies of the bodyj 
And with a ludden vigor it doth poffet 
And curd, like eager o'oppit^s into milk. 
The thin and whoTefome blood ; fo did it mine. 
EAGLE, " aquila; aquilus i darky dun; of the 
color of water; Act, i.e. vuFnf-* »i»los, Hefych. 
Ac, eMX, aqua ; ut a o-n-i«r, 0-ir[x«r, fpeeus : inde 
aquilus ; et ^ fufco colore, equila \ eagle : et apud 
Hcfychium AxvXmk, iwlot, aqutla: Upt." — but 
Voff*. tells us, that " aquila is derived 3. Aaw, 
Afw, AlC'irtru, unde Axu-Ainc, ab acuto vifu ; unde 
ec lee, enis, quoque di£lus :"— and this teems to 
be the more probable rcafon. 

EAK, videtur efle ex inverfo "^.tu, quafi I«x, 
etiam; alfo, Hkewife : Jun." 

EAM; " iovti^ct mtdi\o 0'ft.auit.iit, ejufdem fan- 

Svinis particeps : vetuftioribus certe Belgis earn 
enotabat quemvis confanguineum alate proveSio- 
rem ; an uncle, or a grandfather : Jun."— fome- 
times indeed we find words derived from the 
middle of others, as bifbop, uncUt viencb, &c. j 
but there feems to be no occalion for any fuch 
method at prefent } fince earn may be fo naturally, 
iand lb eaGly derived ab amitus, which Voflius 
derives ab avitus, vel ab avus : or elfe, fays he, 
avita may be deduced ab amore : both which are 
evidently derived from the Greek. 

HAND is fuppofcd by Ray, in his preface, to 
jignify fpiritus, and to be derived ^ Cimbrico 
ande :— -but both feem to be only a various dia- 
led of ens, and entity j confequcntly Gr. 
' ElANSWYD i •* we have varied earn into 
ence -, and wyd, or vrfed, is our ancient woord for 
facred; hecre hence eanfwyd is afmuch to fay, 
as onee-facred: Verft,"— fo that this word is half 
Gr. half Sax» 

EAR " */ eonti AStij, arifia, parsfpiea aeutat 
B omitted i Vpt"~~-tbe fharp pointy ot fpear if 
com, while gro-wing. 

EAR of the bead,.Kut, Ou«, ab Aim, audio; unde- 
Au#q, fonus ; unde audes^ aufesy agreSt ^^ <u(ru ; tbt 
ear: alCo the faculty of hearing. 

"EAR, honor VVerft." who ftp. 

EAR-woorth, honorahley pofes it to be de- 
rived from the Sax. Xpe : which feems only 4' 
contraftion of Agt-Tfl, virtus, hoaort dignitas : fee 
EARL. Gr. 

EARE the ground; " Af •w, arare: Upt." la 
plow, till, or bufband the ground, in order for 
a crop. 

EARL : Clel. Way. 49, fays, that " earl ii 
only a contraftion of er-al ; a leader in war .•"—». 
but er feems to have come from Ej-ij, eontentto, 
bellum : and leader^ from EXalu^, quafi A(«1q(, 
conduSloTy driver, leader : Junius fuppofes ic 
comes from ealbop, ealbp ; unde facihoris pro- 
nuntiacionia gratis, ellfo b, atque ji tranfpofito, 
fa£bum eft eanl, vcl eopl. Skinner fays, " forte 
a Sax. ffne ; Tcut. ehr t Belg. eer ; honor, digni- 
tas :" — it the Dr. had tranflated it virtus, and ' 
derived it ab Afi-1», vihus, fartitudo, nobilita!, 
he might have been fomething nearer the truth. 

EARLY, "Hf, diluculum, tempus matutinum; ut 
sep. oiim de matutino, hoc eft priorc vel antcriore 
diet tempore fit acceptum ; poflea vero latius- 
extenfum fit ad aliud quedvis anteeedens tempus ; 
Jun." the firfi dawn, or opening of day, 

EARM ?" Vet:. Angl. erat pauper, 

EARMNESS5 inops,miferi unde Sax. eapmf 
Almann. armer ; defumpta ex Api^et, vel AfA«tf or, 
expers: vel potius contra&a ex £'ftif*o;, quod 
hominem ah aliis defertum, atque ab omnibus defti' 
tutum, denotat: Jun." — aperfon utterly forfaken, 
or deferted i and \\keyi\k deftitute of all things :-^ 
Verftegan fuppofes it to be Sax. 

EARN J *• AfKUfAM, capio, confequor, recipio } rt 
take, gain, or receive the wages of bis fervice ; that 
value of his labor : Cafaub." 

EAKSEST- penny, Aff»^t, arrbaio, arra, vel 
arrha -, the firfi penny, given as part of a paynunti 
or the pledge, or furety for a bargain i the clefit^, 
er cottfirming an agreement ' unlefs we may derive 
it from erfi ; firfi : Gr.— Cafaub. derives it from 
the foregoing art. 

EARNESTLY, T«wp«., per metatb. niior^ 
nixus; undeenixeifeduloufiy; to endeaveurfirenuoufiy. 

EARTH, " Ef», terra: Tacitus dc Suev. c, 40, 
in commune Herthamt \. e. terrain matrem colunt : 
in earth; EMf9i, infra: Upt."— Clcl. Way. 47, 
fays, " the radical of earth is ^r ; whence with 
the Celtic prepofitive /, and the Lat. termination 
m, proceeds /nrn .- the Greeks called the dead, 
X a £*»«; 

Digitized by njOOQIC 

' E A 

Front 6ke2i£. and Lati« 

E A 

t.hi9ty ht earthy interred ;**— bt}t all thefe eri- I 
dencly originate ab E^tt, terra i the earth. I 

EAR-WIG J frqm the fimjple appearance of this 
word, it would be impofllble to trace its dcriv, 
becaufe it has no connexion with the common 
ideas of thofc two words, which feem to connpofe 
it, viz. ear, and wig i and therefore no wonder 
the etynral. are divided in their opinions: Skinner 
calls it " auricularia, forficula :** Do&.Th.Htnih, 
thinks it is only a word " corruptum i Lat. 
trued:" but Skinner himfclf owns " hscc vide- 
tur tantum ingeniofa allufio ; vcrum etymon 
quiEre voce EAR :" under which art. he fays, 
" o/tum eft ab eajie, auris j et picja, hlatta^ ver- 
ms :" — but the earwig is very far from being 
eiiber of the metb, or worm tribe : Lye however 
has adopted the fame derlv. without taking any 
notice of Skinn. } he has referred Us to wigg, 
ilatta; which Jun. calls /vi/tfi and adds, "hue 
facit iUud Sax. eaji-picja; Theotifc. eru-uigga 
auricula: Belgis ocvKjik inwiggeUn, vel inwickeien, 
eft metitatione erebrife in atiquam rem immittere, in- 
fitiuart : Danis quoque wickUr migi eft involve me ;" 
■— fo that wig here fecms to carry the idea of 
wriggle^ or, as we fometimes fay, wigglewaggks and 
conlequently an earwig means tbe infeSl tbat wrig- 
gles itjelf into tbe ear ; though an inftance of fuch 
ah accident was perhaps never known -, or, if ever 
it happened, muft have happened fo fcldom, as 
fcarce to have been fufficient co affix an appella- 
tion to this creature : we may therefore very 
much doubt even this dcriv. and yet I am un- 
able to produce a better :— but, fhould this be 
allowed to be the true etym. it is then certainly 
of Greek extraft : for both EAR, and WRIG- 

EASE i " Anfai, xsijudSdvisi, Hefych. H<ric ab 
H^u, deleSlatio : Aio-(«{, faufius^ Hefych. Aio-pi Biai, 
vire Tuppui-wi' : the geds^ who live at eaje : Milcoo ; 
t% Horn. 0«(, f«« ^Mi\i% : Upt." — but all this 
ieems to exprcfs rather volupluoufnefs, thaii leifure : 
ve might therefore rather derive our word eafe, 
when It fignifics repofe, ab "fe^o/**!, fedeo ; to Jit 
down, to recline. 

EASLES i " Iceland, r^fa % einis ignitui, fcin- 
iillans i hot embers : Ray." — but this looks as if 
it was only a various dialed: of a^est quafi ajles ; 
inde ^fels i unde ea^s : fhould this be true, it 
would be Gr. : fee ASHES : Gr. 

EAST { Euf, EouSy orienialif, aurora ; tbe mcm- 
hg, the rifing of tbejun -, R. Hwc, aurora, diluculunti 
the dawning of the day, alwtrfs in tbe eaft. 

EASTER-rfflji ; this word is evidently derived 
to us from the Gr.' through the Sax. and the 
Celtic lang. " Gaprpe, eaprjiobiej i Almann. 
t^a, vcl ojiertagi Belg. oofier, ooflerdag^ otfteren; 

olhn crat urpnd^ toquk Helvig. t^d man!- 
feftS concifum eft ex uf; et erfiend^ rtfurreSHa : 
Jun." — to which let me add, by way of^explana- 
tion, from Minlfa. qudd eo nimiriim tempore Sol 
Jujiitia ertus fit \ becaufe at that time, or en thai 
day, tbe Sun of Rigbteeufnefi arofe with healing in 
his wings. Hie tbe fun ell gleriotis in tbe eafi ; thia 
word w;f ni^ht lead us to fuppofe that Eafier 
has taken its origin from Oje/Aai, Of6*/*«i, orior^ 
ertus; be is rifen \ but the orthogr. ftands againft 
usi for flf/BJ wiU never admit of yffr, or jiandin 
its derivatives : fincc therefore the Belg. expref- 
fion, uf-erfiend figniBes no more than up-fiand, or 
JtanMng-up, or ri_fing-up again from tbe deadt we 
may abide by that etym. and trace it up to the 
Gr. verb Vwif-ini^t, fuperfio -, to Jland-up, or 
rife-up.-^\t[. Voc. 87, and 90, gives a different 
dcriv. j for he fays, ''at the dole of tbat tedi- 
ous, and in every fenfe difagreeable leafoa of 
Lent, began the Druidical Eajier (fuit Softrne 
dea Sftxonum, fays Shcringham, 331, dc cujus 
nomine menfis ApriUs tpfis Goj-ruji-tnona^ dic- 
tus eft, quod in illo hutc fefta celebrabanc & 
atque inde fe&um pafibatis in hunc ufque diem 
Eafier vocatur ;) but Clel. affirms it was not call- 
ed fo from the imaginary goddcfs Eofier ; but 
from the word eafi; to eat; whence with the 
profthcOs of the/, tofeajk : Eafier took its name 
then from the liberty reftored of eating anima* 
food :" — but EAT is Gr. as in the next arc 

EAT, " EJw: \}^x"edo\ todevour;gras^,eonfumt. 

EATH," " or ed, or ead; an oath, alfo a pUgbtei 
ffcmitt or covenant : Verft." who fuppoles it to be 
Sax i but as it fignifies an 09th, and feems to be 
but another dialeA for that word> we may derive- 
it from the Gr. 

EATHELTC i Verftegan tdls us it fignifie* 
eajily, foffibly ; and confcquently fuppo&s it to bfr 
Saxon i but if he had had any ears, he might 
have found that this eathefyc was only a difierenc 
dialeA for e^fily ; and confcquently not Saxon> 
-but Qr. 

EAVES : there is fcarce any word ha& undergone 
a greater alteration, than this : its Gr. ongioat 
being Act, <rupi/M( iia\tu Hcfych. front) this word 
Aa is vifibly defccnded the Iceland, aa \ and tbe 
AXwiAnn. aba, fiumen, amnis : perhaps from hencp- 
likewife came the Sax. ea i and the GkU. eaui. 
water : this word eau, by our having changed tbe 
u into a V, has given a new found, and a hew fig- 
nification to the Gr. word A« ; for we have con- 
verted both this, and the Gallic word m«, which 
fimply fignify watt%, into eaves, which fignifies 
ibe lower edge of tbe roof, from whence tbe rain- 
water drops : — or elfe all thefc wwds naay come 
from 'T-^(, aquai water. 


8 B 

^rom Gitvcic, tod Lati*. 

E C 

E8B-/il(Ifi"Ti(ieormilri,"fa7»Jun. "inhacvoce 

deprehendere velligiutn aliquod illjus £/3«, quod 
Craicr ufurpant pR) A«nix0iv, ETo^tuOn, rei{§itiahiit\ 
it is gong, or Jeparttdi to GignKy tbtretrMt, OTrtfitet 
^tbe tide: — ^why the kariicd Mr, Lye, and his Doc- 
tUfimua WachcmiSj fhould fo far difappr ore qF chis 
ctym. as to fay, eki vcL immediate ab adverbio de- 
faOxA 1^, vel mediat^^verbon^rti, quodprifcisBel- 
gtsGgiuficavit(i>a'(,^!^<r£,tcfteKiliano; would be 
difficult to fay ; buc all thefe learned gentlemen 
have gained nothing by railing thcGr.deriv.luice 
both aieny and B^tb fignify ^irt i te depart. 

EBENy> " EjS»«, or Eptxw, ehenus : Nug."— 
after having given both the Gr. and Lat. 
words for Alia vood, it will hardly be requifite 
to {hew the inapropricty of the common method 
of writing, and pronouncing it e^aj : I have 
^ercfore taken the liberty, with Junius, of depart- 
ing from the Dr's. and the commoa method ; 
fince it lignifks the wood of the eheity not the 
itoM tree ; 

" fi>la India nigrum 
Fert eiaaim : <3eo. 11. 1 16. 

E-BORACUM J " the town of York," fay» 
Clel. " takes its name from its famous allmryt ^or 
mtffen thttux ahiTih or ef-iorai^iy 6r e^aewn :'* 
—but ey fecms to derive k At-yu, unde cvm-t lettt 
iw, ee, g>, Pth l^: and BOROUGH is undoubt- 
edly Gr. 

EBRIETT, Hmw. Uiff, hUn, ehiia i quaG ehi- 
ttriMSt ak bawitudopetu\ intmiicattd voitb liquor; 
jtaixd^ dipt, draubed : If. Voffius fays, fortafie 
lb Ef*j3fHr, which Heiych. explaing by Emk, 
yhi^fitifidy faoHfit z biK we may rather fappofe, 
wi«b Gerard Taff. tkat tbrita, and foirius, were 
«alf two OF^fites j and derived k B^v, fiatere, 
siumdarti uiide ebrioy voj viitariiBm : quod fi ec 
Aia, pro iria dixete, videri poffit articulus cum 
Donwie coaloiOc, et eiria fit ex H B^ia, ut t.enu- 
/«» ex Te MeOu : fo that a ^iiakard does literaUy 
derive his fiame from his being a tqfs-pot.-~-1htrc 
it a very ingenioua analyfis of this word, given by 
Clel, Way. 63, where he fays, « in my prcfent 
tiew I fhall only confider Ijber as a name of 
Bacebut ; difcovering that iby or ibb in Celtic 
. fignifies drinking, being the radical of bibt •» of 
i^itu i a{ yvre, in French > and of our bibber, at 
&ctHid band from iiio; I begin with rejefting 
^e initial I, as being only the prepofitive particlej 
this give* iber, drunkard 1 and the fynthefis re- 
ftoring the /,. produces the orthography liber, tbe 
drunkard : this derivation may be falfe, but will 
any one fay it is forced ?"— yet ftili it may bo Gr. 

E-BULUTION, *x<w, buUie; to beiJ, to bgbblti 
R. *M«, ahudo -, ex- ab, et aadtt are j t« rife in 

EBURNEAN t Bo^ec, bamu, ob graWtatemj 

\. c. ekpbas ; tbe elepbant -, unde ^^ t ivory. 

EC-CLESIASTICj "Ekxa^^., ectlefia\ a ton- 
gregation, or ajfembfy ■ R> KmAw, vtce i to call, to afr 
fetnble: Nug," aOr. i. palT. fixAnBui', vgeatuii call- 
ed, or a/embled togeiber i — Clel. Way. 113, n, and 
Voc. 97, obfervcs, " that the barbarous Gallo- 
graKtfm eglife, <x eeetefia, was formed rooft pro- 
bably from a contraftion of rfrtii^si (or perhaps 
as it ought to be more properly written Ey-cal-bttfs^ 
fgltjt i Way. n 3) tbe incle/urt for infiruSfion, or 
learning .■"—but thefe are evidently Gr. ej from 
Ai-^, euert'Uet, lee, ee, ey, fey, law : and call-ijier, 
is tji£ fame, with bal, ai, eal, derived from Aua-d^ 
aulai a baJU pr eallegt : and therefore inllead 
of /i* inclefurt for inftruftion, it might have been' 
nearer tranflated tbe college for inftruftion: and 
perhaps bfCfs Is no more uan bouft % confequent' 
iy Gr. likewife. 

ECHE, both fubft. andverbj E^w, babea; which, 
among other fenfes^ means adharee, cenjttndus futi 
aUeui; thus wetnake ufe of ecbes to bee-biva, in 
order to ealargo tbttr baiitatiotti and we fay any 
tint^ is eebed out, voben wt make, tbe mtfi of it i as 
if lomething. mote were added, or joined to it: 
this latter interpretation m^es me fufpcA 
that ecbe rtaay perhaps be derived from Au£if, 
Aii£«M>, aageo, anSut i ecbed, "augmenteit inertafedt 
or tnloFged. 

ECHINUS, £x<»r* tebisMs 1 tbe j^, and fitU 
of $be fcor-urcMn. 

ECHO, '* Hx«, »f» n : R- Hx»f) »> •» fonts x 
Nug." a refimon, reverieraHoHt or repercuffien of 
found .—Clel. Way. 53, fays, that " ecbo is nei-r 
ther a Lat. nor a Gr. word, but purely a Celtic 
one i meaning ti>e proktof tin voice i vocis per- 
cuffio (or rather repercujie, or indeed at Virgil hai 
more elegantly espreffcd it, vocifque effenfa r»* 
fultM imago: Geo. IV. 50); from ick, afiroke\ and 
«p, tbe voiea \ qoafi iik-ovo :" — but both ick, and 
evOy areGr. : ick, fnxniSju, ab icer, k itln : and 
MO, i-fib^, vexi tbevoiet'; vocal, a vowel, quail 
eivel;, unde'ffd*. 

E-CLAT, ** 1U««, fran^ ; to break : KA«<r^*«i' 
a fragment, or breaking ; words formed in each 
language in imitation of the found : Nug."^ 
there is likewife another fcnfe,. which this word 
bears in our language, borrowed from the Frenchi 
as when we fay, a tbing is donewitb edat, i.e. lueur; 
Utflrt J brigbtnefs, eUamefs : it fignifies likewifi? 
gloire J magnifcance, pomp, fplendor : in this latter 
ienl^ it may originate ii clarus ', and then be de- 
rived k KAMf, gloria ; bright, glorious, eminent, 

ECLEGM, or rather edeigan ix^My^, eelignuh- 
medicamentum, quod alias eWuariuai dtcitur ; a mo* 
ditine to bo Jitcked, or licked i..* iobockt atttUHui^.