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%eceived MAY 16 1899 ^ igg . 

<i/lccessioti Ni 


Clcus No. 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 










Printed by G. Otto, Darmstadt. 



Our primer of English Etymology is meant to serve as 
an introduction to the study of the historical grammar of 
English. However manifold the advantages which the student 
may derive from Professor Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, it 
cannot be denied that it does not commend itself as a 
book for beginners. Though it is a work of deep research, 
brilliant sagacity, and admirable completeness, the linguistic 
laws underlying the various changes of form and meaning 
are not brought out clearly enough to be easily grasped by 
the uninitiated. We therefore propose to furnish the student 
with, a small and concise book enabling him to get an insight 
into the main linguistic phenomena. We are greatly indebted 
to Professor Skeat, of whose excellent work we have made 
ample use, drawing from it a great deal of material, which we 
hereby thankfully acknowledge. As our aim has of course not 
been to produce a book in any way comparable to our prede- 
cessor's work in fulness of detail and general completeness, 
we have confined ourselves to merely selecting all words the 
history of which bears on the development of the language at 
large. We have therefore, in the first place, traced back to the 
older periods loanwords of Scandinavian, French and Latin 
origin and such genuine EngHsh words as may afford matter 
for linguistic investigation. In this way we hope to have pro- 
vided a basis for every historical grammar of English, e.g. for 
Sweet's History of English Sounds. 

VI Preface. 

If we may be allowed to give a hint as to the use of 
our little book, we should advise the teacher to make it a 
point to always deal with a whole group of words at a time. 
Special interest attaches for instance to words of early Christian 
origin, to the names of festivals and the days of the week; 
besides these the names of the various parts of the house and 
of the materials used in building, the words for cattle and the 
various kinds of meat, for eating and drinking, etc. might be 
made the subject of a suggestive discussion. On treating ety- 
mology in this way, the teacher will have the advantage of 
converting a lesson on the growth of the English language into 
an inquiry into the history of the Anglo-Saxon race, thus lending 
to a naturally dry subject a fresh charm and a deeper meaning. 

In conclusion, our best thanks are due to Professor W. 
Franz of Tiibingen University, who has placed many words 
and etymologies at our disposal and assisted us in various 
other ways. 

Freiburg i. B. 



ace. = accusative case 

adj. =: adjective 

adv. = adverb 

BRET. = Breton 

CELT. = Celtic 

conj. = conjunction 

CORN. = Cornish 

cp. rr compare 

Cymr. = Cymric (Welsh) 

Dan. = Danish 

dat. = dative case 

der(iv). =r derived, derivative 

dimin. = diminutive 

DU. = Dutch 

E. rr modern English 

f. (fern.) =: feminine 

frequent, rr frequentative 

KR. = French 

FRIES, r:: Friesic 

G. = modern German 

Gael. = Gaelic 

gen. =r genitive case 

GOTH, rr Gothic 

GR. = Greek 

Icel. = Icelandic 

inf. = infinitive mood 

infl. = inflected 

interj. =r interjection 

IR. = Irish 

ITAL. = Italian 

LAT. = Latin 

LG. = Lovv' German 

lit. =r literally 

LITH, = Lithuanian 

m. r= masculine 

ME. = Middle English 

MHG. -z Middle High German 

n. (neutr.) — neuter 

nom. =: nominative 

obi. ^ oblique case 

ODU. = Old Dutch 

OFR. = Old French 

OHG. == Old High German 

OIR. = Old Irish 

ON. = Old Norse 

ONFR. = Old North French 

orig. = original, originally 

OSAX. =r Old Saxon 

OSLOV. = Old vSlovenian 

pi. zz plural 

p. p. — past participle 

prob. = probably 

pron. z= pronoun 

prop. — properly 

PROV. = Proven(^al 

prt. =: preterite, past tense 

RUSS. = Russian 

sb. =r substantive 

SKR. = Sanskrit 

SHAN. = Spanish 

superl. = superlative 

SWED. = Swedish 

TEUT. = Teutonic 

vb. =r verb 

VIII List of Symbols in Teut. Words. 


e (not umlauted) == European and Aryan e. 
e in OE. ME. long closed e. 
/ in OE. ME. long open e. 
e in OHG. MHG. OSAX. closed e (umlauted). 
9 a reduced Aryan und pre-Teut. vowel. 
'p in Oe. Me. long closed o. 
■ Q in OE. ME. words long open o. 
c in OE. words palatalized k. 
g in ME. words as in NE. age bridge. 
5 in Oe. Me. word.s a spirantic palatalized g. 
f in Teut. words = E. th. 
d in On. Oe. Osax. words — E. th. 
h in Goth, is h -f w. 
V" = root. 
* before a word »©*• inferred. 

^ OF THB ^k" 


a\ an indef. article me. a an, 
OE. dn: ident. with o^ie. 

a^ ME. a: ident. with ori (cp. 
hack, abroad). 

abase; cp. base. 

abash short for me. abaissfie 
abalsche (aba'isse) : borrowed from 
OFR. csbahiss- stem of ofr. esbahir 
(er. t^bahir) 'astonish'. 

abate ^ie. abate: adapt, of ofr. 
abatrc 'beat down'. 

abbess, abbey see abbot. 

abbot ^m. abbot', older by-form 
me. oe. abhod. Source lat. ab- 
hatevi {abbas), whence it. abbdte, 
FR. abbs, OHG. abbat G.DU. abt. — 
Hence abbess aiE. abbesse from 
FR. abbesse (but OE. abbiidisse ^= 
LAT . abbatissa) 'ab b e s s' an d abbey 
:\IE. abbeic from fr. abbaye (ofr. 

abide cp. bide and abode. 

able :\IE. db/e: adapt, of ofr. 
(h)ablc = SPAN. /?ai^ IT. abi/e; 
source LAT. habilis. \ 

abode me. abgd prop', 'delay, 
abiding'; cp. bide. 

abound me. abounde: adapt, 
of FR. abonder = lat. abundare 

English Etymology. 

I about ME. aboute of. dbiltan 
onbtitan', cp. but for OE. butan. 

i above ME. above earlier abufm 
OE. dbufan', akin to G. obefi ohg. 
obana 'from above'; cp. over. 

abridge me. abrigge abregge: 
adapt, of OFR. abrigier abregier 

' (source 'LXT.abbreviare'^h.oriQVi). 

: abroad me. rt; /!^;Y'''^ prop. 'broad- 
ly, widely'; cp. broad. 
abuse cp. use. 

j accord vb. me. acorde late oe. 

i ic..i\/sp)dcordian'. borrowed from 

I OFR. acorder fr. accorder (cp. 

I IT. a c cor dare). 

I accuse me. accuse from fr. ac 

\ cuser (lat. accusare). 

accrue {accre^v) vb. from fr. 

I accrue sb. 'growth, increase' (orig. 
part, of FR. aci^^^^e : lat. ad-\- 
cretum)', cp. increase. 

\ ace me. as dee', loanword from 

j FR. as (= SPAN, as, G. ass, DU. 

I aas). Source lat. ^i- (ace. asse??i) 

j 'a unit, pound, foot'. 

I ache earlier spelling ake me. 

I dke', derived from oe. ece me. 
echc 'pain' under the influence 
of the vb. OE. acan me. ake 'ache, 

I feel pain'. 

achieve — aghast 

achieve aiE. acheve: adapt, of 
FR. achever 'accomplish'. Akin 
to chief. 

acorn me. acorn oe. cecern\ 
ident. with goth. akran 'crop, 
fruit*, ON. akarn, DU. akei', G. ecker. 
The meaning 'acorn being a later 
and special one as compared 
with GOi:Yi..akrii7t 'fruit', the group 
may be derived from teut. akra- 
= acre. 

acquaint vb. me. aqueinte a- 
cointe'. borrowed fr. ofr. acointer 
'advise' cp. quaint. 

acquire me. aquire aquere: bor- 
rowed from OFR. aquerre (fr. 
acquerir = LAT. acquirere^. 

acre me. aker oe. cecer 'a field, 
acre' = synon. goth. akrs^ OSAX. 
akkar, ohg. acchar G. acker ^ t)U. 
akkery on. akr : a common Teut. 
and Aryan word: teut. "^akra-z, 
pre-TEUT. agro-s = skr. ajra-s, 
GR. dyQog, LAT. ager (stem agro-) 
'acre' : Aryan y/^ ag in lat. agOy 
GR. «/«, skr. i?/', ON. aka. The 
orig. meaning of acre (indo- 
TEUT. agro-s) was 'place where the 
cattle are driven'; cp. G. trift 
from treiben. 

adage from fr. adage = lat. 
adagiimi 'proverb'. 

add :me. adde from lat. addere 

adder yis.. adder older nadder 
OE. n(h{d)dre = osax. nddra, du. 
adder, ohg. ndt(a)ra mhg. «^/^;' G. 
natter (otte?-) , icel. nadra f. — ^^-^r 
m., GOTH, nadrs: cogn. with ir. ;^(Z- 
M^//;-, w. neidr. For the loss of 
initial 7t cp. auger and apron. 

adjourn vb. me. ajurtie aj'orne: 
adapted from Y^.ajourner (deriv. 
of FR. jour — Journie 'day'). 

ado me. ado prop, at do: prop, 
infinit. 'to do' with at, orig. in 
Northern English. 

advance vb. for me. avaunce : 
loanword from fr. avanccr 'go 
before' (deriv. of fr. avant =^ 
ITAL. avante, lat. ab -f ante). 

advice sb. for :\ie. avis', adopt, 
of FR. avis (= IT. avviso, lat. ad- 
visu7ti). — The vb. advise me. 
avise is fr. aviser {^ it. avvisar, 
LAT . '^advisaj e) . 

afford ME. aforthe 'provide' oe. 
"^efordian 'promote': deriv. of 

affray 'frighten' me. afraie : from 
fr. effrayer 'frighten'. — Hence 
the part, afraid 'frightened' me. 

after me. after oe. after adv. 
prep. = GOTH, aftra 'back, 
again', ohg. osax. aftar 'l)ack', 
DU. achter. 

again me. agein oe. ongeyi . 
onge<in\ ident. with G.gegen ohg. 
gegin gagan, osax. gegifil, on. 
gag?t. — against me. ageinest 
earlier agcines = OE. tpgeyies. 

age ME. age: adoption of fr. 
age (ofr. a-age e-age). Source 
a LAT. type *aetaticum (= 'lat. 
aetas) 'time'. 

aghast part, of me. agaste vb. 
'terrify' oe. gcestan 'terrify';* akin 
to GOTH, usgaisjan make afraid' 
and peril, to ghost. 





aglet 'spangle, pin' (Shakcsp.) 
from FR. aiguillet dimin. of ai- 
guille needle*. 

ago ME. ago agon: orig-. part, 
'gone by, past' from go. 

agog adapt, of ofr. en gogues 

lusty, lively, in a pleasant humor' 
— FR. gogue 'mirth, glee'. 

agree me. agree : adapt, of fr. 
agr^er (= IT. aggradare] source 
LAT.^^r^///?/2 'pleasing, agreeable') . 

ague ME. agile: source ofr. agu 
'sharp, acute' (= fr. aigu). 
Source lat. acutus. 

aid vb. from fr. aider 'help'. 

ail vb. ME. aile eile oe. ej^lan 
'trouble, afflict' = GOTH, iis- 
agljan 'trouble*: deriv. of OE. 
eile 1= GOTH, aglus 'loathsome, 
troublesome'. For \/^cig cp. 

air^ ME. aire older eir: loan- 
word from fr. air (source lat. 
aer). — air^ from fr. air 'ex- 
ternal appearance' is considered 
ident. with air^. 

aisel (Shakesp.); cp. eisel. 

ajar me. acher — one her (oe. on 
derr — on eyrr) 'ajar' cp. char. 

akimbo :me. a kemdoiae — a 
kenbckce (in the phrase »his hand, 
his armes a kemb^we setten«); 
for ME. bpwe cp. boitf and elbow. 
The first element represents an 
adapted on. kengr 'crook the 
shape of a horse-shoe' (cp. ON. 
kengbogimi 'crooked'). Another 
suggestion proceeds from an OE. 
"^cyneboga formed as OE. cyne- 

alder me. alder oe. dlor = ohg. 
elira crila g. erle, ON. elr elre(r), 
DU. LG. eller (goth. '^diliza is 
found in span, alisa ^ fr. alizc 
'wild sorb, wild service-berr}^'). 
Akin to OSLOV. jelichay lat. almis 
(for '^alsnus) 'alder'. 

ale :\IE. die oe. ealu ealo (infl. 
caloif) ^ OSAX. alo y on. s\v. 
DAN. gl\ akin to osLOV. olil 'cider', 
LITH. alus beer'. 

alight 'alight from a horse' cp. 
light vb. 

all ME. rt-Zf/) - plur. alle{l) 
eal(l) — plur. ealle = osax. ohg. 
DU. LG. al, G. all, ON. allr, goth. 
alls. A primary form ala- is found 
in compounds and derivatives; 
cp. OSAX. ohg. alung mhg. alenc 
'entire, complete', goth. atamans 
'all men', ohg. ala-wdri 'all true , 
ala-niuwi 'all new'. Cogn. w. oir. 
uile (base olio-). 

allay me. alaie aleie alegge 'la}' 
aside, give up'; from lay'^. Perh. 
mixed with ofr. aleyer (fr. 
aloyer) ? 

allege me. alegge 'give testi- 
mony': adapted from ofr. alegier 
alegger ? 

alley me. aley: loanword from 
FR. alUe 'a going, passage'. 

allow vb. ME. alone: adapt, of 
FR. alloucr 'grant' (lat. type ad- 
locare) . 

allure me. aliire: from ofr. 
alurer, deriv. of lure 'bait'. 

almond me. almaunde: from 

OFR. ahnande (= fr. gmandc, 

whence du. amandet). Source 

LAT. amygdala (gr. auvydulr^ 'an 

1 * 



almond', whence a vulgar lat. 
ajnendla (it. mandola ■= ohg. 
mandala G. mandet). 

alms ME. almes oe. celmcsse 
(infl. celmessaft) : borrowed from 
oiR. ahnsan. Akin to the synon. 
OSAX. alamosna, ODU. aebnoese ael- 
moesene T>\J. aalmoes^ OHG. alaviuo- 
san alavidsa?i G. abnosen. Source 
LAT.-GR. eleetnosyna (cp. it. limo- 
sind) with a vulgar pronunciation 
almosna ==- provenz. a/mosna, ofr. 
almosne fr. aumone. 

alone me. alone late oe. eall- 
dna prop, 'all singly' = synon. 
G. allein, du. allee??. Cp. (?;'z^. 

along ^ie. along oe. endlong 
andlong', cp. long. The prefix 
e. rt; for OE. ««rt^ is = to G. ent- 
in entlang 'along' (ofris. ond- 

aloof adapt, of du. ie loef 'to 
the windward'; ident. with luff, 

already orig. 'quite ready'; cp. 
ready. — also prop, 'quite so' 
ME. also OE. ealswd 'quite so' = 
G. also. Ident. with as. — al- 
though ME. although altheigh\ 
in OE. we find theah \ eal (e. g. 
»|)eah ic eal m3ege« 'although 
I may); cp. though. 

alum ME. alum from ofr. alum 
= FR. alun\ source lat. ahhnen, 
whence G. alaun, du. aluin. 

alway me. alway alwey oe. eal- 
new'ey. orig. ace. sing, (some- 
times contr. to ealnei) prop, 'all 
the way, all the time' ; the com- 
moner form is always me. al- 
7vaieSy being an adv. gen. sing, 
'all the time, always'. 

amaze vb. me. amdse oe. d-vid- 

amid, amidst; cp. middle. — 
amiss me. o?i 7msse\ cp. miss. 

among me. a7?iong\ prop, on- 
mang — on "^einang 'in the crowd'; 
OE. lemang 'crowd' see under 
7ni?igle. Ident. with LG. 7na?tg 

amount me. amounte'. adapt, 
of FR. amonter 'amount to' (fr. 
«w<7/2/ 'uphill' = LAT. ad montem)] 
cp. 7nouni. 

ancestor me. auncestrc. loan- 
word from ^^.ancctre old er anccstre 
(me. aimcessour from ofr. ances- 
sour) ; source lat. antecessor{em) 

anchor me. ankei' oe. ancor on- 
cor\ cp. ON. akkeri, du. g. anker 
late OHG. anchar'. a loanword 
from LAT. ancor a (it. ancor a, fr. 

ancient me. auncient older 
auncien (for the secondary / cp. 
pageant, parchment): adapt, 
of YV^.ancien {= IT. anziano] lat. 
type anted7ius). 

and ME. OE. a7id=^ osax. endi^ 
DU. en, OHG. anti enti inti unti 
MHG. unde G. und. The cogn. 
SKR. dtha 'also, further , and' 
points to KKYK^dnthd 'and, also'. 

andiron -me. au7idire : loanword 
from ofr. a7idier (fr. Ia7zdier^ 
'fire-dog\ Source unknown, perh. 
fr. a LAT. type a77iitdrius (lat. 
antes)} Cp. med.-lat. andma 

angel me. aungel'. borrowed 
from OFR. angcle (yk. ange). The 
FR. word supplanted the orig. 

anger — ape 

OE. ME. engei = G. DU. engel ohg. 
OSAX. engil, GOTH, aggilus: early 
church-loanwords from lat. an- 
gelus ::= GR. dyytlog 'angel'. 
I anger ME. (7;z^^r 'affliction, sore, 
*■ trouble': Scand. loanword from 
ON. angr grief, sorrow' (dan. 
anger 'penitence', sw. anger 're- 
gret') ; akin to i^AT.angor 'bodily 
or mental torture'. 

angle ^ me, ajtgel oe. angol 
gngul ■= synon. ohg. angul G. 
angel J on. gngiill. Akin to lat. 
uncus 'a hook', gr. oyv.oq 'a hook', 
ayvAOXQOv 'fish-hook', skr. ankd 
'hook', oiR. icad 'hook'. 

angle 2 (corner) me. angle from 
FR. angle = lat. angidiLS 'corner'. 

anguish jme anguisse: from ofr. 
angnisse fr. angoisse. Source lat. 
angustia 'straitness, poverty, per- 

ankle me. ankel orig. a7ikle oe. 
ancleoiv 'ankle' :^ du. anklaatiw, 
ohg. anchlao, on. gkkla (prop. 
^ankuldwf)\ akin to DU. enkel^ 
OHG. anchal enchil G. enkel 'ankle'. 
Source and formation of the 
group are doubtful; perh. akin 
to SKR. anguli angustha 'thumb, 
toe', AVEST. angusta 'toe'? 

announce me. anounce : adapt, 
of FR. annoncer (= lat. annun- 
tiare) ; cp. pronounce. 

annoy me. anoye anuy{e) 'weari- 
ness': from OFR. enoi anui fr. 
ennui (source lat. in odio 'in 

anoint me. anointe: adapt, of 
OFR. enoint 'anointed' part, of 
enoindre 'anoint' ; c^. oifttmejit. 

anon 'immediately' me. anon 
earlier andn oe. on an *in one' 
(moment); cp. 7ie. 

another; see other. 

answer sb. me. answare oe. 
andswaru; corresp. to the synon. 
OSAX. ant-swbr , ofris. ondser, 
ON. andsvar? — Thereto the 
deriv. vb. answer me. ansiverc 
o^. ands7Ciarian. Source theTEUT. 
y/^swar = S7£>ear; hence answer 
was orig. a solemn charge made 
to rebut a charge'; and- means 

ant ME. am{e)te oe. (E?nete 'em- 
met': TEUT. base dmaitjon; cp. 
OHG. a^neiyi mhg. ameiye g. ameise, 
MDU. efnte eempte, Perh. akin to 
G. Cfusig ORG. miii^y. cmizzi 'in- 
dustrious'. See e^njnet. 

antler ]ME. auntelere: loanword 
from OFR. antoillier {andoillier =^ 
fr. andouilier)\ lat. type afi- 
tocularis 'tine of a stag's horn 
in front of the eyes'. 

anvil short for me. anvelt an- 
felt OE. anfilt = ohg. anafalz, 
DU. aanbeeld odu. anbelt: teut. 
base atiafalti- and ana-balti-\ cp. 
the synon. ■ ohg. ana-boz, q,o^\\. 
w. beat. 

any me. any {eny p'ny) oe. 
cenii = OSAX. Snig^ mag, du. 
eenig, ohg. einag g. einig 'only, 
sole' : deriv. of teut. aina = 
e. 7te. 

ape me. ape oe. apa = du. 
aap, ON. apt, ohg. aj^o mhg. g. 
affe: a common teut. word, 
whence oruss. slov. opica, obo- 

appal (1) — arm^ 

HEM. opice 'ape' are borrowed. 
Source of teut. apan- unknown. 

appal(l) vb. ME. appalle : adapt- 
ed from OFR. apallir 'grow pale', 
akin to pale. 

apparel me. aparaile appm-eilc 
adapted from ofr. aparailler apa- 
■ reiller 'dress' = fr. appareiller 
(it . apparrechiare) . 

appeal me. a{p)p^le\ adapt, from 
FR. appeler (=rLAT. ii.appellare). 

appear vb. me. a(p)pere: adapt, 
from OFR. aperer aparir apareir 
apa7'oir .(= it. apparire) source 
LAT. apparere). 

appease vb. me. ap^se earlier 
apaise: loanword from fr. apaiser 
'pacify'; akin to pence. 

apple me. appel oe. ceppcl = 
DU. LG. appe/, mhg. g. ap/e/ ohg. 
apful'. WE ST teut. base applu-, 
allied to ir. uball, lith. obfilas, 
OSLOV. ahluko 'apple', russ. ja- 
^ bloko. 

apply vb. ME. aplie'. adapted 
iroYn.O¥^.apittr'(¥Vi.appliquer, it. 
applicare, lat. applicare 'apply'); 
cp. ply vb. 

apprentice ]\ie. aprentice apren- 
lis: loanword fr. OY^.aprenfis and 
aprentif fr. apprentl (source lat. 
apprendere 'learn'). 

approach vb. me. aprgchc. 
adapt, from fr. approcher'. lat. 
type adpropiare 'draw near'. 

apricot b Arrowed from fr. 
^^;'^^; cc)T4esp. to du. abrikooSy 
G.^rikose\ akin to span, albari- 
coqucy it. albercocco (mod. GR. 
7igaiyj)y.y.ta) from TuAT. praecocmm 

[malum praecoquum'^^ lit. 'pre- 

April ME. dpril{l)e\ adapt, ot 
LAT. aprilis'^ the earlier me. by- 
form averil points to ofr. avrill. 
Cp. G. DU. April. 

apron orig. napron = me. nd- 
pron ndp7'oun : adapt, of fr. nap- 
peron 'a large cloth', dimin. 
of nappe = lat. mappa 'table, 
napkin'; cp. napkin. For the 
loss of initial n see adder 
and auger. 

arch ME. arch{e-) oe. arce- 
[arde-biscopy. borrowed from FR. 
arch-. Cp. the synon. du. aartSy 
OHG. erzi- G. erz-y goth. ark 
[-aggilus). Source the lat. = 
Gr. prefix archi- [dg/i-). Perh. 
OFR. arc/i (in archangel) influ- 
enced the E. word, 
-archer me. archer', adapt, of 
FR. archer 'bowman' (lat. type 
arcariusy deriv. of arcus 'bow'). 

are (»we, you, they are«) me. 
are oe. (Northumbr.) aro7i'y plur. 
to the second person sing, art 
ME. art oe. eart. An Aryan, ar 
'be' is prob. in lith. yrd 'is'. 

ark ME. arke oe. earc (infl. 
earce) = ohg. arahha archa 'chest' 
MHG. arche 'chest, money-chest' 
G. arche Noah's ark', DU. ark 
'Noah's ark', on. grk chest, co- 
venant, ark, box', GOTH, arka f. 
'money-box, Noah's ark': a Teut. 
loanword from lat. (also ROM.) 

arm^ me. arm oe. earm = 
OSAX. DU. army on. armry goth. 
artnSy ohg. ar(a)m G. arm. Akin 


to LAT. arnius 'the topmost part 
of the upper arm, fore-quarter', 
OSLOV. ra7ne 'shoulder , arm', 
PRUSS. irmo 'arm*, skr. irmd-s 
'fore-quarter, arm', avest. arema 
'arm', armen. armukn 'elbow'. 

arm 2 a weapon' me. armes 
plur. from ofr. armes = lat. 
arma 'weapons'. 

armor me. armour{e) armilre: 
borrowed from ofr. armure ar- 
vie-ure (lat. my/iatura) 'armor'. 

army me. ar?nie arme'. adop- 
tion of FR. arm^e (= IT. annata ; 
base LAT. armare). 

arrange borrowed from fr. 
arranger (deriv. of fr. rang 'rank, 
file' from ohg. hrinc G. ring 'a 
rin^ or circle of people'; cp. 

arrant ident. with errant. 

arras me. arras) orig. »cloth 
of Arras« : Arras is the name 
of a town in Artois (France) 
famous for its manufacture. See 
cambric and laivn^. 

array me. araie : adapt, of ofr. 
arraier areier 'arrange' (= it. 
arredare) : of Teut. origin ; cp. 
GOTH, gar aids under ready. 

arrest me. a{r)reste\ adapt, of 
OFR. ar ester fr. arret er (=: it. 
ar re stare, lat. ;Y^/r7r<? 'stay back'). 

arrival me. arivaile prop, 'land- 
ing'; adapt, of ofr. arrivaille 
'landing'. — arrive me. arive 
prop, 'bring to shore, come to 
shore' : adapt, of fr. arriver ■= 
IT. arriz'are] lat. type adripare 
{ripa 'shore'). 

arrow me. arwe late oe. arwe : 
adapt, of ON. or (plur. orvar). 
The native oe. word was earh 
ident. with on. or (cp. goth. 
arhwazna 'dart' and lat. arcus 

as ME. as{e) als{e) also alswg 
oe. ealswd r= synon. osax. hg. 
also, DU. als, mhg. also a Is dlse. 
The compound means prop, 'en- 
tirely so'; cp. all and so. 

ash^ sb. 'the name of a tree' 
me. asch oe. oisc = ohg. asc 
G. esc/ie, DU. esck, on. askr 'ash'. 

ash'- sb. ME. asc/te oe. resre (infl. 
ascan axan); mod. E. is com- 
monly used in the plur. as/ies 
(me. asches). Cogn. w. on. aska, 
DU. aschy OHG. aska g. as'che, goth. 
azgo 'ashes'. 

ask vb. older by-form ax me. 
aske axe (kent. oxi) oe. dscian 
dcsian : Teut. base aiskojan = 
OSAX. hcon, ohg. eiskon (g. hei- 
scheti). Akin to lith. feskoti, 
osLOV. iskati, skr. icch 'seek'. 

asp^ *a venomous serpent' from 
LAT. asp is. 

asp2 'a tree' me. aspe oe. cespe 
= synon. on. gsp, ohg. aspa 
:mhg. aspe g. espe, du. esp: perh. 
connected with lat. arbor (if 
from "^azbos by rhotacism) 'tree'. 

ass me. asse oe. assa (infl. sing. 
assail) : loanword from oiR. assan 
.'ass'; cp. ON. asne from ofr. asne 
= fr. ane. Source lat. asinus, 
whence also GOTH, asilx/s, OE. 
esol, OHG. esil G. esel 'ass', DU. ezel 
and further osLOV. osilu, RUSS. 
oselu 'ass'. 




assail vb. ]\ce. asailc. adapt, of 
FR. assaillir', see assault. 

assault vb. me. a(s)sau/: adapt- 
ed from FR. assatit (=:it. assalto, 
MED. LAT. assaltus). 

assay me. assay assai borrowed 
from OFR. assai assay = FR. essai 
(it. assagio from lat. exagiu7n 

assemble me. a(s)semble a(s)' 
se7file : adapt, of fr. assembler (it. 
assemblare deriv. of lat. s'unul 
'together'). ' ' ^-^ * 

assuage ime. aswdge a{s)sudge: 
loanword ir.OYK.asoager asuager, 
LAT. type ad-suaviai'e deriv. of 
suavis 'sweet'. 

assure vb. ivie. a{s)sure borrowed 
from FR. assurer (=it. assecurare). 

astonish transformed after vbs. 
in -ish from an earlier astony 
as tone me. astonie as tune as tonne'. 
borrowed from ofr. estoner = 
V'K. itonner', i^AH. type ex\tonare 
'thunder'. But cp. stun. 

at me. at OE. cet = osax. at, 
OHG. ^5, ON. GOTH, at: akin w. 
LAT. ad \o\ OIR. ad-. 

atone vb. from atone adv. 'at 
one, agreed* ^=^ me. at g?i 'into 
one'; cp. one. 

attach vh.ME.attacche (law term) 
'take prisoner, arrest': adapt, of 
FR. attacher (= span, atacar, it. 
attaccare) . 

attain vb. me. attaine atteine'.. 
borrowed from fr. atteindre 
(= lat. attingere touch upon). 

attire vb. me. atlre: adapted fr. 
OFR. atirer 'adorn'. Source a 
Teut. sb. tir 'ornament, honor' 

= OSAX. OE. tir 'glory, honor 
(g. zierde). 

attorney isie. atourney older 
aturne atournd 'agent, deputy, 
commissioner'?: adapt, of fr. 
atorni part, of atorner 'direct, 

auburn orig. 'whitish or flaxen- 
colored , reddish - brown' me. 
auburne awburne 'citron-colored : 
from ofr. auborne alborne (^ it. 
alburtio^ = med. lat. alburnus 
'whitish (albus 'white'). 

auger orig. nauger (like adder 
for nadder, apron for napron with 
loss of an initial 11) me. nauger 
older ndve-ggr OE. nafo-gdr 'an 
auger' prop, 'borer, piercer of 
naves' (see nave^ and gore'^)\ 
cp. the synon. ohg. nabuger 
MHG. nabeger g. (dial.) ndber, 
ICEL. nafarr. 

aught a whit, anything' me. 
aught older awight oe. diviht 
dnwiht 'aught'; OE. an is one 
and for tinht see whit and not. 

August from lat. augustus ; me. 
aust from OFR. aoust =: fr. aoi'it'^ 
or from late OE. august changed 
to ^auwestl 

aunt ME. aunt(e) : adapt, of ofr. 
ante (fr. tante). Source lat. 
amita 'aunt'. 

avail ME. availe'. source fr. 
vaille from valoir 'be worth'. 

avalanche: adoption of the 
synon. fr. avalanche (fr. aval 
'downward' = ofr. a val is lat. 
ad vallem 'valley ward'). 

avenge me. avenge', adapt, of 
OFR. avengier 'avenge' (source 



LAT. vindicare 'vindicate'); cp. 

avoid ME. avoide: adapted from 
FR. avoider 'empty out'; cp. void. 

avouch 'declare, confess' from 
OFR. avoch{i)er\ cp. vouch. 

avow ME. avo^ve avoue from fr. 
avoiier\ cp. vow. 
1 await ME. awaite from onfr. 
5 await{i)er'y cp. 7a ait. 

award me. awarde from onfr. 
eswarde{i)r 'examine'. For the 
Teut. source see under guard. 

aware i\ie. iware oe. icwara 
icwcer r= OHG. OSAX. giwar G. 
gewa/ir , DU. gewaar 'watchful, 
wary'; cp. wary. 

away me. away a^vey oe. onw'c^ 
'away' prop, 'on the way'; cp. 
way and alway. 

awe ME. awe older age. adapt, 
of ON. agi 'awe, terror'. Akin 
to OE. e^e ME. eie 'fear, terror' 
= GOTH, agis and gr. rt;^o^ 
'anguish'; cp. goth. aglus 'mo- 
lesting', oiR. agar 'I fear'. 

awkward me. awkward aukivard 
beside late ME. auke 'contrary, 
wrong'; auk- contr. of avek- ■= 
ON. gfugr 'turned the wrong 
way'. Cogn. w. osAX. abuh^ ohg. 
almh and skr. apak 'turned away'. 

awl ME. aul awel oe. awel 
cawol 'awl': if traceable to a 
Teut. base awola (for agitwla-), 
akin to LAT. acus needle' — 
ac ulcus 'sting'. 

awn ME. aune older awcne 
agenc : Scand. loanword from 
ON. gg}i which is ident. with oe. 

cegnCy OHG. agana mhg. agenc 
G. ahnCy GOTH. aJmna chaff'; 
prob. related, to gr. a/vi] a/vgov 
'chaff', LiTH. akutas , opruss. 
ackons 'awn'. 

awry me. awry{c) onwry ; cp. 

ax(e) me. ax oe. eax = the 
synon. oe. eax cex, ohg. a/isa 
MHG. a/isc G. ac/isc, du. as and 
with formative -/ the synon. on. 
gxullj whence borrowed me. axel 
e. axle-{tree). For a pre -teut. 
aksa cp. skr. dksa^ gr. a^&)i/, 
LAT. axis^ OSLOV. ost, LITH. aszis 

ax(e) ME. ax{c) oe. ax orig. 
acas "^acces -- synon. osAX. ohg. 
accus MHG. aches g. ax{t), DU. 
aaks^ ON. gx^ goth. aqizi 'axe'. 
YiQ.-TY.\5"!:.agisi agzi {aksi) appears 
also in gr. n^ivri 'axe'. 

axle ME. axel in axel-tre'. bor- 
rowed from ON. gxultr^', akin 
to ax. 

aye^ 'yes' occurring in the 
16^*^ cent, as / and not found 
earlier; perh. ident. with / = 
OE. ic\ in OE. we find nic (for 
ne -\- ic) 'no' (in answering). 
The orthography of aye was 
influenced perhaps by aye^ (cp. 
71 ay). 

aye^ me. ^^^ ^jj^: borrowed from 
ON. ei ever ; akin to goth. aiw 
'ever', ohg. osax. io g. Je] cp. 
ever. In the Aryan langs. a sb. 
ai7va- 'age, time' exists in goth. 
aiii's, LAT. aevu?fi, gr. «iwV. 

babe — bait 

babe me. babe fuller form bdbdn'. 
from w. GAEL. IR. CORN, baban 
'a babe, child'. 

baboon me. bdbwin bdboin : 
loanword from the synon. fr. 
babouin. Akin to du. baviaan, 
G. pavian. Source ofr. babou 

baby me. bdbi\ dimin. of babe. 

bachelor me. bachelev. borrow- 
ed from ofr. bacheler = fr. 
bachelier. Source med.-lat. bac- 

back^ cp. basin. 

back- 'the hinder part of the 
body' ME. bak OE. bcec = OSAX. 
DU. (in comp.), icel. sw. bak 
'back'. — back adv. for aback 
:\rE. abak oe. on bcec 'backward' 
prop, 'on the back'. — back- 
board OE. bcecbord = du. lg. 
bakboord (whence G. Ifackbord, 
FR. babord), icel. bakbord 'lar- 

backgammon prop, 'back- 
game', because the men when 
taken are put back. See 

bacon me. bacon bdcoun'. bor- 
rowed from OFR. bacon 'flitch of 
bacon'. Source a teut. base 
bdkon == mdu. mlg. bake^ ohg. 
bahho MHG. bache 'side of bacon, 
ham'; akin to back sb. 

bad me. bad{de) 'worthless, 
wicked'; prob. ident. with OE. 
dbdded ^{orced, compelled': orig. 

part, of the vb. d-bckdan 'compel, 

badge late me. bagge\ of fr. 
origin, cp. OFR. bage, med.-lat. 
bagia. 'signum, a ring'. 

badger orig. ident. with an 
obsolete badger 'one who buys 
corn'; cp. FR. blaireau 'badger' 
orig. little corn-merchant'. The 
source is a med.-lat. bladdriuSy 
OFR. blayer 'corn-merchant' (fr. 
bU 'corn') : E. badger for b/adger? 

bag ME. bagge'. loanword from 
ON. baggi 'bag, bundle'. — bag- 
gage ME. baggage according to 
FR. baggage points to ofr. bague 
= ON. baggi. 

bail 'a hoop' me. bei/: perh. 
traceable to an OE. '^be^e/ '^by^^el 
= G. bi'igel, ON. bygill; \^b/ig 
in bo7eu 

bail vb. borrowed from ofr. 
bai/er 'secure, keep in custody'. 
Akin to bailiff me. bai/if bai/i: 
from OFR. bai/i/ (whence also 
DU. ba//u7c>) later bai/i bai/li = 
'MY.Ti.-iuA.i:.bai//iz>us ba//ivus. Source 
LAT. baju/us 'bur den bearer'. 

bairn 'child' (Sc.) me. bn-n 
OE. beam 'child' = OHG. GOTH. 
barny on. barn (whence also 
me. barn): deriv. of the teut. 
\fber 'produce', prop, partic. 
with the meaning that which is 

bait vb. ME. baite beite 'feed': 
borrowed from ON. beita 'cause 
to bite' = MHG. beizen 'bait', OE. 

hake — bark' 

I I 

bcetan: causative of teut. bitati 
'bite'; cp. bite. 

bake me. bake oe. bacan str. vb. 
:= ON. baka, OHG. bahhan 'bake*. 
The G. forms partly show teut. 
kk for TEUT. k\ G. backefij du. 
bakkeii (oSAX. bakkcri 'baker ) ; 
the kk is also shown in batch. 
The teut. \pbak from pre-TEUr. 
bhog is perh. connected with 
GR. qcoyfiv 'roast'. 

bald ME. balled {o^.'^bealledef)\ 
source and history unknown. 

baldrick me. baudrik bauderik\ 
akin to on. baldrekr, mhg. bal- 
derichy fr. baudroy (ofr. baldrei, 
whence me. baiLdry) , med.-lat. 
baldringus: related io i.XT. balteus 
under belt. 

bale sb. a large bundle of mer- 
chandise ready for transporta- 
tion: loanword from ofr. ba(l)le 
{= SPAN, bala, IT. bulla) ; of Teut. 
origin, ident. with ball. 

bale vb. 'empty water out of 
a ship', also spelled bail: bor- 
rowed from DU. balien 'bale out'; 
DU. balie {= mlg. ballige balge, 
LG. balje, IT. baglui) 'tub' fr. fr. 
bailie represents aLat. type bacula 
(cogn. w. basin). 

bale ME. bale oe. bealu\ cp. 
oSAX. babCy ohg. balu^ on. bgl 

evil, calamity'; goth. '^balws 
'evil' in comp. and deriv. as 
balweins balwjan 'torment'. 

balP 'a spherical body' me. 
ba 11(e) : borrowed from ofr. balle 
■= OHG. balla ballo 'a ball, sphere', 
on. bgllr 'ball'. 

ball2 'a dance' (= du. g. ball) : 
borrowed from fr. bal 'a dance' 
(=: SPAN, baile, it. ballo) 'a 
dance', fr. bailer (it. ballare) 
is traced to GR. ^aXliLfiv 'dance'. 

ballast: loanword from sw. 
DAN. ballast orig. baglast for bar- 
lass prop, 'bare last' i. e. 'mere 
load' = DU. LG. G. ballast. 

balm ]\ie. baum (J>aiwte bame 
basnie): adapt, of fr. baume. 
Source lat. balsa?nu7?i, whence 
G. balsam, DU. balsem. 

bane 'harm' me. batie] 0' 
means 'murderer'; cp. on. ba7iey 
OHG. bano 'death'. Akin to gr. 
(fwvo^ 'murder'. 

bank me. banke oe. ba/iea = 
ON. bakki (orig. "^ba/ike): akin 
to bench, — bank (for money) 
adapt, of fr. banque = it. banca: 
ult. source teut. bank{i) in 

bar ME. bar re', adapt, of ofr. 

bare aiE. bare oe. b^.r =^ ohg. 
G. bar y ON. berr'. teut.-goth. 
base baza- = pre-TEUT. bhaso- 
in OSLOV. bosu 'bare-foot', lith. 

bargain sb. me. bargain : adapt, 
of OFR. bargaine 'traffic'. 

barge me. barge \ adapt, of ofr. 
barge. Source a barica, 
whence also bark'^. 

bark ^ 'the' rind of a tree' me. 
barke: possibly a loanword from 
the equiv. on. bprkr; cp. g. lg. 
borkcy northfris. btiark, goth. 
*barkus: prob. akin to birch on 
account of skr. bhiirja m. 'birch' 

^ OF THH ' r 

T T -KT T A r XT" -D O T T'-V 

bark* — basket 

— n. 'birchbark'. Bark orig. 
'birchbark'? cp. birch. 

bark 2 adapt, of fr. barque\ 
ident. with barge. 

bark vb. me. berke oe. beorcan ; 
cp. OE. borcian 'bark' and on. 
berkja 'bark' : teut. \f berkj not 
recorded elsewhere. 

barley me. barll older barlich 
late OE. bcerlic\ how the word 
is connected with the synon. 
OE. bere (cp. barn), is uncertain. 
Source a teut. base baraz (bariz 
:= ON. barr, cp. gOth. barizehu 
*made of barley'), akin to lat. 
far 'corn' (aryan base bharos-). 

barm yeast' me. berrne oe. beorma 
= DU. berm, iviLG. bermc : Teut. 
base bervian- from an Aryan base 
bhernien- in lat. fermentuvi. 

barn me. berne oe. bern short 
for orig. bere-ern 'barley-house'; 
cp. barley, oe. -em (for ccrn 
^rcenn) 'house' corresponds to 
GOTH, razfi 'house', on. ran7i. 

barnacle ^ 'a fish' me. bernake; 
transformed by suffix-exchange 
from oe. byr?ietc 'loUigo'. 

barnacle 2 a kind of goose 
ME. bernake\ an anglohlat. ber- 
naca of the 1 2 ^^ cent, is the first 
record of the obscure word. 

barnacles 3 'spectacles' orig. 
'irons put on the noses of horses 
to keep them quiet' dimin. to 
ME. bernac from ofr. bernac 
'camus, a barnacle'. 

baron me. bdrouw. loanword 
from FR. baro?i, whence also ODU. 
baroen, mhg. barun G. DU. baro7i. 
Source a military word lat. baro 

'mercenary', which oftentimes is 
found in the Teut. Leges Bar- 
barorum for 'baron'. 

barrel me. bdrel prop, baril: 
borrowed fr. fr. baril. 

barren me. bar-rein : a fr. loan- 
word, cp. OFR. brahain barhain 
(fr. brihaigiie 'sterile'). Source 

barrow 'a wheel -barrow' me. 
bdrwe (oe. '^bearwe): derived 
from the teut. \f^ ber in bear\ 
as for the ?i'/-suffix cp. also oe. 
mcox-byr7ve , westphal. bierive 
'a bier, stretcher*. 

barter Engl, deriv. of ofr. 
barate 'deceit, fraud' (ofr. ba- 
rater 'beguile'), whence me. bardt 
barely ODU. baraet fraud', mhg. 

base ^ 'low' from fr. basse f. 
{pas m.). Source vulg. -lat. 
bassus ? 

base 2 sb. 'foundation' me. base 
(bas): loanword from fr. base 
(lat. basis). 

bashful see abash. 

basin ^ie. basin: loanword from 
FR. bassin. Source lat. bacciniihi 
(akin w. lat. bacar and bicdriimi ?) 
whence du. bekken, ohg. (osax.) 
bekkin G. becken 'basin'; cp. du. 
lg. bak 'bowl, tub, trough', fr. 
/^^^ 'trough, basin' = lat. baccd). 

bask vb. ME. baskc. a Scand. 
loanword, from o^.badask 'bathe 
oneself. Source see under /^^M. 

basket me. basket] commonly 
considered ident. with britann.- 
LAT. bas Cauda 'dish-pan' (= ofr. 
baschoe 'bucket'); an O'E.'^bascod 

bay 8 

"^baxod was supplanted by "^bascoty 
-ot being an E. dimin. suffix. 
A primit.LAT.-GALL.^<^?j'r<7 appears 
in FR. bachc tilt, vat'. 

bass 'a fish' me. base barse oe. 
beers = DU. baars, G. barsch\ cp. 
SWED. abborre^ dan. oborre {rr 
from 7's\ 

bastard me. bastard (= o. 
bastardy DU. bastaard) : borrowed 
from OFR. bastard (fr. bdtard = 
SPAN. IT. bastardd). Source ofr. 
^75^ := SPAN. IT. basto pack- 
saddle'; cp. OFR. fils de bast *a 
bastard*, lit. 'a son of a pack- 
saddle' (not of a bed, cp. G. 
bankert prop, 'son of a bench). 

baste ^ vb. 'beat with a stick, 
strike': a Scand. loanword from 
ON. beysta 'beat' = sw. bosta 
'thump', DAN. bostc strike'. 

baste 2 vb. pour fat over meat'; 
origin unknown. 

baste^ vb. 'sew slightly' me. 
baste', borrowed from ofr. bastir 
(fr. bdtir r= span, bastear, it. 
imba stare) 'baste'. Source a 
TEUT. bastjan = OUG. bestan 'patch' 
:\rHG. besten 'bind'. 

bat ^ 'a short cudgel' ME. late OE. 
bat{ti)\ loanword from IR. GAEL. 
bat 'staff, cudgel' or more prob. 
fr. fr. batte 'a rammer, wand'. 

bat^ a winged mammal'; the 
Scotch by-form ba{c)k points to 
-ME. bakke ■= DAN. bakke (only in 
comp. aftenbakke 'evening-bat'). 
Perh. connected with back and 
bacon ^ made prob. by G. (dial.) 
j;?>^(r/^wrt!//5 'bat' prop. 'flitch-mouse'. 

batch ME. bacche oe. "^bcecce) 
deriv. from the teut. yf bakk 
(^.bak)', see bake. 

bath ME. bath oe. bcsd= osax. 
bath, DU. G. OHG. bady on. bad. 
The dental being suffix, the word 
rests on a teut. y" ba {bt) in 
OHG. bden = g. bcihen. — bathe 
vb. ME. bdtlie oe. badian = ohg. 
badon G. bade?t, on. bada: deriv. 
from the teut. sb. ba^a- 'bath . 

batten vb.'grow fat' me. "^batnc. 
a Scand. loanword ixovsxoi^.bat?ia 
'grow better' (= goth. gabatnan 
'profit'). Akin to better and 

batter vb. 'beat'ME. /;r?/r^: from 
FR. battre. Source lat. battuere. 
Hence batter *a compound of 
eggs, flour and milk' me. batilre: 
from OFR. bate-ure 'a beating'. 

battle ME. bdtaile: loanword 
from FR. bataille, whence odu. 
bataelghey ]\ihg. bateile 'battle'. 
Source lat. battuere 'beat'. 

bay adj. 'reddish' me. bay. from 
FR. bai. Source lat. badius 'bay- 

bay^ 'inlet of the sea' me. bate : 
borrowed from FR. bate {= span. 
bahia^ it. bajci). 

bay''^ sb. 'a kind of laurel-tree, 
sweet-bay me. bay bale *a berry': 
borrowed from ofr. bale baye 
FR. bale 'a berry'. Source lat. 
bacca bdca 'berry'. 

bay vb. 'bark as a dog' me. 
baye shortened from abaye: loan- 
word from OFR. abater fr. aboyer. 

bay^ 'berry' (in bay-rujii) me. 
bai bei OE. bdj^ = northfris. bei, 



DITMARSCH beiCy DU. bci 'berry': 
Teut. base baijiz bajjiz\ not ident. 
with OFR. bale ^ lat. bacca. 

be 'exist' me. be oe. beon fr. a 
Teut. base '^bija?i\ cp. ohg. bi7n = 
OSAX. biu-7n 'I am', which an- 
swers to LAT. fio\ Aryan base 
bhio {bhijo) traceable to bhwio 
bhuid) cp.y/^bkii in LAT./ui 'I was!. 
Cp. booth and build. 

be- prefix me. oe. be-\ ident. 
with by. 

beacon :me. bcken oe. beacen 
= OHG. bouhhan^ osAX. bokan (du. 
baaky G. <^^7/^^ fr. ofris. bdketi)'. 
teut. base baukna-. See beck. 

bead me. /^^-V/^ 'a bead, a prayer' 
oe. j^<^^^/ 'prayer'. Deriv. from 
the teut. \fbed', cp. bid. 

beadle me. bedel bedel', loan- 
word from OFR. bedel = fr. 
bideau (it. bidelld). Source a 
Teut. bidil = ohg. /^////. 

beaker me. biker \ cp. the sy- 
non. DU. beker, osAX. bikeri^ ohg. 
b'ehhdri G. becher. Perh. the E. 
word is borrowed from the sy- 
non. ON. bikarr. Source lat. 
biccariiwi (it. bicchiere) with the 
hy -^oitfi piccarium (see pitcher). 
Further connections under basin. 

beam *a piece of timber' me. 
b§m OE. bea?n 'a tree' = ohg. 
MHG. bourn G. bmwi, lg. du. 
boom, OSAX. bom 'a tree'. The 
corresp. synon. goth. bagms (on. 
badmr}) 'tree' seems to point to 
a TEUT. bagwma- with a by-form 
bawma- bauma-. 

bean me. bene ben oe. (^/a« = 
synon. ohg. bona g. bohne, du. 

(!^^^//, ON. ^<^//« : TEUT. base baunb- 
'bean'. The early existence of 
the word (goth. '^baund) is at- 
tested by the name of the 
Fris. island Baunonia (island of 

bear vb. 'carry' ]me. b^re oe. 
beran --= osAX. ohg. b'eran, on. 
bera, du. bar en, goth. bairan. 
Akin to LAT. ferre, gr. (phonv.^ 
SKR. \fbhar 'bear, carry': Aryan 
\fbher. Cp. bier and birth. 

bear sb. 'ursus' ME.bere oe. /^mi; 
= OHG. bero :\ihg. ^^r g. bar, du. 
^^^r. The TEUT. beron- (on. <^'^r«) 
is based on an Aryan adj. bhero- 
'brown' preserved in lith. beras 

beard me. berd oe. beard = 
DU. baard, ofris. berd, ohg. g. 
bart'. teut. base bar da- = Aryan 
bhardha- in lat. barba, osLOV. 
brada, lith. barzdd, pruss. bor- 
dus 'beard'. 

beast ME. best: loanword from 
OFR. beste (fr. bete), whence also 
LG. DU. beest 'beast'. Source lat. 
bestia (in a vulgar form besta). 

beat vb. me. b^te oe. b(atan 
= OHG. boT^yin mhg. boT^en, icel. 
bauta 'beat'. Cp. beetle. 

beaver^ 'an animal' me. be'ver 
OE. beofor = ohg. bibar G. bibcr, 
DU. <^^z'^r, o^.bjorr: teut. bebruz 
(whence are borrowed it. bevero, 
FR. bievre)- points to pre-teut. 
bhebhrus =: \.xt. fiber, coKH.befer, 
OSLOV. bebrii, lith. bebrus, lett. 
bebris, RUSS. bobru 'beaver'. In 
SKR. there is an adj. babhrus 
'brown', which is perh. a redupl. 




form pointing to lith. beras 
'brown' under bear. 

beaver- 'the lower part of a 
helmet' borrowed from the synon. 
FR. bavibr, whence also the sy- 
non. DU. bevei'. 

because :me. because bicause by- 
cause (also separately written be-y 
bi-, by- cause) : by the prep, -f- 

beck^ 'a stream' me. bek: loan- 
word from ON. bekkr (= sw. 
bdck)\ cp. OSAX. bekiy du. beck, 
OHG. bah{hh) G. bach from a teut. 

beck- a nod or sign' me. bek 
short for ME. beke OE. beacen] 
see beacon. 

bed ME. OE. bed {dd) = goth. 
badi (stem badja-)y ohg. /^t'// z^/-/// 
MHG. bftte bete g. /^^//, du. bed. 
The cogn. cymr. ^^^<r/ 'grave' 
(celt, base bedo-) points to the 
ARYAN \fbhedh bhodh (in lat. 
fodio -I dig', LITH. bedu \ dig'), 
as is evident in G. beet (blumen- 
beet) = E. bed (flowerbed). 

bedrid me. bedred oe. bedrida'. 
lit. 'a bed-rider' = mlg. bed^ 
dercde 'bedridden'. Cp. ride 
(and the phrase »ride on an- 
chor«). Akin to ohg. bettiriso, 
mlg. bedder he 'hedYiddGVi — ban- 
krhc 'a lazy fellow'. 

bee ME. be oe. beo contr. of 
bie (infl. bian) = ohg. bta, du. 
bij; with w-suffix g. bie/ie from 
ohg. bini. Akin to pruss. bitte, 

LITH. bitlS, LETT. blttC, IR. bcch 

bee'; also lat. fiicus 'drone' 
(Aryan base bhoiko-1). 

beech me. bcche oe. bece (orig. 
bdecie = lg. /^«fi^^ 'beech'): for- 
med with vowel mutation from 
"^boc in OE. boc-treow\ cp. ohg. 
buohha mhg. buoche G. buche, 
ON. <^i?/^. The name of this tree 
(whence book) is a pre-teut. 
bhagos ^=- \.k:^. fdgus 'beech', gr. 
(payog (fT^yog. The gr. word 
signifies perh. originally 'tree 
with edible fruit, food-tree' {(fa- 
ytXv 'eat'). 

beef me. bef older bdef {beof) : 
borrowed from OFR. boe/ er. 
boeuf. Source lat. bovejn (bos). 

beer me. ber oe. beor =, ohg. 
OSAX. bior g. du. bier. A common 
westteut. word (base beura-), 
perh. derived fr. oe. osax. beo, 
ON. bygg 'barley ; hence beer 
prop, 'barley-juice'? 

beet me. oe. bete. Source lat. 
beta (= FR. bette , it. bieta), 
whence also G. beete. 

beetle* ^ie. betel oe. bytel betel 
■= the synon. lg. bdielj on. bey- 
till 'hammer'. The teut. base 
bautila- belongs to the teut. 
\l^baut in beat. 

beetle^ an insect me. bitel oe. 
bitola; derived from an adj. oe. 
bttol 'inclined to bite'. 

beg^ vb. ME. begge shortened 
from OE. bedecian, formed from 
bid with, intensive k (as in hatk, 
lurk, walli). 

begin me. begifine oe. bcginnah 
str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. biginnaiiy 
DU. G. begimien, goth. duginncn 
'begin'. The teut. sf gen (the 
initial g of which may be an 



Aryan k in the compound) is 
traceable to the Aryan \(^ken 
in OSLOV. pO'Cinq (infinit. /^-^V// 
'begin', koni 'beginning'). 

beguile vb. me. begile (= mdu. 
beghijlen) : loanword from ofr. 
guiler. Cp. wile, 

behalf 'interest, benefit' me. 
on behalve for on halve or he 
halve OE. on {be) healfe\ oe. 
healf sb. {= ohg. hallhi) means 

behave vb. late me. behave 
OE. behabbaii'. ident. with have. 
— behavior shows a fr. ending 
in imitation of haviovy var. of 
haver for avei' 'possession'. 

behead vb." inie. behede bihefden 
oe. behcafdian ; cp. mhg. behoubeten 
behead'. Cp. head. 

behest me. behest{e) bihest earlier 
beh(se oe. behds 'command, vow.' 
OE. hcks (base hdsi- haisi-) points 
to TEUT. GOTH, haitau -= OE. 
hdtan] cp. hight and hest. 

behind me. behlnde{n) oe. be- 
hindan 'afterwards, after'. Cp. 
hindei' and hindmost. 

behold vb. me. behglde oe. 
hehdldan (behealdan) 'hold, see'. 
Cp. hold. 

behoof me. behof oe. behof = 
synon. DU. behoef, mlg. behof, 
mhg. behuof g. behnfy icel. hof 
'moderation'. — behoove vb.ME. 
behove OE. behpfian 'be necessary' 
=- DU. behoeven, mlg. behoven. 

belch vb. akin to me. bclke oe. 
bcelcian bealcian and with suffix 
bealcettan 'belch'. 

belfry me. bcrfray berfrey ber- 
freid berfreit adapt, of ofr. ber- 
fi'ciberefreit=^ YV..beffroi. Source 
MHG. bh'cvrit from berc 'pro- 
tection' and frid 'a place of 

belief me. beleve from the vb. me. 
belcve = believe. Phonetically 
not ident. witli me. beleve ile've 
OE. leleafa == OSAX. gilobo, du. 
geloof, OHG. giloubo g. glaube. 
— believe vb. me. bileve orig. 
ilcve OE. ^elefan ^elyfan 'believe' 
= OSAX. gildbiariy DU. geloovev, 
OHG. gilouban G. glauben, goth. 

bell ]\IE. OE. belle = du. bel, 
LG. belle: WEST-TEUT. base bellfm. 
Akin to bellow? 

bellow vb. ME. bel{o)we belwe 
OE. belgian bylgian 'bellow' : teut. 
base ^balligon? Prob. an extended 
form with vowel mutation and 
intensive formative of oe. b'ellaii 
=r OHG. bdlan 'bellow', li bell- is 
traceable to belz bels, the TEUT. 
\r corresponds to skr. bhas (for 
bhals) 'bellow' = bhds 'speak' and 
LiTH. balsas 'voice'. 

bellows jnie. belwes (also belies) 
'a bellows' : prop. plur. of belowe 
belli beli 'a bellows, a bag, belly' 
OE. beeli byli (blcBstbylD 'a bag" 
= ON. bels^r, G. DU. balg 'skin'. 
Ident. with belly. A teut. \^belg 
'swell' appears in ohg. b'clgan 
'be angry', OE. ^ebolgen 'angry', 
ON. bolgen 'swollen'; cogn. w. 
oir. bolgaim 'I swell' — bolg bole 
'bag, bellows' — ogall. bulga 
i 'leather-bag'. Cp. bolster. 




belly ME. belie belt 'belly, womb, 
also a bellows' oe. bel^ byli 'a 
bag, pouch, purse, bag of any 
kind'., Ident. with bellows. 

below ME. bilowe cp. low. 

belt ME. OE. belt = ohg. balz, 
ox. belli 'a belt, border'. Source 
LAT. (gall.?) balteus 'belt'. 

bench me. bench oe. benc\ with 
umlaut and palatalization from 
a TEUT. base banki(z) = OSAX.. 
DU. G. OHG. b(7nk, OS. bekkr; fr. 
bane and it. span, baneo are 
TEUT. loanwords. Cp. bank. 

bend sb. 'a band, bond' me. 
OE. bend (= OSAX. bendi, odu. 
bende,'a band, bond') 
from the \Pb'endm bind ^ whence 
also bend vb. 'bow, curve' me. 
bende oe. bendan 'bind, curve, 

beneath me. bencthe oe. beneodan 
= DU. bcneden ; from oe. neodan, 
OSAX. nithana, ohg. nidajia mhg. 
7iiden(e) 'below', Cp. nether. 

benison me. beneisoun : borrowed 
from OFR. bene'ifon. Source lat. 
benedictionem (vp. 'MY..maleisoim = 
OFR. maleicon^ lat. vialedictione7ii). 

bent-grass oe. beonot = osax. 
biniit, OHG. binu-^ mhg. bin{e)'^ G. 
binse^ DU. bentgras. 

bequeath vb. me. bcqucthe oe. 
beciv'edan 'declare, affirm'. — be- 
quest ME. biqueste usually biquide 
byquide bequide. For the OE. vb. 
cw'edati 'speak' cp. quoth. 

bereave vb. me. bire-ve {r(ve) 
OE. ber^afian {reafian) = osax. 
birbbon, DU. berooven, ohg. (bip'ou- 

English Etymology. 

bon G. berauben, GOTH, biraubbn 
'rob', ON. raufa 'rob'. 

berry me. oe. berie\ cp. synon. 
OHG. bcri G. be€7'e. The r was 
orig. z -=^ s\ cp. GOTH, basi in 
iveinabasi 'wineberry, grape', DU. 
bes 'berry'. 

beseech vb. me. biseche biseke 
OE. bisecan: ident. with seek. 

besom 'a broom' aie. besom 
besme 'a broom, rod' oe. bes?na 
'a rod' = DU. beze?n, ohg. b'esarno 
G. besen 'a broom', goth. "^bistna. 
LAT. ferula may accord with 
the Teut. word in an Aryan 

best ME. beste oe. betsta = goth. 
batista, ohg. beyjsto mhg. g. /^(?.f/^, 
osax. betsto. Cp. better and 

bestow vb. me. bestpwe; cp. 

betide vb. me. /v/zV/e- ; cp. //V/<f. 

betray vb. isie. betraie (by-form 
betraisse)'. adapt, of fr. trahir 
(source lat. tradere 'deliver'). 
Cp. traitor and treason. 

betroth vb. me. bitreuthie 'be- 
troth'; deriv. from truth. 

better me. better oe. betera = 
GOTH, batiza , ohg. bcxyro G. 
besser, osax. ■ betoro , du. beter, 
ON. betre. Cp. the corresp. 
superl. best. No primitive adj. 
exists in the Teut. and Aryan 
langs.; for the root cp. boot- 
and best. 

between me. bitwene oe. 
bet7i'('onu?n 'between'; in oe. the 
orig. construction was be sd^vi 
tweonufjt =r between the seas', 

beverage — hind 

OE. '^tweon earlier twihn 'two' 
answers to goth. tweihns = lat. 
Mmis {Aryan base dweikno-s). — 
betwixt :mf.. betivix (by-form 
betwixe) oy.. hetweox bihvihs (by- 
form behveoxfi = OSAX. imdartwisk 
'between', ohg. tmdar zwiskem 
'between G. zwischeru The Teut. 
base iwiska- 'two' is a deriv. of 
TEUT. twa in tivo. 

beverage me. beverage beverege; 
loanword from ofr. brorage 
bciirage breuvaige = fr. breiwage. 
Source lat. bibere (lat. type 
bibei'aticutri) . 

bevy 'a company' jvie. bevey 
beve] doubtful if ident. with ofr. 
beveye fr. bev^e 'drink, drinking'? 
then the e. word might prop, 
denote "a drinking-party'. 

beyond me. beyonde oe. be-^eon- 
dan. Gp. yon. 

bible ME. bible\ loanword from 
FR. bible, whence also du. bijbel, 
G. sw. DAN. bibel. Source lat. 

bid :me. bidde oe. biddafi str. vb. 
= GOTH, bidjan, osAX. biddian, 
i)U. bidden, ohg. bittan G. bitten, 
ON. bidja 'bid'. The teut. >/" 
bed for bid goes back to an 
Aryan \^ bhidh in gr. tjeISm 'move 
by praying' which with iuA.iL.ftdo 
'trust' points to connection with 

bide ME. bide oe. bidan str. vb. = 
GOTH, beidan, osAX. bidan, ohg. 
bitan, ON. bida. The strong verb 
TEUT. bida7i wait' agrees with 
\ 'I trust' and gr. TJtidof.iai 
1 trust, obey' {nUdw 1 move by 

I entreaty') : pre-TEUT. bMd/i. Cp. 
bid pray" for the identity of bide 
with TEUT. bidjan. 

bier me. bere bere oe. /^^r = 
OSAX. OHG. ba7-a g. bahre , du. 
/^rt-^;-; the modern spelling \yith 
ie (since 1600) is due to fr. 
biere. Source a teut. herb-, 
derived fr. bear (teut. y/^ be r). 

bile :me. bl/e oe. byte = du. 
bui/ , OHG. /^^//<rz *bu//ia 'blain' 
MHG. biii/e G. beule'. teut. base 

bilP 'a writing, account' to- 
gether with its dimin. billet 'a 
note' me. Mile 'a letter' (dimin. 
billette a note'): from med.-lat. 
billa bulla 'a bubble, boss, leaden 
seal, a bull'. Cp. bull. 

bill 2 'sword' me. oe. bill 'sword' 
= OHG. OSAX. bil(Jl) 'a sword'. If 
GOTH, ^bilja- goes back to Aryan 
bhilyo- for bhidlyo-, connection 
with lat. findere is possible. 
Hence bill 'the instrument for 
splitting' and 

bill 3 'bird's beak' me. bill{e) 
bil{e) OE. bile 'beak'; prob. con- 
nected with bill^. 

billow ME. ^bilwe prop. "^ bilge: 
borrowed from on. bylgja: teut. 
V" b'elg 'swell' treated under bag 
and bellows. 

bin ]ME. binne oe. binn 'manger : 
CELT, loanword from gall, benna 
'kind of vehicle", whence also 
FR. benne 'a basket, hamper' 
(rr. ^^;z//^7 'sleigh, cart'). G. be fine 
'basket-wagon' is of fr. origin. 

bind ME. binde oe. binda?i str. vb. 
= OSAX. bindan, on. binda, du. 

l)irch — hlame 


G. binden , ohg. bintan : teut. 
\fb'end. An Aryan \f bhendh 
appears in skr. bafidh 'bind'; 
SKR. bandhu 'relative* points to 
connection with or. Tiev^fong 
'father-in-law', gr. TrsTOaa for 
*nsv&0!^ia, lat. of-fend-ime7itmn 
*band, rope'. Cp. band, bend. 

birch ME. birche oe. birce =■ 
OHG. bircha g. birke : teut. base 
birkjon-. Tlie synon. oe. beorc, 
DU. berky ON. bjgrk from an orig. 
base berko- are an Aryan bhergd 
= skr. bhurja^ OSLO v. breza^ 
\ATYi. berzas 'birch'. Cp. bark^, 

bird :\ie. <^/r^/ mostly brid'a. bird', 
orig. 'a young bird' oe. brid (plur. 
briddas) 'the young of any bird': 
TEUT. base bridja- for bredjo-] 
akin to breed and brood} 

birth :\IE. birlhe older i-birde 
OE. lebyrd = OSAX. giburd, du. 
geboortey ohg. giburt g. geburt, 
ON. /^wrrfV 'birth', GOTH, gabaiirps 
'birth': deriv. from a teut. vb. 
gab'cran 'produce' with suffix di-'. 
pi (cp. IR. /W/// 'birth', skr. 
bhrti 'bearing'). 

bishop :\iE. bishop bis shop oe. 
bisceop = OSAX. bishop, DU. bis- 
sehop, OHG. biscof G. bischof, on. 
biskup. WEST-TEUT. (^/V/^^^ (taken 
as a compound /;/-t-J/^^) is iden- 
tical with GOTH, aipiskatipus =■ 
GR. iTiiay.OTTog, LAT. episcopus. The 
initial <? is also wanting in it. 
vescovo, OFR. PROV. vesque (butFR. 
h'eqiLe from O'EV.. eves que) ■= vulgar 
LAT. {e)biscopus. 

bitch :me. bicche oe. bicce\ teut. 

base bikjon- also in on. <^//'/^y^ 
'bitch'; cp. OFR. biche 'bitch'. 

bite me. bite oe. bitmi str. vb. ^ 
OSAX. /y-zA?;/, OHG.^/-:;^/^ G.beissen, 
DU. ^zy/^?;/ 'bite', on. bita. A teut. 
str. vb. bita7i 'bite' is developed 
from an Aryan \f bhid 'split' in 
LXT. Jfjido, SKR. /V/zV/ 'split'. Cp. 
bitter and /;///-. 

bitter adj. me. /^///^^r oe. bitter biter 
= OSAX. OHG. bittar mhg. g. 
DU. mlg. lg. dan. sav. bitter, on. 
bitr 'bitter' : teut. base bitra- 
(and baitra- in goth. baitrs 
'bitter'), prop, biting': deriv. from 
the TEUT. \fbit in bite. 

bittern me. bitor older butor 
{= DU. biitoor') : borrowed froiji 
FR. butor (=z IT. bit tore). Source 
LAT. bos taurus a bird's name? 

black :me. blak oe. bicec {blac-) ; 
akin to lg. black 'ink'. 

bladder me. bladdre oe. blddre 
= DU. blaar , lg. bladere, org. 
bldttara g. blatter, icel. bladra\ 
the teut. base '^bledron- (with 
^/r^- as suffix) comes from the 
teut. \r/i/^ in blow"^. 

blade me. /Vc?^/^ oe. <^/^^/ (plur. 
bladu) = synon. OHG. /^/<r?/ G. 
(^/«f?/'/, DU. OSAX. blad, ON. ^A?//, 

GOTH, ^blada-. Their dental 
seems to be formative; bla- 
from pre-TEUT. M/<7- is perh. 
akin to lat. fol-ium, gr. {^vX'kov. 
Aryan \(^bhol bhlo- in bloom} 

blain me. blein oe. <^/^j^« = 
DU. blein : teut. base blajino- 
from TEUT. \r/^/(r? in bladder} 

blame vb. :\ie. blame (= :mdu. 
blamen) : loanword from fr. 




hlamer (= ospan. blasmar, it. bia- 
simare: source lat. blasphe7iiare). 

blank me. blank oe. blanc blgnc 
= synon. ohg. mhg. bla7tc G. 
blank) ON. blakkr "gray or white 
liorse': TEUT. V"M'/7/^ in blink. 
The TEUT. adj. blanka- was in- 
troduced into the Roman, langs.; 
cp. IT. bianco, fr. bla7tc with the 
deriv. fr. blanchet ^= ofr. blanket, 
whence me. e. blanket a coarse 
woolen cover'. 

blare vb.' roar me. blare vb. = 
DU. blaren, g. blar?-en plarre?i. 

blast me. blast oe. blcBst = ohg. 
blast, ON. bldstr 'a gust of wind' : 
deriv. of the teut. \p bles = du. 
blazen, ohg. blasan g. blasen, on. 
bldsa, GOTH, blesan. A shorter 
s^ble cp. under blow-. 

blaze sb. 'a flame' me. blase 
'flame, torch' OE. bl^ese (infl. 
blasan) 'torch' = lg. mhg. bias 
'a torch'. Akin to goth. blesan 
= G. blasen 'blow' (cp. G. 7£'in(l- 
licht 'torch'). 

blaze vb. 'proclaim' me. blase 
'blow as a trumpet': perh. loan- 
word from ON. bldsa 'blow' = 
DU. blazen 'sound a trumpet', 
OHG. blasan G. blasen 'blow', gotH. 
blesan (in ufblesa7i 'puflf up'). — 
blazon^ 'proclamation' from fr. 
blasonner blazon',, whence DU. 
blazoen. — blazon'- ]\rE. bid son 
older bldsoun from fr. Mason 
'coat of arms' (whence also 
DU. blazoe.7i) ? 

bleach vb. me. bl{che oe. bldHan 
= ON. bleikja 'whiten*: teut. 
h^i^^blaikjanixom the adj. bleak 

ME. bleik late oe. bldec. borrow- 
ed from ON. bleikr = orig. oe. 
bide ME. blgk, DU. bleek, G. bleich. 
A TEUT. \fblik appears in oe. 
blica7i, ON. blika, OSAX. brika7i, 
DU. blijken, ohg. blihhan 'shine'. 

blear-eyed 'having sore eyes' 
ME. blcr-eyed ble7'-eighed fr. blcre 
'blear' -\- eye eij^e 'eye'; cp. dan. 
plir-gjet, LG. blh'-bged 'blear-eyed' 
(akin to \.g. flir7'-dge 'a bleared- 
eye', m fiirr up't bge hebbe7i 'have 
a bleared eye'). 

bleat vb. me. blete oe. bld'tan 
= DU. blate7i bleete7t, lg. b let en, 
OHG. bldza7i MHG. bld-^en. 

bleed vb. me. blede oe. bleda7i 
= OFRis. bl^da, DU. bloeden, lg. 
bld'den, OHG. bluotan, on. bld'da 
'bleed': deriv. from teut. bloda- 
in blood. 

blemish vb. me. ble77iiss{li)e 
'wound, injure, soil': loanword 
from OFR. blemiss-, stem of some 
forms of FR. bleniir 'grow pale' 
(fr. bleme bles77ie 'pale, wan). 

blench vb. me. blcnche (also 
blenke) 'shrink back, give way', 
OE. bleMcan 'deceive': causative 
of blink, TEUT. base '^bla7ikjan. 

blend' vb. me. blende (pret. 
blende) oe. blanda7i =■ osAX. 
GOTH, blandan, ON. blanda, OHG. 
blantan ]Mhg. blande7i. 

blend^ vb. me. blende oe. blen- 
dan ■== OHG. blenta7i blente72 G. 
ble7tde7i'. causative of bH7rd vb. 

bless vb. ME. blesse older blctsie 
OE. blitsian older blcedsian 'bless' 
from a teut. base ^blodison, not 
found elsewhere in teut. The 



yb. orig. 'sprinkle with blood' 
is appar. a deriv. of teut. bloda- 
in blood, 
blind adj. me. oe. blind = 

OS AX. DU. G. SW. DAN. bll/ld (OHG. 

MHO. blini)y ON. blindr ^ goth. 
blinds. Akin to on. blunda vb. 
'close one's eyes' and to lith. 
blandyti 'cast down one's eyes' 
— • blesti blisti grow dark'. — 
blind vb. 'make blind' deriv. 
of blind^ supplanting aiE. blende 
(pret. blende) oe. blendan = 
synon. ohg. blentan G. blenden: 
causative of the teut. base 
blinda in blind adj. blindfold 
adj. ME. blindfelle oe. blindfellian 
'strike blind, put out the eyes'; 
the mod. phonology of the 
second element of the word is 
due to confusion with fold'^ But 
ils origin is obscure; it may be 
akin to OE./ell, G. fell ohg. fel, 

GOTH. Jill = LAT. J>ellis. 

blink vb. me. blin^e = g. du. 
blinkeny sw. blinka, dan. blinke. 

bliss :\IE. blisse oe. bliss older 
bMs blids (= osAX. blidsed) : 
i"-deriv. of blithe. 

blister me. blister oe. "^blystre 
= opu. bluyster. Root unknown. 

blithe ME. blithe oe. blide 'joy- 
ful, glad' (cp. bliss) = osAX. 
blithi , LG. blide , DU. blij'(de.), 
OHG. M^//, ON. blidr, sw. dan. 
M^/, GOTH, bleips. The dental 
is formative, but the teut. \rM 
unknown elsewhere. 

block me. block 'a block* (of 
wood). Cp. tha synon. du. blok, 
:mlg. block, OHG. bloh mhg. ^/^^/; 

G. block. Uncertain whether the 
e. word is a native e. word or 
adapt, fr. fr. bloc 'block, log'. 
blond from fr. blond, whence 
also G. DU. DAN. blo?id. Source 
a lost teut. blunda- {= it. 
biondo, SPAN, blondo). 

blood ME. OE. blgd = OSAX. 

blod, DU. bloed, lg. blood, ohg. 
MHG. bluot G. blut, ON. bldd, 
SW. DAN. blod: TEUT. base bloda- 
(and blopa- in goth. blof) from 
a pre-TEUT. bhloto- bhldto-, not 
found elsewhere. Its relation 
to the sf^ bio 'bloom' is doubtful. 
See bleed and bless. 

bloom ME. blgm{e)'. borrowed 
from ON. blom blomi = goth. 
blbma, osAX. blbmo, DU. bloem, 
OHG. bliioma (bluomo) G. blume 
'flower'. For the \^blo cp. lat. 
^os and on-i. bldth 'blossom' and 
blow' . 

blossom ME. blosme oe. bldstm{a) 
blds?na=^iy\j. bloesem (bloem), mlg. 
blo(s)sem: deriv. of the teut. 
sfblo in blo7v.^ 

blow sb. 'a stroke' ME. blowe-^ 
deriv. from ME. blewe OE. blcowan 
= OHG. bliuwan mhg. bliuwen 
G. bliiuen, DU. blouwen, goth. 
bliggwan 'strike': teut. \f bleu 

blow 1 vb. 'bloom' me. blgive 
oe. blow an 'blossom' = osAX. 
blbjan, du. bloeijen, ohg. bluojan 
G. blilhen 'blow, bloom', goth. 
"^ blbjan. The teut. \r<^/<5 appears 
also in bloom and blossom. 

blow'^ vb. 'puff' me. bhme oe. 
bldwansix. vb. = ohg. bldian 'blow' 




MHG. blcewen blcBJen G. bldhen 
'blow, sweir. The teut. \(^ble 
bid agrees partly with lat. 
flare (Aryan bhld in blade and 

blue ME. bleiv : not deriv. from 
OE. blcBwen (deriv. of oe. bhhv), 
whence me. '^bl{we ought to be 
derived. :me. blew blm is loan- 
word from the synon. fr. bleu 
{= IT. biavd)\ ME- big 'blue' is 
adapt, of ON. bldr. The source 
of the whole group is a teut. 
base bldwa-^ blewa- 'blue' = oe. 
bldw^ ON. bldr,, du. blaatm>, ohg. 
bldo G. blau; ident. w. \.KY.flaviis 

^ boar ME. bgr oe. bar = ohg. 
MHG. ber 'a young boar', OSAX. 
bcr(swm), lg. ber, du. beer : teut. 
base baizu- or bairu-. 

board 'a plank' me. oe. bJrd 
'board, plank, shield, table' =- 
OSAX. DU. sw. DAN. bord, LG. boord, 
g. borl, ON. ^^r^, goth. {fotu)- 
baiird 'foot-stool': teut. base 
borda- with the by-form breda- 
in OE. bred = G. brett (du. berd 
ODU. /^r^r/). 

boast vb. ME. bgste\ perh. 
traceable to an oe. '^"bosettian : 
deriv. from teut. \p bans bus in 
G. bose OHG. bosi'i 

boat ME. /^j?/ OE. bat = on. 
/^^/V 'boat'. The E. word is the 
source of on. bJlr, du. g. bool 
and FR. bateau. 

bodice 'stays for women' for- 
merly bodies^ being plur. oibody. 
Cp. pe?ice for pennies. 

bodkin me. boidekin 'a small 
dagger'; of uncertain origin, 
related to w. bidog , ir. bideog 
'a dagger'? The diphthong oi 
in ]\IE. shows foreign origin of 
i^m.boidekin\ but the suffix seems 
to be Anglisized. 

body ]\1E. body bodi oe. bodij^ 
'body*; akin to ohg. botah mhg. 
botech 'trunk, corpse'. Relation 
to ohg. botahha G. bottich 'a 
large vessel, tub' is uncertain. 

boil 'a small tumor' me. bile. 
OE. byl{e)\ ident. with bile. 

boil vb. 'bubble up' me. boilc 
boyle'. loanword from ofr. boillir 
FR. bouillir = span, bulliry it. 
bollire 'boil'. Source lat. bullh e 

boisterous :me. boistrotts 'rough, 
coarse' : an extended form of 
ME. boistous 'rough, clumsy'. The 
^/-diphthong points to foreign 
origin; no source yet found. 

bold ME. bold OE. bald (bcald 
older bealp) = GOTH, '^'balpa- 
(in balpaba adv.), on. ballr (orig. 
^^balpr), OSAX. ohg. bald 'bold' 
(hence G. bald 'soon, quickly'). 

bole :\iE. bole = mhg. bole g. 
bohle 'a thick plank*; akin to 
ON. bolr 'trunk of a tree' and 
perh. related to gr. rpdXay^ 
'stem of a tree'. 

boll ME. bolle OE. bolla bowel, 
a round vessel' = du. bol m. 
ohg. bolla 'a round vessel', on. 
bolli. Perh. akin to ball and 
LAT. follis 'hose'. 

bolster me. oe. bolster = du. 
MHG. bolster ohg. bolstar G. 

bolt — booty 


polster^ ON. bolstr'. deriv. with 
sir- suffix from the teut. \f belg 
'swell'; hence its orig. meaning 
'swelling' (teut. base bolstr a- 
from *lwlhstra-). 

bolt vb. 'sift meal' :me. bnlU : 
borrowed from ofr. buUer (fr. 
bliiter^ 'sift'. 

bolt 'a stout pin of iron etc., 
an arrow' me. oe. bolt = synon. 
OHG. bolz, DU. bout, ON. bolte. 
Borrowed from LAT. catapulta'i 

bone ME. bgn oe. ban = g. 
bein, osax. ben^ du. been, on. bcin, 
sw. DAN. ben, goth. '^bain (du. g. 
on. sw. also leg ). Perh. cogn. 
with ON. bcimi 'straight'. 

bonnet ME. bond', loanword from 
OFR. bonet orig. fr. chapel de 
bonet\ MED. -LAT. bonneta a stuff 
of which caps were made'. 

bonny me. bony, an engl. 
derivative of fr. bon 'good'. 

booby not found in me. oe., 
with ENGL, ending derived from 
SPAN, bobo 'fool'? 

book ME. bgk oe. bgc = G. 
buck OHG. biwh, OSAX. bok, du. 
boek, GOTH, boka f. — bok n. 'a 
letter of the alphabet' shows in 
the plur. the meaning 'writing, 
document, book', and the ohg. 
OSAX. OE. corresponding buoh 
bok occurs in pluralform with the 
meaning 'a single book'. There- 
fore it is evident, that the sing, 
meant orig. (as in goth.) 'a 
single letter of the alphabet'. 
The TEUT. base boka- (cp. 
beech) was orig. 'beech-bark. 

beech-tablet' used to scratch 
runes on. 

boom borrowed from du. boo?n 
(= LG. boo!fi) 'a tree , beam, 
pole'. Ident. with beam. 

boon ME. bone petition, favor : 
loanword from on. bon 'a prayer'. 
There was a native oe. ben me. 
be tie 'a prayer'. 

boor adapt, of du. boer (= 
G. bauei') 'peasant'. Akin to 
oe. lebiii'j cp. neighbor. 

boot^ ]ME. bgte\ loanword from 
OFR. bote (boute) = fr. botte 
(it. bota) ; akin to G. bossen 
'shoes'. Source unknown. 

boot^ 'advantage me. bote oe. 
bg't = OSAX. goth. bota, ohg. 
bao-^a bno2, G. bi/sse, on. bot. For 
the TEUT. \p bat cp. batten, 
better and best. 

booth :\IE. bgthe : loanword 
from ODAN. both (dan. bod) = 
MHG. buode G. bude. The oicel. 
biid differs from dan. bod in the 
root-vowels (teut. o'.u). The 
dental is suffix. For the teut. 
\fbu (indo-teut. bhii) 'dwell' 
cp. LiTH. butas 'house', oiR. both 
(bothdn) 'hut' (base bhii- to). See 
build and be. 

booty in the 15"^ cent, spelled 
bgtye and butin ; akin to the 
equiv. fr. butin, du. buit , g. 
beute, on. byte 'booty"; the fr. 
word represents an osAX. '^biitin 
'^biiti, which is cogn. w. OIR. 
buaid victory' and cymr. budd 'ad- 
vantage, profit'. Aryan \(^bhud 
: bhaud. 

border — boush 

border me. border bord{e)ure: 
adapt, of FR. bordure. Ultimate 
source OHG. borto 'edge'. 

bore vb. me. bore oe. borian 
= OHG. boron G. bohren, DU. 
boren, on. bora. The teut. base 
bo? on agrees with lat. for are 
'bore'; cp.GR.(/oe(j03^'plough',SKR. 
bhiirij 'scissors': Aryan \^ bher 

borough and -bury in place- 
names me. borive (and biry) 
OE. burh burg (dat. sing, /^j'rg) 
'town'. OE. burg = synon. OSAX. 
bur{u)gy DU. burg^ ohg. bur{u)g 
G. burg, ON. borgy goth. baiirgs 

borrow vb. me. borwe oe. bor- 
gian protect, borrow' = ohg. 
borgeti g. borge?i 'borrow, give 
a pledge'. Prob. akin to ohg. 
b'ergan, GOTH, bairgan 'protect, 
shelter' (oSLOV. bregq 'I take 
care of). 

bosom me. bosum oe. bosm = 
OSAX. bosm, DU. boezem, ohg. 
buosam G. busen, goth. ^bbsma-. 

botch vb. 'mend a garment' 
me. bocche 'repair': deriv. from 
boot 'mending, repair of a thing'? 
perh. ident. with oe. botettian 
'repair' ? Cp. G. dial, buetzen 
'mend shoes' = ohg. buozzen 

botch 'a swelling on the skin, 
a boil' ME. bocche'. borrowed 
from OFR. boche 'a sore' (fr. bosse 
'swelling' = it. boccia 'ball'). 

both ME. bgthe = osax. bMi^, 
OFRis. bet/ie bide, ohg. g. beide^ on. 
bddir, sw. bdda, dan. baade. The 

stem of the numeral in its oldest 
forms had no dental: goth. bai 
^ oe. be'^en bd bit 'both'. The 
dental ending is short for the 
article : me. bpthe == oe. bd da, 
G. beide instead of bei die. In 
the older periods the article 
was combined with the numeral; 
cp. GOTH, ba po scipa 'both 
ships', OE. bej^cn dd gebrodru 
'both brothers'. 

bottle^ 'a hollow vessel' me. 
botel = DU. bottel, lg. buttel bud- 
del: loanwords from fr. bouteillc 
(= SPAN, botclla, IT. bottiglia) 
Source med.-lat. buticula f. di- 
min. of butis 'a butt'. 

bottle^ 'a bundle of hay' me. 
botel'. loanword from ofr. botel 
dimin. of fr. botte 'a bundle of 
hay. Source a teut. baiita- in 
OHG. boy) 'a bundle of flax'. 

bottom :me. botuin oe. botm ^=~ 
OSAX. bodom, DU. bodem, ohg. 
bodam G. bode7i. The teut. bases 
bupina- (= OHG. boda??t) or butna 
(= ON. botn) or with assimi- 
lation butma- (= OE. bottti) re- 
present Aryan bases bhutno- 
bhudno', c^. akyk^s b hud hue- 'bot- 
tom' in SKR. budhna', cp. gr. 
7Jv9\u7Ji', LAT. fundus (if trace- 
able to bhudhno-s'i). The pho- 
netical relations of the group 
are obscure. 

bough ME. bough bow oe. boh 
bog ^ DU. boeg 'bow of the ship', 
OHG. buog 'upper joint of the 
arm or leg, shoulder, hip' G. 
bug 'shoulders, withers', on. bogr 
'shoulder, bow of a ship', goth. 


"^bogus from pre-teut. bhaghu-s 
'arm, fore-arm' corresponds to 
SKR. bahii 'arm', also gr. -naxvg 
■niy/vg 'fore-arm, elbow'. 

bounce vb. me. bounse 'beat, 
knock' oe. ^bunsian'. frequent, 
of a primit. ^biinajil Akin to LG. 
biinscn bumsen {bansen}^ 'knock'? 

bound sb. me. bounde older 
boiuic. borrowed fr. ofr. bonde 
bonne 'boundary'. — boundary 
points to FR. bonnier, whence 
also i)U. bunder odu. bunre. 
Source med.-lat. bodina. 

bound vb. 'leap, spring' bor- 
rowed from FR. bondir 'leap, 
spring' prop, 'resound'. Source 
LAT. bombitare 'hum' ? 

bound adj. 'ready, prepared' 
me. boun 'leady, prepared to go': 
loanword from on. bumti 'pre- 
pared', part, oibiia 'till, prepare'; 
cp. busk. 

bounty me. boun/e: loanword 
from FR. bo/lit, source lat. boni- 
tatem. — bounteous me. bountc- 
vous: derived from ofr. bontivc 
'benevolent' by influence of 

bourn 'boundary' adapt, of fr. 
borne] ident. with bound. 

bow vb. 'bend' ME. bowe earlier 
bihue OE. bugan str. vb. 'bend, 
flee' (only intr.) = du. buigen, 
]MLG. bugen, OHG. biogan G. biegen, 
GOTH, biugan 'bend'. The teut. 
\^ bug is an Aryan bhCik on ac- 
count of OHG. buhil 'hill'. A 
cogn. \f bhfig appears in lat. 
fugio, GK. fptvyco. — bow' sb. 'a 


weapon, a bend' me. bowe oe. 
boga = OHG. osAX. bogo , du. 
boog, G. bogen, on. bogi. 

bow- 'the forward part of a 
ship', var. of bough. 

bowel ME. bouil bowel', loan- 
word from OFR. bouel (fr. boyau)] 
source lat. botellus 'sausage' (it. 
budel/o), whence also odu. bode- 
line ]3U. beuling 'sausage'. 

bower sb. :me. bour oe. biir 'a 
dwelling' (see neighbor = oe. 
n^h;^ebur) = osAX. mlg. bur 'a 
house, cage', ohg. mho. Inir 'a 
chamber' G. bauer 'a cage', on. 
bur 'a chamber, larder'. For the 
TEUT. y/^bu 'dweU' cp. build. 

bowl ME. bolle OE. bolla = on. 
bolli, DU. bolf OHG. bolla. 

box' *a chest' me. oe. box: bor- 
rowed from a vulg.-lat. *buxeni 
for buxidem (nom. buxis), whence 
also DU. buSf G. bilehse 'box' ohg. 
buhsa for '^buhsja. vulg.-lat. 
buxis (from gr. -nvh^g 'box made 
of the box-tree' cp. box'^-') ap- 
pears in FR. bossette, it. bossolo 

box- 'the name of a tree' me. 
box'trc OE. box', borrowed from 

LAT.-ROM. buXUS (= IT. ' boSSO, 

SPAN, box, FR. buis), whence also 
OHG. MHG. buhs{-boum) = G. buchs- 
baum 'box- tree', du. busboovi. 

boy ME. boic oe. *Mrt;; perh. 
dimin. of a lost OE. ''''bo 'brother' 
=r FLEM. boe 'brother': childish 
abbreviation of E. brother, as G. 
bube OHG. buobo is a reduplication 
of "^bo 'brother'? 


boycott — brave 

boycott first heard of in Dec. 
1880. Captain James Boycott was 
a farmer at Lough Mask, co. 
Mayo, Ireland; the Irish league 
pronounced their edict, in con- 
sequence of which no one wished 
to work or have anything to do 
with him; he was the victim of 
the system of procedure named 
after him. 

brace sb. me. brace', adapt, of 
OFR. brace. Source lat. brac- 

brach me. bracchc. adapt, of 
OFR. brache. Source ohg. bracko 
'hunting dog' = du. brak odu. 

brad me. brad usually brod\ 
loanword from ON. broddr 'spike, 
shaft' (= oe. brord 'spike', OHG. 
brort 'edge'). The teut. base 
brozda- answers to OIR. brot 'sting'. 

brag vb. 'boast' me. bra{g)ge\ 
akin to ofr. braguer 'flaunt, brave, 
brag'. Source doubtful. 

braid vb. 'weave' me. breide 
OE. breidan 'move to and fro, 
weave' = osax. br'egdan, lg. 
breidetiy ohg. brettan mhg. brette?t, 
ON. bregda 'draw, pull, weave, 
braid'; orig. 'move quickly' ; but 
MLG. breiden 'knit'. Cp. bridle. 

brain me. brain oe. brceien = 
DU. breiny lg. bregen 'brain'. The 
TEUT. base bragena- 'brain', if 
from an aryan ?nrogh-, is com- 
pared with gr. (igf^/iLiog 'fore- 
head' (for *iitQt-/-). 

brake 'a thicket' me. brake) 
perh. cogn. w. LG. brake 'tree- 
trunk' ? 

bramble me. brembel oe. bremcl 
earlier ^brdmil] cogn. w. G. bj'o??i- 
beere 'brambleberry' ohg. brafria, 
DU. braam, perh. ident. \\\ oe. 
brom under broom. 

bran aie. brafi : adapt, from. ir. 
w. bran. ME. bren adapt, from 
OFR. bren points to the same 

branch 'a bough of a tree' 
ME. braunche: borrowed from fr. 
branche {= span. it. branca lat. 
type bi-rafnical deriv. of LAT. 
ramus 'branch'?). 

brand ]\ie. oe. brand brond = 
ODU. MLG. brand, ohg. :mhg. bra?d 
'a burning, a brand', du. g. brand 
'a burning, fuel', on. brandr 'a 
firebrand', sw. dan. brand' ■Si'^xit- 
brand, fire'. From teut. brinnan 
z= burn. — brandish vb. me. 
braundisshe braundisse\ loanword 
from FR. brandiss- in brandir (= 
IT. bra7idire) 'brandish'. Source 
a TEUT. brafid 'sword' = E. brand 
'sword' OE. brond, on. brandr, 
MHG. brant 'blade of a sword'. 
— brandy short for brandyimne 
■= DU. brandewijn, G. branteivein 
'brandy', lit. 'burnt wine'. 

brass me. bras oe. bro^s. lat. 
ferrum, if iox/erso- aryan bherso-, 
is considered akin to the teut. 
base brasa- in oe. brces. 

brat 'a child' perh. ident. with 
me. oe. bratt 'a coarse cloak' : 
orig. a Celt, word, cp. Gael. ir. 
brat 'a cloak, mantle' — w. brat 
'a rag, a pinafore'. 

brave borrowed from fr. brave, 
whence also du. braaf, g. brav. 




brawn :me. braun brawn 'muscle, 
boar's flesh'; orig. '^braoun bra- 
hun\ borrowed from ofr. braon 
'a piece of flesh, muscle'. Source 
a TEUT. brddo ace. bradun = 
OHG. brato aihg. brate 'a slice 
of bread' and also like G. brateri 
'roast meat', oe. brckdan 'roast 
meat', g. braten^ du. braden 'roast'; 
in LG. dial, an OSAX. brddo 
'muscle' is preserved (e.g. west- 
PHAL. wadbrcie) ; cp. :mlg. brdde. 

braze^ vb. 'adorn with brass' 
me. brdse oe. brasian 'cover with 
brass': deriv. of OE. brces\ cp. 

braze- vb. 'harden': loanword 
from ON. brasa harden by fire'. 
. breach mk. breche: adapt, of 
FR. breche. Source the teut. vb. 
brekan = break. 

bread me. bred late oe. bread 
= OHG. brbt G. brbdy osAX. brod^ 
DU. brood J late on. brand. The 
Teut. base brau-da- is deriv. fr. 
the \f bru in E. broth and 
brew. The orig. teut. word for 
bread \s?iS loaf (== teut. h/aiba-). 
In OE. we find br^'ad 'piece of 
bread' and beobr fad' honey -comW. 

breadth formed after length 
strength with secondary th from 
ME. brede oe. brckdo 'breadth': 
abstract noun formed from broad 
with umlaut (goth. brauiei, ohg. 
breitt). Cp. avestphal. bredde, 
OSAX. "^'bredtha from bred 'broad'. 

break vb. me. breke oe. br'ecan 
str. vb. = DU. breken, osax. 
brekan, ohg. br'ehhan G. brechen, 
GOTH, brikan. With the teut. 

sfbrek 'break' (aryan bhre^) 
cp.J.AT. /rango (j)ret./regi) 'break'. 

breakfast me. brcke/aste: prop, 
'breaking one's fast, the first 
meal of the day by which the 
fast is broken*. 

bream me. brcnr. loanword 
from FR. breme\ source a teut. 
braxma in ohg. brahsima imhg. 
braesein g. brass en = osax. 
bressemo, du. brasevi, osw. braxn, 
dan. brasen. 

breast me. br&st short for me. 
brest oe. breost = osax." brio sty 
OFRis. briast, on. brjdst\ akin to 
GOTH, brusts plur. , du. borst., 
OFRIS. burst (and briast), G.brnst: 
teut. bases breust- : briist-. 

breath :me. brcth oe. brckd 
'breath , odor' ; akin to OHG. 
brddam :mhg. brdde7n G. brodem 
brodejt 'steam, vapor, exhalation'. 

breech buttocks* me. brech oe. 
br^L Orig. ident. with breeches 
(»a pair of breeches«) me. 
brech breche\ the corresp. oe. 
bred plur. points to a sing, "^broc 
= du. broek, ofris. brok (plur. 
breJi), on. brok (plur. bra^kr), ohg. 
mhg. bruoch. The teut. base 
brok- plur. brbkiz) is seemingly 
connected with gall.-lat. brdca 
'clothing for the legs'. 

breed vb. me. brede oe. bredan 
^ DU. broeden, ohg. bruoten 
MHG. briieten G. brilten 'brood, 
hatch', GOTH, ''brodjan: deriv. of 
TEUT. broda' see brood. 

breeze^ 'a strong wind' = 
synon. G. brise, dan. bris: source 

breeze - 


FR. brise 'the north wind' = 
SPAN, brisa. 

breeze 2 gadfly' me. brese oe. 
breosa. Connection with G. bremse 
and breme (ohg. br'miisa brhnct) 
is doubtful. 

brew vb. me. brewe oe. breowa?i 
str. vb. = DU. brouwen, OHG. 
briuwan G. b7'auen. With the 
teut. \fbru (Aryan bhrti bhreu) 
'brew' arc related phryg.-thrac. 
^oviov 'beer, cider', which prob. 
stands for gr. *(povrov, also lat. 
defrtitiwi 'must boiled down', oir. 
bruthe 'broth' — bruth 'live coals, 
heat' — bruith 'cooking'. Cp. 

bridal, see bride, 

bride me. bride oe. bryd (from 
"^brydi '^briidi) = OSAX. odu. 
LG. briid, DU. bruid, ohg. mhg. 
bn'ii G. braiif, ox. brudr\ goth. 
briips means 'daughter-in-law' 
(but briip-faps 'bridegroom') ; 
osAX. briid is 'the newly married 
wife' as e. bride. ■ — bridal 
ME. brid-dle oe. bryd-ealo\ lit. 
''bride-ale (me. bride oe. bryd 
and me. die oe. eald). In gerj^i. 
dialects, we find kindelbier 'bap- 
tism'. — bridegroom me. bride- 
gome oe. brydguma ■=. synon. 
OSAX. brlidigumo , du. bruidc- 
gomo, OHG. briitigomo mhg. briute- 
gome G. briiiitigam , ON. brud- 
giime (goth. brup-faps). The 
second element of these com- 
pounds (oe. goth. gu?na, ohg. 
go?rio man' is related to lat. 
homo from indo-teut. ghomoti). 
The phonetical development of 

ME. brideg07ne into e. bridegroom 
is due to the influence oi groom. 

bridge me. brigge oe. brycg == 
OFRis. brigge y du. brug , ohg. 
brucka g. brilcke (goth. '^brugja 
'^briigjo) . The corresp. O'^.bryggja 
(also LG. brilgge, northfris. 
bragJi) and germ, (dial.) brilcke 
signify 'pavement, floor'; and oe. 
brycgiaii ]\ie. brigge and nfris. 
braghir?, mlg. brilggen signify to 

bridle me. oe. bridcl older oe. 
briyiel briyiil = ohg. brillil for 
'^'brictil'. deriv. from the teut. 
vb, br'egdaii pull' under braid. 
Akin to OSLOV. britzda 'bridle' 
(Aryan \f bhreghdh also in lat. 
frenum 'bridle'?). 

brief adj. 'short' me. bref\ 
borrowed from FR. bref (span. 
rr. breve = lat. brevis 'short'). 

brief sb. 'a commission, do- 
cument' ME. bref\ cp. du. g. 
brief OHG. briaf and the cor- 
responding OFR. bref 'an official 
document'. Orig. ident. with 
brief adj. 

brier 'a prickly shrub' :me. brere 
OE. brcer brer 'a bramble'. 

bright ME. bright oe. beorht 
'bright, white, clear* ^=^ osax. 
b'erhty ohg. beraht, goth. bairhts 
'bright'. Akin to MLG. br'ehen 
'shine, glisten'; cp. skr. bhargas 

. brim me. brim ; perh. ident. 
with OE. brim 'ocean , surf = 
on. bri?n 'surf; cp. the name of 
the city of Bremen. 

brimstone — brook 


brimstone i^v^. bi'iinsign earlier 
brenstpn = on.- hreniiisieinn 'brim- 
stone': deriv. of me. brenne = 
b u ;- ;/. 

brine me. brine 'salt liquor' = 
DU. brijn ]mdu. brine. 

bring vb. jNIE. bri7tge oe. bringan 
T=z oHG. OSAX. bringan G. bringen, 
GOTH. briggan\ cp. DU. brengen, 
OSAX. brengiany oe. brefigan 'bring' : 
TEUT. \Pbreng brang. 

brink ME. brink 'edge'; cp. on. 
brekka from *brinkd j lg. brink. 

brisk a CELT, loanword ; cp. w. 
brysg, GAEL. bri{o)sg 'quick, lively'. 

bristle :me. brittle older birstle 
OE. ^byrstei: dimin. of oe. byrst 
=r OHG. burst G. borstey du. Iwrste 
bristle'; akin to ohg. bursta G. 
bilrste 'brush'. The teut. \fbors 
burs (whence biir in burdocli) 
is an Aryan \l^ bhrs in skr. bhrsfi 
point, prong'. Cp. brush. 

brittle ME. britel oe. *brytel'. 
formed with suffix -il (oe. el cp. 
nimble^ from oe. breotan 'break' 
= ON. brjota 'break'. 

broach vb. me. brgche 'bore, 
spur, spit, tap' {seiten on broche 
'set a-broacl), tap = fr. viettre 
en broche 'tap a barrel') ; fr. brocher 
'broach, pierce' and broche 'a 
broach, spit'. 

broad :me. brod oe. brad = 
OSAX. mlg. brMy du. breed, g. 
breity ON. breidr, sw. dan. bred, 
GOTH, braids 'hxo?idi '. prob. from 
a pre-teut. mraito-, akin to an 
Aryan \[^mrit in SKR. mrit 'fall 
to pieces' (therefore broad \)to^. 

brock 'a badger' me. brok oe. 
brocc (z= DAN. brok) ; a celt. 
loanword; cp. w. corn. bret. 
broch, GAEL. IR. MANX broc 'a 
badger (celt, base brokko-f\i&r\\. 
ident. w. lat. brocciis adj. 'having 
prominent teeth' and ofr. broc 
'spit, point'). 

broil vb. me. broile\ adapt, of 
OFR. briiiller 'broil, roast', ofr. 
bruir 'roast' seems to be ident. 
with G. bri'ihen ]MHG. briiejen, DU. 
broeijen 'foment"; cp. brood. 

broker me. brocour 'pedlar, 
pawnbroker' ; loanword from 
OFR. brocour brokeor 'tapster 
who retails wine from, the tap'; 
cp. FR. broche under broach. 

brooch 'broach' :me. broche 'a 
pin, peg, brooch': borrowed 
from FR. broche 'a spit, point'. 

brood :me. oe. brod = du. broed, 
OHG. i^iuG. bruot g. brut: appar. 
formed with dental suffix from 
the teut. \fbrb in G. brilheny 
du. broeien. Cp. breed. 

brook ME. brok oe. broc = 
du. broek, mlg. brok lg. brook 
'marsh, pool', OHG. bruoh{h) mhg. 
bruoch G. l)ruch 'marsh, bog'; 
possibly connected with the 
teut. \fbrek 'break' in break. 

brook vb. 'put up with' ]me. 
bro(o)kc brouke oe. brtican 'use, 
enjoy' = osAX. brtikan , du. 
gebruiken, ohg. brtihhan ]\fflG. 
bruchen G. brauchen 'use, need , 
GOTH, brukjan 'use'. The pre- 
teut. form .of the yfbhrug 
accords with lat. fruor from 


broom — buckram 

'^fruvor for '^frtig%)or and cp. lat. j 
fruges. I 

broom me. oe. h-om 'the plant 
of the broom' = odu. brocvi 
'broom'; perh. cogn. \v. bramble. 

broth ME. broth oe. brod = 
ON. brod, OHG. brod: deriv. from 
the \pbrit under brew. 

brother j\ie. brother oe. brgdor 
= DU. broeder , OSAX. brothar^ 
OHG. iSiHG. briioder g. briider, on. 
brodir ^ goth. bro-par 'brother. 
The teut. base brbper- (Aryan 
bhrdter-) corresponds to lat. 
f rater y skr. bhrdtar- , OSLOV. 
brairil] cp. gr. ffparpia, 

brow ]\IE. browc briiwe oe. brii\ 
cp. ON. briln 'eyebrow' and skr. 
bhrii y gr. orp^vc, OSLOV. bruvi 

brown me. bro/m oe. brun = 

MLG. OHG. MHG. OFRIS. brwi, DU. 

brum, ON. bninfi. The teut. 
name of the color passed into 
ROM. (fr. brim = span. ir. 
brimo 'brown') and lith. {brunas 
'brown'). The proper stem of 
Aryan bhr-iitio- appears m lith. 
beras 'brown' (see bear sb.) and 
reduplicated in skr. babhru-s 
'reddish- brown' (see beaver^, 

bruise vb. me. briise'. loanword 
from OFR. bruser (fr. briser) 
'break', whence oe. brysan 'break'. 

bruit 'a rumor' me. brut', bor- 
rowed from FR. bruit 'noise'. 

brush sb. me. hrusshe 'a brush', 
orig. 'brush-wood': borrowed 
from OFR. broce fr. brosse 'brush- 
wood, brush'. 

brute borrowed from FR. brut 
adj. (fem. brute)] source lat. 

buck vb. 'wash linen , steep 
clothes in lye' me. bouke (oe. 
'^bikia/i) = DAN. byge, sw. byka, 
NORW. beukja, icel. bauka, mhg. 
biichcn G. bauchen. The teut. 
vjj. bukon {bCikjati) is based on 
OE. btic (cp. bucket). The 
ROM. FR. buer^ it. bucare 'wash' 
are borrowed from Teut. 

buck sb. ME. bukkc oe. bucca\ 
cp. the synon. oskk. buck^ fris. 

DU. bok, OHG. MHG. boc{ck) G. bock, 

ON. bukkr bokkr, sw. bock, dan. 
buk 'a he-goat, ram, buck(deer)', 
GOTH, "^bukks ''^bukka: ident. w. 

GAEL, boc, OIR. boCC, CYMR. boch 

'buck' from a celt, base bukko- 
(whence fr. bouc ofr. boc) and 
w. ARMEN. buc 'lamb', avest. buza 
'buck' (ARYAN bhilg ?). The indo- 
TEUT. base bhugo- is perh. con- 
nected with the root oi fugio, 
GR. (fivyd) 'flee'; hence buck may 
have signified orig. 'fugitive'. 

bucket 'a kind of pail' me. 
boket: deriv. from oe. buc 'a 
pitcher' with the dimin. suffix -et. 

buckle ME. boke/: adapt, of fr. 
boucle, whence also G. buckel. 
Source med.-lat. buc(c)ula 'a 
beaver, shield'. 

buckler me. bokeler: adapt, of 
OFR. bocler bucler = fr. bouclicr 
(whence also du. beukelaar, mhg. 
buckeler, on. buklart). Cp'. buckle. 

buckram me. bokeram hukeram 
^= OFR. bouqueran bouc ar an (fr. 




boiigran^ mhg. buckeraiii). Source 
and liistory unknown. 

buckwheat = du. boekweit^ 
MLG. bbkivete, G. buchwcizcn, dan. 
boghvcde'. lit. 'beech-wheat' from 
the resemblance of its seeds to 
the mast of the beech-tree. The 
E. word is of continental origin. 
Cp. beech. 

bud ME. biidde\ perh. akin to 
FR. boHto/i, DU. bot 'bud'. History 
and source uncertain. 

bugle 'a buffalo, a horn' me. 
biigle: borrowed from ofr. bugle 
*a wild ox' (lat. bucuius, dimin. 
of bos 'an ox'). The meaning 
'horn' is short for 'bugle-horn'. 

build vb. short forME. bilde (pret. 
bilde) OE. ^byldan (pret. by/de)] 
deriv. with vowel mutation from 
OE. bold 'house' which goes back, 
as shown by the older OE. boil 
bodl, by metathesis to a teut. 
bo-pla- {= ON. bol ^ DU. boedel, 
OSAX. bodies plur. , ofris. bodel 
bold. OE. byldan (bytlan) is a 
teut. bupljan. teut. bopla- = 
ARYAN bhu-tlo- belongs to the 
INDO-TEUT. sfbha 'dwell, reside' 
(cp. be, bo7e>erand bool/i). For 
the ARYAN //- suffix cp. needle. 

bull ME. bule\ OE. only in 
dimin. bulluc = me. e. bullock] 
cp, the synon. DU. bul, lg. bulk, 
ON. boli, DAN. boll 'a castrated bull'; 
LiTH. bullus is primit. related. 
Whether the e. bull is orig. a 
SCAND. loanword, is uncertain. 

burden^ 'a load' me. birthen 
OE. by r den = osAX. burihinnia 
'burden'; cp. the equival. ohg. 

burdi G. biirde, on. byj'dr, goth. 
baurpci'. all deriv. of the teut. 
\f^ ber in bear\ cp. skr. bhrti 
= oiR. brith 'the carrying' and 
see birth. 

burden- 'the refrain of a song' 
me. burdouw. loanword from fr. 
bourdon, orig. 'a drone-bee' (= 
SPAN, bordon, rr. bordo7ie 'a drone' 
from LAT. bur do 'a drone') ; cp. 
]\ILG. bardiin 'tenor; a musical 

burgess me. burgeis : loanword 
from OFR. burgeis fr. bourgeois 
(lat. type burgensis from burgus 
'town'). — burgher borrowed 
from DU. burger =^ AiLCi. borgere, 
OHG. burgari mhg. burgcere burger 
G. biirger : deriv. of teut. burg- 
cp. borough. 

burial me. buriel biricl prop. 
buriels biriels OE. byr^els 'tomb' 
(= OSAX. burgisU 'tomb') : deriv. 
from the OE. vb. byrian (osAX. 
"^burgiaii)', cp. btiry. 

burin 'an engraver's tool' : bor- 
rowed from FR. burin', perh. of 
Teut. origin; cp. ohg. bora 'a 
borer' (see under bore). 

burly me. burli borli oe. "^bur- 
lice. Akin to ohg. buro- 'very' 
in biirolang boralang 'very long' 
and perh, to skr. bhiiri 'much*? 

burn vb. me. heme oe. bcei-nan 
bernan tr. {byrnan intr.). Cp. 
synon. mhg. brinnen intr. and 
its causative brennen', G. brennen 
intr. and tr., goth. brinnan intr. 
and brannjan tr. Only one ;^ be- 
longs to the TEUT. yfbr'en, as 
shown by bryne 'conflagration'. 


burnish — butter 

burnish vb. me. bwnisshe bur- 
nisse'. loanword from ofr. bur- 
niss-, the stem of certain parts 
of biirnir briinir = fr. brunir. 

burr ME. bu7'7'e 'a bur'; cp. sw. 
kardborre 'a Inirdock', dan. borre, 
N.FRis. borj HELGOL. borren 'bur- 
dock*. OE. ^burre, if for teut. 
burzon-y may be deriv. from the 
TEUT. \fbors in G. borste\ cp. 
bri stle. 

burst vb, ME. bei'ste oe. berstan\ 
cp. synon. osax. br'estan, lg. du. 
bersten, OHG. brestan MHG. br'esten 
g. berstejty on. b testa. Cp. an 
Aryan \^ bhrest in oiR. brissim 
break' (^^ for ^/). 

bury vb. jme. <^?^rz> /w-/.? oe. 
byriyin byrytn wk. vb.; akin to oe. 
byrien 'tomb' — byrj^els under 
burial, teut. burgjan belongs 
perh. with oe. beorg 'mound, place 
of burial' to the teut-y^/w'^ in 
GOTH, bairgart, DU. G. bergen, oe. 
beorgan 'protect, shelter, secure'. 

bury in place-names see bo- 

bush ^\Y.Jmsho\(\Q^ bicsk\ ident. 
with OHG. busk G. buschy du. 
bosch bos and a rom. bosco (==; 
FR. boiSy IT. bosco). Uncertain 
whether of Teut. or of Lat. origin. 

bush 'a thicket' me. busch busk 
:= OHG. busc G. buschy DU. bosch] 
akin to fr. bois, it. bosco. Orig. 
derived as lat. ^buxicum from 
LAT. buxus = box} 

busk vb. 'get one's self ready' 
me. buske 'prepare one'self : of 
Scand. origin; cp. on. buask 'pre- 
pare'. Cp. hound adj. 

busk 'a support for a woman's 
stays' borrowed from fr. busc 
busque orig. 'the whole bodice', 
prob. a corruption of bust. 

buss' 'a herring-boat' me. busse 
OEv biitse (in butsecarlas) = du. 
buis, OHG. buzo, ON. buza. The 
Rom. shows similar words: med.- 
LAT. bussa buscia 'a kind of boat', 
OFR. busse buse buce. Source 

buss'-^ 'kiss' ^ G. dial, busscf? 
'kiss'; cp. also span, buz 'a kiss 
of reverence'; perh. orig. a chil- 
dish onomatopoeia. 

bust from FR. buste {= it. span. 
busto), whence also G. bi'/ste. 

bustle vb. ME. bustele 'wander 
blindly or stupidly'; perh. akin 
to G. (dial.) pusseln 'bustle', icel. 
bust la 'bustle'? 

busy ME. bisy oe. bisii = DU. 
bezigy "LG.bcsig: teut. base "7w/'^(7-. 

but ME. bate shortened for btiteii 
OE. biUafi conj. 'except' — prep, 
'besides, without' = DU. buiten 
'except'. Contr. from be-iitan\ 
cp. G. ausser and e. otct. 

butcher me. hocher earlier hou- 
cher\ borrowed from fr. boucher 
'one who kills he-goats' (deriv. 
of fr. bouc = buck). 

butler ME. buteler bot{e)ler fr. 
OFR. bouteiller'. deriv. of bottle. 

butt borrowed from ofr. boute^ 
FR. botte (= SPAN, botay IT. botte) 
*a butt, cask'. Akin to oe. bytt 
'hose, a leather bottle', OHG. buthi 
G. butte. 

butter ME. butere oe. buterc 
butore = G. buttery DU. boter. 

buttock — caitiff 


LG. hotter', source lat. biityruvi 
(cp. FR. beurre, it. Imrro) = gr. 
fjOvxvQQv, — butterfly ^m. butter- 
file OE. butor-fleoge = DU. boter- 
vlieg\ cp. G. dial, buttervogel 'a 
butterfly' and the G. dial, syno- 
nyms milchdieb and tnolkenstehler , 

buttock ME. buttok with dimin. 
suffix (cp. hillock) fr. ofr. bot 
(fr. ^^//j/) an end'; cp. butt-end. 

button ME. butoun: borrowed 
FR. boutoji 'a bud, a button. 

buttress 'a support' (in archi- 
tecture) ME. buteras butres'. bor- 
rowed from OFR. bouteretSj prop. 
plur. of bouteret 'a buttress'; cp. 
FR. boter bouter 'thrust, prop . 

buxom :me. buxom older Ibuh- 

su?n from OE. bugan = bow\ 
the old meaning was 'obedient, 
obliging'. Akin to du. buigzaam, 
G. biegsam 'submissive'. 

buy vb. JVIE. bie earlier bigge 
OE. by eg an 'purchase' = OSAX. 
buggian, goth. bugjan 'buy'. 

buzzard me. biisard short for 
bitsard: loanword from fr. busard 
by-form of fr. buse 'buzzard' {=^ 
LAT. <5z?/^^ buzzard'), whence also 
DU. buizerd, g. bushart. 

by me. OE. bi (but be- as prefix) 
= OSAX. ohg. mhg. bi G. bei^ 
DU. bij\ GOTH, bi means 'round, 
round about' and thus connec- 
tion with GR. a/<f/9«, LAT. a7nbi- 
becomes possible. 

cabbage earlier cabbache from 
FR. dial, caboclie = fr. cabus (du. 
kabuis), IT. capuccio y G. kappes 
OHG. kabui^: orig. deriv. of lat. 
caput 'head'. 

cabin ^ie. caban: borrowed 
from FR. cabane = it. med.-lat. 
capanna 'a cabin. Source and 
history unknown. 

cable me. cable (= g. du. sw. 
DAN. kabeT) : adapt, of fr. cable. 
Source lat. capulum 'a rope' 
(lat. caper e 'take, hold'). 

caboose ident. with du. kabuis, 
G. kabiise, dan. kabys. Earlier 
E. form comboosc ident. with du. 

English Etymology. 

ko?fibuiSy FR. cavibuse. Prob. akin 
to E. cabin. 

cackle vb. me. kakle = du. lg. 
kakeleny G. kakeln^ sw. kackla, 
DAN. kagle 'cackle'. Onomato- 
poetic formations. 

cage ME. cage: adapt, of fr. 
cage = IT. gabbia gaggia dial. 
cabbia] source lat. cdvea, whence 
also OHG. chevia g. kdpig 'cage'. 

cairn borrowed from GAEL. IR. 
w. cam 'a pile, rock'? 

caitiff ME. caitlf a captive': 

loanword from oner, caitif 'a 

wretch' (whence also du. katijvig 

ODU. catijf caitijf) = fr. c/i^ti/ 



cajole — camphor 

'mean, vile' (it. cattivo = lat. 
captivus 'captive'). 

cajole vb. = fr. cajoler 'coax 
(oFR. cageoler 'chatter like a bird 
in a cage, prate', deriv. of fr. 
cage == E. cage). 

cake ME. cake oe. "^caca (in- 
ferred from the dimin. formation 
oe. Cecil cicely teut. base kakila-) 
= ON. sw. kaka, DAN. kage 'cake'. 
Akin to OSAX. koko, du. koek, sc. 
cooky (also oe. ccecil :me. kechel 
from the dimin. goth. '^kdkila-)^ 
OHG. kuocho G. kuchen. The base 
kakan- kokan- is genuine teut. 

ca(u)ldron me. caudroun: bor- 
rowed from AFR. "^caudroun = 
FR. chatidron (= it. calderone 'a 
large kettle'). Source lat. cal- 
daria 'a kettle for hot water' 
{caldus calidus 'hot'). The / of 
modern spelling is inserted in 
imitation ofLAT. (Scotch still caii- 
dron) . 

caW :siE. calf oe. cealf= osax. 
uu. LG. SW. calf, on. kdlfr, ohg. 
G. kalb ; GOTH, has only a fern. 
kalhd 'heifer (ohg. chalba g. 
kalbe f. 'a calf). Outside of 
TEUT., there is a series of words 
with the base glbh- in skr. 
garbha 'the womb, an embryo', 
GR. dsXcpvg 'womb' and its deriv. 
adsXcpoQ 'brother' — deXffat, a 
young pig'. 

calf 2 ME. calf] perh. adopt, of 
ON. kdlf = NORW. kalve f sav. 
kalf (ben-kalf) 'calf of the leg'. 

ca(u)lk vb. ME. catikc 'tread 
as a cock': borrowed from ofr. 

caiiquer 'tread' (source lat. cal- 
care 'tread down). 

call vb. JviE. calk oe. (c. 950) 
callian (once misspelled <:(frt;///i?;/): 
a SCAND. loanword cp. on. kalla 
'say, call, name' (sw. kalla, dan. 
kalde 'call'): ident. with DU. 
kallen, ohg. kalian; cp. skr. 
\fgir 'call, praise'. 

callous from LAT. callosus 'hard- 
skinned' (lat. callus 'hard skin'). 

callow adj. me. calowe calu oe. 
calu {cahv-) = du. kaal, ohg. 
kalo (infl. kalatvh') G. kahl'. an 
early lat. loanword = lat. calvus 
(whence fr. chauve, it. span. 
calvo), which is of Aryan origin 
(cp. SKR. kulva, AVEST. kaoM'va 

calm me. cab?ie (= du. kah?i) 
from FR. calme (= span. it. 
calma 'calmness, still weather"). 
Source med.-lat. caiwia'^h^ heat 
of the sun' = gr. y>av/Lia 'great 
heat', / being due to association 
w. LAT. calor, 

cambric borrowed from fr. 
cambraj, so called from Cambrai 
(flem. du. Kamerijk), a town of 
northern France where it was 
first made (hence G. kamvicr- 
tucJi). See arras and lawn-. 

camp borrowed from fr. cajnp 
'field, army' := lat. campus 'field'. 
— campaign from fr. ca7n- 
pa(i)gne 'an open field, a mili- 
tary campaign'. 

camphor borrowed from fr. 
cainphrc = it. canfora, G. kampfcr, 
DU. kaiufcr. 



can vb. me. oe. can = goth. 
kantiy OSAX. OHG. kan o. kann. 
The TEUT. vb. kimnan is akin to 
keen', the AKs:p^\fgen see under 

can sb. :me. oe. canrie = du. kan 
*a pot, mug', OHG. kanna G. kanne, 
ON. kanna, goth. "^kanno. The 
TEUT. word passed into fr. (ofr. 
can7ie fr. dirain. canette 'a jug). 

canary ^ span, canario 'bird' 
= FR. canari\ cp. G. kanarien- 
vogel 'canary-bird', dan. canarie- 
fugl, sw. canariefogely du. kanarie- 
vogel 'canary-bird'; so named 
after the Canary islands. 

candle :me. candle candel oe. 
candel'. early loanword fr. lat. 
candela^ whence also it. candela, 
Cp. chandelier . 

cane me. ca7ie\ borrowed from 
FR. canne == it. canna 'a reed, 
a cane', lat. canna. 

canker me. cancre late oe. 
cancer fr. onfr. cancre (fr. 
c/ia?icre) : source lat. cancer y 
whence also G. du. kanker oho. 

canon me. canoun: adapt, of 
FR. canoti. Source lat. canon 
(gr. y.avmv) 'a rule, standard of 

canvas me. can{e)vas (= du. 
kanefaSj G. cafinroas kanevaSy sw. 
kanfasSy dan. kannevas)'. borrow- 
ed from onfr. canevas (lat. type 
canabacius y deriv. of cannabis 

cap ME. cappe oe. ccEppe 'cloak' 
(z=: OHG. kappa 'cloak' G. kappe, 

DU. kap 'cap'). Source lat. cappa] 
ident. with cape^ and cope. 

cape^ MS., cape', borrowed from 
onfr. cape (= it. lat. cappa 'a 
cloak, cape'): ident. with cap. 

cape^ 'a headland' borrowed 
from FR. cap 'cape, headland, 
head' = G. kapy it. capo. Source 
LAT. caput 'head'. 

caper from fr. capre {= it. 
capperOy du. kappery G. kape?-): 
source lat. capparis. 

capon ME. cdpoun late oe. (c. 
looo) capun fr. ONFR. capon (fr. 
chapori) : source lat. cappo{nem)y 
whence also G. kapaun and oho. 

captain :me. capita in from fr. 
capitaine (lat. type capitaneus 
capitanusy deriv. of lat. caput 
'head'). Ident. w. chieftain. 

car me. cai're (by-form charre) : 
borrowed from onfr. carre (fr. 
char). Source lat.-gall. carrus 
(bret. ir. w. carr) 'chariot', 
whence 'also it. carroy du. kar, 
OHG. charra charro 'cart' G. kai-'re 

caraway borrowed from fr. 
carvi = it. carviy lat. careum 
'caraway'; cj). t>\j . kar^vij y G.karbe. 

carbuncle me. carbuclc. bor- 
rowed from ONFR. carbuncle car- 
boucle (fr. escarboucle'y ident. with 
IT. carbonchioy du. karbonkely G. 
karbunkeiy. lat. carbunculus 'a 
glowing coal, gem, boil', dimin. 
of carbo. 

card 1 iViE. card: borrowed ttom 
FR. carte 'a card, ticket, bill. 


card 2 — cashier. 

map, chart; ident. with du. 
kaariy g. karte^ it. carta. Source 
LAT. c{h)arta *a card, paper'. 

card'-^ ME. carde: adapt, from 
FR. carde] ident. with the synon. 
DU. kaarde, ohg. charta o. karte^ 
SPAN, car da ^ it. car do 'a card'. 
Source lat. carduus 'a thistle'. 

care me. cdre oe. cam (cearu) 
'sorrow, suffering, grief = OSAX. 
OHG. kara 'lament' (g. ka7'- in 
X'^r/r^/V^^ 'Good Friday'; mhg. g. 
karwoche 'Passion week') =: goth. 
kara 'sorrow'. A cognate vb. 
(meaning 'sigh') is preserved in 
OHG. qu'cran (goth. "^q air an), 
Cp. chary. 

carol ME. Carole 'dance, song' 
from OFR. Carole 'a kind of dance, 
also a carol or Christmas song*. 
Of CELT, origin (bret. koroll 'a 
dance', manx carval a carol', 
w. carol *a song', Gael, carull 
'melody, harmony'). 

carp :me. carpe = du. karper, 
OHG. charpho karfo G. karpfen, 
ON. ka7-fe, sw. karpy dan. karpe. 
Ident. with late lat. carpa = fr. 
carpe, it. span, carpa. 

carp vb. me. carpe' carp at, talk, 
say' : adapt, of on. karpa 'boast, 
brag'. The present meaning 
is prob. an outgrowth of the 
associated idea in lat. carpere 

carpenter :\ie. cajpenter: bor- 
rowed from ONFR. carpentier (fr. 
charpentier). Source lat. car- 
pentum 'carriage'. 

carriage me. caridj^e 'burden, 
baggage': borrowed from onfr. 

cariage (fr. charriage), deriv. of 
carier = e. carry. 

carrion me. carion caroiiie = 
du. karonje) cp. also me. crone, 
ODU. kronie: adapt, of onfr. 
caroigne (ofr. charoigfie = fr. 
charogne)\ lat. type caro7iia 'a 
carcass' fr. caro 'flesh'. 

carry vb. ivie. carie\ adapt, from 
ONFR. carier (fr. c harrier)', lat. 
type carricare 'carry' (lat. car r us 
'a cart, car'; cp. car). 

cart me. cart fr. on. kartr ; ident. 
w. OE. crcet plur. cratu 'chariot' 
= DU. krat 'hindpart of a cart': 
of Celt, origin; cp. oir. cret 
'a wain-body. 

cartridge with intensive r for 
cartidge, a corruption oi cartouche 
=^ FR. cartouche (it. cartoccio 
'cartridge', deriv. of lat. charta 

carve vb. me. kerve oe. ceorfan 
= DU. kerven, G. kerben 'notch, 
indent' (goth. '^kairfan, ohg. 
"^k'erban not found). The \fkerf 
appears in gr. yodcfco 'scratch, 

case^ ME. cds case: borrowed 
from fr. cas (span. it. caso 'cir- 
cumstance, chance'). - Source 
LAT. casus. 

case'-^ ME. cdce cdsse: adapt, 
from OFR. casse fr. caisse] source 
LAT. capsa 'box, cover'. 

cash from fr. casse. Hence 
cashier sb. 

cashier vb. dismiss from ser- 
vice' (= G. kas siren)', from fr. 
casser 'discharge'. 




cask borrowed from fr. casque 
'a cask, helmet' (= it. casco 'a 

casket corrupted from fr. cas- 
sette 'a small casket', dimin. of 
FR. casse 'a chest, box'. 

cassock: adapt.fromFR.^^i-^^z^^ 
(it. casacca 'an outer coat', span. 
casaca 'a great-coat, surtout'). 

cast vb. ME. caste', a Scand. 
loanword; cp. on. sw.kasta, dan. 
kaste 'throw'. 

caste 'a breed, race' = g. kaste, 
FR. caste: borrowed from span. 
casta 'breed, race, caste'. . 

castle :me. late oe. casiei (also 
ME. castc'l = ODU. DU. kasteel) 
'a castle, village': borrowed (c. 
I ooo) fr. ONFR. castel (ofr. chastel 
= FR. chdteati). Source lat. ca- 

cat ME. OE. cat {tty. borrowed 
from oiR. CORN, cat or from 
ONFR. cat (fr. chat^ and ident. 
with G. katze, on. kgttr, norw. 
s w. katta. The word (base cattu-s) 
is in use in the Teut. Rom. Celt, 
languages; cp. late lat. catta 
cattus 'cat'. 

catch vb. ME. cacche (with the 
earlier by-form cccheti)'. borrowed 
from ONFR. cacher (= fr. chasser, 
SPAN, cazar, it. cacciare), whence 
also ODU. caeisen 'to chase' du. 
kaatsen 'play ball' and mlg. katzen 
*play ball'. Source a lat. type 
^captiare = captare 'catch'. — 
Hence catchpoll me. cacchepol 
late OE. ccEcepol prop, 'catcher 
of poultry' (cp. fr. poule under 
poult) = ONFR. "^cachepol (ofr. 

chacepol) ; cp. G. hi'mervogt title 
of a tax-gatherer. 

cater sb. W£..catour acatour acha- 
tour 'a buyer of provisions, a 
caterer' : source onfr.<7^^/= fr. 
achat 'a'buying, purchase', whence 
FR. achete?'. Orig. lat. type 

caterpillar earlier form late me. 
catefpel corrupted from ofr. 
chatepeleuse 'a weevil' lit.. 'a hairy 
she-cat': ofr. chate 'a she-cat' 
+ peleuse (lat. pilosus) 'hairy'. — 
caterwaul me. caterwawe shows 
the E. word cat in an extended 
form like caterpillar] me. waive 
'make a noise* is imitative. 

catkin dimin. of cat\ cp. g. 
katzche7t 'catkin'. 

cattle me. catel {chatel, whence 
E. chattel) : borrowed from onfr. 
catel (ofr. chatel)\ source med.- 
LAT. capitale 'capital, property'. 

caudle me. caudel: borrowed 
from ONT^R. caudel (chaudel = fr. 
chaudeaic) 'a warm drink' ; deriv. 
of FR. chaud 'hot' (lat. caldus 
calidus 'warm*). 

cause ME. cause', adapt, from 
FR. cause (by-form chose) 'a cause, 
thing' = it. lat. causa. 

causeway causey corruption 
of causey (due to confusion with 
way) ME. cause from onfr. cauce 
(whence also odu. casseie) = 
FR. chaussh'. LAT. type {vici) "^cal- 
data 'a paved (way)' fr. calciare 

caution M¥..caucioun: borrowed 
from ¥K. caution (it. cauzio7ie) = 
LAT. cautio 'caution'. 


cave — champion 

cave ME. cave', adapt, from fr. 
cave\ cave' (=it. cava)] source 
LAT. cavus 'hollow'. 

cease me. cesse ccse: adapt, of 
FR. cesser = it. lat. cessare. 

ceil ciel me. cele sele vb. lit. 
'emboss' from an earlier syle cyll 
*a canopy': source fr. ciel'd. ca- 
nopy* (fr. ciely SPAN. IT. cielo 
'heaven, canopy, roof ■= lat. 
ccelum 'heaven'). 

cerge ::me. cer'ge\ adapt, from 
FR. cierge (it. cerd) ; source lat. 
cereus 'a wax taper'. 

certain :me. certein certain', bor- 
rowed from FR. certain (= it. 
certand) from lat. certanuSy deriv. 
of certus. 

chafe ME. chaufe\s2ixm\ adapt, 
of FR. chaujfer'^ source a lat. 
type caleficare (= lat. calefacere) 
'make warm'. 

chafer me. '^-chafer oe. ceafor'. 
teut. base kafru-\ cp. the synon. 
DU. kever^ ohg. ch'evaro g. klifer 
(goth. '^kifra '^kafrus^. Perh. 
chaff is cognate. 

chaff ME. chaf oe. ceaf (= du. 
LG. kaf)'y akin to OHG.C/^ifZ^^ 'pod, 
husk' and perh. to chafer. 

chaffer me. chaffere chaffare 
earlier chap-fare = oe. c6ap 'a 
bargain' ~\- faru 'a journey' also 
'business'; cp. on. kaupfgr 'a 

chaffinch prop, 'the chaff- 

chain ^h.^m, chaine'. borrowed 
from FR. chaine ofr. chdine (= 
IT. LAT. catena)', ident. with DU. 
keten^ ohg. chetinna G. kette. 

chair jvie. chaire: adapt, from 
FR. chaire (ofr. cha-ere); source 
LAT. cathedra (gr. yia&EdQa) 'a 
chair, seat'. 

chalice me. c(h)a/ice: borrowed 
from OFR. chalice {calice = fr. 
calicCy IT. calice)'. source lat. 
cdlic-, stem oi calix 'a cup'. From 
the same source also oe. cdlicy 
OSAX. kelik, DU. kelk, ohg. kelih 
G. kelch, 

chalk me. chalk oe. cealc 'chalk, 
lime' = DU. G. kalky on. sav. 
DAN. kalk: early loanword from 
LAT. calc- stem of calx 'lime- 
stone, chalk' (whence also fr. 
chaux, IT. calce, ir. gael. cailCy 
w. calch lime'). 

challenge sb. me. chalenge 
'claim': adapt, from ofr. chalen- 
gier'y cp. IT. calogna 'accusation* 
^=^^Kii.calu7nnia 'a slander, false 

chamber me. chaumbrc. bor- 
rowed irom. YK.chafnbre', cp. it. 
ca??iera = lat. camera camara 
'a vault, a (vaulted) room'; 
ident. w. du. kamer, ohg. chamara 
G. hammer "chamber, office'. — 
chamberlain me. chaiimberlein', 
borrowed from ofr. chambrelein 
chambrelenc (span. catfiarlengOy 
IT. camarlingo ca7nerlengd) ; ident. 
w. AiED.-LAT. camar- camerlinguSy 
OHG. chamarlinc G. kdmmerlingy 
formed with suffix line and lat. 

champion ME. chaumpioim: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. champion (cp. du. 
kampioe7i). lat. type ca?npio, it. 
campione 'a combatant' {campus 

chance — chapter 


'a battle, duer). From the same 
S(jurce OE. ce?npa, ohg. che?nph(i)o 
iiHG. kempfe, olg. kempio, on. 
kappi 'warrior, hero'. 

chance me. chaunce'. adapt, of 
FR. chance (whence also mhg. 
G. sckanze ; but du. kans fr. onfr. 
cance)\ ofr. che-ance, it. cadenza 
point to a lat. type cadentia 'a 
falling, chance' (esp. in dice- 

chancel me. chauncel'. borrowed 
from ofr. chancel'^ :med.-lat.^^7;z- 
cclli plur. a grating, lattice-work', 
whence ohg. cancella chanzella g. 
/v?;zs<f/ pulpit', DU. kansel. — chan- 
cellor ME. chauticeler chaunseUr: 
borrowed from Y^.chancelier (lat. 
type cancellarius 'a chancellor', 
orig. 'an officer near the screen 
before the judge's bench', deriv. 
of LAT. caticelltis grating ) . Ident. 
w. ohg. chancildri mhg. kanzelcere 
G. kanzler, du. kanselier^ dan. sw. 
kansler, ic£l. kanzellari. — chan- 
cery ME. chatmcerie earlier chaun- 
cellerie'. adapt, of Y^.chancellerie 
(ident. w. it. cancelleria, du. 
kanseiarij, g. kanzlet, dan. can- 
cclli, sw. kans It). 

chandelier from fr. chandelier 
= SPAN, candelero, YY.candelliere] 
lat. type candelarius also in 
DU. kandelaar'y cp. candle. — 
chandler me. chaundeler\ loan- 
word fr. FR. chandelier 'a candle- 
maker, candle-stick' =r it. cande- 
lajo\ LAT. type candelarius. 

change vh.'^i¥..chautige'. adapt, 
from FR. changer (^span. camMar, 

it. cambiare cangiare)\ source 
LAT. cambiare 'change, exchange'. 

channel me. chanelle\ adapt, 
from OFR. chanel) ident. w. e. 
canal (= fr. span, canal ^ it. 
cajiale, jy\].kanaaly G. sw. hanal). 

chant vb. me. chaunte'. adapt, 
from fr. chanter {^ span, cantar, 
•IT. LAT. cantare 'sing'). 

chap vb. ME. chappe 'cut, chop' 
= :mdu. DU. happen^ dan. kappCy 
sw. kappa. 

chapel ME. chapele'. borrowed 
from fr. chapelle (= it. lat. 
capella^ ohg. kap'ella g. kapelle, 
DU. dan. kapel, sw. kapell). lat. 
capella (dimin. of capa) signified 
'a cape'; the chapel itself where 
the cloak of St. Martin and other 
relics were preserved first ob- 
tained the name capella^ then 
from the 7'^ cent, the use of 
the word became general. Cp. 

chaplain :me. chapelein : borrow- 
ed from FR. chapelain (= span. 
capellan^ it. capellano, med.-lat. 
capellamis, orig. 'the priest guard- 
ing the cloak of St. Martin). 
Cp. MHG. kapelldn G. kaplan^ 
du. kapelaan, dan. sw. kapellan. 

chapman me. chapman 'a mer- 
chant' shortened for oe. ccap- 
man = du. koopman, ohg. chouf- 
man G. kaiifmann. For OE. c^ap 
'bargain, trade' cp. cheap. 

chapter me. chapitre'. adapt, 
of FR. chapitre = lat. capitu- 
lum 'a chapter of a book', 
whence also g. kapitel 'chapter 
of a book'. 




char vb. ME. cherre oe. cyrran 
wk. vb. 'turn: teut. base karrjan 
or karzjan'^ See ajar. 

charge vb. me. charge', adapt. 
ofFR. charger (it. caricare, med.- 
I.A.T. car ricare load a car) ; deriv. 
of LAT. carrus z= car. — charge 
sb. ME. charge: adapt, from fr. 
charge (it. car tea) *a load'. 

chariot me. chariot: borrowed 
from FR. chariot, dimin. of char 
'a car'. 

charity ME. charite (cherite): bor- 
rowed from FR. chariti (it. carita 
= LAT. caritateni). 

charm me. charme: borrowed 
from FR. charfne 'an enchant- 
ment'; source lat. carmen 'a 
song, enchantment'. 

chart ident. w. g. karte, du. 
kaart] borrowed from fr. charte] 
source lat. charta. — charter 
ME. chartre charter: adapt, of 
FR. chartre 'a charter (lat. 
char tula 'a little paper'). 

chary me. chati oe. ceai-ij^ 
'full of care , sad' ^=- OSAX. 
OHG. karag (Heliand modkarag 
'sad') 'full of care' G. karg 'slow 
to give'. Cp. care. 

chase vb. me. chdce chase: bor- 
rowed from FR. chasser (Picard. 
cachier see under catch); lat. 
type captiare. — chase me. 
chdce chase: adapt, from fr. 
chasse = it. caccia 'chase'. 

chaste me. chaste: borrowed 
from FR. chaste (it. casto = lat. 
castus chaste'). — chaste vb. 
'chastise' me. chastie also chasty: 
adapt, of OFR. chastier = fr. 

chdtier {= span, castigar , it. 
LAT. castigare) ; ident. w. G. 
kasteien, ODU. castien. — chastise 
vb. me. chastise for the shorter 
chastie 'chasten'; see chaste vb. 

chattel me. chatel chetel, ident. 
w. cattle: source ofr. chatel. 

chatter vb. me. chat{e)re (chitere) 
'chatter', an imitative word. 

chaudron 'entrails' : borrowed 
from OFR. chaudun cauldun', ident. 
w. G. kaldatmen- The synon. 
it. caldmne , Sicilian quadiwii. 
Cat. escaldiims point to vulgar 
LAT. *caldtiffien. 

cheap ME. ch(p 'trade, barter, 
price' OE. ccap 'price' = osax. 

hop , DU. koOp , OHG. kouf G. 

kauf \, traffic'; source lat. 
caupo 'huckster'. 

cheat vb. me. chete short for 
eschcte 'escheat'. The meaning 
'defraud' was ushered in in the 
1 6*^ cent, on account of the 
unscrupulousness of the eschea- 
ters. Cp. escheat. 

checker sb. me. cheker chekkcr{e) 
'a chess-board' short for eschekcr 
'the exchequer : loanword from 
OFR. eschequier eschakier 'a chess- 
board, exchequer' = fr. ichiquier 
(= IT. scacchiere , med.-lat. 

cheek me. cheke oe. ceoce: teut. 
base keiikoji also in ofris. tziakc 
'jaw-bone' {vnod^xxs. soke) \ akin to 
GOTH, kukjan = eastfris. kilkken 
'kiss'. But me. cheke ch^ke oe. ceace 
'jaw-bone' may also point to 
Y)^5.kaak ODU. cake 'cheek': teut. 
base kakofi- kekofi- ; cp. mlg. 

cheer — chimney 

kake (fr. '^kako) and keke (fr. 
"^keohi) 'gums, jaw-bone'. 

cheer sb. me. chere: adapt, of 
FR. c/ib'e (whence it, cerd), 

chee^se me. chese oe. cese (cys:) = 
DU. kaas, osAX. ohg. kdsi G. kdse : 
early loanword from lat. cdseus 
(whence also it. cascio^ span. 
queso and oiR. caise), 

cherish vb. me. cherisshe: adapt. 
o^^riss-y stem of some parts 
of ^///r/r 'hold dear'; source fr. 
cher = LAT. cants 'dear'. 

cherry me. chery in comp. 
cherc' chiri- (plur. chery s cheries 
chines), a new sing, developed 
from the supposed plur. *cheris 
^chiris oe. ciris cyrs = ohg. 
kirsa g. kirsche. Source LAr. 
ccrasus y whence the corresp. 
Rom. group it. ciriegay fr. cerise 
from a vulgar LAT. type cercsia. 

chess me. ches{s)e\ borrowed 
from OFR. eschecs chess' prop, 
the plur. of eschcc 'check' (it. 
scacco, G. schachy i)U. schaali). 
Source pers. shah 'king'. 

chest ME. cheste (chiste) oe. 
cest (diste) = du. his/, ohg. chista 
G. kiste , ON. sw. his fa , dan. 
hisfe. Source lat. cisfa (gr. 
Y.idTij) 'a box. 

chestnut me. chestein chastein 
'chestnut': loanword from ofr. 
chastaigne = fr. chdtaigne and 
ident. with OHG. kesiinna G. 
hastanie , du. kastanje. Source 
LAT. castaitea. 

chew vb. :\iE. chewe oe. ceowan 
= DU. kauwen, mlg. keuwen, 
OHG. kiuwan G. kauen. A pre- 

TEUT. gtw cp. in OSLOV. zivq 
zivati 'chew'. 

chich 'a dwarf pea' me. <r/^/V/z^: 
borrowed from fr. chiche 'chick- 
pea' (:= IT. cece, SPAN, chicharo, 
OHG. hie hurra G. kicher). Source 
LAT. cicer. 

chicken short for me. chike oe. 
cyceji plur. cycnu = du. keuken 
hie ken y g. dial, kilchen kilchlein. 
TEUT. base kiukina- is perh. 
traceable to oe. cocc = cock. 

chicory ident. w. du. chikorei, 
G. cichoricy dan. cikorie\ adapt, 
of FR. chicorie = it. ricorea, 
LAT. cichorium ? 

chide vb. me. chide oe. cida?i 
'chide, brawl' : teut. base kidja?i. 

chief ME. chef: borrowed from 
FR. chef = SPAN, caboy it. capo] 
source LAT. caput 'head'. — 
chieftain me. chevctain cheve- 
tein: borrowed from ofr. cheve- 
taine = med.-lat. capiidnus ; ident. 
w. captain. 

child ME. child (plur. childre) 
OE. cild (i)lur. cildru) : teut. 
base kilpiz- kelpaz-, not found 
elsewhere; but perh. akin tt) 
GOTH, inkilpo 'pregnant'. 

chill ME. chile oe. dyle cele fr. 
a TEUT. h'A'i^ kali-\ for the \^ /&<-?/ 
cp. cool and cold. 

chime me. chimb e orig. 'cymbal', 
short for orig. ciinble oe. dim- 
bal(a) : from LAT. cymbalum *a 

chimney me. chimnee earlier che- 
mene : loanword from FR. chemince 
= IT. camminata, OKG.chemindta; 



akin to G. kamin. Source lat. 
caminiis 'hearth'. 

chin ME. chin oe. cin = osax. 
OHG. /^mm G. ktm?, du. hn. The 
older meaning 'cheek' cp. in 
GOTH, kinnus 'cheek'. For a pre- 
TEUT. base genu- cp. gr. yivvq 
'chin, jaw, jaw-bone', ytvEidc f. 
'chin, beard'; lat. gena 'cheek' 
{lientes genuini 'molar teeth') ; IR. 
gin 'mouth'; skr. hanus jaw', 
hanavfa 'jaw-bone'. 

chine me. chine : adapted from 
ofr. eschine = fr. ichinCy which 
with IT. schiena 'the chine, back- 
bone' is traced to ohg. skina 
'the shin-bone' G. schiene 'shin, 
shin-bone, splint'; cp. shin. 

chip vb. ME. chippe 'cut into 
small pieces' = du. g. kippen 
hatch out'. 

chirp vb. me. chirpe {chirke) : 
an onomatopoetic word. 

chisel sb. me. chisel', borrowed 
from ofr. cisel = fr. ciseau 
(it. cesello =r med.-lat. sciselu7ti) 
'a chisel'; prob. ult. connected 
with scindej-e. 

chivalry ME. chivalric. loanword 
from FR. chevalerie (deriv. of 
cheval from lat. caballiis 'a 

choice ME. chois{e) : borrowed 
fr. OFR. chois fr. choix 'a choice'. 
The FR. vb. choisir 'choose' points i 
to a TEUT. kausjan\ cp. choose. 

choir earlier quire me. quer: 
borrowed from fr. choeur 'the 
choir of a church, a troup of 
singers': source lat. chorus 'a 
band of singers. 

choke ME. r^^'/^^; older by-form 
ME. a-cheke oe. a-ceocian ? Phono- 
logy and etymology doubtful. 

choler me. choler: borrowed 
from fr. colere (= it. colleray 
LAT. cholera 'bile'). 

choose vb. older chi'ise with 
obscure phonology , but ME. 
chese oe. ceosan 'choose' = 
OSAX. OHG. kiosan G. kiese7i, du. 
kiezen , on. /e/dsa , goth. kiusan : 
TEUT. \P kus fro m pre-TEUT. \f gus 
in LAT. gus-tns — gus-tare, gr. 
ytvco for ysvow ; skr. \^ jus' 
'choose, like'. The teut. facti- 
tive hausj an (^c\i. chpice) appears 
in Slav, kusiti. 

chop vb. ME. choppc (chappe) 
'cut up, strike off; akin to du. 
G. happen 'cut, lop'. 

chord cord fr. lat. c/wrda. 

Christmas shortened for me. 
Christesmasse oe. CristesmcESse\)XO\). 
the mass of Christ'. 

chronicle me. cronicle with the 
by-form cronike (but late oe. 
cranic): fromYK. ch^'onique '^ ident. 
w. DU. kro7tijky LAT. chronica. 

church ME. chirche oe. cyrce circe 
older cirice = oSAX. hirika, du. 
kerk, ohg. kiricha G. kirchcQ\\vixc\\. 
As shown by the E. palatalization 
and by the G. ch in kiricha ^ the 
word must have existed in the 
5^^ cent.; but a goth. "^kyreiko 
'church' is unrecorded. Source 
GR. v.vQUiY.ov (not found in lat. 
nor in the Rom. languages). 

churl ME. cherl oe. ceorl 'a 
churl' ^ DU, kerely MLG. kerle LG. 
G. kerl\ TEUT. base kerla-. With 

churn — clean 


different vowel on. kai'l 'old- 
man', OHG. karal ]\fflG. karl 'man, 
husband, lover'; hence the G. 
proper name Karl (lat. KaroluSy 
FR. E. Charles). 

churn sb. :me. chime oe. cyr7ie ; 
the corresp. vb. churn is me. 
chime oe. cyrnan from a teut. 
base kirnjan = on. kirna^ DU. 
LG. kernen karnen 'make butter' 
and the Vessel for making butter', 
is ON. kirnaj DU. karn, lg. butter - 
lierne. Source a teut. base 
kerna- 'cream' in G. (pro v.) kem, 
icel. kjarna 'cream'. 

cider me. sider cider', from fr. 
cidrc (= IT. r/V/;Y7, span. sidra\ 
source lat. sicerci). 

cigar = FR. cigarcy span. it. 

cinder sb. me. cinder sinder oe. 
sinder 'dross of iron' ^ on. sindr 
'slag or dross from a forge', DU. 
j/«/^/$- 'cinders, coke', onG.stntar 
G. sinter 'dross of iron, scale'. 

cipher sb. :\rE. ciph7'e (= du. 
<^'0/^^'y G. ziffer) : loanword fr. 
OFR. a/re fr. ciffre, span, cifra, 
it. cif{e)ra. 

cite borrowed from fr. citer 
= lat. ^citare (deriv. of lat. 
citus 'quick'?). 

citizen me. citesein formed after 
ME. denizein (cp. denizeii) ; the 
earlier me. citeycn is an adapt, of 
OFR. citeien (fr. citoyen), — city 
me. cite', loanword from fr. citi. 
Source lat. civitatetn. 

clack vb. me. clacke =: du. 
klakken 'clack, crack'; akin to 
FR. claquer 'clap in applause'. 

claim vb. :\ie. claim e cleifne : 
borrowed fr. ofr. claimer clei7?ier 
(source LAT. clajnare = it. chia- 
mare 'call, name, send for'). 

clamp sb. after mdu. klampe du. 
klavipy LG. Jdampc'y akin to MHG. 
kliifipfen 'draw, press'. 

clan sb. borrowed from GAEL. 
clann = IR. clan7i oiR. cla7id 

clap vb. ME. clappe oe. cla'ppia7i} 
=r: DU. klappen , LG. klappe7t 
(whence g. kiappe7i), ohg. klaphon 
G. klapfen. 

clasp ME. claspe, p rob. akin to 
clap and oe. clyppanjembrsicc. 

clatter vb. me. clatere oe. 
'^clatorian (inferred from the 
verbal noun clat7'ung 'a clatter- 
ing); akin to du. klatercn 

claw sb. :me. clawe (by-form clc) 
oe. dawn (by-form cl^a did) = 
OSAX. klchva, DU. klaatiw, ohg. 
kldwa chloa mhg. klawe kid', a 
GOTH, "^klewa f. is probable, 
though ON. klo seems to point 
to '^'klbwa. Pre-TEUT. \f glu. 

clay ME. clai oe. clek'^ = du. 
LG. klei'^ akin to oe. ddin 'clay' 
E. (dial.) cloani 'earthenware , 
OHG. klei7nen, scand. kleitna kli7ia 
'besmear'. Outside of teut., 
GR. yXoi '. yXi in yXoiog 'sticky 

clean me. dene [dene) oe. clce7te 
= OSAX. kle7ziy DU. kleen kleiny 
ohg. hleini 'pretty' G. klein 'small' 
(gotu. *hlai-77i- is wanting). The 
nasal belongs to the suffix. For 




the root syll. cp. gr. yXoiog 'fat 
oil'. — Hence cleanse for me. 
dense OE. clcBnsian 'make clean': 
a causative vb. with formative -s. 

clear me. cler\ borrowed from 
OFR. cler = FR. clair (span, claro^ 
IT. chiaro from lat. clarus). 

cleave ^ vb. 'adhere' jvie. cl(ve 
OE. cleofian = osax. klibon, du. 
kleven, ohg. klebcti g. kleben 
adhere'; GOTH, '^klibon not 
recorded, teut. \f klib. 

cleave" vb. 'split' me. cleve oe. 
cleofan = osax. clioban ^cliiban, 
DU. k loverly OHG. klioban chliuban 
G. klieben'. teut. \f klub : >^/<?z^(^ 
cogn. w. GR. yXvrp&iv 'hollow out', 
perh. also w. lat. gliibere 'peel'. 

cleft me. clift OE. '^Clyft = OHG. 

G. khift] from the teut. \(^klub\ 
cp. cleave'^. 

clergy me. clergie: borrowed 
from OFR. clergie = fr. clergi 
(lat. type clericatus). — clerk 
me. clei'k late oe. clerc cleric (= 
DU. klerky FR. clerc) ; source lat. 

clever not yet found in Shakesp., 
a recent word, perh. developed 
from ME. deliver 'agile, nimble, 
lively' (from ofr. delivre 'prompt, 
alert'). Or cogn. w. lg. kluftig 
'wise, clever', du. kluftig'^ 

clew sb. ME. clezve oe. cleowen 
^liwen 'clew' == du. khtwen'. teut. 
b.ase kliujina-'. dimin. of a shorter 
base kliujo- = ohg. kliuwa (g. 
knduet) 'clew'. 

cliff ME. clif (clc've) OE. clif 
(plur. cleofti) = ON. OSAX. DU. 
klif 'a cliff, rock'; cp. G. dan. 

klippe, perh. akin to on. kli/a = 

climb vb. me. clirnbe oe. climban 
= DU. klitnmen, ohg. klimban 
G. klimmen. The nasal was orig. 
a formative of the pres. tense 
as seen by on. ktifa, me. dive 
'climb'. The teut. \/^klib (cp. 
^^^!//) i^^y be found in cleave"^ 
and cling. 

clinch vb. me. clenche oe. '^clen- 
cean = ohg. mhg. klenken 'knot 

cling vb. ME. clinge oe. clinga?i\ 
akin to sw. kldnga 'climb', dan. 
klynge sig 'adhere to, climb'. 
\fkling = yfkVwib'^ Cp. cli^nb, 

clip^ vb. 'embrace' (Shakesp.) 
me. clippe OE. clyppan. Akin to 
OHG. klaftra g. klafter 'fathom'. 

clip 2 vb. 'cut, shear' me. clippe'. 
borrowed from ON. sw. klippa 
'clip, cut'. 

cloak by-form cloke me. clgke'. 
borrowed from ofr. cloke cloque 
'a cloak'. 

clock me. clokke\ prob. borrow- 
ed from o^Y^.clockc (^v^. cloche) \ 
ident. w. o^.clugge {clucce}), du. 
klok, OHG. glocka G. glocke, on. 
klukka. The ROM.- teut. clocca 
is of CELT, origin; cp. cymr. 

clock, OIR. Cloc (OCELT. klukko) ) 

OE. clucge. 

clod me. clodde] a var. of clot. 

clog ME. clogge 'a lump, block'. 

cloister me. cloistre: borrowed 
from OFR. cloistre = fr. cloitre 
(span, claustra y it. chiostro). 
Source med. - lat. claustrum, 




whence also ohg. klbstar g. 

close ME. close : borrowed from 
the OFR. part, clos = lat. clausus 
(oFR. clore =^ LAT. claudere). — 
closet AiE. closet from fr. closet 
(dimin. of ofr. clos *a close'). 

clot ME. clotte (also clodde^ see 
clod^ OE. '^clott = MHO. klotz 
(gen. klotzes) g. klotz. 

clotbur, clote me. clgte oe. cldte\ 
TEUT. base klaitoii-^ cogn. w. the 
equiv. oe. elide, G. klette. 

cloth shortened for me. cloth 
OE. ^/4;5 (oE. cildcldp 'swaddling 
clothes) =^ DU. kleedy g. >^/(?///: 
TEUT. base klaipa, — clothe 
vb. ME. clothe {clcde) oe. clddian 

cloud me. cloude'. scarcely ident. 
with OE. chid = ME. cloiid 'a 
mass of rock, a hill'; source and 
history quite unknown. 

clout ME. '^cloiit OE. cMt (whence 
ON. klutr) , ident. with w. clwty 

IR. GAtL. Cltldf MANX clooid? 

clove ^ ME. clove clowe: borrowed 
from OFR. do fr. clou 'a nail'; 
cp. SPAN, clavo 'a nail' also 'a 
clove' fr. LAT. claims a nail'. 

clove 2 ME. clove oe. clufe 'clove' 
(csp. of garlic), in compounds 
clufpting 'crowfoot' — clufivyrt 
'buttercup' (cp. ohg. chlobloiih 
klofolouh klovolouh = g. knoblauch^ 
DU. knoflook 'garlic' with -n by 
dissimilation). The orig. meaning 
appears in ohg. klobo g. kloben 
'a spHt stick'. 

clover me. clover {cUver^^ oe. 

cldfre {clcefre) = du. klaver ; cp. 
LG. klever (and klaver). A shorter 
and more primit. form is ohg. 
kleo (gen. klewes) g. klee\ base 
klaiw-. The formation of OSAX. 
"^klebara = oe. cldfre looks like 
a compound, the second ele- 
ment of which is unknown. 

clown borrowed from ICEL. 
klimni 'a clumsy, boorish fellow ; 
sw. dial, klimn 'a log' — kluns 
'a clownish fellow', dan. klimt 
'a log'? 

club ME. cliibbe : borrowed from 
ON. klubbay by-form of on. kluniba 
'a club'. — The meaning 'asso- 
ciation of persons' is a mod. 
application of a clump of people. 

cluck vb. ME. clucke clokke oe. 
cloccian (^clucciaii) = du. klokkeUy 
MHG, klucken (^gliickeji) g. glucken. 
The TEUT. group is onomato- 
poetic like lat. glocire , gr. 
yXLoteiv cluck as a hen'. 

clumsy adj. earlier clumse me. 
clumsed 'benumbed': orig. part, 
of me. clumse 'benumb' : of scand. 
origin; cp. sw. (dial.) kluvimsen 
'benumlied', akin to du. kleu??isc/i 
'numb with cold'. 

cluster me. cluster oe. cluster 
{clyster') = LG. kluster'. akin to 
LG. (Hannover) klunder 'cluster 
of berries or fruit' and (Dit- 
marsch) klus 'cluster, grapes ^ 
DAN. klynge 'cluster'. 

clutch ME. clucche\ connected 
with cloche 'a claw'. The older 
ME. form is cUchen'i 




coach borrowed from fr. coche\ 
a mod. common europ. word 
from HUNG, koszi 'wagon from 
the Hung, town Koszi] cp. span. 
cache, IT. cocchio, g. kutsche, 

coal ME. cole and col oe. col 
= DU. hool, OHG. ^olo m. — 
/^^/ n. G. ko/ile, ON. Z'(?/ n. plur.; 
orig. 'a burning coal'; cp. skr. 
Jval 'burn bright, flame'. — coal- 
mouse, also colemouse me. 
col-mgse oe. colmdse (= du. kool- 
mees, G. kohlvieise)\ prop, 'coal- 
tit' on account of its blackhead; 
from col 'coal' + ^fidse me. w^'i^^ 
=r G. meise, on. 7?ieisingr, whence 
fr. 7nisange 'tit-lark'. 

coast ^lY.. cgst{e)\ borrowed from 
OFR. coste (whence also DU. kuste 
= G. kiiste) = FR. cote (it. costa, 
MED.-LAT. costa 'coast'). 

coat ME. cote', borrowed from 
OFR. cote = FR. cotte (= SPAN. 
cota, IT. cotta 'a coat'). Source 
a TEUT. kotta- in ohg. chozzo 
:mhg. kotze 'a coarse woolen 
mantle'. Cp. cot and cote. 

cock ME. r^^^ OE. coc cocc (perh. 
cogn. w. chicketi) ■= o^.kokkr, 
DAN. kok\ ident. w. fr. coq\ 
perh. of imitative origin. History 
unknown (earliest reference lat. 
cocciLs in Lex Salica). 

cockle ME. cokel cokkcl oe. cocel 
coccel 'tares' borrowed from IR. 
cogal corn-cockle' (= GAEL. 
cogall 'tares, cockle') ? 

cod 'husk, shell' me. cod codde 
OE. codd'h?i^ = ON. kodde 'pillow'. 

sw. kudde 'cushion', du. kodde 

coffee = DU. koffij, g. kaffee\ 
borrowed from TURK, qahweh =^ 
ARAB, qahweh 'coffee'. 

coffer ME. cofre : borrowed from 
FR. coj^re (whence du. g. koffer). 
Source lat. cophinus, gr. Aocpivog 
'a basket'. From the same source 
also coffin me. cofin: borrowed 
from OFR. co^n {:= span, cojin, 
IT. co/(7/io). 

cog ME. cogge = sw. ciigge; 
prob. of CELT, origin, cp. GAEL. 
IR. cog, w. cocas 'a cog'? 

coif ME. col/: borrowed from 
FR. coi^e from med.-lat. co/a 
co/(e)a; akin to mhg. hife ohg. 
chiippa from ohg. chuph g. kopf. 
Cp. Clip. 

coil vb. borrowed from OFR. 
coillir = FR. cueillir 'collect' 
(lat. colligere 'gather together). 

coin me. coin', borrowed from 
FR. coin 'wedge' (ofr. coin 'wedge, 
stamp upon a coin, a coin). 
Source lat. cuneiis 'wedge'. 

cold ME. cold oe. cdld {ceald) 
= goth. kalds, ON. kaldr, OSAX. 
kald, ohg. g. halt, du. koud: an old 
partic. formation in lat. -tus, 
SKR. -ta-s (goth. d from Aryan 
t, cp. old, loud, dead etc.). 
A TEUT. verbal \fkal cp. in oe. 
j calan, o^.kala 'freeze ; a corresp. 
Aryan sT gel is seen in lat. gelu 
'the cold' and gelidus 'cold'. Cp. 
chill and cool. 

cole 'cabbage' me. col fr. onfr. 
col ^=^ FR. chow, the me. by-form 

collier — cornet 


caul = OE. cdwl from lat. caiilcin 
(caulis). Cp. OHG. kol G. kohl. 

collier me. coliir: deriv. of coal 
with 'ier as in lawyer. 

coUop ME. colopes: ident. with 
SWED. kalops, G. klops\ source lg. 
kloppen (g. klopfeti) 'beat'? 

color :siE. colour from ofr. coloitr 
= FR. couletir (lat. color-cm). 

colt :me. oe. colt 'a young ass*; 
perh. akin to skr. gardabha 'ass'? 

comb sb. me. cgvih oe. cdmb 
'comb, crest' = G. kamm, DU. 
DAN. sw. >^^;// : TEUT. base kaviba- 
from an Aryan gombho- in gr. 
yo/LKfog peg' (yaiKpij 'jaw'), skr. 
jambJia 'jaw, teeth'. 

come vb. me. covie oe. cuman 
= DU. hmien^ OSAX. Jzuman, OHG. 
koimin G. kojrwien^ ON. koma\ cp. 
GOTH, qiinan: a common teut. 
str. vb. kwnan q'eman fr. an Aryan 
\fgem in skr. ^^/«, or. (iaivo), 
lat. z;^«7> (for *gz^emw). 

comely me. rz/fw// <:<?;;//>' oe. cymlic 
'fine, handsome'; cogn. w. ohg. 
^?/;;/z^ 'deHcate, weak' and o.kaiwi 

cony sb. me. coni earUer coning 
'rabbit': adapt, from ofr. connin, 
whence also DU. konijn, G. kanin- 
chen. Source lat. cimiculus (ofr. 
C07iii) in a by-form cuninus. 

cook sb. ME. cok OE. cgc: loan- 
word fr. i.A.i:.coquus, whence ohg. 
G. koch and it. cuocOj ofr. queux. 
— The vb. cook me. coke is 
derived from the sb. by in- 
fluence of LAT. coquere {=^ G. 
kochen, du. koken), whence also 
FR. cuire 'cook'. 

cool ME. OE. Cgl = LG. kol, DU. 

koel, OHG. kuoli G. kit hi: teut. 
base kohl- from the teut. \fkal 
kol under cold. Deriv. keel. 
.coot 'a bird' me. cgtc oe. '^cgt{a) 
= DU. koel 'coot'. 

cope vb. 'vie with, match' orig. 
'bargain or chaffer with': a loan- 
word fr. T>\j.koopen 'buy', cogn. w. 
OE. ceapian 'cheapen' from oe. 
ceap 'bargain'. Cp. cheap. 

copper ME. coper oe. copor\ 
borrowed from vulgar LAT. cup- 
rum 'copper' (orig. cuprium aes 
'Cyprian brass'). From the same 
source ohg. kupfar G. kupfcr, 
DU. koper and fr. cuivre. — 
copperas me. coperosc from ofr. 
coper OS c = it. copparosa^ lat. 
cupri rosa lit. 'copper-rose'. 

copse earlier coppice contr. of 
OFR. coptiz derived from Ofr. 
coper (fr. couper) 'cut'. 

cork = G. DAN. sw. kork, 
DU. kurk: borrowed from span. 
corcho 'cork' = lat. corticeni 
(cortex) 'bark'. 

corn^ 'grain' me. oe. corn = 
DU. koren, g. on. dan. sw. korn, 
GOTH, kaurn: teut. korna- = 
pre-TEUT. base grno- cogn. w. 
LAT. grdnum, Russ. zerno. 

corn^ 'a hard excrescence on 
toe or foot': borrowed from fr. 
come {= LAT. cornu 'horn'). 

corner ivie. corner: bort^wed 
fr. MED. -LAT. corneria '^s^er, 
angle' (lat. cornu 'horn'). 

cornet me. cornet cornette\ horn' : 
borrowed fr. fr. cornet cornettc, 
dimin. of fr. come 'a horn'. 



cornice a loanword from ofr. 
cornice fr. it. cornice 'a cornice, 
border, ledge' (lat. type comix 
'a border' contr. of MED. - LAT. 
coronix a square frame'). 

corps ME. corps', a loanword 
from FR. corps cors from lat. 

corpse ME. corps', borrowed 
from OFR. corps cors = lat. 

corset dimin. of me. cors 'a 
body'; cp. corpse. — corslet 
corselet', a loanword fr. fr. corse- 
let ^ dimin. of ofr. cors with 
suffix -et. 

cost vb. ME. coste'. borrowed 
fr. ofr. coster (=: fr. cotiter, 
LAT. cojtstare), whence also du. g. 

costume me. custiime (and 
custome)'. adapt, fr. OFR. costume 
FR. coutwfie =^ IT. costume (med.- 
LAT. costuma = lat. consuetu- 
dinem). Cp. custom. 

cot AIE. OE. cot =^ LG. DU. ON. 

G. kot 'hut': teut. base kuta-. 

cote (in comp. dove-cote, sheep- 
cotd) me. cote OE. cot = g. kote. 
The TEUT. word passed into 
SLAV. (osLOV. /^^/2V/*cella). Akin 
to cot. 

cottage ME. cotdge fr. ofr. co- 
tage'. deriv. of teut. kota- under 
cot and cote. 

cotton ME. cotoun'. a loanword 
fr. FR. colon =. IT. cotone : source 
ARAB, ^oton 'cotton'. 

couch vb. ME. couc/ie: adapt. 
fr. FR. couchcr (earlier colcher 
= IT. colcare) fr. lat. collocare. 

couch-grass sb. ; see quitch- 

cough :\IE. coughe (oe. cohhettati) 
== DU. kugchen, mhg. kuchen. 

council adapt, fr. fr. candle 
'a council, an assembly, session' 
from lat. concilium 'an assembly 
called together'. — counsel 
ME. conseil counseil: loanword fr. 
FR. conseil (lat. consilium 'deli- 

count sb. (:me. "^cotmte is not 
recorded, but inferred fr. ME. 
countesse e. countess) loanword fr. 
FR. comte 'a count, an earl'. 
Source lat. comitem {comes) *a 
companion, a count'. 

count vb. ME. counte: borrowed 
fr. FR. co7iter (source lat. co77i- 
putare compute, reckon). 

countenance me. countcjiaunce : 
loanword fr. OFR. contenauce 'be- 
havior, carriage' (lat. coiitinentia 

counter 'contrary' fr. fr. co?itre 
= LAT. contra 'against'. 

counterfeit me. coimtei-feit : 
borrowed fr. OFR. contrefait, part, 
of contr ef aire 'imitate'. 

counterpane 'a coverlet for a 
bed' earlier coimterpoiftt'. loan- 
word fr. OFR. contrepoinct 'the 
quilting stitch'; prop, connected 
with OYK. contr epoittcter 'quilt'; con- 
tr epoiiicti^ a corruption oi contre- 
poinct coutepoint 'a counterpane' 
(source lat. culcita puncta 'a 
stitched quilt'). 

country me. cuntre co7itre\ 
loanword fr. fr. contrh (= it. 
contr add). Source med. - lat. 

county — crab 


contrata derived fr. lat. contra 
(Cp. G. g eg end from gegeti). 

county ME. counte: borrowed 
fr. OFR. cont^ 'county' (deriv. of 
FR. comte = count sb.). 

couple :me. couple: adapt, fr. 
FR. couple (= LAT. copula) 'a 
bond, band'. 

courage me. cor age: adapt, fr. 
FR. courage (lat. type cor a ti cum). 

court ME. curt: borrowed fr. 
OFR. curt cort (source lat. cortis 
'a court-yard, palace'). — Hence 
courteous transformed fr. me. 
curteis ^= ofr. corteis fr. couriois. 

cousin ME. cosin cousin: adapt. 
fr. FR. cousin (med.-lat. cosinus 
for LAT. consobrinus 'a cousin). 

cove ME. cove o^.cofa 'a chamber, 
cave' = ON. koji 'hut', goth. 
^ktLban- is wanting. 

covenant ^iY.,convenant covenant: 
loanword fr. FR. convenant cove- 
nant \>res,. part, of conve nir' agree . 

cover vb. me. cover e: borrowed 
fr. OFR. covrir cueuvrtr fr. couvrir. 
Source lat. cooperire 'cover. 

covet vb. AiE. cuveite: adapt, 
fr. OFR. cuveiter covoitcr = fr. 
convoiter (Lat. type "^cupiditare 

covey borrowed fr. ofr. cov^e 
^= FR. couvde *a covey of par- 
tridges', prop. part, of fr. couver 
'hatch' (source lat. cubare lie 

cow sb. me. cil (plur. kie kye) 
OE. cu (plur. cy) = ON. kyr, 

DU. koe, MLG. ko^ OHG. MHG. kuo 

G. kuh: TEUT. base ko- *cow' 

English Etymology. 

from an Aryan stem ghv- (go-) 
in SKR. gdus (ace. gd?n) , gr. 
^ovg (stem /?o/), lat. bos. 

cow vb. (me. ^couzae earlier 
'^ciigen are unrecorded): loan- 
word fr. SCAND. kuga 'cow, tyran- 
nize over' = DAN. kue 'cow', sw. 
kufva 'check, curb'. 

coward me. couard coivard: 
borrowed fr. ofr. couard coart 
coard = it. codardo (formed 
with suffix -ard and ofr. coe fr. 
queue = LAT. cauda 'tail'). 

cower vb. me. coure: borrowed 
fr. ON. kura (sw. kura , dan. 
kure) 'lie quiet, rest'. 

co^vll 'a monk's hood, a cap, 
hood' ME. couel earlier cuwel 
OE. cugle 'a cowl' (= mhg. kugel) : 
loanword fr. lat. cucullus 'hood . 

cowl2 "a vessel carried on a 
pole': borrowed fr. ofr. cuvel 
= fr. cuveau, prop, 'a little 
tub' (source lat. cupa *a vat, 

cowslip OE. cuslyppe cusloppe. 

coxcomb corrupted fr. cock's 
conib 'cock's crest'. Cp. cock 
and comb. 

coxswain, cockswain 'steersman 
of a boat' from cock 'a boat' 
and S7vain 'the person in com- 
mand of the boat'. 

coy: adapted fr. OYK.coi (coit). 
Source lat. qtiietus 'quiet, still'. 

cozen vb. 'flatter, beguile': 
adapt. fr.FR. cousiner 'call cousin, 
sponge' fr. fr. cousin. Cp. cous in. 

crab 1 ME. crabbe oe.- crabba 
= on. krabbi^ sw. krabba^ dan. 




krabbe, DU. krab, mlg. krabbe 
(whence G. krabbe) : akin to 
OHG. kr'eba-^ ^=- G. krebs fr. crabe 
fr. TEUT. — Ident. w. crab^ 'a 
kind of apple' me. crab be] a 
Scand. loanword; cp. sw. krabb- 
dple. — - crabbed 'peevish, cramp- 
ed'; perh. fr. crab^. 

crack vb. me. crake krake oe. 
cracian = du. kraken^ ohg. kra- 
chon chrahhon G. krachen : teut. 
\(^ krak fr. pre-TEUT. grg\ cp. 
SKR. grg 'rustle, crackle'. 

cracknel formerly crakenel cor- 
rupted fr. FR. craquelin 'a crack- 

cradle me. era del oe. era do I: 
a Celt, loanword, cp. IR. craidhal, 
GAEL, creathairdi cradle, a grate'; 
cp. crate. 

craft me. craft oe. <;r^y? := OSAX. 
craft,' DU. krachty g. -^r <:?//, on. 
kraptr. — crafty me. crafti oe. 
crcefti-^ = ohg. chreftig G. krliftig, 

crag ME. ^r^^: borrowed fr. w. 
craig, GAEL, creag, 

crake 'a bird' so named fr. its 
cry; cp. ME. crake 'cry out' under 

cram vb. me. cra?mne oe. crant- 
mian = on. krefnja, sw. krama, 
DU. kramme 'squeeze'. 

cramp inie. crampe oe. '^crg7?ip 
(inferred fr. crgmpeht 'full of 
wrinkles') = du. lg. kraffip, G. 
kravipf'. a common west- teut. 
term for 'spasm, cramp*. 

crane me. crane oe. cran = 
OLG. krano, DU. kraan, mhg. 
krane ; with formative guttural oe. 

corfiuc, OHG. chranuh chranihQi) g. 
kra7iich\ cp. the cogn. gr. ysoavoc, 
CYMK. gar an; oslov. zeravi, lith. 
gerwe. lat. ^rz^^ (gen. gru-is) 
agrees with ohg. chreia 'crane'. 

crank sb. me. cranke. teut. 
base /^r^/Zi^ 'twist' allied to cramp. 

cranny me. crdny\ formed by 
adding e. -y to YK.cran 'a notch'. 

crape borrowed fr. fr. crepe 
(OFR. crespe = lat. crispus). 

crash vb. a var. of craze and 
crack', a Scand. loanword; cp. 
sw. krasa, dan. krase 'crackle'. 
Cp. crack. 

cratch M&.cracche crecche'. bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. creche (fr. creche) 
which is of Teut. origin; cp. 
OSAX. kribbia 'crib' under crib. 

crate borrowed fr. lat. crates 
'a hurdle'. 

cravat (== g. kravatte) bor- 
rowed fr. FR. cravate (from Cra- 
vates 'a Croation'). 

crave vb. me. crave oe. crafian 
= ON. krefja 'crave, demand', 
SW. kriifva 'demand', dan. krave 
'crave, exact'. Perh. the e. word 
is borrowed from Scand. 

craven me. cravant 'beaten, 
overcome' shortened fr. ofr. 
cravant^ 'oppressed*, partic. of 
cravanter (source a lat. type 
"^crepantare 'crack, break). 

craw (by-form crag 'neck, 
crop') me. crawe oe. '^craga] 
GOTH. *kraga is wanting. 

cream me. crcme from fr. creme 
(ofr. cresme, lat. cremoj-). 



creed sb. me. crede oe. creda: 
loanword fr. lat. credo 'I believe' 
(»credo in deum patrem« etc.) ; 
cp. the origin of dirge. 

creek :me. creke crike (oe. '^creoca 
'^cricd)\ perh. a Scand. loanword 
from ox. krike 'crack, nook'. 

creep vb. me. crepe oe. creopan 
str. vb. ; cp. DU. kniipeUy^ LG. 
kriipefi, ON. krjupa. Akin to G. 
kriechen ohg. kriohhan : teut. 
\f krup kruq. Cp. cripple. 

cress ME. cresse earlier kerse 
oe. ccrse ccerse', ident. with g. 
kresse ohg. kressa^ du. kers and 
¥K.cresson, it. crescione. Phono- 
logy, history and origin quite 
obscure ; common base a lat. 
type '^crexo(nem) ? 

crest me. creste from ofr. creste 
FR. Crete (lat. cristci). 

crib ME. crihbe oe. cribb crybb 
= osax. kribbia, DU. krib, G. 
krippe OHG. krippa'. teut. base 
ir/^/'^ (krubjo) akin to ohg. kr'eba. 
Cp. cratch. 

crimson me. crimosin from ofr. 
cra7noisin = fr. cramoisi. 

cringe vb. me. crcnge oe. ^r(?/2- 
/^;^: teut. base i^r^^^y^//, deriv. 
from OE. cringafi 'sink, fall in 
battle', cogn. w. g. krank 'sick'. 

cripple ME. cripel oe. crypel = 
DU. >^r^?^^/ 'cripple'; prop, 'a man 
who creeps'; teut. base krupila-y 
deriv. fr. \f krUp in creep. 

crisp :me. oe. crisp = ohg. 
krisp : an early loanword fr. lat. 
crispus 'curled'. 

croak vb. me. crgke oe. *crdcian 
(inferred from OE. crcecetung 

'croaking): teut. base krekbn 
krdkdn] akin to crack} 

crock me. crocke oe. crocca\ 
borrowed fr. OIR. croccan-^ perh. 
cogn. with G. krug ohg. kruog, 
LG. krtike, OE. crph crog. 

croft ME. OE. croft 'small field' 
= ODU. krochte high and dry 
land' DU. kroft 'hillock'. 

crook sb. me. crgk oe. '^crgc 
= ON. krokr krdkr 'hook, ODU. 
croeCy DAN. krog 'hook'. Akin to 
OHG. krako 'hook' (as e. hook 
is to G. ha ken). 

crop ME. cropp oe. cropp. 

crosier me. croser croiser.. 

cross ME. cross (whence scand. 
krossy sw.-DAN. kors^'. borrowed 
from oiR. cross (cymr. croes).^ 
Source lat. cri1.x whence also 
FR. croix (:siE.crois from ofr. crois) ; 
OIR. croch and ohg. osax. krihi 
G. kreuz i)oint to the infl. lat. 

cro"W vb. ME. crihve oe. craw an 
= DU. kraaieny G. kriihcn ohg. 
krdcn : teut. base a str. vb. 
kr^Jan, but orig. not restricted 
to the cock's crowing as shown 
by the sb. crow me. crpwc oe. 
crd7C>e = g. krdhe ohg. krdia. 

crowd vb. me. croiide oe. 
crddan str. vb. 'crowd, press' = 
ODU. crtldcft 'push, thrust' (du. 
kruiefi), mlg. kruden kroden vb. 
'molest': teut. \f kriid. 

crown ME. crune (whence ok. 

kruna, cp. odu. criine DU. kruiti) 

earlier by-form coroune conme: 

borrowed during the reign of 



cruel — curb 

William the Conqueror fr. ofr. 
corone = fr. couronne 'crown'. 
Source lat. corona 'crown', 
whence also oe. corenbeag 'crown' 
and OHG. korona G. krone. 

cruel ME. crilel {creivcf) fr. fr. 
cruel = LAT. crudelis 'severe' in 
a vulgar form crudalis, 

crumb = me. crombe short for 
croume oe. crtlma (cp. ihu?nb 
OE. piimci) = DU. kruim ODU. 
crime, lg. g. krume (osax. ^^kriinid). 
The m is derivative; cp. the 
TEUT. y" kru in g. krauen ohg. 
krouwbn vb. 'scratch'. 

cruse :\IE. crouse oe. cruse (cp. 
E. roovi oe. rz/w) = odu. knnSy 
MHG. ^r/zi-*? G. krause\ akin to 
ODU. DU. /v't;^.?, ME. crps. 

crust ME. ^r«i/^ fr. ofr. crusie 
FR. ^r^z//^ =r LAT. crusia 'crust 
of bread'. 

crutch ME. crucche oe. crycc = 
DU. /^r/z^, OHG. cruccha G. krilcke 
'crutch': TEUT. base krukjd-\ 
ident. w. it. ^rr^^a^r .'.crutch', fr. 
crosse y which rest on a lat. 
criicea , deriv. of crux crucis 
'cross'. Therefore crutch krukja 
crucea meant originally 'stick 
having a cross'. 

cry vb. me. crie: adapted fr. 
FR. crier 'cry'. 

cuckold ME. cukewold'. trans- 
formation of FR. coucou 'cuckoo', 
whence also e. cuckoo me. 

cudgel OE. cycgel'. dimin. of 
a lost primitive oe. "^cycg'. base 
kugja- ? 

cufF sb. ME. cuffe coffe 'sleeve'; 
perh. ident. w. late OE. cuffie 
'coif under coif, 

cull vb. ME. culle {cole coille) 
vb. 'gather, select' fr. ofr. coillir 
= FR. ciieillir 'collect' (source 
LAT. colligere). 

culver ME. culver (colver) oe. 
culfre culufre 'dove' ; not found 
in the other teut. languages, 
prob. of LAT. origin : lat. columba 
'dove' in a vulgar form ^colubra ? 

cumber vb. me. cumbre vb. 
'annoy' fr. ofr. combrer, whence 
also G. kummer mhg. kumber ; the 
base MED.-LAT. cotnbrus 'rubbish, 
bank of earth, ruins' rests on a 
GALL.-LAT. co7nbero- 'that whicli 
is carried together'. 

cummin :me. comin late oe. 
cumi7i (= DU. komijn) fr. OFR. 
comin =- fr. cumin. Source 
LAT. cuminum, whence also a 
TEUT. kitmin in oe. cymen, ohg. 
kumm kumil G. kum?nel. 

cunning me. cunninge: deriv. 
of oe. cunnan = kfiow. 

cup me. oe. cuppe 'cup' = mhg. 
kopf, ODU. kop 'beaker, cup': 
loanword fr. lat. cuppa (ctipa), 
whence also OE. iviE. cop (copp) 
'summit, head', G. kopf 'head'. 

cur ]\IE. curre corre = odu. 
korre 'watch-dog', swed. (dial.) 
kurra 'a dog'; cp. lg. g. (dial.) 
kurren vb. growl'. Therefore cur 
prop, 'a growler'? 

curate see cure. 

curb vb. ME. curbe 'to bend' 
fr. FR. courber 'bend'. 




curd vb. w. metathesis fr. me. 
crudde vb.: a celt, loanword, 
deriv. fr. jr. gruth 'curds'? or 
cogn. with crowd} cp. lat. coagn- 
hwi fr. cogere'} 

cure ME. cure fr. fr. cure = 
LAT. cur a, — curate ]me. ciirdt 
= MED. -LAT. curdtus (in FR. 
pronunciation; cp. curious me. 
curious fr. LAT. curiosus}). 

curfew ME. curfeu (curfeni) fr. 
OFR. covrefeu- (cp. poor fr. ofr. 
povre): prop, the sign for put- 
ting out fires. 

curious see cure. 

curl yb. deriv. fr. me. crul (II) 
adj. 'curly' = du. krul\ west- 
TEUT. krull- for kruzl- krusl- h 
cogn. with ODU. kruis , G. kraus 
MHG. kriis 'curly' (aso ME. crous 

curlew ME. curlew {corlew) 
fr. OFR. cor lieu = fr. c our lieu 
*a bird's name' ('scolopax ar- 
quata'), composed of ofr. corre 
'to leap' and lieu 'lightly'. 

curry vb. me. curr^e curraie 
vb. fr. OFR. coiireier) lat. type 

curse vb. me. curse oe. ctlrsian 
'to curse'; cogn. with oiR. cursa- 
chaim 'I curse'. Source and 
history unknown. 

curtain sb. me. cur tin cor tin fr. 
OFR. cor tine = lat. (also it. 
SPAN.) cortiua 'curtain'. 

curve adj. fr. lat. curvus 

cushion me. cusshin {cussheii — 
cusshoii) cussin quissin (quisshoi) 
fr. OFR. coissin = fr. cotissin 
'cushion'; cp. span, coxin , it. 
cuscino and ident. w. du. kusscn 
ODU. cussin, G. kiissen kissen ohg. 
kussin 'cushion'. Source a med.- 
LAT. coximwi prop, deriv. of lat. 
coxa hip, haunch' = fr. cuisse 
'thigh', whence e. (Shakesp.) 
cuisse 'piece of armor for the 

custom ME. custoine earlier form 
(c. iioo) custiime fr. ofr. custuj?ie 
(fr. coutume^ = it. prov. costunia : 
source a lat. type "^consuetihncn. 
instead of lat. constietiido, 

cut vb. ME. cutte (by-form with 
umlaut kitte) : a me. vb. of celt. 
origin; cp. CYMR. cwtan vb. 
'shorten' — C7vta adj. 'short'. 

cutlas fr. FR. coutelas = it. 
coltellaccio prop, 'a large knife' : 
ROM. deriv. of lat. culter 'knife'. 
Cp. FR. couteau = ofr. c out el 
'knife' fr. lat. culiellus. Hence 
fr. coutelier -=- me. cuteler e. 
cutler 'maker of knives'. 


dace from me. darce darse : | called from its swiftness). See 
from ofr. dars, nom. also spelled ; dart. 
dart 'a dart', also *a fish' (so j dagger me. dagger = on. dag- 


dainty — dandelion 

gardr, du. daggert'. of Celt, origin, 
borrowed from w. dagr = ir. 
daigear\ bret. dag = GAEL, daga : 
all synon. 

dainty me. deintr. borrowed 
from OFR. deinte 'dignity, im- 
portance, value' (the me. by- 
form dainUth is an anglo-norman 
deinted 'pleasure'). Source lat. 
dignitatem {liainty and dig?iity are 

dairy me. deierie 'room for a 
milk-woman'; ME. ^/d"/*? 'milk-woman' 
(hence day -worn an 'dairy-wo- 
man' Shakesp.) is borrowed from 
ON. deigja 'milk- wo man' (sw.deja), 
which is supposed to be a deriv. 
of TEUT. daiga- (under dough) 
and to mean prop, 'the bread- 
maker, kneader of dough'. Cp. 
dj)ugh and lady. 

dais ME. deis\ borrowed from 
OFR. dcis later dais 'a high table 
in a hair = fr. dais 'a canopy' 
(base MED. -LAT. discus 'a table' 
= LAT. discus 'plate, platter' see 
under dish). 

daisy me.^ daies-ie daies-eie oe. 
dcEges-eage: prop, 'the eye of the 
day'; cp. day and eye. 

dale ME. dcile oe. dcel plur. dalu 
(me. e. e in dale is derived from 
the oe. plur. dalu or from the sing, 
infl. dceles^dcele). The teut. base 
dxla- cp. also in the synon. goth. 
dals^ ON. dairy OSAX. dal, ohg. 
MHG. tal (mod. that). 

dally vb. me. dalye points to 
GOTH, '^dalon oe. "^dalian (= G. 
dahleti). The ending j>^ is a 

southern continuation of the oe. 
infinit. in -ian (r= ohg. "^'taldiil). 

dam me. dam{7ne) oe. *dam{fnm) 
= G. damm, du. dam, on. dam7tir 
(goth. fatirdam7njan = oe. for- 
de7}i7?ian 'dam up). 

damage ME. ^^^?w^^<?: borrowed 
from OFR. da7nage do77iage fr. 
dof7i77iage 'harm' (it. da7t7tajo), lat. 
type da?7i7taticu77t harm' (lat. da7n- 
nutn 'loss, injury' under da7?i7i). 

dame ism.dd7ne\ borrowed from 
FR. dame, whence also G. du. 
da7ne. Source lat. do7nina 'lady' 
{= IT. do7ind)\ cp. da7>isel. 

damn vb. me. dam{p)7ie : borrow- 
ed from OFR. dafrmer da7)ipner 
FR. da7n7ter (= span, datiar, it. 
dannare) = lat. dam7ta7^e 'con- 
demn, fine' (lat. da7n7iu7n 'injury, 

damp me. '^da7)ip = du. lg. 
da7/ij> 'vapor', g. damp/ 'vapor, 

damsel me. da7nesek. da77iiscle'. 
borrowed from OFK.^da7/iisele 
dameisele = fr. depioiselle. The 
source is med.-lat. do77iicella 'a 
young lady', lat. type do}}i{i)ni- 
cella, dimin. of do77iina 'a lady'. 

dance vb. me daunce datmse: 
borrowed from fr. danser, whence 
also DU. dansetiy G. tanzen, dan. 
daTtdse, sw. daTtsa. The ofr. dansei' 
is traced to an ohg. daiisoti 
'draw, trail'. 

dandelion : borrowed from fr. 
dent de lion (= span, diente de Icon, 
IT. dente di leone): prop, 'lion's 
tooth', so called from the jagged 

danger — day 


leaves of the plant (g. lowen- 
zahri) . 

danger me. daunger'. borrowed 
from FR. danger 'danger. Source | 
a LAT. type "^dotniniarium 'power' 
from LAT. dominium 'sovereignty'. 

dank 'damp' me. ^.s'^^: borrow- 
ed from the Scand. ? cp. sw. 
dial. da7ik. 'a marshy piece of 
ground' ^ icel. dgkk for "^danku 
'pit, pool'. 

dapper me. daper 'pretty, neat'; 
cp. ON. dapr 'sad, dreary', DU. 
dapper 'brave' , ohg. Uipfar G. ' 
tapfer 'valiant, brave'. ! 

dapple 'a spot, dot' a dap- 
pled horse' me. in dappel-gray. 
peril. Scand. loanword from 
ON. depill 'a spot, dot' {ciapi 'a 

dare me. dar oe. dear 1 dare' 
= GOTH, darsy ohg. tar. The 
teut. y/^dars darz is akin to gr. 
x)ga6HV 'be bold' — dgaovg 
'bold' and skr. dhrs 'dare': 
Aryan \f dhers. 

dark ivie. derk oe. dcorc\ perh. 
akin to oiR. dcrg 'red' : common 
base dhcrgO' (cp. also oir. dorche 

darling me. dcrling shortened 
from OE. dear ling *a favorite': 
deriv. of dear = oe. deore. 

dart me. dart from ofr. dart 
FR. dard (= span. rr. dar do)', 
of teut. origin: oe. darod, on. 
darradr also shorter darr. 

dash vb. me. dasshe] corre- 
sponding to DAN. daske (= sw. 
daskd) 'slap, strike'. Scand. 
origin of the E. word (oe. ^'das- 

cian '^daxiari) is improbable, 
e. sh pointing to a hereditary 

date^ 'an epoch, given point 
of time' me. date from the synon. 
FR. date (med.-lat. datiLvi, whence 
G. datii??i). 

date^ 'fruit of the palm' me, 
date: borrowed from ofr. date 
= FR. datte: source lat.-gr. 
dactyliiSy whence also G. dattel, 
DU. dadel. 

daub vb. me. daube'. borrowed 
from OFR. dauber 'whiten' from 
"^dalber = lat. dealbare 'whiten, 
plaster' (lat. albus 'white'). 

daughter me. daughter o^.dohtor 
= DU. dochter, OSAX. dohtar, ohg. 
:mhg. tohter g. tochter, on. dottir, 
GOTH, datihtar: ident. with the 
synon. lith. duktly oslov. dusti: 
ATysmhase dAukter; an Aryan base 
dhugater appears in gr. dvya- 
Trjg, SKR. duhitdry avesT. duydar 
'daughter', skr. ^«>fe'/rt'r 'daughter' 
is traced to the skr. \f duh 
'milk' and is interpreted as 'the 
milk maid'. 

daunt vb. me. datrnte: borrow- 
ed from OFR. donter fr. dompter 
= IT. domitare'subdue, tame' : the 
source is lat. domitare (frequent, 
of domare). 

day ME. day dai oe. da^^ ==^ 
GOTH, dags, OHG. MHG. tae(g) 6. 
tag, DU. OSAX. dag, on. dagr; 
by-forms oe. dogor, on. dcegr (fr. 
dogaz dbgiz) : all connected with 
the skr. \[^dah (for Aryan dhegh: 
dhogJi) 'burn'. This root appears 
also in lith. degti 'burn' — 




dagas daga 'harvest', pruss. dagas 
'summer', skr. niddgha- 'heat, 
summer' (also skr. dhar 'day'?). 
The base dhogho-s common to 
our day and to lith. dagas signi- 
fied 'the time of the burning of 
the sun, the hot part of the 
day or year. 

dawn vb. late me. daime earlier 
dawe OE. dagian -= on. daga, 
OHG. tagen G. tagcn become day'; 
cp. E. dawning me. dawinge: 
deriv. of teut. daga- under day. | 

daze vb. me. dase 'stupefy' 
from ON. "^dasa, refl. dasask (^sk 
represents the refl. 'oneself') 
'daze oneself = dan. dase, sw. 
dasa 'lie idle'. From daze is 
deriv. the dimin. dazzle vb. 
'overpower with light'. 

deacon me. dcken from oe. 
'^deacon for diacon (=• DU. dekeUy G. 
diakon, on. djdk?i, ofr. diacne 
FR. diacre, span. it. diacond) : 
source lat, diaconus (gr. J/a'xo- 
voq) a servant, a deacon'. 

dead adj. me. ded oe. dead = 

GOTH. daupS, OHG. MHG. tot G. 

to{d)ty ON. daudr, OSAX. dod, du. 
dood. The common base daii-da is 
prop, partic. (dhau-to-) belonging 
to the teut. verbal yfdau dis- 
cussed under die. Cp. death. 
deaf me. def oe. d^af = osax. 

dofy DU. doof, OHG. MHG. t0Up{b) 

'hearing or feeling nothing, dull, 
foolish' G. tauby goth. daufs{b) 
'deaf, O'^.daufr. The meanings 
of OHG. MHG. toup{b) bordering 
on those of ohg. mhg. timtp g. 
dumniy connection of both groups 

is sure ; prob. akin to gr. rv(fk6g 
'blind'. Cp. du7nb. 

deal vb. 'divide, distribute, 
negotiate in' me. dele oe. ddlan 
= osax. deliaUj du. deelen, lg. 
dilen, G. ieilen, goth. dailja7i : de- 
nominatives of daili- (cp. deal) 
like OSLOV. deliti 'divide'. 

deal! sb. 'part, portion, indefinite 
quantity, degree or extent, bar- 
gain etc' me. d^l OE. ddl {ddl) 
= OSAX. dS/, DU. dee/, lg. dee/, 
OHG. MHG. G. /ei/, GOTH, dai/s 
m. dai/a f. teut. dai-/t(/a-) seems 
to point to an aryan \^d/ia/, 
proved by oSLOV. de/ii part. 

deal2 sb. 'a board, plank' 
borrowed from DU. dee/ 'a board, 
threshing floor = MLG. de/e 
'board LG. de/e 'a board, floor, 
a room'. The corresponding 
OHG. di7z G. die/c 'boarded floor' 
corresponds to on. pi/ja, oe. 
p'e/ 'board', lith. //// 'plank in 
the boat', oslov. tilo 'bottom', 
SKR. ta/a-m 'surface' are cog- 

dean me. d(n (contr. of ^deic'ti) 
borrowed from ofr. deien = 
FR. doye7z : source lat. dccdnus 
'the chief of ten soldiers or 
monks' (= it. dccano , ohg. 
t'echdn G. dechani). 

dear^ me. dere oe. //e-'^r^'beloved, 
precious, of great value' = 
OSAX. diuri, DU. diei', ohg. tiuri 
'dear, beloved, esteemed, costly' 
G. ieuer. 

dear^ (in Shakesp.) 'fierce, 
ferocious' ^i¥...der oe. deor\s'Ad^ '. 

dearth — deep 


different from dear^. Ident. with 
E. deer, G. tie?-\ cp. deer. 

dearth me. dcrihe 'scarcity, 
dearness' (= OSAX. diurida, ohg. 
iiurida, on. dyrd, olg. diiirthd) : 
deriv. of dear ^ + -//^ formative 
of abstract nouns. 

death me. de'f/i oe. dca/ = 
GOTH, daupus, OSAX. doth, ohg. 
iod MHG. tdt{d) G. tod, DU. dood, 
ON. daudr : a verbal abstr. noun 
of a sfdatL (cp. ^//^) with the 
abstract suffix teut. pit == lat. 
SKR. in- (Aryan base dhau-tu-s). 

debate vb. me. debate: borrow- 
ed from OFR. debatrc 'fight, 
contend , debate fr. dibattre 
'contend , debate' (= span. 
debatir, it. dibattere), 

debt sb. earlier det ME. dette'. 
from OFR. debte dcttc fr. dette 
(it. dettd) = lat. debita f. sing., 
orig neut. plur. of lat. debitiwi. 

debtor me. dettur from ofr. 
ddor deteur fr. detteur (ir. 
debitore) = lat. debitorc7?i ace. 
of debitor 'debtor'. 

decay vb. from ofr. decaer 
(span, decaer, it. decadere) = 
lat. type "^decadere (instead of 
decidere) 'fall away, perish'. 

decease sb. me. ^/<?^/^ borrowed 
from OFR. deces fr. dices ^ lat. 
decessus prop, 'departure'. 

deceit me. deceit', borrowed 
from OFR. deceit = lat. deceptus 
'deceit' {decipere 'deceive under 

deceive vb. earlier deceave me. 
deceive : borrowed from ofr. de- 

cever deceveir fr. dicaioir = lat. 
decipere 'entrap'. Cp. deceit. 

deck vb. borrowed fr.DU.//^i^)^m 
'cover'; cp. oe. peccean under 

declension from ofr. decli- 
7iaison (fr. diclinaisoii) beside 
FR. dicliiiation, E. declination from 
LAT. declinatio7ieni. 

decrease vb. me. decr(se bor- 
rowed from OFR. decresser decrestre 
decreistre decroistre FR. dicroitre 
(lat. discrete ere) = LAT. decres- 
ccre 'decrease'. 

decree sb. me. decre borrowed 
from OFR. decre decret fr. decret 
(span. it. decretd) = lat. decre- 
tum 'a decree'. 

deed me. ded dede oe. deddced = 
OSAX. dad, DU. daad, ohg. mhg; 
tat G. t{h)at, ON. dad, goth. in 
ga-deds 'deed', teut. base de-di- 
from dhe-ti- from the TEUT.y"^*? : 
do from Aryan dhe : dho] cp. do. 

deem vb. me. dane oe. deman 
(= OSAX. domian in a- , du. 
doemen, Mlg. domen, ohg. tuomen 
MHG. tiievien, on. ddma, goth. 
ga-ddfnjan 'judge, deem') : deriv. 
of TEUT. dd?na- see doo?n. 

deep adj. me. ^/(?/> oe. //e"'*^ = 
OSAX. diop, DU. ^//^/, OHG. tiof 
till/ MHG. G. tief , ON. ^^i?^/>r, 
GOTH, diups. The common teut. 
adj. deupa- belongs to a teut. 
Y" dtip whose by-form dub 
appears in oe. dyfan e. dive 
and in e. dub. Cp. cymr. dwfn, 
OIR. domun fu-do7nain, LITH. ^/2<j/^ji" 
'deep, hollow', oslov. diipli'hoX- 
low' from an Aryan V"^/^/V/ : ^//^///. 




deer me. der oe. deor 'wild 
animal' = on. dyi' 'wild animal', 
OSAX. dior,, ohg. tior mhg. g. 
tier 'animal' ('stag, roe' in the 
language of hunters). teut. 
deuza- is prob. an adj. used as 
sb^ signifying 'wild animal'; cp. 
OE. deor 'bold, wild' (c}). dear). 

defeat vb. me. defe'le: from 
OFR. defeter 'annul (ofr. defait 
desfeit part, of defaire fr. dd- 
faire\ ]\ied.-lat. defacere 'annul, 
undo'). See feat. 

defile vb. 'make unclean, sully' 
a fusion of me. file OE. dfylan 
'defile' and me. defotde 'defile': 
ME. foule (oE. fiilian) wk. vb. 
'make foul' with parallel form 
file (oE. fylati) has taken the 
LAT.-FR. prefix de-. 

defy vb. me. defie\ from fr. 
difier (=-- med.-lat. it. disfidare 
diffidare 'renounce faith, repu- 
diate). Cp. faith. 

delay vb. me. delaie delay e: 
from fr. delayer (= med.-lat. 
IT. dilatare). 

delight sb. (orig. delite) me. 
delite delit'. from ofr. delit. With 
the vb. delight me. delite from 
OFR. deliter (it. delettare dilettarc) 
== LAT. delectare 'please'. 

dell ME. delk oe. dell a dimin. 
derivative of teut. dala- (under 
dale), pointing to a goth. ^dalja 
f. and corresponding to ohg. 
tellia mhg. telle 'ravine' G. (dial.) 

deluge sb. me. deliige: from 
FR. deluge {= SPAN. it. diluvio, 
LAT. diluvium 'a flood'). 

delve vb. me. delve oe. d'clfan 
str. vb. ^= i)u; delven, osAX. M- 
d'elt)a?i, OHG. hi't'elban 'bury'. The 
TEUT.\r^<?//; (KxydLD-dhelbh dhelpT) 
is unknown elsewhere. 

demijohn from the synon. fr. 
datne-jeanne = Arab. da?»agau 
(orig. the town Damghan in 
northern Persia, once famous 
for its glass- works). 

den short for ihe. dpie oe. denu 
dene 'valley'; akin to mdu. dan 
'woods, wilderness' and G. tann 
j 'woods'? 

I denizen jnie. deneseyn de?iesei?i: 
' source anglo-fr. ofr. densein 
deinsein : deriv. of ofr. deiuz (= 
FR. dans) 'within' and suffix -ein 
{= LAT. -anus); cp. eitizen. 
The FR. word means *a trader 
within the privilege of the city- 
franchise as opposed to foreign . 

deny vb. me. denie\ from F'R. 
denier (span, denegar, it. dene- 
gar e = LAT. denegare 'deny'). 

depaint vb. me. depeinte'. from 
FR. dipeindre. Cp. paint. 

depict vb. me. only in part. 
depict = LAT. depictus , whence 
also OFR. depicter 'depict'. 

deploy vb. from fr. dcployer 
(ofr. despleyer despleier, whence 
E. display). Source lat. dis- 

depth ME. depthe: an abstract 
sb. from the me. adj. dep] DU. 
diepte , on. dypt, goth. diupipa 
point to an oe. "^dypf ; cp. 

derrick 'a kind of crane' from 
DU. Dierryk, short Dirk, also 

descry — dike 


Diederik corresp. to G. Dietrich^ 
OE. piodric 'chief of the people'. 
Orig. derrick signified gallows' 
named from a Dutch hangman. 

descry vb. me. descrie discrye 
'discern' from ofr. descrier (des- 
crive descrivre fr. dicrire) 'de- 

desire vb. me. desire from fr. 
dhirer (it. de sir are = lat. 
desiderare 'long for). 

desk from fr. disque (it. desco 
'a table' = med.-lat. discus 'a 
table' sec under dish). 

despair vb. m^e. despeire from 
OFR. desperer fr. dhespirer (^ 
LAT. IT. desperare) 'lose hope'. 

despatch, dispatch vb. (rom 
OFR. despecher ' (fr. depec/ier) 
'discharge, expedite'. 

despise vb. me. despise from 
OFR. despiser despicer 'despise' 
(lat. despicere look down upon, 

despite sb. by apheresis spite 
ME. despit from ofr. despit despeit 
FR. dipit (it. dispetto = lat. 
despectus 'contempt' see despise). 
Despite prep, abbrev. for in 
despite of. 

despoil vb. me. despoile from 
OFR. dcsp oilier (fr. dipouiller, it. 
despogliare, span, despojar 'de- 
spoil') : source lat. despoliare 
'plunder, rob'. See spoil. 

destiny destenye destinee'. bor- 
rowed from FR. destinie (it. lat. 

deuce 'a two at cards or dice' 
early mod. also dcwce dius = 
FR. deux. 

devil me. devel oe. deofol = 
OSAX. diut)al, du. duivel, ohg. 
tiuval tioval mhg. tiuvel (tievel) 
G. tcufel\ GOTH, diabaulus points 
to LAT. (gr.) diabolus. 

dew ME. dew oe. dcaw = 
OSAX. dau, ohg. mhg. tou (gen. 
touwes) G. tau, du. dauw^ on. 
dggg (goth. ^'^daggwa- is wanting). 
Perh. cogn. with the ^KK.\/^dhm' 
'to flow'. 

die sb. (plur. dice)] the sing, is 
developed from the plur. dice. 
me. dis usually des 'dice* which is 
borrowed from ofr. dez plur. of 
det 'die' fr. d^ {= span. it. 
dado 'a die') from lat. datuvi 
'that which is given and 'that 
which is cast'. Sec date. 

die vb. me. de-^e die- dye', ge- 
nerally considered as a scand. 
loanword from ON. deyja (= osax. 
doian, ohg. mhg. touiven 'die'). 
An oe. dyyin dci^an (from daujaii) 
is not recorded before looo after 
Chr. , hence scand. origin is 
prob. For the '^Y.\5T.\P dau cp. 
deadf death. In other Aryan 
languages, osi.o\. daz^iti 'strangle' 
and lith. dovytl 'torment' are 
compared as related (indo-eur. 
\fdhew dhow). 

diet ME. dtete diite: from fr. 
diete (span. it. ^zV/iZ= lat. dicctd). 

dig vb. ME. digge earlier dikie 
OE. dlcian 'dig': derivative of OE. 
^/^7 'a ditch'. See dike BXid ditch. 

dike ME. dik(e) oe. die 'a ditch, 
channel, dike, wall' = mhg. 
tlch G. teich 'fishpond, pond'. 


dill — dissever 

E. dike and ditch are doub- 

dill 'the two-seeded tare' me. 
dille OE. dile =- du. dille, ohg. 
///// MHG. iille G. dill. Of obscure 

dim ME. OE. dim {imii) = ofris. 
diviy o^.diyiunr'. perh. by-form of 
the synon. OSAX. thirn {mm). A 
TEUT. \f pem (whence G. ddm- 
merri) corresponds to skr. tamas 
'gloom', LAT. ienebrae (for temesrd) 
'darkness'. For the initial gram, 
change from th — ^/see doughty. 
A PRE -TEUT. \'" dhem may be 
found in oiR. deme 'darkness'. 

dime me. dime 'tithe' from fr. 
dime (= LAT. deci^na 'tenth'). 

dimple me. dimpel =- G. ti'mipel 
OHG. tumfilo m. 'whirlpool': deriv. 
with nasalization from the teut. 
\fdup 'be depressed' in deep 
and dip\ cp. lith. dtwibu 'be- 
come hollow'. 

din sb. ME. dine oe. dyne {^= on. 
dynt-) *a din'. Cp. oe. dynnan 
^= DU. deunen, oSAX. dunnian, 
ON. dynja and the skr. \f dhvan 
dhim 'rush'. 

dine vb. me. dine', from fr. 
diner (= it. disinare) 'dine'. See 

dinner ME. diner: fromFR. diner \ 
ident. with dine: the infinitive 
is used as sb. See dine. 

dint ME. dint oe. dynt 'a blow' 
= ON. dyntr dyttr 'a dint, stroke'. 

dip vb. ME. dippe oe. dyppan) 
cp. G. taiifen ohg. iouffan (from 
*toufja)i) 'baptize' and deep. 

dirge me. dirige oe. (i i''' cent.) 
dirige watches' (cp. »dirige for 
ford-farenum« = vigilia pro de- 
functis). » dirige, Dominus mens; 
in conspectu tuo vitam meam« 
Psalm 5^ was used in the office 
for the dead in medieval service. 

dirt ME. drit 'excrement' fr. oe. 
ydritan str. vb. = on. drita^ 
DU. drijten 'to void excrement : 

dish ME. dish disch oe. disc 'a 
dish, plate' = osAX. disk 'table', 
DU. disch, OHG. tisc G. tisch 'table'. 
LAT. discus, the source of teut. 
diskuz, has the meaning 'dish 
only post-class. ' (prop, 'disk') ; 
cp. also IT. dcico, OFR. dois 'table' 
(fr. dais 'a canopy, dais' see 
under dais and desk). 

dismay vb. me. dismaie desmaie 
{liemaie esmaie 'dishearten, lose 
courage') : from ofr. desmayer 
esmayer (it. smagare from dis- 
mag ar e "^omi^ to goth. 7nagan\ 
see tnay). 

dispense vb. me. dispense: from 
OFR. despenser fr. dispenser (= it. 
spensare = lat. dispensare 'weigh 
out, distribute'). 

display vb. me. displeie: from 
N^^. despleier =^ fr. diployer 
'deploy' (:= iT.spiegare, med.-lat. 
displicare 'unfold', whence also 
fr. deploy er = e. deploy). 

dispute vb. me. dispute: from 
FR. disp liter (^ LAT. IT. disputare). 

dissever vb. me. disseverc dese- 
vere: from ofr. dessevrer (it. dis- 
c ever are fr. a lat. type disseparare 




distaff ME. distaf orig. dis-staf] 
OE. *dis-stcef 'staff bedizened with 
flax' points to a teut. diso- in 
MLG. dhe f. 'distaff, the bunch 
of flax on the distaff'. Cp. lat. 
fiisus 'spindle' for an Aryan | 
\l^ dhis dhois pointing to a pre- ! 
LAT. dhoiso'. 

distinguish vb. me. distingwe 
disti?tge\ borrowed from fr. 
distinguer (lat. distinguere). 

distrain vb. me. distreine q,o\w^€\., 
constrain': borrowed from ofr. 
desb'aindi'e (lat. distringere 'pull 

distress me. distresse desiressc. 
from OFR. destrece 'distress' = 
FR. ditresse. 

disturb vb. me. disturbe desturbc. 
from OFR. destourbe7' (span. 
disiurba/'y it. disturbare =^ lat. 
disturbare 'disturb'). 

ditch 'a dike' me. dicJie oe. dld\ 
equiv. to OSAX. dik 'dam*, whence 
G. deich: related to OR. rsT/og 
'wall' ? 

ditty me. dif(^; borrowed from 
OFR. di^J 'a story, poem' (lat. 

dive vb. me. dive oe. dyfan = 
ON. dyfa^ DU. bedidven^ lg. beditven : 
teut. spdtib (a by- form of the 
TEUT. sfdup) under deep, 

dizzy adj. me. disy oe. dysi^ 
'foolish, stupid' = ohg. ^usig, 
MDU. duysigh'. \P dus {dhas). 
Another form of the \fdus 
appears in oe. dwds (= mdu. 
dwaes du. dwaas) 'foolish' and 
in G. tor OHG. toro (teut. base 
dauza-^ . 

do vb. me. oe. dan = du. doe?iy 
OSAX. dtian, ohg. mhg. tuon 
G. t/iun. For the teut. \fdd : de 
cp. also deed and the suffix 
-do7n. The PRE-TEUT.\r^/z(5: ^/z/ 
has a wide ramification within the 
other Aryan languages ; cp.the GR. 
\/^d7] : S^s in Ttd^tjui 'place, put', 
SKR. \fdha {dadhami and dhami) 
'place, put, do' {lihatr 'creator), 
OSLOV. dcjq (and dezdii) 'do, 
make', lat. facio. The meaning 
'place, put' seems to be the ori- 
ginal one and the teut. meaning 

dock sb. origin uncertain; from 
the e. word are borrowed G. 
dock, DU. doky svv. dockay dan. 
dok(ke)y FR. dock. 

doe me. do oe. da] cp. dan. 
daa. The oe. word — generally 
considered a loanword from lat. 
ddma — points to a weak stem 
dd?i nom. sing, da from a teut. 
base dam, which is evidently 
connected with ofr. dain m. fr. 
daine f. Perh. a lat. base ^damis 
(assimilated for '^dmnus) may be 
assumed. The phonology of 
the Engl, word may have been 
affected by roe oe. rd, 

doff vb. ME. doffcy orig. imper. 
dof contr. of do of *put off'; cp. 
don contr. of do on 'put on'. 

dog ME. dogge OE. doggay whence 

DU. dogy SW. doggy G. doggCy FR. 

dogue. OE. dogga (recorded about 
1050) is a WEST-TEUT. duggan-, 
dole 'portion, share, lot, fortune' 
ME. dpl(e) OE. ddl\ equiv. w. dea 
(oe. dcsi). 




dollar sb. a modern loanword 
from the continent: du. daalder] 
the source is G. ihaler which is 
short for Joachimsthaler 'gulden 
from Joachimsthal' (Bohemia) 
where the coin was first struck 
in 1519. 

-dom ME. -do7n oe. -dgjn = 
OSAX. -dom, DU. -dom, ohg. mho. 
-^uom G. -^iim: an abstract noun 
suffix, orig. a sb. meaning 'juris- 
diction' preserved in doom (and 
its deriv. dee?n). 

domain (poet, by-form devia'ui) 
from FR. domaine (lat. dotrmimvi)^ 
whence also du. domcin, 

don see doff. 

donkey not found in me. oe., 
appar. a deriv. of diiti. Suffix 
key of donkey is dimin. as in 
monkey. The orig. meaning of 
donkey is 'the little gray one' 
(Shakesp. uses dtm 'a gray horse). 

doom sb. 'judgment, sentence, 
decree, law' me. oe. dom =^ 
OSAX. dofn^ OHG. tuoniy ON. domr^ 
GOTH, doms 'judgment'; derived 
from the teut. \f do in do\ for 
the w-suffix cp. SKR. dhdvian 
'sacred custom' and gr. d^* 

door ME. dpre oe. dor = osax. 
dor^ GJor, goth. dmir 'gate'; ident. 
with oe. duru ■= osax. dura\ on. 
dyrr plur. corresponds to osax. 
diiri plur., OHG. turi plur. 'door' 
G.tiir. The teut. bases ^^/(C'r^/- and 
dur- (cons, stem) cp. also in 
GOTH, dmirons 'door'. To the 
Aryan base dhur belong also lat. 
foresy GR. ^t'(3«, lith. diirys and 
SKR. diir (for dhui-) 'door, gate'. 

dot OE. dott 'speck' = du. fris. 
doi\ cp. LG. doit doite 'the yellow 
of the Q.^^ and osax. dodro, du. 
dooier, oe. dydring, ohg. totoro 
tutar-ei G. dotter: prim, term for 
'the yellow of the ^^Z\ ^he 
orig. meaning of dydring is prob. 
'spot, point in the o^'^^' 

dote vb. xME. dgte dotie = odu. 
doien 'mope' ; peirh. akin to mhg. 
fuz(e) 'quiet' — /t2zen 'be quiet' 
from a teut. \f ddt. 

double adj. me. duble\ borrowed 
from FR. double (it. doppio = 
LAT. duplus)\ from the fr. source 
also G. doppelty DU. dubbel. 

doubt ME. doufe: borrowed from 
FR. dou^e (it. dotta = lat. diibi- 

dough sb. ME. dough oe. ddh(g) 
= DU. LG. deegy OHG. MHG. teic(g) 
G. teigy ON. deig J goth. daigs 
'dough': deriv. from a teut. dig 
'knead' in goth. dcigan 'mould, 
form'; an Aryan \f dhtgh cp. in 
SKR. dih 'stroke, smear', lat. 
fngere 'shape, form' {fgura 
'form') and gr. rsT/og roT/og 
'wall'. Cp. /o^dy. 

doughty adj. me. dou(g)hty dohti 
OE. dohtij^ ; the by-form oe. dyhtii 
corresponds .to mhg. g. tilchtig 
deriv. from ohg. mhg. tuht an 
abstract noun of the verb re- 
.presented by ohg. tugan = oe. 
dugaji. The OE. by-form /j'Mj (cp. 
dim = OSAX. thimni) points to 
a primitive teut. \f pug* 

dove short for me. douve oe. 
dufe\ corresponding to goth. 
diiboy OSAX. dubciy ohg. tilba G. iaubc. 




The ^K{jT.dubd?i- 'dove' is based 
on a pre-TEUT. adj. dhnbho- 'black' 
in oiR. dub 'black'. 

down sb. 'soft plumage': a 
Scand. loanword of the me. period 
(me. do2i?i), borrowed from ox. 
diinn = sw. dnUy dan. diinny 
whence also G. daime^ du. dons, 

dow^n prep, and adv., orig^ 
adowji (cp. back for aback) : short- 
ened for ME. adoiine adoiui OE. | 
ofdune'. OE. dun^is hill' and of- | 
dune 'off the hill, downwards'. | 
A TEUT. dilna- 'hill' (in mod. lg. 
ddl is 'dale' and 'down'), oe. diin 
survives in the Kentish iiowns\ 
cp. DU. dtiin, Perh. the word is 
a Celt, loanword, cp. IR. diln 'a 
fortified hill', GAEL, diin^ w. din 
and the Celt, place-names such 
as Tarodununiy for which cp. also 

doze vb. prob. borrowed from 
ON. dilsa 'doze'. 

dozen me. dozeine dusain = fr. 
douzaine (ofr. dosaine), whence 
also G. dutzend^ du. dozijn. The i 
Fr. word is deriv. from douze \ 
(ofr. doze = LAT. duodecini). 

draff me. draf oe. drcpf\ cp. 
OHG. "^trab in the plur. trcbir G. 
triiber 'grains, husks' and du. 
ON. sw. draf. Cogn. w. i.\T.f races : 
KKY.\.^\fdhrak\ cp. also dregs. 

dragon me. dragon drago{u)n\ 
from fr. dragon 'dragon, stand- 
ard' = IT. dragone, lat. draco(n-) 
'dragon'. See drake. 

drain vb. me, drcine oe. drcag- 
nian\ a teut. \fdratt^ appears 
in NORTH -FRis. druugJie 'sieve, 

strainer' and druicgin vb. 'strain, 
sieve' (nfris. m from teut. aii) 
and in ditmarsh dorchdroven 
'drain', hess. draiien 'drain'. 

drake ^ in drakefy oe. draca 
'dragon'; cp. synon. ohg. trahho 
G. dracJie = oe. draca borrowed 
fr. LAT. draco. Cp. dragon. 

drake- 'male of the duck' me. 
drake oe. ^draca = lg. (dial.) 
drake mlg. anf-drake, which points 
to identity with icel. andriki^ 
GERiVL enterich ohg. antr'ehJio an- 
trahho (orig. '"^anut ■\- trahho). 
The TEUT. drakon- occurs only 
in this compound and in the sub- 
stituted simple form (the Teut. 
word for 'duck' was oe. a^ned^ 
OHG. anut G. ente). 

draw vb. me. drawe oe. dragan 
= ON. draga] perh. ident. with 
GOTH, dragan 'bear, carry', OSAX. 
dragan y du. dragen^ ohg. iragan 
G. tragen 'carry, bear'. The teut. 
sfdrag 'bear' (aryan dhragJi) has 
been compared with oslov. drii- 
zati 'hold'. 

dream 'vision' me. drejn\ an 
equiv. oe. dr{am is not recorded 
(the synonym is swefn), but is 
to be inferred from osAX. drbm, 
DU. drooMy ON. draufnr, ohg. 
MHG. tromn G. traum 'dream'. 
The meaning 'dream, vision' 
attaching to these forms may 
be deduced from 'deception, 
vision' so that teut. drau7na- (for 
'^draugma- or *dhroughwmd- ?) 
would belong to the teut. 
\fdrug, seen in osAX. bidriogan 
^=OYiG. trioga?i G. triigen 'deceive'. 


dreary — drop 

dre^y adj. me. dreri oe. dreorii 
'sad': corresponding to mhg. 
iru7'ec G. traurig\ ohg. truren 
G. trauern 'mourn belongs perh. 
to OE. driisian e. drowse drowze 
'be sluggish'. 

dregs 'lees' a Scand. loanword 
of the ME. period (me. dregges) 
borrowed with the plur. form fr. 
the equiv. on. dregg. The teut. 
base dragjb- may be a pre-TEUT. 
dhraki- which is also possible 
of LAT. /races 'dregs' ( f = 
ARYAN ^//^ as under dis/a//); cp. 
also PRUSS. dragios 'dregs' (perh. 
Teut. loanword?). 

dress vb. me. dresse borrowed 
from FR. dresser (ofr. drescer 
drecier\ lat. type directiare). 

drift sb. 'driving, impulse' me. 
drift 'act of driving, drove, im- 
pulse': deriv. from drive with /- 
suffix; cp. DU. drift 'drove, flock, 
course, current, ardor', G. irift 
'pasture', on. diift dript 'snow- 
drift'. See drive y drove, 

drink vb. me. drinke oe. drincan 
=^ o.sAX. drinkauj du. lg. drirrken^ 
ohg. trinchan mhg. g. trinken^ 
on. drekka y goth. drigkan: a 
common teut. str. vb. From 
TEUT. comes the Roman group 
IT. trincarey fr. trinquer 'hobnob'. 
The TEUT. sfdr'cnk (Aryan dhreng) 
does not appear outside of 

drip vb. ME. drippc OE.dtyppafi'. 
associated with OE. '^dreopan 
ME. drepe 'drop, fall' = osax. 
driopauy DU. druipen, ohg. triufan 

mhg. g. triefetiy on. drjiipa 'drop, 

drive ME. drive o^.drifan str. vb. 
=^ OSAX. dritum 'drive, banish, 
perform', DU. drijven drive, do, 
fly, swim', on. drifa 'hasten', 
GOTH, dreibaii 'drive', ohg. ti'lhan. 
MHG. triben G. trcihen. For the teut. 
\fdrib (aryan dhribhl dhrip}) 
cp. also drift. 

droll adj. perh. borrowed fr. 
FR. drole 'odd, queer, funny'. Cp. 
G. drollig from lg. drulligy du. 
drollig'y not found in the older 

drone sb. we..drpno^. drdn (plur. 
drcen). The synon. ohg. ti'dno 
MHG. trene G. drohne, osax. dran 
T^lnx. draui (dan. drone is a con- 
tinental loanword) are evidently 
related, but not phonetically 
identical; oe. drd7i points to 
GOTH. '^drainifSj while ohg. tr'aio 
points to GOTH, '^dri/ia. An 
Aryan \f dhreii cp. in gr. tuv- 
&()ijvt] 'a species of wasp' — 
also dvdQTJvjj 'woodbee' — Laco- 
nian d-gc5va^ 'drone'. 

drop vb. iME. droppe OE. droppian 
also dropian and droppetian (= 
DU. droppeiiy G. tropfen)\ afrequent. 
deriv. of the orig. str. vb. OE. 
dreopan me. drepe = osax. drio- 
pan, DU. druipcfiy ohg. triiifaii 
MHG. G. triefeiiy on. drjupa 'drop'. 
See drip and drop. 

drop sb. 'a globule' me. drope 
OE. dropa = osax. dropOy DU. 
dropy ON. dropey ohg. troffo\ the 
OHG. by-form tropfo (g. tropferi) 
points to a teut. base druppon-. 

dropsy — dung 

AH derivatives of the teut. 
\Pdriip. See drop^. 

dropsy me. dropsy dropesie short 
for idropsie hydropsie', borrowed 
from FR. hydropisie (lat. hydro- 

drought ME. drought older 
drougth dr tight OE. drugod 'dry- 
ness' : deriv. from oe. drugian 
become dry' and teut. adj. 
driigi in dry. 

d rouse {drowze) vb. me. '^droiise 
OE. drus{i)aii 'become slow or 
sluggish' ^^ MDU. droosen 'doze'; 
cp. \.G.driinsc{l)n 'slumber' drunsen 
'low' (of cattle) ; akin to oe. 
drfosan = goth. driusan 'fall'. 
See dreary. 

drove sb. 'herd, road for 
sheep or cattle in droves' me. 
dr&i'e earlier drof oe. dr(i/''dYOve' : 
deriv. from ihey/^drtb in drive. 

drown vb. me. droune\ short 
for ME. druncne (also dissimil. 
drimkle) oe. druncnian 'sink': a 
passive formation of the teut. 
verb drink. 

dry me. dric drye oe. dryie 
from teut. drugi-, as shown by 
OE. drugod = mod. E. drought. 
A TEUT. by -form draugi- (or 
draugu-^ is seen in OE. dr^j^e 
ME. dreic and in DU. droog, 
LG. drcPge (by the side of lg. 
dryge^ north-fris. druilgh). All 
with the same meaning, which 
appears also in the related G. 
trocken (ohg. trucka?i). Cp. on. 
draugr 'a dry log'; ohg. proper 
nouns e. g. Druhi-klinga prove 
a TEUT. driVii 'dry'. An Aryan 

English Etymology. 

y/^dhruk is probable and ohg. 
truckan would point to a by- 
form Aryan dhrfig. 

duck sb. ME. douke oe. diice'. 
akin to oe. "^dilcan under duck 
vb.; hence duck prop, 'the diving 
one, diver'; cp. hk^. diikand 'se^di- 
duck', G. tauchente. 

duck vb. me. douke] an oe. 
^dtican may be inferred fr. du. 
duiken, OHG. tiihhan mhg. tilchen 
G. tauchcfi. 

due adj. me. due from fr. -du 
m. due f. ofr. deu m. deue f. (== 
IT. debutd) ; cp. med.-lat. ^dedu- 
turn debuta for debitum. 

\ duke ME. diike from fr. duc\ 

\ with the deriv. duchess me. 

' diichesse short for diichesse = fr. 
duchesse. — duchy (cp. me. 
ducherle instead of *duchte) from 
FR. due hi. 

dumb adj. me. domb du7nh oe. 
dumb', GOTH, dumbs, on. dumbr 
have essentially the same meaning 
while the corresponding g. dumm 

\ (ohg. mhg. tu7np^ signifies 'stupid, 
foohsh'. Perh. deaf without 
nasal (= oe. deaf, goth. daufs') 
belongs to the same Aryan 
\fdhubh, which may be found 
also in gr. rvcpXog 'blind'. 

dun adj. 'dark, swarthy' me. 
dou donne oe. dun (nn) : an 'early 
Celtic loanword (oir. Gael. 
donn, GALL, donnos^', therefore 
not found in other teut. lan- 

dung me. dung dong\ cp. ohg. 
tunga 'dung' g. dung. ohg. 




room'. If 'cave, underground 
room' is the orig. meaning, gr. 
TCiifog from an Aryan dJmghwos 
may be allied. 

dungeon sb. ivie. dongeon don- 
joun\ loanword from ofr. don- 
geon dongon doiijon fr. donjon 
(med.-lat. do7nnionem 'a com- 
manding tower fr. a lat. type 
dominionem] cp. lat. dominiwn 
under domain). 

dusk ME. dosk OE. dose (of 
rare occurrence, but also seen 
in the deriv. vb. dusciaft). Akin to 
the SAV. dial, duskug 'misty'. 
A TEUT. base dtiska- admits of 
relation to lat. fiiscus 'blackish, 
dark' (base dhiisko-l). 

Dutch orig. meant German 
including Dutch] for down to 
1600, Dutch was considered 

a dialect of Germany. Dutch 
corresponds to G. deutsch =-- mlg. 
dudeschj MHG. diutsch tiutsch tiusch 
OHG. diutisk (osAX. ihiudisce liudi 

dwarf ME. dwergh dweriigh 
OE. dweorh{g) = du. dwergh 
OHG. MHG. tw'crc(g) getw'crc G. 
zwergy ON. dwergr m., sw. dan. 
dvei'g. TEUT. base dwerga- 
belongs prob. to the T^^3T.\f drug 
'deceive', hence dwarf prop, 
'deception, vision'. 

dwell vb. ME. dwellc late oe. 
dwelian : scand. loanword from 
ON. dvelja 'delay, stay' =: ohg. 
twellan (and twaleri) 'linger'. 

dye vb. me. die deie de^e oe. 
dc'agian : derived from oe. d(ah{g) ; 
a TEUT. dauga is not found 

each ME. cch earlier clch oe. 
cklc orig. d-gilic = ohg. iogilih 
MHG. iegelidh G. jeglich\ cp. ohg. 
7nanno-gilih 'every man' — wibo- 
gilih every woman' etc. 

eager me. egre\ adapted from 
OFR. eigre 'keen, sharp'. Source 
lat. acre {acer). 

eagle me. (gle\ loanword from 
FR. aigle\ source lat. aquila. 

eanling'lamb' (Shakesp.) points 
to an OE. can 'lamb' ; cp. yean. 

ear^ sb. me. ere oe. rrt-r^^TEUT. 

base auzbfi- in goth. auso^ osax. 
OHG. bra G. ohr, du. oor. An 
Aryan base aus- cp. in lat. 
auris, gr. ovg, RUSS. slov. ucho 
'ear' ; perh. cogn. with hear. — 
Hence earwig me. ^r-wigge oe. 

ear'^ sb. (of corn) me. er oe. car 
contr. from ^eahor (Northumbr. 
M//^r)^TEUT. base ahaz-\ ident. 
w. ohg. ahir G. dhre^ goth. ahSy 
ON. ax. Perh. akin to awns. 

ear vb. me. ere oe. e7-ia?i =^ 

earl — eisht 


GOTH, arjan, OHG. ej'ian 'plough'; 
cogn. with LAT. arare, or. dgoeiv, 
oiR. anmn *I plough': Aryan 
\l^ ar in lat. arvum 'field' and 
in earth. 

earl me. erl oe. eorl ^= on. 
Jarl, OSAX. erl. Perh. ident. 
with the TEUT. tribe-name Heruli. 

early me. ^rli 0¥..cerlice', cp. ere. 

earn vb. me. ^'rne oe. earnian 
■=-- OHG. arnon. Perh. traceable 
to the Aryan v^/7r in GR.ti^vvjLiai. 

earnest me. ernest oe. eornust 
= OHG. ernust G. du. ^/v/j"/ 'serious- 
ness'; perh. akin to goth. 
arniba adv. 'surely'? 

earth me. erthe oe. eorde = 
OSAX. erf/ia, ohg. m/c? G. ^r^/*?, 
GOTH. airpUy ON. /(^r^; cognate 
with OHG. era 'earth' = ON. 
jgrvi ground', lat. arvum 'field', 
GR. 5(?«tf 'to the ground'. 

earwig cp. ear 

ease me. ese earlier else from 
FR. aise 'ease'. 

east me. ejt oe. (ast\ ident. 
with DU. oost, G. ostcn ; the teut. 
base aust- is traced to the 
Aryan name of the aurora lat. 
aurora, GR. tJw^, skr. usas: Aryan 
base ausos. "Cp. Easier. 

Easter me. (ster oe. ('astro = 
OHG. bstarun G. Ostern. Accord- 
ing to Beda Venerabilis, in 
heathen times the Anglo-Saxons 
called the feast in April after 
their goddess Eostre, which is 
elsewhere quite unrecorded. The 
west-teut. word (base austron-) 
is prob. of the same origin as 
east) cp. LiTH. auszra 'aurora'. 

eat vb. me. cte oe. etipi. = du. 
ete?iy OSAX. 'eta?i, on.' eta, goth. 
itan, »0UG. e'yifin G. esse7i. Cp. 
the Aryan \fed in lat. edo, gr. 
sdo/Liai, SKR. ad, LiTH. edmi 'eat' 
(see also tootli). 

eaves me. eves oe. efes 'eaves'; 
the e. dial, form oaves (Essex) 
points to an oe. ^^ofes = ohg. 
obasa 'porch, hall', goth. ubiziva 
'porch', ON. ups 'eaves'. 

ebb sb. ME. ebbeO¥.. ebba = ofris. 
ebba, DU. eb ebbe, G. dan. ebbe, 
SWED. ebb. Source and history 

edge ME. egge oe. ecg (infl. 
ecge) = DU. egge, osax. eggia, 
ON. egg, OHG. ecka G. ecke. Cogn. 
with LAT. acies 'point', GR. «x/g; 
cp. skr. a(ri 'corner', gr. ay.goc 
'pointed', lith. aszru-s 'sharp': 
Aryan \P ak. 

eel me. oe. el oe. eel = ohg. 
al, G. DU. DAN. aal, on. all', teut. 
base ela- elu- ? 

egg sb. ME. egg from on. egg. 
OE. (El (plur. (Byii) — ME. ei (plur. 
eire) '^'^^ were supplanted by the 
SCAND. loanword egg. oe. cbi and 
ON. egg correspond to osax. 
OHG. ei, DU. G. ei'. teut. base 
aia- (ajjiz- ajjaz) perh. related 

to lat. 0VU771, GR. f.t/o'j^ Cgg'- 

egg vb. 'instigate' me. egge 
from ON. eggja ''q.%^^ on'; akin 
to edge. 

eight ME. ^?]^<^/^ OE. '^ehte mostly 
eahta = goth. a/itau, osax. ohg. 
rt'i^/^ G. DU. aeAt: Aryan base 
oktSu okto in GR. ov.x(6, lat. octo, 
skr. i7.f/^//, OIR. ocht. 



eisel — emmet 

eisel ME. aisil late oe. aisil (= 
ODU. aisijt) fr. ofr. aisil. Source 
a LAT. type acetuliim\ cp. oe. 
eced 'vinegar' fr. lat. acidum 

either me. either oe. ceider 
shortened for ceihwcEder orig. 
a 4- -yLhwcEder \ cp. ohg. io-giw'e- 
dar 'each of two' and whether. 

eke ME. ek oe. ec earlier cac fr. a 
TEUT. auk = GOTH, aii^, ohg. 
02ih G. ^z^^y^. Prop, imperative 
of the str. vb. goth. aiikan 'add' 
{^ LAT. auger e^. . 

elbow ME. elbowe oe. elboga 
earlier eln-hoga =^ ohg. elinbogo 
G. elhogen, du. elleboog, on. <?//7- 
/^^^/: a GOTH, compound "^aleina- 
buga 'the bow of the cubit' is 
wanting. Cp. ell and /'<?z£/. 

eld 'old age, antiquity'(Shakesp.) 
me. elde oe. eldo yldo 'antiquity' : 
abstract of old == oe. did. — 
elder adj. me. elder oe. eldra: 
compar. of old. 

elder sb. (a tree) me. eldre eller 
oe. ellarn. 

eleven me. enlevene oe. infl. 
cndleofane cEulifane) oe. endlufon 
corresponds to ON. ellifu, osax. 
clleban\ cp. goth. ainlif, ohg. 
einlif G. du. elf 'eleven'. The 
TEUT. numeral ain-lif- is a com- 
pound of ain ■==- one and lif 
= pre-TEUT. -lika in lith. ?/<?>/<?- 
//'/^^ 'eleven' (cp. twelve). The 
orig. meaning of the numeral 
was perh. 'ten + one'. 

elf (with the older by-form 
ouphe Shakesp.) me. elf oe. celf'. 
TEUT. base alba- also in on. dlfr\ 

the word occurs in proper names 
as OE. u^lf-rid = ohg. Alp-rat. 
An Aryan albhu- is found in 
SKR. rbhu 'the name of a certain 
kind of deity'. 

ell ME. elle earlier elite oe. cln 
= OHG. elina G. du. elle, on. 
rtt/m, GOTH, aleina *ell, cubit'. A 
pre-TEUT. olend- is found in lat. 
ulna, GR. (nXsvrj, OIR. ////<? 'cubit'. 
Cp. elbow. 

elm ME. OE. ^/;^/; akin to on. 
dlmr and lat. ?^/w2^.y (g. ulme is 
a LAT. loanword, du. ohn is ofr. 
olme) . 

else ME. OE. elks adv. 'other- 
wise*: genet, of the pron. goth. 
aljis *an other' (= lat. alius, 
OR. aXKoQ, OIR. rt-//*?, ARMEN. ait) ; 
cp. OE. ele-lende 'a foreign land , 
OHG. eli-lenti 'being abroad' and 
OHG. dies 'elsewhere', lat. alias 

ember-days me. imbri-dawes oe. 
ymbren-dagas prop, 'days of pro- 

embers 'ashes' me. einvieres 
emeres plur. oe. (Etnyrian plur. 
= OHG. eimuria , on. eiinyrja 
'embers'. Prob. a compound of 
a TEUT. type aiin-u^jon ; cp. on. 
eimr 'steam, vapor* and iisli a 
conflagration' , mhg. usel iisel 
'ashes, embers' fr. an Aryan \'^us 
in LAT. urere vb. 'burn' (cp. on. 
ysja 'fire'). 

emmet 'ant' me. einet oe. cevifte: 
TEUT. base amaitjon- = ohg. 
ameiyi G. ameise: prob. cogn. 
with OHG. emiyf G. ■einsig 'in- 



emperor me. emperour fr. afr. 
e7fipcricr =■- lat. i7nperator-€7n (but 
OE. Cdsere 'emperor = G. kaiser 
fr. LAT. Caesar)] cp. empire me. 
empire fr. fr. empire = lat. 
imperium and empress me. em- 
peresse earlier form emperice fr. 
OFR. emperice ^^i.kT. ifnper air teem. 

empty me. empti emii short for 
OE. cemtii 'empty'. 

enchant vb. me. enchaunte fr. 
FR. enchanter = lat. incantare. 

end ME. OE. ende = goth. andeis, 
OHG. enti G. ende, du. ^/«^/(?, on. 
<?«^i: TEUT. base andja-, pre-TEUT. 
antyd-\ cp. SKR. dnta 'end, limit' 
and oiR. H. 

engage cogn. w. gage, 

enough me. inough (Jnowe) oe. 
lenph {jfnpg earlier linpg) : teut. 
base ga-noga- in du. genoeg^ 
OSAX. ginbg , OHG. ginuog G. 
^'•^««^ 'enough'; cp. goth. ganohs 
and the goth. vb. ganauhan 'to 
suffice' — ganauha 'sufficiency': 
AR\ki^\f ndk (n^k). 

enter vb. me. entre vb. fr. fr. en- 
trer = lat, intrare vb. 'enter'. 

entire adj. me. entire fr. fr. 
entier = lat. integrum {integer). 

envy sb. me. enz'ie fr. fr. <?«^'2V = 
LAT. itwidia. 

ere 'before' me. ir{e) oe. ^r 
(fr. ceri dri teut. ^m) 'before'; 
ident. w. goth. air^ ohg. osax. 
^r G. ^/^r. 

ermine sb. me. er?nine fr. ofr. 
erfnine fr, hcrmine, which is of 
Teut. origin; cp. ohg. harmin 
mhg, her7tiin 'fur*. The primitive 

ohg. harmo (corresp. to lith. 
cza7-77iu) means 'weasel'. 

err vb. me. errc vb. fr. fr. 
e7'rer = lat. crrare; hence 
errant fr. crra7it. 

errand .me. e7'nde erende short 
for OE. ckre7ide = osax. drundi.^ 
OHG. drunti 'message'; uncertain 
whether cogn. w. QOivi. aims ^ on. 
drr, OE. dr, osax. er 'messenger'. 

escape vb. me. escdpe vb. fr. 
ONFR. escaper ■== fr. ichapper. lat. 
type ex-cappare deriv. from cappa 

evening MK.eve7iinge OE.cef7iu7ig'. 
deriv. of eve me. eve(7t) oe. dfen 
efen\ cp. ohg. dbund G. abend , 
OSAX. dband y du. avond\ on. 
aptann (swed. afton, dan. a/ten) 
and OE. ^/^/2 'evening' belong 
to the same group : teut. base 
ebnd'} eftfi-7 

ever me. ever earlier cvre oe. 
^/r^ (earlier dbre)', the word is 
orig. compounded, but only 
the i^* element is evident; cp. 
OE. ^ 'ever' = goth. aiiv under 
aye'^. — every me. everi earlier 
form everich late oe. ce/rcelc. 

everywhere me. ez'er iivhire oe. 

evil adj. me. evel prop, ivel oe. 
yfel: teut. base tibila- in goth. 
ubils, OSAX. ubil , OHG. ubil G. 
ilbel, DU. (fz^z^*?/; cogn. w. ohg. 
uppi G. Uppig and perhaps w. teut. 
ttber = over. 

ewe me. (we oe. ^^7£'// (not 
ioivu, which would be me. ^ewe) : 
teut. base awi- 'sheep' in du. 
(?<?/, ON. (Z-r 'sheep' and cp. goth. 



aivcpi 'flock of sheep' and awistr 
*a sheepfold'; cp. Ohg. ou (plur. 
ouwt) fr. a TEUT. base awwi-. 
A base owi- occurs in other 
Aryan languages: skr. dvi^ lat. 
ovis^ GR. ot'c i^'^oJ^ig), LITH. «m 
'sheep', OSLOV. <9{'-'z'<;^, oir. ^V'sheep'. 

ewer me. ewer fr. afr. ^ewiere 
VR.aigiiiere : source lat. aqum-ium 
Vessel for water', whence also 
OHG. ahhdriy du. lg. aker 'pitcher, 

expound me. expounc vb. fr. 
OFR.espondre'. source lat. exponere, 
whence also ohg. spunon /inter- 
pret, expound'. 

eye me. eie earlier e^e oe. e'age : 
TEUT. base augon- in goth. augo. 

ohg. otiga G. auge y OS ax. oga, 
DU. oogy ON. miga (under win- 
dou^. As shown by the teut. vb. 
"^^aujan pret. "^awida {= oe. ywan 
eowde) for ^agwjan '^'agivida 'to 
show', TEUT. augon- is transformed 
(by the influence of teut. auzon- 
^= ear) from an earlier agwon-'. 
ARYAN base okon- fr. a primitive 
stem ok 'eye'; cp. lat. oc-uluSy 

OSLOV. okOy LITH. akJS, GR. OfTtff 

'the eyes' (for ^^okje) ; skr. aksi. 
eyot sb. me. ^/>/ oe. iiot com- 
monly /j^^: deriv. of oe. /j ^3 
'island', which answers to on. eyy 
OHG. ouwa 'island' (teut. aiijo- 
fr. agwjo- deriv. of goth. ahwa 
= LAT. aqtm 'water'). 

fable ME. /dl?/e fr. fr. /a^/e = 
LAT. fabula. 

face ME. fd^e fds fr. fr. face = 
LAT. fades. 

fade (Shakesp. z^^^/^) vb. me. 
fade vb. fr. the fr. adj. fade 
(whence also o.fade, odu. vadde). 
Source a lat. type ^fatidtis in- 
stead oi fatuus 'foolish'. 

fail vb. ME. faile vb. fr. fr. 
faillir (source lat. fallere)y 
whence also du. veilen, mhg. 
velen G. fehlen. 

fain adj. me. fain oe. f^ien 
'glad* = OSAX. fagan, ON. fegimi 
adj. 'glad'; cp. goth. faginbn 'to 
enjoy' and faheps 'joy', which is 

ident. w. OHG. gifeho 'joy' or 
more accurately w. oe. '^efca 
(contracted fr. '^gifeaha = *gi- 
fa/io) : teut. \ffe/i (Aryan pek) 
in OE. lefeon (pret. yfeah) = 
OHG. gifehan 'to enjoy'. 

faint adj. me. feint fr. ovr. feint 
partic. oi feindre'y cp. feign. 

fair adj. me. fair oe. feeder = 
= GOTH./rt'^rj-'fit',OHG. OS AX. f agar y 
on. /<2:^^. According to goth. 
gafahrjan 'to prepare , the,re 
exists a teut. \ffeh also in G. 
fegen ohg. f^<f;^(?;^ vb. 'cleanse'; 
cp. on. /<^^^ and ohg. fuogan 
G. /7/^<?«, oe. lef^ian. 

fair sb. 'market, festival' me. 





feire fr. afr. fcire = fr. foire', 
source lat. feria 'a holiday', 
whence also ohg. fira G. feicr 
'ceremony' (J'eiertag 'holiday'). 

fairy me. fairie fr. ofr. faerie 
'enchantment'; cp. fay- 

faith sb. ME. faith fcith (with 
the by-form fai fci) fr. afr. feid 
feid (with the by-form /"<?/ = fr. 
foi). Source lat. fides — fidevi. 

falcon sb. me. fiukoun fr. fr. 
fattco7i. Source late lat. falco- 
?zem, whence also ohg. falko G. 
falke, o^.falke, du. valk Yalcon'. 

fall vb. ME. falle oe. falla/t 
{feallati) = ohg. osax. fallaiiy 
ON. falla str. vb. 'fall': teut. 
\ffall = Aryan \^pa/ in lith. 
/?>/// (pres. pVihc) 'to fall'; cp. 
also GR. G(pdXXof.iai 'to fall'? 

fallow adj. me. fa /we OE.fea/o 
gen.fea/zaes =^ teut. base fahca- 
in ON.fp/r, DU. vaa/, ohg. fa/p 
G. fa/i/ 'pale, fallow'. Cogn. 
w. lat. pallidus 'pale' — pullus 
'dark', gr. nohog gray', skr. 
palita 'gray'; the teut. adj. has 
the same suffix as oslov. plavii, 
lith. palvas 'fallow'. 

false adj. me. late oe. fals fr. 
OFR. fals =:. FR. faux] source 
lat. falstis 'false'. 

fame me. fame fr. fr. fmne = 
lAt. fama 'report'. 

famine me. fa?fun{e) fr. fr. 
famine: deriv. fr. lat. fames 

fan me. oe. fan (nn) : borrowed 
during anglo-sax. times fr. lat. 
van7tus (in the vulgar pro- 
nunciation yi^^z/^z^tj-; cp. G. vers = 

' LAT. versus^ ; G. wanne is an 
earlier loanword fr. lat. vannus, 

fancy short for me. fantasie = 
ofr. fantasie (lat. phantasia). 

far adv. me. fer ferre oe. 
fcor feorran\ cp. Goth, fairra 
adv., OHG. ferro g. fern, du. 
ver, O'S.f j'arri 'iar: cogn. w. gr. 
TisQuv 'beyond', skr. para 'distant', 
armen. /leri 'far'. 

fardel me. fardel fr. ofr. fardel 
= fr. fardeau 'burden, load. 

fare vb. me. fare oe. far an 
str. vb. = GOTH. /<7nz//, o^. fara, 
OHG. OSAX. faran mhg. varn G. 
fahren, du. varen: teut. \^far 

= ARYAN \^pOr in GR. TTOQtVOj-iai 

I travel, I go'. 

farm ME.ferme Vepast, banquet, 
rent, farm' oe. feorm 'banquet, 
food, subsistence'; cp. OE.feor?ftian 
vb. 'sustain, feed, support' bor- 
rowed fr. lat. frmare 'to make 
strong' (firmare alqm. cibo atque 

farrow me. farh 'young pig' 
oe. fearh 'pig' = OHG. farah 
(g. ferkel, du. varkefi) : teut. base 
farha- = pre-teut. porko- in GR. 
n6()y.og, lat. porcits, lith. pdrszas, 
oslov. prase J oir. ore 'pig'-. 

farthing ^\e. fer thing short for 
fer thing oe. feordung {/e or ding 
feordling) 'the fourth part, farth- 
ing': deriv. of OE.feorda 'fourth', 
cp. four and ohg. for dung. 

fashion me. fafioun (fassoun) 
fr. fr. facon = lat. factio{nem). 

fast adj. ME. fast oe. fcest ^ 
os.fastr, DU. vast, ohg. festi ad], 
{fasto adv.) G. fest 'fast': teut. 




fastii-, Kry 2i^ post u in armen. hast 
'fast'. — fastvb. UE./aste OE.fcsstan 
= GOTH, fastan^ G. fasten^ du. 
vasten, ON. fasta\ prop, derived 
from the adj. with the orig. mean- 
ing 'make firm, observe'. 

fat adj. ME. /<?/ (tt) short for oe. 
fcktt prop, fceted = teut. base 
faitida- in OHG. /(fz^// G. feist, 
OSAX. /(?/zV/ LG. G. fett 'fat', du. z/*?/: 
prop, partic. of a teut, vb. 
"^faitjan. The base is a teut. adj. 
faita- 'fat' in mhg. veiy on. /<?//r : 
Aryan \[^pid cogn. w. sfpi in 
GR. 77/ViJi' TTiapog -fat' = skr. 
pivaji — pivara 'fat' (skr. yf pya). 

fatal me. /^7/rtr/ fr. fr. fatal', 
cp. fate ME. /^?/<? = OFR. fate. 
Source lat. fatmn — fatalis. 

father me. fader oe. feeder ^=- 
GOTh. fadar (commonly attd), 
OHG. fater G. vater, osax. fadar, 
DU. vader, on. fadir: teut. base 
fader- = Aryan base pater- in 
lat. pater, gr. narijg, skr. //V^r 
and oiR. rt-M/r, armen. /z^/r: all 

fathom ME. fdthem oe. fcedm 
'embrace, extended arms, fathom, 
cubit': ident. w. on. fad??tr, du. 
vadevi 'a fathom' = ohg. fadum 
G. faden 'a fathom, a thread': 
teut. base fap77ia- fr. an Aryan 
\fpet in GOTH. y^/<2; 'hedge' ^ 
MHG. vade 'fence' and in gr. 
nsTOLvvv{.Li 'I extend'. 

fault ME. faute fr. fr. faute. 

favor ME. favour ^ fr. faveiir. 

fawn sb. me. faun ^ro\).fa'Oun 
fr. FR. faon 'a fawn': source a 
LAT. iy"^^ fo^ tonus, deriv. oifcetus. 

fay fr. fr. //^; cp. mhg. feic 
fr. OFR. feie : source a lat. fata 
= fa turn. 

fear me. f^re oe. /rir 'a sudden 
peril, fear' =- osax. far, ohg. 
fdra 'treason, danger' G. gefahr 
'danger'; GOTH. "^fera is the source 
oi ferja 'a spy' : Aryan \fper also- 
in lat. periculum 'danger', gr. ' 
nsTon 'trial'. 

feast me. fc'ste fr. ofr. feste =- 
FR. fete: source lat. festa. 

feat me. fct by-form feit fait 
fr. FR. fait -= lat. factum. 

feather short for me. fcther 
oe. feder = du. vcder , osax. 
fethara, ohg. fedara G. feder, 
on. ^"^^r 'feather': teut. base 
fepro-, Aryan petrd-', cogn. w. 
GR. nxtQOV 'feather, wing', skr. 
pdtatram 'wing' — patra 'feather' : 
Aryan \fpet in skr. \fpat 'to 
fly', also in lat. penna (prop. 
"^petsna) 'feather. 

feature Vi^.fctilre fr. oyr. fiiture 
=^ LAT. factura. 

fee sb. ME. Z"^' OE.feoh {^en.feos 
dat. feo) prop, 'cattle, property 
in cattle' ; ident. w. goth. faihu, 
ON. fi 'cattle, property', ohg. 
fihu G. vieh 'cattle': teut. fehu 
Aryan piku neut. in skr. pd(it 
neut. 'cattle'; cp. skr. pa(u 
masc, LAT. pecus 'cattle' (hence 
pedinia 'money'). 

feed vb. me. fedc oe. fedan 
fidan'. TEUT. hdiSG fodj an under 

feeble adj. me. feble fr. ofr. 
feilde foible = fr. faiblc. 

feel — fetlock 


feel vb. ME. /ek oe. /e'/a^i fcclan 
wk. vb. fr. a teut. base foljan in 
OSAX. gi/oljan, DU. voelen, ofris. 
y^y^, MHG. vilelen G. filhlen vb. 
'feel'. Perh. cogn. w. iat. palma, 
OSAX. OE. /^/;^/; 'hand': yfpal. 

feign vb. me. /"m/^ fr. fr. feindre 
*to feign' : source lat. fitigere. 
' fell sb. ME. OE. /d-Zf//) : teut. 
base fella- in goth. fill^ on. 
/<?//, OHG. felQl) G. /^//, DU. ?W. 
Cogn. w. lat. pellis skin' : \fpel 
also in film. 

fello\v sb. ME. felawc late oe. 
feolaga'. borrowed fr. ON.fSlage) 
cp. ON. fi-lag 'companionship, 
association, lit. 'a laying to- 
gether of property' (on. f6 'pro- 
perty' =1 E. /"^^). 

felly (felloe) me. /^//V (felwc) 
OE. /t'/g^ ■ ifelgan) =: OHG. /^/^^ 
G. felge, DU. radvelge. skr. parfu 
*rib' is compared. 

felon ME. feloun borrowed fr. 
FR. y<?/(^« 'a traitor fr. med.-lat. 
fello{ne7n) felo{nem). 
felt ME. OE. /(?//; cp. the synon. 

OHG. G. filz MHG. Z'//s, DU. vUt, 

sw. DAN. yf//: TEUT. feltaz '^^filiiz 
from a pre-TEUT. "^peldos. Felt 
is prob, related to o?>loy. plitstl 
'felt. The synon. Rom. words 
IT. fellrOj FR. feuire (med. - lat. 
Jiltriwi) 'felt' are of teut. origin. 

fen me. OE.fen(nn): teut. base 
fanja- 'morass' in the synon. 
GOTH, fa HI, DU. veen, ON. /<?//, 
OHG. fenni. 

fence sb. short for defence. — 

fend vb. me. fende\ also abbre- 
viation of defend. 

fennel me. fenel oe. finul\ 
borrowed fr. i.m:. fcniculufnfenu- 
cidum (whence also fr. fenouil, 
IT. finocchid) ; du. venkel ^ ohg. 
fmahhal fenihhal G. fenchel are 
earlier loanwords. 

fern shortened for me. fern 
OE. fca7'n fearn ^:=- G. farn, du. 
varen. The teut. base farna- 
'fern' is ident. w. skr. parria 
'wing, feather, leaf; cp. GR. 
nrsQOv 'feather — nrffjig 'fern. 

ferret borrowed fr. fr. furet 
(= IT. fure/ld), which is a deri- 
vative of LAT. fur 'thief, fr. 
furel is also the source of du. 
frel, G. fre/l usually frettchen. 

ferry sb. me. ferie: it is un- 
certain whether it is a genuine 
e. word (oE. ^ferie) or a Scand. 
loanword (on. ferjd)\ cp. G. 
fdhre^ du. veer. Source the 
verbal Y^yrttr in fare. 

ferry vb. me. ferie oe. ferian 
'carry' = on. ferja 'carry', goth. 
farjan 'travel; cp. fare. 

fetch vb. u^.fecche with the by- 
form f^'te (pret. feite) oe. feccan 
fetjan eaulier felian (preLfelode); 
e. -Ic/i me. cc/i is developed fr. 
OE. IJ (feljan earlier felian, west- 
TEUT. felSJan). There exists a 
TEUT. \ffetm OE. sidfcet 'journey', 
on. fet 'step, pace'; E. foot 
belongs to the same Aryan 

fetlock orig.'the tuft of hair be- 
hind a horse's pastern-joint'. 
ME. fitlock fetlack'. . a genuine e. 


fetter — fight 

word ident. w. mhg. fiy.ach fi'y- 
hch, deriv. of mhg. f'e'2;^el g. 
fessel 'pastern of a horse' which 
seems to be cogn. w. teut. 
fot = E. /oof; cp. LAT. pes 
pede7n 'foot'. 

fetter sb. me. feter oe. fetor 
= OSAX. fctuVy ON. fjgturr, du. 
veter^ ohg. fej^yira mhg. vej^T^er] 
cogn. \v. LAT. pedica, gr. nl^rj 
'a fetter and perh. w. G. fassen 
'catch': k.xy6X\. \f ped pod. 

fever me. fez^er fefre oe. fefor 
{= OHG. fiebar o.fiel?er) : borrow- 
ed fr. LAT. febris febrevi^ whence 
also Pi^. fiev7-e (= it. febbre). 

few adj. ME. fewe oe. fcawe 
plur. represents a teut. *fau7vai 
arid is ident. with ohg. fohe 
plur. of a teut. '^fauh{w)a- : Aryan 
adj. pauqo- in lat. paucus. Cp. 
also GOTH, faivai plur. with 
ON. fd-r (dan. faa sw. y^?; me. 
/J9 is Scand. loanword) ; osax. 
fahe 'few', indo-eur. \f pau in 
GR. noLVix) cease'? 

fey (SC.) 'doomed to die' xME. 
feie OE. fdj^e = on. feigr, osax. 
fegi 'doomed to die'; du. veeg 
'about to die' (ohg. feigi 'daring, 
petulant' G. feige 'cowardly') : 
TEUT. base faigi-, 

fickle ME. fikel OE. ficol from 
OE. lefic 'fraud'; cp. oe. fdcen 
'fraud, deception', o^.\^.fekan ^= 
OHG. feihJian 'deception' : teut. 
\^fik faik, prop, faih in goth. 
bifaihon vb. 'defraud' and faih 
sb. deception, fraud'. There 

I exists an Aryan \fpik in skr. 
\piguna 'treacherous'. 
' fiddle ME. fthel oe. fidele = 
synon. ohg. fdiila mhg. videle g. 
fiedely ON. fidla^ du. vedel: the 
whole group is based on a 
westteut. fpula = fr. t'wIc^ it. 
SPAN, viola. Source a vulgar 
LAT. vitula (in a late pronun- 
ciation fidulaT). 

field ME. OE. feld\ e stands for 
TEUT. <- before ld\ cp. ohg. osax. 
feld G. feld, DU. veld. The teut. 
stem "^felpu- is related to oe. 
foLUy OSAX. folda 'earth'. A pre- 
teut. adj. plthu- is found in 
SKR. prthu 'broad' and prthivt 
'earth'; cp. gr. nXavvg, oir. lel/ian 
'broad", lith. platus. Perh. flat 
is cognate. 

fiend ME. fend oe. feond = 
GOTH, fjands, on, fjdndi, osax. 
fiund, OHG. MHG. ?7?^z;^/ G. find. 
The sb. is prop, a pres. partic. 
of the vb. GOTH, fjan (oe. feo^an^ 
OHG. //^/z 'hate'). A correspond- 
ing verbal yf P'^y hate' occurs 
in skr.; therefore fe?id orig. 
meant 'the hater'. C^. friend. 

fierce me. fers: borrowed fr. 
OFR. fers fers, regular forms 
fer fier = fr. fier (lat. ferus 

fifth OE. fifta cp. five. 

fig ME. fig borrowed fr. fr. 
figue = LAT. ficus, whence also 
OE. fic-treo 'fig-tree'. 

fight vb. ME. fighte OE. feohtan 
str. vb. =: DU. 2'echtcn, ohg. 
fehtan G. fechten'. teut. \ffehtl 

filei _ fire 


file^ 'a string, list, order'; 
borrowed from fr. Ji/e *a line, 
rank, row'; source lat. /////;// 'a 

file^ 'a steel rasp' me. /i7e oe. 
/// usually /e'o/ (contracted from 
"^/i/ii/) ; cp. OHG. fihala MHG. vile 
G. feiky DU. ?'z/7. Connection 
with ON. pd pel 'file' is uncer- 

fill vb. ME. file OE. fyllan wk. 
vb. = OSAX. fuUiaiiy du. vullen^ 
OHG. fullen G. filllen, on. fylla: 
GOTH. TEUT. fulljan 'fill' is deriv. 
fr. the TEUT. adj. fulla- = e. 

filly loanword fr. on. Z)'^^ '^^ 
filly', which is a dimin. of on. 
y;?// = "£.. foal. 

film w^.filvie OE. filmen fylmen 
= OFRis. filmeii from a teut. 
dimin. hdi^Kt filmina- which points 
to a more primitive teut. fehna-y 
cogn. w. E. fell. 

filter vb. borrowed fr. fr. 
filtrer 'strain through a felt' fr. 
MV.D. -L\'i\ filh'um feltmm 'felt'; cp. 

filth ME. flt/ie short for OE. 
fyld: abstract formation of oe. 
ful = E. fotil'y cp. OHG. fiilida 
= GOTH, '^fiilipa. 

fin sb. ME. oE. yf;/ f;^;7); cp. du. 
vifiy sw. /(?;^rtr 'a fin' ; cogn. w. 
LAT. penna pinna 'feather'. 

finch ME. finch oe. fine fr. a 
TEUT. base finki-\ cp. du. 7^/;?>^, 
OHG. vinko G. y?;?/'. Observe the 
similarity of sound of the Rom. 
words for 'finch': it. pineione, 

FR. pimo7i and e. dialect, pink 
find M^E-flnde o^. fin dan str. vb. 

= synon. goth. finpan , on. 
finna, OS ax. findan fithan , du. 

vinden, oho. finda?i g. finden'. 

TEUT. \ffenpfinp ox by Verner's. 

law /J?;/^ y?«^ is pre-TEUT. /^;?/ 

in the synon. ir. vb. <^/<7/;;/ 'I 

fine adj. xME. fine borrowed fr. 

FR. fin (whence also mhg. vin 

g. fein, DU. fijfi). Source lat. 
finire vb. 'complete'. 

fine sb. ME. fine from lat. 
finis 'a fine', lit. 'a final pay- 

finger me. oe. finger = goth. 
figgrSf os.fing?', DU. vinger^ OHG. 
fingar c^. finger : teut. hdiSQfijtgra-y 

perh. allied to five (Aryan 
penqe^ . 

finish vb. me. finisshe fr. ofr. 

finiss- base of some forms of fr. 

finir (lat. finire) 'end, finish'. 

fir ME. firre\ perh. a Scand. 

loanword : on. fyra rare by-form 

oi fura 'fir. There is a teut. 

name of the tree ficrh-'. oe. 
fnrhy OHG. /£?r//^ G. fdhre\ cp. 

pre-TEUT. /^r>^ qerq in lat. qucr-' 

cits 'oak', 
fire iME. //r OE. fyr : contr. of 

westteut. fuir == osax. ohg. 
fi/ir commonly osax. ohg. fiur 

mhg. viur G. fener y du. ?7/7^r. 

The ir of osax. ohg. //?/r (cp. 

ON. firr fyrr) is suffix; fii fr. 

pre-TEUT. ///- is the root ; ON. 
fth'-r, GR. 71V-Q, Umbrian //-r, 

armen. hu-r point to a common 


first — fleam 

base pu-r\ skr. \fpit 'flame', 
whence pavakd 'fire'. 

first ME. first OE. fyrst fr. 
"^fyrest = TEUT. f arista- in ohg. 
fur is t (cp. G. fiirsty du. f^^rj/ 
'prince'), on. fyrstr 'first'; the 
original word for 'first' is osax. 
/or mo = OE. forma with //z^- 
suffix (goth. fru-ma^ from indo- 
EUR. //-; cp. GR. npofiog , SKR. 
pUrva-Sy O'S>L0v.priivii^ litu. pirmas 
'first'. Cp. former. 

fish ME. y^j-/^ OE. ^V (and y^^t-) 

= GOTH, y?^/^^, ON. fiskr y OHG. 
OSAX. y?^-^ G. fisch. TEUT. fiska-z 

from pre-TEUT. pisko-s agrees 
with hM:.piscis', the corresponding 
OIR. /f?.f<: points to pre -historic 

fist ME. /jt/ short for fist OE. 
/>'i-/ fr. TEUT. ^fthti(z) = OHG. 
fist G. faust, DU. f/«/j-/ 'fist'. If 
connected with synon. hkT.pug- 
nus and gr. -nvyf-iTji westteut. 
fusti- stands for fiihsti- = pre- 
I'EUT. puk-sti pug-sti- ? 

five ME. five OE. fife] without 
inflection oe. fif from teut. fimf 

^= GOTYi.fimfy OSkX.ftf DU. vijf, 
OHG. yf«/ MHG. vi'inf G. /?^/?/, 
on. fimm (dan. sw. y^?;^) : pre- 
TEUT. phnpe pinqe (for the shifting 
of indo-eur. q io / see fir^ 
four^ wolf)', cp. skr. pancdy 
GR. nsvre (jibi^ms ns/iinvog), lat. 
quinque (for ^^pinque), lith. penki, 
OIR. r<?/V, cymr. pimp. 

flag sb. 'an ensign' = ^-f^^gg^i 
DU. eV(2^, dan. y?^^, sw. fiagg: a 
modern word, not found in the 
OTEUT. periods. 

flail ME. fail fieil oe. '^fleiel 
(once recorded as fiiyl) = 
OHG. fiegil G. fiegel, du. vlegel: a 
westteut. loanword from lat. 
flagellwn 'whip, flail', whence also 
FR. fiiau (also OIR. sraigclt). 

flask OE. flasce r= on. fiaska, 
DU. flesch, OHG. yf^^Yi? g. fiasche ; 
corresponding to the synon. it. 
fiasco, OFR. fiasche fr. fiacon (med.- 
LAT. fiasco fr. LAT. vasciUimiT). 

flat ME. y?<:?/: borrowed fr. ox. 
y?(2/r = sw. y/<;//, DAN. yZ^;^/; cp. 
0HG.yZ:^5 'flat'; cp. oe. fiet, osax. 
yf^//^' 'floor' and ohg. fiaz^yi 'palm 
of the hand'. 

flatter vl). me. fiatere : borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. fiater = fr. fiatter. 

flax ME. fiax OE. fieax = ohg. 
fia/is G. fiac/is, DU. z^/as; prob. 
cogn. w. the vb. ohg. fi'ehtan G. 
fiechten and goth. fiaihtan 'braid' ; 
the s in teut. '^fiahsa- would be 
derivative; cp. the Aryan \fplek 
'braid' in i.Mi\plectere, gr. nlhyjo 

flay vb. ME. fie oe. fi§an contr. 
fr. a teut. str. \h.fiahan = on. 

flea me. fie oe. y?/<'?;^ = ohg. 
fidh G. y7<9/^, DU. vloo, ON. y?<?: 
TEUT. base fiauh- for piauh- 
meant orig. 'a fugitive', so that 
the root under flee = GOTH. 
pliuhan is the source o^Y^.flea^ 
G. fioh. 

fleam 'a kind of lancet' fr. fr. 
fiamme. Source lat. fieboto7>mm^ 
whence also oe. fiyt7ne, du. vUfiriy 

fleck — flood 


OHG. fiietuma mhg. vliete(n) G. 

fleck a Scand. loanword: on. 

fiekkr, sw. flcick = du. vleky G. 

y?^r/^'spot'. Cp. ME,yf<?r/^^//'spotted'. 

fledged adj. me. flegge OE.J!ycge 

= xMDU. vlugghcy LG. flilggey G. 
fliigge from a west-teut. base 
fiuggj- (oHG. flucchi MHG. vUicke 

from WEST-TEUT. JlukkJ-). The 

source is the teut. yffug in e. 

flee vb. ME. y?/ oe. y?^'^-^ contr. 
of "^JieoJian = osax. ohg. Jliohan 
MHG. vlieheii g. Jiiehen\ goth. 
pliuhiifi str. vb. 'flee' points to 
an ARYAN \ftluk-\ c\).flea and 

fleece (the ending ^^"^ for j) 
ME.fes OE.Jieos (and with vowel- 
mutation y^.f) from TEUT. Jleusaz 
(Jfiusis) ; cp. du. 7///Vj-, mhg. eV/>i- 
(^Uius) G. fV?m. 

fleet ^ *a number of ships' me. 
flete OE. fleot 'a ship'. — fleet ^ 
a creek, bay' me. fiet oe. flcot 
'a bay of the sea*. Both belong 
to the vb. fleet me. flete 'float, 
swim' QE. fleotati 'float, swim' = 
O'^.fjota, o?,\x.J^iotany \y\].vlieten, 
OHG. filo'-an G. fiiessen. teut. 
\Pfleut flat fr. aryan pleud-plud. 
cp. //zV and float. 

flesh me. fiesch <:m.fiasc shows 
umlaut and palatalization of the 
base *Jldski(z) '^Jiaiski{z) =: ohg. 
fleisk G. fieischy du. vleesch ; on. 
yf*?^/^ means only 'pork', more 
esp. 'ham and bacon'; perh. 
cogn. w. flitch. 

I flicker vb. me. flikere oe. fli- 
corian = du. flikkeren 'sparkle, 
glitter'; a frequent, of a base 

flik flak in UE.flakere, G.flackern ? 
flight ^ 'the act of flying' me. 

flight OE.flyht from oe. fleoga?i = 

flight - prop, 'the act of fleeing' 
ME. flight OE. flyht (=z du. vlugty 
OHG. OSAX. fluhty G. flucht) from 
fleon'^^Q. E. flight OE. flyht, du. 
f'//<^/ have both meanings of 

//:^M Cp. //^^. 

flint 'a hard stone' me. oe. 
flint 'a rock' ; cp. dan, fli7tty G. 
flinte 'musket, flint-lock', sw. 
flintay dan. flint 'flint*: perh. re- 
lated to GR. TiXivd^OQ 'a brick'. 

flit vb. ME. fliite oe. "^flyttan = 
on. flytja (sw. flyttay dan. flytte) : 
cp. the root under fleet vb. 

flitch siE-flicche oe. flic ce ^=t. on. 
flikki'. TEUT. base flikkja-y perh. 
akin to fleck} or cogn. w. 

float vb. me. flpte oe. flotian; 
cp. me. y^^7^ 'a boat, a fleet' oe. 
flota 'a boat, ship, a fleet': 
deriv. of the TEUT.\^fl?it under 
fleet vb. 
flock 1 'herd, flock' me. flok 

OE. floCC = on. flokkry DAN. y?b>(', 

sw. yf^r/^. 

flock 2 'a lock of wool' fr. ofr. 
floe = 'LKV. floccuSy whence also 
OHG. floccho G. flockCy du. vlok. 

flood me. oe. flpd = osAX.flSdy 
DU. eV^^<'/, OHG. fluot G. yfz//, on. 
flody GOTH, flodus'. a common 
Teut. word. goth. flodiis from 
ARYAN plotu-s is bascd on the 


floor — foe 

TEUT. v^y/f?- from pre-TEUT. plo- 
in floic. 

floor ME. OE. Jlpr = DU. vloer, 
.MLG. vlor, MHG. vluor (g. Jlur) 
'field, surface, hall', on. flor 'the 
floor of a cow-house': teut. 
jloru-s from pre-TEUT. plorus 
plants closely related to oiR. 
id?- for '"^pldr 'floor, paved floor'. 
florin ME. Jiorin : borrowed fr. 
FR. florin (it. fiorino so named 
because it bore a lily, from it. 
fiore 'a flower'). 

flounce changed fr. ^m./roimce 
'a plait': loanword fr. fr. froncer 
'plait , wrinkle" (prob. from a 
lat. type '^frontiare 'wrinkle the 

flounder sb. borrowed fr. scand. 
sw. flundra, dan. flynder ^ on. 

flour ident. w. floiver from 
FR. fleur 'flower'. 

flourish vb. me. flourisshe : 
adapt, fr. ofr. fleuriss- stem of 
fleurir 'flourish' (lat. floi-escere 
inceptive o{ florere 'bloom*). 

flow vb. ME. fl&ive OE. flgwan 
str. vb. = ON. floa^ du. vloeien'. 
TEUT.y^flS- m//(?(?d= pre-TEUT. 
p/S- in gr. 71 h6-(o *I swim, sail', 
nXfOTog 'swimming, sailing'. 

flower ME. flour : borrowed fr. 
afr. flour flor = fr. jkur (lat. 
flos). Ident. w. //our. 

fluke 'a flounder' ME.flo'ke oe. 
flp'c = ON. floki; cogn. w. ohg. 
fla/i G.flacAy DU. Tj/ak adj. 'plain . 
Cp. the ARYANy/p/ak in lat. 
placenta 'cake' and pldfius (for 
plac?tus7) 'plain'. 

' flute borrowed fr. fr. flute, 

I whence also du. fluit\ cp. mhg. 

vloite G. flote 'flute' and ofr. 

flaute, iT.flauto. Chaucer uses 

the vb. floute 'play on the flute'. 

flutter vb. ME.flotere oe. flotorian 
ix.\fflut under float. Cp. G. 

fly vb. ME. flie earher fleien 
OE. fleogan str. vb. = ohg. fliogan 
G. fliegen, du. vliegen, on. fljiiga. 
GOTH, "^fliugan is inferred from 
the factitive flaugjan 'carry away 
in flight' and shows that the 
common Teut. vb. "was fleugan] 
cp. LAT. plmna (for "^pliVunaT) 
'feather'. — fly sb. me. flie 
earlier fleie oe. flepge =: ohg. 
flioga g. fliege^ du. vUeg (on. with 
ablaut flu'ga 'fly') : evidently fly 
means 'the flyer' from fly vb. 

foal me. fjle oe. fola ~~ synon. 
ON. foli, ohg. folo G. fohleny 
GOTH. />//(r?: a common Teut. 
term for 'the young of a horse 
or an ass* from pre-TEUT. p9l6?i- ; 
allied to gr. 7T(okog 'colt, young 
animal , lat. pullus a young ani- 
mal' esp. 'a chicken'. 

foam sb. me. fgme oe. f dm = 
OHG. feini : base fainia- for an 
earlier '^fai?ia- ■=- skr. ph^na, 
osLOV. pe?ia 'foam'. 

fodder me. fodder oe. foddor 
= DU. voeder, ohg. fuotar G. 
flutter, ON. /^^r: cp. oe. /<?Wrt' 
under food. 

foe ME. /(i* OE. j^/2 contr. fr. 
an earlier gifdha = west-teut. 
gafaiho{}t)-\ cp. the abstract oe. 
fckhd (ohg. gifehida G. f elide): 

fog —f forbid 


OE. lefd sb. and fdhd sb. are 
based on the adj. oe. lefdh = 
OHG. gifeh\ OE. fdh = teut. 

faiha- from a prc-TEUT. paiko- 

fog: a Dan. loanword, dan. /J?^'' 
in sneefog 'a snow-storm' ; cp. 
ON. fok 'spray, snow-drift', fjuk 
'snow-storm' from fjuka str. vb. 
fold vb. ME. fplde OE. fdldan 

■ {/(aldmi) str.' vb. =r goth. f alp an ^ 
ON. falda, OHG. faltan G. falten'. 
TEUT. sf'falp = pre-TEUT. /// cp. 
in OSLOV. //^/^ //^i'// 'braid', gr. 
dinXa6tO(; for ^dinXdnog 'two- 
fold', ^KR.puta 'fold' (for '^pultd). 
— -fold ME. -/"^Z^:/ OE. -fdld 
{-/cald) = OSAX, -/a/d, du. -z/^/v^/, 
g. -/<2'//', ON. -faldr, goth. -f alps'. 
a common Tout, suffix for 
the formation of multiplicatives 
corresponding to GR. nkdoiog in 
dinkdoiog (also dinaXrog 'two- 
folk ME. folk OE. /<:;/<: = OSAX. 

/oik, DU. ZW>^, OHG. /^/^ G. VOlkf 

ON. /<:i//^. The primit. meaning 
is perh. 'a crowd of people', 
whence lith. pulkas 'a crowd', 
OSLOV. pluku 'an army'. 

follow vb. ME. folwcfolowe oe. 
folgiaii (by-form fyly.iii) = ON. 
fylgja, DU. volgen, ohg. folgen G. 
folgen: the common west-teut. 
and Norse vb. for 'follow'; 
possibly a compound verbal 
stem, the first member of which 
is full; cp. OE. full-eode 'he 
followed', OE. OLG. fulgangan, 
OHG. fola-gdn 'follow'. Go fr. 

OE. gdn would be the second 

fond ME. fond prop, fonn-ed 
partic oi fonne 'be foolish'; cp. 
ME. &h. fon(nn)'2i fool': borrowed 
fr. sw. fane 'a fool'; icel. fdni 
'a buoyant person'. 

food ME. fode'oY^.fpda'. teut. 
\ffdd fad (cp. OHG. fatunga 
'food') fr. k^Yk^ pat in nartiad^at 
'eat'. Cp. also feed, fodder, 

fool ME. fpl: adopt, fr. ofr. fol 
(= FR. fou fol) 'a fool'. 

foot ME. OE. fpt (plur. fet) = 

OSAX. foty DU. VOet, OHG. fuOT^ G. 
fuss, ON. fotr, SW. /c?/, DAN. fod, 

GOTH. fStus: TEUT. base /^/- from 
ARYAN pod- changing with aryan 
pod- ped- in the declension; cp. 
GR. nod- in. TTo'Ja, nom. sing, novg 
(aeol. ttcdc) ; LAT. ped-em (nom. 
sing, pes) ; GR. nsSiXov 'sole' — 
nsLog (for *TT&(^j6g) 'pedestrian', 
SKR. pad 'foot' and pada 'step, 

fop vb. borrowed fr. DU. foppen 
'prate, cheat' (^fopper 'a wag', 
fopperij 'cheating') : orig. a word 
of G. slang. 

for ME. OE. for prep. = goth. 
failra 'before, . for', OHG. fora g. 
vor 'before', du. voor', cogn. w. 
LAT. pro 'before', gr. nQO 'be- 

forbear me. forbore oe. forbcran 
str. vb.; cp. bear vb. 

forbid me. forbede oe. forbeodan 
confounded with m^.forbidde oe. 
forbiddan; cp. bid. 




force sb. me. foi-ce fors: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. force (lat. type 
fortia 'strength' derived ix.fortis 

ford ME. OE. ford (me. also 
forth) = DU. voerty osax. '^ford 
in Heriford (prop, 'ford of an 
army*), ohg. vurt q. fur t {Frank-, 
Er-, Schwein-^ \ cp. oe. Oxenaford 
(lit. 'ford of the oxen') = Oxford. 
TEUT. '^fordu- forpii- from the 
TEUT. sffar in fa r e ; hence ford 
prop, 'passable, practicable pass- 
age'; cp. A VEST, peretu 'bridge', 
LAT. portus 'haven', on. fjordr 
'bay'; also celt. -lat. -rititm (for 
'■•prtofti) in Augtistoritiim, cymr. 
rhyd 'ford'. 

foreign me. foreine: adapted 
{v.OFK.foraifi'. lat. iy\iQ foratieus 
derived fr. foras adv. 'out of 

forfeit sb. M'e.forfete: borrowed 
fr. om. forfait 'a fine' part, of 
forf aire forsf aire 'trespass' (med.- 
LAT. forisf actum part, of foris- 
facere 'trespass', lit. 'do beyond'). 

forge me. forge borrowed fr. 
FR. forge from lat. fabrica 'a 

forget vb. ME. forgete oe. for- 
gitan str. vb. = o?>AX.fargetany du. 
vergeten, mlg. z>orgeten, ohg. Jir- 
gej^T^an G. vergessen. The comp. 
v^b. is the remnant of a str. 
verbal Y"^t'/, whence ^- get 'ob- 
tain, reach'; cp. goth. bigitan 
find', ON. geta 'obtain'. Cp. g et 
and the aryan \f ghed : ghend in 
lat. prae-hendere j gr. /avdatoj 

fork ME. forke oy.. forca = du. 
7'ork, OHG . furc/ia firka G.furkcy 
ON. forka: borrowed fr. lat. 
firca 'a fork', whence also fr.' 
fourche, span, horca, it. forca. 

forlorn 'quite lost' me. forlorn 
oe. forloren part, of oe. forleosan 
'lose utterly'; cp. lose and G. 
DU. verloren, dan. forloren. 

former formed by adding the 
compar. suffix -er to me. for?nc 
OE. forma =r- osAX." forma 'first' ; 
cp. first. 

forsake vb. me. forsake oe. 
forsacan str. vb. 'oppose' ; cp. 

forth UTi.. forth OE. ford = osax. 
/<?r//z, OHG. "^ford g. /^7;7, gotil 
compar. failrpis adv. earlier'. 
oteut, /<?r/ from older frpo prtj 
is allied to before 2.-^6. further. 

7iight from me. fourtene 'fourteen' 
and night (old plur.) 'nights'; 
cp. OE. feowertyne niht and also 
E. sennight = seven night. It 
was usual to reckon by nights in 
pre-hist. periods. — forty me. 
fourty OE. feowerti-^ = du. veer tig, 
G.vierzig, Goni.fidwortigjus; cp. 
OE. feower = fotir and oe. fr^ 
= ten. 

foster vb. me. fostre short for 
OE. fostrian iroTnfpstor 'nourish- 
ment'; di\im to food: teut. \'^fod. 

foul ME. foul OE. //// := DU. 
Vuil, OHG. ful G. fiul, ON. fully 

GOTH. fi}ls\ la- is suffix, and the 
TEUT. y^fu is inferred fr. on. 
fucnn 'rotten' and from the fac- 
titive vb. ON. feyja 'cause to 


found — freeze 


rot'. An Aryan verbal \^ pit 
appears in skr. puy 'rot, stink'; 
cp. LAT. />u/eo 'stink' — puter- 'de- 
cayed', GR. 7Tv-i)^Lo 'cause to 

rot', GR. TTVOV LAT. pt/S 'puss'. 

found ^ vb. 'lay the foundation 
of ME. founde : adapted fr. fr. 
fonder from lat. fundare 'found'. 

found 2 vb. 'cast metals' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. fondre from lat. 
fundere 'cast metals'. 

fount ME. fount fr. ofr. font =^ 
LAT. font-em, 

four u^. four fo7aer oe. feower 
{/eowcrl^ = osAX./iwar, du. g. mer 
OHG. for, ON. fjorir. The oe. by- 
form fyder- (in comp. disfyder- 
fete 'four-footed') and goth. fid- 
wor (^Jidur-^ point to a pre-TEUT. 
hdiSQ peiwor petur for qetwor qetur\ 
ident. w. skr. catur, L3.T. quattuor, 
GR. xsoaaQSQ {7iiffv(jsc)f oslov. 
eetyrt 'four'. 

fowl ME. fou/ earlier fuwel oe. 
fugol == OSAX. fugal, DU. vogel, 
OUG. fogal MHG. G. z^ogel, ON. fug/, 
GOTH, fugls: teut. base fug la-. 

fox ME. OE. fox = OHG. fu/lS 

G. fuc/is, DU. vos, ON. fox ; the 
s of the TEUT. base fuh-s- is 
suffix as is shown by gotu. fauho, 
ON. foa 'fox' = OHG. foha mhg. 
vohe 'she-fox' (and o^.focge 'she- 
fox'?). Cp. vixen. 

frail (me. frile) borrowed fr. 
OFR. fraile (fr. frele) 'brittle' = 
LAT. fragilis. 

frame vb. me. f rente oe. fr em- 
man 'promote, do' (= o^.fremja, 
OHG. fremman , oSAX. fremmian 

English Etymology. 

'perform'): derived fr. oe. fram 
strong, good', ident. w. from. 

franchise me. fraunchise'. bor- 
rowed from YR. franchise 'privi- 
leged liberty' from FK.franchiss-, 
stem of some forms o^ franc hir 
'free' from fr. franc 'free'. 

fraught part, of me. fraughte 
vb.= DU. bevrachten, G. befrachten\ 
cp. G.fracht oylg. freht 'earnings, 
gain. Properly a compound ; 
cp. OE. (Bhty OHG. eht 'property' 
under own. 

freak 'a whim, caprice' me. frek 
'quick, vigorous' oe. fra 'bold, 
rash' = ON. fr'ekr, oho. fr'eh 
'greedy' o. frech 'pert', GOTH. 
faihu'friks 'avaricious' : teut. 
base fr'eka-. 

freckle from on. freknur plur. 
'freckles'; cp. sw. frdkne plur. 
frdhiar, fris. (Am run) friakan 
'freckles'. Perh. cogn. w. GR. 
TTfpxvo'c 'spotted'. 

free me. fre oe. freo fri: teut. 
base frija- = goth. freis, osax. 
OHG. fri G. frei. The pre-teut. 
priyo- is the base of cymr. rhydd 
'free' and of skr. priyd-s 'dear, 
beloved'; cp. the skr. verbal 
\fpri 'rejoice, render favorable' 
with GOTH, frijon 'love' under 
friend and Friday. 

freeze vb. me. frese oe. freosan 
str. vb.; cp. synon. on. frjosa, 
DU. vriezen, ono.friosan G. frier en) 
cp. GOTH, frius 'frost, cold': teut. 
\ffreus fruz from a pre-teut. 
preusprtis, which seems to exist in 
LAT. priirio for ^prusio 'itch', if 
'itch, frostburn' is the inter- 




mediate meaning, and in skr. 
\l^prus 'spurt out'; prusvd 'drop,, 
frozen drop, frost'. Cp. frost. 

freight ident. w. fraught. 

fresh adj. me. fresh fresch oe. 
fersc =: OHG. frisc G. frisch, du. 
versch 'fresh'; cogn. w. OSLOV. 
presmii 'fresh' from Aryan prais- 
kino-', cp. LiTH. preskas 'sweet, 
unsoured' with finn. rieska 'fresh, 
unsoured'. The Rom. family of 
IT. fresco, FR. frais comes from 
WEST-TEUT. fr'eska-. 

fret^ vb. 'eat up, devour' short 
for ME. frete oe. fr'etan str. vb. 
= DU. LG. vreten, OHG. frei;z^an 
G.fressen 'eat up, consume'. The 
corresp. goth. frditan {^r&i.fret) 
'consume' shows that west-teut. 
fretan is a compound of etan = 
eat\ fra is a common prefix in 
GOTH. (c^. fraught 2ind fret). 

fret^ vb. 'ornament, variegate 
ME. fretie oe. frcetwan 'adorn': 
from o^.frcetwe plur. 'ornament'= 
OSAX. frataha 'ornament': source 
perh. a Teut. compound fra -h 
GOTH. tewa 'arrangement'. 

iv\2ir Wt.. frere'. adapted fr. fr. 
frere 'a brother'. 

Friday me. friday oe. frl'^edcej^ 
= DU. vrijdag, ohg. friatag mhg. 
vriiac G. freitag , on. Frjddagr'. 
really 'day of the Teut. goddess 
Frija Frijjo in imitation of 
dies Veneris {Fria and Venus 
correspond). ON. F^'iggWk.^ ohg. 
Fria is prop, 'the goddess of 
love'; cp. SKR. /r/y^ 'wife, loved 
one' (oSAX. fri, oe. freo 'wife'). 
Cp. free. 

friend me. frend oe. freond = 
OS. \x. friund 'Mend, relative', du. 
vriend, ohg. friunt mhg. vriunt (d) 
G. freund, goth. frijonds 'friend' : 
teut. frijond- (formed like 
fiend) is pres. partic. of an old 
teut. vb. frijon 'love' = goth. 
frijon, OE. frioian'lovQ . C^.free. 

frieze (of a column) fr. fr. 
ft'ise (= iT.fregio 'frieze'), whence 
also G. DU. fries, 

fright me. fright oe. fyrhtu 
fyrhto', cp. the synon. goth. 
faurhtei 'fright' and OSAX. ohg. 
for{a)hta mhg. vorht{e) G. furcht 
'fright'. — frighten vh.uE./righte 
oe. fyrhtan = goth. faurhtjan, 
OSAX. forhton, ohg. furihten 
forahtan G. filrchten. 

fringe me. fringe: loanword 
from OFR. "^fringe =^ fr. frange 
(source lat. fimbria 'fringe'), 
whence G. franse, du. franje. 

frisk vb. formed from the adj. 
OFR. f risque = SCAND. friskr 
'frisky, brisk'. 

frith firth ue. firth', a Scand. 
loanword; cp. ON. fjgrdr (plur. 
firdir) 'bay' ,*^ dan. fiord, sw. fjdrd 
'a firth': teut. hdiseferpu-, aryan 
pertu- cp. LAT. portus 'haven'. For 
the Aryan \fper cp. ford. 

fritter late me. fritoure'. bor- 
rowed fr. FR. friture 'dish of 
fried fish', also 'a fragment' from 
OFR. frif 'fried' (source lat. 
frigere); c^. fry. 

fro me. fro earlier /r^ : adapted 
fr. o-^.frd 'from', ident.w. from. 

frock me. frok: borrowed fr. 
OFR. froc =^ MED.-LAT. frocus 'a 

froo; — furze 


monk's frock'; source osax. hroc 

frog M^.frogge oe. frogga] the 
OE. parallel form frocca (mod. 
dial, frock) points to the synon. 
ON. fraukr. Prob. oe. forsc, 
OHG. frosk G. froschy on. froskr 
show the same root, if derived 
fr. TEUT. "^fruhsqa-. 

frolic borrowed fr. du. vrolijk 
'merry ; cp. mhg. V7'oloken 'rejoice', 
prob. after mhg. vro-sanc 'merry 
song' supplanting an older 

from ME. OE. from fram ^ 
OSAX. OYiG.fram mhg. vram prep, 
'forth, from' — adv. 'forth', ON. 
frafn adv. 'forward' — frd prep, 
'from' — adv. 'fro', goth. fraj)t 
prep, 'from' adv. 'further, forward'. 

frost ME. frost oe. forst == on. 
DAN. sw. G. frosty DU. vorst: 
deriyed fr. \f frus = freeze, 

froth sb. ME.//7?7//^fr. o^.froda, 

froward adj. ME./rjTf^^r^/ earlier 
frdward'. derived fr. fro. 

frown vb. me. froune shortened 
fr. FR. refrogner. 

fruit ME. frilt {fruit) fr. fr. 
fruit = LAT. fructus. 

fry vb. ME. frie fr. ofr. frire 
= LAT./r2^(fr^ 'roast'; o."^. fritter, 

ivy sb. ME.fri fr. o^. frjo {free) 
'spawn, fry'; ident. w. GOTn.fraiw 
'seed': pre-TEUT. pro-eiwo-. 

fuel sb. late mf.. fouaile fr. ofr. 
*fouaille: lat. i^'^e focalia 'fuel'. 

full ME. 0E./iY/f//) = G0TH./2^//y, 
ON. fullrj DU. vol, G. VOll OHG. 

fol(ll) : TEUT. base fulla- fr. an 

ARYAN base p9l-no in skr. piirria 
'full'; cp. LAT. plenuSy oir. Idn 
(orig. "^plonos) 'full'. Prop, partic. 
with suffix -no- fr. an aryan 
yfple plo 'to fill' in skr. sf pur 
pr, LAT. implere, gr. Tiif.nilr)ui. 

fuller sb. me. fuller O's.. full^-e 
'a cloth-bleacher': adaption of 
'L^.T.fullo 'a fuller, bleacher'. 

funnel late me. fund fr. fr. 
fondtfle\ source i.k'V.infundibulwfi. 

fur MK.furre forre fr. ofr. fuerre 
forre 'a sheath, a case"; source 
TEUT. -GOTH. /<?^r 'a sheath'; cp. 
G. f utter ident. w. E. fodder. 

furbish vb. me. furbisshe fr. 
OFR. fourbir (fourbiss-) polish', 
which rests on OHG. furb(j)an 
MHG. vurben 'purify, clean' (teut. 
yf furb = ARYAN \f prp in GR. 

furlong see furrow. 

furnace me. furneis forneis fr. 
FR. fournaise = lat. fornax {for- 
nacem) 'an oven'. 

furnish fr. fr. fournir (stem 
fourftiss-). Source a teut. wk. vb. 
frumjan 'perform'; c\^. perform. 

furrow ME. furwe forwe oe. 
furh: teut. base furh- also in 
OHG. furha G. furche 'furrow', 
DU. voor, ON. for 'drain'. A pre- 
TEU'V'. prk pork is evident in lat. 
porca 'a ridge between two 
furrows', cymr. rhych 'furrow', 
armen. herk. — furlong me. oe. 
furlong lit. 'furrow-long'. 

further me. further ok. fur dor; 
cogn. w. for and ohg. furdir. 

furze me. frse oe. fyi^s earlier 
fyres : Teut. base furisa- ? 


gab — gall ^ 

gab ME. gabbe 'talk idly, jest, 
lie': borrowed fr. on. gabba, 
whence also YR.gaber^ it. gabbare, 
Cp. gabble gibber. — gabber 
'gabble', var. of gabble both of 
which are frequent, verbs of gab. 
C^.Jabbe?' andgzbber. — gabble 
var. of gabber. 

gabel *a tax, impost, esp. the 
tax on salt': borrowed fr. fr. 
gabelle (= span, gabela, it. 
gabella, med.-lat. gabella gab(u)- 
lum). Source a teut. sb. gabida- 
in OE. gafol 'tribute'. 

gable AiE. gdble: borrowed fr. 
OFR. gable 'a gable', which is 
of LAT. origin; cp. lat. gabalus, 
whence on. gajl 'a gable' (but 
GOTH, giblay G. giebel 'a gable' 
akin to GR.yncpaXt] 'head': Aryan 
base ghebhald- ghebhlo-). 

gad ME. gad: borrowed fr. on. 
gaddr^ ^odidj pike'; teut. base 
gazda- ident. w. lat. hasta from 
an Aryan base ghazdha-] but gad 
in gadfly stands for goad. 

gag ME. gagge 'suffocate'; prob. 
imitation of the sound of 

gage^ ME. gage: borrowed fr. 
FR. gage = SPAN, gagey it. gaggio 
(lat. type wadium). Source a 
TEUT. sb. cp. GOTH. 7vadi\ cp. 7ved 
and wage. 

gage''^ also gauge me. gauge: 

adopted from ofr. gauger later 
jauger 'measure the contents'. 
Source uncertain. 

gain sb. me. gain: borrowed fr. 
ON. sw. gagn = DAN. gavn 'gain'. 

gain vb. late me. gaine: hox- 
r ow ed fr. FR. gagner ofr. gaagnier 
gaaigner 'cultivate, gain': source 
a teut. vb. (OHG. ^weidanjan — 
weidenon 'pasture'). 

gain- pref. me. gein oe. geyi 
gin gedn (= g. gegen, on. gagn-^. 
— gainsay uf. geinseie 'conirdi- 
dict'. Cp. against oe. ongeanes. 

gait ident. w. gate"". 

gaiter borrowed fr. fr. giietre 
(ofr. guestre, perh. loanword tr. 
MHG. wester 'a child's chrisom- 
cloth'; cp. GOTH, wasti, lat. vestis 

gale sb. a Scand. loanword ; akin 
to dan. gal, sw. galen 'furious, 
mad', NORW. galen 'furious, wild, 
mad' (of wind and storm). 

galP ME. galle oe. gealla ■= 
OSAX. OHG galla G. galle, du. gal, 
ON. gall. GOTH. *gallin- (hardly 
^galzin-) from pre-teut. g^l-. is 
cogn. w. GR. /oXij x^X^g, lat. 
fel fellis *gair (whence it. fiele, 
SPAN, hiel, FR. fiet). Many think 
it allied with yellow so that 
gall\N?iS named from its yellowish 




gall 2 'a sore on the skin' me. 
galle OE. gealla 'a gall' (on a 
horse) = du. gal 'a windgall', 
MHG. G. galle 'a foot - disease 
in horses'; perh. borrowed fr. 
LAT-ROM. galla a gallnut, an oak- 
apple' =^ IT. galla ^ SPAN, agalla 
'windgalls'. But a confusion of 
galla with a teut. word of similar 
phonology is possible, since in 
sw. dialects too there exists a 
grdssgaller 'a swelling on a 
horse's hoof. 

gall 3 'a gall-nut': borrowed fr. 
FR. gale from lat. galla 'a gall- 
nut, an oak-apple ? 

galley me. galeie: adapted fr. 
FR. galic gaUe (rr. galea = med.- 
LAT. galea 'a galley'). 

gallon ME. galoun: a, fr. loan- 
word: FR. gallon = IT. gallone, 

galloon borrowed fr. FK.galon. 

gallop ME. galope: borrowed fr. 
FR. galoper] cp. also wallop. 

gallows (the plur. used as 
sing.) ME. gakves plur. oe. galga 
gealga 'cross, gibbet' = ohg. osax. 
galgo, DU. galg, G. galgen, on. 
galgi, GOTH, galga : a common 
teut. word, TEUT. galgan- from 
Kry diXi ghalghan-] cp. lith. zalga 

gamble appar. a frequent, of 
an unrecorded me. *gam(e)ley 
commonly me. gamene oe. ga- 
menian 'play at games. Deriv. 
of game. For the change of n 
to / cp. MHG. gamel gamen 'pleas- 
ure". — game 'amusement' me. 
game oe. gamen gomen = on. 
OHG. gaman (mhg. gamen garnet) 

'play'; prob. ident. w. goth. ga- 
-man 'communion of men'. The 
pref. ga- is used collectively; 
for man cp. man. 

gander me. gander oe. gandra\ 
akin to OE. gps from a teut. 
base gan-s in goose and cp. 

gang me. gang 'a going, course, 
way, passage' oe. gang 'a going, 
way, privy' = osax. du. g. gang 
'a going, walk, way, passage', 
ON. gangr 'a going, a crew'. 

gannet me. "^ganet oe. ganot 
'swan' ; akin to du. gent 'gander', 
ohg. ganaxifi 'gander'; cp. a 
primit. teut. base gan- also in 
TEUT.-LAT. ganta 'goose'; see 
gander and goose. 

gantlet prop, gantlope 'a mili- 
tary punishment' corrupted fr. 
sw. gatlopp 'running down a 
lane' (sw. gata 'a lane' and lopp 
'a running' fr. lopa 'run = e. 

gaol see Jail. 

gap ME. gap : borrowed fr. on. 
gap 'opening, breach, chasm'. — 
gape vb. ME. gape adapted fr. 
SCAND. gapa 'yawn' :^ du. gapen, 
G. gaff en 'gape, yawn'. 

gar see garlic and gore. 

garb borrowed fr. ofr. garbe 
'good fashion' from ohg. garawi 
'dress' ■=■ oe. gearwe 'preparation, 
dress'. Cp. gear. 

garden me. gardin fr. ofr. (Pi- 
card.) gardin ^=-'ER. Jardiny which 
is of Teut. origin : OHG. garto 
(gen. and dat. gartin) G. garten, 




OSAX. gardoy goth. garda m. 'a 
fold'; akin to yard. 

gargle borrowed fr. ofr. gar- 
gouiller 'gargle' fr. gargouille 

garland me. gerlaund'. borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. garlande fr. guirlande, 
whence du. g. dan. guirlande. 

garlic ME. garlek garlick oe. 
gdr-l(ac\ for lie = oe. /^'ac cp. 
leek. The first element of the 
compound is oe. gar 'a spear' 
(cp.^^r^). Hence garlic prop. 
*sp ear-leek'. 

garment short for me. gar- 
nement'. borrowed fr. fr. gar- 
nement y deriv. of fr. garnir 
'garnish'. Cp. garnish, 

garner me. gerner: adapted fr. 
ofr. gernier fr. grenier (it. 
granaro = lat. type grand- 

garnet me. gernet: borrowed 
fr. FR. grenat (= span, granate, 
IT. granatd) : source lat. grana- 
tus 'having many grains or 

garnish vb. me. garnisshe: 
borrowed fr. fr. garniss-.^ the stem 
of certain forms of garnir (= 
it. guarnire) 'avert, warn, garnish', 
which is of Teut. origin: teut. 
base warnjan. — garrison me. 
garnison: borrowed fr. fr. gar- 
nison ; deriv. of fr. garnir 'pro- 
vide, fortify'. Cp. garnish. 

garret me. garite: borrowed fr. 
OFR. garite fr. guerite 'a watch- 
tawer': derived fr. ofr. garir 
warir save, keep' fr. guirir 
(= IT. guarire). Source a teut. 

warjan = goth. warjan 'hold, 

garrison see garnish. 

garter me. garter e\ borrowed 
fr. ofr. gariier jartier fr. jarre- 
tiere'. deriv. of fr. j'arret 'the 
small of the leg behind the 

gash me. garse garge\ borrow- 
ed fr. ofr. garser 'scarify'. 

gasp vb. me. gaspe oe. '^gdspian'. 
TEUT. base gaispon = on. geispa 
'gasp'. The E. word is not 
borrowed fr. Scand. 

gate^ (cp. gait) 'a way, road' 
ME. gate : borrowed fr. on. gata 
(ace. gptu) 'way, path, road' = 
sw. gata 'a street , lane', dan. 
gade 'a street'; ident. w. ohg. 
ga'i^-lfi G. gasse 'a street', goth. 
gatwo 'a street'. 

gate- 'door, gate, opening' 
me. gate ydte oe. j^eat (plur. 
gatu leatu) = osax. du. ^at 'a 
hole, opening, gap', on. gat 'an 

gather me. gadere oe. gaderian 
(= DU. gaderen, G. dial, gattern) : 
deriv. of oe. geador (cp. to- 
gether). Prob. akin to oe. gcede- 
ling 'cousin, G. gatte 'husband' 
from the same root as good. 

gaud 'a show, ornament' me. 
gaude: borrowed fr. lat. gau- 
dium. — gaudy 'merry, bright, 
showy' fr. gaud and the suffix -j. 

gauge see under gage^. 

gaunt prob. from Scand. ; cp. 
NORW. gand 'a thin pointed stick; 
a tall and thin man'. 

gauntlet — gibber 


gauntlet borrowed fr. ofr. 
gantelety dimin. of gant = fr. 
gant (= IT. guanto) *a glove'. 
Source a teut. (med.-lat.) wanius 
'the long sleeve of a tunic, a 
glove' ; cp. DU. want^ dan. vanfe^ 
ON. vgttr 'a mitten'. 

gauze borrowed fr. fr. gaze 
'cushion-canvas, tiffany' ^ span. 
gas a 'gauze'. 

gawk (cp. gowk) 'a cuckoo, 
fool' ME. goiike: loanword from 
Qi^.gaukr (whence sc. gowk) ^ 
OUG. gouh(hh) MHO. gouch G.gauch, 
OE. K'ac 'cuckoo'. 

gay ME. gay: borrowed fr. fr. 
gai (= IT. gajo) gay, merry'. 
Source OHG. gdhi quick, sudden' 
G. gdhe — Jdh. 

gaze vb. me. gcise, prob. of 
Scand. origin: sw. dial, gasa 
'gaze, stare'. 

gear me. gere points to an oe. 
*gcere or *gcero, cb being vowel 
mutation of (i = teut. ai. Perh. 
akin to oe. ^<7r 'spear (c^. gar lie ^ 

gem me. getmne'. adapted fr. 
FR. gemme (= vv,gem?na). Source 
LAT. ge?nma 'a swelling bud, a 
jewel, a gem', whence also oe. 
limm, OHG. gimma 'g^^'* 

gender me. gender: borrowed 
fr. OFR. gendre genre fr. genre 
'kind, genus, style' {= span. 
ginero, it. genere 'kind'). Source 
LAT. gener- in genus 'race, stock'. 

german germane adj. formerly 
gerniain : borrowed fr. fr. ger- 
main (source lat. germanus), 

gesture borrowed fr. med.-lat. 

gestura 'a mode of action' from 
gerere 'carry, behave'. 

get ME. gete borrowed fr. on. 
geta\ oe. ^itan would be me. yite 
ite\ cp. GOTH, gitan from a teut. 
\f^ get , pre-TEUT. ghed ghend:^ 
cogn. w. LAT. praehendere, gr. 
/avdcLvEiv. Cp. forget. 

gewgaw corrupted fr. me. 
giuegoue prop, gouegoue (pron. 
gugu'V): adapted of fr. joujou. 

ghastly me. gastly oe. gckstlic 
fr. oe. gcBstan 'frighten' and lie 
= e. 'ly; cp. aghast. 

gherkin ^ du. agurkje ^ dan. 
agurke^ G. gurke: borrowed as 
orig. '^agurike fr. pol. ogurik.^ 
BOHEM. okurka fr. late GR. ayyov- 
Qior 'a cucumber, gherkin'. 

ghost ME. gpst OE. gdst (gcest) 
= synon. ohg. g. dan. geist, 
osax. gest: a common Teut. 
word with the same meaning 
for which a/ima is used in Goth. 
The orig. meaning of the word 
('excitement?) is not establish- 
ed; yet on. geisa 'rage' (of fire 
and passion) and goth. iLsgaisjan 
'terrify' seem allied. For the 
dental formative of teut. gaist 
(pre-TEUT. ghaisdos) cp. the skr. 
\fhid (from "^ghizd) be angry', 
hedas 'anger' with which agrees 
E. aghast 'angry, excited'; cp. 
also ghastly. 

giant ME. giaimt prop, geaunt 
fr. FR. giant = lat. gtgant-eniy 
whence also OE.OHG.^z^^r^/'giant'. 

gibber and with other var. 
gabber gabble, frequentative s of 
gab of which jabber and 



jabble are the assibil. frequent- 

giddy ME. gidy oe. gydiy. 
orig. perh, 'having a demon, 
possessed of a demon': deriv. 
oigod] cp. OE. yljii 'deranged, 
crazy' prop, 'possessed of elves'. 

gift ME. gift yift OE. gift plur. 
gifta 'nuptials' = du. ohg. gift 
G. gift in mitgift 'a dowry' 
and in ohg. g. du. gift 'poison', 
lit. 'that which is given', goth. 
gifts in fra- 'promise' with the 
abstract formative -/ from gifan 
= give. The initial g in e. me. 
gift points as in give to Scand. 

gig me. gigge 'a whirling thing'; 
prob. Scand.: on. geiga 'rove 
at random' ; cp. jig. 

gild vb. short for me. glide 
OE. gyldan: derived with vowel- 
mutation (teut. gulpjan) fr. gold, 

gill* me. gille'. borrowed fr. 
DAN. gjcelle, sw. gdl\ icel. gjplnar 
plur. gills'. 

gill'- 'one-fourth pint' me. gille : 
borrowed fr. ofr. gelle- 'a sort 
of wine-measure' (lat. type gella 
gillo a wine-vessel). 

gillyflower corrupted fr. ofr. 
giroflie fr. clou de girofe; lat. 
type caryophyllum 'a clove-tree'. 

gimlet borrowed fr. ofr. gi^n- 
belet FR. gidelet; of Teut. origin, 
dimin. of the form represented 
by E. wimble 'a gimlet' cp. 

gimp adapted fr. fr. gidnipe 
(ofr. guimple fr. ohg. wimpal 'a 
light robe' = E. wi7?iple). 

gin^ 'a trap, snare' me. (c. i 200) 
gin and ginn shortened fr. me. 
engin = fr. engin 'a contrivance'. 
Source lat. ingenium. 

gin'^ 'a kind of spirit' shortened 
fr. earlier fr. genevre (= fr. 
genievre) 'juniper' (lat. jufiiperus 
'an evergreen shrub'). 

ginger me. gingir^ earlier gingi- 
vere from ofr. gengibre fr. gin- 
gembre (it. zenzero, mhg. ginge- 
bere from the synon. late lat. 
gingiber = gr. 'Qiyyi^igK;). 

gingerly a Scand. loanword ; 
sw. . dial, gingla gdngla 'go 
gently, totter': frequent, of on. 
ganga 'go'. 

gird short for me. girde oe. 
gyrdan = OSAX. gurdian , DU. 
gorden, ohg. gurten gurtan G. 
giirteriy on. gyrda: ■ai}^ weak verbs 
(teut. gurdjan), ident. w. the str. 
vb. GOTH, hi-gairdan 'begird'. 

girdle me. girdel oe, gyrdel 
= synon. ohg. gurtil G. giirtely 
DU. gordel, on. gyrdill: deriv. 
of gird. — girth me. ge7'th\ 
adapted h. on. gjord 'a girdle' 
(gerd 'girth round the waist', 
GOTH, gairda 'girdle'). 

girl me. girl gerl\ akin, to lg. 
g&re 'boy, girl' which is of late 
occurrence (first record 1652). 
The / of the E. word (oe. 
"^gyrel , teut. base gurila-) is 

gist borrowed fr. ofr. gist ^= 
fr. git from ofr. gesir = fr. 
gisir 'lie'. Source lat. jaccre 

give — glisten 

give ME. give fr. on. gefa ; ident. 
w. i,\^.yeve oe. yfan lefan = osax. 
g'etmn, du. geven, OHG. g'eban G. 
gebejiy GOTH, giban'. a common 
Teut. verb ; cp. also oir. gabivi 
'I take', LiTH. gabinti 'bring, 
procure', gobinii 'fetch' ? Cp. gift. 

gizzard me. giser: adapted fr. 
FR. gisier\ source lat. gizeria 

glad ME. glad OE. glctd 'shining, 
bright, cheerful, glad' ; ident. w. 
OHG. ^/<rz/G.^/rt^// 'smooth, shining', 
DU. glad 'smooth', on. gladr glad, 
bright'. TEUT. *glada- for aryan 
ghladho- agrees with OSLOV. gla- 
diikiL 'smooth', LAT. glaber (for 
ghladhro^ 'smooth'. The meaning 
of the E. word is secondary 
when compared with the orig. 
meaning smooth'. 

glair ME. gleire: adapted fr. ofr. 
glaire \\\Q white of an q^^^' ^= 
IT. chiara d'un ovo, whence also 
G. eierklar (med.-lat. clai-a ovi^. 

glance vb. a Scand. loanword; 
cp. swED. gla?ts J DAN. glauds 
'brightness, splendor'. 

glare vh.u^. glare; OE.'^gldrian 
is unauthorized. 

glass ME. glas OE. glees: a com- 
mon Teut. word, (not verified in 

GOTH.) = DU. MHG. G. OSW. 

svv. Dkii. glas (ouG. glas glass', 
also 'amber'); but on. gler with 
change from s to r, thus proving 
the word to be primit. Teut. 
i^glaza-'^glasa-). Perh.theOTeut. 
name of the 'amber' (lat. glesuni) 
is cognate. 

gleam me. glem oe. glce7n 
'splendor, brightness, gleam'; 
akin to osax. gli-fno 'splendor 
and to .G. glimmer; cp. ohg. 
glimo gleimo 'glow-worm'. An 
ARYAn \fghli cp. in ir. gU (fr. 
base^/^/z^<?-) 'shining, clear' under 

glean vb. me. gUne borrowed 
fr. OYR.glener (fr. glaner) 'glean'. 

glede ME. glide glede oe. glida 
'a kite' = on. gledi\ deriv. of 
the TEUT. \f gild in glide (the 
name of the bird means prop, 
'the glider). 

glee mirth, joy' me. gle oe. gleo 
with the by- form gliw = on. gly : 
TEUT. base gliwa-^ perh. akin to 
IR. gU (base gleiwo-) 'clear, 
shining'. Cp. gleam. 

gleed (E. dial.) me. glede oe. 
gled i^glded fr. glodi-) = du. gloed, 

OHG. gluot G. glut, ON. glod, GOTH. 

'^glo-di- : teut. yfglb under glow. 

glen of Celt, origin; cp. gael. 
IR. gleann 'valley (cymr. Corn. 

glide vb. ME. glide oe. glidan 
= synon.osAX.^/z^/^;2, T>\].gliJ{d)enj 
OHG. glitafi G. gleiten, sw. glida, 
DAN. glide glide, slide'. Cp. 

glimmer vb. me. g timer e --= G. 
gli^nmern, dan. glimre; akin to 
sw. glimma and osax. glimo 
'splendor under gleam. 

glimpse vb. me. glmise vb.; 
akin to glif/imer, 

glisten vb. me. glistne oe. glis- 
nian 'gleam' ; akin to OE. glisian 
^= OFRis. glisa 'shine' : teut. \fglit 


gloat — goal 

in glitter me. glitere (oe. "^glito- 
riati) vb. 'shine' = o^.glitra, G. 
glitzern. A corresp. strong vb. 
is ON. gllia^ OS AX. glttan ■=^ ohg. 
gli'yifin shine' (cp. G. gleissen and 
GOTH, glitmunjan 'shine'). 

gloat vb. akin to G. glotzen^ 
ICEL. glotia ; an oe. glotian is un- 
recorded; cogn. w. MK.glouteip^. 
^gluiian) look sullen. 

gloom 0¥..glpm iglgmung) gloom, 
twilight'; the m is formative (as 
in bloom J doom)', for the teut. 
\fgld cp. glow. 

glory ME. glgrie glgrie from ofr. 
glorie = L\T. gloria ; cp . fr. gloire. 

gloss vb. akin to mhg. glosen 

glove ME. glove short for glove 
OE. glpf = ON. glq^ 'glove'. 

glow vb. ME. glpwe oE. glpwan 
str. vb.; cp. du. gloeijen, ohg. 
gluoen G. glilheny on. gloa 'glow, 
glitter, shine' : teut. y" glo gle 
under gloom and e. dial, gleed. 

glue me. gliie borrowed fr. ofr. 
glu 'birdlime'; source lat. glus 

glum adj. from xME. glotnme 
glombe vb. 'be gloomy'; as 
gloovty shows, connected with 
gloom and sw. gldmig 'languid 
of look'. 

glut sb. ME. glut sb. borrowed 
fr. OFR. glut glout (it. ghiotto) 'a 
glutton'. — glut vb. ME. glote 
glute vb. borrowed fr. ofr. glotir 
gloutir (cp. FR. engloutir 'swallow 
up ) ; source i.kT.gluttire''s'^?i\\o'^' . 
— glutton ME. gluioun glotoun: 
borrowed fr. fr. glouton ofr. 

gluton ; source lat. glutto-gluttonem 

gnarl akin to oe. gnyrran. 

gnash vb. aie. gnaste 'gnash 
the teeth'; oe. '^gndstian is akin 
to ON. gnista 'gnash the teeth'. 

gnat ME. gnat{tt) oe. gncett: 
TEUT. base gnatta-. 

gnaw vb. me. gnawe OE. gnagati 
= OSAX. gnagaUy ohg. (g)nagan 
G. nagen, on. gnaga\ cp. a by- 
form with initial k'. du. knagen, 
OS. hg. knagan 'gnaw ; the G. 
form nagen arose from gnagen. 

go ME. go OE. gdn = OSAX. gdn, 
DU. gaan, ohg. gdn gen G. gehen. 
The TEUT. \f ghai- (= oe. gd-^ 
OHG. ge^ supplanted the aryan 
y^i 'go' in lat. ire^ gr. Ibvoh^ 
SKR. yfi. Since teut. gai- has no 
old primit. noun-derivatives in 
Teut. and takes the place of 
the ARYAN \r/ (the aorist goth. 
iddja r=. OE. eode still remains) 
and as it is inflected after the 
////-conjugation, the supposition 
arises that teut. '^gaim '^gais 
"^gaip are contracted fr. the 
verbal particle ga and the 
inherited im iz tp = skr. emi 
csi eti\ cp. GR. £?/</. 

goad ME. god OE. gdd\ ident. 
with LANGOBARD. gaida 'spear': 
TEUT. base gaido- = pre-TEUT. 
*g/iai-td; akin to oe. gar, ohg. 
ger 'spear' under gore, aryan 
\f ghi ghaim gr. yaXoc, 'shepherd's 

goal borrowed fr. FK.gaule ofr. 
waule. Source teut. walu = 
ON. voir J GOTH, walus '■&. staff'. 




goat ME. gate oe.^^V= du. on. 
geit, OHG. gei^ G. geisSy sw. get^ I 
DAN. ^<?^, GOTH, gaits 'a goat': 
cogn. w. LAT. hcediis fr. aryan 

gobble a frequent, with suff. 
-le fr. FR. ^<?<^<?r 'devour*. 

god ME. OE. god = OSAX. DU. 
god, OHG. ^^/ G. gOft, ON. ^2/^/ 

^^^. GOTH, guda- gupa- 'god' is 
based on aryan ghu-to-, -to- being 
a part, formative as in old, cold, 

loud: INDO-TEUT. \f ghti = SKR. 

/it2 'implore the gods' (skr. /luld- 
part.). Therefore god is 'the 
being implored'; in the veda 
puriihuta 'much implored* is an 
ordinary epithet of the god 
Indra. god in godfather godson 
goddaughter = me. god -\- com- 
pound : used in reference to 
the spiritual relation between 
them ; cp. gossip. 

goggle-eyed me. gogel-eied; the 
first element of the compound 
can scarcely be a native E. word 
and is traced to IR. Gael, gog- 
shuileach 'goggle-eyed'. 

gold ME. OE. gpld=0?,k^. OHG. 

G. gold, DU. goud, ON. go II gull 

(for *golpa), GOTH. gulp'. ARYAN 

ghlto- = OSLOV. zlato = russ. 
zoloto from ^zolto. The orig. 
meaning ofthay/^ghel, from which 
,gold is derived (cp. lith. gel-tas 
'yellow' and skr. hdrita and hari 
yellow'), is 'yellow ; cp. skr. hi- 
raiiya gold'. Cp. yellow. 

good ME. OE. god = GOTH, gods^ 

OSAX. god, DU. goed, ohg. guot 
G. gut, ON. godr. The orig. 

meaning of the adj. was prob. 
'fit, suitable' from a root mean- 
ing 'fit, suit seen in gather, 
together. — goodbye short 
for orig. »God be by you« 
(Shakesp. »God buy you«). 
goose ME. OE. gos (plur. ges) : 
Teut. base gans- = du. gans, 
OHG. G. gans , ON. gds ; akin to 
gander a.nd gannet. An aryan 
ghan-s- is represented also by 
skr. hansd-s m. — haiist goose', 

N.PERS. ydz, LITH. zqsiS, OSLOV. 

gqst , GR. /T\v, LAT. anser (for 
'^hanser) , oiR. g^is swan' (fr. 

gore ^ ME. gore 'a gore of cloth, 
a garment' oe. gdra 'a projecting 
point of land' ; cp. du. geer 'a 
gusset, go^re', ohg. gero G. gehre 
'a wedge, gusset, gore', on. geiri, 
NORW. geire, odan. gere 'a gore 
of cloth or land': deriv. of teut. 
gaiza- 'spear ^=oe. gar 'a spear, 
OHG. ger 'a spear. Cp. goad. 

gore 2 'mud, blood' me. gore 
OE. gdr 'mud' = ohg. on. gor 
'mud', sw. gorr 'mud'. 

gorge ME. gorge borrowed fr. 
FR. gorge 'throat': source lat. 

gosling dimin. of goose. 

gospel ME. gospel oe. god- spell 
'the word of God', as shown by 
ON. gud-spjall, OHG. got-sp'el(ll). 
Cp. spell. 

gossamer me. gossomer repre- 
senting an OE. type '^gos-sumor 

summer of the geese'; cp. the 
G. names altweibersommer , mdd- 


gossip — grave 

gossip ME. gossip earlier gossib 
OE. god-sibb prop, 'relationship 
in God'; see the end of the 
article on god. oe. sibb -=. ohg. 
sippa, GOTH, sibja means 'relation- 

gouge from fr. gouge. 

gourd aje. gourde', borrowed fr. 
FR. gourde (orig. ofr. gouhourde 
cougourde\ source lat. cucurbita 
'a gourd'. 

gout sb. me. goute borrowed fr. 
fr. goutte 'dropsy': source lat. 

go\vk ident. w. gawk. 

gown ME. goune goun fr. ofr. 
gone 'a gown', which is of Celt, 
origin (gall. - lat. gunna 'fur- 

grab vb. cp. sw. grabba, mlg. 
grabben^xdiS^'. An Aryan y^/^rM 
'to grasp' is found in skk. \^grb/i. 
'grasp, seize' — grapsa 'bunch, 
tuft' and OHG. garba G. garbe 

grace me. grace fr. fr. grace 
= lat. gratia 'favor'. 

grade borrowed fr. fr. grade: 
sourceLAT. gradus a step, station'. 

graft (Shakesp. gra//) vb, me. 
graffe 'graft' : deriv. of ofr. graffe 
'a style for writing (fr. greffe 
'graft'?). Source lat. graphium 
'a style for writing. 

grail 'fine sand' fr. ofr. graile 
'fine, small' = lat. gracilis. 

grain me; grain grein from fr. 
grain: source lat. grdnum 'a 
grain, corn'. 

grammar me. grarmnSre gram- 
niaire from fr. grammaire. 

grange me. graungc. adapt, of 
FR. grange (lat. type granea 
granary' deriv. of grdnum' corn). 

grant me. graunte vb. adapt, 
fr. OFR. granter 'caution, secure' 
(source a lat. type '^credentare 
vb. — ^credentia sb.). 

grape me. grape: loanword fr. 
OFR. grape grappe 'cluster " of 
grapes. The fr. word is con- 
sidered to be of Teut. origin 
(teut. *krappa>). 

grasp ME. grapse perh. for 
^grapse oe. ^grdpsian : possibly 
an intensive deriv. of oe. grd- 
pian ^= grope. 

grass ME. gras o^. grces gcers ^=^ 


'herb, growth'. The final s is 
formative, the V^is^r^r meaning 
'sprout, grow'; cp. grozv and 

grasshopper xME. grashopper 
orig. gras hoppe o^. gcers-hoppa {= 
DU. grashupper lg. grashiipper^ : 
'an insect which hops about in 
the grass'. Cp. hop. 

grate sb. me. grate: source 
LAT. crates 'a hurdle'. — grate 
vb. M^. grate vb. from ofr. grater 
'scratch' (fr. gratter), which is 
prob. of Teut. origin (ohg. krazzon 
G. kratzeti) . 

grave vb. me. grave oe. grafajt 
'dig' = GOTH. OHG. graban G. gra- 
beny DU. graven dig , on. grafa : 
TEUT. \j^grab = ARYAN ghrabJi, 
orig. related to oslov. grebq 
'dig' and grobU grave'. 

grave adj. from fr. grave 

gravel — grizzly 


gravel me. gravH borrowed fr. 
OF^.gravekj dimin. oi oyk. grave 
rough sand* fr. greve 'strand'. 

gravy earlier orthography grea- 
vy, akm to greaves} 

gray grey me. gray grey oe. 
grcky^ akin to du. grauw, ohg. 
grdo (infl. grdwer) g. grau, on. 
grdr, which represent a Teut. 
base grdwa- grewa- (oe. grcbj^ 
pointing to a h^ise grdga-grega- ?). 

graze vb. 'feed cattle' me. grdse 
OE. grasian = G. grasen : deriv. 
of TEUT. grasa- = grass. 

grease me. grese grffe : adapted 
from OFR.^'^r<?^^<? (fr, graisse) 'fat- 
ness'. Source lat. crassus 'fat'. 

great me. gr^t oe. gr(at; cp. 
OSAX. grot, DU. grooty ohg. gro'z^ 
G. gross 'great': teut. grauta-. 

greaves cogn. w. g. griebe ohg. 
griubo 'greaves'? 

greedy me. gredy oe. gredi^ 
grcedii == osAX. grddag, ohg. grd- 
tag, ON. grddtigr, goth. gredags 
'hungry' ' derived from a teut. 
gredu- 'hunger = goth. grhius, 
ON. grddr 'hunger'. Perh. akin to 
the SKR. \fgrdh 'to be greedy': 
KSCiK^\f ghredh ghrdh. 

green me. oe. grene : Teut. base 
groni- = OSAX. groni, OHG. gruoni 
g. griln 'green', ON. grcenn, sw. 
DAN. gron : deriv. of the teut. 
yfgro in grow and grass. The 
adj. orig. means 'growing. 

greet vb. me. grete oe. gretan 
=1 OSAX. grdtjdn, du. groeten, on. 
grceta , ohg. gruoT^yxn G. grussen : 
teut. type grotjan 'greet'. 

grey see ^r^y. — greyhound 

ME. greihound formed on. 
greyhu?idr 'greyhound'; cp. on. 
grey 'dog'? 

griddle me. gredel 'griddle': a 
CELT, loanword; cp. ir. greideal 
'griddle' (fr. a lat. '^crdtelld), 

grief ME. gref (= odu. grief) : 
adapted fr. ofr. gref 'heavy' — 
FR. grief 'injury' (source i-at. 
grevis for gravis). — grieve vb. 
ME. greve vb. 'burden, injure' fr. 
OFR. grever. 

grill vb. adapted fr. fr. griller 
broil on a gridiron'. 

grim ME. OE. gri7n {fm?i): teut. 
base grimma- = OSax. ohg. grim 
G. grimniy ON. grimmr: cogn. w. 
OE. OHG. gram 'angry' G. gram. 

grin vb. me. grinne grenne oe. 
gremiian 'show the teeth, snarl, 
grin'; cogn. w. grind. 

grind vb. me. grinde oe. grindan 
str. vb. : teut. \fgr'end = aryan 
ghrendh in lat. frendere 'gnash'. 

gripe WE. gripe O'E.gripan str. vb. 
= 0SAX.g7'ipa?iy DU. grijpetiy ohg. 
grifan G. greifen , goth. greipan 
'gripe, seize'. Outside of Teut. 
cp. the related \fghrib in lith. 
greibiu greibti 'seize' and lett. 
griba will' — gribet 'to will". 

grisly me. grisly short for oe. 
gryslic {angrysltc) 'terrible, hor- 

grist ME. grist short for oe. 
grist lit. 'a grinding': deriv. of 

grit 'gravel' me. gret oe. greot 
= ohg. grioT, G. gries, on. grj'dt. 

grizzly fr. me. grisel 'a gray- 
haired man': deriv. fr. FR. gris' 


groan — gudgeon 

gray'. Source a teut. gris- 'gray' 
in G. greis. 

groan vb. me. grgne oe. grdnian 
moan': intensive deriv. of a 
str. vb. ^grt-nan = ohg. grinan 
G. greinen 'weep', DU. grijnen. 

groat sb.ME.^r^'/f^: a continental 
teut. word : mlg. odu. grdte, du. 
groot^ G. groschen. 

grocer borrowed fr. ovk. grassier 
(lat. type grossarius 'a wholesale 
dealer, cp. fr. engros'yi\io\& sale'). 

groin corrupted fr. ofr. grine 
FR. grain 'the fork of a tree or 
of a river, a groin'. 

groom ME.^r<9>?/ 'boy': borrowed 
fr. OFR. gramme gaurme, whence 
OFR. gramet 'servant'. 

groove ME. grove 'a pit' = du. 
graeve graef ohg. gruaba G. grube, 
ON. graf, GOTH, groba] from oe. 
grafan =^ grave. 

grope vb. me. grope oe. gr apian) 
intensive formation of gripe = 
OE. gripan. 

ground me. ground oe. grund 
orig. grUnd = osax. g. grtmd, 
DU. grand, ohg. grunty on. grund 
'meadow' — grunnr {ix.'^grunpus) 
'bottom of the sea', gotu. grundus 
in grunduwaddjus 'foundation , lit. 
*a ground-wall'. 

group borrowed fr. fr. graupe 
(=: IT. groppo), 

grove me. grgi>e oe. grdf grove'; 
TEUT. base graiba- graifa-. The 
me. by-form gr^ve greve 'grove, 
wood' corresponds to OY.. grckfe 
■=■ TEUT. base graibjon- ? 

grovel vb. with the 2^^^. groveling 
UE. g7'oveling(es) grufling{es)\ akin 

to ME. agruf agrouve 'groveling' 
and ON. a grufu groveling' — 
griifa vb. 'bow down'. The e. word 
seems to be a Scand. loanword. 

grow vb. ME. grgwe oe. groman 
^= DU. groeijen, ohg. gruoan mho. 
grilejen, ON. groa, sw. dan. gro: 
TEUT. \fgrdy whence green and 
perh. also grass. 

growl ME.growle from T>v.grollen 
= g. grallen. 

grub vb. ME. grubbe 'dig': teut. 
yfgrab under grave] cp. ohg. 
grubilon (g. griibeln 'brood, pour 

grudge vb. me. grugge earUer 
grucche (short for "^grouchenT)'. 
borrowed fr. oyk. groucher groucer 

gruel ME. griiel: borrowed fr. 
OFR. gruel = FR. gruau (lat. 
type grutellum, dimin. of med.- 
LAT. grutwn 'meal'). 

gruff borrowed fr. du. graf 
= sw. grof, dan. grov g. grab, 

grumble loanword fr. fr. grom- 
meler ; akin to mdu. grotmnelen, 
frequent. of mdu. grummen 
grommen 'murmur'. 

grunt vb. me. grtinte grante 
OE. grunnettan ; ident. w. g. 
grunzen, dan. grynte, sw. grynta. 
A more primit. stem appears in 
OE. grunian 'grunt'. The yfgrun 
is imitation of sound; cp. lat. 

guarantee see warrant. 

guard vb. borrowed fr. fr. 
guarder, see ward. 

gudgeon borrowed fr. YR.goujon 
(jviE. *gugeon ^^gougeounT), 

guess — Gypsy 


guess vb. x\!E. gesse: prob. not 
a native word, but borrowed fr. 
the continent (du. lg. gissen) or 
fr. the Scand. (dan. gisse^ sw. 
gissd). A native me. gesse would 
point to an oe. *getsian (cp. 
bless OE. bletsiati) = teut. base 
*gdtisdn ? 

guest ME. gest borrowed fr. 
SCAND. gestr guest'; there was a 
native oe. pst ^iest, which was 
supplanted by the Scand. loan- 
word. SCAND. gestr OE. pst = 
OHG. OSAX. G. DU. gast represent 
a TEUT. base gasti-z = lat. /lostis 
'enemy', oslov.^^j// 'guest': aryan 
base ghostis, 

guide vb. me. glde borrowed 
fr. FR. guider (ofr. also gtder = 
ME. gie vb.). 

guild ME. gi/de oe. gy/d; cp. 
DU. gi/d, G. gi/de. 

guile sb. me. gi/e borrowed fr. 
OFR. gui/e 'treachery', which is 
of Teut. , origin ; cp. wi/e. 

guilt sb. ME. gf/t OE. gy/t 'a. 
crime': teut. base gu//i; a \fgtdt 
is unknown elsewhere. 

guise me. gise fr. ofr. guise 
'way, wise', which is of Teut. 
origin; cp. wise. 

gulf adapted fr. fr. golfe, 
whence also G. golf. The Rom. 
group Span. it. golfo 'a gulf, bay' 
is based on gr. n6A<f)ng xoXnog 
'bosom, lap, a deep hollow'. 

gullet sb. 'throat' me. gullet golet 
borrowed fr. fr. goule 'throat' 
= LAT. gula. 

guml short for me. gome OE. 
gp'ma 'palate'; cp. on. gomry ohGi 
guomo 'palate'; cogn. with the 
equival. lith. gomurys'. aryan 
^ghd {ghduT). 

gum 2 ME. gomme gumme: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. gom?ne = it. gofnma : 
source lat. gwnmi (gr. y.6/Li/Lii). 

gun ME. gunne gonne] the me. 
word was first applied to a cata- 
pult or machine for throwing 
stones ; perh. shortened for ofr. 
mangonnej which is the base of 
OFR. ME. mangonel 'machine for 
throwing stones'. 

gush vb. ME,gusche prop.gousc/ie; 
akin to on. gusa vb. *gush\ odu. 
guisen 'gush' : teut. \Pgut in goth. 
giutan, OE. j^eotan^ ohg. gio'i^yin 
G. giessen 'pour out'. 

gut xME. OE. gut (plur. ME. guttes 
OE. guttas) : Teut. base guttu-. 

gutter ME. gutire gotdre fr. fr. 
g outlier e (ofr. goutier^ lat. type 
guttarium : deriv. of lat. gutta 

Gypsy short for me. Egip(i(n 
Egyptian ; cp. span. port, gitano 
Gypsy' from Aegyptidnus\ mod.- 
greek rvffjToc aus AtyvnroQ. The 
Gypsies were popularly supposed 
to be Egyptians. 


habergeon — hale 


habergeon me. habergeon haw- 
berjoun: borrowed fr. ofr. hauber- 
gon hauberjofiy dimin. of ofr. 
hauberc\ see hauberk. 

habit ME. ablt: adapted fr. fr. 
habit garment, habit, a custom': 
source lat. habitus 'condition, 
habit, dress'. 

hack vb. me. hakkc oe. haccian 
(hceccean) = -DV.hakken, G. hacken, 
sw. hakka^ DAN. hakke\ possibly 
from the y^ haww haw seen in 
OE. hcawan = e. hew. 

hack''^; see hackney. 

hackle hatchel sb. me. hekel 
hechel] cogn. w. du. hekel, g. 
hechel\ sw. hdckla , dan. hegle 
(goth. '^hakila). 

hackney me. hakeney. borrow- 
ed fr. FR. haquenie 'an ambling 
horse' (=: odu. hackeneye, span. 
hacanea 'a hackney). 

haft me. haft oe. h(Eft\ cogn. 
w. DU. heft, ON. hepti, ohg. hefti 
G. heft'. TEUT. Y" haf (cp. heavy) 
= ARYANyfkap in lat. capio 'take'. 

hag ME. hagge short for oe. 
hce^tesse = mdu. haghetisse, ohg. 
haga-zussa'. the first part of the 
compound is perh. ident. w. 
haw, the second pWt still un- 

haggard ^ adj. adapted fr. fr. 
hagard 'wild , lit. 'of the woods'; 
formed fr. ohg. haga with the 
Fr. suffix -ard from G. -hart\ cp. 

haggard ^ adj. 'lean, meager' 
(earlier spelling haggcd) prop. 

hail sb. ME. hail (haul) oe. 
hceiel (hagol) = du. g. sw. dan. 
hagel, ohg. hagal, on. hag I: Teut. 
bases hagla- and hagala-. Perh. 
cogn. w. gr. yM^lrjE, 'a round 
pebble'. A single pebble is 
called stone' : e. hailstone oe. 
hceielstdn, = on. haglsteinn. 

hail adj. (ident. w. hale adj.) 
ME. /^^z7 'healthy, sound': Scand. 
loanword (on. heilt) superseding 
the native oe. hdl =z e. whole. 
— hail vb. 'greet, salute' me. 
heile, formed fr. the me. adj. heily 
which was borrowed fr. O'ti.heill. — 
hail (an exclamation of greeting) 
ME. heil from ON. heill 'hale, 
whole' (esp. used in , greeting 
as far heill 'farewell'). 

hair (earlier spelling hear heare 
in the i6. cent.) me. Mr oe. hii' 
h(ir = ON. hdr, osax. ohg. mhg. 
hdr, du. DAN. g. haar, sw. hdr\ 
Teut. base her a- {heza-T). Orig. 
allied are ON. haddr, oe. heard 
(goth.* hazda-) 'hair'. Outside of 
Teut. cp. OSLOV. kosmu kosa (Lith. 
kasd) 'hair' — cesati vb. 'comb'. 

hale adj. (ident. w. hail adj.) 
fr. ON. heill sound'; cp. whole. 

hale haul vb. 'drag' me. hale 
OE. (j^eholian and) '^lehalian = 
OSAX. halon, ofris. haliaj'DV. halen, 
OHG. holon (halon) G. holen. The 

half — hnmper 


TEUT. y/^hal hoi answers to lat. 
caldre, GR. xalslv 'summon*. 

half ME. /la// OE. healf^= goth. 
halts ^ ON. hdlfry ohg. g. halb^ 
OSAX. DU. sw. half, DAN. halv. 
Teut. base halba-y perh. cogn. 
w. SKR. klpay 'arrange, divide'. 

halibut holibut me. halibut \ 
from ME. hgly 'holy' and butie 'a 
plaice'; cp. du. heilbot 'halibut', 
sw. helgjlundra, dan. helleflynder ; 
the fish is so called because it 
is excellent eating for holydays; 
cp. SCAND. heilagr fiskr i lg. heilige 
butt and heilbutt. 

hall ME. halle OE. heall = on. 
hall hglly os ax. ^^//rt-, du. hal. teut. 
\Phdl he I in oe. >^<!//i?;'2 'hide' = 
DU. helen^ ohg. /^^7^/2 G. hehlen\ 
cp. ARYAN y"/^l/ 'conceal, cover' 
in LAT. celdre occulere, gr. y/^xaX 
in xaXvTTTCO hide' — xaXv(-Jrj 'hut', 
oiR. ^^//;« 'I hide'; skr. fdla 

hallow vb. me. hdlwe short for 
OE. hdl^ian: from oe. hdli^ = 
E. holy, — hallowmass 'feast' 
shortened from All Hallotvs 
Mass 'mass of all saints'; 
hallows* is the gen. of hallows^ 
plur. of me. hal{o)we *a saint' ^=^ 
OE. hdlga 'a saint' from OE. hdli^ 
'holy'. Cp. holy. 

halo . borrowed fr. lat. - gr. 
halos 'circle around the sun or 

halt adj. me. halt oe. healt = 
GOTH, halts, on. haltr, oSAX. halt, 
OHG. halz: Teut. base halta-, 
pre-TEUT. ^oldo — klodo in LAT. 
claudus halt', gr. vXaiSagoq 

English Etymology. 

'brittle'. — halt vb. me. halte oe. 
healtian (= OHG. '^halzen mhg. 
halzen 'limp') from oe. healt = 
halt adj. 'lame'. " 

halter me. halter oe. hcelftre — 
MDU. halfter du. halster , ohg. 
halftra g. halfter \ closely allied 
to oe. hylf m. = e. helve 
'handle', OHG. halp. From the 
same root are derived with 
w-formation ME. halme 'handle', 
OHG. halmo mjioh- 'rope fastened 
to the yoke to guide the oxen'. 

halyard halliard 'a rope for 
hoisting sails' shortened from 
hale-yard, because the ropes 
haul the yards into their places. 
Cp. hale vb. and yard. 

ham ME. hamme oe. hamm lit. 
'bend of the leg'; Teut. base 
havima- from an Aryan kanmd- 
kndnid' in gr. yLvrjf.irj ? OIR. cndi?n 
(base kndmi-) bone'. 

hame 'horse-collar' me. hdnie 
(oe. "^hamd) = du. haam, g. 
hainen'. Teut. base haman- cogn. 
w. GR. y.rji^ioc, LAT. cdmus 'muzzle'. 

hamlet me. ha?nelet] formed 
with dimin. suffix -et from ofr. 
ham el (= Fr. hameaii) : source 
a Teut. word ofris. hdm = e. 
home (with dimin. suffix -ef). 

hammer me. hamer oe. hamor 
■=^ ON. ha?narr , osAX. hamur, 
OHG. hamar G. hammer', on. 
hamarr denotes also 'rock, 
cliff', pointing to relationship 
with OSLOV. kamy 'stone'. 

hamper vb. :me. hampere 
ha?npre vb. 

hamper sb. borrowed fr. ofr. 


hand — hard 

hanapier, orig. 'a vessel to keep | 
cups in' from ofr. hanap (Lat. \ 
type hanapiii) goblet'. The Fr. 
hanap is of Teut. origin; cp. 
OE. hno'py OHG. hnapf G. napf^ 
MLG. DU. nap. 

hand me. oe. hand hgnd = 
GOTH, handus, on. hgnd, ohg. 
hant G. OSAX. DU. hand', prob. 
derived fr. teut. goth. hinpan 
'catch' (cp. hound and hunt). 

— handle vb. i^e. handle oe. 
handlian = DU. handelen , on. 
hg7idlay ohg. hantalon g. handehi : 
frequent, vb. derived fr. hand. 

— handle sb. me. handel oe. 
handle from handle vb. — hand- 
cuff 'a cuff {ox the hand adopted 
fr. me. handcops 'a handcuff' from 
oe. handcops 'a handcuff' from 
OE. hand 'hand' and cops 'a fetter'. 

— handicraft with unorig. in- 
serted i (after handiwork) from 
OE. handcrcBft. — handiwork me. 
handiwerc oe. hand-^eweorc from 
OE. hond and "yeweorc ident. w. 
weorc. The i is due to the prefix 
OE. le. 

handsome me. handsom prop, 
'easy to handle'. — handy me. 
hendy oe. hendii in listhe?tdii} 
Akin w. GOTH, handugs clever', 
DU. handig 'handy, expert'; perh. 
not derived fr. hand, but akin 
to GR. 'Azvrko 'prick, spur'; cp. 
OHG. ha n tag 'sharp. 

hang vb. me. haiige oe. hangian 
■=. OHG. hangen G. hangen'. deriv. 
of a str. vb. teut. Vianhan = 
GOTH. OHG. hdhan = oe. hgn 
(for * hdhan)', cp. hunger. 

hanker vb. akin to du. hunker en 
(dial, hanker eti) 'long after'; prob. 
akin to hang and hunger. 

hap sb. me. hap borrowed fr. 
SCAND. happ 'chance, good luck'; 
cp. oe. j^ehcep 'fit'. — Hence 
happen vb. me. happene ex- 
tended for me. happen (cp. swed. 
happd). — Cp. perhaps. 

harass vb. loanword fr. fr. 
harasser Vex'. 

harbor sb. me. herberwe, earlier 
(i2. cent.) herberge inn, lodging, 
guest house': Scand. loanword, 
cp. ON. herberge 'inn, lodging' = 
OHG. heri-b'erga 'guest house' 
(prop, 'sheltering place for the 
army') G. herberge, du. herberg. 
The first part of the compound 
is OE. here = ohg. osax. heri, 
GOTH, harjis 'army'. The second 
part is derived fr. a lost str. 
vb. TEUT. bergan 'shelter'. — 
harbinger me. herbergeour 'one 
who provides lodgings : deriv. 
of OFR. herberg er vb. 'lodge, 
quarter which is a deriv. of 
OFR. herberge {= fr. auberge). 
This is ident. w. ohg. herib'erga 
(see harbor). 

hard adj. ms.. hard oe. h(ard', 
perh. the me. phonology points 
to its being borrowed from on. 
hardr. Cp. osax. du. hard, ohg. 
herti hart G. hart 'hard, solid, 
heavy, painful', on. hardr, sw. 
hard, dan. haard, goth. hardus 
'hard, severe': Teut. base hardu- 
= ARYAN kartu- in GR. y.oarvq 
{v-dgxa). — hardy adj. me. hardy 
borrowed fr. fr. hardi w'hich is 

hards — hasp 


of Teut. origin; cp. ohg. harti 
herti under hard, 

hards sb. 'the refuse or coarse 
part of flax' ME. hei'des OE. 
heordan plur. hards of flax'; 
akin to oe. heord, on. haddr 
'hair' ? 

hare me. hare oe. hara = 
OHG. haso G. hase; for the 
rhotacism in E. cp. on. here: 
Teut. base hasan- hazan-\ an 
ARYAN kaso- is represented in 
the synon. skr. ^agciy opruss. 
sasins 'hare'. The Aryan name 
of the animal points perh. to 
the OE. adj. haso hasu gray'. 

hark vb. me. herke (oe. '^Mrcian 
"^hyrciari) from a Teut. base 
"^hauziqon ■= OFRis. hirh'a, mlg. 
horken g. horchen mhg. horchen 
late OHG. horechen from *hdrah- 
hon: derived fr. the teut. \fhauz 
in GOTH, hausjan = e. hear. — 
harken vb. me. herkne short for 
OE. h^rcnian hyrcnian\ an E. 
derivative of the verb hear\ cp. 
talk and telly lurk and lower, 

harlot ME. harlot a disorderly 
person' (of either sex) : loan- 
word fr. OFR. harlot 'vagabond'. 

harm me. harm, oe. hear in = 
OSAX. harm ohg. hara7?i 'insult, 
mortification'; cogn. w. oslov. 
sramu (fr. '^sormu) 'shame, dis- 

harness :me. harneis] borrowed 
fr. OFR. harneis armor', whence 
also G. harnisch. 

harp me. ha?-_pe oe. hearpe; cp. 
synon. ON. harpa, du. harp, ohg. 
harp/a harfa G. harfe. The Teut. 

word occurs first in the 5*^ cent, 
as LAT. harpa \ fr. harpe is of 
Teut. origin. 

harpoon adopted fr. fr. harpon, 
whence also DU. harpoen (g. har- 
pune). Source lat. harpago(nem). 

harrow sb. me. harwe (point- 
ing to OE. "^hearwe or ^hearge) ; 
perh. akin to the synon. g. harke, 
DU. hark, ON. herfi, dan. harVy 
SW. hcerf 'harrow'. 

harry vb. me. herie herien oe. 
her^ian herigan 'overcome with 
an army' (= GOTH, "^harjon, on. 
herja 'go on a plundering ex- 
pedition', OHG. her ion g. ver- 
heeren)'. derived fr. teut. harja- 
'army' under harbor. 

harsh adj. late me. harsk: a 
Scand. loanword; cp. dan. osw. 
harsk 'rancid'. 

hart sb. me. hert oe. heart 
(heorot) = du. hert, ohg.' hiruT^ 
hirz G. hirs now hirsch, on. 
hjgrtr, sw. hjort , dan. hiort\ 
Teut. base *herut- from aryan 
kerud-, cogn. with lat. cervus 
'hart' and gr. 'ABganQ (lit. 'horned' 
from Aboaq 'a horn'), KYMR. carw 
hart, PRUSS. sirwis, osloy . siirna 

harvest me. hervest oe. hcerf est 
^ DU. herfst, ohg. herbist G. 
herbst: related to eat. carpere 
'pluck', GR. y.aoTTog 'fruit', x{;a>'- 
7T10V 'a pruning-knife', skr. krpana 
'sword', LIT. klrp-ii 'shear'. 

hash sb. from fr. hacher vb. 
'hack' (of Teut. origin , cp. 
hack vb.). 

hasp me. haspe oe. hceps (for 


haste — hawk 

*hcBSp) = DAN. SW. G. MHG. 

haspCy ON. hespa 'hasp'. 

haste vb. me. haste: loanword 
fr. OFR. haster (fr. hater), whence 
alsro DU. haasten, G. hasten make 
haste'. The fr. vb. is prob. a 
Tent, loanword. 

hat sb. ME. hat (plur. hattes) 
OE. hcet (plur. hattas) = on. 
Apttr 'hood, cowl', sw. hatt, dan. 
hat 'hat' : Teut. base hattu- cogn. 
w. hood sb. and perh. also 
with LAt. cassis (for ^cat-tis) 

hatch vb. me. hacche\ cp. 
MHG. hecken 'produce young 
from eggs by incubation' G. 
aushecken 'hatch', sw. hdcka 
'breed', dan. hcekkebuur 'breeding 

hatch sb. 'halfdoor' me. hacche 
OE. hcEcc'^ cogn. w. DU. hekl 

hatchel see hackle sb. 

hatchet sb. me. hacchet'. loan- 
word from FR. hachette, dimin. 
of FR. hache 'axe': source a 
teut. hakka cp. hack vb. 

hate vb. me. hate older hdtien 
OE. hatian = goth. hatan, du. 
haten, OSAX. haton, ohg. haT^i^on 
g. hassen. — hate sb. me. hate 
influenced by the vb. hdte\ 
earlier me. h(te OE. hete = 
OSAX. heti, DU. haat, ohg. ha^^ 
g. hassy ON. hatr, sw. hat, dan. 
had, GOTH, hatis. The teut. 
\f hat 'hate' is perh. ident. w. 
the Teut. y^ hap in oe. heado- 

war' = OHG. hadu and G. hader 

hatred me. hatrMe{n): abstr. 

noun from the vb. hate) cp. 
kindr ed. 

hauberk me. hauberk borrowed 
fr. OFR. hauberc] source ohg. 
halsb'erc prop, 'neck-defence'. 

haughty adj. me. hautein 'arro- 
gant' from OFR. hautain] source 
OFR. haut = LAT. a/tus 'high'. 

haul see ha/e vb. 

haunch sb. me. haunche: loan- 
word from FR. hanche (ofr. hanke 
of Teut. origin ; cp. ohg. 
anka ?) . 

haunt vb. me. haunte borrowed 
fr. fr. hanter 'haunt, frequent'. 

have ME. have oe. habban = 
OSAX. hebbian, du. hebben, ohg. 
haben G. haben, on. hafa, goth. 
haban'. Teut, base habai-^ ident. 
w. LAT. habere'^ Aryan base 
khabhey ? 

haven ms.. hdven late oe. hcefene, 
prob. a Scand. loanword; cp. 
ON. hgfn 'haven ; perh. allied to 
oe. hcef, ON. haf 'ocean'. 

haversack borrowed fr. fr. 
havresac 'a knaf)sack' from G. 
habersack hafersack 'a sack for 

haw ME. hawe oe. hag a 'an 
inclosure' = on. fiagi\ cp. ohg. 
hag 'an inclosure' G. hag 'a hedge', 
DU. haag 'a hedge, garden'. A 
corresponding Aryan \f kagh is 
evident in cymr. cae, corn, ke 
'hedge'. — Hence hawthorn 
OE. hagu-porn. Cp. hedge. 

hawk ME. hauk oe. heafoc] cp. 
OSAX. ^habuc in tlie proper name 
Habuc-horst y DU. havik , ohg. 
habuh G. habicht with secondary 

hawser — heart 


/, ON. haukr (for hgbukr) , sw. 
h'dk^ DAN. hdg\ GOTH, '^habuks 
with formative -ka- as in ahaks 
'dove'. The \fhaf is seen in 
OE. hebban e. heave orig. 'take, 
seize' as in lat. caper e. 

hawser 'a tow-rope' borrowed 
fr. the OFR. vb. haulser 'raise, 
tow a boat' (Lat. type altiare 
'elevate, raise'). 

hay ME. hey oe. he^ hii : Teut. 
base hauja- = goth. hawi 
(gen. haujis) 'hay, grass', ohg. 
hewi houwi G. heUy on. hey^ sw. 
DAN. hOy DU. hooi\ orig. verbal 
adj. of the Teut. verbal sfhau seen 
in hew. Hence hay 'grass to be 
hewn' (orig. hauja- sc. grasa-). 

hazel ME. hdsel oe. hcBsel = 
DU. hazel, ohg. hasala G. hasel, 
ON. y^rt^i-/: from pre-TEUT. kdslo-, 
hence in Lat. with rhotacism 
corulus for *cosulus 'hazel'; cp. 
also oiR. coll 'hazel' for ^cosH 

he me. oe. he = osax. hi. 

head short for ME. • hal fuller 
form hived o^. he'afod= ON^. haufup 
(hpfiif), GOTH, haubip y osAX. 
hobidy DU. hoofd, OHG. houbit o. 
haupt'. Teut. base haubida- hau- 
biida- is closely allied to OE. hiife, 
OHG. huba G. haube 'cap, hood'. 
This ti-xool (ARYAN ktip- ?) may 
be connected with lat. caput, 
if this is traceable to an hypo- 
thetical ^cauput *cdput. — head 
var. suffix of -hood. 

heal vb. me. h^'le oe. hdlan] 
cp. the synon. osax. helian, du. 
heelen, OHG. heilan G. heilen, on. 
hcila, GOTH, hailjan 'heal' : deriv. 

! of the Teut. adj. haila- -= e. 
: whole (cp. also hail adj. — hale 
adj.). — health me. helthe oe. 
/^^^ 'healing, cure' = ohg. 
heilida'. an abstract formation 
from the adj. hdl 'whole, hale' 
(see whole). 

heap ME. h4p oe. heap 'heap, 
troop, crowd' = oSAX. hop, DU. 
hoop, OHG. houf 'crowd, troop' 
G. haufe 'crowd , troop , pile' 
{GOTi^.^haups). OSLOV. kupu and 
LTfH. kaupas 'heap' are prob. 

hear vb. me. here oe. her an 
(wEST-SAX. hyran) = osAX. 
horian, DU. hooren, OHG. horan 
G. horen, on. heyra, sw. hora, 
DAN. hdre\ all with rhotacism 
versus goth. hausjan 'hear (cp. 
harkdiXid hearken). The teut. 
\fhauz = ARYAN kous may 
be connected with gr. a-xovco 
for d-y.ovOro (with prefix n- = 
SKR. sam) and with teut. auso 
'ear' :=: ear. 

hearken var. of harken; cp. 

hearse sb. me. herse her^e orig. 
'a triangular harrow', then 'a 
carriage for a dead body': 
adopted fr. O^r. herce 'a harrow' 
= FR. herse 'a harrow'. Source 
LAT. hirpex — hirpicem 'a harrow'. 

heart me. herte oe. heorte', 
equivalent to osax. h'erta, on. 
hjarta, goth. hairtb (ohg. herza 
G. herz by the second sound- 
shifting): Teut. base h'ertdn- or 
hertan- = Aryan base herd krd 
in LAT. cor cordis, gr. vagdia 


hearth — heel 

and y./jp for ^yS]pd, IR. criWe, 
OSLOV. sridice 'heart'. 

hearth me. herth oe. heor^ = 
DU. heerd^ OSAX. herth, g. herd'. 
a TEUT. \pher 'burn' (cp. lat. 
cre-mare 'burn'?) may be as- 
sumed as the base of e. hearth 
and GOTH, hauri^ coaV plur. haurja 
'fire', ON. hyrr 'fire'. 

heat sb. ME. hete oe. hckto, the 
abstract sb. from the adj. oe. 
hat (= E. hot^ formed by vowel 
mutation (goth. ^haitei f. heat'). 
— heat vb. me. hete oe. hdtan'. 
a factitive vb. from the adj. oe. 
hat = E. hot (goth. '^haitjan 
from "^ halts) \ cp. G. heizen. 

heath me. h4th oe. hdp = 
^ OHG. hezda G. heide 'heath', 
GOTH, haipi 'a waste', on. heidr. 
Hence heathen me. h(then oe. 
hcBden corresponding to on. 
heidinn, DU. mhg. heiden G. heide. 
In goth. we find only a femi- 
nine half no 'a heathen woman', 
whereby the existence of the 
common Teut. masculine haipina 
is secured for the fourth cen- 
tury. It seems to be a trans- 
lation of the synon. lat. paganus 
occurring in the latter half of 
the fourth century of the Chris- 
tian era. 

heave vb. me. h(ve earlier 
hcbbe OE. hebban str. vb. = on. 
hefja, OSAX. hebbian, du. heffen, 
OHG. heffan hevan G. heben, 
goth. hafjan *lift, raise': aryan. 
\pkap in LAT. capio 'seize'. See 

^eaven j\ie. h§ven oe. heofon 
= OSAX. h'eban (lg. hatveii) with 
a by-form himily ohg. hi7nily du. 
hemel, g. sw. dan. himmel'. the 
/-suffix stands by dissimilation 
for the older /z-suffix after goth. 
himinSy ON. himinn, whilst in the 
Saxon forms the orig. m is dis- 
similated to b. The common 
Teut. word is prob. a deriv. of 
a more primit. teut. haiman- 
'clearness , brightness' (ofris. 
hdmlicht 'bright as the sky'): 
TEUT. yf hai in G. heiter, OE. 
hd-dor 'serene'. Cp. hoar. 

heavy ms.. hevy oe. hefii = 
OHG. hebig, ON. hgfugr 'heavy': 
deriv. of the teut. sT haf in 

hedge me. hegge oe. hecg (oe. 
also he-^e me. heye haye)'. Teut. 
base hagja-\ cp. ohg. hecka G. 
hecke, DU. hegge heg. C^. haw. 

heed vb. me. hede oe. hedan 
= OSAX. hodian, ohg. huoten g. 
huteiiy DU. hoeden. The teut. 
\fhdd from Aryan kadh {kodhT) 
or kdt is regarded as orig. cogn. 
w. LAT. cassis (for *cat-tis) 'hel- 
met'; cp. hood sb. 
/ heel sb. me. hele oe. hela hcela 
shortened from *hdhila = east- 
FRis. he/a (whence du. hiet), 
dimin. of oe. hoh 'heel'; a Teut. 
base hanha- cp. in on. hckll 'heel', 
DAN. hal., sw. hdl, and in e. hough. 

heel vb. 'incline' shortened 
from me. heide oe. Mldan hyldan 
= OHG. heldan w. vb. 'incline': 
Teut. base halpjan derived fr. 
the Teut. adj. halpa- 'inclined' 

heifer — hen 


in OE. niderheald 'bent down- 

heifer me. haifer {heckfre) oe. 
heah/ore heahfre {^ hcEgfreH) 'a 
young cow': apparently a com- 
pound, but of obscure elements. 
the first element seems to be 
heah' hcey- = teut. haha- haga- 
cp. G. dial, hagen hegel bull, ox'; 
the second element is perh. oe. 
fearr 'bull, ox' (gr. 770 o/c heifer). 

height M'E.heghte earlier heghthe 
oe. hehpo hyhpo '= goth. /lau- 
hipa 'height', ON. hckd'. abstr. 
formation from the teut. adj. 
hauha- z= high formed with suff. 
-i^a (cf. length, strength.). 

heinous me. heinous from ofr. 
hdinos = fr. haineux 'hateful'. 

heir me. heir eir from ofr. heir 
eir = LAT. heres 'an heir'. 

hell ME. he//e oe. he//; cp. 
GOTH. ha//a, OSAX. he// — he//ia, 
OB.G.he//(i G.ho//e: common Teut. 
Christian name for 'Hades, in- 
fernum'; ON. he/ shows that the 
older orig. word was also used 
in pre-Christian times for heathen 
'infernum'. Cp. also on. He/ 
'goddess of death'. Usually con- 
nected with Y" he/ ha/ 'conceal' 
(cp. ha//), hence ^^// 'the hid- 
ing place, the unseen place'. 

helm sb. me. he/me oe. he/ma', 
cp. ON. hj'a/m 'a rudder'. 

helmet dimin. of me. oe. h'e/m. 
In the form /fe/ma- 'helmet' com- 
mon to the Teut. langs.; cp. 
GOTH, hi/ms, ON. /ija/mr, sw. DAN. 
hje/7n, OSAX. DU. G. he/7n with 
the same meaning that may be 

derived fr. the verbal \f he/ in 
OE. OHG. he/an, goth. hi/an 'hide, 
conceal' (aryan \f/ie/ in lat. 
ce/are , occulere , skr. (arman 

help vb. ME. he/pe oe. he/pan 
:= goth. Jii/pan, on. hja/pa, sw. 
hje/pa, DAN. }ijce/pe, oSAX. he/pan, 
DU. LG. he/pen, OHG. he/fan G. 
he/fen. teut. y/^h'e/p from pre- 
TEUT. \f/ze/h' (lith. sze/pti vb. 
pasza/pa 'help' pointing to an 
ARYAN \fke/p). 

helve sb. me. he/ve oe. he/f 
hy/f: Teut. base ha/bi-\ cp. mlg. 
MDU. he/ve, ohg. ha/ba he/ba mho. 
he/p ha/p 'a handle. See /la/ter. 

hem sb. me. hem (plur. /tcmfnes) 
OE. hem (plur. hemvias): Teut. 
base /lamja-. 

hemlock me. hem /ok hum /ok 
OE. h(m/ic hpn/ec, the second 
part of the compound seems to 
be explanatory (cp. /eek), the 
first part points to a Teut. base 
^haumi- ? 

hemp ME. /lemp oe. hcsnep', cp. 
ON. hampr, DU. hennep, ohg. hanaf 
G. hanf\ ident. w. the synon. 
LAT. cannabis, GR. y,dvva(^ig. The 
Teut. word cannot be borrowed 
from GR. or lat. Perh. the 
Teutons adopted the word and 
the thing from the Scythians 
whence ^he word came also to 

hen ME. oe. he/i (stem henn-): 
the fem. of OE. hana 'cock' = 
ohg. henna G. henne (goth.. 
*ha7ijo-) derived fr. hana m. 
'cock'). ON. hcena (SAV. hona 




'hen') points to goth. "^honjo. 
The common teut. masc. hanan- 
(goth. oe. hanay ohg. hano) 
orig. meant 'singer', primit. re- 
lated to LAT. canere 'sing'. 

hence me. hennes with secon- 
dary -s (as in thence, once) for 
an earher henne, which by syn- 
cope stands for late oe. heonane 
mostly OE. heonan = OSAX. ohg. 
hindn (g. von hinneri). An origi- 
nal stem hi' 'this' is evident 
also in here and hither. 

herald me. herald (heratid): 
borrowed fr. FR. Mraut (lat. 
type heraldus), which is of Teut. 
origin [heri-7vald}). 

herb me. her be adopted fr. fr. 
her be: source lat. herba 'grass'. 

herd^ 'a flock' short for me. 
herde oe. heord = goth. hairda, 
ON. hjord, sw. dan. hjord ohg. 
herta g. herde, teut. her do- from 
ARYAN kerdha is cogn. w. skr. 
(drdhas fdrdha-s 'troop'; also 
OSLOV. creda 'herd, flock', lith. 
kerdziis 'shepherd'. See herd'^. 
— herd^ 'shepherd' now usually 
compounded (shep-, cow-, swine-,) 
me. herde oe. hyrde {hiorde), 
GOTH, hairdeis, ON. "hirdir, ohg. 
hirti G. hirte'. with formative ja- 
from TEUT. herdo- 'herd, flock'. 

here me. here oe. her = goth. 
ON. OSAX. her ohg. hiar G. hier: 
adv. of place (formed like goth. 
a/j'ar 'elsewhere', /ar 'there' cp. 
there) from the pronom. stem 
hi- in goth. hi-mma daga 'to- 
day' und hi-na dag 'till to-day 
(cp. hence and hither^. The 

stem hi' is cogn. w. lith. szis, 
OSLOV. si 'this one', lat. ci-s 
ci-tra 'on this side'. 

heron ivie. heiroun from ofr. 
hairon = fr. hiron, 

herring me. hering oe. hdring 
= ohg. hdring mhg. hcerinc G. 
hering, du. haring. westteut. 
hdring is the source of fr. 

hest 'a command' :me. Mste 
Mst with inorganic / from oe. 
hcBS 'a command' = teut. haisi- 
orig. hait-ti : teut. \(^ hait in 
OE. hdtan 'command'. See behest 
and hight. 

hew vb. ME. h(we oe. h(awan 
■= OSAX. hauwan, ohg. houwan 
G. hauen, DU. houwen ; on. hgggva 
points to goth. ^haggwa?t in 
place of TEUT. hawwan. The 
verbal \l^haww haw (cp. hay) 
is allied to the ARYAN sfkow in 
OSLOV. kovq — kovati 'forge', LITH. 
kaujii 'I strike' — kiijis 'hammer'. 

heyday orig. hey day = e. 
high day. 

hiccough hiccup, also hick-et 
looks like a dimin. of hick or 
hik 'a catch in the voice', imi- 
tative of sound? 

hide^ sb. me. hide oe. hyd (by 
vowel mutation fr. a Teut. base hu- 
di-); synon. in all Teut. languages 
except Goth.; cp. ohg. htit o. 
haut, ON. hud, dan. sw. hud, 
DU. huid. ARYAN Mt/'S answers 
to LAT. ciitis 'skin'; cp. gr. y.vrog 
'skin, hide'. The y/^ku appears 
in LAT. scu-tum 'shield', gr. 
0/v-Tog 'skin, hide' with a prefix s. 

hide^ — hip^ 


hide^ sb. 'a measure of land' 
OE. hid coViXx. of OE. y^/^/^ 'enough 
land for a household'; prop. 
*hiwida- 'family' allied to hind"^. 

hide vb. me. hide oe. hfdan\ 
Teut. base hiidjan, perh. cogn. 
w. CYMR.^r?^^^ 'hidden, concealed' 
and GR. vevd^M 'hide': Aryan 

hideous by change of suffix for 
ME. hidoiis adopted fr. ofr. hidous 
= FR. hideux'. source a lat. type 
hispidosus, extension of lat. hispi- 
dus 'rough, shaggy, bristly'. 

hie vb. 'hasten me. Me earlier 
hi^e higen oe. higian. Teut. base 
hi-gai- perh. a reduplication of 
an ARYAN sfki in lat. ci-to 
quickly', G^.v.Uiv 'go'? Or cogn. 
w. SKR. ftghra 'quick'? 

high adj. me. heigh earlier heh 
OY.. h(ah = GOTH, hduhs, on. 
hdr, DU. hoogf OSAX. ohg. hSh, 
G. hoch\ TEUT. hauha- from an 
ARYAN kouko-. OTEUT. possessed 
a sb. formed from the adj. 
meaning 'hill' (base kouk6-s)\ 
cp. ON. haugr 'hill' (whence E. 
ho IV in proper names) and with 
ablaut G. hilgel] cp. lith. kau- 
kara 'hill'. 

hight vb. ME. highte heghte oe. 
heht {h^ht}) 'was called : pret. 
to oe. hdtan =: goth. haitan^ 
G. heissen. 

hill ME. hil (plur. hilles) OE. 
hyll (plur. hyllas)'. Teut. base 
hulli- or hulja- cogn. w. goth. 
hallus 'rock' and on. halb' 'hill'; 
an ARYAN \fkol cp. in lat. collis 

'a hiir, culmen 'a top', lith. katnas 
kalva hiir, GR. v.o'ki.ovoc,^ 

hilt ME. OE. hilt = ON. hja/ff 
OHG. he/za 'a sword-hilt'. 

hind ^ ME. hinde oe. hind = 
ON. DAN. sw. hind, DU. hinde, 
OHG. hinia G. hindin. goth. *hindi 
(gen. *hindjos) is perh. connected 
with GR. y.e^i-dg 'youngdeer'. 

hind^ 'a peasant' me. hine oe. 
hina 'a domestic'. Cp. hide^. 
There is a Teut. base hmia- in 
goth. heiwa-fratt.ja 'husband', 
OE. hiwrceden 'family, household' 
= OHG. hirdi 'marriage' g. heirat. 

hind in behind and hind- feet 
akin to the oe. adv. hindan 'at 
the back of — hinder 'backwards' 
= GOTH, hindar prep, 'behind', 
G. hinter prep, 'behind'. — hin- 
der vb. me. hindre oe. hinder ian 
= ON. hindra ohg. hintiren hin- 
taron G. hindern, — hindmost 
corrupted fr. hindjnest (confused 
with ?nost) = GOTH, hindumists 

hinge me. henge; oe. '^hencge 
(for TEUT. "^hangjon-) is not re- 
corded: deriv. of the teut. 
\fhanh hang (see hang)\ cp. 
MLG. MDU. henge 'rack for hang- 
ing up things'. 

hint sb. shortened fr. me. 
hinted part, of hinte (Jiente) = 
OE. hejitan 'seize, hunt after' 
ixom. \fhenp seen in hunt} 

hipi sb. ME. hipe oe. hype] cp. 
GOTH, haps (nom. plur. hupeis), 
DU. heup, G. hiifte JVIHG. huf (plur. 
hiiffe) OHG. huf (plur. huff): 
TEUT. hilpi- from ARYAN kUbi-. 


hip^ — hog 

hip- sb. 'the fruit of the dog- 
rose' ME. hepe OE. heope = osax. 
kwpa, OHG. Mufo MHG. Me/e. 

hip vb. ME. /lippe oe. */iyppan 
= MHG. hup fen hup fen G. hilp/en] 
alHed to oe. hoppian ^= y.. hop 
vb.; o^. hoppettan, g. hop fen, on. 

hire vb. me. hire oe. hjrian 
vb. = DU. huren, ofris. y^^r«2, 
sw. hyra, dan. /^j^r^ mlg. hiiren, 
G.heuern 'hire, rent': West-Teut. 
base hui'jon. 

hiss vb. ME. /^m^: prob. an 
onomatopoetic word as ODU. 
hisschen 'to hiss'. 

hit vb. ME. hitte'. adopted fr. 
ON. hitta, DAN. hitte \ perh. cog. 
w. GOTH, hinpafi 'catch'. 

hitch vb. ME. hicche 'move'; 
OE. '^hycca?il 

hither me. oe. hider\ derived 
from a Teut. pronoun hi- 'this' 
in here and hence] cp. goth. 
hidre, on. hedra 'on this side'; 
cogn. with LAT. ci-tra 'on this 
side'. For the suffix cp. thither. 

hive me. hive oe. hyf\ Teut. 
base hubi- in mlg. huve 'hive', 
DU. huif\ cogn. w. lat. cupa 

hoar adj. me. hgr oe. hdr == 
GOTH, ^haira-, on. hdrr 'hoary', 
osax. OHG. her g. hehr 'distingui- 
shed', also 'venerable'. The orig. 
meaning of the adj. was prob. 
venerable', on. and e. have the 
meaning 'gray with age*. A teut. 
'\f hai 'glitter, shine' is supported 
hy heaven and ON. y^^/</ 'clearness 
of the sky' ; teut. hai from aryan 

koi is cogn. with skr. ke-tic-s 
'light, lustre, torch'. 

hoard me. oe. hgrd = osax. 
hord (horth), goth. huzd, on. 
hodd n. — hoddr m., ohg. g. hort. 
teut. hozda- from aryan kuzdho- 
for kudhto- part, 'that which is 
hidden'; cp. gr. under 
hide vb. 

hoarhound aie. hgrhoune oe. 
s6o hare hune 'the hoar hound'; 
OE. hmie is a plant-name. 

hoarse me. horse prop, hgs, oe. 
has pointing to goth. '^haisa- = 
OHG. heis heisi mhg. heis heise] 
the r of MHG. G. heiser seems to 
be the same r as in E. hoarse 
= MDU. heersch (mod. DU. hcescH) ; 
perh. originating from the OE. 
dat. hdsre {?nid hdsre stefne) 
transposed to hdrse = me. horse! 

hobble vb. me. hoble for "^hopple] 
frequent, oi hop vb. 

hobby sb. 'a toy like a horse, 
ambling nag, a favorite pursuit'; 
ME. hobin 'a nag': borrowed fr. 
OFR. hobin 'a little horse'? 

hock corruption of Hochheim: 
the name of a German town on 
the river Main, famous for wine. 

hoe sb. from fr. houe 'a hoe': 
source ohg. houwa = g. haue 

hog ME. hog (plur. hogges) OE. 
hocg (plur. hoggas): a Welsh 
loanword, cp. w. hweh 'a sow' 
(bret. corn, hoeh 'pig'). — hogs- 
head cp. the equiv. mlg. hukes- 
hovet huxhbvet du. okshoofd (earlier 
also hokshoofd) g. oxho/t , sw. 
oxhufvudy DAN. oxehoved: origin 




and history of this compound 
•are unauthorized. 

hoist vb. earlier hoise akin to 
the equivalent lg. hisseji, du. 
hijscJieny dan. heise, sw. hissa^ 
G. hissen, fr. hisser, it. issare. 

hold vb. ME. hglde oe. hdldan 
(healdan) = ohg. haltan {halthaii) 
G. halten , OSAX. goth. haldan, 
DU. houden, on. i^^z/^^^z : a common 
TEUT. vb. . Cp. behold. 

hold sb. (the hold of a ship) 
prop. hole', ident. w. hollow and 
hollow \ cp. DU. hoi *a hole, cave'. 
— hole sb. ME. hole hoi oe. hoi 
'a cave' ^= on. ^^/r, ohg. mhg. 
hoi G. /t^^/, DU. hol\ the E. me. 
OE. OHG. MHG. adjectives are 
used as substantives : teut. 
\fhel 'conceal' in oe. helan^ G. 
hehlen. — hollow me. holwe oe. 
holh (gen. hohves)\ cogn. with 
equival. ohg. mhg. hoi, on. holr'. 
TEUT. \f^hul connected with 
the TEUT. \fhel in oe. ohg. h'elan 
'hide, conceal' (c^.helly helmet). 

holiday prop, holy day. 

holly me. holm oe. holeyt ; akin 
to the equivalent du. g. hulst 
mhg. hulSy OHG. hulisy whence fr. 
houx\ pre-TEUT. \fkel' in w. 
celyn , corn, celin , bret. kelen, 
IR. cuileann 'holly'. 

hollyhock for me. hglihoc prop, 
'holy hock': oe. hocc means 

holster borrowed fr. du. holster 
'a case for a pistol' {o,. pistolen- 
holfter) ; ident. w. ON. hulstr 'a 
case, a sheath', goth. hulistr 'a 

veil'; from teut. huljan and 
suff. -stra fr. -s-tra (oE. heolstor). 

holy i^iE. holy OE. >^^7/5 earlier 
hdlej^ = OSAX. helagy ohg. heilag 
G. DU. heilig , ON. heilagr , dan. 
hellig J sw. ^^/4'' (goth. hailag 
in a Goth, runic inscription). 
Common 'teut. hailaga- from 
common teut. haila- cp. whole 
and y^*?/*?. 

homage me. homage', borrowed 
fr. OFR. ho7nage = fr. hommage'^ 
source a lat. type homaticuvi the 
service of a vassal or man' (lat. 
/^^w<7 'man'). 

home ME. hpm oe. i^^w = osax. 
hem^ ON. heimt'j ohg. g. du. -^^z/?? 
'home ; goth. haims 'a village'. 
Teut. base haimo- (Jiaimi-) from 
a pre-TEUT. kaimd- {kaifni") = 
LTTH. kemas — pruss. caynds *a 
village', GR. YMi.iri Village . 

hone ME. hone oe. hdn'. Teut. 
base haino- = ON. heiriy sw. hen 
'hone'. Cp. OE. hcBnan 'to stone', 

honey me. huni oe. hunii hunei : 
Teut. base hunang = on. 
himangy du. hofiiric, ohg. honatig 
G. /^(^/7z^ 'honey'. Origin un- 
certain; perh. cogn. w. or. y^ovic 

-hood a suff. used to form 
abstract nouns; orig. an in- 
dependent sb. dying out in me. : 
OE. had 'state, quality' = GOTH. 
haidusy ohg. mhg. heit 'manner 
(g. -heit only suffix). Cp. its var. 

hood sb. 'covering' ME^IBprfT 
hod = DU. hoedy OHG. huot G. 
/////. Closely aUied to hat and 


Of „: 




to the TEUT. \Phad hodm heed. 

hoof ^ME. OE. hpf r= OSAX. hof, 

DU. hoeff ON. hq/r^ ohg. huof g. 
huf: Teut. base hof a- from Aryan 
'^kdpo-, whence osLov. kopyto 
'hoof'. Others derive TEUT. hofa- 
from Aryan kdpho and compare 
it with SKR. (aphdj avest. safa 

hook ME. OE. hoc = MDU. hoek 
'hook'. The kindred forms have 
a diff. vowel and answer to OE. 
haca^ ON. haki^ ohg. hd{c)ko g. 
hake, OHG. hdg(g)o points to 
GOTH. '^heg(g)a 'hook'. G. haken 
being a kind of plough', GOTH. 
hoha plough' may also be com- 
pared, so that the stem may be 
hoh heg hak. 

hoop sb. ME. OE. hop = DU. 
hoep, OFRis. hop, north-fris. hup 
'hoop*, MLG. hop; TEUT. base 

hoop vb. ME. houpe adopted fr. 
FR. hoiiper 'hoop unto'; of Teut. 
origin, cp. OE. hwopan = goth. 
hwopan vb. 'boast, glory'. 

hoot vb. ME. houte borrowed 
fr. osw. hicta 'hoot'. 

hop vb. ME. hoppe oe. hoppian 
= DU. hoppen, on. sw. hoppa 
dan. hoppe, g. mhg. hop/en. Cogn. 
w. hip vb. 

hop sb. ME. hoppe = du. 
hop, G. hop/en late ohg. hopfo, 
med.-lat. hupa (for "^huppd). 
Its origin is obscure. 

hope vb. ME. hope oe. hopian 
= MDU. hopen, mhg. g. hoffen. 
The labial in oe. hopian (goth. 
><?/«) is a substitute for a 

guttural (base ^huqdri) as shown 
by the oe. abstract noun hyht 
'hope' (base huh-ti-i) : teut. 
\l^huq hup. — hope sb. me. hope 
for OE. to-hopa = osAX. /o-hopo 
sb. 'hope'. 

horn ME. OE. horn = on. 
ohg. g. DU. horn, goth. haurn: 
common Teut. (in a runic 
inscription) horna 'horn' cogn. 
w. LAT. cornu and IR. cymr. 
corn, with other suffix gr. yJ()-ag 
horn'; cp. also E. harf prop, 
'horned' and skr. crn-ga 'horn'. 

hornet oe. hyrnet = ohg. 
hornaT, hurnui^ G. hornisse. The 
synon. Slav, and Lat. words 
for 'hornet' point to goth. 
*haurznuts with an Aryan, yf krs 
(iND. ^ri) '. LAT. crdbro 'hornet' 
for ^crdsro, oSLOV. sricsem, LITH. 
szirszone 'hornet'. The Aryan 
stem is krs for 'hornet', cp. 
OSLOV. srUsa, lith. szirszH. Du. 
preserves a trace of this inner 
s in horzel 'hornet' (goth. '^haur- 
suls) — horzelen vb. 'hum'. 

horse me. oe. hors ^= osax. 
hors — hers, du. ros, ohg. ros (gen. 
rosses) g. ross (whence it. rozza^ 
FR. rosse a jade'), on. hross, 
also hors, sw. dan. dial, hors 
'a horse' : Teut. base hrossa-. 

hose ME. hose oe. hosu ■= 

DAN. G. hose, DU. hoos, OHG. 

ON. hosa (goth. ^hUso). The 
Teut. words found their way 
into Celt. (corn, hos 'ocrea, 
cuisses') and into Rom. (ofr. 
hose) . 

host^ sb. 'army' me. host psi: 




loanword fr. ofr. hosie 'army' 
(source lat. hostis — hostevi). 

host^ sb. 'entertainer me. hgste\ 
loanword fr. ofr. hoste (= LAT. 
hospitem). Hence hostess me. 
hgstesse from ofr. hostesse and 
hostler jvce. hostUr 'innkeeper' 
from OFR. hosteller 'innkeeper. 

host^ sb. (in the mass) me. 
hgste gste\ source lat. hostla, 
FR. hostle. 

hot adj. ME. hot OE. hat: Teut. 
base halta- = on. heltr, DU. 
heet, OSAX. het, ohg. hel^^ g. helss 
'hot'; the TEUT. \f hit cp. in 
GOTH, heito 'fever' and in on. 
hltly OSAX. hittlay g. hltze 'heat'; 
cp. heat sb. 

hough sb. ME. hough (Jig) oe. 
hgh 'the heel'; hence the dimin. 
heel. Teut. base hanha- in on. 
hMl 'heel'. 

hound ME. hound oe. hiind 
hund =. GOTH, hundsj on. hundr, 
DAN. SWED. hundy DU. hond, 
OSAX. G. hund ohg. hunt: Teut. 
base hunda- prop, 'the hunter', 
derived fr. the teut.-goth. vb. 
hinpan 'seize, capture' (oe. hup 
'booty'); see hunt. 

hour ME. houre oure borrowed 
fr. ofr. (h)ure {h)ore (= fr. 
heur)y whence also DU. uur^ G. 
uhr (dial, auer). Source lat. 

house ME. hous oe. hus'. Teut. 
base husa- in goth. gud-hus 
'house of God', oSAX. ohg. 
hus G. haus, du. huis, on. hus. 

housings earlier houss (of a 
horse), borrowed fr. fr. houssc'i 

hovel ME. hovel 'small hut: 
dimin. with suffix -el from oe. 
hof = ON. hof 'a temple, a 
hall'; cp. G. hof 'a yard'. — 
hover vb. intensive derivative 
of me. hove vb. 'tarry, wait'; cp. 
OFRis. hovia 'receive in one's 
house : derived fr. teut. hofa- 
'hall, yard'. 

how ME. how OE. hu (for 
"^hwu "^hwg) : Teut. form hwo in 
OSAX. hwo 'how', OHG. wuo\ du. 
hoe for hwdy ofris. hu'. formed 
from the Teut. stem hwa- in 
who\ cp. GR. Ti(i]q. 

how in local names cp. 

howl vb. ME. houle'y cp. du. 
huilen, G. heulen. 

huckster me. huckstire (oe. 
^huccestre)] orig. 'a female re- 
tailer ; akin to mhg. hucke hocke 
'a retailer'; derived from mhg. 
hocken vb. 'squat', on. hokkinn 
'bowed, bent'. Cp. du. heuken 
vb. 'huckster, retail' — heuker 
huckster, retailer'. 

hue ^ sb. ME. hewe hew oe. 
heow 'appearance': ident. w. 
GOTH, hiwi (g. hiujis) 'form, 
appearance', sw. hy 'skin, com- 

hue'"^ sb. 'outcry' ME. hil derived 
fr. FR. huer 'hoot, hiss'. 

huge adj. me. hiige (Jiouge): 
loanword fr. OFR. ahuge 'huge'. 

hull 'husk' me. hule oe. hulu 
'hull, husk'; cp. synon. G. hiilse 
OHG. hulsa for *hulisa (goth. 
^hulisi or '^huluzi) : formed from 
the \fhel hul (g. hiille) under 

humble — hutch 

helly hollow and holster. — 
hull 'body of a ship' ident. w. 
hold sb. 

humble adj. me. humble bor- 
rowed fr. FR. hu7nble (= lat. 
humilis) . 

humblebee sb. me. hombel-be\ 
an equivalent OE. '^humbol is to 
be assumed for ohg. humbal 
G. hummel, DU. hommel 'humble- 

humor me. humour from ofr. 
humor = fr. humeur. 

hundred me. oe. hundred 
{hundrep), ident. w. OSAX. hun- 
darody G. hundert, on. hundrad', 
the word is appar. a comp., the 
second part of which belongs 
to GOTH, rapjaji vb. 'count'; the 
first part GOTH. OE. hund is 
cogn. w. LAT. centum, gr. Ixaror, 
SKR. fatdm. 

hunger me. hunger honger OE. 
hungor] cp. synon. osAX. ohg. 
hungar G. hunger, on. hungr\ 
GOTH, hiihrics (for ^^hunhrus) 
'hunger' with the derived hug- 
grjan 'hunger': common teut. 
hunhru- hungru- hunger' from 
ARYAN, kmkru-} cp. LITH. kanka 
'torture' with ON. hd vb. 'torture' 
(from TEUT. "^hanhon). 

hunt vb. ME. hu72te oe. hu7ttian\ 
a secondary verb from a primit. 
vb. shown in goth. frahinpan 
'take prisoner'. From the same 
root E. hound and hand. 

hurdle me. hirdel oe. hyrdel, 
dimin. of an oe. "^hyrd =^ ohg. 

hurt (plur. hurti) g. hilrde', cp. 
ON. hurd 'door', goth. haurds 
'door'. The meaning 'door' is 
developed from the common 
meaning 'wickerwork'. Teut. 
base hurdi- = Aryan krti in 
lat. crates, gr. v.vQXri 'a fishing- 
basket' — v.a.QT.akoq 'a (woven) 
basket'; cp. skr. krt 'spin' — 
crt 'bind, connect'. 

hurl vb. ]ME. hurle earlier 
hurtle vb. 

hurricane sb. akin to the 
synon. DU. orkaan, dan. sw. g. 
orkan, fr. ouragan, it. uracano, 
SPAN, huracan 'a hurricane' ; after 
the discovery of Americaadopted 
fr. Caribbean hurakan 'a hurri- 

hurry vb. me. hurie horie vb. 

hurt vb. me. hurte hirte vb. 
'offend' borrowed fr. ofr. hurter 
(fr. heurter^. 

husband sb. me. husbonde oe. 
(about 1050) hilsbonda'. a Scand. 
loanword, cp. on. husbondi, sw. 
DAN. husbonde from hus 'house' 
and ON. bondi bundi 'husband . 

husk me. huske oe. ^huseca 'a 
small house' (?); cp. G. gehduse. 

hussy short for housewife. 

hut ME. hutte from fr. huite. 
Source ohg. hutta = G. hiitte. 

hutch sb. 'a box' me. hucche 
prop. hucche (whence me. 
whicche) : loanword fr. fr. huche 
'trough, bin'. 

I — inquest 

I ME. / earlier ich ic OE. zV ^= 
DU. ik, OSAX. iCy OHG. ih G. ich, 
GOTH. ik\ common teut. ik ek 
from ARYAN. egom\ cp. lat. ego^ 
GR. f ycc', SKR. ahdniy aslov. azti^ 
LiTH.^0. The oblique cases were 
formed in all Aryan languages 
alike from a stem me-\ cp. me 
and mine. 

ice ME. OE. /^ = OHG. IS G. 

m, ON. iss, DU. //'^ (goth. *eisa-) : 
a common Teut. word, not 
found elsewhere. — icicle 
ME. isikel: prop, a compound, 
OE. is-pcel {isesycel) ; j^icel is 
dimin. *a small piece of ice' 
(cp. MLG. isjokel 'icicle', on. 

idol ME. idple borrowed fr. fr. 
idole (lat. tdoliim, gr. sidhiXov 
'an image, likeness*). 

idle adj. me. oe. idel 'empty, 
vain, useless' = oSAX. uial 
'empty, useless', ohg. ttai 'empty, 
vain, boastful' G. eitel 'vain , DU. 
ijdel 'empty'. 

if me. if OE. lif = OSAX. ef 
ofy DU. of if 'whether, but', 
OHG. oba with the older by-form 
ibu 'if, whether* G. ob 'if, as if, 
even if, whether', on. if ef '\i ^ 
GOTH. iba{i) 'whether, perhaps . 
Prop. dat. instr. of ON. if. efi 
m. and if ef n. 'doubt', ohg. 
iba f. 'doubt, condition. 

ill ME. /// ille\ Scand. loan- 
word from ON. illr\ the native 
E. synon. is evil (oe. yfet). 

imp sb. ME. OE. impe 'graft, 
scion' with the vb. ME. impe 
OE. impian 'graft'; cp. OHG. 
impfon G. impfen , dan. ympe^ 
sw. y7npa. Source a lat. type 
i7nputare, whence also fr. entery 
DU. enten vb. 'graft'. 

impair vb. me. empeire bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. empeirer = fr. 
empirer (lat. type impeiorare 
'make worse'). 

impeach vb. prop, 'hinder* 
for ME. apeche vb. 'hinder' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. empecher (lat. 
type impedicare 'fetter* hovupedica 
sb. 'fetter'). 

imply cp. ply. 

in prep. me. in OE. in = 

OSAX. G. DU. GOTH, in, ON. /, 

sw. DAN. i. Orig. related to 
LAT. iny GR. sv(i), LITH. iy 
LETT. e. 

inch sb. me. inche oe. ynce: 
early loanword from lat. tmcia 
'an inch', also an 'ounce'. 

ingot ME. ingot = FR.- lingol 
ingol? Source and history doubt- 

ink ME. e'nke from ofr. en^ue 
(fr. encrey DU. inl^ly lg. inkel) : 
source lat. encaustum 'the purple 
red ink'. 

inkling sb. from the vb. me. 
inkle 'hint'. 

inn ME. OE. in inn sb. 'house, 
lodging - house' = on. inm 

inquest me. enqu^ste from ofr. 


ire — jail 

enqueste (= fr. enquete). Akin 
to inquire vb. me. enquire from 
OFR. enquerrer (= fr. enquirir 
'inquire'); source lat. inquirere, 

ire ME. ire 'anger' from ofr. 
ire (lat. trd). 

irk vb. ME. irke 'tire' with the 
adj. irksome extended fr. me. 
irk 'distasteful'. 

iron ME. OE. iren oldest oe. form 
isern = goth. eisarn, OSAX. ohg. 
tsarn G. eisen, DU. ij'zer, on. isarn 
(Jam): Teut. base harna- perh. 
borrowed fr. a Celt, isarno- (= 
OIR. iarn 'iron'); gall. Isarno- 
dorum a placename. 

island me. ilond oe. iilo?id 
(inland) 'island'; the first part 
of the compound represents 
the OE. ii ii 'isle' (cp. on. eyland, 
OFRis. DU. <f27iZ//^/'island'), blended 
w. OFR. isle. The word starts 
from a 'YY\5T.aujd- {iwScandin-avia 
Bat-avia^y which is a derivative 
of TEUT.-GOTH. ahwa 'stream, 
flowing water' ohg. aha = oe. ia 
= LAT. aqua 'water. 

isle me. tie borrowed fr. fr. 

z/e (source lat. insula) 'an isle'. 
Cp. island. 

issue ME. issiie from ofr. issue 
'end, event' (derived fr. issir ■= 
LAT. exire). 

it ME. it earlier me. oe. hit 
neuter to E. he (oe. me. he), 

itch vb. ME. icche for ^icche oe. 
lyccan : Teut. base jukjan = 
DU. jeuken , osAX. jukkian , ohg. 
juckan G. jucken. teut. \f juk. 

ivory me. ivory (ivoire) borrowed 
fr. OFR. ivorie — fr. ivoire, whence 
also DU. ivoor. Source lat. eboreus 
'made of ivory' — ebur 'ivory'. 

ivy MS., ivy oe. ifii short for 
^tf-hii if-hei = ohg. eba-hewi 
mhg. ep-hou (g. epheii) with the 
by-form OHG. ebah'. perh. akin 
to GOTH, ibuks 'backwards'? It 
is uncertain, whether the 2"*^ ele- 
ment of OHG. eba-hewi = oe. ifii 
is ident. w. hay. 

iwis 'certainly' me. iwis oe. 
lewiss = OHG. g-i7ms G. gewiss, 
DU. gewis: Teut. base ga-wissa- 
prop. part, of the Teut. vb. 
witan 'know' (cp. wot). 

jabber variant of e. gabber, | jail with the by-form gaol 

jacket from fr. jaquet\ cp 
ME. jakke = OFR. jaque (g. 

jade ME, jade 'old horse'. Source 
and history unknown. 

ME. gail jaiole gaihgl borrowed fr. 
OFR. gaiole gaole (fr. geole) *a 
prison, bird-cage'. Source lat. 
caveola from cavea (= E. cagey 
G, kdfig). 

jamb — journal 

jamb from fr. jambe 'a leg', 
also 'a jamb' (source lat. 

jar sb. 'an earthen pot' from 
FR. Jarre. 

^SLundicQ^iE.jaundis j'aunis from 
FR. jaunisse prop, yellowness'; 
source fr. jaune yellow' = 
LAT. galbinus 'greenish yellow'. 

javelin sb. from fr. javelin'. 
of Celt, origin, cp. cymr. ga- 
flach (whence OE. gafeloc) 'spear. 

jaw ME. chaul {choul) earlier 
chavel oe. (plur.) cedflas\ akin to 
OS AX. kdflos plur. 'jaw' and with 
other formatives ON. kjaptr^ G. 
kiefer 'jaw' : teut. \p kef kef fr. 
an ARYAN gephy perh. cogn. w. 
avest. zafra 'mouth, jaw'. 

jay ME. jai from fr. geai (ofr. 
jai gai). 

jealous ME. jelous gelous from 
' OFR. gelous (fr. j'aloux, whence 
DU. j aloes). 

jelly sb. late me. gelU from 
FR. gelee. 

jeopardy sb. me. juperdi orig. 
juparti 'hazard, hazardous feat' 
borrowed fr. fr. jeu parti 'risk, 
hazard' (orig. 'a game, in which 
the chances are equally divi- 

jest prop, 'a merry tale' :me. 
geste (also g^ste) 'a story' from 
OFR. geste 'romance'. 

jet sb. (a mineral) short for 
ME. git contracted fr. gey it'. 
loanword from ofr, gaiet (Jaet 
Jet) : source lat. gagdtes. 

jew ME. jew earlier giw bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. Giu Jui\ source 

English Etymology. 

LAT. Judaeus. In OE. we find 
Judeas plur. 'the Jews' from the 

jewel ME. jouel juel from ofr. 
jouel (whence G. juwel^ du. 
juweet) = FR. joyau. Source 
a LAT. type gaudiale from gau- 

jig sb. ME. gigge 'a fiddle' from 
OFR. gige (= MHG. gige G. geige) 
'a fiddle'. 

jingle ME. gingle. 

job sb. cp. ME. gobet 'small 
piece' and ofr. gob 'a mouth- 

jockey ident. w. Jackey. dimin. 
of Jack. 

jog vb. ]VIE. jogge vb. go 

join vb. ME. joine borrowed fr. 
FR. joindre {= lat. jungere). 
— Hence e. me. joint sb. from 
FR. joint. 

joist sb. ME. giste 'joist' from 
OYi^.gisie (= TK.gtte? derivative 
of FR. gisir 'lie'). 

jolly ME. jolt earlier jolif: 
loanword from fr. joli (ofr. 

jostle justle vb. intensive for- 
mation from ME. jouste 'tilt' = 
OFR, jouster (me. jouste 'tour- 
nament' fr. OFR. jouste = mhg. 

journal from fr. journal. — 
journey me. journe journie 'a 
day's travel, a day's work' from 
FR. journie 'a day, a day's work' 
(it. giornata^ lat. type diur- 
ndta) . 



joy — kettle 

joy WE..joie from Y^.joie (source 
LAT. gaudia = gaudium). 

judge sb. short ivie. juge from 
FR. juge (source lat. judex — 
judiceni) 'a judge'. — judge 
vb. ME. jifge from FR. juger = 
LAT. judicare. 

juice ME. jiise jilge from FR. 
jus (source lat. jus) 'juice'. 

July ME, jilli from lat. Julius. 

— June ]ME. jiine earlier jilnie 
from OFR. guniel (fr. Juin) = 
LAT. Junius. 

just ME. jiist (short for jiist}) 
from FR. juste (= lat. Justus). 

— justice ME. justice orig. jiistifc 
= FR.jzistice: source 1.AT. justitia. 

— justify vb. ME. justifie from 
FR. justifier. 


keel sb. ident. w. on. kjglr 
(Teut. base kelu-^ 'keel of the 
ship' = synon. dan. kj'dl, sw. 
k'ol^ G. DU. kieL Source and 
history unknown. 

keel vb. 'cool' me. kele oe. 
celaw. Teut. base koljan derived 
fr. the adj. teut. kolu- = e. 

keen adj. me. kene 'sharp, bold, 
brave' oe. cene orig. cdni 'bold, 
brave, wise' : Teut. base kbni- 
= OHG. kuoni G. kilhn, du. koen 
'bold , daring ; the original 
meaning is evident in on. kcenr 
'wise', which points to the teut. 
\Pkan 'know' in can^ ken and 

keep ME. kepe oe. cepan ccepan 
'keep': from a Teut. base kop- 
jan\ no \f kop exists in the 
other Teut. languages. 

keg sb. Scand. loanword : on. 
kaggi 'a keg'. 

ken vb. 'know' me. kenne bor- 

rowed fr. on. k&nna vb. 'know' 
:^ G. kennen, goth. kamijan ; 
causative of teut. kunnan 'know'. 
Cp. can vb. 

kennel 'a house for dogs' 
me. kene I', adopted fr. onfr. kenil 
{chenil}', source onfr. ken (fr. 
chien) 'dog' with suff. -// (lat. 
type ^canile from canis 'dog'). 

kerchief sb. earlier spelling 
curchief me. coverchef: borrowed 
fr. OFR. covrechef lit. 'a head- 
covering'. OFR. covrir (= fr. 
couvrir) 'cover' and chef 'head'. 

kernel me. kirnel oe. cyrnel 
(Teut. base kurnila-) : dimin. of 
corn (with the Teut. dimin. suff. 

kettle me. ketel borrowed fr. 
on. ketill = GOTH, katils, ohg. 
ke'T^ljl G. kessel, DU. ketel', corre- 
sponding to OE. cetel ME. chetely 
which was superseded by on. 
ketill. The Teut. word was 

key — kitchen 

early borrowed fr. lat. catinus 
'kettle', whence also ohg. ke^^pn. 

key sb. me. keie OE. ccei cce^e 
■=- OFRis. kei 'a key'." Teut. base 

kid sb. ME. kid borrowed fr. 
ON. kid\ cogn. w. OHG. kizzin 
chizzi G. kiize 'a young goat' ; a 
native E. word cogn. w. scand. 
kid would begin with ch. 

kidney sb. me. kid-nere (oe. 
^cydeneore ^cydneora})] the 
second part of the compound 
is ME. nere (= on. nyra, du. 
nier^ ohg. nioro G. niere 'kid- 
ney'). The first part is ob- 

kill vb. ME. kille\ a corresp. 
OE. '^cyllan is wanting: Teut. 
base kuljan akin to OE. cwellan 
= ME. quelle vb. 'kill', on. 
kvelja, OSAX. quellian. There 
was a primit. str. vb. OE. cw'elan 
'die', OSAX. OHG. qu'elan 'smart' ; 
cp. G. qual. 

kiln sb. ME. kilne oe. cyln = 
older cyle7ie cyline 'furnace': early 
loanword fr. lat. culina 'kitchen', 
whence also oik. cuile 'kitchen. 
on. kybia 'kiln' is an OE. loan- 

kin sb. ME. kin oe. cynn orig. 
'a tribe': Teut. base kunja- = 
on. kyn, OSAX. kunni, ohg. 
chunni mhg. kiinne race', goth. 
kuni\ deriv. fr. the teut. \[^ ken 
'produce' in ohg. g. kifid 'child', 
OE. cennan vb. 'produce', answe- 
ring to an ARYAN \f gen in lat. 
genus, ge7ts-gentis, gr. ybvog — yovrj 
— yiyvofiui, SKR.y/^Jan. Cp. kind, 

kindred and mankind. — 
kind adj. -'natural, loving' me. 
kinde OE. ^ecynde 'natural, in- 
born': derived fr. kind sb. — 
kind sb. 'nature, sort' me. 
kinde OE. ^e-cynd 'nature'. 

kindle vb. me. kindle: derived 
with intensive -/ from on. kynda 
vb. 'kindle'? (on. kyndill 'a 

kindred jme. ki?iride (oe. '^cyn- 
rceden): composed of kin = 
OE. cynn 'kin' and OE. rdden (= 
GOTK. garaideins) a suffix meaning 
'state, condition' (cp. hatred), 

king ME. late oe. king oe. cyng 
a late shortening for the common 
OE. cyning: Teut. base kuninga-^=^ 
OSAX. OHG. kuning G. konig, du. 
koning', cp. ON. konungr (but 
GOTH, reiks 'king'). 

kirtle sb. me. kirtel oe. cyrtel 
from a teut. base ^kurtil (= ON. 
kyriilt) : prop, 'a short under- 
garment' from LAT. cur tits 'short' 
(cp. G. kurz and see short and 

kiss sb. ME. kiss with the 
vowel accommodated to the vb. 

kiss for OE. COSS = OSAX. ^us 
cos, DU. kus, OHG. ki^S G. kuss, 
ON. koSS, DAN. kys, SW. kysS, GOTH. 

*kussus. — kiss vb. me. kisse 
OE. cyssan = osax. kussian, 
DU. OHG. kussen G. kiissen, ON. 
SW. kyssa, dan. kysse. 

kitchen sb. me. kiuhen oe. 
cycene from a west-teut. base 
kukina = DU. keuken , oiy>. 
kuchlna chuhhina G. kite he : an 
early West-Teut. loanword from 




late LAT. coquina (class, culina 
see under kiln) or rather from 
a common Rom. and vulg. lat. 
cocina 'kitchen' (cp. fr. cuisine y 
IT. cucina, span, cocina). Cp. 

kite sb. ME. kite oe. cyta 'a 
kite': Teut. base kutjan-. 

kitten me. kitoun answers to 
the synon. fr. chatton 'a young 
cat' (perh. the E. word points 
to ONFR. "^ketonl!) 

knave me. knave oe. cnafa = 
OHG. knabo G. knabe 'boy'; iden- 
tical with oe. cnapa me. kndpe 
'boy' ^= OSAX. knapo, ofris. 
knapa^ on. knapi 'boy', germ. 
knappe points to a teut. knab- 
ban-. Perh. cogn. w. knightl 
or. w. GALL, gnabat 'son'? 

knead vb. me. kn{de oe. cnedan 
■= mlg. du. kneden, oho. knetan 
G. kneien'. teut. y^ ^;^^^ = 
ARYAN \f gnet in russ. gnetate 

knee vb. me. >^«/ oe. cneo = osax. 
^/22^, DU. G. knie OHG. <r/!;^2?<! kneo, 
GOTH, kniu (gen. kniwis)'. Teut. 
base knewa-y cogn. w. the synon. 
LAT. genu, GR. yovv, skr. j'dnu 
'knee'. — kneel vb. me. cnele oe. 
"^cniowlian = DU. knielen mlg. 
kneien, sw. chniile 'kneel', dan. 
kncBle ? 

knell vb. me. knille oe. cnyllan\ 
cogn. w. MHG. kn'ellen in <?r-, G. 

knife sb. me. knif oe. (about 
I coo) cnlf. The occurrence in 
late OE. favors Scand. origin: 
on. knifr. On the continent, 

there is an equivalent du. knij'f, 
LG. kni/y G. dial, kneif. 

knight sb. me. knight oe. cniht: 
Teut. base kn'ehta- = du. g. 
knecht OHG. kneht, ofris. hiiuht', 
cogn. w. knave} 

knit vb. me. knitte oe. cnyttan : 
deriv. of oe. cnotta (by vowel- 
mutation) {=^ on. knutr) = 

e. knot'y OE. cnyttan is ident. 
w. LG. kniitten} 

knob sb. me. knobbe] allied to 
MHG. kniibel 'knuckle', du. knobbel 
'knot, lump, callosity', o. knopf 
'button, bud', on. knappr. 

knock vb. me. knocke oe. 
^cnoccian; ident. w. oe. cmccian, 
on. knoka'. a sound imitation, 
closely allied to knack. 

knoll sb. me. knol oe. cnoll = 
du. knol 'a turnip', G. knollen. 

knot sb. me. knotte oe. cnotta 
=z MHG. knotzcy du. knot', cogn. 
w. OHG. knodo knoto G. knoten 
and ON. knutr 'a knot' — knuta 

f. 'dice' — kngttr (goth. 
*knattus) m. 'ball'. 

know vb. me. kngwe oe. cndwdn 
str. vb. = OHG.' chndan 'know', 
ON. knd vb. 'know how to do': 
TEUT. Y" ^^^^ ^^^ (akin to can 
and keen) = Aryan y" gen 
gno in LAT. gignosco ignotus 
ignavus ignarus , GR. yi/vcJaxco, 
SKR. yfjnd. — knowledge sb. 
ME. kn&iidiche derived fr. the 
vb. ME. kngwUche, intensive for- 
mation of ME. knowe = E. 
know (oE. *iecnd'wldcan is 

knuckle sb. me. knokel oe. 



*cnucel', cogn. w. G. knochel, 
OFRis. knokle, DU. knokkely mlg. 
knokelj DAN. knogle knokkeh 

dimin. of a simple word, seen 
in G. knochen 'a bone', DU. knok 
'a knuckle, a bone'. 

labor sb. me. labour adopted 
fr. FR. labour = lat. labor (em) 

lace sb. me. Ids: borrowed fr. 
FR. lace — OFR. las {laqs) : source 
LAT. laqueus 'noose, snare' (= 
IT. laccio). See late he t. 

lack sb. ME. lak oe. "^Icec = 
ODU. lac DU. lak 'blepaish, stain, 
lack'. — lack vb. me. lacke 
from the sb., but earlier me. 
lake (oE. ^laciari) = ODU. laken 
*be wanting, ofris. lakia. Teut. 
y" lek in leak. 

lacquer lacker sb. adopted 
fr. FR. laque 'varnish'? cp. G. 
lack, IT. lace a. 

lad ME. ladde borrowed fr. ir. 
lath 'a youth, champion'; cp. 

ladder me. Idddre short for oe. 
hlckdder'. Teut. base hlaidrjO'\^= 
DU. ladder leer, ohg. leitara G. 
letter; goth. "^hlai-dri (gen. 
"^hlai-drjos)'. teut. \(^hlai hli in 
lean vb., Aryan V" kli in gr. 
vXt-i-iat 'ladder. The Teut. 
suffix -dr- in ladder answers to 
a GR. -xQia. 

lade sb. me. lade oe. hladan 
= OSAX. hladan, du. g. /<2^^/z 
OHG. (h)ladan, on. hlada, goth. 

hlapan load, lade': teut. y/^hlad 
hlap from an Aryan yj^klaf, perh. 
cogn. w. \pklad in OSLOV. kladq 
I lay'. — The vb. oe. hladan 
ME. lade signifies also 'draw 
water', hence e. ladle me. Iddel 
OE. hlczdel. 

lady ME. lady earlier lafdi 
Id/dii OE. hldfdiie 'a lady, 
mistress'; cogn. w. lord oe. 
hldford. The first part of both 
words is oe. hldf = e. loaf, 
the second part in oe. hldf- 
diie is connected with goth. 
deigan vb. 'knead' (see dough). 
Therefore oe. hlcefdlie (teut. 
'^hlaiba-digjb-) meant orig. 'the 
kneader of bread'. 

lair ME. leir oe. I'eier 'lair, 
couch, bed' = osAX. I'egar 
'couch, sick-bed', DU. leger 'a 
couch, bed, lair', ohg. I'egar g. 
lager (for leger) 'a couch, bed, 
place of lying, storehouse', 
GOTH, ligrs 'a couch : Teut. 
base I'egra- from \[^ leg in lie 
and lay. 

laity sb. from the adj. lay. 

lake ME. Idke 'lake' oe. lacu 
'lake' and 'stream': early loan- 
Vk\ord fr.» * LAT. laeus 'a lake, 
poM'. oe. lagu 'sea, ocean' is 


lamb — lap 

the genuine E. correspondence 
of the LAT. word and of ir. 
loch 'lake'; cp. loch. 

lamb sb. ime. oe. la?nb Igmb 
= OSAX. lamdy DU. lam, OHG. 
lamb G. lamm, GOTH. on. lamd: 
Teut. base lamba- {lambaz- in 
the plur. OE. lombru me. lombren, 
lambiz- in the plur. ohg. lembir 
G. liimmer) . 

lame adj. me. Idjne oe. lama 
= OSAX. lamOy DU. lam, OHG. 
MHG. lam (gen. lames) G. lahm, 
ON. lamiy sw. dan. /^w^. The 
commoner meaning bruised, 
maimed' is prob. the orig. one, 
though the meaning 'lame' is 
very old (goth. used halts cp. 
halt). Cp. OSLOV. lomiti vb. 
'break, bruise', on. lama 'bruise' ? 

lamimias jvie. lammasse shortened 
fr. late oe. hldmmcesse, commonly 
OE. hldf-mcesse'. lit. 'loaf-mass' 
from hldf 'loaf, bread' and 
mcesse 'mass'. See loaf. 

lamp short for me. lau^npe 
adopted fr. fr. lampe, whence 
also DU. lamp, dan. g. lampe, sw. 
lampa. Source lat.-gr. lampas 
'a torch, lamp' (= it. lampa). 

lamprey sb. me. laumpreie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. lampf-eie {= FR. 
lamproie), whence also du. lam- 
prei. Source lat. lampetra 
'lamprey' in a vulgar form lam- 
preda {= it. hunpreda), whence 
also OE. lempedu lampreta* and 
perh. the synon. pride (oE. 
*pride short for '^ lamprideT) . 

lance me. launge borrowed fr. 
FR. lance, whence also du. lans, 

G. lanze. Source lat. lancea 
(= IT. lancia)', cp. launch. 
land sb. me. oe. land (Ignd) 

= OSAX. DU. G. ON. sw. DAN. 

land from a Teut. base landa-; 
cogn. w. IR. land lann, cymr. 
llan, CORN. Ian (from '^landhd) 
'open space, surface', BRET. Ian 
'heath', oslov. ledina 'heath, 
untilled land' (russ. Ij'ada Ija- 
dina). — land vb. me. lande = 
DU. G. landen, dan. lande, sav. 
landa from land sb. — land- 
scape borrowed fr. DU. land- 
schap 'a landscape'. 

lane sb. me. oe. lane {lone) = 
OFRIS. lona lana, du. laan a 
lane, a narrow passage': Teut. 
base lanbn-. 

language me. langdge adopted 
from FR. langage: deriv. of 
FR. langue ■==. lat. lingua 'tongue, 

languish vb. me. languisshe 
from FR. languiss- stem of languir 
'languish (lat. languere 'be 

lank adj. me. Ia7tk oe. hlanc; 
perh. cogn. w. G. schlank, which 
points to a teut. slanka- : aryan 
klang- s(k)lang ? 

lantern me. lanterne launterne 
borrowed from fr. lanterne : 
source LAT. laterna lanterna^ 
whence also G. laterne. 

lap sb. ME. lappe 'lap, border' 
OE. lappa 'a loosely hanging 
portion'; cogn. w. DU. /-a;^, OFRis. 
OHG. lappa G, lappen 'rag, tatter 
and LiTH. lopas 'patch' (lat. labare 
'hang down, fall'). See limp adj. 

lapwing — lath 

lapwing vb. accommodated to 
wing for me. lapwinke, shortened 
fr. OE. hl(apwince lit. 'the bird 
which turns about in running'; 
cp. leap for OE. hleapan 'run' 
and wink. 

larboard earlier lerboard and 
leerboard (cp. star boar (£)\ perh. 
from ME. ler 'cheek'? In Scand. 
the planks in a ship's side have 
different names as aur-y skaut-, 

larch sb. :me. "^lerch oe. ^lerc 
*leric = MHG. ler c he G. Idrche. 
Source lat. larix (laricem). 

lard late me. lard from the sy- 
non. FR. lard = lat. larda 
{Idridus adj. 'fat). 

large me. large large, wide, 
liberal, generous' from fr. large 
= LAT. largus. 

lark me. larke contracted fr. 
OE. Idwerce earliest form Idwricce*. 
Teut. base laiwrakon- = ohg. 
ler a Ma (from *lewraMa) G. lerche, 
DU. leemverick , mlg. lewerke. 
Formation and origin quite ob- 

lash sb. ME. lasshe 'the string 
of a whip' OE. l(zsce = du. lasch, 
mlg. lasche 'a stripe'. 

lass ME. lasse'. perh. for "^ladse 
and cogn. w. lad me. ladde"^ 

last adj. :me. last{e) earlier 
latst(e) shortened for oe. latost 
'latest': superl. of oe. Icet = late. 

last sb. the shoemaker's woo- 
den mould of the foot' ident. 
w. OE. last sb. foot-track, foot- 
print'; the E. meaning agrees w. 
G. leisten, du. leesty sw. Idstj dan. 

lipst 'the shoemaker's last'. The 
orig. meaning is evident in on. 
leistr 'foot below the ankle, a 
short sock'. Cp. the Aryan 
y/^lts lais 'go' in lat. delirare 
go mad'. 

last vb. ME. Idste short for OE. 
Icestan 'perform, stand by, carry 
out' = OSAX. lestian, ohg. g. 
leisten, GOTH, laistjan: derived 
fr. a TEUT. laista- 'foot-mark' 
under last sb. 

latch vb. ME. lacche oe. Icecdan 
le-lcBCcan 'seize, catch hold of. 
— Hence latch sb. me. lacche 
'a catch, fastening'. 

latchet sb. me. lacchet from 
onfr. "^lachet = fr. laeet a dimin. 
of fr. lacs 'a snarej noose'; see 

late adj. me. lat (late adv.) 
OE. l^t 'slow, late' = osAX. lat, 
(lg. late adv. 'late'), du. laat, 
OHG. laT, (55) G. lass, on. latr, 
GOTH, lats 'slow, slothful': an 
OTEUT. adj. -stem /«7^-, belonging 
to the ARYAN V" lad . in LAT. 
lassus (from* lad'tus, an old part.) 
'weary'. Cp. let vb. and last 

lath ME. lappe oe. Itetta (Iceppa^ 
= OHG. latta G. latte, DU. lat. 
Though OE. // corresponds here 
to OHG. // (regularly oe. // = 
OHG. //), the word is still ge- 
nuine Teut., since it is allied w. 
G. laden "board, plank, lash, 
shutter', whence fr. latte (= 
SPAN, lata, IT. latta); akin to w. 
Hath 'a rod, staff", IR. slat, bret. 
laz 'rod, lath' (Celt, base sla/ta-). 


lather — lay 

lather me. lather short for OE. 
Uador = on. laudr (mod. icel. 
Igdr^ 'froth, foam': Teut. base 
lau-j)7'a- derived from the Aryan 
\f^law in LAT. lavare\ as for the 
Teut. suffix cp. GR. Xqvxqov 
*bath' and gall, laiitrum 'bal- 

Latin adj. me. Latin adopt, 
fr. FR. latin (= span. it. latinOy 
DU. latijuj G. latein)\ source lat. 
LatinuSy whence also OE. lcBde?i 

latten sb. 'a kind of brass or 
bronze' me. latoun borrowed fr. 
the synon. ofr. laton = fr. 
laiton, SPAN, laton. 

lattice sb. me. latis adopted fr. 
fr. lattis 'lathwork, lattice-work' 
formed from fr. latte 'a lath'; 
see lath. 

laugh vb. ME. lag he laughe 
earlier lahhe oe. hlehhan hlyhhan = 
OSAX. hlehhian, DU. G. lachen ohg. 
lahhen (h)lahhan, on. hlceja (for 
*hlahja), goth. hlahjan 'laugh'. 
T^\Ji:.\f^hlah = Aryan kldk, prob. 
onomatopoetic. — laughter sb. 
ME. laughter oe. hleahtor == ohg. 
hlahtar G. geldchtery on. hldtr 
from the teut. \["hlah with the 
suffix pra- ira-. 

launch vb. me. launche com- 
monly launce: adopted fr. onfr. 
(Picard.) lancher = fr. lancer 
'hurl, cast, dart, thrust'; deriv. 
of FR. lance = e. lance. 

laundress extended with suffix 
-ess fr. me. laundir lav endure from 
OFR. lavandiere 'washer woman' 
FR. lavandiere laundry - maid'. 

Source lat. lavandus 'to be 
washed' (it. lavanda *a washing'). 

laurel me. laur^r (with the by- 
forms lorir lor it) from fr. laurier: 
source lat. laurus 'a laurel tree'. 

lave vb. me. lave oe. ^elafian 
^ OHG. labon o. laben 'refresh'. 
The WEST -teut. labon is perh. 
a loanword fr. lat. lav are (= 
FR. laver). 

lavender me. lavendre (with an 
inserted e. r) borrowed from 
FR. lavande = it. lavanda laven- 
tola, whence du. g. lavendel. 
Source lat. lavare wash' (la- 
vender was laid in freshly washed 

law ME. lawe oe. lagu 'law', 
which about 900 was borrowed 
fr. an early ^CK^Vt.^lagu r= on. 
Igg nora. plur. 'law' (sw. lag^ dan. 
lov 'law). Cogn. w. lat. lex — 
legem fr. Aryan \f^legh 'lie'; cp. 
G. gesetz, satzung for the meaning. 
The genuine E. word for 'law' 
was OE. (B = ohg. ewa. 

lawn^ sb. 'a grass plot' me. 
launde lande'. borrowed from fr. 
lande 'a grassy plain', which is 
of Celt, origin (cp. IR. lann 
under land). 

lawn 2 sb. 'fine linen' orig. 
'lawn linen": so called from fr. 
Laon a city N. W. of Rheims; 
cp. Arras and Cambric. 

lay vb. ME. leie kin earlier 
legge OE. lecgan wk. vb. (3 sing. 
OE. le'^p ME. lei'tE) : Teut. base 
lagjan = goth. lagjan, osAX. 
leggiajty OHG. leckan G. legen, du. 
leggen^ on. leggja'. causative for- 

lay — learn 


mation of the \f leg 'lie' in lie\ 
hence lay 'cause to lie down. 

lay sb. 'a song' ]\ie. lai from 
OFR. FR. lai. 

lay adj. me. lai from ofr. fr. 
lai 'secular, belonging to the 
laity'. Source lat. Idicus, whence 
also OE. IcBwed (g. laie 'a lay- 
man'). See lewd. 

lazar sb. me. Idzar fr. ofr. 
lazarel Source the biblical prop, 
n. Lazarus', 'the lazar-house' is 
in G. lazaret = it. lazzareito, fr. 

lazy from fr. las = lat. lassus. 

lead vb. me. l{de {lede) oe. tl^dan\ 
Teut. base I'aidjan ■= OSAX. 
lediauy DU. leiden, G. leiten, on. 
leida-'lead' : prop^dfactitive of the 
str. vb. teut. l^Jan ^ oe. lidan 
'go, travel', osax> lithan, goth. 
leipan'. teut. sfltp under lode- 

lead sb. short for me. led oe. 
lead = DU. lood 'lead a weight', 
G. lot 'a lead-weight': Teut. base 
"^'lauda- cogn. w. synon. OIR. 
ludide (base laudio-). 

leaf ME. le'f oe. l^af = osax. 
lof, DU. loof 'foliage', ohg. loub 
G. laub 'leaves, foliage', on. lauf 
'leaf, GOTH, laufs (plur. laubos) 
*leaf': Teut. base lauba- orig. 
'the single leaf (used as a col- 
lective sb. 'the foliage'). 

league sb. 'an aUiance' adopted 
from fr. ligue 'a league': source 
LAT. ligare 'bind'. 

league sb. 'about three miles' 
late ME. lege borrowed fr. ofr. 

legue = FR. Hew. source a lat.- 
GALL. leuga leuca 'a Gallic mile', 
whence also late oe. leowe 'leuga'. 
GALL, leuga corresponds to bret. 
leo, IR. leige 'a league'. 

leak vb. me. Icke oe. lee an (the 
factitive leccan 'wet' from a base 
lakj'an) = on. leka 'drip, leak 
as a ship', du. lekken, ohg. 
lechan G. lee ken vb. — leek adj. 
'leaky'. — teut. y^M lak see 
under lack vb. 

lean adj. me. Ic'ne oe. hldne 
from a Teut. base hlai-ni 'lean' 
(with suffix -ni as in clean, 

lean vb. me. Z//?^ oe. hlcenan 
'cause to lean': Teut. base hlain- 
jan = OHG. leinan: factitive of 
oe. hlionian 'lean' = osAX. hlinon, 
OHG. hlinen 'lean'; cp. G. lehnen, 
DU. leunen. The TEUT.\rM (cp. 
ladder) corresponds to an 
ARYAN yfkli', cp. LAT. inclmdre 
'incline', gr. xX/Vw 'I lean' — vXi- 

TVC, 'hiir, LAT. cll-VUS 'hill', GOTH. 

hlai-w (oe. hldiv) 'mound'. 

leap vb. me. l(pe oe. hleapan 
str. vb. 'leap, run' = du. loopen, 
OSAX. hlopan, ohg. louffan G. 
lauf en, on. hlaupa, goth. hlaupan 
'leap, run': t^\]T.\P hlaup, perh. 
cogn. w. LITH. klupau vb. 'stag- 
ger, stumble'. 

learn vb. short for me. lerne 
oe. leornian'. from a base lemon 
teut. liznbn = ohg. lirnen lernen 
G. lernen 'learn'; cp. osAX. linbn 
from a base liznon. Akin to 
the primit. str. vb. GOTH, lais 
'I know' and the deriv. oe. ohg. 




lis-ty GOTH, lis-ts 'art, cunning'. 
See lore for the TEUT.y"/*^?^: liz. 

lease ^ vb. 'let tenements' bor- 
rowed from FR. laisser. 

lease 2 vb. 'gather, pick, glean' 
ME. Use OE. lesan 'gather' ^= OSAX. 
lesan, du. lezen 'gather, read', 
OHG. lesan G. lesen 'gather, 
read', on. lesa 'gather, pick', 
GOTH, lisan 'gather'; cogn. w. 
LITH. lesti 'pick up'. 

least ME. l('st OE. Icest shor- 
tened fr. Idsest (by-form Icerest): 
Teut. base laisista- superl. to 
the compar. teut. laisiza- = 

leather me. lel/ier oe. leder = 
ON. leilr, DU. leder, ohg. ledar 
G. leder leather': Teut. base 
lepra- = pre-TEUT. lelro- in ir. 
lethar, cymr. lledr, bret. lezr 

leave vb. me. leve oe. Idfan 
tr. 'leave' — intr. 'remain': Teut. 
base laibjan'y cp. osAX. far- 
l^bian remain', ohg. mhg. leiben 
'leave', on. leifa leave': causat. 
of a str. vb. liban in oe. belifan 
ME. belive y osAX. biliban, du. 
blijven, OHG. biliban G. bleiberi, 
ON. li/a (orig. str.), GOTH, bi- 
leibaft 'remain'. For the root 
see live. 

leave sb. me. l^'ve (leve) 'per- 
mission' OE. leaf 'permission'; 
cp. OE. dlyfan ale/an 'permit', 
OHG. irlouben g. erlauben. 

leaven me. levain from fr. 
levain 'ferment'. Source lat. 
lev amen. 

lee ME. le from on. hli (»sigla 

a hl6« 'to stand to leeward')' 
prop, 'shelter, protection' (oe. 
hleo, OSAX. hleo 'shelter^. Cogn. 
w. ON. hly 'warmth' — hlyr 'warm; 
and G. lati ohg. hlao\ cp. luke- 

leech 1 'physician' (Shakesp.) 
ME. leche OE. lece Ickde physician' 
= GOTH, lekeis, OHG. Idhhi 'phy- 
sician': Teut. base lekja- lakja-. 
Perh. allied to OIR. liaig (gen. 
ligd) 'physician'. 

leech 2 liirudo' me. '^Uche (not 
recorded) OE. /-^<;V'hirudo': prop, 
'physician' and ident. w. leechK 
Cp. ODU. lake leech'? 

leek ME. lek oe. l^'ac = du. 
look, OHG. louh G. lauch, on. 
laukr leek': Teut. base lauka- 
pre-TEUT. lougo-. , 

leer me. ler oe. hleor 'cheek 
= OSAX. hlior, ON. hlyr 'cheek': 
Teut. base hleuza-. If the orig. 
meaning was 'ear', listen might 
be allied. 

lees 'dregs of wine' from fr. lie 
lees : base a late Gallo-Latin 
lia for "^liga 'sediment' (aryan 
\flegh in lie). 

left ME. left lift allied to the 
synon. odu. lucht luft, lg. lucht^ 
NFRis. leeft', the orig. meaning 
was perh. 'faint, weak' in oe. 
lyft 'inanis': Teut. base lufti-'^ 
Imnfti-} perh. alHed to OHG. 
lenka 'the left hand' G. links left'? 

legend me. legende from ofr. 

leisure me. lisilre (commonly 
leisir) fr. ofr. leisir == fr. loisir. 
Source lat. licere. 




lemman 'sweetheart' me. lemman 
shortened fr. an earher lefman'. 
prop, yylief ?nafi«. 

lemon from fr. limo7i\ cp. 
lime^ . 

lend vb. inie. line oe. Ickfian 
vb. 'lend' from OE. l^n 'a loan'; 
cp. loan. 

length 3kiE. lengthc oe. lengp 
from a Teut. base langi^o- = 
ON. lengd: abstract formation of 
TEUT. langa- ; cp. long, 

lent ME. /(f/z/i? lenten oe. lenpen 


OHG. lenzin with the 

by-form lengiy-n lengizo lenzo G. 
/^«s; 'spring', DU. lente. OHG. /^^^s:/>'2 
(= OE. lenpen) points to a teut. 
langa-tina- 'the long day'; for 
the second element cp. goth. 
sin-teins 'daily', SLOV. diniy skr. 
dina 'day'. 

lentil me. lentil fr. fr. lentille\ 
source the synon. lat. leniicula 
{lens — leJitis lentil'). 

leper me. lepre 'leprosy' fr. fr. 
lepre 'leprosy' (lat. lepra). 

less me. lesse lasse oe. Idssa 
'smaller fr. a Teut. base laisizan- 
= OFRis. lessa; the adv. e. less 
me. les OE. Ids answers to OSAX. 
lis (teut. laisiz). For the superl. 
c^. least. A primitive adj. laisa- 
is LITH. lesas little, small'. 

-less suffix = ME. -l§s OE. -leas: 
prop. adj. meaning loose. 

lesson ME. lessoun fr. fr. le(07i'. 
source LAT. lectio{nem). 

lest 'that not' me. teste shor- 
tened for the list the oe. fy Ids 
pe 'for the reason less that'; 
for OE. Ids = me. les cp. less. 

let^ vb. me. lete oe. litan Idtan 
str. vb. = GOTH. IStan, o^.-ldta, 
OSAX. Idtan, ohg. Idi^yin G. lassen, 
DU. laten: TEUT.y"/^^ lat 'permit'. 

let^ vb. 'hinder' me. l^tte oe. 
lettan fr. a base latjan 'to make 
slow' (teut. lata- 'slow' see un- 
der late) = GOTH, latjan 'tarry' 
ON. letjay OSAX. lettian, ohg. 
lezzan (g. verletzen), du. letten. 

letter me. lettre fr. fr. lettre 
(lat. litter a). 

lettuce late me. letiife', allied 
to FR. laitue = LAT. Idctuca 
(whence ohg. lattuH). 

levy fr. fr. levie (fr. lever = 
LAT. levare). 

lewd ME. Ii7£jed oe. kkved 'un- 
learned' fr. i,AT. Uncus cp. /^ji^^. 

lick vb. ME. likke oe. liccian = 
OSAX. likhon, ohg. I'eckon g. 
Iccken, GOTH, '^likkon. teut. ///^y^^/z 
belongs to the Aryan \f Ugh 
'lick' in GOTH, laigon, gr. "kU/ix) 
'lick' — Xi/v^vco 'taste secretly', 
SKR. V"r//^ //^ 'lick', OSLOV. //5(3; 
{lizatt) and lith. leziii-'\ick\ lat. 
//«i^(7 and perhaps lat. lingua 
LITH. I'ezuvis 'tongue', oiR. //^zV;/ 

lid sb. {eye-lid) me. /zV/ oe. M^/ 
'cover, lid' = du. lid lid, cover, 
OHG. /// (older hlit) G. lid (in 
augenlid 'eyelid'), on. lid 'cover, 
gate'. Cp. the teut. \[^hlid in 
the str. vb. OE. OSAX. hlidan 

lie^ vb. 'speak falsely' me. lie 
earlier lie Uie OE. leogan = 
OSAX. OHG. liogan, du. liegen, G. 
liigen, on. Ijuga, goth. liugan 



str. vb. 'tell a falsehood'. The 
TEUT. \l^leug answers to an Aryan 
\(^leugh - lugh in oslov. luzq 
{litgati) vb. 'lie' — luza sb. 'lie'. 

lie^ vb. 'rest, repose' me. lie 
lin OE. licgafi = OSAX. liggia?t, 
DU. liggen^ OHG. licken G. liegen, 
ON. liggja, GOTH, ligan str. vb. 
'lie'. The str. vb. teut. ligjan 
is derived fr. the Aryan yflegh 
in GR. Xey.tqov Xh/og 'bed' — • 
aXo/OQ 'wife' — Xs/co 'bedridden 
woman' — Xo^sm 'bear — Xoxoc, 
'ambush, lair', lat. lecius 'bed', 
OSLOV. legq (lezati) 'lie'. Cp. lay 
and lair. * 

lief adj. me. lef oe. Ic'of (cp. 
I e mm an) ■= OSAX. liof, DU. lie/, 
OHG. Hob [Hub) G. lieb 'dear, lief, 
ON. IJufr, GOTH. Hu/s dear : Teut. 
base leuba- adj. 'lief from the 
TEUT. \flub in love. 

liege ME. lege (by-form lige) fr. 
OFR. liege lige fr. lige. 

life ME. OE. /// =: OSAX. lif, 
ON. /(/, OHG. lib 'life' (g. /^/^, 
DU. lijf 'body') ; allied to the 
TEUT. \piib in live\ a lost str. 
vb. Itban cp. under leave vb. 
Outside of teut., gr. Xma^soa 
'remain' points to an Aryan \flip. 

lift vb. ME. lifte fr. scand. lypta\ 
cogn. w. loft. 

light sb. ME. light OE. leoht = 
OSAX. OHG. lioht , DU. G. Hcht 
'light'. The dental of the word 
is formative as seen in goth. 
liuh-af 'light"; cp. the Aryan 
\fluk: leuk in lat. luceo 'shine', 
GR. Xi:V/.6c, 'white', skr. rue 'shine'. 
— Hence lighten vb. me. 

light(e)ne (where the n is 
formative) 'become light' and 
lightning verbal sb. 'an il- 
luminating flash' (with the suffix 

light adj. ME. light oe. liht leoht 
= DU. ligt, OHG. Itht G. leicht, 
ON. littr, GOTH, leihts: Teut. 
base linhta- for lenkto-1 Perhaps 
cogn. w. GR. IXayyc. 'small', lith. 
lengwus lengwasW^i . See lung. 

— Hence also lights 'animal's 
lungs'. — light V vb. 'alight, 
descend' me. lihte oe. lihtan lit. 
'make light, relieve a horse of 
his burden' fr. oe. liht = light. 
— lighten vb. ident. w. light 
vb. (w. formative -en). — light 
in the phrase "to make light of 
somebody" represents me. Hte oe. 
lyt 'little, small', which is cogn. 
w. little. 

like vb. me. like oe. lidan wk. 
vb. 'please' = goth. leikan (pret. 
leikaidd) 'please', du. lijken 'suit', 
ON. lika 'please': deriv. of like 
adj. or cogn. w. OIR. ligach 
'beautiful' — lig 'color, splendor'? 

like adj. me. lik earHer ilik oe. 
•^elic = GOTH, galeiks, on. glikr, 
OSAX. giltk, DU. gelijk, ohg. 
gilih (hh) G. gleich. The Teut. 
adj. ga-lika- is a comp. of the 
particle goth. ^rt:- and a sb. lika- 
'body', the comp. meaning having 
the same body'; cp. goth. leik, 
OSAX. ON. lik 'body', oe. lic-homa 
'body', G. leiche — leichnam 
'corpse. Cp. -ly, which and 
such. — Hence liken vb. me. 
likne 'compare'. 

lily — lion 


lily ME. lilie OE. lilie (plur. 
lilian) = OHG. /i/ia G. /i/ie, DU. 
k/ie : source lat. plur. Ma 'lily', 
whence also OSAX. ///// 'lily'. 

limb ikiE. /im oe. //>« (plur. 
leomti) = ON. /?>«;' 'limb': Teut. 
base li-ma- cogn. w. Goth, li-pus, 
OHG. li-dj OSAX. li-thy OE. //•/ 
'limb'; cp. also lith. I'emu 
'stature, growth': aryan \f"lL 

lime^ sb. 'viscous substance, 
bird-lime' me. oe. lim 'cement, 
glue' = DU. lijm, G. leim ohg. 
Itnij ON. lim 'glue': teut. lima- 
is allied to teut. laima- (see 
loatn). LAT. limus 'slime' cor- 
responds to Ihne in form, to 
loam in meaning, \flai It is 
attested by on. leir (Teut. base 
lai-z-a-) 'clay, loam' and lat. li-no 
'rub over, daub'. 

lime sb. 'the linden-tree', cor- 
rupted fr. earlier line-tree for 
lind-tree\ see linden. 

lime^ sb. 'a kind of citron' 
borrowed fr. fr. lime 'a lime'; 
ident. w. lemon. 

linch-pin earlier lins-pin me. 
lins OE. lynes = osAX. lunisa, 
DU. luns lens, G. lUnse) allied to 
OHG. liming and ohg. mhg. lun 
'linch-pin'. The primit. base 
luni-, if fr. an ARYAN Ini- , is 
perhaps ident. w. skr. di:ii 'linch- 
pin'; cp. OE. d-lynnan 'loosen'. 

lindentree me. linde oe. lind 
'lime-tree' := ohg. linta G. du. 
linde, on. sw. dan. lind\ Teut. 
base Undo pre-TEUT. lent a-, if 
allied to gr. sXarrj 'fir-tree' or 
LITH. lenta 'board*. 

line ME. OE. line = du. lijn, 
ohg. lina MHG. MLG. line g. leine, 
ON. lina 'cord, rope' : Teut. base 
lin-jbn- prop, 'the thing made of 
flax ; cp. linen. 

lineage me. linage adopted fr. 
lignage'. source lat. linea 'aline. 

linen adj. and sb. (orig. only 
adj.) ME. OE. linen adj. ^= osAX. 
OHG. linin G. leinen linnen, du. 
linen 'made of flax': deriv. of 
OE. lin 'flax' = osAX. ohg. lin, 
GOTH, lein sb. 'linnen'; cogn. w. 
LAT. linum, GR. Xivoy y OSLOV. 
linii 'flax'. 

linger vb. extended fr. me. 
lenge vb. 'tarry' w. the frequent 
suffix -ef, OE. lengan prolong' 
fr. long. 

link sb. 'ring in a chain' fr. an 
unrecorded me; *lenk ^link'. 
SCAND. loanword fr. an orig. 
hlenk- cp. ON. hlekkr {iox'^hlenh-), 
sw. lank, DAN. Icenke link'. There 
was a genuine oe. hlencc 'link' 
fr. a base hlankjon-', but the 
guttural of link shows that the 
word may not be the develop- 
ment of OE. hlence. 

linnet sb. me. Ii7iet adopted 
fr. FR. linot{te) 'a linnet' fr. fr. 
lin 'flax' so called from feeding 
on the seed of flax or hemp; 
cp. G. hdnfling 'linnet' fr. hanf 
'hemp'. Cp. OE. linece 'carduelis' 
and linetwige 'linnet'. 

linseed short for me. lin-sed 
prop, 'flax-seed'; cp. linen. 

lion ME. lioun earlier leiln : bor- 
rowed in the 12''' cent. fr. fr. 
lion', source lat. leonem (Jeo). 


lip — loath 

lip ME. lippe OE. lippa = osax. 
'^lippia^ DU. lipy MLG. lippe (whence 
G. lippe)] cogn. w. the synon. 
OSAX. lepur = ohg. le^ur and 
OHG. le/s lip'. LAT. labium 'lip' 
with the Teut. group points to 
an ARYAN \pieb lab. 

lisp vb. (Scotch wlisp) me. 
lispe {lipse) formed fr. the adj. 
OE. wlisp wlips 'Usping' = ohg. 
I'e/s (for ^^wlefs) 'stammering'; 
akin to DU. lispen^ G. lispebi 'lisp': 
TEUT. s/^wlifs — pre-TEUT. wlips. 

list^ sb. ME. list short for OE. 
list = DU. lijst^ G. leiste 'list, 
border' ohg. liste 'border'. — 
Ident. w. list^ 'catalogue' fr. 
FR. liste^ which is of Teut. origin 
(ohg. lista 'border, strip'). 

list vb. ME. liste oe. lystan 'desire' 
derived fr. lust. 

listen vb. me. listene earlier 
form liste oe. hlystan 'hear' ; allied 
to OE. hlos-nian, OHG. {h)losen 
'hear", ON. hlera (goth. *hluza?t) 
'listen'. An Aryan yfklus 'hear' 
is evident in skr. frus-fi 'obe- 
dience', OSLOV. slysati vb. 'hear', 
LITH. klausyti 'hear*, ON. hlus-t 
'ear'; cymr. ^/^i"/ 'ear'. C\). leer. 

litter ]ME. lit&e fr. ofr. litiere 
(fr. litiere) 'a horse-litter' (lat. 
type lee tar ia fr. led us 'bed'). 

little short for ME. oe. litel 
= GOTH, leifils 'small', on. litill 
'little'. Relation to the synon. 
DU. luttel, OSAX. luitil, OHG. luzzil, 
oe. lyttel 'little' is obscure. 

live vb. me. live earlier form 
lizne libbe oe. libban {lifiati) wk. 
vb. = GOTH, libatiy ohg. leben 

G. leben, du. leven, osax. libbian', 
cogn. w. oe. belifan = ohg. 
biliban G. bleiben'. teut. \f lib see 
under leave vb. and life. 

liver ME. livre oe. lifer =: du. 
lever, ohg. libara I'ebara G. leber, 
ON. lifr. Connection of teut. 
libro- w. the synon. GR. rj-naQ, 
LAT. j'ecur, SKR. yakrt and the 
two assumed stems "^lik and "^Ijek 
is doubtful. 

livery me. liver 6 fr. fr. livrde. 

lizard me. lesarde fr. fr. lizard 
'lizard' (= LAT. lacertd). 

lo interj. me. Ig oe. ld\ a pre- 
historic oe. "^Idw for TEUT. laiw 
is warranted by ohg. lew-es 'lo'! 
Perhaps teut. lai-wa- is con- 
nected with lai-pa- in loath. 

loadstar see lode- star. 

loaf me. Igf oe. hldf: Teut. 
base hlaiba- in goth. hlaifs 
bread', ON. hleifr, ohg. leib G. 
laib\ akin to lith. kl'epas 'bread'. 
See lady, la?nmas and lord. 

loam ME. lorn oe. lam = ohg. 
leim G. lehm, du. leem: Teut. 
base lai-ma- fr. the ARYAN y"// 
under //;«^. 

loan ME. Ion fr. on. Idn 'a loan'. 
There was a genuine oe. Z;?/? 
fr. a teut. laihniz', cp. ohg. 
/<?/^^;2 'a thing granted' and on. 
Mn fr. a teut. laihna-{zl) : teut. 
\flihw (goth. leihtvan 'lend', 
ohg. lihan g. leihen, oe. //^« 
pret. /<i-^ 'lend, give) = aryan 
\fliq in LAT. linquere 'leave', gr. 
XduHv, sw. ric 'leave'. 

loath adj. me. loth oe. Idp 
'hateful' = on. leidr 'loathed', 




OHG. leid odious', OSAX. leth\ 
cogn. w. OHG. lida?i G. leiden 
'suffer. Perhaps there was an 
ARYAN \("ll lai cp. lo. 

lobster me. lopstre oe. loppestre 
earlier loptist 'lobster': adoption 
fr. LAT. locusta 'lobster, locust'. 

loch OE. loh 'lake': a Gaelic 
word; cp. GAEL. IR. loch 'lake' 
(ident. w. LAT. laciis , OE. lagu 
'sea' under lake). \ 

lock! sb. fr. the vb. me. Igke 
louke OE. Itican 'lock, enclose' = 
GOTH, galukan 'shut up', ohg. 
luhhatiy DU. luiken. , 

lock 2 (of hair) me. lok (plur. 
lockes) OE. locc (plur. loccas) = 

DU. lok^ ON. lokk7'y OHG. lok G. 

locke'. Teut. base lokka- cogn. w. 
GR. XvyiHx) I bend. 

lode-star me. Igde-sterre con- 
tains OE. "^eldd way, course' (cf. 
ON. leidarstjarna = G. leitstern), 
which is cogn. w. lead vb. = 
TEUT. laidjan 'guide, lead'. Cp. 
me. Igdes7nan 'pilot' and e. lode- 

lodge vb. ME. logge vb. adopted 
fr. FR. loger\ E. lodge me. logge 
'lodge, tent' fr. fr. loge orig. 'a 
small house'? Source a lat. 
type laubia fr. ohg. louba 'an 
arbor' (g. laube 'a covered hall'; 
allied to leaf). 

loft sb. me. loft 'an upper 
room' borrowed fr. ON. /t^/ 'upper 
story, balcony', which has also 
the meaning 'air, sky' = goth. 
Iuft7is , g. luft^ OE. lyft 'air'. 
Hence lift vb. 

loin late me. loine: adopted fr. 

OFR. logfie now longe (lat. type 
*lumbea fr. LAT. lumbus loin'). 

loiter vb. me. loitre. 

loll vb. me. lolle. 

lone short for alone. 

long adj. ME. OE. long (Jang) 
= OSAX. langj DU. ohg. g. langy 
ON. langTy GOTH, laggs] cogn. w. 
synon. lat. longus (whence it. 
lungo, FR. long) ; cp. linger. — 
long vb. ME. longe OE. langian 
'long after, long' = osAX. 
langoian, G. verlangen 'wish for'. 

look vb. ME. Igke earlier Igkic 
OE. Igcian == OSAX. lokon (ohg. 
luogen g. lug en). The early 
history of the TEUT. \f lok (Jog) 
is obscure; cp. skr. laks 'notice, 
perceive' and cymr. llygat corn. 
lag at 'eye'. 

loom sb. me. Igme oe. le-lgma 
(andlp7hd) 'a tool, implement'; 
perh. akin to oe. lelgme = ohg. 
giluomo gilavio 'frequently', ohg. 
gastluomi 'hospital'. 

loose adj. me. Ids (lous) bor- 
rowed fr. ON. Iguss = goth. 
laus, OE. l§'as (cp. less), DU. los, 
OSAX. OHG. Ids g. los. The 
common teut. adj. lausa- is a 
deriv. of the \f his 'be loose' 
under lose. 

lord ME. lord short for Igverd 
OE. hldford prop, hldf-weard 
loaf-ward' — 'keeper of bread' 
(cp. OE. y^/^/" under loaf): the 
masc. corresponding to the 
fem. formation lady = oe. 
hldf-diie. Both compounds are 
peculiar to English. 

lore me. lore oe. Idr infl. Idre 


lose — lump 

= OHG. OSAX. leriiy g. lehre^ du. 
leer'. Teut. base laizo-^ whence 
GOTH, laisjanj OE. Idran, oho. 
l^ran G. lehren, DU. leeren 'teach'. 
See also learn for the teut. 
y" //s: laiz, 
lose ME. /<?j"^ mostly forlese oe. 
forleosan str. vb. ^ goth. /r^- 
liusan, osAX. ohg. farliosan g. 
verlieren str. vb. loseV An Aryan 
Y" /zi^^ (cp. loose) may be an 
extended form of V" /^^ in gr. 
Avw 'I release', lat. luere. — 
loss sb. ME. OE. los 'destruction'. 

lot ME. lot OE. hlot =r DU. 

lot\ ident. w. oe. hlyt = goth. 
hlauts, ohg. /<?5 G. loos : Teut. 
base hlauti- : teut. y/^ -^Z?^/ hlaut 
in ON. /^^'^7^z str. vb. 'get by 
lot', OE. hleotan, ohg. {h)lio'i^yin. 
loud adj. i^iE. /<92^^/ OE. i^/z^^ 
= OSAX. hlud, DU. //^/<y, OHG. 
{h)lut G. /^?//: the Teut. base 
hlil-da- (cp. r<?/rt^, <?/^, couth) 
was orig. a part, with suffix -to 

(lat. -^2^^, GR. -TOQy SKJl. -Z^^) ; 

pre-TEUT. klu-tO'S (skr. frutdSy 
GR. yilvTog, LAT. inclutiis 'famous') 
fr. an Aryan V" >^/i!^ in skr. c^u 
'hear', GR. xA-u w — v.Khoq. 

lough 'lake' fr. ir. gall. loch\ 
see /<?^^. 

louse ME. loiLs (plur. lis) oe. 
lus (plur. /y^) = DU. luisy ohg. 
/zz^ G. /^2/^, ON. lus (plur. /f^^): 
Teut. base liis-y derived perh. 
fr. the TEUT. V" lus 'destroy' 
under loose and lose\ cp. gr. 
cpd^siQ 'louse' — (p&iiQOJ 'I de- 

lovage fr. fr. liveche mixed 

w. iviE. luvestiche oe. lufestice. 
Source of the whole group lat. 
ligusticum 'lovage'. 

love ME. love oe. lufu = 
GOTH, ludo, ohg. lu^a 'love': 
Teut. base lubon- allied to the 
TEUT. adji leicba- = lief. An 
ARYAN \plubh 'desire' is evident 
in LAT. lubidoy skr. Ibblia 'desire' 
and SKR. sf lubh 'to desfre'. 

low, adj. ME. Igw earlier lag 
late OE. ldg\ borrowed fr. on. 
Idgr 'low' (sw. Idgy dan. lav) 
= DU. laagy which are derived 
from the teut. \r leg lag 'lie'. 
Hence low prop, 'lying flat'. 

low vb. ME. Ip'we OE. hlgwait 
'low'; cp. DU. loeietiy ohg. luoien 
low': TEUT. sf hid , pre-TEUT. 
kid in LAT. cld-mdre 'cry. 

lower vb. me. loure = ivrao. 
luren G. lauern 'lurk'; cp. lurk. 

luck found since the 15*** cent.; 
ident. w. DU. luk geluk 'good 
fortune', mhg. gelUcke G. gliicky 
OFRis. luk. Akin to G. locken^ 
DU. locken 'entice, allure'. 

lucre ME. lucre fr. fr. lucre = 
LAT. lucrum. 

lug vb. ME. lugge 'drag, lug'; 
cogn. w. sw. lugga. 

lukewarm fr. me. leuke {lake) 
earlier hleuk\ perh. contr. fr. 
an unrecorded oe. "^hUowoc 
'lukewarm'; cogn. w. ime. lewe 
OE. hleowe 'lukewarm' = on. 
hlyr 'warm' (ohg. hldo G. lau 

lull ME. lulle = DU. lullen, 
DAN. lullcy sw. lulla. 

lump sb. ME. lumpe lompc\ 

lung — magpie 


ident. w. du. lonip 'a lump', G. 
Iu7tipen 'rags'. 

lung ]VIE. lunge longe oe. lungen \ 
^^ ON. lunga, DU. long J OHG. 
lunga G. lunge 'lung': Teut. base \ 
lungon-j-, allied to an Aryan 
adj. bnghu- 'light' = gr. sXa/vc, 
SKR. lag/iu 'light'. Cp. lights 
as synon. with lungs. See 
light for the ARYAN \f lengh. 

lure sb. me. Hire fr. fr. leurre 
'bait*; source a teut. lopra- 
= MHG. luoder 'bait' (g. ludei-). 

lurk vb. me. lurke\ derived fr. 
ME. lour en (= lower) as hark 
fr. hear J talk fr. /^//. 

lust sb. ME. OE. lust 'desire' 

= OSAX. DU. G. ON. lust^ GOTH. 

lustus 'desire': a common Teut. 
formation, prob. allied to the 
ARYAN \p las 'desire' in gr. 

XiXaioiLiaij SKR. yf las for lals 
'desire', lat. las-civus. 

lute sb. ME. lute\ borrowed fr. 
OFR. lilt leut = FR. luth\ ident. 
w. DU. luit, G. lautCy IT. liuto 
leutOy SPAN. laud. Source ARAB. 
al ud 'lute'. 

-ly adj. -suffix me. -ly -li earlier 
-lich{e) oe. -lie = osAX. -lik, 

DU. lijk, OHG. -lich G. -lich, ON. 

-likry GOTH, 'leiks. Orig. the 
same as lika- 'body' discussed 
under like (goth. wa Ira -leiks 
'manly' prop, "having the body 
of a man). 

lye sb. ME. Hie oe. Ic'ah (infl. 
l(age); cp. synon. du. loog^ ohg. 
louga G. lauge ^ on. Igug 'warm 
bath': prob. connected with the 
ARYAN \flou lu 'bathe' (cp. 


mace a big club' borrowed 
fr. OFR. mace fr. 7tiasse\ source 
a LAT. type "^matea 'a beetle'. 

mackerel me. makeril adopted 
fr. OFR. maquerel (fr. maquereaii) 
= DU. makreel, whence G. mak- 
rele : source med.-lat. maearellus 
maquerellus 'a mackerel'. 

machine (^ g. mas chine, du. 
machine) fr. fr. machine: source 
LAT. machina gr. ^irjj^av?/ 'a 

mad adj. me. mad oe. ^emced 
prop, '^emdded: part, of oe. 

English Etymology. 

lemddan 'drive mad', deriv. from 
the OE. adj. ^emad 'mad' = 
oSAX. gimed 'foolish', ohg. gimeit 
Yoolish', GOTH, ga-maids 'frail, 

madder sb. me. '^maddre. oe. 
mcBdre (mcedrel) = on. madra, 
OHG. mdtara] cogn. du. lg. 
mede 'madder'? 

niaggot late me. maggot maggat] 
prob. fr. cymr. maceiad macai 
'a maggot'? 

magpie sb. 'a bird'; mag 
short for Magot = fr. Margot 


maid — malt 

'Marguerite', also 'magpie'; J>ie 
= FR. pie fr. LAT. pica 'a 
magpie'; see pie. 

maid :me. maidc oe. mceiden 
:= OHG. magatin'. Teut. base 
magadina- is diminutive of a 
TEUT. -GOTH. magiip- 'a girl, 
virgin' = OE. mcBiep , OSAX. 
magath, du. w^/^, ohg. magad 
G. wrt-^^/ — mddchen. Allied to 
the Teut.-Goth. base 7nagu- 'boy' 
= ON. 7nggr 'boy, son', oe. 

maili sb. adapted fr. fr. 
maille 'mail' (also 'a mesh of a 
net') : source lat. macula 'a 
spot, hole, mesh of a net'. 

mail 2 sb. me. male 'a bag, 
wallet' borrowed fr. the synon. 
OFR. male = fr. malle (ohg. 
malha 'a leather bag'). 

maim vb. me. ?naime prop. 
maine borrowed fr. OFR. mehaigner 

main sb. me. main oe. mce-^en 
'strength* = ohg. magan megin, 
OSAX. ON. megin 'strength' : teut. 
\(^mag in anight and may. 

main adj. borrowed fr. ofr. 
maine magne 'chief' (lat. magnus 

maintain vb. me. maintene 
adopted fr. fr. maintenir (lat. 
type manutenere 'hold by the 

maize sb. = fr. mais^ g. 
mais\ adopted fr. span. maiz. 
Columbus is said to have im- 
ported the Haytian name mahis 
and the cereal to Spain whence 

it was adopted by the other 
mod. languages. 

make vb. jnie. make oe. macian 
= OSAX. fuakon , du. ma ken, 
ohg. mahhon 'make, also fit or 
fasten together' G. 7nachen'. 
Teut. base niakon 'join, belong 
together. Cp. with goth. ^makon 
the ON. comparat. ?nakara 'more 
suitable, fitting', oe. lemcec 'fit, 
suitable', ohg. gimah 'con- 
venient, comfortable' G. gemach ; 
OE. ^emcBdcea 'husband, wife' (e. 
make companion, spouse, E. 
match 'spouse'). 

malady sb. me. maladie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. maladie fr. fr. 
?nalade (source male 'ill, bad' 
and aptus 'disposed'). 

male adj. jvde. male adopted 
fr. FR. male (source lat. dimin. 

malice sb. me. ??talice borrowed 
fr. FR. malice (source lat. 7na- 
litia 'ill will'). — malign adj. 
adopted fr. fr. malin (f. 7naligne) 
'malignant' (source 7nalignu77i i. e. 
male ge7ius 'ill-born). 

mall sb. ME. malle melle mail 
borrowed fr. FR. 7nail 'a mall': 
source lat. malleus 'a hammer'. 
— Hence mallet sb. me. maillet 
borrowed fr. FR. maillet a mallet'. 

mallow ME. malwe oe. 7nealwe 
= DU. 7/ialuwe: borrowed fr. 
lat. 7nalva^ whence also fr. 
mauve, span. it. 77ialva, G. malve. 
Cp. mauve, 

malt sb. ME. malt oe. mealt 
=^ OSAX. ON. malt, du. 77iout, 
G. 77talz. The Teut. base malta- 



fr. a TEUT.y^w^// in OE. m'eltan 
'dissolve, melt' with which is 
allied the on. adj. 7nalir 'rotten' 
= OHG. malz 'melting away, 
soft' so that '^malt is perh. the 
adjectival neut. sb. meaning 'that 
which is soft'. Cp. melt. 

man sb. me. oe. man vion{n7i) 
= OSAX. OHG. DU. MLG. man 
G. mann, on. madr^ GOTH, manna 
'mankind, man'. In oe., man mgn 
(n = nn) denotes 'man' and 
'woman' (cp. oe. wifmon r= e. 
womati). goth.-teut. mann- is 
based on older manw- manu- (as 
chin is based on an Aryan 
ke7iw- genu-), indo-eur. mdnu 
'mankind' appears in skr. as 
Manu, but it signified also the 
'father of mankind'; cp. also 
skr. mantis and ifianusa 'homo' 
and OSLOV. mqzi 'man'. 

mane sb. me. mane oe. manu = 
OHG. mana G. mcihne, DU. maan^ 
on. mgn, sw. dan. man. The 
Teut. base mano- 'mane' shows 
a later development of meaning; 
the older meaning was 'neck'; cp. 
ON. men J oe. ?npte, ohg. menni 
'necklace', cogn. with lat. monile 
'necklace*, ocelt. f.iaviuy.rjg = 
OIR. muince 'necklace'. In lieu 
of ARYAN w<7i^^ 'neck' occurs skr. 
ma?tyd 'nape', closely allied to 
OIR. 7nuin nndnil 'nape'. 

mange sb. shortened fr. the 
adj. me. ^maunge which is bor- 
rowed from the fr. part, mangi 
lit. 'eaten'; cp. fr. mangaison 
'mange'. — manger sb. me. 
maung^r borrowed fr. FR. man- 

geoire 'manger, stable' (fr. 7nan- 
ger 'eat = lat. manducare^. 

mangle vb. ME. mange leh^qaenX. 
and weakened for "^mankele fr. 
ME. manke oe. ^emancian^ which 
was prob. formed from an adj. 
oe. "^manc^^DXS.mank'. loanword 
fr. LAT. mancus adj. 'maimed'. 

mangle sb. borrowed fr. du. 
mangel (= sw. G. mangel)] dimin. 
of a simple word represented 
by G. mange 'a mangle' = it. 
mangano' a machine for smoothing 
linen, a war-engine' fr. lat. man- 
ganum = GR. f.iayyavov 'a war- 

manikin manakin borrowed fr. 
FR. mannequin =- DU. manneken\ 
cp. G. mdnnchen, du. mannetje: 
all diminutives of man. a 

mankind sb. me. mankinde \ 
earlier man-kin oe. mon-cynn. 
See man and kin^ also kind. 

manner me. manure borrowed 
fr. OFR. manere = fr. maniere. 

mantle me. mantel (a form 
mauntelis unrecorded) = DU. sw. 
DAN. mantel', ON. mgttull and OE. 
mentel rest on a lost lat. mantu- 
lum mantilu?n (fr. LAT. mantum = 
FR. mante, it. manto 'a cloak'), 
whence also G.?nanteloilG.mantal] 
cogn. w. FR. manteau, it. mantello 
(lat. type ^mantellum). 

many me. mani many oe. mani^ 
monei'. Teut. base ?nanaga- = 
osAX. OHG. manag G. 7nanch, DU. 
menig, on. margr. Cogn. w. oiR. 
menicc IR. minic 'frequently' (base 
menecci- ?) and cymr. maint, bret. 
mefit (celt, base manti-). 


map — marsh 

map sb. borrowed fr. fr. mappe 
= IT. LAT. mappa prop. *a nap- 
kin, table-cloth'. 

maple sb. me. ?ndpel oe. ^mcepel 
"^mapul in mapoltreo mapulder 'a 
maple-tree': perh. ident. w. ohg. 
ma'i^yxUra (g. massholder)^ which 
points to TEUT. matlU', whilst 
the E. word points to a base 

mar vb. me. 7nerre oe. dmerra?i 
dmyrran wk. vb. 'to hinder, ob- 
struct' ■=^ GOTH, marzjan 'offend', 
OHG. marren, du. marren 'tarry': 
TEUT. -ARYAN \fmarz 7nars, 

miarble me. marble mdrbre fr. 
FR. marbre] source lat. mar7nor. 

march sb. me. mdrche 'march, 
boundary' fr. fr. marche 'bound- 
ary'. The Fr. word is of Teut. 
P origin; cp. goth. marka^ oe. 
mearCy OSAX. ohg. marka 'bound- 
ary* which are primitively related 
to LAT. margo 'border, edge', 
avest. merezu 'border', IR. mruig 
'shire' (Celt, base mrogi-), Cp. 

march vb. fr. fr. marcher. 

March (the month) me. (since 
the 12*'' cent.) March fr. fr. 
mars} Source lat. Martins mensis 
(whence ohg. merzo G. fndrz^ lg. 
merte) . 

mare me. mire oe. mire myre: 
Teut. base marhjbn- (= ohg. 
merihha G. mdhre^ DU. merie, on. 
'' merr)j deriv. fr. teut. mar ha- 
'horse' in oe. mearh, ohg. marah, 
ON. marr 'horse' (see marshal). 
There is a pre-TEUT. marka- in 
the Celt, languages; cp. gall. 

7narca, ir. gael. marc , cymr. 
CORN, march 'horse'. 

margin me. mdrgin{e) fr. lat. 
marginem (nom. sing. lat. margo 
= FR. marge). 

mark^ sb. 'line, dot, cut' i^ie. 
marke oe. mearc = du. on. fnarky 
MHG. marc (gen. markes) G. 
marke (goth. marka 'boundary'). 
— Hence mark vb. me. marke 
OE. mearcian = on. marka, osAX. 
markdn\ cp. DU. G. inerken = 
GOTH, "^markjan. 

mark''^ sb. 'a unit of weight, 
a coin' me. 7nark late OE. fjiarc. 
borrowed fr. on. 7nprky whence 
also DU. G. mark (med.-lat. 
marcd) . 

market sb. me. market late oe. 
(ii*^ cent.) markit 7narcdt\ bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. '^market fr. marcM 
(it. mercato) = lat. mercdtus 
'market', whence also ohg. markdt 
7nerchdt G. DU. 77tarkt. See mart. 

maroon adj. 'chestnut-colored' 
borrowed fr. FR. ma7'ro7i = it. 
77tarro7ie 'a chestnut'. 

marrow me. marow 77iary oe. 
mearh 77iearg = osAX. marg, 
ohg. mar(a)g g. mark, du. merg, 
ON. mergr: Teut. base 77iazga- 
= ARYAN "^mazgho- in OSLOV. 
mozgUj ZEND mazga, skr. 7fiaJJa7i 
'marrow'. The root is skr. 77tajj 
'immerge' = lat. mergere. 

marry vb. me. 77iarie vb. adopt- 
ed fr. FR. tnarier'. source lat. 
maritare 'marry'. — Hence mar- 
riage ME. mai'idge = fr. mariage. 

marsh me. mersh oe. mersc 
earliest form merisc = iviDU. 

marshal — mastiff 


maersc/ie, lg. g. marsc^, dan. 
marsk'. Teut. base maris ka- = 
]VIED. - LAT. mariscus 'swamp', 
whence ofr. ?naresc fr. marais. 
Source teut. mari- 'ocean' {;= 
LAT. mare) in OE. mere^ ohg. meri 
G. meer, on. marry goth. marei. 

marshal ime. mar{e)schal adopt- 
ed fr. OFR. mareschal = fr. 
marichaly span, mariscal^ it. ma- 
rz>(:<2/^ *a marshal, farrier. Source 
a teut. marha-skalkaz 'horse- 
thane' == OHG. marah-scalc (ohg. 
mar ah 'a horse' = E. in are and 
ohg. scalch = OE. scea/c me. 
schalkj ON. skdlkr y OSAX. skalk^ 
GOTH, skalks 'servant'. 

mart sb. short for inarket. 

marten short for martern orig. 
martre me. martre adopted fr. 
fr. 7}iartre (= IT. martora, span. 
7?iartii). The Fr. word, which 
supplanted a genuine OE. mearp, 
is of IVut. origin: ON. mgrdr^ 
OHG. 7nardar G. marder , du. 
marter\ osAX. '^marthar inferred 
fr. the adj. marthrin. 

martin sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
martin y orig. the proper name 
Martin^ which was applied to 
various birds and animals; cp. 
robin red-breast. 

martyr sb. me. martir oe. mar- 
tyr ■=^ OSAX. fnartir, ohg. rnartyr, 
GOTH, martyr (with suffix DU. 
martelaary ohg. martirdi'i G. mdr- 
tyrer) : fr. lat.-gr. martyr 'a wit- 

marvel vb. jvie. merveile bor- 
rowed fr. fr. merveiller] source 
LAT. mirabilia 'wonderful thiners'. 

mash vb. masche vb. mix' (oE. 
i^mdscianT) = G. 7?ieischen'. prob. 
cogn. w. OSLOV. 7nezga 'sap of 
trees' (oslov. ^^ = teut. skT), 
Cp. mix. 

mask sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
masque, whence also G. DU. 
DAN. 7naske sw. 7nask. 

mason me. mdsoun adopted 
fr. FR. 7na(on] source a type 
matio 'a maison' -=^ ohg. 7nezzo 
G. stein7netz a stone- mason'. 

mass^ sb. 'a lump of matter' 
late ME. 77iasse borrowed fr. FR. 
masse (= it. 7nassd) : source 
LAT. 77iassa 'a lump, a mass', 
whence also ohg. 7nassa G. 

mass^ sb. 'the eucharist me. 
masse oe. 7ncssse\ evidently 
identical w. osAX. missa, du. 
7tdSy OHG. 77iessa 7nissa G. 7nesse\ 
a Christian word from med.- 
LAT. 77ussa 'mass' = fr. 7nesse 
(whence me. 7nesse). 

mast ME. mast oe. 7ncest = 

DU. LG. G. sw. DAN. mast, ON. 

mastr. In accordance with 
Grimm's law, the Teut. base 
77iasta- is based on pre-TEUT. 
7?iazdo- = LAT. mdlus (for "^mddus) 
'a mast'. -^' 

mastjpr sb. me. maister late 
OE. 7n^ester borrowed fr. ofr. N 
maistre fr. 7naitre (= IT. maestro) : 
source lat. 7n agister , whence 
also OSAX. 77iestar, du. meester, 
OHG. 7neistar G. meister. See 

mastiff ME. mestif mastlfsido^fied 
fr. OFR. mestif prop, an adj. fr. 




the sb. OFR. 7nastin (fr. matin) 
'a mastiff'. 

mat ME. matte oe. meatta = 
DU. mat, OHG. matta G. matte, 
IT. ;^zrt'//^ borrowed fr. LAT. 
matta 'a rug', whence fr. natte. 

match ^ sb. me. macche oe. 
■^emcecca 'a companion' ident. w. 
oe. ie7naca sb. = E. make. 

match^ sb. 'the wick of a 
candle, a match' me. macche 
borrowed fr. FR. meche 'match 
of a lamp' : source lat. myxa 
'the nozzle of a lamp'. 

mate sb. 'a companion' aiE. 
mdte = DU. maat, OSAX. *gmato, 
OHG. gimai^y) mhg. ge7na':^i^ey oe. 
'^-^emdta (wanting) would - be 
derived from oe. mete = meat\ 
hence mate prop, 'mess-mate'. 

mate adj. me. mdte mat 'con- 
founded, dejected borrowed fr. 
OFR. FR. 7nat (= SPAN, mate, 
IT. matto). Source the Arab.- 
Pers. expression in the chess- 
play schah 7ndt 'the king is dead'. 

matins, mattins 'morning 
prayers' me. matin{e)s\ borrowed 
fr. FR. matins plur. of matin 
'morning': source lat. rnatutinus 
'belonging to the morning'; cp. 
LAT. hora viatiLtma in OHG. mettina 
G. 7nette 'matutinal service'. 

matter sb. me. ///<^//r<? adopted 
fr. FR. matiei-e) source LAT. 
7nate7'ia 'materials'. 

miattock me. mattok oe. 77tattoc 
prob. fr. CYMR. 7?iatog a. hoe'; 
but osLov. motyka and lith. 
matikas 'mattock' point to a Teut. 

miattress ivie. materas (= du. 
matras) borrowed fr. ofr. mate- 
ras = FR. mate/as = med.-lat. 
matratium'. source ARAB, matrah 
prop, 'a place where something 
is thrown'. 

maudlin adj. corrupted fr. 

ME. Maude kin = Mag delaine ■= 
OFR. Magdeleine, lat.-gr. Mag- 
dalena. Maria Magdalena was 
considered a type of sorrowing 

maul vb. me. malle 'strike with 
a mall' formed fr. the w^. sb. 
malle 'a mall' borrowed fr. ir. 
7nail 'a mall', whence also 7nalL 

Maundy Thursday me. maunde 
thursdai fr. ofr. mandd (= OHG. 
MHG. ma7iddt) 'the ceremony of 
Christ's washing his disciples' 
feet': source lat. 77ianddtum ac- 
cording to John XIII 34. 

mauve 'mallow color' borrowed 
fr. FR. 77iauve 'a mallow' = lat. 
7/ialva', ident. w. 7n allow. 

maw ME. 7nawe oe. maga 
'stomach' = ohg. mago 'sto- 
mach' G. magen, DU. maag, on. 
magi 'stomach'. 

may vb., me. mai oe. vk^i = 
OSAX. OHG. G. DU. mag, ON. ma, 
GOTH. mag. teut. \fmag{7n}ig) 
fr. ARYAN magh is closely allied 
to OSLOV. 77rogq mosti 'be able'. 

May ikiE. may 7nai fr. .fr. Mai 
(lat. Mains 7nensis). 

mayor sb. me. 7naire adopted 
fr. FR. 77iaire'. source LAT. 7?iajor 


me pers. pron. dat. and ace. 
ME. OE. me fr. a Teut. and Aryan 
stem fne- in goth. mis 7?ii-k, 
G. mi-r fni-chy lat. mihi me\ gr. 
I (.101 (.IS liie; SKR. mahyam 
tne dat., mam md ace; base 

mead^ sb. me. mcde oe. meodo 
= DU. MLG. viede ohg. m'eto 
mitu G. met^ ON. mjgdr'. base 
teut. medii = aryan "^medhti^ cp. 
SKR. mddhu 'honey, sweet di;ink', 
GR. (.dd^v wine' (allied (.istKco 
'I am drunk', ^«£^;; 'drunkenness'), 
OSLOV. medil 'honey, wine', lith. 
midus 'mead' — mediis 'honey', IR. 

mead^ sb. 'meadow' (now in 
poetry) me. m^'de o^.'?nced (gen. 
mcedwe) = du. mat mlg. mdde 
OLG. mdtha mada, ofris. meth, 
G. matte J goth. ^medwa'. based 
on a teut. \^ maj> 7n^d, con- 
nected w. LAT. 7fiito 'I mow, 
reap' and showing a shorter 
form me in E. mow. But the 
GOTH. *w^ might represent 
the root and two, the suffix. — 
meadow aie. medwe oe. mmi 
gen. mcedwe. Mead and meadow 
are related as shade and sha- 
dow. Cp. mead. 

meagre adj. me. megre bor- 
rowed fr. FR. maigre (= span. 
IT. mag7'o) '. source LAT. macer 
'lean, thin, meagre', oe. 7nceier 

(=^ DU. MLG. G. 77iage7- OHG. 77iaga7', 

on. 7}iag7' is common Teut.). 
The Teut. forms with lat. 
77iace7', GR. (lay.tdvoi^ 'tall', ,a«>r- 
Qog long' have prob. com6 fr. 

an ARYAN \f mdk 'thin, long'. 
LITH. mdzas 'small' and ohg. 
7tiagar might point to a common 
\p magh. Perh. the Teut. group 
comes fr. vulg. lat. -it. magro. 

meaP sb. 'flour' me. 7ricle oe. 
m'elo (gen. 771'ehves) = OSAX. 
m'elo, DU. DAN. 7/iee/, ohg. f7i'eio 
(gen. 77i'elawes) c. 7/iehly on. 7?ijgl: 
Teut. base ^7n'elwa- 'flour meal' 
lit. 'that which is ground' from 
a Teut. and aryan V" fnel 'grind' 
seen in oSAX. ohg. goth. ma Ian 
DU. 7nale7i g. mahle7iy on. mala 
'grind'; cp. lat. 77iolOy gr. (ivWw, 
OSLOV. 77ielja (77ileti}y lith. 77ialu 
(77idlti), OIR. 77ieli77i 'grind'; cp. 
771 ill. 

mieaP sb. 'a repast' me. ;«// 
= OSAX. 77idly DU. maal, G. 77iahl, 
ON. 77idl, OHG. *;//^/ wanting with 
this meaning; ident. w. goth. 
7nel time', oe. mcel 'time'. 

miean adj. me. mme oe. ie77icene 
fr. a Teut. base ga-7iiaini- =^ 
GOTH. ga77iains , OSAX. gi77ieni, 
OHG. gitneiiii G. gemei7z, DU. 
ge7nee7i\ cogn. w. lat. r^;w- 
mu7iis for com-moi7ii-s; cp. lat. 

^/?72/f^ with GOTH. rt-Z/^i- =: ARYAN 


mean vb. ]vie. w/;?^ oe. 7n(Ena7i 
= OSAX. menian. Ou. 77iee7ie7t, 
OHG. 77ieinen 7?iei'na7i g. 77iei7ien, 
0]Si.f7/ei7ia, GOTK. '^7/iai7ija72; oslov. 
7//e7ijq mmiti is closely allied. 
Connected with y" 7na7i 'think' in 

mean adj. me. w/«^ adj. 'middle' 
contracted fr. '^7nejcn =~- ofr. 


ineasies — mercy 

meyen fr. moyen 'intermediate': 
source lat. medidnus. 

measles sb. me. fnesel sb. 
leper' — adj. leprous': loan- 
word fr. OFR.?;z(?i'^/=LAT. misellus. 

measure sb. me. m^silre bor- 
rowed fr. FR. mesure (= span. 
mestira , it. misurd) from lat. 

meat me. 7ne'te oe. meie fr. a 
Teut. base mati- = OSAX. metiy 
DU. met (in -wursi), OHG. 7nax, 
ON. 7}iatr^ GOTH, mats 'food'. 

medal borrowed fr. fr. 7}ii- 
daille (= span, medalla , it. 
medaglid)\ source a lat. type 
metallea fr. LAT. vietallum. 

meddle me. ?nedle (fnc'le) 'mix' 
borrowed fr. ofr. medler mesler 
= FR. me/er : source a lat. type 
miscu/are 'mix' fr. lat. miscere 
'mix'. — medley sb. me. mcd/e 
adopted fr. ofr. med/e mesle 
(fem. medic e = fr. meUe) part, 
of ofr. tncdler 'mix'. 

medlar sb. me. medle-tre fr. 
OFR. 7?iesliei' mesle 'medlar-tree': 
source lat. mespilum 'a med- 

meed sb. ikiE. oe. med (oe. 
once meo7'd) = osAX. mMa, 
DU. miedc^ OHG. meta miata G. 
miete 'hire' ; GOTH, mizdo 'reward 
(the z of which was lost in 
Teut. with lengthening of i to 
e) fr. an aryan mizdho- in GR. 
/tiiGt^og 'wages, pay, hire', oslov. 
mzzda^ AVEST. mtzda 'wages', 
oind. midhd (for mizdho) 'contest, 
match, booty' (perh. orig. 'a 
prize' by inference fr. the skr. 

adj. midhvds 'spending lavishly'). 

meek adj. me. mek (late oe. 
^fndoc) borrowed fr. the equiv. 
on. mjukr = sw. mjickj DAN. 
myg 'soft', cp. DU. muik 'soft', 
GOTH. 77iuks (inferred fr. miika- 
model 'meekness'). 

meet vb. me. mete oe. metaTt 
vb. = osAX. TTidtiaTz, du. 77ioete7t, 
ON. 77i(jeta, GOTH. gamdtja7i 'meet' : 

TEUT. \l^77Wt. 

mieet adj. me. m^te oe. "^emckte 
= OFRis. 77tete, MLG. 7ndte, ohg. 
gi7ndyt\ cp. 771 ete. 

melt vb. ME. melte oe. m'elta7i\ 
for the \P melt see malt. An 
Aryan y" 77ield is evident in skr. 
77irdu 'soft, tender', GR. f^iiXdi^iv 

menace sb. me. 7ne7idce 77ia7idce 
borrowed fr. FR. me7tace (lat. 
minacia) 'threat'. 

mend vb. mende short for 
amCTide borrowed fr. fr. a77ie7ide7' 
(lat. e77te7tdare). See a 771 e 71 d. 

menial (prop, adj., but also 
used as sb.) me. meiTieal formed 
with the suffix -a I fr. me. mei7ii 
7naini 'a household'. This is 
borrowed fr. ofr. mesne 77ieis7iee 
answering to a lat. type *;a/<7;2- 

merchant me. 77iarchau7it 7na7'- 
chaund borrowed fr. ofr. 777ai'- 
cha7tt = FR. marchaTid: source 
LAT. 77tercaj'i 'buy' (cp. ma7'ket). 

mercy me. 77ierfi . borrowed 
from FR. me7'ci (source med.- 
LAT. w^r^^^ 'mercy, pity' extended 
fr. LAT. me7'X 'traffic'). See 
7na7'ket, i7jei'cha7zt. 



merge vb. adopted fr. lat. 
mergere 'plunge under water'. 

merit me. merit fr. fr. mirite. 

mermaid me. mer-maide] oe. 
mere 'ocean' me. mere agree 
with OHG. OSAX. meri, goth. 
marei 'ocean'; cp. marsh. 

merry adj. me. mirie oe. inyrj^e 
from a Teut. base murgi- 'short' 
in OHG. ffiurgfdri of short hfe', 
Swiss tnu7'g 'raannikin'; cp. goth. 
mmirgjan 'shorten'. The adj. 
TEUT. viurgu- 'short' = IE. 
mrghu- corresponds to gr. ^qol- 
/vc 'short' (for *«^a/t;'c). 

mesh sb. me. mesche oe. mcksce 
= ON. ?npskve, OHG. mdsca G. 
7naschc\ the Teut, base *mesgen 
belongs to the IE. mezg in lith. 
mdzgas 'knot' from the vb. mezgii 
(megsti) 'knot, weave nets'; hence 
mesk may be traced to a teut. 
\^ ?nes(/' (ARYAN mezg 'braid ). 

mete vb. me. met^ oe. metan = 
OSAX. metan, du. mefen, ohg. 
nieip^an G. messeuy ON. meta^ goth. 
mitan with which is allied' GOTH. 
7nitdn 'think over', ohg. m'ei^'ipn 
moderate'. The teut. \("met is 
based on tVie Aryan \f^fned in 
GR. usdoiLiat I devise' — ued'iov 
'counselor' — jubdiuvog a corn- 
measure', LAT. modus 'manner' 
— ?nodius 'a corn-measure', GOTH. 
mita^s 'measure'. 

mess sb. me. messe borrowed 
fr. OFR. 7nes FR. 7nets (source 
LAT. missus fr. mittere) 'send' and 
in MED. -LAT. 'put, place'). 

message me. message borrowed 
fr. FR. message', lat. type missatica 

an extension of lat. missus. — 
Hence messenger (with the 
insertion of n as in passenger^ 
ME. messag^r formed fr. message 
with the suffix -er denoting 'the 
metal me. 7netal borrowed fr. 

FR. 77lHal. 

miete vb. 'measure' me. mete 
oe. metaTi sw. vb. 'measure' = 
GOTH. 7nitan, G. messcTi ohg. irie-yj^an^ 
DU. meten. 

mettle ident. w. j/ietal but 
meaning now 'spirit, ardor'. 

mew vb. onomatopoetic like 
DU. maauweriy g. maueii ; imitative 
of a cat's cry. 

mew me. mhv oe. 77i(hv\ cp. 
DU. i7ieeuw, ON. md^r^ G. mowe: 
TEUT. base 77iai'w-. 

mickle me. mikel 77iichd mukel 
7nuchely oe. 7}tidel 7nycel = goth. 
ffiikils , ON. mikill 7/iykill, osAX. 
jnikil, OHG. 77iihhil\ cp. much. 

mid- adj. me. 7nid oe. mid midd 
= OSAX. 7/iiddi, OHG. 7nitti g. 7nit-, 
ON. 77iidr, GOTH, midjis. In mod. 
e. and in mod. G., the adjectives 
E. mid- = G. tTiit- are only used in 
compounds as e. midday^ 77iidlent, 
midsum7nery 77iidwinter\ G. ?7tittag, 
mitte7'nacht, mittwoch (orig. dat. 
sing.). The teut. stem midja- 
answers to Aryan midhyo\ cp. 
GR. LiiiiOQ (for ^nsdjog), skr. 
7nddhyasy lat. medius. — middle 
adj. and sb. me. oe. 7niddel =-- 
DU. middely ohg. /;////// G. mittel\ 
with formative -/ from the adj. 




midge me. 7mgge oe. my eg fr. 
a Teut. base mugjo- = osax. 
muggiuy DU. mugy OHG. mucka g. 
milcke. From on. my it may be 
inferred that the West-Teut. 
guttural is secondary. 

midst formed with excrescent / 
from ME. in middes equivalent to 

mien borrowed fr. fr. mine fr. 
IT. 7?nna = oiT. mena 'fashion, 
carriage ofman: sourceMED.-LAT. 
mina?e 'conduct, lead'. 

miight ME. mig/if oe. mi/i^ meaht 
= OSAX. OHG. maht^ du. magt^ 
G. machty ON. mdttr, goth. tnahts. 
The common teut. "^mahti is an 
old verbal abstract from goth. 
magan (like oslov. mosti from 
*?nokii from mogq 'clean). See 

milch adj. jvie. milche oe. "^ my Ice'. 
deriv. of milk\ cp. the equiv. 
adj's. ON. milkr mj'dlkr , ohg. 
jn'elch G. melk, oe. m'elc. 

mild adj. me. oe. milde = 
OSAX. mildi , DU. G. mild OHG. 
milii , ON. 7nildr , GOTH. 7nildeis. 
Cogn. w. oiR. 7?ieldach 'agreeable' 
or blaith 'soft, smooth' (base 
mldti-) ? or oslov. mladil young, 
tender', lith. 7nildiis 'pious'? 

mildew me. mildew oe. 77iiled(aw 
= DU. 77ieeldauw, ohg. 7mli-tou 
G. 7nehltau\ the first part is prob. 
fr. OE. mele -= goth. milip 'honey'; 
cp. ON. 7mlska 'a honeyed drink'; 
the second part see under dew. 

mile ME. 7nik oe. ;//// = du. 
mijl^ OHG. mila milla (for "^miljd) 
G. 7neile: borrowed fr. LAT. 7rnlia 

(passuum) lit. 'thousand paces', 
(whence also fr. milk, it. miglia). 
The more frequent plur. 77iilia 
was adopted in Rom. and G. as 
a fem. sing, (omitting passuimi). 

miilfoil ME. milfoil fr. fr. fnille- 
feuille = LAT. millefolium. 

milk ME. 7nilk oe. meoloc mile 
= OSAX. 7riilu^, DU. r/tel^, OHG. 
7niltik G. mile/i, ON. 7nj6lk7% GOTH. 
7niliiks. It is remarkable that a 
common Aryan or at least a 
West -Aryan term for 'milk' is 
wanting, although the \f 7nelg = 
TEUT. melk 'to milk' occurs in all 
the West-Aryan languages. From 
a common Indo-Eur. vb. : oe. 
melean, du. melke7i, ohg. 7nelchan 
G. melken, goth. '^milkan. Cp. lat. 
77iulgere, gr. d/iieXysiv, oslov. 
77des/i (pres. mluzq), lith. 77iilsti 
(pres. 7?iilzii) oiR. mbligim {7nlieht 
and melg 'milk'). — milk vb. 
ME. milke OE. meolcia7i {= ofris. 
melkay on. mjolkd) fr. oe. meole. 

mill ME. 77iille earlier 7nilne oe. 
myln (whence on. 77iylnd) = DU. 
7nole7i 7neulen y OHG. muli{n) G. 
77iilhle\ borrowed fr. late LAT. 
common ROM. molina 'mill' (for 
class. LAT. 77iold), whence also 
IT. 7nulino, FR. 7noiUin. 

millet fr. FR. 7nillet\ source lat. 
miliiun 'millet'. 

milt me. oe. mille = du. w/7/, 
OHG. 7/iilzi G. 77iilz, ON. 7/iilli l from 
the TEUT. \f7fielt seen in 7nalt.' 
e. and DU. milt soft roe of fishes' 
is a corruption of milk (sw. 
mfolke 'milt' fr. 7njdlk 'milk', dan. 


fiskemelk 'soft roe of fishes', lit. 

mince vb. me. mince oe. viin- 
sian wk. vb. 'make small' deriv. fr. 
OE. min(nn) = du. min 'smaller'; 
cp. FR. mincer 'mince' from mince 
'small' of Teut. origin. 

mind sb. me. minde oe. jje-mynd 
'memory, mind': Teut. base 
ga-mundi- ■=^ goth. ga-munds 
'memory' from goth. ga-munan 
= OSAX. {far)munan 'despise', 
ON. mtma, OE. ^emunany cp. goth. 
mims 'purpose , desire , mind', 
ON. mu?ir 'mind, desire, love', 
OE. myne 'memory, love'. Allied 
to ON. minni 'remembrance, mind', 
OSAX. mi?tna, ohg. mifinia and 
OHG. minni G. mi?tne 'love', orig. 
'remembrance'. All belong to 
the common Aryan and teut. 
yfmen man 'think'; cp. Gk. (.ikvoc 
'courage, mind', /Lu/iiv7JoiiO} 'I 
jremember', lat. memini reminiscor 
fnens moneOy skr. yfman 'think, 

mine possessive pron. me. oe. 
min = OSAX. ohg. fmn, du. fnijn, 
G. m'ein (also ohg. 7ntn G. meiner), 
0^. minUy GOTH, meins'. derived 
fr. the stem 7}ie- of the pers. 
pron. cp. me and for the suffix 
cp. SKR. makina'xmxi^ and thine. 

mine sb. UE.mine = du. mij'n, g. 
DAN. mine: borrowed from fr. 
mine (= span. it. mina) : of Celt, 
origin; cp. IR. Gael, m^in 'metal', 
BRET, mefi 'stone, metal, cymr. 
7nwyn 'metal': celt, base mena 
meina ? 

mingle a frequent, vb. from me. 
viinge nienge OE. me tig an = OSAX. 
mengian, du. me/zgen, OHG. mengan 
g. mengen, goth. ^maggj'an. Cp. 

minnow 'a fish' me. minowe oe. 

^mynwe (and myne'capito) = ohg. 

muniwa 'capedo'; cp. westphal. 

mcene, hess. tnoehnl Etymology 

j unknown. 

minster me. minster oe. mynster 
fr. a base munistirja- = du. 
munster y OHG. munistri prop, 
'monastery' then convent-church' 
G. mi'mster'. after lat.-gr. mona- 
steriuniy whence also fr. moutier 
'monastery, convent'. 

minstrel me. minis tral 7nenestral 
borrowed fr. fr. 7ninestrel\ source 
lat. mifiisterialis 'an artisan, jester, 

mint ^ sb. me. mint oe. mynet 
= du. munty OHG. mimi-i^ vmniyi^a 
G. milnze'. teut. munita- mimito- 
borrowed fr. lat. moneta 'place 
of coinage, money', whence also 
fr. monnaie under money. 

mint- sb. 'a plant' me. oe. minte 
= du. mzmtj OHG. minza G. 7?iinze : 
adapted fr. lat. 7tientha menta 
(gr. f.iivda) , whence also fr. 
menthe, it. span. 7/ienta. 

mire^ 'deep mud' me. mire oe. 
?nyre from west-teut. miurjon = 
ON. mvrr 'slime' ; the r of these 
words is orig. s = ^; cp. oe. fneos 
'moss' by the side of oe. ?nos 
'moss, swamp'; G. moos also signi- 
fies 'marsh'; cp. moss. Hence 
E. 77iire prop, 'mossy soil'. 

mire 2 cp. pis7nire. 


mirth — mole 

mirth me. mirthe earlier nmrhde 
OE. myrgd deriv, fr. OE. myrj^e = 
merry with formative -th (as in. 
length, strengtJi). 

mis 1 prefix me. oe. mis- = du. 
mis-, OHG. missa- missi- G. miss-, 
ON. mis-', GOTH, missa- for "^mipta- 
(prop. 'lost') is an old part, in 
to- from a \/^mi^ seen in oe. 
midan me. mithe 'shun, avoid' 
(= OSAX. midan, ohg. midan G. 
meiden). Akin to gir. w/ in mi- 
giiim 'misdeed'? 

mis 2 prefix older mes- borrowed 
fr. OFR. mes- (fr. ;w/-): source 
LAT. minus 'less'. — mischief 
me. mes-chef borrowed fr. ofr. 
mes-chief 'a bad result, damage' 
fr. mis'*" and chief (cp. me. bon- 
chef 'happiness'). — miscreant 
borrowed fr. ofr. mescreant 
(source lat. credent-em). 

miss vb. ME. 7nisse oe. missatt 
= DU. G. missen, ON. missa, GOTH. 
?nissjan. Evidently connected 
with WEST-TEUT. mipan avoid' in 
OE. midan, ohg. midan G. meiden 
'avoid'. Cp. 7?iis. 

miss contr. of mistress. 

mist ME. OE. mist = du. inist, 
LG. mist 'darkness , fog , mist', 
ON. mistr 'darkness, mist'. 

mister me. maister = master. 

mistle ME. mistel oe. mistel = 
OHG. misti/ G. miste/, ON. mistel 
'mistletoe'. — mistletoe oe. 
mistel tan (= on. mistilsteinn) fr. 
;«2>/27 'bird-lime' and tan 'branch . 

mite 1 sb. 'a small insect me. 
oe. mite = lg. mite, ohg. miyi 
'a midge, fly : teut. sTmit 'cut 

small', whence goth. maitan = 
ON. meita 'cut'. 

mite 2 sb. 'a very small portion' 
ME. mite borrowed fr. ODU. mij't 
a small coin. 

mitten me. mitaine borrowed 
fr. fr. mitaine 'a mitten. 

mix vb. ME. mixe oe. miscian 
= OHG. miskan from ^miskjan 
MHG. MLG. G. mischen: all prob. 
borrowed fr. lat. miscere 'mix'. 

mizzen sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
misaine = IT. ?nezzana: source 
LAT. medius. Ident. w. G. bezaan- 

moan vb.ME. mgne (oe. '^tndnian) 
with the by-form me. 7ni?ie OE. 
7n(Bnan 'moan. 

moat sb. me. 7note borrowed 
fr. OFR. mote 'dike'. 

mock fr. fr. se moquer. 

mode fr. fr. mode, 

moiety borrowed fr. fr. moitii 
(lat. type 7nedietdteni) . 

moist adj. me, moiste 'moist, 
fresh': borrowed fr. OFR. 77ioiste 
(= FR. moite). Source lat. 
musteus 'belonging to new must 
or wine', also 'new, fresh' (mustus 
'new wine'). 

mole^ sb. 'a mark on the body' 
me. 77iple OE. 7ndl = ohg. fneil 
also 77ieila, goth. 7nail 'a spot'. 

mole'^ sb. 'breakwater' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. mole 'a bank' 
(= rr. mole mold) : source 
LAT. moles 'a great heap, a vast 

mole^ sb. 'an insectivorous 
animal' me. 77iolle = DU. moH 
Prob. short for me. 77ioldeive7'p 

9^ OF THB '^ 


nionday — more^'«Sft;;^^ALIFOR^^^ 


= OHG. moltw'erf G. maulwurf. 
From ME. mglde OE. mglde 'earth' 
= ON. mold^ OHG. molta^ goth. 
w2//^/<:2r 'earth' and from they^ werp 
seen in goth. wairpan\ see 

men day ivie. mgnenday oe. 
mgnandcej^ = du. maandag, OHG. 
nidnaiac G. montag, on. mdnadagr: 
the common Teut. name for 
LAT. ///Vi- Ltcnae (fr. /?/«^/, it. 
lunedt) ; the first syllable of 
mo n day is ident. w. ?noon. 

money me. moneie borrowed 
fr. OFR. moneie = fr. monnaie 
(= SPAN. 7noneda, it. monetd) : 
source lat. inoneta. See ;«z«/ '. 

monger sb. me. oe. mongere oe. 
fnangere (= ohg. mangdri^ on. 
manga7'i) formed from oe. /«a«- 
^/^;z 'trade' with suffix -<?r^. 
Source LAT. ma?igo 'a defrauding 

monk me. ^(5*///^ oe. viunuc = 
OSAX. muniky du. monnikj ohg. 
munih(h) G. monch: source lat. 
7}ioiiachus (gr. ao}'a;(6i;), whence 
also FR. w^/;^^ and OIR. mafiach. 

monkey formed like donkey, 
source IT. 7ftonna mona 'ape', 
whence also G. (16. cent.) mun- 
aff 'simia prasiana'. 

month ME. mgneth oe. mgnap 
= DU. maa?id, ohg. mdnod g. 
monai, on. mdnudr, goth. fnenops. 
The common Teut. stem menbp- 
'month' (pre-TEUT. 7nendt-) is 
ident. w. teut. mman- = 

mood sb. ME. OE. mod = 
OSAX. mod, DU. 7noedf ohg. w2<;^/ 

G. mufy GOTH, mods, on. modr. 
The orig. meaning of the teut. 
stem moda- was perhaps 'strong 
emotion, violent excitement' and 
was prob. derived fr. the\^ ma- 
in GR. (.laUod^ai desire'. 

moon ME. 7ngfte oe. mona = 
OSAX. OHG. mdnOy du. maan, G. 
mond , on. mdni, GOTH, fn^na 
'the moon'. The Teut. base 
menan- (and 7nmbp- = 7fiontJi) 
is cogn. with the greater part 
of the terms for *moon, month' 
in the other ARYAN languages; 
cp. SKR. 7nds (for mans 7nens') 
'moon, month' ^- mdsa 'month', 
GR. firjv (for ^juTJv^) 'month', 
LAT. mensis 'month', osax. 7nes§ci 
'moon, month', lith. 77ienu 'moon' 
— 77ienesis'uiont\i\ OIR. ;;z/ 'month'. 

Moor^ sb. 'an inhabitant of 
Barbery' borrowed fr. fr. More] 
source lat. Maurus, whence 
also SPAN. IT. Moro, ohg. Mor 
G. Mohr. 

moor^ sb. 'a tract of untilled 
land' ME. OE. inpr 'a moor, morass, 
bog' = osax. mor, du. 7noer, 
OHG. muor, LG. G. moor', related 
to OE. mere, Ohg. meri 'sea' = 
LAT. Tnare 'sea'. See marsh, 

morass sb. me. mareis bor- 
rowed fr. FR. marais {= IT. 
marese), whence also du. moras 
moeras , lg. moras (whence G. 
7norast) : source med.-lat. mara- 
giu7n 'swamp, marsh'. 

more adj. me. more oe. 7ndra 
= osax. ohg. mero c. 77iehr, du. 
meer, on. 7neiri\ goth. maiza 


niornino; — mother^ 

(whose iza is the OTeut. cbm- 
parat. suffix) became oe. 7?idra 
(r from z by rhotacism) The 
stem ma- belongs to the teut. 
adj. me-ra- 'illustrious'. 

morning jme. morninge ?nor- 
weninge deriv. of OE. morgen = 
OSAX. OHG. morgan^ du. g. morgen, 
ON. morgunn and myrgenn, goth. 
7naurgi?is'. a common teut. word 
for the first half of the day 
from day break. — Cp. evening. 

morrow; see morn and to- 

morsel me. morsel adapted fr. 
OFR. morsel {= fr. mor^eau, 
IT. morsello) : dimin. of lat. 
morsiim 'a bit'. 

mortar^ 'a vessel in which 
substances are beaten to powder' 
ME. mortir oe. 7noi'Ure {= DU. 
mortier): borrowed fr. fr. fnortier 
(= SPAN, fnortero, it. mortajo) 
'mortar' : source lat. mortdrium 
'a vessel in which substances 
are pounded'. 

mortar^ 'a mixture of lime 
and of sand' so called from the 
vessel in which it was made 
mortar^ me. morter mortier 
adopted fr. fr. mortier (= 
SPAN, morter 0, it. mortajo) y 
whence also du. mortel, mhg. 
morter mortel g. m'drtet)'. source 
LAT. mortdriutn. 

mortgage borrowed fr. fr. 
mortgage lit. 'a dead pledge'. 

moss me. oe. mos 'a swamp, 
a plant': Teut. base mosa- =- 
DU. mos moss, plant', ohg. mos 

'a swamp, plant' G. moos plant, 
bog', ON. mosi 'moss, mire'. 
Ident. w. OE. meos, ohg. mios 
from a Teut. base meusa-, whence 
mire. Outside of teut., lat. 
museus and OSLOV. mucM are 

most adj. and adv. 'greatest 
in size' me. most pE. mast com- 
monly OE. mdst = OS ax. mest, 
DU. meest, ohg. G. meist, on. mestr, 
GOTH, maists. Superl. belonging 
to the compar. more. goth. 
maists has the old superl. suffix 
like GOTH. bat'istSy ohg. be'2,'Z,ist, 
OE. betst (for bet-est). The adj. 
stem GOTH, mers, ohg. md-ri, 
OE. mcere etc. seems to be the 
base of 7nore and most. 

mote ME. mote oe. mot (plur. 
mdtu) 'atom'; the me. form are 
based on the oe. nom. plur. 
Cp. DU. mot} 

moth ME. moththe oe. moppe == 
DU. mot'\t)y iviHG. G. motte, on. motti, 
sw. mott a moth' with the by- 
forms MHG. matte, oe. mohpe me. 

mother! me. mgder oe. modor 
= OSAX. modar , du. moeder, 
OHG. muoter G. mutter, on. modir. 
The common teut. word for 
'mother' (goth. said ^z/^^'). teut. 
modr- 'mother' from Aryan mdtr- 
in SKR. mdtr, gr. /.irjTrjo iidxrjQ, 
LAT. mdter, osLOV. mati, oir. 
mdthir 'mother'. 

mother^ 'dregs, leee' from 
"^mudder = ODU. modder 'mud, 
dregs', DU. moer 'dregs, lees'. 




LG. G. moder^ dan. sw. muddcr 
'mud, mould'. Cogn. w. mud. 

motley adj. me. motle bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. 7natteli 'clotted, 

mould^ sb. 'fine soft earth' 
ME. OE. mglde ground, land, 
earth, country' = ohg. 7nolta, 
ON. mold 'mould', GOTH. 7nulda 
'dust': \f mal (cp. meat) with 
formative d as in old^ cold. 

mould^ sb. ME. mglde adopted 
fr. OFR. molle (fr. moiUe) 'a 
mould': source lat. 7nodulus 
dimin. of modus 'measure'. 

moult vb. ME. moute oe. bi- 
miUian'. borrowed fr. LAT. 7nutare 
'change', whence also du. ?nuiten, 
OHG. 7tiuyLpn G. mausern 'change 
the feathers or skin, moult'. 

mount vb. adapted fr. fr. 
7no titer 'mount'. 

mount sb. me. mount', loanword 
from FR. 7?iont. Ident. with OE. 
7nu7it from LAT. 7nonte7n (7710ns). 
The ME. otc =u is not the oe. 
i2, but substitution for the fr. 
nasal vowel. — mountain me. 
77iountaine fr. OFR. montaine = 
FR. montagne (lat. type mon- 

mourn vb. me. 7nourne oe. 
7/mrnan str. vb. = OS AX. mornian, 
OHG. tnor7ien, on. 77torna, goth. 
7naurnan : ARYAN \P mer in GR. 
iibQiuva sorrow' and lat. menior. 

mouse ME. 7710US (plur. 77iis) 
oe. mils (plur. mys) = DU. muis^ 
OHG. vius G. 77iaus, ON. mus. The 
base 771US- occurs in almost all 
ARYAN languages. Cp. skr. 7nus 

'mouse' with the \/" 77ius mus 
musdy 'take away, rob'; also 
GR. (.IV q J lat. 77tuSy OSLOV. my St. 

mouth ME. 7nouth oe. 77iud = 
OSAX. 77iud, DU. 77iond, OHG. mund 
G. 77iund^ ON. 7nunnr mudr^ GOTH. 
7nunps 'mouth'. The teut. 
7nunpa-z 'mouth' is based on 
pre-TEUT. 7ndnto-s and connected 
with LAT. mentum 'chin'. 

move vb. me. move with the 
by-form moeve fr. ofr. movoir 
7)ievoi7- FR. mouvoir = lat. 

mow sb. ME. 77iowe mouwe oe. 
77iuga 7}ttlwa = ON. 77iugi 'heap'; 
cp. OHG. 77iii-'w'erf 'mole' orig. 
'maker of mole-heaps'. 

mow vb. ME. m&ive oe. mdwa7i 
str. vb. = DU. maaijen, ohg. 
mden mhg. tncejen G. mdhen. A 
common west-teut. sfvie 'mow' 
appears in oe. mcep (e. tnath in 
after '^ latter-)^ OHG. mad G. 7nahd 
'mowing, swath', and in GR. 
d-urjioq 'harvest' — 'I 
mow' and in lat. metere 'reap'. 

much me. moche muche for 
earlier muchel oe. 7nycel fr. a 
Teut. base mukila- (ntikila-)] 
cogn. w. GR. (.uydXrj and f-isyacy 
SKR. mdhan 'great*. Cp. mickle. 

muck me. muck borrowed fr. 
a SCAND. ^muk- = ON. mykl 
mykr 'dung'. 

mud ME. mud = olg. 77iudde 

muff vb. DU. mof lg. g. sw. 
muff'. DAN. muffe a new teut. 
word derived fr. fr. moufle 


mill ben V 


'mitten, med.-lat. muffula (g*'^ 
cent.). Cogn. w. mtifjfe vb. 
'cover up warmly' fr. ofr. moufle 

mulberry me. oe. murberie oe. 
mor-berie = du. pioerbes moer- 
besie y ohg. viiirberi ?ndrberi g. 
maulbeere'y the / of the first part 
of the compound for r is the j 
effect of dissimilation ; mdr is ! 
LAT. ?ndrum 'a mulberry'. The | 
second part is an explanatory | 

mule ME. milk borrowed fr. 
FR. mule'y source lat. mulus *a 
mule', whence also it. mulo, g. 
maulesel (ohg. mtil^ oir. oe. 

murder sb. me. morther oe. 
mordor = goth. maurpr\ from 
\pnir nidr 'die' and suffix -pra\ 
cp. oe. mord = on. mord, OSAX. 
morth, DU. rnoord^ ohg. g. mord 
premeditated murder. teut. 
morpa- murder' is based on 
pre-TEUT. mfto-m 'death': \Pmor 
widely diffused through all the 
Aryan languages signified 'die'. 
Cp. the SKR. y/^mr 'die' (nirtd-m 
'death' — mrtas 'dead' — mdrta-s 
'mortal') - mrtyus 'death'; lat. 
mori 'die' — mortmis' dedid^ — mors 
'death'; osi.OM.mreti 'die' — moru- 
su-mruti 'death' — mrutvu (lat. 
mortuus) 'dead'; lith. mirti 'die' 
— ?nirtis 'death'; GR. (^(joiog (for 
*«porot,^) 'mortal' — dju^gorog'im- 
mortal'; oir. marb 'dead'. — 
murder vb. me. murthre mirthre 
oe. myrdrian = ohg. murdireuy 
GOTH, maur^rjan 'murder, kill'. 

murky me. mirke mirk bor- 
rowed fr. ON. myrkr and ident. 
w. OE. mirde myrce, oe. myrce^ 
OSAX. tnirki and on. . myrkr 
'dark' represent a Teut. base 

murmur vb. me. murmitre 
adopted fr. fr. murmur er (= 
SPAN, murmurar^ it. mormorare, 
OHG. murmur on o. murmebi) : 
source lat. murmurare. 

muscle adopted fr. fr. fnuscle: 
source lat. musculus 'a muscle, 
a little mouse', dimin. of mus 
'a mouse' (gr. f.ivq) 'a mouse, 
a muscle'. From the same source 
also DU. G. muskel 'a muscle'. 

must sb. ME. OE. must 'new 
wine' (= DU. g. most^ on. must) 
adopted fr. lat. mustum 'new 
wine', whence also ofr. moust, 
fr. mouty IT. mosto. See 7nusty, 
moist etc. ^ 

must vb. ME. oie. moste pret. 
of OE. tnptan = OSAX. motan, 
DU. moeteUy OHG. muoi^an G. 
jniisseny goth. motan. 

mustard me. mustard mostard 
(= DU. mosterd mostaard, G. 
fnostert {niostricJi)'. borrowed fr. 
OFR. moustard = fr. moutard. 
Source OFR. moust = lat. mustus 
'new wine'. 

mute ME. miiet fr. fr. muet. 
Source LAT. mutus 'dumb'. 

Vi\\y.\X.oviyis..motounmutoun2,do'^\.* . 
ed fr. OFR. mo ton (fr. mouton). 

muzzle ME. mosel borrowed fr. 
OFR. musel =■ fr. fnuseau 'muzzle'; 
perh. orig. identical w. morcel 
= E. morse/. 




mushroom late me. viushei'oun 
fr. the equiv. ofr. mousseron. 

muster sb. 'a show; review, 
array; pattern' etc. short for 
ME. 7iioustre from ofr. monstre 
(fr. viontre = IT. mo sir a)', source 
LAT. monstrare, whence also du. 
monster, mlg. vmnstery G. muster , 

sw. DAN. fnonster. — Hence the vb. 
muster vb. 'exhibit, review' etc. 
]ME. niust{e)re < OFR. monstrer 
(fr. montrer = span, mostrar, 
IT. mostrar e^ from LAT. monstrare] 
cp. DU. mofisteren, mlg. mimstereUy 
G. mustern, sw. monstra, dan. 


nag ME. nagge 'horse'; cp. odu. 
«^^^^ a small horse'. 

nail ME. //^z// OE. «^j^/ = osAX. 
OHG. nagal du. g. ?iagel, on. 
//^^/'finger-nail' — nag/t'wooden, 
iron nail'; GOTH. *nag/s inferred 
from the vb. nagljan 'nail', teut. 
nag la- arose from ARYAN noghlo- 
or nokhld-\ cp. skr. nakhd 'nail 
of a finger or toe, claw of a 
bird', GR. ovvx- (nom. oVyi) 'nail 
of a finger or toe, claw, hoof, 
hook', LAT. unguis 'claw, talon', 
OIR. ingen (cymr. ewin) from 
mghwindy OSLOV. nogutt 'nail, 
claw' (fr. OSLOV. noga 'foot'); 
LITH. ndgas 'finger-nail' — nagii 
'horse's hoof. ARYAN \/^ nokh 

naked adj. me. naked oe. ndcod 
^=^ DU. naakt, ohg. nackut nahhut 
G. nackt, ON. nekkvidr, goth. 
naqaps'. Teut. base naqo-da- 
naqa-da- from a pre-TEUT. nogoto- 
fiogeto-', cp. OIR. «^^^/'naked' from 
a base nokto- and skr. nagnd 
'naked' with suffix na for ta\ 

English Etymology. 

without consonantal suffix are 
formed osLOV. nagu, lith. ?tugas 
naked'. Allied also LAT. nudus 
for ^7io2)dtis *nogvtaus. — aryan 

name sb. me. name oe. ndma 
ngma = osAX. ohg. na?no, DU. 
naaniy G. name, ON. nafn (for 
^namn'), goth. namd\ synon. with 
SKR. 7tdma, GR. o-vojLia, lat. 
nomen and perh. also ident. with 
osLOV. im^ fr. *m-men *pn-men, 
PRUSS. emmans, OIR. ainm. The 
ARYAN base was no-men-, which 
perh. was orig. *gno-men- fr. the 
ARYA^ y/^gno in know. Then 
name prop, meant 'name by 
which a thing is known'. 

napi sb. from the vb. me. 
nappe OY., hnceppian hnappian 'doze'; 
cp. OHG. hnaffezen mhg. nafzen 
vb. 'slumber'. Perh. cogn. w. 
o^.hnipian, o^.hnipna vb. 'droop'. 

nap 2 sb. earlier nop me. noppt 
'nap', OE. hnoppa ('villus') 'nap 

of cloth' = DU. nop, MLG. DAN. 

noppe, osw. nop 'nap of cloth or 



nape — neck 

wool'; cogn. w. NORWEG. nuppa, 
GOTH, dishniupan to break'. 

nape me. mipe 'knob'; perh. 
with inner labial for guttural and 
cogn. w. neck. 

napkin me. ?iapekiu adopted fr. 
FR. nappe table-cloth with dimin. 
suffix 'kin. Source a vulg. lat. 
"^'nappa == lat. mappa 'a cloth". 
See map. 

nard me. mnd borrowed fr. 
FR. 7ia?-d (:= SPAN. IT. nardo) 
= LAT. 7iai'dus, whence also G. 

narrow- adj. me. narowe 7iarwe 
OE. nearu = OS AX. naru^ du. 
iiaar) from a teut. adj. iiarwa- 
(used as fern. sb. in ohg. 7iarwa 
G. nai'he 'scar'). Cp. ltth. nh'-ti 
vb. 'thread' (a needle) — 7iarvd 
'cell of the queen-bee'. 

narwhal (= o. na7'wat) adopt- 
ed fr. DAN. sw. 7M7-hval = ON. 
nd-hvalr 'sea-unicorn. The se- 
cond element see under whale\ 
the first part is obscure. 

nasty adj. corruption of an 
earlier nasky\ perh. borrowed 
fr. sw. dial, naskiig 'nasty, dirty'. 

naught ME. naught oe. ftdht 
earliet 7idwiht = OSAX. niowiht 
OHG. niowiht g. 7ticht^ DU. tiiet^ 
Gora. 7ii waihts 'no thing'; cp. 

nave^ sb. 'the body of the 
church' borrowed fr. ofr. 7tave 
FR. nef (= SPAN. it. nave^ 'a 
ship' — 'the body of the church': 
MED. -LAT. nqvis *the nave of 
a church' = LAT. ndvis 'ship'. 

j nave 2 sb. 'the hub of a wheel' 

' ME. 7idi}e OE. 7idfu = DU. 7?aa/ 

I aa/ 7iave , OHG. 77a/fa G. 77alfe, 

'on. np/, GOTH. '^naba'. an old 

I ARYAN word (base 7iobha) ; cp. 

SKR. 7idbhi {.' and nabhya n. 'the 

nave (of a wheel); cogn. w. 

7iavel. See augC7'. 

navel sb. me. 7zdvel{e) oe. nd- 
fela = DU. 7iavel, OHG. 7iabiilo 
G. 7iabel, ON. 7iajii', goth. '^7iabala : 
a commonARYANword with a base 
nobhalo-: onbhalo-\ cp. the synon. 
GR. df-KfaXog, lat. timbilicus (tor 
'^unbilirus "^nobilkus), SKR. 7idbhila^ 
OIR. ivibli7i 'navel'. These words 
are ver)' old /-derivatives of 
AKYKi^i nobhd o/ibhd 'nave, navel'; 
cp. LETT, naba 'navel', lat. umbo 
'boss of a shield'. Cp. nave. 

navy me. ndvie ndve\ borrowed 
fr. OFR. navee orig. 'a single 
ship' (fr. lat. 7iavis ship'). 

nay me. nai\ loanword fr. on. 
DAN. nei 'no, not', which answers 
to genuine no (cp. aye). 

neap-tide sb. me. ncp-se'soim 
OE. nip-Jl(ki 'ebb'; a teut. adj. 
n'epa- is not found elsewhere. 

near adj. 'nigh' now used as 
a positive, but prop, a compa- 
rative adverb me. 7i€r {ner) OE. 
near {7tyr) contr. of ^n(aho7' {^7na- 
hir) = OSAX. OHG. 77dhSr adv., 
DU. 77aar adv. Cp. 7iigh. 

neat adj. borrowed fr. fr. 7iet 
(source lat. fiitidus 'shining, 

neck ME. nekke oe. hnecca = 
DU. nek\ cp. OHG. nac hnac (ck) 

need — nest 


G. nacken^ ON. hnakki: Teut. base 
"^hnakkan- for ON. hnakki and 
"^hnekkan- for oe. hnccca. oiR. 
cnocc, OBRET. cnoch 'hill' (stem 
CHOCC0-) may be cognate, perhips 
also 71 ape. • \ 

need sb. me. ned {neit) oe. -v/^/ 
tiyd (ii(ad) fr. a Teut. base naudi 

= OSAX. :^^^/, DU. noody OHG. 

z/^/ G. na^, ON. naudr, GOTH. 
iiaups\ pre-TEUT. nauti- has been 
connected with pruss. nauti- \ 
'distress'; pre-TEUT. \l^nau. 

needle me. nedle oe. nedl nddl 
(oldest form nckdl) = osAX. nctdlay 
DU. naaldy OHG. nddala G. z/^-^/.?/, 
ON. ndly GOTH, nepla'. a common 
Teut. word for 'needle' formed 
with the suffix -//<?-, Aryan -tld- fr. 
\^;z<? seen in ohg. ndjan G. ^v/Zi^^// 
'sew'. TEUT. V"«^ is usually con- 
nected with the ARYAN \rw in 
LAT. na-e, gr. vim *I spin' ■ — i/7]/m 
'thread' — vijrpov 'spindle'; OIR. 
S7iim 'spinning' and snathe 'thread' 
— STulthat needle'. 

neeze vb. cp. me. nesinge 'snee- 
zing' and ON. hnjdsa, ohg. hnio- 
san g. niese?t, du. niezen vb. 
'sneeze': lYXi'Wsf hneuSy cogn. w. 
the •V'EUT.sffneus in oe. fneosan 
me. fnese and du. f niezen 'to 
sneeze' and \f s?ieus in sneeze. 

neif neaf me. neve 'fist' bor- 
rowed from ON. hnefi 'fist' (sw. 
niifve, dan. nceve^, 

neigh vb. me. niie oe. hmk-^an 
'neigh' = du. neim vb. and 
MLG. neiinge sb. 'neighing', mhg. 
neigen vb. 'neigh': of imitative 

origin like ON. gneggja and ohg. 
hweion vb. 'neigh'. 

neighbor me. neighebow- oe. 
n^llhebur prop, n^'a h-^e bur ^=osA'K. 
ndbih' (for ndh-gibii}-), iy\].nabuur, 
OHG. ndh-gibilr g. nachbav. a com- 
mon West-Teut. compound of 
«/^>^ and bower y pointing to 
GOTH, ^^n^hwa-gabur. 

neither see either; me. na*uther 
OE. ndivder earlier forrn • nd- 

nephew me. nevtw borrowed 
from FR. neveu\ supplanting the 
genuine me. n(ve oe. nefa 'grand- 
son, nephew' = on. /z*?/^" 'relative', ^^M 
DU. ^(?^ 'grandson, nephew, cou- ^ 
sin', OHG. n'evo G. nejfe 'sister's (or 
brother's) son': Teut. base '^<^</?2- 
from a pre-Teut. base n^pot- ap- 
pearing in SKR. ndpdt (stem 
ndptr) 'descendant, son, grand- 
son', GR. avsifJiog 'a first cousin, 
kinsman' — vsnodsg 'offspring', 
i-AT. nepos (the source of fr. 
nevett y whence e. nepheui) 'a 
grandson, also a nephew', OIR. 
nia 'a sister's son'. 

nest ME. OE. nest = ohg. g. 
DU. nest: teut. nesta- = pre-Teut. 
form nizdo- confirmed by skr. 
nida-s 'lair of animals' also 
'dwelling', armen. nist 'seat', 
OIR. net 'nest', lat. mdus 'nest' 
for "^nizdos. The Aryan ni-zdo- is 
prop, a compound of the aryan 

s/^sed 'sit, seat oneself, and 
the verbal particle 7zi preserved 
in SKR. (see nether^ ; nizdo- 
from ni'Sedo- means lit. 'settle- 
ment'; cp. SKR. ni-sad 'sit down, 


net — night 

settle'. — nestle vb. me. nest{e)le 
OE. 7iistlian (= du. nesteleii, G. 
nistelfi) : a frequent, form, lit. 
'frequent a nest'. 

net ME. OE. net (it) fr. a Teut. 
natja- = OS ax. net (/letti), du. 
ON. net, OHG. nezzi G. ;^^/2^, GOTH. 
nati] allied to on. not 'a large 
net' and lat. nassa 'net'. 

nether adj. me. nether e oe. 
neodera] cogn. w. OSAX. nithiri, 
DU. nedef, ohg. ^/V/zW g. nieder 
and OE. ///rf'^r = osAX. nithar, 
DU. neder, ohg. /zzV/<r7r g. nieder, 
ON. ;?/^r, GOTH, '^nipar'. deriv. 
from the Aryan verbal particle 
«/ 'downward' mentioned under 
nest and the comparat. suffix 
LAT. -ter, GR. -TbQog, skr. -/^r^r. 

nettle me. «^///^ oe. nete/e == 
DU. MLG. ^^/^/, OHG. nei^ g. 
nessel] with dimin. suffix -z'/^;?- 
from a more original form seen 
in ohg. ^^55^? 'nettle', goth. '^nata 
and "^natild'y possibly connected 
with net and with the redupli- 
cated OIR. nenaid (base nenat-) 
nettle'; cp. lith. notere 'nettle'. 

never adv. me. never oe. ndfre 
from ne not' and ckfre = ever. 

new adj. me. newe' oe. neowe 
{tiiive) = osAx. OHG. nimvi, du. 
nieuw, G. neu, on. «jr, goth. inujis. 
The common teut. niuja- from 
pre-TEUT. niuyo- answers to skr. 
navy as naviyas (and ndvas), lith. 
natijas navas (osLOV. /z^e^z^, lat. 
novus, OR. r60c); prob. connected 
with the ARYAN particle nil 'now', 
so that that which is new' means 
now, recent'. Cp. now. 

newt with secondary ?i from 
ME. eute evete oe. efete\ not found 
in the other Teut. languages. 
Teut. base abiton-l 

next adj. me. next oe. niehst 
nehst :=- OSAX. ohg. nahist G. 
ndchst: superl. of oe. niah = e. 
nigh. See also near. 

nice me. ni^e 'foolish' fr. ofr. 
ni(;e 'slothful, idle, dull'; source 
LAT. nescins 'ignorant'. 

niche borrowed fr. fr. niche 
=1 IT. nicchia 'a recess in the 

nickname short for earlier 
nekendine me. eke-ndnie prop, 'ad- 
ditional name'; cp. on. auknafn, 
DAN. ognavn 'nickname'. For OE. 
icanycean 'to add' cp. eke. The 
initial ;/ of nickna7ne is secon- 
dary as in newt. 

niece me. ne^e fr. fr. niece: 
source med.-lat. neptia 'a niece' 
= LAT. neptis a' grand-daughter, 

niggard sb. me. nigard with 

the by-form me. nigoun 'niggard'; 

the formation of the Me. words 

points to Fr. influence. 
nigh adj. adv. and prep. me. 

neigh oe. neh earlier ncah = 

OSAX. ndh, ohg. ndh G. nahe, on. 

nd-r, goth. n^hws 'nigh, near': 

Teut. base nehwa- = pre-TEUT. 

neko- neqe-. Cp. near, next 

and neighbour. 
night ME. flight {naught^ oe.-- 

niht (neaht) =- osax. ohg. naht, 

DU. g. nacht, on. ndtt nott, goth. 

nahts : teut. 7zaht- from pre- 

TEUT. nokt'\ cp. LAT. nox (stem 

nightingale — nose 


nocti-), GR. vvS, (wXT-), SKR. 
ndkta — naktan — ndkti^ lith. 
naktisj OSLOV. nosti. See fort- 
night, sennight. 

nightingale me. nightengdle oe. 
nihte-gcile = osax. ohg. nahti-gala, 
DU. nachtegaal, g. nachtigall 'a 
nighting-ale': from oe. niht (gen. 
fiihte) = night and teut. galan 
str. vb. 'sing'. Cp. sta7iyel. 

nightmare me. nighfemdre) oe. 
OHG. ON. mara a night -mare' 
(du. nach'-merrie nightmare'). 

nightshade oe. niht-sceadu from 
OE. 7iiht := E. night and oe. 
sceadu = e. shade. 

nimble adj. ivrE. niniel Ht. 'ready 
to catch' from OE. niman vb. 
'take, seize'; for the suffix cp. 

nine me. nine oe. nigone without 
inflexion nigon neogon = osax. 
nigtin, T>\j.negen\ cp. goth. ohg. 
niu?i G. neun, on. niii 'nine': the 
forms with g are based on teut. 
'^negun for '^neivmiy whilst goth. 
and OHG. niun are based ovi^newn. 
The numeral is common to all 
Aryan languages in the form 
new?n newn ; cp. skr. ndvan, la r. 
noveniy gr. tVj'g'a, OIR. noi. 

nit ME. nite oe. hnitu = du. 
neet, mlg. /z^/^ z?//, ohg. nii^ g. 
«/>;•. gr. ;oWg (plur. ;om)fc) 
'egg of lice, bee-bugs and fleas' 
may be allied, if y.(o)vtd is 
common to both languages. Cp. 
also SLAV, gnida and alban. i)cni 
from ^kenidd. 

no adv. me. no oe. nd (== on. 

nei cp. rt-j) from ne 'not' and 
^' 'aye, ever'. 

noble me. jwble fr. fr. noble = 
LAT. nobilis. 

nod vb. me. nodde\ cogn. w. 
ohg. hnutten 'vibrate' mhg. notteti 
'stake' and on. hnjoda vb. ham- 
mer': TRi^T.s/^hmid. 

noddle 'head' me. 7iodle. 

noise sb. me. ?ioise borrowed 
fr. FR. ;2<?zV^ 'quarrel' ; source lat. 
nausea 'nausea'. 

noisome adj. of me. noy nuy 
'annoyance, hurt' earlier me. anui 
fr. FR. emiui (ofr. ajini)] cp. 

none me. ngn oe. ndn from ne 
'not' and dn = one. 

nook me. npk 'corner'. 

noon me. oe. non = osax. ohg. 
nona, DU. noen^ G. none, on. 7t6n, 
Source lat. nona (sc. hora^ lit. 
'the ninth' (hour) with an ex- 
tension of meaning 'midday, 
twelve o'clock'. 

nor me. nor short for 7iother 
'neither', oe. ndwder contr^ of 
ndhwceder 'neither' from oe. nd ■= 
no and oe. hwcEder = whether. 

north ME. north(e) oe. nor^ = 
DU. noord, ohg. G. nord, on. nordr, 
sw. dan. nord\ it. Span, norte, 
fr. nord are of Teut. origin. 

northern me. norther7ie oe. nor-, 
derne prehistoric *norprceni fr. a 
TEUT. type norproni ^= ohg. 7tor- 
driwniy ON. norrKn7i 'northern'. 

nose ME. 7igse oe. 7i6su (jidsii) 
'the nose'; cp. du. neus, ohg. 
nasa G.7iase, on.7ips: TEiJ'T.'^/iasd'- 
nosb- nose' = aryan 7iaS') cp. 



not — nut 

SKR. ndsa nas, oslov. nosu, lith. 
7idsis, LAT. ndsus naves. — nostril 
ME. nosethirl oe. nos-pyrel {iices- 
^yrl) lit. 'a nose-orifice' from 
OF.. ?iosunasu=:^ nose and of.. pyrel 
'a perforation, orifice'. 

not ME. not short for nought 
OE. nauJU ndiviht = osax. ofiG, 
niowiht, du. niet, G. /z/V/^/. From 
OE. ne 'not' and oe. diviht ^= 

notch also nock me. nokke = 
ODU. noch 'a notch in the head 
of an arrow', osw.noe/ia 'a notch': 
source ofr. hoche 'notch' ? 

note ME. note adopted fr. fr. 
note: source lat. nota 'a mark, 
sign, note'. — notice borrowed 
fr. FR. notice 'notice' = lat. ?iotitia 
'knowledge, acquaintance'. 

noun sb. borrowed, fr. ofr. non 
= FR. nom 'a nameT ""source 
LAT. nomen 'a name . 

nourish vb. me. nurisshe vb. 
adopted fr. ofr. noriss- the stem 
of certain forms of ofr. norrir 
= FR. nourrir 'nourish': source 
LAT. nutrire 'feed'. Cp. nurse. 

now ME. now oe. nu = osax. 
7iu, DU. nu, OHG. nu G. nu(n), on. 
m/, GOTH, nu: a common aryan 
adv.; cp. skr. nu niin-iun 'now', 
GR. vv VVI-, LAT. mmc (with the c 
ofhi-c), OSLV. 7zyne 'no\Wy lith. nu. 
Cp. ne7£>. 

nude adj. fr. fr. nmte = lat. 
tiudus 'naked'. 

nuisance sb. me. noisaunfe bor- 
rowed fr. FR. nuisance 'a hurt': 

a verbal noun formed fr. the 
pres. part, of fr. nuire = lat. 
nocere hurt, injure'. 

numb adj. me. nome no7?ien prop, 
part, of ME. nmte = oe. niman 
'take, overpower, deprive of sen- 
sation'; cp. Q"^. numinn 'bereft' 
(of life, of speech). 

number adopted fr. vw.novibre-. 
source lat. numerus 'a number'. 
— numerous adj. adopted fr. 
FR. ntmicreux (for the usual ?i07ti- 
breux) fr. lat. mmierosus adj. 
'numerous . 

nun ME. nonne oe. 7tunne =^ du. 
7ton, OHG. nunna G. non7ie. In the 
S'*' cent, adopted fr. lat. noniia 
(orig. meaning 'mother') ; cp. fr. 
nonne, it. nonna 'a nun'. ^ 

nurse sb. contr. of me. norige 
nurife: loanword fr. ofr. 7iui'rice 
= FR. nouri'ice. Source lat. 
nuti'ic-e77i\ nurse'. — nurture sb. 
ME. 7io7'ti'ire adopted fr. opt^. no- 
riture (= ¥R.7iour?'iture^ : source 
LAT. nutritura 'nourishment . See 

nut ME. 7tote nute oe. hnutu = 
DU. noot^ OHG. 7iu^^ G. nuss, on. 
hnot'wxi^. The Teut. base hnut- 
points to \^ k7tud (seen in oir. 
cnu 'nut'?). — nutmeg me. 7tote- 
muge mit77iegge from me. nut = 
nut and me. 77iuge borrowed fr. 
OFR. 7nnge 'musk' = lat. 77iuscus 
'musk ? Cp. OFR. 77iuguette fr. 
7nuguet 'a nutmeg' = ital. noce 

oaf — on 


oaf ident. with elf\ perh. oe. 
celf or rather borrowed fr. ON. 
dlfr 'elf. 

oak ME. ok OE. dc fr. a Teiit. 
base aik- =: on. eik^ du. eik^ 
OHG. ^//^ G. eiche'. all with the 
same meaning 'oak'; perh. cogn. 
w. GR. alyavsTj 'spear' — Aiyic,. 

oakum me. gkiimb oe. d-cimiba 
'tow'; cp. OHG. d-katuhi *tow': 
prop, 'that which is combed 
out'. For oe. comb cp. co?nb. 

oar ME. pre oe. dr (infl. are) 
fr. a Teut. base airo- = on. dr 
(dan. rtTrt^r^, sw. dra). If teut. 
^/r^- is an aryan eryd-y sfer in 
OR. sgevriQ 'oarsman' — spsT/twg 
'oar might be cognate, cp. ro7a. 

oast ME. ps^ OE. dsf 'kiln, dry- 
inghouse' = du. ees/: teut. ^/>///- 
cogn. w. hhrv.aesius 'glowing heat'; 
ARYAN V" ^i'ih 'burn' in GR. alifog 

oath ME. py/l oe. d/ = GOTH. 

ai/s, ON. e2'dr, du. eed, ohc. g. 
eid 'oath': teut. ai/a- fr. a pre- 
TEUT. ^2V<?- in OiR. oe//i 'oath'; perh. 
y/^ai in ohg. e7oa 'law'. 

oats ME. ptes plur. of ^//c' oe. 

oblige vb. me- ob/i^'-e = fr. 
obltger, LAT. obligare. 

obtain fr. fr. obtenir. 

odd ME. odde 'distinguished, 
special': loanword fr. on. oddi 'a 
triangle', which also means 'an 

odd number' {standask I odda 
'be at odds, quarrel'). 

of ME. OE. of = GOTH. ON. DU. 

of, OHG. aba g. ab: aryan apo in 
GR. cino, SKR. d/>a 'away. — off 
orig. ident. w. o/. 

offend vb. me. offende fr. fr. 
offe7idre ^=- LAT. offendere. 

offer vb. me. offre oe. offrian 

j wk. vb. 'offer': loanword fr. lat. 

offerre 'offer'; cp. du. offer sb. 

offering' and osax. offrbn vb. 


office ME. office fr. fr. office =■- 
LAT. officium 'duty'. 

often earlier oft me. ofte oe. oft 

I = on. Opty GOTH. uftOy OHG. ofto 

\ G. oft 'frequently'. The adv. 
points to a Teut. adj. of-ta-^ 
which is perh. part, of an aryan 
\fuq = SKR. uc 'to be wont'. 

oil ME. oi/e (olie) fr. ofr. oile 
= FR. huile 'oil' (lat. oleuffi). 
' ointment me. oine?/tent fr. ofr. 
oignenient'. deriv. of fr. oindre = 
LAT. ungere vb. 'anoint'. 

old me. old OE. did (Jald) : Teut. 
base alda- = osax. aid, ohg. g. 
alt, ON. <7/^/r, DU. (?z<;^'old'; cogn. 
w. GOTH, al/eis 'old' and usalpan 
'grow old'. A primitive teut. 
and ARYAN \fat^xQ)\N cp. in goth 
alan =^ lat. alere 'nourish'. 

on ME. OE. on = GOTH, ana 
'on', G. an ohg. ana, DU. aan, 
ON. d (for *^/^) : cogn. w. gr. 
dva, SKR. ana. 


once — otter 

once ME. ones late oe. dues (com- 
monly cenes)', orig. genitive of 
OE. an = one', cp. G. ei?ist ohg. 
eines. — one me. on oe. an fr. 
a Teut. base aina-z = goth. ains, 
ON. emn, du. ^<?«, G. ^w. aryan 
oino-s may be inferred fr. lat. zinus 
(for oinos), ir. ^^«, cymr. z<f;?, gr. 
oh'o'c', cogn. w. SKR. e-ka 'one'. 

onion me. onioun fr. fr. oignon 
whence also flam, anjoen du. 
ajuin fr. o\y\5.onjuiin : source lat. 
imioinefn) , whence also ok. ynne 
'onion' fr. west-teut. ^imnjon- = 
TEUT. unjon-. 

only me. pnll earlier pnlic OE. 
dnlic 'unique'. From one. 

ooze me. wpse oe. w^'j- (infl. 
7Z)pse^ juice'; perh. fr. a Teut. 
base wansa- in on. vds 'wetness'; 
cp. mlg. wbse 'juice'. 

or conj. me. or shortened fr. 
an earlier odr, which supplants 
OE. odde 'or' under the influence 
of OE. dwder dhwceder =-- me. 
auther outher 'either' {'one of two') 

or adv. 'ere'ME. or late oe. (rare) 
dr; commonly oe. cer me. ^r 'ere'. 
See ere. 

orange me. orenge fr. ofr. orenge 
= FR. orange. 

open ME. open oe. open fr. a 
Teut. base opana- = ohg. offan 
G. offtn, OSAX. opan, du. open, 
on.opinn. The adj. has the form 
of a participle and points to a 
lost verbal root (eupl w'epT). 

orchard me. orchard oe. orcerd 
older ort-ieara (= goth. aicrii- 
gards 'garden ) : adoption of lat. 
hortus (for the mute h cp. it. 

orto)\ GOTH, aurtja 'gardener' and 
OHG. orzon 'cultivate' point also to 
\.KT. hortus. The (T/^ of the E. word 
is owing to a fusion of / -f- 5 
(oe. ori -\- leard). oe. j^eard' ' 
garden' (cp. yard and garden) 
is added in explanation of lat. 
hortus (= teut. ort), 

ordain vb. me. ordaine fr. ofr. 
ordener = lat. ordmare. — ordre 
me. ordre fr. fr. ordre = lat.- 
ordinem (nom. or do). 

ordure (Shakesp.) 'excrement' 
me. ordure fr. fr. ordure. 

ore me. or oe. dr 'brass' = goth. 
ais 'brass' {aiza-smipa 'copper- 
smitli), ON. eir, ohg. er 'brass'; 
cogn. w. LAT. aes 'ore, bronze', 
SKR. ay as 'iron. 

origin me. origine fr. fr. origine. 

orison 'prayer' me. oreisoun fr. 
FR. oraiso7i 'prayer': source lat. 

orts ME. ortes plur. of a sing. 
^ort OE. "^oret for '^or-cet', cp. LG. 
ort 'what is left by the cattle 
in eating' and goth. uzeta 'crib': 
prefix or 'out' and y/^et in eat. 

ostrich ME. ostriche fr. ofr. 
OS true he = fr. autruche\ source 
LAT. avis struthio 'ostrich', whence 
oe. stryta, OHG. struT^ (g. vogel 
Strauss) and also it. struzzo. 

other ME. other oe. oder fr. a 
Teut. base anpera- ^=^GOTiA.anpar , 
OHG. G. DU. ander, on. a?inarr', 
cogn. w. LiTH. antraSy skr. antara 
and anya 'other'. 

otter ME. oter oe. otor = du. 
G. otter OHG. ottar, on. otr : base 
TEUT. y/^otra- = ARYAN ?idro- cogn. 




w. water; otter prop, 'the water 
animal'. Cp. gr. vdga 'a water- 
snake' and closely allied to the 
Teut. group oslov. vydra, lith. 
lidra 'otter'. 

ouch ME. ouche commonly 7ioiiche 
'necklace, collar' fr. ofr. nouche 
prop, nose he (= ohg. nusea). 

ought = aught. 
" ounce ME. oun^e fr. fr. ofice\ 
source lat. mieia, whence also 

our ME. oure oe. lire for *usre 
:= GOTH, unsara'. from the Teut. 
pron. tms\ cp. tis. 

ousel ME. psel oe. gsle for *omsle 
teut. anisla = ohg. amsala G. 
amsel 'ousel'. 

out ME. oute OE.^iite earlier ut 

= GOTH, lltf ON. tit, OHG. 1(7, G. 

aus, DU. uit. Cp. SKR. ud 'up, out'. 

outlaw ME. outlawe late oe. 
titlaga fr. ON. utlagi\ cp. lat. 
exlex and see law. 

outrage me. outrage fr. fr. ou- 
trage (= source a lat. type 

oven ME. ,^^« OE. ^^/^ = OHG. 

ovan G. <7/<?^, DD. oven, on. <?/>/ 
and GOTH, auhns 'oven'; an ori- 
ginal meaning of the Teut. word 
is preserved in oe. ofnet 'vessel'. 

An ARYAN type ugno- is found in 
GR. invdc; oven'. 

over ME. pzfer oe. o/er = goth. 
u/ar, ohg. uhar, on. o/r, du. 
over; cp. g. ul?er ohg. udiri. 
Outside of the Teut. languages, 
GR. vTifp and SKR. updri 'above' 
are cognate. 

owe vb. ME. p7£^e oe. dga/i 
possess' ^ GOTH, aigari, ohg. 
eigan 'possess' : aryan y" aik in 
SKR. If 'possess'. — • ought me. 
pug hie oe. dhte is the pret. tense of 
oe. dgan and own me. diven oe. 
dgen is part. = ohg; eigan G. 
eigen^ osax. egan. The vb. own 
me. pune OE. dgnian 'possess' is 
a deriv. of the adj. own, 

owl ME. oule OE. Hie fr. a Teut. 
base 24Wumldn-\ cp. ohg. tiwila G. 
<?«/<?; on. sw. ugla points to a 
GOTH, "^uggwalon-. The word is 

ox ME. ox OE. ^^rtr = GOTH. 

auhsa, ohg. ^/^j-^ g. ochse, on. ^;c? 
?^;c/, DU. os'ox : Teut. base ohsan-, 
ARYAN ukson- in SKR. uksan 'ox', 
CYMR. ych. 

oyster me. oistre fr. ofr. oistre 
:= FR. huitre 'oyster': source 
LAT. ostrea, whence also oe, pstre, 
G. auster, du. oester. 

pace ME. pdfe pas borrowed fr. 
FR. pas = LAT. passus 'a step'. 

pack sb. ME. packe = BU.pak, 
ON. pakki, G. packy it. pacco, fr. 

paquet\ bret. /rt-/^: source and 
history of the group unknown. 
— package formed by adding 
the fr. suffix -age = lat. -aticum 


pact — pall 

to the sb. pack. — - packet 
formed fr. the fr. dSxniw. paqiiet. 

pact adopted fr. fr. pacte = 
LAT./^7^//<;;«, whence also YY.patto^ 
DU. G. pacht 'rent-contract'. 

paddock iME./rt;/^/^<?/^; the ending 
-ock is a dimin. suffix as in bul- 
lock^ hillock. Primit. ME. /rt;^/^/(? 

'frog ^SCAND./rtr^/^/rt-, DU. LG. FRIES. 

padde (o. schildpatt). There exists 
also LG. pad-hucke 'paddock', the 
second element of which is lg. 
hucke paddock'. 

page sb. ME. pdj:;e fr. yyl. page 
(whence G. page). Source gr. 
naidiov 'a little boy'. 

page- sb. (of a book) fr. ofr. 
page. Source i^ki . p dgina y whence 
-also OFK.pagene (ue. pdgine pdge?tt 
'page') and ohg. peine (rare) 
page'. — pageant orig. 'the 
movable scaffold on which the old 
mysteries were acted' me. pdgent 
— earlier form pdgine 'pageant'. 
Source med.-lat. pagina 'scaffold 
= LAT. pagi7ia 'a page', also 'a 
plank of wood'. For the excres- 
cent t in pageant cp. parch7nent. 

pail ME. pail oe. pce^el 'bucket' 
:='D\]. pegel peily hG. pegel, whence 
G./<^(f/ 'water-gauge' is borrowed. 

pain ME. peine fr. fr. peine: 
source lat. poena^ whence also 
OE. pin =■ E. pine. -^ 

painim ^i^.painim 'heathendom' 
fr. ofr. paenwie = lat. paga- 
nismus 'heathendom'. 

paint vb. me. painte peifite vb. 
borrowed fr. fr. peint, part, of 
peindre = \.k\\ ping ere 'paint'. See 

pair ME. peir fr. fr. paire (= 
SPAN, par, IT. paro pajd) : source 
LAT. /rt!r 'alike', whence mhg. /><zr 
G. paar 'pair'. See peer. 

palace me. paleis palais fr. fr. 
palaisy whence also MHG. palas 
(rare paleis) G. palast'. source 
MED.-LAT. palatiimi. 

palate fr. the synon. lat. pa- 
ldtu7n (me. palit paldt from ofr. 

pale adj. ue. pale borrowed fr. 
FR. pdle: source lat. pallidus 

pale sb. ME. pdl{e) 'stake' fr. 
FR. pale 'stake or pole'. Source 
LAT. pdlus 'a stake'. For the 
rare OE. pdl 'stake' see pole. 

palfrey me. pal(e)frei palefrai 
fr. onfr. palefrei = fr. pale/roi. 
Source i^h^x:. par aver edus an extra 
post-horse' which is also the 
source of ohg. p/er/r id G. p/erd 
and IT. palafreno, ^VAi>i.pala/ren. 
The Lat. word is a compound of 
GR. TTCiQct and gallo-lat. veredus 
'horse' {I'heda is Gallo-Lat. for 
'travelling carriage' and vc is a 
Celt, prefix) ; hence naga-veredus 
was orig. the horse in reserve'. 

palisade Shakesp. palisado = 
fr. palissade, span, palizada, it. 
palizzata. All equiv. and deriv. 
fr. lat. pdlus 'a stake'. Cp. 
pale and pole. 

pall me. pal OE. pcell'. source 
lat. pallium. The adoption 
cannot have occurred before 
the literary period of Anglo- 
I Saxon, as we should expect an 
OE. form ^pelle "^pylle 'wrapper'. 

palm — parchment 


LAT. paila cannot be the source, 
as it never was the ecclesiastical 
terminus technicus, but rather 

palm 'inner part of the hand' 
ME. paume palme'. borrowed fr. 
OFR. palme = pautne. Source 
i^AT.palma 'the palm of the liand' 
(cogn. w. OY.. fohn under feel). 

palm 2 sb. 'a tree' me. palm oe. 
pdhn'. a bible word, i^at. palma 
'a palm-tree'. 

palsy ME. pal(e)sie oldest form 
parlesie fr. fr. paralysie: source 
LAT. paralysis 'palsy', which was 
used in oe. as paralysis. 

pan me. oe. panne = ohg. 
pfanna G. pfanne, on. sw. panna^ 
DV.pan: TEVT. panna is regarded 
as a transformation oii.A.T. paiina 
(or rather *patna) "a basin'. 

pane me. pane 'patch, piece, 
pane' fr. fr. /<?« a pane, piece, 
or pannel': source lat. pannus 
'a cloth, rag, patch'. — panel 
pannel me. pand 'a piece of 
cloth' (= DU. fianeel) fr. OFR. 
panel YV^. pamieau. Source a lat. 
type panellus fr. pannus. 

pannier me. panier 'bread- 
basket' fr. FR. panier (= lat. 
pdndrium 'bread-basket', whence 
also DU. paander, osax. pancri, 
ohg. pfandri). 

pansy borrowed fr. fr. pensie: 
derived from fr. penser 'think' 
(cp. G. vergissmcinnicht as the 
name of a flower). 

pant vb. i^"^^ cent, pante paunie 
fr. OFR. pantoyer (cp. fr. pan- 

teler) 'gasp, pant'; cp. ofr. 

pantais = e. pantas (in falconry) 
'a disease of hawks'. 

pantaloons fr. fr. pantalon. 
The FR. word prop, meant 
trowsers worn by the Venetians 
who were called Pantalo?ie after 
the patron Saint of Venice, St. 
pantry me. pan(e)trle fr. fr. 

paneierie (derived fr. la'I'. panis 

paper me. paper earlier paper 
fr. fr. papier = lat. papyrus 
(cp. also tape?'), whence also 
G. DU. papier. In late oe. (i i*'* 
cent.), a rare paper (cp. ohg. 

pa fur) 'papyrus is found. 

paradise me. paradis (parais) 
fr. OFR. paradis (parais pare'is) 
— FR. paradis , it. paradise. 
Source lat. paradisus^ whence 
also ohg. osax. paradis g. para- 
dies, DU. paradijSy on. sw. dan. 

paradis. The corresp. oe. term 
was neorxnawgng. 

paramour me. paratnour 'lover, 
concubine'. Source the fr. 
phrase par amour by love' (cp. me. 

par de by God' — par fay 'by 

j my faith' and perhaps). 

I parcel ivie. parcel prop. par^H 

I fr. FR. parcelle (lat. type */^r- 

\ticella derived ir. particula). 

j parch vb. prop, the same as 

pierce fr. ue. perche perfe. 

j parchment me. parche7Jiin fr. 

I FR. parchemin (du. perkament fr. 

I OFR. parcamiri) '. source lat. 
pergamena {charta) parchment'. 

I Tlie city of Pergamon in* Asia 


pardon — pastry 

Minor was famous for the in- 
vention of parchment. The ex- 
crescent / in NE. parchment is the 
same as in tyrant; cp. pageant. 

pardon sb. me. pardoiin from 
FR. pardon', source lat. per- 
donare 'remit a debt', whence 
FR. pardomter. 

pare vb. me. pare fr. fr. parer 
r= LAT. parare. 

parish me. parisshe earlier 
parosche fr. ofr. paroche = fr. 
paroisse'. source 'Lh.T. pareecia (gr. 
Tragoixia), an ecclesiastical ter- 
minus technicus. 

paritory see pellitory. 

park ME. park short for oe. 
pearroc, ident. w. du. mlg. perk 
'a park', oho. pferrih G. pferch 
'an inclosure, sheepfold': source 
a Celt, base parraka- (parrika-) 
in FR. pare, it. parco. Cogn. w. 
SPAN, parra 'fruitwall, espalier 
for vine' and provenc. par ran 
'small garden'. 

parlour me. parlour fr. fr. 
parloir 'conversation room' (fr. 
parler 'speak). 

parrot for earlier (15*^ cent.) 
perrot ■= fr. Perrot Pierrot 
'little Peter (in fr. also used 
as a name for a sparrow). 

parsley me. persli earlier form 
per sit fr. fr. persil — lat. petroseli- 
niim 'parsley' (cf. G. OE. peter silie). 

parsnip late me. parsnipe pas- 
7iipe fr. OFR. pastenaqite = lat. 
pasiinaca 'parsnip'. 

parson me. persoun ident. w. 
person, med.-lat. persona also 
meailt 'curate, parson'. 

part sb. me. part fr. fr. part 
(= SPAN. it. parte^ : source 
lat. pars-partem. — part vb. 
me. parte vb. fr. fr. partir = 
LAT. partiri partire 'divide, part . 
— partake vb. me. part tdke\ 
cp. G.. teU nehmen. — party sb. 
me. parti(e) fr. fr. partie, whence 
also MHG. partte G. partei, du. 
partij', IT. partita = lat. type 
\ partita. 

partridge me. per trie he fr. ofr. 
pertris, whence also du. patrijs 
(ODU. pertrise) : source LkT.perdix- 

parvis me. parvis fr. fr. parvis 
porch of a church'; ident. w. 
paradise. The church-porch 
is called in several languages 
paradise (esp. the portico of 
St. Peter's church, Rome, was 
called paradtsus^. 

pass vb. me. passe {pdfe) vb. 
fr. FR. passer (it. med. - lat. 
passare 'step, walk' fr. i.h.1::. passiis 
'step'. — passage me. passage 
fr. FR. passage. — passenger 
earlier passager me. passag^r; 
cp. messenger for the secon- 
dary n. 

paste sb. me. paste fr. ofr. 
paste = FR. pdte\ source late 
lat. pasta 'paste'. 

pastern earlier pastron repre- 
sents an unrecorded iA^.*past(ii)- 
roun fr. the synon. ofr. pasturon 
= FR. pdturon. 

pastime for pass-time, an imi- 
tation of the synon. 'P'R.passe-tcmps. 

pastry sb. me. pdst^ 'pie' fr. 
OFK. past^ (^ea.T\ier past^th, whence 

patch — peat 


ODU. pasteide = du. pastei) : 
derived fr. i^at. pasta z=i paste. 

patch ME. pacche] perh. ident. 
w. . LG. plakke 'a piece'. 

path ME. path oe. peep = du. 
LG. pad, OHO. pfaih pfad G. pfad 
"a way': Teut. base papa-y not 
cogn. w. GR. narog 'a way', 
SKR. pat/i 'a way', avest. pap 
way'. But cp. oe. pceppan 'tread', 
"LG.pedden vb. 'tread', ^\^o.pfetten. 

pattern me. patroiin borrowed 
fr. FR. patron 'pattern'. 

pause adopted fr. fr. pause 
= LAT. pausa. 

pave vb. me. pave borrowed 
fr. FR. paver 'pave' (lat. pavire 

paw sb. ME. pane poiie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. i)Oue {== PROV. 
paiita 'a paw') ; ident. w. du. 
poot, G. pfote'. it is uncertain 
whether the base pauta is orig. 
Celt, or Teut. 

pawn^ sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
pan 'a pawn, gage, pledge'; 
perh. ident. w. ofris. du. pand^ 
OHG. pfant G. pfand. 

pawn- sb. (at chess) me. paun 
poiin borrowed fr. OFR. poon 
paon peon = fr. pion : source 
n.pedone prop, 'a footman (lat. 
pedo-nem). Cp. on. ped-madr 
pawn at chess'. 

paxwax late me. pax-wax 
'tendon of the neck'; cp. ohg. 
7valto7iiahso, ofris. waldewaxe 'ner- 
vus' and wax for the second ele- 
ment of the compound. The first 
part of E. paxwax (dial. e. fax- 
wax is obscure. 

I pay vb. ME. paie vb. fr. fr. 

\ payer (prop, 'satisfy, content' = 
\.K\\ pacare 'pacify'), whence also 

I DU. paaien 'pay". 

I pea (plur. peas) fr. me. pcs{e)y 

I the s of which was considered 

j to be the plural ending, me. 

\p^s points to ONFR. pels = fr. 

\pois. Source lat. pisum 'a pea', 
whence also OE. pisu. 

peace me. pes earlier pais (= 
DU. mlg. peisy mlg. pais^ fr. 
OFR. pais = fr. paix (lat. pax- 
pace7fi) . 

peach late me. pce/ie fr. fr. 
pee/ie for pesche = it. pesca, lat. 
persicum 'a peach'. Fr. the lat. 
word, g. pfirsichy "DXj.perztky oe. 

persoc 'a peach' are borrowed. 
peacock me. pe-cock and pea- 
hen ME. p(-henne point to oe. 

pc^a with the by-form pdwa 'pea- 
cock : source LAT. pdvo-nemy 
whence also ohg. pfdwo o. 

pfau, DU. pauw, on. pdfugi\ cp. 
FR. paon peacock'. 

pear me. p{re oe. pern 'a pear' 
^= ODU. pere, du. lg. peer : loan- 
word fr. the equival. lat. pirum 
(whence also G. dime) = fr. 

poire 'a pear'. Cp. perry. 

pearl me. p6rle fr. fr. perle = 

OHG. p'erala G. perle, it. perla: 

source lat. pirula (for pilula *a 

little ball'?). 

peasant fr. fr. paysan\ cp. 

pheasant fr. fr. faisan and see 


peat for beat (see purse for 
the change of b to /). 


pebble — penny 

pebble sb. me. pibbel-stgn and 
puble-stgn OE. papol-stdn popol-stdn 
'a pebble-stone'. 

peck vb. a var. oi pick. 

peck sb. ME. pekke 'a measure'; 
perh. akin to fr. picotin *a mea- 

pedant sb. (= du. g. dan. 

sw. pedant) borrowed fr. fr. 

pSdant, IT. pedante^ the ultimate 

source of which is GR. Traid^v'siv 


pedigree late me. petegrew 
petigrii: perh. adopted fr. FR. 
pied de gi'ue 'a crane's foot'? 

peel vb. adopted fr. fr. peler. 
Source lat. pellts 'skin'. 

peep^ vb. 'chirp' me. "^pepe pipe 
borrowed fr. fr. piper. Source 
LAT. pipare = or. ■nnmiC,^iv 
'chirp*: sound - imitation; for 
variant in form see pipe. 

peep^ vb. look pryingly'; cp. 
0¥'R..pipe7' 'peep' — la pipe dii jour 
'the peep of day'. 

peer sb. me. pere per borrowed 
fr. OY^. per peer ^v.. pair. Source 
LAT. par 'equal'; see pair. 

peer^ vb. 'appear' me. pere 
short for ME. appere = appear. 

peer^ vb, 'pry' me. pire =^ lg. 
piren look closely'. 

peevish adj. me. pevisch peviche 
pevdige. The ending (cp. par- 
tridge and parish) points to 
FR. origin. 

peg sb. me. oe. pegge] akin to 
DAN. pigy sw. pigg 'spike', lg. 
pigge 'peg'. 

pellitory sb. late me. paritoiHe 
fr. FR. paritoire, which goes back 
to a LAT. type ^parietaria 'the 
plant of the walls'? 

pelt sb. ME. pelt 'a sheep-skin' 
(e. peltry == du. pelterij, mlg. 
pelti'ie fr. y\\. pelletrie)\ ident. w. 
G. pelz ohg. pelli'^. Source a 
Rom. ty\>& pellicia = fr. pelisse, 
IT. pelliccia. Cp. pilch. 

pelt vb. ME. pelte also pilte pulte, 
the latter forms corresponding 
to OE. piltan pyltan. Source 
LAT. pultare 'beat, strike'? 

pen sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
pentie. Source lat. penna 'a 

pen vb. ME. penne oe. onpennan 
'impound, enclose': prob. con- 
nected with pound'^ and lg. 
tope?inen 'bar, bolt* — Uppennen 

penance me. penaimce fr. ofr. 
pena?tce older pen'eance = lat. 
poenitentia 'penitence'. 

pencil orig. 'a hair-brush' me. 

pengH fr. ofr. pine el fr. pinceau 

a brush'. Source lat. penicillus 

'a painter's brush', whence also 

G. pinsel. 

pennon pennant me. penoun 
borrowed fr. OFR. pefinon 'a flag, 
streamer' (for the secondary / of 
pennant see pageant, parch- 
ment). Source i.m:. penna 'wing, 

penny me. pent plur. penies 
(contr. pens, whence e. pence) 
OE. penil pennij^ penni?ig pending 
= OS AX. pending penning, du. 

people — pester 


penintig^ ohg. phaTiiinc pfenting 
pfcfining G. pfe?inig, on. permingr. 
The word may be derived fr. 
pan^ so that the form of the 
pefinies may have suggested the 
word or it may .have been asso- 
ciated with the base '^pand 
imder pawn} For the suffix 
-i?7g cp. shilling, fa?- thing. 

people ME. peple people bor- 
rowed fr. 0¥^.pueple fr. peuple, 
whence also G.pobel. Source lat. 
populus 'people' (cp. also du. 

pepper me. peper piper oe. 
pipor == DU. peper, ohg. pfeffar 
G. pfeffer, on. piparr'. borrowed 
fr. LAT. piper (whence also it. 
pepe, FR. poivre). Cp. oslov. 
pipru 'pepper'. 

perceive vb. me. perceive fr. 
OFR. percevervR. apercevoir. Source 
LAT. percipcre 'apprehend'. 

perch' 'a rod' me_^ p^rche fr. 
the synon. fr. pcrche. Source 
LAT. pertica 'a pole, bar? ^ 

perch^ 'a fish' me. pirche bor- 
rowed fr. FR. perche. Source lat. 
perca = GR. nsgY.rj a perch'. 

perchance cp. perhaps. — 

perdy (Shakesp.) by God' 
me. parde = fr. par dieu 'by 

perform vb. me. perfourme ear- 
lier parfourne borrowed fr. OFR. 
pa7'fournir 'perform', 

perhaps (late me. perhappous 

1 5^*^ cent.) and perchance have 
the FR. preposition par (per) in 
imitation of me. peraventUre- 

parauntre and per cas\ haps is 
the plur. of hap under happy 
(cp. paramour'). 

peril me. peril fr. fr. piril. 
Source lat. periculum 'danger'. 

perish vb. me. perisshe bor- 
rowed fr. the stem of some 
forms of the fr. verb phir 

deriwig formerly periwigge per- 
wicke borrowed fr. YV^. perruque {wi 
being substituted for fr. ii) ; 
cp. also G. perrilcke, du. pruik. 

periwinkle; cp. the synon. 
me. pervenke oe. pervince. Source 
LAT. pervinca 'a twining plant'. 

perry adopted fr. fr. poiri 
'perry', formed fr. a vulgar lat. 
type "^piratus 'perry, drink made 
of pears' {\.k.T.pirum under/^^r). 

person me. p^rsoun borrowed 
fr. FR. personne. Source lat. 
persona', ident. w. parson. 

pert adj. me. pert 'pert, plain, 
clever, bold'; cp. Odu. gepertich 
flam, pertig 'alert'. The group 
goes back to fr. apert. 

pertain vb. me. part^nc bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. partenir. Source 
i.AT. pertinere 'belong'. 

peruke ident. w. periwig. 

pervious adj. borrowed fr. 
LAT. perviiis 'passable'. 

pest borrowed fr. fr. peste. 
Source lat. pestis plague'. 
! pester vb. short for impester 
\ borrowed fr. ofr. empestrer 
I 'pester, entangle' fr. empetrer. 
I pet sb. 'a tame animal, a 


pet — pile 

favored child' short for earlier 
peat (me. *///). 

petty adj. me. petit adopted fr. 
FR. petit 'small'. 

pew sb. ME. pile (piiwe) fr. 
OFR. puie 'an elevated space', 
an open gallery with rails', 
whence also du. ptd , ofris. 
poie. Source lat. podium 'a 

pewet peewit so called from 
its plaintive cry; the earlier 
by-form puet points to a fr. 

pewter late me. p(uter adopted 
fr. OFR. peutre {pe autre) a kind 
of metal'. It stands for '^peltre 
= SPAN, peltre, it. peltro 'pewter'; 
cp. DU. piauter. 

pheasant me. fcsaunt earlier 
fesaun fr. FR. faisan ■=^ it. 
fagiano. Source lat. phasidnus, 
GR. cpaGiavog 'bird of Phasis in 
Colchis', whence also OYiG. fasdn 
G. fas an. 

phial vial borrowed fr. ofr. 
phiole (fr. fiole). Source lat. 
phiala, GR. (pidkrj 'a broad, flat, 
shallow cup'. 

philtre borrowed from fr. 
philtre. Source lat. philtrum^ 
GR. ipiXxQOv 'a love potion'. 

phlegm adopted fr. fr. phlegme. 
Source lat. GR. phlegma a flame, 
inflammation, phlegm'. 

pick vb. ME. pikke oe. pician = 
LG. DU. pikken, G. picken. 

picket borrowed fr. fr. piquet 
picquet 'a little pick axe', dirain. 
of OE. pic 'a pike' under pike. 

pickle sb. me. pike I =^ t>\5. pekel, 
MhG.pekel G.pokel] prob. h. pickle, 
frequentative of pick 'pickout, 

picnic a modern word arising 
about 1700 and soon received 
into fr. {^piquenique about 1740) 
and GERM, i^picknick 2^o\i\, 1770). 

pie ME. pie fr. fr. pie 'a broiled 
remnant of a shoulder of mutton". 

pie (in magpie) we. pie fr. ofr. 
pie ■= lat. pica. 

piebald composed of pie 'a 
magpie' and bald 'streaked'. 

piece iME. pefe borrowed fr. fr. 

pier ME. pere borrowed fr. ofr. 
piere, fr. pierre = i.A.i.petra 'stone*. 

pierce vb. me. perfe borrowed 
fr. FR. percer 'pierce', me. by- 
form perche. 

piety adopted fr. fr. piiti 
'piety' = lat. pietdte^n) ident. w. 

pig ME. pigge. 

pigeon late me. pigoun fr. fr. 
pigeon. Source lat. pipio{neni) 
'a chirper'. See peep oxid pipe. 

pike ME. pike oe. pic = du. 
pick, G. piek; cp. pick. 

pilch ME. pilc/ie oe. piUe pylce 

fur. Source med.-lat. ^ it. 

pelliccia felt', whence also fr. 

pelisse and ohg. pellH G. pelz, du. 

pels fur (primitive source la'J\ 
pellis^. C^. pelt. 

pile ^ sb. 'an arrow' me. oe. /// 
(= du. pijl, OHG. pfU G. pfeil, 
ON. pud) : borrowed fr. lat. pilum 
'a javelin', whence o^K. pile, span. 
IT. pilo 'a javelin, pestle'. The 




corresponding Goth, word was 
arhwazna] cp. on. gr, oe. earh 
= LAT. arcus, 

pile 2 sb. 'a .heap' ^m.pile 'tower, 
castle' borrowed fr. ofr. pile a 
pier, pyramid fr. pile *a mole* 
= SPAN, pila 'a pillar, trough', 
Yi.pila 'trough'. Source hkT.pila 
'a pier of stone'. See pillar. 

pile*^ sb. 'a tumor' (now used 
in plur.) fr. lat. pila 'a ball'. 

pile* sb. 'hair' borrowed fr. ofr. 
peil FR. poil = SPAN. IT. pelo. 
Source LAT. ptlus *a hair'. 

pilfer borrowed fr. ofr. pelfrer 

pilgrim me. pilgrim borrowed 
fr. MUG. pilgrim. Source med.-lat. 
peregrinus (late lat. pelegrinus)^ 
whence 'E'K. pterin, it. pellegrinOj 
SPAN, peregrino, du. pelgrim. 

pill =^ G. T>k^. pille prob. bor- 
rowed fr. the dimin. fr. pilule. 
Source LAT. piliila *a pill'. 

pillar ME. piler borrowed fr. 
FR. pilicr (^ SPAN, pilar, it. 
piliere). Source med.-lat. pilar e 
pildrius (lat. pila) 'pillar', whence 
also OHG. pftldri G. pfeiler\ du. 
pilaar is Y^. pilier, but Tt\5. pij'ler 
is LAT. pilar e. 

pillory sb. me. pilgry borrowed 
fr. FR. pilori 'a pillory'. 

pillow sb. ME. pilwe oe. pyle 
"^pylwe = DU. peuluw , ohg. 
pfuliwi{n) also pfulwo g. pfiihl'. 
borrowed fr. lat. pulvinus 'cu- 
shion'. Cp. cushion. 

pilot sb. borrowed fr. yk. pilote 
=- SPAN. IT. piloto pilota y du. 

English Etymology. 

pilooty G.pilote. Origin unknown. 
The word occurs in Germ, and 
Engl, since the i^^^ cent.; in 
Germ, it appears first in the 
It. form piloto. Perh. the It. 
word became European through 
the commerce with Genoa and 

pimpernel sb. fr. fr. pimprenelle 

pin sb. ME. OE. pi fin == du. lg. 
pin. Source LAT. penna 'a pin, 

pinch vb. my., pine he borrowed 
fr. FR. pincer. 

pine sb. me. pine oe, *pin(tr^o) 
'pine-tree': borrowed h.LkT.pinus 
'a pine, whence ¥ (p\5. pijn), 
SPAN. IT. pino 'a pine-tree'. 

pine vb. me. pine oe. pinian 
'torment' == on. pina, du. pij'nen, 
OHG. pfinon pinon (g. peinigen) : 
deriv. fr. oe. pin = ohg. pina G. 
pein. ^owxc^LkT. pivna (pronounc- 
ed pena). 

pinfold; see poiutd'^. 

pint sb. late me. pinte fr. fr. 
pinte (whence du. pint, lg. pinte 
'can'): source lat. pincta. 

pip sb. ME. pippe = du. lg. pip, 
G. pips ohg. pfiffi'l, : borrowed fr. 
a vulgar lat. pippita (= laT. 
pituita) 'phlegm', whence also 
FR. pipie, SPAN, pepita, it. pipita. 

pipe sb. ME. oe. pipe = du. pijp, 
LG. pipe, OUG. pfi/a G. pfeife, on. 
pipa : borrowed fr. med.-lat. pipa, 
whence also the synon. fr. pipe, 
sp\^. pipa, \T. piva. Source lat. 
pipdre 'chirp'. 



pit — plant 

pit sb. ME. //■/ OE. pyt (it) = 

DU. pllt^ LG. ///// OHG. pUZZi pfuzzi 

G. pfiltze'. TEUT. putjus'. borrowed 
fr. LAT. puteus 'a well, pit', whence 
also VT. pozzOf SF AN. poza, FK.ptiifs 
and OIR. cm//ie, cymr. peUn 'well, 
pitch sb. ME. pic/i OE. pic =r 

OSAX. ODU. pik DU. peky OHG. pe/i I 

^^/^ (M) G.pec/i, ON. M: borrowed 
fr. LAT. pix (pic-) 'pitch', whence 

also FR. poix, SPAN. /^S:, IT. pCCC 


^ pitcher sb. me. picc^e'r borrowed 
fr. OFR. picher. Source med.-lat. 
picdrium, a by-form of late lat. 
bicdrium under beaker. 

pith sb. ME. pithe oe. pida cog- 
nate w. DU. pit ODU. pitte 'pith' 
and MLG. pedik 'pith'. A West- 
Teut. h2JS>^ pipan- is to be assum- 
ed, perh. a teut. pipwon- in- 
stead of qipwon-: \fgtt? 

pittance sb. ME.pitaunfe (=mlg. 
pitancie) borrowed fr. FR. pitance 
'meat, food, daily subsistance'. 

pity sb. me. pite fr. fr. /////. 
Source LAT. pietdtem. 

place me. pld^e fr. fr. place 
{= SPAN, plaza y IT. piazza). 
Source lat. platea = gr. -nXaxsia 
'a street'. G. platz and nn. plaats 
are also of Fr. origin. 

plague me. (14^*^ cent.) pldge 
adopted fr. Li\T. pldga 'an injury' 
whence du. plaag , ohg. pldga 
G. plage and it. piaga, fr. plate, 

plaice ME. plaice borrowed fr. 
FR. plaise OFR. pldise. Source 
MED.-LAT. pla^sa prop, platessa 'a 

flat-fish', whence also DU. pladijs, 
G. platteise. 

plain adj. me. plain borrowed 
fr. FR. plain (whence also DU. 
pleiri) = SPAN, piano, it. piano. 
Source lat. pldnus flat, even'. 

plain sb. me. pleine adopted 
fr. FR. plaine =■ span, plana, it. 
piano. Source lat. pldnum 'a 

plaint sb. me. pleinte plainte fr. 
FR. plainte (= lat. planctus 

plait vb. ME.plaite 'fold' derived 
fr. OFR. pleit (ploit) sb. 'fold'. 
Source hkii. plicare 'fold, braid'. 

plan -adopted fr. fr. plan, 
whence DU. g. plan. Source 
I.M:. pldnusV^i, plane', whence 
SPAN, plan, YT. piano. Sqq plain, 

plane adj. borrowed fr. fr. 
plane (= span, piano, it. piano). 
Source lat. pldnus 'flat, level'. 

plane sb. 'a carpenter's tool' 
late me. plane borrowed fr. fr. 
plane. Source med.-lat. pldna 
'a carpenter's tool'. 

plane-tree me. pldne{-tre) = du. 
plaan-boom fr. fr. plane. Source 
lat. platanus 'plane-tree'. 

plank me. planke borrowed fr. 
onfr. planke fr. planche (= span. 
plancha, it. pianca). Source 
med.-lat. pianca, whence du. 
plank, G. planke. 

plant me. plante oe. plant = du. 
plant, OHG. pflanza G. pflanze 
(on. plantd) : fr. lat. planta, 
whence also fk. plante, span. 

plash — pluck 


planta, it. pianta. In me. we find 
also plaunte sb. vb. as adap- 
tion of FR. plante — planter, — 
plantain m^. plantain (^plauntain f) 
borrowed fr. y^. plantain. Source 
LAT. plantago i^plantaginein) 'a 

plash ME. plasche borrowed fr. 
ODU. plasch DU. plas 'water- 

plaster me. piastre plaister fr. 
OFR. piastre (^plaistre ^ whence 
T>\; . pleisier) cp. fr. pldtre. Source 
GR.-LAT. e/LiTrXaffrgov = IT. 
empiastro, fr. empldtre 'plaster. 
LAT. emplastrufn = med.-lat. 
plastrum 'gypsum', whence OHG. 
pflastar G. pflaster. 

plat plot ME. OE. plot (tt). See 

plate ME. plate borrowed fr. 
OFR. plate plaite 'plate - armor, 
ingot, silver fr. plat, whence 
DU. plat, G. platte. Source a 
MED.-LAT. plata 'plate of metal' 
(gr. nXarvc)- 

platoon fr. FR. peloton 'a ball, 

platter me. plater fr. ofr. platel 
'a plate' = fr. plateau also 

play vb. me. plaie pleie OE. 
plegian 'play' and play sb. me. 
plaie pleie OE. pl'ega. The other 
teut. languages have no such 
root as pleg 'play'. 

plea sb. ME. /// plai 'debate' 
fr. OFR. pie plai with the by- 
forms plait plaid. Source MED.- 
lat. placitum 'a decree, sen- 
tence'. — plead vb. me. pl^de 

plaide fr. fr. plaider 'plead, 
argue', whence also DU. pleiten 

please vb. me. plese borrowed 
fr. OFR. plesir plaisir (fr. plaire 
'please'). Source lat. placer e 
please'. — pleasure (late me. 
plcsiire 15*^^ cent.)* fr. the fr. 
infinit. plaisir, but influenced by 
abstract nouns such as nature 

pledge sb. me. plegge fr. ofr. 
plege (YK.pleige) 'a surety', which 
is related to OSAX. plegan ohg. 
pfl'egan 'be responsible for, 
answer for' (cp. plight^. 

plenty me. plente fr. ofr. plenti^ 
source lat. plinitdtem. 

plier see ply. 

plight sb. me. plight oe. pliht 
formed by means of the abstract 
formative -/ from a vb. seen in 
OE. pldon 'risk' (ohg. pflegan G. 
pflegen whence G. pjlicht 'friendly 
care, interest'). 

plot! short for complot = fr. 
complot 'a conspiracy'. 

plot- sb. me. oe. plot {tt). 

plough me. plough plow OE. 
ploh =- DU. ploeg, ohg. pfluoh 
pfiuog G. pflug, ON. plogr. This 
Teut. group plbhu- plogu- was 
borrowed by the Slav, (serb.- 
russ. plugii, LiTH. pliugas). 

plover me. plover borrowed fr. 
OFR. plovier fr. pluvier. Source 
a LAT. type '^pluviarius 'rainy'. 

pluck vb. me. plukke plokke 

(^plicche) OK.pluccian (oe. "^plyccan) 

= DU. plukken, OHG. "^pfiucchen 

'^pfiockon G. pfiucken, on. plokka. 



plug — poll 

Source a lat. type "^piliiccare ^=- 
IT. piluccarej fr. iplucher. Vulgar 
LAT. *piluccdre (whence me. pilken 
pluck') prop, 'pluck hairs one 
by one' is an extension of lat. 

plug sb. ident. w. du. plug^ 
LG. plugge {j)lucJi) late mhg. pfloc 
G. pflock plug'. 

plum ME. ploume oe. plume 
(plyme) = DU. pruim, lg. prume 
plume, OHG. pfruma beside pfiumo 
(lat. r changed to teut. /) G. 
pflaume'. early loanword fr. lat. 
prunum, whence also fr. prune, 
IT. prima. Cp. prune. 

plumb fr. FR. plomb = lat. 
plumb u?n. 

plume fr. fr. plume == lat. 

plummet me. //d?ww^/ borrowed 
fr. FR. plo7nbet 'a plummet' dimin. 
of FR. plomb lead'. 

plump adj. borrowed fr. lg. 
plump, DU. plomp. 

plunder vb. adopted fr. mdu. 
plunderen = G. plilndern 'rob, 

plunge vb. short for me. plounge'. 
borrowed fr. fr. plonger 'duck, 
dive', whence also du. plonzen. 

plush sb. = DU. pluis , G. 
plusch ; borrowed fr. fr. peluche 
= YY, peluzzo. Source a lat. type 
^pilucia, an extension of lat. 
pilus *hair . 

ply vb. ME. plie 'bend' adopted 
fr. fr. plier 'fold, bend, bow'. 
Source lat. plicdre 'fold'. 

poach ^ vb. 'dress eggs' fr. fr. 
pocher. — poach ^ vb. 'intrude 
into preserves' borrowed fr. fr. 
pocher from poche 'a pouch'. 

pock M^. pokke OE.pocc ^=-. mdu. 
pocke, DU. pock, G. LG. pocke 'small 
pox'. — pocket ME. poket fr. ofr. 
poquette, dimin. oioY^. pocke poche. 
See poke. \ 

poignant adj. U¥.. pomatit poin- 
launt fr. FR. poigfiant. (Source 
LAT. pungere). — point me. point 
fr. FR. point (source lat. punc- 
tum) 'point'. 

poise vb. ME. poise earlier peise 
fr. ofr. poiser peiser fr. peser 
'to weigh'. Source lat. pensare 
'to weigh'. 

poison UE. puisouit fr. ^^. poison 
'poison' = LAT. potio(nem) 'a 

poke sb. ME. poke 'a bag' =: 
ODU. poke, ON. poki. FR. poche is 
perh. an Engl, loanword. Cp. 

poke vb. nK. poke i^pouke pucke) 
'thrust, throw' =: DU. poken, mlg. 

pole ' sb. a stake' us.. pole OE.pdl 
'a pale, pole': source lat. pdlus 
'a stake', whence G. pfahl ohg. 
MHG. pfdl. $iee pale, 

pole 2 sb. 'a pivot' the synon. 

FR. pol = LAT. poluS (GR. TTOlog) 

'a hinge'. 

polish vb. ME. polisshe fr. fr. 
polir i^poliss-') 'polish'. 

poll ME. pol (II) 'head' ^ lg. 
ODU. polle 'head'; perh. ident. w. 

pommel — port 


pommel me. pomel borrowed 
fr. OFR. p07nel fr. pommeau 'the 
pommel of a sword': prop, dimin. 
LAT. pomum 'apple'. 

pomp ME. pompe fr. lat. po?npa, 
whence also fr. pompe. 

pond ME. potid pomU. 

ponder vb. borrowed fr. lat. 
ponderare weigh'. 

pontiff fr. FR. pontif pontife, 
LAT. pontif ex. 

pontoon fr. fr. ponton, it. 
pontone 'a great broad bridge'. 

pool sb. ME. OE. pgl = DU. 
poe/, LG. po/, OYiG. pfuol G.pfuhl'y 
perh. akin to oe. pu/i pyll 'pool' 
= ON. pollr 'pool, pond'. 

poop borrowed fr. fr. poupe = 
LAT. puppis 'the hinder part of 
a ship'. 

poor adj. me. povre fr. ofr. 
povre = pauvre (source lat. 
pauper) 'poor'. 

pope me. pope OE. papa = lat. 
papa. The continental dialects 
differ from the lat.-oe. forms; 
cp. 03AX. pdbos^ DU. paus, mhg. 
babes G. papst. 

popinjay late "b^m. popinjay earlier 
papegai (= du. papegaaiy mlg. 
papegoie, G. papagai) fr. fr. pape- 
gai OFR. papegay and papegau = 
it. papagallo. Prob. derived fr. 
Low GR. nanayug = arab. ba- 
bagha (pers. bapga). The Lat. 
name psittacus agrees with GR. 

poplar sb. me. poplir{e) ^^. du. 
popidiery OTtV. pope Her', borrowed 
fr. OFR. pop Her ■= fr. peuplier. 
Source FR. peuple 'poplar = 

'LAT.populus 'poplar', whence also 
DU. pop el and G. pappel. 

poppy sb. ME. popy oe. popi^ 
papcsi (about 800). The suffix i 
(not producing umlaut) points to 
an older form -ang as in body, 
holly. There are no Teut. 
equivalents. Usually considered 
to be borrowed fr. i.kT. papdver. 

porcelain sb. -- fr. porcelaine, 
DU. porselein, G. porzellan (since 
the 1 6th. cent.); the base is 
it. porcellana, orig. 'the Venus- 
shell', 'concha Veneris'; this hav- 
ing much resemblance to porce- 
lain, the name of the shell was 
transferred to that of the cera- 
mic ware. 

porch sb. W£.. pore he borrowed 
fr. "E^. pore he', source lat. porti- 
cus, from which OE, portic and 
OHG. pforzih are earlier loan- 

porcudine occuring in the 
i^th — J 5th cent's in the forms 
porpentine por point and porkepin 
which go back to ofr. pore 
espin (now porc-ipic) = IT. poreo 
spino {poreo spinoso) 'thornbush 
hog'. — pork 'flesh of swine' 
me. pork 'pork, swine' fr. the 
synon. yk. pore (= hhT. por cus). 

port^ sb. 'harbor' me. oe. port 

'harbor' fr. the equival. lat. 

portiis (= fr. port, it. porto) 

harbor, whence also odu. port 


port'^ sb. a gate fr. fr. porte 
z= hAT. porta a gate*, whence 
also o^. port or port-jpat 'a gate', 
du. poort, G. p forte. 


port — power 

port 3 sb. 'behavior me. port 
fr. FR. port 'behavior : deriv. of 
LAT. portare 'carry'. 

port* = Port-wine orig. »wine 
of Oporto in Portugal«. 

portray vb. me. pourtraie fr. 
FR. portraire. — portrait = fr. 

post^ sb. 'a pillar' me. O'E.. post 
= DU. LG. post: early loanword 
fr. 'LhT. postem (nom. siwg. postis), 
whence also G. pfosten ohg. pfost 
and FR. poteau. 

post^ sb. 'mail service' = du. 
G. posty FR. postey IT. posta. The 
word is a native of Italy and was 
borrowed from there by the 
modern languages in the 16**^ 

post^ sb. *a military post' = 
G. postetiy DU. post fr. it. posto 
'guard, post'. 

pot ME. OE. pot (tt), = DU. LG. 

pot(tt)y ON. pottr (swED. potta, 
DAN. potte) ; akin to fr. pot = 

CYMR. pot, IR. pOta. 

potato imported in the second 
half of the 16* cent, together 
with SPAN, patata from America 
(in Hayti the name was batata 
about 1530). 

pouch ME. pouche 'bag' fr. ofr. 
pouche (^poche) 'pocket'; akin to 

poult sb. 'chicken' {= pullet) 
late u^.pulte fr.rR.^*??^/^/ 'chicken' 
{^poule 'hen'). — poulterer ex- 
tended for ME. pulter fr. FR. 
t)oulletier. — poultry we. pultrie 
is derived fr. me. pulter. 

pounce vb. see punch. 

pound ^ ME. pound oe. pund 'a 
pound' (weight and money) = 
OSAX. pund, DU. pond, ohg. pfunt 

G pfund, ON. SW. DAN. pUfld 

GOTH, pund: borrowed in the 
second cent. fr. lat. pondo 
(indecl.) 'pound', not fr. lat. 
pondus 'weight'. 

pound'-^ sb. 'enclosure' me. 
pound (shortened in pon-, pun- 
fglde 'pound'). oe. pund 'en- 
closure' with the verb oe. pyndan 
ME. pinde 'impound, dam up the 
water' = on. pynda 'shut in 
(e. pinfold ME. pinfplde 'pound' 
points to oe. pyndan me. pinde). 
Frob. pen oe. pennan is cognate, 
if the base *panjan goes back 
to an earlier form *pandjan: teut. 
yfpand pund. 

pound vb. 'h&2i\! -^UE. poune oe. 
picnian 'pound'; perh. cognate w. 
DU. puiti 'ruin, rubbish'. 

pout vb. ME. poute 'sulk' (oe. 
"^piitian}). — pout sb. (a kind 
of fish) OE. puta or pute (in the 
compound ckleputan 'eelpouts') ; 
cp T>\i. puit a kind of fish. The 
word is derived from the vb. 
pout {TE\j'i\ \f put): the fish has 
its name from its pouting lips. 

powder sb. me. poudre 'hair- 
powder' fr. FR. poudre, whence 
also BU.poeder, G. puder. Source 
lat. pulverem (^pulvis), whence 
G.pulver, iT.polve 'dust, powder'. 

power me. pouir earlier polr 
fr. OFR. po'er = fr. pouvoir\ 
ident. w. it. potere and deriv. 
fr. lat. potest potui etc. 

praise — proud 


praise sb. M^.prais preis fr. ofr. 
preis, ident. with price. 

pram sb. *a flat- bottomed 
lighter = lg. prahm^ DU. praam ; 
LG. pram, on. prdmr, sw. pram. 
DAN. pram are of Slav, origin; 
cp. OSLOV. pramu belonging to 
the ARYAN \fper 'cross, ferry' 
seen in fare vb. 

prance vb. me. praunce vb. 
ident. w. e. prank vb. me. pranke\ 
the sound points to Fr. origin. 

prate vb. late me. prate = du. 
LG. praten 'prate', dan. prate 

pray vb. me. preie fr. ofr. 
preier = fr. prier pray' (source 
lat. precari 'pray'). 

preach vb. me. preche fr. fr. 
precher. Source church-LAT./rrt-^- 
dicare 'preach', whence also OE. 
predician, on. predika, du. pre- 
dikeUy OS AX. predikouy OHG. pre- 
digon MHG. G. predigen 'preach'. 

press vb. me. presse fr. ofr. 
presser =^ lat. pressarc. 

pretty adj. me. "^priti for prati 
'pretty' and 'clever, cunning'; 
OE./r^/Zj 'tricky, deceitful'. The 
OE. sh.prcett ^\\i\:. prattas means 

prey sb. my., preie praie fr. ofr. 
preie praie = fr. proie (hence du. 
prooi) 'prey\ Source lat. praeda. 

price sb. "siE.pris fr. ofr. pris 
= FR. prix. Source lat. pretium 
'price'. See prize. 

prick sb. me. pricke (j>rike) oe. 
pricca (^prica) 'prick, spike'. — 
prick vb. me- pricke i^prike oe. 

\prician) 'prick, spur'. Cp. MHG. 
\pfr'ecken, o^i^.prikka: teut. y"/r/y^. 
— prickle relation me. prikel 
oe. pricel. 

pride ws.. pride oy. pryda: um- 
laut-relation to proud. 

priest sb. me. prest oe. preost) 
ident. w. ohg. prist priestar mhg. 
G. priester, osax. prestar, fr. pretre 
for OFR. prestre: descendants 
of lat. presbyter priest'. But 
there are discrepancies in the 
phonetical development of the 
Rom. and Teut. forms* 

prime fr. fr. pri?ne — lat. 
primus. — primrose fr. fr. 
prime rose =: lat. prima rosa 
' 'first rose'. — prince me. prince 
fr. FR. prince (source lat. prin- 
ceps — p7i?icipem —- it. principe^y 
whence also G. prinz du. prins. 

print vb. me. printe short for 
prente impre?ite fr. fr. empreinte 
sb. 'a stamp, print'; cp. fr. 
evipreindre = lat. imprimere. 

prison ME.prisoun fr. fk. prison; 
source lat. prehensio{nem) = it. 

privy ME. prive fr. fr. privi 
(= lat. privdtus). 

prize vb. me. prise fr. EK.priser\ 
cf. E. prise fr. YR.prix. — prize 
sb. 'taking or capture e. g. of 
a ship' fr. fr. prise 'seizure (du. 
prijs, G. prise). 

proud ME. proud late oe. prild 
(by-form me. prout late OE. prut 
preie) ; cp. on. priidr 'proud', 
dan. prud 'stately'. Cp. the um- 
laut-relation /r/^<?. Source ofr. 


prove — push 

proud Valiant' (under prowess) 
= FR. preux. 

prove vb. ME. prove late oe. (c. 
\oQ,6) profian'. loanword fr. lat. 
prodare, whence also 'FTL. prouver, 
MHG. prileven G. pru/en^ on. prof a 
and also me. preve proeve 'prove'. 
— The sb. proof is derived fr. 
the vb. (cp. ME. preve prceve = 
FR. preuve). 

prow ME. "^proiie fr. fr. proue 
(iT.pruaproda, i^ki, prord) 'prow'. 

prowess me. prouesse fr. ofr. 
pro7iesse prowess', abstr. sb. of 
OFR. prou proud r= late oe. prud 
s. under proud. 

proxy sb. earlier prockesy for 
procuracy, cp. proctor late me. 
proketour == LAT. procurator {em). 

prune sb. me. pi-ilne fr. fr. 
prune = lat. prunum\ cp. p luni. 

pry vb. me. prie oe. "^priwan 
*preo7vian, the root of which is 
evident in oe, bepriwan vb. 'wink 
with the eye' — preowothwil 
'twinkling of the eye'. 

psalm sb. me. psalm = lat. 
psahnus; already oe. salm. 

puck sb. short for ME. pouke 
oe. plica 'demon, hobgoblin' = 
ON. ptiki 'imp' ; cp. oe. piicel 
'demon', north-fries, puk 'mis- 
chievous sprite with large eyes'. 

pudding ME. pudding prob. 
borrowed fr. FR. boudin 'black- 
pudding' (cp. ME. cuning fr. ofr- 
coTiin under cony). 

puff vb. ME. puffe OE. "^puffian 
aside of 0£. pyffan 'blow': teut. 
base puff on pufpjan. 

pull vb. ME. pulle OE. pullian 

pullet ME. polite fr. y^. poulette 
'a young hen', cp. poult. 

pulp sb. fr. FR. pulpe = lat. 
pulpa 'pulp'. 

pumpion {divnm. pumpkin) ear- 
lier pompoun fr. FR. pompon (= 
DU. p07npoeri) 'a kind of gourde'. 
Source lat. pepo {=-- fr. pipon, 
IT. pepone popone). 

punish vb. me. punisshe fr. fr. 
punir (^puniss-) 'punish'. 

purblind me. purblind orig. 
'blind as 2, purl o^. pur means 
the bird 'onocrotalus'; cp. swed. 

purchase vb. me. purchase fr. 
FR. pourchasser. 

purge vb. me. pw-ge fr. fr. 

purple ME. purpre fr. fr. 
pourpre = LAT. purpura. 

purpose vb. me. purpose fr. 
OFR. pourposer = fr. proposer 

purse ME.purs late oe. (c.1050) 
purs: loanword fr. ofR. borse — - 
FR. bourse', cp. lat. bursa. 

pursue vb. me. pur site fr. ofr. 
porsuir = fr. poursuivre (source 
LAT. prosequi) 'prosecute'. 

purvey vb. me. porveie fr. ofr. 
porvoir = fr. pourvoir (lat. 
providere) 'provide'. 

push vb. MS., posse pusse {posshe) 
'push' fr. FR. pousser (=^ LAT. 
pulsare) 'strike, thrust'. 

put — quench 


put vb. ME. pute putte vb. 
'throw, push, thrust' oe. (c. iooo) 

fr. OFR. bouter 'thrust' (cp. oe. 
purs purse' fr. OFR. dorse under 

potian 'thrust ; perh. borrowed \ purse). 

quail sb. me. quaile fr. ofr. 
quaille =- FR. caile a quail'; 
cp. IT. quaglia. Source a vulgar 
LAT. quaccola, whence also du. 
kwakkel r= ODU. quackele 'quail'. 

quaint adj. me. queinty earlier 
form coint (quoint) 'famous, well- 
known, clever, neat, elegant': 
loanword fr. OFR. coint neat, 
fine' = LAT. cognitus 'known*. 

quake vb. me. quake oe. cwdcian 
vb. 'quake'; cp. o^. cwecdean 
'move' -=^ ODU. quecken shake 
one's head': teut. \pqak. 

qualm me. qualm 'death, pesti- 
lence, torture' oe. cwealm 'death, 
pestilence': derived fr. the teut. 
\f qel in oe. cw'elan me. quele 
vb. 'die'; cp. quell. 

quarrel me. querele fr. fr. 
querelle = LAT. querela 'a com- 

quash vb. me. quasshe vb. fr. 
OFR. quasser = FR. casser 'break' ; 
source lat. quassare 'to shake'. 

quaver vb. derived fr. me. 
qudve (oE. *cwdjia?t) vb. 'tremble'; 
cogn. w. me. quappe vb. 'tremble'. 

quay earlier spelling keie late 
ME. keie fr. fr. quai. 

quean me. qu^ne oe. cwene 
'woman': perhaps a scand. loan- 
word cp. ON. kona G. plur. 

kvenna (= ohg. qu'ena kona, 
GOTH. qi?io)\ cp. late OE. cwene- 
fugel 'a hen-bird' fr. the equiv. on. 
kvenfugl. There was a genuine 
OE. corresponding cwme 'bad wo- 
man'. The group rests on a teut. 
q'enon- 'wife' = aryan gend ; cp. 
GR. yvvT] f skr. gnd , oir. ben, 
OSLOV. RUSS. SERB, zcna , pruss. 
gena 'wife'. See the following 

queen sb. me. quen oe. C7i'en 
queen, distinguished lady'; base 
qoni for qdni --= goth. qe?iSy ON. 
kvdn kvckn, osax. qudn 'wife': 
TEUT. qeni- = ARYAN, g^ni- (== 
skr. j'dni 'wife') is of the same 
root as TEUT. q'enon- (see quean) 
^= ARYAN gend. 

quell vb. ME. quelle oe. cwellan 
'kill': derived fr. the str. vb. oe. 
cw'elan me. qu(le 'die' (cp. qualm). 
They belong to the teut. \/"qel 
in G. qual =^ oHG. 03AX. qudla 
'torment, torture': aryan yf gel 
in lith. geld 'grief — oslov. zali 

quench vb. me. quenche oe. 
cwencean wk. vb. 'extinguish' : 
derived fr. oe. d-cwincan 'be 
exstinguished' :=: ofris. kwinka 
'vanish'. It is doubtful whether 
OE. cwinan 'to be exstinguished' is 




connected with e. quench (du. 
kwijnen 'wither'). 

question me. questioun fr. fr. 

quick adj. me. quick oe. cwicu 
'living, alive' = osax. du. quik, 
OHG. MHG. qu'ec (g. quecksilber 
'quicksilver and er quicken vb. 
'quicken, refresh') G. keck (for 
queck) 'pert', ON. kvikr kykr : ; 

TEUT. Y"^/^ fr. ARYAN Y"^?^ in LAT. 

vivo (vixi-victum-vivere). There { 
exists an aryan doublet gtw in \ 
GOTH, qius (stem qiwa-) adj. | 
'alive' =^ SKR. jiva, lith. gywas, ' 
LAT. znvus 'living, alive' (cp. i 
GR. fiiog 'life). See qtcitch-\ 

quill sb. ME. quille = westphal. 
quick 'quill': TEUT. base qili-., perh. 
ident. w. xMHG. kil G. kid 'quill'. 

quilt sb. ME. quilte fr. ofr. 
cuilte = LAT. culcita 'cushion, 

quince me. coine quine fr. ofr. 
coin^^Y'R.. coing 'a quince' (the ce 
of modern Y.. quince belongs prop, 
to the plural). Source lat. 
cydonia = it. cotogna^ ohg. 
kutina G. quittCy OE. godceppel\ 
DU. kwee ODU. quede corresponds 
to MHG. quiten = G. quitte. 

^quire (of paper) sb. me. quair 
quaier 'book' fr. ofr. quaier (du. 

kohier) = fr. cahier 'copy book'. 
Source a late Latin quaternum 
'collection of four leaves' (= it. 
quaderno 'a quire of paper', oe. 
cwdte^'fi) . 

quitch-grass (also quick-grass 
couch-grass^ me. ^quicche', oe. 
cwice 'quitch-grass' answers to 
DU. kweek, LG. quekcy G. qu'ecke 
'quitch-grass'. The name derives 
fr. teut. quiku- 'alive' (under 
quick), because the weed seems 
not clearable. 

quite adv. me. quite fr. fr. 

quiver vb. derived fr. the adj. 
ME. quiver, late OE. cwifor 'lively, 
brisk, eagerly'; cp. ofr. quivrer 
vb. 'awaken, encourage'. 

quiver sb. me. quiver fr. fr. 
cuivre] ident. w. fr. coivre cuivre'. 
late Latin base cucurum, whence 
also OE. cocor, ohg. kohhar g. 
kocher 'quiver', du. koker. 

quoth {^uoth he 'he said) 
2,^ sing. pret. = me. quoth earlier 
quath oe. cwcsd pret. of me. 
qu^the oe. cw'edan str. vb. 'say, 
speak' = GOTH, qipan, on. kveda, 
0?>kx.qttedan , OHG. qu'edan 'say': 
ARYAN spget (by-form ged in skk. 
gad 'speak'?). Cp. bequeath 
and bequest. 





rabbit cogn. w. odu. robhe 
robbeken 'rabbit'; perh. identical 
w. DU. rob^ G. robbe 'phoca? 

race^ me. r/^ oe. r^^? or bor- 
rowed from ON. rds *a running': 
TEUT. base rha-. 

race^ 'family' fr. fr. race = 
SPAN. PORT. raza\ source ARAB. 
rds 'origin'. 

race^ 'root' fr. ofr. rah = lat. 
radix. — From the same source 
also radish = DU. radijs (fr. 
radis) . 

• rafter me. rafter oe. rcefter\ 
formed by suffix -tra- from the 
same root as on. rdf 'roof and 
OHG. rdvo 'rafter'. Cp. the Aryan 
\preph in or. sgscpw — OQO(fog. 

rag ME. ra^ge (late oe. '^ra^^ 
inferred from the adj. raggii 
'shaggy'): borrowed fr. on. rpgg 

rage me. rage fr. fr. rage = 
LAT. rabies. 

rail ^ ME. rai/ reil fr. ofr. reille \ 
source LAT. regula, whence also 
G. 7iegel OHG. rigilj odu. rijchel 
'bar, rail'. 

rail 2 ME. rail oe. hrcpy, 'a gar- 
ment'; ident. w. ohg. hregil 'a 
garment': teut. base hrag{i)la-. 

rain me. rain rein oe. reyi = ohg. 
OLG. regan G. DU. regen, on. regn, 
GOTH, rigns: teut. base r'egna-. 
Cp. Lith. roke 'drizzling rain'. 

raise vb, me. reise borrowed fr. ■ 
ON. reisa 'raise': causal of on. 
risa =: GOTH. reisan\ cp. rise. \ 

raisin me. reisin fr. ofr. raisin 
'a grape, whence also du. rozijn, 
G. rosine. Source lat. racemus 
'a bunch of grapes'. 

rake me. rake oe. rdca = du. 
raak\ ident. w. OHG. rehho G. 
recheny on. reka : teut. base rakon- 
r'ekon-, derived fr. the str. vb. 
GOTH, rikan 'gather. 

ram sb. me. oe. ram {?nm) oe. 
rg7n ifnni) = OHG. mhg. DU. ram : 
teut. base ramma-; perh. cogn. 
w. ON. ramr 'strong. 

ramsons me. ramsen oe. hravi- 
san plur. : teut. base hra7nusan- 
also in G. (dial.) ramsen^ swed. 
ra?nsidk 'bear-garlick'; further 
allied to GR. afjcfivoi- 'onion', 
IR. erem — cymr. era/ 'garlick, 
lith. kermusze 'wild garlick'. 

range vb. fr. fr. rafiger. 

ransack vb. me. ransake fr. on. 
rannsaka prop, 'search the house': 
ON. rann 'house' (= goth. razuy 
OE. rcEsn ran cern 'house'); for 
ON. saka see seek, 

ransom me. raun^oun (du. rant- 
soen) fr. fr. ranfon (= lat. 
redemptio-neni) . 

rap vb. ME. rape 'rush, hasten' 
=: ON. hrapa vb. 'hasten'; cp. 
du. rapen, mhg. raffen 'seize': 
TEUT. base hrapon. 

rape sb. me. rape (= du. raap^ 
fr. lat. rapa 'turnip'. 

rat ME. rat oe. rcet (tt) =r= 
G. ratte ohg. ratta^ du. rat rot\ 


rate — reave 

ident. w. fr. rat^ it. ratio. History 
of the group unknown. 

rate fr. fr. rate =^ lat. ratum. 

rather me. rather oe. hrador 
prop, 'quicker, sooner': compa- 
rative form of OE. hrade 'quickly'; 
cp. the adj. OE. hrced^ on. 
hradr 'swift', ohg. hrad^ du. rad 
'quick' fr. a teut. base hrapa-. 
Akin to OIR. crothim 'I shake'. 

rattle vb. me. ratele vb.; cp. 
OE. hrcetele sb. 'rattle wort' and 
'LG.raielen vb. 'rattle', mhg. rai^i^eln 
G. rasseln vb. 'rattle': teut. y^^r^/ 
= ARYAN \r.^r<^^/ in GR. ygaSmvco 
{^\'^krot in GR. Y-QOTokitbiv vb. 

raven sb. me. raven oe. hrcef?! 
^ ON. hrafn\ cp. OHG. hraban 
G. rabe^ DU. raaf\ teut. base 
hrabiia- hrabn-', perh. fr. an 
ARYAN \fkro : >^^r in lat. corvus, 
GR. xo^a^ raven'. 

ravish vb. me. ravisshe vb. fr. 
FR. raviss- in r^^^^^y 'to ravish'. 

raw me. raw oe. hreaw = ohg. 
/?r^<? /irS G. r^/^, DU. rauw, on. 
^r<7r: teut. base hrdwa-\ perh. 
cogn. w. SKR. krura 'sore' and 
LAT. ^rz/^r 'blood'. 

ray see roach. 

reach ^ vb. me. r(che oe.' r(Bcean 
fr. a TEUT. type raikjan in ohg. 
reihhan G. reichen vb. 'reach', du. 

reach 2, r^/^/^ vb. me. r/^:/^^ 
OE. hrcecean', teut. \fhrdk in 
OE. /^/-^^^ =^ ON. /^r^>^/ 'spittle' 
and OHG. rdhhison to try to vomit'. 

read vb. me. r§de oe. rcedan 
vb. = ON. rdda 'read'; prop. 

ident. w. goth. rMan, ohg. rdtan 
G. raien vb. advise', on. nz^^z 
'counsel, consult', read meant 
orig. 'to read a riddle' (cp. 
riddle), then 'to interprete the 
runes' (on. rdda gdtu 'read a 
riddle' ■ — rdda draum 'read a 
dream' — rdda runar read 
runes'), skr. has a correspon- 
ding y"r<2^/>^ 'perform'; cp. also 
OSLOV. raditi. 

ready adj. me. rcdi (oe. "^rckdii 
extended fr.) oe. rckde 'ready' 
= OHG. reiti 'ready'; cp. goth. 
garaids = on. greidr 'ready'. As 
G. fertig prop, meant 'ready for 
a journey' (g. fahrt), perh. a 
TEUT; base raida- 'journey' may 
be the source of the group; cp. 
IR. r^id 'passable' and see ride 
and road. 

realm sb. me. rialme (rialme) 
fr. OFR. realme (fr. royaume). 

ream late me. rpne fr. ofr. 
raime FR. rame\ cp. span, resma, 
ITAL. risma (g. rics) ream of 
paper'. Source ARAB, rizina 'a 

reap vb. me. ripe oe. riopan 
vb. fr. a TEUT. V"^2j> 'cut' in ripe\ 
cp. OE. ri/'/^r 'sickle' and see ripe. 

rear vb. me. rire oe. rceran 
vb. = OHG. reran vb. 'raise' fr. 
a TEUT. base raizjan', cp. r/.f<? 
and raise for \fris. 

rear adj. me. r/;^ oe. /^r^r. 

reason me. r{soun earlier reisoun 
fr. FR. raison = LAT. ratio-nem. 

reave {bereave) vb. me. r/z^^ 
OE. r(afian vb. = ohg. raubon 
G. rauben, goth. {bi)raubdn 'de- 


spoil', o^.rau/a (see also robe): 
derived fr. a primitive str. vb. 
OE. hereof an^ on. rjufa 'to break'. 
Cp. SY.^.y/^lup. 

receive vb. me. receive fr. ofr. 
recever = fr. recevoir. 

reck vb. me. recke {recche) short 
for OE. recean earlier rcecean'. 
TEUT. base rokjan in on. rcekjUy 
OSAX. rokian, ohg. ruohhan 'have 
a care for'. 

reckon vb. me. rekne oe. j<?- 
r'ecenian vb. = OHG. rehhanon 
G. rechne?i 'reckon', du. rekenen] 
cp. the TEUT. V"r<?>^ in ohg. rahha 
'subject, thing'. 

-red suffix in hatred\ cp. oe. 
feondrckden freoiidrckden 'friend- 
ship' (Jiiwrceden under hind)] 
orig. -raidin in goth. ga-raidei?7S. 

red adj. short for me. red oe. 
r^'ad = TEUT. rauda- in goth. 
rauds, ohg. rot g. r<?/, du. r^f?^/, 
ON. raudr 'red ; cp. OE. reodan 
== ON. r/i^V/c? vb. redden' and 
ruddock (rust). There is a 
corresponding ARYAN \f rudh 
reudh in GR. tQvi^()6g, SKK.rud/iird, 
OSLOV. rzidru, lat. ruber 'red', 
LAT. ri(/us, IR. r2/<^?^/. 

reed sb. me. red oe. Are'od = 
OHG. //r/(7/ G. DU. riet: teut. base 

reek sb. jME. rek sb. fr. the vb. oe. 
reocan 'reek, smoke' = on. rjuka^ 
ohg. riohhan g. riechen) cp. oe. 
r^^"^ rjV, ON. r^y/^r, ohg. rouh g. 
ranch, du. r^^/^ 'smoke' fr. a teut. 
base rauki". 

reel me: ;t7^ oe. hreol\ prop, i 
*hrcehil fr. a teut. base "^hranhiL 

in ON. hrcsll 'a weaver's rod', 
north-fries. r^/«/. 

rehearse vb. isie. rehirfe fr. 
OFR. reherfer. 

rein sb. me. m;?^ fr. ofr. m«^ 
=: FR. r<?;^^ (cp. ITAL. redina] 
source lat. retinere 'restrain'). 

relieve vb. me. releve fr. fr. 
relever = lat. relevare. 

rely vb. from lat. re (as in 
recall, remind, renew) and 
E. lie 'to rest. 

remnant sb. me. re7nenaunt fr. 
OFR. retnenant 'remnant'. 

rend vb. me. rende oe. rendan 
vb. 'tear, lacerate' =^ ofris. refida 
vb. 'tear, break'. 

rennet^ sb. fr. the vb. me. renne 
'run, make to run'; cp. under 

rennet 2 sb. fr. fr. reinette. 

renounce vb. me. renoun(e fr. 
FR. renoncer. — renown me. 
renoun fr. fr. renom. 

rest sb. me. reste oe. rest: teut. 
base rasti-, cp. ohg. rasta 'rest, 
a measure of distance, goth. 
rasta 'a mile, on. rgst 'a mile'. 
There is a TEUT.y^r^i- in goth. 
razn 'house', ON. rann (cp. 

retch vb. see reach'^. 

ribb ME. ribbe o^. ribb = teut. 
ribja- in ON. r//", OHG. ri/>j>i: 
ARYAN spr'ebh in oslov. russ. 
rebro 'rib'. 

rhythm see rime. 

-ric in bishopric = me. bisshop- 
riche oe. bisceoprice', cp. oe. r/<:<? 
'reign' = goth. m/^/, ohg. r^M/ 


G. reich\ fr. teut. rik- = goth. 
reiks 'king'. 

rice sb. fr. fr. riz (du. rijst) 
= ITAL. riso, G. reis: source 
GR. 0(>ifta 'rice'. 

rich adj. me. riche fr. fr. riche) 
ident. w. oe. rice 'powerful', OHG. 
rthhi G. 7'eich, DU. 7'ijk, on. rikr, 
GOTH, reiks. Originally a deriva- 
tive of GOTH, reiks 'king' under 
ric. — riches sb. me. riches se 
fr. fr. richesse'. derived fr. fr. 
riche =r teut. riki 'powerful'. 

rick sb. short for me. rek OE. 
hr{ac 'a heap' = du. rook, ON. 
hraukr (hroki) a heap': teut. 
base hrauka-y akin to on. hruga 
'a heap' and ir. cruach 'heap'. 

rid vb. ME. ridde prop, redde 
OE. hreddan = ohg. hrettan G. 
retterr. teut. base hradjan from 
an ARYAN \fkrath in skr. (raihay. 

riddle sb. me. redles oe. r/^/«?/^ 
rckdelse = DU. raadse/, OSAX. 
radisli G. r/z/^^/ 'riddle'; cp. OHG. 
rdtisca rdtussa 'riddle': teut. 
\frdd red under read. 

riddle 2 sb. 'sieve' me. riddel 
for OE. hridder = ohg. hritara 
G. reiter 'sieve': Aryan \r>^r/ in 
'LAT. cribrum 'sieve', gr. -/.qivw 
and in goth. hrai-ns, ohg. reini 
G. rein 'clean' (prop, sifted'?). 

ride me. ride oe. ridan str. vb. 
= OHG. ritan g. reiten, du. rijden, 
on. rida'. teut. -y^r/^/:^ pre-TEUT. 
m^/^ in GALLO-LAT. reda 'carriage' 
— veredus\oYS,e {y^ndQr palfrey) 
and IR. riadaim 'I go'; see ready. 

ridge me. r/^J-^ oe. /^ryrj (genit. 
hrycges) ■= teut. hrugja- in oSAX. 
hruggi, DU. rz/^, ohg. hrucki G. 
rilcken 'back', on. hryggr: pre- 
TEUT. krtikjo-, cogn. w. IR. crocenn 
sb. 'back'. 

rife adj. me. oe. rif 'abundant, 
frequent' = on. rifr 'munificent, 
abundant', odu. rijf 'copious', 
LG. rive 'abundant'. 

right adj. me. right oe. riht 
earlier "^r'iht = ohg. osax. rehl 
G. du. rechl, on. r^Ur, goth. 
raihts 'right, straight': TEUT. rehta- 
fr. an Aryan r'ekto- (== lat. rectus 
'right, straight'), prop, participle 
fr. a verbal \rr^^ in lat. r eg ere 
'to rule'; cp. SKR. rju 'right, 

righteous transformed fr. me. 
rightwis oe. rihtwis = ohg. r'eht- 
WIS 'knowing the right'; see 

rim sb. me. rime oe. rima rioma 
'border, margin'; probably cogn. 
w. OE. ra?id, on. rgnd, ohg. rant 
G. DU. rand 'border, margin': 
TEUT. ran-do- for ram-do- (as 
sandiox Aryan samdho-) . Perh. 
rind belongs to the same Aryan 

rime^ sb. me. rim 'verse, song' 
borrowed about 1200 fr. ofr. 
rimcj whence also mhg. rtm G. 
reimy DU. rijm (properly Verse'). 
Source lat. rhythmus. 

rime''^ sb. me. rime oe. hrim = 
DU. rijin, on. hrim 'hoarfrost'; 
doubtful, whether ohg. hrifo G. 
reify OSAX. hripOy du. rijp 'hoar- 
frost' are cognate. 


rind sb. me. rinde OE. rind 
'bark of a tree' fr. a teut. base 
rindo- (rendo-) = OHG. rinta G. 
rinde 'rind'; perh. cogn. w. ohg. 
rant G. rand and OE. rand 'border, 
margin' under rtm. 

ring sb. ME. r/;z^ oe. krin^- = 
ON. hringr, ohg. y^/-/^^ r/«:^ G. 
DU. ;7/2!^: TEUT. base hringa- 
{hr'enga-') fr. apre-TEUT. V"-^r^«^^ 
in OSLOV. krqgu 'circle' and 
kraglii round'. 

ring vb. ME. ringe OE. hringan 
=-= ON. hringja 'ring the bells'. 

rip vb. ME. rippe (ruppe) OE. 
ryppan = hg. rupfen 'to tear': 
TEUT. base ruppjan\ cogn. w. 
GOTH, raupjan, OHG. rouffen G. 
raufen, oe. rypan r^pan and perh. 
allied to "SiYiK.sfrup 'break'. 

ripe adj. ME. OE. ripe 'mature, 
ripe' = WEST-TEUT. ripi' in OSAX. 
ripiy DU. rijp, ohg. I'iffi G. reif 
'mature, ripe'; derived fr. the 
TEUT. verbal v^rz/ 'cut' inE. reap 
and OE. rifter sb. 'sickle'. There- 
fore ripe orig. meant 'cuttable, 
fit for reaping'. 

rise vb. ME. rise OE. risan str. 
vb. = ON. risa, ohg. rhan str. 
vb. 'to move up, rise': teut. 
verbaly^m, whence also rear 
and raise. 

risk sb. fr. fr. risque = ital. 
GERM, risico. 

rive vb. ME. rive fr. on. rifa 
'tear' = ohg. rz/^^« G. reiben, DU. 
rijven 'grate, rub': teut. verbal 
\fwrib in odu. mlg. wriven 'rub'. 

river me. river fr. fr. riviere 

riviera sea-shore: deriv. from 
LAT. ripa 'bank'. 

roach late me. rgche points to 
a fr. source (cp. swed. rokka, 
DAN. rocke 'roach'); the synon. 
ray goes back to fr. raie = 
LAT. raia 'roach'. 

road me. rode 'journey, road 
OE. rdd 'journey, road' = teut. 
base raido- (on. reid 'riding') 
fr. the verbal y"m/ in ride. 

roar vb. me. rgre oe. rdrian 
vb. = OHG. reren mhg. rhen vb. 
'low, bellow': teut. base rairanl 
or raizan} 

roast vb. me. rpste fr. ofr. 
rostir = fr. roiir 'roast'. Source 
a TEUT. vb. raustjan = ohg. 
rosten G. rosten 'roast'; cp. ohg. 
iviHG. rost G. rost 'gridiron, grate'. 

rob vb. ME. robbe fr. fr. rober. 

robe sb. me. robe fr. fr. robe. 
Source a teut. sb. rauba- = 
OE. r(af 'spoil, clothing', OHG. 
MHG. roupib) 'booty, spoil*. Cogn. 
w. reave. 

robin = fr. Robin the name 

rock sb. liiE. rock late oe. rocc 
(stdnrocc)'. borrowed about looo 
fr. ONFR. roc (fr. roche) = ital. 
rocca. Source celt, rokka-} 

rock'-^ vb. ME. rocke late OE. 
roccian 'shake, swing, rock'; cogn. 
w. OHG. ruckan G. riicken, ON. 
rykkja 'to pull roughly and hastily': 
TEUT.y rz//^^. 

rod ident. w. rood. 

roe^ sb. 'a female deer' me. ro 
OE. rd earliest form rdha = 

river, stream'; ident. w. ital. ohg. r^ho: teut. base raihan-- 


roe — row 

ident. \v. ohg. reh g. reh^ DU. 
ree^ on. rd fr. a teut. base 

roe^ sb. 'the spawn of fishes' 
short for late ME. rgune\ properly 
OE. ^hrogen =^ on. hrogn^ ohg. 
rogan g. rogen with the by-form 
ohg. 7-ogo\ TEUT. base hrogna- 

rogue sb. fr. fr. rogue. 

roll vb. ME. rolie fr. ofr. roler 
= FR. roulei". source LAT. roiu- 

rood ME. rode oe. r<9V/ (obi. 
r<7^<f) 'cross', original meaning 
'a rod or pole'. Ident. w. OSAX. 
roda, DU. roede, ohg. ruota G. 
rute and w. e. rod. teut. base 
rodo-, pre-TEUT. rddhd- or rata-. 

roof ME. rpf OE. /^r<i/^: teut. 
base hrofa- in on. y^r^T/* 'shed', 
ofries. hrof 'roof, du. roef 
'cabin'. Perh. allied to roost. 
IR. cro 'roof points to a pre- 
TEUT. form krdpo-. 

rook sb. ME. rgk oe. hrgc = 
ON. hrdkr, OHG. hruoh'. TEUT. 
base hroka-y pre-TEUT. krago-. 

room sb. me. r<?2^;i?2 oe. rum = 
OHG. r^/^2 G. raum, du. r2^/»2, 
ON. 7'um, GOTH, rums 'room': 
T^VT, ru-?na- fr. an ARYAN xTr/z 
in LAT. rus (ruris) 'open country'. 

roost sb. me. rpst oe. hrgst 
= DU. I'oest 'hen-roost', osAX. 
hrost 'roof; prop, hrofsta- and 
cogn. w. roof} 

root sb. me. rgie late oe. rot 
borrowed fr. the equival. on. 
rot: teut. base wrotd-, cogn. w. 
E. root vb. oe. wrgtan 'grub up' 

= ON. rota 'grub up'; cp. mhg. 
rile'i-^el g. rilssei. 

rope sb. me. rop oe. rap = 
TEUT. base raipa- in on. reip, 
DU. reep, ohg. g. rez/'hoop, ring, 
rope'; perh. cogn. w. gr. gai^ioQ 

rose sb. ME. rose oe. rose (by- 
form rose) borrowed fr. lat. 
rosa, whence also fr. g. rose 
OHG. rosa. 

rosemary sb. me. rosmarine fr. 
OFR. ros7narin (fr. romarifi) = 
LAT. ros marinus (prop, 'marin 
dew'); cp. G. rosmarin. 

rotten adj. me. roten = on. 
rotinn'. partic. of a verbal y^rz^:/ 
reut in oe. rotian^ osAX. rotoji^ 
MHG. ro'^T^en vb. 'putrify'. 

rough adj. me. rough {roiv) 
OE. rjih = OHG. ruA G. rau/i 
'rough" (du. ruig 'rough'): teut. 
base ru/ia- , pre - TEUT. rtiko-^ 
cogn. w. LITH. raukas 'wrinkle'? 

round vb. 'whisper' me. roune 
OE. rtinian = OSAX. ruman, 
OHG. runen G. raunen 'whisper': 
derivative of teut. rum- 'secret, 
mystery' under rune. 

round adj. me. round fr. fr. 
rond (ofr. roond^=-- lat. rottmdus), 
whence also G. rund, du. rond 

row sb. me. rpwe oe. raw 'row' 
fr. a TEUT. base raiwo- orig. 
raigwo- ; cogn. w. mhg. rihe g. reihe 
'row' and the str. vb. ohg. rihan 
'rank, string': pre-TEUT.y"^^'^'^ 
reikh in skr. rekhd 'line'. 

row vb. ME. rpwe oe. rowan 
= ON. roa^ DU. roeijen, mhg. 

rowlock — rye 


rilejen 'to row' : common base 
a strong verbalv^r<? in rudder 
ME. rgther OE. 7'odor = OHG. 
ruodar G. ruder ^ du. roer 'rudder': 
TEUT. base rb-pra-. lat. re-?nus 
'rudder' and OR. r-fje-tjiiog belong 
to the same akya^ yfrS : re. 

rowlock rollock sb. prop, 
'hole for rowing'; cp. G. /ock 
and OE. dr/oc me. grlock 'hole of 
oars . 

ruddock sb. me. ruddok oe. 
rudduc 'red-breast'; cogn. w. 
ruddy me. rodi rudy (oe. "^rudii) 
reddish' and oe. rudu 'red 
color'; cp. the adj. red, 

rude adj. me. riide fr. fr. I'ude 
= LAT. rudis 'rude'. 

rue vb. me. rewe oe. hreowan 
str. vb. = OSAX. hreuwan, ohg. 
riuwan G. reuen, on. hryggva vb. 
'distress, grieve': base a strong 
\&x\)2X\f hreuw. Cp. ruth. 

rue sb. (a plant) me. rile fr. 
FR. rue = LAT. rz^/rtr 'rue*. 

rule ME. reule earlier riule fr. 
OFR. reide riule'. source lat. 
r^gula, whence also oe. regol, 
OHG. regain G. regel, fr. regie. 

rump late me. rumpe] ident. w. 
MHG. G. rump/, DU. romp 'trunk, 

rumple parallel form to me. 
rimple OE. hrympek and ident. 
w. ODU. ro7npel 'ripple': derived 
fr. the TEUT. verbal v'" hremp in 
OE. gehrumpen 'wrinkled' and ohg. 
r imp/an str. vb. 'wrinkle'. 

run vb. me. ri7ine (part, ironne) 
OE. (rare) rinnan (mostly yrnari) 
= ON. rinna^ goth. rinnan 'run'; 

English Etymology. 

OHG. rifinan g. rinnen str. vb 

rune the teut. word for the 
old characters in writing : OE. 
ON. run with the orig. meaning 
'mystery, secret' (goth. ohg. 
riind) ; ident. w. oiR. run 'secret'. 
Cp. round vb. for the root. 

rung me. runge oe. hrung (obi. 
hrunge) goth. hrugga 'staff', hg. 
LG. runge, DU. rong 'spar, bolt': 
TEUT. base hrungo-. 

rust ME. rust roust oe. rust fr. 
a TEUT. base rusta-\ ident. w. 
hg. lg. rost fr. a teut. base 
rusta- : derived with st- formative 
from the Aryan \^rud/i (in E. 
red and ruddy), whence also 
LAT robii^o 'rust' and OSLO v. 
rHzda (for '^rudjd) 'rust'. 

rush sb. me. r us she oe. rysce\ 
ident. w. lg. du. rusch 'rush, 

rush vb. me. rouse he = g. 
rauschen MRG. ruse hen ^ du. ruischen 
ODU. ruuschen, oswed. ruska 
'rush': TEUT. base hruskonl There 
occurs also oe. hryscan. 

ruth sb. me. reuthe: extended 
fr. a more primitive sb. oe. 
hreow; cp. OE. hreowan str. vb. 
'rue' under rue. 

rye sb. me. rie oe. ry^e: teut. 
base rugi- in on. rugr 'rye'; ohg. 
rocko G. roggen and osAX. roggo 
'rye' point to a TEUT. parallel 
base ruggan-. Outside of teut., 
OSLOV. rUU 'rye' (base rugi-) 
and LiTH. rugiai 'rye' show the 
same base as oe. ry~^e and ON. 
rugr = TE UT. base rugi-. 

fr^ OF THE ^^^^ 

(university J 


sable — sand 

sable sb. me. sable borrowed 
fr. OFR. sable\ ident. w. mhg. 
G. zobel'. source a SLAV, word, 
Russ. soboli 'sable'. 

sabre saber fr. fr. sabi-e =^ 
G. sdbelj SERB. RUSS. sablj'a, 
HUNGAR. szablya. Source and 
history unknown. 

sack sb. 'bag' me. sakk oe. 
scecc ^= GOTH, sakkus, du. zak, 

G. sack OHG. MHG. SaC TEUT. 

base sakku- borrowed fr. lat. 
saccuSy whence also ital. sacco^ 
FR. sac. Source HEBR.-Phenic. 

sad ME. j^^'sad, quiet, serious'; 
the ident. oe. jt^^/ satiated' corre- 
sponds with OHG. sat G. satt^ 
OSAX. sad, ON. sadr^ goth. saps 
'satiated'. There is an aryan 
\f sd 'satiate' in lat. satur-satis 
and oiR. sathach 'satiated'; cp. 
GR. (i-i^isvai 'satiate'. 

saddle me. sddel oe. sadol = 
ON. sgduU, OHG. satiil G. saitel, 
DU. zadel'. teut. base sadula-, 
perh. borrowed from a non- 
teut. language which might have 
formed a sb. sadulo- from the 
ARYAN \^ sed in sit — set. 

safe ME. sdf earlier sauf'. loan- 
word fr. FR. sauf -=. LAT. salvus\ 
cp. save. 

sail sb. ME. sail seil oe. s'e'^el 
= OHG. s'egal G. segel, du. zeil, 
ON. segl'. teut. base segla-. 

saint sb. me. seint saint fr. fr. 
saint = LAT. sanctus. 

sake sb. me. sake oe. sdcu = 
teut. base sako- in ohg. sahha 
G. sache, du. zaak 'matter, affair'; 
perh. based on the teut. verbal 
sakan 'content, rebuke'. 

sale ME. sale oe. sdlu; hence 

sallow sb. ME. salwe earlier 
"^salge OE. scalh i^sealg-) ^= ohg. 
\salaha\ teut. base salho- ; cp. 
ON. selja 'willow' (base salhjon-^. 
Prob. cognate w. lat. salix (base 
salic-) 'willow' and GR. sXi'y,rj. 

sallow adj. me. sahce oe. seala 
salo = DU. zaluw, ON. sglr yellow- 
ish', OHG. salo 'sallow': teut. 
base salwa-. 

salt sb. ME. salt oe. sealt\ teut. 
base salta- in GOTH. ON. oSAX. 
salt, OHG. G. salz salt'. Cogn. 
w. LAT. saly GR. aXcy osLOV. solu 
OIR. salann salt'. 

salve sb. me. salve oe. sealf 
\ (infl. sealf e) = ohg. salba G. 
I salbe, DU. zalf ; cp. GOTH, salboii 
vb. ^ o^.scalfianY.. salve vb. 
Cognate w. the ARYAN sf s'elp 
solp in SKR. sarpis 'butter' — 
srpra fat', GR. iXnoc, oil'. 

same sb. me. same oe. sam = 
GOTH, sama, on. sawr, ohg. sam 
'the same': pre-TEUT. soma- in 
GR. ojunc, SKR. sama 'the same'. 

samplp sb. me. ,saumple earlier 
asaumple . fr. OFR. essemple fr. 
example = lat. exefnplum. 

sand sb. me. oe. sand = osax. 
sand, OHG. sant G. .f^/z^/, DU. zand, 




ON. sandr: teut. base sanda- for 
samda-, cp. pre-TEUT. saniadho-s 
in GR. cLf-iadoQ sand'. 
sap sb. ME. sap OE. seep ==■ | 

MLG. ODU. sap, MHG. OHG. saf\ 

G. safi 'sap' : teut. base sdpa- \ 
borrowed fr. LAT. sdpa must'. 

satin sb. me. satin fr. fr. satin'. 
source the vulgar LAT. seta 'silk' 
(in G. seide ohg. sida = OE. 
Sid 'silk'). 

Saturday me. saterday earlier 
Saterndai OE. Sceterndcej^ = DU. 
zaterdag, ofris. saternesdag ,west- 
PHAL. Sdterdach'. adaptation of 
LAT. Saturni dies. Cp. the names 
of the other days of the week. 

sauce sb. me. saufe fr. fr. 
sauce: source lat. salsa. Hence 
sausage fr. fk. saucisse. 

savage adj. me. sauvdge fr. fr. 
sauvage = lat. silvatiais. 

save vb. me. save earlier sauve 
fr. FR. sauver = lat. salvare 
'secure'. Cp. safe. 

savor sb. me. sdvour fr. ofr. 
savour = lat. sapor-em 'taste'. 

saw ^ sb. ME. sawe oe. sage = 
OHG. saga, LG. sage, DU. zaag, 
ON. spg; cp. the ablaut-varia- 
tion OHG. sega 'saw' : derived fr. 
an ARYAN \r sek sok (in lat. 
secare 'cut'), whence also OE. secg 
'sword' and E. scythe. 

saw 2 sb. ME. sawe OE. sagu 
'saying' ^ g. sage ohg. saga-. 
derived fr. the teut. verb sagain 
= OE. secgan me. sein sain E. 
say and ohg. sagen g. sagen; 
cp. ON. seggja 'say' : perh. cog- 
nate w. lith. sakyti vb. 'say'. 

scale' sb. 'shell' me. scale'. 
loanword fr. ofr. escale fr. 6cale. 
Source ohg. scala under shell. 

scale'- (of a balance) me. late 
OE. skdle: loanword fr. ON. skdl 
'scale of a balance'; ident. w. 
ohg. osax. skdla 'bowl'. 

scarce me. scars fr. ofr. escars 
(fr. i- chars) = ital. scar so 
'scarce : source lat. excarsiis = 
excarpsus 'selected'. 

scarlet jme. scarldt fr. ofr. 
cs car late (fr. dear late) ; ident. w. 
G. scharlach, DU. scharlaken (mhg. 
scharldt, ODU. schacrlaet). Source 
PERS. sakirldt. 

scathe vb. me. scathe fr. on. 
skdda', ident. w. oe. sceppan = 
GOTH, skapjan vb. 'harm'. The 
TEUT. \f skap corresponds to an 

ARYAN \f Skdth in GR. (XOy.7]^7jg 


scatter vb. me. scatere: loan- 
word of the 12''^ century fr. 
ODU. scateren 'scatter'? 

scent vb. properly sent (late 
ME. sent sb. 'scent') fr. ofr. sentir 
'smeir = LAT. sentir e. 

school me. scale oe. scol (infl. 
scale) = OHG. scuola g. schule, 
DU. school', loanword fr. lat. 
scola (in a medieval pronun- 
ciation scola), whence also fr. 
kole and ital. scuola. 

scissors me. sisoures (isoures 
fr. OFR. cisoires 'scissors' (fr. 

scoff ME. sco/', cogn. w. the 

equiv. ohg. scop/ sb. and ofries. 

schof', cp. ON. skopa vb. 'scoff, 

mock'. Source and history un- 




known; the E. word probably 
not genuine Anglosaxon. 

scold vb. ME. scplde\ cognate 
w. OHG. sc'eltan G. schelten vb. 
'scold'. Probably the E. word 
is not genuine English, but bor- 
rowed fr. abroad. 

score ME, score late oe. scor 
'twenty': loanword fr. on. skor 
'notch': source the teut. \^ sker 
in shear. 

scorn ME. scorn earliest form 
(about 1200) scdrn'. borrowed 
fr. OFR. escarn 'scorn'. Source 
OHG. seem 'mockery'. 

scour vb. ME. scour e. 

scourge sb. 'whip' me. scour'j^e 
fr. OFR. esciirge (whence also 
FR. e scour gle ^courgie) 'a scourge'. 

scrape vb. me. scrape fr. on. 
scrap a] cp. mlg. du. schrapen 
G. schrappen. 

scream vb. me. scrcme vb. fr. 
ON. skrchma 'to scare, terrify'. 

screw sb. fr. ofr. esc roue, mo- 
dern FR. icroiL, 

scribe sb. me. scribe fr. lat. 

scrip sb. ME. scrippe fr. on. 

scurf ME. late oe. scurf bor- 
rowed fr. ON. skurf (= SWED. 
skorf, DAN. skur7!)\ cp. OHG. 
scorf G. schorf, DU. schiirft 'scurf. 
TEUT. \pskcrf skorf in oe. sceor- 
fan 'to scrape'. 

scuttle sb. ME. OE. scutel 'a 
dish, bowl'; identical w. ohg. 
scw^^ila G. schussel, du. schotel, 
ON. skutell 'dish'. Source lat. 
scutula scutella. 

scythe me. sithe oe. slpe si^pe 
'sickle' =^ ON. sigdr 'sickle': 
Teut. base sigipja-, derived fr. 
a teut. \^seg in ohg. s'egansa g. 
sense 'scythe'; cp. saw. 

sea ME. s{ oe. S(b\ ident. w. 
GOT. saiws, ON. smr, ohg. olg. 
seo G. see du. zee', base saiwi-, 

seal^ sb. me. s^'l fr. ofr. ^r*?/ fr. 
sceau. Source lat. sigiliu?n. 

seal- (the animal) sb. me. sc'le 
OE. seolh (pi. seolas) = ohg. 
se/a/i , mlg. se/, on. se/r : Teut. 
base s'elha-. 

seam sb. 'suture' me. sent oe. 
s(a7n = on. saumr, ohg. mhg. 
somn g. saum du. zoom : Teut. 
base sau-77ia-, derived from the 
same root as the vb. sew. — 
seampstress me. semster oe. s(a- 
mestre 'a woman who sews seams'. 

sear 'withered' me. ser oe. s(ar 
= du. zoor 'dry', ohg. sor. 

search vb. me. se'rche ferc/ie 
vb. fr. OFR. cercher (= fr. 
chercher). • Source lat. circare. 

season sb. me. sesoun (seisoun) 
fr. OFR. seson fr. saison: source 
LAT. satio-nem '(time of) sowing'. 

seat sb. me. s^te borrowed fr. 
ON. scEti 'a seat: derivative of 
the TEUT. yf set in sii and set. 

sedge sb. me. segge oe. secg\ 
Teut. base sagja- also in ODU. 
mlg. segge. \p sail sag in OHG. 
sahar 'sedge'. Perh. cognate 
with a reduplicated GALLO.-lat. 
si-sc-a 'sedge' = ir. seisg. 

see vb. me. se oe. seon con- 
tracted for "^s'ehan = ohg. olg. 
s'ehan G. sehen du. zien '. west- 

see — sew 


TEUT. sclian = GOTH, saiban. 

TEUT. \^Sd/nu = ARYAN \^Se^ 

in LAT. se^ii/, gr. snta&fa, skr. 
sac 'follow'. The original mean- 
ing of the TEUT. verb probably 
was to follow with the eyes'. 

see sb. 'seat of a bishop' me. 
se fr. OFR. S£ 'seat' = lat. sed€-7n 

seed :\IE. sed _ (sed) oe. s^d seed 
= OHG. sat G. i>aat, du. zaad 
(goth. seps in manaseps 'man- 
kind ) : Teut. base se-di-\ for 
\f se cp. sow 

seek vb. me. seke oe. secan 
(secean) == got. sokjaUy on. sdekja, 
OHG. siirOhha7i G. siichen, du. zoo ken. 

TEUT. V^ .y^/^ = ARYAN xT J"% 

in oiR. sdigim 'I seek' (lat. 
sagire ?) 

seethe vb. 'boil' me. jt^'M^ oe. 
seodan str. vb. :^ on. .y/V?^^?, 
OHG. siodan G. siedett, du. zieden. 
In GOTH., we find only the deri- 
vative j-^j-zz/jT sb. 'sacrifice' (prop. 
*a burnt- offering), teut. \f seup 
= ARYAN sfseut, 

seldom adv. me. scldotn prop. 
sdde(fi) OE. seldan adv. = on. 
sjaldan, ohg. .f^7/^/« G. .y^//(?;2, du. 
^^/^<f/z adv. Cogn. w. goth. silda- 
leiks "wonderful'. 

self pron. ME. OE. self r= ORG. 
selb G. selbst^ du. s'^//, on. s/al/?'y 
GOTH, silda: Teut. base s'elba-. 

sell vb. ME. sclle (pret. solde) 
OE. j'^//(3';z (pret. sdlde) \o ^ivit 
= GOTH, saljan to bring an 
offering, on. selja to hand over, 
MHG. seller . 

selvage, selvedg e cp.thesynon. 

DU. zelfkant, G. (dial.) self-efid 
and LG. egge\ therefore s civ edge 
compound oi self and edge, per- 
haps in imitation of early du. 

send vb. me. sende (prt. senle) 
OE. sendan (prt. sende) wk. vb. 
= GOTH, sandjan , on. senda, 
DU. zendetiy OSAX. sendiatiy ohg. 
s entail g. senden. Derived fr. 

GOTH, .f//?/, OHG. J-/W, OE. .f// 

'journey' = oir. i"// 'way' (aryan 
base sento- sb. — sontejo vb.). 

sennight prop, seven night 
OE. scofon niht\ cp. fourtnight. 

sermon me. sej-f/ioim fr. fr. 

serve vb. me. se?'ve borrowed in 
the 12'*^ cent. fr. fr. servir (=- 
i.A.T.serz>ire). Derivative servant 
ME. seivatmt fr. fr. servant and 
service me. sirvise fr. fr. service 
(lat. servitiiwi). 

set vb. ME. .ff//^~ OE. j-^//^;z wk. 
vb. := GOTH, satjan, on. i-^/>'^7, 
DU. zetten, osax. settian, ohg. 
sezzan G. setzen'. teut. satjan 
causal vb. to j-zV/^^z = sit. — 
settle vb. ME. setle oe. s'etlian 
'to fix': derived fr. oe. s'etl 'a 
seat'; cp. goth. sitls^ ohg. s'ei^-^al 
G. sessel. 

seven num. me. seven oe. seofone , 
prop, seofon == GOTH. ohg. j-//^?/;/ 
G. sieben du. zeven. Oldest Teut. 
form s'ep'am in Lex Salica. Jdent. 
w. LAT. septem, gr. cnro?, skr. 

sever vb. me. severe fr. ofr. 
sevrer = lat. separare. 

sew vb. ME. .yr«'^ oe. scowian 


shackle — shavv 

stwian\ cp. GOTH, siujan^ on. 
syja, OHG. siuwan to sew': teut.- 
ARYAN \fsiw in LAT. suere, skr. 
svu 'to sew'; cp. sea7Ji. 

shackle sb. me. sc hackle oe. 
scedcol 'a bond'; ident. w. on. 
skgkull '"^oXq of a carriage', teut.. 
\P skak in shake. 

shad sb. me. schadde oe. sceadda. 
Perhaps an orig. teut. skadan- 
'herring' is found in Scadin-avia, 
if it originally meant 'herring's 
isle'. Cp. yet IR. gael. sgadan 
'herring' . 

shade, shadow me. schdde shad- 
we oe. sceadu obi. sceadwe: Teut. 
base skadwa- in du. schaduw, 
OHG. skato gen. skaiwes, G. schatten, 
GOTH, skadus] cogn. w. oiR. scdth 
'shadow': pre-TEUT. \f skat. 

shaft sb. ME. schaft oe. sceaft 
= OSAX. shaft y OHG. scaft G. 
schaft y ON. skapt'. teut. skafta- 
prop. a 'shaven' pole; cp. shave 
and GR. oy.TJnr^ov 'staff, sceptre' 
— oy.anrov 'staff'. 

shag 'rough hair' oe. sceacga 
'hair'; cogn. w. ON. skegg 'beard'. 

shake vb'. me. schdke oe. scedcan 
str. vb. = ON. skaka\ cp. osax. 
skakdn 'to go away'. 

shall vb. me. schal (prt. scholde) 
OE. sceal (prt. sceolde) == goth. 
skal (skulda), OHG. seal (scolda) 
g. soil (solte), DU. 2rz/, ON. skal. 
Cogn. w. LiTH. skelc-ti 'to be 

shallop see sloop. 

shallow ME. schalwe 'not deep' 
with the byform me. schpld) not 
found in oe. nor in the other 


shambles me. schdmel 'bench' 
oe. scea?nol 'stool': borrowed fr. 
LAT. scamellum , whence also 
OHG. OSAX. scamdl g. schemel. 

shame vb. me. schdnie oe. scednm 
= OSAX. skama, ohg. scama G. 
schavi\ cp. GOTH, sik ska7tian 'to 
shame' = oe. scedmian. 

shank vb. me. schanke oe. scean- 
ca\ cp. G. schenkel 'shank' fr. a 
lost OHG. ^scenkil. Cogn. w. G. 
schinken 'ham' OHG. scinko 'shank'^ 
which is perh. a doublet by the 
side of OE. sceanca. 

shape vb. me. schdpe str. vb.; 

ident. w. oe. scieppan = goth. 

(ga)skapjan 'to create', ohg. seep- 

fan 'to create' (o. schajfen) : teut. 


share sb. 'pa.rt'oE.seedj'u; cogn. 
w. shear. 

share sb. 'plough-share' me. 
schdre oe. scedru =^ ohg. seara 
G. pflugschaai". teut. \fsker 'cut* 
in shear. 

sharp adj. me. scharp oe. scearp 
= ON. skafpr, DU. schetp, osax. 
skarp, OHG. scaif G. scharf adj. 
'sharp'. TEUT. verbal \f sk'erp in 
OE. sceorpan str. vb. 'to scrape'. 

shave vb. me. schdve oe. scedfan 
str. vb. = GOTH, ska ban, ON.- 
skafiy OHG. scaban G. schaben, du. 
sc haven 'to shave' : teut. \f skab 
cogn. w. LAT. scabere 'to shave' 
and prob. w. gr. aydnzw 'to dig'. 
Cp. shaft. 

shaw ME. schawe oe. scedga 
'thicket, small wood'; ident. w. 

shawm — shield 


ON. skagi 'promontory' and cogn. 
w. ON. skogr 'wood' and MHG. 
schache 'piece of wood'. 

shawm me. schahny borrowed 
fr. FR. (dial.) chalefnie, whence 
also G. schalfnei; standard fr. 
chahimeau fr. a lat. type cala- 

she ME. sche\ functionally cor- 
responding to OE. heo (fem. of 
he), but phonetically to oe. seo* 
(fem. of the article se := the). 

sheaf sb. me. schef oe. sccaf'. 
teut. base skauba- in on. skauf, 
OHG. scouby DU. schoof. Cogn. w. 
OHG; scobar G. schober rick' (of 
corn). All derivatives of the 
Teut. \f skub in shove with the 
orig. meaning 'things shoved 
together'. ^ 

shear vb. me. schcre oe. sderan 
str. vb. = OHG. sc'eran du. g. 
scheren, on. skera : aryan \/"sker 
in LITH. skir-ti 'separate', cogn. 
w. \f ker in gr. ^slgsiv 'shear. 

sheath vb. me. sch^the oe. sdedp 
obi. scedpe'. fr. a teut. skaipjo- 
in OSAX. skedia, ohg. sceida G. 
scheide, du. scheede: grig, meaning 
'that which separates'. Cogn. 
w. shed vb. me. schede oe. sded- 
dan ■= GOTH, skaidan with the 
byform osax. skcdan = ohg. 
sceidan G. scheiden 'to separate': 
TEUT. y^ skaip skaid, which is 
compared to GR. 6/iXsiv, skr. 
chid, LAT. scindere 'to cleave, cut' 
(ARYAN \fskhid}). See shide. 

sheen sb. (prop, adj.) me. 
schene oe. sdene {scyne) adj. 'fair' 
= osax. ohg. skoni du. schoon 

G. schon, GOTH, skaims : teut. 
base skau-ni-, verbal adj. 'to be 
looked at' fr. \P skaii in show. 

sheep sb. me. schep oe. sdep 
(scedp) = osax. skdp, du. schaap, 
OHG. ^^cz/ G. schaf: Teut. base 
skepa- (skdpa-). 

sheet sb. me. schete oe. scete 
{scyte), umlaut-deriv. of OE. sc^at 
'fold of a garment' = goth. skaiUs 
'hem of a garment', ohg. scoz^ G. 
schoss 'bosom, lap'; oe. scyte re- 
presents a teut. type skautjon-. 
teut. \fskeut in shoot. 

shelf me. schelve oe. .r^y^ = 
MLG. ODU. schelf, ohg. ^<:^/^; cp. 
ON. HUd'skjalf. 

shell sb. ME. schelk oe. ^^V// 
obi.' scelle'. teut. type skaljo- in 
DU. 5^>^^/, ON. ^-^^/ 'shell' and in 
GOTH, skalja 'a tile'; cogn. w. 
OHG. j-r^/^ G. schale 'shell'. 

shepherd sb. me. schepherd o^. 
scip-hyrde prop, compound of oe. 
scip 'sheep' and oe. hyrde e. herd 
'one who tends a herd'; cp. 
GOTH, halrdeis, ohg. hirti G. hirie 
and see herd. 

sheriff sb. me. scherefe earlier 
schir-reve oe. sch'-ierefa \ P*^ part 
of the OE. compound see under 
shire', oe. j^erefa e. reeve is 
derived fr. teut. r^/^^r r^'^^; = 
OHG. ruoba ruo/a 'number' ? 

shide sb. me. schide oe. scid = 
ON. skid, OHG. scit G. j-^y^^/V 'thin 
b(^ard'; ident. w. oir. sciath 
'shield' (aryan base skeito-). 
Cogn. w. sheath. 

shield sb. me. scheld oe. sceld 
(byform scild) : teut. base skeldu- 

shift — shop 

in GOTH, skiliius = on. skjgldr, 
OHG. scilt, DU. G. s child. Perh. 
cogn. w. LITH. skeliu I split'. 

shift vb. ME. schifte OE. sciftan 
'to divide' = on. sk'ipta^ du. 
schiften to divide'. 

shilling sb. me. schilling oe. 
scilling =^ GOTH, skilliggs, ON. 
shilling, OHG. oSAX. scilling G. 
schilling: teut. base ski I ling a- 
more orig. sk'ellingo-, perh. akin 
to OHG. .y^^/Zior G. schelle bell'. 
The common Teut. name of 
the coin properly meant 'the 
tinkling money' (for the suffix 
-ing in names of coins ^o.^ penny 
and farthing^. 

shimmer vb. me. schimere oe. 
sci7norian\ deriv. of oe. scima 
light' = GOTH, skeima 'light'; 
cp. G. schimmern aside of OHG. 
sclmo 'light'. Cp. shi7te for the 
teut. y/^sM. 

shin (shinbone) sb. me. schine 
{schinebgn) OE. scina {scinebdn) 
= OHG. sci/?a (mhg. schinebeiti) 
G. schiene (schienbein), du. scheen 
(scheenbeen). oe. scie shin' shows 
evidently the more primitive 
root-form ski: separate OE. OHG. 

shine vb.ME. schine o^. scinansir. 
vb. = GOTH, skeinan, ON. skina, 
OHG. OSAX. skinan G. scheine7t, du. 
schijiien: all equivalent. teut. 
ski-na-n rests on a \r j-/^^ as 
shown by oe. scl-ma OHG. sci-?no 
GOTH. skei-7na light'. 

shingle sb. me. schingel\ ap- 
parently identical w. G. sclmidel 
OHG. scintilla (loanword fr. lat. 

scinduhy by form o'isca7tdula 'shing- 
le); but the phonetic anomaly 
is not yet explained. 
ship sb. ME. schip oe. scip =. 

GOTH. ON. OSAX. skip, OHG. SCi/ 

G. schiff: common Teut. base 
skip a-. 

shire sb. me. schire oe. scir 
(obi. scire) = ohg. skira 'pro- 

shirt sb. me. schirte pointing 
to an oe. ^scyrte\ deriv. fr. the 
adj. oe. sceort = sho7't, as 
shown by G. schurz 'shirt' aside 
of MHG. schurz 'short', on. skyrta 
= OE. ^scyrle represents a teut. 
type skurljon-, but OE. sceo7't a 
base skorta-. See short. 

shoal 'crowd' me. schgle oe. 
sceolii = OSAX. skola 'troop'. 

shock vb. ME. schocke fr. fr. 
choquer 'give a shock. 

shock sb. ME. schocke 'heap 
of corn'. OE. ^sceocc is lost, 
but inferred from mhg. schoc 
'heap' — schocke 'shock'. Cogn. 
also w. MLG. hocke 'shock of corn'. 

shoe sb. ME. schg oe. scegh 
(pi. sceg-s for "^scghas) : Teut. 
base skoha- in goth. skohs, on. 
sko-r, OHG. scuoh g. schuh, du. 
schoe7t. Perhaps derived fr. a 
teut. \f^ skehr ske(g)w in goth. 
skewja7t ON. skcBva 'to go . 

shoot vb. cp. me. schgte vb. 
OE. sceotian 'to dart', derived fr. 
the primitive me. schete OE. sceo- 
tan = ON. skjota, oSAX. skeotan 
OHG. scio'y'Lfi7i G. schiessen, du. 
s chic ten: teut. \f skeut : skui. 

shop sb. me. schoppc oe. sceoppa 

shore — shut 


^booth, hut'; cognate w. oe. 
scypen 'shed for cattle', G. schopf 
schuppen 'shelter'. 

shore sb. me. s chore', fr. the 
TEUT. \/^sker 'shear, cut'. 

short adj. me. schort oe. sceort: 
base skorta-', cp. ohg. sciirz fr. 
a base skurtu-'. loanword fr. lat. 
*ex-curtusy as lat. curtus is pre- 
served in G. OHG. kurz 'short', DU. 
kort, ON. kortr (see kirtle for 
oe. cyrtcl and shirt for G. 

shot sb. ME. schot OE. lesceot 'a 
missile': deriv. from the teut. 
\f skeut skut in shoot. 

shoulder sb. me. schulder oe. 
sculdor\ cp. DU. schouder , g. 
schulter (ohg. sniltirra). 

shout vb. ME. schoute. 

shove vb. me. schoiwe oe. 
scilfan =r on. skiifa, du. schuwen : 
ident. w. goth. skinban^ ohg. 
sciohan g. schieben'. teut. \^ skub 

= ARYAN \fskubh\ SKR. \f ksubh 

\o be agitated' seems to be 
cognate. — shovel sh. me, schovel 
oe. sce6fi\ cp. DU. schoffel and 
ohg. sciifala g. schaufel. 

show vb. ME. schewe late oe. 
"^escea^viaii to show'; the corre- 
sponding OE. sccawian means 
'to look, behold and is iden- 
tical with the equival. ohg. 
skouii'dn G. schauen du. schouwen: 
TEUT. \f skau sku (see sheeii) in 
GOTH, skuggwa 'looking glass'. 
Cogn. w. the Aryan \/"/i?^ /j^7£' 
in LAT. cavcre 'to take care', 
GR. xofTi' 'to beget'. 

shower sb. me. schour oe. scur 

= GOTH, shlra 'storm', ohg. 
sei/r G. sehauer, on. s^dr. ~ . 

shred sb. short for me. schrede 
OE. sere ad (obi. sereade) .'shred, 
piece'; cp. oe. scr^adung 'shred 
and scr(adian to pare' : teut. 
yfskraud in OHG. scrotan 'to cut, 
pare'; perh. cogn. w. shroud. 

shrew sb., shrewd adj. fr. 
ME. schrewe sb. 'bad person' 
— schrewed adj. 'wicked, bad'; 
the corresp. oe. scr^awa means 
'shrew-mouse'. Origin and history 
of the group unknown. 

shriek vb. me. schrike (oe. 
scriciaii)\ cogn. w. shrike sb. 
oe. scrld 'a bird's name'. Cp. 
ON. skrlkja 'to titter'. 

shrine sb. me. schrin oe. scrin\ 
ident. w. ohg. scrini g. sehrein, 
DU. schrijn'. loanword fr. lat. 
sc7'tnium, whence also rrAL. serig- 
no, FR. ^crin. 

shrink vb. me. schj-inke oe. 
{for)scrincan str. vb. *^= odu. 
schrinken\ cogn. w. swed. skrynka 
'a wrinkle': teut. \fskrmk. 

shroud sb. me. schroud oe. 
sdriid 'garment' = ON. skrud 'or- 
nament, dress'. See shred. 

shudder vb. me. schudere (oe. 
^^scudorian) = lg. schuddern 
(whence G. schaudeni) , DU. 
schudden 'to tremble'; cp. ohg. 
scutisbn to shudder. 

shun vb. me. schiine oe. scunian 
wk. vb. 'to avoid, abhor'; perh. 
deriv. fr. a teut. \^ sken 'to flee 
away' in on. skynda 'to hasten', 
OHG. scuntan 'to urge on . 

shut vb. ME. schutte oe. scyttan 


shy — sin 

= DU. schutten 'to shut in, to 
block up': Teut. base skutjan 
cogn. \v. shuttle sb. me. schitel 
OE. scytels bar, bolt : Teut. base 
skutisla-, \f skeut skut in shoot. 

shy adj. me. schey oe. sceoh 
(^sceog-) 'timid' = mhg. schiech 
(g. scheu), DU. schuw: Teut. base 
skeoha- skeuha- , whence ohg. 
sciuhan \o frighten' (g. schetieft). 

sick adj. short for me. sek oe. 
seoc = GOTH, sinks, ON. sjiikr, 
OSAX. siok, OHG. sioh G. siech, 
DU. ziek: teut. seuka- adj. 'ill, 
sick' by the side of the str. vb. 
GOTH, siukan 'to be ill', whence 
the verbal noun goth. sauhts, 
OHG. suht 'illness'. 

sicker (Scotch) adj. me. siker 
OE. sicor ^ OHG. sihhtir G. sicker, 
OSAX. sikiir, DU. zeker: loanword 
(Teut. base sikura-^ fr. lat. 
seciirus, borrowed during the first 
centuries of the Christian era. 

sickle sb. me. sikel oe. sicol'. 
borrowed fr. lat. secula, whence 
also OHG. sihhila G. sichelT>\j. sikkel. 

side sb. me. side oe. side. (obi. 
sidati) = ON. sida, ohg. st/a G. 
seiie, du. sz/V/<?: Teut. base std- 
jon-y perh. connected w. oE. sid 
adj. 'long, wide' = on. sidr 
'hanging down'? 

siege sb. me. sege fr. fr. siege. 

sieve sb. me. sive oe. .??/> (oldest 
form sibi^ = ohg. .y?/^ g. sieb, 
DU. 2^<^ 'a sieve': Teut. base 
sibi-y connected w. the vb. sift. 

sift me. sifte oe. .y^/^z// =r du. 
ziftetiy LG. (g.) sichten 'to sift'. 
There exists a teut. \f sib in 

oe. i-Z^/z OHG. sihan G. seihen 'to 
filter, strain', the guttural of 
which may have changed to a 
labial {sif for j-f/^). 

sigh vb. ME. sighe points to 
an OE. ^sihhla7i\ cogn. w. the 
equivalent me. sike oe. sican. 
The root sik sihh looks like 

sight sb. me. sight earlier me. 
sighthe OE. iesihj>: deriv. of the 
TEUT. sfseh in see. 

sign sb. me. signe fr. fr. signe. 

silk ME. silk OE. siolc fr. an 
earlier ^siluc) cogn. w. on. silkii 
source lat. serictim (whence 
also oiR. siric and oslov. selkU 

sill sb. ME. silk OE. syll obL 
sylle : Teut. base si//jo- bc^rrowed 
fr. LAT. so/ea 'sole of the foot', 
whence also goth. su/Ja 'sole 
of a shoe', on. sy/i is an oe. 
loanword. Cp. so/e. 

silly adj. me. se7y oe. se'/i^ 
(scelii) 'happy, fortunate' = ohg. 
sditg G. selig, DU. zalig 'blessed': 
secondary extension to goth. 
sels 'good' = on. scell 'happy' 
i (cp. oe. scbI sb. 'happiness'). 
I TEUT. \fsel. 

silver me. silver oe. siolfor =- 
j GOTH, siliibr, OSAX. silubar, OHG. 
silabar G. silbcr, DU. zilver , ON. 
sil/r\ ident. w. osLOV. sirebra 
RUSS. serebro, lith. sidabras. 
Source and history uncertain. 

sin sb. ME. sinne oe. synn obi. 
synne : base sunjo- for an earlier 
su?nljd- in ohg. suniea G. siindey 
OSAX. stindia, DU. zonde] cp. yet 



ON. synd fr. a base sunidjo- (the 
dentals are suffixal). Cogn. 
w. LAT. sons {sont-is) 'guilty'. 

since with the more original 
byform (Shakesp.) sithence me. 
sitheTis prop, sithen oe. stppan\ 
the additional s of the me. form 
is of adverbial origin (cp. once^ 
twice). The orig. oe. form was 
sip-pan (cp. the identical GOTH. 
pana-seips 'later') , resting on 
the OE. adverb sip 'later, which 
is a comparative to goth. seipiis 
'late'. ON. sidan corresponds to 
OE. sippan\ cp. ohg. sid g. seit 
= OE. sip 'later'. 

sinew sb. me. sinewe oe. {siojiu 
pi.) sioneoive, which results fr. a 
Teut. base sinewd- or s'enewd-\ 
cp. ON. silly OHG. s'enawa G. 
sehne, du. zenuw: cogn. w. skr. 
s?tdva sinew' or w. gr. Ivic 

sing vb. ME. singe oe. singan 
str. vb. :^ OHG. OS AX. singan 
G. singen du. zingen ; oldest Teut. 
form GOTH, siggwan (= on. 
syngva) : all synonymous, teut. 
\fs'engw sangw is related to 
GR. 6f.t(prj 'speech , oracle' : 
ARYAN V" saighw. The cor- 
resp. causal is represented by 
singe ME. senge- oe. sencgean fr. 
a Teut. ground-form sang(w)jan 
= OHG. sengan g. sengen 'to 
singe' prpp. 'to make to sing'. 

sink vb. i-//Z/^<? oe. sincan str. 
vb. = OHG. sinkan G. sinken du. 
zinken', oldest form GOTH, sigqan 
{=. ON. sokkva) : TEUT. sfsenhv 
*to sink'. 

sip vb. ME. J7/^/^; deriv. fr. oe. 
sype "absorbing', which is verbal 
noun to OE. siepan) see sup, 

sir, sire xME. sire fr. fr. .y/>r, 
whence also on. sira. — ■ sirrah, 
spelt in 1 6'^ cent, sirrha serrhoy 
points to orig. »sir, ah« or »sir, 

sister sb. me. sister is regarded 
as a distinctively Scand. loan- 
word fr. ON. systir. The oe. 
equivalent sweostor swustor me. 
I sustcr is not responsible for the 
j modern phonology. The Teut. 
! base is sw'estr- swistr-\ cp. goth. 
S7vistar, OHG. sw'cster G. schwester, 
DU. ziister. The / of the com- 
mon Teut. word is excrescent. 
Aryan base sw'esr- (nom. sw'esor) 
in SKR. svasr y lat. soror (for 
"^'svesor), lith. scsil 'sister'. 

sit vb. ME. sitte oe. sittan str. 
vb. = DU. zitten, osaX. sittian, 
OHG. sizzan G. sitzen: westteui. 
sittjan fr. teut. sitjan (= ON. 
sit/a); cp. GOTH, sitan: strong 
verbal \/^ set sat (whence a causal 
vb. sat/an under set), aryan 
\f sed in LAT. sedeOy gr. st,o/Liui 
(tdog 'seat'), skr. \P sad 'to sit', 

OSLOV. SCStiy LITH. s'iiSti. Cp. 

settle and soot. 
six ME. OE. six fr. a teut. 

^,?//^ = GOTH. saihSy OHG. OSAX. 

sehs G. .y(?^/^i', du. ^fj", on. sex\ 
ARYAN seks in lat. seXy gr. f^; 
cp. SKR. sas. 

sketch sb. = du. schets y g. 
skizze borrowed fr. ital. schizzo. 

skew vb. late me. skewe 'to 




slip away'; cp. odu. schouwen vb. 
'to shun ? 

skill sb. ME. skil 'reason' bor- 
rowed fr. ON. skil 'discernment' 
{skilja vb. 'to separate'). 

skin sb. me. skin late oe. skinn 
borrowed fr. on. skinn, which 
arises fr. a Teut. base skinpa-, 
whence derived ohg. scinta?t G. 
schinden wk. vb. 'to skin', bret. 
scant 'scale' rests on an aryan 

skirmish sb. me. scar7nisshe fr. 
FR. escarniouch€\ cp. ital. scara- 
muccia, o. scharmiitzel. The group 
rests on ohg. scii'man (g. schir- 
77ien) . 

skirt sb. me. skirt fr. on. skyrta 
'a shirt; further relations see 
under kirtle and shirt. 

skull sb. ME. sculle (scolle). 

sky sb. ME. skie borrowed fr. 
ON. sky 'cloud ; not found in 
OE. (but OSAX. skion^. 

slack adj. me. slak oe. simc 
'languid, slothful' =: on. slakr, 
OLG. slak, ohg. slahs\dic\L\ Teut. 
base slaka-. — Hence slake 
vb. ME. slake oe. sldcian 'slacken'. 

slaughter sb. me. slaughter', bor- 
rowed in 11^^ cent. fr. on. sldtr 
or its oldest form "^slahtr. Der. 
fr. the TEUT. \f slah in slay. . 

slave sb. = du. slaaf: loan- 
word fr. fR. esclave, whence also 
G. sklave. Source ital. schiavo 
'slave' = GR. ']voi 'the 
Slavonians, Slaves'. 

slay vb. me. sle (part, slain) 
OE. slran (part, skej^en) str. vb. 
= GOTH. OHG. OSAX. sla/ian (g. 

schlagen) , iy\}. slaan , on. sld\ 
TEUT. \fslak sloh =r aryan .f/^^; 
cp. slaughter and sledge. 

slay sb. (a weaver's reed) oe. 
slej^e 'percussorium' cogn. with 
the TEUT. \(" slah = slay vb.; 
on. sld 'bar, bolt'. 

sled short for me. sl(de ; bor- 
rowed fr. on. sledi 'a sledg-e'; 
corresponding to OHG. slito G. 
schlitten, du. slede 'sledge'. The 
group rests on the teut. \^ slid 
in slide. 

sledge-hammer me. slegge oe. 
slecg (obi. slecge) sb. 'sledge- 
hammer': Teut. base slagjb- 
deriv. fr. \P slah in slay; cp. 
ON. sleggja, DU. slegge slei 'mallet'. 

sleek adj. me. slik borrowed 
fr. on. slik-r 'sleek, smooth' {^ 
DU. slijk\. teut. \f slik in ohg. 
slihhan G. schleichen. 

sleep vb. ME. slepe (sle'pe) oe. 
step an (slcepaft) str. vb. == GOTH. 
slepan (pret. saizlep), OS ax. sldpan, 
DU. slapen, ohg. sldffan G. schlafen. 
Cogn. w. G. schlaff ohg. sldf 
lax, loose, remiss', teut. \^ slap 
= ARYAN \P slab perh. in lat. 
lain 'to slide'. 

sleet sb. ME. sld'^ oe. '^slet Cslyt) 
not found ; umlaut-relation to 
MHG. sloi^ (g. schlosse 'hail): 
'Teut. base slauti-, w^hence also 
DU. sloot, fries, slat. 

sleeve sb. me. sieve oe. slefe 
(sly/e): Teut. base slaubjd{n-) in 
odu. sloove 'veil'. 

sleight sb. mk. sleighte earlier 
me. slehpe: borrowed fr. ON. sld:gd 
'slyness', which is abstract for- 




mation to the adj. sly = me. 
s/e7i ON. slcigr. 

slice sb. ME. sli^e fr. ofr. esclice 
'a shiver, splinter ; source the 
TEUT. \fslit in slit. 

slide vb. me. slide oe. slidan 
str. vb. = MHG. sliten 'to slide'; 
TEUT. \f slid under sled\ Aryan 
\p slidh in lith. sltdtis 'slipper' 
(cp. OE. slidor 'slippery'). 

slight adj. ME. slight \ oe. '^'sliht 
not found, but may be inferred fr. 
the corresp. GOTH.j'/r?////'jr' smooth', 
OHG. y/i?>^/ 'smooth, flat' {G.schlecht 
'bad' — schlicht' %\m^\^^ ,Vi\} . slechty 
ON, sUttr 'flat, smooth': Teut. 
base sl'eh-ta- prop, slih-ia- fr. the 
verbal \P sltk in i'/^'^/^ (on. slikr 
'sleek, smooth'). 

slime sb. me. oe. slhn = ohg. 
aiHG. slim G. sc/ileim , du. sli/'m, 
ON. .f//w : Teut. type sli-ma- fr. 
an ARYAN \i^sli, whence also 
LAT. li-vius 'mud . 

sling vb. ME. slinge str. vb. 
(oe. "^ sling an not recorded) 'to 
fling' = on. slyngva str. vb. 'to 
cast, fling'; cp. mhg. slmge sb. 
'sling', DU. sUngcren vb. 'to toss' 
and ohg. slingan 'to swing'. 
TEUT. \f sl'engw {sl'enhw'^.). 

slip vb. ME. slippe OE. '^slyppan 
belongs to the str. vb. oe. slupan 
\o glide' = DU. sliiipen 'to 
sneak'; cp. goth. sliupan str. 
vb. *to slip' and ohg. slupfan G. 
schlupfen 'to slip': Teut. verbal 
\fslap, perh. related to lat. 
liibricus 'slippery'. 

slit vb. ME. slitte deriv. fr. me. 
slite OE. slitan str. vb. 'to slit'; 

cp. ON. sliia, OSAX. slitan str. vb. 
'to slit", DU. slijten, OHG. sli-^yin 
G. schleisscn : teut. sfslit 'to tear'. 

sloe sb. ME. slg OE. sld (infl. 
sld-ri), prob. contracted fr. oe. 
"^sldhe (infl. ^sldlian) =^ ohg. 
sle/ia G. schlehe\ cp. du. slee, 
swed. slchi^ dan. slaaefi 'sloe' and 
OE.^/<:?/^-/^/v/ 'black-thorn'. Doubt- 
ful whether lith. sljruas 'plum' 
and OSLOV. russ. sliva 'plum' 
are cognate. 

sloop sb. fr. DU. sloep'. source 
FR. chaloupe , whence also e. 
shallop = G. schaluppe. 

slot sb. 'bar, bolt' late me. slot 

= DU. LG. slot^ OHG. sloi, G. 

schloss] derived fr. the teut. 
\f slid 'shut' in DU. sluiten, lg. 
slUten, OHG. slioyifin G. schliessen 
(cp. G. schliissel ohg. slu-^i^il = 
OSAX. slutil 'key'), teut. yfslut 
rests on an aryan -y^ .y/^//^^, 
cogn. w. LAT. dander e 'shut'. 

sloth sb. me. slputhe with abstr. 
suffix fr. the adj. slow, cp. the 
umlaut-relation oe. slckwp me. 

slough sb. 'mire' iME. slough oe. 
slph 'mire'. 

slo^v adj. me. slmv oe. .yAizi:/ 
=r OSAX. OHG. sleo 'blunt', du. 
sleeuw 'sour', on. sljor 'blunt': 
Teut. base slaiwa-, perh. cogn. 
w. LAT. laevus 'left', GR. Xatog. 

slow-worm sb. prop. me. slp- 
worm slg - 7vur/?i oe. sld - wyrvi 
'blindworm'; ident. w. swed. 
sld (ormsld), norweg. slo (or^nslo) 
'blindworm'. Not compounded 
with si 07V oe. sldiv, but resting 


sluice — smelt 

on a TEUT. slaiha- 'blind worm'; 
cp. LiTH. slekasy PRUSS. slayx 

sluice sb. = Du. sluisy g. 
schleuse'. source ofr. escluse (fr. 
hluse) fr. a low Lat. type ex- 
cliisa 'a floodgate'. 
_ slumber vb. me. slo??iere fre- 
quentative of ME. slouwe vb. 
'slumber', derived fr. the sb. 
OE. slii-via 'slumber'; cp. du. 
sluiwen sluimeren, lg. slimier en 
(g. schlu7nme7'ii) vb. 'slumber'. 
OE. slu-ma sb. 'slumber' rests on 
an ARYAN \r^//^ in goth. slawan 
to cease, be silent". 

sly adj. ME. sit (sly) prop, sli^i 
slei (Orrm sleh under sleight^ : 
borrowed fr. on. slckgr adj. sly, 
cunning'; ident. w. the non-um- 
lauted DU. sluw lg. slu (g. schlau), 
SWED. DAN. slug. As Seen by 
G. verschlage7t 'sly', the adj. 
rests on the teut. y" slah in 

smack 1 sb. 'taste' me. sviak 
OE. smcBC sb. = DU. smaak\ ohg. 
{gi)smah\ cp. tlie vb. oe. smceccan 
'to taste' = ODU. smaken ofries. 
smakia] cp. ohg. stnacken sinecken 
G. schmecken to taste', west- 
TEUT. \fsniak S7?iakk. 

smack'-^ (Shakesp.) sb. 'a loud 
kiss' cp. G. schmatzen fr. mhg. 
smatzen prop, stnackefzen , lg. 
smacken 'to smack the lips'. 

smack^ sb. (a fishing-boat) 
fr. ODU. MLG. sviacke (du. smacli), 
whence also the equivalent G. 
schmacke, fr. semaque, ital. semac- 
CQy SPAN, zumaca. Source and 

history of the group unknown. 
It is doubtful whether late oe. 
snacc ON. snekkja (kind of ship) 
is cognate. 

small adj. me. s?Tial (infl. smale), 
OE. JT?//^/ (infl. smald): Teut. adj. 
S7riala- in goth. STtials^ OHG. OSAX. 
S77ial G. sclmial. ON. S77iali = 
OHG. striala-Ttbi^ — snialaz^ vihu 
'sheep' points to gr. /nijXov 
'sheep' and oir. 77iil 'beast ; cp. 
also oslov. 77ialu. 

smallage sb. prop. S77iall 
ache', me. ache is fr. ache pars- 
ley'. Source lat. apiu77i 'pars- 

smalt sb. fr. du. S77ialt =: g. 
schmaltCj PR. S77ialt'. source ital. 
S77ialto, which is of Teut. origin 
(cp. MHG. smelzen- G. schmelzen). 

smart vb. me. sTTzerte oe. S7ne0r- 
taTi : a Teut. strong vb. = ohg. 
S7n'erza7i 'to smart'; cp. du. sTnart 
sb. = ohg. smh'zo G. schrierz 
sb. pain': teut. \f s/Tiert pre- 
teut. S77ie7'd cogn. w. lat. vi07'dere 
'to bite', GR. Gf-teo^aXsoc. 

sm^ear vb. me. S77ic're vb. fr. 
the sb. OE. svieoro = on. smjg7- 
'butter', ohg. osk'k. s77i'ero: aryan 
\l" sfn'er also in goth. S77iair-p7' 
'fatness' and in lith. S77iarsas 
'fat' and oiR. S77iir 'marrow'. 

smell sb. me. smel cogn. w. 
s77ioulder vb. me. s7noldcre vb. 
'to burn with a stifling smoke'; 
cp. the sb. ME. smoldc7' 'a stifling 
smoke' and the vb. du. S77ieulen 
'to smoulder' r= lg. smd^lcTi. 

smelt vb. not found in oe. 
ME. (see 77ieli)\ borrowed fr. 

smelt — sneeze 


SWED. smdlta = dan. smeltCy du. 
LG. S7nelten , ohg. sm'elzdn G. 
schmelzen 'melt ; cp. ital. S7nalto 
= FR. ^mai/ 'enamel'. The teut. 
sPsnielt is probably connected 
W". sfm'elt under 7nelt. 

smelt sb. (a kind of fish) iME. 
OE. S7nelt\ ident. w. dan. du. 
smelt', cp. NORW. s me ltd (name 
of various kinds of small fish). 

smile vb, me. S7nile (oe. '^S7)iy- 
la7t})\ cogn. w. the non-umlauted 
MHG. S77iielc7i S77iiere7i 'to smile' 
and the frequentative e. S77iirk 
OE. S77iea7'cia7i 'smile'. 

smirch vb. 'to besmear' deri- 
vative of S77iea7\ 

smirk see under S77iile. 

smite vb. uk. S7nite oe. S77uta7i 
str. vb. = GOTH. S7/ieita7i, du. 
S77iijte7i, LG. s7/nte7i., ohg. S77it'i^2^a7t 
G. sch77teisse7i 'to cast': teut. 
\/^S7nlt 'strike, beat, smear. 

smith vb. me. S77iith oe. S77np 
= on. S7ftidr, DU. S7nid, ohg. 
smid G. sch77tied\ cp. goth. aiza- 
S7mpa 'coppersmith'; cogn. w. 
ohg. S77tidagis77iidii^VLG. geschmeide, 
DU. ges7nijde. The dental is for- 
mative. There is an aryan 
yf S77n in GR. oiLU-Xrj o/nivvi^. — 
S7riithy sb. seems to be the 
scand. S7nidja {= oe. S77iippe, 
OHG. S7nitthd). 

smock sb. me. s77iok oe. s7nocc 
'smock, frock, shirt' = on. S7nokkr\ 
cp. OHG. smocko 'shirt': deriv. 
fr. the TEUT. y^ S77iug in oe. 
S77iuga7t, on. STnJuga/ \o creep 
through a hole'^ijHG. STTiiegm 
G. sch7tiiege7i. aryan \f S77iuk in 

OSLOV. S77iykati s§ 'to creep', LITH. 
S77iukti "to glide'. 

smoke sb. me. S77ipke oe. S77idca 
sb. 'smoke'; cogn. w. oe. sinic 
'smoke' (base smauki-) and the 
str. vb. OE. s77teocan 'to smoke'; 
cp. DU. S7noken (base '^S7nuko7i) 
and S7nook sb. (base '^S77iauki') : 
TEUT. V" S77mk, perh. cogn. w. 
LITH. smaukii 'to choke'. 

smooth adj. me. smothe late 
OE. S7}igd with the umlauted by- 
form OE. S77tede\ mlg. swode re- 
presents an OSAX. '^S7/wihi fr. a 
Teut. base S7nanpi', 

smother sb. me. s7norther (^p7'a- 
being an abstract suffix) ; oe. 
S77ioria7i to choke, suffocate ^=- 
DU. LG. S77wren g. sch77tore7t 'to 
stew'. — smoulder vb. me. 
S7nolde7'e vb. rest on me. S77iolder, 
which is ident. w. me. S7northcr. 

snail sb. me. snail oe. sna.y.\ 
Teut. base STiagla- ; cp. mho. 
STiegel, ON. sTiigill 'snail'; cogn. 
w. OHG. sfi'ecko G. sch7tecke (lg. 
snigge)y me. STiegge. 

snake sb. me. STidke oe. sndca\ 
cp. the. equiv. on. sndkr sndk7', 
LG. S7idke. Teut. \f snak in ohg. 
S7tahha7i 'to creep'. 

snare sb. me. S7idre borrowed 
fr. ON. snara 'a snare, halter; 
ident. w. ohg. snar(a)ha oe. 
sriearh 'noose, snare' fr. a Teut. 
base snarhb77-\ cp. the str. vb. 
ohg. S7t'er{a)ha7i mho. sn'ei'hen 'to 
bind tightly'. Probably cogn. 
w. ohg. sTiuoi' G. schnu7' 'a lace, 
cord' (goth. snorjo). 

sneeze vb. me. sTtese (oe. s7teo- 


snipe — sole^ 

scui)] ident. w. neese ME. nese 
= ON. hnjosa and w. oe. fneosan. 

snipe sb. me. snipe\ ident. w. 
ON. myri-snipa 'a moor-snipe' and 
cogn. w. the equiv. ohg. sn'epfa 
G. schnepfe DU. snep snip (ital. 
sgneppa is of Taut, origin). 

snite see under snot. 

snore vb. me. snore vb. with 
the frequentative snort me. snorte) 
cogn. w. G. schnarchen, du. snorken 
snurken 'to snore, snort. 

snot vb. me. snot oe. ^esnot 
'mucus of the nose' = du. snot] 
cogn. w. snout sb. me. snoute 
= ODU. sniite du. snuzt and w. 
snite vb. me. snite oe. snytan = 
ON. snyta 'to wipe the nose'. Cp. 
G. schnautzCy schndutzen. 

snow sb. ME. snow oe. sndw 
= GOTH, snaiws, ON. s?icEr snjor^ 
DU. sneeuw, ohg. sneo G. schnee: 
Teut. base snaiwa-^ derived fr. 
the ARYAN \f snigh in ohg. sniwan 
G. schneien, oe. sniivan \o snow' 
, = LAT. ningere y lith. snigti^ 
AVEST. sniz 'to snow'; cp. gr. 
vi{p-a 'snow' and lat. nix niv-em, 
IR. snechta — cymr. nyf 'snow'. 
LITH. sn'r.gas and oslov. snegit, 
'snow' correspond completely to 
TEUT. snaiwa- fr. snaigwa-. 

SO adv. ME. sg prop, stvg oe. 
swd = GOTH, swa, ON. svd (ohg. 
so DU. zoo). Cp. the derivative 
such and mhg. sus (g. sonst), 

DU. SZ/J". 

soap sb. ME. sppe oe. j-4^<? ^ 
ohg. seiffa G. .?<?//<?: Teut. base 
saipon-. Whether lat. sapo(nem) 
= FR. savon^ ITAL. sapone are in 

any way related with the Teut» 
word-group, is uncertain. 

sob vb. ME. sobbe (oe. '^sobbian) : 
frequentative of a teut. \fsub in 
ohg. siift'di sigh, a sob' — siiftfon 
(g. seufzeti) 'to sigh'. 

sock sb. me. ^^r^ oe. 5^<;^: loan- 
word fr. LAT. soccus {= FR. socquCy 
ITAL. socco)f whence also ohg. 
mhg. soCy ON. sokkr. 

sod sb. me. j"^^'^<?: probably 
borrowed fr. MLG. sodty which 
corresponds to ofries. sdtha 
*sod, turf: Teut. base saupdn-\ 
perhaps related to seethe. 

soft adj. adv. me. softe short for 
OE. softe adv. by the side of the 
umlauted adj. oe. sefte\ ident. w. 
OSAX. sdfti adj. — sdfto adv. = 
OHG. senfti adj. — samfto adv. 
(g. sanft sacht, du. zacht). 

soil ^ sb. 'ground' me. soile fr. 
OFR. soel =^ FR. suei/: source 
LAT. sotea. 

soil 2 vb. 'to defile' me. soi/e fr. 
FR. souiller. 

solace sb. me. solds fr. ofr. 
solaz = LAT. solatium. 

soldier sb. me. soudiour properly 
souldier fr. ofr. soldier (FK.soldat). 
Source ofr. soulde 'pay for soul- 
diers', whence du. g. sold. Source 

LAT. SOliduS (= ITAL. Soldo y FR. 

soil) 'piece of money'. 

sole^ (of a shoe) sb. me. sole 
OE. sole = OHG. sola G. sohle, du. 
zool: Teut. base sola, borrowed 
fr. a LAT. type *sola, represented 
by FR. soley ital. suolo, span. 
sz^ela 'sole of a shoe'. The vul- 

sole^ — sound^ 


gar -L AT. sola has supplanted 
LAT. solea^ whence GOTH, sulja 
'sole' is borrowed. 

sole''^ (a flat fish) me. sole fr. fr. 
sole\ ident. w. sole^\ cp. lat. 
solea *sole-fish'. 

some pron. me. sum so??i oe. sum 
= GOTH. Slims, ON. sumr, ohg. 
sum : ARYAN base spmo- in GR. 
a/iio^sr, SKR. sama. 

son sb. ME. so/ie smie oe. sutiu 
= GOTH, sunus, ON. sunr, OSAX. 
sunu, ohg. sun o. sohn DU. s^^/z: 
Teut. base sunu-. An aryan base 
sunu- is evident in skr. sunu-y 
OSLOV. synil, lith. suniis son. 
Cogn. w. GR. vioq 'son fr. an 
ARYAN base suyu- and w. oir. 
suth 'foetus'. There occurs also 
a SKR. Y" ^^ to beget, bear, 
bring forth'. 

song vb. ]ViE. oe. song'. Teut. 
base sang{7v)a- also in goth. 
saggws, on. sgngr, du. 2^-;^^, G. 
sang. Cp. j/^^. 

soon adv. me. sgne oe. j-.^'w^; as 
shown by goth. suns-aiw 'soon', 
0^.sgn-a\% a compound of oe. son 
(— _ OHG. OSAX. sdn) and d (= 
goth. rt-Zze/ OHG. io^\ cp. ohg. j-^r 
sdr-io and goth. j'?/{;7i- 'soon'. 

soot sb. ME. OE. sot = ODU. 

sod, ON. i"^/; derived fr. the 
teut. \fset 'sit, set'; cogn. w. 
oir. suide (base *sddia), lith. 
i-<?^/w, OSLOV. sazda 'soot'. 

sooth adj. 'true' me. spth oe. soJ) 
fr. a Teut. base j-^/?^- = on. 
sannr , ohg. i'^?/^/, oSAX. sdth\ 
cogn. w. GOTH.sunJis (for* sundja-). 
TEUT.' san/- answers to skr. saf, 

English Etymology. 

which is participle of the aryan 
\^es to be' (skr. dstz, gr. eart, 
LAT. es/, G. is/) with the suffix 
-ont- in GR. (psQovT- (cp. to 0^1). 
GOTH jrz/;z;w 'true' corresponds to 
skr. ja/vi 'true'. 

sore adj. me. sch- oe. j-Jr fr. a 
TEUT. adj. sai-ra- in on. sar?^, 
OHG. jYr, DU. 2:/?(?r 'sore, wounded'; 
cp. GOTH, sair sb. 'pain', ohg. 
ser (g. versehren vb. 'to hurt). 
Cogn. w. LAT. sae-vus 'wild' and 
oir. sai-th 'pain'. Cp. sorry. 

sorrel (plantname) fr. ofr. 
sorel (fr. surelle), which is de- 
rived fr. FR. sur 'sour = OHG. 
sur (see under sour). 

sorrow sb. me. sorwe oe. sorg 
infl. sorge'. Teut. base sorgd- in 
GOTH, saurga, ohg. sorga g. sorge, 
DU. ^^r^'-, ON. sorg : aryan sfs'ergh 
in LITH. sergiti 'to heed' — 
slrgti 'to suffer'. 

sorry adj. me. wj/ oe. ^^zrz'j 
earlier sdrei'. Teut. base sair-ag-, 
deriv. fr. TEUT. saira- = sore. 

sot sb. me. sot late oe. (c. iooo) 
sott) borrowed fr. fr. sot, whence 
also DU. zot and mhg. sot] cogn. 
w. IR. suthan 'a dunce'. 

soul sb. me. souk prop, sgule 
OE. sdwol infl. sdwle : teut. saiw- 
aid- in goth. saiwala, ohg. sela 
(for *sewla) G. j"^^/^, osax. seula, 
DU. 2:/^/. Cp. GR. «ioAog 'movable'. 

sound ^ adj. 'healthy' me. sound 
prop, (sound OE. lesiind = oSAX. 
gisund, OHG. gisunt g. gesund, 
DU. gezond', probably cognate w. 
LAT. j-^/zz/j- 'healthy'. 



sound — speak 

sound (of the sea)'- sb. me. 
sound OE. sund\ the orif^inal 
meaning of the OE. word is 'a 
swimming' which affirms connec- 
tion w. swim'. Teut. base sunda- 
(^ON. siind) for ^sivumda-. 

sound -^ sb. 'a noise' me. sotm 
fr. FR. son: source lat. sonus. 

sound "^ vb. fr. fr. sender. 

sour adj. me. sour oe. stir = 
ON. siirr^ DU. zuur, OHG. stir G. 
sauer: aryan base suro- in lith. 
sih-aSy OSLOV. syrii 'raw, rough'. 

source sb. me. sours fr. fr. 
source (deriv. fr. l.\t. surgere^. 

south sb. ME. south oe. sup = 
ON. siidr, DU. zuid: Teut. base 
sunp- in OHG. siindan 'from the 
south' (= OY.. Sudan, o^.sunnan). 
Probably aUied to gr. 7/orog 
(for *(jvnTog) south-wind\ — 
southern me. sothem oe. sicderne 
corresponds to OHG. sundroni 
-— ON. sudrxnn. 

sow^ vb. ME. sgwe oe. sdivan 
str. vb. = GOTH, saian, ON. sd, 
DU. zaaijen, osax. sajan, OHG. j"^^;^ 
G. jr^r/2 ^=- ARYAN Verbal \f sS 
in LAT. sero (ground-form ^^^siso) 
-sem-sa/um, oslov. se-ti, lith. 
seti 'sow' and in lat. se-men = 
OHG. sd-mo G. j-(2w^. Cp. seed. 

SOW^ sb. ME. some earlier suwe 
suge oe. sugu. Cogn. w. teut. 
stl 'sow' (under swi7ie^ and w. ir. 
suig 'a pig. 

space sb. me. spd(e fr. ofr. 
espace] source lat. spatimfi. 

spade „sb. me. spade oe. spddu 
infl. spddan; ident. w. on. spadi, 
DU. spade J osax. spado ^ g. spaten] 

cogn. w. OR. 6nd^rj 'a blade of 
wood or metal'. 

span vb. me. spanne oe. spannan 
str vb. = OHG. spannan G. DU. 
spannen to extend'. 

span-new adj. me. span-newe 
fr. ON. spdn-nyr] ON. j;z^^;z« (cp. 
spoon) means *a chip, shaving'. 
spar sb. me. sparre (cp. the vb. 
OE. lespearrian to shut, bar) = 
OHG. sparro (whence G. sparren), 
DU. spar, ON. sparri'. Teut. base 

I spar r on-. 

! Spar 2 sb. oe. spcer-stdn; cp. G. 

; sparkalk. 

spar 3 vb. me. sparre fr. ofr. 
esparer -^^ fr. sparer. 

spare adj. me. spar infl. spare 
OE. spcer (infl. "^spdrd) in the 
compound spa^r-hende (original 

I meaning having spare, thrifty 
hands') and in the vb. sparian 
'to spare'. Teut. base spara- in 
ON. sparr, OHG. spar (g. j^?>^r- 
sani) ; cp. ON. spar a, ohg. spar on 
G. sparen 'to spare'. Outside 
of TEUT., osLOV. .T/^?r?^ 'thrifty' 
and OR. dna^i'oq rare, lacking' 
are cognate. 

spark sb. me. sparke oe. spear ca: 
Teut. base sparkon- in DU. spark, 
LG. sparke; cogn. w. lat. j;|zJ(^r- 

sparrow sb. me. sparwe oe. 
spearwa =^ goth. sparwa : Teut. 
base sparwan-', cp. ohg. i^^r^ 
(g. Sperling). 

speak vb. me. jt///^^ oe. sp'ecan 
str. vb. =^ OHG. sp'ehhan with 
the byforms oe. spr'ecan = ohg. 
sprehhan G. sprechen, DU. spreken, 




OSAX. spr'ekan\ west-teut. strong 
verbal V" sprek: spek, perhaps 
connected w. on. spraka 'to 
crackle' and lith. spragHi 'to 
crackle'. See speech. 

spear sb. me. sp(re oe. spere] 
ident. w. on. spjpr, ohg. sper 
G. DU. speer and cogn. w. lat. 
spar us 'a dart'. 

speck vb. ME. specke oe. specca 
'a spot, mark'; cp. DU. spikkel. 

speech sb. me. speche oe. (rare) 
spec (spcec^ with the common 
byform oe. sprcec: Westteut. base 
spdki- sprdki-', derived fr. \fspek 
sprek in speak. 

speed sb. me. oe. sped pro- 
perly oe. speed fr. a Teut. base 
spo-di' in osAX. spod 'success', 
DU. sfoed 'speed' , ohg. spuot 
'siict:ess' (whence G. sputen 'to 
make haste') : verbal abstract to 
the str. vb. oe. sppwan 'to suc- 
ceed = OHG. spuon to succeed', 
which are cognate w. oslov. 
spejati 'to succeed', skr. sphdy 
'to increase': Aryan \f^ sphe spho. 

spell sb. me. oe. spel (infl. 
spell-) 'story, saying' (see also 
gospel) = GOTH, spill 'tale, 
myth', ON. spjall 'a saying , ohg. 
spel 'a narrative' (du. spellen vb.) : 
Teut. base spella-y assimilated 
for sqedlo", pre-TEUT. sq-etlo- r— | 
oiR. sc^l, CYMR. chwedl 'a story'. | 
Derived from the Aryan \(^seq : 
'to say, tell' (cp. say)\ aryan | 
suffix -etlo- as in gr. ^^trAo//. | 

spell vb. ME. spelle 'syllabi- 
care' (Orrm spelldrenn 'syllabi- 
care'); not found in this mean- i 

ing in 0£. Cognate w. ofr. 
espeler =-- fr. ipeler 'to spell'. 

spelt sb. OE. spelt r^ du. spelt, 
OHG. sp'elta spelza'. loanword fr. 
late LAT. spelta (==r it. spelta, 
fr. ipeautre). 

spend vb. me. spende oe. "^spendan 
(in the sb. spendiijg and in the 
covci^owwA'&d-^for-spendari) : loan- 
word fr. LAT. dispenderevh.^i^^Ti^ , 
whence also o. spenden ohg. 

spew vb. me. spewe oe. spiwan 
= ohg. OSAX. sphvan o. speiett, 
GOTH, speiwan str. vb. (on. spyja, 
DU. spiiwe?i) : strong verbal \f spm 
as in LAT. spuere, lith. spiauti 'to 
spew'; cp. the cognate yf pj^^ 
'm. or. TTTVfiv, OSLOV. p/utz? 

spice sb. ME. spife fr. ofr. 
espice (fr.) =^ lat. species. 

spider sb. me. spither in Kent, 
for spinder oe. "^ spinner e\ derived 
fr. spin. 

spike sb. me. spik 'an ear of 
corn' fr. lat. spica. 

spill vb. ME. spille late oe. spillan 
fr. ON. spilla] ident. w. OE. spildan, 
OHG. spildan 'to spill': Teut. base 

spin vb. ME. spinne oe. spinnan 
str. vb. =n^ GOTH. OHG. spinna7t, 
G. DU. spinnen , on. spinna: all 
equivalent. The str. vb. teut. 
spinnan rests on a y^ spc7i in 
spindle me. oe. spinel —- ohg. 

spirit see sprite. 

spit ^ sb. ME. spite oe. spitu 
'roasting spit' = ohg. spiT,, DU. 
spit (riAL. spito, fr. ^pois repre- 




sent a teut. spitus) ; derived fr. 
the TEUT. adj. spitu- in ohg. 
spitzi G. spitz. 

spit- vb. ME. spitteo^. iespyUan\ 
ident. w. on. spytta with the by- 
form spyta^ LG. spyteuy g. speutzen ; 
see spout. 

spite sb. ME. j^// for despit; 
see despite. 

spleen sb. fr. lat. (or.) splen. 

split vb. Scandin. loanword; 
cp. DAN. splitte] cogn. w. du. 
splijten = MHG. sptt^en G. spleisseti 
(whence g. splitter). 

Spoil vb. ME. spvile fr. fr. spo- 
lier (lat. spoliare). 

spoke sb. ME. spoke oe. spdca 

= OSAX. Spika DU. j^^^z^, OHG. 

speihha G. speiche. All equivalent; 
Teut. base spaikon-. 

sponge sb. me. sponge fr. ofr. 
esponge (fr. iponge) ; source lat. 
spongia, whence also osax. spu?tsia 

DU. J;j2><?;?i'. 

spool sb. (not found in me. 
OE.) loanword fr. DU. spoel\ ident. 

W. OHG. SpMOlo G. Spule (iTAL. 

spuola is of TEUT. origin) : Teut. 
base spdldn-\ doubtful whether 
cogn. w. spin. 

spoon sb. ME. OE. spon fr. a 
TEUT. spdnu- {spenu-) in ohg. 
span a chip, splint', DU. DAN. 
spaan 'a chip', ON. spdnn sponn 
'a chip' (cp. span-new). Cogn. 
w. MHG. spd-t 'a chip': y/^spe. 

sport sb. for disport as spend 
for dispeftd; me. disport e vb. fr. 
OFR. se desporter 'to amuse one- 

spot sb. me. spot pi. spottcs'y 

not found in OE. (where splot 
pi. splottas 'a spot'); cp. odu. 
spotte DU. spot a blot'. 

spouse sb. ME. spouse fr. ofr. 
espouse (fr. spouse) ; source lat. 

spout vb. ME. spoute', cogn. w. 

sprat sb. me. sprot (pi. sprottes) 
OE. sprot (pi. sprottas)', cp. MLG. 
i;^r<?/ G. sprotte^ du. i;^r(?/. 

sprawl vb. :me. spraule oe. 
sprea7i'lian fr. a TEUT. sprauwalon. 

spread vb. me. spr^de oe. fg^J- 
sprckdan 'to extend' = ohg. g. 
spreiten, DU. spreiden\ deriv. fr. 
the str. vb. OHG. st>ritan \o be- 
come extendi d'. 

spring str. vb. me. springe OE. 
springan = OSAX. ohg. springan^ 
ON. springa (ital. springare is a 
TEUT. loanword): teut. \(^ spr'eng 
sprangy perhaps related to gr. 
Gn^gX^aifai 'to make haste'. 

Sprite sb. me. sprite fr. fr. 
esprit \ ident. w. spirit. Source 
LAT. spiritus. 

sprout vb. me. sproute (oe. 
^^sprutari) = DU. spruiten, LG. 
spruteny ofries. spruta 'to sprout'; 
cp. G. spriessen'. teut. \f"sprut 

spur sb. ME. spiLre oe. spura 
(spora); ident. w. OHG. sporo (g. 
sporn), DU. spoor, on. 5/^n (ital. 
spro7ie FR. iperon are of teut. 
origin) : Teut. base spuron- sporofi-. 
\fsp9r in OHG. osax. oe. spur- 
nan 'to kick against' under spurn 
and in G. spur DU. i^(?^r oe. spor 
*a foot-track'. 

spurge — stammer 


spurge sb. short for me. spourge : 
loanword fr. ofr. espurge (source 
LAT. cxpurgare). 

Spurn vb. me. spume oe. spur- 
nan str. vb. 'to kick against' = 
OHG. OSAX. spurnan 'to kick 
against': ARYAN yf sp9r in LAT. 
spei'-nere 'to despise', lith. splrti 
'to kick against', GR. GTictiQ^iVi 
SKR. sphur. Cp. spur. 

spy vb. ME. sple fr. ofr. e spier, 
which is of Teut. origin: OHG. 
spehon G. spdhen , odu. spien 
(ARYAN \fsp'ek in LAT. conspicio, 
speculum, skr. \f^spaf). 

square sb. me. square fr. ofr. 
esguarre 'a square'. 

squire sb. me. squire = es- 

squirrel sb. me. squiril ioisciirU 
fr. OFR. escurel (= fr. icureuit) ; 
source a lat. type scurellus 
{scuriolus) for LAT. sciurus 'a 

stable ^ sb. me. stable fr. ofr. 
estable (= fr. stable)', source 
LAT. stabulum 'abode, stable'. 

stable^ adj. me. stable fr. ofr. 
estable ~— lat. siabilis 'stable'. 

staff sb. me. staf (pi. staves) 
OE. stcef (pi. std/as) = on. sta/r, 
DU. staf, OHG. G. stab; cp. OHG. 
staben \o be stiff' and the adj. 
EASTFRIES. staf 'stiff', also lith. 
stebas 'staff — stdbas stobras] skr. 
\Pstabh 'be stiff. 

stag sb. ]VIE. stagge late oe. 
stag g a 'a stag'. 

stage sb. me. j*/^^-? fr. ofr. 
estage — - fr. /Az^d" (lat. type 

stain sb. me. .y/^z;?^ fr. ofr. 
desteindre = lat. dis-tingere, 

stair sb. me. ^/cz> properly 
stfier OE. stealer = odu. olg. 
steger DU. steiger 'stair': west- 
TEUT. ground-form staigir, deriv- 
ed fr. the Teut. verbal \^ stig in 
OE. stigan, OHG. stigan G. steigen, 
DU. stijgen 'to climb'; cogn. w. 
GR. nTtiytiv 'to march' , SKR. 
j/z^/z 'ascend' (cp. lat. ve-stigium 
'a foot-track'). 

stake sb. jme. stake oe. j'/«ifrtr 

=^ ODU. ^/^>^^ DU. .f/f2^>^, SWED. 

stake] cp. OFRIES. 5Az/^ 'stiff, G. 
stachel 'a prick, goad'. 

stalk ^ sb. ME. stalke, 'a dimin. 
form with suffixed k of me. .y/^/?; 
cp. OE. stela, ON. stil-kr 'a stalk', 
OHG. G. .?///, also GR. (xrfAfoV 'a 

stalk 2 vb. ME. stalke', /^ is a 
frequentative suffix; cp. OE. styl- 
lan 'to leap' (oe. "^stealcian). 

stall sb. ME. stal oe. s tea II fr. 
a Teut. base stalla- in on. stallr, 
OHG. .iTA?/ G. j/^?//, DU. .y/rt-/ 'stall, 
stable' (iTAL. stallo 'place' — stalla 
'stable are of Teut. origin). 
ARYAN base stadhlo- in lat. 
stabulum 'stable'. 

stallion sb. me. stalloun fr. 
OFR. estalon (fr. italori) = ital. 
Stallone', of Teut. origin (teut. 
stalla- 'stable' under stall). 

stammer vb. me. staviere deriv. 
fr. OE. stdmor adj. 'stammering'; 
cp. DU. stameren-stamelen, OHG. 
sta7Juilon ; \f sta?n in ON. sta7nr 
'stammering' — stama vb. 'to 
stammer', OHG. stainen 'stammer'; 


stamp — state 

cp. also GOTH, stmnnis 'stam- 
mering'. Cogn. W. OSAX. OHG. 
stU7n G. stunim 'dumb'. 

stamp vb. me. stampe (e. "^stam- 
pian) = DU. stampen^ OViG.stampfdn 
G. stamp/en (iTAL. stampare fr. 
Hamper are of teut. origin) : 
TEUT. \f stamp cogn. w. or. aisf-i- 
(jSiv 'to stamp*. 

stanch, staunch\\). me. staunche 
vb. fr. OFR. estancher. 

stand vb. me. stande oe. standan 
(prt. oe. me. stgd) = goth. osax. 
standan^ on. standa, ohg. stantan 
'to stand': a strong vb., common 
to the Teut. languages; teut. 
\P stap stad\ the nasal of the 
verb is orig. characteristic of 
the present tense). 

standard sb. me. standard (— 
DU. standaard^ fr. ofr. estandart 
= FR. itandard (ital. stendardo 
fr. LAT. extender e spread out'). 

stang sb. me. stange loanword 
fr. ON. stgng gen. stangar\ ident. 
w. ohg. stang a G. stange^ DU. stang 
and the umlauted oe. steng 'pole, 
stake ; source the vb. Oe. stingan 
'to stab, pierce' ; see sting. 

stanyell sb. (Shakesp.) oe. stdn- 
lella properly 'rock-yeller' ; cp. 

staple sb. me. stdpel oe. stdpol 
'a prop' = DU. LG. stapel, ofries. 
stapul block'. 

star sb. me. sterre oe. steorra 
-- ohg. osax. sterro, odu. mlg. 
sterre'. Teut. base sterron-\ ident. 
v/. GOTH, stairno, on. stjarna 
(hence me. sterne) , ohg. st'erno 
(g. stern ohg. stern). Cogn. w. i 

SKR. star, GR. nanJQf LAT. stella 
(for '^sterulaT). All equivalent. 

starboard sb. me. sterbgrd short 
for oe. steorbord] cp. on. stjorbordi 
'starboard' and oe. steor under 

starch sb. me. '^sterche oe. stereo 
(=r G. stcirke) : umlaut-derivative 
with palatalisation of stark. 

stare vb. me. stare oe. stdrian 
= on. star a, ohg. star en 'to stare'; 
derived fr. an adj. star a- in skr. 
j-M/rrti'fast, hard', GR. trrfofoc; hard': 
ARYAN \r sta 'to stand' ia ohg. 
stdn sten G. stehen, du. staan, lat. 
stare, gr. lordvia, skr. stM. 

stark adj. me. stark oe. stearc 
= OSAX. mhg. G. stark; cp. ON. 
(with umlaut) sterkr and goth. 
gastaiirknan 'to become dry': 
ARYAN sfstrg in LiTH. strigti 'to 
become stiff'. 

starling sb. me. Stirling short 
for oe. sterling : dimin. formation 
of OE. stcBr 'a starling' =: ohg. 
star a G. staar *a starling'; cogn. 
w. OE. st^'arn =i lat. sturnus. 

Start vb. ME. sterte (oe. "^ steor tan 
str. vb.) ; cp. odu. du. storten, 
OHG. sturzen G. sturzen: teut. \r 
stert stiirt. 

Starve vb. me. sterve oe. steor fan 
str. vb. 'die(ofhunger') = DU. 
sterven, osax. sterban, ohg, sterban 
G. sterben str. vb. 'to die'; cp. 
ON. starfi 'stiffness', EAST-FRIES. 
bestarfen 'be stiff'. The original 
meaning of the teut. \fsterb was 
probably 'be stiff. 

state sb. me. estdt fr. ofr. estat 
FR. itat = lat. status. 




Stay * vb. me. state fr. ofr. e stayer \ 
FR. stayer. 

stay'*^ sb. oe. sti^i: Teut. base 
staga-, whence fr. ^tay; cp. du. 
LG. stag. 

Stead sb. me. stede oe. stede fr. 
a Teut. base j-/^'^/- = goth. sta^s 
'a stead, place', oho. stai (o. ^-/^z^// 
'town), ON. stadr 'a place': ab- 
stract formation of the aryan \f^ 
sta 'to stand' (see stare)] cp. 
.LAT. statio, SKR. sthiti'^L standing'. 

steak sb. me. stcike (late oe. 
staecan vb. to roast') : borrowed 
fr. ON. steik 'a steak' — steikja 
'to roast'. 

steal vb. ME. stele oe. stelan str. 
vb. = GOTH, stilafi , ON. stela, 
OSAX. OHG. j/^/^;2 G. stehlen du. 
stelen: teut. y^j'/fc'/, perhaps ident. 
w. GR. GTSpfod^ai — OTf()i(Jy.aiv 

steam sb. me. stem oe. j-//<'7w fr. 
a Teut. base stau-wa- (du. stooni, 
eastfries. sto?n): \f^ stau, not 
found elsewhere. 

steed sb. me. stede oe. steda 'a 
stallion : umlaut-derivative of oe. 
stgd = E. stud. 

steel sb. me. ^/(?7^ oe. stele {style) : 
umlaut- formation by the side of 
the equival. ohg. stahal g. stahl, 
DU. staal^ ON. i-/*?/: Teut. base 
stahla- and (for OE. style^ stahlja-; 
ident. w. opruss. stakla- 'steel'. 

steep adj. me. st^p oe. steap adj.; 
ident. w. oe. st(ap -- on. staup 
'beaker' under stoup. — Umlaut- 
deriv. steeple me. stepel oe. stepel 
stypcl (fr. a Teut. base staiipila-', 
cp. on. stgpull 'a steeple'). 

steer ' sb. me. ster oe. steor =■ 

GOTH. Stilir, ON. Stjorr, OHG. OSAX. 

stior G. DU. siier 'a bull' ; ident. 
w. ON. pjorr (dan. /yr) : aryan 
base (s)teuro (oslov. turii 'steer'). 
But GR. ravQoq corresponds to 
oir. tarb (aryan base tar wo -y 
not cogn. w. steer). 

steer 2 vb. me. stere oe. steor an 
w. the umlauted byform styran 
=: OHG. stiuran G. steuern, du. 
sturen.] cp. ON. styri 'a rudder'; 
for a non-umlauted root-form see 
under starboard, teut. \f steiir 
also in goth. stiurjan\o confirm'. 

stem sb. ME. stem oe. st'emn stefn 
a stem of a tree': ablaut-relation 
to ON. stafn, OSAX. staff in = 
OHG. stafn G. stafHfn du. stafn: teut. 
ground -forms stemna- staffina-, 
cogn. w. IR. tamofi 'stem', \P sta 
'to stand' under stare. 

stench sb. me. stench oe. stejic 
fr. a tuet. base stank{w)i-; see 

step vb. OE. stappan steppafi str. 
vb. ; cp. DU. stappen^ ohg. stapfbn 
'to step' and oe. i'/<^d' i'/*^^/? *a 
step, pace'; probably related to 
OSLOv. stopa foot-track'? The 
root seems to be nasalized in 
stafn p. 

step in stepfather stepmother 
etc. ME. step-fader^ -moder short 
for o^. steop feeder, -mgdor ; ident. 
w. ON. stjfipfadir, -modir -- ohg. 
stiof-fater, -muoter g. st'ief rater, 
stieffnutter \ Teut. base steupa-, 
whence OHG. bist.ufen oe. dstypafi 
vb. 'bereave, deprive (of pa- 



Stern ^ adj. me. sterne oe. styrne\ 
Teut. base stirni- prop, sternu-, 
cogn. w. LAT. strenuus. 

stern 2 sb. me. sterne. fr. on. 
stjorn 'a steering'; see starboard 
and steer vb. 

stew vb. ME. stiiwe vb. fr. the 
sb. OFR. estuve = G. j-/?^^^; see 

steward sb. me. stiward (since 
the 1 2^'' cent.) ; cogn. w. oe. i"//(5)- 
wita 'house -holder. The first 
element is ident. w. sty. 

stick sb. ME. sticke oe. sticca -—- 
OHG. steeko G. stecken : Teut. base 
stikkon-, derived fr. the verbal \f 
stik in OHG. stehhan g. stechen. 

stiff adj. short for ME. OE. stif 
'stiff' = ON. stifrf DU. .f/?;/, G. 
stei/', cogn. w. lith. stipti 'to be- 
come stiff and lat. stipes 'a pole'. 

stile sb. ME. stile contracted 
from OE. stigolm^. stiyle = ohg. 
stigila *a stile'; derived fr. the 
teut. \r stfg under stair. 

still adj. ME. OE. stille = ohg. 

OSAX. Stilii G. stilly DU. Stil, OFKIES. 

stille: deriv. fr. the teut. \/^ j'/<?// 
'to stand firmly' in the factitive 
vb. ohg. g. stellen \o place' and 
in OHG. stollo 'post'. 

stilt sb. ME. stilte] ident. w. ohg. 
stelza G. stflze, DU. stelt\ all equi- 

sting vb. ME. stinge oe. stingan 
str. vb. — GOTH. {tis)stiggan, ON. 
stinga\ cp. OHG. stungon stung en 
'to sting': teut. \l^st'eng under 

Stink vb. me. stinke oe. stincan 
str. vb. :^ GOTH, stigqan, OHG. 

oSAX. stinkan g. du. stinken'. 
teut. \f stenq pre -TEUT. st'engw 
{t'engw in gr. vayyog 'rancid'). 

stir vb. ME. stire oe. styrian vb.; 
ident. w. the ablauted ohg. storen 
G. storen, du. storen, ofries. stera\ 
WEST-TEUT. bases sturjan staurjan ; 
y^^stur also in stormf 

Stirrup sb. me. stiroJ> properly 
sti-rgp OE. stii-rdp; ident. w. ohg. 
stega-reif G. stegreif{p\3. steegreep), 
ON. stig-reip. Second element of 
the compound is teut. raipa- = 
roapi for the i^' element (Teut. 
stiga- sT stig^ see stair. 

Stitch sb. me. sticche oe. slice 
early stici'. Teut. base stiki- 'a 
pricking' by the side of oe. stician 
'to prick'; cf. OHG. stehhan G. stechen 
(ohg. stih G. stich sb. 'pricking') > 
OSAX. stekan , du. steken. aryan 
y^stig in gr. arly/na — aviCoj; cf. 
SKR. y/^tij 'be sharp'. 

stith sb. ME. stith borrowed fr. 
on. stedi 'an anvil'. 

stock sb. ME. stock oe. stocc 
'trunk, log, pillory' == du. stol^, 
ohg. g. stock, ON. stokkr: Teut. 
base stokka- for stiikka-; teut. \f 
stuk in du. lg. stoken, me. stoke 
'to stab'; cogn. w. skr. ////'push'. 

stone sb. ME. stgn oe. stdn = 
GOTH, stains, on. steinn, OHG. G. 
.f/(?m, OSAX. .f/^-'^ DU. .y/^<?/? : Cogn. 
w. OSLOV. stena 'a wall' — steninu 
rocky', gr. Oiiov ovia 'pebble- 
stone'. Cp. stanyel. 

stool sb. ME. OE. Stpl = GOTH. 
Stols, ON. Stoll, DU. Stoel, OSAX. stol, 

OHG. stuol G. stuhl: Teut. base 
sto-la- deriv. fr. the Aryan \fsthd 




'to Stand' under stead. Cp. also 
osLov. stolu 'table', gr. otfjX')] 

stoop vb. ident. w. me. stoiipe 
OE. stupian \o curve downwards' 
= ODU. stuipen 'to bow*, on. stiipa 
SWED. stupa \o fair. 

Stop vb. ME. stoppe (oE. for- 
stoppian'io stop up, close') , ident. 
w. DU. stoppen, OHG. stop/on o. 
stop/en and w. ital. stoppare 'to 
stop up with tow'. Source low 
LAT. stuppare (lat. stuppa 'oakum'). 

stork vb. ME. stork oe. store = 
DU. stork^ OHG. stork G. storchy ON. 
siorkr ; cogn. w. GR. xogyoc, 'a 
large bird'. 

storm sb. me. oe. storm = on. 
stoi'mry DU. stor7n (oHG. G. stur?n) ; 
derived fr. \f star in stir or 
cogn. w. LAT. sternere 'to strew'. 

story sb. me. storie fr. ofr. estoire 
= LAT. historia. 

stoup stoop me. j'/6'/>: borrowed 
fr. ON. stgup 'beaker, cup' = stoop 
'a gallon': the sb. (teut. staupa- 
'beaker') rests on the adj. staupa- 
=^ steep. 

stout adj. me. stout ix. ofr. estout; 
ident. w. du. stout, ohg. g. 
stolz 'proud': source lat. stultus 

Stove sb. OE. stofa 'a bath' = 
OHG. stuba 'a bathing-room' (g. 
stuhe 'a room'), du. stoof\ ident. 
w. FR. ituve and osLOV. istuba 
'a room'. Source and history 
uncertain. Cp. stew. 

stow vb. me. stowe oe. stpwian 
'to restrain'; derived fr. OE. stow 
'a place' = lith. stova 'place'. 

straight adj. me. str eight oe. 
{d)streht\ part, of oe. streccean =^ 

strain vb. me. streine fr. ofr. 
estraindre = LAT. stringere and 
straitWY.. streit fr. ofr. estreit (fr. 
itroii) = LAT. strictus. 

strand sb. me. oe. strand 
'shore' = ON. strgnd (gen. 
strandar) 'margin, edge', du. lg. 
G. strand 'shore' (fr. strain of 
Teut. origin). 

strange adj. me. straunge fr. 
ofr. estrange (fr. itrange^ : source 
i.AT. extra?ieus. 

strangle vb. me. strangle vb. fr. 
OFR. estr angler = lat. strangulare. 

strap Sb. me. oe. strop (pp): 
loanword fr. LAT. struppus 'thong, 
fillet', whence also du. lg. strop 
and FR. itrope. 

straw sb. me. straw oe. streaw 
(with the byforms me. str^ oe. 
stre'a) : Teut. base strawa- = on. 
strdy DU. str 00, ohg. stro G. str oh; 
cp. the vb. strew oe. strewan, 
strej^ati = GOTH. straujany OHG. 
strouwen G. streuen, du. strooien 
'to strew', teut. \fstrau derived 
fr. the ARYAN \fster in gr. orngsv 
i'Vfii OT(j(ovvv/Lu and lat. sterno 
(stravi — stratum) , oslov. streti 
'to spread out'; cp. esp. lat. 
stramen 'straw'. 

straw-berry sb. me. straw-berie 
oe. streaw- berie; not cogn. w. 
straw. Probably connected w. 
lat. fragum 'straw-berry : ARYAN 
base sraghwo- = Teut. base 
strawa-; the 2"^^ elementin straw- 
berry might be explanatory. 




Stray vb. me. straie fr. ofr. j 
cstraier ; derived fr. lat. strata 
{=z street), 

streak sb. me, strike oe. strica 
'a line'; cp. goth. siriks 'a stroke 
with the pen' and strike. 

stream sb. me. strem oe. str^'am 
-= OHG. stroum (o. stroni)^ DU. 
strooni, ON. straiimr : Teut. base 
strau-nia-, derived fr. the aryan 
\f sru to flow' = SKR. \l^ srii 'to 
flow'; cp. GR. QkSii'y oiR. srut/i 
river' — sruaim 'stream' (lat. 
flmnen instead oi'^frwfien: aryan 

Street me. strete oe. stret street 
infl. strcete (whence on. strceti is 
borrowed) = osax. strata, DU. 
straat, OHG. strdzza G. strasse: 
WEST-TEUT. strata fr. lat. strata 
(so. via) prop, 'a paved way', 
whence ital. strada = fr. ^tr^e 
(OTK. srdt/i) 'a street'. 

strength sb. me. strengthe oe. 
siraigdu (goth. ^straggipa) derived 
fr. strong. 

Stress sb. force' short for me. 
distresse fr. ofr. destresse. 

stretch vb. me. streccheo'E. strec- 
eea// (Tpart. stre/it under straight)-^ 
ident. w. ohg. strecchen G. strecken, 
DU. strekken'. teut. type strakkjan\ 
cp. OHG. stracken 'be straight and 
the adj. du. lg. strak 'straight' 
(g. stracks 'immediately'). 

strew see under straw, 

stride vb. me. stride oe. stridan 
vb. —^ mlg. striden 'to stride' : 

\fstl'id. j 

strife sb. me. strif fr. ofr. | 

estrif, which rests on a Teut. sb. 
= OSAX. strid, OHG. strtt G. streit. 

Strike vb. me. strike oe. strican 
str. vb. 'to rub, wipe' = ofries. 
strikaf DU. strijken, OHG. strihhan 
G. streichen] teut. y^i'/r/^, ARYAN 
\fstrig in lat. stngilis, OSLO v. 
strigq — stristi 'to shear'. Cp. 

string sb. me. oe. streng fr. a 
TEUT. base strangi- in on. strengr, 
DU. streng y OHG. G. stra?ig; cogn. 
w. the adj. strong, 

strive vb. ivie. stri7'e fr. ofr. 
estriver vb. (ofr. estrif under 

stroke sb. me. strgk and stroke 
vb. oe. strdcian fr. \P strlk under 

strong adj. ivie. oe. strong fr. 
TEUT. base strangu- in ohg. Strang 
strengi G. DU. streng (g. sic/i 
anstrengen vb.) ; cogn. w. LAT. 
stringer e 'to draw tight, compress'. 

stub sb. me. stubbe with the 
umlauted byform OE. stybb 'a 
stub'; cp. LG. stubbe, du. stobbe, 
ON. stubbi and GR. orvnog 'a stub, 
stump'. ARYAN \^ stup, nasalized 
in stump. 

Stubble sb. me. stoble stuble fr. 
OFR. estouble ; ident. w. OHG. 
stupfala DU. G. stoppel'. source 
vulgar LAT. stiip{i)la instead of 
LAT. stipula 'stubble'. 

stud sb. short for me. oe. stod 
'a stud' (cp. the umlaut-deriva- 
tion steed) = ON. stod, ohg. 
stuot, Cp. osLov. Russ. stado, 
LITH. stodas 'a herd of horses'. 

study vb. me. studie prop, st/idic 




vb. fr. OFR. estudier (fr. Hudier) 
= LAT. siudere. 

stuff sb. fr. OFR. estoffe = FR. 
^^q/fe (whence also G. sfo^, DU. 

stump sb. ME. s^ump s/omp; 
ident. w. du. stomps ohg. g. siumpf; 
probably connected w. stub'. 
KKSLM^ yf stumb: stu(m)py also in 
ON. stufr stufi a stump'. 

stun vb. ME. stufie stone OE. 
stUnian 'to resound' ; cp. the 
umlauted on. stymja 'to groan', 
G. stoncn, DU. steiien'. aky an \/^stPn 
sten in gr. avtveiv, oslov. stenjq, 
SKR. sta/z 'to groan, resound'. 

Sturgeon me. stourgeoun fr. fr. 
esturgeon; source a teut. base 
sturjon- in ohg. stufio (g. ^/Mr, 
DU. steur) = OE. styria 'a stur- 
geon'. Doubtful whether cogn. 
w. stir. 

Stutter vb. fr. me. stotc stute vb. ; 
cp. G. stottem 'to stammer'. All 
derivations of \'^ staut in GOTH. 
stautan, ON. stauta 'to beat, strike' 
— - OHG. sto-^yin G. stossen. aryan 
\^{s)tud in LAT. tundere \o beat', 
SKR. \f tud 'to strike'. 

sty^ sb. ("sty for swine') me. 
stie OE. stii infl. sti^e 'a pig-sty'; 
ident. w. ohg. stia 'a pig-sty', 
ON. sti {svin-stl)y SWED. {svin)stia 
'a sty'. 

sty2 sb. ('sty in the eye') cp. 
OE. stziend; equivalent w. lg. 
stige, NORW. stig. 

subdue vb. me. subdue properly 
sudiie fr. OFR. souduir ~~ lat. 

subtle adj. me. sotel sutel sutil 

fr. OFR. sotil (fr. subtil) = lat. 

succeed vb. me. sucgede fr. fr. 
succeder = lat. succedere. 

succour vb. me. sucoure socoure 
fr. OFR. soccorre =- lat. succurrere. 

such pron. me. such earlier 
swuch S7vich OE. swylc swilc: Teut. 
base swuUk in OSAX. sulik^ ohg. 
sulih (g. solcH) ; as shown by 
GOTH. S7valeiks , the i^' element 
of the compound rests on i-^- = 
OE. szad. 

suck vb. short for me. souke 
OE. silcan str. vb. with the byform 
OE. OHG. sugan G. sangen; cogn. 
w. LAT. sugere'. aryan sT^ag stik. 

sudden adj. me. sodein prop. 
sodain fr. FR. soudain (lat. type 
*sul>itanus for subitaneus 'sudden'), 

suffer vb. me. suffre soffre fr. 
FR. souffrir (lat. suffer re). 

sugar sb. me. silgre slier e fr. 
FR. Sucre, whence also odu. suker 
DU. suiker\ cp. G. zucker fr. ital. 

sum sb. ME. sunmie somme fr. 
FR. somme. 

summer sb. me. sumer soi?ier 
OE. sHrnor fr. a Teut. base sumaru- 
in OSAX. OHG. sumar g. somfner, 
DU. somer, on. sumar. Cogn. w. 
AVEST. hamy oiR. sam, cymr. haf7i 
haf, ar:men. amarn : all equivalent. 
Cp. also SKR. samd 'year'. 

summit sb. fr. fr. sommet (rests 
on LAT. summus). 

summon vb. me. somone fr. 
OFR. so mooter (lat. submonere 'to 
remind privately'). 


sun — sweat 

sun sb. ME. sunne Sonne OE, sunne 
infl. sunnan ^^ goth. siinno, OHG. 
OSAX. sunna G. so?tne, du. zon'. 
TEUT. base simnon-. 

supper sb. me. soper super fr. 
FR. souper. Cp. dinner, 

sure adj. me. silr properly seilr 
fr. OFR. sur seiir FR. sur {= lat. 
securusy whence also sicker\ 

surgeon sb. me. sur gen [surgein) 
fr. OFR. cirurgien (lat. type chi- 
rurqianus). — Hence surgery me. 
surgerie : LAT. chirurgia. 

swaddle vb. me. swathele oe. 
sivcedeiian vb. : derived fr. OE. 
swcedel bandage'; ident. w. the 
umlauted ohg. swedil 'bandage'; 
see swathe. 

swain sb. me. sivimi^xoy^. swein: 
borrowed in the 1 1 ^^ cent. fr. on. 
sveinn; ident. w. OE. swan 'man, 
warrior', OHG. swein 'servant'. 

swallow sb. (the bird) me. 
swalowe OE. swealwe = ohg.. 
swalawa G. schwalbe; ident. w. 
osAX. swala, on. svala 'a swallow': 
Teut. base swalwdn-\ if for 
^swalgwon-y cogn. w. GR. aXy.xnm''^ 

swallow vb. WE.. ,swel{o)we ear- 
lier swelgen oe. swelgan str. vb. 
^=. OSAX. OHG. swelgan (swelhan) 
G. schwelgen, du. zwelgen (on. 
svelgja) : Teut. verbal y^ sw'elh 
swelgy ARYAN \fswelk. 

swamp sb. cogn. w. ohg. g. 
sumpfy DAN. swed. sump 'a swamp'. 

swan sb. me. oe. swan fr. a 
TEUT. swana- =-- on. s%)anr\ cp. 
ohg. swana g. schivan du. zwaan. 
Cogn. w. LAT. sonar e (properly 
*S2>onare)y SKR. \fsvan 'to sound'. 

sward sb. me. swarde oe. swear d 
infl. swearde 'the skin of bacon" 
= ODU. zwaerde, mhg. swarte G. 
schwarte 'skin of bacon', on. 
svgrdr 'skin'. The modern E. 
meaning 'green turf is due 
to Northern influence; cp. on. 
jardar-svgrdr 'earth-sward', gras- 
svgrdr 'grass-sward (and mlg. 
grtrnswarde, dan. grensvcer^. 

swarm sb. me. swarm oe. 
swear ?n ---; on. svarmr , ohg. 
sivarm G. schwarfn (du. Z7iierm) : 
all equivalent. Cp. the skr. 
\f svar 'to sound? 

swart adj. me. swart oe. sweart 
= GOTH. swartSf on. svartr, DU. 
zwart, OHG. swarz g. schwarz] 
Cogn. w. LAT. sordes (properly 
'^svordes^ 'dirt': aryan \p sword. 

swath sb. me. swath oe. swcEp 
'footprint, track' (with the by- 
form oe. swadu track'); cp. 
MLG. sivat — swade, G. schwaden, 
DU. zwaad 'a row of mown grass': 
Teut. base swapa. 

swathe vb. me. swathe oe. swd- 
dian\ cp. swaddle. 

swats (Scotch) 'beer' (dE.swata\ 
derived fr. \f swot under sweet. 

swear vb. me. sw(re oe. sweriaft 
(prt. ME. oe. swm-) str. vb. = 
OHG. OSAX. swerian G. schworen, 
DU. zweren, ON. sverja str. vb. ; 
cp. GOTH, swaran. The original 
meaning of the teut. \f swar 
was probably 'to declare, as 
shown by the derivative answer. 

sweat vb. short for me. sw(te 
OE. swcetan) derived fr. OE. siadt 
ME. swpte (e. sivcat sb. influenced 

sweep — swoop 


by the vb. sweai) = DU. Z7vcet, 
ON. sveiti^ OHG. sweiiy G. schweiss'. 
TEUT. \f^swait (swit in G. schwitzen 

OHG. S7vizzai,) = ARYAN \f SWOid 

swid in SKR. s^svid to sweat', 
GR. i^Qwq 'sweat' — iiiUiv to 
sweat', LAT. siidor (orig. "^svoidos) 
'sweat', LETT, swidrs 'sweat'. 

s^veep vb. me. swipe oe. swdpan 
3^ p. sg. pres. t. swcepd to sweep' : 
TEUT. \f swaip under swoop. 

sweet adj. me. oe. swete adj. 
with the non-umlauted adverb 
OE. swote (me. S€te adj. adv.) ; 
ident. w. on. scetr (orig. "^svceti'), 

OSAX.S7£/0fi, -DV.ZOety OB.G.s(7V)U07^p 

G. silss: Teut. base swoti-^ orig. 
swotu- ^(c^, GOTH, suts 'sweet), 
ARYAN base swddu in skr. svadti, 
GR. advq Tjdvc, LAT. si/dms (orig. 
*suddu-is). Cp. S7iiats. 

swell vb. ME. swelle oe. sw'ellan 
str. vb. = OS AX. OHG. sw'ellan 
G. schwellen, du. zwellen, on. svella 
str. vb. :'teut. verbal ^"^ swell 
(also in goth. ufswallems sb.). 

swerve vb. me. siverve oe. 
sweorfan str. vb. to scrub, file'; 
ident. w. OSAX. swerfan, DU. 
zwerven , GOTH, swairban , on. 
sv'erfa : teut. y" swerb , aryan 
\l^ swerbh in russ. sverbeti^ OSLOV. 
svi'iibeti 'to itch'. 

swift adj. me. oe. j-7£////' (oe. 
swift}); p. participle of oe. swifan 
'to move quickly' = on. ^z///i7, 
formed by suffix /<:^ (see old, 
cold, loud). Cogn. w. du. 
zweven, ohg. sw'ebbi G. schweben. 

s\vill vb. me. .fwz/^ OE. swtllan 
(3^ p. sg. pres. t. swiled). 

swim vb. ME. swmime oe. swi?7i- 
man str. vb. = osax. OHG. 
swi7nman str. vb. G. schwinwien'y 
ident. w. on. symja (for orig. 
^^swumjati) 'to swim': teut, 
\^ swem {sum under sund). 

swine sb. me. oe. S7(jin =~. 
OSAX. OHG. sic'tn G. schwein du. 
zwijn, on. svin, goth. swein\ 
Teut. base swina-, properly su- 
-ina-, derived fr. ARYAN su 'a 
pig' in oe. osax. ohg. su 'a sow' 
=:^ LA.T. su-s, GR. i-g ov-g. The 
suffix -ma- in TEUT. S7mna- is 
diminutive , as shown under 
chicken, maiden. See also sow, 

swing vb. ME. swinge oe. swin- 
gan str. vb. — - OSAX. OHG. swin- 
gan G. sckivingcn, — swinge me.' 
swenge oe. swencgean \o beat, 
shake' causal of swing \ teut. 
\p sweng sivang {swangw in goth. 
afswaggwjan ?) 

swink vb. me. swinke oe. swin- 
can str. vb. Ident. w. swing} 

sw^oon vb. ME. swgune earlier 
swpgnie?t', derived fr. the p. parti- 
ciple OE. leswpgen 'in a swoon' 
— dswogen 'choked'; allied to 
GOTH, gaswogjan swogatjan 'to 
sigh', OE. swogan 'to sough, sigh : 
ARYAN sfswbgh swdgfi in lith. 
svagcti 'to sound'. 

swoop vb. ME. swgpe oe. swdpan 
(identical w. sweep). 

sword sb. isn^. swerd o^. sweord 
(swurd) —-- OSAX. OFRIES. sw'erd, 
DU. zwaard, on. sverd, OHO. sw'ert 
G. schwert: aryan base swerdho- 
(in LAT. sorbus 'service-tree'?). 




table sb. ME. idMe fr. FR. ^a/?/e 
-= LAT. tabula (whence OE. tcefel 
^chess-board' =— ohg. zabal 
'board') ; cp. also G. DU. ta/el. 

tackle sb. me. takei\ ident. w. 
MLG. takel 'equipment' (g. swed. 
take I, DAN. takkel), 

tadpole short for toad-poll. 

tail sb. ME. tail oe. tceiel ^^ 
OHG. zagal 'a tail", ON. tagl 
'a tail', GOTH, tagl 'hair'. 

tailor sb. me. tailloiw fr. ofr. 
tailleor - — fr. tailleiir. 

take vb. ME. take late oe. 
(ii^*^ cent.) tdcan borrowed fr. 
ON. taka str. vb. taking the place 
of OE. niman (under }ii7nble^\ cp. 
cast :— ON. kasta supplanting oe. 
weoi'pan (under warp). Ident. w. 
GOTH, tekan str. vb. 'to touch': teut. 
\f tek tak\ pre-TEUT. xT/^ dag} 

tale sb. ME. tale oe. talu =r^ 
DU. taal language", ohg. ' zdla 
G. zahl\ cp. ON. tal 'a tale'. Cp. 
the TEUT. verb taljan in oe. 
tellan me. telle e. tell — ohg. 
zellan (cp. GOTH, talzjati). Hence 
derived talk vb. me. talke vb. 
(oe. '^talcian "^taleciari)] k is 
suffixed as in hark. 

tall adj. ME. tal\ probably oe. 
let^l 'swift, prompt' with thtj by- 
form geatol{lic) 'swift'. Ident. w. 
OHG. gizal'. Teut. base ga-tala-. 

tallow IVIE. talugh earlier ^talh 
= MLG. talch (g. talg^ du. tallz)^ 
ON. tolgr. Cogn. w. goth. tul- 
gus 'fast'? 

tame adj. me. tdtne oe. ta^n 
(infl. tamo) =:= on. tamr, DU. 
tarn, OHG. zam G. zahm'. Teut. 
base ta7fia- (hence derived goth. 
ta7?ijan 'to tame' ^^^ ON. temja, 
OHG. zcmmen). aryan \p dotn in 
LAT. domare 'to tame', gr. da[,idv, 
SKR. damdy 'to tame'. 

tan vb. me. tanne oe. tannian 
vb.; cogn. w. fr. tan 'oak-bark' 
(lat. tannare in the 8 ^ cent. 
r-= FR. tannery cp. du. /cz^/z'bark'). 
Hence e. tawny r= fr. tanni. 

tang sb. (sea-weed) fr. dan. 
tang = ON. pang (ppngull). 

tap sb. me. tappe oe. ttjsppa 
'a tap' =: OHG. zap/o G. zap/en, 
DU. /<?/, ON. tappi (fr. /^/^ /^/<?;2 
are Teut. loanwords). 

taper sb. me. tdper oe. tdpor: 
properly *papur, loanword fr. LAT. 
papyruSy which appears in Rom. 
dialects as 'taper'. 

tar sb. me. terre\ cp. oe. teoru 
(tyrwe) 'tar' and DU. (g.) teer, 
ON. tjara] ident. w. lett. darwa 
tar'. The group rests on Aryan 
deru rzrz tree', tar orig. tar- 

tare sb. me. tdre\ Teut. base 
tar{w)dn also in odu. taruwe 
DU. MLG. tarwe. Cogn. w. SKR. 
durva (a kind of grass) and 
LITH. dirva 'field'. 

tarn sb. me. terne fr. on. tjgrn 
(g. tjarnar) 'a tarn, pool'. 

tarry vb. me. terie oe. terian 
tei'ian 'to vex' = du. lg. tergen. 

tart — teen 


tart sb. ME. tarte fr. ofr. tarte 
■=- FR. toui'te (whence du. taart, 
G. torte). 

task sb. ME. tdsk(e) fr. ofr. 
tasque = FR. tache; source LAT. 
taxare, whence also tax. 

tatter sb. a Scand. loanword 
fr. ON. tgtra?' pi. tatters'; already 
ME. tatered 'ragged'. 

tattle vb. fr. ME. tat ere vb. 

taw, tew vb. me. tewe\ oe. 
tdwian teawian means prop, 'pre- 
pare and corresponds with du. 
toiiwen \o curry leather, ohg, 
zouwen make, prepare', goth. 
'taujan 'do': teut. \/~ tau\ see 

tawny see tan. 

tax vb. fr. fr. taxer ^=^ lat. 
taxare; ident. w. task. 

tea sb. =^ FR. /^, G. t/iee: source 
CHINESE t^; the word became 
European in the 2"^ half of the 
17'*^ cent. 

teach sb. me. t^'e/ie (prt. taughte) 
OE. tckc-ean (prt. tcehte) ; cogn. w. 
token OE. tdcen\ cp. OHG. zeigbn 
G. zeigen. aryan \^ dik. 

team^ sb. 'family' me. tern oe. 
team family, offspring' ^—^ mlg. 
torn 'progeny' (with the um- 
lauted vb. teem me. teme oe. 
ti'man tyman 'to teem) : Teut. 
base tau(h)??ta- fr. \^ttih in goth. 
tiuhany ohg. ziohan G. Ziehen. 
ARYAN \J^ duk in LAT. ^-/^^t?. See 
the following word. 

team''^ sb. (team of oxen) me. 
teme itevie oe. i^etpne 'team of 
oxen'; derived fr. teut. tau{h)ma- 
'rein, bridle' (in on. taiimr ohg. 

zoum G. zauni). Root the same 
as in teain ^ 

tear vb. me. t^re oe. teran str. 
vb. :=- GOTH, gatairan to break'. 
ARYAN \^der in skr. ^^r 'to burst, 
break asunder', gr. dsoHv 'to 
flay', LITH. difti 'to flay'. 

tear sb. me. te'r oe. tear: teut. 
/«;//;-- in on. tar, ohg. zahar (g. 
zdhre) ; cp. onorthumbr. tcehher 
and according to Verner's law 
goth. /rt-^r. ARYAN base dakru 
in GR. ()6fX(;v, welsh daigr (per- 
haps skr. ^^;-2/ and lat. lacrinia 
are cognate). All equivalent. 

tease vb. (me. tcse) oe. tchsan 
'to pull to pieces , to tease 
(wool) with the non-uml.iuted 
byform me. tche (oe. ^tdsan or 
*tdsian). teut. strong verbal 
yftais in OHG. zeisan 'to tease' 
^— DU. teezen. — Cogn. w. teasel 
(plantname) me. icsel oe. tcssel 
^— OHG. zeisila 'thistle'. 

teat sb. ME. tete fr. fr. tette\ 
ident. w. oe. titt — mhg. g. 

ted vb. fr. ON. tedja\ ident. w. 
ohg. G.(dial.)s^//^/2 'to spread'. As 
shown by the p. participle GOTH. 
un-gatass 'undisposed', there exi- 
sted also a str. vb. ^tadjan. aryan 
s{^dat in gr. dariouai '1 divide, 

teem^ vb. 'to bring forth' see 

teem^ vb. to empty' see toom. 

teen sb. me. tene oe. teona 
'suffering, insult' -— OSAX. tiono 
'injury'; cp. ofries. tiuna 'to hurt.' 


tell — thnt 

tell vb. ME. telle (prt. tglde) oe. 
tellan (prt. tdlde^ under tale. 

tempest sb. me. tcmp(st fr. 
OFR. tempeste = fr. tenipete. 
Source vulgar lat. iufipesta for 

temple sb. me. temple oe. tempel 
fr. LAT. te7fiplu7n. 

temples me. te^nples fr. ofr. 
temples (fr. tempi) plur. = lat. 
tempora the temples'. 

tempt vb. ME. tempte vb. fr. 
OFR. tempter (fr. tenter) =^ lat. 

ten num. me. ten rests on an 
unrecorded OE. '^'teon, instead of 
which an umlauted tpi is found. 
Teut. base tehun t'ehan in goth. 
taihun, osax. t'ehan ^ du. tien^ 
OHG. 2^^^z« G. zehn. Ident. w. 
SKR. ^^^fl;, GR. t)gK«, lat. decem, 
oiR. ^/^7V>^. — The suffix -teen 
(in thirteen etc.) me. -//^^ oe. 
-tene -tyne is the inflected form 
of the numeral ten. — The suffix 
-ty (in twenty etc.) represents 
the sb. GOTH, tigus 'decade' (in 
saihs tig jus = on. sextigir) ; cp. oe. 
pritil sixtil = OHG. driiug s'ehzug 
G. dreissig sechzig. For the g 
in GOTH, tigus cp. or. c)^xat,- 

tender adj. me. tendre fr. fr. 
tendre\ source lat. tener. 

tense sb. fr. ofr. tens (=r= fr. 
temps) = LAT. tempiis. 

tent sb. ME. tente (=r du. tent) 
fr. OFR. tente =rr vulgar lat. tenta\ 
cp. lat. tentorium. 

term sb. me. /^'rw^ fr. fr. terme\ 
source lat. terminus. 

terror sb. fr. fr. terreur = 
LAT. teiror{em). 

test sb. meant properly in al- 
chemy 'a vessel for testing gold' 
and rests on me. test{e) = lat. 
testa, whence also fr. tete ofr. 
teste Viead' with the borrowed 
E. testy. 

tether sb. short for me. teder\ 
doubtful, whether genuine Eng- 
lish or of Scand. origin. Cp. 
ON. tjodr = OHG. ziotar a tether" : 
Teut. base teudra-. 

tetter sb. me. oe. teter fr. a 
Teut. base tetru- ■= aryan 
dedru-. Cp. OHG. zitaroh 'tetter' 
and SKR. dadru 'a kind of lep- 
rosy', LITH. dedervine 'tetter'. 

than conj. me. thanne oe. panne 
— OHG. MHG. damie\ derived ft. 
the article the. 

thane sb. me. thein (the modern 
spelling a instead of ai — as 
in rain — is of Scotch origin) 
OE. p'e-yen'. Teut. base p'egna- in 
ON. p'egn, oSAX. thegan, ohg. 
th'egan 'a thane, warrior' (in the 
Bavarian dialect 'a male child'). 
Ident. w. GR. TtY.vov 'child' ; 
ARYAN \ftek in GRi t/ktw (aorist 

thank vb. me. thanke oe. pan- 
cian poncian wk. vb. = ohg. 
dankon G. du. danken, oi<i. pakka 
'to thank'. Root as in think. 

that pron. me. that oe. pcet = 
OSAX. that, OHG. daz g. das (dass) : 
ARYAN form to-d (fr. the stem 
to under the) =rr skr. tad, OR. 
to (for *TO-d); cp. LAT. istud illud 




aliiid show the d as neutral 

thatch sb. properly and dia- 
lectical thak ME. thak OE. pac 
= OHG. dah G. dachy on. ^ak\ 
Teut. base paka-. Cp. the wk. 
vb. TEUT. pakjan in oe. peccean 
= OHG. deckan G. decke?i^ du. 
dekken. Aryan \^ /^^^ in lat. 
tegerej cogn. w. yf steg in gr. 
avsyeir, skr. ^Mrt'^, lith. ^/^^/Z 
'to cover ; cp. gr. TGyog ovi-yoc. 
*a roof, OIR. kg 'a house'. 

thaw vb. ME. thdwe oe. pdwian ; 

cp. OHG. douwen G. taiien, du. 

. dooien, ON. peyja: \f pan paw 

properly ^pagw^ ARYAN \ftaq in 

GR. xr]Y.Hv to melt'? 

the article me. //^^'late OE. ;5^ 
(oe. j^' influenced by the inflected 
stem pa- in thai). ARYAN base 
to- in SKR. /"a--;/? =r GR. rc-r, 
SKR. /a-d GR. to etc. Cp. than^ 
thaty theivy thercy they. 

theft sb. me. thefte short for 
/ey/<? "^xo^. pefthe'. abstract deri- 
vation fr. thief. Cp. the um- 
lauted oe. pyfp infl. pyfpe 'theft' 
= OFRIES. thiufthe. 

their pron. me. their{e) borrowed 
fr. ON. peira. — then me. thenne 
OE. p(En?te ident. w. than. — 
thence adv. me. thennes extended 
for thenne thanne = OE. pa?ione 
prop, panon =^ OHG. dannan 
(g. IW71 dannen). — - there adv. 
me. there, ther pE. per /^r-s==: 
OHG. diir (g. da). — they pron. 
ME. thei they, borrowed in the 
11*^ cent. fr. ON. peir, 

thick adj. me. thicke probably" 

English Etymology. 

borrowed fr. ON. pykkr {pjgkkr) ; 
the corresponding OE. /?VVV would 
have changed into ME. ^thicche 
e. "^thitch. Perhaps ME. thicke 
is blended w. oe. piece = ohg. 
dicki G. dick DU. dik. Teut. base 
piqu- =^ ARYAN base tigu- in 
OIR. Hug 'thick'. 

thief sb. ME. thef (pi. thanes) 
oE. peof (pi. peofas) ~-- goth. 
piubsy ON. pjofry ohg. diob g. 
dieby DU. ^?(/: Teut. base peuba-y 
by Verner's law changed fr. 
original '^peufa-, as shown by 
ohg. diuva 'theft'. 

thigh sb. ME. theigh earlier 
theh OE. peoh = ohg. dioh, du. 
dijy on. Pjo : Teut. base peuha-y 
ARYAN base ^teuko- , cogn. w. 
lith. taukas 'fat of animals, 
marrow', OSLOV. tukil 'fat'. 

thimble sb. me. thi?nbel short 
for thimel oe. pymel 'thumb-stall': 
diminutive of oe. puma = 

thin adj. me. thinne oe. pynne 
= - OHG. dunni G. diimiy DU. ^/z/;/, 
ON. punnr: Teut. base punnu- 
properly punu- punw- , ARYAN 
base t9nu in SKR. tanu, lat. 
tenuis, cymr. teneu; cp. gr. 
ravaoq (all equivalent). Aryan 
Y" /^// in .SKR. tan 'to stretch', 
o^.pennan, ohg. dennan G. dehnen, 
' goth. panjan 'to stretch out'. 

thine thy pron. me. M/// oe. 
^//2 =:r GOTH. peinSy ON. //>2;r, 
OHG. ^f« G. deiuy DU. ^///>/; teut. 
pina- formed by suffix "ina- (cp. 
SKR. tdvakma 'thine') fr. teut. 
pu ■=-- thou. 



thing — thousand 

thing sb. ME. thing oe. ping 
^-= ON. J>ing, OHG. G. DU. {/ing: 
Teut. base pinga- pmga-\ pro- 
bably ident. w. GOTH. /^/Af 'time' 
= LAT. tempus (for ^fenquusl). 

think vb. me. thenke {thenchen) 
OE. pencean {3'' s^. prs. t. pencp^ 
= GOTH, pdgkjany ON. pekkjii, 
OSAX. thenkian, oho. deikan g. 
denkcn. Cp. goth. pugkjan ^=- 
OSAX. thimkian, ohg. dunkan G. 
diinkeny OE. pyncean *to seem\ 
ARYAN \r/<?;2^f/^^/^; in LAT. (Prae- 
nestine) to7igb-e 'to think'. 

third see three. 

thirst vb. me. MZ/j/^ oe. pyrstan 
and thirst sb. from the vb. ; 
the sb. is me. thiirst oe. purst 
= teut. purs-tu- = ohg. g. 
durst ^ DU. dorst\ cp. on. porsti, 
GOTH, ^aurstei sb. 'thirst', teut. 
verbal \(^ pers in goth. gapalrsan 
'to be dry' — paursus 'dry' 
(oe. pyrre = ohg. ^z^rW G. 
diirr). AKY AN y/^ters trs in skr. 
trs 'to be thursty' — /r//^' 'gree- 
dy', gr. TbQamivw, LAT. torreo. 

thirteen, thirty see three. 

this pron. ME. //^/"^ earlier /^<?j | 
oe. /fi- masc. — /» neutr. — /<?<?jr 
fern. ; ident. w. ohg. dese G. 
dieser, du. ^<?2r^. The article 
the (teut. pa- under that) is 
extended by goth. sai lo', as 
shown by on. (runic) sd-si 'this 
here' (su-si fern.). 

thistle sb. me. thistel oe. pistel 
==^ ON. pistill, DU. distel, LG. 
distel, ohg. ^zi"/// G. distel. 

thither adv. me. thider oe. 
//V/^r (orig. pceder') ; derived fr. 

the stem pa- in />^(7/. Cp. 
goth. papro 'thence', on. padra 

thole sb. ME. thol oe. pol (11): 
Teut. base polla- in on. pollr^ 
DU. doly G. rudderdolle, Aryan 
base t9lno- (= skr. ///;/<?; 'quiver' 
for "^tulnd) fr. y"/^/ — - skr. v^^/^^ 
'to lift up', LAT. tollere. 

thong sb. ME. thong orig. thwong 
OE. pwong 'thong'; cp. ON. pvengi. 
TEUT. \f pwang. 

thorn sb. me. thorn oe. porn 
sb. := ON. porn, OHG. G. ^^r;?, 
DU. doom] cp. GOTH, pailrnus. 
Ident. w. OSLOV. trinii 'thorn'; 
cp. SKR. trna 'grass'. 

thorough ME. thorow oe. porh\ 
orig. preposition =- OE. purh, 
OHG. duruh G. durch, goth. 

thou pron. me. thou oe. pu = 

GOTH, pu, OHG. du (g. ^«) : 

ARYAN ground- form tH in lat. 
///, GR. TVf SKR. tu-am. Cp. 

though conj. me. though earlier 
thoh'. Scand. loanword of the 
11*^ cent. (on. p6 orig. ^poH). 
Corresponding to OE. p(ah = 
GOTH, pduh; cp. OHG. doh g. 
DU. doeh. 

thought sb. me. thought oe. 
lepoht: Teut. base ga-panhtu-, 
derived fr. \[^pank in pink. 

thousand num. me. thousand 
thousend oe. pusend = ohg. 
dusunt G. tausendy du. duizend, 
ON. pilsund pushundy goth. pii- 
sundi'y in the Lex Salica, we 
find M^i'-^>^^/{W^ 'thousand'. Teut. 

thrall — throng 


base fus-hund- ^ compound of 
hund r=r hundred^iih. an ARYAN 
ills 'great, much' (cp. skr. imn 
'much', iavas 'might'). lith. 
tiikstantis ^^ OSLO v. tysqsta 'thou- 
sand' correspond to the Teut. 

thrall sb. me. thral (pi. ihralles) 
late OE. prcell {prdl) prop. prcklL 
fr. ON. prMl 'a thrall' (Teut. base 
prahila-) ; cogn. w. ohg. drigil 
*a slave' and w. goth. pragjan 
*to run' = OR. rgiyuv 'to run'. 

thrash, thresh vb. me. thresshe 
OE. perscan str. vb. = goth. 
priskan, ohg. dr'eskan G. dreschen 
(du. dorschen), ON. preskja. teut. 
\(^ presk (iTAL. trescare is of 
Teut. origin); cp. lith. traszkHi 
'to rattle, clap'? 

thrave sb. me. thrdve thre've: a 
Scand. loanword; cp. ON. pre/l, 
DAN. trave 'a number of sheaves'. 

thread sb. me. thrc'd oe. prdd 
■= ON. prdd7'^ OHG. drcit G. draht^ 
DU. draad. The dental is suffix. 
Derivative of \p^ prd (pre) in OE. 
prdwan = throw. 

threat sb. short for me. pr(t 
OE. prcat] cogn. w. oe. prutian 
pr(atian wk. vb. 'to threaten'; 
cogn. w. OE. prcaian wk. vb. 
'to threaten' = OHG. drewen 
dromven (g. drohen). 

three num. me. thre oe. preo 
(f. n. — pri m.); ident. w. goth. 
preis, ON. prir, DU. driCy ohg. 
dri G. ^r^2 : aryan base tri- in 
SKR. tri (nom. tray as), gr. rptTg, 

LAT. /;r.f, OIR. /r/, OSLOV. RUSS. 

trif LITH. /r^i". — The ordinal 

third me. thridde oe. pridda 
corresponds to GOTH, pridja, 
on. pridi, DU. derde, ohg. ^/r///^ 
G. dritte\ cp. SKR. trtiya, lat. 
teriiuSy oSLOV. tretiju — thy*- 
teen me. threttene short for oe. 
preotene (pryttyne). thirty me. 
thritty OE. pritti"^ priti-^ = ohg. 
drizuc G. dreissig (see under /<?;z 
about the OE. -//j =^ o. -sz^ in 
zwanzig vierzig etc.). — thrice me. 
Mr/^jf extended for an older form 
prie OE. pri^a (priwa) =r^ OSAX. 
thrijo {thrtwo), ofries. thria ; see 

threshold sb. me. threshwold oe, 
perscwald mostly p'erscold', ident. 
w. OHG. driscufilij ON. preskjgldr. 
Probably not cognate w. thrash. 

thrice see three. 

thrift sb. me. thrift fr. on. prift. 
The str. vb. thrive me. thrive 
is borrowed fr. on. prifa-sk 'to 

throat sb. me. thrgte oe. protu 
=^OHG. dro2;yx mhg. ^//(^^^^ 'throte' 
(o. erdrosseln 'to throttle') ident. 
w. OLG. strata, du. strot'. Aryan 
ground - form {s)trudd-. iTAL. 
strozza gullet' is of teut. (Lango- 
bard.) origin. 

throe sb. 'pain' me. throwe fr. 
the wk. vb. oe. prgzvian = ohg. 
druoen 'to suffer' (Teut. \[^ prow). 

throne sb. for me. trgne fr. 
OFR. trone. 

throng sb. me. throng oe. J^eprgng 
fr. the str. vb. oe. pringan = 
OHG. dringan G. du. dringeii\ ident. 
w. GOTH, preihan, on. pryngva 
'to throng' : teut. \Ppring prmh, 


throstle — tight 

ARYAN V" trenk trenq in LITH. 
trenkti 'to shake'. 

throstle sb. me. thrpshl oe. 
^rgstle ; cogn. w. lg. drdssl (oSAX. 
*t^rdstala fr. "^pj'amstalci) and w. 
ON. prgstr (goth. "^prastus) 
'throstle'; cp. also lith. strdzdas 

through adv. ident. w. thorough'. 
ME. thuruh O^. purh = ohg. duruh 
G. durch, DU. dorchy goth. pairh, 

throw vb. ME. thr&ive oe. 
prdwan str. vb. 'to twist, turn 
=: OHG. draen G. drehen (du. 
draaien) : teut. \f pre (also in 
thread) = Aryan \^tre{tere) in 
GR. TQrf-fjia 'a hole' — TtgsXv 
to pierce' — regsTQOv 'auger'. 

thrush sb. (a bird's name) me. 
thrush short for oe. prysce (teut. 
base pruskjon)] cogn. w. ohg. 
drosca (base prauskon-). 

thud sb. (Scotch) short for 
OE. pgden 'whirlwind'. 

thumb sb. me. thombe ihumbe 
older picme oe. puma = ohg. 
dmno G. daumen, du. duim, swed. 
tumme (oN. pumall 'the thumb 
of a glove') : teut. hdise pu-man-. 
It rests on an aryan adj. tu-nw- 
'thick, strong' in avest. tuma 
(SKR. tutuma) 'strong'; cp. LAT. 
turner e 'to swell', aryan \f tu. 

thunder sb. me. thunder older 
form thoner thuner oe. punor =^ 
ohg. donar G. donner, DU. donder 
(cp. ON. porr for "^ponr the god 
of thunder), aryan \(^t9n ton in j 
LAT. tonare ^ — ionitrUy SKR. tan 
'to sound', OE. punia?i\o resound, 
creak' (by form \p sten in SKR. stan | 

'to sound', see under stun). — 
thursday me. thorsday thursday 
late oe. puresdcei OE. punresdce\ 
■= ohg. donar es-tag g. donner stagy 
du. donder dag , on. porsdagr. 
Early translation of lat. lovis 
dies. TEUT. piinara- was the god 
of thunder, corresponding to 
ON. porr 'Thor'. 

thus adv. me. thus oe. pus = 
OSAX. ofries. thus, DU. dus; 
corresponding to ohg. sus. Forms 
of the article the. 

tick (of a bed) sb. not found 
in me. nor oe., probably borrowed 
fr. DU. tz/A = OHG. ziehha G. zieche\ 
source lat. theca, whence also 
FR. taie 'a tick'. 

ticket sb. fr. fr. Hiquette. 

tickle vb. me. tikele. 

tide sb. me. tide 'season oe. 
tid (gen. tide^ 'time, hour' = on. 
tidy OSAX. tidy DU. tijdy ohg. zit 
G. zeit: Teut. base ti-di-, cogn. 
w. oe. ti-ma = time. — Hence 
tidings me. iidinges older form 
tithende fr. on. tidindi 'tidings' (== 
DU. tij dingy G. zeitung). 

tie vb. me. tie oe. ti^an tiian 
wk. vb. to tie, connect'; derived 
fr. oe. t(ag 'bond, chain, rope' 
= Teut. base taugo: \/^taug tauh 
teuh 'to pull, draw', cogn. w. 
LAT. ducere 'to lead'; cp. ohg. 
ziohan g. Ziehen, oe. teon (prt. 

tight adj. me. ti-^ht borrowed 
fr. on. fittr (therefore also me. 
thiiht) =-- mhg. dihte (g. dieht): 
Teut. base pihti- pinhti-. Cogn. 
w. thicks 

tike — today 


tike sb. ME. tike fr. on. tik 'a 

tile sb. ]VIE. tile contraction fr. 
OE. tt'^ele — tiile'. source lat. 
iegula, whence also ohg. ziagal 
G. ziegelj DU. teg el tic he I (cp. fr. 
tuile, ITAL. teg old). 

till vb. ME. tik older tilien oe. 
tilian 'to till land, to work'; cogn. 
w. OHG. zilon G. zielen *to aim 
at', OSAX. tilon tiloian^ du. telen 
'to till, cultivate' (cp. goth. ^'^- 
tils adj. 'fitting'). 

till prepos. me. oe. til (in 
Northumbr. dialect) trrr on. /// 
'till, to'. Cogn. w. GOTH, gatils 
and ohg. zilon under //// vb. 

tilt sb. late me. telt 'a covering' 
for an earlier form teld (under 
the influence of tent) ~~ oe. 
letelcVdi covering, tent'; ident. w. 
OHG. z'elt gizelt G. zelt 'tent', odu. 
telt ghetelt\ei\t\ o^. tjald: Teut. 
base t'elcla- ga-telda-. 

timber sb. me. oe. timber 'ma- 
terial for building'; cp. goth. 
timrjan 'to build'; ohg. zimbar 
'material for building, edifice' 
G zimmer 'room', OSAx. timbar 
*edifice', du. timmer, on. ti?nbr. 
Cognate w. gr. ds/nstv 'to build' 
— douog edifice', lat. domus 
'house', OSLOV. domi'i 'house', skr. 

time sb. me. time oe. tima = 
ON. timi time': Teut. base ti-mon- 
fr. the \^ti in tide. 

tin sb. ME. OE. tin = on. dan. 
DU. tin^ OHG. zin G. zinn: common 
Teut. base tina-. 

tinder sb. me. tinder oe. tyndre: 

== base tundf'jon- in ohg. zuntira 
G. zunder; cp. DU. tinder ^ ON. 
ttmdr. Teut. verbal \ftand timd 
in GOTH, tandjan, OHG. zuntan G. 
zilnden, oe. ontendan 'to kindle'. 

tine (of a fork) sb. me. oe. tind 
'prong, spike' = on. tindr 'a 
spike', mhg. zint: Teut. base tinda- 
tenda-. Probably connected w. 
tooth (Teut. base tan^-). 

tire vb. me. tire oe. tyra?t with 
the non-umlauted byform me. tere 
OE. teorian. 

tit see titmouse. 

tithe sb. ME. tithe\ prop, ordinal 
OE. tiieda {teogoda teopa) 'tenth'; 
see ten. 

titlark see titmouse. 

title sb. ME. title fr. ofr. title 
—7 FR. litre: source lat. titulus. 

titmouse sb. (a bird's name) 
not connected w. mouse; the 
second element of the compound 
is ME. mpse oe. mdse ^-^ du. mees., 
OHG. meisa g. meise 'a titmouse' 
(fr. m^sange is of Teut. origin). 
The first element of titmouse 
(as of titlark) is on. tit 'a small 

to prep. ME. OE. to prep. adv. 
=^ OSAX. to adv. { — // prep.j, ohg. 
zuo adv. ( — zi prep.); cp. du. 
toe^ G zu. 

toad sb. ME. tgde oe. tdd-lie 
(see tadpole); there are no 
further connections. 

toast vb. ME. tgste fr. ofr. toste 
= lat. tosta (fr. the vb. tor r ere). 

today ME. to day oe. td dcBie =r 
OSAX. te dage. ■ — For tonight — 
tomorrow = me. to night — to 




morwe oe. id trior gne cp. osax. 
te naht 'tonight'. 

toe sb. ME. ig (pi. tofi) oe. td 
(pi. tdti) oldest form tdhce = 
OHG. ze/ia G. ze/ie: Tent, base 
taihon; cp. DU. teen^ on. td. 

together adv. me. togedere oe. 
tpgcedre\ cogn. w. gather. 

token sb. me. token or. tdcen: 
Teut. base taikna- in ohg. zeihhan 
G.zeichen, osax. tekan^ du. tecken; 
cp. GOTH, taikns (base iaikrii-). 
^^_ Pre -Teut. base doigno- doigni- 
cogn. w. GR. dnyiia by the side 
oi deiy.vvfu. aryan V" dik {dig) in 
LAT. duo ( — dignus — prodigmm). 
e. teach oe. tcecean belongs to 
the same root. 

toll sb. ME. oe. id I (II) = OHG. 
ZOI {II) G. ZOlI, OSAX. DU. tol\ Cp. 

OSAX. tolna = OE. tohte 'toll'. 
Source LAT. ielbnium in a vulgar 
form iolonetwi for telonhmi. Cp. 
OE. tolnire ohg. zolandri = lat. 
tolonarius {telonarius). 

tomb sb. ME. tombe tou7?ibe fr. 
FR. io77ibe = LAT, tumba. 

tomorrow see today. 

tongs sb. ME OE. tgnge {tange) 
rrzr ohg. zanga G. zange^ du. A/;v^, 
ON. /^?7^: Teut. base tango-n- fr. 
the ARYAN \l^ dak in skr. ^Z*?^ — 
GR. Q^davbiv to bite'. 

tongue ME. /^?i!^<? tu77ge oe. ///^^^ 

= GOTH. iUggO, OHG. ZU7lga G. 

z?mge , DU. /r?/2^. Teut. base 
tungoTt- fr. pre -TEUT. ddTighd- in 
OLAT. di77gua (= LAT. Hngua) . 

tonight see today. 

too ident. w. /f?. 

tool sb. ME. OE. /<?/ = ON. /^/; 

probably derived fr. the teut. 
\^iau\o make' (see under taw). 

toom adj. me. oe. torn loanword 
fr. ON. tomr 'empty'; cp. osax. 
id77d id77ngy ohg. zuoTfiig 'empty'. 

tooth sb. ME. igth (pi. teth) oe. 
top (pi. tef) fr. a Teut. base tanp- 
in OSAX. DU. taTid^ ohg. za7id {zan 
G. zahri), on. tgnn\ ablaut-varia- 
tion GOTH, timpus. ARYAN base 
do7it- ddnt- in skr. dat — darita^ 
GR. odoiT- (oi)o/c,), LAT. de77i- {lieTis) y 
LITH. dailtis. ARYAN \f td 'to eat' 
see under eat; the form of the 
Aryan word (cp. sooth) is present 

topi sb. ME. Qi^.top (pp) = ON. 
toppr^ DU. top (ohg. g. zopf a 
tuft of hair') : Teut. base toppa- 

top2 sb. (a child's toy) me. oe. 
top (pp); phonetically differing 
fr. the equiv. lg. dop^ ohg. topfo 
G. topf. 

torch sb. ME. torche fr. fr, 
torche^ whence also du. too7'ts. 

touch vb. ME. touche fr. fr. 
toucher, whence also du. toetsen. 

tough adj. ME. totigh oe. tgh fr. 
teut. '^tanku-y whence also du. 
taaiy OHG. zdhi G. zdhe. Perhaps 
cogn. w. oe. ietg7ig adj. 'in con- 
tact with' — letenge 'close to'. 

towel sb. ME. touail fr. ofr. 
toaille = fr. touaille. Source an 
old Teut. word ; cp. ohg. dwahiiia 
G. zwehle 'towel', teut. \f pwah 
in GOTH. p'waha7i = oe. pwca7t 
str. vb. 'to wash'. 

tower sb. ME. tour late oe. 

town — 

(ii**^ cent.) hir fr. fr. tour. 
Source lat. turris. 

tpwn sb. ME. toun oe. tiin; the 
original meaning fence' is seen 
in OE. tynan \vk. vb. 'to fence, 
enclose'. Cp. on. hin^ du. tuin^ 
OHG. zim G. zaun 'fence, hedge'. 
Cogn. w. OIR. ciun fortress' (in 
CELT, place-names as in Augusto- 
dunutfi) . 

trace sb. me. frdfe fr. fr. /race 
(source lat. tractiare). 

trade sb. original meaning 'path' 
fr. the vb. tread. 

trail vb. me. traile late oe. 
trce'^lian fr. ofr. traillery whence 
also DU. LG. treilen. 

traitor sb. me. traiiour fr. ofr. 
traitor (fr. traitre) = lat. ira- 

tramp, trample vb. me. tranipe 
■= LG. tramp en trampeln ; cp. 
GOTH, trimpan to tread'. 

trap sb. me. trappe late oe. 
trcpppe loanword fr. fr. trappe; 
source OHG. trappa. 

travel vb. me. travaille fr. fr. 

treachery sb. me. trecherie 
triccherie fr. fr. trie her ie (fr. 
trie her vb.). 

tread vb. me. tr^de oe. tredan 
str. vb. = OSAX. tredan, DU. treden, 
OHG. tr'etan G. treten; cp. goth. 
trudan, on. troda 'to tread'. 
teut. \ftred trod. 

treason sb. me. traisoun fr. ofr. 
traison ^^rz: fr. trahison: source 
LAT. traditio{nem). 

treasure sb. me. tresgr fr. fr. 
trtfsor = LAT. thesaurus. 

treat vb. . fr. fr. traiter -= lat. 

tree sb. me. tre oe. treo = goth. 
trill, OSAX. trio, on. tri: Teut. 
base ir'ewa-, derived fr. an Aryan 
dru doru in skr. di u daru 'wood', 
GR. iigvq 'oak' — $6qv 'spear', 
OSLOV. driiva — drcvo 'wood'; 
cogn w. tar and trough. 

tripe sb. me. tripe = du. trip 
fr. FR. tripe. 

trouble vb. short for me. trouble: 
loanword fr. fr. troubler. 

trough sb. me. trogh oe. troh 
trog — -- ON. OHG. G. DU. trog'. 
Teut. base troga- tiuga-, pro- 
bably derived fr. ARYAN dru- 
'wood' under tree. 

trout sb. ME. troute (for troughtef) 
oe. trilht: early loanword fr. 
LAT. triicta —■- FR. truite. 

truant sb. me. truant prop. 
trilatmd fr. fr. truand a vaga- 

truce sb. me. trewes plural form 
of ME. treiz'c 'truce' r:r= oe. treowa 
'confidence, faith'. Derivative 
of the adj. true me. trewe oe. 
ytreowe "^etrywe —- ohg.'Z, ///av 
gitriuwi G. (ge)treu, osAX. triiiwr, 
cp. GOTH, triggws — ON. tryggr 
'true'. Cogn. w. OPRUSS. druwis 
'belief — druwit 'to believe". 
ARYAN sf dru. See truth and 

trump sb. me. trumpe trotnpe 
fr. FR. trompe, whence also ODU. 

truncheon sb. me. trounchoun 
tronchoun fr. ofr. tronchon =' 
FR. iron con. 




trust sb. ME. trust fr. on. trgust 
'confidence' (= ohg. trost g. 
trost 'consolation'): Teut. base 
irausta- fr. an ARYAN base drouz- 
da-\ co^n. w. ir. druit (base 
drtizdi-) 'firm, trustworthy'. 

truth ME. treidhe oe. treowp 
'faith, fidelity': abstract forma- 
tion to true, 

try vb. me. trie fr. fr. trier. 

tub sb. me. tubbe = du. tobbe, 
LG. tubbe 'a tub'; cogn. w. OHG. 
zubiir G. zuber. Source lat. tubus 
'a pipe, tube'? 

tuck vb. ME. tukke = ohg. zockon 
zucken : intensive formation of y" 
tuh in GOTH, tiuhan = ohg. ziohan 
(see under tie^. 

Tuesday sb. me. Tiwesday oe 
Tlwesdcei -— on. Tysdagr, G. (Ale- 
mann.) Zistag: translation of lat. 
Martis dies. The Teut. god Tiw 
corresponds to Mars. oe. Tiw 
on. Tjr rests on aryan deiwos 
'god' (in SKR. deva, lat. deus; 
cp. on. //Wr 'the gods'). 

tumble vb. me. tumble tomble 
fr. oe. tumbian 'to dance, tumble'; 
cp. DU. tuimelen fr. ODU. tilmen. 

tun sb. me. tunne tonne oe. /««/^^ 
-=■ DU. /^A/; ident. w. ohg. tunna 
G. /<?//;z<? and FR. tonne. Source 
and history of the group not 
cleared up yet. 

turbot sb. ME. turbut fr. fr. 

turf sb. ME. turf tor/ ok. ///;/ 
--= ON. tor/, OHG. zurba, DU. turf 
'peat : Teut. base turb- torb- fr. 
an ARYAN base drbh- d?rbh-; cp. 
SKR. darbha 'bunch of grass'. 

turn vb. short for me. toui'ne 
late OE. iiirnian fr. fr. tourner, 

turtle sb. me. oe. turtle (= 
OHG. turtulatuba G. turteltaube) 
fr. lat. turtur. 

tusk sb. ME. tusk tusch short 
for OE. iusc {tusc); probably Teut. 
base tunska-, derived fr. teut. 
tun^- {tanp') = tooth. 

twelve num. me. oe. twelf (infl. 
ME. twelve OE. twelf e^ = goth. 
twalif, ohg. zwelifG. zwolf, OSAX. 
twelif^ DU. tivaalf. The word 
rests on the num. two; the 2"^ 
element (cp. lith. dvylika twelve') 
occurs again in goth. ainlif =^ 
OHG. einlif (see eleven). — 
twenty me. twenty oe. twenti"^ 
probably contracted for "^twe- 
lentii =r OHG. ziveinzug (g. zwanzig, 
DU. twintig). - - twice adv. me. 
twies prop, twie oe. twiia {twiwa 
tuwd) . — 

twig sb. ME. twig pi. twigges; 
cogn. w. OE. twi (pi. tiviyi), ohg. 
S7^v and also w. ohg. zwig G. 
zweig, DU. /wz/^. Probably con- 
nected w. the numeral two 
(ARYAN stem dwi-). 

twins pi. ME. twinnes oe. 
letwinnas; ident. w. ON. tvinnr 
'two and two'; cp. ohg. zwini- 
ling G. zwilling, DU. twee ling 'a 
twin' and lith. dvymi 'twins'. All 
derived fr. the Aryan stem dwi-; 
see two. 

twine vb. me. twine vb. fr. the 
sb. oe. twin 'linen, a twisted 
thread' = DU. twijn, which is 
ident. w. mho. g. zwirn , DU. 
tweern: Teut. base twizna- fr. 

twinckle. — up 


\Ptwis (see under twist), cogn. 
w. the num. two. 

twinckle vb. me. twincle oe. 

twist vb. ME. twisie vb. fr. oe. 
twist sb. Vope' = odu. twist 
'thread'; TEUT. \p twis as in G. 
zwirn 'thread'; see twine. 

twit vb. short for ME. at-wite 
OE. cet-witan str. vb. 'to reproach'; 
cp. OE. ed-7vit sb. 'reproach' and 
GOTH, idweitjan vb. 'to reproach', 
OHG. firwiiyin G. verweisen, DU. 
verwijten 'to reproach' and oe. 
wife, OSAX. wtti, ohg. wi'^'^i 'pu- 
nishment', GOIB.. fraweitan str. vb. 

twitch vb. ME. twicche (without 
palatalisation twicke) oe. twiccian 

= G. zwicken (cp. ohg. zwecchoti) : 
Teut. ground-form ^twikkjon} 

twitter vb. me. twitere = ohg. 
zwizzirS/i G. zititschern; perh. a 
reduplicated avest-teut. */?£//- 
twiron? (teut. y^twisf). 

two num. : orig. twain masc. — 
two f. n. = me. twein — two oe. 
twe^en — twd (tic n. for ^twu orig. 
"^twp) ; cp. OHG. zwene — zwd — 
zwei, OSAX. twene — two (two) 
— tw^y GOTH, twai — twos — tzva. 
ARYAN Stem diW' dwo- in lat. 
duoy GR. (JVo (but JrJJfxa for 

*J"/W()6Xm), SKR. ^«^ ^Z^<7. 

tyrant sb. me. tlraunt (with 
excrescent / as in pageant) fr. 
OFR. tiran =: lat. tyi'annus. 


udder sb. me. z^^^/^r short for 
OE. tider — - OHG. iitar (g. enter), 


base iidhr- in skr. iidhur, lat. 
2^^^r; cp. GR. ovSffO. All equi- 

ugly adj. ME. ?^^/7 fr. on. uggligr 
'dreadful' ; cp. ON. ugga 'to fear'. 

umpire prop, fiumpire (as auge?' 
for orig. nauger) me. noumpere fr. 
OFR. nonper. 

un-' prefix (of adjectives) me. 

OE. ?/;z- = G. OHG. GOTH. Tin-', 

ident. w. lat. in-^ GR. av- a-, 
SKR. an- a- : ARYAN ground-form 
dfi-, cogn. w. SKR. na , la.t. ne, 
GOTH. OHG. niy OE. ne 'not'. 
un2 prefix (of verbs) me. tm- 

late OE. un- oe. on- = goth. 
and-, OHG. int- G. ^z?/"-. 

uncle sb. me. uncle oncle fr. fr. 
oncle {= LAT. avunculus). Cp. 
also aunt, neveWy niece. 

under prep. me. oe. under = 
GOTH. OSAX. undar, on. z^«^2>, 
DU. onder, OHG. ///z/^r G. unter. 
Two different prepositions are 
blended in this form: lat. inter, 
SKR. antar and lat. infra skr. 

up prep. adv. me. ?^ oe. z^)!!>/; 
ident. w. OHG. uf G. auf, osax. 
^/; cp. the ablaut-relation goth. 
iup. Cogn. w. OE. ufan 'from 
above' = ohg. ohana osax. obana 
'from above'. See above and 

urchin . — very 

and over, upon me. upon OE. 
upp-on; cp. ON. upp a., 

urchin sb. me. irchoun fr. ofr. 
iregon (fr. herisson) ; source a 
vulgar LAX. ericio{n€7n) = lat. 
ericius 'hedge-hog' (the genuine 
E. word was OE. i}^el = ohg. 
igil G. igel, cogn. w. or. ^/Tvoc). 

us pron. me. us (ous) oe. us for 
TEUT. tms- in G. ohg. goth. tins, 
OSAX. us, DU. ons. Cp. our 
and 7i>e. 

use sb. me. use fr. fr. ?/5 =■ 
LAT. tisus. 

usquebaugh sb. fr. ir. m'sge 
beaiha 'water of Hfe'; ident. w. 

utmost short for ME. outemeste 
OE. (w. umlaut) ytemest; ident. 
w. outmost. 

utter vb. ME. uttre outre derived 
fr. ME. oute vb. 'to put out' oe. 
iltian 'to put out'. Source out. 

vain adj. me. vaifi fr. fr. vain 
— - LAT. vdnus. 

vale sb. me. vdl fr. fr. vale 
and valley me. valeie fr. fr. valUe. 
Source LAT. vallis. 

valiant adj. me. valiaunt fr. 
FR. vailiant. 

valley see vale. 

van ident. w. fan. 

vane sb. (a wether-cock) me. 
(Kent.) vane — (else) fane oe. 
fdna =. ohg. fano {gund-fano) 
G. fahne, du. vaan, goth. fana: 
Teut. base fanan-, cogn. w. 
LAT. p annus 'cloth'. 

vanish vb. me. vanisshe fr. 
OFR. vanir (vaniss-)) source lat. 

vanquish vb. me. venquisshe 
fr. OFR. veinquir (veinquiss-) 
■=-- FR. vainer e\ source lat. vin- 

vat sb. ME. (Kent.) vat — (else) 
fat OE. feet = OSAX. on. fat, 

OHG. fai G. fass, DU. vat: Teut. 
base fata-. Cogn. w. lhh. pudas 
'a pot' and ohg. fay^on g. fassen 
'to contain'. 

vaunt vb. short for ME. avaunte 
vb. fr. OFR. avanter (fr. vanter^ 
=-■- late LAT. vanitare. 

veal sb. me. v{l fr. ofr. v'eel 
(fr. veau)\ source lat. vitellus 
'a little calf. 

veil sb. ME. veile fr. onfr. veik 
= LAT. velum. 

vein sb. me. veine fr. fr. veine 
-- LAT. vena. 

venison sb. me. vencisoun fr. 
OFR. veneison = LAT. venatio(nem). 

venom sb. me. vemm fr. ofr. 
venim = LAT. venenum. 

verse sb. me. vers fr. fr. vers; 
OE. ME. fers is loanword fr. LAT. 
versus with the medieval pro- 
nunciation of LAT. v as /. 

very adj. me. verrei verrai fr. 
OFR. verai (fr. vrat) ; source 



a LAT. type verdcus for lat. I 

vessel sb. me. i^essel fr. ofr. 
vcissel (fr. vaisseau) = lat. 
vascellmn {v as cuius — vas). 

vetch sb. ME. vecche fr. ofr. veche 
(fr. vesce) = lat. vicia, whence 
also OHG. wicka g. wicke du. zez/^^. 

vex vb. ME, vexe fr. fr. vexer 
= LAT. vexare. 

vial (phial) sb. me. zw/^ fr. fr. 
yf^/^ (ofr. viole). 

vice sb. me. e^^^<? fr. fr. vice 
= LAT. vitiu7n. 

victory sb. me. victgrie fr. ofr. 
•victor ie = fk. victoire. 

victuals sb. (me. vitaille) fr. 
OFR. vitaille in tlie spelling vic- 
iuaille. Source lat. viciualia. 

view sb. fr. FR. vue. 

vigil sb. me. vigile fr. fr. vigile 
= LAT. vigilia. 

vigor sb. me. vigour fr. ofr. 
vigour (fr. vigeur^ = lat. 
vigor -em. 

vile adj. me. zv/ fr. fr. w7 = 
LAT. vtlis. 

villain sb. me. vilein fr. ofr. 
riltin = lat. villanus. 

vine sb. me. vine fr. fr. zv^/z^ 
^ lat. vinea. Cp. wine. 

vinegar sb. me. vin^gre fr. fr. 
vinaigre = LAT. vinu?n acre. For 
the 2'^^^ element cp. eager. 

vinewed adj. (the initial v 
instead of / is due to Kentish 
influence) fr. oe. fynegian 'to 
become mouldy' (/>';?25 mouldy'). 

vintage sb. transformed fr. me. 
vindiige, which rests on fr. veii~ 
dange = lat. vindemja (whence 
OHG. wintimma 'vintage'). 

viol sb. fr. fr. viole = ital. 
SPAN. viola\ source a late lat. 
vitula, whence also fiddle. 

virgin sb. me. virgine fr. ofr. 

virtue sb. me. vertii fr. fr. vertu. 

visage sb. me. visdge fr. fr. 
visage. — vision sb. me. visioun 
fr. fr. vision. 

vixen sb. (z^ instead of/" due to 
Kentish influence) oe. ^fyxen : 
Teut. base fuhsinjo- {o,. filch siii) y 
derived fr. teut. fuhs- fohs- 
under fox (^-injo- being fern, 
suffix as in G. got tin, grdfn etc.). 

voice sb. me. vois fr. ofr. vols 
(fr. voix) = lat. 7^0X. 

voutch vb. me. vouche fr. ofr. 
voucher (= LAT. vocare). 

vow sb. ME. vou fr. OFR. vou 
(fr. voeii) -= LAT. votuni. 

voyage sb. fr. fr. voyage', cp. 
ME. vidge vedge fr. ofr. veiage. 
Source lat. viaticutn. 


wade vb. me. wade oe. wddan 
(prt. wpd) str. vb. := ON. vada, 

DU. waden, OHG. watan str. vb. 
(g. waten wk. vb.) : teut. yfwady 




ARYAN y" wddh in lat. vddere 
'to go'. 

wafer sb. me. wdfre fr. ofr. 
watifre = fr. gaufre\ ident. 
w. DU. wafel^ G. waffel (oSAX. 
*wafld). The group prop, meant 
'honey comb' as in fr. and is 
derived fr. a Teut. word (ohg. 
wabo G. wabe'^ sfw'eb in weave), 

wag vb. ME. wagge (oe. *wag- 
giaii) derived fr. sfweg (in oe. 
wagian 'to move, wag'); see 

wage sb. ME. wage fr. ofr. 
wage (fr. gage)', source a vul- 
gar LAT. wadium for lat. vadium 
(influenced by a teut. -goth. 
wadi 'a pledge' under wed). 

^^sggon sb. fr. uu. wagen\ 
ident. w. wain. 

wail vb. ME. z£w/(? z£^(?//<?; derived 
fr. ME. tvei 'woe' (loanword fr. 
on. vei\ see woe). 

wain sb. me. wain oe. wce^n'. 
Teut. base wagnu- in ohg. wagan 
g. du. wag en (on. vagn) ; aryan 
\^wegh as in lat. vehiculum, 
GR. o/fv, OIK. fin 'wain'. See 

waist sb. me. z£/<ii-/; doubtful 
whether allied to wax} 

wait vb. me. waite fr. ofr. 
waite?'\ source a vulgar lat. 
vb. wactare, der. fr. ohg. ivahta 
= GOTH, wahtwo 'a watching'. 
For the root see wake and 

wake vb. me. wake oe. wdcian 
=^ OSAX. wakojan, DU* waken, 
on. z'^/^rt-, OHG. wahhen g. wacheti 
wk. vb. (only goth. wakan str. 

vb.). Cp. also OE. weccean, ohg. 
weckan, osAx. wekkian, du. wekken, 
GOTH, wakjan \o awake'. Aryan 
\(^weg in LAT. vegere 'to excite, 
arouse' {vigil 'awake') and skr. 
z^r^rt^ to incite'. See watch 
(and wait). 

walk vb. ME. walke', intensive 
formation (cp. lurk, stalk) of 
OE. weallian 'to wander' = ohg. 
wallon G. w alien. 

wall sb. ME. w«/ (pi. walks) 
OE. 7£/^/3'// (pi. weallas) ^=^ du. 
7£^^/, OSAX. 2£/^/ (pi. wallos)] not 
found in ohg. (but G. 7i>all 
borrowed fr. LG.). Source lat. 
vallum 'a rampart'. 

wall-eyed adj. fr. oe. wealden- 
iie — - ON. vald-eygdr 'wall-eyed'? 

wallow vb. ME. walwe OE. weal- 
wian 'to wallow'; cp. goth. zval- 
wison 'to wallow' and walwjan 
'to roll'. Cogn. w. lat. volvere 
(gr. siXvstv) 'to roll', aryan 
\rwelw wolw. 

walnut sb. me. walnote walnute 
OE. wealh-hnutu = on. valhiiot, 
DU. walnoot G. walnuss (not found 
in OHG.). The former element 
(teut. walha-) see under Welsh 
{walnut prop, meant 'French 
nut'; cp. lat. nux Gallica = 
FR. gauge). 

walrus sb. = du. walrus wal- 
rosy G. walross, dan. hvalros] cp. 
ON. hrosshvalr (whence oe. hors- 
Mvce.t)'. lit. 'a horse-whale'. See 

wan adj. me. wan{nn) oe. wan?i 

wand sb. me. wand fr. on. 

wander — was 


vgnd (gen. vandm-) = goth. 
wandus 'a rod'. Cogn. w. lith. 
wantal or w. wind vb. ? 

wander vb. me. wandre oe. 
7vandrian\ cp. MHG. G. wandern 
wandcln (oHG. wantalon) 'to 
wander'. Cogn. w. wend vb. 

wane vb. me. wane oe. wdnian 
= OHG. wanbn^ on. z^^/z^ *to 
wane, diminish' : derived fr. teut. 
wafta- 'lacking' in oe. wan, on. 
vanr, oHG. wan, GOTH, wans 
'lacking' (cp. du. wanhoop 'de- 
spair' and G. wahnwitz 'want of 
wits'). Cogn. w. SKR. una 'wan- 
ting'. — want sb. me. want fr. 
ON. vant neutr. of vani' lacking, 
deficient'. — wanton me. wan- 
ioun prop. 7va7ttgwen for '^wan- 
togen : oe. togen is participle of 
teon (see team) 'to educate'. 

war sb. me. (since 12*^ cent.) 
werre = du. werre fr. ofr. werre 
(fr. guerre)\ source ohg. weir a 
'vexation' (ohg. osax. w'erran 
str. vb. 'to bring into confusion 
or disorder'). 

ward sb. me, wai:d oe. weard 
Vatchman, guardian r::^ OSAX. 
ward, ohg. g. wart (on. vgrdr 
for ^wardus) : aryan \pwor see 
under wary, — warden sb. 
ME. ivardcin fr. ofr. wardein 
(gardein) ident. w. guardian', 
see guard, — wardrobe me. 
wardergbe fr. ofr. warderobe (fr. 
garderohe) . 

ware sb. me. ware oe. wdru 
'merchandise' = du. waar g. I 
ware, ON. vara. \ 

warlock sb.- for me. warlgwe \ 

oe. wcerioga 'traitor' (= OSAX. 
wdrlogo) : compound of oe. wdr 
'faith, agreement' and -loga 'a 
liar' (oe. leogan under lie '). 

warm adj. me. warm oe. wearm 
= OSAX. ohg. g. du. warm, on. 
varmr (cp. goth. war?njan 'to 
make warm') : Teut. base warma- 
for ARYAN base ghw'ermo- in gr. 
di^ounc (f/:s^f.wg) = lat. formus 

warn vb. me. warne oh. wear- 
nian war{e)nian = ohg. warnon 
\ G. warnen 'to warn'. 

"warp sb. me. warp oe. wearp 
derived fr. oe. weorpan me. werpe 
str. vb. 'to throw' r^r goth. 
wairpan , OSAX. whpan , du. 
werpcn, ohg. w'erfan g. werfen 
str. vb. 'to throw'. ARYAN 
\fwergw in SKR. vrj\o remove', 
OSLOV. Z'resti {vruga) 'to throw'. 

warrant sb. me. waraunt fr. 
OFR. war ant (fr. gar ant), 

wart sb. me. werte: umlauted 
by form of oe. wearte = on. 
varta, ODU. warte, ohg. warza 
G. warze. Perhaps cogn. w. oe. 
wearr 'callosity, wart' and lat. 
verruca 'wart'. 

wary adj. extension of me. 
war OE. wcer 'cautious, aware' 
= goth. wars, osax. war 'cau- 
tious' (ohg. giwar g. gewahr) : 
ARYAN \/" K'fi'r also in gr. o^ulv 
'to observe'. 

was (I, he) — were (we) me. 
was-were p'E.. wces-weron (wcer on): 
forms of the preterite of oe. 
wesan ^^--. du. wezen, ohg. wesan, 
goth. wisan (g. wesen sb. 'a 



being'). Aryan \fwes in skr. 
vas \o stay in a place'. 

wash vb. ME. wasshe oe. wascan 
= ON. vaska, OHG. wascan G. 
waschen. Aryan sfwask in ir. 
faiscim^ w. gwasgu 'I press'. 

wasp sb. ME. waspe oe. 7£'<«^j' 
fr. a Teut. base wafsa- in ohg. 
wafsa] cogn. w. lat. vespa, lith. 
z/^/j^ 'breeze', OSLOV. 7^^j^ 'wasp'. 
ARYAN \fwebh in weave\ wasp 
orig. weaver'. 

waste adj. me. 7£/^j/ fr. ofr. 
wast (cp. FR. ^^/(?r 'to make 
waste'). Source lat. vastus, 
influenced by teut. 7ziosti 'waste' 
(oe. 7C'este, ohg. wuosti G. tviist 
fr. an ARYAN wdstu- in oir. fas, 
LAT. vastus 'waste'). 

watch vb. me. ivacche oe. *7vced- 
can (in the pres. partic. wceccende) 
= oe. 7mcia?t under 7vake. 

water sb. me. 7vdter oe. wceter 
= OSAX. watar, du. 7vater, ohg. 
waT^ G. 7vasser: west-teut. 
base watera-', ident. w. goth. 
7vatd, ON. vatii. Cogn. w. wet 
and outside of teut., w. gr. 
\b(DQy SKR. udan, OSLO v. russ. 
voda 'water'. ARYAN \f7Vod\ ud. 

wattle sb. me. 7vatel oe. watol 
hurdle, tile'. 

wave sb. derived fr. the wk. 
vb. wave me. 7vdve oe. 7vdfian 
'wave, fluctuate'; cp. on. vdfa 
'to vibrate to and fro'. 

wax sb. me. 7vaxe oe. weaxan 
str. vb. = OHG. OSAX. wahsan 
G. wachsen^ du. was sen', cp. goth. 
7vahsjan. Aryan \fweks uks in 

SKR. uks 'grow up, get strong*, 
GR. dhS^Hv wax. Cp. ox. 

wax sb. me. wax oe. 7veax = 
ON. z'^jc, OHG. wahs G. wachs, 

DU. 7£/^i"i". Cogn. W. LITH. 7l)dSZ' 

kas, osLov. RUSS. vosku. 
way sb. me. way wey 7vei oe. 

wei = OSAX. OHG. Z£/<^ G. DU. 

7£ieg, ON. z'/?^/', GOTH. 7mg-s 'wav' : 
Teut. base wega- (allied to lat. 
via 'way'), derived fr. the teut. 
\f7veg in OE. wegan 'to carry' 
= OHG. 7v'egan to move', goth. 
gawigan] ident. w. lat. vehere 
'to carry', GR. &/6/J', SKR. vah 
'to carry': Aryan \f7v'egh also 
in wain. 

we pron. ME. OE. ?£// ^-= GOTH. 

weis, OHG. G. wir , oSAX. z^/z; 
ident. w. skr. vay-am 'we' : aryan 
ground-form wei fr. a stem 7ve- in 
ON. z^<2rr 'our'. 

^veak adj. me. f^<?//^ fr. on. 
veikr veykr; ident. w. oe. wdc 
me. wok = DU. 7veek, osA.x. wek, 
OHG. weih G. 7veich. teut. \fwtk 
in OE. wlcan 'to give way' =:r 
OSAX. wikan, on. vikja, ohg. 
wihhan G. 7veichen. Cogn. w. 
GR. fl'xctv 'to give way', lat. 
27zV^.f 'change'. ARYAN \f7v1g 7vlk. 

weal sb. me. 7v(le oe. ze^*?/^ 
(7veo/a) 'prosperity , riches' = 
OSAX. welo 'happiness , riches' 
(ohg. 7iiela — 7vola G. 7vohl 'wel- 
fare'). Cogn. w. a/(?//and will. 
— wealth ME. welthe extension 
of weal = DU. weelde. 

wean sb. me. 7vcne oe. 7venian 
'to wean a child' prop, 'to ac- 
custom'; ident. w. osAX. wennian, 




(g. gewohnen), on. venja \o ac- 
custom'. Derived fr. the adj. 
wana- in on. vanr 'accustomed' 
(cp. OYLG. giwon OE. ^<?7£/«;2 'usual'). 

weapon sb. me. wcpen oe. wckpcn 
= ON. vapn^ OS AX. wapa?i, du. 
map en, ohg. waff an o. 7£/^^ 
(goth. wepna plur.). 

wear vb. me. were oe. werian 
wk. vb. 'to clothe' = goth. 
wasjan 'to clothe', OHG. werian, 
ON. ?.'<?;y<2 'to cloth': TEUT. \fwaz 
was (also in goth. was-ti 'gar- 
ment'), ARYAN sfwes in LAT. f^^i"- 

//> 'garment', GK.ftj-d^fjJ^ clothing*, 
&FVI/LII 'I clothe', SKR. pas 'to 

weary adj. me. 7e>cTy oe. ff//;7j 
(7i>drii) = OS AX. worig 'tired', 
ohg. wuorag 'intoxicated': teut. 
sl^worl or woz'i 

weasand sb. me. wesend oe. 
wcBsend uml anted byform of OE. 
wdsend 'throat, gullet' = ofries. 
wdseiide 'windpipe', ohg. weisunt 

weasel sb. me. whel oe. w'esule 
= ohg. wisula G. wiesely du. wezel 
jveasel'. Perhaps cogn. w. lat. 
visio 'bad smell', whence ofr. 
voison 'foumart'. 

weather sb. me. wcder oe. wider 
^r=L OSAX. w'edar, du. weder, ohg. 
w'etar G. wetter^ on. vedr: Teut. 
base 7v'edra-, aryan base wedhro- 
in OSLOV. vedru clear' (weather) 
. — vedro 'clear weather'. 

weave sb. me. weve oe. w'efan 
str. vb. = ON. vefa, du. weven, 
ohg. w'eban g. weben. aryan y" 
w'ebh iibh (see 7vasp, wafer and 

weevil) also in gr. ixjrj-vcpog a. 
web' — v(faivHv 'weave'. — web 
me. oe. web (bb) fr. teut. wabja- 
in OHG. weppiy du. 7£/^^, on. vefr 
a web'. 

wed vb. prop, 'to engage' me. 
wedde oe. weddian = goth. ^<7- 
wadjon 'to pledge', on. z^^^"^. 
Derived fr. the sb. oe. wedd = 
goth. wadi, ohg. ivetti 'a pledge' 
and cogn. w. lat. vas — vadis 'a 
pledge'. Further relations see 
under gage and wage. — wed- 
lock me. wedlflk OE. wedldc (oe. 
lac gift, offering). 

wedge sb. me. ivegge oe. 7aecg 
=r ohg. ze/.^<:-^/ (g. 7veck)y du. z£/^^, 
on. veggr: Teut. base 7vagja-; 
cogn. w. LiTH. 7vagis, lett. imidsis 
'a wedge. 

wedlock see ived, 

Wednesday me. 7vednes-day um- 
lauted byform of oe. Wodnes-dce^ 
= LG. wodnesdach, du. 7voensdag\ 
prop, 'day of Woden': translation 
of LAT. Mercurii dies. The Teut. 
god Woden (ohg. Wuota?t, ON. 
Odimi) is identified w. Mercurius. 

weed 1 sb. (plantname) me. wed 
OE. 7£/^W -— OSAX. wiod 'weed'. 

weed 2 sb. 'garment' me. 7vede 
OE. 7ved ivckd (infl. -e) = ON. vdd, 
OSAX. wad, OHG. wdt 'clothing, 
garment': Teut. base 7ve-di- fr. 
an ARYAN \f 7v^ to weave' in 
SKR. vd 'to weave'. 

week sb. me. 7cieke 7vike oe. 7m cu 
= OSAX. 7vika, ON. ?^//^^, OHG. 
7v'chha wohha G. 7voche 'week'; cp. 
GOTH. 7mkd 'order, succession'. 


Derived fr. \^ wtk in oe. wican 
'to give way' see under weak. 

ween vb. me. wene oe. wemin 
(prop, wcenan) 'to hope, expect' 
= GOTH. wenj(m, on. vdna, ohg. 
wan{n)an G. wdhnen: derived fr. 
oe. wen (ween) sb. hope' = OHG. 
wan G. wahn, on. vein, goth. 
wens: Teut. base weni-. 

weep vb. prop, a str. vb. me. 
wepe (prt. ivep) oe. wepan wcepan 
(prt. weop) = GOTH, wopjan \vk. 
vb., OSAX. wopian, OHG. wuoffati 
MHG. wuefc7i 'lament', on. cepa 
(orig. ^vcepd) \o cry', teut. \r 

weevil sb. me. wevel wivel oe. 
wifel = osAX. wihil, OHG. ze//'^^//, 
on. yfill: derived fr. the teut. 
yfw'eb in weave\ cp. lith. wa- 
balas 'weevil'. — From the same 
root also weft me oe. weft = 
ON. v'eptr. 

weilght sb. me. weight fr. on. 
V(Ett orig. ^vcBht\ cp. oe. wiht 
'weight' fr. OE. wegan (see way). 

^veird sb. 'fate' cp. me. wirde 
oe. wyi'd 'fate' ^= on. urd^ osAX. 
ze/2/r/^ 'fate'. Derived fr. teut. 
werpan --=- oe. wear dan, osAX. 
werdan, ohg. werdati g. werden, 
ON. verda, goth. wairpan 'to be- 
come'. ARYAN Y^w^r/ in LAT. f^^;- 
/^r^ to turn', SKR. vft 'to turn'. 

welkin sb. me. welkne welken; 
umlauted by form of me. wolkne 
oe. woken 'cloud' = osax. ohg. 
wolkan, OSAX. wulka, ohg. inolka 
G. wolke 'cloud'. Perhaps cogn. 
w. osT.ov. vlugukii 'humid' — 

vlaga 'humidity', LITH. vilgyti 
'to moisten', aryan \^w9lg. 

well adv. ME. OE. we I = Dtr. 
we/, OSAX. we/^a^. v'ei;- cp. ohg. 
w'ela wola G. wohl (goth. waila). 
Origin doubtful, but connection 
w. weal and will certain. 

well sb. ME. welle oe. welle 
wella (wylle wylla): Teut. base 
walljon-'. umlaut-relation of oe. 
weal/an str. vb. 'boil, flow' = 
OSAX. OHG. wallan str. vb. 'boil, 
flow'. ARYAN \(^wel wal in oe. 
wylm 'boiling, flowing' = skr, 
iir7ni 'flood', OHG. wella G. tvelle 
'wave' =:: OSLOV. vluna, lith. 
vilnis 'wave'. 

Welsh adj. me. welsh oe. 
wylisc umlauted fr. a teut. 
walhiska-', derived fr. oe. Wealh 
'foreigner', prop, 'a Celt' (cp. 
zvalmit). The corresponding 
adj. OHG. walhisc — sb. Walah 
means an inhabitant of a Ro- 
mance country, teut. Walha- 
r'ests on the Celtic tribe name 

wen sb. me. wen oe. weim 'tu- 
mor' =1 DU. wen, LG. wene: Teut. 
base wanja- (perhaps cogn. w. 

wench sb. me. wenche older 
wenchel prop, 'infant ; ablaut-re- 
lation of OE. wincel 'child . 

"wend vb. (only in the prt. went) 
fr. me. wende prt. wente oe. wendan 
prt. wende \ orig. meanij^g 'to 
turn' = GOTH, wandjan, OSAX. 
wendian, ohg. wentan G. wen den. 
Causal of wind. 

were see was. 

west — whey 


west sb. ME. OE. ivest = on. 
vestr^ DU. G. west (fr- ouest of 
Teut. origin). 

wet adj. short for ME. wet OE. 
wit wdt =: ON. vdt7', OFRiES. 7e>et: 
Teut. base weta- fr. the same 
root as watei', 

wether sb. me. wether oe. weder 
= GOTH, wiprus^ ON. vedr^ OS ax. 
withar wethar, du. weder weer^ 
OHG. widar G. widder. Cogn. w. 
LAT. vituliis 'calf and skr. vatsa 

whale sb. me. whal (pi. whales) 
OE. hwcel[\t\. hwdlas) = on. hvalr, 
OHG. 7<:'^/ (g. walfisch, DU. 7£/^/- 
?//V^^ = ON. hvalfiskr). Cogn. w. 
GR.TisXw^) 'monster. Cp. walrus. 

what pron. me. what oe. hwcet 

= OHG. >^W^5 G. 7£JaS, DU. W^/, 

OS AX. hwat; cp. the Teut. stem 
^f^'c?- under who. 

wheat sb. me. ivh^te oe. hwcete 
= GOTH, hwaiteis, on. >^z,'^///, du. 
7£W/^, OHG. wcizzi G. weizen. Cogn. 
w. white = TEUT. hivita- (in me. 
we find 7^'/^//^ "wheat' by the side 
of wh(te). 

wheel sb. me. whel oe. hweol 
(w. the byform hweowol hweogol) 
= ON. i^/c// (for *hvjdl} — hvc^l, DU. 
7mel (ofries. ^al): teut. base 
hweula- (for hwegwla-) and 
hw'ehwla-^ Aryan base qeqlo- in 
SRK. cakra 'wheel', gr. xrxAoc 
wheel'. By the side of the re- 
duplicated word qe-ql-o- cp. 
osLov. kolo 'wheel'. 

wheeze vb. me. whese oe. hwesan 
(for ^hwdsaft) 'to wheeze'; cogn. 
w. OE. hivpsta, ON. hostiy ohg. 

English Etymology. 

h{w)uosto G. husten, DU. i^^<?.y/ 
'coughing', teut. y" hitios = y 

ARYAN \pkas in SKR. /^^^, IR. 

casad, ltih. ^^j-^// 'to cough'. 

whelk sb. cp. me. wilk oe. 7violc 
weolc (older wiluc) 'whelk' = du. 
7juulk welk wdlok. Ident. w. ofr. 

whelp sb. ME. whelp oe. Mv'elp 
'whelp, cub' = ON. hvelpr ^ du. 
7velp^ OHG. h^velf iv'elf. 

when conj. me. when o^.hwcenne 
fr. stem hwa- m. who. 

whence adv. me. 7vhenne-s prop. 
whanene OE. hwanone older 
Mvanon = OHG. hwandn. 

where pron. -adv. me. whi^^e) oe. 
hwcer (me. whore late oe. h7vdr) 
= OSAX. OHG. hwdr mhg. 7e'dr g. 
7i'o, du. 7£>aar: teut. base hwer 
(cp. GOTH, hj-ar); derived fr. 
stem hwa- under 7£jho. 

whet vb. ]\tE. 7vhette oe. hivettan 
'to sharpen' = on. h7>etja , du. 
7vetten, ohg. hwezzan G. wetzen 
'to shaipen': Teut. ground-form 
hwatjan, Cogn. w. on. hvatr^ 
OSAX. /!?£/^/, OHG. /^ze/<2:5 'sharp': 
TEUT. sfhzvat. 

whether pron. me. 7vhether oe. 
Invceder 'which of two' = GOTH. 
bapar ; corresponding by ab- 
laut to OHG. hwedar 'which of 
two'. GR. noTSQOq (SKR. katara) 
'which of two' is more closely 
allied to goth. oe. The word 
is orig. comparative to stem * 
hwa- (hwe-) in who. 

whey sb. me. whey oe. h7vdi 
= du. lg. 7vei (byform mlg. 
huy hole du. hui). 



which — wide 

'which pron. me. which oe. hwylc 
(prehistoric form ^^hwilid) ■=- 
GOTH, hileiksy OSAX. hwilik\ 
cp. OHG. helih G. welch: Teut. 
base hwilika- (hweitka-) and for 
OHG. hivelih a base hwalika-. 
Derived fr. stem hwa- hw'e- under 

while sb. me. while oe. hwil 
infl. hwile = goth. /D^ei/a, ohg. 
OSAX. hwila^ G. wcile, DU. wijl. 
ON. hvila 'bed (cp. ohg. hwilen 
'to rest') points to connection w. 
LAT. quietus 'quiet' and oslov. 
pociti 'to rest', aryan ^f qi. 

whine vb. me. whine oe. hwinan 
str. v^. 'to make a shrill sound' 
= ON hvina 'to whiz'. 

whisky ident. w. usque baugh. 

whisper vb. me. whisper e oe. 
hwisprian 'to murmur' ; cp. ohg. 
hwispalon G. wispeln. Sound-imi- 
tation ? or cogn. w. whistW^ 

whistle vb. me. whistle oe. 
hwistlian) perh. akin to whisper. 

whit ident. w. wight. 

white adj. (short in Whit- 
sunday lit. 'white Sunday') me. 
7i)hit OE. hwit = goth. heitSj 
ON. h7ntr, OHG. hwij^ G. weiss: 
Teut. base hwita-, cogn. w. skr. 
(veta 'white' — \f (vit 'to shine'. 
ARYAN \f kwid kivit. See also 
wheat and whittle. 

whither pron. me. whider oe. 
hwider; cp. GOTH, hadre whither'; 
derived fr. the stem hwa- hw'e- 
in who. 

whittle sb. short for me. whitel 
OE. hwitel 'blanket ; derived fr. 

who pron. me. who prop, whg 
OE. hwa ^ GOTH. hci-s\ cp. 
OHG. hw'e-r G. wer : stem hwa- 
hwe-, also iwwhat and hoim and 
in whichy whither, whether. 
ARYAN base qO' in LAT. quo-d, 
SKR. ka-s who', Lrrn. ka-s 'who'. 

whole adj. me. hgl oe. hdl 
(hence the abstract formation 
health) = goth. hails, on. heill 
(see hail), OHG. G. heil, OSAX. 
hel, DU. heel: Teut. base haila- 
(whence derived hailaga- ^= 
holy). Ident. w. osr.ov. celu 
'comptete, whole' (ground-form 
kailo-) ; cp. OPRUSS. bailustikan 

whore sb. me. oe. hore 'pro- 
stitute' ^ ON. hora, OHG. huora 
'adulteress'; cp. goth. hors 
'adulterer', aryan y" kdr 'to 
love' in oiR. car a 'friend' — 
car aim I love (Gallo-LAT. car is a 
'prostitute') and LAT. carus 'dear . 

why pron. me. 7vhl oe. hiifi = 
ON. hzd: instrum. of the stem h7m- 
in 7vhat. 

wick sb. short for me. weke 
oe. weoce = ohg. wiohha, lg. 7^eke, 
DU. 7mek: Teut. base 7veuko/i, 
perhaps reduplicated for loe- 
7vk-dn, as made probable by the 
equiv. oe. wecca = g. (dial.) 
7vicke\ cogn. w. mhg. g. ivickel? 

wicked adj. extended for me. 
7vicke. ; 

wicket sb. me. 7inkH fr. oner. 
7viket (fr. guichet), whence also 
ODU. 7viket (du. 7vinket). 

wide adj. me. oe. 7vid = on. 
vidr, oSAX. 7ind, du. 7vijdy ohg. 



witG.wcit: T^MT.ivida-^ perhaps 

participle of a lost verbal \P wt. 

widow sb. ME. imdwe oe. widewe 

{wudliwe) = GOTH. widuWO^ OHG. 

witaiva G. witwc^ OSAX. widowa, 
pu. weditwe. Ident. w. the equiv. 
SKR. vidhavdj lat. vidua, OSLO v. 
vidova, OIR. fedb'. ARYAN base 

wield vb. ME. wdde oe. j^cweldan 
{ywyldan) \vk. vb. fr. a TEUT. 
^gawa/d/an. Derived fr. the str. 
vb. OE. wdldan tv(aldan —~ GOTH. 
OSAX. waldau^ ohg. waltan (g. 
7iKilten) 'to govern'. ARYAN \f 
7val in LAT. valere 'to be strong'; 
op. also OSLOV. vlastiy lith. 
valdytl 'to govern'. 

wife sb. ME. OE. wif = on. 
vif, OSAX. wif, DU. udjf, ohg. 
wib G. 7veib\ Teut. base wiba-. 
No equiv. connections outside 
of teut. (an older word for 'wife' 
see under queen), — woman 
ME. 2inwiman prop, wimman fpl. 
whinncn) oe. wi/-?nann (pi. 7in/- 
merm) lit. 'a wife-man'. 

wight sb. ME. 7viiht oe. iviht 
'thing, creature, being' = oHG. 
OSAX. 7viht thing, being' (g. du. 
wicht)\ cp. GOTH, waihts 'thing' 
and on. vdttr being, thing'. Teut. 
base wihti' for wehti- ident. w. 
oslov. vesti 'thing': aryan base 

W|ild adj. ME. OE. wilde fr. a 
TEUT. wilpja- (piop. w'elpja-) = 
GOTH, wilfeisy ON. villr , OSAX. 
OHG. wildi G. DU. ivild. Probably 
connected w. wold oe. w(ald -=- 
= OHG. G. wa/d 'wood', as fr. 

sauvas^e ^ lat. silvaticus fr. lat. 
silva 'wood'. — wilderness (cp. 
DU. G. wildernis) extension of 
ME. wildci'ne 'a desert'. 

wile sb. ME. (fr. 12^^ cent.) wile 
fr. OFR. ivile {guile) \ ident. w. 

will vb. ME. wille (prt. wolde) 
OE. willan (prt. wolde) = GOTH. 
wiljan, ON. vilja, oSAX. willian, 
DU. willen: Teut. base wiljan 
(prop, weljati) \ ident. w. osAX. 
wellian, ohg. w el Ian (g. wo lien) 
fr. a TEUT. waljan. ARYAN \f 
weluolin lat. vel-le, oslov. voliti^ 
lith. velyti. All equivalent. 
Perhaps cogn. w. well •d.VidMveal'^ 
also GOTH, waljan 'to choose' 
= OHG. wellan g. 7vahlen, ohg. 
wala G. wahl 'choosing', skr. 
\fvar vr 'choose'. Cp. the 
following word. 

will sb. ]\IE. wille oe. ivilla = 

OSAX. OHG. willio, DU. Wil, G. 

wille, GOTH. 7)ilja, ON. vili: Teut. 
base wilja?i' for tv'eljan-, derived 
fr. \fwel in will vb. ; cp. oslov. 
volja sb. 'will'. 

willow sb. ME. ivilwe oe. wytig 
(infi. '^7vilge?)', ident. w. du. wilg 
ODU. LG. wilge OSAX. wilgia, 
MHG. wilge. 

wimple sb. me. oe. wimpel oe. 
winpel 'neck covering' =: du. g. 
wijnpel ohg. wimpal. Source and 
history unknown (ofr. gui7nple 
FR. guimpt are of TEUT. origin ; 
see gimp). 

win vb. ME. winnc oe. winnan 
str. vb. = GOTH. win?ian 'to 
suffer', OHG. OSAX. winnan 'to 


wind — wise 

Struggle' (g. gewinnen, DU. ivinnen), 
ON. vinna'. Teut. verbal V" W(?««, 
cogn. w. SKR. van 'obtain, ac- 

wind sb. me. oe. wlnd=^ osax. 
DU. 7vind, OHG. wint G. wind^ ON. 
vindr, goth. wmds: Teut. base 
winda- prop, wendo- = Aryan 
base wenio- in lat. ventus, skr. 
vata 'wind'. Derived fr. the 
ARYAN V" "^^ i^ OE* "^^"^^^^ = 
GOTH, waian^ DU. waaien, ohg. 
wden G. wehen 'to blow'; cp. lith. 
vSjas 'wind', oslov. vetru 'wind' 
— vijati \o blow', skr. \fvd 'to 
blow', GR. ariTrjc 'wind'. Cp. 

wind vb. me. wlnde oe. windan 
str. vb. = GOTH. OSAX. windaUy 
ON. vinda^ ohg. wintan G. DU. 
winden: teut. \fwend wand. — 
windlass sb. (machine for raising 
heavy weights) transformed fr. 
ME. windas : loanword fr. ON. 
vind-dss prop, 'a winding pole'. 

windcw sb. me. windikve bor- 
rowed fr. ON. vind-auga 'window', 
lit. 'wind-eye'. See wind sb. and 
eye (on. auga). 

wine sb. me. oe. ivin = goth. 
7V€inj ON. vin, osAX. ohg. 7vm 
G. 7vein DU. wijn: Teut. base 
wina-, early loanword fr. lat. 
vinum (cp. vine and vintage), 
whence also ital. vino — fr. 
vin and oir. fin, oslov. vino, 

wing sb. me. winge short for 
older wenge: loanword fr. on. 

"wink vb. ME. 7vinke oe. ivincian 
wk. vb. 'blink, wink' ; ohg. winkan 

str. vb. (g. winken) 'to give a 
sign' = ME. winke str. vb. 'wink'. 

winnow vb. me. immiive oe. 
windwian; ident. w. OHG. winton 
(for '^wintivon) 'to winnow'; cp. 
GOTH, winpi-skauro 'a winnowing 
fan', LAT. ventilare 'to winnow'. 
All cogn. w. ijuind sb. 

winsome adj. me. 7vin-som oe. 
wynn-sum = ohg. wunni-sam (g. 
wonne-sam) : derived fr. oe. ivynn 
■=^ OSAX. OHG. wunnia (cp. G. 
wonne) 'joy'. 

winter sb. me. oe. 7vinter = 
goth. wintrus, osax. ohg. 7vintar 
DU. G. winter, on. vettr: Teut. 
base winir-. Perhaps cogn. w. 
CELT, vindo- 'white' in oiR. find 
'white' ? 

wipe vb. ME. tvipe oe. wipian) 
cp. LG. 7vip sb. 'wisp of straw' 
and GOTH. 7>ipja 'garland' — 
7veipan 'wreathe', teut. yf^ wip. 

wire sb. me. oe. 7mr = on. 
virr, LG. FRIES, wir; cogn. w. 
OHG. wiara 'wire and lat. viriae 
'armlets of metal', which ac- 
cording to Plinius' Hist. Nat. 1 5 
is a Celtic word. 

wise adj. me, oe. 7vis = on. 
viss, goth. weis, osAX. ohg. 7ms 
(ohg. whi G. weise) , du. wijs. 
Teut. base wisa- (for wit-to-), 
derived fr. the ARYAN \f 7vid in 
GR. Of Ja, SKR veda = goth. wait, 
oe. wdt, OHG. 7veii^ G. 7veiss. See 

wise sb. ME. OE. wise == osAx. 
OHG. wisa G. weise, du. wijs: 
Teut. base wiso-n- (fr. guise ital. 
guisa of Teut. origin). Probably 

wish — wolf 


connected w. the Aryan \Ptvid 
\o know' under wise — wit. 
^vish vb. me. wisshe short for 
OE. wyscean fr. a Teut. base 
wtmskjan = ohg. wunsc{i)an G. 
wuiischen^ du. wctischen, on. ceskja 
'to wish'; cp. SKR. vanch 'to wish': 

ARYAN \fwP7tskf 

wisp sb. ME. wisp (not found 
in OE.); perh. ident. w. on. 7'isk, 
OHG. wise G. wisch 'wisp of straw' ? 

wit vb. ME. wite oe. witan 'to 
know' = GOTH. OSAX. witan, on. 
vita, DU. wcten, ohg. wiT^T^an G. 
wissen. The i^' and3'^ p. sing, were 

ME. wot OE. 7^<7/ =r GOTH. Wait, 
on. f/^//, OSAX, wet, OHG. 7£'^/^ G. 

wciss, corresponding to SKR. veda 
'I know, he knows', gr. o?J« otJf. 
See also witness. 

wit sb. ME. 7£/z/ (//) OE. {ie)witt 
'intellect, understanding' = OSAX. 
giwit, OHG. wizzi (g. w//2:) 'under- 
standing', ON. vit 'intellect': de- 
rived fr. wit vb. 

witch sb. ME. wicche oe. wiccea 
'wizard' — wicce 'witch' ; ident. 
w. FRIES. LG. wicke 'witch' LG. 
wicker 'wizard' (lg. wicken vb. 'to 
predict' = oe. wiccian 'use witch- 
craft) and probably cogn. w. oe. 
willian 'practise divination' — 
wijjire 'diviner' = odu. wijche- 
lare, DU. mlg. wichelcn 'practise 
divination', teut. \f ivikk wtg. 

witch-elm sb. me. wicche short 
for oe. wice 'elm' fr. a Teut. 
base unkjon-. 

with prep. ME. with oe. wid 
prep, 'against' short for 7mder 
(in compounds like oe. widersaca 

w?V/t77?zV^ 'adversary') =r on. vid 
vidr, OSAX. with wider, ohg. widar 
g. wider, goth. wifra. 

wither vb. me. widre vb. fr. 
weather (me. w(de7'). 

withy sb. me. wit hi oe. wldi-^ 
'willow ; cogn. w. ohg. wida o. 
weide, on. vidja and GR. trew, 
LITH. zil-vitis, POL. witwa, pruss. 
witwo 'a willow*. Aryan \fwi in 
LAT. vi-tis vi-nien and OSLOV. 
viti — LITH. vyti 'to twine, plait'. 

witness sb. me. witnessc oe. 
witness (infl. -e) 'testimony'; as 
GOTH, weitwods and on. vitni'^ii- 
ness', derived fr. the teut. \/" 7i>ii 
'to know'; see 7£iit vb. 

wizard sb. me. ivisard trans- 
formed (under the influence-ef' 
ME. wis = wise) fr. "^ wis chard: 
loanword fr. ofr. wis chard (guis- 
chard) 'prudent, cunning'. 

woad sb. ME. 7i'od oe. 7vdd ■= 
DU. weede, ohg. weit G. 7vaid: 
Teut. base waida-, pre -Teut. 
waita-', cp. lat. vitriwi 'woad'. 

\A^oe interj. me. wo oe. 7vd in- 
ter]. = GOTH. 7vai, on. vei, cmG. 
OSAX. 7£'^ G. 7veh DU. fc'^^. Ident. 
w. LAT. vae interj. woe': ground- 
form ARYAN 7Vat. 

wold sb. ME. 7v6ld OE. 7vdld 
{7vcald in 'Weald of Kent') fr. 
a Teut. base 7cia/pu- ; cp. osAX. 
OHG. G. 7i>ald 'wood', DU. 7V0iid 
'wood', ON. vplir plain, field": 
pre-TEUT. waitu-s, cogn. w. SKR. 
vdta (for "^vdltaf) 'garden'? See 

wolf sb. ME. 7iiolf (pi. 7volves) 

OE. WUlf (pi. WUlfas) = GOTH. 


wulfs, ON. lUfr (for *vul/r) , OSAX. 
7VHlf; cp. OHG. G. 7volf: Teut. 
base wulfa- wolf a-, Aryan base 
wjlqo- in SKR. vrka, or. Ai^xo^:, 

LAT. lupus, LITH. vilkas , OSLOV. 

vlilkti. All equivalent. 

woman see wife. 

womb sb. ME. wgmhe oE. wdmb 
(wp7nh) 'stomach' = goth. ohg. 
wajfiba, ON. 'iH)7nb, du. warn 'bolly, 
stomach': Teut. base wambo-. 

wonder sb. me. wonder oe. 
7Vundor = OSAX. wundar^ OHG. 
wuntar g. wunde7' , on. undr\ 
Teut. base iinmdra-. 

wont adj. for me. woned p. par- 
ticiple of ME. wane oe. ivunian 
'to be used to'; cp. oe. leivu^ia 
'custom, use' and on. vanVy ohg. 
giwon G. gewohnt 'accustomed . 
See wean. 

woo vb. ME. wimK' OE. wogian 
'to woo' ; no further relations 
known. I'EUT. yfivog. 

wood sb. ME. wode oe. wudu 
orig. widji = ON. mdr 'tree, wood', 
OHG. 7C'zlii 'wood' (also in ohg. 
witu-hopfa G. imde-lwpf)'. Teut. 
base 7iiidu-, pre-Teut. base widhu- 
in CELT, vidu- (gall. Fidu-Cassfs)] 
cp. OIR. Jid 'tree'. 

wool sb. ME. ivolle OE. 7i>iill infl. 
7vulle = GOTH, ivulla, on. //// 
(for '^'vull^ ; cp. OHG 7i>olla G. 
7Volle: Teut. base 7vulld 7Volld, 
ARYAN base 7VJlnd in skr. uriia, 
OSLOV. vliimu LITH. vilna 'wool'; 
cogn. w. LAT. villus vfllus 'fleece' 
and SKR. yf vr (var) 'to cover'. 

word sb. ME. OE. 7Vprd = GOTH. 

waurd, ON. ord (for ^vord), oSAX. 

7vord, DU. 7voordy ohg. g. 7vort'. 
Teut. base war da-, pre-Teut. 
base 7V9rdho- in lat. 7.>erbufn, 
OPRUSS. wirds 'word', LFfH. vardas 
'name'. Aryan \f wer {7vre) in 
GR. siQHv 'to say' — Qi]Lia 'word'? 

work sb. ME. 7verk oe. 7vcorc 
= OSAX. OHG. werk G. DU. werk, 
ON. verk ; Teut. base 7verka-y 
ARYAN base 7vergo- in gr. sfjyov. 
ARYAN V" 7eie7-g in gr. ()sC&tv 'to 
do' — oQyavov 'instrument', skr. 
vrjana labor' ; cp. GOTYL.watirkjan, 
OHG. 7vurkan = oe. 7vyrcean vb. 
'to work'. See 7V7'ight. 

world sb. ME. 7vorld 7verld oe. 
7vorold weorold = OSAX. wero/d, 
DU. 7vereld, ohg. 7ver.alt {7vorolt) 
G. 7iDelt, ON. v'ergld. First element 
of the compound (7ver-ald-) is 
TEUT. 7vera- man' in goth. 7vair, 
OSAX. OHG. OE. wei'y ON. z^trr 
(ARYAN base 7vlro- in lat. vir, 
skr. z^^/7?, LITH. f^jr^?.? 'man'). 
2"^^ part of the compound is 
TEUT. aldi- in goth. aids 'world', 
OE. yld (eld) 'period, age'. 

worm sb. me. worm for wurju 
prop. 7mr7n OE. wyrm fr. a Teut. 
base 7vurmi- in OSAX. OHG. G. 
7mi m, GOTH. 7vaurms\ ident. w. 
LAT. vermis 'worm'; cp. ON. orjnr 
(for ^7Vormaz) and gr. Qouog 
(for f()njLtog). 

wormwood sb. transformed fr. 
OE. wermp'd {7vormpd) = ohg. 
7&ert7iuota {7vor?niiota). Formation 
and origin unknown. 

worse compar. adj. me. 7vorse 
7vurse older wirse oe. wyrsa = 
OSAX. wirso fr. a Teut. base 

worship — wrinkle 


wirsizan- m goth. wairstza = 
OHG. wirsiro. — worst superl. 
ME. woi'ste wursU orig. wirste 
OE. ivyrsta fr. a teut. superl. 
wirsistan- in goth. walrsista, 
OSAX. OHG. wirsisto. 

worship sb. me. worschlp older 
wurpschipe oe. weordscipe: derived 
fr. worth. 

wort^ sb. (a plant) me. wort 
wiirt older wirt oe. wyrt fr. a 
Teut. base wiirti- in GOTH, waurts^ 
on. tirt, OSAX. witrty OHG. G. 7^^7/r^ 
'plant, herb': ARYAN \fw9rd in 
LAT. radix (for "^vrddic-) see 
under r^*?/. 

wort^ sb. (a kind of drink) 
ME. wort wurt for wirt oe. zi^;'^ 
for *wirt = ON. f'//'/r, mhg. wirz 
wort': TEUT. ground-form wirtiz 
(pre-TEUT. base werdes- w'e/dos). 

worth adj. me. worth wurth 
OE. wyrdc. umlauted byform of 
OE. weorp = GOTH, wairps, 
OSAX. w'erth, on. v'erdr, ohg. 
7(.i'erd (g. wcrt) : ident. w. lith. 
7>€rtas, OPRUSS. 7i>erts 'worthy'. 

wound sb. me. wounde oe. 
wund infl. wunde = osAX. wunday 
OHG. wunta G. wunde J on. z/;/^/ 
(for "^vundy. Teut. base wundb-. 
Cogn. w. the adj. goth. wunds 
= OE. wund, OSAX. wund, ohg. 
7vunt G. wund. teut. \fwun, 
ARYAN \fw9n in goth. winnan 
'to suffer, feel pain' (see win)} 

wrath sb. me. wraihthe short 
for OE. wrcBppu (Teut. base 
wraipipb j \ umlaut-abstract of OE. 
ivrdp adj. =^ wroth. 

wreak vb. me. wr^kc oe. wrUcan 

str. vb. ■=^ GOTH, wrikan ('to 
persecute), OSAX. wr'ekan, DU. 
wreken, ohg. r'ehhaii (for "^wreh- 
han^ G. riichen 'to revenge'. 
ARYAN sfivrUg urg in lat. urgcrc 
'to urge*, SKR. evry 'to remove'. 

wreath sb. me. writhe oe. 
wrchp', cogn. w. writhe. 

wren sb. me. wrenne oe. wrenna] 
ident. w. oSAX. wrendio and pro- 
bably w. OHG. OSAX. {w)renno a 
stallion' (medieval lat. warannio^. 

wrench sb. me. wretich 'deceit' 
oe. wrefic 'deceit, trick' fr. a 
Teut. base wranki- (also in 
MHG. rank 'trick' G. rdnke plur.). 
The modern e. meaning 'twist, 
sprain' seems to be older than 
the metaphorical sense in me. 
OE. and g. See also wrong. 

wretch sb. me. wrecche oe. 
wreccea 'outlaw, exile' = ohg. 
oSA'K.ivrekkio (g. recke 'warrior'); 
den\e,dir:.\fwrek in goth. wrikan 
'persecute' (see wreaJz). 

wright sb. me. wrighte oe. 
wyrhta = osAX. zvurhtio, ohg. 
wurhto (mhg. -wilrhle) 'worker'; 
derived fr. teut. zvurhtwjan-\ cp. 
GOTH, waurstwja 'worker' by the 
side of waiirstw 'work'. For the 
root see work. 

wring vb. me. wringe oe. ivrin- 
gan str. vb. 'to press out' = 
DU. LG. wringen, ohg. ringan, (for 
^wri7iga7t) 'to press out' (g. ringen). 

wrinkle sb. me. wrinkel oe. 
wrinkle = odu. wri7ickcl\ cogn. 
w. mhg. runke and ohg. runza 
(for *7vrtmka — '^wru?ikza). 

\vrist sb. me. wrist oe. wyrst 


write — ye 

= MHG. G. m/(for*Z£/m/), on. risl 
SWED. f/rw/ 'instep, wrist'; perhaps 
cogn. w. G. r^i/ienMHG. rlhe 'wrist' ? 

write vb. me. write oe. writan 
str. vb. = OSAX. writauy ON. 
rita 'to write'. Grig, sense 'to 
engrave, scratch, tear, spUt' in 
OSAX. writa7i = ohg. riy^an 
(for '^wriT^'ipn) G. reissen. Cp. 
GOTH, writs a stroke of a pen'. 
TEUT. \fwrit. 

writhe vb. me. writhe oe. wiidan 
str. vb. 'to twist' = ohg. ridaiiy 
ON. rida str. vb. *to wind, twist'. 
Cogn. w. wroth. 

I wrong adj. me. wrong (wrang) 
late OE. (ii '' cent.) wrang bor- 
rowed fr. ON. rangr (older 
^vrangr) 'wrong, unjust' prop, 
'awry, perverse'. Probably fr. 
the same root as wre^ich (teut. 
\^wrank wrang^. 
wroth adj. short for me. wrgth 
oe. wrap (see also wrath) = 

I OSAX. wrethy on. vreidr reidr^ 
ODU. wreed 'wroth'; orig. sense 
in OHG. reid (for "^^vreid) 'curled'. 
\fwrlp 'to twist' in wreath and 

I wry fr. me. wrie vb. 'to twist'. 

yacht sb. fr. du. jacht prop. 
jachtschip\ DU. jacht corresponds 
to G. jagd 'hunting (oHG. jagon 
G. jagen 'to chase). 

yard' sb. me. jierd prop, ^(rd oe. 
leard 'fence, enclosure' = on. 
gardr'. Teut.base^^r<^/*rz- =^ Aryan 
h^i.'&Qghorto- in lat. hortus (GR.;^op- 
rOb") 'garden'. Allied to garden. 

yard"^ sb. (a measure) me. 
yerde oe. ^enf {lyrd) 'rod, rood' 
= OHG. gerta o. gerte 'a rod, 
switch'; cp. GOTH, gazds 'a stick, 
goad' -= ON. gaddr goad' and 
LAT. hasta 'a spear' (common 
base ghazdha-). 

yarn sb. me. ^ern prop, icrn oe. 
■^earn = on. ohg. g. gam (du. 
garen)\ perhaps cogn. w. o^.ggrn 
'guts' and lith. zarna 'entrail'? 

yarrow sb. me. "^arwe oe. j^earwe 

= OHG. garwa G. gar be ^ du. 
gerw 'millefolium'. 

yawl vb. me. loule by the 
side of goule vb. (change of 3 
and ^ unexplained) ; source on. 
gaula (ggula) 'to bellow'. 

yawn vb. me. gdne gone oe. 
gdnian (the phonology of the 
me. word is dark) — ohg. geinbn 
(g. gdhnen); derived fr. QE. tp- 
pnan str. vb. 'to yawn' --= ON. 
gina'y cogn. w. OHG. gien giwen 
'to yawn': aryan yfghi in lat. 
hiare, OSLOV. zijati, lith. zioti 
'to yawn'. 

ye pron. me. ^e oe. le fr. a 
prehistoric jiz = DU. gij, OSAX. 
gt, OHG. ir (for *7"/;') G. ihr\ 
oldest teut. form juz in goth. 
jus 'ye'. Ident. w. skr. ytiy-a?n 
'ye': Aryan stem iw —yu. 

year — yolk 


yea adv. me. if oe. ^ed (for 

*'^ce} = OS AX. OHG. Jd G.Ja yes'; 
oldest form goth. ja yes'. — 
yes ME. yes oe. ^ese for *ied- 
swd prop, 'yea so* (cp. me. nese 
fiir ne-swa). 

yean older eati vb. me. f?ie 
OE. (anian (le-fatiiari) \o yean': 
derived fr. a teut. auna- (for 
agwna-) 'lamb' = lat. agnuSy 
oiR. tian: aryan base aghno-. 

year vb. me. ler oe. ^er dedr 
for *J^r) ^ OHG. y^/' G. jahr, 
u\J. jaarfON. a?; GOTU.Je?". Teut. 
basey*?;'*^-; cogn. w. theablauted 
GR. (b(jng year — wpa 'season' 
and w. avest. ydre year'. 

yearn vb. 'desire' me. yd'rng fr. 
ME. ye'rn oe. ^eorn 'desirous' 
(whence also the umlauted oe. 
lyrnan 'desire') = goth. gairfis, 
OSAX. OHG. gem 'desirous': teut. 
\fg'er in ohg. g'erdn G. begehren 
— OHG. g'er 'desirous' — girl (g. 
gier) sb. 'desire'. ARYAN \fgher 
in SKR. hary vb. 'desire'. 

yell vb. me. lelle oe. lellan 
(lillan) = OHG. gellan G. gelletiy 
DU. gilieUy ON. gjalla 'to resound' . 
Cp. stanyelL 

yellow adj. me. ^elwe oe. ^eolo 
(infi. leolw-) fr. a Teut. base 
g'elwa- in osAX. ohg. gelo g. ^^Z:^, 
DU. ^^^/: ARYAN base gh'elwo- in 
LAT. hdvus 'light yellow', aryan 
\(^gh'el also in on. ^/^/r 'yellow', 
GR. /ho^og 'green', OSLOV. ze/enu 
'yellow'; from the same root 
also go/d (and glowl). — 
yellow-hammer (a bird's name) 

rests on the equiv. OE. amore = 
OHG. amero G. ammer, 

yelp vb. ME. lelpe oe. lelpan 
(lilpan) str. vb. 'to boast' := ON. 
gjalptiy OHG. gelpfan. 

yes see yea. 

yesterday adv. me. yesterday 
oe. ^eostrandcei (lystrandcBi) prop, 
only geostra{n) = ohg. g'estaron 
G. gestern, du. gisteren (gister- 
avond)\ cp. goth. gistra-dagis 
with the sense of 'tomorrow'. 
Teut. base g'estra-, cogn. w. on. 
i-gcer and lat. heri; gr. x^^^ 
and SKR. hyas 'yesterday' point 
to an ARYAN base ghyes 'yester- 

yet adv. me. j^et short for oe. 
l^t (ij't, lit)] ident. w. ofries. 
ieta eta 'yet'. 

yew vb. me. ew oe. eow iw 
= OHG. iwa G. eibCy on. yr\ Teut. 
base iwa-y ident. w. OE. eoh 'yew' 
— OHG. iha yew', fr. {/"(whence 
borrowed DU. ijf) is of Teut* 
origin. Cp. also cymr. yw 'yew'. 

yield vb. me. lelde oe. leldan 
(lildan) str. vb. 'to pay' = goth. 
giidan, on. gjalda , ohg. geltan 
str. vb. 'to pay': teut. sfg'eld. 

yoke sb. me. lok (pi. ipkes) oe. 

5^<?V (pi. g^<9V2^) = GOTH, juk^ 
on. <?/^ (for '^jok)y DU. y?//^, OHG. 

joh G. y(?<r/^: Teut. base joka-y 
ARYAN base jUgo- in lat. jiigum 
GR. Cv/oV, SKR. jj/?/^^ 'yoke', aryan 
\fjug in GR. C&vyvvui, lat. 
jwtgere, skr. jj^/// 'to yoke'. 

yolk sb. ME. 5^/^^ (lelke) oe. 
leoleca for teut. g'el{w)ukan-\ 


yon — yule 

derived fr. teut. gelwa- = yel- 

yon pron. me. yin ^on oe. leon 
(see beyond)', cogn. w. goth. 
jai?is, OHG. jener G. jener. 

yore adv. me. ipre oe. ledra 
(pron. Jdra) prop, 'of years' gen. 
plur. of OE. ledr = year. 

yovr^pron. me. low ace. dat. 
of Id (= ye), OE. eop ace. dat. 
of i^ {= ye); ident. w. ohg. 
OS AX. eu OHG. /«: aryan base 
??£/ under j^. 

young adj. me. ^on^ iwig oe. 
leong (prop. >;z^) = GOTH, juggs, 
OSAX. OHG. G.Jung, T)\J.Jong, ON. 
/^^x^;- (for ^^jungr)'. teut. junga-, 
contracted fr. juwwigo- = LAT. 
,^mvencHs , skr. yuvafa 'young : 
ARYAN base juw?nko- (ablauted 
byform in cymr. ieuanc 'young'). 
Cogn. w. 'LKT.Jtwenis, skr. yuva?i, 
o?>i.ov. junu, iA'V'H..jdunas young'. 

— youth sb. ME. louthe older 
luwede for yigede oe. ju^od (^eor 
god) = OSAX. jugud fr. a base 
jugunp' in OB.G J ugtmd g. jug end'. 
TEUT. jugunp- probably for 'ju- 
wunp- cp. 'LPi.T.- Juven-t-a (and 
GOTH, junda contracted for '^ju- 
7vundd)', derived fr. AYCiMijuwen- 
in LAT. juvenis, skr. yuvan etc. 
yule sb. me. ^gl fr. on. jol', 
ident. w. OE. ^eol (contracted 
fr. leohol) 'Christmas'. Cogn. w. 
GOTH, jiuleis 'november' = on. 
ylir (oE. Giuli in Beda). Teut. 
base jeula- (in on. jot) andyV///- 
ja- (in GOTH, jiuleis) : oe. leohhol 
'Christmas' points to teut. j'ehw- 
la- (by the side of jeula- for 
j'egwla-)', probably related to 
ON. d 'snow-storm' (teut. base 
j'ehivld). Yi&wc^ Yule 'the time 
of snow-storms' and GOTH, jiuleis 
'the month of snow-storms'. 

y^ OF THB '* 



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